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Full text of "American journal of archaeology"

THE JOUBNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



archaeological institute of ametica 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

VOLUME IV 
1900 





NORWOOD, MASS. 

PUBLISHED FOR THE INSTITUTE BY 

SCfje Wortoootr $ress 

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD. 



American Journal of Archaeology 

SECOND SERIES 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

Vol. IV, 1900 

(^tutorial llBoarD 

Editor-in-Chief 
JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

Associate Editors 

JAMES R. WHEELER (for the American School at Athens), 
Professor in Columbia University. 

ALLAN MARQUAND (for the American School in Rome), 
Professor in Princeton University. 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, 

Professor in Western Reserve University. 

HENRY W. HAYNES, 

Late Professor in the University of Vermont. 

Honorary Editors 

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE (President of the Institute) , 
Professor in Harvard University. 

THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR (Chairman of the Managing Com- 
mittee of the School at Athens) , 
Professor in Yale University. 

ELMER TRUESDELL MERRILL (Chairman of the Managing 
Committee of the School in Rome) , 
Professor in Wesleyan University. 

Business Manager 
CLARENCE H. YOUNG, 

Instructor in Columbia University. 

fEtiitorial Contributors 

Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor JAMES C. EGBERT, JR., 

Classical Archaeology. Roman Epigraphy. 

Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, 

Roman Archaeology. Numismatics. 

Professor JAMES M. PATON, 
Classical Archaeology. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Council of the Archaeological Institute of America ix 

Officers of the Affiliated Societies ....... xi 

Managing Committee of the School at Athens ..... xv 

Managing Committee of the School in Rome ..... xvii 

Managing Committee of the School in Palestine .... xx 

Foreign Honorary Members of the Institute ..... xxi 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA: 

The Work of the Archaeological Institute of America: An Address. 

CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 1 
Progress of American Archaeology during the Past Ten Years. 

HENRY W. HAYNES 17 
The Earliest Hellenic Art and Civilization and the Argive Heraeum. 

CHARLES WALDSTEIN 40 

The Dating of Some Didascalic Inscriptions. EDWARD CAPPS . 74 
A Signed Cylix by Duris, in Boston (Plate I). F. B. TARBELL . 183 
Two Windows in the Cathedral of Florence. ALLAN MARQUAND. 192 
Two Idols from Syria (Plates II, III). WILLIAM HAYES WARD . 289 
Report of an American Archaeological Expedition in Syria, 1899- 

1900. HOWARD CROSBY BUTLER 415 

Three Argive Lekythi in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston 

(Plates IV, V, VI). JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN . . . .440 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS: 

Pirene : I, Before the Excavations of 1899 ; II, At the Close of the 

Excavations of 1899. RUFUS B. RICHARDSON ... 204 
The Fountain of Glauce at Corinth (Plate VII). 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 457 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES IN ROME : 
On the Distinctio Versuum in the Manuscripts of Terence. 

MINTON WARREN 92 

Symmetry in Early Christian Relief Sculpture. C. L. MEADER . 126 

iii 



IV CONTENTS 

PAGB 

Prudentius Commentaries. JOHN M. BURNAM .... 293 
The Tribunal Aurelium. CHARLES JAMES O'CoxNOR . . .303 
The Codex Dunelmensis of Terence. CHARLES HOEING . . 310 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS AND DISCUSSIONS (July, 1899-June, 1900). 
H. N. FOWLER, Editor: 

NEWS OF RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 241 

Oriental, Classical, and Christian Archaeology: General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 241, 447 ; Egypt, 242, 478 ; Babylonia and Assyria, 
244 ; Babylonia, 481 ; Mesopotamia, 245 ; Armenia, 245 ; Pales- 
tine, 246; Palestine and Syria, 484; Arabia, 248; Cyprus, 248; 
Asia Minor, 249, 485 ; Thrace, 249 ; Russia, 250 ; Bulgaria, 250, 
486 ; Greece, 250, 488 ; Italy, 255, 493 ; Spain, 264, 503 ; Portugal, 
265; France, 265, 503; Austria-Hungary, 267, 505; Germany, 
267,504; Luxemburg, 268 ; England, 269; Great Britain, 505; 
Africa, 270, 508 ; United States, 275, 509. 

Byzantine and Mediaeval Art: Greece, 276; Italy, 276, 514; 
France, 278, 515 ; Germany, 279, 517 ; Belgium, 279, 517 ; Great 
Britain, 279 ; Russia, 280 ; Switzerland, 517 ; Africa, 517. 

Renaissance Art: Italy, 281, 517; France, 283, 518; Germany, 
283, 519; Belgium, 284, 519; England, 284, 520; United 
States, 284. 

SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES CHIEFLY IN PERIODICALS . . . 339 

Oriental, Classical, and Christian A rchaeology : General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 339, 521; Egypt, 340, 522; Babylonia, 341; Baby- 
lonia and Assyria, 523 ; Syria and Palestine, 341 ; Phoenicia 
and Syria, 523; Asia Minor, 342, 524; Greece, 343, 524 (Archi- 
tecture, 343, 524 ; Sculpture, 343, 526 ; Vases and Painting, 351, 
528; Inscriptions, 353, 532; Coins, 359; General and Miscella- 
neous, 359, 538) ; Italy, 362, 541 (Architecture, 541 ; Sculpture, 
362, 542 ; Vases and Painting, 363, 543 ; Inscriptions, 365 ; Coins, 
365, 545; General and Miscellaneous, 367, 545); Spain, 370; 
France, 371, 546 ; Africa, 374, 547 ; Christian Art, 548. 

Byzantine and Mediaeval Art: General and Miscellaneous, 376; 
Italy, 377, 550 ; France, 378, 550 ; Germany, 380, 552 ; Hungary, 
381 ; Holland, 381 ; Belgium, 552 ; England, 381, 553. 

Renaissance A rt: Italy, 382, 553; France, 384, 557; Germany, 
384, 559; Holland, 385, 558; Belgium, 558; England, 385. 



CONTENTS V 

PAOK 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL BOOKS (1899). 

H. N. FOWLER, Editor 387 

General and Miscellaneous . 387 

Egyptian Archaeology ,. . . . 392 

Oriental Archaeology 394 

Classical Archaeology . . . . , . . . . 395 

Greek and Roman .......... 395 

Greek (I, General and Miscellaneous, 399 ; II, Architecture, 402 ; 
III, Sculpture, 402 ; IV, Vases and Painting, 403 ; V, Inscrip- 
tions, 403 ; VI, Coins, 403) 399 

Roman (I, General and Miscellaneous, 404 ; II, Architecture, 408 ; 
III, Sculpture, 408 ; IV, Vases and Painting, 408 ; V, Inscrip- 
tions, 408 ; VI, Coins, 409) 404 

Christian Art 409 

(I, General and Miscellaneous, 409 ; II, Byzantine and Mediaeval, 
411; III, Renaissance, 413.) 

Abbreviations used in the News, Discussions, and Bibliography . . 286 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMER- 
ICA, NEW HAVEN, December 27-29, 1899 . . . . . 149 

PROCEEDINGS, WITH TITLES AND BRIEF ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 

AND ADDRESSES: 

The Rise of Drama. W. C. LAWTON .... ;> . 149 
The Stage Entrances of the Small Theatre at Pompeii. F. W. KELSEY 150 
The Story of Alcestis in Ancient Literature and Art. J. M. PATON 160 
On Some Minor Points in Homeric Archaeology. F. CARTER . . 151 
The Inscription on the East Architrave of the Parthenon. 

E. P. ANDREWS 152 

A New Class of Greek Geometric Pottery. T. W. HEERMANCE . 152 
The Excavations of the American School at Athens on the Site of An- 
cient Corinth. R. B. RICHARDSON 152 

The Work of the Archaeological Institute of America. C. E. NORTON 153 
Some Points of Museum Policy. MRS. SARA Y. STEVENSON . . 153 
Some Recent Acquisitions of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

EDWARD ROBINSON 155 
The Proposed Excavation of the Babylonian Ruin Mugheir, or Ur of 

the Chaldees, the Birthplace of 'Abraham. E. J. BANKS . . 155 

Excavations at Mugheir. J. P. PETERS 156 

Field Report of the Babylonian Expedition conducted by the Baby- 
lonian Committee of the Department of Archaeology and Palae- 
ontology of the University of Pennsylvania. T. WILLIAMS . 157 
The Harvard Semitic Museum. D. G. LYON 160 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGB 

A Signed Cylix by Duris in Washington, D.C. F. B. TARBELL . 161 

Terracottas from the Argive Heraeum. G. H. CHASE . . . 161 

The Flowers of Greece. FLORENCE S. TUCKERMAN . . . 162 

The Death of Argos on a Red-figure Hydria. J. C. HOPPIN . . 162 

Geometric Vases from Corinth. MAY LOUISE NICHOLS . . . 163 

An Archaic Inscription from Cleonae. S. O. DICKERMAN . . 164 

American Archaeology. C. P. BOWDITCH 164 

Recent Progress in American Archaeology. H. W. HAYNES . . 165 

Archaeological Discoveries in Ohio. G. F. WRIGHT . . . 165 
Ancient Pueblos of Chaco Canon. F. W. PUTNAM . . . .166 

Two Windows in the Cathedral of Florence. A. MARQUAND . . 166 

The Cappadocian Troglodytes. J. R. S. STERRETT . . . . 167 

Practical Hints on Ancient Greek Dressmaking. C. H. YOUNG . 167 

Recent Excavations in the Roman Forum. TRACY PECK . . 168 

The Hero Physician. W. W. GOODWIN 168 

The Goddesses in Primitive Babylonian Art. W. H. WARD . . 169 

Notes on the So-called Capuchin Plan of Athens. J. R. WHEELER . 170 

An Unpublished Survey of the Pisa Cathedral. W. H. GOODYEAR . 170 
Two Monuments of Imperial Rome on the Arch at Beneventum. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 172 

The Lighting of the so-called Theseum. W. N. BATES . . . 174 

A Philosopher's Attitude toward Art. C. L. BROWNSON . . . 174 

On the Supplementary Signs of the Greek Alphabet. M. L. EARLE . 175 

Archaeological Notes on Plato. G. B. HUSSEY .... 176 
The Theatre at Sicyon. ANDREW FOSSUM . . . . .176 

The New Connoisseurship. WILLIAM RANKIN, 2d . . . . 177 

Hermes Discobolus ? EDMUND VON MACH ..... 178 

Nereids in Modern Greece. DAPHNE KALOPOTHAKES . . . 179 
The Relation between Classical and Later Textile Design, and the 

Early Mediaeval Sculpture. WALTER LOWRIE .... 179 

The Dating of Some Didascalic Inscriptions. EDWARD CAPPS . 180 

Reliefs on Kiovi<ricot. SUSAN BRALEY FRANKLIN .... 181 

Titles of Papers withdrawn 181 

Notice of the Meeting in 1900 182 



PLATES 



PAGE 

I. Cylix by Duris, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts . . . 183 

II. Idol from Syria : Male .289 

III. Idol from Syria : Female 289 

IV. Argive Lekythos in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts : No. I . . 440 
V. Argive Lekythos in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts : No. II . 440 

VI. Argive Lekythos in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts : No. Ill . 440 

VII. The Fountain of Glauce at Corinth : Ground Plan . 457 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



Christian Sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum, Rome .... 129 

Christian Sarcophagus in S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna . . . 142 

Cylix by Duris, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts : Interior . . . 185 

Cylix by Duris, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts : Exterior . . . 188 

Cylix by Duris, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts: Exterior . . . 189 

A Window in Florence : the Coronation of the Virgin by Donatello . . 194 

A Window in Florence : the Resurrection by Ghiberti .... 198 

Pirene : Watercourses 206 

Pirene : Ground Plan 209 

Pirene : Restoration of First Fa$ade . . . . . . . .210 

Pirene : Ionic Order at Back of Chamber ....... 212 

Pirene : Detail of Mouldings . 213 

Pirene : Restoration of Two-story Poros Facade 214 

Quadrangle before Pirene, as excavated in 1898 ...... 218 

Pirene : Semicircular Building in Front of Pirene 219 

Pirene : Byzantine Facade 220 

Pirene : Ground Plan (1899) 228 

Pirene : Fa$ade as Excavated (1899) 230 



Vlll ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGK 

Quadrangle Fronting Pirene : from the Northeast 232 

Outside the West Entrance to Pirene .233 

Base of the Statue of Regilla at Corinth 236 

Sketch-plan of Sites identified by the American Excavations at Corinth . 458 
The Fountain of Glauce : seen to the West ...... 461 

The Fountain of Glauce : Front View as Excavated . . . ... 463 

The Fountain of Glauce : from the Southwest Corner .... 465 

Fa9ade of Glauce : restored 467 

Kiepert's Plan of Corinth 472 

Linear Script from Crete 490 

Pictographic Script from Crete . . . . . . . . .491 



archaeological 3lK$titute of america 



COUNCIL OF THE INSTITUTE 

1900-1901 



President 

PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., Harvard Uni- 
versity, of the Boston Society. 

Honorary Presidents 

PROFESSOR CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, LITT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Harvard 

University, of the Boston Society. 

PRESIDENT SETH LOW, LL.D., Columbia University, of the New York 
Society. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. CHARLES P. BOWDITCH, A.M., Boston, of the Boston Society. 

MR. C. C. CUTLER, A.B., New York, of the New York Society. 

PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN, LL.D., Johns Hopkins University, Presi- 
dent of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D., University of Michigan, President 
of the Detroit Society. 

PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D., Yale University, of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

Secretary 

MR. CLARENCE H. YOUNG, PH.D., 312, West 88th Street, New York, of the 
New York Society. 

Treasurer 

MR. JAMES H. HYDE, A.B?, 120, Broadway, New York, of the New York 
Society. 

Editor-in-Chief of the Journal 

PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, A.M., Harvard University, of the Bos- 
ton Society. 

Other Members of the Council 

PROFESSOR FRANK COLE BABBITT, PH.D., Trinity College, of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

MR. SELDEN BACON, A.M., LL.B., New York, of the Wisconsin Society. 

HON. SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D., Yale University, President of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

ix 



X ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

PROFESSOR GEORGE A. BARTON, PH.D., Bryn Mawr College, of the Penn- 
sylvania Society. 

MR. GEORGE W. BATES, A.M., Detroit, of the Detroit Society. 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., University of Michigan, of 
the Detroit Society. 

MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B., Cleveland, President of the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., Western Reserve University, of 
the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D., Princeton Univer- 
sity, of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Harvard 
University, of the Boston Society. 

MR. CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON, LL.D., Chicago, of the Chicago Society. 

MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., Boston, of the Boston Society. 

HON. FRANKLIN MACVEAGH, A.B., LL.B., Chicago, of the Chicago So- 
ciety. 

MR. THEODORE MARBURG, Baltimore, of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D., Princeton University, of 
the New York Society. 

Miss ELLEN F. MASON, Boston, of the Boston Society. 

PROFESSOR ELMER TRUESDELL MERRILL, A.M., Wesleyan University, 
of the Connecticut Society. 

MRS. ALICE FREEMAN PALMER, L.H.D., LL.D., Cambridge, of the Boston 
Society. 

PROFESSOR BERNADOTTE PERRIN, PH.D., LL.D., Yale University, of the 
Connecticut Society. 

REV. JOHN P. PETERS, PH.D., Sc.D., New York, of the New York Society. 

MR. FREDERIC J. DE PEYSTER, A.M., LL.B., New York, of the New- 
York Society. 

PROFESSOR JOHN PICKARD, PH.D., University of Missouri, President of the 
Missouri Society. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL BALL PLATNER, PH.D., Western Reserve University,. 
of the Cleveland Society. 

MR. EDWARD ROBINSON, A.B., Boston, of the Boston Society. 

MR. JULIUS SACHS, PH.D., New York, President of the New York Society. 

PROFESSOR M. S. SLAUGHTER, PH.D., University of Wisconsin, President of 
the Wisconsin Society. 

MRS. FREDERIC B. STEVENS, Detroit, of the Detroit Society. 

MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Sc.D., Philadelphia, President of the Penn- 
sylvania Society. 

PROFESSOR FRANK B. TARBELL, PH.D., University of Chicago, President 
of the Chicago Society. 

PROFESSOR J. HENRY THAYER, D.D., Lixx.D., Harvard University, of the 
Boston Society. 

PROFESSOR FITZ GERALD TISDALL, PH.D., College of the City of New- 
York, of the New York Society. 

PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D., Columbia University, of the New- 
York Society. 

MRS. H. WHITMAN, Boston, President of the Boston Society. 



Societies 
of tije Archaeological 
Institute of America 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETIES 

1900-1901 



BOSTON SOCIETY 

President 
MRS. H. WHITMAN. 

Vice-President 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Secretary 
MR. ERNEST JACKSON, A.M. 

Treasurer 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B. 



NEW YORK SOCIETY 

President 
DR. JULIUS SACHS. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. MORRIS K. JESUP. 

RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, S.T.D., LL.D. 

MR. HORACE WHITE, LL.D. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR NELSON G. McCREA. 

Treasurer 

MR. EDWARD L. TILTON. 
xi 



xii ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

BALTIMORE SOCIETY 

President 
PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. MENDES COHEN. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D. 
PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D. 
MR. WLLLIAM W. SPENCE. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR KIRBY F. SMITH, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. EDGAR G. MILLER. 



PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY 

President 
MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON^ Sc.D. 

Vice-Presidents 
MR. CLARENCE H. CLARK. 
DR. TALCOTT WILLIAMS. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MR. WILLIAM N. BATES, PH.D. 



CHICAGO SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR FRANK BIGELOW TARBELL, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 
MR. JOHN J. GLESSNER. 
HON. FRANKLIN MACVEAGH, A.B., LL.B. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR FRANK F. ABBOTT, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR EDWARD CAPPS, PH.D. 



OFFICERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES xiii 

DETROIT SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

HON. DEXTER M. FERRY. 
MR. JAMES E. SCRIPPS. 
DR. EDWIN S. SHERRILL. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MR. GEORGE W. BATES, A.M. 



WISCONSIN SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR MOSES STEPHEN SLAUGHTER, Pn.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss ALICE G. CHAPMAN. 
PROFESSOR ALEXANDER KERR, A.M. 
MRS. WAYNE RAMSAY. 
MR. BREESE J. STEVENS. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR CHARLES FORSTER SMITH, Pn.D. 



CLEVELAND SOCIETY 

President 
MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B. 

Vice-President 
MR. MALCOLM S. GREENOUGH, A.B. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HAROLD NORTH FOWLER, Pn.D. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

CONNECTICUT SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR TRACY PECK, A.M. 

PROFESSOR JAMES C. VAN BENSCHOTEN, LL.D. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HORATIO M. REYNOLDS, A.M. 



MISSOURI SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR JOHN PICKARD, PH.D. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR J. C. JONES, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR W. E. GRUBE, A.M. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1900-1901 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D., of Yale University. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D., of Columbia University. 

Treasurer 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., of Boston. 

PROFESSOR H. M. BAIRD, D.D., LL.D., of New York University. 

PROFESSOR A. C. CHAPIN, A.M., of Wellesley College. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD B. CLAPP, PH.D., of the University of California. 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., of the University of 
Michigan. 

PROFESSOR EDGAR A. EMENS, A.M., of Syracuse University. 

PROFESSOR 0. M. FERNALD, A.M., of Williams College. 

PROFESSOR ABRAHAM L. FULLER, PH.D., of Adelbert College of West- 
ern Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR HENRY GIBBONS, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Johns 
Hopkins University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Harvard 
University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM GARDNER HALE, LL.D., of the University of Chi- 
cago. 

PROFESSOR ALBERT HARKNESS, PH.D., LL.D., of Brown University. 

MR. JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, PH.D., of Bryn Mawr College. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE E. HOWES, PH.D., of the University of Vermont. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, LITT.D., of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR ABBY LEACH, A.M., of Vassar College. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE DANA LORD, A.M., of Dartmouth College. 

Miss ELLEN F. MASON, of Boston. 

PROFESSOR ELMER TRUESDELL MERRILL, A.M. (ex officio, as Chairman 
of the Managing Committee of the School in Rome), of Wesleyan University. 

xv 



xvi AMERICAN SCHOOL AT ATHENS 

PROFESSOR CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, Lixx.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Har- 
vard University. 

PROFESSOR BERNADOTTE PERRIN, PH.D., LL.D., of Yale University. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD DELAVAN PERRY, PH.D., of Columbia University. 

MR. FREDERIC J. DE PEYSTER, A.M., LL.B., of New York. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM CAREY POLAND, A.M., of Brown University. 

PROFESSOR LOUISE F. RANDOLPH, of Mt. Holyoke College. 

PROFESSOR RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, PH.D. (ex officio, as Director of the 
School), of Athens. 

PROFESSOR HERBERT WEIR SMYTH, PH.D., of Bryn Mawr College. 

PROFESSOR J. R. SITLINGTON STERRETT, PH.D., of Amherst College. 

PROFESSOR FRANK B. TARBELL, PH.D., of the University of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR FITZ GERALD TISDALL, PH.D., of the College of the City of 
New York. 

PROFESSOR HENRY M. TYLER, A.M., of Smith College. 

PROFESSOR JAMES C. VAN BENSCHOTEN, LL.D., of Wesleyan University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D., of Columbia University. 

PRESIDENT BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER, PH.D., LL.D., of the University 
of California. 

PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., Lrrr.D. (ex officio, as 
President of the Institute) , of Harvard University. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D., of Princeton University. 

PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, A.M. (ex officio, as Editor-in-Chief 
of the Journal of the Institute), of Harvard University. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
in i&ome 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1900-1901 



Chairman 

PROFESSOR ELMER TRUESDELL MERRILL, A.M., of Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. 

Secretary 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL BALL PLATNER, PH.D., of Western Reserve Univer- 
sity. 

Treasurer 

MR. C. C. CUTLER, A.B., of New York. 

MRS. WILLIAM F. ALLEN, of Madison. 

PROFESSOR SIDNEY G. ASHMORE, L.H.D., of Union University. 
PROFESSOR G. E. BARBER, A.M., of the University of Nebraska. 
PROFESSOR H. J. BARTON, A.M., of the University of Illinois. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES E. BENNETT, A.B., of Cornell University. 
MRS. EMMONS ELAINE, of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR D. BONB RIGHT, LL.D., of Northwestern University. 
PROFESSOR J. EVERETT BRADY, PH.D., of Smith College. 
MR. WILLIAM H. BUCKLER, of Baltimore. 

PROFESSOR HENRY F. BURTON, A.M., of the University of Rochester. 
PROFESSOR J. S. CLARK, A.B., of the University of Minnesota. 
RT. REV. MGR. THOMAS J. CONATY, D.D., Rector of the Catholic Univer- 
sity of America. 

MR. FREDERIC R. COUDERT, J.U.D., LL.D., of New York. 
PROFESSOR W. L. COWLES, A.M., of Amherst College. 
PROFESSOR A. N. CURRIER, LL.D., of the State University of Iowa. 
HON. HORACE DAVIS, LL.D., of San Francisco. 
PROFESSOR S. C. DERBY, A.M., of the Ohio State University. 
PROFESSOR JAMES H. DILLARD, Lrrr.D., of Tulane University. 
RT. REV. WILLIAM C. DOANE, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of Albany. 
PROFESSOR JAMES C. EGBERT, JR., PH.D., of Columbia University. 
MR. LOUIS R. EHRICH, A.M., of Colorado Springs. 
PROFESSOR ALFRED EMERSON, PH.D., of the University of California. 
PROFESSOR HENRY P. EMERSON, A.M., of Buffalo. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., of Western Reserve University. 
PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D., of Princeton University. 



xviii AMERICAN SCHOOL IN ROME 

His EMINENCE CARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS, of Baltimore. 

MR. SAMUEL S. GREEN, A.M., of Worcester. 

PROFESSOR ALFRED GUDEMAN, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM GARDNER HALE, LL.D., of the University of 

Chicago. 

PROFESSOR ALBERT G. HARKNESS, A.M., of Brown University. 
PROFESSOR KARL POMEROY HARRINGTON, A.M., of the University of 

Maine. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL HART, D.D., D.C.L., of the Berkeley Divinity School. 
PROFESSOR ADELINE BELLE HA WES, A.M., of Wellesley College. 
PROFESSOR G. L. HENDRICKSON, A.B., of the University of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, PH.D., LL.D., of the College of 

the City of New York. 

PROFESSOR JOHN H. HEWITT, LL.D., of Williams College. 
RABBI EMIL G. HIRSCH, PH.D., LL.D., of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. HOUGHTON, A.M., of Bowdoin College. 
MR. CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON, LL.D., of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR GEORGE E. JACKSON, A.M., of Washington University. 
PROFESSOR H. W. JOHNSTON, PH.D., of the Indiana University. 
PROFESSOR J. C. JONES, PH.D., of the University of Missouri. 
RT. REV. MGR. J. J. KEANE, D.D., Archbishop of Damascus. 
PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D. (Professor in the School), of the 

University of Michigan. 

CHANCELLOR J. H. KIRKLAND, PH.D., of Vanderbilt University. 
HON. ERNEST B. KRUTTSCHNITT, A.M., of New Orleans, La. 
COMMENDATORE PROFESSORE RODOLFO LANCIANI, of the University of Rome. 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., of Boston. 
REV. CHARLES STANLEY LESTER, D.D., of Milwaukee. 
PROFESSOR T. B. LINDSAY, PH.D., of Boston University. 
PROFESSOR GONZALEZ LODGE, PH.D., of the Teachers' College, New York 

City. 

PROFESSOR JOHN K. LORD, PH.D., of Dartmouth College. 
PROFESSOR ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D., of Princeton University. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. MERRILL, PH.D., L.H.D., of the University of 

California. 

PROFESSOR J. LEVERETT MOORE, PH.D., of Vassar College. 
REV. R. J. NEVIN, D.D., Rector of the American Church in Rome. 
PROFESSOR RICHARD NORTON, A.B. (ex officio, as Director of the School), 

Rome, Italy. 

RT. REV. MGR. O'CONNELL, Rector of the Collegio Americano in Rome. 
PROFESSOR E. M. PEASE, PH.D., of Leland Stanford Jr. University. 
PROFESSOR TRACY PECK, A.M., of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR W. E. PETERS, LL.D., of the University of Virginia. 
PROFESSOR EDWIN POST, PH.D., of De Pauw University. 
RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of New York. 
HON. WILLIAM POTTER, of Chestnut Hill. 

PROFESSOR JOHN C. ROLFE, PH.D., of the University of Michigan. 
HON. J. G. SCHMIDLAPP, of Cincinnati. 
PROFESSOR EDWIN R. A. SELIGMAN, LL.B., PH.D., of Columbia University. 



MANAGING COMMITTEE xix 

PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of 

the Managing Committee of the School at Athens), of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 
PROFESSOR M. S. SLAUGHTER, PH.D., of the University of Wisconsin. 
PROFESSOR FRANK SMALLEY, PH.D., of Syracuse University. 
PROFESSOR CLEMENT L. SMITH, LL.D., of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR KIRBY F. SMITH, PH.D., of Johns Hopkins University. 
PROFESSOR W. O. SPROULL, PH.D., LL.D., L.H.D., of Cincinnati. 
MR. GEORGE R. STETSON, of Washington. 
MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Sc.D., of Philadelphia. 
MR. WALDO STORY, A.M., of Rome. 

PROFESSOR LEWIS STUART, A.M., of Lake Forest University. 
PROFESSOR HENRY VAN DYKE, D.D., of Princeton University. 
COMMENDATORE PROFESSORS ADOLFO VENTURI, Director-General of the 

National Galleries of Italy. 

REV. MARVIN R. VINCENT, D.D., of the Union Theological Seminary. 
PROFESSOR ARTHUR T. WALKER, A.M., of the University of Kansas. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR MINTON WARREN, PH.D., LL.D., of Harvard University. 
Hox. H. B. WENZEL, A.B., LL.B., of St. Paul. 

PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D., of Princeton University. 
PROFESSOR JAMES. R. WHEELER, PH.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., Lirr.D. (ex officio, 

as President of the Institute), of Harvard University. 
MRS. HENRY WHITMAN, of Boston. 

VICE-CHANCELLOR B. L. WIGGINS, A.M., of the University of the South. 
PROFESSOR MARY G. WILLIAMS, PH.D., of Mt. Holyoke College. 
PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, A.M. (ex officio, as Editor-in-Chief of 

the Journal of the Institute), of Harvard University. 



American School 
of rtental Studies 
in Palestine 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1900-1901 



Chairman 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH HENRY THAYER, D.D., Lirr.D., of Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

PROFESSOR H. G. MITCHELL, PH.D., D.D., of Boston University. 

REV. JOHN P. PETERS, PH.D., Sc.D., of New York City. 

PROFESSOR J. HENRY THAYER, D.D., LITT.D., of Harvard University. 

REV. WILLIAM HAYES WARD, D.D., LL.D., of New York City. 

PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., Lirr.D. (ex officio, 

as President of the Institute), of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR THEODORE F. WRIGHT, PH.D., of Cambridge. 



xx 



Srcljaeological 
Institute 
of America 



FOREIGN HONORARY MEMBERS 



PROFESSOR ALEXANDER CONZE, PH.D., German Imperial Archaeological 
Institute, Berlin. 

PROFESSOR WILHELM DORPFELD, PH.D., LL.D., German Imperial Archaeo- 
logical Institute, Athens. 

PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, Lixx.D., University of Oxford. 

SIR RICHARD JEBB, Lirr.D., D.C.L., LL.D., M.P., University of Cam- 
bridge. 

PROFESSOR GASTON MASPERO, D.C.L., College de France, Paris. 
PROFESSOR THEODOR MOMMSEN, PH.D., J.U.D., University of Berlin. 



xxi 



Institute 
of America 



THE WORK OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA: 

AN ADDRESS 

BY CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

AT THE OPENING OF THE FIRST GENERAL MEETING OF THE 
INSTITUTE, HELD AT NEW HAVEN, DECEMBER 27-29, 1899 



THE first general meeting of the Archaeological Institute 
of America is a fitting celebration of the coming of age of the 
Institute. Twenty-one years will be complete next spring since 
its foundation. The hopes of its founders have not been dis- 
appointed, and this meeting is the assurance that what it has 
up to this time accomplished is but the promise of still better 
achievements. 

During the middle half of the century which is now so near 
its close there had been . numerous contributions, excellent in 
their kind, by American scholars to the study of the classics 
and of ancient history. In the record of that study in our 
colleges the names of Woolsey, Felton, Wheeler, Edwards, 
Sears, and others, will hold an honorable place. They kept 
the fires of classical learning alive; but the materials of 
the flame were supplied by the labor of foreign scholars. 
The chief, if not the only, American contributions of impor- 
tance to the general stock of this learning I mean of im- 
portance to students in other countries as well as in our own 
were made by scholars from abroad who had found a home 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 1 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



2 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

in America. I need hardly recall to your memory the in- 
valuable Glossary of Later and Byzantine Greek, compiled by 
that extraordinary and interesting man, Professor Sophocles, 
and the learned treatise on the Age of Petronius Arbiter by 
that fine scholar, Professor Charles Beck. This lack of original 
work was not the fault of our honored predecessors. It was 
the inevitable consequence of the conditions of learning and 
education in America. Our masters made good use of the 
means which they possessed, but the means were inadequate 
to supply the needs of scholarship. Our libraries were insuf- 
ficiently stocked with the older books essential for thorough in- 
vestigations in any department of learning, and not one of them 
possessed the means of securing a regular provision of those 
new books which might enable the student at home to keep up 
with the progress of learning from year to year in other lands. 
There was not a single museum containing a collection of casts 
from which even an imperfect knowledge of the historic devel- 
opment of ancient art, or the character even of its chief works, 
could be acquired. 

These are familiar facts, but it is perhaps worth while, under 
the fortunate conditions of the present day, to recall that this 
poverty lasted well beyond the middle of the century, quite 
within the memory of the elder of us who are present here 
to-night, and who rejoice in the larger opportunities vouchsafed 
to the younger generation than those which they themselves 
enjoyed in their youth. 

Moreover, America was having no share in the vast and 
stimulating increase of knowledge of early times that was re- 
sulting from the explorations of English, Italian, French, and 
German investigators, which were rapidly changing the face 
of the ancient world, and modifying all conceptions of its 
history. 

Archaeology, in the sense of an exact science of antiquities 
or of the ancient works of man, was hardly recognized at the 
beginning of the century. Its distinctive aims and methods as 
a comprehensive study of the material remains of man's activity 



THE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 3 

in the early stages of his development, and its importance, not 
only in extending the knowledge of man and his works, but in 
enlarging the limits and increasing the exactitude of the his- 
toric record of human life, have been but gradually understood 
and acknowledged as the century has advanced. Reckoned by 
the period of man's unrecorded existence, written history dates 
only from yesterday, and its earliest and longest parts are full 
of gaps and still fuller of errors. But as geology has within a 
hundred years indefinitely extended our conceptions of the age 
of the earth on which we live, so archaeology, dealing with 
what Livy calls the incorrupta rerum gestarum monumenta, has 
indefinitely lengthened our view of human life, and thrown 
back the date of human activity into a past hardly dreamed of 
by our ancestors. " The night of time far surpasseth the day," 
said Sir Thomas Browne, and it is the task of archaeology to 
light up some parts of this long night with its torch, which 
burns ever with a clearer flame with each advancing step into 
the darkness. At the beginning of the century Egypt lay 
buried under her sands, Babylon and Nineveh were entombed 
in their sepulchres of clay, Greece was in great part a terra 
incognita, and Rome had hidden her ancient self under the 
accumulated rubbish of wanton destruction and gross neglect. 
And now, at the end of the century, Egypt stands revealed as 
never before; not even her own people at any time knew the 
sequence of her own history, or the range and succession of her 
mighty monuments, so well as we are acquainted with them. 
Babylon, " that great city," of which the angel of the Revela- 
tion declared it "shall be found no more at all," and Nine- 
veh, " that rejoicing city which dwelt carelessly," but which 
had become " a place for beasts to lie down in," have ascended 
from the earth, like mighty ghosts rising from their tombs, and 
yielding up their secrets to us, the empires of Babylonia and 
Assyria once more take their due place in the pathetic story of 
the human race. The image of ancient Rome has been shaped 
out for us in the true grandeur of its long-concealed aspect, 
but, more than all, the beauty of the Greece of her own poets 



4 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

and historians has been restored to us, while a still older, and 
hardly less marvellous Greece, of which they had only dim 
and confused traditions, has been revealed to us, indefinitely 
extending the luminous horizon of her past. 

In all this work of such surpassing interest, of such unex- 
pected revelations, America had, as I have said, no part. And 
yet here was a field in which she might labor on equal foot- 
ing with others, and in which she might do her part in the 
common interest of learning. Here she might at least do some- 
thing by original discovery to repay her exceeding debt to the 
scholars and investigators of the Old World. 

It was with this end prominently in view that our Institute 
was founded, and its first undertaking on a considerable scale, 
the investigation of the remains of Assos (Juring the years 
1881-83, justified the intentions and fulfilled the hopes of its 
founders. For these ruins, which had never previously been 
carefully studied, even those of the famous temple being but 
imperfectly described, proved to be of extraordinary variety 
and novelty of interest, and their thorough exploration, con- 
ducted with admirable energy and intelligence by the young 
men in charge of the work, gradually disclosed all the more im- 
portant civic structures of a Greek city in greater number and 
more varied character than had elsewhere been found. New 
aspects of Greek urban life were revealed and new applications 
of the principles of Greek architecture to public buildings of 
unusual and complicated construction. The large additions 
to knowledge of Greek antiquity made by this expedition have 
not as yet, owing to unfortunate circumstances, been fully 
published. A further publication of them is now in view, 
which, in addition to the partial reports already issued, will 
show that the investigations at Assos deserve a place among 
the notable achievements of archaeology during the century. 

But from the outset it was recognized by our Institute 
that archaeology, however important it might be within its 
limits as the science of the material remains of man's activity 
in ancient times, was but a branch of the study of antiquity ; 



TEE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 5 

that it could not be properly pursued without corresponding 
pursuit of the other great branch of the study, that of the 
written monuments of the thought of men in past times ; that 
archaeology and ancient languages and literature formed a 
single indivisible whole, and that for the attainment of the 
proper ends of either part all must be associated. The hope 
was therefore expressed in the first of the Annual Reports of 
the Executive Committee that a school might be established in 
Athens to afford to young American scholars similar advan- 
tages to those offered to their pupils by the French and Ger- 
man schools already existing there. At the annual meeting 
of the next year, 1881, a committee was appointed to devise a 
plan for the establishment at Athens of a school with the com- 
prehensive designation of a School of Classical Studies, and a 
year later it was announced that not only had a plan been 
devised, but that successful measures had been adopted for 
carrying it out, and that in the autumn of 1882 the School 
would be opened in charge of one of the most eminent of 
American scholars. How well that School has done its work, 
in spite of poverty of means, and of the difficulties naturally 
inherent in the inception of an institution which was of neces- 
sity at first largely experimental, and how great is the debt 
which America already owes to it in the raising of the standard 
of American classical scholarship, are known to all of you. 

But it is not to the Old World alone that the efforts of the 
Institute were early directed. The study of the aboriginal life 
of the American continent has been also its concern. This 
study is not of merely local interest. The larger general 
questions which are included in it are the same as those which 
concern the prehistoric periods of man's life in whatever 
regions of the world, while the actual conditions of the exist- 
ing remnants of the tribes who occupied the continent in 
ancient times afford peculiar opportunities for ascertaining 
facts which illustrate, nay, which in a sort actually represent, 
the antiquity of mankind. In this field the work of the Insti- 
tute has been also noteworthy. Contemporaneously with its 



6 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

expedition to Assos, was its employment of one of the most 
competent and accomplished of American archaeologists in the 
study of the life of the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico, and for 
a time in the investigation of some of the most important monu- 
ments in Mexico. The reports of his work by Mr. Bandelier, 
published by the Institute, take their place among the most 
valuable contributions to the progress of archaeology in 
America. 

Such were the beginnings of the Institute. It had scanty 
funds. It had often to live by faith ; but its appeals for help 
to carry out its undertakings were met with response sufficient 
for the need. During later years it has maintained but a single 
expedition of its own, a modest expedition to Crete, in charge 
of Professor Halbherr, which added a considerable body of not 
unimportant inscriptions to those already known, and shed much 
light on civilization and art in this island from the earliest times ; 
the complete publication of the results of this expedition is 
looked for with interest by all students of the past. By giving 
up independent expeditions the Institute has been enabled to 
supply the means for work carried on by the School at Athens, 
to contribute to the support of the American Journal of Archae- 
ology, to maintain scholarships at the School at Athens, and 
recently also scholarships at the School at Rome, established 
under its auspices, and with similar aims to those of the School 
at Athens. To these Schools of Classical Studies it hopes that 
a School of Biblical Studies, with its seat at Jerusalem, may 
soon be added. 

The School at Athens, which was its creation, has proved 
its efficient instrument. No field offers a more precious har- 
vest to the archaeologist than that which stretches immedi- 
ately before the door of the School, inviting the labors of its 
students. The six volumes of the Papers of the School, pub- 
lished under the auspices of the Institute, present abundant 
evidence of the good work which these students accomplished. 
Even Athens itself is better known by their labors ; several 
sites in Attica have been for the first time thoroughly ex- 



THE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 7 

plored by them, and many of the details of its ancient land- 
scape and of the life with which it was animated have been 
recovered. One of the first students at the School, Dr. (now 
Professor) Sterrett, by his difficult and adventurous journeys 
in Asia Minor added much to knowledge of the local geography 
of regions rarely visited, and collected a large store of inscrip- 
tions, thus making a contribution of first-rate importance to one 
of the chief sources of information concerning ancient times. 

I should be glad, did time admit, to enter into full details of 
the results thus achieved ; their value is generally acknowl- 
edged by scholars. But I cannot dwell even upon the most 
important of the undertakings of the School, that of the investi- 
gation of the site of Argive Heraeum, conducted under charge 
of Dr. Waldstein during the years 1892-95. It is not extrava- 
gant, I believe, to claim for this work a place among the most 
important archaeological investigations of this generation, and 
to refer, for the substantiation of this claim, to the forthcoming 
publication by the Institute, of the results of the work by Dr. 
Waldstein and his young associates, in a form and on a scale 
worthy of their character. At the present time the School is 
engaged on the exploration of another of the most interesting 
sites in Greece, that of Corinth, and the discoveries already 
made open the way to an unexpectedly complete acquaint- 
ance with the chief structures and the general form of the 
ancient city. The work is arduous and costly; as of old, 

Non cuivis hoinini contiugit adire Corinthum, 
but let me finish the citation, 

Sedit qui timuit ne non succederet, 
Hie est aut misquam quod quaerimus, 

and we shall not desist till we have made easy the hitherto 
difficult entrance to the city, so that it no longer, like the tomb 
of Neleus within its walls, of which Pausanias speaks, shall 
remain unknown to all the world. 

Such, in brief, is a part of what the Institute has accom- 
plished. It is not altogether an unsatisfactory record of actual 



8 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

performance, but the visible results are of far less import than 
what it has effected in ways which make no outward show, 
results which cannot be tabulated, and which are of a mental 
rather than of a material order. 

First among these I reckon the influence which the Insti- 
tute has exercised, especially through the establishment of the 
Schools at Athens and at Rome, and by the plan of their organi- 
zation, in uniting the teachers of classical studies of the lead- 
ing colleges and universities throughout the country, in definite 
undertakings of interest common to them all, thus quickening 
among them the sense of solidarity, and developing mutual 
sympathy and support. And this increased sentiment of union, 
this recognition of the bond created by common intellectual 
pursuits and aims, have been of all the more value because of 
the position of the humanities and especially of classical studies 
during recent years, exposed on the one hand to depreciation 
from men of great general intelligence and authority, but 
engrossed by pursuits which have narrowed their intellectual 
vision, and on the other to attack from those who would limit 
even the higher education mainly to the cultivation of the 
faculties required for the attainment of material ends. At 
such a period as this, the need is great that those who prize 
the humanities as the strongest forces in the never-ending 
contest against the degrading influences of the spirit of mate- 
rialism, as the best means of development and discipline of the 
intelligence, as the source of the knowledge most useful for the 
invigoration and elevation of character, and most abundant in 
nutriment for the noblest intellectual qualities, the need is 
great, I say, for those who hold the humanities in this esteem, 
and above all for those who recognize in classical studies, 
largely interpreted and rightly understood, the quintessence of 
the humanities, to unite in the assertion and maintenance of 
the supremacy of these studies among the general elements 
of the higher education. To this end the Institute and its 
Schools have contributed. 

But more than this, it is not too much to claim for the Insti- 



THE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 9 

tute that it has afforded opportunity, of which advantage has 
been taken, to give to our scholars a hitherto unknown sense of 
independence, and at the same time of equal brotherhood with 
the scholars of other lands. For the first time they have been 
enabled to contribute by fresh discoveries and labors of their own 
to the common stock of learning; they have become partners in 
the actual increase of knowledge ; they have begun to discharge, 
even if as yet in comparatively small amount, their debt to the 
old world of learning; they are no longer mere borrowers and 
dependants. The influence of these facts on the character of 
American classical scholarship is hardly to be overestimated. 
No one can turn the pages of the volumes of Papers of the School 
at Athens, or of the recent numbers of the American Journal of 
Archaeology, without recognizing in the productions of many of 
our younger scholars the evidence of this new spirit. In extent 
of general equipment and in thoroughness of special studies, in 
animation of interest and in carefulness of observation, in sound- 
ness of judgment and aptness of form, much of their work need 
not fear a comparison with that of their contemporaries in the 
Old World. 

And in connection with this newly acquired independence, 
and auxiliary to it, account is to be taken of the gain in the 
manner and character of instruction in classical studies in our 
chief institutions of learning, which has resulted from that 
feature of the organization of our Schools in Athens and in 
Rome, which provides that each year a professor from one of 
the supporting universities or colleges should have leave of 
absence in order to take part in the instruction of the School, 
and in so doing to enjoy the opportunity to refresh himself at 
the very founts of learning, and to draw from them the waters 
which shall fertilize and vivify his own previous acquisitions and 
make his instruction such that, to borrow a phrase of the younger 
Pliny's, spiritum et sanguinem et patriam recipiunt studia. 

Such then are some of the first fruits of the Institute. 

The immense and astonishing discoveries of field archaeology 
during the century have probably left nothing to be revealed by 



10 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

future investigations which will compare with them in novelty 
of interest, or so greatly extend the limits of knowledge. We 
have established the main lines of the story of Egypt and Meso- 
potamia; and as with a broken inscription of which the general 
meaning is clear, we have now only to hunt for the pieces by 
which the gaps in our knowledge may be filled up, and the lim- 
its of conjecture narrowed. There is but one Troy, but one 
Olympia, but one Delphi, but one Athens, Jerusalem, or Rome. 
Other places, indeed, famous in ancient times, long since buried, 
are waiting for the spade to deliver them from their graves. But 
there is no other place on the earth which so kindles the imagi- 
nation and touches the heart as these, and none which is likely 
to disclose more precious treasures. But if no such splendid 
and far-reaching results are to be anticipated in the progress of 
archaeological research, still an immense and immensely inter- 
esting work remains to be done. Our ignorance concerning the 
past has been disclosed in proportion as it has been diminished 
by recent discoveries, and tracts of the earth's surface still remain 
untouched by the pick and the spade which are certain to render 
up monuments of unexpected interest, and to supply new knowl- 
edge of which we stand in need. Nothing could have been more 
unlikely than the discovery at Sidon of that extraordinary and 
magnificent group of sarcophagi which afford a series of un- 
touched examples of admirable Greek sculpture, for a period of 
almost two hundred years when Greek sculpture was at its unap- 
proachable best. Only the hem of the garment of Crete has been 
touched, and that hem has given us perhaps the most important 
inscription ever found in regard to ancient legal institutions, 
and has revealed the existence of two systems of writing, to 
account for which it seems likely that many of the notions 
hitherto held in regard to the diffusion of civilization on the 
coasts and islands of the Mediterranean will require revision 
and large modification. 

Enough remains to be done to stimulate the ardor and demand 
the energies of many a generation of archaeologists. But with 
the application of scientific methods to excavation, and as the 



THE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 11 

spade has gradually become an instrument of precision, a pitfall 
has opened before the feet of the archaeologist. It has become 
obvious that for the determination of many questions of date, 
of relation, of culture, objects of no intrinsic value may be of 
more than trifling importance. And not merely the object, but 
the exact position in which it is found, under what layers of 
soil, in connection with what other memorials, or if altogether 
solitary is of equal concern. The rude pattern on a potsherd 
may have an interpretation which will illuminate the relations 
of widely separated races; the figure on a broken seal may 
illustrate the spread of a myth, or a coin upturned from the soil 
by chance may report a fact of which there is no other record. 
But there is risk in the temptation, which attends the study of 
every science, to exalt the discovery of trifling particulars into 
an end by itself, and to take pleasure in the mere accumulation 
of what Donne rightly calls 

"Those unconcerning things, matters of fact," 

which, till ordered in their relation to some general truth, are 
nothing better than fragments in a heap of rubbish. There is 
risk, too, in the temptation to indulge in research concerning 
matters of mere idle curiosity, such for example as the ques- 
tions which Tiberius put with a touch of satire to the pedants 
of his court, " Who was the mother of Hecuba ? " or " What 
song the Sirens sang?" Professor Phillimore in his recent 
Inaugural Address at Glasgow, has reminded us that we have 
to-day men who are of the same class as the fantastical scholar 
in Webster's Duchess of Malfi, " who study to know how many 
knots was in Hercules' club, of what color Achilles' beard was, 
or whether Hector was not troubled with the toothache. He 
hath studied himself half blear-eyed to know the true symmetry 
of Caesar's nose by a shoeing-horn ; and this he did to gain the 
name of a speculative man." 

The true scholar is he who, avoiding useless specialism on 
the one hand, and loose inexactness on the other, never mis- 
taking the roots of knowledge for its fruits, or straying from 



12 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

the highway of learning into its by-paths, however attractively 
they may open before him, holds steadily to the main objects 
of all study, the acquisition of a fuller acquaintance with life 
in its higher ranges, of a juster appreciation of the ways and 
works of man, and of man's relation to that inconceivable 
universe, in the vast and mysterious order of which he finds 
himself an infinitesimally small object. And while there is no 
study which appeals to his higher intelligence that does not 
afford means for the enlargement and elevation of his mental 
view, and the invigoration of his moral nature, there is, per- 
haps, no other more directly serviceable to this end than that 
of archaeology, pursued in connection with its kindred sciences 
of ancient language, literature, arid history. Man as he has been 
must always be of supreme interest to man as he is. For the 
man of to-day is not only the heir, but, in truth, the product 
of the man of the past. And according to his understanding of 
former generations is his understanding of his own generation 
and of himself as a member of it. 

And in this view the most striking and important result 
of the great archaeological discoveries of the last hundred 
years is one which has not yet been generally recognized. 
The splendid labors which have recovered for us so much of 
the ancient history of Egypt and of Mesopotamia, which have 
thrown so much light upon the shores and islands of the 
Mediterranean, and imperfectly disclosed to us a Greece before 
the Greece of historical record, have revealed to us the first 
rudimentary stages of our own civilization. The slowly per- 
fected art of transferring audible language into visible language 
assured the continuity of civilization; but for thousands of 
years after the first picture writing was practised, the progress 
of language addressed to the eye by means of hieroglyphs and 
other derived forms of writing was halting and slow till the 
supreme invention of the art of letters capable of syllabic com- 
bination. The limits of the powers of visible language were 
the limits also of the powers of thought, and neither in writing 
nor in any other form of expression did Egypt or Babylonia 



THE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 13 

or Assyria or any other land exhibit the free play of the higher 
intellectual faculties of man. They accumulated great heaps 
of knowledge, they attained to extraordinary skill in many 
of the arts, but they were unable to make any considerable 
addition to the treasury of the thought by which the intelli- 
gence of man is fructified and vitalized. The record of these 
nations is consequently the record of the course of life of the 
masses of men, not of the active intellectual life of individuals. 
The arts were indeed being practised, the commerce was being 
extended, the language was being formed, which, when the 
ripeness of time should come, were to afford the secure founda- 
tion of intellectual freedom. 

But in arts and trade men moved and worked as a mass, 
in castes and orders, according to prescription, tradition, and 
canon, bound by rules, under whose rigid control there was 
little opportunity for the play of individual instincts and 
endeavors. These ages were the slow period of preparation 
and discipline, in which men were making ready the way for 
the independence of man. 

" Ages of heroes fought and fell 
That Homer in the end might tell ; 
O'er grovelling generations past 
Uprose the Doric fane at last ; 
And countless hearts on countless years 
Had wasted thoughts and hopes and fears," 

before the spirit of man, delivered from its bondage to igno- 
rance of its own capacities, furnished with the means requisite 
for its own free exercise and animated with a novel sense of 
power, emerged, as it were, from long childhood and entered 
with all the ardor of youth upon the infinite, hitherto unex- 
plored domains of the intelligence. All preceding ages had 
been leading up to this consummation, and the main interest of 
their history and of their monuments lies in their relation to it. 
Egypt and all the East are of comparatively little concern 
except as they prepared the way for Greece. Lucretius was 
right in his primum G-raius homo, for the Greek was the first 



14 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

man in whom the human spirit was full grown. With a not 
altogether infelicitous audacity an undergraduate in one of 
my classes wrote in answer to a question on an examination 
paper : " The Greek invented intelligence." It might almost 
seem so, for the Greek first exhibited intelligence untrammelled 
in its exercise, and universal in its application to human con- 
cerns. The paths it had previously followed had been few and 
narrow; the Greek widened them all, and opened new paths, 
along which the intelligence of succeeding generations has trav- 
elled, and in most of which the Greek still remains in advance, 
the leader and guide. 

In the field of the arts no question of his supremacy is pos- 
sible ; but in the field of science, the limits of which have 
been extended so enormously by modern discovery and in- 
vention, the Greek, with his fund of knowledge, so minute, so 
imperfect as compared with ours, is yet the master of our 
masters. " Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two gods " wrote 
Darwin near the end of his life, " but they were mere school- 
boys to old Aristotle ; " and he had written a few years earlier : 
" 1 wish I had known of these views of Hippocrates before I had 
published, for they seem almost identical with mine merely 
a change of terms, and an application of them to classes of facts 
necessarily unknown to the old philosopher. . . . Hippocrates 
has taken the wind out of my sails." 

It is to the study of this preeminent race that the archaeology 
of the elder world leads up, and through Greece to Rome, her 
complement and associate in the story of civilization. They 
are the Rachel and Leah of history, one typifying and exempli- 
fying the life of thought, of the ideal world, the other the life 
of action, of the practical world. Together they represent the 
full circle of human affairs and interests. To them all the pre- 
vious life of man contributes, from them as from their head all 
the varied full currents of modern life derive. 

The final end of archaeological study would then seem to 
be the increase of our knowledge of man in the early periods 
of his existence on earth, for the sake of learning the course 



THE WORK OF THE INSTITUTE 15 

of the evolution of his intelligence, till at length it attained to 
its free exercise in Greece and Rome ; and then through the 
investigation of Greek and Roman antiquities to gain fuller 
acquaintance with the genius of these commanding races, and 
a truer appreciation of their works, and thus a better under- 
standing of the origins and nature of our own civilization. 
While increasing and denning our knowledge of human nature 
and life archaeology thus understood and pursued nurtures the 
imagination, quickens our sympathies with the generations 
which have preceded us, and renders us more sensible of our 
immeasurable obligations to them for all that makes life desira- 
ble ; it provides us with standards by which to measure our 
own capacities and performances, and to estimate aright in the 
general scale of civilization the ideals and the actual achieve- 
ments of our own day ; it moderates our expectations of the 
rapid improvement of our race, and it compels us to acknowl- 
edge that while man may indeed be noble in reason and infinite 
in faculty he is yet the mere quintessence of dust ; it becomes 
the most eloquent of preachers as to the vanity of material 
power and possessions and the transitoriness of glory, while 
it teaches that wisdom never fades away, but is the welfare 
of the world. 

It is but a month ago that an important meeting was held in 
London to promote the establishment of a British School in 
Rome of similar character to our own. On the day after the 
meeting the Times published a vigorous leader in support of 
the undertaking, and said at its close : " We would carry the 
proposition even further, and suggest as an ideal to be aimed 
at, the ultimate establishment of an archaeological institute 
which should take all civilized antiquity for its province. 
Nothing short of this is worthy of the place archaeology is 
entitled to hold in the hierarchy of the sciences which deal 
with the history of human activity." We may congratulate 
ourselves that ' this ideal has already been attained by us in 
the establishment of the Institute as members of which we are 
assembled to-night. 



16 CHARLES ELIOT NOETON 

Our Institute with its Schools is already one of the most 
important institutions of learning in the country. It needs 
not only the sustained interest of scholars, but the support of 
all enlightened men who desire to promote the higher educa- 
tion in America. It needs a larger membership, and larger 
contributions of money to enable it to perform its full work, 
and it calls upon us all to do our best to increase its means 
of usefulness. 



"Erefjaeo log teal 

Institute 

of 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY DURING 
THE PAST TEN YEARS 



IN the Tenth Annual Report of the Council of the Institute 
(1889), at their request, I endeavored to give a "brief survey of 
the progress of archaeological studies in this country in the 
decade that had elapsed since the Society was established." 
I have been asked to continue this survey and to bring it 
down to the present time. 

In my former sketch I naturally began with a statement of 
what has been accomplished by our own Society, especially 
through its publication, in 1881, of Mr. Bandelier's Report on 
the Ruins of Pecos, accompanied by a Historical Introduction to 
Studies among the Sedentary Indians of New Mexico ; and in 
1884, of his Report upon an Archaeological Tour in Mexico in 
1881. I then stated that " two works by Mr. Bandelier, which 
are essential to a complete understanding of what has been 
already accomplished for the scientific investigation of Ameri- 
can antiquities, still remain for the Society to publish. The 
first is the concluding portion of his Historical Introduction. 
This comprises an account of the narratives of the different 
expeditions into that region, up to the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, with a discussion of the routes followed, and 
an attempt to identify the localities visited, especially by 
Espejo and Onate. It will also be necessary to print a complete 
report of his final explorations in Northern Mexico, ... in the 
valley of Sonora, . . . and of the remarkable ruins of the 
Casas Grandes, near Janos, in the State of Chihuahua. Of 
these there is no existing adequate account, and Mr. Bandelier's 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the" 17 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



18 HENRY W. HAYNES 

complete plans, with their explanation, not only of the house 
architecture, but of the military construction, and of the system 
of irrigation, and of the trails of the tribes, ought not to be lost." 

Of this concluding portion of the Historical Introduction, Mr. 
Bandelier has completed a part, which was published in 1890 
at the joint expense of the Institute and of Mrs. Mary Hemen- 
way. It makes Volume V of the American Series of our pub- 
lications, arid is entitled, Contributions to the History of the 
Southwestern Portion of the United /States. The remainder of 
this Historical Introduction has never been written. Mr. Bande- 
lier's Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of the 
Southwestern United States, carried on mainly in the years from 
1880 to 1885, has been published by the Institute, making 
Volumes III and IV of its American Series; Part I in 1890, 
and Part II in 1892. On the merits of these important publica- 
tions it is unnecessary for me to dwell,*as the members of the 
Institute, doubtless, fully appreciate them. 

The late Mrs. Mary He men way, who, among the many objects 
of her generosity, had become greatly interested in the subject of 
American antiquities, undertook to carry on at her own expense 
systematic explorations in the Salado and Gila Valleys, in Ari- 
zona. The Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition 
was placed, in 1887, under the charge of Mr. F. H. Gushing, 1 
who had lived some time among the Zunis and had been 
adopted into that tribe. He associated with himself several 
scientific assistants, among them Mr. Bandelier. After several 
years' labor, resulting in the collection of a vast amount of 
material, which was temporarily housed in Salem, Mass., the ex- 
pedition was finally abandoned on account of the failure of Mr. 
Cushing's health. This has prevented his giving to the world 
any final and complete account of his work. Dr. J. W. Fewkes 
was placed in charge of the archaeological and ethnological 
material collected, and continued to carry on the study of the 
Sedentary Indians of Arizona, passing the summers of 1891-92 

1 We regret to have to record the death of Mr. Gushing, on April 10, as this j 
paper is passing through the press. 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 19 

at the Hopi or Moqui pueblos (the ancient province of Tusa- 
yan), and making extensive explorations there. In 1892, Dr. 
Fewkes took to the Columbian Historical Exposition, at Madrid, 
held in commemoration of the Fourth Centenary of the discov- 
ery of America, a collection of objects, both ancient and modern, 
procured from this tribe as the representative of the most primi- 
tive of the Sedentary Indians of the Southwestern United States. 
A catalogue of the Hemenway Exhibit was published by our 
government as a portion of the official report of the Madrid 
Commission upon the various American exhibits. A part of 
this was a collection of copies of documents relating to the 
history of Arizona and New Mexico, made by Mr. Bandelier. 
As the fruits of the Hemenway Expedition, Dr. Fewkes has 
published four volumes of A Journal of American Ethnology and 
Archaeology, mainly devoted to an account of religious cere- 
monials of the Moqui Indians. The third volume, however, 
published in 1890, contained An Outline of the Documentary 
History of the Zuni Tribe, by Mr. Bandelier. After Mrs. 
Hemenway's death in 1894, the trustees under her will, being 
authorized to make such disposition of her various collections 
as would best subserve the study of history and archaeology, 
intrusted the whole of her extensive archaeological collections 
to the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, with the express stipula- 
tion that the installation and classification of the objects should 
be under the immediate direction of Dr. Fewkes. The gift 
was accepted by the trustees of the Museum, and Dr. Fewkes 
arranged the part that relates to the Moqui so as " to show in 
monographic form the character of the past and present of the 
Tusayan, or Moqui Indians, as far as this is possible by objects 
illustrating their arts arid practices." The collections include 
also the archaeological material obtained in the early years of the 
expedition from the Salado Valley and from the Zuni pueblos, as 
well as the documents copied by Bandelier. Besides his Journal, 
Dr. Fewkes has contributed to successive volumes of the Journal 
of the American Folk-Lore Society and to the American Anthro- 
pologist, many interesting studies of the religious ceremonies of 



20 HENRY W. HAYNE8 

the Pueblos, as the result of his connection with the Hemenway 
Expedition. In 1895 he entered the service of the Smithsonian 
Institution, at Washington, and there have been published in the 
Smithsonian Reports for that year, 1896 and 1897, preliminary 
accounts of the different explorations undertaken by him in this 
service. The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Animal Reports of the 
Bureau of Ethnology also contain important papers by him upon 
Tusayan ceremonials ; while the forthcoming Seventeenth Report 
will contain the full account of his work in 1895. 

A World's Columbian Exposition was held at Chicago, in 
1893, and one department was specially devoted to ethnology, 
archaeology, and kindred subjects, which was placed in charge 
of Professor F. W. Putnam, curator of the Peabody Museum, 
at Cambridge. As early as 1891 the work of gathering material 
for exhibition was begun, and eventually as many as one hundred 
persons were employed in North, Central, and South America, in 
making collections under the immediate direction of Professor 
Putnam and his chief assistant, Dr. Franz Boas. The results 
were most valuable for the study of both the ethnology and the 
antiquities of America. Collections from Greenland and Lab- 
rador, from Alaska and the Columbia River, Vancouver, and 
Canada ; from nearly all the Indian tribes in the United States ; 
from the West Indies and Mexico ; from Yucatan and Hon- 
duras ; from Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and even down to Pata- 
gonia, illustrated the ethnology of this continent. Important 
archaeological work was undertaken ; in Maine, by Mr. C. C. 
Willoughby in exploring some burial-places of very great 
antiquity , in Connecticut, in connection with a prehistoric 
soapstone quarry ; at Trenton, in the Delaware Valley, where 
relics of the Palaeolithic man were claimed to have been dis- 
covered; in Ohio, at several of the great earth-works and from 
many mounds and burial-places ; in Yucatan and Honduras, 
where plaster casts of the most important sculptured stones 
were taken; arid at Ancon, in Peru, from which site Dr. G. A. 
Dorsey brought back a reproduction of an ancient burial-place. 
These and other explorations furnished such an exhibit of the 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 21 

ethnology and antiquities of our country, as has never been 
equalled. It is greatly to be regretted that no official report 
of this exhibition has been published. 

During the progress of the Exposition a series of congresses 
was held at Chicago, among which was one of Anthropology. 
This was largely attended, and many valuable papers were read, 
which were afterward published in a volume entitled Memoirs 
of the International Congress of Anthropology, 1894. 

Of the objects procured for this Exposition those collections 
made by the Peabody Museum came to Cambridge, but the larger 
part formed the foundation for the Anthropological Department 
of the Field Columbian Museum, at Chicago, which was the 
direct result of the World's Fair. This department was at first 
placed under the charge of Dr. F. Boas as curator, and after 
him Mr. William H. Holmes, who left the Bureau of Ethnology 
for this position. In December, 1894, on the invitation of Mr. 
Armour, Mr. Holmes accompanied a party of scientific investi- 
gators in an expedition to Mexico. The results of his explora- 
tions there were published in December, 1895, and in February, 
1897, as the first of the Anthropological Series of publications 
of the Museum, under the title Part I. Monuments of Yucatan; 
Part II. Monuments of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and the Valley of 
Mexico. Dr. George A. Dorsey, who had been for several 
years assistant in the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, was 
made assistant curator in 1896, and published, in August, 
1897, Observations on a Collection of Papuan Crania, with 
notes by Mr. Holmes. When Mr. Holmes returned to Wash- 
ington, in 1898, to take charge of the Anthropological Depart- 
ment of the National Museum, Dr. Dorsey became curator. 
Since then he has published A Bibliography of the Anthropol- 
ogy of Peru, 1898. The last publication of the Field Colum- 
bian Museum was in July, 1898 ; Ruins of Xkichmook, Yucatan, 
by Edward H. Thompson, giving the results of his observations 
extending over a period of seven years. 

Early in 1894 Professor F. W. Putnam, in addition to his 
duties at Cambridge, assumed the charge of the Department of 



22 HENRY W. HAYNES 

Anthropology in the American Museum of Natural History, at 
New York, and since then great progress has been made there 
in this branch. Large collections of archaeological material 
have been acquired by gift and purchase, which are now exceed- 
ingly well displayed through the enlargement of the building, 
and several explorations have been undertaken. In 1896 the 
Trustees of the Museum assumed the expense of continuing 
investigations in Peru by Mr. Bandelier, which had been car- 
ried on for two years at the charge of Mr. Henry Villard. 
Extensive collections from the coast town of Arica and from 
the ruins of Tiahuanaco, the most important site after Cuzco, 
have been already received ; among them are a number of tre- 
phined skulls. Later, Mr. Bandelier explored the islands in 
Lake Titicaca and sites in Bolivia; but as yet none of the 
results of these investigations have been given to the world, 
although the large collections he has made are arranged in the 
Museum. Since 1894 Dr. C. Lumholtz has been carrying on, 
for four years, investigations among the tribes of the Sierra 
Madre Mountains, in central and southern Mexico; and large 
collections, principally ethnological, have reached the Museum, 
adding greatly to our knowledge of their history. 

In 1898 a joint expedition to eastern Mexico, by Dr. Lumholtz 
and Dr. A. Hrdlicka, resulted in much ethnological and archaeo- 
logical work of importance which is soon to be published by the 
Museum. 

Messrs. B. T. B. and Fred E. Hyde, Jr., of New York, have 
presented to the Museum their extensive collection from the 
cliff-houses and burial-caves of Utah, New Mexico, and Colo- 
rado ; and for the past three years they have been carrying on, 
at their own cost, explorations among the ancient pueblos of 
New Mexico, especially at the Pueblo Bonito, in the Chaco 
Canon, from which a large amount of valuable material has 
been secured. These investigations are going on at the present 
time under the direction of Professor Putnam, with Mr. G. H. 
Pepper and Mr. Richard Wetherill chief assistants in the field. 

In 1897-98 Mr. M. H. Saville, assistant curator of the 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 23 

Department of Anthropology, carried on extended researches 
in Mexico, especially at Xoxo and Monte Alban, in Oaxaca, and 
at the celebrated ruins of Mitla. In the Bulletin of the Museum, 
vol. VIII, he has published an article on The Temple of Te- 
potztlan, Mexico, excavated by Mr. Rodriguez, and in vol. IX, 
one on An Ancient Figure of Terra Cotta from the Valley 
of Mexico. This is a unique object of life size, found in a 
cave near the city of Texcoco, and is exceedingly curious, as 
representing an ancient Mexican war-chief dressed in armor of 
quilted cotton. Volume X of the Bulletin contains an article 
by Doctors Lumholtz and Hrdlicka on Marked Human Bones 
from a Prehistoric Tarasco Indian Burial-place in the State of 
Michoacan, Mexico. 

For four years Mr. Volk has been carrying on investigations 
at Trenton, N.J., under Professor Putnam's direction, and under 
the patronage of the Duke of Loubat and of Dr. F. E. Hyde, to 
settle, if possible, the question of the discovery there of relics 
of Palaeolithic man. Other successful explorations have been 
conducted in Ohio and Kentucky, in several Indian sites in the 
valley of the Hudson, and in the immediate vicinity of the city 
of New York ; and the Museum has cooperated with the Peabody 
Museum, at Cambridge, in conducting explorations in Honduras. 

But by far the most important anthropological investigation 
that has ever been undertaken by the American Museum was 
made possible by the generosity of its President, Mr. Morris K. 
Jesup. He has taken special interest in the question of the origin 
of the American Indians and the theory that this continent was 
peopled by migration from Asia, and, believing that light would 
be shed upon this subject by a systematic study of the tribes 
inhabiting the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean, he has assumed 
the whole expense of such researches, to be prosecuted during 
a period of several years beginning in 1897. The field work of 
the Jesup Expedition, in 1897, was confined to the coast of British 
Columbia, and was carried on by Dr. F. Boas, assistant curator 
in charge of the Ethnological Division, who has the immediate 
direction of the Jesup Expedition, and by Dr. L. Farrand and by 



24 HENRY W. HAYNES 

Mr. Harlan I. Smith. It was directed mainly to the exploration 
of the prehistoric remains of. that region and to the study of the 
Bella Coola and northern Kuakiutl tribes. A summary account 
of the results of the season's work was given in Science, October 8, 
1897. The following year the work was taken up on a more ex- 
tended scale, and Mr. Gerard Fowke and Mr. R. B. Dixon, with 
several resident investigators, were added to the working force. 
Parties were in the field on the coast of the State of Washington, 
in the southern interior of British Columbia, on the Amoor River 
in Siberia ; and archaeological and ethnological work has been 
prosecuted on both continents. Valuable collections have been 
received from the tribes of Thompson River, and from those of 
the northern part of Vancouver Island and of the central parts 
of the coast of British Columbia. Archaeological investigations 
were carried on by Mr. Fowke on the Amoor River, and ethno- 
logical by Dr. B. Laufer in the island of Saghalien. Another 
party is about starting for two years' work in northern Siberia. 
Accounts of the work done in 1898 can be found in the num- 
bers of Science for April 14 and May 26, 1899. During the 
past summer the work has been continued, but no statement 
of what has been accomplished has yet appeared. The Museum 
has begun the publication of the scientific results of the Jesup 
Expedition in the shape of Memoirs in quarto form. So far 
there have appeared Facial Paintings of the Indians of Northern 
British Columbia and Mythology of the Bella Coola Indians by 
Franz Boas, 1898, and Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, 
by Harlan I. Smith, 1899. Mr. Boas has also published, in 
vol. IX of the Bulletin of the Museum, an article on The Deco- 
rative Art of the Indians of the North Pacific Coast. 

But while Professor Putnam has been actively engaged in the 
management of the Department of Anthropology in the American 
Museum, for the past five years, his work, orginally undertaken 
at Cambridge in the interests of American archaeology, in the 
Peabody Museum, has been vigorously pursued, as is abun- 
dantly manifested by his reports upon the doings of that insti- 
tution for the past ten years. I will only attempt to enumerate 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 25 

here some of the more important of the services rendered by the 
Peabody Museum in the field of American antiquities during 
that period. The first was the raising of a large sum of money 
by contributions to purchase and preserve as a public park the 
Great Serpent Mound, in Ohio. A complete model to scale of 
this remarkable earthwork has been constructed and placed on 
exhibition. This was followed by explorations of the gravel 
banks of the Little Miami River, and the discovery in them 
of ancient hearths. Then renewed investigations were made 
of the Turner Group of mounds in that same region, and con- 
tinued until that important work had been thoroughly ex- 
plored. About twenty miles above the Turner Group, at 
Foster's, a remarkable circumvallation over half a mile in 
extent was investigated. At the northern portion of this 
singular work is "a carefully laid wall of flat stones along 
the outer side several feet in height ; behind were loose stones, 
both large and small, making nearly half the structure, and 
behind and over these stones was a mass of clay burnt to . all 
degress of hardness, from that only slightly burnt to great 
masses of slag, showing that the clay had been subjected to a 
very great heat, in places forming a vitreous surface over the 
slag, which resembled that from a blast furnace." This singu- 
lar structure seems to resemble in some respects the remarkable 
earthwork in Jefferson County, Wisconsin, which goes by the 
name of Azatlan. This is described by Mr. James D. Butler, 
in a letter to Schliemann (Troja, p. 180), as "a brick or terra- 
cotta crust baked in situ.''' In other particulars it seems more 
like the " vitrified forts," of which numerous examples are known 
in Scotland, the Orkneys, France, and Germany. 

During the various explorations carried on by the Peabody 
Museum, advantage was taken of the opportunity to give practi- 
cal training in scientific methods of excavation to young men 
pursuing their studies at the Museum. This has been the con- 
tinuous policy of the institution, and it has resulted in furnishing 
five men, trained there, to fill places of responsibility elsewhere 
as professional anthropologists. 



26 HENRY W. HAYNES 

After certain explorations had been carried on for a couple 
of years in Yucatan, the most important work ever undertaken 
under the auspices of the Peabody Museum was the Honduras 
Expedition. This was started in 1891, under a special grant 
from the government of that country of the exclusive right of 
exploration for the term of ten years, with the privilege of 
retaining for the Museum one half of the objects secured from 
ancient sites and burial-places. This work has been going on 
steadily ever since, although unfortunately interrupted for a 
while by the death from fever (February 18, 1893), of the 
head of the expedition, Mr. J. G. Owens, to the great loss of 
American archaeology. After his death Mr. George B. Gordon 
took charge of the work, and has continued to be the executive 
head of the expedition ever singe. The expenses of all these 
explorations have been quite large, amounting to over $32,000 
four years ago and much increased since then; and at first 
they were supplied by generous contributors in New England, 
of whom Messrs. Charles P. Bowditch and Stephen Salisbury 
were the largest givers. In fact the success of the exploration 
is greatly due to Mr. Bowditch's energetic support in various 
ways besides the gift of money. During one year Messrs. 
Jesup, Whitney, and Loubat made a contribution on behalf of 
the American Museum, of New York, which received its por- 
tion of the objects collected. Moreover, Mr. Salisbury has 
again secured the valuable services of Mr. Edward H. Thomp- 
son for the benefit of the Peabody Museum. He had for 
several years been working for the Field Columbian Museum, 
and has a wider knowledge than any other explorer of the 
ruins of the prehistoric cities of Yucatan. 

