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Managing Editor , Prof. A. L. FaoTmNGHAM, Jr., of Princeton Univcr- 

sity, Princeton, N. J. 
Literary Editor : Prof. H. N. FOWLER, of Western Reserve University, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Editorial Committee for the Archxological Institute of America and the 

Ammcan School of Classical Studies at Athens: Prof. 

THOMAS D. SEYMOUR, and Prof. B. PERRIN, of Yale 

University ; Prof. J. R. WHEELER, University of Vermont. 
Arties. Manager: Prof. ALLAN MABQUAND, of Princeton University, 

Princeton, N. J. ' 

All literary contributions should be addressed to the Managing 
Editor; all business communications to the Business Manager. 


The following are among the contributors to past volumes : 
M. E. BABELON, Conservateur au Cabinet des Medailles, National Library, Paris. 
Prof. W. N. BATES, of Harvard University, Cambridge. 
Mr. SAMUEL BBS WICK, Hollidaysburg, Pa. 
Mr. CARLETON L. BROWNSON, of Yale University, New Haven. 
Prof. CARL D. BUCK, of University of Chicago, 111. 
Dr. A. A. CARUANA, Librarian and Director of Education, Malta. 
Mr. JOSEPH T. CLARKE, Harrow, England. 

Dr. WILHELM DORPFELD, Secretary German Archaeological Institute, Athena. 
M. EMILE DUVAL, Director of the Musee Fol, Geneva. 

Dr. M. L. EARLE, of Barnard College, New York. 

Prof. ALFRED EMERSON, of Cornell University. 

Mr. ANDREW FOSSUM, of St. Olaf College, Northfield, Mass. 

Prof. HAROLD N. FOWLER, of Western Eeserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. A. L. FROTHINCJHAM, Sr., of Princeton. 

Prof. A. L. FROTHINOHAM, Jr., of Princeton University. 

Dr. A. FURTW ANGLER, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Berlin. 

Mr. ERNEST A. GARDNER, Director of the British School of Archaeology, Athens. 

Padre GERMAKO DI S. STANISLAO, Passionista, Home. 

Mr. WM. H. GOODYEAR, Curator, Brooklyn Institute. 

Mr. HENRY W. HAYNES, of Boston, Mass. 

Prof. W. HELBIG, former Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute, Kome. 

Dr. GEO. B. HUSSEY, of University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Dr. ALBERT L. LONG, of Kobert College, Constantinople. 

Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, of Princeton University. 

Comte de MARSY, Director of the Soc. Franc. d'Archeologie, Bulletin Monumental, etc. 

Prof. ORAZIO MARUCCHI, member of Archseol. Commission of Eome, etc. 

Prof. A. C. MERRIAM, of Columbia College. 

Prof. G. MASPERO, former Director of Antiq. , Egypt ; Prof, at College de France, Paris. 

M. JOACHIM MENANT, of Kouen, France. 

Mr. WILLIAM MERCER, of Gainsborough, England. 

Prof. ADOLPH MICHAELIS, of the University of Strassburg. 

Prof. WALTER MILLER, of Leland Stanford, Jr., University, Palo Alto, Cal. 


M. EUGENE MUNTZ, Librarian and Conservateur of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris 

A. S. MURRAY, Keeper of Greek and Koman Antiquities, British Museum. 

Prof. CHARLES E. NORTON, of Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Mr. RICHARD NORTON, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Rev. JOHN P. PETERS, Director of the Babylonian Expedition, New York City. 

Mr. JOHN PICKARD, Professor in the University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Mr. THEO. J. PINCHES, of the British Museum, London. 

Prof. WM. C. POLAND, of Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Mr. W. M. RAMSAY, Professor in the University of Aberdeen. 

Dr. FRANZ v. REBER, Professor in the University and Polytechnic of Munich, etc. 

M. SALOMON REINACH, Conservateur of the Muse"e National de St. Germain. 

Prof. RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, of Dartmouth College, Hanover. 

Prof. JOHN C. ROLFE, of University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

Prof. MYRON R. SANFORD, of Middlebury College. 

Dr. Tn. SCHREIBER, Prof, of Archaeol. in the Univ., and Directorof Museum, Leipzig 

Mr. ROBERT SEWELL, Madras Civil Service, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S. 

Mrs. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Curator Museum University of Pa., Philadelphia. 

Prof. FRANK B. TARBELL, of University of Chicago, 111. 

Mr. S. B. P. TROWBRIDGE, of New York. 

Dr. CHARLES WALDSTEIN, of Cambridge University, England. 

Dr. WM. HAYES WARD, President Am. Oriental Society, and Ed. Independent, N. Y 


Prof. J. R. WHEELER, University of Vermont, Burlington. 

Dr. PAUL WOLTERS, Secretary of the German Archseological Institute at Athena. 

Hon. JOHN WORTHINGTON, U. S. Consul at Malta. 

Prof. J. H. WRIGHT, of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

The Director and Members of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 

Copyright, 1894, by A. L. FBOTHINGHAM, JR., and ALLAN MARQUAIO). 







CENTURY [Pi. X.], . . By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., 32 



Preliminary report from Professor Waldstein on the excavations at the 
Argive Herceum in 1893, 63 







AFRICA (Egypt) ; ASIA (Asia Minor, Kypros) ; KRETE ; EUROPE (Greece, 
Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Great Britain), 






The topography of Sparta and the building of Epimenides, 

By N. E. CROSBY, 212 
A primitive dome with pendentives at Vetutonia, 

By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., 213 

ROBINSON'S Catalogue of Vases in the Boston Museum, 217 

FURTWANGLER'S Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik^ 220 

BENT'S Ruined Cities of Mashonaland, 224 


AFRICA (Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, East Africa, Algeria and Tunisia) ; 
ASIA (Arabia, Babylonia, Assyria, Persia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor) ; 
KTPROS; KRETE; EUROPE (Greece, Italy, Sicily), 

By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., 229 







By J. R. WHEELEB, 867 


Heinrich von Brunn [PLATE XVI.], . . . . . . .By ALFRED EMERSON, 366 

JET. G. Lolling, By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, 371 


KRETSCHMER'S Die Griechischen Vaseninschriften, 874 

BRUNN 's Griechische Kunstgeschichte, 877 


AFRICA (Egypt, Nubia, Southern Africa, Algeria and Tunisia) ; ASIA 
(Arabia, Babylonia, Persia, Assyria, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, 
Asia Minor, Turkey) ; KYPROS ; K.RETE; EUROPE (Greece, Italy), 

By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., 379 











American expedition to Krete under Professor Halbherr, 538 


The circular building at Sparta, By CHARLES WALDSTEIN, 545 

American School of Architecture in Rome, 546 


A Greek Ostrakon, By G. NICKLIN, 548 

Note to " Some inscriptions from the Argive Herceum," 

By J. R. WHEELER, 548 

Giovanni Battista de Rossi, ....... By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., 549 



ERMAN'S Life in Ancient Egypt, 653 

REINACH'S Masee de Saint Germain: bronzes de la Gaule, &c., 554 

KALKM ANN'S Proportionen des Gesichts in der griechischen Kunst, . . . 555 

GAYET'S L'Art Arabe, 657 

MERZARIO'S I maestri Comacini, 564 

DURANDUS' Symbolism of Churches, 566 

BKISSEL'S Vaticanische Miniaturen, 568 


EUBOPE (Greece, Italy), By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr., 569 



i-ix. Madonnas in terracotta by Luca della Robbia, 1-25 

X. Panel painting by Rico di Candia, Uffizi, Florence, ...... 32-52 

xi. A torso from Daphne, 53-62 

xn. Double-faced relief from near Phaleron, 202-205 

xin. Group and terracotta sketch by Ghiberti, second bronze gates, 

Baptistery, Florence, 206-211 

XIV. Metope head from the Argive Heneum, 831-339 

xv. Hittite seals, 861-365 

XVI. Two portraits of Heinrich von Brunn, 866-371 

xvn. Silver mirror-case in the National Museum nt Athens, 495-503 

xvni. The new Faun from the Quirinal, Rome, *> 

xix. The Lucullus Faun in the Vatican Museum, / 



Mound of La Pietrera at Vetulonia (ground-plan), 215 

Plan of the Mastaba of Ptah-Shepses, 245 

Lotiform column in Mastaba of Ptah-Shepses, 247 

Fac-similes of inscriptions from the Argive Heraum, .... | j*> jj|| 353, 355, 

Earring from tomb, Capannori, 442 

Early Christian hypogeum in Catania 443 

Proto-Corinthian skyphos from Syracuse, 463 

Prehistoric tomb and cabin-shaped urn at Velletri, 466 

Bracelet from second tomb at Vetulonia, 469 

Bracelet from fourth tomb at Vetulonia, 471 

Archaic female head in stone from hypogeum, Vetulonia, 473 

Fragments of female figure in relief from hypogeum, Vetulonia, ...... 474 



i. A torso from Daphne, 53 

II. A head of Polycletan style from the metopes of the Argive Heraeum, 331 

in. Stamped tiles from the Argive Heraeum, 340 

IV. Some inscriptions from the Argive Herseum, 851 

v. A silver " mirror-case," inlaid with gold, in the National Museum of 

Athens, 495 

vi. On the possibility of assigning a date to the San torini vases, .... 604 


Abyssinia, 264 

Africa (East), 267 

Africa (Southern) 400 

Algeria, 268, 400 

Arabia, 273,401 

Asia,. . 272,400 

Asia Minor, 101, 277, 418 

Assyria, 275, 404 

Babylonia, . . 273, 401 

Egypt, 100, 229 

France, 148 

Germany, 152 

Great Britain, 157 

Greece, 108, 283, 423, 669 

Italy, 129, 317, 430, 594 

Krete, 104, 283, 417 

Kypros, . . 104, 282, 415 

Mesopotamia, 408 

Nubia, 267, 397 

Palestine, 276, 408 

Persia, 275, 408 

Sicily, 327 

Spain, 148 

Syria, ... 276, 405 

Tunisia, 267, 400 

Turkey, 414 

CEOSBT (Nicholas E.). . A bas-relief from Phaleron, 202 


The topography of Sparta and the building of Epimenides, 212 

EMERSON (Alfred). Necrology: 

Heinrich von Brurin, *...,..... 86$ 


FOWLER (Harold N.). Reviews and notices of Books : 

Robinson's Catalogue of vases in the Boston Museum, 217 

Kalkmann's Proportionen des Gesichts, 555 

PBOTHINOHAM (A. L., Senior). The Philosophy of Art 165 

FROTHINGHAM (A. L., Jr.). Byzantine artists in Italy from the sixth to the 

fifteenth century, 32 


A primitive dome with pendentives at Vetulonia 218 

Necrology : 

Giovanni Battista de Rossi, 549 

Reviews and Notices of Books : 

Bent's Ruined Cities of Mashonaland, . 224 

Bliss' Mound of Many Cities 227 

Gayet's Art Arabe, 657 

Merzario's Maestri Comacini, 564 

Durundus' Symbolism of Churches, 666 

Beissel's Vaticanische Miniaturen 568 

Archaeological News, 100, 229, 379, 569 

HAYNES (Henry W.). Some unwarranted assumptions in archaeology, ... 26 

HALBHERR (Federico). American expedition to Krete, 638 

MARQUAND (Allan). The Madonnas of Luca della Robbia, 1 

A terracotta sketch by Lorenzo Ghiberti, 206 

A Study in Greek architectural proportions : the temples of Selinous, . 521 
Reviews and Notices of Books : 

Lockyer's Dawn of Astronomy, 68 

Ohnefalsch-Richter's Kypros, the Bible and Homer, 70 

Budge's The Mummy, 75 

Balfour's Evolution of decorative art, 99 

Furtwangler's Meisterwerke der Griechischen Plastik, 220 

Brunn's Griechische Kunstgeschichte, I., 377 

Erman's Life in ancient Egypt, 553 

Reinach's Musee de Saint Germain, 554 

MERRIAM (Augustus C.). Reviews and Notices of Books : 

Brunn's Griechische Kunstgeschichte, 77 

Kretschmer's Griechische Vaseninschriften, 374 

NICKLIN (G.). A Greek ostrakon, 648 

NORTON (Richard). A silver ' ' mirror-case " inlaid with gold, in the National 

Museum at Athens, 495 

RICHARDSON (Rufus B.). A torso from Daphne 68 

Necrology : 

H. G. Lolling, .... 871 

Stamped tiles from the Argive Heraum, 340 

SANFOBD (Myron R.). The new Faun from the Quirinal, 633 

WALDSTEIN (Charles). Correspondence : 

Preliminary report on the excavations at the Argive Henenm in 1893, 63 

The circular building of Sparta, ,545 

WARD (Wm. Hayes). Some Hittite Seals, 361 

WASHINGTON (Henry S.). Oa the possibility of assigning a date to the San- 

torini vases, . wv 

* '(A/W 

. R.). Some inscriptions from the Argive Heraum, . . . *51, 648 





























~*r... :- ^ 












Vol. IX. JANUARY-MARCH, 1894. No. i 


The object of this paper is to bring into chronological sequence 
ihe Madonnas which may be properly ascribed to Luca della 
Robbia a few of which are in bronze or marble, but the great 
majority in glazed terracotta ware. In some cases we shall have 
no difficulty in doing this, as the monuments are well authen- 
ticated and dated by contemporary documents, but in the 
majority of cases, where there is no such evidence, the monu- 
ments must speak for themselves. In these cases the sufficiency 
of the similarity to authenticated monuments must be our guide. 
When this similarity has appeared to me insufficient, I have 
omitted all mention of the monuments, whether I was able or 
not to ascribe them to other artists. Even in the present list, I 
am aware that the attributions must be accepted with different 
degrees of security, and that there may be other Madonnas, 
rightly to be ascribed to Luca, that have eluded my search. Nev- 
ertheless it is useful to bring such order as one can into a field 
where no small amount of confusion still exists. I have therefore 
arranged the Madonnas of Luca della Robbia according to the 
"following periods : 


I. 1400-1430. The Early Period, showing strongly the influence 
of Ghiberti. 

(1) The Oxford Medallion of 1428. 

(2) The Spitzer Medallion in the Louvre. 

(3) Medallion of the Nativity, S. Kensington Museum. 
(4-8) Medallion of the Madonna and Child with six an- 
gels, Louvre, etc. 

(9-10) Unglazed Madonna and Child in a niche, S. Ken- 
sington Museum andBeckerath collection, Berlin. 
II. ' 1430-1440. The Decade of the Choir-gallery reliefs. 

(11) The stucco relief of the Madonna and Child witk 

four Saints, Louvre. 

(12) Unglazed, pointed arched lunette of the Madonna 

and Child between two Angels, Berlin Museum. ' 

(13) Lunette of the Madonna and Child between two 

Angels, from S. Piero Buonconsiglio, Museo 
Nazionale, Florence. 

(14) Rectangular relief of the Madonna and Child seated 

upon the clouds, Bardini collection, Florence. 

(15) Medallion of the Madonna and Child in a taber- 

nacle, Or San Michele, Florence. 

(16) Group of the Visitation, S. Giovanni fuorcivitas,, 


(17) Lunette of the Madonna and Child between two 

Angels, Via del? Agnolo, Florence. 

(18) Medallion of the Madonna and Child between two 

Angels, Museo Nazionale, Florence. 

(19-20) Madonna and Child in a niche, Gavet collection,, 
Paris, and Q. A. Shaw collection, Boston. 

(21) Glazed framed relief of the Madonna and Child, 

Berlin Museum. 
m. 1440-1450. The Decade of the Bronze Sacristy Doors. 

(22) Marble Tabernacle at Peretola. 

(23) Stabat Mater on the Crucifixion relief at Impruneta.. 

(24) Ascension lunette, Florence Cathedral. 

(25) The Madonna and Child of the Bronze Sacristy 

Doors, Florence Cathedral. 

(26) The S. Maria del Fiore, Museo Nazionale, Florence. 


(27) Large painted relief of the Madonna and Child, 

Berlin Museum. 

(28) The Madonna and Child in the Innocenti Hos- 

pital, Florence. 
IV. 1450-1460. The Decade of the Federighi Tomb. 

(29) Lunette representing the Madonna and Child with 

Saints, S. Domenico, Urbino. 

(30) Madonna and Child with an apple, Marquis Carlo 

Viviani della Robbia collection. 

(31) Mater Dolorosa on the Federighi Tomb. 
(32-33) Medallions on the Chapel of the Madonna, Im- 


(34) Madonna and Child holding a quince, Museo Na- 

zionale, Florence. 

(35) Madonna and Child holding an apple or quince, 

Berlin Museum. 

(36) Madonna with draped, standing Child, Museo Na- 

zionale, Florence. 

(37-39) Madonna holding in her arms the draped Child, 
at Berlin Museum, the Louvre, and at Gallicano. 
Y. 1460-1482. The Final Period. 

(40) Medallion of the Adoration, Foulc collection, Paris. 
We shall now consider the above monuments in detail. 

I. THE EARLY PERIOD, 1400-1430. 

Vasari informs us that Luca's father put him in the workshop 
of Leonardo di Ser Giovanni. This seems not improbable, for 
the goldsmith's atelier was the customary training school for 
artists, and the influence of Leonardo's style may be detected 
upon more than one of the early works of Luca. But since 
Leonardo must have been an old man 1 during Luca's childhood, 
it is natural to assume that the young artist was more strongly 
influenced by such men as Brunelleschi, Donatello, and especially 
Ghiberti. The influence of Ghiberti upon Luca della Eobbia 
was observed at the beginning of the present century by Baldi- 

1 MILANESI'S VASARI IT, p. 168, note 2, thinks that Leonardo could hardly 
have lived so long as to have been Luca's master, since he worked on the silver 
altar at Pistoia at some time between 1355 and 1371. 


nucci, and stated to be the consensus of the opinions of the 
best critics of the time. 2 

(1) The Oxford Medallion of 14%8 (PLATE i, 1). In the Ashmo- 
lean Museum at Oxford there is a stucco medallion* representing 
a seated Madonna holding in her lap the Child, who is eating 
grapes and is attended by two young adoring angels. It was cast 
apparently from a bronze original, and was all colored to imitate 
bronze, except that the nimbuses about the heads of the figures 
were covered with gold. On the reverse side we find incised in 
a circular band the words formatto adj 17 di ginnaio 1428. This 
band encloses a crown, roughly drawn, within which is inscribed 
forma . . . net gabinetto dj Nicholo in gesso. This stucco medallion, 
accurately dated, represents evidently a bronze original of the 
early fifteenth century. But who made it ? When we observe 
the strong resemblance between the face of this Madonna and 
that of one of the six angels supporting the wreath on Ghiberti's 
reliquary of S. Zenobius, 3 in the Cathedral of Florence, when we 
can parallel both the attitudes and the swing of the drapery of 
the adoring angels in Ghiberti's second gates, it is difficult not to 
see in this monument the handiwork of one who worked accord- 
ing to Ghiberti's methods. 

But this is as far as we may push a Ghiberti hypothesis, since 
in a glazed terracotta monument, which is more clearly in the style 
of Luca della Robbia, we find still closer resemblances. This 
monument is the medallion of the Nativity, 4 in the South Ken- 
sington Museum (PLATE i, 2). The Oxford medallion, in its 
general treatment, reveals also the quiet, reverential spirit of Luca 
rather than that of the more dramatic Ghiberti. Would it have 

2 BA.LDINUCCI, Opere, vol. v, p. 217: L'opere di questo maestro, per molte 
osservazioni fatte da me in congresso de' primi intendenti di nostra eta, / 'anno tener 
fermo, che egli si portasse a tel perfezione sotta la scoria e co' precetti di Lorenzo 
Ghiberti, che in que' tempi attendeva a tal nobilissima facoltd con quella gloria che al 
mondo c nota. 

* This medallion was presented by Mr. Drury Fortnum, who purchased it of the 
late Mr. James Jackson Jarves, of Florence. It measures 40 in diameter. It was 
catalogued by Mr. Fortnum as a Luca della Kobbia, and noted by Dr. Bode in the 
Jahrb. d. k. p. Kunstsamml. 1885, p. 184. 

8 ALINARI, photo. No. 1970. 

4 J. C. KOBINSON, Italian Sculpture in the S. Kensington Museum, No. 5401. 


occurred to Ghiberti to pose the Madonna upon the clouds upheld 
by winged cherubs ? These cherub heads which appear here for 
the first time, are destined to have a long career in the Robbia 
school of sculpture ; the adoring angels also form the motive of all 
the panels in Luca's bronze sacristy doors, and are prototypes 
of the singing, dancing angels in his more famous choir-gallery. 

(2) The Spitzer Medallion. This medallion, formerly in the 
Spitzer collection and bought by the Louvre Museum, is another 
cast or copy from the same original as the Oxford medallion. 
The Oxford relief measures 40 centimetres in diameter and the 
Spitzer medallion 34 centimetres. As this is about the amount 
of shrinkage which terracotta would have shown after being 
baked, it is fair to presume that the terracotta was derived from 
the same original ; possibly from the mould made by Mccolo in 
1428. The Oxford stucco has suffered considerably, but the 
Louvre terracotta is better preserved. It reveals more distinctly 
the cherubs which support the clouds, also the bunch of grapes 
in the Child's hand and the fringe of the Madonna's mantle. 
But it lacks the nimbuses above the heads of the Child and 
of the adoring angels. As these in the original bronze would be 
in excessively low relief and brought out only by change of color, 
they might easily be lost in a terracotta reproduction. It is like- 
ly that these nimbuses appeared originally in this medallion, and 
that they have been worn off and the entire monument repainted. 
Certainly the forked glory on the head of the Child is of no an- 
cient date. 

(3) The Medallion of the Nativity 5 in the South Kensington Mu- 
seum (PLATE I, 2). This medallion as it stands is somewhat puz- 
zling, for the framework with its conventional bunches of trian- 
gularly arranged flowers is suggestive of the work of Andrea 
della Eobbia and is unlike the naturalistic frameworks of 

5 This medallion was acquired by the museum in 1862 and came from the Palazzo 
Mozzi, Florence. It measures l m 36 in diameter and is catalogued under number 
7752. CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, Les della Robbia, p. 267, refer it to the atelier of 
Andrea della Eobbia, and J. C. Robinson, Italian Sculpture in the South Kensington 
Museum, p. 58, puts it many years after the death of Luca. In my view the composi- 
tion is an early one of Luca's, and shows the influence of Ghiberti's pictorial style. 
A similar thatched-roofed shed appears in Ghiberti's panel representing the History 
of Noah. 


Luca, but the central composition is in the style of the elder 
master and as we believe is to be studied with his early works. 
We have already noted the resemblance in the pose of the 
Madonna to that in the Oxford and Spitzer medallions of 
1428. We may further observe the general resemblance in style 
to Ghiberti's Nativity on his first Baptistery gates (1403-1424), 
and whether or no Vasari's statement be true that Luca was ap- 
prenticed to Leonardo di Ser Giovanni, we may still feel the 
influence of that goldsmith's manner of representing mountains 
by comparing this medallion with Leonardo's reliefs 6 upon the 
silver-covered altar in the cathedral at Pistoia. Even Ghiberti's 
second Baptistery gates were begun as early as 1427, in which he 
carried the pictorial method further than was ever attempted by 
Luca della Robbia. 

(4-8). The Medallion of the Madonna and Child with six angels 
(PLATE I, 3). I have seen four examples of this composition ; one 
in the Louvre, 7 and one in the possession of M. Louis Conrajod, 
Paris ; a third in the collection of Herr Adolph von Beckerath, 
in Berlin, and a fourth in that of Sir Charles Robinson, in Lon- 
don. I am also informed that a fifth exists, in the possession of 
Lady Eastlake. Although some doubt may be thrown upon 
the antiquity of these medallions from the existence of so many 
impressions, we do not regard the composition as a forgery, but 
refer it to the early period of Luca della Robbia. 

That these medallions are casts, and not original sketches, will 
be seen not only from their identity, 8 but from the mould marks 
which are still visible in the example in the Louvre. One can 
also see clearly that the Louvre specimen has been converted from 
a circular to a rectangular form. 

As in the case of the Oxford medallion, the Madonna is repre- 
sented as seated upon the clouds, which are upheld by cherubs. 
The resemblance here to Ghiberti's work is still stronger, for who 
can examine first the panel on Ghiberti's second gates, representing 

6 ALINARI, photo. No. 20492. 

7 BODE, Jahrbuch d. k. p. Kunstsamml. 1885, p. 184. 
CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, Les della Robbia, p. 281. 

8 This identity consists not only in detail, but also in size, the medallions meas- 
uring 34 C in diameter. 


the Creation of Adam and Eve, or that representing the Appear- 
ance of the Angels to Abraham and the Sacrifice of Isaac, and 
then study this medallion without feeling that Ghiberti might 
have been the author "of it ? But in spite of this resemblance of 
manner to Ghiberti, the spirit is rather that of Luca. The feeling 
revealed here is tender, lovely, beautiful, devotional. Is this the 
quality of Ghiberti's work ? We may find, it is true, triplets of 
angels with swinging drapery, and heads of women not unlike 
this in Ghiberti's second gates, but the spiritual impression 
received from this monument is more like that which we receive 
from the angels in Luca's choir-gallery reliefs. 

(9-10). Unglazed Madonna and Child in a niche? South Kensington 
Museum (PLATE i, 4). If we were to conceive the Madonna of 
the medallion just described to stand erect and lift the Child in 
ter arms, we should have before us the unglazed relief in the 
South Kensington Museum. Even the pose of the Child is such 
as might be assumed by such a change. The group is set in a 
niche with ribbed conch, suggestive of the shell-topped niches in 
the borders of Ghiberti's second gates. 

A replica of this group is found in the collection of Herr Adolf 
von Beckerath, Berlin. 


During the greater part of this decade, Luca was occupied in 
carving the marble reliefs for the choir-gallery of the Cathe- 
dral. 10 From the greater freedom in style and spirit of these 
reliefs, and from their human interest, we might characterize this 
period of Luca's career as the Donatello period. The influence 
of Ghiberti and his earlier masters is, however, strongly felt, and 
it may be questioned whether Donatello exerted a stronger influ- 
ence upon Luca than Luca did upon him. Luca's choir-gallery re- 
liefs were begun at least two years before a similar order was given 
to Donatello. The occasional burst of beauty in the works of Don- 
atello seems to have been the result of external stimuli, while 
Luca's productions were more uniformly sustained. To this de- 

9 Catalogue, No. 5788-'59. >ALINABI, photos. 2545-2556. 


cade of Luca's life belong the five marble reliefs 11 for Giotto's 
campanile, also the marble reliefs for the altar in the chapel of 
S. Peter, 12 and in all probability the terracotta medallions of the 
Apostles 13 for the Pazzi Chapel at Santa Groce. Luca's indi- 
viduality now receives full expression. 

(11) The Stucco Eelief of the Madonna and child with four Saints, 
Louvre (PLATE n, 2). The stucco relief in the Louvre 14 represent- 
ing the Madonna and Child with Saints John the Baptist, Francis, 
Peter and Dominick 15 cannot be far removed in date from the 
marble reliefs in the Museo Nazionale representing the Liberation 
and Crucifixion of S. Peter. The influence of Ghiberti in the case 
of the marble reliefs has been noted by Bode 16 and, in thi& 
stucco, this influence is even more strikingly felt, since the Ma- 
donna is evidently to be classed with the medallions we have al- 
ready considered. In the construction of this relief we observe 
the downward slope of the floor upon which the group are stand- 
ing, a characteristic which it has in common with the marble 
reliefs and which indicates that they were to be placed above the 
level of the spectator's eye. We notice also that S. Peter occu- 
pies a prominent position as the type of the complete Christianity 
which S. John the Baptist foreshadows. It may therefore be sug- 
gested that this stucco represents one of the panels, or perhaps 
the central relief, of the altar designed and begun by Luca della 
Robbia for the chapel of S. Peter in the cathedral of Florence. 
In this monument and in the two which follow we notice that 
the Madonna holds the Child to the left. This variation from 
Luca's usual custom we believe may have occurred more easily in 
the earlier and experimental period of his work. In his later 
Madonnas the Child is held to the right. 

"MiLANESi's VASARI, n, p. 169. These were ordered in 1438. See CAVAL- 
LUCCi, Santa Maria del Fiore, II, p. 136. 

12 ALINARI, photos. Nos. 2707-2708. These were made in 1438. See KUMOHR,. 
Italienische Forschungen, I, p. 363. 

18 BROGI, photos. Nos. 5843-5854 and 5859. 

14 Museum, No. B, 48. BODE, Jahrb. d. k. p. Kunstsamml. 1885, p. 185. 

15 CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, Les della Robbia, describe this figure as S. Paul,, 
but he is clad in monastic costume and carries a lily or perhaps a martyr's palm,, 
not a sword. 

16 BODE, Die Kunstlerfamilie della Robbia, p. 7. 


(12) Unglazed pointed-arched lunette of the Madonna and Child 
between two angels, Berlin Museum? The Madonna is here seated 
upon the clouds as in the medallions of the early period. She 
wears a turban and a robe which is ruffled about her neck, pecu- 
liarities which occur frequently in the women of Ghiberti's second 
gates, in the shrine of S. Zenobi and in the font in the Baptistery 
of Siena. But the character of the Child and the playful spirit 
of the Madonna who is chuckling him under the chin are more 
suggestive of the influence which Luca at this time may have 
received from Donatello. Still, the strongest ground for assigning 
the relief to this decade of Luca's career is to be found in the 
essential identity of the attendant angels with those which appear 
on the choir-gallery reliefs. 18 

(13) Lunette of the Madonna and Child between two angels, from 
S. Piero Buonconsiglio al Mercato Vecchio, Museo Nazionale, Flor- 
ence 19 (PLATE n, 1). This lunette probably dates from the early 
part of this decade, possibly earlier. It reveals strong Grhiberti 
influence, especially in the Madonna's hair and drapery and in 
the general treatment of the attendant angels. We may even 
notice the influence of earlier masters. The extraordinarily large 
head of the child reflects the traditions of the Pisan school, and 
the triangular coronals of the angels are such as we find in the 
angels of Orcagna's famous tabernacle at Or San Michele, and in 
the beautiful sculptures which adorn the Porta della Mandorla of the 
cathedral. Luca uses the same type of coronal in the altar for S. 
Peter's chapel (1438) and in the tabernacle at Peretola (1442), 
but these marble angels show already a more advanced type. 
Here we feel that he is still working in the goldsmith style. 
The change which marks the choir-gallery sculptures has not yet 

Before we turn to the consideration of another monument we 
may observe the manner in which Luca has treated the eyes of 

17 BODE and TSCHUDI, Beschreibung d. Bildwerke d. christlichen Epoche, p. 37 
and Taf. v. It is illustrated also in the Jahrb. d. k. p. Kunstsamml. , 1885, p. 179 ; 
in BODE, Ital. Piastik, p. 76 ; Archivio storico dell' Arte, n, p. 8. 

18 Compare especially with those in the upper row. See ALINARI, photos. 2547 
and 2550. 

19 MILANESI'S VASABI, n, p. 175. ALINARI, photo. 2773. UMBEBTO Rossi, 
in Arch. stor. dell' Arte, 1893, p. 6. 


the Madonna. He has marked with dark blue, in a sketchy 
manner, the eyebrows and lashes, and the irises with bluish-gray. 
His ideal of the Madonna was evidently that of a woman with 
blue eyes. He gives hazel eyes to the Christ in the Resurrection 
and Ascension reliefs, but from beginning to end his Madonna's 
eyes are blue. 20 

(14) Rectangular relief of the Madonna and Child seated upon the 
clouds, Bardini collection, Florence (PLATE in). The Palazzo Fres- 
cobaldi in Florence contained a large number of glazed terra- 
cotta monuments of the Robbia school ; but this relief, the finest 
of them all, has now passed into the hands of the well-known 
Florentine antiquarian and art dealer, Signor Bardini. The 
throne and footstool of the Madonna consist of clouds, as in the 
case of the early medallions, and the type is not far removed from 
that of the Madonna with six angels, but the relief is higher, like 
that of the apostle medallions of the Pazzi chapel, and the child 
type is more like that of the bronze sacristy doors (1446-1457) 
and of the Madonna del Fiore in the Museo Nazionale. In all 
probability this relief and the Pazzi chapel medallions fall within 
this decade of Luca's career. The fine color sense which shows 
itself in much of Luca's work begins here to manifest itself in the 
beautiful shade of blue which he has selected for the background. 
He has touched the eyebrows -and lashes with lilac and the irises 
with bluish-gray. Gold has been added above the glaze upon 
the Madonna's hair and the borders of her robe. It is not the 
timid Virgin of the S. Piero Buonconsiglio lunette ; but, -though 
young, is somewhat more womanly and self-contained. 

(15) The Medallion of the Madonna and Child in a Tabernacle, 
Or San Michele, Florence. 21 This medallion is remarkable in being 
the only example of highly polychromatic figured sculpture by 
Luca della Robbia. As I have already published it in this JOUR- 
NAL, 22 I need not again call attention to its peculiar qualities. 
But at that time I had not seen the early works of Luca, and 
consequently was more influenced by the resemblance it bore to 
his later productions. A more extended survey of Luca's Ma- 

20 I have observed only one exception to this rule, the Madonna in the gallery of 
the Innocenti Hospital. 21 BROQI, photo. 4657. MILANESI'S VASARI, n, p. 176. 

. Journ. Arch., vol. vm, No. 2, pp. 157-159, and Plate v, fig. 1. 


donnas has led me to refer this monument to an earlier date. The 
general treatment is, it is true, not far removed from that of the 
Madonna of the Bronze Sacristy doors (1446-1467), but there are 
indications which link it with the decade we are now considering. 
Its polychromatic character is no sign of a late date, since the 
earliest glazed terracotta sculptures of the Renaissance, the four 
Evangelists with which Brunelleschi adorned the Pazzi Chapel in 
1420, were highly colored, like their Gothic prototypes. The 
sculptural character of the monument links it with Luca's 
medallions of the apostles in the Pazzi Chapel, but we feel as if 
in the type of the Madonna, and in the large head of the Child, 
Luca had not yet wholly freed himself from the influence of his 
early masters. 

(16) The group representing the Visitation, S. Giovanni fuorcivitas* 
Pistoia (PLATE iv). This beautiful group has been attributed to 
Fra Paolino 24 a Pistoiese painter who is not known to have 
worked in sculpture. A more correct appreciation is reached by 
Cavallucci, 23 Grsell Fels 26 and Bode, 27 who attribute the monument 
to Andrea della Robbia. In his latest edition of Burckhardt's 
Cicerone (1893) Bode says : " Andrea della Robbia's most important 
work, falsely ascribed to Fra Paolino, is the group of the Visitation in 
S. Giovanni fuorcivitas in Pistoia, which in nobility of sentiment, beauty 
of form and skillfulness of arrangement deserves to be called the most 
perfect group of the Early Renaissance" 

When I examined this group in the spring of 1892 I noticed 
that the eyes of both the Virgin and S. Elizabeth had irises of 
grayish blue. As I have already observed, 28 this is characteristic 
of Luca's Madonnas, while Andrea's have hazel eyes. An attri- 
bution, however, based upon a single characteristic, such as this, 
would be extremely hazardous. We may substantiate our claim 
that Luca is the author of this monument by appealing to the 
general spirit of the monument. From what we know of An- 
drea's Madonnas in Prato, Pistoia, La Yerna, Siena and else- 
's ALINARI, photo. 2528. BROGI, photos. Nos. 4424, 4425. 

24 BAEDEKER, Northern Italy, 1889, p. 368 ; MURRAY, Central Italy, 1892, p. 125. 

K Les della Robbia, p. 243. Mitt el Italien, 1886, p. 615. 

** Jtalienische Plastik, 1893, p. 80, 81. 

Amer. Journ. Arch., vol. vm, No. 2, p. 160, note 25. 


where, is there a single one which approximately resembles this in 
type ? And is it likely that even in a moment of inspiration he 
could have produced " the most perfect group of the Early Re- 
naissance ?" We have not far to go in finding parallels, which 
enable us not only to attribute the group to the elder Luca but to as- 
sign it to this decade of his career. If we turn to that one of the 
choir-gallery reliefs in which is represented a group of maidens 29 
singing and playing musical instruments, we shall find to the ex- 
treme left one whose face is but a younger type of this Madonna, 
whose hair is arranged in the same way, and whose drapery falls in 
similar folds. We may also observe in other Madonnas of this de- 
cade that the hair is modelled in waving lines 30 and is drawn back in 
a mass so as almost to conceal the ear. At this time also Luca 
made several Madonnas whose garments show not only the broad 
band, but even the ruffle 3l about the neck. 

Are not these resemblances strong enough to justify us in 
bringing this important group into line with the Madonnas of 
Luca della Robbia ? 

(17) The Lunette of the Madonna and Child between two angels, in 
the Via deW Agnolo Florence (PLATE v). This beautiful relief 
is in a narrow street in Florence, over the door of a small shop, 
which was once a chapel connected with S. Pier Maggiore. 
Vasari mentions it with praise. 33 It is in our view one of the 
earliest works in which Luca has cut himself loose from his mas- 
ters and given free expression to his own powers. There are 
details of treatment which link it with his earlier works. The 
framework is composed of the same mouldings as those which 
are used in the lunette from S. Piero Buonconsiglio, and the 
floral frieze is an improved example of the same general type. 
Luca was evidently fond of the wild roses which abound in the 

28 ALINARI, photo. No. 2549. 

30 Compare especially the Bardini and the Or San Michele Madonnas. 

31 Compare the lunette from S. Piero Buonconsiglio and the pointed-arched lunette 
in the Berlin Museum. 

82 ALINARI, photo. No. 2511, 2512 ; BROQI, photo. No. 4655. 

a MILANESI- VASARI, n, p. 175 : E sopra una porta d'una chiesina a San Pier 
Maggwre, in un mezzo tondo, un' altra Madonna, ed alcuni angeli che sono tenutl 


neighborhood of Florence. His floral frameworks are in striking 
contrast to the heavy garlands of fruit which occur so frequently 
in the late products of the Robbia school. The male and female 
angels carrying vases of Easter lilies are but freer types of his 
earlier angels, and even wear the coronals. But they are not yet 
as advanced in style as the candelabra-bearing angels or acolytes 34 
in the sacristy of the cathedral of Florence (1448). 

The Madonna is less a type, more human and lovely than those 
which preceded. She is still the Queen of Heaven; but this 
appears not so much from surrounding clouds or attendant angels 
as from the divine light which seems to emanate from a soul 
within. The Child is also a future King, blessing his people, 
and holding up to view a scroll inscribed EGO SVM LVX MVNDI. 
It seems strange that this Madonna does not occur again in 
Luca's work. Her face perhaps modified his angel type as we 
see it in the altar for S. Peter's chapel and in the tabernacle at 
Peretola, but as a Madonna she disappears. After this burst of 
realistic inspiration, in which he may have portrayed the features 
of some living woman, he returns to a type more along the old 
line, and to which he adheres more or less closely in all his later 
work. 35 

(18) Medallion of the Madonna and Child between two Angels 
Museo Nazionale, Florence (PLATE n, 3). The monotonous design 
of the framework and the finish of the relief itself, indicate that 
some inferior hand had a share in the execution of this medallion. 
But the central composition is Luca's, and is not very different 
from the Madonna in the Via dell' Agnolo. His conception of 
the Madonna has matured. She is less youthful than the Ma- 
donnas of the early period, but not so human as the Madonna in 
the Via dell' Agnolo. Luca seems to have returned to the pro- 

34 BROGI, photos. No. 4910-4911. 

35 On the portal which carries this lunette Bode discovered crossed keys and 
the letters S. P. M., which he interpreted as the insignia of Pope Martin V, who 
died in 1431. He inferred that the lunette therefore antedates that year. See 
Archwio Storico deW Arte, 1889, p. 4. But Umberto Kossi has shown that the 
insignia belong to the Church S. Pier Maggiore and not to Pope Martin. See 
Archivio Storico delV Arte, 1893. p. 8, note 1. We are accordingly free to assign 
Jhe lunette to the decade 1430-1440. 

. No. 2767. CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, op. cit. No. 62. 


duction of a type, but the type is not altogether the same as 
before. It is transfused with a more human quality. 

(19) Glazed Madonna and Child in a niche, Garni Colled >n, 
Paris (PLATE vi, 1). Very similar in style and pose to the pre- 
ceding is the Child in a beautiful relief in the possession of M: 
Gavet, Paris; but here the Child has both arms around his 
Mother's neck. The Madonna also holds him in the same man- 
ner. There is something very natural and charming about the 
Madonna's face, and a freshness indicative of Luca's early man- 
ner. If it be true that about this time he assisted Ghiberti in the 
completion of the second Baptistery gates, 37 we have a natural 
explanation of the use of the niche with rounded top. Also the 
rosettes and floral scroll-work painted upon the border, seem to 
be contemporary with similar ornament carved upon the Campa- 
nile reliefs (1437-1440), and the fringed edge of the drapery with 
similar fringes in the choir-gallery reliefs. 

(20) Eeplica of this monument in the possession of Quincy A. 
Shaw, Boston, U. S. A. A replica of the Gavet Madonna is in 
the possession of Mr. Quincy A. Shaw, of Boston. The Madonna 
and Child would seem to have been cast from the same mould as 
that of the Gavet relief, and to have been slightly modified before 
being baked. This modification consists chiefly in the omission 
of the drapery which falls around the loins of the Child ; but the 
spirit of the earlier and sharper impression is modified also by a 
change in the painting of the eyes. In the Gavet Madonna the 
eyes are rolled to one side, giving a lively and coquettish expres- 
sion, in comparison with which the Shaw Madonna seems some- 
what dull. The background of the niche, though divided by 
similar horizontal mouldings, is vertically striated by fewer panels, 
and the ornamental border of the face of the frame has been 
reduced to white disks in green spandrils in the upper corners. 

(21) Glazed, framed Relief of the Madonna and Child in the 
Berlin Museum 38 (PLATE vi, 2). To the same period may be as- 

37 See Frammento Estratto dal Codice Magliabecchiano, scritto da un Anonymo, 
published by CARL FREY, in his edition of Vasari's Vita di Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1886, 
pp. 63, 68. 

88 Photographed by BARDINI, Florence. Illustrated also in BODE, Hal. Plastik, 
1893, p. 77, and in Archiv. stor. dell' Arte, 11, p. 8, fig. 1. 


signed a youthful Madonna, with the fully draped Child, in the 
Berlin Museum. Here also the frame is glazed and ornamented 
by corner disks of blue, and light-green stripes with rounded ends 
decorate the four faces of the frame. The Child fondles his 
Mother's face with both hands, while she gazes down upon him 
with her gray-blue eyes. 


Although the contract for the bronze sacristy doors of the cathe- 
dral of Florence was not signed until February 28, 1446, and the 
last two panels were not finished before November, 1467, and 
though they represent the work of more than one hand, 39 never- 
theless their importance constitutes them the measure of the 
workmanship of Luca della Eobbia for this decade of his career. 
This is especially true of the panel of the Madonna and Child 
which influenced his similar compositions in terracotta. 

There are, however, three monuments which must be consid- 
ered first. These are the Peretola tabernacle, the Crucifixion at 
Impruneta, and the Ascension at Florence. 

(22) The Marble Tabernacle at Peretola 1441-1443. In the 
church of S. Maria at Peretola, near Florence, is a marble taber- 
nacle which once adorned the chapel of S. Luke at S. Maria 
Nuova, Florence. It is in the form of a portal, with Corinthian 
pilasters and triangular pediment. In the arched opening are 
two angels bearing a wreath, which enshrines a bronze relief of 
the Holy Dove ; above them is a Pieta, in which an angel sup- 
ports the sinking Christ, while the Madonna and S. John are on 
either hand. The Madonna is here an elderly woman. She 
presses her left hand to her breast and with the right points to 
the sinking Christ. It' is difficult to see here the same individual 
whom we have met with before. Perhaps some other and more 
elderly matron in real life furnished his imagination with the 
type for this Mater Dolorosa, or he may have adapted it from 
some traditional source. The three who surround the sinking 

39 The panel of S. Gregory is decidedly inferior to all the others, and may have 
been modelled by Michelozzo or by Maso. 

40 BROGI, photo. 5841, 5841 a . CAVALLUCCI, No. 223. MOLINIEB, Une (Euvre 
inedite de Luca della Robbia, in the Gaz. Arch. 1884, pp. 364-370, pi. 49. 


Christ are affected in different degrees, but in none of them do 
we find that extravagance of grief which soon afterward Dona- 
tello represented in the treatment of similar subjects at Padua. 
From the archives of S. Maria Nuova 41 we ascertain that this 
tabernacle was made by Luca della Robbia between the years 
1441 and 1443. 

(23) The Crucifixion at Impruneta. 42 In a previous article in 
this JOURNAL, 43 1 have already published this important relief. 
On account of its resemblance in sentiment to the Pieta of the 
Peretola Tabernacle (1441-1443), and in style to the Ascension 
in the Florence Cathedral (1446), I assigned it to the early portion 
of this decade. It may be added that the treatment of the angels 
.and of the clouds from which they emerge is the same as that in the 
circular medallion of the Madonna and Child between two angels, 
in the Museo Nazionale, which, on other grounds, I have already 
assigned to the close of the preceding decade. As she stands at 
the foot of the Cross, this Stabat Mater is human enough to 
wring her hands in grief, but her face looks up through her sorrow 
to the compassionate gaze of her crucified Son. 

(24) The Ascension Lunette in the Florence Cathedral** 1446. In 
the lunette over the second sacristy door of the Florence cathe- 
dral is the well known polychromatic relief of the Ascension. 
The contract, 45 assigned to Luca della Robbia, on the eleventh of 
October, 1446, stipulated that it should contain, besides the As- 
cension of Christ, figures of the eleven Apostles and of the Virgin 
Mary. Only her face and her uplifted hands appear in the back- 
ground. It is the same face which we have found at Impruneta, 
but here is gazing upward in pious adoration towards her risen 
Son and Lord. But we may observe that at Impruneta she is 
younger than at Peretola and that here she is younger still. There 
is apparently no established relation between the ages of the 
mother and the Son. 

41 Quoted by MOLINIER, Gaz. Arch, 1884, p. 365. 

42 BROGI, photo. No. 9891. 

Am. Journ. Arch., Vol. vin, No. 2, p. 169, and plate vm. 
44 ALINARI, photo. No. 1973. CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, op. cit. p. 45. 
46 KUMOHR, Italienische Forschungen, n, p. 364, 365. CAVALLUCCI and MOLI- 
NIER, op. cit. p. 54, note 1. 


(25) The Madonna and Child of the Bronze Sacristy Doors, 1446- 
1467 (PLATE vn, 1). The contract for the doors of both sacris- 
ties of the Florence Cathedral was at first given to Donatello as 
early as March 17, 1417, but as nothing was accomplished a 
new contract was made February 28, 1446, for the doors of one 
sacristy and given to Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Luca della Rob- 
bia and Maso di Bartolommeo. 46 Michelozzo had already executed 
more than one important monument for Donatello. 47 Luca della 
Robbia had also stood in the relation of an executive for Dona- 
tello in connection with an altar for the chapel of S. Paul in the 
cathedral. 48 Maso died soon after the contract was signed, but his 
function like that of his successor, Giovanni, seems to have been 
purely mechanical. 49 

Of these three names, that of Michelozzo appears first, and the 
contract is referred to as having been signed by his hand. 50 The 
long delay also before the doors were finally executed seems to 
have been due to his absence. When we consider Michelozzo's 
position as an architect and his experience as a sculptor, not to 
mention the favor in which he stood with Cosimo de' Medici, we 
are forced to raise the question, whether he may not have been 
the designer of these panels, or at least have furnished the models 
for the most important panels. All that we know from the doc- 
uments is that in 1465 the doors came to the charge of Luca, and 
apparently he brought them to completion about two years later. 
When we examine the doors themselves we can see that the 
most important panels, the Madonna and the S. John the Baptist, 
cannot have been designed by Michelozzo, for neither the senti- 
ment nor the execution is his. We have merely to refer to the 
Madonna and Child on the tomb of Pope John XXIII, 51 made by 
Mm 52 1426-1429, and to his S. John the Baptist on the silver dos- 
sal 53 in the Opera del Duomo, which he made in 1452, 54 in order 

46 RuMOHR, Ital. Forsch. II, p. 365 ff. 

* 7 BODE-BURCKHARDT, Cicerone, 1893, p. 374. 

48 This altar was probably never executed. 

49 KUMOHR, op. cit. p. 369. 60 RUMOHR, op. eit. p. 366. 

61 ALINARI, photo. No. 1885. See also BODE, Denkmaler der Renaissance- 
.Sculptur Toscanas, 1893, pi. 53. 

** BODE-BURCKHARDT, Cicerone, ed. 1893, p. 374. 

M ALINARI, photo. No. 2572. 54 BODE-BURCKHARDT, op. cit. p. 373. 


to see that the Madonna and the S. John of the sacristy doors are> 
not to be attributed to him. On the other hand, they fall readily 
into line with the works of Luca, one recalling to our minds the 
Frescobaldi and the Or San Michele Madonnas, and the other 
resembling the S. John the Baptist of the tabernacle at Impru- 
neta. In the works of Luca della Robbia we naturally look for 
the attendant angels on either side. 

The Madonna is seated upon a simple bench, such as Luca had 
employed at Or San Michele, and her mantle is drawn over her 
head, as is frequently the case with Luca's Madonnas. The slen- 
der child is blessing with his right hand and in his left holds a 
scroll, upon which may have been painted, as in the Urbino 
lunette, the words EGO SVM LVX MVNDI. The Madonna has a 
somewhat anxious expression, heightened perhaps by the manner 
in which the light falls upon her face. But there is also a calm 
beauty, such as Luca only could give. From analogous Madonnas- 
and other figures executed in terracotta, it is likely that the 
Madonna's hair, perhaps also the borders of her garment and 
mantle, were decorated with gold. 

The contract for these doors called for a somewhat different and 
more Gothic result. The figured reliefs were to have been set in 
tabernacles adorned with inlaid work of gold and silver, and to 
have been surrounded by borders with designs similarly inlaid. 
This would have given a brilliancy of effect, which the dull bronze 
in its dark position now lacks. The contract also directs that the 
reverse side or back of the doors should be adorned with the 
same reliefs, but without the surrounding ornamentation. 55 Ru- 
mohr mentions in a note that these sculptures on the reverse 
of the doors are more beautiful and more worthy of Luca della 
Robbia than the sculptured figures in front. Unfortunately these 
sculptures no longer exist in situ, and, so far as I am aware, they 
seem to have escaped the attention of other writers. 

(26) The S. Maria del Fiore of the Museo Nazionale Florence 
(PLATE vn, 2). In the National Museum of Florence there is a 
rectangular relief of the Madonna and Child seated in a garden. 

55 Hal. Forsch. n, p. 372. 

58 ALINARI. photo. No. 2766. BODE, Luca della Robbia ed i Suoi Precursori in 
Firenze, in Arch. stor. deW Arte, 1889, p. 5. 


The flowers which surround the group enable us to christen it 
S. Maria del Fiore. This conception was doubtless also in the 
mind of Luca himself, for the group shows a strong resemblance 
to the Madonna of the sacristy doors in the Cathedral which bore 
this name. The two reliefs are undoubtedly closely related, for 
though of different proportions, adapted to a panel of different 
shape, this Madonna is similarly draped, is seated upon a similar 
bench, and the Child assumes very nearly the same attitude. 
Luca's fine color sense is shown in the charming grayish-blue of 
the background, which composes well with the green rose leaves, 
the violet bench and the grayish-green of the sloping base. This 
relief has been reproduced in glazed terracotta by the Cantagalli 
Company of Florence, in very nearly the colors of the original. 
Although it loses something from the slight diminution in size 
and from a too vitreous glaze, it reproduces better than can be 
done by photograph the spirit of the original. 

(27) Large painted relief of the Madonna and Child in the Berlin 
Museum 57 (PLATE vm). When I first saw this beautiful Madonna, 
it seemed to me almost, but not quite, a work by Luca della Rob- 
bia. But, on analyzing my impression, I found that it was chiefly 
the coloring that was out of analogy with his work. I was par- 
ticularly struck with the summary linear manner in which the 
eyebrows are painted and with the yellow irises ; but the coloring 
may have been added by another hand. 

In spirit and pose this Madonna is not far removed from the 
Madonna del Fiore in the Museo Nazionale, and the Child is a 
type which we meet again at Impruneta. The base of the relief 
has its angles chamfered off in the same manner as in the Ma- 
donna relief in the Innocent! Hospital, and in that with the Child 
holding a quince in the Museo I^azionale. The ornament upon 
the Virgin's robe, and its fringe, recall the design figured upon 
the curtain behind the angels of the Peretola tabernacle. I am 
inclined, therefore, to attribute it to the last half of this decade. 

(28) Relief of the Madonna and Child in the Innocenti Hospital 
Florence (PLATE vn, 3). Similar in some of its details, but differ- 

67 Photographed for Bardini, Florence. BODK, Ital. Plastik, p. 78. 

58 ALINARI, photo. No. 3181. CAYALLUCCI and MOLINIKR, op. cit. No. 21. 


ent in spirit, is the open-mouthed Madonna in the gallery of the 
Innocenti Hospital. In her left arm she carries the Child, and 
with her right hand she is pointing to the blue base on which 
ANCILLE SVE. The Child unfolds a scroll on which is inscribed, 
EGO SVM LVX MVNDI. The eyes are marked with lilac, hairy brows, 
lilac upper lashes, pupils and a light shade of lilac is substituted 
for the usual gray-blue for the irises. The floral ornament of the 
base recalls a similar motive used on the Peretola tabernacle. It 
would seem probable that this Madonna was made for S. Maria 
degli Innocenti shortly after its completion, Feb. 5, 1445. 59 


The most important monument which Luca executed during 
this decade is the Tomb of Bishop Benozzo Federighi, now in 
the Church of S. Francesco di Paola, near Bellosguardo. In its 
exquisite framework Luca has brought to its highest point the 
possibilities of enamelled terracotta mosaic, while the tomb itself 
and the Pieta in three panels of its background evince his ma- 
tured skill as a sculptor in marble. 

(29) The lunette over the portal of S. Domenico, Urbino. 60 In this 
lunette, whose fractured surface has now been badly restored with 
white lead, we see a Madonna and Child forming the next link in 
the series to that at the Innocenti Hospital. She is looking out 
upon the world in somewhat distracted fashion, hardly conscious 
of the Child whom she is holding. The Child, as in the preced- 
ing relief, exhibits to the world the scroll with the words, EGO SVM 
LVX MVNDI. To the left are S. Domenick with the lily and S. 
Thomas Aquinas with an open book, inscribed DE FRVCTV OPERVM 
TVORVM SATIABITVR TERRA. To the right we find another Domini- 
can saint holding up his hand, and S. Peter Martyr with the 
palm. This lunette was finished in 1451 or 1452, for we find 
partial payment made for it to Luca della Robbia, June 28, 145 1. 61 

59 CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIKR, op. cit. p. 102. 

^ALINARI, photo. No. 15364. CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, op. cit. No. 328 
and p. 58. 

61 See YRIARTE, Le Livre de Souvenirs d'un Sculpteur Florentin au XV Siecle, 
in the Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 e periode, p. 143, xxiv. Quoted by CAVALLUCCI 
and MOLINIER, op. cit. pp. 58, 59, note 1. 


(30) The Madonna and Child with an apple, from the collection of 
Marquis Carlo Viviani delta Robbia. In Cavallucci and Molinier's 
work upon the Delia Robbia, there is an admirable etching of the 
Madonna and Child holding an apple (p. 55). Their plate tells 
us that the relief is in glazed terracotta, and that it came from 
the collection of the Marquis Carlo Viviani della Robbia, but 
they do not mention it in their catalogue, and there is no further 
reference to it in the text. This relief, wherever it may be, is 
undoubtedly a work by Luca della Robbia, and although the 
drapery is suggestive of his earlier work, the type of the Child 
and the face of the Madonna render it probable that it belongs to 
this decade. 

(31) The Mater Dolorosa on the Federighi Tomb, 62 1455-1456 
(PLATE vn, 4). In the background of the square recess which 
contains the sarcophagus of Bishop Benozzo Federighi, is a 
Pieta representing in three panels the Mater Dolorosa, Christ in 
the tomb and S. John Evangelist. These figures are in marble 
and in lower relief than is usual with Luca della Robbia, but they 
are authentic works, attested by documentary evidence and with 
a certain date (1455-1456). 63 As compared with the Pieta on the 
Peretola tabernacle, we find that beauty rather than intensity of 
emotion has gained with Luca della Robbia. The Virgin is some- 
what younger here, and on her countenance pain is less vividly 
expressed. Her hands, especially the fingers, have received care- 
ful attention. 

(3233) Medallions of Madonna and Child holding a quince, in the 
frieze of the chapel of the Madonna at Impruneta. In describing 
elsewhere the Robbia monuments at Impruneta, M I mentioned 
that the frieze on the outside of the chapel of the ' Madonna con- 
tained two medallions representing the Madonna with the un- 
draped Child holding a quince. These are identical in style and 
treatment with a rectangular relief in the Museo ISTazionale, 
Florence, which is assigned to Luca della Robbia. 65 

62 ALINARI, photo. No. 3397. CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, op. cit. p. 3. 
63 GAYE, Cnrteggio inedito d'artisti, i, p. 183. CATALLUCCI and MOLINIER, op. 
cit. p. 36, note 3. 

64 Am. Jour. Arch.,. vol. vni, No. 2, pp. 161-17.0. 

65 UMBERTO Kossi in Arch. stor. deW Arte, 1893, p. 7. 


(34) Rectangular relief of Madonna and Child holding a quince, 
Museo Nazionale, Florence. The lack of sharpness in the detail 
of this relief would seem to indicate that it was made from a 
mould which had been used before. The object which the Child 
holds in his hands has more the form of a quince than of the 
apple ; an indication, perhaps, that the significance of the sym- 
bol 67 had been lost. The attribution of this relief to Luca della 
Robbia may be strengthened by its identity with the medallion 
reliefs at Impruneta, in the frieze of the Chapel of the Madonna, 
which enshrines a tabernacle by Luca della Eobbia. We have 
given elsewhere 68 some reason for assigning this chapel to the 
period under consideration. 

(35) Rectangular relief of the Madonna and Child holding a quince 
Berlin Museum (PLATE vi, 3). The glazed relief, in the Berlin Mu- 
seum, belongs probably to the same period as the preceding. The 
Child is the same round-faced infant and of proportions more 
thickly set than Luca was accustomed to give in earlier days. 
The general pose of the Child is similar to that of the Impruneta 
medallion. In one hand he also carries a quince or apple, while, 
as in the medallion of the Museo Nazionale, the forefinger of his 
right hand is in his mouth. The Madonna has a somewhat timid 
expression, not unlike that of the Madonna in the Innocenti Hos- 

(36) Rectangular relief of the Madonna with draped Child, Museo 
Nazionale Florence. This relief was formerly in the convent of 
Santa Lucia and later in the Accademia, Florence. The Child is 
draped in a short tunic, rests his left hand on his mother's breast 
and puts his right arm around her neck. He is the same round- 
faced chubby infant, whom we have found at Impruneta, and 

66 A.LINARI, photo. No. 2765. UMBERTO Kossi in Arch. stor. dell' Arte, 1893, p. 
7. MARQUAND in Scribner's Magazine, Dec. 1893, p. 689. Eeproduced in glazed 
terracotta by the Cantagalli Co., Florence. 

87 C. E. CLEMENT, Christian Symbols, 1886, p. 19 : " The apple when in the hand 
of the infant Saviour, signifies the sin in Paradise, which made his coming neces- 

68 Am. Jour. Arch., vol. vui, No. 2, p. 168. 

68 Photographed by MERTENS & Co., Berlin. Catalogue No. 116 M. 

70 CAVALLUcci and MOLINIER, op. cit., No. 89. U. Kossi, Archiv. stor. dell' 
Arte, 1893, p. 8. 


the Madonna is also of the same type as that at Impruneta. In. 
the tilting of the head, which appears in these Madonnas, we 
recognize a practice which occurs frequently in the works of An- 
drea della Robbia and which may have some connection with a 
similar and contemporaneous custom on the part of Umbrian 
artists. It is therefore, probably, one of Luca's latest productions. 
(3789) Madonna holding in her arms the draped Child, Berlin, 
Louvre, Gallicano. In the Museum of Berlin there is an oval, 
unglazed medallion of the Madonna holding the draped Child in 
her arms. Above are two cherub heads, one at either side. 71 The 
type of this Madonna is not unlike those which we have assigned 
to this decade. In the Louvre there is a copy 72 of the same 
composition, differing very slightly in matters of detail. The 
modification is especially apparent in the treatment of the hair 
and in the coloring of the eyes, indicating that the Louvre copy 
was probably made in the atelier of Andrea della Robbia. There 
is a third example of the same composition at Gallicano, 73 in the 
open street over a fountain. This would appear also to have 
come from Andrea's atelier. 

V. THE FINAL PERIOD, 1460-1482. 

The medallion of the University Council on the fa$ade of Or 
'San Michele, made by Luca della Robbia in 1463, 74 proves that 
in his later years his hand had not lost its cunning. There 
would seem also to be some reason for assigning the beautiful taber- 
nacle in the chapel of the Holy Cross at Impruneta to the final 
period of Luca's life. 75 If this be true, Luca's career closes not 
with a decadence, but with a sustained power of producing the 
same beautiful forms which give to his earlier works such lasting 

71 This medallion is catalogued No. 116 B and is figured by BODE in Arch. stor. 
delV Arte n, p. 8, fig. 4. 

72 Cat. G. 726. CAVALLTTCCI and MOLINIER, op. cit. cat. No. 433. 

73 CAVALLUCCI and MOLINIER, op. cit. cat. No. 186. 
'* Am. Jour. Arch., vol. Tin, No. 2, p. 154. 

75 There is nothing, however, in the arguments I have urged in Am. Jour. Arch., 
vol. vin, No. 2, p. 166, to prevent our assigning this tabernacle to the early part of 
this period, or even a decade earlier still. 


(40) Medallion of the Adoration of the Child, in the possession of 
M. Foulc Paris (PLATE ix). From the fact that the Adora- 
tion of the Child appears so frequently in later Robbia products,, 
I was led to attribute to the founder of the school the fine altar 
with this subject at La Yerna. 77 I nevertheless felt that Luca 
would have treated with greater simplicity the subordinate figures 
in the composition, and in all probability would have reversed 
the position of the Madonna and Child. Such a composition, 
with every indication of being Luca's handiwork, 78 1 subsequently 
found in the possession of M. Foulc in Paris. This medallion 
has all the charm of Luca's -best work. The four angels, as well 
as the Virgin, have their eyes concentrated on the child. The 
Madonna, modelled with the tenderest appreciation, is a living 
personality, not the inheritance of a dead tradition. She is the 
same person as the Virgin of the Visitation at Pistoia, but the- 
face here shows a maturer, more spiritual beauty, and the drapery 
is handled in more masterly fashion. The child is neither the 
large-headed Gothic Child of the S. Piero Buonconsiglio lunette, 
nor the long-limbed Child of the Frescobaldi relief, nor the 
chubby Child of the Impruneta frieze, but one whose proportions 
are harmonious and well-balanced. The angels, appearing m 
groups of two and proclaiming the Gloria in Excelsis Deo, recall to 
our minds the angels on the predella of the tabernacle of the- 
Holy Cross at Impruneta. 79 This relief, therefore, is worthy of" 
being classed with the very best of Luca's works. In the pres- 
ence of this Madonna, and of the others already noticed, we caa 
say with Dr. Bode : " The relation of Mother and Child has been 
learned by listening to nature under the most varied and charming situa- 
tions and expressed with an appreciation and a sense of the beautiful r 
sometimes also with a touch of humor, such as no other artist has ever 
accomplished. Even Raphael's celebrated Madonnas exhibit scarcely a; 

76 Photographed by Allan Marquand ; also to be published by Dr. BODE in the 
Denkmaler der Renaissance- Sculptur Toscanas. 

11 Scribner's Magazine, Dec. 1893, p. 687. 

78 The frame was obtained from a different source and may be by a later hand- 

79 Am. Jour. Arch., vol. viu, No. 2, pi. vi. 


single new motive, and in freshness and naivete are deciilcdly inferior 
to LUGO'S compositions." 80 


NOTE. In the Cluny Museum there is a copy of the Foulc medallion, with slight 
variations, made probably by Andrea della Ilobbia during his uncle's lifetime. The 
more schematic position of the angels and the heavier folds of the drapery evince a 
handiwork of inferior quality to that of Luca. Most of the Robbia reliefs representing 
the Adoration belong to the school of Andrea. A few, however, may be considered 
as of the school of Luca. As such we may mention : 1. The central relief of a 
medallion, the remainder of which is by Giovanni della Robbia, in the Musee 
Nazionale, Florence. 2. A round-headed relief of the Adoration, with overhead a 
dove and three angels singing the Gloria in Excelsis Deo, Museo Nazionale, Flor- 
ence. 3. A rectangular relief of the Nativity, in the possession of Mr. Quincy A, 
Shaw, Boston. 4. A rectangular relief of the Adoration, with six angels, in the 
possession of Herr Adolf von Beckerath, Berlin. 

Hal. Plastik, 1893, pp. 76-77. 


Certain classical archaeologists seem too much inclined to give 
a loose rein to the imagination whenever they enter upon the 
domain of pre-historic archaeology. The American Journal of 
Archaeology, in a late number (vin, p. 247), reprints from The 
Classical Review a notice of Murray's Handbook of Greek Archae- 
ology, written by Professor J. Henry Middleton. I quote from 
it the following statement : "In the tombs of lalysos in the 
island of Rhodes royal scarabs of about 2000 B. c. have been 
found with Greek pottery of the earliest class, that which is 
devoid of painted ornament and decorated merely with simple 
patterns executed in incised lines deeply scratched into the sur- 
face of the pottery before firing. Moreover, Mr. Petrie has dis- 
covered painted vases of the ' Mycenae type ' in the tombs of 
Upper Egypt, in conjunction with native objects whose date can 
safely be fixed between the xv and xn centuries B. c." 

The proper date to be assigned to vases of the " Mycenae type," 
discovered in Egypt by Mr. Petrie (which he has chosen to desig- 
nate as " Aegean "), has been made the subject of severe scrutiny 
by Mr. Cecil Torr (Classical Review, March, 1892) and Mr. Cecil 
Smith (Ibid, Dec., 1892), and it will be unnecessary to consider 
it here. Whatever authority Professor Middleton may have for 
his statement in regard to the date of " Greek pottery of the ear- 
liest class," it is not to be found in Mr. Murray's Handbook, in which 
can be seen, figured upon Plate i, Vases of the Primitive Period, and 
upon Plate n, Vases of the Mycence Type. It was the latter class of 
vases that was discovered in the tombs at lalysos, and these are duly 
delineated upon Plate u. Upon his Plate I, Vases of the Primitive 
Period, Mr. Murray gives an example, described in these terms : 
44 Black ware ; punctured lines .... identical in ware, shape and 


decoration with other vases in the British Museum, found by M. 
Naville at Katanah, in Egypt, with flint chips and with scarabs of 
the xn and xm dynasties. ... As to actual date, there is no sugges- 
tion beyond what may be extracted from the circumstance .... that 
scarabs of the xn and xm Egyptian dynasties were found with 
precisely similar vases. It is true that the presence of scarabs of 
a particular dynasty does not in Egypt always imply contempo- 
raneousness in the objects found with them ; but in this case the 
finding of flint implements in the same tombs speaks for the high 
antiquity of these vases. . . . Nevertheless, a date which may hold 
good in Egypt need not apply to Greece or Italy." 

Certainly it is only a prudent reservation that Mr. Murray 
makes in allowing that a scarab of an early king may possibly be 
found in Egypt, or in any other country, together with objects of 
a later date. This would probably be the case if the ruins of my 
own house should ever be searched by some future antiquary. 
But for Mr. Murray the " finding of fiint implements in the same 
tombs " with a certain kind of vases implies for them a " high 

In Kakun, Gurob and Hawara, p. 25, Mr. Petrie describes the 
finding in the town of Kahun, in the Eayum, of some pieces of 
" black pottery, which bear the chevron pattern, with the alter- 
nate spaces filled with rows of dots .... just what was found by 
M. Naville with scarabs of the xm dynasty at Katanah .... in 
graves many feet deep, beneath accumulations of the time of Seti 
I, and hence certainly early. Here it is again found associated 
with objects of the xn and xm dynasties, and its date, therefore, 
is almost beyond question. The difficult point now is to deter- 
mine whether we are to throw back to such a date the Italian 
black pottery with chevron pattern and dots so closely like this." 
Finally Mr. Petrie reaches the conclusion (Ibid., p. 42) that, as 
such pottery is unknown elsewhere in Egypt, " some Phoenician 
trader we may suspect of importing such foreign pottery (probably 

Thus it is evident that both Mr. Murray and Mr. Petrie alike 
fall back upon M. Naville's discoveries at Katanah to establish 
their chronology. M. Naville has given a complete account of 
the circumstances of these discoveries in Goshen, etc. : Fifth 


Memoir of the Egypt. Explor. Fund,. p. 21, and I will quote exactly 
what he says, and leave the reader to judge of the soundness of 
the inferences that have been drawn from his words. 

Near a little village in the northeast part of the Delta, called 
Katanah, are three mounds. On the summit of the highest one 
a black granite sphinx was lying, with a " much erased inscrip- 
tion," which " seemed to be the name " of a king of the xin 
dynasty. " All around this sphinx I sunk very deep pits ; and at 
a depth of about ten feet I found a few large oval urns containing 
ashes, pieces of charcoal and bones. Some of these bones were 
decidedly those of animals*, while others might have been human. 
In and around each of these urns I found a number of small pots 
of black and red earthenware .... Also roundabout the urns I 
found a few scarabs, two large bronze knives, and some small 
flints. The little black and red pots are of an entirely new type ; 
but the ware of which they are made exactly resembles what is 
found at Abydos in tombs of the xn dynasty. The evidence of 
the scarabs is, however, conclusive, since one of them is inscribed 
with the name of a king of that period .... I could not discover 
whether the fragments of bone were human or not. If human, it 
would be important to know that the dead were sometimes burnt 
under the xin dynasty, and not always mummified. This would 
be a most curious discovery in a country where so much care was 
taken to preserve the bodies of the dead." 

Now, what M. Naville describes here is surely something very 
different from " finding flint implements in the same tombs '* 
with " precisely similar vases," " identical in ware, shape and 
decoration" with certain other vases in the British Museum, 
according to Mr. Murray ; or in " graves many feet deep beneath 
accumulations of the time of Seti I," according to Mr. Petrie. 
In the first place, it is by no means certain that M. Naville dis- 
covered any " graves " or " tombs " at all at Katanah. The pre- 
sumption is rather the other way ; and if there were interments 
there, the conditions plainly point to their being intrusive burials, 
not dating from the presumed time of the granite sphinx. It is 
true that vases of a peculiar type were found, but it was the kind 
of ware of which they were made, and not their type, which 
resembled what had been discovered at Abydos in tombs of the 


xii dynasty. This is far from their being identical " in ware, shape 
and decoration." Instead of scarabs of the xii and xm dynasties 
having been found, only a single one was discovered. Finally, 
the " flint implements " turn out to be " some small flints;" but 
it is well established that in Egypt flint flakes, so far from always 
betokening " a high antiquity," are found in deposits of everv 
age from prehistoric times down to the Roman period. 

M. Naville's discoveries at Katanah seem to be scarcely of suffi- 
cient importance to support the superstructure that has been 
reared upon them. He found there a certain type of little black 
and red vases ; but it neither follows that they were " something 
earlier than 2,000 B. c.," as Mr. Murray seems inclined to be- 
lieve ; nor is there any warrant for calling their type either Greek 
or Italian. 

Let us return now to Mr. Petrie's discoveries at Kahun. The 
fragment figured by him in Kahun, etc. (Plate xxvii, Fig. 202), 
ornamented with a pattern of long chevrons made up of dots alter- 
nating with plain triangles, looks very unlike the familiar " wolf- 
tooth " pattern, consisting of chevrons of straight incised lines char- 
acteristic of the Early Iron Age in Europe, such as are found in 
cemeteries both in North and in South Italy, of which a specimen 
is given by Mr. Murray upon his Plate i. So, too, Mr. Petrie has 
figured in Kahun, etc. (Plate I, ~No. 20), another example of what 
he calls " black ware." " This," he says, " was also found by 
M. Naville at Katanah, deep down in burials which could not 
have been later disturbed. Its age, therefore, seems well assured; 
and it closely resembles in color, form and decoration the earliest 
Italian black pottery." In this example the chevrons are made 
up of incised lines crossing each other, alternating with plain tri- 
angles. But they differ in appearance from the " wolf-tooth " 
pattern, and the ware does not resemble the early Italian bucchero 
ware, black through its entire substance, inasmuch as Mr. Petrie's 
fragment is of a. red ware blackened on the surface. Thus it is 
incorrect to say that this fragment resembles in " color, form and 
decoration" "the earliest Italian black pottery." 

Bat Mr. Petrie's pleasing little romance about the " Phoenician 
trader " (who may, perhaps, have been partner of the one who 
beguiled the noble swineherd Eumseus' nurse) pales before the 


striking picture he has drawn of an early civilization in Europe, 
in the Bronze Age, whose rise* he places earlier than 2,500 B. c., 
and which he styles the " My cense Period." 1 These ideas he 
has still farther elaborated in a subsequent volume. " Some of 
the metals were known in Europe before they appear in use in 
Egypt ; the use of bronze is quite as old in the North as in the 
South of the Mediterranean ; and the tin of Egypt probably came 
from the mines of Hungary and Saxony, which most probably 
supplied Europe at that time. Iron appears in Europe as soon as 
in Egypt. The best forms of tools are known in Italy two or 
three centuries before Egypt possessed them." ' The only reasons 
I have seen assigned by Mr. Petrie for the confident belief that 
this very early culture " reached out to the North of Europe," are 
to be found in Notes on the Antiquities of Mycence (Journ. of Hel- 
lenic Studies, xn, 204). These are : (1) The finding in grave 
No. iv, at Mycenae, of a vase in the shape of a stag, which Mr. 
Petrie calls a silver-lead " reind-eer or elk." 3 (2) That " the 
amber so commonly used at Mycenae is proved to have come from 
the Baltic." This statement is grounded upon a quantitative an- 
alysis made by the chemist Otto Helm, of Danzig, of a fragment 
of an amber bead found at Mycenae. 4 Two grammes of this am- 
ber were found to contain six per cent, of amber acid. This he 
failed to discover in amber from Sicily or Italy, although it is 
found in a less amount in amber from Lebanon, G-allicia, Hun- 
gary and Austria; while that from Koumania and Bukowina 
containsas much acid as the Baltic amber. Nevertheless, Herr 
Helm is of the opinion that the amber from these latter countries 
can " easily be distinguished from it by color, hardness and disin- 
tegrated layer." The reader must judge for himself whether this 
amounts to "proof" that the amber beads found at Mycenae 
actually came from the Baltic. (3) The next reason assigned by 
Mr. Petrie is the resemblance which the style of decoration em- 
ployed at Mycenae bears to " Celtic " ornament. (4) His final 
argument is drawn from the analogy between certain knots or 

1 The Egyptian Bases of Greek History, in Journ. of Hellenic Studies, XI, 277. 

2 Ten Years' Digging in Egypt, p. 153. 

8 See Mycenae and Tiryns, p. 257. * See Tiryns, p. 372. 


ties, made of a green glazed pottery (which probably represent 
the fastenings to draperies hung on the walls at My cense), to what 
has been found in " great Scandinavian tumulus chambers of a 
later age, which were likewise lined with hangings." These are 
all the arguments I have seen relied on by Mr. Petrie to sustain 
his novel theory that the Bronze Age originated in the North of 
Europe 2,500 B. c. Nowhere has he brought forward any evi- 
dence, so far as I am aware, that the tin used in the Bronze Age 
was derived from mines in Hungary and Saxony, which at the 
present day, certainly, do not count for much in the world's sup- 
ply of that metal. 

Boston, December 18, 1893. 



In a recent number of the Revue de I' Art Chretien (May, 1893), 
M. Eugene Miintz, the well-known historian of art, published an 
article entitled Les artistes byzantins dans I' Europe latine du V 6 au 
XV 6 siecle. In this paper he makes a valuable contribution to the 
Byzantine question by collecting for the first time some documen- 
tary evidence of the presence of Byzantine artists in Western 
Europe. In the midst of contradictory affirmations of equal 
vehemence as to the presence or 'absence of Byzantine influence 
in the West during the Middle Ages, this is a useful piece of 
work, and I here offer a supplement to M. Miintz 's paper in so 
far as it relates to Italy. . Of course such information as this, con- 
sisting of artists' signatures and of texts, is of such an accidental 
nature that the absence of it would not necessarily entail the 
absence of Byzantine art and influence, and in this respect I can- 
not quite agree with M. Miintz when he states that the docu- 
ments he has gathered prove that " the Byzantine influence was 
rather intermittent than general and constant;" for, in the first 
place, lists so incomplete as his and mine cannot give evqn an 
approach to a correct view. For example, the additions that are 
here made to his list fill up several of the vacant places which led 
him to conclude in favor of the intermittence of Byzantine influ- 
ence. Furthermore, we know how seldom it was the Byzantine 
custom, up to a late period, for the artist to sign his works, and 
how unusual in literary notices of them it was to name these 
artists. For them the work was all, the man nothing : the idea 
in the work, which was a common possession and not one man's 
pride, was what made its worth ; not the technique of it, which 
was but a means. I should not be surprised, in fact, if it would 





be possible to find as many names of Byzantine artists in the 
West as in the East. What could be deduced from that ? Cer- 
tainly not that there were as many Byzantine artists in the West 
as in the East! It is therefore evident that even were all the 
existing signatures and all the literary notices to be gathered 
together they would represent but an inadequate and perhaps a 
one-sided view of Byzantine art in the West. The works of art 
themselves must, after all, be the only real criterion as to the 
prevalence or absence of Byzantine influence. 

Having shown the limitations of the material presented in this 
paper, I will only add that in it I shall follow M. Miintz's good 
example in omitting the testimony of monuments bearing Greek 
inscriptions, although they certainly " do imply the personal and 
direct intervention of Byzantine artists," and I shall include a 
few portable works in European collections and churches which 
bear the signatures of Byzantine artists, although there may be 
doubts as to the presence of these artists in the West, such works 
being often objects of commerce. I shall also include some artists 
about whose Byzantinism there may be some controversy. 


[-For the vi century, when Byzantine art first obtained a 
strong foothold in Italy, M. Miintz finds nothing authentic, and 
correctly declines to accept the testimony for the presence of Italo- 
Byzantine artists at Monte Cassino given by a late mediaeval 
document. Still I would suggest that during the reign of Jus- 
tinian there could hardly have failed to be some Byzantine artists 
in Italy, especially during the years of occupation by Belisarius 
and Narses. Parses built in 565 over the Anio, on the Yia Salaria 
Nova, a bridge which existed nearly until this century ; and whose 
inscription is famous for its flowery and pompous diction. 1 Both 
Parses and Belisarius erected monuments in Rome and elsewhere.. 2 
Of one Byzantine artist in Italy at this time we are not at all 
certain, for the majority of writers see in him merely a Mecsenas 

1 GREGOROYIUS, Geschichte Roms, n, p. 130; HODGKINS, Italy and her Invaders, 
iv, p. 400. 

2 Belisarius built a xenodochium near the Yia Lata and the monastery of S. Juve- 
nal near Orte. Narses added a building to the Basilica of S. Apollinare in Classe at 


and not an artist. This is the banker or argentarius lulianus, 5 
who built many churches at Ravenna. Agnellus (Lib. Pont.), who- 
wrote in the ix century, on the faith of inscriptions attributes to 
him S. Vitale, 4 S. Apollinare in Classe, 5 S. Maria Maggiore, and 
S. Michele in Affricisco. 6 

With one exception the style of these churches was the basilical,. 
but in S. Vitale he built one of the world-renowned and typical 
Byzantine domical churches. Of course the question is whether 
he merely supplied the funds or was also the designer. These are 
the words of Agnellus that relate to the share taken by lulianus 
in the construction of these churches at Ravenna. Of S. Vitale, in 
the life of archbishop Ecclesius, he says : Ipsius temporibus ecclesiabeati 
Vitalis martiris a luliano argentario una cum ipso prdesule fundata esL 
And again : ecclesia beati Vitalis martiris a luliano argentario constructa 
est. Nulla in Italia ecclesia similis est in aedificiis et in mechanicis 
operibus. Expensas vero in praedicti martiris Vitalis ecclesia, sicut in 
elogio sancta recordationis memoriae luliani fundatoris invenimus,, 26 
milia aureorum expensi sunt solidorum. The commemorative inscrip- 
tion in mosaic placed in the atrium of S. Vitale, as given in 
Agnellus, contains the following verses which seem to prove 
lulianus' personal supervision : 

Tradidit hanc primus luliano Ecclesius arcem, 
Qui sibi commissum mire perfecit opus. 

Of S. Maria Maggiore, after stating that Ecclesius built it on 
his own property, he says that it had been, however, begun by 
lulianus after the archbishop's return from Constantinople, in 526 : 
inchoatio vero haedificationis ecclesiae parata est ab luliano, postquam 
reversus est praedictus Ecclesius . . . de Constantinopoli. The colony 
of Greeks at Ravenna was very numerous at this time. 

3 See HARTMANN, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Byzantinische Verwaltung 
in Italien. VON QUAST, Die altchr. Bauwerke von Ravenna. 

4 Beati martiris Vitalis basilica mandante Eclesio vero beatissimo episcopo a fun- 
damentis lulianus argentarius aedificavit ornavit atque dedicavit consecrante vero 
reverendissimo Maximiano episcopo sub die xin sexies p. c. Basilii junioris. 

6 Beati Apolenaris sacerdotis basilica mandante vero beatissimo Ursicino episcopo 
a fundamentis lulianus argentarius aedificavit ornavit atque dedicavit consecrante 
vero beato Maximiano episcopo die Non. Maiarum ind. xn octies p. c. Basilii. 

8 Consecuti beneficia archangel! Michaelis Bachauda et lulianus a fundamentis 
fecerunt et dedicaverunt sub die Non. Mai quater p. c. Basilii junioris viri clarissimi 
consulis ind. vm. 



For these three centuries M. Miintz finds no documents. He 
calls attention to the fact that the election of a series of Greek 
and Syrian popes, between 685 and 752, must have attracted 
many Byzantine artists to Eome, adding a note on the introduc- 
tion of Greek monks into the monastery of SS. Stephen and Sil- 
vester by Pope Paul I (757-67). In so far as Rome is con- 
cerned, such evidence as this is almost limitless during these 
centuries. The city was crowded with Greeks and its monas- 
teries with Greek monks. If we take the region between the 
Aventine and the Tiber alone, we find that the river bank at that 
point was called in the vin century Ripa Graeca, on account of 
the numerous Greeks : that there was a Schola Graeca attached to 
the Church of S. Maria, which gave it its name of S. Maria in 
Schola Graeca, afterwards called in Cosmedin. In this general region 
the Greek monks had establishments at SS. Alessio e Bonifacio, 
S. Saba, S. Balbina, S. Cesareo, S. Maria in Cosmedin, and, in 
other quarters, at S. Pantaleo, S. Silvestro in Capite, S. Prassede, 
S. Lorenzo, S. Anastasio, S. Gregorio and S. Basilio. But con- 
cerning the entire question of the Byzantine Greeks and their 
influence in Rome, I intend to treat in another paper, and will 
therefore add no more at present. 

I can enumerate, however, the names of several artists who 
flourished in the ninth century: Lazarus, Chrysaphos, and 

Lazarus. In the ix century a prominent Byzantine painter 
named Lazarus was sent from Constantinople to Rome by the 
Emperor Michael III (842-67), under the pontificate of Benedict 
III (855-58). This fact is chronicled in the Liber Pontificalis 
(Life of Benedict III), and further information concerning this 
artist is given in the continuation of Theophanes by Con- 
stantine Porphyrogenetos (1. in, ch. xin). These are the words 
of the Liber Pontificalis : Hujus temporibus Michael filius Theophili 
Imperatoris Gonstantinopotitance urbis Imperator ob amorem Apostol- 
orum misit ad beatum Petrum Apostolwn donum per manum Lazari 
monachi, et Pictorial artis nimie eruditi, genere vero Chazai, id est, Euan- 
gelium de auro purissimo, cum diversis lapidibus pretiosis. Calicem vero 


similiter de auro, et lapidibus circumdatum .... Similiter et vestem de 
purpura Imperiali munda super altare majus ex omni parte cum his- 
toria, et caricellis, et rosis de chrysodavo, magnce pulchritudinis deor- 
natam, etiam et velum de stauraci unum, cum cruce de chrysoclavo, et 
litteris de auro Grcecis. The passage in the continuation of Theo- 
phanes relates how the Emperor Theophilus persecuted Lazarus 
who was a famous painter-monk of his age Trepifiorjros Be TTjmfcavra 
Kara rrjv &>a ypd^ovcrav v7rfjp%e re^vr^v and how notwithstanding 
his tortures Lazarus painted a picture of John the Baptist for his 
church called rov Qofiepov and another of Christ for the Chalke. 

Byzantine artists in Venice. The ix century may also have 
witnessed an invasion of Venice by Byzantine artists. The Vene- 
tian historian Sansovino, in his Venetia, relates that doge G-iusti- 
niano Partecipazio, on his return from his journey to Constan- 
tinople, founded the church of S. Zaccaria in order to ohey the 
desire expressed by the emperor Leo V, " who sent him not only 
money, but also workmen and excellent masters in architecture, 
in order to have the church beautiful and to secure its rapid erec- 
tion." This church was begun before 820, when the emperor 
died, and was perhaps finished in about 827, according to Cat- 
taneo. 7 It has been made over to such an extent that no trace 
of its primitive style remains. 

Chrysaphos. Chrysaphos, who must have been a Greek architect, 
was, early in the ix century, chamberlain of Pope Leo III, and was 
charged by him with the restoration of the great basilica of S. 
Apollinare in Classe at Ravenna. The suburb of Classe had been for 
some time falling into ruin, and Eavenna, for more than a century 
on a rapid decline, showed itself perfectly supine. The church of S. 
Apollinare was falling to decay and was without roof. Leo in 
sent his cubicularius Chrysaphus, with many workmen, to restore 
it and give it a new roof. This is recorded in two authorities 
almost contemporary with the event by Agnellus in the Liber 
Pontificalis of Ravenna, and by the Liber Pontificalis of Rome. In 
his life of Archbishop Martin, Agnellus says : 8 Eo namque tern- 
pore Leo Romanae ecclesiae et urbis antistes misit cubicularium suum 

1 CATTANEO, L'architettura in Italia dal secolo vi, p. 237. 

8 AGNELLI qui et ANDREAS, Liber Pontificalis Ecclesice Ravennatis, ed. in Mon. 
Germ. Hist, in volume of Script, rer. Langob. 


nomine Crisafum, et reliquos caementarios, restauravit tecta beati 
Apolenaris, omnia ex trabibus et laquearibus abiegnis, et omnia 
illius martins tegumenta ; una cum suo dispendio omnes suburbanae 
civitates veniebant, omnia docaria, et subtegulata et omnia ligna abiegna 
et quae necessaria erant Ravennenses cives volventes in angaria cum 
funibus et ingemas cetera. Caementariiqiie ordinabant trabes super parietes, 
et perfecta sunt omnia; solaque hypocartosis hie pontifex iiifigere 

The same event is reported in less detail in the Life of Leo III 
in the Liber Pontificalis : " Basilica vero beati Apollinaris martyris, 
atque Pontificis, quae fundata est juxta civitatem Ravennam, cujus 
trabes prae nimia vetustate de annorum curriculis, et olitanis tempori- 
bus nimis emarcuerant, jamque pene ruiturce in tempore illo erant, 
isdem venerabilis Pater divinitus inspiratus, misit iUuc, et per solertissi- 
mam, ac providam curam suam omnia sarta tecta ipsius Ecclesice 
simul cum quadriporticis suis noviter, ac firmiter restauravit, et in melio- 
rem reduxit statum." 

Methodius. There was a Greek painter in the ninth century 
named Methodius who is famous as being connected by the Byzan- 
tine historians with the conversion of the Bulgarians, whose fears 
he excited by a wall-painting of the Last Judgment which he 
painted in the palace of their king, Michael, called, before his 
baptism, Bogoris. 9 Constantine Porphyrogenetos 10 describes him 
as a monk of the Romans, a painter, then in the Orient (povayov 
Tiva rwv Kad' rjfjia? 'Pco/jiaicov faypd^ov Me$o'Sio? ovo/jia rat avBpiJ. 
It has been customary to consider this painter Methodius to be 
identical with the Methodius, born at Thessalonica, who assisted 
his brother Cyril in converting the Slavs in Moravia, Bulgaria, 
Bohemia, Silesia, Croatia, and almost all the other countries in 
which the Slavic tongues were spoken. The two brothers are 
known as the Apostles of the Slavs. Methodius long survived his 

9 SYMEONTS MAGISTBI Annales, ed. Bonn, p. 665. 

T S' avrov erei ^KcrTparevei MixctTjX Katffapi did re 777$ KO.I 0a\d<ra"r)S Kara T6^opL 
(LpXovTi Bov\ydpui> . TOVTO /j-adovres ol 601^X70/001 . . . ~Kpi.ffTia.voL re ytvt<r6cu KCU viroTd<r- 
ffecrdai T(jj ^acriXe? 'Pci^cuwj' -fir-qtravro. 6 8 /3acrtXei>s TQVTOVS ev Trj ?r6Xei dyayuv tfidTTTKrei* 
Travras /cai rbv Apxovra a.vr(av Mtxar;X ^7rwv6/xa(rcj' . os els rb t8iov VTroarptyas did faypd(pov 
"yLeQodlov Xeyo/jitvov r^v Kptjiv /cat dvTa.Tr65ocrii> tv T$ of/cy avrov ypa(f>TJvai TreTroiyKev di6 Kal 
jj.d\\ov rrjv K iravrbs TOV ytvovs avrov Ka6v<pl<TTa.Ta,i eira.vdaTa.aiv, K. T. X. 

10 Life of Emp. Michael son of Theophilus, ed. Bonn, p. 164. 


brother and his work was the more important. Both came to 
Rome Methodius more than once and were the means of bring- 
ing the Slavic lands into the Roman fold. 

A recent article by Jelic' 11 has given us for the first time a scien- 
tific study of the famous Vatican ikon of SS. Peter and Paul, 
held, since the xn century to have been the very picture of the 
Apostles shown by Pope Silvester to Constantine. He shows it 
to be a votive picture presented to the Vatican basilica toward the 
middle of the ix century by Cyril and Methodius at the time of 
their joint stay in Rome in 867-9, in gratitude for their appoint- 
ment in 869 to be bishops of the Slavic provinces. They 
had executed probably in the same year : in the narthex of the 
basilica of S. Clemente, where both were afterward buried, a 
votive wall-painting in which they are represented as the donors. 
The figures are the same in both pictures, and the style is so 
similar as to lead Jelic' to conclude them to be by the same hand. 
The style is thoroughly Byzantine and of the ix century and the 
hand is, according to him, that of Methodius, whose identity 
with the painter of this name mentioned in the Byzantine annals 
he accepts without question. I confess that I am disposed to 
agree with him. Perhaps an argument in favor of this identity 
can be drawn from the expression in Constantine Porphyrogenetos, 
who describes the painter Methodius as i^ova^ov rwv 'PcofAalwv " a 
monk of the Romans " : he means, of course, a monk of the 
Roman church, that is, subject to Rome and not to the Eastern 
church. This expression, which, under ordinary circumstances, 
would be unusual, seems natural in view of the unusual promi- 
nence given to the contest between the Eastern and Western 
churches as to who should evangelise the Slavs, and it accords 
with the interesting circumstance that although Cyril and Metho- 
dius were Greeks, yet they were loyal followers of the Roman 
church. To judge from the two paintings just mentioned Meth- 
odius did not represent the best type of Byzantine art as practised 
in the schools of Constantinople and Mt. Athos, but rather a pro- 
vincial school, perhaps that of his birthplace, Thessalonica. 

11 Nuove osservazioni suW icone vaticana del SS. Pietro e Paolo in the volume 
Archaologische Ehrengabe der romischen Quartalschrift zu De Rossi's LXX Oeburt- 
stage, herausgegeben von A. DE WAAL, Home, 1892, pp. 83-94. 


S. Prassede. .Judging from their style, there is every probability 
that the important mosaics of the church of S. Prassede in Rome 
were executed by Greek artists under Pope Paschal II. This is 
confirmed by a passage in the Liber Pontificalis, where, after de- 
scribing in glowing terms the rebuilding and decoration of the 
church, the writer continues, stating that Pope Paschal built in 
the same place a monastery to S. Prassede, which he filled with 
Greek monks : "Construxit in eodem loco a fundamentis Ccenobium, 
quod $ nomine Sanctce Praxedis virginis titulavit. In qua $ sanctam 
Grcecorum eg ationem aggregans, quce, die, noctuque Grcecce modu- 
lationis psalmodioe laudes omnipotenti Deo, Sanctisque illius, ibidem 
[i. e., in Ecclesia] quiescentibus, sedulo per solver et, introduxit" 

I have mentioned the mosaics of S. Prassede, in connection 
with the establishment of Greek monks, for the reason that it is 
a well-known fact that Byzantine art was entirely in the hands of the 
monasteries, and that many a Greek monastery in Rome was prob- 
ably a centre of Byzantine art. I am not aware that attention has 
ever been drawn to the fact that hereby one can explain the Byzan- 
tine character of so many of the Roman mosaics. A number of 
other examples could be cited. It is during a part of this period 
that the Byzantine style is paramount in Italian decorative sculpture. 
In his wonderfully acute study of Italian art before the year 
1000, Cattaneo (op. cit.) has shown that this Byzantine decoration 
was paramount between the vi and xi centuries ; that at times 
nearly all of it is the work of Greek artists residing in Italy, and 
at other times it is the product of Italian imitators. His argu- 
ments are quite convincing. Thus far it has been impossible, 
however, to ascertain the name of a single one of these Greek 


The facts arrayed for these two centuries by M. Miintz are 
more abundant and interesting. They consist : (1) Of the late 
tradition regarding the architects of S. Marco in Venice ; (2) of 
the influence of the Byzantine Princess Theophanu in Germany, 
after her marriage to Otho II ; (3) of the presence at the court of 
Saxony of a Byzantine painter from Constantinople ; (4) of the 
construction by Greek workmen of a chapel in the cathedral of 


Paderborn ; (5) of the presence of Greek monks in France ; (6) 
of the Byzantine artists called to Monte Cassino by Desiderius, 
towards 1070 A. D. Only two of these relate to Italy and there 
are no artists' names. The artists whose names I am able to- 
bring forward are : Buschetus (?), Theophylaktos and Eustathios. 
I would first call attention, though without insisting, to three 
monuments of the xi century, the abbey church of Grottaferrata, 
near Rome, the abbey of SS. Silvestro e Martirio, near Orvieto, 
and the cathedral of Pisa. The monastery of Grottaferrata was 
founded at the close of the tenth century by Greek monks, 
led by S. Mlus, and its mosaics are Byzantine (see my article in 
Gazette Archtoloyique, 1883). The abbey of SS. Silvestro e Martirio,. 
near Orvieto, was inhabited by Benedictine monks, and its build- 
ings show a mixture of Byzantine and Romanesque styles. 

Pisa. The cathedral of Pisa was largely the work of the archi- 
tect Buschetus, who was, according to the tradition, a Greek, 
though it has been argued that he was an Italian by birth, whose 
artistic education was made in Greece. His name is apparently 
Greek and certainly not Italian. It is an interesting coincidence 
that in 1099 the Byzantine Emperor Alexis I sent over funds ta 
help complete the cathedral. It is well known that there are 
many points about this monument that are Byzantine, the most 
important being the cruciform plan with excessively long tran- 
septs approximating the form of a Greek cross, and the dome. 
One point which it would be interesting to study is the relation 
between the polychromatic external decoration of the group of 
Pisan and Lucchese churches and their cognates, and that of a 
few Byzantine churches and Mohammedan mosques of contem- 
porary and slightly earlier dates. We may ask : Did not some such 
Byzantine artist as Buschetus introduce into Tuscan architecture 
this characteristic and beautiful style of external architecture, 
combining it with the false arcades of the Lombard style ? 

The baptistery at Pisa, though of later date, gives equal evi- 
dence of the presence of Greek artists in the exquisitely finished 
and purely Byzantine sculptures on its doorways, which are the 
finest of this style in Italy. They make us ready to believe, at 
least in part, Vasari's statement about the " scultori greci che 
lavorarono le figure e gli altri ornamenti d'intaglio del duomo di 


Pisa e del tempio di S. Giovanni." But, of course, his assertion 
is in itself of but little value. 

Sicily. One of the earliest known works of the Byzantine artists- 
in Sicily is a miniature representing the Virgin in a Greek MS. 
written shortly after the Norman conquest. It is copied from an 
image in a chapel at Palermo finished in 1048. The MS. con- 
tains the text of the constitution of a pious fraternity of Greek 
ship-builders called S. Maria of the Naupaktitessia, whose place of 
reunion was in Palermo, in the church of S. Michael, attached to 
the monastery of the Naupaktitessi. This association was closely 
connected with other branches in the East, particularly in Con- 
stantinople ; and it is not necessary to recall the fact that the 
Greek population in Sicily was very numerous, and that during 
the Norman rule the Greek liturgy remained in use, and also the 
Greek language. The fact of the habitual arrival in Messina of 
Byzantine artists is attested for later times by the synodal decrees 
of five archbishops of Messina Antonio Lombardo, Andrea Mas- 
trillo, Simon Carafa, Giuseppe Cicala and Giuseppe Migliaccio 
which exact that all i maestri di Buone arti coming to Messina 
from the East must, four days after their arrival, make profession 
of faith before the protopapa. 

Michael. One of the finest Greek manuscripts illustrated by 
Agincourt (Hist, de la Peinture, pi. LXXXI) bears on fol. 234 the 
inscription : Scriptus est venerandas iste liber per manum mei 
Michaelis m,onachi peccatoris, mense Martio, 1. die, ferid quinta, hord 
sextd, anni 64-57 (=949 A. D.), indictionis septimae. The illuminated 
decoration, consisting merely of arabesques, animals and birds 
placed in circles or arches, is not of the kind that would be exe- 
cuted by a separate artist, and we may regard Michael as not 
only the scribe but the decorator of this beautiful specimen of 
Greek palaeography. The fact that the inscription is in Latin 
proves almost conclusively that Michael was living in the West 
although Agincourt is my only authority for its Latinity. 

Calabria. Theophylaktos. In a crypt at Carpignano, a village 
to the N. "W. of Otranto, is a niche whose frescoes are signed and 
dated. M. Diehl 12 made this discovery and reads the inscription 

12 CHARLES DIEHL, Peintures Byzantines de Vltalie Mertdionale. Les Fresques 
de Carpignano: in Bull, de Corresp. Helten., 1885, pp. 211-213. 


as follows : f Mvqa0[r]~\Tr), K[t5/)]e, roO | Bov\ov crov AeW-|ro9 
Pi\re]pov | K[CU\ TT)(?) crvfjifiiov \ avrov X/of0-0-|Xea9 /c[at 
| roO u/ou avrov . | 'Aprjv. Tpa^ev Sir\a %T?/O[O?] eo(f>v\d- \ K~]rov 07- 
pd(f>ov jjirjvl | MaJ^o tVSt/cTto^[o?] 5 | ejrou? 9 v f The donors are the 
priest Leon, his wife Krusoleas and his son Paul. The date is 
May, in the year of the world 6467=959 A. D. The painter is 
the monk Theophylaktos. The subject of the wall-painting is Christ 
enthroned, of remarkably good style. It is interesting for the 
history of the type of Christ and important for an acquaintance 
with the history of Byzantine art : all this is well demonstrated 
by M. Diehl. 

Eustathios. In the same crypt near Carpignano, mentioned 
above under the painter Theophylaktos, M. Diehl 13 found the signa- 
ture of a second artist, in another niche. The inscription is" 
painted at the base of another figure of Christ enthroned, and 
gives the date of the year of the world 6528=1020 A. D. M. 
Diehl reads the inscription : f M^[7J]o-[#?7]Ti, K[v/ot]e, | roO SovXov 


avvfivov avrov tf 

TOV TOV . . . TTOV\\CI) a 

| ravras. Mijvl yua/o[Tia)] | IvSiKTiovos 7 | 


The painter's name is Eustathios : the donors Hadrian, his wife 
and son. The style of the work is quite different from the earlier 
work of Theophylaktos. The type of Christ has grown severe and 
sad, and it is interesting to note that the change in this type 
during the sixty years that had elapsed since Theophylaktos is but 
an echo of what happened throughout Byzantine art. 


For the xn century M. Miintz cites two examples : (1) The 
Greek weavers established at Palermo by King Roger II in 1146 ; 
(2) the Byzantine mosaicist, Marcus Indriomeni, who worked in 
Venice in 1153. 

Bion. It is singularly exasperating to the historian to have so 
little information . regarding the personality and names of the 

13 CHARLES DIEHL, ubi sup., pp. 209-210. 


Byzantine artists employed by the Norman Kings in Sicily. "We 
know that they must have been numerous. The only name I 
can cite is that of a bronze .caster named Bion, who cast in 1136 
for King Roger the great bell for the cathedral of Palermo, with 
a relief of the Virgin. This bell was cracked in 1557 and made 
over. The inscription upon it was : Ind. X fusa Panormi 
Rogerius Siciliae Italiaeque rex magni comitis Rogerii filius me dextera 
Bionis fundi ac D. Mariae dicari jussit. u 

The heads on the bronze doors of the Cappella Palatina are in 
the same style. 

TheophUus. The great mediaeval technical manual of the arts 
written by the monk Theophilus, and entitled Diversarum artium 
schedule^ probably dates from the latter part of this century. 
Theophilus shows in it a minute acquaintance with the methods 
of Byzantine artists, which could be gained only by having seen 
them at work in ateliers. It is in Bk. n, chapters xin to xvi, 
that he describes Byzantine methods for the manufacture of glass 
vases, of glass mosaics, and of enamelled fictile vases. Theophi- 
lus is thought to have been either a German or an Italian, the 
presumption being in favor of the former nationality. It is proba- 
ble that his acquaintance with Byzantine art was gained in the 
workshops of Sicily, Southern Italy, and Venice, for there is no 
reason to believe that he travelled in the East. 

Daniel M. Charles Diehl, 15 whose studies have given us the 
first clear knowledge uf the Byzantine and Italo-Byzantine art of 
Calabria, has found on the vault of the crypt of S. Blasius near 
Brindisi in Calabria, not only the name of the Greek painter of 
the earliest frescoes in this crypt, Daniel, but their exact date, 
the year of the world 6705, the 15th indiction = 1197 A. D. The 
fragmentary inscription is thus deciphered and restored by M. 
Diehl. 'Awt/eJof&Jo/^tf?; /c[al] a[viaTppr)^0rj 6 TraixreTrro? mo? TOV 
ayiov lepofjiapTLpov BA,o/9tbv f^JLoyv Trjar/oo? [eVt TOV dyiov] tcvpov 
^ov^evov ReveSiTOvs KOI Sia a-vvSpo\/JLr)v] TOV p . . . aiov rez> . . /cal 
<Sia %et/oo? /jLai(TTpov Aawr]\ fc(al) /jap . . As M. Diehl remarks there 
are so few Byzantine frescoes that are surely dated that this in- 
scription is very precious. Nothing is known of the hegoumen 

14 Di MARZO, Delle Belle Arti in Sicilia, n, pp. 277-78. 

15 CHARLES DIEHL, in Bull. Corr. Hellen. 1888, pp. 458-459. 


or abbot Benedict for whom the work was executed, nor of the 
painter Daniel. 


The four artists assigned by M. Miintz to the xm century are : 
(1) The architect Nicholas of Constantinople, who built the 
drawbridge at the castle of Lucera ; (2) the painter Theophanes 
of Constantinople, who is supposed to have had his atelier in 
Venice in 1242 ; (3) the mosaicist Apollonius, said to have gone 
from Venice to Florence, and supposed to have been the master 
in mosaic painting of Andrea Tan, of whom more anon ; (4) the 
painter Andrea Rico of Candia. To these I can add as new 
names : Melormus, Conxolus and Johannes. 

Melormus. In seeking to explain the formation of the style of 
Guido da Siena, the precursor of Cimabue, early in the xin cen- 
tury, Dr. Thode asserts that he must have had as his master a 
Byzantine painter, 16 and adds that the only name of such a painter 
known to us as then working in Tuscany is that of Melormus, who- 
is said, in an ancient document cited by Wadding, to be the most 
famous Greek painter of his day, and who executed some images 
of S. Francis for the Count of Monte Acuto. His date is about 
1212. It is unfortunate that Wadding, in his Annales Ord. Mm. 
(i, 212), does not give his authority more definitely : but there 
can be no doubt of the fact itself. 17 

16 Man darf wohl annehmen, dass es ihm nicht allein durch das Naehahmen byzan- 
tinischer Gemdlde moglich wurde, denfremden Stil so sich eigen zu machen, sondern 
dass er bei einem fremden Meister lernte. Dass solehe damals* nach Mittelitalien 
gekommen sind, 1st mehr als bloss wahrsheinlich : der elnzige freilich, der uns mit 
Namen bekannt 1st aus dieser Zeit, ist ein Melormus, der, nach Waddings offenbar auf 
einer alien Quelle beruhenden Aassage, der berilhmteste gnechische Maler, damals auf 
Befehl des Graf en von Monte acuto Bildnisse vom hi. Franciscus angefertigt hat. 
HENRY THODE, Studien zur Geschichte der Kunst im xin Jahrhun- 
dert, in the Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschoft, 1890, p. 19. 

11 Of. HENRY THODE, Franz von Assist, etc., 1885, p. 84 . . verdient erne Bemerkung 
hier ihren Platz, die Wadding ohne seine Que/le anzugeben (/, 212) macht, nachdem 
er des Thomas Beschreibung angefiihrt : " dieselbe bestatigen die alten Biidnisse, die 
auf Befehl des Graf en von Monte acuto von dem injener Zeit beruhmtesten griechischen 
Maler Melormus gezeichnet wurden, wahrend der heilige Mann unbeweglich im Gebete 
verharrte." Vonjenem Melormus haben wir, so viel mir bekannt, sonst keine Kunde 
die Tradition aber sah in einem jetzt nicht mehr nachweisbaren, von Pasta in seinen 
Pitture di Bergamo vom Jahre 1775 (S. 53) in S. Francesco daselbst erwahnten Por- 
trait die Wiederholung jenes in dem Hause des Graf en von Monte acuto 1212 in 
Florenz gefertigten (VI). 


Conxolus. The abbey of the Sacro Speco at Subiaco, famous as 
a principal centre of the Benedictines, has an extensive and inter- 
esting series of frescoes covering the vin, xn, xin, xiv and xv 
centuries. They are of no mean value for the development of 
painting in the xn and xni centuries. Two painters alone have 
left their signatures on the walls of its churches and chapels, and 
both of these are Greeks Conxolus and Stamatico. Fortunately 
we are able to date the work of Conxolus in the first quarter of 
the xni century, about a half century before Cimabue. The 
second or subterranean church of the monastery is almost entirely 
painted in the Byzantine style of the end of the xn and the first 
half of the xni century. On the left of the stairs by which one 
descends from the upper church, is a niche with a fresco of the 
Virgin and Child with two kneeling angels. An inscription 
&bove the head of the left angel reads : Magister | Conxolu' pi\xit 
hoc op\ A comparison soon shows that the frescoes on the neigh- 
boring wall and on the opposite wall are by the same hand, as 
well as the portrait of Innocent III in the corresponding position 
on the other side of the stairs. The pontiff is represented as pre- 
senting to the abbot a grant of privileges dated 1218. The histo- 
rical documents of the monastery point to the year 1220 as the 
date for the painted decoration of the church by Abbot John VI. 
The three cross-vaults of the church are decorated with symmet- 
rical frescoes. These, although repainted, show a similar style, 
probably the same hand, and I am inclined to attribute to Conxo- 
lus the entire series. The niche with the figures of the Virgin 
and Child was the most sacred place, and here it was natural 
that he should place his signature. These frescoes are important, 
and may be particularly studied as antecedent to the earlier series 
in S. Francis of Assisi. Conxolus should be regarded as the 
most important of the Byzantine artists working in Italy whose 
names are known to us. 

