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Full text of "The American journal of psychology"

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J T o^^^ 




THE AMERICAN 

Journal of Psychology 

Founded by G. Stani<EY Hai^i, in 1887. 
Vol. X. JULY, 1899. No. 4- 




THE 






AMERICAN 
J9 



JQURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 



EDITED BY 

G. STANLEY HALL, 



E. C. SANFORD, AND B. B. TITCHENER, 

Clark University. Cornell University. 

WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF 



F. ANGEiyiy, Leland Stanford, Jr., University; H. Beaunis, Univer- 
sities of Nancy and Paris; A. F. Chamberi^ain, Clark Uni- 
versity; V. Henri, Paris; C. F. Hodge, Clark Uni- 
versity; A. KiRSCHMANN, University of Toronto; 
O. KiJi^PE, University of Wiirzburg; W. B. 
Pii,i,SBURY, University of Michigan ; G. W. 
Storring, University of Leipzig; 

A. Wai,i,er, London. r/^T 



y 



1 



VOIv. X. 



CLARK UNIVERSITY, WORCESTER, MASS. 

I^ouis N. Wilson, Publisher. 

1898-99. 



f 



• 



<(,l~^ 



THE AMEEICAE" 

Journal of Psychology 

Founded by G. Stani^ey Hai^i, in 1887. 
Vol. X. OCTOBER, 1898. No. i. 

THE MIGRATORY IMPULSE VS. LOVE OF HOME. 



By Linus W. Ki.ine, Fellow in Psychology, Clark University. 



Introduction. 



The migration of animals and peoples, the wandering of 
tribes and roving impulse of the individual, have been woven 
into legends and myths, carved upon stone and written upon 
parchment, ever since the advent of human thought. 

The predatory advance of the locust,^ the measured flight of 
certain butterflies,^ the martial like procession of caterpillars 
and ants ^ have long inspired wonder, superstition and thought, 
** The * human race is more concerned in the movements and 
migrations of fish than in the question of their permanent 
abode. ' ' To the ancients the flight of birds was a token of 
prosperity or adversity according to the direction of the flight. 
If an eagle flew over from left to right or from right to left, 
the former was regarded a good omen, the latter an evil one. 
Among the hieroglyphs on the monuments of the Pharoah's 
are represented wild-goose fowling as these birds were making 
their annual migrations through the Nile Valley. The ^prophet 
Jeremiah in rebuking the seared consciences of the Jews, 
spoke in this fashion : Yea, the stork in the heavens knoweth 
her appointed times and the turtle and the crane and the 
swallow observe the time of their coming ; but my people 
know not the judgment of the Lord. 

The folk-lore of many tribes, the beginnings of many great 

^Figuier : The Insect World. Page 302. 

2 Couch : Illustrations of Instinct, pp. 145-150. 

^Huber : Ants. 

*Baird, Spencer F : U. S. Fish Com. Report, 1886, p. 47. 

^Jeremiah 8 : 7. 



2 KI.INE : 

nations in addition to historical facts, consist of migratory 
legends and myths of wandering. 

The tradition of the Hebrew, which tells of their migra- 
tion into Palestine from the countries across the Euphrates, is 
substantiated by their tribal name, ibri, i. e., one who has 
crossed. The Doric traditions of an imigration from Thrace 
and Macedonia through Epirus into Greece is confirmed by lin- 
guistic facts. The legendary account of the migration of 
Cadmus, leading to the foundation of Thebes, the checkered 
and wandering life of ^neas, previous to his marriage and 
settling in Italy, the adventurous and romantic journey of 
Ulysses from Troy to Ithaca have given to literature its classic 
wanderers for all time. 

All tribes of the Maskoki stock of Indians,^ likewise the 
Washoe around Carson City and Tinne-Appache of New Mex- 
ico possess migration legends intermingled with myths and 
mythic ideas. Many of the ^Polynesian tribes have similar 
traditions. 

In recent times Germany and Austro- Hungary have estab- 
lished stations for observing bird migration. Scientists of 
Great Britain utilize part of her lighthouse service for collect- 
ing data on bird movements. In our own country many men 
of the weather bureau service have divided their time between 
observing weather phenomena and collecting data on the 
flight of birds. 

Several attempts ^ have been made by naturalists and anthro- 
pologists* to trace out the migrations.^ of man from his 
^primitive home until he had peopled the whole earth. Jour- 
nahsm ' has recently given some space to accounts of roving 
and tramps life. Within the past two years some systematic 
study has been devoted to Truancy,^ chiefly^" along statistical, 
sociological and anthropometrieal lines. 

The writer was brought face to face with this instinct while 
in conversation with a few of the beneficiaries of the associated 

iGatschet, A. S. : A Migratory Legend of the Creeks, p. 218, Phil. 
1884. 

^Sittig, Otto : Compulsory Migrations in the Pacific Ocean. Smith. 
Report, 1895, pp. 519-35- 

3 Sittig Otto : loc. cit. 

* Mason, O. F.: Amer. Anthro., Vol. II, No. 3, 1894, Migration and 
the Food Quest. 

^Brinton, G. D. : Races and People. 

^Miiller, Friedrich : Allgemeine Bthnographie. 

7 Noble, C. W. : Border Land of Trampdom. Pop Sci. Month, Vol. 
ly, p. 252. 

sFlynt, Josiah: Century Vols. XXIV and XXV, 1893. Same 
author in Atlantic Month. Vol. LXXVII, p. 88. 

^ Fifty-ninth Annual Report, Board of Ed. of Mass. 

I*' Pedagogical Seminary, Vol. V, No. 3, 1898. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI^E. 3 

charities of Boston. A description of one will suffice, for in 
respect to this trait they differed but little. 

A young man of American parentage who had just recovered 
from a spell of sickness in a Boston hospital presented himself 
to the manly department of the association asking for money 
to purchase a ticket to Springfield, Mass. He seemed very 
anxious to get work again and had a strong hope that he could 
do so were he only in Springfield. He produced evidence 
showing that he was a skilled workman and had given satisfac- 
tion to his employers. It was found that he had come from 
New York and to New York he had gone from Springfield, 
Mass., to which latter place he now longed to return, though 
he had neither home nor relatives in the place. He had paid 
his respects to each of these four cities within five months. 
No particular reason could he assign for leaving any one place, 
except that he thought a change was good for him. After 
remaining a certain length of time in a place, familiar objects 
and places became distasteful, even the odors of the shop would 
haunt him and at times the very sight of shop comrades would 
appear repulsive. Peace of mind came only by breaking away 
and entering into the life of a new place. He recognized pain- 
fully that it was not the way to provide for a rainy day nor to 
become a practical citizen. 

Says Flynt : ' * ^ I have known men on the road who were 
tramping purely and simply because they loved to tramp. 
They had no appetite for liquor or tobacco, so far as I could 
find, also were quite out of touch with criminals and their 
habits; but somehow or other they could not conquer that 
passion for roving. In a way this type of vagabond is the 
most pitiful that I have ever known ; and yet is the truCvSt 
type of the genuine voluntary vagrant To re- 
form him it is necessary to kill his personality, to take away his 
ambition and this is a task almost superhuman. Even when 
he is reformed he is a most cast down person. ' ' 

* ' Ten ^ years ago four young men of this city took a pedes- 

1 Flynt, Josiah : Century, Oct., 1885, p. 941. 

2 One of over 500 cases taken from Rubrics II and IV. See Syllabus 
below. 

TOPICAL SYLLABI FOR CHILD STUDY. 

(Series for Academic Year 1896-7). 

III. Migrations, Tramps, Truancy, Running Away, ktc, 

vs. LovK OF Home;. 

I. Consider whether you know any small child with a propensity 

to run away ; and if so describe the circumstances — why, when, where 

it went, whether alone, and planned, or impulsively, and all the 

details and incidents of each case ; its adventures, how it was found, 



4 KI.INE : 

trian trip to the Delaware Water Gap. They were all of good 
families and of excellent habits. On returning home three of 
them resumed their every-day life, but F., who was about 
twenty years old, after staying home several days disappeared 
and did not return for several weeks. When he came back he 
told the alarmed family that he had been on another tramp. 
Since that time he has been all over the United States work- 
ing only when he could not obtain food or lodging otherwise. 
He returns home at intervals but stays only for a few days, and 
does not appear to have formed any bad habits, but cannot 
overcome the desire to wander. He still seems to have affec- 
tion for those at home, yet cannot content himself to stay with 
them. As none of his relatives have led adventurous lives, 
his parents cannot account for his strange behavior. ' ' 

whether deterred later by its experiences, at what age this disposition 
appeared and when it ceased and why. 

II. Describe the same with boys and girls in their teens, who leave 
home for love of adventure, anger, impatient of restraint, to start life 
for self, etc., definite plans or none. Give every incident of cause, 
experiences, hardships, etc., you can find out. 

III. Describe any case of truancy from school or church, its 
motives, traits of the child, mode of concealment. 

IV. In your own experience what are the charms of travel in order 
of interest, whether of a trip to Europe, a ride or bicycle journey, a 
lonely walk of a day's duration, globe-trotting, etc. Have you ever 
left home aimlessly, and before leaving had you lost property and 
friends or been injured in feelings ? Have you been tempted to 

** disappear," and what reasons, or left home to "do the world " or 
" paint the town ?" Have you ever suffered intense hunger, and if so 
describe your feelings. 

V. What do you know of tramps ? have you ever interviewed one, 
or can you do so ? what have you ever read or heard of them ? 

VI. Do you know people who move frequently, and if so, state 
why, where, how often and all you know of them. 

VII. Do you know anything of gypsies or can you find out any. 
thing ? 

VIII. Do you know an inveterate visitor, call-maker, gad-about 
person, who must be always on the street or on the go ? If so describe 
them carefully, and see if you can account for it ; or of boys with a 
passion to start out for themselves exceptionally early in life. 

IX. The same of any one who loves home so intensely that he or 
she will only very reluctantly go away for, or be away nights. 

X. What are the elements in your own love of home in order — as 
love of father, mother, brother, sister, the house, hills, trees, and 
natural scenery, familiar ways of life, etc. 

XI. Describe any case of homesickness you know of and especially 
if you have experienced it yourself. 

XII. Describe your own experiences with spring fever, ennui that 
impelled you to go or be far away, longings in the distance, desire to 
break away and see the great world and take a part in its actions. 
Have you ever felt thus concerning a future life as connected with 
either religion, love or conflict ? 

In each case specify each of the following points : i, age ; 2, sex ; 



MIGRATORY IMPUI^E. 5 

Here, then, is an activity of the soul, woven into legends 
and folk-lore, is discussed in history and science, and affects 
profoundly the social and domestic life of a people. An instinct 
that destroys for the time being even the activities that provide 
for the immediate wants of life, that drives out considerations 
for home, relatives and friends, that overpowers the sympa- 
thetic, the domestic, the home-making spirit of man, that un- 
fits him for static toil and conditions, and impels him to seek a 
change, the new, strange and untried. 

Modern biologj^ in its interpretation oi form and function be- 
gins its work with the undifferentiated organ or organism in 
question, and follows it through its phylo-ontogenetic devel- 
oping paths, both by the methods of experimental morphology 
and comparative anatomy until present conditions are reached. 
The verdict of thCvSe methods, especially the former, is that the 
efficient causes in the process are first, ^ "internal causes, 

3, nationality ; 4, occupation of parents ; 5, are one or both living? 6, 
do they own their homes? 7, is their food and clothes good? 8, 
toys; 9, books; 10, pin-money; 11, affections; 12, has the child any- 
physical defects? 13, is it oldest, youngest or only child? 14, is it 
quick-tempered? 15, sensitive ; 16, demonstrative ; 17, laugh and cry 
easily; 18, cheerful; 19, active; 20, generous; 21, fond of playmates 
or reticent and inclined to be alone ; 22, does it seek to govern others 
and does it obey readily? 23, love or shun crowds; 24, or dark; 
25, animals ; 26, deep water ; 27, out of door life, fondness for woods, 
fields, etc.; 28, does it love music, does it dance? 29, a good color 
sense, and what are its favorite colors? 30, is it careless or tidy and 
dressy? 31, has it had pets, is it good to animals? 32, careful of prop- 
erty ; 33, and of others' rights ; 34, made a collection of things ; 35, 
is it persistent in carrying out tasks? 36, is it inquisitive and talka- 
tive? 37, were there ample opportunities for taking exercise, were 
games and sports encouraged ? 38, was there plenty of physical or 
manual labor at home? 39, must there have been long hours of seden- 
tary work at home and in school ? 40, always specify the season of the 
year of every incident if possible ; 41, was their immoderate love of 
sight-seeing, being out evenings, camping out, hunting, excursions, 
picnics, etc.? 

XIII. What have you observed concerning the migrations and the 
homing instincts of animals, cats, dogs, cows, horses, hens, rabbits, 
pigeons, fish, ducks, etc., etc.? What have you read, and can you 
send or refer to any literature or reports of cases ? What have you 
observed of any lower forms of life that move freely at first and then 
become sessile or fixed as parasites, of nuptual flights of insects? 

XIV. What special literature can you refer to on tramps, home- 
sickness, truancy, gypsies or on any other aspect of this topic? 

In any case giving the full name of any part of it is optional with 
the one answering. 
Kindly send your answers to 

G. STANLEY HAIvL, 
or L. W. KIvINE. 

ClvARK UnIVKRSITY, 

Worcester, Mass., Oct. 26th, 1896. 

1 Davenport, C. B.: Experimental Morphology, Part I, p. 8. 



6 KI,INE : 

which include the qualities of the developing protoplasm ; ' ' 
second, ' * external causes, which include the chemical and phy- 
sical properties of the environment in which the potoplasm is 
developing. ' ' 

The genetic psychologist has taken his cue from the biolo- 
gists, and accordingly — after making certain assumptions, a 
feature common to all sciences, concerning the relations of 
mind ^ and body,^ heredity and the like, unnecessary to discuss 
here — goes back to primitive psychic life, and investigates both 
the causes and the processes in its development until it reaches 
conditions found in the adult form. The factors believed to be 
operative in originating and determining the causes of psychic 
differentiation are ( i ) those inherent in the principle life itself ; 
{2)cosmic, including chemical substances, moisture, heat, pres- 
sure, light and electricity, and their innumerable combinations 
and ever changing relations to each other and to life ; and 
(3) social, meaning by the latter all those influences that proceed 
from members of the same family, tribe and species, together 
with all other species, both plants and animals. Dr. Brinton * 
writing on the role played by social influences in psychical 
differentiation says : ' ' The psychical development of men and 
nations finds its chief explanation, less in the natural sur- 
roundings, the climate, soil, and water currents, as is taught 
by some philosophers, than in their relations and connections 
with each other, their friendships, federations and enmities, 
their intercourse in commerce, love and war. ' ' To present the 
point of view of the present investigation, to sensitize our 
minds as to the delicacy of the interaction between cosmic 
forces and life, and the nature of the latter' s response, I pro- 
pose to give, very briefly, indeed, the results of some experi- 
ments and observations on temperature,'^ one of the most vital 
forces operating on organic life. 

i"The process of psychical evolution runs parallel with the evolu- 
tion of organic life." Paulsen: Introduction to Philosophy, p. 143. 

2 " The key-note of modern biology is evolution; and on the hy- 
pothesis of scientific monism here adopted. . . . We are not only 
logically justified in extending our comparative psychology so as to 
include within its scope the field of zoological psychology, but we are 
logically bound to regard psychological evolution as strictly co-ordi- 
nate with biological evolution." Lloyd Morgan: Introduction to 
Comparative Psychology, pp. 36-37. 

^Brinton, G. D.: loc. cit. 

* It should be remembered that temperature is only one among 
many determining developmental factors, and that what is presented 
here is merely a type of a large number of studies made on the be- 
havior of protoplasm in the presence of chemicals, density of fluid 
medium, gravity, electricity and light. Doubtless the most compre- 
hensive modern works of experimental morphology are Loeb's Un- 
tersuchungen z. Physiologischen Morphologie, d. Thiere, 1892; M. 
Verworn's Algemeine Physiologie, 1895 ; and C. B. Davenport's Ex- 
perimental Morphology, 1897. 



MIGRATORY IMPUIySB. 7 

What quantitative limitations does temperature impose upon 
life? 

The range of life in temperature is less than ioo° of the tem- 
perature scale. " SoMelicate is the adjustment between liv- 
ing matter and the conditions by which it is environed that if 
the mean temperature of the earth were raised or lowered 
through only a few dozen degrees, the teeming creatures of 
air, water and land, would cease to exist." Upon this point 
Professor Shaler^ observes : ' ' The range of heat which life can 
sustain may be taken as less than ioo° ; but in the sun we 
have a temperature which cannot well be estimated as less than 
a hundred thousand degrees Fahrenheit, and in the depth of 
the earth is probably to be measured by tens of thousands of 
degrees on that scale, while in the realm of ether between 
the solar and terrestrial spheres there is a degree of cold which 
is certainly to be reckoned as some hundreds of degrees below 
zero. Amid these contending extremes of heat and cold life 
must find its narrow place." If these inconceivably large 
numbers be expressed in linear terms, we have a line one hun- 
dred thousand inches in length, an extension of about one mile 
and a half, let the space of each inch represent one degree 
Fahrenheit. On that scale mark off a space of eight feet 
near one end and this trifling part of the length of the whole 
line gives us a diagrammatic representation of the ratios 
between the temperatures of the solar system and those in 
which organic life can be maintained. This delicate adjust- 
ment of life to temperature is clearly expressed by spatial 
limitations. " It is highly probable that at no time since the 
beginning of life in the unstable material forms as we know it, 
has temperature conditions necessary for life existed much over 
five miles above the level of the sea even at the equator. ' ' 

Relations of life to temperature considered experimentally . The 
casual observer knows that fow^ls droop their wings, that swine 
hunt the wallow and the ox the shade of the oak in hot 
weather. Every farmer, gardner and florist knows well that 
the effectiveness of the hot-bed and green-house in producing 
vigorous, healthy plants, depends upon a very narrow range of 
temperature. 

The experimental investigations of Velten,* Kerner,'* Men- 
delssohn,^ Verworn,^ Loeb'^ and others show quantitatively the 

1 McGee : Anthropological Society, Washington, D. C, 1894. 

^Shaler, N. S.: Interpretation of Nature, pp. 67, 68-117. 

^Velten. Quoted by Davenport: Experimental Morphology, pp. 
226-227, 1897. 

* Kerner ^ The Natural History of Plants, Vol. I, pt. 2, pp. 557-8. 
(Tr. by Oliver.) 

^Mendelssohn : Archiv. fur die ges, Phys., Band 60, 1895. 

^ Verworn : Allgemeine Physiologie. 

■^I/oeb: Untersuchungen z. Phys. Morphologie, d. Thiere. 



8 KI.INE : 

exceeding sensitiveness of protoplasm to temperature. Kngle- 
mann,^ Kdward,^ Mendelssohn, Cambell,* Davenport, have 
demonstrated that in general protoplasm is more responsive 
the closer we approach its optimum temperature — a tempera- 
ture of about 30°c. 

A more direct line of evidence showing the relation of the 
activities of protoplasm to temperature is found in the fact that 
organisms, in general, absorb more oxygen and excrete more 
carbon dioxide the higher the temperature within certain limits. 

This has been sufiiciently proven by the germination and 
growth of seedlings,* by the increase of rhythmic movements of 
the contractile vacuole of infusoria in rising temperature.^ 
Numerous^ experiments on air breathing' animals confirm the 
same general law, and, furthermore, establish a relationship® 
between the oxygen absorbed and the carbon dioxide given 
off. But nowhere do I find experimental evidence on the 
quantitative differences between either the absorption of oxygen 
or the excretion of carbon dioxide at the optimum of an organ- 
ism and at temperatures above and below that point. 

I present here in detail a series of experiments carried out 
on tadpoles^ with a view to gain some evidence on this 
problem. The first^° part of the problem was to ascertain 

1 Englemann, Th. W.: Flimmeruhr u. Flemmermiihle Zwei, App. 
Z. Register d. Flemmerbewegung. Pfliiger Archiv. f. Phys., pp. 501- 
502, Vol. XV, 1877. (See Fig. i and F. af 6.) 

2 Edward, Chas. L.: Stud. Biol. Lab. Johns Hopkins Univ., Vol. IV, 
1888, pp. 19-35. 

3 Campbell: Stud. Biol. Lab. Johns Hopkins Univ., Vol. IV, pp. 

123-145- 

*Vine, S. H.: Physiology of Plants, p. 198. (See table.) 

^ " From all these facts we may conclude that, within certain limits, 
an increase of temperature increases metabolism, and a diminution of 
temperature diminishes it." Davenport: Experimental Morphology, 
p. 225. 

^ Regnault et Reiset : Recherches chimiques sur la respiration des 
Animaux des diverses classes. Annales de chemie et Physique, pp. 
299 et seq.\ 3me Sfer ; Tome 26, 1849. 

■^ Colosanti : Ueber den Einfluss der umgebenden temperatur auf den 
Stoff wechsel der Warmbliites Pflug. Arch., Vol. XIV, pp. 92, 469, 
1877. 

8 Page: External Temperature Affecting the Amount of CO2, etc., 
Jour, of Phys., Vol. II, p. 228, i879-'8o. 

^ I chose this form of animal because it lends itself readily to a vari- 
ety of experiment with comparatively simple apparatus, and also on 
account of its delicate and ready response to changes of environment. 

1'^ For this purpose a zinc trough 20cm deep, i6cm wide and 2.3 
meters long, supported by a wooden frame, was constructed. To the 
bottom of the trough i6cm from one end a tin box 12cm wide, 15cm 
long and 6cm deep was soldered. The box received water through a 
hole cut in the zinc. Water was conducted to the hole through a 
stand pipe soldered to the inside bottom of the trough. The tin box 
served two purposes : first, it admitted a direct application of the 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 9 

whether or not the tadpole will choose voluntarily his optimum.^ 
( I ) Sixty-seven tadpoles were placed in the middle of the 
rectangular trough, the temperature of the water being 4°c 
throughout. They leisurely distributed themselves equally 
throughout its whole extent. Heat was now applied to the 
left end, the right end resting on iced sawdust. When the 
left end reached i6°c the tadpoles began to congregate in that 
region, and especially about the standpipe. No one remained 
very long in any one place, though they did not appear at all 
uncomfortable. Each movement was attended by a leisurely 
indifferent motion of the tail, as if the rising temperature was a 
source of comfort. The temperature at the right end at this 
moment was 6°c, containing only a few tadpoles which seldom 
moved. At 2o°c the left end was crowded, thus showing that 
for that temperature they are positive thermotactic. At 24°c 
the tadpoles showed marked discomfort. The movements were 
no longer of an indifferent lazy waggle, but were decided and 
quick, showing that they were beginning to experience un- 
comfortable quarters. As yet, however, there were no move- 
ments in a definite direction. Between 25°c-26°c migrations 
began toward the right end, which had risen to a temperature 
of i5°c. At 27°c migrations to the right end were continuous, 
and at times not a single creature remained in the region of the 
left end. Tadpoles occupying an intermediate position between 
the two ends, temperature i8°c, sniffing, as it were, a warmer 
region toward the left, frequently darted suddenly for it, only 
to find themselves in hot water, out of which they immediately 
migrated. The eight thermometers at twelve inches apart reg- 
istered temperatures shown in Fig. I, Diagram i. (2) When 
the temperature of the left end reached 36 °c and the right end 
26°c the heat was turned off. The left end was allowed to 
cool by the ordinary process of radiation into the air of the 
room, while the right was hastened by artificial means. When 
the latter had fallen to i8°c during 12 minutes, the left end 
registered 28 °c, toward which, but not to it, a slow movement 
began and increased more and more as the temperature fell at 
both ends. When the left end had fallen to 24^c and the right 

flame to its surface, and thereby protecting the zinc bottom, and 
second, the water heated in this vessel transmitted its heat to the zinc 
over a surface equal to the area of the tin vessel ; thus preventing an 
excessively high temperature in one spot, which would have resulted 
by a direct application of the flame. Depth of water in trough was 
two and one-half inches. A board strip containing one-quarter inch 
holes six inches apart was laid lengthwise of the trough. Ther- 
mometers were thrust through eight of these holes, and allowed to 
dip two inches below the surface of the water. 

1 A summary of these experiments appeared in Ped. Setn.^ Vol. V, 
No. 3, 1898. 



lO KI.INE : 

end to io°c the migration toward the left were about complete. 
A few remained behind entangled in the ice, besides a few 
scattering ones at intermediate points, but the great bulk were 
huddled in together at the left end tadpole fashion. The cool- 
ing continued until both ends reached, respectively, i8°c and 
i9°c. The temperatures of the intermediate thermometers were 
noted and the number of creatures in the region of each 
counted, which is shown in Fig. II. This is a clear expres- 
sion of negative thermotropism at temperatures below iS^'c. 
Now, since they move away from a temperature of 26°c 
tow^ard a lower one, and away from a temperature of i8*^c 
toward a higher one, it is evident that there must be a temper- 
ature somewhere between these two points which is agreeable 
or most favorable for the tadpole — its optimum. 

(3) The tadpoles were removed from the trough, and the 
left end was raised to 35 °c, the other reduced to o^c. Fifty 
fresh tadpoles were then put into the tank at a point register- 
ing lo^c. Within five minutes they took the position indicated 
in Fig. III. I removed them from the tank to a vessel con- 
taining water at i2*^c — temperature in which they were then 
being kept, where the}^ remained 45 minutes, after which they 
were transferred again to the tank and put in at a region regis- 
tering 26°c. In a very short time the position indicated in 
Fig. IV were taken. The several temperatures were kept 
constant for ten minutes, during which time the number at the 
temperatures were counted, but at no time were the numbers 
materially changed from those already given. At times there 
was more or less moving, now toward the cooler region, now 
toward the warmer, but their little excursions nearly always 
ended in the region between i9°c and 24°c. 

The conclusion is that the optimum for the tadpole is be- 
tween i9°cand 24°c. This conclusion is supported by three 
other facts. ( i ) Their respiration curve rises very suddenly at 
24°c. [See Chart I]. (2) The maximum amount of CO 2 is 
produced between tq^c and 24°c. (3) Their refusal to eat in 
temperatures above 24°c. (They will eat, however, in tem- 
perature as low as io°c). The curves^ of Chart I indicate the 

1 The apparatus consisted of a tall narrow glass jar, depth 28cm, and 
diameter 9cm. It was filled with water. The tadpoles were confined 
within narrow limits, and prevented from direct contact with the bot- 
tom of the glass jar by a partition spaced off by two circular pieces of 
wire gauze 8.5 in. diameter, placed horizontally in the jar 6.5cm apart. 
These two wire platforms were held in situ by a wooden rod thrust 
through their center and resting on the bottom of the jar, which was 
placed in a sheet-iron kettle containing five liters of water. The bot- 
tom of the glass jar was allowed to barely touch the surface of the 
water in the kettle. These conditions secured a slow and uniform 
rise in temperature. Two thermometers were placed at different 
levels within the space confining the tadpoles. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 



II 



Diagram I. 
Thermotropism of tadpoles. 



3 


0° 


2 


T 


2 


5'^ 


23'' 


1 


8^ 


1 


8° 17° 


15° 


( 


) 


• 




I 


■ 


9 


10 


7 10 


26 



Fig. I. 



19° 17' 16° 14° 11° 8° 5° 0° , 



49 7 4 2 1 



1 3 



Fig. II. 



35° 32° 26' 



23° 21° 10° 5' 



062834 22 



Fig. III. 



40° 26° 23° 20° ^^^ ''^° 8 



7 24 5 4 7 3 



Fig. IV. 



The vertical lines represent thermometers. The lower row of figures 
indicate the number of tadpoles in the region of different temperatures. 
The upper row of figures indicate temperature in degrees centigrade. 



12 KI.INK: 

effect of rising temperature on the respiration of tadpoles. The 
temperature was raised from o°c to 30^0 in 165 minutes, 
or i°c in 5.5 minutes. The lean, unfed tadpoles began to 
breathe at 4°c, those well-fed at 6°c. At these temperatures I 
was able to count from 20 to 24 respirations per minute. Often, 

o|| Chart I. Respiration of tadpoles in rising temperature. 

^ !•», ^ 111122222222222333333333334444 hrs. 
" S. 25 28 42 45 50 00 05 10 15 22 28 34 37 42 49 55 01 04 10 12 20 24 30 35 40 46 55 00 05 10 14 tnins. 



FED TADPOLES / 



UNFED TADPOLES 



/ 

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however, no respiration could be detected below 5°c. From 
5°c up to 2o°c the increase is quite uniform. At 2i°c the 
obese tadpoles increase their respiration 54 to the minute, the 
lean ones defer any sudden rise until 24°c. Divergence in 
their curves begin at i7°-i8°c. Attention is called to the 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 1 3 

fact that the increase in respiration from 24°c to 3o°c,or through 
6°c equals that from 5°c to 24°c, or the increase through 
i9°c. Thus showing that any increase of temperature above 
24°c produces effects altered in character to those of like incre- 
ments below that point. Another inference made here is that, 
since metabolism is a function of respiration (taught long ago by- 
physiologists) , and that the latter stands in causal relation to 
temperature, metabolism bears a vital relation to temperature. 
The second part of the problem was to enquire more closely 
into the nature of this relation. What is the quantitative differ- 
ence between the metabolism at the optimum and at tempera- 
tures above and below that point, as indicated by carbon 
dioxide^ produced at different temperatures ? ^ 

The determination of CO 2 produced by air breathing animals 
is usually effected by aspirating the exhaled air over barium 
hydrate or a soda solution contained in Pettenkorf or U tubes. 
The difference in the weight of the tubes before and after the 
aspiration of the expired air is taken as the weight of CO 2 pro- 
duced after making certain corrections. 

With water breathing animals the problem is more complex. 
Water is a solvent of carbon dioxide. The extent of the 
solvency depends on the temperature and pressure. In this 
instance the normal pressure was lessened by the aspirator em- 
ployed to supply the water containing the tadpoles with oxy- 
gen. This diminution of pressure favored the escape of a 
portion of the carbon dioxide from the water. The prob- 
lem narrowed into the estimation* of the carbon dioxide left in 
the water and of that which continually escaped into the tubes. 
The amount found in the former I have termed the * ' volumetric 

1 The inference that a quantitative determination of CO 2 is a measure- 
ment of metabolism is based on the following well-known facts : 
" Oxygen is concerned with the integrating, the anabolic process, on 
the other hand carbon dioxide is one of its several disintegrating or 
katabolic products. These two constituents are not only always present 
in metabolic processes.butareof such prime importance to the process 
that a quantitative determination of either or both is a fair measure of 
metabolism itself." . . . Quoted from article on Truancy, Fed. Sent., 
Vol. V, No. 3, p. 383. See same article for literature on the relation 
of O to CO 2 in life processes, also Howell's American Text-book of 
Physiology for criticisms on the constancy of the ratio of the oxygen 
absorbed to carbon dioxide produced. 

2 It is not the purpose to determine the absolute amount of metabol- 
ism, such a task is some distance ahead present laboratory methods. 
The object here is to estimate the relative amounts at different tem- 
peratures, and regard these quantities as merely indices to what the 
absolute quantity may be at a given temperature. 

^The apparatus consisted of a three mouthed glass jar, capacity 
seven liters. The jar was connected on one side with U tubing and 
a gas meter — the tubing was filled with pumice stone and con- 
centrated sulphuric acid — and on the other with a series of seven U 



14 



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MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 15 

portion,"^ and that found in the latter the *' gravimetric por- 
tion. ' ' The sum of the two being the whole amount exhaled. 
A detailed statement of the experiment and results are given 
in Table I. This Table shows that a maximum amount of CO 2 
is produced at the optimum, 2o°c, and that the amounts de- 
crease for temperatures above and below the optimum and fur- 
ther that the fall is much more rapid toward the lower temper- 
atures than toward the higher ones. [See Curve in Chart II.] 
If then we regard the production of CO 2 as a fair index of the 
amount of normal metabolism in an organism we are justified 
in the conclusion that for this species of embryos, maximum 
metabolism is coincident and very probably a function of opti- 
mum temperature. Page's^ experiments on the dog show 
that a minimum amount of CO 2 is produced in a temperature 
of 25°c anS that the amount increases above and below 25°c, 
which is probably about the optimum for this mammal. [See 
Curve in Chart II.] Thus the warm^ blooded animal presents 
reverse conditions.* The fact emphasized here, however, is 

tubes and a large Waulff flask. The first and seventh tube contained 
concentrated sulphuric acid and pumice stone, the first caught any or- 
ganic matter issuing from the jar containing the tadpoles, the seventh 
caught organic and moist particles coming from the Waulff flask at 
times of a negative pressure, the remaining five tubes contained potas- 
sium hydrate slightly moistened . The difference in the weight of these 
tubes thoroughly dried and corked, before and after the aspiration is 
the weight (with one correction) of the CO 2 that escaped from the 
water. 

The estimation of the amount of CO 2 that remained behind in the 
water was made by the quantitative method devised by Pettenkorfer, 
(For description see Fresenius, Quant. Anal., Amer. Ed., p. 834.) 

^The water to be tested was siphoned from the jar into a 100 cc bu- 
rette and from thence into a bottle corked with ground glass. The 
CO 2 of the air in the room and of the water used was deducted from 
the sum of the "volumetric " and "gravimetric" portions. The air 
aspirated was corrected for temperature and pressure. The CO 2 in 
the room was determined by both the lounge and Regnault methods. 
The CO 2 of the tap water was determined by the Pettenkorfer method. 

2 Page : External temperature affecting the amount of CO 2, Jour, 
of Phys., Vol. II, p. 228, 1879-80. 

^ Body temperature of warm blooded animals is kept constant by 
all parts of the body being constantly oxidized, so that when the ex- 
ternal temperature is low much burning is needed to maintain the 
requisite temperature, and consequently much carbon produced ; also 
if the external temperature is above that of the body it hastens oxid- 
ation. That the relative amounts of CO 2 produced at any temper- 
ature below the optimum for coldblooded animals should bear a direct 
proportion to that temperature is evident, but why the amount should 
decrease above the optimum is not so clear. It is suggested that prob- 
ably the higher temperatures destroy or disorganize the normal 
physico-chemic life processes, since the heat rigor of tadpoles is 
reached at 34* — 35*^c. 

* Edward Smith shows that the quantity of CO 2 given off in man is 
inverse as the change of the temperature ; the vital changes lessening 
with increase of temperature. Food, p. 11. 



1 6 Ki,iNS : 

that there is a comparatively yJ^^</ rate of metabolism in opti- 
mum temperature for both species. 

The next question of importance is, what effect has maximum 



Chart II. 

Curves showing the relation of the production of CO 2 at different tem- 
peratures for dog and tadpole. 

165 

160 h— DOG 

155 [— TADPOLES 

150 
145 
140 
135 
130 
125 
120 



lio 

105 
100 
95 
90 
85 
80 

75 
70 



\ - / 



/ 



"5 h \ / 



\ y 



«h / 



/ 



y 



/ 



I ' I ' I ' I ' 'I I' 'I I' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

,0 jo 3O40 50 y> ^o go 9»io°ii<>i2«i3<'i4»i5»i6''l7''l8»l9°20°2l»22»23<'24»2S'>26''27«28»29'30''3l»i2»33»34°35<' 



metabolism on the tadpole, as a whole ? To secure experi- 
mental evidence on this point a group of ten tadpoles was sub- 
jected to their optimum for two months. A second group of 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 



17 



10 were kept in a temperature^ varying from 6°-8°c below 
their optimum the first month and 4°-7°c below the second. 
The results are given in table II, which show that the tadpoles 
enjoying their optimum increase more rapidly in both weight 
and length. ^ 

It appears then that optimum temperature, maximum met- 
abolism and most rapid growth are causally related ; another 

TABI.K II. 

Showing the rate of growth of ten tadpoles in their optimum tempera- 
ture, and of ten others in 4°c-8^c. below the optim,um,. 





In optimum. 


Below Optimum. 


Difference 
of Increase. 


Date. 


Wt. 


Gain. 


Ivcngth. 


Gain. 


Weight. 


Gain. 


I^ength. 


Gain. 


Wt. 


Ivcngth 


Nov. 28, 
1896. 

Dec. 26, 
1896. 

Jan. 26, 
1897. 


39 ^'''^• 
45 T 
50.2" 


6 Grs. 
5.2 " 


7.II cm. 

7.57 " 
7.88 '* 


.46 cm. 
.31cm. 


38.5 Grs. 
43 " 
47 " 


4.5 G. 

4 " 


6.81 cm. 
7.16 " 
7.41 '* 


•35^^- 
.25 " 


1.5 Grs 
12 " 


.11 cm. 
.06 ** 



inference is, that the optimum is chosen because that particular 
temperature is a factor in the organism's well-being, that it 
affords just that temperature stimulus necessary to set agoing 
the physico-chemical activities in harmony with that pitch or 
rhythm which natural selection has determined for that species. 
The same interpretation, in the absence of conflicting evidence, 
may be extended to all thermotactic organisms, i. e. , a positive 
thermotactic response is an effort of the organism, guided by 
the * * differences in the intensity of heat to which the two poles 

^ Two glass jars of same shape and size were used. They contained 
equal quantities of tap water into which was put same kind and as 
near as possible equal amounts of grasses and foods. The jar, in which 
it was desired to keep a known and constant temperature, was placed in 
a copper kettle containing on an average nine liters of water. The 
bottom of the glass jar barely touched the surface of the water. In 
this way the temperature of the water in the jar was maintained between 
2o*'c - 23°c. The temperature of the second jar varied with that of the 
room, which during the months through which the experiment ex- 
tended fluctuated between I2*i-i8**c. The experiment was extended 
through the months of February and March, but serious and frequent 
mishaps set in that rendered the results worthless. Although the ex- 
periment ran smoothly during the months reported, the force of the 
results is weakened by the short period of the experiment. 

2 Drs. Davenport and Castle report tadpoles as growing more rapidly 
under constant temperature of 24*^-25^, then those subjected to 150c. 
The results of my experiment had been described some time before 
their work came into my hands. 

JOURNAI,— 2 



1 8 KiviNE: 

of the body are subjected," to seek a temperature, in agree- 
ment with its physico-chemical constitution.^ 

Malling-Hansen's^ discoveries of the intimate relation be- 
tween temperature and growth of man are quite pertinent to 
our present problem. He demonstrates a rhythmic response 
of growth in both weight and height to the large and small 
portions of the sun's corona as they are successively presented 
to us by the sun's 27^ days' rotation. The greatest height 
of the growth curve is coincident with the time in which the 
larger sector is presented, as this recedes, thus lessening the out- 
put of solar heat toward us, the curve falls, but rises again, 
though not so high, when the small sector of the corona is 
turned on us. That is, there are two waves of the growth 
curve comprehended within about 27)^ day period, which 
waves are coincident with the earthward appearance of the large 
and small sectors of the corona. This is interpreted as a deli- 
cate cosmical adjustment of life to temperature. 

Enough has been said of only one of the cosmic factors to 
illustrate its delicate adjustment with life. But it is difficult to 
see, even though we were to consider every possible cosmic 
factor from the same point of view, how they have been effective 
in either bodily or psychic differentiation until we consider some 
of the inherent properties of protoplasm itself. 

How does it conduct itself along the narrow path marked 
out by cosmic forces? The laboratory attempts to answer the 
question, in part, by experimentation which aims to test the 
capacity of protoplasm for acclimatization.^ These experi- 
ments include acclimatization to^ chemical agents,^ to Mesicca- 
tion, ^temperature,' changes^ in food, etc. The general ver- 
dict is that protoplasm is automatic adjustable^ that it hiisbands^ 
and profits by its experience within its milieu. It appears that 
the teachableness and the ability to profit by it are among the 
chief distinguishing features of protoplasm. In fact the his- 
tory of morphology, of adaptation, of evolution itself is writ 



1 "It (protoplasm) is highly sensitive to changes in temperature 

migrating if possible so as to keep in the temperature to which 

it is already attuned." Davenport, Experimental Morphology, p. 263. 

2 Malling-Hansen : Perioden im Gewicht der Kinder und in der 
Sannenwarme, Copenhagen, 1896. 

3 Davenport, C. B. : lac. cit., pp. 27-32 ; 65 ; 85-88 ; and 249-58. 

* Sewall, Henry : Experiments on the Preventive Innoculation of 
Rattlesnake, Jour, of Physiol., Vol. VIII, pp. 203-210, 1887. 

^I/oew, O.: Ueber den Verschiendenen Resesturf grail im Proto- 
plasm Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Vol. XXXV, pp. 509-516, 1885. 

^lyance, M. Denis: Sur la reviviscence des Jardigre des comp. 
Rend., Vol. CXVIII, pj). 817-818, 1894. 

■^ Mendelssohn : too. cit. 

8 Semper: Animal Life, p. 133. 

9 Davenport, C. B. : too. cit., pp. 253-254. 



MIGRATORY IMPUIvSEJ. 1 9 

large with the effort of life to secure the completest adjustment 
possible both on the bodily and psychic sides. 

The delicate adjustment between life and cosmic forces, the 
continual effort of life to maintain this adjustment, on the 
one hand, and the rhythmical, periodical manifestation of the 
migrating instinct par excellence on the other, suggest the im- 
portance of considering the mode or nature of the interaction 
between life and external forces. 

Accordirfg to Fiske ^ and Spencer ^ all cosmic forces obey a 
rhythmical motion which is a corollary from the persistence of 
force. 

We may reasonably assume that the primitive megazobn 
found itself in this maze of cosmical rhythms. Heat, light, 
soimd, wind, electricity, etc., beat upon these primordial 
creatures in rhythmic waves. We may imagine that one of 
the first tasks of this life was to get in rapport with these innu- 
merable cosmic movements. 

In fact existence, survival itself, and the evolution of the 
organism were conditioned largely on a rhythmical adjustment 
to the inorganic forces of creation. " Those ^ spontaneous 
compounds whose internal rhythms chance to accord with the 
external rhythm enjoy the greater probability of survival and 
thus rhythmic interaction between the internal and the exter- 
nal may be developed through the exclusion of the non- 
rhythmic, elimination of the ill- rhythmic and the preservation 
of the duly rhythmic." What is this adjustment but a con- 
tinual effort of life functions to operate in unison with cosmic 
rhythms. Accordingly we find rhythms prevailing through 
all life processes both physiological and psychical. 

The elaboration and assimilation of food into the body tissue 
in excess of waste and repair is rhythmical, that is to say,* 
growth obeys this law. The ^ menstrual life is associated with 
a well-marked wave of vital energy which manifests itself in 
the temperature of the body, in the pulse rate, etc., etc. 
These several phenomena have a striking coincidence to both 
the lunar period and sun's rotation. The ^ pulse shows an 
annual rhythm maximum in winter and minimum in summer. 
The daily bodily^ temperature is higher in the evening than 
that of the morning. The return of zymotic diseases in some 
countries show a remarkable regularity and appear to stand in 

1 Fiske, John : Outline of Cosmic Philosophy, Vol. I, pp. 297-313. 

2 Spencer, H. : First Principles, pp. 256-257. 

^ McGee, W. J. : Karth the Home of Man, p. 5. 

"* Mailing — Hansen : loc. cit. 

^Stephenson, Wm. : Am. Jour. Obstet,, Vol. XV, 1882, pp. 283-294. 

« Coste F. H. Perry: Nature, Vol. XLIV, 1881, p. 35. 

"^ Bucknill and Tuke : Psychological Medicine, 4th Kd., p. 317. 



20 KI,INE : 

causal connection with certain climatic elements. In India, ^ 
for example, the fluctuations of the death rate by fever coin- 
cide with the variations in the range of temperature. 

That these innumerable cosmical and physiological rhythms 
have greatly influenced the soul and have stamped upon it 
highly colored rhythmical activities are evidenced in every 
period and condition of human history, in every field of human 
thought and feeling.^ It is manifested among primitive 
peoples by the readiness and completeness with which they 
surrender themselves to music and dancing, by their strict 
observance of annual festivals and celebrations. 

The early mind was impressed by this universal principle. 
Their gods and demons did things rhythmically. They visited 
the earth, made war and peace, and discharged their hercu- 
lean tasks for the most part with strict periodicity. ^ 

Spencer has pointed out that philosophic thought obeys this 
principle. Now Platonic idealism is all-pervading, now the 
materalism of a Hobbes, then the ebb of Hegelian idealism 
gives way to the flow of materalism of the third quarter of this 
century. 

Further, our volitional nature pulsates rhythmically. Mar- 
riages '* in every country show a more or less periodicity. 
The time of the year for marrying in different countries is 
somewhat influenced by custom, religious beliefs, harvest^ 
time and the return of spring. 

^ Lefl&ngwell raises the question concerning the influence of 
spring upon the ratio of legitimate to illegitimate births. 
* ' Among human beings is there yet remaining any trace of 
that instinct which leads birds to mate when winter goes, and 
which in earlier periods of man's development was perhaps 
as strong as with other animals?" *' If it exists should we 
find any difference in and out of the marriage relation ?' ' The 
birth rate of ^France, Norway, Sweden, Holland and Italy 

1 Hill, A. S. : Nature, Vol. XXXVIII, 1888, p. 245. 

2 The psychological aspect of the subject is treated indirectly in 
every modern exposition of sound, retinal revelry, fatigue and atten- 
tion. Bolton has treated the subject directly and especially as it is 
manifested in music, verse and poetry. Am. Jour. Psy., Vol. VI, pp. 

145-238- 

^ Kelly, W. K. : Indo-European Traditions and Folk-Ivore. 

* Farr, Dr. William : Vital Statistics, p. 76, London, 1885. 

5 Hill, A. S. : Nature, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 245, 1888. 

® I/effingwell : Influence of Seasons upon Conduct, p. 115. 

' Observations tend to show that the largest number of conceptions 
in Sweden fall in June ; in Holland and France, in May-June ; in 
Spain, Austria and Italy, in May ; in Greece, in April. That is, the 
farther south the earlier the spring and the earlier the conceptions — 
Mayo-Smith, Statistics and Sociology, 1895. In Massachusetts the 
largest number of marriages is shifting from late fall and the New 
Year, which prevailed down to 1870, to April and June — Mass. State 
Board of Health, 1896, p. 731. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 21 

show that the ratio of illegitimate births between the spring — 
summer months and the fall — winter months is greater than 
the ratio of the legitimate births covering the same period. 
The ratio of the totals for the countries just named for legiti- 
mate births between spring — summer months and fall — winter 
months is 24 : 23 and for illegitimate births for the same 
periods the ratio is 26 : 22 — pointing to a permanent seasonal 
influence on the reproductive functions and to the genial effect 
of spring upon the procreative functions. More striking, 
however, is the evidence of periodicity in the tendency to those 
relationships which occasion illegitimate births. Under like 
conditions the excess of the seasonal ratio of illegitimate births 
over that of the legitimate is a direct expression of the remnant 
of that passion implanted in man when pairing in spring time 
was almost universal. The strength of the reverberation of 
this passion is inversely to the respect for the prevailing cus- 
toms, religion and law. 

The relation between spring and certain bodily and mental 
conditions finds emphasis in a large group of phenomena 
arising from spring fever and ennui. The following are typi- 
cal cases of one hundred and twenty received on that subject. 
(See Syllabus, Rubric XII.) 

1. M., 20. Whenever I am afflicted with what I have always called 
spring fever I feel sleepy and tired and have no ambition to study. 

2. F., 19. Feel sleepy, languid, no ambition; strength seems to 
have left me, and every duty seems a great trouble. 

3. F., 17. I have no power of concentration, feel that I must be out 
of doors all the time, am drowsy and ache all over. lyike to sleep — 
can eat only certain things. 

4. M., 25. Was physically weak, or rather inert, so that I could 
hardly drag one foot after the other and the queerest longings beset 
me — now for a gust of wind to fan my face, now for an apple (would 
have given almost anything for an apple once), and then I wished in- 
tensely for a swift ride. This fever of queer, delicious lassitude and 
longing lasted nearly three weeks and during that time I was of 
practically no use on the farm. 

5. F,, 16. Felt as though all energy had fled, and that I was such 
a weak mortal — not fit for this life which needs so much energy and 
brightness. 

6. F., 18. Wanted to sleep, or meditate, or dream the time away. 
It seemed too much trouble to think, to speak or to act. Some very 
romantic or thrilling storv interested me somewhat, but I soon wearied 
of it. 

7. F., 19. I wanted to lounge around in the open air — never want 
any one to bother me. 

8. F., 17. I feel tired of everything, and that I cannot drag out 
another day — things are weary, stale, flat and unprofitable. 

9. F., 18 Could I only break away and go somewhere by myself 
where the sun is bright and warm and where I can hear birds singing, 
find a nice comfortable position and spend my time in day-dreaming, 
I should be perfectly happy. 

10. F., 17. Felt as though there was absolutely no life in me and 



22 KLINE : 

that I should go wild if I did not get away from everybody and be 
alone in the wood or on the water in a quiet bay. 

11. F., 22. Lose interest in my work, study is a burden. The feel- 
ing is impossible to describe. It is a longing for something, I know not 
what. Often I have sat quietly and tried to analyze it but cannot. 

12. F,, 19. I feel dull, drowsy, can't hurry, prefer to drag along as I 
please. Sometimes I like to walk slowly along some shady path or 
sit down under a shady tree and dream my life away. I have had a 
desire to be married and have a home of my own. I think I have 
planned where it shall be and how furnished, a dozen times. Perhaps 
it is very foolish ; but I do it very often. 

13. M., 30. This spring a strong wave of sentiment came over me to 
see an old chum and sweetheart. I could hardly restrain myself 
from setting out instantly to see her which would have been a long 
journey. 

14. F., 20. Spring fever affects me most about June or when 
school closes. Then I have a great longing to skip two years. This 
longing is connected with love. I expect to have a house of my own 
at that time, and O ! how anxious I am to see that time. It is hard for 
me to work patiently. I like my studies because they take my mind 
away from thinking too much about this much desired thing. 

15. M., 26. I feel most these impulses as often as once a month, at 
least. And when school is over the tendency is irresistible. I 
always rush off somewhere. I feel every year as though so much of 
student life was becoming unendurable. I must get out and do some- 
thing. I often feel so in regard to love. It is the Lord of promise. 
I feel oftentimes as if I had waited long enough, and I must fall in 
love with and marry somebody. 

16. M., — . Physician says : " In my youth I had frequent attacks 
of ennui, and sometimes desired to break away from home and see the 
great world, but since blessed by a good wife and daughter and a 
pleasant home, together with more philosophic views of life which 
came with age, such feelings have gradually faded away." 

Longing in the distance, desire for widfer liberties and space, 
hunger, are often strongest at this period. (100 cases of this 
group.) 

17. F., 38. From the age of 20 to 30 I felt spring fever strongly, 
longed to see strange sights in other countries, felt myself hemmed 
in and stifled. 

18. F., 19. I have often felt during the spring months as if I 
would like to find employment among strangers — never desired to go 
any great distance away from home. 

19. M., 22. I longed to be out of doors, and to sit under the trees 
alone and meditate. 

20. F., 19. The feeling of longing in the distance comes over me 
at this time. I try to think what it is, but I cannot. There seems to 
be something. I have often thought how I would like to have a 
family, how I would enjoy taking care of the children. 

These cases interest us only so far as they contribute evi- 
dence to the proposition that there are still left remnants of 
instinct feelings interwoven and combined with the repro- 
ductive functions that stand in causal relation with the cosmic 
forces of spring time. To summarize the general and salient 
characteristics : the majority report a tired, languid, worn-out 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 23 

feeling ; a feeling of lassitude ; a restless, trembly nervous 
feeling ; a dull, drowsy, hesitating condition. Many complain 
of headache, no life or energy left, felt as though the blood had 
ceased to circulate. The air of the room feels poisonous, 
stifling and suffocating. They long for fresh air, to get out 
under the wide sky, to lounge and sleep, to lie on the grass 
and have bugs and beetles crawl over them, to be let alone, to 
sit down quietly and read, to sit under a shady tree and be 
read to, to dream, to meditate, to walk slowly in shady paths, 
to sit quietly in a boat in some secluded bay. Some become 
quite anti-social and want to be let alone. They wish to for- 
get work and duty. It is hard to think, to concentrate, to 
direct the attention. Work is distasteful and unsatisfactory. 
They lose interest and ambition in the work of the moment, 
and desire a change. 

Others wish to begin life anew, to enter upon some great and 
uplifting work, to be a good Samaritan, to be independent, to 
make a success of things, to cross swords with the world. 
Many state that they experience passions of love, desire to be 
married, day-dream over their future home, how it shall be 
built, how furnished, and how they will delight to care for the 
children. 

These passions, dreams and fancies do not always pass away 
as such, but according to statistics already quoted express 
themselves by increasing the number of marriages and concep- 
tions during the vernal season. Could it be that lassitude, 
restlessness, the inability to think, to concentrate the atten- 
tion, so frequently mentioned, are due to the shifting of the 
main bulk of the metabolic processes from the vegetative to the 
reproductive functions. The fact that thought processes — es- 
pecially attention — are associated with increase blood supply- 
to the brain, lends color to the view, that when thought is 
difficult — in the absence of fatigue and other ordinary causes — 
an increased blood supply is attracted to the reproductive 
organs. 

A very interesting and instructive correlation exists between 
the age of the individual and the season of the year in which 
running away from home occurs. (See Chart III.) From 
one to eight by far the majority leave during the summer. At 
four, spring takes the lead of autumn and winter, and con- 
tinues to increase until the seventeenth. The summer curve 
begins at eight, to fall gradually until at ten, where it follows 
closely the autumn and winter curves to the sixteenth year, join- 
ing the spring curve at seventeen. The feeble and even height 
throughout all ages is noteworthy in the winter curve. The 
same description applies to the autumn curve, save that it is 
higher at the majority of ages, especially at nine and ten. 



24 KI.INE : 

where it even rises above the summer curve. These two 
curves regarded separately contain but little interest, merely 
showing that all ages behave about alike at these seasons ; but 
when compared with spring and summer they indicate that 
man, like the rest of organic life, hovers about his hibernating 
quarters. The spring curve, though interesting even alone, 
derives additional import by comparison with those of the 
other seasons. From one to seven the number leaving in spring 
are about equal to those of autumn and winter. At eight the 
curve makes a considerable rise, leaving the winter and autumn 
curves far below. Doubtless the phenomenal rise at this age 
is associated with the child's love of nature and the varied out- 
door activities paramount at this period of childhood. The 
spring runaway is a reaction against the prison life of winter, 
together with a strong tendency to revel in the out-door 
charms of spring. Chart IV shows that the nature curve 
attains its greatest height from eight to eleven, inclusive. A 
second and larger rise occurs in the fourteenth year, which 
continues through three successive years, falling slightly in 
the fifteenth year. 

Now from one to twelve years or thereabouts, the child is 
neuter respecting much that belongs to both primary and sec- 
ondary sexual differentiation. Up to this time he is a vegetative 
animal, his activities being determined by atavistic tendencies 
and by forces that affect the vegetative functions. At about 
the thirteenth year, however, the physiological^ changes and 
peculiar psychosis that take place as a result of the functional 
development of the reproductive organs expose the organism to 
a new play of forces that eventually topple the unsettled phys- 
iological and psychical elements over into a field of periodic 
activities recognized as sexual, or as irradiations of these func- 
tions. 

Considering the data as a whole, that furnished by mar- 
riages, spring fever psychosis, and that of the runaways, we 
are j ustified in the inference that both youth and manhood up 
to thirty odd years, are more susceptible to the feelings of sex 
and its irradiations at that season of the year when the " will 
to live ' ' is making a universal effort. 

Thus far I have tried to develop three general notions : (i) 
the delicate and vital relation that exists between life and cos- 
mic forces 1(2) that the first and most fundamental effort of 

1 For literature on these changes see Ranke : Grundziige der Phys- 
iologie, 1881. Das Volum des Herzens und die Weite der grossen 
Arterien-Pubertatsentwickelung des Herzens S 490-94 ; Lancaster : 
Ped. Sent., Vol. V, No. i. The Psychology and Pedagogy of Adoles- 
cence. Donaldson: Growth of the Brain, also Clouston : Neuroses of 
Development. 



26 KLINE : 

life is to keep in rapport, in attune with cosmic and, I should 
add, social forces ; (3) that as a result of the first two condi- 
tions life processes, both psychical and physical, have be- 
come rhythmical ; and that the higher the organism the 
more complex the rhythmical adjustment, e. g., the savage 
must keep in unison with his tribe. He must hunt, dance, 
fight and celebrate victories with his fellows. The life of the 
modern man is a web of rhythms ; he must not only respond 
with the rest of creation to cosmic rhythms, but also to the 
manifold periodicities of civilized life. He must keep in 
unison with the movements of his trade, with the pul- 
sations of his profession and his society. He must keep 
step with the fads and whims of his club or drop out. 

The thesis maintained here is, that migration is one method 
adopted by an organism to maintain its psycho-physiological 
activities in attune or rhythm with those of the organic and in- 
organic world. 

It has become a universal mode by which organisms restore 
and maintain the factors essential to their well-being, be it for 
light, heat, pressure, food, relation to society, position in 
trades, profession or what not. It is the mode employed by 
nomadic^ societies'^ to make good the exhaustion and failure of 
the food supply, by the peasant who comes to America, thereby 
relieving the pressure of oriental social conditions. The pil- 
grimages to Rome, Jerusalem and Mecca, are efforts to main- 
tain a more complete adjustment to certain complex religio- 
sociological customs and rites. 

The children's Crusade* at the beginning of the 13th cen- 
tury is perhaps an illustration of the greatest attempt of a 
body of human beings to regain peace and well-being to the 
body and soul by migrating. "^ Coxey and his army, as others 
have done elsewhere, embraced the principle to relieve their 
social and economic strains and stresses. The planomaniac 
breaks the monotony of the home by daily gadding the street. 

1 Spencer, Herbert : Synthenic Philosophy; Chapter on Rhythm. 

2McGee, W. J.: Amer. Anthro., Vol. VIII, No. 4, 1895. 

8 The history of that period records that war and turmoil were every- 
where supreme. Desolation and poverty covered vast districts ; star- 
vation entered many homes. Society was disorganized, law and 
religion a mockery. No time for reading or study, — the densest 
ignorance settled over the land. In the midst of all this St. Bernard 
came preaching the failure of the preceding crusades, due to the sinful- 
ness and wanton folly of the pilgrims and soldiers. The Holy Sepul- 
chre must be reclaimed by innocent hands. Who were such ? The 
children of the land : accordingly 20,000 German boys and girls, 10 to 
16 years of age, and 30,000 from France at once took up the cause 
which so soon ended in every form of misery. 

-^Gray, Geo. Z.: The Children's Crusade or an Episode of the 13th 
Century. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 27 

The well-to-do-citizen, and globe-trotter yielding to the popu- 
lar fashion joins the annual summer wave of European tourists. 
The American student to hold his place at the crest of his pro- 
fession feels it necessary to join the semi-pilgrimage to Euro- 
pean universities. 

SECTION A. 

Migration of Animals. 

Wiid Animals. 

This section embodies in a brief form the observations and 
theories of naturalists on migrations among lower animals. 

Crustaceans. "The adult lobster^ never moves up and 
down the coast like the migratory fishes, but is of a far more 
sedentary disposition." In the spring months of April and 
May, however, large numbers appear to move from deep water 
toward the shore. In the fall they retire to deeper water again. 
This is proven from the fact that they are caught in from three 
to ten fathoms of water from May until November ; for the 
rest of the year fishing is conducted in thirty-five to forty 
fathoms. If the spring is late and the water cold the lobster 
keeps away from the shore. The land crabs of the West 
Indies^ are generally found in great numbers in holes and 
cavities among the mountains ; but every spring they descend 
in immense bodies to the coast, .... pursuing so 
direct a line to the place of their destination that scarcely any- 
thing will divert their course. ^ * ' When they have efiected 
the purpose for which they undertook their journey, they 
slowly return, weak and exhausted ; and not long after, mil- 
lions of the little crabs, which have been hatched on the shore 
may be seen making their way up to the mountains. ' ' 

Insects. The predatory onslaught of the locusts has been 
witnessed over all temperate and tropical regions and has quite 
a place in history. We read in Exodus : * ' And the locusts 
went up over all the land of Egypt and rested on all the coasts 

of Egypt : very grievous were they For they 

covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was 
darkened ; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all 
the fruit of the trees .... and there remained not an}^ 
green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through 
all the land of Egypt. ' ' Similar descriptions are found in Pliny, 
Cauch,* Figuier,^ Swainson,^ Wallace' and others of this ruth- 

1 Herrick : The American Lobster, p. 20, Washington, D. C, 1895. 
^Heilprin : Distribution of Animals, p. 41. 
^Swainson : Habit and Instinct, p. 263. 
^ Cauch : Illustrations of Instinct, p. 151. 
^Figuier: The Insect World, p. 302. 
^ Swainson : loc. cit. 

^ Wallace, A. R. : Geographical Distribution of Animals, Vol. I, p. 
32, 1876. 



28 KLINE : 

less reaper of all kinds of foliage whatever. Such expressions 
as the following are used in attempting to express their num- 
bers : ' * Such was its density that when they flew low one 
person could not see another at the distance of twenty paces. ' ' 
** It totally intercepted the solar light." " Like a shower of 
snow, when the flakes are carried obliquely by the wind." 
Mr. Barrow describes a migration of locusts of Southern Africa 
in 1797. They literally covered an area of nearly 2,000 square 
miles. When driven into the sea by a northwest wind they 
formed upon the shore for fifty miles, a bank three or four feet 
high ; and when the wind was southeast, the stench was so 
powerful as to be smelt at the distance of 15 miles. Their 
movements are always with the wind, sometimes preceding a 
strong wind. The same is true of the well known dragon-fly 
"storms" of South America. Their migrations, like many 
other insects, never occur at stated times and seasons as those 
of higher animals, but depend on various concurrent causes ; 
as the humidity of the preceding season, the intensity and 
direction of the wind, barometric pressure and food supply. 
^ Hudson says : ' ' The cause of the flight is probably dynam- 
ical, affecting the insects with a sudden panic and compelling 
them to rush away before the approaching tempest. The 
mystery is that they should fly from the wind before it reaches 
them, and yet travel in the same direction with it." I venture 
to suggest that their sudden appearance from five to fifteen 
minutes before the wind storm is due to the well known barom- 
etric ^ rise preceding wind and thunder storms. 

^ On the other hand the migrations of several species of but- 
terflies and the nuptial flights of ants obey seasonal and 
climatic influences. Butterflies (notably the painted lady) fly 
in huge numbers in France, England, Italy, Switzerland and 

1 Hudson, W. H. : The Naturalist in La Plata, pp. 130-134. 

2 Davis, W. M. : Elementary Meteorology, 1894, p. 250. 

^ Cauch cites several instances of sultry, moist, warm weather inter- 
rupted occasionally with showers and thunder storms which were also 
periods of wave movements of the dragon-fly. **As to the great 
multiplication of these insects about the end of May in the present 
year, it is by no means mysterious. From the beginning of that 
month to the 21st, the weather had been exceedingly rainy ; rivers 
and lakes overflowed and spread their inundations over immense 
areas of low grounds, whereby myriads of the pupae of the Libellulae, 
which under other circumstances, would have remained in deep water 
and become the prey of their many enemies, were brought into shal- 
low water ; and the hot weather from May 21st to May 29th converted 
those shallows into true hot beds. Numerous thunderstorms (at 
Weimer there were four) during that week must have greatly encour- 
aged their rapid development into perfect insects ; and so those 
clouds of winged insects rose almost at once from the temporary 
swamps and were immediately obliged to m,igrate in order to satisfy 
their appetite as these species are very voracious.''' 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SK. 29 

Brazil. In the European countries their flight is from south 
to north during the spring and summer months. In Brazil 
their movements are from north to south, or from northwest 
to southeast. They are usually from the dry arid districts of 
the interior towarci the verdant forests of the sea coast during 
May — June. ' ' We could mention many facts tending to favor 
the opinion that all these butterfly migrations are made toward 
these verdant tracts, for the purpose of breeding or rather 
of depositing their eggs. ' ' Huber has associated special cli- 
matic conditions with the nuptial flights of insects. * * Let ^ us 
retire to a meadow on a fine summer's day at a time when they 
first make use of their wings. " " Ants^ are now and then 
induced to change their residence. Should it be too much in 
the shade, too humid, too exposed to the attacks of passen- 
gers, or too contiguous to an enemy's quarters .... 
they leave it to lay the foundations of another. This I have 
denominated migration. " " During these flights impregnation 
occurs, and their wings are shed after alighting. ' ' 

Fish. Their migrations are variously classified : in time ; 
they are either regular, i. e., seasonal, or irregular, many species 
of the anadromous fishes furnish examples of seasonal migra- 
tion, long and irregular absences of the bluefish and chub 
mackerel from our shores represent the latter : In direction, 
it may be said that they migrate roughly in three planes : (i) 
a horizontal plane extending toward or from the equator — such 
movements are largely controlled by temperative conditions ; 
(2) a plane at right angles to the first, to or from the shores, 
caused by the fish seeking a stratum of water of an agreeable 
temperature, and also by the stimulus of the spawning season. 
Ichthyologists are now of the opinion that movements in this 
plane constitute the great majority of their migrations ; (3) 
a vertical plane to which Goode ^ has given the name ' ' bathic 
migrations. ' ' Such movements are controlled by temperature, 
winds, currents and light. It is generally thought that the 
causes of these several movements are due to changes in tem- 
perature, a desire for suitable places for spawning and to 
search for food. Winds, currents, light and density of the 
water are also regarded as minor factors. 

The most potent of these factors, however, is temperature. 
I shall enumerate only a few of the best confirmed observations. 

Temperature. The optimum temperature for the menhaden 
is 6o°-7o° Fahrenheit, that of the herring is 45°-55° Fahren- 
heit. The former is a warm, the latter a cold-water species. 

1 Huber : Ants, p. 96. 

^Cauch: loc. cit., pp. 148-152. 

8 Goode, G. Brown: U. S. Report, Fish and Fisheries, p. 51, 1877. 



30 KI.INE : 

Accordingly,^ when the menhaden desert the Gulf of Maine 
they are replaced by the herring. Cold weather drives the 
menhaden to the warm strata (bathic migrations), while it 
brings the herring to the surface. The relation between the 
distribution of herring and the degree of heat in the water 
has an important bearing upon the herring fisheries ; '* since, ^ 
when the heat of the surface water is above 55 °F. herring are 
seldom seen ; as this decreases they make their appearance. 
This is so well established that now the herring fishery on the 
coast of Scotland is largely regulated by the temperature ob- 
served, and when it is decidedly above 55° the herring are not 
looked for. ' ' The^ extent of the catch of anchovies along the 
shores of Scotland during the fishing season is (at least largely) 
dependent on the temperature of the water during* the mid- 
summer months of the preceding year. 

Search for Food. Baird observes that oceanic currents have 
a more or less influence upon the distribution of fishes. This, 
however, depends more upon their pursuit of the less inde- 
pendent algae, jelly-fish, crustaceans, ascidians, etc., that float 
hither and thither with the currents. Prof. Mobius (quoted 
by Beard) , in investigating the food of the herring in the Ger- 
man seas finds that the abundance of herring in any one season 
is in strict proportion to that of the shrimp. A direct and 
combined effect of food and temperature upon fish movements 
is found in San Francisco Bay. This bay receives the waters 
of two very large rivers, which bring down constantl)^ a large 
amount of minute animal and vegetable life, much of which finds 
a congenial home in the bay, thus furnishing a large and varied 
quantity of food for its fish life. The temperature of the bay 
is almost constant, varying only a few degrees at any season of 
the year. The constancy of these two most important factors 
(food and temperature) throughout the year ought to reduce 
migrations to a minimum. Observations confirm this supposi- 
tion.'* The ofl&cial report reads: "That the conditions are 
extremely favorable to the support of aquatic life is demon- 
strated in the rapid increase and permanent residence (italics 
mine) of the several fine food-fishes introduced from the At- 
lantic coast by the government. Some of the fishes thus 
acclimatized are naturally anadromous, but in San Francisco 
Bay, contrary to their usual migratory habits, they do not 
appear to have any desire to spend much, if any, of their ex- 

1 Goode, G. Brown : U. S, Fish Com. Report, p. 72, 1877. 

2 Baird, Spencer F.: U. S. Fish Com. Report, p. 55, 1886. 
^Bottemanne, C. J.: p. 340, Vol. I, Jour. Marine Biolog. Ass'n. 

* Wilcox, W. A.: Fisheries of the Pacific Coast, U. S. Fish Com. Re- 
port, 1893. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 3 1 

istence in the ocean." Another^ example of the sufEciencj^ of 
food and limited range of temperature checking the wandering 
of fish is furnished by the menhaden that may be found at all 
seasons of the year along the coasts of Ga. and S. C. Only a 
partial migration occurs in mid- winter, which is now believed 
to extend only a short distance seaward. 

IVznd, Light, etc. Herr von Freedon (quoted by Goode) 
finds that warm winds and clear skies of the North German 
seas are coincident with large catches, and vice versa} "A 
bright sunny day," says Baird, "will frequently call up forms 
that are never seen at any other time, while others, again, only 
approach the surface on cloud}^ days, or even in the night, ex- 
clusivel3^" Experts testify that along the shores of Scotland 
thunder storms of some magnitude and extent affect seriously 
the quantity of the catch on the following day. If any are 
caught, it is at extreme depths. 

Movements Affected by Enemies. Salmon are known to en- 
tirely abandon a particular section of sea coast by the onslaughts 
of the white whales and porpoises. In^ the fall of '94, owing to 
the vast numbers of bluefish and squeteague (deadly enemies 
of the menhaden) in the vicinity of Montauk Point, large 
schools of menhaden were detained in Gardiner and Neapeague 
bays weeks beyond their usual time of departure, and were un- 
able to reach the ocean until their enemies had left. About 
October 21st the bluefish disappeared, and the departure of the 
menhaden rapidly ensued. In fact, so great is the fear of the 
menhaden for the bluefish — a veritable corsair — that the for- 
mer are known to reverse the course of their annual migra- 
tions for several weeks should the latter appear in their front. 

Reproductive Instinct. The movements associated with the 
reproductive period give the clearest evidence of a migrating 
instinct. Moving from an uncomfortable to a comfortable tem- 
perature, seeking light of proper intensity, pursuing and cap- 
turing prey are activities of the more simple, reflex type — a 
reaction to a simple stimulus. True, migrating movements are 
in obedience to stimulus, but a stimulus of a very complex sort, 
it \s periodic 2cti& persistent leading to the execution of large and 
definite tasks, impelling* the species to a particular spot at a 
fixed time. They are peformances larger than individual ex- 

lU. S. Fish Com. Report, p. 40, 1877. 

2Baird, S. F.: loc. cit., p. 57, 1886. 

8 Smith, H. M.: Bulletin of U. S. Com., 1895, p. 299. 

*The long journeys of catadromous fish give unmistakable evi- 
dence of an inherited activity ("primary automatic" by some 
authors, "congenital" by others). "This species of fish, represented 
by the eel, are born in the sea, ascend the rivers and reach their 
maturity in two to four years, and then, when mature, descend to the 
ocean to spawn, and possibly never leave it again." 



32 KLINE : 

perience, and too clear-cut and purposive to be ascribed to im- 
mediate sense experience. As sexual maturity approaches 
the stimulus, which has its origin in the developing repro- 
ductive organs, urges it to leave the ocean and, entering 
the mouth of a river, to journey upward, often thousands of 
miles, to its source in the mountains. Classical examples of 
this sort are the seasonal migrations of the^ salmon,^ tunny ^ 
herring,^ shad and sturgeon up rivers or into quiet estuaries 
for the purpose of spawning. 

Birds. The mystery^ and superstition that has hovered 
about bird movements are dissolving before sober and careful 
observation. The problem is by no means solved, but it has been 
brought from the region of folk-lore^ and the mere * ' wonder ' 
stage ' ' and given a seat alongside other unsolved problems as 
anger, hunger, fear, etc. True, the progress for the past 
twenty years has been so feeble and unsatisfactory that some 
scientists^ discourage theoretical speculations on the subject, 
regarding them not only useless, but a positive injury to real 
observations of nature. Despite these backward conditions 
two groups of theories are set forth. To the first group I have 
applied for the want of a better term kinetogenetic, and to the 
second group physiogenetic ; meaning by the former such 
theories as make food, geological, and the several climatologi- 
cal elements the effective causes in originating the instinct, by 
the second, the periodic physico-chemical processes that are 
coincident with the reproductive and moulting seasons. 

Kinetogenetic. Faber (quoted by Homeyer) says : ' ' That 
nature divided every individual into two irresistible impulses ; 
the wandering impulse (wafiderungstrieb) , and the homesick 
impulse (heimwehtrieb)." The bird shows the former when 
it leaves the place of its nativity and repairs to a region usually 

1 Romanes : Animal Intelligence, p. 294. 

2 " At this time the king of fishes (salmon) is in physical perfection, 
with few rivals in beauty or strength or fierce energy or indomitable 
courage and perseverance ; but its strength, is soon fully taxed in sur- 
mounting the obstacles and in fighting the rivals which oppose its 
progress, until at last, worn and thin, torn and mangled by battle, 
and battered by rocks ? and whirlpools ? (question marks mine) with 
its skin in rags, its fins crippled and bleeding, .... nothing 
of its kingly nature remains except the indomitable impulse, which 
no hardships can quench, still urging it upward, until, if any life 
is left, it at last reaches the breeding-ground." W. K. Brooks, 
Pop. Sci. Month, Vol. IvII, 1898, pp. 784-85. (Prof. Brooks's article 
appeared after this section had been written.) 

^Swainson: loc. cit., p. 263. 

* Wallace, A. R.: Geographical Distribution of Animals, p. 19, 1876. 

^ Newton : Birds, Ency. Britannica. 

^Wallace, A. R.: loc. cit., p. 21. 

7 Brooks, W. K.: loc. cit., p. 786. 

8 Homeyer, B. P.: Die Wanderungen Der Vogel, Leipzig, 1881. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 33 

characterized by new foods and climatic elements, the latter by 
its return after a season to its birthplace. 

Darwin's theory is that the ancestors of migratory animals 
were annually driven by cold or want of food, to travel slowly 
southwards, .... and that this compulsory travelling 
would become an instinctive passion. 

Palmen^ undertook in 1876 to verify Darwin's theory from 
the study of geological history. He worked out in detail nine 
great routes traversed by birds in their passage from Greenland 
and northern Eurasia to Africa, southern Asia and the East 
Indies. A glance at the routes shows that the presence of 
water in the past and present in the form of rivers, lakes, seas 
and ocean is the major factor in determining the bends in the 
course of their flight. These routes pertain to bog and water birds. 
They are quite circuitous, e. <r, , the most direct route for the 
crane living on the shores of the Baltic, to its winter home in 
northern Africa, is across the Alps and along the east shore of 
Italy. Its actual route is up the Rhine to near its source, and 
down the Rhone to the sea, and then along the west shore of 
Italy and Sicily across to Africa. The most direct route for 
the wagtail from Greenland to a warmer climate is along the 
eastern coast of North America, instead of this it strikes boldly 
out to the S. E., across the Atlantic toward the shores of Nor- 
way and the British Isles. Ornithologists are agreed that most 
of our eastern birds come to us through Mexico, and in return- 
ing to their winter homes in Central America, they travel 
through Texas and Mexico, and are unknown in Florida and 
the West Indies.^ Others have come to us through Florida, 
and in returning to their winter quarters do not pass through 
either Texas or Mexico. This is best illustrated by the bobo- 
link, an eastern bird, which breeding from New Jersey north- 
ward to Nova Scotia, has spread westward until it has reached 
Utah and northern Montana. But, and here is the interest- 
ing point, these birds of the far west do not follow their neigh- 
bors and migrate southward through the Great Basin into 
Mexico, but .... retrace their steps [and leave the 
United States by the roundabout way of Florida, crossing 
thence to Cuba, Jamaica and Yucatan, and wintering south of 
the Amazon. ' ' While in some cases the relation of the route 
to the conditions for procuring food is clearly evident, in 
species like the wagtail, eiderduck and bobolink, no such rela- 
tion exist at present. This fact brings to the front the per- 
manency of the routes, and fully justifies the inference that 
not only the impulse to migrate, but also the direction, is an 
inherited tendency. 

iPalm^n, J. A.: Die Zugstrassen der Vogel, I^eipzig, 1876. 
2 Chapman, F. M.: Bird Ivife, Appleton, 1898. 
JOURNAI, — 3 



34 KI.INE : 

The bobolink of Utah did not learn their route in one genera- 
tion ; they, in all probability, inherit the experience of countless 
generations, slowly acquired as the species extended its range 
westward. But how shall we account for the eiderduck,the wag- 
tail and puffin, wholly disregarding land forms in a portion of 
their route, and faithfully following them in others. Weis- 
mann, Darwin, Palmen and others, believe that these routes 
are older than the present topographical conditions, that what 
is now sea^ was land in a past geological age, furnishing way 
stations of food just as the littoral and fluvial routes do at the 
present time. 

The study of route migration emphasizes two things, ( i ) that 
the migrating impulse is, at least, partly inherited. (2) That 
its antiquity dates back to former geological periods. It has 
also directed the attention of the movements of single species, 
and given hints on the relation of bird movements to food, but 
it does not account for the origin of the vast movements. 
Allen, ^ Spencer,^ Darwin* and others say in substance, that the 
instinct grew out of a series of freezings and thawings of the 
glacial epochs, that bird life must have been crowded south- 
ward, and the struggle for life thereby greatly intensified. The 
less yielding forms may have become extinct ; those less sensi- 
tive to climatic changes would seek to extend their range by a 
slight removal northward during the middle intervals of sum- 
mer, only, however, to be forced back again by the recurrence 
of winter. These incipient migrations must have been grad- 
ually extended and strengthened as the cold wave receded, and 
opened up a wider area within which existence in summer be- 
came possible. What was at first a forced migration would 
become habitual, and through the heredit}^ of habit give rise to 

1 This may be illustrated by the route taken by the crane and eider- 
duck from the mouth of the river Rhone to the shores of Africa. In- 
stead of striking directly across the sea from the Rhone, they pass 
along the west coast of Italy, via Sicily, and from thence to Africa. 
It is pretty well established that the Mediterranean Sea was divided 
into two halves by an isthmus between Sicily and Africa, which birds 
followed in their migration north and south. This strip of land began 
to sink gradually, the flat places becoming bogs, and later so many 
little straits, the higher places would form a chain of islands, Sicily 
being the last surviving link in the chain. These bogs and islands in- 
stead of inducing the birds to change their course would, if anything, 
rather tend to strengthen their preference for it on account of the 
variety and quantity of food furnished by such land forms. So that 
by the time of a complete submergence the inherited tendency for 
this particular route would have become so strong that it impelled 
them to cross this vast sheet of water. 

2 Allen, A. J.: Scribner's Month., Vol. XXII, pp. 932-938, 1881 ; also 
Bulletin, Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. V, 1880. 

^Spencer: Prin. Biology, p. 412. 
* Darwin : Origin of Species, p. 342. 



MIGRATORY IMPUIvSK. 35 

the instinct. Temperature and food are the principal factors in 
this theory. 

The metabolism of the bird exceeds that of all other verte- 
brates. This calls for abundant and nutritious food, and 
especially during the breeding season. So vital is this relation 
that Wallace is disposed to regard the migrating instinct — " as^ 
an exaggeration of a habit common to all locomotive animals 
of moving about in search of food. ' ' Indeed Hudson^ has found 
that abundance of food may change the time of the breeding 
season. 

^ " In the island of Goree the swallows remain through the 
whole year because the warmth of the climate enables them to 
find food at all seasons. ' ' Allen* has shown that the distance 
traversed by the migratory kind in passing from their summer 
to their winter homes is in direct relation to their habits in 
respect to food. Yet while the effect of food upon bird life is 
direct and vital, it does not explain satisfactorily the periodicity 
of the impulse, the regularity to a day with which some birds 
return to their nesting places. In fact it does not account in 
many cases for the southward movements. The swift^ and 
cuckoo both in America and England leave for the South when 
nature is in her richest abundance and the temperature fairly 
constant. Many birds leave their winter homes in the tropics 
in the height of the tropical spring when insect and vegetable 
food are daily increasing. They leave a land of plenty for one 
from which the snows of winter have barely disappeared, often 
coming so early that unseasonable weather forces them to retreat. 

This advancing, checking, stopping suddenly or even retreat- 
ing temporarily led Prof. Cooke* to study the relation between 
meteorology and migration. His extensive data suggests a 
correlation between successive ' * bird wave "or " migration 
wave ' ' and the ' * warm waves ' ' in the atmosphere. The inves- 
tigation was not a complete one and is doubtless subject to 
errors and corrections.'^ 

It seems clear in some cases that temperature exerts a direct 
influence upon their movements, but it sheds no light upon those 
very definite migrations that occur in equable temperature and 
abundance of food, e. g., swift, cuckoo, bobolink. Many East- 

1 Wallace, A. R.: loc. cit., p. 21. 

2 Hudson, W., H.: loc. cit., p. 63. 

3 Ribot, Th.: Heredity, p. 16. 

* Allen, A. J.: Scribner's Month., loc. cit. 

^ Couch: loc. cit., p. 138. 

^ Cooke, W. W.: Report on Bird Migration in the Miss. Valley, 
1884-85. 

■^ A further attempt has been made to represent graphically the migra- 
tion of birds and the composition of the avi-fauna changing with the 
season. W. W. Stone, The Auk, Vol. VI, p. 139. 



36 KLINE : 

ern species move southward not according to temperature 
changes, but rather with respect to food changes.^ Wallace 
and Chapman contribute evidence showing that temperature 
and weather elements in general have very little to do with the 
time of their arrival or departure. They consider temperature 
effective only as far as it effects food supply. The Pine War- 
bler's wide area ( i6 degrees parallel of latitude) of nidification is 
a case in point showing that temperature alone is not the factor 
that determines bird distribution and migration. Again, if 
food and climatic elements were the sole factors in originating 
the impulse, the periodic migrations within the tropics would 
remain mysterious, because, there, these factors are compara- 
tively uniform throughout the year. 

Physiogenetic. I think it quite probable, that, if a careful 
record of a bird's metabolism were kept throughout the year, 
and expressed graphicallj^ it would show among other things 
two distinct evelvations, a large one at the approach and during 
the reprodutive period, and a smaller one at the moulting sea- 
son. Facts are not wanting which lend this supposition some 
degree of certainty. 

It is well known that both physiological and mental changes 
more or less varied, occur in nearly all species from crustaceans 
to and including species of anthropoid apes, during the pro- 
creative period. Darwin^ in his thesis of sexual selection pre- 
sents an immense number of facts on this point, especially on 
the changes that occur in secondary sexual characteristics. 
These changes reach their climax in birds. The voice, plumage, 
comb, wattles and weapons of various sorts are all brought to 
their greatest possible perfection. These secondary sexual 
changes are paralleled by more fundamental and important 
ones in the primary organs before their flight. In^ the case of 
sea birds dissection shows an enlargement of the sexual organs 
before their flight — those of the male enlarge first. The deposit 
of eggs by the trout and salmon soon after their arrival to the 
spawning areas is evidence of ovarian activity even before migra- 
tion began. The parturition* of the seal occurs within a day 
or two after her advent to the rookery. Stork, ^ geese, and 
members of the Hirundinae^ family display unusual activity 
previous to their flight. 

These periodic ' * self-assertions ' ' of the reproductive energy 
induce physico-chemical changes throughout the whole organ- 

1 Newton, Prof. : See article in Bncy. Britannica. 

2 Dawin : The Descent of Man, pp. 270-555. 

3 Chapman, F. M. : The Auk, Vol. XI, 1894, pp. 12-17. 
* Elliot, H. W. : An Arctic Province, p. 282. 
^Swainson : loc. cit.y p. 261. 

^ Cauch : loc. cit., p. 130. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 37 

ism, thereby ill-adjusting it to external conditions which 
before favored and promoted well-being. Influenced by this 
new development of organs and energy their very nature seems 
altered ; and while the climate they formerly delighted in has 
thus grown irritating and irksome, they feel a craving for one 
in which the procreative impulse may best be carried into effect. 
Similarly, the ' ' moulting season " works physiological changes 
of the greatest importance for the individual. If the physico- 
chemical changes of the procreative period are in the interests 
of the species, the race, those of the moulting season are for 
the individual. During this season hens cease to lay, birds quit 
singing. Naturalists speak of them as ' ' moping. ' ' Peafowls 
hide, courting and love antics cease. Rich^ food and excited 
antics are requisite to the moulting process. * * This feverish 
condition is accompanied with a higher degree of sensibility, 
which renders irksome and aggravating those impressions of 
the air which before were pleasing. An appetite for new kinds 
of food may be a natural accompaniment of this state of the 
body. The moulting process, per se, occurs in migratory birds 
as soon as they complete their southward journey. These 
considerations point strongly to the conclusion that both the 
homeward and outward migrations have a physiological basis, 
and that these processes serve as a stimulus to the nervous 
mechanism which discharges in terms, so to speak, of migra- 
tions. There are also two other motives associated with the 
breeding seasons that set in motion almost all forms of life. 
The first includes all those activities connoted by ' 'sexual se- 
lection, ' ' the second is the search for suitable breeding areas. 

Animals, which are at all other times solitary, including most 
carnivora, seek the opposite sex of their species during the 
rutting season. The lion, tiger and the entire family of Feli- 
dae, both wild and domestic, lead solitary, selfish, vegetative 
lives, except during the season of love. The sexes of the arctic 
reindeer keep apart except at the courting season. The same 
is true of the wild turkey, ^ the grouse, and certain vultures of 
the U. S. The male chaffinches in Sweden never migrate. 
The females go south in September and return to Sweden in 
April, where they are fought for to the finish by the males. 
Pairing, according to Darwin, is effected by the ''law of bat- 
tle." Describing it among birds, he says, * ' when many males 
congregate at the same appointed spot and fight together, as in 
the case of grouse and various other birds, they are generally 
attended by the females which afterwards pair with the victo- 
rious combatants. ' ' The point urged here is that the desire 

iBrehm, Dr. A. E.: Bird Life, p. 372. 
^Darwin : Descent of Man, p. 416, etc. 



38 KI.INE : 

for a mate or mates brings together periodically great aggre- 
gations of life, that otherwise would have met perhaps by 
chance. May not the desire for a mate and the repeated bodily 
experiences excited in what was at first accidental meetings 
and pairings have become permanently associated, so that the 
desire for a mate is immediately followed by a journey for one, 
or to the ''breeding ground?" 

The search for suitable breeding areas, it appears, is prompted 
by two causes : first, suitable food and shelter for the young ; 
second, the well known desire that so many animals have for 
seclusion during the reproductive period. In fact nearly every 
species of the great backboned series will seek at the approach 
of this season some retired part of their haunts or range in 
which to bring forth their young. Probably the second desire 
grew out of the first, especially out of the necessity for shelter 
for nest, eggs and helpless young. 

The female of the reindeer^ of Norway, of the common stag^, 
of the long-tailed deer of the British Isles, of several species of 
^monkey"* isolates herself from her congeners and other forms 
of life for a fortnight or more during parturition. The annuaP 
return of the seal to her "rookery," at the breeding season is 
absolutely necessary for the perpetuation of the species. The 
young seal from the moment of birth to a month or six weeks 
is utterly unable to swim. Especially is it necessary that birds 
should select safe breeding grounds, nests, eggs and birdlings 
are fragile, helpless objects, an easy and tempting prey to ene- 
mies. There is no wonder to be attached, then, to the fact that 
birds above all other creatures are most circumspect* about the 
location of their breeding sites. 

In England the chafiinches and a host of other birds spend 
the winter in the open country but at the approach of spring 
come to the gardens, hedgerows and fruit trees because these 
places offer better security for nesting than the wood or heath. 
The starling spreads itself over the country of Cornwall in the 
winter and in the spring immense flocks desert their food area, 
though only to proceed to the distance of a few miles, for the 
sake of a place in which to hide their nests. Chapman men- 
tions several species of tropical sea birds that resort each year 
to some rocky islet, " rookery," where they may nest in saifety. 

1 Darwin : The Descent of Man, p. 503. 

2 Swainson : loc. cit., p. 275. 
^Hartman: Anthropoid Apes, pp. 247-48. 
''Heape, W.: Philo. Trans., Parti, p. 413, 1894. 
5 Elliot, H. W.: loc. cit., p. 287. 

^ It is not to be understood that birds are conscious of the superior 
advantages of these sites any more than they are conscious of the fit- 
ness of the materials (grasses, hair, sticks or mud) used in nest build- 
ing. 



MIGRATORY IMPUIySB. 39 

These movements are usually regarded as non-migratory, and 
yet the object is the same, and the migration as regular as that 
which prompts a wagtail or a puffin to wing its way from the 
Mediterranean to the arctic regions. 

^Brehmsays: "The act of migration stands in a certain 
way connected with the business of breeding and moult." 
^ Wallace has emphasized the necessity of separating the sub- 
sistence and breeding areas making food and safety during the 
nesting period the causal elements or initiative factors. 

These two authors, taken together, correlate the reproduc- 
tive and moulting processes and the instinct for seclusion with 
that of migration. To cover the facts of periodicity, of all real 
migrations, the immense distance, and direction of some of the* 
routes, I should restate and add to the above theories in some- 
what this fashion : The incipient factors in originating the 
migrating instinct are the COINCIDENCES of the physico-chemical 
changes and the instinctive desire for seclusion and for suitable 
breeding areas with the periodicity of the seasojis. If it had hap- 
pened that secluded and suitable pairing and breeding grounds 
had always been selected in an east and west line from their 
area of ' ' subsistence, " it is probable that the powerful instinct as 
we know it, would never have originated, because the climatic 
and food elements could never have co-operated with the pro- 
creative factors ; on the other hand it appears as equally 
improbable that the instinct should have originated in the 
absence of the desire for seclusion or suitable breeding grounds 
or the ever recurring physiological changes which mark the 
annual cycle of bird life.^ 

This theory explains a number of facts connected with bird 
migration that are otherwise mysterious. 

Males of many species precede the females in the northward 
journey ; this correlates with the male sexual organs develop- 
ing first. Birds that do not sexually mature the first year in 
the feeding area either migrate only a small portion of the way 
or not all. Barren birds of a migratory species remain south 
all their lives, only at times do they make a portion of the 
journey — doubtless due to imitation and the social instinct. 

1 Brehm, Dr. A. E. : loc. cit., p. 368. 

2 Wallace, A. R. : Nature, Vol. X, 1874, p. 459. 

3 Chapman says — in the Auk, Vol. XI, 1894 — "It is not improbable 
that the period of reproduction may have been coincident with the 
return of the warmer part of the year and in addition to the desire for 
seclusion and the pressure exerted by the crowded conditions of exis- 
tence, which then prevailed ("during glacial epoch), was potent in 
inducing birds to seek breeding grounds in the north during the 
summer. The only criticism offered against this theory is the time 
(glacial period) and the place (northern zones) it offers for the origin 
of the instinct. Arboreal tropical life is now believed by naturalists 
to be the natal home of birds. 



40 KLINE : 

The arrival to the breeding ground is much more regular and 
uniform than their departure, the latter is usually governed by 
the success of breeding. They come burdened with the great 
task of procreation which gives instinctive purpose and pre- 
cision to their movements, they leave in obedience to vegetative 
functions. The theory accounts for their leaving breeding or 
feeding area when to all appearances temperature and food are 
ideal. 

lyOWER Mammals. Omitting the voluminous literature on 
this topic I shall mention only briefly the more significant facts. 

Movements to which the term migration is applicable are 
seen in ten or twelve species of rodents, certain wolves and 
bears, several species of rengulate and a few primates. 

Classical examples of the instinct among rodents are the 
military-like advances of the squirrel, the hare and notably 
those of the lemming.^ The movements begin in the spring 
or fall and may continue during severe weather. The object is 
apparently to enlarge their food area which is made necessary 
by an unusual multiplication ^ of the species and an unfavor- 
able food season.* "Wolves^ everywhere descend from the 
mountains to the lowlands in severe weather, and bears not 
infrequently migrate in great numbers to escape the rigors of 
an extreme winter. 

Porcupines in Persia migrate north and vsouth with the 
seasonal changes of temperature. 

Reindeer and antelope, especially the latter, migrate in some 
countries as regularly as the fishes and birds, — the females of 
some species going farther north than the males. 

Food, enemies and change of seasons influence the move- 
ments of monkeys. 

On the whole it appears that, although the movements of 
the lower mammals are due to the same causes that control 
animals moving in air or in water, yet they are less precise, 
definite and periodical. True, unmistakable traces of the 
instinct are present, manifesting itself in flashes, as it were, 
sometimes impelling the creatures to distruction, e. g., mouse 
and lemming. 

Domestic Animals.^ 

For the sake of completeness, but more particularly for em- 
phasizing certain observations made in the present section and 

1 Romanes : Mental Evolution in Animals, p. 282. 

^Swainson : loc. cit., p. 250. 

3 Heilprin : Distribution of Animals, p. 40. 

* Wallace, A. R. : loc. cit., p, 18. 

^The material presented here is in answer to Rubric XIII of the 
syllabus. Two hundred and fifty cases were received on ducks, tur- 
keys, chickens, cats, sheep, cows, horses, etc. 

Doubtless they will seem very commonplace, so they are, but to 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 4I 

by way of introductory to the love of home, I treat here 
the migrating and homing phenomena of domestic animals. 

Fowi,S. I. "I have observed that animals, such as cats, dogs, hens, 
hare, cows and horses are attracted to home life, while fish, ducks, 
turkeys and guineas are not — they like to wander." 

2. ** Our chickens often wander but are sure to return before night 
fall, while our turkeys always wander away, and sometimes they 
stay." 

3. " Have known hens and turkeys to stay away during the day 
and lay their eggs in the fields or woods and come home at night." 

4. " A neighbor had a hen that would come to our place to roost 
but always went home to lay.'''' 

5. "When we kept turkeys they used to wander from home; 
especially to build nests." 

6. '' When a hen ' stole her nest,' we found it hard to locate it, 
because the hen would not go to it when any one was looking." 

7. ** Have known Mrs. C. to watch her turkeys for two hours at a 
time to find where they laid. She was often compelled to follow 
them over a mile away into some underbrush." 

The writer has performed the very monotonous juvenile 
task of following the wanderings of a turkey-hen until she saw 
fit "to take ' ' her nest. If sTie detected my watching, her 
course was most often turned leisurely in the opposite direction, 
and she would postpone going on for several hours ; some- 
times, if watched too closely, she would not visit the nest that 
day. Usually when she "made up her mind" to go, she 
struck a bee-line for the nest as fast as she could run. 

8. ** Had given up one of my hens as stolen or killed, when to my 
surprise one day she entered the yard and presented me a dozen little 
chicks in a very ' fussy fashion.' " 

9. *' Have a number of times missed hens and gave them up for 
lost, but after some time they would come up with a few little 
chicks." 

10. " We gave up keeping turkeys because it was impossible to 
keep them at home." 

11. ** It was very hard to keep ducks on the farm, although we had 
a brook and pond ; they were forever gone, — would wander a mile or 
two below the house staying two or three days, when back they would 
come — as soon as fed and rested a day, away they would go again." 

12. "... . Sold a couple of ducks to a neighbor three miles 
away. About a week after a tremendous noise in the yard awoke the 
household. It proved to be the quacking and gabbling of the ducks. 
Never before had I seen an animal make so great a display of 
pleasure." 

13. "... Drove my young chicks over a week old at evening into 
a new coop, but left the door open until late, as it was a very warm night. 
When I returned to shut the door of the new coop, they had all left. 

the writer therein lies their value. The naive innocence, simple- 
mindedness and freshness with which they are told precludes all 
suspicion that their observations were influenced by preconceived 
theories and biological conceptions as to the deeper significance of 
what they saw. 



42 KLINE : 

Going to the old one I found them all cuddled in a heap beside the 
closed door." ^ 

Cats. 14. *' My cat goes away frequently, stays three or four days 
perhaps — always glad to see us on his return." 

15. " Our cat goes off for two or three days, and then returns. He 
is treated kindly and well fed, but just roams off, we can expect him 
within a week." 

16. " . . . This cat used to go away every month, and stay 
about a week, then come back. Its journeys were regular." 

17. " . . . Owned a cat that would stay in the woods for three 
months at a time, she would then return home with four or five kit- 
tens." 

18. " Had a cat that would take care of her little kittens in an old 
basket at the next door neighbor's. She brought her kittens over 
home three times a day to be fed." 

19. " When the little kitten of our old cat got big enough to run 
around we used to play with it a great deal. One day it disappeared. 
Thorough searching proved in vain. The old cat was around every 
day, but no kitten. One day the old cat was spied going across the 
field. I followed. She led me across two large fields to a patch of 
oats. Went to the edge of them and called. Out came that little 
kitten as fat as a butter ball. We think the mother hid it because we 
fondled it too much." 

The last six cases are typical of 36 that illustrate a role by 
the procreative factor in wandering. 

20. " Have observed that cats had much rather have one place in 
which to sleep." 

21. ''Cats will seldom leave permanently their old home, even 
after the family has moved away." 

22. " When we moved into our new house we left behind a large 
cat that had been in the family for several years. My father was very 
fond of the cat. He would go down to the old house with food for the 
cat, but he would not eat. He howled day and night, but whenever any 
of us went down to the old place he would jump on us, roll over and 
purr, and act wildly glad. My father could not bear the idea of its 
grieving and starving itself to death, so the cat was brought to the 
new home. He was crazy with joy. He ran up and down stairs, on 
top of the furniture, rubbed against and smelt of everything, climbed 
up on us, walking right up our skirts into our arms, remaining but a 
moment, then down again, and following us about like a dog. After 
awhile he settled down and went to sleep." 

Fifty cases like the last five were received on the home instinct 
of the cat. 

Dogs. The following cases are typical of the wandering 
and homing instincts of dogs : 

23. "Our dog went back to his old home, three miles distant, 
every Saturday night, and returned every Monday morning regu- 
larly." 

24. " Owned a dog that was very fond of going off on long journeys 
by himself. Sometimes he would be gone two or three days, and 
would come home worn out and in every way ready for rest. After 
he had stayed home several days he would be ready to start out again." 

1 1 have before me numerous observations on the homing of pigeons, 
but such facts are every-day occurrences, as observations and cur- 
rent literature abundantly testify. The cases are therefore omitted. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 43 

25. * * Had a dog that would travel a week, then stay at home a week, 
until finally he disappeared." 

26. " Have a dog that persists in running away. Is kept tied, will 
leave home as soon as untied to go to where there is a dog. He will 
not go away during the winter." 

27. " Know a dog that spends a great part of his time at a neigh- 
bor's, although his master is good to him." 

28. " Dogs will often go off on journeys lasting two or three days 
or longer, but will return after that time." 

29. ** Brother bought a hound from an old man living some miles 
from our home. The dog returned next day. We went after him a 
number of times. Even after the old man died the dog would make 
trips to his old home." 

30. *'My parents owned a fine setter. They sent him to a farm 
forty miles away, to be trained. On taking him from the wagon 
when the farmer reached home, he got away and came home. He 
ran right up stairs into a room where my mother lay sick, putting his 
forefeet on her bed He was not to be driven from her bed- 
side that night." 

31. "A member of my family was a witness to the following inci- 
dent : A farmer living near North Bend on the Ohio, transported his 
farm products on a flatboat down to Vicksburg. On one of these 
trips he took a highly prized dog. At the landing place at Vicksburg 
the dog disappeared. About a month after the owner had returned 
the dog came home poor and half-starved. He had travelled hun- 
dreds of miles, swam rivers, threaded forests, forded swamps and 
faced starvation to return to his home." 

Sheep. 32. " Flock of sheep in the spring have started about the 
usual time for the range where the older ones of the flock had pas- 
tured for two or three years. The pastures were on high hills, and 
the warmth and dampness of spring may have produced a degree of 
discomfort that reminded the sheep of the fresh pastures, breezes 
and hillside springs, where, shorn of their fleeces, they had enjoyed 
previous summers." 

Cows. 33. "A man in our neighborhood has a cow that runs 
away from home. She will be gone for a day or more, and then will 
come back again." 

34. "Our cow had spells of going away every month last sum- 
mer." 

35. ** Mr. C. had a cow that would leave home every chance she 
could get, and would go into the country. Sometimes found ten miles 
away from home." 

36. " A cow that will make her escape from pasture and return 
home, at a distance of several miles, at every opportunity." 

37. "A herd of young cattle belonging to my grandfather escaped 
from a wild pasture about the last of September, and came home, a 
distance of twelve miles." 

38. " Sold a cow to a man living about twenty-five miles away over 
rough hills and streams. She came back in a few days and stood by 
the gate until we let her in. She was again taken to her owner, but 
soon returned. It was very cold weather. We drove her away and 
made her stay outside of shelter, but without avail. Fearing she 
would die of hunger and cold we bought her back." 

Horses. 39. " Horses always come toward home faster. Have 
known very few to wander away from home." 

40. '* Horses become attached to home if it is one in which they 
are treated kindly. Know a horse raised and owned by one man until 
the horse was quite old. He was then sold to a person who kept 



44 KI.INE : 

him, not far from his former home, but the horse was so homesick 
that he refused food and water, and would immediately start for home 
on being released. He was not allowed to return to his old home 
and consequently died of homesickness." 

41. "Have known dogs, horses and cows, to suffer so intensely 
from evident homesickness, and so little food did they eat that great 
weakness and emaciation resulted. The diagnosis was confirmed by 
allowing such animals to be taken to their homes, when appetite and 
health promptly returned." 

42. " Horses and cows will often wander in search of more or bet- 
ter food, but will soon return." 

These cases indicate sufficiently the causal efficacy of food 
(case 42), temperature and seasons (32), in impelling domesti- 
cate creatures to wander ; and likewise emphasize strongly 
that the procreative processes ill-adjust periodically, the organ- 
ism to its home, and further, that along with these physiologi- 
cal changes are co-operating the instinctive desires for pairing 
and seclusion during the periods of nest-building, laying 
(cases 4, 5 and 6, etc.), parturition. In some cases the whole 
periods of gestation is one of seclusion (case 17). Cats, dogs, 
cows, and even horses will often hide their young (case 19), 
especially if one fondles or pays them considerable attention in 
any way. The many advantages derived by seclusion from 
members of their own and those of other species during this whole 
period are self-evident. A hen will lay in the woods, and 
come home to roost and feed. A cat will keep her kittens in a 
basket at the next neighbor's barn, but brings them home 
three times a day for meals, a cow nurses and conceals her 
calf in a thick copse, but pastures in the open field. Thus 
domestic animals, like the birds, often make an efifort to sep- 
arate the reproductive from the vegetative areas even during 
and after the period of gestation. 

The periods of heat in the cat, dog and cow, are coincident 
with their leaving home. Doubtless the horse would prove no 
exception if he were allowed equal freedom. It appears that 
the periodical physiological changes of the sexual organs com- 
pletely overpower whatever adjustment the organism may have 
effected on a vegetative basis, and impels it to seek forces that 
will restore its equilibrium. Good food, comfortable quarters 
and kind treatment (case 27) are no longer attractive. The 
male of both the feline and canine races leave their comforta- 
ble vegetative quarters to become the paramour of a female of 
their respective species, and this too in the face of repeated bit- 
ter experiences, strength challenged on every hand, deadly 
combats waged with other male suitors, many a kick and cuflf 
delivered by man, and of privations and hunger continually 
besetting them. 

The appreciation and love for home in domestic animals is 
wide spread and oftentimes very intense and pathetically ex- 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 45 

pressed. A new cot, a new kennel, a new manger of strange 
smells and sights, a new master with new and strange methods 
of treatment produce at times acute cases of nostalgia in dogs, 
cats and horses. 

The observations of this section indicate that temperature is 
the chief cause in the majority of fish movements, likewise of 
lobster and a few mammals, as squirrels, monkeys and porcu- 
pines. In so far as it affects the food supply it may be re- 
garded as an indirect cause among all species. Food and 
atmospheric pressure seem to be the dominant forces among 
many insects, e. g. , locusts, grasshoppers, etc. The procrea- 
tive instinct is operative in all the species considered save the 
lobster, and probably the locust. With certain land crabs, 
butterflies, fish and eels, all birds, many rodents and the wan- 
dering of all domestic animals, the procreative instinct, I am 
persuaded, is paramount. 

No one factor acting alone is responsible for the instinct. 
It is the product of a nexus of forces co-operating and supple- 
menting each other. But when the relative intensities of the 
many factors are considered, together with the circumstances 
and the order in which they operate, it appears that the pro- 
creative instinct is the initiative, the primal factor, and that 
cosmic forces give precision, definiteness, and periodicity to its 
expression. 

Section B. 

Migrations of Primitive Man. The present section is con- 
cerned with the wanderings of primitive man, to the end of 
exposing in rough outline the customs, habits and characters 
of a migrating people. The conception of the migrating 
instinct thus seen in the race may improve our position for 
interpreting the instinct as expressed by the individual. 

Ethnologists,^ generally, subscribe to the assumption that 
man must have begun his career on some fertile island^ or 
region in the tropics.^ While here his food consisted of the 
fruits and herbs of the forest. He was a frugiferous animal. 
Increase in his numbers soon forced him to migrate into regions 
less secure and blessed with a less genial climate. These forced 
movements compelled him to face a host of new conditions, e.g., 
new climate, new food and a new array of enemies. As he 
migrated farther and farther away from the tropics the food 
supply came gradually to be seasonal instead of perennial. To 
secure food during the interim of the fruit bearing season he 
drew on the lakes and rivers for fish — his first artificial food. 

1 Morgan, l/cwis H. : Ancient Societ)^ p. 20. 

2 Ivyell, Sir Charles : Antiquity of Man, p. 433. 

^Mason, O.T. : Migration and the Food Quest. The Amer. An- 
thropologist, Vol. II, No. 3, 1894. 



46 KI.INE : 

They " were universal in distribution, unlimited in supply and 
the only kind of food at all times attainable. 

It is quite probable, too, that after coming within range of 
seasonal changes his dependence upon stream and forest for 
food compelled him to migrate back and forth to some extent 
with the seasons." 

^Brinton says : ''These periodical journeys extend hundreds 
of miles and embrace the whole tribe. This must also have 
been the case with primeval man when he occupied the world 
in paleolithic times. His home was along the shores of seas 
and the banks of streams. Up and down these natural high- 
ways he pursued his wanderings until he had extended his 
roamings over most of the habitable land." ^Such is the 
case among modern primitive peoples who control as yet but 
few of the forces of nature.^ While fish food rendered man 
to some extent independent of climate and locality he was 
forced to limit his excursions along sea shores and river courses 
until he had acquired sufficient skill with bow and arrow to 
kill his prey at a distance. Skill with these implements per- 
mitted distant excursions into the forest ; fruit and fishing 
areas might now be deserted at a less risk of perishing from 
hunger. The chase became the highest of arts, the strongest 
incentive to wandering in all probability that man has ever 
received. 

These three stages, the frugivorous^ fishing and hunting 
furnished admirable conditions for the origin and growth of the 
wanderlust spirit. Their periods were long and the stimulus 
intense. There is much evidence from geology and paleon- 
tology showing that these periods may count their years by 
tens of thousands, that the transition from the frugivorous man 
to the nomad is many times longer than from the dawn of 
history to modern times. If psychic evolution has at all 
paralleled structural in point of time, there are strong reasons 
for believing that man was merely a fruit gatherer longer than 
a fisherman, a fisherman longer than a hunter, a hunter longer 
than a nomad and the latter longer than a farmer and home- 
maker in the modern sense. 

1 Brinton, G. D. : loc. cit., p. 74. 

2 Mason sets forth the view that America was accidently settled by 
some remote ancestors of the red man who left their home in the Bast 
Indies in quest of food and crept slowly but surely along the coasts of 
China, Japan and Aleutian shores until they reached the shores of 
Western North America. Ivikewise Otto Sittig (Smithsonian Report 
1895, pp. 519-35) says that the islands of the Pacific were peopled by 
compulsory migrations. The frail crafts of the natives of the Malayan 
Archipelago while in search of fish and other food were accidentally 
caught by contrary wind and current and carried to more distant 
islands. 

3McGee, J. W. : The Amer. Anthro., Vol. VIII, No. 4. 1895. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE;. 47 

Victor Hehn says : ' ' We cannot sufficiently estimate the 
slowness and difficulty of the transition from a wandering hun- 
ter's life to the taming and tending of cattle, nor of that from 
nomadic freedom to a settled domicile. Necessity must have 
been very pressing before the shepherd could resolve to dig up 
his pasture land, to sow grain, to wait for its growing . . . 

. and so tie himself down to one spot like a prisoner and a 

slave In the same way the hunter felt cattle 

breeding a kind of slavery. Armed with bow and arrow . . 

. . he freely roamed the woods If he had 

the luck to kill a wild bull, he could feast for days." Hunt- 
ing must have become unprofitable, indeed, before the less skill- 
ful, hampering and humdrum arrangements of cattle tending 
were resorted to as a means of support. 

Among the many factors arguing that man has and is pass- 
ing through these several stages are those represented (i) in the 
primitive ways of the Tasmanian, Bushmen, many Indian 
tribes, Gypsies, Bedouin, and nations of the Mongoloid type ; 
(2) by a large class of individuals in civilized society that 
neglect home life and throw off responsibility at every angle to 
become a planomaniac, a globe trotter, a Thoreau, a Robinson 
Crusoe, or a Captain Kidd ; (3) by the atavistic activities of 
childhood, e. g., fondness for water, ^ tree climbing, hunting 
trading and bartering, etc. 

To get a composite view of the planomaniacal ^ type I quote 
from one hundred and forty- four cases ^ bearing on that sort of 
an individual. 

I- ^'1 35* ** I^eaves home nearly every day immediately after 
breakfast to go visiting — is discontented and unhappy when compelled 
to stay at home." 

2. F., 48. '*On the go from morning till night — sometimes only 
running to see her nearest neighbor, sometimes going away on the 
cars — she keeps this up four or five months at a time, then suddenly 
stops and will not leave her yard for several weeks, nor does she care 
to receive company during her stay-at-home spells." 

3. F. " Married, does not stay at home more than two hours dur- 
ing the day — spends her time in running about. She is young and 
does not have very much to do, perhaps she gets lonesome." 

4. F. ** Seems restless, is out calling every day — can't stay at 
home long at a time, although home and home-life is attractive and 
pleasant." 

5. F., 50. ** Married, educated, raised a family who are ignorant 
through neglect. Kind hearted, picks up and visits for a week, or 
will wait on the sick for weeks at the neglect of her home duties." 

6. F., 30. "Good natured, smart, good cook and yet she allows 
her little girls to come home from school and prepare their own din- 
ners. She leaves often after breakfast and does not return till bed 
time. She does not seem to do it to get rid of work, as often she will 

1 Truancy, Ped. Sent., Vol. V, No. 3, pp. 396-419. 

2 Rubric VIII of Syllabus. 
^Ninety-five per cent, reported are females. 



48 KI<INK : 

be helping some one to do just what she has left undone at home." 
(Many cases of this kind.) 

7. F. " Married, quick and active, will take one child in her arms 
and have the others following after. Household duties do not worry 
her in the least. She says life is too short to waste it in the house." 

8. F., 30. ** Has a fixed day to visit each of her friends every week 
— can't be found at home more than two days in the week." 

9. M., 52. "A comfortable home, good clothes and food, but will 
not stay at home. Always finds some news to carry from one place to 
another, and is always ready to eat.^^ 

10. F. "Has a large family, always on the go in all sorts of 
weather, will keep her children out of school to stay with the little 
ones. Her calls are of a gossiping-seeking sort." (Five cases of this 
nature.) 

11. F., 50. *'Not interested in the duties of home, neglects them 
to go calling, cannot bear to be alone." 

12. F. "So fond of calling that she will bring her cooking to our 
house. There is no special reason for her doing so." 

13- ^-y 50- '* Married, four children, always on the street, or 
shopping, will visit the same store several times a day." 