The practical work of the Honduras Expedition began at 
Copan in the dry season of 1891-92 (December to May), and 
many curious and interesting objects were sent to the Museum 
as its result; among them were human teeth having a small 
piece of jadeite inserted in a hole drilled in their front surface. 
Plans were made of the principal ruins, photographs taken, 
and paper moulds prepared of important sculptures. Numer- 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 27 

ous original carved stones were brought away with the greatest 
labor and difficulty, as they had to be transported on muleback 
many miles. Moulds were also made of the huge carved mono- 
liths at the ruins of Quirigua, in Guatemala, from which casts 
have been taken and distributed. The sculptures and carved 
inscriptions secured in this way have excited the wonder and 
admiration of all beholders. During the season of 1893-94 the 
exploration was retarded owing to Mr. Owens' death ; but in 
1894-95 one of the great pyramids at Copan was investigated 
by Mr. G. B. Gordon, as was also a remarkable stairway, 24 feet 
wide and over 100 feet high, having the front of each step cov- 
ered with carvings and sculptures. This is regarded as probably 
the longest and most important of the inscriptions in Central 
America. In Januaiy, 1896, the examination of ancient deposits 
on the banks of the Uloa River, and of several caverns, brought 
to light the work of other peoples than those who built the great 
structures of Copan. Work was interrupted at Copan in the 
season of 1896-97, pending the settlement of rights of explora- 
tion with the new government of Honduras, but was continued 
on the Uloa River. Relics obtained from ancient sites along the 
river show a mingling of the arts of Nicaragua and of Southern 
Mexico with those of Guatemala and Honduras. Mr. Gordon 
returned in September, 1897, and no further work has been yet 
reported, as his time has been devoted to preparing reports of the 
previous explorations. Meanwhile Mr. Bowditch has secured 
the services of Mr. T. . Maler to visit the Lacandon country 
with the hope of possibly obtaining some clue to the decipher- 
ing of the Maya writings through knowledge of their meaning 
still lingering among the unsubdued tribes of Central America. 
In the meantime the Peabody Museum has begun the pub- 
lication of a series of illustrated reports, in quarto form, of the 
researches in Central America and Yucatan : No. 1, Prehistoric 
ruins of Copan, Honduras, by George B. Gordon, 1896; No. 2, 
Caves of Loltum, by Edward H. Thompson, 1897 ; No. 3, 
Choltunes of Labna, by the same ; Nos. 4 and 5, Researches in 
the Uloa Valley, Honduras, and Caverns of Copan, Honduras, 



28 HENRY W. HAYNES 

by George B. Gordon, 1898. Besides these publications it has 
issued a series of archaeological and ethnological papers in 
octavo form : Vol. I, No. 1, Standard, or Head-dress, an Histori- 
cal Essay on a Relic of Ancient Mexico, by Zelia Nuttall, 1888; 
No. 2, The Karankawa Indians, the Coast People of Texas, by 
Albert S. Gatschet, 1891 ; No. 3, The Atlatl, or Spear-thrower of 
the Ancient Mexicans, by Zelia Nuttall, 1891 ; No. 4, Report 
upon Pile-structures in Naamans Creek, near Claymont, Dela- 
ware, by Hilborne T. Cresson, 1892: No. 5, A Study of Omaha 
Music, by Alice C. Fletcher, 1893 ; No. 6, Prehistoric Burial- 
places in Maine, by C. C. Willoughby, 1898. 

In 1896 the University of Pennsylvania, with the coopera- 
tion of the Bureau of Ethnology, at Washington, organized 
the Pepper-Hearst Archaeological Expedition to send Mr. F. 
H. Gushing to explore the shell mounds of the Florida coast, 
between Tampa and Cape Sable. Much aboriginal handiwork 
was secured, especially at Key Marcos, on the islands, and in the 
lagoons adjacent. The habitations were found to have been pro- 
tected by huge banks, constructed of large conch-shells, and were 
in part built upon piles. In some instances the kitchen refuse 
had accumulated in the water underneath so as to form mounds, 
which were afterwards built upon. Numerous interesting objects 
were secured, principally from the muck which covered the inner 
courts of the chief structures explored. These are to be divided 
between the cooperating institutions, which will also publish 
jointly the final report upon the work accomplished. In the 
meantime a preliminary report has been made by Mr, Gush- 
ing at a meeting of the American Philosophical Society (Novem- 
ber 6, 1896), which was published in its Proceedings, December, 
1896. 

The University of Pennsylvania, in 1889, established a 
Museum of American Archaeology, of which Dr. C. C. Abbott 
was appointed curator. The following year he issued a report, 
but resigned the position not long after; and Mr. Henry C. 
Mercer was made curator of a Department of American and 
Prehistoric Archaeology. Mr. Mercer had previously done 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 29 

valuable archaeological work in various directions; in 1893, in 
the Trenton glacial gravels, and for three years subsequent 
in cave explorations in the eastern United States, as well 
as of the caves in Yucatan. Of these he has rendered annual 
reports, which have been 'expanded in several interesting 
articles in the university publications. No relics of Palaeo- 
lithic man have been found by him in the caves, but he re- 
ports that "bones of the fossil Megalonyx, still retaining their 
cartilage, were exhumed from a dry deposit . . . mingled with 
fragments of reeds, used as torches by the Indians, in a gallery 
nine hundred feet from the entrance." This seems rather to 
reduce the age of the fossil animals than to extend that of man. 

In 1897 the Free Museum of Science and Art, Department of 
Archaeology and Palaeontology, University of Pennsylvania, 
began the issue of a semiannual bulletin "to contain a resume 
of the collections made by the Museum in its several sections, 
notices of publications referring to the work of the Museum, and 
brief papers by its officers of general scientific interest." Six 
numbers of this bulletin have already appeared. 

The University of Pennsylvania and the science of American 
linguistics have equally suffered a great loss in the death of Dr. 
Daniel G. Brinton, July 31, 1899. Since the death of Dr. J. Ham- 
mond Trumbull, he had held the first place among the students 
of the native American languages. To the seven volumes of 
the Library of Aboriginal American Literature, of which I spoke 
in my former article, he had added an eighth, Rig- Veda Ameri- 
canus, Sacred Songs of the Ancient Mexicans, 1890. In the same 
year he collected his earlier writings in a volume entitled Essays 
of an Americanist. This was followed, in 1891, by The American 
Race, the first attempt at a systematic classification of the whole 
American race on the basis of language. Then came Studies in 
South American Languages, 1892; Native Calendars of Central 
America and Mexico, 1893; A Primer of Mayan Hieroglyphics, 
1895 ; and Religions of Primitive Peoples, 1897. Numerous 
shorter articles were contributed to the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society, and to the American Anthro- 



30 HENRY W. HAYNES 

pologist, of which he was one of the original editors. For 
several years past, as one of the editors of Science, he has 
been a regular contributor to that journal of 4 Current Notes 
on Anthropology.' In 1898 he printed for private distribu- 
tion A Record of Study in Aboriginal American Literature, 
containing a complete bibliography of his writings. 

For some years Mr. Clarence B. Moore, of Philadelphia, 
has been the most prominent and energetic private investi- 
gator of American antiquities. He began his work by ex- 
ploring numerous shell heaps and burial mounds in Florida. 
As he was in the habit of passing his winters in that state, 
and had his own steam house-boat, it was in his power to set a 
large number of men at work, which has been throughout accom- 
plished in the most scientific manner, following the methods 
of research established by Professor Putnam, of the Peabody 
Museum, in which many specimens of his collecting are to 
be seen. His large private collection is arranged in the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Some account of his 
investigations was given in papers published in the American 
Naturalist, 1892-94. Fuller reports were communicated to the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, which were pub- 
lished in quarto form, in their Journal. He has reprinted these 
in sumptuous style, with every possible luxury of illustration, 
and has distributed them widely among students of American 
antiquities. The first was entitled Certain Sand Mounds of the 
St. John's River, Florida, parts I, II, 1894. This was followed 
by Certain River Mounds of Duval County, Florida ; Two Sand 
Mounds on Murphy's Island, Florida ; Certain Sand Mounds of 
the Ocklawaha River, Florida, 1895; and by Additional Mounds 
of Duval and Clay Counties, Florida; Mound Investigation on 
the East Coast of Florida ; Certain Florida Coast Mounds North 
of the St. Johns' River, 1896. Having exhausted the Florida 
mounds, he turned his attention to those on the coast farther 
north, of which he gave the results in Certain Aboriginal Mounds 
of the Georgia Coast, 1897. Continuing this work, he published 
Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Coast of South Carolina; of the 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 31 

Savannah River ; and of the Altamaha River, 1898. His last 
work is Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Alabama River, 1899. 
Among his many finds were numerous large burial-jars, contain- 
ing human crania and other portions of the skeleton, stamped 
with a singular and complicated ornamentation. There were 
also two breastplates, made of thin sheets of hammered native 
copper, over a foot square, with striking designs in repousse 
work. The question of the original source of this copper is 
most carefully studied. 

In 1896 the legislature of the state of New York appropri- 
ated 15000, " to be used by the regents of the University for 
increasing the state collection illustrating New York aboriginal 
life, and for preserving such facts as might seem, to them of 
most value." Besides securing several valuable collections, it 
was thought " advisable to issue some bulletins of a popular 
nature illustrating the antiquities of New York, especially the 
implements and monuments of the aborigines." Rev. Dr. Wil- 
liam M. Beauchamp, of Baldwinsville, who has been engaged in 
such studies for a quarter of a century, and who has accumu- 
lated a vast amount of valuable illustrative material, was made 
the editor. There have already been issued three numbers of 
the Bulletin, which are supplied for twenty-five cents each, 
and are sufficiently well illustrated for their purpose : Abo- 
riginal Chipped Stone Implements of New York; Polished Stone 
Articles used by the New York Aborigines before and during 
European Occupation; Earthen Ware of the Neiv York Abo- 
rigines. 

Hon. Jacob V. Brower, of St. Paul, Minn., whose geo- 
graphical studies upon The Mississippi River and its Source, 
and The Missouri River and its Utmost Source, have proved of 
very great importance, began to turn his attention to the ques- 
tion of the presence of man in those regions in prehistoric 
times. The first results of his investigations were given in his 
Missouri River. In a second edition, in 1897, he added an 
archaeological appendix, giving further studies at the head- 
waters of the Missouri, of certain mounds at the headwaters 



32 HENRY W. UAYNES 

of the Mississippi, and at a spot which he believes, upon archae- 
ological considerations, to be the site of Quivira, the final 
point reached by Coronado in his famous expedition in 1540-42. 
At this stage in his investigations all his papers, maps, plans, 
and archaeological collections were destroyed by fire; but, un- 
deterred by this calamity, he has continued his work, and has 
commenced the publication of Memoirs of Explorations in the 
Basin of the Mississippi, in quarto form and handsomely illus- 
trated. Two have already appeared : Quivira, in 1898 ; and 
Harahey, in 1899. The latter contains a valuable paper by 
Mr. F. W. Hodge, of the Bureau of Ethnology, at Washington, 
on Coronations March to Quivira, the latest and one of the most 
exhaustive of the many studies that have been made of that 
interesting question. To this Mr. Brower has appended a con- 
cise bibliography of the subject. 

The American Antiquarian was established in 1878 by Rev. 
Stephen D. Peet, and has had a prosperous career as a bimonthly 
journal, published in Chicago, to the present time. Its twenty- 
one volumes have contained numerous valuable contributions 
from various sources and concerning different countries as well 
as our own. Those by the editor he has collected in four vol- 
umes, under the title of Prehistoric America: No. 1, The 
Mound-Builders and their Relics ; No. 2, Animal Effigies and 
Emblematic Mounds; No. 3, Cliff -Dwellings and Pueblos; and 
No. 4, Myths and Symbols, or Aboriginal Religions. 

Ten years later The American Anthropologist was founded, in 
1888, as the organ of the Anthropological Society of Washing- 
ton, and for eight years was published quarterly. It was then 
changed to a monthly, and appeared in this form for three years. 
In January, 1899, a new series was started, with an enlarged 
board of editors, to appear quarterly and with a larger page. 
Among the present editors are officers of all the archaeological 
museums of our country. It is by far the most important 
periodical in America devoted to the science of anthropology ; 
and its articles are fully up to the standard of the best 
European journals of a similar character. An acquaintance 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 33 

with its contents is indispensable to the student of American 
antiquities. 

Several ineffectual attempts have been made to establish an 
archaeological monthly of a popular character. In 1893 The 
Archaeologist was started and appeared for three years, when 
it was merged in Popular Science, a successful New York 
monthly. In 1897 the Landon Company, of Columbus, Ohio, 
began the publication of The Antiquarian, but changed the 
name the following year to The American Archaeologist. After 
a year's struggle it, too, was absorbed by Popular Science. Evi- 
dently there is not a sufficient demand to support such a jour- 
nal, although many valuable articles had appeared during the 
five years of effort. 

The only attempt at a general survey of the whole field of 
North American antiquities that has recently been made is a 
little work by Professor Cyrus Thomas, of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology, entitled Introduction to the Study of North American 
Archaeology, 1898. The objects studied are arranged in three 
great groups : monuments, relics, and paleographic remains. 
These are distributed in three culture areas: the Arctic, the 
Atlantic, and the Pacific. The author denies the existence of 
Palaeolithic man in North America ; maintains the theory of 
the Asiatic origin of the American tribes; and regards the 
so-called Mound-Builders as in no wise different from the other 
native tribes found by the European discoverers dwelling on 
this continent. 

Mr. Warren K. Moorehead has published a little volume, 
giving the result of his observations during several years of work 
in the exploration of ancient fortifications, burial-places, and 
village sites, in Ohio. The title is Primitive Man in Ohio, and 
it is a fully illustrated and comprehensive statement of the 
facts observed in the course of his work, and of the deductions 
he has drawn from them. He has undertaken the publication 
of a series of Bulletins upon special subjects, of which one on 
The Bird-stone Ceremonial has just appeared. 

Some valuable and costly works upon American antiquities 



34 HENRY W. HAYNE8 

by European writers have appeared during the past ten years. 
Mr. Alfred P. Maudslay has published in London, in the 
Biologia Centrali-Americana, parts I-XI (1889-99), devoted 
to Archaeology. These embrace his valuable studies of the 
ruined cities of Central America, Copan, Palenque, and 
Chichen Itza, where he has done a vast amount of work 
in exploration, surveying, and taking of moulds. It is the 
greatest contribution to the study of ancient Maya culture 
that has been made since the time of Lord Kingsborough. 
Mr. Maudslay has generously rendered great assistance to the 
Honduras Expedition, of the Peabody Museum. 

In 1895, Dr. Edward Seler, the head of the American depart- 
ment of the Ethnological Museum at Berlin, published a large 
folio volume with the title of Wand-malereien von Mitla. It 
contained thirteen photographs, with descriptive text, of certain 
paintings in fresco upon the walls of an inside court, belonging 
to one of the blocks of the well-known ancient ruined buildings 
at Mitla, about thirty miles southeast of Oaxaca. That par- 
ticular block has been converted into a church, and the inside 
court has been made into a stable for the use of the curate. 
At the time Mr. Bandelier visited the ruins, although he was 
informed of the existence of the paintings, he was unable to 
get access to them on account of the absence of the curate 
(Bandelier's Archaeological Tour in Mexico in 1881, p. 281). 
Dr. Seler 's discovery was accidental, and it was with great 
difficulty that he was able, with his wife's help, to make the 
copies of the frescoes given in the volume. His conclusion 
as to their significance is that they contain the story of Quet- 
zalcoatl, the culture-hero of the Toltecs. 

Various articles by Dr. Seler, Dr. E. Forstemann, and Dr. 
Paul Schellhas, upon the Aztec and Maya picture-writings, 
have probably done more to elucidate their significance than 
the writings of any other students of the subject. 

The few remaining manuscripts of this character are being 
fast reproduced in colors for the use of students. In 1892, the 
American Philosophical Society published the Codex Poinsett, 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 35 

relating to the collection of taxes in ancient Mexico ; the follow- 
ing year the Royal Library, of Berlin, issued fac-similes of 
sixteen fragments of Mexican manuscripts, brought back by 
Humboldt, several of which are ancient ; and a third, of Miste- 
can origin, was published in Geneva, by M. de Saussure, 
supposed to contain the life of a great chief. In 1899, the 
Codex Borbonicus was published in Paris, by M. E. Leroux. 
But the Duke of Loubat has been the most munificent pro- 
moter of these important aids to research. In 1896, he pub- 
lished in facsimile the Codex Vaticanus, a Mexican manuscript 
in the Vatican Library ; in 1898, another Mexican codex in 
the Vatican Library, known as the Codex Borgianus ; and in 
1899, the Codex Telleriano-Remensis and Codex Bologna, also 
Mexican. 

The eighth Congres international des Americanistes was held 
in Paris, in October, 1890, and many valuable papers were pre- 
sented. Since then the ninth convened at Chicago, in 1893 ; 
the tenth at Stockholm, in 1894 ; and the eleventh at Mexico, in 
1898. In 1896 was organized the Societe* des Americanistes 
de Paris. The first number of its journal contains an article by 
Professor E. T. Hamy, Conservateur du Musee d* Ethnographie, 
upon the American collection exhibited at Genoa at the fourth 
centenary of the discovery of America. 

Dr. Hamy, in 1897, began the publication of a magnificent 
album of sixty plates, with a commentary (G-alerie Americaine 
du Musee d 1 EthnograpTiie du Trocadero), illustrating remark- 
able objects to be found in that museum, characteristic of 
all regions of the New World. This splendid work, due 
to the patronage of the Duke of Loubat, was completed in 
September, 1898. 

Baron Nils O. G. Nordenskiold, of Sweden, the well-known 
cartographer, has devoted a handsomely illustrated volume to 
a description of The Cliff-Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, South- 
western Colorado; their Pottery and Implements, 1893. This 
was translated into English from the Swedish, immediately 
upon its publication, and gives an interesting popular account 



36 HEN BY W. HAYNE8 

of the outside appearance of things, but with no pretensions 
of scientific exploration. 

Naturally the Smithsonian Institution and the Bureau of 
Ethnology, at Washington, have taken the leading part, dur- 
ing the past decade, in advancing the study of American 
Archaeology, both by exploration and by publication. Eleven 
large quarto volumes of Reports of the Bureau have appeared 
during this time. As these volumes have been widely dis- 
tributed and are well known to all students of American 
antiquities, and their value is fully appreciated by them, I 
will content myself, from lack of space, with merely giving 
a list of the articles contained in each volume, without at- 
tempting any analysis of their contents. Vol. VI : Ancient 
Art of the Province of Chiriqui, Columbia, by William H. 
Holmes; A Study of the Textile Art in its Relation to Form 
and Development, by the same ; Aids to the Study of the 
Maya Codices, by Cyrus Thomas; Osage Traditions, by Rev. 
J. Owen Dorsey ; The Central Eskimo, by F. Boas. Vol. 
VII : Indian Linguistic Families, by J. W. Powell ; The Mide- 
wiwim, or Grand Medicine Society of the Ojibwas, by W. J. 
Hoffman ; The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees, by James 
Mooney. Vol. VIII : A Study of Pueblo Architecture, Tusayan 
and Cibola, by V. Mindeleff; Ceremonial of Hasjelti Dailgis, 
and Mythical Sand-paintings of the Navajo Indians, by James 
Stevenson. Vol. IX : Ethnological Results of the Point Bar- 
row Expedition, by John Murdock ; The Medicine-men of the 
Apaches, by John G. Bourke. Vol. X: Picture-writing of 
the American Indians, by Garrick Mallery. Vol. XI: The Sia, 
by Matilda C. Stevenson ; Ethnology of the Ungava District, by 
Lucien M. Turner; A Study of Siouan Cults, by J. Owen 
Dorsey. Vol. XII : Report on the Mound Explorations of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, by Cyrus Thomas. Vol. XIII: Prehis- 
toric Textile Art of Eastern United States, by William H. 
Holmes ; Stone Art, by Gerard Fowke ; Aboriginal Remains 
in Verde Valley, Arizona, by C. Mindeleff; Omaha Dwellings, 
Furniture, and Implements, by J. Owen Dorsey; Casa Grande 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 37 

Ruin, by C. Mindeleff; Outlines of Zuni Creation Myths, by 
F. H. Gushing. Vol. XIV, Part I: The Menomini Indians, 
by W. J. Hoffman ; The Ooronado Expedition, 1540-1542, by 
George P. Winship; Part II: The G~host-dance Religion and 
the Sioux Outbreak of 1890, by James Mooney. Vol. XV: 
Stone Implements of the Potomac- Chesapeake Tide-water Prov- 
ince, by William H. Holmes ; The Siouan Indians, a Prelimi- 
nary Sketch, by W. J. McGee ; Siouan Sociology, by J. Owen 
Dorsey; Tusayan Katcinas, by J. W. Fewkes ; The Repair of 
Casa G-rande Ruin, Arizona, by C. Mindeleff. Vol. XVI: 
Primitive Trephining in Peru, by M. A. Muniz and W. J. 
McGee ; Cliff-ruins of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, by C. Min- 
deleff ; Day-symbols of the Maya Year, by Cyrus Thomas ; 
Tusayan Snake Ceremonies, by J. W. Fewkes. 

Since 1884 the annual report of the Smithsonian Institution 
has appeared in two parts, the second containing the. report of 
the National Museum. The principal articles in the first part 
of the report, devoted to American antiquities, have been those 
of Professor Otis T. Mason: in 1889, Aboriginal Skin-dressing; 
in 1890, The Ulu, or Woman* s-Knife of the Eskimo; in 1893, 
North American Bows, Arrows, and Quivers. The report of the 
National Museum, for 1894, contains an article by him on 
Primitive Travel; that of 1895 one on The Graphic Art of 
the Eskimo, by W. J. Hoffman ; that of 1896 one on Pre- 
historic Art, by Thomas Wilson ; and that of 1897 one on 
Pipes and Smoking Customs of American Aborigines, by J. D. 
McGuire ; The Mans Knife among North American Indians, 
by Otis T. Mason ; and Arrowpoints, Spearheads, and Knives 
of Prehistoric Times, by Thomas Wilson. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science 
has done much to awaken an interest in the subject of American 
antiquities and to promote their study, through the annual meet- 
ings of its section devoted to Anthropology, held in leading 
cities all over the country and largely attended. The annual 
addresses of the vice-presidents of the section, who are always 
chosen from among the most distinguished students of the 



38 HENRY W. HAYNES 

science, have usually consisted of a philosophical consideration 
of some general topic bearing upon this branch of knowledge, 
or occasionally of a discussion of some special subject. These 
are published in full in the Proceedings of the Association, but 
the papers presented at the meeting are either given only in 
abstract, 01 by title, and usually they are afterward published 
elsewhere 

The much debated question of the alleged discovery of this 
continent by the Norsemen, about A.D. 1000, was freshly revived 
by the appearance, in 1890, of a handsome volume with the 
title ot The Finding of Wineland, the G-ood, by Arthur Middle- 
ton Reeves, whose early death was a loss to historical studies in 
this country. His researches have tended to reduce the time, 
during which the accounts to be found in the Sagas of the voy- 
age oi Lief Ericson must have been handed down by tradition, 
from four hundred to three hundred years. Every one can judge 
for himself the probability of the minutely circumstantial details 
of the voyage and the landing, which the Sagas give, having 
been faithfully preserved in such a manner. Probably no more 
literary material will ever be found bearing upon this question, 
and the believers in the authenticity of the Saga stones have 
consequently attempted to strengthen their position by what 
they claim to be archaeological evidence as recently discov- 
ered, of the presence of the Norsemen upon our shores. The 
late Professor E. N. Horsford was the chief champion of these 
discoveries, and he devoted a vast amount of labor and spent 
a great deal of money in propagating his views. The site of 
the landing was located by him upon the banks of the Charles 
River, in Cambridge, and he found what he regarded as ex- 
tensive remains of the continued occupation of the Norse- 
men farther up the river, in Watertown and elsewhere. No 
one can find any fault with Professor Horsford for printing 
his arguments in the most sumptuous form, and with a wealth 
of illustration from photographs and reproductions of ancient 
maps; but the sober student of history cannot refrain from 
a smile, when he embodies his notions in the solid masonry 



PROGRESS OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 1889-99 39 

of Norumbega Tower. Every seeker after the truth, however, 
must enter a protest against what he reads upon a marble slab 
inserted in the parapet of the stone bridge between Water- 
town and Newton, which stands upon the site of the earliest 
bridge ever built across the Charles River, in 1641, as is very 
properly commemorated by a suitable inscription. On the 
opposite parapet is the following astonishing assertion, simi- 
larly placed, and claiming equal authority in the minds of gen- 
erations of school children : Outlook upon the Stone Dam and 
Stone-walled Docks and Wharves of Norumbega, the Seaport of 
the Norsemen in Vineland. Erected by Eben Norton Horsford, 
December 31, 1892. 

For the past five or six years the belief in the existence 
of palaeolithic man in North America, which is universally 
accepted by the prehistoric archaeologists of Europe, and by 
numerous students of the question in this country, has been 
most strenuously contested by a certain school of archaeologists 
in the United States. These claim that there is no conclusive 
proof that palaeolithic implements have ever been found in 
situ, in the glacial gravels, at Trenton and elsewhere, and 
that what are claimed as such are merely the unfinished work 
of the Indians. Some have even gone to the extreme of assert- 
ing that no such implement has ever been found in Europe or 
in any other country. As neither side is able to convince the 
other, and as the question is the most burning one at present 
before the archaeologists of this country, I think it best to 
merely state the fact, without attempting to give a summary 
of the arguments on each side ; especially as the present writer 
has published numerous articles in favor of the existence of 
Palaeolithic man, in this country, and his impartiality might 
be questioned by the other side. 

HENRY W. HAYNES. 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



THE EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND CIVILIZA- 
TION AND THE ARGIVE HERAEUM 1 



I. INTRODUCTION 

THE excavations and discoveries in Hellenic lands within the 
last twenty-five years have opened, and are constantly opening 
out new fields of observation and study concerning the origin 
and development of the earliest Greek civilization and art. 
The great mass of new material which has thus been furnished 
to the archaeologist has not yet reached complete elaboration 
even in the first stage, and still remains far removed from final 
systematic classification, not to speak of the ultimate light 
which it will throw upon our knowledge of classical history and 
archaeology as a whole. 

1 The official publication of the excavation of the Argive Heraeum is now in 
the printers' hands and will appear under the auspices of the Archaeological 
Institute and of the American School at Athens. My own manuscript and that 
of most of iny collaborators has been out of our hands for some months. The 
interest of this important site and its excavation, covering so wide a period of 
antiquity, from the earliest times to the Roman period, will chiefly centre 
around the age represented by the first or earlier temple, and that of the second 
temple in which Polyclitus fashioned his famous gold and ivory statue. The 
finds, however, cover every department of archaeology. If I have here singled 
out one aspect of our finds as they bear upon one question, and publish it at once, 
it is because I feel that, in the wealth and variety of material presented in the full 
publication, this special question here treated could not there be sufficiently em- 
phasized to stand out clearly. Moreover, as we cannot predict exactly when the 
official publication with its numerous illustrations will be before the public, I 
thought it desirable to give the main results in a preliminary form in view of 
the fact that many works of these early periods are now found, in the elabora- 
tion of which our results might be of use. Under these circumstances I have 
not given any illustrations nor references to literature, as these will be found in 
the full publication. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 40 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 41 

If it were merely a question of adding the new material and 
the new information with which the archaeologist and the gen- 
eral student of classical literature, history, and antiquities have 
furnished us within recent years, to the main body of informa- 
tion as it was established before these new discoveries were 
made, the task of the Hellenist would be comparatively simple. 
But such has not been the case, and, in the nature of things, 
could not be expected. Every new discovery, even if it does 
not directly contradict the established views which are based 
upon the material previously at the service of the careful stu- 
dent, certainly shifts and alters the relation, or at least the 
numerical proportion, of the data upon which the general 
induction is founded. 

In some instances, however, the results of excavations like 
those begun by Schliemann have led to the opening out of new 
regions of civilized Hellenic life, giving more or less clear vistas 
of whole epochs which the extant literature of ancient Greece 
hardly touches upon or only vaguely hints at. The modern 
student of twenty-five years ago could only stamp these early 
ages as distinctly prehistoric. Whatever was then published 
concerning them was rightly considered not to have claims to 
the character of scientific demonstration or research, but rather 
of pure speculation. In one word, the step which since those 
days is being taken marks the important advance from the 
prehistoric to the historic. And though the shadings between 
these two spheres of study may be gradual and infinitely 
varied, so that we can hardly define where the prehistoric 
ends and the historic begins, there can be no doubt that the 
summaiy result of the work, which began with Schliemann's 
excavations and is carried on so vigorously in our own days, 
may be defined as the transfusion of what has hitherto been dis- 
tinctly prehistoric with plentiful material and numerous data, as 
well as the specific methods of observation and' induction which 
are distinctly historic in character. If we ventured to express 
ourselves more boldly still, we should say, that large tracts 
which had hitherto lain in the dim and distant region of the 



42 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

Prehistoric had been explored by individual travellers and were 
now being annexed by a collective body of scholars to the well- 
established and organized territory of the Historic. But when 
a territory becomes thus enlarged, the whole character and 
geography of the long inhabited country itself becomes altered ; 
and it may be found that a new map of the central country 
itself must be made. It may be found, for instance, to con- 
tinue the metaphor, that the mountain ranges and rivers, 
nay, the geological configuration of the very surface that has 
long borne settlements and has been yielding breads tuffs, are 
essentially different in character from what they appeared when 
the physical conditions of perception in the old days enforced 
an artificial limit to our range of investigation, and hence of 
our knowledge ; that the mountain ranges, which we before 
thought rose abruptly at the known boundary of our terri- 
tory, as then drawn in our map, are a continuation of ranges 
which take their rise far up in the new territory we have 
annexed ; that the rivers, the springs of which we thought lay 
within our own lands, are fed by tributaries, or actually take 
their rise in and are themselves the side-streams of, the waters 
that flow from the land beyond the old frontier ; that our fer- 
tile soil is but the alluvial deposit which has silently been 
gradually borne from the distant region. It is thus chiefly 
in the neighborhood of the old boundaries that our old maps 
may have to be revised. 

The case becomes still more complicated and urgent, the re- 
vision of the whole district is the more imperative, when other 
territories, that were hitherto supposed to be far beyond any 
physical contact, are explored and show evidence of essential 
local, if not organic, connection, however remote, with our own 
land. Yet such is day by day becoming more manifest, the 
more the excavator, the archaeologist, the ethnologist, the stu- 
dent of comparative philology, of comparative mythology and 
folklore, advance their systematic studies, not only in Asia 
Minor and in Egypt, not only in the whole of the Mediterra- 
nean basin and beyond it up into Central and Northern Europe, 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 43 

but among the savages of the East and West and of the distant 
antipodes. 

What the combined result on the general knowledge of man's 
history may be in the future, when all these points of vision are 
properly focussed by a great scientific genius, vigorous and yet 
supremely well-balanced, we dare not venture to anticipate 
now. But so much we may do, nay must do, now, namely, 
reconsider what (on insufficient data as we now know) has 
long claimed to be the established starting point in the study 
of Hellenic antiquity and ask anew some primary questions. 
Nay, within the range of our own special classical studies, we 
must even venture on some new answers to old questions put 
in a fresh and more adequate form. 

I should not venture to discuss so wide and intricate a sub- 
ject if the circumstances attending the American excavations of 
the Argive Heraeum had not brought to our knowledge a vast 
amount of material bearing directly upon these problems of the 
earliest Hellenic art and civilization, and if the objects found 
on the site itself, as well as the history of this important sanctu- 
ary, had not in so striking a manner illustrated the continuity 
of Greek art and civilization from the earliest beginnings to the 
latest decline of Hellenism. Merely to classify properly, and 
hence to understand the bearings of, the material with which 
the spade had presented us, required on our part a reconsid- 
eration of the general, fundamental, questions concerning Greek 
antiquity; and though due and sympathetic consideration had 
to be given to the published and accepted views of the known 
authorities, it was found that justice could be done to the rich 
material which a good fortune had given us, only by allowing 
it to speak for itself and approaching its study unbiassed by the 
preconceptions of established theory. 

I should not venture to deal with such wide and fundamental 
questions within the special range of Hellenic antiquity, if I 
had to limit myself to generalization, however important this 
may be when done by some scholar well qualified for such 
a task. But, on the one hand, I feel the counter-balancing 



44 CHARLES WALD STEIN 

security of a definite and wide range of facts and materials 
coming from, or intimately connected with, the excavations of 
the Argive Heraeum, upon which my general conclusions are 
based, or which, at all events, give strength and substance 
to the more general structure. On the other hand, I find 
that the material, and the evidence arising out of it, which 
presented itself to us from the first year of our excavations 
to the last year of our work on the finds, can be properly 
understood and explained only if viewed in connection with 
the chief problems of the earliest Greek civilization and in the 
light of the combined evidence which is presented by a wider 
vision over the whole field. 

Before beginning this attempt to show the important bear- 
ings which the excavations of the Argive Heraeum have on 
the history of the earliest Greek art and civilization, I must 
endeavor to present the main questions properly, and to give 
a rapid survey of the dominant view as held before this new 
era of discovery, and the different basis upon which we must 
now stand while facing the new issues. 



II. PREVIOUS VIEWS ON THE ORIGIN AND EARLIEST HIS- 
TORY OF GREEK ART 

Before the excavations of Schliemann, the historians of Greek 
art had as their grounds for its earliest history, on the one 
hand, the earliest works of Greek sculpture then known, and, 
in connection with these, on the other hand, the tradition 
concerning the beginnings of art to be found in the ancient 
Greek writers themselves ; upon both of these their specula- 
tions concerning the origin of Greek art were based. At a 
very early stage, however, this matter resolved itself into one 
on which opposite sides were taken by different authorities : 
the question, namely, as to whether Greek art was autochtho- 
nous, or whether it was derived from Egypt and the East. The 
followers of Winckelmann, O. Muller, and A. Scholl stoutly 
maintained that Greek art originated in Greece, and developed 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 45 

upon Greek soil; while the followers of Fr. Thiersch, L. Ross 
and A. Hirt insisted upon the theory of a foreign origin in 
Egypt and the East. 

In both these schools of archaeology, however, the chronol- 
ogy, the actual dates which they had in mind for these earliest 
beginnings of Greek art and civilization, were very different from 
those which we are now forced to adopt, as, I have no doubt, the 
chronology of the earliest art in Egypt held but a few years 
ago will be entirely altered by the prehistoric finds which are 
now being made in Egypt. In fact, the parallelism in the 
course of Egyptological study (now following that of Hellenic 
study) and all Hellenic antiquities, is very significant. Stand- 
ing upon the basis of the then known archaic Greek works of 
art, especially of sculpture, which some ventured to place as far 
back as the seventh or eighth century B.C., but no farther, they 
looked back for a few centuries. And this appeared to be their 
limit. 

On the one hand, with the full and true appreciation which 
these archaeologists from Winckelmann onward had of the 
essential characteristics of Hellenic art (and for the inheri- 
tance of which we must ever be grateful to them), they were 
right in pointing to the contrast between Hellenic art and that 
of Egypt, Assyria, and the other centres of Oriental civilization. 
On the other hand, they all had to recognize certain superficial 
similarities among the works of archaic Greek art and those of 
Egypt and the East. They then considered the traditions of the 
Greeks themselves with regard to their early art, and some of 
these pointed to the East, at least to Asia Minor and the islands 
of the Aegean, the Cyclopes to Lycia, the Telchines and Dac- 
tyli to Crete, etc. Through the Phoenician traders and set- 
tlers, again, the connection with the farther East and Egypt 
appeared to be established. The traditions concerning Greek 
painting and architecture seemed to point in the same direction. 

Then these archaeologists (and with them many to-day) saw 
in the Homeric Poems the source of all information concerning 
earliest Greek life and traditions, as they were the only extant 



46 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

specimen of the earliest Greek literature that had come down 
to us. In these Homeric Poems frequent mention is made of 
articles of foreign importation from Egypt and the East. And 
thus it was rightly pointed out that some communication 
existed between these countries, at least in the period when 
these poems were composed. 

Now these inferences were well founded as far as the evi- 
dence at the disposal of these archaeologists went. But the 
conclusions are now proved to be wrong when they are 
directly referred to the origin or the earliest history of Hel- 
lenic civilization. 

Undoubtedly similarities exist between the works of archaic 
Greek art and those of Egypt and the East. But we always 
have to ask ourselves, in this case as well as in others when 
such similarities are made the ground for far-reaching con- 
clusions, whether the similarities are not due to the likeness 
in the phase of civilization attained by the several peoples, 
all of whom are possessed of the same nature in the physio- 
logical constitution of their powers, both of perception and of 
creation. 

There is evidence, it is true, of strong Eastern influence at a 
certain stage of what might be called the Dorian period, when 
an Orientalizing wave sets in and reaches down even to the 
seventh and sixth centuries B.C. But in our present view 
of ancient Greece this is a comparatively late age ; and this 
Orientalizing wave cannot be brought into connection with the 
question of the origin or even of the earliest civilization and 
art of Hellas. There had been many centuries of civilized 
life in Greece proper, of which we have convincing evidence 
now, before this Orientalizing wave set in. 

There is evidence, too, that in periods much earlier, of which 
previous generations of 'archaeologists thought little or nothing, 
there was occasional contact and intercommunication between 
Greece proper and Eastern countries, the countries of the 
Cyclopes, and perhaps Egypt. But this is no evidence of a 
direct dependence of Greek civilization upon Egypt and the 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HEEAEUM 47 

East, or of derivation from them. On the contrary, we shall 
see in the light of the new discoveries, especially at the Argive 
Heraeum, evidence of a continuous development of one civili- 
zation, which, until we can find a better term, we must call 
indigenous to Greece ; l and that this civilization can be traced 

1 Of course, I do not propose here to enter into the question of the earliest 
prehistoric ethnology of Greece when I use the term indigenous. In this wide 
ethnological aspect of the question it may be found that there was. a greater 
unity between East and West, North and South, along the whole Mediterranean 
basin, than has hitherto been assumed. The researches of Professor Ridgeway 
on the Mycenaean Age, and of Professor Flinders Petrie in Egypt and elsewhere, 
emphatically point toward such a conclusion. It appears to me that the latter's 
Egyptian discovery of primitive sites with all kinds of primitive ware, antedating 
by centuries the established landmarks of typical Egyptian chronology hitherto 
known, points to a phase of civilization, if not of intimate ethnological relation- 
ship, similar to the one manifested by the earlier objects from Hissarlic and 
from the Argive Heraeum. The more the evidence tends to point in this 
direction, the less ground is there for assuming a derivative dependence of 
archaic Greek art (in the historical period), upon established Egyptian art con- 
temporary with it, and the line of dynasties immediately preceding it. The 
argument against such a dependence and derivation of Greek art from Egyptian 
art which I have now repeated for many years in my academic teaching, to my 
mind conclusive then, becomes still more binding now. This argument is based 
upon the undeniable fact that in those works of earliest historical Greek sculp- 
ture of the archaic period which have a superficial resemblance to the works of 
Egyptian and Assyrian sculpture, the workmanship itself, the actual technique 
in carving and in manipulation, are strikingly different from, nay, are in contrast 
with, the works of Egyptian and Oriental art from which they are supposed by 
some to be derived. Now any familiarity with the comparative study of art, in 
any period, including that of our own days, shows that the elements of artistic 
production which can be and are most readily transmitted from one place or 
country to another are the methods of technical manipulation, the application 
and the proper handling of the appropriate tools. These improved methods of 
manipulation can at once be imported from distant countries and can be adopted 
by the local artist, artisan, or manufacturer. Not so a distinctly national style. 
The invention of oil painting by the Van Eycks in Flanders was at once intro- 
duced into Italy ; but the domestication of the Northern style of Flemish painting 
into Italy was not so readily effected, and did not materially modify or divert the 
main currents of style in the national art of the Italian schools. Nay, in our 
own days, when, through rapid and facile intercommunication, the distinctly 
national characteristics are weakened or effaced, and when mechanical manu- 
facture has to so great a degree superseded local and individual handiwork, 
the technical improvements in the production of even unartistic ware are at 
once transmitted from one distant centre to another. We can thus readily 
recognize the same technical methods of production, in, let us say, the leather 
ware of England and of Vienna, in English, German, French, and American 



48 . CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

from its rudest primitive beginnings to the comparatively 
highest forms. Upon this general and continuous line of devel- 
opment we can recognize the superimposition of other lines 
of occasional predominant influence (such as in the so-called 
Mycenaean and Geometric periods); and these in their pre- 
dominance may modify the main current so essentially that, 
for the time being, they overshadow and almost hide it. In 
the same way we may, in later periods, recognize the 4 Oriental- 
izing waves ' which almost submerge the main current of the 
early archaic period of recorded Greek history. 



III. HOMER AND THE EARLIEST BEGINNINGS OF HELLENIC 
ART AND CIVILIZATION 

The second great source of error which has misled scholars of 
the old school, and till quite recently those of our own time, in 
their conclusions concerning the earliest beginnings of Greek 
civilization, is the position which the Homeric Poems held in 
their minds. These were considered by the former genera- 
tion of archaeologists to have been composed about the year 
1000 B.C., while the current date for the Trojan war was about 

woollen goods, textile fabrics, cutlery, etc. ; but to the initiated the national and 
local style of the goods, the form and taste displayed in them, are readily dis- 
tinguishable, in spite of the sameness of the processes and the attenuation of 
national idiosyncracies. As regards early Greek sculpture the question had to 
be asked : How could this be derived from Egypt or Assyria when in their work- 
ing the Greek sculptors manifest such childlike, bungling inexperience in the 
simple application of the sculptor's tools, when Egyptian and Assyrian works of 
far earlier date show the most consummate skill and mastery in the carving of 
firm and accurate lines into the very hardest materials, such as we now can hardly 
work with all the improved tools of our modern inventors ? If the Greek crafts- 
men had learned anything in Egypt which they could bring home with them, 
or if the Egyptian workmen had brought anything into Greece, would it not 
have been these elements in the production of works which are really communi- 
cable, and not the style which cannot be transplanted ? Moreover, the technique 
as well as the style of these early Greek works present to us together and pan 
passu one with the other an unbroken line of development from the first feeble 
attempts at sculpture to the highest works of a Pheidias. There is no gap or 
jump either in technique or in style which requires for its explanation the intro- 
duction of new vital forces from without. 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 49 

1180 B.C. The date of the latter event has since then been pushed 
back perhaps to the sixteenth century B.C. But the mistake made 
is, that, since the Homeric Poems are themselves the earliest 
specimens of Greek literature which have come down to us, their 
contents have been taken as the earliest evidence of history, and 
upon this again the inferences concerning the origin of Greek art 
and civilization have been, and are still, based. 

Our inferences thus have been materially biassed by the posi- 
tion we assign to Homeric literature. 

We are coming more and more to realize that the life so 
powerfully depicted in the Homeric Poems marks, not the 
beginning, but the end, of a civilization. This important fact 
has become manifest through the exhaustive studies, pursued 
by so many scholars in our own day, of Homeric language, 
prosody, religion, and life. It is perhaps especially the mod- 
ern study of Greek mythology which has shown, and is show- 
ing, that the theology as conveyed in the Homeric Poems marks 
a late and final stage of development, and presumes ages of 
evolution, and a varied development of earlier national life. 
But still more will this prove to be the case when we have 
sufficiently studied the monuments and objects yielded by exca- 
vations, arid compare the evidence they present with that con- 
tained in the Homeric Poems. 

The Homeric Poems may illustrate the 4 Mycenaean Age ' ; 
but they may also illustrate the 4 Orientalizing Period,' referred 
to above, which reaches down to the Post-Dorian period after 
1000 B.C., far into the archaic Greek period of historical times ; 
while they may contain also vestiges and traces of earlier civ- 
ilization, of customs and institutions, pertaining to the period 
of many generations before the ' Mycenaean Age.' But it will 
be very difficult, and, in the present stage of inquiry impossible, 
to identify and to disentangle these various threads of chronology 
and ethnography. 

Now, within our own time, this Homeric civilization taken 
as a whole without any serious attempt to disentangle these 
several chronological skeins has been used as the solid literary 



50 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

groundwork upon which the student has approached the prob- 
lems of the earliest history of Greek civilization. This fact has 
followed necessarily out of the attempts occasionally success- 
ful, we must admit to identify the life and works described in 
Homer with the results of Schliemann's excavations. This has 
led to the establishment of what amounts to an archaeological 
commonplace the use of the phrase the 'Mycenaean Civili- 
zation.' But the mistake has been made, and is still made, of 
forcing all these finds into an unnatural and 4 unspontaneous ' 
relation to the Homeric Poems, of focussing the objects which 
present themselves to our careful conscientious scientific obser- 
vation and study, from the literary point of view. The result 
is that we approach the study and appreciation of the objects 
themselves with an initial bias. 

This has been the general process of archaeological study in 
the past, owing to the actual history of that study. For classical 
archaeology has arisen out of the study of classical language and 
literature, and has been and is still, to a great extent, regarded 
as a department of Klassische Philologie. 1 The result is that 
the view we have taken of the vast material in monuments and 
objects, which recent excavations have yielded, is not only too 
narrow in its field of vision, but that this narrowness is posi- 
tively misleading with regard to our just appreciation of their 
nature and import. The time has come when we must eman- 
cipate ourselves from the dominance of what might be called 
the worship of Homer. We must come to realize more than we 
have hitherto done (and the work of men like Mr. J. G. Frazer 
has helped us much in this respect) that to follow the tradi- 
tions, the popular lore, embodied in such writings as those of 
Pausanias, may be a safer guide for our knowledge of the earli- 
est life and art of ancient Hellas than are the Homeric Poems. 
But even these popular traditions must be used by the archae- 
ologist as secondary evidence only after he has examined thor- 
oughly, with unbiassed eyes, the monuments with which the 
fortune of the spade has presented him. 

1 See my Essays on the Art rf Pheidias, pp. 8, 9. 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 51 

IV. THE MYCENAEAN AGE (HISSARLIC, TIRYNS, MYCENAE) 
AND THE EARLIEST GREEK CIVILIZATION AND ART 

The outcome of all the excellent work which has recently 
been done on the Mycenaean Age is that to modern archae- 
ologists Hellenic life and civilization begin strictly with that 
age. Before this, with a distinct line of demarcation, simi- 
lar in its defining quality to the line which divided the 
Hellenic from the Eastern and Barbaric in later historical 
periods, is what is called the ' Primitive Period.' This Primi- 
tive period, from the paucity of monuments or information 
about it, but still more, I hold, from the exoteric position 
assigned to it as regards the sacred domain of Hellenism, has 
been treated hitherto as a kind of negligible quantity. The 
peoples who lived on these sites and who made these monu- 
ments have been considered either non-Hellenic or an uncivil- 
ized and nomadic people, a Hirtenvolk, who could not claim 
to be brought into direct relation with Hellenic civilization. 
To these belonged the earliest rude walls built of small stones, 
placed one upon the other like the walls of sheepfolds, in the 
first or lowest layer of Hissarlic, and the class of vases desig- 
nated as 'primitive,' to which in the handbooks a few pages 
are assigned, before the real Hellenic pottery is introduced 
in the long chapters on Mycenaean pottery. The chief sites 
upon which this whole view of earliest Greek chronology is 
based are those of Hissarlic, Tiryns, and Mycenae. It is 
chiefly at Hissarlic that the lowest primitive layer is found, 
and until 1893 it was regarded as ' conclusively established ' 
that the next layer above it, containing a burnt city with 
strongly fortified walls, numerous buildings, and a large palace 
crowning it, was the original Mycenaean citadel, the counter- 
part to those of Tiryns and of Mycenae, itself the Troy of 
Homer. 

This was the state of the question when, in the spring of 
1890, I visited Hissarlic as a member of the International Com- 
mission (among whom were men like Virchow, Babin, Humann, 



52 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

Hamdy Bey, and Von Duhn), which was to report upon the 
evidence presented on the spot by Schliemann and Dorpfeld 
as to the identity of Hissarlic as the site of Troy. The com- 
mission at that time wisely refrained from passing any final 
judgment upon this definite question of identification in spite 
of all the emphatic evidence adduced in all its details on the 
spot in favor of the second city by one who, like Dr. Dorpfeld, 
has a knowledge of ancient walls and architecture, only equalled 
by the constraining power of his persuasive eloquence. As re- 
gards the definite statement of that commission, we limited our- 
selves to the refutation of Botticher's assertion that it was the 
site of a ' cinerary necropolis,' and we distinctly affirmed that it 
was a fortified city. 

After the death of Henry Schliemann, Dr. Dorpfeld con- 
tinued the excavations at Hissarlic in 1892, and the results of 
these excavations were first published in the Athenian Mit- 
theilungen of the German Institute in 1893. We were then, 
and have been since still more emphatically, informed, that 
the Homeric Troy, illustrating the Mycenaean Age, was not 
to be found in the second layer from below, but in the sixth 
layer. The sixth is now as certain as the second was before. 
44 The size of this pergamos about corresponds to that of the 
citadel of Tiryns ; its area is at least twice as large as that of 
the citadel on the second layer. . . . We have here come to 
know a citadel which can be worthily placed by the side of 
those of Tiryns and Mycenae, and which well deserves to be 
celebrated in the verse of Homer. . . . The citadel of the 
second layer is separated from that of the sixth by three settle- 
ments placed one above the other, and must now be considered 
to reach back to an age of which we cannot show another struc- 
ture, even approximately similar, in Europe. It probably will 
have to be pushed back even into the third millenium B.C. 
That the first, or lowest, layer must be still considerably older 
is evident to every one familiar with Trojan ruins." 

It is in this sixth layer and city that vases of the Mycenaean 
style were found. And when we remember that such vases 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 53 

were not found in the lower layers, the identification of this 
sixth city with the Mycenaean Age has the strongest support. 
But the difficulty comes in dealing with the architectural re- 
mains. For in this sixth layer there was found "the most 
splendid citadel whicli lay on the hill of Ilion in prae-Roman 
times. The remains of seven large buildings were laid bare 
even in the first year. These have in part the ground-plan 
of the early Greek temples and of the megara of Tiryns and 
Mycenae ; but they surpass them in their measurements and 
in the care of their building." 

But if the K\vra reject of the "IXio? eurer^eo? were not Cyclo- 
pean, but were, like the houses of the sons of Priam, built of 
smoothed stones (feo-roto X/0oio), the whole question of Cyclo- 
pean architecture and its date, as well as the relation of 
Tiryns and Mycenae to the sixth Homeric city, must be recon- 
sidered. If the Homeric attributes refer to the walls of the 
sixth city, what becomes of the rude Cyclopean walls of 
Mycenae, and a portion of those of Tiryns? Can the same 
term be applied to well-cut masonry and the rude Cyclopean 
walls ? I believe not. If it does apply, as seems to me prob- 
able, to the walls of the sixth city, with its masonry of well-cut 
stones, then the rough Cyclopean masonry is much older. Was 
not ancient tradition right in pushing these Tirynthian walls as 
far back as Proetus, whom it must be well noted the same 
tradition places three generations before Perseus and the Per- 
se'ids, and thus many generations before the Pelopids and the 
Achaeans ? 

And if Dorpfeld was right in insisting upon the identity of 
ground-plan in the buildings on the citadel of the second city 
of Hissarlic and those on the citadels of Mycenae and Tiryns, 
and finds the same system in his sixth city at Hissarlic, what 
does this identity mean? Does it not mean, if the sixth city 
corresponds to the Mycenaean Age, that there is identity of 
tradition in building, arguing for the identity of a continuous 
civilization, from the second (which Dorpfeld places in the 
third millennium B.C.) to the sixth city ; that the civilization of 



54 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

the people living on the Mycenaean sites and continuously con- 
nected with the Mycenaean people goes back for many genera- 
tions beyond the monuments and dates hitherto identified with 
that people, and that at Tiryns and Mycenae it reaches from at 
least the period of Cyclopean masonry to that of the Troy of 
Homer? 

But it may now be urged, that, after all, Hissarlic is not in 
Greece proper, and that, though it is of supreme and unique 
value in presenting us with such marked stratification of ar- 
chaeological layers, the remains of one city being superimposed 
upon the other, still the evidence of the successive cities and 
of the peoples inhabiting them is not conclusive as regards 
Hellenic cities and Hellenic peoples, even though in the future 
a closer affinity between these peoples and those of Greece 
proper in those early ages may be established. 

This objection does not exist in the case of Tiryns and Myce- 
nae ; for these cities are in the Argive plain, the Hellenic centre 
par excellence, the centre in which dwelt the people who, in our 
earliest traditions and in the Homeric Poems, are identified with 
Hellenic life, and who continuously, throughout all periods of 
Greek history, maintained a central importance. But the objec- 
tion to the evidence of these two sites when it is a question of 
the broad and continuous development of Hellenic civilization 
is, that they do not present us with the strata of Hissarlic, in 
fact, that each only marks one period in the early history of the 
districts, that Tiryns was superseded by Mycenae, as Mycenae 
again was superseded by the city of Argos. 



V. THE ARGIVE HERAEUM AND THE EARLIEST HELLENIC 
CIVILIZATION AND ART 

When we consider these limitations which Hissarlic, Tiryns, 
and Mycenae present, it is then that we realize the unique 
importance of the Argive Heraeum in relation to the ques- 
tion of the earliest history of Hellenic civilization. For the 
Argive Heraeum not only marks one period, as did Tiryns 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 55 

and Mycenae, but was a centre of civilization through all the 
ages of which we have archaeological evidence. 

The Argive Heraeum is thus the centre of early Hellenic life 
in Greece proper, and, being the sanctuary for the whole plain, 
it was the temple of Tiryns. The supporting wall of its old 
temple was built at the same time as the Proetean walls of the 
Tirynthian citadel. Though I do not wish to encumber this 
paper with venturesome hypotheses, there is some evidence 
that this site was an inhabited, perhaps a fortified, place 
before it was a sanctuary. 1 Some of the objects there found 
certainly point to an earlier period than the building of the 
Proetean walls. But when Tiryns was superseded by Mycenae, 
the Heraeum was still the great sanctuary of Mycenae. After 
this it was, as Strabo tells us, the sanctuary for both Mycenae 
and Argos ; and, at last, it followed the predominance of Argos 

1 A passage in Bacchylides (XI, 40-85), to which Mr. Hugh Veebohm has 
drawn my attention, is so striking a confirmation of such an hypothesis that I 
must here refer to it in a few words. The fate of the daughters of Proetus is 
here recounted by the poet. The punishment inflicted upon them by Hera was 
due to their disparagement of her sanctuary in comparison with their father's 
abode, Tiryns. The Heraeum and Tiryns are thus placed in rivalry. Now the 
cause of the superiority of Tiryns is indicated in the succeeding lines which 
explain the origin of this splendid new city namely, its Cyclopean walls. 
These are mentioned as an innovation which the older seat of the goddess did 
not then possess. Furthermore, from line 55 on, the whole context seems to 
indicate that the seat of Acrisius is contrasted with the seat of Proetus, the one 
without Cyclopean walls, the other having recently added them, and these two 
cities appear to be, in the mind of the poet, and of the tradition he is following, 
the Heraeum and Tiryns. Though I have pointed out elsewhere that in Homer 
Argos is used for a wider district and country, and not for the city -of Argos 
(which city we must date later even than Mycenae), the use of the term Argos 
as the seat of Acrisius in this passage, as well as in others referring to him, 
seems to point to the Heraeum. Professor Kidgeway has already felt the prob- 
ability of this identification, without the instructive confirmation from Bacchy- 
lides, when he says : " Argos is used of a city, either the city called Argos in 
historical times, or more probably the Heraeum" (Journ. Hellen. Stud. 1896, 
p. 91). On the other hand, the passages in Pausanias (II, 16, 2; II, 12, 2) 
make Proetus the possessor of the Heraeum. Whether this possession of the 
Heraeum took place at a later period in the strife between Proetus and 
Acrisius, of which it was a result, or is due to a confusion on the part of 
Pausanias, I do not venture to decide. At all events, the literary evidence 
strangely points to the earlier date of the Heraeum, as compared with Tiryns 
and, a fortiori, of Mycenae. 



56 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

when that city was supreme over the whole district. But at 
all times it was the chief religious centre of the whole Argive 
district, where the records were kept; and the lists of priestesses 
there deposited served as the chronological standard for the 
Argive district, as in later times the Olympiads were recog- 
nized by the united Hellas. The monuments and objects which 
were there found in our excavations, moreover, lead us, from 
the earliest Pre-Mycenaean beginnings, through all periods of 
Greek histoty, down to Roman times ; they are analogous to 
those of the lowest layers of Hissarlic, they lead us through 
the ages of Tiryns and Mycenae and every one of the suc- 
ceeding periods of art and civilization. This surely makes the 
Heraeum a unique site among the ancient centres that have 
been restored to us, unique, at all events, in its bearing upon 
the question of the earliest Hellenic civilization. 

The fact is that these conclusions, hinted at in the re- 
marks I have just made on Dorpf eld's new sixth city at 
Hissarlic, were beginning to be impressed upon me from a 
different quarter, quite independently of any evidence from 
Hissarlic, at the conclusion of the first year's digging of the 
Heraeum in 1892, when the trenches were sunk on the site of 
the old temple, and when I examined the pottery found and 
pointed out that the vases hitherto known as Proto-Corinthian 
were probably Argive. These conclusions were supported 
and confirmed by every year's digging, and the more I examined 
and grasped the importance of the collected mass of finds 
which my colleagues have been arranging and classifying since 
then, the more I studied and began to grasp the true meaning 
of the Argive Heraeum, the place which it held in the history 
of the Argive plain, the evidence of its succession of walls, and 
the many significant works of ancient ceramic art and terra- 
cotta figurines. Though I stated my views concerning the 
Argive-Linear ware in several public meetings and am glad 
to find they have been in part already accepted by archae- 
ologists I did not think it right to bring these facts before 
the public, until the whole of our material could be studied 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 57 

in detail by my colleagues and myself, and the conclusions 
based upon this study could mature in our minds. 



Now all the separate lines of evidence converge to one propo- 
sition : that the Argive Heraeum was the centre of a civilized 
community which existed many generations before the Myce- 
naean Age ; and that this civilization, in spite of change, modifica- 
tion, advance, and occasional retrogression, was continuous, and 
finally led up to the historical period of the purely Hellenic Age. 
The beginnings of Hellenic civilization must thus be recognized 
in the works before us from the Argive Heraeum which ante- 
date the Mycenaean Age and show a continuous tradition. 
This central arid important fact forces itself upon us the more, 
when in the light of our discoveries taken as a whole, we study 
the topography and architecture of the Heraeum in connection 
with the ancient literary traditions of the Argive plain ; and it 
is finally confirmed by the evidence of the individual finds in 
vases, terra-cottas, early cut stones, etc. 

(a) TOPOGRAPHY, ARCHITECTURE, AND LITERARY TRADITIONS 

The first important fact which the examination of the topog- 
raphy of the Argive Heraeum teaches us, when this is considered 
in connection with the architectural remains on the site, and the 
literary traditions of the Argive district, is that the Heraeum was 
not erected for the city of Argos : nor could it have been built 
by the Mycenaeans to serve as their temple. Its topographical 
position points toward Tiryns and Midea ; it commands the plain 
which is governed on the side of the sea by Tiryns. 

From the very outset, in dealing with Argive subjects, we 
must guard against the misleading confusion (recognized even 
by Strabo) of the term Argos with the city of Argos. The city 
of Argos as a fortified centre is clearly the latest of the three 
citadels which successively dominated the plain and its inhabi- 
tants, the chronological order being, first, Tiryns, then Mycenae, 
and last, the city of Argos. The term is used in Homer to desig- 



58 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

nate the country of the Argive people, and to this he gives an 
indefinite and varied extent, sometimes probably referring to 
those who dwelt in the specifically Argive plain, stretching 
from the Nauplian Gulf to the entrance of the pass leading to 
Corinth, and bordered on either side by the Parnon and Arach- 
nion ranges. At other times the Homeric Argive land includes 
the district which in later Roman times was called the Argolid ; 
again it is used for the whole of Peloponnesus, and the name 
Argives sometimes included the whole Hellenic people. But 
the real local centre is the Argive plain. 

Now this Argive plain is subdivided into two districts by the 
river Inachus, the western division being commanded by the city 
of Argos, the eastern containing Tiryns, Midea, and Mycenae. 
The most important division of the plain is the one to the east 
and northeast of the Inachus, and this is the district which, 
according to tradition and by the archaeological evidence in the 
remains, was most important also in the early times. This dis- 
trict extended down to the sea in the region of Nauplia ; and 
it was at this point that, owing to the marshy nature of the 
seaboard, the early inhabitants settled upon the nearest low hil- 
lock and there built their citadel of Tiryns. Looking north- 
ward up the plain, among the foothills of Mount Eiiboea, an 
eminence juts forth suggesting a fitting termination at this end. 
The site of the Heraeum thus commands the plain eastward 
toward Tiryns and the sea and to the west up to the passes 
which lead to Corinth. There is a logical and natural selection 
of this site as a most prominent centre to the plain with an 
immediate relation to Tiryns and Midea. 

On the other hand, as far as the topographical evidence is con- 
cerned, the Heraeum could not originally have borne any imme- 
diate relation to Mycenae. For Mycenae, hidden away behind 
the hills in the northwestern corner of the plain, is not visible 
from the Heraeum; nor is the Heraeum visible from any part of 
Mycenae. It is hardly likely that the early settlers of Mycenae 
would have chosen such a spot for their chief sanctuary. The 
first temple in the sanctuary, the supporting walls of which are 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 59 

in structure identical with the fortress walls of Tiryns built for 
Proetus, faced toward Tiryns and stood in manifest relation to 
it. It is universally recognized that these Tirynthian walls are 
earlier than those of Mycenae. But in a subsequent period the 
sanctuary shows a relation to Mycenae, and, at last, to the city 
of Argos. In studying the ground-plans of the ten different 
buildings which we have unearthed within the sanctuary, it is 
most interesting to note how the earliest temple platform with its 
buildings faced in the direction of Tiryns ; how then, more and 
more, the mass of buildings shifts its relation toward the west 
and southwest where the road led to Mycenae, until, at last, 
when the supremacy of the city of Argos is fully established, 
the whole sanctuary seems to face about, and, with the temple 
built by Eupolemus and adorned with the statue of Polyclitus, 
the splendid staircases and beautiful colonnades are erected on 
the southern slope, facing the city of Argos, whence the chief 
approach leads to the temple. Thus the topography of the site 
and of the buildings primarily points toward Tiryns and not to 
Mycenae, and would thus lead us to expect remains antedating 
the period of Mycenaean supremacy. 

I cannot here enter into the mythology of Hera and the 
complicated question of the position of that goddess in the 
early growth of Greek religion. I must simply point to 
the fact that the temple was that of a female maternal divi'n- 
ity, who ruled over the people of the Argive plain from the 
earliest times, and was so firmly rooted in the traditions of 
these people that she maintained herself as supreme even after 
Apollo Pythaeus became a ruling divinity in the city of Argos, 
as he undoubtedly was a national divinity to the Dorians in 
their most remote centres. 

In classifying the remains of the numerous buildings within 
the sanctuary, Mr. Tilton and I have prepared a series of plans 
showing the accretion of buildings in the various periods. In 
our opinion the earliest walls consist of remains of the most 
primitive, masonry (necessarily slight, but none the less distinct), 
which formed parts of dwelling houses, immediately below the 



60 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

Cyclopean supporting wall as well as portions of the peribolos 
wall along the southern slope. These mark an earlier stage 
of construction than that of the great Cyclopean supporting 
wall, and, of all ancient remains, they correspond most nearly 
to those of the first city of Hissarlic. As has been said above, 
the Cyclopean supporting wall at the Heraeum corresponds in 
all points to the Proetean wall of Tiryns. The architectural 
remains thus clearly add their evidence to the existence of 
the Heraeum before the building of Mycenae. The earliest 
really correspond to those remains which, as regards Hissarlic, 
Dr. Db'rpfeld now places in the third millenium B.C. 

These conclusions are further confirmed by local Argive 
traditions as handed down by fausanias. In the general in- 
troduction to the official publication, I have endeavored to show 
how two groups of genealogies which Pausanias gives in the 
sixteenth and eighteenth chapters of his second book, at first 
so confusing, present a systematic sequence, when we realize 
that the traveller probably ascertained the genealogy given in 
the sixteenth chapter while at the Heraeum, and that of the 
eighteenth chapter in the city of Argos. It will then be found 
that the latter genealogy begins at, and fits on to, the point 
where the Heraean and older genealogy leaves off namely 
with Megapenthes. However much that is mythical may have 
accumulated around many of the names there given, the fact 
remains, that the ancient Greeks themselves and the people 
who preserved these traditions viewed them and guarded them 
as chronicles of their early history, so that Arcesilaus even 
endeavored to assign a fixed date to Phoroneus. It is after 
Abas that the district, which before that was apparently under 
one ruler, is split into two, and that the one half falls to Proe- 
tus with Tiryns as his centre, while through Acrisius the reign 
of the Perseids begins which subsequently leads to the founda- 
tion of Mycenae. Megapenthes again settles in the city of 
Argos, from which centre we have an unbroken line of rulers. 
But, as far as these traditions go, it is important for us to 
realize that fourteen generations of rulers are mentioned be- 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 61 

fore Perseus and the Perse'ids founded Mycenae, and at least 
nineteen generations before Agamemnon held his sway in this 
ancient city. At all events, the traditions amply show that the 
civilized life which was supposed to begin with Phoroneus (the 
act probably consisting in the building of a citadel which was 
to unite the peoples scattered over the plain) was established 
in this district long before the specifically Mycenaean Age. 



Still more definitely is this view sustained by the vast number 
of individual finds which we have made at the Heraeum. I do 
not propose here to touch upon the whole of these finds even 
in their general groupings. I have given a general survey of 
these in so far as they bear upon the problem we are discussing 
in my general introduction to the official publication. More- 
over, they are dealt with in detail by the several editors who 
have undertaken to publish the special departments of finds. 
But I must here single out two groups of objects the early 
terra-cotta images and the vases not only because their evi- 
dence taken as a whole appeared to me so conclusive with regard 
to the question we are now treating, but also because the study 
of these objects and the discoveries which are every day being 
made in them can be advanced only by a consideration of the 
results to which the study of all our finds together have led us. 
Even if the positive conclusions to which we have arrived be 
not accepted, it cannot but be well for those who are classifying 
early vases and terra-cottas, to guard against the ready accept- 
ance of the now prevalent system of classification as if it were 
fully established and final. 

(b) THE EARLY TERRA-COTTA FIGURINES FROM THE ARGIVE HERAEUM 

Mr. Chase and I, after careful study of the many thousand 

specimens of early terra-cotta figurines from the Heraeum, 

-by far the richest find of such objects yet presented to 

the student, have established a principle of classification by 

means of which the chaotic mass of early ware has at last 



62 CHAELES WALDSTEIN 

become clearly intelligible. Mr. Chase has conscientiously 
examined each one of these many thousand specimens in the 
light of this classification, and has thus submitted it to a 
thorough and trying test. 

We can distinguish at least eight or nine definite categories 
marking a normal and gradual development from the earliest 
types down to the middle of the fifth century B.C. ; and though 
these classes may be, and certainly will have to be, subdivided 
by future investigation, and we were ourselves tempted to carry 
on the development of our work on these lines, we felt that at 
this stage we must remain content with the establishment of 
distinct groups, which we venture to hope will be recognized 
as such by all our colleagues. It is an interesting and sig- 
nificant fact, moreover, that the chronological classification of 
early terra-cotta images corresponds to the classification which 
Dr. Hoppin has accepted for the early vases. 

Now, among the early terra-cotta images from the Heraeum 
we have found specimens that are distinctly of the class known 
as Mycenaean ; I mean that class of rude image in which, above 
the rounded base representing the lower part of the body, 
corresponding very well to the foot of a vase, there is a 
flattened round mass, circular or semicircular in shape, for 
the torso, and again above this the neck and the head, corre- 
sponding very well in character to the neck and top in vases. 
Purely conventional as is this type, the modelling of the interior 
of the rounded circular body, as well as the painted ornamenta- 
tion there found, mark a far higher stage of naturalism, and 
much greater technical skill than would seem warranted by 
the absolute conventionality in the main construction of the 
human body in these 4 ceramic ' figurines. They are almost 
always found by the side of the distinctly and fully devel- 
oped Mycenaeum vases of the various periods ; and, besides at 
Mycenae proper, they occur at the Heraeum, at Tiryns, and 
on all other sites that have passed through a Mj^cenaean phase. 

But at the Heraeum we have another class, still more com- 
mon, which from internal evidence of style and technique is 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 63 

seen to be distinctly earlier than these Mycenaean terra-cottas. 
Though one isolated specimen of this class (of which we have 
many hundreds) appears to have found its way into one Myce- 
naean grave, these are not to be found at Mycenae, while they 
do occur in considerable numbers at Tiryns. 

Far earlier in style and technique than either of these two 
classes is a very large class which we have called 'Primitive,' 
and which gradually leads over from the rudest beginnings to 
our second or 4 Tirynthian ' class. The earliest and rudest of 
these, without any attempt at indication of sex, or real articula- 
tion of the human body, can hardly be recognized as an attempt 
of rendering the human figure. The early coroplast gives a 
slight pinch to the elongated mass of soft clay in the region 
below the arms, so that the beginnings of these are indicated, 
while a pressure of the clay at the upper end produces a rounded 
or pointed termination for the head. From these rudest begin- 
nings is a gradual development in articulation, until the head is 
formed in as far as the coroplast gives a tight pinch at the top 
between his fingers, producing a kind of beak to which two small 
globules of clay are added on either side for the eyes ; and we 
thus get the bird-shaped beak which is meant to stand for the 
human head. The well-defined rendering of the human head 
really only begins in our fifth class. 

Our first or primitive class lends itself to much greater 
differentiation and classification. Its development alone points 
to a long period in the rudely artistic activity of the people who 
dedicated them to the goddess. At all events our terra-cottas 
distinctly show that images were dedicated to the goddess 
within this sanctuary long before those of the Mycenaean type, 
i.e. those which correspond to the Mycenaean vases and are 
found with them, were made. 

(c) THE EARLY VASES FROM THE HERAEUM 

From the nature of ceramic ware, its durability through all 
ages, and its worthlessness to the invader or iconoclast, who 
could not carry off or utilize its remains in the same way as 



64 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

he eagerly possessed himself of metal, threw the marble into the 
limekiln, or carried off the stones for his rude dwelling, from 
these causes pottery has always been the chief guide to the 
excavator of ancient sites. On the worthless vase-fragment 
often depends our knowledge of remote antiquity. It was 
the presence of Mycenaean vases and fragments which led 
Dr. Dorpfeld to recognize in the sixth city of Hissarlic the 
Mycenaean Troy and the Troy of Homer. 

Realizing this great importance of ancient vases for the 
study of antiquity, we must be cautious and conscientious 
in forming our theories regarding them. And though, as I 
believe, the large mass of vases and vase fragments found at 
the Heraeum are of especial importance with regard to the 
history of early Greek ceramics, and deserve the exhaustive 
study which Dr. Hoppin has given them for years (the results 
of which he will give in the official publication), I feel that 
the evidence of our finds, taken as a whole, is so important in 
its bearing upon the main question with which we are deal- 
ing, that my treatment of this subject would be incomplete if I 
did not adduce this evidence here. Moreover, it is just in the 
domain of ceramics that I think the speedy publication of our 
results is called for as a guide or a warning to those who are 
dealing with the new material which excavations are constantly 
yielding. 

It is owing to the excellent work which Furtwangler and 
Loschcke have done on the Mycenaean vases, that these have 
been made the central point from which early Hellenic vases 
are now universally studied. But it is also in great part 
owing to this good work, to the importance which the Myce- 
naean vases have in defining the Mycenaean Age, and to the 
wide diffusion of these vases over all ancient sites, that 
the initial error, which I am endeavoring to combat, the 
exaggerated importance of the Mycenaean period, has been 
incurred. 

When, during our first year's excavation, in 1892, I recog- 
nized the great number of the small vases, many of them of 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 65 

exquisite workmanship, which had hitherto been known as 
Proto-Corinthian, I suggested that these were of local Argive 
manufacture, and proposed for them the name of Argive-Linear. 
I noticed also that the same principle of linear decoration re- 
curred among other and earlier vases not belonging to this dis- 
tinct category. All these vases showed in themselves, and in the 
principle of their decoration, a gradual and normal development ; 
the same principle of linear ornamentation was to be found in 
the earliest and rudest ware, in fact, there was an unbroken 
progression from the earliest primitive beginnings of the ce- 
ramic art, in the small vases from the Heraeum, to the best 
% and latest specimens belonging to the Argive-Linear (Proto- 
Corinthian) period. This principle of decoration seemed, at 
first sight, to differ essentially from the recognized main princi- 
ple of decoration in Mycenaean vases. I thus found myself 
forced to study carefully the principles of Mycenaean vase 
decoration, and to reconsider the essential features in the 
decoration of all early vases. 

Now it is well known that the rough and ready classification 
of early Greek vases in their main features, as. they are sup- 
posed to succeed one another and to mark distinct periods, is 
that of Primitive, Mycenaean (with which Hellenic Ceramics 
proper are supposed to begin), Geometric ; then, with inter- 
mediary stages from other parts of the ancient world, we 
arrive at the Proto-Corinthian class. Then follow the Corin- 
thian and the early Attic classes, which lead us down to the 
firm ground of the typical black-figured Greek vase. 

The chief distinctive features of these several classes are 
supposed to be the following : 

The vases of the Primitive or early Hissarlic type are rudely 
fashioned, hand-made (not wheel-turned) pots of rough, un- 
purified clay, and have either the eccentric shapes which the 
rough skill of a figure-modelling potter gave them, or and 
this is by far the more numerous class they consist of unor- 
namented pottery of rudely rounded forms, which, when orna- 
mented, have incised lines scratched or pressed into them. 



66 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

The important point is that this incised decoration is purely 
linear and decorative in character. I mean by decorative, that 
the principle involved in this ornamentation is distinctly not 
that of the reproduction of objects seen in nature, the form or 
meaning of which was the leading motive which made the 
potter draw these lines. They are to serve as ornaments, and 
nothing more. 1 

In spite of all the subdivisions and classifications within the 
Mycenaean vases themselves, the leading and distinctive fea- 
tures of these vases, features in which they are held to differ 
from the Primitive class which precedes them and the Geo- 
metric class which follows them, are three in number as regards 
their decoration. The painted ornaments are drawn in free- 
hand, the drawing is comparatively naturalistic, and, for the 
first time in Greece, we have in vase painting the introduction 
of glazed color, which maintains itself in Greek ceramics, and 
is one of the most marked features in these beautiful works 
of art ever after. 

In the decoration of the Geometric vases, which follow upon 
the Mycenaean, we have a relapse into the mechanical spheres 
of decoration. The chief characteristic of these vases is not so 
much to be found in what we usually call 'geometric draw- 
ings,' for this linear principle of decoration prevailed even 
before the Mycenaean period. Nor is it to be found in 
the choice of unmeaning subjects of decoration, for they fre- 
quently render human figures and animals. But it is to be 
found in a combination of the mechanical spirit in drawing 
as opposed to that of freehand execution, together with a 
mechanical repetition and redundancy of design which re- 
minds us of the processes applied by the weaver of textile 
fabrics or the plaiter of basket-ware. 

The decoration of the small Argive-Linear (Proto-Corinthian) 
vases, however great their superiority of manufacture over the 

1 The significance of this point in the general development of art and its 
bearing upon the principles of aesthetics, I must reserve for treatment on some 
future occasion. 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 67 

rude Primitive-Linear ware may be, is again in principle the 
same as that of this early ware. It consists of a series of 
parallel lines, generally straight or concentric, drawn with 
extreme accuracy and firmness, and ornamenting vases the 
actual making of which both in the treatment of the pure clay 
and the thinness and evenness which they exhibit, is of the 
very highest excellence. 

I must now turn to a more searching investigation of the 
principles of Mycenaean vase ornamentation, omitting here, 
for the present, the innovation marked by the glazed color, 
which, important as it was to the whole subsequent history 
of ceramics, may have come from abroad. The principle of 
design in Mycenean vase painting does not seem to me to mark 
such a new departure as is claimed for it. On the contrary, 
as far as the evidence of our Heraeum finds goes, it seems a 
natural and organic development out of earlier forms of primi- 
tive pottery in the Argolid. 