Andreas Rico [PLATE X]. M. Miintz places under the xni cen- 
tury, and I think with reason, the painter Andrea Rico of Candia. 
There seems no reason to believe that the date 1105, given in a 
catalogue as that of his death, is based upon anything but con- 
jecture, and his style would indicate the xni century. M. Miintz 
mentions the painting by him in the gallery of the Uffizi at Flor- 


ence. There are several others, however. 18 One painting is in 
the gallery of Naples. 19 In my notes on the gallery of Parma I 
have found a record of two pictures by Rico, though one only is 
mentioned in Gsell-Fels' guide. 20 

I noticed what seemed to me a singular coincidence of names 
between this Andrea Rico of Candia and the well-known painter 
and mosaicist of the second half of this century, Andrea Tafi, who 
worked in the baptistery at Florence, and was honored by Vasari 
with a Life, which is filled with, errors even more than is his 
wont. This same Andrea Tafi is mentioned as follows in various 
contemporary documents : . 

1310, Andrea di Richo, vocato Tafo 21 ; 1320, Andreas Ricchi 
(as selling paints 22 ) ; 1320, Andreas, vocatus Tafus, olim Ricchi. 23 
The name Tafo is therefore not a family name, and the real name 
of Andrea Tafi is Andrea di Rico or Riccho, whose father died, 
as we see from the third document, shortly after 1320 (see Frey, 
Die Loggia dei Lanzi). It does not seem impossible to think that 
the Andrea Tafi of the mosaics in the baptistery of Florence and 
the Andrea Rico de Candia were but one man, and one might 
construct a romance as to how this Candiote (perhaps an Italian 
living in Candia), becoming known in Italy through his portable 
pictures, was called to Florence and took there a prominent place 
in the revival of mosaic painting. 

Rico's painting, which is reproduced on PL. x, is of sufficient 
importance to merit careful study, for it is perhaps the most beau- 
tifully executed of the early portable Byzantine paintings in Italy. 
The inscriptions, which appear to be without any doubt original, 
are in themselves sufficient to place the painting later than about 
1250, for they are in advanced Gothic majuscules and minuscules, 
and also sufficient to prove that this painting was executed in the 
West. The composition consists of the Virgin holding the Infant 
Christ in her arms, while above two angels, of smaller proportions, 

18 There was one in the collection of M. Artaud : see EMERIC-DAVID, Hist, 
delapeint. au Moyen-age, p. 123. * 

19 Catalogue, ed. 1893, p. 247. 20 No. 447 of the gallery. 

21 Matricola artis collegi et universitatis tnedicorum^ aromatariorum et merciario- 
rum Porte sancte Marie civitatis Florentie : cod. vii. 

22 Matricola delV arte d^ Medici Speciali e Merciai cod. vni. 

* In a list of druggists, compiled after 1320 by the notary public Spigliato Dini. 


hover in the air. The Virgin bears the traditional Byzantine 
mantle covering the heads : its folds are broad and not broken 
up, as is so often the case, with gold lines. Over her head is the 
inscription MT DT Mater Domini. The Child turns his head 
sharply upward and to the left, gazing up at the angel. Only 
the second part of the inscription over his head remains: XPS. 
A peculiar naturalistic detail about the figure is the untied sandal 
which hangs from the Child's right foot by a single string. The 
flowered tunic is arranged in broad, graceful masses, but the 
mantle has closer folds marked with gold streaks. To the right 
of the Child's head there appears a long inscription which explains 
the special import of the picture its relation to Christ's passion : 
Qui primo candidissime gaudium indixit prehindicat \ nu(n)c pas- 
sionis signacula car \ mm vero Chr(istu)s mortalem i(n)duit. | Timens 
que letum talia pavet cernendo. The Child is represented as looking 
in a startled manner at the instruments of His passion held by 
the two angels and being struck by fear. The angels above are 
delicate three-quarter figures ending in drapery : the angel on 
the right bears the cross and nails; the angel on the left the 
lance, the read with the sponge and the chalice with the blood. 
The panel is signed on the centre of the lower rim : 

aubrcaa rico be candid -pttuit. 

It is interesting to note that a Byzantine picture exists at the 
church of S. Alfonso de Liguori in Rome which represents exactly 
the same composition, even to the hanging sandal. It is known 
to have been brought to Rome from the island of Crete in the xv 
century by a pious merchant fleeing from the Turkish invasion, 
but it is probably much older than this date. The existence of a 
specific Cretan school is confirmed by its mention in the Byzan- 
tine 'Epprjveia rr}? coypa(f>iKfjs or Guide of Painting (Pt. I, ^[ 51) 
which was the manual of the school of Mt. Athos. 

Johannes. In his Hist, de I'Art, Agincourt illustrates (pi. LXXXVIII) 
in its original size a good example of Byzantine portable paint- 
ings, representing the Presentation in the temple, which is in the 
Christian Museum of the Vatican. The painting is in tempera 
on wood. Below is the inscription: XEIP IUI: " By the hand 
of Johannes." The style appears to indicate the xm century, or 
at latest the early part of the xiv century. 


I insert this artist and other Byzantine painters of portable 
pictures with the caveat that they may none of them have actually 
been executed in Italy, though the ascertained presence of other 
Byzantine artists makes it probable that some of them were on 
the ground. 


For this period M. Miintz gives: (1) The painter Marc of 
Constantinople , who worked at Genoa in 1313 ; (2) the painter 
Demetrius of Pera, who appears also at Genoa in 1371; and (3) 
the painter George. To these I would add : Georgios Clotzata, 
Kyrillos, Stamatico, Antonios Pampilopos, Eutichios, Eustatheios 
and Donatus Bizamanus. 

Georgios Clotzata. Another tempera painting in the Vatican 
collection (Agincourt, pi. xc), with two saints on horseback, both 
named Theodore, is by Georgios Clotzata. There is on the back 
an inscription in three lines, the first, with the artist's name, 

Kyrillos. There existed in. 1756 in Palermo a tryptich described 
by Jacopo Gambacosta ** and signed by the monk Kyrillos. 25 The 
inscriptions are all in Greek, and the signature reads: EN 
ing represents in the middle the Trinity, on the sides the Annun- 
ciation, and on the outside of the shutters S. Nicholas on the 
right and on the left relics of S. Spiridion. There is no clue to 
the date of this artist : he may belong to a later century. 

Stamatico. The second of the two Greek painters in the 
Monastery of the Sacro Speco at Subiaco is Stamatico. His 
name is inscribed in characters apparently of the xiv century, on 
a wall near the entrance of the chapel of the Virgin, as one 
descends the sacred staircase of S. Benedict from the second or 
subterranean church. The inscription was injured some years 
ago by the attempt of an archaeologist to use acids. It reads at 
present : STAMATICO . GRECO PICT[OR]. According to the monks 
there was originally to be read the word perfecit after pictor. I 
would not venture to attribute to this painter any of the frescoes 

" Memorieper servire alia storia letteraria di Sicilia, vol. n, pt. ill, p. 271. 
M Di MARZO, Delle Belle Arti in Sicilia, vol. n, p. 59. 


on the staircase or in the adjoining chapel : they are of the xiv 
and early xv century. The guide to the monasteries of Subi- 
.aco, printed in 1840, states that there is a xvi century date attached 
to the signature, which has since disappeared. I am inclined to 
dispute this date, and to believe that a 5 was read where a 3 
should have been seen. 26 

Antonios Pampilopos. A painting on wood, signed by Antonios 
Pampilopos, is in the Christian Museum of the Vatican. It repre- 
sents the Virgin giving suck to the infant Christ, whose nimbus 
is accompanied by the letters Q N : the figures are on a gold 
ground. This is not among the examples of the early Byzantine 
school, and may be even later than this century. 

Eutychios. Agincourt reproduces on plate cxxv a cross, upon 
which eight half figures of saints are painted in miniature style. 
It was preserved in the sacristy of the Benedictine monastery of 
the Sacro Speco at Subiaco. The following inscription is painted 
on the cross in red letters : Anno Domini MCCC[L ?]xxxvm hoc 
-opus fecit fieri f rater Franciscus de Santo Destasio de Nursia monachus 
monasterii Sublacensis . . . hoc opus fecit magister Euticio. Both style 
and name make it tolerably certain that this artist was a Greek 
named Eutychios, the Latin inscription being no argument to the 

From the three examples cited it would appear as if the mon- 
astery at Subiaco followed the example of its larger brother at 
Monte-Cassino in employing Byzantine artists. 

Eustatheios. Cardinal Fesch had in his collection a painting 
attributed to the xiv century with the inscription: EYCTA0EIOC 
, . . ICTOPHCEN. 27 

Donatus Bizamanus. A large part of the mediaeval population 
of Otranto was Byzantine, and many lingered long after the city 
was taken from the Greeks by Robert Guiscard in 1080 ; lin- 
gered, in fact, into the period of the Renaissance, up to the time 
of the destruction of the city by the Turks in 1480. During this 

86 Memorie Storiche del Sacro Speco di S. Benedetto sopra Subiaco. Here we read, 
on p, 36 : si mira un' effigie di S. Gregorio il grande, e sotto si legge il nome del 
greco pittore Stammatico, e fortunatamente vi ha I'anno aggiunto al suo nome doe 
il 1489. 

" EMERIC-DAVID, Histoire de la Peinture au Moyen-Age, Ed. 1863, p. 129, note. 


period a school of Byzantine painting appears to have flourished. 
Two artists' names have been preserved, both of a family named 
Bizamanus. Of these two Donatus is the earlier. Agincourt 
places him in the xn or xm century : Schultz K in the xm. I do 
not believe him to antedate the xiv century. M. Miintz says of 
these artists : " Nous savons cependant qu'a ce moment (xv 
siecle) encore une famille d'artistes grecs, les Byzamani r^sidait 
& Otrante." 

There is a painting in tempera, on wood, by Donatus Biza- 
manus in the Christian Museum of the Vatican. 29 It represents 
Mary Magdalen at the feet of the resurrected Christ in the gar- 
den. The inscription on the back reads : " Donatus Bizamanus 
pi(n)xit in Hotranto." The elaborate landscape might point to the 
beginning of the xv rather than the latter part of the xiv century. 

M. Artaud had in his collection, at the beginning of the cen- 
tury, paintings by both the Bizamani, and he thought himself 
able to determine their date as about 1184 or 1190 !! 30 


There is hardly anything of interest during this century. The 
painter George of Constantinople, mentioned by M. Miintz, is 
evidently the same artist he has spoken of under the preceding 
century. The only other item relates to the Greek weavers called 
to France, by Louis XI in 1480. Byzantine art ceases its devel- 
opment in this century, even in the East. 

George of Constantinople. M. Miintz reports, under separate 
headings, two documents which, as he himself suggests, appear to 
relate to the same artist, George of Constantinople. One shows 
him to be in Venice in 1396, the other in Ferrara in 1404. He 
does not mention any paintings by this artist. One exists, how- 
ever, in the Brera Gallery at Milan, No. 305, which is mentioned 
in Gsell-Fels. It is signed, and represents St. Mark, which is a 
reason for believing it to have been executed during his sojourn 
in Venice. 

28 Denkmaler der Kunst des Mittelalters in Unteritalien I, 269, III, 147. 

29 AGINCOURT, op. cit., pi. xcn. 

50 ARTAUD, 'Considerations sur I'etat de la peinture en Italic dans les quatre siecles 
qui ont precede celui de Raphael. Paris, 1810, pp. 61 to 65. 


Antonio da Negroponte. Among the earliest Venetian painters 
in the first half of the xv century was Antonio da Negroponte, a 
monk, whose style shows him to have been a follower of Jaco- 
bello del Fiore, influenced by the Paduan school. There is a 
signed work by him at S. Francesco della Vigna in Venice, a 
Virgin enthroned in a bower of flowers and birds has the body 
of Christ lying 'on her lap. The inscription reads : Frater Anto- 
nius da Negropon pinxit. 

Angdus Bizamanus. This second member of the Bizamanus 
family is much later in date than Donatus, who may have been 
his grandfather, though the fact seems hardly to have been no- 
ticed except by Agincourt, who assigns him to the xiv or xv 
century. Schultz (pp. tit.) can hardly have examined Agincourt's 
drawings of the Bizamani's pictures, for he assigns Angelus to the 
xi or xn centuries. At the earliest he belongs to the second half of 
the xv century. This is shown by the style and the inscription of his 
painting in the Vatican (Christian Museum). It represents the Visi- 
tation. 31 The inscription reads : Angelus - Bizamanus Grecus 

pinxit . . . J7opr]tttt[(]o (?) 

Another painting by him, in the Berlin collection, has the cru- 
cifixion with the Virgin, Mary Magdalen and three other women r 
with an inscription on the back : f Angelus Bizamanus pinxit in 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle do not apparently know of the exist- 
ence of any of these works of the Bizamani, for they mention 
them in a note (vol. I, p. 68, Engl. Ed.) merely in connection 
with a S. George and the Dragon in the Naples Museum. I can- 
not say whether or no this picture is signed. 

Theodoras. I will add here the name of a painter contemporary 
with Angelus Bizamanus, or somewhat later. His name is Theo- 
doros and his signed work is in the Vatican (Agincourt, pi. cxi). 
I should judge it posterior to Raphael, although Agincourt at- 
tributes it to the xni or xiv centuries. 

There are a number of other names that might be cited as 
probably those of Byzantine artists, but they will not be men- 
tioned on account of the uncertainty. There are two to whom I 
shall merely refer : 

31 AGINCOURT, op. cit., pi. xcm. 


1. Liphas. This artist was placed by the Emperor Frederick 
II in charge of the construction of his castle at Capua, the most 
important artistic work of his reign. 32 His name is certainly 

2. Pantaleon. One of the most artistic and elaborate figured 
mosaic pavements of the Middle Ages is that of the cathedral of 
Otranto, executed between 1163 and 1166 by th'e Priest Panta- 
leon, under Archbishop Jonathas. 33 Both the name and the Greek 
character of art in Otranto make it likely that we have here a 
Byzantine work, although it is quoted by Springer as an example 
of native art. 

Although, for the reasons I have given at the beginning of this 
paper, I believe hardly any conclusions are to be drawn from the 
above material because so much more is to be gathered and 
classified before a fairly symmetrical picture can be imagined, yet I 
think the correct impression to be gained is that a stronger action 
than could have been predicted was exercised by the Greeks upon 
Italy by means of the actual presence of Greek artists. 


Princeton University, 
October, 1893. 

" SCHULTZ, Denkmaler, iv, p. 7. SCHULTZ, Denkmdler, n, p. 267. 





The torso which by the kindness of the Ephor-General of 
Antiquities, Mr. Kabbadias, I am allowed to publish in this 
article^ was found in the summer of 1892, in the Pass of Daphne, 
at the western end, near the temple of Aphrodite, in excavations 
conducted by Mr. Kabouroglos for the Archaeological Society of 
Athens. It is noticed in the Deltion of 1892, p. 49, as Koppos 
veaviov ap^alic^ re^^?, a designation which is not only inade- 
quate, considering the importance of the object, but incorrect. 
It cannot properly be called archaic. 

The torso is of Parian marble, and is somewhat more than two- 
thirds life size. The only significant dimension that can be given 
exactly is the length of the body from the bottom of the neck to 
the membrum virile. This dimension is .36 m. The figure is 
therefore somewhat smaller than the ephebus from the Acropolis, 
a cut of which is given in Collignon, Histoire de la Sculpture 
Grecque, p. 374. It coincides more nearly in size with the Ptoian 
Apollo published in the Bulletin de CorrespondanceHellenique(1886, 
plate vi), except that the latter has an abnormally long body. 
Owing to the breaking off of the left leg and the right arm, with 
some of the body adjacent, it is impossible to give either the 
breadth of the shoulders or of the hips, or even the girth of our 
torso. Even the right leg is so broken as to leave no clear traces 
of the situation of the knee ; but the thigh seems to have been 
longer in proportion to the body than was the case in the Ptoian 

There can be little doubt that the figure was meant to represent 
an ephebus, not so much from its small size as from the general 


build. Plate xi represents the figure from two different points 
of view. 

We see at once that we have before us a portrayal of intense 
exertion. In the absence of head, legs, and arms, it might seem 
preposterous to try to discover what the action is. When so little 
is preserved it might seem open to doubt whether the figure was 
standing upright or lying on its face or its back, or was brought to 
its knees, or whether it stood singly or facing an antagonist, either 
victorious or in extremis. Neither can we tell what it may have 
held in hands that are now gone. But, in spite of all this, an 
approximation to a reasonable interpretation may perhaps be 

Let us notice more closely the position of our figure. The 
right leg is advanced very vigorously beyond the right shoulder ; 
but the right arm was thrown back, as is shown by the flatness 
of the right breast compared with the left, the greater prominence 
of the ribs on the right side, and the rolling together of the 
muscles of the back adjacent to this shoulder. But while the 
left leg, of which we have not even a stump, was thrown far 
back, as the strained abdomen shows, the left shoulder (and this 
is the characteristic feature of the position) is thrown so far for- 
ward that when we look at it edgewise, taking the upper body 
en flanc, we see the lower body en face. The left arm, judging 
from the remaining stump, must have been extended forward 
and with a downward inclination directly in front of the pubes. 

By this contrasted motion of the arms and the legs an antag- 
onism is brought about between the upper and lower halves of 
the body; and yet, were all the missing limbs present, we should 
see a controlling symmetry in the whole figure, including a chiastic 
responsion of right arm and left leg, as well as of left arm and 
right leg, which we can now partly see. 

The furrow running down the middle of the front of the body 
bends sharply from right to left, while on the back the furrow 
runs downward from left to right, drawn over to the right side 
by the forward tension of the right leg. Of. Brunn, Monuments 
-de la Sculpture Grecque et Romaine, No. 249, where the furrow is 
deeper than in our figure. The head was bent somewhat to the 



A. Of the intensity of the action there can be no doubt. As 
to the kind of action, a half-dozen or more possibilities present 

1. The attitude of the Munich athlete pouring oil into his 
extended left hand (Brunn, op. dt., No. 132) is somewhat parallel. 
But, as it does not approach this figure in intensity of action, it 
may be dismissed at once. 

2. That it was a sandal-binder, like the Lysippian Hermes in 
the Acropolis Museum (Mittheil. arch. Inst.,Athen. Abtheil., xi, Taf. 
ix), supposed, before the head was found, to be a charioteer, or like 
the so-called Jason (Brunn, op. cit., No. 67), is hardly possible. The 
inclination of the head of our figure to the right is not a signifi- 
cant difference. Some of the replicas of Jason in Clarac, Musie 
de Sculpture, vol. v, plate 814, also have the head turned to the 
right. But the feet of our figure are clearly out of reach of the 
hands. However much the right leg were bent at the knee, that 
foot would be too far away to be brought up within reach even of 
the left hand, with its favorable slant given by the sloping shoul- 
der. And, as for the left leg, we have seen that this was far in 
the rear: 

3. The attitude of tension might suggest a charioteer, with the 
right hand, which usually held the goad, brought back at a mo- 
ment when the application of the goad was not called for, and when 
the whole strength of the left arm, and more, too, was called into 
requisition to hold the horses. But it is not likely that the left 
leg would be thrown so far back when a strong brace was needed 
to support the left arm. In the Acropolis bronze, representing 
probably a charioteer (Jahrbuchd. d. arch. Inst., i, 173), we see the 
left leg, as we should expect, braced to support the left arm, and 
the right arm also reinforcing the left in reining in the horses. 
In our figure the right arm was thrown too far back to have been 
so used. 

The left shoulder thrust out over the right leg, with the left 
leg thrown back, so far from being a bracing attitude, is less so 
than that on the strength of which Friedrich Hauser (Jahrbuch 
d. d. arch. Inst., n, p. 95 if.) threw out the Tux bronze from the cate- 
gory of charioteers. The whole attitude of our figure is not that 
of strength exerted backwards, but of strength in onset. 

4. The possibility that this is a wrestler must be conceded. 


Neither hands nor feet are preserved, and among the numerous- 
(T^r^ara of wrestling, something parallel to this position might be 
found. But it would seem strange that the right arm should be far in 
the rear at the moment when a wrestler was making a fierce move- 
ment to the right. Moreover, before resorting to the idea of a 
group, for which we have no warrant, we ought to try to explain 
the figure by itself. This consideration might also make us pause 
before resorting to the idea of a boxer or of a warrior in combat. 

5. The great objection to accepting the theory that the figure is 
a boxer, is the contradiction in that case between the left shoulder, 
which is thrown forward as much as it can be without dislocation, 
and the arm, which seems to turn downward. But even if we 
are mistaken as to the direction of the arm, and the left hand i& 
to be thought of as planting a blow, what can the left leg be 
doing, skulking in the rear at such a critical moment ? 

6. If we wish to explain the figure as that of a warrior, a natu- 
ral parallel would be that of the Naples Tyrannicides. Of these 
two figures (Brunn, op. tit., Nos. 326, 327), Harmodius resembles 
ours more in the position of the legs, while Aristogiton resembles 
it more in the position of the arms, though neither has the inten- 
sity of action here shown. But these illustrate the fact that a 
man does not attack criss-cross, but throws a whole side into the 
onset, The Borghese Warrior (Brunn, op. tit., No. 75) has hi& 
legs and arms distributed more nearly like our figure, but his left 
arm is much more raised, and his head turned to the left. Of 
course it is recognized that he is not in onset, but is watching an 
antagonist with a view to making an onset. A nearer parallel is 
found in a figure from the Mausoleum frieze. 1 The parallel 
would be complete were the left shoulder thrown a little more 
around to the front, and the right arm more to the rear. A 
single glance reminds us that the figure in the frieze is running 
rather than fighting. The warrior from Delos in the Central 
Museum at Athens (Brunn, op. tit., No. 9) might claim a com- 
parison, but he is altogether too much bent over toward the 
right knee, and the left leg is not nearly far enough to the rear. 

1 OVEBBECK, Geschichte der griechischen Plastik, 4th. Ed., Yol. n, plate opposite 
page 107 ; 2nd group of 1st series. 


7. Perhaps the first thought of nearly everyone on first looking 
at our figure would be that we have here a discobolus, largely 
perhaps because we have come to take Myron's discobolus as the 
natural example of strained effort. A more careful look will easily 
convince us that we have not Myron's discobolus before us, if we 
take, as we well may, the Massimi discobolus (Brunn, op. tit., No. 
256) as a copy of Myron's famous bronze. The arms and head 
afford an exact parallel, but the body is bent forward and the left 
leg not carried so far back. Of course a discobolus may assume 
a variety of attitudes. We have one indeed in the form of a 
herm, exhibiting thus a very stable equilibrium for Myron's most 
delicate balance (Brunn, op. tit., No. 329). No other discobolus 
would be likely to afford so near a parallel to our figure as the 
Massimi copy. The quiet discobolus of the Vatican (Brunn, op. 
tit., No. 131) is no more a case in point than an unpublished 
bronze from the Acropolis, holding the discus in both hands 
above his head, or a similar one in the British Museum given in 
Murray, History of Greek Sculpture, 2 Vol. i, p. 234. 

In one way only could we conceive of our figure as a disco- 
bolus, viz., as in the act of launching the discus with his left 
hand. There is in a vase-painting published in the Archciologische 
Zeitimg for 1878, pi. xi, a figure throwing the discus with the left 
hand, but this left-handed thrower stands almost if not quite alone 
among discoboli. 

8. The theory that the figure is a dancer, is one which it may be 
still more difficult to reject. The Pyrrhic dance especially was one 
requiring energetic motions. The Naples Faun (Clarac, Musee de 
Sculpture, Vol. iv, pi. 717, No. 1715 A) is in much the same atti- 
tude as our figure, but the left arm is too much raised and not 
enough to the front. The same may be said of the Faun pre- 
sented in Clarac, Vol. n, pi. 179, No. 170. A small unpublished 
Acropolis bronze has the legs like our figure and the left hand 
raised above the head, as for a dance. 

9. However possible and even attractive other explanations of 
the figure may be, the simple and just one seems to be that it is a 
runner. We see the right leg thrust forward, likewise the left arm 
thrust forward to balance it, and so far to the front as to give the 
last possible moment in which this attitude can be maintained. 


The left leg and right arm are to the rear, but just ready to take 
the place of those limbs that have held the front as long as they can. 
The arms are used in the action for their full value, just as they 
are in pictures of runners in vase-paintings (Cf., Monumenti Inst., 
x, pi. 48 m). It is noteworthy that in this, as in most vase-paint- 
ings, the arm and the leg of the same side go forward together. 
We might call the runners " rackers " ; so in some early bronzes, 
as in Carapanos, Dodona, pi. xi. This scheme may be explained 
from a desire to show the body in front and the legs in profile. 
Most of the runners, however, in Monumenti Inst. x, pi. 48 e3, 
are running naturally like our figure, except that the left leg is 
the one thrown to the front. Our runner is running at his full 
speed, and not stooping forward at a goal, as is perhaps the Naples 
runner in Clarac, v, pi. 863, No. 2196 A, the attitude of which is 
something like that of the figure in the East pediment of the 
^Egina temple, stooping forward to pick up the fallen warrior. 

Sculptors, who were so much devoted to athletes, could not 
fail to notice that it was the runner who caught the popular eye. 
Xenophanes (n, 17, Bergk) says of running: 

TO Trep can 
[xbfjiTjS oaa avSpwv epy ev aywvt 

It is not strange that we hear especially of the Ladas of Myron, 
and that the hoplitodromus Epicharinus of Critius and Nesiotes is 
singled out for attention by Pausanias. In Athens especially did 
running come to honor, and at the campadodromia of several 
festivals the ephebi had their separate running matches. We 
need not be surprised, then, to find an Attic ephebus sculptured 
as a runner. 

It is not strange that attempts have been made to reduce to 
runners figures that have long passed as something else. Hauser's 
argument above referred to, maintaining that the Tux bronze re- 
presents not a charioteer but a hoplitodromus just drawing up to 
pass the turning-post, is accepted as convincing by both Overbeck 
and Collignon in their recent histories of Greek sculpture. With 
the Tux bronze must go an Acropolis bronze still unpublished, 
so much like it as to pass for a replica. The attempt of Rayet in 
Monuments de I' Art Antique to make of the Borghese Warrior also 
a hoplitodromus has not proved equally convincing. 



B. The attempt to assign this figure its place in the history 
of sculpture is made difficult by the lack of a head. It may 
happen that a head has a more or less archaic appearance than 
a body which belongs with it. Archaeologists will not forget the 
case of the Pto'ian Apollo above referred to, the body of which, 
found a year before the head, seemed so little archaic that there 
was little thought of dating it back of the middle of the 5th cen- 
tury, whereas the head was so archaic as to make the discoverer, 
M. Holleaux, almost willing to resort to the doubtful explanation 
of the statue being a copy of an earlier one, in order to harmonize 
that archaic head with an inscription declared to be from the 
middle of the 5th century (see Bull, de Corr. Hellen., xi, p. 285 sq.) 

A head might modify judgment in either direction as to the 
age of this torso, but judging by what we have, and proceeding 
with caution, if not with diffidence, we may propose a place for 
it. It is almost certain, when we take into account the subdued 
technic, the restraint shown in working out the muscles, that 
we have no late work. The contortions of Laocoon, of the figures 
in the Pergamon reliefs, or of the votive offerings of Attains, find 
no nearer parallel here than do the negligent poses of Praxiteles' 
figures. The action is the great thing. 

The intensity of the strain reminds one of Myron. Myron's 
devotion to the expression of life through movement seems to 
confront us here. What Quintilian (u. 13. 10) says of the disco- 
bolus, distortum et elaboration, seems applicable. Had we the legs 
and arms preserved, we should see more of movement; but legs 
and arms are not the only bearers of movement. The body, the 
very centre of the physical frame, shares the movement, not as a 
subsidiary partner, but as the originator of the action. Of Myron's 
Ladas, the runner, Brunn (Gesch. der gr. Kiinstler, I. p. 150) says: 
Der Ausdruck der hb'chsten Lebendigkeit beruhte also hier hauptsach- 
lich auf dem scharfen Erfassen der Wechselwirhmg aller Theiie in 
einem einzigen Mommt in welchem, die gesammte Lebensthdtigkeit wie 
auf einen Punkt zusammen gedrangt erscheint. This passage read 
with our torso before us seems almost like a running commentary 
on it. Myron delighted in seizing a single moment of activity 
which in a flash must turn to something else, and we have seen that 
our statue is in just that position. Nowhere do we get a clearer 


illustration of what Pliny (N. H. xxxiv. 58) meant when he said 
that Myron was in symmetria diligentior than Polyclitus. It took 
more care to adjust this strained body than those quiet figures of 
Polyclitus. How could a figure be more symmetrically adjusted 
than this ? 2 

To say that this torso is Myronian would be ein grosses Wort 
gelassen auszusprechen, but if restraint in form and utmost daring 
in position, de Vaudace et encore de I'audace, is Myronian, we might 
almost bring the grosses Wort over our lips. It is perhaps not too- 
much to say that if the sculptor who made the original of the 
Massimi discobolus were to make a runner he would make him 
like this. In fact, from what the ancients say, we should suppose 
that Ladas looked something like this. 

But, besides this general similarity of attitude to Myron's figures,, 
our figure has at least one special feature of style which we may 
bring to the support of our designation of Myronian. The style 
in general is certainly not opposed to this designation. Quintil- 
ian's molliora (Inst. Oral. xn. 10.7) applied to Myron does not dis- 
claim for him something of the spare and severe style of his 
predecessors, the old Attic sculptors. The pubes hair is a 
most important criterion. Pliny (N. H. xxxiv. 58) says of 
Myron : Capillum quoque et pubem non emendatius fecisse quam rudis 
antiquitas instituissel. In default of a head we are directed to the 
peculiarity of the pubes hair. We might hope to find in this 
some of the old-fashioned style of Myron. We do, in fact, find 
a most striking peculiarity here, which seems to have appeared in 
sculpture only at or about the time of Myron. ~Not to mention 
the fact that the hair is wrought only in a sketchy manner, its 
shape arrests attention at once. It may be described as consisting 
of two parts, a lower part forming a sort of ring about the membrum 
virile, and an upper part in the form of a flat isosceles triangle with 
its equal sides somewhat concave. This is the description which 

2 For a commentary on the passage quoted from Pliny, see BRUNX, Geschichte 
der Griechischen Kiinstler, p. 153 ; also KEKULE, Ueber den Kopf des Praxitel- 
ischen Hermes, p. 16 : Ich glaube es soil durch die Worte, wie sie uberliefert sind 
in der That der Preis einer grosseren Schwierigkeit, der Preis eines hbheren Auf- 
wandes von Muhe und Fleiss in der Erreichung der Symmetrie den lebhafter bewegten 
Myronischen Gestalien gegeniiber den ruhigeren und einformigeren des Polyklet 
zuerkannt werden. 


Hauser (Jahrbuch d. d. arch. Inst. n, p. 105) applies word for 
word to the Naples Tyrannicides, which are generally supposed 
to be copies of the work of Critius and Nesiotes, and to date 
from the time immediately following the Persian War. Hauser 
calls attention to the same peculiarity in the Tux bronze, and on 
the strength of it claims the figure for a copy of the Epicharinus 
of Critius and Nesiotes. This Tux bronze has usually been 
regarded as belonging to the ^Eginetan School, and this suggests 
a comparison on the point under discussion with the fallen war- 
rior of the East ^Egina pediment (Collignon, Hist, de la Sculpture 
Grecque, plate iv) where, with the exception of a slighter concavity 
of the sides of the triangle, the coincidence is exact. Graef 
(Mittheil. arch. Inst. A then. , xv, p. 1 2) would extend the peculiarity also 
to the Olympia temple-sculptures, although it is doubtful whether 
the concavity appears there at all. It is a striking fact that a vase- 
painting of Euphronius in Hartwig's Meisterschalen des strengen 
rothfigurigen Styls shows the same peculiarity of form. This vase, 
for the exactness of the reproduction of which in this particular 
Hartwig vouches verbally, may be dated at about 470 B. c. Plates 
LXII 2 and LXIII 2 of the same work show exactly the same pecu- 
liarity. Less perfect examples may also be seen in plates xxvi, 
XLVII and XLIX. All these examples seem to put this peculiarity 
into a period of some fifty years, with the Persian War about in 
the middle, and in the latter part of which Myron would fall. 

There is then no rashness in finding for our figure or its origi- 
nal a date as far back as that of Myron. The question whether 
our figure is a copy or an original work is one that forces itself next 
upon our consideration. If it is a copy, it is still of great value 
as material for the history of sculpture, allowing us to picture to 
ourselves how one of Myron's runners looked. But it is perhaps 
an original work of Myron. Although he seems in general to 
have shunned marble, our record is far too incomplete to allow 
us to reject the possibility of his having wrought the figure him- 
self. The general impression which one receives at first glance, 
and which is deepened by repeated contemplation, is that it is not 
the hand of a copyist that we see here, but that of a master. 

Possibly it may be difficult, when we descend to details, to 
make an array of items strong enough to convert this impression 


into a conviction. Still it is well to call attention to the combi. 
nation of a general hardness of manner with a softness of model- 
ling in the breast, a combination which a copyist would have been 
likely to miss. The figure also shows nowhere a plane surface, 
the nearest approach to it being at the right breast. To prevent 
this wooden appearance the hip has a gentle hollowing out, as has 
also the thigh on the inside. 

The abdomen consists of three perpendicular hollows and two 
ridges. The back, which is a masterpiece of modelling, has 
also three hollows with corresponding ridges. There is a deep 
hollow under the left shoulder. The line of demarcation between 
the hips and the body is almost lacking. We see here none of 
that appearance of the fat of the body falling down over the hips 
which appears in many statues. There is a double swell of muscle 
extending across the body above the navel, and a single one below 
it. The triangle of the pubes is echoed by a slight triangle 
enclosing the navel. The furrow down the middle of the breast 
is interrupted by one considerable swell and another almost imper- 
ceptible one above and below it. One hardly knows where to 
bestow the most praise on the back, the chest, the abdomen, or 
the remaining thigh. It is the master's hand alone that gives all 
the details in perfection. There is plenty of room for this figure 
in the list of Myron's works given in Pliny (N. H. xxxiv. 57), 
under the phrase Delphicos pentaihlos. It would also not be unnat- 
ural that a work of Myron's art should be found along the Sacred 
Way, the main thoroughfare overland from Athens not only to 
Eleusis but also to Delphi and all the world besides. 


American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 
January, 1894. 



To the Managing- Committee of the American School of Classical Studies 
at Athens. 

GENTLEMEN I herewith give you a very brief account of the main 
features of our excavations at the Argive Herseum during the past 
spring. Before all, I wish again to acknowledge the valuable help which 
in this year also members of the School have given to the work. Dr. 
H. S. Washington came from G-ermany for the express purpose of 
assisting me in the excavations. . He acted as second in command, 
and, owing to the experience which for several years past he has 
acquired in such work, as well as to his enthusiasm and unselfish 
devotion, his services were such that I can hardly realize how the 
undertaking could have been carried out as it has been without his 

Messrs. Lythgoe, Meader and Norton took part in the excavations 
from the beginning to the end, and each had charge of definite por- 
tions of the site as responsible overseers and directors of the workmen 
under their command. These gentlemen, with Dr. Washington, 
remained on the site, and continued the excavations for several days 
after I was forced to leave, and during these days some of the most 
interesting objects of sculpture were found. Mr. Paton also joined us 
for several days, and took charge of some trial excavations which were 
carried on near the village of Koutzopodi, not far from the site of the 
ancient Oenoe. 

We pitched our camp on the rocky elevation above the older tem- 
ple on March 30, and at once engaged workmen, and were enabled to 
start the next day with 112 men and 23 carts. On April 1 we had 
130 men and 30 carts ; on April 3, 200 men and 38 carts. Our force 
at last reached the number of 240 men. We began to excavate on the 
upper plateau, the site of the older temple. This upper plateau is 
marked on the map of last year's excavation by the letter A (see 
PLAN in Amer. Jour. Arch., vm, PL. xn). We cleared off all the top 
soil down to the early substructure, about 45 m. in width by 35 m. in 

* Reprinted from the Twelfth Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the 
American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 



depth. The burnt layer alluded to in my report -of last year again 
appeared on various portions of this site, together with masses of 
poros stone, which had evidently been split into smaller pieces by the 
heat of a great conflagration. We were fortunate enough to find still 
standing on this terrace a portion of the early wall, about 14.30 m. in 
length by a little over one m. in height, which certainly must have 
belonged to this interesting structure, perhaps the earliest temple of 
Hellas. The presence of this piece of wall may prove of exceptional 
importance, inasmuch as its lower portion was evidently not visible at 
the time the temple was completed, and the objects found below this 
line would thus antedate the erection of the temple. Two other 
stones appear to be in situ. But it is impossible at this moment to 
hazard even a suggestion with regard to the construction of the early 
temple. At all events, we have cleared this important site, and it is 
now in a state to be carefully studied for the light it may throw upon 
the earliest history of civilization in Greece. The yield in objects of 
early ceramic art, some bronzes and peculiar rude engraved stones, 
was very rich and of extreme importance and interest. I have little 
doubt that these finds alone are of sufficient weight to justify the 
energy and money expended upon the undertaking, as they are sure 
to throw most valuable light on the history of the earliest art in 
Greece. We dug two broad trenches outside the cyclopean wall to 
the east and west of the plateau, in order to make sure whether there 
were any objects of interest which had fallen over the supporting 

When the work on the platform of the older temple was completed, 
we made the slope from the upper terrace down to the terrace of the 
second temple the centre of our exertions. It was exceedingiy diffi- 
cult to excavate on this site, because the existence of buildings at the 
immediate foot of the slope had already been proved by our discovery 
last year of the outer line of the stoa marked C on the map (Amer. 
Jour. Arch., vni, PL. xn). We had therefore to work with great care 
from above, immediately below the cyclopean wall of the upper ter- 
race, and had to construct a steep road leading from the point marked 
T to the top of the slope, dumping our earth either at the southeast 
dump or at the southwest dump. When we had dug several feet 
below the cyclopean wall, we at once came upon very rich layers of 
early pottery of all descriptions, and soon found various vestiges of 
buildings. These were erected on the height above the buildings cor- 
responding to the North Stoa, and immediately below the cyclopean 
wall. They consisted of portions of walls built of loose unhewn stones 
placed together without mortar or clamps, and evidently formed the 


smaller, perhaps domestic, counterpart to the structures known as 
cyclopean walls. The objects found in some of these make it not 
improbable that they may have been the houses in which dwelt the 
priestesses or attendants of the earlier temple, though I should not 
venture upon any hypothesis at this moment with any claim to your 
serious consideration. There are also traces of a rough pavement 
.sloping downwards from about the middle of the cyclopean wall 
(below it) to the west, and behind the back wall of the building 
which we call the North Stoa. This may have been an early road 
leading up to these dwellings. With due care to preserve the remains 
of these early buildings, we dug down to the native rock on this slope ; 
and then came the task of clearing the whole series of buildings on a 
line with the stoa. The length of these structures is about 100 m., 
with an average depth or width (including the back walls) of about 

Of the North Stoa merely the outer stylobate had been discovered 
last year. Behind this the inner colonnade measures 8.65 m., and is 
backed by a wall of over a meter in width, which is built against the 
slope. There were at least nineteen pillars running along the centre 
of this North Stoa. Some of the pillars were found in situ. There is 
also an interesting system of drains and waterworks attached to this 
building, with some curious structures within it, which, however, are 
probably of a later date. But I do not think that this can be assumed 
of a curious structure toward the northeast corner of the east end of 
the stoa as excavated last year ; it is a depressed flat cemented sur- 
face 3.80 m. in length by 3 m. wide, reminding us of the Bath of 
Tiryns, and probably serving the same purpose. The North Stoa 
runs from a few metres to the east of the east end discovered last 
year, for 55.52 m. to the west, ending about on a line with the east 
end of the second temple. A more intricate building was discovered 
to the east of the stoa, extending further east than the eastern limit 
of the cyclopean wall of the upper terrace. The original structure, 
of which much is still standing, was evidently rebuilt at a later 
period ; and the stone inscribed with DFONYEIO, i. e., AiF<Wou (con- 
taining, as you observe, a digamma) was evidently immured at a 
later period. I have no doubt that this building, which consisted of 
.several chambers, will become clearer to us when we have studied it 
carefully. The excavation itself was only completed at this point 
during the last days. 

Besides a rich field in pottery, terracotta, bronzes and smaller 
objects (among which I must mention a later clay clamp containing 
the figure of the Polykleitan Doryphoros), this building yielded a 


beautiful torso of a draped female figure, probably from the metopes 
of the temple, three fine marble heads, and many other fragments. 

Together with this work at the northeast portion of the second plat- 
form, extensive excavations were carried on at the southeast corner. 
The ground to the east and north of the house F-was levelled ; while- 
to the outside of the wall X the trench was continued, and interesting 
walls or steps were laid bare as far as the dump. Both these points- 
yielded a very rich harvest of ceramic and bronze works, engraved 
gems and glass scarabs. I must also especially mention a number of 
terracotta tiles, or rather plaques, with painted decorative designs- 
upon them. They are really pinakes, and as such the earliest speci- 
mens yet known. 

South .of the foundation-walls of the second temple the whole 
ground was cut away at the level of last year's deep cutting at the- 
southwest angle of the temple. Below and slightly to the west of the 
house F a deep and wide trench was cut. In all these cases we came 
upon layers that antedated the construction of the second temple, as- 
was shown by the archaic objects found. 

Perhaps the most interesting portion of this year's work will prove 
to be the excavations at the southwest platform below the second tem- 
ple. I began by cutting a trench at the southwest corner of the old 
retaining wall Y, running from west to east. I soon came upon a 
wall of beautiful Greek masonry, of which four courses of well cut 
blocks were still standing. We carried this trench on as far as the 
continuation of the retaining wall at the east of last year's deep cut- 
ting H. We then worked northwards up to H. Messrs. Washington 
and Norton continued to work after my departure, with the result 
that two sides (and the interior enclosed within them) of a very inter- 
esting building have been unearthed, with walls and column-bases in 
situ, the whole presenting a very interesting ground-plan. This build- 
ing we call the West Building. Below the south wall of this building 
we also excavated as far as the most western of the broad cuttings on, 
the south slope below the temple marked N on last year's map. Im- 
mediately in front of this wall large portions of the entablature of a 
Doric building were found, upon which were distinct traces of color 
reds, blues, greens, etc. After my departure other polychrome pieces 
were found. 

Besides interesting smaller objects from this site, a number of frag- 
ments of marble sculptures, evidently coming from the second tem- 
ple, and forming parts of the metopes, and I believe also of the pedi- 
ments, were found. I must also add that among the heads discovered,, 
one head (probably from a metope) is in excellent preservation and 


very nearly equals in beauty the head of Hera found last year ; while 
the torso of a draped female figure from the metopes forms a fitting 
counterpart to the torso of the nude warrior of last year's metope. 
The inscriptions are now in the hands of Prof. Wheeler. 

We have again had a very successful year with brilliant discoveries r 
and the promises for the immediate future are, if anything, more 
favorable. The excavation of the West Building must be completed ; 
the portions to the east and southeast of the west retaining wall below 
the second temple are likely to prove the ground where temple sculp- 
tures were arrested in their fall; the other sites about the second tem- 
ple must be cleared thoroughly. This work must not be delayed ; 
and I shall use every effort to continue the work, which has been so 
successful for two campaigns, next spring. 




J. NORMAN LOCKYER. The Dawn of Astronomy. A Study of the 
Temple Worship and Mythology of the Ancient Egyptians.. 
8vo., pp. xvi, 432. Macmillan & Co., New York. 1894. 

This is certainly a stirring volume. It is speculative, but specula- 
tion of a kind which promises fruitful results. It is the introduction 
into archaeological research of a new point of view, in which astron- 
omical considerations are given great weight in the determination of 
the age, purpose and history of Egyptian temples and temple-worship. 
It has, of course, long been known that Egyptian temples were 
oriented and that Egyptian worship was originally connected with 
the sun and stars ; but now for the first time has the orientation of 
temples received systematic attention and been made to throw light 
upon the entire field of Egyptian worship and mythology. It now 
appears that the great variety in the orientation of Egyptian temples 
as well as of other ancient sacred edifices, is due not to symme- 
trophobia, but to solar and siderial considerations ; that certain 
temples like that at Erment, the Memnonium at Thebes, several 
at Karnak, as well as the Temple of the Sun at Pekin and the 
Druid remains at Stonehenge, are oriented with reference to the sum- 
mer or winter solstice, and hence may be designated solar solstitial 
temples ; others at Memphis, Sais and Tanis, as well as at Jerusalem, 
Baalbek and Palmyra, are oriented with reference to the sun at the 
equinox, and hence are called solar equinoctial temples ; a third and 
very large class of temples are oriented, not with reference to the sun, 
in fact the sun never enters them, but they are oriented with reference 
to specific stars, and hence are called stellar temples. That stars 
were observed in the alignment of temples in Egypt is evident from 
the inscriptions concerning the building of temples at Denderah and 
Edfu. These inscriptions are important enough to be quoted here. 
The first reads: "The living god, the magnificent son of Asti [a 
name of Thoth], nourished by the sublime goddess in the temple, the 
sovereign of the country, stretches the rope in joy. With his glance 
toward the ak [the middle ?] of the Bull's Thigh constellation, he 


establishes the temple-house of the mistress of Denderah, as took 
place there before." At another place the king says: "Looking to 
the sky at the course of the rising stars [and] recognizing the dk of the 
Bull's Thigh constellation, I establish the corners of the temple of her 
Majesty." The Bull's Thigh is identified as the Great Bear, and is 
again the constellation observed in laying the foundation stone of the 
temple of Edfu. The inscription here reads: "I have grasped the 
wooden peg and the handle of the club ; I hold the rope with Sesheta ; 
my glance follows the course of the stars; my eye is on Mesxet 
[that is, the ' Bull's Thigh constellation,' or Great Bear] ; (mine is the 
part of time of the number of the hour-clock) ; I establish the cor- 
ners of thy house of God." And in another place : " I have grasped 
the wooden peg; I hold the handle of the club ; I grasp the cord with 
Sesheta ; I cast my face towards the course of the rising constellations ; 
I let my glance enter the constellation of the Great Bear (the part of 
my time stands in the place of his hour-clock); I establish the four 
corners of thy temple." From this point of view the orientation of a 
large number of temples is noted and classified with reference to 
specific stars. This leads to a distinction which must be drawn 
between the cult of northern as opposed to southern stars. " In short, 
in Lower Egypt the temples are pointed to rising stars near the north 
point of the horizon, or setting north of west. In Upper Egypt we 
deal chiefly with temples directed to stars rising in .the southeast or 
setting low in the southwest." 

The wide bearings of this study will be evident from a perusal of 
this volume, even though we may not be able to follow the author to 
the full extent to which he drives the new point of view. It throws 
new light upon the ceremonials of not only Egyptian but ancient 
ritual in general, by enabling us to appreciate the effect of the priest- 
hood upon the people by the arrangement of their temples in such a 
manner that rays of the sun or of particular and bright stars should 
be carried through a long succession of pylons or doorways so as to 
illuminate the inner sanctuary once a } 7 ear. It revivifies mythology 
by the identification of divinities with particular phases of the sun or 
stars and explaining the myths which arise from their interaction. 
And, when the subject is studied in its wider aspects, we may see here 
an index, more or less reliable, of the inter-relation of different star- 
worshipping races, and thus be led to a reconstruction of ancient 

It is an interesting substantiation of the value of the study, that Pen- 
rose (JOURNAL, vui, 257) has followed the same line of investigation 
concerning the temples of Greece, and that similar orientation of tern- 


pies has survived throughout the Christian era. Nevertheless we cannot 
go so far as to wish, with Mr. Lockyer, that astronomers and archaBO- 
logists were interchangeable terms. So complex is the evolution of 
civilization, that no one line of investigation is likely to give us the 
final word as to the chronological series of ancient monuments. 
Students of history, of mythology, of language and of art, must all be 
united in the result. The tabular forms and chronological sequences 
which astronomers are now presenting, though formulated under the 
inspiration of mathematical and exact method, are nevertheless as 
yet only hypotheses requiring verification from other sources. 


MAX OHNEFASCH-RICHTER. Kypros, the Bible, and Homer. Oriental 
civilization, art and religion in ancient times. Elucidated by 
the author's own researches and excavations during twelve 
years' work in Cyprus. 2 vols. 4to, pp. ix, 530 ; plates ccxvm. 
Asher & Co., London, 1893. 

This work is a veritable corpus for the illustration of Cypriote an- 
tiquities. It may not portray as fine a series of monuments as those 
described in the unfinished Descriptive Atlas of the Cesnola collection, 
but it will be more useful to the archa3ologist, for it is the result of 
labors conducted in a more systematic and scientific manner. One has 
merely to turn over the pages of either volume to be impressed with 
the prodigious labor of the indefatigable excavator and recorder. 

Perhaps the best method of setting before our readers the scope of 
the work will be to publish a table of its contents. This we do the 
more willingly since the book itself, though provided with an excel- 
lent geographical and general index, is unaccompanied by a table of 
contents. We retain the. author's varied spelling of proper names and 
use of capital letters. 

Chapter 1. Ancient Places of Worship in Cyprus. 

Chapter 2. Tree Worship and the Transition to Anthropomorphic 
Image Worship. 

I. The Holy Tree on Cyprian antiquities. 

1. In the Pre-Gra3co-Phcenician copper-bronze period. 

2. Tree Worship in the Grseco-Phcenician iron period 

down to Roman times. 

II. Kyprian Tree Worship and Tree Ornament compared with 
those of other Eastern Countries. 

1. Hissarlik and Kypros. 

2. Mykenae and Kypros. 

3. Representations of trees, holy and profane, in Egypt 

and Cyprus. 


4. The holy and profane trees on Babylonian and Assy- 
rian monuments, compared with the Kyprian. 

III. Trees and Tree-gods, dendromorphic and anthropormorphic 

idols, their transitions and transformations. 

1. Divinities dwelling in trees or issuing from trees. 

2. Images of gods of vegetation and their compendia. 

3. From trees, posts and planks anthropomorphic idols 

gradually originate : these are at first shaped like 
posts or planks. 

4. Plants grow from gods of human form : gods create 


5. Some further holy trees and tree-gods of the Kypri- 

ans and Hebrews. 

(a) The pomegranate tree. 

(b) The terebinth. 

(c) The oak and olive. 

IV. Tarnmuz, Adonis, Osiris, Linos and allied gods of Babylo- 

nians, Hebrews, Egyptians, Kyprians and Greeks. The 
Asheroth, the Masseboth and Chammanim. 

1. Adonis and Tammuz. 

2. Aoia- Adonis- Aphrodite Trees: Attis-Artemis Trees. 

Gardens of Adonis. The Asheroth, Masseboth and 

(a) Trees in the groves of Aphrodite and 


(b) Gardens of Adonis. Offerings of flowers, 

fruit and wands. 

(c) The Asheroth, Masseboth and Chammanim 

of the Bible ; holy slaves and lances in 
the Bible and Homer. 

3. Anthropomorphic images of the Youthful God of 

Vegetation and Plants, and of his mother. 

4. Names and local cults of the Youthful God. 
Chapter 3. Worship of Divinities and fabulous beings. 

I. Imageless worship of divinities in Kypros and other countries. 

1. Imageless Rites, especially to mountain and storm 

divinities. Imageless altar-rites. 

2. Hebrew and Kyprian cults connected with moun- 

tains, valleys, springs, rivers, the sea and caves, 
(a) The Bamdt. (b) Fountains, brooks and riv- 
ers, (c) The sea. (d) Caves, (e) Fire, 
sky, sun, moon and stars. 


II. The Ox and the Horse in Cultus. 

1. Representation of the ox. 

2. The goddess with head and horns of a cow. 

3. Bulls and Calves. The Man-Bull and the Man- 

headed Bull as divinities. Horned divinities. 

4. Horned Men and Horned Centaurs, Winged Cen- 

taurs and Winged Horses. 

5. Minotaurus, Ariadne, Dionysos and Europa. 

III. The principal feminine deities and demons of Cyprus, and 
some of their counterparts in other lands. 

1. Astarte- Aphrodite. 

(a) The stone cylinder of this goddess and her 
oldest anthropomorphic idols in the cop- 
per-bronze period, (b) Mortals and im- 
mortals : images of Astarte-Aphrodite and 
her priestess, servant or sacrifant. (c) 
Some of the most important types of 
Astarte-Aphrodite images. 

2. The dove and other animals sacrificed by the Kypri- 

ans and Hebrews to Astarte-Aphrodite and other 

3. Doves and dove-goddesses in Kypros and MykenaB. 

4. The Cyprian Astarte-Aphrodite and the Etruscan 

Hera-Kypra. Hare goddesses, Bird goddesses and 
Potnia3 Theron. 

5. Astarte, Aphrodite, Atargatis, Derketo and Semira- 

mis, Fishes and Fish-demons. Ornithomorphic 
deities. The Harpies and Sirens. 

6. Astarte, Semiramis. The winged sun-globe and 

winged bust of a god. 

7. The soul of Osiris. The dove as Holy Ghost. 

8. Harpies, Sirens and Erinyes. 

9. The material Astarte-Aphrodite and Anat-Athene 

in Kypros. 

10. Astarte-Aphrodite and Tanit-Artemis-Kybele. De- 
meter and Persephone. 

a) The Kyprian-Artemis type with arm-stumps. 

b) The archaic drapery and attitude of the 

Kyprian Artemis and her priestess. 

c) Greek standing figures of Artemis in Kypros 

with veil, modius and seal. 


d) Artemis more freely represented. The god- 

dess as huntress accompanied by stag, deer 
or dog. Artemis Kybele with the lion. 
The goddess as maiden. 

e) The Artemis group from Kition belonging to 

the School of Praxiteles. 

IV. The most important male divinities and demons of Kypros 
compared with some of non-Kyprian origin. 

1. Baal and Zeus. 

2. Melquart, Herakles and Marduk-Merodach. 

3. Resef-Apollo. (a) Resef-Apollo as Spear-god, (b) 

Resef-Apollo as god of trees and groves, of incense 
and healing. His attributes are the asperges, the 
fawn, the eagle, Nike Apollo and Zeus. The god 
of music, (c) Further particulars of Resef-Apollo 
as war-god, sun-god, weather-god. Resef-Mikal and 
other analogous, divinities. 

Appendix I. A comparison of the festivals of Oriental vegetation 
divinities with those of southern and northern Europe. 

Appendix II. Gold objects found in Cyprus. By Herr Direktor 

Explanations of the plates. 

A table of contents such as this speaks for itself. We have before 
us an immense accumulation of material, so much so that we 
weary with the volume, however much we may be interested in its 
contents. We do not need to know the names of all who contributed 
in any way to the production of the volume ; and yet in his preface 
Dr. Richter bows his acknowledgments to no less than sixty-eight 
scholars and museum directors, draughtsmen and photo-chemists, as 
if each one would feel himself the more complimented by being in- 
cluded in so large a company. 

The same lack of selective ability permeates the volume. We ap- 
preciate the difficulty of handling so large a mass of material, of 
seizing the important characteristics, of instituting proper comparisons 
and of forming stable generalizations, and we are grateful for the 
amount of order which is here brought into a great chaos of antiquity. 
Descriptive material, though relegated to a section by itself (explana- 
tion of the plates) nevertheless occupies a considerable portion of the 
text and numberless monuments are set before us, like sand upon the 
seashore, not thoroughly co-ordinated. In spite of the excellent and 
elaborate analysis exhibited in the table of contents many subjects are 
not exhausted under their proper headings. We are referred again 


and again to a continuation of the same subject under other sections, 
and finally, as if in despair, to the general index. The number of 
illustrations is also so great, more than two thousand, and the refer- 
ences to them so constant, that one wishes that more illustrations had 
found their way into the text, leaving fewer to be sought for in the 
plates. The labor of finding the illustrations is increased in many 
cases by wrong references. We have not sought to correct them all, 
but may mention that in addition to those corrected by the author 
under the heading "errata and additions " wrong references to figured 
illustration may be found on pages 43, 53, 60, 63, 69, 74, 76, 87, 94, 95, 
100, 107, 108, 122, 137, 149, 152, 234, 291, 292, 306. This is only one 
of many directions in which the proof reading is very carelessly done. 

Another result of being overmastered by his material is the frequency 
with which the train of thought is broken and disconnected. One 
example of this will suffice. On page 199 we are told that it can be 
proved of certain cultus statues that they originally held a spear in 
their hands. We naturally look for the evidence which might easily 
be given, but the current of thought is immediately checked and our 
attention is called to the subject of sphinxes. The reader will be con- 
stantly subjected to such little disappointments. This style of writing 
reminds us of ancient reliefs, in which the sculptor abhorring a vacuum 
fills every available space and emphasizes the important figures by 
making them larger than the rest. So our author, having spread be- 
fore us a mass of facts with little literary perspective resorts to widely- 
spaced or heavily-leaded type whenever he wishes to impress the 
reader with the importance of his remarks. 

Dr. Richter's archaeological, as distinguished from literary, perspect- 
ive is much greater. He sees the antiquities of Kypros in their relations 
to Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations and especially, as the 
title of the book indicates, to Palestine and ancient Greece. The 
archaeological vistas he sets before us are certainly inspiring and en- 
lightening. But even in this direction he too frequently drops his 
archasological telescope and, viewing objects as individuals rather than 
as members of a historical series, he records meaningless, accidental 
resemblances, when more natural and historical analogies are before 
his very eyes. Thus on page 180, wishing to explain as sun rays a 
form on the gold foil shrine from Mykenai, he refers back to fig. 12 
(containing forms without any analogy) and explains as " sun's rays " 
that which on page 84 he had carefully shown to be " twisted twigs or 
myrtle ropes." On page 110 he gives to fig. 133 an important position 
as illustrating a supposed transition between tree and anthropomorphic 
worship. The supposed resemblance of this sacred tree to a " human 


form wearing a massive crown and terminating in tendrils " is the 
same kind of resemblance which Vitruvius found between the Ionic 
column with its volutes and the figure of a woman with her curls. 
Now he sees phallic emblems in cases where the evolution from tree 
to post is evident from his own proofs, and again, dropping the phallic 
theory when it would seem most applicable, he likens such stones as 
those represented in figs. 152-155 to " columns " and " stone chisels." 
He speaks (p. 74) of the papyrus as a " tree most prominent on Egyp- 
tian monuments," but shows (pp. 105, 106, 125) that he confuses it 
with the lotus. A careful study of Prof. Goodyear's writings would 
clear up more than one misinterpretation of Cypriote forms. He 
claims to be able to classify Cypriote monuments chronologically 
even to decades, but makes use of such knowledge most sparingly, 
preserving a proper vagueness when not resting his chronology upon 
the conclusions of others. He speaks of Kypros as a great caldron, in 
which divinities and myths are fused. This may justify his use of 
such compounds as " the Duzi-Tammuz- Adonis- Osiris-Harpokrates 
child " (poor child !), but does it justify his fusing together two indi- 
viduals of to-day, as when he speaks (p. 241) of a votive figure being 
found by Cesnola-Stern ? This suggests the possibilities of discoveries 
having been made by Cesnola-Richter, but the great caldron has not 
yet given evidence of such a fusion. In conclusion we may add that 
though as a composition the book leaves something to be desired and 
the opinions require to be reorganized before they can be considered 
as science, and though a disagreeable, personal vanity soils many of 
its pages, we nevertheless welcome these volumes as by far the most 
important contribution yet made to Cypriote archaeology and congrat- 
ulate the author on the completion of what he himself calls his " first 
great work." ALLAN MARQUAND> 

E. A. WALLIS BUDGE. The Mummy. Chapters on Egyptian 
Funereal Archaeology. With eighty-eight illustrations. 8vo, 
pp. xvi, 404. Cambridge, University Press. Macmillan & Co., 
New York, 1893. 

The substance of this book was originally written to form the Intro- 
duction to the Catalogue of the Egyptian Collection in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge. It contains considerable information, thrown 
into useful shape, which we should hardly expect from the title of the 
book. One who wishes for information upon the Egyptian mummy, 
its significance, the various methods of its embalment, its amulets, 
ushabti and other associated objects, its sarcophagus, stelae, vases, 


&c., and the various kinds of tombs in which the mummy was pre- 
served, will find his curiosity satisfied by a competent authority. In 
this portion of the book the account of an Egyptian funeral is specially 
to be commended as a very vivid picture of Egyptian customs con- 
cerning the dead. But, beyond the scope suggested by the title, the 
volume contains a brief history of Egypt, a list of Egyptian dynasties 
and the dates assigned to them, a list of nomes of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, the cartouches of the principal Egyptian kings, a catalogue of 
Egyptian divinities and sacred animals, a long excursus upon the 
Rosetta stone, and a list of common hieroglyphic characters and de- 
terminatives. The book, therefore, is a handy book of reference, and 
especially useful as an introduction to the Egyptian departments of 
European museums. A. M. 

F. E. PEISER. Die het'dischen Inschriften, ein Versuch ihrer Ent- 
zifferwig. Nebst einer das weitere Studium vorbereitenden r 
methodisch geordneten Ausgabe. pp. 128, 4to. Berlin, 1892. 

Many attempts have been made, by Sayce, Menant and others, to 
decipher the Hittite inscriptions. This work differs from that of his 
predecessors, in that he follows a very definite method, namely, that 
which led Grotefend, at the beginning of the century, to decipher the 
old Persian cuneiform inscriptions. Besides the bilingual inscription 
of Tarkondemos, and a second in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
there have proved useful a number of impressions of seals with Hittite 
characters brought from the palace of Sennacherib. As similar con- 
temporary Assyrian seal impressions present the names of princes, the 
same seemed probable here. Recognizing that some of the seals 
began with the same characters with which others ended, he reached 
the conclusion that we have to do with the names Kustaspi and Pisiri, 
princes of Kummeh and Gargamis, and powerful neighbors of the 
Assyrians. Peiser's supposition, that in the Hittite, like the Egyptian, 
signs representing a closed syllable were repeated by signs of simple 
syllables, seems probable, but his comparing the Hittite with Turkish 
is, to say the least, premature. P. HOST in Berl. Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 696. 

HENRY WALLIS. Typical Examples of Persian and Oriental Ceramic 
Art. London, Lawrence and Bullen, 1893. 

This work, when complete, will comprise twenty-five parts, of 
which only a few have thus far appeared. Each part contains two 
chromo-lithographs from paintings by the author, as well as a text 
with additional illustrations. The object of the work is to present 
specimens of Eastern ceramics, with their dates, and if possible their 


signatures and marks, enabling amateurs to identify what pieces they 
possess or desire to purchase. The author is chiefly interested in 
Persia, but Damascus, Rhodes and Cairo all receive due consideration, 
as well as the other great centres from which the most beautiful speci- 
mens in the public and private collections of Europe have been 
derived. Revue des Etudes Grecques, April-Jane, 1893. 


HEINRICH BRUNN. Griechische Kunstgeschichte. Erstes Such. Die 
Anf tinge und die alteste decorative Kunst. Miinchen, 1893. Yer- 
lagsanstalt fur Kunst und Wissenschaft. 

It has been known for some time that the Nestor of Greek art criti- 
cism in our day had in hand a general history of the subject with 
which his name is inseparably connected, and toward which his con- 
tributions have been fundamental and lasting. His Geschichte der 
Griechischen Kunstler has been a classic for more than a generation, 
and when a second edition appeared some four years ago, without 
change, it was felt that the subject needed supplementing at his hands 
by a complete history of Greek art, in order to marshal the immense addi- 
tions of the last twenty years in regular progression and subject them 
to his masterly criticism. This task had actually been begun some two 
decades ago, but the discoveries that have come to light so thick and 
fast have rendered revision continually necessary, especially in the 
earlier portion of the work. Even now the author does not claim to 
be writing a complete and exhaustive history, but simply to be lay- 
ing the necessary foundation for a reconstruction. This he feels it 
incumbent on him to do, that his life-work may be set in order and 
he may not leave it to be misused or misconstrued. Simultaneously 
with his celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of his Doctorate, the 
first part of this work appears, and the rest is promised in quick suc- 
cession, being already fairly completed. We express the fervent hope 
that nothing will prevent the author from seeing it through the press 
and setting the seal of his own hand upon it from beginning to end. 

The part which lies before us covers that period of Greek art which 
precedes the proper beginning of sculpture in the round, and embraces 
four chapters : first, the art of the pre-Homeric period ; second, that 
of the Homeric ; third, the attitude of the Hellenic spirit toward for- 
eign influences ; fourth, the strengthening of the Hellenic spirit. In 
other words, the aim is to review the oldest products of the Greek 
feeling for art, define their character, and thus to lay a firm founda- 
tion for a comparison with the artistic productions of other peoples. 


By pre-Homeric art, our author means that of the Mycenaean period 
and that of the geometric style represented especially by the early 
forms of the Dipylon period. It will be seen at once that he coin- 
cides with the view now generally accepted, that the Mycenaean 
period is separated from that of the proper historic time by several 
centuries, among which he places the Homeric period. Not only is 
the Mycenaean separated from the historic by the lapse of centuries, 
but also by the absence from its productions of the peculiar quality 
which made Greek art great ; that feeling for mathematical regularity 
and symmetry in accordance with which the filling of a given space 
with ornament is conditioned by the space itself, and grows out of it 
as an organic whole from centre to circumference. This feeling he 
already finds established, however awkwardly, in the earliest exam- 
ples of the Dipylon style, which he attributes to the gradual exten- 
sion of the influences known in the Peloponnesus under the title of 
the Dorian invasion that overthrew the Mycenaean civilization, which 
' he classes as Pelasgic-Achaean. In short, he finds that the evidence from 
the discoveries of the last twenty years re-establishes, in its broader 
traits, the traditional account which the Greeks gave of their early 
history, from Minos down. The affinities of the Pelasgo-Achaeans he 
does not attempt to establish definitely, but they had been long set- 
tled in the land. If we follow Hoffmann in his treatment of the 
dialects, they were Aeolians, and we may observe that their art ex- 
presses some of the qualities which are attributed to that high-spirited 
but ill-poised race. Brunn sees Oriental and Egyptian influences 
acting upon their art, but rightly maintains that his dictum of long 
ago, that the Greeks spoke from earliest times in their own art lan- 
guage, is also true, to a certain degree, of this period. He points out 
analogies to Phrygian and Lycian structures, and defines Cyclopes as 
builders of the encircling wall. He calls the down-tapering column 
un-Hellenic, but he does not cite an example from any other quarter. 
In his attribution of the support under the fore feet of the lions of the 
Lion Gate as an altar, I am pleased to find a conjecture of my own 
confirmed. This altar occurs in several instances which he does not 
cite, and seems to extend as far as Cyprus, where it appears on some of 
the cylinders (Cesnola, Cyprus, Plates xxxn, xxxm), that have at times 
been called " Hittite," and present certain other analogies to Myce- 
naean gems. This may not be surprising when we consider the early 
extension of the " South- Achaeans " to Cyprus. The gold objects of 
the pit-graves of Mycenae exhibit dexterity and readiness of touch, 
but are devoid of the truly artistic spirit ; while the inlaid scenes of the 
sword-blades point to a highly-developed technic with strong Egyp- 


tian affinities, though they are not Egyptian. Upon this question 
Brunn does not further enter; but Petrie's recent discoveries of 
" Mycena5an" mosaics and frescoes at Tel el-Amarna may yet give us 
a clue. It is noticeable that in the sword scenes nothing reminds us 
of the religious ideas or the hieroglyphic character of Egypt. The 
same qualities are repeated in the gems, the same wasp-waists for the 
men, the same scenes of the chase and of conflict. Intended for 
seals, their language is heraldic ; but they also express at times a reli- 
gious significance ; and here they are proof of a period which precedes 
that of Homer, and they adumbrate that stage of demonic nature- 
powers which the Homeric theology and its Olympian gods are repre- 
sented as succeeding, and as having banished to the realms of dark- 
ness. Even in the Homeric poems they are continually rising to fresh 
life, and later perdure in the superstitions of the people, perhaps 
nowhere more persistently than in " South-Achaean " Arcadia. 

Pottery, intended for common use, indicates more truly than the 
objects of luxury a state of general culture. In speaking of the 
extension of this ware in Mycenaean days, Brunn fails to include 
Thessaly, which somewhat recently has furnished a considerable quan- 
tity. He declines to consider Mycenae as the single point of manufac- 
ture. Comparing the ware of Mycenae with that of lalysus, he remarks 
that the latter exhibits a bald sobriety, the former a rather luxuriant 
overloading of ornament, which excludes a complete similarity of 

In the Baphio gold cups the art reaches its culmination ; but these 
are only a higher degree of the same style as found elsewhere in the 
period, the product of a phenomenal genius of his time, lifting himself 
to the highest point of which the art was capable, without some exter- 
nal and powerful influence coming to mould it anew. This period 
possessed two of the three qualities necessary for high art a lively 
imagination, capable of forming a vivid representation of the totality 
of a thing, and a keen gift of observation for individual traits ; but it 
lacked the intermediate quality which should unite these two into 
a systematic and higher unity and correlate them mutually according 
to clearly understood artistic principles. This is quite true, and yet 
there is much more to be said in praise of the art of this period than 
our author intimates, except by his studied effort to show that it is 
not the highest art. He lauds the mathematical spirit of the uncouth 
Dipylon period ; this to him is true Greek. But much more might be 
said of another characteristic which is as truly Greek, and is possessed 
by the Mycenaean artist as well, the spirit that studied and felt nature, 
that never rested with its past achievements so long as living force 


and vigor failed to realize themselves in its productions. It is not in 
the Baphio cups alone that this is visible, but upon many of the 
gems. The excellence of this class of objects has received but scant 
recognition, partly by reason of the caricatures of them which have 
been presented in some of our publications. Their minuteness 
requires a study from casts or electrotypes to be appreciated. These 
are sometimes better for the purpose than the originals themselves. 
Many of the gems are of extraordinary merit. I would mention here 
the dancing girl, the stricken ox, and the creeping lion from Baphio, 
while some from Mycenae are scarcely inferior. As regards an artistic 
filling of the space, an excellent example may be found in the lion- 
hunt on the sword-blade, where the problem of the half-pediment is 
most successfully solved. 

Passing to the Homeric period and the Shield of Achilles, Brunn 
maintains that the true spirit of Greek art is now visible in the 
arrangement of the scenes within the given space, and in the poetic 
power of their contents. Assyrian art furnished undoubted models 
for the realism of the shield, but the bald features of a chronicle 
characteristic of the Assyrian, stands in ,the sharpest opposition to 
the poetic conception of the Homeric that everlasting contrast 
between Asiatic and Greek, prose and poetry. The Hesiodic shield 
exhibits the same general principles, but gives evidence of advance, 
because here, for the first time, the myth enters. It thus forms the 
proper transition from the mythless Homeric shield to such monu- 
ments as the Chest of Cypselus, whose scenes are wholly given up to 
mythological representations. 

Attacking in the next chapter the problem of the attitude of the 
Greek spirit toward foreign artistic influences, our author cites the 
bronze shields from the Zeus grotto of Crete, the objects of the Regu- 
lini-Galassi tomb and the silver and silver-gilt bowls of varied proven- 
ience. Borrowing from Egyptian and Assyrian prototypes is here 
unmistakable ; but the arrangement in concentric circles, which has 
reached a systematic realization, offers an entirely different system, he 
maintains a system which can have sprung only from the Greek, 
dominated by the geometric spirit, and its union with oriental pat- 
terns must have taken place in Cyprus. The function of Phoe- 
nicia in the case was merely that of carrier, not of fabricant. Here 
our author is treading on much debated ground. The employ- 
ment of horizontal bands is distinctively Assyrian ; and, as Perrot 
has pointed out, the bronze bowls of Nimrud do not differ essen- 
tially in character from the work of the Balawat gate, and he 
believes that the original conception of the class spread westward 



from Mesopotamia. Even the principle of the central circle with sur- 
rounding zone, each with the space excellently filled, appears on the 
Assyrian robe (Brunn, fig. 72), and in general the arrangement within 
the bands of the silver and silver-gilt bowls, that of juxtaposition 
rather than of unity, is quite what Brunn accepts as characteristic of 
the Mycenaean spirit. Furthermore, in consonance with the dogmas 
educed above, the Greeks of Cyprus should be Achseans, and have car- 
ried with them the tenets of the Mycensean art, as they did the " South- 
Achaean " language ; and nowhere do we find the Dipylon style 
native in Cyprus, while neither the source nor the initial period of 
the concentric circles on Cypriote pottery is certain. The provin- 
cial borrowing of styles from abroad in that island during the 
historic period is so flagrant that we may well have our sus- 
picions of great originality in earlier times. Brunn dwells upon 
the Greeks carrying their poetry with them thither; but we have 
no evidence of it, if their entrance into the island was early. Cer- 
tainly the Cypria was later than the Iliad, and its long-drawn, 
continuous flow savors rather of the characteristics assigned to the 
Mycenaean race than of the Aristotelian unity of the Iliad and 
Odyssey. Against the Phoenician origin of the style in question, 
Brunn objects that the Phoenicians never exhibited any distinctly 
artistic sense, and cites in particular the inartistic form of their let- 
ters. In reply, it may be said that neither did the Greeks give an 
artistic form to their letters until toward the fifth century, with a single 
exception. This exception is in the oldest alphabet of Gortyna in 
Crete, where some of the characters were moulded soon after their 
reception from the' Phoenicians, under a definite artistic feeling. This 
fact bears a striking resemblance to the artistic moulding of oriental 
types in the shield of the Idaean grotto (Brunn, fig. 63). The proper 
position of Dorian Crete, in this question, is yet to be ascertained with 
certainty ; but we must not forget the fame which the Greeks accorded 
her at the forefront of the historic period. 

In pursuance of his theory Brunn carries. the war into Mesopota- 
mia. Heuzey and Perrot have already dwelt upon the reflex action 
of Greece upon the Orient ; our author goes further. He assumes 
that the lifelike representations of the sculptures in the palace of 
Asshurbanipal at Koyunjik are due to the Greek element among the 
workmen from Cyprus and Cilicia. On no other ground can he ex- 
plain how a long-practiced art could be so vivified just at its close, 
and turn into paths almost in contradiction to its previous conditions, 
save by the introduction of a new principle from without. But we 
may ask where in Greek art, of the first half of the seventh century, 


can any such truth to nature be found as is seen in the hounds and 
the wounded lioness of Koyunjik ? One feels that the theory is seek- 
ing to make water rise higher than its source. If these sculptures are 
by Hellenic artists, we must rather suppose a firing of dormant quali- 
ties by contact with the older ways and methods. But the path is 
not altogether a different one from that of earlier Assyrian produc- 
tions. It is rather a happier development of similar tendencies, and 
the same arguments which have been applied by our author to the 
Baphio cups may here serve to explain the height to which a native 
genius has raised a portion of the subjects sculptured. 

It is not necessary to follow our author through his treatment of 
the various phases of vase painting, but we must pause for a moment 
before his Chalcidian heresy. It is no novelty, but it has hardly 
found sufficient acceptance to make it well known. Epigraphists, 
dialectologists, critics of vase paintings and Chalcidian art in general r 
have alike rejected it or silently ignored it. It assumes that all the 
so-called Chalcidian vases are late imitations or inventions. The 
assumption is one of wide-reaching consequences, and its acceptance 
brings many a pretty and ingenious fabric tumbling about the ears. 
We could have wished that it had not found entrance into this monu- 
mental work. For a monumental work it is, however much one may 
criticise it in single traits. Indeed, it may be said to form the first 
scientific and philosophical redaction of the earliest phases of Greek 
art, with a definite comprehension of the whole extent, and a clear 
and harmonious aim working steadily and unswerving toward its 
goal. The reader feels the master-mind which has made the subject 
its own, and seized the spirit which wrought upon the artistic impulse 
of this early day. 

In a history of art, one of the extremely important features is the 
illustration by which the reader is to obtain a right conception of the 
monuments treated. An illustration which errs by over-crudeness or 
by over-refinement is equally misleading and equally vicious. Where 
possible the photographic reproduction by some of the processes 
should alone be employed. No one has more emphasized the import- 
ance of this than Brunn, by his editing of the fine series of plates in 
his Denkmaeler, which has now reached about the three hundredth 
number. In the volume before us he has employed the process very 
frequently, but not always with success. On the one hand, the repro- 
duction is inclined to lack clearness and firmness, and on the other 
he has allowed it often to be reduced too much, so that a glass is 
necessary to develop the details. Yet, on the whole, unusual care 
has been taken to present the genuine stamp of the object. We 


miss the elegance and finish that characterize French work, pre- 
eminently the rival history of Collignon ; but we feel grateful for all 
the pains exerted to secure honesty and fidelity. 

June. 1893. 

CHARLES NORMAND. La Troie d'Homhe. Exploration artistique 
et archeologique. Album de I' ami des monuments et des arts, 
98 Eue de Miromesnil. Paris, 1892. 

A Frenchman here anticipates the Germans in publishing a read- 
able and well illustrated book covering the recent excavations in 
Hissarlik-Troy, which Schliemann planned and would have executed 
but for his sudden death. Though it is not customary for scholars to 
anticipate the publication *of foreign excavations, we may rejoice that 
the author has taken the pains to study the ruins with diligence 
and in some cases to have taken original drawings and measurements'. 
Of the seven " cities " of Schliemann he recognized only four, a view 
which was formerly justifiable, and is adopted by Schuchhardt in his 
volume on Schliemann's excavations. But since the year 1890 the 
excavations of the sixth " city " have revealed pottery like that of 
Mykenai and Tiryns, and cannot therefore be passed by. One who 
cannot admit the nine different strata which actually exist in the 
akropolis must at least recognize the following : 

1.) Original settlement, immediately upon the rock. 
2.) Several metres high, a stately citadel, with houses, town walls, 
towers and gates ; several times destroyed by fire. 

3.) Above the ruins of the citadel several superposed villages of 
plain houses, often burned and renewed. 

4.) Higher still a citadel with several large buildings and a strong 
fortification wall, contemporary with the royal palaces of Mykenai, 
Tiryns and Athens. 

5.) The three uppermost strata, whose buildings and walls belong 
to Greek, Hellenistic and Roman times. 

The view that the second of these " cities " represented Homer's 
Troy was tenable before 1890, but now it must be recognized that this 
city was pre-Homeric, and possibly the historic ground for the myth 
he relates of its destruction by Herakles. Its pottery has been held 
to be pre-Homeric by G. Perrot and other scholars. Homer's Troy 
corresponds to the sixth stratum, measured from below, which as yet 
has been only partially excavated. Of the uppermost layer, the 
Gra?co- Roman Troy, there is here described only the great temple of 


Athena and the semicircular theatre-like building, probably belong- 
ing to the Augustan era. There is added a useful compilation from 
inscriptions and literature of the buildings of Troy, as yet not discov- 
ered; also a bibliography relating to Troy, consisting of thirteen 
pamphlets and books of preceding centuries, twenty-nine from the 
first half of the present century, and one hundred and twenty-two 
since Schliemann began his excavations. WILHELM DORPFELD in Berl 
Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 933. 

CHRISTIAN BELGER. Die mykenische Lokalsage von den Grabern 
Agamemnons und der seinen im Znsammenhange der griechischen 
Sagenentwickelung. Mit einer Rekonstruktion des Schliemann- 
schen Graberrundes und sieben Planen. Wissenschaftliche 
Beilage zum Programm des Friedrichs-Gymnasiums zu Berlin. 
4to, pp. 42. Gartner, Berlin, 1893. 

The author begins with a careful criticism of the myth concerning 
the graves at Mykenai, then of the grave of Agamemnon in poetry 
and pictorial art, then of the account of Pausanias, and finally gives 
its reconstruction. The reconstruction is evidently correct, proving 
that the stelae were those of Atreus, Agamemnon, Eurymedon, Kas- 
sandra and Elektra ; also of the children of Agamemnon and Kas- 
sandra, namely, Teledamos and Pelops, and the children of Elektra 
and Pylades, namely, Medon and Strophios. W. GURLITT in Berl. 
Phil Woch., 1893, p. 785. 

JOSEF MURR. Die Gottheit der Griechen als Naturmacht. Grundziige 
eines einheitlichen Systems Griechischer Gotterlehre. Zug- 
leich einleitender Teil 3 n des Verf. 'Pflanzenwelt in der griech. 
Mythologie. 8vo, pp. xn, 80. Wagnersche Universitats- 
Buchandlung, Innsbruck, 1892. 

As the general principle for all the chief Greek divinities, through 
which they come into existence, the author regards light and moist- 
ure as of the widest importance. Not only Zeus, but also Hermes, 
Apollon, Asklepios, Dionysos, Hephaistos, Pan, Ares, and even Po- 
seidon and Hades, are original male personifications of Heaven, by the 
side of whom Hera, Dione, Leto, Demeter, Persephone, Aphrodite, 
Artemis, Athena and the Nymphs are corresponding female personifi- 
cations of the power of Heaven. Strictly speaking, Murr's conception 
of the rich pantheon of the Greeks is a Monotheism, which, however, 
as far back as we can trace it, appears as a Dualism. Accordingly 
he believes that each Greek race-stock had its original pair of divini- 


ties until the supremacy of one tribe brought with it the supremacy 
of one pair of divinities, to whom the others were subordinated. Had 
he, however, instead of starting from preconceived opinions, histo- 
rically and critically examined his sources, he would hardly have been 
led to the hypothesis of an original monotheism. W. H. ROSCHER in 
Bed. Phil Woch., 1893, p. 914. 

G-. F. UNGER. Zdtrechnung der Griechen und Homer. Handbuch 
der klassischen Alterthumswissenschaften, herausg. von I. v. 
Miiller. Bd. I (S. 716-831). 2 Aufl. Beck, Mlinchen. 

The merit of this work consists in the independence with which 
the author has handled his material. This independence is also the 
source of the failings of the volume. Such a handbook should not 
represent the standpoint of 'a single investigator merely, at least when 
he deviates, as Unger does, from the results of modern chronological 
investigation. So thoroughly considered a theory as that of Bilfinger, 
that the Greek and Roman day began with the morning, should not 
be so lightly dismissed. He might also have given other tables of the 
Attic year, those of Mommsen and Boeckh, for example, as well as 
his own ; and have added references to prove the truth of his own 
view. WILHELM SOLTAN, in Berl. Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 984. 

SAM WIDE. Lakonische Kulte. 8vo, pp. vm, 417. Teubner, 
Leipzig, 1893. 

The author, already favorably known by an excellent memoir on 
the cults of Troizen and Epidauros, De Sacris Troezeniorum Hermionen- 
sium, Epidauriorum (Upsala, 1888), a book which inspired Immerwahr 
to write his Arkadische Kulte, gives us in this volume the results of 
considerable research not only amongst inscriptions and authors, but 
also coins and figured monuments. M. Wide guards against prema- 
ture generalizations and venturesome theories ; he has not even dared 
to entertain the systematic distinction between the Dorian and " pre- 
Dorian " cults, but towards the end of his book he expresses the 
interesting opinion that the Dorian conquest had little influence on 
the Lakonian religions. We hope M. Wide will find imitators, just 
as he already has a precursor in Immerwahr. When we possess like 
statistics for all the countries of the Greek world, the knowledge of 
Greek mythology will rest on a sounder basis. The indexes of such 
volumes are in themselves of great value. It is to be hoped that his 
promised book on Boeotian cults will soon appear. Revue des Etudes 
Grecques, April-June, 1893 ; Berl. Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 987. 


GASTON COUGNY. UArt Antique. 2 e Partie : La Grece Rome. 
Ohoix de lectures sur 1'histoire de Tart, Pesthetique et 1'arche- 
ologie accompagnee de notes explicatives, historiques et bibli- 
ographiques. 8vo, pp. 361, 78 gravures. Firmin-Didot, 
Paris, 1893. 

This is a history of art in Greece and Rome, extracted from the 
writings of twenty different authors, most of whom, like Beule, 
Chipiez, Collignon, Diehl, Lenormant, Martha, Perrot, Reinach and 
Taine, are well known outside of France. This method necessarily 
results in lacunae which M. Cougny has attempted to supply in notes. 
Thus Mykenai, the Athenian poros sculptures, the Aigina marbles, 
are disposed of in brief foot-notes. Skopas receives no attention and 
Lysippos almost none. Having also too much regard for the renown 
of the writers, antiquated views are here maintained. The illustra- 
tions are small and some beneath criticism. FRITZ BAUMGARTEN in 
Berl Phil Woch., 1893, p. 989. 

IWAN v. MtiLLER. Handbuch der klass. Alter thumswissenschaft, 
iv, 1 Abt, 2 Halfte: Die griechisehen Privataltertiimer ; ADOLF 
BAUER, Die griechisehen Kriegsaltertumer. Zweite umgear- 
beitete und sehr vermehrte Auflage (mit Register). Large 
8vo, pp. rx, 502. H. Beck, Miinchen, 1893. 

The director of the new philological encyclopaedia has condensed 
a fulness of material in comparatively small compass. A complete 
picture of ancient life is laid before us in these pages, which contain 
also many references to illustrations of monuments. The Kriegsalter- 
tumer in this edition is much enlarged. The author's standpoint is 
essentially military, and he seems well versed in modern military 
literature. The military grounds of Graeco-Macedoiiian history are 
set forth in a masterly fashion. But he is less well versed in monu- 
mental evidence, and the faults of the book arise chiefly from this 
deficiency. SITTL in Berl. Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 1053. 

GUSTAV GILBERT. Handbuch der Griechisehen Staatsalterthiimer. 
Erster Band. 2 te Auflage. 8, pp. 518. Leipzig, Teubner, 1893. 

This work of Gilbert, the first edition of which appeared in 1881, 
is undoubtedly the best arranged manual of Greek political antiqui- 
ties that we possess. The present edition contains about 100 pages 
more than the preceding one, and the author has made use of the 
epigraphical discoveries of the last ten years, as well as recent works 


"by German philologists. Too much blind respect, perhaps, is paid to 
the lately recovered treatise by Aristotle on the Polity of the Athe- 
nians, especially as the author himself, in his preface, shows how, 
among Aristotle's sources, many were untrustworthy and served a 
party spirit. Revue des Etudes Grecques, April-June, 1893. 

ADRIEN JOIGNY. Histoire des Ordres dans I' Architecture. 8, pp. 
227. Paris, Dujardin, 1892. 

The friends of the late lamented Adrien Joigny have done well to 
collect in one volume the articles which he published in the Encyclo- 
pedic de r Architecture et de la Construction. Taken together they form, 
as it were, a history of the orders, principally in Greek art. Such an 
article as that on the Capital is a veritable monograph upon the sub- 
ject, containing, along with an extended knowledge of the monuments, 
original views which show reflection and independence of thought. 
One cannot accept all the author's opinions, as, for instance, his expla- 
nation of the origin of the Ionic column, but the knowledge and 
talent with which his 'ideas are all expressed must certainly meet with 
general appreciation. Revue des Etudes Grecques, April-June, 1893. 

FELIX RAVAISSON. La Vknus de Milo. Extrait des memoires de 
1'Acadenrie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, tome xxxiv, 
1 partie. 4to, pp. 112, 4 pi. Imprimerie Rationale, Paris, 1892. 

This monograph contains a useful compilation of documents refer- 
ring to the discovery and acquisition of the Venus of Milo. The myth 
that the statue, when first found, was standing upright, with both 
arms complete, and was injured in the quarrel over its shipment, is 
traced back to the French consular agent at Brest. A new document is 
published, in a letter from M. Senez, who took part in the expedition; 
also an original sketch by M. Voutier, taken immediately after the 
discovery of the Venus, but not, however, of much value, since in his 
drawing he arbitrarily made the base more extensive than in reality. 
M. Ravaisson's method is unscientific and his knowledge small. It 
is impossible to accept his restoration of the group of Venus and the 
Borghese Ares, called by him Theseus. This is a sample of his rea- 
soning. The statue of the Borghese Ares in the Louvre is of Pentelic 
marble, therefore it represents a hero dear to Athens, namely, Theseus. 
As a sample of his archaeological judgment may be cited his mistak- 
ing a common Roman method of arranging the chiton as a sign of 
the workmanship of the age of Perikles. A. FURTWANGLER, in Berl. 
Phil Woch., 1893, p. 1107. 


J. OVERBECK. Geschichte der Griechischen Plastik. 4. Aufl. 1892, 
Leipzig, Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. 

No period has been so brilliant and so full of important results as 
regards the investigation of the monuments of antiquity as the latter 
part of this century. The great increase in the material at hand must 
necessarily bring with it new opinions and judgments of newly discov- 
ered as well as of previously known monuments, and impose upon 
the archreological science of the present time a double task : the duty 
of careful observation in face of the discoveries, and the obligation to 
systematize that which has been discovered. Though the time for 
the second half of this task may seem to some not yet arrived, it must 
be attempted, lest we be driven into a period of mere accumulation of 
notes. Overbeck's " Geschichte der Plastik " attempts to fulfill this 
obligation, and therein lies its importance. The present first half- 
volume, divided into two books, carries us to the beginning of the 
Periclean period, and contains sixty pages and twenty-three illustra- 
tions more than the corresponding part of the third edition. The new 
illustrations are excellent, and represent for the most part monuments 
discovered since the appearance of the third edition. 

The " Mycenean " civilization is a foreign product that passed 
already complete from the East to Greece. That there was some local 
imitation is natural. The question as to the origin of that civilization 
is not yet answered. The roots of the art of metal-working, of which 
the cups from Vaphio are perhaps the most striking examples, might 
be sought in Syria. At any rate the Phoenicians were the most active 
force in the spread of this art, though an indirect influence of Egypt 
appears not improbable. 

The first two chapters of the second book are rearranged. The first, 
after a brief review of the relations of poetry and art, discusses the 
chest of Kypselos, the Amyclean throne, and the reliefs of Athena 
Chalkioikos. The Amyclean throne is regarded as a work in thin 
plates of metal. The chest of Kypselos is newly dated, and the 
Kalon-inscription is used in dating Gitiadas. The second chapter 
treats connectedly the artists down to Endoios. The third chapter 
treats of the extant monuments of this period, closing with the metopes 
of Selinus. Overbeck's views concerning Ageladas and Onatas, Kri- 
tios and Nesiotes, contained in chapter iv, are already known from 
recent articles. The fifth chapter, treating of the extant monuments 
of olympiads 60 to 79, has necessarily been much altered and enlarged 
with the addition of newly-discovered material, especially the works of 
early Attic art, which are fully discussed. The sixth chapter, on the 
contrary, treats of much the same material as in the third edition. 


Overbeck's work offers a careful, finely drawn, and very prudently 
outlined picture of the -history of ancient sculpture as it presents itself 
to us to-day. ARTHUR SCHNEIDER in Repertorium fur Kunstwissen- 
schqft, 1893, p. 349. Of. SITTL in Berl. Phil Woch,, 1893, p. 1137. 

HUGO MAGNUS. Die Darstellwig des Auges in der antiken Plastik. 
Mit 10 Figuren. 8vo, pp. 96. E. A. Seemann, Leipzig, 1892. 

This book treats first of the anatomical character of the eye in its 
relation to plastic art, then, in separate sections, of its representation 
in ancient Greek sculpture. He follows the changes from the archaic 
period to the period of transition and the period of Pheidias, then to 
that of Skopas and Praxiteles and Lysippos and the Alexandrian 
period. In spite of many errors of detail, the general points in the 
development of the representation of the eye through the different 
periods is rightly given. The illustrations are unfortunately not well 
executed. A. KALKMANN in Berl Phil Woch., 1893, p. 662. 

W. MALMBERG. Die Metopen der cdtgriechischen Tempel Eine 
Untersuchung aus dem Gebiete der dekorativen Skulptur. Mit 
4 Tafeln. 8vo, pp. xvi, 197. Mattiesen, Dorpat, 1892. 

This work is in Russian, but the author gives a somewhat extended 
notice of his conclusions in the Berl Phil Woch. He here surveys 
the metopes of Greek temples in historical sequence, beginning with 
the metopes of the temple of Assos, which he assigns, in opposition to 
Clarke (Papers of Arch. Inst. Amer., Vol. /, p. 100*), to the vi century. 
He also differs from other writers in respect to the position and inter- 
pretation of many metopes. In conclusion, he finds that the Gigan- 
tomachy plays the largest roll among metopal subjects, next follow the 
Trojan contests with the Iliupersis, and the deeds of Herakles, whereas 
the Kentauromachy, better adapted for friezes, occurs only once in 
metopes. MALMBERG in Berl. Phil. Woch., pp. 781 and 820. 

text by GIOVANNI BARRACCO and "W. HELBIG. Verlagsanstatt 
fur Kunst und Wissenschaft. Miinchen, 1893. 

This is an expensive work, produced in the style of Brunn's 
"Denkmaler" and Brunn-Arndt's " Portraits " and Bode's " Renais- 
sance-Sculptur Toscanas," by the same enterprising publishers. The 
collection of Senator Don Giovanni Barracco is one which in scientific 
interest outweighs all the collections in the palazzi and villas of 
Rome. It is the result of many years of intelligent collection with a 


scientific purpose in view. Barracco has admitted to his collection 
hardly any pieces but those which are of importance to the history of 
art and illustrate the specifically Greek workmanship from the 
Archaic to the Hellenistic period. The vi and v centuries are here 
represented by fine examples of sculpture, some of which are already 
known from casts and publications, such as the relief of a horseman 
on an Attic funerary stele, a marble head resembling those of Aigina, 
a replica of the head of Apollo at Kassel, and of the Marsyas by 
Myron, and the statue of an ephebe. This collection, which in recent 
times has had no parallel in private collections, except those of Sabu- 
roff and Jakobsen, has hitherto been difficult of access. The pros- 
pectus promises seventy plates, which certainly will be an important 
contribution to the history of art. FRANZ STUDNICZKA in Berl Phil. 
Woch., 1893, p. 692. 

THEODOR SCHREIBER. Die hellenistischen Relief bilder. Mit unter- 
stiitzung des kgl. Sachsischen Ministeriums des Kultus und 

der kd. Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Fol. 


Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. 

Since 1889, when the first instalment of this work was published, 
there have appeared eight more parts, leaving only two or three more 
to make the work complete. In the first forty plates are gathered the 
large landscapes, the Prachtrelwfs, as the author calls them. In a 
second division of the work come the smaller, finely executed Kabinett- 
stucke. The text is still unpublished. The quality of the helio- 
gravures is well sustained. ALF. BRUECKNER in Berl. Phil. Woch., 
1893, p. 1178. 

FRIEDRICH KOEPP. Ueber das Bildniss Alexanders des Grossen. 
Programm zum Winckelmannsfeste der archaologischen Ges- 
ellschaft zu Berlin. Mit 3 Tafeln und 20 Abbildungen im Text. 
4to. pp. 33. G. Reimer, Berlin, 1893. 

This is an attractive publication, both in its illustrations and in its 
style. The bust which is nearest to Lysippos in style is taken to be the 
Hermes Azara in the Louvre. The Rondanini Alexander in the 
Glyptothek, Munich, is taken to be a copy of Leochares' chryselephan- 
tine statue of Alexander in Olympia. More in the school of Skopas 
is the portrait from Alexandria, now in the British Museum. The 
head in the Capitol at Rome is thought to be a Helios, and the dying 
Alexander of the Uffizi a dying giant. Several heads now in England are 
here published for the first time. FRITZ BAUMGARTEN in Berl. Phil 
Woch., 1893, p. 852. 


F. R. DRESSLER. Triton und die Tritonen in der Litteratur und Kunst 
der Griechen und Eomer. n Teil. Programm des kgl. Gym- 
nasiums zu Wiirzen. pp. in, 47. 1893. Beide Teile auch 
zusammen in Commission bei Teubner in Leipzig unter dem 
Zusatztitel : i u. n Teil. Sonderabdriicke aus der Prog. etc. 

Starting with representations of fish-tailed sea monsters in ancient 
Oriental art, the author treats first of similar monsters in early Greek 
monuments. In certain cases there may be some doubt whether they 
should be classed as Tritons or as similar sea divinities of lower rank 
(Halios, Geron, Nereus, Glaukos). Subsequent paragraphs enumer- 
ate and explain the monuments which represent Triton and the 
Tritons in association with other divinities, especially Poseidon, Am- 
phitrite, Okeanos, Aphrodite, etc. Next are considered the enigmatic 
representations of Tritons and Nereids on sepulchral monuments, 
especially sarcophagi possibly to be explained by a belief in the 
transformation of the dead into water divinities and sea animals, as in 
the legends of Ino-Leukothea, Halia, Kombe, Palaimon, Glaukos, 
Pontios, Enalos and the Tyrrhenian robbers. Finally the author 
makes useful observations on the decoration, dress and attributes of 
Tritons. W. H. ROSCHER in Berl Phil Woch., 1893, p. 885. 

AEGYPTISCHE URKUNDEN aus den Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin, 
herausgegeben von der Generalvervaltung. Griechische Ur- 
kunden. Heft 1-4. Weidman, Berlin, 1892-93. 

The administration of the Royal Museum of Berlin has decided to 
begin the publication of the papyri in their possession. The begin- 
ning is made with Greek documents. Prof. Erman represents the 
Egyptian section of the museum, and with him are associated Prof. 
Wilcken, Dr. Krebs and Dr. Viereck. It is a fortunate circumstance 
that these manuscripts are photo-lithographicaUy reproduced rather 
than printed from type. The study of Greek law and legal termin- 
ology, as well as that of the administration of justice in the n and in 
century, will be substantially furthered through the publication of 
these documents. GR'ADENWITZ in Berl. Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 718. 

KONRAD MILLER. Die romisehen Kastelle in Wdrteniburg. Mit zwei 
Kartenskizzen und 18 Situationsplanen. Stuttgart: Weise, 

This is a pamphlet designed to popularize the work of the Reichs- 
limeskommission in anticipation of their fuller publication. It treats 


of the eighteen Roman forts or fortified camps, which have already 
been determined with greater or less security and of which plans are 
here given. GEORGE WOLFF in Bed. Phil. Woch., 1893, p. 632. 


rent, a Grenoble. 8vo, Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1893. 

The Chapelle Saint-Laurent, which serves as the crypt of a xn 
century church at Grenoble, is one of the most curious monuments 
in France, both from an artistic and archaeological point of view. 
Attention was called to it in 1867 by Louis Gonse, in his Notes d'un 
voyage dans le Midi de la France, but it is now more fully published 
with phototype illustrations. It is in plan a Greek cross, exhibits a 
variety of vaults and an interesting system of engaged columns. It 
is of the type of the chapels of S. Sixtus and S. Soter, erected in 
Rome between the iv and vi centuries, and of S. Honorat, in the 
islands of Lerins, and of S. Croix, at Montmajour. It is well preserved 
and more complete than the chapels in Rome, and belongs to Mero- 
vingian times, about the vi century. The decoration, as interesting 
as that of the baptistery of Poitiers and that of the crypt of Jouarre, is 
remarkably well done, and the twenty capitals preserve the motifs of 
the Christian art of the Catacombs. L. G. in Chron. des Arts, 1 893, p. 248. 

La Normandle Monumentale et Pittoresque. Heliogravures de P. 
Dujardin, d'apres les photographies de E. Letellier; texte par 
une Soeiete d'antiquaires et de litterateurs. Livraisons 25 a 
32. Havre : Lemale et Cie. 

These eight numbers finish the first volume of a work meriting the 
highest praise. The excellence of the illustrations, which are perfect 
works of art, combined with the admirable text, contributed by schol- 
arly historians and archaeologists, make the publication most valuable. 
Among the heliogravures especially worthy of praise, may be mentioned 
the Ruins of the Chateau d' Argues, the Manor of Ango, the Chateau of 
Dieppe and the Church of the Bourg-Dun. The names of MM. Simeon 
Luce and A. Darcel appear amongst those who contribute to the text, 
while an introduction by M. Armand Dayot, the well-known critic, 
accompanies this first volume, and M. Dayot has been charged with 
the same task for each of the four volumes that are still to appear. 


HAUPT und WEYSSER. Die Ban- und Kunstdenkmaler im Kreise Her- 
zogthum Lamnburg. Herausgegeben im Auftrage der Kreis- 
stande, Ratzeburg. 

The castle of Lauenburg was never a magnificent building and but 
little now remains of it. The great plans of the seventeenth century 
were never carried out. About 1600 the Stadtkirche was made, by 
Franz II, a splendid monument of the lower Saxon dukes. Originally 
Gothic, it received renaissance adornments. Most remarkable was 
the monument of the dukes, published from views in a manuscript of 
Dr. Schilherr. The work itself dates from 1599, but is almost entirely 
destroyed, having been " restored " in 1827. 

The Nikolaikirche in Molln in a transition style still little removed 
from late Romanesque, is well preserved. It was originally built in the 
twelfth century. Some parts of Gothic style were added. It had 
many altars, and a bell with late Gothic ornamentation, dated 1468. 
In Schwarzenbeck pure Gothic ornament is found of the year 1645. 
In Biichen the church is of transition style, with a choir of late Gothic. 
In spite of much injury to the church, the paintings of archers, etc., 
are in great part preserved, with biblical and legendary scenes. The 
church in Breitenfelde is not unlike that in Biichen, and has a window 
painted in the fourteenth century. The illustrations of the book are 
praiseworthy, but the work is to be used with caution. DORIS 
ScHNiTTGER-ScHLESwiGiN, Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, p. 354. 

BEZOLD und RIEHL. Die Kunstdenkmaler des Konigreiches Bayern 
vom 2 bis zum Ende des 18 Jahrhunderts. i Band. Die Kunst- 
denkmale des Regierungsbezirks Oberbayern. Bearbeitet von 
Gustav. v. Bezold und Dr. Berthold Riehl ; unter Mitwirkung 
anderer Gelehrter und Klinstler. Mit einem Atlas von 150 
bis 170 Lichtdruck- und Photogravure-Tafeln. Lieferung 1. 
Yerlag von Jos. Albert, Munich, 1892. 

The eight plates of this first number of the publication of monu- 
ments of art in Bavaria are distinguished for clearness and sharpness. 
The monuments here represented are the Obere Pfarrkirche and the 
Garnisonskirche at Ingolstadt. A somewhat more complete bibliogra- 
phy would be desirable than appears to be intended. Repertorium fur 
Kunttwissenschaft, 1893, p. 256. 

"W. BODE. Die italienische Plastik (Handbiicher der koniglichen 
Museen zu Berlin). Berlin, Spemann, 1891. 

" The course of development of Italian sculpture is portrayed, and 
the great artists are brought before us in a masterly manner." The 


complete mastery of the author over his subject, his familiarity with 
the works described, as well as with the literature concerning them, is 
evident. Little fault is to be found with the book, unless it be that 
the first chapter early Christian sculpture is too brief. H. J. 
(ANITSCHEK) in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, p. 243. 

ARTHUR PABST. Kirchen-Mobel des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. 
Chorstiihle, Kanzeln, Lettner und andere Gegenstande Kirch- 
licher Einrichtung. Heinrich Keller, Frankfurt a. M., 1891. 

The thirty plates reproduce articles of church furniture of Gothic 
style. The time represented extends from the xm to the xvi century. 
The present time is represented by four articles in wood by Otto 
Mengelberg, of Cologne. Simplicity, utility and beauty determined 
the choice of examples. The excellent reproductions of important 
specimens of church furniture will be welcome. Repertorium fur 
Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, p. 255. 


WILLY PASTOR. Donatello. Eine evolutionistische Untersuchung auf 
kunsthistorischem Gebiet. Giessen, 1892. 

Pastor finds Donatello interesting on account of the irregularity of 
his development. His early works show constant advance. " In the 
Campanile statues Donatello takes another direction : instead of 
energy weakness, instead of beauty ugliness." In his later work he 
never quite succeeds in returning to his early excellence. " Unity of 
personality is what is lacking in Donatello." This view of Donatello's 
character and artistic progress is not altogether correct. The chief 
excellence of Pastor's book lies in its stylistic analyses. Pastor shows 
independence, an observing eye and considerable literary ability. The 
faults of the book are due to too brief occupation with problems of art 
history. H. WOLFFLIN in Repertorium fur Kunstw., 1893, p. 131. 

au Musee du Louvre. 8vo, 400 p. Paris, May et Motteroz. 

This volume, which is issued not under the auspices of the Louvre, 
as might have been expected, but through the enterprise of the pub- 
lishers, supplies a long-felt want. The catalogue is enriched with a 
hundred reproductions of art-objects, generally well executed, and 
furnishes abundant information of the sort that the public will gladly 


PAUL LEFORT. Le Peinture espagnole. Bibliotheque de 1'enseigne- 
ment des Beaux Arts. Sm. 8. Paris, Quantin, 1893. 

M. Paul Lefort's frequent excursions to Spain and his special 
studies of Spanish masters, Goya, Murillo, Velasquez, Ribera, Zurbaran 
and others, have been an admirable preparation for this synthetic 
study, which begins with the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle 
Ages and ends with the Spanish paintings of the present day. It is 
clearly written, well proportioned and condensed, a true manual, useful 
alike to the learned and the ignorant. The illustrations are selected 
with care. L. G. in Chron. des Arts, 1 893, p. 256. 

GUSTAV MtiLLER-GROTE. Die Malereien des Huldigungssaales im 
Rathhause zu Goslar.' Mit lllustrationen und Lichtdrucktafdn. 
Berlin, G. Grote'sche Yerlagsbuchhandlung, 1892. 

Muller-Grote (as also Engelhard, Progr. d. Progymnasiums, Duder- 
stadt, 1891) shows that Kratz was wrong in asserting that Wolgemuth 
was the artist of these paintings. Muller-Grote is, however, wrong in 
maintaining that Raphon is the artist, for the Brunswick altar, upon 
which he relies as his main argument, is not by Raphon. In the 
introduction he gives an excellent discussion of German (especially 
lower Saxon) town halls (Rathhauser), and, as an excursus, an essay 
on representations of Sibyls in the 15th and 16th centuries. H. 
J(ANITSCHEK) in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, p. 251. 

IVAN LERMOLIEFF. Kunstkritische Studien ilber Italienische Malerei. 
Die Galerie zu Berlin. Nebst einem Lebensbilde Giovanni Morelli's, 
herausgegeben von Dr. Gustav Frizzoni. Leipzig, 1893. 

Giovanni Morelli died Feb. 28, 1891, and had prepared but a small 
part of this third and last volume of the new edition of his critical 
writings on art. The work of preparing the edition has been per- 
formed by Frizzoni in accordance with Morelli's views. The book 
contains new observations and expresses new views concerning many 
paintings in the gallery at Berlin and elsewhere, and new discussions 
of greater or less extent relating to Ghirlandaio, Fra Bartolommeo, 
Leonardo, Zoppo, Sebastiano del Piombo, Verrocchio, the Milanese 
school. This volume treats with most detail the early work of 
Raphael. The list of works of Timoteo Viti is considerably length- 
ened. W. v. SEIDLITZ in Repertorium fur Kunstw., 1893, p. 244. 


KARL WOERMANN. Katalog der Konigl. G-emaldegalerie zu Dresden. 

Grosse Ausgabe. Zweite, vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage. 

Dresden, 1892. 

Woermann had the most difficult task to accomplish in preparing 
the first edition of this catalogue, which appeared in 1887. The 
names attached to the pictures were to be investigated, and sometimes 
changed, and some pictures which had long been ranked among the 
pearls of the collection had to be restored to their proper position, as, 
for instance, the copies of Holbein's Madonna and Correggio's Mag- 
dalen. This demanded genuine courage, a quality for the display of 
which the second edition also offers opportunity, for not only the 
Christ bearing the cross bought under the previous administration as 
a work of Sebastiano del Piombo, but also ..the Madonna with saints 
bought as a Lotto by Woermann himself in the first part of his direc- 
torship, had to be given up. On the other hand, several hitherto 
neglected pictures are now newly assigned to distinguished masters, 
one to Lotto, two to Vrooms, one or two to Rembrandt. 

New names, either of artists or of subjects, are attached to many 
paintings. The following are marked as new acquisitions : Reynolds, 
male portrait 798 B ; A. v. Croos, river landscape, 1338 D ; style of 
Mantegna, Pieta, 2189 A ; Netherlander about 1560, Christ blessing 
little children, 2189 B; J. A. Duck, gay company, 2189 C; Eeckhout, 
Jacob's dream, 2189 D. 

In passing the entire gallery in review, many remarks suggest them- 
selves to the reviewer, some in confirmation of Woermann's opinions, 
some in disagreement with them. Such a work as this catalogue adds 
undeniably to the value of the gallery. W. v. SEIDLITZ in Repertorium 
fur Kunstwissenschafi, 1893, p. 369. 

CORN. HOFSTEBDE DE GrROOT. Quellenstudien zur hollandischen 
Kunstgeschichte. Arnold Houbraken und seine " G-roote Schon- 
burgh." Haag. Martinus Nijhoff, 1893. 

Whoever wishes to use Houbraken will hereafter find Hofsteede 
de Groot indispensable. The author gives a short biography and 
characterization of Houbraken, a list of his works (to which he adds 
a considerable number), information concerning the appearance of 
the " Groote Schonburgh " and its editions, an investigation of the 
" sources " of Houbraken, both literary and others, a characterization 
of Houbraken as an historian, and in the second part of his work a 
detailed examination and proof of the literary sources. The value of 
the book is increased by excellent indexes. W. BODE in Repertorium 
jur Kunstunssenschaft, 1893, p. 357. 


DANIEL BURCKHARDT. Diirer's Aufenthalt in Basel, 14.92-14.94.. 
Mit 15 Text-Illustrationen und 50 Tafeln in Liehtdruck. Munich 
and Leipsig, G-. Hirth, 1892. 