14. F., 25. "Unmarried, never satisfied at home, has no taste for 
reading or domestic life. Ivoves to talk and carry news." 

15. F. " Always making calls. I think it is to find out other 
people's business. Is the first to call on a new neighbor." 

16. F., 40. "Always on the street, delights in gathering and 
redistributing news." (Cases like the last three are most numerous.) 

17. M., 48. " Neglects his family and farm to talk with neighbors, 
is fond of trading horses, etc., visits all public gatherings." 

18. M., 56. "Had a good farm and well stocked, suddenly 
abandoned it to his family, and went calling from neighbor to neighbor. 
Fond of children, well read, would work hard for a neighbor, but 
would never receive any pay — would only occasionally do a hard 
day's work at home." 

19. F. "A member of every club and society in which she can gain 
a foothold, dips into everything, has done a little of everything, fond 
of doing committee work." 

20. F., 30. "Neglects home to visit and be with other people. 
Good to sick and needy, will do menial work away from home that 
she will not do at home. Is fond of going to weddings, funerals, par- 
ties, etc." 

21. F., 30. "Is noted for going to funerals and public gatherings 
of all sorts." 

22. F., 40. "Always looking after the needy and sick, a great 
church goer, attended all week and Sunday meetings, and all funerals 
that she possibly could. Her friends once saw her going to the funeral 
of a noted pugilist, though they could not understand how she could 
possibly be interested in the deceased." 

The funeral and club goers form somewhat a separate group, 
yet illustrate the lack of home interests and aversion to static 
conditions. 

24. M., 22. " Married, seldom at home, fond of horse trading." 

^The impotency of the home spirit, the desire to lead a semi- 
roving life and the attendant psychoses of such a people are 

1 Rubric VI of Syllabus. 217 cases reported, 23% of which were 
forced to move because of a failure to pay rent. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SK. 49 

further illustrated by people who move frequently. The fol- 
lowing are instances of families who move often for some other 
cause than failure to pay house rent. 

25. "A lady and her daughter spend much of their time looking 
for a new boarding place. They are rich and hard to please." 

26. "A farmer, lost a good farm by bad management, has tried sev- 
eral occupations, is discontented, moves every year to a new farm," 

27. " M. moves about every two years, always to a different part of 
the same town. He is always changing his occupation." 

28. " Husband indolent with little business ability, wife is ignorant 
and slovenly, move twice a year. It has come to be a habit." 

29. " This family is never contented, think if they could be in some 
other place all would be well. Within four years they have moved 
seven or eight times." 

30. '* This family moves every spring and fall. The man has very 
poor calculation and generally thinks that if only he were somewhere 
else he might do great things." 

31. " This family moves to avoid cleaning house. They endeavor 
to move into one already cleaned." 

32. " This farmer has moved every year for 28 years, moved every 
spring thinking he would get a better farm." 

34. "A lady has moved four times in five years, — although she owns 
several houses, she lives in a rented one. She is a very restless per- 
son." 

35. ** This family moving into a new place think it delightful and 
can't praise it enough. They soon grow dissatisfied and move again. 
They move back and forth from city to country. They are always in 
an unsettled frame of mind and think they can do better somewhere 
else:' 

36. " Bach time this family moves, they think they are getting a 
better place. They move every tw^o or three months. They have 
moved from a house and then back to it again in a few months." 

37. "I know many families who move frequently. They always 
think the new tenement, which may be no better, has some advantage. 
They do not often get less rent, neither do they leave unpaid rent be- 
hind ; sometimes they do not even change landlords, nor do they go 
beyond a radius of a mile for years." 

38. " Have known this family for twenty years. They move on the 
average every six months. They have always lived in the same city, 
pay their rent — are respectable people. Each time they move they 
paint, varnish, and paper throughout, build new cupboards and begin 
cultivating grass and flowers, only to be left in a few months for an- 
other neighborhood. 

39. " Family of four, all well educated, are continually moving 
about, from one part of the city to another ; they will have a very 
nice home for about a year, then sell all their furniture and begin 
boarding. After a short time they become dissatisfied, buy new furni- 
ture and go to housekeeping again." 

40. " This family is not content to remain long in any one place, 
grow tired of house and surroundings. They are nice people, much 
respected." 

41. *• This family moves about because they never like their neigh- 
bors. They usually move two or three times every year." 

42. "I know a man with a family of nine, moves from two to five 
times a year. He is a horse jockey, works but little, loafs around the 
post office, stores and other places." ( Bight casesof this character.) 

43. "They move about every four months, are regarded as shift- 

JOURNAI, — 4 



50 Ki,iNE : 

less, unstable in character, contented in one place as long as there is 
novelty, but soon become discontented and move." (This '* shiftless " 
class forms i8 % of the number who pay their rent.) 

44. " My grandfather would never stay in one house more than six 
months. He said he got tired of seeing the same things. They say 
he was just the same when a boy, was always changing his room and 
rearranging things. As a young man he was always changing his 
boarding place." 

The planomaniac flees from domestic cares, has no interests 
for modern civilized ways, and will not fuse with them. He 
could not, if he would, for he belongs ( using geological ana- 
logues) to a different and earlier formation. We should not 
wonder at his dread of solitude ( cases 3, 4, 5, 11), at his being 
lonely in the midst of modern environment. To such his mind 
is vacant, hence his pursuit for diversion, and search for his 
kind. Zimmerman ^ says * ' Vacant souls are always burden- 
some to their possessor ; and it is the weight of this burden 
that impels them incessantly in the pursuits of dissipation for 
relief." How primitive and semi-roving are these traits: 
"always ready ^ to eat" ( case 9 ), desire to barter* ( cases 17, 
24), working^ by fits and starts" (case 18), "shiftless" 
cases ( cases 28, 42, 43 ), "slovenly ^ and unkempt in person," 
indifferent to and with seeming inability to fight dirt.^ 

It appears, too, that the desire to rove is not abated with 
advancing age, not even with the increase of domestic and 
business cares. The cases cited indicate that there are persons 
in the midst of all degrees of intelligence and culture that mini- 
mize the value of a permanent home, that persist with seem- 
ing delight in a roving and nomadic life. Their lives are de- 
voted in searching for the new, getting acquainted with the 
unfamiliar, gathering and distributing news, and dipping into 
new enterprises. They are possessed by a consuming curi- 
osity, frequently of the idle sort. 

The concomitancy of the roving and curiosity instincts in the 
same individual suggests a common origin, if not a causal rela- 
tion. The conclusions'^ of naturalists^ and genetic psychologists® 
are to the effect that curiosity arose from the hunger and fear 

1 Zimmerman: Solitude, p. 12. 

2 "These Indians are disposed to gluttonize in idleness, when oppor- 
tunity arises, when their power for consuming is no less striking than 
their power of abstaining. This characteristic of the tribe is pos- 
sessed by other primitive peoples." W. J. McGee, Amer. Anthro. 
Vol. VIII, No. 4, 1895. 

8 The Bedouins possessed this trait in a high degree. See Ency. Brit 

* Ellis Havelock : The Criminal, p. loi. 

^Lubbock, Sir John : Prehistoric Times, p. 432. 

^Bancroft, H. H. : Native Races. 

'Darwin : The Descent of Man, p. 71. 

^Romanes: Animal Intelligence, p. 279. 

^ James: Psychology, Vol II, p. 429. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 5 1 

instincts. The motives for animals to investigate the unfamil- 
iar, it would seem, are twofold, (i) to see whether or not the 
object in question is harmful, (2) to see whether or not it is 
palatable. Likewise the passions for excessive call making, 
gadding about, ' ' the first to call on a new neighbor, ' ' continual 
shopping ( but rarely purchasing) , sampling and ' ' sizing up ' ' 
the material and mental furniture of a newcomer may have 
originated out of the necessity, common to all organisms, to 
know what is harmful and friendly, nourishing and distasteful 
in their milieu. 

Interwoven with this curiosity plexus of motives, sometimes 
separated from them, is a longing for the unexpected, moving 
with the hope, Micawber-like, * ' That something may turn 
up," imagining that the other side of the road is always the 
better. They have an insatiable desire for conjuring with that 
unknown factor that lurks in the untried, to commit their for- 
tunes to the play of the mysterious and unconscious forces of the 
universe which to so many lend an irresistible charm to a new 
game, new neighbors, a new house, a new farm, a new posi- 
tion, a new enterprise. In gambling it is the element of chance, 
in trading and barter it is termed luck. Hence it is that we 
find so many of these people doing a shiftless, bartering and 
gambling business where the conditions of chance and luck 
have their fullest swing. In all probability these conditions 
were at their best during the life of the primitive hunter and 
trapper. Here the degree of probability that labor will be 
proportionately rewarded is at a minimum. The ratio of re- 
ward to labor becomes so infinitely small that he comes to 
regard his rewards and successes due to chance rather than 
personal effort. One should not wonder, then, at barbarous 
and semi-civilized people persistently and continually creating 
conditions in which chance is at a maximum. Trapping, hunt- 
ing and fishing are pursuits that reward more by chance than 
deliberate effort or certainty. Daily bread is the reward oione 
lucky arrow, spear, trap or net out of a hundred of such instru- 
ments and not by the sweat of the brow. The psychology of 
longing to be in some other place, for new conditions, for spec- 
ulating, for gambling, is a reassertion of the old associations 
between chance and reward formed when the welfare of man 
was largely dependent on the mysterious forces of chance.^ 

Probably the gypsy is the best type of a wandering people 

^The origin of many forms of gambling, and games of chance and 
lot as opposed to skill among the Chinese, Koreans, North American 
Indians and many other primitive tribes, lends considerable support 
to this theory, in that they all can be traced back to throwing the ar- 
row, or tipped and feathered bamboo reeds as well as species of dice. 
. . . See Stewart Culin : Korean Games. 



52 KLINE : 

who have kept intact the customs and habits that once uni- 
versally prevailed. The gypsy ^ that we know is quite differ- 
ent from those of other countries in their manner of getting a 
living. In Egypt they practice the art of serpent charming and 
conjuring ; in France and Spain the girls sit as professional 
models ; in England we meet Gypsy Methodist preachers, actors, 
quack doctors, chimney sweeps, carpenters, factory hands. In 
every land the men are workers in metals, musicians and horse- 
jockeys ; are never scientists, barristers, or men of large affairs. 
In this country they travel about over the country in light- 
running canvass covered wagons, laden with their goods 
and chattels. They subsist by fortune-telling, horse-jockey- 
ing, tinkering, sometimes by selling small articles, trading, 
gambling, by theft and deception. They are dirty ^ both in 
person and cooking, lazy, fond of drinking and smoking. 
They are charmed by gaudy dress and jewelled ornaments. In 
no country have they ever been known to farm. A few own land 
in this country, but they seldom occupy it, preferring the 
wagon and highway instead. They keep both dogs and 
horses, being very fond of the latter. They have deep emo- 
tions, enjoy life, are highly imaginative, and extremely fond 
of music. 

The gait of the gypsy is not jerky, angular, and individual, 
but rhythmical, racial, swaying from side to side, generating, 
roughly, from the hips up, sections of an inverted cone. The 
negro has a similar gait. This animal-like motion is due to 
the dominance of the fundamental muscles in walking as op- 
posed to the finer, accessory muscles that stamp individuality 
upon the Caucasian gait. Prof. Shaler observes that the gypsy 
will not follow the sidewalk and brick pavements. They pre- 
fer the middle of the road. 

The origin, together with the traits of a wandering people, 
have thus far been sought in the vegetative, the food getting 
side of man. There are impulses and irradiations from the 
reproductive functions whose significant bearing on the wan- 
dering instinct call for consideration. 

The evidence furnished by Bancroft,^ Wester marck,'' School- 

1 For an extended account of the probable origin and customs of 
gypsies, see histories by C. C. Leland, or George Borrows. 

2 This is not universally true as the following will show, quoted 
from a competent observer : ' ' This party of gypsies were scrupu- 
lously clean, had lots of silverware, dishes, etc., all of which were as 
clean as could be. The children, too, were cleanly and neatly 
dressed." 

8 Bancroft : Native Races, Vol. I, p. 351. 

* Westermarck : The History of Human Marriage, p. 34. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSK. 53 

craft/ Hill,^ EHis^ and others, indicate strongly that in one 
stage of human evolution an annual pairing season took place 
in the spring or early summer months. Westermarck, after an 
exhaustive research on this subject, says : *' It is, therefore, a 
reasonable presumption that the increase of the sexual instinct 
at the end of spring or in the beginning of summer, is a survival 
of an ancient pairing season depending upon the same law that 
rules in the rest of the animal kingdom." The evidence of 
the preceding section shows that there is an intensity increase 
in the human sexual functions during the spring, not yet sup- 
pressed by law, religion and social customs. There is every 
reason to believe that pairing was decided by the " law of bat- 
tle. ' ' This archaic habit is known in anthropological litera- 
ture as wife capture. That this custom was once general, if 
not universal, is inferred from the symbols* of capture^ that are 
so wide^ spread among all peoples' at the present time. Sev- 
eral mythic legends, as Pluto and Proserpine, Boreas and 
Orithya, Theseus and Helen, the Romans and the Sabines have 
in all probability their foundation on the custom of systematic 
capture of wives among such ancient races. 

The desire for, and methods of selecting a mate inaugurates 
practically the same activities as are displayed by lower crea- 
tures when accomplishing a similar purpose, viz., the '* law of 
battle ' ' and wandering. Olaus Magnus^ represents the tribes 
of northern Europe, as continually at war with one another, 
either on account of stolen women, or with the object of steal- 
ing women. In Australia the capture of wives is a signal for 
war, and as the tribes have little property, except their 
weapons and their women, the women are at once the cause of war 
and the spoils of victory. The same is essentially true of the 
Bonaks of California, the Tasmanians and Maorians. The 
coin-men of Patagonia make excursions every year at the time 
of ' ' red leaf ' ' from the mountains in the north to plunder 
Fuegians of their women, dogs and arms. McLennan thinks 
that the modern groomsmen or ' ' best man ' ' is the legitimate 
descendant from the early fighting and protecting protege of the 
bridegroom. 

War waged for any cause whatever, necessarily strengthens 

1 Schoolcraft : Archives of Aboriginal Knowledge, Vol. II, p. 224. 

2 Hill, A. S.: Nature, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 250. 

3 Ellis, A. B.: Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XXXIX, No. 2, pp. 
207-22. 

^Westermarck : loc. cit., pp. 283-402. 

^ Wood, Edward J.: Wedding Day in all Ages and Countries, 2 vols. 

^Mclyennan, J. F.: Studies in Ancient History, Chapters I, II, III, 
IV, V. 

^ Ellis, A. B.: loc. cit. 

^ Quoted from Mclycnnan's Studies in Ancient History, p. 55. 



54 KI.INE : 

the wandering instinct — the aggressor in pursuit of his prize, 
and the aggressed exchanging domestic duties for those of 
defense and regaining losses. Out of such conditions arose 
the themes of the greatest poems of antiquity, those of Homer 
and Virgil have made Ulysses and ^neas classic wanderers for 
all time. Peggotty wandering in search for Emily, Adam Bede's 
false betrothed tramping the highway in bitter shame and re- 
morse, the untiring search of Evangeline for her lover over an 
entire primeval continent, St. Elmo's aimless wandering after 
killing his rival, are all mental creations that do no violence to 
human nature. Indeed tragedies and romances are most often 
the cradles of future wanderers. 

The art of wife getting attained its most delicate and refined 
form in the nth and 12th centuries, as set forth and practiced 
by the Troubadours and Courts of Love. 

So charming and seductive were their lives and methods of 
wooing, that every nobleman of any merit, many princes of 
royal blood, and even four kings became ardent devotees. 
Love was their theme, their Alpha and Omega, music and 
wandering the methods of its exposition. They write : ' ' It^ 
is love that makes me sing. " ' * For sweet love do I labor 
night and day in the improvement of my lays. " " For love 
sing the birds, and for love sing I." Says Rowbotham : " The 
leading and characteristic feature in the life of every trouba- 
dour was, that he was expected ' to go through the world,'. . 
* to go from court to court.' At the first breath of spring 
(italics mine) the troubadour mounted on his steed . . . 
sallied out in quest of listeners, and prepared to indulge in 
what adventure might befall him on the way." 

That the activities and attendant passions of ( i ) the annual 
pairing seasons, (2) of wife capture in its various forms and 
consequent wars, (3) of the various forms of symbolism of wife 
capture and (4) of the ever recurring romantic episodes among 
civilized peoples everywhere, have impressed the human soul, 
and have differentiated it in a special way is highly probable. 
The product of this differentiation is the instinct that impels man 
to desert home and vegetative stores and seek a world where 
the procreative functions and its higher irradiations may assert 
themselves. It would be absurd to interpret the precocious 
runaways of adolescence, the roving life of many individuals or 
the life of the vagrant as a direct expression of the procreative 
functions seeking conditions for satisfaction as witnessed in 
wild and domestic animals. Scott^ has argued that these fun- 
damental passions may be irradiated, long-circuited or trans- 

1 Rowbotham, J. Frederick : The Troubadours and Courts of Love, 
p. 226. 
2 Scott: Sex and Art, Amer. Jour, of Psy., Vol. VII, pp. 153-226. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 55 

posed into a hierarcy of activities ranging all the way from the 
gross sensuous impulse of a marauder to the idealistic senti- 
ments of youth that urges him to go forth espousing freedom's 
cause, waging war to reclaim a holy shrine, or to a missionary 
in any good work. Between these two extremes may be men- 
tioned passions to start life, seeking wider liberties, for adven- 
ture, yearning for space, for solitude and the like. 

The impulse to go off at the approach of the menstrual^ 
period, the desire for seclusion during parturition,'^ and the 
passion for a wedding tour can only be mentioned here as 
subjects for investigation. No adequate data exists on this 
phase of the subject. 

Historical Migrations. This subject presents three items of 
interest, ( i ) the degree of civilization of a migrating nation en 
masse, (2) the direction of the route, (3) the climatic condi- 
tions of the country from which the nations move, and of that 
to which they go. The organization of a migrating people has 
usually been of a comparatively high^ state. They have been 
skilled in the several arts of war, in making and using weapons, 
and in handling great bodies of men. According to Von Hell- 
wald* the direction of the migratory streams will be found 
always to lie in the axis of the greatest longitudinal extension 
of the continent. The historical migrations^ in the old world 
have been from the high plateaus of Eurasia in the east to the 
narrow land areas in the west. In America they have pro- 
ceeded from the broad land areas of the north to the mild 
tapering peninsula of the south. Doubtless the mountain ranges 
that lie in the long axes of continents determine to some extent 
the direction. Both the temperature and wind of large water 
areas are more uniform than that of great land areas. Countries, 
therefore, wholly or partially surrounded by water areas, or that 
are so situated as to have their shores bathed by strong sea cur- 
rents, and their surfaces blown over by winds coming from large 
sea areas, enjoy the most delightful climates in the world. ^ 
The countries along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, south- 

^ The writer is informed by a student of psychology that his wife 
when a girl in her teens at home and at college experienced a vague 
impulse " to go off," not to hide specially, but to be alone, a few days 
before each monthly flow. Several girls of her intimate acquaintance 
professed to her a like experience. 

2 When the time of a Schoshone woman's confinement draws near, 
she retires to some secluded place, brings forth unassisted, and re- 
mains there alone for about a month. Bancroft : Native Races, Vol. 

I, P- 437- 

3 Lubbock, Sir John : loc. cit., p. 586. 

*Von Hellwald, Frederick: The American Migrations, Smithsonian 
Report, 1866, pp. 328-45. 
^Cram's Universal Atlas, p. 269, 1893. 
^ Davis, W. M.: Elementary Meteorology, p. 338, 1894. 



56 KLINE : 

ern California, portions of Chili, etc. , are freed from extremes 
of temperature, winds, and floods and frequent undulations of 
atmospheric pressures. England, East China and Japan are 
lands whose climates, though in the great land areas or just 
adjacent to them, are tempered and uniformed by sea winds 
and currents. In such countries, e. g,, Egypt, Japan, East 
China, Greece and Rome, are found the oldest and most per- 
manent institutions of man. In them civilization was cradled 
and wrought out the deeds that form the bulk of history. 

On the other hand the great land areas of the N. temperate 
zones are characterized by wide annual ranges of temperature, 
in some regions long drouths followed by short but heavy rain- 
fall, and by a wide spread and frequent undulations in atmos- 
pheric pressure.^ Such climates are found on the eastern and 
southern shores of the Baltic, the northern lands of Russia, 
northern and central Asia, and the large interior of North 
America stretching north of the Missouri and northwest of the 
Great Lakes. The Steppes of Turkestan, the great desert of 
Gobi and Takla-Makin^ with moving dunes of sand, portions 
of Arabia and Persia are all dry lands with a relative large 
range of temperature. 

The uncertain changeable geographico-climatic conditions of 
these land areas, it seems, would foster and emphasize the sev- 
eral migrating traits already surveyed, would furnish just the 
right stimuli to set agoing from time to time the old migrating 
instinct implanted in the race in prehistoric times. Such lands 
cradled the Tartar, the Hun, Visigoth, Vandals, the Bedouin — 
the children of want and hard circumstances, the hardy, 
brawny, restless races, in whose blood there is a good mixture 
of iron, and which have come forth periodically to destroy the 
luxurious and the wealthy,* to lay in ashes the arts and culture 
that flourish where the forces of nature are more uniform and 
less rigorous. At the present time, according to Tarde* and 
Below, the life of the pastoral people in the Sahara, as on the 
plateau of central Asia, is passed in circular migrations, re- 
turning to their points of departure. He thinks that caravan 
life, like sea life, has incited others to a roving life through 
imitation. Commerce conducted in any form whatever, as 
caravans, railways or ships, is a powerful stimulus to wander- 

1 For physiological effects of elevated climates, frec^uent undulations 
in atmospheric pressure, etc., see Hand-book of Medical Climatology, 
p. 6i, by Dr. S. Edwin Sully, also Warren P. Lombard in Amer. Jour. 
Psy., Vol. I, pp. 5-71. 

^Heden, Dr. Sven : McClure's Magazine, Dec, '97. **It was all 
sand-moving dunes of sand. The days were very hot, the nights were 
bitterly cold. The air was full of dust." 

3Holworth, Sir H. H.: History of Monguls, Chap's Hand III, Part I. 

*Tarde, M. G.: Revue Scientifique, Vol. XI,V, p. 747, 1890. 



MIGRATORY IMPUI.SE. 



57 



ing. The tenacity with which trainmen cling to the railroad, 
the stolid backwardness shown by the Mississippi River steam- 
boat employees to quit boat life and enter other pursuits, are 
instances justifying Tarde's conclusions. A commercial peo- 
ple are cosmopolitan — rarely if ever homesick. It would seem 
that certain occupation predispose to restlessness and roving. 



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The Instinct in the Individual. The migratory instinct, to- 
gether with the comcomitant traits, so far as they can be 



58 KiviNE : 

made out in childhood and early youth, were treated at some 
length in my paper on Truancy.^ It remains to note briefly 
in the light of all that has preceded the role played by the 
instinct in maturer^ life. Our study thus far suggests that 
its germs are perhaps in every one — at least such is the view 
here adopted. The instinct is not an anomalous thing. It 
had a legitimate birth, and is an essential function of the soul. 
At what age or ages, under what conditions it will most prob- 
ably control one's activities, and what will be its form of ex- 
pression, /. e., whether seeking a fortune, love of adventure, 
or fleeing from restraint, or what not, are suggested from the 
returns of the questionnaire, — Rubrics I and II. 

For total number of cases of runaways, number of each sex, 
distribution according to age, and the relation between ages 
and the different causes for running away, see Table III and 
Chart IV. The manner of running off" is partly a function of 
age (Chart III). All children that run off from one to three do 
so impulsively.^ Three to eight years shows a gradual falling 
in the impulse curve with a rise in the planning curve (Chart 
III). The child's growing interests and respect for home and 
parents' and the consequent desire to conceal his misdemeanors 
are probably factors at work here. From eight to twelve the 
curves are reversed. This corresponds roughly to the period 
of slow growth of brain, body, weight and height. It is a 
time, too, when the child partially slides out from under the sole 
care and companionship of parents, and sets up a social circle 
of his own. He is less sensitive and considerate to his parents' 
reproofs and wishes. Respect weakens, he waxes bold, ques- 
tions authority. This dare-devil spirit may account for the 
child doing things impulsively, openly and above board. The 
ways and manner of leaving home, however, multiply with 
age. The curves (Charts III and IV) showing the relation 
between ages and different causes for leaving, are based on too 
small a number to merit a detailed description; they do, how- 
ever, emphasize this fact, that childhood and youth are affected 
differently by the same causes, and further that the causes in- 

1 Truancy as Related to the Migratory Instinct : Ped. Sem., Vol. V, 
No. 3, 1898. 

2 It is needless to say that the data for a thorough study is yet to be 
collected. There is much literature of an idealized sort, descriptive 
of the professional tramp. But the tramp by no means expresses all 
of the roving instinct — not all wanderers are tramps. Indeed, if ad- 
hering to fixed habits, customs and conditions excludes the roving 
instinct, then the tramp is not dominated by the migratory impulse, 
for he is exceedingly staid in all his ways. A study of tramps and 
vagrants, then, will not suffice our present purpose. 

3 See cases and comment: Ped. Sent., Vol. V, No. 3, pp. 387-90. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 59 

crease as the indivividual comes to sustain wider and wider 
relations with society. For example, injured feelings in child- 
hood may arise through an unfavorable comparison of their 
lot with that of their playmates, and from real bodily wrongs, 
or from objective conditions and processes while the feelings 
of adolescence are generally disturbed by subjective and imag- 
inative conditions. His moulting ego is excessively sensitive 
to personal rights and honor, his good intentions are misin- 
terpreted. The injured feeling curve attains its maximum in 
the fifteenth year. Again, childhood and adolescence are 
affected diametrically opposite by solitude. The former flees 
from loneliness, the latter often seeks it. Childhood goes to 
nature (Chart IV) for companionship, adolescence for solitude. 
Probably one of the most faithful sources of wandering in 
adolescence is restricted liberty, or impatience under restraint. 
The following are two cases from more than a hundred bearing 
on this point. 

1 . F. , 34. " Until I was twelve, I cannot recall having ever gone from 
home with pleasure, but during my early teens I began to feel a sense 
of oppression from remaining at home which became highly accentu- 
ated by the age of fifteen. I was then allowed to leave home to teach 
a little rural school. The sense of freedom I experienced was intoxi- 
cating (and not mildly). Yet I was under no real restraint at home. 
I simply felt restrained there. I think I had an irritating desire to 
find how I alone stood with the world, to feel myself detached from 
all that bound me. During this time I thought much of ' independ- 
ence,' delighted in long lonely walks — often pictured to myself the 
freedom of the gypsy and delighted greatly in all tales and poems 
idealizing the gypsy girl." 

2. F. " The noise of a city and the crowds of people always make 
me impatient to get away. I don't like even a day with houses in 
front of me — even brown stone, vine wreathed, is a burden to my 
spirit. I can get along in a very small room for myself and my 
belongings but I must have some space outside my window. When I 
had to live in the city I had such longings to escape that I would take 
a car in dead of winter and go to the end of the route and then walk 
until there was not a house or a person in sight and so get my 
equilibrium." 

A Student of tramps and vagrants writes me : 
"It is my impression that the narrow, cramped conditions under 
which boys often live, without sufficient variety and wholesome 
interests in their lives, is responsible for much of the constant recruit- 
ing in the ranks of the tramp army. It is unnatural for young people 
to live a life of dead monotony, and the boy who breaks away in sheer 
desperation, without an education to equip him for any better life, 
soon drifts to trampdom and becomes irreclaimable to serious life." 

While the charms of travel woo many to a roving life, trav- 
elling, especially on water, cures many of a roving passion. 
The following are from 280 cases of Rubric IV on the charms 
of travel : 

Charms of Travei<. 3. M., 26. "I enjoy a walk into far away 
country places for the sake of the sensation of delicious freedom, of 



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MIGRATORY IMPUI^E. 6 1 

the perfect mental abandonment. One feels as if he had shaken off 
the dead weight of mental contact, and the far off stretches of country- 
promise more of the same kind of liberty." 

4. M., 24. " I like being aboard a ship for the feeling of endless 
space and a sort of liberation from conventions that it brings. A 
long walk into a new part of the country has a charm for me. And 
I have enjoyed herding cattle on the prairie because it set me free 
from self -consciousness." 

5. F., 33. " Have often felt as though the house, although comfor- 
table and handsome, was choking me, and the moment I got my foot 
on the doorstep for a walk, even though a deep snow prevailed, I felt 
better. I feel intense pleasure when walking in the twilight — alone, 
have an elasticity of step and elation which makes me wish twilight 
would last for hours so that I could walk miles. Am in no sense a 
gad-about, and I hate call-making, but cannot hear the whistle of a 
locomotive without a tingling of the blood and a longing to be off — 
indefinitely, anywhere. Have led a sedentary life." 

6. F., 21. " Either a trip on the ocean or a long ride on the train 
has great interests for me. The former soothes, puts me at peace with 
the whole world ; the latter excites me, I feel boisterous, can hardly 
keep still, no matter how peaceful the scenery, it seemed that I 
could always see something wild about it, something that answered 
to my feelings." 

7. M., 26. ** The chief interest of travel to me is the seeing of new 
things. My hobby in the way of change is to get out into the country 
for about two days at a time, drop everything, cut loose from every 
thought that binds me to my work and walk in the woods. With me 
there is a peculiar emotional tone that goes with thoughts of travel." 

8. M., 30. ** The novelty of seeing new things and having new ex- 
periences are the attractions of travel. I sometimes get tired of 
habitual surroundings — I think from the monotony and sameness of 
repeated experiences." 

9. F., 16. "A day's walk through the woods has the greatest 
charm for me. The freedom, the wildness, the quietness, the birds, 
flowers, all answering to an inner feeling of joyousness ; a feeling of 
being at hotne with nature." 

10. F., 20. " The new sights. I like, too, the onward motion, the 
feeling that I am going." 

11. F., 19. "I think I never had a desire to run away, but some- 
times in spring I have had desire to go for a walk by myself ; I have 
gone to walk through the fields and woods. It seems as though I 
wished to enjoy it alone and not speak to any one." 

12. M., 20. "In my experience the bicycle has held the most 
interest in the charms of travel. It is akin to flying, the swift motion 
and delightful breezes fanning your head are pleasant sensations." 

The thirst for travel is a product of a nexus of factors. In 
our 280 returns, however, two groups of motives have domi- 
nated. First they show that travelling is a favorite means to 
destroy monotony, it breaks up the tedium of the hour ; it 
shelves old experiences and sensations, that have induced a 
sort of mental cramp or fatigue. Travelling relieves this 
cramp by furnishing a superior sort of new psychical and 
bodily activities ; second, they indicate strongly that the 
desire to experience sensations of motion is unique among 
human passions. Josiah Flynt says : ' ' The possibility of 



62 KI,INB : 

riding everywhere afforded by our net work of railways is 
alluring to the boy and often wins many to trampdom." 
Shaler thinks the love of adventure (chart IV) can best be 
satisfied by going to sea. 

The sensation of motion, as yet but little studied from a 
pleasure-pain standpoint, is undoubtedly a pleasure giving 
sensation. For Aristippus the end of life is pleasure which he 
defines as gentle motion. Motherhood long ago discovered its 
virtue as furnished by the cradle. Galloping to town on the 
parental knee is a pleasing pastime in every nursery. The 
several varieties of swings, the hammock, see-saw, flying- 
jenny, merry-go-round, shooting-the-chute, sailing, coasting, 
rowing and skating, together with the fondness ^ of children for 
rotating rapidly in one spot until dizzy, and for jumping from 
'high places, are all devices and sports to stimulate the sense of 
motion. In most of these modes of motion the body is passive 
or semi-passive, save in such motions as skating and rotating 
on the feet. The passiveness of the body precludes any im- 
portant contribution of stimuli from kinaesthetic sources. 
The stimuli are probably furnished, as Dr. Hall and others 
have suggested, by a redistribution of fluid-pressures (due to 
the unusual motions and positions of the body) to the inner 
walls of the several vascular systems of the body. 

I^ove of adventure (see table III chart IV) is apparently 
prompted by a variety of motives, e. g. , by rebellion against 
restraint, love of freedom, of travel, thirst for knowledge, 
chivalry ; and also by the dare-devil, iconoclastic spirit that 
revels in the unexpected and courts fortune through the factors 
of lottery and chance. 

Rubrics I, II, concerning runaways, and IX and XI, pertain- 
ing to homesickness, etc. , are treated in a comparative way 
(table IV) as interesting from a sociological standpoyit and 
as a further introduction to the material of section C. 

Probably the most general and fundamental group of facts 
are those pertaining to the home and parents. The percentage 
of orphans in both lovers of home and runaways are compara- 
tively small. 

Tenanting is much more common among parents of run- 
aways — 35% as against i8% for lovers of home. The 
conditions of the home are classified into poor, moderate, 
comfortable and bountiful. The largest number of homes in 
both groups belong to the comfortable class. An examination 
of all the classes shows that the runaways bear by far the 
greatest number of inferior homes in an economic sense. 

1 Hall, G. Stanley : Study of Fears : Am, Jour. Psy., Vol. VIII, 
No. 2, p. 157. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 



63 



Nineteen per cent, of the runaways come from poor homes as 
opposed to no per cent, of home lovers. It is unnecessary 
to comment on the rest of the items compared — the table is 
self-explanatory. 

Tabi,e IV. 

Showing the comparative sociological conditions, traits, etc., of five 
hundred (500) runaways and two hundred and twenty-five (22^) 
lovers of home (ages 1-20 years). 



Runaways. 


Per cent. 


lyOVERS OF HOME. Per cent. 


r Both living 


86 


80 


Parents.-^ Partially orphans 


II 








16 


( Wholly orphans 


3 








3 


Do not own their homes . 


35 








18 


r Poor 


19 











Conditions! Moderate 


30 








6 


of home. 1 Comfortable . 


40 








58 


Bountiful 


II 








23 


Not affectionate . 


45 








9 


Physically defective . 


12 











Numerical [?"f" , ' 
relation in J Youngest . 


23 
25 








20 

32 


the family. \%^^^^ ; 


23 
28 








2 
45 


Sensitive .... 


62 








90 


Demonstrative 


60 








32 


Laugh easily 


70 








79 


Cry easily .... 


62 








73 


Generous .... 


74 








87 


Careless in dress 


52 








10 


I/ike crowds 


79 








36 


Shun crowds 


21 








64 


Careful of property 


61 








90 


Regards others rights 


. 64 








93 


Made no collection 


45 








12 


Persistent in tasks 


74 








85 



Summary. 

The discussion of migration of animals indicates that the 
most general initiative factor that disturbs the psycho-physio- 
logical adjustments is the procreative function, but that the 
mode and time of its operation is greatly modified by cosmic 
forces. 

We do not trace with equal certainty the operation of the 
same factors in the same order and effectiveness in originating 
and controlling the instinct in man for the obvious reasons that 
he has freed himself to a great extent from these archaic 
forces and in a measure controls them ; besides he has set up a 
social cosmos, as it were, of his own that must be obeyed. 
Despite these hindrances, however, we do get traces here and 
there of the persistency and eflfectiveness of the inner, the 
cosmic and the social forces involved in the differentiation 



64 KI,INE : 

of the instinct. The movements of primitive man were con- 
trolled, in all probability, by the distribution of certain foods, 
by the physical geography of the country, and by the change 
of seasons. The factors of climatology together with the 
topography of the country have greatly controlled, if not 
actually touched oflf, the instinct as seen in historic migrations. 

The passions for local roving, " gadding about," frequent 
moving and gypsy ing is a reassertion of the old psychoses that 
was formed when to know friend and foe were essential to self- 
preservation, and when the highest conditions of lot aud chance 
were assiduously courted. Spring fever, ennui, psycho-physi- 
ological disturbances of spring, and of the lunar as well as cer- 
tain solar periods, then, too, the vernal increase in the num- 
ber of marriages and in the number of illegitimate births ; the 
. strengthening of the love of adventure, for independence and 
freedom at the onset of puberty ; the greatest number of run- 
away adolescents occurring in the spring — all alike point to 
the general conclusion that the procreative functions and their 
irradiations and cosmic periodicities are joint factors in the 
differentiation of the migratory instinct. They are the factors 
that have ever periodically disturbed whatever adjustment that 
man may have effected with his environment on a vegetative 
basis. 

Finally, the migratory instinct is general, if not universal. 
It is merely a matter of degree — sometimes very slight, too — 
from the mental throes, perturbations and secret threats of 
leaving home by the adolescent to their actual occurrence. The 
gradual passage from the adolescent who fights and smothers 
these several subjective upheavals and remains at home, or 
from the one who subdues the desire for change and continually 
adjusts himself to present tasks to the one who is overcome and 
breaks away is paralleled by the fine shades from sanity to in- 
sanity, or from the feint inner thoughts of to the actual com- 
mitting of crime. ^ 

We are not then dealing with anomalous elements and char- 
acters. The germs and even at times the full fruition are in 
us all, partly as a heritage and partly acquired. (See cases 
I and 2.) 

1 Ferri, E. : Criminal Sociology, p. 43 — "Every man, however pure 
and honest he may be, is conscious now and then of a transitory no- 
tion of some dishonest or criminal action. But with the honest man, 
exactly because he is physically and morally normal, this notion of 
crime which simultaneously summons up the idea of its grievous conse- 
quences, glances off the surface of the moral conscience . . . with the 
man who is less normal and has less forethought, the notion dwells and 
finally prevails." 



MIGRATORY IMPUIvSK. 65 

SECTION C. 
I.OVK OF HOME. 

The love of home is indeed an archaic theme in literature. 
An activity of the soul that arose very probably soon after the 
sex broad-ax dichotomized organic life. To build a home, fur- 
nish and protect it absorb the quintescence of the energies of 
the greater part of living species^ The instinct is expressed 
oftentimes in an unmistakable manner by the unnatural and 
waning activities of wild animals in captivity longing to return 
to their familiar haunts. 

Werwom^ found that many lowly forms of pelagic life, 
although under the very best conditions, decrease considerably 
in volume in a few days, many die within less than a week. 
He kept heroes alive three weeks. One beroe that measured 
2 cm. long, after 14 days captivity was only 6 mm. long. 

^ Young shows that in vessels of the same shape the larger 
the area of the vessels, the greater the growth of tadpoles con- 
fined therein. *De Varigny has found the same to be true of 
the pond snail. He interprets this dwarfing as a physiological 
or mechanical impedimenta to movements, i.e., he would make 
free exercise one of the functions of growth. Darwin observes 
that insular animals are smaller than their continental congen- 
ers. For instance, in the Canary Islands the oxen of one of 
the smallest islands are much smaller than those of the others, 
although all belong to the same breed ; the same is true of their 
horses. Spencer says ' * It is well known by all anglers that 
trout and other fishes are small in small streams and large in 
larger rivers." 

According to Bates, only one of the largest species of the South 
American turtles will live long in captivity, the smaller ones 
die in a few days. Snapping turtles generally refuse food and 
remain shy and fierce, but taken young can be brought to feed. 
Sea snakes cannot be kept alive many days even in salt water. 
The vipers all vomit their food after being taken captives and 
will seldom take any further nourishment except water. ^Jordan 
found that female newts kept in confinement all winter were not 
so apt to lay eggs in the spring as those freshly captured. The 

1 The agricultural achievements of the ant common in several lands^ 
the variety of architectural designs for the home and the certainty 
and cleverness of their execution as seen in the life history of ants, 
bees, fish, birds and both lower and higher mammals, furnish abun- 
dant examples of the large bulk of animal activities exerted for the 
realization of a and its belongings. 

^Werworn: Plfiig. Archiv., Vol. L, 1891, pp. 439-440. 

3 Young : Arch, des Sci. Phys. et Nat., Vol. XIV, 1885. 

*De Varigny : Experimental Evolution. 

^Jordan : Habits and Developments of Newts, Jour. Morphology, 
Vol. VIII, pp. 269-366. 

JOURNAI,— 5 



66 KI.INE : 

duckbill ^ and pouched mole in spite of all care and attention 
live but a very short time in captivity. Hartmann, Chaillou 
and others give several instances of young monkeys dying soon 
after capture. Captured adult pumas ^ invariably pine away 
and die. Delboeuf ^ allowed two different species of lizards 
to run together in his laboratory for over two years. One dis- 
appeared suddenly fot three weeks, during which time the 
second one refused all food, and had no relish for insects and 
earthworms until the absent one returned. A species of snake 
(pelias berus) usually refuses all food ; but if the floor of its 
cage is made to look like its native moor it will sometimes feed 
voluntarily. Cornish ^ says nearly all animals dislike solitude 
and confinement. Tame hawks and falcons, if kept alone in a 
room mope and lose condition, and in some species a suicidal 
instinct is developed. Merlins kept in solitary confinement 
destroy their claws and toes. 

These citations, though by no means exhaustive, illustrate 
that not only forcible curtailing or limiting conditions for ex- 
ercise, but a sudden change of environment, feeding grounds 
or even loss of companionship will cause dwarfing, sickness 
and even death to wild animals. 

Instances ^ of the love for home among domestic animals and 
their intense mental sufferings when away per force were given 
in Section A. 

Some of the factors making for the love of home in man are 
set forth in the cases below. ^ 

1. F., 19. ** I think that the order is mother first, father and broth- 
er equally. I like to think of my surroundings, at home in this order, 
the sittng-room, the two maples in the yard, the brook and the sur- 
rounding hills." 

2. F., 20, "The elements in my own love of home are first my 
father, then sister, brothers, the house, and familiar spots on the 
farm." 

3. F., 17. **. . . Father and mother and next my sister and brother — 
then the home feeling which I have but which I cannot possibly ex- 
plain." 

The family as a whole or the member in the manner given 
in these three cases, of course, take precedence over all other 
elements in all the returns, therefore, they are omitted in the 
rest of the cases. 

4. F., 25. Scenery and past association. 

5. F., 20. House, water, hills, trees, familiar ways of life. 

6. F., — . House, natural scenery, familiar ways of life. 

1 Bennett, G.: Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia, i860. 

■^ Hudson : The Naturalist in La Plata, p. 44. 

^Delboeuf, J.: Pop. Sci. Month., Vol. L, pp. 395-99, 1897. 

*Cornish, C. J.: Animals at Work and Play, '96, pp. 31-38. 

° Selected at random from 200 answers to Rubric XIII of Syllabus. 

^ Selected at random from 160 answers to Rubric X of Syllabus. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 67 

7. F., — . Friends, location and familiar scenes. 

8. F., 18. House, hills, and mode of living. 

9. F., 25. Natural scenery and associations connected with it. 

10. M., 19. Of my father, mother, brother, it would be hard to 
tell which I love most. They are all a part in my life. But of the 
house and surroundings, hills and valleys, there is that lasting feeling 
which ties me to it. 

11. F., 21. Hill, trees, and natural scenery around my own home 
seem dearer to me than those of any other place. 

12. M., 25. Familiar ways of life, all the familiar parts of the 
house ; its nooks and crannies, where old associations and memories 
cluster thick as swarming bees ; the plot of ground about the house, 
and lastly the outlook from its doors and windows, such as hills, trees, 
lawns, etc. 

13. F., 22. The room where we sit together evenings, my own 
room, my bird and other household pets, the scenery, especially the 
mountains. 

14. M., 22. House itself, trees that stand before it, a hill back of 
it. 

15. F., 26. Familiar books and furniture, and the sincerity and 
naturalness of home relations. 

16. M., 27. Habit I think enters strongly into my love of home — 
accustomed faces, furniture, surroundings, etc. 

17. M., 30. Familiar haunts, chance to relax and feel easy. 

18. F., 21. Distant hills, domestic animals and pets, home habits 
and family ways. 

19. F., 22. The house itself because I was born there — then the 
woods and fields, which abound in nooks so pleasant to me, familiar 
ways of the people about the town. 

20. F., 18. Naturalness of home life, the cozy surroundings, 'trees, 
flowers, the peaceful river and sceneries, the sociability of friends. 

21. F., 18. Ways of the home, everything seems familiar, the good 
times we all have together, freedom of the home, always open to my 
friends and all friends of the family. 

Ninety per cent, of the cases are females. By far the great 
majority (62%) rank mother first, father second (30%). 
Some (3.7%) say that the members of the family do not sep- 
arate out into individual preferences. They regard the family, 
as a whole, the strongest factor. Two per cent, rank parents 
first, followed by other members of the family. A very few 
( I % ) think a brother or sister is first choice. Females have 
more preferences among members of the household, or, at 
least, hesitate less to undertake an analysis. 

After members of the family the most common element is 
the natural scenery about the home (85%). This^ consists of 
garden, lawn, familiar spots on the farm, trees, grove, river, 
brook, lakes, water falls, hills, distant mountains. Then, too, 
sunrise and sunset — on the prairie, or on the mountain, or 
from my window. The house itself (70%). Because I was 
born there — always been my home, its cozy rooms, especially 
my room, all my things are there. Familiar ways (65%), 

1 Per cents are estimated on the number of times the.factors are men- 
tioned. 



68 



KI.INK : 



the sincerity and naturalness of home life, the home ' ' feeling, ' ' 
quiet way and way we do it, time for meals, table manners, 
evening chats. Freedom of the ho7ne (43%), place to relax 
and feel easy, absence of restraint by strangers, freedom to talk 
without fear of offending, to go where and when I please, free 
use of all the house. Relatives and friends (25%), genial 
ways, interested in me, good times together. The relative 
strength of these several elements is illustrated diagramatically 
in Diagram II. One is surprised at finding sympathy so low 
among the elements enumerated. Phrases like the following 
occur : Sympathy for my work ; for my troubles ; for my in- 
clination ; for my plans. 

Diagram II. 
Showing the relative values of a few elements in the love of home. 



Parents 
Scenery 
House 

Familiar ways 

Freedom 

Relatives, friends 

Animals 

Pleasant memories 

Furniture 

Sympathy 

One of the Family 

Religion and Church 

Out-door life 



Cheerfulness 



The love of home, it appears, is a complex of at least three 
general groups of factors : first, the personnel of the family ; 
second, the variety of home life, both as to activities and 
material objects, especially objects in nature ; third, the rela- 
tion of the first two groups to self. If this relation is one in 
which the self-regarding interests have been administered to, 
the intensity of home love is usually a strong one. 

It is noteworthy that those whose home affections are ex- 
clusively for members of the family, were the children of 
parents that moved frequently, or lived in tenement flats, and 
thus were robbed of the associations of trees, hills, mountains, 
lakes, and so on. The following cases are typical : 

22. F., 25. "My love of home is almost entirely personal, as we 
live in New York city flats." 

23. F., 21. "I love my home because it is the place where my 



MIGRATORY IMPUI^E. 69 

mother and father live. The hills do not especially strike my sense 
of the beautiful or thejpicturesque, as they only vary from about four 
inches to one foot in height. We have one tree in our yard, and it 
would not take very long to count the leaves on it. The natural 
scenery consists of rows of brick houses." 

24. F., — . " My love of home is very strong, but I don't know 
that I can specify the elements in it. I think it cannot be the house 
or natural scenery, for until I was about grown I had never lived more 
than a year or two at the same place (being an itinerant preacher's 
daughter). I grew up with the feeling that wherever papa and 
mamma were was home." 

25. F., 33. " I have known three homes. All handsome. In two 
of them my position was that of sister, in the third, wife. I find that 
the sense of home exists only with the sense of personal possession and 
responsibility, and congenial ways of life.''' 

Some factors lying apparently at the basis of the affections 
for home are emphasized by answers to Rubric IX. Bigbty 
per cent, of the cases (104) are females. 

26. F., 20. " Always hated to stay away from home, feeling that 
something might happen to my people, or that my mother might die 
before my return." 

27. F., 18. Until within a few years past never objected to be 
away from home. Ivost her father at 12, and since then will only very 
reluctantly leave her mother over night. 

28. F., 15. Would never go out to parties or out with other girls. 
At her mother's wish she packed her trunk and made ready to spend 
a summer vacation in the country. She started several times, broke 
out crying each time, and finally gave it up. 

29. F., 22. Gets homesick away over night even with her sister. 

30. M., 38. Very systematic in habits, does everything by clock- 
work. Sociable and full of fun, but never goes away from home even 
for a night. Has been in the same ofiice for 20 years. As a boy did not 
care to gad about the streets. 

31. " Common thing for people of middle life to say it is an effort 
for them to get away from home, and that they can sleep better in 
their own beds. Know a lady of 25 who never likes to go on a vaca- 
tion. A week away seems very long, .... is not happy or at 
ease until in her home again." 

32. M., 30. Very conscientious, an indefatigable worker, could 
never rest away from home unless his family were with him. Wants 
but a few friends. 

33. M., 64. Does not like to be with crowds, never stayed away 
from home many nights in his life, dislikes to get out sight of the 
house. 

34. F., 17. A regular home girl, good housekeeper and manager. 
Dislikes to meet strangers. When 12 or 13 would go occasionally to 
spend the night with a cousin, but scarcely found sleep. She seemed 
to be attacked with all the horrors of homesickness, would cry nearly 
all night. Afraid that mother might die that night. 

35- I^-» 55- Married and lived on a farm, no family. She and her 
husband very often do not speak for weeks. She is fond of company, 
but never leaves home except to go to the market. She is very am- 
bitious to make money. I think that is why she stays at home so 
closely. She is afraid to leave home lest something might go to ruin. 

36. F., 88. Has, and always has had the intensest love for her lit- 
tle wee shabby home. She cannot bear to be away from it a moment 
just for sheer love of it. Just as a loving mother cannot bear to leave her 



70 KI,INE : 

little baby. She cares for it in a way that is almost caressing in its 
fondness and prettiness. She permits no one to do a thing for her. 
She cleans it, scrubs it, and keeps it dainty with the utmost joy. I 
know from things she has said to me that it would pain her to have any 
of her dearly beloved house utensils carelessly used or handled. She 
once gave me a pretty piece of old-fashioned ware because she said that 
her grandchildren would be likely to break it if it was left to them, 
and she did not like to think of it ever being broken. 

Last summer (her 88th year) she made her own garden, planted 
and hoed it. She had it plowed, but that was all. She could not bear 
to have any one touch it but herself. Her two sons, who live near by, 
would gladly do everything for her. Whenever I go there she takes 
me all over the little baby house, down cellar, into the woodshed, the 
pantry, shows me her cistern, her dishes and everything, just as we 
used to show off our playhouses when children. She is a woman of 
exquisite, native refinement ; her thoughts are all very poetic and lovely 
thoughts. 

Section B (Table IV) calls attention to the home life of 
home lovers as usually congenial and quite comfortable in a 
material way. Their lives are industrious, quiet, uneventful, 
conservative. ^Guppy says : "It was the boast of a wealthy 
old Devonshire yeoman, 150 years ago, that he had never 
crossed the borders of his native country, and I cannot believe 
that in this respect he differed greatly from his fellows. . . 
This gave solidity of character to which the long persistence 
of families in the same locality and in the same stations is 
mainly due." They love order, fond of systematic work, and 
beheve that there is a virtue in doing things at fixed times. 
Some spend life happily in one place tinkering and puttering 
away at odd jobs. Cases 50, 54, 55 and 56, represent a large 
class that make few friends, retiring in disposition ; dread 
meeting strangers, entering a new place, or even sleeping in a 
strange bed ; are in constant dread when among strangers 
either of boring some one or getting bored. They have more 
fears than rovers and gad-abouts. Although they shun crowds, 
hospitality and open friendship are found at their homes. 
Many are fond of company, and delight in the duties of hostess. 

Habit, born of necessity, doubtless explains much of the 
phenomena. Some are suddenly and almost pitifully attached 
to their homes through some shock occasioned by a death in 
the family (case 48), or by sickness contracted away from, or 
by some other unexpected misfortune. They come to feel that 
to leave home will in some mysterious way precipitate a dire 
calamity. This feeling and nervousness often becomes so in- 
tense at leaving that the journey is abandoned. Thus sorrow 
and disappointment may greatly intensify the home feeling. 
The dread of meeting persons, shunning the effort to bear 
up the ' * dead weight ' ' of the presence of strangers, the fear 

^Guppy, H. B.: The Homes of Family Names. 



MIGRATORY IMPUIjSE. 7 1 

of not being welcome, of injuring some one's feelings indicate, 
at least, a strong coincidence between the fear of persons and 
the love of home. Dr. Hall ^ finds that the fear of persons 
ranks third, exceeded only by the fear of thunder storms and 
reptiles. 

They may grow homesick or timid or their resolution to stay 
away may break down at the approach of night. They are 
afraid " mother might die " (case 56) ; something " at home 
might go to ruin" (case 57) ; "something fatally done" 
(case 45), or that they will never see home again, that they 
themselves may die that night. One after returning home 
examines every shrub and flower in the yard to see if they are 
unharmed (case 34), another goes straight to her room to see 
if all her things are as she had left them, and so on. May not 
this unusual unrest and anxiety about home and its belongings 
be a remnant of the bitter and costly experience that man along 
with so many other species must have sufiered through the 
neglect of properly guarding or hiding the home. 

Many species of life must have had some such experience, 
otherwise the origin of the widespread instinct to post sentinels 
or place some obstacle in the way of approach to the home is 
still unsolvable.^ The home of whatever species, being the 
center of family possessions has always been the one tempting 
object for attack and pillage. Even civilization like modern 
frontier life is not without its lessons of wrecked homes in the 
absence of its natural protectors. It would be a wonder if 
these bitter experiences during the evolution of the home from 
the ill-provised tent of the nomad to the modern brown front 
had left no trace upon the soul. 

The feeling of comfort and ease based on habit, ^ familiarity 
and freedom is nowhere fostered as in the home. The feeling 
that our ways are better ways, the difficulty to adopt one's self 
to other ways of life than those learned in childhood are just 
so much data on the general laws of habit. It weds every one 
of us to the manners, nooks and crannies, hills, valleys, lakes 
and forests of our own home and neighborhood. The sense of 
familiarity so frequently mentioned is but a function of habit. 
We like the feel of things, welcome under all circumstances, 
the "warmth and intimacy," the naturalness of home rela- 
tions. What is this naturalness but a maximum reduction of 
friction through habit ? Along with familiarity runs a deeper 

iHall, G. Stanley : Amer.Jour. Psy., Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1897. 

2 Ants, bees, species of fish like the stickleback, species of birds, 
monotremes, prairie dogs, many herbivorous and several species of 
monkeys post sentinels to give the danger signal or do battle for the 
home when attacked by the enemy. 

^James, William : Psychology, Vol. I. 



72 KI,INE : 

feeling, that of freedom. At home I can do what I like, have 
a chance to relax and feel easy, and throw off conventional 
restraint. 

The fact that natural scenery ranks next to members of the 
family as a factor in the love of home justifies further investi- 
gation — far more than this paper contemplates. 

There is little doubt now but that "gods^ of the early world 
are the rocks and the mountains, the trees, the rivers, the sea." 
The primitive mind did not even distinguish animate from in- 
animate objects, but both alike possessed life, passions and 
spirits. Along with this belief in the general animation of 
everything went the belief in metamorphosis. Their gods were 
creative. "In Greece^ the stories of the descent of man from 
gods stand side by side with ancient legends of men sprung 
from trees or rocks, or of races whose mother was a tree and 
their father a god. Similar myths, connecting both men and 
gods with animals, plants and rocks, are found all over the 
world and were not lacking among the Semites. ' ' In addition 
to being objects of worship, trees, rivers and mountains have 
always been favorite places for worship. The word kirk, now 
softened into church from quercus oak, indicates early religious 
use of trees. Preferences for certain waters in rituals is evi- 
denced by Naaman's indignation when he was told to bathe in 
the Jordan instead of the rivers of Damascus. Again we read : 
" The hour cometh when ye shall neither worship in this moun- 
tain . . . ." 

The application of flowers and plants to ceremonial purposes 
is of the highest antiquity. Of forests Coulter^ says : ' ' There 
is solemnity about them, a quiet grandeur, which is very im- 
pressive, and the rustling of their branches and leaves has that 
mysterious sound which caused the ancients to people them 
with spirits. We still recognize the feeling of awe that comes 
in the presence of forests." Rivers and springs, trees and 
plants have long administered to the ills of man. The moun- 
tains have furnished him shelter from storms and enemies. The 
feeling of the child and adolescent for stream and forest has 
already been indicated. Truly, the race has lost none of its 
attachment for these archaic friends. 

The love of home viewed from the standpoint of nostalgia 
adds emphasis to matter already presented and gives renewed 
interest to somewhat old psychological problems. Some typ- 
ical cases of nostalgia are presented, taken from 176 reports on 
that topic. Six per cent, of the members report as having never 
been homesick. Eighty-seven per cent, are females. This 

1 Fergusson : Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 54. 

2 Smith, W. Robertson : The Religion of the Semites, p. 86. 

3 Coulter, J. M.: Nature and Art, Vol. I, p. i, 1898. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 73 

large percentage I think is due to the fact that eighty-six per 
cent, of those that answered the syllabus were females. No 
sharp line can be drawn between loneliness and homesick- 
ness. The latter is oftentimes preceded by a brief period of the 
former. 

1. M., 4. Whose parents had moved to a new neighborhood, said 
even before the house furniture had been put in order, "Let 'stake 
the cows and go back home." 

2. M., 5. Became very lonely and homesick to return to the old 
home from which parents had just moved. When questioned why he 
wished to return, said, "I want to get my playthings." They consist- 
ed of a stick horse, a few pebbles and broken dishes. 

3. F., 21. " When I first entered school I was homesick for several 
weeks. If lessons were hard and I found much difficulty in mastering 
them, I would get a longing for home that would not leave me until 
after a night's sleep." 

4. F., 19. " Have never experienced intense feelings of homesick- 
ness, although I have longed to be at home at times when dissatisfied 
with my surroundings or my work. The feeling wore off with in- 
creased interest in my work." 

5. F., 20. Experienced homesickness only for a short time and 
then it was mostly due to lack of employment. 

6. M.. 5. Went to stay all night with a neighbor only a few rods 
away from home. Became so homesick that he had to be carried home 
even in the night. 

7. F. "At about eight visited an aunt. At night I would cry my- 
self to sleep thinking of the pleasant ways at home, I felt forsaken 
and forgotten, worried about accidents that might happen at home. 
I was afraid some one would die before getting home." 

8. M., 21. "At 10 went to spend the night away from home for the 
first time. Made it all right during the day. At night was seized 
with a tremendous longing to be at home. I was helping to shell 
peas, put one in my mouth but could not swallow, I felt so badly. 
Without saying a word put on my hat and walked home two miles in 
the dark." 

9. M., 19. "Could not eat, whenever I would try I would choke 
up. Felt sick all over. Did not want to say anything — was thinking 
of home all the time — could not think of anything else. There was 
sort of a smarting sensation in my stomach, and I felt faint.''' 

10. F., 18. (First term in boarding school.) ''Ifelt dazed and 
for a long time I could not realize why I was where I was." 

11. M., 24. "I cried every day for three weeks about sundown. 
I could not tell why I cried, for I had been very anxious to go away 
to boarding school and would not have gone home had I had the 
opportunity." 

12. F., 10. "I used always to get homesick if separated from my 
mother ; but if she left me at home, it was not so bad as when I left 
home — suppose the familiarity of home surroundings lessened the 
sickness." 

13. F., 22. "At 12 while in school became homesick and finally 
ill. The physician said their could be no marked improvement while 
I remained from home, as that was my one thought. I had not been 
home but a few hours when I ate a hearty meal and slept well, and in 
one week was well again, while the day I came home I had to be 
carried up stairs." 

14. "All new girls at this school were placed in the back part of 
the hall, which was dark and gloomy. Looking out of my window I 



74 KI.INE : 

could see any number of tin roofs, chimneys, back-yards, and servants 
passing in and out. These sights together with the coldness of the 
older students made me dreadfully homesick." 

15. F., 22. At seven stayed away from home a week, could not 
eat anything and was always looking to see some house or scenery 
that looked like home. 

16. F., 10. Was sent away to a school for girls — she was eager to 
go. Enjoyed the change at first but soon gave way to extreme home- 
sickness. At the end of three months of school life she had become 
really ill — was very thin, ate almost nothing, had a heavy cough and 
was believed to have consumption. She was sent home and recovered 
in a few days. 

17. F., 18. " Got along well during the day, but at nightfall 
would choke up and when the crickets, the "Katydids" (cicadae) 
and the low wind began to make a noise I broke down and cried my- 
self to sleep." 

18. "I was homesick once, at home, too, — (father and mother had 
gone away for some time). I was all alone in the old house. The 
feeling was similar to nausea only in a less degree with such a longing 
for some one to come." 

19. F., 18. "I lost my appetite, could not be comforted, did not 
wish to talk, would get dizzy when I walked across the floor." 

20. F., 23. " Do not lose my ambition to work but feel doleful, 
lose my appetite, so that I almost come down sick. Have a bad feel- 
ing all the time in the region of my stomach which ceases with the 
homesicknes. I think homesickness is the most appalling thing 
under the sun. It swoops down on one before one knows it and you 
cannot get rid of it." > 

21. F., 17. " An indescribable longing. I seemed sick all inside 
myself and all choked up." 

22. F., 18. "I would always get sick at my stomach and often 
vomit. My family would laugh at me when I reached home and say 
it was homesickness. There is a feeling of pain, as well as I can 
locate, a little lower than my heart." 

23. F., 30. "I always have a smothering sensation — everything 
seems closing in on me." 

24. M., 22. "I feel melancholy, down hearted. There seems to 
be a lump in my throat — I feel that a good cry would help." 

25. M., 23. "I lost both appetite and weight, had to give up work 
and go home." 

26. F., 25. " My dreams of home make me homesick." 

27. F., 18. "I felt unloved and unloving to all around me and 
could only conceive of happiness at home." 

Age. Forty-three per cent, of these cases (166) occurred 
for the first time at ages 16, 17 and 18 years. Eighty per 
cent, occurred for the first time from ages 1 2 to and including 
18 years. The large number occurring at 16, 17 and 18 is due 
to the fact that conditions for homesickness were presented for 
the first time at these ages, e. g.^ entering school or college, 
taking a new position, entering the navy or army. 

Hack Tuke ^ thinks there are no general rules for its occur- 
rence in the different sexes, ages and temperament. Papillon^ 
says: ** Nostalgia attacks by preferences, young people and 

iTuke, Hack: Die. of Psy. Medicine, Vol. II, p. 858. 
2Papillon, Fernaud : Pop. Sci. Month., Vol. V, pp. 215-20, 1874. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 75 

those just entering youth, affecting all temperaments without 
distinction." 

'* Adolescence is really the age for predilection to nostalgia/' 
says Widal/ ** It is the age of delusion and of love. The 
young man is still under the influence of his childish memories 
which dispose him to recall the place where he has been happy 
and to magnify the charms of native land as soon as he 
encounters the first deception of life. ' ' An army ^ surgeon 
writing on the evils of youthful enlistment, and nostalgia 
says : "Among young prisoners of war it is the most compli- 
cated disease to be encountered. ' ' Both the French and German 
army surgeons confirm this view ; and all agree that fresh 
youthful troops from rural districts are often a positive hin- 
drance to the efficiency of an army because of their predi- 
lection to homesickness. Widal believes that there are vague 
signs of it in babyhood. "Although this affection may be 
incompatible with the infant, it is none the less true that, 
instinctively the nursing child is affected by all that surrounds 
it, and the tears which it sheds when one changes its food or 
removes its rattle are already vague feelings of nostalgia." 
My impression, based on medical literature and other material, 
is that in quality or intensity (cases 9, 25) nostalgia is just as 
severe and if allowed will lead to as fatal results before and 
after as those cases occurring in adolescence but that the latter 
is more predisposed to an attack than either childhood or man- 
hood. 

Sex. Tuke thinks no rules can be laid down regarding its 
relations to sex. Widal thinks woman is less subject to nos- 
talgia than man because she can enter into new conditions and 
receive new influences without herself suffering any great 
change. This notion squares with the general theory that she 
is more conservative than man. "Whatever may be the 
migration of woman her manner of life is less changed and 
like the ancient wanderers she carries her household gods 
with her." These are the reflections of a French army sur- 
geon who had studied nostalgia in camp, prisons and hospitals, 
all three presenting the pink of conditions for the ravages of 
the disease. Had he been a physician to a cotton or woolen 
factory, a female boarding school, or a modern normal school, 
it is probable that his notions would have been considerably 
modified. 

While the present study (eighty-seven per cent, females) 
indicates that women are more liable to the sickness, I hesitate 

1 V. Widal : Die. Bng. des Sci. Medicales, pp. 357-380. 
2 Peters, DeWitt C. (U. S. A. Surgeon); Am. Med. Times, Vol. VI, 
1863. 



76 KLINK : 

in the absence of a wider range of data to draw any conclu- 
sions on this point. 

Temperament and Nationality. It is generally agreed that 
the most diverse temperaments pay equal tribute to nostalgia, 
so that an attempt to make any classification on that basis 
is of no value. I find, however, that the majority of the 
cases are sensitive, not a few nervous, timid, sociable, affec- 
tionate; but they fear a crowd, dread meeting strangers, delight 
in the simplicity and shelter of domestic life. Another class 
occurring often enough to mention is the phlegmatic, the taci- 
turn. They are described as *' difficult to entertain," "prefer 
to be by themselves, " " interests are odd or provincial. ' ' 
They move in a self-created world. With but few exceptions 
the cases are Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock. A few pitiful 
cases of foreigners unable to speak our language are reported. 

A French writer says : ' * That every one imagines that his 
native soil is distinguished from others by signal favors, by 
particular and rare attributes, and that nature has need of this 
illusion in order to keep each man in his own home. ' ' Widal 
thinks that the predilection to nostalgia is inversely to the 
degree of civilization of a people. Sagos, quoted by ^Papillon, 
says ' * that love of country is strongest with those who are 
nearest to a state of nature." Savages living under the 
rudest forms of civilization, in the most uninviting climates, 
grieve when they quit them. A Lapp brought to Poland 
where every kindness was shown him, was seized with incur- 
able sadness, and at last escaped and returned to his inhospita- 
ble country. Greenlanders taken across to Denmark risk 
certain death by trusting themselves to slight canoes to cross 
the ocean separating them from their own land. Pocahontas, 
fondled and caressed by London society, grew homesick for 
Virginia's woods and finally wasted and pined away. The 
Psalmist^ records Israel's yearning for their Judean homes 
while captives in Babylon. " By the rivers of Babylon, there 
we sat down, yea we wept, when we remembered Zion. We 
hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. . . . 
How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land?" 

Nationality. Switzerland is the classic land of nostalgia. 
The love of freedom and independence of the inhabitants, their 
love of family life, the pure air of the mountains, the charm- 
ing scenery of which the accentuated outlines become etched 
into their very souls are all elements that make for love of 
home. Next come the French. The disposition to the dis- 
ease diminishes roughly in proportion as one advances toward 
the middle of the country^ (France). 

1 Papillon, Fernaud : lac. cit., p. 218. 

2 Psalm CXXXVII, Verses, i, 2, 4. 

3 Based upon thousands of cases in French military hospitals. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 77 

English and Germans leave their country with less reluc- 
tance than the citizens of other countries. More cases occur 
among German troops in foreign lands than among the 
English, whose adventurous and cosmopolitan spirit (his coun- 
try is wherever his flag floats), his commercial predilection 
immune him from nostalgia without removing in the least his 
attachment for his country. 

Dr. Peters^ describing the ravages of homesickness among 
fresh troops quartered in New Orleans (1862), says : "This 
was notably true of soldiers from New England, where it 
appeared that the love for home was very strong. ' ' 

Dr. Calhoun^ writes : * * It is a matter of common remark 
in this army that troops from the country have a much larger 
percentage of deaths than those recruited in the cities." He 
thinks that the peculiar susceptibility to nostalgia of those 
from rural districts is due to the fact that a country boy is 
more at home, seldom takes his meals at other than the family 
table, seldom sleeps away from home, has less temptation to 
leave it, and thinks more of it and its influences than he who 
in the city spends his days in the workshop or counting-room, 
and his nights at the thousand and one places of amusement a 
city afibrds ; then, too, the city boy gets his meals at the res- 
taurant or the boarding-house. 

Facilitating Conditions. By these I mean the variety of con- 
ditions in which nostalgia occurs and the factors that may 
aggravate it. Fifty per cent, of the cases reported occurred 
on entering school — even the first day of school. Others 
occurred while making a visit in the country from the city, or 
vice versa, or in beginning the first school, taking a new posi- 
tion among strangers, moving to a new neighborhood, to a 
foreign land, being left alone at home, taken sick away from 
home ; again seeing or meeting some one from home, or even re- 
ceiving a letter, is sufficient at times to touch off" the pent-up 
feelings. 

Idleness, the mother of a motley host of delinquent off"- 
spring, is exceedingly prolific in this disease (case 5). Among 
soldiers* and sailors, idleness, coupled with suspense and lim- 

iDr. Peters: lac. cit., pp. 75-6. 

2 Calhoun, Th. J.: Nostalgia as a disease of field service. Medical 
and Surgical Reporter, Vol. XI, p. 131, Phil., 1864. 

3 In military life the beginning and the close of service is marked by 
increased nostalgia. "When I took charge of the division they were 
losing men by death daily. That it was not due to local causes was 
proved by the fact that adjoining regiments exposed to the same local 
influences, lost none, and of the patients at our division hospital, 
with the same diseases (typho-malarial fever and camp dysentery), 
those from the 120th N. Y., Vols, died under the same treatment that 
the others got well on. The regiment is from one of the river counties 



78 KI.INE : 

ited freedom, is more than the ordinary soul can endure with 
equanimity. It wrings the cold sweat from the stoutest. 

According to my returns nightfall exceeds all other elements 
in aggravating and intensifying the sickness. (Cases 12, 16, 
18, 23, 35.) The stillness of the night, the chirping of 
crickets, the whispering of the leaves, the sough of the wind, 
new and strange noises, real or imagined, all intensify the 
gloom and forsakenness of the unfortunate. Dr. Hall's^ study 
of Fears emphasizes the wonderful horrors that night holds in 
store for so many, even though surrounded by every comfort 
and protection. Less frequent aggravations are the reception 
of letters and articles from home ; dreams about home ; the 
feeling of goneness on facing the real after awakening ; friends 
offering sympathy ; hearing a familiar song. So strong and 
disturbing was the influences of a certain air on Swiss soldiers 
in the service of the French that it was forbidden to be played 
in their hearing. 

Psychical Effects. It usually begins by feeling lonely, desolate, 
forsaken. ' * Longing for a lost past, " " low spirited, " * * loss of 
ambition, " " hard to cheer up, " "no interest in surround- 
ings." Desire to please, natural coquetry and regard for the 
opposite sex disappear. Some report: "I wanted to cry;" 
"wanted to scream ;" "cried most all the time ;" " cried my- 
self to sleep ;" " could think of nothing but home ;" " thought 
all the time on objects at home ;" " felt as if I would go in- 
sane." Sometimes it comes very suddenly. "It swooped 
down on me ;" "felt as though everything was closing in on 
me;" "there is a smothering sensation;" "feeling of utter 
despair came over me all at once. ' ' They may become icon- 
oclastic. " Wanted to destroy everything in my way ;" " had 
no mercy on man nor beast until I reached home." In its last 
stages hallucinations and delirium set in, followed by complete 
prostration, stupor, syncope and death. 

Bodily Phenomena. The three most general, if not universal 
effects, are (i) loss of appetite, (2) gastro-enteric troubles, 
(3) irregularity in respiration interrupted by sighing. Vague, 
erratic pains — variable in intensity — accompany all the symp- 
toms, and become more and more localized in the head and 
stomach. Vomiting often begins early (case 31), the same is 
true of animals — the eyes become more and more fixed, dull, 

of New York state. Nearly all who died were farmers. Those who were 
sent on furlough got well, while those who remained died. But a still 
further proof is present. The battle of Chancellorsville cured the 
regiment, and it has since enjoyed as good health as any in the 
division. This leads me to the remark, that Battier is to be consid- 
ered the great curative agent of nostalgia in the field:' Theodore 
J. Calhoun, loc. cit., pp. 131-32. 
1 Hall, G. Stanley : loc. cit. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 79 

and languid and sunken in their sockets. The face is anemic, 
the whole body begins to emaciate ; the pulse is irregular and 
weakened, heart palpitates, temporal arteries throb. The 
mouth is dry and sticky. Nervous dyspepsia is very common, 
more often accompanied by diarrhoea, sometimes by constipa- 
tion, ending in an absolute refusal to take food. There is in- 
continence of urine, spermatorrhoea, menstruation may be 
checked or suppressed altogether. Sexual functions are dulled. 
Pulmonary phthisis is sometimes mistaken for consumption 
(case 1 6). In a word, anabolic processes gradually approach a 
minimal activity, while the katabolic hasten to the maximal.^ 
Sagar says : * * It appears that the soul of the nostalgic no 
longer resides in the body, that it has broken oiF all commerce 
with it. All, however, agree to a general bodily phthisis 
sometimes more or less pronounced in the lungs. 

The foregoing^ facts and considerations impress one that nos- 
talgia is a very fundamental reaction of an organism to fairly 
describable groups of stimuli. These groups QlT^ primarily , it 
seems to me, the absence or loss of the Familiar, the presence 
of the Strange and Untried, and secondarily restricted lib- 
erty, change of food, habits of life and the like. The first group, 
especially, will engage us here. 

Cases like 9, 10, 18 and 19 have suggested, what appears to 
be a probable solution — at least a point of view permitting 
legitimate speculation. Faintness, a dazed feeling, nausea 
and dizziness are the well known disorders of seasickness and 
vertigo. 

Seasickness^ is caused by a derangement of the nerve centers 
that control the equilibrating mechanism of the body. The 
sense^ of equilibrium is furnished by every possible bodily sen- 
sation — both kinaesthetic and sensory. To retain^ this sense, 
it is necessary that the information, derived from whatever 
source, should harmonize. Disturb the harmony and vertigo 
immediately ensues. Contradictory impressions not only dis- 
turb but often stop the equilibrating functions. Nowhere are 
these confused sensations so baffling as at sea. The point of 

1 Physicians, like Haspel and Larrey, believed that it was caused on 
the physical side by brain and spinal lesions, cerebral hemorrhages 
and swellings of the arachnoid membrane, or by gastro-enteric lesions. 
These views are now discredited. 

2 Calhoun says "Nostalgia is an affection of the mind. It must be 
treated with that in view." Hack Tuke thinks that it always repre- 
sents a combination of psychical and bodily disturbances. Sauvage de- 
scribes it by four words : morasitas, pervigilio, anorexia, asthenia, 
which signify sadness, sleeplessness, want of appetite and exhaustion. 

^Hudson, W. W.: Cause, Nature and Prevention of Seasickness. 

* Howell : Amer. Text Book of Phys., pp. 846-47. 

5 Eisner, H. L., Dr.: The Medical News, Vol. LX, pp. 477-80, 1892. 



8o KLINK : 

rest (center of gravity) in the human body on a tossing ship is 
being constantly shifted. Persons unacquainted with these 
phenomena attempt consciously and unconsciously to make 
compensatory movements in order to maintain the old habitual 
land-sense of equilibrium ; thus inaugurating a struggle be- 
tween equilibrium of habit and the equilibrium under novel 
conditions (sailors are adjusted to this novel sense of equilib- 
rium). These repeated attempts to maintain an arbitrary cen- 
ter of gravity as it were, produce seasickness^ 

Nostalgia, it is true, is not a direct disturbance of the phys- 
ical sense of equilibration, it appears as a secondary effect. 
The patient has, however, lost his psychical orientation. Just as 
the seasick patient has his center of gravity and consequently 
his physical plane of reference constantly eluding his bodily 
adjustments, so the nostalgic has his " psychical plane of ref- 
erence ' ' — composed of familiar scenes, friends, sense of secu- 
rity and the like — rendered uncertain and bewildering, through 
his inability to interpret and to enter into familiar relationships 
with the new world about him. To get on in this new world 
new adjustments must be made, old brain paths must be dropped 
and new ones formed. He must fuse with a new stratum. 
The greater the unfamiliarity the severer will be the nervous 
shock and stress in trying to make a new adjustment, or to 
establish new relationships. As we have seen, many do not try 
to make a * ' fusion ' ' at all, do not seek a new ' * plane of refer- 
ence," do not attempt to build new brain paths, but rather 
yield passively to their prison-world with wonder, timidity and 
fear. One experiences the beginnings of this phase of nostalgia 
on entering a familiar room in which the furniture has been 
rearranged or a piece taken out, or when one attempts a me- 
chanical performance in a new situation, e.g., wanting or eating 
in a new place at the table, or when one looks into the garden 
or on the lawn where a conspicuous tree has been cut down. 

The shrivelling and contracting effects of nostalgia on the 
ego are unique. Especially does this seem true of the social 
ego. In a strange land no one appreciates, applauds and sym- 
pathizes with my efforts, my boon companions are gone, I am 
isolated, cut off, but a mere machine grinding out a bit of the 
world's work. 

Migrant vs. IvOver of Home. 

The migrant is cosmopolitan, has manifold interests, and finds 
profitable objects and kindred spirits in a variety of situations. 

1 For a detailed description of the anatomical and functional rela- 
tions of the organs (believed to be) involved in vertigo. See Dr. E. 
Woakes, Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. I, pp, 801-41, 1883. 

McBride: Medical Times, London, 1881. 

H. S. Lee : Jour. Phys., Vols. XV and XVII, 1894-95. 

Howard Ayres : Jour. Morph., Vol. VI, 1892. 



MIGRATORY IMPULSE. 8 1 

He may be found in the commercial, speculative, daring, pro- 
gressive, macroscopic interests of the world. The lover of 
home is provincial, plodding and timid. He is the world's hod- 
carrier. His interests are identified with the conservative and 
microscopic affairs of society. 

AcKNOWivEDGMENT. This thesis crystallized under the 
influence of President Hall's lectures on the genesis of Fears, 
I am, therefore, partly indebted to him for the subject itself, 
and am very thankful for constant help and inspiration during 
its treatment. I have received friendly help and criticism from 
Dr. W. H. Burnham and citations to literature by Drs. Cham- 
berlain and Sanford to whom I offer my best thanks. To Mr. 
Wilson, the University I^ibrarian, I am greatly indebted for 
meeting me more than half way in securing rare books and 
special literature. 



JOURNAIv— 6. 



THE APPLICABILITY OF WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 



By ElvEANOR ACHKSON MCCULI^OCH GambIvE, Ph. D., 
Cornell University. 



CONTENTS. 
Introduction. 



Progress of the Experimental Proof of Weber's Law. 

Object and Scope of this Paper. Its connection with Zwaardemaker's 

Olfactoraetric Work. 
Zwaardemaker's Terminology. 
Defect of All Psychophysical Measurements. 
The Peculiar Difficulty of Olfactometry, viz., the Indeterminateness 

of Olfactory Qualities. 
Zwaardemaker's Classification of Olfactory Qualities. 
Antecedent Probability of the Applicability of Weber's Law to Smell. 

Chapter I. Method. 
Section i. Factors which Determine the Intensity of the Smell- 
Stimulus for the Normal Organ. 

(I.) The Quantity of Vapor Thrown Off by the Odorous Body. 

(II.) The Rate of Diffusion of the Odorous Vapor. 

(III.) The Rate and Manner of Breathing. 

Compensation of Smells. 

Direct and Indirect Olfactometric Methods. 

Methods of Valentin, Fischer and Penzoldt, Dibbits, Ottolenghi, 
Passy, Frolich, Arousohn, Savelieff. 
Section 2. Control in Zwaardemaker's Olfactometric Method of the 
Factors which Determine the Intensity of the Stimulus. 

Treatment of the Two Factors of the Genetic Unit. 

The Method of Henry. 

Adhesion to the Inhaling-Tube. 

Control of the Diffusion-Rate of the Vapor. 

Control of the Manner and Rate of Breathing. 
Section 3. Anosmia and Hyperosmia. 

Method of Testing the Openness of the Nasal Passages. 

The Effect of Exhaustion. 
Section 4. Psychophysical Methods Employed. 

An Imperfect Method of Finding the Stimulus-Ivimen. 

The Method of Just Noticeable Differences. 

Intervals between Stimuli and between Determ'inations. 

The Method of Minimal Changes. 

A Modified Form of the Method of Just Noticeable Differences. 

The Subject's Tendency to Judge in Terms of Hand-Movement. 

The Method of Right and Wrong Cases. 

Chapter II. Apparatus and Materiai^s. 
Section i. The Standard and the Fluid-Mantle Olfactometers. 

(I.) The Standard Olfactometer. 

(II.) The Fluid-Mantle Olfactometer. 
Section 2. Preparation of Odorous Materials. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 83 

(I.) Preparation of Odorous Substances Used in Solid Form. 
(II.) Preparation of Odorous Substances in Solution. 
Section 3. Other Arrangements and Appliances. 

Chapter III. Resui^ts. 
Section i. The Several Subjects and their Stimulus-Limina. 

Table I. A Table of Stimulus-Limina. Remarks. 
Section 2. Results Obtained by the Method of Just Noticeable Dif- 
ferences. 
Table II. Consecutive Results for One Subject, T. Remarks upon 

the Constant Sources of Error. 
Table III. Complete Results for One Solid and One Liquid Sub- 
stance. 
Rough Summary of Results by Series. 

Table IV. Approximate Values of Ar Obtained for Pairs of Stan- 

r 
dard Stimulus-Intensities Sensed under the Same Conditions. 
Curves Illustrating Parts of Table IV. 
Lists of the Substances Used hy the Several Subjects. 
Table V. Approximate Values of Ar Arranged to Show Variations 

for Individual Subjects. r 

Table VI. Approximate Values of t^r Arranged to Show Variations 

for Different Substances. ~ 

Curves Illustrating Part 3 of Table VI. 
Remarks on Tables V and VI. 
Some Incidental Exhaustion-Phenomena. 
Section 3. Results of Other Methods. 
Table VII. Results of the Modified Form of the Method of Just 

Noticeable Differences. 
Table VIII. Results Obtained for Red Rubber by the True Method 

of Minimal Changes. 
Table IX. Results Obtained by the Method of Right and Wrong 

Cases. 
Table X. Results of a Rough Attempt to Gauge the Applicability 
of the Method of Right and Wrong Cases to Smell. 
Summary and Conci^usion. 

Introduction. 

So long ago as 1834, in a paper entitled " De Tactu," Ernst 
Heinrich Weber first stated the law which bears his name, the 
first law of psychophysics. Working by the method afterwards 
called by Fechner " the method of just noticeable differences," 
he had discovered the law in its application to pressure and 
strain.^ Before i860 it had been proved to hold also for noise 
and brightness. Since the establishment of the first psycho- 
logical laboratory, which occurred in the academic year 1878-9, 
and, oddly enough, but a few months after Weber's death, the 
validity of the law for the four sensation qualities mentioned 
has been over and over again confirmed. 

Before i860 Volkmann, Renz, and Wolf, by the method of minimal 
changes, had proved its applicability to noise. Bourger, Fechner, and 

1 Wundt : Physiologische Psychologie, 4th ed., I, p. 381. 



84 GAMBLE : 

Volkmann, by their "shadow-experiments," and Masson with his ro- 
tating disks, had shown its validity for brightness. Fechner had also 
established Weber's conclusions in regard to strain by the method of 
right and wrong cases. In the last twenty years, Tischer, Merkel, 
and Starke, by the method of minimal changes ; Merkel and Angell 
by the method of mean gradations ; and Ivorenz, Merkel, and Kampfe, 
by the method of right and wrong cases, have confirmed for noise- 
intensities the results of Volkmann ; Helmholtz, Aubert, and Krapelin 
have established for brightness the results of Masson ; and Merkel, 
using the method of minimal changes, has also proved the conclu- 
sions of Weber and Fechner in regard to strain. In the last six 
or seven years, the experiments of Merkel by the method of aver- 
age error have proved the extension of the law to those strain- 
sensations in terms of which we measure distance by the eye, and 
the experiments of Schumann by the same method give some indica- 
tion of its extension to strain-sensations involved in our estimate of 
intervals between one-half second and three seconds. 

In case of the sensation-modalities for which the law has not 
been proved, and in the case of tone, there are great difficulties 
in graduating the intensity of the stimulus. Articular sensa- 
tions, indeed, are not themselves graduated intensively. In 
the case of tone, the difficulty is mechanical, — that of grad- 
uating minutely the objective intensity of simple periodic 
vibrations. In the case of the two temperature qualities, which 
are peculiar in depending on different intensities of a stimulus 
from a physical point of view the same in kind, and in passing 
into each other through a conscious indifference-point, the ex- 
treme adaptability of the so far unknown and inaccessible periph- 
eral organ makes the intensity of the physiological stimulus 
begin to fall towards the indifference-point upon the applica- 
tion of any new physical stimulus, and thus prevents the phys- 
ical stimulus from being a measure of the physiological. The 
sensation, moreover, varies in intensity with the extent of sur- 
face stimulated and with the weight of the stimulating body. 

The qualities of taste and smell form manifolds of indefinitely 
related terms, which must be investigated separately. In the 
case of taste, the list is at least closed. The intensity of the 
taste sensation, however, is a function (i) of the degree of sat- 
uration of the solution tasted ; (2) of the magnitude of the area 
excited ; and (3) of the movement, diffusion, and pressure of 
the substance tasted within the buccal cavity. No very satis- 
factory way of keeping all but one of these factors constant, 
while that one is varied, has as yet been found, though the in- 
vestigations of Camerer, who worked by the method of right 
and wrong cases, make the law of Weber appear to apply to 
salt and bitter. 

As for the applicability of Weber's law to smell, the object of 
this paper is to offer a mass of experimental difference-deter- 
minations, with a statement of the * ' checks ' ' or controls to 
which they must be subjected. This enumeration of possible 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 85 

errors involves a discussion of the essentials of a satisfactory 
olfactometric method, and a detailed description of the method 
and apparatus actually employed. The literature of difference- 
determinations in smell amounts practically to pages 180- 181 
and pages 188-194 in Die Physiologie des Geruchs of Dr. H. 
Zwaardemaker, now professor of physiology in the University 
of Utrecht. The work was translated into German from Dr. 
Zwaardemaker's manuscript by Dr. A. Junker von I^angegg, and 
was published in Leipzig in 1895. The experiments to be de- 
scribed are in the main a realization of suggestions of Dr, 
Zwaardemaker's, of which some are contained in his book, and 
some few were made in personal letters. The olfactometric 
method used was, of course, his. This method was first applied 
in 1888, and is now familiar in most psychological laboratories. 
To quote from Science, XV, 44: " Dr. Zwaardemaker of Utrecht 
has constructed an instrument which he calls an olfactometer. 
It consists simply of a glass tube, one end of which curves up- 
ward to be inserted into the nostril. A shorter movable cylin- 
der made of the odoriferous substance fits over the straight end 
of this glass tube. In inhaling, no odor is perceived so long 
as the outer does not project beyond the inner tube. The far- 
ther we push forward the outer cylinder, the larger will be the 
scented surface presented to the inrushing column of^ air, and 
the stronger will be the odor perceived." 

We are indebted to Dr. Zwaardemaker for the words * ' olfac- 
tometry " and "olfactometer" (replacing the older "osmom- 
eter"), " odorimetry " and " odorimeter." Olfactometry is 
that branch of psychophysics which is concerned with the 
measurement of the keenness of smell. ^ The distinction be- 
tween the keenness and the delicacy of smell must be kept in 
mind. On the delicacy of smell depends the discrimination of 
olfactory qualities. On its keenness depend the bare sensing of 
odors and the discrimination of them as more or less intense.^ 
Odorimetry is a "side-issue" of olfactometry. It is con- 
cerned not with the sense-organ, but with the measurement of 
the intensity of smell-stimuli considered as objectively as possi- 
ble.^ For the unit of keenness of smell, Zwaardemaker uses 
the word "olfactus," and for the normal stimulus-limen for 
each odorous substance he employs the companion word ' * ol- 
facty."* If, for example, a subject's stimulus-limen on the 
olfactometer is 10 mm. when the normal stimulus-limen used is 

1 Die Physiologie des Geruchs, p. 78. 

^P. II. Cf. also Vintschgau, Die Physiologie des Geruchsinnes und 
des Geschmacksinnes, in Hermann's Handbuch der Physiologie, 111, 2, 
p. 270. 

3 Zwaardemaker : op. cit., p. 174. 

* Pp. 92, 134.135. 



86 GAMBLE : 

5 mm. , then his stimulus-limen is two olfacties, and his olfactus 
y^. The olfacty used by olfactometry becomes for each sub- 
stance the unit of odorimetry. Odorimetry is correlated with 
photometry and phonometry. Both olfactometry and odorime- 
try are branches of " olfactology " (to anglicise another word 
used by Dr. Zwaardemaker). This again is correlated with 
optics, acoustics and haptics. 

The interdependence of olfactometry and odorimetry is not 
unique. The unit of photometry, /. e. , the unit for the meas- 
urement of light in the physical sense, is the illuminating 
power for sensation of the light of some standard candle. " We 
have no adequate objective method." writes Prof. Kiilpe, '* of 
ascertaining the intensity of the non-periodic and aperiodic 
concussions which form the substrate of simple or complex 
noises, independently of the statement of the observer whose 
sensitivity we are testing. The phonometric determination of 
sound intensities in psychophysical experiments is usually car- 
ried out upon a principle similar to that employed in photom- 
etry. As the objective stimulus-values in the apparatus em- 
ployed, — say, elastic balls falling from a measurable height 
on a resisting plate, — are determined by way of a subjective 
comparison, the results are purely empirical, valid only for 
the material used, the special circumstances of the observation, 
etc."i 

The peculiarly unsatisfactory character of the determina- 
tions of olfactometry and odorimetry is due chiefly to the fact 
that olfactory qualities, unlike visual and auditory, are not de- 
marcated. It is true that it is more difficult to keep uniform 
the duration and extension of smell-stimuli than it is to regu- 
late these attributes for other stimuli, with the possible excep- 
tions of temperature and taste. It is also true that the great 
gulf of psychophysics, our ignorance of the physiological pro- 
cesses which everywhere link the strictly physical to the psy- 
chological, is wider in the cases of temperature, taste and 
smell, than in the cases of vision, audition, pressure and strain. 
Yet, at best, the measurements of physics must always be in 
terms of sensation, and the measurement of sensation must 
always be in terms of physics. 

It seems wise to emphasize at the outset the initial difficulty 
which makes all quantitative work in smell more or less un- 
systematic, viz., the indeterminateness of olfactory qualities. 
It is at present necessary to regard as a simple and separate 
quality the odor of every substance which from a physical 
point of view is unmixed ; yet, for several reasons, it is un- 

^ Outlines of Psychology, tr., p. 156. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 87 

likely that there are as many elementar> odors as there are 
simple substances.^ 

One reason is, that it is extremely improbable that either the 
structure of the fibres or endings, or the substance of the olfac- 
tory nerve, is differentiated to correspond to the innumerable 
odorous substances which we encounter; and, on the other 
hand, it is probable by analogy with other sense-organs, that 
there are ' ' specific energies ' ' of smell which are limited in 
number and capable of combination.^ 

A second reason is that we have experimental evidence that 
the action of the sense organ is differentiated into more and less 
separable processes. We have sure evidence in the results of 
exhaustion-experiments, which were first instituted by Frolich 
and Aronsohn.^ For example, a subject whose organ is 
fatigued by the continuous smelling of tincture of iodine can 
sense ethereal oils and ethers almost or quite as well as ever, 
oils of lemon, turpentine and cloves but faintly, and common 
alcohol not at all. We have also evidence of vSome slight value 
in the recorded traces of partial anosmia.'* Unfortunately, very 
few such cases have been described by persons who took ex- 
perimental precautions, and such cases as are noted in medical 
literature fail to show typical anomalies comparable to the uni- 
form phenomena of color-blindness or " tone-islands," which 
have played such an important part in the formation of theories 
of vision and audition.^ 

A third reason is that there are countless instances of smell- 
fusions in which the components cannot be detected. Nagel 
intimates that there is no proof of the existence of smell- 
fusions in which different components can be sensed as differ- 
ent at the same instant, and points out that, in this respect, 
smell-mixtures resemble color-mixtures rather than clangs.® 

Zwaardemaker, following Aronsohn and bearing in mind the 
usages of the perfume trade, holds that only similar odors will 

^It should be noted that the words "simple" and " mixed " or 
" compound " are used here in the sense of physics proper, and not in 
the sense of chemistry. Smell, in the physical sense, is undoubtedly 
a property of the molecule, not of the atom. Indeed, most of the 
elements are odorless. Sulphur and hydrogen, themselves odorless, 
form sulphuretted hydrogen, one of the most offensive smelling gases 
known. 

2 Nagel : tjber Mischgeriiche und die Komponentgliederung des Ge- 
ruchsinnes. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesor- 
gane, XV, pp. 82-83. 

8 Zwaardemaker : £?/. «7., pp. 203, 204, 256-257. Aronsohn: Unter- 
suchungen zur Physiologi des Geruchs. Archiv fiir Physiologie^ 1886, 
pp. 342-346. 

* Zwaardemaker : op. cit., p. 259 sq. 

^ Nagel : op. cit., p. 87. 

*Pp. 90-91. 



88 GAMBLE : 

mix.^ He believes, on the basis of his own experiments, that 
if dissimilar odors of different intensities are mixed, the weaker 
odor will cancel part of the odor of the stronger, and will itself 
be lost, and that if dissimilar odors of the same intensity are 
mixed, both will disappear or will give but a feeble indetermi- 
nate fusion.^ Zwaardemaker does not, as alleged by Nagel, 
adduce his conclusions in regard to mixture as a buttress to 
his localization and irradiation theory, though he does seek to 
explain the facts of mixture and compensation, as he under- 
stands them, in harmony with this theory.* Nagel, as opposed 
to Zwaardemaker, believes, on the basis of his own experi- 
ments, that any two smells will unite in a mixture which 
for an instant, at least, will make a simple impression of 
new quality.'* He has never found an instance of complete 
"compensation," but he agrees with Zwaardemaker that a 
mixture of several smells is in general weaker than its indi- 
vidual components, and that some combinations of strongly 
odorous substances are almost odorless.^ Nagel offers no ex- 
planation of the phenomenon of compensation, nor does 
Zwaardemaker explain it satisfactorily even on the basis of his 
irradiation-theory. Perhaps it is safe to conclude that most 
smells will mix. As Nagel suggests, there is no occasion in 
the perfume trade to mix nauseating or hircine smells with 
the odors of flowers, spices and resins. 

A fourth and final reason for believing that there are not as 
many simple odors as there are unmixed substances, is that 
many simple substances have been found by experiment to have 
composite odors. Chlorphenol and nitrobenzol are good ex- 
amples of such substances. ^ 

Now, if there are a limited number of specific energies of 
smell, and if most smells are mixed, our ignorance of the ele- 
mentary smells, and our consequent inability to isolate them, 
have serious consequences for the value of olfactometric work. 
This will be clearer if we consider the two methods which are 
used to discover whether a smell is simple or composite. The 
method of Passy consists in gradually increasing the dilution of 
odorous substances, and depends upon the principle that since 
the stimulus-limina of different odors are different, they must 
disappear successively as the intensities of the different stimuli 
are diminished equally.' However, it is at least possible that 

'^Op. cit., p. 280. 
2 Pp. 167 and 284. 
8 P. 279. 
4 op. cit., 95. 
5P. loi. 

6 Pp. 96-97. ' 
T P. 96. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 89 

odors which have very different stimulus-limina should have 
the same difference-limina. The other method is that of ex- 
haustion, and depends on the fact that different odors exhaust 
the organ with different degrees of rapidity, so that a com- 
pound odor, continuously smelled, will alter in quality as first 
one and then another of its constituents disappears. One may 
smell continuously the substance to be tested, or may smell it 
before and after smelling repeatedly an odor very similar in 
quality. The principle of the method is the same in both 
cases. The permanency of the mixed odor depends primarily 
on the equality of rate at which its different constituents 
fatigue the organ. The more numerous the constituents, the 
more permanent the quality of the mixture. This fact is well 
recognized in the perfume industry. Fortunately for the trade, 
the odor of almost every flower (Sawer mentions jasmine as a 
unique exception)^ may be simulated by compounding the 
odors of other flowers. The odor of violet, for example, is 
given by a blend of the odors of acacia, rose, Florentine iris, 
tuberose and almond. The odors of most flowers, again, are 
possessed by certain chemicals. To the mixture is usually added 
some substance, such as styrax, amber, or vanilla, which 
evaporates slowly, and smells strongly enough to compensate 
parts of the other odors. This is done that quantities of the 
other odorous substances large enough to allow for evaporation 
may be put into the solution without raising the intensity of 
the smell to the neighborhood of the terminal stimulus- 
intensity.^ If, now, most smells are mixed, and if mixed 
smells alter in quality as the organ becomes fatigued, and if 
different olfactory qualities have not the same limina, then in 
quantitative work in smell, we are seeking to determine values 
which are continually changing according to laws which we do 
not know. 

There is no classification of olfactory qualities, which is even 
provisionally satisfactory from any point of view but a per- 
fumer's. We give to odors the names of the objects which most 
commonly give rise to them, or to something similar to them. We 
speak of a ' ' fishy smell ' ' as loosely as Homer, in the days when 
the terminology of color was in its infancy, spoke of " thewine- 
hued sea." Yet the name of an odor is clearly and indisputa- 
bly applicable only to the smell of that object from which the 
name is taken. ^ 

Giessler's classification of odors may be of value to psy- 
chology proper, but is of no value whatever to psychophysics. 



1 Sawer : Odorographia, First S( 

2 Zwaardemaker : op. cit.y p. 285 
8 P. 208. 



First Series, p. 94. 



90 GAMBLE: 

The most satisfactory method of arriving at a classification of 
smells seems to be the method of exhaustion ; but the results so 
far obtained do not furnish any basis for such a system. Nagel 
points out as the greatest difficulty in the way that when the 
organ is fatigued by one smell, its sensitivity does not remain 
quite unimpaired for one large group of odors, and utterly fail 
for another group ; but on the contrary, is usually more or less 
impaired for all odors. ^ Analysis by exhaustion is complicated 
experimentally by the fact that smells do not fall away steadily, 
but oscillate at the stimulus-limen, as do minimal sensations 
in other departments. In the case of smell this oscillation de- 
pends on slight variations in the rate and manner of breathing, 
as well as on the ordinary ebb and flow of the attention. The 
apparent "rivalry" of odors is due to this fluctuation at the 
limen.^ Moreover, it is only the last component of the mixture 
to disappear, which is ever really isolated by the exhaustion- 
process. 

Zwaardemaker adopts, with some modification, the old classi- 
fication of Linnaeus, which really has only a subjective basis, 
though Zwaardemaker attempts, without signal success, to give 
it a chemical one. On the principle that even a most unsatis- 
factory system is better than none, some pains have been taken 
in the experiments to be described to procure smells from as 
many of Zwaardemaker' s classes as possible, and to compare 
results for representatives of the same class and of different 
classes. Zwaardemaker' s classes of pure olfactory qualities are 
as follows :^ 

I. Ethereal smells — including all the fruit odors (a class 
taken from I^orry). 

II. Aromatic smells — including all such odors as that of 
camphor, spicy smells, and the odors of anise and lavender, 
lemon and rose, and almond. 

III. Fragrant smells — including the odors of most flowers, 
of vanilla, and of such gums as tolu and benzoin. 

IV. Ambrosiac smells — including the odor of amber, and all 
the musk odors. 

V. Alliaceous smells — including the odors of garlic, asafcet- 
ida, gum ammoniac, vulcanized India rubber, fish, bromine, 
chlorine and iodine, etc. 

VI. Empyreumatic smells — including the odors of toast, 
tobacco smoke, pyridin, naphtha, etc., (a class taken from von 
Haller). 

VII. Hircine smells — including the odors of cheese, sweat, 
rancid fat, etc., etc. 

1 Op. cit., p. 86. 

2 P. 98. 

^Op.cit., pp. 233-235. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 9 1 

VIII. Virulent smells — including such odors as that of 
opium, '* Odor cimicis," etc. 

IX. Nauseating smells — including the odors of decaying 
animal matter, of faeces and the like. 

The pungency of smells is not an olfactory quality, but is 
due to the excitation of filaments of the trigeminus, which are 
freely distributed in the Schneiderian membrane. The sensa- 
tion is more like pressure than smell. When very strong it 
becomes a tickling, and sneezing ensues. Persons who have 
congenital or pathological defects of smell are said to have cul- 
tivated these sensations by attention to such an extent that 
they do duty for smells proper.^ Some smells which are not the 
flavors of food sensed in expiration, seem to be tastes, as well 
as smells. For example, we think of the odor of boiling syrup 
as sweet, and say that curdled milk " smells " sour. This is 
probably due to early association, which has indissolubly 
fused certain taste- memories with certain smell-sensations of 
peripheral origin.^ It may, however, be due to the entrance 
of sapid particles through the nose into the pharynx.^ Smells 
are often blended with pressure sensations other than pungency 
and with temperature sensations.* It is probable that there 
is an element of pain in an impression of pungency, while 
smells often give a ''feeling of weight," pure and simple. 
Whenever the subjects in these experiments spoke of the heat, 
taste, pressure, pain, or pungency of an odor, their remarks 
were carefully noted, on the supposition that such factors in the 
total impression were disturbing in a quantitative investigation 
of olfactory qualities proper. 

Zwaardemaker's differentiation of the specific energies of 
smell and localization of their actions on the olfactory mucous 
membrane is not to our present purpose. We may simply 
note in passing that he arranges the zones of their operation in 
horizontal order, since the height to which the air current is 
carried in the nose makes no difference in the quality of an 
odor ; and that he rather ingeniously places the nauseating and 
virulent smells farthest back and closest to the pharynx, in a 
region where they may excite the reflexes of vomiting and 
coughing by mere irradiation of nervous excitation without the 
connecting link of central processes ; puts the hircine and am- 
brosiac odors in the middle, on account of the connection of hy- 
peraemia of the "corpora cavernosa nasal ia " with the blood 
supply of the generative organs ; and locates the fragrant, aro- 
matic and ethereal smells farthest to the front, since the 

1 Pp. 236-237. 
2p. 211. 
*Pp. 211-212. 
*P. 212. 



92 GAMBLE : 

sneezing-reflex is most easily excited in the anterior portion of 
the nasal cavities/ Nagel's remark that Zwaardemaker's locali- 
zation-theory leads to * ' irresolvable contradiction ' ' is not quite 
clear, but he is certainly right in saying that the theory has no 
adequate basis. Aside from the lack of experimental evidence, 
the arrangement of the several zones is too fancifully neat to 
carry conviction with it; but Zwaardemaker himself empha- 
sizes the fact that the essential part of his theory is simply the 
arrangement of the operations of specific energies of smell cor- 
responding more or less exactly to the classification of Lin- 
naeus on the olfactory mucous membrane in the order of these 
classes.^ 

Before bringing these introductory remarks to a close, it may 
be noted that, aside from any experimental evidence which may 
be offered, it is probable that Weber's law does apply to such 
smells, mixed and unmixed, as we daily encounter. In the 
first place we have the analogy of several other modalities of 
sensation for believing that the law applies to simple olfactory 
qualities. In the second place it has never been proved that 
Weber's law applies merely to unmixed sensations. It has 
been neither proved nor disproved for clangs, but many expe- 
riences of ordinary life would lead us to believe that it does 
apply to musical chords as wholes. Thus it may apply to 
smell-fusions as wholes, and approximately correct difference- 
determinations maj^ be obtained for these wholes even while 
their character is gradually altering. Since, in the present 
state of our knowledge, no one can even pretend to be working 
with simple olfactory qualities, all difference-determinations in 
smell must proceed upon the assumption of this possibility. 
Experimental results must be the only decisive evidence for or 
against the theory, so that it is needless to discuss it farther in 
this place. 

In the third place the distinction drawn by Passy between 
*' insistent " and *' intensive " smells, which is based upon a 
classification of smells in the popular mind and confirmed by 
other scientific men, is explained by the supposition that 
Weber's law applies to smell with different values of Ar for diff- 

r 
erent qualities. In Zwaardemaker's language, and in the ordi- 
nary language of this paper, the smaller the "minimum percept- 
ible " of a substance, the more intense its' odor. Passy uses a 
term, " pouvoir odorant," — which we may translate *' insist- 
ency," — for "intensity" in our sense. Hesays : "Tout lemonde 
sent que le camphre, le citron, le benzine sont des odeurs for- 

1 Pp. 262-265. 

2 P. 265. 



wkber's law to smbll. 93 

tes, la vanille, I'iris des odeurs faibles," though vanilla has an 
insistency one thousand times greater than that of comphor. 
Besides this subjective basis of distinction between weak odors, 
however insistent, and strong or intensive odors, he has five ob- 
jective differentiae, (i) Weak smells have vague differences of 
intensity. For example, vanilla and coumarine soon reach a 
maximum of intensity which cannot be increased. Greater 
concentrations simply become unpleasant. (2) Individual dif- 
ferences are more evident for weak smells. (3) The daily 
variations of sensitivity are more evident for weak smells. (4) 
Exhaustion has more effect on weak smells. (5) Strong 
smells hide the weak.-^ In view of the first objective difference, 
Zwaardemaker explains the subjective difference as follows : 
As the strength of a sensation is estimated by the number of 
grades of intensity by which it surpasses the liminal sensation, 
and as the terminal stimulus is by definition that degree of in- 
tensity beyond which increase cannot be shown for our human 
sense organs with our mechanical appliances, it is obvious that 
odors with large difference-limina must be subjectively weak, 
and that subjectively weak odors must have large difference- 
limina. Thus, the very rapid attainment by some smell- 
stimuli of the terminal intensity would seem to indicate that 
Weber's law applied to olfactory qualities, and that the differ- 
ence-limen differed from quality to quality.^ 

Unfortunately our own experimental results are at variance 
with the second clause of the theory. They make Weber's law 
appear to apply to smells as we find them, but show no great va- 
riation of Ar from substance to substance. The difference-limina 

r 
even of camphor and vanilline seem much the same. If our fig- 
ures are accepted as trustworthy, some other explanation than 
the simple one of Zwaardemaker must be found for the distinction 
of Passy . May it not be that, for phy logenetic reasons, ' ' intense' ' 
smells have more affective value, more of what Miiller calls 
*' Eindringlichkeit,"* than have the smells which Passy calls 
" insistent?" Or may it not be that the smells most useful to 
human life exhaust the human sense-organ less after many in- 
crements than smells less useful do after a few increments, 
although the increments are relatively equal throughout ? The 
need of some such explanation will be more or less clear as the 
figures to be offered are more or less convincing. 

ipp. 191-192. 

2 Pp. 192-193. 

^The " Eindringlichkeit" of a sensation depends in part upon its 
intensity, and in part upon its affective value (G. E. Miiller, Zeitschr. 
f. Psych, und Physiol, der Sinnesorgane, X, pp. 25-27). 



94 GAMBLE : 

Chapter I. Method. 

Section i. Determination of the intensity of the Smell- Stimulus 

for the Normal Organ. 

If all the nervous elements concerned in smell are in a nor- 
mal condition, and if "compensation " does not come into play, 
the intensity of an odor depends on the number of odorous par- 
ticles in gaseous form which are acting on the olfactory nerve- 
endings at the time. Perhaps it is safe to say that the intensity 
is ordinarily a function of the number which are acting on the 
rod-cells of the olfactory mucous membrane. ^ Whether or not 
individual rod-cells are subject to cumulative stimulation, we 
do not know, for we do not know even whether the stimulation 
is chemical, thermal, or electrical,^ but we do know that the 
intensity of the smell seems to depend on the extent of mem- 
brane and therefore on the number of rod-cells stimulated, — 
always supposing that the rod-cells are the olfactory cells proper. 

Now the number of odorous particles which act at any given 
time on the olfactory membrane of the normal nose depends, 
first, on the quantity of vapor which the fragrant body is 
throwing off; secondly, on the rate of the diffusion of this 
vapor ; and thirdly, on the manner and rate of breathing. L<et 
us consider these facts separately. 

I. The Quantity of Vapor Thrown off by the Odorous 
Body. ' * Whether ' ' says Zwaardemaker, ' ' odorous particles 
are set free by evaporation or chemical reaction, the mass of 
odorous molecules which are given off from a solid body or the 
surface of a liquid is, ceteris paribus^ in compound proportion 
to the time of exposure and extent of surface exposed.* 
Zwaardemaker has invented a ' * genetic unit ' ' for the measure- 
ment of odor in the physical sense. It is the number of seconds 
of exposure multiplied by the number of square millimeters of 
surface exposed.* It is unnecessary to say that the genetic 
unit differs from substance to substance. The ' ' other factors ' * 
which must remain equal, if the genetic unit of a given sub- 
stance is to be constant, are the moisture, weight, and temper- 
ature of the atmosphere and the amount of ozone present in it.^ 

That heat and dampness affect the intensity of odors is a 
matter of common observation. Yellow wax smells twice as 
strong in summer as in winter. Heat promotes evaporation. 
Dampness also promotes the vaporization of such solids as are 

1 Zwaardemaker : op. cit.y p. 7 ; Foster: Text Book of Physiology y 
6tli ed., p. 249. 
2 Zwaardemaker : op. cit., pp. 276-277. 

* P. 26. 
6 P. 28. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELIv. 95 

soluble in water, but, on the other hand, retards the diffusion 
of odorous vapors. The temperature of the laboratory in 
which smell experiments are in progress should be kept as uni- 
form as possible, and thermometer and barometer readings 
should be taken whenever the stimulus-limen is determined. 
Uniformity of temperature was not secured in our own experi- 
ments. 

II. The Rate of Diffusion of Odorous Vapor. Cloquet 
pointed out in 182 1 that odors diffuse in the air as one gas 
diffuses in another, — gradually, and without interruption by 
reflection or refraction. — so that if the air is at rest, the 
strength of a smell will be inversely proportional to the distance 
of its source, though the speed with which different odors 
travel varies much.^ Now the air from which we draw our 
breath is, under ordinary circumstances, almost never free 
from currents. For phylogenetic reasons, no gas is odorous 
which is not heavy enough to remain near its source if undis- 
turbed. Yet the wind may carry such gases for miles near the 
surface of the ground. Nor can we, in view of the dynamic 
theory of smell, and of Liegois's theory that odorous particles 
are largely diffused in the form of tiny liquid drops which 
afterwards vaporize, unhesitatingl)^ apply the laws of diffusion 
of gases to smells. Zwaardemaker has, however, proved by a 
series of experiments that the transmission of odorous vapors 
in tubes takes place at the same rate for different distances 
from the source, unless these distances are very considerable.^ 
From an inhaling-tube, all currents of air, except the suction- 
current created by the inspiration, are excluded. 

III. The Rate and Manner of Breathing. Not all the air 
which passes through the nose comes in contact with the olfac- 
tory mucuous membrane. The current of air drawn into the 
nose from without is divided by the lower turbinal bone into 
two portions. From the stream which takes the direct path to 
the choana under this bone and along the floor of the nose, no 
odorous vapor reaches the olfactory membrane. Each nasal 
cavity is divided by the middle turbinal bone into two cham- 
bers. In the upper chamber, which extends from the pointed 
roof of the nose to the under edge of the middle turbinal bone, 
the side wall and the septum are almost parallel, and only 
about two millimeters apart. The olfactory membrane is 
spread over the upper surface of these parallel walls, forming 
the regio olfactoria of Todd and Bowman. According to von 
Brunn only the uppermost part of the upper turbinal bone and 
the surface of the septum just opposite are covered by the ol- 

2Pp.3i-34,39.4o. 



96 GAMBi^K : 

factory membrane.^ In ordinary breathing, the highest point 
in the upper stream is, according to Franke, the under edge of 
the upper turbinal bone, and according to Paulsen and Zwaar- 
demaker, the under edge of the middle turbinal bone.^ In the 
rapid and violent breathing with expanded nostrils which we 
call " sniffing," the air is carried about 2 mm. higher,^ — i. e., 
into the forward and under part of the upper chamber. In 
either case, odorous particles can reach the olfactory membrane 
only bj^ diffusion, but more of them will penetrate to it in 
sniffing than in quiet inspiration. The upper chamber is an 
annex, not an integral part, of the breathing-passage. 