There is a class of Mycenaean vases known as the vases with 
'dull-colored' (mattfarbige) ornamentation. Though it ap- 
pears that some specimens of these have been found in later 
Mycenaean strata, there can be no doubt that, as a class, they 
precede those of the 'glaze-color' order. Our finds at the 
Heraeum distinctly bear this out. Now these dull-colored 
vases, as far as our finds and with but few exceptions the 
finds of all other excavators go, are purely linear in design. 
At the Heraeum these small vases, in the clay itself, in their 
technique as well as their shape, distinctly belong to the same 
category as those of the Primitive-Linear class. These linear 
ornaments in them, as well as in those which decidedly belong 
to the Primitive class, are free-hand in character. A real 
change comes into the whole current of this decorative de- 
velopment, when the wheel is introduced and the vases are 
thrown and not modelled by hand. The lines of the ornaments 
then become mechanical and not free in character. In the 
official publication I have arranged a most graphic and strik- 
ing illustration of this process from the earliest incised linear 



68 CHARLES WALDSTE1N 

ornaments, through free-hand painting to its final mechanical 
stage in the vase thrown on the wheel. 

Now the tradition and the custom of free-hand vase painting, 
surviving as it does, leads, through some of the advanced speci- 
mens in the so-called Santorini or Thera vases, to the Mycenaean 
vase proper with its free-hand and naturalistic ornamentation. 
The whole mental and artistic attitude, the -ethos of the painter, 
is altered when he advances in the skill of using the brush ; 
and then, spurning the mechanical influence of the wheel, he 
clings to free-hand drawing. He naturally soon turns to the 
living world and strives to render this, presenting its free- 
dom and vitality. The early primitive vase decorator, the 
painter of the Linear dull-colored vases, naturalty leads us to 
the Mycenaean vase painter. There is thus no break, but con- 
tinuity, from the Primitive to the Mycenaean period as regards 
the principle of vase decoration. We shall presently see how 
the mechanical principle of linear decoration also survives and 
is absorbed into the body of Mycenaean vase painting. 

Despite the powerful development and predominance of the 
artistic principle in the Mycenaean style during a certain 
period, succeeded by the prominence of the Geometric style 'in 
a subsequent period, the evidence of the Heraeum finds shows 
that the original linear principle never died out there but main- 
tained itself during these periods in unbroken sequence, and that 
when the Mycenaean and the Geometric currents were weakened 
and attenuated, this linear principle again asserted itself and in 
its turn attained preeminence. This happens with that class of 
vases which have passed through the improvements of technique 
introduced by the Mycenaean and the Geometric potter, but are 
still restricted to small shapes ; and these we have called the 
Argive-Linear or Proto-Corinthian. These for a time predomi- 
nate, yet gradually become more and more affected by the 
4 Orientalizing wave ' which seems to spread over the whole of 
Greece in that later period, and thus leads to the Corinthian 
and early Attic classes. 

The earlier and purely linear principle maintains itself during 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 69 

the Mycenaean and Geometrical periods chiefly in the vases of 
small dimension. Being smaller and cheaper, they appear thus 
not to have attracted the skill of the more proficient and ambi- 
tious potter who has advanced in his decoration to the higher 
phases reached in the larger and more beautiful Mycenaean 
and Geometric vases. It is always in this cheaper local ware 
that the earlier local style of the people themselves, which has 
aptly been called Bauernstyl, has greater power of survival. 
We thus have in our Heraeum vases a continuous series of 
such smaller pots with purely linear design, not only from 
Primitive and 'dull-colored' periods (when only that linear 
principle prevailed), but of distinctly Mycenaean and Geometric 
manufacture, in clay, shape, and general character. 

But the persistence and continuity of this Linear principle 
at the Heraeum shows itself even in the larger and purely 
Mycenaean or Geometric vases as well, I mean in those vases 
that manifest the fully developed, distinctive qualities of their 
ornamentation. Nay, I venture to say that the more mechani- 
cal linear ornament, which Mycenaean vases absorb from the 
Primitive and dull-colored classes, as well as the free-hand ten- 
dencies, is never absent in the whole development of purely 
Mycenaean vase painting. Many of these larger vases are 
decorated only with concentric stripes and purely linear design. 
Even in those with naturalistic rendering of plants and marine 
zoology, the whole surface of the vase is subdivided according 
to its vase structure foot, belly, shoulder, neck, and lip by 
concentric lines that carry on the early linear principle and are 
the ornament which alone is found in the later Argive-Linear 
vases. Nay, if we take a fragment of one of the large Myce- 
naean vases containing these parallel stripes alone (though the 
other portions contained naturalistic Mycenaean ornament) and 
reduce this in size, I would defy any archaeologist to distin- 
guish it from a similar fragment of our Argive-Linear, the so- 
called Pro to-Corinthian, vase. The same holds good also with 
regard to the large Geometric vases. 

Finally, I would adduce a striking instance from Mycenae 



70 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

itself to support my proposition. Tsountas found at Mycenae 
a beehive tomb of which the dromos was closed by stones, 
among which was a slab which bore interesting Mycenaean 
wall paintings. 1 In the interior of this tomb were found Myce- 
naean vases which have exclusively linear designs. But, still 
more interesting than these, is the stone slab which stopped the 
dromos. This slab must be considerably older than the grave 
itself and its contents, as it had fallen into disuse when it was 
taken for such a casual stop-gap at the time the grave was made. 
The mural painting upon it belonged to a previous period. But 
before the stone was decorated with naturalistic Mycenaean paint- 
ing it served some other purpose and was decorated with incised 
lines during this first use to which it was put. For, at the upper 
part of the slab, the stucco forming the ground for the painter is 
broken away and reveals an incised ornament which is purely 
linear in design. The first of the three periods in the history of 
this stone slab shows linear decoration, the second naturalistic 
wall painting, the third corresponds to the vases in the tomb 
with linear designs. The continuity of purely linear design at 
Mycenae itself is thus proved. 

Now what these facts teach us is, that the linear principle of 
vase decoration is the earliest out of which, as regards free- 
hand drawing, the Mycenaean style is evolved, and is continu- 
ous in the Argive district from the earliest Primitive to its final 
revival in the late Argive-Linear period; that it never com- 
pletely died out, though Mycenaean and Geometric periods 
were superimposed and were for a time predominant. Finally, 
they teach us that, before the Mycenaean Age, there was a 
considerable period of activity in ceramic art, which is not 
essentially different from it in kind, and points to the same con- 
tinuity in the civilization of the people who made these vases. 

The following diagram, in which the thinness or thickness of 
the line marks the degree of predominance, will illustrate what 
I here maintain to have been the general development of early 
Greek ceramic art : 

. 1896, pp. 2 seq. pis. i and ii. 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 



71 



Primitive 

Linear 
(free-hand) 

Linear 
(free-hand) 



In 

Dull-l 



Glaze- 



Linear 

(Mechanical lines 

following turning of 

vase) 

Linear 
(of Mycenaean Period) 

Linear 
(of Geometric Period) 

Argive-Linear 

Orientalizing 
Corinthian 



Early-Attic 



Primitive 

Linear 
eised (free-hand) 
colored 

Linear (free-hand) Santorini 



coXlored 



aturalistic and 

free-hand 

(linear maintained 

in subdivision 

of vase) 



Mycenaean 



Mycenaean 



Mechanical repe- 
tition and redundancy 

of design Geometric 

Argive-Linear (Proto-Corinthian) 
Orientalizing 

Corinthian 



Early Attic 



Black-figured 



VI. CONCLUSION 

We find then that we must look to an earlier time than the 
Mycenaean Age for the beginnings of Greek art and civilization 
in the earliest Argive period. Whatever weight, be it great or 
small, may be given to the ancient local traditions as contained 
in the Argive genealogies, it is worthy of note, that according to 
these, the fourteen generations preceding the founding of My- 
cenae by the Perseids, reckoned at thirty years, would bring 
us to the beginning of the nineteenth century B.C., if we place 
the Mycenaean Age, as is now done, in the fifteenth century B.C. 
Dr. Penrose, on the ground of his comparative studies on the 
orientation of Greek temples, moreover, gives the year 1830 B.C. 
for the building of the older Heraeum. It is also worthy of 
note that this corresponds to the computation actually given 
by the ancients; as Eusebius 1 quotes from Acesilaus for the 
date of Phoroneus 1020 years before the first Olympiad, which 

1 Praep. Evang. X, cap. x. 



72 CHARLES WALDSTEIN 

brings us to about the same date. I venture to believe that 
some of the remains at the Heraeum as well as those of His- 
sarlic considerably antedate this time. But we may hope 
that in the future the Pre-Mycenaean period as well as the 
Mycenaean period itself will be further differentiated in the 
light of the careful scientific study of the remains before us 
now. We may then hope to get a classification of the Pre- 
Archaic Greek of which I venture here as an hypothesis, 
but surely a justifiable hypothesis to give a plan, taking, 
especially for the earlier portion, the names of the rulers who 
mark a distinct style in civilization and art. 

(1) The Phoronean, corresponding to the Primitive wares in terra-cottas and 

vases, as well as earliest walls. 

(2) The Proetean, corresponding to Tirynthian terra-cottas and early dull- 

colored vases, and Cyclopean walls of Tiryns and Heraeum. 

(3) The Perse'id, corresponding to Mycenaean terra-cottas and Mycenaean 

wares, and outer walls of Mycenae. 

(4) The Pelopid, corresponding to further stages of Mycenaean terra-cottas 

and vases, as well as advanced Mycenaean building. 

(5) The Proto-Dorian, corresponding to ' Geometric ' terra-cottas and Geo- 

metric vases, inner walls of old Heraeum. 

(6) The Dorian, corresponding to Human-headed terra-cottas and Argive- 

Linear (Proto-Corinthian) ware. 

(7) The Orientalizing, Orientalizing ware, terra-cottas, and vases. 

(8) Archaic Greek. 



I must, before closing this inquiry, add a few remarks on the 
Post-Dorian history of early Greek art. 

If we are right in pushing back the earlier stages of Greek 
civilization by so many centuries before the time which the 
previous generation of classical archaeologists assigned to it, 
there is a striking compensation or recoil as regards the begin- 
nings of archaic sculpture proper and the specifically Hellenic 
art. I mean the Greek art which had its revival in the Renais- 
sance, and which, to put it briefly, embodies itself in pure art, in 
contradistinction to decorative art, in the statue and the picture 



EARLIEST HELLENIC ART AND THE HERAEUM 73 

and not in the ornamented object, whether the ornament be in 
relief or in painting. The beginnings of the art of the Greek 
sculptors who made statues in the round, and of the painters 
who made pictures, were, there is every reason to believe, later 
than the previous generation of archaeologists assumed, confus- 
ing, as these did, this question with the question of the earliest 
beginnings of art and civilization in general. These beginnings 
of the statue and the picture probably are not to be found 
before the distinctly Orientalizing wave is beginning to spend 
itself in Greek decorative art. It is then that the Greek 
temple-statue (ayalma) becomes a fixed institution and leads to 
those statues made of wood (xoanci) which are associated with 
the name of Daedalus and his school. 1 At all events it is a 
period when the demand for such temple-statues in the round 
is such as to call for a definite class of artisans or artists, whose 
profession it is to make xoana. It is thus that, according to 
Apollodorus, 2 this Daedalus is called Trpwros ayaX^drcov evpe- 
TT;?. With him Aristides 3 begins sculpture, while Hyginus 
calls him the first to have made statues of gods. 4 From these 
early temple-statues to the establishment of that ideal type 
which guides our taste down to the present day, in which (and 
this is the cause of its power of persistence) naturalism and 
idealism are completely and harmoniously blended, the histori- 
cal evidence in monuments and literature is before us. Yet 
we can recognize as the chief impulse which gave Greek art 
these leading and lasting characteristics, the influence of their 
great national institution, the athletic games, when once the 
sculptor's art was called in to commemorate the victories of 

their successful votaries. 5 

CHARLES WALDSTEIN. 

:': 

1 1 have dealt with the historical aspect of Dedalic sculpture in an article on 
'De"dale et TArt^mis de Delos,' Revue Archeologique, 1881, p. 321. 

2 Apollodorus, III, p. 30. 3 -rrepl /^TO/H^S, I, 30. 4 274. 

5 See ' The Influence of Athletic Games upon Greek Art,' from the Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Institution, Great Britain, 1883, in my Essays on the Art of 
Pheidias, pp. 394 seq. 



archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 



ATTENTION has not been called to the very serious difficul- 
ties involved in the accepted dating and restoration of the didas- 
calic inscription no. 972, in the second volume of the Attic 
Corpus, although they are of such a kind as to disturb the 
student both of scenic antiquities and of Greek literary history. 
The stone itself has unfortunately been lost, so that the limits 
of space which would determine the restorations to be made are 
somewhat uncertain in several instances. The copy given by 
Le Bas, whom Kohler has followed, seems more trustworthy 
than that of Fourmont, upon whom Bb'ckh had to depend. In 
order that the difficulties which I shall point out may be more 
readily perceived, I give the restored text, after Kohler, of the 
first column, which alone interests us here : 

[6 Selva 
[u?re : ' 



5 [UTTO : . . .]<ozw/Lto? evi/ca 



: Sev : Ne/c/oau 
rro/i 
10 Ato3o)/3o? rpi Maiz>o/ieW( 

Te':IIo??Te2 



American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 74 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC IXSCBIPTIONS 75 

It will be observed that all of the restorations except 
['Azm^ai']?;? in 1. 3, and [3>o]m/<;[$>]?79 in 1. 12, either are indi- 
cated by the context or are epigraphically certain. In 1. 5 the 
actor's name can hardly be other than [ r le/o]a>w/-to?, if the space 
indicated by Le Bas is even approximately correct. As to 
[<E>o]we[Y8]i79 there can scarcely be a doubt, although Le Bas 
leaves space for three letters where tS are restored. But in 
copying this inscription Le Bas (or his source) is everywhere 
careless in marking the extent of the lacunae where the begin- 
ning of a line is broken off, and the more naturally since he 
never attempted to fill in the lacunae, as the epigraphist would 
do nowadays. oLWKi8r)<s is the only name conceivable for 
. . IN IK . . . H^, as Kohler saw. The Nt/^o^a/a]??? of Bockh dis- 
regards the I before the N, as well as the space for one letter 
which Le Bas leaves at the beginning of the line, assumes a 
lacuna of four letters in the middle of the word, and places 
this poet impossibly late. There remains then to consider only 
[' Ai>-n(/>az>] rjs in 1. 3. This restoration depends primarily upon 
the fact that Antiphanes wrote a play entitled 'Amcrwfo'/zez'ot. 
But this title was also employed by Diphilus, Eubulus, Hip- 
parchus, and an unknown poet of the new comedy (C.I.A. II, 
975, d), so that the restoration, after all, is conditioned by the 
date of this record. If the Diotimus of the next year was the 
archon of 354/3, as Bockh naturally assumed, then the name of 
Antiphanes is undoubtedly to be admitted. But there was 
another archon Diotimus, who can now be placed definitively 
in the year 289/8. I believe that positive evidence can be 
produced in favor of the later date. But first a word as to this 
inscription, under its present dating, as a didascalic document. 

The second column of this inscription contained, as Kohler 
has shown conclusively, the tragic didascaliae of the Lenaean 
festival of the years 419, 418, and 417. The fact that the vic- 
torious comic actor is mentioned in the first column may be 
accepted as proving equally conclusively that this portion also 
is Lenaean, if the accepted dating is correct ; for in the inscrip- 
tions of this period which have reference to the Dionysia only 



76 EDWABD CAP PS 

the victorious tragic actor is given, never the comic. Down to 
the year 329, the date of the latest Dionysian record which we 
possess {C.LA. II, 971, A), the contest of comic actors had not 
yet been introduced into the greater festival. The tragic Lenaean 
didascaliae therefore began at the top of the second column, 
and the first column of our fragment is the last column of the 
comic Lenaean didascaliae. We do not know how many lines to 
the column the original inscription contained. Assuming, how- 
ever, that it was between 100 and 140, containing from 9 to 12 
years, and that this fragment stood as near the top as possible, 
the comic didascaliae could not have extended beyond 346-3. 
Now is it possible that the record came to a close at this 
date ? The corresponding record of tragic events at the Dionysia 
(C.LA. II, 973), which extends into the year 339, bears the 
marks of having been put on stone in the third century. The 
two inscriptions are in all respects counterparts of one another 
and evidently belonged to the same didascalic series. 1 The 
materials for these records were first compiled, as it seems, by 
Aristotle. There is every reason a priori to believe that these 
two catalogues once formed part of the same inscription and 
were put on stone at the same time. Therefore, unless the 
comic contest at the Lenaea was discontinued some time in the 
forties, the position of our inscription in the series is unaccount- 
able. We know, however, that it was not discontinued. Apart 
from the fact that Aristotle in the TloXireia gives no intimation 
to this effect, we have in the inscription C.I. A. II, 1289 a 
proof, hitherto overlooked, that the Lenaean contest had suf- 
fered no curtailment up to the year 307/6. This inscription 
gives the name of the agonothete for the year, then the victors: 
(1) the tragic poet, (2) the tragic actor, (3) the comic poet, 
and (4) the comic actor. The omission of the dithyrambic 
events, for the existence of which at the Dionysia of this period 
there is ample evidence in the agonothesia inscriptions, and the 



for IIo^T^ in no. 972 would be quite the rule in the third century, 
but somewhat exceptional as early as 354. Since the stone is lost, no judgment 
can be given on the basis of the forms of the letters. 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 77 

fact that comedy is given the place of honor after tragedy, 
compel us to the conclusion that this document refers to the 
Lenaea. It is clear, therefore, that from this point of view 
the interpretation of our inscription, under its present dating, 
involves most serious difficulties, to say nothing of the further 
necessity of assuming that the Lenaean tragic contest, the record 
of which was begun in the next column, was not inaugurated 
until 420, which again is opposed to what little information 
we have on the subject. 

Turning now to matters of literary history, we find equally 
weighty objections to the present dating. We may pass over 
without special emphasis the improbability that, if Simylus was 
a poet of the Middle Comedy, a play of his was revived as a 
Tra\aiov Spd/jLa over 150 years later, long after the revolution in 
comedy had been fully accomplished. Kohler's restoration of 
'Epdrcov Mey[api/cr) ^L/JLV\OV~\ in no. 975, a, however plausible 
in itself, cannot be regarded more than remotely possible so 
long as Simylus retains his position as a contemporary of Anax- 
andrides and Antiphanes. It is surprising, too, that this poet, 
if the Lenaean victor of 353, does not appear in the catalogue 
of Lenaean victors, C.I. A. II, 977, fragg. /", A, g. 1 It is possi- 
ble, of course, that his name stood in the lacuna of four lines 
between ' Apia-rocpwv and Krjtyio-dBcopos. We must bear in mind, 
however, that there is no evidence whatever, apart from that 
of our inscription, which places Simylus in the Middle Comedy. 

A strong argument is furnished by the name of Phoenicides. 
In restoring his name here, Kohler simply followed the epi- 
graphical indications, and did not attempt to explain how this 
poet could have begun his career at so early a date. The only 
independent evidence of the time to which he belonged is fur- 
nished by Hesychins, s.v. Svvda-ai <nwirav, who quotes from his 
AuX^r/nSe?. See Kock, O.A.F. Ill, p. 333, and Meineke, Hist. 
Grit. p. 481 sq. In this fragment reference is made to the 
treaty between Pyrrhus and Antigonus, an event which Droy- 

1 That this is the Lenaean, and not the Dionysian catalogue, as has been 
believed, I have shown in the American Journal of Philology, vol. XX, no. 80. 



78 EDWARD CAPPS 

sen dates in the year 287. It is distinctly incredible that 
Phoenicides produced a play at least sixty-seven years before 
this time. Either Kohler's restoration of his name in our 
inscription must be given up, however necessary it seems epi- 
graphically, or the archon Diotimus must be the magistrate of 
289/8, unless we assume a corruption in Hesychius. To retain 
the restoration, the old date, and the Ai}X?;T/?t&e?, as Kock does, 
mutually contradictory as they are, and that, too, without so 
much as a query, is against both common sense and method. 

Perhaps it may be suggested incidentally that the title of 
Straton's play 3>otw/c$7/5, as well as the chronology of Straton 
himself, finds a ready explanation if we accept the proposed 
date. It was not an uncommon occurrence for one comic poet 
to take the name of another as a title. Now of Straton we 
know only this: he ridiculed Philetas of Cos, who flourished 
ca. 300; several verses of his 4><HW/c$7/5 are quoted by Athe- 
naeus as from some play of Philemon. For the former reason 
Meineke (Hist. Crit. pp. 426 sqJ) rightly rejects Suidas' state- 
ment that Straton belonged to the Middle Comedy. Whether 
he borrowed from Philemon, or Philemon from him, we cannot 
know, but certainly the former supposition is distinctly more 
probable, and becomes possible if we learn that he was a poet 
of the third century, 1 a contemporary of Phoenicides. However, 
the names ^rpdrcov and <&i\r)iJici)v may simply have become con- 
fused in the text of Atheriaeus. 

It is a fortunate circumstance that the case against the 
accepted dating of our inscription does not rest solely upon 
these objections, although, to my thinking, they are sufficient. 
Confirmatory evidence of a positive nature is to be found in 

1 It is possible to identify him with the successful comic actor to whom 
Plutarch, Quaestt. Symp. 5, 1, refers, without changing /cu>,uy56s to KU/MK{>S. 
Many of the comic poets, of this period especially, served an apprenticeship as 
actors, as in the early comedy. He may even be the father of the comic actor 
Philon, who appeared at Delphi toward the middle of the third century. A 
different person was the ^rpdruv 'Ia-i56rou 'Alqrouos, the /cw/iv56s at Oropus 
and Thespiae early in the first century. The latter is undoubtedly identical with 
the S.'I<ri56Tou Kv8a6rjvaievs of the sepulchral inscription C.I.A. Ill, 1778. 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 79 



connection with the actors mentioned Aristomachus, Hie- 
ronymus, and Cephisius. To fix the date of these actors it 
will be necessary to make a digression. 

Among the fragments of the great catalogue of victors at the 
dramatic contests, C.I. A. II, 977, fragg. uv and f r w have not 
been definitively identified. Bergk thought that the names were 
those of tragic poets, audacius quam uerius, as Kohler remarks. 
Oehmichen saw comic poets in the lists. Kohler was inclined 
to the view that the names were those of actors, comic or 
tragic. Now it can be shown that Kohler's surmise was cor- 
rect, and that in fact we have comic actors. This I have 
attempted to prove elsewhere, but the accepted dating of the 
didascalic inscription under consideration stood in the way of 
a complete identification. The text of the four fragments is as 

follows : 

uv f'w 



KouVXiTTTros IIII AVKMT-- 

II ^axriKXi^s -] 

I Ho\vr)\0<; - 

5 IlJvppaXevs I HvOa.pa.TOS I - 

II KaXXtas III 

I 1 Mei/e/c[X^s] I 1 

IIII A[^/X]T;[]T/D]IO? II 1 

Ill IIiT&i'S I 

10 Ae]pKT05 I- ^^[KjXetST/s II 1 



.. \EA3 II 
. . cWo? I 

A]e/OKTO? I 

'Apioriwv II 
^tXawSr;? I - 
<I>iXoKXr/[s -J 



aros - 



-J 
-] 



I 

15 AtlToXvKO? I 

I 
I 



The names of a considerable number of comic actors of the 
first half of the third century are known to us through the 

1 The reading here given is somewhat different from that reported in the 
Corpus. 



80 EDWARD CAP PS 

Delian and Delphian agonistic inscriptions. Those from Delos 
to which I shall refer are published by Hauvette-Besnault in 
the Bull. Corr. helUn. 2, pp. 104 sqq., the latter are found in 
the appendix to Liiders, Die dionysischen Ktimtler. Reisch has 
shown that the Delphian inscriptions fall somewhere near the 
year 270 ; the Delian have been dated to the year. Now it 
can scarcely be a matter of accident that some of the names 
of these comic actors are found in our victors' catalogues, and 
that the dates of their appearance at Delos and at Delphi cor- 
respond closely to the chronological order indicated by their 
position in the lists. I will consider the names in the order in 
which they occur in the catalogue. 

KaXXtTrTro? uv, 2 : Insc. Del. 270 B.C. This person is iden- 
tical with the Lenaean victor of 306 B.C. in C.I.A. II, 1289 

a>yua>ta9 KaXXtTrJ-Tro? KaXXtbu 2owtev9. 
tW, uv, 6. No KMfjLwSos of this name is known. But in the 
Delphian inscriptions (Liiders, p. 194) appears a comic StSaoveaXo?, 
Mocr^iW Eu/SouXof Tapyapevs. I do not urge the identification, 
but the fact that this person was a StSacr/eaXo? at Delphi is no 
objection to it. A Krjfacro&topos KaXXibf Botavrto?, who appeared 
as StSaovcaXo? at the Soteria, is found later as a comic 
(Liiders, pp. 192 and 197), and so with vpcro<s Kpfccovos ' 
<no? (ibid. pp. 192 and 196). Still more in point is the 
KXeo'fez'o?, at Delos in 270 B.C., who is presumably the same as 
the SiSda/caXos at Delphi (Liiders, p. 189). We know of many 
comic poets who had been actors earlier in their career. This 
was particularly true of the period which we are considering. 
Several known examples could be cited, including Philemon 
the Elder (Arist. RJiet. 3, 12; Aesch. Tim. 132). Under the 
influence of the guilds the marked distinctions which once 
existed between the several branches of the dramatic profession 
were broken down. The member of the guild seems to have 
served an apprenticeship as dancer, as actor, and as vTroBiSd- 
oveaXo? before he was employed as StSa'ovcaXo? ; while those of 
greater gifts turned their attention to writing. Later on we 
find dramatic poets taking part in country festivals as 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 81 

eircov, and still later in both tragedy and comedy. But this is 
not the place to enlarge upon this subject. 

, uv, 8 : /co>yiift>So? at Delos in 282 B.C. 

uv, 9, and f'w, 1 : He is not found as /e&>//,o>So9, 
except in our didascalic inscription, but was possibly father of 
the /ccofjLwSos at Delphi <&i\c0vi&r)s 'ApLa-ro/jLa^ov Za/cvvOios (p. 189, 
Liiders). It would be interesting to know how frequently 
son succeeded father in this profession, as in tragic and comic 
poetry. It was certainly a not uncommon occurrence. The 
dates would admit of the hypothesis here. 

AVTO\VKOS, uv, 15 : Insc. Delph., AVTO\VKOS "Ao-rcovos ArnaXoV, 
pp. 192 and 194, Liiders. 

OtXoWS^ uv, 16, f'w, 6 : Besides the comic actor, son of Aris- 
tomachus, mentioned above, a comic actor of the name performed 
at Delos in 265. He may be the Philonides of our list. 

IloXf [tfX^?] uv, col. II, \,f'w, 10 : Adopting Kohler's restora- 
tion we may identify with the Ho\vtc\fjs of the Delian inscrip- 
tion of 282 B.C. This is rather better than to identify with 
Ho\vKpiros Kao-aavBpevs Insc. Del. of 261 B.C., not only on 
account of the date, but because the former's name is given 
without the ethnikon. Although the usage of the Delian 
inscriptions is not consistent in this regard, yet in a number 
of instances the person so undesignated is known to be an 
Athenian, while in one instance 'AOrjvalos is added simply to 
distinguish from a homonym who appears in the same list, e.g. 
Ato8ft)jOo? 2tww7reu9 and A. 'AOrjvalos. 

AVKLO-- uv, col. II, 2 : Insc. Delph., AVKUTKOS Av/cov Ke<aXXaz>, 
Liiders, pp. 192 and 197. 

KaXXta?, uv, col. II, 6 : This may be the son of KaXXtTTTro?, 
who, as we have seen, was himself the son of Callias. He may 
possibly be the KaXXta? KaXXiTTTrou of the sepulchral inscrip- 
tion C.I.A. II, 3819, of unknown provenance. 1 






1 Cf. the double gravestone found at Menidi, C.I.A. II, 2493 6 : KaX\/as 
KaXX/ou Eord/utos | Kd\\nnros KaXXiov Hordfuos. The actor KdXXtTTTros came from 
Sunium. The deme Uordfjuoi lay between Sunium and Thoricus, belonging to 
the same tribe as Sunium, Leontis. 



82 EDWARD CAPPS 



fy uv, col. II, 7 : /ccofjiySos at Delos in 282 B.C. 

. . \EA3, f'w, 2 : The letter before E was either A or M. In 
the Delphian inscriptions (p. 194, Ltiders) we find a comic actor 
A?//iea5 'Avagi/cpdrov 'AO-rjvaios. The name is precisely suitable, 
and should be restored. Quite apart from the epigraphical 
considerations for the identification, the fact that this actor was 
an Athenian makes it probable that he appeared in the Athenian 
contests. 

Now of course it cannot be maintained that the identifica- 
tions above suggested have severally strong claims to probabil- 
ity. But the double coincidence of name and date for one-third 
of the names in our victors' lists would certainly seem not to 
be purely accidental. The relative merits of the proposed 
identification of the catalogues will be more fully appreci- 
ated if one tries to find similar coincidences among the known 
names of tragic and comic poets and of tragic, actors. Bergk 
pointed to the names of Moschion and Philocles, tragic poets 
of the fourth century ; but where are the names of the better 
known tragic poets of this period? Oehmichen seized upon 
the names of the comic poets of the fifth century, Philocles (?) 
and Philonides ; but his whole combination is utterly impossi- 
ble, now that we know that frag, v belongs with frag. u. As 
regards the poets of the New Comedy, we find only two known 
names, Asclepiodorus, of the last half of the second century 
(C.I. A. II, 626), and Philocles, the victor in no. 975, d, ca. 160 
B.C. Of tragic actors we find the names of Asclepiodorus, of 
the first century (Insc. Meg. Drop. Boeot. 3195) ; Socrates, of the 
fourth century; Heracleides, of the latter part of the fifth 
century (977, 0), or of the first half of the second (Le Bas, 
no. 258) ; and Philocleides (^>tXo/c . . in uv, col. II), who ap- 
peared at Delos in 286. It is impossible to effect an identifica- 
tion on the basis of these scattered names. Since the catalogues 
must belong to one of these four categories, we cannot hesitate 
to assign them to that of the comic actors. 

To return now to the didascalic inscription, we find further 
evidence in favor of the later date which we propose in the 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 83 

names of the comic actors mentioned. Cephisius, who was pro- 
tagonist in one of the comedies of Diodorus, is unquestionably 
to be identified with the Krj^icnos 'Icmateu? who performed as 
tcco/jLwSds at Delos in the years 284 and 280. No other comic 
actor of the name is known. It is obvious, also, that the Hie- 
ronymus of our inscription is the same actor who appeared at 
Delos in 282 B.C., and whose name is found in the victors' list, 
and that Aristomachus as well is identical with the comic actor 
who is shown by the same list to have been a contemporary 
of Hieronymus. The fourth actor, ['A^rj^a^?, is unknown. 

A close chronological connection of C.I.A. II, 972, with the 
victors' lists, the choregic inscriptions of Delos, and the Soteric 
inscriptions of Delphi is established, and the accepted dating of 
the archon Diotimos must give way to the date which I set out 
to establish, 289/8. The chronology of the poet Phoenicides, 
as indicated by this inscription, is in complete harmony with 
the notice in Hesychius. Simylus belonged to the New Com- 
edy, not to the Middle. Kohler's restoration of C.I.A. II, 975, a 
may now be accepted without doing violence to all that we 
know concerning the essential differences between plays of the 
New and of the Middle Comedy, which entirely altered the 
conditions of their performance in the theatre. Diodorus must 
also be transferred from the Middle Comedy to the New. He 
was assigned to the former by Meineke solely on the strength 
of this inscription {Hist. Crit. p. 419). I would go further, 
and identify him with the Ato'&o/ao? ^LVCOTTCL^ who appeared as 
fca)fji(*)Bd<; at Delos in the years 286 and 282. Athenaeus tells 
us that the poet was a native of Sinope. 1 

The poet Antiphanes died ca. 310, and consequently could 

1 Diodorus and Diphilus may have been brothers, for we know that the latter 
was a Sinopean; cf. the sepulchral inscription, C.I.A. II, 3343, Ata> AioSupov 
Sij>u>7reus | Ai<iAos AtWos 'Zivutrevs \ At65wpoj A/WPOS Sij/xax^s- Kumanudes first 
recognized the two poets' names. We now see, however, that the poet Diodorus 
is the second, not Dion's father. The demotikon STJ^CIX^S confirms the state- 
ment of the Auctor Lex. Hermann., p. 324, that he was an Athenian evi- 
dently by adoption. It is now clear that Ai[65wp]os cannot be restored in 
C.I.A. II, 977, g. At[o^o-i]os is also impossible, if I am right in reading on 
the stone AT: . . 1^1. 



84 EDWARD CAPPS 

not be the author of the ' Avao-w6/jievoi of our inscription. If 
we may trust Le Bas's copy 1^, with room for six or seven 
letters it is impossible to restore "iTTTra/^o? or At(/>tAo<?. Of 
the known poets of this period one might suggest <f>oivuci8r)<:, 
Ka\\idSijs, or ^ikiTnri^. The fact that the poet was given 
the lowest place is somewhat against <E>tXt7r7rtS?7?, who was one 
of the a^Lo\ojo)TaTOL of the New Comedy. We know that he 
was a prominent personage in Athens at this time (O.I. A. II, 
314-284 B.C.). KaXXidSrjs won his first Lenaean victory be- 
tween ca. 315 and 305 (C.I.A. II, 977, #), and his name is of 
suitable length. But there is really no evidence on which to 
base a decision. As for the play. - - artSt in 1. 1, now that the 
'AX/cTjarfc of Antiphanes, which Bockh proposed, is out of 
the question, the MWTT& of Philemon may be suggested. No 
other known title would be suitable. At this time Philemon 
was still active. But Le Bas reports A before the ^. 

Although the evidence for the existence of a contest of comic 
actors at the Lenaea as early as 354 seems at first glance to 
have been removed by the new dating of this inscription, yet 
new evidence has been found in its place by the identification 
of the fragments of the victors' catalogue. The upper margin 
of frag, u is preserved ; ' Apicrrajopa^ was the first name in the 
cjolumn. The heading which introduced each of the eight sec- 
tions of the catalogue, in this case probably Ni/cai Aiovvaia/cal 
(or Arjvalical) vTroKpir&v KWIAUCWV, was accordingly at the head 
of a previous column, and the section of which frag, u was a 
part began at least one column further back. Since Callippus 
was victorious at the Lenaea at least as early as 306, and each 
column contained seventeen names, the first victory recorded in 
the preceding column must have been won some time in the 
thirties. But at that time the comic actors' contest had not 
been introduced into the City Dionysia. Hence fragg. uv must 
be assigned to the Lenaea, and f'w to the Dionysia. Fragment 
p, which contains the names of well-known comic actors of the 
middle of the fourth century, formed a part of the second col- 
umn preceding uv. From the fact that f'w must be assigned 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 85 

to the Dionysia we learn for the first time that the comic 
actors' contest was at some time introduced into the pro- 
gramme of this festival. As early as 307/6, as we have seen, 
the tragic actors' contest had been admitted to the Lenaea. It 
is natural to assume that the two innovations were made at the 
same time. Now, if f'w was in the second column of the sec- 
tion N't/ecu Aiovvcriafcal vTro/cpLrayv /cwfju/cwv, the beginning of 
this contest would be carried back to the time when we know 
positively that it did not exist. We must consequently con- 
clude that f'w was in the first column of the new section. In 
this case, allowing one line for the heading, not more than six 
names preceded that of Aristomachus. We do not know when 
this actor won his first City victory, but it was almost cer- 
tainly before 288, for in the Lenaean. catalogue Hieronymus, 
his immediate predecessor, is only six lines after Callippus, 
who won in 306, and possibly earlier. The victory of Hierony- 
mus in 289 was therefore not his first, but more likely the 
second or third. It is entirely possible, therefore, that the 
Dionysian list of comic victors goes back to the time of the 
introduction of the tragic actors' contest into the Lenaea, Now 
Kohler has made it appear extremely probable that the agono- 
thesia 1 replaced the choregia in 309/8. Are these other inno- 
vations to be traced to the same period ? 

This leads to another important conclusion : inscription no. 
972 may be either Lenaean or Dionysian, since the record of 
the actors' contest is no longer decisive. The great didascalic 

1 Little is to be made out of the account given in Vit. X Orat. 841, E, of the 
contest of comic actors at the Xtfrpot, rbv viK^avra as &<rrv /caraX^eo-tfat. See 
Miiller, Buhnenalt. pp. 310, 362, and notes. The statement is still further 
discredited by the evidence above cited. 

Haigh, Att. The at? p. 76, n. 3, dates the establishment of the agonothesia 
in 318, depending on the statement of Plut. Phoc. 31 : eireure K<ti dairdvas VTTO- 
<rTTjvat yev6/j.vov dywvodtrriv (i.e. Nicanor). But, in the first place, this does 
not necessarily mean that Nicanor undertook this office at once, and, secondly, 
we know too well the habit of Plutarch of translating such accounts into the 
language of his own time to set up this statement against the strong argu- 
ments of Kohler. We have, in fact, a decree of the deme A-l^dn], thanking the 
X 0/57770* of the year 317/6 for their services : C.I.A. IV, 2, 584, &. 



86 EDWARD CAPPS 

inscription, of which this was a part, may have been arranged: 
(a) tragedy at the Dionysia, (>) comedy at the Dionysia, 
(V) tragedy at the Lenaea, (6') comedy at the Lenaea. This is 
Kohler's supposition. Or the order may have been #, , b', a', 
comedy being given the greater prominence at the Lenaea. The 
order , ', 5, b', is excluded by the presence of tragedy in the sec- 
ond column. In view of the fact that no old play was brought 
out in 288, as is also the case in the Lenaean inscription of 306 
(C.I.A. II, 1289), \vhile in the other comic didascaliae of this 
period (no. 975, /) TraXata appears, we may provisionally, at 
least, accept no. 972 as the Lenaean record, and no. 975 as the 
Dionysiac. " The arrangement was then a, 6, 6', a 1 . 

If our fragment stood near the bottom of the great didascalic 
inscription, the beginning of the record of tragic contests at the 
Lenaea would fall somewhere between 430 and 440 nearer 
the latter date if each column contained ca. 140 lines. This 
result has considerable significance for the explanation of the 
discrepancy that exists between the large number of victories 
recorded for e.g. Sophocles in Suidas (24), and the smaller 
number given in the Dionysian catalogue of victors (18), which 
is in agreement with Diodorus. On the other hand, the Lenaean 
comic didascaliae came to an end on this stone soon after 288, 
and were continued, if at all, in another place. It does not 
seem likely that the comic contest at the Lenaea was discon- 
tinued at this time, for Eudoxus, according to Diogenes Laert. 
8, 90, was victorious four times at the Lenaea. We do not 
know the date of this poet, but he was probably active at a 
period later than that of this inscription. The only safe infer- 
ence, then, from the fact that this record was brought down 
only to ca. 287, is that at this time the series of didascaliae was 
compiled and officially inscribed on stone. This agrees with 
the epigraphical evidence to which reference has been made. 

It has been thought that we have no comic didascaliae between 
inscription no. 972 and the year 187, which is the date of no. 
975 a. I am convinced, however, that several of the fragments 
of the latter inscription belong to the third century. Again 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 87 

the names of the actors furnish the clew. In frag, h we find 
Avalfjia^o^. JNow a comic actor, Av<r//MpO9 ItLv/cpdrov Botomo9, 
took part in the Soteria at Delphi somewhere near 270 (p. 194, 
Liiders). In the fifth line is the name of another actor at 
Delphi, 3>l\(ov ^Tpdrwvos 'A/Li/fya/afcrrr;?, p. 194, Liiders. Since 
the words 'AQNENIKA extend almost to the end of the line, 
the name to be restored was either very long or very short. 
The latter alternative must be chosen, because in the first part 
of the line the actor who appeared in the play mentioned at the 
end of the preceding line must have been given. Everything, 
therefore, points to $>i\a)v. In 1. 4 Kohler restored the title 
'A.T~\6i(Tiv with great plausibility. The only poet of whom a 
play of this name is known is Alexis. That he was alive and 
active as a poet until ca. 272 is shown by the allusion in the 
'T7ro/3o\^ato9 to Ptolemy's marriage with his sister and to the 
ofiovoia arranged between the Egyptian king and the leading 
potentates of Greece (frag. 244 Kock). Kaibel thinks it is pos- 
sible that he lived until ca. 270 (Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Alexis). 
If the fasti of archons for the two decades anterior to this date 
were complete, we might hope to supply the archons in the two 
last lines, for the second name was precisely four letters shorter 
than the one preceding it. I have filled in the names provi- 
sionally. Another possibility would be aevo^&vros (286/5) and 
Qvpfov (285/4). 

............ V7T~\e 

[TTO^TT)? . . ..... ] a/covra 

[uvre ..... 770^77x779]] 



VTTO <3>]tXft>i> evi/ca 

'ApKTTCOVVfJLOV OV^K J6VTO (281/0) 

['E7T6 Topjiov OVK eyevc^To (280/79) 

1 Judging by the recurrence of three titles in three successive lines, Kohler 
surmised that one poet competed with three pieces. But it is scarcely conceiva- 
ble that he should have obtained the three last places with these. The apparent 
crowding is rather due to the chance that the poets' and actors' names were 
short. 



88 EDWARD CAPPS 

The name of the actor Lysimachus probably occurs also in 
frag. i. I would restore as follows : 



\Ju7re. 



[yire. 

Six other poets whom we know employed the title TLapaKara- 
#77/07, but it is not attributed to Philemon. But the approxi- 
mate date being furnished by Lysimachus, it is not easy to find 
another poet who would be designated as Trpecrfivrepos. The 
second Philemon was undoubtedly active at this time. His 
father died in 268/2 or the year after; hence this fragment 
was lower down in the column at the top of which was 
frag. h. ^avvLcov is suggested in 1. 2, because the name ex- 
actly fits the space. A comic actor of this name appeared at 
Delos in 286 B.C. 

A special interest attaches to the name of the actor Lysima- 
chus from the fact that he may be identical with the comic poet 
of whom Lucian relates an amusing incident in A.LKTJ (frcovrjevrctiv, 7. 
Sigma, sojourning in an Athenian colony, is entertained Trapa 



TO 76^0? ave/caOev, CLTTO /jiecnjs &e afy&v \eyecr0ai, TT)? 'Arrt/CT)?. In 
spite of his pretentious, his speech betrays the foreigner at 
every turn, not only by unconscious Boeotianisms, but also by 
extravagant Atticisms like /3acri\iTTa. Although this person 
is not referred to elsewhere as a poet, Meineke was not dis- 
posed to consider the name as a pure invention on the part of 
Lucian. Lucian's language distinctly implies that he was not 
a great poet. He may very well have been a familiar figure at 
Athens as an actor, however. Boeotians apparently played a 
very insignificant part on the Attic stage. In a list of about 
175 comic actors I have found very few Boeotians, and none 
save Lysimachus who seems to have performed at Athens. 
The comic actor and the comic poet of the same name, both 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCBIPTIONS 89 

of them Boeotians, one boasting of his Attic culture, the other 
performing on the Attic stage, and both, finally, of the period 
of the New Comedy 1 is it not extremely probable that they 
are one and the same ? 

To return to the didascaliae, frag, f, which Kohler places 
somewhere in the second century, presents several points of 
attack. Kohler himself calls attention to a peculiarity the true 
significance of which we are now in a position to appreciate 
the omission of the actors' contest, twice indicated in the first 
column by the omission of evi/ca after the actor's name just 
before the date line. Now it is not at all likely that this con- 
test, after it had once been established at the City Dionysia, 
should ever have been omitted, especially since at this time 
the actor's profession constantly grew in importance and influ- 
ence. This consideration leads to the suspicion that the events 
recorded in frag, f are of a date anterior to the innovations 
made between 308 and 290. Nor are other indications wanting 
which tend to confirm this suspicion. In the second column 
is the poet's name TIMOC, who won second place in the contest. 
This must be Tt/uo#eo?, with Kohler. Suidas assigns this poet 
to the Middle Comedy, but in C.I.A. II, 977, c his name must 
be restored as victor just before Poseidippus, 2 who, according 
to Suidas, began to exhibit three years after Menander's death, 
i.e. ca. 288. Again, in col. I, the play which won second place 
was the ! 'Ave-^noi. Menander alone is known to have composed 
a play of this name. The piece which is mentioned in the 
fourth place is the "E/iTropo?, a title used by Epicrates, who 
seems to have belonged to the Middle Comedy, and by Philemon 
and Diphilus. The name of the last-mentioned poet would fit 

1 Lucian represents the action of Sigma against Tau as having been brought 
in the year of the archon Aristarchus of Phaleron. No such person is known. 
The name is probably fictitious, although there may have been an archon of- this 
name in the first half of the third century. There was an archon Aristarchus in 
the first century B.C., but this cannot be urged against the identification. 

2 The Corpus gives only EO^, but the last part of the can be made out 
on the stone. TIM 00 would exactly fill the space required by TTO^EI in 
the line below. The restoration may be regarded as certain. 






90 EDWARD CAPPS 

the given space precisely. Everything points to the same con- 
clusion that the second column belongs to the period after 
Menander's death, the first to the time of his activity before 
the introduction of the actors' contest. Consistent with this 
hypothesis is the fact that, following the indications of space 
given by the proposed restorations, there is no room after Phile- 
mon's name for the epithet Trpea-fivrepos, which we find in 
frag. i. The younger Philemon had not yet appeared upon the 
scene. It is no objection to the proposed dating, in my opinion, 
that a play of Philemon's was brought out as a 7ra\aiov Spd/ma 
before his death. The 4>ft)/cet? must accordingly be assigned 
to the elder Philemon and no longer to the second of the name. 
The restored text should therefore be about as follows : 



] ' 

] OVK e 



7rorj~\ KpdrrjS 'A-Tre- 



' A] vetyio 
KaA,Xt7r7r]o?(?) 



[VTTC ........ ]?;? 

['Evrt .......... ]oof 

1 The fact that the name of this actor precisely suits the space given by the 
other restorations tends to confirm my dating. KdXXtTTTros below is less certain, 
though I noted traces of a IT before 05. The left margin is wrongly indicated in 
the Corpus. The name of the archon in the last line is as yet unknown. If my 
hypothesis concerning the date of this fragment is sound, then we should have 
an additional reason for believing that the name of one archon is lost, between 
300 and 290, from the list furnished by Dionysius, and the last line may afford a 
clew to its recovery. 



THE DATING OF SOME DIDASCALIC INSCRIPTIONS 91 

If I am right in thus interpreting and restoring these frag- 
ments, the chronological arrangement of the extant portion of 
this inscription, which we must now classify as the comic 
didascaliae of the City Dionysia, was as follows: /, col. I, be- 
tween 308 and 290 ; A, about 280 ; /, col. II, after 290 and also 
after h ; i soon after 262 ; then the other fragments in the order 
indicated by Kohler, there being a large gap between i and 
col. I of a. If Tfio[0eo?] is to be restored in g, with Kohler, 
g would fall with the first group ; but it might equally well be 
Tt/uo[<rr/?aT09]. There are many reasons for thinking that b 
and <?, and c arid d, should not be joined together as in the 
Corpus, but the question is too complicated to be entered into 
here. But the small fragment C.I.A. II, 976 is to be reckoned 
among the fragments of no. 975. It is not only on the same 
blue Hymettus marble and in the same style of lettering as 
no. 975, but offers the same peculiarity in the grouping of the 
items as we have already observed in frag, h of the latter. The 

last line should be read, not vTroKp([rr]^ eW/ca], but rather 

VTTO. K/M[. . . . eWtfa]. 

EDWARD CAPPS. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
in Home 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN THE MANU- 
SCRIPTS OF TERENCE 



To us it seems to be the natural thing that in a poem each 
single verse should occupy a line by itself. In the early capital 
manuscripts of Vergil this is regularly the case. In the mosaic 
recently discovered in Africa, representing Vergil with two of 
the Muses, which antedates all of our Vergil manuscripts, the 
verses on the roll seem to be broken up into shorter lines. 1 
Conditions of space, however, may have influenced the artist. 
While as a rule in inscriptions each verse has a line to itself, 
limitations of space often preclude this. In the epitaph of L. Cor- 
nelius Scipio Barbatus, consul, 298, censor, 290, a facsimile 
of which is easily accessible in Egbert, Latin Inscriptions, p. 232, 
GNAIVOD, the first word of the second Saturnian is only sepa- 
rated by a point from the preceding word, while the first word 
of each succeeding Saturnian is separated by a short space and a 
horizontal line from the one before. Six Saturnians are thus 
included in four lines. In a later inscription of L. Cornelius 
Scipio (see Egbert, p. 235), the Saturnians do not coincide 
with the lines, and no space is left at the end of each verse, 
only points being found, which, however, occur after each word 
of the inscription. On the other hand, in the inscription of 
L. Cornelius Scipio, consul, 259, censor, 258 (see Egbert, 
p. 236), each Saturnian occupies a line by itself. In the 
epitaph of Protogenes, however, thought by Ritschl to be the 
oldest example in Latin inscriptions of dactylic verse, the two 

1 See Archaologischcr Anzeiger, Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch des Archaologischen 
Instituts, .1898, p. 114, figur 3. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 92 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 93 

hexameters are divided up between five lines with nothing to 
indicate clearly where the first hexameter ended. (See Egbert, 
p. 234 ; P.L.M.E. XLIX G.) So in an acrostic epitaph published 
in the Bulletino della Commissione Archaeologica Oommunale di 
Roma, 1896, p. 62, each hexameter is divided between two lines. 
In the elegiac epitaph of the poet Diadumenos, published in the 
Bulletino, 1891, p. 73, the end of each verse is marked by a vir- 
gula whether it happens to coincide with the end of a line or 
not. On the other hand, in a Milan inscription, C.I.L. V, 
6295 = Biicheler, Carmina Epigraphica, 1433, the virgula is only 
used where the metrical verse does not happen to coincide with 
the end of a line. More commonly, however, a space is left to 
indicate the end of the metrical verse. Occasionally where the 
beginning of a verse happens to come in the middle of a line, 
the initial capital is made larger than the rest. An example of 
this, is seen in C.I.L. I 1 , 1202. (For facsimile see P.L.M.E. 
LXXX C.) 

In the majority of cases, however, even in the case of long 
verses, each verse has a line by itself. This can be seen by 
glancing through Biicheler's Carmina Epigraphica. There are 
of' course many exceptions. Compare 236, where Biicheler 
notes ^graecanici videntur septenarii fuisse singuli binos in lapide 
versiculos implente*: See also 240, 241, 260, 295, 329, 373, 374, 
375, 477, 489, 490, etc. In some cases it may be noted that the 
division of the verse falls in the middle of a word. Thus in 
489, 5 he\u. In 614, 3, where Nemesia deflet closes the hex- 
ameter, a line begins with ADEFLET, the A of Nemesia being 
carelessly repeated. 

Hettner, Die Romischen Steindenkmaler des Provenzal- 
museums zu Trier, gives under n. 60 a facsimile of an inscrip- 
tion, quoting the first two verses of Lucan, Book VII. These, 
however, occupy five lines, with no point or other indication of 
verse-close. Under n. 374 is given a Christian inscription con- 
sisting of four dactylic verses. The end of the first verse fall- 
ing within a line is separated from the second by an ivy leaf. 
Other examples might be given. 



94 MINTON WARREN 

It is well known that even manuscripts of prose authors some- 
times show a division into /c&Xa. A noteworthy example of 
colometry in a Greek inscription of date not later than the 
fourth century has recently come to light; see Rhein. Mus. 
LII 1897, p. 461. The inscription was found at Lapethos, 
in Cyprus, and contains the Septuagint text of the fifteenth 
Psalm. The third line ends in GPrAZOMENOC, and as there 
was not space for the next word, AIKAIOCYNHN, this was placed 
on the next line by itself, being set in to show that it belonged 
to the preceding line. 

We have a parallel to this in the Bembinus, of Terence, 
which belongs to a slightly later period. Wherever a verse is 
too long to be included within the marginal rulings, the part of 
the verse left over is put in the next line, but set in at a consid- 
erable distance from the margin. As the shorter verses, com- 
monly designated clausulae, are set in in the same manner, there 
arises a liability of confusion, so that a careless and ignorant 
scribe might easily regard a distinct verse, e.g. an iambic dimeter, 
as intended to form a part of the preceding verse. To make 
this clearer it will be necessary to examine more particularly 
the general arrangement of the verses in the Bembinus, as this 
is a subject to which Umpfenbach has paid little attention. 
The Bembinus is a small manuscript. Although the leaves 
differ slightly in size, they average in height about 18 cm., in 
width about 15.50 cm. On the left of each page there are three 
marginal rulings or boundary lines | | | the first and 

second being about 9 mm. apart, the second and the third 
about 13 mm. apart. Now scenes in iambic senarii begin after 
the third ruling, whereas verses of greater length, as octonarii 
and septenarii, begin after the second. In this case the Greek 
notae for the characters are written between the first and second 
ruling, whereas in the case of senarii they come immediately 
before the third. In the Ambrosian Palimpsest of Plautus, 
according to Studemund, Apographum, p. xxxi, long lines begin 
at the extreme left-hand margin (according to the Alexandrian 
colometry, eV eVc0e<m), while senarii are set in, and the cola of 



O^ THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 95 

cantica begin still further from the margin (ey elo-Qea-ei). How- 
ever, this is not as consistently carried out in the Ambrosianus 
as in the Bembinus, as some whole scenes of senarii are not set 
in at all. It will be noticed also by an examination of the 
Apographum of Plautus that where a verse is too long for the 
line, the portion left over is put on the next line and set in. 
Thus on fol. 214 r = Casina, III, 6, we find in the third line, 

NOSMVLTANT 

which are the concluding letters of v. 722, an iambic octonarius, 
while two lines below we find an iambic dimeter catalectic (so 
smaller Goetz-Scholl ed.), set in at the same distance. 

ITAEROMEOIREADVORSVM. 

It might well happen that a scribe, ignorant of metres, copy- 
ing in minuscules might regard ita advorsum* as forming part 
of the preceding verse, or vice versa nos multant, as forming a 
clausula by itself. Many other examples of ' broken verses ' 
might be given from Plautus, but we are now concerned with 
Terence. 

Of the available facsimiles of the Bembinus, that of the 
English Palaeographical Society, Series I, pi. 135 = Bemb., 
fol. CXIIIv, offers a page of iambic senarii, Adelphoe, 755-775, 
including all of Act V, Sc. 1. Although some of these verses 
are much longer than others, they are all set in, and begin at 
the same place after the inner ruling. This page also shows 
with what economy of space the Bembinus was written. In- 
stead of leaving two lines vacant at the bottom of the page, 
after the close of the scene the scribe wrote, 

A DROMO B DEMEA A SYRVS 
PVER SENEX SERVVS 

A still more striking illustration is found at the bottom of fol. 
XLVIIv, where we have one line of the scene-heading of 
Hauton-timorumenos, IV, 8, 

B MENEDEMVS A CKREMES 



96 M IN TON WARREN 

and at the top of fol. XLVIII r, 

SEN ES II 

Similarly fol. LVII r has at the bottom of the page, 

A GETA r ANTIPKO B PKAEDRIA 

At the top of fol. LVIIv, a facsimile of which is given b*y 
Chatelain, pi. vi, we have 

SERVVS ADV LESCENTES II 

Chatelain's facsimile represents both fol. LVII v and fol. LVIII r. 

The former contains Phormio, I, 4, 1-23 = 179-201, and is 
made up chiefly of long lines, octonarii and septenarii. There 
are, however, three short lines, which begin at an equal dis- 
tance from the margin ; namely, about 4 cm. The scribe may 
have considered 182 and 183 as constituting one long verse, 
but there was not room in the line for eommotus, so that the 
verse is broken at that point, and COMMOTVS YEN IT stands 
on a line by itself, whereas the editors write Quid illic com- 
motus venit? So in P 182 and 183 are regarded as one verse, 
but quidnam ille commotus venit has a line to itself, quidnam is 
set in 3 cm. from the margin, but does not begin with a capital, 
as would be the case were it considered the beginning of a 
new verse. 

191, an iambic dimeter, occupies a line by itself in A. 

194, an unusually long verse, is broken after revocemus, so that 

KOMINEMSTAILICOAKEM 

forms a line by itself, which to all appearance might be taken 
as a separate verse, like 191. Umpfenbach remarks that 190 
and 191 make one verse in P, but he fails to note that the words 
quam parat are on a separate line as in A, set in 2 cm. from 
the margin, quam, however, not beginning with a capital. As 
to verse 194, P has sanus es at the end of preceding line, and 
begins the verse with Domum, continuing it to hem, which 
favors the arrangement adopted by Fleckeisen in his second 
edition. 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN TERENCE 97 

Fol. LVIIIr (see Chatelain's facsimile) includes Phormio, 
202-223. 202-215 are long verses. Beginning with 216, we 
have iambic senarii, which are therefore set in. 206 is too long 
to be written in one line, and INMVTARIERis put at the very end 
of the line below, so that there would be no danger of any one 
regarding it as a clausula. Similarly, 209 is broken after abeo, 
which is also the case in F, although this is not mentioned by 
Umpfenbach. 211 is broken after propemodum, whereas in F 
it is broken before this word. 

In plate 9 of Zarigemeister and Wattenbach we have a fac- 
simile of fol. XCv. This includes Hecyra, IV, 3, 10-4, 16 = 
616-638. 620 and 621 are thus written: 

EMEDIOAEQVOMEXCEDEREESTPOSTREMONOSIAMFABVLAESVMVS 
PAMPKILESENEXATQ-ANVS 

PAMPKILE begins 3 cm. from the margin. There was not 
room for it in the preceding line, which, however, is made to 
include sumus, which properly belongs to 621. It may be ques- 
tioned whether the scribe did not intend to regard 620 and 621 
as making one long verse. Umpfenbach says that in P 620 
and 621 make one verse, but he neglects to mention that the 
verse is broken after fdbulae^ and that sumus in the next line 
begins with a small *. Here the division of P is actually better 
than that of A. We may conjecture that P, or its archetype, 
followed a manuscript in capitals, in which the line beginning 
with SVMVS was set in, but the scribe considered it merely to 
be a part of the previous verse. The new scene at the bottom 
of this page in A is in iambic senarii, and all the verses are set 
in from the margin. 

Plate 8 of Zangemeister and Wattenbach gives fol. LIV r of 
the Bembinus, including Phormio, Prologue, 18-34, iambic sena- 
rii, which furnish nothing worthy of remark. 

Before considering further the distinctio versuum in the Bem- 
binus let us examine briefly the available facsimiles of other 
important Terence manuscripts. 

Chatelain, pi. xi, gives fol. 13 r of G (Vaticanus, 1640) 



98 MINTON WARREN 

beginning with quid miki, And. 966, to the end of the play, then 
the Argument and Prologue of the Adelphoe as far as de verbo 
in v. 11, occupying thirty-two lines of text. It will be noticed 
at once that it is written as prose, but a closer inspection reveals 
the fact, which Umpfenbach does not even hint at, that capitals 
are found at the beginning of nearly every metrical verse, so 
that the manuscript from which it was copied must have had the 
metrical distinctio. Thus, of the words which begin 967-981 
of the Andria, all but four have an initial capital. Of the 
words beginning the twelve verses of the Argument all but 
one (ut in 11) have a capital, while of the eleven verses of 
the Prologue of the Adelphoe the initial capital is preserved 
in every case. 

Chatelain, pi. x, 2, gives a facsimile of a page of D (Victo- 
rianus or Laurentianus xxxviii, 24) from miser, Phormio, 997, 
to obiit in 1019. This also is written as prose. With each 
new i-61e a capital is used, which renders difficult the restitu- 
tion of the original distinctio. It will be noted, however, that 
the capitals beginning 1008 to 1014, in which portion there are 
not many changes of role, are regularly preserved. We shall 
see later that this is true of a considerable portion of this play, 
while in other portions it is clear that the archetype had a very 
irregular distinctio. 

Chatelain, pi. vii, 1 and 2, gives a facsimile of two pages of P 
(Parisinus, 7899). 1 = Andria, I, 5, 1-10 = 236-245. This 
is a good example of a canticum. It will be noticed that the 
initial capitals of the verses are placed within marginal rulings. 
There are only eight of these, however, for the ten verses of 
our received text, inasmuch as miseram audio (240) is con- 
sidered a part of 239, not noticed by Umpfenbach, and quod 
funditus (244) a part of 243. Moreover, 236 is broken after 
hoccine, 237 after non, 239 thus, o\portuit; 242 thus, -in\mu- 
tatum ; 243 thus, mi\serum ; 245 after infelicem; quemquam, 
which ends the verse in P, being on a separate line. In each 
case the remainder of the verse is set in at a considerable 
distance from the margin. Mr. Hoeing will show in this 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEBSUUM IN TERENCE 99 

Journal how closely the Dunelmensis 1 O agrees with P in these 
particulars. 

Chatelain, pi. vii, 2 = Adelphoe, 364-374. Here we have all 
short and unbroken lines, the distinctio agreeing with that in 
Umpfenbach, except that at the beginning of the new scene, 
364, Omnem seni constitutes a verse by itself. Compare also 
the English Palaeographical Society, pi. 36, where vv. 20-34 
from the beginning of the Andria in P are given. 

Chatelain, pi. viii, gives a facsimile of F (Ambrosianus) 
Adelphoe, 362-376, i.e. nearly the same verses given of the 
Parisinus in pi. vii, 2. It will be seen that the general arrange- 
ment is the same as in P. 364 extends from Eum velle, and, 
at the beginning of the new scene, Omnem rem modo seni forms 
a complete line. Here, too, the capitals are included within 
the marginal rulings, and there are no capitals except at the 
beginning of the verse. 

Chatelain, pi. ix, gives a facsimile of C (Vaticanus 3868). 
Phormio, V, 9, 22-63 = 1011-1053. This manuscript is written 
as prose. It will be noticed that there are no capitals in the text 
of this page, hence we have no means of restoring the original 
distinctio. I shall not, therefore, speak again of this manuscript, 
which I have carefully collated. I will only add that capitals 
are so rare in it that the existence of one gives rise to the sus- 
picion that it is due to a corrector. Thus, in Eun. 102, the 
proper reading is hac lege tibi. C has Vbi, but the V, as Ump- 
fenbach remarks, is in rasura, and we cannot doubt that the 
original reading was tibi, and indeed this is the reading of B, 
which was probably copied from C before the correction was 
made. 

Chatelain, pi. x, 1, gives a facsimile of B (Basilicanus), Andria, 
I, 1, 57-95, from hem, 84, to visa est, 122. This is written as 
prose, but there are many capitals. As C, of which B is sup- 
posed to be a copy, has no capitals, the question may arise : how 
does B happen to have them? A closer inspection will reveal 

1 In the remainder of this article I designate by O the Dunelmensis which was 
not used by Umpfenbach. 



100 MINTON WARREN 

the fact that the capitals mark the beginning of a new sentence 
or a new r61e, not of a new verse, so that they are probably due 
to the general habit of the scribe, and not taken from his original. 

We have thus seen from this cursory examination of the fac- 
similes that C and B throw no light on the distinctio, that D 
and G may give more information than would be inferred from 
Umpfenbach's statements, while the facts in regard to A, espe- 
cially in its relations to P, are not as clearly brought out as 
could be desired. Let me illustrate this assertion. Fol. Xr 
of the Bembinus contains Eun. 193-215. The three short lines, 
209, rogitare sit; 213, dabo imperas ; 215, aemulum pel- 
lito, are all set in at a distance of 1.50 cm. from the inner ruling, 
while the other long lines begin at the second ruling. In P 
208 and 209, as Umpfenbach remarks, make one verse, written, 
however, on two lines, the second of which begins with est tibi, 
set in 2 cm. from the margin and without a capital. It is 
possible that the scribe of A thought 209 rogitare sit was 
simply the completion of the previous line, as also 213 and 215. 

The scribe of P regards Quin imperas, 212-213, as a sepa- 
rate verse, and begins it with a capital, and so also Et pellito, 
214-215, in both cases a wrong distinctio. In Eun, 256, A has 
Ml, not Ml HI, and 256 and 257 were probably regarded as one 
verse. COQVI, etc., on the line below, begin 2.50 cm. from the 
margin where CONCVRRVNT begins. In Eun. 350, AVT is 
placed at the beginning of the line. There was not room for it 
at the end of 349. Fleckeisen 2 and Dziatzko omit it. On 
fol. XXXIV r, the short line, ffaut, 178, Quicum loquitur filius, 
begins at the same distance (3 cm.) from margin as in 192 
the words quern minus crederes, which really form only the end 
of the verse. In P 177 and 178 are considered as one line, 
which is broken after te, excruciat being set in. 

In fol. XLII r, the short line, Haut. 566, Nam istaec quidem 
contumelia est is set in 4.50 cm. from the margin, and proba- 
bly was considered as a part of 565, as in P. In PF and O 
nam est occupies a line by itself. Umpfenbach does not 
indicate this for PF. 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 101 

Of Haut. 894, Umpfenbach says, Versus dissectus est post 
GNATVS. The same remark applies to P. In A NIHIL is 
about 4 cm. from margin; in P about the same distance. The 
verse is broken at the same point in O. In Haut. 1005, in A 
INMENTEM is set in 6 cm. from margin. Umpfenbach says 
that 1004 and 1005 make one line in P, but the line is broken 
after venire, as in A, and in mentem is set in 2.50 cm. from 
margin. Practically APFO coincide here. 

In Phormio, 163, AMOREABVNDASANTIPKO begins at 7 cm. 
from the margin, and fills out the rest of the line. I believe 
it was considered by the scribe as belonging to the previous 
verse. In P the verse is broken one word earlier, dolet is 
set in on the next line, but does not have a capital. In F the 
division is made at the same place, but dolet has a capital. 

Of Phorm. 322, Umpfenbach says " EXCRIMINEKOC versum 
per se implet in A," but it is set in 7.50 cm. from the margin, as 
there simply was not room for it in the preceding line. On the 
other hand, for AK, which is placed at the beginning of Phorm. 
326, there was plenty of room at the end of the preceding line. 
The same is true of El, which is placed at the beginning of 491, 
as also in FPO. I may mention here that in Phorm. 480, the 
verse is broken in F (but not in PO) after adveniat, exactly as 
in A. Of Phorm. 529 and 530, Umpfenbach says "In P in 
unum contracti sunt." This is true, but 530 is written on a line 
by itself, and is, which is set in 2 cm., does not have a capital. 
Phorm. 728, QVID KAEC, makes a very long line in A, namely 
13 cm. There was not room for RE PER AM, which is set in 
3 cm. on the line below, and made a part of 729. Umpfenbach 
says that in PF 728 and 729 make one verse, but the verse is 
broken in P, as in O, after consilia, in F after misera aut. 

In Hecyra, 261, the verse is broken in A after GRAVITER, 
and LATVRVM is set in 4 cm. on the next line. Umpfenbach 
states incorrectly dissectus est post LATVRVM. In Hec. 319, in 
P, as in A, the verse is broken after quam ob rem. In F the 
break comes one word later, after Nescio. 

In Hec. 612, FERANTVR begins 4.50 cm. from the margin. In 



102 MINTON WARREN 

P feruntur (corrected to ferantur) pater is written on a sepa- 
rate line, but feruntur begins with a small letter, and was con- 
sidered a part of the previous verse. In Hec. 731, ADGREDIAR 
begins also 4.50 cm. from the margin. In PO adgrediar salve 
is written on same line with 730. In F Adgrediar Laches 
makes a verse, and the next line has Credo Bacchis. 

In Hec. 767, A has POTIVS written immediately after the 
inner ruling, so that POTIVS FACIAS was regarded as a sepa- 
rate verse, whereas in P these words, although occupying a 
separate line, were considered a part of the preceding verse. 
The short verse, Adelphoe, 158, EGO OMNI BVS, is inserted 
3 cm. from the margin, but so is ITERVM VAPVLET, which the 
editors, except Fleckeisen, treat as the close of 159. So far as A 
is concerned, however, either short line might be considered as 
part of the preceding verse. In P we have 157 Quid ego, 
and on the next line adero omnibus, adero being set in and 
without capital. Then follows 159, Quamquam vapulet. It 
may be noted that in F, as in A, 159 is broken before iterum. 
In Adelph. 303, VIS is set in 3.50 cm. from the margin. In P 302 
and 303 are considered as one long verse, which is, however, 
broken after vis, and eyestas is set in 3 cm. Similarly O. 
Adelph. 523, in A is extended to PROPEST, but on the next 
line, QVOD, is set in 4.50 cm. In P 523 and 524 are written all 
on one line. In F they constitute one verse, which, however, 
is broken before prope est, so that in a way the division in F is 
better than that in A. In Adelph. 969, Umpfenbach notes "In 
FP versus exit in Tu vis " (so also O). He does not note that 
in A on the margin the first stroke of a V can be made out. 
Probably 970 began in A with VIS- 

Many other instances might be cited of Umpfenbach's inade- 
quate description of the disposition of the verses in A, but these 
must suffice. It is to be hoped that the Vatican authorities 
will sometime publish a complete facsimile of this important 
manuscript. A more exact collation may be expected soon 
from the labors of Professor Hauler and Dr. Kauer. I will only 
add here a note on Andria, 814. Of Andria, 810-832, only 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 103 

a few letters varying in number can be read at the ends of 
the lines, found on the scrap of parchment preserved = fol. 1, 
verso. Umpfenbach does not attempt an accurate collation of 
this part of the manuscript. I have made an apographum of 
what remains of the end of the Andria, from v. 787, but I 
cannot reproduce it here. As vv. 810-819, the close of Act IV, 
Se. V, are all iambic senarii they must have begun in A at the 
same point, i.e. after the third or inner ruling. The strip of 
parchment preserved is about 3 cm. wide at the top, and 2.50 cm. 
wide at the bottom, and about 15 cm. long. Evidently the 
number of letters to be read at the end of each verse would 
depend upon the length of the verse. In And. 814, all our 
existing manuscripts (including O) read Grrandimcula (crandi- 
uscula G), which can only be scanned with synizesis. Fleckeisen 
accordingly reads in his first edition, 

Grandicula iam profectast iliinc, clamitent. 

in which he is followed by Umpfenbach, Dziatzko, and Spengel. 
In his recent edition he reads, 

Grandicula iam profectast illim, clamitent. 

Hauler makes a good defence of grandiuscula in Archiv V, 
294, citing examples of parallel usage from Augustine. In the 
Glossarium Terentianum, published by Goetz, Jena, 1885, we 
find, however, the gloss Crrandicula : nubilis, which must refer to 
our passage. Goetz thinks this glossary was excerpted from a 
codex written in capitals, so that we have warrant for suppos- 
ing that Crrandicula must have been found in some early manu- 
script of Terence. Now 813, following Umpfenbach's reading, 
has 41 letters, 814, 38 letters. Reading grandimcula, 814 would 
have 40 letters (or with illim io? illinc, 39). In the manuscript, 
813 projects beyond 814, three letters. All that can be read is 

NAMFERE 813 
ITENT 814 

of 815, which contains only 32 letters, no letter appears; of 816, 
containing 34 letters, only the final T of LI BET can be read. 



104 MINTON WAREEN 

There is, therefore, a possibility that the difference in the length 
of the lines is due to the fact that A had GRANDICVLA. The 
probability is somewhat vitiated by the fact that A may have 
read DEFENSOREM EIVS, thus giving 813, 43 letters, eius is 
the reading of the other manuscripts and also of the Monacensis, 
14420 (cf. Schlee, Scholia Terentiana, p. 19). Umpfenbach 
is wrong in assigning ei to P. P has defensorem eP = eius. 
Moreover, of the verse above, 812, which has only 36 letters, we 
can read at the end BITROR. Certainty, of course, in such a 
matter cannot be attained. 



DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN G 

The care with which the capital marking the beginning of a 
verse is preserved in G varies very much in the different plays, 
and exact statistics are difficult to make, as in the case of certain 
letters it is not easy to decide whether the letter, which would 
mark the beginning of a verse, was intended to be a capital or 
not. Wherever 8 has the form 8 at the beginning of a word, 
I have considered it a capital even though it be small, as initial 
s, where there is no reason for its being a capital, has almost 
invariably the form /. Thus v. 588 of the Andria begins with 
simulavi, but 605, an iambic dimeter, begins with fed, showing 
that as in PO it was considered a part of the previous line. On 
the other hand, in Adelphoe, 486, Scio begins with a capital, 
showing that it did not, as in FP, close the preceding verse. 
It is to be remarked also that here and there in G, but not 
uniformly, the beginning of a new r61e is also marked by a capi- 
tal. It is significant, however, that out of 981 verses of the 
Andria, all but 191 are marked by the existence of an initial 
capital, while in the Adelphoe all but 380 out of 997 are thus 
marked. In the Eunuchus the capitals are not at all well pre- 
served, the number of verses, in which the initial capital is 
wanting, almost equalling that in which it is preserved. In 
D, also, the correct verse-division is rarely preserved in the 
Eunuchus. Of the 779 verses of the Phormio preserved in G, 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN TERENCE 105 

only 402 are marked by initial capitals. Of the Hauton- 
timorumenos, G has only vv. 314-1049, arid out of these 736 
verses, 556 are marked by an initial capital. Of the Hecyra, G 
has only vv. 195-309, but here the division of the archetype 
might easily be restored, as the initial capital is missing only in 
five verses. It would take too long, therefore, to show to what 
extent in the several plays the restitution of the original dis- 
tinctio may be safely attempted. I shall select only a few in- 
stances interesting as showing an agreement oV disagreement with 
A or P. Andria, 176, Verebar quorsum evaderet formed a verse 
by itself (not so P, see below p. 122). 240, Miseram audio , 
a verse by itself (in P considered part of 239). 244, Quod 
funditus, and 252, Nam ah, each a verse by itself. 246 may 
have formed part of 245, as pro does not have a capital. At the 
end of 256, Aut has a capital, so that it probably began the follow- 
ing verse as in P (so also Fleckeisen 2 , Dziatzko brackets), 535. 
Nubere probably began verse as in P. 561, Et at the end has 
capital, so that it probably began 562. It is bracketed by 
Dziatzko and omitted by Fleckeisen. 590, Hem has capital fol- 
lowed by num without capital, so that Hem maj^ have begun 
591. In 606 ff. there are some indications that the distinctio 
of the archetype was irregular as in P. mihi, 608, does not have 
capital, but Tarn does, also Me in 609, but not sed in 610. 616 
probably began with Visus, ohe having been at the end of 615, as 
in P, and the verse ended with miser um as in P, for Impeditum 
has a capital. 629, In has capital and probably began following 
verse, as in PD. 636 began probably with Proxumus, as in P, 
and was extended to fides, the next verse beginning with Si and 
extending to verentur, as in P. 839 began At vero. 

Eunuchus, 237. Hem has capital and probably stood at be- 
ginning of 238, as in P. 243 began with Omnia (not so A). 
291 has Occidi neque, compare A. In 299-302, the capitals 
show the verses to have been Hie amare, Ludum alterum, 
Praeut dabit, Vt est. 726 seems to have begun with Inter, 
turba having been at the end of the previous line. 747 seems 
to have begun with Domi. Compare A. 