The author publishes as works of Diirer a number of drawings on 
uncarved blocks of wood in the cabinet of engravings in the museum 
.at Basle. The drawings were originally intended as illustrations for 
an edition of Terence. Burckhardt thinks Diirer spent the years 
1492-1494 in Basle. In an edition of the letters of St. Jerome, that 
appeared in Basle in 1492, are prints representing St. Jerome from a 
block in the museum at Basle, which bears the full name of Diirer. 
This is evidently a worjs of Diirer, who was in Basle in 1492. From 
these woodcuts, Burckhardt concludes that Diirer drew the illustra- 
tions to Terence, and that from these a number of woodcuts which 
appeared in Basle about the same time are by Diirer. He mentions 
the forty-five illustrations to the " Buch des Hitters von Thurn " 
(1493), a series of illustrations from the u Narrenschiff " of Seb. Brant 
(1492), a small woodcut with St. Sebastian in " Bonaventura, von den 
vier Uebungen des Gemiiths," and Diirer's title-page to the edition of 
the "Opera Roswithae" (1501, but planned in 1492). The stylistic 
agreement of these works is, in Burckhardt's eyes, more convincing 
than all the evidence for Diirer's first journey to Italy; and, as he can 
find no date for such a journey except 1492-1494, he tries to weaken 
the evidence for it. He agrees with R. Vischer, that Diirer was not 
permanently influenced by Pleydenwurf or Wolgemuth, but was even 
in Nuremberg under Schongauer's influence. Burckhardt's argu- 
ments do not destroy the evidence for Diirer's first journey to Italy, 
. which may well have taken place in 1495, and Diirer's personal share 
in the works in question is much less than is assumed by Burck- 
hardt ; it is nevertheless true that '' Basle owes its first period of emi- 
nence in wood engraving not merely in general to the neighborhood 
of Schongauer, but especially to the sojourn of Diirer. ALFR. SCHMID 
in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, p. 136. 

GABRIEL VON TEREY. Albrecht Diirer's venetianischer Aufenthalt 
14.94.-U95. Strassburg, J. H. Ed. Heitz, 1892. 

The author shows by Diirer's letters of 1506 that he cannot have 
passed four months in the Tyrol in that year. He brings forward all 
the evidence studies from Italian originals, similarity in Diirer's 
works to those of Italian masters, etc. tending to prove that Diirer 
was in Venice in 1494-1495. " Decisive for a sojourn in Venice in the 
winter of 1494-1495 is not .... this or that advance, this or that anal- 
ogy in itself alone, but the fact that, just at the time when .... one 


should expect Italian influence, it appears in a whole series of dated 
works." ALF. SCHMID, in Repertorium fur Kunstw., 1893, p. 144. 

ANTON SPRINGER. Albrecht Dilrer. Mit Tafeln, und Illustrationen 

im Text. Berlin, G. Grote, 1892. 

This book appears to have grown from Springer's lectures on Diirer. 
It is free from all learned apparatus and all polemic. The author 
clings to his opinion that in his earliest authentic copper engraving 
Diirer gave to Adam his own features. He finds no trace of a power- 
ful influence of Schongauer upon Diirer. Diirer's first journey to 
Italy is spoken of as an established fact. The year 1504 marks the 
height of Diirer's development. Springer tries to prove that the 
mathematical element and the dreamy quality peculiar to Diirer were 
not opposed, but intertwined. His theoretical studies and scientific 
views are carefully treated. " Never yet has a deeper insight .into 
Diirer's artist-soul been offered in less space than in Springer's book." 
"Springer distinguishes a humanistic, an Erasmian, and a Melanch- 
thonian period in the course of Diirer's development." In his critical 
appendices the author intended to open a view of Diirer's mode of 
work, but his death intervened when only the introduction to the 
appendices was finished. Now, without the appendices, the work is 
most useful to those who are not specialists, though the specialist also 
will be thankful for it. " As the last work of Anton Springer his 
Diirer will always be held in high honor." F. F. L. in Repertorium 
fur Kunstwissenschafi, 1893, p. 132. 

"W. J. LOFTIE. Inigo Jones and Wren ; or, The Else and Decline 
of Modern Architecture in England. Macmillan & Co., 1893. 

This is the somewhat extensive title of a work in which W. J. Loftie 
argues in favor of a revival of what he calls the Palladian style. This 
style, originated by Andrea Palladio and practised by him in Italy in 
the sixteenth century, had as its distinctive quality a dependence on 
proportion and not on ornament for the attainment of beauty. It 
was introduced into England by Inigo Jones, Christopher Wren, and 
others who adopted Palladio's plans, and marked out felicitous modi- 
fications of his forms and details. Palladian architecture is therefore 
a more inclusive term than " Queen Anne," and Mr. Loftie, after a 
chapter on the decay of Gothic, shows how it came in as a natural 
development after Elizabethan architecture. He traces the beginnings 
of Palladian, discusses in successive chapters the chief works of Jones 
and Wren, has a chapter on Wren's churches, and in conclusion con- 
siders the work of the successors of Wren, in whose hands the style 
has become debased till we have arrived at what Mr. Loftie calls " the 


reign of stucco ;" and what ambitious young architects speak of as 
" the New Gothic." 

Mr. Loftie has studiously avoided technical terms as far as possible, 
and his argument will appeal to all who desire a sound comprehension 
of the true principles of architectural art. The book is handsomely 
and generously illustrated with fifty full-page plates, showing exam- 
ples of some of the most beautiful and characteristic architecture in 
England. Some of these are from rare prints and other remote 
sources, and others are from photographs. They afford excellent 
means for comparative study, and amply vindicate Mr. Loftie's argu- 
ment. The Beacon. 


HENRY BALFOUR. The Evolution of Decora tn-c Art. An essay, 
upon its origin and development as illustrated by the art of 
modern races of mankind. 12mo. pp. xv,*131. Macmillan & 
Co., New York, 1893. 

This little volume, by the Curator of the Ethnographical Depart- 
ment of the University Museum, Oxford, is an attempt to show the 
possible origin of prehistoric art in general by means of objects taken 
from modern uncivilized peoples, and showing the origin and devel- 
opment of decorative motives. The author's range of observation is 
not a very wide one, as he has confined himself apparently to the Pitt 
Rivers collection in Oxford, supplemented by a review of English and 
American literature. This field of observation has nevertheless en- 
abled him to produce a very interesting series of illustrative forms, 
since the Pitt Rivers collection was made with this object in view. 
His point of view, is that art is primarily naturalistic and realistic, 
becoming conventional by successive stages. In the first stage, natural 
or accidental peculiarities are appreciated as ornamental effects and 
are in some artificial manner rendered more emphatic. In the second 
stage, natural effects are imitated or copied, with more or less fidelity 
to nature. In the third stage, we meet with a gradual metamorphosis 
of design through variation, which is often unconscious and uninten- 
tional, and sometimes intentional. 

The illustrations which Mr. Balfour brings forward prove the value 
of applying the general ideas of evolution to the sphere of decorative 
design. Many forms which would otherwise remain obscure are 
rendered intelligible in the light of their origin and growth. Such 
little volumes, clearly written and from an inspiring standpoint, are 
certainly a contribution to the subject, and to be welcomed by all 
interested in the development of the history of art. A. M. 





EGYPT, ....... 100 


GERMANY, ...... 152 


GREECE, 106 

ITALY, 120 


KRETE 104 

KYPROS, 104 

SPAIN, 148 


papyri of the Priests of Ammon lately unrolled by Dr. Brugsch, the 
Conservator of the Ghizeh Museum, was found to hear gold decora- 
tion in the illuminations, the first instance of the application of gild- 
ing to this purpose within his experience ; neither does he recall an 
example among the papyri in Europe. It is, of course, well known 
that the art of gilding was practised by the ancient Egyptians in orna- 
menting objects in wood, and it is only natural to suppose that the 
scribes would have adopted the same process to heighten the splendid 
coloration of the papyrus illuminations. The papyrus in the present 
instance is that found with the mummy of a priest of the twenty-first 
dynasty named Usaratmis. The process adopted was evidently first 
to apply a gum or varnish, and then to lay on the gold in a thin leaf. 

The last important acquisition of the museum happens to be an in- 
cense burner in wood, plated with thick gold. It is one of those ob- 
jects seen depicted in the hands of kings in adoration before a god. 
At one end of a baton is a hand holding a cup, the other end being a 
hawk's head ; in the centre is a small vessel to contain the incense, 
which was thrown into the cup that would have held some burning 
coals. The object is very striking as a work of art. It was found at 
Dim eh, and is assigned by Dr. Brugsch to the Ptolemaic era. An in- 
cense burner of somewhat similar form, in bronze, is at the Ghizeh 
Museum, and another in the Vatican Museum, also in bronze, if we 
remember rightly. Athen. Dec. 20. 




The Abbot collection possesses (Catal. No. 765), a magnificent funeral 
papyrus, 22 ft. long, from Sakkarah, which is in perfect preservation 
and is beautifully illuminated with the history of the life of the de- 
ceased. In the first scene is represented the Sacred Bull, beautifully 
gilded, and the deceased supported by two or more gods. The papy- 
rus of the Ghizeh Museum is, therefore, not the only one with gold 
ornamentation. A. L. F. JR. 


AUSTRIAN MISSION TO KARIA. The mission of the Academy of 
Sciences of Vienna, under Drs. Kubichek and Reichel, to Karia, in 
Asia Minor, and the neighborhood, has been successful. About three 
hundred inscriptions, mostly of the Roman epoch, were found. Aph- 
rodisias, or Gheire, largely contributed to this collection. Athenaeum, 
Sept. 23. 

EXPEDITION OF M. CHANTRE. M. Chantre, director of the museum 
at Lyons, and Mile. Chantre, both well known for four previous mis- 
sions in Kurdistan and the Caucasus, have arrived at Constantinople 
for Asia Minor, whither they are proceeding for archaeological and 
anthropological research. Athen., May 20. 

Hogarth and J. A. R. Munro, published as one of the " Supplementary 
Papers " of the Royal Geographical Society, forms a valuable addition 
to Prof. Ramsay's ' Historical Geography of Asia Minor.' The journeys 
described were undertaken in 1890 and 1891, mainly in the interest of 
archaeological research, although a fair share of attention has been de- 
voted to the elucidation of the geography of the country. The interest 
centres in the description of a portion of the ancient military road 
which connected Csesarea with Melitene on the Euphrates. Sixty-five 
Roman miles of this road were for the first time traced by visible re- 
mains. The milestones show it to have been built during the reigns 
often emperors, fromSeptimius Severus to Diocletian. Athen., July 29. 

INSCRIPTIONS. Inscriptions from Thasos, ten in number, followed 
by one from Samos, are published by Otto Kern, Mitth. Athen., 1893, 
p. 257. All are fragmentary. 

Inscriptions from Miletus, eight in number, are published by Otto 
Kern, Mitth. Athen., 1893, 267. They are, for the most part, of little 
interest. The most important seems to be one in honour of Jason son 
of Demetrios. 

Two inscriptions from Nysa are published by F. Hiller v. Gaertingen 
in the Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 333. Both are fragmentary and of late date. 


In the Mitth. Athen.,' 1893, p. 206, G. Weber published five late In- 
scriptions from southern Phrygia. 

BITHYNIA. A funeral monument from Bithynia is published by B. 
Graef in the Mitth. Arch. InsL Athen., xvm p. 27 sq. (cut). It resem- 
bles the monument discussed Mitth. xvii. p. 80 sq. The inscriptions 
upon the monument itself and the stones near it show it to belong to 
a family burial place. 

GJOLBASCHI. THE FRIEZE. F. Noack writes of the Frieze of Gjol- 
Baschi in the Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 305. While agreeing with Benn- 
dorf in his interpretation of the other reliefs of Gjol-Baschi, Noack 
denies that the reliefs of the western wall refer to the Aethiopis and 
the taking of Troy. The battle and the siege of the city there repre- 
sented, Noack thinks may refer to some events in Lycian history. 
He supports his position by arguments drawn from accurate examin- 
ation of the frieze and from comparison with the paintings in the 
Stoa Poikile. 

ISAURIA. Together with the Megalopolis Report there has also been 
issued to members of the Hellenic Society an illustrated paper on 
'Ecclesiastical Sites in Isauria,' by Rev. A. C. Headlam, dealing 
mainly with a most important Byzantine church discovered by Prof. 
Ramsay during his last journey in Asia Minor in the company of 
Messrs. Hogarth and Headlam. 

LAMPSAKOS. The Subdirector of the Imperial Museum at Con- 
stantinople, Khalil Bey, has suspended for the present the excavations 
at Lampsakos, and has brought some of the objects to the Museum. 
Three sarcophagi were found, which are said to have contained some 
antique gold jewellery. Athen. June 24. 

Eighty cases of antiquities, the produce of the excavations of Khalil 
Bey in the province of Aidin, have arrived at the Imperial Museum 
of Constantinople. Athen. May 20. 

Khalil Bey, Subdirector of the Constantinople Museum, has gone 
to Lampsakos to continue the excavations, Aihen. July 29. 

Hissarlik, which were interrupted in August, 1890, were taken up 
again May 1, 1893, and brought to a close on July 11. They were 
directed by Prof. Dorpfeld, assisted by an archaeologist, M. A. Bruck- 
ner, an architect, W. Wilberg, and by Weigel, a specialist in prehis- 
toric studies. The Turkish Government was represented by Prof. 
Mystakidis. The cost was defrayed by Mme. Schliemann. 

In the Mitth. Arch. last. Athen., 1893, p. 199 sq., W. Dorpfeld pub- 
lishes a preliminary report, under the title The New Excavations in 
Troy. The seven strata or settlements described by Schliemann in 


*' Ilios " and " Troja " are now increased by two. The sixth stratum 
is the most important, being the grandest citadel that existed on the 
hill of Hissarlik before Roman times. Remains of seven large build- 
ings were here found having in part the plans of Greek temples or of the 
megara of Tiryns and Mykenai, but excelling these in proportions and 
accuracy of building. The most remarkable lies nearly in the middle 
of the citadel, and consists of a hall 9 m. wide and 11 J m. long, with 
a portico. The hall was once divided by wooden columns into three 
naves. The building resembles the temple at Neandreia excavated by 
R. Koldewey. At least as many more buildings remain to be exca- 
vated. The buildings of the sixth stratum are surrounded by a mag- 
nificent wall 5 m. thick, built of great stones. A tower 18 m. wide, 
with stairs within, still stands to the height of 8 m. at the northeast 
corner. The size of this Pergamos is about the same as that of the 
citadel at Tiryns. Its height above the plain was about 28 m. The 
chief reason for the failure to recognize this stratum before is probably 
that the Romans levelled the top of the hill when the temple of 
Athena Ilia was built. u Mykensean " vases, etc., show that this sixth 
stratum was contemporaneous with Tiryns and Mykenai. Similar 
finds on lower ground speak for the existence of a city about the cita- 
del. An urn of the same date shows traces of burning the dead. The 
nine strata are divided into three groups, as follows : 
I. Prae-Mykensean or prehistoric strata : 

a) Earliest settlement 1st stratum. 

b) Stately citadel, with dwelling-house, wall, towers and gates 

2nd stratum. 

c) Three inconsiderable settlements, built successively over 

the burnt ruins of the 2nd stratum 3d-5th strata. 
II. The Mykensean stratum or Homeric Pergamos 6th stratum. 
III. The post-Mykeiisean strata : 

a) Archaic dwelling-house 7th stratum. 

b) Greek-Hellenistic dwelling-house 8th stratum. 

c) Stately Roman buildings 9th stratum. 
A more detailed account is promised. 

The following is taken mainly from letters written by Dorpfeld to 
Charles Normand (Vami des Monuments, No. 39, p. 267). " I am now 
firmly convinced that the sixth city is that sung by Homer. This con- 
viction is based on the following facts : 1) We have found, in the sixth 
layer, by the side of a grey local pottery called Lydian by Schliemann, 
a large number of fragments of vases of the Mycenaean period, and 
even some entire vases of this period, amongst them a vase having the 
form of the Homeric double-mouthed beaker. Hence it is proved that 


this stratum belongs to the Mycenaean period, i. e., between about 1500 
and 1000 B. c. 2) In this stratum we found several large buildings, a, 
b, c, d, e, f, whose plan corresponds with those of Tiryns and Mykenai r 
still surrounded by a wall. This acropolis of the sixth stratum is more 
than twice the size of that of the second stratum. Next year Dr. Dorp- 
feld expects to excavate the entire wall circuit of this stratum and the 
other buildings that it contains. 

The acropolis of the second stratum must therefore be regarded as 
of an earlier period than was supposed. It probably dates from be- 
tween 2500 and 2000 B. c., and the finds here made the vases as well 
as the gold objects belong to a period anterior to the Mycenaean 
period an opinion which had already been expressed by such emi- 
nent archaeologists as Perrot and Newton. 

Above the greater part of the second stratum the buildings of the 
sixth stratum had been destroyed during the Roman period for the 
erection of the temple of Athena, and for this reason Schliemann 
found none of them. But outside the perimetre of the second stratum 
the buildings of the Mycenaean Civilization are still preserved, and it 
is here that Dr. Dorpfeld expects to find others next season. 


IDALION. A. N. Skias in an article entitled Kypriaka in the 
'E<?7/*e/Hs 'ApxaioA-oyiKT?, 1893, p. 61 sq., gives notes and suggestions to the 
inscription on the large bronze plaque from Idalion, and the inscrip- 
tion Meister, Die griech. Dial n, p. 161, Hoffmann, Die griech. Dial i,p. 
82, No. 160. 


Svoronos in the 'Ec^epts 'Apx<uA.oyi/<77, 1893, p. 147 sq. While the 
types of the coins have been carefully studied, the symbols have been 
neglected. Svoronos takes up the certain symbols, specifying those 
belonging to eight classes : 1) On the obverse, characterizing the head 
of the god ; 2) on the reverse, in direct relation to the type ; 3) desig- 
nating the place where the scene is laid ; 4) characterizing the inhab- 
itants of the city where the coin is struck ; 5) coats of arms of the 
cities ; 6) symbols found as types upon smaller contemporary coins of 
the same series ; 7) symbols found as types upon earlier coins of the 
same city ; 8) symbols with historical significance. To these some 
unclassified symbols are added. 

INFANCY OF ZEUS. J. N. Svoronos in the ,'E</>r;/xpis 'ApxaioAoyi/o?, 
1893, p. 1 sq. discusses types of coins referring to the rearing of Zeu& 




in Krete (pi. 1 ; one cut). A fourth century didrachma of Kydoma 
represents a babe suckled by a bitch. Other similar Cretan coin-types 
are published, and traces are collected of a legend that the infant Zeus 
was suckled by a bitch. The constellation Ursa Minor is connected 
with this animal. A fifth century didrachma of Phaistos represents a 
babe suckled by a cow. This is also explained as a representation of 
the infant Zeus, and the constellation Ursa Major is connected with 
this cow, a connection which explains the. name 'EAAr;, BOWT^S, and 
Septemtriones. Twenty-five coins are published. 

INSCRIPTIONS. Prof. Cicchotti has just published a judicial work 
on the antiquities of Krete, based on the ancient inscriptions of the 
island. Prof. Comparetti has, meanwhile, finished his study on the 
legal inscription of Gortyna, of which he will issue shortly a definitive 
reading ; while Prof. Halbherr will follow with the complete collection 
of all the Greek and Latin inscriptions of Krete down to Byzantine 
times. Two new inscriptions of Roman date have just been found at 
Gortyna, one relating to games, the first of this kind hitherto found 
in Krete. They will be published shortly by Dr. Ricci in the Monu- 
menti de* Lincei Athen., May 6. 

In the Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 272, E. Maass discusses the Rheaepigram 
first published by Halbherr, Museo italiano, in, p. 736, and discussed 
by Blass, Fleckeisen's Jahrbucher, 1891, p. 1. Maass differs in import- 
ant particulars from Blass. 

Two rock inscriptions of Amorgos, Museo italiano, i, p. 227 (Rohl, 
I. G. A., No. 390), and Museo italiano, i, p. 225 (Rohl, No. 391), are 
republished and discussed by F. Duemmler in the Mitth. Athen., xvm, 
p. 32. 

CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS IN VENICE. Prof. Scrinzi, of Venice, has suc- 
ceeded in discovering the originals of the two Cretan inscriptions pub- 
lished in Boeckh's Greek Corpus, at Nos. 2557 and 2562, containing 
the letter of the city of Allaria to the Parians and the treaty of Hiera- 
pytna, which were both long considered as hopelessly lost. It appears 
that they once belonged to the museum of Treviso, and Prof. Scrinzi, 
aided 'by a notice in the " Antiquitates Cretenses " of Torres, found 
them in a dark and out-of-the-way corner of the collection of the 
Conti Giustinian-Recanati " alle Zattere." The fortunate discoverer is 
now engaged in looking for the inscription containing the treaty 
between Latos and Olus, which Boeckh reproduced from ancient but 
very imperfect MSS., which had, however, been lost sight of in Torres' 
time. He will be joined by Dr. Ricci, of the Archaeological School of 
Rome, who will seek out and examine all the archaeological and epi- 
graphical materials relating to Krete which can be found at Venice, as 
well as the MS. relations on the antiquities of Candia known to exist 


in the public and private libraries of the former rulers of the island. 
Athenaeum, July 1. 

GORTYNA. At Gortyna, in Krete, two noble sarcophagi have been 
discovered lately, and a marble head larger than life, and of fine exe- 
cution. All appear to be post-Hellenic. Athen., Jan. 14. 

HIERAPYTNA. EGYPTANIZING RELIEF. Near the ancient city of Hiera- 
pytna, a large slab of marble has been accidentally found with figures 
in relief of an Egyptian character. The figures, which are in two 
groups on the face of the slab and on a narrow band underneath, re- 
present human bodies with heads of men, dogs, and eagles. The head- 
gear is in some cases the Egyptian pshent. In one place may be seen 
the figure of a lion, so that we may conclude the representations refer 
to Anubis, and to Isis and Osiris, though the lion may refer to the 
Asiatic myth of Kybele or of the mother of the gods, whose worship, it 
is known, existed in some Cretan cities. It is to be hoped that this 
remarkable stone may be secured for some local museum, either at 
Candia or Hierapetros. Athen., July 1. 


THE ATHENA OF KEPHISODOTOS. In the Jahrbuch k. d. Arch: Inst. 
(1893, p. 173 sq.) P. Wolters writes of the Athena of Kephisodotos, 
(PI. 3; 6 cuts). Wieseler's objections to Brunn's supposition that the 
statue in Munich formerly called Leucothea is a copy of the Eirene by 
Kephisodotos are met and put aside. The bust of Athena from Her- 
culaneum (Naples No. 6322, Comparetti and De Petra, La villa Erco- 
lanese, pi. 20, 1, 2, p. 273 sq.) is claimed as the Athena Soteira of Kephi- 
sodotos. Replicas are in Naples and the Capitoline museum in Rome. 
The dates of the Eirene and the Athena are nearly identical, not far 
from 374 B. c. The " Sardanapalus " in the Vatican (Friederichs- Wol- 
ters, 1284; Helbig, fuhrer, 326) with its replicas, is also ascribed to 

Arch. Inst. (1893, 8 cuts, p. 119 sq.), Ad. Michaelis writes of " the ar- 
tist of the Battle-groups of Attalos." He first collects the early record 
of the well known marble figures. They were found in the cellar of 
a nunnery, the site of which is unknown. A letter of 1514 or 1515, 
and a sketch in the Basle sketch-book (about 1540) show that the 
Naples amazon had a child on or at her breast. This is shown to be 
compatible with the Asiatic idea of an amazon. The artist Epigonos 
is known from many inscriptions to have been one of the most im- 
portant artists in the pay of Attalos I. His name is to be read instead 




of the unknown Isigonus in Plin. H. N. 34, 84. His important posi- 
tion at Pergamon, with Pliny's words (i. c. and 34, 88) make it prob- 
able that he was the artist of the gift of Attalos to Athens as well as 
of the dying Galatian in the capitol and the group in the Museo Buou- 

DEMETER-WORSHIP IN GREECE. M. Foucart in a paper on Eleusis 
before the Academy of Inscriptions in Paris favors the ancient Greek 
tradition that the Demeter- worship was introduced from Egypt into 
Greece. The several disbeliefs amongst later scholars in such an ori- 
gin rests upon the erroneous supposition that Egypt had no navy be- 
fore the 20th dynasty. To-day, however, hieroglyphics have shown 
that Egypt held sway over the islands of the J^gean in the 18th dynas- 
ty, and archaeological discoveries in both countries comfirrn the fact 
that Egyptians had colonized in Greece long before the Trojan War. 
'Eo-rta, Oct. 31. 

keeper of the Greek Antiquities at the British Museum, is passing 
through the press a work which is likely to exercise a most profound 
impression on the artistic culture of the country. It will consist of 
facsimile representations of many of the principal subjects from the 
polychrome Athenian vases in his department. The reproductions 
by engraving of this class of subjects in many valuable archa5ological 
works, though sufficient for reference, leave much to be desired from 
,the point of view of accuracy and artistic execution. The forthcom- 
ing work will fulfil both these requirements. It is intended to be a 
handbook for students, and it is expected that the price will not ex- 
ceed two or three shillings ; and will doubtless have a wide circula- 
tion. The introduction will be written by Mr. Murray, and the des- 
criptions by Mr. Cecil Smith. Athen. June 3. 

GREEK INSCRIPTIONS. M. Haussoullier has given in the Revue de 
Philologie (1893, No. 1.) a review of Greek epigraphy for the year 
1892 under the title Bulletin Epigraphique. The bulk of it is taken up 
with detailed reviews of two works : Larfeld's Griechische Epigraphik, 
and the first volume of the Berlin Corpus inscriptionum Grsecarum Grse- 
cide. Septentrionalis. The first part of the latter, which has just ap- 
peared is by Dittenberger and is entitled Iriscriptiones grsecse Megaretis, 
Oropias, Boeotix. A glance is taken at the Recueil des inscriptions juri- 
diques grecques, fasc n, published by Dareste, Haussoullier and Th. 
Reinach, and at a few special memoirs. 

GREEK MYTHS IN RENAISSANCE ART. Carl Meyer in an article en- 
titled " Greek Myths in the Works of Art of the Fifteenth century " 
in the Repertorium fur Kunstivissenschaft, (1893, p. 261, sq.) describes 


and discusses German wood-cuts (and a few copper engravings) with 
mythical representations. The earliest cuts treated are a series of rep- 
resentations of the planets, the original of which appears to have be- 
longed to the school of the Van Eyck brothers. The calendar of 
Johannes de Gamundia, printed in 1468, seems to be nearest to the 
original. The latest cuts discussed are illustrations to Murner's trans- 
lation of the Aeneid and Hans Schauffelein's illustrations to the Ger- 
man translation of Boccaccio's " de prseclaris mulieribus," both dated 
1545. Special attention is paid to Diirer's engravings of mythological 
subjects with reference to his relatively advanced position ; for al- 
though his gods and heroes have many characteristics of the Germans 
of the fifteenth century, his work shows some signs of the spirit of the 
renaissance. The younger Hans Holbein is still more advanced in his 
feeling for the classics. In general, poets and artists of the fifteenth 
century had little knowledge of classical forms, and imagined the 
mythical personages in the guise of the middle ages. 

HADRIAN AND THE OLYMPIEION. In the 'Ap X ai.o\oyiKov AeXriov (1892,. 
p. 113, sq.) P. Cavvadias discusses the visits of Hadrian to Greece and 
the consecration of the Olympieion. He publishes two Epidaurian 
inscriptions (Fouilles d'Epidaure, 226 and 35) in honour of Hadrian. 
The first shows that Hadrian was at Epidauros A. D. 124, the second 
that the consecration of the Olympieion at Epidauros and the founda- 
tion of the Panhellenion took place A. T>. 131. Panhellenion is the 
festival at Athens founded by Hadrian. The Olympieion at Epidau- 
ros was hitherto unknown. Its consecration was simultaneous with 
that of the great Athenian temple. Hadrian is known to have visited 
Greece A. D. 129, and unless the Olympia was consecrated and the 
Panhellenion founded in his absence, he visited Greece a third time 
A. D. 131. 

HERAKLES' HELMET. In the archdologischer Anzdger, 1893, 4 p. 199 r 
A. Korti brings forward arguments and examples to show that Her- 
akles with a helmet formed of the skin of a lion's head cut off from 
the rest of the skin is not unknown in archaic Greek art. A. Furt- 
wiingler, ibid., combats Korti's arguments and denies the force of his 

Arch. Inst. (1893, p. 157 sq.) P. Hartwig treats of The Bringing of 
Kerberos from Hades on Red- figured Vases (pi. n, 1 ; 4 cuts). The 
list of vases given by J. Schneider, Die zwolf Kdmpfe des Heraklesin der 
dltesten griechischen Kunst, Leipsic, 1888, is corrected. Besides two am- 
phorise, there are four dishes (schalen) with red figures representing 
this scene. All of these belong to the early period of red-figured 


paintings the school of Epiktetos. After this period, this scene is 
hardly represented at all until it appears again in later representations 
of the lower world. 

of the Attic Local Constitution in the Mitth. Athen, 1893 p. 277. The 
article is in form a reply and supplement to R. Loper (Mitth. 1892, 
p. 319). Milchofer lays stress upon his general agreement with Loper, 
the chief disagreements being in the site of Probalinthos, which Lo- 
per separates from Marathon by putting it on the other side of Pente- 
likon, and in the treatment of the trittyes and demes of Leontis. But 
Milchofer goes once more over all the ground, treating each tribe, sep- 
arately, and showing wherein he agrees or disagrees with Loper. In 
the main he retains the opinions he expressed in his Untersuchungen 
uber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes* in the appendix to the Abhand- 
lungen der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1892. 

MYCEN/EAN INSCRIPTIONS. We hear from Athens that Dr. Tsoun- 
das has discovered on some fragments of vases of the age of Mykenai 
traces of inscriptions, which if Greek, will be the most ancient known 
examples of Greek writing. Traces of writing were observed some 
years ago by Prof. Sayce on pottery disinterred by Schliemann in the 
Troad ; but the characters seem to have belonged to the Cypriote syl- 
labic system, or to some such system at that time predominant in 
Asia Minor. The Mycenaean pottery being as old at least as the 
eleventh century B. c., the character of the signs now discovered by 
Dr. Tsoundas is anxiously awaited, as they will throw light on early 
writing in Greece and on the origin of the so-called Mycensean civili- 
zation. Athen., Jan. 28. 

The letters discovered by Signor Tsoundas on the Mycenaean vases 
found in the excavations of a necropolis in Argolis, of which mention 
has been already made in the Athenaeum, are not isolated signs, as 
those of the vase of Signor Stais, but are composed of groups of four 
or five signs combined, inscribed on the handles. Though in part il- 
legible, several of them present the known syllabic characters of Cy- 
priote writing. Athen., March 18. 

POLYGNOTOS' DELPHIC PAINTINGS. In the Jahrbuch k. d. Arch. 
Inst. (1893, p. 187 sq.) R. Schone writes of Polygnotos' Delphic Paint- 
ings, with special reference to C. Robert's treatment of the Nekyia 
(Winckelmann's progr., Halle, 1892). Schone finds that Polygnotos 
did not paint directly upon marble, and that his coloring was not like 
that of contemporaneous vases with slip of pipe-clay. Whether his 
figures were lighter or darker than the background is not certain. His 
four pigments were black, white, red, and yellow, but the black with 


yellow would give a green, and with white a bluish color. The figures 
in these pictures were arranged on different planes, but not as stripes 
one above another, nor was the scene conceived as a hillside. Modern 
reconstruction of Polygnotos' pictures of the nether world are criti- 
cized, and new arrangements for the figures are in some cases pro- 
posed. In general, Polygnotos conformed so far as possible to the 
description in Homer, Od. xi. 

a joint meeting of the Oxford Philological and Ancient History So- 
cieties, Mr. J. L. Myres gave the results of his recent collection of evi- 
dence bearing upon the earliest stages of culture in the lands border- 
ing on the Greek archipelago. Hitherto no implements of the palaeo- 
lithic period have been found in this area. Polished stone axe-heads 
and hammers have appeared in the lowest strata at Hissarlik, Tiryns, 
Mykenai, and Athens, but nothing more primitive. This is partly ac- 
counted for by the materials at hand ; volcanic and other crystalline 
rocks having no fracture to invite the most primitive work done upon 
flints in more northerly regions. Chert enters largely into some Asi- 
atic limestones, and is found in Naxos, but was apparently not used 
in the early period. The polished implements above mentioned are 
found sporadically in the whole Mediterranean basin. The Greek 
specimens, those from Melos and Euboia, for instance, are made out 
of rocks found in the neighborhood. Flakes of obsidian from Melos 
were fashioned at Korinth and at Kephissia in Attica. At Plataia 
one of the volcanic glazes of Thera was used. Definite settlements 
belonging to this period of workmanship existed at Hissarlik (the first 
town) and at Athens, where its traces have been unearthed under the 
Mykensean walls behind the Stoa of Eumenes. Less decisive evidence 
has been gathered at Mykenai and Tiryns. Traces of similar settle- 
ments at Lechaion, Eleusis, Eubcean Castri, on the peninsula of Myn- 
dos, and in Kos, have been made out. In Egypt just before the bronze 
age, came a hardened copper period. This is made out also at His- 
sarlik and in Thera, though in both places the copper is found along 
with traces of a more advanced civilization. Mr. Myres then dis- 
cussed the hand-made pottery of the bronze age from Hissarlik, Thera,' 
Syra, and other islands, and pointed out its correspondence with the 
earliest Cypriote specimens these last being certainly not earlier than 
the bronze age. To this age belong the " marble-workers " of Paros, 
Antiparos, and Amorgos, as well as certain centres of Naxos, Amorgos, 
and Syra, and other islands, as well as at Mykenai, Tiryns, and in At- 
tica. From hand-made the pottery of this period advanced to a rude 
machine manufacture. Glazes were used and some forms of orna- 


men! The specimens from Thera are remarkable and, approach the 
Mycenaean type. This last may or may not have come later. Then 
followed a discussion of Mykena3an forms, with which the paper 
ended. Mr. Myres combated the notion of a Karian origin for the 
Hycensean civilization and its products, and closed with a brief men- 
tion of new facts lately gathered by him in Krete. N. Y. Evening Post, 
Dec. 7.j 

SKOPAS, THE ENGRAVER. In the Jahrbuch, d. d. arch. Inst., 1893, p. 
185 sq., (pi. 2, 2) A. Furtwiingler publishes as a supplement to Jahrb. 
IV, p. 72, a gem of the artist Skopas. The gem mentioned by Brunn,. 
Gesch. d. gr. Kunstler, n, p. 579, is a hyacinth of fine quality, a genuine 
work of the engraver Skopas. 

THE SPLANCHNOPTES. In the Jahrbuch, d. d. arch. Inst, (1893, p. 
218, sq.) M. Mayer has an article entitled Splanchnoptes (pi. 4 ; 3 cuts). 
The word Splanchnoptes (Plin. N. N. xxxiv, 81, xxn, 43) is derived 
from o-7r\dyx va OTTTOLV. The statue mentioned by Pliny represented a 
youth roasting the sacrificial inwards on a long spit or at least pre- 
paring so to roast them. Pliny xxiv, 79, and Paus. i. 23, 8 (7) are 
not to be connected with this statue. Two vase paintings are pub- 
lished illustrating the erection of the Splanchnoptes. A statue found in 
1888 near the Olympieion in Athens (Mitth. Athens, xin, p. 231 AcAnbv, 
1888, p. 73, 1, Lepsius, Marmorstues, No. 128, Cavvadias catalogue No. 
248) is published and a restoration as a Splanchnoptes proposed. The 
statue is a marble copy of a bronze of the middle of the fifth century, B.C. 

general meeting of the Hellenic Society held on November 27, in Lon- 
don, Mr. Arthur J. Evans described a remarkable acquisition recently 
made by the British Museum. This is nothing less than one of the 
most interesting groups of Mycenaean objects ever discovered doubly 
noteworthy as having been found on the island of Aigina. To dis- 
cover " Mycenaean " pottery in various parts of the Mediterranean ba- 
sin is no new experience, and gold objects like those of Mykenai have 
been found in unexpected places, such as the Danube Valley and the 
Crimea; but the present Aiginetan find is the most considerable and 
important since Schliemann's. Among the more remarkable objects 
of the treasure are a gold cup with returning spiral and rosette orna- 
ment ; an openwork gold pendant representing a kind of Egyptian 
figure in a lotos-tipped boat holding two water-birds, traceable to a 
familiar subject of Egyptian frescoes in which the fowler is seen 
standing in a Nile boat holding the trophies of his chase; four gold 
openwork ornaments with dogs and apes and pendant disks and owls ; 
a jewel with a lion's head and pendant ducks, apparently suggested 


by a so-called Egyptian ' aegis ' with the head of the lion-headed god- 
dess Sekhet ; a crescent-shaped gold plate with terminals in the shape 
of sphinx-like heads ; a series of necklaces of gold, carnelianand ame- 
thyst beads with amulet pendants ; fifty-four repousse gold plates for 
sewing on the dress, gold diadems, bracelets, ring-moneyrepresent- 
ing a unit of 135 grains and finger-rings, which, like some of the oth- 
er jewels, had been set- mosaic fashion with a glass-paste imitation of 
lapis-lazuli. The besil of one of the rings was in the shape of a 
Boeotian shield, and exactly represented the variety seen on coina of 
Salamis, where it stood for the shield of the Telamonian Ajax. It 
might therefore, be regarded as the badge of the ^Eacid rulers of Aigi- 
na itself, and Mr. Evans showed that it was an outgrowth of an ear- 
lier Mycenaean type. Various comparisons with Egyptian, Oriental, and 
European forms were instituted, bearing on the origin and range of 
the different types of objects discovered, and on the date of the deposit. 
It was shown to belong to the very latest Mycenaean period, hitherto 
almost unrepresented by finds, and it had, therefore a unique value. 
Though under strong Oriental influence, the art was quite distinct 
from the Phoenician ; in place of griffins, sacred hawks, and trees we 
had here such decorative elements as homely acorns, ducks and owls. 
The art, in a word, was indigenous to the soil of Greece, and the most 
characteristic designs here found had their echo in the early cemete- 
ries of Italy and the Caucasus, where " Javan " (or the Ionian Greeks) 
early traded with "Mesech " and " Tubal." A variety of concordant 
data led Mr. Evans to fix 800 B. c. as the approximate date of the de- 
posit, and a very important fact brought to light by the ring-money of 
the find was that there already existed in Aigina at the time of this 
deposit a pre-Pheidonian standard answering to the Euboic-Attic. 
This was in fact the old Mycenaean standard probably derived front 
the Egyptian Kat and could be traced in rings, etc., from the earlier 
shaft graves of Mycenae. 

In closing, Mr. Evans made public announcement of the interesting 
fact that he has now discovered, chiefly upon prism-shaped gems, 
found mainly in Krete and the Peloponessos, some sixty hieroglyphic 
characters belonging to an alphabet used in Mycenaean days. The 
area where it is found goes southward as far as Krete, and it is pos- 
sible that these signs may prove to be of kin with the hitherto unde- 
cipherable Cypriote alphabet. N. Y. Evening Post, Dec. 29 : Athm., 
Dec. 2. 

ARGOS. EXCAVATIONS AT THE HERAION. The results of the second spring 
campaign of the American School at the Heraion are given in Dr. 
Waldstein's report to the Committee of the School, which is re-pub- 
lished on p. 63, sq. of this number of the JOURNAL. 


A third, and, it is hoped the final campaign will be begun this 
spring under Dr. Waldstein's direction. The Institute and the School 
Committee are agreed in regarding this excavation as the most impor- 
tant undertaken by the School and they intend to concentrate all 
efforts upon this work. 

ATHENS. CITY WALL. A portion of the ancient Athenian city wall 
to the east of the Acharnian gate at the corner of the Sophokles and 
Aristides streets has been discovered. The material of the wall con- 
.sists of great blocks of breccia stone, and from this it may safely be 
concluded that we have not to do with the original wall of Themis- 
tokles, which was built of limestone on clay tiles, but with a restora- 
tion not earlier than the fourth century B. c. The newly discovered 
Wall has been carefully photographed, and prints can be obtained 
from the German Institute at Athens. The wall was of very remark- 
able strength, the foundations measuring a little over 5 metres, which 
would allow for the wall above ground being about 4.90 metres. At 
about seven metres distance a second and thinner wall has been found, 
the purport of which is at present not made out. To the south of 
the Akropolis a whole row of drums of marble columns have been 
found near the Katastamatis silk manufactory. They were built in 
to strengthen the old city wall, and probably belonged to the Stoa of 
Eumenes. They must have been utilized for their new purpose in 
quite late Roman days, or even in the Middle Ages. Of. Athen, 
March 11. 

Two PREHISTORIC TOMBS. Dr. Dorpfeld has unexpectedly discov- 
ered between the Pnyx and Areiopagos two exceedingly ancient 
tombs, the smaller one containing two Mycenaean vases, the larger, 
charcoal mixed with bones, showing that the corpse must have been 
burnt within its circumference. These burials he attributes to the 
first inhabitants of Athens, when, like Mykenai and other cities of 
that period, it was bounded by the rock of its Akropolis, and had its 
sepulture just outside the walls. At the same time a very fine con- 
duit of cylindrical terracotta tubes, having their joints made secure 
with molten lead, has been found running up to the poros lithos chan- 
nel built by Peisistratos, discovered a little time ago. Dr. Dorpfeld 
feels now convinced he is approaching the long-sought Enneakrounos. 
Athen, Jan. 14. 

AN ATTIC CEMETERY. In the Mitth. Athen., (1893, No. 2) A. Bruckner 
and E. Pernicehave published an elaborate account of an Attic cemetery 
(pp. 73-191; pis. 6-9; 35 cuts). The cemetery lies N. E. from the 
Dipylon, close to the ancient city wall, on the S. side of the present 
Peiraieus street, opposite the orphan asylum Hartzikosta. The notes 


upon which this account is based cover 231 graves. Of these 19 be- 
long to the Dipylon period, the remainder with very few exceptions 
to the sixth, fifth, and fourth centuries B. c., chiefly to the fifth and 
fourth. Of 186 later graves, 45 were cremation -graves in which the 
body was burned, 8 ostothekai, 43 shaft tombs in which the body was 
buried, 60 graves built of tiles with buried body, 17 earthen vessels in 
which children were buried, 10 handsome graves of great slabs of 
stone in which the body was buried, 3 large stone sarcophagi, body 
buried. This entire cemetery was covered with a layer of earth, which 
was in turn used as a cemetery, probably shortly after the time of 
Sulla. The contents of many graves are described in detail with illus- 
trations. Special attention is paid to the finds of the " geometrical 
epoch." The vases in the graves of this period are of a uniform char- 
acter (fragen ein einheitlicher Geprage) with few exceptions. The va- 
riety of shapes is such as to give a pretty complete view of the house- 
pottery of Athens at this time. In the geometrical epoch, burial was 
much more usual than cremation. The body was put in a pithos or 
amphone before burial or was buried in a shaft. The splendid large 
Dipylon vases were o-^ara, placed over the graves. As in later times 
the horseman on the stele showed that the deceased had been an 
iTrTreus, so the naval battle on the vase probably shows that the de- 
ceased had performed naval service. The bottom of the vase was set 
in the ground and was open below, that offerings poured into it might 
go down to the grave. It is evident that the cult of the deceased 
lasted after burial in the belief that the dead must be continually sup- 
plied with food and drink. This is a stage earlier than that described 
in the Homeric poems. 

Among the later graves were evidence of two kinds of cremation. 
Some bodies were burned in the grave, others were burned outside 
and the bones then buried in a vessel. The graves for burial without 
burning are classified as simple shaft-graves, clay coffins, and stone 
coffins. In the first class the corpse seems to have been laid without 
any protection upon the bottom of the grave. The clay coffins were 
narrower than the simple graves. Children's bodies were buried in 
earthen troughs. A second variety of clay coffins consists of am- 
phorae. This variety was in the later period usual only for children. 
When the body was burned in the grave, it lay upon a bed of vine- 
branches. The objects buried with the ashes were the same as those 
buried with unburned bodies. The graves with burned bodies date 
from the sixth to the fourth century B. c. The bones buried in ves- 
sels after burning were wrapped in linen. The bed of vine-branches 
was spread under the unburned bodies whether cremation was to take 


place or not. The obolos to be paid to Charon as toll was not found 
in a single instance. The lekythoi, etc., in the graves were almost in- 
variably close to the body, i. e., laid within the coffin, not upon the 
grave. The gifts in the graves of women were generally more richly 
furnished than those of men, containing all sorts of toilette articles, etc. 

SANCTUARY OF DEMETER CHLOE. In the Mitth. Athen., (1893, p. 102 
sq.) Otto Kern, in an article entitled Demeter Chloe, published a 
fragment of an oracle, found in 1889 southwest from the bastion upon 
which stands the temple of Athena Nike. A second smaller fragment 
was published by Lolling, 'A/j^. AeXnov, 1889, p. 113. The oracle be- 
longs to the second century after Christ. The Delphic Apollo re- 
minds the Athenian people that offerings are due to Demeter Chloe 
and her daughter whose sanctuary is by the Akropolis, where first the 
fruit of sacred grain sprang up. The exact site of this sanctuary is 
unknown. The early Athenian tradition ascribed the invention of 
the plough to Buzyges, and Athena Buzyge was never forgotten. The 
Delphic Apollo, however, supports the claims of the Eleusinian god- 

PRECINCT OF A GOD OF HEALING. The Precinct of a God of Healing on 
the western slope of the Akropolis at Athens was uncovered in the ex- 
cavations for the discovery of the Enneakrounos. After a general 
description of the precinct by Dorpfeld, the separate finds are dis- 
cussed by A. Korte in Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 231, (pi. xi; 5 cuts). 
The discoveries are ex-votos of the kinds usually associated with Ask- 
lepios. But this precinct cannot originally have belonged to Askle- 
pios, being too old. Asklepios was brought to Athens, as is here 
proved, in 420 B. c. It is not certain what hero of healing held this 
precinct. Perhaps it was Alkbn. 

SCULPTURES. In lengthening the course of the Athens-Peiraieus rail- 
way, a singular metope has been found, differing from all ancient 
examples in classic temples by the fact of its representing three per- 
sons in habits of mourning. It belonged probably to some sepulchral 
monument. On both sides may be seen the triglyphs Athenaeum, 
Mch. 18. 

Archaic Equestrian Figures from the Akropolis in the Jahrbuch d. 
d. Arch. Inst. (1893, p. 135 sq.). The starting point of the dis- 
cussion is the rider in variegated costume, which Studniczka (Jahrb. 
1891, p. 239 ff.) claims as a -monument of the battle of Marathon. 
The equestrian figures from the Akropolis are carefully described and 
arranged in chronological order, and accurate observation shows that 
the figure above mentioned is not the latest of the series. Hence it 


cannot be a monument of Marathon. Winter regards it as a figure 
dedicated by one of the Athenians who had served in Thrace, perhaps 
under Miltiades. A base with the inscription Diokleides, son of 
Diokles, in letters of the time of the Peisistratidai, appears to belong 
to this figure. The discussion touches upon many points of interest 
in connection with Attic art before the Persian wars. 

RELIEFS OF ELEUSINIAN DEITIES. B. Sauer publishes two reliefs repre- 
senting the Eleusinian deities in the 'E^/xepts 'ApxaioXoyiK^ (1893, p. 35 
sq. : PL 8 ; supplementary pi.). The first is published by .Schone, 
griechische Reliefs, 57, and wrongly interpreted. This relief, which was 
found on the Akropolis and is now in the Akropolis Museum, is a 
work of the Attic school dependent upon Pheidias. It represents 
Demeter and Kore sending forth Triptolemos, but the part with Trip- 
tolemos and his serpent chariot is almost entirely gone. The second 
relief, now in the Glyptothek at Munich, was found at Rhamnous 
(Brunn, 'Glyptothek, 85 ; Le Bas, Voy. Arch., pi. 19 ; Liitzow, Munchener 
Antiken, 34). This cannot have been part of a frieze, but was a votive 
relief, representing Demeter and Kore. The right-hand figure holds a 
torch, and is therefore Kore, the left-hand one, holding a sceptre, is 
Demeter. The slab is broken off at the left. Perhaps figures of wor- 
shippers were once represented. 

RELIEF OF HERMES AND THE NYMPHS. A votive relief to Hermes and the 
Nymphs is published by P. Cavvadias in 'E^/xepis 'A^atoXoyt/c^, 1893, 
p. 129 sq. (pis. 9, 10). The relief was found in June, 1893, near the 
distillery Hebe, along the old line of the railway north of New Pha- 
leron. On one side is represented a quadriga before which stands 
Hermes, as is shown by an inscription. In the chariot is a youth 
holding a female by the waist. Inscriptions designate the youth as 
Echelos and the female as Basile. Echelos is doubtless the eponym 
of the deme Echelidai. The worship of Basile at Athens is known 
(<7. /. A., iv, No. 53 a ; c/. A. J. A., in, p. 38 sq.), but her connection 
with Echelos is new. Perhaps it is referred to in the narrative of 
Diodoros, in, 57. On the other side of the stone are three female 
figures (the nymphs), a beajded man with horns, interpreted as 
Kephisos, a bearded man interpreted as Ilissos or Munychos, and a 
figure probably representing Artemis Agrotera or Munychia. Of the 
inscription only 'Ep/i^t KCU Nt)ju,<cucnv a can be made out. There are 
abundant traces of color on the stone. According to Diodoros, Basile 
is identical with the Great Mother, who is sometimes associated with 
the nymphs (Pindar, Pyth., 3, 77-137 ; Paus. i, 31, 4), hence the relief 
first described is not out of place here. The work of the reliefs, espe- 
cially the first, is excellent, and strongly influenced by the frieze of 
the Parthenon. 




RELIEF OF ACHELOUS. In excavating near the Ilissos the Athenian 
Archaeological Society have discovered an important votive relief of 
the iv century B. c. It represents the river Achelous in the form of a 
male divinity seated, the name being inscribed in Greek characters on 
the base. Near it stand Hermes and Herakles, and behind is the 
figure of a woman, who may represent the daughter of Achelous, 
Callirrhoe. Athenasum, Oct. 14. 

A NIKE BY BRYAXIS. P. Cavvadias, in an article entitled Nike from 
Athens and the Pedestal of Bryaxis ('E^/Aepts 'Ap^atoXoytK^, 1893, p. 
40 ff. ; pis. 4-7; supplementary pi.), publishes a torso of a wingless 
Nike found in 1891 near the stoa of Attalos ('Ap X . 'AcAnov, 1891, p. 89, 
No. 18), and the pedestal signed by Bryaxis found about fifty metres 
from the same spot ('Ap X . AeAr. 1891, p. 34, No. 34; p. 55; Bull, de 
Corr. Hell., 1891, p. 369; 1892, p. 550). After showing that the two 
may have formed parts of one monument, he reconstructs the whole, 
so that a column stands upon the pedestal and the Nike upon the 

ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. The 'Ap X atoA.oyiKov J AeA.Tim> for September- 
December, 1892, states that the National Museum at Athens received 
additions amounting to fifty-six numbers. Several objects are some- 
times grouped under one number. The objects described are of vari- 
ous kinds, the most interesting being apparently the vases from 
Eretria. During the same time the epigraphical museum received 
seventeen inscriptions, apparently all sepulchral. The museum in 
the Peiraieus received seven additions, five of which are brief inscrip- 
tions, one a shattered relief, and one a set of four amphora-handles. 

RED-FIGURF.D VASES. R. Weisshiiupl, under the title Red-figured Vases 
of Attic Tombs, publishes in the 'E^/xepts 'Ap^atoXoyiK^ (1893, p. 13 ff. : 
Pis. n, in ; two cuts) a fragmentary vase in Athens and a lekythos 
from Eretria. Both are red-figured, and upon each is represented a 
grave-stele adorned with fillets. On the fragmentary vase are two 
other stelai, showing that the scene is in a cemetery. On this vase all 
the stelai are white. On the other the stele is red. To the left of the 
stele on the fragmentary vase stand two young armed men, to the 
right a white-haired man, behind whom is a person holding a horse. 
On the other vase a youth and a maiden are adorning the stele. The 
youth holds a helmet, and against the stele leans a shield. Other 
similar vases are compared. The date assigned to these is about the 
middle of the fifth century B. c. " hardly 10-15 years later than 450." 

EARLIEST ATTIC INSCRIPTION. The earliest Attic inscription on a " Dipy- 
lon " vase of later style (C. I. A., iv, p. 119, No. 492 a , and elsewhere), 
is read by F. Studniczka, Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 225 (pi. x), as fol- 


lows: os vvv opx^o'Tujv TTOLVTW araX^rara 7rcuei | TOVTO Se/cav /xtv. Here 
Sc/cSv is the infinitive (used as imperative) of a new verb meaning 

" receive." 

EPHEBIC INSCRIPTIONS H. G. Lolling publishes two Ephebic inscrip- 
tions in the 'E^/xe/ns ' A PX atoXoytK^ (1893, p. 65 if.). The first is the 
latter half of a list of epheboi and their officers. Careful examination 
of the names mentioned and comparison with other inscriptions ena- 
ble Lolling to fix the date at 143 A. D. The second list is not a little 
later than the first, but still earlier than the time of Caracalla. 

HONORARY DECREE OF DIODOROS. K. D. Mylonas publishes an Attic 
decree in the 'E^epis 'ApxaioyoAt/cr? (1893, p. 49 sq.). It is a decree in 
honor of Diodoros, son of Sokrates of Aphidna, passed by a unani- 
mous vote of sixty members of the association of Soteriastai. It pro- 
vides that Diodoros be crowned annually because he founded the 
association and benefitted it. The stele with the decree is to be 
placed in the temenos of (Artemis) Soteira, the site of which is un- 
known in Athens. The decree is dated in the archonship of Theo- 
pithes, and an archon Euthydomos is also mentioned. Both are new. 
Other archons mentioned are Nikandros, Diokles of Melite, Menan- 
dros, and Kallikratides. The dates of these being approximately 
known, it appears that Euthydomos was archon one or more years 
before Nikandros, whose date is 62-53 B. c., and Theopithes a year or 
more after Kallikratides, whose date is 39-32 B. c. A dedicatory 
inscription to Artemis Soteira is published, and the opinion expressed 
that the sanctuary of Artemis Soteira existed in Athens as early as the 
third century B. c., perhaps near the Dipylon. 

DECREE OF A RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATION. Dr. Lolling publishes in the 
'ApxauoXoyLKov 'Ae/YrioV for 1892 (p. 100 sq.), a decree of a religious asso- 
ciation ordering wreaths for their cTrnrcXrjTaL and ypa^arf.^. The date 
is the month of Munychion, in the archonship of Demokles, 278-7 
B. c. Munychion was the favorite month for decrees of this nature. 
What goddess was worshipped by this association is not known, as 
she is called simply f) 6ed. Her sanctuary was perhaps a rock-cut 
shrine on the southern slope of the Pynx hill, near where the inscrip- 
tion was found in the quarry of Alk. Kampas. 

Two WELLS. Dr. Dorpfeld announces the discovery of two wells 
filled with rubbish, which from their contents, viz., bits of vases of 
the vi century B. c., are supposed to have been filled in at the Pisis- 
trataan period. Their having been disused at this time confirms the 
notion that they were supplanted by the fountain of Enneakrounos, 
of which he is in search. Athen., Feb 11. 




WORK OF THE ENGLISH SCHOOL. Prof. Gardner writes : '' In Athens some 
extremely interesting discoveries are due to students of the British 
'School. Mr. Yorke has been studying the well-known balustrade of. 
the temple of Wingless Victory perhaps the most beautiful of all the 
reliefs preserved to us from the best Greek times. He has not only 
discovered some new evidence as to the arrangement of this balus- 
trade, but has also found three new pieces belonging to it, two show- 
ing the shoulder and breast of a winged Nike, and one forming the 
greater part of a wing. ' These new fragments unfortunately do not 
join on to one another, or to any of the pieces already known and ex- 
hibited in the Akropolis Museum. But their style, especially in the 
modelling and the treatment of drapery, shows that grace and delica- 
cy for which the balustrade reliefs are so much admired, and thus 
they are in themselves a valuable acquisition even in a place so rich as 
Athens in sculpture of the finest period. It is remarkable that they 
were all found lying among other fragments either on the Akropolis 
or close under it, but by some strange fortune they had either been 
overlooked or unrecognized hitherto. 

Mr. Bather has been employed upon a most important piece of 
work, which has been very successful in its results. He has under- 
taken the sorting, piecing, and cleaning of the bronzes from the exca- 
vations on tbe Akropolis, which, with the exception of a few conspic- 
uous pieces that had been selected for exhibition, were packed in 
indiscriminate heaps of fragments. As the result of the best part of 
two seasons' work, there have now emerged from this mass about sixty 
inscriptions (mostly dedications), several early reliefs of the greatest 
interest alike for subject and style, and numerous pieces of ornament, 
decorated handles, and so forth, many of them of great beauty of work- 
manship. A selection of these will be published in the Hellenic Jour- 
nal, and it will then appear that the Akropolis at Athens is second 
only to Olympia in the excellence and the variety of the early bronzes^ 
it has yielded. E. A. G. in Athen., April 8. 

SEPULCHRAL RELIEF. A Sepulchral Relief from Athens (AeArtoi/, 1892, p. 
'28, 1) representing three mourning worn en is discussed by P. Wolters 
in Mittheil Inst. Athen., xvin, p. 1 sq. (pi. 1). The relief is a metope 
between tryglyphs on the same block. It doubtless belonged to a 
sepulchral monument in the form of a temple, and is the work of a 
good artist of the fourth century. See under SCULPTURES. 

GRAVE-STONE. A gravestone with loutrophoros is discussed by P. 
Wolters in the Mitth. Inst. Athen., xvm, p. 66, sq. Below the inscrip- 
tion for Aristodemos is one for his mother Smikythe. This might 
seem to show that the loutrophoros has no special reference to an un- 


married person, but the stone was evidently erected for Aristodemos r 
and the inscription for Smikythe was added later. Besides, one han- 
dle of the loutrophoros is worked off as if to destroy its significance. 
The same is true in the case of another stone, AeArtoi/, 1891, p. 115, 4. 

CHALKIS. Workmen engaged in deepening the Euripus between 
Chalkis and the mainland drew up from the water a small statue of a 
boy with the lower portion partly broken off. The boy carries a man- 
tle and holds a shaggy cap in his left hand close to his stomach. The 
statue will be sent to Athens along with a sculptured fragment 
representing the head of a youth in a good style of art. Besides these, 
there were found eighteen marble slabs, seventeen of which were 
tombstone -stele's with simple inscriptions dating from Roman times. 
*E<r7/xepis ApxaioAoyi/cT?, 1893, p. 106 : "Eoria, April 18. 

CORINTH. A MIRROR. A Folding Mirror from Corinth is discussed 
by K. D. Mylonas in the 'E^/xepis 'ApxatoXoytKr/ (1893, p. 161 sq. pi. xi ,- 
2 cuts). On the lid of the mirror is a relief of a beautiful female head 
in profile. Comparison with coins makes it probable that Aphrodite 
is represented. A list of five Greek mirrors with single heads upon 
them is given, followed by reference to a number of similar Etruscan 

INSCRIPTIONS. Inscriptions from Corinth, twenty-six in number, are 
published by A. N. Skias in the 'E^/xepis 'ApxaioXoyiK?? (1893, p. 113 sq). 
Seven of these are in Latin. All appear to be of late date. Most of 
them are sepulchral. 

DELOS. The French School has laid bare the ancient theatre. 
'E^ficpts 'ApxaioAoytK?7, 1893, p. 106. 

DELPHI. The discoveries at Delphi during the past year were 
chiefly epigraphical, but architectural and plastic finds also took 
place. The foundations and architectural members of a Doric build- 
ing about ten metres in length were found. Homolle believes this to- 
.be the treasury of the Athenians (Paus. x. 2, 5). The metopes of this 
structure are adorned with fine archaic sculptures. Of these there- 
were found an Athena, a Herakles, a Centaur, a bull, three heads, etc. 
Beside this building there was found an archaic figure of the so-called 
Apollo type in excellent preservation, and another head of the same- 
type. Over 150 inscriptions have been found. 'E^^epis 'ApxaioAoyi/cr;, 
1893, p. 106. 

STATUE OF APOLLON. At Delphi an important discovery has been 
made, throwing more than ordinary light on the history of Greek 
sculpture. Besides the remains of considerable buildings, amongst 
which, it would appear, must be counted the walls belonging to the 
temple of the Pythian Apollo, an archaic marble statue of the god has 


just been found imbedded in a wall, for which it was used as building 
material. The building where it was found is near the recently dis- 
covered treasury of the Athenians, and the statue is in a splendid 
state of preservation, save the end of the nose and the toes. It repre- 
sents Apollo standing, and is of more than natural size. The features 
and the attitude of the whole body are of an entirely primitive charac- 
ter, the face being almost flat and rigidly triangular in contour, and 
the members stiff and angular so as to give the figure more the appear- 
ance of an antique Egyptian statue than of the known Greek figures 
of Apollo, as, for example, the statues of Orchomenos and Thera. 
The arms and hands fall close to the sides, the fingers being closed in 
the fist. The ears are larger than natural size, and the hair, bound 
with a teenm, descends over the back, while over the brow and shoul- 
ders fall locks of cylindrical-shaped curls. The workmanship is very 
accurate more so, perhaps, than might have been expected in a work 
of such primitive style. It is probably a copy of some ancient xoanon. 
Athen., Aug. 19 ; cf. June 17. 

TREASURY OF THE ATHENIANS. M. Homolle writes: "We are putting 
together by degrees the fragments of the Treasury of the Athenians 
already in our possession architectural pieces, sculptures from me- 
topes and pediments. Everything seems to confirm the conjecture I 
formed as to the character of this monument : the material of which 
it is made, the inscriptions with which it is covered, the style of the 
reliefs or statues with which it is ornamented, the subjects which are 
there represented, almost all relating to Herakles and Theseus, the 
two heroes of Athens. The building, which has the form of a temple 
in antis, like the Treasuries at Olympia, is small, though it exceeds the 
dimensions of the largest of those. I hope that I do not exaggerate 
in describing it as a masterpiece of archaic art. I know no monu- 
ment, among the works of the beginning of the v century, of which 
the execution is more sharp, delicate and elegant. The sculptures 
have the same qualities of grace and precision. Their archaic severity 
is tempered by a softness of modelling rare in works of this date, and 
by a certain richness that both surprises and charms one. Apart 
from this, they have a special importance for the history of art, if they 
are as may be inferred from the testimony of Pausanias, and as I 
hope to prove also from their style a work of the years 490-480. 
For they would thus put us in possession of monuments strictly dated, 
and of an indisputable artistic standard. Within the last few days 
our archaeological spoil has been increased by an archaic head of 
Apollo, of colossal size, measuring .67 centimetres ; and by a statue of 
the same god, or at least of the archaic type called Apolline, which is 


perfect all but the feet, and is in the finest state of preservation." 
Report from M. HOMOLLE in Acad., June 24. 

INTERRUPTION OF THE EXCAVATIONS. M. Homolle publishes in the Paris 
Temps of Oct. 8 a letter in regard to certain statements made in the 
London Standard of Aug. 11. He states that the excavations at Del- 
phi were not interrupted by order of the Greek government, but were 
suspended voluntarily. The suspension was due to certain high- 
handed acts on the part of Greek officials, which led to the recall of 
one of these inspectors. M. Homolle also denies that any secret has 
been made of the finds, or that they have been kept from inspection. 
He adds that the difficulties have been satisfactorily settled. 

ELEUSIS. At Eleusis Mr. Philios had found another piece of the 
city wall, and sufficient remains have come to light to make the whole 
line intelligible. He has also found an ancient well, which he thinks 
is the famous Well of the Fair Dance, where the Eleusinian women 
first danced and sang to Demeter. 

EPIDAUROS. Excavations were renewed in January, 1893. The 
foundations and many architectural members of a stoa-like building, 
probably a propylon were uncovered. Votive inscriptions and one 
honorary inscription of the iv century B. c. were found. 'E^rj^ply 
'Ap X <"oAoyi/c7y, 1893, p. 105. 

KEPHALE. In the Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 209 sq., A. Bruckner pub- 
lished an Inscription from Kephale (Keratea) : opo<s TC/ACVOVS 'A<po8ir?7s 
Kf(f>aXrj6ev. The name of the deme may be derived from its position 
on the height of land between the valleys of Kaly via-Markopoulo and 

KERATIA. At Keratia in Attica an archaic figure above size of the 
type called Apollo has been found. The arms are wanting, as are the 
legs below the knees. 

KOPAI'S. On the island Goulas in Lake Kopais, the French have 
discovered a very ancient building resembling the palace at Tiryns. 
'E^epis 'Ap X aLoXo-yiKTj, 1893, p. 106. 

LYKOSOURA. In the Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 220 sq., W. Dorpfeld 
briefly discusses the temple at Lykosoura. The temple must, judging 
from general workmanship as well as from dowels, etc., be later than 
the fourth century B. c. The marble sculptures, known to be by 
Damophon, are of the same date as the temple, therefore Damophon 
is a later artist than has been supposed. Probably temple and sculp- 
tures belong to the second or first century B, c. 

MARATHON. The tomb at Marathon is described and discussed 
by B. Staes in the Mitth. Athen., xvm, p. 46 sq. (pi. n-v; 6 cuts). 
The mound has been thoroughly investigated, and its contents 


prove conclusively that it was erected over those who fell in the battle 
against the Persians. The vases found show that some celebration 
was held after the funeral rites, and that a celebration, probably an- 
nual, was held for some years at the mound. Ten vases found in and 
at the mound are published. The vases found belonged to the " Attic- 
Corinthian," " Proto-Attic," black-figured and red-figured styles. 

MEGALOPOLIS. Prof. Gardner wrote from Athens, on March 23, 1893: 
The excavations of the British School at Megalopolis were resumed 
last week. Our intention this season is to clear completely the Thes- 
silion, or parliament-house of the 10,000 Arcadians, which we had al- 
ready partially excavated. The Thessilion gives us an example of a 
Greek public building of an entirely new type, skilfully adapted to 
the purpose for which it was designed ; its columns radiate from the 
centre, so as to obstruct as little as possible the view from all parts of 
the house, while they still preserve in their plan the lines parallel to 
the sides of the building necessitated by the structure of its roof. Mr. 
Benson and Mr. Bather are in charge of the excavations, and they 
hope also to test once more the possibility of any further topo- 
graphical discoveries in the neighborhood of the Agora, when the chief 
landmarks have already been fixed by our previous work. 

PUBLICATION OF THE REPORT. An elaborate report upon the important 
excavations undertaken at Megalopolis by members of the British 
School at Athens during the last three years has been published under 
the auspices of the Hellenic Society. The volume consisting of some 
two hundred pages folio, fully illustrated with plans and architectural 
drawings, is issued to members of the Hellenic Society and to sub- 
scribing libraries in lieu of the ordinary issue of the Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, of which no volume was published in 1892. Athen. Jan. 28. 

MR. LORING'S PROTEST. Mr. William Loring, in a letter from Athens 
published in the Athenseum (Aug. 5), gives his reasons for having 
changed his former views concerning the date of the theatre at Megal- 
opolis and for having adopted Dr. Dorpfeld's theory in opposition to 
that of Mr. Ernest Gardner. He protests against the fact that his 
name was printed alongside of Mr. Gardner's after chap, iv of the pub- 
lication on the u Excavations at Megalopolis," since he had withdrawn 
his signature while the proof of the chapter was still in his hands. A 
more recent visit to Megalopolis and a more searching examination 
had convinced him that the chief argument for his former opinion 
was weak, i. e., a difference of technique between the seats of the thea- 
tre and the lower steps of the neighboring building, the " Thessilion." 
What had seemed a difference of technique now appeared only a dif- 
ference in the degree to which the stone had been worn and weath- 


ered. Mr. Gardner's other argument, mainly epigraphical, he never 
took much account of. An inscription on one of the seats, which Mr. 
Gardner dates from the middle of the 4th century, very soon after the 
foundation of Megalopolis, Mr. Loring thinks may have been much 
later, allowing time for a former theatre, on a higher level and coeval 
with the upper steps of the " Thessilion " portico Dr. Dorpfeld's the- 
ory.' Athenssum, Aug. 5. 

PROF. DORPFELD'S VIEWS. In the Mitih. Athen. (1893, p. 215, sq.) Prof. 
W. Dorpfeld briefly states his disagreement with the views of E. Gard- 
ner relative to the theatre at Megalopolis and the stage of Greek thea- 
tres in general. Dorpfeld still holds to his belief that there never was 
a raised logeion before the skene. A more detailed treatment of the 
matter is promised. 

MYKENAI. Excavations have been renewed by the Greek archaBO- 
logical society. The report of Sept. 30th states that the excavation of 
the last tholos tomb has been begun. Near it were found three new 
chamber tombs. A variety of objects of gold, terracotta and stone have 
been found. 'E^/xe/ois 'ApxaioXoyiKrj, 1893, p. 174. 

OLYMPIA. In the Archdologischer Anzeiger, 1893, '4, p. 197 sq., J. Six 
returns to the Eastern Pediment at Olympia, and supports (with some 
modifications) the views expressed by him in the Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, x, p. 98 ff. 

OLYMPIA. ZEUS-SOSIPOLIS. Sosipolis in Olympia (Paus. vi, 20, 2) is 
discussed by C. Robert in the Mitih. Athen., xvui, p. 37 sq. (cut). 
Sosipolis is identified with Zeus, and his connection with Eilethyia 
(Paus. vi, 20, 3) points to a local legend of the birth of Zeus. The 
sanctuary of Sosipolis was close behind the exedra of Herodes. 

PAROS AND AN DROS INSCRIPTIONS. In the Mitih. Inst. (Athen. Abth.\ 
xvin, p. 7 sq., E. Pernice publishes Inscriptions from Andros and Paros. 
The fifteen Andrian inscriptions are chiefly sepulchral and dedica- 
tory. One mentions several Cretan cities, one is a corrected copy of 
the decree published by Weil, Mitih., i, p. 239. Of the two Parian 
inscriptions the first is a late sepulchral inscription, the second records 
the contributions of a thiasos of hetairai for the repair or establish- 
ment of a spring, altar and thalamos of the goddess. This hetairai- 
inscription of Paros is further discussed by E. Maass (p. 21 sq.). The 
goddess Sistro worshipped by the thiasos is identified with Aphrodite, 
perhaps with Aphrodite Porne. 

paper with this title in the Revue de Philologie (April-June, 1893). He 
says : " The complaint has often rightly been made that the chron- 
ology of the Rhodian inscriptions is still too uncertain and confused. 




Lately an unexpected discovery was made by M. Hiller von Gart- 
ringen and published by Prof. Mommsen (in the Sitzungsb. of the Ber- 
lin Academy) ; this was the deciphering of perhaps the only one of 
the Rhodian inscriptions that is exactly dated." This furnishes the 
foundation of M. Holleaux's paper. 

The largest and one of the most important of the Rhodian inscrip- 
tions is one published by Mr. Paton in the Bull. Corr. Hellen., where 
beneath a dedicatory formula is a list of some five hundred proper 
names in four columns. This inscription he dubs A, and on account 
of the word 'P<o/Acua, which designates the biennial fetes in honor of 
the Roman people, it cannot be anterior to the year 201, and is proba- 
bly more recent than 197, when the first year of quiet began. In 
determining its age more exactly, it is necessary to glance at the dated 
inscription read by M. Hiller von Gartringen, cut in honor of a 
Rhodian citizen delegated as ambassador to five distinguished Ro- 
mans, among whom were L. Murena and L. Lucullus, which places it 
between the years 82 and 74. At the close of this inscription the 
Rhodian sculptor Ploutarchos, son of Heliodoros, has signed his name. 
Now the signature of Ploutarchos and his brother Demetrios had 
already been read on two pedestals discovered some years ago, below 
two inscriptions published by Loewy as Nos. 194 and 193, or a) and 
/8) ; also in a third inscription y), the name of one of them should be 
restored. Therefore the three inscriptions, a, /3, y, are about contem- 
porary with von Giirtringen's monument, and belong to the early 
years of the first century. Now inscription A should be dated to very 
nearly the same time as y on account of the appearance of some of the 
same names in both, but it is somewhat later, because the sons of two 
of the persons enumerated in y appear in A. Other arguments agree 
in assigning to inscription A about the date 50 B. c., or rather a few 
years- before. 

The close of the first half of the first century having been estab- 
lished for A, M. Holleaux proceeds to group around it the greatest 
possible number of other inscriptions. Among other important 
results, it is found that not only did the atelier of the sculptors Plou- 
tarchos and Demetrios, sons of Heliodoros, nourish contrary to received 
opinions in about 80 B. c., but that other sculptors of the Rhodian 
school nourished at the same time, such as the two Epicharmos 
(Epicharmos of Soloi and Epicharmos of Rhodes, his son), Charinos 
of Laodicea, Theon of Alexandria, and his collaborator, Demetrios of 
Rhodes, son of Demetrios. 

The chronology of the Rhodian sculptors is thus quite modified. 
The sculptors here cited really lived on the average about a century 


later than is supposed by Loewy (Bildhauerinschrift.). This discovery 
may not contradict the theory that the period of greatest activity of 
Rhodian sculpture was during the second century, but it shows that 
it was still nourishing during the first half of the first century. The 
date of the Laocoon would vary by about a century, according to cer- 
tain identifications of names in the inscriptions with the person and 
geneology of Athanodoros, son of Agesandros, one of its sculptors. 
The writer then proceeds to establish a synchronism between A and 
seven other inscriptions, and makes interesting remarks regarding 
three Rhodian functionaries mentioned with the titles dye/xcov CTTI 

Kawou, aye/xwv CTTI Kaptas and dyc/xwv 7rt Av/cias. 

The tradition, founded entirely on a text of the rhetorician Aris- 
tides, that when the Rhodians reached the height of their power they 
possessed the island of Karpathos, and that they long retained posses- 
sion of it, has been confirmed by some inscriptions found at Karpa- 
thos itself, where some names occur which are also to be found in 
inscription A. 

SALAMIS. In the isle of Salamis some very ancient tombs have 
come to light, which are thought to belong to the warriors who per- 
ished in the famous battle with the Persians. Signor Kavvadias has 
gone to visit them. Athenseum, Oct. 14. 

In the Mitth. Athen., 1893, p. 208, sq., A. Korte publishes Inscriptions 
from Marathon and Salamis. The one from Marathon (Bei) is on an 
altar with a relief representing two standing draped females. It 
reads : A?;8a liapa^ovov evx*iv Mrjrpl 6ew. Date, second century B. c. 
The three .from Salamis are short and apparently of little interest. 

They read : 1) Kvi<]\o/36Xov[M.vppi~\ vovo-i'ou(?) 6\>Tr]v\jjLvriOtVTa. d]<^>' ecrrias, 
2) BotSiov /cooyuas, 3) ^pwi^os OlviXov KuSa^vatevs. 

SPARTA. The excavations by the American School at Sparta in 
1893 are reported in a previous number of this JOURNAL (vol. vin, p. 
410, sq.). In connection with them we would call attention to the 
article on The Topography of Sparta, by Dr. Crosby, published in the 
same number (p. 335, sq.). 

STRATOS. From Stratos, in Akarnania, M. Joubin reports the dis- 
covery, besides the remains of an ancient temple, of the single archaic 
inscription in genuine Akarnanian dialect that has hitherto come to 
light. Athen., June 14. 

THORIKOS. The excavations of the Greek Archaeological Society 
have uncovered remains of buildings the purpose of which is not yet 
clear. Fragments of vases similar to those found at Hissarlik and 
Mykenai have been found. 'E^^tepts 'ApxaioAoyiKi), 1893, p. 176. 

THYRREION. A. N. Skias publishes inscriptions from Thyrreion in 
Akarnania in the 'E^/xepts 'ApxaioAoytKT/, 1893, p. 30, sq. The first 




inscription is a record of the sale of some prop.erty by public officers. 
The five remaining inscriptions are sepulchral. 

VELESTINO. At Velestino in Thessaly were found : 1) a grave-stone 
in the form of a naiskos. The relief represents a draped female hold- 
ing in her left hand her garment, and with her right taking something 
from a box. Excellent preservation ; work of the fourth century. 2) 
Grave-stone. In the upper part, bust of a beardless youth. Inscription 
^P - 3) Grave-stone with inscriptions : ^ 

i 8e ^coT^pi'xos X a <-P an( l 'Hy^crai'Spa eoSwpou X "/ 36 -' 
1893, p. 107. 


BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE IN GREECE. Under the auspices of the 
Managing Committee of the British School at Athens there has 
been prepared for publication an elaborate work on the above 
subject, consisting of illustrations of existing examples of architec- 
ture and inconography in Greece, principally ecclesiastical, from 
the fourth century onwards, with descriptions of the same, by Mr. 
R. W. Schultz, a travelling student in architecture of the Royal 
Academy, 1887-89, and Mr. Sidney H. Barnsley, architect, both lately 
students of the British School at Athens. In a supplement will be 
given drawings of some of the churches of Salonica. The authors 
claim that this will be the first exhaustive treatment of this most im- 
portant subject. It represents the result of nearly two years' travel 
and labour in Greece, and of many months' labour at home in work- 
ing up the material. In addition to full and detailed drawings of 
buildings which had been briefly and incompletely illustrated in such 
works as those of M. Couchaud, of Messrs. Le Bas and Waddington, 
of M. Blouet, and of Messrs. Texier and Pullan, a large mass of fresh 
material has been collected, and coloured drawings of the fine mosaics 
and marble work in the church of Daphne, near Athens, and in the 
monastery church of St. Luke of Stiris, between Livadia and Delphi, 
are now published for the first time. Some fine churches in various 
parts of Greece, which have not hitherto been published, are also in- 
cluded in the work. Athen., June 17. 

MEDI/EVAL PRANKISH MONUMENTS. The well known French arch- 
seologist, G. Schlumberger, has contributed to the Ami des monuments 
(1893, Nos. 35, sqq.) a series of papers on the records of the French in 
Greece during the Middle Ages (Souvenirs et Monuments de la Grece 
Frangaise au Moyen Age). Although mainly historical this study 
speaks of the ruins of the feudal castles and of the 'coinage of these 
French rulers who belonged to the flower of the French nobility. 


SECULAR BYZANTINE ART. G. Mavrogiaimis in the 'E^epis 'Ap X cu- 
0X0^, 1893, p. 22 sq. writes of the secularjpainting of the Byzantines. 
Byzantine art was not confined to sacred subjects, though the secular 
paintings have come down to us only in description and miniature. 
Portraits, hunting and fishing scenes, and historical paintings were 
numerous. The first extant notice of jsecular paintings is in a letter of 
St. Neilos, a contemporary of Chrysostom, in which hunting scenes, 
etc., are mentioned. Under Justinian mosaics were made represent- 
ing secular subjects, but in the ecclesiastical style. Under the empe- 
ror Mauricius (58^-602) battle-pieces are recorded. Under Theophi- 
lus secular art nourished even more, while under the iconoclast rulers 
in general, art was confined to secular subjects. Paintings made at 
the command of Manuel and Andronicus Comnenus are known by 
description. Caricature also nourished in Byzantine times. In the 
old churches at Mistra portraits of Manuel Lascaris and two Palseologi 
are still preserved. It is evident that Byzantine secular art was differ- 
ent from the sacred art of the time, and formed an important element 
in Byzantine life. 

EARLY CHRISTIAN IVORY. Mr. G. Schlumberger has presented to the 
Acad. d. Insc. a very ancient Christian ivory. The sculptured front rep- 
resents an apostle preaching before a crowd of auditors in the costumes 
of that period. It is perhaps Saint Paul preaching to the Gentiles. 
These persons are grouped under the gate of a miniature town of 
which the principal edifices very different in form are figured in re- 
lief, peopled with little spectators who are listening to the preaching 
of the saint from their windows and balconies. This ivory, which 
very probably adorned some bishop's chair, possesses still further in- 
terest in the peculiar disposition of the edifices, the apparently inten- 
tional irregularity with which they are arranged side by side, the 
lack of symmetry, the strongly characterized variety in their forms 
and the presence of a huge central portico semi-circular in shape. All 
these circumstances go to prove that the artist wished to represent a 
particular city, and probably a well-known city at that. Mr. Duchesne 
thinks that the body of a young man half- falling from an open win- 
dow, points to the story of Iconium and the young man who fell from 
the window while asleep. He sees also in the figures of a young wo- 
man and her mother on the other side of the ivory a reference to the 
legend of Thecla, the young girl of Iconium who was so absorbed by 
the preaching of St. Paul that her mother could not drag her from the 
window. Chrohique des Arts, 1893, No. 12. 

CONSTANTINOPLE. COLUMN OF ARCADIUS. In the Jahrbuch d. k. deut. 
Arch. Inst., 1893, p. 231 sq., J. Strzygowski writes of The Column of Ar- 




cadius in Constantinople (11 cuts). This column stood on the seventh 
hill of the city, called Xerolophos. It was erected A. D. 403, but the 
.statue of Arcadius was not placed upon it until 421. It was injured 
several times by earthquakes, and finally removed in 1719 all but the 
pedestal and one stone of the shaft. These parts are carefully des- 
cribed. The pedestal is now visible on but two sides. The reliefs are 
almost entirely gone, but doubtless represented the emperor, to whom 
the provinces are paying allegiance in presence of soldiers or the like. 
The spiral reliefs of the shaft are gone with the shaft itself. Drawings 
by Sandys (1610) and Melchior Lorch (1557-59) give an idea of the 
general appearance of the columns and the character of the spiral re- 
liefs. Both drawings are published after earlier publications. The 
reliefs represented the deeds of the emperor. The column of Theodo- 
sius is also discussed and a drawing of it published after Ducange, 
Const. Christ, i. p. 79. This column was erected A. D. 386, and removed 
about A. D. 1500. The column of Arcadius was in many respects an 
imitation of this, which stood on the second hill of the city, called 
Taurus. Attention is called to the drawing in the Louvre (Menestrier, 
Columna Theodosiana, etc., 1702; Banduri, Anonymi Antiquitatum Con- 
stantinopolis n, tab. 1. ; d'Agincourt, Sculpt, pi. xi), representing reliefs 
from one of these columns, and a fragment of relief in the museum at 
Constantinople is published, which appears to be a part of the spiral 
relief of the column of Arcadius. 


law affecting the custody and sale of objects of artistic or historic in- 
terest in Italy which has been submitted to the Chamber of Deputies 
is a stringent measure. It orders all such objects to be catalogued, for- 
bids their removal without the permission of the Minister of Instruc- 
tion, and directs their custodians to inform the Minister of any repairs 
that may be necessary. Special provisions are made for sale within 
the kingdom, expropriation, etc. The exportation of such articles can 
be effected only with the consent of the Ministry, and on payment of 
an export duty of 15 per cent., the duty being calculated on the value 
declared by the exporter, or, in case of contest, on the valuation by 
experts, chosen, one by the State and one by the owner, with appeal 
to a third nominated by the two, and when this fails, to the President 
of the local tribunal. The State will have power to acquire any desired 
object at the price declared by the owner, on declaring within thirty 


days its intentiqn to acquire, the purchase to be effected within three 
months from the date of the declaration, except in the case where the 
State may momentarily not be in a condition to buy, when the Min- 
ister may suspend the completion of the purchase for five years, if the 
appropriation made for the purpose will suffice within the term as- 
signed. The law does not apply to works executed within fifty years. 
The provisions with regard to excavation cover almost every imagin- 
able contingency, giving the State absolute control, with power to ac- 
quire treasure-trove at discretion, and imposing heavy penalties for all 
infringements of the statute. Eve. Post, May 4. 

ORPHEUS ON ITALIAN VASES. In the Jahrbuch d. L d. Arch. Inst. 
viii (1893), No. 2, p. 104 sq., E. Kuhnert discusses Nekyia of Lower 
Italy. Those vase-paintings in which Orpheus is represented in the 
lower world exhibit him as an intercessor for the dead. Sometimes 
the deceased pleads for himself. One series of representations is de- 
rived from an Attic original in which Herakles and Kerberos formed 
the center. Another series shows the difference between the initia- 
ted and the uninitiated in the lower world, the Danaides being typical 
representations of the uninitiated. The connection of these vase-paint- 
ings with the Orphic mysteries is shown by their evident relation to 
the Orphic inscriptions on gold tablets. Jour. Hell St., in. p. 112, 
114 ; Kaibel, Inscr. gr. Siciliae et Italiae, 638, 642. 

TRIUMPHAL ARCHES. Heinrich Wolfflin writes of the ancient tri- 
umphal arches in Italy in the Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, 
p. 11, sq. The purpose of the article is to point out the parallelism 
between Roman and renaissance architecture. The arches of the two 
epochs afford the best opportunity for comparison. Roman arches 
in Italy are described, and the progress is shown from the arch at 
Aosta (25 B. c.) through the arch of the Gavii formerly at Verona, the 
arch of Titus, the arch at Beneventum, the arch of Trajan at Ancona, 
and the arch of Marcus Aurelius formerly in Rome, to the arch of 
Septimius Severus. As in the renaissance, three periods are seen ; 
first a time of preparation, of early art, a second or classical period, and 
finally a period in which the feeling for form is dulled and weakened, 
corresponding to the baroque style of the seventeenth century. The 
article is illustrated with four small cuts. 

ALSENO. EXCAVATIONS AT THE TERRAMARA. Sig. Scotti continued in 1893 
his excavations begun in 1892 at this terramara. The earlier excava- 
tions (Not. d. Scavi, 1892, p. 337 : Bull, di Paletn. It. xvm, p. 243) had 
determined the limits of the terramara. It is now certain that, though 
it belongs to the class of hill terramare it has all the characteristics of 
those of the plain ; for it is quadrilateral in shape, is surrounded by a 


ditch which encircles the dyke and has on the interior the palafitta, or 
row of piles stuck close together in the ground as a defense. The last 
excavations were directed mainly so as to cut through, transversely, 
the south side and observe clearly the archaeological stratum that had 
formed between the piles, composed as usual of charcoal, ashes, human 
and vegetable remains, and industrial products in bronze, horn and 
terracotta. On the left of it was the dyke which descends gently to 
the south on the inner side of the ditch, while on the north it leans, 
with a vertical front, against a line of darker earth, a certain sign of 
the wooden structure so well known since Prof. Pigorini wrote of it in 
1883 (Terramara situata in Castione del Marches! ', p. 25). The archaeo- 
logical stratum is divided horizontally, throughout its extent by a 
band of carbonized wood which is a sure sign of a first and earlier 
level on which the cabins were placed. The level was raised and a 
new row of piles erected when the refuse had accumulated to the point 
of obstruction, and traces still remain of the former pales and their 
cross-pieces. A large number of objects were found, all typical of 
the bronze age. There was a great quantity of rude terracottas usually 
badly cooked and not turned, decorated with cords in relief, pushed 
down with the fingers, and with handles common to the terramare. 
These excavations are further proof of the uniform character of the 
terramare wherever they are found. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, pp. 232-233. 
ALBACINA=TUFICUM (UMBRIA). TheScavi (1893, pp. 134, sq.), chroni- 
cles the discovery of ruins at Albacina belonging to the Roman city of 
Tuficum. The exact site of the discovery is about two kil. from Alba- 
cina, and there had been found here in the past a number of antiqui- 
ties sculptures, architectural remains, and especially inscriptions. 
The architectual remains recently found show that in Roman times 
there existed here public buildings of considerable size and beauty, 
probably encircling the ancient forum. This conjecture is confirmed 
by the discovery of inscriptions, nearly all honorary, which must have 
been placed on the bases of statues. This forum was surrounded by 
porticoes, which were still seen early in the century by Ambrosioli, 
who wrote Cenni Storici sopra Tvfico, in which he also speaks of the 
honorary statues and their inscriptions. The honorary inscriptions 
that have now come to light are all fragmentary. The one exception 
is one to C. Fulvius Plautianus, intimate friend and relative of Septi- 
mius Severus, whose daughter Plautilla married Caracalla, bringing 
him an enormous dot, sufficient, says Dio Cassius, for fifty queens. 
The names of both father and daughter were afterwards officially 
erased from all inscriptions : hence the importance of this inscription, 
which preserves both names in full. It reads : 



The date of the inscription is 203 A. D., and the monument was 
erected by the Decurions of Tuficum at the public expense. It is 
here shown that Plautianus belonged to the tribe Quirina, and that 
his name is Caius and not Publius, as conjectured by Wilmans, or 
Lucius, as conjectured by Morcelli. 

ASCOLI. GREEK BRONZES. Mr. Geoffroy, director of the Ecole Fran- 
caise at Rome, writes that Prof. Barnabei has shown to the Accademia 
dei Lincei two fragments of the handles of a bronze vase, representing 
a bull and a lioness, of extremely beautiful archaic work and with an 
admirable patina. The fragments of the vase, together with those of 
the tripod which held it. were discovered near Ascoli, not far from 
the Adriatic. Mr. Geoffroy announces that there have often been 
found in this region beautiful fragments of bronze vases, Greek works 
undoubtedly, which the Tarentines imported in exchange for the 
wool that they needed in their dyeing industry. The director of the 
Ecole de Rome also writes that the Sultan has made a present to 
the Pope of the marble bearing the inscription of Albericus, bishop of 
Phrygia, at the beginning of the in century. This Greek inscription 
has been known for a long time ; it is of great value and of high 
importance for Christian archeology. Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 12. 

BERTARINA. PREHISTORIC STATION. At Vecchiazzano, near Forli, exca- 
vations are taking place in the prehistoric station of Bertarina, where 
rude pottery and stone weapons have been disinterred. Athenaeum, 
Aug. 12. 

erty of Count Grabinski a half kilometre outside Porta S. Isaia, some 
Italic interments of the Villanova type were accidentally found. 
Each consisted of a simple dolium, which in some cases contained, 
small vases and a few fibulae. At a greater depth of four metres was 
a tomb containing fictile vases with deep geometric ornaments and 
bronzes. Near it was found a sandstone stele in the form of a rectan- 
gular cippus surmounted by an elliptical disk on which a rosette is 
carved. This stele is similar to one found at S. Giovanni in Persiceto. 
Still another stele was found at S. Giovanni in Persiceto, in the 
shape of a xoanon whose face looks more like a mask than a human 


[These two steles appear to me of such unusual interest that I take 
the liberty of inserting a few remarks. The elliptical disk encloses 
sun-rays rather than a rosette. The rays which are pointed at the end 
radiate from a central circle of irregular shape which is so damaged 
that it is not possible to say whether or no it enclosed a human head, 
like a Hathor head. To my mind this stele is a clear indication of 
sun-worship. The signs of Egyptian influence are still more visible 
in the so-called xoanon stele. It is clearly the reproduction of a 
mummy. The face is the reproduction of a carved mask, the head is 
swathed and has a band about the forehead a second band above 
the shoulders and a third at the middle. We have here what corres- 
ponds to the Phoenician anthropoid sarcophagi. In both steles the 
influence of Egypt seems to be indirect, perhaps through the Phoeni- 
cians. In the third stele, with the sun-disk resting on its summit, the 
sun idea has apparently vanished. At least, its decoration is a series 
of labyrinthine broken zig-zags. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR.] 

Two other steles found at Bologna are here published for the first 
time and differ from those just described in having human and animal 
figures of the rudest Italic style, together with a rather tasteless deco- 
ration of rosettes and lotus volutes. 

property resulted in the discovery of 24 Italic tombs in an area of 14 
by 6 metres. Of these twenty were for cremation and four for inhu- 
mation. Tomb No. 10 was one of the richest and a brief note of its 
contents will show sufficiently the kind of objects found. Its site was 
indicated by a formless piece of limestone at a depth of 2.20 met. ; a 
second piece appeared at a depth of 1.80 met. below the first; while 
a third was found at a still greater depth. About one metre below this 
lowest stone there appeared a stratum of dottoli over the areas of the 
tomb, two metres square. The original wooden box enclosing the 
more precious objects had left merely a carbonic residuum behind ; 
within its original area was the terracotta ossuary containing the 
burned bones; the remains of two double-bellied fibulae, of four 
double lozanged fibulae, &c. On removing the ossuary there appeared 
two horse-bits of bronze with ends pierced a jour and decorated in 
zig-zag, and also some thirty pieces of thin bronze-plate which origin- 
ally formed part of the horse's head-piece. There were also two 
bronze knives ; two iron knives ; a sphere of glass paste ; a finely pre- 
served double-lozange fibula ; an interesting symbolic hatchet also in 
perfect preservation; two bronze cistae decorated with bands and 
raised dots. Outside the limits of the box were : a bronze presenta- 
torio ; a bronze situla (fragment) ; a circular basin with two semi-cir- 


cular handles, decorated in the centre with a large umbilicus and 
resting on a tripod with incurved legs between which hang imitation 
acorns. Among the vases one only was well preserved an askos of 
red earth of a shape new to Bologna but similar to one found in the 
archaic necropolis of Vetulonia. BRIZIO in Not. d, Scavi, 1893, pp. 
177-190 : cf. Athen., Aug. 5. 

About thirty-five years ago some discoveries were made a few kilome- 
ters from Bolsena, and described by Golini, who commenced them, 
and by Brunn. The tombs then found evidently formed part of the 
necropolis of the ancient Volsinii (see Bullet. Inst., 1857, and 1858). 
Prom the first tomb found by Sig. Golini came the magnificent objects 
in gold and bronze of the third century B. c. now in the Museo Etrusco 
Gregoriano at the Vatican. Lately some further discoveries have been 
made at Bavano, about two kilometers from Bolsena, which should be 
connected with the earliest finds. The tombs found are on the Guidotti 
property, and their contents belong to a considerably earlier date than 
the Golini tomb. The approach of the first tomb was indicated by the 
unearthing of numerous cippi of nenfro in the shape of shafts ending 
in one or more cones. The tomb measured about 6m. by 4m. entirely 
excavated on a very friable red rock. Each of the long sides was oc- 
cupied by a bench leaving only a narrow passage between them. On 
these benches were placed the sepulchral objects, but irregularly. 
Among the objects was an oriental bombylios with red and black zones 
and with running hares (?), and fragments of other vases of early char- 
acter, of bucchero with bands in relief, etc. In a second tomb were found 
the' four feet or fulcra of a funeral bed of alabaster. These feet are 
.50m. high and formed of separate pieces of beautiful veined Volterra 
alabaster, well turned and held together by a strong iron bar. The 
design of these feet is interesting and with strong and distinct profiles. 
The wooden framework which they supported appears to have been 
decorated with thin strips of bone put on in intarsia style, many pieces 
of which were found in the earth. The funereal bed is similar in char- 
acter to that in bone found at Norcia and published by Pasqui in the 
Monumenti Antichi, I, p. 232, pi. INot, d. Scavi., 1893, pp. .64-68. 

CANOSA. STATUETTES AND FIGURINES. Sig. Jatta publishes in the Not. 
d. Scavi for 1893 (pp. 85-87), the description of some statuettes and 
figurines in relief which belonged to the askoi with white or poly- 
chromatic intonaco, so frequently found in the tombs of Canosa. 
These belong to a comparatively late date and are badly restored. 
There are: Two seated youths; two standing youths on cylindrical 
bases ; a seated Artemis ; four Victories ; a youth leaning on a colon- 



nette; three women, standing; a horse; a protoma of Medusa; a 
prefericulum ; a ram's head : two centaurs in relief. 

CASTELNUOVO. At the lake settlement of Castelnuovo Fogliani, in 
the province of Piacenza, the usual constructions characteristic of an 
Italian terramara have been found, with fragments of rude pottery, 
bronze knives, ends of stag's horns, earthenware spindle-whorls,' and 
other objects, all typical of the age of bronze. Athen., Aug. 12. 

CHIUSI. BRONZE WOLF. There has lately been found at Chiusi, the 
ancient Clusium, a bronze head of a wolf, closely resembling in tech- 
nique that of the celebrated Wolf of the Capitol. As the former is 
manifestly of ancient Etruscan workmanship, it supplies a very strong 
argument against those who have maintained that the latter is of 
mediaeval origin. On the other hand, the recent examination of the 
Lion of St. Mark for purposes of repair has conclusively demonstrated 
that it was made in the xn or xin century ; it is composed of little 
pieces of bronze fastened on to a framework of iron a mode of manu- 
facture far removed from that of the Etruscan. For the Venetian Lion 
,see VENICE. Acad., Feb. 11. 

to have been used in the foundation walls of a church at Vado and 
given in (7. /. L., V. under No. 1920 has been re-discovered and is to be 
corrected to read C CALVENTIVS | C F CLA FAVSTVS | SIBI ET 
SVEIS. The spelling sueis places the inscription in the first century 
of the empire. Another inscription reads : Fl. Fortunato Augustali \ ex - 
n- milit- Jovianorum \ Vetius Serenianus hospes et \ haeres eius iuxta testa- 
mentum arcam condignam ex proprio \ eius conparavit. The name of the 
militia of the Joviani is new. The date is late, probably about the 
time of Constantine. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, pp. 219-223. 

CORATO (APULIA). REPUBLICAN COINS. During last January near Corato 
some peasants found a small treasure of Roman coins consisting of 
fifty denarii belonging to twenty-six families. The most recent were 
coined between 723 and 727 u. c. = 31-27 B. c., and the treasure may 
have been hidden shortly after the battle of Actium. Seven only are 
duplices and many are of unusual interest. The families represented 
are : Acilia, Antonia, Aquilia, Calidia, Cipia, Claudia, Considia, Cor- 
nelia, Julia, Manlia, Marcia, Maria, Mucea, Neria, Ogulnia, Papia, 
Pinaria, Plautia, Poblicia, Rubria, Rutilia, Sanfeia, Servilia, Titia, 
Tituria, Vibia. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, p. 242. 

CORNETO=TARQUINll. On resuming excavations at Tarquinii, a 
discovery was made in the necropolis, near the tomb called del Barone, 
of two tombs for cremation, in one of which the ossuary consisted of 
a Greek painted vase, now broken into fragments. In two other 


chambered tombs, the vaults of which were broken in, was found some- 
painted pottery of Etrusco-Campanian art. Near the well-known 
tomba delle bighe several other tombs of the same kind were unearthed, 
and, although they had already been rifled, the fragments of two- 
Attic vases were found, which had escaped, perhaps, the notice of the 
depredators. From another tomb were recovered various objects of 
personal ornament, consisting chiefly Qffibulse, earrings, and beads for 
necklaces of the usual type. Athen., Aug. 5. 

In the Jahrbuch d. L d. Arch. Inst. (1893, p. 180, sq.), E. Pernice, in 
an article entitled 2i<un' (three cuts), interprets two scenes on a black- 
figured amphora in the Museo Tarquiniese at Corneto. A wine or oil 
seller is dealing with a customer. Two small staves in the jars are 
explained as siphons. A similar siphon is seen in a vase-painting 
(here published) in the Museo Civico in Girgenti. 

A MUSEUM. The town authorities have bought the large and beauti- 
ful Palazzo Vitelleschi in order to turn it into an Etruscan museum. 
The palace, which has been undergoing repairs, is one of the finest 
examples of late Gothic civil architecture in this part of Italy. 

ESTE. MOSAIC PAVEMENT. A piece of Roman mosaic pavement has 
been found on the Romaro property. It is mainly of black and white 
cubes (with a few red cubes) in geometrical forms, giving the effect of 
a rug. The only two unusual designs are a large star of laurel leaves 
and a series of linear decorations interspersed with arches, the point 
of junction of the lines being decorated with lances. Not. d. Scavi, 
1893, pp. 223-226. 

Roman tombs found near Fregose, in the province of Este, appears to 
have been a private burial-ground belonging to the family of the 
Blattii. The principal inscription found is that of a centurion : L. 
Blattius I. /. Rom(ilia) Veins cent(urio~) leg(ionis) i(v) Ma[c\edon(icae) 
adle[ci](us)[de\curio. This cippus is decorated with the military 
emblems of his rank and honors phalerum, armillae, vitis, parazo- 
nium, rectangular shield, leg-piece. The inscriptions show that he 
took part in the administration of the colony. There was also found 
an inscription of a Blattia Facilis, probably a freed-woman. Not. d, 
Scavi, 1893, pp. 57-60. 

FLORENCE. AN ITALIC TOMB. The most important of the discoveries 
made on the occasion of the recent disturbances of the soil in the 
centre of Florence is that of an Italic shaft-tomb, of which an account 
was given at the time in the Athenseum. It was found to contain a 
vase of black earthenware in the form of a double cone, which is the 
characteristic type of the Villanova ossuarii. Inside the burial jar 




were a fibula with a bent bow, all in fragments, and the remains of 
two other fibulas, the bow ornamanted with a small ball or button of 
amber. This circumstance, together with the absence of the curved 
razor which generally denotes the interment of men, proves that it 
was a woman's tomb. Prof. Milani is of opinion that this burial, dis- 
covered in a stratum below that of the constructions of Roman times, 
represented by the mosaic pavements found at the same time and 
place, is but a remnant of a whole necropolis of the prehistoric popu- 
lation of the locality where now stands Florence. He is further con- 
firmed in this view by a consideration of a square, block of sandstone, 
bearing on two sides in relief a griffon and a lion. These sculptures 
(found recently near the same spot as the tomb, and hitherto supposed 
to be mediaeval) Milani has now proved to be Etruscan, similar reliefs 
of a lion rampant and of some deity being found on the other two 
sides (which were at first hidden from view by a modern building), so 
that it can be proved the stone was a funereal stele, like that edited by 
Inghirami, and belonging to the sixth or fifth century B. c. A statuette 
of bronze, also found near by representing an idol like those often 
placed on the top of candelabra, and such as have been found in 
chamber tombs of the same period strengthens the probability of 
Prof. Milani's theory. HALBHERR in Athenaeum, Aug. 5. 

MANERBA (VENETIA). A ROMAN NECROPOLIS. At Manerba, a village on 
Lake Garda, whose name is derived from a temple of Minerva, Sig. 
Marchesini has carried on excavations on a recently discovered Ro- 
man necropolis. The most interesting objects were some fine red and 
black Aretine vases in fragments. Many coins came to light dating 
from Augustus to Constantine II. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, pp. 226-232. 

MILAN. ACCESSIONS TO THE MUSEUM. The King of Italy has lately 
given to the Archaeological Museum of Milan a large number of 
antique objects which belonged to the crown. Altars, cippi and Ro- 
man capitals, sepulchral marbles and other decorative stones of the 
Middle Ages and Renaissance, form the contents of the royal gift. 
Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 14. 

ORVIETO. One of the tombs recently uncovered in the contmdct 
called Cannicella varies from the ordinary tombs of both the northern 
and the southern necropolis. It was built, as usual, with large blocks of 
well-worked tufa, laid without cement, and had a door to the east 0.62 
by 1.25 m., and its height was 2.10 m. But wherein it varies is that 
the tufa blocks are laid so as to form two inclined planes, which meet 
at the summit and act as a vault, there being three courses of tufa on 
each side. A second tomb found near this was of the usual type, of 
very archaic character, and had never been violated. It contained 


two tufa benches, on one of which was the skeleton of the defunct, and 
on the other the most precious of the objects belonging to him. Not. 
d. Scavi, 1893, pp. 63-64. 

been engaged, since the year 1867, in preparing a plan of ancient 
Rome, based upon the most recent archaBological discoveries. Its 
completion has been delayed from time to time as fresh materials 
were continually being brought to light ; but the collapse of building 
speculation now permits the publication to be commenced, under the 
auspices of the Royal Accademia dei Lincei. The map will be in forty- 
six sheets, on the scale of 1 to 1000; and it is intended that not less 
than six sheets shall appear annually. In the order of publication, 
priority will be given to those sheets which comprise districts already 
fully excavated, where there is little probability of any fresh discov- 
eries. The method adopted is to show, by five colors : (1) the streets 
of the modern city; (2) the monuments and ruins of the regal and 
republican periods ; (3) those of imperial times ; (4) underground 
remains, quarries, catacombs, Mithraic grottoes, &c. ; and (5) springs, 
aqueducts, drains, and the bed of the Tiber. There will be included 
those monuments now destroyed, of which accurate information is 
recorded ; and the sites of famous works of art and inscriptions. The 
altitudes of the ancient and modern city are also to be marked in 
different colors. The publication is undertaken by the house of Ulrico 
Hoepli, of Milan, and the price of the entire work is $35, or $5 a year, 
less a discount of ten per cent, on payment in advance. The first two 
parts have been already issued. The author proposes to accompany 
the plan with an explanatory book, which will appear under the title 
"Storia degli Scavi di Roma." The book and plan will be indispen- 
sable to every student of ancient Rome, and the price is so extremely 
moderate as to put it within every student's reach. 

CASTS OF GREEK SCULPTURE. A new collection of casts of ancient 
sculpture has now been established in Rome, on the ground floor of 
Casa Rabbi, in the street leading to the Porta San Paolo. It consists 
at present of such objects as illustrate the transition from the archaic 
period of Greek art down to the period of Pheidias, Myron, and Poly- 
kleitos. The chief casts already exhibited comprise some of the me- 
topes and sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia ; a portion of 
the frieze and some of the chief figures of the tympana of the Parthe- 
non ; the Athena of the Varvakeion and the other Athena, called " of 
Lenormant " ; three reliefs of Northern Greece ; the Marsyas of My- 
ron; the Amazon of Polykleitos of the Berlin Museum; theDorypho- 
ros of Naples, &c. We owe the initiative of this collection, which is 


connected with the Roman University, to the Professor of Archaeology, 
Dr. Emmanuel Loewy, whose suggestion has been carried into effect 
by the present Minister of Public Instruction, Signor Martini. Athen. 
July 29. 

COINS OF Lucius VERUS. In digging the foundations of the new 
Benedictine Abbey on the Aventine, various antiquities have been 
found from time to time, including some fragmentary inscriptions. A 
hundred gold imperial coins were found by some of the workmen in 
a cooking vessel. They consist of well-preserved specimens of the 
coins struck by Lucius Verus for the conquest of Armenia in 164, of 
the weight of about a sovereign each. The value of each is about 
$100. Athen., Apr. 8. 

BRITISH AND AMERICAN SCHOOL. At a meeting recently held at the 
British Embassy in Rome, a proposal was approved for extending " the 
scope of the British and American Archaeological Society by providing 
a building for it. as well as for a limited number of students." The 
Council of the Society, under the presidency of Lord Vivian, subse- 
quently appointed a committee to carry out the above project. Indi- 
viduals and public bodies interested in archaeology in England and 
America are invited to assist. The secretary of the Society is Dr. E. J. 
Miles, 20, Via San Basilio, Rome. Athen., May 6. 

MONUMENT OF L. CORNELIUS Pusio. Sig. P. Bienkowsky has published in 
the Roman Mittheilungen of the German School an article on a colossal 
head of a bronze statue which he regards as the portrait of L. Corne- 
lius Pusio because it is said to have been found at the beginning of 
1892 with a dedicatory inscription to the above-mentioned Pusio on 
the occasion of some work at the Campanari palace in via Nazionale, 
when it passed into the hands of Sig. Borghi, a dealer in Piazza Bar- 
berini. The inscription reads : 






> - LEG XVM 

This inscription is on a bronze plate, is in fine characters of the 
-early empire, enclosed in a rich cornice. Sig. Bienkowsky attributes 
this honorary monument to the time of Tiberius or Caligula. Noth- 
ing has been found either regarding this Pusio or the dedicator Mar- 
cellus. I would remark, however, that : in the first place, both head 


and inscription were found before 1892 because I saw them in Borghi's 
house in 1890 : in the second place, it seemed certain not only to 
myself but to a well-known German archaeologist that there was no 
possible connection between the bronze head and the inscription : the 
characters of the inscription are of the early empire ; the crude quality 
of the head would lead one to attribute it to the third rather than the 
first century of the empire. It is, therefore, no portrait of Pusio. A. 

VIA LATINA. Fragments of a large sepulchral cippus of great beauty 
and magnificence in its decoration have been found in the piece of 
property of Prince Giulio Torlonia called Roma vecchia, seven miles 
from the city. An inscription in beautiful letters of about the time of 
Claudius fits into the fastigium. It records a distinguished cursus 
honorum, but is unfortunately mutilated; it begins: T STATILIO|ff 
| OPTATO P^ | PROG AVG K^ \ FLAMINI C^ | &c. He was 
flam en; six times procurator ; praefect; twice tribune of legion ; prefect 
of cohort. The sepulchral chamber was also found. Not. d. Scavi, 
1893, pp. 196-99. 

SCULPTURE ON THE VIA ARDEATINA. From two brick tombs found at 
about five kilom. from the city there were extracted a number of mar- 
bles among which were the following : (1) A male statue, of a youth r 
1.90 met. high, of very good workmanship ; (2) a second statue, similar 
to the above, but smaller and ruder ; (3) a statue of a young woman 
in tunic and pallium, who rests her right elbow on her left hand; (4-5) 
two funerary inscribed cippi. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, p. 195. 

describes in the Not. d. Scavi, 1893, pp. 73-85, a series of vases found 
near Ruvo in fragments and put together by Canon Luigi Elicio. We 
give here a summary. 