Odorous particles probably do not accumulate in the upper 
chamber. During inspiration, the air in the passages traversed 
by the current is thinned, and as soon as inspiration ceases, the 
air in the upper chamber rushes down to the middle meatus, to 
be renewed from the pharynx during expiration.* If so much 
odorous matter has been taken in as to saturate the air in the 
pharynx, we sometimes get a smell in expiration even when 
we are not eating. Ordinarily, however, the very weak stimu- 
lus from the pharynx, coming after the very strong stimulus 
from without, is not sensed.^ Fick, indeed, advanced the hy- 
pothesis that when odorous particles come in contact with the 
olfactory membrane, they are at once dissolved in the thin fluid 
which covers the bottom of the sensitive hairs, and that when 
so dissolved, they cease to act.* These particles may, how- 
ever, accumulate to some extent on the Schneiderian mem- 
brane, especially, if it is in a catarrhal condition. Of course, 
we get the flavor of food only in expiration. The course of 
the air in expiration is almost the same as in inspiration, but 
Bidder is probably right in supposing that a smaller amount 
passes above the lower turbinal bone.^ 

Under ordinary conditions, the more rapid the breathing, the 
more intense the smell. Sniffing is to be forbidden in olfacto- 
metric work, not merely because it carries the air higher in the 
nose, than does * ' regular breathing, ' ' but because, both by in- 
creasing the suction-force and by widening the entrance, it 
takes more air and therefore more odorous particles into the 
nose in a given time. The spaces from which air is drawn 
through the nose are cones with their points at the nostrils. 
We may see their size and shape in the clouds of vapor formed 

ip. 6. 

2 Pp. 46-57, 67. 

*P. 202. 

*P.6o. 

6 P. 62. 

6 P. 60. 

'P. 42. 



WEBER'S I.AW TO SMELI.. 97 

by our exhalations in cold weather. The spaces from which 
odorous particles are drawn are portions of these larger spaces. 
The breathing-spaces are projections of the whole of the nasal 
cavities; the "fields of smell" are projections only of those 
cavities from which odorous particles reach the olfactory mem- 
brane. They are separated from each other by about a centi- 
meter. In snifl5ng, through the expansion of the nostrils, the 
fields of smell become wider than the ordinary breathing-spaces, 
but as the inspiration is short and quick, they are not so deep.^ 

If then the strength of a smell-stimulus is to be measured 
with some degree of accuracy by the genetic unit, the tempera- 
ture and moisture of the air, the diffusion-rate of the vapor, 
and the subject's manner and rate of breathing must be kept 
as uniform as possible. 

As for the compensation-error, there is no intrinsic stimula- 
tion of the olfactory membrane as there is of the retina and the 
ear. Owing to exhaustion, the subject cannot smell his own 
breath in expiration. He can indeed smell it in inspiration if the 
current is puffed upward to the nostrils. This fact seems to 
show that, given the same amount of odorous matter in the air 
current, we get a stronger smell in inspiration than in expira- 
tion. On the other hand, the difficulty of securing an absence 
of smells from external sources for a subject who has at all 
cultivated his organ by attention, transcends the difficulty of 
securing such silences and darknesses as are satisfactory for 
experimental purposes. Of course, no substance which, as such, 
is to be used as a test, should be dissolved in an odorous 
medium, such as alcohol, ammonia, or ether. 

Zwaardemaker classes the methods which have so far been 
employed to find the stimulus-limina of smells as direct and 
indirect.^ By the direct methods the subject seeks to find the 
stimulus-limen of an olfactory quality in terms of the greatest 
dilution of an odorous vapor which can give a just noticeable 
sensation of that quality. By the indirect methods, he seeks 
to find the stimulus-limen in terms of the smallest quantity of 
the odorous substance which can be sensed under certain defi- 
nite and easily procurable conditions. The direct methods aim 
at absolute results where absolute results are unattainable. 
" It may be possible," says Zwaardemaker, " to determine the 
area of an inspiration made in an effort to smell, but the exact 
ascertainment of the amount of odorous gas which in this in- 
spiration comes in contact with the olfactory cells has so far 
proved an impossibility."^ The indirect methods aim at rela- 
tive results, but their procedure is exact. They furnish a 

1 Pp. 68.77. 

2 Pp. 79-80. 

3 p. 80. 

JOURNAI,— 7. 



98 GAMBLE : 

basis for the comparison of individuals with reference to their 
keenness of smell, and of substances with reference to their 
value for the sense, and thus may indirectly lead to some 
knowledge of the greatest degree of dilution in which an odor- 
ous substance can be detected.^ 

The method which Valentin invented in 1848 may be called classi- 
cal, since it is mentioned in most of the standard text books of 
physiology. It was direct, and consisted in taking a certain volume 
of odorous gas and mingling it with a hundred volumes of air, taking 
a certain volume of the mixture and mingling this again with a hun- 
dred volumes of fresh air, and so on until the last mixture gave a just 
discernable odor. Valentin varied his procedure by allowing the 
vaporization of smaller and smaller quantities of a highly concen- 
trated solution of an odorous substance in a definite amount of air, or 
by mingling smaller and smaller quantities of it with a mass of 
water of a given volume. ^ It is plain that a certain amount of the 
odorous substance must adhere to the vessel in which such a mixture 
is contained, so that the amount of odorous substance taken away 
from the receptacle for a new admixture will never be so large as the 
ratio of the gas or liquid removed to the whole volume would indi- 
cate, and that this error must increase as the experiment proceeds. 
As for the use of highly concentrated solutions, it involves two 
serious disadvantages, the blunting of the sense by exhaustion and 
the adhesion of odorous particles to objects in the laboratory.^ 

The invention of no other direct olfactrometric method is recorded 
before that of the method employed by Fischer and Penzoldt in 1887. 
Avoiding Valentin's progressive dilutions, these investigators sought 
to determine how much mercaptan and how much chlorphenol must 
be introduced into the whole mass of air in a laboratory of a certain 
size in order to give an odor just noticeable to a person entering the 
room. The walls of the laboratory were perfectly smooth, the floor 
was of stone, and the equal distribution of the odorous gas to all parts 
of the room was secured by the motion of fans. The solutions were 
scattered with a fine spray.* Unfortunately, these solutions were 
alcoholic. 

In the same year H. C. Dibbits arrived at a partial determination of 
the stimulus-limen for the odor of acetic acid. Acetate of zinc 
is decomposed. in the presence of water, and an insoluble basic salt 
and free acetic acid are formed. Dibbits, during the course of six- 
teen hours, allowed 60 litres of damp air to pass over a mass of salt 
which had been freed from water of crystallization, found the loss of 
weight to be 16.8 mg., and calculated the proportion that the weight 
of the acetic acid set free must bear to this loss of weight to be ^i^-. 
As 24 mg. of acetic acid must have been communicated to 60 1. of air, 
and as the odor was discernible in this air, the stimulus-limen of 
acetic acid must lie under 0.4 mg. per litre.^ While the methods of 
Fischer and Penzoldt and of Dibbits are comparatively accurate, it is 
obvious that they are impracticable for difference-determinations. 

A method employed in 1889 by Ottolenghi for testing the olfactory 
sensitivity of criminals is a modified form of Valentin's, and is essen- 
tially the same as the method recommended by Passy in 1892. 



IP. 80. 

2 Valentin : Grundriss der Physiologie, p. 515. 

^Zwaardemaker: op. cii., p. 79. 

^ American Journal 0/ Psychology, I, p. 357. 

^ Zwaardemaker : op. cil., p. 84, 



webkr's law to smell. 99 

Ottolenghi used 12 aqueous solutions of essence of cloves contained 
in similar bottles in similar quantities. The solutions were graduated 
from 1 : 50000 to 1:100. The subject began with the weakest solution 
and took the bottles successively until sensation commenced. Passy 
dissolved a certain weight of odorous material in a given weight of 
alcohol, mingled a certain fraction of the solution with a given weight 
of pure alcohol, and so op, until he had obtained a graduated series of 
saturations. He then put single drops of his solutions into bottles of 
the same size, and arrived by the method of just noticeable stimuli at an 
estimate of the stimulus-limen in terms of saturation-strength and the 
area of his bottles. 1 Ottolenghi's combinations of essence of cloves 
and water were not true solutions. Passy's results are vitiated by the 
compensating effect of the odor of the alcohol. Both methods involve 
an error due to the constant loss of odorous material by the mere 
opening of the vessels for the subject to smell their contents, by in- 
halation, and by condensation on the walls of the vessels. Zwaarde- 
maker suggests that fairly satisfactory results might be obtained on 
Ottolenghi's principle if one (i) employed only solutions in distilled 
water, (2) made very short inspirations, (3) used very large inhaling 
vessels, and ( 4) avoided all odorous substances the vapor of which 
is easily condensed. 2 Theoretically, if the series of saturations could 
be minutely enough graduated, this method might be employed for 
difference-determinations, but practically, the use of many large in- 
haling-vessels would make it too clumsy. 

The first indirect method was invented by Frolich in 1851, three 
years after Valentin invented his direct method. Frolich gauged the 
keenness of smell by the distances at which odorous substances could 
be sensed under uniform conditions. He put up in tightly corked 
test-tubes such substances as ethereal oils, resins, spices, and musk 
mixed with starch in such proportions that however different in 
quality, the odors might be the same in intensity. The subject closed 
his eyes, the tube was uncorked and moved toward him, and both 
the distance at which the substance was first sensed and the time at 
which judgment was passed were marked. ^ Frolich seems, however, 
to have made little use of his time-estimates. As the odors with 
which he worked are slowly diffused, the mass of odorous vapor may 
be thought of as moving with the tube. Yet results based on such a 
rough hypothesis cannot be very reliable.^ Moreover, the assump- 
tion that odors so unlike in quality are of the same intensity, since 
they can be just sensed by the same person at the same distance, begs 
the question of the value of the hypothesis mentioned, and Frolich 
seems to have had no other means of determining their comparative 
intensity except guess-work. 

Aronsohn's famous method, devised in 1886, though indirect upon 
the ordinary theory of smell which makes the odorous particles act 
in gaseous form on the olfactory membrane, must be classed on Aron- 
sohn's own premises as direct. His hypothesis is that odorous parti- 
cles are in solution when they act on the nerve-endings. This 
assumption, for which J. Miiller is chiefly responsible,^ is based (i) 
on the fact that fishes and amphibia have peripheral and central or- 
gans similar to the organs of smell in birds and mammals, and (2) on 
the fact that the nasal membranes are normally covered with mucus, 

1 Pp. 98-99. 

2 P. 99. 

3 Pp. 80-81. 
*P. 81. 

5 P. 62. 



lOO GAMBI^E : 

and that the drying of this mucus, as in the first stage of rhinitis, 
impairs the sense of smell. Tortual and Weber had indeed proved 
that odorous liquids when introduced into the nose " do not smell," 
and Weber had also found that the sense is for a time impaired if 
warm or cold water or sugar and water are poured into the nasal cavi- 
ties and retained there for a few moments.^ Aronsohn explained these 
phenomena by supposing that strong solutions of odorous matter and 
liquids of foreign temperature if brought in contact with the delicate 
olfactory membrane must necessarily have a pernicious effect. He 
found, on the other hand, that very small quantities of odorous sub- 
stances dissolved in normal saline solutions can be sensed if the 
mixture, at a temperature of about 40° C, is poured into the nose from 
the height of about half a meter. Weber had used cologne and water 
in the proportion of i : 11. Aronsohn used oil of cloves, for example, 
in salt and water in the proportion of i : 500. His olfactometric 
method consisted simply in determining how weak a solution of an 
odorous substance could be sensed if injected at the temperature 
proved empirically to be most favorable for its detection.^ If Aron- 
sohn's premises are correct, not only is his method direct, but the 
worst difficulties in the measurement of smell-stimuli are eliminated. 
In criticism of these premises, however, Zwaardemaker points out (l) 
that aquatic mammals have organs which resemble the organs of 
smell in land mammals, but are rudimentary, as if useless under 
water ; (2) that the dryness of rhinitis is confined almost exclusively 
to the Schneiderian membrane and is conjoined with hyperaemia and 
swelling which obstructs the passage of air; (3) that the cilia of the 
olfactory cells protrude through the covering of mucus ; and (4) 
that most odorous substances are not at all or are but very slightly 
soluble in water. Books on the perfume-industry are filled with the 
discussion of ethereal oils, of spices, gums, and the like. In a room 
saturated with perfume or tobacco smoke, a bit of cotton wool will 
take up the odor, while a glass of water will not. Moreover, as 
Zwaardemaker believes, it cannot be shown that Aronsohn succeeded 
in filling the cavity which contains the olfactory membrane so en- 
tirely with liquid that all bubbles of air were excluded. It is very 
difficult to drive all the air out of blind pouches.^ 

In 1893, I^r. N. Savelieff in the laboratory of Morokschowetz con- 
structed an olfactometer on a principle entirely different from Zwaar- 
demaker's. There were two flasks of glass, each with two corks. 
Through one cork in each, the two flasks were connected by a glass 
tube bent twice at right angles. Through the other cork of one was 
inserted a glass tube which reached to the bottom. Through this tube 
a mixture of ethereal oil and water was poured. The liquid did not 
reach the end of the connecting tube. Through the remaining cork 
of the second flask, which was filled only with air, was inserted a 
glass inhaling-tube which divided into a nose-piece for each nostril. 
The odor of the liquid was weakened by successive additions of water, 
and the intensity of the stimulus was measured through the propor- 
tion by weight which the ethereal oil bears to the water.* As Zwaar- 
demaker suggests the method of Savelieff has this great disadvant- 
age, that its results do not stand in simple relations to the real stim- 
ulus-intensities. The intensity of the stimulus will vary according 
to the height of the liquid in the first vessel, and according to the ad- 

1 Weber : Archiv f. Physiologie, 1847, P« 351-354- 

2 Aronsohn : op. cit., 1886, pp. 324-332. 

3 Op. cit., pp. 62-66. 

* Neurologisches Centralblatt, 1893, p. 343 sq.* 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. lOI 

hesion of odorous material in different parts of the apparatus. Sav- 
elieff*s method would indeed be fairly satisfactory for clinical pur- 
poses if real solutions were used instead of mixtures of ethereal oils 
and water. It is a great disadvantage, however, to begin an experi- 
ment by exhausting the sense-organ with a saturated solution. ^ 

Section 2. Control in Zwaardemaker' s Oifactometric Method of 
the Factors which Determine the Intensity of the Stimulus. 

Zwaardemaker's measurements ol the smell-stimulus are in 
terms of but one factor of the genetic unit, — viz., in terms of 
the amount of odorous surface exposed. The time for which 
different extents of surface are exposed is supposed to be kept 
constant by the regularity of the movement of the hand which 
manipulates the odorous cylinder. All of these time-values 
are so small that their variation may well be disregarded. 

In 1890, Henry, a French scientist, instituted in the interests of the 
perfume industry a modified form of Zwaardemaker's method, and 
took the time values into account. His instrument differs from 
Zwaardemaker's only in the substitution for the odorous cylinder of a 
porous paper cylinder, hollow, closed at the bottom, and saturated 
from a surrounding glass reservoir with the fumes of an odorous 
liquid. The glass inhaling-tube enters from the top, and the subject 
raises it with a uniform movement while he is making the inspiration 
required. Stimulus-intensity is reckoned in terms of the surface of 
the paper cylinder exposed, and of the time which the odorous vapor 
has had for diffusing into it since the lifting of the inhaling tube.^ 
As for this second factor, by which alone Henry's method differs from 
Zwaardemaker's, Passy suggests that the time-rate of evaporation of 
a liquid under a membrane differs from the time-rate of the same fluid 
in the open air. Henry supposes that the pressure of vapor on the 
paper cylinder is constant, but on the contrary, since its surface is 
wholly covered at the beginning of the experiment and is gradually 
uncovered as the glass tube is raised, the pressure of vapor will con- 
stantly decrease.^ At any rate, Henry's apparatus will not answer for 
difference-determinations, as it would render procedure in both direc- 
tions impossible. 

Much more serious in Zwaardemaker's method than any 
error which may arise from irregularity in the subject's move- 
ments is the error due to the adhesion of odorous particles in 
the glass inhaling-tube. These particles may condense on the 
sides of the tube or, if the substance is soluble in water, may 
dissolve in the moisture which forms on the inside during in- 
spiration. A correction can be made for adhesion only for the 
"minimum perceptible," and only for a determination taken 
with the perfectly dry and clean inhaling-tube and a saturated 
porcelain cylinder. It may be made as follows : Let the 
length of the inhaling-tube ordinarily used be x and let a be 
the value of the stimulus-limen as found with it. Then let a 

1 Op. cit., pp. loo-ioi. 

"^Comptes rendus de V Academic des Sciences, Feb. 9, 1891. 

^ Zwaardemaker : op. cit., p. 94. 



I02 GAMBLE : 

shorter inhaling-tube of the same diameter and the length y be 
pushed for about 2 mm. into the odorous cylinder. Through 
the other end of this cylinder, which is usually the movable 
part of the instrument, let a third tube of the same diameter be 
pushed. By moving this third tube backward and forward, 
the extent of odorous surface exposed to the air is varied. Let 
the stimulus-limen found under these conditions be b. Then 
a- b will be the difference in the stimulus-limen made by the 
adhesion of odorous particles to a tube of the length x^y. 
The correction to be made for adhesion to a tube of the length 
X will be as much greater as x is greater than x^y. If cylin- 
ders of solid odorous substances be used, this correction cannot 
be made, even for the stimulus-limen, since it is so exceedingly 
small. It is impossible, moreover, to take many determin- 
ations even of the stimulus-limen in an hour with a perfectly 
dry and clean tube. As for the difference-limen, it is both 
theoretically and practically impossible to make the adhesion- 
correction, for to know how much greater for sensation a 
given stimulus is than the liminal stimulus, one would have 
to know beforehand that Weber's law applied to that particular 
olfactory qualit3^ and what the exact value of Ar for the quality 

r 
was. The effect of adhesion, in the first inspiration or at 
least in the very first few inspirations, is to decrease the 
strength of the stimulus, but after the first or at most after the 
second or third inspiration, the effect is rather to increase 
the strength of the stimulus, since the odor from the matter 
adhering to the inhaling-tube more than compensates for the 
loss of the odor of the matter which continues to adhere. 

The tube must be carefully dried after it has been washed, 
and the subject must be trained not to breathe back into it. 
Yet on a damp day, the moisture left on the inside of the tube 
by the inspired air is no inconsiderable source of error. Bun- 
sen computes the possible thickness of such a layer at o.ooioi 
mm. If a glass tube is 15 cm. long and 5 mm. wide, the area 
of its bore will be 23.57 qmm. This would make the weight 
of a layer of moisture of the thickness given by Bunsen 2.38 
mg. If the odorous substance is in aqueous solution, this 
moisture may be left out of account, but if no moisture comes 
from the cylinder itself, it may vitiate the results of the experi- 
ment. Since the dampness of the air varies from day to day, 
this error cannot well be corrected.^ All that one can do is 
faithfully to take the barometer-readings in the hope of finding 
in them possible explanations of erratic judgments. The ex- 
perimenter must be careful to cool the inhaling-tube after dry- 

ipp. 124-125. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. IO3 

ing it over the spirit-flame, not only on account of the risk of 
distracting the subject's attention with -a warm tube, but on 
account of the danger of heating the inside of the odorous 
cylinder. 

Since the source of the odorous vapor is connected with the 
subject's nose by a tube of known length, the diffusion of the 
matter is, outside of the body, obviously under complete control. 

The subject's breathing is, indeed, a seriously variable element, 
but its variation is by no means the greatest practical draw- 
back to the method. Sniffing must, of course, be watched for 
and peremptorily forbidden. The mere expansion of the nos- 
trils does not increase the intensity of the odor as it does under 
ordinary circumstances, but rather decreases it, since the field 
of smell is artificially limited, and the widening of the en- 
trance to the nose simply increases the amount of air which 
dilutes the odorous gas. Under ordinary circumstances, as we 
have seen, the more rapidly one breathes, the stronger the 
odor one will get. If one uses the olfactometer, this is not 
true. Since the diffusion-rate within the cylinder is constant, 
increased rapidity of breathing will increase the degree in 
which the odorous particles are diluted with air on their en- 
trance to the nasal passages. Thus, the more slowly one 
breathes, within a certain limit, the stronger the smell one will 
get. The air must be drawn in with enough force to carry part 
of the current above the lower turbinal bone. If the air simply 
takes the straight path to the choana along the floor of the 
nasal cavity under the lower turbinal bone, there will be no 
smell. Zwaardemaker believes that each subject with a little 
practice will discover for himself the best rate of breathing for 
obtaining the strongest smell from a given stimulus, so that, in 
a manner, the breathing rate will be self- regulating.^ Our 
own experimental results seem to bear out this conclusion. In 
Section i of Chapter III, each subject's mode of breathing is 
noted, but its peculiarities can scarcely be traced in the 
numerical results. The inability of most of the subjects to 
arrive at difference-determinations with one inspiration must, of 
course, have aggravated the adhesion-error. Henry regulates 
the breathing of his vsubjects by putting about the chest a belt 
which allows only a certain expansion. Such an appliance 
must, however, have the effect of distracting the subject's at- 
tention and making the breathing unnatural. Following 
Zwaardemaker' s example, we did not even stop the nostril not 
in use. The inhaling-tube was thrust into the forward'' half 

of the nostril to the depth of half a centimetre. 
_______ 

2 A substance pressed against the back of the nostril can hardly be 
smelled at all, as its vapor will take the direct path to the choana. 



I04 GAMBI.E : 

We may say, then, that the most unsatisfactory features of 
Zwaardemaker's method are (i) the adhesion-error, and (2) a 
tendency which the subject, if he manipulates the odorous 
cylinder, has toward judging in terms of hand-movement. 
This difficulty will be discussed in another place. 

While the intensity of the stimulus depends in the case of 
any sense upon the condition of the peripheral organ, no sense- 
organ is so likely to vary either through obstruction or through 
exhaustion as is the organ of smell. Let us now consider the 
variations from the normal condition to which this organ is 
most subject. 

Section j. Anosmia and Hyp erosmia} 

Whether pathological or non-pathological in origin, anosmia 
is of three sorts, — respiratory, essential or toxic, and nervous. 
Respiratory anosmia is due to obstruction of the nasal passages, 
from asymmetry of the nasal skeleton, from hyperaemia of the 
respiratory or Schneiderian membrane, or from accumulation of 
mucus. Toxic anosmia may be due to poisons in the inspired 
air, — a form not yet investigated, — to injurious fluids introduced 
directly into the chamber containing the sense-epithelium (as 
in Aronsohn's experiments), to poisons, such as morphine, 
pulverized and blown into the nose, or to certain forms of 
blood-poisoning, such as chronic nicotine-poisoning. The 
anosmia of smokers cannot be wholly attributed to their 
catarrh, though a light, acute nicotine-poisoning does not 
seem to produce a loss of smell. Nervous anosmia may be 
congenital, — /. e., due to imperfect development of the olfac- 
tory vesicle in the brain, — or may be senile, — due to degenera- 
tion of some of the nervous elements which condition the 
sense, — or may be due to exhaustion of the olfactory nerve, 
or to dryness of the epithelium. If we rule out exhaustion, we 
may say that respiratory anosmia is vastly more common than 
toxic or nervous. The more peripheral parts of every sense- 
organ are more subject to injury and disease. Thus, the mus- 
cles and lenses of the eye give much more trouble than the 
retina and the optic nerve. In the case of smell, the sensory 
epithelium is well protected by its secluded position. 

As to hyperaemia of the respiratory mucous membrane, its 
blood supply is controlled much more by the exigencies of 
breathing than by those of smell. It is largely under the sway 
of local reflexes. The fibers of the trigeminus which ramify 
through it are closely connected with fibers of the sympathetic 
nervous system. Too profuse secretion of mucus is the most 
common mechanical hindrance to smell. On the other hand, 

ipp. 136-165. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 105 

too small a secretion has a disastrous effect on the sense- 
epithelium. It seems that the tiny hairs of the rod-cells re- 
fuse to do their work if they become dry. The action of all 
the mucous glands of the nose may be increased by injecting 
strychnine, and decreased by injecting atropin into the mem- 
branes. Too much atropin, however, produces irritation and a 
flow of tears. 

Hyperosmia may also be respiratory, — due to certain asym- 
metries of the skeleton or to anaemia of the respiratory mem- 
brane, — or toxic, or nervous. In hysterical subjects, hyper- 
osmia is common. Anaemia of the respiratory membrane may 
be produced by smelling such substances as cocoa-butter, or 
cedar- wood, which rather powerfully affect the trigeminus. 

The two forms of anosmia, which vary in the same subject from 
day to day, are respiratory anosmia from obstruction of the nasal 
passages by mucus, and nervous anosmia from exhaustion. It 
is possible at any time easily to discover whether the nasal 
passages are obstructed or not. The test can be made by ex- 
haling on a concave metal mirror held at the level of the 
mouth. The clouds of condensed vapor give the true shape of 
transverse sections of the breathing-cones. They are divided 
from each other, and if the nasal passages are in a normal con- 
dition, they are symmetrical, and broader than they are long. 
As they pass away, they should each divide into an antero- 
medial and a postero-lateral division of about the same size. 
As divided, the spots should still be roughly symmetrical. The 
division is due to the projection of the *' triangular cartilage " 
and the lower turbinal bone from the side wall of the nose. 
This division of the air current occurs in all mammals.^ Patho- 
logical alterations in the raucous membrane of the nose and 
asymmetry of the nasal skeleton may alter the size and shape 
of these divisions, but rarely prevent them from appearing. 
The antero-medial division alone represents the current of air 
which passes above the lower turbinal bone. The form and 
position of the field of smell in an ordinary inspiration, there- 
fore, corresponds roughly with this division, and would do so 
exactly if it were not for the slight difference in the course of 
the currents of inspired and expired air.^ 

The influence of exhaustion is more insidious. It varies 
from subject to subject, from substance to substance, and from 
one intensity of a substance and one general condition of a sub- 
ject to another, so that numerical corrections are out of the 
question. Fortunately or unfortunately, the effects of adhe- 
sion and exhaustion are for the most part opposite. This 

^P. 73. 
2 Pp. 73-74. 



I06 GAMBLE : 

Opposite influence makes one's numerical results more nearly 
correct than they would otherwise be. On the other hand, it 
makes the exact influence of each source of error more diSicult 
to read from the figures. Yet it is not particularly difficult to 
detect the effect of the exhaustion when it is at all marked, and 
to exclude the most unreliable determinations. In our expe- 
rience of thirteen different subjects, complete or marked 
anosmia from exhaustion, if it occurred at all, usually came on 
very suddenly. 

Section 4.. Psychophysical Methods Employed. 

Before difference-determinations were made at all, the stim- 
ulus-limen was usually found as accurately as possible for the 
substance and subject concerned. The subject, starting with 
the end of the odorous cylinder even with the end of the inhal- 
ing-tube, moved the cylinder outward until he obtained a smell. 
If this smell seemed to him more than liminal, he moved the 
cylinder back for a short distance, and continued to move back- 
wards and forwards until he had satisfied himself as to the point 
at which he obtained a just noticeable sensation. The method 
of moving steadily in both directions, — from a point considera- 
bly below to a point just above the limen, and from a point con- 
siderably above to a point just below the limen, — was tried, but 
was abandoned. It is often impossible, on account of adhesion 
in the tube or in the nasal passages, or on account of memory 
after-images, or cumulative stimulation, to move from a point 
of intensive stimulation to a point at which sensation entirely 
disappears. Memory after-images certainly occur. The exist- 
ence of true after-images of peripheral origin has not been 
proved in the case of smell. ^ 

The only difference- determinations for smell, so far on record, 
are a few which Zwaardemaker performed for yellow wax and 
vulcanized rubber. The method which he employed, and the 
method which so far seems practicable, is Fechner's rough and 
simple method of just noticeable diff*erences. One gives the 
subject a standard stimulus, and then after an interval, which 
one makes as nearly uniform as possible, a second stimulus 
which is appreciably greater or smaller. He himself then 
moves the cylinder until he makes the stimulus just greater 
or just smaller than the standard. When in the neighborhood 
of the stimulus, he moves back and forth as he likes, until he 
has satisfied himself of the accuracy of the determination. 
Thus, as there is near the limen procedure in both directions, 
the method may be classed as a gradation-method. The in- 
terval between the two stimuli averaged in our experimenls 2^ 

1 P. 260. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELI.. 107 

seconds with the standard olfactometer, and 5 seconds with the 
fluid-mantle olfactometer. With the small olfactometer, it was 
never less than 2, and almost never greater than 4 seconds. It 
was ordinarily 2. With the large olfactometer, it varied from 
4 to 6 seconds. The difficulty in manipulating the large olfac- 
tometer more quickly will be described in another place. The 
interval between determinations was much more variable. It 
was usually about a minute, except when the tube was cleaned. 
Our determinations were broken into short series in which 
t^ro and A^w were found alternately. The series were divided 
from each other by the necessary cleanings of the inhaling- 
tube. With some substances, we washed and dried the tube 
after every 8 determinations, wiping it out with dry absorbent 
cotton in the middle of the series. With other substances, we 
washed and dried it at the end of every 4 determinations. It 
took about a minute to give the tube a dry wipe, making the 
interval between half vSeries about 2 minutes. After practice, 
it took about 3 minutes to wash, wipe and dry the tube, mak- 
ing the interval between series about 4 minutes. These time 
estimates are all rough. We were not intent on time-determi- 
nations ; the subject had often incidental remarks to make on 
his own experiences ; and there were various untoward acci- 
dents, — water spilled, tubes broken, wire dropped, etc. The 
subject used his two nostrils alternately ; all our records were 
kept for the two nostrils of each subject as for two different 
persons. We changed the order of determinations in successive 
series that exhaustion and adhesion might equally affect ^ro 
and Artt for the right nostril and for the left. For example, 4 
series might run thus : 

(i) Ar(?f. R. N., Ard7f. L. N., 

(2) l\rui. L. N., Arz^f. R. N., 

(3) iirui. R. N., h.ru f. L. N., 

(4) Ar^f. L. N., I\ro f. R. N., 

With the standard olfactometer, after some practice in clean- 
ing the tube, we took usually 32 determinations in an hour ; 
with the fluid-mantle olfactometer, 24. It was not worth while 
to take more even if there was time, as the effect of exhaus- 
tion became too marked. Fortunately, the odors of the solids 
used with the small and easily handled olfactometer, were less 
exhausting than the insistent smells of most of the solu- 
tions. 

With an unpracticed subject, we used one standard a day. 
With a practiced subject, we took determinations first with a 
weaker, then with a stronger standard on the same day. If 
the substance was very exhausting, we worked first with a 
weaker, then with a stronger, then with a weaker, then with a 



A ru f. R. 


N., 


A ru f. L. 


N. 


Art? f. Iv. 


N., 


l\ro f. R. 


N. 


/\ro f. R. 


N., 


/\ro f. L. 


N. 


A ru f. L. 


N., 


I\ru f. R. 


N. 



I08 GAMBLE : 

Stronger standard. The subject was always warned of a change 
in the standard. 

Two grounds of objection to the method of just noticeable 
differences are mentioned by Wundt. They are the haphazard 
choice of the more intensive stimulus, which may light upon 
a stimulus unnecessarily large, and thus weary the subject's 
attention and sense-organ unnecessarily, and the irregularity 
and immeasurability of the moving back and forth in the 
vicinity of the difference-limen, — the " Tatonnieren. " It 
should be noted, however, that as exhaustion increases during 
the act of determination, A ro would always be too large and A ru 
too small, were it not that adhesion has a precisely opposite 
effect, which is increased by the time-error. Thus, there is 
really a rude double cancelling of errors. 

The true method of minimal changes involves great practi- 
cal difl&culties if applied to difference-determinations with 
Zwaardemaker's olfactometer. On account of the adhesion in 
the inhaling-tube, either two olfactometers must be used, and 
both inhaling- tubes cleaned after every comparison of two 
stimuli, or only such substances must be used as are insoluble 
in water and do not condense on the inner surface of the in- 
haling-tube. Zwaardemaker tried the method with vulcanized 
India-rubber, and believes it to be practicable for this sub- 
stance.^ We, too, tried it with the tube of red vulcanized 
India-rubber sent from Holland, and obtained very satisfactory 
results. (See Table VIII. ) 

We also tried a combination of the two methods mentioned. 
Giving the subject a variable stimulus objectively equal to the 
standard, we bade him make it subjectively equal, — for it 
would tend to seem subjectively less from the effect of exhaus- 
tion, — and then after pausing to let us take the reading, to 
make it subjectively just greater than the standard. Then he 
was directed to make a variable stimulus very appreciably 
greater, just equal subjectively. Next, after making an ob- 
jectively equal stimulus subjectively equal, he made it sub- 
jectively less. Lastly, he made an appreciably weaker stimulus 
subjectively equal to the standard. Some of the results obtained 
by this method are given in Table VII. They are arranged 
in connection with results obtained for the same subject, sub- 
stance and standard by the method of just noticeable differ- 
ences. The uncertainty of a method in which the subject 
exhausts an already wearied organ by hunting for subjective 
equality before proceeding to the determination proper, is 
obvious. Therefore, the two sets of results tally surprisingly 
well. 

ipp. 189-190. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. I09 

With any form of the method of just noticeable differences 
in which the subject himself alters the stimulus of comparison, 
there is liability to serious error from the subject's inclination 
to judge in terms of movement. When he has found that a 
certain hand-movement has made the stimulus of comparison 
just noticeably greater or less than the standard, he will expect 
the same movement to make it just noticeably greater or less 
again. He will be all the more tempted to judge in terms of 
hand-movement from the fact that he has been all his life form- 
ing estimates of space in terms of the sensations produced by 
movement, and has probably never thought of taking pains to 
compare the intensity of two odors. This tendency varies 
much in different subjects. Its presence may be suspected 
when the mean variation of a series is very small. Fortunately, 
it acts in such a way as rather to conceal the operation of 
Weber's law, if applicable, than to make it appear applicable 
if it were not. If, for example, one finds A r to be 5 mm. for a 
standard of 20 mm., and by repeating the series of movements, 
obtains the same value of A r for a standard of 40 mm., Ar will 

r 
be % in the one case, and ^ in the other. 

As a matter of fact our results offer evidence for the law 
which is strong to an almost suspicious degree. Yet it is not 
probable that a trained subject would, or that an untrained 
subject could deliberately alter his movements, when the stand- 
was varied, so as to keep the value of Ar approximately the 

r 
same, and it is absolutely impossible that twelve subjects out of 
thirteen should all do so. Such a procedure would argue a 
miraculous combination of psychophysical knowledge, accurate 
memory, industry and malice. 

We also made some attempt to test the applicability of the 
method of right and wrong cases. At the time we tried it, 
which was early in the course of our experiments, we found it 
utterly impracticable. The fact that more than half the mis- 
takes were made in thinking the second stimulus weaker than 
the first or equal to it, would indicate that exhaustion was the 
disturbing factor. Since, however, the subject seems genuinely 
to recognize the stimulus of comparison in the gradation- 
methods as greater or less than the standard, it is probable that 
the difficulty with the method of right and wrong cases is 
largely the utter confusion it produces in his mind. Most 
persons are not used to smelling attentively and have to 
** learn " a given smell-intensity. 



no GAMBI^E : 

Chapter II. Apparatus and Materiai^. 

Section i. The Standard and Fluid-Mantle Olfactometers. 

In our experiments, we employed the single "standard ' ' olfac- 
tometer and a double form of the ' ' fluid-mantle ' ' olfactometer. 
Both instruments were supplied from Utrecht. The sliding 
tubes used with the standard or small olfactometer were formed 
of the odorous material itself, and covered with an outer tube 
of glass. Porcelain cylinders, saturated with odorous solu- 
tions, and fitted into larger glass tubes, have been largely used 
by Zwaardemaker in connection with this simple instrument. 
We, however, used the porcelain cylinders only with the large 
or fluid-mantle olfactometer. We shall reserve the considera- 
tion of the preparation of the odorous substances to the next 
section. Here we shall describe the screen and inhaling-tube 
of the small instrument, and all the appurtenances of the large 
instrument, except the odorous solutions. 

/. Standard Olfactometer. The glass inhaling-tube has a total 
length of 15 cm. and a bore of 5 mm. The glass varies in different 
tubes from i to 1}^ mm. in thickness. The portion which curves up- 
ward to fit into the nostril is never more than i}i cm. long. Zwaar- 
demaker says that the angle of the bend seems to make no difference 
with the results of the experiment. He himself makes it a right an- 
gle, but Reuter makes it an angle of 40 degrees.^ A metal sleeve 
carrying a raised bead at the edge towards the bent end of the tube 
and buttoning into a metal ring in the center of the small wooden 
screen is fastened to the tube in such a position as to allow 10 cm. to 
project beyond the screen. This portion is graduated into twenty 
divisions of 5 mm. each. The securing of the metal to the tube is a 
serious problem in practice. We were able to find neither odorless 
glue nor cement which would withstand the constant washing of the 
tube, and the drying over the spirit-flame, a performance which must 
be repeated from four to a dozen times in a single hour. We finally 
solved the difficulty for ourselves by pasting with freshly dissolved 
gum arabic a strip of paper to the tube, and working the metal ring 
down over it, where it fitted so tightly as not to be removed without a 
process of soaking. The graduated tubes can be easily duplicated by 
any glassware firm.^ They are so frequently broken in cleaning by 
an unpracticed operator, that no extended course of experiments 
should be undertaken without laying in a stock of them. 

The screen is a square bit of cherry wood, — 7>^ cm. broad by 10 cm. 
high by i cm. thick, — furnished with a handle and 'coated with var- 
nish which is supposed to be odorless. The screen must, however, be 
freely exposed to the air, and when new, must be well sunned, or it 
will have a decided smell of its own. Its double purpose is to serve 
as a handle, and to protect the nostril not in use from the odor of the 
sliding cylinder. The subject in making his determination holds the 
handle of the screen in his left hand and moves the cylinder with his 
right.8 

ip. 104. 

2 Messrs. Eimer and Amend, of New York, courteously duplicated 
for us all of our imported tubes. 

3 The standard olfactometer can be made in any laboratory. See the 



WEBER S LAW TO SMELL. Ill 

//. Fluid-Mantle Olfactometer. In this instrument, the constant 
saturation of the hollow porcelain cylinder is secured in the following 
manner : A section of wide glass tubing is secured between two cir- 
cular and cork-lined end-plates of metal. One of the metal plates, — 
that which when the instrument is adjusted is nearer to the subject, 
— is furnished with three equidistant rods, inside of which the disks 
of cork and the glass tube fit. The three rods terminate in three 
screws with detachable heads. The screws pass through holes in the 
other metal plate. The plates are bored at the center to circular open- 
ings, 8 mm. in diameter, which coincide with the bore of the enclosed 
porcelain cylinder. The cylinder itself, which has exactly the length 
of the glass tube, — lo cm., — is held in place simply by the pressure of 
the end-plates. The glass inhaling-tube passes through the screen 
into the bore of the cylinder. The odorous solution is put into the 
space between the cylinder and the glass tube with a pipette through 
one of two holes, 2 mm. in diameter, which are left one in each of the 
two metal plates, and closed with cork-lined screw-heads. It would 
be better if there were two of these holes in each plate, for it is ex- 
tremely difficult to force a sluggish liquid, such as glycerine, against 
the pressure of the air into the space around the cylinder. If the 
rubber of the pipette is flaccid, it becomes almost impossible. 

The "shells" thus constructed for mantling the cylinder with 
liquid, are mounted in a horizontal position on a wooden table, — 27.7 
cm. long by 16.4 cm. wide, — which can be adjusted to the required 
height above a heavily leaded base. Bach of the shells can be 
moved to and from the observer along a way of hard wood. The rack 
and pinion movement is governed by milled heads, — diameter 2|^ cm., 
— projecting from the table to right and left within easy grasp of the 
subject's hand. A scale and pointer enable the observer to determine 
how far the cylinder is moved. 

The inhaling-tubes are made with the same bore and of glass of the 
same thickness as the graduated tubes used with the standard olfactom- 
eter. Those sent from Holland turn, one to the right and the other 
to the left before curving upward to be inserted in the nose. The 
metal sleeves, within which the tubes are cemented, do not bolt into 
the holes in the screen, but flare off each on its outer side into flat fan- 
shaped pieces of metal, which are screwed to tally with a mark on the 
screen. We made no experiments with these tubes, but used instead 
tubes of the same bore and thickness of glass, either with a somewhat 
shorter upright, or with but one curve. The tubes with one curve are 
precisely like the inhaling-tubes of the standard olfactometer, except 
that the part which extends through the screen is longer and is not 
graduated. It is a mistake to use two-jointed tubes at all, unless both 
nostrils are to be used, as in compensation-experiments. The extra 
curve seems to make no difference in the results, but it makes the 
tubes much harder to clean. The total length of our two-jointed 
tubes was 18^ cm., and that of our one-jointed tubes, 17)^ cm. 11. 3 
cm. of every tube used must project beyond the screen. We fitted 
our tubes into hollow plugs of cherry wood turned to order in the 
shape of corks, so as to pass easily into the holes of the screen, and 

directions given in Sanford: Experimental Psychology y p. 371. Scrip- 
ture's blotting-paper olfactometer as, made by Willyoung, is rendered 
useless by the vulcanized India-rubber of the inhaling-tubes. We sub- 
stituted for the inner glass-tube, rubber-tube, and nose-piece, a glass 
tube bent at right angles and expanded into a nose-piece at its upper 
end. The dimensions of this tube, however, make it very breakable, 
and it is quite impossible to clean it except by blowing through it. 



112 GAMBLE: 

to fit tightly when pushed home. To keep the tubes themselves from 
slipping backwards and forwards in the plugs, we gummed strips of 
paper to the glass at the edge of the wood. Lumps of these strips 
will continue to adhere even after many washings. These home-made 
substitutes for the heavy metal attachments are very serviceable. 

We should advise all who purchase the instrument to strengthen 
the table with metal cross pieces on its under side. The upward 
warping, which is inevitable, narrows the ways and throws the inhal- 
ing-tube out of alignment with the porcelain cylinder. The result is 
a stiff movement of the rack and pinion on the one hand, and a per- 
petual breaking of inhaling-tubes on the other. Moreover, if the 
warping has gone far, the whole table is liable to split. We have also 
found it necessary to shave the edges of the wooden blocks which 
carry the shells, and to reduce the friction caused by two spring- 
brakes placed alongside of the ways. It would be much better if the 
carrying blocks were moved with cranks, rather than by the milled 
heads. The exertion necessary to turn the screw and the chafing of 
the hand by the milling are distracting to the subject's attention. 
Moreover, the intervals when the experimenter is turning the head 
to give the stimulus of comparison are undesirably long. Great care 
must be used in the selection of any oil which is applied to the in- 
strument. We once used clock oil, and afterwards had extreme 
trouble in eradicating the odor. 

The porcelain cylinders for these olfactometers are made by Hooft 
and Labouchere in Delft, and composed of pure kaolin. They must 
be kept continually immersed in water, and this must be removed at 
least daily to minimize the odor of the clay. They must not be dried 
before they are introduced into their glass coverings. The ends are 
perfectly smooth, and are glazed for use with the standard olfactome- 
ter. The outer and inner surfaces remain porous. All the cylinders 
used, whether made of porcelain or of the fragrant material itself, 
have a length of lo cm., and a bore of 8 mm., so as to slide easily 
along the inhaling-tube, and to cover, in case of the standard olfactom- 
eter, the graduated portion of the tube lying beyond the screen. 
The external diameter, — counting the thickness of the protecting 
shell of glass, when present, — varies from 14 to 16 mm. 

Section 2. Preparation of Odorous Materials. 

In Table VI (Chapter III, Section 2) the odorous materials are 
arranged in their order according to Zwaardemaker's scheme 
of olfactory qualities. We shall here describe them in groups 
according to their mode of preparation. We shall consider first 
the preparation of the tubes of solid odorous matter, and after- 
wards discuss the solutions used to saturate the porcelain cylin- 
ders. 

/. Preparation of Odorous Substances Used in Solid Form. The 
solid odorous materials from which tubes or hollow cylinders were 
prepared were vulcanized India rubber, black, red, and gray ; cedar, 
rose-wood and musk-root ; Russian leather, yellow wax, paraffine, glyc- 
erine soap, mutton-tallow, cocoa-butter and solid oil of mace, asafoet- 
ida, gum benzoin, tolu balsam, and a combination of gutta-percha 
and gum ammoniac in equal parts by weight. Tubes of red and black 
India rubber, and of gutta-percha and gum ammoniac came with the 
standard olfactometer from Utrecht. All the other cylinders, and a 
second tube of gutta-percha and gum ammoniac, were home-made. It 
is necessary that all such cylinders should be fitted into glass tubes 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. II3 

of the same length in order that no odor from their outer surfaces 
may pass around the screen. 

India rubber has three great qualifications for use in experiments in 
smell, (i) It can be smelled for a long time by most subjects with- 
out blunting the organ ; (2) its odor is not easily obscured by other 
odors, and (3) adheres comparatively little to the inhaling-tube. Two 
of our subjects {C. and Sh.), however, complained more of smarting 
in the nose when using rubber than when using any other substance. 
The age and mode of preparation of different sorts of rubber, and the 
amounts of sulphur in them, make some difference in the quality and 
slight differences in the intensity of the smell. The intensity, is, on 
the other hand, virtually the same at all degrees of temperature be- 
tween 13** and 30*^ C. The cylinder may be prepared by cutting 10 
cm. from a rubber tube with a bore of 8 mm., and working it into a 
glass tube of the same length. The rubber must be clean and new, 
and, in particular, must never have come in contact with illuminating 
gas. Although the odor of the rubber when fresh is not easily dis- 
guised by other smells, yet the substance easily loses its own odor 
and takes that of other substances. An inhaling-tube or the broken 
fragment of one should, therefore, be left in the cylinder so as to 
cover its inner surface when not in use. Such tubes must never be 
allowed to lie about unprotected on the shelves of a wooden cup- 
board. If not sealed by containing the inhaling-tube, they should be 
rolled up in clean glazed paper and shut up in a jar by themselves. 

Our cedar and rose-wood cylinders were turned to order. A block 
of wood 2j^x2^x4j^ ins. will make four of these tubes. Bach was 
held in its place in the outer tube of glass by a small bit of " instant 
crockery -mender " applied to the wood before putting it in. The fit 
is so tight that the odor of the paste cannot escape. These cylinders 
also are very liable to lose part of their odor, and should be carefully 
protected. Messrs. McKesson and Robbins, of New York, furnished 
a single piece of musk-root large enough to make two cylinders. One 
crumbled in the turning, but the other broke evenly around the cir- 
cumference into two sections, which were pushed so tightly into a 
glass tube as to stay in place of themselves. The crack was almost 
invisible, and as it was 6 cm. from one end of the tube, it did not ren- 
der the cylinder really defective. From the Russian leather, — which 
was genuine, and not the "Russian leather" of America, which is 
tanned with birch instead of sandal wood, — a piece 24 mm. wide and 
10 cm. long was cut, and was fitted into a tube so as exactly to cover 
the inner surface. Cylinders may be prepared in the same way from 
India rubber sheeting. 

The other substances were all melted and moulded . The glycerine soap 
was Pear's, the mutton fat employed was fresh from the butcher's, the 
cocoa-butter,paraffine (the kind used by histologists), gum benzoin and 
gum ammoniac were such as can be bought of any retail druggist. We 
obtained of McKesson and Robbins " solid " oil of mace and the pure 
juice of asafcetida done up in small tin cans, and also a quantity of 
gutta-percha in narrow fibrous sticks or slabs, and of tolu balsam en- 
tirely freed from impurities. For the outside mould, the permanent 
glass shell must, of course, be used. The glass tubing was cut before- 
hand in our case into lengths of 10 cm,, and these moulds were corked 
at one end, so that the tube of odorous matter was never quite 
so long as its shell. For the inside mould, we used an inhaling-tube, 
or the long straight part of one which had broken at the curve. The 
tube may be kept upright by digging a hole for the end of it in the 
cork. This end should be plugged to prevent the liquid from working 
up into the tube, through which it is sometimes necessary to pour 

JOURNAI« — 8. 



114 GAMBLE: 

warm or cold water. All the odorous substances in this group were 
melted in a water-bath. We crumbled or shaved them into a small 
beaker, which we floated by means of a ring of cork in a large 
beaker of water over a Bunsen burner. We tried to melt the gums 
in a sand-bath, but succeeded only in charring them. The mass 
which we obtained by melting the gum ammoniac and gutta-percha 
together was of lighter color than that sent from Holland, and was 
not entirely free from the fibres of the gutta-percha. It was spongy 
and easily moulded by the fingers into any desired shape. The soap, 
paraffine, cocoa-butter and tallow are readily manipulated. They 
solidify in a very few moments if the outer tube is immersed in cold 
water, and the removal of the inner mould presents no difficulty. 
Tubes of these materials were kept all the summer in a room of which 
the temperature occasionally rose to 94^^ F., and sustained no damage 
by the heat. The tubes of soap, however, sometimes shrivel in a few 
days independently of the temperature. The longer the paraffine is 
heated the stronger the odor. Zwaardemaker succeeds in giving it an 
odor as strong as that of tallow or musk-root. We did not try heat- 
ing it longer than an hour and a half, and our paraffine tubes gave the 
weakest of all our scents. Tubes of tallow are easy to make and to 
keep, and do not exhaust the subject's sense-organ to any appreciable 
extent, and are therefore especially to be recommended. 

The oil of mace has a consistency like that of table-butter. It melts 
rapidly, and solidifies almost instantly when the outer mould is 
plunged into ice water, but tends to stick to the inner tube, and to 
come out with it in perfect shape. To remove the inner tube by itself, 
we filled it with ice water, and then hastily poured a little hot water 
over the outer mould. When once made, the mace tubes should be 
kept in a cool place, and the jar in which they stand should not be 
set on end. While they are in use, they must be grasped only with 
the tips of the fingers, and must be cooled every few moments with ice 
or snow. The juice of asafoetida, when pure, never becomes solid 
enough to be moulded. We poured small quantities of it, when 
melted, upon a mass of pulverized carbonate of magnesia, and worked 
the two materials together with our fingers, as one works flour into 
a very soft dough. We put lumps of this mixture into an outer 
mould, heated it in the water bath for a few moments, and then 
forced the inner tube down through the mass as nearly parallel with 
the outer mould as possible. After many attempts, we succeeded in 
making several satisfactory cylinders. Their odor, in spite of the 
adulteration of the asafoetida, is only too strong. 

The gums never become very liquid in melting, and they solidify 
almost instantly when removed from the heat. We found it difficult to 
pour the gum benzoin, and impossible to pour the tolu and the mixture 
of gutta-percha and gum ammoniac, into the space between the inner 
and outer moulds. We poured this mixture and the tolu into the 
outer tube when empty, and then forced the inner tube into its place, 
as in the case of the asafcetida. When the fragrant substance is a 
gum, this inner tube must be greased. We coated it rather thickly, 
but evenly, with lanolene, which is as nearly odorless as grease can 
easily be found, and which evaporates quickly. All these tubes of gum 
retain their odors well, but the tolu is likely to melt out of shape in a 
hot room. 

Before these cylinders are used, the section of odorless substance 
exposed at the outer end must be covered. We employed a little rin^or 
cap of glazed paper gummed to the surface. Even with this precaution, 
the odor of the asafcetida, mace, butter and Russian leather, is quite 
apparent when the instrument is closed by pushing the odorous tube 



weber's law to smell. 115 

as far in as possible. It apparently proceeds from such space as there 
is between the inside surface and the inhaling-tube. The inhaling- 
tube, on the other hand, must not fit too closely in the inside of the 
odorous tube, for if it does, the subject will be able to move it only in 
irregular jerks, and it will, moreover, scrape off shavings from the in- 
side surface of a cylinder of soft material, such as asafoetida or oil of 
mace. When it is used with the Russian leather, a bit of paper may be 
gummed around it to make it fit somewhat more closely. Kven this, 
however, does not keep the smell of the leather from making itself 
apparent in the space from which one breathes through the tube. We 
attempted to find "negative stimulus-limina " for the troublesome 
substances, in the following manner : We used a graduated inhaling- 
tube 4 cm. longer than the ordinary one, and adjusting the cylinder 
over the 10 cm. nearest the screen, moved out to find the limen. 
The device was not successful. The odor still diffused itself through 
the space from which the air was drawn. All the determinations of 
difference-limina for these substances involve a constant error, 7-- 
namely, the addition of an increment, which we have no means of 
measuring, to every stimulus represented on the tube. 

//. Preparation of Odorous Substances in Solution. Of the odor- 
ous substances used in solution, the caryophylline, citral, vauilline, 
coumarine and heliotropine were among the " De Laire Specialties," 
and were, with the ethyl butyrate, tincture of musk, and oil of cam- 
phor, the gift of Messrs. Dodge and Olcott, of New York. "The 
De Laire products," writes a representative of Dodge and Olcott, 
"are not an embodiment of the simple chemical formulas suggested 
by their names. They are compounds after secret recipes, and their 
names denote only the odor or flavor or other quality which it is 
claimed they reproduce or imitate. De Laire's caryophylline, for 
example, is not the caryophylline of your chemical formulas, a dis- 
tinctly isolated aromatic principle, but a preparation, having doubt- 
less as its base one of the clove-oil products, which is intended to 
supply the perfumer with the bouquet of the clove-pink." We have 
retained the De Laire spelling of their own specialties. The chemical 
formulae of butyric ether, valerianic acid, allyl sulphide, and pyridin 
are, respectively, C3 H5. C4 H^ Og, C5 Hjo O2, (C, H5) S, and C5 
H5 N. The butyric ether used was a commercial product, but the 
valerianic acid was obtained at the chemical laboratory of the Uni- 
versity, and the allyl sulphide and pyridin, as well as the oil of anise, 
were had of the Theodore Metcalf Company, of Boston. 

Our solvents, mixtures, and concentrations were as follows : 
Oil of camphor in liquid paraffine, a mixture, 1:500 

Caryophylline in pure glycerine, a true solution, 1:500 

Oil of anise in liquid paraffine, a mixture, 1:1665^ 

Valerianic acid, in water, a true solution, 1:1500 

Ethyl butyrate, " " " 1:1000 

Citral, in liquid paraffine, " " 1:500 

Vanilline, in pure glycerine, " " 1:125 

Coumarine, in liquid paraffine, " " 1:1000 

Heliotropine, in liquid paraffine, " " 1:125 

Natural Musk, the ordinary alcoholic tincture, in water, 

a mixture, 1:125 

Allyl Sulphide, in liquid paraffine, a true solution, 1:1000 

Pyridin, in water, a true solution, 1:500 

Laudanum, the ordinary alcoholic tincture, a true solu- 
tion, unmixed. 

Some of the musk was of course precipitated by the addition of so 
much water, and floated about in dark brown specks, a state of affairs 
anything but desirable. 



Il6 GAMBLE: 

We are aware that all the concentrations are startlingly high. We 
could not, however, use lower concentrations if we were to fix our 
standard-stimulus in two places on the scale. With a few exceptions, 
our stimulus-limina were much higher than those given by Zwaarde- 
maker as normal. These facts will be noted later in detail. Zwaarde- 
maker recommended vanilline in glycerine in the concentration qf 
i:iooo and coumarine and allyl sulphide in paraffine in the same con- 
centration as especially well fitted for difference-determinations. We 
did use the coumarine and allyl sulphide in these concentrations, but 
most of our subjects obtained no odor whatever from the vanilline at 
i:iooo, and in no case did the stimulus-limen fall for both nostrils 
below 36 mm. 

For coumarine, heliotropine and tincture of musk, stimulus-limina 
were found in a satisfactory manner. With all the other substances, 
an odor was apparent when the pointer of the fluid-mantle olfactom- 
eter stood at zero. The odor, undoubtedly, came from the space 
between the inhaling-tube and the inside of the porcelain cylinder, 
as great pains had been taken to wash away every drop of liquid from 
the metal plates. It is almost impossible so to adjust the inhaling- 
tube that it will not scrape against the clay at some point, and to 
paste paper around it would be out of the question, since the paper 
would continually rub and wipe the odorous surface. The odor was 
apparent 4 cm. from the end of the ordinary inhaling-tube when the 
cylinder was supposed to be sealed. All the determinations of differ- 
ence-limina for these substances also are, therefore, subject to a 
constant error, but not so great an error as occurs in the results for 
the troublesome solids with the exception of Russian leather. The 
odor of the solutions when the instrument was closed was usually 
barely liminal. 

When water was used as a solvent, it was, of course, distilled. The 
measuring-glasses and the bottles used should be rinsed well with 
distilled water, or at least with water which has been freshly steril- 
ized by boiling just before the liquids are poured into them. An 
aqueous solution becomes unfit for use if long exposed to the light. 
Zwaardemaker advises that the fluid-mantle of the porcelain cylin- 
der be changed every two days. We usually not only changed the 
mantle, but made a fresh solution, as often as this. It is safe to use 
the same glycerine or parafl&ne solution for days or even some weeks. 
The glycerine is much more diflScult to put into the receptacle than 
the parafl&ne, and for citral and caryophylline it is not so able a 
solvent. It is diflficult, however, to obtain and keep liquid paraffine 
quite free from a slight odor, somewhat pungent and somewhat like 
that of vaseline. Alcoholic solutions are, of course, more or less 
undesirable, as we have noted before. If Af were known to bet he 

r 
same for all qualities, there would be no objection to using such solu- 
tions, but to assume that it is, is to beg one question at issue. We 
could not manage the musk and the opium, however, in any other 
form. 

Section j. Other Arrangements and Appliances. 

For cleaning the inhaling-tubes, one needs a funnel of which one 
end is small enough to fit into the bore ; two small light vessels, — 
tin cups are best, — for pouring water back and forth through them ; a 
roll of absorbent cotton ; a piece of pliable brass wire ; some listerine ; 
and a small alcohol lamp. After a tube is washed, it must be wiped 
inside and out with absorbent cotton before it is dried more thoroughly 
over the spirit-flame, else it will break. We used listerine occasion- 



webbr's law to smell. 117 

ally as a deodorizer during a set of experiments, and always as a 
disinfectant at the end of the hour. Its own odor is easily washed 
away. As it takes some time for a porcelain cylinder to become 
thoroughly impregnated with an odorous solution, it is convenient to 
have test-tubes with tightly fitting corks, in which a number of cylin- 
ders may be put to soak at the same time. Unless they can be kept 
in a dark cupboard, it is well to wrap up these tubes in several plies 
of black calico. Bottles of yellow glass, such as perfumers recom- 
mend for the safe keeping of heliotropine, might well be used for all 
the solutions, but if they are not available, the ordinary bottles of 
colorless glass can be wrapped up in black cotton cloth. The less 
woolen cloth about the room, the better. We keep our solid cylinders 
in "self-sealing" preserve jars. When the cylinder with its fluid- 
mantle in place is not in use, the bore should be corked to keep the 
inner surface from drying off. It may, indeed, be filled with the solu- 
tion and corked when it is put away for some time. In this case, all 
drops of liquid must be wiped out with absorbent cotton before the 
experiments begin. If it seems likely that much odorous substance 
has condensed on the inner surface, the whole bit of apparatus, glass 
shell and all, may be immersed in water. The bore should then be 
filled for a few hours with the odorous liquid. 

The walls of the room in which our experiments were made are 
covered with oiled paper, and the floor is covered with oil-cloth which 
has a coating of shellac. The room has at present this defect, that 
when the wind blows in certain directions, it is impossible to create 
through it a draft of air which does not pass first through a hall 
frequented by students and therefore dusty, and by no means free 
from odor. When the standard olfactometer was used, the subject 
sat between the observer and the window, and at right angles to the 
observer, so that the light shone through the graduated inhaling- 
tube. When the fluid-mantle olfactometer was used, subject and 
observer sat at right angles to each other at the end of a low table. 



Chapter III. Results. 

Section r. The Several Subjects arid their Stimulus- Limina. 

Individual variations in the sense of smell are so great that 
it is necessary to preface a chapter on experimental results with 
an account of the subjects. The following notes upon our sub- 
jects in alphabetical order are thrown into "noun-form" for the 
sake of brevity. 

Be. (Dr. I. M. Bentley), a trained subject. 

Organ impaired by acute catarrhal troubles and easily exhausted. 

Breathing spots always blurred and ragged at the division lines, — 
indicating a catarrhal condition of the membranes, — and never quite 
symmetrical. 

r\ usually determined with one inspiration ; A.r determined with 
from 2 to 4 inspirations. 

Movements of cylinder long'and slow, but few. 

Position indicative of strain. 

Bi. (Miss K. M. Bickham), a wholly untrained subject. General 
physical condition neurasthenic. 

Organ twice operated on (in '95 and '96) for hypertrophy of the 



Il8 GAMBLE: 

membranes. Superfluous portions removed from both sides. No 
catarrh now apparent. 

Breathing spots usually well-rounded and symmetrical with neat 
division lines. 

r\ and A/' determined with but one inspiration. 

Movements of cylinder rapid with little repetition. 

Position indicative of strain. 

C. (Miss M. H. Carter), o. partially trained subject. 

Organ very easily exhausted. Membranes subject to sudden con- 
gestions of blood and mucus upon nervous fatigue. Adenoid growth 
as a child. (The growth was not cut away, but disappeared of itself.) 

Breathing spots ragged, ill-defined, and almost never symmetrical. 

Breathing during an experiment irregular and violent. Tendency 
to sniff obstinate. r\ and Ar usually determined with i or 2 inspira- 
tions. 

Movements of cylinder rapid with little repetition. 

Position indicative of much strain. 

D. (Mr. S. J. Druskin), a partially trained subject. 
Breathing spots perfect, as a rule. 

rX and A^ usually determined with i or 2 inspirations. 
Movements of cylinder at first rapid and few ; after practice, tenta- 
tive with noticeable repetition. 
Position indicative of but slight strain. 

K. (Mr. T. Kairiyama), a trained subject. 

Organ much impaired by hay-fever and other catarrhal trouble. 

Breathing spots fairly symmetrical as a rule, but ragged at the 
edges. 

r\ and Ar usually determined with i or 2 inspirations. Expiration 
violent (" to clean out the smell "). 

Movements of cylinder tentative but few. 

Position indicative of but slight strain. 

M. (Miss B. B. Macleod), a wholly untrained subject. 
Breathing spots seldom quite symmetrical arid never well defined. 
No catarrh before the current winter. 
r\ and Ar usually determined with i or 2 inspirations. 
Movements of cylinder always irregular from want of practice. 
Position easy. 

N. (Mr. A. C. Nutt), 2. partially trained subject. 

Organ : Easily exhausted. Sensitivity somewhat higher on the 
right side, as a rule. (The subject complained of "feeling left- 
handed " on the left side.) 

Postero-lateral half of left breathing-spot usually missing (a fact 
showing chronic obstruction of the left inferior meatus). Both spots 
ill-defined. 

r\ and Ar determined usually with 2 or 3 inspirations. 

Movements of cylinder slow and tentative with but little repetition. 

Position indicative of strain. 

P. (Mr. C. A. Perry), o, partially trained subject. 

Organ much impaired by chronic catarrh. Diseased portions 
removed from the lower turbinal bones on both sides. 

Breathing spots rarely symmetrical. Secondary division quite 
apparent in spite of the operation mentioned. Spots ill-defined. 

r\ and Ar usually determined with one inspiration. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. II9 

Movements of cylinder slow and tentative with but little repetition. 
Position indicative of but slight strain. 

Rob. (Mr. E. P. Robins), a trained subject. 

Breathing spots rarely symmetrical or perfectly defined. 

r\ and Ar almost invariably determined with one inspiration. 

Move'fnents of cylinder slow and tentative with but little repetition. 

Position indicative of but little strain. 

Rog. (Miss L. R. Rogers), 2l partially trained subject. 
Breathing spots rarely symmetrical or very well defined. 
r\ and Ar usually determined with 2 or 3 inspirations. 
Movements of cylinder slow with much repetition. 
Position indicative of but slight strain. 

Se. (Mr. W. B. Secor), a trained subject. 

Organ : Sensitivity somewhat. higher on the right side as a rule. 

Postero-lateral half of left breathing spot usually very small or 
missing as with N. Spots ill-defined. 

r\ and Ar usually determined with 2 or 3 inspirations , m,ovem,ents 
of cylinder slow with some repetition. 

Position indicative of strain. 

Sh. (Dr. Stella E. Sharp), a trained subject. 

General physical condition neurasthenic. 

Organ easily exhausted. 

Right breathing spot usually larger than left, edges of both spots 
clearly cut. 

r\ and /\r usually determined with one inspiration, movements of 
cylinder slow with little repetition. 

Position indicative of much strain. 

T. (Dr. Ellen B. Talbot), a trained subject. 

Organ somewhat easily exhausted. Portions of both lower turbinal 
bones removed to prevent congestions of mucous in the upper passages. 
Sensitivity somewhat higher on the left side. 

Breathing spots well rounded and clearly cut. Secondary divisions 
imperfect. (When the nasal passages were clear the division was 
represented only by indentations at the edges of the spots.) 

r\ at first determined with one inspiration ; later in the work, with 
2, 3, or even 4 as a more satisfactory procedure. Ar usually deter- 
mined with 2 or 3 inspirations. 

Movem,enis of cylinder very slow and cautious with much repeti- 
tion. 

Position indicative of but little strain. 

In the notes just given a subject is called " trained "if he had had 
a fair amount of experience in general introspection. Only Be. had 
had any training in smell-experiments before the beginning of the 
course described in this paper. Some months earlier we had made a 
futile attempt to find his difference-limen with the weaker Utrecht 
cylinder of gutta-percha and gum ammoniac by the method of minimal 
changes. A subject is called '• partially trained " if he began psycho- 
logical laboratory-work about the time when these experiments com- 
menced. The word "repetition" is used in connection with the 
manipulation of the cylinder to denote the moving backwards and 
forwards at the limen. 

The breathing spots of all the subjects varied much from day to 
day. Sometimes they were broken up into several bands, always run- 
ning rather from front to back than laterally. Often one narrow 



I 20 GAMBLE : 

medial strip would separate from one or the other. In most cases a 
more or less jagged and blurred outline showed the adhesion of 
clots of mucous to the passage-walls. In fact, twelve out of the thir- 
teen subjects had suffered or were suffering from frequent " colds " 
or from hypersecretion more or less chronic. As a function of the 
turbinal bone is to deflect a part of the inspired air to the upper 
passages, its removal damages the sense of smell. The sensitivity of 
7". was higher on the left side of the nose, from which, as she reported, 
the smaller amount of bone had been taken, but the small remains of 
the secondary division of the breathing spots did not indicate that 
more bone had been removed on the one side than on the other. The 
obstruction of the inferior meatus would not, in itself, do much mis- 
chief to the sense, but it must indicate a dropping of mucous from the 
upper passages. It is of some interest to note that the subject (Z>.) 
whose spots are most perfect is a Russian. He came, however, to live 
in New York city at the age of twelve. K. is Japanese, but has been 
long enough in this country to suffer severely from the catarrhal cli- 
mate. Rob.^ one of the best subjects, comes from Prince Edward's 
Island. The homes of the other ten are scattered over the States from 
Eastern Massachusetts to California, though none are farther south 
than Missouri.^ 

When it is said that Ar was determined with one, two, or more inspi- 
rations, it is meant that the stimulus of comparison was manipulated 
during one, two, or more inspirations. More than one inspiration was 
almost never taken to " learn " the standard. It seemed better to risk 
the increase of adhesion by allowing a subject to take as many breaths 
to a determination as he wished than to make him try to form a judg- 
ment when the force of an inhalation was decidedly on the wane. 
Many of the subjects considered a judgment with one inspiration an 
impracticable ideal. D., K., Se. and Sh.y and in a smaller measure 
Be. and P., had a bad habit of suspending an inspiration, and not of 
sniffing, but of " holding the breath " momentarily during an inspira- 
tion. This practice must have tended to weaken the stimulus by 
allowing the air in the upper chamber to rush downwards to the mid- 
dle meatus. Be., N., P., Rob., Se. and T. noticed that the stimulus 
was stronger during the latter part of an inspiration. This may point 
to cumulative stimulation of the rod-cells, or it may merely mean an 
access of attention and an unconscious sniff. Se.y who had the habit 
of suspending an inhalation, noticed the increase most after a strong 
inspiration, and Z>., K. and Sh., who had the same habit did not 
notice it at all. And it is clear that this peculiar mode of breathing 
would tend to prevent cumulative stimulation. On the other hand, 
Be.., P. and T. noticed the increase most when the stimulus was near 
its limen, and this looks as if it were a matter of attention and breath- 
ing-rate, especially as T. did not hold her breath. Be. remarked that 
the least difference of attention altered the stimulus. Rob. thought 
the first part of an inspiration gave the fairest measure of an inten- 
sity, and Be. and Se. relied on it " in easy judgments," but judged by 
the latter part of the inspiration if the stimulus were weak or vague. 
N. and P. asserted that they judged " by the impression as a whole," 
but N. confessed to a tendency " to emphasize the last whifif." T. re- 
versed the procedure of Be. and /*., usually judging by "the last' 
whiff," but repeating the inspiration and relying on the first impres- 
sion if the determination were difficult. With Rof^. exhaustion often 
supervened in a long inspiration. If is clear that if the intensity of 

1 Spraying the subject's nose at the beginning of the hour might be 
a useful expedient, but we did not try it. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 121 

a stimulus alters with the duration of an inspiration as well as with 
the manipulation of the instrument, the subject must make more than 
one inspiration to determine a limen, unless the judgment is very- 
easy. It is probable that the first part of the inspiration, before the 
smell "blossoms out," gives the best criterion of the intensity of a 
stimulus. We would suggest that cumulative stimulation of smell 
would be a profitable subject of investigation. 

In an effort to smell with the standard olfactometer, C, Z>., K., P., 
Rob., Rog., Sh. and T. all tipped the head to the left if using the 
left nostril, and to the right if using the right, pointed the outward 
end of the inhaling-tube in the same direction as the head was tipped, 
and slanted the screen in the opposite direction. This odd uniformity 
is perhaps explicable. On entering the nose the air ordinarily streams 
a little toward the septum and the opposite directions in which the 
subject slanted his head and the screen tended on each side to throw 
the opening of the nose-piece into an acute angle with the septum, 
while the turn given to the instrument in the horizontal plane threw 
the opening a little toward the front of the nose. On the other hand, 
Se. exactly reversed these directions on each side, and so did Be., ex- 
cept that he turned the tube to point in the same direction as the 
screen was slanted, so throwing its inner opening towards the back of 
the nose. Bi. slanted both head and screen to the right when using 
the right nostril, and to the left when using the left. This was prob- 
ably a mere matter of attention to one nostril or the other. She was 
not consistent in the pointing of the tube. N. turned everything to the 
right. Unfortunately, no written notes were taken of the hand used, 
but it was usually the right, the hand farther from the experimenter. 
All the subjects tended to tilt the hand forward and the screen back- 
ward, — probably in their desire to get " nearer " the stimulus. Almost 
all, unbidden, closed their eyes. 

T. once mentioned verbal associations as an aid in memorizing the 
stimulus. This expedient was not common, ^e. wrinkled his fore- 
head and nose in a marked degree, and once noted a tendency to judge 
in terms of strain, especially about the eyes. Some substances were 
pungent to a disturbing extent to every one, but C. and D. com- 
plained much of "pain" from odors which no one else thought 
pungent. D. explicitly distinguished the sensation from pressure. 
He thought coumarine both pungent and "sour." Both C. and 
D. said that they received simply sensations of pressure from 
some stimuli. With D. sensations of smell merged in sensa- 
tions of pressure as the organ became exhausted. C. said that 
when she tried to smell the black rubber with the left nostril she 
merely felt as if she were " breathing a feather," or as if the inside of 
her nose were "pressed with a soft wad." Yet the judgments made 
with this nostril agreed pretty well with those made with the other. 
Be. occasionally spoke of sensations of pressure or pain from the 
stimuli. Most of the subjects expressly denied temperature-associa- 
tions. Be., however, said that tolu and heliotropine were cold; M. 
that cocoa-butter was cold ; Rob. that vanilline was cold ; and N. that 
white tallow and musk-root were warm, and camphor cold, and that 
every smell grew warmer as it grew stronger. He thought of helio- 
trope as "warm, dark and deep," in contrast with ylang ylang, which 
was " light and fluffy." 

The comparative sensitivity of the subjects may be judged from the 
following Table : 



122 



GAMBLK : 



TABI.E I. A Table of Stimulus-Limina. 
Part I. Stimulus- Limina Arranged to Show Individual Variations. 



SUBSTANCE. 


sosiril. 


Be 


Bl. 


c. 


D. 


K. 


M. 


N. 


P. 


Rob. 


EOg. 


S8. 


SH. 


T. 


Z. 






M 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Black rubber, 


R. 


36 




4 


(22) 


(43) 


(35) 


12 




(61) 


I 


(12) 


7 


(38) 






ly. 


34 




5 


(23) 


(59) 




II 




(50) 


I 


(23) 


10 


(30) 




Gray rubber, 


R. 




(35) 




I 




(19) 








(I) 


5 


(7) 








ly. 


8 


(29) 




6 




(22) 








(I) 


9 


^10) 






Red rubber, 


R. 

L. 




















CI) 

(0) 




(4) 
(5) 




7 


Russian leather. 


R. 

L. 


































ID 


Paraffine, 


R. 




















12 
20 




(21) 
(14) 




10 


Rosewood, 


R. 










6 
8 




8 
7 


(54) 

(67) 






3 
II 






3 


Cedar, 


R. 
L. 






(4) 
(5) 








(27) 
(29) 




(10) 
(12) 






5 
10 


31 
13 


20 


Gum benzoin. 


R. 








7 

7 






(19) 

(17) 










(6) 
(8) 




10 


Gum ammoniac 


(i)R. 

(I)lv. 










(7) 








(9) 
(8) 


(8) 




(12) 






& gutta-percha: 










(17) 








(10) 




(21) 






(I) First 
































Utrecht cylinder. 


(2)R. 


















(9) 












(2) Second 
































Utrecht cylinder. 


(2)1.. 


















(8) 












(3) Home-made 


(3) R- 
















9 


2 












cylinder. 


(3)Iv. 
















18 


4 












Yellow wax. 


R. 
I/. 




























2.5 


Cocoa-butter, 


R. 


10 
8 


(16) 
(17) 








(7) 
(4) 




7 
12 












I 


Tolu balsam. 


R. 
I.. 


14 
19 








4 
3 


I 
I 




(62) 
(49) 






I 
6 




9 
5 


I 


Musk-root, 


R. 

Iv. 














4 
8 








7 
5 








Mutton-tallow, 


R. 














4 
6 








2 
5 








Asafoetida, 


R. 




































Oil of Mace. 


R. 







































L. 





































Coumarine, 


R. 


17 


(2) 


(20) 


(6) 


(8) 


(I) 




(25) 


(12) 


(12) 


(4) 


(27) 


(36) 






L. 


23 


(2) 




(6) 


(12) 


(3) 




(21) 


(II) 


(10) 


(5) 


(54) 


(33) 




Glycerine soap. 


R. 












(19) 
(15) 




(12) 
(13) 


(7) 
(4) 










2 


Heliotropine, 


R. 

L. 


24 
39 












(33) 
(33) 












(9) 
(10) 




Musk. 


R. 

L. 










(8) 
(2) 












(7) 
(7) 









WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 



123 



Table I. — Continued. 

Part 2. Stimulus- Limina Arranged to Show Variations Due to 
Practice and to Differences of Temperature. 



SUBJECT. 


SUBSTANCE. 


NOSTRUM. 


Value of rX in cm. 


THERMOMETER 
READING. 


Be. 


Tolu balsam 


R. 
L. 


(32) 
(35) 


53^F 






R. 


14 


60 






L. 


19 




K. 




R. 

L. 


(24) 
(28) 


54 






R. 


(21) 


52 






L. 


(22) 








R. 


4 


64 






L. 


3 






Rosewood 


R. 

L. 


(16) 
(29) 


59 






R. 


(13) 


64 






L. 


(22) 








R. 


6 


62 






L. 


8 




P. 


Cocoa butter 


R. 


(27) 
(26) 


62 






R. 


(19) 


62 






Iv. 


(27) 








R. 


7 


66 






I.. 


12 





All the values of r\ given in this Table are averages of several de- 
terminations taken on the same day. Those enclosed in parentheses 
were found when the subjects had had little or no experience with the 
substances in question. Those not so enclosed were found after the 
respective substances had been used by the several subjects in differ- 
ence determinations. In the first part of the Table, the limen given 
is in every case the last limen found for the subject and substance, 
and all the last limina found are given. The second part of the Table 
simply contains results selected by way of illustration, but all the 
limina found for the subject with the substance in question are 
included. 

In Part i, all the substances but the last four are taken in order 
from a Table in which Zwaardemaker arranges various materials for 
solid odorous cylinders in the order of their intensity.^ The limina 
in the column headed Z are those given by him in another Table as 
normal at a temperature of 15° C. or 59° F.2 The temperatures at 
which our records were taken lay for the most part between 60° and 
70'' F. Our limina ought, therefore, to be lower than his, instead of 
higher. We cannot satisfactorily explain the difference between our 
results and his in the matter of stimulus-limina. That the limina of 
Americans should be higher than those of Dutchmen is not indeed 
surprising, but the entire change in the rank of the substances is. 
According to Dr. Renter, as cited by Zwaardemaker, the gum ammo- 
niac and gutta-percha cylinder is forty times as strong as the vulcan- 

^Op. cit., p. 118. 
2P. 167. 



124 GAMBI^E: 

ized rubber, and the musk-root is five times stronger than the former. 
The tallow, Zwaardemaker says, is stronger still. We regret that we 
could not find stimulus-limina oftener. The washing of the tube 
consumed so much time that this was impossible. We feel that the 
results embodied in Table I are the most unsatisfactory part of our 
work. Yet if allowances be made for exhaustion in some of the 
results of C. and Sh.^ and for expectation gradually controlled by 
practice in the cases of Bi., M. and Rog., the Table will serve its 
purpose.! 

We have not space to give our temperature records in full. They 
varied so irregularly that the arithmetical mean by no means repre- 
sents the most common reading. As the steam had to be kept shut 
off when we were not in the laboratory, the exact regulation of the 
temperature involved serious practical difficulties, and for most of our 
work it was a matter of minor importance, for in difference-determi- 
nations variations of temperature and moisture affect the standard- 
stimulus and the stimulus of comparison equally, and may, therefore, 
be disregarded. Indeed, our barometer-records, though carefully 
kept, proved to be wholly a work of supererogation, for in the case of 
the very few substances (glycerine soap, coumarine, heliotropine, 
vanilline, and allyl sulphide) which were somewhat soluble in water 
and yet not in aqueous solution, we did not succeed in finding stimu- 
lus-limina on different days.^ Practice lowered the stimulus-limina 
in a conspicuous manner, but the effect of variations in temperature 
can *only occasionally be traced in the complete results. Part 2 of 
Table I illustrates this fact with fairness. 

It only remains to say that Be., C, K., N., Se. and T. worked twice 
a week for at least part of the year and the others once. 

Section 2. Results Obtained by the Method of Just 
Noticeable Differeyices. 
Since in the nature of the case numerical proof of the applica- 
bility of Weber's law to a given sense department cannot be 
thrown into the form of averages, and since we have not 
space for the great mass of figures which we have at hand, 
we must offer first samples and then summaries of our evi- 
dence, and content ourselves with them. Tables II and 
III are the samples, and Tables IV, V and VI are summa- 
ries from different points of view. Tablel V constitutes the 
most decisive proof of the validity of the law. Tables V and 
VI are intended to confirm the conclusion to be drawn from 
Table IV, and to show the probable value of Ar. In Tables 

r 
III, IV, V and VI, every value given or enumerated is an av- 
erage of the results of one day's work with one subject, nostril, 
substance and standard. All the work done with this method, 
however unsatisfactory, is represented in Tables V and VI. 

1 The writer's own limina are lower than those of any of the subjects. 
Abnormal keenness of smell has persisted from childhood, in spite of 
the usual share of "colds." 

2 For the effect of atmospheric moisture in Zwaardemaker's method, 
see Chapter I, Section 2. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL . 



125 



Tabi,e II. Consecutive ResuIvTs of One Subject, T. 



Date. 


Substance. 


Nostril. 


No. of 
values 
aver- 
aged. 


r 


/\ro 


/\ru 


Ar 


Ar 
r 


Disturbing 
factors. 


Nov. 9, 


Tolu 


R. 


6 


20 


4(2) 


7(3) 


hVz 


4 






balsam 


L. 






5(2) 


5(1) 


5 


4 




13, 




R. 


6 


30 


2(1) 


14(2) 


8 


4 








Iv. 






3(2) 


9(5) 


6 


5 




16, 




R. 


3,4 


20 


1(1) 


6(4) 


i% 


6[Z] 








L. 


3,3 




4(2) 


4(2) 


4 


5[Z] 








R. 


4 


30 


6(3) 


8(2) 


7 


4 








L. 






4(2) 


7(4) 


^% 


5 




19. 




R. 


4,3 


20 


4(1) 


1(2) 


^% 


Z [Z] 








L. 


3,3. 




5(3) 


6(4) 


sy2 


4[Z] 








R. 


4 


30 


6(2) 


7(3) 


6>^ 


5 








L. 






4(4) 


5(3) 


4J^ 


Z 




30- 


Russian 


R. 


4,2 


24 


7(2) 


3(1) 


5 


5[Z] 






leather, 


L. 






6(1) 


5(2) 


5% 


4 








R. 


4 


44 


8(2) 


9(2) 


^y^ 


5 








L. 






10(3) 


12(3) 


II 


4 




Dec. 10, 




R. 


4 


24 


3(2) 


6(3) 


aYz 


5 








L. 






6(4) 


7(2) 


ey^ 


4 








R. 


4 


44 


6(4) 


10(3) 


8 


6 








L. 






8(3) 


11(4) 


9>^ 


5 




14, 


Asafoetida, 


R. 


3 


8 


5(4) 


4(1) 


4K 


A 








L. 






6(0) 


7(1) 


ey^ 


A 








R. 


3 


13 


4(3) 


10(2) 


7 


A 








L. 


2,3 




5(1) 


8(1) 


ey^ 


2 [2] 






Russian 


R. 


2 


9 


5(3) 






-[Z] 


Exhaustion. 




leather, 


L. 


3,1 




4(2) 


o(-) 


2 


5 [6] 




16, 


AsafcEtida, 


R. 


2,1 


8 


3(3) 


6(-) 


4>^ 


A[Z] 


( General ) 
< fatigue. \ 
( Exhaustion. ) 






L. 


3,1 




4(1) 




z'A 


2 [5] 






R. 


3 


13 


3(2) 


6(2) 


4>^ 


3 








Iv. 


2,3 




8(1) 


5(2) 


ey^ 


2 [3] 






Russian 


R. 


3,2 


9 


6(4) 


1(1) 


3>^ 


3 [3] 






leather, 


L. 


3,1 




5(1) 


3(-) 


4 


2 [6] 




20. 


Asafoetida, 


R. 


1,3 


8 


3(-) 


3(2) 


3 


3[Z] 


Exhaustion. 






L. 


1,1 




3(-) 


o(-) 


i^ 


5 [-] 








R. 


3.2 


13 


6(1) 


6(1) 


6 


2 [3] 








L. 


3,2 




7(1) 


3(2) 


5 


3 [3] 






Russian 


R. 


1,2 


9 


lo(-) 


1(2) 


s'A 


A [6] 


Exhaustion. 




leather, 


L. 


3,1 




3(1) 


i(-) 


2 


5[Z] 




Jan. 8, 


Cedar, 


L. 


4 


22 


8(2) 


8(3) 


8 


3 


Exhaustion. 


II, 




R. 


4,2 


22 


\^''\ 


6(2) 


7 


3 [5] 


( Exhaustion. ) 
1 Pungency. J 






L. 


3,4 




63 


8(3; 


7 


3 [4] 






L. 




42 


ii(i) 


10(1) 


io>^ 


4 


22. 


Asafoetida, 


R. 


2 


12 


8(4) 


8(0) 


8 


A 


General fatigue. 






L. 






5(3) 


8(1) 


ey 


A 








R. 


2 


22 


14(2) 


13(2) 


ny 


A 








L. 






8(1) 


14(0) 


II 


2 




Feb. I, 




R. 


3 


22 


8(2) 


8(1) 


8 


3 








L. 






8(3) 


8(3) 


8 


3 








R. 


3 


12 


10(1) 


8(1) 


9 


A 








L. 






9(2) 


7(1) 


8 


A 




5. 


Coumarine, 


R. 


3 


56 


14(2) 


7(4) 


io>^ 


5 




12, 


Heliotropine, 


R. 


4 


28 


15(2) 


11(0) 


13 


2 





126 



GAMBLE : 



TabIvK II. — Contimied. 



1 1 


No. of 




; 1 






Datr. 


Substance. 


Nostril. 


values 
aver- 


r 


Aro 


1 
Aru Ar 


Ar 
r 


Disturbing 
factors. 








aged. 










Feb. 12, 


Heliotropine, 


L. 






13(1) 


11(2)12 


2 








R. 


3 


48 


18(0) 


l^{l)\l'7% 


3 


- 






L. 






20(2) 


15(1) i7>^ 


3 




i8, 




R. 


2 


28 


17(0) 
14(2) 


13(0) 15 

Il(o)il2K 


A 

2 








R. 


2 


48 


18(1) 


15(0) 


i6>^ 


3 








L. 






19(5) 


14(0) 


i6>^ 


3 




26. 




R. 


2 


27 


13(0) 


10(0) 


ii'A 


2 








h. 






12(1; 


8(1) 


10 


3 








R. 


2 


47 


19(1) 


14(3) 


16/2 


3 








L. 


1,2 




i6(-) 


9(2) 


I2>^ 


4 




Mar. I, 




R. 


3 


27 


13(1) 


8(0) 


ioy2 


3 


General fatigue. 






Iv. 






12(2) 


8(0) 


10 


3 








R. 


3 


47 


18(1) 


15(0) 


i6>^ 


3 




. 




Iv. 






18(0) 


15(1) 


i6>^ 


3 




3. 


Valerianic 


R. 


3 


i8 


15(2) 


9(1) 


12 


A 


( Pungency. ) 
1 Exhaustion, i 




acid, 


Iv. 






14(2) 


7(3) 


io>^ 


A 






R. 


2 


38 


18(1) 


13(1 


i5>^ 


3 








Iv. 


2,3 




16(2) 


9(2) 


I2>^ 


3 




8, 




R. 


2 


18 


13(0 


3(2) 


8 


2 








L. 


3 




12(1) 


4(2) 


8 


2 








R. 


2 


38 


16(2) 


6(4) 


II 


4 








L. 


1,2 




i8(-) 


5(0) 


llVz 


3 




i8, 




R. 
I.. 


2,1 
2 


18 


15(2) 
15(3) 


4(-) 

3(2 


9 


A 
2 


C General fa- "j 
J tigue. Nose- I 
1 bleed during f 






R. 


2,1 


38 


24(2) 


ii(-) 


17/2 


2 


tthe day. J 






L. 


2 




20(1) 


11(0) 


is'A 


3 




i9> 




R. 


2,3 


18 


ii(i) 
12(0) 


5(1) 




2 


r Irritation of \ 
\ nasal mem- ! 






L. 


2 




— 


— 


— 


1 branes. f 






R. 


3,2 


38 


16(1) 


10(4) 


13 


3 


[ Exhaustion. J 






L. 


2 




17(1) 


10(3) 


i3>^ 


3 




21, 




R. 


3 
3,2 


18 


13(1) 
13(0) 


7(2) 
7(1 


10 
10 


A 

A 


Irritation of ' 
nasal mem- 
• branes. 






R. 


3 


38 


16(1)13(1.) 


14/2 


3 


1 Smell of 






L. 


2 




18(1) 


11(2) 


H'A 


3 


(.tobacco. 


26. 


Citral, 


R. 


2 


13 


8(1) 


5(2) 


e<A 


2 


' Irritation of 
nasal mem- 






L. 


3,2 




8(1) 


4(2) 


6 


2 


branes. 






R. 

ly. • 


2,1 

3,2 


28 


13(0) 
12(2) 


8(-) 
7(1 


9^ 


3 
3 


' Homatropin 
freshly put 
jntothe eyes. J 


Apr. i6, 




R. 


1.2 


13 


7(-) 


0(0) 


z'A 


4 








L. 


2 




8(1) 


2(1) 


5 


3 








R. 


3 


28 


12(0) 


4(2) 


8 


4 






L. 


2,3 




12(1) 


5(2) 


^A 3 





T. whose results seem best fitted to be used as an illustration, worked 
twice a week, as a rule, during the time covered by this Table. No 
difference-determinations obtained from her during this time by the 
method of just noticeable differences have been omitted. In October, 
we worked with her once a week, but were occupied chiefly in finding 
stimulus-limina. She also worked for us several hours late in the 
spring with results which did not differ materially from those em- 
bodied in the table. The fourth column of the Table gives the number 
of values averaged to obtain the figures given in the columns headed 



weber's law to smell. 127 

A^^ and Ar«. If two figures stand on a line in the fourth column, the 
first refers to /\ro and the second to A^«. One figurerefers not toi)oth 
together but to each alike. The numbers in parentheses are all mean 
variations. A dash in parentheses means that the number by which 
it stands is not an average. In the column headed Ar, for the sake 

r 
of brevity values greater than ^ are indicated by the letter A ; values 
equal to )/% or less, but nearer to >^ than to ]/>,, are indicated by the 
figure 2 ; values equal to Yj, or nearer to Yi than to )^ or to X. by the 
figure 3 ; values equal to % or nearer to % than to Yi or to \, by the 
figure^ ; values equal to \ or nearer to \ than to % or to \y by the fig- 
ure 5 ; values equal to \ or greater, but nearer to \ than to \, by the 
figure 6 ; and values less than \, by the letter Z. Every subject 
sometimes moved the cylinder beyond the standard, and the reading, 
if taken at all, could be written only as a minus quantity. This cross- 
ing of the standard almost never occurred with the fluid-mantle 
olfactometer, and when it did the error was so easily explained that 
the reading was not taken. Between November 9 and the time when 
the liquids were first used, two sets of averages were obtained, the 
first by excluding and the second by including these negative quanti- 
ties when they occurred. In Tables IV, V and VI, only values 
representing no negative quantities and differing from averages of 
the same series with the addition of such quantities by less than % 
are included in the enumeration. The averages enclosed in square 
brackets in Table II were found by including minus quantities in the 
average values of /^ro and /\ru. From all unbracketed averages, nega- 
tive quantities are excluded. A dash in square brackets indicates 
that the corresponding value of /\r is itself a negative quantity. 

The effect of some of the disturbing factors which are con- 
stant can best be illustrated in connection with this Table. 
Besides exhaustion, adhesion, and the tendency to judge in 
terms of hand-movement, which we call for short "the move- 
ment-error," some obstruction of the nasal passages, some 
slight compensating-smells, such as that of the absorbent 
cotton used to wipe the inhaling-tube, and some distraction of 
the attention in manipulating the large instrument, must be 
taken for granted with all the subjects. Only marked ex- 
haustion is expressly noted in Table II. Another source of 
error which comes into operation with asafoetida, oil of mace, 
Russian leather, and all the liquids except coumarine, helio- 
tropine and musk is the escape of odor between the cylinder 
and the tube. The effect of this circumstance, which was 
mentioned in Section 2 of Chapter 2, must be to make the 
value of Ar too large, because it makes the standard larger 

r 
than the instrument indicates. If, for example, r on the in- 
strument is 20 mm., but really is 25 mm. , and A r is found to be 
5 mm., then A^will be nominally ^ while really it is \. 
r 

As we explained in discussing the disadvantages of the 
method of just noticeable differences, the effect of the move- 
ment-error is to make the value of A r smaller for the larger 



128 GAMBLE: 

standards, and thus to conceal the operation of Weber's law. 
If we look now at the values of A r in Table II, we shall see at 

r 
a glance that this variation exists. It should be noted that 
no variation in the order of the standards will eliminate the 
movement- error. If the smaller standard is given first and a 
certain habit of movement acquired, this habit will make A r 

r 
for the larger standard too small. If the habit is acquired «in 
connection with the larger standard, it will make A r for the 

r 
smaller too large. It is true that if the standards were alter- 
nated by single determinations, rather than by short series, a 
habit of movement would be less likely to establish itself, but 
such a procedure is excessively confusing to the subject in the 
case of smell, and, moreover, all work done with the smaller 
standard after the organ is blunted with the larger is more or 
less unsatisfactory. If the distance between the standards 
and the stimuli offered as decidedly greater or less were kept 
not absolutely but relatively equal, the movement- error would 
be concealed. The fact that these distances cannot be kept 
absolutely equal, if the stimulus of comparison is to be accepted 
as such by the subject, is in itself no small confirmation of 
Weber's law. As a matter of fact, they were kept as nearly 
equal as possible, both to avoid concealing the movement-error 
and to minimize exhaustion by strong stimuli. They often 
varied in the same series as the subject's organ became blunted 
to all differences and then recovered itself, but in general for a 
standard of lo or 15 mm., the difference was made 10 mm. ; 
for a standard of 20 or 30, 15 ; for a standard of 40 or 50, 20, 
and for a standard of 60 or 70, 25. 

The moving back and forth at the limen is some safe- 
guard against the error, yet the tendency o f A^ to be smaller 

r 
for the larger standards is apparent in the results of subjects 
whose attention was good and whose movements were careful. 
Thus, it is particularly well-marked in the work of Se. , who 
was certainly not inferior to any of our subjects. Moreover, the 
same tendency showed itself when the different standards were 
used on different days, and a habit in such nice adjustments 
could scarcely persist from day to day or week to week with so 
little practice. If (i) the movement-error is one explanation 
of the variation, (2) the escape of odorous vapor is in some 
cases another. The equal though unmeasured increment is 
a larger fraction of the smaller standard than of the larger. 
If our standards are 20 and 40 and the increment is 4, while 



webkr's law to smell. 129 

Ar= }( in both cases, then A r will be 6 in one case and 1 1 
r 
in the other, and we must write the values of A r f J and f|. 

r 
We believe that (3) a fortuitous circumstance in connection 
with the standard olfactometer is another factor in the same 
result. Usually, the last movement made by the subject is an 
outward movement. He moves from a point decidedly differ- 
ent from the standard to subjective equality, and then a little 
way back again, — in and out once or oftener. In moving the 
cylinder the hand is apt to slip, and the accidental increment to 
A r is a larger fraction of the smaller standard than of the larger. 
Adhesion is not a factor in the case, for it is larger for the 
larger standard, varies with the length of the determination, 
has an opposite effect upon l\ro and i\ru^ and is balanced in 
an indefinite way by exhaustion. 

It should be noted in Table II that at first /\ru is usually slightly 
larger than l^ro, but that with practice this variation is reversed. The 
natural effect of exhaustion is to make l\ro larger than Ar«, for ex- 
haustion does not affect the standard stimulus and stimulus of com- 
parison equally, but progresses all the time that the latter is manipu- 
lated. This tendency is in a manner checked by the time-error and 
by adhesion. (See Chapter I, Section 4.) Now Be., the one subject 
who had had some experience in smell-experiments before the begin- 
ning of this course, tended from the first to make /\ro greater than l\ru. 
All the other subjects at first made /\ru greater than A^<?, but all ex- 
cept Rog., Se. and 5^. changed the tendency with practice or began 
to do so. Rob., N. and T. altered it very soon and decidedly. With 
►S*^. the values were usually almost equal. This alteration with prac- 
tice seems to show that exhaustion causes more disturbance than ad- 
hesion and the time-error put together. This is what we should 
expect, for although the subject rested while the tube was being 
cleaned, yet the removal of adhesion was absolute, while the recupera- 
tion of the organ was less complete each time.^ We never can be 
quite sure, however, whether exhaustion is really decreasing the 
strength of stimuli regularly, or is blunting all differences or making 
all movements haphazard. When a subject complained that his nose 
felt "hot," "dry," "rough," "scrapy," "sore," or "numb," his 
movements were often erratic, and the smaller stimulus sometimes 
seemed as strong as the larger, which probably stunned the already 
weary organ instantly. The dryness, no doubt, was due to the vigor- 
ous breathing. The tongue of a fever-patient will become much more 
parched and black if respiration through the nose is obstructed. 

The original tendency to make Aro decidedly smaller than Aru, and 
the difficulty of finding the lower stimulus-limen are probably due to 
the same cause. Both cumulative stimulation and memory after- 
images might produce the tendency, though both would be counter- 
acted in a measure by the moving to and fro at the limen. Against 
both, the subject would learn to guard in a measure. Be. mentioned 
" after-images " of cocoa-butter, and Se. of tolu balsam. Frequently 
a subject would complain that he could not " get the strong smell out 
of his nose." 



^ Zwaardemaker : op. cit., pp. 203-204. 
JOURNAI, — 9. 



I30 



GAMBLE : 



In the mean variations, as a whole, it is impossible to trace any 
tendency to be larger in judgments made with reference to the larger 
standard. Though the larger standard was usually given last, the 
effect of exhaustion in producing erratic judgments towards the end 
of the hour seems to have been balanced by a certain lack of practice. 
At the beginning of the hour, there is a sort of conscious awkwardness, 
characteristic of these smell-judgments when first attempted. It is 
impossible to draw from our figures any conclusion in regard to the 
delicacy of quantitative sensible discrimination in smell. The varia- 
tions were evidently controlled to a great extent by the peculiari- 
ties of the instrument and the subject's habit of movement, and 
it must be confessed that from day to day the effect of practice 
upon them was not very clearly marked. All the subjects had 
smaller mean variations when using the fluid-mantle olfactometer, 
but this fact can hardly have been due to practice, for, although the 
other instrument was used first in every case, Rob., Rog. and T. re- 
turned to it after using the large instrument for a while, and showed 
the same mean variations as they did at the beginning. Moreover, 
the difficulty of turning the screw-head of the large instrument and 



Tabi,e III. 
Complete Results for One Solid and One Liquid Substance. 



SUBSTANCE. 



Gray 
rubber, 

Coumarine, 



SUBJECT. 



Be. 

D. 

Se. 

Be. 

Bi. 

C. 

D. 
K. 
M. 

N. 

P. 
Rob. 

Rog. 

Se. 

Sh. 



17 17 22 19 14^ 17 r,«rl -3 5 

g'7> TS") T4» T¥) TF w. 7"^ ana y ^ 5-, 
/e w. f i and yW 

8 ^j 22 13 ^T 19 

Tg" W. y-g", -g-g- W. y-g- 

14xTr 18 15 -mr 19 15 ^T 13 14 ^7. 20 

16 14 
"5T 



VAI^UES OF 



Ar 



1 O X •* 

3^^> "ST 

1 2 „. 17 1 2 ^7- 17 1 6 -oy 

24 17 25 23 ^r 25 25 2 

19^. 27 17 ^T 27 



24 12^ 

17 25 23xTrr 25 25 22-prT 29 
si, •t2» T^ W. -g-^, -5-^, -5-2- W. -92, 

1 9 ^T 2 7 1 7 XTT 2. 7. 
TY W. 9^, "S^Y W. -9 2" 

14 „r 18 15 ^r 19 

¥2 W. y2"» ¥2- W. y^ 

16 20^,7 27 18-r^T 29 
TrV* T 2- W. TT2-» T2- W. yxT 



it o 

7T 



4 23 
■5'2 



72- 
5 



24 w 

25 

T2" 



w. tVV, ft w. tVt , ft w. ttV 
*f, Ifw. Jf, ii-w. II, ifw.ff 

9. R 9 1 2 6 



26 



Ifw. 



J 2 6 2 1 -prr -^_ 

^7 3 8 2 7 w 33 19 TTT 21. 

if w. ff , M w. M 
T^ w. If. if w. li, H w. H. M w. *f 

if, T%, H w- If . tt ^- H 

21 
TTT 



1 8 
"ST) 



^T ^* T5^ 



wkber's law to smkll. 



131 



the propensity of the movable cylinder of the small instrument for 
slipping are quite enough to explain the fact. The mean variations 
of Rob., Rog., Se. and Sh. closely resembled those of T., both in size 
and in degree of uniformity. Those of Be., Bi., C, M. and N. ran 
higher, and were more irregular. This fact was undoubtedly due to 
hasty movements in the cases of Bi., C. and M., and to exhaustion in 
the cases of Be. and N. D.'s mean variations were large and irregu- 
lar in the beginning, but improved with his manner of moving the 
cylinder, and K.'s also were large at first, but finally approximated to 
Z'.'s. P.'s were suspiciously small, as small with the fluid-mantle as 
with the standard olfactometer, and indicated the movement-error 
beyond a doubt. 

Results connected by W. ("with") were found on the same day 
for the same nostril. The values obtained with gray rubber were 
chosen for illustration because vulcanized rubber was used with three 
different methods, and those obtained with coumarine were taken 
because this scent was used with all the thirteen subjects. Both sets 
are fair samples of the whole mass of results. The series of Be. and D. 
with gray rubber, and of Bi., C, K., 31., N., Rob. and Sh. with cou- 
marine, give pretty clear indications of the validity of Weber's law. 
That of 5<?.with rubber, and those of D., P., Rog. and Sh. with couma- 
rine, indicate the operation of the law simply by the fact that as a 
rule the numerators of the fractions with the larger denominators are 
larger. The series of Be. and T. with coumarine are too short to 
prove anything by themselves. A series in which the numerators of the 
fractions with the larger denominators are persistently smaller than 
those of the fractions with the smaller denominators or equal to them 
may be counted as tending to disprove the law. 

In the complete set of results — counting the results of one subject 
with one substance as one series — there are 55 series for solids. Out 
of these, 15 indicate Weber's law clearly ; 14 indicate it faintly ; 11 long 



Tabi,e IV. 



Ar 



Approximate Values of —7 obtained for Pairs of Standard Stimulus- 
Intensities Sensed under the Same Conditions, — viz : 
Subject, Nostril, Substance, and Hour. 



Ar 


(0 


(2) 


(2) 


(2) 


(I) 


(I) 


(2) 


(2) 






r:=i2a 




r — 




r:=.2a 




/• 


T 


r=za 


or2a^ 


r-=^a 


a-^{a 


r — a 


or2a-\- 


r a 


a-^{a 


A. V. 


C. 


C. 


C. 


C. 


C. 


C. 


C. 


C. 


>?^(A) 


20 


3 


14 


II 


10 




7 


I 


J^(2) 


7 


7 


5 


5 


35 


I 


H 


4 


/3(3) 


34 


13 


7 


10 


35 


57 


46 


32 


^(4) 


9 


32 


21 


7 


6 


34 


17 


32 


J (5) 


3 


II 


9 


12 


3 


3 


3 


12 


% (6) 




5 


4 


3 


5 




I 


4 


YAi-L) 


I 


3 


I 


13 


I 




2 


5 


Total, 


74 


74 


61 


61 


95 


95 


90 


90 



132 GAMBLE: 

> /z y2 Vs 'A I i a 

40 40 




Curves Ii,i,ustrating the Vai^uks of At for Soi^ids when r = a 

r 
AND 2 a OR 2a-\-. (See Table IV.; 

series are of doubtful interpretation ; 13 series are too short to prove 
anything ; and 2 tend to disprove the law. Out of 39 series for liquids, 
24 indicate the law clearly, and 11 do so faintly, while 3 are too short 
to count, and only i tends to disprove the law. 

We may now proceed to the Tables which summarize the evidence. 

As noted before. Table IV enumerates only values for standards 
which can be paired as sensed under the same conditions. The left 
column of each pair of columns enumerates values obtained for the 
smaller standards in the pairs. The columns headed (i) enumerate 
values for standards of which one was twice as strong as the other, 
or more than twice as strong. The columns headed (2) enumerate 
values for standards of which one was less than twice as strong 
as the other. All values obtained for standards which can be paired 
are included. A. V. stands for " Approximate Values," and C. for 
" Cases." 

We believe that we have accounted for the tendency of Ar 

r 
to be somewhat smaller for the larger standards. In Table IV, 
however, it is clear that the errors to which this tendency is 
due do not serve to conceal the operation of Weber's law. If 
certain absolute differences of smell-intensity were sensed and 
A r for a given standard were yz, then for a standard twice as 
r 
strong it should be ^, not %. 

Tables V and VI are arranged to show such variations as 
occur from subject to subject, and substance to substance. That 
it may be seen that each subject used a variety of substances, 
and that the different subjects used the substances in different 



wbber's law to smell. 



133 



60 



% 



X 



<i 



60 




Curves IIvI^ustrating the Vai^ues of A^ for Liquids when r= a 

r 
AND 2 a OR 2 a-\-. (See Table IV.) 

Of these curves, the heavy lines give the values for the smaller, 
and the broken lines for the larger standards. The ordinates give the 
number of cases, and the abscissae approximate values. 

orders, we preface the Tables with the following list of sub- 
stances as used in order by each subject : 

Be. Black rubber, tolu, cocoa-butter, asafoetida, Russian 
leather, gray rubber, coumarine, heliotropine, valerianic acid, 
citral. 

Bi, Cocoa-butter, coumarine, vanilline. 

C. Gum benzoin, oil of mace, cedar, coumarine. 

D. Gray rubber, gum benzoin, oil of mace, coumarine, oil 
of camphor. 

K. Tolu, rose-wood, asafoetida, Russian leather, gum am- 
moniac and gutta-percha from Utrecht, oil of mace, coumarine, 
musk, ethyl butyrate. 

M. Cocoa- butter, coumarine. 

N. Black rubber, tallow, musk-root, rose-wood, oil of 
mace, heliotropine, oil of camphor, vanilline. 



134 



GAMBI^E : 



P. Gum ammoniac and gutta-percha, home-made, glycer- 
ine soap, oil of mace, coumarine, oil of camphor. 

Rob. Glycerine soap, gum ammoniac and gutta-percha, 
home-made, oil of mace, coumarine, vanilline, cedar, gum am- 
moniac and gutta-percha from Utrecht. 

Rog. Black rubber, parafiine, coumarine, oil of camphor, 
caryophylline, gum benzoin, oil of anise, laudanum. 

Se. Tolu, rose-wood, tallow, asafoetida, musk-root, gray 
rubber, oil of mace, coumarine, musk, ethyl butyrate, citral, 
caryophylline, allyl suphide. 

Sh. Black rubber, cedar, gum ammoniac and gutta-percha, 
from Utrecht, coumarine, oil of camphor. 

T. Tolu, Russian leather, asafoetida, cedar, coumarine, 
heliotropine, valerianic acid, citral, pyridin and yellow wax. 

The fact that the order was not varied more extensively and 
more systematically was due to practical difficulties with the 
apparatus. 



Tabi^e V. Approximate: Vai^ues 



OF -— Arranged to Show 





Variations 


for 


iNDiviDUAi. Subjects. 






Nature 


Number of cases j ^TSiTf 1^^^^ 1 


Total 


Subject. 


of 
Stimuli 










>5^(A) 


J^(2) 


>^(3) 


5<(4) 


H5) 


J (6) 


<S(Z) 


numoer 
of cases. 


Be. 


S. 


6 


9 


4 


6 


3 


I 




29 




L. 


5 


5 


i6 


5 


5 


I 


I 


38 


Bi. 


S. 








4 


4 


I 


3 


12 




Iv. 




I 


9 


4 


I 


3 


2 


20 


C. 


S. 


6 


2 


7 


3 


5 


I 


2 


26 




L. 




3 


6 


3 








12 


D. 


s. 


9 


4 


3 


6 


I 






23 




L. 




7 


6 


3 








16 


K. 


S. 


3 


6 


13 


5 


I 






28 




L. 


2 


6 


12 


9 






I 


30 


M. 


S. 












I 


2 


3 




L. 


I 


2 


4 


I 








8 


• N. 


S. 


4 


2 


13 


13 


5 


3 


8 


48 




L. 


I 


I 


lO 


7 


3 




2 


24 


P. 


S. 






5 


4 


2 


I 


2 


14 




L. 






3 


6 


4 




3 


16 


Rob. 


S. 


i6 


4 


ID 


II 


I 


2 




44 




I.. 


2 


I 


8 


7 


I 


I 




20 


Rog. 


S. 




. I 


4 


5 


5 


3 




18 




Iv. 




I 


21 


6 


3 




I 


32 


Se. 


S. 


8 


4 


II 


14 


10 


3 


2 


52 




Iv. 


I 


19 


40 


29 


3 






92 


Sh. 


s. 






2 


2 


4 




4 


12 




Iv. 




I 


9 


3 


4 




I 


18 


T. 


s. 


8 


5 


II 


13 


10 


2 


2 


51 




Iv. 


6 


II 


24 


6 


I 


4 




52 


Total, 




78 


95 


251 


175 


76 


27 


36 


738 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 



135 



It will be seen that there is very little variation in the value 
of A r from class to class of substances. All of Zwaardemaker's 

r 
classes are represented among either the solids or the liquids 
except Class IX, that of nauseating smells. We could not 
obtain Anagyris foetida or Indian stink- wood (" Scatolholz ") 
in the American market, and we did not try soon enough 
to get it from Europe. Variations in the results of individual 
subjects are, however, due to variations in the substances used. 

TABI.E VI. 

Approximate Values of Ar arranged to show Variations for 
r 
Different Substances. 

PART I. SOIvIDS. 



Substance. . 


Number of 


cases/ equal to or ) 
I approximating / 


Total 
number 
of cases. 




>i(A) 


K2) 


i(3) 


K4) 


H5) 


K6) 


<KZ) 


Yellow wax. I, 





I 


3 


4 








8 


Russian leather. I, 


2 


4 


3 


5 


6 


I 




21 


Oil of mace. II, 


25 


II 


10 


4 








50 


Cocoa-butter. II (?), 




3 


2 


5 


5 


3 


5 


23 


Rosewood. II, 


I 




10 


10 


2 


I 




24 


Cedar. II, 






9 


2 


3 




4 


18 


Tolu balsam. Ill, 






2 


8 


6 


2 


2 


20 


Gum benzoin. Ill, 


6 


2 


8 


6 


5 


2 


I 


30 


Musk-root. IV, 




I 


6 


7 


2 


I 


3 


20 


Black rubber. V, 




I 


4 


5 


6 


4 


6 


26 


Gray rubber. V, 




2 


4 


10 


5 




I 


22 


Asafoetida. V, 


14 


6 


5 










25 


Gum ammoniac and gutta- 


















percha. 


















(i) Weaker cylinder fr. 


















Utrecht, 


I 


3 


4 


3 


2 




I 


14 


(2) Stronger cylinder fr. 


















Utrecht, 


I 


I 


5 


7 


I 


I 




16 


(3) Home-made cylinder, 


10 


2 


I 




I 




I 


15 


Paraffine. VII, 








3 


3 


2 




8 


Mutton-tallow. VII, 






5 


3 


4 






12 


Glycerine soap, 






2 


4 




I 


I 


8 


Total, 


60 


37 


83 


86 


5' 


18 


25 


360 


Values for oil of mace, asa- 


















fcetida, and home-made 


















cylinder of gum ammo- 


















niac and gutta-percha, 


49 


19 


16 


4 


I 




I 


90 


Final result, 


II 


18 


67 


82 


50 


18 


24 


270 



136 



GAMBLE : 



TabIvK VI. — Continued. 
Approximate Values of A^ arranged to show Variations for 
r 
Different Substances. 

PART II. WQUIDS. 



Substance. 


Number of cases { J^^^^^.^^ | 
1, approximating j 


Dtal 

tnber 

ases. 