106 MINTON WARREN 

Hauton-timorumenos. 566 the clausula nam est probably 
was added to 565 (so P). 582 probably began with Quin, as in 
AFP. 1004 and 1005 formed one verse, as in P. 1011 began 
with Oh, as in FP (Phas 0) Umpfenbach brackets. For mono- 
syllables standing at the end of a verse in Terence, see Fabia, 
Revue de Philologie, vol. xvii, 29 ff. 

JPhormio. 485 Dorio is treated as part of the following line, 
as in AFP. 491 began with Ei metuo, as in AFP. 728 and 
729 were counted as one verse, as in FP. 

Adelphoe. 38 seems to have begun with Vaha. In AFP 
vah forms the end of the previous verse. 81 gaudemus formed 
part of preceding verse, as in AFP. 303 began with Vis (not 
so P). 316 and 317 made one verse, as in P. 376 probably 
began with Atque, as in A ; Dziatzko and Fleckeisen both omit 
it. 461 probably began with te, as in P. 486, Scio has capital, 
and probably began verse (not so P). 725, agere does not 
have capital, and may have gone with preceding verse, as in A. 
765, obi does not have capital (it is omitted in A), but Sed has. 

Some correspondences with D are given in the treatment 
of that manuscript. 

DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN D 

Umpfenbach's description of D in regard to the distinctio 
versuum is singularly inadequate. 1 He says, p. xxi, " Versuum 
distinctio servata est in prologis constanter, raro in comoediis: 
sed initiales magnae versuum in archetypo descriptorum merno- 
riam nonnumquam revocant." As a matter of fact, the Pro- 
logue of the Phormio is written as prose, as is the whole of that 
play. The Prologues of the % Hauton-timorumenos and Adelphoe 

1 For a further description of this manuscript, see E. Gutjahr, Ber. d. sacks. 
Gesellschaft d. \Vissenschaft, 1891, Phil.-Hist. Cl. pp. 273 ff. Cf. F. Schlee, Rhein. 
Mus. 46, pp. 147 ff., Dziatzko, N. Jahrb. 1894, p. 465, and Hauler's edition of 
Phormio, p. 187. For the marking of the capitals in this manuscript, I am 
indebted to Dr. Gordon J. Laing, one of the Fellows of the School in Rome 
(1896-97), who used the text of Dziatzko. I made myself a subsequent exami- 
nation of the manuscript. 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN TERENCE 107 

are also written as prose, while the remaining Prologues are 
written as verse. 

The order of plays in this manuscript is Andria, Adelphoe, 
Eunuchus, Phormio, ffauton-timorumenos, Hecyra. Taking the 
plays in this order, the division into prose and verse form is 
as follows : Andria, prose 28-59, 98-179, 384 Ne nega to 453, 
846 o noster903, 947-981. It should be observed, however, 
that 98-179 (fol. 4 and 5), 384-453 (fol. 12 and 13), and 846- 
903 (fol. 25 and 26) are written by a later hand of the eleventh 
century from a different archetype on inserted leaves. See 
Schlee, Rhein. Mus. 46, p. 148, whose statement is confirmed 
by my own observation. The remaining portions are written 
in the form of verse ; i.e. about 705 lines are written as verse 
and 276 as prose, but of these 276, 210 lines are due to inser- 
tion by a later hand. 

Of the Adelphoe, 1-667 and 684-695 uxorem are written as 
prose, the rest as verse; i.e. 679 lines as prose, 318 as verse. 
Of the Eunuchus, 1-1033 have the form of verse, 1034-1094; 
of prose. The Phormio is written entirely as prose. Of the 
ffauton-timorumenos, 1 aetate 115 are written as prose, the 
rest as verse, with the exception of 466-517 peril, which are 
inserted by the eleventh century hand. Finally, the Hecyra is 
written entirely as verse. We may therefore begin with this 
play to test the accuracy of the verse-division. 

HECYRA 

The Hecyra begins at the top of fol. 143 v l and concludes 
on fol. 165 r. In the Periocha the verse is divided as in 
Umpfenbach, with the exception that 3 begins with Obtulit t 
9 with Non vult, 10 with Dum se. A similar division exists 
in F, but not in P and O. 

Both Prologues exhibit the correct metrical division through- 
out. On the other hand, in Act I, 1 = 58-75 (fol. 143 v), the 

1 These numbers correspond to the numbers at the bottom of the leaf in the 
manuscript, while Schlee has followed numbering at the top. In speaking of 
the inserted leaves above, I have given his numbering. 



108 MI N TON WARREN 

verses are longer than they should be, the 18 verses being 
included in 13 lines, not a single one of which shows the 
proper metrical division. 76, Senex dicito is correct, but 
from 77-127 inclusive the distinctio is entirely wrong, as can 
be seen from the fact that these 51 verses are written on 
37 lines, each one of which begins with a capital. 

Verses 128-146, on fol. 145 r, are all correct iambic senarii, 
so, too, 147161, but the correct metrical division is not given 
from 162 to 197, the end of Act I. From 198 to the end of the 
play, however, the versification is remarkably well preserved, 
and is almost without exception correct. The only verses 
which require comment are the following: 213 extends from 
Tu sola to Egone, which begins with a capital. Here D agrees 
with A, which Umpfenbach omits to note. 284 begins with 
Cui, so A and the other manuscripts. 366 is omitted by D 1 . 
520, dicam to scio, was considered a part of previous verse, 
while in P and O Scio begins 521. 526-528 are wrongly 
divided ; 526 ends in taces, 527 in perii, and 528 in obsecro (so, 
too, F; compare the irregularity in A). 730 and 731 make one 
verse, so P and O, but not F. 743 ends with ah as in other 
manuscripts. Dziatzko begins 744 with Ah. Fleckeisen 2 puts 
749 (with Ah at the end) before 744. 

EVNVCHVS 

Of the Eunuchus the first 1033 lines are written apparently 
as verse, but here it will be found that the metrical division is 
much less accurate than in the Hecyra. The Eunuchus occupies 
fol. 59 r to 89 v. The Periocha is omitted and 30-45 of the 
Prologue precede 1-29 (25 and 26 being left out by D 1 ). 
With 1034, fol. 88 v, a finer character is used and the verses are 
written as prose. The Prologue is written correctly, but from 
46 to 1033 it is only by accident that the metrical division 
coincides. The beginning of the verse may coincide, but not 
the end. Only in the following verses is the metrical division 
the same as in Dziatzko: 46, 47, 104, 110, 119-121, 148, 188, 
189, 196, 197, 207 (208 and 209 make one verse as in P and O), 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEE8UUM IN TERENCE 109 

210, 214, 229, 232, 233, 246, 253, 289-291 (at end of Act II, 2), 
308, 316, 319 (363 begins Ac dabo), 398, 457, 467, 476, 485, 486, 
516, 530, 531, 535-538 (end of Act III, 3), 557, 596, 626, 684, 
685, 711, 712, 796, 840 and 841 (beginning new Sc. V, 2), 848, 
849, 905, 918, 943, 949, 971 (beginning of Sc. V, 5), 985, 998- 
1001 (end of Sc. V, 5), 1031 and 1032, i.e. about 62 out of 1033 
verses happen to coincide. From 1034 on the lines appear as 
prose, and but few capitals are used, which would indicate the 
beginning of a verse in the archetype. Such capitals are 
found at the beginning of nine verses, 1036, 1041, 1042, 1048, 
1049, 1054, 1067, 1084, 1093. It ought to be noted, however, 
that a few capitals are found at the beginning of new roles, not 
generally thus marked, and also at other positions in the verse, 
so that we may say that for the whole of the Eunuchus not 
much is to be gained from D in respect to the distinctio. 

HAVTON-TIMORVMENOS 

The Hauton-timorumenos occupies fol. 117 v to fol. 141 r, and 
only 161 verses are written so as to give the appearance of 
prose. The Periocha and Prologue (152) are both written as 
prose, but the capitals regularly preserved mark the beginning 
of verses, and would enable us to restore the distinctio. So, too, 
53 to aetate in 115 are written as prose on fol. 118 v and fol. 
119 r and v, but the capitals marking the beginning of lines are 
preserved with two or three exceptions. The beginnings of new 
roles also have capitals usually. Mihi, in 81, has a capital and 
may have begun 82 in the archetype, as i, the proper beginning 
of 82, has no capital. The beginnings of 89 and 9.1, adpone and 
laboris, lack capitals. In 116 to 406, written as verse, the 
metrical division is quite arbitrary, but happens to coincide 
with the correct distinctio in the following verses : 140, 146, 
161, 177, 188, 189, 200-204, 211 and 212 (end of Sc. I, 2), 229 
(end of Sc. II, 1), 254, 265-268, 335, 336, 381-406, 398 begins 
with Va h, as in PFO and the archetype of G. 407-409, at the 
end of Act II, 4, are written as two verses Salvum maxime, 
Animo senex. 410-465 (iambic senarii) are correctly written 



110 MINTON WARREN 

as verse, the only thing to be noted being that 430 begins with 
Atque, valet being added to the previous line. 466-517 are due 
to the later hand (see above p. 107) and are written as prose, 
the capitals at the beginning of verses being preserved only in 
the following verses : 469, 473, 476, 478, 483, 486, 489, 494, 498, 
507, 512, 514, 516, all of which begin new sentences. It may 
be noted, however, that in 480 Hui is begun with a capital. 
Dziatzko keeps this at the end of 480, but Fleckeisen emending 
to huic puts at the beginning of 481, which may have been the 
position of Hui in the archetype of this part of D. 

FoL 12Dr begins with Num nam, in middle of 517, and from 
here to the end of the play the manuscript presents the appear- 
ance of verse, each line beginning with a capital, but the 
metrical division is very arbitrary, corresponding only in the 
following verses to that of Dziatzko, 518, 535, 561 (end of Sc. 
Ill, 2), 562, 575-583, long verses, 594, 626, 634-653 (trochaic 
septenarii). 654 ends with adulescentulam. Hem begins 655 
(cf. above, Hui 481), 664 and 665, 668-682 (iambic octonarii 
and septenarii), 711, 722 (end of Sc. IV, 3), 732-735, 739-741, 
804 (end of Sc. IV, 5), 873 (end of Sc. IV, 8), 874-883 (tro- 
chaic septenarii), 934, 950, 957, 958, 980, 981, 1003 (beginning 
Sc. V, 3), 1012, 1013, 1025-1027, 1043, 1044 (end of Sc. V, 4), 
1045, 1046, 1057, 1058. For the most part the verses are a 
little longer than the metrically correct verses, i.e. the number 
of lines is considerably less than it would be with a proper met- 
rical division. Summing up, in the portions written as verse, 
only about 104 out of 900 verses show correct division. 

ANDRIA 

It is quite probable that nearly the whole of the Andria in 
the original form of D was written as verse, for, as we have 
seen above, of the 276 verses written as prose nearly 210 are 
due in the existing manuscript to a later hand, i.e. 98-179; 
384-453; 847 o noster 903. 

In 28-51 (Act I, 1) the capitals are, for the most part, well 
preserved. 31 seems to have begun with Tibi in the archetype. 



ON THE DISTINCT IO VERSUUM IN TERENCE 111 

In 34 fide has no capital, but Expecto has (so G), and there are 
no capitals in 36-38 (so also G). In 50 Et after cognosces has 
a capital. 52-57 and 59 have no capitals. In 98-179, which 
are copied from a manuscript of a different class, capitals mark- 
ing the beginnings of lines are not well preserved, not more 
than 18 verses being thus marked, while other capitals occur at 
the beginning of new r61es and sentences. The same is true of 
vv. 384-453, in which not more than 19 verses have their begin- 
ing indicated by a capital, and of these 404, 412, and 432 begin 
scenes. For this section the capitals are preserved in G much 
more uniformly. 

In 847-903, by the same later hand, the capitals are rare, and 
seem to have no especial significance for establishing the origi- 
nal distinctio. In 857 Veritas has a capital, so that tristis may 
have been included in the previous line, and 857 may have 
extended to adportas, 858. Nihil has a capital. 

947-981, the concluding lines of the play on fol. 30 and fol. 
31, are also written as prose, but by the regular hand, and here 
the division of verses of the archetype could be restored by the 
capitals, which are preserved for the beginning of every verse 
except 949. 

To take up now the portions of the Andria written as verse, 
namely 1-27, 60-97, 180-384, 454-846, 904-946. Verses 1-27 
and 60-97, iambic senarii, are all correctly written, except that 
72 begins with Egregia, coacta having been included in the pre- 
vious line. In the next verse section, 180-384, the metrical di- 
vision is very arbitrary, the evident intention being in many 
cases to fill out the space rather than to give metrically correct 
verses. Thus 180-182 are regular, as in Dziatzko, containing 
each 41 to 44 letters. 183 begins with Astute, and extends to 
neque, with two notae and 37 letters, but provideram would 
have extended the line to 47 letters. 185 begins with Provi- 
deram, and goes to ad me, 34 letters and three notae. The verses 
are then incorrectly divided up to 189, but 190-193 are correct. 
From here to 227, end of Act I, 3, not a single verse is given 
correctly, whereas the whole of Act I, 4 = 228-235, is correct. 



112 MINTON WARREN 

In the long scene, I, 5 = 236-300, 236 is broken after hocinest, as 
in P, and the only verses which are correctly given are 237-239, 
247-253, 258-262, 271-279, 287, 293, and 298. So in Act II, 
1 and 2 (301-374) the only verses correctly given are 312, 313, 
331-338, 344-350, and 353-374. 375-383 are correctly given. 
With Ne-nega 384 a new leaf begins written as prose. 454-458 
are correctly given in verse form. In III, 1 (459480) the only 
verses correctly given are 468, 471-477, and 480. In III, 2 (481- 
532) the following are correct : 481-483, 493-496, 501-503, 506- 
513, 529, 530. In III, 3 (533-580) the following are correct : 
536, 551553, 567. In 580 Atque exire makes one verse. 

In III, 4 (581-606) 581-586 are incorrectly divided. 587- 
606 are correct, except that Hem at the end of 590 is made to 
begin 591 (so G, see above, p. 105). In III, 5 (607-624) the 
only verses which coincide with Dziatzko's arrangement are 
611, 614, 617, 619-621, 623, 624; but 615 is the same, except 
that Oh at the end is made the beginning of 616, as in Umpfen- 
bach. The opening lines of the scene show considerable corre- 
spondence with the arrangement in P and O. Thus 1, Ubi 
perdidit ; 2, Peril quandoquidem ; 3, Tarn meets; 4, Me 
fero ; 5, Sed auferet ; 6, Posthao malum. (For G, see 
above, p. 105.) 

IV, 1 (625-683) is written with remarkable correctness ; the 
only exceptions to be noted are that Hem is put at the end of 
635 (so PO and the archetype of G), and the next verse goes 
from Proxumus fides (so PO) ; then follows Si opus est, 
Illic verentur, which is the division of PO, where, however, 
Illic does not have a capital, and the two lines are intended to 
represent one verse. (For G, see above, p. 105.) 663 is divided 
into two lines before Interturbat, whereas in P and O the divi- 
sion comes after Inter. IV, 2 (684-715) shows also great cor- 
rectness. 686, however, ends with offers, and the next line 
begins with Quid est, which in P and O occupies a line by 
itself. 708 is broken after dicam. 713 ends with Age veniam, 
and 714 begins with Si quid. 715 being too long, is broken 
before adero. 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEBSUUM IN TERENCE 113 

IV, 3 (716-739) is correct throughout. IV, 4 (740-795) is 
also remarkably correct, but 752 ends with unum, and 753 
begins with Praeter, as in PO. 755 ends with meretrix (so 
perhaps the archetype of G, as the following word Ah has a 
capital). IV, 5 (796-818) has every verse correct. In V, 1 
(820-841) desinent is put at the beginning of 838. In V, 
2 (842-871) only 842-845 are written as verse and correctly. 
846 extends from Erus to Simo. The next page, fol. 26 r, 
begins with o noster, 846. V, 4 (904-956) 904-912 pollici- 
tando, at bottom of fol. 27 v, have each verse divided between 
two lines, only the first of which begins with a capital, thus : 
1, Mitte quaevis ; 2, causa monet ; 3, Vel verum est ; 4, 
vel Grlycerio ; 5, Andrium est ; 6, salvus Chremes ; 7, 
Quid insolens ; 8, evenit Simo ; etc. 

So fol. 28 v begins with 912, Eorum es, and all the verses 
except 913, 916, 917, 923, are divided between two lines, with 
capitals, however, only at the beginning of each regular verse. 

Fol. 29 r has 924-935, 12 verses, divided among 19 lines, the 
capitals being not always correctly placed. 

Fol. 29 v has 936-946, 11 verses, divided among 19 lines, with 
some irregularities, thus: 939 has Sane gaudeo ; 9396, credo 
scrupulus, the next line beginning with etiam. 

ADELPHOE 

The Adelphoe begins on fol. 31 r with the Periocha and extends 
to fol. 59 r. It is largely written as prose ; so 1-667 and 684- 
695. The Periocha has the beginnings of each verse marked 
by a capital. Verse 12 began with A se vitiatam. So in the 
Prologue only 2, 8, and 10 lack the proper capital. In I, 1 (26- 
80) the only exceptions to be noted are that 38 began with 
Vah, as in A and the archetype of G. Perhaps aut was at the 
end of verse 55, as in PO and F. Neither in G, nor D does it 
have a capital. Graudemus in 81 is tacked on to 80, as in AFPO. 

Act I, 2 (81-154). In 81-95 and 113-153 every line is 
marked by its proper capital, but in 96-112 there are some 
irregularities. 97 seems to have begun with Micio^ 99 with 



114 MINTON WARREN 

Quod ipse, 102 with Neque potare (so G). The only capitals 
found in 103-111 are Nog 104, Iniurium 106, Et 107 (so G), 
Dum 108 (so G), Expectatum 109, Tamen 110. If these, as is 
probable, show the beginnings of verses in the archetype, the 
distinctio here was very irregular. 

Act II, 1 (155-208). The capitals are well preserved. To 
be noted, however, these exceptions : In 159 we find Non com- 
mittet (so G), showing that 158 included Ego scelestus. In 
166 we find Indignum (so G), and the verse, as in FP, probably 
included Indignum modis. 

Act II, 2 (209-253). The capitals are uniformly preserved. 
I note only that 214 is omitted by D 1 . 226 seems to have begun 
with Hoc scio. In 252 faciam has no capital (so G). In 
Act II, 3 to the end of III, 1 (254-298) the capitals are uni- 
formly preserved, showing the same distinctio as in Dziatzko. 
The same is true in general of III, 2 (299-353), where I have 
only to note that Ah seems to have begun 310, while the short 
line, 317, ut dispergat viam, seems, as in G, to have been 
joined to 316, as was also the intention in P and O. So 329 
seems to have begun with Ah me miseram. 

Ill, 3 (355-445). Capitals very well preserved. I note 
only that 376 began with Atque (so GA), which Fleckeisen 2 
and Dziatzko both omit. In 390 dementia does not have 
capital, but Inepta does, and perhaps began 391, where patris 
has no capital (so also G). 

Ill, 4 (447-510). Capitals regularly preserved to 505 (506- 
510 are written as verse correctly). The only things to be 
noted are that in 466 and 467 there is a change in the order 
(see Umpfenbach) and 488 was omitted by D 1 . 

III, 5 and IV, 1-3 (511-609) show a remarkable preservation 
of the initial capitals. I note only that in the trochaic dimeter, 
524, quod abesset, quod is without capital, indicating that the 
line was joined to the preceding, as in FP. 

IV, 4 (610-635). This scene begins with a canticum. The 
capitals from 610 a to 617 are Discrucior, Vt, Membra, Pectore, 
Quo, Tanta, Sostrata, Nam, showing a coincidence with A in 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEBSUUM IN TERENCE 115 

arrangement except in the last verse. G also here is in perfect 
agreement with D, except that Quo has not kept its capital. 
The rest of the scene is regular, but at the end, 635, prodit hue 
seems to have been joined to the preceding verse. (So also G.) 

IV, 5 (635-712). 635-667 are written as prose, the rest of 
the scene as verse. The first verse, however, 635, seems to 
have included Ita faeito, the next Ego sciat. In G facito 
begins with a small letter, ego is omitted, and the next word, 
Aeschinum, begins with a capital, so that the distinetio of the 
archetype of G seems to have been similar. 654 is omitted 
by D'. 

668-678 are written as verse, but incorrectly, thus : Quom 
abduci, Ab istuc ? Quis nupsit, Auctor alienam, An 
grandem, Dum expectantem, Haec defendere, Ridiculum 
cui, Veneram quid, Nobis est, so that the restoration of the 
true distinetio really would be easier from the capitals preserved 
in the prose portions preceding and following. In 679-695, 
the capital at the beginning of each verse is preserved. The 
remainder of the play, from Hem, 696, is written in the form 
of verse, but it is surprising how few of the verses begin 
and end at the right place. In some scenes the verses are all 
too long, not a single one being correct. The correct verses 
are 699, 707, 714, 731-734, 776-778, 785, 786, 795, 802, 857, 
858, 868, 871-873, 880, 899-901, 904, 952, 953, 959, 968, 989- 

993, 996, 997. 

PHORMIO 

The Phormio is written wholly as prose, but in some portions 
the capitals which mark the beginning of lines in the archetype 
are much better preserved than in others. In the Periocha and 
the Prologue the capitals are all correctly given. 

Act I, 1 (35-50). The initial capitals are uniformly pre- 
served. 

I, 2 (51-152). In 51-79 only eleven of the verses have a 
capital marking the beginning, and in these all but three 
capitals (52, 57, 75) stand at the beginning also of new r61es. 
From 80-117 the capitals are regularly preserved, except that 



116 MINTON WARREN 

in 103 the E of eamus is due to D 2 , perhaps because in the 
original it was included within the boundary lines, or omitted. 
In 104 Virgo has a capital as in G. Videmus, before it is 
omitted in DG. In 108 Ipsa has capital, but in before it was 
omitted by D 1 . In 111 amare does not have capital either in 
D or G. From 118 to the end of the scene capitals are more 
sparingly found, in fact only at the .beginning of 119, 120, 122, 
129, 130, 132-135, 139, 140, 144, and 151, or in 13 out of 35 
verses. It is noteworthy, too, that in this portion of G the 
capitals are not very regularly preserved. 

I, 3 (153-178). Here, too, there is evidence that the dis- 
tinctio in the archetype was irregular. Capitals correctly mark 
the beginnings of 153, 155, 156, 163, 167-171, 173-178. The 
capitals found, however, in the section from 156-165 indicate 
that the verses of the archetype began with Conscius 156, In 
157, Quod 158, Turn 159, Haec 160, Veniat 161, Quia 162, Amore 
163, Vita 164, Vt 165. As none of these words begin a sen- 
tence, the capitals can only be explained as originally marking 
the beginning of verses. It is noteworthy, also, that in G none 
of the lines from 156 to 166 have a capital except 163 Amore. 

Act I, 4 (179-230). Only 19 of these 52 verses have pre- 
served the initial capital, 179, 181-184, 197, 198, 200, 201, 
206-208, 219, 221-224, 227, 229. In 14 of these the capital 
stands also at the beginning of a new r61e. There are, how- 
ever, a few capitals besides, so that perhaps in the archetype, 
new verses began with Taceam 186, Nam 188, Nescio 193, Revo- 
cemus 195, Intellexti 198, Vt 201, Istaec2Q2, Atqui 204, Phaedria 
208, Et 209, Garris 210, Quid 211, Suis 213, Ah 216, Egomet 
217. It seems clear, at any rate, that the distinctio was not 
correct. 

II, 1 (231-314). As far as 252 the distinctio must have been 
quite arbitrary. Only 231 and 236-239 have capitals marking 
the beginning of the verse as given in our editions. Other 
capitals, however, are found as follows : f acinus 233, Atqui 
235, Scientem 237, Animum 240, Omnis 241, Ferant 242, Omne 
246, Sunt 248. On the other hand, from 253-309, the capitals 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 117 

are regularly preserved, except in 258, 262, 272, 277, 283, 284. 
G, however, preserves the capitals in all of these, except 277 
and 283. In 310 recta has no capital, but Nempe at beginning 
of a new r61e has. In 311-314, Ego and Advocabo alone have 
capitals. 

II, 2 (315-347). In this scene capitals preserved in nearly 
every verse would enable us to restore the distinctio of the 
archetype, and would show that, although the length of the 
verses was about uniform, the distinctio was entirely wrong, as 
we have seen it to be in some scenes of other plays written as 
verse. In G the capitals are very poorly preserved in this sec- 
tion. I give here all the capitals found in D : 315 Itane and 
Admodum, 316 Et, 317 Ad, 319 In, 320 Sic, 321 Mihi, 322 Nisi, 
323 'Antiphonem and Senis, 324 Phormio, 325 Erumpat, 326 
Periculum, 327 Homines, 328 Hospites, 329 Cedo and Scriptam, 
330 Tenditur, 331 Illis, 332 Fructus, 333 Vnde, 334 Dices, 335 
Hominem, 336-339 correct, 340 Absumitur, 341 Tu, 343 Quid 
and Potissimum, 344 Et, 345 Plane, 346 Prima. 

II, 3 (348-440). The capitals preserved indicate that the 
first half of this scene must have been very correctly written in 
the archetype. Enicas, however, at the end of 384 seems to 
have begun a verse. So, too, Qui mihi at the end of 396, while 
cognata at the beginning of 397 does not have an initial capital. 
Falsum has a capital in 400 and Filium in 401. From 403 on 
there are traces of irregularity, although the first words in the 
received text of 403, 404, 407, 408, 410-413, 415-418, 420-422, 
425-427, 430, 433, 435, 437-440 all have capitals. But there 
are indications that new verses began with Abusus 413, Ohe 
417, lam 423, Metuit 428, Bern 429, Egon 431. 

Act II, 4 (441-464). Here the distinctio seems to have been 
very regular. In 449, Te does not begin with a capital, and in 
FP it stood at the end of previous line. In 461 and 462 the 
only word having a capital is Id. 

III, 1 (465-484). This scene must have had an arbitrary 
distinctio in the archetypes both of D and G. In the archetype 
of D verses apparently began with the following words : Enim- 



118 MINTON WAEEEN 

vero 465, Vituperandm 465, Aliis 466, Tete 467, Certe 468, 
Propter 469, Cui 470, ^ 471, ^ 471, Sed 472, (fyo 473, 
Nescio 474, JVZAt7 475, F* 476, Confutavit 477, Jgk 478, Vos 478, 
Tranquilla 479, jEto 480, De 481, .4w 481, Nunc 482, ^ 
483, Ffo' 484, i.e. there were 24 verses instead of 20. I see 
no way to account for most of these capitals except on this 
hypothesis. 

Ill, 2 (485-533). In this scene the first words of new rdles 
begin also with capitals, which is not usually the case in D, 
but many of the verses seem to have been correctly written in 
the archetype. The only verses not marked with capitals at 
the beginning, as in Dziatzko, are 491, which probably began 
with M (which has a capital), as in AFPG, 498, 500, 503, 505, 

507, 508, 510, 513, 516, 518, 522, 526, 527, 530, 531-533. How- 
ever, new verses seem to have begun at Idem 491, Misericordia 
498, Atque 499, Alia 502, Mihi 503, Domist 504, Vt 505, Auri- 
bus 506, Neque uti 507 (possibly with Heia 508), Vt 512, Dum 
513, Sine 515, Sines 517, Contra 521, Me 528, Aliter 529, Aliter 
530, Hoc 531, Phaedria 532. None of these words, except Heia 

508, stand at the beginning of new idles. Thus with approxi- 
mate certainty we could ascertain the distinctio of the archetype. 

Ill, 3 (534-566). Here, too, the beginnings of idles have 
capitals, but there are traces of an arbitrary distinctio from the 
fact that many words standing in the middle of a sentence have 
a capital which would have no excuse except as originally mark- 
ing the beginning of a verse, The following verses have capi- 
tals at the beginning : 534, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 545, 
548, 551, 553, 555, 556, 557, 558, 561, 563, 566. Most of these 
verses, however, also begin a new idle, so that the evidence is 
not conclusive. Verses began, however, probably with Quod 
535, Promissum 536, Reddere 538 (hence verse 539 began with 
Reddere, not with Scio 539, which stands at beginning of new 
rdle), Pulchre 542, Ex 543, Nunc 544, Nobis 546, Hem 548, 
Antipho 549, Quid 550, Persequi 551, Pedetemptim 552, Huic 
553, Minus 554, Verum 555, Bona 556, Reddam 559, Adiutorem 
560, Quidvis 561, Exanimatam 564. 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 119 

IV, 1 (567-590). Here, although new roles also begin with 
capitals, as every verse except 568 and 590 is marked by an 
initial capital, and there are no other capitals except those at 
the beginning of idles, we may reasonably conclude that the 
distinctio was correct in the archetype. 

IV, 2 (591-605). Here in fol. 106 r, according to my number- 
ing, the eleventh century hand sets in, and although the verses 
are iambic senarii, the distinctio seems to have been incorrect. 
The only capitals are Ego 591, Vix 594, Tempus 596, Hominem 
598, Quit 600, An 602, Petam 604. It is possible that the whole 
scene of 15 trimeters may have been written in the original in 7 
or 8 long lines. 

IV, 3 (608-681), of which 606-633 are in same hand as the 
preceding scene. These give only 9 capitals, 6 of which begin 
also a new r61e, so that we cannot ascertain the original dis- 
tinctio. However, from 634, where the regular hand sets in 
again up to 681, we have capitals marking the beginning of 
every verse, except 639, 664, 667, 672. In 639, Hodie, the 
second word, has a capital, so that the verse probably began 
with it, and verba was included in 638. In 642, a is omitted 
and Primo has capital (so G). 672 makes one long line in P 
and O with the preceding, and so probably in D's archetype. 

IV, 4 (682-712) has preserved the capitals throughout and 
the distinctio was almost certainly that of our texts. 

IV, 5 (713-727). Here capitals are found corresponding to 
the beginning of every verse, except 715 and 719, and in 719 
Transito, which should begin the verse, is omitted by D 1 . 

V, 1 (728-765). With few exceptions the capitals are re- 
tained. Capitals mark also the beginning of new roles. In 
728, which is a very long verse, Quo has a capital, so that the 
second verse of scene probably extended from Quo petam, as 
aut has no capital. The same division occurs in F. In P and 
O 729 and 730 are considered as one verse, which is, however, 
broken after consilia. 

V, 2 (766-783). The distinctio seems to have been regular. 
In 774 An has a capital and seems to have begun a new verse. 



120 MINTON WARREN 

As so many of the lines also begin new roles, where also an 
initial capital is used, we cannot be absolutely certain. 

V, 3 (784-795). The distinctio would seem to have been 
regular. There are no capitals except at the beginning of new 
verses or new roles. 

V, 4 (796-819). In this scene the dialogue is very lively. 
Sometimes within a single verse, the speaker changes two or 
three times, and as each role begins with a capital here, it is 
impossible to restore the distinctio. As, however, the following 
verses, which do not happen to begin a new role, are not marked 
by a capital, viz. 796, 797, 801, 802, 804, 809, 811, 812, 815, 
817, 818, we may be certain that the distinctio was not regular. 
This is confirmed by the fact that the following words not 
standing at the beginning of a new verse or role have a capital. 
Cum 798, Hoc 804, Nescio 807, Aut 809, Quaesitum 811, Nostri 
812, Coeperas 814, Cum 815. New verses doubtless began with 
these words, but we cannot be certain in regard to all the 
verses. 

V, 4 (820-827). This is a monologue, and the only capitals 
found coincide with the beginnings of every verse. 

V, 5 (829840). This scene is composed of long verses, 
iambic octonarii, and the distinctio in the archetype must have 
been incorrect. According to the capitals preserved new verses 
must have begun with Propria and. Manu 880, Conficienda 831, 
Vt 832, Quid aisf 833, Vt 836, Ad 838, Argentum 839. The 
remaining verses are uncertain, inasmuch as each new role, 
and also 834 and 839, are marked by an initial capital. 

V, 6 (841-882). It is impossible here to recover the distinctio 
with certainty, but it cannot have been perfectly regular. 
Capitals are found in words not beginning a new role, but 
beginning a verse in our present text in 842, 844, 845, 852, 
859, 862, 864, 867, 868, not at the beginning of other verses, 
except those which happen also to begin a new role, as 846, 
847, etc. Moreover, the following words not beginning a new 
role or a correct verse have capitals: Nos 843, Revocari 848, 
Hercle 849, Honoratissime for ornatissime 853, Diligere 854, 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEBSUUM IN TERENCE 121 

G-audio 856, Aufer 857, Em 858, Interea 860, Mda 862, Arf 864, 
Introduxit 865, Attendere 868, Iforcfe 870, Inventus 872, Credito 
874, flrom'a 875, Patruus 878, Pato? 879, ZV& 880, J^ro 881, Di 883, 
and it is fairly certain that new verses began with these words. 

V, 7 (884-893). A monologue in iambic senarii, which 
seems to have been perfectly regular in the archetype. 

V, 8 (894-989). Also iambic senarii. The capitals show 
that the distinctio was correct only in part, e.g. in 922 Rescribi 
has capital, but not Argentum. In 930 Hinc is the only word 
with capital, in 931 Etiam. Verses 931, 933, 937, 940, 945, 948, 
953, 955, 956, 957, 984, 987, are not marked by the preservation 
of a capital at the beginning. But in 955 I find Auferat, 956 
Satius, 989 Est. 

V, 9 (990-1055). The evidence shows that this scene in the 
archetype had an irregular distinctio^ although on account of 
the frequent change of roles, it is difficult to establish it. 991- 
993, 996-998, 1001, 1002, 1004, arid 1007 have not preserved 
the initial capitals. In 1008-1014 they are preserved, but 1014 
seems to have ended with meritum, as the following word Non 
has a capital, while sed, the proper beginning of 1015, has none. 
(See above, p. 98). Other irregular capitals not at the begin- 
ning of roles or proper verses are Vt 992, Fere 1017, Oompressit 
1018, Umquam 1018, Scrupulus 1019, Aeguo 1020, Cupio 1021, 
Aetate 1022, Forma 1024, Demipho 1024, Expectem 1025, Qui 
1027, Atque 1028, Vivat 1030, Credo 1031, Quando 1034, Et 
1036, EespondesIOSl, Per 1038, Si 1041, Quo 1042 (1043-1047 
have the initial capitals), Mihi 1048, Tibi 1050, Nausistrata 
1052. Many of the verses of the original could be restored, but 
not all. I have given these details at somewhat great length, 
because I think it desirable that other manuscripts of the 8 
family should be collated, and if a manuscript were found, 
written as verse, and with the verses beginning where we have 
shown that in all probability they began in the archetype of D, 
a dependence direct or indirect upon the same archetype might 
fairly be assumed, and the facts above given would be helpful 
in establishing the relationship of the new manuscript. 



122 MINTON WARREN 

DISTINCTIO VERSUUM IN P 

Umpfenbach has given for the most part accurately the 
distinctio versuum in P. However, in many places where two 
verses are spoken of as making one, he has failed to indicate 
that the two verses are not written on one line, but that the 
verse is broken, and he has not stated the point at which it is 
broken. This may sometimes be of importance, for it may 
indicate that in the archetype the long verse was really con- 
sidered as two verses. I need only point out here some inade- 
quate statements of Umpfenbach, premising that a great many 
long verses in P are divided between two lines, which Umpfen- 
bach does not consider, and which it would take altogether too 
long to enumerate, since the fact is of no great importance. 

AXDRIA 

Andria 175 and 176 are considered as one verse, which, how- 
ever, is broken after verebar, just as 178 is broken after fecit. 

195 arid 196 are considered as one verse, broken after nuptiis. 
fallaciae has no capital, and is set in 2.50 cm. from margin. 

For 239-246, see above, p. 98. 

251 and 252 make one verse, broken after exanimavit. 

269 closes with autem, and 270 begins with Hoc. 

299 closes with accerso; the next verse includes Propero 
cave, the next De teneo. In D, also, De has a capital. 

385 and 386 are treated as one verse, broken after il of ilia. 

484 and 485 make one verse, broken after date. So 516 and 
517, broken after moventur. So 604 and 605, broken after mali, 
where 604 properly ends. 606-616 are incorrectly given by 
Umpfenbach. It should be: \,Ubi perdidit; 2, Perii quan- 
doquidem ; 3, Tarn meas ; 4, Me auferet, but broken after 
fero; 5, Posthac mcdum ; 6, Nam sum, broken after me; 
7, Pollicitus audeam ; 8, Nee sedulo ; 9, Dicam ohe ; 10, 
Visus miserum ; 11, Impeditum Pamphile. 

635 ends with heus (so probably G, which has Proxumus). 
636 extends from Proxumus to fides on one line. 637 from /Si 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 123 

to verentur, broken after opus est, and both lines are set in from 
margin 2 cm. 

752, Deliras unum. 753, Praeterea cave. 754, Maledicis 
hahahae. 

EVNVCHUS 

For 208-215, see above, p. 100. 278, beginning Deorsum, 
and 279 make one verse, broken after beo te. From 283 to 517 
there can scarcely be said to be any distinctio (so Umpfenbach). 
In some cases the capitals which would mark the beginning of 
verses are preserved. 698 is broken after eum, the next line has 
prim EVN non, but P 2 has added nee esset. 765 reads in P 
Mane mane CHR melius est. THA mane, CHR omitte. 

The next line has lam Ohremes set in at a considerable dis- 
tance from the margin, hem is omitted at the end of 977 by P, 
but P 2 has added it at the beginning of the next line, thus : 

hem 



So in 1053 hui is added by P 2 . In 1049 serva nobis is written 
on a line by itself, but set in, and serva is without capital. 

HAVTON-TIMORVMENOS 

For 177 and 178, see above, p. 100. 342, although consid- 
ered a part of the previous verse, is on a line by itself, and set 
in from the margin 2 cm. In 406 salve anime mi is on a line 
by itself, but regarded as part of 405. For 566, 894, and 1004, 
see above, pp. 100 and 101. 

PHORMIO 

For 162 and 163, 183 and 191, see above, pp. 101 and 96. 229 
and 230 make one verse, but succenturiatus age is 011 a sepa- 
rate line, set in. So 393, ad decem is on a separate line, but 
ad (sic) has no capital. So 436 and 437 make one verse, but ab- 
ducere, etc., 437, is set in 2 cm. from the margin. For 529 and 
530, see p. 101. 671 and 672 make one verse, written, however, 
on one long line. For 728 and 729, see p. 101. 952 and 953 
make one verse, but broken before nisi, which is set in 3 cm. 



124 MINT ON WARREN 

HECYRA 

For 319 and 611 see above, p. 101. For 620 and 621 see 
p. 97. For 731 see p. 102. For 767 see p. 102. 849 and 850 
make one verse on two lines, divided properly before at ego, 
which is set in. 854 and 855 make one. verse broken before me, 
which is set in. So 858 and 859 broken after obtines. 

ADELPHOE 

For 157 and 158 see above, p. 102. For 302 and 303 see 
p. 102. 316 and 317 make one verse, but broken before statue- 
rem, which is set in. In 343 the verse is broken before Sostrata. 
So also O. Compare A. 

359 and 360 make one verse broken before aliquo, which is 
set in. 364 non velle is set in and may have been regarded as 
a part of the preceding verse, although Non begins with a 
capital. For 523 and 524 see above, p. 102. 

The Canticum, 610 ff., presents this appearance in P: 

Discrucior animi 

Hocine de inproviso mail mini obici tan turn 
Ut neque quid me faciam nee quid agam certum siet 

Membra metu debilia sunk 

Animus timore obstipuit 

Pectore consistere nihil consilii quit vah 

Quomodo me ex hac expediam turba 
Tanta mine suspicio de me incidit neque ea inmerito 

The preceding verses are at the bottom of fol. 113 v. Fol. 
114 r begins with the long line. Sostrata credit, etc. The short 
lines begin at 2^ cm. from the margin. 

This Canticum is given in A, at the bottom of fol. CX r, as 
far as obstipuit 613, the remainder at the top of fol. CX v. 
Umpfenbach does not indicate that some of the lines are set in. 
The Canticum presents this appearance : 

(At bottom of fol. CXr) 

1 DISCRVCIORANiANIMIKOCINEDEINPROVISOMALIMIKIOBICITANTVM 

2 VTNEQ-QVIDMEFACIAMNECQVIDAGAMCERTVMSIET 

3 MEMBRAMETVDEBILIASVNTANIMUSTIMOREOBSTIPVIT 



ON THE DISTINCTIO VEESUUM IN TERENCE 125 

(At top of fol. CX a) 

4 PECTORECONSISTERENIKILCONSILIIQVITVAK 

5 QVOMODOMEEXKACEXPEDIAMTVRBA 

6 TANTANVNCSVSPICIODEMEINCIDITNEQ- EAINMERITO 

7 SOSTRATACREDITMIKIMEPSALTRiAMKANCEMISSEIDANVS 

8 MIKIINDICIVMFECIT 

The last verse is set in 3 cm. from margin ; vv. 4, 5, and 6, 
13mm. or after the inner ruling. I have shown above that the 
distinctio of the Canticum in the archetype of D and G agreed 
rather with A than with P. 1 It is of this Canticum that Gitl- 
bauer in the preface to his fantastic edition of the Adelphoe 
(1896) says : " dubitare iam non poteram quin libri non versus 
sed meram orationem prosam exhibeant." 

I have considerable material bearing upon the distinctio ver- 
suum in F, but I have not examined all the plays with equal 
care. In general it may be said that many more verses are 
4 broken 'in F than in. P, there being a tendency to write short 
verses. F is not as important for the distinctio as P and the 
closely related O, although, as I have already shown, there are 
some rather interesting cases of coincidence between A and F. 
For determining the history of the tradition of Terence, and 
the genetic relationship of the various manuscripts, I am con- 
vinced that more attention must be paid to this matter of 
distinctio, traces of which can be found, as we have seen in the 
case of D and G, in manuscripts which, in whole or in part, 
have the appearance of .being written as prose. Gitlbauer's 
theory of a prose-Terence has found few believers, and his 
position certainly is not strengthened by the argument (Prae- 
fatio p. v) : "Haec mea sententia hand exigue eo nrmatur quod 
longe plurimi libri Terentiani non versibus sed continua oratione 
scripti sunt." 

MINTON WARREN. 



1 Parisinus 16235, a very large manuscript, 33 era. by 29 cm., has this Canti- 
cum with the same distinctio as in A, except that V 7 has Sostrata fecit. I 
hope later to make a more careful examination of this manuscript and of 
Parisinus 10304. 



American Scfjool 
of Classical Studies 
in J&ome 



SYMMETRY IN EARLY CHRISTIAN RELIEF 
SCULPTURE 



WHAT considerations determined the choice and arrange- 
ment of the subjects selected by the early Christians for 
representation in relief sculpture ? The present paper aims 
to throw some light upon this much-discussed question by 
calling attention to the important influence exercised over the 
sculptors by a desire to secure a merely external symmetry and 
balance of the component elements of groups or of single 
figures, and by a desire to select themes appropriate to the 
shape and size of the field at their disposal. 

The discussion will be confined almost entirely to the sar- 
cophagi, since these form by far the largest part of the extant 
monuments of early Christian relief sculpture. 

The attempt to secure symmetry and balance is evident 
(I) in the disposition of the relief fields ; (II) in the com- 
position of the special groups and single figures ; (III) in the 
distribution of the figures and groups upon the relief field. 



The simplest ornamentation of the sarcophagi one often 
employed by both Christians and pagans is the so-called 
strigilation, a series of S-shaped flutings vertically crossing 
the face of the sarcophagus. True to the taste for symmetry, 
the sculptor so disposes the ornamentation that the direction 
of the S-curves in the right and left halves of the field is 
reversed. By causing the upper curves to open toward the 
centre, he secures a rather broad lenticular field just above the 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 196 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 127 

central point of the sarcophagus face. The first step l toward 
a more complex system of ornamentation consists in the intro- 
duction of a relief into this lenticular field. This relief usually 
represents the Good Shepherd or an orans a figure en face 
with arms outstretched in attitude of prayer (see Garrucci, 
Storia delV Arte Cfistiana, vol. V, pi. 375, fig. 2 2 ). In other 
cases a regular, 3 rectangular field of varying size and bordered 
by a simple moulding, 4 is substituted for this lenticular field. 
The remainder of the face of the sarcophagus is then symmetri- 
cally decorated. The central panel, though sometimes reserved 
for the epitaph, usually bears an unpretentious relief, such as the 
Good Shepherd, 5 an orans? a biblical scene, e.g. the Nativity, 7 
Christ alone or attended by disciples, 8 the denial of Peter, 9 a 
liturgical scene (a husband and wife alone or in the presence of 
Juno Pronuba 10 ). In other cases the upper half of this panel is 
occupied by an imago clypeata, and the lower half by a plate for 
the epitaph, 11 by a conventional design 12 or by a pastoral 13 or bib- 
lical 14 scene. Of the terminal decorations the simplest forms are 
plain mouldings, 15 columns, or pilasters ; 16 the last two suggest 
the original house-form of the sarcophagus. A variant form 
consists in a tall and narrow rectangular field bearing a relief- 
representation of a genius with an inverted torch, the figures 
at both ends being the same, but with attitudes reversed. 17 This 
field is not infrequently still further enlarged and adorned with 

1 i.e. in complexity, not in chronological development. 

2 Hereafter citations from vol. V of Garrucci 's work will be given thus : 
G. 375, 2. 

3 An exception is G. 295, 2. 

4 Sometimes separated from the strigilation by fluted pilasters or columns 
(G. 295, 1 ; 325, 4: 362, 3). 

5 G. 295, 1, 2 ; 300, 1 ; 301, 1 ; 303. 

e G. 373, 4, 5 ; 374, 1, 2 ; 375, 1, 2, 4 ; 403, 2 ; 377, 4 ; 378, 1 ; 380, 1. In 
the last three instances the orans forms one of a symmetrical group of three 
figures. 

7 G. 310, 4. 8 G. 329, 3 ; 330, 1, 2 ; 342, 2. 9 G. 316, 4. 

10 G. 325, 4 ; 327, 1 ; 361, 1 ; 362, 3 ; 368, 3. n G. 358, 2. 

12 G. 357, 3 ; 360, 2. 13 G. 359, 2 ; 363, 1-3 ; 366, 1. 14 G. 357, 1, 2, 4. 

15 G. 298, 2 ; 342, 2. G. 295, 1 ; 300, 2-4 ; 301, 1, 3-5 ; 306, 1-4 ; 380, 1. 

17 G. 297, 1, 2 ; 403, 1. 



128 C. L. HEADER 

other single figures or groups, such as a lion attacking a deer, 1 
Cupid and Psyche, 2 a human figure, 3 an orans or Good Shep- 
herd, 4 or a sheep near a tree. 5 In all these instances there is a 
close correspondence between the figures at the right and left, 
either in external form or in content, or in both. When we 
pass from this range of scenes to the biblical scenes, the corre- 
spondence becomes less conspicuous, although instances are not 
wanting which show an effort on the part of the sculptor to 
break with tradition and alter the composition of the estab- 
lished subjects, so as to render them more appropriate in form 
to the new conditions. Desire to secure symmetry seems to 
have played some part also in the choice of subjects. Thus 
the most frequently recurring scenes are those from the life of 
Moses, 6 representations of resurrections, 7 the sacrifice of Isaac, 8 
all of which are especially easy to adjust to the requirements 
of a terminal position. 9 

A more complex system of decoration arises when each 
terminal panel is divided by horizontal mouldings into two 
equal fields. 10 A still more complex system is seen when the 
strigilated field is subdivided vertically as well as horizontally, 
so as to exhibit two pairs of superposed panels. In such cases 
the central and terminal figured reliefs are sometimes also sub- 
divided into superposed compositions, 11 and sometimes more 
satisfactorily left undivided. 12 These subdivided terminal 
panels exhibit biblical subjects only. Occasionally, between 
terminal reliefs the strigilation is omitted and a figured com- 
position substituted. 13 

i G. 357, 3 ; 383, 2. 2 G . 357j L 3 G . 307, 4 ; 363, 3. 

4 G. 358, 2 ; 360, 2 ; 370, 4. 5 G . 300, 1. 

6 The striking of the rock (G. 357, 2 ; 359, 2 ; 361, 1 ; 366, 1 ; 374, 2 ; 376, 1), 
the receiving of the tablets of the Law (357, 2 ; 366, 1). 

' G. 361, 1 ; 364, 1. 8 G. 310, 4. 

9 The representations of Lazarus and of Moses striking the rock may thus be 
adjusted by shifting the tomb of Lazarus or the rock to the left or to the right 
side of the composition, thus causing the figures of Christ and of Moses to face 
in a different direction. 

10 G. 364, 1. 11 G. 361, 1 ; 399, 1, 2, 7. 

u G. 324, 4. is G. 308, (from Treves). 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 129 

An important type of Christian sarcophagus * is that which 
has the form of a peripteral temple. There is usually an odd 
number of iiitercolumniations along the front, one in the centre 
and two to four at each side, with alternating round and 
pointed arches. Each intercolumniation is occupied by a 
figure or a group ; the correspondence in form between these 
being often not less striking than that between the architectu- 
rally formed fields they adorn 2 (see Fig. 1). 




FIGURE 1. -CHRISTIAN SARCOPHAGUS IN THE LATERAN MUSEUM, ROME. 

There is no Christian sarcophagus bearing on its face more 
than one field of reliefs that does not show a symmetrical dis- 
position of the fields, and few that show a neglect of symmetry 
in the composition of the groups that fill them. 



II 

Passing to the consideration of the special groups and single 
figures, we have first to note a striking contrast between 
Christian and pagan relief sculpture. While the pagan artist 
usually filled his field with one scene, the Christian sculptor 
almost invariably placed upon the sarcophagus face a series of 
from four to fifteen different scenes. 3 In this method of pro- 



1 One often used by the pagans also. 2 G. 321, 1-4 ; 322, 2 ; 361, 2. 

8 The only important exceptions are (1) the Children of Israel crossing the 
Red Sea, represented on several Gallic and on one Roman sarcophagus, and 
(2) Christ attended by his disciples. 



130 C. L. HEADER 

cedure, however, he was not an innovator. The pagan sar- 
cophagi also show a tendency to break up a group into a 
number of elements, as in the representations of Endymion 1 
and of Venus and Adonis. 2 We find also in pagan reliefs 
separate scenes standing side by side. The well-known sar- 
cophagus of the ' Mourners ' from Sidon affords a close parallel 
to the Christian representations of Christ sitting with his dis- 
ciples. In these instances there is generally some inner con- 
nection between the scenes, these being usually scenes from the 
life of some individual. 3 The Christian sarcophagi, however, 
so far as has yet been demonstrated, aside from a few exam- 
ples, 4 show no such bond of union. 5 

Furthermore the early Christians confined themselves to a 
rather limited range of subjects, 6 and thus repeated again and 
again the same scene. This tendency to repetition is not 
peculiar to Christian sculpture. To mention only a few con- 
spicuous examples from pagan art : Robert in Die antiken 
Sarkophag-Reliefs, vol. Ill, cites over fifty existing sarcophagi 
bearing representations of Endymion and Selene, which, though 
divided by him into three classes, show in reality only slight 
variations from each other. The same volume contains plates 
illustrating forty-six sarcophagi bearing representations of the 
labors of Hercules. Of these thirty-one represent the twelve 
labors and show the same lack of variety and the same tenacity 
in clinging to traditional types as do the Christian sarcophagi. 

1 See Robert, Die antiken Sarcoph ay-Reliefs, III, pis. 12-25. 

2 Robert, op. cit. Ill, pis. 2-5. 

8 Examples are the scenes from the lives of Iphigenia and Orestes (Robert, 
op. cit. II, pis. 57-59), and from the life of Hercules (Robert, op. cit. Ill, 
pis. 27-43). 

4 E.g. scenes from the life of Susannah on a Gallic sarcophagus (G. 377, 3). 

5 Schultze, Archaeologische Studien, passim, urges the importance of the 
idea of the resurrection in this connection. Other attempts to find a unifying 
idea are mentioned below (p. 144 f.). 

6 The number and variety of subjects is really larger than is usually realized. 
Over seventy-five scenes from the Old and New Testaments .occur, several of 
them in two or three different forms. If we add to these the symbolical and 
liturgical scenes, and the scenes borrowed from pagan art, the number rises 
above 150 (cf. Kraus, Geschichte der christlichen Kunst, I, pp. 91-222). 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN BELIEF SCULPTURE 131 



Examining these subjects in detail, we note that the sy 
metrical arrangement of parts is strikingly prominent in the 
following single figures and groups : 

(1) The orans. The symmetry of the figure is complete. 

(2) The Good Shepherd. The most frequent type is that in 
which the Shepherd appears in the attitude of the classical 
kriophoros, that is, carrying a sheep across his shoulders. At 
his feet stand two other sheep, one at each side. They usually 
face him and stand in perfectly symmetrical attitudes and posi- 
tions ; or, if not facing him, their heads are turned toward him. 
If four, six, or eight sheep surround him, they are divided into 
equal groups at his right and left. A tree at the right and one 
at the left often close the scene. 

(3) Daniel in the lions' den. This theme is subject to fewer 
variations than almost any other. Daniel is represented nude, 1 
standing with arms outstretched in the attitude of an orans. 
At each side stands a lion facing 2 him. On the sarcophagi he 
is sometimes alone, sometimes attended by Habakkuk and 
other persons. In the frescoes he is always represented alone. 
The lions 3 occupy symmetrical positions except in extremely 
rare instances. They sometimes stand or lie, but most fre- 
quently sit on their haunches, thus imparting to the composi- 
tion a distinctly pyramidal form. When two persons attend 
the prophet, they stand at the right and left, one behind 
each lion. In a few instances only is a third attendant 
added. 

(4) Christ attended by disciples. In these scenes, which 
ordinarily occupy the entire face of the sarcophagus, either in 
a single field or in a succession of intercolumniations, Christ 
uniformly occupies the centre, either seated or standing upon 
a rock from which flow the four streams of Paradise. The dis- 

1 He is rarely clothed (see Kraus, Real-Encyclopadie der christlichen Alter- 
thiimer, s.v. Daniel; Hennecke, Altchristliche Malerei und altchristliche Lite- 
ratur, p. 57). 

2 In a few instances turned from him (see Hennecke, I.e.}. 

3 Two in number. A single exception (G. 301, 3) has only one lion ; yet 
even here a symmetrical effect is secured. 



132 C. L. MEADER 

ciples (two, four, six, ten, or twelve in number in one 
instance there are twenty-four persons represented) sit or 
stand, an equal number at each side of the central figure. In 
the attitudes and the grouping of these figures the tendency is 
to balance group with group or figure with figure, to the right 
and left of the centre. Particularly noticeable in this respect 
is a Gallic sarcophagus. 1 In the accessories also, e.g. a palm 
tree at each side of Christ, a man and a woman kneeling at 
the right and left below Him, or two deer drinking from 
the streams, a strict symmetry of position and attitude is 
preserved. 2 

(5) Representations of the temptation and transgression of 
Adam and Eve. Like most of the other groups composed by 
the early Christians it contains but few elements. The two 
parents, nude, stand en face on each side of the Tree of Life, 
about which a serpent is sometimes coiled. The strict sym- 
metry of the group is broken only by the position of the arms 
and (though less frequently) by the sheaf of grain and the 
sheep which accompany them as symbols of the fields of labor 
to which they are respectively condemned. In many instances 
the arms also are symmetrically placed ; both being held before 
them or one being extended toward the tree. In the frescoes 
the tree also is treated with a symmetry almost geometrical, 
sending out, for example, in one case, two branches from one 
side, which correspond exactly in form, size, and position to 
two others on the opposite side. 3 The fuller treatment of the 
tree in the frescoes is due not only to the greater ease with 
which they were produced, but also to the larger field at the 
disposal of the painter, as is shown by the fact that the group 
receives a similar fuller treatment in the sarcophagi, when it is 
sculptured upon the cover or one of the small sides, positions 
which are favorable to the lateral expansion of the scene. 4 

1 Le Blant, Etude sur les sarcophages Chretiens antiques de la ville d" 1 Aries, 
pi. iv. 

2 Cf. Schnaase, Geschichte der bildenden Kunste, III 2 , p. 91. 

3 Garrucci, vol. II, pi. 63. * Cf. below, pp. 144 f. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 133 

When the sheep and the sheaf are present, they are employed 
to fill in the spaces at each side of the foot of the tree. 1 

(6) The condemnation of Adam and Eve. Christ, the AOYO?, 
stands en face between the two. Eve is generally at his left, 
as usually in the preceding group. Christ holds in his right 
hand a sheaf of grain, in his left he holds a lamb by the fore 
feet. The group is composed with almost exact symmetry, 
extending frequently even to the positions of the hands of 
Adam and Eve. 2 

(7) On one sarcophagus is a representation of the offerings 
of Cain and Abel modelled closely upon the preceding group. 3 

(8) The multiplication of the loaves and fishes. In the treat- 
ment of this miracle the frescoes and the sarcophagi present 
marked divergencies. In the frescoes Christ is unattended by 
other figures. 4 Near him stand seven baskets of loaves, one 
of which he touches with a wand. On the sarcophagi Christ 
is represented standing between two men, each of whom holds 
a plate with both hands. On the plate at the right are two 
fishes, on the other are loaves of bread. Christ extends his 
hands and touches the loaves and fishes. Deviations from this 
symmetrical type 5 are usually explainable on technical grounds. 

(9) A scene composed strictly on the model of the preceding 
and explained as Isaac blessing Jacob and Esau. 

(10) The labarum, at the base of which sit two soldiers in 
full armor. The labarum is often made the centre of groups 
similar to (4). The arrangement is in all cases strictly sym- 
metrical. 

The following groups betray less clearly the influence of a 
desire to secure symmetry : 

(11) The arrest of Moses, Peter, or Christ. Each shoulder 
of the person arrested is seized by an officer. The energy of 
action quite unusual in early Christian sculpture that char- 

1 Illustrations of this group in G. passim, in particular 333, 3 ; 372, 3 ; 377, 1. 

2 G. passim, in particular 367, 2, 3. 3 G. 310, 2. 
4 The only exception is G. vol. II, pi. 18, 3 ; yet here the scene is symmetrical. 
6 G. 320, 1. 



134 C. L. MEAVER 

acterizes this scene, serves to break somewhat the formal 
monotony which it would otherwise have and which would 
give it much the same form as that assumed by the miracle of 
the loaves and fishes. 

(12) The denial of Peter. 1 

(13) Christ and the woman of Samaria. 2 

These subjects, except Nos. 7, 9, 12, 13, are among those of 
most frequent occurrence in the early Christian art, there 
being but few sculptured sarcophagi that do not contain one or 
more of them. Those which show the most striking symmetry 
- Adam and Eve, Daniel, the Good Shepherd, and the orantes 
are among the earliest themes chosen for representation by 
the Christians, and are found with great frequency in frescoes. 
The multiplication of the loaves, on the other hand, first finds 
a symmetrical representation in the relief sculpture. The 
arrest of Moses was developed out of the representation of the 
striking of the rock, 3 and the arrest of Peter and of Christ are 
formed upon its model. 

Ill 

As stated above, the Christian sculptor usually filled the 
field with reliefs representing, not a single scene, but a series 
of from four to fifteen different scenes. In the distribution of 
these scenes over the surfaces of sarcophagi, we find not less 
striking evidence of a tendency to symmetrical arrangement 
and balance combined with an effort to adjust the given group 
to the form or the division of the field in which it finds its 
place. 

As in the examination of the sarcophagi bearing simple 
ornamentation we found the centre to be the chief point of 
interest, so on the more elaborately decorated sarcophagi the 
centre receives in all but a few instances a strong emphasis. 
This is particularly true of the representations of Christ sur- 
rounded by his disciples. Although the scene often fills the 

1 G. 316, 4 ; 323, 5 ; 334, 1, 3. 2 G. 319, 1 ; 333, 1 ; 334, 1. 

3 Schultze, op. cit. p. 167. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 135 

entire face and both small sides of the sarcophagus, yet, on 
the other hand, it is often reduced until only one or two 
attendants are left at each side. In this case the group loses 
much of its independent value, and becomes a mere central 
group on a par with those surrounding it. It is then still 
further simplified by a substitution of the labarum for the 
figure of Christ, and in this form frequently occupies the 
middle one of a series of intercolumniations. 1 

Next to this type that which occurs most frequently as a 
central figure is the orans. Its independence as a central 
element is often formally indicated by its separation from the 
adjacent groups, either by a field left free from reliefs, 2 by two 
columns, 3 or by two trees. 4 The same effect is secured by 
setting the figure before a parapetasma. 5 Not infrequently 
two men stand at the right and left in corresponding attitudes. 
In a few instances reliefs of very poor execution the figure 
is somewhat confused with the adjacent groups. 6 

The Good Shepherd when employed as a central figure is 
not often associated with biblical scenes. An instance of such 
a grouping is afforded by a Gallic sarcophagus. 7 The subject 
is more frequently found filling a central panel, 8 and once has 
a place within the central intercolumniation of a series of five, 
the other four being filled by the four Horae. 

Of the New Testament miracles, the multiplication of the 
loaves and fishes, which received the most symmetrical treat- 
ment, has, in several instances, been employed as a central 
group. 9 

The Samaritan woman at the well occurs as the central 
group on a sarcophagus found in Rome. 10 

Daniel between the lions was used more frequently as a 
central element than any other Old Testament therne. Thus 



i G. 335, 2-4 ; 350, 1, 2. 2 G . 377, 1. 8 G. 369, 1, 3. 

4 G. 378, 4. 5 G. 369, 2; 376, 1 ; 380, 3. G. 382, 2. 

7 Le Blant, I.e. 8 Cf. p. 127. 

9 G. 312, 1, 3 ; 313, 1, 2 ; and in a slightly varied form, 312, 2. 
10 G. 313, 3. 



136 C. L. MEADER 

placed it occurs four times below the imago clypeata, 1 and three 
times on covers. 2 

Adam and Eve form the central group on one relief, 3 and on 
another, 4 Cain and Abel bringing their offerings. 

It is noticeable that the subjects which from preference are 
given a central position on the sarcophagi are precisely those 
which in the above examination of the special scenes have been 
found to be symmetrical in composition. 

Although the number of different subjects employed as cen- 
tral elements is small, yet these find such frequent application 
that a very large proportion of the extant sarcophagi show 
them. 6 The prominence of the central element is in fact so 
marked that Garrucci determined the succession of the illustra- 
tions in his Storia delV Arte Cristiana almost exclusively on this 
basis. 

In the selection of the subjects for representation at each 
end of the sarcophagus face, the desire to secure symmetry, 
together with a fitting termination, is not less evident than 
in the case of the central group. This is the more surprising 
because the great majority of the subjects employed by the 
early Christians contain or consist of standing figures, any of 
which might have been used as terminal elements without seri- 
ously detracting from the artistic finish of the composition as 
a whole. The monotony, however, produced by a long line 
of standing figures has led the sculptors to vary the series at 
the ends. 

The following scenes 6 are used in preference to others as 
terminal 7 groups. The number of occurrences of each sub- 
ject is here given. 

1 G. 364, 3; 365, 2 ; 367, 1, 2. 2 G. 384, 2, 5; 398, 4. 

3 G. 310, 1. 4 G. 310, 2. 

6 The exceptions are : G. 313, 4 ; 314, 5, 6 ; 316, 3 ; 318, 1 (?), 4 (?) ; 361, 2 ; 
371, 1; 372, 2 (?); 377, 3. 

6 Several have already been cited by Le Blant, op. cit. p. xiii. 

7 Counting also as terminal positions those on each side of the imago clypeata. 
Sarcophagi with arcades are also included contrary to the precedent set by 
Le Blant, Z.c., since these show even more clearly than the ordinary type an 
effort to balance the corresponding scenes right and left of the centre. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 137 

(1) Resurrection of Lazarus 25 

(2) Resurrections of other persons 9 

(3) Vision of Ezekiel 1 

(4) Sacrifice of Isaac 29 

(5) Moses striking the rock 25 

(6) Moses receiving the law 19 

(7) Adoration of the Magi 1 10 

(8) Handwashing of Pilate l 9 

(9) Job and his friends l 5 

(10) Offerings of Cain and Abel 1 4 

(11) Washing of Peter's feet ! 3 

(12, 13) Man reading, A person seated (2 each) l 4 

(14) Slaughter of the innocents x 1 

(15, 16) Saul, Stoning of Stephen (1 each) . 2 

(17) Creation of Adam and Eve 1 

(18) A royal personage seated 1 

148 

The following subjects, though not especially suited for use 
as terminal elements, occur as such: 

Three Babylonians before Nebuchadnezzar 6 

Miracle of the loaves and fishes 6 

The Haemoroessa, Paralytic, Blind, Daniel destroying the 

serpent (5 each) 20 

Adam and Eve, Peter receiving the keys (4 each) .... 8 

Story of Jonah, Denial of Peter (3 each) 6 

Moses and the burning bush, Daniel between the lions 

(2 each) 4 

Miracle of Cana, an orans, Baptism of Christ (2 each) ... 6 

Miscellaneous scenes (1 each) 14 

70 

The most common instance of the balancing of similar ter- 
minal groups is that of Moses striking the rock and the resur- 
rection of Lazarus. The subjects Moses receiving the law and 
the Sacrifice of Isaac are frequently found at each side of the 
imago clypeata. In these scenes the hand of God appearing in 
the clouds is made to fill the triangular space between the 
upper moulding of the sarcophagus face and the rim of the 
4 clypeus^ The frequent recurrence of the first two scenes 

1 Each of these scenes has a seated figure at the end of it. 

2 Le Blant, op. cit. 






138 C. L. HEADER 

in connection with each other is used by Kraus 1 as evidence 
for substantiating the theory that the sculptor desired to 
symbolize in them the Old Testament type and its fulfilment 
in the New ('Typus und Erfullung des Typus'). Le Blant, 
however, in the passage cited above seems to come nearer the 
truth, when he says that the desire mentioned above to provide 
a suitable terminal element for the series of reliefs guided the 
artist in the choice of these subjects. 2 Schultze 3 calls atten- 
tion to the 4 unmittlebare Verbindung ' or ' Inbeziehungsetzen ' 
of these two groups, in commenting on the frescoes of cubicu- 
lum B in the catacombs of St. Callixtus. When scenes repre- 
senting resurrections other than that of Lazarus 4 occur as 
terminal elements, they are probably so used because of con- 
fusion with it. The position of the scenes of Moses receiving 
the law and the Sacrifice of Isaac at the close of a series of 
reliefs on each side of the imago clypeata led to their employ- 
ment as terminal elements at the ends of the sarcophagus 
face as well. The subjects 7-14 in the above list are ren- 
dered suitable by the fact that the seated figure in each may 
easily be made to occupy a position at the end of the sar- 
cophagus face and turned toward the centre. The eighteen 
subjects in the first list occur in the great majority of cases 
in final positions; the twenty-nine 5 in the second list occupy 
these positions a relatively small number of times. For exam- 
ple, the miracles of Christ, although they belong to the most 
common themes of early Christian art, 6 occur only two to six 
times each as terminal elements. 

Besides using biblical scenes for this purpose the Christians 



1 Heal-Encyclopadie der christlichen Alterthumer, II, p. 431. 

2 That which renders these two scenes suitable for the position is that the 
tomb of Lazarus in the one, and the rock with the stream of water in the other, 
are solid vertical masses having the effect of a pilaster or column. 

8 Op. cit. p. 39. 

* Regarding as resurrections of Lazarus only those scenes having an 
ae<ZicwZ-like tomb. 

6 Except the first and sixth. 

6 I have noted over four hundred instances on the sarcophagi alone. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 139 

sometimes followed the practice of the pagans and chose an 
architectural form 1 or rocks and vegetation. 2 

In the disposition of the reliefs lying between the centre and 
end groups we do not note so marked an effort to secure a 
balance of lines and forms ; yet instances in which this consid- 
eration has had its weight are far from uncommon, as the 
following cases will show : a scene of arrest is balanced with 
the miracle of the loaves and fishes 3 in ten instances. 4 The 
Adam and Eve group is balanced with the miracle of the 
loaves and fishes, 5 and with Daniel between the lions, 6 an arrest 
with an arrest, 7 the stoning of Paul (?) with Christ led before 
Pilate, 8 Peter led to punishment with Christ led before Pilate. 9 
Balancing of double or triple pairs of New or Old Testament 
scenes which are made to correspond in general also occur ; 10 
likewise New Testament miracles are balanced with each other. 11 
An excellent example of symmetrical compositions on a Chris- 
tian sarcophagus is furnished by a sarcophagus found at Aries. 12 

The covers of the sarcophagi offer a peculiar and somewhat 
difficult problem to the sculptor. He is called upon to fill a 
field which is very low in proportion to its length ; too low to 
admit well a standing human figure, .and too long for any but 
a rather extended scene. The pagan sarcophagi show a num- 
ber of more or less successful attempts to solve the problem. 
The field is often reduced to less than one-half its former 
length by inserting the plate for the epitaph in the centre, thus 
producing two fields for reliefs. Whether thus diminished in 
length or not, the space is usually filled with scenes that natu- 
rally demand but little height, and may be extended indefi- 

1 G. 298, 1 (an arched doorway) ; 299, 1-3 ; 300, 2-4 ; 301, 1, 3-5 (columns or 
pilasters). 2 G. 298, 1 ; 304, 4. 

3 The close resemblance between these groups in external form was men- 
tioned above (p. 133). 

4 G. 314, 2, 6 ; 318, 4 ; 364, 3 ; 366, 3 ; 372, 2 ; 376, 1 ; 378, 2 ; 380, 4 ; 382, 2. 

5 G. 365, 2. 6 G. 301, 3 ; 322, 2. ' G. 340, 5 ; 322, 2 (?). 

8 G. 346, 1. 9 G. 335, 2. 10 G. 321, 3 ; 366, 2 ; 370, 1 ; 379, 1. 

11 G. 319, 2 ; 375, 3 (paralytic and the blind) ; 320, 1 (the blind and the 
haemoroessa) ; 353, 1 ; 403, 4 (the haemoroessa and the centurion) ; 353, 1 
(the blind and the denial of Peter). G. 361, 2. 



140 C. L. MEADER 

nitely in length. Such are : (1) a train of sea animals or 
dolphins, 1 the former often bearing sea nymphs on their backs ; 
(2) a train of captive women in sitting posture ; 2 (3) two 
sphinxes facing, with vertically compressed bodies ; 3 (4) a 
chase ; 4 (5) cupids holding garlands. 5 Less frequently the 
required length is secured by representing a series of moments 
in a myth, as that of Medea in Corinth, 6 Iphigenia among the 
Taurians, 7 or the labors of Hercules. 8 

The Christian sculptors showed themselves no less skilful in 
dealing with the problem. They had the choice of several 
methods. They might adopt pagan subjects, reorganize and 
adjust the distinctively Christian subjects (in case they were 
inappropriate) to the new conditions, or adopt suitable Chris- 
tian subjects. As a matter of fact, they resorted to all of these 
methods. Of the pagan subjects the dolphin was the one most 
frequently adopted, perhaps because of its association with the 
fish, the symbol of Christ. Christian compositions were altered 
by expanding them laterally. 9 The representations of Adam 
and Eve and of Daniel between the lions are somewhat capable 
of lateral expansion and occur several times on covers. The 
following scenes, 10 all rather long in proportion to their height, 
find frequent representation on covers : the story of Jonah (19 
occurrences), the Nativity (3), the adoration of the Magi (18), 
the three men in the fiery furnace (6), the same before Nebu- 

1 Robert, Die antiken Sarkophag-Reliefs, III, pi. 12, no. 40. 

2 Robert, op. cit. II, pi. 32, nos. 77, 78. 

8 Robert, op. cit. II, pi. 18, no. 27. 

* Robert, op. cit. Ill, pis. 38, 40, nos. 127, 132. 
6 Robert, op. cit. Ill, pi. 13, no. 48. 

6 Jason and Creusa, the children bearing the gifts to Creusa, the death of 
Creusa and Creon, the murder of the children, the flight of Medea (Robert, 
op. cit. II, pi. 62, no. 194). 

7 The recognition of Iphigenia and Orestes, the carrying of the image of 
Artemis to the shore, the battle on the shore, the flight of Iphigenia and Orestes 
(Robert, op. cit. II, pi. 54, no. 155). 

" Robert, op. cit. Ill, pi. 33, no. 120. 

9 Good examples are found in Garrucci's work, pi. 383, 5 ; 384, 2, 4 ; et al. 
10 The list is not complete. The number of omissions, however, does not have 

any appreciable effect upon the relative proportion of occurrences. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 141 

chadnezzar (2), the crossing of the Red Sea and the fall of 
manna (1), the slaughter of the innocents (1), the twelve 
apostles (1), the striking of the rock and the arrest of Moses l 
(5). Other groups which do not possess these proportions 
occur only rarely on covers. Fully seventy per cent of the 
representations found on covers are of the third kind, subjects 
adopted as specially appropriate for such a field. These sub- 
jects may be divided into two classes. The first class comprises 
those which are composed of an extended series of seated or 
standing figures, while the second shows a predominance of 
horizontal lines. 

That it was chiefly a regard for the form of the field that led 
the sculptors to choose these subjects for cover decorations, is 
proved by their occurrence in the narrow field below the imago 
clypeata on many sarcophagi, 2 and in the narrow fields result- 
ing from the distribution of the reliefs on the sarcophagus face 
into two horizontal bands instead of one. 3 Noticeable is also the 
fact, that many biblical scenes occur rarely on covers, although 
they frequently appear in other positions on the sarcophagi. 
Such are the miracles of the Lord and several Old Testament 
subjects (the sacrifice of Isaac, Adam and Eve). 

A similar set of conditions presents itself in the short sides of 
the sarcophagi. Here the field is usually scarcely long enough 
to admit the representation of more than one ordinary group 
of two or three figures without overcrowding. 4 The sculptors, 
therefore, in most instances selected single scenes that are 
either somewhat longer than the ordinary groups or are capa- 
ble of lateral expansion. The groups most frequently occur- 
ring there are : the three men in the fiery furnace (4 times), 
Adam and Eve (8), the three men before Nebuchadnezzar (4), 

1 The two scenes are so intimately associated that the sculptors seem to have 
regarded them usually as a single group. 

2 The adoration : G. 358, 1 ; 365, 1 ; Jonah : G. 359, 1 ; 366, 3 ; 367, 3 ; Daniel 
between the lions: G. 310, 1. 

3 Jonah : G. 377, 1 ; Adoration : G. 365, 2 ; 377, 1 ; the three men before 
Nebuchadnezzar : G. 365, 1. 

4 The difficulty does not exist in the case of very deep sarcophagi. 



142 



C. L. MEADER 



Daniel between the lions (4), Adoration of the Magi (2). 
Others are of less frequent occurrence : Jonah, Job and his 
friends, Christ's entry into Jerusalem, Tabitha. A remarkable 
example of the departure of a sculptor from a traditional type 
is found in the treatment of two subjects (Moses striking 
the rock, and the baptism of Christ) on the ends of a Gallic 
sarcophagus, 1 where the composition is entirely changed. An- 
other not less striking instance of an effort to adjust a group 
to the field is afforded by the treatment of the miracle of the 
loaves and fishes on another Gallic sarcophagus. 2 This scene 3 
does not readily admit of lateral expansion, since Christ must 




FIGURE 2. CHRISTIAN SARCOPHAGUS IN S. APOLLINARE IN CLASSE, 

RAVENNA. 

stand quite close to the attendants that he may touch the loaves 
and fishes. The sculptor of the present sarcophagus, however, 
in order to fill his field, separated the figures so widely that the 
Christ is forced to stretch out his arms in a painful manner. 
A similar unsuccessful attempt to represent a subject inappro- 
priate to a field of a certain shape is observable on the well- 
known sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum representing the 
history of Jonah. 