1. Large amphora : height 80 m., periphery 1.35 m. Style of medium 
excellence, rather careless but of good Apulian period. The subject 
represented is of considerable interest and difficult interpretation. It 
contains nine figures divided in two rows, five in the upper and four 
in the lower. Above, on the right, is a seated woman with long chiton 
and himation wound about her limbs : in her left she holds a sword 
still in its scabbard. Another woman stands with her left foot resting 
on an overturned white kalpis and her knee bent. She wears long 
hunting leggings, a short chiton, and a chlamys hangs from her arms. 
In each hand she carries a small lighted torch ; her expression is some- 
what severe but not terrifying. Behind her is a large metal patera. 
With his back turned to this second woman a king is seated, in the 
centre of the scene. His left hand rests upon a long sceptre and his right 




is raised as he converses with a warrior who stands before him, 
bearded, holding a long lance, behind whom stands a youth who 
leans upon his right arm. The lower scene is composed of four young 
warriors conversing two by two, one in each group being seated and the 
other standing. On the other and less important side of the vase is 
one of the usual sepulchral monuments in the form of a small Ionic 
temple in which stands a young nude warrior, while at its right, above, 
is a seated nude youth, and corresponding to him on the left is a 
beautiful woman standing. In the field above is a seated youth. 

Sig. Jatta interprets the principal scene as a representation of the 
rare myth of Kanake, daughter of Aiolos, whose story is partly known 
through the few fragments of Euripides' tragedy of that name. Ac- 
cording to Ausonius (Cupid, cruci off. 37) only three women were re- 
presented with a sword Tisbe, Dido and Kanake. Aiolos has sent 
to his daughter Kanake a sword with which to kill herself, and we see 
her holding it in the figure of the first woman on the vase. King 
Aiolos is seated in the centre and his son Makareus is seeking to dis- 
suade him from his purpose of marrying his sons and daughters out- 
side of the family. The other and younger sons have made Makareus 
their mouth-piece and are represented in the four figures below. It 
is more difficult to explain the female with the torches and the youth 
above with the caduceus stick. The latter is probably Hermes, in his 
character of psychopompos, in view of the approaching death of Maka- 
reus, who kills himself when, after persuading his father, he rushes to 
announce the good news to Kanak6 and, finding her dead, commits 
suicide with the same sword. In the woman Sig. Jatta proposes to 
see Artemis, either as Hekataia, in allusion to the approaching death of 
Kanak^, or as Eileithya or Locheia in allusion to the unfortunate cause 
of the catastrophe, the new-born child. 

2. Large vase in the unusual form of a candelabrum (cf. Heyde- 
mann, Vasensaml zu Neapel, pi. n, 90) which is valuable not only on 
account of its shape but for the exquisite arabesques and other orna- 
ments on the neck. The principal subject on the body of the vase is 
that of a young woman seated in a tempietto and playing with a white 
goose, representing the defunct enjoying Elysian delights while her 
friends are represented as bringing sepulchral offerings. On the other 
side is Eros and a young woman. 

3. A small vase of the kind called olpe astomos. The main scene, of 
five figures, represents the triumph of a female harpist, and includes 
both Nike and Eros. 

4-5. Two oinochoe. On the first a nude youth is seated holding in 
his left a patera and in his right a reversed extinguished torch. 


Opposite him is a girl holding a tamborine in her right and extend- 
ing a crown with her left. On the second there are also two figures, a 
nude youth following a woman who carries in her right an open box 
and a crown of myrtle and in her left a bunch of white grapes, and who 
is walking hurriedly and turns back her head towards the youth. 

Other vases are of minor importance : an aryballos ; a charming 
small vase of unmentioned form ; akantharos. A terracotta relief of a 
crouching woman, similar to the famous Venus coming out of the 
bath in the Pio-Clementino Museum, probably represents a hetaira 
after the bath, and is quite interesting. 

In the fields of Vincenzo Elicio a Greek tomb was found containing 
a number of ordinary vases, but among them one of unusual interest. 
It is an aryballos, with black varnish, with channellings painted red 
and black in the neck, and palmettes and arabesques occupying all 
the back. The technique of this vase is very uncommon, for the com* 
position on the front is not only polychromatic but in low relief. The 
figures were attached to the body of the vase while the clay was still 
soft, when the vase was exposed to heat and then painted in red and 
black, the figures in relief were treated in the same way. In the Jatta 
collection there is but a single vase of this technique in which the 
polychromy is not as well preserved as in this case, but the figures 
were touched up with greater ease and the outlines made more dis- 
tinct. The composition consists of three figures, a horse aiid a wild 
animal, and it is a hunting scene in ordinary life. A youth is raising 
with both hands an ax to bring it down on a wild beast a bear (?) 
who is attacking a man on horseback followed by another man on 
foot. The man on horseback wears a Phrygian cap, and a similar cap 
is worn by the footman who follows him. The scene seems, there- 
fore, to represent some Persians or other barbarians, hunting the bear 
a sport rarely indulged in by Greeks. 

VERONA. A young archaeologist, S. Ricci, contributes to the Notizw 
degli Scavi, Jan., 1893, a long report on the results of recent excava- 
tions at Verona, especially in the bed of the Adige. This report is in 
continuation of others already noticed in the JOURNAL (vol. vi, p. 
588). Many inscriptions were found, as well as works of art in silver, 
bronze and marble, domestic utensils, and silver and bronze coins of 
different periods. The finest inscriptions, in characters of the first and 
second centuries, came to light in the pier of a bridge under the bed of 
the old canal of Acqua Morta. Among the inscriptions of the Republi- 
can period are three of the Clodii, three of the Valerii, two of the Fabii, 
two of the Laetorii, etc. Another and a better copy was found of the 
inscription commemorating the testamentary gift by Gavia Maxima, 


daughter of Quintus Maximus, of six hundred thousand sextercii for 
the construction and enlargement of an aqueduct. An important 
inscription records the name of an architect: M CASSIO C . F- | 

M. Cassius Denticulus is the second architect, and the only one of 
free-born condition of the Roman period whose name occurs in the 
Veronese inscriptions. The other is L. Vitruvius L. 1. Cerdo, builder 
of the Arch of the Gavii. A cippus found at the Ponte Pietra bears 
an inscription to Serapis: SARAPI | M | MARIVS j MARO D-D. 
This adds to the probability of the existence at Verona of a temple to 
Serapis. The inscription was found not far from the remains of a 
temple discovered near Castel S. Pietro in 1851. Three of its capitals 
are decorated with heads of bulls, pointing to an oriental divinity, 
probably Serapis. 

A later report gives the following additional information : Amongst 
last year's discoveries in the riparian works at Verona I must mention 
a small altar with a dedicatory inscription to the god Serapis, with 
the title of Optimus Maximus, erected by a certain Marius Maro. It 
belonged probably to a temple of Jupiter Serapis, which may have 
been not far from the Ponte Pietra, where the stone was discovered 
upon the raised ground towards the Castel S. Pietro. Some years ago 
on this site the foundation of a large building, which may be a tem- 
ple, were found, with bits of cornices and capitals of pillars. Here 
also was found of old the statue of Jupiter Serapis published by 
Maffei. Other new Roman inscriptions, whole and fragmentary, have 
als6 been added to the town collection, and an illustrative report upon 
these new acquisitions will be published by Dr. Ricci. One of these 
inscriptions refers to a member of the Gens Octavia, a family already 
known at Verona by other monuments of the city. Another belongs 
to the Gens Tullia and is of the last century of the republic. Amongst 
the numerous coins dug up are a half as of the republic, and bronze 
coins of Augustus, Tiberius, Vespasian, Titus, Hadrian, Constantine, 
&c. F. HALBHERR in Athenasum, June 17. 

VETULONIA. THE CITY. We complete by the following note the 
information available in regard to the remains of the earliest of the 
two sites of the ancient city of Vetulonia. Dr. Halbherr writes : 
" Also on the site of the more ancient Vetulonia, where hitherto Cav. 
Falchi had turned his attention almost exclusively to the necropolis, 
on this occasion the opportunity was taken of making fresh excava- 
tions. Within the circuit of the city a considerable length of road- 
way was unearthed, paved with the large blocks which characterize 
Roman roads, both urban and suburban. On one side of this road 


were discovered remains of some private dwellings, the walls of which 
were built without mortar of large stones, which at first sight recall 
the Cyclopean constructions. The blocks, however, are rough hewn, 
and are arranged with a certain symmetry, reminding us of a rudi- 
mentary opus isodomum. These houses show traces of having been 
destroyed by fire, but from the date of the Etruscan and Roman coins 
found within the ruins, it would appear that they were inhabited, up 
to the first century B. c. As to the time of their construction, we may 
argue that it does not go back beyond the fourth or fifth century B. c. 
Maybe they are amongst the latest buildings erected by the few Etrus- 
cans who remained in the ancient settlement after the foundation of the 
new city near the sea. Moreover, from the ensemble of the various 
numismatic discoveries made, we may conclude that the Vetulonian 
sextant was still current, even after the introduction of the Roman 
uncial as. Athenseum, Aug. 5. 


ance of MSS. material, ancient and modern, that Italy possesses has 
hitherto been very inadequately catalogued. The great xvm century 
works of Bandini, Zanetti, Pasini have had few successors. Excessive 
decentralization, with consequent subdivision of funds, and, as regards 
Greek at least, incapacity, have been reasons why a large proportion 
of the lists that have been made are the work of foreigners. (Even in 
the last number of the Centralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen we find an elab- 
orate account of the MSS. of the Missione Urbana at Genoa by Herr 
A. Eberhard.) In recent years, moreover, changes of government and 
the suppression of religious houses have greatly increased the stores 
of almost every provincial library. 

The enterprise, therefore, begun by Signor Emilio Martini, prefect 
of the Brera Library at Milan, deserves the applause and support of 
every one who desires to find these most varied treasures accessible. 
In his Catalogo di Manoscritti greci esistenti nelle biblioteche Italian^ of 
which the first fascicolo is lately published by Hoepli of Milan, Signor 
Martini expresses his intention of putting out lists of all Greek collec- 
tions in Italy that do not already possess printed catalogues, and of 
cataloguing additions that have been made to large libraries since the 
date of their printed catalogue. Such a task can be carried through 
only by a native of the country, and it must be a satisfaction to all 
well-wishers of Italian learning that an Italian librarian has under- 
taken it. 


This first instalment contains two important minor libraries 
Palermo and Parma and smaller collections at Pavia, and at the 
Brera and the Chapter at Milan. Most of the MSS., naturally, are 
theological; at Parma, however, there are some copies of the classics, 
including an' Iliad (collated by the reviewer), Apollonius Rhodius, 
Euripides, Proklus' Hymns, Strabo, Thukydides. In all of them the 
student of the history of libraries and religious houses will find 
abundant fruit, and at Palermo the palaeographer may study a num- 
ber of specimens of late Greek writing. 

Signor Martini's method is painstaking and full : it may even be 
questioned whether his descriptions are not sometimes over-minute, 
whether the cataloguer does not usurp the office of the editor. Theo- 
logians, however, cannot but be grateful for the care with which the 
contents of every MS. are indexed. 

We may expect before long from Signor Martini catalogues of the 
libraries of Brescia, Catania, Ferrara, Udine, and of the Vallicelliana 
at Rome. Let us hope that he will set his hand also to the accretions 
of the Laurenziana and the Marciana, and to the Ambrosiana in his 
own city. An equally important but possibly more difficult task is 
the cataloguing of Italian private libraries. T. W. A. in Academy, 
June 10. 

BELISARIUS. Belisarius in Tradition and Art is the title of an article 
by F. Sauerhering in the Repertoriwn fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1893, p. 289 
sq. The story that Belisarius was in his old age imprisoned, blinded, 
and then sent forth to beg his bread is not true, but has nevertheless 
inspired poets and painters. In 1767 Marmontel published a novel 
" Belisaire," Edward v. Schenk's tragedy " Belisar " was first per- 
formed in Munich in 1826, and in 1836 Donizetti brought out his 
opera " Belisario." The first painting of the aged Belisarius was by 
Salvator Rosa, now in the Galleria Doria in Rome. The next was by 
Dietrich, nearly one hundred years later, in the Dresden gallery. The 
French school of the eighteenth century furnished several pictures of 
Belisarius as a beggar. Louis David's large picture, now in Lille, was 
exhibited in 1781, and a smaller one by Fabreand Girodet, retouched 
and signed by David, in 1784. Fr. Rehberg and Peter Krafft also 
painted the same subject. Gerard's Belisarius (1795) is more romantic 
and less classic than those of the three last mentioned artists. In 
1798 Jacques Antoine Vallin painted a Belisarius. Here the old 
man's companion is his daughter, not as in the preceding, a boy (or 
his daughter disguised as a boy). In 1850 Karl Becker and in 1881 
August Frind painted this subject. The subject has not yet been 
treated in sculpture. 


RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS. The restoration of the Cenacolo 
d'Ognissanti at Florence, painted in fresco by Domenico Ghirlandajo, 
is nearly finished, and attention is now being turned to plans for the 
restoration of the Campanili of the Badia and of the Ognissanti, as 
well as the carved wooden ceiling of the church of the Badia. Alhen., 
March 18. 

FLORENCE. In pulling down a portion of the old Ghetto at Flor- 
ence some fifteenth century decorative fresco work has been found on 
the walls of a house belonging to the Teri family. It represents 
tapestries or hangings fastened to a rod by means of small rings, and 
running all round the walls of the rooms. The stuff of one of these 
hangings is ornamented with a meander pattern of Oriental character, 
while that of another has, woven with the design, a number of shields 
and badges of ancient families, perhaps related to the owner of the 
palace. Those portions that could not be detached from the walls 
have been carefully copied, Florentine house decorations of that early 
date being rare. Athen., Jan. 14. 

THE MEDICI COLLECTIONS. M. Miintz communicates to the Acad. des 
Inscr.y June 2, 1893, portions of a work on the collections of antiquities 
formed by the Medici in the xvi century. From documents taken 
from the archives of Florence, he makes known the contents of this 
museum, which from the reign of Cosmo I contained marbles, bronzes, 
terracottas, vases and utensils of all sorts. The dates of the discovery 
of certain celebrated statues have thus been recovered. Miintz 
attempted to prove that the Venus de Medici did not come from 
Rome, as is commonly supposed, but was in Tuscany from the xvi 
century. Rev. Arch., July-Aug., 1893, p. 112. 

CATHEDRAL. We take the following note from the Revue de VArt 
Chretien (1893, No. 2, p. 176). " A descendant of Boniface vm, the 
Duke of Sermoneta Caetani, has given to the Commune of Florence 
the statue of Boniface vm by Nicolo Pisano. This remarkable work 
will be placed in the Cathedral." Boniface vm (1296-1303) was the 
medieval pope of whom the most statues are recorded and as he came 
at the beginning of the revival of Italian sculpture these statues are 
of exceptional interest. The example mentioned is probably the one 
recently photographed by Alinari, and cannot, of course, be by Nicolo 

MILAN. ADDITIONS TO THE BRERA. Among the recent acquisitions of the 
gallery of the Brera are two panels of saints (St. Peter and St. John 
the Baptist) by Francesco del Cossa, said to be the wings of the picture 
by that master, No. 597, formerly attributed to Marco Zeppo, which is 
in the National Gallery. They are apparently in good preservation, 




and are admirable examples of the vivid coloration and sharp, precise 
drawing of Del Cossa. The panels hang in the room devoted to the 
smaller masterpieces of the gallery. Athen&um, Nov. 11. 

PAINTINGS BY LEONARDO. In pulling down a part of the castle of Milan, 
some of Leonardo da Vinci's paintings are supposed to have been 
found, belonging to the time when this great artist worked for Fran- 
cesco Sforza. A committee has been formed for the preservation of 
these works. Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 28. 

NOTO Prof. Orsi has discovered that the Falconara monument, 
near Noto, ascribed by Messrs. Freeman and Evans to Sicilian-Greek 
construction, is, on the contrary, the remains of a Byzantine church. 
Athen., Aug. 12. 

PISTOIA. At Pistoia a new collection of objects of art is to be formed 
in the chapter house of the convent of San Francesco, and will be 
shortly opened to the public. Athen., Feb. 18. 

ROME. EARLY BRONZE DOOR OF ST. PETER. Mr. de Geymiiller has pre- 
sented to the Society of Antiquaries of France the photograph of a 
drawing belonging to the Berlin Museum. This drawing, executed 
by a French architect somewhere between the years 1530 and 1550, 
represents a very ancient bronze gate which appears to have decorated 
the basilica of St. Peter's at Rome. Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 14. 

VENICE. LION OF ST. MARK. The verdict of Italian experts, who were 
recently employed in repairing the famous Lion of St. Mark at Venice 
that the work was originally made in the twelfth century has not 
met with universal acceptance. In a letter addressed to the Academic 
des Inscriptions, M. Casati contests it on three grounds, the first being 
that the bronze of the middle ages generally contains one-fourth or 
one-fifth of lead, whereas that of the lion is composed of copper with 
15 per cent, of tin. Acad, Mch. 25. 

plaquettes in the Museo Correr at Venice in the Repertorium fur Kunst- 
ivissenschaft (1893, p. 54 sq.). Toward the end of the last century the 
Venetian nobleman Correr brought together a heterogeneous and val- 
uable collection of works of art, especially works of Venetian origin, 
which he presented to his native city. The collection was increased 
after his death, and in 1880 was newly arranged and opened to the 
public as the Museo Civico e Raccolta Correr, in the old Fondaco dei 
Turchi, restored and rebuilt for the purpose. Among the important 
treasures of the collection are the bronze plaquettes. There is no 
proper catalogue of these, and Jacobsen gives a description of them, 
omitting those described in Bode's and v. Tschudi's Berlin catalogue 
and in Molinier's " Les plaquettes." He gives a description with 


some discussion of eleven imitations of antiques, two works of the 
Byzantine school, eighty-five of the Italian school, five of the French, 
fourteen of the German, and one of the Netherland school. He also 
describes an etched iron plaque with family portraits of the Augsburg 
armorer Anton Peffenhauser. The inscriptions of this plaque are 

COLUMN OF ALEXIS COMNENUS. A very interesting archa3ological dis- 
covery has just been made at Venice. A few days ago the dredging 
machine that is deepening the canal for large navigation met a strong 
obstacle. A diver having descended into the water to examine the 
cause, discovered that it was due to a column 11 metres long by 1 m. 
80 centim. in diameter, identical with the two famous columns hold- 
ing the lions of St. Mark. It is, then, one of the columns offered by 
the Byzantine Emperor Alexis Comnenus to the Venetians in thank- 
ing them for having saved the Empire of the East from the Norman 
invasion. One of these columns fell into the sea on its arrival at 
Venice and no one had succeeded in recovering it. Chronique des 
Arts, 1893, No. 26. 

BYZANTINE CULTURE IN SPAIN. Mr. L. Mabilleau, professor of 
philosophy in the Faculty of Letters at Caen, has been charged with a 
mission to Spain, his object being to study there the Greek manu- 
scripts of Byzantine origin preserved in the large libraries of that 
country, and to follow up investigations relative to the history of By- 
zantine culture in Spain. Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 11. 

PERPIGNAN. A labourer in a field near Perpignan found the other 
day, in a vase, a considerable number of coins of the ancient kingdom 
of Majorca, struck at Barcelona in l'212.Athen., June 24. 

PSALTER OF ST. LOUIS. The Duke d'Aumale has given to the nation 
the great psalter of St. Louis in his library at Chantilly, one of the 
finest illuminated MS. of the Gothic period. Three psalters are known 
to have belonged to St. Louis, all mentioned in the Catalogue of the 
Louvre Library made under Charles V. The first is now in the Bib- 
liotheque Nationale, Paris ; the second in the Leyden Library ; the 
third is the present. This MSS. disappeared before 1420 and was car- 
ried to England. In 1649 it was brought back to France as the prop- 
erty of the Mesmes family, with which it remained until 1812. It is a 
small folio containing : first, a calendar ; secondly, twenty-seven large 


full-page miniatures on gold ground illustrating the Old and New Testa- 
ment and the life and miracles of the Virgin ; thirdly, the psalter ; 
fourthly, the litanies of saints ; fifthly, prayers. It is proved that this 
MS. was written for Queen Ingeburgh of Denmark, wife of Philip Au- 
gustus, probably between the years 1214 and 1223. At her death it 
became the property of Louis, as is shown by a note of the xiv cen- 
tury: CE PSAULTIER FU SAINT LOYS. The illuminations are of fine 
character and admirable preservation by the hand of an artist of the 
Isle de France, probably a Parisian. Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 11. 

TRIPTYCH OF THE OLD FRENCH SCHOOL. M. Louis Gonse has called at- 
tention in the Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 10, to a triptych in the mu- 
seum of Valencia, Spain, which he suggests was executed by the 
French painter Jacquemart de Hesdin. This painting is in the Fran- 
co-Flemish style of the first half of the xv century, and equals in 
beauty the finest of the works of this time except those of the Van 
Eycks. He reads a communication by M. Paul Durrieu to the So- 
cie"te des Antiquaires in 1889 which shows by means of documents 
that this painter was established at Valencia before 1440 in the service 
of King Alphonso V of Aragon. This artist was the son of a famous 
painter and miniaturist of the same name. The altar-piece at Valen- 
cia has evident analogies with the illuminations of Jacquemart de Hes- 
din the elder, known through M. Delisle, e. g., those of the Bibles his- 
toriales at Brussels, the Missel at Bourges, the Belles Grandes heures and 
the Merveilles du monde of the Duke de Berry in Paris. The relation- 
ship is just what might be expected between father and son. Another 
altar-piece of the same style is in a chapel of the cloister of the Cathe- 
dral at Barcelona. The subject of the triptych at Valencia .is, in the 
centre, St. Martin on horseback giving his mantle to a beggar. On 
the left wing is a female saint in blue mantle, and on the right a male 
saint with long beard. The figures are natural size on gold ground 
with effective gauffering. It is an interesting fact that the horse faces 
the spectator, an attempt which was being made about the same time 
by the early Renaissance painters of Italy. The coloring is harmo- 
nious and strong, figure of the beggar extremely truthful and well- 
modeled, with a combination of boldness and delicacy. M. Gonse 
was unfortunately unable to procure a photograph of it. 

NUMISMATICS. The prize for numismatics founded by M. Allier de 
Hauteroche has been awarded by the Academic des Inscriptions to 
M. Babelon, for his new volume of the Catalogue of Greek Coins in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale. Academy, Mar. 25. 

ALBI. TOMB OF A MEDI/EVAL BISHOP. The workmen engaged in repair- 
ing the pavement of the rood-loft (jube) in the Cathedral of Sainte- 


Cecile at Albi have brought to light a tomb situated in the choir at the 
foot of the altar. An examination of it was made in the presence of 
the archbishop. The earth which filled it was removed with care and 
a beautiful bishop's crosier was discovered, dating apparently from 
the xni century. The pastoral staff is of gilded copper ; in the centre 
of the volute an enameled flower spreads out, with three petals extend- 
ing to the right, to the left and towards the top. It is formed of two 
shells welded together. The ball is decorated with finely-chased 
figures of the four Evangelists, the heads alone being inserted. The 
head of the staff is ornamented with lozenges of Limoges enamel, in 
the centre of each of which dragons are engraved, or other animals of 
the bestiarium popular in the Middle Ages. The crosier must have 
belonged to Bernard, the founder of Sainte-Cecile, or to his* immediate 
successor. In the earth which the bier contained the remains of a 
well-developed skull has been found. It is probable that it is the 
skull of the prelate who was laid in this tomb eight centuries ago. 
Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 28. 

COURBILLAC. An interesting archaeological discovery has lately 
been made in the property of Mr. Maillard at Courbillac. Under a 
thin layer of earth has been found the skeletons of many warriors 
arranged in a row still girt with sword-belts and armed with lances. 
The feet of all were turned towards the west. The armor and weapons 
eaten up by rust have been carefully collected and will serve to deter- 
mine at what epoch the bodies were buried. Chronique des Arts, 1893, 
No. 12. 

PARIS. LOUVRE. Owing to the promotion of M. Saglio from the 
Louvre to be Keeper of the Cluny Museum, the quondam Departe- 
ment des Sculptures du Moyen Age, de la Renaissance, et des Temps 
Modernes, formerly under M. Saglib's charge, has been divided into 
two, one of which is assigned to M. Molinier, the other to M. Coura- 
jod.Athen., July 22. 

M. Gaston Migeon has been appointed adjunct-conservator in the 
department of Renaissance and modern objects of art in the Louvre. 

M. Etienne Michon has been appointed salaried assistant in the de- 
partment of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the museum. Chron- 
ique des Arts, 1893, No. 26. 

SALON CARRE. A noteworthy and valuable addition has been made 
to the Salon Carre of the Louvre, in the shape of a brilliantly painted 
small panel of St. Sebastian, by an unnamed artist, but evidently of 
the period of the transition from the Gothic style to the development 
of the Renaissance. It is of miniature size, rich in colour, vividly 
illuminated and full of animation, the expression a little exaggerated ; 




it is in excellent preservation. In the same room will be found two 
newly acquired portraits, one of which is said to represent Hercules 
D'Este, and is Florentine in its type ; the other is the head of a young 
man and seems to belong to the school of Naples. With these ahead 
of Christ, attributed, with probable correctness, to El Greco, should 
not be overlooked. A certain amount of classification of a very much 
needed kind seems to be gradually taking effect in the Long Gallery 
of the Louvre, and the productions of the schools severally are being 
drawn together. The next thing to occur to the authorities of the 
Louvre will, let us hope, be grouping the pictures, so that one need 
no longer walk more than a quarter of a mile from, e. g., one Gerard 
Dou to another. Athen., June 24. 

museums have just acquired for the Louvre a bas-relief in white mar- 
bte of the hellenistic period representing a big-bellied Silenus reclining 
on a goat's skin and borne in a broad-wheeled cart ; a Satyr escorts 
him. M. Grandidier has recently made a gift to the same museum of 
a high-relief in marble (a head of a man) belonging to the Italian Re- 
naissance, and M. Sorlin-Dorigny has presented a bas-relief from As- 
syria representing a Sacrifice to Apollo Krataios. Chronique des Arts, 
1893, No. 28. 

tion and Fine Arts has just authorized M. Kaempfen, director of the 
National Museums, to accept for the Louvre the following gifts from 
M. Le Blant, member of the Institute: 

Eight Christian inscriptions, from Lyons, Aries, Orange, Gren- 
oble, etc. ; 

A fragment of a sarcophagus from Aries and representing a por- 
tion of the so-called " Multiplication of the Loaves " ; 

An inscription found at Civita-Vecchia ; 

An inscribed plaque from a " loculus " in the Catacombs ; 

A fragment of a colonnette from a " ciborium " found in Rome, 
and bearing on its base the names of the sons of Saint Felicite". 
These objects have been placed in the Hall of Christian Antiquities. 
Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 26. 

SAINTE-CHAPELLE. The works of reparation which for some time past 
have been in progress on the south side of the Ste. Chapelle, Paris, are 
now finished ; the scaffolding has been removed and the north side of 
the building is to be taken in hand. Athenseum, Sept. 16. 

JACOBIN MONASTERY. The French newspapers record the discovery of 
various Gothic arches, formerly portions of the chapel and cloisters of 
the Jacobin convent in Paris, whose history is practically part of the 


history of the xvi and xvn centuries in France, and is connected with 
the still existing name of a political party. These remains have been 
brought to light during the rebuilding of the Ecole de Droit. Athe- 
naeum, Sept. 9. 

ROUEN. CATHEDRAL. Six hundred thousand francs are to be ex- 
pended upon the repair we hope it will not be the " restoration " 
of the exterior of Rouen Cathedral. For many years operations, which 
have not been wholly unfortunate, have been going on in the interior 
of the great church. Athenaeum, Sept. 16. 


holiday courses of archaeological lectures for teachers in the gymnasia 
were held in Berlin, Bonn, Dresden, and Munich, in pursuance of the 
plan for enabling the teachers to enrich their instruction by means of 
archaeology. Arch. Anzeiger, 1893, No. 2. 

been issued by the German Archaeological Institute to various Ger- 
man governments to send teachers in the gymnasia to Italy to profit 
by a course of inspection of ancient art during the autumn of 1893. 
Arch. Anzeiger, 1893, No. 2. 

meeting of German philologists and schoolmen in Vienna, May 23rd 
and the following days, many prominent archaeologists were present, 
and discussed the relations of archaeology to the gymnasia. A sum- 
mary is given in the Arch. Anzeiger, 1893, No. 2. 

THE ROMAN WALL. The Archdologischer Anzeiger, 1893, 4, p. 169, sq. r 
contains a report of the activity of the imperial Limes Commission 
for the last four months of 1892-3, and the first eight months of 
1893-4. Excavations and researches were carried on at thirteen dif- 
ferent parts of the limes. Numerous remains of Roman fortifications 
were investigated, and the lines of Roman roads traced. A final pub- 
lication of the important results of the labors of the commission is 
promised for the near future. 

BERLIN. MUSEUM. The acquisitions of the Berlin Museum in 1892 
comprise : Seven marble originals, twenty-five casts, sixty-six vases r 
thirty-one terracottas, twenty-three bronzes, twenty-four gems and the 
like, a collection of amphora handles, the contents of a grave in Syria, 
some fragments of mosaic, and a few miscellaneus objects. These are 
all described (41 cuts) in the Archdologischer Anzeiger, 1893, 2, the 
marbles and casts by R. Kekule (who also describes a large marble 


lion of Attic workmanship, bought in 1891 at Vigonobo, near Dolo, 
between Padua and Venice), the other acquisitions by A. Furtwiingler. 
The new arrangement of the casts is described by Kekule. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. At the February meeting of the Archaeologi- 
cal Society in Berlin, the following papers were read : Winnefeld, on 
vases similar to those found at the Kabeirion near Thebes; Steindorjf, 
on archaic Egyptian statues and on Flinders Petrie's excavations at 
Tell el Amarna in 1892 (cut of a stucco pavement). At the March 
meeting, Richter spoke on the Pantheon, Oehler on the harbors of Car- 
thage, Luschan on the Sendschirli-Publication, Lehmann on the de- 
ciphering of the so-called Hittite inscriptions, Engelmann on an Attic 
vase in the British Museum, with the representation of a KW/XOS. 
Summaries are given in the Arch. Anzeiger, 1893, No. 2. 

GLENEL (NEAR KO'LN). Near) the site of a xi century building were 
found some Roman antiquities and sculptures which had been used 
as building material for the Romanesque church. The most interest- 
ing inscription reveals for the first time the name of the Ahueccanae, 
probably the couple of Gallic goddesses figured in reliefs at Poi- 
tiers and at Bonn. Their names were Aveha and Hellivera. Here 
was also found a matronal-aediculum, with two reliefs, one over the 
other. In the upper are three matrons seated in a niche. On the 
lower relief is figured, also in a niche, a scene of offering. A. KISSA, 
KorrespondenzbL d. Westd. Zeitschr.f. Ges. u. Kunst. 

Anzeiger, 1893, 4, p. 187, sq., gives a catalogue by R. Zahn of antiques 
at Stiff Neuburg, near Heidelberg (4 cuts). Three objects were 
brought by the late Baron v. Bernus from Greece and Italy. Among 
them is the left hand of rider No. 94 of slab 31 (Michaelis) of the 
northern frieze of the Parthenon and several other specimens of sculp- 
ture, chiefly from Sicily and Italy, a number of Greek as well as 
Italian vases, and other objects of terracotta and a few bronzes. 

HERMESKEIL. PREHISTORIC MOUNDS. In 1888 the provincial museum 
of Trier planned excavations of the prehistoric mounds in the Daun 
district. Twenty mounds belonging to the transitional period from 
the bronze age to the Hallstatt period were excavated and an account 
of them published by Hettner in the Trier Zeitung, 1888, No. 279. In 
the summer of 1892 a second group of these mounds were excavated in 
the region about Trier. The excavations began with Grapenwald, where 
there are twenty, most of them small, mounds. Six of these were un- 
earthed. The first mound revealed, at about 1 m. from its summit, 
an urn of gray clay of the La Tene form. Near it were pieces of iron 
and a bronze amulet. A second urn with swelling body was roughly 


incised with an ornament resembling the Doric triglyphal frieze. The 
mound would appear to have been used subsequently by the Romans, 
for near the surface was found a fine Roman urn containing remnants 
of burned bones. It was protected by inclined stones. A second 
mound presented evidence that the body was burned, not buried, for in 
the middle of it was found a layer of ashes. No remains of bones 
were found, but two lances were placed at the head and an urn at the 
feet of the body. At Steinerwald six of nine mounds were excavated. 
Here absolutely no bronze was found and but scanty remnants of iron. 
In the interior of the mound was a rectangular enclosure constructed 
of rude stones set together without clay or mortar. The center pieces 
of the stones were blackened with smoke and the floor hardened by 
fire, while between the stones were remains of burned wood. This 
enclosure contained an urn of the latest La Tene period. A second 
construction of similar character was found in the same mound. In 
the other mounds of this group there was no such construction found. 
The richest group of the Hermeskeil mounds is that of the district 
Hilterwald. The largest had been excavated before and revealed lit- 
tle, a second contained a rectangular stone enclosure with ashes and 
urn. A third is of peculiar interest from its oval ground-plan. It 
contained no less than five stone graves, one of rectangular form, a 
second nearly circular, the third oblong with rounded extremities, the 
fourth an elongated rectangle and the fifth heing hardly more than 
inclined stones to protect the urn. Two of these graves gave certain 
evidence of burning, while one certainly and probably the remaining 
two were used for burial. On the southern half of the Helterwald 
group seven mounds were excavated. These contained vases of more 
elegant form, made by the potter's wheel and painted. Finer objects 
of bronze and iron were also found here. These objects are all assigned 
to the La Tene period. Though painted vases are rare in this period, 
they are not unknown, since vases painted with black have been found 
in the Pfalz near Alsheim and bowls at Elzheim. DR. H. LEHNER in 
Korrespondenzbl. d. Westd. Zeitschr. f. Ges. u. Kunst., 1893, Nos. 5, 6. 

KbLN. NEW ROMAN DISCOVERIES. At the end of May the reconstruc- 
tion of some houses at the corner of Luxemburg and Hochstaden- 
strasse led to the discovery of the remains of a Roman building more 
extensive than any yet found in this neighborhood. Although the 
foundations were not found, a sufficient number of architectural frag- 
ments were discovered to admit of the restoration of the fagade. It 
was an important gable structure, whose height was about 9.50 m. 
The entablature rested on two corner pilasters with rich Corinthian 
capitals. The gable span was more than 6 m. The front, in which 




was a rectangular doorway, was of calcareous stone. The calcareous 
stone walls were extended a short distance on either side, uniting 
with walls of tufa, and having cornices of similar profile. The pur- 
pose of the building is not perfectly evident, though fragments of the 
gable decoration, showing a globe upheld by two wild goats, suggest 
that it was a sanctuary to Divus Augustus. 

No less successful were the excavations on the adjoining land. Here 
several sarcophagi, already opened, were found. But their contents 
had not been entirely robbed. In one was found a rare and beautiful 
silver fragment of a sword-sheath, on which was inscribed, in black 
niello on a gold band, Ausoni vivas. About this band was openwork 
of rosettes and vines, representing filigree work, very uncommon in 
Roman antiquities. Korrbl. d. Westd. Zeitschr. /. Ges. u. Kunst., 1893, 
No. 7. 

The neighborhood of S. Severinus has furnished during the present 
year a rich supply of Roman antiquities. Several tufa sarcophagi 
were found, most of which had been previously opened. Two yielded, 
besides remains of bones, a quantity of glass. The most perfect speci- 
men was a black cup with handle of bone, ornamented with silver 
and gold. The same region furnished an interesting terracotta group 
of Kybele riding the lion, and an excellent bronze medallion of Geta. 
The inscription on one of the sarcophagi furnishes a new cognomen, 
Friattius, doubtless of Gallic origin. 

Excavations for a new building in the Richard Wagnerstrasse re- 
vealed a stone group of Aeneas and Anchises. It is a replica of the 
group in the Wallraff-Richartz Museum, which was imperfect, but 
may now be correctly restored. A. KISA in Korrespondenzbl. d. Westd. 
Zeitschr. f. Ges. u. Kunst., 1893, pp. 95-96. 

CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTION. On removing the plaster from the third pier of 
the right side-aisle in the church of S. Ursula was found a hard stone 
tablet containing a remarkable inscription, of which the following 
may be read : \ln hoc \ tum\ulo innoces virgo jacet \ [no~\mine Ursula, 
vixit | \a\nnibus octo \m\enslbus duobus mens ovat ... . The context and 
form of the inscription, and its resemblance to the Valentinianus 
inscription from S. Gereon's, show this to belong to the v century. 
Hitherto such inscriptions have been found only in S. Gereon's. It 
shows that the erection of churches near the bones of martyrs applied 
to the Holy Virgins as well as to the martyrs of the other sex. 
Korrbl. d. Westd. Zeitschr. f. Ges. u. Kunst., 1893, No. 7. 

EARLY CHRISTIAN. ANTIQUITIES. Beneath a mediaeval wall near the corner 
of the Luxemburg and Hochstadenstrasse was found the bronze cover- 
ing of a wooden chest. It contained, besides dolphin handles and 


lion-head medallions, a decorated plaque representing an Orante with 
outstretched arms, near whom were two men in profile carrying 
fillets. A number of glass objects were also found, connecting Roman 
with Renaissance technical methods. On one glass cylinder was over- 
laid a fantastic ornamentation of serpents, recalling the Roman method 
of Barbotine, or overlaying of terracotta on glass. Korrbl. d. Westd. 
Zeitschr.f. Ges. u. Kunst, 1893, No. 7. 

WORMS. PRANKISH FIBULA. In the Frankish cemetery at Abenhein 
was found the ornamented portion of a bronze fibula of unusual 
design. It represents two crossing bands like a suastika, the extremi- 
ties of which end in the double-headed, curved-beaked animal which 
appears so frequently in Frankish monuments. In the centre is the 
support for an ornament, which was probably a small glass knob, 
since a metallic ornament would have left some trace of its existence. 
Dr. KOEHL in Korrbl. d. Westd. Zeitschr. /. Ges. u. Kunst., 1893, Nos. 
8 and 9. 

stucco and decorated vases from this district were found as long ago 
as 1837. The Archaeological Society of Karlsruhe undertook excava- 
tions here in the month of April, 1893, with E. Wagner in charge. 
Remains of three buildings were discovered. In the first, a small rec- 
tangular structure, were found a grindstone in excellent condition, a 
trowel and other objects of iron, small objects in bronze and fragments 
of vases. A second structure of similar size revealed nothing but 
fragments of tiles. The third structure, though like the others 
architecturally uninteresting, furnished an unexpected supply of 
results. Apparently the building had been burned, for on the top of 
the mass of rubbish in the cellar were fragments of stucco with incised 
decoration originally attached to wooden walls. The large quantity 
of fragments of pottery permitted the reconstruction of about thirty 
vases of different forms. Amongst a number of iron objects were found 
two novelties, the use of which is as yet unknown. One is an instru- 
ment not unlike a spear head, the other is heart shaped with rings in 
the extremities. Several figured bronzes and statuettes were also 
found. As if to preserve the date of this collection, a copper coin of 
Septimius Severus of the year 195 A. D., was found in the cellar. 
Further digging revealed portions of the surrounding wall of this Ro- 
man country estate. The buildings already excavated were doubtless 
subsidiary structures and the main edifice, which revealed the painted 
stuccos, has not yet been found. Other estates belonging apparently 
to retired Roman officers have been found in the same district. E. 
WAGNER in Karlsruher Ztg., July 7 and 8, 1893. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL MAPS. At the recent congress of antiquarian 
societies, it was announced that the arch geological maps of Essex, 
Lancashire, Cheshire, Surrey, Sussex, and Derbyshire have been con- 
siderably advanced since the meeting of last year. Maps are being 
prepared by societies in Herfordshire, Cumberland, and Westmore- 
land. A series of symbols has been devised by the standing commit- 
tee, for the diagrammatic representation of ancient objects and sites ; 
and a resolution was passed, expressing a hope that all societies join- 
ing in the archaeological survey of England will ensure uniformity by 
adopting these symbols. Mr. H. S. Pearson gave a description of a 
photographic survey of the county of Warwick. Each photographer 
who took part in the work was assigned a district of about six square 
miles ; and the photographs were submitted to the approval of a com- 
mittee. Up to the present time, about 1700 excellent photographs 
have been taken ; and permanent prints of them have been mounted 
and placed in the Free Library at Birmingham. Acad., July 29. 

Under the direction of the Archaeological Societies of Great Britain, 
a sort of confederation of amateur photographers has been formed, 
with the object of making a complete photographic inventory of all 
monuments possessing any importance. Each amateur is assigned a 
small zone of nine or ten square kilometers and is directed to photo- 
graph everything of archaeological interest within that zone. A com- 
mittee examines the photographs and accepts or rejects them as the 
case may be, while a copy of each is placed in a library for public 
use. Chronique des Arts, 1893, No. 28. 

SCANDINAVIAN ART IN GREAT BRITAIN. A paper with this title was 
read at a meeting of the Viking Club by Mr. J. Romilly Allen, who 
commenced by saying that the period of the Viking invasions of 
Great Britain was known historically from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
and other annals, while the area permanently occupied by the North- 
men could be very accurately determined without any historical evi- 
dence, by means of place-names and archaeological discoveries. The 
characteristics of the art of Scandinavia and of Great Britain during 
the period immediately preceding the Viking conquests were very 
fully explained. The typically Celtic and Anglo-Saxon objects im- 
ported into Scandinavia, and the typically Scandinavian objects found 
in Viking graves and hoards in Great Britain, were next dealt with, 
it being pointed out that, while the former were valued by the North- 
men on account of the intrinsic beauty of their workmanship, and 
even carried back to their native land and buried with them, the latter 


were introduced into this country partly by commercial intercourse 
and partly by conquest. The influence exercised upon the art of 
Scandinavia and of Great Britain by bringing the Pagan Northmen 
into direct contact with the Christianised Celt and Anglo-Saxon was 
investigated at some length. The author observed that, although the 
number of monuments and objects found in Scandinavia, exhibiting 
mixed Celtic and Northern art, or Anglo-Saxon and Northern art, 
was extremely small, yet there were districts in Great Britain, more 
especially in the Isle of Man and the adjacent coasts of Cumberland, 
Lancashire, and North Wales, where monuments exhibiting Scandi- 
navian influence were comparatively plentiful. The paper concluded 
with a careful analysis of the specially Scandinavian peculiarities 
of the geometrical patterns, zoomorphic designs, and figure-subjects 
taken from the mythic-heroic Eddaic poems, which occur on the early 
Christian monuments within this area. Certain patterns formed of 
chains of rings were shown to be common to the Manx crosses and 
fonts in Swedish churches. In the interlaced work there was a ten- 
dency in the bands to bifurcate and break off into scroll-like termina- 
tions. In the zoomorphic designs the beasts usually had only two 
toes instead of three, the bodies were covered with scales, the attitude 
with the head bent back was peculiar, a crest issuing from the head 
formed interlacing convolutions with fin-like appendages in places, 
and the junction of the legs with the body was conventionally indi- 
cated by spirals. The mythological subjects were taken chiefly from 
the story of Sigurd Fafni's Bane which is to be found first in the 
Elder, or Poetic Edda, occurring subsequently in the Volsunga Saga, 
and also forming the basis of the old High German Nibelungenlied. 
Examples of scenes from this legend were to be seen on crosses at 
Kirk Andreas, Jurby, and Malew in the Isle of Man, and on the carved 
woodwork of the doors of churches in Sweden. The bound Loki and 
Thor fishing for the Midgard worm occurred at Gosforth in Cumber- 
land, and Weyland Smith at Leeds, and Halton in Lancashire. The 
paper was illustrated with numerous photographs and rubbings, 
among the latter being those of the tympana of doorways at Hover- 
ingham, Notts, Southwell Cathedral, and St. Nicholas, Ipswich, which 
show very marked Scandinavian influence. Acad., Feb. 11. 

ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE. Mr. J. Park Harrison has published 
(Henry Frowde), as a supplement to Archseologia Oxoniensis, an illus- 
trated pamphlet on " English Architecture before the Conquest," in 
which he maintains (1) that many relics of Anglo-Saxon architecture 
still exist unrecognized, and (2) that Anglo-Saxon architecture was 
itself a survival from Roman times. The evidence adduced comes 




from various quarters. The strongest, perhaps, is that derived from 
the illuminated Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the tenth and the early eleventh 
century, which shows designs and patterns that are repeated on 
contemporary buildings. Much less strong is that based upon the 
traces of tool-markings, it being argued that the Saxons used cross- 
axing, while the Norman tooling was in diagonal lines. Another line 
of evidence is that of comparing doubtful buildings with others admit- 
ted to be earlier than the Conquest. For example, the tower of St. 
Michael's church at Oxford is here compared with that of St. Benet's 
at Cambridge. It is also argued, from historical data, that the two 
towers at Lincoln (St. Peter-at-Gowts and St. Mary-le-Wigforcl) are 
pre-Norman in age as well as in style. In the appendix are given a 
list of architectural details in Anglo-Saxon MSS., together with plates 
showing reproductions of many of these details. Academy, Sept. 2. 

ENAMELLING IN IRELAND. We have received a separate part of the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, containing two papers on a 
block of red glass enamel said to have been found at Tara Hill. The 
first is by Prof. Vincent Ball, director of the Science and Art Museum 
at Dublin, who describes the history of the specimen, its chemical 
analysis, and its possible use in the arts. It seems to bear a close 
resemblance to the lumps of porporino found in Rome. Its composi- 
tion is that of a kind of flint glass colored red with oxide of copper. 
It is a true enamel, but (for practical purposes) exhausted, since on 
being fused it now burns to a dark green. The second paper is by 
Miss Margaret Stokes. The first gives a detailed account of what is 
historically known about the art of enamelling as practiced in ancient 
Ireland, and then proceeds to describe certain specimens of enamelled 
bronze ornaments preserved in the museum of the Academy. These 
are beautifully illustrated in a colored plate, which we observe has 
been printed at Frankfort. Finally, she concludes : " When we read 
the testimony of ancient writers as to the splendor of our ancient 
horse-trappings, and find enamelled bronze bits, loops and clasps, all 
fragments of such furnishings discovered in this country, and now in 
our museums, it is impossible to avoid the suggestion that this lump of 
crimson enamel was raw material in the workshop of some goldsmith 
or jeweler in the Rath of Caelchu on Tara Hill." Academy, July 8. 

NORMAN AND BELGIAN FONTS. The fonts of Lincoln and Winchester 
cathedrals have been usually regarded as contemporaneous with the 
building of the cathedrals. This date, however, now appears to be too 
early, recent investigation indicating that they belong rather to the 
middle of the twelfth than to the latter half of the eleventh century. 
They both, as is well known, belong to a type of which we have other 


English examples at St. Michael's, Southampton, East Meon, and St. 
Mary Bourn in Hampshire, and at Thornton Curtis in Lincolnshire. 
The last-named is an exact copy of the Lincoln font on a smaller scale, 
and is of the same material, black slate stone. All these fonts conform 
to the same model. A square basin with a hemispherical bowl is sup- 
ported by four short columns, one at each angle, and a stout cylindrical 
block in the centre. The four sides of the basin are decorated with 
carvings in low relief, which at Winchester are partly symbolical, 
partly historical, and at Lincoln represent mythical monsters. The 
English origin of these fonts had hardly been questioned until the 
recent researches of M. Paul Saintenoy in Belgium, and of Miss Emma 
Swann, brought to light examples of the same type in various places 
in the Low Countries, the correspondence of which with the examples 
in English churches, in form, ornamentation, and material, is so strik- 
ing that it can hardly be doubted that they had a common origin. 
The most remarkable of these Belgian examples are those at Zedelg- 
hem and Termonde. In the former, the historical subjects, as at Win- 
chester, are taken from the legend of St. Nicholas of Myra, and the 
treatment is so much the same as to render it almost certain that they 
were both the work of the same hand. The general resemblance in 
style and character of the Termonde font to that at Lincoln is equally 
striking, as will be apparent to those who have access to M. Sainte- 
noy's recently published work, Prolegomenes a I' ] Etude des Fonts baptis- 
maux (Lyon-Claesen, Bruxelles, 1892), which contains illustrations of 
both, as well as that at Winchester. The author truly says, " ils pre- 
sentent des analogies telles qu'il n'est pas possible de douter de leur 
origine commune; c'est frappant" (p. 98). The black stone of which 
these fonts are made has been traced to quarries near Tournav, which, 
according to the work of MM. De la Grange and Cloquet, Etudes sur 
VArt de Tournai, cited by M. Saintenoy, is found used for fonts in the 
whole of the north of France, in Flanders, Hainault, as well as, as the 
examples referred to prove, in England. The importation of fonts of 
this type into England, and, while rare or non-existent elsewhere, their 
appearance in such widely separated districts as Hampshire and Lin- 
colnshire,- open a very interesting field of inquiry. Archaeologists will 
be glad to know that such an inquiry, together with the history of 
fonts generally, is being prosecuted by Miss Swann who, together with 
the late Prof. Westwood's literary and artistic collections, inherits his 
archa3ological spirit, his patience of research and accuracy of mind. 
Athen., Mch. 18. 

British remains have recently been noticed at North Field Farm in 


Long Wittenham parish, just opposite to Dorchester and Burcote on 
the Berkshire side of the Thames. It was observed that in certain 
fields, especially in two called Fox Furlong and Scahbs, the crops 
grew taller and better on certain patches and along certain lines. He 
had the lines mapped out, and has begun to dig at suitable spots. The 
lines in the crops seem to show roads with various enclosures, round 
or square. The excavations revealed Romano-British pottery, mostly 
of rough local make, but including some " Pseudo-Arretine " (a stamp, 
AVITVS F); broken tiles ; one or perhaps two wells with masonry cas- 
ing ; and a great deal of lime. 

No flint or stone foundations or coins have been noticed, though 
Roman coins have been found two fields off. The search will, 
we understand be carried further. So far as we can at present judge, 
we have not a Roman town with basilica (as has been suggested), but 
traces of British and Romano-British farming. The lines visible in 
the crops seem to be due to wattles and dab walls, though some may 
well be ditches, for the river is near. There appears, then, to have 
been first a British settlement with round huts, corresponding to the 
circles. This was succeeded by rectangular enclosures, more Roman 
in appearance, perhaps yards, in the comers of which can sometimes 
be noted what may have been very small dwellings or sheds. Other 
lines seem to represent roads or paths ; many of the enclosures are 
built along these, and some of them run parallel or at right angles to 
one another. Other lines, again may be ditches. That the circles and 
square enclosures are of different dates is shown by the fact that in 
some cases they intersect. There was a Romano-British ' station " at 
Dorchester, though the Roman name of it is totally unknown, and 
the British camp on the so-called Sinodun Hill is known to every 
tourist. By accident or design, the broadest of the apparent roads 
points directly to it. We need only add that Mr. Hewett is dealing 
with the remains in a manner that deserves praise and imitation. 
ARTHUR J. EVANS F. HAVERFIELD in Athen., Aug. 26. 

CAMBRIDGE. THE FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM. We quote the following from 
the annual report of the Fitzwilliam Museum syndicate at Cambridge : 
"Among the acquisitions made during the past year, the most import- 
ant is a collection of vases, weapons, ornaments and other objects in 
pottery, bronze, &c., which were found during the excavations recently 
made in the Necropolis of Tamassos in the Island of Kypros. This 
collection has been presented to the museum by Sir Henry Bulwer. 
In accordance with his wish a certain number of duplicate specimens 
of pottery from this collection have been presented to the museums 
of various public schools, namely, those of Eton, Westminster, Marl-' 
borough, Cheltenham, and Haileybury. 


" An important addition has been made, by purchase, to the picture 
galleries: a head of Christ in fresco, by the xiv century Sienese 
painter Ambrogio Lorenzetti, from the wall of a church near Perugia, 
which is now destroyed. 

" Mr. Samuel Sandars, already a very munificent benefactor, has, 
during the past year, made many valuable donations, among which 
the most important are twelve illuminated manuscripts. One of these, 
a Psalter of the middle of the xin century, is a very beautiful exam- 
ple of English art. Another MS. of special interest gives the records 
of a musical guild in Venice, extending over a period of about two 
hundred years. At the beginning are two very beautiful miniatures 
of the Florentine school, dating from about the year 1400 A. D. 

" Some other important additions have been made by purchase to 
the collections of illuminated MSS. and books printed on vellum. 
Among the most notable are the following : A Franco-Flemish MS. 
Book of Hours of about 1450, with fine miniatures, which are espe- 
cially remarkable for the extraordinary brilliance of their coloring and 
perfect state of preservation. The border of every page is decorated 
with the ivy-leaf ornament. Another Book of Hours, of unusually 
fine style, contains a number of small miniatures, which are very good 
examples of North Italian art during the xv century. The cost of 
this beautiful little MS. was partly defrayed by the generosity of a 
member of the Senate, who does not wish his name to be given. We 
may also mention a very fine copy of a Book of Hours, with borders 
and full-page pictures from blocks of soft metal, printed on vellum for 
Simon Vostre (Paris, 1507) ; and a magnificent folio volume of the 
Decretals of Gratian with illuminated initials, printed on vellum at 
Venice in 1479, a wonderfully sumptuous and brilliantly preserved 
example of the art of typography in its most costly form. A fine 
copy of Boethius, on paper, printed by Arend de Keysere at Ghent in 
1485, is specially noticeable from its containing a number of large 
miniatures painted in Spaces reserved for them in the text. This 
beautiful book is an interesting example of the transition from illu- 
minated MSS. to printed books, which gradually took place in the 
second half of the xv century. The University Library possesses a 
copy of Boethius, printed by Colard Mansion, which is decorated with 
a very similar set of miniatures. 

" A considerable number of valuable books on mediaeval and mod- 
ern art have been purchased for the Fitzwilliam Library ; and a few 
important additions have been made to supply wants in the collec- 
tion of English coins. Among the latter the most noticeable is a 
good specimen of the double-ryal of Henry VIIl's first coinage, one 



of the largest and most magnificent gold coins of the whole mediaeval 
period." Acad., Mar. 14. 

CLAYTON. MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS. In the church of Clayton, in Sussex, 
which is unfortunately undergoing the process of " restoration," a num- 
ber of frescoes have been discovered under the whitewash. Athen., 
Aug. 12. 

These remarkable mural paintings are probably of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. The design appears to have extended over all the walls and to 
have been a representation of the Last Judgment. Over the chancel 
arch our Lord is seated in glory, and on each wall of the .nave is a 
long procession of ecclesiastic and royal personages, etc., with angels. 
Below is a broad border and under it may still be traced figures rising 
from their graves. On the one side of the chancel arch there is also 
a representation of our Lord delivering the keys to St. Peter, on the 
other he appears again with a kneeling figure, probably St. John or 
St. Paul. These paintings have awakened a good deal of notice and 
have already been visited by many archaeologists of repute, who agree 
in pronouncing them to be important and interesting. [London 
Times's Correspondence.] Boston Ev. Transcr., Nov. 1. 

KIRKSTALL ABBEY. The excavations at Kirkstall Abbey, which were 
suspended when the Corporation of Leeds undertook the more im- 
portant work of preserving the ruins above ground, and disfigured 
them sadly, have lately been begun again, and so much has been 
found that it seems likely that a plan will be recovered more complete 
than exists of any other abbey in England. The west side of the outer 
court, opposite the church, has been opened out, and it is found that 
there was a large thirteenth century wall two stories high, and a large 
kitchen, and other offices adjoining, besides other apartments which 
have evidently been private chambers. The whole was, there can be 
little doubt, the principal guest-house of the abbey. A great range of 
buildings still only partly explored extends to the west and south of 
this, and there is more on the north and near the river. On Monday 
last the committee of the Corporation who are directing the work, with 
Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite who is advising them, visited the abbey, and 
it was determined to suspend the ornamental laying out of the ground, 
which has been begun, until the extent of the remains below ground 
is known, lest by chance injury should be done to them. When a 
good plan of the whole has been made, it will have to be determined 
whether the excavated foundations shall be buried again or left ex- 
posed, and if the latter, what means shall be taken to protect them 
from harm by mischief and the weather. Athen., June 24. 




Vol. IX. 

APRIL-JUNE, 1894. 

No. 2. 


THE PERSONALITY OF ART. In this essay, the word Art is not 
used in the most limited sense, that of the Formative Arts (Archi- 
tecture, Sculpture, Painting), nor only, in the more extended 
sense, to include the Literary Arts (Language, Poetry, Music). 
Art is here conceived to comprise, beside these, the Social Arts, 
which are Philosophy, Religion, Government, from which the 
literary and formative arts derive their inspiration and their uni- 
versal ideas, and to which they contribute material of more exter- 
nal and individual species. It is conceived that these three 
regions of art the social, the literary, and the formative con- 
stitute the personality of art, the spirit, the soul, and the body of 
its organization, presenting analogies to the human person, to 
man as constituted of spirit, soul, body of Spirit or Mind (which 
is the sphere of universal consciousness-activity-life), of Soul, 
including Will (the sphere of individuality, the Ego\ and of 
Body, the physical constitution (the sphere of material conscious- 
ness-activity-life). In this unified personality of art, the social 
arts govern the literary and formative arts, furnish them with 
general principles and ideal subjects for incorporation, and give 
to them a higher life and significance ; while the lower arts con- 
tribute, to the higher, material for the incorporation and expression 
of their ideas on lower planes of thought. Through this personal 
constitution, there is, in artistic periods of Society, throughout 
the entire social organism, a complete permeation and circulation 


of universal ideals, which constitute the vitalizing and unifying 
principles of the civilization of the period. This harmony and 
cooperation of the arts extends from philosophy to painting; 
and their comparative study under the light of analogy is one of 
the most fruitful sources of knowledge as to the ideal significance 
of the lower arts ; for it is in the higher arts, where thought i& 
expressed in language, that we are to find the clearest and most 
distinct presentation of the psychologic principles and the general 
ideas which rule and govern all original production in any given 
epoch, all that constitutes its creative work of inspiration and 
genius, as distinct from mere imitation, fantasy and reproduction. 
This integral unity and communion among the arts, arising in 
the presence of common sociologic principles and norms of civil- 
ization, establishes a most intimate family relationship between 
the arts of any given period, and makes them all contribute to 
the expression of a common social ideal. This is seen most 
clearly among artistic peoples and in the constructive periods of 
society, when the artistic nature is developed on all planes of the 
consciousness. One of the clearest examples of this is found in 
Greek civilization, which was artistic and ideal from top to bot- 
tom ; and presented an intuitive experience of, and a self-sacri- 
ficing devotion to, universal social principles paralleled only by 
the early Christians in their complete surrender to religious ideals, 
and by the Hebrews and by the medieval Christians in their devo- 
tion to theocratic civilization. 

PLACE OF ART IN CIVILIZATION. Civilization personifies human 
experience in the tri-individuality of Art, Science, and Industry, 
which constitute the spirit, soul, and body of civilization, and 
cover the whole ground of man's intelligent production and occu- 
pation. Art, as the spirit of civilization, is the highest agent in 
the development of human consciousness-activity-life ; it is either 
regenerative or degenerative, as it is the exponent of truth-good- 
beauty, or of falsehood-evil-deformity. 

Art occupies that department of human thought and activity 
which relates to the discovery of the ideality of existence and the 
laws of the mental universe, and to the incorporation of this 
knowledge in sensible forms for the sake of the ideal principles 
which these forms signify and contain, and for the purpose of 



communicating these ideal principles to man for use in his mental 
life and development, and in his relations with other minds. Art 
is thus distinguished (1) from Science, which investigates the 
physical universe in the acquisition of knowledge for practical use 
in the subjection of nature to man; (2) from Industry, which 
works for the sake of material utility, and as the means of live- 
lihood, in the cultivation, organization, and distribution of the 
products of the material universe. 

Art is, therefore, the highest individuality in that objective 
world which we call Society or Civilization ; it is its spirit, its 
universal and ideal entity. It is constructed through the human 
consciousness in opposite ideals, and operates upon this conscious- 
ness in its development by regeneration and by degeneration. It 
involves the operation of the entire human mind from the highest 
to the lowest of its faculties, from their highest (supernatural) to 
their lowest (material) condition, and from both constructive and 
destructive points of view or genera of ideal. In every period 
of civilization art projects, in sensible and individual form, those 
universal ideas which rule in this period ; and this externalization 
aids the internal development of the mind by the multiplication 
of particular forms incorporating these ideas in the various inter- 
related arts, from philosophy, the highest, to painting, the lowest 
Thus, a general ideal will lind expression in the greatest variety 
of forms which appeal to the entire organization of the mind, 
from the Reason and the Sentiment to the lowest forms of Intel- 
lect and Affection, Sensation and Instinct. This ideal will rule 
in the formation or modification of ontologic principles and the 
form of Philosophy, of religious principles and the form of the 
Church, of moral and political principles and the form of the 
State, of the principles of cognition and the form of education, 
of the domestic principles and the form of the family, of econ- 
omic and industrial principles and the form of individual occu- 
pation and the conduct of life. This universal ideal thus circu- 
lates through the whole social fabric and the consciousness andi 
life of man, constituting the causative agent in the history of any, 

this high character and position, it is clear that we hold art to be 


a product of man's creative intelligence, and oppose that view 
which sees in art nothing but an imitation or copy of nature : the 
latter view would take away from art all reason to exist, would 
ignore all genius or creative power, all originality of conception, 
all possibility of progress in the race. The fundamental reason 
why art is not a copy of nature is, that concrete nature presents 
opposite ideals, laws, and phenomena in confusive conflict, and 
that it is one of the most important functions of art to separate, 
individualize, and distinctly present the opposite ideal realities 
which are behind the sensible appearances, in order to correct the 
deceptive and confused appearances of this nature, and to use 
them in the representation of the ideals of the mind. In every 
work of art, from landscape-painting to philosophy, nature is 
used as material, but only as it is transformed into artistic unity 
with the ideal in the mind of the artist, which is the primary 
ground and cause of the work of art ; and the art consists in the 
reality of this incorporation of the ideal in actual form so as to 
express it by means the most clear, simple and direct ; whether it 
; be an ideal of beauty or deformity. 

Even in landscape-art, which is one of the lowest forms of art, 
it must be claimed that art is higher than nature by reason of the 
addition of the element of mind, which raises the work of the 
artist above the mindless nature which is suggestive to him in his 
work, and furnishes him with external material. Every work of 
landscape-art is an ideal composition in both form and color. In 
many cases, the exact reproduction of the form and especially of 
the colors of nature would be ludicrously inartistic. The real 
artist, who takes a subject from nature, reconstructs it into artistic 
form and color, rejects non-essential elements, using only such 
parts as aid in the clear presentation of the ideas which this nat- 
ural scene or object is used to express because everything that 
does not aid in this artistic expression is an obstacle, an impedi- 
ment, and must be removed from the work of art. If it be a 
work of beauty and congruity (even if it be only picturesque), all 
features that interfere with, and those which do not aid in, the 
symmetrical proportion of the parts and between the form and 
the idea must be either discarded or reconstructed. This applies 
to all works of art, from philosophy to painting it is an artistic 



dogma. What does a mere imitator or copyist know of such 
creative work, or those who think, with him, that copies of nature 
are works of art ? Nevertheless, many an artist, unconscious of 
his mental process, will think that he is copying nature, when 
nature is merely suggestive to his creative faculty. 

PHILOSOPHY OF ART. The philosophy of art deals, primarily, 
with the opposite principles of reality, which are the archetypes 
of relative existence ; secondarily, it deals with the works of art' 
which really represent these primary principles in persisting 
typical forms of thought : all the rest of pseudo art-work belongs 
either to industry or to the rubbish-heap of art ; and it is by far 
the greater part of so-called art that belongs there, as the waste 
always present in the natural world. ^Esthetic Science should 
present art in both its theoretic and its practical aspects, and offer 
a conception of the principles of art (both objective and subject- 
ive) which may be useful in the interpretation of its phenomena. 
It should comprehend (1) a statement of the ontologic archetypes 
of aesthetic principles * and their psychologic types in the human 
mind; (2) a definition of art, and a conception of its place as /a 
factor in civilization ; (3) a conception of the genera and spje- 
cies of art-ideals, which are the psychologic causes in the con- 
struction of its works including a statement of the classes and 
species of ideas for which we are to look in works of art, and a 
conception of the faculties of the mind by which these works are 
constructed and appreciated. (4) ^Esthetic Science must present 
laws of classification and of the historic development of art which 
shall be a guide in the comparative study of its generic and 
specific ideals, of its particular examples, its schools, and its his- 
toric periods ; recognizing the validity of every species of art that 
persistently reproduces its kind, and is therefore to be included 
in the history of art. The philosophy of art should conceive the 
different art-ideals, present their distinctive character, and actual 
operation, and estimate their relative value according to a univer- 
sal ideal standard, and by this means give to the observer a 

* The ontologic foundation of Beauty and Deformity in primordial Being and 
Nonbeing is presented in Parts I and II of Christian Philosophy (Princeton, A. I. 
Frothingham, publisher), and reference to these chapters is necessary to the compre- 
hension of the ontologic basis of the Philosophy of Art. 


universal and disinterested point of view from which to judge 
and characterize the varied multitude of its works : it should 
teach him how to look at works of art from a point of view above 
the conflict of different ideals and the limitations of his personal 
preference, arid thus to guard against the evil influence of false 
and immoral art. 

The Philosophy of Art must reach the heights above these 
contending ideals and show the natural relation and succession 
of these types of thought in the human mind and in the order of 
'human society. It is only by this means that thought can be 
Redeemed from the chaos of conflicting ideals, from the limita- 
tions of a partial standpoint and the deceptive judgments of indi- 
vidual opinion and preference, from the instability of an ever- 
changing free-thought or pseudo-rationalism and the seductive 
^gratification of free-feeling or licentiousness which is associated 
fwith it. Such help is much needed at the present time, when 
'the use and study of art are becoming so general, and when the 
old authorities and landmarks of judgment and of taste are disre- 
garded by the larger number. Confusion and license reign over 
a democratic civilization of exaggerated individualism, which 
'seeks only pleasure, and too often finds it either in a vicious sen- 
sationalism and meretricious realism, or in a fanciful and effem- 
inating idealism ; by which the artist satisfies both the licentious 
taste that demands the production of such works and the com- 
'mercial motive, which too often leads him to give rein to his 
^technical power in the production of works that conform to an 
anti-Christian, an immoral, or a fantastic standard. 

Writers on art usually write from some partial point of view, 
expressing some prejudice or preconception. Works on the 
philosophy of art are more often written in the interest of an 
'individual philosophic ideal, and quite apart from any experience 
of works of art or any ability to realize them ; sometimes they 
are written from a fanciful or fantastic experience. Histories of 
art and essays are written at best from a very external point of 
view, and to support some personal prejudice ; often according to 
a simply literary method which enables the intellectual artisan to 
write about every tiling, as well without as with any real knowl- 
edge of the subject. The most common historic method is to 



regard the great bulk of works of art as unsuccessful attempts to 
attain the type which the writer or his time prefers ; instead of 
concluding that every species of art that persistently reproduces 
its kind is to be included in the natural history of art, and that it 
is the business of the real investigator to study every kind, and to 
attempt to conceive what psychologic cause and condition led to 
its production to conclude that it had a meaning and try to find 
-out what it means ; not, because he does not understand it and 
does not like it, to attempt to brush it away with the cheap 
phrase of a partial standpoint : "It was a failure ; they thought 
that they thought, but it was not thinking." This point of view 
recognizes the validity of only that species which is individual to 
it, being utterly lacking in that universal and artistic faculty of 
the mind which is able to conceive a more or less extensive group 
of species quite beyond the limitations of the individuality of the 

It is not a real philosophy of history (but asophy or foolishness) 
which leaps from Aristotle to Descartes, from Origen to Schleier- 
macher and Hegel, from Euripides to Dante, from Praxiteles to 
Donatello, from Apelles to Raphael, from the age of Pericles to 
the Renaissance of Paganism of the fifteenth century. It is a 
Pagan consciousness which claims to do this, ignoring Christian- 
ity and Christian civilization. This standpoint is either unable to 
perceive and realize, or is antagonistic to, the social principles 
and historic laws of the Christian era. A philosophy of history 
cannot claim to exist unless it explain the Christian era as a part 
of history, and even explain the distinct periods and successive 
ideals of this era. 

The time is past when people of true culture could claim to 
reject any historic species of art because it failed to correspond 
with a current ideal or with the limitations of the individual pref- 
erence. Neither aesthetic science nor true taste can be founded 
on a temporary ideal and the taste of the time ; or on the author- 
ity of individual opinion, taste, and preference ; or on sponta- 
neous and unreasoning judgment no matter how innately artistic 
or highly refined and cultivated may be the individual nature. 

Neither can aesthetic science be founded on theory alone, no 
matter how wonderful it may be, either in words or in ideas. A 


theory which transcends the actual world of art, and separates- 
itself from actual human consciousness, is without reason to exist. 
Science, in order to exist, must be founded on a rational synthe- 
sis of ideality, reality, and actuality : it must explain the facts,. 
and all the facts, of art-history ; it must show art to be integral 
to civilization, as well as show the relation of art to the manifes- 
tation of the integral principles of the mind : all this it must do, 
or it is not science but nescience. 

History shows us that, in the development of a people, the 
prevalence of an advanced culture in the literary and formative 
arts has been attended or followed by national and individual 
degeneration a degeneration of social institutions, of mental 
standards, and of individual character, accompanied by luxury 
of life, laxity of morals, and effeminacy of manners. In other 
words, history shows that the refinement produced by or attend- 
ing an advanced aesthetic culture is enervating and unhealthy, is 
an evil, not a good, and is followed by a rapid degeneration in all 
the arts. This observed fact has appeared to furnish a ground 
for the opinion that art is integrally bad, and that its entire influ- 
ence is to be characterized as demoralizing an error arising in 
the inability to separate between its opposite generic principles 
(between sublimity and the horrible, between beauty and deform- 
ity, between the picturesque and the grotesque) ; and in the fail- 
ure to distinguish its higher from its lower ideals and standpoints 
of consciousness, and to attribute to each its specific individuality 
and mental value. 

It has become usual to contemplate art as having qualities of 
only one genus, as being the exponent of beauty alone ; in fact, 
beauty and art are used by most writers of the day as equivalent 
terms. Art, therefore, is claimed by them to be intrinsically ele- 
vating and purifying in its causes and effects ; and the prevalence 
of aesthetic culture, even in its merely technical and decorative 
forms, irrespective of the ideas involved in it, is by many held up 
as the highest good. We purpose to show that art may be and 
has been corrupting and debasing, as well as purifying and ele- 
vating; that destructive and demoralizing principles and ideals, 
as well as those which are constructive and moral, are to be found 
incorporated in art ; and that, in certain epochs, these destructive 



principles and ideals are to be seen operating, as degenerative 
social causes, in all the arts from philosophy to painting, and in 
all departments of human consciousness the religious and moral,, 
the intellectual and aifectional, the social and domestic, and even 
the industrial. 

History shows us that the general ideal of each period appears 
first in the philosophic or social arts (Philosophy, Religion, Gov- 
ernment), passes into the literary arts or arts of expression, and 
finally becomes incorporated in the formative arts or arts of design. 
Consequently, degenerative formative and literary art is but the 
expression of degenerative social principles in philosophy and 
religion and politics already established in power, and at work in 
the attempt to found destructive civilization. 

The original ideal of any epoch, as distinguished from it& 
inherited ideals and its reproductive and imitative experience y 
constitutes the productive principle of the new spirit which every 
age has, though the greater part of the work of the age bo merely 
imitative or reproductive. In order, then, to judge of the origi- 
nal work of any epoch, of any new departure (that which makes 
its significance), we must first determine the nature of the artistic 
principle and creative psychologic agent at work in this produc- 
tion ; and this will show on what road this epoch is advancing 
whether it be the road of health and regeneration, or the road of 
disease and degeneration : for there are but these two roads of 
advance. The fact that any system of ideas prevails throughout 
a community is active, militant, profusely productive does not 
prove that these are manifestations of healthy mental activity. 
Evidences of disease and degeneration, especially if these be deeply 
seated, do not readily show themselves to casual or external obser- 
vation : it is only by philosophic analysis of the internal principles 
at work as the mental causes of the artistic eifects, that we can 
penetrate below the surface, and get at the real social significance 
of any period. 

We claim, then, that art, like everything else in this world, 
has its false-evil-deformed genus as well as its true-good-beauti- 
ful genus (both being real art), and that the constructive Reason 
and Sentiment are continually calling on us to reject the false- 
evil-deformed, and to choose the true-good-beautiful. A trusty 


guide to aid in this choice is especially needed to controvert the 
delusive assertion of that school of writers on art who pro- 
claim the false gospel of " art for art's sake,'' started in our cen- 
tury by Schiller, and perverted by his sensual followers, who 
would separate art from morality often for the purpose of 
infusing into artistic forms an immoral content. With Schiller 
(^Esthetic Letters, xxn) it was a philosophic dogma, that by the 
form the master abolishes the subject. The sensual school of writers 
identify the technical element with art, and claim that the artis- 
tic technical form, irrespective of its ideal content, ranks the 
work of art as a cultivating agent, and that the false and evil ideal 
content is to be either accepted or ignored by the cultivated for 
the sake of the art-technique, which is really the material element 
only. This leads them to defend the artistic theatre as a whole 
the moral or immoral content does not count ; culture looks only 
at the artistic technique of origination by the author and of inter- 
pretation by the actor. This position leads to the defence of 
technically artistic fiction, even if it present the realism of beastly 
humanity, artistic sensualism, and deviltry of all sorts. It leads 
to the defence of the representation of nude physical beauty, on 
the ground that what is not permitted in actual life, may be rep- 
resented by realistic art, and redeemed from the evil of sensualism 
by the purifying influence of art. 

A philosophy of art is needed also to refute the claims of the 
ideal school of the horrible, of deformity, of the comic and the 
grotesque, which correlative aesthetic principles it would substitute 
for and identify with their opposites, sublimity and beauty and the 
picturesque. This school would make itself to be a social regen- 
erator instead of a degenerator, and would call itself true because 
it is real. Finding in humanity this idealism of imperfection, it 
claims that to represent it realistically is to produce an art that is 
a true elevator of the race thus following the ideal reasserted 
in our time by Goethe, which would regenerate and' save man 
through the experience of evil. If evil were always clad in gar- 
ments of darkness and deformity, it would be easy to detect; but 
the most dangerous attacks of evil on human virtue are insid- 
iously made under the stolen garments of light and beauty, and 
one has to learn to detect the internal and ideal deformity and 



immorality of the most seductive forms of sensual beauty, which 
appeal to our defective human nature, and offer gratification to 
its evil desires under forms which have been accepted in the 
so-called good society of the epoch. In every individual there are 
a mother Eve and a father Adam ready to be seduced by the ser- 
pent if he be clad as an angel of light. The temptation of a 
seductive charm is addressed to inborn sensualism ; and, if not 
guided by reason or by true forms of sentiment, the soul is in 
danger of yielding itself to the sensual-beautiful, the seductive 
Circe of art, which changes its lovers into swine. 

The personal-psychologic question with regard to a work of art 
becomes : Does it elevate the mind or edify the soul ? Not, 
does it suggest new thought ? but, is this thought constructive or 
destructive, is it elevating or degrading ? Not, does it profoundly 
affect the feelings ? but, what is the quality of the feeling excited ? 
Works of art are too often estimated by the amount of originality 
and talent they show, by their psychologic intensity and effect on 
the feelings through sympathy ; instead of being judged by the 
quality of the experience and by the relative value of the faculty 
of the mind and the emotion of the soul to which they appeal. 

If human nature were perfect, harmonious in its want, unitive 
in its life, natural selection by instinctive want might be a true 
law of life ; though, even in that case, it would be true only by 
union with and subjection to true reason. But human nature is 
imperfect and discordant, has affinities for both truth and false- 
hood, for both good and evil, for both beauty and deformity has 
capacities for degradation as well as for elevation, and is always 
moving in the one direction or in the other. Furthermore, in 
many natures (from both heredity and environment) the affinity 
and capacity for falsehood-evil-deformity is more powerful than 
that for truth-good-beauty in some cases even has possession 
of the nature. We must therefore insist on rational judgment 
versus feeling ; for, though feeling may suggest the want or incli- 
nation, reason must determine whether it be a constructive or a 
destructive want that claims to be gratified. When, as the law 
of life, natural selection by instinctive want takes the place of the 
judgment of the reason, the dictates of religious and moral sen- 
timent, and the conscious choice between right and wrong princi- 


pies, the individual is obeying the command of a spontaneity 
which may be the destroyer of his life. We are familiar with the 
destructive manifestation of the nutritive and sexual instincts, 
which, by their unbridled gratification, destroy so many physical 
natures, but we do not so readily recognize the destructive power 
of that craving for literary and social stimulants which destroy 
the vital functions of the mind and will by a more subtle and 
deeper way of working. 

True appreciation of art can exist only when the judgment is 
guided by a real knowledge of the artistic principles which oper- 
ate in the production of the forms of art, and by a knowledge 
of the laws which regulate its history. This guide is aesthetic 
science, or the philosophy of art. This science must be compre- 
hensive in its field of vision, and should ascend above the limita- 
tions of individual preference to a universal and disinterested 
point of view from which to characterize, classify, relate, and 
explain all those types of art which have vindicated their right to 
exist and their psychologic relation with man, by their establish- 
ment and historic succession, as the embodiment of the aesthetic 
consciousness and productive power of their epoch. This science 
must teach us to qualify and distinguish each one of the princi- 
ples of art : to distinguish Sublimity from its opposite, the Horrible 
or Terrible, Truth-Good-Beauty from Falsehood-Evil-Deformity,, 
the Picturesque from the Grotesque, so that we may detect the 
presence of these principles in works of art, and see into the real 
nature and psychologic significance of the representation by get- 
ting at its ideal content. It must teach us to separate these gen- 
eric principles of artistic reality into their opposite spheres of 
ideal causality, and to recognize the specific limits and bounda- 
ries of the distinct principles in each of these opposite spheres : 
placing on one side the constructive principles of art, Sublimity r 
Beauty, the Picturesque, which constitute the spirit, the soul, and 
the body of constructive ideality, and include the ideas of con- 
gruity and unity, law and order, harmony, rhythm and repose r 
grandeur, simplicity and purity, wisdom, love and constructive 
power ; and placing on the opposite side the destructive princi- 
ples of art, the Horrible, Deformity, the Grotesque, which consti- 
tute the spirit, the soul, and the body of destructive ideality, and 



sesthetic principles of horrible and grotesque Deformity, cooperat- 
ing with a perverted naturalistic and materialistic beauty. 

The philosophy of art is not in the interest of theoretic truth 
alone, but is also a practical guide in the affairs of life. It fur- 
nishes a basis for historic judgment of the social principles at 
work in all periods of civilization, it being impossible to interpret 
history without a knowledge of the ideal principles which are the 
psychologic causes in its production. It is necessary as a guide 
in the separation between opposite orders of art between the art 
which is true and constructive, elevating and purifying, and the 
art which is false and destructive, depraving and corrupting. It 
aids to controvert the different forms of destructive thought : 
(1) it controverts the technic school of sensual realism, whose motto 
is " Art for art's sake," and who would make art consist in perfection 
of technique, which is made to cover a multitude of sins in the ideal 
content; (2) it controverts the false gospel of the pessimistic and 
nihilistic-supernatural ideal, which is the destructive factor in 
civilization; (3) it controverts the current pantheistic, natural- 
istic, and material theories of philosophy and religion and poli- 
tics, which dominate all forms of art, especially the claims of the 
critical, logical and pseudo-rational intellect in its assertion of the 
natural ideal, and the claims of the realistic and technic intellect 
in its assertion of the material ideal ; both of which combine with 
the destructive-supernatural ideal in a common enmity to Chris- 
tian Theism and the constructive-supernatural ideal of Christian 

/ESTHETIC DUALISM. The chief obstacle to modern aesthetic 
science is that it has been founded on a monistic philosophy, and 
therefore recognizes Beauty to be the only art-principle, attempt 
ing to explain all kinds of art as momenta or determinations of 
this one principle Beauty. The evident presence, in works of 
real art, of deformity or ugliness, of the horrible, and of the comic 
or ludicrous, has led German theorists of our century, and their 
followers, to the monstrous conclusion that ugliness, the terrible, 
and the ludicrous, together with the beautiful, are particular 
manifestations or successive momenta of a pseudo-universal prin- 
ciple of beauty. This recognition is not from the point of view 
of a merely superficial inconsistency, but is in the interest of a 


false idealism, which aims to confound opposite ideas and things 
in a principle of chaotic identity the principle which is at the 
basis of false idealism in all ages. These theorists are preter- 
naturally blind to the proposition, so clear to ordinary minds, 
that a principle which evolved such opposites as the beautiful, the 
deformed, the terrible, and the ludicrous, could not be named Beauty, 
neither could they be defined under any one term, for even the 
word Identity implies and involves the opposites identified. 

That all art is not the art of Beauty will be seen by the slightest 
reflection on aesthetic law. Beauty is the symbol of unity and 
harmony and order, and it demands Congruity as its law sym- 
metrical proportion and consistency among the ideas represented 
and between the elements of the art-form, as well as between this 
form and the ideal to be signified and expressed by it. But there 
is also an art of Deformity that is the symbol of diversity and 
license and chaotic discord, which demands Incongruity as its 
law unsymmetrical proportion and inconsistency between the 
parts of the art-form and between the ideas expressed and the 
form of expression, as well as an incoherence and distortion and 
absurdity in the ideas themselves such is the art of the Horrible 
and of the Comic. Discord and license and disorder rule in this 
art of Deformity, and constitute its very being ; and this lawless 
art is so predominant that it is quite usual to characterize all art 
and all beauty (which are treated as equivalent terms) as the 
child of a so-called free but really licentious fancy. 

The most casual observation of its works ''shows that art is not 
the representation or manifestion of beauty alone ; in fact, it is 
oftener the representation of deformity, either side by side with 
and opposite to beauty (in the same work) or as a sole ideal ; and 
it is usually the deformity that is the more real, and therefore the 
more artistic. The tragedies of Aischylos and Shakespeare, are 
they not art ? The Inferno of Dante and of Milton, of Jakob 
Bohme and of Swedenborg, of Luca Signorelli and of Michel 
Angelo, the Medusa of Leonardo da Vinci they surely are art; 
but who could say that they are representations of beauty ? It is 
the reality of their representation of spiritual deformity, death 
and disorder, depravity and hate that makes them great works of 
art ; and as such they are opposite to beauty, the essence of which 


is spiritual life and order, purity and love. The value of these 
great works of art consists in their artistic reality, in the com- 
plete success attained in the incarnation of their idea; not in 
beauty of idea, for the ideas thus presented with artistic reality 
are ideas of deformity. 

It is the same with that realm of art which is so intimately 
related to the imperfect side of our nature the Grotesque, the 
Ludicrous, the Comic. It is real art, but it is founded on the law 
-of incongruity, of falsehood-evil-deformity, and so often appeals 
to our enjoyment of obscenity and meretricity, of double entente 
and violent contrasts, as we see them in the great works of Shakes- 
peare and a host of artists of the same type. All this art comes 
under the law of Deformity, for it is opposite to the congruity, 
simplicity and purity, the grandeur and elevation which belong 
to Beauty. In the art of painting, we might cite the Early Dutch 
School, which presents, in its greatest masters, examples of vulgar 
obscenity and meretricity, executed with complete mastery of 
idea, form, and color. This is an art which " holds up the mirror " 
to the vulgar, obscene, and meretricious type of human nature 
with a reality and mastery equalled only by some of Shakespeare's 
most famous comedies ; and it gives a much clearer expression of 
ideal Deformity than do the nudities and refined meretricity of 
idea of the French School of our time and its imitators, which 
work from the same aesthetic principle. 

It is, therefore, not science, but confusion of thought, to say, as do 
many German philosophers, that the horrible and the sublime, the 
ugly and the beautiful, the satirical and the ridiculous, are momenta 
or particular forms of a pseudo-beauty such a statement is of 
the extremest irrationality, and is impossible to true thought. It 
is like saying that evil is a particular form or manifestation or 
momentum of good, falsehood of truth, the infernal of the divine; 
that the Devil is a particular form of God, darkness of light, death 
of life, etc. Some writers are so vague in their thought, and 
some are such devotees of confusive thought, that they cannot 
see that artistic reality in the presentation of ideas of deformity 
does not constitute beauty, and they therefore rank such works as 
phenomena of beauty. A good psychologist should at once 
Tecognize the opposition between the ideas of Beauty and thos 


of Deformity from the opposite nature of his own experience, 
because opposite ideas appeal to opposite faculties of the mind 
.and opposite emotions of the soul, and, in general, produce oppo- 
site conditions of consciousness. Ideas of Sublimity and Beauty 
elevate and expand the mind and soul to their highest possibili- 
ties of experience : ideas of Horrible Deformity depress and par- 
alyze the mind and soul with terror : ideas of Grotesque Deformity 
(including Wit and the Ludicrous) appeal to the lower side of our 
nature, contract the mind and soul to their lowest possibilities of 
experience, and excite to conscious activity its (perhaps) dormant 
depths of imperfection. 

The subjective testimony of our nature proves the existence of 
these opposite genera of art. We perceive within us two natures 
one, the perfect side of ourselves (the angel in us), to which ap- 
peals the art of Beauty and Congruity, of purity and simplicity, 
of elevation and grandeur and repose ? of creative wisdom and 
love and power: the other nature, the imperfect side of ourselves 
(the demon in us), to which appeals the art that presents the 
terrible and destructive forces of supernatural existence, of man, 
and of nature, the art of Deformity and Incongruity, of Wit and 
the Ludicrous, with their false and impure and malevolent ele- 
ments. The Dionysiac and Erotic phrenzy, the Silenic and Satyric 
beastliness, represented in Greek sculpture and vase-painting, 
cannot be denied artistic reality in a directness of representation 
of the ideas of deformity and grotesque. We deny the assertion, 
that Greek art was characterized by beauty alone, with its attri- 
butes of harmony, serenity, repose, purity and simplicity, because 
Greek art and all art is subject to the law of duality of ideal, and 
the law of historic degradation. The Greek consciousness was 
in an especial manner dualistic, as was the idealism of all anti- 
quity : the religion of Babylonia and Egypt, of Assyria, Persia and 
Greece, and all polytheistic religions, divided their divinities into 
opposite camps, the supernal and the infernal, and their art, being 
founded on this dualistic theogony, represented opposite ideals 
and psychologic attributes. The constructive and theistic period 
of Hellenic civilization is distinctly dualistic. We find opposite 
orders of mythology and divinities, opposite art-ideals and types 
of social law, even opposite Greek races, as permanent represen- 


tatives of these types. It is in the scientific and humanistic period 
of Hellenic history that the monistic principle appears and pro- 
duces that confusion in myth and art-type of divinity, that inver- 
sion of ideal content and confusion of opposite ideals, which 
characterize all degenerate and destructive periods ; presenting 
the same succession of types of consciousness that we see in Chris- 

If we recognize Sublimity and Beauty to be real aesthetic prin- 
ciples and causes of artistic production, the recognition of artistic 
duality is a necessary consequence : that is, we must recognize 
Deformity as a real principle of art and cause of artistic produc- 
tion. Deformity is not defective Beauty, it is the opposite to 
Beauty. Beauty, with its inseparable elements Truth and Good, 
cannot alone be the agent in art, as we find it, including as it 
does the Horrible, the Deformed, the False, the Evil, the Impure, 
the Grotesque, the Comic, the Ridiculous. If the universe of art he 
conceived to be produced or governed by one principle, and.that the 
principle of Beauty and Perfection, there would be nothing in art 
(from Philosophy to Painting) but Perfect Unity, Symmetry, Order, 
Sublimity and Beauty. The very idea of Beauty is contradicted 
by conceiving it to include implicitly its opposite, Deformity, and 
all its servants of imperfection, which in certain periods are the 
agents in the bulk of artistic production. If any principle or 
entity be conceived to evolve its opposite, it cannot be truly 
named; for its definition should include the possibility of this 
evolution and the primary qualities of the thing evolved. If the 
Sublime can evolve the Horrible, or Beauty can evolve Deformity, 
either by diminution, defect, absence, privation, or as its mani- 
festation, self-revelation, actuality, or as one of its momenta, then 
what is termed sublimity and beauty is falsely named, and the 
posit is denied by its own implication. The art of real Beauty is 
always true and good, and true art is always good and beautiful. 
Where truth and good are found, beauty must be present as the 
higher and constructive third. Some writers have made the arti- 
ficial distinction between truth and beauty, that Science is the 
exponent of truth, and Art of beauty ; but the truth of Science is 
of an order different from the truth of Art ; and it is either a licen- 
tious or a fictitious beauty that has not truth for its co-worker. 


Every work of art, as the condition of individuality, must include 
as its ideality either the co-active unities, truth-good-beauty, 
or the co-active diversities, falsehood-evil-deformity. As these 
tri-une idealities are spiritual opposites, we cannot, in any work of 
real art, find them combined in a mixed form. A pseudo-beauty 
which is not true and good must belong to the art of deformity. 
A work of art with an immoral idea is deformed, whatever false 
garment of the beautiful it may put on it is deformity in beauty's 
perverted form, which makes the falsehood worse because more 
deceptive. A principal reason for error on this point is the mis- 
conception of truth by identifying it with reality ; whereas false- 
hood-evil-deformity are as real as truth-good-beauty : they are 
opposite realities, and nothing in art, from philosophy to paint- 
ing, can be really understood without knowing this reality of 
opposites, and applying the knowledge in the interpretation of 
phenomena. In all the works of the Most High, " Life is set 
against Death, and Good is set against Evil," for He placed, in 
the creation, images of death and evil as well as images of life and 
good, so that the invisible nonentities of the Not-god might be 
understood by the things that are made, as well as the invisible 
things of " His eternal power and Godhead " ; for Jehovah cre- 
ated darkness and evil as well as light and peace (Isaiah). 

In this probationary state of existence man is called upon to 
choose which ideal he will serve. He must serve, but he cannot 
serve two masters ; and these opposite masters are offered to him 
with the command : u See, I have set before thee this day life and 
good, and death and evil ; " " choose you this day whom ye will 
serve." This duality of masters obtains in the other forms of art 
as well as in Religion, and we must be able to intelligently dis- 
tinguish and choose between them. If one choose for his master 
(with eyes open and for indulgence of personal inclination) the 
prince of darkness and sensuality, let him acknowledge that such 
is his act, and not pretend to see, in the deadly and sensuous 
images of Satan, the likeness and image of the Living God. 

PSYCHOLOGY OF ART. One of the chief obstacles to a philosophy 
of art has been the lack of a comprehensive science of mind 
which shall provide for and explain the different historic and per- 
sisting types of consciousness, thought, and art-ideals. An ade- 


quate psychology, or science of mind, is indispensable to the study 
of art and the intelligent analysis of its works. JEsthetic science 
tnust be conceived in harmony with psychologic science (which is 
4ts subjective basis), and be carried along on parallel lines with 
this science, and even as a part of it, in order to present the sub- 
jective side of art, and to establish the relative value of the differ- 
ent departments of artistic experience. Without this scientific 
-'knowledge of the human mind, there cannot be a true philosophic 
judgment of works of art ; for this psychologic knowledge is the 
first condition of this judgment in its determination of the com- 
parative value, dignity, and rank of the work, by establishing the 
-place, in the mental order, of the faculty to which belong the 
4deal content and the construction and appreciation of the work 
of art. The species of artistic beauty or deformity to which any 
work of art belongs must be related to that psychologic species 
of beauty or deformity in the various departments of the mind 
which is the psychologic cause in its production, and the faculty 
by which others than the artist observe, recognize, and appreciate 
its artistic quality and ideality. 

According to our psychologic system, the general divisions of 
the Mind are (1) the Reason, which sees the universal ideas of 
Being, Nonbeing, and Becoming ; (2) the Sentiment, which is 
intuitive and conceptive of the supernatural relationships of man ; 
(3) the Intellect and Affection, which constitute the sphere of 
Thought and Feeling : and these three regions personify the 
mind, or constitute its spirit, soul, and body, in the normal con- 
dition of which the body is subject to and productive from the 
fioul, and the soul to and from the spirit; while each of these 
regions is dualistic in its constitution, i. e., is intuitive and con- 
ceptive of both truth-good-beauty, and falsehood-evil-deformity, 
is both constructive and destructive. We find, in the Reason at 
the summit of the mind, opposite generic principles ; on the one 
eide, Truth-Good-Beauty; on the other, Falsehood-Evil-Defor- 
mity ; and these stand for opposite universal ideals or genera of 
vision, each of which becomes distinguished into many species as 
it becomes ensouled by the Sentiment, and incorporated by the 
Intellect in Thought, Thus, we find the Universal Beauty 
and Deformity of the Reason; the Philosophic and Ontologic 


Beauty and Deformity of the Philosophic Sentiments ; the Re- 
ligious and Theologic Beauty and Deformity of the Religious- 
Sentiments ; the Moral and Political Beauty and Deformity of 
the Moral Sentiments ; and many species of Psychologic Beauty 
and Deformity in the Intellect and Affection ; and it is only by 
recognizing these divisions of the Mind, each with its distinct 
order of intelligence, and these opposite ideal principles as typical 
psychologic causes, that we can explain the phenomena of Phi- 
losophy, Religion, and Politics ; of art, consciousness, and life. 

Art is a universal intellectual form or organon conceived and 
constructed by the understanding, which we conceive to be con* 
stituted an intellectual totality through and in which Truth-Good- 
Beauty, on the one hand, and Falsehood-Evil-Deformity, on the 
other, become incarnated in Thought. The intellect is the great 
laboratory of thought, an incorporating sphere in which all ideals, 
laws, and phenomena realized by the Reason and by the Senti- 
ment (which constitute the spirit and soul of the mental organi- 
zation) are incarnated in sensible images and forms of thought 
founded in intellectual experience an experience of which sensa- 
tion is the external and material element, intuition the internal 
and individual element, inspiration and reflection the universal 
and creative elements. It is necessary that this incarnation and 
definition in thought should be realized before the rational and 
sentimental ideals, laws, and phenomena (which constitute the 
highest sphere of human intelligence and knowledge) can be 
intellectually comprehended or understood even by the creative 
mind itself or be communicated from one mind to another, and 
by other minds be either apprehended through external represen- 
tation or be understood through reproductive reflection. We 
conceive that this intellectual totality is constituted in the tri- 
individual form of spirit, soul, and body, corresponding with the 
form of the entire human mind and with the entire personality 
of man; and that these three spheres of intellectual realization 
are personified by three great intellectual incarnating powers, 
Imagination and Fancy and Technics, which are the constructors 
of the spirit and the soul and the body of Thought, of its universal 
and its individual and its material elements and departments. 


It has been very common among writers on art to separate cer- 
tain forms of art from intellectual consciousness, but this error 
arises in false views of the nature of thought (that is, of intel- 
lectual consciousness), by which it is confined to the logical form 
of thought, and the laws of logic are identified with the laws of 
thought; thus excluding the Imagination, with its analogies, from 
the intellectual nature, of which it is the highest and most im- 
portant factor ; as well as excluding the Fancy (with its external 
and unreal similitudes and resemblances), which is, of all intel- 
lectual faculties, the most prolific in thought. Some have gone 
BO far as to identify thought and language, thus excluding from 
the Intellect all except linguistic forms of thought, But it must 
be borne in mind that language, though an important instru- 
ment in the expression and definition of thought, is only one form 
of thought, and that there are many forms of thought in Art and 
Science and Industry that are not and cannot be expressed in 
language. All works of formative art (architecture, sculpture, 
painting) may be most definite forms of thought, as complete as 
are the literary arts of expression (language, poetry, music). 
Under this identification of thought and language, much of the 
arts of religion and government would be erroneously excluded 
from thought. 

Some writers would confine the experience of art to the emo- 
tions and feelings, excluding thought. But the highest artistic 
experience cannot be realized without artistic thought as well as 
artistic feeling. ISTeither the artist who creates nor the observer 
who may merely perceive can realize even artistic emotion with- 
out intellectual presentation; for it is the intellectual reali- 
zation of the ideal content in a work of art (either apprehended 
or comprehended) that constitutes the real perception of it by the 
mind, and makes possible a true responsive emotion of the indi- 
vidual consciousness on the presentation to it of this mental per- 
ception. These writers may be misled through not recognizing the 
spontaneity of some forms of artistic thought, which are so con- 
trary to logical thought as to give them the appearance of emo- 
tion but emotion is an activity of the soul (not of the mind), is 
an act of individual consciousness cooperating with the artistic 
Sentiment and Intellect, 



quisite for the interpretation of human thought, including art, is 
a true theory of human intelligence and knowledge which shall 
provide for the recognition of the different types of consciousness 
and intellectual standpoint from which primordial being and the 
objective world are viewed, because ontology or the science of 
being must always furnish the basis of thought. 

If we study the natural history of thought as we would study 
anything in Nature, with the idea of classifying its phenomena, 
we shall find that we can ordinate these phenomena under four 
ever-recurring types, resulting from distinct universal ideals and 
intellectual standpoints, which are founded upon different concep- 
tions of primordial being, of the origin of the world, and of the 
relation of the world to primordial being : these are the theistic- 
supernatural, the natural, the material, and the nihilistic-super- 
natural ideals ; and we have so named these ideals, because they 
.respectively posit, as primordial being, the Personal God, Nature, 
Matter, and the Impersonal Nothing. These ideals must always 
persist in human thought, and always conflict : they are the great 
psychologic personages who construct and destroy civilization. 

The two great realms of consciousness are the theistic-super- 
natural, which is the Extreme Right, and the nihilistic-supernatu- 
ral, which is the Extreme Left : these are founded on constructive 
and destructive root-principles which constitute the opposite poles 
of this universe of intelligence and of thought. The positions 
midway between these opposites are the natural standpoint, 
whicli is the Right Centre of consciousness, and the material 
standpoint, which is the Left Centre ; and these midway positions 
are merely half-way houses on the way from dormant or diseased 
constructive-supernatural root-principles to those which are radi- 
cally and offensively destructive. We have so often seen the road 
travelled, in all times and in all countries, but especially in our 
century, that we cannot be in doubt (if we at all regard the teach- 
ing of history) that, after leaving the camp of the extreme right, 
the theistic-supernatural realm of consciousness, there is but one 
road, that which leads to the nihilistic-supernatural, or the ex- 
treme left. This is clearly evident to all, in political life, as 
organized in the popular assembly of every nation; for they all 


are alike in including parties representative of these types of 
political thought, which are only special forms of the universal 
points of view here presented. We may see these same types, 
related in the same order of mental progress, in philosophy and 
religion, in the literary arts, and in the formative arts, based on 
these separate ideals and standpoints. 

These persisting types of knowledge and points of view are 
exclusive of each other, are found always in conflict, and always 
reproduce after their kinds in distinct lines of historic develop- 
ment, each with its limitations and well-defined principles. These 
types or standpoints of intelligence are psychologic norms which 
form different genera and species of knowledge, each of which 
claims dominion in the universe of thought, and all of which are 
needed to cover the diversity of human experience, and have 
shown their psychologic right to exist by their persistence in 
human history. The first requisite for understanding the signifi- 
cance of any phenomenon is to classify it under its generic and 
specific norm of ideality and thought, and thus know the princi- 
ple which has caused it. 

All attempts to interpret the phenomena of human thought and 
experience as the historic manifestation of one principle and one 
system of ideas or as the failures and the more or less successful 
attempts to actualize any one general principle and system of 
ideas are utterly groundless and lead to confusion of thought, 
because these phenomena are produced by the causative operation 
of these several classes of ideality, which are fundamental norms 
of human nature, standpoints of consciousness, and psycho- 
logic causes that are antagonistic and exclusive of each other, and 
each of which attains its own significant manifestation. The true 
method of interpretation of the history of human experience is 
to conceive these ideals and connect them with their manifesta- 
tion in generic and specific types of thought. It is by this means 
alone that relative order can be produced in the chaos and conflict 
of natural manifestation; while the result of applying to thia 
chaos the law of monism is to destroy the significance of words 
and ideas and to confound language. 

Dualism and discretion are laws of the natural world ; and the 
history of thought can be explained only by recognizing these op- 


posite genera and several species, each of which has distinct and 
different ideals of consciousness, species of knowledge, and laws 
of certitude, and includes a conscious aim to actualize its own 
ideal, as distinct from every other, in its corresponding type of 
thought. These ideals possess appropriate characteristics, lim- 
itations, and boundaries; and they are called points of view 
or standpoints in the consciousness because they are distinct 
kinds of mental eyes through which, or according to the 
perceptive laws and power of which, all things are contem- 
plated. Some one of these classes of consciousness dominates 
every historic epoch and each individual, marks and names the 
total condition the kind of development and perceptive power 
of all the mental faculties and predetermines the knowledge 
and opinions of this epoch and this individual in all spheres of 
thought. Tliis is so true that, given the mental standpoint and 
consistency of thought, one may predict the intellectual conclu- 
sion or judgment on any subject; in fact, the conclusion is neces- 
sitated to follow from the point of view of the ideal of causality, 
conception of reality, and theory of knowledge which constitute 
this standpoint, 

We find both subjective and historic evidence of the existence 
of these psychologic types, because these separate orders of 
human consciousness spread throughout the mental organiza- 
tion, and constitute a four-fold possibility or potentiality in each 
department of the mind. These kinds of perception and judg- 
ment are distinct, do not merge into but conflict with each other. 
If I interrogate my own consciousness, I find them all there ; and 
I find that the chief disturbances of my peace of mind arise from 
the conflict carried on between these types of intelligence in my 
own mind ; and that, when my supernatural intelligence operates, 
my experience is of an order entirely different from that of my 
natural intelligence, over which it is continually called to maintain 
its supremacy different in its objects and in its laws arid in its 
kind of knowledge, different in its point of view and in its method 
of thought, At times, my natural as well as my material con- 
sciousness asserts itself in opposition to my supernatural conscious- 
ness and belief, which at this time may be weak or in abeyance ; 
and I clearly recognize this state of weakness and scepticism, and 


the complete analogy of this temporary and partial condition of 
my own consciousness with the permanent and controlling pres- 
ence of these natural and material types of consciousness in other 
persons, where one of these types has a supreme and even unim- 
peded operation (as in the natural man and the material man), 
bounding the mental horizon of these persons with an exclusive- 
ness of other standpoints which convinces them that these other 
points of vision have no reality and therefore do not exist. 

If we investigate the history of thought, we find that these 
standpoints are the psychologic personages who rule the affairs of 
men ; and that the reality of interpretation of any period depends 
on the true conception of the point of view from which its char- 
acteristic experiences are realized, and in the light of which it in- 
terprets the world of thought and experience, both past and present. 
One of these standpoints so predominantly characterizes every 
period of the history of a people as to constitute a distinct type 
of civilization. In estimating any work of art, we should get 
at the universal ideal and intellectual standpoint from which the 
work is constructed ; for this will enable us to rank it, will give 
unity to our interpretation of it, enable us to explain it by itself 
and to detect its inconsistencies. It is the same, whatever be the 
subject under consideration ; whether it be philosophy, religion, 
politics, or any of the kinds of literary or of formative art. By 
this classification we may give reality (though relative) and place 
to every species of experience that has been established in the his- 
toric order of civilization; we may conceive the ideal meaning 
and artistic type of each species, characterize it, and recognize 
its factorship in the successive development of the human con- 

The philosopher truly says : " A work of art is made what it is 
by its ideal content." Now, what does this mean? It means 
that the ideal which the artist had in mind (and which he incor- 
porates in thought in order to define it to himself and to present 
it to other minds) constitutes the causative principle of this work 
of art; and that the artistic form with which he clothes this 
ideal is the external means by which the ideal is expressed in 
actuality is defined in thought to his own intelligence, is com- 


municated to the minds of other men, and comes into the con- 
sciousness of all capable of perceiving it. 

This ideal content may be of different orders of thought. 
I. The artist may have in mind only material motives and ideas 
to express, and either to imitate the external appearance of things 
or to conceive the material ideal of the species, and the unactual- 
ized possibilities of material natures to consider merely the 
material structure, qualities, and functions of things. The artist 
thus produces a form of material art (whether ideal or imitative 
and realistic) which treats his subject (even the human subject) 
as merely a body, as to its very entity whether he present the 
actual appearance of things or the material ideal and possibilities 
of the species in conformity with the axiom of the materialist : 
Everything that appears to the senses and the material consciousness is 
real ; and everything that really is so appears. 

II. The artist may have in mind a naturalistic motive or idea 
to express, and to represent either the apparent nature of objects 
(some actual natural experience or observation of mind) or some 
unactualized form of natural consciousness, in a corresponding 
artistically expressive physical form ; that is, either to express the 
internal and psychologic appearance of things or to conceive the 
natural ideal of the species, their individual and characteristic 
structure, qualities, and functions ; and thus to produce a form of 
individual, naturalistic, psychic art, which treats his subject as a 
natural soul, possessing only a natural constitution and conscious- 
ness, the appearances of which are conceived to be identical with 
its reality thus conforming to the axiom of the naturalistic 
standpoint: Everything that appears to the natural consciousness is 
real ; and everything that really is appears to the natural consciousness. 
This is the pseudo-rationalistic standpoint. 

III. The artist may have in mind ideas of universal or of super- 
natural significance, ideas of ontology and theology, of absolute 
being and the spiritual relations of man ; or he may represent 
the supernatural side of human nature, either its actualities or 
the possibilities involved in it, conceiving some unactualized 
supernatural capacity of man ; that is, he may express the phil- 
osophic reality of things, their ideal structure, qualities, and 
functions, and thus produce a form of universal art which treats 


his subject primarily as a supernatural or representative-spiritual 
being, possessing a supernatural nature and consciousness, the 
reality of which consists in its relation with and consciousness of 
supernatural and spiritual existence in conformity with the axiom 
of the supernaturalist : All reality and truth are in supernatural 
and spiritual existence, and in either the supernatural or the spiritual 
consciousness, ivhich are foolishness to the natural and material mind. 
As the supernatural appears in opposite generic ideals (the the- 
istic and the nihilistic), we find four species or kinds of art, pro- 
duced from distinct ideals and standpoints, which must always 
persist in human history ; and we may classify all works of art 
under these four heads, as characterized by one or other of 
these ideals. 

These four standpoints of human consciousness appear in the 
history of thought, sometimes alone, sometimes side by side, some- 
times in successive manifestation. In successive supremacy, they 
appear in each cycle of development in the order of enumeration, 
beginning with the theistic-supernatural ideal on a plane of con- 
sciousness higher than it reached in the preceding period, thereby 
realizing that general progress which is necessary to a state of 
civilization. Thus though the law of development in this cycle- 
is that of degeneration from the theistic-supernatural (1) to the 
natural, (2) to the material, and (3) to the nihilistic-supernatural 
ideal, while in each of these periods there is a special degenera- 
tion in the development of each type in the general cycle the 
law of birth and of revelation produces the regeneration and ele- 
vation of the consciousness and life on a higher plane of experi- 
ence. We find, then, in the history of every one of the products 
of human intelligence in Art (from philosophy to painting), in 
Science, and in Industry these four general ideals, for we find in 
man himself these theistic-supernatural, natural, material, and 
nihilistic-supernatural types of consciousness ; and each individual 
is characterized by the supremacy of some one of them, which 
thus constitutes the general standpoint from which he contem- 
plates all things. The most intelligent and clear-headed men are 
those in whom one of these types pervades and characterizes his 
entire mental constitution, giving him an innate unity of vision 
and consistency of thought. Furthermore, we must expect that 


these distinct types of consciousness will persist so long as human- 
ity exists : they will always conflict, and the most so when in 
their normal and healthiest condition. If any one of them appears 
to come to an end, it is only dormant for a season and will return 
to activity and reproduction at its appointed time. All attempts 
at fusion by demolishing these landmarks of thought mark the 
temptation of Naturalism and Materialism and Nihilism addressed 
to a weakened and demoralized theistic-supernatural insight. 