>KA) 


K2) 


K3) 


i(4) 


K5) 


i(6) 


<KZ) 


fl 


Oil of camphor. II, 


I 


7 


26 


8 


6 




4 


52 


Caryopliylline. II, 


I 


2 


10 


5 


2 






20 


Oil of anise. II, 






6 


I 


I 






8 


Valerianic acid. II, 


10 


7 


12 


2 








31 


Ethyl butyrate. II, 


2 


12 


8 


6 








28 


Citral. II, 




8 


2b 


9 


I 






44 


Vanilline. Ill, 






ID 


7 


I 


4 


2 


24 


Coumarine. Ill, 


3 


II 


34 


31 


7 




3 


89 


Heliotropine. Ill, 


I 


4 


14 


3 


6 


I 


I 


30 


Musk. IV, 




2 


15 


6 


I 






24 


Allyl sulphide. V, 




5 


3 


8 








16 


Pyridin. VI, 






2 


2 




4 




8 


Laudanum. VIII, 






2 


I 






I 


4 


Total, 


18 


58 


168 


89 


25 


9 


II 


378 



PART III. SOI.IDS AND I^IQUIDS. 



Nature of Stimulus. 


Number of cases | _T.^\.^°.^J_ | 
L approximating J 


Total 
number 
of cases. 




>KA)K2) 


K3) 


K4) 


K5) 


K6) 


<KZ) 


Solid, 
Liquid, 


II 
18 


18 
58 


67 
168 


82 

89 


50 
25 


18 
9 


24 
II 


270 
378 


Total, 


29 


76 


235 


171 


75 


27 


35 


648 



Almost all the values for solids in which A r exceeds V^ were 



obtained with asafoetida, oil of mace, or the home-made cylin- 
der of gutta-percha and gum ammoniac. Thus, out of 9 values in 
which D. exceeded Yz for solids, 7 were f mnd with oil of 
mace, and out of 16 values in which Rob. exceeded ^, 10 were 
ft)und with the home-made cylinder of gutta-percha and gum 
ammoniac, and 4 with oil of mace. We believe that it is per- 
fectly fair to exclude these cylinders from our final results. 
And if we do so there is little variation from substance to sub- 
stance. The odor of asafoetida and oil of mace was very per- 
ceptible when the instrument was closed, and the mace would 



240 



220 



WEBKR'S I.AW TO SMELL. 

i i i 



137 



<J 



200 



180 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



Curves Showing the Approximate Vai^ues of — in the whoi^e 

Course of Experiments by the Method of Just Noticeabi^e 

Differences. (See Table VI, Part 3.) 

The heavy line gives the values for both solids and liquids ; the 
dotted line gives the values for solids, and the broken line for licjuids. 
The ordinates give the number of cases, and the abscissae approximate 
values. 




138 GAMBLE: 

scrape off on the iiihaling-tube. While Zwaardemaker's mix- 
ture of gum ammoniac and gutta-percha is black and brittle 
like licorice, ours was yellowish gray, contained strings of 
gutta-percha, and made the inhaling-tube cloudy and sticky. 
We did succeed in obtaining stimulus-limina with it when the 
inhaling-tube was first cleaned, but we believe that the end of 
the tube was probably soiled most of the time during difference- 
determinations. We have not excluded the results for Russian 
leather because its odor, like that of most of the liquids, was 
just liminal when the instrument was closed, and the results 
harmonized with the others. Since most of the liquids had this 
error of the equal but unmeasured increment, it is not sur- 
prising that the values of A r run higher for them than for 

7' 

solids. It will be noticed that they run highest for valerianic 
acid, which was particularly troublesome in escaping from the 
instrument. Yet as the results for coumarine, heliotropine, 
and musk show yi as the most common value, we must con- 
clude that the value of l\r lies somewhere between yi and }(. 
r 

Some of the substances showed an interesting difference of 
quality with difference of intensity. Thus several subjects 
thought that oil of camphor smelt like nutmeg when weak, and 
like turpentine when strong. The slight odor of the paraffine 
appeared when a strong stimulus was given with coumarine. 
T. said that heliotropine smelled like heliotrope on the left 
(the better) side of her nose, and like bitter-almonds on the 
right. (As a matter of fact the two smells are closely allied.) 
Se. said that the tallow smelled like onions in his poorer nos- 
tril. Fluctuations at the limen were also noted. Coumarine 
and heliotropine, when weak, were said to come " in whiffs" or 
"waves," and /C, always spoke of weak smells as "scat- 
tered." 

Section J. Results of Other Methods. 

Table VII gives some of the results obtained by the method 
of just noticeable differences modified in the direction of the 
method of minimal changes, as described in Chapter I, Section 
4, and shows the agreement of these results with those reached 
by the ordinary method. C. M. stands for "Combination 
Method." 

We used red rubber with the true method of minimal 
changes because Zwaardemaker had done so. The cylinder 
was obtained from Utrecht. The experiments of which the 
results are given in Table VIII extended through five labora- 
tory-hours. It is needless to say that the instrument was 
manipulated entirely by the experimenter. 



WEBER'S LAW TO SMELL. 



139 



Tabi,e VII. 
Results of the Modified Form of the Method of fust Noticeable 
Differences. 



H 






i-r 


S?^ 




















w 


SUB- 
STANCE. 


METHOD 
AND 


I 


if 


Ar^' 


Aro" 


Arz^" 


Ar«' 


Arc 


Arw 


Ar 


Ar 
r 


t3 
03 




Standard 


^ 


pcj-*S 


















D. 


Gray 


m.) 


R. 


4 


9 


8 


6 


10 


9 


8 


8>^ 


2 




rubber, 


L. 




II 


8 


3 


7 


ID 


5 


7/2 


3 






i^^,} 


R. 


4 


18 


9 


3 


II 


14 


7 


10/2 


4 






L. 




18 


9 


4 


8 


14 


6 


10 


4 






lr = i9/ 


R. 


4 










2 


6 


4 


.S 






L. 












7 


6 


6>^ 


3 






{^=39} 


R. 


4 










12 


10 


II 


4 






L. 












9 


10 


9/2 


4 


K. 


Rose- 


{r^^«} 


R. 


3 


15 


5 


2 


II 


10 


7 


8X2 


3 




wood, 


L. 




IT 


6 


3 


16 


9 


10 


9>^ 


2 






{%^^ 


R. 


4 


14 


4 


5 


8 


9 


7 




5 






L. 




12 


6 


9 


14 


9 


12 


10^2 


4 






{.^=^1 


R. 


2 


10 


5 


7 


10 


8 


9 


8/2 


3 






L. 




8 


7 


8 


4 


8 


6 


7 


3 






{^=4^} 


R. 

L. 


2 


10 
II 


6 
6 


3 
4 


9 
10 


8 
9 


6 

7 


7 
8 


6 
5 






{VJ.) 


R. 












9 


9 


9 


3 






L. 












13 


15 


14 


A 






/J NDl 

I r=42 / 


R. 












8 


16 


12 


4 






Iv. 












7 


14 


io>^ 


4 



Table VIII. 

Results obtained for Red Rubber by the True Method of Minimal 

Changes. 

SUBJECT — SH. 



r=io mm. 



40 mm. 



Gradation =2 mm. 
A^=4 mm. 



^1 


given before i 


r. 






r given before rj . 




Ar^' 


Ar<?" 


/\ro 


Aro' 


Aro" 


Aro 


R.N. 


6 


6 


6 


12 


6 


9 


L.N. 


6 


10 


8 


6 


8 


7 ■ 




Arw' 


Ar«" 


Aru 


Ar«' 


Arw" 


Aru 


R. N. 


12 


6 


9 


6 


12 


9 


L.N. 


8 


4 


6 


8 


12 


10 




Ar 




Ar 




Ar 




Ar 


R.N. 

L. N. 


7^ 
7 




r 


'4. 


8i 




H^r-^- 



Final result : R. N. Ar=8^ mm. Ar=ff =|+ 



140 



GAMBLE : 



Zwaardemaker concluded that for a standard of from 2 to 5 
cm., the difference limen was about 1.5 cm., and that for a 
standard of from 5 to 9 cm. , it was about 3. 5 cm. This would 
make the value of A r run from about Yz to about ^. Our 



own results agree fairly well with his, and are a verj' pretty- 
confirmation of the results obtained by the method of just 
noticeable differences. The writer intends to use the method 
of minimal changes much farther. 

In contrast with these excellent results are those of the 
next Table : 

Table IX. 
Results obtained by the Method of Right and Wrong Cases. 

SUBJECTS— C, D., K., N., ROB., ROG,, AND T. 

Instrument— Standard Olfactometer. Substances — Black Rubber 
or Tolu Balsam. 









Mistakes made in 


TOTAI. 

Number 

OF 

Cases. 


r AND ri. 


Right 
Cases. 


Wrong 
Cases. 


TAKING THE SECOND 

stimui.us for 

Weaker 

WHEN Stronger. 


20 and 25 


37 


19 


12 


56 


50 and 70 


30 


10 


9 


40 


20 and 30 


47 


19 


12 


66 


30 and 50 


33 


II 


5 


44 


20 and 40 


42 


22 


18 


64 


30 and 60 


4 


2 




6 


20 and 50 


39 


II 


8 


50 


20 and 60 


7 


I 


I 


8 



The stimuli given were never equal, and the judgment 
' ' equal ' ' was counted a mistake. The results of all the sub- 
jects are massed. 

As we said before, while exhaustion makes the errors nearly 
all run in one direction, confusion due to the unfamiliarity of 
olfactometric work is probably most at fault. More experi- 
ments should be made with the standard olfactometer and 
trained subjects. It is difficult to use the large olfactometer 
with this method, because the intervals between stimuli must 
be made very long or the subject can guess from the time spent 
in manipulation how they have been changed. 

As a rough method of testing the applicability of the method 
of right and wrong cases to smell, we blind-folded one subject, 
stopped his ears with absorbent cotton, and required him to tell 
which way we had moved from a given standard on the large 
olfactometer. The results are given in the following Table : 



wkber's law to smkll. 



141 



TABI.E X. 

Results of a Rough Attempt to Gauge the Applicability of the Method 
of Right and Wrong Cases to Smell. 



SUBJKCT- 


-K. 




SUBSTANCE— 


ETHYI, BUTYRATE 




4J 



k 
f 





1. 

ii'3 9 


tn 
cd 




u 

1 

1 





If 

5 




"So 

to 





u 

a 

s 

8 

2 


Mm. 
20 to 30 
20 to 10 


95 
115 


46 

27 


II 
6 


152 
148 


Mm. 
40 to 60 
60 to 40 


100 
106 


35 
29 


6 

5 


141 
140 



We see that here again the number of mistakes was very 
large. Yet these were the last experiments made with K. , 
who had worked for us twice a week throughout the year, and 
who had used butyric ether successfully in experiments by 
the method of just noticeable differences. He was, however, 
very tired at the time these last experiments were made. The 
second stimulus still is more often mistakenly taken for 
the weaker than for the stronger, showing that in these ex- 
periments also exhaustion outweighed adhesion and the time- 
error put together. (The tube was cleaned after every eight 
comparisons.) 

Summary and Conclusion. 

In beginning our investigations, we saw that we could not 
isolate simple olfactory qualities, and that an attempt to prove 
Weber's law for smell was justified only by the assumption 
that it might apply to fusions. We also saw that the fact 
that some olfactory qualities show but few grades of intensity 
pointed to a rise towards the terminal intensity by geometrical 
progression. Although Zwaardemaker explains the fact partly 
by the supposition that different smells have different differ- 
ence-limina, we believe that two smells with the same differ- 
ence-limen may exhaust the human sense-organ with very 
unequal degrees of rapidity, so that one may reach the termi- 
nal intensity much sooner than the other. 

Aside from the condition of the sense-organ, the intensity of 
a smell depends ( i ) on the amount of odorous surface exposed 
to the air, (2) on the time that it is exposed, (3) on the condi- 
tion of the air in regard to temperature, moisture, etc. , which 
controls the rate of evaporation, (4) on the diffusion-rate of the 



142 GAMBI.E : 

vapor, and (5) on the rate andmanner of the subject's breathing. 
The great incidental difficulties in olfactometric work are ( i ) 
the variability of the organ through obstruction by mucus or 
(2) exhaustion, (3) the adhesion of the odorous matter to 
parts of the apparatus, and (4) the presence of compensating 
smells. The freedom of the nasal passages may be tested, but 
exhaustion can neither be prevented nor measured, nor can 
adhesion and the presence of compensating odors be absolutely 
excluded. We employed Zwaardemaker's olfactometric method 
in which (i) the measure is the amount of odorous surface 
exposed, (2) the time of exposure may be disregarded, (3) the 
diffusion-rate of vapor is under control, and (4) the subject's 
breathing is supposed to be self- regulating. We did not (5) 
succeed in regulating the temperature of our laboratory, but 
its variability was not of primary importance in difference- 
determinations. Adhesion makes the method of minimal 
changes impracticable for most substances with Zwaardemaker's 
method of smell- measurement, and exhaustion contributes to 
make the method of right and wrong cases very difficult. We 
therefore used the method of just noticeable differences. This 
psychophysical method involves an error from the subject's 
tendency to judge in terms of hand-movement. Another 
occasional source of error, incidental to our apparatus, was the 
escape of some odors between the inhaling-tube and cylinder. 
Both of these circumstances tend to make the values of A r 

r 
smaller for the larger standards. Adhesion and the ordinary 
time-error tend to balance exhaustion. In spite of the four 
most serious sources of error, (i) exhaustion, (2) adhesion, 
(3) the movement-error, and (4) the unmeasured increment to 
some stimuli, we found Ar to be about Yi in 36% and about 

r 
% in 26% of our determinations. It was about ^ in 12%, 
about I in 12% , about i in 4% , greater than ^ in 5% and less 
than \ in 5 % of the determinations. The slight use we made 
of the other gradation-methods confirms the general result. 
There is no great variation from one substance to another, or 
from one of Zwaardemaker's classes to another. 

There is much yet to be done and said in olfactometric work 
— "of making of books there might be no end" — but we 
believe that enough has been said and done to offer some 
evidence that Weber's law applies to smell and that the value 
of A r lies between one-third and one-fourth. 



MINOR STUDIES FROM THE PSYCHOI.OGICAI, 
LABORATORY OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 



Communicated by E. B. Titchener. 



XVII. Cutaneous Perception of Form. 



By D. R. Major, Ph. D. 



The object of the following experiments was the determina- 
tion of the limen of form at various parts of the cutaneous 
surface. Although the investigation is not yet concluded, it 
seems worth while to publish the results so far gained: espe- 
cially as there is no literature upon the subject {^cf. Henri, 
Raumw. d. Tastsiiuies, 1898, p. 53). 

The forms employed were angles, open circles, filled circles 
and filled triangles. ^\{^^ angles (of 35°) were made by fasten- 
ing strips of sheet rubber to wooden handles. The lengths of 
side used were 3 to 10 mm., inclusive. The open circles were 
cut from glass tubing (thickness of glass about .5 mm.), the 
cut edge of which was ground. The outside diameters ranged 
between 2 and 1 1 mm. Th^Jilled circles were made from solid 
glass rods, in the same way : diameters 2 to 12 mm. The tri- 
angles (equilateral) were cut from hard rubber blocks, and 
fastened to wooden handles : sides 2 to 9 mm. In each series 
the increment of difference was i mm. The method employed 
was that of just noticeable stimuli, as described by Kuelpe 
(^Outlines of Psych., pp. 55 f.). The subject closed his eyes, 
and the form was pressed firmly down upon the skin, at the 
place selected. As soon as the subject had cognised (or defi- 
nitely failed to cognise) a form, he opened his eyes, and drew 
upon paper a figure which corresponded to the cutaneous per- 
ception. The judgment of cutaneous form was thus recorded 
in terms of a visual translation. This procedure recommended 
itself in view of the fact that movement was above all things 
to be avoided ; we were investigating the cutaneous, not the 
tactual appreciation of form. It may be said at once, however, 
that one of the subjects (G), who is of the tactual type and 
has small power of visualization, could hardly be restrained 
from movement (wrinkling the skin, shifting the fingers, etc.,) 
in. spite of all cautions. With the other two subjects no such 
difficulty was found. 



144 



MAJOR : 



The subjects — Dr. I. M. Bentley (B), Dr. E. A. Gamble 
(G), and Dr. W. Manahan (M) — were all trained in psycho- 
logical methods, and knew in a general way the object of the 
present enquiry. The procedure with knowledge was, of 
course, followed in experimentation. B soon became aware 
that only four forms were being employed ; G and M showed 
no trace of any positive opinion on the matter. The surfaces 
tested were the tip of the tongue, the tip of the middle finger 
of the right hand, and the central portions of the red areas of 
upper and lower lips. It was a mistake to work upon all four 
with the same forms in a single investigation, since informa- 
tion gained from the points of greater discrimination is almost 
inevitably transferred to other points, whose limina are thus 
unduly lowered. The results proved that the dimensions 
taken were not small enough, in the following cases : angles, 
on the tongue and under lip ; open circles, on the tongue ; 
filled triangles, on the tongue. (The results from G, where 
they stand alone, throw no light on this question, for the 
reason given above.) On the other hand, the dimensions 
were too small to allow of liminal determinations on forehead, 
cheek, ball of thumb, and volar side of wrist. No other sur- 
faces were tried. 

Results. The following Tables show the results for the 
three subjects on the four surfaces. Under L is given the 
average form limen ; under m. v. the average departure of the 
single determinations from L ; under no. the number of single 
determinations made. It must be remembered that a single 
determination implies the performance of experiments in two 
directions, ascending and descending; so that, e.g., lo L's 
required 20 series of experiments. The m. v.'s of the partial 
limina were very small ; hence neither they nor the limina 
themselves are shown in the Tables. The thick figures indi- 
cate that the limit of the instrument was reached, or, in other 
words, that the recorded L may be too large. 

T^ABI^E I. 
Tip of tongue. Unit i mm. 



SuDjeci 


A' 





• 


▲' 


I.. 


M. v. 


NO. 


I.. 


M. v. 


NO. 


Iv. 


M. v. 


NO. 


Iv. 


M. v. 


NO. 


I 

M 


3 


I 


8 
10 
10 


2 
2 
2 


- 


4 
4 
4 


6 
4 
4 


1-3 

I 
1 


3 
5 
4 


2 


•5 


10 

8 
8 



1 On tongue and lips these figures were placed always with the apex 
pointing upwards or downwards upon the longitudinal axis of the 
body. Variation of direction made no difference in judgment. On 



MINOR STUDIES. 

Tabi,e II. 

Tip of finger. Unit i mm. 



145 



Snbject. 


A 







• 




▲ 


I.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


L. 


M. V. 


NO. 


I.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


I.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


B 
G 
M 


4 
5 
5 


■I 


II 
10 

6 


A 


•3 

I 


3 
4 
3 


5 
4 
6 


I 

•7 
1-3 


3 
4 
3 


4 
4 
5 


I 
I.I 
2.3 


4 



TABI.E III. 

Upper lip. Unit i mm. 



subject. 


A 





• 


▲ 


I.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


t. 


M. V. 


NO. 


I,. 


M. V. 


NO. 


I.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


B 
G 
M 


5 
4 
4 


.6 

•4 
.6 


8 
8 
9 


3 


•5 
~7 


4 
3 
4 


6 

5 
6 


2 
1.2 


5 
4 
4 


6 

5 
5 


2 

1-3 
•7 


II 

I 



Tabi,e IV. 
Lower lip. Unit i m^m. 







A 













• 






▲ 




snbject. 




















































J.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


I.. 


M. V. 


NO. 


!<• 


M. V. 


NO. 


I,. 


M.V. 


NO. 


B 


4 


I 


5 


J 


.2 


4 


6 


1.5 


3 


7 


2.1 


7 


G 


3 


- 


9 


- 


3 


5 


1-5 


4 


4 


I 


6 


M 


8 


- 


6 


3 


•3 


3 


6 


1.7 


4 


7 


2 


5 



It appears from these Tables that, within the limits of our 
experiments, the surfaces tested rank, as regards capacity of 
form cognition, in the order : tip of tongue, tip of finger, lips. 
(Between upper and lower lip there is no appreciable differ- 
ence.) It appears further, that the cutaneous surfaces differ 
in their behavior according as the stimuli are surfaces or out- 
lines : thus the lips are at a disadvantage when the filled circle 
and the triangle are applied. A different selection of stimuli 
might therefore lead to a different order of rank. The fact is 
brought out in Table V, which is obtained by massing the 
results from the three subjects. 



the finger tip, all four possible positions were employed. Unfortu- 
nately, we have no separate records for the longitudinal and transverse 
directions. The introspective notes, however, show (for all three sub- 
jects) that cognition was subjectively a little easier when the forms 
lay transversely upon the surface, , 

Journal, — 10 



146 



MAJOR : 



Table V. 
Lintina of form in 



PI.ACE. 


A 





• 


4 


Tongue . . . 
Finger .... 
Upper lip . . 
Lower lip . . 


3.7 

4.7 

3*i 


2 

3 

2.7 
2.7 


4.7 
5.7 


2.3 

4.3 


Av 


4 


2.6 


5-3 


'4.5 



We see from these figures that theybrw most easily cognised 
by the four surfaces is the open circle. It is, perhaps, hardly 
safe to draw any general conclusion from them as to the order 
of cognition of the remaining three forms. We may remark, 
however, that the filled circle was as unsatisfactory as the open 
circle was satisfactory to work with. This accounts for the 
smaller number of series given for these two forms in the 
Tables. 

Practice — in some cases extending over a month — was given 
with each instrument for each place upon the skin. Its effect 
was twofold. Practice at a given spot increased the subject's 
power of discrimination (or rather cognition) of form at that 
spot.^ And practice at a spot of finer discrimination was, as 
we have said above, of influence upon the cognition of form at 
spots of coarser discrimination. The latter fact is clear from 
our introspective records, especially from those of B. There 
can be no doubt that the influence was enhanced by the char- 
acter of the method employed, i. e., by the requirement of 
translation from hap tics into optics. 

It need hardly be said that the value of a limen is never an 
absolute value. I^imina will vary as the conditions of experi- 
mentation vary. Our subjects had all had general practice, 
and worked according to a procedure with knowledge. While 
we have reason to think that the limina of these three subjects 
would have been practically the same if obtained by a proce- 
dure without knowledge, experiments (not yet completed) 
upon subjects lacking in general practice promise to give a 
higher limen, particularly by a procedure without knowledge. 
They indicate, too, that the values will difier with the admis- 
sion or rejection of visualization. 

Subliminal judgments. The following Tables show the 

^ The values given. by Titchener {Outline of Psychology y p. 164) — 
triangle, 3.5 mm. on tongue, 7 mm. on finger-tip — are massed values 
taken from our three subjects at what proved to be about halfway 
through the stage of practice. On the theory of practice see Henri, 
Raumw. d. Tastsinnes, pp. 27 ff.; Tawney, Phtl. Stud., xiii, 163 ff. 



MINOR STUDIES. 



147 



nature of the subliminal judgments of form passed by the three 
subjects. They tell their own tale of individual tendency. 



Tabi,e VI. 
Subliminal judgments. Tip of tongue. 



Subject. 


A 


• 


▲ 


B 
G 

M 


• 1 


Blur. 
Blur. 
Blur. 


9 or blur. 


Tabi,e VII. 
Subliminal judgments. Tip of jinger. 


SnDject. 


A 


• 


A 





B 
G 
M 


or '^ 
-or,v 
-or,v 


Blur. 


Blur. 


• 

— or A 

A 


Blur. 
Blur. 


TABI.E VIII. 

Subliminal judgments. Upper lip. 


snliject. 


A 


• 


A 





B 
G 

M 


^ or Blur. 

— or /v 




Blur. 
Blur. 


Blur. 

— or 

• or 4i 


Blur. 
Blur. 


Tabi,e IX. 
Subliminal judgments. Lower lip. 


Sutiject. 


A 




A 





B 
G 

M 


f^ or Blur. 

- or ,v' 

• or '^2 


Blur. 


Blur. 


Blur. 

— or Aor,v 
• or ^ 


Blur. 
Blur. 


llM 

2 In 


practic 
practic 


e experic 
e experiu 


tients. 
lents. 








1 



PSYCHOLOGICAL LITEEATURE. 



The Origin and Growth of the Moral Instinct, by Alexander Suth- 
erland. I/ondon : Ivongmans, Green & Co., 1898. 2 vols., pp. 797. 

The volumes are well printed — an excellence of no small moment to 
the much taxed modern eye. Other superficial excellences are : A 
comprehensive table of contents, an ample index, and a preliminary 
chapter outlining the scope and method of work. 

In the preface the author makes special acknowledgment of in- 
debtedness to Darwin and Adam Smith. To the former he owes the 
general direction of his ethical thinking and, more particularly his 
method of investigation and demonstration. "Full half of the book 
is a detailed expansion of the fourth and fifth chapters of his Descent 
of Man.'' " His (Darwin's) progress in these chapters reminds us of 
the march of some active and brilliant general who outlines a great 
conquest, but leaves behind him many a fort, and city, and strong 
place, to be subsequently beleaguered by plodding oflEicers, each con- 
cluding in his own province, by time and labor, what his commander 
had effectively done in design." To the latter he owes the more defi- 
nite direction of his thesis. " Adam Smith would in all likelihood have 
revealed the origin of our moral instincts, had he only possessed a 
mere suspicion of that greatest of biologic truths which Darwin was 
subsequently to establish. He saw that morality was founded on 
sympathy, but nowise perceiving whence that sympathy could possi- 
bly be derived, the whole remained involved as much in mystery as 
ever." 

The author thus states his thesis : "It is the purpose of this book 
to show, how from the needs of animal life as they rose and developed, 
there sprang, at first with inexpressible slowness, but imperceptibly 
quickening as it advanced, that moral instinct which, with its con- 
comitant intelligence, forms the noblest feature as yet visible on this 
ancient earth of ours." He waives all the "grander and deeper" 
philosophic considerations that encompass his enquiry, and devotes 
himself solely to tracing "the growth of our moral instincts from their 
humble source among the lower animals, with absolutely unbroken 
continuity thrpugh lowliest savage to the noblest of men, always as a 
biologic process." 

The book presents three stages of treatment. In the earlier chap- 
ters the growth of sympathy is traced. Parental care is adduced as 
the condition of the "emergence, the survival, and subsequent ascend- 
ency of the more intelligent types." The second stage of the argu- 
ment shows how sympathy having " thus entered on its first humblest 
existence," has deepened and expanded, giving rise to "the moral 
instinct, with all its accompanying accessories, the sense of duty, the 
feeling of self-respect, the enthusiasm of both the tender and manly 
ideal of ethic beauty." Finally, there is the exposition of a theory of 
the physiological basis of those emotional susceptibilities which we 
collectively call by the name of " sympathy." (This theory coincides 



PSYCHOI.OGICAI. LITBRATURK. 1 49 

very nearly with the "visceral theory" of Prof. James, but was 
formulated in ignorance of Prof. James's work.) 

The thesis is supported by a wealth of detailed evidence drawn from 
the widely varying fields of zoology, physiology, anthropology, his- 
tory, jurisprudence and philosophy. 

As a scientific history of "the growth of our moral instinct" this 
book has two elements of weakness. In the first place, it is an apology 
and not strictly a history. Adam Smith's doctrine of " morality 
founded on sympathy" is assumed as a proposition to be demon- 
strated. Under such conditions an impartial investigation of the facts 
of moral evolution would be well nigh a superhuman task. In the 
second place the author's evident disregard of psychology is a grave de- 
fect. You scan the index in vain for a citation from a " simon pure " 
psychologist. This disregard is especially exasperating in view of 
the author's use of such indefinite psychological terms as " instinct" 
without even a provisional definition. His treatment, too, of sym- 
pathy is somewhat invertebrate. It is defined as "that general ten- 
dency which makes men grieve at the pains and rejoice in the 
pleasures of their fellows," .... the capacity of contagiousness 
in emotion." The physiological conditions of sympathy are set forth 
with admirable and convincing thoroughness ; but the psychological 
conditions, which can hardly be of less significance in the history of 
the progressive development of sympathy, are not mentioned. As a 
matter of fact, the history of the origin and growth of the moral instinct 
is essentially a chapter in the history of psychogenesis. In the hands 
of one not a psychologist the subject is bound to suffer. 

More specific points of criticism are the failure to take account of 
the sex factor in the origin of sympathy, which seems to be ascribed 
wholly to parental instinct; and the practical ignoring of the 
heredity problem. The author seems to hold to the Darwinian doc- 
trine of transmission. Weissmann is not mentioned. 

On the whole this book adds little to clear thinking along the line 
of moral evolution ; but on the other hand it has not a little of moral 
dynamic in itself. Its purpose is dogmatic, but the controversial 
temper is generally absent ; and a kind of noble idealism permeates 
all the pages. W. S. S. 

Animal Intelligence : An Experimental Study of the Associative 
Processes in Animals, by K. Iv. Thorndikk. Monograph Supple- 
ment, No. 8, of the Psychological Review. 

This monograph of 109 pages presents the results of a series of ex- 
periments conducted for two years on dogs, cats and chicks, with a 
view to ascertain the time required and mode in forming their mental 
associations, together with a determination of their delicacy, number 
and permanency. 

The method used was to confine the animals in enclosures from 
which they could escape by some simple act, such as pulling at a loop 
of cord, pressing a lever, or stepping on a platform. The animals, as 
far as possible, were kept in a uniform state of hunger. This, 
together with the desire for freedom and discomfort in confinement, 
were the factors played upon throughout. 

He found that the creatures could not learn to do any act from being 
put through it, " and that no association leading to an act could be 
formed unless there was included in the association an impulse of the 
animal's own. lyearning, whether among domestic animals or their 
keepers, is a process in which the learner must shoulder the great 
bulk of the task. 

The interpretations that will probably provoke discussion and 



I50 PSYCHOI.OGICAI. I.ITERATURB. 

adverse criticism are the following: ist, that animals, excepting 
primates, cannot and do not learn the simplest acts from seeing their 
fellows do them ; 2nd, " that the elements in the associative processes 
are sense-impressions, plus a past ' impulse and act,' rather than 
between two sense-impressions, one past, and one present." He would 
argue, if I interpret him aright, that in order for the product of the 
associative processes to be advantageous to increase intelligence, one 
of the elements must be an impulse from the motor side as opposed to 
the idea which maintains that the associative elements in animal psy- 
chosis may be between sensations or even between memory images of 
an elaborate order. For those of us who have an abiding interest and 
faith in comparative psychology as an important auxiliary to the 
study of mind, the chief value of the paper lies in its testing a simple 
method whereby more of the facts of animal psychosis may be set 
forth. Iv. W. K1.INE. 

A Primer of Psychology, by Edward Bradford Titchbnbr. The 
Macmillan Co., N. Y., 1898. Price, |i. 

A good elementary text-book is by no means easy to write ; it is a 
most searching test both of the real condition of the science for which 
it is written and of the degree in which the writer has mastered his 
subject. To write up " results " for Archives or technical journals 
is one thing, to distil off the vital essence of a science for beginners 
is quite another. Such a book ought not to be a mere description of 
the "wonders" of the science in question, still less an abstract 
account of its theory ; it must show the theory alive and luminous in 
phenomena actually present. 

The peculiar merit of Prof. Titchener's primer is the successful 
attempt to do just this. The general treatment is not only concrete 
and sufficiently untechnical, but each of the fifteen chapters is fol- 
lowed by a section of " Questions and Kxercises," intended to lead 
the student not only to the better comprehension of the text, but also 
to an intelligent observation of his own mental experiences. When 
practicable these observations are given an experimental form, and an 
appendix is devoted to a convenient list of apparatus and materials, 
with names and addresses of makers, and prices. 

The book, however, covers a much wider field than that of labora- 
tory psychology. After introductory chapters on the nature and 
methods of the science, the topics of sensation, feeling, and attention 
are taken up in that order, to be followed by those of perception, 
idea and association, emotion, simpler forms of action ; then memory 
and imagination, thought and self-consciousness, sentiment, and com- 
plex forms of action ; the work is concluded by a chapter on abnormal 
psychology, and another on animal and child psychology and the 
relation of psychology to ethics, logic and pedagogy. As will be seen 
from this list, the order of treatment is somewhat peculiar. In the re- 
viewer's opinion it is not altogether happy, — certain logical and sys- 
tematic advantages having been gained at the expense of a natural 
pedagogical approach.^ 

The present state of psychological science is apparent in the vary- 
ing interest of the chapters, those upon matters little touched as yet 
by the newer methods being painfully skeletonesque. For this, of 
course, the author cannot be held responsible. It is to be regretted, 
however, that he did not give more explicit attention to mental 

^ It is perhaps fair to say that the plan is simpler than the chapter headings 
would suggest, being the usual threefold division treated successively at different 
levels of complexity: i, Sensation, Feeling, Attention ; 2, Perception (with idea 
and association), Smotion, Simple Action ; 3, Higher Intellect, Sentiment, Complex 
Action. 



PSYCHOLOGICAI. LITERATURE. 151 

hygiene based upon psychological principles, especially as the book 
is intended for normal and high school students. A few minor inac- 
curacies also and inadvertencies of expression might well receive 
attention in another edition; e.g., on p. 33 it seems to be implied 
that imagination is dependent on changes of blood supply, on pp. 44- 
45 in considering giddiness the otolith organs are mentioned, but the 
semicircular canals are not, and on p. 50 the intensity of moonlight 
is taken much too high. The book is valuable enough, however, 
to carry off many more than these deficiencies, and will, no doubt, 
prove extremely helpful even to many above the level for which it 
was first designed. E. C. S. 

The Influence of High Arterial Pressures Upon the Blood-Flow 
Through the Brain. W. H. HowEi.iv. American Journal of 
Physiology, I. (1898), 57-70. 

The physiology of the cerebral circulation is a difficult and obscure 
matter, and has been made even more difficult of comprehension by 
the supposition that, because the brain itself is practically incompress- 
ible and encased in an inextensible skull, any enlargement of the 
arteries under increased blood pressure must bring about a corres- 
ponding compression of the veins, which would hinder the outflow of 
the blood, and, in case of a sudden and great rise of arterial pressure, 
might produce anaemia by preventing it altogether. Recent experi- 
ments by several observers, however, have made clear that this 
reasoning was somewhere at fault, for when the arterial pressure in 
living animals has been made very high by the administration of 
drugs, the outflow has not been diminished. Prof. Howell has carried 
these experiments further, and, it would seem, entirely closed the 
question by showing in the case of dogs previously killed, that even 
very great pressures {e.g., 500 mm. of mercury, or about 9.7 lbs. per 
square inch) do not cause any decrease of the outflow from the cere- 
bral veins ; in other words that ' ' the circulation in the braiu behaves 
in this respect precisely as it does in the other organs of the body ; 
the greater the arterial pressure the more abundant is the flow of 
blood." The arterial enlargement is indeed compensated by com- 
pression of the veins (and they even show a pulse, due, apparently, to 
the increase of compression at each arterial pulse) but their total bore 
is considerably greater than that of the arteries, so that they are never 
seriously occluded, while the large sinuses, which might suffer more, 
are protected by tough dural sheaths. E. C. S. 

On the Relation Between the External Stimulus Applied to a 
Nerve and the Resulting Nerve Impulse as Measured by the 
Action Current. C. W. Greenk. American Journal of Physi- 
ology, I. (1898), 104-116. 

Experiments were made on the excised nerves of frogs, terrapin, 
cats and dogs. The curves for the relation of the stimulating current 
and current of action, plotted from the results, show three stages : 
The first rising sharply from the abscissa and practically straight, the 
third also straight and nearly parallel to the abscissa, and the second, 
a curve with its concavity toward the abscissa, connecting the other 
two. The first stage extends from the smallest stimuli awakening 
any response up to the intensity required to bring out maximal mus- 
cular contractions and considerably beyond ; it is the expression of an 
arithmetical ratio, each increase in stimulus bringing out a propor- 
tional and decided increase in the current of action. The third also 
represents an arithmetical ratio, but the increase fbr each unit of 
stimulus, while still proportional, is quite small. In the nerves of 



152 PSYCHOI.OGICAI. UTERATURB. 

dogs the author finds, as Waller found for the nerves of frogs, that 
the first straight portion of the curve is preceded by a short curved 
portion, convex toward the abscissa. The point of interest for psycho- 
physics lies in the fact that, so far as inference from these experi- 
ments is justifiable, the relation of stimulus and sensation generalized 
by Weber's law (which many have considered a matter of neural 
physiology) lies in the activity of some other portion than the nerve 
fibre. K. C. S. 

The Functions of the Ear and the Lateral Line in Fishes. Fred- 
eric S. IvEE. American Journal of Physiology, I. (1898), 
128-144. 

As a basis for discussing the relation of the ear and the organs of 
the lateral line Dr. Lee summarizes the results of his admirable 
studies on the equilibration sense and the ear, already published, 
together with others not as yet published in detail. The ear of fishes 
performs both dynamical and statical functions. The dynamical are : 
First, recognition of rotations (mediated by the semicircular canals 
and their nervous mechanisms), and second, recognitions of move- 
ments of translation (mediated by the otolith organs of the utriculus, 
sacculus and lagena). The statical function, recognition of position 
in space (gravity sense), is also mediated by the otolith organs. An 
ear might seem to imply hearing, but this is not the case in fishes, — 
Ivee's experiments, like those of Bateson and Kreidl, showing these 
creatures to be without hearing in the ordinary sense of the word, 
though sensitive to jars.^ 

lyce has also experimented on the lateral line organs in dog-fish, 
toad-fish and butter-fish with results that point strongly to an equi- 
librative function as that of these organs also, which agrees with the 
morphological derivation of the ear from a specialized group of these 
line organs. 

What has probably been the evolutionary history of the developed 
ear of higher forms is thus sketched by the author : " The primitive 
function, not improbably, was the appreciation of movements of the 
water against the body and movements of the body in the water, com- 
bined with appreciation of contact, and, hence indirectly and crudely, 
of position in space ; by the exercise of this function, through func- 
tional connection with the locomotor mechanism, the equilibrium of 
the body was maintained. In some unknown way a bit of this sensory 
system became cut off from the rest and enclosed within the skull ; it 
still retained its power of appreciating bodily movements and contact, 
and this power became refined and differentiated ; the capacity of 
appreciating rotary movements was separated from that dealing with 
progressive movements and position in space, and the two were asso- 
ciated with distinct organs, the semicircular canals on the one hand, 
and the otolith organs on the other, which were appropriately con- 
structed to subserve their respective functions. Thus, a well-marked 
sensory organ for equilibrium was evolved in fishes. When aquatic 
animals began to leave the water and live a shorter or longer time 
upon the land, and the possible advantage of a sense of hearing was 
presented, a portion of this sensory organ of movement became still 
farther differentiated ; a new patch of sensory nerve-terminations 



* I^ee summarizes one of Kreidl's studies as follows: "In a subsequent paper 
Kreidl explodes the oft-repeated tale of hearing by fishes that come for their food 
at the sound of a bell, by investigating carefully the action of trout at the famous 
old Benedictine monastery in Krems. Austria. He proved that the fishes come 
because they see the man who brings the food, and appreciate the vibrations of the 
water caused by his step and communicated through the stone basin ; and that, 
when these are excluded, the sounds of the bell have no effect." 



PSYCHOI.OGICAL I.ITERATURE. 153 

appeared, the papilla acustica basilaris ; apparatus for conveying the 
waves in the air directly to the membranous ear was developed ; and 
thus the power of appreciating the movements we call sound was 
acquired." E. C. S. 

I limiti del pudore neWuomo e nella donna. Pio Viazzi. Riv. mens. 

di Psich. forense, Antrop. crim., ecc. (Napoli), Vol. I (1898), pp. 

164-175. 
In this article, Viazzi, the author of a work on " Sexual Criminals," 
in which he sustained in detail the view that woman has a greater 
sense of shame than man, abandons that opinion, returning to the 
conviction of Sergi, that by reason of her less amorous sensibility, 
woman has necessarily less sense of shame than man, though she 
seems to evince and to display more. Woman's use of shame as a 
means of seduction, — shame in the sense of hiding or avoiding what 
would excite repugnance or disgust and endanger her amorous 
conquests ; the graver consequences for her of the coitus and the 
social consequences of unchastity and infidelity, which cause not a 
little calculation to enter into her sense of shame, until ultimately it 
departs from the sphere of feeling and enters the region of deliberate 
reasoning as to consequences of lack of shame ; the greater interest 
woman has over man in showing herself modest and shamefaced — all 
this lessens the amount of real shame-sense to be attributed to the 
female sex. A great deal of her apparent shame is merely the clever 
psychical counterfeit. The pallid frigidity of woman on certain occa- 
sions, may be the shadow of shame, but only the ghostly shade. 
Man's wider range of sexual reactions (shown also in the pathological 
side of love and its fetishisms) carries with it a greater bulk of shame, 
lyow-necked dresses and exposed breasts still wait their anologues in 
the drawing room and the theater from men. Women are led to be 
shameless more easily than men, and shameless in public. For evolu- 
tionary reasons, a deeply-felt sense of shame, an organic sense of it are 
naturally stronger in the sex, whose ego is best protected and 
defended. A. F. C. 

II dolore neW educazione. Iv- M. BiIvIvIA. Nuovo Risorgimento,Vol. 

VIII (1898), pp. 187-193. 

The question whether man is free or not seems to be settled by the 
answer to the question : Can he inflict pain upon himself for a certain 
end? Not every pain, or all pain is educative, but without pain there 
can be no greatness, no virtue, no true happiness, no work, no science, 
no education. Study is pain, thought i* pain, pain is virtue. 

A. F. C. 
The Origin of the Family. H. Soi^otaroff. American Anthropol- 
ogist, Vol. XI (1898), pp. 229-242. 

The primary form of the family, according to M. Solotaroff, is "the 
mother free to contract or dissolve sexual bonds — and the group of 
children resulting from these sexual relations." The assertion of 
man's bio-psychic activities and individualities, and the growth, with 
the vicissitudes of environments of the need of sexual favors, help 
and protection for herself and her children "have led the woman 
slowly out of bondage of economic care for her family group, but led 
her into marital bondage, while the most powerful tendency toward 
socialization among primitive men, expressing itself in various ways, 
has incidentally expressed itself, also, in occasional sexual permis- 
cuity as the outcome of the ecstacies of play — one of the most potent 
instincts of the social sentiment." In his general views the author 
approaches Westermarck, rejecting the theory of primitive promis- 
cuities. A. F. C. 



154 PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE. 

Piratical Acculturation. W. J. McGer. Ibid., pp. 243-249. 

The four stages or phases of acculturation are sketched by Professor 
McGee, as follows: "The first phase is characteristic of savagery; 
it is expressed in the imitation of weapons and symbols, with the 
esoteric purpose of invoking new deities ; it may be styled martial 
acculturation. The second phase is characteristic of barbarism, 
though arising earlier and perishing later ; it is expressed in semi- 
antagonistic mating between tribes, with the initial esoteric purpose 
of strengthening tribal pantheons ; it may be called marital accnltura- 

tion The third phase is characteristic of civilization, 

though it begins in barbarism and plays a role in enlightenment ; it is 
expressed in interchange of goods with the purpose (at first esoteric 
and afterwards exoteric) of personal profit or gain ; it may be designa- 
ted commercial acculturation. The fourth phase is characteristic of 
enlightenment, though its beginnings may be found much lower ; it 
is expressed in the spontaneous interchange of ideas for the purpose 
of increasing human power over nature ; it may, provisionally, be 
styled educational acculturation." The first two phases are essentially 
piratical, the last two essentially amicable. A. F. C. 

The Factors of Heredity and Environment in Man. D. G. Brin- 
TON. Ibid.y pp. 271-277. 
After pointing out the divergence of scientific opinion upon the sub- 
ject (Lombroso says " milieu can annihilate all ethnic traits," while 
CoUignon holds to hereditary transmission of anatomical peculiari- 
ties," together with " a difference of brain, revealed by a special 
direction of the thoughts and the display of special mental powers "), 
Dr. Brinton emphasizes the fact that "the progress of man is his 
progress of gaining independence from nature, of making her forces 
his slaves, and not leaving them his masters " — hence "the depend- 
* ence of man on his environment is not a fixed quantity," for " in the 
most favored spots to-day it is reduced almost to a zero, so far as its 
influence on man's higher, soul-life is concerned." Besides there are 
two psychical elements, temperament and character, which "are 
largely independent both of heredity and environment." Tempera- 
ment, Manouvrier calls ' ' the determining cause of the intellectual 
and moral traits of the individual," and character is "the essential 
personal element in humanity." It is neither inherited nor acquired, 
and "it probably begins with the very inception of the individual 
life ;" while "in its essential traits it forever bides the same, resisting 
all external agencies;" it is that "which in the last analysis [as 
Wundt demonstrates] prompts the decisions, guides the actions, and 
carves the destiny of men and nations." The theories of atavism 
are weaker to-day than yesterday, and the advances in the study of 
cellular pathology have won whole territories for variation and the 
heredity of acquired characteristics. The peculiar traits of races may 
be pathological, the result of that perfect adaptation to one environ- 
ment which brings in its train unfitness for any other. " Blood will 
tell," it is true, but just as much temperament and character. 

A. F. C. 

Familientypus und Familiendhnlichkeiten. Graf Theodor Zichy. 
Correspbl. d. deutschen anthrop. Ges. (Miinchen), 1898, (Vol. 

xxix5,s. 41-44; 51-54. 

An interesting study of the features of the Hapsburgs and the 
Bourbons. The author concludes : i. Nearly everybody has the 
features of some near ancestor, but the whole series is necessary for 
perfect orientation. 2. An inherited family type is not infrequent, 



PSYCHOI.OLICAI. LITBRATURK. 155 

but by no means the rule. 3. Between children of the same parents 
resemblances are frequent, but mostly only during youth. 4. The 
resemblances between parents and children are most noticeable in the 
youth of both. 5. Here and there very striking resemblances to 
very remote ancestors occur. A. F. C. 

r 

LHmitation dans VArt. Fki,ix RegnauIvT. Rev. Sci., 4e sdrie, 
Tome X (1898), pp. 335-336. 
Art has all along its history been prone rather to imitation than to 
invention — the former is easier. Relics of imitation and repetition 
are to be found in the symmetries of classic art and architecture. 

Studien zur deutschen Weidmannssprache. Paui, IvKmbke. Ztschr. 
f. den deutschen Unterr., XII. Jahrg. (1898), S. 233-277. 
A valuable discussion of the vocabulary of the German "hunter's 
dialect," with appropriate consideration of such words (^hetzen, 
Luder, naseweis, unbdndig, Wildfang, Hundejunge, Hundsbube, 
wittern, stobern, etc.) and phrases {durch die happen gehen, auf den 
Strich gehen, ^tc.) which have passed into the literary language of 
the day, the student-language or other clannish forms of speech 
among the various social classes. It is interesting to note the influ- 
ence of the "hunt" in a Mecklenburg dialect, where, e. g., the 
carouse after the hunt is called Najagd ; a dance is K tapper j agd ; 
distinguished people are Hochwild ; de liitt lagd ("little hunt ") = 
when a player has many small trump cards; of an old maid they say 
ut de jagdboren Johren is se rut ("she's past her hunting time"). 
Many hunting proverbs are also noted. A. F. C. 

V Education Rationnelle de la Volonti, Dr. Paui. Emii^k Lrvy. 
Paris, F^lix Alcan, 1898. pp. 231. 

The thesis of this work is contained in the first sentence of the 
opening chapter. "We propose to show that it is possible to preserve 
our moral and physical being from many affections, and if any evil 
comes to one or the other to draw from our own nature relief or 
cure." The book is divided into two parts, (i), theoretical; (2), 
practical. The fundamental psychological law upon which the 
theory of autosuggestion is based is the fact that every thought is the 
beginning of action. The will acts more effectually when it acts un- 
consciously, or without effort, that is as a result of suggestion. Sug- 
gestion is of two kinds : suggestion from without, and autosuggestion ; 
but there is no essential difference between these. 

Many ailments of the body as well as of the mind are habits. Moral 
hygiene consists in the fixation in the organism of healthy physical 
and mental habits. 

In the second part of the book many cases are given in detail of 
the cure by autosuggestion of emotional troubles, of habits, of func- 
tional disorders of circulation and digestion. While, according to 
Dr. Iv^vy, psychotherapy does not claim to be all there is of therapy, 
there are cases in which nothing can take its place, there are other 
cases in which it acts better than any other curative agent. And in 
all cases it is useful. G. E. Partridge. 

Moderne Nervositdt und ihre Vererbung, von Ch. Fere. Arzt am 

Bic^tre. Dutch Dr. Hubert Schnitzer, Berlin. 

The book is chiefly a discussion of heredity as affected by nervous 

diseases. Fer^ asserts himself a follower of Darwin and an opponent 

of the Weismann theory of the continuity of the germ substance. His 



156 PSYCHOIvOGICAL LITERATURE. 

position is that the conditions of life affect the individual organism, 
and exert an important modifying influence on the protoplasm. 

The influence of heredity is far from being limited to psychic dis- 
eases. It extends also to the most organic and functional diseases of 
the nervous system, and, further, every nervous disease is connected 
with an anatomical change. 

Interesting chapters dealing with degeneracy and hereditary asym- 
metry are given. 

The book is especially valuable as a guide to the literature of the 
subject, a very large list of authors being cited. 

The translator has done his work well. The lucid style of the 
French author is well maintained throughout in the translation. 

Norman Tripi^ett. 

r 

Le Subconscient chez les Artistes, les Savants et les Ecrivains, par le 
DoCTEUR Chabaneix, mddecin de la marine. Preface de M. le 
Docteur Regis. Paris, 1897. pp. 124. 

In this preface Dr. Regis defines the ''Subconscient " as the peculiar 
state between sleeping and waking ; between the conscious and the 
unconscious. 

It is this state that Dr. Chabaneix has studied in the cases of a 
number of authors, artists and scientists. Noting the frequency among 
such men of somnambulism, neuropathy, hallucinations, etc., the 
author was desirous of determining whether they were particularly 
subject to "subconscious" dreams, and if so, what part the subcon- 
scious played in their works. He gives the experience of Mozart, 
Goethe, Heine, Voltaire, Schopenhauer, Wagner, Tolstoi, and many 
other equally famous men, both historic and contemporary. 

He shows that the subconscious appears with great frequency among 
men of talent and genius, and in the case of many it figures in their 
productions to a remarkable degree. 

Dr. Regis says the study brings to light one of the psychologic con- 
ditions under which the great works of the human mind are produced. 
It establishes also that the personality of men of talent and genius so 
diversely interpreted, is more often due to nervous erethism than to 
mental derangement, and that the great creators are often lost in their 
subconscious abstraction. 

The work contains a bibliography of some seventy titles ; also a 
table of the authors cited. 

The Use of Color in the Verse of the English Romantic Poets, by 
A1.1CE Edwards Pratt. Chicago : The University of Chicago 
Press, 1898. pp. 118. 
This work is a thesis for the doctor's degree in the Department of 
English of Chicago University. The author presents an exhaustive 
study of the use of color by the seventeen principal English poets 
from I/angland to Keats. The study includes the entire product of 
each poet considered, except Thomson ; and the results have been 
catalogued and classified. The classification is made in two ways: 
According to color groups ; and according to distribution among fields 
of interest. The tables and charts give a graphic representation of 
the subject. The work furnishes some suggestive material for the psy- 
chologist. W. vS. S. 

Leitfaden der physiologischen Psychologie in 15 Vorlesungen. Von 

Th. Ziehen. 4te Aufl. Jena, G. Fischer, 1898. pp. 5, 263. 

Professor Ziehen's Leitfaden, published in 1891, is well known to 

American students of psychology in the translation of Messrs. Beyer 

and Van L/iew (2d ed., 1895). It is with this, in the absence of the 3d 



PSYCHOLOGICAIv I.ITKRATURB. 157 

German edition, that the reviewer must compare the present volume. 
The following are some of the more important changes : I,ecture II, 
" Sensation, Association, Action," has new paragraphs on the devel- 
opment of the brain in the vertebrate series ; Lecture III, " Stimulus, 
Sensation," a new derivation of Fechner's measurement-formula, and 
modifications in the discussion of Weber's law; Lecture IV, "Taste, 
Smell, Cutaneous Sensations and Sensations of Movement," a para- 
graph on the static sense and the alimentary organic sensations ; Lec- 
ture V, " Sensations of Hearing," remarks on the timbre of vowels ; 
Lecture VI, "Sight" (the whole lecture has been revised, with the 
assistance of Professor Koenig), paragraphs on visual perceptions of 
movement and on certain optical illusions ; Lecture VII, " Temporal 
Attributes and Affective Tone of Sensations," added remarks on after- 
images, references to the time-sense, and changes in matter and 
arrangement throughout the second half of the lecture ; Lectures IX 
and X, minor additions in the discussion of emotion and of association 
of ideas ; Lecture XI, paragraphs on the activity experience in atten- 
tion, and on the relation of attention to intensity of sensation ; Lecture 
XIV, new matter in the paragraphs dealing with the development of 
action and with simple reaction experiments ; Lecture XV, consid- 
eration of objections to the associative theory of will. The new indices, 
of subjects and authors, are most welcome, as are the numerous cita- 
tions of recent literature in the foot notes. 

It is plain, from this summary, that the fourth German is a great 
improvement upon the second English edition of the Leitfaden. It is 
regrettable that Professor Ziehen has seen fit to retain the polemical 
treatment of Wundt's apperception theory in text and preface. He 
has, apparently, never understood that theory ; though a reading of 
the Grundriss and Vorlesungen, in their recent issues, would be 
amply sufficient to show him that he has misrepresented Wundt's doc- 
trine. E. B. T. 

Yetta Sdgal, by H. J. Roi^wn. New York, G. W. Dillingham & Co., 
1898. pp. 174. 

Yetta S^gal is a novel, the aim of which is to familiarize the public 
with the idea of race-mixture as the final step in the mental and 
physical development of mankind. In the course of the story an 
American Jewess marries a man who is part American, part negro, 
and part Spaniard ; and a Japanese woman, one of whose grandparents 
was European, finds a husband who is half English and half Swede. 

With the merits of the story as story we are not here concerned. 
There can, however, be no doubt of the psychological importance of 
the fact upon which the author — apart from his references to the 
Antilles and citations of Herbert Spencer — lays stress : the fact that, 
in a civilized community, " positive assurance is now impossible as to 
the racial purity of any individual." 

L' Enseignement Integral,'' Ai^Kxis BerTrand, Professeur de Phi- 
losophic k I'Universitd de Lyon. F^lix Alcan, Paris, 1898. 

"Unified instruction" is really, according to the author, instruc- 
tion in all the human sciences for every human being. This book is 
another and strong appeal for reform in the lack of popular educa- 
tion. Whatever secondary education exists, is not well suited to all 
classes. There is an aristocracy of learning, whereas there should be 
perfect equality. No provision is made for the instruction of the sons 
and daughters of mechanics, laborers and farmers, and these, the 
mass of the people, are as capable as any of profiting thereby. The 
great gap comes between the ages of thirteen and twenty. 

Descartes and Comte, as national philosophers, are taken as guides 



158 PSYCHOLOGICAL LITBRATURE. 

in support of the new movement ; for the proposed system is partly in 
operation in Lyon and other cities. In the author's outline for popu- 
lar secondary education Comte is roughly followed, and according to 
this philosopher there are three periods in positive education. The 
first is purely physical and under the mother's direction. The second, 
between the ages of seven and fourteen, is aesthetic ; the study of 
the arts and languages. The third is scientific, conforming closely to 
the " hierarchy of the seven fundamental sciences." These sciences 
are arranged in a logical series ; mathematics, astronomy, physics, 
chemistry, biology, sociology, and morals. The study of the classics 
brings in a bifurcation, fatal to an utilitarian and unified instruction. 
The introduction of co-education marks probabl}'^ the greatest innova- 
tion in the proposed new system. 

This secondary instruction in the sciences would be given in two 
schools ; the first or institutes, would be evening schools, and the 
course would last seven years. The second, the colleges, would differ 
from the first only in that the students devote full time to study and 
finish in four years. Chapter three gives the details of the author's 
unique plans for these schools. F. D. Sherman. 

Introduction to Herbartian Principles of Teaching, by Catharine I. 
DoDD, of Day Training Department, The Owens College, Man- 
chester, 1898. London : Swan, Sonnenschein & Co.; New York : 
The Macmillan Company, pp. 198. 
The author of this work has fittingly prefaced it with an introduc- 
tory notice by Dr. W. Rein, of Jena. She has undertaken the task of 
transplanting the methods and principles of Herbartian pedagogy into 
the elementary schools of England. A summary of the general prin- 
ciples of education, and the Herbartian doctrine of interest and in- 
struction furnish the English readers with the fundamental concep- 
tions of education as seen in the writings of Herbart and his followers. 
A good description is given of the course of instruction followed in 
the culture-epoch schools of Germany. The most interesting feature 
of this work is the attempt to adopt these culture-epochs to the needs 
of children of the English race. The legends and history of Germany 
are changed for those of England. Miss Dodd closes this interesting 
work with a brief history of the rise and development of the Herbartian 
movement in Germany. 

The Nature and Development of Animal Intelligence, by WesI/Ey 
Mii.i,s, M. A., M. D., D. V. S., F. R. S. C. Macmillan, N. Y., 
1898. pp. 307. 
At last we have these very careful and objective studies that have 
appeared in a fragmentary way in many forms and places, put together 
into a more or less systematic whole. Part I is occupied with describing 
animal intelligence and comparative psychology ; Part II deals with 
squirrels, with special reference to feigning, and to hibernation. Part 
III treats the psychic development of young animals and its physical 
conditions, brain growth and its relation to psychic development ; and 
part IV represents various discussions. The work is of great acumen, 
and a very valuable addition to the literature of the subject, but is 
handicapped by a title too large for it. The author's strong point 
is fidelity and patience of observation and description rather than 
generalization or discussion. The book is so diversified that it needs 
the admirable index which it has. 

Die Masturbation, von Dr. H. Rohi^eder. Berlin, 1898. pp. 319. 

This " monograph for physicians and pedagogues" is written in 
conformity to the motto that the " diseases of society can be no more 



PSYCHOIX)GICAlv I^ITERATURE. 1 59 

cured than can those of the body without speaking of them openly 
and freely." The work is elaborate and systematic, discussing litera- 
ture, definitions, history, forms, diffusion, onanism among animals, 
etc. The causes are divided as those lying in the body, as laziness, 
moral weakesss, over liveliness, precocity, bodily defect, etc.; and 
those out of the body like education at home and in school, faulty 
dress, food, abnormal fear, unwholesome occupation. The results are 
specified for nerves, senses, digestion, muscles, respiration, cerebel- 
lum, etc., and therapeutic^ occupy most of the last hundred pages. 

Ueber die Sexuellen Ursachen der Neurasthenie u. Angstneurose, von 
Dr. FEI.IX GatteIv. Berlin, 1898. pp. 68. 
The author, a nerve specialist in Berlin, has evidently been pro- 
foundly influenced by Kraus, Hecker, and Brener, and Freud's recent 
brilliant studies on hysteria, and depends on the basis of 100 sexual 
cases in the clinique of Krafft-Ebing. The general thesis is that the 
neurosis of onanists always occurs where there is a restraint of the 
sexual desire, and full neurasthenia can arise only as a result of mas- 
turbation. 

Arbeit und Rhythmus, by M. K. Bucher. Allg. Phil. Hist. Classe 
Sachs Ges. der Wiss., Bd. 17, No. 5. Leipzig, 1896. 
This important and fascinating monograph shows by many illustra- 
tions how half civilized people are prone to work rhythmically and 
even in concert and to sing. Work is thus argued to be the cause of song 
and poesy, dance and the drama. This conclusion is illustrated by 
hypothetical stages of development of lyric and epic poety. Rhythm 
is potent as a means of unifying work and creating voluntary com- 
munities of laborers. Machinery has weakened and in many cases 
threatens the decay of the rhythmic impulse. If it goes, the super- 
structure of music will also be endangered. 

W. V. Her Book and Various Verses, by WiIvLIAm Canton. Stone 
and Kimball, N. Y., 1898. pp. 146. 
This very tasteful little book is made up of prose records of very 
cute doings, and especially sayings of the heroine, V. G. The bushes 
have their hands full of flowers ; the buds are the trees' little girls ; 
Jesus is cleverer than we are ; did the church people put Jesus on a 
cross? her new words, fussle, sorefully, ficky, etc., are stated in prose, 
and the author then lapses into brief versicles describing the inci- 
dents poetically. 

A Study of a Child, by Louise K. Hogan. Harper's, N. Y., 1898. 
pp. 220. 

This attractively printed and bound book is illustrated by over 500 
drawings by the child. There are eight chapters, the first representing 
the first year of Harold's life, and so on to the eighth. Following the 
chronological order the author finds it unnecessary to observe any 
other, and there is no index to aid the reader. The first year notes 
are particularly fragmentary, and are only seven pages. Many of the 
notes are interesting and suggestive, and many are very inane. There 
are almost no attempts to draw conclusions of any sort, but only 
objective accounts of specific things the child did and said. 

The Development of the Child, by Nathan Oppenheim. Macmillan 
Co., N. Y., 1898. pp. 296. 
The author is the attending physician to the children's department 
of Mt. Sinai Hospital Dispensary in New York city, whose supple- 
mentary culture enables him to discuss in an interesting way the 



l6o PSYCHOLOGICAI. LITER ATURK. 

relation of heredity and environment ; the place of the primary school 
and of religion in a child's development ; the value of child testimony ; 
the evolution of the juvenile criminal ; the bearings of the mode of 
development as productive of genius or defect, institutional life and 
the profession of maternity. The book is on a far higher plane than 
such works of Taylor and Hogan noticed in this number, but is sug- 
gestive rather than conclusive, indicating a certain immaturity of 
view, and frequently a disposition to expatiate in what are almost the 
commonplaces of the subject. Still it is a book to be heartily com- 
mended to parents. 

Psychologie de V Instinct Sexuel, par Dr. Joanny Roux. Paris, 
1899. pp. 96. 
This is an admirable- little compend of the subject. Starting with a 
r^sumd of the leading current conclusions of biology on the subject, 
the author passes to the discussion of the general theory of fecunda- 
tion and thence of love. Its merit consists in the author's wide 
acquaintance with recent scientific literature in the various fields, and 
in his lucidity and conciseness of statement. 

Citizenship and Salvation, or Greek and Jew, by A. H. Lloyd, Ph. 

D., Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Michigan. 

Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1897. pp. 142. 

In Part I the author describes the death of Socrates and its influence 

on Greek thought, and then on Roman. In Part II he describes and 

discusses the death of Christ in Judea and the fall of Rome. Part III 

is devoted to an account of the resurrection or the Christian state. 

The Study of the Child, by A. R. TayIvOR, M. D., President of the 
State Normal School of Emporia, Kansas. D. Appleton and Co., 
N. Y., 1898. pp. 215. 
This book is Volume XLIII in Dr. Harris's Educational Series, and 
makes an attempt to study and present the results of the study of 
children. It claims no originality, but only to fit the reader to enter 
upon the study of children. It treats the senses, consciousness, apper- 
ception, attention, symbolism, sayings, feelings, will, intellect, con- 
cepts, self, habit, character, manners and morals, normal and abnormal. 
It seems to the writer of this note that the title might, with minor 
modification, just as well have been the study of the adult, or psy- 
chology, according to Froebel, Herbart and Harris. The book is 
abstract, and contains almost nothing genetic and little that is con- 
crete ; but is a restatement of stock matter in the general field of 
mental philosophy with such adjustments as show that from that 
standpoint child study has a place, and this is something to be grate- 
ful for. 

Versuch einer Darstellung der Empfindungen, von Wai^ter Prizi- 
BRAM. A. Holder, Wien, 1898. pp. 28. 
This posthumous work, edited by the author's brother, attempts 
*' to bring sensations as immediately given purely psychic facts into a 
mathematical system, the formulas of which shall be a complete 
desciption of single sensations in general, and discussable under the 
special cases." It is impossible to describe the system in brief form. 
Five large tables present the chief terms and forms used. 

Essai sur la Classification des Sciences, par Edmond G0BI.0T. F. 
Alcan, Paris, 1898. pp. 296. 

The first chapter discusses the formal unity of sciences, logical 
dualism, and the common laws of the development of all sciences, viz., 



PSYCHOTX)GICAL LITERATURE. l6l 

induction, mathematics, and deduction in the sciences of nature. The 
main body of the book is an exposition of the system of sciences 
which falls into the following order : Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
mechanics, including cinematics and dynamics, cosmology, biology, 
psychology and sociology, including aesthetics and morals. Other 
sciences are sub-sections of these. 

L' Illusion de Fausse Reconnaissance, by E. Bernard-Leroy. Paris, 
1898. pp. 249. 
The author sent out a long questionnaire to educated people request- 
ing accounts of striking experience of having been in a new place. 
Of his returns he selects and prints in full 86, which make the last 
150 pages of his book, the first being devoted to discussions. Reject- 
ing Ribot's theory that there are two successive and perfectly 
conscious impressions, the first real and the second hallucinatory, he 
holds recognition to be a unique kind of "intellectual sentiment" 
associated with re-known phenomena. The manifestations of this 
sentiment may become almost chronic. It is not necessary to assume 
a difference between sensation and perception, or between impersonal 
impressions and those where the subject is conscious. 

Classified Reading, by Isabei^ Lawrence. Published by the author, 
St. Cloud, Minn., 1898. pp. 423. 
This is a descriptive list of books for school, library and home. 
Pedagogy, child study, geography, history, English, and miscella- 
neous, the latter including manual training, drawing, physical culture 
and music, are the chief topics. There are wide margins for additional 
literature. It is easy to find fault with every such book both for what 
it includes and excludes, but on the whole this can be most heartily 
commended to every teacher or student of geography, history or 
English, as a very valuable companion and helper in their work. 

Ignorance, by M. R. P. Dorman. London, 1898. pp. 328. 

The author undertakes to study the causes and effects of ignorance 
in popular thought and to make educational suggestions. No one 
before has attempted to reduce ignorance to a science. Its effect is 
traced on art, letters, capital, economy, state, woman, and collective 
and individual ignorance are distinguished. The author emphasizes 
unconscious causes and cures. Large ideas in small minds, the retire- 
ment of the fittest, new superstitions of ultra idealism, ultra spirit- 
ualism, uncritical orthodoxy, the substitution of feeling for the ease 
with which women conceal ignorance by following custom, the degra- 
dation of the pulpit, press, stage, methods of advertisement, etc., are 
among the causes of ignorance to be contended against. 

The Elements of Physical Education, by D. Lemox, M. D., and A. 
Sturrock. Blackwood, London, 1898. pp. 241. 
This is a teacher's manual copiously illustrated with 147 cuts of 
children practicing free gymnastics and using ball, wand, dumb-bells ; 
and some 40 pages of new gymnastic music, by H. E. Loseby. The 
first 67 pages are taken up with very elementary anatomy and physi- 
ology. It is a practical and interesting book. 

A Course of Practical Lessons in Hand and Eye Training for Stu- 
dents, 1-4, by A. W. Bevis. London, 1898. 
These are four handbooks of some 150 pages each, illustrating a 
new course of work adopted by the Birmingham English School 
Board, and are full of new and suggestive work. 

Journai, — II 



1 62 PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE. 

The Play of Animals, by Kari, Groos. Tr. by Elizabeth L. Baldwin. 
Appleton & Co., New York, 1898. pp. 341. 
It was a happy idea to translate this valuable book from the Ger- 
man, and Miss. Baldwin has done her task ver)' acceptably. Professor 
Baldwin writes a characteristic preface of eleven pages, and a re- 
printed appendix of four pages quoting from himself, or referring to 
his work some fourteen times, claiming four out of nine factors of 
organic evolution, and offering a series of criticism, ** even though to a 
thinker like Professor Groos they may be trivial and easily answered." 
On the whole the work of Groos is commended, but were not most of 
its best ideas either hinted at or better expressed, or were not most of 
the facts more truly stated by Professor Baldwin at some distinctly 
previous date ? 



CORRESPONDENOE. 



Dr. Herman T. I^ukens has written the following personal letter to 
the editor. It was with no thought of publication, but Dr. L,ukens 
has kindly consented to let it appear in the Journal, without change : 

My Dear Sir : 

I have just been out to Chevy Chase to see Dr. Klmer Gates and 
his laboratory. The work on enlargement of the laboratory is still 
under way, so that I did not see things and apparatus in working 
order, but in heaps. He has raised the old building one story, and 
built a new first story. It is a fine situation on the same lot with his 
residence, with ground enough around for two or three new buildings 
besides a fine lawn. The property is his own, laboratory and all, but 
he has received donations of various amounts (I think he said $320,- 
000) from Mrs. Phebe Hurst and others to aid in special investiga- 
tions. His work covers the whole range of the sciences. He has just 
invented a way of getting an electric current from the action of sun- 
light without the intervention of dynamo or engine. He started in on 
the study of looms some time ago, and in nine months had sixty-eight 
new inventions of improvements in the loom ; one of these inventions 
he disposed of for ten per cent, royalty, receiving ^62,000, with which 
he is building his new laboratory now. He employs a force of trained 
assistants, machinists, etc. His metallurgical room is for investiga- 
tions in alloys. He proposes to make a complete series of 10,000 (or 
so) varying percentages of alloys of certain two metals, and test the 
properties of the alloys. He is at present on optics and acoustics. He 
proposes to put up a building in which will be museum, laboratory 
and all apparatus needed to demonstrate every known fact about sight 
or sound. Then he will take a class through by his method of work, 
which goes by regular stages : (i) Sensations, (2) Images, (3) Concepts, 
(4) Ideas, (5) Thoughts, ist order, (6) Thoughts, 2nd order, (7) 
Thoughts, 3rd order. He aims to get as many different sensations as 
possible. Out of these come images of objects. These are grouped 
by likeness into concepts. Then the concepts are each to be related to 
every other one. He keeps going over and over the material trying to 
find relation of concepts systematically, i. e., of every possible pair. 
He lays much stress upon this mechanical completeness of the system. 
He goes to bed at 8.30 and gets up at 5.30, works till i or 2, and gives 
afternoon to social life and relaxation. 

He and his wife began to prepare themselves for parenthood a year 
or two before they created their last child. They avoided all onesided 
specialism and aimed to develop all the good emotions and exercise 
their minds on the whole round of human knowledge. During preg- 
nancy his wife avoided all evil passions, anger, envy, etc., and cultivated 
good emotions, social and altruistic instincts, art, literature, dramas, 
the sublime in nature, heavens, the spirit of the cosmos, etc. The child 
was born at full time, without any pain, and the whole process of 
birth took only two and one-half hours. He has two bright children, 
on whom he has been trying various new ideas. The oldest at 21 
months, he says, knew 11,000 words. 

He is at work on sexual perversion, invisible rays of the spectrum, 



164 CORRKSPONDKNCE. 

conditions of work, etc. He has records for twenty years of his own 
activity and environment, atmospheric potential, electrical poten- 
tial, barometer, wind, etc. He has an army of readers working for him 
in the gigantic task of sifting facts out of scientific books. He is try- 
ing to get all the alleged facts collected, and then test these and weed 
out the theories and mere "accepts," thus reducing the great mass of 
rubbish to a small compass of accessible facts, — a scientific Bible, as 
he says ; for what is more sacred than truth, and what more satanic 
than falsehood ? He showed me a great mass of manuscript material, — 
an attempt to work over the Standard Dictionary and extract the 
words that stand for new ideas in sound and light. These are on cat- 
alogue cards for purposes of classification, and filled several large 
drawers. 

He has a great mass of notes that have been collecting for 20 years, 
and which he proposes to begin to edit in a series of books which will 
bring out his ideas better than anything else he has thus far done. 
These will include best regimen for work, scientific rearing of chil- 
dren, method of invention, encyclopaedic Bible of science, etc. 

Dr. Gates has a lovely home, into which he has put a large part of 
himself. It shows the man of ideas and of resources. He is affable 
and cordial, gave me unstintingly of his time and attention, and spoke 
freely of everything. He seems to me to have made a great mistake 
in not publishing, so as to get the criticism of fellow workers and the 
steadying influence of co-operation in investigations. But he is sin- 
cere, has the scientific spirit, and is a man of original ideas who will 
be more and more known as the years go by. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Dr. Wreschnrr's Weight Experiments. 

lu my review of Dr. Wreschner's Beitrdge zu psychophy sicken Mes- 
sungen (this Journal, IX, 591 ff.), I noted the fact that the author 
nowhere states whether his subjects were informed of the time-order 
of the experimental series. " Were the subjects told the time-order 
of the first double series or not? Presumably not, since the pro- 
cedure at large was procedure without knowledge. . . . The knot 
is cut if the subjects were acquainted with the time-order in every 
case ; but this is nowhere stated." (P. 593.) 

Dr. Wreschner has requested me to give publicity to the following 
statement : "The subjects were always told beforehand whether a P 
I or a P II series was coming. The method was only so far without 
knowledge that the magnitude of the weight of comparison was un- 
known to the subjects in each experiment. I regret that I did not 
expressly say this in the chapter ' Das Versuchsverfahren ;' but a re- 
mark upon the matter occurs on p. 210 (2 lines from the top)." 

I am very glad to call attention to this correction, which is of great 
importance for any estimate of Dr. Wreschner's theory of the time- 
error. I may add that the sentence on p. 210 was one of the two or 
three puzzling passages that led me to note the omission pointed out 
in my review. E. B. T. 

EXPERIMENTAI, PSYCHOI.OGY IN ENGI.AND. 

During the absence of Dr. W. H. Rivers with the Borneo Expedi- 
tion, the courses in Experimental Psychology at University College, 
Ivondon, are given by Mr. E. T. Dixon, known by his mathematical 
publications in the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, and by his 
work on visual space recently published in Mind. 

» The Wei«by Prize. 

The Welby Prize of ;^5o, offered for the best essay on the subject of 
"The Reasons for the Present Obscurity and Confusion in Psycho- 
logical and Philosophical Terminology, and the Directions in which 
we may look for Efficient Practical Remedy," has been awarded to 
Dr. Ferdinand Tonnies, of Hamburg. A translation of the successful 
essay will shortly appear in Mind. 

University News. 

Mr. Henry Wilde, F. R. S., of Manchester, has endowed in the 
University of Oxford a Wilde Readership and a John lyocke Scholar- 
ship in Mental Philosophy. 

Dr. R. Macdougall has been appointed assistant director of the Psy- 
chological Laboratory in Harvard University ; Dr. F. G. Lancaster, 
professor of Psychology and Pedagogy at Colorado College ; Dr. C. II. 
Judd, professor of Experimental and Physiological Psychology in the 
Schpol of Pedagogy, New York University; Dr. D. S. Miller, lecturer 
in Psychology at Columbia Univiersity ; Dr. E. Thorndike, instructor 
in Psychology at the Western Reserve University ; Mr. G. M. Whip- 



1 66 NOTES AND NEWS. 

pie, assistant, and Dr. I. M. Bentley, instructor in Psychology at 
Cornell University ; Dr. E. A. Gamble, instructor in Psychology, Wel- 
lesley College. 

In accordance with the request of the Government of Venezuela, 
and of the Committee on Organization, the III Pan American Medical 
Congress has been postponed to meet in Caracas in December, 1900. 

Forthcoming Books. 

The following books on psychological subjects are announced as in 
preparation : 
Baillifere, Tindall & Cox: "Aids to Psychological Medicine," by 

T. A. BkadIvE; "Handbook for Attendants on the Insane," by 

authority of the Medico-Psychological Association. 
Cambridge University Press : " An Introduction to Psychology," by 

G. F. Stout and J. Adams. 
J. & A. Churchill : " Clinical Lectures on Mental Diseases " (C1.0US- 

ton), with new plates. 
C. Griffin & Co.: " Mental Diseases," by W. B. Levi^is. 
Longmans & Co.: "Psychology in the Schoolroom," by T. F. G. Dbx- 

TER and A. H. GARI.ICK. 
The Macmillan Co.: "First Experiments in Psychology, an Ele- 
mentary Manual of Laboratory Practice," by E. B. Titchener. 
Scientific Press, Ltd.: " Medical Aspects of Education," by P. G. 

Lewis ; " Mental Nursing," by W. Harding. 
W. Scott, Ltd.: " Degeneracy," by E. S. Tai^bot. 
Swan Sonnenschein & Co.: "Aristotle's Psychology," by W. A. 

Hammond ; Wundt's " Physiological Psychology," trs. by E. B. 

Titchener. 
University Correspondence College Press : " Manual of Psychology," 

by G. F. Stout. 



THE AMERICAN 

Journal of Psychology 

• Founded by G. Stani^ey Hai.1, in 1887. 
Vol. X. JANUARY, 1899. No. 2. 

HYDRO- PSYCHOSES. 



By FrbdeRICK E. Boi^TON, Late Fellow in Psychology, Clark 
University. 



In this study we wish to investigate the influence that water 
has exerted in shaping and moulding man's psychic organism. 
The thoughts expressed in literature have been greatly influ- 
enced by pelagic conditions. Not only are there accounts of 
water spirits, nautical tales, etc. , but almost every page bears 
evidence through metaphor of the modifications of thought and 
expression by water. Note the phrases ' ' stemming the tide, ' ' 
" current of thought," " flowing robes," " torrents of joy," "a 
total wreck, " " drown grief, " ' * sinking in adversity, " " ebbing 
life," etc. The poets have been especially inspired by the sea, 
the brook, the rill, etc. Many of the poems relating to water 
have been set to music, and have played a great r61e in re- 
ligious worship. Hymnology is replete with allusions to water. 
What is now poetical allusion was in primitive times the ex- 
pressions of belief. The poetry of to-day was the philosophy 
of yesterday. So, too, mythology chronicles as mere tales for- 
mer firm beliefs. In this we find abundant evidence of the 
great influence water exerted upon savage peoples. Nearly all 
primitive peoples had their water spirits, and even the rivers 
and seas were supposed to be alive. The literature of all 
nations abounds with tales of fountains of youth, rivers of life, 
etc. Omens, superstitions, sayings relating to water and to water 
gods are numerous. Philosophy, religion, medicine, mythology, 
have all been influenced by various ideas concerning water. 

Besides the foregoing, all people have feelings about water 
which are only partially explainable by present relations and 
circumstances. Much may be explained by the vastness, the 
activity, the feeling of, individual experiences, etc., but there 



I 70 BOLTON : 

is still a residuum wholly unaccounted for by individual expe- 
riences and by the phenomena themselves. Apparently, only 
the psychic history of the race can offer adequate explanations. 
If the causes do not not appear in the phenomena, the cause 
must be in the soul itself. The soul in its long period of de- 
velopment must have passed through experiences, the present 
manifestations of which are but reverberations of a remote psy- 
chic past. To trace the genesis of these conceptions and feel- 
ings and to study the reaction of people, both in the past and 
in the present, toward this phase of nature is the object of this 
investigation. 

Evidences of Man's Pelagic Ancestry. 

There are several lines of argument which give such abund- 
ant proofs of man's pelagic ancestry that little doubt of it re- 
mains in the minds of scientists. Chief among these on the 
physical side are the proofs afforded by Embryology, Mor- 
phology, Paleontology and Pathology. Recent valuable additions 
have been made by a study of survival movements. By show- 
ing transitory characteristics in process, much may be gleaned 
indirectly from a study of these groups of animals which were 
once land animals, but which have returned to the sea. 

Each of these classes of evidence, with the exception of that 
drawn from Paleontology, will be passed in review. 

Embryological, ua. General. Man, like all other animals, 
begins life as a unicellular organism. The earliest stages of 
development which the human embryo passes through, so far 
as is known, resemble those of all other animals. The only 
difference between the development of the human embryo and 
the embryo of other animals is that the human embryo goes 
away beyond all other organisms in its unfoldment. But so 
close are the resemblances among the earliest embryonic stages 
that differences are unrecognizable. Some one has said, James, 
I think, that for some time no human being can determine 
whether a given embryo will turn out a frog or a philosopher. 
Romanes says^ that when man's " animality becomes estab- 
lished, he exhibits the fundamental anatomical qualities which 
characterize such lowly animals as polyps and jelly-fish. And 
even when he is marked off as a Vertebrate, it cannot be said 
whether he is to be a fish, reptile, a bird or a beast. Later it 
becomes evident that he is to be a Mammal, but not till later 
still can it be said to which order of mammals he belongs. ' ' 

Not only do the embryonic forms of all vertebrate animals, 
resemble each other in their general characteristics, but special 
organs or systems of the higher mammals, can be traced out in 

^Darwin and after Darwin, I, 119. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 171 

the various stages of development. It is well known that re- 
semblances of the mammalian embryos to lower vertebrates 
flash out as each new step is attaint. As Prof. Drummond 
has put it we have " first the resemblance of the Fish, then of 
the Amphibian, then of the Reptile, lastly of the Mammal."^ 

b. Nervous System. Considering the development of the cen- 
tral nervous system we find that different stages of the human 
embryonic brain have close homologies in some of the great 
groups of lower animals. Man's brain passes through a series 
of stages of increasing complexity. These stages are only tem- 
porary in the human embryo, while they represent the maxi- 
mum development of the group corresponding to each stage. 
Prof. H. DeVarigny says : '* One may easily detect in the evo- 
lution of the human brain a stage corresponding to that of the 
brain of fishes ; but while the fishes permanently retain this 
brain-structure, an advance occurs in man, and the brain 
acquires characters of the reptilian encephalon ; later on it pro- 
gresses again, and acquires bird characters, and finally it 
acquires those characters which are peculiar to mankind. Here 
again, ontogeny demonstrates phylogeny."^ 

c. Circulation a^id Respiration. Romanes sums up what 
Darwin and others had first pointed out concerning the devel- 
opment of the foetal circulatory and respiratory organs by say- 
ing that, ' ' at the time when the gill-slits and the gill-arches are 
developed in the embryonic young of air-breathing Vertebrates, 
the heart is constructed upon the fish-like type. That is to 
say, it is placed far forwards, and from having been a simple 
tube as in the worms, is now divided into two chambers, as in 
Fish. Later it becomes progressively pushed further back 
between the developing lungs, while it progressively acquires 
the three cavities distinctive of Amphibia, and finally the four 
cavities belonging only to the complete double circulation of 
Mammals. Moreover, it has now been satisfactorily shown 
that the lungs of air-breathing Vertebrata, which are thus des- 
tined to supersede the function of gills, are themselves the 
modified swim -bladders^ or float which belong to Fish. Con- 
sequently all these progressive modifications in the important 
organs of circulation and respiration in the air-breathing Ver- 
tebrata, together make up as complete a history of their 
aquatic pedigree as it would be possible for the most exacting 
critic to require."* 

Rudimentary Organs. In almost all animals and plants we 
find rudimentary or vestigial organs which serve no purpose in 

^The Ascent of Man, p. 72. 

2 Prof. Henry DeVarigny: Experimental Evolution, p. 35. 

^See Darwin : Descent of Man, pp. 160-61. 

* Romanes' Darwin and after Darwin, I, 154. 



172 BOI.TON : 

the present life of the organism. Some of these appear only in 
the embryo, then become absorbed or pass away, leaving little 
or no trace of their presence. Kverybod}^ knows of the gills, 
tail, and swimming apparatus which frogs and toads possess 
during the tadpole stage, and which remain in adult life only 
as vestigial structures. There is a species of salamander {sala- 
mander atra') which lives high up among the mountains, brings 
forth its young full formed like the mammals, but whose tad- 
poles, or young, possess exquisitively feathered gill-slits. If the 
young chance to be removed from the body of the mother 
before the close of the normal period of gestation, the young 
salamanders will swim away like fish if placed in water. When 
born at full term they will drown as will the adult animal if 
placed in water. These organs, adapted to aquatic life, and 
which have ' ' reference to ancestral adaptations, repeat a phase 
in the development of its progenitors."^ 

The life history of individuals cannot in every case, of 
course, present a full and complete recapitulation of its ances- 
tors. To preserve all useless structures would be a waste of 
energy and material, and nature is never prodigal. The law of 
use and disuse are ever operative. As soon as structures lose 
their functions they tend gradually to disappear. If detri- 
mental they are the sooner dropped ofiF.^ The vestigial or obso- 
lescent structures which come regularly under our notice in 
any class of individuals are undoubtedly those which sub- 
serve some unknown purpose during embryonic life, or they 
are such as have only recently ceased to function. Those that 
appear occasionally, but are absent in the normal individuals, 
are probably the reverberations of long-since abandoned organs, 
but have become reawakened through stimulations that have 
called forth functions similar to those possessed by the organ in 
question, or they may belong to arrested development. To 
this class many pathological' freaks and abnormalities may un- 
doubtedly be referred. Romanes says that ' * the foreshortening 
of developmental history which takes place in the individual 
lifetime may be expected to take place, not only in the way of 
condensation, but also in the way of excision. May pages of 
ancestral history may be recapitulated in the paragraphs of 
embryonic development, while others may not be so much as 
mentioned."^ 

Vestigial Structures in Man. In the human body there are 
numerous obsolescent organs, which persevere in form only, 
and give unequivocal evidence of former ancestry. There are 
in all upwards of 130 that have been discovered. The vermi- 

^ G. H. Lewes, in Darwin's Origin of Species, p. 398. 
2 Romanes' Darwin and after Darwin, I, 103. 
* Darwin and after Darwin, I, pp. 103-4. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 73 

form appendix is one of the best known. It is as fuU}^ devel- 
oped during foetal life as in adult. The muscles by means of 
which the external ear is moved is demonstrable only in ex- 
ceptionally atavistic individuals. The panicules carnosis, or 
muscles by means of which animals move the skin, still exhibit 
vestiges of former function in man. Club-feet are said to be 
atavistic reminiscences of remote ancestors, meaning no more 
nor less than baboon feet.^ 

" Prominent among these vestigial structures are those 
which smack of the sea. If embryology is any guide to the 
past, nothing is more certain than that the ancient progenitors 
of Man once lived an aquatic life. At one time there was noth- 
ing else in the world but water-life ; all the land animals are 
late inventions."^ After emerging from the annelide and mol- 
luscan stages, what was to become man remained in the water 
until evolution had produced a fish-like stage ; ' ' after an am- 
phibian interlude he finally left" the watery domain, but 
* ' many ancient and fish-like characters remained in his body 
to tell the tale."^ 

One typical vestigial structure which dates back to sea ances- 
try is the plica semi-lunaris or the remnants of the nictitating 
membrane of fishes. It is a semi-transparent curtain-like mem- 
brane formed on the inner side of the eye as a vertical fold of 
the conjunctivia,* which apparently is of great utility in sweep- 
ing across the eye to cleanse it. It is very common among 
birds, some fishes, reptiles, and amphibians,^ and most verte- 
brates.* In man only a small fold 6r curtain draped across one 
side of the eye, and Romanes states that it is rudimentary only 
in animals above fishes.'^ 

The most unequivocal rudimentary structures which give 
indication of water ancestry are the visceral clefts, or gill-clefts, 
in the neck-region. These were the first discovered vestigial 
structures to indicate the probable line of descent. These 
structures are first seen in the amphioxus, the connecting link 
between invertebrates and vertebrates. " In all water-inhabit- 
ing Vertebrates which breathe by means of gills the thin 
epithelial closing plates break through between the visceral 
arches, and indeed in the same sequence as that in which they 
arose. Currents of water, therefore, can now pass from the out- 
side through the open clefts into the cavity of the fore gut, and 

^ Drummond : Ascent of Man, p. 96. 
^Drummond : The Ascent of Man, p. 83. 
^Loc. cit.y p. 85. 

* Text-book of Embryology, Hertwig-Mark, p. 487. 

* Darwin: Descent of Man, p. 17. 

* Hertwig-Mark : A Text-hook of Embryology, p. 487. 
Darwin and after Darwin, I, 74. 



174 BOLTON: 

be employed for respiration, since they flow over the surface 
of the mucous membrane. There is now developed in the 
mucous membrane, upon both sides of the visceral clefts, a 
superficial^ close, network of blood-capillaries, the contents of 
which effect an exchange of gases with the passing water. 
Ivikewise in the case of the higher (amniotic) vertebrates,-^ both 
inner and outer visceral furrows, together with the visceral 
arches separating them, are formed ; but here they are never 
developed into an actually functioning respiratory apparatus ; 
they belong, consequently, in the category of rudimentary 
organs. Upon the mucous membrane arise no branchial leaflets ; 
indeed the formation of open clefts is not always and every- 
where achieved, since the thin epithelial closing membranes 
between the separate visceral arches are preserved at the bot- 
tom of the externally visible furrows. ' ' 

The number of gill-clefts and visceral arches decreases in the 
ascending scale of vertebrate life. In some of the lower species, 
as the selachians, there are seven or eight, while birds, mam- 
mals and man, possess but four.^ The number of external 
openings, also, is found to constantly decrease as we ascend the 
scale of life. In the higher mammals and man they would 
scarcely be known were it not for their detection in the embry- 
onic stage. But they are discernible in the chick embryo on 
the third day of incubation, and they may be seen distinctly in 
the human embryo according to His when the embryo has at- 
tained a length of three or four millimeters. They begin to 
become obliterated by the fourth week of foetal life.^ But still 
says Drummond * ' so persistent are these characteristics [gill- 
slits] that children are known to have been born with them not 
only externally visible — which is a common occurrence — but 
open through and through, so that fluids taken in at the mouth 
could pass through and trickle out at the neck. . . . Dr. 
Sutton has recently (Evolution and Disease, p. 8i) met with 
actual cases where this has occurred. ... In the common 
cases of children born with these vestiges the old gill-slits are 
represented by small openings in the sides of the neck, and 
capable of admitting a thin probe. Sometimes, even, the place 
where they have been in childhood is marked throughout life 
by small round patches of white skin."* Dr. Hertwig also 
mentions the fact that fistulae, which penetrate from without 
inward for variable distances, sometimes even opening into 
the pharyngeal cavity, are to be met with in human beings. 

1 Text-book of Embryology, Hertwig-Mark, pp. 286-7. 
"^Ibid., p. 287. 

8 Hertwig-Mark : Text- book of Embryology, pp. 288-9. 
* Drummond : Ascent of Man, p. 81. 



HYDRO-PvSYC HOSES. 175 

These are explainable as being still open clefts of the cervical 
sinus. ^ 

The ultimate metamorphosis of the embrj^onic gill-clefts is 
still a question of much interest. There is little doubt but that 
the thymus and probably the thyroid gland are derived from 
the visceral clefts.^ The thymus is derived, according to Kol- 
liker, Born and Rabl, from the third visceral cleft. Some 
authorities, among them De Meuron and His, difftT in minor 
points, principally as to the number of clefts involved,^ but in 
the main they agree. The thj^mus is found in all animals, begin- 
ning with the fishes. Even in the fishes it is derived from epi- 
thelial tracts of the open gill-clefts still functionally active. 
Dohrn holds that the thyroid gland is the remnant of ancient 
gill-clefts of the vertebrates. Although this is disputed by 
Hertwig he still admits that ' ' it appears to be an organ of 
very ancient origin, which shows relationship to the hypo- 
brancial furrow of Amphioxus and the Tunicates. ' "* It, at 
any rate, gives strong evidence of the close relationship, being 
developed ' ' from an unpaired and a paired evagination of the 
pharyngeal epithelium,"^ and in the region of the former vis- 
ceral clefts, and b}^ good authorities it is claimed to be developed 
from them. The so-called accessory thyroid gland is conceded 
by all to have thus arisen. The unpaired fundaments which 
contribute toward the thyroid are not wanting in a single 
class of vertebrates/ Dohrn makes several bolder hypotheses 
concerning the metamorphosed products of the embryonic 
clefts. He maintains (i) " that the mouth has arisen by the 
fusion of a pair of visceral clefts, (2) that the olfactory organs 
are to be referred to the metamorphosis of another pair of clefts, 
a view which is also shared by M. Marshall and others, 
(3) that a disappearance of gill-clefts in the region of the 
sockets of the eye is to be assumed, and that the eye-muscles 
are to be interpreted as remnants of gill-muscles.'" Hertwig, 
however, dissents from some of these views. But, most em- 
bryologists are agreed that the middle and outer ear are 
derived from the upper portion of the first visceral cleft and its 
surroundings. In fishes there is no external auditory apparatus, 
and these organs, which in man develop into an ear, subserve 
another purpose. The Eustachian tube represents a partial 
closure of an original cleft ; the tympanic membrane is devel- 

1 Hertwig-Mark : Text-book of Embryology, p. 290. 
"^Ibid., p. 316. 
^Ibid.,^. 316. 
, * Hertwig-Mark : Text-book of Embryology, p. 317. 
^ Loc. cit. 
^ Loc. cit. 
' Hertwig-Mark : Text-book of Embryology, p. 288. 



176 BOLTON: 

Oped from the closing plate of the first visceral cleft and sur- 
rounding portions of the arches ; and the external ear is derived 
from the ridge-like margins of the first and second visceral 
arches.^ 

* ' Ears are actually sometimes found bursting out in human 
beings half way down the neck in the exact position — namely, 
along the line of the anterior border of the sterno- mastoid mus- 
cle — which the gill-slits would occupy if they still persisted. 
In some families, where the tendency to retain these spacial 
structures is strong, one member sometimes illustrates the 
abnormality by possessing the clefts alone, another has the 
cervical ear, while a third has both the cleft and a neck ear — 
all these, of course, in addition to the ordinary neck ears.^" 

Survival ^Movements. An exceedingly interesting and im- 
portant study, and one which sheds much light upon the pres- 
ent problem, was carried out by Dr. Alfred A. Mumford, of 
England.^ He noticed the peculiar paddling or swimming 
movements which a young babe, a few days old, made when 
it was placed face downwards with only hands and feet touch- 
ing the floor, its head and abdomen being supported by a hand 
placed under each. Being struck with the great similarity of 
these movements to those made in propulsion through a waterj' 
medium he began a systematic study of infants* movements. 
Besides confirming and extending many of the recent observa- 
tions concerning an anthropoid relationship he makes state- 
ments which are much more far-reaching. 

He has noted that the position of the limbs at birth and dur- 
ing the first few weeks of infancy tend to assume the primitive 
developmental position, viz.: "folded across the chest, thumb 
towards the head, and with the palm towards the thorax ; but 
more often the palm is away from the chest- wall, and is 
directed anteriorly by means of extreme pronation, the dorsum 
of the hand often lying on or near the shoulder, sometimes an 
inch or two outside. As the child wakes up the elbows begin 
to open out and the palm is pushed outwards in a way that would 
be useful in locomotion, especially in a fluid medium. In fact 
it is the movement of the paddle. ' ' These movements are de- 
scribed as slow rhythmical movements of flexion and exten- 
sion, such as one sees among animals in an aquarium. They 
occur often in series of three at a time during a quarter of a 
minute, followed by alternating pauses. These are interpreted 
as vestigial movements of a former amphibian existence, which 
were of fundamental importance before forelimbs developed. 

i/^zV/., pp. 505, 511. 

2 Drummond : Ascent of Man, p. 89. 

3 Brain, 1897. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 177 

This is supported by the shape of the hand, which is one of 
the most highly developed of bodily organs in function, but in 
some repects least modified of all the skeleton. ' ' In shape and 
bones it is more like the primitive amphibian paddle than is 
the limb of any other mammal." 

We also know that there are many reflex movements known 
as vibratory or oscillatory, which are especially common among 
children, though by no means confined to them. Among them 
are those of tapping, swaying, and others of a rhythmical 
nature.^ Swaying from side to side is very noticeable in 
small school-children. They sway from side to side and for- 
ward and backward. Fish swim, in part, by similar move- 
ments, and in view of man's pelagic line of ascent, it is not 
improbable to suppose that swaying and possibly other reflex 
rhythmic and oscillatory movements may be recrudescences of 
former aquatic life. That they are atavisms, seems borne out 
by the fact that intellectual fatigue increases such automa- 
tisms.^ That is, fatigue causes a temporary relaxation of the 
control exercised by the higher and more recently developed 
psychic centers and a reversion toward more primitive condi- 
tions. It is probable that all automatic movements, as well as 
expressive movements, are weakened repetitions of movements 
that were once of utility.* 

Origin of Animai^ Life. 

Not only have speculative philosophy and mythology claimed 
for everything a sea origin [see later sections in this paper] but 
science has actually demonstrated that the beginning of life 
was in the sea — near the bottom. This is as true of vertebrate 
as well as of invertebrate life."* Dr. Brooks writes : *' We may 
feel sure even in the absence of sufiicient evidence to trace their 
direct paths, that all the great groups of Metazoa ran back to 
minute pelagic ancestors."^ Another authority writes that 
' ' for the present we may conclude that the proximate ancestor 
of the vertebrates was a free-swimming animal intermediate in 
organization between an ascidian tadpole and amphioxus." 
The same writer claims that the ultimate or primordial ancestor 

^See Dr. T. I^. Bolton's article on Rhythm, Am. Jour, of Psych.. 
Vol.VI, p. 145. 

2 Ivindley : Motor Phenomena of Mental Effort, Am. Jour, of Psych. ^ 
Vol. VII, p. 506. 

3 See Lindley, loc. cit. 

*W. K. Brooks: The Genus Salpa Mem. Biol. Lab., Johns Hopkins 
Univ.. p. 153. 
* W. K. Brooks : The Genus Salpa, p. 159 ; see also p. 163. 



178 BOLTON: 

of the vertebrates was a worm-like animal with an organization 
approximating the bilateral ancestors of the echinoderms.^ 

Science has also shown us that a great body of animals have 
been gradually crawling out of the sea. ' ' From almost every 
countr}^ pond, or ditch, or swamp," says Miss Buckley, " a 
chorus of voices rises up in the spring-time of the year, calling 
to us to come and learn how Life has taught her children to 
pass from the water into the air ; for it is then that the frogs 
lay their eggs, and every tadpole which grows up into a frog 
carries us through the wonderful history of animals beginning 
life as a fish in water with water-breathing gills, and ending 
it as a four-legged animal with air-breathing lungs. "^ 

All the amphibians, or double-lived animals, are jnst emerg- 
ing from the water. We find them in all stages of transition, 
some having only just begun to emerge, while in others the 
transition is so nearly complete that their former identity is 
scarcely discernible.^ 

But the young of all amphibians begin life in an aqueous 
medium, thus recapitulating, as all animals do, the life of the 
race. In embryonic, or tadpole life, all amphibians possess gills 
for extracting oxygen from the water, and organs for water 
locomotion. It is only w^hen they reach an adult stage that 
they possess organs which equip them for terrestrial existence. 

Animal Retrogressions to Aqi^atic lyiFE. 

But there have been man 3' retrogressions in the process. 
Many animals after rising step by step above the fishes, 
and through the backboned animals until they reached a rank 
only a little below the primates, for some reason have gone 
back to the sea. The French song says '* on revient tojours k 
ses premiers amours." Among those that have completely 
forsaken the land and assumed fish-like characters such as to 
almost elude detection are the whales, porpoises, and dolphins. 
Their fish-like forms and marine habits seem to indicate affini- 
ties with the fishes. But their internal structure, breathing, 
and mode of reproduction and suckling the young proclaim 
their mammalian kinship. They resemble quadrupeds in their 
internal structure, and in some of their appetites and affections. 
Like quadrupeds they have lungs, a midriff, a stomach, intes- 
tines, liver, spleen and bladder. The organs of generation and 
Heart are quadrupedal in structure. " The rudimentary teeth 
of the whalebone-whales, which never come into use, are final 

1 Arthur Willey : Amphioxus and the Ancestry of the Vertebrates, 
p. 291. 

2 Arabella Buckley: Winners in Life's Race, p. 71. 

3 Dr. W. K. Brooks: The Genus Salpa, Memoirs fr. the Biol. Lab., 
Johns Hopkins Univ. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSKS. 1 79 

links in the chain of evidence." says Professor OvSkar Schmidt/ 
' ' that the whalebone-whales are the last members of a trans- 
formed group which commenced with animals with four toes and 
numerous teeth, and which, by the gradual diminution of the 
dentition, have become whalebone- whales. " Tlie fins still re- 
tain the bones of the shoulder, forearm, wrist and fingers, 
though they are all enclosed in a sac and could render no ser- 
vice except in swimming. The head is also mammalian save 
in shape, which has become modified and fish-shaped for easier 
propulsion in the water. The mammalian skull with all the 
bones in their proper anatomical relations to one another are 
still preserved.^ Prof. Schmidt says in regard to the dolphin 
that the "hind limbs, like those of the Sirenians, have disap- 
peared externally without leaving a trace of their former exist- 
ence ; the rudimentary pelvic bones that are concealed in the 
flesh — sometimes with the last remnant of the thigh bone, very 
rarely with the shank — bear witness, however, to their having 
possessed ancestors with four legs. ' ' ^ 

There are several species of animals that exhibit the trans- 
formation still in process. Such, for example, is the polar bear, 
which is about half aquatic. This animal really gave us the 
first hint that some mammals may revert to a water stage of 
existence.^ His body, much longer and more flexible than that 
of common bears, eiiables him to adapt himself to water loco- 
motion. His feet have become decidedly broad, his head 
pointed, and his ears small, thus enabling him to propel him- 
self through his aqueous habitat with ease. Other bears hug 
their prey, while this one uses teeth and claws entirely. The 
soles of his feet have become provided with long hair, which 
provide against slipping on the ice. They have largely lost 
their hibernating habits, arid fish and hunt throughout the 
winter.^ The seals show by the shape of their skull, dentition, 
and mode of life that they are carnivorous animals that have 
adapted themselves to a life in water. Their limbs are meta- 
morphosed into fin-like rudders. 

Instead of a perfect fish-like tail he has two legs flattened 
together, with nails on the toes. These are obvious superflui- 
ties, but remain as an inheritance from ancestors to which they 
were of use, but they have now become modified by the present 
fish-like habits of the animal. Sea otters, the nearest relatives 
of the seal, have also become pure fish-eating animals. The 

^The Mammalia, p. 248; see, also, J. G. Romanes, Darwin and after 
Darwin, I, 50. 

^Romanes, Darwin and after Darwin, II, 51. 
^The Mammalian, p. 250. 

* Arabella Buckley : Winners in Ivife's Race, p. 295. 
^ Op. cit., pp. 295-8. 



l8o BOLTON : 

Sirenia,^ which comprise the dugougs and manatees resemble 
the true Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) in their 
adaptation to an aquatic mode of life and the absence of pelvic 
limbs, but are probably more nearly allied to the Ungulates. 
These now aquatic animals are plainly retrogressions from the reg- 
ular land type. They are somewhat fish-like in form, the posterior 
portion of the body being developed into a caudal fin. Hind limbs 
are lacking, and the forelimbs have been modified into swim- 
ming-paddles or flippers. The ear has lost the external con- 
cha. A few bristles still cover the thick skin and tell of former 
life. They are vegetable feeders (called herbiverous Cetaceans 
by Cuvier). There are two mammary glands, pectoral in posi- 
tion. The pelvis is rudimentary, some teeth are rudimentary, 
and some species possessed a rudimentary femur. They date 
back to the Eocene Tertiary period, while the cetacea probably 
extend to the secondary period. 

Among reptiles which represent these atavistic traits there 
are the oceanic turtles, and the sea snakes ; among the birds, 
the penguin, whose wings are scarcely different from the true 
fins of fishes. Then, again, from the mammals might be named 
the web-footed, duck-billed platypus, the web-footed opossum 
of South America, the beaver, and the walruses and sea lions. ^ 

In all these classes of animals that have returned to aquatic 
life, we notice that in the process of evolutipn the most marked 
changes have taken place in the least typical structures, — those 
which are least strongly inherited, such as skin, claws and 
teeth. The aqueous medium necessitates a change of covering. 
Instead of fur, which we know (from the few straggling bris- 
tles) they once possessed, a smooth surface, offering little re- 
sistance is advantageous. To still maintain adequate bodily 
heat a covering of fat under the skin is acquired. The whale 
has evolved a layer of blubber in some cases one and one-half 
feet thick. The changed medium modifies the locomotor organs 
— does away with the necessity of legs and necessitates, instead, 
swimming apparatus. The anterior end becomes more pointed 
to reduce resistance to the minimum. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that the head retains essentially all the functions it pos- 
sessed, being modified only in form. In all cases the eyes 
become much reduced in size. In whales they suffer so much 
reduction that they can scarcely be found. The same change 
is taking place in the eyes of seals, polar bears, walruses, 
and other animals of this type. Dentition has suffered so much 
change that whales possess only rudimentary teeth that never 
cut the gum. In the living species of sirenians the jaws carry 

1 Nicholson : Manual of Zoology, Chap LXVI. 

2 Arabella Buckley : Winners in Life's Race, p. 299. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSKS. l8l 

more or fewer molar teeth, which have flattened crowns, while 
the front of the upper and lower jaws is furnished with rough 
horny pads or plates. In the genus Rhytina, now extinct, 
there were no true teeth, but the places of these were taken by- 
plates of horn. Incisors are also present, but they do not cut 
the gum, except in the case of male dugongs. Nostrils become 
situated on the upper surface. The anterior organs of locomo- 
tion suffer much less change in form than the posterior, though 
they assume entirely new functions. In general the bones of 
the shoulder, forearm, wrist and fingers, are retained, although 
they become encased in a fin-shaped sac, so as to become better 
fitted for swimming. 

The entire posterior end, as well as the hind legs, undergo a 
most radical metamorphosis. The hind legs are no longer 
needed for walking, and soon atrophy entirely or become 
merely rudimentary. In the whales, porpoises, and other ani- 
mals, which have completely forsaken the land, the hind legs 
have completely disappeared externally, and only the rudi- 
mentary bones give evidence of the species ever having pos- 
sessed legs. Synchronously with the atrophy of the hind legs 
there occurs a loss of the sacrum and pelvis. In the sirenians 
there is no true sacrum, and the pelvis is only rudimentary. 
The lungs instead of degenerating become enormously enlarged, 
and enable their possessors to remain under water great lengths 
of time. The whalebone whale can remain under water for an 
hour at a time without reinflating its lungs. 

The reversion to an aquatic medium seems to be promotive 
of great increase in size. This is probably due to several 
causes. First, the expenditure of energ}^ in locomotion is 
greatly reduced; second, the ease of securing food is greatly 
increased, the whale having only to open his mouth as he 
swims to entrap myriads of minute marine animals; third, it is 
probable that the loss of a pelvis is advantageous, as much 
larger young may be born without injury than when the pelvis 
is present. Among land vertebrates we know that many of the 
largest and most promising of the various species succumb to 
the dangers, attending birth, arising from a narrow pelvis. 

Psychic Reverberations. We cannot hope to unravel all of 
man's mental history with any such demonstrable certainty as 
we can reconstruct his past physical history. Mental states are 
the most fleeting and least preservable entities, and although 
we must logically conclude that the record of no psychosis is ever 
effaced, yet the majority become so intricately blended and 
interwoven and overgrown with other more recent acquisitions 
that no psychology will ever be able to reconstruct the entire 
race history. Only the most oft-repeated and most far-reaching 
psychic acts leave traceable evidences. But patient and careful 



I 82 BOLTON: 

work will enable us to understand much of man's psychic past 
through survivals and rudimentary organs, just as we have 
been aided in tracing psj^chical development. But just as all 
psychic organs are less demonstrable than physical, so rudi- 
mentary psychic phenomena are less capable of proof than 
vestigial physical structures. There is, however, unquestioned 
evidence of numerouus rudimentary psychic traits and many 
others which, though not capable of rigorous demonstration, 
give strong evidence of their origin. Traces of peculiar mani- 
festations of the souls of our remote ancestors are to be met 
with in " the present reactions of childish and adolescent souls, 
or of specially sensitized geniuses or neurotics. ' ' There are 
also times in the life of the normal individual when the control 
maintained by the higher and more recently acquired centers is 
apparently suspended, and the lower and older centers then 
given full sway seem to step in, and the resulting psychical 
phenomena present traces of long past activities. Such condi- 
tions are evidenced in sleep and dreams. Idiots present childish 
and even animal mentality, showing that the higher centers 
have failed to function. Instead of evincing rudimentary psy- 
chic phenomena in the true sense, they are cases of arrested 
development. Their lives are made up of those activities that 
are common to animals and to humanity in its infancy. Again, 
there are certain modes of thought that crop out in the form of 
omens, superstitions, sayings, proverbs and signs, to which we 
ordinarily attach no importance, but often hear and repeat. All 
these have a meaning to the psychologist. They are to -him 
vestigial or rudimentary organs, and suggest use in a remote 
past. " Few things," says Black, ^ " are more suggestive of the 
strange halts and pauses which mentally a people makes than 
to note how superstition springs up in the very midst of modern 
education." They are to the psychologist what gill-slits are in 
pathological cases of arrested development. Children are very 
prone to be superstitious, which is also true of savages. 

The range of atavistic psychoses is practically unlimited. 
Admitting memory to be a biological fact we assume that every 
impression leaves an ineffaceable trace, by which we mean that 
vestiges or predispositions or habit-worn paths of association 
are formed which will function again when properly stimulated. 
Conservation of impressions is a state of the cerebral organ- 
ism. The effect once produced by an impression upon the brain, 
whether in perception or in a higher intellectual act, is fixed 
and there retained. The retention of any act in memory, ac- 
cording to James, ^ is an unconscious state, purely physical, a 

1 Folk Lore in Medicine, p. 218. 
aprin. of Psych., I, 655. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 183 

morphological feature. According to Ribot we may assume 
that persistence of memories, "if not absolute, is the general 
rule, and that it includes an immense majority of cases. "^ This, 
of course, applies only to the persistence of memories during 
the individual's life, but, as Dr. Hall has pointed out,^ "we 
may fancy, if we like, that on some such theory as, e. q^., 
Mach's of hereditary, or a form of memory by a direct con- 
tinuity of molecular vibration in cells or their elements (Weiss- 
mann's biophor's, Wisner's plasomes, de Vrie's pangens, 
Nageli's micellae, etc.), or in any less material way," that 
these traces or vestiges are continued, and may, even though 
apparently forever effaced, reappear in future generations in 
children or pathological cases. Multitudes of impressions, even 
in the individual's existence, may never be recalled, but the}" 
might be if the proper stimulus occurred, or if more recent 
memory modifications were removed, and the older memories, 
as it were, set free. Evidence in support of such a theory is 
furnished by pathological cases. Events long since apparently 
forgotten often reappear in disease. This is accounted for by 
the destruction of the more recent and higher centers. Accord- 
ing to Ribot the law of regression is that a progressive dissolu- 
tion of the memory proceeds from the least organized to the 
best organized, from the new to the old. In physiological terms 
' * degeneration first afiects what has been most recently formed. ' ' 
In psychological terms ' * the complex disappears before the 
simple, because it has not been repeated as often in expe- 
rience." Hence, may not such cases give us glimpses of the 
remote psychic past, even of the paleo-psychic age? 