In this discussion no account has been taken of a class of 
sarcophagi, which show exact geometrical symmetry and which 
are chiefly, though not exclusively, to be found in Ravenna. 



1 G. 398, 9. 



2 G. 361, 3. 



Cf. p. 133. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 143 

The reliefs are either modifications of the scenes representing 
Christ with his disciples or symbolic designs composed upon its 
general plan. In the former case the subordinate figures are 
reduced to six, four, or two. By placing the figures some dis- 
tance from each other, and inserting a palm at the right and 
left, the scene is made to occupy the entire field. In the latter 
case the place of Christ is occupied by a lamb standing upon 
the Hill of Paradise, by a cross, or by the monogram of Christ 
within a circle (Fig. 2). Instead of the apostles, a lamb or a 
peacock stands at each side. In a few instances the centre is 
occupied by a vase from which the two peacocks drink. The 
field is not infrequently filled with a network of vines ; these 
show an exact correspondence in form at the right and left of 
the centre. 

IV 

The preceding discussion has shown that the Christian 
sculptors, besides following in many cases the traditions of 
the pagan ateliers, were influenced (1) by a desire to secure 
a formal symmetry in the composition of the special scenes, 
(2) by a desire to secure a symmetrical arrangement of these 
groups on the relief field (a) by strongly emphasizing the cen- 
tre, (5) by providing mutually corresponding terminal ele- 
ments, (c) by disposing the intermediate subjects in mutually 
corresponding groups, and (3) by a desire to choose (or ren- 
der) subjects appropriate, to the shape and size of the field at 
their disposal. 

These tendencies are not confined to or characteristic of any 
one geographical district. They are found in Gaul, Italy, 
Spain, and Numidia, although, as stated above, sarcophagi of a 
certain type occur most numerously in Ravenna. Neither can 
the chronological development of the tendencies be clearly 
made out, owing to the small number of monuments that can 
be accurately dated. 

The principles here established are of great importance for 
the interpretation of the monuments of early Christian art. 



144 C. L. HEADER 

Although they have occasionally been referred to by various 
writers, 1 and somewhat superficially and briefly discussed by 
Schnaase, 2 their influence has been overlooked by a class of 
archaeologists who lay great stress on the symbolic or allegori- 
cal interpretation of the remains of early Christian art. Sev- 
eral passages of recent scholars demand reconsideration on the 
basis of these principles. Garrucci, 3 whose deductions often 
bear a strongly subjective character, makes the following state- 
ment regarding the bond of relationship connecting the various 
groups represented on a given sarcophagus : " Gli antichi artisti 
cristiani aver dovevano una ragione che regolava la scelta dei 
soggetti, da loro scolpiti sulla faccia di un sarcofago, o sopra 
alcuna volta cimiteriale, o intorno ad una nicchia di arcosolio ; 
questo concetto dominante, questa idea superiore, che non era 
il semplice fatto, vestir doveva il carattere medesimo, che le 
particolari representanze, le quale se non sono figurate in 
istorico senso, un altro certamente ne hanno, che profetico, 
dommatico ovvero morale si appella; e come le riunioni di 
soggetti in senso storico si seguono 1' una 1' altra, senz' altra 
ragione che la successione dei fatti, cosi le unioni in senso 
figurato star debbono insieme per quel concetto superiore che 
ha preseduto nella mente dell' artista alia loro scelta, e che e 
dovere del interprete andar cercando." De Waal further car- 
ries out the idea as follows : 4 "In der That haben denn de 
Rossi, Garrucci u. A. fiir einzelne Sarcophagen die tiefere ein- 
heitliche Idee, welche der Wahl und Anordnung der Bilder zu 
Grunde liegt, nachgewiesen ; wir glauben, dass sie sich durch- 
gangig wenigstens bei den bessern Arbeiten nachweisen lasse, 
. . ." The judgments passed by Garrucci and De Waal are 
based mainly on the examination of the well-known sarcopha- 
gus from S. Paolo fuori le Mura, which now stands in the Lat- 
eran Museum. The correctness of their interpretation of this 

1 Cf. Schultze, Archaeologische Studien, p. 42, who in this connection cites 
Costadoni, II pesce simbolico. 

2 Geschichte der bildenden Kunste, 2d ed. One passage is cited below. 
8 Op. cit. vol. I, pp. 45 ff. 

4 In Kraus, Real-Encyclopadie der christlichen Alterthumer, II, p. 725. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 145 

monument is, to say the* least, rendered very uncertain by 
Schultze, 1 who proposes quite a different explanation. 

It is much more than doubtful that, as Garrucci and De Waal 
claim, the disposition of the subjects upon the sarcophagi was 
determined by the content (' concette dominante,' 4 idea superi- 
or e,' ' tiefere einheitliche Idee '), and that the}*- are to be read 
off like a homily (' omilia '). Garrucci begins with the assump- 
tion that the Christians followed pagan tradition in the dis- 
position of the scenes. There is nothing improbable in this 
statement. That the pagans, however, always or even usually 
followed the historical order of events is by no means true ; 
an examination of the sarcophagi published in volumes II and 
III of Robert's work shows that they were frequently uninflu- 
enced by the historical order of events. An instance is the 
sarcophagus cover bearing reliefs illustrating the life of Oedi- 
pus. 2 It is not impossible, perhaps not improbable, that in 
some instances the Christians were more influenced by the idea 
than by the form, 3 but that the considerations discussed above 
played an important, if not the chief part, is shown by the fact 
that sixty per cent of the reliefs 4 occurring on Christian sar- 
cophagi have had their choice, composition, or arrangement 
determined by such motives. This large percentage further 
shows that Schultze 5 has gone too far toward the opposite 
extreme. ' Kiinstlerische Motive ' which have affected nearly 

1 Op. cit. pp. 145 ff. 2 vol. II, pi. 60, no. 183. 

8 Professor Marucchi stated to the writer that the sarcophagus from S. Paolo 
was probably the only one which gave evidence of a consideration of the con- 
tent in the arrangement. 

4 Leaving out of account the large class described on p. 143. 

5 Op. cit. pp. 173 ff. : " Der Komplex von Sarcophag-Reliefs, iiber den wir 
verfiigen, lehrt iibereinstimmend, das die Kiinstler sich fast ausnahmslos darauf 
beschrankten, aus den vorhandenen Besitzstiicken eine bestimmte Zahl aus- 
zuwahlen und diese gegebenen Sujets, ohne Riicksicht auf eine bestimmte 
einheitliche Idee oder einen fortlaufenden Gedanken, einfach mechanisch an- 
einander zu ordnen. Sogar kunstlerische Motive scheinen nur selten mass- 
gebend geworden zu sein ; der Vergleich der einzelnen Gfuppen mit einander 
erregt vielmehr die Vermuthung, dass allein das Streben nach Variation diese 
oder jene Bilderf olge geschaffen habe, deren Gedankenreihe die Ausleger beharr- 
lich und in bester Uberzeugung zu erkennen sich abmtihen." 



146 C. L. MEADEE 

two-thirds of the entire number of our extant monuments can 
scarcely be described as being 4 of infrequent occurrence ' (' nur 
selten'). The passage from Schnaase mentioned above reads 
as follows : l " Sie (i.e. the subjects represented on sarcophagi) 
sind immer in ungerader Zahl, das mittlere Bildwerk gewohn- 
lich etwas breiter und voller, so dass es sich als die mitte aus- 
zeichnet, wahrend die beiden nachsten und dann wieder die 
beiden entfernteren mit einander correspondieren, und zwar 
nicht durch ihren Inhalt, der vielmehr dabei gar nicht be- 
riicksichtigt zu sein scheint, sondern durch ihre Form." The 
words 4 immer ' and ' gewohnlich ' do not correctly describe 
the facts. The clause 'wahrend . . . correspondieren' should 
be essentially modified in the light of the facts stated on 
p. 139. It has not been proved that no consideration was 
had for content in choosing the subjects. On the contrary, 
instances can be cited where it has entered into the question. 2 

Although, in the treatment of the sarcophagi, the sculptors 
often followed certain traditional modes of procedure in regard 
to the principles discussed in this paper, yet the application or 
non-application of these principles in special cases seems to 
have depended largely upon the choice of the artist, since some 
sarcophagi show no effort to apply them, besides offering in ; 
other respects noticeable exceptions to the usual mode of pro- ; 
cedure. The arrest of Moses, for example, is regularly placed I 
next to the striking of the rock, yet in two instances it is 
separated from it. 3 Once the striking of the rock is not placed 
at the end. 4 The composition of the scene is entirely changed 
in two cases. 5 The or am is occasionally placed out of the 
centre. 6 On two sarcophagi 7 the composition is in striking 
contrast with the usual forms. 

It remains only to draw a brief comparison between classical 
and Christian sculpture. Symmetrical balancing of forms and 

1 Op. Git. Ill, p. 90. 2 G. 335, 2, 3, 4 ; 341, 4 ; 377, 3. 

3 G. 378, 2 ; 377, 1. * G. 314, 6. 

6 G. 351, 6 ; 367, 2. ' G. 312, 3 ; 370, 2 ; 371, 2 ; 377, 3 ; cf. 371, 1. 

7 G. 374, 4 ; and the well-known one in the Lateran bearing scenes from the 
life of Jonah. 



SYMMETRY IN CHRISTIAN RELIEF SCULPTURE 147 

masses has been noted by many writers l as a prominent charac- 
teristic of the Greek and Graeco-Roman art in all periods of its 
development. An important change, however, takes place in 
its nature in the course of centuries. The Greeks of the fifth 
and fourth centuries before the Christian era display a very 
delicate refinement in this respect. With them it is always 
subordinate to the idea. As the creative imagination grew 
weaker, and form gained in importance, the symmetry in the 
composition of works of art either became more and more 
formal or was entirely neglected. In many instances being 
made an end in itself, it becomes painfully conspicuous. The 
Christian sculptors, who belong to the last period in the devel- 
opment of ancient art, following the general tendencies of their 
times, show only mediocre skill or in many instances total lack 
of it, and their efforts often result in an almost mathematical 
exactness or in great erudeness. This fact renders more con- 
spicuous the presence of the influence of symmetry in Christian 
art, and so not only gives greater weight to the evidence cited 
in this paper, but incidentally exemplifies a truth often lost 
sight of or neglected by specialists in Christian archaeology: 
namely, that in the interpretation of the monuments we must 
in all instances take into consideration the intimate depend- 
ence of Christian upon pagan art. 

C. L. HEADER. 

1 e.g. De Cou, Am. J. Arch., First series, vol. VIII, pis. ii, iii. 






GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



THE Archaeological Institute of America held a general 
meeting, for the reading and discussion of 'papers, at New 
Haven, December 27, 28, and 29, 1899. The meeting was 
well attended, and the papers awakened great interest. 

Resolutions were passed to urge the United States govern- 
ment to modify the existing regulations affecting the impor- 
tation of objects of archaeological interest, and to care for 
the preservation of monuments of the earlier inhabitants of 
this country. A resolution was also passed thanking the 
authorities of Yale University for the hospitable reception 
given to the Institute. 

There were in all six sessions, at which addresses were 
made and papers presented. Brief abstracts of the papers, 
prepared for the most part by the writers, follow. Several 
of these papers are published in full in this number of the 
JOUKNAL, and others will be published in later issues. 

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 27. 3 P.M. 

President D. C. Gilman, of Johns Hopkins University, Vice- 
President of the Institute, presided. Papers were read as 
follows : 

1. Professor W. C. Lawton, of Adelphi College, The Rise 
of Drama. 

Choral song and inarch, out of which drama sprang, is as old as 
the K Homeric poetry (paean of victory, II. X 391-394; paean of 
worship, II. A 472-474), doubtless as old as the consciousness of 
kin in a barbarous clan. The vintage song and dance is depicted 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 149 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 1. 



150 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

on Achilles' shield, but Dionysus is not yet leader of the chorus. 
The dramatic element appears early in the Eleusinian mystery-play 
of Demeter and of Zagreus, and is combined with dancing at Delphi, 
in the Cretan worship of Zeus, etc. 

But these more dignified cults seem remote indeed from the mere 
caperings of rustics at Icaria. Dionysus there reveals no mystic 
features, but is a mere merry lord of misrule. Tpayos is as unheroic 
a word as " billy goat." The rollicking chorus in a ring, the uproari- 
ous music and banter, the smeared faces, even the "interlocutor," 
find a parallel, so close as to be undoubtedly misleading, in our 
"nigger minstrels." 

This mere diversion of the annual carnival-time, nothing more, 
was transferred to Athens. To Solon's cutting rebuke, Phrynichus 
only replied, " It all goes, in sport ! " It can hardly be proved that 
any real tragic element appeared before Aeschylus. If Thespis had 
left any libretto worthy of the name, surely something would have 
survived, at least to Alexandrian times. We have not one word. 

The brooding, pious nature of Aeschylus, for a generation that 
had seen a miracle in Xerxes' retreat, created tragedy, borrowing 
for its adornment from epic and from Dorian choral lyric. Phry- 
nichus seems to have attempted a historical and contemporary school 
of drama, which was short-lived. The comic element never wholly 
left drama, and outlasted the pious Aeschylean spirit. The Greeks, 
and especially the Athenians, were too audacious intellectually to be 
a truly reverent folk. 

In general we should accept most literally Aristotle's dictum, 
"From trivial plots and ludicrous phrasing, as it grew out of the 
satyrplay, tragedy acquired late a serious tone." " Late " is not in 
the sixth century, during the life of the founders. 

2. Professor Francis W. Kelsey, of the University of Michi- 
gan, The Stage Entrances of the Small Theatre at Pompeii. 

[The wall at the back of the stage of the Small Theatre at Pompeii 
is pierced by five doors. The speaker presented several considera- 
tions in favor of the view that the two doors near the ends, which 
are smaller than the rest, were designed primarily to give access to 
the tribunalia; for in this theatre the tribunalia were shut off from the 
seats of the cavea by sloping walls, and were reached by means of 
steps leading up from the stage.] 

3. Professor James M. Paton, of Wesleyan University, The 
Story of Alcestis in Ancient Literature and Art. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 151 

The earliest literary version of the story of Alcestis has been recov- 
ered by the reconstruction of an episode in the Hesiodic Eoeae. The 
essential features were the aid of Apollo, which enabled Admetus 
to win Alcestis ; the wrath of Artemis, which required the life of 
Admetus ; the devotion of Alcestis, and her return to life, by the 
favor of the gods of the lower world, as the reward of this devotion. 
The Attic dramatists, Phrynichus and Euripides, omitted the aid of 
Apollo, substituted for the wrath of Artemis the will of the Fates, 
and introduced Heracles as the forcible rescuer of Alcestis. The 
later literature, so far as can be gathered, while preserving as a basis 
the old version, adopted some of the features of the new, and in par- 
ticular attributed the return of Alcestis to a journey of Heracles to 
the lower world and his intercession with the rulers of the dead. 
In general, however, the special features of the myth fell into the 
background, and the characters faded into mere types of piety and 
devoted love. The myth is not popular in the earlier art, and no 
unquestioned representations of it have survived. In the later art it 
is chiefly found on funeral monuments, especially sarcophagi, and in 
general in forms which show only an acquaintance with the popu- 
lar tradition, not with either of the characteristic literary forms of 
the myth. 

4. Professor Frank Carter, of McGill University, On Some 
Minor Points in Homeric Archaeology. 

[The paper dealt with disputed nautical technical terms. The 
evidence is mainly literary, and is affected by the following con- 
siderations. Technical terms are (1) etymologically significant, 
(2) metaphorically transferred, (3) never exact synonyms, (4) re- 
tentive of meaning. KAi)is is thole-pin, not thwart, 6 37, 53. vy6v 
is thwart, not lower beam, i 99, v 21. Oprjws is not thwart, nor 
equivalent to vyov, nor stretcher, nor bench or deck, nor longitudinal 
bridge, but steersman's deck at the stern, O 729; cf. schol. AD. 
iKpia are bulwarks, not deck. o-xeSo/ is not boat, nor double-decked 
raft, but single raft ivith wattled bulwarks. In the raft, the dp/jio- 
VLOLL are not dowels, nor cross-pieces, but joints, cross-pieces being 
assumed; o-ra/xtj/e? are uprights, not struts; IK/OKX in the raft are 
not uprights, but bulwarks; To/ovwo-erat means round off by making 
the middle timbers longer. The construction of the raft is as 
follows : (1) floor ; (2) frame of bulwarks, uprights and gun- 
wale; (3) spars and steering paddle; (4) wattle between the 
uprights ; (5) brushwood, spread for dry sitting ; all simple 
axe-work. The rigging of the raft was probably the same as that 



152 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



of small boats. eTrtVcpiov, yard, points to the lateen rig; /coAoi are 
brail-ropes, not halyards; v-rrepai are not braces, but halyards; jneo-o- 
'8/x>y is a cross-thwart; lo-roTre'S?? is not a mast-box, but a support on 
the floor ; CTUTOI/OS is not back-stay, nor lialyard, nor traveller, but a 
strip of hide fastened to the yard, wound several times round the 
mast, serving the purpose of a traveller (so Suidas, I, 2, 477).] 

5. Mr. E. P. Andrews, of Cornell University, The Inscription 
on the East Architrave of the Parthenon. 

[The manner in which the inscription was deciphered was ex- 
plained with the aid of a careful representation of the traces on 
the building.] 

6. Dr. T. W. Heer mance, of Yale University, A New Class 
of Crreek G-eometric Pottery. 

The primitive hand-made pottery of the Greek mainland and the 
islands, with incised ornament, is followed by a class of vases, equally 
hand-made, with painted decoration. This decoration, largely derived 
from incised work, is essentially rectilinear-geometric, though concen- 
tric circles are occasionally found, and on late specimens the spiral. 
It is done in a blackish or brownish paint, usually dull, but sometimes 
lustrous. The clay, which varies in different localities (indicating 
more than one centre of production), is covered with a whitish yellow 
slip possibly a reminiscence of the early marble bowls, etc. Pot- 
tery of this sort has now been found at Aphidna, Thoricus, Athens 
(Acropolis), Eleusis, and on Aegina, Syra, Melos. Finds in Thessaly 
and Crete display clear affinities to it. It is itself the prelude to the 
early wheel-made pottery with geometric decoration, as seen on Melos, 
Amorgos, etc. 

7. Professor Rufus B. Richardson, Director of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens, The Excavations of the 
American School at Athens on the Site of Ancient Corinth (read 
by Professor Perrin). 

[An account of the excavations and their results, and an appeal 
for further funds. The substance of the paper, which treats espe- 
cially of the fountain of Glauce, and of Pirene, and was fully illus- 
trated by diagrams, will be published in an early number of the 
JOURNAL.] 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 153 

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 27. 8.15 P.M. 

President Gilman, of Johns Hopkins University,. Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Institute, presided. 

Hon. Simeon E. Baldwin, of Yale University, President of 
the Connecticut Society of the Institute, made a brief address 
of welcome. 

Professor Charles Eliot Norton, of Harvard University, Hon- 
orary President of the Institute, delivered an address on The 
Work of the Archaeological Institute of America. The address 
is published in full above, pp. 116. 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 28. 9.30 A.M. 

Dr. Talcott Williams, of Philadelphia, Vice-President of the 
Institute, presided. 

1. Address by Dr. Williams. 

2. Mrs. Sara Y. Stevenson, of Philadelphia, Some Points of 
Museum Policy (read by Professor J. R. Wheeler). 

In view of the powerful support given to archaeological research 
by foreign governments, and to their jealous policy with regard to 
such interests, only the broadest policy of cooperation among our 
institutions of learning and their patrons can enable America to 
compete with success, and to obtain a share of the scientific mate- 
rial which is now recognized as most important in the educa- 
tional equipment of a nation, and which in twenty-five years 
from to-day will be exhausted. And yet at a time when the Ger- 
man government, always keenly alive to the importance of such 
interests, is appointing a scientific attache to its diplomatic agency 
in Cairo, our government not only disregards these interests, but 
actually opposes serious obstacles in the way of those institutions, 
associations, and private individuals who, by their own efforts and 
liberality, would supply the needs of our public museums. 

Prior to 1897, antiquities antedating the year 1700 were admitted 
free of duty, even though imported by individuals. Those who 
drafted the former tariff law realized that, by encouraging private 
collectors, they were practically working toward the enrichment of 
our public institutions. It is obvious that eventually most private 
collections find their way into our great museums. 

The present law has rescinded this privilege. In doing so it 



154 AECHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

has limited the rights of public institutions by requiring from 
the importing corporation an oath and bond, the text of which 
asserts that the objects imported are being brought in for perma- 
nent exhibition at a fixed place, the name of which must be given. 
The letter of this law, therefore, places a check upon a free 
exchange among museums; as the importing corporation is per- 
manently responsible for any object imported, and cannot will- 
ingly incur the risk of forfeiting its bond, should such an object, 
exchanged with another institution, be at some remote time improp- 
erly used. 

This law also severely handicaps the work of any individual or 
society having in view the distribution of scientific material among 
museums. And such far-reaching cooperative scientific work as 
that undertaken by the Egypt Exploration Fund or the Egyptian 
Research Account in England would, under existing circumstances, 
be impossible upon our soil. 

As excavations produce many duplicates, the imposed necessity 
of retaining an accumulation of such material in one institution, 
when others might benefit by their possession, is clearly a waste in 
brain-power, time, and money. Not only is valuable material thus 
locked up, but institutions are driven to the duplication of costly 
scientific expeditions in order to supply themselves with material 
which could be acquired by means of exchange with fellow-institu- 
tions, or by cooperation with such societies as are in successful oper- 
ation abroad or with public-spirited patrons who might be induced 
to furnish funds for scientific expedition with a view to dividing the 
results thereof according to the needs of various institutions. 

It is my opinion that with the widespread public interest taken 
in archaeological discovery in this country, were the government 
to encourage and facilitate the pursuit of scientific expeditions, 
America could hold its own even against the serious competition 
now existing. A broad system of cooperation between the museums 
of this country could be established, which must yield maximum 
results at minimum cost, and which must strengthen our position 
abroad when in the presence of government competition. At pres- 
ent, various American bodies and patrons of museums, instead of 
presenting a united front, are rivalling each other. The result is 
a diminution of American influence with regard to concessions, and 
a raising of prices with regard to purchases. 

The first step in the development of a policy of broad coopera- 
tion and mutual helpfulness, is to obtain from the United States an 
amendment to the present oppressive law governing the free impor- 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 155 

tation of antiquities, and the facilitating of all purely scientific 
enterprises having for their object the enrichment of the museums 
of this country with scientific material, and the promotion of 
original research. 

3. A letter from Mr. Edward Robinson on Some Recent 
Acquisitions of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts was read by 
Professor J. R. Wheeler. 

[These objects will be described in the Annual Report of the 
Trustees of the Museum, and later in the news department of this 
JOURNAL.] 

4. Mr. Edgar James Banks, of Cambridge, Mass., recently 
United States Consul at Bagdad, The Proposed Excavation of 
the Babylonian Ruin Mugheir, or Ur of the Chaldees, the Birth- 
place of Abraham (read by Professor Sterrett). 

To the historical or Biblical student the ruin of no ancient city 
should be of greater interest than Mugheir, now identified with Ur 
of the Chaldees (Gen. xi, 31), the birthplace of Abraham, the 
original home of the Hebrew people. The ruin consists of an oval- 
shaped group of mounds, half a mile in diameter and six miles 
below the Euphrates, opposite the modern Nasarieh. The princi- 
pal feature of the group is the ruin of an ancient temple of Sin, the 
Moon-God, now projecting seventy feet above the plain. In 1854 
Mr. J. E. Taylor, the English Consul at Busreh, dug a few trenches 
about the temple, revealing two stories of the ancient structure. 
In the four corners of the second story he found the inscribed 
clay cylinders deposited there by Nabonidus, the last king of 
Babylon and the last restorer of the temple. The inscription is 
of particular importance because the prayer with which it closes 
established the identity of the Biblical Belshazzar. 

"May reverence for thy great divinity dwell in the heart of 
Belshazzar, my first-born favorite son. May he commit no sin ; 
with the fulness of life may he be satisfied." 

Near the temple Mr. Taylor uncovered the perfect walls of a 
house, and in various parts of the mounds a few graves containing 
pottery, gold and silver beads, rings, bracelets, cylinders, cones, and 
tablets were opened. 

Inscriptions from other Babylonian ruins teach that at least three 
dynasties of kings lived at Ur. In the first was Lugal-kigub-nidudu, 
4000 B.C., or earlier. Ur-Gur, the founder of the second dynasty, 



156 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

lived about 2800, and a king of the third dynasty was Kudur-mabuk, 
possibly the Chedorlaoiner of the Bible. The inscriptions also 
mention at least five temples which stood at Ur. 

We may therefore believe that Mugheir contains the remains of 
the palaces of three dynasties of kings, five temples, and their 
libraries of contract and astronomical tablets and the early literary 
productions. Here may also be the graves of the great kings of 
Babylonia and Assyria. The ruin is one of the most promising of 
all Mesopotamia. 

The work which Mr. Taylor began, the proximity of the mound to 
the modern Nasarieh, its situation on the navigable part of the 
Euphrates, would enable the excavator to proceed to the work at 
a great saving of time and expense. While $12,000 would keep a 
large force of workmen for one year, with $50,000 the work could 
be completed in two years. 

In European countries the greatest collections of the ancient 
monuments are found in the various national museums ; the valu- 
able remains of this ancient ruin, which may be brought to this 
country, should be placed in our National Museum at Washington. 
Correspondence regarding the proposed excavations is solicited. 

5. Rev. Dr. John P. Peters, of New York, Excavations at 
Mugheir (read by Professor Sterrett). 

While I am not willing to accept implicitly Mr. Banks's statement 
about the relation of Ur to the children of Israel and to Mount Sinai, 
it is, nevertheless, a matter worthy of attention that Ur was a very 
ancient seat of the worship of Sin, and it is beyond question that 
it was a city of great importance, both from the religious and from 
the political point of view, in the earliest Babylonian period. 

I visited Mugheir toward the close of May, 1890. I found sev- 
eral inscribed door sockets lying on the surface of the ground, as 
well as large numbers of inscribed bricks. All of the door sockets 
but one had been defaced by the Arabs. Large numbers of bricks 
were piled up ready to be removed, for the people of Nasarieh had 
begun at that time to use these ruins as a brick quarry. The ruins 
are by no means as extensive as those at Nippur, Babylon, or Warka 
(Erech). Ancient remains lie practically on the surface, not cov- 
ered by an immense mass of debris of later periods, as in the case 
of the cities above mentioned. Excavations at this site reach old 
material at once. 

In addition to the great value of the inscribed material which we 
have every right to expect to find there, it is probable, also, that we 



GENEEAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 157 

shall find remains of ancient art, for Ur was closely connected with 
Sirpurla (Telloh). The ziggurat at Ur also differs in its relation to 
the temple about it from the ziggurat at Nippur or that at Erech, 
both of which belong to the older period, and much more from the 
ziggurat at Borsippa, which belongs to the later period. The zig- 
gurat at Ur was not raised on an enormous terrace or platform as at 
Nippur and Erech, but was, apparently, surrounded by a wall, con- 
stituting a temenos, or sacred precinct. 

The excavation of this temple, which would be a comparatively 
easy work, would be of great importance in the study of the con- 
struction of Babylonian temples and the history of the development 
of the Babylonian religion. 

6. Dr. Talcott Williams, of Philadelphia, read a Field Report 
of the Babylonian Expedition conducted by the Babylonian Com- 
mittee of the Department of Archaeology and Palaeontology of 
the University of Pennsylvania, compiled from the field re- 
ports of. Dr. Haynes and the notes published by Dr. H. V. 
Hilprecht. 

The present expedition, like the others which have been in 
progress during the last ten years, owes its existence in the first 
place to the energy, the enthusiasm, and the liberality of Mr. 
Clarence H. Clark, Mr. E. W. Clark, and Dr. William Pepper, and 
others. In the grant of the necessary firman, in the arrangements 
made to facilitate the work of the expedition, and in the assistance 
extended both by the Government of his Imperial Ottoman Majesty, 
and the director of the Imperial Ottoman Museum, Hamdi Bey, the 
committee and its expedition have received at every stage liberal, 
enlightened, and considerate treatment, which has been its experi- 
ence during ten years of exploration. In all this period his Im- 
perial Majesty, the Sultan, has shown a liberality and interest in 
the work of American exploration most unusual in archaeological 
research, and for which all American scholars must be grateful. 
The committee elected Mr. E. W. Clark chairman, who has had 
general charge from the beginning of the work, which he was the 
first to suggest twelve years ago. It was decided, as a large propor- 
tion of the expenditure on field work consists of the outlay necessary 
for the American director and his assistants, that the work should 
be carried on for two years instead of three, thereby adding nearly 
one-half to the sum which would be devoted to direct excavation 
and the payment of Arab workmen. Under this plan the number 



158 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

of men employed in digging has been nearly doubled, and from 200 
to 400 men have been at work from the time Dr. Haynes began his 
labors last February, until the present. These labors will continue 
until next May. 

The expedition, as originally organized, consisted of Dr. Haynes 
as director, with Clarence F. Fisher, a graduate of the School of 
Architecture of the University of Pennsylvania, and Valentine Geere, 
an English architect. Dr. H. V. Hilprecht left Philadelphia in 
November, and expects to take charge of the general supervision 
of the field work, which has been closely followed by him during its 
progress. 

The first four months of exploration were devoted to the south- 
western part of the ruins, to the west of the ancient canal which 
divides Nippur into two parts, and the search for coffins. At the 
close of this period, June 10, thirty-seven cases were packed with 
the results of the exploration, whose trenches had been carried to 
the depth of 60 feet. These consisted of 976 perfect tablets and 
3797 imperfect tablets of various periods, or 4773 in all. Among 
them are two rectangular inscribed prisms 1\ inches long, an octago- 
nal and a pentagonal inscribed prism. There were found twenty-two 
seal cylinders, two conical seals, three disks, a vase of wood, twenty 
Hebrew inscribed bowls, ten perfect and five imperfect bronze bowls, 
mirrors, and other objects. Thirteen stelae of baked brick were 
found, and one fragmentary stele of the same sort. Other objects 
yielded were silver and bronze rings, bracelets, nose and earrings, 
anklets and beads, coins, pieces of jade, a gold plate, 9 cm. by 4.4 
cm., from the coffin of a Neo-Babyloman woman, five lamps and 
other objects of the Sassanian period. Graves were opened to the 
number of 431. Of these 283 contained the skeletons of adults, 54 
of infants, and 82 of youths ; over 30 skulls have been procured ; 12 
graves contained two skeletons, 3 three, 1 four, and 1 burial pit was 
exhumed holding 43 skeletons. The coffins were of the types 
already found and described as "slipper," "bath-tub," "box," and 
"bread tray," 94 being under the first category. The orientation of 
the coffins was carefully observed, and of the total number 58 were 
with the head to the northeast or east-northeast. Of the coffins 105 
contained jars, bottles, or cups, and 101 some form of personal orna- 
ment. No coffins were found below the depth of 25 feet, and some 
were discovered on the removal of only one foot of debris. 

In June, as the heat increased, the work was transferred from the 
general exploration of the region west of the canal to a systematic 
excavation of the eastern and northeastern part of the temple area, 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 159 

continuing the examination suspended in 1896. This is a part of 
the temple area in which much remains to be done. The work of 
laying bare this part of the temple area has now been in progress 
through five months with an average of some 250 to 300 men at 
work. The walls and other structures laid bare early in this period 
were preserved until the architects, Messrs. Geere and Fisher, were 
able to measure and complete them, a work which has been in 
progress during October and November. Jewish remains, post- 
Christian, were found in this exploration at about a depth of 8 
feet. These remains included bowls, of which a large number have 
already been found at Nippur. An inscribed human skull was also 
found, similar to specimens in Berlin and London. At this level an 
Athenian coin and the inscribed fragment of a diorite statue, 
evidently brought up from a lower period, were also discovered. As 
the exploration went on, the level of Ur-Gur, with its crude bricks, 
was first reached, and later that of Naram-Sin. In the course of 
these excavations a broad area of the Naram-Sin pavement has been 
laid bare, and it is intended to continue the work of exposing this 
pavement. Early in the work of the excavation two inscribed stone 
vases were found, one with twenty-five characters and another with 
eighty, and a stone stele. 

Later, as the pavement of Naram-Sin was reached, a small head 
of yellow marble in beautiful preservation and a torso of black stone 
badly broken were discovered. A large vase of black stone, 2 feet, 
1^- inches high, and 1 foot, 5^- inches across, with eleven lines of 
inscription, while broken, has been discovered complete on the level 
of Ur Ninib. An interesting pedestal of crude bricks laid in mortar 
of straw, 1\ feet high, 14J feet by 8J feet at its base, and 8^ feet by 
2J feet at its top, has been laid bare at the Ur-Gur level. The 
suggestion is made by Dr. Haynes that it was intended as a pedestal 
for statues. A bronze saw, bronze and silver nailheads of the type 
-described by Dr. Peters, and fragments of statues have also been 
found. The broken condition of the statues confirms the view 
which has already been expressed by Dr. Hilprecht, that in 2280 B.C. 
the temple was sacked and everything of interest carefully broken 
during the reign of Hammurabi. In the strata over the eastern 
corner of the temple, near where, in 1896, the torso of an inscribed 
statue in diorite had been found, the fragment of a marble vase of 
the ancient King Lugal-zaggisi was discovered, supplementing in a 
most welcome manner the text of the mutilated passage in the first 
column of the published long 'inscription. Not less important are 
two complete bricks, each containing in three sections the legend of 



160 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

a hitherto unknown patesi of Nippur, Lugal-sur-su, who apparently 
lived in the fourth millennium before our era. From the same 
trenches came the large fragment of a brick of Ashur-etil-ilani, son 
of Ashurbanapal, of Assyria, who, like his two predecessors, repaired 
a portion of the temple, and, as was shown by the results of the first 
year's campaign, ruled even in Nippur several years after Babylon 
had already proclaimed its independence under Nebopalassar. Later 
researches at or near the level of Naram-Sin have brought to light 
a polished disk of marble, 25 inches across, with an archaic inscrip- 
tion, another of bluish-gray stone schist and probably argillite, 10 
inches in diameter, bearing an inscription of King Game, a copper 
knife-blade below the Naram-Sin level, a small prism of lapis lazuli 
with a human head in low relief, brick stamps of Naram-Sin, and 
bricks of Ramannadin-Ahe and the Patesi Sirgullah. In the last 
fortnight reported seventy tablets were unearthed. 

The courage, energy, and self-sacrifice shown by Dr. Haynes and 
his wife in continuing work on a desolate mound, where the ther- 
mometer is daily registering from 100 degrees in screened shade, 
even reaching 110 or 115, is a sacrifice for archaeological science 
which has rarely been equalled and is not likely to be repeated. 
The work of excavation is steadily progressing, and in May the third 
campaign of the University of Pennsylvania at Nippur will have 
been completed. For the first four months the finds of tablets 
averaged about 1000 a month. During the last five months spent on 
the temple area the inscribed objects of various sorts have been 
smaller in number but more valuable in character. 

7. Professor D. G. Lyon, of Harvard University, The Har- 
vard Semitic Museum. 

This museum was founded in 1889 by a gift of $10,000 from 
Jacob H. Schiff, Esq., of New York, and was formally opened in a 
room of the Peabody Museum in May, 1891. There have been many 
additional gifts, both of money and of material. 

The aim of the museum is to bring together such objects as 
illustrate the instruction offered in the University, provide advanced 
students with the means of research, and show to visitors in general 
something of what the Semites have done for civilization. 

The materials on hand comprise manuscripts (Arabic, Hebrew, 
and Syriac) ; photographs ; Babylonian stone seals and clay books ; 
Cufic inscriptions ; Semitic coins ; plaster casts of monuments from 
Assyria, Babylonia, Phoenicia, Palestine, Arabia, Moab, Persia, and 
the region of the Hittites ; and a large collection illustrating Pales- 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 161 

tinian and Bedouin life, and the physical features, the fauna, and 
the flora of Palestine. 

In the year 1899 friends gave to the University nearly $20,000 
for adding to the collections, and Mr. Schiff gave $50,000 for 
the erection of an independent Semitic Building. In this building 
the Semitic instruction, library, and museum will all be brought 
together under one roof. The construction will probably begin in 
the summer of 1900. 

8. Professor F. B. Tarbell, of the Umversit}^ of Chicago, 
A Signed Cylix by Duris in Washington, I). C. (read only in 
abstract) . 

This cylix, bought by Thomas Wilson, LL. D., of the United States 
National Museum, now the property of Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 
was found at Or vie to in the winter of 1885-86. Interior : Dionysus 
before an altar, with the signature, Ao/ot? !y/oa<o-ev. Exterior : a dance 
or revel of satyrs and maenads, with the inscription c l7T7ro8a/xa? KaAos- 

Dr. Wilson is also the owner of a cylix signed by Tleson, son of 
Nearchus. This was found at Vulci. 

9. Mr. George H. Chase, of Harvard University, Terra- 
cottas from the Argive Heraeum. 

The greater part of the terra-cottas from the Heraeum at Argos 
consists of a series of standing and seated female figures, which 
show a long development from the rudest beginnings down to the 
period of advanced archaism. We can distinguish three classes : 

(1) Primitive Argive, undecorated figures with the "bird face"; 

(2) Tirynthian Argive, much decorated figures with the "bird face' 7 ; 
and (3) Advanced Argive, much decorated figures with the human 
face. 

This decoration consists of a great number of bands of clay 
stretched across the breast, a number of bosses or rosettes on the 
right shoulder, and minor applied parts, such as the hair, earrings, 
and headdress. The bands represent in many cases necklaces, but 
often, also, the fold of the chiton. The bosses undoubtedly repre- 
sent dress pins. 

These figures are at least contemporary with the Mycenaean Age, 
for Mycenaean figures were found with them ; but in their earliest 
form they antedate the Mycenaean civilization. They are more natu- 
ralistic than the Mycenaean figures, and their painted decoration con- 
sists usually of line designs upon a white slip, not of glaze color like 
that of the Mycenaean specimens. 



162 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

Finally, it is impossible to consider all our specimens as repre- 
sentations of Hera. We have here, in fact, exactly as in the female 
figures from the Acropolis, a type. It attained its fullest develop- 
ment at Argos, and may therefore properly be called the Argive 
type of terra cottas. 

10. Miss Florence S. Tuckerman, of Youngstown, Ohio, 
The Flowers of Greece. 

The flowers of Greece are wonderfully varied and beautiful. 
The scutellaria, daisy, fly-orchid, speedwell, pale hyacinth, grape- 
hyacinth, asphodel, leontodon, iris, anemone, narcissus, cyclamen, 
thyme, and crocuses are but examples. Nowhere else is a flora so 
rich in beauty and legend. 

The Greek anthemion seems to be a counterpart of the crenate 
scallops mottled on the cyclamen leaf. The bright-colored flora, 
combined with the bright skies, may have influenced the Greeks to 
wear bright colors in dress and to stain their statues ; we are influ- 
enced by climate to use dark clothing in winter, but in summer, 
when the skies are clear and flowers are in bloom, light pink and 
blue and green and yellow dresses seem appropriate. 

The Parthenion and lily with A I upon its petals (Theoc. X, 28), 
which Fellner (Homerische Flora, p. 53) recognizes as possible, still 
await discovery. The books on botany at the American School at 
Athens have no diagrams, nor is other apparatus for botanical study 
accessible there. Tourists and civilization are destroying many 
delicate species. The field lies open for new discoverers. 

11. Dr. Joseph Clark Hoppin, of Bryn Mawr College, The 
Death of Argos on a Red-figure Hydria. 

Red-figured Hydria of the Attic " severe " style, acquired by me 
in 1898; briefly described by Petersen (Rom. Mitth. 1893, p. 328, 
No. 17). Upon it are represented Hermes with drawn sword 
attacking Argos, lo as a heifer, with Zeus, Hera, and a priestess as 
spectators. In the field are bushes, a column, and an altar. The 
scene follows the same version as that treated by Bacchylides in his 
nineteenth ode, and is far more completely represented than on other 
contemporary vase-paintings. The style is allied to that of Brygos. 
From literary evidence it seems certain that the action of the myth : 
took place in a grove somewhere near Argos, which is clearly rep- 
resented on the hydria by the bushes in the field. Also the pres- ! 
ence of a column and an altar (conventional symbols of a temple in 
vase-painting) shows that a temple was intended, which, in view of 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 163 

the location of the grove, is evidently the Argive Heraeum. The 
Prometheus of Aeschylus and the nineteenth ode of Bacchylides are 
the two most important literary versions of the myth. The former 
follows the later version in that lo was conceived as a "horned 
maiden," and the latter the earlier, where lo is still a heifer. The 
influence of the dramatists, especially Aeschylus, caused lo to be 
represented as a maiden in the later art. As both the hydria and 
Bacchylides' ode follow the earlier version, it is probable that 
both are earlier than the Prometheus. The style of the hydria 
warrants our dating it immediately after the Persian wars, and the 
ode is probably only a few years later. The Prometheus on the 
other hand is clearly younger, and the date often assigned to it, 
470 B.C., is thus extremely probable. 

12. Miss May Louise Nichols of Vassar College, Geometric 
Vases from Corinth. 

In the excavations at Corinth in 1898 and 1899 some geometric 
vases were found; the style of decoration, which is the simplest 
form of geometric ornamentation, places them among the earliest as 
yet discovered. There are some peculiarities of shape and technique 
which make probable the supposition that they are a local product. 
They resemble most closely the vases found in the lowest layer of 
geometric graves at Eleusis. 

Their importance lies in the bearing they have upon the ethno- 
logical problem involved in the origin of the geometric style in 
Greece, but the full value of the evidence cannot be determined 
until much more has been done at Corinth. Realizing the value of 
the small finds in the excavation of such a site, it is to be hoped 
that, when the little railroad is no longer needed near the spot 
where the vases were found,, the whole region may be carefully exca- 
vated. It seems quite possible, from the nature of the case, that 
this grave is but the beginning of a geometric necropolis such as 
was found at Eleusis. It is all important, therefore, that it should 
be ascertained whether the same relation to the Mycenaean civiliza- 
tion holds true here. In the work, every minute detail should be 
accurately observed and noted by a trained man, that all possible 
evidence as to burial customs and other problems involved may be 
obtained. Since it is now proved that virgin soil has not been reached 
at that spot, it would seem desirable to make a trial, to find out 
whether below the geometric civilization lie buried remains of the 
Mycenaean. Nothing in the later Roman city could surpass in inter- 
est the light which may thus be thrown on the early history of Greece. 



164 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

13. Mr. S. O. Dicker man, of Yale University, An Archaic 
Inscription from Cleonae. 

The stone is a fragment of poros found at "Ayio? Bao-A.os and said 
to have been brought from Cleonae about two miles away. It is 
now in the Central Museum at Athens. Parts of fifteen lines, 
inscribed on three faces, remain. 

The archaic period is indicated by the boustropliedon order, by the 
presence of Digamma and the closed sign for the rough breathing, 
and by the use of the sign Tsade to express the sibilant. The 
alphabet is peculiar in representing e by , ^ by &, and spurious 
by ^ ' It resembles the alphabet of Corinth and differs from that 
of Argos iii the forms of Beta, Delta, and probably Lambda and 
Gamma, and in using & as 77. It resembles the alphabet of Argos 
and differs from that of Corinth in using straight Iota and in 
expressing c by ^, spurious by ^ I, and spurious ov by O. Nine- 
teen different letters are present. Gamma, Kappa, Upsilon, Phi, 
and Psi do not appear. 

The inscription contains regulations about defilement and purifi- 
cation, and evidently refers to the ceremonies of purification and 
propitiation by which a murderer was restored to society. 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 28. 3 P.M. 

Charles P. Bowditch, Esq., of Boston, Vice- President of the 
Institute, presided. 

1. Address by Charles P. Bowditch, American Archaeology. 

- The little interest taken in American Archaeology is explained 
by the fact that archaeology has until lately concerned itself with 
the artistic values of products, but now investigates the progress of 
the producer. Like desires and similar environments produce like 
results, and, therefore, the archaeology of uncivilized races is of 
value in studying that of the civilized races. Much more, then, 
should the archaeology of the Maya and Nahuatl races be studied 
races which were advanced in the paths of civilization when dis- 
covered by the Spaniards. Of these the Mayas had reached a 
higher civilization. 

Our knowledge of these races conies from Spanish chroniclers, 
native writers, inscriptions on ruins, and tombs. The Spanish 
writers can be generally trusted in regard to the native customs and 
modes of life ; the native records, inscriptions (as far as known and 
deciphered), and the tombs give trustworthy evidence. The Mayas 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 165 

were excellent carpenters, masons, potters, weavers, paper makers, 
and merchants. Their domestic and social life was of a high order. 
They excelled as builders and road makers. Their astronomical 
knowledge and powers of numeration were remarkable. The Maya 
and Nahuatl calendar is admirable and unique. They had well-nigh, 
if not actually, reached a phonetic system. The civilization brought 
by the Spaniards was little if any higher than the native civilization. 
Investigation should be pursued in two directions : Explorations 
of the ruins scattered over Central America, and the study of the 
Central American languages. 

2. Professor H. W. Haynes, of Boston, Recent Progress in 
American Archaeology. 

[This paper is published in full above, pp. 17-39.] 

3. Professor G. Frederick Wright, of Oberlin College, Ar- 
chaeological Discoveries in Ohio. 

Ohio is the main centre of prehistoric earthworks in the United 
States. There are more than ten thousand in the state that are 
worthy of notice. The majority of these are simple mounds of earth 
from 15 feet to 70 feet in height. The enclosures are, many of them, 
of large size and great complication. Two squares at Marietta 
contain 57 acres and 25 acres respectively. The works at Newark 
exhibit almost every form and include large areas. Others of great 
interest are found at Portsmouth, and near Chillicothe, where seven 
extensive enclosures are enumerated. Fortifications completely 
surrounding hilltops are found at Fort Hill, Fort Ancient, near 
Hamilton, and in two or three other places. Near Portsmouth 
there is an Elephant mound, near Granville an Alligator mound, 
and in Adams County a Serpent mound. This is 1300 feet long, 
measuring all its curves from the tail to the head. In the Hopewell 
enclosure near Chillicothe there were found large quantities of imple- 
ments of obsidian from the Rocky Mountains, 2000 miles away; 
copper from Lake Superior, 450 miles distant; mica from North 
Carolina, 400 miles away ; and shells from the Gulf of Mexico, 500 
miles distant. The copper was all hammered. Out of it were made 
many ornamental rings and finely cut stencil plates of different pat- 
terns. Among them were several Swastika crosses. On a shell was 
a fine engraving of a paroquet whose habitat was much farther 
south. 

Of the new facts presented, the most important were some tertiary 
shark teeth from the Atlantic coast, found in northern Ohio; a 



166 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

beautifully sculptured mastodon on a piece of slate, showing the co- 
existence of man and the mastodon in America. There was also 
presented a flint case with artificial flakings from undisturbed glacial 
gravel at Massilon, Ohio. This is on the Tuscarawas River, in the 
valley of which was found the celebrated Mills implement a few 
years ago, in similar circumstances. The similarity of this to the 
polacoliths from France, and of the rings and the Swastika crosses 
to European objects, indicate ancient unity of the races. 

4. Professor F. W. Putnam, of Harvard University, Ancient 
Pueblos of Chaca Canon. 

Professor Putnam gave a brief description of the explorations 
carried on by the Hyde Southwestern Expedition in connection with 
the American Museum of Natural History. With the aid of lantern 
illustrations he described several of the ruined pueblos, especially 
Pueblo Bonita, where extensive explorations have been carried on for 
the past three years. The structure of the ancient pueblos was 
shown by a series of pictures. The great antiquity of Pueblo Bonita 
was illustrated by views of the excavations showing the stone walls 
of rooms buried under the accumulation of debris. In other places 
walls were excavated which had been covered by several feet of clay 
deposited in the canon. Many of the lower rooms of the pueblo had 
been filled up, and other rooms had been built over them. In some 
places there were two tiers of rooms below the present level of the 
canon. The method of building the stone walls had changed from 
the time of erecting the older portion to that of building the later. 
All the evidence indicates great antiquity for the beginning of this 
pueblo ; and there is no doubt of its long-continued occupation. 

This expedition, which is supported entirely by the brothers B. T. 
B. Hyde and Fred. E. Hyde, Jr., of New York, is planned for long- 
continued and exhaustive research for the purpose of learning the 
true history of these prehistoric ruins in New Mexico, and the 
relation of their builders to the pueblo peoples of a later period and 
of the present time. 

5. Professor Allan Marquand, of Princeton University, Two 
Windows in the Cathedral of Florence. 

During a hurried visit to Florence, in 1896, I succeeded in photo- 
graphing two windows in the cupola of the cathedral, which so far< 
as I am aware have not been reproduced before. One is a Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, designed by Donatello, in 1434, and executed by 
Bernardo di Francesco, assisted by Paolo Uccello. The other repre- 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 167 

sents the Resurrection of Christ. This window was executed by 
Bernardo di Francesco in the year 1443, but the name of the 
designer is not recorded in the cathedral archives. There is, how- 
ever, some presumptive evidence in favor of Ghiberti as having 
furnished the design, and this hypothesis would seem to be supported 
by the style of the design and composition. The window has also 
been attributed to Paolo Uccello. The window, however, exhibits a 
decorative sense superior to that exhibited by Uccello in his few but 
well-known frescoes. However, it is known that Uccello, as well as 
Ghiberti, designed windows for the cupola of the cathedral, and 
when the style of these windows is better known, the attribution of 
the Resurrection window may be made with greater certainty. 

6. Professor J. R. S. Sterrett, of Amherst College, The 
Cappadocian Troglodytes. 

The volcanic region west of Mt. Argaeus, with its thousands of 
tufa cones, discovered by Lukas at the beginning of the last century, 
contains countless chambers excavated in the soft rock. They were 
used as temples, chapels, dwellings, tombs, and dove-cotes. Many 
of the chapels, especially in the interior, display some attempt at 
architectural and decorative effects, and many of the walls are still 
covered with paintings. The entrance is usually on a level with the 
ground, but often high above the ground. In the latter case it was 
reached by ladders consisting of two parallel rows of niche-holes 
cut in the rock. Story rises upon story, the higher story being 
reached through a chimney-like stairway with niche-holes for as- 
cending. The cones with their chambers and windows are virtual 
shells. The present inhabitants are still semi-Troglodytes. 

Ancient authors preserve a mystifying silence about the region. 
But Leo Diaconus (III, 1, p. 35) says that "the Cappadocians were 
FORMERLY (i.e. prior to 950 A.D.) called Troglodytes." The Jeru- 
salem Itinerary enables us to throw the date back to a period ante- 
dating 333 A.D. Cicero (de imp. Cn. Pomp. Ill, 7, "ita regnat, ut se 
non Ponti neque Cappadociae latebris occultare velit ") probably gives 
us a date B.C., though the passage is not proof positive. A compari- 
son with the royal tombs of Phrygia, where the rock formation is 
the same, including cones, brings us back to remote antiquity. 
Certain symbols in Hittite hieroglyphs prove that the cones were 
familiar objects in the mythical period. 

7. Dr. Clarence H. Young, of Columbia University, Practical 
Hints on Ancient Greek Dressmaking. 



168 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

In the absence of any explicit statement of ancient writers as to 
the form of the several garments worn by Greek men and women 
during the classical period, the speaker was obliged to experiment, at 
first with an artist's mannikin, and later with a living model, until 
he obtained garments of which the appearance, when they were 
draped upon the model, approximated to that of the costumes worn 
by ancient statues or illustrated by vase-paintings. The results 
attained would indicate that it was exceptional for Greek garments 
to be shaped or fitted to the person ; that the chiton, whether short 
and plain, or long and with a bib, or with both a bib and a kolpos, 
was simply a rectangular piece of cloth of which the two narrow 
edges were sewed together ; that the himation was likewise simply 
a rectangular piece of cloth with weights at the four corners ; and 
that the artistic folds of both chiton and himation were due solely, 
in the case of the former, to the manner in which it was caught 
across the shoulders and the arms by brooches and was held in at 
the waist by the girdle, and in the case of the latter to the way in 
which it was draped about the person. 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 28. 8.15 P.M. 

Professor W. W. Goodwin, of Harvard University, presided. 

1. Professor Tracy Peck, of Yale University, Recent Exca- 
vations in the Roman Forum. 

[The recent excavations in the Forum were described, and the 
archaic inscription was discussed. The subject-matter of the paper 
is to be found under the proper headings in the news department of 
the JOURNAL.] 

2. Professor W. W. Goodwin, of Harvard University, The 
Hero Physician. 

In Demosthenes, xix, 249, Atrometus, the father of Aeschines, is 
said to have kept a school near the shrine of the Hero Physician, 
and this is generally identified with the place near the shrine of the 
Hero KaAa/AiYr/?, where the mother of Aeschines is said to have lived 
a disreputable life (see Demosthenes, xviii, 129). Reiske rightly 
identified the Hero Physician with the Scythian Toxaris of Lucian's 
2/cu'^s rj IIpo&vos. The plague in the time of the Peloponnesian 
war was, according to Lucian, stopped by the miraculous aid of 
Toxaris, who was then worshipped as the " Hero Physician," and a 
shrine was erected in his honor. (Of. C. LA. II, No. 403.) 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 169 

Lucian describes the tomb of Toxaris, which in his time was in a 
ruined condition. The monument, which he calls a OTT/A??, was lying 
flat on the ground, so that only its front was visible. It represented 
a Scythian 777 Aaia/xei/ T^OV ex^v ei/rera/xeVoi/, rrj 8eia Se /?i/?Atov, u>s 
eSoKet. The bow and the book were still to be seen, but the upper 
part of the figure with the face was gone. It stood, he says, not 
far from the Dipylon gate, on the left of the road leading to the 
Academy. There is now in the National Museum at Athens (Cav- 
vadias TAvTrra, 823) a crouching figure of a Scythian, with the head 
gone, with the left hand clasped, and a hole in it just large enough 
to hold a bow, and with the right hand touching something under 
the left arm, which we now see to be a quiver, but which in front 
(as Lucian or his informant saw it) looks like a tablet or book of 
the codex form. These definite marks make it highly probable that 
this figure is the one described by Lucian ; and the position of the 
monument, lying on the ground and probably partly concealed by 
earth, easily accounts for its being called a <TTrj\r). The identifica- 
tion is made more probable by the place in which the figure was 
found, just outside of the Dipylon on the left of the road to the 
Academy, as Lucian describes it. 

Salinas, in R. Arch., 1864, suggests that this figure may be a later 
substitute for the one described by Lucian ; but he fails to notice 
the strong proofs of identity which have been mentioned. 

If the Hero KaAajuiVr/s is identical with the Hero 'larpos, of 
which there is little evidence, we may explain KaAa/xtrT/s as arrow- 
man (from KaAa^os, arrow), used like Togorrjs, bowman, to designate 
a Scythian. 

3. Rev. Dr. William Hayes Ward, of New York, The God- 
desses in Primitive Babylonian Art. 

The principal goddesses mentioned in the Babylonian inscriptions 
of a period anterior to Hammurabi are, according to Jastrow 
(Religion of Babylonia and Assyria), Aa, or Malkat, wife of the Sun- 
god Shamash; Ishtar, the planet Venus; Belit, wife of Bel; and 
Ban, wife of Ninib, or Adar. Other goddesses whose names are 
preserved appear to be variants of these, or confused with them. 
The attempt of the paper, illustrated with lantern slides, was to 
classify the figures of the goddesses preserved in primitive Baby- 
lonian art, almost wholly on the seal cylinders, and discover the 
deities represented. Aa is easily recognized. She is the goddess who 
usually accompanies Shamash, and stands with both hands lifted, 
generally in a long, flounced dress. Ishtar is usually figured in front 



170 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

view, seated or standing, with weapons rising from her shoulders, and 
over one or more lions. Belit accompanies Bel, and stands over the 
winged monster or dragon Tiamat, like her husband. Bau, "mother 
of mankind," is to be identified with the seated goddess who holds a 
child in her lap. She also appears seated without the child, some- 
times accompanied by her husband, Ninib. She is often associated 
with a long-necked bird, a crane or a goose. As this beneficent deity 
was the giver of fertility, we may also recognize her in the seated 
goddess who appears adorned with wheat or millet. 

4. Professor J. R. Wheeler, of Columbia University, Notes 
on the So-called Capuchin flan of Athens. 

The correctness of Professor Dorpfeld's belief ( see Ath. Mittli. 20, 
p. 510) that Guillet's type of plan is older than that which is shown 
by the plan of the French engineers (see Laborde, Athenes aux XV, 
. XVP et XVIP Siedes, I, p. 232) is confirmed by a recent examination 
of the original drawing of the latter plan. His inference from this, 
however, that remains of the Euneacrunus and of the neighboring 
odeum still existed in the seventeenth century, was shown, chiefly 
through the testimony of Spon, to be unwarranted. 

5. Professor W. H. Goodyear, of New York, An Unpublished 
Survey of the Pisa Cathedral. 

A survey of Italian mediaeval building was carried out in 1895, 
under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute. Its general purpose 
was to determine what irregularities, if any, of the Italian mediaeval 
buildings were due to forethought, and consequently to aesthetic 
considerations. Out of five months devoted to this survey, at least 
five weeks' work was given to the Pisa Cathedral. 

The general results of these surveys have been published in the 
Architectural Record Quarterly Magazine, in which seven papers have 
appeared on this subject, but I have not been able to find space in 
any of these papers for the survey described this evening. It re- 
lates to the main string-course, which on the exterior of the cathedral 
marks the interior line of the galleries, and the base-line of the 
second story of the building. As regards this string-course I have 
made known the obliquities on the north and south walls of the naye, 
but the still more remarkable facts regarding the entire string-course 
are so far known only to my surveyor, Mr. John W. McKecknie, 
and to myself. 

These are, briefly, the facts. If an imaginary diagonal level line 
be drawn from the southeast angle of the choir to the northwest 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 171 

angle of the facade, the string-course is 4.46 (feet and decimals) 
lower than an imaginary level line based on the height of the string- 
course at the northwest angle of the faqade. There are no breaks in 
the masonry of the string-course. The various slopes by which this 
obliquity is produced are absolutely gradual and regular. 

The constructive delicacy and refinements of levelling by which 
this obliquity was obtained are as remarkable as the prejudice 
against formalism and parallelism which the obliquity displays. 

A single word as to the bearing of this observation on some others 
which have been previously published. I have already made known 
that the string-course of the north and south walls of the nave has 
an obliquity on each side of about 2 feet (1.83 north; 1.94 south), 
rising on each side from transept to facade, but it has been some- 
times suggested that this obliquity was necessitated by a change of 
plan in the height of the first story of the faqade, after the transept 
and choir had been carried out. 

The measurements now made known prove that the obliquities of 
the string-course must have been contained in the very first concep- 
tion and original design of the building. 

The measurements in detail are, beginning at the northwest angle 
of the facade, as follows : 

String-course of north wall of the nave falls 2.09; pavement falls 0.26. 
North Transept, West Wall: string-course rises 0.44; pavement falls 0.01. 
North Transept, North Wall: string-course falls 1.16; pavement falls 0.87. 
North Transept, East Wall, and North Wall of Choir: string-course falls 0.49; 
pavement falls 1.05. East Walls of Choir: string-course falls 1.16; pave- 
ment falls 0.83. 

String falls 4.90 - 0.44 = 4.46 ; pavement falls 3.02. 

Beginning at northwest angle of the faqade : 

String-course of fa9ade falls 0.56 ; pavement falls 0.86. String-course of 
South Wall falls 2.15; pavement falls 0.21. South Transept, West Wall: 
string-course rises 0.09; pavement falls 0.31. South Transept, South Side: 
string-course falls 0.63; pavement falls 0.63. South Transept, East Wall, 
and South Wall of Choir: string-course falls 1.21; pavement falls 1.01. 

String falls 4.55 - 0.09 = 4.46 ; pavement falls 3.02. 

The importance of these measurements is that they show, not only 
a predetermined effort to build an oblique string-course, but they 
also show that a very careful system of levelling must have been 
employed in obtaining the obliquity ; for to build out of level pre- 
supposes careful levelling. In my previous publications many sur- 
veys have been published which show predetermined avoidance of 



172 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

parallels in ground-plans, but no particular refinement of apparatus 
or proceeding is required in constructing obliquities of ground-plan. 
Hence the refinement in the result, or in the wish to procure the 
result, is less obvious to a sceptic, who is generally tempted to dis- 
card the evidence, or to evade consideration of the particular cases 
of evidence which are most convincing. In my publications of 
irregularities in Italian architecture, I have taken the ground that 
there are two classes of irregularities, one class due to carelessness 
or indifference to regularity, the other class due to predetermined 
aesthetic purpose. I have also held that the former are mainly 
confined to periods or centres of relative barbarism, and that the 
latter are especially pronounced in centres of Byzantine influence. 
In so far as others have differed with me, they have held that all 
irregularities were due to carelessness or indifference. The contro- 
versy has been mainly carried on by publication on my side, and by 
the verbal expressions of personal opinion on the other. 

Obliquities due to careful levelling have been also surveyed in 
S. Paolo Ripa d' Arno, Pisa, in the Cathedral of Prato and Troja, 
and in the church called Pieve Nuova, at Santa Maria dei Giudici, at 
Lucca. The cases mentioned are not the only ones known to me, 
but the obliquity here described is probably the most remarkable 
case known to the middle ages or to history. 

For the benefit of those who have not followed my publications 
on this subject, I will add that these obliquities, which are so easily 
seen in photographs made for the purpose, are detected with the 
greatest difficulty in the actual buildings. They are, as a matter of 
fact, really not detected at all. They are discounted into optical 
effects of varying points of view, but as these points of view are 
contradictory, or diverse from the actual point of view, they are 
translated into effects of optical vibration or optical mystification, 
the quality which Mr. Ruskin has called " life." 

6. Professor A. L. Frothingham, Jr., of Princeton University, 
Two Monuments of Imperial Rome on the Arch at Beneventum. 

In 114 A.D. a memorial arch was built in honor of Trajan, at 
Beneventum, decorated with numerous and important reliefs illus- 
trating the events of his reign from the close of the second Dacian 
war in 106 A.D. to the close of 114 A.D. These reliefs are arranged 
chronologically beginning in the attic, on the outer face. The four 
reliefs of the attic are of colossal size and the best art. They are 
in two pairs: the first pair represents Trajan erecting Dacia into a 
Roman province as he leaves on his return to Rome; the second 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 173 

pair must represent the emperor's welcome to Rome on his entering 
the city for his triumph. The triumphal procession follows on the 
frieze below. It is in this scene of welcome that the background 
is formed of some buildings of ancient Koine, the identification of 
which is here attempted, I believe, for the first time. The whole 
scene is formed of two reliefs representing its divine and its 
human sections. In the divine scene seven gods are welcoming the 
emperor, headed by the Capitol ine trio Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. 
In the human scene, the emperor, with his lictors at his back, is 
entering from the right, under a portico; near him is Hadrian in 
military costume, to whom a female allegorical figure stands sponsor. 
Approaching Trajan through an arch are two senatorial figures with 
right hands outstretched, and back of them are two other figures. 
In the middle background is a temple. The architectural details 
locate the scene exactly, and its identification supplies the key to 
this location. In Roman triumphs it was in the Field of Mars, 
before the Triumphal Gate (Porta Triumphalis) in front of the 
Circus Flaminius, that the welcoming scene took place ; and the tri- 
umphal procession formed under the Portico of Triumph (Portions 
Triumph!), a mile in length, which led up to this gate. Near it was 
the " Ara Martis." On our relief the Porta Triumphalis is further 
identified by the victories carved in its spandrels ; it projects from 
the relief so that its outer pilaster is carved on the outside of the 
frame, showing that the sculptor intended to represent it as at right 
angles to the portico and to the temple in front of it, on the other 
side of the street. The temple is identified as the temple of Mars 
by the emblems carved on the frieze and gable shields, greaves, 
swords, helmets, etc. The arcades and vaults of the Portions Tri- 
umphi appear at the summit of the relief, carved so as to suggest 
that the figures stood beneath it. Through the archway appears 
the heavy wall of another public building. The divine section 
supports this interpretation of the whole scene as Trajan's welcome 
to Rome. Jupiter with his right arm outstretched toward the 
emperor, holding the thunderbolt, is identical with the Jupiter pro- 
tector imperatoris on a coin struck in honor of Trajan's triumph at 
this time. As the three Capitoline gods represent their temple, 
which was the goal of the triumph, so the other gods in the back- 
ground Hercules, Bacchus, Ceres, and Mercury represent the 
principal temples that were to be passed by the procession in its 
course ; they are welcoming the returning victor. 

The identification of this arch as the Porta Triumphalis is the 
more important in view of the controversy as to whether it was a 



174 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

free-standing arch in the Campus Martins or a gate in the walls 
between the Porta Carmentalis and Flumentana. It is a further 
argument in favor of the former hypothesis, which was, in any case, 
the only one tenable. 

Thus far no ancient reliefs had borne any representations of the 
ancient buildings in the Campus Martius ; hence our relief is both 
architecturally and topographically important, as it gives both the 
style and the relative position of three of its foremost structures. 
In fact, the ancient reliefs of a good period that represent with any 
details any historic buildings of ancient Rome can be counted on the 
fingers of one hand. I will merely add that the lower part of the 
facade of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus is represented on 
another relief of the Beneventum arch, arid that the capitals of its 
columns are here given with considerable detail. 

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 29. 9.30 A.M. 

Professor E. D. Perry, of Columbia University, President of 
the New York Society of the Institute, presided. 

1. Dr. W. N. Bates, of the University of Pennsylvania, The 
Lighting of the so-called Theseum. 

This paper was the result of studies made upon the roof of the 
Theseum at Athens by the writer. It was shown that the pteroma, 
or colonnade surrounding the temple, and its front and back porches 
were covered by frames having openings in them, and that each 
opening was covered with a lid. Each opening and the lid over it 
bore a letter. Only a few letters were used to mark these openings 
and lids, and this was taken to prove that the lids were to be moved 
only short distances, and so would not become confused with those 
of other frames. There were over six hundred such openings in 
the Theseum. The writer argued that these openings were for the 
admission of light into the temple. The light would come up by 
reflection from the ground outside arid from the stylobate of the 
temple, pass through the openings, and be reflected from the roof 
and diffused into the interior. 

2. Professor Caiieton L. Brownson, of the College of the 
City of New York, A Philosopher's Attitude toward Art. 

The purpose of this paper was to gather the archaeological infor- 
mation to be derived from Plato's allusions to art and artists. 
These were considered under three heads : 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 175 

I. References to individual artists. Plato mentions by name 
Daedalus, Epeus, Theodoras, Phidias, Polyclitus, Polygnotus, Aris- 
tophon, and Zeuxis. It is noteworthy that Phidias is the only one 
of this number who receives any word of praise (Meno 91 D). 

II. Allusions to matters of art technique. (1) The practice of 
coloring statues is twice referred to (Hep. 420 c D, Leg. 668 B). 
(2) The cire perdue .process of bronze castings is shown to have been 
familiar in Plato's time (Rep. 588 D). (3) The careless treatment 
by Greek painters of landscape accessories is remarked upon (Crit. 
107 B). (4) A device employed in mural paintings to accomplish 
optical illusion is described (Soph. 235 E ff.). 

III. General comments and criticisms. These suggest various 
inferences regarding art in Plato's time. (1) It must have been 
free from the faults which Plato condemns in the poets. For, 
though he is not friendly to art nor a very intelligent critic, he 
shows no such hostility toward artists as toward poets. (2) Never- 
theless, Plato evidently deprecated the changes in artistic aims and 
standards since Phidias. (3) The painters of Greece wer, in 
Plato's opinion, worthy of equal rank with the sculptors. 

3. Dr. Mortimer Lamson Earle, of Barnard College, On the 
Supplementary Signs of the Greek Alphabet. 

The paper deals primarily with the question about the "Eastern" 
or "Western" origin, arrangement, and equivalence of the non- 
Phoenician signs <t>XY. Starting with the plain statement of the 
case at the end of Kirchhoff's Studien zur Gesch. des gr. Alphabets 
the discussions of the question since 1886 are dealt with, viz. : those 
of Gardner (1886), Szanto (1890), Larfeld (1892), Kalinka (1892), 
W. Schmid (1893), and Kretschmer (1896). The discovery at Thera 
by Hiller von Gartringen, as emphasized by the last of the scholars 
named, of V = and 3E = , gives us epigraphical evidence of the 
borrowing of a sign with changed value by one Greek alphabet 
from another. Dr. Kretschmer uses this to support his theory of a 
borrowing of " Western " V = ^ in the East, with the value of . 
Better might it be used to support the view that the users of such 
a "Western" alphabet as Mr. Gardner supposes (with -f(X) = at 
the end after V) deliberately sought to graft on the Ionic (perhaps 
better Milesian) supplementary signs for the aspirates and the 
double consonants, or more exactly that they sought to perfect their 
means of alphabetic expression by the addition from an Ionian 
source of the signs for ph } M, ps signs and sounds together, if 
possible, and in that order. In the case of the second of these the 



176 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

sign was cancelled, but the sound kept and transferred to the third 
sign. Another instance of borrowing of signs with changed value 
was suggested in the case of Delian, Parian, Siphnian, and Thasian 
Q = o or ov, not w, as in its native Ionian. It was suggested that 
an attempt was made to take over Ionic Q by the users of an alpha- 
bet that either differentiated the o-signs, as at Melos (C = o, ov, 
= o>) or, at least, differentiated them in the same direction. The 
preference for the new sign for the close rather than for the open 
led to the reversal of the use of Ionic (Milesian) Q in relation 
to 0. 

4. Dr. George B. Hussey, of the University of Chicago, 
Archaeological Notes on Plato. 

This paper contained a discussion of three passages in the text of 
Plato, which have always been regarded as of difficult or uncertain 
interpretation. One of these from the Convivium 190 D, has usually 
been translated as " cutting an egg with a hair." It was suggested 
in the paper that this should be connected with a story recorded by 
Lucian that some African tribes wore the shells of ostrich eggs as 
hats. Such was also the case with the Dioscuri, who according to 
current myth wore eggshell helmets. After this it was proposed 
to translate the phrase by "cutting an egg for the hair." 

Another passage was from the Republic 450 B, where the word 
X/owoxoi/Vovras is found. This word is to be understood as a play 
on a statement of Socrates. It thus means looking for the 'gold' 
that he had said was to be found in the rulers of his ideal state. 
The third and last point relates to the comparison of a speech to a 
living organism (oW). This idea is usually credited to Plato from 
a passage in Phaedrus 264 C. The word uW is ambiguous, meaning 
" image " as well as " animal." The wrong meaning has generally 
been taken for this passage. Plato merely intended to make one of 
his numerous comparisons of discourse to painting. A peculiar 
feature of the error thus corrected is that it came from the 
Greeks themselves and is not of modern origin. It appears first 
in Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 

5. Professor Andrew Fossum, of St. Olaf College, The 
Theatre at Sicyon. 

In the summer of 1898, some digging brought to light the gate in 
the west parodos, and the parascenia of the first stage-building. 
The latter consisted each of a pair of Ionic pilasters covered with a 
fine white stucco. The bases, being still in situ at both ends, show 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 177 

the form of the pilasters and forbid the supposition that wooden 
columns were used. The height of the proscenium was ascertained 
from the slant of the ramps. Along the inner edge of the west 
ramp a narrow strip continued unbroken nearly to the top, showing 
that the height of the podium was at all periods the same, 3.25 m. 
above the stylobate. A new plan based on a remeasurement of the 
theatre was exhibited. The present division of the scene appeared 
to be a modification adopted after the original plan had been partly 
abandoned, owing to the difficulty of removing the native rock. 
That plan was a symmetrical division into five sections of cor- 
responding dimensions. The diameter of the auditorium circle 
corresponds to the length of the proscenium, measured from centre to 
centre of the end-pilasters. Although no inscription has been found 
to determine the age of the theatre, every indication points to the 
fourth century. 

6. Mr. William Rankin, 2d, of Newark, N.J., The New 
Connoisseur ship. 

TJieory : The theory of connoisseurship assumes that internal 
evidence is conclusive when complete. In the recognition of the 
necessity for exhaustive collations, connoisseurship may be said to 
be a modern method of art historical research. Its aims are ulti- 
mately analytical, but the point of departure is extensive, as 
contrasted with that of the artist-critic, which is intensive. We 
only know one when we compare all, is the foundation principle, 
and to know a monument in its relation to the whole corpus of 
monumental material is a help toward knowing the monument for 
its art absolutes. On this side the trend of connoisseurship is dis- 
tinctly toward the intensive judgment of art for its own motives 
and ideals, as measured by canons that arise out of the constitutional 
character of the art considered. 

As illustrations we might take the Phidian influence in Greek 
sculpture; the historical classification of the later mediaeval un- 
ascribed paintings ; and for a literary analogy, the discovery of the 
so-called synopticism of the first three gospels. 

Method: The method of connoisseurship is comparative, with 
stylistic analysis as the ultimate appeal. We may call in a jury of 
artists, but we interpret the art historical law of probabilities to 
them. The method is exact in its morphological collations, but also 
conjectural and super-rational often. We observe the emotional, 
and need for its observation .the emotional. The observation of art 
for art historical purposes thus demands an exceptional attitude in 



178 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

the observer. It involves the complete understanding of artistic 
motives. It distrusts the over-balanced literary and philosophical 
criticism in the interpretation of the visual arts. Modern con- 
noisseurship is distrust of the artists on the one hand, and of the 
scholars on the other hand ; but it knows that the artists need its 
aid for the concentration upon the historical problems of their more 
or less over-emotional and over-intensive criticism, and it knows that 
the scholars need its aid to understand what the artists really mean 
by their art. 

To have to make the theory as well as to do the work is contrary 
to the fundamental principle above enunciated, which asserts by 
implication that to judge, one must not be a practitioner. In music, 
literature, and visual arts, we need criticism to correct our errors of 
perspective. 