The principal cause of conflict and confusion in thought is the 
failure to recognize and distinctly conceive the theistic-supernatu- 
ral and the nihilistic-supernatural as opposite generic standpoints 
and psychologic causes, and to recognize their self-consistency 
and their necessary persistence in thought, and therefore their 
right to exist in this natural world of opposites. This endless 
conflict is increased by the failure to recognize the supernatural, 
natural, and material ideals as separate and specific standpoints 
and normal types of thought ; by the failure to see the partial 
character of actual experience ; and by the claim that each stand- 
point makes that its own ideal is generic and universal and 
covers the entire ground of reality. This self-assertion of one or 
of another partial ideal claiming to cover the whole ground of 
reality in thought carries with it the denial of all reality to other 
species of consciousness. Relative peace in the intellectual arena 
can be made only by recognizing distinct genera and species in 
the kingdom of consciousness and of thought ; genera and species 
which are quite as distinct as are those in the human, animal, 
vegetable, and mineral kingdoms ; and which as distinctly propa- 
gate under laws of generic and specific continuity, increase and 
multiplication, each producing its like in the world of ideas ; each 
having a definitely limited field, denying the reality of its neigh- 
boring genus and species, and making continual effort to destroy 
it. Conflict, war, extermination is the law of life to these ideals 
and standpoints of thought ; yet they all must continue to exist 
in order to furnish an environment, a spirit, and a specific form 
for the inevitable and continuous reproduction of these types of 
human consciousness in this world of partial experience, of 
unreal life, of discordant thought: i. e., it is a natural world in 
which we exist. The maintenance of the conflict is a sign of 


generic and specific vitality in each ; and the drawing together 
of differing opinions now to be observed is a sign of indifference 
or of blindness, not of real union; because, in reality, these 
points of view are mutually exclusive, and this drawing together 
is the result of loss of separative insight and of reality in thought. 
The contest between Theism and Nihilism is radical to life, and 
their pseudo-union in Liberalism is a sign either of torpidity, or of 
death to a Theism already devitalized by a pervading Pantheism. 
We find all these four points of view in disorderly manifesta- 
tion during certain transitional epochs preceding new psychic 
births, such as those of the Christian era, of the Protestant period, 
and of the present century, when the new type of civilization has 
not yet been constructed, while the old types are losing their hold 
upon the people through loss of vitality in institutions and loss of 
insight by the people. This complex and disorderly manifesta- 
tion must continue until the new constructive ideal has reconsti- 
tuted social institutions, and comparative order has become estab- 
lished in the universe of thought. These periods of transition 
can be interpreted only by recognizing the presence of different 
and conflicting types of thought, which persist historically in con- 
tinuous intellectual species, but which at such periods come into 
the consciousness with renewed perception and activity, greater 
intensity and insistence, and more expanded development. Al- 
though these four ideals are mutually exclusive and never unite 
in a single act of real consciousness, and though the theistic- 
supernatural is in conflict with the three other ideals, yet, in these 
transitional epochs, the nihilistic-supernatural ideal forms a coali- 
tion with the natural and material ideals, because it is (uncon- 
sciously to them) the causative principle of their common opposi- 
tion to Theism. The nihilistic-supernatural ideal thus uses the 
natural and material ideals and types of civilization with their 
gradually disintegrating forms of intellectualism (rationalism, 
doubt, criticism, and skepticism), in its destructive work and in 
its efforts to establish a pessimistic humanity on the ruins of the- 
istic civilization, whether this humanity take the form of the Mte 
humaine of the material ideal or of the diable humain of the 
destructive-supernatural ideal. It is only by a new birth of the 
theistic-supernatural ideal and the reconstruction of Christian 


civilization, as the City of God, that any real opposition can be 
made against this material Babel, or City of Satan. 

As we find in the dominant philosophy of our time either a real- 
istic materialism or a transcendental pessimism so, in literary and 
formative art (especially in poetry and fiction and painting), we 
find a preternatural realism of the ignoble and the horrible side 
of human nature, which educates and develops the Satanic image 
in man. Hitherto the mission of the art of our century, from 
Philosophy to Painting, has been to educate and develop this 
destructive side of the human constitution as well as the lower 
phases of its possible experience ; and the only way that art can 
be reborn onto a higher plane and again become the handmaid 
of the Christian religion, is that Christianity itself should be born 
from on high and again enlighten the world of humanity with the 
reflected light of God then shall Truth-Good-Beauty, the image 
of the Divine Logos, again become the ideal in art from Philoso- 
phy to Painting, and the representative Kingdom of God be again 
established on the earth. 

DEFINITION OF ART. Before attempting a positive definition of 
Art, we will refer to some of the imperfect definitions still accepted 
in aesthetic circles. 1. The definition (held by so many), that art 
is a representation, in sensible forms, of ideas of sublimity and 
beauty and the picturesque, is not adequate, because the larger 
half of art is an embodiment of the principles of the horrible, of 
deformity, of the grotesque, and with greater artistic and subject- 
ive reality. 2. It is not specific to art, to say (with Hegel) that it 
is " the union of the objective and subjective in the human spirit . . 
something inward, a content, and something^outer which has that 
content as its significance." This definition is too broad, for it 
does not distinguish art from every fact of existence : every actu- 
ality of life has an internal and an external, a subjective and 
objective element. 3. It is not the object of all art to give pleas- 
ure (as some tell us), for the aim of a great body of works of art 
is to cause pain such as terror of destructive force, and the pain 
excited by the representation of death and misfortune in tragedy ; 
while some (like the social arts and many of the higher forms of 
art) give satisfaction or pleasure to some and pain to others. 
4. The school which makes art to be only subjective, and denies 


its objective reality, removes its civilizing function and misrepre- 
sents its very nature, for art is the embodiment by the human 
mind of the objective reality of things both above and below 
itself, by means of its own subjective reality, symbolizing absolute 
and dissolutive reality, and realizing opposite relative reality, both 
actual and possible. 5. It is not a definition of art to say that it is 
idealism and symbolism (vs. naturalism), because, beside the art 
of symbolism, there is an art which is founded on naturalism and 
on romanticism; also an art that is founded on imitation and 
material realism. It is not defining art to identify it with imita- 
tion, for imitation is but the lowest function of the depraved type 
of art. 6. It is most untrue to say (with Edmund Burke): 
No work of art can be great but as it deceives, for this is the most 
superficial form even of realism. *7. It is not a true definition to 
make art consist in technic form, abolishing subject and ideal 
content (Schiller), for the ideal content is what makes it art, and 
gives it reality and universal significance. The definitions that 
art is the significant, the characteristic, the expressive, which are 
favorite definitions of modern writers, are both vague and insuffi- 
cient, for two reasons : (1) because these terms are most suited to 
and are oftenest used to express only the individual element in 
art; (2) because no distinct art-principles are presented as the 
ground of reality (whether objective or subjective), and this pre- 
sentation is necessary to a definition. Still, though vague and 
insufficient, the combined definition, that art is the significant, 
the characteristic, the expressive, would be nearer the truth than 
that which would make art and beauty to be equivalent terms, 
because the above terms apply to the art of the horrible, 
deformity, and the grotesque, as well as to the art of sublimity, 
beauty, and the picturesque. But it would be far from a true 
definition to identify the characteristic, the significant, the expres- 
sive with beauty, for the art of deformity includes these attributes 
as well, and much more so, as being nearer to the internal nature 
of man. Expression, characterization, ideal significance, all must 
be recognized in art ; but, even then, we are far from a definition 
of art, for the reason that there are opposite art-principles, and 
that such terms as would truly apply to both of these opposites 
are necessarily few and vague. The definition of art must include 


the presentation of these opposite principles in distinctly separate 
ideals: first, of the ontologic principles which constitute the 
objective reality of art ; second, of the psychic principles which 
constitute its subjective reality in the human mind. 

Art is the universal organon for the representation (in intel- 
lectual form, or in thought) of the total ideality of existence, both 
actual and potential. This total ideality of existence includes 
that network of principles of the unseen universe which consti- 
tutes its complex system of causality ; those principles of many 
different orders which are the secondary causative agents in the 
world's productive and destructive operations ; and it is the mis- 
sion of art to incorporate these principles, apart from their com- 
plexity, conflicts, and confused manifestations in the natural 
world, so as to exhibit them in ideal and sensible form according 
to their single operation and normal relations. Art thus presents 
the total ideal capacity of the race in the various spheres of its 
activity: it is the supreme mode of bringing into definite and 
effective consciousness the highest as well as the lowest ideal 
capacities of the human mind : the capacity for the supernatural 
(or for the things above it in the scale of existence), for the natu- 
ral (or for the things of its own nature), and for the material (or 
for the things below it) : the capacity for the highest and the 
lowest truth-good-beauty, and for the highest and the lowest false- 
hood-evil-deformity those great psychologic opposites which con- 
test the possession of the soul and produce its regeneration or 
degeneration on all planes of its experience. Art is thus an 
objective ideal world in communion with the subjective ideal 
world in the mind of man : it has reality both outside the mind, 
as object, and within the mind, as subjective experience. As 
object, it is realized under its own general laws as the highest 
individuality in civilization, which operates upon the human race 
in its historic development, in its regeneration and in its degen- 
eration. The subjective ground of art is in the dual roots of the 
mental organization, which are found primarily and in their most 
concentrated form in the opposite principles of the Reason, which 
is the spirit of the mind. These opposite principles are truth- 
good-beauty and falsehood-evil-deformity ; and their ideals become 
ensouled and incorporated in the lower departments of the mind 


in the Philosophic, Religious, and Moral Sentiments, in the 

Thought of the Intellect, and in the Feeling of the Affection. 
This subjective ideality in the mind is the basis of the creative 
power of the artist, the basis of taste and of judgment, and of the 
ability to see in works of real art (from philosophy to painting) 
their ideal nature and significance, as distinguished from their 
merely natural and sensual appearance. This mental suscepti- 
bility to the ideality of the objective world and of absolute causes, 
and this artistic creative power, constitute an innate ideal capacity 
in the mind which arises in the microcosmic character of man's 
nature. The same realities which are imaged or symbolized in 
the great created cosmos, the macrocosmos (these realities being 
the absolute cosmos, God, and the dissolutive chaos or acosmos, 
the Nothing), are imaged or symbolized in the mental organiza- 
tion and consciousness of man, who is the small created cosmos, 
the microcosmos. These primary images and the analogic rela- 
tions between God (the creative cosmos), the Nothing (the decre- 
ative chaos), the Universe (the created macrocosm), and man (the 
created microcosm) constitute the ideal basis of art, both object- 
ive and subjective; and to perceive and incorporate in thought 
these integral images and relations is the highest mission of art. 

MISSIONS OF ART. Art has three missions : it is historic, inter- 
pretive, creative. I. The first mission of art is historic it is to 
perpetuate or place in permanent form and preserve for the 
instruction of the present and of future generations the essential 
manifestations of man's individual and collective ideal experience, 
to operate not only as records, but also as suggestive material in 
the ideal conception of human nature and of its unrealized possi- 
bilities. Art, in its historic mission, thus incarnates in sensible 
form the changes of actual life, the temporary and passing condi- 
tions, ideas, and essential manifestations of humanity in all spheres 
of experience whether universal and supernatural, "or individual 
and natural, or material and sensual ; so that future humanity 
may not be confined, for the sources of its knowledge, to present 
experience (which constitutes but a small section of the circle of 
human life) ; but that humanity may work from the basis of civil- 
ization and of the world's history, being able to realize the actual- 
ity of the past as an ideal conception of the artistic faculty, even 


when the individual would not be able to realize this actuality 
as a personal experience for his artistic faculty enables him to 
see it from an impersonal point of view. 

Art thus preserves the types of such high orders of human 
experience as human genius is incapable of realizing in periods of 
degradation, when Materialism and Atheism flood the human 
mind, and Realism governs its artistic products. In these periods, 
art is the ark in which are preserved the sacred ideal types, that 
they may again serve as suggestion and stimulus to human 
thought, when the flood shall have subsided and the fields of 
human nature shall again bring forth by a new creation from on 
high when the dormant seeds of the higher fruits of human 
intelligence shall again germinate and bring forth fruit, and repro- 
duce, each after its kind, in the reconstruction of Christian civili- 
zation on a higher plane of experience. 

II. The second mission of art is interpretive it is to make 
clear to thought the ideal significance of human realization, 
of the actualities or realized possibilities of human nature : to 
bring to light and emphasis the ideal principle and cause involved 
or centred in concrete manifestation; to present the reality of 
things which is behind their appearance the hidden meaning 
which is concealed from the eyes of common sense ; and to sepa- 
rate the opposite ideals which are found mixed in concrete nature, 
and present them as distinct intellectual individualities, with their 
corresponding laws and phenomena. This function of art applies 
to both past and present realization. It is most important in its 
interpretation of the universal ideals of the past and of the corres- 
ponding special types of thought; intellectual types which the 
present consciousness may be incapable of realizing as a personal 
experience, but which may be ideally reconceived by the artistic 
mind, and which are useful for suggestion and stimulus at those 
periods of new birth in the human consciousness when, in the 
revolution of the universe of thought, these ideals of the past 
again return into the consciousness to be incorporated in intel- 
lectual forms which shall correspond, as to progress, with the new 
birth of the mind and soul. This renewed perception ol old 
ideals is accompanied by the creation of new types of thought and 
by new forms of individual experience ; and these constitute a 
starting-point in the new circle of revolution, as humanity (under 


the law of circularity) again passes over the same ideal longitude 
on a higher plane of consciousness-activity-life.* 

III. The third and highest mission of art is creative it is to 
conceive and to incorporate in adequate sensible form the unactu- 
alized possibilities of human nature. These are of three kinds of 
ideality, and require three different kinds of artistic mental 
power, which are represented by the man of Talent, the man of 
Genius, the man of Inspiration. 1. The man of Talent and of 
Fancy, through a fictitious ideality, creates those fanciful and 
ephemeral forms of art which attribute to things fictitious quali- 
ties, and institute fantastic relations, founded on superficial and 
apparent resemblances comparing things that internally are 
either in discord or are without any real relationship. 2. The 
man of Genius and of Imagination, with intuitive insight into gen- 
eric and specific law and relation, creates those natural and mate- 
rial ideals and their corresponding forms of art which present the 
ideal of the species the natural types of things that the original 
genius has seen lying dormant in the natural man and in Nature. 
3. The Inspired Artist and man of Reason, with prophetic vision of 
eternal truths, sees the universal principles of Being, Non-being, 
and Becoming ; sees in Becoming Existence the analogies with 
Being and Non-being, and creates those universal institutions 
which represent these truths and preside over the development of 
man; he creates those works of art which represent superhuman 
causes and the relations of man to these causes, incorporating in 
the intellectual symbolism of the Imagination the supernatural 
intuitions and conceptions of the Reason and the Sentiment. The 
inspired creative artist is a seer, and the pioneer in the super- 
natural history of man : he sees the possibilities of humanity and 
awakens in man his dormant perception and faculty. In all con- 
structive periods of civilization the inspired creative artist 
whether he be philosopher, priest, or governor ; philologist, poet, 
or musician; architect, sculptor, or painter conceives and pre- 
sents the norm of possible experience, and the apprehensive mass 

* Such a new birth was realized at the Christian era, and again at the Protestant era ; 
and another is to be expected in our time, as Protestant civilization appears to have 
run its course in the most advanced portion of civilized peoples. The historic 
churches of Saints Peter and Paul (Catholic and Protestant) having fulfilled their his- 
toric mission, we may now look for a new civilization which shall follow the gospel 
of St. John, and complete our cycle of historic Christianity on this earth. 



of the people respond to this presentation and teaching by incor- 
porating it in actual life. Thus, the highest category in the cre- 
ative mission of art is to symbolize, in the natural world (with an 
ever-increasing distinctness and elevation as the circle of human 
experience revolves), that spiritual existence and those spiritual 
laws and ideas which cannot here be realized, but the representa- 
tion of which is the vital element in the natural world and the 
medium of analogic relation with the spiritual. This sphere of 
representative-spiritual life we call supernatural, though it is neces- 
sarily an integral part of the natural constitution of created things : 
that which connects this constitution with its creator and with 
spheres of existence above itself. 

With regard to the highest subjects of thought, we cannot, in 
the natural world, establish the simple and inflexible relations 
and the clear vision of spiritual science : symbolic thought, in its 
representation of spiritual truth-good-beauty is our nearest ap- 
proach to it. It is analogic and idealistic thought that expresses 
this veiled vision of the Divine Logos, of which the True Reason of 
man is an image the logical and realistic intellect of pseudo- 
rationalism is blind to this symbolism, which appeals to the imag- 
inative intellect that created it. The logical intellect bruises its 
beauty with critical energy, pulls it to pieces to find out its me- 
chanism, and contemplates the debris of its lifeless members with 
contempt, blind to the light and beauty which it has destroyed. 
But this is historic necessity for, as change and particular degen- 
eration are the invariable laws of the natural world, the inevitable 
result of historic succession (at the end of each great period) is to 
enthrone the logical and fantastic intellect, with its blind realism 
and its licentious fancy, in the holy places of the truth-good- 
beauty of the Reason and Sentiment and Imagination, which it 
occupies jointly with its master and ally and cooperator the nihil- 
istic-supernatural, which is the self-conscious exponent of False- 
hood-Evil-Deformity. Thank God, the natural law of universal 
progress is equally invariable, and we may faithfully trust that 
humanity will be born again from on high, and the supernatural 
eyes of man be again opened to the Truth-Good-Beauty of the 
Kingdom of God. 


Princeton, 1ST. J. 


A most interesting and beautiful votive-relief, sculptured on 
both sides, was discovered in 1893, not far from Phaleron, and 
was briefly described by Mr. Dragatzes in the Hestia of June 27th, 
1893. It also forms the subject of a paper by Mr. Kawadias in 
a late number of the Ephemeris. 1 The relief is of such artistic 
merit and mythological interest that I venture to add a few 
remarks to the excellent ones already made by the Athenian 
archaeologists. The marble bears on both faces a sculptured 
relief, and above each, under the crowning pediment, some de- 
scriptive inscriptions happily remain. Thus, we are informed 
that the youth in front of the chariot is Hermes, while the occu- 
pants of the chariot itself are Echelos and Basile, though the 
present condition of the letters points to laslle. On the other 
side we find the dedication : EPMH! KAI NY/WJ>A1!IN. Other 
letters follow, but with the exception of the first five (which I 
read AAEEO), they are beyond recognition. Perhaps it was the 
hexameter : '^ppy ical NvpfyaicrLv AXefo} ravr ave6rjKv. The A 
of aveOrjicev may indeed be distinguished. 

As Mr. Kawadias tells us, we know from the Etym. Mag. and 
from Steph. Byz. that Echelos was hero-eponymous of the Attic 
deme Echelaidai, and that his name was derived from the marsh 
(eXo?) in that deme, between the Peiraieus and the Herakleion, 
in which latter place the gymnastic games were held during the 
Panathenaic festival, undoubtedly the ancient hippodrome identi- 
fied by Curtius, and close to the spot where the monument was 
found. As to Basile, we know of her sanctuary between the 
Athenian theatre and the Ilissos (CIA, iv, 53 a ; cf. Plat. Charm. 
153). But, as Kawadias remarks, we learn most about her from 

, 1893, pis. 9, 10; pp. 109-112. 






Diodoros (3.57). Basileia and Rhea were the two eldest daugh- 
ters of Ouranos and Titaia (or Ge as she was called after death). 
Basileia excelled all her seventeen brothers and sisters in wisdom 
and brought them up like a mother, so gaining the name of the 
Great Mother. After her father's death she received the king- 
dom by the consent of all, though still a maiden and not wishing 
to marry. Desirous of leaving a successor, however, she at last 
married the brother who was dearest to her, Hyperion, by whom 
she became mother to Helios and Selene. Her brothers there- 
upon, through jealousy, slew Hyperion and drowned Helios. 
Selene, in her grief, threw herself from the roof, and Basileia, 
the mother, in her search for the body along the river, went wild. 
Helios, however, appeared to her in a vision and bade her cease 
lamenting, as he and his sister had become immortal and their 
names had been given by mankind to the sun and moon. His 
brothers would meet with proper punishment in time. After 
this dream, Basileia directs all to pay divine honors to her dead 
children, and forbids any one to touch her body. She then wan- 
ders about the world in her madness, playing with the noisy toys 
of her daughter, frightening everybody with her tympana and 
cymbals. All take pity on her condition, but on one occasion 
when some one attempted to touch her, she suddenly disappeared 
from view in a shower of rain and thunder, and forever after 
received divine honors, together with her two children. Altars 
were built to her, and tympana and cymbals were employed in 
her service. 

As Kavvadias remarks, the passage summarized above seems 
to throw some light on our relief. The fact that Basileia allowed 
no one to touch her, and that when touched she vanished midst 
rain and thunder, strikingly reminds us of the rape of Persephone, 
both myths evidently referring to the disappearance of the sum- 
mer verdure and the approach of stormy winter. The greatest 
importance attaches to the version as given by Diodoros, as it 
certainly seems the prototype of the Eleusinian and Sicilian myths 
of Kore. Demeter herself (Mother Earth, i. e., T^PearKvfteXrj- 
BooYXq), according to this older story, is the victim of vio- 
lence. In the later myth her daughter is substituted in her place, 
and the mere touch developes into a rape. The scene on the 


relief represents an intermediate stage of the myth. Basile is 
there being carried off, but her abductor is not Hades. He is the 
youthful Echelos. Who, then, may this Echelos be? If we 
turn to the Eleusinian legend, we find that Eubouleus, originally 
an epithet of Hades, afterwards became the name of a youthful 
swineherd said to have been present at the rape of Persephone. 
Echelos also, I take it, was originally applied to the infernal deity 
as the " marsh-dweller," he whose home is below the soft marshes 
in which men sink to rise no more. The entrance to the lower 
regions would as naturally be located in the marshes as in the 
caverns of the earth. Instead, then, of the youthful Kore and 
the elderly Hades, as in the Eleusinian myth, we have the mat- 
ronly Basile carried off by the youthful Hades or Echelos. On 
the other hand, instead of the mere touching of Basile and her 
sudden disappearance from view as in the legend of Diodoros, 
we have Hades introduced as the ardent and violent abductor, a 
subject more suitable for the sculptor and artist than the older 
story. Indeed, it may be that to the sculptor and vase-painter 
are due the rise and subsequent acceptance of the later myth in 
preference to the former. But this is mere hypothesis. 

Again, before leaving Echelos, I may venture a further sugges- 
tion, that this Hades-Echelos may be identical with the Echetlos 
of Pausanias, who alone mentions him as the divine hero, who 
appeared on the field of Marathon during the great battle and 
assisted the Greeks (Paus. i. 15-3; i. 32-4). It may be that 
Pausanias made a slight mistake in the name, or it may be an 
error of the MSS. From the well-known marshes of Marathon, 
Echelos or Hades, the marsh-occupier, might well have ascended 
to aid his worshippers and fill his realms with Persian dead. A 
rumor to that effect once started by the demesmen of Echelaidai 
would easily find credence at such a time amongst the assembled 

As for Hermes, to whom, along with the nymphs, the votive 
offering is dedicated, he is most appropriately portrayed in the act 
of conducting Basile to the underworld. So also he figures in the 
Eleusinian form of the myth as conductor of Kore back to earth. 
Turning to the other relief, there is little doubt in my own 
mind that Hermes is here likewise represented in the left-hand 


figure. I fail to be convinced by Mr. Kawadias, in his attempt 
to identify that figure with Artemis, nor do I recognize a river- 
god in the bearded personage in front of him, since he has no 
horns like his companions behind. Mr. Kawadias sees in the 
relief a representation of two distinct groups : (1) The Ilissos 
river and Artemis (Agrotera or Munychia), and (2) the Kephisos 
with three nymphs. The scene, to him, allegorically represents 
the meeting of two cults located respectively on the Kephisos 
and Ilissos, the site where the marble was found being near the 
spot where these streams unite their waters. The position of the 
figures is against such a theory, to say nothing of the want of all 
connection in idea with the scene on the other side of the votive- 
slab. To my mind the explanation is rather this : The nymphs, 
attended by Kephisos, the river-god of Athens (or, it may be, 
Achelous, who was worshiped at Athens along with the nymphs) 
and by Demos himself, the personification of Athens, are coming 
to Hermes who stands listening to Demos, the spokesman of the 
five. They are naturally enquiring after their abducted Basile, 
and supplicating for her return. Hermes conducted her away 
and Hermes can give her back. The Athenian fields and brooks 
long for the coming of spring, in other words. In the Eleusinian 
myth Kore had been carried off by Hades while she was plucking 
flowers with her nymph-companions. Here it is the Great Mother 
Basile whose return is longed for, but Mr. Kawadias shows us 
that the Great Mother herself, no less than Kore, is frequently 
associated with the nymphs even in later mythology. 



In the autumn of 1892, 1 purchased of the Fratelli Bassetti in 
Siena a terracotta sketch, supposed to be by Ghiberti. It was 
said to have been long in the possession of a Sienese family. 
Further than this I know nothing of its provenance. The sketch 
has every apparent indication of being an old one. Traces ot 
coloring, now largely washed away, still remain. At some period 
of its history the sketch had fallen from its place and broken in 
several places, but its original fragments were carefully gathered 
and mounted on a slate ground which seems to have been 
cemented on to a wall, so as to prevent further injury. The sub- 
ject of the composition is a portion of the group to the left in the 
Moses panel of the second of Ghiberti's bronze gates for the 
Baptistery of Florence. In his Second Commentary, 1 Ghiberti 
gives this brief notice of the composition : " In the seventh 
panel is (represented) how Moses received the tablets (of the law) 
on the mountain, and how half-way up the mountain Joshua waits 
for him, and how the people are astonished at the earthquakes, 
lightnings and thunder. And how the people stand at the foot 
of the mountain in amazement." 

The incidents pictured in this panel are taken from the book 
of Exodus, which will furnish us a few additional details for its 
interpretation. To the extreme left is the Red Sea and the camp 
which the children of Israel erected before Mount Sinai. The 
people at the foot of the mountain may be divided into two 
groups : to the left is a quiet group gathered about an old man, 
who is addressing them ; to the right a group in consternation 
over the physical disturbances which accompanied the giving of 

1 CARL FRET, Vita di Lorenzo Ghiberti Scultore Fiorentino scritta da Giorgio 
Vasari. Berlin, 1886, p. 53. 





the law. For the sake of definiteness, we may name the old 
man Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, who had recently arrived, 
bringing with him Moses' wife Zipporah and her two sons, Ger- 
shom and Eliezer (Ex. 18. 1-6). He is looking toward the Red 
Sea and seems to be saying, " Blessed be the Lord, who hath 
delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the 
hand of Pharaoh, who hath delivered the people from under the 
hand of the Egyptians " (Ex. 18. 10). Before him is a row of 
women in light and graceful pose, suggestive of the women who 
followed Miriam with timbrels and dances. Miriam herself is 
represented with a timbrel in her hand in a niche of the frame- 
work directly alongside of this group. In the foreground of the 
quiet group is a young warrior, symbolic of the victories already 
achieved against the Egyptians and against Amalek. Alongside 
of the warrior is Zipporah, with her two children. 

In the excited group to the right is a woman with a frightened 
child. She is perhaps the Ethiopian woman, whom Moses had 
made his wife, much to the dissatisfaction of his sister Miriam 
and his brother Aaron (Numbers, 12. 1). About her are the 
elders and people, terrified by the " thunders and lightnings," 
and the " voice of the trumpet exceeding loud " (Ex. 19. 16). 
Above is figured Jehovah in the midst of angels, handing the two 
tables of the law to Moses, who receives them on the top of the 
mount. Below him, prostrate on the ground, is Joshua, who 
accompanied him (Ex. 24. 13). Aaron is perhaps to be recog- 
nized in the centre of the excited group, and is again represented, 
with the sacrificial flame in his hand, in a niche of the frame to 
the right of this panel. 

In comparing the terracotta with the bronze, I have been led 
to believe the former to be a preliminary sketch by Ghiberti, for 
the following reasons : 

1. It is not an exact copy of the group in the bronze panel, and 
its agreements and differences may be best explained on the sup- 
position that it is a preliminary sketch. The principal figures, 
which we have named Jethro, the warrior, and Zipporah, appear 
to have been considered by Ghiberti as successful enough to be 
reproduced with but slight variations in the bronze. These vari- 
ations, however, are important. The final sketch for the entire 


panel, made in wax, contained a more elaborate composition ,- 
consequently the three individuals we have named are drawn 
more closely together and thus separated from the line of women 
to the left. Jethro, in the bronze, is placed more nearly behind 
the warrior; the warrior and Zipporah are also drawn closer 
together. We may observe another important difference, which 
may be best explained on the same hypothesis. In the final 
model Ghiberti apparently determined to separate more com- 
pletely the quiet group on the left from the agitated group on the 
right. Consequently one of Zipporah's children is removed and 
finds his place by the side of the figure we have called the Ethio- 
pian woman. As a consequence of this separation, the eye is 
led through an unobstructed passage between the groups and 
more readily seizes the principal theme upon the summit of the 
mountain. The artist, however, will not take away from Zippo- 
rah her two sons, and so replaces the lost child by another, who 
serves better the purpose of economy of space. 

There are several other figures of which more than a reminis- 
cence is preserved in the bronze. The first figure to the left on 
the terracotta, is reproduced in similar attitude, but with more 
grace. The old woman next to her is retained also, and is adapted 
by a change of attitude to the enlarged composition. The man 
with a turban is not forgotten. There was no room for his face, 
but his turban remains, and in the same relative position. The 
woman to the right of Zipporah, with hands folded in prayer, is 
also preserved, but thrown more into the background. There are 
two other heads, that of a middle-aged man and of a youth, who 
appear also in the bronze ; but in general the artist seems to have 
developed the idea of presenting a larger mass of people, and 
this has led him to suppress the representation of several heads 
and to substitute in their stead an approaching throng, which 
could be indicated with greater ease and with improved perspec- 
tive by summarily indicating only the crowns of their heads. In 
the terracotta sketch, between the warrior and Zipporah is a 
woman ; in the finished bronze a male figure is substituted, which 
has the advantage of bringing out the figure of Zipporah in 
Btronger contrast. 


These considerations seem to show that the variations in com- 
position between the terracotta and the bronze are not such 
changes as would be likely to occur at the hands of a copyist, but 
are purposeful modifications by means of which the composition 
of the terracotta sketch becomes adapted to its new surroundings 
in the more complex composition of the bronze panel. 

2. If we compare the style of the terracotta relief with that of 
the bronze, the preliminary character of the former will be still 
more evident. 

The terracotta sketch is composed in a thoroughly plastic man- 
ner. The figures in the background were first fashioned and 
those in the foreground applied later. This is evident from the 
fact that several of the heads in the background are modelled 
with great care, as could only have been done when the artist was 
free to work without the impediment of the figures in the fore- 
ground. The face and breast of the warrior show that this figure 
also was modelled before being put in place. Now this method 
of plastic composition is not such as is likely to have occurred in 
the case of a copy from the bronze. Not only would a copyist 
have been likely to have reproduced Ghiberti's figures more 
exactly; he also would have copied Ghiberti's perspective and 
thus saved himself considerable unnecessary labor. 

The terracotta group seems to have been modelled with special 
reference to the characterization of the different figures. There 
is here a greater variety of individual characters than in the 
bronze itself. This individualization is purposely sacrificed in 
the bronze for the sake of the mass, and the entire composition 
modified by reason of the enlarged perspective. 

If we consider the mode of composition employed in the 
bronze gates, we find as many as thirty-one distinct events por- 
trayed. In only one panel, that which represents the meeting of 
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, do we fidd pictured a single 
event ; in the rest there are two, three, four, and in the Jacob 
and Esau panel, as many as six different actions. The style of 
composition makes it, therefore, not unlikely that Ghiberti made 
studies for the minor compositions first, and then combined them 
in the larger units. This must, at least, be admitted in the 
case of the Abraham panel, which includes his earlier composi- 


tion of the Sacrifice of Isaac ; and if in this case, why not in the 

3. Having shown the preliminary character of the sketch, it 
follows almost immediately that it must be by the hand of Ghi- 
berti himself. In the case of the first Baptistery gates, in which 
the cooperation of other artists was relied upon to a greater 
extent, the contract specifically demanded that G-hiberti with his 
own hand should execute the figures, trees, and such details as 
the hair, the nudes, &c. 2 The second gates seem to have been 
even more exclusively the work of Ghjberti himself. 3 He was 
assisted by his son Vettorio and by Michelozzo ; but the manner- 
ism of Vettorio, as seen in the frame-work of Andrea Pisano's 
gates, and the style of Michelozzo, as seen in his work in associ- 
ation with Donatello, are not to be detected in our terracotta. 
This is veidently the work of a master hand, as may be judged 
from the individuality and graceful beauty of the heads and the 
naturalistic treatment of the drapery. Here and there, I am free 
to admit, there is a laxity in the pose of certain figures, in the 
perspective, in the swing of the drapery, that falls short of Ghi- 
berti's best work ; but the variation does not seem to be suffi- 
ciently strong to compel a different attribution. It is more easily 
explained by the supposition that the terracotta is a preliminary 
sketch. Let me call attention to a slight difference between the 
warrior of the terracotta and the same figure in the bronze. In 
the terracotta his cloak has a broad fringe and the back of his 
corselet is differently ornamented. But the variations are strictly 
within the limits of Ghiberti's own work. The prototype of this 
figure may be seen on Ghiberti's first gates in the panel of Pilate 
"Washing his Hands. Here and in many other figures on the first 
gates, and in the panels of the font in the Baptistery at Siena as 
well, Ghiberti shows a fondness for ornamenting the edges of his 
draperies. The peculiar type of ornament upon the warrior's 
back may also be found in the base of Pilate's throne, and again 
upon the borders of the second gates. 

It may be objected that the models for the second gates were 
in wax, and not in terracotta. A reference to the contract will 

J MttNTZ, Les Archives des Arts, pp. 15, 16. 
8 MUNTZ, Archives des Arts, pp. 19-21. 



certainly show that wax models were used for the figures, heads, 
animals and ornamentation of the borders and cornices ; and it 
may be admitted that the panel reliefs were probably cast in 
accordance with the same methods. But this in no way prevents 
our supposing that preliminary sketches may have been made in 
clay, since Ghiberti himself tells us in his Second Commentary 
that he made many sketches in this material. 4 The terracotta 
sketch is somewhat larger than the original ; 5 this permitted 
greater freedom in modelling. 

The discovery of this sketch has an important bearing on the 
estimate to be made of Ghiberti's methods. It would seem to 
indicate that his preliminary sketches were not made upon paper, 
but in plastic fashion in clay. In this manner he reached a thor- 
oughly sculptural perspective, to be distinguished from that of 
the painter, and which should be a perpetual object-lesson to 
those who would force all relief sculpture into flat planes. 


4 CARL FREY, op. cit., Ancora a molti pictori e scultori et statuarii o (ho) fatto 
grandissimi honori ne loro lauorii fatto moltissimi prouedimenti di cera e di creta e 
a pittori disegnato moltissime cose ; etiando chi auesse auute appare (a fare) figure 
grandi fitori dela naturale forma (ho to) dato le regole a condurle con perfetta misura. 

5 The figure of the warrior in the terracotta is nine and a quarter inches high ; in 
the bronze it is only four and a half inches. 


In his report on the excavations carried on by the School at Sparta 
in the spring in 1892, 1 Dr. Waldstein says : " The most important 
discovery . . . was that of the circular building which I believe 
can, without a doubt, be identified with the building mentioned by 
Pausanias, in, 12-9, in the immediate neighborhood of the Skias," 
and which Pausanias says was thought to have been erected by Epi- 
menides (2d half vn cent. B. c.). Dr. Waldstein regarded this discov- 
ery as of double importance, first on account of the circular form and 
early date of the structure, and, secondly, because it gives, finally, a 
fixed point of departure for the study of the topography of Sparta. 
The site was then, however, only partially excavated. 

During the autumn of 1892, 1 undertook a topographical study of the 
site of ancient Sparta, which was finished in January, 1893, and is pub- 
blished, as then written, in a previous number of the JOURNAL (vin, pp. 
335-373). I here opposed the identification of this " circular " struc- 
ture with the building of Epimenides, and for my reasons will refer 
to pp. 341-342. It seemed to me that it was the base of the colossal 
statue of Demos, described by Pausanias (m, 11, 9) as facing the 
Agora, and I predicted that " further excavation will reveal the fact 
that this was not a round platform, but a sort of semicircular retain- 
ing-wall, erected with the object of giving the huge image a secure and 
elevated position close to the Agora and overlooking it." 

In the spring of 1893, the excavations were renewed, and the site 
of the structure entirely cleared, as is shown by the report of Mr. 
Header in the JOURNAL (pp. 410-428), with additional remarks by 
Dr. Waldstein. Neither writer questions the identification with the 
circular building of Epimenides. Dr. Waldstein continues to call the 
structure circular, and regards the identification as natural. Although 
Mr. Header expressed no doubt, it seems to me that his careful report 
shows almost conclusively that this was (1) not a circular but a semi- 
circular structure, and (2) not a tholos, but a retaining-wall in the 

1 Thirteenth Annual Report of the Archaeological Institute of America, pp. 74-76. 


NOTES. 213 

centre of whose radius a colossal statue stood, of which the base and 
one thumb have been found. 

Mr. Header states that it is undoubtedly a " retaining- wall," and in 
one case calls it semicircular. The plan as given in Fig. 17 is restored 
on the supposition of a circular structure. The fact is, however, that 
the wall, as it remains, is about a perfect semicircle directly facing the 
Agora. There is one small piece of wall, marked U on the plan, which 
comes on the line which the old wall would have followed had it 
formed a continuous circle ; but this bit of wall, according to the 
report, is very late, and the bricks and mortar used in it show that it 
does not belong to the original structure. It may be argued that, 
though there are now no traces of the continuation of the line of the 
semicircle, the other half of the supposed circle might at some time 
have been completely obliterated. A strong argument, however, 
against this, is the fact that at one end of the semicircle the wall stops 
without any sign of a break and is joined at an angle to a bit of con- 
temporary wall which extends but a short distance when it is swal- 
lowed up in a little Byzantine church. The finish of the masonry at 
this point appears to exclude the coming in of another part of the 
segment of the circle. To sum up, there is no fact brought out in the 
Report which does not favor my hypothesis that we have in this 
structure the retaining-wall and base of the colossal statue of Demos. 
Of course this is of importance in the determination of the topography 
of Sparta. 



I wish to call the attention of students of the history of architec- 
tural forms to the domical structure discovered by Cav. Falchi at 
Vetulonia, in the artificial tumulus called La Pietrera. A full account 
of the circumstances of its discovery, of the character and contents of 
the mound, and of the connection with surrounding examples and 
classes of tombs has been already given in Vol. viu, No. 4, of this 
JOURNAL (pp. 620-29), as well as in this number, in the News. I will, 
refer, therefore, for details, to these reports, which are condensed from 
Cav. Falchi's account in the Notizie degli Seam. 

The general features and arrangement of this hypogeum or domical 
tomb are analogous to a number of the MycenaBan funerary structures 
of the same kind. That is to say, it is built in the midst of an artifi- 
cial mound, is reached by a long passage-way, has secondary chambers 
connected with it and is surmounted by a dome constructed of hori- 


zontal overhanging courses of stone converging toward a central point 
and without a true domical construction of wedge-shaped courses. 

The fundamental difference between these structures, of which so 
many exist in Greece, and a few in Italy, and this at Vetulonia, is 
that in the former the circular domical structure begins from the 
foundations, whereas at Vetulonia the ground-plan is square. A se- 
condary difference is that in Greece the slant of the circular walls be- 
gins at once, whereas at Vetulonia the square walls are exactly verti- 
cal, until they reach the base of the dome, and this dome is not as 
acutely pointed as those in Greece. 

In neither case have we a true dome, but in the Greek Mycenaean 
structure we have the prototype of the Pantheon, while at Vetulonia 
we have a forerunner of the Byzantine domes on pedentives a far 
more advanced type. 

I have spoken of one structure, but in reality there were two cham- 
bers one built over the ruins of the other. They are of equal dimen- 
sions and constructive form, so far as can be judged. The first chamber 
was built of Sassoforte granite which was not able to resist the pressure 
of the superincumbent earth and its dome fell in not long after con- 
struction : this is Cav. Falchi's opinion. On its strengthened walls 
the second chamber was built with slabs of Sassovivo stone with regu- 
larity and exactness and without the use of cement. This higher 
construction led to the raising and enlarging of the mound. Its vault 
had been partly demolished at some time in order to use its stones. 
The chamber is a square, measuring five metres, and the transition to 
the dome was managed by pedentives in the four corners which pass 
gradually from the square to the circular plan until they form a per- 
fectly circular drum upon which the vault rests. Up to this point 
a height of 3.70 metres the walls are perfectly vertical. The large 
slabs of stone have a mean thickness of 20 cent. 1 

Just outside of the chamber, on either side of the corridor 14 met. 
in length, which leads to the outer edge of the artificial mound, is a 
smaller chamber. They both measure 2.40 met. in height, 1.90 
met. in width and 3.10 met. in depth, and are covered with small 
domes, adjusted to the ground-plan in the same way as the main 

1 There is one point that at first seems to remain doubtful in Cav. Falchi's report, 
and that is one of extreme importance, namely : were there wedge-shaped stones 
used in the domes of either the first or second chambers, or were they, like the My- 
cenaean domes, constructed in strictly horizontal courses ? The latter method was 
certainly the one employed. Cav. Falchi mentions wedge-shaped stones fallen from 
the earlier dome, but what he refers to is apparently the shape given by the diago- 
nal cutting of the edges and the greater narrowness toward the face. 



The ground-plan of the mound and chamber given in fig. 1 is taken 
from the Notizie degli Scavi. 

Fig. 1. Mound of La Pietrera at Vetulonia. 

It is generally agreed that the circular form is more ancient in 
Greece than the square or rectangular form of the sepulchral cham- 
ber. At the same time, there are many rock-cut tombs of the Myce- 
naean period in Greece with rectangular chambers. The Etruscans 
employed the rectangular chamber from the beginning. It seems as 
if the few exceptions to this rule were due to Oriental influence : such 
is the chamber at Quinto Fiorentino, which Helbig places before the 
close of the sixth century how much before he does not say. The 
hypogeum at Vetulonia is certainly as early as the seventh century B. 
c. and it may be earlier. It is, therefore, about contemporary with 
such late Mycenaean domical tombs as that of Vaphio. 


The question arises : what is the reason for the combination of the 
dome and the square plan in this instance. Practically speaking the 
dome imposed itself under the circumstances, for it was the only form 
of covering that could successfully withstand the pressure of the im- 
mense mass of superimposed earth. But for what reason was the 
dome attached to a rectangular chamber. Why was this additional 
risk run, why this added labor undergone ? It was certainly an un- 
natural step to take. All tradition was in favor of the circular form. 
The incomers from the Orient for such they must have been set- 
tling among the natives, whose well-tombs at Vetulonia show a far 
inferior degree of culture, could hardly have been much influenced 
by this lower form of civilization. In fact the funerary deposits that 
are found in stone circles with central tombs at Vetulonia, of which 
this one of the Pietrera is the largest, are, according to Cav. Falchi, 
unmixed foreign deposits, without a single Italic object. 

There are two hypotheses to account for this use of the square plan, 
[i] The ancient Italian tomb-chamber was rectangular and the new 
comers on settling in Italy came under the spell of certain religious 
ideas connected with this form and therefore adopted it. [u] Or a 
more probable hypothesis is that the adoption of the square ground- 
plan had an earlier origin, outside of Italy, in the Orient. 

It is possible that when we know more of the history of the dome 
in the ancient Orient and also more about this mysterious people in 
Italy, we shall be able to connect the hypogeum at Vetulonia with 
the square halls in the Assyrian palaces surmounted by domes prob- 
ably built on a more scientific plan than that of Vetulonia. 

However we may attempt to explain it, the fact remains that it is a 
unique monument and deserves to be very carefully studied and 
measured. We hope that Cav. Falchi will publish it shortly in every 
detail, and until this is done it would be useless to indulge in further 



EDWARD ROBINSON. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Catalogue of 
Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Vases, by EDWARD ROBINSON, 
Curator of Classical Antiquities. Boston and !N"ew York, 
Houghton, Miffiin and Company, 1893. 

" In the present catalogue the Museum of Fine Arts desires to offer 
to archaeologists an exact description of the vases in its classical col- 
lection, and to the general public some assistance in learning to 
appreciate the qualities which give Greek vases an interest possessed 
by few classes of ancient monuments." These opening words of the 
preface of this admirable book acquaint us with the twofold task 
to which the author has applied himself, and which he has accom- 
plished in a manner deserving the highest praise. 

The introduction gives in fifty pages a clear and, considering its 
brevity, very satisfactory sketch of the history of Greek vases, a 
description of the process of their manufacture, and a list of Greek 
potters. The first and second sections are headed by well-chosen 
bibliographies, and notes in the text refer to authorities on special 
points. The second section is illustrated by six cuts, and a tail-piece 
represents a buffet with vases stacked upon it, from a wall-painting in 
Corneto. To the list of potters should be added the name of Hermo- 
krates, a painter of the school of Epiktetos ('E<. 'Ap;(- 1890, pi. 2). 

In the history of Greek vases there are few assertions to which it 
is difficult to assent, yet some statements seem to be made more posi- 
tively than is warranted by the present state of knowledge. On page 
3, Mr. Robinson says, speaking of the Hissarlik vases : " Whether 
made by the ancestors of the Greeks, or by a people closely affiliated 
with them, they certainly represent the earliest type of culture of the 
race to which the Greeks belonged," and, on the same page : " speci- 
mens of pottery of characteristics similar to the Trojan have been 
found in several of the islands of the /Egean and the eastern Mediter- 
ranean. ... As a rule they are evidently not importations from a 
common source, but the independent products of a similar state of 
civilization by members of the same race. . . . Notable among these 


are the earliest types found in Cyprus." These passages taken together 
seem to assume as a certainty that the inhabitants of Cyprus before 
the advent of the Phoenicians were not only closely related to the 
people of Hissarlik, but also to the ancestors of the Greeks. That 
this is at any rate not certain, is shown by Diimmler, Mitth. d. Inst. 
Athen, 1886, p. 243 sqq., who argues that the early Cyprians, and then 
also the people of Hissarlik, were Semitic. On page 8, we are told 
that the Dipylon style " did not disappear altogether until the end of 
the seventh century, if not later." If this means that the manufacture 
continued to 600 B. c., the date seems rather late in view of the fact 
that the earlier black-figured vases must now be put back well into 
the sixth century (Of. Brueckner and Pernice, Mitth. d. Inst. Athen, 
1893, p. 136 sq.). Whether the so-called Gyrene pottery is really from 
Cyrene may not be so certain as seems to be assumed on p. 16. 

The " island " style is referred to on p. 2, and again p. 9, note 2, but 
is not described. One would expect to find it treated after the geo- 
metric style, but this is followed in order by the Rhodian, Melian, and 
Cyprian styles. As all these places are islands, those who make their 
acquaintance with Greek vases through the medium of this book 
might be tempted to form an " island " style by combining the Rho- 
dian, Melian, and Cyprian. 

The descriptions of the various styles and classes of vases are excel- 
lent, and note clearly the salient points. Nor, with the exception 
mentioned above, is there any fault to be found with the dates 
assigned, unless perhaps the dates 2000-1800 B. c. for the vases of 
Thera, and 1400-1100 B. c. for those of Mykenae may be somewhat 
too restricted. 

On turning to the catalogue proper, those who are unacquainted 
with the Museum of Fine Arts will probably be surprised to find so 
large and excellent a collection. There are 896 numbers, including 
thirteen pieces of Armenian pottery, 144 pieces from Naukratis, and 
116 fragments of various wares. There are no specimens of the 
Hissarlik pottery nor of that from Thera, but these are almost the only 
gaps in the collection, the contents of which may be briefly given, 
adopting the order of the catalogue, as follows : Case 1 Early Greek 
Styles ; Nos. 1-6, Mykenae style ; 7-14, Geometric ; 15-18, Italic ; 19-28, 
" Proto-Corinthian " ; 29-77, Corinthian ; 78-87, Miscellaneous. Case 
1A Prehistoric Italic Pottery, 88-100, Contents of a Prehistoric Grave 
in the Region of the Alban Lake. The grave is one of those which 
were buried under the volcanic deposits from the Alban craters (see 
Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 27 sqq.). 101-105, Contents of a Prehistoric 
Roman Grave, discovered on the Esquiline, within the wall of Servius 
Tullius, in the spring of 1888. The importance of the contents of 


this case to students of prehistoric Roman and Italic archaeology is 
evidently very great. Case 2 Vases from Cyprus, Nos. 106-239, part 
of a collection purchased from Gen. di Cesnola, giving good examples 
of almost all varieties of Cyprian ware, though unfortunately a few 
of the vases are very much " restored." Case 3 Bucchero Ware, 240- 
307, consisting for the most part of the Dixwell collection, " formerly 
a portion of a public collection in Chiusi, which was disposed of at 
public sale in Florence in 1875," offering very exceptional advantages 
for the study of this ware. Cases 4 and 5 Black-figured Vases, 308- 
387. Cases 6 and 7 Red-figured Vases, 388-488, among which are 
included six white Attic lekythoi, 448453. Case 8 Vases from Lower 
Italy, 489-530 ; Megara Boivls, 531 and 533, and Miscellaneous late Greek 
types, 534-539. Nos. 540-578 are also miscellaneous late types. Case 
15 contains Arrhetian ware, commonly miscalled Samian ware. Nos. 
579-619, Nos. 620-623, are coarse Roman jars. The pottery from 
Naukratis, in case 15 of the Egyptian room, "was presented to the 
Museum by the Egypt Exploration Fund, and includes a liberal selec- 
tion of specimens of the various types discovered during the excava- 
tions conducted by the Fund in the years 1884-87." This collection 
enables American students to become acquainted with all the varieties 
of Naukratis ware in the original. The latter part of the catalogue is 
taken up with fragments of various wares. 

It is evident from the above summary that the Museum, besides 
possessing admirable collections of Cypriote, early Italic, and Bucchero 
wares, is exceptionally rich in Attic vases of the black- and red-figured 
styles. Many of these are unusually interesting. One of the white 
lekythoi, 448, derives special interest from its inscription, At'xas KaXos, 
such inscriptions being extremely rare on vases of this class. The 
lekythoi 450-452 are published by Professor Wright in this JOURNAL, 
Vol. n, PL xi, PI. xii-xm, Nos. 7 and 9. 

The colored frontispiece reproduces No. 432, a red-figured vase of 
the " fine style " representing the death of Orpheus. In the descrip- 
tion, the figure at the extreme right is spoken of as being at the left, 
and vice versa. It would be well, too, in describing this painting, to 
mention the peculiar drawing which makes the right arm of some of 
the figures, notably the one to the right of Orpheus, appear to come 
from the left shoulder, and vice versa. In the description of 434 (p. 
160, 1. 6), three narrow bands twisted about the hair of a handmaiden 
are mentioned, but they do not appear upon the opposite page where 
the painting is published. Whether the description or the publica- 
tion is at fault, cannot be determined at a distance. In general, the 
descriptions appear to be careful and exact. They are supplemented 
by nine full-page illustrations besides the frontispiece, and by a minia- 


ture outline of nearly every vase. This last is an important addition 
to the value of the catalogue. 

The paintings chosen for publication are all interesting for various 
reasons. 335 and 336, black-figured lekythoi from Eretria, have 
designs representing Helios rising in his chariot and Herakles with 
Pholos, respectively. 372 is a black-figured skyphos surrounded by a 
frieze, divided by the handles into two groups. One of these repre- 
sents six warriors riding on leaping dolphins towards a full-draped 
man who stands facing them, playing on a double flute. The other 
represents six youths riding upon ostriches toward a similar flute- 
player, before whom stands a bearded dwarf. These are explained as 
chorus scenes from early Attic comedies, an explanation which must, 
perhaps, be provisionally accepted, though it is hard to imagine the 
successful production of such choruses at the date to which this vase 
must be assigned. 394 is a kylix-conjecturally assigned to Euphro- 
nios. The painting in the centre represents Dionysos and a satyr. 
An inscription reads : o TTCUS /coAos. The Museum is fortunate in pos- 
sessing as a loan one of the ten vases signed by Euphronios, No. 388, a 
kylix with the representation of two-headed men dancing. The painting 
upon the stamnos 419 represents, in severe red-figured style, the mur- 
der of a harper by a youth, assisted by a woman, in the presence of 
two additional persons, one male and one female. It is explained as 
the death of Orpheus represented by means of motives belonging to 
the death of Aigisthos. Nos. 424, 426, 434, and 447, the subjects of 
the remaining full-page illustrations, represent, respectively, a group 
of satyrs, a youth accompanied by a dwarf leading a dog, a domestic 
scene (three women), and a youth and maiden before a grave stele, all 
in red-figured styles. The illustrations are well done. 

It is to be hoped and expected that this book will not only serve to 
make archaeologists better acquainted with the great value of the col- 
lection of vases in the Museum of Fine Arts, but will also by means 
of the masterly introduction awaken a more general interest in the 
study of ancient ceramics. 


ADOLF FURTW!NGLER. Meisterwerke der Griechischen Plastik. 
Kunstgeschichtliche Untersuchungen von ADOLF FURTWANGLER. 
Mit 140 Textbildern und 32 Lichtdrucktafeln in Mappe. 8vo. 
pp. xvi, 767. Yerlag von Giesecke und Devrient. Leipzig- 
Berlin, 1893. 

This work is certainly a magnum opus, full of original conceptions, 
of careful observation, and of diligent comparisons. It is a veritable 


storehouse of learning. The attractive blue-and-white binding, in 
which it comes to us from the hands of the publishers, and the high 
quality of the illustrations, are an indication that the volume is 
intended to find its way into the libraries of wealthy art amateurs. 
But the text is in no sense addressed to the general public ; it is a 
scientific treatise of the highest order, the fulcrum around which his- 
torical criticism of Greek sculpture must swing for many years to 
come. With this book in hand Overbeck becomes a representative 
of archaic criticism. So comprehensive is the range of Furtwangler's 
acquaintance with Greek and Roman marbles, bronzes, terracottas, 
vase-paintings, texts and inscriptions, that even Brunn seems to 
occupy a narrower field of influence. Leipzig and Munich are already 
overshadowed by Berlin. 

It would be idle to attempt a critical review of a work of this mag- 
nitude. This can be done only by specialists, and at much greater 
length than we have at our disposal. But we may at least set before 
our readers Furtwangler's general point of view and give a brief 
notice of the scope of his book. 

The foundation upon which this work rests is a personal and direct 
observation of monuments and a critical comparison of them through 
the assistance of casts and photographs. Again and again we are 
impressed by the freedom of Furtwangler's powers of observation. 
None of the details of style escape his attention. Whether it be the 
treatment of the hair, of the eye, nose, mouth, ear, the drapery or 
general composition, he has observed them all, and frequently sug- 
gests some illuminating generalization, utilizing every such detail for 
chronological purposes with as much security as the epigraphists feel 
in the chronological value of the forms of letters. 

But the masterworks of Greek sculpture, the subject of his volume, 
have almost without exception perished. How, then, does he use the 
methods of observation to so much purpose? We might suppose 
that the few existing Greek originals would be made the basis of his 
argument and afford the criteria for the classification and restoration 
of the missing masterpieces. But such a slender foundation would 
not have sufficed for the superstructure he wishes to raise. His real 
starting-point is found in the numerous copies made by the Romans 
of the famous statues of the Greeks. He argues that when many 
replicas of the same type are found, we may assume as a starting- 
point a Greek original. In the critical analysis of the copies great 
pains must be taken to distinguish between those which are exact 
copies and those which contain later variations. In the absence of 
the originals, we must here be guided in our estimate of the exact- 
ness of the copy by such other originals as have been preserved, by 


traditional descriptions, by contemporary copies on vase-paintings, 
coins, etc. In this manner from the copies we may reconstruct the 

This is the first time that in a systematic, far-reaching and exten- 
sive manner the lost masterpieces of the Greeks have been placed 
before our eyes ; in copies it is true, but in a manner which enlarges 
our conceptions respecting the styles and peculiarities of the great 
artists. It also vivifies our interest in a multitude of monuments 
which otherwise would be overlooked as of secondary importance. 

The volume is divided into a series of separate studies upon : Phei- 
dias ; The Athena Temple on the Akropolis ; Kresilas and Myron ; 
Polykleitos ; Skopas, Prakiteles and Euphranor ; The Venus of Milo ; 
The Apollo Belvedere ; An Archaic Greek bronze head ; The Throne 
of the Amyklsean Apollo. Even this analysis does not completely 
cover the scope of the work, for the works of many other artists are 
considered at length, whose names do not appear in the titles of the 
chapters. These studies are not systematic treatises, such as one 
expects to find in an encyclopaedia or in a history of Greek sculp- 
ture; they are critical studies, in which traditional and received 
opinions are treated lightly but the monuments with great analytic 

The starting point for his study of Pheidias is the Lemnian Athena. 
This he recognizes in two marble copies in Dresden, and secures a 
more exact restoration of the head by means of an Athena head in 
Bologna, and of the pose by means of an ancient gem. He then fixes 
its position on the Akropolis, determines its date as 450 B. c., dis- 
cusses its prototypes and the changes made by Pheidias. This statue 
becomes the norm by means of which he reaches conclusions which 
vary widely from the generally received opinions. He places the 
Lemnian Athena at the beginning of the career of Pheidias, allowing 
a few works only to be of earlier date. This would do away entirely 
with the Kimon period and place Pheidias exclusively in the age of 
Perikles. The Athena Promachos is attributed to Praxiteles the elder, 
the Olympian Zeus is put later than the Parthenos, and the residence 
of Pheidias at Olympia treated as a myth. The decorative sculptures 
of the Parthenon, with the exception of the more archaic of the 
metopes, are assigned to Pheidias. He interprets the Eastern frieze 
as representing the bringing of the Peplos for the ancient statue of 
Athena, which he believes Perikles intended to have placed in the 
Eastern section of the Parthenon. The stools which the maidens are 
carrying are intended for the Olympian divinities who were consid- 
ered as guests at the great Panathenaic Festival. They are seated in 
the following order : Hermes, Dionysos (on a cushion), Demeter (with 


a torch), Ares, Hera, Zeus, and to the right Athena, Hephaistos, 
Poseidon, Apollon, Artemis, Aphrodite. The Western Pediment of 
the Parthenon is interpreted as dedicated to the Parthenoi ; that is, 
the daughters of Kekrops on the one hand and of Erechtheus on the 
other. The figures in the angles are not river gods, but Buzyges and 
his wife on one side and Butes and his wife on the other. In the 
centre Athena and Poseidon meet as rival rather than as conflicting 
divinities, both of them being associated, as is the case with all the 
other figures of the pediment, with the history of the Akropolis. The 
Eastern Pediment receives also a new interpretation. The central 
group, in which Zeus and Athena appear as equal divinities, is restored 
from the Madrid puteal to the left are Helios, Kephalos, the Horai, 
Hebe (two other divinities, then Hera and Zeus) ; to the right are 
(Athena, Poseidon, two divinities) the Moirai and Nyx. Thus in 
both pediments there is seen to be preserved a more thorough balance 
and symmetry than appears in most interpretations. In the study 
on Polykleitos, the recent discoveries of the American School at Argos 
are summarily dismissed as non-Polykleitan in style. Around the 
Doryphoros and the Diadumenos he collects a series of variant forms, 
and in a most interesting manner utilizes the bases found at Olympia 
in reestablishing as Polykleitan a series of statues. In the same way as 
the zoologist from a single bone can reconstruct the form of an extinct 
animal, so the archaeologist of to-day requires even less than the frag- 
ment of a statue : the mere manner in which the feet are posed upon 
the pedestal throws considerable light upon the form of the statue 
which the pedestal once served to support. In the section on Praxi- 
teles a new light is thrown upon the work of the master ; his earlier 
statues, more Polykleitan in character, being distinguished from the 
later, of which the Hermes is the crowning example. Few perhaps 
will be ready to follow Furtwangler so far as to see in the Otricoli 
Zeus the direct influence of Praxiteles. The section on the Venus of 
Milo is a very thorough archaeological and critical study, leading to 
the unexpected conclusion that the Melian statue represents a mix- 
ture of two types, one of which is to be referred to Skopas, the other 
being the Melian Tyche. 

The fine series of plates which accompanies the volume is valuable 
in reproducing works of sculpture which are not elsewhere accessible. 



J. T. BENT. The ruined cities of Mashonaland, being a record of 
excavation and exploration in 1891, by J. THEODORE BENT, etc. ; 
with a chapter on the Orientation and Mensuration of the Temples, 
by R M. W. SWAN. 8vo., pp. xi, 376. London, 1892, Long- 
mans, Green & Co. 

Mr. Bent is one of the most energetic of the travellers and explorers 
of this generation. His researches among the Greek islands and on 
the Bahrein group off Arabia had already placed him in the front 
rank, and recently, in his expeditions to the region of the ancient gold 
mines of Mashonaland, in South Africa, and in his more recent expe- 
dition into Abyssinia, he has scored two distinct successes. Elsewhere 
in the News of this JOURNAL (vol. vn, p. 491, vui, p. 254), accounts- 
have been already given of the results of his investigations and their 
historic and archaBological bearings. The present volume is divided 
into three parts : Pt. I, On the road to the ruins, being an account of 
the journey up from Vryberg through Bechuanaland by the Kalahari 
desert route, then of the first impressions of Mashonaland, and, finally, 
of the camp life and work at Zimbabwe. The archaeological part of 
the work is reached in Part II, which is devoted to the archeology of the 
ruined cities. 

" The ruins of the Great Zimbabwe (which name I have applied to 
them to distinguish them from the numerous minor Zimbabwes scat- 
tered over the country) are situated in south latitude 20, 16', 30", and 
east longitude 31, 10', 10", on the high plateau of Mashonaland, 3,300 
feet above the sea level, and form the capital of a long series of such 
ruins stretching up the whole length of the western side of the Sabi 
river. They are built on granite, and of granite, quartz reefs being 
found at a distance of a few miles. The prominent features of the 
Great Zimbabwe ruins, which cover a large area of ground, are, firstly, 
the large circular ruin with its round tower on the edge of a gentle 
slope on the plain below ; secondly, the mass of ruins in the valley 
immediately beneath this ; and thirdly, the intricate fortress on the 
granite hill above, acting as the acropolis of the ancient city." 

The circular ruin has an elliptical shape, with a greatest length of 
280 ft., a wall at its highest point of 35 ft., and with a greatest base 
thickness of 16 ft. The wall is constructed of small stones a little 
larger than bricks, laid without cement or mortar, in perfectly true 
courses. The S. E. portion of .the outer wall is decorated with a pat- 
tern in low relief coinciding with the position and limits of the sacred 
enclosure inside, and the top of the same section of the wall was made 
into a promenade, paved with slabs of granite and decorated with 
large monoliths. The interior is a perfect labyrinth. A stupendous 


narrow passage leads from the main entrance to the sacred enclosure, 
on either side of which rise the great walls, thirty feet high, " built 
with such evenness of courses and symmetry that, as a specimen of 
the dry builder's art, it is without a parallel." Buttresses and port- 
cullises defended the entrances and passageways at every point. 
Within the sacred enclosure stood two round towers of conical shape, 
but unequal height, the larger being 35 ft. high. Such towers, or 
colossal cones, are known to have been erected by the Phoenicians 
within their temple precincts : examples can be cited in Phoenicia, 
Malta, Sardinia, etc. No cemetery was found in connection with Zim- 
babwe, and Mr. Bent's conclusion was " that the ancient inhabitants, 
who formed but a garrison in this country, were in the habit of remov- 
ing their dead to some safer place. This plan seems to have a parallel 
in Arabia in antiquity, a notable example of which is to be found in 
the Bahrein Islands, in the Persian Gulf, where acres and acres of 
mounds contain thousands of tombs, and no vestige of a town is to 
be found anywhere near them." 

The fortress is even more remarkable. Its wall is thirty feet high 
in parts, and the flat causeway on the top was decorated on the out- 
side edge by a succession of small round towers alternating with tall 
monoliths. " The labyrinthine nature of the buildings . . . baffles 
description." Every imaginable precaution against attack was taken 
in the way of buttresses, tortuous and narrow passages and traverses. 
There was a temple at the S. W. end, containing an altar, around 
which were found phalli, birds on soapstone pillars and fragments of 
soapstone bowls. Gigantic granite boulders, some over fifty feet high, 
are strewn over the summit. Mr. Bent closes his description with 
these interesting sentences : " Such is the great fortress of Zimbabwe, 
the most mysterious and complex structure that it has ever been my 
fate to look upon. Vainly one tries to realize what it must have been 
like in the days before ruin fell upon it, with its tortuous and well- 
guarded approaches, its walls bristling with monoliths and round 
towers, its temple decorated with tall, weird-looking birds, its huge 
decorated bowls, and in the innermost recesses its busy gold- producing 

The ruin of the great circular building at Matindela is second only 
in importance to the Great Zimbabwe. All the other ruins visited by 
Mr. Bent, or reported to him, are far inferior and do not merit the 
same attention. 

The large number of similar ruins, in each case found near gold 
workings, proves that an extensive population once lived here as a 
garrison in a hostile country for the sake of the gold which they 
extracted from the mines in the quartz reefs between the Zambesi and 


Limpopo rivers. All were built by the same race and belong to the 
same period. The ruins are circular or elliptical in shape, and an 
interesting feature in nearly all of them is the ornamental pattern 
encircling only a portion of the outer wall facing the southeast. It 
is probable that this fact had a religious significance and was con- 
nected with solar worship. The buildings served both as temple and 
as fortress. 

The chapter by Mr. Swan, On the Orientation and Measurements of 
Zimbabwe Ruins, is an attempt to prove that at Zimbabwe, in connec- 
tion with the worship of the sun and the reproductive power, several 
methods were employed for observing the motions of the heavenly 
bodies, in order to use this knowledge in regulating the celebration of 
religious festivals and the ordinary affairs of life. According to Mr. 
Swan, the structure, orientation and various openings of the Zimbabwe 
structures were made to subserve this purpose. His principal meas- 
urements are for the purpose of calculating the radius of the arc of 
different sections of the walls, and in order to ascertain how the rays 
of the rising sun would penetrate into the interior at the summer 
solstice. There does not seem to be a sure enough basis of facts for 
the conclusions drawn in this chapter, nor do the other ruins of the 
country furnish strictly concordant data. 

The following chapter is on The Finds at the Great Zimbabwe Ruins. 
Of these the most remarkable are the hawks or vultures perched upon 
tall columns, of soapstone. These birds, found around the altar, 
were, according to Mr. Bent, sacred to Astarte. In connection with 
these were found : phalli, some of them decorated ; decorated soap- 
stone beams, with a geometric ornamentation like that on early Cyp- 
riote pottery ; fragments of large soapstone bowls, some of which have 
frieze-like scenes in relief, processions of animals, hunting-scenes, 
religious processions, geometric patterns, etc. Close underneath the 
temple in the fortress stood the gold-smelting furnace, made of very 
hard cement, of powdered granite, with a chimney of the same mate- 
rial, and with neatly bevelled edges. Near it were many little cruci- 
bles, of a composition of clay, which had been used for smelting the 
gold, usually with specks of gold still adhering to the glaze. There 
were also water-worn stones used as burnishers, an ingot mould of 
soapstone corresponding almost exactly to a Phoenician ingot of tin 
found in Falmouth Harbor. 

Chapter VII deals with The Geography and Ethnology of the Mashona- 
land Ruins, and gives a sketchy account of the past knowledge of this 
region down to the time of Mr. Bent's visit. 

The third and last part of the book treats of Exploration Journeys in 
Mashonaland, which refer only incidentally to archaeological matters. 



Mr. Bent here throws some light upon the Monomatapa Empire which 
flourished in this region several hundred years ago. 

At present Fort Salisbury is the centre of a new English enterprise 
and is the future capital of the Mashonaland gold fields redivivi. 

A. L. F., JR. 

F. J. BLISS. A mound of many cities, or Tell el Hesy excavated, 
by FREDERICK JONES BLISS. 8vo., pp. xn, 197. New York, 
Macmillan & Co., 1894. Price, $2.25. 

The task of excavating the mound of Tell el Hesy, in Palestine, 16 
miles E. of Gaza, and 23 miles W. of Hebron, was commenced by 
Mr. Flinders Petrie in April, 1890. In his u reconnaissance of six 
weeks, during which he examined the tell merely at its sides, he was 
able to reconstruct its past history from the apparently unimportant 
remains he found, and to reach conclusions which my (Mr. Bliss') de- . 
tailed examinations through four seasons . . merely modified, but did 
not materially alter." Mr. Petrie has reported on his own work in his 
publication, " Tell el Hesy " (Lachish), published in 1891, for the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund. During 1891, 1892 and 1893, Mr. Bliss carried 
forward the work on a quite different scale, cutting down one-third of 
the mound, layer by layer. He agrees with Petrie and Conder in 
identifying the site with the city of Lachish : in fact, it was through 
his discovery of the cuneiform tablet with the letter containing the 
name of Zimridi, governor of Lachish, that the strongest argument in 
favor of the identification was secured. 

Mr. Bliss' conclusions are that some 2000 B. c. the Amorites built a 
town on this bluff, some 60 ft. above the stream-bed of the Wady el 
Hesy, and on the ruins of this city their successors built another and 
then another, until about 400 B. c., when the site seems to have been 
abandoned, the ruins of the last inhabitants being 60 ft. above the 
ruins of the first builders, with a series of six intermediate towns, 
each represented by a separate layer : in all eight layers. The dates 
assigned by Mr. Bliss k> the various towns are the following : City 
Sub i, 1700 -f B. c. ; City i, c. 1600 B. c. ; City Sub n, c. 1550 B. c. ; City 
n, c. 1500; City in, c. 1450; City Sub iv, c. 1400; City iv, c. 1300- 
1000 ; City v, c. 1000; City vi, c. 800; Cities vn, vin, c. 500 and 400 
respectively. The earliest three or four settlements were evidently 
the largest and most important, the later settlements being confined 
to the small area of the tell, a good part of which, however, has been 
anciently undermined and carried away by the stream. Bliss' main 
excavation area was 160 ft. N.-S. and 125 ft. W.-E. The most inter- 


esting ruins of the earliest period were the great city walls, 16 ft. thick 
and having great corner towers, 56 by 28 ft., with rooms about 10 ft. 
square. The early pottery, called Amorite by Mr. Petrie, occurs in 
City Sub and I, while the Phoenician pottery begins to appear in City 
n, running through City iv. In City 11 was an interesting blast- 
furnace. In City in was found the famous Cuneiform tablet of Zim- 
rida. Several scarabs of the xvm Egyptian dynasty were found in 
Cities ii and in. City iv also has xvni-dynasty scarabs, with a xix- 
dynasty scarab toward the top, near which were found a cylinder 
with xxn-dynasty glazing and a Phoenician inscription of about 1100 
to 1000 B. c. Near by was a stamped jar-handle inscribed in hiero- 
glyph, " The palace of Ra-aa-Khepuru," that is, Amenhotep II. In 
City Sub iv were found an Egyptianizing bronze statuette and an 
extremely rude terracotta female statuette : also a wine-press (c. 1200 
B. c.) in excellent preservation. A fine public building with a sym- 
metrical plan was found. It was 56 ft. square, and its largest room 
measured 30 ft. by 15. In this stratum Mr. Petrie had found a build- 
ing with the two famous door-jambs, each bearing a pilaster in low 
relief, terminating in a volute in place of a capital. Many of the 
objects found in these two strata have an Egyptian character which 
adds to the testimony of the scarabs. At the same time these strata 
represent the principal age of Phoenician pottery. In City v a very 
peculiar and interesting building was found, covering an area of 112 
ft. by 45, and apparently formed of three halls divided into three 
aisles by two rows of brick piers or columns. The characteristic pot- 
tery of Cities v to vm was the Jewish, i. e., coarse copies of the older 
Phoenician types ; and " polished red and black Greek ware appeared 
from the top of the tell down to the higher layers of City vi." Of the 
last chapters, entitled " Sketch of the Expedition," and " The Arabs 
and the Fellahin," it is not necessary to speak, though they add 
greatly to the interest of the book. Certainly the archaeological results 
of the excavations are interesting, but they are disappointing, in so far 
as they relate to the history of art, from the extreme insignificance of 
the objects found. 

A. L. F., Jr. 





ARABIA, 273 

ASIA, 272 





EAST AFRICA, .... 267 

EGYPT, 229 

GREECE, 283 

ITALY, 317 

KRETE, 283 


KYPROS, 282 

NUBIA, 261 


PERSIA, 275 

SICILY, ....... 327 

SYRIA, 276 


The past season is an important one in the annals of Egyptian 
archaeology, not so much for the number as for the quality of the 

After a number of minor enterprises, the Egypt Exploration Fund 
has once more come to the front with its excavation of the temple of 
Hatshepu, under the direction of M. Naville, which promises to sur- 
pass in monumental interest even the excavations of the Fund at 
Bubastis. M. de Morgan's discoveries at Abusir and Dashour are of 
great interest, and the latest news from Dashur, which came too late 
to be inserted in this number, shows that no more important find for 
our knowledge of the art of the Middle Empire has yet been made. 

The project of the Fund to conduct a complete archaeological sur- 
vey of Egypt, which is still carried on, has stimulated the activity of 
the indefatigable M. de Morgan, who has already issued Part I of 
what promises to be the greatest work yet issued on Egyptian Monu- 
ments, and in connection with which he is carrying on, and will con- 
tinue to carry on, important excavations like those reported in this 
issue of the News. 

Mr. Petrie's work at Koptos promises to be unique in its value for 
the earliest period of Egyptian civilization. 

At the last moment we hear that a large appropriation has been 
made by the Egyptian government for the erection of a suitable and 
safe museum building. 



THE MONUMENTS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. We here reprint part of the 
circular announcing the publication of the great work on the monu- 
ments of Egypt, undertaken by the French archaeologists under the 
direction of M. de Morgan. Its title is : " Catalogue des monuments 
et inscriptions de FEgypte antique. Ouvrage public" sous les auspices 
de S. A. Abbas II Helmi, Khedive d'Egypte, par la direction g6nerale 
des antiquites de 1'Egypte." The first section of the book, of which 
part i has just appeared, has the sub-title : " Premiere serie : haute 
Egypte. Tome premier : de la frontiere de Nubie a Kom Ombos. Par 
J. de Morgan, U. Bouriant, G. Legrain, G. Jequier, A. Barsanti." 

The circular says: La publication dont le " Service des Antiquites de PEgypte " 
donne aujourd'hui le premier volume, est destinee a renfermer la description com- 
plete de tous les monuments, de tous les sites de 1'Egypte antique, ainsi que la repro- 
duction fidele de toutes les inscriptions de la vallee du Nil quelle que soit la langue 
dans laquelle elles ont ete redigees. 

Autant que ses ressources le lui permettent, le " Service des Antiquites de 
1'Egypte " fait deblayer les edifices aim de mettre a jour les textes qui en recouvrent 
les murailles et d'en pouvoir donner une description complete. Mais frequemment 
arrete par des impossibilites materielles, il doit souvent se contenter d'eftectuer les 
travaux les moins dispendieux et de laisser pour 1'avenir un grand nombre de monu- 
ments et plus particulierement de tombeaux qui n'ont pas encore vu le jour depuis 

Sous le titre de " Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de 1'Egypte antique " 
cet ouvrage comprendra tous les documents archeologiques actuellement visibles 
dans la vallee du Nil et dans toutes les regions ou les Pharaons ont laisse des temoins 
de leur puissance. II embrassera tout ce que nous connaissons depuis les ages pre- 
historiques et ceux des souverains des premieres dynasties jusqu'aux derniers restes 
de la civilisation byzantine, au moment ou les arts, les usages et la langue des 
Arabes s'etablirent dans le pays et firent a jamais disparaitre la vieille Egypte. Cette 
publication sera forcement incomplete, car chaque annee les fouilles ameneront la 
decouverte de monuments nouveaux, mais il sera facile de creer des volumes supple- 
mentaires et de tenir ainsi cet ouvrage au courant des progres de Parcheologie 
en Egypte. 

Les monuments seront decrits tres sommairement, mais ces descriptions seront 
accompagnees d'un grand nombre de plans, de coupes et de vues, afin d'en faciliter 
Petude au point de vue de P architecture. Les textes seront reproduits le plus sou- 
vent en fac-simile afin d'en conserver les caracteres paleographiques. Mais dans 
aucun cas il n'en sera donne de traduction, afin d'eviter autant que possible que cette 
publication devienne un champ de polemique et pour en abreger la redaction. Les 
egyptologues qui participeront a ces travaux seront toujours a meme de publier dans 
des ouvrages separes la traduction et la discussion des textes, d'exposer leurs theories 
et leurs appreciations personnelles. Mais le Service des antiquites de PEgypte ne 
peut embrasser une publication d'une aussi grande etendue. II serait deborde par 
Pabondance des memoires et n'atteindrait jamais son but. 

Le " Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de PEgypte antique " ne com- 
prendra que les documents qu'il est possible de qualifier d' " immeubles ", c'est-a-dire 




tous ceux qui ne peuvent ou ne doivent etre transported. Les monuments transport- 
ables qui sont aujourd'hui dans les musees du Caire et d' Alexandria de meme que 
ceux qui dans la suite y seront deposees feront 1'objet d'une publication speciale sous 
le titre de " Catalogue des Musees Arche"ologiques de 1'Egypte ". 

Maintenant que les textes n'ont plus de secrets, que grace aux efforts incessants 
d'une pleiade de savants 1'egyptologie est devenue une science precise, 1'interet d'une 
publication complete des monuments se fait tres vivement sentir. Chaque annee, 
depuis plus d'un demi siecle, de nombreux etrangers, attires par la richesse des docu- 
ments de la vallee du Nil, viennent s'y instruire et y prendre des notes, souvent sans 
ordre et sans methode, et les publient dans les revues de leur pays. Dans bien des 
cas ces documents sont pour ainsi dire perdus pour la science ; car leur recherche au 
milieu de publications si nombreuses devient un labeur considerable, et la connais- 
sance de la bibliographic egyptologique est presqu'aussi difficile que 1'egyptologie 
elle-meme. A cote de ces notes, de ces brochures pour ainsi dire innombrables, sont, 
il est vrai, de grandes publications et des monographies detaillees qui font le plus 
grand honneur a leurs auteurs. Mais il est bien peu d'ouvrages qui soient complets, 
souvent ils ne renferment qu'un choix de documents fait suivant les idees person- 
nelles de 1'auteur, en vue de la recherche d'une question speciale. 

En dehors de cet inconvenient tres grave pour les savants qui travaillent en 
dehors de 1'Egypte, il en est un autre non moins serieux pour les egyptologues qui 
parcourent la vallee du Nil. La plupart des textes aujourd'hui visibles ayant ete 
plus ou moins signales ou publics, il est fort difficile de savoir quels sont les monu- 
ments inedits, et ce desordre entraine une grande perte de temps et d'activite de la 
part des visiteurs de 1'Egypte. 

Le " Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de 1'Egypte antique " renfermant 
tous les documents connus jusqu'au jour de sa publication, il sera des lors aise de se 
rendre compte de la valeur scientifique d'un monument, de 1'interet d'un document 
nouvellement decouvert. 

En dehors de ces avantages surtout sensibles pour les archeologues qui visitent 
1'Egypte, les savants que leurs occupations retiennent a 1'etranger trouveront aussi 
leur benefice dans cette publication qui leur fournira une foule de documents inedits 
pour alimenter leurs travaux. 

II ne serait pas juste de penser que les societes, les revues, qui font de 1'egyptolo- 
gie leur principal sujet d'etudes, seront absorbees par cette publication et r6duites a 
1'impuissance. Bien au contraire elle leur vient en aide, car chaque annee les nou- 
veax volumes leur apporteront des documents inedits laissant aux savants etrangers 
le soin de les discuter et de les traduire. Plus tard, quand ce long travail de releve 
sera termine, les volumes de supplement fourniront periodiquement les resultats des 
recentes decouvertes, et cette serie reunie aux catalogues scientifiques des musees 
egyptiens constituera a proprement parler " les annales de 1'antiquite egyptienne ". 
II est vrai que les nombreuses collections des musees etrangers n'y seront comprises. 
Mais il sera toujours aise pour les directeurs de ces musees de faire la description de 
leurs collections dans des publications analogues, et 1'histoire de lEgypte sera ainsi, 
a tout jamais, sauvee de la destruction. 

Le nombre des egyptologues est fort restreint ; c'est a peine si a ce jour nous en 
pouvons compter cinquante, et sur ce petit nombre, beaucoup ne peuvent venir en 
Egypte, retenus qu'ils sont par leurs devoirs a 1'etranger. C'est done avec le con- 
cours de quelques savants seulement que notre oauvre peut etre entreprise. Mais 
nous ne saurions trop inviter les etrangers a venir collaborer a ce travail d'un interet 


si g6neral. II ne s'agit pas ici d'un ouvrage ayant une portee politique, mais bien 
d'une ceuvre internationale, interessant la science universelle et dans laquelle la 
nationalite des auteurs imports peu. 

Afin de faciliter aux egyptologues de toutes les nationalites la part que nous 
esperons leur voir prendre dans cette publication, nous acceptons les manuscrits 
ecrits dans les quatre langues principales de 1'Europe : 1'allemand, Panglais, le 
fran9ais et 1'italien, priant les savants qui ne sauraient ecrire dans 1'une de ces 
langues de rediger leur texte en latin. 

Le Service des antiquites ne prend sur lui aucune responsabilite relativement a la 
valeur scientifique des ouvrages, chaque auteur publiant sous son nom est personelle- 
ment responsable de ses oeuvres. II en corrigera lui-meme les epreuves. II nous 
serait en effet impossible de verifier toutes les copies, d'examiner a fond chacun des 

Nous esperons que cet appel a la bonne volonte de tous les savants sera entendu 
et que chaque annee nous verrons des egyptologues de toutes les nationalites venir 
concourir a cette ceuvre. II en resultera, nous en sommes certains, une emulation 
tres beneficiable aux interets de la science. 

Le " Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de 1'Egypte antique " comprendra 
la description de tous les pays qui jadis firent partie du domaine des Pharaons. Mais 
il etait necessaire de diviser le sujet afin d'etre a meme de 1'aborder de plusieurs 
cotes a la fois : nous avons done partag ces vastes regions en provinces, quitte a 
diviser les provinces elles-memes en districts suivant les besoins. Nous avons etabli 
les divisions suivantes pour les provinces : 1 Haute Egypte. 2 Moyenne Egypte. 
3 Basse Egypte. 4 Nubie. 5 Les Oasis. 6 Les cotes de la Mer rouge. 7 
L 'Egypte asiatique. 

L'examen de ces sept provinces peut etre mene de front, mais afin qu'il ne s'intro- 
duise pas dedesordre dans la publication, il est necessaire de fixer a 1'avance le point 
de depart de chacune des series de volumes, autrement dit le district par lequel les 
etudes seront commencees dans chaque province. 

1 Haute Egypte. La serie commence a la frontiere de Nubie et les matieres se 
suivront en descendant le cours du fleuve. 

2 Moyenne Egypte. Cette province aura pour frontiere au Sud la limite meri- 
dionale de la Moudirieh de Siout et ou Nord la limite septentrionale des Moudiriehs 
de Beni Souef et du Fayoum. Les volumes se succederont egalement en suivant le 
cours du Nil. 

3 Basse Egypte. Cette province comprend tout le Delta, depuis la frontiere 
indiquee ci-dessus pour la Moyenne Egypte. Elle est limitee a 1'Est par le canal 
de Suez, a 1' Quest par le desert. 

4 Nubie. Pour la Nubie 1'ordre sera inverse, la situation politique de ce pays ne 
permettant pas de commencer les travaux au Sud de Wadi Haifa. Le premier vol- 
ume comprendra done 1'lle de Phile et le travail se fera en remontant le cours du Nil. 

5 Les Oasis. Cette province comprend la vaste region comprise entre la fron- 
tiere de la Tripolitaine et la Mer mediterranee au Nord, les sables du desert a 1'Est 
et a 1'Ouest. Au Sud sa frontiere depend des conditions politiques du Soudan. II 
semble done rationnel de commencer les travaux par le Nord, c'est-a-dire par 1'Oasis 
de Siwah ou d'Ammon. 

6 Les cotes de la Mer rouge. Cette serie comprendra tout le littoral de la mer, 
depuis Suez jusqu'a Souakin et au-dela. Elle renfermera egalement les yallees qui 
partant du desert viennent deboucher sur la cote. 


7 L'Egypte asiatique comprenant tous les territoires egyptiens situees a PEst du 
canal de Suez, le Sinai et le desert voisin de la frontiere de Turquie. Cette serie 
aura pour point de depart les pays situes aux environs de Peluse, en face de Port 

Le desert situe a droite et a gauche de la vallee du Nil sera decrit dans la 5 e et la 
6 e serie avec les oasis et les cotes de la Mer rouge. 

Ainsi trace dans ses grandes lignes le travail est parfaitement defini, il peut etre 
commence en sept points differents a la fois, cliaque region presentant ses avantages 
et ses defauts. Ainsi le releve de la Nubie et de la Haute Egypte ne peut etre fait 
par des Europeens que pendant la saison froide, tandis que le climat de la Basse et 
de la Moyenne Egypte permet de travailler en toute saison. 

L'une des grandes difficultes que nous rencontrons dans 1'accomplissement de ce 
travail est le defaut de cartes figurant avec exactitude les montagnes qui bordent la 
vallee du Nil. Car, la majeure partie des antiquites se trouvant en dehors de la 
vallee, il est indispensable de completer les cartes actuelles pour y pouvoir marquer 
la position des sites antiques. 

Le u Catalogue des monuments et inscriptions de 1'Egypte antique" comprendra 
la publication in extenso de tous les monuments connus jusqu'a ce jour. Les pub- 
^ications anterieures seront revisees et corrigees s'il y a lieu. Elles seront reproduites 
sous le nom de leur auteur, chacun de nos collaborateurs signera ses travaux ou 
indiquera dans une notice sommaire les corrections qu'il a cru devoir faire subir aux 
textes deja publics. 

Palais de G-izeh (Caire), le 15 juin 1893. 

Le Directeur General des Antiquites de 1'Egypte 

PETRIE'S HISTORY OF EGYPT- Messrs. Methuen will bring out soon 
Prof. Petrie's " History of Egypt, from the Earliest Times to the 
Hyksos." It is the first instalment of a history of Egypt in six 
volumes, intended both for students and for general reading and ref- 
erence. In the earlier periods every trace of the various kings will 
be noticed, and all historical questions will be fully discussed. The 
special features will be that the illustrations will be largely photo- 
graphic, or from facsimile drawings, and, so far as practicable, of new 
material not yet published ; that references will be given to the source 
of each statement and monument, thus affording a key to the litera- 
ture of the subject ; and that lists are supplied of all the known monu- 
ments of each king. The second volume will cover the eighteenth to 
the twentieth dynasty; the third the twenty-first to the thirtieth 
dynasty ; the fourth will be devoted to the Ptolemaic rule ; the fifth 
to Roman rule ; and the sixth to Mohammedan rule. This last will 
be written by Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole. Athenaeum, March 24, 1894. 

EGYPTIAN GARDENS. Prof. Charles Joret, of Aix, read a paper at a 
meeting of the Acad. des Inscriptions (Oct. 27) on Egyptian Gardens. 
As early as the xvin dynasty, the texts and monuments show that 
the gardens included orchards with water basins for watering and 


with abundance of fruit trees. Under the Ptolemies the gardens were 
enriched with a large number of decorative plants and flowers, here- 
tofore unknown in Egypt, which transformed them into elaborate 
flower gardens. Rev. Arch., 1894, I, p. 112. 

some remarks in the Babylonian and Oriental Record on the mixture 
of the white and negro races in the earliest period of Egyptian history 
as shown by Mr. Petrie's excavations in the necropolis of Medun (III 
Dyn.). The burials show the existence of two races, an aboriginal 
and a colonist population, the one gradually erasing or modifying the 
former. The burials in a crouching attitude, as attested by the skele- 
tons in the Museum of the College of Surgeons (London), are distinctly 
those of a negro population, while the mummied bodies are of a 
Europo- Asian type. The examination of these remains by Dr. Gaston 
reveals, however, another important feature namely, that the two 
races must have lived together for some time and that intermarriage 
was beginning to affect the higher type. This is particularly notice- 
able in the case of the statue of Ra-hotep, in the Museum of Gizeh, 
where we have many traces of the infiltration of the negro element 
in this official, who had risen from the ranks and married a woman 
of the pure dynastic Egyptian type. Upon ethnologic grounds, the 
entrance of the dynastic white Egyptian into the Nile Valley must 
considerably antedate the pyramid age. 

Mr. Boscawen finds reason to believe that the south of Arabia is the 
point of convergence of ancient culture, and that its trading commu- 
nities are the source of the dynastic Egyptian civilization and the 
Babylonian culture of Eridu the earliest Babylonian city. The 
parallels between these two civilizations are appearing ever more 
marked. The circumstances of the foundation, by emigrants, of Eridu 
in Babylonia, and This, or Abydos, in Egypt, in the midst of an abo- 
riginal population of lower civilization, are very similar. If, then, 
Arabia is the source of both emigrations, it becomes extremely impor- 
tant to carry on the work begun by Doughty, Euting and Glaser. 

INSPECTORS OF MONUMENTS. It was announced at a meeting of 
the Society for the Preservation of the Monuments of Ancient Egypt, 
on February 23, that M. de Morgan had informed them through the 
Foreign Office that two official Inspectors of Monuments had been 
appointed, one a Frenchman, M. Foucard, the other a native of Egypt, 
Ahmed Effendi Najib, each of whom was to have alternate charge of 
Lower and Upper Egypt. Provision was also made for twelve sub- 
inspectors. London Times, Feb. 24. 




THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. In the December number of the New 
Revieiv, there is an article by M. Marsham Adams entitled " The Mys- 
tery of Ancient Egypt," in which he puts forth the theory that the 
Great Pyramid, more particularly in its internal arrangements, sym- 
bolises the doctrines contained in the " Book of the Dead," in the 
order in which those doctrines are presented in the Turin papyrus. In 
the February number of the Babylonian and Oriental Record, Mr. A. C. 
Bryant shows the fallacy of such a theory for several reasons. (1) The 
Book of the Dead is not an organic whole ; there was no recognized 
order or fixed number of chapters. (2) The arrangement in the Turin 
papyrus is quite late. One of Mr. Bryant's arguments, however, is 
quite fallacious. For reasons too long to recapitulate, he says that the 
identification of the deceased with Osiris forms the key-note of the 
entire " Book of the Dead," and that this doctrine cannot be supposed 
to have existed before c. 3566 B. c. The Book of the Dead cannot, 
therefore, have existed in any form before that date, which is consid- 
erably later than the date of the Great Pyramid. Now, it is evident 
that Mr. Bryant is not aware of the fact that certain parts of the Book 
of the Dead date as far back as the third and fourth dynasties : and it 
so happens that in the next item of this number of the JOURNAL, some 
of the proofs of this fact, reported by Mr. Le Page Renouf, are referred 
to. Certainly one thing is clear, the Book of the Dead was not used 
as a ritual, but such a ritual is to be found in monuments later than 
the fifth dynasty. 

read at a meeting of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, a translation of 
a very early chapter of the Book of the Dead chap. LXIV. A rubric 
tells us, " This chapter was discovered at Hermopolis, upon a slab of 
alabaster inscribed in blue, at the time of King Menkara, by the royal 
prince Hartalaf, when he was journeying for the purpose of inspecting 
the temples, and he carried off the slab in the royal chariot when he 
saw what was on it." Menkara is a king of the fourth dynasty. The 
rubric of another copy tells : " This chapter was discovered in a 
plinth of the god of the Hennu-bark, by a master builder of the wall 
in the time of King Septa, the victorious." No other composition 
claims a remoter antiquity. 

The rubrics show the work to be very remarkable. In the Turin 
papyrus it is headed, " Chapter of going out by day, sole chapter." 
Another papyrus heads it, " Knowledge of going out by day in a 
single chapter," indicating that this contains the complete knowledge 
required by the spirit at the day of resurrection. This is confirmed 
by the statements of later texts, and by a note at the conclusion, which 


runs, " To be said on coming forth by day, that one may not be kept 
back on the path of the Tuat (or Hades), whether on entering or on 
coming forth ; for taking all the forms which one desireth and the 
soul of the person die not a second time. If then, this chapter be 
known the person is made triumphant upon earth (and in the Nether- 
world), and he performeth all things which are done by the living." 
The value of such a record as this in our enquiries with the history 
of religious thought cannot but be great. 

Mr. Renouf thus translates the first passages, and it may be taken 
as a sample of the whole : " I am yesterday, to-day and to-morrow, 
for I am born again and again; mine is the unseen force which 
createth the gods and giveth food to those in the Tuat at the West of 
heaven. I am the Eastern rudder, the Lord of two faces who seeth 
by his own light, the Lord of resurrection who cometh forth from the 
dark and whose birth is from the house of death." 

Mr. Renouf here remarks, "In reading this and almost every other 
chapter of The Book of the Dead, it is absolutely necessary to bear in 
mind that different divine names do not imply different personalities. 
A name expresses but one attribute of a person or thing, and one 
person having several attributes may have several names. It is not 
implied in this chapter that the Sun is the Nile or Inundation ; but 
that the same invisible force which is manifested in the solar phe- 
nomena is that which produces the Inundation. But He has many 
other names and titles, e. g., One whose force is concealed or unseen. It 
is a theological term, frequent at all periods of the Egyptian religion, 
and implies that the Deity is not to be confounded with its external 
manifestation. The sun that we see hides as truly as it reveals the 
sun-god, who, as this chapter shows, has other manifestations." 

The following sentence is remarkable : " Let thy paths be made 
pleasant for me ; let thy ways be made wide for me to traverse the 
earth and the expanse of heaven. Shine upon me, gracious power, 
as I draw nigh to the Divine words which my ears shall hear in Tuat; 
let no pollution of my mother be upon me ; deliver me, protect me 
from him-iwho closeth his eyes at twilight and bringeth to an end in 
darkness." Biblia, April, 1894. 

MR. PLOVER'S WORK ON NORTH ETBAI. Mr. Floyer has published a 
book entitled : Etude sur le Nord-Etbai entre le Nil et la Mer Rouge. In 
1891 a scientific expedition under the command of Mr. Floyer was 
sent by the late Khedive to explore and survey the desert between the 
Red Sea and that part of the Nile which flows between Esneh and 
Assuan. The result is a report which takes the form of an elaborate 
work on the region that was surveyed. Mr. Floyer begins with the 


geography of the district and an account of the course taken by the 
expedition. Then come chapters on the antiquities of the country r 
on the Phoenicians whom Mr. Floyer believes to have once settled 
there, on its botany, mineralogy, and geology, on the ancient com- 
merce of the Red Sea, on the astronomical determination of certain 
points in the valley of the Nile, and on the working of the Nubian 
gold-mines in the ninth century. The whole district is, indeed, full 
of the remains of the mines of gold and other metals worked by the 
Pharaohs, the Ptolemies, and their successors, as well as of the settle- 
ments in which the miners and their overseers lived. Mr. Floyer 
explored some of the ancient mines, and his description of them is not 
the least interesting part of his book. Mr. Floyer is a strong advocate 
of the effects of drifting sand in producing the present configuration 
of the desert, and he is inclined to regard the introduction of the camel 
into it by the Arabs as a leading cause of its existing treeless and 
waterless condition. The camel is the enemy of woods and forests, 
which are ruthlessly destroyed for its sake, and the disappearance of 
trees brought with it the disappearance of water also. In two or three 
places, however, Mr. Floyer still found basins of pure water. The 
book is enriched with excellent maps and photographs. Acad., Oct. 7. 

AN EGYPTIAN WILL OF 189 A. D. Prof. Mommsenread a paper before 
the Berlin Academy of Sciences on an Egyptian will of the year 189 
A. D., found in the Fayum and now in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin. 
It is a Greek translation of a Latin original. The testator is Caius 
Longinus Castor, Pates Aoyyu/os Kaoroop, and the translator Caius 
Lucius Geminianus, whose office is No/u/cos 'PW/ACUKOS. The place 
where it is dated is Karanis, in the Arsinoite nome, and it was opened 
in Arsinoe. The date is November 17, 189. The will was opened 
Feb. 21, 194. The text is interesting for legal terminology, and Prof. 
Mommsen's examination and commentary are, of course, extremely 
thorough. Sitzungsb. d. k. pr. Akad. d. Wissenschaften, Jan. 19, 1894. 

EGYPTIAN PAPYRI IN GENEVA. A collection of Egyptian papyri, 
recently purchased by subscription for the Geneva Public Library, is 
being examined by M. Jules Nicole. He has discovered fragments of 
the Iliad and the Odyssey, the former comprising portions of Books 
XI and XII, presenting great variations from the received text. 
There is also a passage of Euripides' " Orestes," a thousand years 
older than any MS. hitherto known. M. Nicole has likewise found a 
didactic elegy on the stars, an idyll on Jupiter and Leda, and histori- 
cal and scientific compositions. In Christian literature there are litur- 
gical passages, portions of the Bible with or without commentary, and 
later documents on Eastern Church History. There is also a letter 


from a bishop or a superior of a monastery to the postal authorities, 
which asks for horses to be provided for three months for the use of 
the monks in travelling, " for they are Orthodox." Acad., Oct. 14. 

GIFT TO THE UNITED STATES. Last year the Khedive presented to 
several European nations selections of the objects found at Thebes the 
year before, in the great collection of sarcophagi of the High Priests 
of Ammon. Lately the Khedive has presented a collection of so- 
called "duplicates" belonging to this collection, to the United States, 
through the American Diplomatic Agent and Consul-General. Five 
cases filled with antiquities have been dispatched to the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington. The features of this gift collection are 
six or seven elaborately inscribed sarcophagi of wood, and a box 
three feet square by seven feet in length, which contained the mummy 
of the "great lady of Ashron, the musician with the hand for Maut," 
and the great singer of the retinue of Ammon Ra, king of the gods. 
The head of this coffin bears a representation of a solar disk in the 
arms of the goddess of heaven. A smaller or inner coffin portrays 
the deceased in the presence of Osiris, and shows a figure of a goddess 
with a double head, one a ram and the other a crocodile, and the 
great singer drinking of the water of life poured from a resplendent 
vessel by a goddess. A representation of the pillars of heaven rounds 
out the tableau. There is also the sarcophagus of another singer, 
Ammon Ra. The coffin of Amenhotep is interesting because he was 
not only a priest, but a famous scribe. Least important of the other 
burial cases is that of Paamen. Fully a hundred sepulchral articles 
of ornament or worship complete this gift. The Collector, New York, 
Nov. 1. 

MISS EDWARDS' COLLECTIONS. Prof. Flinders Petrie has for some 
time past been engaged in classifying and arranging his own and the 
late Miss Edwards' collections of Egyptian artistic objects at the Uni- 
versity College, Gower street. The authorities have assigned to Prof. 
Petrie a long gallery at the top of the south wing of the building, 
which is excellently adapted for exhibition purposes. The roof being 
low, the cases are all well lighted, and the general effect of the gallery 
avoids the sensation of funeral vaults experienced in so many mu- 
seums. A copious and well-selected collection of works on Egyptology 
will be placed in the gallery itself for consultation by students. This 
is an arrangement that should prevail in all museums, and it is to be 
hoped that Prof. Petrie's example may be followed elsewhere. Athen., 
Oct. 7. 

de Rouge. This is a valuable account of what is known up to the 


present moment of the ancient geography of Lower Egypt. It has 
all the lucidity and orderly arrangement that we are accustomed to 
meet with in French scientific works. The author, a son of the famous 
French Egyptologue, has made full use of the discoveries of Prof. 
Flinders Petrie and the Egypt Exploration Fund, and he has pub- 
lished for the first time the geographical names of the Delta given in 
a Coptic ecclesiastical MS. now preserved in Oxford. Where his ma- 
terials are wanting he maintains a prudent silence; Avaris, for 
instance, the Hyksos capital, is not even mentioned in his pages. 
The book is indispensable to all who are interested in ancient Egyp- 
tian geography, and we hope that the author will follow it up with a 
similar work on the geography of Upper Egypt. Acad., Oct. 7. 

GRAFFITI OF HAT-NUB. About thirty copies of the Graffiti of Hat- 
Nub, printed last year by Mr. Fraser for private distribution, have 
now been placed for sale in the hands of Messrs. Luzac of Great Rus- 
sell street. These graffiti, discovered in 1891, were very carefully 
copied by Messrs. Blackden and Fraser. They are of great historical 
and palaeographical importance, ranging from the Vlth to the Xllth 
Dynasty. Those of the Middle Kingdom are lengthy, and furnish 
curious information about the administration of the nomes and the 
state of the country in the time of the Xlth Dynasty. They are gen- 
erally dated in the reigns of the nomarchs, and it is equally remark- 
able that an oath is sworn " by the life " of the nomarch Nehera 
instead of the king. By the aid of these graffiti Mr. Newberry has 
been enabled to reconstruct the genealogy and succession of most of 
the nomarchs whose tombs are at El Bersheh, as will be seen in the 
next Memoir of the Archffiological Survey, conducted under the aus- 
pices of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Academy, March 3. 

PROF. SAYCE'S LETTERS. We select the following from Prof. Sayce's 
letters on his annual Egyptian trip : 

ABU-SIMBEL, Jan. 20, 1894. 

I hurried up the Nile this winter rapidly so that the only notewor- 
thy event of my voyage from Cairo to Assuan was the discovery of 
early quotations from the Gospels in an ancient rock-church about a 
mile and a half to the north of the ruins of Antinoopolis. The church 
is in the quarries above a ruined Coptic monastery, and the quota- 
tions are from the beginnings of the Gospels of Matthew, Luke and 
John. The forms of the letters are of the fourth or fifth century. 

While at Assuan, I visited a colossal Osiride figure in the granite 
quarries about a mile and a half to the north of Shellal, which was 
discovered by Major Cunningham, and last year was cleared of sand 
by M. de Morgan. It lies on its back, at a little distance south of a 


stele, in which Amenophis III describes the execution of a " great 
image " of himself In the neighborhood both of the stele and of the 
colossus are huge unfinished sarcophagi, of which I counted eight, of 
the same size and form as the sarcophagi of the sacred bulls at Sak- 
karah. Their unfinished state shows that the death of Amenophis 
III interrupted the work of completing them ; and we may, therefore, 
infer that during the reign of his successor, the "heretic-king " Khu- 
n-Aten, no more Apis- bulls were embalmed. 

At Kalabsheh we spent two days, and discovered three Greek poems. 
The longest of these, in thirty-four lines, is specially interesting, as it 
mentions an otherwise unknown deity, called Breith (or, as Prof. 
Mahaffy would read the name, Sebreith), whom it identifies with 
Mandoulis, the native god of Kalabsheh. The lines in which the 
name occurs are the following : 

KCU vu cr <re/?t <Spcu 8' a/xa Trucrat 
KO.I /caAeoucn ere Bpei0 /cai Mav8ouA.iv 
acrrpa Bttav ?v (rrj/Ma KOLT ovpavov avreXXovra. 

The two gods are apparently identified with the constellation of Kas- 
tor and Pollux, and it would seem that an oracle of Mandoulis (Ma- 
ruli in the hieroglyphs) was established in the temple. 

I made a list of all the Greek inscriptions at present visible on the 
walls of the temple of Meroe ; they amount in all to ninety-six. 

At Dendtir I collated the published hieroglyphic texts with the 
originals, and found that the god whose name has been read Ar-hem- 
snefer should really be Ar-hon-snofer ; and at Gerf Hossen I discov- 
ered some hieroglyphic graffiti on a boulder of rock at a little distance 
south of the temple. At Dakkeh and Kubban we spent some time, 
and I busied myself in copying the texts in the portion of the Temple 
of Dakkeh erected by the Ethiopian king, Arq-Amon. Mr. Somers 
Clarke's examination of the structure proved that it had been finished 
before the buildings of Ptolemy Euergetes II were added to it ; he 
fixes the date of Arq-Amon, and shows that he may easily have been 
the Eugamenes of Diodoros (iii. 6), who was a later contemporary of 
Ptolemy Philadelphos. As Arq-Amon is represented in one place 
offering homage to the deified " Pharaoh " of Senem or Bijeh, it is 
clear that the supremacy of the Ptolemy was still recognized by the 
Ethiopian prince as far south at all events as the First Cataract. In 
the latter part of the reign of Ptolemy Philopator, however, the Ethi- 
opian kings not only made themselves independent, but even claimed 
dominion over Upper Egypt, and at Debot Azkhal-Amon, a successor 
of Arq-Amon, appears as an independent monarch. The temple built 


by Askhal-Amon at Debot is a close imitation of that of Arq-Amon at 
Dakkeh ; and, as at Dakkeh, it was added to by Euergetes II. 

MEHENDI, Feb. 5, 1894. 

After leaving Abu-Simbel, we spent a day in the temple of Hor-m- 
hib or Armais at Gebel Addeh ; and on the cliff a little to the south 
of it I discovered a graffito, which referred to the temple as being in 
"the country of Bak." In Bak I would see the classical Aboccis, 
rather than in Abshek, with which it is usually identified. The in- 
scriptions I have copied, moreover, go to show that Amon-heri, and 
not Abshek, was the name of the city built by Ramses II at Abu- 

Faras, south of Mashakit, but on the opposite bank, stands on the 
site of a Roman town. The remains of a Coptic church still exist there ; 
and in the walls of its old Saracenic fortress I found stones sculptured 
with hieroglyphs, as well as portions of the uraeus-frieze of an Egyp- 
tian temple. At some distance from the river are three tombs of an 
early period excavated in a low sandstone hill ; the central one has 
been turned into a Coptic church, and the walls are covered with 
arly Coptic inscriptions. Prof. Mahaffy and myself spent a couple 
of days in copying them. One of them is dated " the 8th day of Kho- 
iak, the 10th (year) of the Indiction of Diocletian." Most of them 
are written in red paint, and have the form of pagan proskynemata. 

After leaving Faras we visited the ruined temple of Serra, which 
apt. Lyons has been excavating. I copied all the inscriptions that 
are visible, including the cartouches of the Cushite countries conquered 
by Ramses II, by whom the temple was built. On the north side 
of the entrance is a row of cartouches of the Asiatic countries he 
claims to have subdued. One of the texts states that the place was 
called User-Ma-Ra-Ser-Shefi. 

In the temple of Thothmes III at Wadi Helfa we found several 
Karian graffiti and a few Greek ones. The Greek texts, however, be- 
long to the Ptolemaic age, with the exception of one half-obliterated 
inscription which I discovered the day before our departure from 
Wadi Helfa, and which is proved, by the forms of the letters, to go 
back to the age of the famous inscriptions of Abu-Simbel. One of 
the Karian graffiti is of considerable length, and the number of them 
suggests that at one time a body of Karian mercenaries was encamped 
on the spot. The walls and columns of the forecourt of the temple 
also contain numerous proskynemata of a much earlier epoch. One of 
them is dated in the sixth year of Si-Ptah, the last king of the XVIIIth 
Dynasty ; in another, dated in the third year of the same king, the 
writer, Hora, calls himself "the son of the deceased Kam," of the 


harem of the palace of Seti II."; while the author of a third is des- 
cribed as an ambassador of Si-Ptah to Khal or Northern Syria and 

While we were at WADI HELFA we made an excursion to the great 
Egyptian fortress of Matuga q. v., about three miles to the south of 
Abusir. On an island, a little to the south, are the ruins of a Coptic 
church called Darbe. On the north side of the fortress is the site of 
an old city ; and below it, close to the river, are brick tombs, which 
do not seem to have been disturbed. 

After leaving Wadi Helfa on our downward voyage, we first visited 
three ruined Coptic churches on the western bank, without, however, 
finding anything to reward us. Then we explored a ruined town 
opposite SERRA. Here we found five rock-tombs on the south, the 
remains of an ancient quay, walls of fortification of the Roman age, 
and three Coptic churches one in the town and two outside it, one of 
the latter being to the south and the other to the north of the walls. 
Close to the last are quarries of the Egyptian period. 

Opposite Faras is another Coptic ruin, which again yielded nothing 
to our archa3ological curiosity ; but we were more fortunate at ERMEN- 
NAH (on the eastern bank), where I had noticed a tomb in the rock 
when we came up the river. On the rocks behind the village I found 
the name of Hor-m-hib. The tomb turned out to be of the same 
character as those of Wadi Helfa ; but just below it were two niches 
for figures cut in the rock, with steps leading to them. At a little 
distance to the north of this, and at an angle of the cliff, I discovered 
a large and well-preserved stele, dedicated to Horus of Ma-nefer by a 
" governor of Nubia," who lived in the time of the XlXth Dynasty. 

On the western bank, opposite Ermennah, is the site of what must 
have been a very large town. While wandering over it, I picked up 
a fine diorite axe. Capt. Lyons has found a similar one at Matuga. 

We spent a day and a half at QUASR IBR!M. Above the text of 
Seti II. the Pharaoh is represented in the act of slaying an enemy, 
while his empty chariot is being borne away from him by a couple of 
horses. On the right hand side of the inscription Amen-m-apt, " the 
royal son of Kush," offers a song of praise to his victorious lord. 

Close to the stele Prof. Mahaffy found a Karian graffito, and there 
are a good many Coptic inscriptions scratched on the rocks. The 
summit of the hill to the east of the fortress is covered with brick 
tombs, and the remains of an old town lie on the northern slope of 
the mountain on which it stands. At the northwestern corner of 
the mountain I found a somewhat enigmatical inscription in Greek 




After Qasr Ibrim our next visit was to the interesting speos of 
Thothmes III, in the district of Dugenosra, to the south of the village 
Ellesiyeh. Lepsius has published the inscriptions belonging to it. 
There is a tomb near it, with the cow of Hathor sculptured on either 
side of the entrance. The old Roman fortress I have described in 
my last letter lies on the opposite side of the Nile, a little to the 
north of the Ellesiyeh ; we visited it again on our way down, and 
found that a town of considerable size had once existed to the south of 
it. We picked up Roman pottery and blue porcelain on its site. 