In sleep we have similar conditions. The higher centers 
having relaxed their control, there flash into consciousness 
great accumulations of old experiences that we did not know we 
possessed. Those which are the most retrospective and atavis- 
tic take us back through the remote periods of the development 
of the race consciousness. In the psychic life of sleep our con- 
sciousness may extend backward to embrace all that our ances- 
tors have lived and felt and bequeathed to us as an indestructi- 
ble organic patrimony." Some of the somnolescent phenomena 
certainly point to aquatic existence. Consider the sensations 
of flying, hovering, swimming, floating, and jumping indefi- 
nitely, as with seven-leagued boots. Nearly everybody can 
bear testimony to these sensations. Sometimes it is a sort of 
skating or gliding across countless miles of country or of ocean, 
sometimes it is a giant-like striding from mountain-top to moun- 
tain-top, sometimes the perfect eagle-swoop through the blue of 

1 Diseases of Memory, p. 185. 
^Amer.Jour. of Psych., Vol. VIII, 173. 



184 boi^Ton: 

space, effortless and superb. Many testify to taking hundred- 
mile steps, for jumping contests imaginarih^ performed in sleep 
are of such a character as would excite the admiration of the 
fabled gods. These states undoubtedly arise from disturbed circu- 
lation and respiration, for both of these acts are much deranged 
in an actual fall through space. And, as Dr. Hall suggests,^ * * as 
lungs have taken the place of swim-bladders, the unique 
respiratory action of hovering, as in nightmare, with all the 
anakatsesthesic phenomena, and perhaps the elusesthesic sen- 
sations of a falling, which are quite distinct from the former, 
although not without common elements, suggest the possibility 
that here traces of function have survived structure. . . . 
Our ancestors . . . . floated and swam far longer than 
they have had legs .... and why may there not be 
vestigial traces of this, as there are of gill-slits under our 
necks ? . . . . Although it cannot be demonstrated like 
rudimentary organs, I feel strongly that we have before us here 
some of the oldest elements of psychic life, some faint reminis- 
cent atavistic echo from the primeval sea. ' ' 

The study of methods of suicide offers some very interesting 
data to the psychologist. The characteristic mode of procedure 
adopted by different nations throws light upon racial psy- 
chology, while the differences in the methods employed by men 
and women in accomplishing this terrible deed throw consid- 
erable light upon sexual psychology. All statistics show very 
strikingly that many more women than men commit suicide by 
drowning. And women choose this method more often than 
any other. This represents a fundamental psychic difference 
between men and women. The woman represents the oldest 
and most primitive features of the race ; the man that which is 
more recent and artificial. This is also true from a biological 
standpoint. Woman's body seems to be somewhat more primi- 
tive and conservative than man's. This is witnessed in her 
greater nearness to the quadrupedal position, in the length of 
body, smaller size, etc. Woman represents that which is more 
conservative in the race. In woman there are seldom abnor- 
malities of bodily structure, and variations are much less pro- 
nounced than in man. ** From an organic standpoint, there- 
fore, men represent the more variable and the more progressive 
element, women the more stable and conservative element in 
evolution In various parts of the world anthro- 
pologists have found reason to suppose that the primitive racial 
elements in a population are more distinctly preserved by the 
women than the men."^ Of their mental characteristics the 

'^ Am. Jour. Psych., VIII, Jan., 1897, p. 158. 
2 Havelock BUis : Man and Woman, p. 367. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 85 

same authority writes that " on the psychic side women are 
more inclined than men to preserve ancient customs and ancient 
methods of thought. ' ' ^ 

If it be true that women are phylogenetically nearer primi- 
tive human beings than man, it is not strange that in methods 
of suicide they should choose the primitive and more natural 
means oftener than man. It would be strange were the statistics 
otherwise. The theory has often been advariced that the 
methods of suicide selected have a close connection with the 
occupation of the persons during life. To illustrate, a soldier 
would choose firearms, a druggist poison, etc. The theory is 
probably in a large measure true, but it in no way vitiates the 
theory that the most primitive and most conservative choose 
the most primitive methods. Statistics show that men prefer 
active methods, w^hile women prefer passive methods. Women 
give themselves to the power of natural forces or elements, 
as, for example, to gravity when the}^ throw themselves 
from heights or into the water and then wait for the 
end, while men make themselves the active agent in 
manipulating some artificial contrivance, a pistol, a rope, a 
bomb-shell, or the like. Many more women than men suicide 
by taking poison, which Dr. Chamberlain has pointed out to 
be an atavistic tendency. Women were the earliest agricultur- 
ists, and earliest learned the use of vegetables as articles of 
diet, as curatives, and as agents of destruction. From these 
early employments of women she learned to be a vegetarian, a 
trait she still possesses, and she earliest learned the use of poison- 
ous herbs. The result of this last still reverberates through her 
organism, and to-day when woman determines to exterminate 
a fellow-being or an animal, poison is about the only means 
sought, while a man would employ a gun, a knife, or an explo- 
sive. In attempting her own life, though poison is often 
resorted to, a more primitive method is more often chosen. 
" Throughout Europe the law roughly stated is that men hang 
themselves ; . . . . with modifications this rule probably 
holds good all over the world. "^ In India, where the people 
represent a more primitive stage, according to Cheevers,* six 
out of every seven women who commit suicide seek drowning 
as a means. The proportion of men who drown themselves is 
also greater there than in other countries. In the Celto-Latin 
nations, France, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, Switzerland, drown- 
ing among women shows the highest percentages of any coun- 
tries. For some reason or other among the Slavic nations 

^ Havelock Ellis: Man and Woman, p. 368. 
^Havelock Ellis : Man and Woman, pp. 334-5. 
* Quoted by Ellis: Man and Woman, p. 335. 

Journal, — 2 



1 86 BOLTON: 

drowning is at a minimum.^ Strange to say, the atavistic ten- 
dencies are becoming stronger, according to Havelock Ellis, who 
says that ' ' hanging has become much rarer in both men and 
women, while drowning and poisoning have become commoner 
in both. That is to say, that women have become more 
womanly than ever in their preference for the passive methods 
of suicide."^ 

May not many cases of suicide by drowning and the other- 
wise unexplainable " drawing power" of water so frequently 
experienced, be explained by supposing a temporary or perma- 
nent suspension of control by the higher psychic centers allow- 
ing a recrudescence of the old love for aquatic conditions. The 
fear which has been later formed, and which normally is in 
equilibrium with the love of water becomes overbalanced, and 
hence the desire to jump in. The philosopher, August Comte, 
during a fit of temporary insanity insisted on plunging into the 
lake with neither thought nor intention of drowning. The re- 
turns to my syllabus furnish many cases which attest to the feel- 
ing that water exerts a peculiar attraction for many individuals. 

The sight of waves, billows, or in fact any water, makes some 
desire to ride upon it ; many want to plunge in, and others are 
tempted to follow the streams. Some cannot go bathing with- 
out feeling an imperative impulse to go down forever ; to leave 
care and pain ; to end life ; so they won't know any more, etc. 
One says she always thinks like Longfellow : " Oh that the 
river might bear me away on its bosom to the ocean wild and 
wide." During trouble many long to escape from it all by 
plunging in and being engulfed by the rushing waters. 

Water in Primitive Conceptions of Life. 

We shall see that in all early Greek philosophy water was an 
integral part in all conceptions of life. Some assumed it to be 
the origin of all things ; others said that water was one of the 
primitive elements, and that all plants and animals either came 
from or were made of water. The same ideas were current in 
mythology, and are prevalent among some people to this 
day. Peoples like the Egyptians, and those in southern and 
western Asia, who lived in countries subject to periodic drouths, 
were not long in concluding that water was necessary to the 
germination and growth of plants. During dry weather vege- 
tation withered ; during periods of abundant rain it waxed vig- 
orously. They very naturally ascribed to water the powers of 
a supernatural being. It became to them not a condition of 
life, but the origin of life itself. 

1 Havelock Ellis : Man and Woman, p. 336. 
•^Ibid. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 87 

The potency aud life-giving properties ascribed to water are 
shown in Egyptian writings where ' ' it appears in such phrases 
as * spirit of water, ' the source. It is a conspicuous hiero- 
glyphic in the verb ' to live ;' also in ' living' and light. "^ 

Among the Ojibwas it is supposed to have magic power over 
life and death. It is not strange that among the Egyptians, 
where the annual overflow of the Nile meant life itself, that 
water deities should assume so important a place. The river 
was presided over by the god Nikis. The most important 
Egyptian festival was the one held at the annual summer 
solstice in honor of the Nile.^ At this time an invocation was 
made to the river deity for the inundation. An image of the 
god Nilus was encircled by a serpent, and from beneath the 
rocks of a cataract a hydra poured forth sacred water. 

The idea of resurrection undoubtedly grew, in part, out of 
the common observation of plant life. Vegetation flourishes 
during a season, appears to lose all vitality during a succeeding 
season , but when spring returns it becomes once more rej u venated. 
Again, plants flourish, produce seed, and wither away. The 
seed in turn, under proper influences, germinates aud produces 
new plants. It was but a step to arrive at the belief that man 
also, after death, must live again. We have seen that the 
primitive mind regarded water as the rejuvenating principles of 
all plant life, and hence it will not appear strange that the 
notion should be extended to include the resurrection of man.* 
Among the ancient Egyptians the ceremonials of the dead all indi- 
cated an expected resuscitation of life, and water was always made 
the emblem of rejuvenescence, whether in connection with human 
dead or with plants. In the Book of the Dead, water was the 
symbol of revivification. They * * believed in the resurrection of 
the dead through the same fertilizing power as that which re- 
generates the plant world. '"^ Primitive peoples generally, we 
may say, have taken cognizance of water in the ceremonials over 
the dead. And the return of life is always spoken of in connec- 
tion with it. In Egypt funeral processions always had to pass by 
the sacred lake, which was near every city, and consecrated to 
the dead. In their funeral rituals the departed soul is repre- 
sented as a ship with four rudders pointing to the four cardinal 
points. The ancient Hindoos buried the dead beneath the bed 
of a stream whose current was temporarily turned aside. The 
Greenlanders say that when one sleeps by the river he can hear 
the singing of the dead. Some Australians say that the soul, 
which they call the " little body," goes into the sea at death. 

^ Ellen Bmerson : Rain Ceremonials, American Anth., Jul., 1894. 
^Frazer: The Golden Bough, I, pp. 15-17. 
^ Op. cit.^ I, p. 93. 
. * Ellen Emerson : Rain Ceremonials, Am. Anth., Jul., 1894. 



1 88 BOLTON: 

Various symbolisms were early adopted to signify water. In 
Egypt it w^as Ptah, the frog, the " Father of Fathers," who 
was a symbol of the vital principle in water, its principle of re- 
organization. The hieroglyphic representing Ptah was regu- 
larly placed in the tombs of the dead. Its office was at 
some future time, to reunite the scattered parts of the body. 
Among some Indian and various other tribes the serpent sym- 
bolizes the watery element, air or breath, which are necessary 
to life.^ We have also noted in various rain ceremonials the 
position of frogs, toads and serpents. In Babylonia, Thammuz 
was supposed to be resurrected by the water of life which the 
goddess Aphrodite brought up from Hades. That water was 
regarded by the Indie Aryans as the source of all things is 
shown in the Rig Vedas which tell us that *' waters contained 
a germ from which everything sprang forth. " The Peruvians 
worshipped Mama-cocha, the mother sea, from which had come 
everything, even giants, and the Indians themselves. In Peru 
water was everywhere worshipped, and it was believed that the 
Incas originated in lake Titicaca, while other fabled tribes came 
from fountains and streams.^ 

The rain ceremonials performed by various peoples for the 
purpose of securing rain are of exceeding interest. Although 
the details vary considerably the ceremonials may all be classed 
under a few heads. Sometimes rain is sought to be produced 
by sympathetic magic, ^ that is, it is believed that by imitating 
some of the attendant phenomena they can influence the course of 
nature. For example, by beating on a kettle to imitate thunder, 
knocking two fire-brands together and causing sparks to fly to 
imitate lightning, and sprinkling water from a vessel by a 
bunch of twigs, as is done in some parts of Russia, the people 
believe that rain will be produced.* Many tribes take a mouth- 
ful of water, spirt a part of it into the air, thus making a fine 
mist, to simulate rain. This is common among the Omaha 
Indians and certain other tribes.^ In Germany and France it 
is said to be customary to throw water upon the last sheaf cut 
at harvest. The same custom prevailed in England and Scot- 
land until recently. In Transylvania among the Roumanians a 
girl wears a crown made of the last cut grain. When she comes 
home all hasten out to meet her, and throw water upon her until 

^See Ellen Emerson : Rain Ceremonials, Am. Anth., July, 1894, for 
account of Egyptian and N. Am. Indian rain ceremonials; also 
Weather-making, Ancient and Mod., Mark W. Harrington, Smith- 
sonian Rep., 1894. 

2 Dr. Chamberlain : The Child and Childhood in Folk Ivore, pp. 38-9. 

3 Ellen Emerson, op. cit. 

* Frazer : Golden Bough, I, p. 13. 
6 Op. cit., p. 15. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 89 

she is completely drenched. This is done to insure rain for 
next year's crop.^ Sympathetic magic among the savages, Mr. 
Frazer regards as exactlj^ analogous to the modern conception 
of physical causation. A man-god in this view, is only an in- 
dividual who is believed to possess the power of influencing 
nature to a high degree.'-^ 

Another way of trying to secure rain is by coercion of the 
rain-god. In some parts of China a huge wooden or paper 
dragon, representing the rain-god is carried about in a proces- 
sion. If no rain follows" they curse it and demolish it. The 
Senegambians throw down their fetishes, drag them about the 
fields and curse till rain falls. ^ Still another way is to disturb 
the gods in some way. Troubling the sacred springs by throw- 
ing impurities into them is believed by the Dards to bring rain. 
Other springs need only to be looked at and the whole province 
secures rain.^ Sometimes an appeal is made to the pity of the 
gods. The Zulus kill a " heaven bird," throw it into a pool, 
' ' then the heavens melt with tenderness for the death of the 
bird ; it wails for it by raining, wailing a funeral wail. "^ 

Various other methods are resorted to in diffverent parts of the 
world. The Samoan rainmakers wet some sacred stones when 
they wish rain, and put them into the fire when they desire 
dry weather.^ In China Ke-mung, who is man-shaped and 
dragon-headed, haunts the Chang River and causes rainstorms.^ 
In the same country water-spouts are said to be caused by 
dragons fighting in the air.* The Dodola or girl dressed in 
clothes made of grass, herbs and flowers, who goes about from 
house to house and sings while the housewife pours water over 
her, is a common rain-charm in southeastern Europe. It is 
found among the Servians, Greeks, Bulgarians and Rou- 
manians.^ Beating, pinching, and beheading frogs is quite a 
common rain-charm among the Orinoco Indians, and Idlling 
the frog is an old German rain-charm.^ 

Water in Philosophical Speculation. 

Not only among savage tribes has water played an important 
T61e in their mythological explanation of the world, but even in 
philosophic thought water has been the subject of much specu- 
lation. It assumed an important place in early Greek cosmo- 

1 Op. cit., I, p. 286. 

2(9/>. «7., I, p. 12. 

^Op. cit., I, p. 18. 

^ Op. cit.y I, p. 19. 

^ Loc.cit. 

^Tylor : Early History of Mankind, p. 133. 

'Denny's Folk Lore of China, p. 98. 

^Conway: Demonology and Devil-lore, II, 107. 



190 BOLTON : 

logical theories. The Greek philosophers were not the first to 
form theories of the origin of the universe ; such theories, more 
or less mythlogical of course, were extant among all tribes. 
But the Greeks were the first to seriously attempt to understand 
nature. Burnet says " the real advance made by the scientific 
men of Miletos was that they left off telling tales. "^ They had 
noticed the constantly changing aspects of nature, the eternal 
flux as Heracleitus later puts it, and their minds began to 
grope and yearn for some unitary principle to which the eter- 
nal succession of changing objects could be reduced. They did 
not, it is true, abandon the speculation concerning origins, but 
their scientific contribution was the search for a unitary prin- 
ciple in what was present. ' ' They gave up the hopeless task 
of describing what was when as yet there was nothing, and 
asked instead what all things really are now?"^ Parmenides 
asserts that * ' nothing comes into being out of nothing, and 
nothing passes away into nothing." But they observed the 
continual coming into being and corresponding passing away 
of particular things. From this it was natural to pass to the 
assumption of a substratum which was the ultimate and only 
reality. As *' nothing comes from nothing, nothing can pass 
away into nothing, there must then be something which always 
is, something fundamental, which persists throughout all 
change, and ceases to exist in one form only that it may reap- 
pear in another."^ 

It is interesting to note the cause of the change in cosmo- 
logical doctrine among the early Greeks. Much of the change 
was undoubtedly due to the increased knowledge of the sea, 
which had hitherto represented to them the boundless, at least so 
far as mortal knowledge was concerned. What was unattaina- 
ble, beyond reach, unexplainable by natural means, was placed 
beyond the sea. Their world was bounded by the sea, it 
rested upon the sea, the mythical heroes dwelt in or beyond 
the sea. But with the increase of maritime knowledge in 
the 5th and 6th centuries B. C, old conceptions had to be 
abandoned for something new. At the time the Odyssey 
was composed, Odysseus met with Circe, the Cyclops, and 
the Sirens, not in the near and familiar ^gean, but in 
the " West," which meant to them beyond the known sea.* 
But with the increase of geographical knowledge it was dis- 
covered that the monsters and beings purported to be the 
inhabitants of countries beyond the sea, were no longer 

ij. Burnet: Early Greek Philosophy, p. 8. 

2 Burnet: op. cit., p. 8.^ 

3 Burnet: op. cit., p. 10. 

*Geo. Grote : Hist, of Greece, I, 342-3. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. IQI 

there, and a doubt of their ever having been there arose. ^ 
About this time they changed the name of the " Inhospitable 
Sea" to the "Hospitable Sea."^ They had determined the 
location of the " far country," and Jason was made to bring 
the Golden Fleece from a definite place Kolchis.^ Burnet says, 
" above all, the Phokaians had explored the Mediterranean as 
far as the Pillars of Herakles, and the discovery that the ' end- 
less paths ' of the sea they knew had definite boundaries must, 
as Grote has said, have moved men's minds in much the same 
way as did the discovery of America in later days."* 

To return to their cosmological theories, we can readily 
understand how in their search for the eternal, original, unitarj'' 
substance through whose changes and motions all else arose, 
that they should turn to those things which were either ever 
present, most abundant, or presented the greatest possibility of 
change, but which at the same time appeared to possess some 
simple form beyond which further change was impossible. This 
the various philosophers thought the)^ discovered in the ele- 
ments, — earth, air, fire and water. Some chose one, some 
another, and still others believed that all were necessary for a 
satisfactory explanation. 

Thales, the founder of the Milesian school, and probably the 
first of the cosmologists in seeking a primary, fundamental 
matter, something which would answer the question : Of what 
is the world made ? proposed the answer : water. All special 
existences were but modes of this primary substance. He saw 
about him '* constant transformations — birth and death, change 
of shape, of size, and of mode of existence — he could not regard 

any one of these variable states as Existence itself 

He looked around him, and the result of his meditation was the 
conviction that Moisture was the Beginning. He was impressed 
with this idea by examining the constitution of the earth. 
There, also, he found moisture everywhere. All things he found 
nourished by moisture ; warmth itself he declared to proceed 
from moisture ; the seeds of all things are moist. Water when 
condensed becomes earth."® Further, as Burnet points out the 
process that evaporation was continually going on around 
them, the phenomenon which rural people call the "sun draw- 
ing water " was then as observable as at the present day, and 
the conclusion was probably similar. The Greeks went a little 
further than the rustic of to-day, and asserted that this water 
passing into the sky by evaporation went to feed the heavenly 

^Op. cit., p. 334. 

2J. Burnet: Early Greek Philosophy, p. 14. 

^Ibid. 

*Ibid. 

s Geo. H. Lewes : Hist, of Phil, from Thales to Comte, Vol. I, p. 7. 



192 BOLTON : 

fires. After coming down in rain they thought it changed into 
earth. Then from the phenomena of mists and subterranean 
springs they believed that earth once more was converted into 
water. They did not connect springs with rain, and the waters 
underneath the earth were regarded as an independent source 
of moisture.^ 

Anaximander (6io B. C.) did not agree, saying that the ele- 
ments "are in opposition to one another, — air is cold, water 
moist, and fire hot, — and therefore if any one of them were in- 
finite, the rest would cease to be by this time."^ He regarded 
the world, according to Burnet, as a boundless mass or body 
out of which * * our world once emerged by the * separating out * 
of the opposites, moist and dry, warm and cold."^ But, although 
Anaximander made a great advance over the ideas of Thales, 
no longer considering the earth as a disc resting upon the 
waters, the potency of moisture or of water was still clearly 
visible in his system. His ideas of the origin of living creatures, 
as chronicled by Theophrastus,* are as follows : " Living creat- 
ures arose from the moist element as it was evaporated by the 
sun. Man was like another animal, namely, a fish, in the be- 
ginning." Hipp. Ref,, i, 6 (R. P., i6 a). 

* * The first living creatures were produced in the moist ele- 
ment, and were covered with prickly integuments. As time 
went on they came out upon the drier part, and, the integu- 
ment soon breaking ofi", they changed their manner of life." 
Aet.=/y«<:., V, 19. I (R. P., ib.). 

' * The sea is what is left of the original moisture. The fire 
has dried up most of it and turned the rest salt by scorching 
it." Ket.—Plac, iii, 16. i (R. P., 14 c). 

Anaximenes (588 B. C.) appears at first sight to have taken 
a different element from any of his predecessors as the one 
underlying substances from which all things come. According 
to the account given by Theophrastus " from it . . (air) 
. the things that are, and have been, and shall be, the 
gods and things divine, took their rise, while other things came 
from its offspring." Hipp. Ref, i, 7 (R. P., 21).^ Burnet 
explains, however, that " the ' air ' of which Anaximenes spoke 
was not at all what we call by that name. The word aijp is 
still used in its old Homeric sense of vapor or mist. The dis- 
covery that what we call air was corporeal, and not identical with 
empty space, was first made by Empedokles. In all the earlier 

ij. Burnet: Early Greek Philosophy, p. 45. 

2 Quoted by J. Burnet from Aristotle's Phys., Early Greek Philoso- 
phy, p. 51. 

^ J. Burnet : Early Greek Philosophy, p. 61. 

* These references quoted by J. Burnet, Early Greek Phil., pp. 73-94- 
^ Loc. cit.y p. 77. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES . 193 

cosmologists drjp means water in a vaporous state more or less 
condensed."^ 

Below are quoted several passages of the opinions of Tlieo- 
phrastus which give the key to the cosmology of Anaximenes. 
' ' When it is dilated so as to become rarer, it becomes fire ; 
while winds on the other hand are condensed air. Cloud is 
formed from Air by * felting,' and this, still further condensed, 
becomes water. Water, condensed still more, turns to earth ; 
and when condensed as much as it can be, to stones, ' ' Hipp. 
Ref., Aet. (R. P., 21). ^ 

Thus we see Anaximenes practically returning the view of 
Thales, making everything come from the 6J]p or moisture, and 
even holding that the disc-shaped earth floated upon it. 

Xe7iophanes, though not making himself clear concerning his 
cosmological theories, seems to incline largely to the Anaxi- 
mandrian view. Though he denied the conception of a primary 
substance^ he says : 

' ' All things are earth and water that come into being and 
grow."' R. P., 86. 

" For we all arise from earth and water." R. P., 86.** 

Heracleitus (504 B. C), not satisfied with former cosmology 
sought a new principle, out of which the diversified world 
might be made, which would change into everything else, and 
which would be produced by everything changing back into 
it. This he thought he found in " fire — real fire, of course, 
'that burns and crackles,' as Teichmtiller put it."* Many 
interpreters, however, regard this fire as only symbolic, and 
claim that the word was used with the same significance as 
Anaximenes had used air, that is meaning mist or moisture."^ 
Be this as it may, Heracleitus regarded fire, water and earth, 
as the fundamental forms which water assumed in its transfor- 
mation* in his celebrated ' ' flux ' ' theory gives to water great 
prominence. 

Theophrastus records that ' * he called change the upward 
and the downward path, and held that the world goes on 
according to this. When fire is condensed it becomes moist, 
and when collected together it turns to water ; water being con- 
gealed turns to earth (the conjecture of Theophrastus); and this 
he calls the downward path. And, again, the earth is in turn 

'^Loc. cit., p. 78. 
^ Loc. cit., p. 81. 
'^ Loc. cit., p. 124. 
^Loc. cit., p. 115. 
^Ibid. 

« Op. cit., p. 148. 

''Op. cit., p. 148 for discussion of interpretation; also Zeller, Pre- 
Socratic Philosophy, II, 51 ff. 

8 Zeller: Pre-Socratic Philosophy, II, 51. 



194 BOLTON : 

liquified, and from it water arises, and from that everything 
else ; for he refers almost everything to the evaporation from 
the sea. This is the path upwards."^ R. P., 29. 

From Hyppolytas,who probably represents Heracleitus accur- 
ately, in Mr. Bywater's edition we learn that Heracleitus 
believed that " the transformations of Fire are, first of all sea 
(and half of the sea is earth, half fiery storm-cloud"). R. P., 
28 b.^ 

** The earth is liquified, and the sea is measured by the same 
tale as before it became earth. "^ R. P., 31. 

Heracleitus believed that there was a constant flux between 
fire and water. One prevailed for a time, then the other, but 
that neither gained the permanent ascendancy. The balance 
was maintained by the " measures," as he called them. Meas- 
ures of * ' ever-living fire ' ' were ever going out, while compen- 
satory " measures " were being kindled.* He writes, "so long 
as things as they are, fire and water will always be too, and 
neither will ever fail." Ps. Hipp., De Diaeta, i, 3.'* 

By the oscillation between fire and water Heracleitus ex- 
plained the change of seasons, and day and night. I^ike the 
heavenly bodies man, also, oscillates between fire and water.^ 

Hippolytas interprets Heracleitus as saying : 

'* The dry soul is the wisest and best."^ R. P., 34. 

' ' For it is death to souls to become water, and death to 
water to become earth. But water comes from earth ; and from 
water soul."* R. P., 30 B. 

" It is pleasure to souls to become moist."* R. P., 38 b. 

"A man, when he gets drunk, is led by a beardless lad, 
knowing not where he steps, having his soul moist. " * R. P. , 34. 

Empedocles held that there were four fundamental and pri- 
mary elements, fire, earth, air and water. ^ According to him 
plants and animals are composed of fire and water in definite 
proportions. Likewise man sprang from the earth, at first 
composed of shapeless lumps of earth and w^ater, thrown up by 
subterranean fire, which gradually shaped themselves into 
human members under the influence of Love.^ 

Anaxageras followed in a large measure the cosmological 
doctrines of Anaximenes. He taught that plants and animals 
all originated in germs which came down in rain-water.^ 

1 Burnet : op. cit., p. 151. 

2 Burnet : op. cit., p. 135. 

* Fragment 20. Quoted by Burnet, op. cit., p. 135. 

* Burnet : op. cit., p, 135. 
5 Burnet: op. cit., p. 162. 

® Burnet : op. cit., p. 138. 

'Zeller: Pre-Socratic Philosophy, II, p. 125, et seq. 

^Zeller: op. cit., pp. 159-161. 

*Zeller : op. cit.y p. 365. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 95 

These cosmological theories, trivial as they may now appear, 
were of the utmost significance. Who would for a moment ques- 
tion the great importance of the atomic doctrine of elements ? 
Probably no other hypothesis in ancient or modern times has 
been vSo potent in determining our knowledge of the physical 
universe. Now, in all these crude attempts to answer the 
question proposed by Thales, we can distinctly foresee the 
struggles toward, if indeed not the germs of, a future atomic 
theory. They were searching for the primitive, fundamental, 
unchangeable something from v/hich all else was derived. 
" Greek philosophy began as it ended, for what was lasting and 
abiding in the fl*ux of things."^ Thales postulated water as 
this abiding something, Anaximenes arip or mist, Heracleitus 
fire, which, however, could not exist without water, Empe- 
docles, earth, air, fire and water. Others asserted one or a 
combination, but in all these theories water played the chief, or 
at least not unimportant r61e in answering Thales conundrum. 

Sacred Waters. 

We have shown how water came to be regarded as pos- 
sessed of life-giving powers through its connection with the 
growth of vegetation. Living or running water came to be re- 
garded as of special sanctity. Early civilizations largely 
inhabited countries having periodic rainfalls, so that with the 
rainy season and overflowing streams, the apparent visitation of 
some supernatural powers were particularly noticeable. Grad- 
ually certain streams, lakes, pools, wells and fountains, became 
set apart as sacred. The sources of streams were held as par- 
ticularly sacred. Temples and other sanctuaries were fre- 
quently erected on the banks of streams, and the stream formed 
an important part of the sacra of the place. 

We have evidence of the sacredness of many rivers in the 
Orient. The Phcenecians and the Carthaginians held many 
rivers to be divine. Belus, Adonis, ^sclepius and the Kishon, 
were all held in veneration; also the pool of Aphaca, which 
was the most famous of all holy places. Several of these holy 
places were named from the ancestral gods. The river Tripolis 
is still called the Cadisha, or holy stream. The Jordan, in 
Biblical times, was the sacred stream of the Hebrews, as were 
the Abana and Pharpar of the Syrians. In Damascus the 
Barada was sacred, and figures of the river-gods Chrysorrhoa 
and Pegai often appear on Damascene coins. These gods were 
probably prominent in religious w-orship. The Euphrates was 
sacred to the Syrians, and bore an important part in the ritual 
of Hierapolis. From the river the goddess was thought to have 

1 Burnet : Early Greek Phil., p. 13. 



196 BOI.TON : 

been born. The Aborrhas or Chaboras, the chief tributary of 
the Euphrates in Mesapotamia, was held sacred as the place 
where Hera (Atargatis) bathed after her marriage with Zeus 
(Bel). According to tradition the Orontes was carved out by 
a dragon which disappeared in the earth, at its source. The 
river Cadas bears a name which implies its ancient sanctity. 

Besides sacred streams, fountains, waterfalls, wells, pools, 
etc., were regarded sacred. Each village in Syria had its own 
well and its own high-place or little temple. In Canaan they 
were generallj^ outside of the villages. Sacred springs were gen- 
erally sought in places to which long pilgrimages had to be 
made. Such shrines were Mamre, Aphaca, Dan and Beersheba. 
Sometimes they were within the temples, and again, as at An- 
tioch, the water and the groves surrounding formed public 
parks where pleasure and religious observances were combined. 

Both legend and religious ritual give evidence that, at least 
in earliest times, the sacred waters themselves were deemed in- 
stinct with divine powers, and not that beings resided in them 
which possessed these magic gifts. The latter idea came in, 
but it is not the primitive one. Many of the legends attempt 
to explain how the waters became impregnated with super- 
natural powers. Many ancient accounts seem to indicate that 
the blood of the deity flows in the waters. In Paradise Eost, 
following Lucien in the Syrian account, 

" Smooth Adonis from his native rock, 
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood 
Of Thammuz yearly wounded."^ 

The red color of the river was supposed to come from the 
blood of the god killed. A fountain at Joppa was said to be 
colored from the blood of a sea-monster. In another class of 
legends the life of the water is derived from the blood of the 
gods who descend into them and die. This was said of the 
Euphrates, into which Hierapolis and Ascalon plunged and 
were changed into fishes. This, says Mr. Smith, is but another 
way of bringing the divine water or divine fish into harmony 
with anthromophic ideas. Aphrodite is said to have been born 
of the seafoam, which is but another way of saying that a deity 
had given its life to the water. Fish were taboo in Syria,, and 
sacred fish were found in all sanctuaries. Sacred fish are still 
kept in pools at the mosques of Edema and Tripolis. 

The early inhabitants of Switzerland probably worshipped 
the lakes. Ancient writers indicate that the Gauls, Germans 
and other nations, considered many lakes sacred. " According 
to Cicero, Justin and Strabo, there was a lake near Toulouse in 
which the neighboring tribes used to deposit offerings of gold 

1 Paradise Lost, I, 450, following Ivucien in Dea SyriUy viii. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 97 

and silver. Tacitus, Pliny and Virgil, also mention the exist- 
ence of sacred lakes. "^ Gregory of Tours tells of a sacred 
lake on Mt. Helamus which was worshipped, and offerings of 
clothes, skins, etc., made to it. 

Besides being sacred many of these waters were deemed to 
possess life-giving powers to all who drank of them or bathed 
in them. It was but an extension of the notion concerning the 
relation of rain and water in general upon vegetation to its 
effects upon man. Stories of fountains of youth abound in all 
lands, and the significance is great. It betokens the wide- 
Spread faith that has been held concerning water as a life-giving 
agent, and the close identification of water with life. The magic 
draught of the fairy story, the Greek ambrosia, the Vedic Soma 
or anirita, which gave immortality, the Zend haoma, waters of 
strength and waters of weakness, rivers of life and fountains of 
youth, all seem intimately connected through the primitive 
notions from which they all arose. These draughts were 
the source of all strength and powers, panaceas for all ills. By 
imbibing magic waters, or bathing in them the old were made 
young, the infirm strong, and the blind to see. 

In India there is a lake and river in which bathers could 
become as young or as old as they chose. Cambyses had heard 
of the long-lived Ethiopians, and despatched messengers to 
spy out their conditions of life. The Ethiopians were reported 
to live a hundred and twenty years, and the secret was that 
they bathed in a magic fountain. In the Hawaiian legend 
Tahita Kahiki, or the land far away may be found the wai ora 
waiola, or water of life, and the wai ora roa, or water of endur- 
ing life. These waters remove all sickness, deformity, or de- 
creptitude from those who plunge beneath them.^ The Sand- 
wich Islanders have a tradition of a river in the spirit- world 
called Water of Life, which makes the aged young, and allows 
them to return to earth to live another life. Similar ideas have 
been found in the Malay Islands. Batara Gurr saves himself and 
the other gods from a poisonous drink by discovering a well of 
life. Nurtjaja compels the bandit Kabib to disclose to him the 
springs of immortality which flow beneath the caverns of the 
earth. Europe is not lacking in stories of miraculous fountains. 
** Ibu-el-Wardi places the Fountain of Life in the dark south- 
western regions of the earth. El-Khidar drank of it, and will 
live till the day of judgment." Prester John wrote to Manuel 
of Constantinople in the 13th century that "at the foot of 
Mount Olympus bubbles up a spring w^hich changes its flavor 
hourly day and night, and the spring is scarcely three days 
journey from Paradise, out of which Adam was driven. If any 

^ Sir John Lubbock: Pre-Historic Times, p. 222. 



198 BOI.TON: 

man drinks thrice from this spring he will from that day feel no 
infirmity, and he will as long as he lives appear the age of 
thirty.^ Sir John Maundeville is said to have identified the 
mountain a century later as Polombo, near Ceylon. (Tylor 
gives it as Mt. Cy tec*. ) He wrote that there ' * is a fayre Welle 
and a gret that hathe odour and savour of all Spices; and at 
every hour of the day he changethe his odour and his savour 
diversely. And whoso drynkethe 3 tymes fasting of the Waters 
of that Welle, he is hool of alle maner of sykenesse that he 

hathe And men se)^, that that Welle cometh out 

of Paradys; and therefore it is vertuous."^ 

During the Middle Ages the belief was current that one who 
bathed in the Euphrates in the springtime would be immune 
from disease the remainder of the 3^ear. This power also ex- 
tended to the vegetation along its banks. Near the sacred Belus 
grew the colcasium plant which healed Heracles after his com- 
bat with the Hydra. Ezekiel speaks of the sacred waters that 
issue from the New Jerusalem, giving life wherever they went. 
The leaves of the trees along its banks were believed to have 
medicinal virtues. The fountain of youth was a much sought 
for object even in subsequent times. Ponce de Leon is said to 
have searched long and anxiously for it among the Bahamas, 
and the everglades of Florida, and even penetrated the New 
World as far as the Mississippi River in search of that which 
would rejuvenate his ebbing powers. 

Healing Waters. Belief in the curative and even life-giving 
powers of certain water has persisted down to the present time. 
* ' The healing power of sacred water is closely connected with 
its purifying and consecrating power, for the primary concep- 
tion of uncleanness is that of some dangerous infection; origi- 
nally an infection of holiness, but later on of impurity.'"^ 
(Studied more in detail later on.) There are numerous records 
of enchanted wells until recently, and possibly still regarded as 
possessing miraculous powers. Great Britain, Scotland and 
Ireland, furnish them in great numbers. Among the most 
noted was St. Winifred's in Flintshire, Wales. Its waters were 
deemed almost as potent as those of the pools of Bethesda. All 
human ills were supposed to be relieved by drinking from it or 
being bathed in it. The spot from whence the spring issues is 
the spot upon which St. Winifred's head fell when struck off by 
Prince Caradoc. It has many visitors to this day. In 1635 
Sir George Peckham prolonged his devotions too far, ' ' having 
continued so long mumbling his paternosters and Sancta Wini- 

1 W. Robertson Smith : Rel. of the Semites. 

^W. Robertson Smith: Rel. of the Semites, p. 68. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 1 99 

freda orea pro me, the cold struck into his body, and after his 
coming forth from that well he never spoke more. ' ' ^ 

Hither came Wm. the Conqueror, his grandson, Henry II, and 
the first Edward; here, too, many of the Gunpowder Plot con- 
spirators, and later James II. In 1876 the Duke of Westmin- 
ster leased the well to the corporation of Holywell for a thou- 
sand years at a sovereign a year. At a recent date the following 
articles left by cured patients might have been seen by the 
curious visitor : 39 crutches, 6 canes, a hand-hearse, and a 
pair of boots. It is said of the two wells at Newton, near St. 
Neots, that "never went people so fast from church, either 
unto a fair or market, as they go to these wells. "^ In the par- 
ish of Wembdon, during the reign of Edward IV, immense 
concourses of people flocked to St. John's Well, and were said 
to be restored to health through its curative properties. With 
Chader Well, on the Island of St. I^ewis, and also a well in 
Dumfriesshire it was either kill or cure: if convalescence did not 
immediately follow, death did. 

Sacred wells were often the mediators in the transference of 
disease. At St. Elias's Well, Denbighshire, disease is trans- 
ferred by casting into the well a pin, along with a pebble, 
marked with the intended victim's name. If the victim hears 
of it disease often occurs as a result of suggestion, but believed 
to have been transferred by magic. To remove the disease, the 
pebble is taken out and the victim's name erased from the 
magician's book.' At the holy well, Tubber Quan, near Car- 
rick on Suir, the faithful were, and probably are, wont to resort 
on the last Sunday in June to supplicate St. Quam and St. 
Brogaum. If cures are to be granted they appear as two won- 
derful trout. In Wales epileptic patients go to St. Telga's 
Well, half way between Wrexham and Ruthin. The patient 
goes to the well after sunset, washes in it, and makes an 
offering of four pence. With a fowl under his arm he walks 
around the well three times, reciting the Lord's Prayer. He 
then sleeps all night in the church with the Bible for his pillow. 
In the morning another six-penny offering is made to the well. 
If the fowl dies the disease is supposed to be transferred.'' 

A few years ago a lady was sketching on the banks of a 
river in Ireland when she ' ' saw a young girl .... lead- 
ing a boy with a halter round his neck. When the pair reached 
the river the boy went down on his hands and knees, and so 
led by the girl crossed the river, bending his lips to drink. 
They then recrossed in the same fashion; he drank as before 
and she led. Then they went up the hill home. But presently 

1 W. G. Black : Folk Medicine, p. 103. 

2 W. G. Black: Folk Medicine, p. 39. 
^ Loc. cit,, p. 46. 



200 BOLTON : 

they again appeared coming down the hill. This time, how- 
ever, the boy led the girl, otherwise the ceremony was the 
same. ' Me an' Tom's very bad with the mumps,' explained 
the little girl, raising her hands to her swollen neck and cheeks, 
* so I put the branks on Tom an' took him to the water, an' 
then he put them on me. We be to do that three times an' its 
allowed to be a cure.' And a cure did result."^ In the early 
part of the century sufferers from the whooping cough. Catho- 
lic and Protestant, drank holy- water from a silver chalice in the 
hope of a cure. Nurses in Gloucestershire used invariably after 
public baptism to wash the infant's mouth with the holy water. 
It was said to be a safeguard against toothache. Such a value 
was placed upon this water that to prevent the people stealing 
it, the fonts had to be kept locked. In the Puritan portion of 
western Scotland it was looked upon as having power to cure 
many disorders. Further, it was a preventive against witch- 
craft, and eyes bathed in it would never behold ghosts.^ It is 
said of the Borgie Well, at Cambuslang, near Glasgow : 

** A drink of the Borgie, a bite of the weed, 
Sets a' the Cam'slang folk wrang in the head." 

On the 26th of June, every year, people flock to Saw Beach, 
Maine, for a healing dip which the waters are thought to pro- 
vide on that day. 

The Chinese do not like to have running water near their 
dwellings because it runs away with their luck. Scotch and 
English peasants believe it will bear away evil, and thus attach 
great value to it. Some think that to possess desirable qualities 
the stream must run east, others think south. The latter is 
usually regarded the more auspicious, being particularly 
efficacious in cure of witchcraft, a series of three mighty 
plunges being required for a cure. In Northumberland whoop- 
ing-cough was cured by porridge cooked on a griddle held 
over a south-running stream. At one time the number of 
patients was so large that they could get but a spoonful at a 
dose. 

Offerings. A further proof that the divine potency was sup- 
posed to reside in the water is shown by the form of religious 
ceremonies observed when offerings were made to the water. 
At Mecca and at the Stygian waters in the Syrian desert gifts 
were cast into the holy sources. Even at Aphacus, where the 
goddess Astarte was believed to descend into the waters, the 
pilgrims cast into the pool webs of linen and byssus, gold and 

ij. G. Black: Folk Medicine, pp. 105-6, from Univ. Mag., Aug. 
1879, P- 219- 
2 J. G. Black : op. cit. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 20I 

silver jewels and other valuable materials. At Abraham's Well, 
Mamre, the heathen visitors cast into it libations of wine, cakes, 
coins, myrrh and incense, and illuminated the well at night 
with lamps. ^ 

The custom of leaving rags and other worthless things at 
holy wells still exists in Ireland and Scotland as well as in re- 
mote parts of the world. A traveller in Persia found a tree 
near one of these wells hung with rags, which had been left 
there by people afflicted with ague. An African explorer found 
a tree hung full of rags. Old clothes, crooked pins, pebbles, 
shells, rusty nails, coins and other useless objects, all form ap- 
propriate offerings. The superstitious adoration was so great 
in the reign of King Edgar that it was forbidden by the i6th 
canon issued in 960, and it was condemned by the canons of 
St, Anslemus in the next century. In the reign of King Canute 
it was also interdicted by law. The practice has been limited 
since the Reformation. But there is still scarcely a parish in 
Ireland but has its own holy well.^ 

Oracular Powers. Holy waters have often been places of 
oracle and divination. They were supposed to indicate by some 
sign the favorable or unfavorable disposition of the divine 
power, and also to show whether certain gifts were acceptable 
or not. At Aphaca acceptable offerings sank, and unacceptable 
ones were thrown back by the eddies. The gifts deposited one 
year were thrown back the next, which was regarded as an ill 
omen, betokening the fall of Palmyra. In Greece holy wells 
gave prophetic inspiration to those who imbibed their waters. 
The oracle at Antioch was obtained by dipping a laurel leaf 
into the water. The oracular power of water has often been 
used to determine the curability or incurability of disease. In. 
recent times it was customary at St. Orwald's Well, Holywell 
Dale in North Lincolnshire, Great Cotes, St. John's Well, 
Aghada, Cork and at other places, for people to try to discover 
by the floating or sinking of their shirt, whether one would re- 
cover or not. At their departure they usually hung a part of 
their shirt or a rag upon a bush near by as an offering.* One 
form of oracular manifestation is seen in the ordeals such as 
those used in trial of witches, which survived until recent 
times. In 1759 King James I published his [in] famous trea- 
tise on demonology. One of the methods prescribed for testing 
witches and sorcerers was to find an anaesthetic or analgesic 
spot on the body of a person, which was an indication of league 

^ W. Robertson Smith: Rel. of the Semites, p. 162. 

^Gabrielle M. Jacobs, in Godey's Magazine, Feb., 1898; see also 
Brand's Popular Antiquities, Vol. II, for interesting chapter on sacred 
wells and fountains. 

«W. G. Black: Folk Medicine, p. 73. 

JOURNAI, — 3 



202 BOLTON : 

with the devil. The other was the trial by water. He wrote: " it 
appears that God hath appointed (for a supernatural sign of the 
monstrous impiety of witches) that the water shall refuse to receive 
them in her bosom that have shaken off them the sacred waters 
of baptism and willfully refused the benefit thereof."^ In 
Hadramant when a man was injured by enchantment, all the 
suspected witches were brought to the sea or a deep pool, weights 
were tied to them, and they were thrown into the water. Those 
who sank were adjudged immune, while those who did not 
sink were declared guilty because the waters rejected them.^ 

In ancient religions it was criminal for persons ceremonially 
impure to approach sacred waters. Arabian women during 
menstrual periods were forbidden, for their children's sake, to 
bathe in the Dusares. At the present no one dares enter the 
valley of the Sheik Adi, which has a sacred fountain, without 
first ceremonial purification of person and clothing. Aristotle 
described a sacred oil-spring of the Carthaginians which would 
flow only for those ceremonially pure. Drinking certain water 
was often prescribed as an ordeal. The waters of Asbamae, 
near Tyana, were sweet and beneficial to those who were 
truthful, but perjurers were at once afflicted with dropsy and 
wasting. Those who swore falsely by the Stygian waters 
died of dropsy within the year.^ The Hebrews prescribed the 
drinking of holy water for women suspected of infidelity to 
their husbands. The guilty were immediately afflicted with 
dropsy on drinking it. 

Many superstitions are still current regarding the super- 
natural power of water to bring harm to offenders. Sayings 
and proverbs are also prevalent which, though not now believed, 
represent actual beliefs of more primitive times. One of the 
oldest superstitions regarded it as certain that ill would befall 
the rescuer of a drowning person. The older form of the supersti- 
tion maintained that the rescuer would himself be drowned. In 
this primitive conception it was believed that the water was a 
spirit, or contained a spirit or nixy who was naturally angry at 
being deprived of his victim, and who would revenge himself 
by drowning the one who tried to thwart him.** 

To dream of deep or muddy water is regarded as a sign of 
trouble. Dripping water is a sign of death. It is lucky to 
have rain fall on a corpse or an open coffin. To cross water cures 
disease. A stormy wedding day betokens a stormy life. Sev- 
eral in my syllabus returns speak of superstitions concerning 
water that have affected their own or others' actions. An old 

1 Quoted by Baros Sidis : The Psych, of Suggestion, pp. 336-7. 

2 W. Robertson Smith : The Rel. of the Semites, p. 163. 

3 Op. cit., pp. 163-4. 

*J. Fiske: Myths and Mythmakers, p. 215. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSKS. 203 

man going to the beach met a girl and happened to brush 
against her. He was drowned that day, and the girl was much 
frightened lest the same fate should befall her. She was heard 
to remark that she must be careful and not go out too far when 
she went bathing or she would surely drown. A man in Sweden 
besought his brother not to cross a certain lake because some 
one was sure to drown there within twenty-four hours. 

F., 41. About a year ago I experienced a great trouble. The follow- 
ing day it rained very hard. Seemed as if nature were weeping with 
me. 

F., 18. My mother and another lady both dreamed on three differ- 
ent nights that I was in my canoe and was drowned. At the time the 
"flood gates" at Park Island were in a dangerous condition. My 
mother and her friend were sure I would be drowned, but the gates 
have been repaired, and I am still alive. 

Fishers folk are very superstitious, and regulate most of 
their lives according to superstitious beliefs connected with the 
sea. Birth and death are dominated by the ebb and flow of 
the tide. This is illustrated by Dickens^ in referring to the 
death of Barkis. "People can't die along the coast," said 
Mr. Peggoty, * except when the tide's pretty near out. They 
can't be born unless its pretty nigh in — not properly born, till 
flood. He's a goin' out with the tide. Its ebb at half arter 
three, slack water half-an-hour. If he lives till it turn, he '11 
hold his own till past the flood, and go out with the next 
tide,' .... and it being low water he went out with 
the tide." 

Water Dkitiks. 

Folk-tales and mythology of all lands abound with accounts 
of spirits who inhabit the water. They are a product of the 
universal animistic conception of the primitive minds which, 
failing to differentiate the non-ego from the ego, personify 
whatever happens to be an object of contemplation. ** To the 
lower tribes of man, sun and stars, trees and rivers, winds and 
clouds, become personal animate creatures, leading lives con- 
formed to human or animal analogies, and performing their 
special functions in the universe, with the aid of limbs like 
beasts, or of artificial instruments like men."^ Water with its 
ceaseless motion and constantly varying shapes offered wide 
scope for the savage imagination. 

Proteus, the old man who tends the seal of Poseidon, lived 
near the river Aigyptos, and each day, when the heat was 
greatest, he raised himself from the deep and rested on the sea- 

1 David Copperfield : Gadshill Ed., Vol. II, p. lo. 
2E. B. Tylor: Primitive Culture, I, p. 285. 



204 BOLTON : 

shore. He first became fire, then a snake, and finally assumed 
many aspects before returning to his original shape. He is said 
to be the Farmer Weatherby of Norse tales. The daughters of 
Nereus are the Nereids or Naiads, denoting water dwellers. The 
word Nereid is usually applied to those living in the sea,^ and the 
latter to those inhabiting fresh water. The Greek goddesses, 
Nymphe or Latin Lymphse, belong to the water. Lymphati- 
cus, of Latin origin, corresponding to Nympholeptos, denoted 
the man smitten by the Nymphs. The Nymphe were some- 
times divided into the Oreads and Dryads. In the Vedas they 
are the Apsaras or movers in the waters, and are endowed with 
wisdom. Besides the Nymph^ there were the swan-maidens of 
Aryan mythology, who were akin to clouds and vapors. They 
swam about on seas formed by the blue heavens, and navigated 
by the self-guided barks of the Phakians. Thetis, although 
called a Nereid, is akin to Proteus, and can change her form 
at will. Poseidou is lord of the Thalassa or troubled waters. 
Okeianos, whose slow-moving stream no storm can ruffle, 
dwells in the far west. He is the source of all things. ' ' From 
him flow all rivers and all the tossing of floods, all fountains 
and all wells. He is, in short, the spring of all existence."'^ 
Neptune is not strictly a god of the sea, but " the god of the 
clouds as the source of all moisture and water."* The Sirens 
are the witches of the shoals, while Scylla and Charybdis are 
the demons of the whirlpools. These are universally known, 
though under different names. Father Marquette met with 
the same belief among North American Indians with reference 
to a river whirlpool. 

In Australia special water demons infest pools and bathing 
places. In the natives' theory of disease and death no person- 
age is more prominent than the water spirit, who afflicts all 
who go into unlawful pools or bathe at unlawful times. The 
Greenlanders preserve animistic ideas concerning water. When 
they come to an untried- spring an Angekok, or the oldest 
man, must drink first to free it from a harmful spirit. The 
Algonquin hunter says, ' * the spirit, he maketh this river 
flow." In all rivers, lakes or cascades, he believes there are 
spirits or mighty manitus. The Winnebagoes on reaching a 
body of water make a present or sacrifice to the spirits who 
reside there. The Peruvians used to scoop up a handful of 
water and drink it, praying the river deity to let them cross or 
to give them fish. Indians of the Cordilleras take a ceremonial 
sip before they will pass a river on horseback. Most African 

^ G. W. Cox : Mythology and Folk Lore, pp. 202-4. 
2G. W. Cox: op. cit., p. 204. 
8 Ibid. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 205 

tribes display well the rites of water worship. Among the 
Manikas every spring has its spirit to which oblations are 
made. In the Okra district, lakes, ponds and rivers, are wor- 
shipped as local deities. The KaflSrs and Tartars venerate 
streams as personal beings, or as the abodes of personal deities. 
Water holds a very prominent position in Finnish mythology, 
and nothing in nature indicates a more supernatural origin. 
Many of the sayings are still beliefs. The people call them- 
selves Suomilainen or fen-dwellers, since they live in a land of 
swamps and marshes. Vapor baths are a national character- 
istic. Many streams and lakes are called holy, and receive 
sacrificial tributes. They have a current superstition that 
rivers may resent being enslaved when a new mill is being con- 
structed,^ just as the Romans believed that the Tiber was 
offended when chained by a bridge. Their chief water- god, 
Ahto, lives with his cold and cruel-hearted spouse, Wellamo, 
at the bottom of the sea. The general term for inhabitants of 
the water is Ahtolaisset, which means water-people. Allotar 
is the wave-goddess, Koskenneiti the cataract maiden, Wella- 
nos the eternal people or people of the foam and billows. In 
the Vedas the river is personified. Sometimes they are the 
good mothers who watch over and care for the people. They 
were believed to control the growth of vegetation and animals, 
and were addressed as gods who must be propitiated to retain 
good will.^ Norse and Russian mythology are full of allusions 
of river- spirits. Matthew Arnold's Forsaken Merman is un- 
doubtedly founded upon the Russian myth in which Russalka, 
the drowned girl, marries a Vodyamy or Merman. The rivers 
of Russia are thought to have been persons. In Iceland seals 
are regarded as descendants of the Pharaohs who perished in 
the Red Sea.* Thus we might trace the prevalence of water 
spirits in all countries, — in the remote Orient as well as the 
Occident. 

Mr. Tylor says* that to the savage mind ' * water acted not 
by laws of force, but by life and will; that the water spirits of 
primeval mythology are as souls which cause the water's rush 
and rest, its kindness and its cruelty; that lastly man finds, in 
the beings which can work him such weal and woe, deities 
with a wider influence over his life, deities to be feared and 
loved, to be prayed to and praised and propitiated with sacri- 
ficial gifts. ' ' 

Paradise has usually been conceived by primitive people as a 
land beyond the sea, or a place surrounded by water, which must 

1 Max Miiller : Cont. to the Sci. of Myth., I, 269. 

2 Kalavala, the national Finnish epic. 

« W. R. S. Ralston : The Songs of the Russian People, p. 148. 
^ Primitive Culture, II, 209. 



206 BOI.TON : 

be crossed at death. The belief in an earthly paradise existed 
for centuries. " The features of this earthl3^ paradise are for the 
most part similar to those familiar to us in Biblical description. 
It contained the fountain of immortality, from which sprang 
the four rivers which flowed to the four quarters of the earth. 
Purling brooks ran with the far-famed ambrosia."^ This gar- 
den of delight was often sought, but only those in league with 
the gods could find it. Nereus, the sea-god, succeeded in 
piloting Hercules to the spot.^ A 14th century Icelandic saga 
describes the position of the Deathless Land as across a strait 
which was to be entered by a stone bridge, guarded by a 
dragon. In Japanese legend there exists an Island of Eternal 
Youth.* It is beyond the horizon, and some fortunate observers 
have seen a wonderful tree rising far above the waves. The 
tradition was slow to die, and there are probably people who 
still believe, as did Sir John Maundeville in the 14th century, 
that the Garden of Eden exists somewhere upon the earth if it 
could only be found. After describing its cosmogenic position 
he relates that 'Vin the highest place of Paradise, exactly in 
the middle, is a well that casts out four streams," the first is 
called the Ganges, the second the Nile, the third the Tigris, 
and the fourth the Euphrates. * * And men beyond say that 
all the sweet waters of the world, above and beneath, take their 
beginning from the Well of Paradise, and out of that well the 
waters come and go.* 

Rivers of Death. The *' land of the blessed " is, as we have 
noted, quite universally separated from the abode of mortals by 
some body of water, now by a gulf, now the stormy sea, or 
again by a river which must be passed beyond the grave. The 
idea is preserved among all civilized people in sacred worship, 
by scripture and hymnology. The land of promise is quite 
universally across the ' ' River of Jordan ' ' or similar waters. 
Stories of ' ' rivers of death ' ' and ' ' bridges of the dead ' ' are to be 
met with in all tongues. The rivers Styx and Lethe have come 
down in our language as symbolic of death. There is a large 
quantity of Polynesian mythology relating to the gulf of death, 
though the bridge conception is lacking. Souls are obliged to 
cross this gulf in canoes or by swimming. In the ancient Orient 
the Vedic Yama, King of the Dead, crossed the rapid waters 
to guide our Aryan ancestors. The modern Hindoo is sup- 
posed to grasp the cow's tail when death comes, and is thus 
safely ferried over the dreaded river Vatarini. In ancient 
Egypt and modern Brittany Charon carried in his boat the 

1 Mrs. J. H. Philpot: The Sacred Tree, p. 136. 

'^Loc. cit. 

^Op. cit., p. 141. 

* Travels in Early Palestine, p. 276. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 207 

procession of the dead to their long home. The ancient Scan- 
dinavians used to place their distinguished heroes in a ship, 
set it on fire and cast it afloat, or bury them in boats on shore. ^ 
The Finns, the Guinea Negroes, the Khonds of Orissa, and the 
Dyaks of Borneo, all have myths relating to rivers of death. 
Some North American Indians have tales of the bridge 
of the dead, but more frequently the water must be crossed 
in canoes to reach the "beautiful island." A storm always 
wrecks the wicked souls, and the heaps of their bones are 
to be seen under water as evidence of the fact. The Ojibwas 
are obliged to cross the Heaven Gulf on the way to the * ' land 
of spirits, ' ' and the wicked are drowned by their burden of 
sins.^ Not even ghosts will cross living water. Witches, also, 
cannot do so, as we know in the case of Tarn O'Shanter, they 
were baffled when he reached the Bridge o' Doon. Sometimes 
the milky- way and the rainbow are called the bridge of souls.* 
That the soul after death has a perilous journey is believed by 
many people. The Algonquins believed that the wicked perished 
in crossing the lake to the happy land. The Choctaws are said 
to walk a peeled log, and the wicked slip off into the boiling 
gulf. The Moslem's bridge of Ks-Sirat was sharper than a 
knife-edge. The Australian natives, who are without an idea 
of God, believe that their souls after death fly to the clouds or 
cross the ocean to a distant land. Finns believed that those 
journeying to Tuonella were required to voyage over nine seas 
and over one river, the Finnish Styx, black, deep, and filled 
with hungry whirlpools and angry waterfalls. 

There is great tenacity in old impressions, especially when 
connected with the sanctity of religious doctrines and feelings. 
The primitive beliefs relating to the location of paradise, the 
river or gulf separating it from the present, and the difficulty 
of passing this water still survive in poetry and hymnology. 
From a few hymn books I have collected nearly two hundred 
different phrases and lines relating to rivers of life, fountains of 
life, healing waters, havens of rest, crossing wild and stormy 
billows, shore beyond the river, etc. (See sec. on Water in 
Literature. ) 

Many curious customs have arisen as a result of the belief in 
rivers of death. Various ways of aiding the departed on their 
journey have been invented. The custom of placing a coin in 
the hand of the corpse with which to pay the boatman who 
ferries them across the river is still found among Scandi- 
navians, the peasants at Altmatkt, Germany, and among some 

^ John Fiske : Myths and Mythmakers, p. 49 ; also Thalma, by Marie 
Corelli. 
2B. B. Tylor : Early Hist, of Manhood, p. 362. 
* John Fiske : Myths and Mythmakers, p. 57. 



2o8 BOLTON : 

Irish at wakes, and among peasants in Cleveland, England. 
Some Hebrews in America are said to place a towel and soap 
with the corpse for use in crossing the river. In Brittany is 
the Baie des Ames (Bay of Souls), where souls are said to be 
launched for their voyage. 

Water Itself Animate. Bearing in mind these early con- 
ceptions of primitive peoples regarding the supernatural powers 
and animation of water, it is not difficult to conceive how cer- 
tain waters came to be sacred, while all folk -tales and my- 
thology abound with accounts of waters of life, waters of 
strength, waters of weakness, etc. Nor will it be difficult to 
understand how by a slight extension of the idea of the super- 
natural power of living water came the conception of ceremonial 
renewal of life. Water was early ascribed as the dwelling- 
place of the gods, which is evidenced by survivals in the my- 
thology of all countries. Mythology and folk-tales of all peo- 
ples abound with stories of nymphs, water- gods and goddesses, 
that reside in the waters. But evidence shows us that the 
more primitive conception regarded water itself as endowed 
with life. All nature suggests to the savage mind the con- 
ception of living force, and primarily supernatural life belongs 
to the objects themselves. W. Robertson Smith says of the 
Semites^ ' ' that the supernatural was conceived in a generally 
savage fashion, and identified with the quasi-human life 
ascribed to the various species of animals or plants, or even 
of inorganic things. For, indeed, certain phenomena of inor- 
ganic nature directly suggest to the primitive mind the idea of 

a living ageilt Of all inanimate things that which 

has the best marked supernatural associations among the Sem- 
ites is flowing, or as the Hebrews say, * living water.' In one 
of the oldest fragments of Hebrew poetry the fountain is 
addressed as a living being "^ (Num. XXI, 17-18.) We 
have previously noticed that water was conceived among many 
primitive peoples as being the source of all life to vegetation, 
and was also supposed to possess the power of restoring the 
dead to future life. These ideas, coupled with the knowledge 
of the function played by drinking water and, also, the fact 
that bathing refreshes and invigorates, led naturally to the 
belief that water externally applied produces magical changes 
in human life. From these early beliefs and superstitions, the 
religious and legal ceremonial bathings, the precursor of later 
baptismal rites arose. 

^Rel. of the Semites, p. 126. 
2Rel. of the Semites, p. 127. 



hydro-psychoses. 209 

Lustrations and Ceremonial Purifications by Water. 

Many writers ascribe to ceremonial purifications an origin 
purely purgative in character, but we shall see that the idea of 
a supernatural virtue inherent in the water is the most promi- 
nent and original feature instigating the ceremonies. The 
usual medium employed in lustrations is water, though some- 
times other substances, as sand or salt, were used in default of 
water. But undoubtedly in these cases, also, the agent was 
believed to possess more than simple cleansing properties. 
Salt, we are certain, was regarded as sacred by many primitive 
peoples. 

One writer^ has suggested in accounting for the ceremonial 
of Christian baptism that John the Baptist simply utilized an 
observance largely in vogue in Oriental countries. This is un- 
doubtedly true of Christian baptism, but the idea that cere- 
monial purifications, prior to this time, arose owing to the dust 
and heat making cleanliness and comfort demand very frequent 
bathing of the whole body, is not tenable. This custom may 
have been prevalent in that country, and in that advanced stage 
of civilization found by John the Baptist, but ceremonial purifi- 
cations and lustrations date back to remoter times, and are 
found among the most primitive peoples of to-day. Though the 
idea of cleansing is found in some or perhaps most of the cere- 
monials, yet many circumstances indicate other ideas connected 
with their origin. Certainly the idea of bodily cleansing is very 
remote among some of the most ardent disciples. Tylor states* 
that " these ceremonial practices have come to mean something 
distinct from mere cleanliness. Kaffirs who will purify them- 
selves from ceremojiial uncleanness by washing, are not in the 
habit of washing themselves or their vessels for ordinary pur- 
poses, and the dogs and the cockroaches divide between them 
the duty of cleaning out the milk baskets. 

I believe, however, that instead of "coming to mean" as 
Dr. Tylor interprets it, that the ceremonials always have been 
only partially indicative of either literally cleansing bodily un- 
cleanness or symbolizing purification from spiritual contamina- 
tion. This meaning has been read into the facts in the light 
of modern baptism. But the older idea considered that the 
fetish could in some magic way renew, revive, rejuvenate, or 
even remove undesirable qualities. There was a belief in some 
inherent sacredness and magic power of the medium itself with 
little or no thought of the literal cleansing properties. From 
time immemorial the Ganges has been held sacred. Whoever 
bathed in it was cleansed and rejuvenated. The new-born babe 

1 A. W. Eaton : Heart of the Creeds, p. 135. 
'^ Primitive Culture, p. 434. 



2IO BOLTON: 

is bathed in it, the sick sprinkled with its water, and the dead 
are plunged into it. It is carried to the Hindu hous'es and used 
in the temples. Now, were water symbolic of cleansing, only, 
any water would suffice. But it must be particular water, pos- 
sessed of supernatural powers. 

According to the legendary lore of the Greeks at the feast of 
Pales, the goddess of the flocks, shepherds purified themselves 
by washing in fresh dew, or by aspersion with consecrated 
water, sprinkled from a laurel or an olive branch.^ The 
Scriptures record that 894 years B. C, Naaman was sent by 
Elisha to wash in the Jordan seven times to be cured of leprosy. 
After dipping himself seven times he came forth clean, with flesh 
like a little child. All these illustrate how, from the more primi- 
tive belief in the universal life-giving power of water, certain 
waters became set apart as sacred, and still possessed of cura- 
tive powers and revivification. The symbolism of spiritual 
cleansing is plainly a later idea. The myths and legends of 
fountains of youth, waters of immortality, and later facts relat- 
ing to sacred wells, rivers, etc., elsewhere described, corrobor- 
ate this view. 

Among all peoples ceremonial lustrations have been prac- 
ticed long before baptismal rites, symbolic of spiritual cleansing 
were known. Long before the Christian era ceremonial puri- 
fications by water were common, and are also common among 
savage tribes at the present time who know nothing of bap- 
tism. Some savage tribes, it is true, know and practice bap- 
tism which they have learned from missionaries, but lustrations 
were known to them before the ceremony of baptism was 
learned. Sacred^ and profane literature record that ceremonial 
purifications were to be observed after such occurrences as 
childbirth, theft, touching a corpse, adultery, the conjugal act, 
etc. Lustral water was placed at the doors of the Greek tem- 
ples so that priests could purify the profane. Usually before 
entering a temple the hands and feet were washed. This was 
also true among the Hebrews.' The Hebrews were taught to 
regard running water as having greater power of purification 
than still water. The Incas of Peru to be purified from guilt 
bathed in the river and repeated the following: " O, thou 
River, receive the sins I have this day confessed unto the sun; 
carry them down to the sea, and let them never more appear."* 

Among the Essenes and the Pharisees ceremonial bathing took 
up a great part of the time, so that it was very natural that 
John the Baptist should adopt that method of consecration in 

1 Baring Gould : Origin and Derivation of Rel. Belief, p. 398. 

2Lev. XII, XV, etc. 

*Ex. X, 29, 30, 40 ; Lev. 8, etc. 

* Baring Gould: Origin and Deriv. of Rel. Belief, pp. 399-401. 



H YDRO-PS YCHOSES. 2 1 1 

Christ's time. It was simply making sacred a custom which had 
long been in vogue. 

Infant Baptisin. The lustration ceremonials for infants, 
prevalent among almost all primitive peoples, contain many 
suggestions that indicate belief in the magic power of water. 
In many cases these infant baptisms, as well as some of the 
ceremonials above noted, are for the purpose of removing tapu 
or taboo as well as cleansing. Among many tribes a new-born 
infant is taboo until ceremonial purification has removed the 
taboo. Some tribes do not baptize the infants until three or 
four months old. During this period the mother is also taboo. 
This does not refer to uncleanliness in the ordinary sense 
of the term. The taboo may refer in some cases to physical 
uncleanness, but the more primitive conception is that the 
object of taboo is in some mysterious manner associated with 
dangers arising from the presence of supernatural spirits, which 
are to be avoided as one would avoid infectious diseases. All 
taboos are produced through awe of the supernatural. The 
new-born, as the woman in childbed, or during her courses, or 
the person who touches a corpse, are all taboo because every- 
thing connected with generation of the species, and also with 
disease and death seem to involve supernatural powers of a 
dangerous sort. There is a type of taboo arising out of respect 
to the gods, where certain holy things must not be touched, 
but it is not because of the offense given. On the contrary, it 
is because the taboo will sanctify whatever it touches, render- 
ing it unfit for ordinary uses. For example, " a slave or other 
person not sacred would not enter a wahi tapu, or sacred place, 
without having first stripped off his clothes; for the clothes, 
having become sacred the instant the precintsof the wahi tapu, 
would ever after be useless to him in the ordinary business of 
life."^ *' The fundamental notion," says Smith, is that the 
tabooed object " is merely not safe for ordinary people to use; 
it has, so to speak, been touched by the infection of holiness, 
and so becomes a new source of supernatural danger."^ 

In higher stages of thought the idea approaches the popular 
notion that the unclean object has become hateful to God, and 
should be shunned by all who wish his favor. But according 
to the more primitive and fundamental notion, holiness was 
contagious, and things that came in contact with such taboo 
needed purification just as much as distinctly corrupted ob- 
jects.* To show that unclean things are tabooed because of 
the inherent supernatural condition supposed to be connected 

iW. R.Smith: Rel, of the Semites, p. 432. Quoted from Short- 
land's N. Zealand. 
* Op. cit., p. 431. 
3 W. R. Smith : Rel. of the Semites, p. 431 ; also Isaiah LXV, 5. 



212 BOLTON : 

with it, ii is known that some of the most tabooed things, as 
menstruous blood, bones of the dead, etc. , are the most potent 
charms. According to Mr. Smith, "the heathen Arabs used 
to tie unclean things, dead men's bones, menstruous rags, upon 
children to keep away th^jlnn and the evil eye."^ 

* * Primarily purification means the application to the person of 
some medium which removes a taboo and enables the person to 

mingle freely in the ordinary life of his fellows 

Purifications, therefore, are performed by the use of any of the 
physical means that re-establish normal relations with the 
deity and the congregation of his worshippers — in short, by 
contact with something that contains and can impart a divine 
virtue. For ordinary purposes the use of living water may 
suflftce, for, as we know, there is a sacred principle in such 
water. "^ Blood, also, in its most primitive sacrificial idea was 
not used to wash away impurities, but to carry to the worshipper 
something of holy life. The idea of expulsion of an impurity 
is perhaps involved with the adding of sanctity. The evil may 
be dispossesed by inoculation with a more desirable life. This 
idea is seen in the Catholic Church in the exorcism of devils 
from the catechumen before baptism.* 

In southern Egypt the child is bathed for the first time on 
the 40th day. From that time on it is no longer taboo, but 
pure. The same custom is chronicled of many primitive peo- 
ples, e. g. , the Aryans, Turanians, Polynesians, Semites, cer- 
tain tribes in the Canary Islands, some Negroes and Indians. 
Long before the Christian era among the Norwegian Lapps, a 
Finnish people, infant baptism was a national custom. At the 
time of the ceremony the child was given a name and conse- 
crated to a good, lucky and prosperous life. After every dis- 
ease this ceremony was repeated and the child received a new 
name. This probably symboHzed a new birth, received through 
the sacred potency of water, after which the child lost its old 
name and identity, and consequently could no longer be found 
by the evil spirits. New Zealanders baptize the child when eight 
days old. AH the women of the neighborhood dip branches in 
water and sprinkle the child. At the end of a month the child 
receives a second name and a new baptism. The Tohunga 
(priest) dips a green twig into water and sprinkles the child, 
at the same time repeating his blessing in such ancient lan- 
guage that few understand it. This would indicate its remote 
origin. In the northern part of New Zealand the child is 

^ Op. cit., p. 429. 

2 W. R. Smith : Rel. of the Semites, pp. 405-6. 

* Op. cit., pp. 406-7. For a general discussion of some of these topics 
see same work, Taboos, p. 143, et seq.; Sacrifice, p. 405, et seq., Note 
C, p. 432. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 2 1 3 

dipped. The Papuans bathe (ceremonially perhaps) the child 
as soon as it can walk, when it receives a name. This is re- 
peated several times. Many tribes do not bathe the child at 
all for months. The Uveans of the South Sea sprinkle the head of 
the child, and, like most primitive peoples, make the first bath of 
the child an occasion of festivity . In Java the child's head is shorn 
on the 40th day, and it is plunged into the river. Among the 
Battas the neighbor women await the birth of the child, which 
is immediately carried to the men, who take it to the nearest 
stream, give it a dip, while the father gives it a name. The 
Fiote Negroes baptized at three or four months, the child 
being dipped and sprinkled by all the community and given a 
name. The Basuto Negroes cook up some magic decoction and 
sprinkle the child with this. Upon the birth of a child among 
the Yoruba's of western Africa they send for the priest and 
ask for the name of some dead ancestor who intends to re- 
inhabit the child's body. They look upon this as a rebirth of 
the soul. They baptize and sprinkle the child's eyes with 
sacred water. In the lowlands of Scotland a new-born babe 
was bathed in salt water and made to taste it three times. The 
solution was considered strengthening to the child, and also 
obnoxious to the evil eye. 

All these ceremonial lustrations indicate the widespread be- 
lief in the regenerating and life-giving power of water, and 
also its efficacy in removing taboo, so that the child could enter 
into harmonious relations with its new existence. Although 
I shall not enter into the subject of Christian baptism, we can 
easily recognize the older materialistic conception in the sym- 
bolism of spiritual regeneration which water holds in Christian 
baptism to-day. 

Water in Literature. 

Space will permit only the briefest mention of the great 
influence that water has had upon literary expression. Poetry 
has kept alive the old animistic theory of nature. The poets, 
like children, are deeply animistic, and their expressions reflect 
the closeness with which they keep in touch with nature. 
Poetry is largely a conventionalization of child-like ideas. To 
quote Dr. Tylor there are moments in the civilized man's life 
when * ' he casts off hard, dull science and returns to child- 
hood's fancy, [and] the world-old book of animated nature 
is open to him anew. Then the well-worn thoughts come 
back to him, of the stream's life that is so like his own; once 
more he can hear the rill leap down the hillside like a child, to 
wander playing among the flowers; or can follow it as, grown 
to a river, it rushes through a mountain gorge, henceforth in 
sluggish strength to carry heavy burdens across the plains. 



214 BOLTON: 

In all that water does, the poet's fancy can discern the person- 
ality of life. It gives fish to the fisher, and crops to the hus- 
bandman; it swells in fury and lays waste the land; it grips 
the bather with chill and cramp, and holds with inexorable 
grasp its drowning victim."^ Hence it is only a natural ex- 
pression of animistic feelings to say 

" The bubbling brook doth leap when I come by, 
Because my feet find measure with its call." 

Or with Michael Bruce in Lochleven that 

** The vales, the vocal hills, 
The woods, the waters, and the heart of man, 
Send forth a general song." 

And with Joseph Warton, who added — 

" And that all nature conspires to . 
Raise, to soothe, to harmonize the mind." 

The ocean has always impressed the poets strongly. Barry 
Cornwall's characterization of the ocean expresses the senti- 
ments of many. ^ 

" O, thou vast Ocean ! ever-sounding Sea! 
Thou symbol of a drear immensity ! 
Thou thing that windest round the world 
Like a huge animal, which downward hurled 
From the black clouds, lies weltering and alone, 
Lashing and writhing till its strength be gone. 
Thy voice is like the thunder, and thy sleep 
Is a giant's slumber, loud and deep. 
. . . . Oh ! wonderful thou art, great element ; 
And fearful in thy spleeny humours bent, 
And lovely in repose ; thy summer form 
Is beautiful, and when thy silver waves 
Make music in earth's dark and winding caves, 
I love to wander on thy pebbly beach. 
Marking the sunlight at the evening hour. 
And hearken to the thoughts thy waters teach — 
Eternity — Eternity — and Power ! " 

The same writer says of the streamlet:* 

** Gently it murmurs by 

The village churchyard, its low plaintive tone, 
A dirge-like melody, 

For worth and beauty modest as its own 
May not its course express. 

In characters which they who run may read, 
The charms of gentleness. 

Were but its still small voice allowed to plead?" 

1 E. B. Tylor: Primitive Culture, II, p. 209. 

2 Address to the Ocean. 

8 The Cataract and the Streamlet. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 2 1 5 

The poet Swinburne calls the sea "fair, white mother," 
"green girdled mother," "great, sweet mother," "mother 
and lover of men, the sea." ^ 

James Russell lyowell regards the fountain as typifying great 
happiness. 

" Into the starlight, Rushing in Spring, 

Happy at Midnight, Happy by day ! 
. . . . Ceaseless aspiring, ceaseless content, 

Darkness or sunshine, thy element : — 
Glorious fountain ! Let my heart be 

Fresh, changeful, constant, upward like thee !" 

— The Fountain. 

Dr. Biese^ says of the peculiar charm of one of Goethe's 
scenes in Faust: " Die Herrliche Sommerabend-scene liegtim 
Keime mit den Worten: Ach demals, wie oft habe ich mich 
mit Fittigen eines Kranichs, der Ufer des ungemessenes 
Meeres gesehnt, aus den schaumenden Becher des Unendlichen 
jene schnellende lycbenswarme zu trinken und nur einen 
Augenblick in der eingeschrankten Kraft meines Busens einen 
Tropfen der Seligkeit des Wesens zufiihlen, das alles in sich 
und durch sich hervorbringt. ' ' Again he quotes Pindar as 
saying : 

** Des Menschenseele gleicht dem Wasser: 
Vom Himmel Kommt es zum Himmel steigt es, 
Und welder nieder zur Brde Muss es ewig wechselnd."^ 

Dryden's writings are full of references to water. 

Miss Reynolds says,* as illustrative of Dryden's use of simili- 
tudes drawn from water, note the following: " Revenge and 
rage are sudden floods; joys are torrents that overflow all 
banks; contending passions are tides that flow against cur- 
rents; fame is a swelling current; anger is adammed-up stream 
that gets new force by opposition; a ruined life, destroyed for- 
tunes are shipwrecks; love is like springtides, full and high, or 
like a flood that bursts thro' all dams, or like a stream that 
cannot return to its fountain, or like the tides that do not turn; 
the disappointed lover dies like an unfed stream; the mind of a 
capricious tyrant is like a vast sea, open to every wind that 
blows; the army of the enemy comes like the wind broke loose 
upon the main; an obdurate foe is as deaf to supplication as 
seas and wind to sinking mariners; an open mind is a crystal 
brook; grief undermines the soul as banks are sapped away by 
streams; the voice of a mob is like winds that roar in pursuit 

1 See Dr. Chamberlain's Child and Childhood in Folk Lore, p. 39. 

2 Alfred Biese : Naturgeftilhs, p. 385. 

3 Alfred Biese : Naturgefiihls, p. 390. 

. * Myi;a Reynolds : Treatment of Nature in Eng. Poetry, pp. 28-9. 



2l6 BOI.TON: 

of flying waves; unspeakable anger is like water choking up 
the narrow vent of the vessel from which it is poured; and so 
on through a long list. ' ' 

Religious rites and ceremonies are great conservators of 
ancient thoughts and customs. In hymnology we find in- 
numerable metaphorical expressions of former literal beliv^fs. 
From a very few books I have collected nearly two hundred 
such verses, of which the following are typical: 

" Behold I freely give, The living water, thirsty one, 

Stoop down and drink and live." 
" When death's cold, sullen stream 

Shall o'er me roll." 

" Safe into the haven guide " 

" Bear me o'er life's fitful sea." 
*' Till I reach the golden strand. 

Just beyond the river." 
" There's a precious fountain. 

Free to all a healing stream." 
*' Foul, I to the fountain fly." 

FKKLINGS of PEOPI.K AT PRESENT ToWARD WATER. 

In the light of the preceding investigation let us consider the 
reactions of people toward water at the present. To carry out 
this study a syllabus (M. XV, Water Psychoses) was issued in 
February of the present year. Only a part of the list of ques- 
tions contained in the syllabus have been considered in this 
paper. To some others the returns were too meagre to furnish 
any important data; others may be worked up in a subsequent 
paper. About 800 individual papers, some covering as many 
as 20 pages of letter paper have been considered in this report.^ 

Feelings Toward Water in General. Many like to be near 
water, and to watch it because it makes them feel happy, or 
because it has a ' ' soothing effect. ' ' Some have ' ' feelings of 
reverence such as they feel nowhere else, and they wish to be 
noble and pure." To some it *' seems like a friend," " a great 
comfort," others " feel like confiding to it their sad thoughts." 

^ I am under great obligations to the following persons who furnished 
large numbers of returns from their pupils : Professor Will S. Mun- 
roe, State Normal School, Westfield, Mass. ; Professor lyillie A. 
Williams, State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. ; Professor E. J. Swift, 
State Normal School, Stevens Point, Wis. ; Principal B. M. Beaman, 
Fairchild, Wis. ; Principal E. H. Cassels, Tomah, Wis. ; Superinten- 
dent R. B. Dudgeon, Madison, Wis. ; Principal E. L. Bolton, Tunnel 
City, Wis. ; Principal Sarah E. Davies, Atlanta, Ga.; Miss S. Elizabeth 
Smith, Kaukauna, Wis. ; Superintendent J. M. Barrow, Columbus, 
Miss. To the various assistant teachers, all the pupils, and those who 
sent individual returns, my obligations are also gratefully acknowl- 
edged. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 217 

Various reasons are given for liking it, such as: "it is so musi- 
cal," " it affords such a variety of amusement," " so restful," 
"have natural instinct for it," "love it because it attracts 
me," "seems like human beings," "seems to soothe me," 
" seems to sympathize with me," " because it goes on its jour- 
ney as a man does, sometimes placid, sometimes turbulent," 
etc. 

The time of day and the state of the weather exercise a 
strong influence over the feelings. Bright, pleasant days bring 
feelings of "unutterable peace," "happy recollections," 
" joyousness," etc. When bright and windy some record feel- 
ings of " passionate joy, difficult to analyze because of their 
very intensity." To be near water in cloudy weather " makes 
me moody," " profoundly melancholy," etc. In the morning 
or at sunset a "keen delight" is felt. At dusk or in the 
moonlight " feelings of awe, wonder, sadness," "desire to be 
alone and not to be spoken to," " solemnity," etc. One records 
that if sky is dark and wind high " I feel as if I must let the 
water carry me somewhere — it matters not where, but some- 
where away from myself." 

Storms produce various effects. Some fear them, but more 
enjoy them, especially if they are used to being near water. 
Expressions concerning them are variously given, as: " the 
roaring and the rocking are pleasurable, " " something about 
the vast amount of water with its easy, uncontrollable motion, 
ever changing, yet repeating the same forms that makes me ex- 
ultant in its power," " was filled with the beauty and might of 
the waves," "one word, grandeur," "felt as though could 
scarcely breathe, " " always feel as if water were alive and send- 
ing out its arms for prey," " seems like a great monster which 
would not hesitate to wreak its vengeance upon anything within 
its reach," " the rougher the sea the better I like it," etc. 

Run7iing water seems to produce a different effect from large 
expanses. As was noted elsewhere the Jews held running or 
living water in especial reverence. Small streams bring ' ' a 
sort of dreamy, happy feeling," " an inward pleasure and hap- 
piness and excite to more vigorous action," "relief from sad- 
ness and reveries are of pleasant things," feelings of "jollity 
and fun." Brooks to many seem possessed of life — " like chil- 
dren, happy and gay," while rivers " typify greater maturity 
and exhibit purposeful action," Many record that they often 
steal away from all persons just to sit by a stream and watch it 
and listen to its music. They sit and meditate ' ' upon the 
works of God." The beauties of ripples, eddies, color, its 
swiftness, its music, its majesty, all seem subjects for a poet's 
theme. One says that she ' ' often fits words of poetry to the 
tune made by the rippling brook." A little girl of 5 said 

JOURNAI. — \ 



2i8 BOI.TON: 

brooks ' * must lead charmed lives, now flowing in the bright 
sunlight, babbling over the pebbles, now running through some 
quiet wood, where only the rustling of the leaves or the chirps 
of the birds disturb them." 

Large expanses produce a quite different class of feelings. 
Such expressions as the following are very numerous: When 
viewing large expanses **I feel insignificant, stricken with 
awe, as though the supernatural were in the water," " makes 
me happy, contented, yet restless," ** uncontrollable feelings 
of longing and half sadness, " "sorrowful, especially if alone," 
* ' should like to be as pure as they are, " " wish to always 
watch and never leave," " always loved the grand old ocean, 
and ever shall," " feelings less personal than when near small 
bodies, thoughts of a universal interest, of the God of the uni- 
verse and of nature, rather than of a personal God," "enrap- 
tures me so I cannot help exclaiming at the grand spectacle," 
' * awes me with its mightiness, " " sad feelings increased, ' ' 
" desire to get to the place called the horizon," " wish to sail 
far away and explore unknown depths," " feelings of awe, 
reverence and solemnity," "it reveals nature's vastness and 
my own insignificance," " seems as if gazing into eternity," 
' ' feelings of sublimity ; the absorption of my soul into the uni- 
versal soul," "produce a yearning toward one far off divine 
event to which the whole creation moves, " " Nothing so fair ; 
so pure and at the same time so large, as a lake, perchance, 
lies on the surface of the earth," (Thoreau) "feel utterly pow- 
erless in its presence, " " suggests power, deep thought, ability 
to keep grave responsibilities secret ; representative of great 
persons, their silent yet powerful actions, compels me to sub- 
mit to nature's plan and to realize that all its workings are in 
more perfect harmony than those of any individual. ' ' 

Waves ^ billows, etc., are always objects of especial interest 
because of the activity and force displayed. The following 
expressions are typical : ' ' make me feel as nothing compared 
with them," "ripples make me feel jealous; sometimes think 
of them as the laughter of children," "waves seem to be at 
play," " through waves nature displays her mighty power," 
"seem like great, lifeless monsters, moved by a mighty hidden 
force," "produce delight and admiration for their grandeur 
and beauty," "ripples make me think of our deeds, — some- 
times good, sometimes bad ; waves of our sorrows and joys, — 
how they swell and swell until they can grow no more, then 
suddenly burst, " " remind me of waters of time, pessimists, 
shallow-minded men, unable to accomplish ends without fric- 
tion ; brute force instead of persuasion, selfishness, treachery." 

To be on the water intensifies many of the emotions ex- 
perienced when only looking upon the water. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 219 

The vastness of the universe, the power, beauty and gran- 
deur of nature's hidden forces, the insignificance of individuals, 
the oneness of nature, the strength of the ties of kinship and 
friendships, the awful solemnity of being alone with nature 
probably never can be so forcibly realized as when in mid-ocean 
during a midnight storm. Brave hearts quake with fear, stal- 
wart forms tremble, the pious and the blasphemous seek com- 
fort and protection in prayer ; all feel that the power of God is 
manifest and that his creatures must bow before his will. 

When on the water " I feel nature's vastness and my own 
insignificance, " " whenever alone with nature I feel how grand 
it is and how insignificant I am, but when on the water the 
feeling is much stronger," "have feelings of solemnity and 
think how soon the waves could swallow me up, " " feel solem- 
nity and reverence for God ; that I am a part of this great 
world and that I have my duty to perform in making it beau- 
tiful," "in a boat I always feel caged," " have joy ousness, 
solemnity, reverence, awe, and humility, but never real sad- 
ness. ' ' 

Children' s Animistic Conceptions of Water, The next three 
rubrics deal with the animistic conceptions of water which 
children have. We find that most of the answers are from 
children or are reminiscent experiences of older persons which 
refer to child life. The child, like the savage, conceives all 
nature endowed with life and it is only later at the approach 
of adolescent years and the dawning of self-consciousness that 
the differentiation between himself and surrounding nature 
becomes complete. Most children regard water, and in fact 
all nature, as endowed with life. Some ascribe to it ani- 
mal life, others human life, and many talk to it. With few 
exceptions they think of it as talking but many do not think 
they can understand it. The older ones think of its animation 
in a more metaphorical way and not with the reality of child- 
hood. In these childish expressions so frankly and candidly 
given we have the pages of the earliest stages of man's life 
opened to view. The savage heard the voice of nature talk to 
him with tongues understood only by the primitive mind ; the 
child recapitulating the race history understands those same 
voices. The poet, like the child and the savage, penetrates 
what is invisible to ordinary mortals, and is cognizant of the 
same unseen powers. These he discloses to us through his 
versifications. To the ordinary mind these voices become 
hushed through the complex of psychic influences necessary 
to mature existence. 

Water as Endowed with Life. i. F., 12. Often think the water has 
wild life like animals. 
2. M., 12. Think of it as a person ; it seems as if it could talk. 



220 BOIvTON : 

3. F., 15. Seems as if it had life like a roaring lion. 

4. F., 13. Appears to be planning to do some wrong. 

5. F., 17. The noise of the ocean and of rapids give me a feeling 
that they have life. 

6. F., 17. Never talk to water. It seems to have life but not like 
animals or persons ; it gives one a different feeling. 

7. F., 15. When it attempts to drown me I think it has life. 

8. F., 14. The waves seem like snakes. 

9. M,, 14. The waves make me think they are coming to catch me. 

10. F.. 17. Billows, eddies, ripples seem endowed with life. They 
seem to think then act. Often think of the waves as temptations. 

11. M., 12. Think of the water as being kind of snaky. 

12. M., 18. Reared in the country and always thought of the water 
as being somewhat of a friend to me. 

13. F., 14. Seems alive ; don't know what kind of life, but the 
waves seem to be groaning. 

14. F., 18. Used to think it had life, but different from ours ; it 
was always a puzzle to me. 

15. F., 17. Used to think it had life like a person and was made to 
take care of little children. 

16. F., 20. When small thought it had work to do, and that it 
hurried along so fast because it had n't time to stop. 

17. F., 17. Used to imagine the water had life ; knew that it really- 
had n't, but liked to think it had and that it was like a person. 

18. M., 18. When a child, frequently thought it had life aud was 
talking as it rippled over its stony bed. 

19. F., 19. In a storm the waves and billows dash against one 
another and crowd and jostle each other as though their bed was too 
small for them. 

20. M., 13. Think of water having life like a person. 

21. F., 9. Seems alive, so human. 

22. M., 12. Think it is like animals because so wild. 

23. F., II. Think of it having life like an intelligent animal. 

24. M., II. Think it like a person, because it is so bright and 
knows how to work. 

25. F., 30. I am happier in the instinctive feeling that water has a 
kinship of life with me, than when I am under the rebuke of reason 
concerning such things. 

Talk to Water, i. M., 18. When small, I sometimes talked to wa- 
ter and asked it if it would be good and not wash away my water wheels. 

2. F., 5>^. Was sailing a boat ; the string broke and the boat went 
sailing away. She said, " Water, if you don't bring back that boat I'll 
tell mamma." Another time was heard to say to the brook, " I won- 
der where you go to ? Do you ever get tired ? I know I should." She 
says water must have life or it could n't move. Thinks it feeds on grass 
and sticks. Thinks rivers and brooks talk, but she cannot understand 
what they say. Thinks it must be saying, ** How happy I am ! Nothing 
to do but play all day." 

3. F., 20. Used to scold when the ocean washed my sand houses 
away, calling it " a mean old thing!" After building them up again, 
1 would say, " Come on now and enjoy it!" 

4. F., 12. Have talked to it in my mind, if not in words, many 
times and said I would like to plunge into it. 

5. F., 15. I talk to it as if it were a person I love very much and 
tell it all my little troubles, 

6. F., 41. As a child I said, "Pretty water, I like you. Where are 
you going ? Take me with you." 

7. M., 19. Never talked to water, but always recited a certain piece 
of poetry when near the shore. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSKS. 221 

8. F., 17. Used to ask the ocean to tell me what it saw way out 
from land and to tell me about the little girls it saw. 

9. F., 18. Used to sympathize with water when rocks or stones were 
in its way, and would scold the stones and talk pityingly to the 
water. 

10. F., 22. When watching waves chasing each other I have said 
to the one I wished to beat, " Oh, hurry, hurry ! " Used to draw a 
line before my sand houses and say, " Now, you mustn't come any 
further." When the houses were washed away, I said, "Horrid 
thing!" 

11. F., 6. Scolded the river after a boy had been drowned. To 
punish it would not go near it for a week. When did go, thought the 
river was glad to see her. 

12. F., II. Never talked to it, but have often thought I should like 
to. 

13. F., 10. Sometimes like to talk to it. Was sitting beside it and 
told it it made me feel cool and that I loved its little rippling music. 

14. F., 18. Used to say, " Pretty, babbling brook, singing, laugh- 
ing brook!" 

The following paragraph gives some expressions that children 
think the water seems to use: 

F., 10. "Ripple, ripple, ripple." M., 10. "Flip, flap, flip, flap." 
F., 12. "I am tired of running so long." M., 12. "For men may 
come, and men may go, but I go on forever." M., 13. "Come." M., 
10. "I chatter over stony ways." M., 12. " Bubble, bubble, bubble." 
F., 13. "Come, bathe in this nice, warm water." F., 13. "Come 
along, we have no time to play." M., 12. "Roll on, roll on." M., 
15. "I will swallow you up." F., 12 "Hiawatha, Wa-wa Tasi." 
M., 16. " Don't get near me or I'll take you out with me." M., 11. 
** Come, jump in." M., 13. " Won't you come in and have a swim." 
M., 14. " L<et me get hold of you and I will swallow you up." F., 14. 
" I am stronger than you are." M., 11. "lam on my way to the 
ocean." M., 12. "I go on forever." M., 12. "I'm coming on 
through hills and vales and over stones to meet the ocean." M., 16. 
" Keep away from me. I '11 drown you if I get the chance." F., 3>^. 
After wading in the brook, told that the water said, " Oh, stay a little 
longer! Come along with me, I'll catch you." M., 10. " Trick, trick, 
trick." F., II. "What part of you, little river, is the widest? and 
what kind of fish are swimming about in the water?" M., 10. "I 
would like to know your history and about your drifting ships." F., 
12. " Have you had a pleasant jonrney ? Do you expect to carry large 
ships? " 

Water seems to be talking . i. M., 12. Think it the most delight- 
ful thing to be near water, to watch it flow, and hear it tell of its won- 
derful adventures. 

2. F., 15. I think the water seems to talk ; it sounds like some 
sweet lullaby. 

3. F., 18. In running it seems to be talking all the while. 

4. M., 20. As a child, when playing in streams, I imagined the 
ripples sang, " Go home, go home ! " 

5. F., 18. The waterfalls seemed to laugh, but when dashing 
against the rocks I used to think it scolded because rocks were in the 
way. 

6. F., 17. Thought the water answered what I said but thought I 
was too little to understand, but would when I grew older. 

7. F., 41. It seemed to say it was very busy rushing on to the sea. 

8. F., 20. ' Its music I hear, but it is a music entirely different to 



222 BOLTON : 

my imagination from that of any human music — a music of nature, 
separate and distinct, as is also the wind's. 

9. F., 17. At the beach the water used to seem to say, ** Come on 
down, little girl, I love you." Once when I had ventured too far and 
my clothes became wet, I told my mother the waters had told me to 
come down and they would n't hurt me. 

10. M., 12. Seems to be complaining, especially when there are 
rocks in a creek. Seems to be moaning when the tide comes in. 

11. F., 19. When I first heard the ocean waves (at 13) I imagined 
they were saying something to us which we did not understand. Some- 
times I thought them singing mournful songs. Always thought the 
waves were like queer people. Just as we were the inhabitants of the 
earth, they were of the water. 

12. M., 10. Seems to say: "I have lived a hundred years and 
more, have fish, whales, snakes, and many other things." 

13. F., II. Seems to laugh on days when the sun is bright and 
moan sadly on a dark day. 

14. F., II. Think it talks, because trees talk. Think by their 
moaning they comfort the fish. 

15. M., 12 It talks. Don't know what it says, but it knows. 

16. F., II. The largest bodies seem to talk and tell you great stories. 

17. M., 13. Seems to be talking but not a language like ours ; has 
a language of its own. 

18. F., II. Says " I work," and many other things. 

19. M., II. Some water seems to say " Follow me, follow me." 

20. F., 10. Sometimes seems to tell me to bathe in it and it will 
refresh me. Also tells me of the journeys it takes. 

21. M., II. Seems to say " Come in and play, come in and play." 

22. F., 17. Water was always talking to me, telling me of its little 
•scrapes and trials and the fun it had. 

Earliest Feelings toward Water. The general concensus of 
testimony relating to babies' actions on being first placed in tub 
baths, is that the water causes momentary fright when it first 
comes in contact with the skin. Almost without exception the 
verdict is that after the first shock and surprise are over babies 
take extreme delight in being in the water. This they manifest 
in various baby ways — by splashing about, by cooing and prat- 
tling, smiling and laughing, and by remonstrating against 
being taken out. After a few times at most the bath becomes 
a pleasurable event, and is looked forward to with keen delight. 
Of course, some exceptions are recorded, but they are very few 
indeed. When a little older, children often object to having their 
faces washed, but many reminiscent items indicate (although 
this question was not asked) that it is because children feel that 
it is a waste of legitimate playtime, and is not because of any 
objection to the water. The following answers are typical of 
great numbers received: 

1. F. Mother says the first time I was put into a tub of water I 
didn't make a sound, but clenched my hands and stiffened my body. 

2. An experienced nurse said most babies objected to their first bath, 
but usually changed. 

3. F. Mother says when I was a baby I loved water and was still 
as a mouse when she washed me. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 223 

4. M., 7 mo. When put into the bath kicks and squeals with de- 
light, but cries when his mother takes him out. 

5. F. Mother says I enjoyed tub baths very much, and liked to 
play in the water. 

6. F. Mamma says I used to jump for joy when she mentioned the 
word water. 

7. M. Mother says at sight of water I used to want to jump right 
in. 

8. F., 12. When about i>^-2 yrs. old, one washing-day, I was all 
dressed to go out, bonnet and coat on, I climbed upon the chairs and 
got right into the tub with all my clothes on. Did n't mean to be 
naughty : was always a good child, but it was because I liked water. 
(A little boy did the same thing.) 

9. F., 14, When small was afraid of water. Thought only fish 
could stay in it. 

10. M., 14. Have always loved to be in the water. Remember the 
first time put into a tub — was about a year old. 

11. F., 17. As a child liked to paddle and wade in water because I 
liked the feel of it. 

12. F., 18. When a child was very fond of being near water, but 
was always afraid of reptiles. Think all children like to play in 
water. 

13. F., 23. Did not like to bathe when a child, but it was because 
of the cold when they took me out. 

14. F., 10. Ivike to paddle and wade in water. Enjoy bathing but 
shudder at coldness. Earliest fears of water were because afraid of 
drowning. 

15. F., 17. When a child loved it. Seemed to be my dearest play- 
mate. 

16. F., 20. Most enjoyable hours of my childhood were when we 
children went to the woodland brook to wade. 

17. F., 14. Earliest recollections were of seeing some persons im- 
mersed, and I shouted " See them going into the pretty water." 

18. F., 20. When about 12 loved to ride on rafts so well that I tried 
to construct one myself. 

19. F., 17. When a child, during a storm at sea, would run away 
and just stand and watch it for hours from the shore. Never wanted 
to talk to any one. When all others were frightened, I was delighted. 
My love for the ocean is almost a passion : would rather be near it 
than anywhere else in the world. 

20. F. Thought when water was happy it danced along in the sun- 
shine, and when it was sad it was still. I was then sad, too. 

21. F., 20. As a child loved small streams and always longed to lie 
down on the grassy banks and gaze upon the water as it danced along. 

22. F., 18. Was fond of playing in puddles. Am told I used to sit 
under our old pump and pump water over myself. 

23. F., 17. When I see streams always want to put my hand into 
the water. 

24. F., 18. Was always running out in the rain and running away 
to the brook, where found, minus shoes and stockings, paddling around 
in the water. 

25. F., 22. Many times when a child I ran away to go and play in 
the water. Had to be watched continually. Three times I ran away 
to the docks, fell off, and was nearly drowned each time, but all this 
did not frighten me away. 

26. M., 7. So fond of the water almost impossible to keep him 
away from it. Would go swimming in deepest part of the brook as 
often as he could without his mother knowing. 

. 27. F., 17. Earliest love for water was when very small. Father 



224 BOLTON : 

took me in bathing and swam way out, while I was perched "piggie 
back " fashion. Thought it the nicest thing a little girl could do. 

28. F., 20. At 3 my parents had hard time to keep me out of the 
water. After being dressed for the afternoon would wander to the 
stream to watch the boys fish and swim. Parents always knew where 
to find me. 

29. M., 7-8. Always preferred companionship of water to children. 
Often begged to have a lunch and go and stay all day, returning only 
when sought. When he returned to the city would pine for the sea- 
shore and seemed to live only for the next summer. Was a different 
child when away from water. 

30. F., 15. Likes water so well that when washing dishes she plays 
and dabbles in the water. Seems pleased and generally sings. (In 
one way, exceptional.) 

31. M., 7. Forbidden to go near the water, but used to manage to 
go almost every day and remain in by the hour. In spite of all pun- 
ishments this transgression continued. 

32. F., 23. When 5 went to beach. Saw the waves and screamed 
with fright. Would not go in nor allow my mother to. She picked 
me up and in spite of myself carried me in. Soon liked and do yet. 

33. F., II. Loved the water in the river when I first went to bathe. 
Was very anxious to get into it. 

34. F., II. Like to paddle in it because I like to see the water 
splash. 

35. F., 13. Like to wade and go as far out as I can without getting 
my clothes wet. 

36. M., 12. Like to bathe in all kinds of water. 

37. F., II. Like to ride on planks and rafts because it has such a 
good feeling and is such fun. 

38. M., 12. Love the water like a fish; don't know any boy who 
doesn't. 

39. M., II. Like to wade and paddle because I like to get wet. 

40. F., 14. Don't know of any one who doesn't like to wade and 
paddle. Children think it a great loss if near the water and cannot go 
in. 

41. M., 13. Like to ride on planks, and when way out in the river 
we push each other off to get a good ducking. 

42. M., 10. Would often conceal his books underneath the piazza, 
and generally go to the water. 

43. Was out with a boy of 7 in one of worst storms of sleet, and 
yielded to his coaxing to sail chips down the gutter. It was the noon 
hour and he forgot his dinner. Soon many little boys joined. Do not 
believe one of those boys would have willingly forsaken that fun for 
the best dinner that ever tempted a child. 

Bathing, i. M., 16. Says of course he likes to bathe in streams 
or he would not walk to the bay, two miles away, every day. 

2. F., 15. Often walked a mile to take a bath in a stream. 

3. F., 17. To be in water gives one a feeling of exhilaration. 

4. F., 22. Used to enjoy bathing in fresh water. Generally feel the 
water on my skin with great pleasure. 

5. F., 19. Before 13 did not care for the water. Then was taken 
rowing, and have liked it ever since. 

6. M., 13. Am very happy when the boys say ** let's go two-fin- 
gers." 

7. F., 15. Like to paddle in water because the water has a feeling 
different from anything else. 

8. F., 10. Love to paddle in shallow water when there are no snakes 
nor blood-suckers. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 225 

9. M., 12. Feels sorry for the children of the far North, who, 
though so near the water, cannot bathe in it. 

10. F., 17. Enjoy bathing very much. Think it is because of the 
water upon the skin and the buoyancy. 

11. M., 20. Used to like paddling in shallow water, but was afraid 
of deep water. Always shudder on going into deep, cold water. 

12. F., 19. Always enjoyed plunge baths, though I shudder at the 
thought of going in streams because of the coldness of the water. 

13. F., 22. As a child was so fond of bathing in streams that often 
went in three times a day. 

14. F., 20. At the thought of going in used to shudder because I 
thought it so cold, but the first plunge over it was a pleasure for me. 

15. F., 30. Enjoy a sea bath with a feeling of mixed pleasure and 
fear; do not like a plunge tub bath; can't quite raise my will to the 
point of putting my head under water, but when at the beach let the 
surf meet me more than half way. Much of the shudder is from the 
cold, but more, I believe, from dread of being submerged. 

The last two rubrics give fairly representative expressions 
relating to being in the water. Although some do not enjoy 
bathing and swimming, yet the majority of the returns indicate 
a passionate love for it. Many of the dislikes noted corroborate 
the deductions made by Dr. Hall in his study of water fears. 
The thought of the coldness of the water on taking the first 
plunge or after getting out brings the " shivers " to many, and 
act as a deterrent factor. It is safe to assert that could all tem- 
perature conditions be regulated perfectly, few would hesitate 
about bathing. Long centuries of wearing clothing has sensi- 
tized the body to feel keenly the changes of temperature. Sav- 
ages, peoples inhabiting warm climates, and boys accustomed 
to daily ' ' swimming and sunning ' ' through the summer forget 
all about the possibility of disagreeable sensations. Even with 
babes it is only the first shock that friglitens, and then 
they love the wafer passionately, often crying to remain in. 
The first contact produces a shock upon the dermal sense 
organ, causing a gasp and often a tremor, but it is because of 
the newness and not the disagreeableness. Again, the fear of 
smothering from submergence as in 15 is frequent. Fear 
of snakes, blood-suckers, and other water animals (8), deep, 
dark water (11), motion of the water are frequently men- 
tioned as deterrents, but the " feel " and buoyancy are always 
listed with the pleasureable and attractive features. It is a 
matter of every-day observation that most children are ex- 
tremely eager to be in the water, to play and paddle about in it, 
or to play in tubs of water. After every summer rain they can 
scarcely resist getting out and splashing in the pools in which 
they caper and frisk about in high glee. If allowed to, during 
the rain they will run out hatless and shoeless and let the rain 
pelt down upon them. Many boys in the country have been 
known to get out of sight, strip off all their clothing, and take 
the keenest delight in staying out in the driving rain. The 



226 BOLTON: 

beaches, river banks and brooks during the summer months 
could attest to boys' love for water. Under severest protest they 
will run away to go swimming, and undoubtedly more cases of 
school truancy in the summer are attributable to this attraction 
than any other. One gentleman of middle age says that noth- 
ing is so restful to him as to plunge into the water and float 
around, oftentimes upon his back, gazing into the soft blue sky. 

This universal love for water seems not to be due to expe- 
rience alone, for all babes exhibit it in their earliest days, if con- 
ditions are supplied. It seems partly instinctive and of more 
than recent philogenic origin, and at least suggests a survival of 
the old time life in an aquatic medium. This is not demon- 
strable, but the weight of all testimony is in that direction. 
How else can we account for the passionate love of children 
to paddle, to splash, ride on rafts, run out in the rain ; for 
their intense delight in swimming, even going without meals, 
walking long distances, enduring severe punishments, etc., 
just for the sake of being in the water? Many of these char- 
acteristics are exhibited by adults when the conventionalities 
of civilized life can be thrown off. 

Pedagogic Significance. The natural tendency of children 
to get near to nature, indicates that while children are passing 
through this animistic stage that they can be brought into 
sympathy with the great book of nature without appealing to 
artificial and esoteric interests. They already commune with 
nature and should be encouraged and aided in understanding 
and appreciating more of its beauties. At this stage it should 
not be minutely dissected and studied apart from its natural 
setting. The child idea of oneness and harmony should not be 
carelessly destroyed. Injudicious teaching may create ideas 
that the soundest philosophical teaching of maturer years will 
fail to correct. The unity of nature which the child mind and 
the savage instinctively apprehend should be strengthened, not 
weakened. Nature should not be dissected and sliced and 
teased apart until nothing related remains. By so proceeding 
all interest is destroyed and the most fundamental and import- 
ant lessons to be taught are abortive. The child on looking at 
the ocean or river or streamlet, feels them to be sentient beings 
like himself only of a different form. Even older persons say 
they seem so, and some say they are happier in the instinctive 
feeling that water has a kinship of life with them than when 
conceiving it otherwise. The ocean's boundlessness produces 
feelings of nature's vastness and one's own insignificance. 
Awe, humility, and reverence, the basal ideas in religion, are 
prompted, as so many of the returns show, by gazing upon vast 
bodies of water. 



HYDRO-PSYCHOSES. 227 

The various forms of water are most eloquent teachers. They 
appeal to the child's imagination in a way that no human be- 
ing could. So many say that they want to be alone by the 
water to contemplate, to reflect. Their thoughts are turned 
from the disunited artificial life, enforced by the usual modes of 
living, and turned toward the unity and harmony which they 
discover for themselves when brought into contact with nature. 
Contact with nature is a more genuine eloquent exhortation to a 
contemplation of the Divine than all the preachers without the aid 
of nature. When alone with the forests, the rocks, or the deep, 
for companions, one's thoughts turn instinctively toward the 
contemplation of the universal, which cannot but lead to a search 
for the primal cause, for the constant, the all powerful, — for God. 

From a purely pedagogical point of view the study has much 
suggestiveness. The child that is impressed with the thought 
of "how large the world must be!" and with " wonder about 
what could be seen if the eye could penetrate space" has 
aroused in him the most fundamental conditions of the 
learner, viz. , wonder and curiosity. A permanent interest of 
this general form is to be most earnestly sought in all instruc- 
tion. To wonder what and why, and to determine to under- 
stand more, is the highest type of interest. It surpasses all the 
passing, definable, artificial interests. This is interest self- 
determined, and if cultivated will prove permanent. 

Child life loves nature. These returns show that many of 
the happiest of childhood hours are spent directly in contact 
with it. To separate the child from nature is like separating 
the savage from his forest home. The child, like the race, may 
develop later interests in other directions, but the transition 
must be natural and gradual, and the feeling of oneness with 
nature should never be relinquished. From the wading and pad- 
dling and swimming in the brook, and from the sound of the 
merry music of brook and cascade to the more mature con- 
templation of the majestic ocean, there is a charm and a delight 
which are the rightful heritage of childhood and youth. To 
rob childhood of the beauties and teachings of nature is to do 
violence to the normal course of development. The childhood of 
the race was spent in delightful contact with nature ; the child, 
ontogenetically recapitulating the phylogenetic development 
of the race, craves instinctively for communion with nature. 

I am indebted to President G. Stanley Hall for the assign- 
ment of the problem, and for much sympathy and many helpful 
suggestions in carrying out the foregoing research. In this 
place I also desire to express my gratitude to the other mem- 
bers of Clark University who have aided me in many ways in 
prosecuting the work. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 



By F. W. CoivEGROVE, Honorary Fellow in Psychology, 
Clark University. 



This paper comprises one of nine chapters which treat of 
memory or memories. The preceding sections contain (a) An 
Historical Orientation; (b) A Biological Orientation which 
treats of racial memory and traces the individual psychical 
memory through different stages of life from man down to the 
vorticellae; (c) The Diseases of the Memory — an original study 
based upon new material; (d) The Relations of Brain to Mind; 
(e) Memories. The subsequent chapters treat of Appercep- 
tion and Association, Attention and Interest, and the final 
chapter is a summary of the leading pedagogical principles 
suggested throughout the work. The purpose of this paper is 
to give the results of a study of the memories of normal people 
from nine months to ninety years of age. 

At the outset a real difficulty is met which is well illustrated 
in the following extract from ''Recollections of Childhood," 
by Sony a Koval^vski. She writes: ''When I begin to sort 
out and classify my earliest recollections, the same thing 
always happens with me: these recollections disperse before me. 
At times it seems to me that I have found the first definite im- 
pression which has left a distinct trace in my memory; but as 
soon as I concentrate my thought on it for a while, other im- 
pressions of a still more remote period begin to peep forth and 
acquire form. And the difficulty of it is that I cannot myself 
in the least determine which of these impressions I really re- 
member; that is to say, I cannot decide which of them I really 
lived through and which of them I only heard about later 
on, — in my childhood — and imagine that I recall, when, in 
reality, I only remember the accounts of them. Worse still I 
can never succeed in evoking a single one of these original rec- 
ollections in all its purity; I involuntarily add to it something 
foreign during the very process of recalling it." She then de- 
scribes a scene in childhood, and adds: " As I reflect upon the 
matter now, I think I must have been two or three years old, 
and that the scene took place in Moscow where I was born." 
After the first memory she recalls ' ' a series of detached but 
tolerably clear pictures" as of "picking up pebbles," and 
"my sister's doll which I threw out of the carriage window." 



INDIVIDUAIy MEMORIES. 229 

So many people have had the experience described by this 
' ' marvel of mental development ' ' that the question may fairly 
be asked — can most people ascertain their earliest memories 
with sufficient accuracy and certainty to render them trustwor- 
thy data for scientific results ? In order to test whether the 
difficulty would prove insuperable, one hundred persons were 
personally interviewed, most of whom were more than sixty- 
five years of age. The results of these interviews were such 
as to lead to the belief that after all deductions are made 
there is a large residuum which is reliable. Moreover the very 
difficulty alluded to is explained, at least in part, by the hy- 
pothesis advanced later in this study. The questionnaire read 
as follows: 

1. What is your earliest memory? However trivial, or childish, 
your earliest experience is wanted. Be sure that it is a memory and 
that no one has told you. 

In 1,2, 3, give your age at the time, at least the probable age. 

2. In like manner, give your second and third earliest memories. 

3. What is your earliest recollection of your (a) father, (b) mother, 
(c) sister, (d) brother, (e) playmates, (f ) of any injury from a fall or 
a blow ? 

4. Of what four consecutive years have you the best recollection ? 

5. Of what four consecutive years, after the first four have you the 
poorest memory? 

6. Can you state examples of false memories experienced ? e. g. 
Have you recalled as real what you had merely dreamed, heard or 
read ? Give, if possible, a case of transposed memory in which what 
happened earlier was recalled later, and what happened later was re- 
called earlier. 