Fundamental assumptions of theory and method, for the develop- 
ment of which concrete illustration would be necessary, are : First, 
Art cannot be destroyed, except entirely ; second, No two art indi- 
vidualities are alike; third, No vital art individuality ever repeats 
itself. 

The ultimate of connoisseurship is a critical ultimate : the knowl- 
edge of intrinsic character and quality, for the attainment of which 
it is an indispensable and efficient tool. 

7. Mr. Edmund von Mach, of Wellesley College, Hermes 
Discobolus ? 

The marble statue in the Vatican, No. 1615, generally known as 
"Discus-thrower taking his stand/' and sometimes believed to go 
back to an original by Naucydes, has lately received another inter- 
pretation. Georg Habich (Jb. Arch. I. 1898, pp. 57-65, and Int. 
Arch. Num. II, 2, 1899) has called it Hermes Discobolus. He argues 
that the statue cannot be an athlete for three reasons : 

(1) No discus-thrower can take his stand with the right foot in 
advance. This statue has the right foot in advance. 

(2) Philostratus Imag. I, 23 (24) asserts that the left foot must be 
in advance. 

(3) Of all the numerous works of art representing discus-throwers, 
not one shows an attitude similar to the Vatican marble. 

And since the statue does not represent an athlete, but bears 
strong similarity to the figure of Hermes holding a disk on several 
coins, it is a Hermes. 

In spite of the opposition of Michaelis (Jb. Arch. I. 1898, No. 3), 
the new view has found some friends. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 179 

It is, however, untenable for three reasons : 

(1) Experiments have shown that an athlete can well take his 
stand with the right foot in advance, and thus hurl the disk. 

(2) A correct interpretation of Philostratus Imag. I, 23 (24) shows 
that a position with the right foot in advance is prescribed. 

(3) A discus-thrower on a hitherto unpublished vase of the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts is represented in a position almost identical 
with that of the Vatican marble. 

The statue may then represent an athlete ; and when one is 
bound to choose between the old established interpretation and the 
new one, which is based solely on the similarity of the figure of 
Hermes on the coins, one can hesitate. The statue, which suggests 
so well " the muscular laxity which must precede the tension of the 
moment represented by Myron," is that of an athlete a discobolus 
not of Hermes Discobolus. 

8. Miss Daphne Kalopothakes, of Athens, Nereids in Modern 
Crreece (read in abstract by Miss M. H. Buckingham). 

The common people of Greece have to-day a thoroughly pagan 
belief in Nereids, the modern equivalent of the Nymphs, and dread 
their resentment if encountered in a dust-whirl, or under shady trees 
at midday, or in a river-bed after sundown, for the intruder is 
punished with madness. An instance of this belief came under the 
observation of the writer, in Athens, so lately as February, 1898. 
Offerings are still occasionally made to the Nereids in the grotto on 
the Museum Hill, as noted by various travellers of modern times, and 
they are constantly exorcised by promises of honey and milk. Little 
children especially must be guarded from them, as from the ancient 
Moirai. The places they are thought most to haunt are usually those 
once sacred to the Nymphs. Marriages between Nereids and mortals 
are said to have taken place in quite recent times, though now out of 
fashion. The entire conception illustrates the intensely conservative 
character of the Greek mind, and the comparatively slight influence 
exerted upon it by Christianity. Perhaps Great Pan himself is dead, 
but the poetry of paganism has still a very real existence. 

9. Rev. Walter Lowrie, American School in Rome, The 
Relation between Classical and Later Textile Design, and the 
Early Mediaeval Sculpture (read in abstract by Professor Allan 
Marquand). 

The ornamental sculptures in low relief, which prevailed through- 
out the Roman Empire from the fifth to the tenth century, form the 



180 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

subject of a recent study by Mazzanti, entitled La scultura orna- 
mentale romana nei bassi tempi, Rome, 1896. He shows that the 
later mediaeval Roman decorative motives, especially those of the 
Cosmati, were based upon the design of this earlier period, and 
holds that in turn it was derived from classic Roman design, as 
illustrated especially by mosaic pavements. Mazzanti, however, 
has largely overlooked the classic and oriental textiles of this 
period. Had he studied these more thoroughly, he would have seen 
that very many motives, not only those of a geometrical character, 
but also those based on plant and animal life, were copied by the 
stone-cutters from the textiles, especially those which oriental com- 
merce brought to their notice. 

10. Professor Edward Capps, of the University of Chicago, 
The Dating of Some Didascalic Inscriptions (read in abstract 
by Professor Fowler). Printed in full, above, pp. 74-91. 

The first columns of the didascalic inscription C.I.A. II, 972, 
which contains a part of the comic programmes of the Leiiaean fes- 
tival of two years, heretofore believed to be 355 and 354, was shown 
to belong to a considerably later period. The objections to the 
present dating are (1) the fact that the second column contained 
the tragic didascaliae, proving that the comic record ended in the 
first column, or ca. 343. But the stone was inscribed, in all 
probability, not until the third century, and the comic contest 
at the Lenaea was not discontinued before 309. It is, therefore, 
impossible to understand how this record could have come to an 
end as early as 343. (2) The poet Simylus is given as victor. But 
in the year 187 a play of his was reproduced. It seems altogether 
improbable that a play of the Middle Comedy was revived under 
the changed conditions of the New Comedy. In all other known 
instances the revived piece was taken from the New Comedy. 
(3) The poet Phoenicides was also a contestant. But in a pas- 
sage quoted by Hesychius he is shown to have been active at least 
sixty-seven years later than the date assigned to our inscription. A 
date early in the third century would obviate all of these objections. 
The archon Diotimus may be the magistrate of 286-285, instead of 
254-253. This is proved by the names of the actors mentioned in 
the inscription, who may be identified with comic actors whose 
names are found on fragments of the lists of victors, C.LA. II, 977, 
uv and fw, on choragic inscriptions from Delos, and on the soteric 
inscriptions from Delphi, all of a date which permits of the date 
proposed for the record under consideration. A number of new 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1899 181 

facts concerning the contests at the Dionysia and the Lenaea and 
concerning the poets mentioned in the inscription now come to 
light. By a similar method new dates and restorations are sug- 
gested for three of the fragments of the great didascalic inscription 
C.LA. II, 975. 

11. Miss Susan Braley Franklin, of Bryn Mawr College, 
Reliefs on Kiovia-icoi. 

The paper was based upon a study of the KLOVLO-KOL in Athens 
upon which a relief is carved. The following typical classes were 
presented : 

A. The relief upon the monument is often indicative of the 
occupation or social position of the person on whose grave it is 
placed. 

(1) The Key. This class of reliefs was illustrated by a hitherto 
unpublished KLOVLVKOS in the National Museum at Athens. The stone 
was discussed from the epigraphical as well as the symbolical point 
of view. The previous discussion as to the significance of this 
relief on such monuments was outlined, and the key was shown to 
be indicative of the office of priestess, and not of the housewife's 
duty. Illustrations of a similar use of the temple-key on Greek 
and Italian vases and a Roman wall-painting were cited. 

(2) The AOVT/OO^O/OO?. The vase in which Professor Wolters has 
recognized the \ovrpo(f>6po<;. placed on the tomb of unmarried per- 
sons, was found on thirty-four KLOVLO-KOL. An instance of the same 
symbol on the monument of a married woman was discussed. 

(3) The pruning-hook, hammer, and plough indicate the vine- 
dresser, carpenter, and farmer. 

B. Upon several KLOVIO-KOL two hands in the attitude of prayer are 
carved. This symbol is not necessarily to be interpreted as invoking 
a curse on the despoiler of the grave. 

The following papers were withdrawn or read only by title, 
owing to lack of time: 

Dr. Cyrus Adler, of the U. S. National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D.C., Oriental Archaeology in the XlXth Century; Mr. 
Paul Bauer, of Cincinnati, Artemis as a G-oddess of Healing ; 
Professor Mitchell Carroll, of the Columbian University, Aris- 
totle's Theory of Sculpture; Professor W. S. Ebersole, of Cor- 
nell College, Metopes of the West End of the Parthenon ; Miss 
Alice C. Fletcher, of Washington, D.C., The Significance of 



182 AECHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

the Garment; Professor Harold N. Fowler, of Western Reserve 
University, Pliny, Pausanias, and the Hermes of Praxiteles; 
Professor A. L. Frothingham, Jr., of Princeton University, 
Side-lights on Ancient Etruria ; Professor W. G. Hale, of the 
University of Chicago, The First Ownership of the Oxford Ms. of 
Catullus known as 0; Professor Paul Haupt, of Johns Hopkins 
University, Israelitish Chariots ; Mr. B. H. Hill, of Columbia 
University, Note on the 1a\6s-name Hippodamas ; Professor 
J. H. Huddilston, of the University of Maine, Cicero as an Art 
Connoisseur ; Mr. W. W. Hyde, of Northampton, Mass., Cal- 
limachus ; Professor Walter Miller, of Leland Stanford, Jr., 
University, Notes on Crreek Vases in the Stanford Museum; Pro- 
fessor Rufus B. Richardson, of the American School at Athens, 
The Mustache at Sparta and in Archaic Greek Art; Professor 
Myron R. Sanford, of Middlebury College, The Roman Tunica 
and Toga ; Professor T. D. Seymour, of Yale University, 
Notes on Homeric War ; Professor J. R. Wheeler, of Columbia 
University, A Bronze Figure of Heracles ; Professor John 
Williams White, of Harvard University, On the Weight, Size, 
and Throw of the Discus ; Professor John H. Wright, of Har- 
vard University, The Composition of Apelles's Calumny. 

Many of the papers read were illustrated with stereopticoq 
slides. 



NOTICE 

A General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in con- 
nexion with other learned societies will be held in Philadelphia in the 
Christmas holidays of 1900. Dr. WILLIAM N. BATES, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and Dr. JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, of Bryn Mawr College, rep- 
resent the Institute on the Committee of Arrangements. 

Members of the Institute are invited to present papers at this General 
Meeting, and to send the title of each paper to the Secretary of the Institute, 
Dr. CLARENCE H. YOUNG, 312, East 88th Street, New York City. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES 



VOL. IV (1900) PLATE 




Institute 
of America 



A SIGNED CYLIX BY DURIS, IN BOSTON 



[PLATE I] 

THE list given by Hartwig in 1893 (Grriechische Meisterscha- 
len, pp. 685 f.) of the vases, complete or fragmentary, signed 
by Duris as decorator (A6/?t? e<ypa$aev), includes twenty-six 
numbers, or, if we count the small bit from the Athenian Acropo- 
lis and the three cylices which have disappeared and of which 
no drawings exist, thirty numbers. Of these thirty, twenty- 
seven are cylices. In 1898 the Boston Museum of Fine Arts 
acquired a twenty-eighth cylix, belonging to Duris's earlier 
period {Twenty -Third Annual Report, pp. 65 f.). It is my 
privilege to make known a twenty-ninth cylix, which, if not 
ranking among the best works from that prolific master's hand, 
is by no means among the poorest. It belongs to his later 
period, i.e. about 480 B.C. 

This vase was for many years the property of Thomas 
Wilson, LL.D., Curator of the Division of Prehistoric Archae- 
ology in the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. 
It was found in 1886, between April 4 and 11, in the necropolis 
on the northwest slope of the rock on which Orvieto is situated. 
The discovery was made in the course of excavations con- 
ducted by Signor Riccardo Mancini, a Well-known explorer of 
Orvieto, Dr. Wilson being himself present and assisting in the 
work. The tombs uncovered at this time had been disturbed 
and destroyed, and the decorated pottery found was all in frag- 
ments. 1 The vase of Duris was put together in Washington, but 
was not otherwise tampered with. From 1887 to 1899 it was 

1 Notizie degli Scavi, 1886, p. 120. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 183 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 2. 



184 F. B. TARE ELL 

exposed in a glass case in the Smithsonian Building, but 
attracted no attention from experts in Attic vase painting. It 
has now become the property of the Museum of Fine Arts in 
Boston. 

The form is the usual cylix form of the period. The height 
is 4| in., the diameter 12J in. As may be seen in PLATE I, 
reproduced from a photograph, the vase was broken into five 
pieces at an early stage of its existence, perhaps in transit 
from Attica to Etruria, and was repaired, presumably by 
means of the usual bronze clamps. There are twenty-one 
pairs of holes drilled to receive these clamps. In one respect 
the method of repair differs from the ordinary one, viz. in the 
fact that channels were scratched between the two holes of each 
pair on both the inside and the outside, so that the clamps 
should not project above the general surface of the vase. 1 
Along the lines of these channels the clay is thus reduced 
to great thinness, and this must have seriously impaired the 
strength of the mended vase. The smallest of the five broken 
pieces was either lost or too much shattered for use, and was 
replaced by a fragment from another cylix. This is the trian- 
gular bit just above the right-hand handle, as seen in PLATE I. 
The existence of a design on the outside of the inserted bit 
makes certain its alien origin, while the drilled holes and 
scratched channels, matching those of the adjacent parts, 
guarantee the join. 

Subsequently to the repair just described the vase was again 
broken, probably by being thrown into the fire in connection 
with the rites of burial. This inference is based upon the fact 
that certain pieces have had their red clay turned to gray in a 
way believed to be due to, fire, while other pieces are unaf- 
fected. How many still later breakages there may have been, 
it is impossible to tell. A few small pieces are missing alto- 
gether, but, luckily, the designs are all but complete, and, 
though the vase is streaked with adherent lime carbonate, the 

1 A somewhat similar, but not identical, method was pursued in repairing the 
cylix of Brygos in the Cabinet des Me'dailles (Hart wig, Meisterschalen, pi. xxxii). 



A SIGNED CYLIX BY DU1US, IN BOSTON 



185 



surface is otherwise in good condition, and the drawing but 
slightly damaged. 1 

PLATE I is reproduced from a photograph; Figs. 1-3 from 
tracings. The latter figures are faithful in most respects, but 




FIGURE 1. CYLIX BY DURIS, IN THE BOSTON MUSEUM OP FINE ARTS : INTERIOR. 

the hair is in all cases falsely rendered; it should be uni- 
formly black. Further, the eye of the Maenad at the left 
of Fig. 3 is too wide open. Finally, the sigma of 



1 Since this article was written, the vase has been taken to pieces, carefully 
cleaned, and put together again. Its appearance has thus been greatly improved. 
In the reconstruction the alien triangular fragment has not been reinserted. 



186 F. B. TARBELL 

in Fig. 1 should be three-barred, and that of 'iTTTroSa/ia?, in 
Fig. 2, four-barred. 

The following technical details deserve to be noted : in the 
interior, purple is used for the waving stem or band connecting 
the ivy leaves on Dionysus's head, for the tassel of the cushion, 
and for the letters of the inscription. Diluted glaze is used 
for the cross-hatching on the cushion, for the ornament on the 
ogee moulding of the altar, and for the blood splashes on the 
altar. The hair of Dionysus is rendered in solid black, with 
four concentric relief lines laid over this on the crobylus, and 
a succession of scallops in front. The crown of the head is 
bounded by two parallel oval relief lines. The beard, also of 
solid black, is edged with short relief lines set side by side. The 
eye is closed at the inner angle, and the iris and pupil are indi- 
cated by a dotted circle. On the exterior, the preliminary 
sketch, made with a blunt point in the still soft clay, is dis- 
tinctly traceable in places. Purple is used for head bands and 
letters. The minor markings upon the abdomens, arms, and 
legs of the nude Sileni, and the hair upon their bodies, are, as 
usual, in thinned glaze. The legs and the inside of the fawn- 
skin are painted with the same. The hair of the heads" is 
everywhere black, and has similar relief lines to those of the 
interior. The crowns of the heads are also bounded in the 
same way as there, and the beards of the Sileni are similarly 
edged. All the eyes are of the dotted-circle type. In some 
cases, the contours are slightly open at the inner angle. 

As is almost invariably the case with Duris's signed cylices 
(though not with his later unsigned ones), the designs on the 
inside and the outside of the vase are closely connected with 
each other. In the interior (PLATE I, Fig. 1) Dionysus stands 
before an altar, holding out a cantharus, as if about to pour a 
libation. He is dressed in a linen chiton reaching to his feet 
and a himation. His long hair is gathered at the neck into 
a crobylus, and there is a wreath of ivy leaves about his head. 
An interesting parallel to this figure is afforded by an amphora 
in the style of Duris in the British Museum (Catalogue of 



A SIGNED CYLIX BY DURIS, IN BOSTON 187 

Vases, vol. iii, E. 330, pi. xiii). It is noteworthy that the altar 
is tilted in relation to the god, according to a practice much 
in favor with Duris (e.g. Murray, Designs from Greek Vases, 
figs. 33, 36), but not confined to him (ib. fig. 44). The 
folding-stool (o/cXaSta?) behind him, on the other hand, ap- 
pears to stand on the same plane with him. In the field behind 
him is the signature : AOPIEARA(DEN. The whole design is 
enclosed by a pattern of the form usual with Duris in his 
later period. This design consists of single meander squares 
of alternating direction, separated by what the British Museum 
Catalogue calls " red-cross squares," the whole bordered within 
and without by concentric black circles. The painter has been 
successful in making both ends of his pattern meet without 
disarrangement, whereas in some other cases he has been obliged 
to dislocate his pattern, either bringing two meander squares 
together (e.g. Murray, Designs, fig. 32), or giving to two 
neighboring meander squares the same direction (ib. fig. 33). 

On the exterior (Figs. 2, 3) we find one of the stock sub- 
jects of Attic pottery a revel or dance of Sileni and Maenads. 
The design is divided into two parts by symmetrical quadruple 
palmette ornaments beneath and at the sides of the handles. 
These ornaments are of the type usual with Duris in his later 
period (Winter, Jahrbuch des archaologischen Instituts, 1892, 
p. 110, fig. 13). It is a favorite scheme with Duris to draw 
five figures on each half of a cylix, and that scheme is fol- 
lowed here, there being three Maenads and two Sileni on each 
side. Each of the six Maenads wears a voluminous linen 
chiton, the sleeves of which she pulls down so as completely 
to cover her hands. The fashion is a common one, especially 
with Maenads (Hartwig, Meisterschalen, pp. 312 f. ; Kalkmann, 
Jahrbuch des archaologischen Instituts, 1896, p. 20, fig. 1). 
Five of them wear over the chiton a mantle, fastened over the 
left shoulder and passing under the right arm, while the sixth 
has in place of this a small skin, probably intended for a 
panther's skin. Their long hair is held in place with diadems 
and fillets. Of the Sileni one wears a well-characterized fawn's 



190 F. B. TARBELL 

skin, and one carries a thyrsus. They, too, or at least the 
three whose heads are in profile* .have fillets about their hair. 

On one side is the inscription HIPPOAAMA3 KAUO ('ITTTTO- 
Sa/za? /eaXo?). This is the ninth C}4ix on which this name 
occurs. Of the eight cylices previously known, two are signed 
by Duris and three are ascribed to him, while two are signed by 
Hieron and one is ascribed to him. Duris here spells the name 
with a double pi, as on the unsigned cylix formerly in the 
Van Branteghem collection and now the property of Martin 
A. Ryerson, Esq., of Chicago (Hartwig, Meisterschalen, pi. 
Ixvii, 2 = Klein, Grriechische Vasen mit Lieblingsinschriften, 
p. 104, fig. 27), and, according to Hartwig (Meisterschalen, 
p. 602, note 1 ), on the signed cylix in the Louvre. In the 
other three instances he writes only a single pi. 

The artistic shortcomings of Duris have been strongly em- 
phasized by Hartwig, and the present vase illustrates them 
anew. The figure of Dionysus in the interior has the least 
possible subject-interest, and it poorly fills the circular space. 
The thiasus on the exterior is better, but it lacks the variety 
and reckless impetuosity, as well as the facial expressiveness, 
which Euphronius and Brygos knew how to give to such sub- 
jects. Even the anonymous painter of the British Museum 
cylix, E. 75 (Hartwig, pi. xliii), imparted to his treatment of 
the theme far more of Bacchic frenzy. The recurrence 
of similar gestures in Duris's design is characteristic. So, 
too, is the uniformity in the rendering of the Maenads' 
chitons, though the particular rendering employed a single 
sheaf of symmetrical folds in the middle, with free, curved 
lines over the legs is one to which the other work of Duris 
and that of his contemporaries, so far as accessible to one, 
does not afford a close parallel. All this, however, amounts 
only to saying that the present vase is not a production of the 
very highest order. When we have made our reservations, 
we shall still find much to admire, especially in that half of the 
exterior which bears the inscription (Fig. 2). If Duris has 
not here outdone himself, as on the famous psycter in the 



A SIGNED CYLIX BY DURIS, IN BOSTON 191 

British Museum, E. 768, he has at least drawn, in the two 
Sileni, figures of unusual spirit and excellence. That one in 
particular whose face is shown in front view is among the best 
things that Duris ever did, even the impossible way in which 
the sole of the right foot is shown not appearing so much a 
fault as an interesting audacity. 

F. B. TARBELL. 



Slrdjaeolocjical 
Institute 
of 'America 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF 
FLORENCE 



DURING a hurried visit to Florence in 1896 my attention was 
attracted to a series of very interesting windows in the Cathe- 
dral, which, so far as I can learn, have never been reproduced. 
Having obtained the necessary permit, I photographed with 
quite inadequate facilities two of the windows in the drum of 
the cupola, at the same time making careful notes of their 
details and coloring. Unfortunately I had no time to observe 
carefully the other windows or to take other photographs. It 
is not a little strange that neither of these windows has been 
reproduced before, as one of them is unique in being the only 
window designed by Donatello, while the other illustrates a 
little known phase of the art of Lorenzo Ghiberti, or, perhaps, 
of Paolo Uccello. 

The octagonal drum of the cupola is lighted by eight circular 
windows, each some 4.50 m. in diameter. Seven of them still 
contain painted glass. There seems to have been no general 
scheme in the arrangement of these windows, although when we 
consider them chronologically the earliest will be seen to refer 
to the Virgin ; the next three refer to the closing scenes of the 
Life of Christ, and the last four to the early history of the Life of 
Christ. The windows were put in place in the following order: 

1. The Coronation of the Virgin. Designed by Donatello, April 14, 1434. 
Executed by Bernardo (di Francesco), assisted by Paolo Uccello, October 
4, 1434. 

2. The Resurrection. Designer not recorded. Executed by Bernardo di 
Francesco, January 15, 1443. 

3. The Agony in the Garden. Design claimed by Ghiberti. Executed 
by Bernardo di Francesco, February 28, 1443. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 192 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 2. 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE 193 

4. The Ascension. Design claimed by Ghiberti. Executed by Bernardo 
di Francesco, January 15, 1444. 

5. The Annunciation. Designed by Paolo Uccello, February 18, 1443. 
Executed by Bernardo di Francesco, December 30, 1444 -January 19, 1445. 
This window no longer exists. 

6. The Nativity. Designed by Paolo Uccello, November 5, 1443. Ex- 
ecuted by Angelo di Lippo, June 30, 1444 (?). 

7. The Adoration of the Magi. Designer not recorded. Possibly by 
Paolo Uccello, January 28, 1445. Executed possibly by Angelo di Lippo, 
March 6, 1445. 

8. The Presentation in the Temple. Designed by Ghiberti, December 7, 
1443. Executed by Bernardo di Francesco, June 18, 1445. 1 

Let us now consider in detail the two windows of which we 
publish reproductions. 

1. The Coronation Window. - - This window occupies the 
position of honor, but is unfortunately so covered with the 
dust of ages that a photographic reproduction leaves much of 
its design undecipherable. This makes it the more necessary 
that we should study it by the aid of strong glasses from the 
gallery of the dome. It then appears that this dusky frame- 
work is enlivened with a series of winged cherub heads. They 
are not naturalistically, but conventionally colored like the 
cherub heads in Giottesque paintings. Each has an orna- 
mented golden nimbus, the white edges of which define the 
position of the cherub heads in our illustration. The lowest 
cherub to our left is red, the next above is greenish gray, the 
third is red, the fourth is light brown, the fifth red, and the 
sixth blue. A rigid symmetry would call for two more, but the 
design of the central medallion overlaps the frame. Regard- 
less of the distance from which the window would be seen, the 
cherub wings and the hair of their heads show very carefully 
painted detail. 

When we turn from the frame to the central medallion, we 
are impressed with the great simplicity of its composition. 

1 For the dates here given see the Appendix to Dr. Hans Semper's ' Die far- 
bigen Glasscheiben im Dom von Florenz,' published in the Mitth. d. K. K. 
Central- Commission, 1872, pp. 19-36. The dates are those of partial payments, 
and are taken from the Cathedral archives entitled Libra di Deliberatione e 
Stantiamenti degli Operai di Santa Maria del Fiore, etc. 



194 



ALLAN MAEQUAND 



There is no canopied throne to distract our attention, no land- 
scape background. There is nothing but the blue sky to act as 
a setting for the two figures, who are clad in great simplicity. 
The words of the Psalmist (Ps. xlv. 9), " Astitit regina a dextris 
tuis in vestitu deaurato, circumdata varietate," had become 




FIGURE 1. CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN: DONATELLO. 

embodied in the Catholic ritual, and are here accepted almost 
literally. The Virgin, leaning forward with folded hands, is 
clad in a golden garment which is ornamented only by a narrow 
embroidered border. The end of the throne or bench on which 
she is seated has pearl and cyma and dentil mouldings, show- 
ing a timid preference for Renaissance details. Her footstool 
is ornamented with a simple reticulated pattern. The Christ, 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE 195 

seated on the same throne, places upon her head a crown of 
gold, set with rubies and sapphires. The Christ wears a royal 
red mantel, lined with white, over a green robe with violet 
sleeves. The mantel has an ornamented golden border. His 
nimbus is divided into red, golden, and violet sections, elabo- 
rately decorated, as if the window were to be set not in the 
drum of a lofty dome, but near enough to be appreciated by 
the w r orshipful spectator. 

The authorship of this window has never been called in ques- 
tion. There seems to have been a competition in which Ghiberti 
and Donatello were asked to furnish designs to a jury composed 
of theologians and painters and makers of stained glass win- 
dows. The design of Donatello was accepted April 14, 1434, 
and is thus recorded in the Cathedral archives (Libro di Deli- 
beratione e Stantiamenti degli Operai di Sta. Maria del Fiore) : 
" Prefati operarii congregati in loco eorum residentie prefactis 
dicte opere utili pagendis servatis servandis attendeiites ad duo 
designa facta ad instantiam opere super imo quorum fieri debet 
oculus vitrei storie et actus incoronationis Domini iiostri Jesu 
Christi facti eius et matris virginis Marie videlicet unam per 
Donatum Nicolai et Laurentium Bartoli et ad quedam consilia 
habita a quam pluribus intelligentibus et magistris v. sacre 
theologie et a pluribus pictoribus et magistris fenestrarum et 
oculorum vitrei de declarando et consulendo quale victorum 
duorum designorum est pulchrius et hoiiorabilius pro ecclesia 
et magnificentius tante ecclesie et intellecto per dicta consilia 
designum factum per dictum Donatum esse melius hoiiorabi- 
lius et magnificentius designo facto per dictum Laurentium 
Bartoli deliberaverunt quod dictum designum factum per dic- 
tum Donatum Nicolai oculi vitrei fiendi super oculo existent! 
supra cappellam S. Zenobii et qui est coram corpore ecclesie 
veteris fiat et fieri debeat et non secundum designum dicti Lau- 
reiitii et non possit fieri dictus oculus cum aliquo alio designo 
nee solvent dumtaxat cum designo dicti Donati Nicolai." 1 

1 Published by H. Semper in Eitelberger von Edelberg's Quellenschriften fur 
Kunstgeschichte, IX, pp. 282 f. 



196 ALLAN MARQUAND 

This record establishes not only that Donatello made a design 
of the " Coronation of the Virgin " for a circular window to be 
located above the chapel of S. Zenobius, but that the design 
was accepted, judged to be finer than the design furnished by 
Lorenzo Ghiberti, and that a decision was reached that the 
window should be made in accordance with this design. 

The window would seem to have been begun in the same 
year, as we may infer from a document published also by H. 
Semper in Eitelberger von Edelberg's Quellenschriften fur 
Kunstgeschiclite, IX, p. 283, No. 76, copied from the Opera 
del Duomo ; Liber Quadron, Carta xxxi, under the date Octo- 
ber 4, 1434. It reads as follows : " Donate di Niccolo maestro 
d' intaglio de avere a di 4 d' ottobre fior. 18 larghi per uno 
disegno d' un occhio alia Capella di S. Zenobio e quali sono 
per lui e per Bernardo (di Francesco) e per Pagholo Uccello." 
This document shows that a certain Bernardo and Paolo 
Uccello were associated with Donatello in the execution of this 
window : Bernardo being probably Bernardo di Francesco, else- 
where styled a magister vetrorum, and Paolo Uccello, elsewhere 
called pictor, employed to paint either upon the cartoon or upon 
the glass such details as might be called for by the designer. 1 

The knowledge that this window was by Donatello was 
retained by the fifteenth-century Anonimo del Codice Maglia- 
becchiano. 2 

In 1550, Vasari, in his Vita di Donato, describes this circular 
window of Donatello's as having "maggior forza in se, che gli 
altri da diversi maestri disegnati," which statement, in the edi- 
tion of 1568, he modifies to "il quale disegno e tanto migliore 
di quelli, che sono negl' altri occhi, quanto manifestamenti si 

1 Milanesi, Vasari, II, p. 402, note 2, declares that this window was executed 
by Domenico di Piero di Pisa, assisted by Angelo di Lippo. Cavallucci, Santa 
Maria del Fiore, p. 148, makes a similar statement. The entries of the Cathe- 
dral archives, published by Semper, Mitth. d. K. K. Central- Comm., 1872, 
p. 34, indicate that the circular windows made by Domenico and Angelo at this 
period were oculi albi, or of uncolored glass. 

2 Carl Frey, Sammlung ausgewahlter Biographien VasarVs : III, Vita di 
Lorenzo Ghiberti, p. 64. Berlin, 1886. 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE 197 

vede." The preference of the judges for Donatello's design 
was thus accepted by Vasari, and in recent times by H. Semper, 
who in his Donatella's Leben und Werke, Innsbruck, 1887, 
pp. 63-64, declares : "In der That ist Donatello's Glasgemalde 
das schonste im Tambour und iibertrifft selbst die im Jahre 
1443 nach Paolo Uccello's Cartons gemalten Scheiben. Auf 
Donatello's Gemalden zeichnen sich die Figuren bei etwas 
tiefen, mehr malerisch als in strengen Glasmalerstil gehaltenen 
Farbentonen, durch einfache grosse Umrisse, durch Ernst und 
Innigkeit der Bewegung und des Ausdruckes, sowie durch feine 
Detailbelebung aus." With the general spirit of this estimate 
we cordially concur. 

2. The Resurrection Window. Adjoining the Coronation 
window is a window representing the Resurrection of Christ. 
Of all the windows in the drum it is the most brilliant in color 
.and effective in design. The Christ is rising, as if uplifted by 
some supernatural force, from an open sarcophagus from which 
the cover has just been removed. On either side is an armed 
soldier sleeping. The background consists of rocks, symbolic 
rather than naturalistic in treatment, a single fruit tree of 
rather rigid type, and a broad, blue sky. 

The Christ is clad in white raiment which is decorated with 
golden cinquefoils and a golden border. The drapery is 
thrown over the left shoulder so as to display the pierced right 
side and the wounded hand is raised in the act of blessing. In 
the left hand he holds a white banner on which is a red cross. 
The white portions of the banner are ornamented with a fine 
network of Greek crosses, and the red cross with roAvs of 
quatrefoils. 

Streams of golden glory emanate from the body of the Christ, 
and back of his head is a red-crossed golden nimbus. The 
sarcophagus is decorated with green panels enclosed by a red 
framework, and its cover has a central red panel. The two 
soldiers are clad in steel-colored, golden-fringed armor. The 
one to our left has a blue sword and wears a turban striped red 
and green. The other rests his right arm upon a shield which 



198 



ALLAN MARQUAND 



is green with violet stripes. His turban is yellow and blue. 
The rocky background is deep purple red in color, while the 
tree has pointed green leaves and large reddish fruit. It may 
also be noticed that the blue glass in the background is care- 
fully arranged in concentric bands. 




FIGURE 2. THE RESURRECTION: GHIBERTI. 

If we ask who was the glass-maker who executed this window, 
the question can be answered from documentary sources. The 
record is published by Rumohr, Italienische Forschungen, II, 
p. 356. It is copied from the Arehivio deW Opera del Duomo di 
Firenze, Scaffale IV, No. XXV, Libro: Alloghagione del Opera, 
di Sea. Maria del Fiore al Tempo di ser Nicolajo di . . . di 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE 199 

Nicholajo di Diedi. Cominciato Anno M. CCCCXXXVIII, fol. 
36, die secunda Maji (1443), and reads as follows : " locha- 
verunt Bernardo Francisci, qui facit fenestras de vetro 
Duos oculos de vetro in tribuna magna vid. Unum ex latere 
destro vid. versus tribunam corporis Christi in quo debet esse 
resuressio dm. mi. Jhs. XPI. secundum designum sibi 
dandum et debet fieri justa illud incoronatio. Alium vero 
oculum . . . alia tribuna et justa dcm oculum in quo debet esse 
quum dominus no. oravit in orto et cum designo sibi dando. 
quos debet bene lavorare arbitrio dnorum operariorum et boni 
magistri et debet abere pro suo magisterio vitreo tagliatur, et 
aliis librar. undecim et soldi decem. pice. Operarii predicti 
prornictunt solvere designum, pictorum et ferramenta, facere 
pontes et alia occurrentia." 

This record makes it clear that the execution of the Resurrec- 
tion window was entrusted to Bernardo di Francesco. The 
entry seems to have been a tardy one, for we find that some 
four months earlier Bernardo di Francesco was paid on account 
100 1. for this window. The document is published by Dr. 
Hans Semper, Mitth. d. K. K. Central- Comm., 1872, p. 33, 
and reads as follows: "Die 15 in. Jan. 1442 (43). Bernardo 
Francesci qui facit fenestras de vetro 1. 100 p. parte solu- 
tionis unius oculi de tribuna magna in quo est resurrectio 
domini." 

The records thus establish the date of the window and give 
us the name of the maker, but furnish no direct information 
concerning the artist who furnished the design. We may 
observe, however, that the Resurrection window was assigned to 
Bernardo on the very same day as was the window representing 
the Agony in the Garden. Now if we turn to Ghiberti's Com- 
mentaries, we find this statement concerning the windows he 
designed for the Cathedral : " Disegnai nella faccia di Sancta 
Maria del Fiore nell' occhio di mezo 1' assumptione di Nostra 
Donna et disegnai gl' altri, (che) sono dallate. Disegnai in 
detta chiesa molte finestre di uetro. Nella tribuna sono tre 
occhi, disegnati di mia manor Nell' uno e (e) come Christo 



200 ALLAN MARQUAND 

(se) ne ua in cielo ; nell' altro, quando adora nell' orto; i terzo, 
quando e (e) portato nel tempio." 1 

Ghiberti here lays claim to only three windows in the 
drum of the cupola; viz. the Ascension, the Agony in the 
Garden, and the Presentation in the Temple. It is true 
that the anonymous writer of the manuscript in the Maglia- 
becchiana and Vasari make more sweeping claims for Ghi- 
berti, but do not specifically mention this window. Can it 
be, therefore, that the Resurrection window was designed by 
some other hand ? 

Another author for this window has indeed been suggested, 
Paolo Uccello. Let us see what evidence there is in his favor. 
It has already been noted that in 1434 he received some pay- 
ment from Donatello, probably for coloring the design or the 
window representing the Coronation of the Virgin. The records 
published by Semper also show that on the 18th of February, 
1443, he was paid for a design for a circular window repre- 
senting the Annunciation, and on November 5, 1443, for another 
representing the Nativity, and on January 28, 1445, he received 
a final payment for painting two circular windows. The latter 
document reads as follows: " Die 28. Jan. 1444 (45). Paolo 
Doni Uccello 1. 16, s. 10 sunt pro residue . . . pro suo labore 
picture duorum oculorum." This document cannot well refer 
to the Resurrection window, as this window had already been in 
place for more than two years. 

More definite, certainly, are the statements of Milanesi 2 and 
C-tivallucci, 3 both of whom attribute the Resurrection window 
to Paolo Uccello, but as their affirmations concerning these 
cathedral windows are not consistent with themselves, nor with; 

1 Carl Frey, Sammlung ausgewdhlter Biographien Vasarfs: III, Vita du 
Lorenzo Ghiberti, p. 54. Berlin, 1886. 

For Ghiberti's Commentaries see also Cicognara, Storia della Scultura, IV,j 
pp. 208-225; Kumohr, Kunstblatt, 1821, No. 1; Italienische Forschnngen, I,i 
pp. 289-293 ; Schorn-Vasari, Leben der Maler, II, Abth. I, p. 129 ; Le Monnier-j 
Vasari, I, pp. xi-xxxvii ; Perkins, Ghiberti et son Ecole, pp. 113-136. 

2 Milanesi- Vasari, II, p. 211, note 2. 

8 Cavallucci, Sancta Maria del Fiorc e la sua Facciata, pp. 146-149. 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE 201 

each other, nor with the archives published by Semper, we 
cannot safely rely upon them. 

The documentary evidence may therefore be estimated as 
follows : Nowhere is it directly affirmed that Ghiberti was the 
designer of the Resurrection window, nor on the other hand do 
we know of a document to prove that it was designed by Paolo 
Uccello. But the dates on which these designs were executed 
make it probable that during the year 1443 Ghiberti designed 
all the windows representing the closing scenes of the Life of 
Christ, while Paolo Uccello designed those concerning the Birth 
of Christ. 

The documentary evidence, at least in the condition in which 
it is published, being indeterminate, let us consider the window 
from the point of view of style. We cannot fail to be struck 
at once with the beautiful and decorative border which serves 
as a frame for the picture. We recall the beautiful borders 
which enframe the reliefs in Ghiberti's first and second gates for 
the Baptistery, and if we look for specific resemblances, they 
are not wanting. We find the use of the vine-scroll in his 
earliest relief of the Sacrifice of Isaac (1402); we see it again 
in the first Baptistery gate decorating the platform on which 
Pilate is seated (finished 1424), and it appears again between 
niches and circles on the border of the second Baptistery gate 
(1424-1452). But more striking than the border is the figure 
of Christ, with the S -shaped curve of the body and the drapery 
swinging in what may almost be called the Ghiberti curve. 
The use of such curves becomes more frequent in Ghiberti's 
second gates, so that, by 1442, the year when six of these reliefs 
were being moulded, Ghiberti might be expected to draw just 
such a figure of Christ as this. We might go farther and point 
out resemblances between these soldiers and others which 
Ghiberti represented about this time, and similarly for the 
rocky background and the fruit tree. But enough has been 
indicated to show that Ghiberti might have designed this 
window without changing his general spirit and style. 

The case for Uccello would be difficult to substantiate, at least 



202 ALLAN MARQUAND 

from a study of his fresco paintings. His chief interest in 
painting was not decoration, but a scientific, experimental 
enthusiasm for problems of perspective. The few works known 
to us from the hand of this artist lack entirely the decorative 
quality of this design. They present compositions less sym- 
metrical and more complicated, figures which are not charac- 
terized by graceful curves, and which are frequently colored 
without reference to appropriateness or reality. His style is 
admirably summarized by Bernhard Berenson in The Florentine 
Painters of the Renaissance, pp. 33-34, as follows : " His real 
passion was perspective, and painting was to him a mere occa- 
sion for solving some problem in this science, and displaying 
his mastery over difficulties. Accordingly he composed pic- 
tures in which he contrived to get as many lines as possible 
leading the eye inward. Prostrate horses, dead or dying cav- 
aliers, broken lances, ploughed fields, Noah's Arks, were used 
by him with scarcely an attempt at disguise, to serve his 
scheme of mathematically converging lines. In his zeal he 
forgot local color he loved to paint his horses green or pink 
forgot action, forgot composition, and, it need scarcely be 
added, significance. Thus in his battle pieces, instead of ade- 
quate action of any sort, we get the feeling of witnessing a 
show of stuffed figures whose mechanical movements have been 
suddenly arrested by some clog in their wires ; in his fresco of 
4 The Deluge ' he has so covered his space with demonstra- 
tions of his cleverness in perspective and foreshortening that, 
far from bringing home to us the terrors of a cataclysm, he at 
the utmost suggests the bursting of a mill-dam ; and in the 
neighboring fresco of the ' Sacrifice of Noah,' just t as some 
capitally constructed figures are about to enable us to realize 
the scene, all possibility of artistic pleasure is destroyed by our 
seeing an object in the air which, after some difficulty, we 
decipher as a human being plunging downward from the 
clouds. Instead of making this figure, which by the way is 
meant to represent God the Father, plunge toward us, Uccello 
deliberately preferred to make it dash inward, away from us, 



TWO WINDOWS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE 203 

thereby displaying his great skill in both perspective and fore- 
shortening, but at the same time writing himself down as the 
founder of two families of painters which have flourished ever 
since, the artists for dexterity's sake mental or manual, it 
scarcely matters and the naturalists." 

Is it likely, we ask, that such a one-sided specialist as Uccello 
should have produced a design like this, which presents a strik- 
ing contrast to his other work ? It may be unlikely, yet, were 
we acquainted with his work in painted glass, our notions of his 
style might be seriously modified. As a boy of ten, he was in 
Gliiberti's workshop, and in the fulness of manhood he gave 
Ghiberti assistance in the execution of the second Baptistery 
gates. It is quite possible that in making cartoons for the 
windows of the cupola of the Cathedral he would have followed 
in Ghiberti 's footsteps especially if we assume that the 
Resurrection window was his first effort. 

For a final decision, therefore, as to the designer of this win- 
dow it will be wise to wait for the opportunity of comparing it 
with the authenticated windows of Ghiberti on the one hand 
and of Uccello on the other. This comparison I hope to make 
as soon as I am free to visit Florence again. 

ALLAN MARQUAND. 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, 

December, 1899. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



PIRENE 



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rrjv evBelav %a\fcovs /caOtj/Jievds eariv 'E/)/*?}? /c.r.\. 

PAUSANIAS, II, 3, 2-4. 

I. BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 

THE chief result of the work at Corinth of the American 
School, in the spring of 1898, was the discovery of an ancient 
fountain facade in the valley just to the east of the well-known 
ruined temple, and about 120 yards south of the square of 
the modern village. This fagade extends in a line almost 
due west from its beginning near the road leading from the 
square up to the large church (Panagia). Visitors to Corinth 
will recall a single house on the west side of the road embow-. 
ered in trees, being, by this fact alone, a conspicuous landmark. 
The fagade lay almost wholly under the garden surrounding 
this house, and several of the trees had to be sacrificed. 

We discovered the existence of the fountain house by 
descending a well in this garden, about 25 feet deep. We 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 204 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 2. 



PIRENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 205 

found that it was no well, properly speaking, but a shaft down 
to a stream of water which supplies the fountain at the village 
square. This stream issued from an aqueduct of round tiles. 
Following this aqueduct upwards, we passed immediately 
between walls upon which rested a stratum of natural rock, so 
that what we passed through seemed to be half cave and half 
chamber. At a distance of about 8 feet from the shaft through 
which we descended, we came into a rock-cut passage about 
1 m. broad, running at right angles to our course up to that 
point. The tile aqueduct, entering it on its upward course, here 
turned at a right angle from south to west. The passage, like 
the chamber, had the hard rock stratum for its top, although it 
was hewn in softer rock below. (For the scheme of the water- 
courses here described see Fig. I. 1 ) 

Following this passage, we passed along the backs of four 
chambers similar to that through which we had made our 
entrance. We could not see their fronts because they were 
still nearly filled by the superincumbent earth which had 
pressed in from that direction, and choked them. "But we 
were able to look into them, and to crawl in far enough to see 
that they had backs composed of an Ionic column midway 
between the side walls, and an entablature of the same order 
running from wall to wall. At the end of the series of cham- 
bers, the passage in their rear, which we were following, was 
narrowed by two antae, one projecting from the back end of 
the last cross wall, and the other springing out from the oppo- 
site side of the passage to meet it. Passing between these, we 
came into an irregular quadrilateral space with a door to the 
front. Through the back side, the rock-hewn channel took 
another turn at an obtuse angle toward the south, with a little 
westerly inclination. Almost at its beginning, it was crossed 
by a dam apparently of very modern date, made, probably, when 
the tile aqueduct was substituted for an open flow of water. 

1 The drawings from which Figs. 1-6 and 9 have been engraved were made 
by Dr. Arthur Fairbanks ; the 'ground plan (Fig. 10) was drawn by Mr. 
Benjamin Powell, Jr. 



PIEENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 207 

Held by the dam was a long reservoir about 2 m. broad, which, 
at a distance of 50 m. from the dam, is superseded by a simple 
passage about 0.75 m. wide, which, at the risk of stirring up 
the water supply of the village, we traced back to a distance 
114 m. from the dam to a shaft going up to the surface, and 
serving as a well for the house of Constantinos Giamborani, in 
which we were then lodging. The water came in some places 
so near the top of the passage that those who explored the last 
30 m. had barely space to keep their heads above water for 
.taking breath. On account of such difficulties, we abandoned 
the further investigation of this passage ; but we had already 
traced it well on its way toward Aero- Corinth, which is 
doubtless the source of the water. 1 

We also turned eastward from the chamber through which 
we had entered, and ascertained that the passage behind it con- 
tinued in this direction only a short distance^ passing a single 
chamber, which completed a series of six in all. Past the east 
end of this series flowed another stream of water coming down 
from the south in another rock-cut channel, which we traced 
backwards about 100 m., until we came to a shaft once used as 
a well, but now filled up. Between this passage and the other 
one, which diverges gradually from it, are two cross passages, 
partly stopped with mud, which once formed a part of a laby- 
rinth of water channels, facilitating the distribution and circu- 
lation of water in the rear of our fagade. The water which 
now flows in this second arm passes along just outside the east 
end of the fagade, and, flowing in a direction nearly parallel to 
that taken by the other stream on leaving the fagade, issues in 
the fountain, much frequented by washerwomen, in the village, 
by the ruins of the large Roman building, probably a bath, a 
little below the square. Both streams flow through passages 
of very rough masonry, through which one may crawl up to the 
very points where the water is delivered. There is no question 
that all the water brought down in the whole system of rock- 
cut channels, was, in antiquity, delivered into the series of 

1 Cf. Pans. II, 5, 1. 



208 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

chambers. 1 The ground plan (Fig. 2) will make the arrange- 
ment of the channels and fagade clear. 

It may well be believed that this elaborate preparation for 
delivering water at a point now from 20 to 25 feet under- 
ground made us feel that instead of proceeding in a slow way 
to find the Agora, however near at hand it might be (and this 
was, at the time, the main object of our search), it would be 
well to concentrate our efforts on excavating this facade, to see 
what it would look like when exposed to the light of day. 
More than this, I felt, when I had once fairly seen the cham- 
bers, with their walls of masonry and their tops of native rock, 
that we could have nothing else before us than that Pirene 
which Pausanias describes as a ' series of chambers which had 
the likeness of caves ' (/cat TreTronj/jieva ecrrlv ol/cij/jLara crTT^Xatot? 
Kara raura, Pans. II, 3, 3). To no one of the other fountains 
of Corinth which Pausanias describes, does he attribute any- 
thing like this, and to make the identification absolutely sure it 
only remained to find the marble adornment which he ascribes 
to Pirene (ice/coo- ^rai be 77 Trijyr) \i6q> Xev/cw, ibid.^). While 
the identification seemed practically complete without this, 
there would have been room for dispute ; but this, as we shall 
see, came in good time, and everything fitted the description 
of Pausanias exactly. Figure 11 (page 230) gives a view of 
the fagade in its present condition. 2 

We were able to distinguish three periods in the construc- 
tion of the facade. 

I. The first adjustment was very simple (see Fig. 3). At 
the edge of a stratum of conglomerate rock a little over a 
metre in thickness, such as appears all along the edges of the 
two terraces on which lay ancient Corinth, and on which still 

1 Our own eyes tell us that the tile aqueduct cannot be very old ; yet there 
has been such a break in the traditions of the place since the earthquake of 1859 
that nobody appeared able to give us any trustworthy information regarding the 
sinking of the wells above mentioned. Our landlord, Constantinos Giamborani, 
for example, was greatly surprised when he ascertained from us the nature of his 
water supply. 

2 [After the excavations of 1899. ED.] 



210 



RTTFUS B. RICHAEDSON 



stands the modern vil- 
lage, the clay forma- 
tion under it, hard 
enough to pass as 
rock by courtesy, was 
cut back about two 
metres and a half, 
and cross walls of 
poros stone were put 
in to support the 
crust, while a pas- 
sage was left along 
the back ends of the 
walls to form a course 
for the water, which 
came in from the 
right and left. The 
walls ended at the 
front in very modest 
antae, formed by 
broadening them 
somewhat less than 
a centimetre (0.008 
m.), beginning at a 
point 0.43 m. back. 
At the very top is a 
band only 0.16 m. 
broad, with a projec- 
tion of only 0.003 m. 
The walls bear in 
some places a very 
fine stucco of a pur- 
plish color. Between 
these walls at their 
rear ends runs a para- 
pet 0.50 m. high, on 



P IRENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 211 

which stand Ionic columns. At the front is another series of 
parapets considerably higher (1.32 m.). But these, in their 
present form at least, can have no claim to be considered so old 
as the first construction of the system, inasmuch as they are 
rough masses of clay mortar at the top. The space between 
walls and parapets, with the rear parapet carrying an Ionic 
fagade, so to speak, is converted into a chamber (ofcq/Aa), or in 
another aspect into a reservoir. The one which we cleared out 
had a cement bottom, and had holes irregularly broken through 
the front and rear parapets. It seems from this roughness as if 
these holes must have been an afterthought, and that the water 
must originally have flowed over the top of the rear parapet 
into the reservoir-chamber, from which, in the time of Pausanias 
at least, it was conducted into a big basin (TO vBwp e? tcprjvijv 
viraiOpov pel, Pans. I.e.). 

The edge of the rough conglomerate stratum was apparently 
not covered in any way. This, however, might contribute to 
that appearance of natural caves which in a fountain would be 
not unattractive. The Ionic architecture at the rear is so much 
more showy than the rest of the construction that it suggests 
the question whether this may not have been a later addition. 
Without this the structure was simplicity itself. But even 
if it is later, it is an addition rather than a reconstruction. 
The columns are slender, 0.15 in. in diameter, 1.57 m. in 
height, including base and capital. A reproduction of this Ionic 
column, and of the entablature, is given in Fig. 4 ; the details 
of the crowning mouldings of the antae are given in Fig. 5. 
The entablature of the fourth 1 chamber has not so great a 
height as the others. In several there is an appearance of a 
slit in the column and the walls, which perhaps points to the 
insertion of plaques at a time when the ugliness of the passage 
in the rear may have been felt. But the existence of such 
plaques is not quite certain. I believe this first fountain 

1 The chambers in this description are numbered from right to left, because 
that was the order in which we uncovered them, the last two not having yet 
been excavated. This numbering also follows the present flow of the water. 



212 



. RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 



facade, including the Ionic architecture, was of Hellenic times, 
and so belonged to the Corinth that was destroyed by Mummius. 



FIGURE 4. PJRENE : IONIC ORDER AT BACK OP CHAMBER. 

II. The next form of the fagade was more pretentious (see 
Fig. 6). It consisted of a two-story front of poros stone, with 
arches in front of the chambers, and of unfluted Doric half- 
columns between them, for the lower story. The structure of 



PIRENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 



213 



the upper story, on the other hand, cannot be definitely made 
out, except that a series of minuted half-columns continued 
the Doric half-columns of the lower story. These latter, to 
judge by the faces, were probably Ionic, and we may suppose 
that the change of order would lend variet}^. The upper story 
was closed, as is shown by three carefully smoothed orthostatae 
here remaining in situ. The arches suggest that this recon- 
struction was of Roman 
times, and perhaps it be- 
longed to the first rebuild- 
ing of the city by Julius 
Caesar. The more mod- 
est arrangement was not 
sufficiently imposing for 
Roman taste. Corinth 
was to be not a simple 
town among many in a 
neglected province, but 
the head of Achaea. The 
plain antae of the earlier 
building were entirely 
covered up, the half- 
columns of the new. 
fagade standing directly 
in front of them. A 
good deal of the rock 
stratum was now hidden, 
although no attempt was 
made to conceal so much of it as appeared in the upper part 
of the arches. Nevertheless, traces of lime mortar do appear 
in the ceiling of the chambers, and perhaps this little touch 
of nature may have pleased even Roman taste. It seems the 
sort of thing that one would like to retain for a fountain, 
or to simulate if it was not afforded by nature. 

But even this somewhat showy front did not long suffice. 
An age came when marble was the rage. Herodes Atticus 



FIGURE 5. DETAIL OF MOULDINGS. 



PIEENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 215 

clothed the vast Athenian Stadium with marble. The famous 
fountain Pirene could not appear in such poor attire as poros 
stone. A cheap way to get the desired magnificence was to 
cover what one already had with a revetment of marble, and 
this was done. Although not a single piece of marble was 
found clinging to the poros stone, its former presence is at- 
tested by three considerations: 

1. The face of the stone building bears plainly enough the 
marks of having been dressed for the application of the mar- 
ble. The half -columns have their fronts hewn off very roughly. 
The architrave above them is hacked off still more unmerci- 
fully, whereas its under side, in that part which is still left 
projecting, shows a most carefully wrought surface. 

2. There are holes on the faces of the poros stone blocks for 
attaching the marble. That these, though somewhat scanty, 
are adequate for the purpose is shown by the case of a semi- 
circular building near by, where the holes are just as rare ; but 
here the presence of the revetment is attested by several pieces 
of marble still clinging to the wall, partly by the help of mortar. 

3. A great quantity of fragments of marble slabs, of thick- 
ness varying from 0.025 m. to 0.050 m., was found in the 
earth which we removed from the immediate vicinity of the 
facade. A thicker revetment may have been applied to 
the lower story, and a thinner one to the second. Along the 
face of the above-mentioned orthostatae is a regular line of 
small holes which might well have held supports for light 
plaques, but which would hardly suffice for heavy ones. In 
place of the half-columns in the fagade thus transformed there 
probably appeared marble pilasters, the architect, if so we may 
call him, not taking the pains to fit circular pieces around the 
half-columns. 

On one of the thinner marble fragments found close against 
the fagade were parts of two lines of a Latin inscription. The 
letters of the upper line afford nothing intelligible, but the 
lower line gives PI KIT. No one will, I think, take exception 
to reading PIRENE. The fourth letter is the only one which 



216 BUFU8 B. RICHARDSON 

is in doubt, but, on account of the wide spacing between it and 
the next letter, it can hardly be an I, although it looks like 
one. An epigraphist, had the space here been blank, would 
have supplied an E rather, and to 'support the reading E here 
there appears on the much worn face of the stone a little spot 
which seems to be the end of the upper transverse bar of that 
letter. Interesting as this mention of Pirene is, our case is so 
strong that it would be damaged by attempting to make this a 
second pillar on which to rest our identification. We shall 
make it at most an interesting corroboration. When we looked 
at the chambers from the inside we only waited to find traces 
of the marble mentioned by Pausanias before declaring to the 
world that we had found Pirene, although our own conviction 
was clear enough already. But when that also appeared, the 
absolute coincidence of the structure with Pausanias's descrip- 
tion was so exact that there was no room for doubt. This 
second restoration, then, with its revetment added, is the mar- 
ble magnificence which Pausanias saw and admired. 

Adjoining the fagade at its west end, and thrown forward 
from it, is a parasceiiium-like wing, not yet entirely excavated. 
The depth of the structure from front to rear is 3.30 m., but 
its lateral extent is not yet ascertained. The rear wall is of 
fine Hellenic masonry, and is set back about a foot farther than 
the line of the facade with arches, the conglomerate stratum 
being bare, hewn back just so much farther. Its face is ac- 
cordingly in line with the faces of the antae of the chambers 
of the first construction. The rest of the parascenium belongs 
to the second construction. Its east wall, which has the same 
half-column construction in two stories, runs up against the 
good Hellenic wall at the back of the parascenium, without; 
having any organic connection with it. The entrance into this 
parascenium was a door in its east face. Subsequently a hole 
had been broken through the front (i.e. tfie north side), which 
we, in our ignorance, made larger in our first approach to the 
fagade, since we found this rather ruinous wall an impediment 
in our way to the line which we were seeking. 






PI RENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 217 

Iii our underground exploration we could not ascertain 
whether there was ever a parasceuium at the other end of the 
line also, an arrangement which considerations of symmetry 
seem to demand. Our impressions were against its existence, 
but the earth must be removed before a definite conclusion can 
be reached. In this quarter our work had to cease when it was 
approaching completion. The fagade lay, as has been remarked, 
under a garden. Since this had not been expropriated by the 
government, I bought, at private sale, to gain time, land 
enough, according to our measurements, to allow us to uncover 
the whole line ; but when we had uncovered five of the cham- 
bers, and were just letting daylight into the sixth and last, it 
became evident that the mass of earth to the east, 7.6 m. high, 
was dangerous. The earth was soft and black, and needed a 
great scarp to prevent it from falling. This character of the 
earth we had not taken into our calculations. Our funds 
were not sufficient to allow us to purchase at the proprietor's 
rates the land necessary for clearing out the sixth chamber and 
a possible parascenium beyond it, and to pay for the several 
weeks' work involved in the operation. We accordingly con- 
fined ourselves to making everything safe against winter rains, 
and deferred the completion of our work till the following 
year. We also deferred digging down deep in front of the 
fagade to find traces of Pausanias's /cptfvr), inasmuch as it was 
inadvisable to dig a hole which would allow the water to set 
back in the winter and contaminate the water supply of the 
village. 

In the meantime, we had laid bare a semicircular building 
directly in front of Pirene and apparently joined to it by two 
walls, so that there here results a quadrangular space or 
court about the fountain. The semicircular building seems, 
therefore, to have formed a part of Pirene itself after the mak- 
ing of these walls, although one might suspect it to be the 
Peribolos of Apollo (Pans. I.e.). See Figs. 7 and 8. 

III. At some time which it would, perhaps, be rash to deter- 
mine any more exactly than may be done by calling it Byz- 



218 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 



antine, the facade underwent another reconstruction which 
amounted to a re-creation. In front of the half-columns of the 
fagade already described, at a distance of about 1.50 in., 1 were 
set up unfluted Corinthian columns. Running back from these 
columns to the fagade, and roughly let into it by hewing away 



No* t*i 




FIGURE 7. QUADRANGLE BEFORE PIRENE, AS EXCAVATED IN 1898. 

the half-columns of the second story at the proper height, 
were architrave blocks. (See Fig. 9.) The whole arrangement 
reminds one of the fagade of the Gymnasium of Hadrian at 
Athens, but the work is as slovenly as possible. The columns 

1 The distances are, now at least, unequal. The column between chambers 
3 and 4 is 1.37 in., that between 4 and 5 only 1.20 m., from the poros fagade. It 
is true that the latter, in the neighborhood of chamber 5, bulges out a good deal 
either on account of earthquakes or the pressure of the earth. 



P IRENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 



219 



.and capitals are of different sizes and of different material, and 
so evidently taken from some other buildings. The bases, also 
of different sizes, rest on no other foundation than a pavement 
of thin marble slabs, which has an appearance of being so late 
that we intend this year to break some of it up to go down 
deeper in search of Pausanias's /cptjvrj. The most interesting 
feature of the system is the architrave blocks, which had clearly 
served as parts of an Ionic or Corinthian architrave in some 




FIGURE 8. PIRENE : SEMICIRCULAR BUILDING IN FRONT OF PIRENE. 

good building. They have been very badly treated for their 
present application ; besides being hewn down on one of the 
long sides, the ends intended for the front have been bevelled 
011 the under side in the roughest manner, and a conventional 
palm branch cut on them in such a way as to show well from 
below. 1 In its new use the block was turned upside down, 



1 The block is of this shape, and 
of the dimensions here given. Width 
at the top, 0.43 m. 



2.30 m. 



0.11 in. 



i.yu 



220 



EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 




probably because it 
thus rested on its 
broadest face. A 
block not hewn for 
this new use lies- 
just adjacent to the 
east wall of the 
semicircular build- 
ing; but it is so 
broken that its 
original length can- 
not be ascertained. 

Although we 
found but two col- 
umns standing, 
there could be* lit- 
tle doubt that there 
were once as many 
as there are half- 
columns, or one be- 
tween each of the 
arches ; and what 
little doubt there 
might be is removed 
by the discovery of 
two more bases at 
the proper places,, 
between the first 
and second arches, 
and also between 
the second and the 
third. We shall, 
then, probably find 
the fifth also in its 
proper place. If 
this clumsy, but 



PIEENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 221 

somewhat ambitious, reconstruction did not stop short of a 
second story, we may suppose it to have carried at the top the 
marble cornice blocks with dentils and lion's heads of poor 
workmanship, a half dozen of which we found near the surface, 
about 62 m. to the northwest. Even in that case, the project- 
ing architrave blocks may have supported statues, a use pro- 
posed for the separate columns of Hadrian's Gymnasium Porch 
at Athens. 

A small Byzantine church was built up against the west end 
of the fagade, and took the east wall of the parascenium for 
its west wall, and the door in that wall for its entrance. 
As the church extended eastward to the half-column between 
the second and third arches, it is clear that the two most 
westerly columns came down when the church was built. It 
was fortunate that the bases were left lying, to be found by 
us inside the church and under the wall of the apse. The hole 
in the north Avail of the parascenium may have been broken at 
that time to make the access to the church. That the church 
was not one of very primitive times, in spite of its great depth, 
is shown by its coming after this third fagade. Supposing this 
last reconstruction of the fagade to belong to the times of 
Justinian, to propose a time of some prosperity for the build- 
ing, we might put the church as late as 1000 A.D. The filling 
up of this valley with mud is, then, an affair of comparatively 
recent times. The church may have held its own against it 
until Turkish times. After the church had stopped up two of 
the chambers, water appears to have been drawn a good deal 
from some of the others ; the fourth, for example, has, to com- 
plete its front parapet, a marble column which, in one part, has 
been worn 0.10 m. deep by a rope or something of the sort. 
But in time the earth found its proper level, and covere^. the 
church and what was left of the fagade, but not before an 
attempt was made to fight against a strong pressure from 
above. The fourth column, the only one which still carries its 
architrave, has had its capital shoved forward, and, to keep the 
whole from yielding to the pressure, a wall was built to sup- 



222 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

port it in front. This pressure from above may have been 
increased by the fall of a building in that quarter, possibly a 
building to which the second story of the fagade served as a 
front wall. In the debris which came down out of the earth 
over the fifth chamber was a large poros block over 2 m long 
and about 1 m. wide ; l and a similar block was found at a 
lower level in front of the fagade. 

Besides the three constructions which we have described, the 
earliest of which is certainly of Hellenic times, there appears 
to have been on this very spot another arrangement for deliv- 
ering water, antedating this considerably. We have thus far 
noticed nothing which points to a time earlier than the laying 
out of the two water channels with their ramifications. But 
in the course of our work we came by accident upon a passage 
which once delivered water at a much lower level. When we 
had replaced the fragile tile pipe with an iron one, we wished 
to give it a solid support in its course along the passage in the 
rear of the chambers, and so began to clear away the mud 
there accumulated, in order to build up supports from a rock 
bottom, and at the same time to ascertain the depth of the 
channel. In trying to get such a bottom for a support back 
of the division between the second and third chambers, we 
found, to our surprise, the top of an arch reaching not quite up 
to the level of the bases of the small Ionic columns. When 
the mud grew softer here, and water began to flow out of the 
arch, we sounded in front of it with a long slender iron rod, 
and found that it ran down 2.52 m. from the top of the arch. 
After removing enough earth to allow Mr. Dickerman to crawl 
in to a distance of ten metres, and observe its careful work- 
manship and take measurements, 2 we filled it up again, because 
the water ran in something of a stream, and we feared lest by 
encouraging this outlet we should tap the reservoir, and cut off 
the water from the village. This channel, more than 2.45 m. 

1 Length, 2.02 m. ; width, 0.92 m. ; thickness, 0.59 m. 

2 Height of the curved part of the arch, 0.52 m. ; total height of the passage, 
as ascertained by sounding, 2.52 in. : breadth of the passage, 1.915 m. 



- 
P1EENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1800 1>23 

high, and more than 1.85 in. broad, while not exactly a Cloaca 
Maxima in proportions, is certainly something that inspires re- 
spect, and, considering the much lower level at which it deliv- 
ered water, we seem compelled, in case we have dated the other 
systems correctly, to ascribe this to a very remote time, per- 
haps to think of it as a work of Periander. In that case 
Pisistratus, in constructing his Enneacrunus system, was fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of another tyrant, who recognized, as 
well as he, how much a people values good and abundant 
water. This, then, was the Pirene of Pindar l and Simonides, 2 
as well as of Herodotus 3 and Euripides. 4 Shall we ever know 
more of the chronology of these water works ? Would that 
they had been left as dry as those of Pisistratus. Yet with 
all the difficulties and expense entailed by the fact that we are 
working on the line of the water supply of an existing village, 
which we can almost wish had not outlived the earthquake of 
1859, we still hope to make the excavation of Pirene complete 
in the next campaign. 

But even now the mere identification has an importance 
independent of the fame and magnificence of the fountain, 
which remains even if the chronology proposed is all wrong. 
This identification locates the Agora within very narrow limits ; 
and with the Agora once fixed one can draw a map of Corinth 
according to Pausanias. In working up the valley east of the 
Old Temple we were seeking primarily the Agora, in order to 
liave this point of departure for future work. But in locat- 
ing Pirene we have located the Agora. Pausanias (II, 3, 2) 
first takes us out of the. Agora by passing under the Propylaea 
through which goes the road to Lechaeum. He first notices a 
4 bronze Heracles at a considerable distance to the right as 
you go out, 5 and after this is the entrance to Pirene.' And 

1 Find. 01. xiil, 61. 3 Herod. V, 92. 

2 Bergk, Lyrici Graeci, no. 96. 4 Eur. Med. 69. 

5 The usual text, to be sure, gives tviowiv, but Hitzig in Fleckeisen's Jahr- 
bucher, 1888, p. 50, long ago corrected this to <?toC<ru>, a reading endorsed by 
Frazer in his translation of Pausanias, and in his critical notes on the passage. 
Who could suppose that Pausanias, on starting for Lechaeum, the very moment 



224 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

now we have by means of excavations been made wiser than 
we were a year ago, .for we have found the ' straight road to 
Lechaeum' (Pans. II, 3, 4). The broad pavement of white 
limestone, with watercourses on each side of it, mentioned in 
the Report of excavations in 1896, 1 has now turned out to 
be a long thoroughfare leading exactly in the direction of 
Lechaeum, as we have proved by excavating in three places 
farther north, and finding the same pavement each time. We 
have a third of a mile of it, and the last point is pretty near 
the lower edge of the lower terrace of the city. In following 
the pavement up in the other direction we found it soon 
reaching the foot of a broad marble staircase, thirty-eight 
steps of which we have already excavated. We have almost 
reached the point where the valley ends, and an extended area 
with only the gentlest rise toward the south succeeds. That 
we shall here find the Agora is not yet certain, because we are 
not sure of the distances ; but we may claim to know the 
direction. To resolve any possible doubts as to this thorough- 
fare being the road to Lechaeum, it is now seen to pass hard 
by the baths of either Hadrian 2 or Eurycles, both of which 
Pausanias mentions as he passes along this road. 3 And here, 
in spite of much mythological intercalation, he is enumerating 
the monuments along the road as regularly as he does when he 
immediately afterwards takes us along the road to Sicyon. 

Now, if this paved way is the road to Lechaeum (and how 
natural it was that such a splendid road should get a name 

he got outside the gate should turn around and note the position of objects 
facing about the other way ? The confusion of Is and #f, of such frequent occur- 
rence in manuscripts, is in this place much more likely than such a supposition. 
The same doubt about els and i occurs where Pausanias leaves the Athenian 
acropolis and speaks of the Chalcidian monument. In his notation he probably 
proceeds straight on, just as he does when he takes the road to Sicyon. 

1 Fifteenth Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1895-96, p. 35, and Am. J. Arch., Second 
Series, I (1897), p. 462. 

2 Am. J. Arch., Second Series, I (1897), pp. 495-506, PI. xxvi. 

3 I do not understand Pausanias to refer to two roads leading from the 
Agora to Lechaeum, as Skias does; UpaKriKa rijs ' ApicaioXoyiKTJs 'Eraiplas, 1892, 
p. 112 ff. Frazer, Pausanias, II, p. 23, agrees with me. 



PIRENE BEFORE THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 225 

that was a quasi-proper name, 'the straight road to Le- 
chaeum,' like the street called "Straight" in Damascus), and 
if the staircase leads up to the Agora, we should have to put 
Pirene just where we have found it. But that is not the 
proper order of argumentation. The position of Pirene is 
fixed, and therefore the road that we have found is the road 
to Lechaeuin, because our knowledge of Pirene sends us to 
that very place to look for it. The fact that each is in just 
the right place to fit the other gives strength to the case. It 
is now a question of a few yards more or less just where we 
shall enter the Agora. In fact, I should not be surprised if 
we had already been digging in it, perhaps in two places, viz. 
in Trench XVI in 1896, 1 where a triple concrete pavement was 
noted ; and this year somewhat farther south, where we proved 
the existence of a wall over a hundred and fifty feet long, 
which may prove to be the foundation of a porch bordering 
the Agora on its upper (south) side. It is true that we have 
not yet the Agora as a fact to reckon with ; but in this region, 
where the earth is somewhat less deep than in the valley, we 
shall soon reach the truth. 

Still another result of great importance follows in the train 
of the discovery of Pirene, and the consequent locating of the 
Agora. Pausanias, having finished the road leading from the 
Agora through the city in the direction of Lechaeum, takes a 
new start and proceeds from the Agora out toward Sicyon, and 
now the first object which he mentions is the temple of Apollo 
on the right of the road. And lo ! on leaving the Agora, as we 
now know it, with all allowances made for the admitted uncer- 
tainties, we pass the venerable ruin so long celebrated as the 
" Temple of Corinth." Dorpfeld, writing in 1886 2 of the 
results of his investigation of this temple and of the question 
of its name, says : " Wir sind also wie friiher auf des Pausa- 
nias Beschreibung der Stadt angewiesen, und obwohl diese 
besonders klar und ubersichtlich ist, scheint es mir unmoglich 

1 Am. J. Arch., Second Series, I (1897), p. 478. 

2 Ath. Mitt. XI, p. 305. 



226 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

unsern Bau mit einem der bei Pausanias genannten Tempel 
sicher zu identificiren. " This was true so long as no point in 
the topography of Corinth was fixed. But now that we know 
the position of Pirene (and so, approximately, that of the 
Agora) on the one hand, and the theatre on the other, this tem- 
ple is held like Proteus in the grip of Menelaus, and is forced 
to give up its secret. Even in 1896, as a result of our first 
campaign, I suggested that this temple might be that of Apollo, 1 
and repeated the suggestion somewhat more confidently in my 
fuller account of the work of that year. 2 It now seems to me 
that the location of the other monuments enumerated warrants 
dropping the hypothetical form, and asserting that this is the 
temple of Apollo, which was, at least, as old as Periander. 3 
We have thus accomplished a good deal in the purely tenta- 
tive work of our first campaign, and in the campaign of 1898 
which gave us Pirene. Before this, all was confessedly grop- 
ing. So enlightened a topographer as Frazer, 4 as late as 1898, 
could put Pirene at the place popularly called the " Bath of 
Aphrodite," which lies outside the north wall of the city 
towards Lechaeum, forgetting both that Pausanias puts Pirene 
near the Agora, and that he passes a long series of important 
objects between Pirene and the city wall. The period of grop- 
ing is ended ; by securing a fixed point, we know more of the 
topography of Corinth than all the great guessers of the past. 

ATHENS, 

February 9, 1899. 



II. AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIOXS OF 1899 

AT the close of the campaign of 1898 nearly all the informa- 
tion attainable in regard to Pirene seemed to have been already 
secured. The two easternmost of the six chambers were, it is 

1 Fifteenth Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens, p. 35. 

2 Am. ,7. Arch., Second Series, I (1897), p. 464. 

3 Herod. Ill, 52. * Frazer, Pausanias, II, p. 24. 



PIEENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 227 

true, still covered with earth ; but there was no doubt as to 
their construction, since they had been entered from the rear 
and thoroughly examined. We had also nearly cleared a great 
quadrangle in front of the fagade, with a large apse on the side 
opposite that facade. The immense significance of Pirene as 
furnishing the key to the topography of Corinth was already 
apparent without further excavation. Indeed, this result was 
secured as soon as we had identified the fountain with Pausa- 
nias's Pirene, even when it still lay under twenty-five feet of 
earth. The total effect and general impressiveness of the 
splendid fountain fagade also seemed almost complete with- 
out further work. 

The campaign of 1899, as far as Pirene was concerned, had 
for its object to make a finished piece of work, such as is always 
a delight to the eyes. The alluring part of the campaign was 
the pressing on toward the Agora, which we knew to be near at 
hand. But the path of duty, if it did not exactly prove to 
be the way to glory, did at least lead to some unexpected and 
satisfactory results, which are worthy to be described, since 
without such a description the foregoing account of Pirene 
before the excavations of 1899 would be far from complete. 
In that account the fagade of Pirene, as it appeared in 1898, 
formed one side of a quadrangle, the opposite (parallel) side 
being made up, not of a continuous wall, but mostly of an apse 
and two entrances to the quadrangle, on either side of the apse. 
The other two sides appeared to be plain walls. 

Figure 10, from a drawing by Mr. Powell, gives the ground 
plan of the quadrangle, and Fig. 11 gives the appearance of 
the fagade of Pirene, now entirely excavated. The clearing 
of the quadrangle showed apses on the east and west sides, of 
dimensions similar to those on the north side. Each of the 
three apses has three niches, of about 3 m. in height, 1.50 m. 
in breadth, and 0.50 m. in depth. All start from a height of 
about 1 m. from the floor of the apse. The apses are identical 
in every respect. Their ground plan is a semicircle prolonged 
in tangents. The centre from which they are described is 



228 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 




P IRENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 229 

1.35 m. back of the front. Their total depth is 5.15 m. 
Closing the apses to the front is a parapet, 0.50 m. thick 
and 0.35 m. high, made of betoii and cased with marble. 
The walls of the eastern and western apses are preserved to 
a height of over 5 m. ; those of the northern apse are only a 
little lower. The apses show traces of marble revetment, not 
only in the holes in the stones of the upper courses, but in 
the pieces of the marble slabs sticking fast in the mortar at the 
bottom. In the northern one alone there are remains of red 
stucco, which once apparently covered the whole wall, before 
the marble revetment was applied. 