Next we passed a morning at DIRR. To the south of the speos of 
Ramses II, I came across a large tomb, without inscriptions, however, 
and to the north of the speos a series of monuments, the first of 
which a stele of Amen-m-hib is already known. North of this 
there are a good many hieroglyphic and hieratic graffiti on the cliffs, 
as well as two curious monuments which deserve a special description. 
One of these is a stele, the centre of which is occupied by two sitting 
animals, which look like pug-dogs set face to face : on either side is a 
hieroglyphic inscription, from which we learn that the author's name 
was Anup-a. The other monument is the most northerly of those we 
met with. On a rock is a long and well-preserved hieratic text, which 
records the name and titles of a certain " superintendent of the treas- 
ury." Immediately in front of this is a niche, in which an image 
once stood. The niche is now filled with bowls and offerings of wheat 
or durra, which I was told were given- to " the Sheikh Isu," who 
expected that I also should not quit the spot without a suitable 
" bakshish." It is evident, therefore, that when paganism was super- 
seded by Christianity the old pagan image became an image of Christ, 
and that upon the triumph of Islam, though the image was destroyed, 
the ancient cult still continued to survive. It is an instructive instance 
of the continuity of religious practices, if not beliefs, in the valley of 
the Nile. 

This afternoon we explored the ruins of the fortified Coptic city of 
MEHENDI. In the centre of it is a Coptic church, which Lepsius (in 
his Brief e) has mistaken for the residence of a Roman governor. The 
foundations of the southern gate are of Roman construction, but some 
of the stones have been taken from an Egyptian temple, which the 
sculptures upon them show to have been of a good period. Possibly 
they belonged to the old temple of Thoth at Penebs, the Hiera Syka- 
minos of the Greeks, since the temple of Maharraqa, which now exists 
on the site, is of late Roman workmanship. Maharraqa is only two 
miles to the north of Mehendi. On the rocky cliff at the south-eastern 
corner of the latter place I found some drawings, of Christian origin 


but spirited design. Among them are the dove with an olive branch 
in its mouth, the Good Shepherd, and a large crux ansata, the ancient 
Egyptian symbol of life, employed in place of a cross. A. H. SAYCE, 
in Academy, Feb. 24. 

the ruins of Abusir, the mound nearest to the pyramid of Sahu-ra, 
King of the fifth dynasty, is marked as Pyramid No. XIX. But M. 
de Morgan, during his recent excavations at Sakkarah, decided that, 
owing to its rectangular form and its central depression, it could not 
be the remains of a pyramid. An attempt to solve the problem led 
at once to the discovery of some square piers, which proved this 
monument to be an immense mastaba. It was found to be the tomb 
of one Ptah-Shepse's, who lived under King Sahu-ra of the fifth 
dynasty. The importance of this discovery is so unusual that a full 
description will be given, taken from M. de Morgan's paper in the 
Revue Archeologique for Jan.-Feb., 1894. 

The mastaba of Ptah-Shepses (fig. 2) measures 45 m. in length 
by about 25 m. in width, and is composed of seven halls, one of which 
is a large court, 24 m. long by 19 m. wide, encircled by a colonnade 
of twenty heavy square piers. This court is rude in style, while all 
the other chambers, A, B, C, D, E, F, far smaller in size, are highly 
decorated. The court not having been fully excavated, it is not known 
whether it was entirely covered, or only the space between the line of 
piers and the E. W. and S. walls. There may have been other piers 
in the centre : otherwise the span of 11 m. is too great for the stone 
architraves which alone were used in monuments of the Early Em- 
pire. Like all works of this period, this tomb was constructed of two 
kinds of stone. The mass of masonry was of a local, greenish-gray, 
friable calcareous stone : the facings and all the more careful masonry 
was of Tourah stone, a white calcareous formation, compact and 
unstratified, which took a good polish, was not hard to carve, and was 
far more resistant. In fig. 1 the single lines represent the Tourah 
stone, the crossed lines the local stone, the dotted lines where there 
remain but traces of the construction. 

Two doors led into the great court. One (P 2 ) on the south side led 
into a street running E-W, which probably served for a large number 
of tombs ; the other (PJ ended in a cul-de-sac. Both are well-nigh 
destroyed. On each of the columns of the south door was a repre- 
sentation of the defunct and his titles. He was a very high function- 
ary, " chief of all the works of the King," i. e., Minister of Public 
Works. The architraves that still lie near the columns bear the com- 
plete titles of the defunct. 






Passing southward across the court we came to a portico, 6.60 m, 
wide by 2.40 m. deep, pierced in the wall, now almost destroyed. 
This portico was placed before the entrance to the tomb chambers. 
The wall of the court east of the portico l bears bas-reliefs for a width 
of 1.57 m. The rest of the wall as far as the N. W. corner has inscrip- 
tions and representations. Within the portico, to the right of the 
door, is the image of Ptah-Shepses, carried by his servants on a primi- 
tive palanquin. To the left of the door are interesting scenes of the 
transportation of colossal statues of the defunct to his tomb. They 
are placed on a wooden sled, whose front end is raised ; sixteen men r 
two by two, pull the cable, while one man leaning in front of the sled 
pours water (PL 1, Rev. Arch.). Such representations are familiar in 
later monuments. This has a special interest from its early date, and 
the fact that important fragments of the colossal statues here repre- 
sented have been f9und. 

Passing through door _pl, which was single, we enter hall A, 5.15 m. 
long by 3.60 m. wide. This hall contains at its W. end a triple naos r 
preceded by a stage and three small staircases (e 15 e 2 , e 3 ), placed oppo- 
site niches. They were formerly occupied by statues (s 15 s 2 , s s ) of 
which no trace has been found, and were closed by a double door, 
whose hinges still remain. The walls of hall A are completely covered 
with reliefs representing the details of private life : such as the care 
of domestic animals, oxen, goats, gazelles, antelopes, poultry (ducks, 
geese, pigeons) ; agricultural scenes, artisans at work ; cabinet work, 
sculpture, engraving, pottery, metal founding, etc. Then come rows 
of servants, the produce of the defunct's property grains, fruits, 

A double door cut in a brick wall (3.30 m.) covered with bas-reliefs 
representing Ptah-Sheps6s and his servants, leads from hall A to hall 
B. This hall, larger than the preceding (4.40 m. long, 6.35 m. wide), 
is not in so good preservation, but it has a capital interest for the his- 
tory of Egyptian architecture. The ceiling was originally sustained 
by two lotiform columns, placed, curiously enough, not along the 
axis of the hall, but far nearer the door. In these lotiform columns 
the capitals are formed of a bunch of six lotus flowers half-opened, 
between each of which is a much smaller lotus. These are all bound 
together at their base by five bands, which form the annuli. To each 
of the lotus flowers corresponds a heavy stem ; immediately under 
the annuli are the small short stems of the intermediate flowers, filling 
in the space between the main stems. The shaft has a maximum 
diameter of .64 m. The section of its six lobes is not circular, but 

1 M. de Morgan uses the term " peristyle " incorrectly in describing this portico. 





elliptical. The material is Tourah stone, which was originally bril- 
liantly painted ; the shaft a sky blue ; the pedestal brown ; the second- 
ary stems alternately yellow and brown ; the five annuli, green, red, 
blue, red and green ; the base of the flowers blue, rising from yellow 
line. Between the large petals, painted blue with yellow lines, are 
other smaller petals of light green, while the ground of the flower was 
red. In the small flowers the large petals and the base are green, the 
base line yellow and the secondary petals red and brown. 

Representations of aedicula, decorated with lotiform columns, are 
found in tombs of the vi dynasty (mastaba of Ti and of Mera), but 
no architectural example pf the time of the Ancient Empire had 
hitherto been found. M. de Morgan says that the invention of this 
form had been ascribed to the New Empire, but a considerable number 
of such columns have been found in tombs of the xi, xn and xm 
dynasties. But in any case the lotiform columns of the mastaba of 
Ptah-Shepss are far the earliest known and of great historic interest. 
Hall B originally contained three statues. From the few remaining 
fragments, they would appear to have been standing statues, like those 
reproduced in the reliefs. The walls are covered with painted reliefs 
(PL n, Rev. Arch.}. On the S. wall is a fleet of row-boats with raised 
poop and prow, where the boatswain stands in a central cabin giving 
his orders, and two men ply long oars at the stern. Donkeys, goats 
and cows are attached on deck. At the entrance to the cabin is Ptah- 
Shepse"s ; his wife is further aft. The scenes are extremely realistic 
and rail of minute details. 

The door p, from hall A, leads into the secondary chambers C, D, 
E, F, which are of slight interest, owing to their ruined conditions. 
Apparently other secondary rooms, now destroyed, existed to the 

West of the principal mastaba, opening into the cul-de-sac, is another 
tomb, also with the name of Ptah-Shepses, perhaps a son. It is 
almost entirely destroyed, and its halls, a, ft and y, are without reliefs. 
One further consequence of this discovery is to prove beyond a 
doubt that the pyramid adjoining this tomb is really that of Sahu-ra, 
as had been already conjectured. 

barely a year, the museum is already well filled. Objects have been 
sent to it from Gizeh, and numerous presents many of them of great 
value have been made to it by the inhabitants of Alexandria. The 
curator, Dr. Botti, has already arranged the collection, labelled the 
objects contained in it, and published a Catalogue under the title of 
" Notice des Monuments exposes au Musee Greco-Romain d'Alexan- 


drie." This Catalogue is divided into two parts, the first containing" 
a general description of the objects exhibited, while the second is a 
catalogue raisonne, intended for scholars. The inscriptions published 
and annotated in the second part give the book the character and 
value of an independent archaeological work. So also does the 
exhaustive list of the marks on the handles of Greek amphorse dis- 
covered at Alexandria, of which there is a very large number in the 
museum. The list shows that most of the pottery used at Alexandria 
was imported from Rhodes, though there are a few specimens from 
Knidos, as well as some examples of native Alexandrine manufacture. 

One of the most interesting portions of the collection is a series of 
sepulchral vases discovered in 1886, near the ancient Kanopic Gate, 
many of which found their way to New York. The vases are inscribed 
with graffiti, partly in capitals, partly in cursive, from which we learn 
that they contained the ashes of various Greek mercenaries in the 
service of Ptolemy iv. and his successors. Among them we find Cre- 
tans, Thracians, Acarnanians, and Arcadians. [Described in this 
JOURNAL, Vol. I, by Prof. A. C. Merriam.] 

I may also mention a fragmentary Greek inscription found at Men- 
shiyeh, the ancient Ptolemais, in which reference is made to a "curator 
of Greek libraries" (eTra-poTros fiv \_sic] P\LoOr)K(av eAA^vtKajv) in the reign 
of Hadrian, as well as certain statues from the Birket el Qarun in the 
Fayyum, which exhibit a curious combination of Greek art with the 
native art of the so-called Saitic school. One of them is dedicated to 
u the great God Soknopaios," explained by Dr. Krebs as the represent- 
ative of the Egyptian Sobk-nob-aa, " Sebek lord of the island " ; while 
another, which is dated in the month Tybi of the fourth year, was 
offered on behalf of Ergeus." Dr. Botti suggests that this Ergeus, of 
whom we have no other record, may have been a local ruler of the 
Fayyum in the later Greek or earlier Roman period. 

A study of the Catalogue brings one fact very clearly to light. The 
number of inscribed monuments found within the walls of Alexandria 
itself, and consequently of service in settling the ancient topography 
of the city, is very small indeed. That such monuments exist under- 
ground is indubitable, and excavation alone is needed to discover 
them. Some of the leading citizens have already started a fund for 
the purpose; the amount raised in this way, however, is wholly inade- 
quate for clearing away the masses of debris which cover the remains 
of the ancient Alexandria. Unfortunately, the work must be under- 
taken now or never : the modern city is rapidly advancing eastward, 
and the district in which the principal buildings of ancient Alexandria 
once stood will soon be covered with streets of houses underneath 


which it will be impossible to dig. The importance of such excava- 
tions may be gathered from the fact that we do not at present know 
the precise situation of the ancient Museum ; even the site of the Tomb 
of Alexander is uncertain. If once the sites were ascertained, there 
would be a chance of discovering the relics of the libraries at all 
events of that of the Museum which were the chief glory of the 
Alexandria of the past. Could not the Egypt Exploration Fund find 
some way in which to unite its forces with those of the Archaeological 
Society of Alexandria ? A. H. SAYCE, in Academy, Dec. 2. 

CAIRO. GHIZEH MUSEUM. The latest important acquisition of the 
Ghizeh Museum is, from an artistic point of view, one of the most 
valuable objects yet discovered in the Nile Valley. It consists of an 
ebony door, and part of another, found by M. Naville at Dayr-el- 
Bahari. On one side are represented, in low relief, bands of Tats and 
symbolical knots, and beneath a dado of simple geometrical pattern. 
The reverse contains two registers of sculpture, in low relief, of 
Thothmes II. worshipping Ammon Ra, with a dado below. Remark- 
able historical interest pertains to these bas-reliefs, as the figure of 
Ammon Ra is erased throughout, and, from the reckless hacking, by 
the hands of a most violent iconoclast. The first, and probably cor- 
rect, explanation of the mutilation which arises in the mind is that it 
was perpetrated by Khuenaten when he endeavored to suppress the 
worship of Ammon. The destruction could scarcely have been the 
work of early Arab invaders, since they would not have allowed 
the figure of the king to remain, and it is improbable that the first 
Christians would have wreaked their vengeance on the god alone, 
leaving pagan symbols to remain. Besides the above subjects there 
are bands of hieroglyphic inscriptions, bearing the cartouche of 
Thothmes II. 

Regarded from a technical point of view, the execution is a marvel 
of wood-carving, and the exquisite rendering of the low relief is a tri- 
umph that perhaps only a sculptor can adequately appreciate. One 
naturally recalls the more celebrated examples of doors on which the 
skill of the artist has been lavished : in metal, the Assyrian gates in 
the British Museum, the doors of Monreale, of Amalfi, and other 
Byzantine work ; in wood, the work of the Italian Renaissance, like 
the doors in the Palace at Urbino ; and we think that for noble purity 
of style the general voice would award the palm to this eighteenth 
dynasty Egyptian wood-carving. The question arises, were the doors 
(they were folding) originally seen as ebony, or were they plated with 
metal, gold or silver? A careful examination of the surface shows it 
to be covered with plugged holes, that attach the panels to cross-bars 


inside the framework, also ebony. But these, or some of them, might 
have been used to attach the metal to the surface. Again, one may 
be allowed to doubt whether the tops of the pegs would have been 
allowed to appear if the wood was to remain bare. Another weighty 
reason in favor of silver or gold will be found in the scheme of colora- 
tion of the temple of Deyr-el-Bahari, which still remains visible in 
parts. It is exceedingly bright and light in key, and the black ebony, 
although splendid in itself, and when seen in the chamber of a mu- 
seum, would scarcely have harmonized with the general polychro- 
matic effect. Dr. Brugsch supposes the doors belonged to a taberna- 
cle of the temple ; the height of one is about six feet by four feet, the 
other is only represented by a panel. Athenaeum, March 10, 1894. 

KOPTOS. PROF. FLINDERS PETRIE'S WORK. Koptos as a city no longer 
exists ; the present village of Koft is a small collection of mud-brick 
hovels lying immediately behind the raised bank of the Nile. Behind 
the village of Koft a raised causeway at right angles to the river leads, 
at a distance of half a mile, to the ruins of Koptos, such of them as 
remain, for the ancient city was probably larger than the area con- 
tained within the present Roman walls, twenty feet thick, of unbaked 
brick. The plan of operations is by trenches to discover the walls of 
the building, in the present case a temple, then to open a trench 
along the whole length of the wall down to the original pavement, 
and then below to former pavements. If statues, stelae, or other objects 
are found they are hoisted out and the trench filled up with the earth 
of a parallel one dug in advance. Thus the whole surface is explored 
and covered over again to prevent the destruction of what is not 
removed. Prof. Petrie began operations on the 9th of December last, 
and soon discovered the site of the temple on the southeastern portion 
of the enclosure. The temple and pylons appear to cover a large 
space of ground, and stand within a temenos of corresponding propor- 
tions. Among the statues already unearthed are a colossal red granite 
triad of Ramses II. between two goddesses, a black granite kneeling 
figure, and the legs of a colossal statue in white limestone. The last 
is probably very early work, and bears cut into the right thigh repre- 
sentations of animals, as an elephant, hyena, fishes, &c., similar to 
ancient rock carving. A red granite stele bears the date of the twenty- 
ninth year of Ramses III. ; another is inscribed with the name of a 
daughter of Ramses VI. There are, also, a colossal head of Caracalla 
in red granite, Greek and Latin inscribed stones, a Latin dedication of 
a bridge, another bearing the name of the little-known Emperor Qui- 
etus, and a table of the tolls paid on goods and on individuals enter- 
ing Koptos : among small objects a portion of a figure on an inlaid 


tile similar to those found at Tel-el- Yahoudi, and now in the British 
Museum. A figure of a prisoner of the same style in the Ghizeh 
Museum was found, half at Koptos by M. Bouriant, and the other half 
purchased of a dealer. Athenseum, Feb. 3. [A description of the extra- 
ordinary prehistoric and Early Empire antiquities afterwards found 
will appear in our next issue.] 

DASHOUR (near Sakkarah). M. de Morgan had been for some time 
planning excavations at the brick pyramid of Dashour, which had 
never yet been entered by excavators. The interest was all the greater 
in that the pyramid belongs to the time of Usertesen n, of the twelfth 
dynasty. A letter written by M. de Morgan, on March 1, announces- 
his success in finding the entrance to the pyramid, and the wealth of 
sepulchral chambers that lie beneath the pyramid. 

"Arrive a Dahchour depuis quinze jours environ, j'ai attaque la 
fameuse pyramide de briques, qui jusqu'ici avait resiste a toutes les- 
fouilles. J'ai du surveiller de tres pres ces travaux et bien m'en a 
pris, car hier, 28 fevrier, je suis entre dans le sanctuaire des morts. 
Deja quatorze chambres mneraires et quatorze sarcophages sont visi- 
bles, mais un 6boulement coupe la galerie principale. II faut que je 
le passe avant de voir les autres chambres qui probablement seront 
tres-nombreuses. Le tombeau du roi n'est pas dans la partie exploree 
hier; il est plus loin, mais j'ai la certitude de le rencontrer puisque je 
suis dans la place. Comme vous le savez, les pyramides ordinaires 
renferment un seul sarcophage et au plus deux chambres, construites 
dans 1'epaisseur du monument. La pyramide de briques au contraire 
est massive et ne renferme rien. Les tombeaux sont creuse"s dans le 
rocher au dessous, et c'est par un puit que j'y suis descendu, mais la 
n'est pas la seule difference. L'interieur est une veritable necropole 
renfermant les tombeaux de toute la famille royale. Ces tombeaux 
donnent tous sur une galerie dont la partie deja decouverte est dirigee 
d'est en ouest." Among the treasures in one of the royal chambers, is 
a pectoral in massive gold, 44 mm. high and 55 mm. long, and weighing 
37 grammes. In the centre of the pectoral is the cartouche of User- 
tesen ii ; on either side are hawks, wearing the crown of Upper and 
Lower Egypt, respectively. The signs of the cartouche are said to be 
composed of carnelian, lapis-lazuli, and turquoise, let into the gold. 
The reverse bears similar decoration, except that the ornamentation 
is incised. Athenaeum, March 24. 

The gallery was found 27 ft. below the surface and was 230 ft. long, 
The sarcophagi are those of high functionaries and of a queen all of 
the xn dynasty. 

The Cairo correspondent of the Times, under date of March 11, says : 
" The excavations by M. de Morgan at the brick pyramid of Dashour 


have yielded a large find of jewelry and gold ornaments bearing car- 
touches of Kings Usertesen n. and in. and Amenemhat in. Brugsch 
Bey, who is now arranging them in the Ghizeh Museum, considers 
that they far surpass in beauty and exquisite workmanship anything 
previously found in Egypt. The kings' tombs have not yet been 
found, and the broken condition of the sarcophagi indicates that the 
place had been rifled. Athenaeum and Academy, March 10. [A sum- 
mary of the full description of these epoch-making discoveries in the 
Gazette des Beaux Arts will appear in our next issue.] 

DEYR EL-BAHARI. Mr. Hogarth writes : The labors of the first season 
and of the three weeks which have elapsed since work was recom- 
menced in the second have produced an astonishing change in the 
appearance of the temple. It is literally being cut out of the moun- 
tain. When the vast mounds upon the middle terrace have been 
cleared away a labor which cannot proceed very fast the brilliantly- 
white colonnade round its northwestern end will become a landmark 
visible for miles. The clearance of this part of the temple will have a 
double interest: firstly, architectural, for Mariette's plan has been 
found to bear very little relation to fact, and the present appearance 
of the walls promises unusual features of construction ; secondly, 
artistic, for we have found that a wall of unknown painted reliefs 
exists below the accumulated rubbish. These will be laid bare during 
the next fortnight ; but the main mass of the mounds will hardly dis- 
appear this season. Already upon the upper terrace are piled more 
than 300 sculptured blocks, taken by the Copts from all parts of the 
Temple to build their convent walls. In the mounds of the middle 
terrace we shall recover nearly as many more, of which some show 
already. When all is cleared, and the possibilities of further discovery 
exhausted, these blocks will be sorted, and, if possible, built up again 
in their original places. This work, which will be supervised by Mr. 
J. Newberry, the architect attached to the expedition, will be of the 
first importance both on artistic and historical grounds ; for it will 
result in the reconstruction of several scenes hardly inferior, either in 
interest or workmanship, to the famous Punt reliefs. For example, 
much has been recovered of the decoration of the third or lowest ter- 
race, showing that there was represented another nautical scene the 
transportation of two obelisks from Elephantine, at the bidding of the 
Queen. Either in the mounds, or by the demolition of the Coptic 
walls left standing on the upper terrace, it is hoped that the rest of 
this scene may be found. Every effort is being made to preserve all 
evidence as to the subsequent history of the temple, and to find the 
small objects of antiquity scattered among the debris. So far, the main 


finds of the latter class have been beads, scarabs, and figurines, made 
of the famous blue-gazed ware. Good Demotic and Coptic ostraka are 
frequent, and there is much refuse from rifled mummy pits of the 
xxud Dynasty. Some coffins and mummies have been found lying 
loose among the upper layers of debris: one fine case belonged to 
Namen-Menkhet-amen, a relative of Osorkhon n and Takelothis; 
another contains a very finely rolled mummy, for whose reception it 
was not originally intended ; a third is early Coptic, and shows on the 
front of the outer cloth representations of wine and corn in the hands, 
while below is the sacred boat of Osiris, and over the heart a 

The uppermost layer of the mounds consists entirely of the debris 
of previous excavators. Below this lies a layer from three to six feet 
deep of Coptic rubbish, left by the monks of the convent. Here are 
found ostraka and large quantities of broken blue glaze ware. Imme- 
diately below, in the only place on the middle terrace where we have 
sounded to the bottom, we have found the original pavement. Only, 
therefore, if we come upon untouched mummy-pits below this pave- 
ment, can we hope for any considerable find of small antiquities; for, 
so far as we have yet seen, there is no debris older than Coptic. 

While the upper stratum of the mounds is being cut away, progress 
can be made in the copying of the inscriptions, a large number of 
which, having been pretty thoroughly erased, present great difficulties. 
The reconstruction of the Great Altar is to be begun as soon as the 
masons now at work on the house which is being built for the exca- 
vators are free. When the whole site has been cleared, the very costly 
and difficult work of reconstruction must be begun. That of the 
western-most wall will present peculiar difficulties, but, from the 
point of view of artistic effect, will best repay labor and cost. If 
the stone-slide of the cliff can be banked up, and the present Coptic 
constructions demolished, a large number of sculptured blocks belong- 
ing to other parts of the temple will be recovered, and the niches 
restored to their former beauty. The immense task of cutting away 
the mounds on the middle terrace will take two seasons at least, and 
the more shallow accumulation on the lowest terrace will still remain. 
No excavation of the same magnitude is being conducted at present 
in Egypt ; and it is satisfactory that, where so much labor and money 
must be expended, the monument to be laid bare should be of such 
exceptional interest. Architecturally, Hatasu's Temple has no paral- 
lel : in the quality and preservation of its painted reliefs, it vies with 
any of the best known tombs ; it is placed in a grander situation than 
any other building in Egypt. Academy, Feb. 17. 



CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS. Mr. Hogarth writes from Luxor, on March 
16, that the excavations were closed the day before. The large mounds 
on the central terrace were not entirely cleared away, but their height 
everywhere reduced by twenty feet, and, on the W. and N. sides of 
the terrace, cut away to the level of the pavement and rock. Some 
hundreds of demotic and Coptic ostraka were found, mostly letters 
and legal documents, although some appear to form part of a library 

Colonnade. On the northern side of the terrace we have laid open 
in its entirety a fine colonnade, formerly buried under fallen moun- 
tain debris; . . it has fifteen sixteen-sided columns, each fourteen feet 
eight inches high to the top of the abaci. A sandstone architrave rests 
only on the eight westernmost, and it appears certain that the eastern 
part of the structure was never finished. A wall of brilliantly white 
limestone is built against the mountain behind, and four vaulted 
chapels, uninscribed and perhaps unfinished, open out of it. Between 
and inside the columns exist at present a number of mud-brick cham- 
bers, which, when excavated, yielded Ramesside pottery and frag- 
ments of hieratic papyri, besides scarabs, beads, amulets and bits of 
bronze. These chambers are . . possibly dwellings of workmen of 
Rameses II, engaged on a restoration of the temple, and never 
destroyed because the completion of this colonnade was not carried 

Hypostyle Hall. We have cleared also the hypostyle hall at the 
western end, which was entered by Mariette, but left full of rubbish. 
It is one of the best-preserved remains of antiquity in Egypt. The 
star-spangled ceiling rests on twelve sixteen-sided columns over fifteen 
feet high : right and left are brightly painted funerary niches, and the 
main walls show scenes still brilliant in coloring, the Queen and 
Thothmes III offering to gods of the dead. A short staircase ascends 
at the back of the hall to the three-roomed chapel, on whose walls 
the Queen offers to Amen Ra and Anubis. As this hall is completely 
covered in, there is good hope that its paintings may be long pre- 
served with their freshness little if at all impaired. 

South of this hypostyle, and west of the main court of the central 
terrace, is a portico corresponding, in everything but excellence of 
workmanship, to the famous Punt portico on the south side of the 
central causeway. It is very much ruined; the square pillars are 
only complete at the broken end, and very few of the architrave 
blocks or roofing slates are in position. The number of these fallen 
masses of stone proved a great impediment to us, and we have been 
able this season only to clear the space between the western rank of 


pillars and the wall. By so doing we have laid bare a very interest- 
ing series of representations concerning the preliminaries and circum- 
stances of the birth of the Queen. Her mother, Ahmes, appears, con- 
ducted by several divinities to the presence of Amen, and the god 
appears to her in the guise of her husband, Thothmes I, as in those 
well-known scenes in the Luxor Temple, relating to the birth of 
Amenhotep III. Much restoration has been done on this wall by 
Rameses II ; but the fine portraits of Ahmes herself have escaped his 
hand, and remain admirable examples of xvin dynasty art, both in 
moulding and coloring. The inscriptions, though defaced, are fairly 
legible. Among the debris, which has lain since an early period on 
the court bounded by this portico, the hypostyle, and the colonnade, 
we have found most of our small objects of art in stone, ware or paste. 
Not much statuary has been discovered ; the best piece is the lower 
half of a kneeling statue of Senmut, the architect of the temple ; and 
a very fine portrait head in sycamore wood, on a part of a mummy 
case, is worthy of special mention. Amulets, figurines, rings and 
scarabs, inscribed and uninscribed, have been discovered in consider- 
able numbers ; and in addition to countless separate beads, some fine 
necklaces of blue ware, still strung, with pendants attached, were 
found in the lowest layer of deposit. Papyrus has been unearthed 
only in innumerable small fragments ; the largest pieces have formed 
part of copies of the Book of the Dead. 

The Temple at Deyr el Bahari, as has been often remarked, is not 
built on a general plan, comparable to that of any other Egyptian 
temple. Several parts of it, however, taken by themselves, recall the 
conventional arrangement of peristyle court, hypostyle and sanctuary. 
In fact, Deyr el-Bahari may be regarded as an aggregate of small tem- 
ple-units. So on the central terrace we have the northern colonnade, 
answering to the usual peristyle, which leads to a hypostyle, out of 
which opens a sanctuary. As Thothmes I and II do not appear in 
any part of it, but only Hatasu and Thothmes III associated, we may 
assume that it was built after the death of Thothmes II and before 
the Queen-regent's rupture with her nephew, and was intended to be 
more particularly the funerary shrine of Hatasu herself and Thothmes 
III. It is apparent, however, that the original construction has been 
altered in this region, and we must wait until the whole terrace has 
been excavated before we can draw conclusions as to the architectural 
history of this part of the temple. 

The reconstruction of the high altar of Harmachis on the upper 
terrace has been carried out successfully by Mr. John E. Newberry, 
nearly all the missing parts of the inscription having been found 


among the debris close at hand. The funerary chapel of Thothmes I 
has been restored; and in digging out the space between the broken 
north wall of the altar chamber and the rock face we have found all 
the missing blocks belonging to a brilliantly-painted niche in the ves- 
tibule, and from them reconstructed it. Here (for once) Queen 
Hatasu appears in her male guise, unerased. The broken northern 
and western main walls have been built up again in part, to be com- 
pleted if possible next season ; and the crumbling cliff above has been 
shored up strongly with rough masonry. The northern end of the 
terrace is therefore nearly finished, and the main work of next season 
must be the reconstruction of the niches in the west wall of the main 
hall of the upper terrace. The major part of the existing wall about 
them is of Coptic construction, and must be pulled down, in order 
that numerous sculptures belonging to other walls in the temple may 
be recovered; but in order that this may be done and the safety of 
the niches assured, the sliding cliff on the west must be shored up not 
less strongly than on the north, at great expense of money, time, 
and labor. 

The artists have completed their plates of the Altar Chamber, the 
Hall of Offerings, and the Chapel of Thothmes I ; and these, together 
with drawings of the altar and the doors of the ebony shrine discov- 
ered last season, will constitute the first fascicule of the complete pub- 
lication of Deyr el-Bahari, proposed by the committee of the Fund. It 
is hoped also that, when the excavation is complete, it will be possi- 
ble to deduce results bearing generally on Egyptian art. The quan- 
tity of relief-work of admirable quality, the variety and freshness of 
coloring, and the comprehensive find of objects in blue ware ought to 
afford material for valuable chapters on plastic, pictorial, and ceramic 
art in the period of the xvm dynasty. D. G. HOGARTH in Academy, 
April 7. 

EL-KAB. With the permission of the Society of Antiquaries, it was 
proposed to hold in October a small exhibition at Burlington House 
of the photographs, photographic enlargements and drawings made 
by Mr. J. J. Tylor and Mr. Somers Clarke during the last winter season 
at El-Kab (Eileithyia) in Upper Egypt. In addition to the vast brick 
walls which still remain, there is a large "number of rock-cut tombs, 
several of which are of great historic interest and of a good period. 
One of these, the tomb of Pacheri, has been selected especially for 
illustration. The photographs are all taken to scale and are enlarged 
to one-third of full size, i. e., four inches to the foot, thus giving a 
more complete transcript of the delicate reliefs than has before been 
attempted. Lying a little way in the desert and behind El-Kab is the 


small temple of Amenhotep III. Of this very perfect little building 
careful measured drawings have been made, supplemented by photo- 
graphs to scale of the internal decorations. Athenaeum, Sept. 16. 

which the Society for the Preservation of the Monuments of Ancient 
Egypt is striving, is the arrest of the gradual decay of the temple of 
Karnak by means of Grand Bey's scheme for carrying off the inunda- 
tion water of the Nile. Major R. H. Brown, of the Irrigation Depart- 
ment, undertook to act in the interests of the society and sent a 
detailed report in July, made after a careful survey. His object is to 
prevent the periodical wetting and drying of the bases of the walls 
and columns, which have been the cause of the gradual undermining 
which has gone on for centuries and has brought down many of the 
columns. If, as is to be believed, Major Brown's scheme is successful 
(and he seems confident that all will be ready for work during the 
inundation of 1894), the second main object for which the society was 
originally started will have been achieved, and the most magnificent 
group of ruins in the world, which M. Maspero is said to have stated 
could only be abandoned to their fate, will be saved from further 
decay. Major Brown's estimate of the cost was about 500 for the 
engine and 200 a year for keeping the engine at work. But a fur- 
ther sum of 600 would be required for making a permanent building 
for the engine and for an iron duct and masonry. Major Brown's 
report and estimate were adopted by the committee last August, and 
he is now making arrangements with M. de Morgan. London Times, 
Feb. 24. 

MATUGA (NEAR ABUSIR). FORTRESS OF BA. About three miles south of 
Abusir, Capt. Lyons has discovered a great fortress, defended on three 
sides by two walls of enormous thickness, the natural cliff serving for 
its protection on the eastern side. In the southwestern part of the 
enclosure Capt. Lyons has excavated a little temple or chapel. The 
inscriptions he found in it show that the place was named Ba, and 
that the fortress had been built by Userteseri III. On a large island 
opposite to it, in the middle of the Cataract, are the remains of 
another similar fortress. Prof. SAYCE'S letter in the Academy, Feb. 24- 

been lately proposed in solution of the problem, so very important for 
Egyptian prosperity, of the best way to store and utilize the surplus 
waters of the Nile. In view of one highly recommended plan we 
reprint the following letter : 

Strathearn House, Crieff, N. B., Jan. 31, 1894. 

I notice that the projects for the construction of reservoirs in the 
Nile have been completed, and that the Under Secretary for Public 


Works in Egypt admits that the Aswan Shallal or Cataract site is the 
best and most economical of those proposed. He recognizes the 
objection caused by the unavoidable inundation of the temple at 
Philae, but suggests that the temple might be removed and built on 
the adjacent island. 

I would earnestly call the attention of the archaeological world to 
this " unavoidable" act of vandalism. It is not enough to say that a 
committee of three engineers from England, France and Italy has 
been appointed to study the question: they were not sent in the 
interests of art, but to study the stability of the great dam. I do not 
wish for a moment to suggest that these three eminent hydraulic engi- 
neers are themselves vandals. Yet it is well known that engineers, 
when swayed by the interests of their calling, do not take into consid- 
eration the art side of the question ; and it is not to them that we 
would naturally turn when we wish to preserve a world-famous 
monument, but to men of taste and archffiological knowledge. I hope 
that a protest will be lodged in the proper quarter against this act, 
which will cast a slur on the English in Egypt. 

Though the expense would no doubt be greater, I am still of opin- 
ion that water held back up to the plinth of the temple of Philae, 
supplemented by another dam higher up the river, would accomplish 
what is wanted in the way of supply. Two dams will be much safer 
than one, and the celebrated temple will be spared. JUSTIN C. Ross 
(late Inspector-General of Irrigation, Egypt). Academy, Feb. 3, 1894. 

The above statement places the question fairly before the public. 
Considerable sentiment and indignation have been excited in Eng- 
land by this project of a dam at Philae, involving the destruction of 
the temple. 

On Feb. 22 the Executive Committee of the Society for the Preserva- 
tion of the Monuments of Ancient Egypt passed a resolution which appeals 
to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs against the submersion of 
Philae, and against the plan to take down the temples and rebuild 
them on another island. A similar resolution was passed at the same 
time by the Society of Antiquaries. On Feb. 14 the Foreign Office 
informed the Society that a special technical committee, composed of 
an English, a French and an Italian engineer, had been appointed by 
the Egyptian Government to consider the various projects which have 
been submitted for storing the surplus waters of the Nile. 

Mr. Reginald Stuart Poole, Secretary of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund, writes a calm letter, in which he reviews the questions to be 
considered by the technical commission : 1. A dam on the Assuan 
cataract ; 2. A dam at Kalabsha ; 3. A dam at Silsilis ; 4. The Wadi 


Rayan project. The first three projects involve works with sluices 
across the Nile, and the last the utilization of a depression in the 
desert near the Fayum, avoiding all works across the river. 

We refer to Mr. Cecil Torr's letter, in the Times of Feb. 27, for a 
good argument, that the cost of reconstructing the temples on an- 
other site fully equals the increased cost of the double dam at Philae 
and Assouan. Of. also a letter by H. H. Statham in Times, Feb. 27 : 
leader in Times, Feb. 24: account of meeting of Soc. for Preservation 
of Monuments of Anc. Egypt, in Times, Feb. 24. 

The leader in the Times of Feb. 24 supports the attitude of Mr. 
Garstine, Under Secretary of State in the Department of Public 
Works in Egypt, and Mr. Willcocks, Director-General of Reservoirs, 
who drew up the report favoring the plan which involves the submer- 
sion of Philae. Later communications are given in the Times of 
March 13. 

QASR IBRIM. Prof. Sayce spent a day and a half at Qasr Ibrim, and 
discovered a large stele, containing fifteen lines of hieroglyphs, on the 
western face of the hill immediately to the south of the old fortress. 
He copied the text with the help of a glass, and found that it was a 
record of the conquest of the Nubians and Negroes by Seti II, as well 
as the terms imposed upon them. The cartouches, however, which 
are twice repeated and very clear, are exceedingly puzzling; since 
while the first is that of Seti II, the second is, with a slight variation, 
that of the rival king Amonmeses. This fact gives a new complexion 
to an obscure portion of Egyptian history. Prof. SAYCE'S letter (q. v. 
for details) in the Academy, Feb. 24. 

SAKKARAH. EXCAVATIONS BY M. DE MORGAN. We regret not to be able 
to give any account as yet of M. de Morgan's excavations and investi- 
gations at Sakkarah, but hope to supply one in our next issue. 

In the northern part of the necropolis M. de Morgan has discovered 
a second crouching scribe, similar to the one in the Louvre. The pro- 
fessional movement and attitude are caught with great truthfulness : 
we have before us in every detail a real representation of a scribe of 
the earliest Egyptian period. 

WADY-H ALFA. Col. Halkett Smith and Capt. Lyons have continued 
their work at Wadi Haifa. The two temples of Usertesen I and 
Thothmes III have been cleared of the sand in which they were buried, 
and have proved to be highly interesting. Immediately behind the 
temples Capt. Lyons has discovered a remarkable ditch of fortification 
cut through the rock, and once strengthened on either side by a wall. 
Behind the ditch is the necropolis of the ancient city, consisting of 


rectangular tombs cut deep in the rock, with a sloping passage at the 
bottom of each of them, which leads into the sepulchral chamber. 
One of them was opened by Capt. Lyons, but proved to have been 
rifled centuries ago. For some interesting Greek and Karian graffiti 
and proskynemata, see the extracts given above from Prof. Sayce's 


PROF. MAHAFFY'S NOTES FROM NUBIA. Prof. Mahaffy joined Prof. 
Sayce near Philae, and has sent to the Aihenseum correspondence on 
the journey between the first and second cataract. The number of 
scientific travelers who have reported upon Nubia is but small, Gau's 
inscriptions being the main authority for the Nubian collection in the 
1 C. I. G.' and Lepsius having given his main attention to hiero- 

As regards Nubia, the chief points of historical interest are three : 
What amount of influence had the early Egyptian dynasties over this 
remote country ? what did the Ptolemies effect in the way of civiliz- 
ing it? what evidence is there for the existence of independent native 
princes ? On all three points we have found considerable additional 
evidence. Taking the temples in their order from north to south, we 
find at DEBOT that the inner naos was built by a native Nubian king, 
Atkheramon, while the pronaos and pylons in front of it (and there- 
fore subsequent) were commenced by Euergetes II, so that the native 
prince must come into the disturbed period at the end of Ptolemy IV, 
and during the infancy of Ptolemy V. The Rosetta inscription speaks 
as if the fifth Ptolemy had recovered all his father's dominions ; the 
constant recurrence of Euergetes II (and no earlier of the series) on 
Nubian temples seems to tell us that this was the king during whose 
long reign the southern provinces were recovered for Egypt. Roman 
emperors from Augustus onward have left ample records of their sway. 

The few late and uninteresting votive inscriptions at GAKTASS are 
all round a small shrine in the centre of the great sandstone quarries, 
from which the temples of Philae were chiefly built. At TEHFA we 
found a rifled necropolis. 

The next place, KALAPSHE (Talmis of the Romans), has all the 
walls of the great pronaos covered with inscriptions. Mr. Sayce 
counted over eighty of them (fifty-six are given in the " Corpus "), 
and we succeeded, with the aid of a ladder, in copying a metrical one 
which has probably not yet been published. Most of them are 
painted on the stone with red paint, which comes out very clearly 
when touched with spirits of wine. The well-known inscription of 


Silko, king of the Nubians and Blemmyes, we recopied for the sake 
of verifying the editions of it ; the Meroitic (?) text close beside it was 
copied by Mr. Sayce. There did not seem to us any evidence in the 
inscription that Silko was a Christian. 

High up above Kalapshe is the rock temple of Bet-el- Walli, set up 
by Ramses II, and showing both the merits and the defects of his 
work ; the picture of his conquests over the tribes of Ethiopia are,, 
however, very interesting, and important for this southern history. 

At DENDUR, a temple containing cartouches of Roman emperors 
(misspelt "Autotrator" for Autokrator several times), we copied a 
Coptic inscription on the east post of the south door, which speaks of 
Theodorus as " Bishop of Philse," a title disputed in the guide-books. 
He was the bishop who abolished heathenism at Philae about 577 A. D. 

At DAKKEH (Pselchis of the Romans) we found the inscriptions 
very much effaced by the weathering which blowing sand produces 
even more than rain ; but many of the votive texts of Roman officers 
are still to be read. It is remarkable that while that of Apolloniua 
calls him a strategos, one immediately beneath speaks of him as the 
afore-mentioned Arabarches, a word known in the late Republican 
days of Rome for native Syrian princes. Several of the devout call 
themselves generals, but we look in vain for the most distinguished of 
them, Petronius, though that name is scratched three times, appa- 
rently at random, in the temple of Gartass. 

The next place of interest was the rock temple of GerfHusen, also a 
work of Ramses II, who seems to have built a large number of small 
imitations of the vast masterpiece at Abou Simbel. Athen&um, Feb. 
17, 1894. 

Over against Dakkeh we went to visit the great brick fort of KOBAN, 
which next to that at Semneh, above the second cataract, is the best 
specimen of the military architecture of the Pharaohs. The plan and 
dimensions of the fort were taken by Mr. Somers Clarke. 

Dakkeh itself gives us good evidence as to the date of the first Erga- 
menes (Arkamen in hieroglyphs) who was native king of the country. 
The naos built by him represents him as receiving gifts from Nubian 
goddesses, whose figures and dress suggest plainly the figures and 
dress of the present Nubian women, and differ completely from those 
of the conventional Egyptian deities. He also states that the Pharaoh 
(Peraa) gives to him the regions of the south. What Pharaoh it was 
he does not state. But the facts that in his own titles he assumes 
those of Philopator (Ptolemy IV), and that this is also done by the 
Nubian king named in my last letter (Atkeramoun at Debot), show 
that they must come shortly after, if not in the reign of, that king, 



d not of Philadelphia, as Diodorus says. This was Mr. Sayce's 
very just inference. To me it seemed further probable that the 
absence of details concerning the Pharaoh, which is unusual in such 
texts, points to the earliest years of Ptolemy V. (Epiphanes), when 
this king, being an infant, may not yet have received his official titles. 
At all events the Nubian revolt, and the temporary cession of the 
country by the Ptolemies to the native dynasty that of Ergamenes 
are beyond all doubt, and so is the epoch of this cession, which must 
be placed about 200 B. c. The Egyptian style and the titles of these 
kings suggest that some at least of the literary classes in Egypt joined 
in the insurrection, and did work for the Ergamenids. Unfortunately 
there are no Ptolemaic inscriptions (except the remnant of a dedica- 
tion to Ptolemy IX) in Greek now to be seen, all the votive offerings 
being either dated in the reign of Tiberius or later. 

Our next stage was QURTI, where but small traces still remain of the 
temple of Tothmes III, which was restored in Roman times. But the 
site itself is a quondam island, and on a hill about the middle of this 
long island was a great mound almost consisting of Roman pottery, 
and pointing to the island Tachompso of Herodotus, "the level coun- 
try which the Nile flows round," twelve schoeni (83 miles?) from 

At MAHARRAKAH (Hierosykaminon of the ancients), instead of the 
fifteen votive inscriptions which are to be seen in the " C. I. G," there 
were not more than eleven still extant, and the temple bore evidences 
of being upset by an earthquake, which (like that which upset the 
temple of Olympia) struck it a blow from beneath the pavement, and 
sent nearly all the walls and pillars flying outwards. Five pillars are 
still standing, but the very strange plan of the building, drawn by Mr. 
Somers Clarke, showed that the pillars (six showing sideways and 
four front and back) were inside, not outside, the cella wall, in which 
no trace of door is now visible. The remains of a walled passage, 
leading from a smaller outside building into the southeast corner, sug- 
gested that here, at all events, was there access to the sanctuary. Such 
a plan has no precedent in either Egyptian or Greek architecture. On 
the smaller building the relief of the holy sycamore is still visible, and 
figures done in a barbarous mixture of Egyptian and late Roman 
style. On the centre of the wall of the peribolus (inside), and over 
against the only door of the naos, are remains in large capitals of a 
dedication in Greek of which we could only read rtwrou KCH TWV ev<re/3eo- 

1 TaTcov yovecov KCU yaiov \ -Mi/aou A8eA< | ou. 

This was the southernmost evidence we found of any dedication in 
Greek, and it was evidently rather Roman than Greek. Indeed, 


nothing is clearer than the fact that the Ptolemies did not think it 
worth their while to civilize this country, or to adorn it with any 
temples to the south of the Dodecaschoenus (Tachompso), for of their 
predecessors the Pharaohs ample evidences remain. The xi, xn, 
xvin and xix dynasties are all still represented in temples and in- 
scriptions throughout Southern Nubia ; of the Ptolemies we could 
find no trace. Seeing then that we know of the expeditions of the 
second Ptolemy to ^Ethiopia for elephants, and of the marble throne 
set up by the third south of Massowa (inscription of Adule), it seems 
to follow that these kings used the Red Sea route, and struck into the 
country from Suakim and south of it. That they should have left no 
records on the rocks along the Nile, if they had held the country by 
that route, is almost improbable. I found, indeed, on one of the pillars 
of the beautiful temple built by Tothmes III opposite Wadi-Halfa, 
drilled in deeply and in letters four to five inches high, the following 
And on the next pillar AAAMA2. But these solitary names, which 
seem to date from the iv century B. c. (C and 2 being used indiffer- 
ently), are only evidence that Greek mercenaries, along with the 
Carians, who have left several inscriptions on the same building, held 
the place for some king, possibly for Darius, or even later. 

The temple of DEBUAH, which we next visited, is one of those stupid 
memorials of Ramses II which only tell us of the king's greatness, 
and give us long processions of his sons and daughters coming to do 
him homage. The king's own name is writ very large over every part 
of the building. But the avenue of sphinxes which led up to it from 
the river, and most of the temple itself, are buried under the golden 
sand which is invading and destroying all the western side of the 
Nubian Nile. J. P. MAHAFFY in Athenxum, Feb. 17 and March 17. 


MR. BENT'S EPIGRAPHIC MONUMENTS. We give the following ab- 
stract of a paper communicated by Prof. D. H. Miiller to the Imp. 
Academy of Sciences at Vienna on Oct. 18, and republished in the 
Babylonian and Oriental Record (Jan., 1894). 

Mr. Bent's journey in Abyssinia took place early in 1893. On Jan. 
7 he started from Massauwa, but was kept back by the governor of 
the Italian colony for several weeks in consequence of the war between 
the two Abyssinian chiefs Ras Alula and Ras Mangashas, and so was 
unable to push on to Aksum. He remained for three weeks at 
Asmara, making several excursions, and leaving there Feb. 6, he 
arrived at Adowa on Feb. 13. After staying there three days he made 




an excursion to Yeha, where he spent two days. Although hostilities 
had then recommenced, he pushed on to Aksum, remaining there 
from Feb. 21 till March 2, when he was obliged to fly, and was in 
great danger until rescued by Italian troops. On his way back he 
passed Digsa and Halai, revisiting the high mountain chain of Ko- 
haito, where the ancient Koloe was situated. He also passed through 
Adulis, reaching Massauwa March 26. 

Prof. Miiller received in May squeezes of the inscriptions found by 
Mr. Bent at Yeha and Aksum. The fragments from Yeha, partly 
already known from copies of Salt and others, show the oldest forms 
of the Sabsean alphabet, and belong undoubtedly to the first period of 
SabaBan history, the so-called period of Mukrab. The ruins are of 
Sabsean origin, and the colonization of Abyssinia by Sabseans took 
place about the year 1000 B. c., judging from buildings and inscriptions. 

The monuments of Aksum belong to much later periods, and illus- 
trate the change from the Sabasan to the Ethiopic language in every 
part of its development. Of the bilingual inscription of Aksum, the 
Greek text was copied by Salt and published in C. I. G. : but the 
squeezes give a number of important and instructive readings. This 
Greek text makes it possible to read and translate a great part of the 
old Ethiopic text which is written from r. to 1. in a more recent 
Sabaean alphabet, and which shows archaic forms and constructions 
that were lost in more recent Ethiopic. A royal inscription of 29 lines 
was discovered by Mr. Bent at Ela-'Amida, written in Sabaean charac- 
ters from r. to 1. and in old Ethiopic. It is of special importance 
because it seems to belong to the father of the king mentioned in the 
Gheez inscriptions of Aksum. 

The two so-called Riippell inscriptions of Aksum, which are the 
oldest monuments of the Gheez language in the new left to right 
vowel-characters, were known only by rather poor copies and were 
thus an uncertain guide. Being about 800 years older than the oldest 
Ethiopic manuscripts, their importance is evident. Mr. Bent's squeezes 
enable us to reproduce the authentic text except in a few places. 
[There are some passages in the so-called translation from the German 
of Prof. Miiller's article, printed in the Bab. and Or. Record, that are 
almost unintelligible. So inexcusably barbarous a translation has 
rarely been imposed upon a suffering public the squeeze of an 
inscription is called a "proof-sheet"; appendix becomes "appendit." 
We learn that " Mr. Sigmund Stiassny, a medical student, who pos- 
sesses great abilities as an amateur photographer, took over before the 
beginning of the autumn vacations the long and laborious task to 
take the photos of the greater part of the " proof-sheets."] 


MR. BENT'S EXPLORATONS. In the Academy of January 13 there is 
a review of Mr. Bent's book, The Sacred City of the Ethiopians, i. e., 
Aksum, the object of Mr. and Mrs. Bent's pilgrimage in the winter of 

Not the least interesting portion of Mr. Bent's book is that which 
deals with Abyssinian Christianity. The churches, ecclesiastical orna- 
ments and ceremonies of the Abyssinian faith carry us back to an 
early period in the history of the Christian religion. The Abyssinian 
monks on the barren heights of their almost inaccessible mountains 
present us with a living picture of the ancient hermits of the Thebaid. 
At Yeha he found numerous monuments of the past in the shape of 
upright monoliths, splendid temples of hewn and drafted stone, and 
the traces of terraces for cultivation on the neighboring hills. He 
makes it clear that Yeha must represent the city of Ave mentioned by 
Nonnosus, the ambassador of Justinian ; and the conclusion is con- 
firmed by a fragment of an inscription found on the spot, in which 
Prof. D. H. Miiller reads the words "the temple of Awa." 

The monuments of Aksum belong to a later date, and testify to the 
influence of the Ptolemies in the Abyssinian highlands. Mr. Bent's 
photographs and squeezes of them enable us for the first time to deter- 
mine their true character. Among the most interesting of them are 
the obelisks, a large number of which still exist. Some of these are 
merely rude monoliths, but others belong to a later period of highly- 
developed art They are carved into the semblance of lofty towers or 
castles, with a door at the foot and a series of stories above, each of 
which is provided with windows. The head of the obelisk is rounded 
and otherwise ornamented, and nail-prints show that it was once cov- 
ered with a plate of metal. In one case a sort of Greek temple is 
represented resting on a column, the capital of which is adorned with 
volutes. At the foot of each obelisk stood an altar, plainly indicating 
the purpose for which the obelisk was erected. 

Besides the obelisks and altars, Mr. Bent found the remains of a 
temple as well as the pedestals of statues called " thrones " in the 
texts on some of which inscriptions have been cut. Outside the 
town is a great reservoir of early construction, which is still used ; a 
lioness, carved with considerable spirit on a rock ; and a collection of 
ancient tombs, which are entered by sloping passages. 

One of the squeezes gives us what remains of the Sabsean text of the 
inscription of King Aizan, which had not been copied before. The 
text is bilingual, in Greek and Ethiopic. Aizan was King of Ethiopia 
in the time of the Roman Emperor Constantius. Another of Mr. 
Bent's inscriptions which is new is in twenty-nine lines of Sabsean 


characters, and records the victories of Ela-'Amida " king of Aksum 
and Homer and Raydan and Saba and SalMn and Tiyam and Bega 
and Kas." It was the son of this king who erected the inscription 
discovered by Salt in 1808, and subsequently copied by Riippell and 


read a paper on Jan 11, before the Berlin Academy of Sciences, on the 
historic results of Theodore Bent's travels in East Africa. He shows 
that a German, Karl Mauch, preceded Mr. Bent in 1871 in his discov- 
ery of Zimbabye, some 40 miles inland from the Portuguese station 
Sofala, between the Zambesi and the Sabi. Although there exist 
many other ruins of similar character in this region, along the upper 
Sabi, the northern affluents of the Limpopo and the southern afflu- 
ents of the Zambesi, Zimbabye appears to have been the largest and 
most important. For these facts and for a summary of Mr. Bent's 
book, see under Book Reviews, on p. 224. 

Dillmann gives a careful description of the ruins, mainly summar- 
ized from Mr. Bent. But his main object is to inquire to what race its 
inhabitants belonged. They were a foreign race, established, however, 
in the land for generations, perhaps centuries, to judge from the char- 
acter of the remains of their civilization. Their religion was similar 
to that of the early Semites nature worship, cult of the sun, of stones, 
phallic worship. They were acquainted with astronomy and prac- 
tised art and industry. Bent leans to the opinion that they were 
Arabs of the Sabseo-Himyaritic period. All Greek and Roman geo- 
graphical authorities agree in stating that the South Arabs had the 
monopoly of the trade along the shores of the Indian Ocean, and from 
their emporiums supplied the northern peoples with all the products 
of this region. The Periplus man's erythrasi, of the time of Pliny, seems 
to prove (with Schlichter 1 and against Glaser 2 ) that the journeyings 
of the Greeks did not get beyond Azania the present Somali coast. 
Had the trade with Mashonaland been then in activity, it is hardly 
possible that such a fact could have remained concealed from mer- 
chants and geographers. Nor is it possible to suppose that this region 
was opened up after the second century A. D. We must therefore 
agree with Schlichter in believing the settlement to date back even of 
the last centuries B. c. 

The choice lies between Phoenicians and Saba?ans, and there are 
many arguments in favor of the Sabasans. In the first place, the land 

1 In Petermann's Mittheilungen, 1892, p. 284. 

2 Skizze und Geschichte der Geographic Arabiens, II, p. 206. 


of the Sabseans is always spoken of in antiquity as the source of gold, 
and Zimbabye, of course, was settled on account of its gold mines. 
Then the construction in regular cut stones, without mortar, the 
curved and oval walls, are parallel to many examples in Saba. The 
only difficulty is that no inscriptions have thus far been found, 
whereas the SabaBans usually employed them quite profusely. The 
religious tenets of Zimbabye also agree entirely with the Sabsean. It 
is true that there are several parallels to the Phoenicians that can be 
pointed out, but they are not as complete or as convincing as the 
Sabsean parallels. 

Prof. Dillmann also reviewed Mr. Bent's Ethiopian journey, show- 
ing its importance for the earliest history of the Kingdom of Axum 
(Bent, The Sacred City of the Ethiopians) in the wealth of material 
which he has made available to the scientific world. Excavations 
were impossible on account of local fanaticism. One of the inscrip- 
tions found at Yaha is placed by Miiller as early as the seventh or 
eighth century B. c. ; and if this is a correct opinion, the entrance of 
the Sabseans into Abyssinia would be far earlier than had been sup- 
posed, and their colonization of North Africa would then agree in date 
with the theory of their advance into South Africa in the reign of 
Zimbabye. D. is not disposed to accept Bent's identification of Yaha 
with the ancient Aw, Av>/, Ava, as the text of Nonnosus would appear 
to place Ava in a different location. At all events, Yaha must have 
been a very important centre of Saba3an colonization in the pre- 
Axumitic period. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, Jan. 11, 1894. 
Discovery of Roman Coins. It is an interesting fact that some local 
traders report the discovery by a Mashona native of eight coins in a 
fair state of preservation in the neighborhood of the ruins of Zim- 
babye. They are undoubtedly Roman ; four are inscribed CONSTAN- 
TIVS CAES., two others bear on the obverse the head of a woman and 
the inscription HELENA AVGVSTA, and one represents the wolf suckling 
Romulus and Remus. London Standard, May 8. 


BOU-FISHA. PEGASUS AND THE NYMPHS. A terracotta tile found in the 
ruins of a Christian chapel at Bou-Fisha reproduces the rare subject 
of the nymphs attending to Pegasus. One is giving him to drink, a 
second, crouching, cleans his feet, while a third grooms his neck. 
This composition is the exact parallel to that in the tomb of the Na- 
soni on the Via Flaminia. The site of the scene is the spring Hippo- 
krene, created by a blow of the foot of Pegasus, and this is indicated 
in the tile by a female figure pouring water from an urn above her 


head into the vase from which Pegasus drinks. Bull. Soc. des Anti* 
quaires, 1893, p. 80. 

CARTHAGE. THE HARBOURS. South of the citadel of Carthage are- 
two large marshes, in the lowland between the hill and the shore. 
The northern marsh has about the shape of a crescent ; the southern 
marsh is oblong and traversed by a road resting on a dyke. Accord- 
ing to all authorities in Carthaginian topography these marshes occu- 
py the site of the ancient ports ; that to the north, originally circular,- 
with a circular island in its centre, being the military port, while that 
to the south, primitively rectangular, was the merchant port. One 
canal put the two in communication, and a second connected the 
merchant port with the sea. 

Mr. Cecil Torr has advanced a different theory which he has ex- 
pressed in articles entitled : " The Harbours of Carthage," in the* 
Classical Review, 1891, p. 280, sqq; and 1893, p. 374 sqq. Compare- 
also " Die Hafen von Karthago," by R. Oehler, in the Jahrbilcher fur 
Klassische Philologie (1893, pp. 321-32). The latest presentation of 
Mr. Torr's views is found in the Revue Archeologique for Jan.-Feb. 
1894, pp. 34-47. 

Mr. Torr's first step is to show that whereas Appian, in his detailed 
description of the inner port states that it contained docks to receive 1 
220 vessels and whereas the almost contemporary Athenian docks 
show that a front length of about 1 ,433 metres would be required for' 
these vessels, and whereas only about 1,075 metres frontage are afforded 
by the northern marsh, it follows that this marsh could not have been^ 
used as the inner port of Carthage. 

The outer port of Carthage was called Kothon ; this is to be inferred 
from passages in Festus, Servius (ad Virg.), Diodorus, etc. Festus ; 
says this name was given to artificial ports made in the sea. Appar- 
ently only one other port received this name that of Hadrumetum. 
As was to be expected this port of H. was made by jetties. It is,- 
therefore, certain that the outer port of Carthage was an artificial 
port made by jetties. This demolishes entirely the received theory of 
the present marshes. It appears certain that the circular inner port 
was flanked on either side by a canal by which direct communica- 
tion was maintained between the city and the outer port. It is not 
proven whether this inner port was artificially formed by jetties* 
within the outer port, or situated inland in an excavation, for there 
are indications that the inhabitants excavated ports at an early date: 

Finally Mr. Torr attempts to locate the port exactly. Appian says 
that the Kothon was square at one end and rounding at the other. 
Mr. Torr places the square termination at the south, at the further 


end of the promotory opposite the hillock, while he believes that the 
northern end continued the curved line of the hills where they touch 
the shore. The pretended port of Utica a rectangular excavation 
with an island on which are ruins, is shown to be, like one near Car- 
thage, not a port but baths. 

Since the above note was put in type we find a further criticism of 
Mr. Torr by Otto Meltzer in the Jahrbucher for 1894 (pp. 49-68 and 
119-36), who upholds the orthodox view, and to whom he replies in 
the Classical Review, June, 1894 (pp. 271-76). For a restatement of 
the various theories we refer to these articles, as we cannot spare the 
space to summarize them in the JOURNAL. Mr. Torr's position, in a 
few words, is this : " My theory is that the ponds have nothing what- 
ever to do with the harbours. I am of opinion that the outer har- 
bour was formed by piers in the sea ; and also of opinion that the 
inner harbour was nearly surrounded by the outer harbour, but that 
its position is otherwise unknown." 

HADJEB-EL-A'l'OUN (NEAR KAIRWAN.) In an article published in the 
Rev. Arch, in 1888, M. de la Blanchere illustrated a series of terracotta 
tiles, decorated with figures or ornaments, found in Tunisia. The 
majority bear rosettes, deer, lions, peacocks, oxen ; others have Chris- 
tian or Pagan subjects such as Pegasus cared for by the Nymphs, and 
the sacrifice of Abraham ; while on one is an inscription between two 
crosses -j- SOT MARIA AIVBA NOS -j- ((?/. JOURNAL, iv, 473, 544). 

M. Hanezo has lately discovered at Hadjeb-el-Aioun, 60 kilom. 
south-west of Kairwan, in the ruins of a basilica, another similar se- 
ries of tiles with Christian subjects. They have been communicated 
by MM. Cagnat and Gauckler to M. Le Blant, who illustrates them in a 
paper in the Revue Arch. 1893, n, pp. 273-80. The subjects are: (1) 
Adam and Eve, with nimbus, standing on either side of the tree 
around which the serpent is twined : (2) Christ standing between two 
apostles, all being nimbed, and multiplying the loaves and fishes: (3) 
S. Peter, with nimbus, receiving a key from the hands of Christ: (4) 
the sacrifice of Isaac, who kneels in front of the altar while Abraham 
raises a sword in his right hand : (5) Christ and the Samaritan wo- 
man at the well. 

Each of the above subjects, as well as a number of figures of ani- 
mals in the same series, are framed by a colonnette on each side. 
At the time of discovery several of the tiles still adhered to the 
walls of the basilica of which they formed the dado. To judge from 
the form of the letters in the inscription already published the tiles 
date from the second half of the sixth century. 


The hall in which the tiles were found is paved with a mosaic rep- 
resenting doves within scroll-work with a border at each end contain- 
ing three fish. 

OUDNA. (TUNISIA). A ROMAN VILLA. A letter from Tunis to the Revue 
Archeologique (1894, i, 115) informs us that the excavation of the ruins 
of a Roman villa at Oudna, under the direction of the Service Beylical 
des Antiquites, is being carried on successfully. After completing the 
uncovering of the first building whose eight chambers were paved 
with mosaics, M. Gauckler is bringing to light a second structure situ- 
ated opposite the first and connected with it by two wings of less im- 
portance, surrounding a vast peristyle. The first hall, starting from 
the east end has a mosaic of glass cubes on a white marble ground. 
The scene represents a series of wild and domestic animals, among 
which are a war elephant, a superb stallion, a leopard with shimmer- 
ing fur, artistically rendered by a mingling of cubes of brilliant colors 
in with the dark tones of the fur. Broad scrolls of acanthus ending 
in lion heads separate the groups. To the N. of the hall is a wide 
drain leading to a vaulted reservoir composed of two basins of un- 
equal dimensions separated by a narrow neck, the larger basin being 
in the shape of a gigantic bottle placed on its side. 

South of this hall is a second room connected with it by three open- 
ingsa narrow door at each end and a wide opening in the centre to 
be closed by a velum. On the sill is a hunting scene ; to the right a 
hare and a fox are in full flight closely pursued by two levriers d'Af- 
rique or slougues whose names are given in mosaic inscriptions as 
EDERATVS and MVSTELA. Two unarmed horsemen follow, mounted on 
Numidian stallions in full gallop, urging on their steeds with voice 
and gesture, and flourishing one a whip and the other a houssine. Be- 
hind them, leashes in hand, is the slave who has let loose the dogs, 
The grouping is fine, the action lively and the preservation perfect. 
Through this door we reach an atrium ten metres square whose ceil- 
ing was sustained by two colonnades, the lower part of which is still 
in situ. The columns are of calcareous stone entirely covered with 
stucco, including both capital and base. The border of the mosaic 
pavement is geometric, composed of stars and rosettes. Then comes 
the framework of the central composition measuring five by six me- 
tres. This framework consists of a garland of varied flowers and 
fruit analogous to that of the great mosaic at Sousse but superior to 
it in execution. The decorative arrangement recalls that of the great 
mosaic of Kourba (Curubis) uncovered last year and transported to 
the Bardo Museum. At each of the four corners is a large vase decor- 
ated on their body by a procession of female figures (Muses ?) hold- 


ing each other by the hand. From each vase proceed two vines laden 
with leaves and fruit whose -branches form a green trellis among 
which flutter birds and erotes. There are 28 of the genii with trans- 
parent many-colored wings and plump, rosy bodies, running from 
branch to branch picking the grapes. The drawing, generally con- 
sidered, is good, but there is no true perspective and there is evident 
disproportion between the figures. In decorative and archa3ological 
value this mosaic ranks as the best found in Tunisia. The hall where 
it was found corresponds, in the second building, with that in the 
first building in which was found the mosaic of the Rape of Europa. 

numbers of L? Anthropologie contain articles by M. Salomon Reinach, 
entitled " Le Mirage Oriental." They represent the furthest swing of 
the pendulum, in the reaction which has been making itself felt 
during the last dozen years, against the extreme view which would 
find the sources of all civilization in the East. After expressing his 
agreement with Pictet's theory of a European origin for the Aryan 
group of languages, with Halevy's theory of an Aramaean origin for 
Indian writing, and with Darmesteter's theory of a late date for the 
Avesta, M. Reinach proceeds to his main argument, which is to refute 
the opinions of Bertrand and De Mortillet, that the prehistoric civiliz- 
ations of Western Europe are due to Oriental influence. Reversing 
the common view, he even goes so far as to maintain that wherever 
and whenever bronze, and therefore tin is found, it must have come 
from the Cassiterides or Celtic Islands of the West. 

In his second paper he deals with the Aegean civilization : that is 
to say, with the discoveries of Schliemann and Prof. Flinders Petrie, 
in connexion with all the other archaeological evidence. His main 
thesis is that the culture represented is not due to Egypt or Chaldaea, 
though it may show contact with both ; but that it is essentially 
Western and European. He admits that there must have been in the 
remote past periods of progress, affected by external stimulus, and 
also periods of stagnation and even of decadence. But, on the whole, 
he maintains that the greater part of Europe in prehistoric times 
shared a common civilization, which was not derived from Egypt or 
from Phoenicia. The original source of it he would place in Central or 
perhaps in Northern Europe, whence it radiated south in all directions 
to Spain, Italy and Sicily, Greece and Asia Minor. He goes so far 
as to fit into his theory such intractable material as the Hittites, the 
Etruscans, and the Pelasgi. Apart from its boldness, a special feature 


of his theory is the allowance it makes for the flux and reflux of 
hostile influences, and for successive waves of migration. Following 
Prof. Petrie, he would date the first contact of Europe with Greece as 
early as the twenty-eighth century B. c. Academy, February 24 and 
March 17. 


DR. GLASER'S SECOND EXPEDITION. Several years ago the German 
traveler, Eduard Glaser, discovered a large number of Semitic inscrip- 
tions in Southern Arabia, and, when these were deciphered, it was 
discovered that they brought intelligence of the existence of Minsean 
and Saba3an kingdoms and of a knowledge of letters in those districts 
many centuries before Christ. In the interpretation Glaser was 
materially assisted by Dr. Hommel, of Munich, and Dr. Mu'ller, of 
Vienna. In addition it was also learned to a certainty that the rep- 
resentatives of the Semitic peoples in Africa, the Abyssinians, were 
originally established in Southern Arabia. The important results of 
these discoveries have been repeatedly announced in this JOURNAL. 

Dr. Glaser has recently returned from a second expedition and has 
brought with him copies of some eight hundred inscriptions and two 
hundred and fifty Arabic manuscripts, as also specimens of Arabian 
antiquities of various kinds. He has been helped in his researches by 
the Bedouins, whom he had taught to make squeezes of inscriptions. 
These are able to penetrate regions practically inaccessible to the 
white traveler, and bring materials for research he could otherwise 
not get. The new finds have not yet been interpreted. N. Y. Inde- 
pendent, May 24. 


TELLOH. We have not seen any full account of the more recent 
excavations by M. de Sarzec at Telloh, which he has been carrying on 
steadily and with good results for the last two years or more. M. 
Heuzey has, however, communicated to the Acad. des Inscriptions some 
notes on objects found in the course of these excavations. 

Especially interesting is a colossal lance-head of copper or bronze, 
at the base of which is a royal inscription not yet deciphered. M. 
Heuzey believes this to be one of the sacred arms preserved among 
other objects of worship in the temples, and which is one of the attri- 
butes of Izdubar or Gilgames, the Babylonian Herakles. [It is 
probably one of the originals that are copied in the religious scenes 
cut in the Babylonian cylinders, where the sacred lance is stuck up- 
right in the ground or on an altar, as a divine emblem and object of 
worship. ED.] 


A number of objects are mentioned by M. Heuzey as being already 
in the museum at Constantinople, where he has studied them. Fore- 
most are some magical statuettes of the time of the early King Ur- 
Nina, in the form of female busts ending in a long point. These 
statuettes, made of pure copper, were stuck directly into the ground 
and supported on their heads stone votive tablets. They were evi- 
dently for the purpose of warding off the spirits of the under world. 
M. de Sarzec also discovered numerous stone lion-heads, with a hole 
for a peg, which served probably as the ends, of the arms of a royal 
throne. One of these heads, in the Louvre, bears the name of King 
Ur-Nina; another at Constantinople contains the name of the land of 
Magan, the undetermined country whence the Babylonians got the 
stone for their statues. Revue Arch., 1894, i, 108, 109. 

At a later meeting, in April, M. Heuzey gave a general account of 
the manner in which M. de Sarzec, now consul-general, has been 
exploring the earliest archaeological strata. Among his most recent 
discoveries are two more fragments of the famous early bas-relief 
called the Stele of the Vultures ; a number of inscriptions ; a series of 
bronzes or even works in copper, among which are to be noted two 
bull-heads, with eyes incrusted with mother-of-pearl and lapis lazuli, 
a technical process sometimes found in the earliest monuments. 
Chron. des Arts, No. 16, 1894. 

NIPPUR=NIFFER. Notwithstanding every effort, the editors of the 
JOURNAL find it usually more difficult to obtain information regarding 
archaBological work undertaken by Americans than of that carried 
on by foreigners. We offer this to our readers as an explanation of 
the lack of prompt and first-hand information concerning the discov- 
eries at Niffer. The earlier work there under Dr. Peters has been 
described in previous issues. 

At the recent annual meeting of the American Oriental Society, on 
March 29-31, Mr. Talcott Williams made a very interesting statement, 
summarized in the N. Y. Independent of April 12, regarding the digging 
now going on in the ruins of Niffer. Mr. Haynes has since last spring 
been continuing the work begun there previously by Dr. Peters, and 
in the first ten months has taken out from the debris 8,000 inscribed 
clay tablets and fragments, besides other objects. More remarkable is 
the fact that Mr. Haynes has dug below the levels of the debris from 
the time of Sargon I (3800 B. a), and has found inscriptions in this 
deeper stratum. It seems probable, therefore, that we are now to 
have revelations of a still earlier period of Babylonian culture. The 
results of the work of Dr. Peters were important, and the continua- 
tion of the work will probably prove vastly more so. To be noted 


are the cordial relations of the expedition with the Turkish Govern- 
ment, and the generosity of the Turks in allowing many of the objects 
found to come to this country. At the meeting of the Am. Or. Soc. 
Mr. Williams and Dr. Ward paid due tribute to the self-sacrificing 
labors of Mr. Haynes in connection with the work at Niffer. With a 
small Turkish escort he is alone in the desert, no European near, 
surrounded by the rude and often turbulent natives, and continuing 
his work through the last summer, the heat at times reaching 118 in 
the shade. 

Professor Hilprecht, of Philadelphia, who is publishing the inscrip- 
tions dug from the temple of Bel, at Niffer, reports that he hopes to 
have Part 2 of Volume I in the printer's hands before leaving for 
Constantinople and the Hittite region in May. 

of the American Oriental Society (March 29-31) Dr. Wm. H. Ward 
read two interesting papers on the classification of two classes of 
Oriental cylinders Hittite and Mesopotamian. They bring new 
light into a difficult field, and will be welcomed by the custodians of 
museums where such objects are collected. The ancient seals have a 
great deal to tell us regarding history, art and religion, and such a 
classification as these papers propose will aid much in the study. 
Seals with Hittite inscriptions were for the first time made known and 
their style gave a sure basis for the accumulation around this nucleus, 
of a large Hittite series. 


INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI. In connection with the paper 
on the recently discovered tablet of Ramman-nirari, read by Dr. 
Lyon at the American Oriental Society (March 29-31), the origi- 
nal, an alabaster slab, about 10x13 inches, was exhibited and ex- 
plained. The tablet is a duplicate of one in the British Museum and 
commemorates the restoration of an Assyrian temple in the fourteenth 
century B. c. The stone is beautifully written, well preserved, and 
the variants from the British Museum duplicate very interesting. 
The original scribe made various mistakes, and there are several 
erasures and corrections by the hand of a reviser. N. Y. Independent, 
April 12. 


PERSIAN CERAMICS. Mr. Henry Wallis is about to publish another 
superb volume on Persian Ceramic art, enriched with plates after 
drawings made for the purpose from specimens belonging to the rich 
collection of Mr. F. D. Godman, who has done so much to increase 


,our knowledge of .this branch of Mohammedan art. The first volume 
dealt with Persian vases of the XII century ; this new volume is con- 
cerned with the similar, but superior, and generally less injured tiles 
,of the same epoch, the decorative motives of which evince a great 
.advance in design. For their color and design the tiles may fairly 
be considered the finest specimens of Oriental Ceramic art. The 
wolume contains forty chromo-lithographic plates. Alhen., March 24. 


JERUSALEM. rNEw. EXCAVATIONS. The chairman of the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund has received a letter from the Foreign Office in- 
forming him that a Firman has been granted by the Sultan for per- 
mission to excavate in Jerusalem for two years on the usual conditions. 
The committee will, therefore, be able to resume the excavations 
which proved so successful under Sir Charles Warren in the years 
1867-1870. The task of superintendence has been entrusted to Mr. 
Frederick Jones Bliss, who is already at Jerusalem, and will com- 
mence work without delay. Acad., March 24. 


SINJlRLI,---Some reports of the Sinjirli excavations by Dr. von 
Luschan have been made from time to time. Recently the Berlin Mit~ 
theilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen, 1893 (Heft XI), gave a lot 
of new details based on the new diggings made in these interesting 
remnants of Hittite civilization and literature in the Amanus regions 
north of the gulf of Antioch. In addition to a number of other valu- 
able finds of historic importance in connection with Hittite archi- 
tecture and sculpture, a large memorial stone tablet of the Assyrian 
King Esarhaddon has been found, in which in cuneiform inscription 
the king reports his victory over the Ethiopian and Egyptian King 
Tirhaka (c/. Is. 37 : 9). The vanquished king, whose physiognomy is 
that of a genuine Negro, is reported in the inscription to have been 
pursued into Egypt, his son, Usanakhuru, falls into the hands of the 
victor and is put into chains. Memphis is captured, etc. N. Y. Inde- 
pendent, May 24. 

DAMASCUS. BURNING OF THE MOSQUE. The famous mosque of Damas- 
cus was nearly destroyed by fire last October, but the Turkish Gov- 
ernment, regarding it in the light of a national calamity, and fearful 
of the effects upon its subjects, have successfully concealed the fact 
till recently. From a letter in the London Times it appears that while 
the library, containing many priceless manuscripts, was saved, the 
greatest literary treasure of the Mahommedan world was destroyed. 


This was the only remaining one of the four copies of the Koran 
made by order of the Caliph Othman in the year A. H. 30 (A. D. 650-1). 
All other copies were collected and burned at that time, and these 
four were deposited in Medina, and the three metropolitan cities 
Kufa, Bassorah, and Damascus. These constituted the binding 
.authority for the text, and the later manuscripts have been derived 
from them. The Damascus copy, of whose genuineness there is said 
to have been no doubt, was not kept with the library but in a separate 
place in the mosque, and was unfortunately forgotten until it was too 
late to rescue it. The minarets and the tomb of Saladin are unin- 
jured, and some of the walls of the main building are standing. 
Among them is one which formed a part of the cathedral of St. John 
the Baptist, which Omar found on this spot at the time of his con- 
quest in A. D. 635, and on which is the remarkable Greek inscription 
still legible, " Thy kingdom, Christ, is an everlasting kingdom, and 
Thy dominion is from generation to generation." Nation, March 15. 


EPHESOS. THE GOLD COINAGE OF THIBRON. At a sitting of the Soc. des 
Antiquaires M. Babelon described two gold coins of Ephesos, a stater 
and a hemi-stater. They were coined at Ephesos in 400 B. c. when the 
Lacedaemonian harmost Thibron or Thimbron came there to organ- 
ize an army to protect the Greek cities of Asia menaced by Tissapher- 
nes after the retreat of the Ten Thousand. Ephesos was Thibron's 
base of operations, and he coined gold coins as military chief in the 
field after he had exhausted his supply of darics. Only twice did the 
mint of Ephesos, which was so prolific, put gold coins in circulation : 
once this Thibronian coinage in 400 ; a second time from 88 to 86 B. c. 
when Ephesos allied herself to Mithridates and prepared to assist him 
against Rome. Therefore, at Ephesos as at Athens the coinage of gold 
has a military and exceptional character. Bull Soc. des Antiquaires, 
1893, p. 84. 

HALIKARNASSOS. M. Mich on publishes in the Bull. corr. hellen., 
1893, p. 410, pi. xvi, a draped female statue from Halikarnassos, now 
in the Louvre. Its first owner was M. J. de Breuvery, who travelled 
in the Orient in 1829, visited the site of Halikarnassos, and there 
secured this statue and an altar. The head and the left arm, cut 
separately, are wanting, as well as the greater part of the right arm. 
The type is severe and monumental, and evidently the statue was 
part of the decoration of a structure. It has been generally regarded 
as a caryatid from the Mausoleum itself. M. Michon, however, thinks 
this doubtful, and accepts only with a query M. Rayet's date of the 
middle of the fourth century. 


p. 102-132, K. Buresch contributes to Lydian Epigraphy and Geography. 
An inscription from Antiocheia on the Maeander is published, giving 
a list of cities which joined in honoring some unknown person. The 
%>s 6 Kcu<rapeW is identified with Tralles. Cf. Plin. N. H. V. 120. 
The Trallians probably adopted this name in gratitude for assistance 
rendered by Augustus after the earthquake of 26 B. c. After Nero's 
time the new name occurs only combined with TpaXXtavot, and in this 
combination it is found even in the early part of the third century 
after Christ, though only in official language. The titles of veco/co'/ns 
and //,i7Tpo7roA.i T^S 'Atrias were probably given to Tralles by Caracalla. 
These results are derived from coins and inscriptions of which two are 
published. The NeoKeuo-apets of the inscription are shown to be the 
Philadelphians. The Mysomakedones are shown to have lived near 
Mt. Tmolus, probably either to the east or south-east. The sites of 
several other towers of Lydia are determined. 

COINAGE OF LYKIA. M. Babelon remarks in a recent article in the 
Revue Numiimatique (1893, No. 3). "The Cabinet de France (Bib. 
Nat.) has been recently enriched with a considerable number of coins 
of Lykia. The majority of these new pieces belong to the dynasts 
who coined money in their own names in different Lykian cities dur- 
ing the v and vi centuries. This interesting section of our national 
collection of coins, which had remained stationary for more than a 
quarter of a century has thus been suddenly about doubled in number 
and importance. I have described and reproduced these coins of 
Lykian dynasts in the volume of the Catalogue of Greek coins just 
issued under the generic title The Persian Achaemenidae." An exami- 
nation of this work will show how rich is our series of primitive 
Lykian coins without royal names ; will disclose names of dynasts 
heretofore unknown, such as Ut&ves and Khadritim&s ; will show the 
great variety of the monetary types of Spintaza, Tethiveibis, Kuperlis, 
Kheriga, Kreis the national Lykian hero whose glory is celebrated 
on the great stele of Xanthos , Vexe"res, Denevels, and Perikles. 
The plates of the Catalogue bring to view strange types, such as the 
a triqu6tre " with arms ending in cock's or swan's heads, and also 
beautiful heads of dynasts, the earliest monetary effigies ever struck, 
with the exception of the standing effigies of the Achaemenid princes 
on the darics. 

Mittheil Athen. (1894, pp. 1-92), F. Killer v. Gaertringen, 0. Kern and 
W. Dorpfeld give an account of Excavations in the Theatre of Mzeander 
(plates i-iv ; 17 cuts). After an introduction on the state of the site 

r A. 


and the history of the excavations, Hiller v. Gaertringen discusses 64 
inscriptions, a number of masons' marks being counted as one. The 
inscriptions are for the most part honorary and dedicatory. One 
(No. 5) in honor of Anaxenor contains the lines of Homer (Od. IX, 
3 sq.) with the omitted iota subscript (i. e,, adscript) mentioned by 
Strabo XIV, 1, 41, p. 648. Another (No. 37, given in fac-simile) men- 
tions an artist Apollonios, son of Tauriskos from Tralles. The artists 
of the " Farnese Bull " were Apollonios and Tauriskos of Tralles, but 
cannot both be identical with the persons of this inscription as they 
were sons of Thenekrates or Artemidoros (Plin. xxxvi, 34). Proba- 
bly the Trallians of the Magnesian inscription belonged to the same 
family with the others, and possibly Tauriskos the father of Apol- 
lonios may have had a brother Apollonios, in which case it is not 
necessary to assume more than one Tauriskos. 

0. Kern publishes and discusses a marble basis in the form of a 
table-tripod. The legs end in claw feet and are adorned with many 
lines, perhaps veins. Between two of the legs is a Hermes standing 
on a plinth with the inscription : 

v^wv, K XaA/aSos otrros e/cetvos 
CTrooycre vaAfrcus Tracri -^pprfyov. 

This is a tripod-statue, like the satyr eVl rpnroSw of Praxiteles. The 
character of Hermes Tychon is discussed. He appears to have been 
the genius of luck. 

Dr. W. Dorpfeld treats of the theatre building itself. The cavea 
had two diazomata, now not to be identified owing to the des- 
truction of this part of the theatre. The lower diazoma was reached 
by stairs from the parodoi. There were five cunei in the lower part, 
probably more higher up. Little remains of the seats, but enough to 
show that they were not, as is usual, made of one stone. Cavea and 
orchestra have the form of a lengthened semicircle or truncated el- 
lipse. In Greek times the orchestra proper was a circle, and had a 
passage about it, which served also as a drain. The erection of the 
Roman logeion cut off part of the orchestra. A subterranean pas- 
sage similar to that at Eretria (A. J. A. vii, p. 43), existed in the Greek 
theatre probably from the centre of the orchestra to a point under the 
" scene-building." A Roman passage in the form of a T begins under 
the front wall of the Roman logeion, and ends in two short branches 
near the middle of the orchestra. The theatre was built in the fourth 
century B. c. (probably), and not much later the skene received addi- 
tions. Early in the second century B. c. it was rebuilt in marble. 
Several centuries later it was changed by the erection of a Roman 
logeion before the proskenion. The theatre was probably destroyed 


about 263 A. D. The remains of this theatre furnish confirmation for 
the view that the action in the Greek theatre took place in the orches- 
tra. Connected with the theatre was a building of five rooms of 
different dates the purpose of which is uncertain. 

Otto Kern publishes in the Mitth. Athen. (1894, pp. 93-101) Theatre- 
inscriptions from the Agora in Magnesia on the Masander (plate v). These 
consist of three almost complete records of victors in the theatrical 
contest at the Potato, besides three fragments. The inscriptions be- 
long probably to the first half of the first century B. c. The names of 
writers of tragedies, comedies, and satyr-dramas, as well as those of 
the chief actors are given. The proof that satyr-dramas continued to 
be performed at this time is important. The names of the tragedies 
are similar to those of the fifth century when not actually identical 
with them. One comedy, by Metrodoros, son of Apollonios, bears the 
familiar title "O/zoioi. The names of these otherwise unknown poets 
are: Tragedians: Theodoros, Polemaios, Glaukon; Comedians: Met- 
rodoros, Agathenor. Diomedes; Satyr-dramatists: Theodoros, Polem- 
aios, Harmodios, Theudoros, Polemon. Of these last, two are identical 
with the tragedians. 

the above title M. Salomon Reinach publishes a study in the Revue des 
Etudes Grecques (Jan.-March, 1894), which is mainly an examination 
of an article by Adolf Michaelis in the Berlin Jahrbuch d. Institute. 
Since Brunn's article in 1870 (Annali, 1870, p. 292) it is admitted that 
there exist partial replicas of two of the groups of statues set up by 
the Kings of Pergamon in honor of their victory over the Galatians. 
These are : (1) Dying or fighting Gauls, Amazons, Giants and Per- 
sians, from the groups dedicated on the Athenian Akropolis, men- 
tioned by Pausanias. They were found in Rome early in the xvi 
century. The original comprised four sets of small figures relating to 
the contest of gods and giants, of Athenians and Amazons, of Athen- 
ians and Persians, and of Asiatic Greeks with Gauls or Galatians. In 
each case it is probable that the vanquished alone were represented. 
(2) A series of large statues in gable-like arrangement, probably on 
the Akropolis of Pergamon : of this there remain the statue of a Gaul 
in the Capitoline Museum, called the Dying Gladiator, and the so- 
called Arria and Paetus at the Ludovisi Villa, which even Raoul- 
Rochette recognized to be a Galatian killing his wife and himself. 

In 1889 M. Reinach himself published a paper on The Gauls in 
ancient art (see JOURNAL, 1889, p. 259) which included a study on 
derivatives of the Pergamene ez-votos. Michaelis has added consider- 
able new information : but in the present paper M. Reinach differs 


from some of his conclusions, especially in so far as they relate to a 
group of a woman lying dead while a child is still hanging to her breast. 
A xvi century drawing of this group has been found by Michaelis 
at Bale, and this shows that the group from which it was copied, now 
in the Naples Museum, was changed by a xvi century restorer who 
removed the child. M. Reinach seeks to explain the discrepancy of 
the Amazon costume of the woman and her carrying a child, as an 
artistic license referring to the Galatin habit for the mothers to carry 
their children with them in battle. This group M. Reinach would 
attribute to the sculptor Epigonos (see Pliny) and in view of the fact 
that the name of Epigonos has been found on five bases of statues at 
Pergamon, he believes that in Pliny's text we should read this name 
instead of the corrupt reading Isigonos among the sculptors of the 
commemorative groups. 

Against the opinion of Michaelis, Reinach does not believe that the 
Athenian groups are by the hand of Epigonos, i. e., the same artist 
who executed the Pergamene figures. He restores the Pergamene 
groups as follows : in the centre of the gable the suicide scene (Ludo- 
visi group) : on the right, the dying Gaul of the Capitol ; and on the 
left the dead Galatian mother with her infant. The sculptor of the 
Athenian groups, in imitating this motif, corrupted it by turning the 
mother into an Amazon, because there was no place for Galatian 
women in his composition. 

RHODES. DATES OF ARTISTS. In the Jahrbuch d. k. deut. arch. Inst. 
(1894, pp. 23-43), F. Hiller v. Gaertringen discusses the Dates of the 
Rhodian Artist's Inscriptions. Nine fac-similes of inscriptions are given 
(Sitzungsber. d. Berl Akad., 1892, p. 845 ff.; Mitth. Athen., 1891, p. 110, 
iv and 4 ; a new inscription signed 'ETrt'xap/Aos SoAcvs a> a. cirtSa/ua Se'Sorat 
KOL 'ETri'xap/Aos 'ETI-IXUP/AOS 'Po8ios cTToirjorav ; two parts of an inscription, 
Bull, de Corr. hell., 1890, p. 277 ff. ; an inscription -fVr/s ^^rpiov 'Po&os 
; LOWY, Inschr. gr. Bildh. 546, and elsewhere ; a new inscription 

TLoXvyvayrov 'AA.iKapvacro'ei'S euepyeras tTroir/cre; Mitth. Athen. ^ 1891, 

p. 120 ff., from drawings by Koldewey. As the result of the discussion 
of these and other inscriptions it appears that Rhodian art had a his- 
tory of almost two centuries. The earlier artists wrought during the 
latter part of the third and the earlier part of the second century B. c., 
the later ones in the first half of the first century B. c. Several names 
of artists are found between these periods, but. after B. c. 43 Rhodian 
prosperity and with it Rhodian art was destroyed. If the combination 
of the Rhodian Hagesander et Polydorus et Athenadorus, whom Pliny 
N. H. xxxvi, 37 mentions as artists of the Laocoon group, with the 
Hagesandros and Athenadoros of inscriptions is warranted, as seems 


to be the case, the Laocoon is to be assigned to about the second quar- 
ter of the first century B. c. 

TRALLES. EXCAVATIONS. In the Mitth. Athen. (1893, pp. 395-413; 
pis. 12, 13 ; 4 cuts), C. Humann and W. Doerpfeld report on Excavations 
in Tralles. Humann describes, with map, the site of Tralles on a hill 
above the modern Aidin, and the course of the excavations, carried on 
for four weeks in October, 1888, under Turkish auspices, but at the 
expense of the Oriental committee in Berlin. The ancient city has fur- 
nished a great part of the stone for building Aidin, and tentative dig- 
gings in several places resulted only in unimportant finds of sculptural 
fragments. The theatre was partially excavated, and Doerpfeld de- 
scribes the results. The orchestra was more than a semi-arch, perhaps 
originally a circle. The original floor was probably of earth, later 
covered with marble slabs. An open drain surrounded it in the early 
period. The diameter was then 25 m., later 26.40 m. Under the 
orchestra was a passage, similar to those found at Eretria and Magnesia, 
of Roman date. The cavea had two diazomata, and, in the lower part, 
was divided into eight cunei. The seats were made of a separate piece 
from the foot-rests. The front row of seats had arms at the aisles. The 
" scene-building " was about three metres high and six metres wide, 
supported upon three rows of columns, the middle row being double 
columns. A wall hid the columns from the orchestra, but perhaps 
this wall and even the row of columns next it belonged to a restora- 
tion. This structure cannot have been a real stage, as actors on it 
would have been partially hidden from spectators sitting in the lower 
part of the cavea. A flight of stone stairs seems to have led from the 
middle of the " scene-building " into the orchestra. The " stage-build- 
ing " extended from side to side of the orchestra, leaving no room for 
parodoi. The orchestra was entered by passing under part of the 
" scene-building " and the last seats of the cavea. The exact dates of 
the building and rebuilding of the theatre cannot yet be determined. 


LAPITHOS AND PTOLEMY SOTER. M. Philippe Berger has commu- 
nicated to the Acad. des Inscriptions a Phoenician inscription found at 
Lapithos in the northern part of Kypros. Its texts relates to the 
events that followed the conquest of the island by Ptolemy Soter. It 
emanates from one of the first governors of the district of Kerynia, a 
member of one of the great Phoenician families of the island, who 
thus desired to preserve the memory of the protection granted to him 
by his god Melkart, the Poseidon Larnakios. This inscription indi- 


cates the existence of a new local era, the era of Lapithos, which be- 
gins, according to Mr. Berger, in 308 B. c. Revue Arch., 1894, i, 107 ; 
Chron. des Arts, 1893, No. 36. 

HATHORIC VASES. M. Collignon communicated to the Soc. des 
Antiquaires some fragments of Cypriote vases in the Museum of the 
Louvre representing the head of the goddess Hathor. They prove 
that the female head on a vase in the British Museum, supposed by 
Prof. Ramsay (Journ. Hell. St. 1882) to come from Phocaea, is a Hath- 
oric head, and that the vase itself is probably of Cypriote manufacture. 
Bull. Soc. des Antiquaires, 1893, p. 83. 


RECENT INVESTIGATIONS. Dr. Halbherr is at present in Krete, but 
it is premature to give an account of his investigations. Mr. Myers 
and two Italian archaeologists are also exploring different parts of the 
island of this more anon. 

PREHISTORIC DISCOVERIES. We quote the following from the Athens 
correspondent of the Times : " Some interesting discoveries have just 
been made in Central Crete by Mr. Arthur Evans. The sites of two 
hitherto unknown primeval cities have been found, one with an 
acropolis and a votive grotto containing Mycenaean idols ; the other 
at Goulas, with stupendous ruins . . . also with an acropolis and 
the remains of a primitive palace. Traces were also discovered of the 
Mycenaean system of writing, which seems to have been closely par- 
allel with the Hittite and pictographic systems. Another system, 
apparently alphabetic, has been discovered, approaching more nearly 
to the Cypriote syllabary, the objects being reduced to linear forms." 
Acad., May 5. [It is yery probable that the ruins here referred to 
are those already known, and that the discoveries are really confined 
to the domain of epigraphy. ED.] 

KAMARAIS. A hoard of Mycenaean vases has been found in a grotto 
near Kamarais on Mount Ida. They resemble some vases of the 
island of Thera, and especially some lately found in Egypt. Mr. 
Myers has visited the locality in company with the president of the 
Greek Syllogos of Candia, and has copied the vases with a view to 
writing on the subject. Athen., Dec. 16. 


GREECE. The idea of giving a synopsis of archaeological discoveries 


and investigations, of which our JOURNAL has been so zealous a prop- 
agator, and, one might almost say, a pioneer, is becoming every year 
more popular. This is especially the case in the field of Greek anti- 
quities. M. Reinach not only continues his invaluable and detailed 
Chronique d' Orient in the Revue Archeologique, but has occasional reports 
of a slightly different character in the Gazette des Beaux Arts, Chronique 
des Arts, etc. Very full reports on Greece are now being published in 
the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique, and some space is devoted 
to News in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, the Classical Review and in 
the Jahrbuch d. dent, archdol Institute, and even in such reviews as the 
Revue de I'histoire des Religions. We refer our readers to these sources. 
In the Bulletin they will find especial attention given to epigraphy, 
and in the Jahrbuch great stress is laid upon additions to museums. 

DAMAGE BY THE EARTHQUAKES. It is hardly possible to report on 
the damage done to monuments in Greece by the successive earth- 
quakes this spring. The damage was very general throughout the 
north-east. In Athens a large block fell from the Gate of Hadrian 
and a capital from the gate of Athena Archegetis, damage was done 
to the monument of Philopappus and to several columns and to the 
epistyle of the Parthenon. In Livadia the mediaeval tower, in Calchis 
part of the fort, the Turkish mosque and the tower of the Church of 
the Holy Preparation fell down. 

The commission of engineers and architects appointed to inspect 
the ancient remains after the earthquake is of opinion that various 
parts of the Parthenon must be strengthened by iron clamps. A 
definite resolution has not yet been adopted. Still more serious is the 
damage done to three well-known monuments of the Middle Ages : 
the Monastery of Skripu on the site of the ancient Orchomenos; that 
of Daphni, near Athens ; and that of St. Luke at Livadia. The injur- 
ies at the last named are principally centered on the structure, those 
of the Daphni Monastery in the mosaics. When the ancient church 
of this monastery was damaged, not very long ago, by an earthquake, 
the Greek Government determined to restore it, and Signor Novo, of 
Venice, has devoted a couple of years to it. After pulling down the 
old cupola and erecting a new one of the same dimensions he replaced 
upon it the old mosaics which had been taken to pieces, and he per- 
formed the same operation for the mosaics on the walls of the body of 
the church. The work was already half completed when the earth- 
quakes began. The church, indeed, has suffered little, thanks to the 
fact that its walls had been secured last year by the insertion of tri- 
angular bands of iron ; but the shattering of the cells which are built 
above the church shows that even the church itself would suffer 




seriously from a continuance of the shocks. So it has been determined 
to remove to the Central Museum at Athens such of the ancient 
mosaics as the Italian workmen have not yet replaced on the walls of 
the church. Even with regard to the mosaics already restored to their 
old positions, some further step will probably be taken, as the com- 
mittee has expressed the opinion that, owing to its faulty construction, 
the church cannot, in spite of the bands of iron, be kept intact for 
more than half a century. Athenaeum, May 19. 

HERAKLES AND PELIAS. " Herakles at the funeral games of Pelias on 
the chest of Kypselos " is discussed by F. Studniczka in the Jahrbuch 
d. InsL, 1894, pp. 51-54. In opposition to Pernice (Jahrb., 1888, p. 
365 f.) it is shown that Herakles belongs to the representation of the 
funeral games, and that he is supposed to have his place at the turn- 
ing post of the race course, like Phoinix at the funeral of Patroklosy 
II xxm, 359 sq. 

LAOCOON-MONUMENTS. In the Jahrbuch d. Inst., 1894, pp. 43-50 r 
R. Forster discusses Two more Laocoon- Monuments (3 cuts). The first 
is a fragment of a vase of so-called Samian ware, found in 1866 at 
Cirencester. The little relief is somewhat damaged. A muscular man, 
in a posture recalling that of the Laocoon, is struggling with two snakes. 
Beside him is a small figure, perhaps a son of Laocoon, perhaps (if 
winged, which is uncertain) an Eros with reference to the love of 
Laokoon for Antiope. The second monument is an impression of a 
seal on a deed in possession of Lord Arundel at Wardour Castle. The 
deed is dated 1529, and the seal is that of Thomas Colyns, prior of 
Tywardreth in Cornwall. It was first published by C. W. King in 
the Archaeological Journal (London, 1867) xxiv, p. 45-54. King be- 
lieved it to be a work of the best period of Greek gem-engraving. 
Forster shows that it is modern, and of no use for the restoration of 
the Laocoon group. A gold plaquette in the museum at Berlin is- 

A MYCENEAN BULL-FRIEZE. This is the title of an article by F. 
Hauser in the Jahrbuch d. Inst., 1894, pp. 54-56 (cut). The fragment 
in the British Museum (Catalogue, by A. H. Smith I, No. 5, Perrot et 
Chipiez, Hist, de VArt, vi, p. 646) is republished and interpreted not as 
a lion but as a bull, and shown to resemble the bulls of the Vaphio- 
cups. The fragment probably came from Mykenae, and adds proba- 
bility to the view that the Vaphio cups and the bull of Tiryns are the 
work of native artists. 

NIKAGORAS, A RHODIAN STRATEGOS. On a stone, the form of which 
indicates that it was the base for a sepulchral monument, has been- 


recovered the inscription wrongly read by Biliotti and Cottret, L'isle 
de Rhodes, 1881. The inscription reads 

[Ka$J voOf.o'io.v Se NiKayopa 

We learn from this that Nikagoras came from a deme in the inner 
mountain region of Rhodes, known to-day as Alaerma. Hence Peraia 
where the Karpathians erected a monument to him was not his native 
place. F. HILLER VON GAERTRINGEN, in Arch. Epig. Mitth. aus Oestr. 
Ungarn, 1893, Heft 2. 

TLESON AND ERGOTELES. Amongst some vases in the possession of 
a Florentine dealer in antiquities is a cup in which signatures of 
Tleson and Ergoteles have been ignorantly combined by the discoverer 
or some later hand. To the 36 signed works by Tleson listed by Klein 
M. S., pp. 73-75, others may be added which, with the present, 
brings the number up to 41, showing him in productivity standing 
next to Nikosthenes. This is the second signature known of Ergoteles. 
LUDWIG POLLAK, in Arch. Epigr. Mitth. aus Oestr. Ungarn, 1893, Heft 2. 

published in the Revue Numismatique (1894, I,) entitled La date de 
Pheidon, M. Theodore Reinach says : " Pheidon, king of Argos, is the 
first really tangible individual in Greek history ; hence the serious 
importance of determining his date and the endless discussions that 
have arisen in regard to it. At present, as among the ancients, 
there reigns a perfect anarchy of opinions, and the dates assigned to 
the d/c/x,^ or climax of the reign of the Argive King vary from the be- 
ginning of the ix century to the year 580 a variation of three full 
centuries. As the name of Pheidon is connected with the history of 
the introduction of coinage in Greece, numismatists have often based 
themselves on the presumed date of his reign to draw conclusions in 
regard to that of this great reform. This is, in my opinion, a false 
method of reasoning : for, on the contrary, it is from the positive data 
of numismatics that we must derive assistance in making a choice 
among the divergent indications of ancient and modern historians." 

It may be granted, with Herodotus, that the Peloponnesian cubic 
measures owed their institution to Pheidon, and that to him also, as 
Pliny and Ephoros say, is due the system of weights. On the contrary, 
that he coined the first money, in the jEginetan mint, a fact stated 
by Ephoros and Aristotle, is manifestly false. One item in Aristo- 
tle's statement is, however of considerable interest. He states that 
Pheidon consecrated in the Heraion of Argos iron 6/ or spits, 
which were the medium of exchange before the introduction of coin- 


age. But when Aristotle adds that this gift of Pheidon was destined 
to commemorate the abolition of the old iron currency, it is impossible 
to agree with his explanation. Rather, it must be supposed that the 
ofifXia-Koi were placed in the temple with the practical object of pre- 
serving the regular legal standards ne varietur of a system then in 
vigor and expected to remain so. Such a custom is well attested, in 
other cases, at Athens, Delos, Labadeia, &c. The conclusion is that 
Pheidon far from abolishing the 6/3<\t<ncoi really introduced and regu- 
lated them. This simple fact places him far back of the period now 
commonly preferred the vu or vi centuries. For it should be re- 
membered that electrum coinage was invented by the Lydians toward 
the middle of the vu century. Shortly after the ^Eginetans com- 
menced their coinage, first of electrum and then of silver. Now the 
^Eginetan silver coinage follows the Peloponnesian, that is, the Phei- 
donian ponderal system. Hence, this system must have had, before 
650, the time to spread not only throughout the Peloponnesus but to 
Aegina : furthermore, it ruled at Athens in the time of Solon (595 
B. c.). Certainly a century would be short enough for such a propa- 
gation of the Pheidonian system. This would date its creation from 
the middle of the vm century, which is precisely the date assigned to 
Pheidon by the famous text of Pausanias, according to which he cele- 
brated, in concert with the Pisatoi, the eighth Olympiad (748 B. c.), 
and this text, thus confirmed by Aristotle, furnished the long-sought 
corner-stone of early Greek history. 

rator of the Boston Museum, happened to stay at Argos at the time of 
the close of this spring's excavations under Dr. Waldstein, and in a 
letter to the Nation (May 31) dated Athens, May 4, he describes the 
results quite fully and we will quote his words. " I had the good for- 
tune to spend three days there [at the Heraion] just before the close 
of this season's work, and am sure that any member of the Archaeolo- 
gical Institute of America would have felt as well pleased as I did at 
the manner in which the Institute's appropriation has been expended, 
not only as regards the value of the discoveries, but in the careful and 
intelligent handling of the soil, with a view to noting every bit of 
evidence it afforded on questions which might arise. 

" The site of the Heraion is literally one of the most commanding 
that could be thought of for a temple. No one who has crossed the plain 
of Argos can ever forget the beauty of that country. More level than 
Attica, its appearance is also more restful. There is hardly a mound 
to break its surface until one reaches the foot-hills of the mountains 
which surround it, except where the sea makes its crescent on the 


south. The long, sweeping curve of its slope is broken near the base 
by a small crest or ridge, into which it rises just before it joins the 
plain, and this crest was chosen as the site for the temple of Hera. 

" The original temple was placed not upon the summit of this crest, 
but upon the upper part of the southern slope, where a platform or 
terrace was constructed for it, and here it must have formed a conspic- 
uous object from every quarter of the plain. The only unquestionable 
remnant on the site is a portion of one low wall, on the top of which 
the circles traced in the stone to indicate the size and position of sev- 
eral of the columns are still clearly visible. This bit of wall is much 
more primitive than those of the Olympian Heraion, and bespeaks a 
decidedly earlier date for this temple, which may therefore be the 
oldest Greek temple that we know. The pavement of the platform is 
in remarkably good preservation. Above it, and separated", by a thin 
layer of earth, was a concrete flooring, several patches of which are 
left. The excavation of the later terrace is a remarkably clean piece 
of work, and reflects great credit on those who had to do with it. Every 
answer which the place still had to give as to the character and details 
of the new temple and its immediate surroundings, the student finds 
here, readity at hand. What actually remains in situ is the walls of 
the foundations, several courses high, including those of the peripteros 
and the interior, and that of the steps or incline by which the temple 
was entered. These foundation walls are not preserved up to the 
level of the floor; and from the manner in which they were left it is 
evident that they and probably other portions of the temple were not 
destroyed by nature or by violence, but carried away, block by block. 
There is reason to believe, therefore, that the careful examination, by 
an architect, of the towns in the plain might result in the discovery of 
important members built into mediaeval or later structures. On and 
near the terrace are sufficient fragments to give the general indications 
of the proportions and style of the temple, though here again it is sur- 
prising that there are not more. I believe that only three fragments 
of capitals have been unearthed, and scarcely any of the columns 
themselves. On the other hand, a number of blocks of the upper mem- 
bers have been found and these show that both the triglyphs and the 
background of the pediments were of black marble. 

" The retaining wall which separated the terrace of the later temple 
from that above it, formed the back of a long stoa or portico, in front 
of which votive statues and stelai were erected. The bases and grooves 
showing where these stood are numerous, but, beyond a few inscrip- 
tions, nothing of the works themselves remains. 


" Below the new temple is a fourth terrace, which seems to have been 
occupied for the greater part, if not the whole, of its length by another 
portico, only a portion of which has yet been uncovered. The greater 
part of the working force has been concentrated upon this site during 
the present season, partly because it seems to have been one of the 
principal buildings of the sanctuary, and might be expected to contain 
inscriptions or other monuments of importance, and partly because 
Dr. Waldstein hoped that in the enormous mass of earth under which 
its remains are buried he might find sculptures or other valuable objects, 
thrown over from the terrace of the temple. Some fragments of metopes 
have already been found here, and quantities of terracotta fragments. 
But not more than half of the portico had been uncovered when the 
work had to be brought to a close, and we cannot say what may yet 
be waiting to be brought to light. 

" I have spoken of only the most important buildings which have 
thus far been unearthed, but there are others, partially disclosed this 
year, which promise to be no less interesting, some of them being 
undoubtedly within the sacred enclosure, and therefore directly con- 
nected with the sanctuary. As the plans of these are more or less 
complicated, a description would be confusing without the aid of 
diagrams, and for these we must wait until new drawings of the site 
have been prepared. From this slight account, however, it will be 
seen that the architectural discoveries are not the least important that 
have been made here. They are in fact much more extensive than I 
had expected to find them, and well deserve to be carefully worked up. 

" Of the sculptures, the now famous Hera head still remains the most 
beautiful and the most interesting. Of this and the other fragments, 
which are now familiar in America through casts and photographs, I 
need not speak. This year, besides the fragments found on the lowest 
terrace, several have been brought to light elsewhere, among them the 
head of a youth, which bears a close resemblance to the female head 
found by Rangabe on this site. This year, as before, the fragments of 
decorated pottery discovered are almost countless. Combined they 
form one of the most remarkable finds of this nature ever made in 
Greece. By far the larger part are of the early styles, Mykensean, 
Dipylon, and, most of all, the so-called " proto-Corinthian," upon the 
history of which they bid fair to throw new light. The labor of clas- 
sifying these will be long and trying, but it will give our School one 
of the best opportunities that could have been desired for publishing 
new and valuable material. 

DOMICAL TOMBS. " Speaking of pottery, I cannot pass over a most in- 
teresting discovery which took place while I was at the excavation 


that of a " bee-hive " tomb of the Mykenai type, which apparently had 
never been opened since the last body was placed in it. The tomb 
was roughly hewn in the soft rock, and, the top having fallen in, the 
vault or chamber is filled to the surface with a solid mass of earth. 
Gradually its concave walls show themselves, and then the two or 
three men who can work inside the hole proceed, as carefully as their 
impatience will allow, to clear the interior down to the level where 
they may expect to find something. After two days the tomb and its 
dromos, or entrance-passage, had been cleared out. The tomb meas- 
ured about ten feet in diameter and the same in height. It contained 
no less than fifty-two specimens of prehistoric pottery, most of them 
fine examples of the Mykenai and lalysos types, with the decorations 
upon them quite fresh and brilliant. Of these, forty-eight were vases, 
three were idols, and one was a little chair or throne for an idol, about 
six inches tall, and gaily painted. There was no metal of any kind. 