7. What book read before you were nine years of age do you recall 
best? 

8. Do you recall pleasant or unpleasant experiences better ? 

9. What studies have best developed your memory ? 

10. Give a condensed account of any case of loss of memory caused 
by a blow on the head, a fall or by disease. 

11. Describe fully any aids to memory which you have found use- 
ful. How do you fix in mind and recall (a) figures, dates, dimensions, 
(b) forms of faces, microscopic structures, leaves, crystals, patterns, 
figures on the wall, carpet or dress, phrases in music and the cut of 
dresses? (c). How do you fix and recall passages of prose and poetry, 
declamations, and recitations? Why and how do you memorize fine 
passages ? In learning foreign languages, describe devices for fixing 
new forms and phrases. Describe your system of keeping appoint- 
ments. What memorandum do you keep, what book is used and how 
do you make entries? As a student, how full notes do you take in the 
class room? How would you teach a boy to remember things on 
time ? Do you store up facts and dates, with no definite idea of how 
you will use them? 

12. State cases in which the memory is so good or bad, that it 
weakens the other powers of the mind. 

13. Describe cases of exceptional forgetfulness in old and young, 
stating whether it was due to distraction, abstraction, loss of mental 
power, or heredity. 

As a rule, does defect in memory in children appear in the field of 
.things done, known or felt ? 



230 COLKGROVE : 

14. As you advance in years do you find the interval between the 
power to determine whether you have had an experience and the 
ability to define, locate and name the experience wider or narrower? 
How is this in the kindergarten, high school, college, middle life, and 
old age ? 

The tabulation required almost incessant labor for five 
months. The results were first tabulated^ upon two rolls of 
paper whose combined length was fifty-two feet by one foot 
eight inches in breadth. A second tabulation was made in 
which the memories (which could be readily studied from the 
first tabulation) were arranged under a large number of head- 
ings (over sixty), these headings being drawn from the papers 
themselves. Such topics were used as hovel occurrences, re- 
peated or protracted occurrences, gustatory memories, auditory 
memories, memories of father, mother, brothers, sisters, more 
distant relatives, other persons, deaths and funerals, sickness 
and accidents to self, sickness and accidents to others, memories 
of time, number, etc. Under novel occurrences or single im- 
pressions were included such memories as, seeing the ocean 
for the first time, drowning a cat, pet bird died, etc. By pro- 
tracted or repeated experiences w^ere included such memories 
as bringing water for mother in a little pail, the dress a person 
wore, etc. 

To this topical syllabus 1,658 replies were received in time 
for tabulation. Of this number 1,372 were from white people; 
605 males and 767 females. 182 were from negroes; 94 males 
and 88 females. 104 returns were furnished by Indians; 64 
males and 40 females. The Indians represented 25 different 
tribes. The tabulations were made according to age in periods 
as follows: I, ages 1-4: II, ages 5-9; III, ages lo-ii; IV, ages 
12-13; V, ages 14-15; VI, ages 16-17; VII, ages 18-19; VIII, 
ages 20-29; IX, 30-39, etc. The last decade was practically 
80-89, although a few males and one female 90 years of age 
sent returns, which were tabulated separately. The purpose 
in tabulating two year periods from 10-20 was to note the 
changes in memory, if any occurred, during this period of 
growth. The returns furnished many memories besides the 
first three. While the whole number of early memories did 
not differ essentially in character from the first three, the for- 
mer furnish broader data for safe conclusions. 

The youngest child whose memory was obtained was eleven 
months of age. She had apparently two definite memories. 
These experiences may not enter into the list of permanent 
memories. Yet a few adults state that they remember expe- 

1 1 am indebted to my wife for the painstaking tabulations. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 23 1 

riences as early as one year of age/ and no definite limit can 
be set for the age of the earliest memories. The earliest mem- 
ories of children under five years of age show the following 
range: The first number mentioned in each group of two rep- 
resenting males, and the second number females. 

Novel occurrences or single impressions: fifteen, thirty-one; 
Protracted or repeated occurrences: sixteen, nine; Visual 
memories: twelve, sixteen; Auditory: four, two; Emotional: 
one, one; Gustatory; — , three; Motor: eight, nine; Tactile; 
one, two; Father: two, three; Mother: five, one; Grandparents: 
one, — ; Brothers and sisters: two, one; Playmates: four, one: 
Other persons: three, two; Temperature: one, — ; Topograph- 
ical: seven, two; Logical: six, — ; Clothing: five, one; School: 
— , two; Home: — , one; Visitors: — , two; Visiting: — , one; 
Running away: — , one; Corporal punishment: — , one; Dolls; 
one, nine; Sickness and accidents to self: five, three; Sickness 
and accidents to others: one, — ; Deaths and funerals: one, — ; 
Domestic fowls and animals: two, three; Fright: one, one; 
Colors: three, five; Playthings: four, four; Gifts: two, seven, 
Christmas: one, six; Playing: one, two; Activity of others: one; 
three; Attendant circumstances: one, — ; Intellectual: one, — ; 
Physical pain: one, — ; Number: — , one; Trees: — , two; Me- 
chanical: one, — ; Teasing others: one, — ; Time: one, — ; 
Where slept: one, — . 

It will be seen that the males have the greatest number of 
memories for protracted or repeated occurrences, for people and 
clothing. They excel also in topographical and logical mem- 
ories. The females have the better memory for novel occur- 
rences and single impressions, for Christmas, gifts, and, as 
would be expected, for dolls. 

In the 5-9 period, the males again excel in the memory for 
protracted and repeated occurrences, the females for novel oc- 
currences or single impressions. The motor memories here 
have a marked increase in the case of the females, and a slight 
increase for the males. The memory for all persons shows a 
noticeable increase with the females. For the males the per- 
sonal memory improves for near relatives only. In the case of 
each there is a better memory for the activity of others. 

In the next period — age 10 and 11 — motor memories de- 
crease for the females and increase for the males. Memories of 
near relatives increase in the case of both, while memories for 
other persons decrease. Memories of sickness and accidents to 
self and of playing are emphasized. 

In the 12-13 period the percentage of memories for novel oc- 

1 This accords with the researches of V. and C. Henri. See popular 
Science Monthly for May. 



232 COIvBGROVE : 

currences decreases in the case of the females, while those for 
protracted experiences increase. Both males and females show 
a decrease in memories for near relatives, and an increase in 
those for playmates and other persons. Sickness and accidents 
to self are remembered less by males and better by females than 
in the preceding period. Memory for the activity of others in- 
creases in the case of the males and decreases in the case of 
the females. 

In the period which includes those fourteen and fifteen years 
of age it is worthy of note that the motor memories nearly cul- 
minate for the males, but decrease in the case of the females. 
These memories seem to harmonize with the psychical and physi- 
cal life of the period. Mischievousness and destructiveness are 
well remembered. The males have a decrease in the proportion 
of memories of novel occurrences and an increase in those for re- 
peated occurrences. The reverse is true in the case of females. 
The males show a marked decrease in memories for relatives and 
playmates and an increase in those for other persons. Topo- 
graphical memories increase in the case of each, as do visual 
and auditory memories. 

In the period 16-17 ^^^ relations are again reversed so far as 
novel occurrences and protracted experiences are concerned, the 
females showing an increase in memories for the latter and a 
decrease for the former. In the case of the males the oppo- 
site is true, and the percentages become essentially the same 
as in the period 12-13. ^^^ females show a slight increase 
in memory for all near relatives and playmates, and a greater 
increase in memory for other persons. The males show an 
increase in memories for playmates and relatives, and a de- 
crease in memories for other persons. The females have a 
marked increase in the memory for fears, the males for the 
activity of others. 

In the period 18-19 there is an increase in the visual mem- 
ories for each sex, and the auditory memory of the females im- 
proves. The memory for the activity of others shows an increase 
in the case of each, and it is strongly emphasized for the males. 
The females excel in the proportion of memories for protracted 
or repeated occurrences, and the males in that for novel occur- 
rences and single impressions. 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall and Drs. Lancaster, Starbuck and 
others, have found that puberty exerts a great influence upon 
the entire psychical life. In order to test its effect upon 
memory the exact pubertal age was obtained by Miss Williams 
of no females who had answered m}^ questionnaire. Of the 
no cases, in 37 puberty occurs in the period of best memory; 
in 9 it occurs in the period of poorest memory; in 50 it occurs 
between the periods of best and poorest memory; in 14 it occurs 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 233 

after the periods of both best and poorest memory. In i6 cases 
it occurs at the beginning of the best remembered period. In 4 
cases it occurs at the close of the best remembered period. In 
5 cases it marks the division between the best and poorest 
memory. In two others it occurs at the close of the period of 
poorest memor}^ 

The returns give evidence that the period of adolescence is 
one of great psychical awakening. A wide range of memories 
are found at this time. From the fourteenth year with girls 
and the fifteenth with boys, the auditory memories are strongly 
developed. At the dawn of adolescence the motor memory of 
boys nearly culminates, and they have fewer memories of sick- 
ness and accidents to self. During this time the memory of 
others persons and the activity of others is emphasized in case 
of both boys and girls. In general at this period the special 
sensory memories are numerous, and it is the golden age for 
motor memories. Now, too, the memories of high ideals, self 
sacrifice and self forgetfulness are cherished. Wider interests 
than self and immediate friends become the objects of reflection 
and recollection. 

The decade 20-29 is perhaps to most people as important a 
decade as any. At this period there is a marked change in the 
memory content. For the second time the proportion of mem- 
ories for novel occurrences and for protracted or repeated ex- 
periences is nearly the same in the case of males and females. 
The males show a noticeable increase, and the females a 
marked decrease in visual memories. The same is true of the 
auditory memories. The memory for grandparents nearly cul- 
minates in the case of the females, and increases in the case of 
the males. The females show an increase in logical memories, 
and a more decided increase in topographical memories than do 
the males. Memories of sickness and accidents to self decrease 
with the males and increase with the females, while in the case 
of both there is relative decline in the memories of sickness and 
accidents to others. 

In the decade 30-39 memories involving reflection and thought 
seemingly ripen. The logical, intellectual, topographical and 
visual memories for the males culminate here, also those for 
time, number, colors and father. The visual and auditory 
memories of the females culminate, while the intellectual, logi- 
cal and topographical nearly reach the zenith. Memories for 
joy, quarrels, pride, jealousy, Christmas, physical pain and 
weariness disappear. The predominant memories are of a 
thoughtful cast. This is a conservative period, as no new mem- 
ories are introduced. 

In the decade 40-49 memories for persons tend to fall away. 
One is almost surprised to find the motor memories of the 

JOURNAI. — 5 



234 COI.EGROVE : 

females ascend and reach their maximum. Their tactile mem- 
ories also advance and culminate in the next period. 

In the decade 50-59 the motor memories of the males cul- 
minate and again appear strong from 80 to 89. We have seen 
that they nearly reach their maximum at 14, and in all subse- 
quent periods they are well represented. According to Ribot 
the motor elements are primary in all emotions, and they seem 
to be among the most abiding of memories. The memory of 
the males for physical pain and weariness culminates from 60 
to 69; that of both males and females for school culminates 
from 70 to 79; and that of the males for wearing dresses from 
80 to 90. The boy's first trousers are remembered best in the 
first and last periods of his life. In the last decade the chief 
classifications are still represented, but it is noticeable that the 
auditory and tactile memories entirely disappear in this period. 
Memories are no longer found for grandparents, sickness and 
accidents to self, gifts and Christmas. On the other hand 
visual memories and those for near relatives are well repre- 
sented. 

As already stated in the replies to the questions calling for 
the first three memories, a much larger number than three was 
frequently given. Moreover other questions called for earliest 
memories of relatives, playmates, etc. , so that a much larger 
number of memories was obtained than the first three of each 
individual. White persons reported, as the second tabulation 
shows, 6,222 memories, 78 per cent, of which were novel oc- 
currences or single impressions, and 22 per cent, protracted or 
repeated experiences. The males had 76^ per cent, memories 
for novel occurrences, and 23^ per cent, for repeated impres- 
sions. With them the memory for novel occurrences culminates 
in period VII, ages 18 and 19, when they constitute 83! per 
cent, of all memories. With females the memory for novel 
occurrences culminates in period III, ages 10 and 11, when they 
constitute 89 per cent, of all memories. They drop to 58I per 
cent, with the males during the two periods 70-79 and 80-89, 
but rise at 90 to 84! per cent. With the females they also drop 
to 58j^^ per cent, in the period 80-89. 

The memories of repeated occurrences in the case of the 
males culminate in the first period (ages 1-4), when they con- 
stitute 5 if per cent, of the memories. They become 35! per 
cent, in period X, ages 40-49. With the females they are 223^ 
per cent, in the first period, ages 1-4, and do not form a greater 
proportion except during three periods: VII, ages 18 and 19, 
when they are 27! per cent., XI, ages 50-59, and XIV, ages 
80-90, when they become 3ItV and 4ifV per cent., respectively, 
of the whole 

The fact that different memories culminate at different periods 



INDIVIDUAL MKMORIRS. 235 

may be significant. In not a few instances they seem to bear a 
relation to the whole mental life of the period. In order to 
determine this relation more definitely we shall now consider 
the periods when the memories more frequently found become 
a chief factor and reach their highest percentage. The visual 
memories are 27^ per cent, of the whole for the males, and 
31 per cent, for the females. In the case of each they are a 
large factor in the first period, 1-4, when the child is exploring 
the world. With both males and females they culminate in 
the fourth decade, 30-39. In this period observation is rip- 
est. In the case of the males the percentage is low in the 
8th and 9th decades — 70-89, and improves in the tenth, as if 
second sight were obtained. The auditory memories become 
accentuated with the males in period VI, years 16 and 17, and 
culminate in years 20-29. With the females they become em- 
phasized in period V, years 14 and 15, and culminate in years 
30-39. The periods of culmination are epochs when the audi- 
tory sense is much used as a rule. Men and women are busy, 
** hear what is going on," and do not spend much time in 
reading. It is worthy of note that in the period 80-89 for females 
and the 90 period for males, an age when the hearing is poor, 
there are no auditory memories. The motor memories come 
in great profusion at 14 and 15 for the males. At this period 
the motor memory is intensely motor, of a break bone and acci- 
dent nature. On the other hand with the females at this period 
there is an actual falling ofi" of 4 per cent, in motor . memories. 
The motor memories, however, in case of the males, culminate 
in years 50-59 by a margin of 3^^ per cent, over the 14 and 15 
period, and with the females reach their maximum at 40-49. 
This may not easily be explained, but it is a period of life 
when activities have fallen away little, if any, and achievement 
and the results of activity are the objects of reflection. 

The memories of brothers, sisters and playmates, culminate 
in the seventh period for females, and in the eighth for males, 
and then steadily diminish until second childhood begins. The 
memory of females for the mother exceeds that of the males by 
4^ per cent., while males have a better memory foi: the father 
than females. The memories of the males for their grandpa- 
rents reach the highest points at (a) 5-9, (b) 30-39, (c) 60-69; 
those of the females at (a) 5-9, (b) 20-29, and (c) 50-59, the 
years (a) when they have most to do with their grand- 
parents in their own home, (b) when their children are small 
and their own parents first become grandparents, (c) when 
they become grandparents themselves. The natural interval of 
ten years between the ages of males and females in the last two 
cases may be noted. Memories for deaths and funerals are re- 
called by the females almost equally well in the years from 60 



236 COIvEGROVE : 

to 90, and are not strongly marked before this time. Those of 
the males culminate at 90, but are very marked from 70 to 79. 
Is it not true that the memories of any period are in harmony 
with the general psychical life of that period, and do they not 
to a certain extent partake of its qualities ? These facts sug- 
gest that what is remembered does not primarily constitute 
definite memories, but a memory complex. From this com- 
plex, at subsequent periods of life, those parts are selected out 
and made distinct which are en rapport with what may be 
termed the memory tone of the period; e. g., if the period be 
one in which the auditory sense is much used, or be one of 
great logical activity, auditory or logical memories will be prom- 
inent. This hypothesis explains the cases of individuals in whom 
certain types of memory are pronounced. It also explains those 
cases in which persons assert that they cannot single out early 
memories. " It is all one mass, ' ' they say. Such minds are little 
given to reflection upon the distant past. They have not tried 
to separate the single elements of the complex. When they 
consent to reflect for a time, they are usually able to differen- 
tiate single elements and to arrange them in serial order. Yet 
what these elements are will differ with the age of the indi- 
vidual or with his memory tone. The memories for sickness 
and accidents to self culminate for the females in years 12 and 
13, and for the males in years 14 and 15. Sickness and acci- 
dents of others are best recalled by the females in years 14 and 
15; by the males in period 12 to 13. Females have the better 
memory for sickness and accidents to others. Males have the 
better memory for sickness and accidents to self. The activities 
of others are best recalled by both males and females in the 
closing periods of their lives. 

In the general average for the whole life it is interesting to 
note that the females have a slightly higher percentage of 
visual, auditory, gustatory and tactile memories than the 
males. The gustatory memory is 3^^ per cent, for the females, 
and culminates in the first period, while among the males it is 
2.^ per cent., and culminates in period 5-9. Memories for 
odors are very few, being ^ of one per cent, for the males, and 
■^ of one per cent, for the females. The males have two per 
cent, more logical memories. The females have from 2^ to 4 
per cent, better memory for mother, playmates and other per- 
sons. They have 7^ per cent, better recollection of brothers 
and sisters, and 7 per cent, less of topographical memories than 
the males. Motor memories, father, grandparents, gifts, play- 
things and fears, are about equally recalled by each, but the 
females have double the memories for playing. The female 
memory for dolls is 3^ per cent. , and culminates in the first 
period, years 1-4, when it is 22 >^ per cent, of all memories. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 237 

The male memory for clothing is 6 per cent, , the females 7^ 
per cent. The males have 7 per cent, of school memories, the 
females 5}^ per cent. The memories of the males for home are 
I ^ per cent. , of the females fV ^^ one per cent. The males 
have nearly 8 per cent, of memories for domestic animals and 
fowls, which culminate in period 40-49; the females have only 2}^ 
per cent. ofsuch memories, which culminate in period 50-59. Time 
has 2^-^ of memories with each. Number memories are 1% per 
cent, for the males, and a little less than one per cent, for the 
females. Memories of colors are 4^ per cent, for the females, 
3^ per cent, for the males. The males have 2f per cent, of 
memories of deaths and funerals; the females i)2 per cent. 
Memories of trees are 1% percent, with the females, and |- of 
one per cent, with the males. The following memories should 
also be mentioned: Picture taken; pride; visit to dentist; quar- 
rels; storms; money; jealousy; shame; lie; selfishness; curiosity; 
birthdays; being lost; deceit; stealing; picnics; circus; parades and 
soldiers; praise; temperature; visiting; 4^ percent, for females, 
2%, males; visitors 2% per cent, for females, 1%, males; re- 
proof, which is remembered ^ as well as corporal punish- 
ment; running away; mud pies; crying and grief; anger; attend- 
ant circumstances; fishing; swinging; hair; sliding; physical 
pain; fatigue; malice; losing things; being praised; enemy; 
birthday; laughed at; playing horse; imitation; where slept; 
destructiveness; being kissed; disobedience; church; wedding; 
surprise; jealousy; teasing; mischief; guilt: blood; charity; re- 
venge; working; supernatural; love; sorrow. The last eight 
memories are found for the first time at senescence. 

The average age for the three earliest memories at different 
periods under the age of 25 is shown by the curves here given. 
The continuation of the same curves during the remaining peri- 
ods is described in Figs, i and 2. The three lower lines repre- 
sent the early memory of the males, and the upper ones of the 
females. The heavy line represents the first memory ; the broken 
line the second, and the dotted line the third memories. Distance 
to the right represents the age of the person reporting ; distance 
upward indicates the age of the person at the time of the occur- 
rence remembered. For the first memory during the entire 
period, it is less than three years. The first rise in the curve 
is naturally marked because it begins low at the age of one. It 
drops at 4^ and five for the first two memories, which may be 
due to some acquired ability to reflect upon the past. Children 
under this age have not been given to reflection, and it is very 
difficult to get them to bring forth the memories which later 
years will prove that they already possess. There is a rise 
in all of the curves at adolescence which is emphatic in the 
case of four of them. This shows that from the age of 13 to 15, 



238 



COI.EGKOVE 
Fig. I. 



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*" ^ ..■■^- ^^. '" '" " ^~- -•-.-. l'"-^-'''-7-|-.i '■ 


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— r--^^T^~^'fTi^=~~~~~^ ii rt~r 




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n ^Z 




\ll!iZlA3J:>i*^S 6 7 S 8 10 11 U 14 IS 16 IT l« 19 i- Zl 

Fig. II. 


1 


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/"^ ' ■•■..•■ / ^-^ ,' ^^ "^^ 


'" ^^\>V^'''" ~ z^-^--^" 


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■a 2 U J 3A -> 4\ 5 



boys and girls do not recall so early memories as others do 
before and after this period. At this period the present is 
large and the future makes a strong appeal. While the store- 
house of memory is very rich now, perhaps the temperament or 
the psychical tone is now wanting in accordance with which 
painstaking reflection calls forth the earliest experiences. At 
any rate the earliest memories of boys at the age of 14 average 
almost four years, and for the girls it is more than three. At 
35 the curve for the males descends and approaches two years, 
which is the average age for the first memory of boys at nine 
and five years of age. The curve for the earliest age of the 
females descends slightly at 30 and 40, and then fluctuates, 
rising slightly at 80 to descend again. The curve for the males 
rises at 70 and descends gradually, later terminating in the 
height reached at 6, 10 and 11. 

The curves for the second and third memories call for no dis- 
cussion as the representation is apparent. They show, how- 
ever, a tendency to sympathize with the first. One fact seems 
clear from this study: There is not a progressive fading-out of 
memories as life advances and declines. The range of subjects 
recalled may narrow a little toward the close, but if a corre- 
sponding amount of data could be gathered, even this might 
be doubtful. The garrulous mode of talking prevalent among 
old people seems to be due to complete associations in which 
few petty details are omitted. Moreover the memory of the 
aged goes back practically as far as does that of young peo- 
ple, and is as clear and vivid. On the farm at my early 
home is a trout stream whose waters are clear and cold. In 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIKS. 239 

childhood I saw the tree-tops and mosses mirrored in the clear 
waters. The stream has narrowed down a little owing to the 
cutting away of the forest. The branches now reflected there 
have changed somewhat, not b}^ time, but by elements at work 
in time. If in old age I see them, the branches may be the 
same, but changed a little more. Such is the memory stream, 
narrowed a little, it may be, in the passing years, but the waters 
flowing as clear as ever from the same springs, mirror the old 
experiences. 

Comparing the Indian males with the white males of the 
same period, the Indians show a higher percentage of mem- 
ories for hearing, taste, mother and playmates, crying and grief, 
corporal punishment, trees, quarrels, and almost double for 
domestic fowls and animals. They have a higher percentage 
of tactile memories, and a smaller per cent, for dress and per- 
sons not relatives. The following memories are wholly or 
chiefly Indian: Fishing, snakes, squirrels, negroes, hunting 
(bow and arrows), lakes and streams, and tobacco. 

Comparing Indian females with white females of the same 
age, the Indians have a larger percentage of auditory, gusta- 
tory and motor memories, also for father, mother, playmates, 
fear and dolls; much greater for crying and grief, and double 
the percentage for domestic fowls and animals. They have a 
smaller percentage of memories for persons not related, dresses 
and other clothing, fewer topographical and logical memories, 
and less for sickness and accidents to self and others, and for 
the activity of others. The following memories belong wholly 
or chiefly to the Indians: Lakes, rivers, wolves, coons, owls, 
fishing, skating and negroes. 

The Indians who sent returns represent 25 different tribes, 
and may be considered fairly representative. Some of the 
tribes are in a low state of civilization, but many came from 
families of wealth and culture. Many of these memories may 
be termed crystallized racial experiences, and the question 
arises whether the memory tone is not modified by atavistic 
tendencies. As will be seen later, their memories for pleasant 
and unpleasant occurrences savor of racial experiences. The 
curves for the first three memories of both males and females 
average higher than those of the whites. That for the earliest 
memory of the males fluctuates between three and four until 
the age of 21 is reached. At this point it drops below 3, rises 
from 21 to 22, drops again, and with the curve for the second 
memory reaches its Ipwest point at 26. The third memory for 
this period is high. The curve for the earliest memory of 
the females reaches its lowest point by a rapid descent at 25. 
The second and third memories average 4 and 5, respectively, 
and are liable to reach the age of nine. 



240 COI.EGROVK : 

The curves for age, of the negroes, at the time of the first 
three memories show a higher average than those for the 
whites. The earliest memory of the males is usually found 
between three and four. The curve representing it is lower 
than 3 at the ages of 14 and 15; it also descends to three 
at the ages of 23, 24 and 27. It is high from 16 to 18, 
and culminates at 22. The second earliest memory ranges 
from 4 to 6, but at the age of 14 drops below 4. The curve 
for the third earliest memory fluctuates from 4)^ to 9. The 
curve representing the earliest memory of the negro females 
descends to 2 at the age of 25, and at this period the second 
earliest memory descends to 3. The curve for the first is higher 
at the age of 26, when it is 4-}-. The curve for the third 
memory is noticeably high during the period from 14 to 16. 
The first and second are high from 15 to 17. The curve for 
the third memory is high again from 19 to 25, when it de- 
scends. The curve for the second memory, like that for the 
first, falls at 22, and both reach a very low point at 25. 

The negroes do not seem to differentiate the memories from 
the memory complex until late in life. This may be due to the 
poverty of the mental experience in early life. The memory 
tone is monotonous. Further evidence of this is a strong ten- 
dency to remember by comparison. Such an event occurred in 
"Garfield's or in Harrison's administration," or "after I 
went to school." But the best educated negroes, as would be 
expected, have sharply defined and well differentiated early ex- 
periences. Their memories, too, have less of the grotesque 
character. The story of hardships, wrong and suffering is 
deeply imprinted on many memories. 

It was to be expected that the negro females would place 
emphasis upon dress. The racial experience also crops out. 
One could hardly find an Indian or white child afraid of a 
candy sheep's head because the teeth showed, but this was the 
earliest memory of a negress. 

The replies to questions 4 and 5 were tabulated together 
with replies to questions asked persons past fifty years of age 
regarding the decades best and poorest remembered. The 
years best remembered by males of all ages are the i6th and 
17th, which are equally well recalled. The 15th year comes 
next, followed by the 19th and 14th in the order given. The 
poorest remembered year is the 8th, and the second poorest the 
7th. From 46 to 50 there comes a tendency to remember the 
last 4 years or the last decade most poorly, and the red lines 
representing the best remembered years, and the black lines 
representing the poorest remembered years mingle together. 
After this period, as a rule, the last 4 years, or the last decade 
is least remembered. There are notable exceptions, however. 



INDIVIDUAI. MEMORIES. 24 1 

A few represent the whole life, after the first 4 years, as best 
recalled, and know no poorest memorj'. The statement is 
made by persons pavSt 80 that they still recall passing events 
well, in which they become interested, and to which they give 
attention. Middle aged people frequently designate the years 
20-25 <^'* 25-30 as the best remembered, for the reason that im- 
portant changes were then occurring. 

The poorest remembered year for the females also is the 8th, 
and the next poorest recalled is the 7th. Their best remem- 
bered year is the 15th. At the age of 50 the lines representing 
the best and poorest recalled years mingle freely, and after this 
the tendency is to recall the last 4 years or the last decade 
with the greatest difficulty. Here, too, are notable exceptions. 
It is worthy of note that the years poorest recalled by all per- 
sons are the 8th and 7th respectively. For all persons the 
years best recalled are those characterized by the great psychi- 
cal and mental awakenings of adolescent life. It is true that 
after 50, proper names, at least, are not so well recalled. An 
explanation given by the returns is that middle aged people 
have many more acquaintances and fewer intimate friends. 
The early memories abate little to the last. At every period at- 
tention and interest are the handmaids of memory. 

The sixth question called for false memories. The returns 
fully justify the discussion in a previous chapter as to the in- 
fluence of dreams. There are inverted memories, and defective 
localization in the past is fairly common. The period 16-19 is 
that in which false memories are most common. The expe- 
rience at this age is fairly common to both sexes, but the males 
are able to give fewer definite examples. Yet, while false mem- 
ories are more common at this period, no time of life seems free 
from them. 

Y. F., f., age 16. Read of robbery in paper, and told it as seen. 

A. N., f ., age 16. Told playmate a dream, and was punished for lying. 

A. B., f., age 17. Four years ago I dreamed a person was dead, and 
supposed it was true until I met her a year ago. 

M. C, f., age 17. Dreamed of a fire, and the next day asked if a 
friend went to it. 

Iv. C, f., age 17. Dreamed that price of potatoes had gone up, that 
mother had told me so. Found out my mistake at the dinner table. 

F. C, f., age 17. Dreamed mother had bought me a new dress. 
Looked for it all over the house. 

M. D., f., age 19. Told teacher of a visit to Washington. Had never 
been there. 

H. D., f., age 17. Dreamed uncle had come to visit us. Next morn- 
ing asked mamma if uncle had come down to breakfast yet. 

T., f,, age 9. Mistook event near close of voyage home from Scot- 
land to have been on the outward voyage. 

M., f., age 17. Visited a friend five summers ago. The friend vis- 
ited her seven summers ago. M. states that she made the first visit, 
and no amount of explanations and dates changes her mind. 



242 COI.EGROVK : 

T., m., age 19. Member of foot-ball team, in writing from memory 
a report of the games in which he played, often related events as oc- 
curring at the beginning of the game which, as a matter of fact, 
.occurred later. This was brought to his notice by men who stood on 
the side lines and kept running notes of the game. 

F, W., m., age 26. College graduate. Thought aunt told me some- 
thing coming home from a funeral 8 or 10 years ago. Recently 
learned that she and I returned from the funeral in different car- 
riages, and that it was told me by another relative. 

A. F., m., age 18. Often thought I was at a feast in the woods before 
I was born. 

R. C, m., age 15. Have an impression of having done something 
ages before. 

C. B., m., age 17. Dreamed there was a train of cars in the closet 
for me, but found none. 

E. L., m., age 14}4. Dreamed I had a bushel of pennies, but could 
not find them. 

A. H., m., age 19. Dreamed of landscapes which I never saw. They 
seemed real. 

Some of the dreams may remain permanently as real, but 
they are apt to be corrected by experience. 

Question seven called for the book read before the age of 9 
which is best recalled. Books which appeal strongly to the 
imagination constitute a large portion of those mentioned. The 
influence of rhyme also apparently aids the memory. The books 
most frequently mentioned, 180 in all, fall under the heading 
of light stories and nursery rhymes. While short children's 
stories are included, the Mother Goose Melodies, Jack and the 
Beanstalk, etc., make up a large part of this heading. The 
younger people, especially, recall the pictured story books 
which they have seen in rich profusion. Here might have been 
placed Little Lord Fauntleroy, mentioned by 14, and Babes in 
the Woods, by 3. 

The second division comprises novels which lead school 
books by the slight margin of 92 to 90. The list of novels is 
largely increased, however, by books mentioned separately, 
and which were not included in the above estimate. Such are 
Pilgrim's Progress remembered by 20, Black Beauty by 17, 
Uncle Tom's Cabin 14, Oliver Twist 3, Beautiful Joe i, Tom 
Brown's School Days i. Rip Van Winkle 3. 

Fairy Tales b}^ Grimm, Andersen and others, come next, 82, 
not including Cinderilla 25, Arabian Nights 5, ^sop's Fables 
2, Blue Beard 8. 

Returning to novels one separated from the general list is 
designated almost as many times as are all other novels. It is 
Robinson Crusoe mentioned 71 times. The Swiss Family Robin- 
son is mentioned 25 times, Gulliver's Travels twice. Of other 
books Bible stories are designated by 43, didactic works by 11, 
biography by 14, history by 13, natural history by 16. Little 
Men by Miss Alcott is mentioned by 9, and Little Women by 



INDIVIDUAI. MEMORIES. 



243 



16. A middle aged man writes that he recalls Little Men bet- 
ter than any book he has ever read. Essays are mentioned by 
3, Moody and Sankey Hymn Book by i. The Scrap Book and 
Brownies have one vote each. Peck's Bad Boy is mentioned 
twice. 

The pedagogical significance is unmistakable. What appeals 
to the child's imagination interests him, and as a result remains 
in memory. Historical and didactic novels are most potent of 
the permanent influences. Scott and Lord Lytton, not men- 
tioned here, if read early will be remembered. The Bible stories 
are the portions of sacred Scripture best suited to the child. 
Biography is well remembered and most instructive. There 
could be no better reading to appeal to the permanent interest 
of the young, than some of the best of Jowett's Dialogues of 
Plato. 

Pleasant and Unpleasant Memories. 

* * The thought of our past lives in me doth breed perpetual 
benediction." 

A large number of replies were received to the inquiry, ' ' do 
you remember pleasant or unpleasant experiences better ?' ' The 
replies are illustrated by the curves here given. 

The figures at the bottom give the age of the persons inter- 
viewed; the height of the curves gives the relative number of 
replies; the heavy lines representing those who remember the 
pleasant better, the broken lines those who remember the un- 
pleasant better, and the dotted lines the number who could 
make no choice. It is the relative rise of the curves represent- 
ing the pleasant and unpleasant memories, and not the absolute 
rise of one at any point or points that is significant. 



Fig. III. 




Z\ 


1 \ 


2^ t X 


1 f ^ 


t-H 


1 ,_j 7l _ 


t ±1 lA. ._ 


41 M-. ^ .lI^^ 


it' ^\jL 


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t jl 2 o^sti i^L. X 


J '^z\n -T ih 


^v •• ^ '' K I \i^t---\. 


^ ^^ ' ■••••••% 3'^^r^3E5L '^^ 


Jl ■' ^/\ •• ^^^_L 



li 14 1$ M n 16 18 20 U 21 21 24 2S io is 4« \S M SS fit CV )» Tf SO 8! 



Curves representing the pleasant and unpleasant memories of white males. 

As will be seen the pleasant and unpleasant memories of the 
male whites rise and fall together until the age of 21. At 22, 



244 



COI.EGROVB : 



in the case of the males, the curve for unpleasant memories is 
the higher, after which the pleasant memories are in the as- 
cendency. After the age of 30, unpleasant memories are little 
recalled by the males. 

The unpleasant memories have a larger share in the woman's 
mental life than in that of the man. 



Fig. IV. 




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ul t 


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ti '■ ■■■ tru/" 7v_ j\ 


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\ fJ ^ -1 Sl^' i /^jS iZtt 


7 ^ "^ ■••• 4^---- 35 i'Xtzu.t 


. L -^ :■ •• ^^^ •■•ZIS^E--3>J/^SS 


± ^/ •••••' ± _ jr 



21 2) if 2{ JD JS fs *£ iO JS 



CS 7a 75 60 6S 80 



Curves representing the pleasant and unpleasant memories of white females. 

The unpleasant memories play the important r61e in the case 
of the Indian and Negro males. One can hardly fail to see in 
it a suggestion of persecution and slavery. The Indian females 
show a slight tendency toward remembering unpleasant expe- 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 



245 



riences best, and share the sorrowful experiences of their 
Fig. V. 

"" "^ Fig. VI. 





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J3 H- IS IC 17 la 19 20 21 22 23 24 Z$ Z% 2T 28 23 JO 



23 24 2f 2e 



Curves representing- the pleasant and un-l Curves representing the pleasant and un- 
pleasant memories of Indian males, [ pleasant memories of Indian females. 

brothers. On the other hand, in the case of the negro females, 
unpleasant experiences play a very minor part indeed. With 
them a dress of striking color appears easily to efface grief. 

Fig. VIII. 



Fig. \ 


. 


:ii:ij\iiiiii=:: 


'II. : /:_^ 




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8 J.^ 


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21 22 23 2* 25 2£ 27 28 29 JO 34 JR 



14 15 l< 17 18 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 Z6 2? 



Curves r 



rves representing the pleasant and un-| Curves representing the pleasant and un- 
pleasant memories of Negro males. | pleasant memories of Negro females. 

For many years the warning against memoriter work has 
been so persistent that one almost feels like apologizing for ask- 
ing the question — "what studies have best developed your 
memory?" The thesis that memory ought not to be trained 
has been supplemented by the other that it cannot be trained. 
These ideas have made for advancement. They have also 
wrought injury. Have college students the ability to-day that 
they had fifteen years ago, to reproduce an author's thought 
and to think while upon their feet ? The question in the topi- 
cal syllabus called forth a great number of replies. Almost all 
of the studies in the curricula of High Schools, Normal Schools 
and Colleges are mentioned. We must allow for the fact that 
studies most commonly pursued will be mentioned most fre- 
quently. History easily takes the precedence, being mentioned 
229 times. Some specify learning the dates, but with the great 
majority the work of fixing the salient points at different 
epochs, and wide collateral reading, are believed to have aided 
the memory. It is but natural that a close ally, geography, 
should come next. It is mentioned 147 times. Arithmetic 
comes next, having 124 votes. Many specify the committing 



246 COLEGROVK : 

of the rules and tables. The tables for denominate numbers 
form an admirable memory drill. Geometry is mentioned 66 
times, and algebra 27 times, while mathematics is mentioned 
55 times. In certain schools where mathematics are well 
taught they have a large percentage of votes. Latin is men- 
tioned 67 times, some add " when taught in the old way." No 
other language is to be compared with the Latin in the num- 
ber of its adherents, although Greek is mentioned 8 times, 
(manj^ more have studied Latin than Greek). French 7 times, 
German twice, and Language by 19. If this be true of foreign 
languages we are not surprised to find that English Literature 
has 74 votes, English grammar 47, poetry 45, general reading 
36, recitations and declamations 30. Many state that their 
memory has been improved by memorizing gems of literature. 
Spelling is mentioned 27 times, science (general science) is 
mentioned; chemistry and physics are each named 5 times, 
physiology 14 times, botany twice, and zoology three times. 
Music is mentioned 8 times. Other studies named are Moral Phi- 
losophy I, Psychology 11, Drawing i, Catechism 3, Bible verses 
9, Pedagogy i, Political Economy and Civil Government i each. 
The Indians mention short-hand and phonography as helpful in 
training the memory. They also give other studies mentioned 
by the whites. The negroes, with two exceptions, refer to 
text-books and other books mentioned by the whites. It is 
probably true, as stated in another chapter, that nature assigns 
memory limits to each individual. There is as little doubt that 
within the limits assigned by nature the memory is susceptible 
to training, and is developed more by some studies than by 
others. 

The request contained under heading 10 of the syllabus — 
" give a condensed account of any case of loss of memory 
caused by a blow on the head, a fall, or by disease," elicited a 
number of suggestive replies. These results are not significant 
as compared with the carefully collated results in chapter 3, 
studied under medical supervision. They show, however, that 
loss of memory due to traumatism and disease are fairly com- 
mon and carefully observed by the folk consciousness. In- 
stances given are as follows: 

I. J., m. Head injured during foot-ball game. Could not remem- 
ber signals. 

Grandmother in usual health lost all memory for i^ days. 

M., f. Suffered nervous prostration, had to learn A. B. C.'s over. 
She afterward became a High School teacher, but was forgetful. 

E. G., f., age 19. Crossing the ocean forgot all had learned. It came 
back at age of 15. 

M., f., age tYz. Broke arm. Next day asked why it was tied up. 
Had forgotten the name of the pussy cat, etc. 

B., age 8. Scarlet fever, forgot everything, and had to learn over. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 247 

A number of instances were given in which the secondary automatic 
movements of children were lost by disease. 

E-, m., age 2. After a fever he had to learn to walk over again. 

Man fell. He did not know his own name for 2 years. After the 
death of his wife it all came back to him. 

Man fairly educated, after typhoid fever had to learn to spell. 

M. W. Fell down stairs three years ago. Cannot remember names 
since, nor can he identify persons. 

F. Can recall nothing which transpired before an illness at 6. 

Child fell from barn. Forgot being on the barn. 

Quinine affects the memory of one. 

L. L., f., age 15. Crossed Pacific Ocean at 4, sick, forgot Chinese 
language. It came back upon return to China 2 years later. 

That the memory is affected by the state of the physical health 
is a widespread, popular belief, due to experience. A " close, 
stuffy room," and " lack of mental power due to fatigue," are 
mentioned as prejudicial to a good memory. 

B. M., f., age 18. Broke limb at 9, took chloroform. Memory for 
years 1-9 poorer since. She attibutes it to the chloroform. Others 
believe that chloroform has affected their memory. 

H. K., Indian, age 24. "I was playing foot-ball, and once while 
running with the ball I was tackled by an opponent, who threw me on 
the flat of my back, with his own weight on top of me, my head striking 
the ground at the same time or a little before my body did. I got up 
in a little while, said I was not hurt for I felt no pain, so they began 
playing. They called the signals and I stood still. I could not place 
the meaning of the numbers. I did not even know my own number, 
so after the play was made I stepped to the other ' half-back ' and 
asked him what my number was. Before the fall I knew the signals 
as well as any man on the team. Of course I had to retire from the 
field. I could not remember from one minute to the next. I knew 
what I was doing, and knew at the time that I could not remember a 
thing. There were three days that I could not remember anything. It 
just seemed that a door would shut on everything I did, and in less 
than a minute I would be doing the same thing over again." 

A well known pedagogical principle is that vivid impressions 
are easily recalled. With frequency, recency, and emotional 
congruity, vividness plays an important role in association. In 
order to test the abiding character of a vivid experience 179 
middle aged and aged people were asked in personal interviews 
the following question : " Do you recall where you were when you 
heard that Lincoln was shot?" An affirmative answer required 
the exact location, an example of which is the following reply: 
* ' My father and I were on the road to A — in the State of 
Maine to purchase the ' fixings ' needed for my graduation. 
When we were driving down a steep hill into the city we felt 
that something was wrong. Everybody looked so sad, and 
there was such terrible excitement that my father stopped his 
horse, and leaning from the carriage called: * What is it, my 
friends? What has happened?' ' Haven't you heard?' was the 
reply — ' Lincoln has been assassinated.' The lines fell from my 
father's limp hands, and with tears streaming from his eyes he 



248 COLEGROVE : 

sat as one bereft of motion. We were far from home, and much 
must be done, so he rallied after a time, and we finished our 
work as well as our heavy hearts would allow. ' ' 

Not all the replies were«*so vivid as this one, but only those 
were accounted as affirmative which contained facts as to time 
of day, exact location, and who told them. 

J. P., age 76. I was standing by the stove getting dinner, my hus- 
band came in and told me. 

M. B., age 79. I was setting out a rose bush by the door. My hus- 
band came in the yard and told me. It was about 11 o'clock a. m. 

H. R., age 73. We were eating dinner. No one ate much after we 
heard of it. 

J. T., age 73. I was fixing fence, can go within a rod of the place 
where I stood. Mr. W. came along and told me. It was 9 or 10 o'clock 
in the morning. 

Iv. B., age 84. It was in the forenoon ; we were at work on the road 
by K.'s mills; a man driving past told us. 

Of the 179 persons interviewed, 127 replied in the affirma- 
tive, and were able to give full particulars; 52 replied in the 
negative. A few who gave a negative reply recalled where 
they were when they heard of Garfield's death. Inasmuch as 
33 years have elapsed since Lincoln's death the number who 
made an affirmative reply must be considered large, and bears 
testimony to the abiding character of vivid experiences. 

Many helpful pedagogical suggestions were received from High 
School, Normal and College students in reply to question 1 1 . 
Figures are mentally represented as clearly as possible, — a * ' pict- 
ure of them as they look printed or written. ' ' A child thought of 
the figures to be carried in division as ' * gone up in the attic. ' ' 
He would ' ' call up attic to see if anything was there. ' ' One 
" locates them on a certain page of a book." Several "write 
them a few times." Association helps. A college student 
writes, ' ' I associate figures with what is familiar. If I hear 
that Mr. A. receives $5,000 salary, I say to myself that is 5 times 
as much as my old school teacher got. After this the salary is 
easily recalled." Place localization, and association are chiefly 
relied upon. Some have a kind of mnemonic system, and group 
or reverse the numbers. One associates the figure 8 with a 
doughnut. 3. 141 6, the ratio between the diameter and the cir- 
cumference of a circle is fixed by serial association, repeating 
the figures in order. 3. — 1.4.1.6. (3, one 4, one 6). The same 
aids are employed for dimensions. The most efficient mnemonic 
aids for dates is to associate them with important events, e. g. , 
1492, 1776, etc. Dates of minor importance are associated with 
these. Charts are recommended. Some make rhymes for dates, 
getting the idea, perhaps, from the way the presidents or the 
rulers of England are remembered. One sees figures in a wind- 
ing row. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 249 

Faces are recalled by types. After fixing the type to which 
it belongs, the eyes, hair, nose, cheek-bones, complexion and 
scars are noted. A college student writes: "I try to trace a 
resemblance between a strange face and one I know. ' ' A mid- 
dle aged woman takes careful notice of the hand. She has a 
poor memory for faces, but can often locate the person by the 
hand. A normal student writes the initial of the person or 
place on the left hand. After it has been erased she still vis- 
ualizes it there. One analyzes the features. ' * If any feature 
resembles a well known face it is easily recalled. ' ' 

Microscopic structures and crystals are fixed by drawing 
them. Drawing is the chief aid. Here, too, clear visualiza- 
tion counts. ' ' I see them floating before my eyes. ' ' lyocali- 
zation in place is a help. 

I^eaves are remembered by the form, color, number of lobes, 
the veining, margins, and by comparing them with other 
leaves. Figures of wall-paper and carpets are associated with 
the room, house, or are localized in time. Here forms are also 
fixed by drawing, ' ' even by tracing them in the air. ' ' The 
color, shape, and above all striking characteristics of figures 
are noticed. 

Phrases in music are recalled by playing, or by attempting 
to play, or by humming the tune. College student, m. , age 
22. *' I recall the time intervals and note the first part of the 
theme; I recall the rest by association." Female, age 17, nor- 
mal student writes: " I remember phrases in music by thinking 
if they are similar to phrases in any selections that I have 
heard." Constant repetition and association of the selection 
with the person who played or sang it are helps frequently 
used. *' If I get one measure as tone, — be it first or last, — the 
rest comes without effort." Female, age 34, recalls sounds, 
not appearance of notes. Her memory for sounds was strength- 
ened by taking music lessons. One recalls music by an imag- 
inary curved line going up and down with the tone. One 
thinks of whole rests as heavier than half rCvSts, and conse- 
quently falling below the line. One boy thinks of the notes 
as Chinese climbing a fence. With another it is secondary 
automatic, — "my fingers remember the music." The Indians 
find that sheer determination helps them to remember music, 
as other experiences. 

The negro males gave, — by sound, visualizing, position of 
notes on the staff", some initial note is the key to the whole, 
music just comes up. Negro females remember (a) phrases in 
music by accent, (b) by sounds, time and words, (c) where 
they saw them last, (d) by mental picture of the notes. The 
familiar mnemonic sentences are given for sharps, flats and 
keys: " God deluged all earth by floods," *' Foolish boys eat 

JODRNAI, — 6 



250 COLEGROVK : 

apple dumplings greedily," "Fred Coburn goes down after 
each boy. ' ' 

It is worthy of note that some excellent musicians recall 
music better after an interval. They cannot immediately re- 
produce it if they have enjoyed it intensely. Sometimes an 
interval of a day or two is necessary in order to recall it well. 
It is quite possible that there is a modification of the basilar 
membrane which serves as a basis for subsequent recall. Fur- 
thermore it is true that many people find that a time interval 
is necessary to recall well any experience. K. C, f., age 17, 
recalls better now what happened in all school grades than 
when she was younger. Male, age 20, " I can define and 
locate my former experiences better now than I could a year 
or so after they happened. " Female, age 19, "I can recall 
now things that happened 8 or 10 years ago, which I could not 
recall 4 years ago. ' ' Apart from a maturer mind perspective 
seems to be necessary to many in order that they may have a 
good memory. 

The cut of dresses is recalled by association with the person 
who wore the garment. New features are noted. The differ- 
ent parts, as neck, yoke and skirt, are studied by one. Asso- 
ciation with place and person is the chief aid. 

Passages of prose and declamations are memorized by paying 
attention to the thought. After the thought is fixed it easily 
clothes itself in language. Not a few, however, memorize me- 
chanically, attention being especially paid to the beginnings 
and endings of sentences. Repetition and reading aloud are 
frequently mentioned. Clear mental representation and a purely 
local memory are of service. Male, 17. "I usually memorize 
by imprinting the object and its surroundings on my mind like 
a negative. In memorizing I^ew Wallace's "chariot race," 
comprising 16 pages, I read it through twelve times. I im- 
printed the photograph of the page on my mind, and then read 
what I saw." In poetry the answers bear out the conclusions 
of Ebbinghaus and Miiller and Schuman, as to the influence of 
rhythm. It plays the chief r61e. One is aided by fixing upon 
the initial letters of each line. Another gets the thought, 
" and the words which are so closely associated with thought 
in poetry come of their own accord. ' ' Repeating aloud is of 
service, but form and structure are usually mentioned as the 
essentials to be considered. Practice improves. One learns 
easily who memorizes a selection every day and rehearses all at 
the close of the week. A college student writes, " first of all a 
feeling of confidence is necessary in all recollection. Doubt 
breaks the train. ' ' The memory must be trusted. 

Much the same suggestions are given as to the manner of 
memorizing fine passages. Slow repetition aids one or two. 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIBS. 25 1 

The reasons given for memorizing these passages are (a) beauty 
of thought, (b) beauty of expression. " The author expresses 
the thought better than I can." " When depressed these beau- 
tiful passages come up and encourage me." Other reasons are: 
"To enrich my mental life," " prevents day-dreaming, " "con- 
venient when no book is at hand," "for pleasure and enjoy- 
ment ' ' is an answer repeated frequently. 

Few devices were given for fixing forms and phrases of for- 
eign languages. Comparison with similar phrases and forms 
in the mother tongue is found to be serviceable. Even where 
the native language is as poor as the Indian this device is 
found useful. The less familiar are associated with the better 
known. The beginning of the list of German prepositions, aus, 
bei, mit, nach, etc., are associated by one with the phrase 
" the house by the meat-market." 

A large number of devices are given for keeping appoint- 
ments. Females change rings, insert paper under a ring, pin 
paper on dress, etc. There are other favorite mechanical de- 
vices. Chairs are turned over, and other furniture disarranged. 
A middle aged man hid his hat to remind him of an appoint- 
ment. Next morning he hunted up another hat, but did not 
recall why the one usually worn was gone. One associates 
appointments with the hands of the clock at the hour fixed. 
Not a few find it necessary to repeat the appointment again and 
again. Others are aided by a memorandum. As a rule those 
who say that their memories are utterly untrustworthy do not 
use notes. Yet W., m., age 26, writes that the only appoint- 
ment he has missed for years is one which he noted down. 
Female, age 16, writes, "to keep an appointment I write the 
first letter of the person or place connected with the appoint- 
ment on my left hand. Even if it be erased I still imagine it 
there." Clear mental representation is the great help in such 
cases. Three visualize in colored terms. Female, age 19, re- 
calls the letter A in black on red background. Female, age 
21, " words seem colored. My name is red, my sister is yel- 
low. I often remember by color." Male, age 18, "I remember 
figures by color. ' ' 

There is a wide diversity of opinion as to how full notes a 
student should take, and almost all degrees of copiousness 
are indicated. Female, age 37, believes her memory was in- 
jured by taking full notes at the normal school. Again, "too 
many notes make the general idea of the lecture indistinct. ' ' 
One writes that the state of his health determines how full 
notes he takes. If the physical tone is low he is obliged to 
take more copious notes. Some are best aided by jotting down 
the headings and by giving attention unreservedly to the lecture. 
A normal student writes out very full notes, and never thinks 



252 COLEGROVE : 

of the contents of the lecture until she leaves the lecture room. 
Some take "key" words with which the rest is associated. 
Concentration of attention and " hand and arm " memory are 
required as a rule by taking quite copious notes. To take few 
notes is a work of art, and the essentials must be seized upon. 
The consensus of opinions received would seem to favor few 
notes. Where full notes are taken they are not often re- 
viewed. 

The inquiry: "how would you teach a boy to remember 
things on time?" brought out a large number of specific direc- 
tions, many of which were of a nature to make the fate of the 
lone Indian attractive by comparison. The normal students 
would have him keep a memorandum book; deprive of some 
pleasures, give tardy mark; keep after school as long as late; 
exclude from class and association with other pupils; if late at 
dinner, give very scanty meal; write down and fix things for 
him to do in a natural order; mark o; be on time myself for an 
example; make him go and get what he had forgotten; tell him 
true story of boy in trouble on account of forgetfulness; punish 
if late, and reward for being on time; make him do two or 
three times as much when he wants to do something else; 
study the boy; exclude from school; make him write the thing 
forgotten 20 times; have him repeat what he was to do and 
when; make him take the natural consequences; whip; lecture; 
strengthen his memory by having him commit poetry; have 
him write several hundred times what he had forgotten ; give 
him tasks to perform that could be done only at one time; 
teach the sin of forgetting; try to interest him; first, ask w^hy, 
second, keep after school; strengthen his memory by giving 
him short lessons to learn; show him how it would affect his 
father's business if his father were not on time; " I once told a 
forgetful boy to be sure and forget, and if he did I would give 
him a pretty card. He remembered." 

The academic and collegiate students favor corporal punish- 
ment. One states that it worked well when he was a boy. 
The Indians also suggest this remedy. A very sensible sug- 
gestion comes from a college woman: " If a boy could not re- 
member things on time, I would try to give him opportunities 
for practice; I should try to form an association between the 
thing to be done and the required time or something which 
would happen then." The suggestions to study the boy, and 
make him take the natural consequences; try to interest him; 
and ask him why, are good from a pedagogical standpoint. 

A large number of young people state that they store up 
facts and dates with no definite idea of how they will use them. 
This statement applies more to facts than dates. It is a trait 
more characteristic of young men than young women. Male, 



INDIVIDUAL MEMORIES. 253 

age 20, writes: " I collect facts as I would dollars, expecting 
to use them in many different ways." While peering into the 
future, and uncertain as to what resources shall be called out, 
the young man stores up facts from all sources, with but little 
thought as to their use. 

In reply to question 12, instances are frequently given of a 
tenacious memory for history or literature, accompanied by lit- 
tle ability for original thought. Such students are usually de- 
ficient in mathematical ability. One young girl learns a page 
easily, but she has to recite it in order, or all is a blank to her. 
Male, age 19. Recalled all that he heard or read, but his con- 
versation and writings were masses of quotations. 

On the one hand it is recognized that a rich mental life is 
impossible without a good memory; on the other, very complete 
association is often attended by poor constructive power. 

The request made under heading 13 of the syllabus called 
forth a wealth of material. Certain cases due to abstraction are 
as follows: A young lady went to telegraph for an umbrella left 
on a car; she had been holding it over her head for 30 minutes. 
A lady walked into the parlor with a $10 bill in one hand, a 
match in the other. She put the bill in the stove and saved 
the match. A college professor forgets to eat his meals. A 
boy broke his ribs, and forgot all about it in two days. A man 
picked up a pebble and put it in his pocket; took out his 
watch and threw it into the ocean. A lady tried to tie her 
horse with the blanket and cover him with the line. A boy 
returned from the store three times to find out what his mother 
wanted. A lady was called away by an important message be- 
fore breakfast, forgot until late in the day that she had eaten 
neither breakfast nor dinner. Gentleman, age 50, came down 
from his study and asked his wife if she knew where his pen 
was, he thought the children had mislaid it. She told him if 
he would take it out of his mouth he would talk more plainly, 
^oy, age 9, sent to store for extract of peppermint, brought pare- 
goric; sent back with a bottle labelled peppermint, brought 
vanilla; third time sent he brought the peppermint. College pro- 
fessor, expert in numbers, is frequently seen with one black 
and one tan shoe on. A minister became absorbed in a book 
and forgot that it was Sunday. Man walked home and left his 
horse in the village all night. The same man went home from 
church and left his wife. 

A great share of cases of lack of memory are due to abstrac- 
tion, or to absent mindedness, which Mach terms ' ' present 
mindedness. " It often characterizes people of great ability 
along narrow lines of thought. The following is an instance 
of lack of memory due to fatigue: Female, age 22. " At the 
age of 16 I had been travelling all day, I went to the ticket 



254 COI.EGROVE : 

office at the last change of cars, but could not think where I 
was going, yet I had lived in the town i6 years. 

There are a few instances given in which loss of memory 
is due to distraction. A middle aged woman heard of her son's 
death by drowning. She could not remember her husband's 
address in order to telegraph him, although she had written 
there hundreds of times. " Aunt recalls nothing that happens 
since her husband's death," 

Defective memory in children is ascribed to things known. 
There are many instances reported in which forgetting oc- 
curred in the field of things done, many of these cases, how- 
ever, are evidently cases of temporary forgetfulness due to 
abstraction. All of the Indians, with a single exception, state 
that things known are most easily forgotten. As to abstrac- 
tion, no period of life is free from its influence. Not a few 
draw comfort from the facts frequently cited, that Samuel 
Johnson, when he had stepped from the sidewalk would con- 
tinue for a long distance with one foot in the gutter and one on 
the walk; that Pestalozzi did not know enough to put up his 
umbrella when it rained; that Sir Isaac Newton supposed he 
had eaten when he saw the chicken bones on his plate; and 
that Edison forgot his wedding day. Still the fact remains that 
no period of life is free from noticeable abstraction. The boy 
with book in hand forgets to go to dinner after he has rung the 
bell; the young woman goes to different parts of the house, she 
knows not why; middle age hunts for the thimble on its fin- 
ger, or the pen in its mouth; while old age is troubled that it 
cannot find the glasses on its nose. 

Loss of mind and heredity are much less frequently cited as 
causes of forgetfulness than abstraction or distraction due ta 
disease. 

The fourteenth question was very abstract, and in some in- 
stances was evidently misunderstood. The answers came chiefly 
from young people. Of those who apparently answered in an 
intelligent manner 140 believed that the interval between being 
aware of an experience and the ability'- to define, locate and 
name the experience grows narrower as we grow old. Often 
the period up to middle age onl}^ is considered. One qualifies 
the statement " until old age;" two state that this is true until 
college is reached; while many consider that it holds until mid- 
dle age. Not a few of the replies are the outgrowth of indi- 
vidual experiences, and would not apply after the age of 20 or 
22 is reached. 125 state that the interval grows wider. Sev- 
eral state that this is especially true of middle age. The fact is 
recognized in the returns that the interests of middle life are 
greater, and the range of one's acquaintances is wider, and 
that this influences the interval necessary for recognizing and 



INDIVIDUAI. MEMORIES. 255 

defining an experience. This may not be the only factor, but 
it seems to offer, at least, a partial explanation. A fruitful 
field of inquiry is thus opened up and the ground broken. Pro- 
longed and painstaking study of this problem may be richly 
repaid. 

The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to President G. 
Stanley Hall for his unremitting interCvSt and helpful sugges- 
tions, to Dr. K. C. Sanford for practical plans as to working up 
the returns, and to Dr. Burnham for criticism. He is deeply 
indebted to the many educators in colleges, normal schools, 
academies and high schools, for returns sent to the question- 
naire. Their unselfish work remains as a most pleasing recollec- 
tion. Mention must be made of Miss Lillie A.Williams, of the 
Trenton (N. J.), Normal School, for a great amount of excel- 
lent work; also of Miss Sarah W. Smith, of Medina, Ohio. A 
large number of papers were sent by President A. H. Heine- 
man, of Haskell Institute, Ks., President Charles Meserve, of 
Raleigh, N. C, and by Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee, 
Ala. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 



By IviNUS W. KWNE, Ph. D. 



The diflferentiation of comparative psychology, as a branch 
and method to general psychology, has been comparatively slow. 
Its growth, however, has been natural and healthy, and its 
contributions to the study of mind are ever increasing in value. 
A complete historical account of this differentiation would be 
quite premature ; yet it may be worth while to note in passing 
that several of the special problems of psychology, — for example: 
emotions, instinct, habit, heredity, etc., have been treated on 
very broad lines by such all-around scientists as La Marck, 
Brehm, Darwin, Kingsley, Wallace and Agassiz. A little later, 
men like Naegal, Huxley, Romaines, Lubbock, Graber, and 
Spalding, began to focus down and make experiments and ob- 
servations on the senses, habits and intelligence of animals. 
Running somewhat parallel with these two groups of more 
purely scientific writers are the speculative and philosophic pens 
of Oken, Lewes, Spencer, Schneider, Weismann, Biichner, Cope 
and others who have evaluated and ennobled the facts of or- 
ganic life by indicating their significance on the more serious 
and time- honored problems of mind and philosophy. 

At present, definite problems, as the formation of association 
processess,^ imitation, habit and instinct, are put to animals 
by playing upon some one or more fundamental instincts and 
taxic motions like those of hunger, sex, discomfort in solitude 
and prison, preferences for certain colors, geotaxis, chemotaxis, 
tonotaxis, etc. The ablest representative for psychology in this 
work is Lloyd Morgan, whose careful and critical interpretations 
of the objective manifestations of mind through bodily activities 
have done much to make comparative psychology reputable as a 
science, and even now essential to a comprehensive understand- 
ing of the more fundamental problems of mind. Wundt like- 
wise has criticised to great advantage the usual erroneous and 
loose interpretations of animal activities. Criticisms of this 
type should not cease yet awhile. 

The matter of interpretation at this stage, however, it seems 
to me is secondary. The most urgent need at present is more 
and better methods to get at the facts, which, when once dis- 
covered, will receive ample and proper attention. 

^Thorndike, Edward I/.: Animal Intelligence. An experimental 
study of the associative processes in animals. N. Y., June, 1898. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 257 

The systematic study of animals thus far has been conducted 
along two lines : oue, for a better name, we shall call the nat- 
ural method. This consists in observing carefully and continu- 
ously the free life of an animal, for example: Huber, Moggridge, 
and McCook on ants, Audubon on birds, Figuier on insects, 
Mills^ on our domestic animals ; the second line of work may 
be termed the experimeiital method. Here the animal is sub- 
jected to certain conditions essential in putting a question, and 
that favor the performance of activities that shall contribute 
material for answering a problem. 

Both methods are necessary to a more abundant ingathering 
of facts. Both are frequently used by the same investigators, 
e. g. , Lubbock and Bethe* on ants, and Morgan on birds. Both 
have their share of errors and abuses. In the natural methods 
the cleverness of animals is sometimes overestimated, anecdotes 
of a questionable foundation are given too much credence. In 
the experimental method, conditions too artificial are liable to 
be created, thereby inhibiting the free expression of the animal's 
acts. Fear is too often present, dominating and modifying every 
act. A recent investigation makes exclusive use of the second 
method, which seems to me exposes the results to serious criti- 
cism. I shall revert to this investigation later in this paper. 

Partly as an illustration of the use of these two methods com- 
bined, partly to reinforce observations already made, and lastly 
to present a bit of new material, I present the results of experi- 
ments and observations made on vorticella, wasps, chicks and 
rats. 

Vorticella Gracilis.^ 

The object here was to discover what activities, if any, have 
a psychological significance or value. The activities may be 
subsumbed under the following rubrics : Self-preservation, repro- 
duction, and "miscellaneous." The first includes all those 
movements, whatever, both of the whole and parts of the cell, 
exerted in food-getting, ejecting detritus, placing the mouth in 
a more advantageous position for receiving food, contracting the 
stalk to escape an enemj^ or when cilia touch any large body, 
dead or alive, etc. 

The reproductive activities need no specification. Miscel- 
laneous activities include all those movements for which we can 

^ Mills, Wesley: Animal Intelligence. 307 pp. The Macmillan Co., 
18^8. 

" Bethe, Albrecht : Diir fur wirden Ameisen und Biemen psychische 
Qualit aten zuschreiben ? Pfliiger Archiv fiir Physiologie. Bd. LXX 
1898. 

3 I am greatly indebted to Dr. C. F. Hodge for many valuable sug- 
gestions in carrying out this experiment. 



258 KLINE : 

assign no cause, e. g. , violent contraction of the stalk at a time 
when the field is free from any disturbing element that might 
be revealed by the microscope, food abundant, and body fairly 
well filled. Probably a study directed with a view to ascertain 
its chemotaxic and tonotaxic reactions would make some of these 
activities meaningful. I turn to the activities of self-preserva- 
tion and note first the movements of the body as a whole. If the 
long axis of stalk and calyx is in and with a current of water/ 
the calyx is soon turned across the stream, forming an angle 
with the stalk. It is evident, owing to the well-known bell-shape 
of the calyx and the position of the cilia, that thus turning the 
bell would greatly facilitate food getting. Is there a psychical 
element in such a movement, i. e., is the movement the outcome 
of the exercise of a psychical force? It appears to me that an 
afi&rmative answer is open to two serious objections: First, it can 
be explained in several other equally as plausible terms. The 
reaction to hunger alone is sufficient to account for the move- 
ment, and when we reflect that the habitat of V. is on grasses 
bathed by currents, natural selection might well be invoked as 
the principle that has impressed a reflex or mechanical move- 
ment of this sort on the cell. Then again, the inequality of 
the density of the current on the sides of the bell is a stimulus 
sufficient to cause a reaction expressed in movement (Jonotaxis). 
Reactions of this sort occur in paramcecia,^ hydra,* frog, and the 
human conjunctive ; second, to ascribe a directing role to what- 
ever psychoses that may be present in these forms to activities 
of this sort, precludes further investigation — just as the "fiat 
creation hypothesis ' ' of the middle ages kept men from enquir- 
ing into the more rational ways of world growth. 

The mouth cilia are so directed as to either receive or reject 
small particles of matter. These activities have been cham- 
pioned as ps3'chical. That the cilia do these things there can 
be no question, but that they are movements directed by a 
psychosis, i. e., are really selective, expressing choice, is quite 
another question. Before this question can be scientifically 
discussed, it seems to me another question must first be deter- 
mined, viz. : Have vorticellae a choice in food — do they not 

^A current of sterilized water carrying yeast cells from a large flask 
was kept flowing under the cover slip. The water was drawn from the 
flask through a glass syphon, down to a capillary point, placed at one 
end of the cover slip, and a filter-paper drip attached to the other end. 
The microscope used was a Zeiss, apochromatic series, comp' ocular 
12 objective i6 mm., which gave a magnification 190 diameters, and 
sometimes ocular 6, objective 4 mm. was used — magnification 375 dia- 
meters. The vorticellae were found in great abundance from flags 
placed in an aquarium three weeks. 

^Jennings, H. S. : Reaction of Ciliate Infusoria. Journal of Physi- 
ology, Vol. 21, 1897, pp. 258-321. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 259 

receive both digestible and indigestible material alike, and 
when filled eject both alike? It is a physical impossibility to 
receive even all the digestible material that comes their way. 
If given yeast they will receive 2, 3, or 4 grains at once and 
will then whirl the others away for 5, 10, sometimes 15 minutes 
before admitting any more. So that what has been interpreted 
as a selective process may be a reaction to "enough." To get 
facts that would answer the question one would have to first 
find a material^ that they reject^ altogether, then mix it with a 
palatable food, say yeast grains, and note their reactions toward 
the mixture. 

I present in Table I the notes from my diary on a typical ex- 
periment with vorticella. It presents nothing essentially new 
or different from the work of Drs. Hodge and Aiken, save that 
yeast is a food for all the V. that I observed. 

Again, do they discern between enemies and friends, between 
what is harmful and unharmful? If they do, we should expect 
to see the stalk contract in the presence of certain objects and 
remain extended in others or even remain in contact with them; 
and if they do not, we should expect the stalk to contract when 
the calyx comes in contact with any rigid, resisting, unmanage- 
able object, organic or inorganic, dead or living matter. The 
latter condition is just what we do find. Vorticella takes no 
risks, trusts nothing, as it were, but contracts the stalk when- 
ever the sensitive parts of the calyx or cilia meet with any re- 
sisting body whatsoever. I have observed the stalk contract 
when yeast cells and other food material came floating by in 
unmanageable quantities, or when the peristomal region came 
in contact with a large colon}^ of bacteria — if the colony is small, 
they are hurled away b}^ the cilia. I counted 118 stalk con- 
tractions due to the calyx hitting a dead leaf fibre. How long 
it had been reacting to this particular object, and how much 
longer it would have continued, had no accident intervened, can 
only be conjectured. 

It seems to me all that we can say here is that the sense of 
touch mediates bigness, and persistence or rigidity, and reactions 
to such stimuli imply nothing more than simple mechanical 
reflexes. 

Under the category of reproductive activities it is sometimes 
urged that the attachment of the free-swimming zoid near the 
base of the calyx is an expression of choice of selection on 
the part of the zoid, and therefore psychic. The zoospores of 
the cryptogamic world do equally as clever things in selecting 

^This problem was suggested to me by Dr. Adolf Meyer. 

*The substance would have to be partly insoluble, at least in water, 
and of low specific gravity. I suggest pepsin, lycopodium powder, 
a few of the salts of calcium and barium, ground glass and the like. 



26o 



KLINE 



the right oospore in which to penetrate. My fondness for mys- 
ticism and the * * brand-new' ' is too feeble to urge me to invade 
the botanist's realm searching for psychological material. 

The presence of a psychoses is not denied. There may be 
feelings corresponding to the stimuli bigness, rigidity or per- 
sistence, whenever the organism mechanically responds to such. 
All that I aiSrm is that these activities give no indication that 
they are the outcome of the exercise of a psychical principle. 

Table containing the observations on Vorticella gracilis. 
Experiment 12. 



Date and time. Contraction of Stalk. 



Kov. 
22,7 



,00 A.M. 

45 " 

05 " 

45 " 



*' 9-45 " 

" 9-55 " 

" 10.00 " 

" 10.10 " 

" 10.30 *' 



None. 

None. Stalk well 

extended. 

Regularly. 

Feeble. 



4 X per min. 

Less frequent. 

None. 



Once,whenalarge 
torulae struck the 
body near the 
mouth parts. 

None. 



None. 

None. 
None. 



Remarks. 



Cilia moving slowly. Vesicle closing 

about 3 per min. 
Feeding occasionally. Takes in yeast 

grains. 
Stopped feeding. 
A swift current bearing yeast grains has 

just started up. The long axis of stalk 

and bell are in line with current. 

Feeding again. Taken in two yeast grs. 
Takes in yeast grs. occasionally, permits 
the great majority to go by after being 
twirled rapidly by the cilia. It is a phy- 
sical impossibility to take in all the 
yeast grains that come by, or, for that 
matter, other food material. The food 
revolves around a common center. The 
diameter of each revolution of any one 
revolving food mass grows shorter. 
The food thus approaches the center, 
but not quite, as it gradually works to- 
ward the mouth when nearing com- 
plete digestion. 
Feeding slowly. Takes in 3 or 4 yeast 
grs. at once, then sets them to revolv- 
ing with the great mass of food. 



Has turned the bell almost at right 
angles to the stream, (the stalk is in 
line with the stream). This offers a 
better position for taking food. 

Two yeast grains, after making one 
revolution, were hurled out not seri- 
uosly injured. 

Ejected yeast detritus, i, e.y cells that 
had been digested to a shapeless mass. 

Followed two yeast grains through one 
revolution ; time, 4 min. and 45 sec, 
about. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 



261 



Table containing the observations of Vorticella gracilis. 
(Continued.) 



Date and time. Contraction of Stalk, 



Remarks. 



Nov. 
22,10.35 



10.45 
10.55 

11.03 



" 11.30 ** 
" 11.55 A.M. 
'• 12 M. 



None. 



Once, violent. 
None. 



None. 

None. 

None. 

Regularly. 



•* 12.15 P.M. 
" 12.20 " 


Rapid and vio- 
lent. 
Irregular but 
strong. 


" 12.45 " 


None. 


" 12.55 " 


None. 


" I.15 " 
" 2.00 ♦' 


No. 2 violent and 
rapid. 
Feeble. 


" 2.15 " 


Occasionally. 


•' 2.16 " 


None. 


" 2.18 " 


Twice, violent. 


" 2.30 ♦' 


None. 


" 2.40 " 


None. 


" 3.00 " 


Occasionally. 



A torulae of six grains rest on the base 
of the bell. V. does not move — in- 
different to their touch. Heretofore, 
when a similar bunch was caught 
about cilia and lip, contraction of 
stalk followed at once. 

Threw off the chain of torulae at base. 
It had supported the chain 15 min. 

Revolution of food not regular. Some- 
times it moves by jerks. 

The body has been distended with yeast 
grs. for one hour. 

Yeast cells in all degrees of digestion. 

Body growing shorter and thicker. 

Body has two mouths — a clearage line 
can be made out. At one edge of the 
field V. No. 2, that has likewise been 
under observation from the beginning, 
is also dividing. Differed from V. No. 
I only in feeding; has eaten less yeast, 
digested all. 

Division complete with No. 2, making 
two bells attached to the same stalk. 

At close of clearage No. 2 daughters were 
roundish, dumpy, now becoming more 
bell shaped. 

No. I has completed divison. Neither No. 
I nor No. 2 have taken food for 45 min. 

No. 2 has begun to feed — taken in three 
yeast grains. 

No. 2 has lost her daughter. No. i eat- 
ing yeast grains again. 

No. I daughter bell detached. No. r 
throwing out digested material. Cur- 
rent has slowed up, yeast grains 
scarce. 

Cilia are developing about the base. 
Has stopped feeding, ejected most of 
detritus. Mouth cilia moving slowly 
and body elongating. 

Body rotating around stalk and quiver- 
ing with violent action. Current nil. 

Broken off from stalk and swimming 
away, having been under observation 
7 hrs., 18 min. 

Current in region of No. 2 has run con- 
tinuously. 

Feeding on yeast and other material that 
has somehow fallen into the current. 

Stuffed with yeast, body bent obliquely 
to the stream. 



262 



KLINE : 



Table containing the observations of Vorticella gracilis. 
(Concluded.) 



Date and time. Contraction of Stalk. 



Nov. 
22, 3. 

" 3 

" 4 
" 5 



" 5-IO 



5-35 



" 6. 

" 6, 

'* 6. 

" 7- 

" 7- 

23> 7- 



05 " 

30 P.M. 

45 " 
00 " 

15 " 

30 A.M. 



8.00 



9.00 



None. 
None. 

None. 
None. 

None. 



Once. Bell struck 
by a monster. 

Feeble. 
Occasionally. 

Violent. 

4 X per min. 

Few. 



Every time cilia 
twirls bacteria or 
run into a mass 
too thick to be 

twirled. 

Violent. 



Remarks. 



Yeast grains revolving — being digested. 
Ejecting detritus, taking in yeast grs. 

and other foods. 
Vesicle contracts about 3 x per min. 
For the last hour but little feeding, no 

yeast received, body filled with it. 
Food massed being churned, moved back 

and forth through the long axis of bell 

instead of revolving. 
Filled like a balloon, takes in a yeast gr. 

occasionally. The great majority are 

made to pass on. 
Food mass revolving again. 
Body shortening and thickening. 
Second division has begun. 
Cleavage line distinct. Two mouths. 
Division complete. 
No. 2 still in the field — bacteria have 

developed during night to an alarming 

degree. 
Body well filled. 



Had stopped feeding for some time. 
Developed cilia and at 9 A. M. floated 
away. It had been under observation 
26 hrs., 12 hrs. and 15 min. of which 
were constant. 



Wasps. (^Polistes rubiginosus.') 
Se7ise of Smell. 

The apparatus^ consisted of a board 48 inches long and 15 
inches wide, on which was built a glass hallway 18 inches long, 
I J^ inches wide and i inch high. One end of this long hall 
opened into two halls of similar dimensions, save their lengths, 
which was 9 inches. These short halls diverged from each 
other at an angle 70°. Both led into a single box, which was 
usually kept dark. These short halls I called "forks." The 
floor and top of the halls were glass. The odor was dropped 
on cotton batting the size of a pea. Odorous cotton was placed 
in the fork about 3 inches from the end of the long hall. At 
the same time the opposite fork contained a bit of odorless cot- 

^For valuable help and suggestions in the construction of apparatus 
and experimentation, I desire to thank Mr. Willard S. Small. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 263 

tou — the object being to present as far as possible similar con- 
ditions to the eye. The apparatus was placed directly in front 
and about twelve feet from a window. The end containing the 
dark box was kept toward the window. The wasps used were a 
large, reddish, yellow-bodied, black-winged social species, Poli- 
sies rubigi?iosiis, sent me from Virginia. While being introduced 
into the glass hall at the end away from the light, they were 
handled by broad and very pliable forceps. Gentle handling 
must be observ^ed. At the close of each experiment the halls 
were thoroughly deodorized. This requires much time. The 
experiment should be performed on bright days, and in a tem- 
perature not below 60 F. The following odors were used : 
asafoetida, bergamot, carbolic acid, cinnamon, cologne, oil of 
cologne, cloves, pennyroyal, tar, turpentine, violet, sassafras, 
alcohol and spearmint. I have copied below three experiments 
from my notebook, the rest are presented in tabulated form. 

Odor : Carbolic Acid. Number of Wasps used : Four. 
Odor on the Right, 

Wasp No. I. Stopped about four inches in front of the forks — rubbed 
antennae vigorously with fore leg for about 30 seconds, then took the 
left hand fork to the dark box. 

Wasp No. I. Stopped about six inches in front of the forks and after 
much hesitation and turning back and walking nearly the whole length 
of the hall, he went in on the left side. 

Wasp No. I. Walked straight down left fork without halting. 

Wasp No. 2. Stopped about four inches in front of forks, then turned 
back. Approached again, crawled back and forth from fork to fork; 
at last crawled up to the top glass of the right fork and crawled into 
the box back down. 

Wasp No. 2. Much excited — mad — crawled right over odorous cot- 
ton and went in box via right side. 

Wasp No. 2. Approaches forks slowly, much brushing of antennae ; 
at last takes left fork to box. 

Odor on the Left. 

Wasp No. I. Went in via left — crawled over the odorous cotton. 

Wasp No. I. Went in via left, hugged the sides of the wall while 
passing the odor. 

Wasp No. 2. Went via right, after much hesitation at forks. 

Wasp No. 2. Went via left, but avoided the odor by hugging the 
side of the wall. 

Wasp No. 3. Went via right fork after halting one minute at the 
forks. 

Wasp No. 3. Went via right ; seemed much confused. 

Wasp No. 3. Went via left after much hesitation and turning back 
and forth ; hugged the under side of the top glass. 

Wasp No. 4. Went via right; seemed pure chance. 

Wasp No. 4. Went via right after much waving of antennae and 
examining both roads. 

Wasp No. 4. Stopped at forks, started down left, recoiled, and 
crawled back to the far end of the gallery ; returns, stops at forks, 
cleans antennae, then goes via right fork. 



264 KLINE : 

Summary. 

Sixteen tests, thirteen of which showed conclusively that the 
odor was sensed, and eleven that it was objectionable. 

Odor : Tar. Number of Wasps Used : Two. 
Odor on the Right, 

Wasp No. I. Went via left fork ; pure chance. 

Wasp No. I. Went via left ; seemed not yet to have sensed it. 

Wasp No. I. Went via right ; gave no attention to tar. 

Wasp No. 2. Went via right fork ; indifferent to tar. Cannot tell 
whether tar was even sensed. 

Wasp No. 2 went in via right fork ; came out of dark box into right 
fork, walked over the odorous cotton; seemed quite indifferent. 

Odor : Absolute Alcohol. Number of Wasps Used : 

Four. 

Odor 071 Right. 

Wasp No. I. Halted four minutes about three inches in front of 
odor, brushed antennae vigorously, then crawled up the side of wall of 
right fork and passed into dark box. 

Wasp No. I. Went via left fork ; this time seemed pure chance. 

Wasp No. I. Went via left fork, halted some time about two inches 
in front of odor, reared back, and finally took left fork to dark box. 

Wasp No. 2. Turned down right fork, ^topped about 2>^ inches be- 
fore odor, waved and stroked antennae vigorously, reared back and 
plunged forward repeatedly, finally crawled in back down, on under 
side of top glass. 

Wasp No. 2. Halted at forks, brushed antennae, went in via left fork. 

Odor on Left. 

Wasp No. 3. Went in via left fork ; avoided odor by hugging the 
side walls. Was mad and excited. 

Wasp No. 3. Went via right ; still mad. 

Wasp No. 4. Walks slowly down gallery ; stops at forks, waves 
antennae and strokes them vigorously ; then crawls up to the top glass 
and starts down the left fork ; stops just before getting to odor, turns 
back and forth in much confusion ; finally turned back and went via 
right fork. 

Wasp No. 4. Went via right fork ; did not halt anywhere on the 
road. 

Wasp No. 3. Started down left fork, stopped in front of odor for 
some time, then turned back and forth repeatedly, finally crawled in 
via left fork, hugging side of the wall. 

Wasp No. 3. Went via right, did not stop at forks. 

Put 3 and 4 in long gallery together. No. 3 crawled down right side, 
did not halt at forks, kept straight ahead to dark box via right 
fork ; and No. 4 stopped after entering the left fork, turned back 
and went via right fork. 

Summary for Tar and Alcohol. 

Tar may be sensed ; it certainly is not objectionable. The 
twelve tests with alcohol show that it is sensed and that it is 
decidedly objectionable. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOIvOGY. 265 

Unobjectionable. Objectionable. Doubtful. 

Tar Asafoetida Cinnamon 

Turpentine. Bergatnot Violet 

Carbolic Acid Sassafras 

Cologne^ 

Oil of Cologne 

Cloves 

Pennyroyal 

Alcohol 

Spearmint 

Conclusions, (i) wasps readily sense odors; (2) some are 
much more objectionable than others, e. ,^. . spearmint caused 
the most violent reactions. They moved up and down the 
galleries as if frightened or pursued by an enemy ; (3) some 
odors, as tar, turpentine, are not disagreeable ; (4) there is 
much evidence showing that the sense of smell fatigues — more 
observations, made with the greatest precautions, are needed to 
make this conclusive. 

Chicks. 

I used chicks of two incubations of about five weeks apart. 
The first group were returned to their rightful parent at about 
the age of eighteen hours. To the second group I was foster 
parent fourteen days, and from their standpoint many days 
longer, for they often ran joyfully to me and followed me when 
I went among the farm poultry. They knew no other parent. 
Both groups, which were cross-breeds of Plymouth Rock, Leg- 
horn, and Minorca, w^ere taken from the hen eight to twelve 
hours before they had pecked through their shells, and kept 
awhile in warm water and then transferred to an incubator. 

Group one, consisting of two little birds. At the age of four 
hours I placed them on a large newspaper spread on the floor. 
Their repeated efforts to stand erect invariably resulted in their 
toppling over sometimes forward, sometimes backward to a 
complete somersault. The tarso- metatarsus (featherless por- 
tion of the leg) does foot duty at this age, so that the distal end 
of the leg when standing is the tibio-tarsus. Walking is 
really running, darting forward from 16 to 30 inches and end- 
ing in a sprawl. After attempts to stand or walk, they take 
cat-naps. 

These naps occur every few minutes, during which time the 
neck is stretched at full length on the floor and the head rest- 
ing on one side. They nap most frequently in direct patches 
of sunlight. On awaking, clumsy attempts are made to smooth 
out the matted down — their only feathers — which had been un- 

^ It was thought that the objectionable element in cologne was the 
alcohol. The oil of cologne contains no alcohol, but they still avoided 
it, even though a very small drop was used. 

J0URNA.1,— 7 



266 KLINK : 

kempt from the beginning. Only bright objects or strongly 
contrasted colored objects are noticed and pecked; large letters 
on the paper, bright threads in the carpet, at crawling flies, 
but with no success; bits of white pine, at their own and each 
other's toes, and at each other's bills, eyes and combs. At 
times they try to hover or cuddle under each other. I hold 
my hand over them under which they huddled close together. 
They act similarly toward almost any object held gently to 
their backs and heads — a stick of wood, a flannel rag, a shoe, 
a sock, a tin pan. 

A^e, six hours. Gave them crumbs of dough and bits of ^gg 
shells at which they frequently pecked but very seldom swal- 
lowed. They seized fairly well whatever they aimed at, but 
seemed to have trouble in holding it and getting it adjusted 
for deglutition. They follow, although their pursuit is inter- 
rupted by frequent falls, any comparatively large moving ob- 
ject: a hat, a folded garment, a tin pan, the cat, a person. I 
walk by one piping the want note, which by the way is their 
earliest and most frequent note, to a doorway ten feet distant, 
pass through the doorway over a sill ten inches wide inclined 
at an angle of fifteen degrees, the lower edge one and one-half 
inches high, into the next room and step behind the door. 
The chick makes the door sill in two runs, and to my surprise 
gets upon and over the inclined door sill and enters the room 
to a distance of eight or ten feet, looking and piping to the 
fullest capacity of its voice. Finally it takes a nap. 

Age, eight hours. One swallows a dead fly after mangling it. 
I clap my hands close to their heads, make a loud hissing 
noise, they take no notice of either noise. I thrum on a guitar; 
this startles them, but they settle down so soon as the noise 
ceases and sleep, especially if the thrumming lasts from 30 to 45 
seconds. Later they chirp the want note vehemently. I 
sneeze — they stop chirping for some seconds. Striking a pan 
has the same effect. 

Group two consists of four chicks. Chicks Nos. i and 2 born 
August 28, 4 p. M., No. 3 August 29, II A. M., and No. 4 at 3 
p. M. 

77 hours old. August 29, 9 a. m. Nos. i and 2 now 17 
hours old are placed in their poultry yard, 4 ft. wide, 5 ft. long 
and 2 ft. high — built in an attic with southern exposure. I 
give them cracked wheat, bits of half matured maize. They 
peck at the larger pieces of food and succeed in getting them 
into their mouths, but allow them to fall out. At last No. 2, 
the larger and brighter of the two, after making three trials to 
swallow a half a grain of wheat succeeds in the fourth attempt. 
They do not confine their attention long — 15 seconds to about 
30 seconds — to the different foods, in fact they are more con- 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 267 

cerned about the objects in their new quarters. Everything 
attracts them with about equal force. They have had no ex- 
perience from which to form preferences. (// to i8 hours 
old.) Accordingly all objects within reach must be exam- 
ined — the large letters and figures of the newspaper, the 
cracks in the floor, the wood work of their yard. They 
follow moving objects occasionally. The walking mechanism 
is fairly co-ordinated and under control. They never topple 
over backwards, and rarely tumble while moving forward. 
Loud and sudden noises shock them — not quite fright, for 
they never try to escape. Banging on a tin pan, thrum- 
ming a guitar, tooting a horn, clapping the hands, causes them 
to start, squat and shudder. 

2 p. M. No. 2, 22 hours old, catches and swallows a wing- 
less fly. I drop an earth worm {Lumbricus) before them. No. 
I looks at its serpentine movements, steps back skittishly, and 
gives for the first time the well known danger churr, ap- 
proaches the worm, pecks it, wipes his bill, pecks again and 
then lets it alone. I give them two more worms. No. 2 spies 
and approaches one, strikes it twice, wipes his bill, and lets 
them alone. Their bills are yet too weak to seize earth worms. 

4 p. m.y chicks one day old. I heard an unusual piping in 
my poultry yard. No. 2 had jumped out of the warm box — a 
feat five inches up and a fall fourteen inches — into the yard. 
He is now the sole occupant. When I approach he scurries 
behind the box and crowds close up in the corner of the yard. 
This is the first time that he seems afraid of me, or has shown 
signs of genuine fear. I drop earth worms in the yard a 
second time, both show signs of fright and do not even peck at 
them. 

No. 3, born 11 a. m. Placed it on a newspaper at 3 p. m. 
Its efforts to stand, walk and swallow, closely parallel those of 
I and 2. It made three attempts to follow me, and one to over- 
take an old garment folded up and dragged slowly by it. I 
did not permit it to overtake the garment. Later drew it by 
several times, but it took no further notice of this garment. It 
sleeps when not molested. 

No. 4 or " the lonely chick," born August 29, 3 p. m. This 
chick is completely isolated from all others of its kind for four 
days less eight hours. His food is confined to bits of half 
matured maize and occasionally cracked wheat and water. Of 
course he gains a knowledge of the food qualities through ex- 
perience. by pecking at the several objects of his prison, e. g.y 
specks in the carpet, nail heads, rollers of table, large letters in 
the newspaper, etc. 

Second day. August 30, 7 A. m. No. 2, as before, has 
jumped out of his box and shows signs of fear at my approach. 



268 KLINE : 

but when I hold out my hand he runs to it and eagerly sur- 
veys it. Yesterday he avoided his excrement after four expe- 
riences pecking at it. This morning he shows evident signs of 
disgust at the first trial. 

9 A. M. I place a tin of water on the floor. All three run 
up and peck the brighter portions of the vessel while walking 
around it. I trouble the water gently by rocking the vessel. 
No. 2 sees the ripples, stretches his neck to examine, at the 
same time stepping back and uttering the danger churr. This 
is not at the motion of the tin, for they have been accustomed 
to this all along. When the surface of the water quiets, No. 2 
approaches and begins pecking at shiny places as before. In 
doing this he throws a bit of cracked wheat lying on his head 
into the water, he seizes and swallows it as usual and smacks 
his bill, as if tasting, then thrusts it into the water up to his 
eyes, turning his head up he drank after the characteristic 
chick fashion. This was an entirely new movement, for bill, 
head and neck. It was executed to perfection. He dips his 
bill in twice more and as deep as before. This seems unpleas- 
ant, for he walks away hurriedly each time and wipes and 
scratches his bill. A bit of spider web thoroughly filled with 
wood dust bored out by a bee fell into the yard. No. 2 pecked 
at it six times. It gives him no satisfaction. He let it alone. 
Nos. I and 3 then give their attention to it. They soon desert 
it. 

10.30 A. M. Offer them water a second time. No. i dis- 
covers it for himself somewhat as No. 2, i. e., by pecking at 
a speck on its surface. Both i and 2 now drink together. 
No. 3 steps up and watches the motions of No. i in a single 
act of drinking. He immediately begins to drink. No. 2 
has learned to thrust his bill in at the ordinary depth. I offer 
them an earth worm for the third time, this time as food, in 
my hand. All come up and look in. No. 2, who leads in 
everything, sees it crawling, gives the danger note, at this the 
others look more intently, then all walk away. They fear 
more things with age. Sounds that yesterday were unheeded 
are to-day listened to with surprise and fear. They shy away 
short distances whenever I approach. My hand, to which they 
have become accustomed, brings them back. Evidently they 
have not become acquainted with my body as a whole. 

4.30 p. M. I give them bits of yellow pine in one portion of 
their yard and cracked grains of yellow maize in another. The 
morsels of food look not unlike. They eat the maize as usual. 
No. 2 seizes a bit of pine, fumbles it in his mouth, drops it, 
tries another, drops it likewise, and pays no further attention 
to the wood. No. 3 tries three different pieces before swal- 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 269 

lowing one. He swallowed two bits, then turned to the heap 
of maize. 

5.30 p. M. I gave them bits of starched muslin cut about 
I mm. square from old collars and cuffs. All three attack the 
little pile eagerly. No. i swallowed a piece; No. 3 ran off with 
quite a large piece; the others gave chase. This heightened, 
apparently, the desire of each to secure it. They snatch it 
from each other's mouths until No. 3 despatches it. They re- 
turn to the muslin, look at it, pick up pieces lightly and drop 
them. Their appetites for muslin soon quail. It was the last 
that I persuaded them to eat. Competition even at two days 
old spurs them on to more prodigious tasks. No. 2 has tried 
repeatedly to swallow a whole grain of maize, but without suc- 
cess. No. I attempts to snatch it away. The grain passes 
back and forth from mouth to mouth, while chasing each other 
around the yard, until finally No. 2, although hard pressed, 
makes an unusual effort to swallow it and succeeds. 

4 p. M. No. 4, the chick in solitude now one day old, is 
offered a tin of water. Gives it no attention. Drop food near 
the sides of the vessel, and later a few bits in the water. It 
seizes the food on the water, thereby getting water in its 
mouth. The stimulus touches off the drinking apparatus, for 
it at once goes through the drinking movements. But the 
water seems to frighten it very much. It runs off some dis- 
tance; wipes its bill repeatedly. 1 coax in vain for it to return 
to the tin of water. 

Third day. August 31, 9.15 A. M. I give Nos. i, 2 and 3 
green cabbage worms for the second time. No. 2, as usual, 
gave danger churr, all walk away. They still fear earth 
worms. Nos. i and 3 contend over a bit of muslin, but soon 
neglect it. I threw them several bits of muslin — all came up 
and looked at it and then walked away. They treat pine wood 
similarly. Show joy when I sprinkle wheat and Indian meal 
on the floor by running up and flapping their wings. They 
devote more time to preening their feathers and stretching in 
the sun. I thrum the guitar as on first day. No. 2 scurries 
away behind the warm box, and 3 runs and squats as if hid- 
ing. I wave the guitar over the yard once. No. i runs 
screaming to the farthest corner and tucks^his head under the 
edge of the paper that forms the wall to their yard. A wasp 
flies against the window. No. 2 gives the danger sign, the 
rest listen. A sailing cloud throws a rapidly moving shadow 
across their home, it frightens them very much. 

10 A. M. No. 4, now nearly two days old, is again offered 
water. It looked in the vessel then walks away, did this three 
times. 

September i, 8 a. m. Nos. i, 2 and 3 still avoid earth 



270 KI.INE : 

worms, caterpillars and green canker worms. They learned to 
drink milk yesterday in much the same way as they did water. 
They show no sign to-day of having seen it before. They ap- 
proach it cautiously, peck around the edges of the tin for six 
minutes, and after much stretching and craning of their necks 
in looking at the milk, begin to drink it. Their experience 
with the white boring grub is interesting. Nos. i and 2 are 
afraid of it, No. 3 seizes the grub while curled up, looking not 
unlike a grain of corn. No. i gives chase, and, as usual, the 
desire for the worm is increased until No. 3 swallows it. I 
give them three more grubs. The grubs begin crawling, and 
so long as this is kept up the chicks give the usual danger note 
and crane their necks forward in fear and wonder. The small- 
est of the grubs stops crawling, No. 3 seizes and swallows it at 
once. This, I judge, encouraged him to try the second largest. 
No. 2, by imitation, seized the largest grub, which I had con- 
sidered too large for them to swallow. The others endeavored 
to share so large a morsel with No. 2. This precipitated quite 
a tussle, which ceased by the lucky one despatching the grub. 
12 M. I take Nos. i, 2 and 3 on an outing, as it were, of one 
hour and forty-five minutes, into a large grass plot. While here 
their behavior, more than ever, impresses me of the great 
importance that experience plays in their acquaintance with 
the chicken world. They were unusually active the entire 
time, pecking at the diifferent grasses, seeds, sticks, dried 
leaves, bees, crawling ants. The bright husks of the pepper 
weed and the seeds of the short wire grass received their first 
attention because of their brightness. I concealed two black 
watermelon seeds under a tuft of grass, farther on a yellow 
seed, and in a third place the seeds of a cantaloupe. They 
discovered all three in due time — each discovery was attended 
with notes of surprise, and the investigation set out with cautious 
pecking. It seems that their nerves are keyed for responses 
to every stimuli of sight and sound, that their organism is es- 
sentially nervous, responding and adjusting to a novel environ- 
ment. No. 3 spied an earth worm coming out of the ground. 
He seized it at once, and pulled and tugged at it not unlike 
robin red-breast in a similar feat. This was the first earth 
worm eaten. No. 4 (the lonely chick) is not thriving like his 
congeners. His body is becoming short and rounded, * ' dumpy;" 
the head is drawn in close to the body. When not eating he 
pipes the lonely want note. His efforts to make friends with a 
half-grown cat was an amusing performance. Its first ad- 
vances were met by gentle soft taps from the kitten, for which 
attention it chirped the satisfied note, and made repeated at- 
tempts to cuddle up in the kitten's fur. This appeared to 
annoy her felineship. She began moving backwards on three 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 27 1 

feet, using a fore foot to bar the chick's too familiar advances. 
Her pats finally grew to taps, then to slaps, and at last to a 
severe box that sent the chick rolling over several times. This 
experience destroyed the chick's desire for further affiliation 
with the cat. Nos. i, 2 and 3 after eating a full meal spend 
much time in making their toilet, basking in the sunshine and 
engaging in mock fights. These and other activities essen- 
tially chick-like, are the fullest and most varied after a sump- 
tuous meal. 

Fourth day. September 2d. They still show signs of fear 
when I drop a small earth worm before them. But this time 
No. 3 seizes one before it begins crawling. This whets the 
appetites of the others. I divert the pursuer's attention by 
dropping another worm, it is seized and carried to one corner 
to be devoured. They now seize small moving worms, but 
large crawling ones overtax their courage. They are now in- 
difierent toward green cabbage worms, do not even show signs 
of fear in their presence. White grubs are attacked and 
eaten, if not crawling; the crawling grub presents a sight too 
hideous for them, even at the age of four days. 

No. 4 — the lonely chick — now nearing the age of four days, 
is brought from his isolated quarters to my poultry yard. He 
presents a dumpy, ill-conditioned form and a fretful, timorous 
attitude, yet always ready to eat. The three approach and 
station themselves in a semi-circle about the stranger. Nos. i 
and 2 give the astonish or surprise chuckle. All three stretch 
their necks and peer scrutinizingly at the intruder as if ' * to 
look^ him out " of their presence. No. i advances and strikes 
him a severe blow on the head. He attempts to return it, but 
is struck again and seized by the head and pulled and jerked 
about in battle royal fashion. At this treatment he screams the 
shrill cry of distress and tries to escape from the 3^ard. He is 
nagged for some minutes, and finally permitted to stand in one 
comer and utter those lonely piteous cries that he has been 
making ever since he began to walk. 

I now distribute several kinds of food in distant parts of 
their yard, thereby increasing the unwelcome stranger's oppor- 
tunities for getting his breakfast. He makes good use of the 
advantage, and snatches a morsel now here, now there. Al- 
though he is occasionally struck at, it is apparent that his 
presence is becoming more tolerable, and in time will be 
suffered to remain in peace. And so he was at the expiration 
of two hours with all four basking together in a parallelogram 
of sunshine. They lie on one side, stretch the free leg and 

^The reader will understand this phrase as merely descriptive of 
their appearance and nothing more. 



272 KI.INK : 

wing at full length. So well at ease had No. 4 become that 
while thus stretched out on the floor, he raised the free ex- 
panded wing and fanned it gently back and forth showing 
every sign of comfort. This is the first time he has shown 
genuine contentment. It took companionship to make his life 
complete. I gave them grubs and earth worms, which were 
eagerly devoured, after which I offered them green cabbage 
worms. This was No. 4's first experience with worms of any 
sort. He had just witnessed the others eat grubs and earth 
worms with impunity. So when the green cabbage worms 
appeared, he did not hesitate to devour them while the others 
stood back or walked away. But his spirited and ravenous 
dealing with the worms induced the others to rob him of a 
worm — a lively chase ensues which ends in the competitors 
devouring, fragments of the worm. 

The only activity during their outing to-day (ages four and 
five days) that deserves notice is that of wallowing on the hard 
ground and shuffling the wings after the manner of full feath- 
ered birds when taking a sand bath. The motion of the wing, 
when sand is present, both gathers and throws the sand over 
the entire body not unlike a shower bath. The movement 
appears complex. 

Fifth day. September 3, 7 A. m. Cabbage worms are 
offered No. 4 the second time. Nos. i, 2 and 3 stand aloof. 
No. 4 eats one, wipes his bill vigorously several times, returns 
to the squirming heap, shakes his head. He never ate cabbage 
worms after that. My chicks have a peculiar way of shaking 
or slinging the head — as if in disgust, at the sight of an object 
disagreeable to their taste. Again during their outing they in- 
dulge in attempts to wallow on the hard ground. They made 
a similar attempt on the floor. They now appear to know their 
' ' outing grounds. ' ' So soon as placed on the ground they 
run and dart hither and thither and flap their wings, and en- 
gage in mock fights.^ This usually begins by a sudden and 
simultaneous darting about and clapping the wings, and then 
rushing together giving each other light pecks. They are less 
timid, pay less attention to the various noises and sights about 
them, and wander farther away from me and from each other. 
When these little excursions isolate them the lost note is piped. 
They always find their way back. To-day for the first time 
they give evidence of wishing to perch in high places. No. i, 
after walking around a basket, five inches high, several times 
and looking at its top, mounts to its rim, and as soon as he has 
balanced himself sits down. Later at roosting time he tries to 

1 See Wundt, pp. 357-8, and Karl Groos: The Play of Animals. D. 
Appleton Co., N. Y., 1898. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 273 

fly to a horizontal stick four inches high, forming a part of 
the yard's frame- work. He also flies up the side of the paper 
wall and pipes the distress note when he wants to go to roost. 
He invariably chooses the same corner of the wall over which 
he attempts to make his escape, and although he mounts only a 
very small fraction of the wall, his efforts never tire in covering 
that small distance. I offer them again bits of muslin and pine 
wood, which they have not seen for three days. The muslin 
is ignored, several pieces of pine are picked up and dropped by 
each one. No. 2 finally swallows a piece — the fifth that he had 
examined. He walks away and wipes his bill. Four days later 

1 offer them pine wood. It received no attention this time even 
though I continued to sprinkle it before them as I do grain. 

Sixth day. September 4th. After eating their breakfast, 
wallowing in fresh, loose ground and preening feathers, Nos. 

2 and 4 engage in a mock fight. No. 4 sits on the bottom rung 
of a ladder, the top of which rests on the top of the yard en- 
closure, thus affording an outlet, should they make an effort to 
use it. This occurred at 8 A. m. At 8.45 No. 3 walks half- 
way up the ladder and sits down. No. 4 attempts to fly up to 
No. 3, but fails. No. 3 gets up and continues his way up the 
ladder; at a height of 18 inches he stops, looks about, both feet 
and wings tremble and quiver. Steadying himself, he turns 
around and descends the ladder to a height of 10 inches, sits 
down and completes his toilet in apparent ease. They now 
seize earthworms whether moving or crawling. 

An instinctive movement was made by No. 2 at the close of 
his toilet exercise, that is both comical and instructive. After 
smoothing out the pin feathers of his breast and straightening 
out the sprouting remiges, he stretched up at full height, 
flapped his wings against his sides in approved gallinaceous 
style, and at the close of the wing movements swished and 
wiggled the little bunch of cottony pin feathers that occupy the 
place of the future tail feathers — a beautiful illustration of com- 
plete development and co-ordination of both nervous and mus- 
cular apparatus long before there is any need of their func- 
tioning; for the tail feathers over which these nerves and 
muscles have control did not show themselves until three weeks 
later. 

Seventh day. September 5th. I notice that they are quite 
sensitive to changes of temperature. No. i stepped on a 
motionless earth worm. The foot was taken off with a sudden 
jerk. It had not noticed the worm. I laid a cold copper wire 
down, one stepped on it and immediately jerked the foot up. 
Their room has a southeast exposure. The first rays of the 
sun fall on the right wall of their yard about one foot from the 
floor. They spend much time in looking at the bright spot. 



274 KLINE : 

It descends obliquely to the floor, reaching it in about twenty 
minutes. They have now learned to stand ready waiting for 
the warm rays to fall on them. These September mornings are 
chilly. The direct sunlight reaches the left side of the yard by 
noon. They follow it up as it crosses the yard whenever they 
make their toilet or wish to cat-nap. 

8.30 A. M. No. 3 mounts the ladder and climbs the rungs 
quite a distance, sits down at a height of 1 1 inches. Nos. 2 
and 4 stand under him, stretching and peering their heads up, 
and try to fly up. It did not occur to them to walk to the lower 
end of the ladder and walk up. This is the third time that No. 
3 has perched on the ladder, and every time 2 and 4 have tried 
to reach him by flight, standing directly under, notwithstanding 
too, that both have seen No. 3 begin his ascent at the end of 
the ladder. 

'5 p. M. No. 4 for the first time walks to the top of the lad- 
der. This gave him a view of the world outside the poultry 
yard. He looked intently in several directions and at times 
uttered notes of surprise and the * ' wonder chuckle. ' ' He 
walked a short distance from the end of the ladder out on the 
top of the wall of the yard. He looked first on the outside, then 
on the inside, as if in doubt which way to fly. He finally flew 
down in his old yard. No. i for the past three days grows very 
restless at the approach of night and tries to escape as before 
described. He walks around the four sides of the yard; on 
reaching the fourth corner he attempts to fly oyer. He is as 
persistent in his efforts as a bee against a window pane. He 
has ample opportunities for learning to use the ladder, but pays 
no attention to it when he wishes to escape. All have taken a 
turn in walking up the ladder, save No. 2, who is very large 
for his age, with wings undeveloped. He never shows discon- 
tent. His fellows have small bodies but rapidly growing wings. 
They grow restless. No. 4 has made two more excursions ta 
the top of the ladder. An outside ladder butts against the in- 
side one at the top of the yard wall. No. 4 stepped on this 
ladder, walked down two rungs, uttered a cry of fear, stepped 
off" backwards on to the inside one and walked down into the 
yard. 

Eighth day. September 6th, 6.45 A. m. Gave them green 
canker (cabbage) worms. They gave the surprise chuckle, 
finally No. 4 seized one, then all gave chase until he swallowed 
it. All return to the worms, but refuse to take hold. They 
begin to clamor for food. 

7.30 A. M. They have had a sumptuous breakfast. Preen- 
ing feathers, mock fights and the like follow. No. 4 has walked 
to the top of the ladder four times since breakfast. He has 
stepped on the outside ladder twice. The others still watch 



METHODS IN ANIMAI. PSYCHOLOGY. 275 

him as if they too would like to climb up. During the forenoon 
he climbed the ladder fourteen times. Sometimes he would 
step on to the outside ladder but never ventured to walk down. 
After his noon meal he walked up the ladder and out on the top 
of the poultry yard fence. He walked back and forth leisurely 
on the wall and while attempting to catch a passing fly he 
slipped off and dropped on the outside. He showed signs at 
once of desiring to return to the yard. He walked around and 
under the outside ladder. It was made exactly like the inside 
ladder and leaned against the wall at the same angle, but it 
never occurred to him to use it. During the space of an hour 
he walked back and forth along the wall thirty-two times, and 
put his head through a small crack, looking into the yard, 
thirty-eight times. Toward the end of the hour he became 
more reconciled to his lot and began to search for food. 

Ninth day. For some time they have been pulling off bits 
of paper forming the wall to their yard to get the flour 
paste used in their wall paper. To-day they pecked and 
pulled at a piece that turned in until they made an opening 
large enough through which to escape. They walked out. I 
put them back. They went at once to work and pulled it in 
and up. Out they went again. This was repeated until I 
fixed it securely. I kept them in their poultry yard until the 
age of fourteen days. They never learned to use the two lad- 
ders as a means of egress and ingress, although I frequently 
put them through the movements of climbing one ladder and 
descending the other. ^ 

Conclusions. 

1. Both hearing and sight are dull during the greater part 
of the first day. They develop very rapidly the second and 
third day, being highly sensitive on the third to any and all 
sounds and noises. 

2. Pecking is better developed from the first than swallow- 
ing, in fact the muscles for holding the head erect, for con- 
trolling the jaws, and the process of deglutition are very weak 
the first 8 or 10 hours. 

3. Fear increases with the development of sight and sound. 

4. The instinct to follow soon fades out. Hovering and cud- 
dling together are instinctive. Both Morgan and Mills seem to 
think that hovering under the hand or following it is due to 
the warmth it affords them. I find they follow any small mov- 
ing object at first. Later the hand becomes a very interesting 
object; their attachment grows out of its being their only source 
of food. 

1 To expect them to learn a task by forcing them through it, has im- 
pressed me since as a very artificial if not an actually absurd thing to do. 



276 KLINE : 

5. Mock fights begin the third day, and shade over into 
serious business the sixth week. 

Wundt^ regards mock fighting as the only type of play 
among animals, and interprets it along with Karl Groos^ as a 
schooling to the serious struggles of adult life. 

The different degrees of permanency of their associations 
suggest a problem for extended work among several species. 
They rejected pine wood after a few experiences at the age of 
three days, but three days later they ate it again, while expe- 
riences with muslin on the third day was lasting. They were 
six days getting acquainted with earth worms, and eight days 
with the canker worms. 

They learn to do some things by imitation, e. ^., drinking, 
learning to eat certain foods, escaping from their enclosure, 
while other tasks of apparent equal simplicity are not learned. 
Though the fortunate one performs the trick before them every 
day. No. 2 learned to escape from the " warm box " at one 
day old, the others, more agile in most things, never learned 
the trick. I quit putting them into the box the fifth day. Dr. 
Thorndike^ inclines strongly to the belief that domestic animals 
do not imitate each others performances. This belief is founded 
on the results from experiments conducted exclusively on what 
I have called the experimental method. Describing his method he 
says: " It was merely to put animals when hungry in enclos- 
ures from which they could escape by some simple act, such as 
pulling at a loop of cord, pressing a lever, or stepping on a 
platform." The motives, then, played upon were hunger, de- 
sire for freedom, and surely in many cases fear — especially 
would this likely to be true with the young brought into novel 
situations. Imitative activities form a good part of play activ- 
ities — not all play is imitation, nor vice versa, but much of the 
two are on common grounds, and find their fullest expression 
under similar conditions. What are these conditions? Just 
the opposite to those created in his experiments, viz., free- 
dom, security from harm, satiety, in a word — well being. Noth- 
ing so shrinks and inhibits completely the fullness and variety 
of an organism's activities* than prison^ life* and fear."^ Dr. 
Thorndike first teaches a chick to escape from a certain situa- 
tion, then places along side of this one that ' ' knows the ropes ' ' 

1 Wundt : Human and Animal Psychology, p. 358. 
'^ Groos, Karl : The Play of Animals. Translated edition, 1898. 
3 Thorndike, Edward Iv.: Loc. cit., p. 6. 
^ Verworn, M.: Pfliig. Archiv., Vol. ly, 1891, pp. 439-440. 
^Cornish, C. J.: Animals at Work and Play, pp. 31-38, 1896. 
•^ Jordan : Habits and Developments of Newts. Jour. Morphology, 
Vol. VIII, pp. 269-366. 

7 Kline, L. W.: Am. Jour. Psy., Vol. X, No. i, 1898. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 277 

others entirely ignorant, and says by his experiment * ' imita- 
tion if present will surely come forth." To get a particular 
tone from a musical instrument we must play on certain defi- 
nite keys. Dr. Thorndike has played the wrong keys. It 
seems to me all that we can say at present is that some indi- 
viduals of a species learn some things by imitation. I heartily 
agree with Professor Mills who finds wide individual aptitudes 
among members of the same brood, or family. 

White Rat. 

The object of the experiment with the white rat was to as- 
certain its susceptibility to profit by experience, to test its 
quickness to learn by appealing to its most dominant and char- 
acteristic activity in food getting, the readiness with which 
contiguous associations are built up. 

For this purpose stimuli was addressed to the rats' pawing 
and digging^ activity by means of the following device: (i) 
A box 8 inches long, 7 inches wide, 6 inches deep, whose sides 
were of wire, top of glass and bottom of wood, was put into 
their home box, which also served for an observation box. 
At one end of the floor of the small box a piece 3^^ inches 
long and 2 inches wide was sawed out. The box was raised 
above the level of the floor by resting on two strips i^ 
inches thick; (2) sand and sawdust was heaped up loosely 
around the sides of the box until it rose a little above the level 
of its floor; (3) food (dog biscuit and cheese) was put in the 
box. 

The observation box, containing two rats, was 18 inches 
long, 14 inches wide and 14 inches deep, one side was wire, 
one end glass, the rest of wood. The rats knew practically no 
other home, they had been reared in much the same sort of 
box. Before beginning the experiment I left the experiment 
box in their home several days, so that they had become quite 
familiar with it. Their exceeding timidity makes such pre- 
cautions necessary. 

Experiment 1. January 9th, 2 p. m. Both rats at once at- 
tacked the box, crawled up the sides, over the top, and went 
round and round in a very monotonous fashion — always smell- 
ing. They persevered nearly an hour. At 3 p. m. their move- 
ments were less decided, seemed more haphazard and indiffer- 
ent. One gave up and returned to the nest, — the second, 
somewhat more frisky, began scratching the sawdust in that 
very instinctive fashion which I have observed them do under 

1 1 am not yet satisfied that I have appealed to its dominant trait or 
method of food getting. On a priori grounds I had thought that the 
gnawing activity was the best developed — a tentative experiment 
threw doubt on this and suggested the one used. 