The quadrangle is, with one exception, a perfect square. 
The east side inclines inward, as it approaches the facade of 
Pirene, so much that, while the north side of the quadrangle 
measures 15.45 m., the fagacle of Pirene is only 14.65 m. The 
only explanation which I have to offer for this irregularity 
viz. that to the east of Pirene the hard rock stratum which 
formed the top of the chambers came more to the front, and 
would have made a good deal of cutting necessary seems 
inadequate. Exactly in the middle of the square is a circular 
basin, 6.15 m. in diameter and 1.25 m. deep, the wall of which 
is made by a series of poros blocks placed on end. Back of 
this wall the area of the quadrangle is rilled, up to the level 
of the top of the basin, with earth and mortar, covered with a 
marble flooring. That water from Pirene once filled this basin 
is hardly doubtful ; not only because it is otherwise difficult to 
see any reason for its existence, but also because in its floor of 
hard limestone, like that forming the road to Lechaeum (Am. J. 
Arch., Second Series, I [1897], pi. xvi) there is a sort of gutter 
passing through it a little to the west of its centre, which might 
have served as both deliver}*- pipe and discharge pipe. It is a 
fact that when we cleared out the basin and poured the water 
which collected in it into the chambers of Pirene, it flowed 
gently back through this groove Since between the basin and 
the north apse, beneath the marble flooring, there is a deep 
and broad canal running east and west, the discharge may have 



230 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 




PIRENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 231 

been made into this. One would suppose that there must 
always have been some difficulty in keeping the little groove 
clear. 

The two entrances on the north side were by flights of 
steps, 1.50 m. in breadth. The eastern flight only is pre- 
served. The steps are of marble, and are arranged in two 
groups, the lower one of five steps, 0.15 m. high and 
0.29 m. broad, and the upper one of four steps, of the same 
dimensions, 1 separated by a step of the same height, but 1 m. 
broad. In the western entrance (seen in Fig. 12), while the 
staircase, all but the lowest step, has been removed to make 
place for a late grave, which extended eastward through the 
side of the passage and the wall of the apse, and was vaulted 
over with brick to support the upper part of the walls, now in 
danger of falling, we yet have features which supplement 
what is lacking in the eastern entrance. We have not only 
the whole height of the entrance, with the lintel in place 
(see Figs. 12 and 13), but in each side wall we have a cutting 
(see Fig. 13), descending obliquely, with a slope equal to that 
of the staircase in the eastern entrance. This seems to point to 
a vault thrown across the passage, the roof of which descended 
as the steps descended. Since one lintel block which now 
remains in situ is cracked in the centre, one might suppose 
the vault to have been inserted to support it. But it seems 
quite as likely that the crack in the lintel may have occurred in 
consequence of the removal of this vault, which was an original 
part of the system, and so duplicated at the eastern entrance 
also. In fact, now that the western entrance has taught us to 
look for it, there is just enough of a similar cutting preserved 
on the west wall of the eastern entrance to prove the existence 
of the vault here also. The cuttings, at their lower extremi- 
ties, are not prolonged to the very end of the passage, but stop 
about 0.50 m. short of it, doubtless that the vault might not 
slide downward by its own weight. 

How high the walls of the quadrangle were originally carried 

1 The middle step has been removed. 



232 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 




PIRENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 233 

up, it is impossible to say. It is not unlikely that they had the 
same height as the second story of the Pirene fagade. The 
apses probably had some sort of covering, not only to protect 
the statues which were presumably in the niches, but, what 
was perhaps more important, to protect the people frequent- 




FIGURE 13. OUTSIDE THE WEST ENTRANCE TO PIRENE. 

ing the attractive place from sun and rain. Since the span at 
the front was rather long (7.60 m.), an architrave block would 
have required the support of a column in the middle ; but the 
thin revetment of marble over the betoii parapet could hardly 
have supported such a column, and the covering, if it existed, 
was probably a half -dome. 



234 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

Near the west end of the facade of Pirene is a large room, a 
sort of parascenium, from which there was access to the water 
flowing along in the rear of the chambers. At the east end is 
a smaller one. The southern prolongation of its east wall was 
prompted by the need of support for the covering stratum of 
conglomerate, which is here especially crumbly. 

This great square of over fifty feet to each side, with its coat- 
ing of marble, and the great water basin in the middle, the 
apses, with their niches filled with statues, and, on the south 
side, the showy fagade of Pirene, from which flowed the water 
which formed the attraction of the place, must have been a 
very impressive affair. 

The round basin seemed the one thing which was lacking, in 
1898, to complete the correspondence of the remains of Pirene 
with the description of Pausanias, who says that 4 the water 
flowed out from a series of chambers which resembled caves 
into a basin under the open sky.' The temptation to identify 
the round basin with this /cpi^vTj vircudpos is too great to be 
easily resisted ; and yet, perhaps, it must be resisted. The 
present marble floor of the quadrangle is suspiciously shabby. 
The slabs are thin, and the joints irregular. In one case an 
architrave block has been utilized as a paving stone. The 
white limestone pavement, 1.25 m. lower, looks more like an 
ancient level. One would expect, from the description of 
Pausanias, a long quadrangular basin extending the whole 
length of the fagacle, close up against it, and receiving the 
water through lion's-head spouts, an arrangement like that 
seen in the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia. 1 If there 
were a basin of this kind here, the groove in the white lime- 
stone pavement would be a surface canal for carrying away the 
surplus water. The great reason for positing another basin, at 
a greater depth than the present one, is that only so do we 
get anything like the usual fall for the water, which could, 
perhaps, only thus be said by Pausanias to flow (pet) out of the 
chambers into a basin. 

1 Ausgrabungen zu Olympia, III, Taf. xxxvii. 



P IRENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 235 

Reluctance to disturb what appeared to be an organic unity 
led us to refrain from breaking up the round basin and the 
marble floor around it, in order to lay bare the limestone pave- 
ment below. An attempt to dig lower along the facade was 
frustrated by the very hard beton which was found there. 
Even if we persevered, we might get no reward of our labor ; 
for the basin may have been thoroughly broken up, and re- 
moved, when the present one was constructed. Little support 
for its existence can be got from the rude breaks in the front 
parapets of the three chambers to the west, which we cleared out 
to their bottoms, at a depth of 1.50 m. These breaks appear, 
as seen from the inside, too rude to have served for the affix- 
ion of lions' heads. But these parapets, also, may have been 
remade. 

There is one consideration which might lead us to see in the 
present basin that of Pausanias. There was found, perhaps 
not in situ, but lying on the marble floor, halfway between 
the basin and the front of the eastern apse, a base on which 
once stood a statue of Regilla, the wife of Herodes Atticus. 
An inscription on this base reads thus (see Fig. 14) : 

vcfriris /3ov\r)$ Trapa 
v //' ecrojoa? eircova ac 

It may be assumed that this statue was set up before the death 
of Regilla, which was about 160 A.D., 2 while the Second Book 
of Pausanias was composed after 165 A.D. 3 The contents of 
the inscription seem to show that the base had not been moved 
far from its original place. One might jump to the conclusion 
that the marble floor on which the base rests must, then, be 
older than Pausanias's description. But even if the marble 
flooring is later than the description, the statue might still 
have been displaced and set up again at the higher level. 
This would not be so difficult nor so improbable as to con- 



1 The letters Y. B. below the inscription show that the /SoiA-tf voted 

the erection of the statue ; the adjective 'Sisyphian' is little more than a poetical 
form for 'Corinthian' (cf. Theoc. Id. xxii, 158). 

2 W. Guiiitt, Pausanias, p. 58. 3 W. Gurlitt, op. cit. p. 1. 



236 



RUFU8 B. RICHARDSON 



stitute an insuperable objection to the theory of a late date 
for the present flooring. The marble steps, which cannot well 
be separated from the present flooring to which they lead 
down, point to a very late time, Avhen the level to the north 
of the quadrangle was suspiciously high. 

The question of the date of the marble revetment of the 
fagade of Pirene is another matter. Pausanias (IT, 3, 3) 
speaks of Pirene as being adorned with marble. This may 




FIGURE 14. BASE OF THE STATUE OF REGILLA. 

refer only to the fagade, and I have already (p. 215) tenta- 
tively ascribed this ornamentation to Herodes Atticus. The 
discovery of this inscription makes the supposition almost a 
certainty. It is difficult to see why Regilla should have had 
her statue set up 4 at the outpouring of the fountains,' except 
to commemorate some conspicuous service. We know that 
Herodes Atticus erected the Odeum at Corinth, 1 and that he 
extended his benefactions to the Isthmian precinct. 2 He was 



1 Philostratus, Vit. Soph. 236, rb v 

2 Paus. II, 1, 7. 



etarpov tdd/JutT 



PIRENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 23T 

just the man to adorn Pirene with marble. In one way this- 
was not so conspicuous a benefaction as the two just men- 
tioned. In fact, I have no doubt that the fagade suffered by 
it. But to an age that loved to cover everything with marble, 
it constituted especially in the minds of the ' Sisyphian ' 
senate, an ample claim to an honorary statue to Regilla. 

When we had only one apse, we entertained the suspicion 
that this might be the 'peribolos of Apollo,' generally under- 
stood to be mentioned in Pausanias (II, 3, 3 ; cf. Am. J. Arch.,, 
Second Series, II [1898], p. 236). When the quadrangle, 
with its three apses, appeared to constitute such a close 
unity with the facade of Pirene, a unity which was empha- 
sized by the half-column system extending around to the 
west wall by the door which leads into the parascenium of 
the fagade. it began to seem questionable to play with this 
hypothesis. But the following considerations lead me still to 
entertain it, at least as a hypothesis : 

(1) Pirene to Pausanias appears to have been the chambers, 
and the basin adjacent to them. And when he speaks of the 
statue of Apollo as being set up TT/JO? rfj Heipijvy, one might 
suppose that it was close to the facade. The form of the 
phrase is significant, en ye Srj KOI 'A.7rd\\(0vos aya\fjia TT/OO? rrj 
Heiprjvrj /cal 7re/cn/3oAo?. Here is no note of passing along to 
something else, like pera avrd or o\tyov ajrorepco. Pausanias 
is still lingering around Pirene, and marks his moving away 
from it in the next section, where he says, ; proceeding now on 
the straight road to Lechaeum.' Then, too, if he had been 
speaking of an enclosure and statue separated from Pirene, he 
would almost certainly have mentioned the enclosure first, 
according to his wont. I believe that the words of Pausa- 
nias ought to be translated, ' There is, furthermore, next to 
Pirene a statue of Apollo and an enclosure,' and that they 
contain no allusion to any precinct of Apollo at all, but only 
to the quadrangle which I have just described. 

(2) It seems not without significance that there are nine 
niches, just fitted for nine muses, whom the Romans would 



238 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

almost surely bring into the company of Apollo. It may be 
added that on the staircase of the eastern entrance was found 
the slender female figure, of the type appearing in the Man- 
tinean Reliefs, which might readily be understood to be a 
muse. 

(3) In the north apse the red stucco, which antedates the 
marble revetment, may well have contained the picture of the 
slaying of the suitors by Ulysses, mentioned by Pausanias as 
being in the enclosure. 1 

We thus get rid of a difficulty arising from the usual view, 
which makes Pausanias mention two sacred precincts of Apollo 
less than a hundred yards apart, now that we know that the 
venerable temple on the hill just to the west is the temple 
of Apollo. 2 

In closing I wish to mention an interesting discovery, which 
for a while I was afraid was an archaeological fraud, like that 
by which the excavators of the temple at Aegina were led to give 
it the name of "Temple of Zeus Panhellenios." On turning 
over a heavy Ionic architrave block, which had been lying with 
its face downward, we found on that face, between two mould- 
ings, a most remarkable inscription in red paint, which is now 
in some parts nearly obliterated. And yet the whole may be 
made out with certainty. The following is approximately a 
facsimile, except that in the original the letters are more 
slender and incline slightly to the right : 

TONOPUJMeNONONTAKOCMONTHneiPHNHnA. 
rbv optofjievov ovra KOCT/JLOV TT) Tleiprjvr] ira . . 

The forms of the letters which are 0.13 m. high, and very 
long in proportion to their breadth would seem to put it not 
earlier than the Byzantine period. However it may be com- 

1 Paus. II, 3, 3, tv 8 auT(J5 ypa<f>r) rb 'Odv<r<rii}s es roi)s fj.vqarripa.3 e%ov<ra 



2 After coming to a conviction that the passage in Pausanias under discussion 
might be thus interpreted, I noticed that Frazer in his translation seems to under- 
stand it in this way. He translates: "Near Pirene there is also an image of 
Apollo, and an enclosure containing a painting of Ulysses attacking the suitors." 



PIRENE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1899 239 

pleted on the following blocks, 1 it tells its own story. It was 
a part of the ornamentation of Pirene. It is one of several 
blocks found about the fountain, some of which had been appro- 
priated from an earlier use to the Byzantine reconstruction. 
It is possible that they came from the Propylaea which almost 
overhung Pirene. 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. 

ATHENS, 
March 3, 1900. 

1 The block is the middle one of those lying on the parapet at the front of the 
apse in Fig. 12. At the right end the upper side shows two dowel holes, for 
joining it to another block. Iron and lead still remain in the hole nearest to 
the front. 



1899 
July December 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS 1 

NOTES OF RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND 
DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, Editor 

49, Cornell Street, Cleveland, Ohio 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

BULLETINS OF SEMITIC EPIGRAPHY. At the meeting of the 
Academic des Inscriptions, September 1, 1899, the Marquis de Vogiie pre- 
sented a plan which has been adopted for the periodical publication of 
Bulletins d'Epigraphie Semitique, which shall be to the C.I.S. what the 
Ephemeris Epigraphica is to the C.I.L. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, p. 549.) 

NECROLOGY. Auguste Allmer. The death has to be recorded of 
M. Auguste Allmer, the distinguished epigraphist. He was born in Paris 
in 1815, but his archaeological researches were mainly confined to Southern 
France, he being long the curator of the Lyons Museum. His principal 
publications were Les Inscriptions Antiques de Vienne and Les Inscriptions 
Antiques de Lyon, the last published in conjunction with M. Paul Dissard. 
He founded and edited the Revue Epigraphique du Midi de la France. 
(Athen. December 2, 1899.) 

Jan Pieter Six. Jan Pieter Six, who died at his country seat at Hil- 
versum on July 17, in his seventy-fourth year, belonged to an Amsterdam 
family which has been renowned for generations in the history of Dutch 
art. He was an eminent authority in ancient numismatics, especially in 
the coins of Asia Minor. His researches on the coinage of Phoenicia, 
Cyprus, and Lycia have secured a high rank in the annals of the science. 
(Athen. August 5, 1899.) 

Sir Arthur Blomfield. The English architect and archaeologist, Sir 
Arthur Blomfield, has died at London, at the age of sixty-nine years, lie 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted by Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Mr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after December 31, 1899. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 286, 287. 

241 



242 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

had been since 1888 a member of the Royal Academy. (Chron. d.Arts, 
December 16, 1899.) 

Joachim Menant. Joachim Menant, member of the Institute of 
France, etc., the well known Egyptologist, died August 30, 1899. He 
was born in 1820. (i>. Bill. Arch. XXI, 1899, p. 257.) 

EGYPT 

Objects found in Egypt, 1897-99. Work in Egypt, carried on by 
English, French, and Germans, has brought to light a few articles of My- 
cenaean art, third style (Thebes) ; vase fragments of all the styles hitherto 
known and many vase-inscriptions (Naucratis) ; Hellenistic vases including 
a species of polychrome in Greek shapes, Roman pots and imitations of 
terra sigillata, and a Roman wooden plough (the Fayoum) ; a counterfeiter's 
outfit of Roman times (Ehnas) ; an unusually good double portrait on 
wood, a man and a woman (Arsinoe) ; two small late Ptolemaic capitals 
with full polychrome decoration (Alexandria) ; a beautiful gold snake- 
bracelet and other jewelry (Memphis). The survival of old Egyptian 
art into Greco-Roman times is shown by the wall-decoration of Faience 
mosaic with deep blue and orange colors, the prototype of the third 
Pompeian style (Denderah). (F. W. v. BISSIXG, Arch. Anz. 1899, 2, pp. 
57-59; 3 cuts.) 

Exhibition of Results of Excavations. In S. S. Times, October 14, 
1899, Steindorff briefly describes the exhibition, at University College, 
London, of the results of Petrie's excavations in the cemeteries along the 
western desert, between Hu and Denderah. The tombs range from the 
earliest times to the Roman period. The most important discovery made 
here is that of peculiar tombs of the end of the middle kingdom, about 
1700 B.C. They are circular pits, about 2 feet deep and 4 feet across. 
Petrie called them "pan graves." As in the oldest graves, for example, 
those in the cemeteries of Ballas and Naquda, so here the bodies are 
cramped up. The pottery is in part identical with that of the twelfth 
dynasty and later, and we can, by means of it, approximate the age of these 
graves. A peculiar feature is the burial of many skulls of domestic animals, 
such as oxen, sheep, and goats. In some cases over a hundred skulls were 
found together. The backs are all cut away, so that they can be hung up 
like the Greek bucrania. The facial bones are decorated with spots and lines 
of black and red paint put on with the finger. This custom of hanging up 
skulls goes back to the earliest ages of Egyptian history. 

ALEXANDRIA. Excavations. Work on the site of the old city 
during the winter of 1898-99 has established three building epochs, marked 
by three water systems, dating from the foundation of the city, from 
Augustus, and probably from Hadrian. There was apparently a gold- 
smith's establishment connected with the palace, as well as one for cutting 
precious stones. A portrait-head of Alexander in the Sieglin collection is 
earlier than the British Museum head, and connects the type with the 
school of Praxiteles. The finding in the Delta of several copies of a group 
of wrestlers similar to the Antioch bronze published by Forster, suggests 
an Alexandrian original. (SCHREIBER, Arch. Anz. 1899, 3, p. 135.) 

CAIRO. Inspectors of Ancient Monuments. Mr. Edward Quibell, 
M.A., and Mr. Howard Carter have been appointed Inspectors of Ancient 



EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 243 

Monuments in Egypt. There is now some probability that the destruction 
of recent years may be arrested. The Ministry of Public Works at Cairo is 
to be congratulated on the appointment. (Athen. November 25, 1899.) 

Director of Antiquities. All interested in the art of ancient Egypt 
and the preservation of the monuments in that country will rejoice to hear 
that Professor Maspero has been appointed to the post of Director of An- 
tiquities in Egypt, an office which he filled with such signal success ten 
years ago. (Athen. December 23, 1899.) The Chron. d. Arts, October 21, 
1899, says that Professor Maspero is appointed general overseer of excava- 
tions and Director of the French School at Cairo. 

Library of Professor Ebers. We hear the valuable library of the 
Egyptologist Georg Ebers is to be housed at Gizeh, where a complete 
Fachbibliothek is being established. (Athen. December 23, 1899.) 

ILLAHUN. Borchardt's Excavations. In June, 1899, Borchardt 
began to excavate in the ruins of the town near the pyramid of Usertesen II 
(twelfth dynasty) at Illahun, now called Kahun. In 1889-1890 Petrie exca- 
vated here and found much pottery and many utensils, but his most valuable 
discoveries were fragments of papyri, published by Griffith as Hieratic Papyri 
from Kahun. Many similar papyri were afterwards found by the natives. 
Borchardt has found no further hieratic papyri and only one fragment of 
Mycenaean or Aegean pottery. But he has studied the ruins and found that 
the town (called Hetep-Usertesen, ' King Usertesen is contented ') was not 
a mere settlement for the builders of the pyramids, but a residence of User- 
tesen II. On what Petrie calls the acropolis was the palace of the Pharaoh. 
In Egypt, as in Assyria, it appears to have been customary for each king to 
build for himself a palace and a city. (STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, August 5 
and October 14, 1899.) 

KARNAK. Injury to the Temple. A. II. Sayce (London Times, 
October 15, 1900 ; New York Evening Post, October 26) writes that eleven 
columns of the hypostyle hall of the great temple at Karnak have fallen. 
These can be set up again, but the architraves about them are destroyed. 
The whole building is in a critical condition. The fall of the columns 
occurred October 9, 1899, probably in consequence of a slight earthquake. 

THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS. Tomb of Thutmosis I. In 
May, 1899, Loret discovered the tomb of Thutmosis I, the first of the 
Pharaohs to make his tomb in the rock of the valley instead of building it 
in the plain. The tomb is a small one, of only two chambers. It had been 
rifled and the mummy unwrapped. But the robbers had wrapped it up 
again and restored it to its mummy case. In the tomb were a papyrus con- 
taining texts from the Book of the Dead, with colored pictures finely exe- 
cuted ; a draught-board, with a full set of draughtmen ; some garlands ; 
thirteen large earthen beer jars, and a large number of other vessels ; 
weapons ; two beautiful armchairs ; aud remains of food. The most remark- 
able piece of all is a large and beautifully preserved couch, consisting of a 
quadrangular wooden frame, overspread with a thick rush mat, over which 
were stretched three layers of linen with a life-size figure of the god of death, 
Osiris, drawn upon the outer layer. The figure itself was smeared with some 
material intended to make the under layer waterproof. Over this, mingled 
with some adhesive substance, soil had been spread, in which barley was 
planted. The grains had sprouted, and had grown to the height of from 



244 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

2| to 3 inches. The whole, therefore, represented a couch whereon the dead 
Osiris lay figured in greensward. One of the few tombs in the valley not 
belonging to a member. of the royal family is that of the fan-bearer, Mai- 
her-pre, found not long before that of Thutmosis I. It is between the tombs 
of Setnacht and Amenophis II. (STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, July 8, 1899.) 

BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 

BABYLON. The German Expedition. The second number of the 
Mittheilungen of the Orientgesellschaft contains Koldewey's preliminary 
report of excavations at the Kasr mound at Babylon. The outer wall of 
brick with the stamp of Nebuchadnezzar is 7.25 m. thick, backed by 21. 5 m. 
of sand and other material, while the inner wall of brick is 13.10 m. thick, 
making a total of 41.85 in. Inscriptions have been found, and also many 
pieces of the glazed tile with reliefs which adorned the palace walls. The 
reliefs were partly on a blue and partly on a green background. The frag- 
ments show parts of the human body, lion skins, eyes and paws, and rosettes. 
A later report mentions the discovery of a very thick wall, probably that of 
the palace proper. (Independent, September 14, 1899.) The expedition has 
discovered a finely preserved stele of dolerite, 1.28 m. high and 0.53 m. wide, 
which bears on the flat front side the image of a Hittite god. He is bearded 
and in the act of stepping forward. Both arms are raised from the elbow; 
the left hand carries a trident, the right a large hammer, and a sword is 
carved on the left side. The head is covered with a Phrygian cap, the hair 
hangs down in a long braid, the decorated outer garment descends to the 
knees, and the shoes are sharply pointed and curved. It is evidently a 
Hittite god, probably Tishub, the god of thunder. On the back of the stele 
is a Hittite inscription of six lines. A second discovery is a limestone slab, 
1.3 J m. high and 1.21 m. wide. This also bears a relief and an inscription. 
To the left is the goddess Ishtar with a bow. In front of her, and like her 
facing the right, is the god Hadad or Ramman with two forks of lightning 
in each hand. In front of him, in a worshipping position, is a third image, 
a smaller man, and behind this figure another larger image of a god. The 
figures are designated by inscriptions as " Image of the goddess Ishtar," 
" linage of the god Hadad," and " Image of Shamash-Shaknu, the man from 
the lands Shuchu and Maru." Between the figure of the man and that of 
Hadad are the words : " A measure of meal, one measure of wine I have 
appointed as a settled matter by this stone tablet. He who guards the 
palace shall enjoy these." To the left of this relief and beneath it were 
found five columns of Neo-Babylonian writing, in which Shamash-Shaknu, 
according to Meissner's translation, mentions what he has done for the 
country. One of the important points is that he has restored the canal of 
the land of Shuchu, and cleared it of reeds and made it 22 ells wide. The 
inscription is important because it contains a number of geographical terms. 
Shuchu is recognizable as the land of Job's comforter, Bildad, the Shuhite. 
{Independent, January 18, 1900.) 

NIPPUR. Excavations of the University of Pennsylvania. An 
account of these excavations is given in the report of the meeting of the 
Archaeological Institute of America (p. 157, above). H. V. Hilprecht gives 
a similar account in S. S. Times, July 8, August 5, September 9, October 14, 
December 23, 1899, and January 13, 1900. The finds include several thousand 



ARMENIA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 245 

inscribed tablets, sculptured stones, and walls, of various dates as far back 
as the time of Naram-Sin, -about 3750 B.C. 

TELLO. Early Inscriptions. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 345- 
349, L. Heuzey publishes (2 pis.), with translations by F. Thureau-Dangin, 
three inscriptions found by de Sarzec in 1898. Two belong to the period of 
Narani-Sin, the conqueror of the year 3758 B.C. They are engraved upon 
oblong plates which were probably the bases of statuettes. One adds to the 
list of Naram-Sin's conquests the name of the country of Arrnanou. The 
other mentions a second son and a grandson of Naram-Sin. The third 
inscription, repeated upon several bricks, is still earlier. It belongs to the 
patesi of Shirpourla, Enannatourna, grandson of Our-Nina, and records the 
construction of warehouses to keep the cedar wood brought from the distant 
mountains. De Sarzec has found in the neighborhood very early buildings 
in which the foundations of several pillars of cedar still exist. 

MESOPOTAMIA 

ARSLAN TASH. Sculptures. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 523- 
524, is a communication from Hamdy-Bey on antiquities at Arslan Tash (the 
Lion's Rock), not far from Orpha, the ancient Edessa. In 1883 he found 
there two colossal statues of lions, a block with two bulls, and several slabs 
with reliefs representing soldiers. As a result of excavations the museum 
at Constantinople obtained eighteen sculptured slabs. A larger slab (1 m. 
by 1.84 m.) has recently been found, on which is a relief representing a two- 
horse chariot upon which are two men ; the chariot being followed by a 
horseman. There are indications of a row of reliefs like the friezes of 
Assyrian palaces. These sculptures are in basalt, and their style is more 
frankly Assyrian than is that of the so-called Hittite monuments. The date 
may be that of Sennacherib or the Sargonides (seventh century B.C.). The 
relief described above is published with an extract from a letter of Hamdy- 
Bey in C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 617-619 ; pi. 

ARMENIA 

INSCRIPTIONS. In Sitzb. Berl. Akad. 1899, pp. 745-749, W. Belck 
and C. F. Lehmann continue the account of their journey in Armenia. The 
stele Kel-i-giaur, " the grey stele," stands by the road between the villages 
Sidikan and Topzana. It is inscribed on two sides in Chaldic, on two in 
Assyrian. It was set up by Rusas I, Sardurihinis. It records the suicide of 
Rusas, however, after his defeat by Sargon II. It also records the restora- 
tion of a place, Musasir, and this led to the discovery of the site of this 
ancient Chaldic city near where the stele stands. Several inscriptions were 
found in and near Van by Belck. At the Spring-grotto of Seberieh-su," 
Lehmann found that the inscriptions ascribed by Schrader (Abh. d. Berl. 
Akad. 1885) to Tuklat-Ninib II and Asurnasirabal, both belong to Salma- 
nassar II. He also found two new inscriptions of Salmanassar II. These 
all have to do with Salmanassar's wars with Aram, the earliest known king 
of Urartu. We learn that Salmanassar visited the source of the Tigris 
three times, in the seventh, fifteenth, and thirty-first or thirty-second years 
of liis reign. Other inscriptions are briefly mentioned and the itinerary of 
the journey is given. 



246 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



PALESTINE 

Greek Inscriptions.. In the Mittheilungen d. Deutschen Palaestina- 
Vereins, 1899, pp. 56-61, R. Briinnow publishes twenty-three Greek in- 
scriptions from Palestine. Most of these had been published before. 
Inscriptions from Jerach (Gerasa) and a plan of the place have been 
published by Schuhmacher in a recent number of the Mittheilungen d. 
Pal-Vereins. (S. S. Times, August 5, 1899.) 

TELL-ES-SAFI. Excavations. On May 4, 1899, shortly after the 
temporary close of the excavations at Tell Zakariya, Bliss and Macalister 
began excavating for the Palestine Exploration Fund at Tell-es-Safi, situated 
to the west of Tell Zakariya. In consequence of the fact that a modern 
village and two graveyards occupy the larger part of the summit of the- 
Tell, there is little space left for excavations. The first task was to sink 
trial trenches to determine the nature and depth of the accumulations. 
Thousands of potsherds were found. Dr. Bliss recognized four different 
strata of pottery, "a pre-Israelite stratum on the rock, older than the 
lowest stratum at Tell Zakariya; a later pre-Israelite stratum; a stratum 
contemporaneous with the Jewish period, and extending into Greek times ;. 
and a crusading stratum." In the third Jewish stratum, two jar-handles, 
with royal stamps, occurred, one illegible, the other inscribed "To the 
king Shocoh" (i.e. "has furnished, devoted it"). 

Many small objects were found, and long sections of the city wall were 
laid bare. It did not rest on the rock, but on the lowest stratum of debris, 
a circumstance which seems to indicate " that the wall was not built much 
earlier than the Jewish period." It consists of external and internal facings 
of rubble, with a filling of earth and field stones, with projecting buttresses. 
While tracing part of the eastern wall, Dr. Bliss discovered the most inter- 
esting objects so far brought to light at Tell-es-Safi, evidently cast down at 
one time at a period when the rampart was in ruins. They include a 
stamped jar-handle with two lines of Hebrew writing, busts and other 
fragments of statuettes in limestone, fragments of face-masks in pottery, 
terra-cotta figurines in great variety, etc. 

The excavations were temporarily discontinued about the middle of July. 
Dr. Bliss's second report gives the results obtained from a large pit 80 feet 
long, 60 feet wide, and, at an average, 26 feet deep. 

Foundations of buildings and three monoliths were found, which may 
have belonged to a circle of stones, venerated before the temple was built. 
Some small objects and remains of animals came to light. 

The objects found in the large clearance pit were comparatively few, 
aside from the pottery, lying in four strata, and representing different styles,. 
from the most ancient forms of pre-Israelite ware (about 1700 B.C.) down 
to late Arab patterns. (H. V. HILPRECHT, S. S. Times, October 14 and 
December 23, 1899.) 

TARBANEH. Graves of Roman Times. The building of the 
Acre-Damascus Railway has been resumed. Near Tarbaneh, about 31 
km. from Haifa, on the slope facing the ruin of Tarbaneh, the engi- 
neers discovered single and twin graves, cut out of the rock, and built 
up in limestone masonry. From the objects found in the graves, which 
include a copper coin of Hadrian, it is probable that they belong to 



PALESTINE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 247 

the second Christian century. (H. V. HILPRECHT, S. S. Times, January 
13, 1900.) 

TELL ZAKARIYA. Excavations of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. The Independent, November 16, 1899, publishes an. account of Dr. 
Bliss's excavations at Tell Zakariya derived from three numbers of the 
Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The diggings 
have uncovered a large fortress erected in pre-Roman times, probably by 
Rehoboam (2 Chron. ii, 9). The hill chosen for the excavation stands 
almost isolated, rising abruptly for 350 feet above the Vale of Elah. Dr. 
Bliss found hardly any superficial traces of building, save for a line of 
stones cropping out from the surface of a raised mound. But the surface 
was strewn with potsherds, and after a careful study of several hundred 
small pieces of pottery, he reached the conclusion that this was "an impor- 
tant and ancient site." The summit of the Tell is in the form of a rude tri- 
angular plateau, the extreme length of which is about 1000 feet, its breadth 
500 feet. The edge suggests that the Tell may have been an artificial 
mound. Sixteen pits were dug through the different strata of soil and rock, 
and a careful record kept of the pottery found at the various depths. The 
results showed five types of pottery in two strata : in the lower stratum, 
archaic ware ; in the upper stratum, Jewish and Phoenician ware, with a 
few fragments of Greek and a small proportion of Roman ware. 

At the southeast corner of the hill remains were found of a building with 
six towers, which probably belongs to the Jewish period, although it is not 
improbable that Roman settlers made use of it. About one-half of the area 
in the interior of the building was excavated down to the rock. The main 
walls rest on rock, standing in some places 20 feet high. They are 4 feet 
thick, and are formed of roughly coursed rubble laid in mud, containing 
some well-worked stones intermingled with field stones. In general, the 
masonry of the towers, all of which were later additions, consists of fairly 
large rubble brought to courses, with well-squared stones at the external 
angles. These also rest on rock. The bossed stones of the Zakariya Tower 
are not unlike specimens shown in Dr. Bliss's ' Excavations at Jerusalem,' 
found on the scarp to the west of the Old Pool. Several cross walls have 
been found, and in the clearance pits inside the building there were pit- 
ovens, tanks, vats, a vaulted cistern, and other constructions. 

Doors have been discovered, connecting the fortress with two of the tow- 
ers, but no entrance from the outside has as yet come to light. In construc- 
tion the fortress lacks symmetry, the walls varying in length from 120 feet 
to 228 feet. It is possible that the building may have originally been about 
square before the south wall was destroyed. 

It is clear that much debris had accumulated on the Tell before the for- 
tress was built, and that more had accumulated when the towers were added. 
The nature of the debris indicates that the fortress was pre-Roman, probably 
Jewish. It was a large fortified enclosure for protecting houses within, and 
contained a number of isolated dwellings of at least four periods. " The 
datable objects range from pre-Israelite to late Jewish times, with a small 
proportion of later objects. It appears, accordingly, that the place was 
inhabited when Joshua conquered the land, that it was fortified in Jewish 
times, that it was occupied till a late Jewish period, and that during the 
Roman period there was a brief occupation, after which it appears to have 






248 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AECHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

been deserted." The site of Tell Zakariya can probably be identified with 
one of the places mentioned in Chronicles or Joshua. Dr. Bliss suggests 
Gath; Mr. Macalister thinks of Azekah (Joshua x, 10). 

The finds of the season consist of objects in stone, bronze, iron, clay, paste, 
and glass. The range of pottery includes the period of the Tell-el-Amarna 
and Tell-el-Hesy tablets. Among the pottery the most valuable discovery 
was a series of thirteen royal jar-handles, some of which belong to the type 
found in the Haram enclosure at Jerusalem by Sir Charles Warren. The 
handles are of rough, dark-red ware, and belonged to large Phoenician jars. 
Oil each handle is a cartouche or ellipse, containing in some cases a four- 
winged, in other cases a two-winged, figure in relief, with a wedge-shaped 
head. Above and below the figure are two lines of Phoenician writing. On 
two handles the inscription reads : " Belonging to the King of Hebron," and 
the use of the word " Hebron " indicates that the earliest date to be assigned 
to these specimens is the beginning of the Hebrew conquest, and the latest 
date the establishment of the kingdom by Saul. On another of the handles 
occurs the inscription, " Belonging to the King of Shocoh." Shocoh is now 
represented by the ruins of Shuweikeh, some three miles east of Tell Zaka- 
riya. Although not mentioned in the list of royal cities in Joshua xii, Sho- 
coh certainly belonged to the Hebrews (cf. Joshua xv, 35; 1 Kings iv, 10; 
2 Chronicles xxviii, 18). Another jar-handle bears an inscription which 
may be translated, " Belonging to the King of Ziph." The discovery of jar- 
handles of the Jerusalem type with place names upon them proves that the 
inscriptions on the handles found at Jerusalem refer to places, not to per- 
sons, as assumed before. Very likely the true translation would be, " Be- 
longing to the King, Hebron," and " Belonging to the King, Ziph," meaning 
that these jars contained tribute sent to the king at Jerusalem from Hebron 
or Ziph. 

In S. S. Times, September 9, 1899, H. Y. Hilprecht gives a similar but 
more detailed report. On the east side of the fortress was no tower. The 
fortress was not divided into chambers, but was simply a large enclosure for 
the protection of the houses and property within. 

Among the other objects unearthed, two seal cylinders of an early Baby- 
lonian type are of especial interest ; a scaraboid made of blue glass, repre- 
senting a lion hunt ; a number of Egyptian scarabs of the eighteenth dynasty, 
some of them of Syrian workmanship ; and a finger-ring of paste, bearing 
the cartouche of Khu-n-Aten, or Amenophis IV (about 1400 B.C.). 

ARABIA 

Sabaean and Himyarite Monuments at Marseilles. In the museum 
in the Palais-Borely at Marseilles are the two Phoenician inscriptions 
found in France, the tariff of sacrifices found at Marseilles in 1845, and the 
epitaph found at Avignon in 1897. To these have been added thirteen 
Semitic inscriptions brought from Yemen in 1881. These are published by 
H. Derenbourg, R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 1-15; 14 cuts. Nearly all are 
dedications to some deity ; several are tombstones. 

CYPRUS 

EXCAVATIONS IN 1896. In the London Times, November 22, 
1899, is a report of a paper read before the Royal Institute of British 



THRACE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 249 

Architects by A. S. Murray on his excavations in the neighborhood of 
Salamis, Cyprus. At Salamis itself no Mycenaean remains were found, but 
farther inland about one hundred tombs of the Mycenaean age were acci- 
dentally discovered. Many objects were assigned by Dr. Murray to about 
800 B.C. or earlier. The Hellenic element came in from Asia Minor. 
Egyptian scarabs with the name of the queen of Amenophis III (about 
1450 B.C.) were found. The objects found were numerous and various, 
throwing light upon the period when the eastern Mediterranean was the 
scene of constant struggles for the mastery on sea among rival Greek or 
semi-Greek peoples. 

ASIA MINOR 

GAL ATIA. Exploration in 1898. Inscriptions Nos. 163-256, from 
the country between Amorium and Lake Tatta, are nearly all epitaphs, 
pagan, Jewish, or Christian, in more or less barbarous Greek. The name 
Aurelius appears on almost every stone, in one form or another. There 
are two dedications to Men and one to the " Four-faced mother," Cybele, 
or goddess of the seasons. Sites identified are Harra, Miscamus, Selmea, 
Pissia (?), Abrostola, Tolistochora. 

The gradual Hellenization of the Celtic element, always numerically 
small, was much more rapid in the cities than in the rural districts. Here 
the Celts retained their own language and customs until the spread of Chris- 
tianity, in the fourth and fifth centuries. (J. G. C. ANDERSOX, J.H.S. XIX, 
2, 1899, pp. 280-318, continued from p. 134. See Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 522.) 

MILETUS. The Excavations begun. Freiherr Marschall von 
Biberstein, the German Ambassador at Constantinople, has recently " dug 
the first spade in the soil" at the excavation on the site of the ancient 
Miletus. The work is to be carried out under the direction of Dr. Wiegand, 
who labored successfully at the rediscovery of the ancient Priene. (Athen. 
November 11, 1899.) 

TERMESSUS. Tombs and Inscriptions. G. Cousin, ' Terrnessos 
de Pisidie,' B.C.H. XXIII, 1899, pp. 165-192, begins the publication of a 
series of funerary inscriptions from the street of tombs. The earlier tombs 
on the right of the way, coming from Yenidje-khayve, are cut in the rock, 
and show no inscriptions. On the other side of the road the tombs are 
built, and the inscriptions published are from this side. 

THRACE 

RELIEFS AND INSCRIPTIONS. Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, pp. 
356-358, contains notes on various minor discoveries in Thrace. Near 
Ai/xtov is a marble relief, showing a female figure with bow and quiver 
seated on a deer, holding in the left hand a burning torch, in the right a 
hare by the hind legs. Nearby stands a second woman with a torch in the 
right hand and a small vase in the left. The dedication is to Artemis. 
Some distance farther from this village has been found a relief, showing a 
sacrifice of a bull, and also a small table at which are seated a man and two 
women; a third woman is approaching. The inscription is a dedication in 
Latin to I(ovi) 0(ptimo} M(aximo) conservatori. In Tomi there has been 
found an inscription in hexameters, apparently an epitaph of an official who 
had been honored by the city. 



250 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

RUSSIA 

FINDS IN SOUTHERN RUSSIA IN 1898. The following dis- 
coveries are reported: At Kertch, Roman houses, black glazed ware of early 
date, and fragments of black-figured ware ; at Kherson, jewellery from a 
grave of the end of the fourth century B.C. ; in Taurida, horse-trappings of 
the style of the fifth century B.C. ; in Saratov and Perma, far up the Volga, 
articles of Roman times ; near the Caucasus, specimens of Ionic art of the 
sixth century B.C. and black-figured vases, one .in the style of Nicosthenes ; 
farther south, barbaric ornaments not later than the sixth century B.C.; 
bronze articles of the Chalcidian epoch, eighth century ; and from Ka,rs, 
bronze of the third century B.C. (G. KIESERITZKY, Arch. Anz. 1899, 
pp. 56-57.) 

Russian Cemeteries and Tumuli. In R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 397- 
406, G. Katcheretz gives, as the fifth of his ' Notes d'archeologie russe,' a 
description of the ancient cemeteries of Lada and Tornnikov in the province 
of Tambov. His sixth article under the same title (R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, 
pp. 97-102) gives a summary of an account of excavations by V. Antono- 
vitch, published in tlie Materials for Russian Archaeology, XI, 1893. The 
region explored lies in southwest Russia, between the Dnieper and the rivers 
Pripet, Rastavitza, Teterev, and Ouch. It contains many tumuli of the 
Drevlians, a peaceful people, with some knowledge of agriculture, carpentry, 
and some other arts. 

BULGARIA 

SOFIA. Bronze Statuettes. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 61-69, 
S. Reinach publishes (cut), as one of 'quelques statuettes de bronze inedites,' 
a bronze statuette of a mounted Epoiia found near Kalonguerowo, in the 
ancient Moesia. This is the first representation of Epona found in Bulgaria. 
A few Roman coins were found at the same place. A list of monuments 
relating to Epona is added. Four of these (at Troyes, Tongres, Kb'ngen, 
and Worms) are published in cuts. Reinach publishes (ibid. pp. 70-72 ; 
2 figs.) two other bronze statuettes in Sofia. One is an Athena found in 
the ruins of the Colonia Ulpia Oescus. The type is that of Reinach's 
Repertoire, II, 280, 2, and 798, 6. The second, found at Hadjolar in Tchir- 
pan (Thrace), represents a nude long-haired youth. It is said that the left 
hand originally held an animal by its four paws. Probably Dionysus is 
represented. 

GREECE 
A NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL LAW. On August 8, the new law 

concerning antiquities was officially announced. Hitherto the law of 1834 
was still in force. 

Henceforth all antiquities found on private property belong to the State, 
and the State has the right to dig experimentally on private property, and 
to remove articles forcibly from such properties if public demands require 
it. When the experimental excavations lead to any important results, the 
State can, after paying an indemnity for the whole property, proceed to take 
it over. Every find of an ancient building must at once be reported by its 
discoverer or the owner of the estate to the proper official. Besides the 
General Inspector of Antiquities, twelve others and twelve epimeletae are 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 251 

appointed, and the kingdom is divided into twelve districts. The inspectors 
are divided into three classes, with various duties, forming an archaeological 
council with many assistants. The funds required to carry out these pro- 
posals will be gathered chiefly from the results of the archaeological lottery, 
the sale of plaster casts officially made, and entrance money charged for 
the public collections, which will now be free on Sundays only. 

A practical archaeological school is also to be founded. (A then. October 
14, 1899.) 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES IN 1898. The Athenian 
Archaeological Society has finished uncovering the Attains Stoa and the 
enclosure of the Olyinpieum at Athens. At Sunium, near the temple, they 
have found a gallery, propylaea, and a second temple of peculiar plan ; at 
Rhenea, the graves transferred thither from Delos by the Athenians in 426 ; 
at Eleusis, a prehistoric cemetery ; at Therrnon, the remains of the Temple 
of Apollo, of brick with terra-cotta roof and ornaments. The American 
excavations at Corinth, by finding Pirene, have established the basis for the 
topography of the city. The French at Delphi have brought their work to 
a close with the gymnasium. The English have discovered a Mycenaean 
castle on Melos. The Germans, besides continuing the work about the 
Acropolis and the "Theseum" at Athens, have found an Asclepieum at 
Paros, many inscriptions at Cos ; and at Priene, a sanctuary of Egyptian 
gods and one of Heracles, water-works, a temple of Demeter and Cora, and 
remains of Byzantine times, but none older than the Hellenistic epoch, so 
that it seems that the old Ionic Priene was not at this spot. At Ephesus, 
the Austrians have worked on the theatre (restored and altered in the 
second century after Christ), and have found many inscriptions. (A. CONZE, 
Arch. Anz. 1899, 2, pp. 54-56.) 

CHALCIS AND ERETRIA. Inscriptions. In 'E<p. 'Ap X - 1899, 
pp. 133-148, K. Kourouniotes publishes thirty-nine inscriptions from Chalcis 
and Eretria. A long inscription from Chalcis is in honor of Archenous, son 
of Charicles, who had been an envoy to the Romans. The date is fixed by 
mention of the KOLVOV TCJOV E^oiewv between 196 and 146 B.C. Two frag- 
mentary Eretrian honorary decrees are also published, one of which contains 
the new name, KIKOS. An inscription, apparently Eretrian, gives a new method 
of dating by two demarchs. It reads: 'AyaOfj TVXQ- 'ETTI TroAe [fj.dpxov'] \ 
eo/cA.e'ous rov Eevco[vos] | S^/xap^owTcoi/ | [<] iXocfxivov rov 'Api<rr[a>vos 
/ecu] | ^wcrrparov TOT) 'Apiicrr [tovosj | otSf evi/ccov eTrcoj/ TTOI^T^S] | Ar^/xoooro? 
'Hpa/oVeir [ov] | 3>A ---- j ev ra> ---- Twenty are simple grave inscriptions. 
One in characters of the sixth century B.C. is cut in a disk. It reads: 
XcupiW | 'A^raTos | EuTra/r/oiSouv | IvOdSe. Ket|ra[i]. One is metrical: Mav- 
TLV a/jiw/jirjTov AeA</>6v yevos ev0aSe AerJ/cov | viov 2w<Tiyu,ej/eos yata 



CORINTH. The Discovery of the Agora. In the Nation, August 
24, 1899, R. B. Richardson describes the discovery of the agora at Corinth, 
giving at the same time a brief account of the previous discovery of the 
theatre and the fountain Pirene. See also the Independent, July 13, 1899. 
After Pirene was found the discovery of the agora was merely a question of 
time, and indeed the propylaea described by Pausanias appeared almost at 
the beginning of the excavations of 1899. The "Old Temple" was then seen 
io be the temple of Apollo, as its site is that of the temple of Apollo 



252 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1COO 

according to Pausanias, and a fountain house discovered just west of the 
temple was identified as the fountain of Glance. 

CRETE. Archaeological Notes. The National Museum is to be 
moved from its present quarters in the courtyard of the Greek Cathedral to 
the old Venetian Palace, which stands near the large mosque in the centre 
of the town. 

In the present museum, however, Professor Luigi Savignoni has been 
busy for several months on a catalogue which is now practically completed. 
At Gortyna, Signor de Sanctis has been excavating and working at the in- 
scriptions discovered, but the results apparently have not been remarkable. 
In the east of the island M. de Marne is reported to have excavated the 
prytaneum of an important town which a fragmentary inscription shows to- 
be Latos Hetera. The site is at Goula, or Khulas, and is marked on Kiepert's 
map as Lato. 

A peasant of Palaeochora, the village on the site of Polyrhenia, on the 
\\ r est side of the island, told us that he had discovered, a few months ago, a 
quantity of treasure in a field at the foot of the hill on the north side of the 
citadel. He had sent everything to Athens, and beyond a few badly worn 
coins there were no antiquities left in the village. (W. C. F. ANDERSON,. 
Athen. October 28, 1899.) 

The new government has passed a decree regulating excavations and 
prohibiting trade in antiquities except within the island. Excavations by 
private individuals are prohibited. 

Two public museums have been established, one in Canea, the other at 
Heraclaeum. At Canea a museum of casts of Greek sculpture has been 
established, and it is proposed to found a similar collection at Heraclaeum. 
(SPYR. P. LAMBROS, Athen. August 19, 1899.) 

NAXOS. A Local Museum. F. Hiller v. Gaertringen has founded 
a museum at Naxos. Among its contents is the base of a statue of Apollo- 
" the Bow-bearer " dedicated by the senate and people. An inscription on 
a stele of marble mentions the cult of the vv/x^eW /xv^teW. A stele with 
dedication to Athena was found at the village of Achapsi. Near Lankada 
a white marble column, some parts of triglyphs, etc., were found, which 
may have been carried there from the neighboring temple of Athena. (BerL 
Phil. W. October 14, 1899.) 

PAROS. Excavations. Rubensohn is continuing his excavations. 
Prehistoric graves and historical inscriptions have been found, but no- 
further fragments of the M armor Parium. (BerL Phil. W. September 2, 1899.) 
In the spring of 1899 Hiller v. Gaertringen spent some two months at Paros 
investigating the inscriptions of the island already published. He instituted 
excavations at three points, where he found only a few fragmentary inscrip- 
tions, but discovered parts of several ancient inscribed terra-cotta vases, 
a wreath of gold, and other ornaments of gold or colored stones. The 
objects found by Rubensohn are for the most part in the provisionally 
erected museum. The Hestia states that the first room of the museum is 
devoted to the objects presented by the islanders, the second to inscriptions, 
the third to works of art in marble and to pottery. (BerL Phil. W. October 
14, 1899.) Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 1, 1899, pp. 352-353, contains a notice of 
the continued excavations of Rubensohn. The Asclepieum has been 
entirely cleared, and the foundations of the temple on the Acropolis 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 253 

examined. Near these were found remains of houses of prehistoric times. 
Outside of the ancient city the ancient necropolis has been found, and the 
later graves have yielded some rich ornaments. These graves were made 
among the older sarcophagi and so the older remains have been largely 
destroyed. Still some good monuments of Hellenistic times can be recon- 
structed, showing a type of sarcophagus hitherto unknown in Greece. The 
cover is an imitation of the roof of a temple, and seems to have had in the 
centre the portrait of the deceased. These sarcophagi stood in the open 
air on a high basis with pilasters at the corners. On a hill near the modern 
town a temenos containing a temple, altars, and other buildings has been dis- 
covered, in which Delian divinities seem to have been worshipped. 

SIPHNUS AND SYRUS. Tombs and Walls. In 'E<. 'A px . 1899, 
pp. 73-134 (5 pis. ; 42 cuts), Chr. Tsountas describes and discusses the 
results of his excavations on the islands of Siphnus and Syrus. The two 
small cemeteries excavated at Siphnus belonged to the same pre-Mycenaean 
period as those of Paros, Antiparos, and Despotiko {Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 623), 
the tombs and their contents being like those of the islands mentioned, except 
that at Siphnus all the sides of the tombs were often built of small rough 
stones. Two tombs only belong to a later pre-Mycenaean period, to which 
also the numerous tombs of Syrus are assigned. At Syrus are two extensive 
cemeteries, but the tombs form small groups as if families or small clans 
had buried their dead together. The tombs of Syrus are, like those of the 
other islands, too small to allow the body to lie at full length. They are 
built of small stones and covered \vith slabs. These tombs have doorways 
at the side ; but these were of no practical use, as the bodies were let down 
from above. No doubt the tombs were imitations of houses. They were 
sometimes rectangular, but more often of irregular shape, frequently with at 
least one side curved. The contents were not rich, consisting of hand-made 
pottery, stone vessels and idols, and bronze or copper pins and weapons. 
The pottery was adorned with incised lines (rarely with an attempted repre- 
sentation of animals), raised lines, and in some of the later specimens painted 
patterns. The civilization of Syrus shown by the tombs resembles that shown 
by the tombs of Paros, but is more advanced. Besides graves, remains of early 
citadels were found at Siphnus and Syrus. The hill at Syrus is naturally 
inaccessible on three sides. The fourth side was fortified with two walls, 
the outer of which was a simple wall, 1.00 m. to 1.10 m. thick, while the 
inner wall was 1.40 m. to 1.60 m. thick and contained five chambers. 
Within the acropolis were fragments of jars (pithoi}, and other pottery, 
as well as many pieces of marble vessels, stone plates, etc. Silver, copper, 
and lead were found, and also a few stone and clay moulds for casting. 
The most striking single object found is a band of silver adorned with 
large rosettes, a quadruped (probably a dog), and a winged creature exe- 
cuted by means of raised dots. The winged creature stands upon a sort 
of conical base instead of legs and feet, and appears to be a representation 
of an idol of a type familiar in Mycenaean times. The acropolis at Siphnus 
has also a double wall extending nearly round the top of the hill. The 
walls are better built than those of Syrus, the stones being larger, the walls 
thicker, and the towers square. This acropolis is later than that of Syrus, 
for the objects found within the walls are of Mycenaean times, but the gen- 
eral similarity of the two is evident. 



254 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

SUNIUM. The Temples of Poseidon and Athena. An inscription 
has been found by Staes at Suniuin proving that the beautiful temple hitherto 
called the temple of Athena is the temple of Poseidon. The temple found 
near the harbor in the previous excavations (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 532) 
shows the irregularities ascribed by Vitruvius, IV, 4, to the temple of Athena. 
The temple of Poseidon is not mentioned at all by Pausanias, and only inci- 
dentally by other ancient writers. The inscription is an honorary decree of 
the fourth century B.C. containing the provision that it be set up in the 
temple of Poseidon. (Berl. Phil. W. September 2, 1899; cf. A then. Mitth. 
XXIV, 1899, p. 349.) 

THERA. Excavations. In Thera the excavations of Hiller von Gar- 
tringen have been especially in the neighborhood of the Stoa Basilike, in 
order to gain a clear idea of the Agora. Remains of public buildings have 
been found, and also some private houses. The theatre is noteworthy, as 
its rectangular form recalls the roofed theatres, though the presence of a 
drain from the orchestra to a cistern proves that it was open to the air. A 
raised stage was built later, and statues were set up of the parents of Calig- 
ula and of Vespasian. The head of the statue of Agrippina has been found. 
Near the other dedications of Artemidorus of Perge (/. G. Ins. Ill, 421) a 
number of new rock-cut altars has been found, all provided with verses and 
some with reliefs, and finally the portrait of Artemidorus in profile, cut from, 
the rock and, like all the rest, of rude workmanship. Artemidorus belonged 
to the garrison sent to Thera by Ptolemy III. He evidently put an end to 
factious strife among the Theraeans and was of great service to them. A 
sketch of his career is given by Hiller v. Gartringen in ^avropivr/ e^Ty/xept? 
^8o/x,a8iaia. Several of the inscriptions, with dedications to Concord, the 
Samothracian gods, Fortune and the goddesses of agriculture, Apollo, Zeus, 
and Poseidon, are published in the brief account of the discovery in Berl. 
Phil. W. October 14, 1899. (Cf. Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, pp. 353-355.) 
Zalin is investigating a necropolis of the " Cyclades civilization," near the 
temple of the 0ea /Scurt'Aeia. Numerous vases from this necropolis are already 
in the local museum and in private possession. Below the agora of Thera 
Hiller v. Gartringen has found an archaic female head and an archaic lion. 
(Berl. Phil. W. October 28, 1899.) Zahn has also investigated some early 
Theraean dwellings, and excellent specimens of Theraean pottery have been 
acquired for the local museum. (Athen. Mitth. 1899, p. 355.) 

THERMON. Further Discoveries. The excavations of Sotiriades 
have been continued. The ground on which the temple of Apollo is built, 
more than 30 m. by 15 m., is entirely formed from the ashes of a great altar, 
and contains a multitude of charred bones of animals and a considerable 
number of irtOoi. In a building near the temple a number of additional 
architectural fragments in painted terra-cotta were found, including frag- 
ments of metopes with the Lernaean hydra, and other figures. Many inscrip- 
tions, almost wholly proxeny decrees, from the second and third centuries 
B.C. have been found. Two inscriptions built into the stylobate of the tem- 
ple show that at least the east front was repaired after the destruction by 
Philip V of Macedon. The temple spring has been discovered, and an 
inscription has fixed the site of the town of the co-no's on the mountain 
now called BAo^ds, where the site of Thermon was formerly sought. (Athen. 
Mini. XXIV, 1899, p. 350.) 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 255 

VARIOUS MINOR DISCOVERIES. At Andros, the newly formed 
museum contains, among less important objects, a decree conferring proxeny 
upon a Babylonian, Dromon, son of Phanodemus. (Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 
1899, pp. 351 f.) Near Colonus, Kuruuiotes has excavated part of a necropo- 
lis. Among objects found, a fragmentary iTrivqrpov is noteworthy. (Ibid. 
p. 349.) At Cephalleiiia, Cavvadias has found fragments of Mycenaean 
vases in chamber tombs near Krane. (Ibid. pp. 350 f.) Near Agulinitza, in 
Elis, an ancient spring house has been found. (Ibid. p. 349.) At Eretria, 
a good relief of Apollo, Leto, and Artemis has been found, and excavations 
have yielded many important large archaic amphorae. (Ibid. p. 355.) In 
Thessaly, near 'Ayma by Mappxpyiavr;, two tombs have been opened, con- 
taining geometric vases and small iron objects. In one grave was a skeleton 
with gold and bronze ornaments. (Ibid. pp. 355 f.) At Troezen, Legrand 
has resumed excavations, and is said to have determined the position of the 
city wall, and excavated a sanctuary of Pan and several Roman graves con- 
taining gold ornaments. (Ibid. p. 349.) From Thyatira, ten inscriptions 
are published, one a dedication to Hadrian, six mortuary, the others short 
or fragmentary. (Ibid. pp. 358-360.) At Megara, Dorpfeld has found the 
water basin of Theagenes, Pausanias, I, 40, 1. (Private letter, December 31, 
1899.) 

ITALY 

AOSTA. The Ancient City. Recent excavations at Aosta for the 
foundation of a large building have brought to light considerable remains 
of the ancient Augusta Praetoria in the northeastern quarter of the ancient 
town. A drain and remains of streets and buildings have been found. The 
most important remains are those of the thermae. Some of these belong 
to the early empire, others to a late restoration. A long piece of the prin- 
cipal wall facing the main street has been found, and fragments of the 
inner walls, particularly three semicircular exedrae belonging to the original 
building; the floors in these rooms are suspensurae. One end of the rec- 
tangular enclosure was probably an open court, surrounded by dressing- 
rooms, etc. At one side drains have been found for carrying off water. 
One of these had been repaired with a slab containing an inscription in 
honor of Marcus Aurelius, dating 164-166. On the other side of the stone 
is a part of an earlier inscription, probably of the time of Augustus. 
Another inscription was discovered, a votive offering to Fortuna. Many 
marble architectural fragments were found, vase fragments, and sixteen 
coins of the years 86 to 383 A.D. (A. d'ANDRADE, Not. Scavi, April, 1899, 
pp. 107-124; 6 figs.) The thermae are the fourth great public building 
which has been definitely settled. Aosta was divided by the " Cardo Maxi- 
mus " and the " Decumanus Maximus," and by the four secondary streets 
running parallel with the Cardo and the Decumanus, into sixteen insulae, 
one of which was mainly occupied by the amphitheatre, one by the theatre, 
one by the granaries, and one by the newly discovered thermae. (LANCIANI, 
Athen. October 21, 1899.) 

ESTE. Roman Coins. A. Prosdocimi publishes in Not. Scam, 1899, 
pp. 73-76, a list of Roman coins found in the Villa del Maino-Bojani at Este 
in 1897. A money-box of red clay (Arretine ware) 100 mm. high and 
70 mm. in diameter contained 286 silver coins of various dates : a semi- 
victoriatus (of ca. 254 B.C.), "consular " coins representing seventy gentilicia, 



256 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

twenty-four coins of Octavianus, and one (imp. XIII) of Augustus Divi f. 
The same article mentions briefly other discoveries in the same villa, an 
ancient road, well paved, with high sidew r alks, floors of marble mosaic and 
brick, house walls, water pipes, etc. 

PIACENZA. An Inscription. On a stone slab in the old chapel of 
Santa Maria in Cortina, at Piacenza, the records of a local family of some 
importance have been found. Four members of the family are mentioned, 
the father, Lucius Caecilius Flaccus, the mother, Petronia, and two sons, 
Lucius and Quintus. Father and sons had risen to the highest honors in 
their native place. The first is styled quaestor, tribunus, and curator of the 
building of the great temple of Jupiter ; while of the two sons, one distin- 
guished himself in a legal, one in a military career. It appears from this 
inscription that Placentia was a municipium, not a colony. (LANCIANI, 
Athen. October 21, 1899; cf. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 124 f.) 

POMPEII. Excavations, December, 1898-May, 1899. From De- 
cember, 1898, to the middle of February, 1899, the work was continued 
behind the Curiae. Behind the western Curia a peristyle was uncovered 
belonging to a house, of which a part had already been cleared. See Not. 
Scavi, 1893, p. 35. This peristyle and the rooms about it could be entered 
from the public passage, which runs from the southern end of the Forum, 
between the western and central Curiae. In the first part of April the 
excavation was continued in Reg. V, Ins. IV and V, and numerous small 
objects were found, including a marble figure of Paris, a bust of a young 
satyr, a small marble altar, and fourteen bronze coins. On April 18 work 
was transferred to a point west of the Basilica, south of the ruins of the 
temple of Augustus. (A. SOGLIANO, Not. Scavi, April, 1899, pp. 140-146 ; 
2 figs.) 

Excavation was continued in March, 1899, in Ins. IV and V of Reg. V, 
and many articles of domestic use were found. The only object of note 
was a small bronze bust of Minerva. (A. SOGLIANO, Not. Scavi, March, 
1899; Ifig.) 

In May excavation was continued west of the Basilica and in Reg. IV, 
Ins. V. In the house, " No. 3, Ins. IV, Reg. V," two small cabinets were 
found. One of these was furnished with a drawer, inside of which were 
the following objects : eighty-seven silver denarii of the late republic ; forty- 
three imperial denarii, bearing the names of Augustus (1), Nero (1), 
Galba (2), Otho (1), Vespasian (29), Titus (5), and Domitian (4) ; fifty- 
four copper or bronze coins from the time of Augustus (1), Claudius (4), 
Nero (43), and Vespasian (6). One of these last, a dupondium of Nero, 
is unedited. 

In the same chest of drawers were found an earring of gold, a spoon, 
and a simpulum c. silver, a bronze figurine of the " Genius familiaris," two 
figurines of u Lares domestici," three objects cut in amber, probably chil- 
dren's toys, and several other articles in bronze, glass, bone, and terra-cotta. 
In the same room a graceful statuette of Venus Anadyomene was found, 
0.36 m. high, remarkable for traces of coloring and gilding. (A. SOGLIANO, 
Not. Scavi, May, 1899, pp. 202-208; 2 figs.; June, 1899, pp. 228-239; 
LANCIANI, Athen. October 21, 1899.) 

One hundred and nineteen graffiti found in this house, chiefly on the 
columns of the peristyle, are published by Sogiiano. Many of these, dis- 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 257 

covered when the house was partly excavated in 1888, had already been 
published by A. Mau, Rom. Mitth. 1890, pp. 25 f. Nearly all relate to 
gladiators, and the house was probably used as a gladiatorial school. Later 
it served another purpose, and to the later occupants are due two graffiti, 
one containing the name of L. Annaeus Seneca and the other a quotation 
from the Aeneid. 

In June, 1899, excavations were continued west of the basilica and in 
Reg. VI, Ins. XV, Nos. 14, 22, and 23. 

On May 23, 1898, work was resumed in the district of Civita, north of 
Pompeii. (Cf. Not. Scaui, 1898, pp. 494 f.) Several rooms were uncovered, 
belonging to a house adjoining the one already excavated. (Plan.) This 
is not then an isolated villa, but a suburb of Pompeii, probably the pagus 
Augustus Felix suburbanus. 

ROME. Excavations in the Forum. The larger part of Not. Scavi 
for May, 1899, is devoted to an official report on recent discoveries in the 
Roman Forum. On pp. 151-158 (18 figs.), Giacomo Boni describes briefly 
the result of excavations near the Arch of Severus. He describes the tufa 
platform below the lapis niger, the two bases, the inscribed cippus, and the 
lesser objects found here. 

On pp. 159-169, G. F. Gamurrini discusses palaeographically the inscrip- 
tion of the tufa cippus. The sacrificial remains found about it are surely as 
early as the first half of the sixth century B.C. The manner and form of 
the writing prove the same period for the inscription, which is (3ova-Tpo<f)r)&6v, 
and in Greek letters of the sort used in the part of Etruria nearest Rome, 
showing that Rome received the alphabet from Etruria, and especially from 
Caere. 

After a few brief observations by Giacomo Cortese (p. 170), Luigi Ceci 
discusses word by word the meaning of the inscription from a linguistic point 
of view. (pp. 171-200 ; see also B. Com. Roma, 1899, pp. 130 ft.) He com- 
pletes the inscription, starting with the supposition that it is a Lex Sacra of 
Numa, and adds an explanation. 

In discussing the age of the inscription, he calls attention to the d of 
capied, which had not yet been changed to t, to the locative plurals sakros 
and eidiasias, and to a local peculiarity, the use of h f or / ; also to the large 
proportion of words which have disappeared entirely from the Latin lan- 
guage as we have hitherto known it. The inscription is assigned to the 
seventh century B.C. The mutilation of the stone is due to the Gallic inva- 
sion. The inscription is probably not metrical, but has the characteristics 
of rhythmic prose. A summary of the report is given by R. Lanciani, Athen. 
July 22, 1899. In Berl. Phil. W. August 5, 1899, Chr. Hiilsen describes, with 
a plan and facsimile, the discovery of the archaic inscription under the black 
pavement. 

The discoveries in the Forum are briefly described by G. Gatti, Not. Scavi, 
1899, pp. 77-87, 127-139, by Thedenat, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 325-326, 
341-342, and by L. Duchesne, ibid. pp. 339-341. Thomas Ashby, Jr., Cl. R. 
1899, pp. 321-322, gives a brief summary of the work up to June. R. Lan- 
ciani, Athen. July 22, September 2 and 30, October 21, December 2 and 16, 
1899, and January 13, 1900, St. Clair Baddeley, Athen. July 8 and September 
16, 1899, and Richard Norton, Nation, July 27, 1899 (cf. ibid. November 30), 
give brief reports. 



258 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

In Berl Phil W. December 2, 1899, Chr. Hiilsen describes the excavations 
on the site of the Basilica Aemilia, and ibid. December 9, those of the Regia, 
the House of the Vestals, the Clivus Capitolinus, the neighborhood of the 
Basilica of Constantine, and the Temple of Romulus, adding brief mention 
of the restoration of columns and bases in the Forurn. (See also G. Boni, 
Not. Scavi, June, 1899, pp. 220-223.) 

In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 459-463, Abbe Thedenat describes excava- 
tions in the Forum, with especial attention to this inscription : 

[L. Cae]sari Aug[us~]ti f. Divi n. \ [prin]cipi iuvenlu[ti]s. cos. desig. \ 
[cum e]sxet ann. nat. xiiii. Aug. \ Senatus [populmque Romanwtf] 

This was found with architectural fragments near the Temple of Antoni- 
nus and Faustina. It may have been part of the portico of Lucius and 
Gaius (SUETONIUS, August. 29). The letters are those of the time of 
Augustus. (Cf. B. Com. Roma, 1899, p. 141.) 

The following notes on excavations in the Forum since July 1, 1899, are 
from a letter from Samuel Ball Platner, dated December 30, 1899. 

The houses between S. Lorenzo in Miranda (templum divae Faustinas) 
and S. Adriano (the Curia) have been torn down arid the whole space 
occupied by the Basilica Aemilia uncovered. The appearance of the Vicus 
Tuscus has been changed by the removal of the basalt pavement of the 
Imperial period for most of the distance along the short side of the Basilica 
Julia, and the discovery, 3 feet below the old pavement, of a piece of 
pavement, about 45 feet long, made of small pieces of brick. The west side 
of the podium of the Temple of Castor has been entirely uncovered down 
to the massive lower foundations of the spur walls on which stood the great 
columns. A sewer under the Vicus Jugarius has been cleared out, and a 
shaft at the west end of the Basilica Julia shows deep substructures beneath. 
Directly in front of the Temple of Saturn an old channel of tufa was found 
running back under the present road. Between this and the pronaos of the 
Temple of Concord a whole network of ancient channels and foundation 
walls of tufa has been found. 

The southeastern corner of the foundations of the pronaos of the Temple 
of Concord has been uncovered, and close by it is visible the bare tufa of 
the Capitoline hill. Between this slope of the hill and the back of the so- 
called Graecostasis the excavations have disclosed a series of travertine steps 
which lead up to the top of this curious structure, and originally extended 
across its whole length. 

Further digging around the ancient tufa walls at the southwest corner of 
the Arch of Severus has shown that they extend deep below the present 
level of the ground, and run at different angles, but they cannot be identified. 
In front of the Arch of Severus begins the line along which the main work 
of the past months has been done. The whole front wall of San Adriano, 
the Curia of Diocletian, and the Comitium are now in sight. The Comitium 
is paved with blocks of travertine and extends to and around the lapis niger, 
which, although on the same level, is protected on at least two sides by a 
sort of curb. This pavement of the Comitium extends out to a point 
directly opposite the middle of the Arch of Severus, and ends just beyond 
the lapis niger with a curved front wall, which is itself built over an older 
tufa pavement. Further back it also rests upon older structures. Part of 
the Comitium had evidently been built over at a late period in something 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 259 

the same way as the Basilica Aemilia. Some of the stones used in this 
later building are slabs of marble and bases containing honorary inscriptions 
to Constantine, Constantius, and Theodosius. At least two other similar 
pedestals stand on the pavement, one dedicated to Constantine, the other to 
Mars and Romulus and Remus. .The holes in the top of this latter show 
that it was the pedestal for a statue of bronze, possibly of the Capitoline 
Wolf. The dedication appears to have taken place under Maxentius. In 
the front wall of the Curia, just below the former level of the ground, are 
several loculi on either side of the door. In one of them there still lies the 
complete skeleton of a human being, doubtless that of some dignitary wha 
was buried in the outer instead of the inner wall of the building after it 
became a church. The filling up of the old doorway is plainly visible, and 
a few bits of the marble lining of the plinth are still in situ. A few frag- 
ments of marble decorations were found at the foot of the wall, among them 
the capital of a pilaster of composite style, though broken in many pieces. 
The Basilica Aemilia is now seen, as was generally supposed to be the- 
case, to have corresponded in the main to the Basilica Julia ; but it was not 
so deep in proportion to its length. The travertine foundations of eleven 
of the front columns can be traced, and portions of the marble steps 
running along this front are in situ. Some parts of the rear walls are also 
still standing. They are built of excellent opus quadratum of the time of 
Augustus, and correspond with those in the rear of the Basilica Julia. The 
marble pavement at the entrance to the basilica is covered with tabulae 
lusoriae, such as are so numerous in the Basilica Julia. The Basilica 
Aemilia was evidently destroyed in the fifth century, when some sort of 
rebuilding took place in the interior. Somewhat later another structure 
seems to have been built across the 'hall, and over this later mediaeval walls. 
The different sorts of tufa used at the different periods can be distinguished, 
and the complex of walls may prove useful in studying the building methods 
of the latest period of the Empire and the early Middle Ages. For the 
threshold of one of the later buildings, a block of marble was used which 
formed a part of the second table of the Fasti Capitolini on the Regia. 
Most of the inscribed face of this block is cut away, but six inches of the 
original surface is left, on which are found three lines of each column of 
the Fasti. In one column are the names of the magistrates of 380 B.C., and 
in the other those of 331 B.C. 

The work has shown that the whole Forum was crossed in every direction 
by a network of sewers and drains. One large sewer comes down from the- 
Yelia along the northern edge of the Forum, and other smaller ones empty 
into that and into the Cloaca Maxima. 

The passage between the Basilica of Constantine and the church of 
SS. Cosmo e Damiano has been opened, and the space back of the rear wall 
on which was affixed the marble plan of the city, has been cleared for a 
distance of about 50 feet. Portions of a beautiful pavement of square slabs 
of colored marble have been found here, but no more fragments of the 
marble plan. 

In front of the Basilica of Constantine, the basalt pavement of the 
road has been taken up and an older pavement of the Sacra Via found at a 
depth of 6 feet beneath the later. Under the church of S. Francesca Romana, 
a bit of pavement, still earlier and deeper, has been found. Between the 



260 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Basilica and the pavement, very late imperial and mediaeval walls are found 
running in various directions. Just across the road are the concrete founda- 
tions of a large structure, perhaps the Portions Margaritaria, which was 
built at such an angle that it crossed the pavement itself at the upper end. 
Two more broken columns of porphyry, belonging to the faade of the 
Basilica, have been found. 

The remains of the Domus Publica have been excavated so far as pos- 
sible, and previous conclusions confirmed. The Atrium Vestae was built 
over part of this house, and still later structures were erected upon its founda- 
tions on the north side near the line of the Sacra Via. Of the early building 
many more walls of tufa, opus quadratum, and opus reticulatum have come to 
light, and travertine steps and bases of columns. Several remnants of 
pavements of herring-bone brick and mosaic have also been found. 

"Within the Atrium Vestae the excavations have been carried on in 
several spots beneath the previous level, and in every case earlier walls, 
pavements, and channels for water with drains have been found. Along 
the southern edge of the peristyle, a pavement of herring-bone brick is 
found beneath the later pavement made of small bits of basalt. The earth 
in the rooms south of the peristyle has been cleared out, and in two of them, 
about 2 feet below the former level, were found pavements of colored mar- 
bles. In the second room, starting from S. Maria Liberatrice, was found 
in a drain what had been a sack filled with gold coins. There were 397 
in all, and of seven varieties. More than three hundred belonged to the 
Emperor Anthemius (died 472 A.D.), eleven to his wife, the Empress Eufemia, 
one to Constantius II (335-361), and the rest to the Emperors Marcianus, 
Livius Severus, Valentinian III, and Leo I (457-474). In one of the rooms 
to the northeast of the so-called Tablinum is an old altar of tufa with 
stucco facing, surrounded by a low tufa wall. This may have belonged 
to the earlier Regia, as it has an orientation different from that of the 
Atriurn. 

The Regia has been completely excavated. All that was previously 
visible was part of the line of the cross walls. As it now presents itself to 
our view, it fills the space between the line of the Sacra Via and the path 
which ran along the north of the Domus Publica. It is plain that after 
these buildings took their later shape, there was no room for a street 
between the Regia and the Atrium Vestae. The Regia in its present form 
is very irregular, and it would be quite impossible to describe the crossing 
and recrossing of the walls of different epochs and rebuildings without an 
elaborate plan. 

At the eastern end parts of the marble steps of the entrance are to be 
seen. On the podium of the building are two things of especial interest. 
One is a raised platform of tufa about 15 by 11 feet, on which stands a 
round substructure of tufa about 6 feet in diameter and 1 foot in height. 
This is supposed by some to be the Sacrarium Martis. To the right of this 
is a deep well, or rather cistern or tholus, lined with cement, which seems to 
have been a repository for grain and has been identified with the Sacrarium 
of Ops Consiva which was in the Regia. In this tholus were found many 
fragments of pottery, eighty stilt, and one wooden writing tablet. These 
instruments probably came from some schola for the 'subordinate officials of 
the College of Pontiffs, evidence for the existence of which is found by 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 261 

Iliilsen in an inscription discovered in the Regia, which, put together with 
another piece found in 1546, reads as follows : 

in HONOREM DOMVS AVGVSTAE KALATORES PONTIFICVM ET FLAMINVM 

This probably formed the entrance of a small schola built against the south- 
west corner of the Regia. Not even a fragment of the Fasti has been found 
during these latest excavations. 