" This tomb was about a half-mile to the north-west of the temple, 
near the path to Mykenai. Another was found the day following, 
much nearer the Heraion. It was empty, but its existence proved 
that the first was not an isolated grave, and probably there are many 
others in the neighborhood, as the workmen believe. If so, there may 
be still another chapter to be written on the history and worship of 
the old temple near which they were made. What was their relation 
to it? 

4< I hope that this and the other discoveries I have described may 
cause those who are interested in these matters to share the regret I 
felt when I heard that it was not the intention of the Managing Com- 
mittee of the School to continue these excavations after this year. It 
was, as I know, the expectation that the work could be completed 
with the present season. This, in spite of prophecies, has been im- 
possible, as an examination of the place shows. It is a safe maxim 
for all work of this kind that you cannot tell what is in a hole until 
you have dug it ; and, in the present case, the more that has been dug 
the more there has been to dig. Aside from the question of these newly- 
discovered tombs, which bid fair to be of exceptional importance, the 
site of the Heraion itself cannot be considered properly excavated until 
the line of the peribolos wall has been determined and every build- 
ing or monument within it laid bare. Its entrance is still to be dis- 
covered and the approaches by which the different terraces were 
reached. Two hundred and fifty men have been employed this year, 
and an average of five members of the School have superintended the 
work and taken charge of the things found. This is as large a force 
as can be advantageously employed, yet it is my impression that more 


than one season will still be necessary before the work can properly 
be considered as finished. It would be unfortunate if the results of 
these excavations were to remain unpublished, yet it would seem a 
waste alike of energy and money if what we are to regard as a final 
publication were prepared with a large part of the site still buried. 
Therefore, in the interest of our School, and for the sake of those who 
have carried on the work admirably thus far, it is earnestly to be 
hoped that the committee will find it possible to allow the excava- 
tions to continue until they are really completed, and then to publish 
the results in the manner they deserve." EDWARD ROBINSON. 

In a letter dated at the Argive Hera3urn, on April 6, Dr. Waldstein 
gives a brief account of the success which had already attended this 
spring's excavations of the American School of Classical Studies at 
Athens, at that place. He had 258 workmen engaged in removing 
accumulations of soil, and had already completed the excavation of 
the eastern end of the second temple platform. New ruins of build- 
ings had been brought to light, besides more than a score of basket- 
Ms of vases, bronzes, cut stones, etc. The most important discovery 
was that of " another metope head in perfect preservation, of the best 
fifth-century art." This head illustrates perfectly Polycletan art, and 
" reminds one of the head of the Doryphoros." Another male torso, 
from a metope, and a later head were among the discoveries. Much 
work remains to be done. Nation, May 10. 

The following note seems to indicate some discoveries shortly after 
Mr. Robinson's departure : " At Argos the excavations of the Ameri- 
can School have laid bare a large marble building which is believed 
to be the Gymnasium, as also many tombs of the Mycenaean age."- 
Atken., May 19. 

Dr. Dorpfeld, before bringing this season's excavations near the Pnyx 
and Areopagus to a close, made still another important discovery, 
viz., that of the site of the ancient temple of Dionysos en limnais, 
together with statues, reliefs and inscriptions. These last speak of the 
worship of the god and of his rites, and of the ceremonies attending 
the reception of those who wished to form part of the Sacred Society 
of the lobacchi ('lo/foKxot). A large four-cornered altar bears on one 
side a sacrificial scene, in which may be seen a man preparing to kill 
a goat, while behind it stands an ox bound to an altar by the horns. 
On another side is seen a satyr dragging a ram by the horns, with a 
man standing near ready to fell it with a club, while behind is seen a 
maenad. A third face represents the figures of Dionysos, Pan and a 
satyr, while the fourth bears a short inscription. Athen., March 24. 


The Enneakrounos was described by the ancients as being near 
the temple of Dionysos tv At/mus and the Odeion, and Dr. Dorpfeld 
has discovered the remains of a building which may well be the 
Odeion. All that has been found lately belongs, generally speaking, 
to the second or third century of our era ; but amongst the sculptures 
there is a head of King Attalos, which is much more ancient. The 
largest of the inscriptions found at the same time gives us the name 
of a new eponymous archon called Epaphroditos. Athen., March 24. 
In the Mitth. Athen. (1894, pp. 143-151), Dr. Dorpfeld writes of his 
Excavations at the Enneakrounos (cf. Mitth., 1892, p. 439, sq., and 1893, 
p. 231, sq.)- A rock cut aqueduct with pipes dating from the sixth 
century B. c., has been followed for about 150 metres. The Odeion 
mentioned by Pausanias I. 14 as near the Enneakrounos was not 
found, but south of the Areopagos was found a building of Roman 
times called Bakcheion, the assembling place of the thiasos of lobakchoi, 
as is stated in an inscription. The hall was 18x11 metres in size, 
divided into three aisles by two rows of columns, and had at the east- 
ern end an apse in which several altars and a great number of sculp- 
tures were found. An altar with dionysiac reliefs has an inscription, 
KOPOTROGOrAR AARTEM IN. Another altar bears the name of Arte- 
mis, and a statue of the type of the Artemis of Versailles was found. 
These were found in a room near the apse, which is believed to be the 
late Roman Artemision. The Bakcheion occupied the site of the 
ancient precinct of Dionysos ev At/wcus. Deep under the floor of 
the hall of the lobakchoi a precinct about 40 x 20 metres in size has 
been found, surrounded by polygonal walls. In this precinct were 
found many fragments of large vases with black and red figures, the 
foundation of an altar or table of poros, and a building with a Greek 
wine-press. Near this ancient precinct of Dionysos is a second pre- 
cinct with polygonal walls, probably that of Artemis V At/mus (Schol. 
Callimach., H. to Artemis, 172). Excavations are to be renewed in 
the autumn. 

THE PELARGIKON. In the 'E^iepts 'Apxa">A.oyiK^, 1894, pp. 25-62, John 
Williams White writes of The Pelargikon in the Age of Perikles, combat- 
ing the opinion expressed by Dorpfeld (Mitth. Athen., 1889, p. 65, sq.) 
and others, that the Pelargikon -existed as a fortification throughout 
classical times. Inscriptions and all passages of classical authors 
relating to the question are discussed, and the conclusion is reached 
that the fortification was not restored after the Persian occupation of 

STATUE OF T/ENIA-BEARER. In the Mitth. Athen. (1894, pp. 137-139), J. 
Ziehen publishes (cut) a Statue of a Taenia-bearer in the Peiraieus. The 


marble statue was found near the custom-house at the Peiraieus. 
The head, left leg from above the knee, and right foot are gone. A 
youth is represented, carrying in his right hand a bundle of book- 
rolls, in his left a large alabastron. The youth is nude, save that he 
has thrown about his neck and shoulders at least fifteen tsenise. The 
meaning of this is unknown. The statue is of Roman times. 

INSCRIPTIONS In the Mitth. Athen. (1894, pp. 110-112), Th. Preger 
publishes five inscriptions from Athens. Three are in elegiac verse. 
Of these, two are sepulchral, the third from the basis of a portrait- 
statue. The fourth inscription is merely the name, etc., of Apollonides? 
son of Menodoros, A^po-SioW^s. The fifth is a brief dedication by one 
Lokianos to Hermes Epekoos in archaistic characters. 

BRONZE TRIPOD. A. Bruckner published in the Mitth. Athen. -(1893, p. 
414, pi. 14), an Athenian grave-find of the geometrical period. The object 
in question is a bronze tripod found near the Athenian slaughter- 
house southwest of the extremity of the Pnyx hill, and acquired in 
1883 by the Greek Archaeological Society. Each leg has herring-bone 
ornament. Over the upper end of each leg is a rolled double spiral, 
after the manner of Ionic volutes. The hoop supported by the legs is 
wrought a jour, the pattern being in the main a succession of S-shaped 
spirals. The tripod supported an urn of thin bronze 0.53m. in diam- 
eter. The tripod itself is 0.45m. high. 

1894, pp. 1-23 in the Jahrbuch Arch. Inst. contains an elaborate article 
by F. Winter on The Sarcophagi from Sidon (17 illustrations). Cf. 
A. J. A., in, p. 97 sq. ; 156 sq. ; 431 sq. After a very complimentary 
introduction concerning the new museum in Constantinople and the 
archaeological activity of Hamdy Bey, the tomb at Sidon is described 
with its shaft and seven chambers containing seventeen sarcophagi. 
This tornb is older than the adjacent tomb of Tabnit. The sarcophagi 
are then described in detail and discussed. The oldest are the " Ly- 
cian " sarcophagus and " sarcophagus of the Satrap," both belonging 
to the fifth century, B. c. The " sarcophagus of the mourning maid- 
ens " belongs approximately to the time of the mausoleum at Hali- 
karnassos. The superb u Alexander sarcophagus " is discussed from 
various points of view. These beautiful sarcophagi were not origin- 
ally intended for the tomb in which they were found, but were made 
(no doubt in Athens) for some important personages and afterwards 
brought to Sidon. The exact interpretation of the scenes on the 
Alexander sarcophagus is difficult, and the question for whom it was 
made remains unanswered. The illustrations are taken from Une 
Necropole royale a Sidon, by Hamdy Bey and Theodore Reinach. 


AMERICAN SCHOOL AT ATHENS. At a recent meeting, in New Haven,, 
of the managing committee of the American School of Classical 
Studies at Athens, Prof. J. R. Wheeler, of Burlington, Vt., was elected 
secretary of the committee, to succeed the late Mr. T. W. Ludlow, 
Prof. T. D. Goodell, of Yale, was elected Professor of the Greek Lan- 
guage and Literature for 1894-95, and Prof. B. I. Wheeler, of Cornell, 
to the same office for 1895-96. Mr. Richard Norton was elected 
instructor. Prof. F. B. Tarbell, of the University of Chicago, was 
made a member of the committee. The faculty of the school will 
consist of Prof. R. B. Richardson, director; Dr. Charles Waldstein,. 
Professor of Art ; Prof. Goodell, of Yale, Professor of the Greek Lan- 
guage and Literature ; -Mr. Richard Norton, instructor on Greek vases.. 

lowing notes, taken almost entirely from M. Homolle's reports, will 
summarize from their very beginning all the stages of the French 
Excavations at Delphi, which have met with such wonderfully bril- 
liant success. The notices that have hitherto appeared in the JOURNAL 
have been so desultory and incomplete as to make some such full 
statement necessary. 

The French Chamber, in proposing a commercial treaty with Greece 
in 1890-91, included a grant of 500,000 francs for excavations at Del- 
phi. The treaty was accepted and ratified by the Greek Chamber, 
The next step was to expropriate the entire village, which consisted 
of some thousand lots divided among over three hundred owners, 
This required the construction of a new village on land which had 
to be expropriated, divided into lots, built upon and water provided. 
The estimate was concluded in December 1891. 

The French School installed a superintendent in June, 1892 : be- 
tween July and December it constructed a Decauville railroad to 
carry away the rubbish. All preliminaries having been concluded 
and the first payments made on October 7, MM. Homolle and Couve- 
proceeded to Delphi on that day and work was opened Oct. 10. A 
conflict soon arose with the inhabitants, who opposed all work until 
the complete payment of indemnities. The work-yard was invaded, 
the workmen dispersed, as they had been before at the time of the 
laying of the railroad, and excavations could be resumed only with 
armed protection. 

The discoveries made in the first campaign, during the autumn 
and winter of 1892-93, may be summarized as follows : 

EARLIEST DISCOVERIES, 1392-3- Topography. A new section'of the Sacred 
Way was uncovered, connected with that discovered by M. Haussoul- 
lier. It descends in curved line, passing under a house. To the right 


the basement of the semi-circular monument in breccia and marble, 
where fragments partly covered with inscriptions lay on or in the 
ground. Between it and another ancient basement is a wall of later 

Architecture. Beside these basements several architectural pieces 
were found : enough of the semi-circular monuments to reconstruct 
it almost entirely; drums of doric columns and cut stone of tufa, 
from the temple of Apollon ; marble shafts of doric columns of fine 
execution; and Ionic capital of the iv century; the entablature of an 
Ionic or Corinthian building of about the same period, of fine work ; 
pieces of mouldings, cornices, gutters, a lion-head gargoyle, painted 
architectural terracottas. 

Sculpture. Fragment of a figure in the style of the xoana, apparently 
seated. Archaic female statue, draped ; female face of archaic style. Sev- 
eral fragments of statues or bas-reliefs. A Roman bust. Fragments of a 
bas-relief representing a female torso of elegant style. 

Various Objects. A small bronze bracelet, a small votive bronze hel- 
met, some Greek, Roman and Byzantine bronze and silver coins, 
an axe and stone hammer, a terracotta statuette and some fragments 
of painted vases, an inscribed amphora handle. 

Epigraphy. About sixty inscriptions were found : the majority be- 
long to the Alexandrine and Roman periods, a few are anterior to the 
iv century, and a few contemporary with the Roman empire. There 
are: acts of manumission ; dedications, decrees of the city of Delphi, 
catalogues ; accounts ; an oracle ; the regulations of a yeVos ; letters 
from foreign cities, emperors or Roman magistrates one of which is 
in latin. 

Among the more interesting texts are : (1) a metrical inscription 
relating to the miraculous birth of a long-awaited child, who came 
forth after a sacrifice to the god and in conformity with an oracle. 
The account and circumstances remind of the cure-steles of Epidauros. 
(2) Decrees in favor of a xopo^aXrpia from Kyme, of Q. Fufius Cale- 
nus, of a xP a uA/>7s, unopposed victor, who had out of gratitude, exe- 
cuted a piece of the Ba^ai of Euripides, &c. (3) A latin inscription 
regarding work required in the territory of Delphi in consequence of 
inundations. (4) a o-rotx^Sdi/ inscription in fine characters of the fifth 
century containing a series of decrees of the ycVos, of the Aa/3mSai. 
The regulations concern the admission of children into the yeVos, mar- 
riage, religious obligations, and funeral ceremonies of the members. 
Careful provision is made for the role of each magistrate, the proced- 
ure, the fines ; the oath has here, as in all early and religious legisla- 
tion, a very important place. 


DISCOVERIES IN THE SPRING OF 1 893. The excavations lasted from May 1 to 
November 15, no work being done in August and September. The 
surface explored was increased more than ten-fold. The plan drawn 
up by M. Tournaire, the architect of the excavations, embraces a space 
of about 150 by 80 metres, comprising : (1) the entire sloping region 
traversed by the Sacred Way from the Treasury of the Athenians to 
the point where, after a long curve, it reaches the summit of the Pe- 
lasgic wall, in front of the E facade of the temple of Apollon ; (2) 
the terrace that sustains the temple; (3) the temple itself, which is 
already more than half cleared. 

Treasury of the Athenians. This name given hypothetically to the 
structure discovered in May was confirmed by direct proof; by Athe- 
nian decrees cut on the walls and containing mention of the 
rrys TToAecos " treasury of the city (of Athens)," and of the OIKOS ' 
fragments of the dedication of the monument cut in a step, contain- 
ing the words A0ENAI . . MAP A . . [it is known that the structure 
was in commemoration of and erected with the spoils of the battle 
of Marathon]. The structure the remains of which are so numer- 
ous as almost to make a reconstruction possible rested on a terrace 
accessible on the east side and was protected in the rear by a retain- 
ing wall built in alternating regular courses and polygonal masonry. 
It measures about 10 by 6 metres, has the form of a temple in antes, 
of Doric style, and reminds, especially in the outline of its capitals, 
of the temples of Aigina and Olympia. 

The metopes, more or less completely reconstituted, number at least 
sixteen. The scenes identified belong to the legend of Herakles and 
perhaps to that of Theseus a combination seen in the " Theseion " at 
Athens. The hero in these contests is struggling sometimes with men, 
sometimes with animals ; he bears at times the lion skin and quiver, 
symbols of Herakles, at times a helmet and buckler, less characteris- 
tic symbols, which might also belong to Theseus. The following 
scenes may be cited : the contest with Geryon, covering two and per- 
haps three metopes, one representing the triple warrior, a second the 
oxen, and a third the dog Orthros ; contest with a wounded amazon ; 
with an overthrown centaur ; with the lion of Nemea, who is being 
suffocated ; with the Cretan or Marathonian bull ; victory of Herakles 
over a vanished enemy ; his meeting with Athena. Then came a 
series of unexplained or incomplete scenes, combats, series of ani- 
mals, &c. 

Inscriptions of the Treasury. One of the steps was inscribed with 
the dedication. The walls, from the orthostatai to the architraves, were 
covered with inscriptions, Attic in great part, or relating to Athe- 


nians. The arrangement of the courses has been reconstructed by 
the help of the inscriptions : the antae have been put together from 
bottom to top and thus give the exact height of the monument. The 
inscriptions belong to the following categories. (1) Decrees of the 
Athenian people, of the Marathonian tetrapolis, Delphic decrees in 
favor of Athenians and a few strangers. (2) Decrees of the Amphik- 
tyons or of the Delphians in favor of Teos (right of asylum). (3) 
Brief of a dispute between the association of the rexvlrcu of Athens 
and the corporation of Thebes, which was carried in turn before the 
synod of the Isthmus and of Nemea, before the Amphiktyons, and 
finally before the Roman magistrates and senate. (4) Catalogues of 
individuals sent from Athens to Delphi for the celebration of the Py- 
thia (ephebes, priests, theori, pytheasts, etc.) very important for the 
study of the attic yiv-q and the feasts of Delphi. (5) Inscriptions in 
honor of individuals, mostly Athenians, who had received Delphic 
citizenship. (6) Musical fragments, in which the poetry is surmounted 
by signs of vocal or instrumental notation [these will be treated se- 
parately below]. The sustaining wall in calcareous stone, placed be- 
hind the Treasury is itself covered with inscriptions, decrees of 
proxeny and manumission. Finally, tall white marble cippi, whose 
four faces bear decrees of proxeny and a psean were found on the ter- 
race. Copies of all the inscriptions have been made by MM. Couve 
and Bourguet. 

Further Discoveries. The Treasury is surrounded by three tufa 
structures one above and two below it. Here must have been the 
Treasury of the Boiotians, and here, in fact, have been found the dedi- 
catory inscriptions of several offerings consecrated by Boiotians, or 
executed by Boiotian artists. Along the sustaining wall, still stand- 
ing, but with broken feet, was an archaic Apollon, over two metres in 
height, sculptured, as a broken inscription on the base informs us, by 
a certain . . . //.eSes, of Argos. It is a monument of capital impor- 
tance for the history of Peloponnesian sculpture. A few steps above 
the temple, along the Sacred Way, were two inscriptions of the fourth 
century, contemporary with the Sacred War : one contains the ac- 
counts of the years 353-342 ; the other the list of payments made by 
the Phokidians, in consequence of fines imposed upon them. A con- 
siderable space void of monuments extends both on the left of the 
Sacred Way, between the Treasury and the Portico of the Athenians, 
and on the right, opposite this Portico. The first site, covered with 
rocks, may be identified with the sanctuary of G6 and the Muses, 
where doubtless was the stone whence the Sibyl prophesied, and the 
rock, seat of the primitive oracle near which Python perished. The 


second site, uncovered, of circular form, surrounded by benches, may 
be regarded as the aAws. 

At this point at the end of the Portico of the Athenians and the 
east corner of the Pelasgic wall the road runs parallel to the walk with 
rapid ascent. At this elbow a straight staircase came in which per- 
haps was continued below, toward the entrance to the sanctuary, 
giving a straight approach. The upper part of the road is bordered, 
on the right side, by a continuous close line of monuments, as being 
the spot nearest the temple and the most prized. Pausanias enumer- 
ates here a large number of structures, and among the basements there 
doubtless is that of the Treasury of the Corinthians. No inscriptions 
have been found to help identification, except one, which appears to 
be in situ and as it bears the letters T APANTI it probably bore the 
offering made by the Tarentines after the defeat of the Peucetians. 
(Paus. x, 13, 10.) 

On the opposite side, where the road joins the level of the front es- 
planade of the temple, about in front of the temple's axis, is a large 
mass of bluish calcareous stone and marble. Its lower step still bears 
an inscription commemorating the concession to the Chians of the 
irpofjuurreCa : the cornice preserves the dedication by them to Apollon. 
This is the /?w/uos described by Herodotos (n, 135) as existing at this 
place. Near by is the base that bore the trophies of Paulus ^Emilius, 
still with its magnificent Latin dedication. Just above was a monu- 
ment consecrated by Charixenos, praetor of the Aitolians, of which 
the architrave and cornice have been found. Near by was a column 
of quite a new type, imitating the stem of the silphium, which indi- 
cated the Treasury of the Cyreneans (Paus. x, 13, 7). Some frag- 
ments of inscriptions indicate other monuments mentioned by Pausa- 
nias, but of uncertain site, such as the Treasury of Siphnos, below 
the offering of the Liparii, for a victory over the Tyrrhenians both 
near that of the Athenians ; the ex-voto of the Argives, etc. 

The Temple. The Pelasgic wall, whose eastern and western angles 
are cleared, supports the terrace upon which the temple rests. M. 
Homolle defers the description of the temple until the completion of 
the excavations. He calls attention, however, to an aqueduct which 
ends far underneath the basement of the temple and appears to be 
the ava.7rvor] TOV va/naros mentioned by Plutarch. Several hundred in- 
scriptions have been unearthed from different parts of the sanctuary. 
They fall into the following classes : (1) Decrees of the Amphiktyons 
or Delphians ; (2) Decrees and letters of foreign cities ; (3) Letters of 
kings, magistrates or emperors ; (4) Accounts of the temple ; (5) 
Brief of documents relating to the limits of the sacred domain ; (6) 




artists' signatures ; (7) catalogues. Sculptures have been less abun- 
dant. The sphinx, of which M. Foucart had seen two fragments has 
been substantially completed its head being like that of a colossal 
Apollon. It was placed on the summit of the column of the Nax- 
ians, of which the drum and the capital have been formed. 

M. Homolle has been authorized by the French Minister of Public 
Instruction to commence during this year the preliminary publica- 
tion of the results of the excavations. 

EXCAVATIONS IN THE SPRING OF 1894. At the sitting of the Academie des 
Inscriptions on May 11, the secretary read M. Homolle's official report, 
dated April 25, on the excavations carried on at Delphi this spring, of 
which an almost complete translation is here given. 

Excavations were again started on March 27. The program for 
this year was : (1) To finish the clearing of the temple of Apollon 
and begin that of the region above it containing the theatre and the 
famous Lesche of the Knidians decorated with paintings by Polygno- 
tos; (2) To clear all the ground within the sacred enclosure, from 
the Treasury of the Athenians to the eastern entrance of the sanctuary, 
arid as far as the encircling wall itself on its east, south and west 
sides ; (3) To excavate the space comprised between the southern en- 
circling wall called Hellenico and the road, in order to gather up any 
pieces of sculpture or architecture that might have been cast over it. 

In each of these cases the object to be attained was clear and defi- 
nite and the choice of the sites justified both by Pausanias and by 
hypotheses based on the rapid fall of the ground. The objects that 
were especially looked for were the metopes and gables of the temple 
of Apollon, described by Euripides and Pausanias : the completing 
pieces of the Treasury of the Athenians, all of which must still ex- 
ist; the rest of the metopes, which will make it possible to join all 
the fragments together ; the remains of the inscriptions which covered 
this structure, among which may be the remaining portions of the 
hymn to Apollon. In the lower part of the sanctuary may be found 
the bases of the numerous ex-votos placed along the sacred way per- 
haps the ex-votos themselves everything in fact, that may have come 
down the slope from above. 

The best and most important discoveries thus far this season have 
been made between the Treasury of the Athenians and the Hellenico 
at the very foot of this wall. Above the wall, near the southwest cor- 
ner of the sanctuary, a trifle below and to the west of the Treasury 
of the Athenians, there remain the foundations of the Treasury of 
the Boiotians. This was consecrated in memory of the battle of 
Leuktra, was built of greyish blue calcareous stone and covered with 


inscriptions. Many of these have come to light; decrees of prexeny 
in favor of individuals Thebans for the greater part though the 
longest is a boundary regulation. 

Epigraphic documents continue to abound, over a hundred having 
been found since the last campaign. Among these is a signature of 
the artist Theopropos of Aigina, valuable both as a historic document 
and because cited by Pausanias ; two plaques of accounts of the 
fourth century ; a letter of the Roman senate to the inhabitants of 
Delphi, who had been the victims of violence at the hand of certain 
neighbours, a letter which is a fine page of political literature ; dedi- 
cations, decrees in honor of benefactors of Delphi, and especially in. 
favor of the athletes, musicians and poets who had gained prizes in 
the contests, etc. 

As the lower strata of the soil are reached, a yellow or black earth 
so compact as to have the consistency and aspect of undisturbed soil, 
great numbers of fragments of terracottas and bronzes are found.. 
These appear under the same conditions at each of the points under 
excavation, but especially before the west front of the temple. 

The terracotta fragments for up to the present very few even small 
objects have been found entire are divided among the Mykensean,, 
geometric, proto-corinthian and corinthian styles. The geometric 
pieces present contain details worthy of study. M. Perdrizet has 
studied them with care and noted exactly the superposition of the 
various types in the layers of earth. The interesting results of his 
observations will be communicated later. 

The bronzes belong in the majority of cases to the category of sacred 
utensils, such as tripods, cauldrons, cups, vases, etc., and the excessive 
humidity of the soil has usually much oxydized and damaged them. 
One piece has been found in perfect preservation and with fine pat- 
ina ; it is a bird with human head in the oriental style, like those 
found near lake Van, at Olympia, and Mt. Ptoos : no more complete 
and beautiful specimen of the type exists. Other pieces of this class 
of bronzes are : a similar bird, less well preserved ; a lion of Assy- 
rian type ; three griffin heads, such as decorated tripods ; two small 
horses, and another small animal, a dog or a wolf. One of the grif- 
fins equals the finest found at Olympia. The human figure is repre- 
sented by several statuettes. The earliest is a very primitive piece, 
recalling the flat terracotta maquettes and the Dipylon type of face : 
another belongs to the series of archaic " Apollos :" an Athena much 
oxydised, is a delicate work of the fourth or close of the fifth century. 

The clearing which is at present being carried on of thehypogeums 
of the temple and that soon to be undertaken of the terrace of the 


temple up to the very foot of the Pelasgic wall, will doubtless furnish 
many very primitive terracottas and bronzes. 

It is yet too early to report on the plan and arrangement of the 
upper and subterranean parts of the temple, for the clearing is as yet 
not sufficiently advanced. 

The most important discoveries of the last few weeks belong to the 
domain of sculpture, justifying the confidence felt against quite a 
general scepticism. The discovery of the metopes of the Treasury 
of the Athenians was an archaBological event. These exquisite works 
of the Attic school, exactly dated as they are (c. 480 B. c.), fill a va- 
cancy in the history of Greek art. Their intrinsic value, the compar- 
isons they suggest, the conclusions they justify, make of them a work 
of the first rank. They compose a group which for vigor and grace 
of execution, for both artistic and scientific importance, is comparable 
to the groups of Olympia and the Athenian Akropolis. 

This discovery is now supplemented by that of the caryatidae and 
of a frieze which appears to be that of the temple of Apollon itself. 
These new sculptures are between twenty and thirty years older than 
those of the Treasury; they proceed from Attic workshops and they 
lengthen this most interesting archaic period whose history is now 
being reconstructed in great part for the first time. For it is the 
period when archaism was throwing off its last bonds, and when the 
artists, masters of the technique of their art, were seeking for that 
ideal of beauty attained by Pheidias. 

Archaic Caryatidae. Three weeks ago there was found at the foot 
of the Hellenic wall a female head about half a metre in height. It 
was an archaic work, but charmingly graceful and of youthful beauty. 
The hair was in long crimped and undulating bands crowned and 
intersected by double lines of adjusted curls, then came a diadem 
with metallic ornaments, above which was a sort of tiara or polos 
resting on an elegant crown of ogees. Observing the remains of the 
polos I discovered the traces of feet, and concluded that it must have 
been decorated with a circular frieze of figures. I then remembered 
a small colonnette with such a decoration found last year in the ruins- 
of a house (see Miiller in the Denkmdler') : it was found to fit exactly 
on the newly discovered head which was thus proved to belong to the 
statue of a caryatid. On the same day a second head of equal dimen- 
sions was found, still having its polos intact. Though of a somewhat 
more severe and dry style, it is evidently a work of the same time 
and for the same purpose as the first, and belonging to the same mon- 
ument. Compared to the statues of the Akropolis they will be seen 


to be among the most highly finished, serene and perfect, with a smile 
that has something grave and melancholy. 

This led to a further discovery. When I went to Delphi in 1891 to 
settle on the limits of the excavations, I had seen in a garden, on 
the very site where these two heads were now discovered, the body of 
a colossal female statue of the type of the Akropolis figures. The 
style and the arrangement of the hair corresponded exactly to those 
of the first head, which was found to belong to it. As several frag- 
ments had already been adjusted to this torso in the museum, the 
statue was almost complete. Here then, at the close of the sixth cen- 
tury, is a caryatid executed by Attic artists, a first attempt, a proto- 
type of the Korai of the porch of the Erechtheion. To what build- 
ing did they belong ? Certainly to a large edifice of the sixth century, 
but whether or no to the temple of Apollon itself will be left to the 
excavations to decide. It should merely be noted in the meantime 
that the subjects figured on the polos of the two figures, a Bacchic 
seene and an Apolline scene, correspond to the two aspects of the 
Delphic cult, and to the two compositions that decorated the gables 
of the temple. 

Archaic Sculptured Frieze. In the same manner as Delphi gives us 
the model of the Caryatidae of the Erechtheion, she seems to furnish 
also a first sketch of the Parthenon frieze. There had long existed in 
the museum an archaic bas-relief which although already published, 
seems not to have been appreciated at its true value. It represents a 
quadriga advancing to the right toward an altar. Fifteen days ago 
was found a fragment of a relief of the same size and style, represent- 
ing a rape a man carrying away a woman in his arms and in the 
act of entering his chariot. The inference immediately suggested by 
this discovery was that both pieces belonged to one group and this 
a frieze. This idea was justified on the same day by the discovery of 
another fragment on which a horseman is represented mounting, 
while he holds a second horse. This slab is shown to have been pre- 
ceded and followed by others on account of the amorces of both right 
and left slabs still remaining. 

Of this frieze, on which a procession of chariots and horsemen was 
represented, Pausanias says not a word, any more than of the sculp- 
tures of the Treasury of the Athenians. It is about .65 m. high and 
might well suit this temple, which is a little smaller than the Par- 
thenon. If, now, it is really the temple of the Delphian Apollon 
which is represented, with a certain fantastic liberty, on a new Attic 
bas-relief in Rome, it would be demonstrated that this is the temple 
frieze. This is, however, as yet but a hypothesis. 




Since these discoveries other slabs of the frieze have been found, 
almost day by day. One, of which a photograph is sent, represents a 
group of three seated goddesses, one of whom is Athena ; they are 
conversing and appear to show to each other with curiosity some 
spectacle in which they are taking a lively interest. This is a piece 
of careful (serrke) execution, and graceful design, and the naive 
gesture by which the last of the three goddesses attracts the attention 
of her neighbor by touching her under the chin has something es- 
pecially charming. Few archaic sculptures are as sympathetic. 

If the frieze belongs to the temple, it might be attributed to the 
school of Kalamis : but it involves difficult questions, requiring long 
study. One fact appears to be certain : it is that this composition is 
the same as that of the Parthenon frieze : procession of chariots, pro- 
cession of horsemen, assemblage of gods. In the existence of these 
two prototypes of Athens at Delphi caryatidae and frieze we have a 
new example of the permanence of traditions and types which is one 
of the strong characteristics of Greek art. 

A further series of photographs, to be forwarded shortly, will exhibit 
the six reliefs of the frieze that have been found at the close of last 
week and in the course of the present, and will also exhibit a gable 
composed of eight figures of divinities and two horses, representing 
the Contest for the Tripod. We already have about twelve metres 
of the frieze, including two corner pieces. 

Philip of Macedon at Delphi. One of the inscriptions containing ac- 
counts is especially interesting. The funds were administered by an 
international council of magistrates called vaoTrotoi". When complete 
the council had 36 members : three members alternating every month 
exercised the presidency with the title of Trpoo-Tarai or CTTL^VLOI. The 
irregularities of meetings and in the number of magistrates shows this 
inscription to belong to troubled times, and, in fact, a war is mentioned 
in it. This must be the Sacred war, for the following reasons : (1) 
The Phokidians are at first mentioned among the peoples whose 
vaoTTotot sit on the council ; then, they disappear in the very year that 
peace is signed : (2) The Macedonians appear on the council in this 
very year and one of their vao-n-oiot is named Philip, undoubtedly 
the Macedonian king, for the rest are called, without name ot -n-apa 
$tAiWov. It follows that the inscription dates from 346 B. c. when the 
treaty was concluded by which the Macedonians were substituted for 
the Phokidians 011 the Council of Amphiktyons, and when Philip 
must have visited Delphi. 

Psean of Aristonoos. On a stele found in the Treasury of the Athen- 
ians is inscribed, in characters of one of the three centuries B. c., a 


psean to the Pythian Apollon, preceded by an honorary decree in 
favor of the poet. It forms the subject of a short paper by Henri 
Weil in the Butt, de corr. hetten., 1893, pp. 561-68. 

The psean consists of twelve similar couplets, ending alternately in 
the formulas i^i'e IlaidV and o> ei IlatdV. The sense is complete at the 
close of each pair of couplets, as follows : I. The son of Zeus and Leto 
occupies the sanctuary of Delphi by the will of the immortals. II. 
Since he inhabits the sacred grotto pure and holy oracles and decrees 
proceed from the subterranean places until then ever terror-giving. 
III. Purified in Tempe (from the slaughter of the serpent Python), 
brought back by Pallas, in harmony with Gaia and Themis (its pre- 
vious occupants), the god takes final possession of the temple. IV. 
Apollon 's gratitude to Pallas : he gives her the place of honor. V. Other 
gods, Poseidon, the nymphs, Dionysos, Artemis, gather about Apollon* 
VI. May the god receive our songs and protect us. 

The metre is the Glyconian strophe as found in Anakreon and 
Catullus. The poet's name is Aristonoos, son of Nikosthenes, of 
Corinth. The following is the entire text. 

Sco/cav *AptcrTOJ'o[aH, 

TOV<5 U//.J/OVS TOtS $O 

/cat /cyovots 7rpoeviav, 

TrpoSt/a'aj/, dtruXiav TroX.ep.ov rj el 
dreXetav 7rdvTiv /cat ITTLTL 
v Ko.6a.irep AeA.0ots, 

, 'Epaortmrov, Eva/j^t8a. 

'Aptorovoos N 

Ilv^t'oot rov 

I. II. 

tepoKTirov v Ev$' d?ro rpiTrdScov Oeo- 

AeX<i'S' afji(j)l Trerpav /CT?^T(OV, ^Xooporoju-ov ocufrvav 

ael Oecnn6^.a.vrLv e creiov, /jiavTOO'vva.v CTTOI- 
Spav, lyie 

v A?roXA.ov, Kot'ou re /copas <^pi/ctoi/ros e aSvrov 

Aarovs o-ep.vov ayaX/xa /cat /xeXXovroDV ^e/xtv tvo-eftf) 

a/captoi/ \prjcr /JLOL<S eixfrOoyyov re Xvpas 
, a) t'e Ilatav. auSats, a) te Ilatav. 





'Ayvtcr$ts evt 
(3ov\<u<i ZT/VOS 
eTret IlaAAas 7re/Ai//e IIu- 

t Ilaiav, 


Awpowrai Se cr(e 
)!/ dyvots 

Trei'cras Fatav 

6/UV T(C) eu7rA.OKajU.OV 0C.OV 

<a?>ev evX.i/3dvov<s eSpas 
a> fe Ilaiav. 

rpots, i^t Ilatav. 


*O$ev Tptroyev?} Trpovat- 
av e/x /xavretais d[y]vots 
o*/3a>v d^avarois O./JLOL- 
[jSJats, oyte Ilaiav, 

T[COV] TOT(C) di'Stots 

TOTTOVS, a) te Ilatav. 


'AXX'ai Ilapvacrorou yvdXo>v 
(rov 8e/xas ea/3pv- 
va>v, tT^'t'e Ilaiav, 

o\/3ov e^ oo-ttov 
act /cat 0-<6ia)V 

te Ilaiav. 


Inscriptions of the Polygonal Wall. MM. Couve and Bourguet have 
published in the Bulletin de corres. hellen. (1893, pp. 343-409), the in- 
scriptions discovered by M. Haussoullier in 1880 in the polygonal wall. 
A few of them had since that time been published, but the great major- 
ity had still remained unedited. They were all in the polygonal wall 
behind the portico of the Athenians, and were all acts of manumis- 
sion of the usual type. In No. 80 there is a strange clause which 
allows a slave after being freed to smother any child that may have 
been born to her while a slave in her master's house. There are 109 
inscriptions and they are printed in cursive, and the collection is pro- 
vided with good indexes of proper names. 

HYMNS TO APOLLON. The fragmentary inscribed hymns to Apollon 
found at the Treasury of the Athenians have created more excitement 
throughout the cultured and musical world than any of the artis- 
tic treasures found, because here for the first time was there given us 
a long piece of music by which we could form some judgment of the 
musical genius of the Greeks. The poems in themselves are interest- 
ing but the musical notation placed over each syllable is far more im- 
portant. In these specimens there are two systems of notation, 
dividing them into two series : a second method of division is fur- 
nished by the metre, which is sometimes Glyconian, sometimes Pseo- 


nian. The subject is always the same; these are hymns composed 
for the Delphic feasts, and are all in honor of Apollon. They might 
be called paeans. There are four large pieces and a number of small 

In the Bulletin de corresp. hellen. (1893, pp. 561-83 and pp. 584-610), 
M. Henri Weil studies the text and M. Theodore Reinach the music 
of these hymns. M. Reinach says : " Our knowledge of this (i. e. 
Greek) music rested until now on the hymns attributed to Dionysios 
and Mesomedes, mediocre compositions of the time of the Antonines, 
poorly transmitted. To these documents, long known, the palseo- 
graphic and epigraphic discoveries of our century had added but lit- 
tle ; namely, the instrumental exercises of the anonymous of Beller- 
mann, the short musical inscription of Tralles and the insignificant 
fragment of a chorus in the Orestes of Euripides, published by M. 
Wessely. The discovery of Delphi has quite another importance. 
Without counting a dozen fragments, more or less long, it gives us 
finally a great song of the III or II century B. c., which from its 
length, its poetic and musical value and the authenticity of its text 
will henceforth take the first place among the remains of the music 
of the Greeks." This song consists in its present state, of two large 
slabs marked A and B, of which A is badly mutilated. The end of 
the hymn must have been given on a third slab which has disap- 

In fragment A, after praising the son of Zeus who reveals his divine 
word to all mortals, the poet relates how the young god conquered the 
prophetic tripod by piercing with his arrows the dragon, and he com- 
pares to the legendary monster the impious and sacrilegious Gauls 
whom Apollon had repulsed from his sanctuary. The Muses are in- 
vited to leave Helikon to sing of their brother, the golden haired god, 
who inhabits Parnassos and goes with the women of Delphi to the 
Kastalian fountain. The hymn was apparently written to be sung, 
with accompaniment of flute and cithara, in a procession toward the 
Kastalian fountain. The hymn must have been composed not long 
after 278 B. c., when the Gauls attempted to plunder Delphi. The 
poet, whose name is broken off, is called an Athenian, and the close 
of the hymn speaks of the pilgrims sent from Attika. Perhaps it 
was a thank-hymn from Athens after the escape from the Gallic inva- 

The signs employed for the musical notation are the letters of the 
Ionian alphabet, straight or reversed. The note was written above the 
corresponding syllable of the text, but irregularly. A repeated sound 
was not re-inscribed. Of the fourteen signs employed twelve occur 




in Alypius' diagram of the chromatic Phygian trope or tone, which is 
therefore, the tone used for the hymn, the other two having the same 
value in all tones. The diatonic part of the hymn is written in a 
mode whose typical scale is the octave of the Doric mode, the national 
Greek harmony par excellence. According to modern musical cus- 
tom this scale is really that of ut minor. What difference there is 
between the Dorian scale that starts with Sol, and the hypo-Dorian 
which starts with ut, on the one hand, and our minor scale, on the 
other, is carefully explained by M. Reinach, who is probably the best 
modern authority on Greek music. 

The hymn is an interesting example of the mixture of styles that 
characterizes the post-classical period, passing backwards and forwards 
between diatonic and chromatic passages. 

It is only necessary to add, in connection with a second group of 
fragments, that in them a different system of notation with archaic 
letters is used which had been hitherto supposed to be used exclu- 
sively for instrumental music. It appears that for quite a while both 
were used as vocal signs, and only at a late period was one of the 
systems used exclusively for instrumental music. 

The Delphic hymn to Apollon was sung thrice at Athens in the first 
two weeks of April in the public concerts of the Society of Lovers of 
Music, by the same quartet which had already given it on March 
29th before the royal family and a crowded audience at the French 
Archgeological School. The Parnassus Society is preparing another 
concert, at which the pieces of ancient music ascribed to Dionysios 
and Mesomedes shall be sung by a chorus, accompanied by an orches- 
tra. The hymn has also been rendered in Paris with great success 
and on a thoroughly scientific basis, under the supervision of M. 
Theodore Reinach, with the assistance of the best musical talent of 
Paris and the aid of M. Ambroise Thomas. It is also about to be per- 
formed in London. 

EPIDAUROS. STADION. At Epidauros the stadion is now being ex- 
cavated, and the first trenchings have brought to light several rows of 
marble seats in perfect preservation, and resembling those of the cele- 
brated theatre in the same place. It would seem that beneath the 
enormous mass of superincumbent earth and rubbish, the accumula- 
tion of many centuries, a considerable portion of the original structure 
has been preserved, and there are great hopes of discovering the 
aphesis, the terma, and the stelx that marked the starting-point, as also 
the meta and the direction followed by the racers. Athen., May 19. 

ERAS IN INSCRIPTIONS. In a recent study of the dated inscriptions of 
Epidauros, published by Kavvadias, M. Homolle discusses the ques- 


tion of the diversity of eras employed in them. Kavvadias maintains 
that several eras were used in the imperial period at Epidauros : the 
era of Hadrian, an unknown era, and local eras. But in M. Homolle's 
opinion there is but one era, that of Hadrian, and the inscrip- 
tions run from 128 to 355 A. D., instead of covering only some thirty 
years. Bull corr. hellen., 1893, p. 622. 

Richardson, director of the American School at Athens, writes to the 
N. Y. Independent of June 14, a letter dated, Eretria, May 20, from which 
we take the following extracts : 

Last winter in a short visit to Eretria I had made a memorandum 
of five things to be done if I were able to begin work there in the spring, 
and the first on the list was to dig some trenches in the rear of the 
theater which was excavated by us three years ago. It had seemed 
to me ever since I was here at that time (an opinion shared by 
others) that there would be likely to be a temple of Dionysos some- 
where near the theater. In some excavations, as at Olympia and 
Delphi, Pausanias has been an invaluable guide ; but as neither he nor 
any other writer has told us anything of the topography of Eretria, 
calculation was here reduced to more or less prudent guessing. In 
this case our guess was right. We did not lose an hour's time when 
we got our men together and began work. 

In the course of our first forenoon we struck a broad platform of a 
building only about sixty feet from the theater. In the course of the 
day we ascertained that this was forty feet broad. The next day we 
discovered its length, which was about seventy feet. This platform 
was very near the surface, and was very accessible. When the whole 
platform was swept off, it exhibited its three massive layers, making a 
total of four and one-half feet of depth. Probably few will be disposed 
to dispute the name which we provisionally give the building, viz., 
the Temple of Dionysos. That is what we looked for, and we seem 
to have found it. Unfortunately we found no inscription that would 
make this sure. All the architectural members of the temple, such as 
columns and entablature and one or more layers of the platform, have 
disappeared. The temples of antiquity were always the quarries of 
later generations, and this temple probably lay long on the surface 
inviting to plunder. 

During our second week we have cleared the ground to the east of 
the temple, laying bare what seems to be a great altar. This lies in 
the rear of the stage building. Then digging from the north side of 
the temple we have discovered a stoa of considerable extent leading 
out of the west parodos of the theater. Perhaps our most valuable 


discoveries from a scientific point of view are being made in this west 
parodos, which had hitherto been neglected. Of this it is too early to 

Simultaneously with the work on and around the temple we have 
excavated a part of a street not far away where the foundation walls 
protruded from the ground. We have also uncovered several water 
conduits and an interesting series of four large stone tubs, from one to 
the other of which water used to run. These are numbered F. A. r. A., 
and we have christened it " the city laundry." 

A well-known shaft was found adjacent to the south wall of the tem- 
ple. This was cleared very slowly. After going down ten feet it opened 
into a lateral passage which was explored to a great distance. The 
fact that there are carefully cut holes for feet in two of its sides indi- 
cate that people went down into it. 

We have also made the first serious excavations yet undertaken with 
a view to locating the temple of Artemis Amarysia, the most famous 
temple of the Eretrians, a mile outside their city wall. We failed, 
finding only walls of a later time. We have simplified the problem 
for our successors by eliminating one of the possibilities. No one 
need dig again at the foot of Kotroni. 

Another interesting work has been the opening of a large tumulus 
like that on the plain of Marathon, containing the bones of the Athe- 
nians who fell in the battle. After cutting three roads into it, and 
going down in the center to a depth of twenty-five feet, carrying out the 
earth with wheelbarrows, we were forced to the melancholy conclusion 
that somebody had been there before us. As the mound looked prac- 
tically intact from the outside, and as not even the oldest inhabitants 
know anything of these previous excavations, our predecessors may 
have done their work many years ago, and covered its traces quite 
effectually. We find to our surprise that the central core of the mound 
is a stone tower twenty feet high and fifteen feet square. Our prede- 
cessors had broken away over half of this on the southern side, until 
they came to the bottom, where they appear to have found the tomb 
which they sought. They must have worked from the top with crow- 
bars and baskets. 

In the course of our work about the temple we have found some 
objects of minor importance, among which a pretty statuette head of 
Aphrodite in marble holds the first place. 

I may add, in closing, that one result of our work is that we proba- 
bly now know where to dig with good results for more knowledge of 


KALAURIA. The Swedish archaeologist, M. Wide, has applied to the 
Greek Government for permission to excavate the Temple of Poseidon 
at Kalauria. Acad., May 26. 

supplementary note to Perrot's first volume on Greece, published a 
few months since, gives the following information : 

" M. de Ridder, a member of the French School at Athens, carried 
on in June, 1893, some excavations in the island of Gha, which will 
be fully reported in the Bulletin de correspondance hellenique. The ex- 
cavations have brought to light a large building situated in the north- 
ern part of the island, composed of two wings that are joined at right 
angles. The first building runs from east to west, bending slightly 
southward : it is flush with the wall of the island. At that point this 
wall is two metres thick; but elsewhere it reaches a thickness of 5. 60 
met. The second structure forms an elbow to the east of the first and 
extends southward. The length of each wing is about 60 met. and 
the width 10 met. Both end, one at the west and the other at the 
south, in two large towers placed at a lower level. In the interior the 
arrangement in long corridors, vestibules and dwelling-rooms, recalls 
that of the palace of Tiryns. The sills are formed of similar large 
moulded slabs. The bronze hinges are also analogous. The flooring 
is made of the same kind of coating of lime ; and the walls rise to the 
same height. Finally, there are evident traces of fire. Great cause- 
ways join this palace to the doorway opened up in the south wall of 
the island. Numerous fragments of rude pottery concur in proving 
the island to have had a permanent population." 

The enormous constructions around the lake belong to the earliest 
period of Greek history. More than a thousand years B. c. great 
efforts were made to dyke the unhealthy lake and make its surround- 
ings habitable. Ancient writers inform us that at a very early date 
Kopa'is was confined and the land cultivated by the Minyans, an agri- 
cultural people that came from Thessaly to colonize Orchomenos. 
Both M. Kampanis in the Bull. corr. hellen., and Prof. Curtius in a 
paper before the Berlin Academy, have called attention to the ruins. 
We cannot give space to an analysis of the two interesting papers 
by M. Kampanis in the Bulletin on the hydraulic works on Lake 
Kopais, in which he not only gives a practical study of existing 
works, but gives an historical sketch of their different phases, distin- 
guishing the historic from the prehistoric works. 

We read in the Bull. corr. hellen., 1893, p. 631 : " M. de Ridder, with 
the authorization of the English company of Lake Kopais, has explored 
the akropolis, which is one of the largest and best preserved known, 


more extensive than those of Mykenai and Tiryns. He has exca- 
vated in the ruins of monuments within the walls, discovering con- 
structions that resemble a palace and a long building in the form of a 
portico. He has drawn up plans, which will be published together 
with those of the enclosing wall, long since prepared by M. Lallier, 
director of the work of the lake. Some fragments of painted stucco 
and of Mykenepan pottery have been found on the site. 

Dr. Noack, of the German Institute, also investigated in 1893 the 
region of the Kopais, seeking everywhere in the interior and around 
the borders of the lake for remains of cities or fortifications. He has 
tested by his own observations, and admits in their general aspect and 
in most of their details the results of M. Kampanis' study of the 
hydraulic works of Kopais. He found around the lake a number of 
cities or fortresses which seemed to him to have for their main object 
the defense of the canals, dykes and exits which guaranteed safety 
and wealth to the Kopais plain. He has drawn up the plans of all 
the wall circuits, including that of Gha. According to him, this very 
important city bore anciently the name Arn, and was a Minyan city. 

recently had as their subject the inscription commemorating the works 
undertaken by Antonia Tryphaina at Kyzikos. Antonia Tryphaina, 
married to Cotys, King of Thrace, and cousin of the Emperor Cali- 
gula, came of an illustrious family of Asia Minor that had long been 
devoted to the Roman cause, and which had received in recompense 
the Kingdoms first of Pontus and the Bosphorus, and afterwards of 
Thrace, Pontus and^Minor Armenia. The position of Kyzikos at the 
head of the three routes^penetrating into Asia Minor, made it worth 
while for Antonia Tryphaina to put forth great efforts to Romanize it. ( 
This she did by making this city her residence and undertaking there 
a great series of public works to develop its commercial importance. 
The inscription in question, first published in 1891 in the Mittheil. 
Athen.,was republished in 1893 with a commentary by Andre Joubin, 
in the Revue des Etudes Grecques (1893, p. 8, sq.), where there also 
afterwards appeared supplementary notes by Joubin (1894, p. 46) and 
Theodore Reinach (1894, p. 58). According to it: (1) Tryphaina 
consecrates to the emperor (evidently Caligula) the reparation of the 
city ; and (2) she re-opens the strait which had previously been closed 
for fear of war. The date is 37-41 A. D. M. Joubin concludes that 
the narrow strait that anciently divided the mainland of Asia from 
the rocky island on which Kyzikos was built, was filled up with rocks 
at the time of the wars in Thrace between A. D. 21 and 26. The filling 
up of the strait closed the port and necessitated the dividing of an 


attacking fleet, as Kyzikos was built on two ports, separated by the 

It is probable that the strait remained closed for about a dozen 
years, and commerce suffered in consequence, until the works carried 
on by Tryphaina. In charge of them was the engineer Bacchios, of 
whom an inscription has been found at Kyzikos, and purchased, as 
well as that of Tryphaina, by the Museum of Constantinople. It 
reads : 

TOU Bct/c^t'ov 

/cat rrs ifjivrj 1 ; /cat rav 

/cat TTJS eTrot/coSo/xtas 
aiyu, TrpOK(./j.V(t)v x a> / x [ c Q TCOl/ /cat 

ets /cat crre<ava)$eis VTTO rr)<s 
/cat TOV 

It is a dedication to Poseidon, contemporary with the decree in 
honor of Tryphaina, near which it was found, and it mentions more 
in detail the works alluded to in the decree. He cleared (o/wx 1 ?) the 
ports, the marsh and the canals of sand and built, or rather rebuilt, 
two protecting moles, one in front of each port. The two ports 
(A.I/AO/CS) one on the east and the other on the west of the sandy 
isthmus were joined by a canal (tvpdirw and Siupvyan/) on two 
branches, which met, toward the centre, in a rectangular marsh 
(Xt/^vT/), situated south of the city. 

M. Reinach's article, entitled " He ou Presqu'ile" satisfactorily 
solves the question whether Kyzikos was an island or a peninsula. 
Ancient authors contradict one another. Pseudo-Skylax, Pomponius 
Mela, Stephen of Byzantium make it a peninsula. Apollonius Rho- 
dius, Strabo, Pliny, Frontinus call it an island. ^Elius Aristides calls 
it both. The scolia to Apollonius state that it was at first an island 
and became afterwards, artificially, a peninsula. Among modern 
writers, Mannert is alone of the opinion that Kyzikos was originally 
a peninsula. The term Siwpu in the inscription of Bacchios clears up 
the difficulty, for it can only mean a canal dug by the hand of man. 
Originally, therefore, Kyzikos was a peninsula, and thus it was at the 
time of Pseudo-Skylax, in the middle of the fourth century. Shortly 
after the inhabitants pierced the isthmus, and at the same time, in 
order to retain communication with the mainland, they built two 
bridges across the two branches of the canal. The language of Strabo 
shows that these works were still intact. Then came, under Tiberius, 


the filling in of the canal, which was, after a while, reopened by Anto- 
nia Tryphaina. 

LIVADIA (BoioTiA 1 . ORACLE OF TROPHONIOS. Two Greek students from 
Livadia, in the ancient Boiotia, believe they have discovered the site 
of the oracle of Trophonios. North of Livadia, opposite the stream 
of Herkyna, is an unnamed hill, on the east bounded by the Herkyna, 
on the west by the brook Probation, on the north by the hill of Laphys- 
tion, and on the south by the town. On the western side of this hill 
lies a little church of St. Sophia. Beneath it, however, is a grotto- 
like crypt, 4*30 metres deep, a depth that would correspond pretty 
well to Pausanias's eight ells. Pausanias, from his own account (ix. 
39, 10), had not measured the depth himself. This quite small grotto 
is not natural, but artificial, and it answers to the description of Pau- 
sanias. On the south side of the grotto are steps which lead to a 
throne with three hollow seats. Pausanias says it was the seat of 
Mnemosyne. Close by one sees other seats placed in a winding line 
which reaches to the river; but opposite the stream are niches and a 
construction designed for ablutions. On the east of the grotto is a 
cliff shaped like a bank (the Kpifiavos of Pausanias), upon which are to 
be seen niches and other traces of ornament. A little further off is a 
natural hole. Can it be the concealed entrance ? It is stopped, and 
when it is knocked the sound is dull. The northern side lies some- 
what higher than the others, and is connected with the eastern by a 
step hewn in the rock and a door of which only a fourth part is pre- 
served. So far as the report goes of the supposed discovery, the In- 
spector of Antiquities, to whom application was made, thought it 
reasonable to make further investigation, and grant the means necessary 
for continuing the examination. Schliemann, it may be remembered, 
occupied himself some years in searching for the cave, and made some 
excavations which led to no result. In 1839 Stephani conjectured that 
the oracle was under the church of St. Sophia, and Hettner opposed 
the idea. Athenaeum, May 5. 

ORCHOMENOS. M. de Ridder is said, in the Bull, de corr. hellen. 
(1893. p. 631), to have made some very interesting discoveries at 
Orchomenos. In excavating in the lower part of the city he discov- 
ered a temple of Asklepios (?) and a necropolis where he collected 
large numbers of Corinthian aryballoi, proto-Corinthian vases and 
fragments of bronze, among which were several stamped plaques of 
archaic style, decorated with geometric ornamentation and animals, 
such as a sphinx, a horse, etc. 

PHOKIS (SEE ALSO DELPHI). While the excavations at Delphi are 
being carried on Phokis will be thoroughly explored. M. Ardaillon 


made a beginning last year in the region of Chrysso and Kirrha, with 
the assistance of M. Convert ; all ancient ruins will be drawn and 
photographed, and the network of roads will be studied with especial 
care. At the same time the geology, flora and fauna will be studied. 
A meteorological station has already been organized at Delphi, and it 
is proposed to study the part that may have been taken in the crea- 
tion of the myths and legends by atmospheric phenomena, nature and 
the products of the soil. 

RHAMNOUS. STATUE OF NEMESIS. In the Jahrbuch Arch. Inst. (1894, 
pp. 1-22), L. Pallat writes of The Basis of the Nemesis at Rhamnus 
(pis. 1-7 ; one cut). Leake, Demi of Attica (Topography of Athens, vol. 
IL), p. 109 (ed. 1841), mentions " fragments of figures, in high relief," 
" found among the ruins of the temple of Nemesis." He adds that 
they were about a foot high, and suggests that they formed a part of 
the relief of the basis of the statue. In 1890 fragments of figures in 
high relief were found at the same place by the Greek Archaeological 
Society. Some of them were published by the finder, Mr. Sta'is ('E<. 
'Apx-, 1891, pi. 8, 9). They are now in the National Museum at 
Athens (Nos. 203-214). All the fragments, forty in number, are here 
published and discussed. They are of Parian marble, work of the 
fifth century, B. c. From the fragments and the description of Pau- 
sanias (i. 33, 7, 8), the relief of the basis is restored. On the front of 
the basis was Leda conducting Helen to her mother Nemesis. Beside 
this central group are Tyndareus and the Dioskouroi at the left, Aga- 
memnon, Menelaos and Pyrrhos at the right. These figures were 
probably made known by inscriptions. On one side of the basis was 
a man with a horse, on the other a horseman and a squire. The com- 
position is after the manner of Pheidias, but the details, especially in 
the drapery, show an increase of refinement (verfeinerung). The 
work belongs to the school of Pheidias, but not to Pheidias himself. 
As the basis and the statue of Nemesis were doubtless by the same 
artist, the statement (Zenob. v. 82, Pliny, N. H., xxxvi. 17), that the 
statue was by Agorakritos, deserves credence rather than that of Pau- 
sanias, who ascribes it to Pheidias. 

SAMOTHRAKE In the Mitth. Athen., 1894, pp. 132-136, M. Friinkel 
republishes with emendations The Hippomedon- Inscription from Samo- 
thrake published by 0. Kern, Mitth. t 1893, p. 348 sqq. Fortifications 
at Samothrake were evidently nearly completed. The inhabitants 
granted Hippomedon the right of giving to others freedom from im- 
port duties and the privilege of exporting grain. The general prohi- 
bition of grain-export at that time appears to have been due to attacks 
of pirates and consequent failure of agriculture. 




0. Kern contributes to the Mitth. Athen. (1893, pp. 336-384), an 
article "fromSamothrake" giving the results of a visit to the island in 
July, 1892. He presupposes an acquaintance with the Austrian Unter- 
mchungen auf Samothrake and with Rubensohn's Mysterienheiligtumer. 
Investigation of the hill on which the Nike stood is still imperfect, 
further excavations being needed. A sketch of the walls and substruc- 
tions at that point is given. Thirty-nine inscriptions are described, 
of which thirty-one are published, nearly half being new. Nearly all 
are due to Mr. Phardys, the local physician. The most important 
are : 1) an inscription in honour of the Lacedaemonian Hippomedon, 
son of Agesilaos, general of king Ptolemaeus III. on the Hellespont 
and in Thrace, confirming the report of Telos (Heuse, Teletis reliquiae, 
p. 16, 2). Hippomedon had cared for the security of Samothrake, 
perhaps against the Macedonians. The date must be between 239 
and 223 B. c. 2) The inscription Rubensohn, Mysterienheiligtumer, p. 
227. Cuts represent the front and back of the stone as well as two 
coins of Kyzikos. The round building on the coins (and in part) on the 
stone, may have been a sort of city coat of arms of Kyzikos. 3) The 
stone of Demokles (Rubensohn, p. 160 if. and elsewhere) also repre- 
sented by a cut. The lists of mystai on this stone were inscribed at 
different dates. 4) A brief inscription (No. 27), interesting as afford- 
ing the first proof of the worship of Aphrodite at Samothrake. At the 
foot of the hill Hagios Ilias a number of terracottas, marble statuettes, 
etc., show the former existence of a shrine of some sort. These are 
mostly of poor workmanship and comparatively late date. One terra- 
cotta of a goddess with polos, head cloth, and necklace, holding a bird, 
is ascribed by Bruckner to the sixth century B. c. Two roughly- 
worked reliefs, representing one a man and two women, the other two 
women, are described. Fragments of similar reliefs were seen. A 
relief of a fish recalls the sacred fish Pompilos, and an ithyphallic 
Hermes reminds the writer of Herodotus II. 51. 

In the Mitth. Athen., 1893, pp. 385-394, F. Hiller von Gaertringen 
publishes six inscriptions relating to the Samothrakian gods in Rhodos 
and Karpathos. Three of these are new. No. 2, from the city of 
Rhodos, not earlier than the first century B. c. is a fragmentary list of 
priests of the Samothrakian gods. No. 6, from Tristomo, Karpathos, 
is a longer list of priests. No. 3, found near the city of Rhodos, reads 

[TO KOL\VOV. ^a/jioB 'patKtacrrav ^(aTrjptacrTav 'Aptcrro/^ouXiasrav 'ATroAAawacrrav 

STRATOS. M. Joubin promises to publish shortly a report on the 
excavations which he carried on at Stratos between April and July, 
1892. In the meantime he publishes in the Bull corr. hellen. (1893, 


p. 445) the inscriptions which he discovered there. No. 1 is a bronze 
plaque whose inscription engraved with the point contains (a) a decree 
of the city of Stratos conferring proxeny and privileges on Lysias, son 
of Kallias, a Megarian, his two sons and their descendants ; (b) an 
additional article adopted on the proposal of Bolarchos of Phoitia 
adding atelia to the above advantages. The alphabet is the Akarnanian T 
and it is archaic. As Corinthian influence was paramount in Akar- 
nania up to the middle of the fifth century, when the influence of 
Athens was introduced, and as it is seen here, the date of the inscrip- 
tion cannot be earlier than the close of the fifth century. The dialect 
is Dorian. 2. Decree of proxeny, in cent. 3. List of names, iv cent. 
4. Block from altar with manumission of slave in form of sale to divin- 
ity, ii cent. This divinity is Zeus, and this fact is important as be- 
ing the only proof that the temple of Stratos was sacred to Zeus. 

has come that the French School is about to undertake excavations 
at Tegea with the object of thoroughly uncovering the temple of Ath- 
ena Alea, which was certainly one of the most important buildings 
of the Peloponessos. Of course it is hoped that sculptures by Scopas 
may come to light. The Greek Minister of Public Instruction has 
appointed a Committee which is to study the site, the location of the 
excavations proposed by the French School, and to estimate the value 
of the property to be expropriated. 

THORIKOS. An entire city has been found at Thorikos near Lau- 
rion, destroyed and buried by some convulsion of nature unknown to 
history. It appears to be not a Greek city of the historic period, but 
of the prehistoric or Mykenaean age. At least this is to be inferred 
from the objects discovered. 

At the very beginning of the work of excavation two royal tumuli 
were opened on one side and the ruins of a palace on the other. The 
tumuli are about 250 metres apart. One, of circular form, is situated 
some thirty metres below the palace which is built on the rock of 
Thoriko which rises above the surrounding plain. The other tumu- 
lus remarkable for its helicoidal shape, was in so ruinous a condition 
that it has been up to the present impossible to entirely clear it. 
These tombs had both been ransacked at some previous period. 

The following is the list of the objects found by the Greek Archaeol- 
ogical Society at whose expense and under whose direction the ex- 
cavations were undertaken. Two fibulae, one of gold the other of 
amber : a gold ring : an ivory comb, beautifully worked, to fasten the 
hair : an ivory needle : some ten pearls of glass, jasper, etc : two stone 
arrows of very fine workmanship : an ivory quiver : gold myrtle and 


laurel leaves ; a leaden disk decorated with colored concentric rings. 
Six similar disks have been found in other tombs and the archaeolo- 
gist in charge believes them to be money. Among the finds is a per- 
fectly preserved skeleton, which is important on account of the great 
rarity of skeletons of this early date and their usual poor preservation. 
There were also fragm ents of statues of Zeus and Apollo, a marble 
vase and fragments of domestic vases mingled with bones of animals 
and birds and with shells. It is concluded that these are all remains 
of the funerary repast. Chron. des Arts, 1893, No. 35, from the Mes- 
sager cVAthenes. 


Deloche, whose articles on Merovingian seals and rings have been 
running through the Revue Archeologique like a perennial brook for the 
last ten years and more, took a broader view of his subject in a 
memoir with the above title read before the Acad. des Inscriptions, 
The ring was at first reserved for the use of those who had distin- 
guished themselves by some warlike exploit or rendered the State 
some service. It afterwards became one of the privileges of the patri- 
cians, equites and magistrates. Originally there were only iron rings ; 
the ambassadors of the Republic alone wore in public gold rings. 
Later various metals were employed to distinguish the different 
orders of the State: the senators and knights alone had the right to 
gold rings ; freedmen wore silver rings and the plebs iron rings. As 
early as the third century the freedmen claimed gold rings, and the 
Constitutions of Justinian gave them this right. As for the slaves, 
during the entire period of Roman dominion they were restricted to 
iron rings. Revue Arch., 1894, n, 107. 

GOLD IN MOSAIC WORK. M. Eugene Miintz, in a recent study on 
mosaic technique, stated that no cubes of gilt glass had been found in 
mosaics earlier than the third century A. D. In a January meeting of 
the Soc. des Antiquaires, M. Heron de Villefosse exhibited such a 
mosaic cube from the collection of Count d'Herrison, which dates 
from the second century. Bull. Soc. des Antiquaires, 1893, p. 76. 

ALTAVILLA SILENT1NA (LucANiA). Two tombs have been opened in 
the territory of Altavilla Silentina, facing north and south, about one 
metre apart. Both are built with equal solidity and regularity, but 
one of them is richly decorated while the other is perfectly plain ; 
and many objects were found in the first and none in the second. 


The richest tomb is rectangular and with a high gable top : it is con- 
structed of six slabs of tufa and measures 1.95 m. long, 1 m. wide, 
0.92 m. high, beside 0.50 m. to the top of the gable. The inside of the 
slabs is covered with a very fine plaster, on which are painted figured 
scenes in outline and in monotone masses. The E. side has a contest 
of two warriors. They are naked and wear the galea, cingulum and 
cnemides and are armed with shield and spear (Eteokles and Polyni- 
kes ?) : between them lies a pomegranate, and to one side stands a 
female figure (Antigone ?) resting on her right leg. The warriors are 
painted in red body color with black outlines ; the female figure is 
outlined in black with but little shading of the drapery. On the 
opposite long slab is a quadriga driven by a winged Nike, before 
which rises the column of the meta. All the figures are outlined in 
black with a little shading of the same color. The design is accurate, 
free and elegant; it recalls the good period of Greek art. At the N. 
end are two animals, a lion attacking an ibis, the former in yellowish 
monochrome, the latter in black outline. In the gable above is a cock 
in outline and reddish body color, pecking at a bunch of black 
grapes. On the opposite end there remain merely traces of a scene 
representing a warrior approached by a female figure presenting him 
a patera with her left hand. This woman, like the one on the E. side, 
is robed in a long chiton and himation. The figures that are deli- 
cately sketched in black are especially charming. The work belongs 
to the third century B. c. and is certainly Greek. Several Lucanian 
painted vases were found in the tomb. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, pp. 423-27. 
BENEVENTO. At Benevento, according to a recent communication 
made to the Royal Academy of the Lincei, the fragment of an Egyp- 
tian statue in granite with hieroglyphics, and a piece of granite obelisk 
also inscribed with hieroglyphics, have been disinterred. The statue, 
according to the examination made by Prof. E. Schiaparelli, of Flor- 
ence, must be referred to the end of the reign of Rameses II., about 
1340 B. c., and may have been brought from Egypt to adorn the tem- 
ple of Isis at Beneventum a temple which is mentioned in the 
inscriptions of the obelisks, and which, like the temple of Isis in the 
Campus Martius at Rome, was adorned with Egyptian statues of 
various dates. The fragment of obelisk fortunately fills up a gap in 
one of the known obelisks of Benevento, and enables us plausibly to 
supply other gaps on the same obelisk. From these inscriptions it 
would appear that both these obelisks were transported from Egypt; 
but they are of late workmanship, having been made for the temple 
of Isis at Beneventum, which was built by Lucilius Rums by order of 
Domitian Athenaeum, Feb. 3, 1894. 




BOLOGNA. M. Geffroy communicated to the Acad. des Inscriptions 
during the past summer a paper on the subject of the new excava- 
tions undertaken in the vicinity of Bologna, which seem likely to 
furnish decisive information on some of the etapes of the Etruscan 
people in Italy. A funerary stele recently found at Novilara (q. v. in 
this issue, p. 323, and pp. 279-81 of vol. vm of JOURNAL), near Pesaro, 
has the representation of a wild beast hunt with a Sabellian or Illyrian 
inscription in twelve lines, which is to be published by the Academia 
dei Lincei. Revue Arch., 1894, i, p. 106. 

digging on some land belonging to the parish church of the village of 
Castel Trosino, about six kilometres from Ascoli Piceno, some tombs 
came accidentally to light, the contents of which soon began to 
attract the attention of the neighbors. On being informed of the 
occurrence, the Minister of Public Instruction ordered a regular 
exploration of the place to be undertaken under the direction of Prof. 
Brizio, of the University of Bologna. The result of his researches has 
been really splendid, and when fully made known to the public will 
awaken the greatest interest. The tombs, of which about 150 have 
been already explored, belong 'to a post-Roman necropolis, and their 
contents far surpass in abundance and richness all similar discoveries 
hitherto made on Italian soil. They consist for the most part of gold 
and silver ornaments, such as crosses (some of which bear inscrip- 
tions), brooches, clasps, circular and broad-headed nails, sheaths for 
knives and daggers, necklaces formed of mounted Byzantine coins, 
&c. To these must be added arms, fragments of breastplates and 
other armor, and an important series of fine articles in glass. The 
style of the whole of this hoard is distinctly Lombardic; small crosses 
in gold were worn sewn on the dress at that period among that war- 
rior people. But the position of Castel Trosino corresponds to no 
Lombard duchy known to us, and the study of these precious remains, 
which have been brought to Rome and placed in the new museum of 
the Villa di Papa Giulio, may result in throwing light not only on the 
history of barbaric art, but also on that of the settlements of the Lom- 
bards in the peninsula. Another small necropolis belonging to the 
same period, but of lesser importance, has been discovered near Borgo 
Masino, in the Province of Turin. Here also, together with swords, 
lances, bits and horse trappings in bronze, were collected gold crosses, 
and earrings embellished with filigree work of Lombardic style. 
F. HALBHERK in Athenasum, Feb. 17, 1894. 

Fresh contributions to the study of the prehistoric settlements of 


Northern Italy has been furnished by the excavations of Prof. Pigorini 
in the terramara of Castellazzo di Fontanellato, near Parma. We are 
now well-nigh in possession of a complete plan of a prehistoric city, 
which, from the results of partial discoveries recently made, would 
appear to have been quadrilateral and oriented, having its sides more 
or less modified in direction in order to allow the water to run into 
the fosse that surrounded it. The interior of the settlement appears 
to have been really traversed from north to south by a decumanus, a 
particular which would confirm the conjecture of Prof. Chierici that 
in the terramare we have the prototypes of the first Italic cities. Par- 
allel to the decumanus, and adjoining the eastern rampart, was discov- 
ered a large rectangular mound of earth, 120 metres in length and 60 
in width, surrounded on all sides by a ditch 30 metres wide, just like 
the ditch running round the whole terramara. Spanning the western 
fosse are the remains of a bridge giving access from this- raised plat- 
form to the centre of the city, and abutting on to the decumanus. The 
existence of this raised mound, which in the Castellazzo terramara is 
found for the first time, arouses the greatest interest. Prof. Pigorini 
is inclined to think it may be the temple or citadel, namely, a kind of 
arx or acropolis. Another important discovery has been made in one 
of the two necropolises in that which lies at the southeast angle out- 
side the enclosure, and is in the form of a square. The necropolis, 
like the city, is surrounded by a ditch and is formed of ground raised 
by means of piles. The city of the dead would appear in those times 
(if this circumstance is confirmed by other burial-grounds of the lake- 
dwellers) to have been an exact imitation of the city of the living, just 
as the tombs of the remotest ages of Greek and Italian civilization 
were exact imitations of the huts or dwellings of the living. This 
burial-place, as well as the other on the west side, which has been so 
far but little explored, was used for cremated bodies. Near the first 
is a piece of ground baked by the fire, which was evidently used as an 
ustrinum. FREDERICK HALBHERR in Athenaeum, Feb. 17, 1894. 

COMO. TRANSFER OF THE MUSEUM. The Museo Civico of Como has 
been removed to far better quarters, in the historically famous Palazzo 
Giovio, which will also receive the Notarial Archives. The first two 
numbers of the catalogues of the museum have appeared, including 
the pre-Roman and Roman collections. The Revista Archeologica^ di 
Como has begun in No. 35 the publication of the Roman and Christian 
marbles in the museum. Archivio Stor. Lombardo, xx, 2, p. 561. 
- . ) RENCE. Prof. Milani has recently drawn attention, in connec- 
tion with the recent excavations in Florence, to the similarities 
between the forums of Florence and Pompeii. In Florence as at 


Pompeii the Baths are placed behind the Capitolium ; the position of 
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, with its triple cella, corresponds, 
though that in Florence is more sumptuous, as are also its Baths, 
which were built twice over on the ruins of a Roman house of the 
Republican period (n or i cent. B. a). Furthermore, the rectangular 
well recently discovered in Florence near the woman's bath, with its 
relief representing the river Arno, corresponds to the rectangular well 
of the small baths of Pompeii, placed between the tepidarium of the 
men and the calidarium of the women, and it reminds also of the cis- 
tern of the same baths. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, p. 493. 

GRADISCA (VENETIA). Near the village of Gradisca, where the tor- 
rent Cosa joins the Tagliamento, a Roman fort has been recently 
found, of trapezoidal shape, with four entrances, one on each side. It 
is built up entirely of earth, and appears to be on the site of a very 
ancient centre of population of the Veneto-Illyrian race. This is 
made the more probable from the prehistoric remains that have here 
come to light, and which appear to have originally come from early 
tombs torn up in the course of the construction of this fort. Not. d. 
Scam, 1893, p. 487. 

MILAN. ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. Dr. Giulio Carotti publishes in 
the Archivio Storico Lombardo (xx, 2, pp. 442-496) a report on the 
antiquities and works of art that were added in 1892 to the Brera 
Museum, now called the Museo patrio di Archeologia di Milano. 

Prehistoric. In May, 1892, the sale of the collection belonging to 
Amilcare Ancona took place at Milan, and a considerable number of 
objects were purchased for the museum. Among them were the fol- 
lowing prehistoric pieces : (1) A small terracotta urn from Golasecca, 
still containing a broken bronze fibula and fragments of iron objects. 
(2) A well-preserved small bronze scythe-shaped hatchet. (3) A 
bronze box or cista a cordoni, with intermediate rows of raised dots, in 
imperfect condition but important. (4) A long bronze sword from 
the neighborhood of Codogno, belonging to the end of the bronze age. 
Each side of the blade is divided in two oblong sections by a cylindri- 
cal raised line. (5) A bronze sword of fleur-de-lys shape from Casal- 
buttano in the province of Cremona. It belongs to the bronze age 
.and is remarkable for the thickness of the blade. (6) Ten bronze 
paalstabs found near Lodi, some entire, some reduced in size by use in 
the bronze age itself. (7) Two fine bronze torques in perfect preser- 
vation, found with the paalstabs mentioned above. (8) Four paalstabs 
from Modena and Rome ; six small poniards from Verona, (9) Two 
<bronze situlas or pails found at Vho (Cremona). 


Greco-Italic. A series of Greco-Italian statuettes, heads and two 
terracotta cups, from Lucania and Apulia. The thirteen statuettes 
are of the free Tanagra type, but undoubtedly of South Italian work- 
manship. One graceful female statuette, 16 cent, high, preserves 
black color in the hair, red on the face and blue on the himation. 
There are also : three standing females with veiled heads ; a youth 
leaning on a column ; cupid holding a dove ; an Aphrodite (?) ; four 
seated females of varied types. The nine heads are : four of Dionysos 
one archaic in type ; an Athena ; two females with a high stephane ; 
a grandiose helmeted male head ; and another beardless head crowned 
with flowers. (2) A red-figured K}dix with a seated satyr holding a 
ryton in his left and stretching his right hand toward a nude woman 
with a cloth wrapped about her head, who is bending over the satyr: 
from the Ancona collection. (3) Patera from Canosa. A black 
ground decorated in red, brown and white, with fish, shells, etc. : 
from the Ancona collection. 

Italic and Etruscan. (1) The fine series of twenty-six helmets, two 
Greek and the rest Italic, which Sig. Ancona had collected, was dis- 
persed at the sale. Two fine specimens, Nos. 13 and 15 of the cata- 
logue, have been given to the museum. No. 15 is a bronze helmet 
with round calotte, having a decorated border that widens slightly in 
front like a narrow visor. It has two guanciali : from Sotassa. No. 
13 is of bronze and has a high calotte, terminating in a button with 
pearl ornament. Below it has a border with geometric lines and a 
twisted rope pattern : from Orvieto. (3) Fragments of a bronze 
brazier with elegant palmette decoration and dragon's feet, as well as 
a decoration of raised pearls. A large bronze cup with raised pearl 
ornament : both from the Ancona sale ; found near Chiuse. (3) Three 
Etruscan cinerary terracotta urns : the largest belongs to the Greco- 
Etruscan style (c. 300 B. c.), and on its cover half reclines a beautiful 
female figure. She holds a leaf-shaped fan in her right hand and her 
head is encircled with a stephane. There remain traces of color. The 
bas-relief on the front represents the fratricidal combat of Eteokles 
and Polynikes. The second urn bears the figure of a youth, and the 
third that of a young woman : on the former are traces of color and 
on the latter only the white ground for it. 

Roman. (1) Two cippi whose inscriptions are published by 
Mommsen in the C. I. L., Nos. 5750 and 5701, and described as in 
Monza. (2) A marble Roman composite capital with a decoration 
sacred to Neptune, of dolphins, tridents and shells, beside the floral 
ornament. (3) A marble decorative .fragment. (4) A collection of 
Roman antiquities from a necropolis found in 1883 in the Royal Park, 




with interments dating between the first and the fourth century of 
our era. (5) Some Roman objects found in a necropolis at Gerenzano. 

NAPLES. ROMAN BATHS. Between the old Via dei Morceanti, called 
also del Sedile di Porto, and the new street of that name, some ruins 
of Roman baths have come to light which appear to explain the so- 
called grotto or crypt under the chapel of S. Aspreno. This crypt 
appears to have formed a part of these baths, and its peculiarities are 
thus explained. Not. d. Scavi, 1893, p. 432. 

discovery of the first order is that of a very ancient stele, which, 
together with some figured representations, bears a well-preserved 
inscription of twelve lines in Italic characters. It came to light in 
excavating the necropolis of Novilara, near Pesaro, namely, in that 
same territory where have been obtained in past times other figured 
stelae of a very peculiar character. One of these latter, most resem- 
bling our present one, was made an object of study some ten years 
ago by Prof. Undset, who recognized in the ornamentation a distinct 
Mycenaean character, and explained its presence there by means of 
the commercial and other relations between the East and the Italian 
coasts of the Adriatic. The new stele has been brought to Rome and 
placed provisionally in a private room of the new museum at Diocle- 
tian's Baths, until Prof. Lattes, of Milan, shall have published his 
illustrations of it and the result of his studies thereon. The stele is 
eighty centimetres high, and is worked on both faces. On the top of 
the front face is carved a wheel of four spokes, and beneath it is a 
scene of combat between men and animals divided into two compart- 
ments. One portion displays various combatants armed with lances, 
and one armed with an axe, and near them are men and reptiles 
lying 011 the ground. In the other portion are to be seen two men, 
delineated in a very primitive fashion, one fighting with a bull and 
the other with a bear. On the left, by the side of one of the combat- 
ants, stands a pyramid. The other face of the stele is also sur- 
mounted by a wheel, but of five instead of four spokes, underneath 
which are twelve lines of writing, clearly engraved and very legible. 
On the left of the inscription is a pyramid, and on the right a cross, 
while all around runs a border consisting of two wavy lines. The 
text, which was at first thought by some to be Sabellian, and by 
others Illyrian, appears now to be recognized by Prof. Lattes as 
Etruscan. F. HALBHERR in Athenaeum, Feb. 17, 1894. 

the earth in the area of the atrium of the temple of Fortuna Praenes- 
tina a number of architectural fragments belonging to the decoration 


.of the temple were uncovered, and also two fragments of marble 
statues the lower part of a male figure with the paludamentum and 
the lower part of a female figure, perhaps representing Fortuna. 
.Not. d. Scavi, 1893, p. 420. 

PRATA (APULIA). CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTION. At about two kilom. from 
Prata (prov. of Avellino) is an early basilica called VAnnunziata, next 
to which is a catacomb-grotto excavated in the tufa (cf. Arch. Stor. 
prov. nap. in, 1). An inscription painted in white letters on black 
ground on the wall of the grotto has recently come to light, and 
reads : 


Flavius Marcianus was consul in 469, and was son of the Emperor 
Anthemius. His colleague Zeno was made consul at Constantinople 
"by the Emperor Leo. Not. d. Sawi, 1893, p. 422. 

to the Bullettino of the Roman Archaeological Commission (1893, pp. 
-300-1), the following is a record of its activity during 1893: 

I. Removal from the church of S. Antonio al Esquilino of the two 
compositions in marble opus sectile, which originally formed part of 
the rich decoration of the civil basilica built in 317 by the consul 
JUNIUS BASSUS. They have been placed in the Capitoline Museum. 
These works have long been famous and are the classic examples in 
.this branch of art. They have been illustrated in the Bullettino itself 
by Prof. Orazio Marucchi in an article accompanied by two double 

II. Re-composition of the fragments of an altar and marble aedi- 
cula with bas-reliefs and votive inscriptions, found in 1875 in Piazza 
Maniredo Fanti, and belonging to a private sacrarium of foreign 

III. Restoration for the Capitoline Museum of the mosaic pavement 
with figures allusive to the mystic worship of Cybele, which belonged 
tto the residence oi the dendrophori on the Coelian, with the inscrip- 
tion relating to their basilica Hilariana. 

IV. Decision to reconstruct on its own site the sepulchral monu- 
ment of the consul Sulpicius Galba, which was discovered in the 
.quarter of Testaccio. 


V. Exploration in Via Lanza, near the apse of the church of S. 
Martino, in order to ascertain the architectural arrangement of the 
ancient building (praedium Equitii) on which Pope Symmachus 
erected this church in the first years of the sixth century. 

The Commission has intervened in various ways in connection 
with the proposed great archaeological boulevard around the city. 

THE REPUBLICAN COMITIUM. Ch. Huelsen has an article in the Roman 
MittheUungen of the German Institute on " the Comitium and its monu- 
ments during the Republican period " (one plate). He studies the 
comitium before the changes that took place under the Empire, deter- 
mines its limits and its orientation, and then explains the hitherto 
obscure passage of Pliny on the accensus of the consuls, by which 
notice of midday was given from the Curia. Then follow notices of 
the other monuments of the Comitium of which we are told by 
ancient writers, such as the Basilica Porcia, the Columna Maenia, the 
Puteal of Attius Navius, etc. 

and after him a majority of archseologists, have stated that there was 
a temple of Jupiter Dolichenus on the Aventine, and, more precisely, 
on the site now occupied by the church of S. Alessio. This is based 
upon the mention in the catalogues of a dolocenum in the xni region 
(Aventinus), and the existence at S. Alessio of three or four inscrip- 
tions relating to the worship of Dolichenus. Sig. Lugari controverts 
this opinion in an article entitled II Dolocenum delta XIII regime, pub- 
lished in the Bull. Comm. Arch. (1893, pp. 223-43). He points out: 
(1) that out of the twenty-six monuments relating to the worship of 
Jupiter Dolichenus in Rome, eleven belong surely to the Esquiline, 
three or four only to the Aventine, two to Trastevere, and the rest dis- 
persed ; (2) that two of the inscriptions of the Esquiline were seen by 
Ficoroni still in situ, in what must have been the tetrastyle of the 
Dolichenum itself; (3) that the Dolicheniaii inscriptions on the Aven- 
tine, like all the others at S. Alessio, were brought there from else- 
where and give no local indications ; (4) that the monks of S. Alessio 
possessed a castrum on the Esquiline, probably the castrum equitum 
singularium, and probably the inscriptions came from it; (5) that 
hence all the Dolichenian inscriptions relate to a temple of Jupiter 
Dolichenus on the Esquiline, and that there was no such temple on 
the Aventine. 

There remains to explain the dolocenum of the catalogues as exist- 
ing on the Aventine. In regard to the ancient ruins found near S. 
Alessio, especially during the past two years, there is enough to satisfy 
the writer that here stood in the second century the domus of the Cor- 


nelii Repentini, which he suggests may have passed in the third or 
fourth century to the Cornelii Potiti. In regard to the word dolo- 
cenunij the spelling indicates that it has no connection with Jupiter 
Dolichenus at all. The writer proposes to divide it into two words, 
dolo from dolium, doli, ""wine or oil jars," and cenum r ceni, " a mass of 
rubbish." In other words, dolocenum would mean a large refuse heap 
or mound, and such a mound existed from ancient times in this very 
xni region of the Aventine, and is now called the Testaccio. 

ROMAN VICARS OVER SARDINIA. L. Cantarelli closes in the Butt. Arch. 
Comm. for July-Dec., 1893, his articles on II Vicariato di Roma, by a 
study of the Roman vicars or praesides in Sardinia and Corsica during 
the fourth century A. D., when the two islands were separately admin- 
tered. The following is their approximate order : 

Sardinia: Delphius ; Julicus; Valerius Flavianus all three under 
Diocletian; 293-305, Aurelius Marcus; 303, Barbarus ; 306-12, L. 
Cornelius Fortunatianus ; 308-12, Maximianus ; 319, Festus ; 319 ? 
Bibulenius Restitutus > 307-37, T. Septimius Januarius ; 335-37, Fla- 
vius Octavianus ; 337-40, Munatius Gintianus ; 350-361, Flavius 
Amachius ; 350-61, Florianus ; 365, Flavius Maximinus ; 374, Laodi- 
cius ; 382, Matronianus ; Benignus ; Claudius Justinus ; Publius 

Corsica : 303, Barbarus ; 318-330, Furius Felix ; 364, Flavius Maxi- 

In this paper the period between Diocletian and the occupation by 
the Vandals is alone treated, the previous epoch having received more 
attention from Klein and others. 


finds of 1893 is summarized from the report of the Roman Committee 
published in their BuUettino (1893, pp. 283-93) : 

Painting. Piece of stucco with beautiful decoration. On black 
ground is a band with red ground, in which is a fronting mask 
between two ornaments. The mask is bearded and decorated with a 
crown. A fine piece of work. 

Sculpture. A small bull : part of a bust of a warrior : part of mid- 
dle of male figure: bearded head from a herm : delicate and very 
small female head with crown of wheat sheaves : fragment of large 
bas-relief with female (?) head : fragment of beautifully carved mar- 
ble vase, among the decorations of which is a cupid about to shoot at 
a hippogriph, who is clinging to a graceful grape-vine ; etc. 

Metals. A gold circlet : a silver ring : among the bronzes is a knob 
of the handle of a palanquin (?) decorated with two serpent heads. 





Terracottas and glass. Two terracotta antefixes : handle of a large 
and fine lamp with a bust of Jupiter Serapis on the eagle : a few 
lamps, lower part of small glass crater. 

It is to be deplored that the Commission actually lays its hands 
upon so small a proportion of the objects found in Rome. 

ROMAN TOPOGRAPHY. Ch. Hiilsen continues his Topographischer Jahres- 
bericht in the Roman Mittheilungen of the German Institute (1893, 3-4). 
His present review follows after those published in 1889 and 1891 
and enumerates all the discoveries and the studies made in the field 
of Roman topography during the year 1891. The writer often adds 
to his summaries valuable personal notes and opinions. 


NOTO (NEAR). SICILIAN NECROPOLIS. Some work has been done at a 
necropolis on Monte Finochito, near Noto, which belongs to the so- 
called third Sicilian epoch, about which, up to four years ago, nothing 
whatever was known. The tombs had already been for the most part 
rifled by early depredators in search of bronze. The relics now found 
enabled Dr. Orsi to form some idea of the state of civilization at that 
time, and to fix the date of the necropolis between the ninth and 
seventh centuries B. c. All the vases here obtained consist of local 
Greek ceramic work, of imported geometric vases, or else imitations 
of the latter manufactured on the spot. Amongst the bronzes left are 
numerous fibulae of boat shape, and others of a serpent form, with 
rings of various forms and dimensions, three glazed scarabsei, and two 
iron knives F. HALBHERR in Athenseum, March 24. 

ern Sicily, in the province of Trapani, the remains of a small Christian 
church of the fourth or, at the latest, fifth century have been found 
levelled with the ground. Of the two pavements, one beneath the 
other, owing to restorations, the lower and more ancient one bears 
Greek inscriptions, while the upper and more recent one, of which 
very little remains, has some fragmentary inscriptions in Latin. It 
is to be hoped that further researches will be made on the site of what 
must have been one of the oldest Christian buildings in the island. 

On the site of the discovery of the Christian mosaic pavement, not 
far from Salemi, excavations were continued by Prof. Salinas, with 
the result of finding underneath the first a second pavement in mosaic 
also with votive inscriptions. It was also ascertained that there 
existed here not only a'small church, but a village inhabited in the 
fifth century of our era. Athenaeum, March 24 ; Not. di Scavi, 1893, 
p. 428. 


begun in his usual scientific and satisfactory manner a thorough ex- 
ploration of the great necropolis of Syracuse, which had hardly pre- 
viously been touched except by the hand of the predatory antiquity 
seeker. The limited amount of money at his disposal made his first 
campaign a very short one, from December 5, 1892, to January 12, 
1893, with an average of but 18 men. He limited his researches to a 
very small space, doing this thoroughly. How rich his results have 
been even under such circumstances is proved by the report he has just 
issued in the Notizie degli Scavi, showing that the necropolis will be 
invaluable for the study of the archaic Greek period. 

The surplus of news has made it necessary to defer until the next 
issue a full summary of Sig. Orsi's report. We will add here merely 
a few remarks published on the subject by Prof. Halbherr in the 
Athenseum of March 24. 

" The researches that have now been going on for several years in 
Eastern Sicily at Syracuse and in the neighborhood still yield a rich 
harvest of results important for the history of art and for that of the 
Sicilian and Greek populations once settled in that district. In the 
large Greek necropolis called Del Fusco, Dr. Orsi at the beginning of 
last summer resumed his excavations for a short period, directing 
them to a piece of land teeming with remains of tombs and burials. 
The tombs, all belonging to the Greek archaic epoch, were made, 
some by scooping out the rock, others by tiles joined together, while 
others again consisted of large vases or ossuaries. The grave goods 
discovered in this campaign, although not great in number, are 
remarkable, however, for their quality. Some of the vases are excep- 
tionally fine, amongst them being a splendid large and uninjured 
proto-Corinthian olpe, adorned with friezes of animals. Some of the 
large ossuaries are of the form of stamnoi of geometric style, resembling 
the dipylon. Of importance amongst other artistic objects is a small 
ivory counter, with a very archaic representation of Artemis Theria." 


DRUDUS DE TRIVIO. In a recent article in the Butt. Comm. Arch. (1893, 
pp. 372-77), entitled II panorama di Roma scolpito da Pietro Paolo Oli- 
vieri nel 1585, Prof. Lanciani, in using for his purpose part of the 
monument of Pope Gregory XI, executed in 1585 by Olivieri, speaks 
also of the very humble original monument of this pope, who died in 
1378. He was buried in S. Maria Nova, which had been his titular 
church, and the simple inscription on his tomb read : Hie requiescit 


corpus beati Gregorii Pape XL Not long ago Forcella saw in this 
church an inscription, which he afterwards lost sight of, but publishes 
in vol. n, and of this Lanciani says : " II lodato Forcella vide ' gettata 
in un angolo della prima cappella a sinistra di chi entra in chiesa . . 
una pietra quadrata,' ora andata a male, con la pregevole memoria 
^Drudus de T(f)wio h(uius op(er)is mag(iste)r fuit ; ma non saprei 
dire se abbia relazione con 1'avello del pontefice." 

The fact that Lanciani does not know whether the Roman artist 
DEUDUS DE TRIVIO could or could not have had anything to do with the 
monument of Gregory XI, erected after 1378, shows what a complete 
lack of information exists regarding this artist, who flourished nearly 
150 years before this time. Some years ago this artist's name was 
unknown even to the few specialists who had studied the Roman 
medieval school. But now notices of him are being found on every 
hand, and he must have been one of the foremost Roman mosaicists, 
sculptors and decorators of the middle of the xin century. 

His finest known work is the ciborium over the high altar at 
the Cathedral of Ferentino, where he signs himself: Magister Dru- 
dus de Trivio civis Romanus. This is one of the classic chef-d'ceuvres 
of the school. Another perfect work of its kind was one that he exe- 
cuted in conjunction with another artist, Lucas the choir-seats of the 
cathedral of Civita Castellana, which may be dated between 1230 
and 1240. 

But Comm. Enrico Stevenson, who has accumulated a mass of 
material concerning the mediaeval Roman school, has promised the 
JOURNAL an article on this artist, and I shall not forestall his remarks, 
confining myself to calling attention to his date and importance. 

Sig. Alippio Alippi contributes to the Nuovo Rivista Misena (1894, 
p. 11) the names of some artists hitherto unknown, according to him, 
in the fields of manuscript illumination and glass painting in the 
province of the Marches. 

The books of the Opera of S. Ciriaco, now in the Communal 
Archives of Ancona (Lez. vn, N. xxn, f. 8 rev.) contain this note : 
" 1443, 10 de Magio. Et de dare a di lo detto due. 2 b. 16 dati a don 
Domitri gia sagrestano, per resto de aluminare et scrivere uno messale 
et uno breviale, como appare per una bolletta de mano de mis. 
Andrea arciprete lo quale lavoro monta due. 7 bo. 16." 

The convent of S. Domenico at Urbino was a great artistic centre. 
Among others should be noted two makers of colored glass windows : 
Frate Nicolo di Ancona, who on June 13, 1470, received nine florins 


and ten bolognini from the Confraternita del Corpo di Cristo at 
Urbino ; and also Frate Matteo, Vicar of S. Domenico, who received 
on August 20, 1494, from the Convent of S. Francesco, not only some 
money but fragments, tin and lead, for the making of a window on 
which was to be the figure of S. Pelingotto (see book B of the Confra- 
ternita del C. di C., fol. 63 bis, and Libro di Entroito et esito, 1485-96, of 
archives of S. Francesco at Urbino). 

Fanti calls attention in the Nueva Rivista Misena (1894, pp. 12-19) to 
the monument of Giovanni Visconti da Oleggio at Fermo by the 
sculptor Tura or Buonaventura da Imola. Giovanni Visconti was 
Rector of the Marches and Papal Vicar at Fermo, where he died in 
1366, having been previously at Bologna, where he was abhorred for 
his tyranny and which he had delivered up to the Pope. 

In his will, drawn up in 1364, he instituted his wife as his sole 
heir, and ordered her to bury him in the cathedral : in Ecclesia majori 
civitatis Formi . . . in capella costruenda in ipsa ecdesia. The monument 
was erected and still remains in the new cathedral with the following 
inscription : Incliti magnificique d d lohis d Olegio q rectoris 
marchie - et - ad xptum evocati MCCCLX. vi . vm . octob . corp sepulc 
tumulatur puti. And further down is the artist's signature : Magis- 
ter Tura de Imola jecit hoc opus. 

The monument is of a usual xiv cent, type, consisting of a sarco- 
phagus on which reclines the statue of the defunct in his robes of 
office, surmounted by a canopy from which hangs rich drapery, the 
top and front being covered with reliefs. 

The sculptor Tura is known to have worked with Giacomo da 
Fermo on the Papal coats of arm on the fortress of Ancona in 1356-7. 

The writer of this note undertakes to attribute to Tura another 
monument in this region, the altar of the Sacra Spina in Sant' Elpidio 
a mare, executed in 1371, five years after Visconti's death. Here we 
see S. Augustine in the midst of his monks in the Gothic arch over the 
altar. On the front of the body of the monument are five single 
figures in high relief. But his knowledge is not precise nor broad 
enough to justify the unverified acceptance of his conjecture. 

Lack of space obliges me to postpone until the next issue a large 
part of the Italian news and the whole of that of the rest of Europe 
and of America. 




Vol. IX. JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1894. No. 3. 




The marble head which is here reproduced on PLATE XIV 
is one of the many interesting finds of this season's (1894) ex- 
cavations by the American School of Athens at the Argive 
Heraeum. The members of the School who joined me in the 
work were Dr. Washington, Mr. Richard Xorton, Mr. Hoppin, 
and Mr. Alden. 

It would, of course, be impossible to give at the present 
moment an adequate account of these discoveries. For this we 
shall have to wait until the conclusion of the excavations, when 
the mere work of arranging the numerous objects and fragments 
wfll occupy a considerable period with arduous labor. But the 
important bearings of this head upon the other sculptures we have 
unearthed at the Heraeum, as well as upon the history of Greek 
art in its highest period, make it incumbent upon me to publish 

* As a former papa of Professor Henry Drisler, I deeply regret that I was not 
notified of the proposal to do him honor hy dedicating to Inm a Tomme of eay 
written or his former pupils, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of hk 
amrersitT work at Colombia College. I hope that, in accepting the dedication of 
this dight archaeological evay, he will realize the lasting respect and gratitude 
:- - I : , : : :_:i/ W. 


it at this early date, and to accompany the publication with some 
explanatory remarks, giving the main bearings of the discovery. 
These remarks are therefore of a purely preliminary character. 

The head was found to the east of what on last year's plan we 
called the East Chambers, to the northeast of the second temple, 
and below the slope of the first or early temple. On a line with 
this point there appeared for a short distance (about eight feet) a 
continuation of the Cyclopean wall supporting the platform of the 
early temple. We had here to cut off the slope of the early tem- 
ple to a depth of about twenty feet. The objects here found were 
chiefly of the Mycenaean and Dipylon period. But at the point 
where this marble head was found, nearer to the northeast corner 
of the second temple, there appears to have been an accumulation 
of debris massed together in either the Roman or the Byzantine 
period. A marble head of Roman workmanship was found in 
immediate proximity to this head. Mr. Hoppin was in charge of 
the work at the time of the discovery. 

The head is of Parian marble, about one-half life-size, and re- 
presents a Greek youth or ephebos. It evidently came from an 
alto-rilievo, as the right side and ear are finished in work, while 
the left side and ear are not finished. The dimensions are : length 
of face from tip of chin to hair, 0.11 m. ; breadth at ears, 0.08 m.; 
length of nose (tip to brow), 0.036 m.; length of mouth, 0.03 m.; 
distance from eye to ear, 0.04 m.; height of forehead, 0.03 m.; 
width of upper lip, 0.005 m.; distance from mouth to tip of chin, 
0.03 m. ; horizontal line from top of forehead to back of head, 
about 0.12 m. 

It appeared to us immediately after the head was taken from 
the earth that there were clear traces of a reddish-brown color 
marking the iris of the left eye. These traces were visible for 
some time after and may be seen even now. But, as there were 
vestiges of similar color on other parts of the head, which may 
well have been caused by the oxidation of iron near it, I do not 
feel absolutely certain that the color on the eye is a remnant ot 
the original coloring of the statue. So, too, the right side of the 
head has a uniform coating of some white color, which may be 
due to the remains of a ground-tone given to the whole head ; or, on 
the other hand, it may be a chalky deposit caused by the chem- 


ical action of matter lying about it, or of some additional treat- 
ment which the head experienced in later times. 

The chief element of the archaeological importance which this 
head possesses is the fact that it seems to bear traces of Polycletan 
art or influence. These must appear to any student trained in the 
rudiments of the history of Greek sculpture. And this fact will 
appear still more noteworthy in the light of the hasty statement 
of Professor Furtwangler recently published in his essay dedicated 
to Professor Brunn, and repeated in his Meisterwerke der griechischen 
Plastik. In discussing the now well-known head which we dis- 
covered at the Heraeum in 1892, and for w^liich the name Hera 
still remains the most suitable, Professor Furtwangler not only 
considers this head Attic in character, but he further states that 
" all the other sculptures found by us or by Rhangabe at the 
Heraeum have nothing whatever to do with Polycletus and his 
school." I have endeavored to refute this assertion in a letter 
recently sent to the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. But the 
discovery of the head here published will, I must believe, finally 
demonstrate ad oculos the groundlessness of Professor Furtwang- 
ler's statement. 

The Polycletan character of this head, and its close relation to 
the head of the famous doryphoros, in the Naples specimen as 
in all others, was manifest to me the moment the head was 
unearthed. This relationship to the heads which are universally 
acknowledged, by all authorities, to be Polycletan was sub- 
sequently admitted by all archaeologists who visited the Heraeum. 

To begin with the general impression of character, we find it 
the same in our marble head and in the types of the doryphoros. 1 

1 1 have not reduced this critical comparison to the form of actual mathematical 
measurements. Though I think such attempts as have recently been made by A. 
Kalkmann (in his Die Proportionen des Oesichtes in der griechischen Kunst] meri- 
torious and worthy of encouragement, I cannot myself follow this course, especially 
when it concerns heads of different dimension^, different workmanship, and different 
destination, such as metope-heads, pedimental heads, heads of statues, etc. I prefer 
to aim at a careful comparison of the technical and artistic characteristics based 
upon sober and unbiased observation, and then to endeavor to put, as accurately and 
soberly as possible and into definite terms, what is thus perceived ; and finally to 
assign tangible and perceptible causes for this artistic appearance. It may be diffi- 
cult to do this, and I may often fail in my endeavor ; but I would beg the student to 
follow me closely in comparing photographs or, if possible, casts. I find that meas- 
urements in this case would not be of much use in dealing with phenomena so subtle 
and unmechanical, nay, more than organic namely, artistic. 


This general impression which these Polycletan heads leave upon 
the spectator is that of squareness and massiveness. In the pro- 
file view this character approaches most closely to the possibility 
of mathematical demonstration. The outline, which depends 
more upon the rough blocking out of the marble, is more likely 
to retain the mathematical rules which guided the artist at this 
early stage. Now, if we ignore the curious rise of one mass of 
hair on the top of our head (which we may in this case discard 
as an individual trait not characteristic of the general style of the 
school), the proportions are singularly square. A perpendicular 
line drawn from the point of the chin upwards, and meeting the 
main horizontal line placed on the top of the head, is the same in 
length as this horizontal line bounded by perpendiculars running 
along the front and back of the head. 

In the front-view, this impression of squareness and heaviness 
is maintained in the outline, in that the head is broad and com- 
paratively short. This is best perceived by comparing the Poly- 
cletan heads with the others, say of the well-known Lysippean and 
Praxitelean types. The outline of our head is thus large and 
square; while the Lysippean head of the apoxyomenos in the 
Vatican is small and round. Again, the Praxitelean head of the 
Hermes, though larger than either in proportion, is wider at the 
top and at the forehead, but is longer, and tapers toward the 
chin. The front-view outlines of these three types of head pre- 
sent the following shapes : 


The impression of squareness and heaviness is further produced 
or strengthened by the treatment of the different features. The 
brow and eye present a simple, broad, and flat curve. Though in 
the profile view the root of the nose forms a marked projection, 


still the eye is not deeply sunk, either in its relation to the brow 
and upper lid, or by the hollowing out of the portion below the 
lower lid, as is done in most heads of the fourth century B. c. 
The brow is thus broad and simple, and the distance between the 
eyelids is comparatively great, while the eyes are far apart. The 
line at the juncture between nose and brow is more rounded in 
our head than in the other heads of the doryphoros type. 

The nose itself is broad and comparatively short. The tip is 
broad and rounded, not pointed and long, in profile view, as is the 
case, e. g., in the Bologna bronze head called by Furtwangler the 
Lemnian Athena of Phidias, or in the apoxyomenos, or slightly 
drooping downwards, as in the Hermes. In these Polycletan heads 
the tip is not pointed as in the others, but, if we continue the lines 
of the bridge of the nose, it is the broadest part. Again, from 
nostril to nostril the nose is comparatively very broad ; by con- 
trast, that of the apoxyomenos (of which the nostrils are certainly 
unrestored) is in this respect much narrower, almost pinched in 
expression. The nose of the Polycletan head is one of the most 
effective features in giving to the face its heavy appearance. 

The cheeks, especially in the profile view, present a compara- 
tively plain surface, and their heaviness is heightened by the 
treatment of the chin. Unfortunately, a piece is broken away in 
the front of the chin of our head ; still, the comparative absence of 
taper and its broadness and shortness are manifest, while, in the 
profile view, the distance from neck to chin is short. 

But a most important feature is the mouth. This, slightly 
opened, has a somewhat pouting expression ; and appears smaller 
than it really is, owing to the characteristic marked projection of 
the middle part of the thick lower lip, a feature which all the 
heads from the Heraeum have in common , and which they share 
with the heads hitherto admitted to be Polycletan. In the profile 
view, the deep grooving between the lower lip and chin accent- 
uates the projection of the lip and adds to this pouting expression. 

This expression of the mouth, coupled with the general propor- 
tions of the head, the broadness of brow, the wide distance between 
the eyes, the shortness and thickness of nose, the massiveness of 
cheek, jaw, and chin, give to the whole head a character of heavi- 
ness which contrasts strongly with the grace, softness, and round- 
ness of Attic work. 


Another marked feature which our head has in common with 
Polycletan heads is the position of the ears. The top of the ear 
is on a line with the upper eyelid, while the end of the lobe is on 
a line with the upper lip below the nose. A comparison with the 
Capronesi head in the British Museum, with the apoxyomenos, 
Hermes, and other fourth-century heads, shows a much higher 
position of the ear ; while the various doryphoros heads, as well as 
the head of Hera, have the low position of the ear. In fact, all 
the features just enumerated are shared by our head and the types 
of the doryphoros in a marked degree. 

But I must now also dwell upon the deviations in the style of 
this Heraeum head from that of the head of the doryphoros. Yet 
it will be found that the heads of works universally admitted to 
be Polycletan (such as the bronze head by " Apollonios " at Naples, 
the head of the Naples statue, the marble doryphoros of the Vati- 
can, the diadoumenos of Yaison, etc.) differ considerably among 
each other, and that these divergences from the established Poly- 
cletan type are much more marked in the diadoumenos of Yaison 
than in our head. 

These deviations are to be found, first, in the fact that the gen- 
eral modelling of our head is less definite and clear-cut than in 
the " Apollonios " bronze. But this is probably due to the pecu- 
liarities of the marble technique in contradistinction to bronze 
work. I have already referred to the slight difference in the treat- 
ment of the line at the angle of brow and nose, which in our head 
is not so firm and severe, but is more rounded. The eyelids also 
are not cut with the same firmness. 

But the most important difference is to be found in the treat- 
ment of the hair. ~No doubt, our head has suffered much by the 
wear of time, in that the sharpness of the ridges in the modelling 
of the hair has been lost. But the artist never gave the peculiar 
sharpness of the doryphoros hair to this head. Instead of the fine 
modelling of the single strands, not thickly undercut, lying flat 
over the scalp, which allow the shape of the skull to appear 
well-defined (so marked a feature in the .hair of the doryphoros), 
the hair of our head is cut in larger, vague masses, slightly in- 
dicated ; though the characteristic shape of the skull is not hidden 
by this treatment, as it usually is in such cases. 


The deviations may be well accounted for by several causes. 
First, the difference between marble and bronze technique. The 
hair of the doryphoros marks that stage in bronze technique in 
which the locks are not cast in bold relief but follow the masses 
of the form, and the reminiscences of the older toreutic art in its 
finer engraving-work still assert themselves. The marble tech- 
nique in the second half of the fifth century B. c., however, had in- 
troduced a freer treatment in broader masses, and in the work of 
detail some of the minute precision had been lost. But these dif- 
ferences of style have been remarked in the works hitherto 
ascribed to Polycletus. Furtwangler himself has pointed out 2 
the difference in the style of the Amazon and the doryphoros. He 
gives circa 440 B. c. as the date of the Amazon. " But his dory- 
phoros is certainly not later, but earlier than the Amazon, as the 
latter demands the existence of the former, and as its style, es- 
pecially in the flat-lying hair, appears older." The date of the 
doryphoros would thus be earlier than 440 B. c. ; and, if there are 
discrepancies in the treatment of hair between that work and 
the Amazon, how much greater must we expect the discrepancy 
to be between it and a work which cannot be earlier than 423 B. c. 