278 KLINE: 

all sorts of conditions, even when they are well fed. It appears 
to be a "wild trait in a tame animal," as Robinson^ has char- 
acterized such more or less useless instinctive performances 
among our domestic animals. 

The hole thus accidentally dug happened to be at the end of 
the box where the piece had been taken out of the floor. The 
rat immediately poked its nose into the new opening which 
was not large enough to admit its head. It seemed to be 
frightened, ran to its hiding place, came out after about a 
minute, smelled cautiously about the hole, and dug away 
more material, then scampered away as before. These acts 
were repeated several times, until an opening quite too large 
had been made. It then ventured cautiously up into the box, 
snatched the food and carried it to its hiding place at 3.30 p. 
M. , after working one hour and thirty minutes. 

Experiment II. January loth, 3.45 p. m. Thej' behaved 
to-day much like the preceding, i. e., climbing up the sides, 
walking over the top, except that they spent more time about 
the place where they had excavated the day before — seemed to 
have located the place in an indefinite sort of fashion. They 
frisked and fidgeted about 4 minutes, then one began digging 
with a will, and did not stop this time until the work was com- 
plete. But, as before, they hesitated to enter at once into the 
hole and box, they frisked nervously about for some time — 
coming up, peeping into the hole, then scampering off. At 
3.53 p. M., or after eight minutes' work, one ventured in after 
the food. 

Experiment III. January nth. Set experiment agoing at 
2.12 p. M. One came out of nest about a half-minute before 
the second. They did not climb up the sides and over the top 
of the box, but confined their movements about the place where 
they had made the burrow the two preceding days. After 
smelling around i^ minutes, No. i went to work and in a half 
minute a hole of sufficient size was made. This time there was 
no hesitation ; it went right in. Snatched the food at 2. 14 p. m. 
Time in getting food 2^ minutes. 

Experiment IV. January 12th. Experiment began 4.17 
p. M. Rats came out immediately, climbed up side of box, 
then on to top, walked about sniffing the air, crawled down, 
and went at once to the usual digging place. At 4. 20 it took 
food out. Time, 3 minutes. 

Experiment V. January 13th, 4.15 p. m. Rat No. i, only, 
came out. Approached the box leisurely, sniffed the air quite 
often. Stood erect, with forepaws against the box. Suddenly, 

1 Robinson, Lewis : Wild Traits in Tame Animals, 326 pages. Edin- 
burgh and London, 1898. 



METHODS IN ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. 279 

as though the idea had just possessed it, it got down and began 
the usual excavation. Stopped when half done, walked away, 
came back, finished the opening, and took food at 4.iS}4 p. m. 
Time, 3)^ minutes. The indifference manifested in this experi- 
ment I think is due to their being too well fed. No. 2 did not 
even leave his nest until No. i had started home with his food. 
It is evident that they have learned how to get their food (dur- 
ing the experiment it was given in no other way), and that 
they must have greatly profited by their jirs^ experience — the 
first attempt to reach the food required i hr., 30 min. ; the 
second attempt, 24 hours later, only 8 minutes. I am not per- 
suaded, however, that the elements in the associative chain, 
whatever the psychologist may decide their nature and number 
to be, have as yet taken on any very stable and clear form. 
They seldom begin digging at the proper place, sometimes will 
begin holes in several different places, and they will not dig at 
all until they have made several examinations of the box. All 
these preliminary activities may fade out in time.^ 

The methods presented here enable us in a comparatively 
short time to point out more distinctly, and that, too, in an 
elementary way, the dividing lines between instinct, ^intelligence, 
and habit, e. g, , it was instinct that prompted my chicks to 
perch, or my rats to scratch up the sawdust ; it was intelligence 
gained through chance experience, that enabled the chicks to 
escape from the yard, and the rats to get food from the box ; it 
was habit that made the chicks go in a particular roosting box, 
unsolicited, at the approach of night, while they were wholly 
indifferent to another box and would escape from it if put in it. 

To Dr. Edmund C. Sanford I desire to express my best 
thanks, not only for suggesting the work itself, but for valuable 
help and timely suggestions at every turn during its execution. 

^ I have since performed 8 more experiments. The time has been 
reduced to 30 seconds, and many of the useless preliminary perform- 
ances have been dropped. 

2 Morgan C. Lloyd : Habit and Instinct. 



MINOR STUDIES FROM THE PSYCHOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY OF CLARK UNIVERSITY. 



Communicated by Edmund C. Sanford. 



XII. On Neari^y S1MU1.TANEOUS Clicks and Flashes. 



By Guy Montrose Whippi^e, A. B. 



Judgments of the time order of nearly simultaneous clicks 
and flashes have been studied by several investigators, but with 
discordant results. Exner^ and Gonnesiat^ find that the order 
click- flash can be recognized when the interval of time between 
the two stimuli is less than when the order is flash-click. 
Bloch,* Tracy* and Miss Hamlin,^ on the contrary, find that 
the order flash-click is the more easily recognized. 

In explanation of this difference Miss Hamlin suggests, 
on the basis of her own and Tracy's work, that it " depends on 
the fact that series of pairs of stimuli were used in one case 
[Exner's] and single pairs in the other. In his experiments 
on personal equation Gonnesiat finds rhythm a very important 
factor, and it may have been effective in these experiments of 
Exner's." The present study has chiefly in view a compari- 
son of the ' series ' and * single pair ' methods when judged by 
the same subjects. 

Apparatus a?id Method. The apparatus consisted of an ar- 
rangement for producing the clicks and flashes, and of a double 
set of switches, one of which could be used to cut out single 
pairs of stimuli for observation, when single pairs were under 
investigation, while the other served to reverse the order from 
click-flash to flash-click without altering the other parts of the 
apparatus. The arrangement for producing the clicks and 
flashes consisted of a double revolving disk of special construc- 
tion, so arranged as to make contact for an instant in two in- 

'^Pfiuger's Archiv, XI, 1875, 403-432. 

"^ Richerches sur V equation personnelle. Paris, 1892, pp. 138-140. 

^ Revue scientifique, XXXIX, 585. 

^ American Journal of Psychology, V, 567 f. 

6/(&zrf.,V, 564-575. 



MINOR STUDIES. 28 1 

dependent electrical circuits. ^ One of the disks was fixed per- 
manently upon the shaft of the instrument, and was divided 
into degrees; the other could be turned upon the shaft so as to 
alter the separation of the contact points (of which each disk 
carried one), and was provided with a vernier, by means of 
which the setting of the disks with relation to each other could 
be read to one-tenth of a degree. These disks were driven at 
the required speed by a small electric motor, the speed of the 
motor being properly reduced by the interposition of gears and 
pulleys. The actual clicks were given by a telephone, and the 
flashes by a Geissler tube and induction coil, both controlled 
by the instrument just described. The tube was encased in a 
blackened box, but seen directly through a horizontal slit 115 
mm. long by 6 mm. wide. The room was partially darkened 
during experimentation. 

It is hardly to be expected that an apparatus driven in such 
a manner by an electric motor should be wholly constant in 
rate. Careful timing showed a difference in rate of about o. i 
sec. per revolution, — from 8990- to 7960-, — during a five minutes* 
run of the apparatus. This, however, is less important in the 
present instance than the irregularity from revolution to revo- 
lution, which was such as to give a maximal mean variation of 
10.90- in an average of eight determinations taken at random 
from the records of a single minute. This variation is larger 
than could be wished, but as the contact points of the two disks 
were never more than 27° apart, it involves a variation of only 
o.8<r in the time values of interest for this study. This varia- 
tion makes the measurements rough, but leaves them of suf- 
ficient accuracy, it is believed, for the questions to be deter- 
mined. 

The time for any set of tests was found by calculation from 
the setting of the disks and the time for 100 revolutions of the 
disks taken with a stop-watch giving fifths of a second. 

The rates at which the pairs of stimuli recurred when they 
were used in series were approximately: one-half, one, two, 
three and four seconds. Ten consecutive pairs were included 
in each series. When single pairs were used the intervals from 
test to test were taken at the operator's convenience. 

The method of right and wrong cases was employed, the 
subjects being given an equal number of click-flash and flash- 
click orders irregularly mixed, and being required to register 

* While the instrument was arranged for two independent circuits, 
it was found simpler in use to make the two circuits partially coinci- 
dent, and by proper wiring to use only a single battery for producing 
both clicks and flashes. 

JOURNAI, — 8 



282 WHIPPI.E : 

an answer one way or the other each time, guessing, if in 
doubt. ^ 

The number of trials given at each rate was never less than 
ICO, and often more. The usual precautions against fatigue and 
expectant attention were taken, and to counteract the effects of 
practice, in part, each subject was given an hour's training 
before beginning serious testing. Part of the subjects, also, 
started at slow rates of speed, and part at fast. Of the sub- 
jects, C, P. and S. were accustomed to laboratory tests, the 
others not. S. had served also as subject for Miss Hamlin. 
The results of the tests are given in Table I, according to the 
subject, and in Table II in briefer form, according to the 
various rates of speed. In the first Table "kind" indicates 
whether a single pair or a series of pairs of stimuli was used. 
The second column gives the interval in seconds at which the 
pairs of stimuli recurred when the series method was used. In 
counting the tests each order presented was counted as one; 
thus 200 tests means 100 trials of the click- flash order and 100 
of the flash -click order, "Time" is the interval separating 
the stimuli, given in thousandths of a second. The last two 
columns indicate the time necessary to give 75% of right 
answers, calculated according to Fullerton and Cat tell 's Table. ^ 

In Table II, the results of these calculations have been col- 
lated to show at a glance the individual variations and the 
effects of the various rates of speed. The bracketed times rep- 
resent the results of verification tests, being in each case a rep- 
etition at the close of the whole experiment of the particular 
form of test on which the subject began. 









Tabi,E I. 














Subject 


C, 






Time 






Interval 






% correct. 


necessary to 
give 75^ 


Date. 


Kind. 


in sec. 


No. 


Time. 


c. 


F. 
















rt. cases. 
















C. F. 


Jan. 10. 


Singles 


— 


200 


74.1 


67 


83 


114 53 


" 12. 


Series 


3 


150 


15.6 


70 


93 


20 7 


" 17. 


<< 


2 


ICX) 


26.9 


72 


82 


31 20 


" 18. 


<( 


I 


100 


40.0 


66 


78 


66 35 


" 24. 


<( 


y^ 


100 


10.8 


64 


70 


20 14 


" 26. 


Singles 




200 


67.5 


63 


62 
Av. 


138 150 
, 61 45 



1 Further experiments, by the method of minimal changes, are now 
in progress. Since their completion has been unavoidably delayed, 
and since the series taken by the method of right and wrong cases are 
complete in themselves, it seems best to publish this study at the 
present time. 

2 Fullerton and Cattell : On the Perception of Small Differences, 
Univ. of Penna., 1892. 



MINOR STUDIES. 283 

Subject P. 



Jan. 10. 


Series 


I 


200 


42.5 


78 


100 


37 


— 


" II. 


<( 


% 


2CX) 


42.3 


72 


80 


49 


34 


" 22. 


<j 


2 


100 


20.5 


88 


88 


12 


12 


" 25. 


(( 


3 


ICX> 


13-9 


78 


90 


12 


7 


" 27. 


** 


4 


100 


10.7 


84 


68 


7 


16 


" 29. 


Singles 


— 


200 


25.2 


83 


81 


18 


19 


Feb. 3. 


Series 


I 


100 


19.1 


68 


82 
Av., 


28 
23 


14 
17 








Subject W. 










Jan. 15. 


Singles 


— 


200 


69.4 


60 


89 


183 


38 


" 25. 


Series 


4 


100 


10.6 


94 


96 


5 


4 


" 27. 


(( 


3 


100 
Subject 


10.8 


94 


94 

Av., 


5 
64 


5 
16 


Jan. 14. 


Singles 


— 


200 


76.4 


74 


77 


80 


69 


" 15. 


Series 


4 


100 


16.4 


64 


80 


32 


13 


'• 26. 


" 


3 


100 


16.6 


88 


96 


10 


6 


" 27. 


'* 


2 


100 


21.8 


74 


92 


23 


10 


Feb. 3. 


<( 


I 


100 


22.5 


72 


66 


26 


37 


" 4. 


(( 


% 


100 


41.6 


66 


66 


68 


68 


" 14. 


Singles 




200 
Subject 


45.8 
Sm. 


81 


94 
Av., 


35 
39 


20 

32 


Jan. 14. 


Series 


I 


150 


38-7 


78 


86 


34 


24 


" 15. 


(< 


Yz 


ICX) 

Subject 


43.1 
S. 


78 


74 
Av., 


40 

37 


45 
35 


June II. 


Series 


I 


100 


35.0 


74 


90 


37 


18 


" II. 


Singles 


— 


100 


53.3 


84 


86 


36 


33 


" 13. 


Series 


2 


100 


22.2 


78 


96 


20 


9 


" 14. 


** 


K 


100 


34.8 


72 


84 


40 


24 


" 15. 


Singles 




ICX) 


50.9 


80 


84 


41 


35 



Av., 35 24 

An examination of these Tables will show that the results ob- 
tained, with few and unimportant exceptions, accord with those 
of Bloch, Tracy and Miss Hamlin, and are contrary to those of 
Kxner and Gonnesiat; in other words, that the click-flash order 
requires a longer interval of time for recognition than the flash- 
click^ order. In seeking for an explanation of her results. Miss 

^ The tendency to take the flash as coming earlier was noticed by 
some of the subjects themselves. Ck., for example, during one test 
said: "They all seem like flashes [first]. I have to work hard to 
make any clicks first." S. found it rare to get a click distinctly first, 
and hence answered "click first," for any cases where they appeared 
simultaneous or with the flash only slightly ahead. The flashes were 
commonly distinctly separate from the clicks when they actually came 
first. 



284 



WHIPPLE : 



Hamlin suggests in place of Exner's theory of optical inertia, 
that the stimulus of the greater attention-claiming quality will 
be apt to be considered first in point of time. With this view 
the writer of the present paper finds himself in full agreement. 



i 


Vii 


10 r^ vo N xn -rt 

T^ M M ro fO W 


^ 


6 


M to ■* a\ *^ >o 

VO N VO CO fO fO 


CO 


^ 


ft 


M CO VO 'Si- W 


P5 


6 


8 ^ 58 ^ ^ 


5 


H 


to 


1 — 1 

M 


^ 


6 


1 — 1 


00 


to 


10 1 t^ Tt 00 
CO 1 CO M M 


ON 


6 


VO CO d CO CO 


% 


w 


to 


P« CTv 


CO 

M 


6 


M CH CO 
CO M CS N 


^ 


to 


to 


t^ t>i »0 VO 


VO 


6 


<s 10 


M 


-* 


to 


VO Tt- CO 

M M 


M 


6 


>- ■" s, 


«o 


i 

1 

to 


to* 


1 8 ^ 

. . 1 — 11 1 


1 


u 1 § § 


M 


to 


t ^ % s ^ 


M 


o 


M 


M 

00 


< 

I 
ti 


J 


a p^ ^ a c/3 to 


1 

1 



The prominence of the flash in consciousness is further attested 
by the tendency, that nearly all the subjects noticed in them- 
selves, to connect the click causally with the flash, which seemed 
to travel along the tube. If the click seemed at the end of the 



MINOR STUDIES. 285 

tube where the flash appeared to originate, it was called first; 
if at the other end, the click seeming a result of the flash, like 
thunder after lightning, it was called last. Whether the atten- 
tion-claiming powers depended on a greater intensity in the flash 
or a greater weakness, cannot now be said with certainty. The 
flash appeared to some to be a more intense stimulus to the eye 
than the click to the ear; to others the reverse was true. Most 
of the subjects felt unable to compare them. Meumann^ found 
that a strong stimulus could catch the attention, and thus be 
placed earlier: Drew^ that a faint stimulus had the same effect. 
Probably both tendencies are found under different conditions. 
It appears most probable that the weakness of the flash, or 
rather the necessity of attending to it, is the factor most effective 
in these experiments. The flash necessitates accommodation and 
a watching of the box; while the click seems to force its way into 
consciousness unaided. It would be interesting to repeat the 
experiments with a visual stimulus arranged to illuminate the 
whole visual field with a sudden glow, so that the elements of 
visual attention could be reduced to equality with the aural. 
Another point of interest is the fact also brought out in all of 
the experiments of Miss Hamlin and in most of Drew's work, 
that the external conditions of the experiment determine 
strongly the direction of the subject's attention, and that any 
attempt at voluntary attention defeats itself and reduces the 
number of correct answers. 

It yet remains to speak of the effect of a series of stimuli as 
compared with single pairs, and of the various rates of succes- 
sion of the pairs in the series. Inspection of Table II shows 
that the tendency to perceive the flash first is the same in all 
the rhythmical series as in the single pairs, and therefore that the 
difference of result between Exner and Gonnesiat on one hand, 
and Miss Hamlin and her supporters on the other, cannot be due, 
as she suggests, to this difference in method. It will be seen, 
further, that at all speeds a series of stimuli decreases the least 
observable interval, and that with the exception of a single sub- 
ject in a single test, this time decreases directly as the length 
of time between the pairs of stimuli increases. 

The subjects all testified that at the rates designated as 
' four, ' and usually at * three, ' no effect of rhythm was per- 
ceptible. S. had only occasional feeble rhythmic effect at ' two. ' 
In these forms, the experiment is obviously reduced to ten 
chances of diagnosing the same single pair. For this reason 
the slow rates were not given to all the subjects. Under these 

1 Beitrage zur Psychologic des Zeitsinus, Phil. Studien, IX, 291 ff. 

2 Attention : Experimental and Critical, American Journal of Psy- 
chology, VII, i895.'96, 539 ff. 



286 WHIPPI^E : 

circumstances, too, the extremely low intervals perceptible are 
not surprising. The usual method was to make a decision on 
the first pair, and then see if the others confirmed it. In the 
two-second series rhythm was generally noticeable and helpful; 
the one-second rate was most agreeable and pleasant ; the half 
second very lively; the four-second " deathly slow " and *' ner- 
vous. * ' It should be mentioned that at the fastest rate the 
apparatus did not always function perfectly, occasionally skip- 
ping a click or flash. Subjective control and introspective 
analysis of method seemed also quite difiicult at this rate, and 
here S. reported that the clicks and flashes failed to combine, 
but formed independent series. 

To recapitulate briefly, this study has shown: 

1. That the flash-click order can be recognized when the in- 
terval is shorter than that required for the click-flash order. 

2. That this holds true for a series of pairs of stimuli as well 
as for a single pair. 

3. That the serial repetition of the pairs materially reduces 
the time interval necessary for right judgment. 

4. The cause of this seems to be a retardation of the click due 
to greater attention-claiming quality attaching to the flash. 



XIII. The Time Required for Recognition. 

By F. W. Coi^EGROVE. 



The method employed in the following rough study was ex- 
tremely simple. Sixty-eight pictures, three to four inches in 
length and two to three inches inches in height, were cut from 
an old magazine and pasted upon cards. These were inserted, 
one at a time, in the clips of the Cattell Fall-chronometer and 
exposed by the sudden falling of the screen. At the instant of 
exposure, the falling screen released one pendulum of an elec- 
trical vernier chronoscope, the other being released by the sub- 
ject as soon as he was able to decide whether he had seen the 
picture before or not.^ If the picture was recognized, the sub- 
ject reacted with his right hand ; if unrecognized, with his 
left. Five or six reactions to the letters R (right) and L (left) 
were taken before and after each sitting, and the discrimination 
times thus found furnish both a control of the other experiments 
and a means of finding the pure recognition time free of all pe- 
ripheral processes. 

^ For the mode of operating the vernier chronoscope, see this Journal, 
Vol. IX, 191-7, Jan., 1898. 



MINOR STUDIES. 



287 



In the tables below, however, these simple discrimination times 
have not been deducted, but, on the contrary, the full time of 
response has been retained. 

Five subjects were tested, all of whom had had some labora- 
tory experience and two of whom had had a good deal. Five 
pictures, numbers i, 2, 6, 44 and 68, were shown each subject 
before beginning and he became familiar with them. He also 
saw them again before each sitting. In what follows they are 
termed the * ' well-known pictures. ' ' On the first day of ex- 
perimenting these were shown in irregular order with other 
pictures from the series. On the second day both the * ' well- 
known pictures ' ' and the new ones of the first day could be 
drawn upon as known pictures to mix with a second group of 
unknown pictures ; and on the third day the pictures of both 
the first and second days, and so on. 

A considerable mass of records was thus obtained, both for 
the time required for recognizing the "well-known pictures," 
and for the time required for other pictures after one, two, three, 
four or more exhibitions. It is hardly necessary to mention 
that the first recognition, except in cases of mistaken reactions, 
occurs on the second exhibition and so on. The results for the 
earlier and later recognitions of the well-known pictures are 
given in Table I. In forming this table, the series of recog- 

Tabi,e I. 

Showing Times for Signaling the Recognition of the Well-known 
Pictures ; Times in o.ooi Seconds.^ 





EARI^IER RECOGNITIONS. 


I.ATER RECOGNITIONS. 


Subject. 


No. of Ob- 
servat'ns. 


Time of Re- 
cognition. 


M. v. 


No.ofOb- 
servat'ns. 


Time of Re- 
cognition. 


M. V. 


w 


15 


524 


58 


15 


451 


35 


Y 


22 


490 


119 


27 


432 


38 


S 


17 


615 


65 


19 


516 


55 


K 


23 


571 


124 


26 


474 


68 


Q 


23 


434 


IIO 


23 


424 


71 


Average, 


527 




459 



^ The times are given in the usual unit for convenience of the reader, 
though, as the unit of the chronoscope itself was 0.02, no significance 
is attached to the third figure of the results. It might be expected 
that with the method of division described in the text the number of 



288 



COLEGROVE 



I 



^ 






8 

I 

^ 



I 



s 



a 


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MINOR STUDIES. 289 

nitions for each picture was divided in the middle, if the num- 
ber of recognitions was even, and the first part taken for 
the column of earlier recognitions, the second for that of later 
recognitions. If the number was odd and the full series could 
not be evenly divided, the middle term was discarded and the 
remaining parts treated as if the series had been even. 

These figures show that the full time of signaling the recog- 
nition of a well-known picture lies somewhere between 424 to 
615, and that it is shorter in the second half, where the familiar- 
ity was greater. This quickening may be due in part to in- 
creased skill in reacting. Two of the five subjects show a similar 
gain in reacting to the letters R and L, and with one subject, Q, 
the difference is more than that between the early and late trials in 
Table I, making the pure recognition times respectively 68 and 
89. But it must be due chiefly to increasing familiarity with 
the pictures. Four of the five subjects show the same relation 
in the pure recognition times as in the table. The average pure 
times, found by subtracting 316 and 311 from 527 and 459 re- 
spectively, are 211 and 148. 

The same thing is shown, though somewhat irregularly, when 
the successive recognitions of other pictures are examined, as 
in Table II. 

How this increased speed of recognition should be regarded, 
whether as a hastening of the recognition process or as a gradual 
change in the character of that process from one which is more 
or less conscious toward one which is wholly automatic, or as 
involving both tendencies, is, unfortunately, not shown by the 
data at hand. 

Beside this general question there are several of a subordinate 
interest, namely: Is there any difference in quickness of response 
when a picture is signaled as unrecognized? Is the quickness 
of response different when errors are made, i. e. , when a known 
picture is signaled as unknown, or vice versa} Is there any 
difference in the quickness with which different pictures are 
recognized ? Such data as the experiments have furnished upon 
these points are gathered in the following paragraphs. 

In Table III the time for the firsi recognitions has been taken 
from Table II, instead of the average time of all recognitions, 
as corresponding more nearly with the condition present when 
the pictures (before unknown) are signaled as unrecognized. 
It will be observed that three subjects (W, S and K) take 
longer to determine and signal a recognized picture than an un- 
recognized one ; and two, Y and Q, take longer for the unrecog- 

observations would be the same for the same subject in both early and 
later recognitions, and such would be the case except for differences 
introduced by failures in the functioning of the apparatus, and by erro- 
neous reactions on the part of the subjects. 



290 



COLEGROVE : 



Tabi^E III. 

Showing Comparative Quickness in Signaling Recognized and Un- 
recognized Pictures. 





RECOGNIZED PICTURES. 


UNRECOGNIZED PICTURES. 


Sub- 
ject. 


No. of 
Cases. 


Time. 


M. V. 


No. of 
Cases. 


Time. 


M.V. 


W 
Y 

S 
K 

Q 


19 

33 

26 
25 


550 
644 
625 
490 


Ill 
100 
129 
124 

95 


52 

40 
48 
49 

43 


618 

583 

587* 

586 

564 


Ill 

88 
95 

121 

99 



♦One record, nearly four times as large as that next it in size, was omitted in 
making this average. 



Tabi,e IV. 
Showing Comparative Quickness in Erroneous Reactions, 





WRONGLY SIGNALHD AS KNOWN. 


WRONGLY SIGNALED AS UNKNOWN. 


Sub- 
ject. 


No. of 
Cases. 


Time. 


M.V. 


No. of 
Cases. 


Time. 


M. V. 


W 
Y 

S 
K 

Q 


9 
19 

6 
10 
16 


624 
536 
550 
614 
461 


2CX> 
118 

137 
128 

71 


20 
27 
15 
31 
10 


617 
586 
635 
570 
516 


88 
116 

98 
105 
140 



nized. This appears to be due to a difference in mental attitude, 
which will perhaps be clearer after a consideration of the results 
where errors were made. Y, Q and K show the same ten- 
dencies in Table IV as in Table III ; the times of W when in 
error are practically the same without regard to the nature of 
the error; while for S the relation of Table III is reversed. 
The small number of cases and the large M. V. make it seem 
likely that this difference in the case of S is accidental, and ex- 
amination of the separate determinations confirms that opinion. 



MINOR STUDIES. 29 1 

The proportion of errors of each sort for the different subjects 
is, however, more characteristic than the times. The percent- 
age of cases in which the error consisted in signaling as known 
a picture which had not really been seen before, is as follows : 
W 31, Y 41, S 29, K 24 and Q 62. W, S and K evidently tend 
less to false recognitions than Y and Q. Furthermore, if the 
records of the observers in all the tables be compared, it will be 
found in every case that subject Q made the quickest responses, 
and that in every case but one (t. e., in wrongly signaling 
known pictures as unknown, Table IV, second half), Y stands 
next him in speed, while K, W, and S are always slower, though 
their order among themselves is different in different tables. 
Y and Q appear to err by being hasty. 

The first inference, perhaps, would be that Q and Y belong 
to the motor type of reagents and carried their motor habit into 
these recognition experiments ; and there was more or less in 
Q's manner of reacting to justify such an inference. Yet, if this 
were the case, something of the same tendency ought to appear 
in the records for signaling the presence of the letters R and L. 
The records, however, fail to show such a tendency ; Q is slow 
as compared with the rest, and Y, though quick in the early 
part of the series, was excelled by both S and W in the latter 
part. It seems more probable, therefore, that Q and Y were 
somewhat on the lookout for known pictures, while the rest 
expected unknown pictures. 

The grading of the pictures according to their difficulty of 
recognition was made on the basis of the errors recorded against 
them and checked by a subsequent calculation of the times re- 
quired for certain special groups ; all of the * ' well-known ' ' 
pictures were excluded in this consideration. 

Ten pictures had no errors at all or but a single failure in 
recognition recorded against them. They gave, together, 
thirty-three recognition times, with an average value of 568, 
and a M. V. of III. Six pictures, on the other hand, failed 
of recognition on four or more occasions. These gave, together, 
ninteen recognition times, with an average value of 583 and a 
M. V. of 155. 

Any statement of reasons for this slowness must be largely 
conjectural, but the pictures recognized with difficulty seem 
lacking in interest, either in the situation presented or because 
they involve a multitude of nearly co-ordinate details. The 
pictures that were most often recognized falsely (2. e. , signaled as 
known when shown for the first time) , were a group of three draw- 
ings of country houses, all executed in a similar and somewhat 
peculiar manner, and not easily distinguishable in their general 
aspects, though offering no difficulty when placed side by side. 
Next these in suffering errors of this kind was a group of eleven 



292 COIvRGROVE : 

pictures, a number of which showed resemblance in subject or 
treatment to other pictures in the series. As was to have been 
expected from the nature of the experiment, the general effect 
is more important in both cases than details. 

The general results of this study may be summed up as fol- 
lows : The central processes of recognition in the case of ordinary 
magazine pictures take place in a fifth of a second or less, on 
the average, the time decreasing as the familiarity increases. 
Whether the judgment that a picture is known takes place 
more quickly than the judgment that it is unknown, seems to 
depend on the mental attitude of the subject — more quickly if 
he expects the exhibition of known pictures, less quickly if he 
expects the reverse. Differences in the facility of recognition 
are found with different pictures, depending chiefly, it would 
seem, upon their ability to arouse interest, or, in other words, 
to compel attention. 



XIV. Notes on Mentai. Standards of Length. 



By F. W. Coi,EGROVE. 



The ability to make estimates of length presupposes some 
sort of mental standard which is applied to the length in ques- 
tion. The existence of such standards is very easy to demon- 
strate, and has even been found a serious obstacle in certain 
forms of psychophysical experimentation. Some effort has been 
made to find how accurately these mental standards coincide 
with the external units that they represent, but so far as the 
writer is aware no one has tried to investigate the nature of 
these scales and their mode of application. The present frag- 
ment unfortunately does not go far toward filling this gap, but 
may, at least, call attention to the matter as a subject for in- 
vestigation. It would be interesting from the point of view of 
individual psychology if we could know, for a considerable 
number of persons, the nature and origin of their full equip- 
ment of mental standards — for weight, capacity, temperature, 
angular measure and money value, as well as for length. 

The method of the present study was simple in the extreme, 
and the results can be briefly stated. Fifty circles, differing in 
diameter by sixteenths of an inch, and forming a continuous 
series from one and a half inches to four and nine-sixteenths 
inches, were drawn upon cards of convenient size. A similar 
set of straight lines of length equal to the diameters of the 
circles was also prepared, and was submitted with the circles 
to the subjects for estimation. The subjects were ten in num- 



MINOR STUDIES. 



293 



ber, including one who estimated the circles but not the lines. 
Six were university students (four were of the psychological 
department), and of the remaining four, one was the wife of a 
university student, one a carpenter, and one an expert ma- 
chinist. The combined results of both series and for all sub- 
jects are exhibited in the following diagram. The short lines 



I. J. 



I 



f-r 



TT 



FT 



FT 



TTT 



Ttt 



ri 



nr 



ittIttH 



*L. 



3. 



projecting downward from the horizontal are intended to rep- 
resent the objective scale, as ordinarily cut on measuring rules. 
The portions at the left of the one and a half inch mark and to 
the right of the four and nine-sixteenths inch mark are put in 
in broken lines to indicate that while not actually found on any 
of the cards presented, they were trespassed upon by estimates 
of the subjects. The longer lines erected upon the upper side 
of the horizontal are intended to indicate the relative frequency 
of estimates of the extent given by the division of the scale 
above which they stand. The estimate * * three inches, ' ' for 
example, was recorded no times; that of "two and fifteen- 
sixteenths " (next line to the left) 4 times; that of " three and 
one-eight" (next line to the right) 10 times. The detached 
line at the extreme right shows the relative frequence of esti- 
mates based upon other than the 2, 4, 8, 16, division of the 
inch; they were chiefly thirds, with occasional fifths and sixths; 
no other irregular fractions were given by the subjects. 

It is easy to see from the diagram that estimates in six- 
teenths are infrequent. The eighth divisions are maintained 
throughout from one to four and a half inches. The quarters 



294 COLEGROVK : 

are well marked, and the halves and whole inches best of 
all. The estimate " three inches," approximately the middle 
extent of the range used, was the most frequently given. In 
the eighths and quarters there is, as might be expected, a 
tendency to diminish in frequency from left to right, and this 
would doubtless have been much more marked had the range 
been more extended. Such a decrease in the fineness of the 
estimation scale with increase in its extent is easily verified 
in introspection, and is probably a case of the same sort of 
relativity that finds expression in Weber's I^aw, at least in its 
application to visual extents. 

In a certain sense the diagram above may be said to represent 
the average mental scale from one and a half to four and a half 
inches, but it is in no sense to be taken as a picture of such a 
scale. The mental scale is probably a much more complex 
affair. It seems likely that most of us carry separate standards 
for the principal extents; i, i^, 2, 2}^, 3 inches, and soon, 
and in estimating, classify first according to these. Then, iif 
pressed for finer judgments, we estimate the excess or defect of 
the given extent in comparison with the nearest of these stand- 
ards in such fractions of an inch as we have at command, and 
so arrive at a final estimate. The grouping of the sixteenths 
near the whole inches to be observed in the diagram, would 
accord well with such a process. 

The subjects showed considerable individual differences in 
their fineness of estimate. Of the twenty-two estimates in- 
volving sixteenths, seventeen were given by the machinist, four 
by the lady and one by one of the psychologists. 

Several subjects rarely estimated in eighths, and one used 
no eighths and only five quarters in fifty judgments. These 
differences are doubtless largely due to differences in practical 
familiarity with the measuring rule, but also perhaps in part 
to a difference in the seriousness with which the task was under- 
taken. The unusual fractions, thirds, fifths and sixths, were 
used to some extent by five subjects ; with one exception, by 
those whose scale was not otherwise very finely divided. The 
use of these unusual divisions seems to indicate reliance upon 
a standard inch divided off-hand as occasion required. 

The experiments, as arranged, were not adapted to test the 
objective truth of the estimates, but there seems to be a general 
tendency toward under-estimation. It was expected that this 
would be marked in the case of the circles, following the well- 
known illusion which affects circles when compared with squares 
of equal breadth, but the circles do not appear to have been 
more underestimated than the lines. 

With a view of studying the ability of the subjects to estimate 
extents of less than an inch, the following variation of the 



MINOR STUDIES. 295 

experiment was tried With eight of the previous subjects, the 
machinest not being included, however. A Brown & Sharpe 
micrometric gauge was set at the even tenths of an inch from 
o. I to the full inch and the subjects were asked to estimate the 
separation of the jaws. In this case all the subjects but one 
used divisions as fine as sixteenths, and one went as far as sixty- 
fourths. The remaining subject gave no fraction with larger 
denominator than six. One gave estimates in unusual frac- 
tions (thirds and fifths) but no one ventured on a decimal 
division. 

Other tests were made in which the subjects drew their 
standards for the whole inches from one to five, and still others 
in which the lines were estimated from memory after a few 
minutes interval, but not in sufficient number to warrant pres- 
entation of the results. 



NOTES ON THE CASTRATION OF IDIOT CHILDREN. 



By Everett Fi,ood, M. D., Supt. Hospital Cottages for Children, 
Baldwinville, Mass. 



Bibliography and Brie:f Abstracts. 

T. B. Curling, Diseases of the Testis, London, 1843. 

Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Med., 1873. Cas- 
tration, BOUISSON. 

History of Circumcision, P. C. Rbmondino, 1891. F. A. Davis 
Co. 

Pickering, Races of Man, p. 153. 

Dr. Robert Boal read before the Illinois State Medical Society 
a paper under the title * * Emasculation and Ovariotomy as a 
Penalty for Crime and the Reformation of Criminals."— /<?wr. 
Am. Med. Association, Sept., i8g^. 

Dr. A. Lapthorn Smith, Montreal, Can., reports the case of 
Miss X., age 25, ovaries and tubes removed 7 years ago. Still 
has the same sexual feeling as before and indulges excessively. 

Dr. E. J. Munroe, of Bordeaux, reports observations in two 
cases of ovariotomy in young women, which showed an effect 
on the voice exactly the opposite of what is brought about in 
the male by castration. The higher notes were lost and the 
voice fell from soprano to mezzo-soprano. — Boston Med. and 
Surg. Jour. 

In a paper entitled "The Crimes of Medical Men," in the 
Medical Herald for June, 1896, Dr. W. O. Henry mentions as 
one crime the failure to urge legislation to prevent marriage of 
criminals or to have them castrated. — Record, Sept., 1896. 

In the Annals of Surgery, Sept., 1896, Dr. A. T. Cabot dis- 
cusses the question of "Castration for Enlarged Prostate," in 
which the writer takes, on the whole, an unfavorable view of 
the operation as compared with the older one of prostatectomy. 
Dr. White, one of the editors of the Annual, combats some of 
his conclusions. "The large proportion of cases mentioned by 
Dr. Cabot in which mental disturbance followed the operation 
is noteworthy, even if it is not directly attributable to the oper- 
ation." A large mortality has followed the operation of cas- 
tration in the aged for enlarged prostate. 

Dr. Pilcher, Supt. of the Institute for Imbeciles and Weak 
Minded Children, at Winfield, Kan. , has been bitterly denounced 



NOTES ON THE CASTRATION OF IDIOT CHILDREN. 297 

by newspapers in Winfield and Topeka for castrating several 
boys, inmates, who were confirmed masturbators. His prede- 
cessor, Dr. Wile, had treated these boys five years without 
benefit, and Dr. Pilcher, taking a rational view of the subject, 
performed the operation for the same reason that he would per- 
form any other surgical operation — for its curative effect. There 
is a strong probability that he will be indicted for mayhem, to 
the everlasting disgrace of the civilization of the nineteenth 
century. — Texas Med. Jour. 

The House Committee on Public Health of the Kansas Legis- 
lature has made a favorable report on the bill which does away 
with the penitentiary sentence for men convicted of assaulting 
women, and substitutes castration. The Social Purity League 
of Topeka has been urging the passage of this bill, and the 
leaders of the league claim enough votes in both houses to pass 
it, and have secured the promise of Gov. Leedy's signature. 
They say that following the lead of Kansas, ten other States 
will pass the same law at their next session of legislature. — 
Med. Record. 

*' Castration in cases of sexual perversion and for habitual 
criminals has been revived in able papers read before the Chicago 
Medico- Legal Society, by Daniel, of Texas, and Way, of the 
Elmira Reformatory. The arguments advanced did not receive 
a very cordial endorsement from the members present, and the 
possibility of the adoption of the measure advocated is slight. 
It is too radical a change to be made in a hurry, and the fact 
must not be lost sight of that any such experimentation is con- 
trar}^ to the laws of nature and will receive almost universal 
condemnation. " — Cutting. 

A writer in the London Lancet gives us some information on 
the subject of the demand and supply of eunuchs in China. 
The emperor and certain members of the royal family are alone 
entitled to keep eunuchs. His majesty maintains at least 2,000, 
but no prince of the blood or imperial princess has a right to 
more than 30. In the production of Chinese eunuchs four chief 
factors prevail, viz. : greed, predilection, poverty and laziness. 
Many parents sell their male children to the mutilators, or them- 
selves castrate them in the hope of eventually sharing their 
earnings. Both penis and scrotum are removed by a single 
sweep of the operator's knife or scivSsors. A small piece of wood 
or pewter is inserted into the open urethra and the wound 
washed with pepper and water. The patient is then walked 
for three hours without rest, and for the following three days he 
is allowed no drink, while the plug fills the urethra. On the 
fourth day the plug is removed and if the urine flows he is looked 
upon as cured; but, should the overstrained bladder refuse to 
act, he is left to die. Fatal cases amount to about three per cent. 

JOURNAI,^-9 



\-.> 



298 FI.OOD : 

' ' In Siluria boys are castrated in a certain village and dressed 
in women's clothes." — Uncertain authority. 

Hammond refers to castration as a religious ceremony in New 
Mexico. 

There is a wide-spread belief that squirrels castrate each other, 
but after reading much pro and con I feel pretty well satisfied 
that the very frequent cases where the testicles are missing is 
due to a parasitic disease which destroys the gland. 

Dr. Edmund Andrews, of the Northwestern University, 
Chicago, writes for the American Medical Journal of Jan., 1898, 
that the following effects of castration on animals are noted. 
The elk experimented upon did not shed their horns in the fol- 
lowing season, as is usual with them, but the old horn remained. 
The severe weather froze the horn at the tips and these tips 
came off and then numerous small sprouts came out. These in 
turn were nipped in the following season and sprouted in smaller 
parts and this went on until a pair of large nobby bunches of 
bone stood up on the heads. If protected, these horns would 
probably attain an immense growth. 

The ox. When the calf is castrated he grows to be a larger 
and taller animal than the bull but his neck and forequarters 
are thinner. His cerebellum becomes larger than that of the 
bull and his horns become both thicker and longer. The voice 
is changed in pitch while lowing but not in bellowing. 

The horse grows larger if castrated young and the bridle teeth 
do not seem to be changed as occurs in the full male. 

Sheep. The wethers do not become especially larger. The 
wool of the ram is, however, much more oily and of less value. 

The cat. These animals grow larger and are good mousers. 
They are fonder of petting. 

Thecapo7i, castrated chicken, grow larger, the flesh is delicate, 
the spurs undeveloped, the colored comb and wattles remain 
small. Some of them develop a nursing instinct and take good 
care of a brood of chickens. 

In general terms, if an animal is castrated young he develops 
the distinctively male peculiarities in only a slight degree, yet 
some species produce much larger horns than the perfect male. 
The ox and gelding do not completely lose their sexual passion, 
but make frequent efforts to copulate with the females in heat. 

Physical effects of castration in man seem to be that if cas- 
trated young they grow taller and have larger frames. They 
are also fatter. The hair on pubes and face does not grow. 
Cheeks look round and prominent, chin apt to be double, no 
beard. The voice in boys below age of puberty is about like 
that of a woman, but after puberty it is found an octave lower 
than that of the woman. The timbre never attains the richness 
and flute-like splendor of the adult woman. 



NOTES ON THE CASTRATION OF IDIOT CHII.DREN. 299 

Mental effects of castratio7i. If castrated late in life the sexual 
desires are not abated, but if in early childhood it is practically 
lost. Eunuchs are charged with special envy and jealousy, but 
this does not seem substantiated. They are only zealous in their 
duty of defending the women whom they are in charge of. 

Dr. Robert P. Harris, of Philadelphia, in an article on Con- 
genital Absence of the Penis, in Philadelphia Medical Journal 
of January 8th, 1898, offers the following conclusions among 
others : The eunuch has usually longer legs, a light pelvis, 
and is defective in the growth of his chest and arms. His long 
bones are light and have a larger hollow in them than in the 
full man. If not taller, he is often very fat, and attains a weight 
of 200 or 300 pounds. 

"A complete antithesis to the Jumpers is presented in the 
sect of the so-called White Doves or Skoptzi. These are a secret 
sect in Russia, belonging to the Christian belief, but secretly 
practicing castration, and believing that thereby they insure 
purity. They are certainly a wonderful people, with many ex- 
cellencies, though fanatics in this belief." 

An editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Associa- 
tion of October 23d, 1897, concludes that the psychic and 
physical effects of castration are less pronounced the later in 
life the operation is performed. The general argument is in 
favor of great care in performing the operation in women, and 
a conservatism that has not as yet been practiced. 

Castration is hinted at in Mat. xix, 12 ; Deuteronomy xxiii, 
I , two mutilations analagous to complete castration are men- 
tioned. 

A castration bill was introduced into the Michigan Legislature 
providing for the castration of all inmates of the Michigan Home 
for the Feeble- Minded and Epileptic before their discharge; also 
for that of all persons convicted of a felony for the third time, 
and of those convicted of rape, in 1897. 

Of the 26 >male cases here operated on, 24 were operated on 
because of persistent epilepsy and masturbation, one for epilepsy 
with imbecility, and one for masturbation with weakness of 
mind. 

The results of the tabulation show that the cases were at time 
of operation about half of them under 14, four 16, five 17, two 
were more than twenty, and the balance of 15. The time since 
the operation has been in most of the cases some years, but in 
four the operation has been done within a year. The mortality 
has been nothing, and the operation is regarded as very safe and 
simple even with adults, though there has been a high mortality 
in the aged castrated for enlarged prostate. 

In these cases they have been operated on under an anesthetic 
and some have been circumcised at the same time. A large 



300 FLOOD : 

number of other cases have been circumcised alone and all with 
good results. 

Two of these cases had large varicocele which was all cut 
away at the time of castration. 

The mental and moral condition was fair in 9, good in 2, and 
poor in the others ; this has become better in 3 cases and re- 
mained unchanged in the rest ; two were kleptomaniacs, and 
this manifestation has nearly disappeared since the operation ; 
one was salacious, improved since operation ; one was solitary, 
not so much so now; four were passionate and quarrelsome and are 
now much less so ; one persistently eloped but now never attempts 
it ; two were gluttonous and remain so ; one was monkeyish 
and is still much the same ; one was imbecile and is now more 
so ; four ceased to have fits, though without much mental change, 
soon after the operation ; the voice remains soft in five cases and 
is not perceptibly altered in the others. Masturbation has 
ceased in all the cases but one ; that comes on at times only and 
lasts for a few days. 

In one of the female cases, not included in the 26, masturba- 
tion is quite prominent at intervals, but at such times the girl 
is insane and demented. There has been gain in weight, aside 
from growth, in all cases but 3. The sexual appetite seems to 
be now missing in all the cases but 2, and in them appears only 
periodically. Erections sometimes occur but without erethism 
except in the instances where masturbation still occurs. No 
extra growth of legs or body has been noted in these cases, and 
could not well be, as they are nearly ali still in the growing 
stage and have not as yet shown abnormal size. The temper 
has been improved in all instances but 4, where it remains un- 
changed. There is less pugnacity in all the cases, and less of 
anger, obstinacy and self-will. It seems that the cases grow 
more sympathetic and altruistic, and in some the emotional 
nature in general is better balanced and more nearly normal. 

In all these cases the written consent of the parents has been 
obtained. 

This class of work has been very little done anywhere, as 
public opinion has been much against it, and even among med- 
ical men no encouragement has been given until recently. 

The effect upon the epileptic seizures appears to have been 
good in all cases. Some have ceased having the attacks alto- 
gether, though one has had an attack after two years of im- 
munity, but it was brought on by over-eating. All the cases 
have the attacks less often and with less severity. 

Only five of these cases have had bromide since the operation 
and they with diminishing doses, now reduced to five or ten 
grains once dail}'. All the others have been without medicine, 



NOTES ON THE CASTRATION OF IDIOT CHII.DREN. 30I 

except that they have had tonics, such as Co. Tinct. Gentian, 
and cod liver oil, at intervals. 

Fourteen of the cases are Americans, six Irish, one Scotch, 
one Swedish, the others being of unknown extraction. At 
present, 17 of the cases still reside in this Institution, 3 are in 
lunatic hospitals, five are at home with parents, and the where- 
abouts of one unknown. 



ON THE WORDS FOR ''FEAR" IN CERTAIN LANGUAGES. 
A STUDY IN LINGUISTIC PSYCHOLOGY. 



By Alex. F. Chamberlain, Ph. D., Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 



In a previous essay^ the writer discussed anger-words, and reference 
to this will be necessary since not a few fear-words are akin to those 
used to denote anger. 

I. Fear, if we trust the etymology of its English name, is "an ex- 
perience;'''' Skeat tells us that the word was "originally used of the 
perils and experiences; of a yi2.y -faring.'' The Anglo-Saxon fder 
meant " a sudden peril, danger, panic, fear ;" cognate are Icelandic yiir, 
"bale, harm, mischief," Old High German yara, var, "treason, dan- 
ger, fright," Modern German Ge-fahr, "danger, peril, risk." Re- 
lated also are : 'Liotin periculum, " peril, trial, danger " {irom perior, 
the root of peritus, "experienced, skilled"), experientia^ "expe- 
rience, trial, proof;" Greek Tretpa, "attempt, stratagem, trick," 
vepdu) " I go through." The common radical of all these terms is 
the Indo-European root Per, " to pass through, to travel, to /are (as 
our own English word from the same stock has it)." In Old Norse 

/dr has the additional signification of " plague, pestilence, misfor- 
tune," which may go to somewhat explain our expression " a plague 
of fear." JFear, then, emphasizes " what one has passed through." 

II. " All of a tremble''' is a popular description of the state of fear 
or terror, and not a few of our fear-words contain this primitive idea. 
We say " trembling, shaking, quaking with fear," and these expres- 
sions find their analogues in many other tongues. George Fox tells 
us in his "Journal " that "Justice Bennet [in 1650] was the first to 
call us Quakers, because I bade him quake and tremble at the word of 
the Lord," and all over the world the " fear of the Lord " has been 
largely associated with quaking and trem,bling . 

The English word terror (French terreur, Latin terror^, goes back 
to the same root which gave birth to Latin terrere (older form, ter- 
sere), "to dread, to be afraid," and, originally, "to tremble;" Rus- 
sian triasti {triasate), " to shake, to shiver;" Lithuanian triszeti, " to 
tremble;" Sanskrit tras, " to tremble, to be afraid," trdsa, " terror" — 
the radical of all being Indo-European ters, "to tremble, to be 
afraid." Of similar meaning, ultimately are tremor and cognate 
words derived from the Latin, and the derivatives of Greek T/)^w, 
" I tremble, quake, fear, dread, am afraid of." 

The German Furcht (the Middle High German vorhte signified 
" fear, anxiety, apprehension ") is the abstract of the verb fUrchten,'* 
cognate with Gothic /aurhtj an, " to fear, to be afraid of," to which is 
related the adjective-participle fauhrts, " fearful, timid," faurhtei, 
" fear." The Teutonic radical /(?rA, together, perhaps, with the roots 
of Latin querquerus, '• shivering with cold," and Greek x«PXa^P<^» ** I 
tremble," goes back to the Indo-European ^^r/?; or qerk,''\.o trem- 
ble." Another word embodying the same idea is Gothic reiro, " trem- 
ble, terror" — reiran, "to tremble." To " tremble like an aspen " is 

» Amer.Jour. Psychol., Vol. VI, pp. 585-592. 



WORDS FOR "fear." 303 

a very ancient Indo-European figure of speech. The Latin pavor, 
"quaking, trembling, throbbing with desire, joy, fear," "anxiety, 
fear, dread, — the god of fear is personified as Pavor, — to be afraid, to 
fear, to tremble," and the Greek #6/3os, with all the phobias to which 
it has given rise in the various civilized languages, have at their base 
radicals which signify "to tremble." The corresponding verbs in 
Greek ^o/S^w and ^^/SoTjat are related to Sanskrit bhi, " fear," bibheti, 
"he is afraid," Lithuanian baime, "fear," bijitiSy "to be afraid," 
bajiis, "terrible," baish, "terror," while the modern German beben, 
" to tremble, quake," goes back to the same Indo-European radical. 

We speak in English of " shivering with terror, or fear," and it is 
interesting to note that in the " Gest Hystoriale of the Destruction of 
Troy," an English Romance circa 1390 A. D., we find " Achilles at the 
choice men cheuert (shivered) for anger." 

The French vi or ^craindre, " to fear," belongs here also, being de- 
rived from the Latin tremere. 

The radical meaning of English shudder is to " tremble." 

III. Another closely related series of words is that in which the 
basal idea is agitation, move^neiit, stir. Here belong the Latin 
metus, " agitation, anxiety, fear, dread, terror," metuere, " to fear, to 
be afraid of," — allied perhaps to tnotus, " moved, affected, disturbed." 
Trepidation, — the Latin trepidatio signified "confused hurry, alarm, 
consternation, terror, trepidation," — has a curious etymology. Festus, 
the ancient grammarian, glosses the old Latin trepit by uertit, adding 
the remark " unde trepidus et trepidatio, quia turbatione mens uer- 
titur." The Latin adjective ifr<?/?Ww5, " trembling, alarmed, fearful, 
anxious," etc., would then seem to signify " in a state of disturbance, 
as if the mind is being continually turned about or agitated (Skeat)." 
The Old Latin trepere is cognate with Greek Tp^ireiv, "to turn," 
and also with Latin torquere {\s\iQ^nc& torture) , the basis of all being 
the Indo-European radical t-rk, "to turn, to twist." -So when we 
speak of being tortured by our fears we are but repeating a very old 
figure of speech. A coward we often say " writhes with fear." 

IV. A common expression in English is " to start with fear," with 
which may be compared the colloquial " to almost jump out of one's 
boots;" we have also the derivative " to startle.^'' The same idea is at 
the basis of the modern High German Schreck, "terror, fright, fear, 
horror," the Old High German verb screckdn signifying, "to start up, 
to leap, to hop," the Middle High German substantive schric, " a sud- 
den start, terror," and the causative verb schrecken, " to cause to 
start, to make afraid." The radical is skrik, "to leap, to move sud- 
denly, to start." 

A cognate idea resides in the Modern German sich entsetzen, "to be 
startled at, to be terrified, to shudder," and the substantive Entse- 
tzen, "terror, dread, horror, fright." The Middle High German ent- 
setzen signified, " to cast down, to disconcert, to fear, to be afraid of," 
the Old High German intsizzen (there is also a M. H. G. from entsit- 
zen), " to come out of one's seat, to lose one's composure, to fear, to 
be afraid of." In Gothic we find andasets, " horrible," andsitan, " to 
be terrified." These words are all based upon the Indo-European 
root sed, " to sit," with a privative, or disjunctive prefix (Mod. Ger- 
man ent, Gothic and). The idea at the root of Entsetzen, is " start- 
ing from one's seat in terror." 

V. The sinking of the heart and of the vital organs generally is a 
familiar conception of "fear" among primitive peoples, and one 
which appears very often in picture-writing and sign-language, as 
Col. Mallery has pointed out. Our own language furnishes cognate 
expressions, "to have one's heart in one's boots," "to feel one's 



304 CHAMBERI.IN : 

heart sink," etc. Being " down-hearted " is thus a very early form of 
fear. 

Perhaps, here belong also the Yoruba (a West African language) 
aiyafo mi, " I am afraid," literally, " the heart jumps me," daiyafo, 
" to frighten," etc., although the jumping is here the other way. We 
say, analogously, in English " my heart leaped into my mouth," in 
speaking of certain aspects of fear. 

VI. The ghost in '* Hamlet " describes several of the known symp- 
toms of fear : 

** I could a tale unfold, whose lightest word 
Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood, 
Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their spheres. 
Thy knotted and combined locks to part, 
And each particular hair to stand on end, 
Ivike quills upon the fretful porpentine." 

The last mentioned symptom is illustrated by the etymology of the 
word horror. The I^atin horror, *' a standing on end, bristling, terror, 
dread," and horrere, **to stand erect, to bristle, to be afraid, aston- 
ished, amazed, to startle with fear," etc., as the older form {horsere) 
of the verb (cf. hirsutus, "rough, hairy, shaggy") shows, refer to 
the "bristling of the hair in fear." In Sanskrit hirsh, "to bris- 
tle," is said of the hair, "especially as a token of anger or pleasure " 
(Skeat). 
Virgil refers to the bristling of the hair in the Aen., II, 774 : 
Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus hsesit. 

VII. The " freezing of the blood " finds cognate expression in some 
of our fear-words, and besides we speak often enough of " the cold 
shivers " of fear, and "the cold sweat" that accompanies it. Our 
English afraid is the past participle of the verb affray " to frighten," 
which Skeat traces through the Old French effreier (effraier, esfreer), 
" to frighten," to a I^ow Latin exfrigidare {iromfrigus,'' cold ")," to 
freeze with terror," — in L/atin frigidus meant " dead or stiffened with 
cold or fright," and Horace even uses it in the sense of " fearful." A 
common phrase in English is *' numbed with fear." 

VIII. Our English dismay, " to terrify, to discourage," comes, ac- 
cording to the Skeat, from Old French dismayer (cf. Spanish des- 
mayar, " to dismay, to dishearten, to be discouraged, to lose heart "), 
which seems to have been supplanted very early by the verb esmayer, 
" to dismay, to terrify, to strike powerless " — the intransitive sense of 
which " to lose power, to faint, to be discouraged," would appear to 
be the older. Desm-ayer and esm,ayer, according to the best authori- 
ties, are derived from the Old High German magan (Mod. Germ. 
"tnogen. Mod. Engl, may), with the Latin prefixes dis-, ex-. The 
" loss of power " is the basal idea here. From Old French esmayer 
comes Modern French dm,oi, " fright, terror." Cognate also is the 
Italian smagare, " to lose courage." The English word misgiving 
has somewhat of the idea in dismay. With us, in English " to lose 
heart " is "to give way to fear." 

IX. The Latin consternatio (whence our consternation), signified 
" consternation, fright, tumult;" the corresponding verb is conster- 
nare, "to stretch on the ground, to prostrate, to terrify, to alarm, to 
dismay " — the participle consternatus meaning " cast down, prostrate, 
frightened." The basal idea is seen in Latin sternere, "to throw 
down, to throw to the ground," from the Indo-European radical st-r, 
"to spread out." We employ a somewhat similar figure when we 
speak of " abject fear." 

X. We often speak of persons being " rooted to the ground with 



WORDS FOR "FBAR." 305 

fear," "transfixed with fear," etc.; from fright people often stand 
" stock still." In Gothic we find usgaisjan, " to terrify," usgeisnan, 
" to be terrified," cognate with Old Norse geiska-fullr, " filled with 
terror," and Lithuanian gai'szti, "to swoon." Related also is the 
Latin ha^rere (older form hcssere), " to cling to, to stick, to be unable 
to move away " — the radical of the whole series being Indo-European 
ghaiSy "to stick." We still say of a valiant man that "he will not 
stick at anything." 



BOOK NOTES. 



G. S. H. 



Die Ideenassoziation des Kindes. Von Th. Ziehen. Berlin : Reu- 
ther und Reichard, 1898. pp. 66. Price, Mk. 1.50. 

A scientific study of the association of ideas, Professor Ziehen notes 
with surprise, has scarcely yet been made ; although from a theoretical, 
no less than a pedagogical, point of view, no field promises richer re- 
sults. Galton has, it is true, done something with the associated ideas 
of adults, but in the domain of genetic psychology one finds only the 
most incidental references to the subject, and Professor Ziehen's study 
is an attempt to break new ground. His test was carried on with forty- 
two boys, from eight to fourteen, in the practice school connected with 
Rein's Padagogische Seminar at the University of Jena. Certain mon- 
osyllabic words — the names of well-known objects — were at stated 
intervals pronounced to the boys and they were required to give the 
immediately suggested idea. The children usually answered in a word 
and these answers, or associated ideas, Professor Ziehen groups (i) 
rapid (springende) associations and (2) reasoning (urteils) association. 
" Rose — red " illustrates the first group. There is manifest absence 
of reasoning, and ideas of time and space are not taken into considera- 
tion. In the second group the child answers, **The rose is red." 
Here a definite rose is considered and time and space are indicated. 
The idea presented is also connected with the resulting idea. 

Verbal associations constituted less than 2% of the associations made 
by the children, but Professor Ziehen concludes that such associations 
are more common among adults and most common in persons having 
mania or some form of mental debility. A form of association — some- 
what related to verbal association — namely, word-completion, he found 
more general among the children, as, for example, postal — card ; heart 
— shaped; post — office, etc. The most significant facts brought out 
in Professor Ziehen's study are (i) the universal application of the 
law of contiguity with the young child — only in verbal associations 
was there any hint of the working of the law of similarity, and the 
verbal associations, it will be recalled, were not numerous; and (2) 
the strong emotional element in the associated ideas of children. This, 
says Ziehen, explains why the memory-images of school excursions 
form so readily and are reinstated so easily. 

Wiiyi, S. Monroe. 
Studien und Versuche uber die Erlernung der Orthographie. Von 
Herman Schii^ler. Berlin : Reuther und Reichard, 1898. pp. 
63. Price, Mk. 1.50. 

The spelling problem, notes Professor Schiller, in his introduction, 
is far from settled — German contemporary pedagogical thought to the 
contrary, notwithstanding. The results obtained in the schools, which 
are far from satisfactory, justify some investigation into the psycho- 
logical basis of accurate spelling. The customary way of acquiring 
word-forms, assumes the author, is primarily through the eye and the 
ear. In order to have the accurate orthography of a word, the pupil 
must heaVy see, pronounce and write the new word ; and in order to 



BOOK NOTES. 307 

test the relative value of visual, auditory and motor methods in spell- 
ing instruction, Professor Schiller devised a series of words which 
were in eleven different ways propounded to classes of boys ranging 
in age from eight to nine. The following were the variations of the 
tests : I. Words pronounced by teacher, the pupils holding their 
mouths firmly closed; 2. Words pronounced by teacher, the pupils 
repeating the same in a low tone ; 3. Words pronounced by teacher, 
pupils repeating the same in a loud tone ; 4. Words pronounced by 
teacher, and the pupils write the words in the air; 5. Teacher writes 
the words on the board, the pupils close the mouth firmly, and look 
at it an instant ; 6. The same, the pupils pronounce the words in a low 
tone; 7. Same, the pupils pronounce the words in a loud tone ; 8. Same, 
the pupils write the words in the air ; 9. The teacher pronounces the 
words, the pupils spell the same, that is, name the letters and syllables 
in the words ; 10. The same, the pupils pronouncing the words in low 
tones ; 11. The same, the pupils pronouncing the words in loud tones. 

Each test was repeated eight different times with words which had 
not been taught to the boys and which must have been more or less 
new to them. The efl&ciency of the different methods was judged by 
the errors made in subsequent efforts to correctly render the lists of 
words learned. It should be borne in mind that each list had eight 
repetitions ; and, as to relative size and difficulty of words in the dif- 
ferent lists, the balances were pretty approximate. The following com- 
parison with regard to errors made suggests the efficiency of current 
methods of teaching spelling : Words written on board by teacher and 
copied by pupils, they pronouncing at the same time in low tones, 277 
errors ; the same, pronouncing in loud tones, 298 errors ; words written 
on the board by teacher, and then written in the air by the pupils, 
344 errors ; words pronounced by the teacher and then orally spelled 
by the pupils, 356 errors ; words written on the board by the teacher 
and then pronounced in loud tones by the pupils, 589 errors ; the 
same, pronounced in low tones, 642 errors ; the same, with the mouth 
firmly closed, 763 errors ; words pronounced by the teacher and writ- 
ten in the air by the pupils, 772 errors ; the words pronounced by the 
teacher and repeated in loud tones by pupils, 1,213 errors ; the same, 
repeated in low tones, 1,801 errors ; the same with closed mouth, 1,902 
errors. 

A study of the errors leads one to conclude (i) that merely hearing 
words pronounced is the least effective way of learning to spell ; (2) 
that exposing the word-form to the eye reduces the number of errors ; 
(3) that seeing the word-form and copying the same produces a mini- 
mum of error ; (4) that writing in the air reduces the number of errors 
in both the seen and heard lists of words ; and (5) that loud speaking 
— with one exception — proved more effective than low speaking. Pro- 
fessor Schiller made similar experiments in a I/atin class, employing 
the same method, but substituting the Latin for the German words, 
and the results agree substantially with those already noted. He 
reaches three tentative conclusions from the study ; ( i) necessity of 
absolutely correct pronunciation of all words used by the teacher ; (2) 
dictation should be less used and copying more generally employed 
during the early years of school life ; (3) more time should be given 
to writing words in the air. 

W11.1. S. Monroe. 
Le rdle social de la Femme. Devoirs. Droits. Education par Mme. 
Anna L/AMperi^re. 1 vol. \n 12 diQ\a.Bibliothequede Philosophie 
contemporaine, 2 fr. 50 (F^lix Alcan, dditeur). 

This book does not pretend to be a complete study of the subject, 
but rather presents some general views which the author thinks should 



308 BOOK NOTES. 

be opposed to the partisans of ' la compagne f^ministe.' According to 
Mme. Lamperi^re, the function of woman in society should be abso- 
lutely different from that of man ; she should be his co-laborer, not 
his competitor ; she should be employed as organizer, not as producer; 
in a word, the social function, i. <?., duty, of woman, is to expend her- 
self for society, for the race, as her domestic function is to expend 
herself for the family. 

The identity of the rights of man and woman is rejected. The 'right' 
of the human being is merely the right to the full development of his 
faculties ; but the faculties of woman are other than the faculties of 
man, though "of equal, if not superior, importance for the harmonious 
organization of the individual life and the social life." 

The supreme right of woman is to be protected. 

Starting from these ideas, Mme. Lamp^ri^re studies diverse situa- 
tions of woman, notably a /' atelier and in marriage. She concludes 
by treating of the "education of this educator," which should be 
" conformable to biologic laws," and sets forth the object and the laws 
of t\iQ Socidtd d' dtudes/eminines, created precisely with such education 
in view. 

The Students' Life of Jesus, by George Hai^ley Gii^bert, Ph. D., 
D. D. The Macmillan Company, 1898. pp. 412. 

This book aims to present succinctly and accurately the facts of the 
objective life of Jesus. No attempt is made to discuss in detail the 
teaching of Jesus ; and the subjective side of his life is considered only 
as it is revealed in the Gospels. The book is in no sense interpretative. 
The author adheres pretty rigorously to his purpose of stating "the 
facts as directly and clearly as possible." 

The Introduction, of about eighty pages, is devoted to establishing 
the historicity and authenticity of his sources, which are the Synoptic 
Gospels, the fourth Gospel, and the other New Testament writings, 
containing references to the subject. The author states the problem 
clearly in each case, and carries on the discussion with thorough can- 
dor ; but his apologetic attitude leads him at times to lean rather 
strongly upon the argument from ignorance. 

The rest of the book presents schematically the outline of the life, 
constructed from the aforesaid sources. The work is done critically, 
giving evidence of ample technical scholarship. 

Though the author distinctly disavows any intention of adding any 
interest to the work not inherent in the facts, one cannot help feeling 
that the value of the book would have been enhanced by a slight in- 
fusion of warmth and color in the disposition of the facts. 

W. S. S. 

Biomechaniky von Dr. Brnst Mehnert. Privatdocent an der Uni- 
versitat Strassburg. Jena, 1898. pp. 177. 
This is a philosophical discussion of the principles of organogene- 
sis. Although the great biogenetic law that the individual recapitu- 
lates the stages of the development of the species to which it belongs 
is true in a large sense, the order in which it has developed does not 
follow their phyletic age, but is subject to much relative change. The 
heart, for instance, in the individual develops before the blood ves- 
sels, but this reverses the phylogenetic order. The walls of the large 
vessels develop before the blood corpuscles, while the converse was 
true in the development of the species. Ontogenetic age in all such 
cases is an index only of the intensity of kenogenetic energy. Re- 
tarded development of an organ on the other hand is an indication of 
regressivity, and Mehnert has collected much evidence of these cases, 
showing that abbreviation and retardation of different organs of a 



BOOK NOTES. 309 

creature, which is their bearer, are ontogenetic processes that are 
constantly operative. The latter may affect the date of the first ap- 
pearance of an organ, the differentiation of its tissues among each 
other, or the entire processes of growth of a part or all of them. 
Organs are progressive according to the degree of their vitality. The 
rapidity of the growth of a part is directly as the degree of develop- 
ment acquired by the phyletic process. Each organ also has its own 
growth center more closely connected with and dependent on the 
organism of the series from which it has descended than it is upon 
those structurally or functionally near it or the organ of which it is a 
part. In other words of all its determinants, those that are inherited 
are the most important. This is especially true of periods of sudden, 
explosive growth functions, the interconnection of organs and rela- 
tion to the environment, and all other individual or epigenetic fac- 
tors are real and important, but subordinate determinants, so that 
embryological growth is purest. 

It may be further assumed that ripe determinants and a directive 

?rogramme of energy develop more than those that are immature, 
he eozoon or paleoatavistic bases of heredity are the formative prin- 
ciples of fundamental organs. These bases condition all others and 
are constant. The neoatavistic factors on the other hand are the in- 
tensity and rapidity of development due to later and more individual 
influences upon heredity. The earlier part of the life of an animal is 
more established and more conformable to Weismannism, while the 
latter part of each individual life is more characterized by the evolu- 
tion of acquired qualities. Lower animal, especially aquatic forms, 
that have been subjected to unfavorable conditions, produce young 
before they are mature or full grown ; and these young then tend to 
stop in their own development at the stage where their parents were 
when they were produced. Growth might almost be defined as get- 
ting loaded up with inherited qualities. Although even epigenetic 
cells developed under the influence of function may be short lived, 
still assuming the monophyletic origin of animal life, and also assum- 
ing that maturity and death are longer delayed as we ascend the 
scale of being, more and more weight must be assigned to the later 
acquired than to the earlier and more stable qualities. 

Basal and lapidary as is the biogenetic law, the work of Appel, Kei- 
bel, Mehnert, and many others have demonstrated that the excep- 
tions to it are numerous and important. Kach higher animal is com- 
posed of organs phyletically old and new, and the order of their 
development maybe greatly changed- So great is this " heteroch- 
rony " that it may be said in general that the time at which an organ 
appears is dependent upon the time when it is needed for use, and 
organs decay as their functions cease. Every animal is, therefore, 
a mixture of high and low qualities. In many respects many of the 
lower animals excel man. The generalization here important is that 
by youthful parents heredity is more confined to older and lower 
qualities, so that those who attain sexual maturity early do not ad- 
vance the phyletic series. Species and individuals on the other hand 
that attain propogative power late make for progress of the stock, be- 
cause they had not only the wealth of heredity in its completeness, but 
contribute individual additions, infinitesimal though they may be. 
Early marriages, therefore, tend to the decay of culture and civiliza- 
tion, and all conditions that make for its " neotenia " are retrogress- 
ive, and each generation must reacquire everything anew because 
parents transmit nothing not transmittsd to them. Conversely, if we 
follow Mehnert, hyperheredity due to long delay of propogation may 
be a factor for accounting for the overgrowth of the horns of certain 



3IO BOOK NOTKS. 

stags, some of the monsters of the 'geologic past, and other hyper- 
trophied organs of individual species and functions, even those of 
genius. 

Die Psy chosen des Pubertdtsalters , von Wai^ter Wii,i,k. Leipzig u. 
Wien, 1898. pp. 218. 
We have here a careful description of 135 cases of psychic diseases 
during pubescence, which the author places between 14 and 23, which 
he has observed during the last fifteen years at the Insane Asylum of 
Basle. He concludes that there is no specific pubertal insanity, but 
that puberty gives a peculiar character to their psychoses, all of which 
may occur at this age. Atypic and mixed phases are unusually fre- 
quent. The most common hebephrenic traits are frequent and cause- 
less changes of moods, a certain superficialty that prompts stupid 
jests in the midst of lamentations ; expressions of world pain during 
the jolliest hours ; sudden changes of thought form with the most 
bizarre construction of sentences ; extravagance, talkativeness, echola- 
lia ; impulsiveness in action ; a theatrical reference to spectators and 
other degenerative traits play the leading role here. Contradictions 
are frequent, and delusions of greatness and a sense of exaltation alter- 
nate with the most depressive unworthiness. Moreau specifies sudden 
changes from sadness to gaiety ; spells of unusual activity ; extreme 
confidence often combined with chorea and catalepsy. Regis thinks 
pubertal insanity, more often moral, shows itself in morbid acts and im- 
pulses rather than in the intellectual sphere. Savage says psychic ab- 
normalities are like those of early childhood, only more expressed, and 
that all its many phases tend to issue in weakmindedness. At no time 
is dysmenorrhea so liable to intellectual disturbance. Blanford 
thinks violence more common than delusion and that St. Vitus Dance 
is characteristic. Trowbridge distinguishes between short duration 
and true psychoses, the latter being usually incurable. In all, perio- 
dicit}^ with lucid intervals is common. Moral perversions of boys are 
prone to take the form of cruelty or crime, while girls are more liable 
to shameless and erotic perversity ; while egotism and self satisfaction 
are common to both sexes. 

Nevroses et Idees Fixes, par Prof. F. Raymond et Dr. PierrE 
Janbt. F. Alcan, Paris, 1898. Vol. I, pp. 492 ; Vol. II, pp. 559. 

The first of these two heavy volumes, with sixty-eight cuts, is devoted 
to experimental studies on disturbances of will, attention, memory, 
emotion and fixed ideas ; and the second, with ninety-seven cuts, de- 
scribes clinical cases and gives suggestions as to treatment. The 
copious analytical index at the end permits ready reference to all the 
rich material. Few will perhaps agree with the somewhat extreme 
standpoint of the author, which describes so many and varied affecta- 
tions as traceable directly and indirectly to fixed ideas, but it must be 
admitted that the cases tend to favor the views of the close association 
between mental and nervous disturbances. The strong point of the 
work is the interpretation of individual cases. The writer is fully 
alive to the partial truths that may be contained in the current notions 
of mental healing. Such topics as confusion, aboulia, emotive delirium, 
impulsive obsession, somnambulism, chorea, tics, visceral spasms, 
contractures, allochiria, subconscious hallucinations, hysterical hemi- 
anopsia, insomnia, due to fixed ideas and possession, are illustrated, 
and explanations of very suggestive, if not always conclusive, charac- 
ter, are given. 

The Passing of Plato, by O. P. Jenkins. Stanford University Press, 
1897. pp. 23. 

Here is a Professor of Physiology in the Leland Stanford, Jr., Uni- 



BOOK NOTES. 31I 

versity, who notes the fact that the Greeks originally were sympathetic 
lovers of nature, till Socrates and Plato, who," with the purest and best 
of motives, unconsciously did the race a disservice that became a bar 
to progress for the ages to follow." The mind can make any hypothesis 
so there was no trouble to attain any required definitions, " and to de- 
fend the whole of these it was necessary to do away with the rest of 
the universe." These "innocent diversions of Plato," were followed 
by Aristotle, to whom " mental flights were more attractive than his 
studies of bugs and fishes." Then follow many other systems evolved 
from the " lazy philosophy of Plato," but pure thinking, which spread 
over the worlcl like cobwebs over the lawn on a summer's day, all in- 
spired by Plato. Despite many hopeful signs, these conceptions and 
methods hang like the old man of the sea upon the neck of the present. 
Now science is changing all this. 

Any well trained student in the history of philosophy will recognize 
the partial truth of the above, and if he has read I/ange's Positivism 
vs. Idealism, he may detect a similar spirit here, but the author's ex- 
treme onesidedness ; the surprising lack of historical perspective ; his 
failure to recognize one of the axioms of evolution as applied to man ; 
to say nothing of the fact that Plato was never so much studied as 
to-day, and that by men as much in S5'mpathy with physiological and 
biological sciences as himself, altogether make this a very strange 
note to be sounding at a university commencement. 

Moderne Nervositdt und ihre Vererbung, von Ch. Fere. Berlin, 
1898. pp. 284. 
The influence of heredity upon the origin of mental and nervous 
diseases are — this assumes that there is no nervous disease not con- 
nected with anatomical change, and the author undertakes to apply 
the general laws of biology in this field to pathology. Many diseases 
and malformations are considered, and even epilepsy and hysteria, it 
is assumed, must have a physical and transmissible basis. To estab- 
lish his thesis, the author at the outset makes very material qualifica- 
tions of the extreme views of Weismaun and his followers ; lays con- 
siderable stress upon the mutability of nervous diseases, especially 
these transmitted from one generation to the next ; and undertakes in 
some respects to suggest morbid equivalents. He believes that all 
degenerative tendencies can be successfully combated, provided 
there is a fit hygiene of propagation which consists mainly in system- 
atic rest beforehand and the most favorable nutritive conditions. The 
author's reportory of casualistic material is large, and twenty inter- 
esting cuts of inherited abnormalities and deformities are given. 

Archives of Neurology and Psychopathology . Vol. I, Nos. i and 2. 
1898. 
This new archive is most sumptuously bound and printed, and is to 
be published in four annual numbers per volume, price, I3 a year. It 
is to be published under the auspices of the New York State Hospital 
and the Pathological Institute, by permission of the State Commission 
in Lunacy. It is to be edited for the former by Drs. G. A. Blumer, C. 
W. Pilgrim and S. H. Talcott ; and for the latter by Drs. Ira van 
Gieson, Boris Sidis and H. B. Deady. The longest and most impor- 
tant article in the present number is entitled," The Correlation of Sci- 
ences in the Investigation of Nervous and Mental Diseases," by Ira 
van Gieson, which occupies about 235 pages. A briefer preliminary 
communication by Van Gieson and Sidis on " Neuron Energy and its 
Psychomotor Manifestations," makes up the entire number. The 
archives will contain studies on abnormal mental life and their neural 
cojicomitants based on psychology, psychopathology, experimental 



312 BOOK NOTEvS. 

physiology and pathology, cellular biology, pathological anatomy, 
comparative neurology, physiological chemistry, anthropology and 
bacteriology. 

Annual and Analytical EncyclopcEcLia of Practical Medicine^ by 
CharIvES E. de M. Sajous, M. D., and loo associates assisted by 
corresponding editors, collaborators, and correspondence. Illus- 
trated by chromolithographs, engravings and maps. F. A. Davis 
Co., Philadelphia, New York and Chicago, 1899. Vol. II, pp. 607. 

The two volumes already issued come down to and include diph- 
theria. Most of the sections in the entire work are prepared under 
the immediate supervision of the editor, and are submitted to mem- 
bers of the assistant staff for revision and correction. Each author 
can change, erase and add. This second volume inaugurates the plan 
of work as regards elaboration. Some of the best articles in the pres- 
ent volume of interest to psychologists are on deaf-mutism, catalepsy 
and cocainomania. 

The volumes thus far published are of very attractive appearance, 
printed in large clear type on two column pages, and tastefully and 
conveniently bound, and what is perhaps best of all in most cases 
bring down the literature of the more important subjects to the present 
year. Such a work was greatly needed in practical medicine, and the 
high character of the authors, as well as the work which has thus far 
appeared, is sufficient to stamp the encyclopaedia as an honor to 
American scholarship, a necessity for practical physicians and a con- 
venience, not to say a luxury, for psychologists. 

Foot-notes to Evolution, Series of Popular Addresses on the Evolution 
of Life, by David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., President Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University, with supplementary addresses by Pro- 
fessors E. G. Conklin, F. M. MacFarland, J. P. Smith. Appleton 
and Co., N. Y., 1898. pp. 392. 

These papers on organic evolution were originally given as oral lec- 
tures before University Extension Societies in California, and some 
have already appeared in the Arena and Popular Science Monthly. It 
is not intended as a text-book on evolution, although most of its 
phases are touched on, partly because the different topics are very 
unequally treated. President Jordan's papers are entitled — the kin- 
ship of life ; evolution, what it is and what it is not ; the elements of 
organic evolution ; the heredity of Richard Roe ; distribution of 
species ; latitude and vertebrae ; the evolution of mind ; degeneration ; 
heredity insufficiency ; the woman of evolution and the woman of 
pessimism ; the stability of truth ; the struggle of realities. There 
are twenty-eight illustrations and five full page plates. The topics 
are treated in a very lucid and popular way, and the book marks an 
important addition to the illustrations and demonstrations of the de- 
velopment theory. 

The Gospel According to Darwin, by Woods Hutchinson. Chicago, 
1898. pp. 241. 
This book is an effort to glance at some of the influences affecting 
human hope and happiness from the evolutionary standpoint, and to 
show how this attitude has a broad and a secure basis for courage and 
happiness in the present and for hope in the future that the message 
of Darwin is really the gospel of good, and that the natural is as won- 
derful as the supernatural, so that we need not longer limit our wor- 
ship to the mysterious. Darwinism, as the author conceives it, has a 
wonderful power to broaden and deepen religious interest in the 
spirit of worship. The chapters are entitled — the fifth gospel, the 



BOOK NOTES. 31 3 

omnipotence of good, the holiness of instinct, the beauty of death, 
life eternal, love as a factor in evolution, courage the first virtue, 
strength of beauty, the benefits of over population, the duty and 
glory of reproduction and the economics of prostitution, the value of 
pain, lebensulst. The author is eloquent and poetic, and in many re- 
spects suggests Drummond, but has less sympathy with conservatism. 

Les Pensees de Tolstoi, d'apres les Textes Russes, par Ossip-IvOURIe;. 
F. Alcan, Paris, 1898. pp. 179. 
In this little book with a preface dedicated to Ribot, the writer 
selects pregnant quotations from Tolstoi, and groups them under the 
heads of life, man, society, religion, power, patriotism, militarism, 
riches, work, happiness, science, art, education, feminism, love, mar- 
riage, the good, evil, truth, the ideal, and death. A complete list of 
Tolstoi's works are appended, and also a list of works in different 
countries that have been influenced by Tolstoi. Each quotation is 
numbered for cross reference to sources. 

La Philosophic de Charles Secretan, par F. Pii,i.on, F. Alcan, Paris, 
1898. pp. 197. 
Secrdtan is known as the philosopher of liberty, from the title of his 
chief work which treats of liberty, human and divine, in a special con- 
nection with the three great Christian dogmas of creation, fall and 
redemption. Liberty and the philosophy of Christianity are for him 
synonomous terms. The material of the books falls into the three 
natural chapters of metaphysics, morals and critical observations. 

Dynamic Idealisfu, by A. H. Lloyd, Ph. D. Chicago, 1898. pp. 248. 

This is an elementary course in metaphysics of psychology first 
entered upon in lectures before the students in the University of 
Michigan. Psychology without metaphysics is useless if not absurd, 
and real psychology is metaphysics. The author has been more in- 
terested in the relation of the psychological theory to dualism or 
monoism than to any of its mere external details. Only metaphysical 
principles can make any process really complete. The first duty of 
psychology is to give the distinct doctrine of the soul. The organs 
of the soul are after all the true definition of it. The author discusses 
in the first part, the world and things including change, organism, 
body, outer world ; secondly, ideas not as forms but as forces ; con- 
sciousness as interest, etc.; and thirdly the world of acts, the will, 
the living ideal. The appendix contains a study of immortality in 
outline. 

A Treatise 07i Aphasia and other Speech Defects, by H. Chari^ton 
Bastian. London, 1898. pp. 366. 

Five of the seventeen chapters of this work are reproductions with a 
few additions from the author's Lumleian lectures, and treats the sub- 
ject in a more complete way than has hitherto been attempted. Theo- 
retical opinions are in general avoided and very many typical cases, 
some of which are from the author's own observation, are presented, 
especially where the necropsy was carefully made. Speculative classi- 
fications are to a great extent omitted, and some attempt is made to 
simplify the nomenclature. The relation between thought and lan- 
guage, classification of speech defects and those of writing, due to 
structural or functional degradation, amnesia, etiology, and modes of 
recovery, amimia, prognosis and treatment are perhaps the studies 
most fully treated. This work in general, comprehensive as it is, well 
illustrates the fact that we really know far more about sensory than 
we do about motor aphasia, and quickens the hope that the long 
promised and long delayed work of Dejerine will soon appear. 

JOURNAI. — 10 



314 BOOK NOTES. 

Histoire de la Sipultureet des Fundrailles dans VAncienne Egypte, par 

E. Ameuneau. Paris, 1S96. (Annales du Mus6e Guimet) pp. 336 

and 345. 

These volumes, the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth of the Museum, 

consist of the history of sepulture and funeral rites in ancient Egypt, 

and are illustrated by 112 wood cuts. The profound influence of the 

form of Egyptian belief in immortality dominated art, architecture, 

etc., and no country is fuller of monuments of this belief than Egypt. 

The monuments, tombs, etc., are described historically, and with great 

detail ; although all the chapters are exceedingly objective, the author 

does not hesitate to pause for interpretations suflScient to deiine his 

standpoint for the reader. 

Affirmations, by Havei^ock E1.1.1S. London, 1898. pp. 248. 

" How happy the world might be if there was no literature but the 
Bible, if Augustine, Aquinas, Calvin, and thousands of smaller men, 
had not danced upon it so long, stamping every page into mire." 
The author has been all his life casting away knowledge gained from 
books aud literature and coming toward that haven of knowledge 
where a child is king. Very different from this is the literature of life, 
and the author uses Nietzsche, Casanova, Zola, Huysmann, and St. 
Francis, essays on whom make up the book, as stalking horses to creep 
up more closely to the life his soul loves so well. He has a special 
predilection for questionable themes and deems it useless to discuss 
others, although certainty is the end of all. He desires to settle a few 
things, clean out the Augean stables, and recall the simple, eternal 
facts of existence. Yet for every man his own afl&rmations are always 
the best. The essays are written in a sprightly style, and while they 
presuppose some things about the author treated, make the best of 
all introductions to them. 

The Problems of Philosophy, by John G. Hibben, Ph. D., Stuart Pro- 
fessor of Logic, Princeton University. New York, 1898. pp. 203. 
As an introduction to the study of philosophy, the author's design 
is to indicate between points at issue on controverted questions 
without details or exhaustive criticism. It is assumed that the student 
who is beginning the history of philosophy will find himself at a loss 
to understand the relation between earlier and later periods, and will 
lack proper perspective to appreciate the drift of opinions. After the 
plea for philosophy, the successive chapters discuss the problem of 
ontology, cosmology, psychology, epistemology, logic, ethics, political 
science and sesthetics. The standpoint is that of idealism, the method 
lucid, and the book attractively printed and bound, and conveniently 
indexed. 

The Skin Considered as an Organ of Sensation, by J. S. Lemon, Ph. D. 
Gardner, Mass., 1899. pp. 56. 
Dr. Lemon, a former pupil of Clark, here treats the genesis of touch 
and of the skin and nervous system ; the resumes of different theories 
about these topics and central localization ; analyses of different skin 
senses and the recent experimental investigation upon them ; discusses 
illusions, etc. The strong point of the paper is perhaps the author's 
study of the earlier history and literature of the subject. From one to 
half a dozen writings by 128 authors are appended. 

The Doctrine of Energy. The Theory of Reality. By B. L. L. Lon- 
don, 1898. pp. 108. 

The author has previously published essays entitled, " Matter and 
Energy," and "Are There Two Real Things in the Physical Universe?" 



BOOK NOTES. 315 

His theory was that the present conception of energy supersedes the 
idea of matter and by itself explains all the real elements in all physi- 
cal phenomena. This view is now presented from the metaphysical 
standpoint. What we call volition in all its forms is dependent upon 
the unseen energetic substratum "whose transmutations to volition 
merely initiates and works, and it is natural to suppose that all the 
motions and transmutations of this energy are similarly originated by 
the supreme intelligence or will." Intelligence and this unseen basis 
on which all its actions are exerted and out of which its perceptions 
are derived, are the two real entities which reason must predicate. 
Sense phenomena result from their interaction and are a mere quality 
of that phenomenal world which contains neither of the real entities. 

Der Korper des Menschen, von Dr. A. Brass. Wernigerode a. H. 
1898. 
This is the first installment of the first of three volumes, entitled 
development history, which is to contain an atlas with many illustra- 
tions in color. All is to be written in a way to represent the present 
state of science and to be easily intelligible by all. This first section 
of sixt5''-two pages, four of which are devoted to wood cuts and three 
to colored engravings, treats of sex and reproduction. Technical terms 
are avoided when possible, and when not, they are very briefly ex- 
plained, and the style is certainly very simple, and many facts are 
stated as though written from a large fund of information. 

Guesses at the Riddle of Existence and other Essays on Kindred Sub- 
jects, by Goodwin Smith. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1898. 
pp. 244. 
Three of these five papers have appeared in the North American Re- 
view or Forum, and all are written according to the view that amidst 
all the religious doubts and perplexities of the present are that our 
salvation can only be found in uncompromising allegiance to the truth. 
The spirit is not agnosticism but hopeful inquiry ; despite the collapse 
of proofs of a supreme being, our hearts affirm him. The church and 
the Old Testament ; the miraculous element in Christianity ; morality 
and theism are some of the other topics treated. 

Spiritual Consciousness, by Frank H. Sprague. Wollaston, Mass., 
1898. pp. 238. 
Men have been fed on the dry husks of materialism until they cry 
out for something better. Spiritualism, Christian Science, spiritual 
healing, theosophy mark an earnest desire to reach the inmost kernel 
of life. This and the tendency of the age toward unity are everywhere 
noted, and in a few points are sought. These tendencies are discussed 
in chapters entitled : what is truth ; realization of ideals through right 
thinking ; the outer and inner world ; consciousness ; Christianity ; 
growth of society ; the problem of evil ; spiritual basis of love ; mani- 
festations of the spiritual principle ; music, art and nature. There is 
almost no reference to literature, and the earnestness and seriousness 
of the author are impressed on every page. 

Destinie deV Homme, par M. 1'Abbe C. PiaT. Paris, 1898. pp. 244. 
The primary certainties in the world are psychological, that is, spir- 
itual, and their quality and intensity are fundamental. The unknow- 
able is especially found in our passions. Eternity of the ideas does 
not imply that of human thought, and we cannot reason from their 
nature to the quality of the soul. Our theory of impersonal reasons 
cannot be proven. Liberty cannot solve the problems of the uncon- 
scious limits and bases of our mental being. Thought and nerve action 



31 6 BOOK NOTKS. 

are a mysterious solidarity. The fundamental beliefs of the world 
are: purpose, thought, love, action. Materialism has no possible 
proof, spiritualism rests on the solid basis of teleology and must grow 
with time. 

Ueber die sexuellefi Ursachen der Neurosthenie und Angstneurose, 
von Dr. FEiyix GatTEI.. Berlin, 1898. pp. 68. 
The author has collected and tabulated 100 cases from which he 
draws the conclusion that the neuroses of anxiety always tend to occur 
wherever there is excessive retention of libido ; while pure neurathenia 
occurs only as a result of masturbation. In none of the 100 cases he 
collects was the sexual life normal. 

Gerichtliche Psychopathologie, von Dr. Anton Dei^bruck. I^eipzig, 
1897. pp. 224. _ 
The author is a specialist in the Insane Asylum of Burgholzli and 
privatdocent at Zurich, a pupil of Forel, and addresses his brief text- 
book to students, physicians and jurists. After discussing the nature 
or legal responsibility, methods of investigation and the qualifications 
of experts, the writer takes up the leading types of mental diseases, 
including poisoning, neuroses, including epilepsy, histeria, constitu- 
tional disturbances and arrested development. Perhaps the topics 
best treated are : imperative ideas, moral insanity, morbid impulses, 
simulation. The clinical material occupies but very little space ; a 
digest of laws and a copious index are appended. 

ProbVemes d' Esthetique et de Morale, par C. R. C. Herckenrath. 
F. Alcan, Paris, 1898. pp. 163. 
The writer is a professor in a Holland I/yc^e, and presents briefly his 
views on beauty, sublimity, tragedy, comedy, laughter, morality and 
its evolution, the moral sentiments and the relations of aesthetics and 
social science. 

Christentuni' s Ende, by Friedrich Nonnemann. Munden, 1898. 
pp. 145. 
Lest the startling title of this book .should give alarm, it may be 
said at the outset that it is introduced by a dream, and is written novel- 
wise and most ecstatically. Christianity ends in Jesus Christ, to whom 
be thanks, praise and love forever. 

Die Entwickelung der Religiositat und das Werk der Religion, von 

Dr. E. Reich. Zweiter Band. 
Das Werk der Religion und der Kampf gegen das Verhangniss. 1898. 

Zurich, pp. 426. 
The author here writes in his characteristic prolix but entertaining 
style with voluminous and apt quotations on the categories and essence 
of time and eternity ; the practice of religion by means of hygiene and 
education ; morals and culture. The agents by which the warfare is 
waged against fate are : society, humor, temperament, energy, feeling, 
character, genius, religion ; and fate is found in false societies of social 
organization, politics, insanity, alcoholism, nervousness, gambling, 
other forms of evil and sin, and degeneration generally. The book 
should be regarded, not as a treatise that adds essentially to its topic, 
but as an interesting and stimulating collection of opinions with sen- 
sible and interesting comments from many fields, especially that of 
anthropology, in which the author's learning is so extensive. 

The Book of the Master, by W. Marsham Adams. Putnam Sons, 
New York. pp. 204. 
The author describes the Egyptian gospel of the light born of a virgin 



BOOK NOTES. 317 

mother. It traces a clue afforded by the comparison of the secret pas- 
sages and chambers in the great pyramid with those described in the 
second papyrus, familiarly known as the " Book of the Dead," but 
originally entitled "The Book of the Master of the Secret House." 
Both reproduce the same religion, one in stone, the other in words. 
He finds no symbolism in either, but undertakes to express in clear 
form, where all may follow, an outline of the deeply veiled doctrines 
of the earliest recorded religions, which certainly, as he interprets it, 
was full of majesty and beauty. He describes the prevalent ideas of 
the resurrection in Egypt ; the religion and light ; the festivals of the 
sun and moon ; the temples of the virgin mothers ; the entrance of 
light and instruction ; the initiation of the postulant ; the illumination 
in truth ; the master of the secret. The book contains some thirty 
illustrations. 

Les Croyances de Demain, par Lucien Arreat. F. Alcan, Paris, 1898. 
pp. 178. 
Despite its ambitious title, the pretensions of this booklet are modest. 
The author does not attempt to define the faith of the future, but only 
to hint at a few of its features. At best the system of philosophy is 
only a pocket mirror to see nature in ; but our author wishes to be 
naive and ignore all philosophies. His standpoint is that of the par- 
liament of religions at the Chicago Exposition. His view is, on the 
whole, optimistic. The certitudes which make the first part of his 
book are that religion will enlarge its horizon, extend its sphere of 
activity, but his sentiment will always guide man Justice is written 
in the very mechanics of nature, and moral evolution is certain ; and 
so is both the individual and historic sanction. The second part, or 
conjectures, discusses the cosmos, the soul, God, science and education. 
Religions will be less exclusive ; their harmony will be more em- 
phasized and their differences less ; nature will be seen to be neither 
cruel nor beneficent ; and the highest human service consists in turning 
its energy toward the improvement of the social life. The doctrine of 
personal immortality will grow dim ; that of a personal God may be 
superseded by the definition of the ideal sum of phenomena ; philoso- 
phy will take the place to some extent of theological dogmas ; inter- 
national barriers will be broken down ; risks minimized ; the feeble 
eliminated ; and peace will reign. Ivife is what we make it, and es- 
pecially what we wish to make it. We must, therefore, believe in the 
good and have energy to bring it to pass. 

Etat Actuel de la Question de V Acsboisme Nerveux, par Rene; Dey- 
BER. Paris, 1898. pp. 127. 
The conclusions of this doctor's thesis are that protoplasmic move- 
ment plays an important part in cell action generally, and that nerve 
cells differ from others in having peculiar means of prolongation and 
retraction, suggested by their very structure. Visual cells of the 
retina and motor functions although their plasticity may be less than 
those of the pyramidal cells in the brain. This amoeboidism or den- 
tritic prolongation of neurons exhibit almost every possible transition 
from temporary pseudopodia to vibratory hairs. In those organs 
where the existence of centrifugal fibres is demonstrated, central cells 
command movements of cells of less importance, and chromoblasts. 
These may be called in a sense veritable nervi-nervorum. 

History of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, by Wii^bur Urban, Ph. 
D., Reader in Philosophy, Princeton University. Thesis, Feb- 
ruary, 1898. pp. 88. 
After stating the problem, the author characterizes pre-Leibnitzian 



3l8 BOOK NOTKS. 

thinking, and then the philosophical motives of I^eibnitz ; Kant's idea 
of sufficient reason as the basal principle of metaphysics ; the strug- 
gle between Trendelenburg's logic and Herbart's metaphysical mo- 
tives; and describes the Sigwart and Wundt view of sufficient reason 
as the base of logic. 

Psychologie der Verdnderungsauffassung, von L. Wm. Stern. Bres- 
lau, 1898. pp. 264. 
The author is a privatdocent in the University of Breslau, and at- 
tempts to answer the question, how change can be known, or what 
are the psychic roots of this category, and what are its various modes 
of operation in the field of the different senses ? The best part of the 
work is the second, which gives an excellent presentation of the tech- 
nique and methods of experimental determinations of minimal 
changes to show the psychic excitability for them and to develop 
their laws. Incidentally the effects of signals, fatigue, surprise and 
expectation, optimal time, etc., are discussed, and on the whole the 
topic is treated in a way so stimulating and suggestive that the author's 
conclusions will, we think, generally commend themselves to experi- 
menters. 

Essai dHine Philosophie Nouvelle, par Leonce Ribert. F. Alcan, 
Paris, 1898. pp. 562. 
The plan and purpose of this volume is unique; although the author 
only claims the virtues of the diligent compiler and popularizer, he 
undertakes to present the general conclusions of cosmogony and the 
nebular theory, celestial mechanics, geology, laws of heat, chemical 
affinity, light, electricity, paleontology, animal life, savage and bar- 
barous man, and to draw the general results of Greece, Rome, the 
Middle Ages, to criticise current systems, and to draw from it all met- 
aphysical and moral conclusiqns. He believes the idealism of the 
future will rest on the solid basis of fact, and the new philosophy 
owes its origin for him to new conclusions of the special sciences 
about nature. It is thoroughly ideal and metaphysical, but not posi- 
tivistic. 

L^Etre Subconscient, par Dr. E. Gyei^. F. Alcan, Paris, 1899. pp. 191. 

Dr. Gyel at first describes obscure facts in normal and abnormal 
psychology. The latter, treated at considerable length, involves hyp- 
notism, telepathy and psycho neuroses generally, with attempts to 
explain all the established phenomena. The three laws that he draws 
from it all are the evolutive laws of progress, effort and solidarity, 
and thus reaches a new explanation of evil, of morals and the social 
question. He believes thus he can reach the philosophy of the future 
based on positivistic knowledge and guided by deductions in strict 
conformity with the scientific spirit. 

Jalresberight iiber die Leistungen und Fortschritte aufdem Gebiet der 
Neurologie und Psychologie. I. Jahrgang. Karger, Berlin, 1898. 

This large volume of 1,508 pages in the first resumes the best of its 
over 3,500 papers on nervous and mental diseases that appeared during 
the year 1897. Professors Flatan, Jacobson and Mendel, all of Berlin, 
are the chief editors. Fifty-three names, many of them prominent, 
are named as collaborators. The range of topics is wide, including 
therapeutics and criminal anthropology. Besides a general index, 
outlining its plan of arrangement, there are two full indexes, one of 
topics and the other of authors' names, at the end. The difficulties of 
such an undertaking, especially for the first year, are immense, and 
nothing but German industry could cope with them. All psycholo- 



BOOK NOTES. 319 

gists, as well as neurologists and alienists, will most heartily welcome 
this as a boon of the highest practical value for their work. In few 
topics is its really valuable literature more widely scattered in many 
languages and in publications of more various kinds. As far as we 
have examined this great work, we find nothing in it not worthy of 
hearty commendation, and all interested will share our earnest hope 
that the yearbook will meet the encouragement it so well merits and 
be continued. 

With Pillon's Aunee Philosophique now in its ninth year ; the Ann^e 
Psychologique of Binet and Henri; the Ann^e Biologique of Delage, 
the student of psychology, in the large sense of that word, has aids to 
his work that are not only valuable, but indispensable. 

V Education des Sentiments, par F. Thomas. Paris, 1899. pp. 287. 
Intellectualism has been the ideal of education, but in the present 
reaction against its ideals there is a tendency to study and train the 
sentiments. Pleasure is a guide and aid, and pain makes pleasure more 
intense and puts us on our guard against many evils. Neurasthenia, 
which increases pain, is combated by change of work, rest, exercise, 
country life, rules of hygiene. Fear is educable by judicious exposure 
to it, anger by restraint, curiosity by rational gratification, etc. The 
instinct of property, self-esteem, social inclination, friendship, patriot- 
ism, sympathy, pity, love of truth, of play, the beautiful and good, are 
all educable by various means. The book is very interesting and 
suggestive. 

A Study of the Ethical Principles, by Jamks Seth. Chas. Scribner's 
Sons, New York, 1898. pp. 470. 

This third and enlarged edition makes this one of the very best of 
modern books upon the subject. It is the outcome of years of contin- 
uous reflection and teaching in which the author has sought to re- 
think the entire subject, and to throw some light upon the real course 
of thought to ancient and modern times. He has particularly striven 
to recover and in part restate the contributions of the Greeks, espe- 
cially Aristotle. He prefers to be called an eudaemonist in the orig- 
inal sense of that term. The present edition contains a new chapter 
on the nature of ethics which explains the more limited view of this 
field which further reflection has forced upon the writer. In the second 
part a new chapter on moral progress has been added, and a sketch of 
literature is appended to each chapter. 

Theories of the Will in the History of Philosophy, by Archibai^d Ai,- 
EXANDER. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1898. pp. 357. 

The writer, formally Professor of Philosophy in Columbia College, 
here attempts the concise account of the theory of the will from the 
earliest Greek thought down to about the middle of the present cen- 
tury. He modestly disclaims the title of history because he has only 
included the theories of the more important philosophers. He holds 
that historical treatment is indispensable to the proper presentation 
of the subject, and closes his view with the theory of L/otze with an 
intimation that it will be continued later. Theory, the author thinks, 
has tended to make us regard no psychical states as self explanatory, 
but rather as a result of antecedents or as compounds of simpler ele- 
ments. This is seen in the tendency to seek the germs of adult psychic 
states in the infant mind, and even in animals, as well as to take the 
brain into account. These facts inspire the hope that the genesis of 
conscious volition may be explained more clearly. Will is considered 
in the Socratic period, in stoic and epicurian theories, in Christian 
theology, in British philosophy from Bacon to Reid, on the continent 
from Descartes to Leibnitz, and in Germany from Kant to Lotze. 



320 BOOK NOTES. 

The Foundations of Zoology, by Wii^liam K. Brooks. The Macmil- 
lau Co., New York, 1899. pp. 339. 
This book, which has been for some time awaited with interest, is 
the fifth in the Columbia University Biological Series, and is rather 
singularly dedicated to " Hobart College where I learned to study, 
and I hope to profit by but not blindly follow the writings of that 
great thinker on the principles of science, George Berkeley." The 
titles of the twelve lectures, which compose the book, will give the 
best idea of its wide scope and great importance — Huxley and the 
problem of the naturalist ; nature and nurture ; LaMarck ; migration 
in its bearing on LaMarckism ; zoology and the philosophy of evolu- 
tion; a note on the views of Galton and Weismann on inheritance; 
Darwin and the origin of species ; natural selection and the antiquity 
of life ; natural selection and natural theology ; Paley and the argu- 
ment from contrivance ; the mechanism of nature ; Louis Agassiz and 
George Berkeley. 

The Use of Color in the Verse of the Efiglish Rotnantic Poets, by 
Ai,iCE Edwards Pratt. Chicago, 1898. pp. 118. 
The use which has been made of color and color terms by Pope> 
Thomson, Gray, Goldsmith, Cowper, Scott, Coleridge, Wordsworth* 
Byron, Shelley and Keats, required a careful reading of the poets, 
and the cataloguing of each usage of color. The results for each 
poet are classified, first by color groups, and second as distribution 
among various fields of interest. Nine colors or color groups are used, 
and twelve fields of interest : viz. — man, dress, manufactured articles, 
animals, minerals, flowers and fruits, sky, land, waters, miscellaneous 
objects, color as color, and abstractions. Four hundred thousand 
lines of verse were read, and two interesting charts are appended, one 
on color words applied to human eyes, hair, skin ; and the second, on 
those applied to sky, cloud, air, vegetation, hills and deep water. In- 
terest in color culminated in two periods — with Goldsmith represent- 
ing the lowest stage between them. Scott, Wordsworth and Shelley 
are near the apex of the first, and the romanticists, after Tennyson, of 
the second maximal use. 

The Sexual Instinct and its Morbid Manifestations from the Double 
Standpoint of furisprudence and Psychiatry, by Dr. B. Tarnow- 
SKY, Translated by W. C. Costello and Alfred AUinson. Paris, 
1898. pp. 239. 
This important work, which first appeared in a briefer form in Rus- 
sian, in 1885, is here at last translated with a considerable number of 
fresh observations, which, however, do not especially modify the au- 
thor's theory. He adopts as the motto of his book the sentence of 
Havelock Ellis to the effect that now that the problems of religion and 
labor have been more or less either settled or placed on a practical 
basis, the question of sex and the race, which rests on it, now becomes 
the chief problem for coming generations to solve. " Sex lies at the 
root of life, and we can never learn to reverence life until we know how 
to understand sex." The book is very attractively printed and bound 
and contains a frontispiece of the author. 

A Plea for Polygamy. Paris, 1898. pp. 280. 

This anonymous book, with an edition strictly limited to 300 num- 
bers, is a serious and earnest argument, based chiefly on anthropologi- 
cal rather than biological grounds, that polygamy is practical and in 
some respects and under certain circumstances not only justifiable, but 
highly advisable. The author thinks it would prevent a social evil ; 
that monogamy prevents and retards marriage, which is not only a 



BOOK NOTES. 321 

duty, but an inalienable right for all who wish it, etc. The author's 
view is extreme, and his accusations against monogamy are bitter ; his 
list of great men in the past who have been open or covert polygamists; 
his analysis of love and the primary laws of marriage exhibit little 
scholarship, strong prejudice, and a propensity for extreme views. 

Psychology of Sex, by Havei^ock Kiyiyis. Vol. I. Sexual Inversion. 
University Press, lyondon, 1897. pp. 204. 
This first volume is largely a translation of the author's work pub- 
lished a year earlier in Germany. From the latter work, however, 
some matter has been omitted, but more has been added. As a youth, 
living in an Australian city, where the ways of life were seen, Mr. 
Ellis resolved, twenty years ago, that one main part of his life work 
should be to make clear the problems of sex. He has a deep sense of 
the evils of ignorance, and suppression of efforts that can never be 
suppressed, but may easily be perverted ; and pleads in a preface the 
cause of sincerity against that of reticence. In the days of the great 
treatise of Sanchez, the church dealt faithfully with this subject, now 
it ignores and slights it. A later volume is to be devoted to normal 
phenomena in this field. 

The Determination of Sex, by Dr. IvEOpoi^d Schenck. The Werner 
Co., Chicago, Akron and New York, 1898. pp. 222. 
This is called an authorized translation, but the name of no transla- 
tor is given, neither are we informed where the original papers of the 
author are found. The style of the translation is exceedingly unsatis- 
factory, leaving the reader often in great doubt as just what the sen- 
tences mean. The general conclusion, however, is plain enough, and 
is, as is well-known, that sex is determined in the very early months 
of pregnancy by the presence or absence of sugar in the urine, which 
the author's extremely delicate phenylhydrazine test detects even the 
faintest trace of. If the diet during this period can be so determined 
that no sugar is'given off, a male child is the result. If it is thus ex- 
creted, a female child is produced. The very wide range, however, of 
variation in this habit requires a very careful individual study, and 
the preliminary study of dieting must precede impregnation for some 
weeks or months. 

Die Geschlechts-Bestimmung des Werdenden Menschen, von Kari, von 
Hagen. BerliD, S. W., 1898. pp. 60. 
This brochure attempts to sum up what we knew and what we know 
on the predetermination of sex. Assuming the general correctness of 
Schenck's theory, of which the author gives a somewhat popular state- 
ment, he attempts to draw certain practical diathetic rules concerning 
marriage, food and regimen ; supplements the theory with a number 
of very bold conjectures of his own ; and introduces a number of striking 
psychological conceptions. 

Sex Worship : An Exposition of the Phallic Origin of Religion, by 
CiviFFORD Howard. Washington, D. C, 1897. pp. 166. 
The author makes sex worship the basis of religion in the world. It 
was universal and primitive, and has left its mark on, not only all 
religions, but all languages and institutions. It was inspired by 
the phenomena of nature, and many of its most formal m5'steries 
were springtime celebrations of the regeneration of life. Now in 
India there are millions of true Phallic worshippers. Even the high- 
est theologies are its product, and God himself is love. So diverse and 
changed have been its effects that many really worship at its shrine 
without knowing it. The author shares what to us is extravagance of 



322 BOOK NOTES. 

nearly all writers upon this subject, the propensity to see Phallic em- 
blems symbolized everywhere and in everything. His work on the 
whole is earnest and respectable, but shows few traces of the scholar- 
ship really required to treat this subject critically and well. 

Psychologie de V Instinct Sexuel, par Lk Dr. Joanny Roux. Paris, 
1899. pp. 96. 
This is the best little compend on this great subject that we have 
seen, and is written with the wide knowledge of the best literature. 
The first chapter on the basis of sexual need leads up to the conclu- 
sion that this takes its rise in every part of the organism, and its ex- 
citing cause is similar to that of the desire for food. The second 
chapter discusses the nervous centres of this function and its relations 
successively with olfactory, visual, auditory, tactile and gustatory 
sensations. The third chapter discusses choice, from the lowest ani- 
mals up to man, with the usual account of the theories of 3chopen- 
hauer and Hartmann. The fourth part treats of the higher forms of 
love, the role of intellectual, moral and emotional qualities, and the 
evolution of the affectional nature. 

Degeneracy : Its Causes, Signs and Results, by Eugene S. Talbot, M. 
D. London, 1898. pp. 372. 
The author is a Fellow of the Chicago Academy of Medicine, and 
presents here the results of twenty years of labor in a limited medical 
department of biology. He writes especially for educators and par- 
ents, and avoids laying stress on any one cause of degeneracy, nor 
will he venture to rigidly distinguish abnormality from disease or 
atavism from arrested development. He considers the stigmata of 
heredity, consanguineous and neurotic intermarriages, intermixture 
of races, toxic agents, the school strain, degenerate cranium, nose, 
face, eye, ear, teeth, and jaw, reversion, mental and moral degen- 
eracy, and illustrates his work with 117 interesting and mostly new 
cuts. The author is bold, original and suggestive, and his work is a 
contribution of real and indeed great value, more so on the whole than 
anything that has yet appeared in this country. 

Evolution Individuelle Heriditi, par FeIvIX IvE DanTKC. F. Alcan, 
Paris, 1898. pp. 306. 
This is a theory of quantitative variation, and considers the subject 
under three general heads : I. The monoplastids, both sissipare and 
those with so-called cyclic evolution. II. The polyplastids, first from 
the standpoint of their individual evolution, and second from that of 
heredity. III. He discusses certain facts and theories connected with 
heredity such as embryogenic acceleration ; Cope's diplogenesis ; 
Delage's theory of actual causes ; with a final chapter on teleology. 

Beitrdge zUr Physiologic des Centralnervensystetns , von Max Vbr- 
WORN. Jena, 1898. pp. 92. 
This first part of a more comprehensive work of the above title is 
not the so-called hypnosis of animals. The author first describes with 
some detail the phenomena in birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibia, 
fish and crabs, with the attempted explanation of Circher, Zeemack, 
Preyer, Huebel and others; and then characterizes the chief phe- 
nomena in man with the theory of the biotomic process which he as- 
sumes in neurons. The characteristic posture of hypnotized animals 
he holds is due to a corrective reflex which requires the muscles in- 
volved to remain in tonic contraction, and is the same if the cerebrum 
is removed. It is all simply the inhibition of voluntary activities 
that we always observe when strong sensory impressions are intense. 



BOOK NOTES. 323 

A Mechanico-Physiological Theory of Organic Evolution, by Cari, 
VON NageIvI. Chicago, 1898. pp. 53. 
This little hand-book by V. A. Clark, a student in the University of 
Vermont, working under the direction of F. A. Waugh, is a very care- 
ful summary of Nageli's mechanico-physiological theory of evolu- 
tion, and will prove a real convenience to students. 

The Formal and Material Elements of Kant's Ethics, by Wii^IvIAM 
M. Washington. New York, 1898. pp. 67. 
This thesis treats the fundamental principles of the metaphysics of 
morals, the critique of pure practical reason, and the metaphysics of 
ethics . 

The Basis of Early Christian Theisfn, by lyAWRENCE T. Col,k. New 
York, 1898. pp. 60. 
The writer nrst treats the Greek and Roman theistic arguments, then 
presents the patristic point of view and the patristic use of the theistic 
argument, and finally eclectic theism, which he advocates. 

Der Hypnotismus, von Kari, WachteIvBORN. Leipzig, 1898. pp. 98. 
Has hypnotism a place in practical medicine? The author pleads 
that it is not only utterly worthless, but is a dangerous and in fact a 
poisonous thing. Even if its first effects are good, the reaction is 
detrimental to body and soul. It may and doubtless has advanced 
man's knowledge. 

Das Hypnotische Hellsch-Experiment, von Rudoi^f Mui<IvER. Leip- 
zig, 1898. pp. 322. 
This pamphlet is only an extract from two volumes of the above 
title, and the whole is a plea for the recognition of hypnotism as an 
important method of scientific psychic investigation. 

DieerkenntnifstheoretischeStellungdes Psychologen, von Rud. Wein- 
MANN. Leipzig, 1898. pp. 252. 