Finally, we must bear in mind the original destination of dif- 
ferent works as modifying the treatment of details. The hair as 
treated in a pedimental figure, or in one from a metope or a frieze, 
to be seen from a great distance, must necessarily be different from 
that of a work to be seen close at hand. If, for instance, Furt- 
wangler is right in his ingenious identification of the Bologna 
bronze head with the head of the Lemnian Athena by Phidias, 
how could we ascribe this work, with its richly-modelled hair, and 
the lapith-heads from the metopes of the Parthenon, with their 
cap-like expanse of hair (no doubt assisted in the indication 
of texture by color), to the same Phidiac origin if we judged 
merely from the treatment of this detail. 

Though, as I believe I have shown elsewhere, the comparison 
which Furtwangler makes between our head of Hera from the 
Heraeum and the small Brauronian head at Berlin, so far from 
showing any relationship between them reveals essential contrasts ; 
still, even if we could trace some Attic elements in the Hera head 

2 Meisterwerke der griech. Plastik, p. 414. 


and the other sculptures from the Heraeum, these would in no 
way make them Attic. For it would be strange if, with the ad- 
vance made in marble work in Attica during the period of the 
artistic leadership of Phidias, and with all the sculptured deco- 
rations of the numerous buildings erected in this period at Athens,, 
the sculptors working at the Heraeum more than twenty years 
later should not have felt the Attic influence, as probably the Pa- 
rian marble-workers had, at an earlier period, influenced the Attic 
workers in marble technique. It would be a curious and unpre- 
cedented view to maintain that Polycletus and his school never 
worked in marble. Still, I suspect that this general view is held 
by Furtwangler, and that it is this general view which has led 
him to such a sweeping and hasty statement with regard to the 
sculptures from the Heraeum. 

Should traces of Attic workmanship be found in some sculp- 
tures of the Argive school, it is probable that we may find Ar- 
give influences in the Attic work of this later period, as they have 
already been suggested by Petersen and others in earlier Attic 

We must remember that, at the date of the building of the 
Heraeum, Phidias was dead, Polycletus was distinctly the most 
renowned sculptor of Greece, and that the Argive school under 
him was so famous and flourishing that its offshoots spread over 
Greece, and may have started that important school at Sicyon 
which made this town the most noted centre for painting as well 
as sculpture in the next century. If Lysippus is reported to have 
considered the doryphoros of Polycletus his teacher, no doubt 
many an artist contemporary with Polycletus was equally influ- 
enced by his works, even if such an artist lived at a distance. 
And there is one instance of a definite work upon which I must 
lay some stress. For I again venture to suspect that Furtwangler 
may have been guided in assigning an Attic origin to the Hera 
by the similarity of head-dress which this work has to the Carya- 
tides of the Erechtheum. I had noticed this similarity ; but I dis- 
carded any idea of the immediate identity of school, when I com- 
pared the rounded treatment of the faces of the Attic maidens with 
that of our head of Hera. Yet the similarity in other points i& 
most natural, when we consider the proximity of date between the 


building of the Athenian and the Argive temples. Furthermore, 
we must remember that among the famous works of Polycletus, 
according to Cicero (inVerr. iv. 35), were two Canephorae maid- 
ens which he represented in the Attic dress. The existence of such 
well-known works by the most famous sculptor of the day would 
well account for the similarity ; only it would be the Caryatides of 
the Erechtheum which would be influenced by the Argive work, and the 
Attic influence in the head-dress of the Sera would be illusory. 

But to return to our head of the ephebos. In spite of the dif- 
ferences in the treatment of the hair, the characteristics of this 
head are distinctly those of the doryphoros head, and it must thus be 
classed as Polycletan. It only confirms what all other arguments 
led us to believe, that all the works from the temple of Hera (in 
which Polycletus of Argos, the leading sculptor of the day, fash- 
ioned the famous gold and ivory statue) are Argive works of the 
Polycletan school, as the sculptures of the Parthenon are Attic 
works of the Phidiac school. And it would require very pow- 
erful reasons and numerous definite facts to justify us in doubts 
of this natural ascription. 


August, 1894. 


Clay that is to be fired presents an opportunity easily to fix 
a name so that it shall become more durable than one laboriously 
chiseled in stone. This opportunity is one too tempting to be 
neglected, and from the time when the Assyrians stamped their 
bricks, down to the present day, it has been improved. Tiles 
and bricks made by Romans, and impressed with the names of 
the legions by whom and for whom they were made, have been 
found all over Western Europe. 1 Perhaps less attention has 
been paid to Greek material of this character because the mate- 
rial itself has been less abundant. Birch (Ancient Pottery, p. 116 
ff.) gives a list of the examples known at the time of the publica- 
tion of that work. But that was nearly forty years ago ; and 
even the second edition is more than twenty years old. In this 
interval many additions have been made to our stock. 

The two great excavations at Olympia and Delos, to be sure, 
added little to this material. But at Lycosura many tiles were 
found bearing the stamp Aeo-TrotW?. 2 We also have three stamped 
tiles from Chios, 3 two from Magnesia, 4 two bricks from Tralles. 5 
Similar material comes from the Peiraeus, 6 Tanagra, 7 Tegea, 8 Ela- 
teia, 9 and Eretria. 10 Of especial interest is a tile fragment from the 
temple of Apollo at Amyclae, in the Central Museum at Athens, 
and not yet published. On this the stamp has been impressed 
twice. The first time it was done so carelessly that only the top 

1 MARINI, Inscrizioni doliari', BIRCH, Ancient Pottery, at the end. 

2 Excavations at Megalopolis, p. 141. 

3 Mitth. des deutsch. Arch. Inst., Athen, xui, p. 182. 

4 Ibid.., xiv, pp. 105, 106. 5 Bull, de Corr. Hellen., x, p. 327. 
6 Ibid., xi, p. 209. 7 Ibid. 

l Mitth. des deutsch. Arch. Inst., Athen, IV, p. 144. 

9 Bull, de Corr. Hellen., xi, p. 109. 

10 Eleventh Annual Report of the Am. School of Classical Studies at Athens, p. 40. 
In the excavations of the present year at Eretria another example was found. 




line " took." We read ATTOAAWNOI. It is perfectly evi- 
dent, however, from the breadth of the indentation in the clay, that 
another line ought to be there. But by good luck the workman 
saw his failure, and planted his stamp again about an inch higher 
up, this time squarely. The larger portion of the lower line has 
been spared. Just at the top of the fragment we read : 

A A W I 

Hardly less interesting is a brick from Sparta stamped : 




A tile was found at Epidaurus with the stamp ANTUJNGINO Y. 12 
Many of a similar character were found at Megalopolis. 13 

But the largest store has been found at Pergamon. By the 
kindness of Dr. "Wolters I have been allowed to see copies of these 
from the article of Schuchhardt now in preparation. These con- 
tain 112 different stamps, and in some cases there are over 40 im- 
pressions from a single stamp. 

It is not likely that I have seen all the material which has 
been found in later years and received casual mention in various 
periodicals; but enough has been here catalogued to show that 
certain stamped tiles found in the excavations of the American 
School at the Argive Heraeum are no isolated phenomenon in 

Of these tiles three fall at once into a class. One fragment 
yields PXlTE^T-^-N, a second T E K T -^ N, and a third 
^ rL KAH^AP v . The letters in all three are of the same 
form, about a half an inch long, and raised. 14 There is no room 
for doubt that they are all from a single stamp, arid one can 
easily restore for all the reading : 

11 Mitth. des deutsch. Arch. Inst., Athen, II, p. 441. 

12 KABBADIAS, Fouilles d' Epidaure, p. 107, No. 247. 

13 Excavations at Megalopolis, p. 140, and Jour, of Hell. Studies, xiu, pp. 332, 336. 
u Particularly noteworthy are the small o, tbe^ with oblique upper and lower 

bars, the k with short oblique bars, and the very long ) which makes K T n- 
ascend like the side of a flight of steps. 


By a piece of good fortune, the Central Museum possesses a 
fragment found by Stamatakis at the Heraeum in 1878, con- 
taining AH^APXIT^K T- - N, evidently stamped with the same 
die. To remove any lingering doubt as to all these pieces belong- 
ing to a series, it may be added that they are all of the same 
thickness (0.035 m.); that about 0.025 m. from the top (which 
is the only original edge preserved) a thin stripe is impressed ; 
that the stamp is in each case placed immediately below this line, 
always on the concave side of the tile, which on this side had a 
finish not given to the other side ; and that the clay in all is 
rather coarse. After working out this problem, I had my atten- 
tion called to a whole tile in the Polytechnikon, found by Dr. 
Schliemann in 1874 in the village of Chonika, about a mile and a 
half from the Heraeum. Here stands in full : 

At the bottom of the tile is another stamp : 

This is, of course, for Aa/^o'o-iot "Hpa?, 15 and would mark the 
tiles (KepapoL being understood) as the public property of Hera. 

On the stamped tile from Sparta, above mentioned, we had 
7r\iv0oi, SafjLoo-icu a-tcavo6r)Ka<>, an exactly parallel case. So on the 
Peiraeus fragments we have M I A TT E I P with ir\Cv6o^ prob- 
ably supplied. The three Tanagra tiles bear ^ I ^ M A A. 16 
The Tegea tile bears AAMO^IO^. 17 A fragment of brick 
also from Tegea has r??? Sa/jido-iov. 18 

Another tile, an inch thick and of great concavity, found at the 
Heraeum, has A A M I I. 19 

15 In some Argive inscriptions a between vowels is changed to A, as in [Aa/xo]Ja, 
EGBERTS, Introd. to Greek Epigraphy, No. 79, and 'ETro^e, No. 81, while in other 
cases, in the same position, it vanishes altogether. Thus in C7(?., i, 1120, 
TeXV7ros is used three times for TeX<?<rt7T7ros, and Qp&v\\os for Qpd<rv\\os (in COLLITZ 
und BECHTEL, Argivische Inschriften, p. 127, the rough breathing is given to these 
names). See AHRENS, De Graecae Linguae Dialectis, n, p. 78 f. 

16 Bull, de Corr. HelUn., xi, p. 209. 

17 Mitth. des deutsch. Arch. InsL, Athen, iv, p. 144. 

18 LE BAS et FOUCART, Inscr. du Peloponnese, p. 341 f. 

19 At Eretria, this year, a small fragment of a tile was found containing apparently 

EPETPI, but if AHMO be the true reading of the somewhat worn letters, H and M 
are strangely crowded together. The letters really look more like AIMO, an inter- 
esting iotacism. 



This word SCL/JLOLOI does not put us in possession of any very 
definite information, such as that secured by the English exca- 
vators at Megalopolis, who identified the Philippeium hy stamped 
tiles. 20 The whole precinct was sacred to Hera, and the tiles of 
any building, or even of a drain-pipe, might have been said to 
belong to her. 

One's first thought is of roof-tiles. But the tile that we have 
entire in the Polytechnikon is very heavy and coarse. It is 1.10 
m. long, 0.51 m. broad at the top, 0.44 m. broad at the bottom, 
0.035 thick. The edges are cut off with a slant, making 
& cross section of this form : < ^r^ > 

It has been suggested to me that it might be a drain-tile, but 
so slight is the concavity that it would take at least five such 
pieces to make a cylinder, and this would be enormously large 
:a metre and a half or more in diameter. Of 
course, this might be the case; the tiles, how- 
ever, would not make joints, but would simply 
touch one another with sharp edges, thus : 

It is not likely that the edges would have been made to fit so 
poorly if this had been the end for which the tiles were designed. 
Neither is it likely that tiles like this were intended to go in 
pairs, making a flat drain (one being imposed 
upon the other), for in that case the edges would ^^$5 
have met thus : 

For only one sort of a drain does a tile of this shape seem fit, 
viz., for an open drain. The lower smaller end of each upper 
tile would fit into the broader upper end of each lower tile, and 
make a good drain for a small quantity of water, e. g., the drip- 
pings from a roof. But it would be strange if such drains existed 
in quantity enough to have afforded us almost our only survivals 
of Heraeum tiles. Furthermore, a system that was fit for an 
exposed drain was fit to serve as a series of gutter-tiles on a roof 
(crwX^e?). The zigzag edge was perhaps rude, but it could be 
covered by the Ka\v7rr'fjpe<;, as may be seen by the annexed cut : 

80 Excavations at Megalopolis, p. 141. 


There is a breadth of only slightly over 0.14 m. to be covered 
by the Ka\wjrTrjp. It would be just 0.14 m. if the turned up 
edges of the o-wX^e?, for so we may now call them, were cut off 
straight and not with a slant. If the /caXvrrrrjpe^ were as thick as 
the a-coXfjveS) they must have had a superficial breadth of 0.21 m. 21 
Perhaps we may assume 0.25 m. as a maximum. The o-wX^ye? 
could have at most only 0.30 m. exposed. 22 

The actual result was probably a roof divided in its surface 
about equally between gutter-tiles and covering tiles. The taper 
of the gutter-tiles affords an easy way of fitting each one into the 
next lower. Probably the covering tiles were arranged in the same 
easy way, the narrow upper end being overlapped by the broad 
end of the next covering tile. Perhaps this may not have made 
so dainty a roof as those of buildings with marble tiles, with 
their delicate /caXvTrrrjpes, or as that of the Treasury of Gela at 
Olympia with its more carefully matched clay tiles. But that it 
is a probable and natural arrangement is shown by the fact that 
tiles are now adjusted in the same way. The only difference is 
that they are made much smaller. The tile in the Polytechnikon 
must be twenty or thirty times as heavy as those now in com- 
mon use on the roofs in Athens. They were large enough to be 
held in position by their own weight, without mortar, even in 
spite of considerable wind, thus making a roof comparable to 
those made of flat stones, so common in the valleys of Northern 
Italy, where fierce winds sweep down over the passes. 

These tiles might be taken as quite old and primitive were it 
not for the stamp, which forbids such a thought. This even forbids 
putting them so far back as the erection of the new temple of 
Hera, which was probably begun soon after the destruction of 
the older temple in 423 B. c., and completed before 400 B. c., to 
say nothing of the fact that Pausanias mentions Eupolemus as the 
architect of that temple. The West Building, also, if the signs 
of its age have been correctly estimated by the visiting architects, 
could not have borne these tiles on its first roof. Its massive 
character, however, and the short span of its roof would make it 
a very proper building to carry such heavy tiles. 

21 The computation would be as follows : the taper of the ffu\^v (0.07) plus twice 
the thickness of its edge (0.14). 

12 The computation would he as follows : 0.44 (0.035 x 2 -f- 0.035 X 2) = 0.30. 


Not to be too exact about the forms of letters on a stamp, and 
that, too, outside of Attica, where we are always uncertain as to 
dates of certain forms, we may yet say with considerable safety 
that the stamp cannot be earlier than the fourth century. The 
small omega would seem to make it venturesome even to put it into 
that century at all. But against any very late date may be arrayed 
the following considerations : 

1. A has a straight crossbar. 

2. ^ has its upper and lower branches very divergent. 

3. There is no attempt at ornamentation. 

The place of finding of the fragments seems to give no clue as 
to the building on which they were used, for in only one case 
have we any record of that item : one was found at the east end 
of the Stoa above the new temple. But they may have belonged 
to some building made several centuries after the temple of Hera. 

"We must be on our guard. The stamp-maker may have 
indulged in an affected archaism. The irregularity of the ending 
E K T -^ N may be due to that. On the Amyclae stamp there is no 
sign of a later date than 300 B. c., other than a very late form of the 
omega (W). As for ^ with divergent upper and lower bars, it 
is found on bricks made perchance a year ago at Chalkis. 

As to the name Sokles, a Koseform for Sosikles, it is common 
enough, and affords no particular interest. But the meaning of 
apxirefCToyv is an interesting question. The word seems, judging 
from its use in numerous inscriptions, to have the definite mean- 
ing of " supervising architect," holding office sometimes for the 
erection of a certain building, as in the case of the temple of 
Asclepius at Epidaurus, or for a term during which he would 
supervise all building and repairs, as at Delos. His office is well 
described by Fabricius (Hermes, xvn, p. 17), and by Homolle 
(Bull, de Corr. Hellen., xiv, pp. 477 ff), who remarks : Dans un 
grand Sanctuaire comme celui de Delos, ou les reparations, a defaut 
meme de travaux neufs, exigeaient continuellement la surveillance et la 
capacite d'un homme de metier, on ne pouvait se passer d'un archi- 
tecte. L'habitude d'attacher d'une fagon permanente un architecte aux 
temples etait assez repandue dans le monde grec. 

In CIA., i, 322, Philokles is mentioned as an ap^re/crcw, 
who with a rypafjLfAarevs belonged to a board of eVio-rarat TOV veco 
TOV ev TroXet, ev a> TO ap%alov aya\fjLa, supposed to be the Erech- 


theum. In CTA., i, 324, a year later probably, for work on 
the same building an apxire/crcov named Archilochus received 37 
drachmas for one prytany and 36 for another. This is pretty 
clearly a drachma a day. According to the same account, men 
who worked on columns got as high wages as 20 or even 22 
drachmas a prytany. In CIA., I, 60, ap^ire/cTcov and a/o%t- 
retcToves are frequently mentioned in connection with what is sup- 
posed to be the same work as that above mentioned. In an 
inscription from Delos, published by Homolle, 23 a certain Philisti- 
des receives a payment of one drachma a day. Homolle supposes 
him to have been the architekton who supervised all the buildings 
at the time on the island of Delos. At any rate, it appears that 
nothing was done in great building enterprises without the 
consent and advice of the architekton. icekevet, ap^Lre/cTwv is 
a phrase of very common occurrence in building-inscriptions; 
it occurs 34 times in the accounts of the hieropoioi of the 
temple of Apollo at Delos, edited by Homolle in JBull. de Corr. 
Hellen., vi, pp. 6 ff. The hieropoioi make payments at the order 
of the ap%iTe/cTovo<; /cal T&V eVtyLteX^Twv, ibid. pp. 7, 8. In the 
Eleusinian inscription published by Foucart, Bull, de Corr. Hellen. y 
IV, 226 ff., we read OTTOV av Boicy rot? lepoTroiols /cal ra> ap%iTKTovt. 
In the great building-inscription of Lebadea (Insc. Graec. Sept. 
3073, line 160), we see that a completed piece of work is submit- 
ted to the apxLTe/crcov, while minutiae like the separate joints are 
attended to by a vTrapxire/crcov. 24 

In an inscription from Epidaurus K mention is repeatedly made 
of an architekton Theodotos, who served for a period of over six 
years at a salary of a drachma a day. 26 But the salary of an ap^i- 
re/cTwv was not uniformly a drachma a day. 27 In the year 279 
B. o., at Delos, he received two drachmas a day; but at the same 
time certain workmen, Nikon and his son, get the same amount 
for working on a column. 28 At Eleusis, in the time of Ly- 

28 Bull, de Corr. Hellen., vni, p. 305 ff. 

24 Cf. line 53 : d/>e<rr<2s rots veoTroiots Kal r$ apxt-r^Krovi (it was easy for Dittenber- 
ger to restore in ISTo. 3075 [/caflws &v KeXerf?? 6 A^PXLT^KTUV). Cf., also, GIG., 2266, 
line 19 : tireiSav d ffwreXeffBy rb epyov, tirayyeiKdrw 6 epytivr]? rots tTriffTdrcus Kal Ttf 

25 KABBADIAS, Fouilles d' Epidaure, p. 78, Inscr. No. 145. 

26 His payment for one year is 350 drachmas ; for another it is 353 drachmas. 

27 See the list given by Homolle in Bull, de Corr. Hellen., xiv, p. 478. 



curgus, an ap^ireKrcov received 72 drachmas for one prytany, or 
two drachmas a day, 29 while an epistates of seven men received 
only ten drachmas for the same time. 30 

The apxiTe/crcov eVt ra lepd at Athens, 31 and the ap^Lre/crcov who 
had so much to do with the theatre of Dionysus, were undoubt- 
edly supervising architects, whatever other functions went along 
with that office. The four persons mentioned in CIA., n, 194, 
col. c, as apxiretcroves, are similarly engaged, although their work 
is at the Peiraeus in connection with the ships. 

Two things come out reasonably clearly from this list of inscrip- 
tions : 

1. When a man is called an ap^ireKTmv^ as Sokles here is, he 
cannot be considered to be the head of a tile factory. 32 In that 
case he would probably have been called icepack. Sokles was 
doubtless the supervising architect for some particular building 
or for some one or more years. 

2. The other result may seem surprising ; but it does appear 
that a man who undertook important responsibilities, requiring 
special knowledge and training, received the small payment of 
one or two drachmas a day. 33 This may be a good illustration 
that officials in Greece did not look for great profit. Quite likely, 
the only reason why the architect at Athens was paid at all, while 
the board of eVio-TaVat with whom he was associated gave their 
services free, was that he had to give up all his time to the work. 
Perhaps the payment given to a member of the Boule during his 
time of actual service was regarded as a proper standard in pay- 
ing for this sort of service. Probably the only difference between 
such an ap^re/crcov as Sokles and Ictinus or Libon, 34 was that the 
latter were engaged in more important undertakings. 

28 Of. line 71 of the great inscription published by Homolle in Bull, de Corr. 
Hellen., xiv, pp. 389 ff. 

29 CIA., n, 834 b . 3 o Ibid., col. n, line 9. S1 CIA., n, 403, line 28. 

32 For the head of a tile factory to style himself apxirtKrwv would probably have 
seemed more of a wresting of language than when now-a-days a dancing-master 
assumes the title of professor. FOTJCART (in Bull, de Corr. Hellen., vm, p. 407) 
understands a brick from Thebes to bear the stamp of the maker's name, adding : 
Les marques de ce genre sont encore assez rares en Grece. 

33 That an architect was a man of some standing might appear from the words of 
[PLATO], Anterastae, p. 135 B : 'Ei/ ry TCKTOVIK^ TETOVO, fdv av Trplatro irtvre 

34 It is a little strange that PATJSANIAS (v. 103) speaks of Libon as a TKTWV. 


A word may here be added as to the practical reason for 
stamping tiles. Sokles, who may of course have had his own 
tile-making establishment, did not wish to have a pile of his tiles 
stolen or mixed up with similar tiles. 35 Perhaps it is not without 
a bearing on such possible purloining that we read an account of 
the hieropoioi at Delos, 36 running thus : " Bought 200 pairs of 
tiles ; put 70 pairs on one building, 44 on another ; and turned 
over to the following hieropoioi a remainder of 76." No mention 
is made of the deficit of ten. 

The tiles were probably formed in a wooden mould, like that 
referred to in an inventory of Delos 37 as a TVTTOS %V\LVO$ /cepa/jLiScov. 
That in some cases the stamp was affixed by a separate impression 
might seem probable from the fact that the upper stamp with 
Sokles' name was not exactly uniform with reference to the stripe 
above it. But this may also be accounted for by supposing the 
metallic stamp, which made the letters so clearly cut, to have 
been a little loosened from the wood of the mould in some cases. 
I saw some moulds at a brick manufactory in Eleusis, the other 
day, in just that condition. 

The other stamped fragments found at the Heraeum during the 
first two years of excavation are so small that it is difficult to tell 
whether they are tiles or plaques. On one from the so-called 
West Building, 0.12 X 0.07 m., roughly estimated, we have : 


A / 

After A what looks like P follows, but this is uncertain. The 
rest of the lower line is worn away. Coming to this from the 
pieces just discussed, one would be predisposed to read 'ETT/WKO? 
apxiTCKTcov, but it is quite as likely that eVi is a preposition fol- 
lowed by a genitive, as in so many of the Corfu, stamps contain- 
ing the names of prytans (Biemann, Les Isles loniennes, pp. 47, 
54), or in the numerous stamps on amphora-handles collected by 
Dumont in Insc. Ceramiques de la Grece. The word following the 

86 The stamp with Sokles' name, being on the upper end, would disappear when 
the tile was laid, even if it were a gutter-tile. 
**Bull, de Corr. Hellen., vi, p. 136. 
37 Bull, de Corr. Hellen., vi, pp. 29 ff. 



re may be a/>%oz>To?, for aught we know. Another fragment 
still smaller, 0.09 X 0.07 m., has a name clearly in the genitive. 
To the left we read : Y A I 

A v 

It is evident that the top line runs from right to left, and we 
probably have a name ending in i\ov. If the next line turns 

back in a Boustrophedon order, we may here have eirl i\ov 

apxovros or apxiretcTovos. Such a turning back of the second line 
is seen in one of the Megalopolis tiles. 38 In our inscription, as 
in that one, A Y is also possible, since the mark at the edge of 
the fragment, after the supposed A, looks oblique, and may be a 
part of a Y. The reading of the name from right to left has 
many parallels in stamps. A Megalopolis tile 39 has the name 
<&L\i7nroiiJi7)v read this way. The three tiles from Tanagra read 
in the same way, 40 as well as one of the three tiles from Chios 
before mentioned. The maker of the stamp in these cases pre- 
ferred to cut his letters running in the usual order, regardless of 
the hundreds of impressions which would thus read reversed. 

We are sure that in some cases the stamps were not cut as a 
whole, but were made up of movable letters. 41 On an amphora- 
handle from the Peiraeus, 42 the reading is from right to left; but 
the letters ^, P and K are left turned the other way. In turning 
his letters the workman forgot to arrange them so as to make the 
direction of the word and of the letter consistent. 

A series of four tile fragments was found on the south slope 
below the Heraeum just at the close of the last year's work (spring 
1894). These contain : 

2. erriTTo 

3. er 

4. V co 

They are all impressed on the concave side of fragments about 

88 Jour, of Hell. Studies, xui, p. 336, No. 1. 39 Ibid. 

40 Bull, de Corr. Hellen., xi, p. 209. 

"BLUMNEK, Technologic und Terminologie, n, p. 32; and DUMONT, Inner. 
Ceram., pp. 395, 396, 398, where are cuts illustrating the making up of these stamps, 
in some of which letters are misplaced. 

"Bull, de Corr. Hellen., xi, p. 207. 


an inch thick. The letters are not raised, as in the other frag- 
ments here catalogued, but depressed. The fact that in No. 1 
6 is so close to the TT as not to allow room for the cross-bar of 
the latter to extend so far to the left as in Nos. 2 and 3, points to 
a slight difference in the moulds, possibly due to the use of mova- 
ble letters. The date of this stamp is evidently very late. Whether 
Polygnotus was an architect or a sacred official for the year is 
not known. 

At the same time and place was found a small fragment with 
very large letters (about an inch long) furnishing the beginning 
of two lines : 


and a still smaller piece of the upper right-hand corner of a tile 
with ^ next to the preserved edge. This ^ is exactly like those 
in the Sokles stamps, and the piece agrees in thickness ; but this 
cannot belong to that series unless the Aa/Wot f 'H/oa? was trans- 
ferred to the top. There are also two stamps from late Roman 
times found in the second year's work, one on a piece of tile so 
small that it affords only K A 1 C C (the letters are perfectly plain). 
The second one is broken a little at the right-hand lower corner, 
and the raised letters are badly worn in the middle of the second 
line, but it looks as if it were not going to be difficult to read. It 
runs from right to left, thus : 

VO/ A V A A X 
A3 ) .) O 3 A 

Hopefully as the first line and the first half of the second look, 
affording KAauStbu KXeoc-0 --- , we must leave the rest unsolved. 

Besides the stamps here described, there were several letters, 
apparently scratched into some of the tiles when these were moist. 
But they fiirnish no words. Perhaps they were builders' marks, 
or marks to designate property. 

American School, Athens, 
July, 1894. 


The inscriptions here published were found in the spring of 1893. 
They are none of them older than the second period in the Argive 
inscriptions, which is especially characterized by the three-stroke 

sigma ( Z j and by the dotted omicron (Q) (cf. Kirchhoff, Stu- 

dien* p. 98; Roberts, Grk. Epig., pp. 108, 117). Several are con- 
siderably later than the date of the introduction of the Ionic 
alphabet, which probably took place in Argos, as elsewhere, about 
the close of the Peloponnesian War (cf. Kirchhoff, o. c., p. 100). 
The fragment XI, indeed, can scarcely be earlier than Roman 
times, and No. XII, which will be published later as an addendum 
to the present series, is very likely of much the same date. 


Inscribed on a small Doric capital and on a portion of its 
column found in the West Building (cf. Waldstein, Twelfth 
Annual Report of the Am. School, p. 34), near the third base of 
the inner row of columns, counting from the south (excavator's 
note). Now in the guard's hut at the site of the excavations. 
Diameter of column, 1 ft. ; height of echinus, 4 in. ; width of 
abacus, 1 ft. 9 in. ; height of abacus, 4 in. ; height of letters, 
about .8 in. 

(a) is inscribed on the abacus and is difficult to read, owing to 
the damaged state of the surface of the stone. Professor Tarbell 
was the first to read line 1, but the defective squeeze which he 
used did not show the letters in line 2. It is possible, but not 
certain, that the letters TON should be read before TT in line 2. 

Nejfteia Teyea re v vv vv 

. . . 




(b) is inscribed on the column, there being two letters in each 
flute, as is shown in the facsimile. The uneven stretching of the 
squeeze has caused the lines to appear not quite equi-distant from 
one another. 

T I 

I 6 T! K 

(a) shows clearly that the inscription is the dedication of some 
'object by a victor in various games (cf. Furtwangler, Mittheil. 
Athen., v, pp. 30 and 31, note 2). Similar inscriptions are quoted 
by Pausanias in his account of Olympia, and the excavations 
there have yielded some of the same class (cf. Archaologische 
Zeitung, 1876-1878). The following numbers from the Anthology 
may also be cited for comparison: xm. 5, 8, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19. 
xvi. (Planudea), 23, 24. Vol. in, (Firmin-Didot), i. 23, 24, 30, 
44, 50, 82, 89, 102, 106, 291. Addenda to Vol. in, i. 86 b. 


Inscribed on a stone built into the wall of one of the dwellings (?) 
which adjoin the stoa marked C on the map (cf. Am. Journal of 
Arch., vin, pi. xii, and Waldstein's Report, pp. 31, 32). The 
wall is not of the best construction, and the inscribed stone was 
undoubtedly brought from elsewhere and built in at a date later 
than that of the cutting of the inscription. The dimensions of 
the stone, which has apparently been cut down to fit into its 
present position, are 2 ft. 11.5 in. by 1 ft. 11.5 in., and the upper 
line of the letters is 3.5 in. below the top of the stone. The 
height of the letters is about 3 in. The upper left-hand corner 
of the stone is broken off. The inscription is very clearly cut. 
The apparent dot in the first O is almost certainly only a break 
in the surface of the stone. The form of sigma is noteworthy in 
an Argive inscription. 


ovv cr ov 

Possibly this may be a patronymic genitive in a dedicatory 




Found just to the south of the West Building among some 
architectural fragments. The inscribed stone is of irregular 
shape, but the measurements may be roughly given as 11 in. by 
5 in. The height of the letters is about 1.2 in. The dot in the 
O is not entirely certain. The stone is in the museum at Argos. 

... o (or a))v av[e 


Found in the same place as III. Inscribed on an irregularly 
broken fragment 1 ft. by 8 in. in size. The height of the letters 
is about .5 in. In the museum at Argos. 

Possibly the stone formed the upper part of a stele. 


Found between the bases of the inner row of columns in Stoa 
C and on a level with them, at a point about one-third of the 
length of the stoa, measured from the west end. The inscription 
is on a marble block measuring 10 in. by 10 in. by 3.6 in. The 
letters are about .7 in. in height. There is a round hole in the top 
of the block 1.6 in. in diameter. Of the name of the first dedi- 
cator only a single upright bar of one letter is preserved. The 
stone is in the Central Museum at Athens. 

av e d er av 


The name Hybrilas does not occur elsewhere, though Hybrillos 
and Hybrilides exist. On the suffix -Xa? see Fick, Griech. Per- 
sonennamen, p. 123, and Pape-Benseler, Lex., p. xxx. 

The really important feature in this inscription is the form 
n; B. With the exception of a bronze plaque said to be from 
Hermione, but apparently of doubtful provenience, the Argive 
inscriptions of early date give but one example of the letter B. 
This occurs in the proper name ~Bop0ayopas, which with others is 
inscribed on a stone that is built into the foundation of the east- 
ern tower of the ruined castle on the Larisa at Argos (cf. TAG. 
30 = Dialekt-Inschriften 3260 = Roberts, Grk. Epig., 73). Here 
our copies give the form ^ . But, in the light of the new form 
for this letter, the stone needs to be carefully examined, since, 
owing to the worn condition of its surface, an error might easily 
be possible. 

The plaque from Hermione has been published by Frohner in 
the Revm Archeologique for 1891, n, pp. 50 ff., and, with extended 
comment, by Robert in the Monumenti Antichi, 1891, pp. 593 ff. B 
occurs twice (lines 2, 6) in the word h A. It should be 
observed that the upper lateral stroke is not at right angles with 
the vertical stroke, as is the case with the example from the 
Heraeum. There is, however, no essential difference in the forms. 
If the bronze plaque is not Argive, but represents a form of the 
alphabet in use at Hermione, we must suppose, as Frohner has 
pointed out, that there existed there almost simultaneously two 
forms of the early alphabet, that of Argos (note the letter h on 
the bronze plaque), and a form closely allied to the Lacedaemo- 
nian (cf. Roberts, p. 284, and Kirchhoff, Studien 4 p. 160). It is 
more probable that the plaque is of immediate Argive origin, and 
this view, to which both Frohner and Robert incline, is now 
shown to be almost certainly the correct one by the inscription 
from the Heraeum. The resemblance of this form of beta to that 
of the letter in several of the insular alphabets (C), and in the 
alphabet of Megara (J"" 1 ) has been remarked by Robert, I c. 


Inscribed on a white fine-grained limestone, which splits with 
conchoidal fracture. Found in Stoa C, between the back wall 



and the inner row of columns (Washington's note). Six irregu- 
larly broken fragments of the stone have been found, five of 
which may readily be fitted together. These measure roughly 
1 ft. by 8 in., the sixth fragment 3 in. by 1 in. The height of 
the letters is 0.4 in. The inscription is in the Central Museum at 

(a) Fragments 15. 
. . . ov 

. . . plTOV 

ra p n p p n 


. . . tfjierpov H ripd P O O O O 

. . . T/30? 

... aS ... 

(b) Fragment 6. 

The inscription is extremely well cut, and the surface of the stone 
in excellent condition, so that the failure to discover more frag- 
ments is peculiarly to be regretted. It seems to have been an 
account of moneys paid out possibly for building materials. We 
might restore %v\wv avwv in line 4, but the inscription is so 
broken away at the left that conjectural restorations are not worth 
much. One Argive inscription gives H = 100, P = 50, = 10, 
cf. Reinach, Traite d' Epigraphie grecque, p. 218 ; Dittenberger, 
Hermes, vn, p. 62 if., comments on the inscription, which is also 
published as No. 3286 in the Dialekt-lnschr. ; Larfeld in Muller's 
Handbuch, i 2 , pp. 541 if. Perhaps, however, = omicron, as 


in other portions of the inscription, and signifies an obol. But 
how are we to read P ? If it means five or fifty drachmas in line 
5, its repetition up to five places would surely be most unusual. 
Professor F. D. Allen has suggested to me that it may be used to 
designate a coin of given value (cf. Reinach, Traite, p. 217, and 
note 3). Professor Allen has also suggested the reading wva vwv 
in line 4, thus connecting the inscription with the purchase of 
sacrificial animals. Compare the sacrificial calendar from Cos, 
JHS. ix, pp. 323 if., published also in Paton's Corpus of Coan 
Inscriptions. Line 5, however, seems to me rather to suggest 
the purchase of building materials. We might perhaps imagine 
in line 5 something that had a irepi^erpov (SifAerpov or Tpifierpov 
seems difficult, since it involves the use of perpov as 'a linear unit) 
of 100, and in line 3 the . . . ra might belong to some such expres- 
sion as Trot ra 8(,aa-Tv\cov OvpwfjLa-Ta (cf. lines 6364 of the Epidau- 
rean temple-inscription). 


Inscribed on a much broken block of stone measuring 2 ft. 
3 in. by 2 ft. by 1 ft. 3 in. (height). Found on the upper terrace 
just south of the remains of the earlier temple. The stone still 
remains near the spot where it was found. 

A ii A M i 

' A p r d fjb t, 

For the form see Foucart in Le Bas, ExplicaL, No. 109a. The 
inscription there published reads Upcortcov 'Apra/u, and is now in 
the museum at Argos. Foucart compares the forms ^apdin*l(Ti, 
'Avovfr (cf. MittheiL, iv, p. 148, No. 508 ; Dialekt-Inschr., 3283). 


The spot where this inscription was found is not definitely 
indicated in the excavators' notes. It is described as having 
come to light " on the surface of the south side." The stone 
measures 5 in. by 6 in., and is broken on all sides. The letters 
are not deeply cut and the squeeze is difficult to read. The 
height of the letters is about .3 in. The stone is in the museum 
at Argos. 


H * P o T HPIAI** 

6jA./ca /xvat AAl 1=1 
TOV 6X/ca |w,va a . 

8^9 7TOT77pta K (?) . 8 




The fragment is evidently part of an inventory of valuable 
objects which were stored in the temple or in some other 
building of the sanctuary. In line 1 the value of some object 
seems to be 22 minae, and perhaps 20 drachmas 2 obols ; that is, 
if we may understand =10 dr. and I = 1 obol, as in the 
inscription which relates to the construction of the temple of 
Asclepios at Epidaurus. Lines 7 and 8, however, show that 
the word drachma was given in full, at any rate in the case of 
lesser values. The space preceding the A which stands at the 
end of line 2 shows no trace of any letter. It would seem, then, 
as if the value indicated were a single mina, unless A may possi- 
bly be taken as a numeral. It is so used apparently in line 106 
of the architectural inscription of the temple at Epidaurus already 
referred to ; but, so far as I know, the letter has never been 
interpreted there, and it is of no help in understanding the pres- 
ent inscription. The A rather suggests ave'Orjfce or avade^a in 
this place (cf. the records of the temple of Apollo at Delos passim, 
Dittenberger, Sylloge, 367). The termination -8779 looks like the 
ending of a dedicator's name, but unfortunately there is no means 
of determining how much has been broken oft' at the beginning 
or ending of the lines. In line 3 we should expect a word 
expressing an attribute of TrorTJpta (e. g., KeSpiva, which, however, 
is hardly possible), but I can make no suggestion that is worth 
anything. In line 4, after Xeta, the beginnings of a proper name 
seem possible. In line 6 the compound eiravQe^a-Ta is, so far as I 
know, new, if we are to take it as signifying dedicated offerings. 


The use of the accusative <f>t,d\av in lines 6 and 7 has a parallel 
in lines 68 ff. of the records of the temple at Delos. 


An irregular fragment, broken on all sides, measuring 1 ft. by 
6 in. Height of letters about .4 in. The stone is in the museum 
at Argos. No note as to the exact spot where this inscription 
was found has been given me. 



. . . VKO . . . 

at Se rt? ica TWV irpia^ev^aD 
. . . vn rvyxdvovras 7rco\ev ra TT . . . 
(TT^aOfjia rov \iir6ma, evo%ov a7r[oTt(rat 

. COV KOi Tt? TL %L TTa/AClTGOV K . . . 

a<ya)VTi rol iapofJLvdfjLoves 
SiK~]acro-ai Kara rov VO/JLO[V o . . . 
* al Se ica r ev . . . 

Enough is left of this document to make the conjecture proba- 
ble that it is a portion of a record of certain specifications touch- 
ing the sale or lease of some piece of property. Line 6 suggests 
that we may have to do with an Amphictyonic decree not unlike 
that published in CIG. 1688 = CIA. n, i. 545. The restoration 
BiKaa-a-ai, in line 7, was suggested by Professor F. D. Allen. That 
in line 9 seems to follow from it. Noteworthy is the uncommon 
word Trafjidrcov in line 5. We have rarcrrapara (ra eTTTrd/jiara) in 


Dfalekt-lnschrft., 488, lines 163-175. Compare eTnrao-is (Index 
to Dwdekt-Insekrift., Bootien), and the interesting compound 
^ra/JiaTo^ayela-raL (IA G. 321, lines 42, 45 = Dialekt-Inschrift., 1478), 
also the Homeric 7ro\v7rdfjia)v and Hesychius's e^ird^v. The sim- 
ple word irapa has a rare literary use. (See the Thesaurus, s. v.) 

Inscribed on an irregularly broken fragment found just above 
the eastern wall of the West Building. The stone measures 
about 1 ft. 5 in. in height, 1 ft. 1 in. in width at the widest part, 
and 7 in. in thickness. The top, which is roughly hewn, has two 
small holes in it, 2 in. by 2 in., and 1 in. in depth. Except at 
the top the stone is broken off on all sides. It is in the guard's 
hut at the Heraeum. The letters are from .6 to .8 in. in height. 

. o (?) KOCT/JUOS o(or CD) 
TO]U ereo? a ... 

... at CTT(?) . . . 

The small holes make one think of a dedicatory offering by 
Philistis or her brother, but it is useless to speculate in detail 
iibout the inscription. 


Inscribed on a very much broken fragment measuring roughly 
9 in. by 5.4 in. The letters are about .9 in. in height. The 
stone is in the museum at Argos. In line 2 the fourth letter is 
very likely, though not quite certainly, theta; and indeed the 



second letter of the line, so far as form goes, might be the same. 
In line 4 perhaps we should read ira instead of ira. 

. . .a . 

TT a 




Fig. 1 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 




The seals to which I wish now to call attention, and which 
have never been published, are two cylinders and five circular 
seals containing Hittite inscriptions. They formed a part of my 
own collection, but have been transferred, since this paper was 
prepared, to the Metropolitan Museum in New York. 1 

The first of these cylinders (PL XV, Fig. 1) is of copper, plated 
with silver, and is said to have been brought with a number of other 
antiquities from Haifa, in Syria. I am indebted to Professor 
Ogden !N". Rood, of Columbia College, for the determination of 
the material ; and he informs me that it is to the fact that it is 
thus composed of two layers of metal, silver on copper, that we 
are indebted for the excellent preservation of the outer silver face, 
the galvanic action having preserved the silver at the expense of 
the copper. It was made of a flat rectangular piece of metal, 
bent around so as to bring the opposite edges in juxtaposition, 
thus forming a cylinder; but these edges are not soldered to- 
gether. The cylinder is 21 millimetres in length by 9 millime- 
tres in diameter. At each end is a rope-pattern enclosed in bor- 
der lines. Between them, occupying the body of the cylinder, is 
seen a personage with what appear to be wings from his head ; 
but more probably the wings belong to a winged solar disk over 
his head, the central disk having been reduced to a mere dot, 
from lack of room. The head is bare or with a close cap. He 
wears a long, loose, open robe, and holds one hand extended, and 

1 1 may say that the collection of Oriental seals, chiefly cylinders, belonging to 
the Metropolitan Museum now equals in number that of any public museum in 
Europe, and is exceeded in value only by the magnificent collection of the British 
Museum. It is hoped that the Metropolitan Museum will soon publish not only a 
hand-book but an illustrated catalogue with copies of all the seals photographically 
reproduced and classified, thus carrying on the work done in this department by M. 
Menant in his catalogue of the great private collection of M. de Clercq. 



in the other holds what appears like a sort of lituus, with the 
lower end bent back and up, as is common in Hittite sculpture. 
Facing this personage, but separated by two columns of Hittite 
hieroglyphics, is a figure in a close cap and a short robe, with one 
hand lifted and the other holding a mace over his shoulder, the 
top of which is a circle divided in the middle by the handle of 
the mace. Back to the latter, and with a star between them, is a 
figure in a high Phrygian hat, a long robe, and with both hands 
extended in front. The toes of the figures are generally tipped 
up. Behind the principal figure., surmounted by the winged 
disk, are a bird, a triangle, and a second small mark beside it 
perhaps another triangle. In front of him are the two vertical 
lines of inscription, three Hittite characters in each column, unless 
one of these, over the hand of the person or deity, be an object 
held in his hand. One of the characters reminds us much of the 
Babylonian character for Harran, and suggests that it may be 
the ideograph for that city. 

While I do not think it worth while to try to translate or trans- 
literate the inscription, the two lines in front and the one behind 
the principal figure, still, the presence of the characters distinctly 
defines the Hittite style of a considerable family of cylinders 
which, for other reasons, we have been in the habit of calling 
Hittite. Most characteristic of all is the rope-pattern. The tall 
Phrygian cap and the tipped up toes are familiar Hittite character- 
istics. There is a considerable body of hematite cylinders of about 
this size and type which these written characters help us to desig- 
nate more positively as Hittite, although it has often seemed doubt- 
ful whether we should not call them Syrian or Phoenician. Indeed, 
the Hittites, coming down from the neighborhood of Armenia 
into Syria, and occupying the whole of Northern Syria from the 
Euphrates nearly or quite to the coast, entered into a region 
which had already a well-developed Phoenician or Canaanite cul- 
ture, and probably bringing at first no indigenous culture with 
them they adopted the art of the country they had conquered ; 
so that it may never be possible, in Northern Syria, to separate 
their art from the native Phoenician and Syrian art, whatever 
independent developments they may have later made in Asia 


The size and shape of this silver cylinder, and of the fine class 
of hematite cylinders which resemble it, found in Syria, are about 
the same as in the Babylonian cylinders of about 20001500 B. c. 
This inclines us to date them back to a period of considerable 
antiquity; especially as about 1500-1400 B. c. a much larger 
.cylinder came into vogue with the Cassite dynasty, and similar 
large cylinders were in use in Assyria. These small cylinders 
are characterized by an even more minute and delicate workman- 
ship and a more crowded composition than is found on the 
corresponding Babylonian cylinders; and, like them, they are 
wrought free hand with the corundum point, and not with the 
revolving disk, which probably did not come into general use 
much, if any, before 1000 B. c. 

The other cylinder of which I speak (PI. XV, Fig. 2) is in much 
less perfect condition. It is a large cylinder of black serpentine,and 
was obtained in the neighborhood of Oorfa. It is 53 millimetres 
in length and 15 millimetres in diameter. Although consider- 
ably battered and worn, it is easy not only to make out that there 
are five lines of Hittite characters covering the surface, but also 
to recognize many of the several characters. They are arranged 
in the way usual in Hittite inscriptions, two characters often 
appearing grouped one over the other. One of the five lines is 
wrong side up, as compared with the others. Several of the well 
known Hittite signs can be repeatedly detected ; but it is not pos- 
sible, I think, to recover more than two or three consecutive 
characters anywhere, so that it is not likely to be of any value as 
a text. 

But it is of considerable value because of its relationship in 
shape and material to a large class of these large, deeply-cut, soft 
black serpentine cylinders which I have been in the habit, with 
others, of calling Assyrian, but with a great deal of doubt whether 
they are purely Assyrian. These are the cylinders which intro- 
duce the winged disk and the sacred tree into Assyrian art, 
elements unknown to Babylonian art before 1500 B. c. ; and 
which especially delight in the fight between Bel and the Dragon, 
or other forms of the contest between a hero and a sphinx or 
other foe. It is evident that in the time of the Assyrian empire 
the art of the country had somehow acquired these important ele- 


ments of mythology not familiar to the early Babylonian empire; 
and it is not easy to discover evidence of whence they came, much 
as we might conjecture in certain particulars. Thus it is certain 
that the winged solar disk must have originally come from Egypt 
by way of the Egyptian conquests in Palestine and Syria, though 
considerably altered, and although the winged disk of Aten 
(Adonis ?) was carried back in a new type into Egypt from the 
Euphrates by the heretic kings. 

If, now, as this Hittite cylinder seems to indicate, we can refer 
these large serpentine cylinders so peculiar in size, shape and 
material as well as design, seldom with inscriptions to the Hittite 
territory, we are on the line of the connection with Egypt. We 
well know how close was the connection between the Egyptian 
and the Hittite kingdoms in the time of the xvm and xix 
dynasties, and we may be certain that it was about this time that 
"Western Asia felt most markedly the influence of Egypt, the 
influence previously being chiefly Babylonian. I am inclined to 
think that the winged disk was brought into Asia perhaps some- 
what before the time of Thothmes H, and before the Hittite inva- 
sion of Syria ; that it was adopted first by the Phoenician or 
Canaanite civilized tribes, then by the people of Nahrina, to whom 
it became a special and supreme god by a sort of religious revo- 
lution which modified considerably the idea and form of the 
winged disk as it had been known in Egypt; and that it was 
then adopted by the Hittites on their occupation of the country. 
When the iconoclastic heretic king Khuen-aten, under the influ- 
ence of his alliance with Nahrina, made it his sole divinity, its 
identity with the old and orthodox Egyptian form had been 
nearly or quite lost. From the Mesopotamia!! peoples, rather 
than from the Hittites or directly from the Egyptians, the Assyri- 
ans accepted the disk and the sacred tree, and probably the con- 
test between Bel Marduk and the Dragon. These latter were 
both drawn from the Babylonian mythology, though not from 
Babylonian art ; and we must remember that the Nahrina king- 
dom is really older than the Assyrian. 

This would not make this large cylinder with the Hittite in- 
scription as old as the smaller silver cylinder, and the fine hema- 
tite cylinders of which I have spoken. Indeed if, as seema 



probable, the larger type was introduced by the Cassite dynasty 
about the time of King Burnaburiash, then we may 'put these 
large serpentine cylinders as early as 1300 or 1200 B. c.; and from 
these large Mesopotamian or Hittite cylinders were copied the 
later characteristic large chalcedony cylinders which we are able 
to refer confidently to Assyria. 

With these two cylinders, the first ever found with unques- 
tionable Hittite inscriptions, I would give copies of several disk- 
shaped seals, engraved on both sides with Hittite characters (PI. 
XV, Fig. 3), obtained by me from Constantinople. These seals are 
similar to those belonging to Schlumberger (Revue Archeologique, 
Dec. 1882), and to the silver seal from Bor (published by Mr. 
Thomas Tyler in the Academy of Jan. 14, 1893), which is now in 
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. They are made of serpentine, 
both black and red, and are reported to have been brought to 
Constantinople with some Cappadocian tablets. 





The study of classical archaeology has lost one of its brightest lights 
by the death at Josephsthal, in the Bavarian Alps, July 23, of Pro- 
fessor Heinrich von Brunn, who had latterly come to be looked upon 
as a sort of dean of the corps of professional archaeologists. For the 
honorary epithet of Altmeister, as he was commonly saluted at home, 
was not merely a tribute of respect for the surviving contemporary 
and associate of such old pathfinders in archaeological, science as Ot- 
fried Mu'ller and Eduard Gerhard ; it involved recognition of his con- 
tinued authority and supremacy in the special form of historical and 
aesthetic criticism of the concrete remains of antiquity which he 
made his province. Outside of archaeological circles his name was 
scarcely known, except to a part of the magazine-reading public of 
Germany, which had learned to look forward to his occasional bril- 
liant essays in the Deutsche Rundschau or in Westermann's Mlustrierte 
Monatshefte as thoroughly original discussions in polished literary 
form, absolutely free from the taint of popularism. They differed, in 
fact, from the papers he read at philological conventions, or in the 
sixties before the plenary assemblies of the membership of the 
international Archaeological Institute at Rome, only as written pro- 
ductions do from oral deliverances. A much larger number of these 
essays, all models of their kind, deserves republication in collected 
form, and translation into other languages besides the original Italian 
or German, than he embraced in the volume of 110 pages octavo en- 
titled Griechische Gotterideale, issued in 1893 (Verlagsanstalt fur Kunst u. 
Wissenschaft, Munich). 

Brunn was born at Worlitz in the principality of Anhalt-Dessau in 
1822, and attended college at Zerbst in that neighborhood. In 1839 
he matriculated at the Rhenish university of Bonn, attracted thither 
by the reputation of Welcker and Ritschl. At that time doctors of 
philosophy were excused from military service, so that after taking 
his degree in 1843 with a semi-philological, semi-archaeological disser- 





tation on the sources of Pliny's account of the history of ancient art, 
young Brunn was free to follow the inclination that drew him Rome- 
wards. The political upheaval of the Eternal City in 1848-49 con- 
verted him for a brief period into a war correspondent. In 1853 his 
indefatigable ardor in collecting epigraphic material in Southern Italy 
for the great Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum earned him the friendly 
nickname of Hercules Saxanus from the editor, Ritschl. He had just 
completed one volume of the work which established his literary rep- 
utation, Geschichte der griechischen Kitnstler (Braunschweig 1853, and 
Stuttgart 1859; an unaltered reprint of the whole work was issued in 
1884). It cannot vie for readableness with the numerous illustrated 
histories and manuals of ancient art whose authors have used Brunn's 
work for their foundation. Feeble readers of German will do well to 
let it alone. The author's plan was to combine a critical presentation 
of the traditional testimony in regard to the Grecian sculptors, en- 
gravers, painters, and architects, with an attempt to make the literary 
evidence the skeleton of a new imago artis Grzecse such as could be 
conceived in the internal vision of one thoroughly acquainted with 
antique art in its concrete monuments. But his almost excessively 
rigid self-control, foreshadowed in the bold wording of a thesis he de- 
fended at Bonn in 1843 " In a critical discussion I would rather err me- 
thodically than hit upon truth without method " preserved him from the 
indulgence in vain rhetoric that renders Adolph Stahr's Torso, a work 
of somewhat similar aim, so nearly worthless. He excluded extant 
works of antique art from consideration except in the few instances 
where their authorship is attested with certainty. It was his purpose, 
but partly completed after an interval of forty years, to supplement 
this collection of antique testimony by a Geschichte der griechischen 
Kunst (Part I, Munich, 1893). His own formulation expresses his idea 
in a form enriched by his plastic habit of thought: "As the forms of a 
living body can only develop to fullness of beauty when they are supported by 
a flawless osseous structure, although this remains hidden to the eye, so the 
history of art will mature to real perfection only if the history of the artists 
supplies it with a foundation, upon which the analysis of the monuments can 
erect its structure in the consciousness of absolute security." 

After an interval of two years spent in the service of the University 
of Bonn (1854-56), Brunn returned to Rome, to be associated with 
Henzen, the distinguished epigraphist, in the direction of the Archae- 
ological Institute. Michaelis, in his history of that scientific station, 
to which Germany owes so large a share of her present preeminence 
in classical archaeology, dates the revival of the Institute, after 
protracted lethargy, from the first meeting conducted by Henzen and 
Brunn on February 27, 1857 : " Not only was there a livelier participation 

368 NOTES. 

than during the late years, but it soon rose to a more gratifying activity than 
ever before" (Michaelis, p. 14, German ed.). Without this revival of 
efficiency and interest, its friends could hardly have succeeded, as in- 
deed they did not until 1860, in obtaining rank and support for the 
Institute as an element in the scholastic establishment of the Prussian 
Government. The variety and fulness of the archa3ological matter 
published during the next few years in the Annali and other papers 
of the Institute, under Brunn's editorship, indicate his activity as 
much as his own contributions. 

His Roman secretaryship was exchanged in 1865, for the chair of 
archaeology at the University of Munich, which he filled till yester- 
day. The opening of his Bavarian career was not altogether auspi- 
cious, nor has the visible fruit of his twenty-nine years of activity in 
Munich as professor, curator, and publicist met the high expectations 
which could be legitimately conceived then. One of his first duties 
was the safeguarding from the contemplated Prussian invasion of the 
collections of antiques which the enthusiasm of King Louis I had 
created and raised to the second rank in Europe. The ex-king died 
early in 1868. King Louis II took no personal interest either in 
the galleries or in the University founded by his grandfather. The 
development of the natural sciences taxed the educational budget of 
the kingdom to the utmost ; a Royal School of Technology was just 
founding. Berlin loomed up as the coming German capital. After 
completing a scholarly catalogue of the sculpture gallery (1868) and 
another of the antique painted vases, of which he was appointed cu- 
rator the same year, Brunn found little to do in the way of collection 
or classification of new antiques. He might almost as well have 
taught in Gottingen or Konigsberg. His prelude to Schliemann's 
memorable discoveries in the Troad and Argolis (Die Kunst bei Homer, 
Munich, 1868) could have been written anywhere. His publication of 
the Etruscan sarcophagus-reliefs (Irilievi delle urne etrusche, Vol. I, 
Rome, 1870, since continued by Korte) was the fruit of observations 
made in Italy. The Bavarian inertia in which he was plunged affected 
him. He should have gone to Greece. His unfamiliarity with that 
country tended to put him out of touch with his colleagues of the 
Berlin directory of the now Imperial German Institute. Infandum, 
regina, iubes renovare dolorem was his answer, in the writer's hearing, to 
a Greek pupil asking his reason for not visiting Greece. But he has- 
tened to add that he found his rare visits to Italy so disquieting, by 
the wealth of new impressions they brought, that he feared a journey 
to Olympia and Athens would dislocate his history of Greek art alto- 
gether. Every year he expended an amount of labor on his class- 
room discussions of the subject which would have sufficed a less sen- 


sitive conscience for the publication of a book. Perhaps he did not 
feel the personal need to write his account of Greek art that he did 
to sift and classify the testimony which was the basis of his History 
of the Greek Artists. To his mind a properly classified collection 
of antiques, in the original or in the best available reproductions, 
was a sufficient history of the evolution of Greek art. His 
contempt for the sentimentality of Ruskin's opposition to the form- 
ation of a great collection of casts in London was unbounded. 
He arranged his own collection, embracing seven hundred and 
thirty plaster casts, in a series of chambers extending in one 
straight line, and bare of any architectural or decorative adjuncts. 

Swift to appreciate the scientific utility of the modern processes of 
photographic reproduction, Brunn recently secured the cooperation of 
an enterprising publisher, Friedrich Bruckmann, for the issue of a 
series of six hundred magnificent photographic prints of the most re- 
markable among the extant store of antique sculptures from widely 
scattered originals. Of this veritable library museum Bruckmann's 
business successor, the Verlagsanstalt fur Kunst und Wissenschaft, is now 
bringing out the fourth hundred. A similar series of Greek and 
Roman Portraits was also begun. It is gratifying to be assured that 
both publications will be carried to completion by Brunn's co-editor, 
Dr. Paul Arndt. They reflect a degree of credit on the self-sacrificing 
editors and publishers that should in some measure compensate them 
for pecuniary loss. 

A number of the papers printed in the transactions of the Royal 
Academy of Munich (Probleme zur Geschichte der griechischen Vasen- 
malerei; Paionios und die nordgriechische Kunst; Die Skulpturen von 
Olympia; Die Skulpturen von Pergamon, etc.} were openly or covertly 
controversial. The Olympian marbles, which their Berlin discoverers 
were at first disposed to associate too closely, though apologetically, 
with the Attic school of Pheidias, will never recover from the epithet 
of veal-fed which he applied to their flabby forms by contrast with 
the beef-fed robustness of a figure like the Theseus of the Parthenon. 
The strictures which the discoverer of the Pergamene origin of the 
*' Dying Gladiator " of the Capitoline Museum and "a series of kindred 
sculptures in Rome, Naples and Venice, years before the excavation 
of Pergamon at the expense of the Prussian government, was 
entitled to pass upon the style of the Pergamene marbles acquired by 
the Berlin Museum met the same respectful attention. His early 
identification of a female statue in the Munich Glyptothek as a copy 
of the allegorical group of Peace and Wealth by Kephisodotos of 
Athens, the father of Praxiteles, gave him an equal right to speak 
authoritatively in regard to the place of the Hermes of Olympia 

370 NOTES. 

among the known works of the latter master. If Brunn is right, the 
Hermes was an early work of Praxiteles, done at the time when he 
was associated with his father in the execution of orders for several 
Arcadian cities. It is possible that in this view, as in his personal 
conviction that the original of Praxiteles' " marble faun " is preserved 
in a mutilated torso of the Louvre Museum, and sundry other con- 
tentions of the same sort, Brunn may have erred. His sense of 
evolutional relations and his vast knowledge of Hellenic modes of 
plastic thought raise his own work to the level he assigned to Winckel- 
mann's : his mistakes are more instructive than the right guesses of 
others. Brunn was rather fond of insisting on his own analytic 
method as against the deductive and often utterly false conclusions of 
metaphysical aesthetics, as well as against the excessive reliance of 
many archaeologists on the comparative process. In truth, his position 
was the very simple one, that an artistic idea cannot be disintegrated 
from its material and sensible vehicle, but that, given a sufficient 
familiarity with the vocabulary, grammar, and rhetoric of the language 
in which formative art must express itself, it is possible for persistent 
study to extract from a given work all that the artist consciously or 
unconsciously put into it. It is this conviction first acquired and 
apprehended in its bearing on his life-work while attempting to master 
the import of the Hera Farnese bust at Naples in 1844 that upheld 
Professor Brunn for fifty years in his endeavor to substitute scientific- 
investigation of the objective laws governing artistic creation for the 
flowery allurements of subjective criticism on the one hand, and the 
restriction of scientific inquiry to the dry bones of archaeological 
information on the other. And this is what his portrait bust will 
stand for, which was sculptured by Ruemann from a block of Pentelic 
marble presented by the Greek government on the occasion of the 
fiftieth anniversary of his Bonn doctorate (March 20, 1893), and is now 
set up in the hall of the Palazzo Caffarelli on the Capitoline Mount. 
The photograph of it (PLATE XVI, taken from Mi'mchener Portrats, No. 
24, Verlagsanstalt fur Kunst u. Wissenschaft, Munich) reveals, a little 
more accentuatedly perhaps than the writer's recollection of Brunn's 
real features, the union of the habit of keen observation, leaving its 
mark especially on the upper half of the full Teutonic face, with other 
features denoting a strong imagination held in rigid subjection to the 
will. Were it not for the romantic length of flowing curls in which 
the face is framed, it could be taken for the head of a statesman rather 
than of a scholar. It is interesting to compare this portrait in stone 
with an early likeness of Brunn the student, dated 1841, and repre- 
senting him in the frogged velvet tunic and loose shirt affected by the 
patriotic youth of the period. The pure unclouded brow and thought- 

H. G. LOLLING. 371 

ml young features are not without promise of what their owner was 
to achieve in later years. 

This notice would be most incomplete without an allusion to the 
amiability of character which made Brunn take a special delight in per- 
sonal intercourse with the young, whose affection he always won, with- 
out effort, as surely as he obtained what he used to call their physiog- 
nomic response. Many for whose quickened eyes he had read new 
meaning in the august faces of Greek deities have a pleasant recol- 
lection of his own benign countenance, as it beamed through a 
nimbus of social tobacco smoke, in the weekly reunions around his 
study-table. In his last illness, as indeed at times before when in less 
robust condition than usual, this skilful artist in visualization and 
language showed symptoms of loss of memory and aphasia, due to 
softening of the brain. The quiescent traveler's instinct revived in 
him, and he would often declare his intention of spending the night 
at some forgotten way-station of mail-coach days in Italy, or inform 
his friends that he had just returned from an extensive journey in 
pursuit of epigraphic or archseologic information. At last, his power- 
ful frame succumbed without suffering, and allowed a mind that had 
so long navigated the enchanted seas of the past to weigh anchor and 
spread sail d<s <ao-tv, IvQo. vavo-lv ecr^a-ros Spores : "' to that vast shore that 
skirts the furthest sea." ALFRED EMERSON. 

H. C. LOLLING.*}* 

Classical Archaeology suffered an irreparable loss in the death of 
Dr. Lolling, which ensued, after a brief illness, on Feb. 22, 1894. His 
busy life from the age of twenty-four to his death (when he was 
forty-six years old) had been spent in Greece ; and he had become 
the first authority on the topography of Greece, combining in a 
remarkable degree the knowledge of its past and its present, 

Perhaps not more than one in five of the travellers who use Baede- 
ker's Greece realize or even notice that it is principally the work of 
Lolling. It was in the family of Carl Wilberg (the publisher and 
bookseller, and at the same time German consul in Athens) that 
Baedeker in 1876 met Lolling, and recognized in him the man to 
prepare his projected handbook. Lolling since his arrival in Athens 
had been serving as private tutor in the Wilberg family, and was 
devoting his spare hours to a restless study of every nook and corner 
of Attica. 

In the execution of the responsible work laid upon him by Baede- 
ker, he now travelled over the rest of Greece with like thoroughness ; 

372 NOTES. 

and so full were his results that his manuscript had to be cut down 
one-half to make it fit the proper proportions of a guide-book. It is 
well known, however, that Baedeker is no mere traveller's guide, but 
a proper text-book of the topography, monuments and history of 

Lolling was selected, almost as a matter of course, to prepare the 
section in Iwan Miiller's Handbook of Classical Antiquity treating of 
Greek geography and topography, the second edition of which he 
was preparing at the time of his death. But the limits of this work 
gave him no room for inserting much of the material crowded out of 
Baedeker. Specimens of this material have, however, reached the 
light in the Mittheilungen des deutschen archdologischen Institute and in 
his essay on Die Meerenge von Salamis, which begins the volume 
brought as a tribute to Ernst Curtius, on the occasion of his seventieth 
birthday in 1884, by his pupils and admirers. 

The other main branch of Lolling's work, in which his merits were 
almost equally conspicuous, was epigraphy. The numbers of the Mitt- 
heilangen and of the Deltion bear witness to this. The putting together 
and editing of the great Hekatompedon inscription from the Acropolis 
was a notable example of his patience, and, we may almost say, his 
genius in this field. The volume which has appeared of the Inscrip- 
tions of Northern Greece, as one sees by " exscripsit Lolling " appended 
to most of the numbers, was largely the fruit of his labor, and yet his 
name does not appear on the title page. Probably no man who has 
ever appeared on the scenes of the archa3ological world in Athens 
has shown less desire to assert his claims to archaeological property, 
or to push himself to the front in any way. He was retiring and 
almost shy as far as society was concerned. He never " made calls." 
Some called him " hermit. " But he was very agreeable and genial 
in the company of his friends. 

Of course, such a man did not fail to secure recognition of a public 
character. His promotion in the German Institute, of which he was 
for several years librarian and the Director's right-hand man, render- 
ing invaluable service, was perhaps not so rapid as some expected. 
But this was because Germany sent giants into the field. But the 
Greek Government seized him in 1887, and made him curator of the 
Museum of Inscriptions. In 1893 he was made corresponding mem- 
ber of the Prussian Academy, and a few days before his death he was 
decorated with the Greek Order of the Redeemer. 

His last days were extremely busy ones. It was his task to create 
the museum of inscriptions of which he was to be the curator. He 
had to arrange and edit the great yield of Acropolis inscriptions from 
excavations of recent years, a work which he had nearly completed. 



But the general task of keeping up with inscriptions now constantly 
pouring in is like " climbing up the ever climbing wave." The third 
edition of Baedeker's Greece suffered under no greater disadvantage 
than that arising from the fact that Lolling was too busy to travel 
again over Greece, although he did find time to revise the work. By 
this severe pressure of work a longed-for visit to his Friesland home, 
after twenty-two years of absence, was also precluded. 

And yet no man was more generous and even prodigal of his time 
when one asked him for information. Often he has left his manu- 
script to show me inscription after inscription with discursive talk 
that almost made me forget how busy he was. He had declared his 
intention of at least going over to Eretria with me in the spring to 
assist in locating the temple of Artemis Amarysia, a subject in which 
he was much interested. But before that time came we had laid him to 
rest in Attic earth. 

It was evident that the desire to travel was with him a sort of pas- 
sion, as with Odysseus, and it cost him much to forego this pleasure. 
Man muss sich darein fugen, a phrase which he once used to me in 
speaking of this deprivation, is perhaps an adequate motto to express 
the substance of his life of patient unselfishness. 



PAUL KRETSCHMER. Die Griechischen Vaseninschriften ihrer Sprache 
nach untersucht. 8vo, pp. viii, 251. Giitersloh, C. Bertelsmann, 

The work which Meisterhans did some years ago for Attic lapidary 
inscriptions has now been done by Kretschmer for the corresponding 
field of inscriptions upon pottery. The subject is naturally of much 
less importance because of the narrow compass of the material at our 
disposal, which is confined chiefly to proper names ; but a great deal 
of grammatical interest can be extracted from proper names, and the 
grammarian cannot now afford to ignore this new field so well ex- 
ploited for him. Meisterhans confined himself to Attic inscriptions ; 
the smaller compass to be treated by Kretschmer has enabled him to 
include all inscribed vases, and to add details that are of value to the 
archa3ologist as well as to the grammarian and epigraphist. Beyond 
the limit of Attic vases, the number of those inscribed is not very 
large. Only one is reckoned among those of the Rhodian style, the 
Euphorbos plate of the British Museum, which is now abjudicated 
from Rhodes and assigned to Argos, with the conclusion that the 
Camirus style had its origin from the Argive district. It is to be 
hoped that the excavations of our Athens School at the Heramm will 
ultimately solve this question. Of the so-called Cyrena?an class 
only one is inscribed, and to the Ionian no more than two or three can 
be assigned with any confidence. Of Corinthian, on the other hand, 
Kretschmer catalogues 45, of Chalcidian 12, Boeotian 4, Ceian (?) 1, 
and one of Sicyonian manufacture, with a second made in Athens but 
bearing a Sicyonian inscription scratched in by the owner, who was 
under the influence, our author thinks, of his Athenian habitat, as 
betrayed by the added v of eScoKci/. 

In general the inscriptions used in this volume are chiefly those 
which w r ere painted on by the potters before the last burning. Such 
as have been inscribed with a point are utilized only so far as the evi- 
dence goes to show that they have originated from the potters them- 
selves, and not from the later possessors. The object of this exclusion 
is to base the results of the work purely upon the language of a single 
class, the potters and painters, that it may represent the speech of the 
people undefiled by official phraseology or literary rules. Thus our 
author claims that we come here into closer touch with the Athenian 



workman in his blouse with his paintbrush in his hand (as we see 
him upon one of the vases) than even in Aristophanes or on the 
marbles. Kretschmer assumes that these men in general wrote as 
they spoke, and that the peculiarities in speech exhibited by them 
may be accepted as the folk-speech, although they have been usually 
attributed to the ignorance, the mistakes, and the carelessness of the 
potters. But he maintains that, where the same distinctive forms occur 
again and again, this reason is not sufficient, especially as they are 
met with in cases where the writing has been done with great care and 
beauty, and thus forms a part of the ornament of the vase as a whole, 
and they occur also at times in lapidary inscriptions : and he utters 
the warning that hypercriticism is as unscientific as lack of criticism, 
and quite as unfruitful. Hence, after obvious instances of carelessness 
and miswriting have been excluded, and some left to one side as ad- 
mitting of doubt, our author claims that his material performs for the 
speech of the lower classes in Athens the service which the papyri of 
the Serapeum have done for the popular speech of the Ptolemaic 
Greeks. This differs from that of literature and official documents 
not so much in broad traits as in numberless little things. Here only 
can we learn that the common Athenian habitually said oAvrrevs, oc- 
casionally Orjcrvs and Travs (Vat?), TTLU (m'e). 

It is pretty clear that the potter was but half versed in the rules of 
literary writing, although his social position cannot have been always 
a subordinate one. The wealth acquired in the art is attested by the 
offerings on the Acropolis, and by the immense numbers of the wares 
discovered in foreign countries, especially Italy. The rich Hyperbo- 
lus is an example of a potter whose language was open to comic criti- 
cism, and he was even taunted with foreign extraction. This charge 
cannot be brought against a very considerable part of the potters whpse 
signatures appear on vases, as their names are either such as are known 
to be genuinely Attic, or bear at least no traces of a foreign stamp, as 
Aeschines, Andocides, etc. There are others, however, with a distinctly 
foreign color, as Gauris, Douris, Myspios, Oltos, etc. Phintias betrays 
a Sicilian or Italian origin, though he has once written his name in its 
proper Attic form, Philtias. Amasis indicates a knowledge of Egypt 
on the part of the name-giver, if not Egyptian derivation. Brygos was 
probably Thracian, Sikanos and Sikelos of Sicilian birth. Hence this 
class belonged either to the niceties or to the slave population. It is 
not surprising, therefore, that unattic forms are occasionally met with. 
These are chiefly Dorian ; the Ionic are almost wholly lacking on 
Attic vases. The former occur especially in mythic names, as OtSiTrdSas, 
and such as may be found in the lyric parts of tragedy. The Ionising 
tendency of tragedy may be seen in a few cases of o-o- for TT, as 'OAuo-o-cv's, 
, KtWos, Kicrarto. Here may be added the single form 


re'o-apa noted by Meisterhans. It appears, however, on a vase of 
Exekias, whose Atticism is otherwise under suspicion from his use of 
the unattic form 'loXaos. Doric endings in the names of persons, as 
Nikondas, are not uncommon in literary Attic. Side by side with the 
two cases of F in Attic inscriptions is to be ranged the form EIOLEO^ 
for FIOLEO^ on a black-figured vase of the British Museum, otherwise 
pure Attic. 

As occasionally on the marbles, H is found for the aspirated -sound, 
five times for e, five times for 17 on Attic vases, and once on a Corin- 
thian. Some cases of the Argive lambda (K) also occur, but they may 
be accidental. As compared with the lapidary forms, it is further 
worthy of notice that the theta with a point (O) is almost always em- 
ployed, even in the first half of the sixth century, instead of the cross- 
bar theta (), as is the case on coins as well. The alphabetic changes 
in the fifth century are also of interest to the epigraphist. The intro- 
duction of Ionic letters occasionally on the marbles in unofficial 
incriptions during this period was commented upon some years ago 
by Koehler. Kretschmer gives a table comprising the results from 
forty-two vases of the red-figured style, to illustrate this feature. From 
this table it appears that certain Ionic letters became prevalent before 
others. Apart from ^, I, E, and Y became established first, and on no 
vase bearing Ionic letters do the Attic X^, <^, occur. This no doubt 
was dictated by convenience. Not much later f and A entered, which 
must naturally coincide. The vowel H comes latest, and throughout 
the table in no instance does it appear without E (=17), and three times 
with H as aspirate, never with L: while -n- is found with E (=17) several 
times and with L once. From the occurrence of -A. upon the roll in the 
hand of the pupil in that beautiful school-room scene of the Duris 
vase in the Berlin Museum, our author concludes that even non-Ionic 
literature (TEolic in this case) was at that time (" before 480 ") written 
in the Ionic alphabet, as already conjectured by Wilamowitz. The 
use of -o. instead of in the transition period is regarded by Kretsch- 
mer as the result of a natural confusion, and not attributable to the 
Thasian-Parian mode of writing under the influence of Polygnotus, as 
has been often assumed ; and he appeals to the marbles for support 
(Mitth. Athen, x, 363ff., 378). Before dismissing this subject, it may 
not be amiss to add that the spurious diphthong -ov is written 
several times in Ml in the sixth and fifth centuries on Attic vases, 
though only once on the marbles. 

In the difficult question involved in the dating of Attic vases, 
Kretschmer takes advanced ground. He assigns a few inscribed ex- 
amples to the seventh century, the most archaic of the black-figured 
type to the first half of the sixth century, and the more advanced to 
the latter half, thus coinciding in part with the earlier specimens of 



the red-figured. This style must have not merely begun before 480 
B. c., but have advanced so far in technic that a good part of its 
development must have preceded that date. The oldest masters united 
the black and red styles, as Andocides, Pamphaios, Hischylus, Epic- 
tetus, etc. Somewhat younger were Cachrylion, Euphronius, Oltas, 
Sosias, Duris, Hieron, Brygos, etc., whose cups may be placed between 
500 and 480. Accordingly, the so-called " beautiful style " succeeds 
this period, and its inscriptions are characterized by the intermixture 
of Ionic letters. Vases whose alphabet is purely Ionic cannot be 
definitely dated, but must reach far into the fourth century. 

It is in the early attribution of the " severe style " of Euphronius 
and his compeers, before 480, and the corresponding elevation of the 
succeeding style, that Kretschmer's dates go most strongly counter to 
the views of many. Undoubtedly it is too strict to say that, because 
a fragment of a vase of Hieron has been found in the " Persian 
Stratum," his activity was not prolonged beyond the destruction of 
the Acropolis ; yet these dates, taken somewhat more laxly, recom- 
mend themselves from one point of view, at all events. The develop- 
ment of style from the archaic in vases is thus brought into better 
harmony with that of sculpture, and we are not compelled to ask our- 
selves so seriously why it was that the more facile art of painting lagged 
so far behind in the evolution of the fifth century. This has always 
been a difficulty with me, which none of the attempted explanations 
have satisfied. 

It must be confessed that the impossibility of fixing satisfactory 
dates in the field of vases adds to the disadvantages of scantiness of 
material, when we compare this work with that of Meisterhans ; yet 
neither of these vitiates, though they diminish, the value of the results. 

Montreux, August 29th, 1894. A. C. MERRIAM. 

HEINRICH BRUNN. Grriechische Kunstgeschichte. Erstes Buch. Die 
Anf tinge und die alteste decorative Kunst. 8vo, pp. x, 185. 
Verlagsanstalt fur Kunst und Wissenschaft. Miinchen, 1893. 

As the last work of the venerable Brunn this little volume has a 
special interest. It is the first section of a general history of Greek 
art, a history which, if completed, will necessarily be of wide influence 
and importance. For whatever Brunn undertook was in his estima- 
tion worth doing well. More than twenty years ago he began this 
history, when the rapid succession of excavations in Greece bringing 
to light an abundance of new material forced him either to abandon 
the enterprise or to modify his plan. He adopted the latter course. 
No one, he declares, is yet in a position to write a complete history of 
Greek art. So he attempts to lay the foundation, to reach the point 


of view which will render future labor more fruitful. It is to be hoped 
that the remaining sections of the work were sufficiently far advanced 
to enable his literary executor, Dr. Paul Arndt, to bring them out in 
due season. 

The section before us constitutes what he calls Book I, and is di- 
vided into four chapters : The art of the pre-Homeric period ; The art 
of the Homeric period; The opposition of Hellenic to foreign influences; 
The strengthening of the Hellenic spirit. 

In the first chapter he treats of Cyclopean architecture, from a con- 
structive and decorative point of view ; then of the Mycenaean stage 
of civilization, and finally of the vases of the geometric and Dipylon 
style. He finds here an art of prosaic character, without mythologic 
content ; steeped with foreign influences, but nevertheless suggestive 
of later Greek methods. Thus the Vaphio vases are compared to the 
folk-songs which may have preceded and prepared the way for the 
more artistic Homeric epics. And in the Dipylon vases he sees a new 
principle in decoration, compositions which are adapted to particular 
spaces and express intellectual conceptions. In the second chapter he 
treats of the art of the Homeric period, assuming that Homer's poems 
reflect the art of his own time. The material for this chapter is fur- 
nished less by the monuments than by literary evidence. He de- 
scribes Homer's shield of Achilles and then Hesiod's more compli- 
cated shield of Herakles. A similar art is reflected in the situlae from 
Bologna. This art he recognizes as oriental material formulated by 
Greek method. In the third chapter he seeks to build up from the 
monuments a picture of Homeric art similar to that which the 
Mycenaean objects had offered for pre-Homeric art. These objects he 
finds in the shields from the Zeus-grotto in Krete, in the contents of 
the Regulini-Galassi tomb at Caere, and in the paterae from Cyprus, 
Magna Graecia, and Assyria. All of these objects reflect the art pic- 
tured by Homer, and are, in Brunn's estimation, more truly Greek 
than Phoenician. More interesting still is it to find him picturing a 
reflex influence of Greek upon Assyrian art, in the later forms of 
which he recognizes Greek modes of composition and the Greek love of 
nature. In the final chapter he traces the growth of the Dipylon style in 
the ceramics of Melos, Thera, and Rhodes, and the general development 
of the Greek principles of composition and poetic treatment from the 
painted pottery of Rhodes and Naukratis to that of Corinth and the 
celebrated Frangois vase. The chest of Kypselos at Olympia and the 
throne of Apollo at Amyklai illustrate the extreme development of 
the principles of Homeric art, from which the Franyois vase, some- 
what later in date, already exhibits a reaction. This change illustrates 
the beginning of a new direction in the current of Greek art. A. M. 



AFRICA (SOUTH), ... 400 


ARABIA, 401 

ASIA, 400 





EGYPT 379 

GREECE, 423 

ITALY, 430 

KRETE, 417 

KYPROS, 415 


MESOPOTAMIA, .... 408 

NUBIA, 397 


PERSIA, 403 

SYRIA, : . 405 

TURKEY, . 414 


studied from the point of certain Egyptian texts which give the pro- 
portions of pyramids of various sizes, by Lud. Borchardt in the Zeit. 
Jf. Agypt. Spr. u. Alterthumsw., 1894, 1, under the title Wie wurden die 
Boschungen der Pyramiden bestimmt ? " How was the slope of the 
pyramids determined ? " Here is an example of the reckonings in a 
translation of the original : 

"Example of the computation of a pyramid. The Wh?-tbt is 360, 
the relative Pr-m-ws is 250. Let me know what is its Skd. Take the 
half of 360: that is 180. Divide with 250 in 180: this makes 
i + i + A f an e U- O ne e U nas 7 spans. Multiply by 7. Result : 
its Skd is 5^- spans. " 

Of the technical terms, Wh*~fbt and mti belong to the ground-plan 
(" die Wh^-tbt und snti entsprechenden Zahlen stehen an den Enden 
der Grundkanten ") while Pr-m-ws and Kty-n-hrw belong to the ele- 
vation (" die auf Pr-m-ws und K3y-n-hrw bezuglichen an den oberen 
Enden der dargestellten Pyramiden"). Finally, the term Skd is 
extremely important : " Es wird zuerst der Quotient aus den Massen 
der halben Grundkante und der Hohe gebildet, und der erhaltene 

* Henceforth the news from the Far East from China, Japan, Corea, Thibet, 
Hindustan, etc. will be omitted. The reasons will be evident. Those countries 
are largely outside the civilization in which we are interested, and the increase in 
material to be handled has made this retrenchment necessary, in view of the limits 
of the JOURNAL. A. L. F., JR. 



Bruch dann unter Zugrundelegung der Elle als Einheit in Bruchtheile- 
der Elle d. h. in Spannen umgerechnet. Die so erhaltene Spannen- 
anzahl ist dann der Skd, etc. Die Definition fur den Skd wird also* 
lauten : " Der Skd ist die Zahl, welche angiebt, um wie viel Spannen die 
Seitenftdche einer Pyr amide auf 1 Elle Steigung vom Loth abweicht" or 
briefly Skd = " slope." 

This definition being tested by its application to the text measure- 
ments given in the article, it is found that the results correspond with 
actual monuments, such as the south pyramid at Dahshur, the second 
pyramid of Gizeh, and the mastaba at Gizeh. 

Dr. Borchardt concludes : " Die Bedeutung der besprochenen 
Aufgaben fur die Geschichte der Mathematik brauche ich wohl nicht 
erst hervorzuheben. Wir sehen hier die nachweislich ersten Versuche- 
auf goniometrischem Gebiete. Die geneigte Lage einer Seitenflache- 
wird in unseren Beispielen durch das Verhaltniss zweier coordinates 
bestimmt, genau so wie wir heute einen Winkel etwa durch die 
Grosse seiner cotangente festlegen." 

AN EARLY EGYPTIAN SCULPTOR. Prof. Erman has an interesting 
note in the Zeit. /. Agypt. Spr. (xxxi, 2) on an artist of the Ancient 
Empire whose name he has discovered among the famous reliefs of" 
the tomb of Ptah-hotp at Sakkarah. In the lowest corner on the left 
side of the west wall we read an inscription which Erman translates 
" der von ihm beschenkte und von ihm geliebte, der ihm ehrwiirdige r 
der Oberbildhauer Pth-nh-n" The man near whom this is placed has- 
a characteristic head evidently a portrait quite different from the- 
conventional head of the rest. Pth-nh-n was evidently the sculptor 
of the tomb and a friend and favorite of Ptah-hotp. As Erman 
remarks : " If this be a correct explanation, then we have gained in 
Pth-nh-n the name of one of the best Egyptian artists of the Early 
Empire, a man who distinguished himself above others by fresh 
humor and fancy." 

To the above a note is added by Kurt Sethe, who brings forward a 
representation in a tomb of the iv dynasty (L. D. n, 12 c.)- Here 
two men are represented with an inscription which describes them to 
be the painter and architect of the tomb. The painter's name is 
Smr-K3, the architect's . . . Ktf. 

LAKE MOERIS. Prof. Brugsch has an article on Lake Moeris in the 
Zeit.f. Agypt. Spr. (1893, 1, and 1894, 1). In it he studies the texts 
that mention the lake and its canals, the two main canals being used 
for all Egypt and regulated by a system of sluices, while a third led 
water into the middle of the Fayum, and especially for the use of its 
main city, Crocodilopolis, of which city Dr. Brugsch makes a special 




EGYPTIAN STATUE FROM TYRE. In the collection of Consul Loyt- 
ved, at Beiruth, is a fragment of a late-Egyptian statue found at 
Tyre. Although a purely Egyptian work, it is a question whether it 
was not executed for a temple at Tyre. It represents Osiris, and has 
an inscription relating to his temple. A later mixed Grseco-Latin 
inscription on the back identifies the statue as of a priest of Osiris, 
and this may have been done when in Roman times an inventory 
was made of the offerings and other objects in the temple. ERMAN in 
Zeit.f. Agypt. Spr., xxxi, 2. 

INTERNAL DECORATION OF VASES. Lud. Borchardt has an article 
in the Zeit. fur Agypt. Sprache u. Alterthumskunde (1894, 1) on the 
internal decoration of Egyptian vases as represented on the monu- 
ments (Die Darstellung innen verzierten Schalen auf Agyptischen Denk- 
mdlern). In it he attempts to reconstruct in accordance with true per- 
spective the vases represented without perspective on the monuments. 
Generally speaking, the design of this internal ornament is shown in 
the paintings or reliefs by bringing it above the edge of the vase in 
flat front view. The silver vases were those that showed the highest 
ornamentation, but, as most of these have been destroyed, the faience 
vases must be studied for patterns and designs. 

The author illustrates in an interesting manner, by reproducing 
side by side, the same decorative motive as represented incorrectly in 
the monuments and as found on the works that have come down to us. 
It has never been known exactly how the formula discharging a 
person suspected of Christianity, on his sacrificing to the gods, was 
worded. Such a formula has recently come to light, and has been 
published and commented upon in the Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache 
(xxxi, 2) and in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 

This libellus certifies that a certain Aurelius Diogenes has appeared 
duly before the priests and sacrificed to the gods. Its date is A. D. 250. 
EGYPTIAN PAPYRI. A most interesting exhibition is now open in 
the Museum at Vienna. This consists of a collection of upwards of 
10,000 Egyptian papyrus documents, which were discovered at El 
Fayum, and purchased by the Austrian Archduke Rainer several 
years ago. The collection is unique, and the documents, which are 
written in eleven different languages, have all been deciphered and 
arranged scientifically. They cover a period of 2,500 years and fur- 
nish remarkable evidence as to the culture and public and private life 
of the ancient Egyptians and other nations. 

Prof. W. Golenischeff, the well-known Orientalist of St. Petersburg, 
bought a number of fragmentary pieces of papyrus which he was 


offered when passing through Cairo during the winter of 1890-91. 
On examining his acquisitions he was most agreeably surprised. Not 
only the numerous pieces allowed being fitted together so that three 
long manuscripts could be reconstructed almost completely, but then 
these papyri proved to be of uncommon literary interest. One of them 
is, with regard to Old Testament science, one of the most remarkable 
texts ever dug from the soil of Egypt. A considerable extract from 
this interesting document is given in the Sunday School Times of March 
10th. All its information on the political conditions of Palestine, 
Phoenicia and Northern Syria will be the more valuable because they 
date from a time on which both hieroglyphic and cuneiform inscrip- 
tions have been completely silent so far. Scientific commentaries on 
the books of Samuel will have to enumerate the papyrus Golenischeff 
among their sources in future time. Biblia, April, 1894. 

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. The seventh ordinary general meet- 
ing of the Egypt Exploration Fund was held on May 23, the presi- 
dent, Sir John Fowler, Bart., in the chair. 

The financial report was read by the hon. treasurer, Mr. H. A. 
Grueber, who first dealt with the accounts of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund, as apart from those of its Archaeological Survey (for the latter 
separate subscription has always been asked), showing that the 
expenditure for the year 1892-3 had been about 2,140. This sum 
included M. Naville's expenses at Deir el Bahari, those involved by 
the continuation of Count d'Hulst's work at Behbeit el Hagar and by 
the transport of heavy antiquities from El Bersheh, Beni Hasan and 
Tell Mokhdam, the cost of publications, and also ordinary and extra- 
ordinary office expenses. It further included an item of 146, repre- 
senting the expenses incurred by Mr. Roger and Mr. Howard Carter, 
when directed by the committee to continue the excavation for the 
recovery of the Mendes or Thmuis library at Tmei el Amdid, a work 
which M. Naville had commenced in the previous year. Unfortu- 
nately, on account of the absence of M. de Morgan in Upper Egypt, 
Mr. Roger was not allowed to proceed with the unearthing of the 
library chambers ; and in consequence he was compelled to return to 
England without having been able to carry out the wishes of the com- 
mittee. The total receipts for 1892-3 were over 2,121, an income 
almost entirely due to annual subscribers in England, America and 
the Colonies. 

The expenses of the Archaeological Survey during the same year 
had amounted to over 1,200, including the salaries of Mr. Percy E. 
Newberry and Mr. Howard Carter, their travelling and living expenses 
to, in and from Egypt, and the travelling and living expenses of Mr. 
John Newberry (architect) and of Mr. Percy Buckman (artist), who 


had otherwise given their valuable services to the Survey. The 
1,200 also comprised 469 for the publication of Beni Hasan I. Since 
subscriptions and donations to the Survey during 1892-3 had not 
reached 500, the Fund had advanced 700 to its assistance, and it is 
earnestly hoped by the committee that increased public interest in 
the Survey will justify their faith in its future. During the three 
seasons spent in Egypt by officers of the Archaeological Survey, suffi- 
cient material was collected to provide annual publications for five or 
six years. Beni Hasan I. (1890-1), and Beni Hasan II. (1891-2) have 
already appeared, and will shortly be followed by El Bersheh I. and 
//. (for 1892-3 and 1893-4). 

The total receipts of the Egypt Exploration Fund had not fallen 
off during the year under consideration ; but the expenditure had 
increased, owing to the fact that the work now being carried on at 
Deir el Bahari is a very large one. 

Miss E. Patterson, the secretary of the Fund, stated that the forth- 
coming Memoir for 1892-3 would be a preliminary volume on Deir el 
Bahari, written by M. Naville, forming a sort of introduction to the 
series of Memoirs which is to cover the work of the Fund on this site. 
She also drew attention to a special publication of the Fund, viz., a 
small Atlas of Ancient Egypt, just issued, of which a few advance 
copies lay upon the table. In this Atlas each of the ancient maps is 
accompanied by the list of the nomes, of their capitals, and of their 
local deities. The maps are prefaced with letterpress, giving a brief 
account of the history of the Egyptians and of their foreign inter- 
course, together with a description of their country. The Atlas also 
contains a chronological table of the dynasties, a list of Egyptian sites 
mentioned in the Bible identified when possible and a short biblio- 
graphy. The secretary stated that it had been decided to make no 
distribution of objects from Deir el Bahari until the work was com- 
pleted, and all had been brought together for comparison. 

Mr. John Newberry, the architect, who has for two seasons assisted 
professionally at the excavation of the temple of Deir el Bahari, then 
gave an account of the progress of that excavation and its present 
state. The paper will be printed in the forthcoming Archaeological 
Report of the Fund. 

The president noticed the engagement of Mr. D. G. Hogarth as an 
officer of the Fund. 

Mr. Maunde Thompson, C.B., returned thanks on behalf of the 
British Museum for certain antiquities which had been presented by 
the Fund. He said that the annual volumes issued by the Egypt 
Exploration Fund would henceforth take a much higher standard 
than they had ever taken before. In order that the excavations at 


Deir el Bahari might not push too far ahead of the work of publica- 
tion and of the artists employed in copying the sculptures and paint- 
ings which are laid bare, it might be necessary to suspend operations 
for a season. Moreover, Deir el Bahari, though involving great exca- 
vation and restoration, and providing large material for publication, 
Is not rich in antiquities ; and the society, being bound to consider 
the advantages of distribution of antiquities, did not propose to con- 
fine its work to Deir el Bahari for the next few years. A cad., June 2. 
first reports of M. de Morgan's remarkable discoveries in and about 
the pyramids of Dahshur were announced. We give here a transla- 
tion of part of M. de Morgan's report, made at the close of his work to 
the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, on April 13, and we add 
to this an abstract of an article by M. Al. Gayet in the Gazette des 
Beaux Arts of May 1, 1894, which treats in great detail of the jewelry 
found by M. de Morgan. 

" There exist at Dahshur two pyramids of crude brick, large earthen 
tumuli, whose sombre aspect contrasts with the yellow of the desert 
sand and of the neighboring stone pyramids. They are at the sum- 
mit of the hills bordering the Nile valley on the west. One is to the 
south, facing the village of Menshiyeh, the other to the north between 
this village and that of Sakkarah. Until now the northern pyramid 
had resisted all attacks, while the southern had never been investi- 
gated at all. 

" In my absence excavations were carried on by my orders to the 
south and north of the northern tumulus, which I recognized on my 
arrival to belong, those above to the Ancient Empire and those below 
to the Twelfth Dynasty. The cartouches of Usertesen II and III 
and of Amenemhat III left no doubt as to the period of these latter 

"The pyramid had been attacked, and, under the millions of bricks 
heaped together, were found the untouched diluvian gravel-beds. 
The royal chamber, therefore, was not constructed within the monu- 
ment itself, as is always the case in the stone pyramids. It seemed as 
if it might have been built deeper down. A boring made in the very 
centre of the trench already opened soon showed that the diluvium 
continued to a depth of 9.50 m. below the foundation of the pyramid 
and was without any trace of artificial work. Below this alluvium 
was a friable sandstone . . . Hence it was useless to search further, for 
if the tombs existed they were dug in the mass of the rock probably 
at a great depth. 

Tombs. " The tombs of the Middle Empire in the necropolis of 
Dahshur do not resemble in any respect those of the Ancient Empire 


discovered by Mariette-pasha at Sakkarah. We do not find in the 
monuments of the xn dynasty at Dahshur complicated sepulchral 
temples covered with bas-reliefs, like those of Ti, of Mera, of Ptah- 
Hotep, of Ptah-Shepses, etc. The mastaba of Dahshur is simpler and 
includes no chamber. It is composed of a rectangular solid mass of 
orude bricks, often very small, covered with a revetment of white 
Turah limestone. The steles are placed in the revetment, face to the 
north or east, and have their table of offerings. The well, instead of 
being opened in the centre of the construction, as is always the case 
in the tombs of the Ancient Empire, is generally placed north of the 
mastaba ; but the galleries are so dug that the deceased rests precisely 
beneath the stele bearing his name. The passages leading to the se- 
pulchral vault are either cut in the rock, and in this case are covered 
with a surbased vault, or are constructed in Turah limestone (and 
.-are then of rectangular section), or, finally, are covered with a vault 
of crude brick in very regular courses and slightly raised. These 
observations regarding the tombs of the xn dynasty in the necropolis 
<of Dahshur are the result of the opening of thirty mastabas. There 
*exist striking analogies between the construction of the pyramid and 
that of the mastabas. 

Discovery of the Pyramid Tomb. "Investigations that I carried on at 
the base of the pyramid, at the point where the revetment was sup- 
posed to be, on the north and east sides, led to the discovery of stones 
decorated with fragments of inscriptions. One of these bore the car- 
touche of Usertesen III. This discovery changed into quasi-certitude 
my suppositions as to the age of the pyramid. I at once resumed the 
search for the wells in the free space between the foot of the pyramid 
and its brick surrounding-wall. Many tentative holes were dug 
through the artificial soil down to the diluvian gravel, and I found 
the remains of a deep excavation hidden under the sand. Following 
these traces, I reached the opening of a well (Feb. 26) near the N.W. 
-corner of the pyramid. In the course of the work a tomb, rather 
poor but of the xxvi dynasty, was found in the debris that obstructed 
the well, and on Feb. 28 the door of the subterranean structure was 

"A tortuous passage descended gently toward the pyramid and 
ended in a sepulchral chamber vaulted and lined with white lime- 
stone, in which, among fragments of a sandstone sarcophagus, lay the 
remains of a diorite statue. Everything in the sepulchral vault had 
been broken. The well by which I entered was probably that of the 
earlier despoilers of antiquity, who were, of course, earlier than the 
xxvi dynasty. The first tomb opened into a passageway 110 metres 
long, running from west to east, and consequently parallel to the 


northern face of the pyramid. In the north wall of this gallery there 
opened doors built of Turah limestone. Everything had been turned 
topsy-turvy; the sarcophagi were open, but the inscriptions upon 
them showed that in the second vault queen Nefert-Hent, among 
others, had been buried. In the midst of broken slabs and rubbish 
lay skulls, canopi, vases of terracotta and alabaster. Everywhere was 
the greatest disorder, and in places the white walls still bore the 
marks of the spoilers' hands. 

" This first visit made, I immediately set the men to clearing the 
main gallery. A stone wall was met and passed, and on the other 
side of it I found sure signs of the existence of another well. It was 
time that an opening were found, for air was beginning to be bad in 
the gallery and the lamps were going out. I made a ground-plan of 
the subterranean excavations, and, applying it to the surface, fixed on 
the point where the opening was made. This well (the only original 
one, the other being made by the plunderers) was opened up in a few 
days. It was made near the northeast corner of the pyramid, and 
led to the discovery of a tomb until now unknown. Twelve sarco- 
phagi of princesses were successively discovered and the clearing of 
' the rubbish began. 

Jewelry. " On March 6, a first treasure was discovered. The jewelry, 
placed in a coffer incrusted with gold and silver, had been buried in 
the very soil of the gallery, at a depth of about 0.40 m., near the door 
of the tomb of the princess Hathor-Shat. On the next day, March 7, 
another hiding-place was found in a neighboring gallery, at the foot 
of the tomb of princess Sent-Seisbet. These treasures are extremely 
rich : necklaces, bracelets, rings, mirrors, pearls and jewels of all sorts, 
This jewelry was brought out by hundreds from the cavities in which 
they had been heaped. The coffers had been destroyed by damp- 
ness, and their rich contents lay pell-mell in the sand and debris. 
Almost all the jewelry is of gold, often incrusted with precious stones. 

" In the first treasure there were : a gold pectoral enriched with 
precious stones and representing the cartouche of King Usertesen II 
sustained by two crowned hawks; two bracelets; several necklace 
clasps; the whole in gold incrusted with lapis-lazuli, carnelian, Egyp- 
tian emerald, turquoise and obsidian ; several scarabs, one of which 
bears the name of Usertesen III and another that of Princess Hathor- 
Shat these two scarabs are perfect marvels, both for the material 
in which they are cut (amethyst) and for their workmanship ; six 
crouching lions ; necklaces made of gold pearls, amethyst and lapis- 
lazuli ; large gold shells imitating cyprea, others representing pearl 
oysters; a gold necklace; a silver mirror; arid a multitude of small 
objects of the most perfect workmanship. 


" The second treasure is far more important than the first. It com- 
prises several hundred objects, among which should be mentioned a 
gold pectoral decorated with precious stones. In the centre is the 
cartouche of King Amenemhat III. On both sides the king is repre- 
sented standing, with raised mace, striking an Asiatic captive, desig- 
nated by an accompanying inscription. Above soars a vulture with 
wings spread. On the reverse, this scene is in chiselled gold ; the 
incrustations of this piece are of lapis-lazuli, Egyptian emerald, fels- 
path, turquoise, carnelian and black obsidian. These gems are not 
only cut in the desired shape, but also carved ; the heads of the king 
and captive, as well as the bodies, show in relief every minute detail. 
Another pectoral, with the name of the same king, bears his cartouche 
sustained by two griffins. Four captives are represented on this 
piece, two Asiatics and two negroes. On the reverse, the same scenes 
are chiselled in gold. These two pieces, of the first importance, are, 
together with the pectoral of Usertesen II, the finest pieces of jewelry dis- 
covered. Then come incrusted bracelets with the name of Amenemhat 
III ; numerous scarabs with the names of the kings and princesses ; 
three mirrors, two of which are in silver, mounted in gold ; a necklace 
of lion-heads combined four by four, each of the pearls of this neck- 
lace being of the size of an egg ; gold shells as large as the lion-heads ; 
necklace clasps enriched with precious stones ; necklaces of gold, 
amethyst, emerald, lapis-lazuli; a glass pearl; four lions couchant, of 
gold, etc., etc., etc., vases of carnelian, lapis-lazuli, obsidian and alabaster, 
some of which are decorated with gold-work, and a multitude of 
small objects of less importance, but the workmanship of which is no 
whit inferior to that of the large pieces. 

Other Tombs. "A continuation of the digging led to the discovery of 
a line of eleven wells running from east to west. Some had fallen in 
and appear never to have been finished; but one of them, the 
one nearest to the royal well, gave most important results. On 
April 19, this well having been cleared, I found a door giving 
access to a passage-way 14.60 m. long, covered with a skilfully con- 
structed cylindrical vault. The door was opened with all the precau- 
tions required by the bad condition of the gallery, and as soon as the 
first stones were removed we had before our eyes all the objects in a 
small chamber, just in the places where they were left by the priests 
of the xn dynasty or by the family of the deceased. Here were 
earthen vessels still containing Nile mud ; here were pieces of em- 
balmed meat, and further on .plates with dried provisions. In a 
corner were two cases, one containing perfumes in alabaster vases 
carefully labelled in hieroglyphic characters ; the other contained only 


sceptres, canes, a wooden mirror, and arrows whose feathers were in a 
remarkable state of preservation. Until now it was impossible to say 
whether this tomb was that of a man or woman, for it contained both 
arms and toilet articles. The only indication found was the seal with 
which the perfume coffer was closed, on which was the name of the 
friend of the King Tesh-Senbet. As soon as the objects had been 
numbered and a sketch of their position taken, the opening of the 
sarcophagus was begun. The slab being raised, the wooden sarco- 
phagus appeared covered with gold leaves, decorated with two head 
pieces and terminating in a shelving ridge. A gold inscription occu- 
pied the entire length of the cover : it gave the name and title of the 
deceased, the princess (or royal daughter) Noub-Hotep-ta-Khroudil. 
The body of the sarcophagus, also decorated with gold leaves, was of 
natural wood, only the gold bands bearing inscriptions were framed 
in a line of green paint. The mummy had suffered very badly from 
dampness : there remained but a mass of bones, jewelry and dust, 
enclosed in the remains of a plaster covering completely gilt. The 
objects had not been touched. On the left were the canes, the scep- 
tres, the flagellum a curious implement often represented on the 
temple reliefs, but never found as complete as this one. On the head 
were placed a silver diadem incrusted with precious stones, a urseus 
and a gold hawk-head. On the breast was a necklace decorated with 
about fifty gold pendants, incrusted, and ending in two gold hawk- 
heads of natural size. Toward the belt was a poniard with gold 
blade, and on the arms and feet were gold bracelets decorated with 
pearls of Egyptian carnelians and emeralds. The head of the mummy 
was, as usual, at the north end of the tomb ; to the left of the feet was 
the canopic case plated with gold like the sarcophagus and covered 
with texts. Among the titles of Princess Noub-Hotep, there is no 
mention of her having been queen, and yet I found in her tomb all 
the attributes of royalty. Perhaps she died before her husband came 
to the throne, while he was still only the heir-apparent. 

" The tombs of King Hor (see further on) and princess Noub-Hotep, 
as well as the details of their sepulchral furniture, show that these 
two persons were buried at the same time. Can we admit that the 
princess was either the wife or the daughter of the king next to whom 
she was buried ? Until further light comes, this is my opinion. 

"At the same time that the investigations were being carried on, I 
was drawing up a detailed report of their results, which will be pub- 
lished in a special volume, in which will be illustrated all the objects, 
texts, plans and architectural details. I am assisted in this work by 
MM. G. Legrain and G. Jequier, members of the French Oriental 
Institute at Cairo, as the Egyptologists of the Service des Antiquites are 


detained either at the Gizeh Museum or at the other excavations 
undertaken by my administration at different points in Egypt," etc. 

At the meeting of the Academie des Inscriptions, at which the full 
text of the above report was read, M. Maspero spoke, making some 
corrections to the report, and establishing the fact that the king whose 
mummy was discovered is not unknown. His name is given in 
the " royal canon " of Turin, and should be read, in its fall form, 
Autu-ab-Ra. There are two kings of this name in the xn dynasty. 
This must be the earlier of the two, who lived apparently a century 
and a half after Amenemhat IV. 

King Autu-ab-Ra. In the above extracts from M. de Morgan's 
report, published in the Revue de Vhist. des religions (March-April, 
1894), the description of the finding of the royal tomb and mummy is 
omitted. This king is referred to above by M. de Morgan under the 
name of -Hbr, and his tomb was next to that of princess or queen 
Noub-Hotep. In the Athenaeum report it is spelled Heru-du-Rd. We 
have seen that M. Maspero reads Autu-ab-Ra. Here is the note in the 
Athenseum of April 28 : 

" Not far from the pyramid at Dahshur, to the north he (M. de Mor- 
gan) has found a royal tomb containing the remains of a new king, 
probably of the xni dynasty, called Heru-au-Ra; the sarcophagus 
chamber was found at a depth of 32 feet. Like so many fine tombs 
of this period, it was despoiled in ancient days, but the mummy, 
though in a bad state of preservation, has been found intact, together 
with the wooden sarcophagus decorated with plates of gold inscribed 
with the royal cartouches and titles, and a number of gilded paste 
ornaments. Near the sarcophagus was found a gilded wooden shrine, 
also inscribed with the royal cartouches and inscriptions, and in it a 
gilded ebony statue of the king about 4 feet 8 inches high. Two 
broken ' Canopic ' vases, an alabaster table of offerings inscribed with 
lengthy religious texts and the king's names, and a very large number 
of smaller objects complete the find. M. de Morgan has reason to 
believe that he is on the eve of finding the tombs of the kings who 
built the brick pyramids at Dahshur, and he is pressing on the work 
with renewed activity. It is early to decide where this new king is to 
be placed, but it is pretty certain that we must consider him to belong 
to the early part of the period of the xm dynasty, when names of the 
kind were in use ; as many copies of the name have been found, there 
can be no doubt about the accuracy of the reading of the signs." 

We have seen above that M. Maspero places this king in the xn 

In a popular notice inserted by Charles de Koven in Harper's Weekly 
of June 23, there are one or two points not touched upon in the above 
notices, and mostly posterior to M. de Morgan's report. 


M. de Morgan, continuing at work near and under the northern 
pyramid, on April 10th set his native workmen sounding about the 
southern, also of brick, hoping to arrive more cheaply at the plan 
whereby these kings concealed their graves, the southern pyramid 
being much freer from sands. Up to May 15th, however, he had not 
found the key. 

Near the old circle about the north pyramid, however, he met traces 
of the name of Amenemhat III, and April 17th a statuette of gilt wood; 
then he unearthed the record of an unknown king of the Twelfth 
Dynasty, Hor Fou-Ab-Ra. Moreover, he learned just where that king 
came into the royal line. For, rooting about the floor of the tomb, he 
found under a heavy stone a box whose cord had been sealed with the 
seal of Amenemhat III. As his successor sealed with his royal seal 
the boxes of the dead king, here is proof that Fou-Ab-Ra must be 
placed after Usertesen III, and immediately before the builder of the 
Labyrinth. The tomb of this king was rifled. His sarcophagus had 
been opened and the mummy-case shattered. A statue of ebony 
inlaid with gold, a temple-shaped canopy, upset, canes and sceptres 
lay about. Two square inscribed slabs were intact, bearing the king's 
name. On the 19th he dug out a shaft which gave access to a grave 
and this time an absolutely untouched one the only unrifled grave 
he had found. This belonged to a princess called Noup-Hotep-Ta- 

At the south pyramid little has been found, except remains of a 
portal before the eastern face, a section of rose-marble column, and. on 
another side, no less than eleven separate shafts, such as lead to tombs. 
Near the surface were traces of bench-shaped chapels, and great were 
the expectations ! But here a terrible disappointment befel : Only 
two of these shafts had been pushed to completion, and they, although 
each had its deep-lying grave, contained nothing of importance. 

The pursuit for the grave of one of these three famous kings con- 
tinues. Meantime M. de Morgan has made a very peculiar find. 
About, two hundred yards to the south of the northern pyramid he 
chose a spot in the sands, and on the 1st of May struck the roof of a 
vaulted gallery, closed by a wall at the eastern end, and turning to a 
narrow pass at the western. Beyond the wall to the east were great 
masses of broken stone from the Tourah quarries across the Nile. 
Working into these, on the 13th and 14th of May two big galleys were 
found, each about thirty feet long, richly painted, and in a fine state 
of preservation. 

In themselves these are unique survivals, but they indicate much 
more. They are specimens of the celebrated funeral boats we see on 
the walls of graves in Egypt, which carried the corpse from the east to 




ihe west bank of the Nile, symbolizing the journey from birth to 
death, as well as the sun's march from east to west. It is as if one 
found the royal hearse. Can th