This is at the same time a contribution to the foundation of the 
realistic mode of thought as the only one possible. The realism here 
represented is confessedly an hypothesis, but one which admits of the 
greatest simplicity and correctness of description. 

Der Ativismus, von Dr. I. H. F. Kohi^brugge. Utrecht, 1897. pp. 31. 
The conclusions of the first paper is that all so-called atavistic anom- 
alies call forth neutral variations (neutral in relation to future race 
types) either by change or arrest of development. Arrests are caused 
by disturbances, mostly casual and unknown, occasioned often by un- 
equal distribution of Energy of growth. There is a power of variation 
about the centre, so that variation is always liable to be progressive or 
retrogressive. The second article consists very largely of a collection 
of opinions of various eminent biologists upon the subject. 

Die vierte Dimension, von Dr. Leopoi^d Pick. Leipzig, 1898. pp. 46. 
This writer holds that a surface can be conceived as a section of two 
bodies. The question whence bodies can be thought to have arisen 
leads logically to a fourth dimension of space. Length, breadth and 
thickness do not exhaust the essence of body. We never see body, 
but only surface. Higher creatures might see the partition of the 
material and immaterial, inner extension or the fourth dimension, 
and this really unknown numeral of things, which may be defined as 
Ausdehnung nach innen. Man stands on the threshold between the 
third and fourth dimensions. 



324 BOOK NOTES. 

Religion und Christentum, von Paui, E)wai,d. Leipzig, 1898. pp. 39- 
Christianity is the ideal of all religions, an affirmation of the super- 
sensuous, and based upon an eruption of the supersensuous into 
earthly life. It is proper, therefore, to speak of its objective basis, 
and its best definition is communion with God. Christ is its center, 
and yet throughout it is the true expression of the inner nature and 
needs of man. 

The Repair of Will-Loss, by John M. Taylor, M. D. 

In these three lectures, which are abstracted and reprinted from the 
International Clinics, the writer seeks to illustrate how certain differ- 
ences arising in puzzling medical situations may be met. He assumes 
that long protracted ill-health is almost sure to end in misconduct. 
It is difficult to get hold of those who most need medical aid or re- 
proof. The basis of all treatment is nutritional. Every subject re- 
quires very special and detailed study and great personal care. 

Early American Philosophers, by Adam L. Jones. New York, 1898. 
pp. 80. 
This Columbia University thesis presents a concise account of Wil- 
liam Brattle, Benjamin Franklin, Cadwalader, Thomas Clapp, and a 
fuller characterization of the life, education and opinions of Samuel 
Johnson and Jonathan Edwards. 

Psycho logische Untersuchungen Uber das Lesen auf Experimenteller 
Grundlage, von Benno Erdmann und Raymond Dodge. Halle, 
Max Niemeyer, 1898. pp. 360. 

After a brief introductory analysis of the process of reading, the 
authors resume the results of previous experimental studies in this 
field, criticising extensively the work of Cattell, Grashey, Wernicke, 
and Goldscheider and Miiller. 

The authors began their experimental study with an investigation 
of the alternating " reading-pauses " and eye-movements. The eye- 
movements were observed in a mirror while the subjects (the authors 
and one other) read familiar or unfamiliar passages from Helmholtz's 
Optik and Lock's Essay on Human Understanding. The average an- 
gular excensions are found to vary, in the different subjects and texts, 
from 3*^45' to 5° for comparatively unfamiliar passages, from 4^14' to 
5^36' in familiar passages. They state the number of fixations re- 
quired in writing, proof-reading, and in reading a foreign language. 
By telescope observations on reader's eye the first fixation of each line 
is found to fall within the line, and the last falls still farther within. 

Assuming that the results of the measurements of the speed of 
eye-movements, made by Dodge and others (as described later), are 
valid for the reading-movement, the authors argue that during \\ to 
If of the reading-time the eye remains fixated, and that, during the 
movement, recognition of letters or words is impossible. 

The extent of the " reading-field " is next studied, first by having 
subjects describe periphery of points fixated on printed page ; second, 
and mainly, by "experimental isolation of the reading-pauses and 
fields." The projection apparatus used in exposing reading matter is 
described at length, as is also the Dodge Chronograph used in connec- 
tion with it and already described elsewhere. 

Wishing to make the length of exposure as nearly that of reader's 
usual fixation as possible, while still excluding reacting eye-move- 
ment during exposure, the authors proceed to determine the eye's re- 
action-time in the following manner : From a point first fixated the 
subject moved to a second fixation point 12 mm. distant on the ap- 
pearance there of a small letter c. Simultaneously with this c a large 



BOOK NOTES. 325 

letter O was exposed so as to fall just within the blind spot with the 
eye in first fixation, but becoming visible the instant the eye was 
moved. The length of the O's exposure necessary to make it visible 
was taken as measure of eye's reaction-time, subject to a slight cor- 
rection. The minimum time was shown to be between 1880- and 2300-, 
the experiments not being extensive enough to determine it more defi- 
nitely. 

The experiment is certainly most cleverly planned. The times 
given seem rather long, and it is to be hoped that other experiments 
may assure us of their validity. 

Exposures for .1 second of letters and words gave results not very 
different from those obtained by Cattell and Goldscheider in their 
shorter exposures. Words were read at greater distanc_es and in 
shorter exposures than TeHersT^iidoiif authors are thus led to argue 
strongly' agaliJS TThe tfieofy of " Buchstabirend Lesen " even in the 
modified form in which it seemed to have support in the work of 
Goldscheider and Miiller. 

The determining-letter theory of the latter is criticised, and the 
conditions of the reproduction of the " Wortklangbild " are discussed 
at length. 

The authors then make an exhaustive criticism of the " psychologi- 
cal presuppositions for the derivation of psychic times," and later a 
special discussion of their derivation for the processes in reading. 

The results of the psychometric investigations made at Leipzig by 
Prof. Cattell are subjected to a merciless dissection, and some of the 
methods and deductions current in psychometry are given a shaking- 
up which is interesting, to say the least. 

The last two chapters report the results of experiments on adequate 
sound-reactions to printed letters and to words of various lengths and 
degrees of familiarity. A careful analysis is made of the psychic com^^ 
ponents of these reactions, and the relations which they bear to the \ 
corresponding processes in actual reading. — -^ 

In an appendix on "the angular speed of eye-movements," after 
reviewing the work of Volkmann and of Lamansky, the experiments 
of Dodge are described. 

Dodge used a modification of the Helmholtz-Lamansky method of 
counting the after-images from light stimuli given at regular intervals 
during the eye's movement. Movements of 5** required 150- ; 15°, 300- ; 
30°, 50<r, nearly twice the times given by Lamansky. 

Dodge's clever extraction of apparently valid results from the mis- 
used data given in Volkmann's experiments is deserving of notice. 

On the whole, this is by far the best and most extensive work thus 
far on the Physiology and Psychology of Reading. Though it stop 
short of much more that is essentially important, it treats the subject 
in some of its most vital parts, and has many good things which can- 
not be touched upon here. It is to be regretted that the authors have 
not practiced the American art of condensing, which might well have 
given us the book's essentials in not more than half its present bulk. 

The unity of the work as a treatise on reading would be much en- 
hanced by relegating to the appendix much of the description of 
apparatus, and by the separate publication of the " criticism of psy- 
chic times." E. B. Huey. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



A Study of Taste Dreams. 

In a former issue of this Journai. (Vol. IX, pp. 413, 414) I gave the 
results of some experiments on the visual elements of the dreams of 
my students of psychology in the State Normal School at Westfield, 
Massachusetts. More recently I have experimented with my students 
for taste dreams. The conditions imposed by the test required that 
the mouth be washed out just before retiring, and that a clove be 
crushed and allowed to remain on the tongue. This was continued for 
ten successive nights and the details of the remembered dreams written 
out the morning following. Twenty women fulfilled the conditions of 
the test and reported a total of 254 dreams. 

A strong visual element was reported in 123 of the dreams ; a marked 
auditory element in 17, and a pronounced motor element in 36. Sev- 
enteen taste and eight smell dreams were reported. The significant 
fact in the study is the large proportion of taste and smell dreams. 
With three of the students cloves were involved — one of "tasting cloves 
very distinctly," and another of "eating cloves." One dreamed of re- 
citing in school on the importation of cloves from the Molucca Islands. 
This, she thinks, may have been due to a recent lesson on commercial 
geography on spices and condiments. Several students reported dreams 
involving the tasting (and eating) of fruits, the orange being oftenest 
mentioned. One dreamed of eating nuts and one of eating spiced food. 
A student who dreamed of tasting wormwood thinks it may have been 
suggested by a discussion which took place in the psychology class 
just before the taste experiment was undertaken. I had asked the 
class to suggest some substance that might be used to induce gustatory 
dreams and one student had recommended wormwood. A brief dis- 
cussion followed in which most of the students opposed the selection 
of wormwood and advocated instead cloves. 

Equally interesting were the eight smell dreams. One student 
dreamed of "smelling and seeing spices." Another " a distinct smell 
dream of food cooking ; can assign no cause, as it was impossible for 
the odor from the kitchen to reach me." One dreamed of inhaling the 
fragrance of a cowslip blossom, and she adds that the cowslip had been 
drawn in school the preceding day. One reports that she dreamed of 
modelling (in sand) the continent of Asia, and that some sweet-smell- 
ing peas grew from the sand. This dream may have been occasioned 
in part by the fact that she had modelled in sand a relief map of Asia 
the preceding day, and in part by the planting of some seeds in saw- 
dust a few days before in the science department, in order to study 
processes of germination. 

Several of the more remotely suggested taste dreams were curious. 
One student, for example, dreamed that the building in which she was 
sleeping was on fire. She attributes the dream to the last remark 
which she made to her room-mate before falling asleep : "I shall have 
to remove this clove ; it is burning the mouth out of me." 



NOTBS AND NEWS. 327 

Comparing the test in the present instance with that previously re- 
ported, the following percentages are obtained : 



IMAGERY. 


TASTE TEST. 


VISUAL TEJsT. 


Visual element, 


48% 


60% 


Auditory element, 


7% 


5% 


Motor element, 


14% 


10% 


Gustatory element, 


7% 


3% 


Olfactory element. 


3% 


i>^% 



The close relation existing between the taste and smell senses and 
the comparatively large increase in the percentage of gustatory and 
olfactory dreams would seem to suggest the peculiar character of the 
experiment as the cause, especially since several of the dreams in- 
volved not merely gustatory and olfactory imagery {i. e., thinking 
about them), but real tastes and smells. Wiivi, S. Monroe. 



BOOKS EEOEIYED. 



Grogs, Kari.. Die Spiele der Menschen. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 

1899. pp. 538. Price, Mk. 10. 
GyeIv, E. L'^tre subconscient. Felix Alcan, Paris, 1899. pp. 191. 

Price, Fes. 4. 
IvAMPERiERE, Anna. Le r61e social de la femme. Devoirs, droits, 

Education. F. Alcan, Paris, 1898. pp. 175. Price, Fes. 2.50. 
MuEivivKR RUDOI.F. Das Hypnotische Hellseh-Experiment im 

Dienste der Naturwissenschaftlichen Seelenforcshung. II Band. 

Das normale Bewusstsein. Arwed Strauch, I^eipzig, 1898. pp. 

322. Price, Mk. 4. 
REnouvier, Ch., et Prat, I^ouis. Iva nouvelle monadologie. Armand 

Colin et Cie, Paris, 1899. pp. 546. Price, Fes. 12. 
RiBERT, IvEONCE. Essai d'une philosophic nouvelle suggerde par la 

science. Felix Alcan, Paris, 1898. pp. 562. Price, Fes. 6. 
Stern, L. WiIvI<iam. Psychologic der Veranderungsauffassung. 

Preuss u. Jiinger, Breslau, 1898. pp. 264. Price, Mk. 6. 
Tai^boT, Eugene S. Degeneracy ; Its causes, signs and results. 

(The Contemporary Science Series, Vol. 35.) Walter Scott, 

London, 1898. pp. 372. Price, 6 shillings. 



THE AMERIOAlsr 

Journal of Psychology 

Founded by G. Stani^ey Hai^i, in 1887. 

Vol. X. APRIL, 1899. No. 3. 

INDIVIDUAI, PSYCHOLOGY : A STUDY IN 
PSYCHOLOGICAL METHOD. 



By Stei^IvA Emii^y Sharp, Ph. D., Cornell University. 



Part I. Historical and Critical. 
§ I . Individual Psychology. 

The systematic consideration of the problems grouped under 
the name of " Individual Psychology "is of but recent date. 
Indeed, the only treatment of the whole subject for its own sake 
is that contained in a paper published in 1895,^ by Mm. Binet 
and Henri. A great deal of work has, however, been done by 
others, outside of France, which properly belongs to this branch 
of Psychology; notably the investigations by Prof. Kraepelin 
and his followers in Germany, whose object is by psychological 
methods to study the mentally abnormal in comparison with 
mentally normal individuals. For the sake of this comparison 
the variations in the psychical processes of normal individuals 
must. Prof Kraepelin says, first be studied; but the methods 
employed are such only as are demanded by the comparison 
that is the main object of the investigation.^ 

Many American psychologists have made researches in the 

1 A. Binet et V. Henri : La psychologie individuelle. In UAnnee 
psychologique, Vol. II, 1895, pp. 411 ff. 

In a foot note to the article La mdsure en psychologie individuelle 
{Revue philos., Vol. XLVI, p. 113), M. Binet makes the claim that 
he is the first French psychologist to employ the term " Individual 
Psychology." 

'■^ E. Kraepelin : Der psychologische Versuch in der Psychiatrie. In 
Kraepelin's Psychologische Arbeiten, I, i, pp. i et seq. See also 
Axel Oehrn : Experimentelle Studien zur Individual-Psychologic. 
Ibid.y pp. 92 ff. 



o6' 



SHARP 



field of Individual Psychology ; but there has been no unity 
of method among the investigators, nor have the results been 
systematized or their value estimated. An important char- 
acteristic of most of this work, however, is the large propor- 
tion of anthropometric tests, which are accorded an import- 
ance equal to those which are strictly mental.^ In the class of 
the more exclusively psychological investigations may be 
named the experiments of Prof. Jastrow concerning the com- 
munity of ideas between men and women, made at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, and similar experiments made by Prof. M. 
W. Calkins at Wellesley College ;^ as well as a brief study in 
Individual Psychology by Miss C. Miles, which makes use of 
the method of the questionnaire.* 

It is clear, then, that any treatment of Individual Psychology 
almost neceSvSarily involves a consideration, more or less com- 
plete, of the work done by Mm. Binet and Henri. For this 
purpose it is well to ask first of all what views these authors 
take of the scope and relations of Individual Psychology. In- 
dividual Psychology, they maintain, takes up the thread of 
investigation at the point where General Psychology leaves it. 
' ' General Psychology studies the general properties of psychi- 
cal processes, those, therefore, which are common to all indi- 
viduals; Individual Psychology, on the contrary, studies those 
psychical processes which vary from one individual to another: 
it seeks to determine the variable qualities, and the extent and 
manner of their variation according to the individual." 
Memory maj' very well illustrate the point. The law of 
memory is as follows: the time necessary to fix impressions in 

1 Tests employed by Prof. Jastrow at the World's Fair of Chicago in 
1893. Analyzed in L' Annie psychologiquey Vol. I, p. 532. See also 
J. McK. Cattell, Mental Tests and Measurements. Mind, 1890, Vol. 
XV, pp. 373 ff.; J. A. Gilbert : Researches on the Mental and Physical 
Development of School Children. Stud. Yale Laboratory, II, 1894 ; 
J. McK. Cattell and ly. Farrand, Psych. Rev.,Wo\. Ill, 1896, pp. 610 ff.; 
J. Jastrow and G. W. Morehouse : Some Anthropometric and Psy- 
chologic Tests on College Students. Am. Jour, of Psychology, Vol. 
IV, pp. 420 ff . 

2 The original account of these experiments appeared in an article 
entitled A Study of Mental Statistics, in the December, 1891, num- 
ber of the New Review, under the heading " The Community of Ideas 
and Thought-Habits of Men and Women." It appeared also in the 
article Community and Association of Ideas: a Statistical Study, by 
J. Jastrow; Psych, Rev., I, p. 152 (1894). Similar experiments made 
at Wellesley College by C. C. Nevers, under the direction of M. W. 
Calkins, Psych. Rev., Vol. II, p. 363 (1895), gave a different result. A 
criticism of the latter by Prof. Jastrow appeared in the Psych. Rev., 
Vol. Ill, p. 68 (1896). A reply to this by Miss Calkins is found in the 
same volume of the Psych. Rev., p. 426; and a further reply by Prof. 
Jastrow, p. 430. Both investigations are discussed and criticised by 
Amy Tanner, Psych. Rev., Vol. Ill, pp. 548 ff. 

^ Am. Jour, of Psychology, VI, p. 534- 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOI.OGY. 33 1 

memory increases at first proportionally to the number of im- 
pressions; but, after a certain limit, the ' time of acquisition ' 
increases more rapidly than the number of impressions. This 
law of memory is common to all; no one can escape it; but the 
law does not say that the limit, beyond which the time neces- 
sary to retain the impressions is no longer proportional to the 
number ol impressions, is fixed and common for all. This 
limit is a variable property of memory, and here Individual 
Psychology comes in, and investigates the subject in its differ- 
ent aspects; it enquires in what measure this limit varies in 
different individuals, and whether it remains constant in one 
individual for different kinds of impressions. If A and B, after 
one hearing, can remember ten and seven letters respectively 
out of twelve, can they remember with the same relative readi- 
ness an equal number of figures, colors, or what not? Indi- 
vidual Psychology goes on, further, to enquire if there is any 
relation between the position of this limit and the psychologi- 
cal 'self of the individual, — as, for example, his age; or 
between the limit of memory and some other psychical process. 

§ 2. The Psychology of Structure and of Function. 

Before proceeding to a more detailed statement of the prob- 
lems of Individual Psychology, as set forth by M. Binet and 
his collaborator, a digression must be made in order to con- 
sider a distinction that has lately been drawn between the 
points of view of * experimental * and of ' descriptive ' psy- 
chology. This distinction is set forth by Prof. Titchener in 
an article entitled ' ' The Postulates of a Structural Psy- 
chology."^ A comparison is here made between the science of 
biology, in its widest sense, and that of psychology. The for- 
mer may be approached from any one of three points of view. 

" We may enquire," says Prof. Titchener, " into the structure of an 
organism, without regard to function, by analysis determining its com- 
ponent parts, and by synthesis exhibiting the mode of its formation 
from the parts. Or we may enquire into the function of the various 
structures which our analysis has revealed, and into the manner of 
their interrelation as functional organs. Or, again, we may enquire 
into the changes of form and function that accompany the persistence 
of the organism in time, the phenomena of growth and decay. Biology, 
the science of living things, comprises the three mutually interde- 
pendent sciences of morphology, physiology and ontogeny." 

If a more general view is taken, and regard is had for the 
whole number of living beings as parts of a collective life, we 
have, corresponding respectively to the three branches named, 
the more general sciences of taxonomy or systematic zoology, 
the science of classification; oecology, which deals with ques- 

1 Philosophical Review, Vol. VII, pp. 449 ff. Sept., 1898. 



332 SHARP : 

tions of geographical distribution, of the function of species 
in the general economy of nature; and phylogeny, the biology 
of evolution, dealing with the problems of descent and of trans- 
mission. 

The same principle of division here employed in biology may 
be applied with equal validity to psychology. 

" We find a parallel to morphology in a very large portion of * ex- 
perimental ' psychology. The primary aim of the experimental psy- 
chologist has been to analyze the structure of mind ; to ravel out the 

elemental processes from the tangle of consciousness His 

task is a vivisection, but a vivisection which shall yield structural, 

not functional results There is, however, a functional 

psychology over and above the psychology of structure. We may re- 
gard mind, on the one hand, as a complex of processes, shaped 
and moulded under the conditions of the physical organism. We 
may regard it, on the other hand, as the collective name for a 
system of functions of the psychophysical organism. The two 
points of view are not seldom confused. The phrase ' associa- 
tion of ideas,' e. g., may denote either the structural complex, 
the associated sensation group, or the functional process of recogni- 
tion and recall, the associating of formation to formation. In the 
former sense it is morphological material, in the latter it belongs to 
what I must name (the 'phrase will not be misunderstood) a physiolog- 
ical psychology. Just as experimental psychology is to a large extent 
concerned with problems of structure, so is * descriptive ' psychology, 
ancient and modern, chiefly occupied with problems of function. 
Memory, recognition, imagination, conception, judgment, attention, 
apperception, volition, and a host of verbal nouns, wider or narrower 
in denotation, connote, in the discussions of descriptive psychology, 
functions of the total organism." 

So much for the 'morphological' and 'physiological' psycholo- 
gies, which are indeed the most important. The other branches 
of biology have also their counterparts. Ontogenetic psy- 
chology, the psychology of individual childhood and adoles- 
cence; taxonomic psychology, dealing with the classification of 
the emotions, impulses, temperaments, the typical mind of 
social classes, etc. ; the functional psychology of the collective 
mind, which has as yet been but little worked out; and, lastly, 
phylogenetic psychology, enriched by the labors of the evolu- 
tionary school, complete the list. 

§ 3. The Problems of Individual Psychology. 

Mm. Binet and Henri class the problems of Individual Psy- 
chology under two main headings. It is called upon: 

1. to study the variable properties of psychical processes; to 
find how, and to what extent, these processes vary from one 
individual to another; and 

2. to ascertain the relation of the processes to each other in 
a single mind; to find out whether they are mutually depend- 
ent, or whether there are some fundamental processes upon 
which all the others depend. 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 333 

A . The First Problem of hidividual Psychology. 

The first problem has two aspects, according as emphasis is 
laid upon the processes themselves, or upon the individual who 
experiences them. The first aspect is the one with which In- 
dividual Psychology must necessarily start. How and to what 
extent mental processes vary from one individual to another is 
the question which must be answered, to furnish, as it were, 
the materials for further investigation. Then we may go on to 
ask if these variations follow any regular laws, corresponding 
to the classification of individuals into groups by profession, 
sex, age, etc. 

A considerable number of independent investigations have 
been made in the line of this first problem of Individual Psy- 
chology, under both its aspects. Sensations are the processes 
which have been subjected to the greatest amount of research, 
on account of their value for some practical end. The tests in 
regard to individual variations in visual sensations, such as 
color blindness, which have been made among engineers, pilots, 
and in other professions whose members are called upon to rec- 
ognize color signals, are experiments of this kind. Mm. Binet 
and Henri state, as the result of a brief historical survey of the 
work in this field, that " the individual differences for sensation 
are very feeble and insignificant in relation to the differences 
in the higher faculties. ' ' Hence much of the work done is of 
comparatively little value for Individual Psychology, which 
seeks to characterize individuals and classes according to the 
variations which they exhibit in the mental processes compos- 
ing the ' real ' or ' actual ' mind of every- day life. 

Other researches have been carried out, in which the em- 
phasis has been laid, not upon the variations themselves, but 
upon their relation to the individual; and the individual's men- 
tal proccvsses have been studied in reference to the class to 
which he belongs. The investigations of Prof. Jastrow and 
Miss Calkins regarding the Community of Ideas in men and 
women (mentioned above) come under this head. The in- 
vestigations of what may be called 'professional psychology' 
also belong here, and would be of the highest importance for 
Individual Psychology were it not that they fail to apply a 
strictly scientific method. As it is, however, they are rich in 
suggestions of more exact work, and may thus lead to system- 
atic research along the same lines. -^ 

^ ly. Arr^at : Psychologie du petntre. Paris, 1895. This considers 
anthropological as well as psychological traits, and the author has 
drawn his material largely from literature, biographies, and docu- 
ments of all kinds concerning artists of every time and country. 
Owing to the imperfect nature of the material, the conclusions are 



334 SHARP : 

The question now arises whether the first great problem of 
Individual Psychology should be classed as an enquiry of 
' structural ' or ' functional ' psychology. In the first place, 
is the material with which the Individual Psychologist works 
the same as (or similar to) that which lends itself to the in- 
vestigation of the Experimental Psychologist? The Experi- 
mental Psychologist takes mental processes in as simple a form 
as he can find them. By means of laboratory methods, he ex- 
ercises the most rigid control over conditions, in order that all 
complicating factors may be excluded, and that the result may 
represent as nearly as possible the working of the elemental 
factors. Thus the Experimental Psychologist, acknowledging 
that a pure sensation is an abstraction, — that it never occurs in 
our concrete experience, — yet endeavors by artificial means to 
secure in his subjects states of consciousness in which the de- 
sired sensations are sufiiciently isolated from their respective 
contexts to give information as to their properties and the laws 
governing the variations of these properties. 

Does the Individual Psychologist adopt a similar method of 
procedure? Is it his aim to take the simplest existing pro- 
cesses, in order to investigate any possible individual varia- 
tions, and thus to account for unlike results from the building 
up of unlike materials ? It is by the answer to this question 
that two groups or schools of Individual Psychology are differ- 
entiated. M. Binet and the French psychologists answer " no;" 
Prof. Kraepelin and the German psychologists answer ' ' yes. ' ' 
The American psychologists make no explicit statement on the 
subject, but their practice is rather with the German than with 
the French school. The German school maintains that, at 
least for the present, only simple mental processes can be 
studied with the exactness necessary for scientific work. " Die 
Probleme der Individual-psychologie konnen bisher nur in 

necessarily exceedingly general. Prof. James denies this work the 
adjective ' scientific' 

ly. Dauriac : Psychologic du ntusicien, Articles I-VII. R&vue philos.y 
Vol. XXXV, pp. 449» 595 ; Vol. XXXIX, pp. 31, 258, 404; Vol. XLII, 
pp. I, 155- 

Harmon: Psychologic dumilitaire prof essionel. Paris, 1894. This 
is a work which belongs to sociology more than to psychology. It 
traces the moral effects of army life and the reaction of these upon 
society. 

A. Binet et J. Passy : Etudes de psychologic sur les auteurs dra- 
matiques. L^Annee psychoL, I, pp. 60 ff. The creative imagination 
is here the chief subject of investigation. A number of French drama- 
tists give information, either by word of mouth or in writing, regard- 
ing the composition of their works ; the choice of subject, the method 
of literary labor, the 'furniture ' of the mind duriug inspiration, etc. 
The ' interview,' like the questionnaire, is a valuable auxiliary method ; 
but the results therefrom cannot claim the validity of the stricter 
laboratory procedures. 



INDIVIDUAI. PSYCHOI.OGY. 335 

ganz einfachen Formen psychischen Geschehens gesucht wer- 
den."^ Mm. Binet and Henri make explicit and repeated 
statements of the opposing standpoint in the article which we 
have been considering. On p. 417 is found the passage here 
translated. * ' The higher and more complex a process is, the 
more it varies in individuals; sensations vary from one indi- 
vidual to another, but less so than memory; memory of sensa- 
tions varies less than memories of ideas, etc. The result is, 
that if one wishes to study the differences existing between two 
individuals, it is necessary to begin with the most intellectual 
and complex processes, and it is only secondarilj^ necessary to 
consider the simple and elementary processes." 

An examination of particular investigations which have been 
made by representatives of these two schools will enable us to 
judge whether the principles of each have been strictly adhered 
to. Kraepelin and Oehrn must be taken as the German rep- 
resentatives. Kraepelin, in the first number of the ' Psy- 
chologische Arbeiten,' lays down the principles, methods and 
aims of the work which he proposes to undertake. Oehrn — in 
part, at least — carries out these methods, and the results are 
embodied in the second article of the same number of this 
periodical. 

Since for Kraepelin men are divided into two great classes, 
the mentally normal and the mentally abnormal, all individual 
differences are summed up for him under the one great cate- 
gory of mental capacity. It is his aim to learn as much as pos- 
sible about the psychology of the abnormal mind. For this 
purpose investigations of the normal mind are first necessary, 
and then further investigations of the normal mind, under cer- 
tain abnormal conditions which produce consciousnesses com- 
parable to those normally present in the insane. The differences 
in mental capacity, therefore, which Kraepelin considers sub- 
ject to experimental investigation, are those which are most 
directly connected with physical conditions. The kinds of 
mental capacity to be thus investigated he classes under the 
three heads of capacity for the perception of sensory stim- 
uli, for the association of ideas, and for voluntary movement. 
The psychophysical conditions which are studied under these 
three heads are the influence of practice and the persistence 
of the effects of practice, the capacity of the special mem- 
ories, the influence of fatigue and the capacity of recovery from 
fatigue, the depth of sleep, and the capacity for concentration 
of the attention. Prof. Kraepelin states that this list is as far 
as can be from exhausting the conditions which it is possible 
and even necessary to determine experimentally; but he affirms 

1 Max Brahn : Zeit fur Ps. u. Ph. d. Sintiesorganeydi. XII, .p. 280. 



33^ SHARP : 

that it is upon the basis of an investigation such as this that 
the study of personalities must be founded. 

The operations, suggested by Kraepelin and adopted by 
Oehrn, that are chosen as affording means for the investigation 
of these conditions are as follows: i. Perception: the counting 
of letters, the search for particular letters, proof reading. 2. 
Memory: the learning of twelve nonsense syllables, and of 
series of twelve figures. 3. Association: the addition of series 
of one-place numbers. 4. Motor functions: writing from dic- 
tation, and reading as fast as possible. 

The time aspect alone of these operations is noted experi- 
mentally. The absolute durations of the processes, and their 
mean variations, give information in regard to the general 
mental capacity of the individuals tested, and to the relation of 
the processes to each other in respect of complexity, etc. 

The fluctuations in the rate of the processes during periods of 
continuous work, or after stated intervals of rest, show the in- 
fluence of practice in increasing the efficiency of work, of fatigue 
in decreasing this efficiency, and of rest in increasing the effi- 
ciency by means of the removal of fatigue, or decreasing it by 
obliterating the effects of practice, according to the length of 
the rest interval. A strict numerical expression is given to all 
the facts thus deduced. " If we wish to be instructed," says 
Oehrn (p. 144), " concerning the psychical efficiency of a per- 
son, we ask first concerning the quantity of work he can do in 
a certain time, or the time necessary to do a certain amount of 
work. We shall, therefore, have to consider in the ^rst place 
the individual differences in the absolute duration of the func- 
tions investigated " {i. e., the average time, in thousandths of 
a second, that it takes to count one letter, to read one syllable, 
to write one letter, to make one addition, or to learn one num- 
ber or syllable). " The second question is as to the quality of 
the work, by which alone the value of the quantity may be es- 
timated." A direct answer to this latter question Oehrn does 
not attempt to give in his work, but considers the omission of 
secondary importance, since all of his subjects had attained a 
degree of education where large differences in the quality of the 
particular processes tested could hardly enter. " Further, it 
is of importance," he continues, "for judging an individual, 
to know if he is in condition to work with constancy. If this 
is not the case, the quality of the work must suffer on the one 
hand, while on the other, large fluctuations will also indicate a 
diminution of quantity, since they are to be taken as evidences 
of fatigue. Hence the more numerous and larger the fluctua- 
tions are, the lower must be our estimate of the psychical en- 
ergy of the individual considered." The mean variations in 
time give numerical representations of these fluctuations. 



INDIVIDUAI^ PSYCHOLOGY. 337 

" Finally, we have to ascertain how the subjects behave in re- 
gard to practice and fatigue. It is necessary to distinguish 
between that practice which enters into a single experi- 
ment, . . . and the permanent practice which manifests 
itself, in a repetition of the experiment, by a shortening of 
the time necessary to perform the work." The mean variations 
and the relation of practice and fatigue in an individual are 
considered as of more importance forjudging his capacity than 
the absolute duration of his work. Tables are given, presenting 
the numerical results in each of these regards, obtained from 
every one of Oehrn's ten subjects. From the Tables a compari- 
son of the vSubjects could be made; but Oehrn leaves this com- 
parison to be made by the reader. He is chiefly concerned to 
show that by the aid of the method he has described it is pos- 
sible to obtain a conception of the psychical status of an indi- 
vidual. To establish a normal status would be the task of far 
more extended investigations. 

Contrast with this work in Individual Psychology an investi- 
gation made in France, by Mm. Binet and Henri, on Memory 
for Sentences (Memory for Ideas). ^ 

In the memory of figures or letters, it is chiefly auditory, 
visual or tactual sensations that are retained: the memory is 
one of relatively simple conscious elements. Memory of isolated 
words approaches this in its essential character; for, though 
the sense of the words enters here, and the memory is partially 
a memory of ideas, yet it is impossible in experiments upon the 
memory of isolated words to determine how much influence 
upon the subject's power of recall is due to the sense cf the 
words, and how much is due simply to the subject's desultory 
memory, or memory of separate, unconnected impressions. 
Hence it is necessary to investigate the memory of ideas by it- 
self. 

Mm. Binet and Henri chose eight sentences, or closely con- 
nected groups of sentences, ranging in length from 1 1 to 86 
words. These sentences were read before the pupils of several 
classes in four elementary schools in Paris. The children were 
required to reproduce the sentences in writing immediately after 
hearing them. The attention of the pupils was properly di- 
rected, since an explanation of the requirement was given to 
them in advance. The main work in the investigation was, 

^ A, Binet et V.Henri : La mdmoire des phrases (MSmoire des idies) . 
In L'Annee psychologique, I, 1894, p. 24. This article appeared before 
that on Individual Psychology by the same authors, and the investi- 
gation is not explicitly termed an investigation in Individual Psy- 
chology. The test employed is, however, closely similar to one pro- 
posed in the latter article, and represents very fairly the kind of 
material which the writers believe Individual Psychology should em- 
ploy. 



338 SHARP : 

of course, the interpretation of the results handed in by the 
pupils. The number of children submitted to the experiments 
was about 510. 

One of the chief difficulties in the interpretation of results 
lies in the fact that not every word in the sentence or sentences 
represents an independeiat idea. One cannot say that there are 
just as many ideas in the sentence as there are words. Pro- 
nouns, articles, prepositions, etc. , have no meaning apart from 
other words with which they are closely connected; and short 
phrases are remembered as a single idea. Hence it became 
necessary to separate the sentences into word-groups, each 
group representing as nearly as possible one idea. Here is an 
example of this division of one of the shorter sentences: a sen- 
tence of 20 words and 8 groups of words: 

Le petit Emile | a obtenu | de sa m^re | un joli | cheval m^canique | 
en recompense | de sa bonne conduite | a I'dcole. | 

In the longer sentences or series of sentences the division be- 
comes more difficult and assumes a more or less arbitrary char- 
acter. A passage of 60 words and of 19 groups may show this: 

Une vieille paysanne | agde de 64 ans, | la veuve Mouillet, | qui 
habitait une petite maison | sur la route deserte j des Recolets | avait 
conduit I son troupeau | dans les champs. | Pendant qu'elle faisait de 
I'herbe pour ses aniraaux | une vipere ] cach^e derriere | les fagots — 
s'^lancja sur elle | et la mordit | a plusieurs reprises | au poignet. | La 
pauvre femme | en est morte. | 

The results obtained from the investigation were, in brief, 
these. I. Memory for sentences (or ideas) shows a slight 
but constant increase with age. This was ascertained from the 
fact that in the higher classes more groups of words were com- 
pletely retained, and fewer words totally forgotten, — i. e., en- 
tirely left out, without any substitution whether right or 
wrong, — than in the lower classes where the pupils were 
younger. 2. The memory for sentences is, in certain fixed 
conditions under which these experiments were tried, twenty- 
five times superior to the memory for isolated words. 3, The 
number of forgotten words increases rapidly with the length of 
sentences or series of sentences; for a sentence of 20 words (8 
groups) it was g\, while for a series of 80 words (24 groups) 
it was \. 4., The losses of memory fall upon accessory parts 
of the sentence, not upon the essential parts, i. e., not upon the 
parts that are logically or psychologically important. 5. In short 
selections there are more substitutions of synonymous words 
than there are completely forgotten words, but in long selec- 
tions the reverse is the case. In short sentences, though the 
particular words may be forgotten, the ideas are remembered, 
and the child invents his own terms. We find, therefore, a 
large number of synonyms. In long selections, however, the 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 339 

ideas themselves are too numerous to be remembered, and the 
completely forgotten words outnumber the synonyms. <5. Chil- 
dren have a tendency to simplify the syntax, and to replace 
the words read to them by other words taken from their own 
more familiar vocabulary. This Mm. Binet and Henri call 
* verbal assimilation.' 7. When sentences are somewhat long, 
children show a tendency slightly to alter the meaning of the 
sentence. These alterations are frequently by way of additions, 
and may be of two kinds, intellectual and emotional. 

It will be seen that the only factors in this problem that 
lend themselves to numerical expression are ( i ) the quantity of 
words or groups remembered, substituted, or forgotten by any 
pupil; (2) the number of pupils who remember or forget any 
particular word or group; and (3) the age of the pupils who 
remember best or worst. 

The character of the material employed in this investigation 
is clearly and confessedly of the complex type. Although the 
sentences are mainly concrete, as suited to the child mind, they 
yet imply a considerable faculty of generalization and a syn- 
thetic power of attention in combining the various ideas into a 
situation. The mental processes involved are therefore highly 
complex, and the investigators have here used the material 
which they assert to be most suitable for the examination of 
the Individual Psychologist. 

Has the material of the German psychologists the opposing 
character of extreme simplicity ? The only simplicity that 
Kraepelin claims for his work is simplicity of method (method 
of continuous work). This has to do, not with the measure- 
ment of single independent acts, but with the continuous per- 
formance of regularly connected similar acts. The acts or pro- 
cesses themselves are not simple. Oehrn has analyzed each 
into three phases: the centripetal phase, or process of percep- 
tion; the central phase, or process of association; and the 
centrifugal phase, or process of movement. The three phases 
vary in importance and duration in the different kinds of opera- 
tions used in the experiments, and the fluctuations observed in 
continuous work may therefore be due to alterations in that 
phase of the whole process which is predominantly involved in 
the exercise in question. This analysis is, however, far from 
being an analysis into the simplest psychological elements, 
made for the sake of detecting variations in these elements. 
We are free to conclude, therefore, that the material used by 
the Individual Psychologist is, as a rule, less simple than that 
upon which the general Experimental Psychologist spends his 
best efforts. 

Nevertheless, the distinction between the German and French 
schools is not invalidated by this statement. There is a con- 



340 SHARP : 

siderable degree of difference in the complexity of material 
employed by these two schools, and there is a still greater dif- 
ference in method resulting from the difference in material. 
The more exact methods of the Germans are inapplicable to 
the tests which the French insist upon as of primary import- 
ance to the Individual Psychologist. It is, perhaps, on account 
of this difference in method that Mm. Binet and Henri, by a 
slight confusion, exaggerate the difference in the material em- 
ployed by themselves and by other Individual Psychologists. The 
specific criticism which they pass upon Prof. Kraepelin's work, 
however, is not so much that it lacks complexity as that it 
lacks scope. The experiments are too partial, they say, and 
for that reason entirely fail to characterize an individual.^ 

The position of Mm. Binet and Henri may be more clearly 
understood if we notice briefly some of the ' mental tests ' 
proposed by American psychologists. The tests given by Prof. 
Jastrow at the World's Fair at Chicago^ are among the most 
complete. There are here five different experiments for touch 
and cutaneous sensitivity; five experiments for sight and touch 
together (such as the equalizing of movements by sight); 
twelve or more experiments for sight alone, including appre- 
ciation and division of lengths, rapidity and acuteness of 
vision, etc. Other tests have to do with memory for letters, 
lines, colors and forms, and with simple reaction times. Place 
is also given to anthropometric tests of height, development of 
the head, and the relation of mental to physical development, 
etc. It will be seen that these experiments have chiefly to do 
with sensations and simple movements. Even the memory 
tests have regard to memory for sensations rather than to 
memory for ideas. 

Other lists of tests given by American psychologists show the 
same characteristics. Prof. Cattell, in an article in Mind,^ 
gives the results of two different series of tests, one numbering 
ten and the other fifty. The first series is as follows: (i) 
pressure measured by the dynamometer; (2) maximal rapidity 
of arm movement; (3) minimal distance between two points on 
the skin which can be perceived as two; (4) pressure necessary 
to produce pain; (5) least perceptible difference for weight of 
100 gr.; (6) time of simple reaction to an auditory impression; 
(7) time necessary to name a color; (8) division of a length of 
50 cm. into two equal parts; (9) reproduction of an interval of 
ten seconds; and (10) number of letters retained after a single 
hearing. The longer series is analogous to this, the same rel- 
ative importance being given to the elementary processes. 

iP.432. 

2 These are analyzed \n L'Annde psychologique, Vol. I, p. 532 ('1894). 

^Mental Tests and Measurements. Mind, 1890, Vol. XV, p. 373. 



INDIVIDUAIv PSYCHOLOGY. 34I 

The " Researches on the Meutal and Physical Development 
of School Children," by Dr. J. A. Gilbert/ employ the follow- 
ing tests: (i) muscle sense; (2) sensitivity to color differ- 
ences; (3) force of suggestion; (4) voluntary motor ability; (5) 
fatigue; (6) weight; (7) height; (8) lung capacity; (9) reac- 
tion-time; (10) discrimination-time; and (11) time-memory. 
All these tests are subject to exact numerical measurement. 
The muscle-sense was measured by the least perceptible differ- 
ence in gr. of lifted weights; sensitivity to color-difference was 
measured by the shades of red-colored fabric picked out by a 
child as being alike (every piece of fabric being in reality 
slightly and measurably different in shade); force of suggestion 
was determined by the difference in gr. between two weights of 
the same bulk but unequal weight, which the child picked out 
as being equal respectively to a weight large in bulk and one 
small in bulk which (unknown to the child) were of equal 
weight. For the experiments on voluntary motor ability and 
fatigue, reaction-time, discrimination-time and time-memory, 
Dr. Gilbert constructed an apparatus which he calls the reac- 
tion-board. This board holds a magnetic tuning fork, vibrat- 
ing one hundred times per second; a double-post switch; a 
stimulating apparatus; a reaction key; a tapping apparatus; a 
commutator, and an Kwald chronoscope. The electric current 
is supplied by two Grove batteries. Voluntary motor ability 
was measured by the number of taps the child made on the 
tapping apparatus in five seconds, and fatigue by the per cent, 
of loss of rapidity of tapping after the movement had been con- 
tinued for 45 seconds. Reaction-time and discrimination-time 
were measured by the chronoscope, in hundredths of a second. 
The time-memorj" was measured by allowing the chronoscope 
to run a certain length of time, and then starting it a second 
time, and requiring the child to press the key when the second 
running had lasted as long as the first. The difference between 
the two periods of time marked the accuracy of the time- 
memory. Weight, height, and lung capacity were measured by 
standard instruments suited to these purposes. 

The detail which has been given is sufficient to illustrate the 
difference in material and method between the French Indi- 
vidual Psychologists, and those engaged in similar work in 
America. It may be said, therefore, in general, that there is a 
wide divergence in opinion and practice among the investiga- 
tors of Individual Psychology, as to whether the first problem 
of the science, on the score of material and method, is properly 
of a structural and morphological character, or whether it 
should be classed as belonging to a functional or * physiologi- 

'^ Studies from the Yale Psychological Laboratory, II (1894), p. 401. 



342 SHARP : 

cal ' psychology. The Americans make it approximate to 
the former character; the Germans seem to favor the former in 
regard to method, but hold a middle position in regard to ma- 
terial; while the French psychologists depart as far as possible 
from the point of view of morphology, both in material and in 
method. The American view is founded upon no explicit 
theory of Individual Psychology. It may, therefore, be tem- 
porarily set aside. Considering only the French and German 
psychologists, we find that Individual Psychology seems, on 
the whole, rather to fall outside of structural psychology. It 
might be, however, that strict analysis of the results obtained 
from the study of complex processes would give information in 
regard to the ultimate elements. Is this, in reality, the case? 
The outcome of the researches we have hitherto noticed would 
seem to indicate a negative reply. But it is too early, yet, to 
look for an entirely decisive answer. Until a more thorough 
investigation of the methods proposed by Individual Psy- 
chology, or possible to it, is carried out, the question must be 
left undecided. 

B, The Second Problem of Individual Psychology. 

Individual psychology has to study not only the variations 
of mental processes from one individual to another, and the re- 
lation of these to individuals or classes of individuals, but 
also the relations of the mental processes to each other in the 
mind of one and the same individual. Are all the mental pro- 
cesses definitely related and correlated ? Is there one process 
more important than all the rest, so that a variation in this 
process involves a perfectly definite variation in all the other 
processes? Or, on the other hand, are there a large number 
of mental processes, practically independent of each other, and 
capable of assuming an almost infinite variety of combinations 
in as manj^ individuals ? 

Again we have to ask whether this inquiry by Individual 
Psychology is of a structural or physiological character. The 
answer is not far to seek; it is, in fact, implied in the very form 
in which the questions of this second problem clothe them- 
selves. It is the investigation of the relation to each other of 
the various ways of working of the psychological organism. It 
is, therefore, the psychological problem which corresponds to 
the general problem of physiology. As the latter asks what are 
the basal functions of the living physical organism, so the former 
seeks to find in the mental sphere those activities whose rela- 
tions to each other and to the psychological organism are 
analogous to those existing between functions in the sphere of 
physical life. The problem may, and does, imply analysis; but 
it is an analysis of which the common activities of every-day 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 343 

life form the starting point, and their better understanding, the 
goal. The atomistic point of view is abandoned, and the 
mental activities of man are taken, as it were, in the large; and 
the various relations of these activities, partially seen and 
understood by common observation, are confirmed, explained, 
and rendered explicit by the use of the experimental method. 
This is the task laid down as the second problem of individual 
psychology, — a task which belongs, therefore, to the psy- 
chology of function. 

The difficulties attendant upon an investigation of the ques- 
tions involved in this branch of Individual Psychology are very 
great. The mental processes which make up the sum of every- 
day psychical activity are of so complex a nature that it may 
be doubted whether experimentation can be applied in such a 
way as to yield results which meet the requirements of scien- 
tific precision. Mm. Binet and Henri have, however, dis- 
cussed three methods by which investigation may be carried 
on. (i) The first method is that of abnormal cases; wherein 
advantage is taken of instances where there is extreme devel- 
opment or enfeeblement, or even loss, of some psychical pro- 
cesses, to study the consequent modification of other processes. 
Where there is a loss of memory, e. g. , we may try to find the 
effect of such loss upon imagination, power of concentration 
of the attention, etc. That is to say, the object is to ascertain 
whether the presence of an abnormal activity involves a defi- 
nite deviation from the normal on the part of other mental 
processes. The collection of a large number of investigations 
of this kind would show the relation in which these processes 
stand to one another. There is, however, a difficulty. How 
shall we determine the amount of deviation from the normal, 
which one process must possess in order to entail a correspond- 
ing deviation of other processes? This question must be 
answered by means of experimentation, before the more gen- 
eral problem can be solved. 

This method has been employed to some extent, and has 
furnished some important information. By its means was 
ascertained the fact of the independence of the partial mem- 
ories;^ the fact, i. e., that we "can have an extraordinary 
memory for figures, without in the least excelling in memory 
for letters, or colors, or any other impressions whatever." 
Moreover it has shown that a total loss of some partial mem- 
ories may fail to show any influence upon the other partial 
memories.^ 

(2) Another method, one that is applied to normal indi- 

^ By A. Binet: Psychologiedes grands calculateurset joueurs d'ichecs. 
2 Mm. Ribot and Charcot, quoted by Binet and Henri. 



344 SHARP : 

viduals, may be stated thus: " In a single individual one may 
vary a psychical process, and see if this variation involves 
changes in other processes in the same individual." For this 
purpose only those processes are chosen which are useful for 
the comparison of individuals. Experiments upon sensations, 
manner of fatigue, etc., are thus eliminated. The practical 
application of this method is attended with great difficulty, 
owing to the complexity of the conditions. It depends, evi- 
dently, upon the possibility of placing an individual, by arti- 
ficial means, in such a condition that certain mental processes 
shall be performed in the way in which they take place nor- 
mally in certain other individuals. An individual who gave a 
quick reaction time, owing to great power of attention, might, 
by having his attention artificially distracted, lengthen his re- 
action time until it corresponded to that of other individuals 
who normally gave long reaction times from small power of at- 
tention. Given a constant correspondence between length of 
reaction time and degree of concentration of the attention, and 
the rapidity of reaction of an individual might be taken as an 
index of his power of attention. 

This method has been applied by Prof. Kraepelin, in his in- 
vestigation into the influences of slight poisons upon certain psy- 
chical processes: these poisons producing, in a normal individual, 
effects analogous to those caused by certain mental diseases in 
their early stages. Valuable as the method may be in theory, 
however, its range of application is necessarily limited, and it 
is, according to Mm. Binet and Henri themselves, more useful 
as a source of suggestion than as affording specific results. 

(3) The third method, which is likewise the simplest and 
most practicable, is that in which the experimenter chooses in 
advance a number of psychical processes, and proceeds to study 
them in several individuals, noting whether the individual dif- 
ferences in the different processes run parallel to each other, 
and correspond in a regular manner. From such correspond- 
ence he can infer the existence of a more or less close relation 
among the different processes. The experiments of Oehrn and 
Gilbert, which have been commented on above, are partial ap- 
plications of this method, as are also the various ' mental 
tests ' proposed by American psychologists. The disadvantage 
of the latter, according to Mm. Binet and Henri, is that they 
are calculated to give but little information in regard to the 
second problem of Individual Psychology, since they pay but 
slight regard to the complex processes. The method itself has 
the advantage of serving equally well for the study of either of 
the two problems of Individual Psychology. The results may 
be looked at with a view to ascertaining the variations which 
occur in the chosen processes from one individual to another, 



INDIVIDUAI, PSYCHOI.OGY. 345 

and the relation of these variations to the sex, age, profession, 
etc., of the individuals in whom they are observed; or the re- 
sults may be studied in regard to the correspondences which 
may constantly manifest themselves between the different pro- 
cesses in any single individual. For the latter point of view, 
however, it is necessary that the processes chosen for investi- 
gation shall be of that complex character which distinguishes 
the every-day activities of one individual from those of other 
individuals. Mm. Binet and Henri affirm this with emphasis. 
They say (p. 426): " Is it necessary to know that A has a finer 
tactual sensibility than B, that he can distinguish between two 
colors better than B, or that he can move his arm faster than 
B, in order to distinguish these individuals from each other ? 
Certainly not. On the other hand, how could one try to char- 
acterize them, and to distinguish them from each other, if one 
had no data concerning their imagination, their memory, their 
power of attention, their power of observation, their power of 
analysis, their reasoning, their stability of will, their affective 
life, etc.?" That these activities are more difiBcult to investi- 
gate than the elementary activities is a disadvantage which 
these authors believe is of comparatively small importance, 
since in the ' ' superior psychical faculties, ' ' to use their termi- 
nology, there are stronger individual differences, and hence 
the need of precision is not so great. 

The method of ' mental tests ' is that most available for 
present use, and, since the particular tests which have been 
proposed by others are considered by Binet and Henri to be in- 
adequate, these authors give a long and detailed list of tests 
which they consider will bring to light the strongest individual 
variations, a knowledge of which in one individual will give a 
general idea of that individual, and serve to distinguish him 
from others belonging to the same class. 

The tests are grouped under the following heads. I. 
Memory: (a) visual memory of geometrical design, (b) memory 
of sentences, (c) musical memory, (d) memory of colors, (e) 
memory of figures. II. Nature of mental images: (a) letter 
squares, (b) interrogation. III. Imagination: (a) passive im- 
agination (method of blots and of abstract terms), (b) con- 
structive imagination (development of a theme), (c) imagina- 
tion of design (composition or completion of a picture), (d) 
literary imagination (construction of sentences using given sub- 
stantives or verbs). IV. Attention: (a) duration of attention 
(series of reaction times or successive reproduction of lengths 
from memory), (b) range of attention (counting of metronome 
beats and execution of several simultaneous acts). V. Faculty 
of comprehension: (a) talent for observation (analysis of a ma- 
chine), (b) fineness of discrimination (discrimination of syno- 

JOURNAI, — 2 



346 SHARP : 

nyms and criticisms of sentences). VI. Suggestibility: (a) of 
sensations and perceptions (identification of lines and percep- 
tion of odors), (b) of imagination (expectant attention), (c) 
of emotivity (apprehension, fear), (d) of involuntary and un- 
conscious movements. VII. Esthetic sentiment: (a) prefer- 
ence in geometric forms, colors, perfumes, (b) questionnaire. 
VIII. Moral sentiments (method of pictures). IX. Muscular 
force and strength of will (persistence in muscular effort). X. 
Motor skill and sureness of eye. ^ 

The general conditions which the proposed tests must fulfill 
are given by the author as follows. They should be simple, 
that is, they should require little apparatus; the time for the 
whole number of tests should not exceed an hour and a half 
for one individual; they should be varied in such a way as to 
avoid fatiguing the subject; and the means of determination 
should be as independent as possible of the personality of the 
experimenter, in order that the results obtained by one experi- 
menter may be compared with those of another. 

A casual reading of the descriptions given of the various 
tests will convince one that the first condition is fulfilled. The 
apparatus required are small as to number and simple in char- 
acter. In regard to the requirement of time, however, the re- 
sult is not so satisfactory. One test alone, that of the memory 
of sentences, of a progressively abstract character, could take 
scarcely less than a quarter of an hour: add to that the ten or 
fifteen minutes allowed for the development of a theme for con- . 
structive imagination, and it will be seen that the time is going 
far too quickly to allow an application of even a majority of 
the remaining tests. This fact has a bearing also on the next 
requirement, that there should be as great a variety as possi- 
ble in the tests in order to avoid the disturbing effects of tedium 
and fatigue; for, although a certain variety in the experiments 
is advantageous for keeping up the interest of the subject, yet 
a crowding of many dissimilar tests into a brief space of time is 
equally disadvantageous. The aim is, of course, in these ex- 
periments to have the processes tested as nearly like those of 
every-day life as possible, and a monotonous repetition of ex- 
actly similar operations would defeat this aim. There is, how- 

1 A number of these tests were applied by Dr. E. Toulouse in the 
psychological part of the investigation of which M. Emile Zola was 
the subject. The whole investigation is described by Dr. Toulouse in his 
book Enquete medico-psychologique sur les rapports de la superiorite 
intellectuelle avec ndvropathie. Paris, 1896. Inasmuch as the psycho- 
logical tests employed are not the main reliance of the investigator 
in the formation of his judgments, but are considered only as giving 
confirmation to the judgments based on general observation of the 
subject, of his written works, etc., the essay can scarcely be called a 
purely experimental study of Individual Psychology. 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 347 

ever, in every-day life, as the mind turns from the performance 
of one set of operations to another, a certain period of prepara- 
tion. If the attention is, as it were, wrenched from one sort 
of activity to another very different sort, without any prepara- 
tion, confusion is apt to ensue. So in the activities experi- 
mentally controlled, too sudden changes do not conduce to the 
most favorable conditions of the attention. In the tests laid 
down by Mm. Binet and Henri, therefore, the requirement of 
variety in arrangement is a just one, for the attention demands 
a frequent change of object. A radical change of object, how- 
ever, requires time for the readjustment of the attention to the 
new conditions; and time must, therefore, be provided in suf- 
ficient measure. As much effort is expended and consequently 
as much fatigue is produced by working hard as by working 
long; it is poor economy to save time at the expense of effort. 
The chief reason why Mm. Binet and Henri make the require- 
ment of brevity for the tests is the practical difficulty of secur- 
ing the subject of experimentation on more than one occasion. 
This difficulty does not seem to be an unsurmountable one, as 
it probably would apply only to a restricted number of cases. 
When such cases do occur, judgment must be exercised in bal- 
ancing the rival claims of variety or range of tests and of suf- 
ficient time to perform the tests most efficiently. 

Whether the last requirement is fulfilled, whether, that is, 
the results of different experiments using these tests are per- 
fectly comparable, is a question which can be decided only upon 
a further consideration of the individual tests. Owing to the 
complex material which is investigated, it is easy to see that 
this condition is a hard one to comply with perfectly. M. 
Binet treats of this subject in a separate article, La misure 
en psychologie individuelle} There is a quantitative aspect to 
most of the experiments, and this may be measured with a fair 
amount of accuracy. There are two possible methods of meas- 
urement, the first being a measurement of the results obtained 
while the test remains the same. Thus in memory, for exam- 
ple, accuracy may be measured by the amount by which the 
reproduced series falls short of the original series. The rapidity 
with which a certain amount of work is performed may meas- 
ure some other processes. Enumeration and evaluation may 
also give numerical results, but of much less precise a character. 
The second method of measurement consists in a graduation 
of the experiment, the results being reduced to a maximum of 
simplicity. An example of this method would be, finding the 
maximal number of objects which a subject could retain after 
looking at them for five seconds. First three objects are shown, 

^ Revue philos., Vol. XLVI, Aout, 1898. 



348 SHARP : 

then four, then five, etc. , until the maximum is reached. The 
gradation of tests in terms, not of number but of kind, is difii- 
cult, as, e. ^., where sentences become more and more abstract. 

M. Binet states that the measurement of which he is speak- 
ing is not a physical or absolute measurement, but only a 
method for the classification of individuals. There is no fixed 
standard by reference to which all individuals may be evaluated; 
but of certain specific individuals one can say that under cer- 
tain fixed conditions, when A's memory of isolated words is 12 
and that of B is 6, A's memory of isolated words is better 
than B's. It would be unwarranted, however, to say that A's 
memory for isolated words is exactly twice that of B, since 
all the words may not have the same value for consciousness. 

All methods of measurement have for their aim the classifi- 
cation of all the individuals tested according to a quantitative 
scale. The tests, however, bear another aspect beside that of 
quantity. Quality must also be considered; and here it is nec- 
essary to class individuals according to different categories. M. 
Binet does not go into detail in regard to the possibilities of 
such a classification, but he suggests that the tests might dif- 
ferentiate literary and scientific types, or emotive (moral or 
egoistic) types. 

Part II. Kxpkrimental. 

§ 4. Description of Tests, 

The following experiments were undertaken during the aca- 
demic year '97- '98 as a study of Individual Psychology based, 
in general, upon the theories, and to a large extent upon the 
specific suggestions of Mm. Binet and Henri, as contained in 
their article La psychologie individuelle. The theory was pro- 
visionally accepted that the complex mental processes, rather 
than the elementary processes, are those the variations of which 
give most important information in regard to the mental char- 
acteristics whereby individuals are commonly classed. It is in 
the complex processes, we assumed, and in those alone, that 
individual differences are sufficiently great to enable us to dif- 
ferentiate one individual from others of the same class. Many 
of the particular tests recommended by the French psycholo- 
gists were also adopted, but were considerably modified in the 
general conditions of their application by the purpose of our 
own investigation. 

The aim of this work was ( i ) to ascertain the practicability 
of the particular tests employed, and (2) to answer the more 
general question as to the tenability of the theory upon which 
they are based, in so far as this can be judged by the experi- 
ments. In other words, we desired to assure ourselves whether 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 349 

investigations of this kind enabled us to advance, at least, to- 
ward a solution of the problems of Individual Psychology; 
whether those individual variations, and those correspondences 
which are necessary for classifying individuals, and for esti- 
mating the relative importance of the several processes in a 
single individual, could thereby be discovered. 

In view of these aims, and also of the criticisms of the gen- 
eral conditions demanded by Mm. Binet and Henri for the ap- 
plication of the method of ' tests, ' the procedure was neces- 
sarily different from that laid down by these psychologists. To 
make sure that the tests give real individual differences, and 
not chance variations, it is necessary to apply them to the same 
individuals, not once, but several times, in order that it may 
be observed whether the variations in the different individuals 
maintain a constant relation to one another at various times 
and, consequently, under varying subjective conditions. In- 
stead of single tests, therefore, series of similar tests for each 
activity were arranged. This necessitated, of course, a very 
large extension of the time beyond the limit allowed by the 
French investigators. The advantages of a short period of 
varied experimentation were, however, to a large degree at- 
tained. The experimental work of each subject was divided 
into periods of one hour each, and separated by intervals of 
one week. Within a single hour-period the tests were varied 
as much as possible. As a rule, only one or two experiments 
belonging to the series of a particular test were given. ^ In this 
way the tedium and fatigue due to monotonous repetition of 
similar operations were avoided, and a fair degree of interest in 
the work was maintained by the subject. The additional pre- 
caution was taken of separating by intervals longer than a 
week the experiments which were found to be especially trying 
or disagreeable to the subjects; as, e. g., the development of a 
theme, or description of a scene or event, employed as a test for 
constructive imagination. 

Since the experiments were of this detailed character, the 
number of subjects was necessarily restricted. The fact that 
the investigation was for the purpose of dealing with varia- 
tions in individuals of the same class, afforded a further reason 
for this restriction. The subjects consisted of seven advanced 
students in the Sage School of Philosophy, three men (B, B. 
R, and W. M), and four women (T, G, V. M, and L. R), 
all ot whom had had training in introspection. In the experi- 
mental work the subjects were divided into three groups; two 
groups of two subjects each, and a third group of three sub- 

1 Tests of memory for figures, words and letters, were exceptions to 
this rule. 



350 SHARP : 

jects. This arrangement was made owing to the fact that a 
large number of the experiments could be performed as readily 
by two at a time as by one. A group of three presented some 
difficulty to the experimenter, but not of a serious nature. As 
a rule, the system of grouping worked well, and caused much 
saving of time. 

Certain of the tests which are especially adapted for collective 
study were given not only to these groups, but also, by the aid 
of Prof. Titchener, to the less advanced students taking the un- 
dergraduate (junior year) course in Experimental Psychology. 
The first ten minutes of the lecture hour were usually devoted 
by Prof. Titchener to this work, the test in every case being 
conducted by him. Occasional failure of attendance on the 
part of some members of the class causes a corresponding in- 
completeness in these results. They are useful, however, as 
allowing comparison between the less and the more completely 
trained students. 

Though the tests as above described are intensively of 
greater range than those of Mm. Binet and Henri, they are ex- 
tensively much more restricted. Only those tests were retained 
which have to do most directly with the intellectual activities. 
The aesthetic sentiments were touched upon in a very tentative 
manner in our investigation, while the moral sentiments, 
strength of will, etc., were either left out of account altogether, 
or entered only indirectly as results from tests which were ap- 
plied primarily for a different purpose. 

We are now ready to consider the tests in detail. 

I. Memorv. 

I. Memory of Letters. Twenty sets of 12 letters each were pre- 
pared. As the object was to test the memory for isolated characters, 
it was desirable to avoid the formation of syllables by successive let- 
ters, in so far as this could be done without the total banishment 
of vowels from the series. The apparatus employed was Jastrow's 
Memory Drop, by means of which one letter at a time might appear 
before the eyes of the subject from behind a small opening in a screen. 
The movements of the drop must be made by hand ; the experimenter 
regulated them by making them coincide so far as possible with the 
beats of a metronome marking intervals of one second. Each letter, 
therefore, was exposed to the view of the subject for approximately 
one second. The experiments took place in this way. The subject 
was seated at such a distance from the screen that the letters could be 
clearly seen. A series of twelve letters was then exposed, one by one, 
as above described. The subject was required immediately to recite 
the twelve letters in their order. If any mistake was made, the ex- 
periment was repeated ; the letters being again exposed, and the sub- 
ject again required to recite them correctly. This whole operation 
was repeated until the subject was able to name the twelve letters 
without error. The number of times it was found necessary to expose 
the series was noted. The answers to questions put by the experi- 
menter in regard to the manner in which the letters were memorized, 



INDIVIDUAI. PSYCHOI.OGY. 35 1 

as well as observation of the results of the various repetitions, gave 
information in regard to memory type, and therefore served to sup- 
plement the results obtained from another test, the purpose of which 
was the discovery of the nature of the subject's mental images. 

This experiment differs from many others which are to follow, in 
that it could be performed with only one subject at a time ; and also 
in the fact that several sets of similar series of letters were given to 
the subject in a single hour. 

2. Memory of Figures. This test is almost precisely similar to the 
one above. The chief differences result from the fact that with figures 
the available characters are fewer, and hence in a series of twelve 
there must necessarily be some repetitions. Further, the figures, un- 
like letters, no matter how arranged, make an intelligible combina- 
tion. The tendency to continue the separate figures is hindered some- 
what, — in cases, almost entirely, — by the manner in which they are 
given successively ; but in so far as the tendency to combine is ex- 
hibited, it shows an approach toward the memory of ideas, In the 
preparation of the series of figures it was our aim to avoid putting any 
two figures in their natural or inverted order, or immediately repeat- 
ing the same figure. The experiment was conducted in the same 
manner as that described above. 

J. Memory of Words?- This test has two parts. In the first place 
the experimenter read a series of 7 disconnected words, at the rate of 
about two words a second, and the subject was required immediately 
to recite these in order. If any word was left out of this recital, it 
was named by the experimenter, and any error was corrected. A 
second series of 7 words was then read, and the subject was required 
to recite them as before ; then a third series, and so on, until seven 
series of seven words each had been read and recited. For the second 
part of the experiment the subject was required to name, in the 
order in which they occurred to him, as many as possible of the 
whole 49 words. In the first case one had immediate memory of ver- 
bal sounds; while in the recapitulation, which occurred at an interval 
of at least three minutes from the time of reading of the first short 
series, the auditory memory of the words had had time to be dimmed, 
and the sense of the words became a more important factor for 
memory. The difference in number of words remembered when taken 
series by series, and when taken as a whole, indicates the relation 
which subsists between the immediate memory and the memory of 
conservation in the individual tested. Four sets, each containing 7 
short series, were given to all our subjects. The conditions of this 
test, also, required that one subject should be taken at a time. 

4. Mem,ory of Sentences. There were given two types of experi- 
ments under this head; (a) one in which the passage to be remem- 
bered was confined strictly within the limits of a single period, and 
(b) another, in which the passage was longer, comprising in somecases 
two, three, or even more sentences. For convenience, we may term 
the first type that of short sentences, and the second that of long sen- 
tences. All the sentences, both long and short, were graduated into 
five series, according to their degree of abstractness. This graduation 
was more or less arbitrary. It was difficult to define five distinct de- 
grees ; it was occasionally a matter of some little doubt, therefore, 
which of two successive degrees should claim a particular sentence. 
Although, however, the difference in abstractness between one degree 
and the next was often slight, the difference between the extremes of 

1 See A. Binet et V. Henri. La memoire des mots. VAnnee psychologique, Vol. I, 
1894, pp. 1-24. Also E. Toulouse. Enquete medico-psychologique sur les rapports de la 
stiperiorite intellectuelle avec la nevropathie. J^mile Zola. 1896. 



352 SHARP : 

the series could not pass unnoticed. The following series of short 
sentences will serve as illustration : 

I. A huge fire of logs blazed on the great kitchen hearth, and, at a 
table covered with maps and papers, neatly set in order, the general 
sat writing. 

II. The Chinese regard us as strictly just and truthful, and it is 
only when we disabuse them of that impression that they show us any 
disrespect. 

III. Whatever comes from the brain carries the hue of the place it 
came from, and whatever comes from the heart carries the heat and 
color of its birthplace. 

IV. If the Necessitarian doctrine be true, then there is not merely 
no foundation either for morality or religion, but no basis either for 
divine or human law. 

V. Thought is necessary to make even feeling or sensation to be 
conscious feeling or sensation ; and thought can take place only 
through discrimination, or perception of difference. 

The sentences were chosen from literature : magazine articles, 
novels, essays, and philosophical works. Fenimore Cooper, Carlyle, 
Huxley, Leibniz, and many others furnished their quota. Of the 
short sentences there were twenty sets of five series each, making one 
hundred sentences in all, ranging from 22 to 28 words in length. Two 
sets, only, of the long sentences were employed, making ten sen- 
tences, ranging from 51 to 64 words in length. All the sentences, both 
long and short, were given to the seven advanced subjects, while ten 
sets of short and the two sets of long sentences were given to the 
juniors. 

The experiment was performed in this' way. A short sentence was 
read aloud to the subject at the rate of about three words in two sec- 
onds, care being taken that all words should receive, so far as possi- 
ble, equal emphasis. The subject was required to write down the sen- 
tences immediately after the reading. One set of five sentences was 
usually given to the advanced subjects in a single experimental hour. 
Sometimes two, and sometimes three sentences w^ere given to the 
juniors at one meeting of the class. The subjects were requested, 
after writing the sentence, to underline once those words which they 
felt sure were remembered correctly, twice those words of which they 
were doubtful, and three times those words which they felt pretty 
confident were different from the words dictated. When words had 
completely fallen out of consciousness, the subjects left spaces, the 
length of which indicated the supposed gap in memory. The sen- 
tences were 'marked' under four headings: (i) verbal accuracy, 
that is, the number of words correctly remembered; (2) order, that is, 
the number of words occupying their proper position in the sentence; 
(3) sense, that is, the number of words which, either from the fact 
that they reproduced those in the sentence read, or that they were es- 
sentially synonymous with them, preserved the sense of the original 
sentence ; (4) certainty of memory, that is, the number of words which 
were marked very doubtful (underlined three times) plus one-half 
the number of words which were marked somewhat doubtful (under- 
lined twice). All these estimates were reduced to percentages, that 
the results of all the short sentences might be comparable. This sys- 
tem of marking has its disadvantages, as it depends in some degree 
upon the personal judgment of the marker. Especially is this the case 
with regard to the sense of sentences. Substitutions or errors in com- 
paratively unimportant parts of a sentence may change the meaning 
slightly, but not essentially; still, the sentence can hardly be classed 
in such a case as reproducing perfectly the sense of the original sen- 



INDIVIDUAI. PSYCHOLOGY. 353 

tence. As all the sentences, however, were marked by one person, the 
error throughout is a fairly constant one, and the results obtained from 
different individuals may be, with justice, compared. The long sen- 
tences were intended to conform more nearly to those employed by 
Mm. Binet and Henri, ^ in the investigation briefly described above in 
Part I, with the exception that our sentences were graduated accord- 
ing to degree of abstractuess. Their method of estimating the results 
was likewise followed. Each sentence was divided into groups, each 
group containing one important word with, perhaps, some subordinate 
words linking it to the rest of the sentence, that the number of groups 
might coincide with the number of ideas. The necessarily somewhat 
arbitrary character which this division assumes was before noticed, 
and is, of course, inimical to precision in results. The points noted 
in the results were : (i) number of the groups in a sentence which 
were retained intact ; (2) number of words completely forgotten; (3) 
number of synonyms employed ; and (4) number of other substitu- 
tions. It should be said that the test of long sentences was conducted 
in a similar manner to that of short sentences, the only difference 
being in the reading. No effort was made to have the reading monoto- 
nous, but every word was given its normal emphasis and inflection. 

5. Memory of Sounds. To make a detailed test for memory of 
sounds would have required an amount of time for preparation and for 
experiment which it was impracticable to give in this investigation. 
We were content, therefore, with propounding to the subjects certain 
questions in regard to the readiness and accuracy of their musical 
memory. They were as follows : 

1. Can you carry an air at all ? 

2. Can you reproduce an air after hearing it once? In your head? 
By whistling or singing ? 

3. How accurate is this reproduction (if it has been tested) ? 

This test was applied both to the advanced students and to the 
juniors. 

II. Mental Images. 

I. Letter Squares. This test was one described and recommended 
by Mm. Binet and Henri. White cards were prepared, three by four 
inches in size, and divided by black lines into twelve equal squares, 
each square containing in its center a large printed letter. As the 
longer side of the card was taken as the horizontal, there were four 
letters on a horizontal line and three on a vertical. Ten different com- 
binations of letters were chosen for these cards, to be used in ten dif- 
ferent experiments. There were other cards, precisely similar to 
these, except that the small squares were left blank. The experi- 
ments were first conducted in this way. Each of the subjects had 
before him, on the desk or table, right side up, a card of blank 
squares, and also, face downward, a card containing the printed let- 
ters. The requirements of the experiment were explained to him. 
Upon the signal of the experimenter he should turn up the printed 
card, and learn the letters and their respective positions in the 
squares. Twenty seconds were to be given for this. At the second 
signal of the experimenter, the subject should turn down the printed 
card, and proceed immediately to reproduce the letters upon the 
blank cards in their proper places. The subject was further requested 
to write on the reverse of the (originally blank) card the nature of the 

'^A. Binet et V. Henri. La memoire des phrases. V Annie tsychologique, Vol. I, pp. 
24 ff. See also La psychologte indtvid^elle, ibid.. Vol. II. The same type of test was 
used likewise by Dr. Toulouse in the investigation mentioned in a previous foot- 
note. 



354 SHARP : 

mental images from which the reproduction was made. Five of the 
experiments were made in this manner: in the remaining five a modi- 
fication was made in regard to the time. The subject was allowed 
only five seconds between the first and second signals for studying the 
letters. There was then an interval of thirty seconds, before the ex- 
perimenter gave a third signal to fill the blank cards. This had the 
effect of making the introspection of memory images more easy. It 
also increased the number of errors; and, as Mm. Binet and Henri 
make the usefulness of the test to depend principally upon the study 
of the nature of the errors made, this fact is of importance. Like- 
sounding letters may be substituted for the correct ones, thus indi- 
cating the presence of auditory images ; or errors may be traced to a 
similarity in form of the letters substituted, etc. The letters in the 
printed squares were arranged in a variety of ways. The last letters^ 
in each horizontal line occasionally rhymed, and in rare cases con- 
secutive letters formed syllables. i 

2. Questions. Under this heading may be placed the information 
gained from the writing on the reverse of the blank cards, mentioned 
above, as well as that obtained in questioning the subjects in connec- 
tion with the tests for memory of words, letters and figures. 

III. Imagination. 

1. Passive Imagination, (a) Method of blots. This test is also 
one mentioned by Mm. Binet and Henri, and is similar to that used 
by Dr. Dearborn. ^ The blots were formed very much after the fashion 
described by the latter writer. A drop of ink was allowed to fall 
upon a small Bristol-board card, and a piece of paper was placed over 
the card and rubbed with the finger. In this way a variety of forms 
were made on different cards ; ten cards, in all, being employed. This 
test was applied to the advanced students only. A card bearing a blot 
was handed to the subject, who was requested to name all the objects 
suggested by the form of the whole blot or of any part of it. He was 
allowed to turn the card about in any direction. The objects sug- 
gested were written down by the subject. Five minutes were allowed 
for this experiment. The number of objects seen in the blot, their 
kind, and the manner of reporting them, gave information in regard 
to the passive imagination of the individual tested. 

(^) Associations with Abstract Terms. These experiments con- 
sist in interrogating the subject as to what he represents to himself 
when such words as 'force,' 'infinity,' 'justice,' etc., are said, and 
also as to his possession of number forms or visual schemes for the 
arrangement of months, seasons, etc. 

2. Constructive Im,agination. (a) Mechanical imagination. Two 
tests were used for this : a German toy called the " Magic Box," and a 
'puzzle' watch. The magic box was a box of tin about 3 inches in 
diameter, through the center of whose lid projected the tip of a mag- 
netized revolving rod, actuated through an internal mechanism of 
gears and fly wheel by a thrust on an arm projecting through the side 
of the box. A small triangular piece of tin with rounded corners, to 
which could be attached paper dolls or animals, would, of course, if 
put upon the cover of the box near the rod, be drawn around as the 
magnetized pivot revolved. This toy was shown to the subjects, as 
well as the method of starting the motion by pushing the projecting 



^ One set of letters was taken from the example given by Mm. Binet and Henri. 
Three others were copied from those used by Dr. Toulouse. Certain errors on the 
part of the printer made slight changes in these latter, however. 

' G. Dearborn. Psychological Review, May, 1897, pp. 309 ff. Cf. the same author, 
A Study of Imagination. Am. Jour, of Psychology^ Vol. IX, pp. 183 ff. 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOI.OGY. 355 

arm ; but they were requested not to handle the toy. The requirement 
made of the subjects was to explain the mechanism causing the move- 
ment of the tin standard around the cover of the box. The two points 
in the explanation should have been (i) the magnetic connection be- 
tween the revolving rod and the tin standard, and (2) the particular 
internal mechanism by which the revolution was initiated and main- 
tained. 

In the puzzle watch the works were confined within a small cres- 
cent-shaped portion of the cylindrical space, while the rest of the 
watch, except the nickel rim, was completely transparent, having 
glass faces front and back. All that could be seen in looking through 
this portion was the hands, the rod on which they were carried, and 
the gilt numerals on the glass dial-plate. There was, therefore, no 
visible mechanical connection between the hands and the works. The 
subjects were required to explain the movement of the hands. This 
was caused by the revolution of an inner glass plate held in a toothed 
metal ring. Both in this experiment and in the one above the subjects 
were given five minutes for a written explanation, but an extension 
of time was granted if desired. These tests were carried out with the 
advanced students only. 

{b) Iviterary Imagination. Three kinds of experiments came under 
this head: (a) the construction of sentences, (b) the development 
of a given theme, and (c) the choice of a topic for composition. The 
construction test was performed in this way : Three substantives or 
three verbs were read to the subject, and he was required to write in 
five minutes as many and as varied sentences as possible, embodying 
in each the three words given. Ten experiments with substantives, 
and ten with verbs were tried with each of the advanced students. The 
same number of experiments was given to the Juniors, but there was 
a modification in the time requirement, — only two minutes instead of 
five minutes being allowed for the composition of the sentences. In 
order, however, to have results directly comparable with those ob- 
tained from the advanced students, two tests with substantives and two 
with verbs were also given to the Juniors, in which five minutes were 
allowed for the composition of the sentences. In each case the num- 
ber and quality of the sentences were noted. For the next test, that 
of the developing of a theme, two sets of topics were chosen, one set 
for narration or description, and the other for exposition. Ten niinutes 
were given for writing. Three topics for narration (or description) 
and three for exposition were given to all^ the advanced students. The 
third test consisted in naming ten titles for essays, five coming under 
each of the above named classes, and requiring the subject taking the 
experiment to choose from the ten given the five upon which he would 
prefer to write papers, provided that such writing were demanded of 
him. The topics given for test (b), development of a theme, were the 
following : (i) For imaginative treatment : " Capture of a Fortress," 
" The Escape of a Prisoner," and " A Forest Fire." (2) For exposi- 
tion : " The Delays of Justice," "The Influence of Newspapers," and 
"The Mission of Music." The topics given for test (c), choice of 
titles, were these: "In a Snowstorm," "A Polar Landscape," "A 
Puritan Sabbath," "My Opposite Neighbor," "Man Endowed with 
the Power of Flight," " Civilization not Regeneration," "Wisdom in 
Charity," " Friendship of Books," "Fiction as a Vehicle of Truth," 
and "The Eloquence of the Bar and that of the Pulpit." A sort of 
modification of the last two tests was given to the Juniors. On two 
occasions they were granted a choice between two titles (one of each 
type), from which they should sketch out a plan for an essay. The 

^ With the exception that W. M. failed to take one of the topics for exposition. 



356 SHARP : 

time allowed for this was five minutes. The topics submitted on the 
first occasion were : " The Capture of a Fortress " and " The Friend- 
ship of Books ;" on the second occasion, " The Escape of a Prisoner " 
and " The Influence of Newspapers." The length of the written com- 
positions, their manner of development, the kind of topic chosen, and 
the character of the plans made for them, are sources of information 
as to the imaginative type of the individual. Further information was 
sought by general questions in regard to individual tastes and tenden- 
cies, such as the favorite reading of the subject, his fondness for re- 
flective games, the theater, opera, etc. 

IV. Attention. 

1. The degree of attention habitually exercised by an individual was 
measured by the quickness and accuracy with which a certain given 
task was performed. The task chosen for this purpose was the can- 
cellation of every letter a from the words of a printed page. In order 
that the operation might not become too mechanical, the subject was 
sometimes requested to cancel the letter e instead. Proof pages (12 
mo.) of the English translation of Kiilpe's *' Introduction to Philoso- 
phy " were used for the cancellation, the pages averaging about 350 
words. At a signal from the experimenter the subject began reading 
to himself at a normal rate, crossing every a as it came to his notice, 
but never going back to cancel those overlooked when they were first 
passed over. As soon as the page was finished the subject gave a 
signal. The experimenter was thus enabled to read from the stop- 
watch the time required for the cancellation. The number of errors 
was afterward determined. Eight pages were thus submitted to each 
of the advanced subjects for experiment ; but, as the subject matter 
was a possible means of distraction from the work of crossing out a's, 
other printed pages of a different character were also used. One page 
of concrete description (376 words) was prepared and printed without 
the use of punctuation, spacing or capitals. Another page of philo- 
sophical matter (340 words), a page of disconnected words, and a page 
of ' pied ' matter, were printed in the same manner. Copies of these 
pages were used for experiments in the same way as those described 
above. In the Kiilpe proof all the subjects had different pages, while 
in the other tests the copies were exactly similar for each kind of 
page. In the latter case, therefore, results from the different subjects 
were immediately comparable, since no complication could arise from 
difference of subject matter. All the subjects cancelled the a's from 
eight pages of proof, one page of concrete matter, one page of abstract 
matter, two pages of disconnected sentences and one page of * pied ' 
matter. 

A further experiment upon the degree of attention was tried with 
the seven advanced subjects by requiring them to read aloud, first, a 
page of concrete description, printed without punctuation, capitals or 
spacing ; and, secondly, a similar page of exposition of abstract 
thought. The time necessary for each reading was noted, as well as 
the correctness of the words and expression. The first page consisted 
of a description of the situation and equipment of a blockhouse upon 
a densely wooded island. The most notable feature of this page was 
the frequent occurrence of monosyllabic words ; while that of the 
second or abstract page consisted in the repetition of certain words, 
such as 'subject,' 'object,' 'relation,' 'absolute,' 'power,' 'force,' etc. 
The first page was slightly longer than the second, the number of 
words being 376 and 340 respectively. 

2. Range of Attention. To test the subjects in regard to range of 
attention, a single experiment was tried in conformity with that sug- 



INDIVIDUAI. PSYCHOLOGY. 357 

gested by Mm. Binet and Henri. The subject was required to read 
aloud with normal rapidity and expression a passage of ten lines from 
a contemporary novel. The time taken by this reading was noted. 
The subject was then requested to read the same passage in precisely 
the same way as before, but while doing so to write on a sheet of 
paper beneath his hand the letter a as many times as possible. Again, 
the subject was requested to reread the passage, this time writing a b 
repeatedly. During a fourth reading, abc were the letters required to 
be written. A fifth and last reading was then requested, during which 
the subject should write as far down the alphabet as he could without 
altering his reading ; while if the alphabet were completed and time 
still remained, he should begin again at a and write as before. The 
chief difficulty in this experiment was in maintaining a uniform rate 
in the reading throughout the five tests, for the tendency in almost 
every case was to lengthen the reading in those tests which involved 
the simultaneous writing of letters, thus allowing time for a rapid 
oscillation of the attention from one set of acts to the other, and de- 
stroying their simultaneity. Where success was attained, however, in 
keeping the reading unchanged, the number of letters of the alphabet 
written by the subjects gave information in regard to individual dif- 
ferences in ability to perform practically simultaneous acts and thus 
in range of the attention ; while in the cases where there was a de- 
cided lengthening of the reading during the performance of writing, 
this very fact was an indication of lack of such ability. 

V. Observation; Discrimination. 

This corresponds to the heading termed by Mm. Binet and Henri 
the 'faculty of comprehending,' and comprises phenomena known 
under various names, such as talent of observation, keenness 0/ mind, 
good sense, judgm.ent,Qtc., owing to the difficulty of precise definition. 
By it is meant the power to perceive relations, to distinguish the real 
and essential from the apparent and accessory ; the ability to analyze 
and systematize. The lack of analysis of the processes involved makes 
exact investigation impossible, but certain tests have been adopted 
which are calculated to throw light upon the individual differences in 
this aspect of mind. Of these tests, the first two — those which have 
especially to do with observation — may be classed also as tests of 
memory ; but since the memory is immediate, while the time of ob- 
servation is very short, the individual differences seem to be attribu- 
table to the latter rather than to the former. The first test was applied 
after this manner. The reproduction of a picture, cut from a magazine, 
with the title carefully trimmed off, was shown to the subject for a 
period of thirty seconds, after which he was requested to write out a 
full description of what he saw, five minutes being allowed for the 
writing. This experiment was tried upon all the advanced students 
with two different pictures. The first picture, entitled the "Golden 
Wedding," was more satisfactory than the second, "An Interrupted 
Duel," in that it contained far more variety of detail, more unmis- 
takable feeling, and somewhat greater scope for difference of interpre- 
tation. Both pictures, however, contained more detail than could be 
exhausted by an attentive observation of thirty seconds. This test is 
very similar to that described by M. Binet in his article La description 
d*un objet,^ the chief difference being that the picture — in this case 
exposed to the observation of children — represented a scene from a 
familiar fable, and the subjects were so informed before looking at it. 
The time of observation was two minutes, instead of thirty seconds. 

^ ly'Ann^e psychologique. Vol. Ill, pp. 296 £f. 



358 SHARP : 

The results from this test, as from those of imagination, seem to be 
mainly valuable as indicating certain individual types. 

The second test under Observation is similar to the first and may be 
briefly dismissed as having in itself small value. A small colored card, 
representing a lady rather brilliantly dressed standing before a dressing 
table upon which reposed variously tinted bottles and boxes, was 
shown to the subject for the space of five seconds, after which he was 
requested to write down all the different colors he had observed on the 
card, together with the location of each. This test, like the first, may 
be reckoned one of observation rather than of memory, since the colors 
of the pictured card were not that to which attention would naturally 
be primarily directed ; moreover, the colors were few and could easily 
be remembered if noticed. Hence the number of colors actually re- 
membered was an indication of the degree in which they attracted 
the attention of the observer. Since, however, the experiment was 
given but once, the result could not be taken as showing a permanent 
attitude of mind. 

The third test departed entirely from the sphere of sensible per- 
ception, and had to do with thought relations. A pair of synonyms 
was given to a subject, and he was allowed five minutes for writing 
down the distinction between the words in regard to their meaning 
and use. Six pairs of such words were given to the Junior class and 
seventeen to the advanced students. 

VI. Taste and Tendencies. 

Under this heading are grouped the remaining experiments, the 
object of which was to test in the several individuals the appreciation 
of the beautiful as expressed especially in art, music, and literature. 
In these tests the assumption is made that the taste for an art will 
carry along with it a knowledge of that which is universally conceded 
to be the best work in that sphere, as well as some knowledge of the 
authors of it. This seems to be a warrantable assumption, if we take 
into consideration the individuals tested ; since all must have had 
opportunities (college libraries, magazines, etc.,) to learn of that 
toward which their natural tastes directed them. Art, music, and 
literature form the basis for the investigation ; art being taken in the 
restricted sense as comprising painting and sculpture. 

I. Art. Three tests belong here, (a) For this test, a selection of 
twelve paintings was made from among those which are given the 
very highest place in that art. Photographic reproductions of these 
were used. A subject was given a photograph, and allowed five min- 
utes for noting in writing five things : title, artist, school, and approx- 
imate date of the original , together with a brief description from the 
photograph itself. The paintings chosen were these : Raphael's Sis- 
tine Madonna^ Michael Angelo's Last Judgment^ Iveonardo da Vinci's 
Last Supper, Rubens' Descent from the Cross, Correggio's Holy 
Night, Titian's Assumption of the Virgin, Murillo's Im,m,aculate 
Conception, Rembrandt's Night Watch, Volterra's Descent from the 
Cross, Guido Reni's Beatrice Cenci, Velasquez' Portrait of Himself, 
and Guido Reni's Aurora. These photographs were given not only 
to the advanced subjects, but also to the members of the Junior class. 
As there was but one photograph of each painting, and as the time 
available was not sufiicient to allow five minutes for considering each 
photograph, the experiment was performed upon the Juniors in this 
way. Each photograph was numbered upon the back, and all were 
distributed among the cldss, face downward. The experimenter then 
gave instructions, reading the questions (given above) to which answers 
should be written. A signal was then given : the subjects wrote 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 359 

down at the head of a sheet of paper the number on the back of the 
photograph. Another signal, and the photographs were turned, and 
one full minute allowed for writing the answers. Then the photo- 
graphs were passed on, from each student to the next, and the signals 
were repeated as before. 

Tests (b) and (c), given to the advanced students only, consisted in 
allowing five minutes each for the subject to write (b) the names of 
as many noted pieces of sculpture as possible, and (c) the names of 
as many artists renowned in the sphere of painting or plastic art as 
could be written in the given time. 

2. Music. Here the tests are similar in nature to those above, (a) 
The subject was required to name, on paper, as many musical com- 
posers of renown as possible in five minutes, (b) The subject, being 
given a list of ten musical composers, was required to name one compo- 
sition or important class of composition produced by each. Five 
minutes was the allotted time for this also. The list of composers 
comprised the following : Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Chopin, Mozart, 
Wagner, Liszt, Schumann, Rubinstein, Handel, and Schubert, (c) 
The test previously described under the partial memory of sounds 
(power to remember and reproduce musical airs) has a bearing upon 
this part of our subject. 

A modified form of these tests was given to the Juniors. They were 
required to write (i) a list of six musicians, (2) one production under 
each name, (3) the style of each, i. <?., his favorite form of composition, 
and (4) to answer the question: ** What did Wagner introduce into 
Grand Opera?" 

3. Literature, (a) Selections were chosen from eight prominent 
English prose writers, and read aloud to the subjects. After the read- 
ing of each, the subject wrote whom he considered to be the author of 
the selection, as well as the source of this judgment : whether memory 
of the particular passage, or inference drawn from the style or subject 
matter. The writers and selections were as follows : Macaulay, The 
Progress of England, from Essays on Sir James Mackintosh ; Ruskin, 
The Open Sky, from Modern Painters; Bacon, Of Studies, from the 
Essays ; Dickens, Mrs. Gafnp^s Apartment, from Martin Chuzzlewit; 
De Quincy, A Wonderful Dream,, from Confessions of an English 
Opium Eater; Carlyle, Labor, from Past and Present ; Thackeray, 
Family Prayers, from The Newcomes ; and Scott, Raleigh's First 
Interview with Queen Elizabeth, from Kenilworth. 

(b) Similar selections were chosen from eight English and American 
poets, and the test was performed in the same manner as the above. 
The subjects were informed that the poetry might be taken from either 
English or American writers. The passages selected were these : 
Wordsworth's Ode to Im,m,ortality, first two stanzas; Shakespeare's 
Midsum,m,er Night's Dream, speech of Theseus on Imagination; 
Tennyson's In Mem,oriam,, LIU; Milton's Ode to His Blindness ; 
Browning's Rabbi Ben Ezra, stanza "Thou Fool!" etc.; Bryant's 
To a IVaterf owl, last three stanzas ; Holmes' The Chambered Nautilus, 
last two stanzas; and Spenser's Fairy Queen I, 4: 4, 5 (The House 
of Pride) . 

4. A further test of tastes and tendencies consisted in the questions 
put to the subjects as to the character of their favorite reading, their 
fondness for the opera, the play, and for reflective games such as 
whist, chess, etc. See above, under III. 

§ 5. Results. 

We have next to consider the results obtained from the tests 
that have been outlined. They may be considered from two 



36o 



SHARP : 



points of view, quantitatively and qualitatively. Some tests 
best lend themselves to a numerical expression of results, while 
the outcome of others must be estimated chiefly in terms of 
quality. Among the former are the tests of the first group, 
those upon rnemory. 

I. Memory. 

I and 2. Memory of letters and memory of figures. These may be 
considered together, since the tests were closely similar and performed 
in the same manner. 

Tabi,b I. 





MEMORY OF LETTERS. 


MEMORY OF FIGURES. 


SUBJECTS. 


Average times 
exposed. 


Fluctuation 
limits. 


Average times 
exposed. 


Fluctuation 
limits. 


B. 

G. 
V. M. 
W. M. 
E. R. 
L. R. 

T. 


(2) 

3 

(I) 

«"^ 

3-2 

(5) 

3-95 

(4) 

3.3 


1—6 
1—4 

2 — 12 

2—5 
3-6 
2—7 
1—6 


(3) 

2.9 

(I) 

2.6 

(5) 

4.55 
(4) 

3 


1—4 
1—3 
2—5 

2—4 

2—5 
3—9 
2—4 



Table I gives for each individual (i) the averages, taken from twenty 
experiments each of letters and figures, of the times necessary to ex- 
pose a series of twelve before it is correctly repeated, and (2) the 
fluctuation limits, that is, the highest and the lowest number of ex- 
posures required for the memorizing of one series by the different in- 
dividuals. The small figures in brackets at the left of the first and 
third columns indicate the order of the averages from the lowest to the 
highest, or the order of the individuals in regard to rapidity of memor- 
izing from the most to the least rapid. 

A comparison of the results from the last five experiments with letter 
series with those from the first five makes evident the effect of practice. 
In the last experiments also, the individual differences decreased. In 
the figure series the effect of practice in the last experiments was less 
apparent. This was, no doubt, partly due to the fact that the practice 
gained in the memorizing of letters facilitated the memorizing of the 
figures from the first. 

A glance at Table I will show a certain correspondence between the 
order of averages for letters and that for figures. Where changes have 
taken place, it is between those individuals whose averages were con- 
tiguous. Thus, 2 and 3, and 6 and 7 changed places, but there is no 



INDIVIDUAI, PSYCHOLOGY. 



361 



indication of a strongly developed partial memory for either letters or 
figures alone, on the part of any individual, which would make a radi- 
cal difference in the order of averages for the two kinds of experiments. 
The Table shows, in general, a slightly better memory for figures than 
for letters, with one marked exception (L. R.). Memory of figures 
might have been easier for several reasons. The practice mentioned 
above, gained from the similar memorizing of letters, the permanent 
practice gained in the course of education, and the fact that figures, in 
whatever order, make an intelligible combination, all would contribute 
to greater ease in learning figures. In the case that shows a decided 
divergence from this rule, the cause probably lies in the fact that 
the subject tried to rely upon her visual memory, and that, as there 
was necessarily a recurrence of some figures in a series of twelve, the 
repetition tended to fatigue the attention and confuse the mind of the 
subject in regard to the order of the characters. The decrease in the 
variety of form doubtless made the figure series harder to remember 
than the letters. The Table shows not only a lowering in the averages 
for memory of figures, but a lowering, in the case of every individual 
but the one above excepted, of the upper limit of fluctuation. 

The mode of memorizing the letters and figures used by the subjects,, 
as learned from observing them and also from their own reports, shows 
no coincidence between any particular memory type and any special 
ability or disability for memorizing. 

3. Memory of words, 

Tabi,e II. 



SUBJECTS. 


B. 


G. 


V. M. 


W. M. 


E. R. 


L. R. 


T. 


Av. per 
cent, of 
words re- 
produced 
in short 
series. 


^5) 
81. 1 


84.2 


84.1 


(6) 

77-5 


75.6 


82.2 


98.5 


Av. per 
cent, of 
words re- 
produced 
in recapit- 
ulation. 


(2) 

34-6 


(I) 
54.3 


(5) 
27.9 


(3) 
34.1 


(7) 
19.0 


(6) 

27-5 


(4) 
29.6 



Difference, 



(3) 


(I) 


(5) , 


(2) 


(6) 


(4) 


46.5 


29.9 


56.2 


43-4 


56.6 


54.7 



(7) 



68.9 



Table II gives on its first line the average percentage of words of 
short series which were immediately repeated by the subject after the 
series was read to him. The percentages represent for each individual 
the results obtained from four sets of seven short series each. The 
second line of the Table gives the average number of words mentioned 

JOURNAI, — 3 



362 SHARP : 

by each subject in recapitulating from memory as many as possible of 
the whole forty-nine words contained in a set of seven series of seven 
words each. The averages in this line were also made from four sets 
of such series. The third line of the Table gives the average percent- 
age of loss sustained by the memory in the time intervening between 
the repetition of the short series and the recapitulation. The first 
line, then, indicates individual differences in the immediate memory 
of verbal sounds ; the second line, individual differences in the memory 
of conservation ; and the last line, individual differences in loss. 

The words used in these tests were of varied character, comprising 
names of particular objects, qualities, virtues, general and abstract 
terms, in wholly disconnected order. The results showed no marked 
individual differences in the kind of words remembered. A fair pro- 
portion of the abstract terms were remembered by all the subjects. 
In general, the position of the words in the original series gave no clue 
to individual differences in the recapitulations. The words in the first 
and last parts of the sets were usually those best represented in the 
recapitulations of all the subjects. In the case of Z"., however, the 
tendency to remember best the words in the last short series was more 
marked than in the others. 

Table II shows in the first line an order among the individuals quite 
different from that observed in the previous Table. Z"., who there held 
the fourth place, here stands far higher than any other ; and V. M. 
and L. R. change from the sixth and seventh to the third and fourth 
places. This change is largely due to the fact that the remembered 
stimuli are auditory instead of visual. In the short series it was chiefly 
a succession of sounds that was remembered, as is attested by the fact 
that, where mistakes by substitution occurred, they were almost inva- 
riably of like-sounding words, such a.s flower ior floor, or furnish for 
furnace ; while, in the recapitulation, the errors are usually additional 
words suggested from analogy of sense, such as dog suggested by cat, 
cold by winter, and accident by horror. In the recapitulation, the 
order among the individuals returns very nearly to what it was in the 
first two tests. 

4. Memory of Sentences, (a) Memory of Short Sentences. 

Table III gives under four headings the average percentages obtained 
from twenty sentences under each of the five groups. The sentences 
increase in abstractness from Group I to Group V. The average length 
of sentences under each group is given at the foot of the Table. The 
exact meaning of the four headings under which the percentages are 
classified has been before stated. The complete results from which 
these averages are drawn show for a single subject, in a single group 
of similar sentences (similar in regard to abstractness), fluctuations 
larger than the differences in the averages of widely separated groups. 
This is evidence of the complexity of the factors which enter into these 
experiments. The differences in the length of the sentences (though 
these are not large), the differences in construction, the use of words 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 



363 





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which may chance to be somewhat unfamiliar to the subject, and, per- 
haps, more important than all, the varying subjective conditions under 
which the experiments are performed, produce results of more varying 
character than those which come from differences in the abstractness 
of the sentences. One page from the original results, chosen at ran- 
dom, will show the lack of constancy in the averages under any one 
group of sentences. 

Specimen Page of Original Results. 
SUBJKCT B, 



Sentences. 


% 

Verbal 
Accu- 
racy. 


% 
Order. 


% 

Sense. 


% 

Cer- 
tainty. 


Sentences. 


% 

Verbal 
Accu- 
racy. 


% 
Order. 


% 

Sense. 


% 

Cer- 
tainty. 


1, 111,22 

2, 111,23 

3, 111,23 

4, 111,24 

5, 111,24 

6, 111,24 

7, 111,24 

8, 111,25 

9, 111,25 

10, III, 25 

11, III, 25 

12, III, 25 

13, III, 25 

14, III, 26 

15, III, 26 

16, III, 26 

17, III, 27 

18, III, 28 

19, III, 28 

20, III, 28 


lOO.O 
83.1 

95-7 
87.5 
95-9 
62.9 

95-9 

84.0 
86.0 
80.0 
76.0 
79-3 

70.4 
82.2 

89.3 
92.9 


95.5 
lOO.O 

loo.o 
loo.o 
100. 

lOO.O 

loo.o 

lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 

96.0 

lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 

96.5 

lOO.O 
lOO.O 


lOO.O 

69.6 

lOO.O 

95-9 

lOO.O 

75.0 

lOO.O 

78.3 

lOO.O 

84.Q 
92.0 

lOO.O 

88.0 

lOO.O 

100.0 

84.7 

lOO.O 

96.5 

lOO.O 
lOO.O 


'93-2 
93-5 

91.4 

95-9 

93.8 

lOO.O 

98.0 
96.0 

98.0 
76.0 
90.0 
90.0 

84.7 
94.3 
98.1 

lOO.O 

92.9 
94.7 

lOO.O 


1, IV, 22 

2, IV, 22 

3, IV, 23 

4, IV, 23 

5, IV, 23 

6, IV, 23 

7, IV, 24 

8, IV, 24 

9, IV, 24 

10, IV, 25 

11, IV, 25 

12, IV, 25 

13, IV, 25 

14, IV, 25 

15, IV, 25 

16, IV, 25 

17, IV, 26 

18, IV, 26 

19, IV, 27 

20, IV, 28 


100. 

77-3 
95-7 
95-7 

lOO.O 

67.4 

83.4 
83.4 
83-4 

40.0 
56.0 
56.0 
96.0 

92.0 

80.0 

¥. 

77^8 
57.2 


lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 
lOO.O 
100. 
95.7 

95-9 

lOO.O 

95-9 
92.0 
96.0 
92.0 

lOO.O 
lOO.O 

96.0 

96.6 

lOO.O 
lOO.O 

963 
96.5 


lOO.O 

86.4 

lOO.O 

100. 
100. 

91.4 

87.5 
83.4 
87.5 

72.0 
76.0 

56.0 

100. 
92.0 
92.0 

lOO.O 

96.1 

96.1 

lOO.O 

85.8 


93.2 

95.5 

lOO.O 

97.9 
95.7 

93-5 
98.0 

93.8 

95.9 
74.0 
92.0 
76.0 
90.0 
96.0 
92.0 

lOO.O 

96.1 
91.2 


Average 


78.7 


99.1 


85.7 


90.2 




74.4 


97.6 


87.1 


88.7 



The results from sentences given to the Juniors show precisely the 
same characteristics, and hence will not be given here. 

Table III shows that the columns headed order of words and degree 
of certainty of the subject indicate small differences between the in- 
dividuals in these respects, although in the groups of the more abstract 
sentences individual differences in regard to the certainty of memory 
increase. Again, slighter individual differences are seen in sense than 
in verbal accuracy^ the former being very frequently preserved when the 
latter is at fault. Considering, then, the verbal accuracy alone, we 
find, except in the case of one subject, that there is no constant lower- 
ing of the percentages as the sentences become more abstract. Between 
contiguous groups of sentences, where differences in concreteness or 
abstractness are slight, the length of the sentences appears to have a 



INDIVIDUAI. PSYCHOI.OGY. 



365 



decided influence. For example, all subjects but one {B.) have a higher 
percentage of verbal accuracy for Group II, which averages shorter 
sentences, than for Group I ; while in Group III, whose sentences 
average longer than those of Group I, there is a lowering of the per- 
centages for verbal accuracy on the part of each subject. A just com- 
parison of the individual differences in the different groups should, 
however, take into consideration all of the four headings for marking. 
It may be made from Table IV, which gives the averages of the four per- 
centages for each individual under each group, as well as the general 
average from all the percentages of all the sentences. 

Tabi^E IV. 





I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


General. 




■ % 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


B. 


6 

91.7 


6 

91.4 


5 

90.9 


6 
86.9 


6 

85.6 


6 

89.2 


G. 


%6.8 


%7.8 


%5.8 


3 

94.7 


96.7 


2 

96.4 


V. M. 


3 

95.0 


3 
97.5 


2 
95-9 


2 

94.9 


4 

90.4 


3 
94.7 


W. M. 


92.8 


5 
93.7 


6 

90.6 


92.9 


3 

90.5 


5 
92.1 


E. R. 


'89.x 


7 
90.4 


84.0 


6 
86.9 


7 
85.2 


^,. 


Iv. R. 


4 

94 -o 


4 

95.9 


4 
92.3 


%9.8 


^88.4 


4 

92.0 


T. 


I 
98.2 


'98.5 


'96.7 


97.7 


2 
96.6 


'97-5 



In Table IV several things may be noted. Every individual (except 
B., whose I and II figures are practically equal,) attained his 
highest percentage in Group II, that which averages the shortest 
sentences. The position of the lowest percentages varies with the in- 
dividuals. For T. and W. M.y this percentage is practically the same 
in Group III, which averages the longest sentences, and in Group V, 
which contains the most abstract sentences : a slight difference in 
lowness being in favor of the latter. For E. R. the percentage shows 
that it is Group III which is most difficult, while for B., V. M., and L. 
R.y it is Group V. The remaining subject, G., has her lowest average, 
strange to say, in Group IV, which is intermediate both as to length 
and abstractness between III and V. For all subjects, however, the 
percentage in Group V is lower than in Group I, the amount of the 
difference varying in',the individuals as follows: ^.,6.1%; G^., 0.1%; 
V. M., 4.6%; W. M., 1.3%; E. R., 3.9%; L. R., 5.6%; and T., 1.6%. 



366 SHARP : 

In regard to the order in which the individuals stand in the different 
groups, as indicated by the small figures in the Table, it will be seen 
that no subject keeps the same order throughout. T. shows the greatest 
constancy. The subjects may, however, be grouped in a general way. 
7"., G., and V. M. hold the first three places ; W. M. and L. R. corn- 
next, and B. and E. R. last. This grouping agrees, too, with the order 
of results in the general averages. 

If the order seen in the last column of Table IV be compared with 
that observed in Tables I and II, — that is, the order of the subjects in 
regard to memory of letters, figures, and words, — it will be found that 
the former approaches most nearly the order in the immediate memory 
for words. In the test of sentences, as in that of words, the stimuli 
were auditory impressions, to be reproduced immediately after dicta- 
tion. In the case of sentences, however, the sense of the words had 
much more influence ; for although the words were read by the experi- 
menter very monotonously, as if they formed an unconnected list, and 
the interpretation was left to the subject, yet this, when made, could 
not but prove a material aid to the memory. For both these reasons 
the order is very different from that observed in the memory for letters 
and for figures, while only slightly different from that for the imme- 
diate memory for words. 

Considering the test in general, it may be said that, in sentences of 
the length here used, abstract sentences are very little more difficult 
than concrete for any of the subjects (including the Juniors). More- 
over, in regard to the availability of the test, the results shown are of 
too meager and indecisive a character to be at all in proportion to the 
time and labor necessary for the selection, classification and correction 
of the sentences. 

(b) Memory of Ivong Sentences. 

Table V gives in full the results, for the advanced students only, of 
the test of long sentences, where two sentences are given for each of 
the five degrees of abstractness. A word should be said in regard to 
the categories under which the marking is made. The number of 
words forgotten means only those which have entirely dropped out 
from the memory, those for which no substitution, even though inac- 
curate, is made. The number of groups retained embraces only those in 
which there is absolutely no change in verbal form. The 'number of 
synonyms' means the number of words in the original passage for 
which synonymous words or phrases are substituted. These substitu- 
tions may have a more contracted or expanded form than the original, 
but contractions are by far the more numerous. The fourth category, 
* number of substitutions,' means the number of words in the original 
passage which are represented in the reproduction, but not with suf- 
ficient accuracy to be classed as synonymous substitutions, plus the 
words in the reproductions which have no counterparts in the original 
passage. Substituted forms may be words which mean something 
different from the original, although related to it by analogy ; or they 



INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 



367 



may be whole sentences or parts of sentences which express fairly well 
the main idea of the original, while ignoring all minor points of sig- 
nificance, and with an entire change of syntax and verbal form ; or, 
again, they may consist in the addition of words not found in the 



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original. The latter kind is not of frequent occurrence. It will be 
seen that the Table does not represent the results precisely. It gives 
the number of words/br which substitutions are made, but not the 



368 



SHARP 



number of words substituted ; neither does it tell just how closely the 
latter conform to the former in meaning. The four categories em- 
ployed seem, however, to be those most practicable for marking the 
sentences employed in this test. 

Table V shows that here, as in the preceding test, there is a con- 
siderable lack of constancy in the results. The memory of long sen- 
tences requires a high degree of attention on the part of the subject, 
and any accidental subjective condition which may serve to distract 
him will produce an effect on the results which no consideration of the 
objective conditions can account for. The same individuals show 
often a wide discrepancy of results between two sentences of the same 
degree of abstractness and of almost the same length and number of 
words. The totals, however, show here, as in the test with short sen- 
tences, that the most abstract sentences are more diiEcult to remember 
than the concrete. The total number of groups retained steadily de- 
creases from I to V. The total number of words completely forgotten 
is considerably greater in V than in I, although in length the sentences 
do not greatly differ. In III, where the sentences are long, the number 
of words forgotten is almost as great as in V ; a result which also agrees 
well with that observed in the previous experiment. In general, the 
number of synonyms increases as the sentences become more abstract, 
and the number of substitutions increases in even larger proportion. 

TabIvE VI. 





Number of words 
forgotten in all 
the sentences 


Number of 
groups retained 
in all the sen- 
tences. 


Number of syn- 
onyms in all the 
sentences. 


Number of sub- 
stitutions in all 
the sentences. 




6. 


6. 


6. 


2. 


B. 


166 


70 


33 


121 


G. 


I. 

89 


134 


'■ 3S 


'■ .6 


V. M. 


'• 148 


3- 

79 


I. 

60 


'■ 66 


W. M. 


^ 179 


4- 

78 


'■ 58 


6. 

49 


B. R. 


4. 

124 


7. 

45 


4. 

40 


224 


I.. R. 


'■ 118 


'■ 78 


2. 

59 


3- 

94 


T. 


104 


2. 

93 


'■ ,8 


4. 

78 



Table VI shows a summary of results. It gives for each subject the 
total number of words forgotten, groups retained, etc. Individual 
characteristics here manifest themselves. For B. this characteristic 
is the large number of words completely forgotten, for G. the large 
number of groups accurately remembered, for E. R. the large number 
of substitutions ; while for the remaining subjects the number of words 
completely forgotten seems the most prominent characteristic. 



INDIVIDUAI. PSYCHOLOGY. 



369 



Several things are to be noted in regard to the order as indicated by 
the small figures. The order in the number of groups retained is the 
same as in the general averages for memory of sentences, with the 
exception that T. and G. have changed their places as i and 2 respect- 
ively. It has been seen that T. excelled when immediate auditory 
memory was called into play. Here the sentences are so much longer 
than the preceding ones that the auditory memory has been forced 
into greater subservience to the memory of ideas, and hence the loss 
of rank follows. That the order in columns i and 2 differs consider- 
ably arises from the fact that, where groups are not exactly retained, 
they need not all be dropped out, but may be expressed, with more or 
less exactness, in a different verbal form. It is to be noticed, also, 
that the order in column 4 and that in column 2 are almost precisely 
reversed ; that is, those who have retained the greatest number of 
groups have employed the least number of substitutions, and vice 
versa. All this throws some light upon the relative reliability of the 
memory in the subjects tested . G, shows not only the largest number 
of groups retained and smallest number of forgotten words, but also 
a preponderance of synonymous words over substitutions. W. M.y 
whose number of forgotten words is large, has also a preponderance 
of synonyms over substitutions. In all other cases the substitutions 
outnumber the synonyms. This is markedly the case for ^. i?. ; B. 
shows the same characteristic in a lesser, but still large, degree. Both 
kinds of changes in expression result from what Mm. Binet and Henri 
call ' verbal assimilation.' The subject gives to a passage, as it enters 
his mind, the stamp of his own personality, imparts to it his own 
habits of thought. 

5. Memory of Musical Sounds. 

The responses to the three questions : (i) Can you carry an air at 
all? (2) Can you reproduce an air after hearing it once? In your 
head? By whistling or singing? and (3) How accurate is your repro- 
duction (if it has been tested)? — have been tabulated for the advanced 
students as follows. 

TABI.E VII. 







Reproduce after single 








Carry 
Air' 


audition. 


Accurate? 








Mentally? 


Physically? 






B. 


Yes. 


Seldom. 


No. 


Not tested. 




G. 


Yes. 


No. 


No. 


Only after learning. 




V. M. 


Yes. 


Often. 


Partially. 


r Mental reproduction 
\ rate. Physical, not 


accu- 


W.M. 


Yes. 


Partially. 


Partially. 


Fairly accurate. 




E. R. 


Yes. 


Yes. 


Sometimes. 


Not tested. 




L. R. 


Yes. 


Partially. 


Partially. 


Yes. 




T. 


Yes. 


Partially. 


Partially. 


Yes. 





370 SHARP : 

The memory for musical sounds cannot be compared with that for 
letters, figures, etc., since no direct test was given for the former. 
The answers above tabulated are, moreover, not sufficiently precise to 
warrant any exact comparison between the individuals in regard to the 
readiness and accuracy of their musical memory. All that can be said 
is that B. and G. appear to fall within a different gr