Several deep wells stand inside or close beside' the building, especially 
noticeable being one with well-preserved curb of peperino directly in the 
path between the southwestern corner of the Regia and the walls of the 
Domus Publica. In the curb of one of these wells is a block of marble with 
the inscription REGIA, in letters of the second century B.C. The Arch of 
Augustus has been restored to the extent of putting in place, with the help 
of brick work, those pieces of the arch which lay near by. 

A Roman House under the Church of S. Cecilia. The excavations 
under S. Cecilia found a starting point in the remains of a bathing apart- 
ment in and round the chapel of the saint at the end of the right aisle, and 
it was seen at once that this formed part of a palace, the remains of which 
extend even beyond the area of the church. The walls are of brickwork of 
the later half of the second century, with restorations of the third. The 
pavements are of mosaic in chiaroscuro, and the house is rich in columns 
and other marble decorations. Remains of a bath and heating apparatus 
are visible. Two marble sarcophagi have also been unearthed (one with 
the Calydonian Hunt in full relief), used again for Christian burial, proba- 
bly at the time of Paschal I, 821 A.D., who rebuilt the old oratory of Urban I 
and gave it the present basilican type. Among the materials collected for 
the intended reconstruction is one of the cippi of the Pomerium. The 
inscription is couched in the same terms as C.I.L. VI, No. 1232, and explains 
how the emperors Vespasian and Titus auctis populi Romani Jinibus enlarged 
at the same time the limits of the city in the year of their censorship 74 A.D. 
(R. LANCIANI, A then. January 13, 1900.) 

Epitaphs. In and near the new church of the Carmelites on the Corso 
d' Italia, between the via Salaria Vetus and the Salaria Nova, about 150 epi- 
taphs have been found. Some of these, of the usual stereotyped forms, are 
published in B. Com. Roma, 1899, pp. 154-167. A few others are commented 
upon by Lanciani in Afhen. October 21, 1899. 

Various Archaeological Notes. In Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 127-139, 200- 
202, G. Gatti mentions several minor discoveries in Rome, besides describing 
the excavations in the Forum. II Popolo Romano, December 31, 1899, an- 
nounces that the church of S. Maria Liberatrice has been expropriated for 
the excavations of the Forum. In Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 223-227, D. Vaglieri 
publishes a military diploma found in the bed of the Tiber. The soldier 
belonged to the cohort I Flavia Canathenorum of the army of Rhaetia. The 
date is 162 A.D. A portion of the pavement of the Via Clodia has been laid 
bare about three miles from the Porta del Popolo. It is lined with sepul- 
chral monuments. Between the second and third milestones of the Via 
Labicana remains of a circular tomb of the Sergia family have been found. 
It probably dates from the time of Augustus. Another tomb, inscribed with 
the name of Andia Petronia, has been found in the Campo Verano. (LAN- 
, Athen. September 30, 1899.) Part of an ancient building with some 



262 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

mosaic pavement has been found in laying the foundations of the new 
" Polyclinic " on the east side of the Praetorian camp. Part of an ancient 
road and remains of a columbarium have been found at the same place. 
(LANCIANI, A then. September 30 and October 21, 1899.) A marble sar- 
cophagus, ornamented with festoons and cupids and inscribed with the 
name of Zosimus, son of Zosimus and Chryseis, has been found on the Via 
Ostiensis, not far from the tomb of St. Paul. (LANCIAXI, Athen. October 
21, 1899.) 

The Museum in the Villa di Papa Giulio. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, 
pp. 532-337, is a French translation of an article in the Munich Allgemeine 
Zeitung, Beilage, July 19, criticising the report of the commission to investi- 
gate Helbig's charges against the management of the museum in the Villa 
di Papa Giulio, and showing that the excavations to which the museum 
owes its formation were ill conducted and incompletely and falsely reported. 
Incidentally the management of other Italian museums is criticised. The 
Berl. Phil. W. July 22, 1899, contains an article by F. v. Duhn on the same 
subject. The commission, consisting of the president, Bonasi, and two spe- 
cialists, Pigorini and Ghirardini, investigated Helbig's charges, which were 
four in number : (1) The excavations were not conducted by the government 
and were not properly watched; (2) In Vol. IV of the Monumenti Antichi 
and the accompanying atlas the plans of the groups of graves are incorrect ; 
(3) In the arrangement of articles in the museum objects from one grave 
were often interchanged with those from another, so that, e.g. objects from 
tombe a fossa were assigned to tombe a pozze and vice versa, and tombe a fossa 
are credited with objects found in tombe a camera; (4) Important objects 
from some tombs were removed and others put in their places. The first 
charge is shown to be justified, but the injury to science is believed to be 
comparatively slight, as the chief excavator, Faneto Benedetti, is a trust- 
worthy man. The second charge is found to be on the whole unjustified, 
although some irregularities appear. The third charge is hard to disprove, 
for the lists, with the exception of the sale-inventory, were written after the 
objects were brought to the museum ; but it is found to be on the whole 
unjustified, except, perhaps, as regards grave XXXIX. The fourth charge i& 
refuted in toto. These charges refer to the objects from Narce, and the com- 
mission remarks that the objects from Falerii, Corchiano, etc., in connection 
with which there are no irregularities, are more important than those from 
Narce. In general, matters are not so bad as Helbig represented, but the 
commission recommends certain changes in administration. A somewhat 
personal attack upon Helbig is added, and the wish is expressed that for- 
eigners be prevented from excavating. The French School is accused of 
having excavated at Conca, but the accusation has been met by an official 
denial. The rejvcrt of the commission, < Inchiesta sul Museo di Villa Giulia,* 
appears as a supplement to the Bullettino Ufficiale of the Italian Ministry of 
Education of July 10. 

TARANTO. Early Pottery. At " Scoglio del Tonno," near Taranto, 
three layers of archaic remains have been found. The upper one contains 
local pottery, earlier than the "Proto-Corinthian," with simple geometrical 
ornamentation. The middle layer, belonging to the period of the terramare, 
contains traces of habitations on palisades and the characteristic utensils of 
the inhabitants of the terramare, showing that their civilization was not 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 263 

confined to Northern Italy. In the lowest layer are neolithic implements. 
(K. LANCIANI, citing Q. QUAGLIATJ, A then. September 2, 1899.) 

TURIN. Inscriptions. The discovery of two inscriptions near the 
Palazzo Reale at Turin is recorded by A. d'Andrade, Not. Scavi, June, 1899, 
pp. 209-213; 6 figs. They are discussed by A. Taramelli, ibid. pp. 213-216. 
In the first, which possibly comes from the Roman theatre, remains of 
which were found from August to October, 1899, it is important to note 
the presence at Augusta Taurinorum of members of the royal family of 
Segusio, and the connection that must have existed between the two cities. 
The inscription is in two lines, of which two fragments that belong together 
form the end. Dorinus and Cottius are mentioned, but whether the latter 
is the son or grandson of the first Cottius cannot be determined. The 
inscription is not later than Claudius. In the second inscription, which is 
an epitaph, L. Flavius Celer is turarius and also sevir Augustalis. The writer 
suggests that the business of the turarius had a certain religious character. 

DISCOVERIES IN SICILY AND SOUTHERN ITALY. Pro- 
fessor Orsi has recognized, as the site of the ancient Helorus, a small hill 
in the district of Noto, between the coast and the left bank of the Tellaro. 
Remains of the wall have been found, probably of the second half of the 
fifth century B.C. Two groups of tombs have been brought to light, an 
early one and a later one of the fourth and third centuries B.C. This second 
group surrounds the large column called Piliere or Pizzuta, which is found 
to contain a sepulchral chamber of the third century B.C. (Rend. Ace. 
Lincei, VIII, fasc. 3-4, p. 149 ; P. ORSI, Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 241-244 ; 1 fig.) 
At Ragusa, Orsi has found the necropolis of Hybla Heraea. Twenty-four 
tombs containing Greek pottery of, for the most part, the sixth century B.C., 
have been opened. Remains of a building have been found. (II Popolo 
Romano, December 27, 1899.) Under the title ' Funde und Forschungen,' 
E. Petersen gives in Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 163-192 (6 figs.), an account of 
discoveries and investigations at Sicily and Southern Italy by Orsi, Colini, 
and others. P. Orsi, in B. Paletn. It. 1899, Nos. 1-3, p. 52, warns archaeolo- 
gists against bronzes of Southern Italy, offered at Catania as products of 
secret excavations in Sicily. 

ENEOLITHIC TOMBS IN NORTHERN ITALY. In the province 
of Brescia two tombs of the eneolithic period have been discovered, contain- 
ing objects of stone, copper, and terra-cotta. Another tomb of the eneolithic 
period, with similar equipment, has been found on the right bank of the 
Gambera, in the district of Cremona. This tomb intact and the objects 
found in the two others have been sent to the Prehistoric Museum in Rome. 
(G. A. COLINI, B. Paletn. It. 1899, Nos. 1-3, pp. 28-32; 4 pis.) 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. At Carpena, near Forli, a deposit of 
fifty-nine coins of the later republic, hidden perhaps when Sulla returned to 
Italy, has been found. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 126 f . ; A then. October 21, 
1899.) At Contigliano a large deposit has been found, and 647 silver 
denarii have been rescued from the hands of the discoverers. They belong 
to about one hundred consular families. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 146 f. ; 
Athen. October 21, 1899.) At Cori, part of an ancient reservoir has been 
found. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 202 f.). Near Fabriaiio, in Umbria, an early 
tomb was found, containing vases of bronze and clay and fragments of a 
chariot similar to that from the " tomba del duce " at Vetulonia. (II Popolo 



264 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Romano, December 27, 1899.) At Faiio, in the former convent of S. Filippo, 
remains of a public edifice and statues of members of the imperial family 
of the first century have been found. Various antiquities, including some 
unpublished inscriptions, are collected in the Palazzo Malatestiano. (Rend. 
Ace. Lincei, VIII, p. 97; Athen. December 2, 1899.) At Fossambrone 
and the neighborhood, various terra-cottas and other objects have been 
found, and a museum has been formed in the public library. (Rend. Ace. 
Lincei, VIII, p. 98.) In Forli (at Vecchiazzano) a Koman tile, stamped 
Q. ALB|H, in letters of the first century of the Empire, has been found. 
(Not. Scavi, 1899, p. 217.) A milestone of the Via Appia, bearing the 
number L\\\\ has been discovered in the abbey of Fossanova. (Not. 
Scavi, 1899, p. 102.) At Gioia dei Marsi nearly a thousand coins were 
found, but most of them have disappeared. Some four hundred, mostly 
common silver denarii, have been recovered. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 146 f. ; 
Athen. October 21, 1899.) At Marano, near Naples, a mosaic representing 
a wrestling match and a sarcophagus with Tritons, Nereids, and Cupids 
have been found. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 140 f.) A fragment of a lamp, 
with Cupids trying to lift the club of Hercules and the inscription adiuvate 
sodales, has come to light. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 76 f .) A sepulchral inscrip- 
tion of a magistrate of Beneventurn has been found at Faduli. (Not. Scavi, 
1899, pp. 149 f.) At Frezza, in the district of the Paeligni, a pithos with 
the inscription PCXXIX has been found. Some ancient remains have also 
been found near Cocullo. (Not. Scavi, 1899, pp. 239 f.) Etruscan tombs 
of the second century B.C. and earlier have been found at Sinalunga. (Not. 
Scavi, 1899, pp. 217-220.) At Sulmona tombs, walls, and a fragment of 
an inscription in the dialect of the Paeligni have been found. (Rend. Ace. 
Lincei, VIII, p. 148. See Not. Scavi, 1899, p. 148.) A fragmentary inscrip- 
tion, a dedication to Septimius Severus, dated 212 A.D., has been found at 
Teramo. (// Popolo Romano, November 20 and December 27, 1899.) At 
Terni ruins of an ancient building, some terra-cotta vases, and a brick 
stamp were found some years ago. (Not. Scavi, 1899, p. 76.) Three sar- 
cophagi of great value have been discovered near Velletri. (77 Popolo 
Romano, November 19, 1899.) In Arch. Anz. 1899, 2, pp. 59-66, H. Graeven 
gives a summary of discoveries in Italy in 1898, calling attention to the 
reasons for attaching importance to some of them. 

SPAIN 

CORONADA. Bronze Pot. A bronze pot (godet), found in 1884 
in a Roman mine at Coronada in the province of Huelva, is published 
and discussed by Arthur Engel, Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1899, pp. 249- 
252 (cut). The^ot is inscribed L VIBI AMANTI P XIIS ; i.e. the 
maker's name and the weight, 12$ pounds. The pot weighs 3367 grammes. 
This gives- a pound of 269.6 grammes, a weight hitherto unknown. The 
mines of the province of Huelva have furnished numerous relics of antiquity, 
now preserved in various places. Tombs have also been opened at Coronada. 
The ancient tombs of Spain are of many different kinds, and have not been 
thoroughly classified. 

VILLAFRANCA DE LOS BARROS. An Inscription on a Brick. 
An inscription cut in rude letters on a brick before it was burnt was 
recently found at Villafranca de los Barros, and published by the Marquis 



FKANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 265 

de Monsalud, B. Ac. flint. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 416 ff. It is republished with 
a commentary by Emil Hiibner, Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1899, pp. 253- 
256. It reads : Maximus Nigriano. \ Et hoc fait providentia \ actor is, utpuellam 
qu[e~] iam \feto tollerat, mitteres \ iitam, ac tale Lahore ut \ mancipius domnicus I 
periret, qui tarn may no \ labori factus fuerat, \ et hoc Maxima fecit \ Trofimiani 
fota; et castiga ilium: quasi ex omni \ closus est. . . . The writer was proba- 
bly a slave or a freedman. The writing is a mixture of capitals, uncials, 
and a running hand. The sense is obscure. The probable date is not far 
from 200 A.D. 

MADRID. The Ass of Silenus. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 
pp. 245-248 (pi.; 2' figs.), Pierre Paris publishes a bronze belonging to Don 
Antonio Vives at Madrid. Two similar bronzes are published in De' bronzi 
di Ercolano e conform, Naples, 1767, pp. 83 and 221, Vols. XXI, XXII, LXV, 
LXVI. The Madrid bronze seems to be the best. An ass's head is repre- 
sented, with a broad collar and a wreath of ivy. This is no common ass, 
but a member of the thiasus of Dionysus, the ass of Silenus. Like his 
master, he is a little tipsy. The bronze was originally part of a chair or 
bisellium. 

PORTUGAL 

EVORA (EBORA OR MUNICIPIUM LIBERALITAS JULIA). 

Inscription. The following dedicatory inscription contains the name of 
a strange divinity, Runesus Cesius : 

Sanct(o) Runeso Cesio sacrum G(aius) Lic[inius~\ Q,uinctinu[i\ Bals(en*is}. 

As run- may be Celtic, with the force " mysterious," and the suffix appears 
in other proper names in the south of Portugal, e.g. Lobesus, and as 
Cesius may be for Gaesius, cf. Latin gaesum of Celtic origin, meaning 
"dart," the Runesus Cesius may mean "the god armed with a dart." 
Celtic influence in the religion of the Roman epoch in Lusitania is then 
established. (B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, p. 286.) 

FRANCE 

AGEN. Relief representing Apollo. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, 
pp. 249-254, pi., a relief representing Apollo is published by Tholin, The 
god is nude, holds a bow in his left hand, and wears a quiver over his right 
shoulder. The right forearm and hand are gone. At the god's right stands 
a bird, perhaps a raven. The block is 0.90 m. high by 0.60 m. wide. The 
work is good and is to be assigned to an early date. Near the relief were 
found a fragment of a cornice, some bronze objects, and a fragment of stone 
with traces of sculptured feathers. The building to which it belonged was 
probably destroyed in the first invasion of the barbarians, 276 A.D. 

BEIRE-LE-CH ATEL. Altar to the Deae Matres. In B. M. Soc. 
Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 316-319, Abbe Morillot publishes the inscription of an 
altar found near the temple at Beire-le-chatel. It reads : Dis M\atribu\s 
Vinl\edo | v(otum} s(plvit) l(ibens} m(erito). Inscriptions to the Deae Matres 
are rare in Burgundy. Remains of an aedicula were found near the altar. 

BORDEAUX. Moulds for Imitating Coins. In 1884, apparently, 
remains of an ancient pottery were found at Bordeaux. Among other 
things were terra-cotta moulds for casting imitations of coins. Four of the 



266 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

types represent Julia Domna, Septimius Severus or Caracalla, Caracalla, 
-Gordianus III, Hercules. They appear to belong to the fourth century after 
.Christ. (LAFAYE, B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr..l899, pp. 195-197.) 

BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. Latin Inscriptions. Heron de Villefosse 
publishes in B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 409-412, two inscriptions from the 
Roman cemetery of Vieil-Atre at Boulogne. The first reads: D. \_M.~] | P. 
Vongidiai \ Saturninai \ vixit annis XX \ Valerius Nal\alis uxori pi\entissimai 
bene merenti \ {Je\cit. The name Vongidia is unknown, or at least very un- 
common. That a woman has a praenomen is unusual, but not unexampled. 
The second inscription reads : D. M. Exsupere \ annoru m XXX. Ma\ter 



MONTEREAU. Statuette of Mercury. A bronze statuette of Mer- 
cury, found in the Seine near Montereau in February, 1899, is published by 
Paul Quesvers, B. M. Soc. A nt. Fr. 1899, pp. 201-203 ; pi. It is of very rough 
workmanship. The god holds the remains of his caduceus in his right hand, 
a purse in his left. He wears winged shoes and has wings on his hat. The 
whole effect of the figure is such as to remind one of a mediaeval devil. 

PARIS. Acquisitions of the Louvre in 1898. A list of the acqui- 
sitions of the department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the Louvre 
in 1898 is published in B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 415-428. It enumerates 
thirteen statues and busts of marble, seven marble reliefs, seventeen inscrip- 
tions and various objects of marble, five statues and busts of stone, one relief 
and two inscriptions in stone, thirty-one bronzes, nine objects of gold, seven 
objects of silver, six intaglios and a fish in hard stone, twenty-nine glass 
objects, three terra-cotta fragments, a large number of small objects of ivory, 
bone, arid lead. Perhaps the most important are a head of a marble Roman 
replica of the Athena Parthenos from near Civita Vecchia (Not. Scavi, 1895, 
p. 195; Rom. Mitth. 1895, p. 92), the inscription relating to the reconstruc- 
tion of a temple by the women of Tanagra (R. Et. Gr. 1899, pp. 53-115), a 
gold ornament from Camirus (Catal. Tyszkiewicz, No. 203), and four pieces 
of silverware from Carthage (not from Torre del Greco, Catal. Tyszkiewicz, 
Nos. 226-229). (Cf. Arch. Anz. 1899, 3, pp. 147-153.) 

An Oriental Mould. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 407-410, E. Babe- 
Ion publishes (cut) and discusses a serpentine mould recently acquired by 
the Cabinet des Medailles. It represents a man and a woman, between 
whom is an ibex standing on his hind legs. Both figures wear a sort of 
striped skirt. The man has a pointed hat, the woman a head-dress more 
nearly in the shape of a crescent. Both hold their hands on their breasts. 
The man holds over his right shoulder a sceptre adorned with what may be 
a large bird. Two other moulds, one in the Louvre, the other in the Cabi- 
net des Medailles, show marked similarity to this. The work is probably 
Hittite. 

SAINT-MORE (YONNE). The Camp of Chora. In R. Arch. 
XXXV, 1899, pp. 218-225 (2 cuts), Abbe Fr. Pouiaine describes the camp of 
Chora at Saint-More. Here is an early wall, and objects of all periods from 
the neolithic to Merovingian times. Although never a large town, Chora 
was a fortification of no slight importance in Gallo-Roman times. 

SOISSONS. Gallo-Roman Graves. At Les Longues-Raies, in the 
territory of Soissons, many graves were opened in 1897 and 1898. No cer- 
tain signs of cremation were discovered, though three small stone urns in 



GERMANY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 267 

the shape of rectangular houses may have been intended to hold ashes. In 
,some graves were many objects buried with the dead, in others nothing what- 
ever. Pottery, glassware, bronze pins and utensils, and Roman coins were 
found. These last make it appear that the graves belong to the first two 
centuries after Christ. (O. VAUVILLE, B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 163-168.) 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 
LAUREGNO. Copper Ingots. In B. Paletn. It. 1899, pp. 37-42, L. 

de Canipi announces the discovery of four ancient ingots of copper at Lau- 
regno, in the district of Trent, and argues that such collections were a sort 
of buried treasure, which in some cases had a religious character. 

OSSERO. Roman Coins. A number of coins, 475 in all, rang- 
ing from the year 254 B.C. to the year 4 B.C., was lately discovered at Ossero, 
in the Adriatic. (A then. November 25, 1899.) 

PETTAU. Mithras Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, 
Beiblatt, pp. 97-102, W. Gurlitt continues his preliminary report of excava- 
tions at Pettau. He publishes an inscription: Invict(o) Mithrae \ et transitu 
Dei | Theodoras p(ublici) p(ortorii)< | scrut(ator) stat(ionis) Poet(ovionensis), \ 
ex visit. The expression transitus Dei seems to mean that the god is 
thought of as one who passes by, from darkness to light, or from the 
lower to the upper w^orld. Other inscriptions from the mithraeum are 
discussed. 

POLA, TRIESTE, PERASTO. Greek Sepulchral Inscriptions. 
In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, p. 102, R. Weisshaupl publishes a late 
inscription on a Lycian sarcophagus in Pola. Ibid. pp. 103-105, P. Sticotti 
publishes a stele from Smyrna in Trieste and two stelae built into the 
town hall at Perasto, whither they were brought about a century ago from 
Asia Minor. 

GERMANY 

THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. The annual 
report of the Institute was presented at the general meeting of the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences, June 8, 1899. The publications of the Institute had 
progressed satisfactorily. The Roman and Athenian branches had carried 
on their meetings, excursions, and researches with success. Excavations 
had been undertaken at various sites. 

ARCHAEOLOGY FOR GYMNASIUM INSTRUCTORS. Vaca- 
tion courses for gymnasium instructors were held in 1899 in Berlin, Munich, 
.and Dresden at Easter, and in Bonn at Whitsuntide. An account of these 
courses, with a list of the numerous and various subjects treated, is con- 
tained in Arch. Anz. 1899, pp. 96-98. 

BERLIN. Acquisitions of Ancient Coins. The Berlin Museum 
has recently acquired 102 Greek and 77 Roman coin's. Noteworthy Greek 
coins are : a gold stater of Demetrius Poliorcetes, hitherto known only in a 
specimen in Florence, two tetradrachms of Amphipolis, with the head of 
Apollo in front face, a beautiful tetradrachm of Lysimachus, a tetradrachm 
of Cydonia, several very rare silver coins of Panticapaeum and Phanagoria, 
two hitherto unknown fractions of the Persian daric, a silver stater of Mallus, 
a drachma of Sinope, a didrachm of Allifae and a diobolos of Rhegium. 
Some interesting imperial copper coins from Moesia and Thrace, a quarter 



268 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

shekel of Simon Maccabaeus of the year 4, and a rare triens of Calatia 
deserve mention. Among Roman coins are a denarius of L. Praetorius 
Cestianus, with the head of Brutus, a hitherto unknown large bronze of the 
younger Agrippina, a fresh specimen of Fausta as nobilissima femina, and 
two contorniates, one with a portrait of Sallust, the other with two theatre 
masks. (Berl. Phil. W. October 14, 1899.) 

The Hildesheim Silver Treasure II. Further work on the Hildes- 
heim table-service (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 148) has produced some impor- 
tant restorations. A beautiful folding tripod consists of uprights in the 
form of elongated Hermae connected by sliding crossed bands and ending- 
in knobs to fit under the rounded brim of the silver table top, which it 
supported. Design and ornamentation correspond to the third Pompeian 
style of the time of Augustus. A large bell-shaped crater with slender 
spiral handles has an enamelled necklace ornament beneath the brim and 
a heavier leaf design on the bottom. The flat brim of a large round plate 
is found to have been covered originally with a' rich relief of vine leaves 
and grapes, a few fragments of which remain. The decorative handles 
have been restored to one of the three sets of platters, which was otherwise 
quite without ornament. The design of the hand-ewer is complete, all but 
the foot; and the feet of many of the vessels have been more correctly 
assigned, with the help of the weight marks. 

The Antiquarium has acquired also a flask-shaped silver vase from Boeotia,. 
an early, perhaps fourth century, example of free leaf-and-tendril ornament. 
The Hermopolis silver treasure has been increased to twenty-three pieces,, 
and the weight marks show that the service, when complete, was very 
extensive, including, for instance, one set of two dozen cups. Six little egg: 
cups are among those preserved. (E. PERNICE, Arch. Anz. 1899, 3, pp. 121- 
130 ; 14 cuts.) 

BREMEN. Meeting of Philologists and Schoolmen. The forty- 
fifth meeting of German Philologists and Schoolmen was held at Bremen^ 
September 26-30, 1899. Three pieces of ancient Greek music arranged by 
A. Thierfelder were played. Papers of archaeological interest were : Schuch- 
hardt, on ' German-Roman Investigations in Northwestern Germany ' ; Bulle, 
on ' The Barberini Faun ' (wrongly restored, the right leg should be les& 
bent and in an easier position, while the left hand may have held lightly a 
thyrsus leaning against the shoulder. The statue probably Alexandrian, 
of the first half of the third century B.C.) ; Theodor Schreiber, on Recent 
Progress of Discovery at Alexandria' (telling of the discovery of graves 
and remains of buildings, and dividing Greek art in Egypt into three 
periods : first, the period of imported art, chiefly of Attic style ; second, the 
period of the Alexandrian ideal style ; third, that of Alexandrian natural- 
ism) ; Zimmerer, * Stereopticon Pictures from Syria and Asia Minor,' belong- 
ing to the Art Firm Photocol in Munich (views of scenery as well as of 
buildings, etc.). (Berl. Phil. W. November, 4, 11, and 18, 1899.) 

LUXEMBURG 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES PROM 1845 TO 1897. 
In R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 407-418, J. Keiffer continues his account of 
discoveries in Luxemburg, describing the Roman establishments at Altrier, 
Tossenberg, and Mersch in detail, and publishing several inscriptions. 



ENGLAND] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 269 

Ibid. XXXV, 1899, pp. 439-452 (sketch map), he discusses the Roman 
roads of Luxemburg, especially the route Reims-Meduantum-Cologne and 
lleims-Arlon-Treves. 

ENGLAND 

A BRITISH SCHOOL AT ROME. An influential committee has 
been formed for the purpose of promoting the establishment of a British 
School at Rome on lines more or less similar to those of the School which 
was established some years ago at Athens, and an executive committee has 
issued a statement with an appeal for public support. 

The statement refers to the success of the British School at Athens, and 
points out that a School at Rome would be of great importance. While 
the work of the School at Rome would be similar to that of the School at 
Athens, its scope would be much broader, though it would be debarred from 
undertaking excavations. The School would assist and interest students- 
of mediaeval and renaissance art as well as classical students. Further 
suggestions are made in regard to the management of the School. The 
appeal is published in full in the London Times, November 25, 1899, and 
the Times contributes a vigorous editorial in support of the movement. In 
Athen. December 9, 1899, H. F. P. explains the purpose and importance of 
the proposed school. 

[The School is to open in the autumn of 1900.] 

THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS. The annual meeting of the 
subscribers to the British School at Athens was held in London, October 26, 
1899. The business of the meeting was transacted and the report of the 
managing committee was presented by the honorary secretary, Mr. William 
Loring. The report mentioned the work of individual students of the school,, 
including the excavation of a tomb near Pherae by C. D. Edmonds. The 
work of the school at Melos, Naucratis, Crete, and at Athens itself was 
described. The director, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, stated that he was about to 
reside chiefly in Crete and to leave the main part of the educational work of 
the school to Mr. Bosanquet. The work of the school could not be satis- 
factorily done by a single director. One man was needed for the work of 
education and another for exploration. 

The prospects of the School were discussed and the need of a similar 
School at Rome set forth. Measures were taken for the establishment of a 
school at Rome. A full report of the meeting is given in the London Times, 
October 27, 1899. 

CAERWENT. Excavations. At Caerwent, the ancient Venta Si- 
lorum, during the early autumn, beginning August 17, 1899, large parts of 
the city wall were excavated and remains of several buildings were uncov- 
ered. In one of these, a house built about a court, was a hypocaust 
with brick pilae. Another house with hypocaust was only partially exca- 
vated. Remains of one of the city gates were discovered and many small 
objects found. Work is to be resumed in the spring of 1900. An account 
of the excavations is published in Athen. November 18, 1899. 

CIRENCESTER. Roman Sculptures and Inscription. In Reliq. 
1899, pp. 196-201 (6 figs.), discoveries at Ashcroft, Cirencester, are described 
by W. Donovan. On an altar is the inscription : Suleis \ Sulinus \ Bruceti\ 
v.s.l.m., a dedication to Sul, or rather to the Sulevae. (Cf. C.I.L. VII, 
JSTo. 37.) The sculptures are two reliefs of the Deae Matres or Matronae, a. 



270 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

group of three draped female figures seated with three naked children beside 
them, and a small female head. Some architectural fragments were also 
found. 

DORCHESTER. A Roman Pavement. In Fordington Field, just 
outside Dorchester, excavations have revealed a Roman pavement not far 
from the amphitheatre. It consists of a central octagonal ornament, sur- 
rounded by scrolls, guilloches, and similar designs, flanked north and south 
by oblong spaces, ornamented in a corresponding manner, but each contain- 
ing in its centre a vase some two feet in length, elegant in shape, with two 
scroll handles. The tesserae are red, white, and black, and the artistic ett'ect 
of the whole is excellent. On the west side at regular intervals are three 
spaces covered with small cubes of red brick, which suggest passages leading 
to other rooms. (J. J. FOSTER, Athen. September 2, 199.) 

LONDON. Recent Acquisitions of the British Museum. In CL 
R. 1899, pp. 371-373, H. B. Walters describes five vases and four cameos 
acquired by the British Museum. The vases are : (1) a black-figured Attic 
cyathus of the early sixth century B.C., with representation of the 7r/3o#e<ns ; 
(2) black-figured amphora from Vulci, of the middle of the sixth century 
B.C. (GERHARD, Auserl Vasenb. pi. 199; OVERBECK, Heroische B'ddw. pi. 19, 
fig. 8), on one side Achilles dragging the body of Hector, on the other five 
Amazons ; (3) black-figured amphora, obverse Achilles lying in wait for 
Troilus, reverse combat of two warriors, behind each of whom stands a 
woman ; (4) red-figured calpis or pitcher of the school of Euthymides ; flight 
of Troilus and Polyxena upon the discovery of the ambushed Achilles; 
(5) red-figured lebes (bowl) from Girgenti (GERHARD, Auserl. Vasenb. IV, 
pis. 329, 330) ; fine, free Attic style, with frieze representing a combat of 
Amazons and Attic heroes with many inscriptions. (Cf. Athen. July 22, 
1899.) The cameos are from the Marlborough collection. One (No. 482), 
a sardonyx, represents an emperor and an empress with divine attributes, 
perhaps Julian and Helena. The three others (Nos. 416, 423, 457) repre- 
sent respectively Agrippina the elder, Claudius, and Marciana, the sister of 
Trajan. (Cf. Athen. July 8, 1899.) 

AFRICA 

ARCHAEOLOGY IN NORTH AFRICA. A. Schulten, in Arch. 
Anz. 1899, 2, pp. 66-77 (3 cuts), gives a brief account of recent discoveries 
in Northern Africa, with original comments concerning the value of objects 
found and investigations accomplished. 

ALGERIA. Inspector of Museums. Mr. Rene Cagnat, member of 
the Institute, has been appointed inspector-general of the scientific and 
archaeological museums in Algeria. (Chron. d. Arts, July 1, 1899.) 

BENI AN. Epitaph of a Saint. In the ruins of a Christian basilica 
of the fifth century, on a feneslella confessionis, appears the following epi- 
taph : Mem(oria) Robb(<t}e sacr(a)e Dei (ancillae) germana(e) Honor\_ati 
A~\qu(a)e Siren (sis) ep(i)x(cop)i, c(a)ede tradi[toruni] v[e~\xata meruit diyni- 
tate(m) martiri(i) : vixit annis L et reddidit gp(iritu)m die VII I kal(endas) 
Apriles, (anno) pro(vinciae) CCCXCV. This liobba was a sister of Hono- 
ratus, Bishop of Aquaesirenses. She died in 434 A.D. the victim as a Dona- 
tist of the catholics (traditores) and was after worshipped as a martyr. 
(C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, p. 277.) 



AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 271 

BIR-BOU-REKBA (TUNISIA). Dedicatory Inscription. The 

following dedicatory inscription is inscribed on a pedestal found in the 
excavations at Bir-bou-Rekba : \_Imp (eratori) Cae*(ari) M(arco) Aurelio 
Antonino Auy(usto) Pio B^rit(annico) Max[imo Arab(ico) Adiab(enico) 
p]ont(ifici) max(^imo) trib(unicia) [pot(estate) XVII i~\mperatori III co(n)~ 
s(uli) IV [p(atri) p(atriae}~\ optima max[imo invicto] principi co\_l(onia) 
Aurelia C~\ommoda Pia Felix [Augusta P~\upput devota nu[in(ini) mai(esta- 
ti)q(ue) eius p(osuit) d(edicavitque}~\. The date is 214 A.D. The inscrip- 
tion establishes the name Colonia Aurelia Commoda Pia Felix Augusta 
Pupput, which appears also on the dedicatory inscription to Licinius found 
at Souk-el- A diob, and announced in June, 1899. (B. Arch. C. T. 1899, 
p. xiv.) 

CARTHAGE. Excavations. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 308- 
322, A. L. Delattre describes his excavations in the first three months of 
the year, in the Punic cemetery between Bordj-Djedid and Ste. Monique. 
The tombs consisted of pits from which the grave-chambers opened. In 
the earlier graves were skeletons, but after the introduction of cremation 
there were burnt and broken bones in small ash chests. Many ordinary 
vases were found, besides some of glass. Among the terra-cottas are a 
seated lion, two figures of a young horseman draped and wearing a conical 
head-dress, three draped female flute-players, one of archaic style, several 
fragments of the goddess peculiar to Carthage, several specimens of female 
figures standing erect with outstretched arms, and a number of masks. 
Four plates give specimens of these types. Interesting intaglios, amulets, 
and other small objects are described. Several pieces of bone (cut) resemble 
the " bridges " of stringed instruments. An epitaph is translated " Tomb 
of Bodastoret, son of Azmelek, son of Abdrnelqart, son of Gersoken." Sev- 
eral graffiti were found (cut), some of them being the names of persons. 
Few Roman antiquities came to light, among them three fragments of 
inscriptions, one of which was a list of names. Heron de Villefosse, ibid., 
pp. 306, 307 (2 pis.), publishes a bronze blade from the same excavations. 
At one end it is wide and takes the form of a segment of a circle. Peril aps 
this and other similar objects are razors. One side of this blade is adorned 
with a palm tree in incised lines. The other side has a human figure in 
strongly Egyptizing, but not genuine Egyptian, style, also incised. The 
work shows great ease and freedom. Some of the objects mentioned above 
and a few others are briefly described in B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 203, 204, 
247. Cf. also p. 230. 

In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 552-564, is a report by Delattre on the 
later excavations at Bordj-Djedid. In general, the tombs and their contents 
are similar to those previously excavated. Two plates represent a stele, 
with a draped standing figure carved upon it, and a rather youthful male 
head of limestone, belonging to the latter part of the Punic period. Some 
good intaglios were found, also ornaments and utensils of various metals, 
glass, and ivory. Among the metal objects is a flat handle ending in a 
swan's neck. The handle is ornamented with incised drawing in Egyptiz- 
ing style. (On other similar handles, see p. 272.) Punic epigraphy is 
represented by eight epitaphs, twelve inscriptions on vases, two marks (of 
masons?), and half a dozen potters' stamps. The longest epitaph is pub- 
lished as a plate, five others in fac-simile. An inscription gives the gene'- 



272 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

alogy of the author, Molocpalas, for seven or eight generations. Another 
mentions a man from Citium, still another a woman from Aradus. 

Sepulchral Inscriptions. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 423-430, Ph. 
Berger publishes five inscriptions from Carthage. The first, found in the 
excavations at Dermech by Gauckler, is bilingual, and mentions Casiodorus, 
son of Marsalos, a Syracusan. This shows the close connection between 
Carthage and Syracuse. The remaining inscriptions are Punic epitaphs, 
communicated by Father Delattre. All belong to the time before the 
Roman conquest. 

Roman Inscriptions. The description of the superposed Roman ceme- 
teries at Carthage (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 565) is concluded by A. L. De- 
lattre, R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 382-396. Numerous inscriptions, mostly 
epitaphs, are published. 

An Inscribed Lamp. The inscription on a lamp found by Gauckler 
at Carthage reads: annum \ nov fau\stum feli\cem mihi. The inscription 
is surrounded by coins, tesserae, an almond, and a garland, apparently repre- 
senting gifts. Such lamps were presented as New Year's presents. Cf. 
C.I.L. X, 8053-8055; XV, 6196-6210. (B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, p. 140.) 

Funerary Masks. A series of funerary masks from Carthage was 
exhibited to the Academy of Inscriptions by Ph. Berger. Some of these 
are female masks with a marked Carthaginian type of face under an 
Egyptian coiffure. Others are grimacing masks, on some of which tattoo- 
ing is evident, as well as seals or their impressions on the forehead and 
cheeks. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, p. 335.) 

A Curse inscribed on Lead. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. Me'moires, 1897, 
published 1899, pp. 212-220, Father Molinier publishes a Greek inscription 
of seventy-eight lines on a plate of lead found at Carthage, in a Roman 
tomb of the cemetery of the officiates. After invoking a number of deities, 
the writer calls down a curse upon his competitors in the race course, that 
they and their horse, mentioned by name, may be afflicted with blindness 
and lack of all power to win the race. 

Engraved Bronze Handles. In his report on his latest excavations 
at Bordj-Djedid, Father Delattre describes an engraved bronze handle (see 
p. 271). Several similar objects had previously been found. They are now 
cleaned by the Marquis d'Anselme and found to be engraved with various 
figures, some Egyptizing, some purely Greek. All these handles end in the 
neck of a swan or some similar bird, with wings covering the upper part of 
the handle. One representation consists of a bull or ox lying on the ground. 
On his back is a bird like a duck attacking a snake. Behind the bird is a 
great bee or fly. Above is an inscription of at least twelve Punic letters, 
apparently proper names. (HEROX DE VILLEFOSSE, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, 
pp. 582, 583; pi.) Ph. Berger (ibid.) remarks that the characters are archaic, 
similar to those of the ancient Phoenician inscriptions of Egypt. Similar 
objects are also in the Bardo Museum. 

DOUGGA (TUNISIA). A Latin Inscription. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1899, pp. 362-364, an inscription found at Dougga, by a student of the 
French School in Rome, named Homo, is published. It reads : Divo Aug . 
sacr et \ Ti Claudio Caesari Aug | Germanico Pon Max Trib \ 
pot VIII - Imp - XVI . Cos IIII -P.P. Cens | C - Artorius Bassus 
Pon Aed Ilvir cur \ Lucusiae patronus pagi dedicavit \ lulius 



AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 273 

Venustus Thinobae -Jill us \ honoribus peraclls Flamen Divi Any et | 
Cabinia Felicula uxor et Faustus f - eius \ huic Senatus . el Plebs ob 
merit a patris \ omnium portarum sententis ornam sufetis gratis decrevit 
suo et Fausti Thinobae patris \ honoribus - peractis Flam Diin Aug . 
et - Firmi - qui \ civitas - ornamenta sufetis ob merita sua decrevit et \ 
Saturi sufetis IT qui a civitate et plebe sujf'ragio creatus est et 
institutoris honoribus > peractis \ Flamen Dim Aug f rat rum suorum 
nomine S P F \ curatore lulio Firmo Jilio. The date is between Jan- 
uary 25, 48 A.D., and January 24, 49 A.D. Of the persons mentioned, two 
have received the ornamenta sufetis by vote of the senate and people, while 
one has held the office of sufes twice. This is the earliest exactly dated 
inscription of Dougga. The use of the word portarum (1. 11) may point to 
a Punic custom of counting inhabitants by doors, or it may be connected 
with the important part played in Semitic life by the city gate. Possibly 
the word may be connected with the root parat, known in Hebrew. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau mentions a possible connection between the expression dorot 
(liam-mizrah ach le-) omnium portarum sententiis and that of the great Punic 
inscription of Maktar, in which he recently recognized the African curiae. 

EL- ALIA (TUNISIA). A Roman Villa. Excavations at El- Alia 
have laid bare a large Roman villa, with frescoed walls and mosaic floors. 
In the bedrooms the mosaics are geometrical patterns, in the reception 
rooms decorative landscapes. One represents fishing with a net on the 
African coast ; the other, hunting the crocodile, hippopotamus, and ibis in 
the Egyptian marshes. Besides the plants and beasts, there are represented 
about eighty persons and about fifty buildings of various kinds. These 
show that wood was the chief material for building in the country, and that 
glass windows were common in the first century after Christ. The mosaics, 
generously offered to the state by the proprietor of the land, M. Demeure, 
are now exposed to view, one at the Bardo Museum, the other at the 
museum of Sousse. (P. GAUCKLER, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 580, 581.) 

LAMBAESIS. A Building dedicated to Hadrian. Some impor- 
tant discoveries have been made recently at the camp at Lambaesis, where 
excavations have been continued under the direction of Abbe Montagnon. 
In the so-called " Camp of the Auxiliaries " there has been discovered an 
enclosure about 650 feet square. In the middle stood a peristyle, with an 
inscription in honor of the Emperor Hadrian. This inscription, which has 
been found, reads: Imperatori Caesari Traiano \ Hadriano Augusto \fo\rtls- 
sim~\o Iibera[lt8simo]que \ le\_gio III Aug(usta)~\ \ adprob\_ante exe~]rcitu. 
Above the peristyle was placed the address of Hadrian to the troops. The 
beginning of this address, giving the exact date, has been found. The 
inscriptions on the stone are: Imp(erator~) Caesar Traianus \ Hadrianus 

Augustus | | exercitalionibu\_s~] inspectis adlocutus \ est is qua[e~\ 

inf\ra s~\cripta sunt \ Torquat\o II et Lib~\one co(n)s(ulihus) k(alendis) lulls. 

On the 1st of July, 128, the Emperor Hadrian delivered the address 
before the Third Legion at Lambaesis, the name of which has been erased 
from the third line. The words following form the beginning of his address 
to the Ala Prima Pannoniorum, delivered several days later, perhaps on the 
13th of July : ... Ill idus lulias ala I Pannoniorum \ omnia per ordinem 
egistis campum incursionibus complestis \ iaculati estis non ineleganter has[tis 
b~\revi\bus et duris lanceas plures vestrum permiseru\_nf] valuis\tis 



274 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1000 

et hie agililer et heri velociter si quit defaisset dcsiderarem \ si quit eminuisset 
designarem tola \ exercitatione peraeque pla\cuistis Catullinus legatus metis 
clarissimus inc (B. Arch. C. T. November, 1899, pp. xi and xii.) 

New Fragments of an Inscription. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 377- 
379, Heron de Villefosse publishes five small fragments of the inscription 
C.I.L. VIII, No. 18,012 ( = 2532), Hadrian's order of the day for the troops 
of Africa. They were found by P. Gauckler. 

Numerarii. A fragmentary inscription found at Lambaesis (cf. C.I.L. 
VIII, 2251, 2253, 2254) has been restored by A. Papier, and is discussed in 
the Comptes-Rendus of the Academic d'Hippone, 1898, pp. xxxiv-xli. It is 
a dedication from officers of the Third Legion Augusta Pia Vindex of the 
end of the second century, and contains the only epigraphical mention of 
numerarii. These were quartermasters, in the earlier empire being quite 
distinct from the librarii; but after Diocletian, the numerarii may have been 
the same as the librarii of the early empire. 

MAKTAR. A Virgilian Inscription. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, 
pp. 168, 169, R. Cagnat publishes, from a letter of P. Gauckler, an inscrip- 
tion from a Roman nyrnphaeum of the fifth century after Christ at the spring 
of Ain Medoudja : 

INTVS AQVE DVICES BIBOQVE SEDILIA SAXA 
NIMFARVMQVE FLORENTI FVNDATA LABORES 
DE DONIS DEI 

The beginning is evidently Virgil, Aeneid, I, 167, Intus aquae dulces vivoque 
sedilia saxo Nympharumque (domus). This is another proof of the lasting 
popularity of the Aeneid. 

MATEUR (TUNISIA). Inscriptions. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, 
pp. 333-337, ten inscriptions are published from copies by Delattre, commu- 
nicated by Cagnat. They are from different places near Mateur. Eight are 
sepulchral, mostly fragmentary. One from an aedicula appears to record 
something connected with a religious building or worship. One from Car- 
thage consists of incomprehensible letters, and was probably an abraxas. 

SOUK-EL- ABIOD. Two Inscriptions. Two completely preserved 
inscriptions were presented by Paul Gauckler to the Academic des Inscrip- 
tions at a meeting in June, 1899. The first is on a pedestal of the form of 
an altar. It is similar to other African inscriptions of the third and fourth 
centuries: Magno ac fortissimo principi, \ imp(eratori) Caes(ari) Liciniano \ 
Licinio Pio, felici \ invicto, Aug(usto), \ Col(onia) Aurelia Commoda, p(ia} 
f(elix) | Aug(usta) Pupput(anorum), numini maies\tatique eius devotissima. 
This inscription, dating in the reign of Licinius the father, concerns the 
city Pupput, once a vicus and raised to the position of a Roman colony 
between 176 and IC9. Its recognition was due to the dignity of its. patron, to 
whom the second inscription refers, and who had been in charge of the 
proconsular government of Africa. 

This second inscription is engraved on a pedestal in form of an altar, 
which was built into a Byzantine wall not far from the place where the first 
inscription was found: L(ucio) Octovio Cornelio, P(ublii) /O'/z'o), Salvio- 
luliano \ Aemiliano, decemviro quaestori imp(eratoris) \ Hadriani, cut divos 
Hadrianus soli \ salarium quaesturae duplicavit \ propter insiynem doctrinam, 
trib(uno) pl(ebis), \ praetori, pr(aefecto) aerar(ii) Saturni, item mil(itaris)> 



UNITED STATES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 275 

co(n)*(u/t), | pontif(ici) sodali Hadrianali, sodali \ Antoniniano, curatori 
aediutn \ sacrarum, legato imp(eratoris) Antonini \ Aug(usti) Pii Germaniae 
Inferioris, lega\to imp(eratorum) Antonini Aug(usti) et Veri Aug(usti) \ 
Hispaniae Cilerioris, proco(n)s(uli) j provincial Africae, patrono \ d(ecreto) 
d(ecurionum), p(ecunia) p(ublica). 

This gives the cursus honorum of the patron of Pupput, L. Octavius, 
who can be identified by the words, cui divos Hadrianus soli salarium quaes- 
turae duplicavit, propter insignem doctrinam, with the famous iuris consultus 
Salvianus lulianus of the time of Hadrian, spoken of as summum auctorem 
iuris scientiae in Codex lustinianus, 3, 33, 15, also referred to in 4, 5, 10 : 
6, 61, 5. See also Prosopographia Imperil Momani, III, p. 164, for the 
frequent mention of the name Salvius lulianus in historical and epigraphie 
texts relating to the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, and 
Commodus. The government of L. Salvius lulianus in the province of 
Africa may most probably be dated about 164 A.D. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, 
pp. 366, 374.) 

TEBOURSOUK (TUNISIA). Inscription. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 

1898, p. 406, P. Gauckler gives the text of an inscription : Ex avio loco et 
rupe | iam minanti sta\tuas n(umero) IV marmoreas \ ad cultum et splendo\rem 
apodyteri(i) ther\marum, resp(ublica) col(oniae) \ Thib(ursicum) bure trans- 
lulit, | provisione i\_n~\stanti \ A(uli) Aureli(i) Honorat(i) \ Quetiani eq(uitis) 
R(o?nani) cur(atoris) \ reip(ublicae). It is not earlier than the end of the 
third century after Christ. 

THAPSUS. The Punic Necropolis. In B. Arch. C. T. December, 

1899, p. xiii ff., P. Gauckler describes the Punic cemetery at Thapsus, dis- 
covered by Novak and Epinat. In general, the necropolis resembles those 
of Monastir, Lemta, Mahdia, Salakta, and El-Alia. The shafts are larger 
than at Carthage, the chamber is rectangular, with or without a niche ; the 
walls rarely decorated with simple horizontal bands of brown color. The 
Roman necropolis is above the Punic tombs. Native and imported vases 
and terra-cottas have been found, as well as many lamps. Two stone cippi, 
each ending in a pyramidion at the top, are peculiar. The other objects 
found resemble those found in other Punic cemeteries. 

UNITED STATES 
CAMBRIDGE. Ancient Sculptures in the Fogg Art Museum. 

During the year, Mr. E. W. Forbes imported, and deposited in the Museum 
as an indefinite loan, a Meleager, head and torso of a Greek marble statue ; 
a Battle of Amazons, three parts of a Graeco-Roman sarcophagus relief in 
marble ; and a small Aphrodite head in marble. The Meleager statue was 
found about three years ago at San Marinella, 30 miles from Rome, and 
about 100 yards from the spot where the Meleager now in the Berlin Museum 
was found. It is mentioned by Petersen (Rom. Mitth. X, p. 92). It is 
either an original of the fourth century B.C., or an excellent Roman copy. 
It has the characteristics of the work of Scopas. The Aphrodite head was 
lately excavated in Athens, and it appears like a fragment of Greek work of, 
perhaps, the third century B.C. The Amazon relief is Graeco-Roman and 
may have been wrought at any period from the time of Augustus to that of 
Hadrian. This relief was purchased from the Baracco collection in Rome. 
(From the Annual Report of the Curator.) 



276 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



BYZANTINE AND MEDIAEVAL ART 

GREECE 

MISTRA. Inscriptions. The liturgical and iconographic inscrip- 
tions from Mistra are to appear in a publication devoted to Mistra and its 
monuments by the French school at Athens, but the others are published by 
Gabriel Millet, 'Inscriptions Byzantines de Mistra 'in B.C.H. XXIII. 1899, 
pp. 97-156 (pis. xiv-xxiii; 54 cuts). Fifty-seven texts are published, many 
of great length. 

ITALY 

BRESCIA. The Funerary Monument of Berardo Maggi (fl308). 
The monument of Bishop Maggi, of Brescia, has been restored and placed 
in its original position in the cathedral of Brescia. The statue of the bishop 
and other figures show a realism hardly to be expected at this period. As 
perhaps the earliest work of Ugo du Campione, this tomb holds an impor- 
tant rank in the history of Romanesque sculpture in Italy. (C. v. F., 
Rep.f. K. 1899, pp. 252, 253.) 

CHIARAVALLE. Restoration of the Abbey. The restoration of 
the southern side of the cloister of the abbey at Chiaravalle has been resumed. 
If funds permit, the facade, the tower, and the entrance to the monastery also 
will be restored. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, pp. 200-202.) 

COMO. Palazzo del Broletto Restoration. The restoration of 
the cathedral of Como having been substantially completed, the adjoining 
Palazzo del Broletto is being repaired. The piers of the arcade have been 
strengthened, the balcony replaced in its original position, P"d the windows 
reopened. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, pp. 230-233.) 

MILAN. S. Maurizio al Monastero Maggiore to be restored. 
It has been decided to restore completely the facade of S. Maurizio, which 
has suffered much injury owing to the poor construction and materials used. 
(Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, p. 179.) 

S. Maria delle Grazie Restoration. The restoration of the lower por- 
tion of Santa Maria delle Grazie has been completed, and a railing is being 
erected to protect the church from future injury. The restoration of the 
small cloister on the Via Caradosso is finished, and that of the sacristy has 
been begun. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, pp. 172-177.) 

MONZA. The Cathedral Restoration. The restoration of thefa9ade 
of the cathedral at Monza has been resumed. The death of the architect, 
Professor Landriani, who had the work in charge, would have been a serious 
obstacle, had not his plans been so well advanced. The work has been 
intrusted to his assistant, the engineer, Enrico Mina. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. 
XXIII, 1899, pp. 208-210.) 

PISTOIA. Exposition of Sacred Art. During the summer of 
1899, an exposition was held at Pistoia, in connection with which some two 
thousand objects of sacred art were exhibited, including the treasures of the 
cathedral, notably the reliquaries and chalices of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries ; also sculptures and textiles from the Ceppo Hospital, paintings 
from the Commune, and objects from churches and private collections. On 
account of the fire at the exposition at Como, the Ministry of Public Instruc- 
tion will no longer exhibit objects under its care. (R. Art Chret. 1899, pp. 
518-522.) 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 277 

RAVENNA. The Palace of Theodoric. Recent excavations in 
the Moiighini gardens have brought to light remarkable mosaic pavements 
of the Alexandrian character. As the level of these pavements is about 
1.50 m. below the foundation of the walls of the so-called Palace of Theodoric, 
facing on the Corso, it follows that the existing building is of later date. 
Tradition, historians, and chroniclers are, however, right as to the site of 
the palace. The original palace must have been built of better material, 
planned on a grander scale, and quite different in style, as may be judged 
not only from the mosaic representation of it in S. Apollinare Nuovo, but 
from descriptions of the palace by ancient writers. (A. MELANO in Am. 
Arch. October 7, 1899, pp. 3, 4.) The existing building was probably erected 
by the East Roman Exarchs. It may have served as a barrack for soldiers. 
(Athen. July 22, 1899.) 

Works of Restoration. The windows of the mausoleum of Galla Pla- 
cidia, which have long been walled up, are to be reopened and the marble 
revetment below the mosaics reestablished. At the Orthodox Baptistery, 
the marble revetment is also to be restored. At S. Apollinare in Classe, the 
windows and arcades which had been walled up are to be reopened. The 
church of S. Vitale is to be restored to its early character by the removal of 
altars and furnishings in later style. (R. Art Chret. 1899, p. 393.) 

Dante Portrait in Santa Maria in Porto. The frescoes in the church 
of Santa Maria in Porto deserve careful study. Long attributed to Giotto, 
and now assigned to Giovanni and Pietro, local fourteenth century painters, 
they represent scenes from the life of the Virgin, scenes from the life of the 
Baptist, saints, arid martyrs. In the section representing the Presentation 
of the Virgin in the Temple, Gerspach thinks he recognizes portraits of 
Guido Novella da Polenta and of Dante. The Dante portrait may have been 
painted during the lifetime of the poet, or, at the latest, a few years after 
his death. (R. Art Chret. 1899, pp. 399, 400.) 

ROME. Contribution to the History of Miniature Painting. 
At the May meeting, 1899, of the R. Soc. Rom. di Storia Patria, Vincenzo 
Federici announced that he was engaged upon a work to be entitled Con- 
tributo allo studio della miniatura romana dal secolo IX al XVI. These minia- 
tures are scattered in the manuscripts of many libraries in Rome. 

Mediaeval Hall of Justice. At the northwest corner of the Palazzo 
Senatorio on the Capitol remains of the mediaeval building have been 
brought to light belonging to the Lovium, or covered loggia, and to the 
Hall of Justice. The walls are covered with much-injured frescoes. This 
wing of the palace was erected in the ninth or tenth century. In 1084 
Henry IV levelled the palace to the ground. It was rebuilt in or about 
1143. The walls discovered on the present occasion date probably from a 
later reconstruction of the time of Boniface VIII (1300). (LANCIANI, 
Athen. September 30, 1899.) 

Restorations of Mediaeval Churches. The restoration of the church 
of S. Maria in Cosmedin has been very satisfactorily completed, as has that 
of the underground church of SS. Petroniila, Nereus, and Achilles in the 
farm of Torre Marancia on the Via Ardeatina. The restoration of the 
churches of S. Maria in Aracoeli and of S. Saba has been undertaken. 
A description of the completed restorations mentioned is given by R. Lan- 
ciani in Athen. January 13, 1900. 



278 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

SYR ACUSE. Recently Discovered Byzantine Churches. Paolo 
Orsi has brought to light the remains of many Byzantine churches. At 
Cittadella near Noto were found a necropolis exhibiting various modes of 
burial and the ruins of four churches of basilical and central construction. 
The coins found in the neighborhood, all of Byzantine origin, indicate that 
this poor village dates from the late empire, and continued to exist until 
the eighth century. Near Buscemi was found a rock-cut church, S. Pietro, 
in which the atrium, as well as nave and apse and sacristy, was excavated 
in the solid rock. The altar and the cathedra were similarly rock cut. 
This seems to have been originally a burial-place, then a small church, and 
is now used as a sheepfold. 

About 12 km. southeast of Syracuse is a circular tower, now transformed 
into a residence. Beneath the tower a Byzantine church was found, 
having a square atrium and three semicircular apses. The church was well 
built, though without ornament. 

Near Priolo, north of Syracuse, is a little church, S. Foca, built over a 
portion of a Byzantine, or pre-Byzantine, church, of basilical plan, which 
was remarkable in having its nave covered with a barrel vault. 

These churches are described by Paolo Orsi in an article entitled ' Nuove 
Chiese Bizantine nel territorio di Siracusa.' (Byz. Z. 1899, pp. 613-642.) 

FRANCE 

PARIS. The Altar of Charlemagne. There has recently been dis- 
covered in the Cabinet des Estampes in the Bibliotheque Nationale a draw- 
ing of the ' Altar of Charlemagne,' which stood in the abbey church of 
S. Denis before the Revolution. The drawing shows that the base of the 
altar dates from the time of Charles V, but the upper portion was much 
earlier, possibly of the ninth century. (G. BAPST, in B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
1899, p. 168.) 

ROUVRES. Discovery of a Statue of St. John. At Rouvres, 
near Dijon, has been discovered a statue of St. John. It is of a fine calca- 
reous stone, in style resembling the St. John in the church at Mussy- 
1'fiveque, a cast of which is in the Trocadero. This statue represents 
Burgundian work of the early fourteenth century, and shows that the 
sculptors of the Chartreuse at Dijon were preceded by a school of sculp- 
tors who already exhibited a strong realistic and individualistic tendency. 
(B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 160-162.) 

S AINTE-CROIX-EN- J AREZ. Discovery of Fourteenth Century 
Paintings. One of the fruitful results of the archaeological excursions 
of the Societe de la Diana de Montbrison has been the discovery of the 
epitaph of Thibaud de Vassalieu, archdeacon of the church of Lyons, and 
of the mural paintings which adorned his burial-place in the choir of the 
monastic church of Sainte-Croix-en-Jarez (Loire). The paintings, which 
had been concealed by whitewash, represented Thibaud de Vassalieu on his 
funerary couch, the prior and twelve monks of this Carthusian monastery, 
a coronation of the Virgin, and a crucifixion of Christ. The paintings 
may be dated between the years 1327 and 1340, and are perhaps the earliest 
examples of the work of the School of Lyons. Some thirty-six painters 
are known to have been established at Lyons during the fourteenth century, 
as shown by N. Rondot in his Les Peintres de Lyon du XIV au XVIII 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 279 

Siede. The paintings of Sainte-Croix-en-Jarez are published by M. A. 
Vachez, in the M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 234-257. 

GERMANY 

A Periodical devoted to Mediaeval Fortifications. The Society 
for the Preservation of Ancient German Castles, founded at the beginning 
of the present year, now issues a useful periodical, under the title of Der 
Burgtvart, Zeitschrift fur Burgenkunde und das gauze mittelalterliche Befesti- 
gungswesen. (Athen. November 11, 1899.) 

DRESDEN. Cranach Exhibition. During the present year, 1899, 
Karl Woermann, director of the Museum at Dresden, has arranged an 
exhibition of the works of Cranach. Scattered in various places, these 
works have not been comprehensively studied, and this exhibition has dis- 
tinctly furthered the knowledge of them, as may be gathered from the 
notice of the exhibition by W. von Seidlitz in the Gaz. B.-A., September, 
1899, pp. 191-207. In the Rep. f. K. 1899, pp. 236-249, Max J. Fried- 
lander comments upon 158 of the 170 paintings exhibited. The catalogue 
was prepared by Dr. Woermann. 

NIDEGGEN. Discovery of Frescoes. During the restorations in 
the parish church at Nideggen in Rhenish Prussia, there have been discov- 
ered interesting mural paintings, analogous in style to those of the school 
of Cologne. In the apse is figured Christ surrounded by symbols of the 
four evangelists accompanied by St. John, the Virgin, two armed knights, 
and female figures like the saints at St. Gereon's, Cologne. On the trium- 
phal arch are two large figures of angels. The walls of the nave and the 
pews were also painted. (/2. Art Chre'l. 1899, p. 270.) 

BELGIUM 

MALINES. Restoration of the Market House. The picturesque 
fourteenth century Market House is to be freed from its surrounding 
shanties and restored to its original condition. (R. Art Chret. 1899, 
p. 270.) 

GREAT BRITAIN 

ASHMANSWORTH. Mediaeval Paintings. A number of wall- 
paintings in distemper, representing Scriptural subjects, such as the descent 
of Christ into hell, have been uncovered during the repairs of the ancient 
church of Ashmansworth, near Highclere. The church is, generally speaking, 
Norman, but some portions belong to the beginning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. To this period part of. the pictures belong. (Athen. October 7, 1899.) 

BRISTOL. Ivory Draughtsman and Essence Box. John E. 
Pritchard exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries a twelfth century walrus- 
ivory draughtsman, carved in high relief, and representing a wyvern and a 
dog biting each other within a border of seven arched compartments, each 
containing a ribbed leaf. This was found at Bristol, as was also a sixteenth 
century essence box of ivory, containing five compartments holding small 
glass phials. (Proceedings Soc. Ant. XVII, pp. 16-17.) 

GEDNEY. St. Mary Magdalen. In the Proceedings Soc. Ant. 
XVII, pp. 197-201, W. D. Caroe publishes an account of the southwestern 
door of the church of St. Mary Magdalen at Gedney in Lincolnshire. The 
door dates from 1320, consists of a succession of vertical panels, and con- 



280 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

tains an inscription in fine Lombardic characters. Beneath the thick coat 
of paint which now covers the door was found an ivory carving, represent- 
ing the Cross, St. Mary, and St. John under a triple canopy. The carving 
is apparently of English workmanship. The original lock case and lock, 
inscribed, still remain in place. 

HOLDENBY, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. An Anglo-Saxon Ceme- 
tery. In Athen. November 11, 1899, is a description of an Anglo-Saxon 
cemetery found at Coneybury Hill, near Holdenby House. Thirteen inter- 
ments were uncovered. The objects found were chiefly ornaments and 
utensils of bronze, iron, glass, and amber, including several fibulae. The 
date of the interments is apparently the sixth century. 

LLANWIT MAJOR. A Fragment of a Pillar with Celtic Orna- 
ment. At Llanwit Major, Glamorganshire, a fragment of a pillar has 
been found. This fragment, like an entire pillar at the same place, has a 
groove in one side. The two were probably originally connected by a slab 
of stone inserted in the grooves. The pillars are ornamented with a Celtic 
decoration of interlaced work and a chevron pattern. (Reliq. 1899, pp. 201- 
203; 2 figs.) 

LONDON. Discovery of Part of the Priory of Christ Church. 
The recent destruction of a house on the south side of Mitre Street, Oldgate, 
has brought to light a fifteenth century arch, which no doubt formed part 
of the buildings of the priory of Christ Church, Oldgate. An historical 
account of the church and priory is given by Philip Norman in Proceedings 
Soc. Ant. XVII, pp. 110-117. 

RUSSIA 

ANCIENT RUSSIAN PADLOCKS. In the excavations at what 
was once the town of Bolgary, at the confluence of the Kama and Volga 
rivers, have been found numerous antiquities. Among these are a series of 
bronze padlocks of the form of quadrupeds. These are certainly of Oriental 
origin and analogous to Chinese padlocks. Outside of Russia they are rarely 
found. Some have been discovered in Hungary, and one in the possession 
of G. Kieseritzky, the Curator of Antiquities in the Hermitage, was found 
in Rhodes. (J. DE BAYE, B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 156-160.) 

CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS OF CHERSONNESE. In R. Arch. 
XXXV, 1899, pp. 227-231 (2 figs.), G. Katcheretz gives, as No. 7 of his 
4 Notes d'Archeologie Russe,' a summary of the Russian work of Bertier- 
Delagarde, in Materials for Russian Archaeology, XII, 1893. The only 
important monuments of Chersonnese seem to be the basilicas, the number 
of which is large. They are peculiar in being nearly or quite as broad as 
they are long. The chief of these, the old cathedral, is described in detail. 
Not only in this church, but also in others of approximately the same date, 
the ninth or tenth century, are mosaics and capitals identical in style with 
those found at Ravenna, Venice, and Salonica. These have been called 
Romanesque, but it is now evident that they are Byzantine. The marble 
at Ravenna comes from Proconnesus. It now becomes clear that not merely 
rough blocks of marble, but finished capitals and the like were exported 
from Byzantium. A baptistery in the form of a circle extended on three 
sides by added semicircles, on the fourth (west) side by a rectangle, is 
briefly described. 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 281 

RENAISSANCE ART 

ITALY 

ABBIATEGRASSO. Renaissance Coins. At Abbiategrasso, not 
far from Milan, a small treasure of gold coins was dug up in the summer 
of 1898. They are catalogued and described by Solone Ambrosoli, in 
R. /to/. Num. 1899, p. 227. There are thirty-five gold pieces of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, as follows : Hungarian ducats of Matthias Cor- 
vinus (1458-90), Wladislaus II (1490-1516), and Louis II (1516-26) ; 
German, of Cologne and Reichstein ; French, of Charles VIII (1483-98), 
Louis XII (1498-1515), Francis I (1515-47) ; a doubloon of Ferdinand and 
Isabella of Castile (1474-1516) ; and contemporary mintages of Milan, 
Mantua, Venice, Rodi, Florence, Lucca, Siena, Rome, Bologna, Urbino, 
Ferrara, and most important of all a unique ducat of Pope Julius II, 
struck at Parma in the last two months of his pontificate, 1513, which fills 
a gap in the numismatic history of the time. (Cf. Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 
1899, p. 213.) 

B ADIA AGUANO. Renaissance Coins. Near Badia Aguano, in 
the province of Arezzo, in May, 1898, an earthen jar was found containing 
about ninety silver coins and sixty of copper or billon. The coins had been 
buried in the fifteenth century, and the oldest of them silver of the 
republic of Pisa go back to the thirteenth century. The others belonged 
to the mints of Florence (eighty-six specimens), Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Fermo, 
Pesaro, Rimini, and Rome. (R. Ital. Num. 1899, p. 305.) 

BOLOGNA. Fifteenth Century Sculptors. In the Rep. f. K. 
1899, pp. 279-299, Francesco Malaguzzi Valeri writes a Contribute alia storia 
della scultura a Bologna nel quattro cento. He has examined the archives for 
references to Jacopo della Quercia, Nicolo dell' Area, Sperandro da Man- 
tova, Francesco di Simone and Vincenzo Onofri, and has also discovered the 
names of the following fifteenth century sculptors, with references to one 
or more of their works in Bologna: Domenico da Cuesa, Battista dalla 
Pevera, Giacomo e Stefano da Vigeoano, Leonardo di Pietro Filippi, Andrea 
da Corno, Geminiano, Pietro Torregiani, Tommaso Filippi, and Giovanni di 
Battista Filippi. 

BRESCIA. Palazzo della Loggia Restoration. The Palazzo della 
Loggia at Brescia, a charming example of Venetian Renaissance architec- 
ture, when erected between 1550 and 1560 was surmounted by a dome. 
This was destroyed by fire in 1575, and replaced by an octagonal roof 
designed by Vanvitelli. The dome is to be restored in accordance with the 
original plan. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, pp. 220-226.) 

FLORENCE. A Botticelli Madonna. Some months ago Mr. Will- 
iam Cornish found in a granary in the Pitti Palace at Florence a circular 
panel of wood, so incrusted with dust that the painting on it was almost 
concealed. The picture was cleaned, and it was seen that this was a work 
of Sandro Botticelli. The roses in the background have caused this picture 
to be named < La Madonna delle Rose.' It is attributed to the artist's 
earlier period. (N. Y. Tribune, December 10, 1899.) 

The Virgin is represented kneeling before the infant Jesus. Several 
angels are represented, and a hedge of roses, daisies, and violets. (Chron. 
d. Arts, March 3, 19GO.) 



282 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Discovery of a Fresco by Andrea del Castagno. The recently 
established Kunsthistorisches Institut has initiated its career of usefulness by 
discovering a fresco by Andrea del Castagno in the Santissima Annunziata. 
It represents the Trinity, and is mentioned by Vasari. It has been con- 
cealed behind an altarpiece by Allori. The style of this fresco proves that 
the Last Supper in Sant' Apollonia cannot have been painted, as some 
critics affirm, by Andrea del Castagno. (GERSBACH, R. Art Chre't. 1899, 
p. 243.) 

MANTUA. The Ducal Palace Restoration. The restoration of 
the Ducal Palace progresses favorably. Its ancient facade, portrayed in a 
painting by Morone at the close of the fifteenth century, is being restored, 
the Cortiletto and the Appartamento della Grotta are beginning to assume 
their original appearance, and the Cavallerizza with its eighteenth century 
decorations is being preserved from deterioration. {Arch. Stor. Lomb. 
XXIII, 1899, pp. 245-255.) 

MILAN. Restoration of the Castle. The work of restoring the 
castle still continues. The Loggia di Galeazzo M. Sforza having been com- 
pleted, the stairway opening into it was next undertaken. The stairs have 
been renewed, and the decoration of the walls restored according to the 
original design. The courtyard contains fragments of ancient sculpture. 
In it has been placed a fountain, designed by L. Beltrami from the study 
of a font established by Sforza in the church at Bellinzona. The Torre di 
Bona di Savoja is now being restored. In 1898 L. Beltrami and G. Moretti 
published their Resoconto del lavori di restauro eseguiti al Castello di Milano, 
which has aroused public interest and brought in additional subscriptions. 
(Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, pp. 184-192.) . 

Discovery of a Fresco of the Last Supper. The removal of some 
whitewash in the church of S. Lorenzo revealed a fresco of the Last Supper. 
The Ufficio Regionale proposed to remove it to the Refectory of S. Maria 
delle Grazie, but the authorities of S. Lorenzo have decided that it shall 
remain in its original position. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, p. 183.) 

Discovery of a Fainting by Bramantiiio. In the church of S. Maria 
della Passione at Milan, D. Santambrogio has recently discovered a paint- 
ing representing the sacrifice of Isaac. The character and style show that 
this painting is by Bramantino. (C. v. F., Rep. f. K. 1899, pp. 251- 
252.) 

MOGLIANO. A recently discovered Painting by Lorenzo Lotto. 
At Mogliano, between Macerata and Fermo in the Marches, Charles 
Loeser has discovered a painting by Lorenzo Lotto, which has escaped the 
notice of art historians. It represents an Assumption of the Virgin in the 
presence of St. John the Baptist, St. Joseph, St. Francis, and the Magdalen. 
The painting is signed Lorenzo Lotto. In the Libra del Conti di Lorenzo 
Lotto (Gall. Naz. Ital., Anno I), we find that Lotto contracted on Novem- 
ber 16, 1547, for a painting ordered by Jacopo Boninfanti of Mogliano. 
This painting was delivered June 10, 1548. There is little doubt that the 
recently discovered altarpiece at Mogliano is the painting of 1548. (Rep.f. K. 
1899, pp. 319, 320.) 

PA VI A. Restoration of the Certosa. The general restoration of 
the large cloister and its adjoining cells has been completed. This concerned 
especially the roof, which was giving way, and the doorways, which needed 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 283 

repairing. The door to the small cloister, long walled up, has been opened 
and restored. (Arch. Star. Lomb. XXI 1 1, 1899, pp. 269-273.) 

PISTOIA. Verocchio and the Altarpiece in the Sacristy of the 
Cathedral. In the sacristy of the cathedral at Pistoia is an altar-piece 
generally ascribed to Lorenzo di Credi. Morelli alone asserted that he rec- 
ognized in it the work of Verocchio finished by Lorenzo di Credi. The 
cathedral archives substantiate the view of Morelli, as recently discovered by 
Alfredo Chiti. It appears that the altarpiece was ordered of Verocchio in 
1475, through a legacy of Bishop Donato Medici, that in 1478 or 1479 it 
was still unfinished, and in 1485 completed by Lorenzo di Credi. (C. v. F., 
Rep.f. K., 1899, pp. 338-339.) 

ROME. The Borghese Museum. The papers determining the acqui- 
sition of the Borghese Museum by the Italian government have just been 
signed. The government is to pay 3,600,000 fr. in ten annual payments 
assigned to the accounts of Public Instruction and the Treasury. Titian's 
painting, ' Sacred and Profane Love,' was alone valued at 2,500,000 f r. (Chron. 
d. Arts, August 26, 1899.) A detailed statement of the terms of the sale is 
contained in 77 Popolo Romano, December 23, 1899. 

Important Inventory of a Collection of Paintings. Through the 
kindness of Leon G. Pelissier, there was presented to the S. Rom. d. Stor. 
Pat., at its meeting March 10, 1899; a copy of the Codice Corsiniano, 1051 
(33 A. 11), which contains an inventory of a collection of paintings exhib- 
ited in 1736 in the cloisters of S. Giovanni Decollate. As this collection 
seems to have been the foundation of the Capitoline collection of paintings, 
the publication of this inventory should be useful to historians of art. 
(S. Rom. Stor. Pat. 1899, p. 318.) 

The Chigi Botticelli. The Madonna and Child, of Sandro Botticelli, 
the gem of the Chigi collection, has been sold and exported. The picture 
belongs to the cycle of the ' Vierge aux Roses ' now in the Louvre, and rep- 
resents the Virgin Mary with the infant Christ on her knees, to whom an 
angel offers grapes and ears of grain. The angel is painted with the Veroc- 
chio-like grace characteristic of Botticelli. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. July 22, 
1899; cf. R. Art Chret. 1899, p. 244.) 

SONCINO. Restoration of the Fortress. The town of Soncino, 
having raised a sum of money for the restoration of the Rocca Sforzesca, a 
government subsidy was secured, and considerable progress has been made 
in repairing and strengthening this important fortress. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. 
XXIII, 1899, pp. 241-244.) 

FRANCE 

PARIS. Bequest of Count Delaborde. The late Comte Henri 
Delaborde has bequeathed to the Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris, his copy, to 
which he had added numerous annotations, of the work on Marc Antonio 
published by himself in 1888, and also a complete series of impressions of 
the plates published by the Societe Francaise de Gravure from its beginning 
until the death of the testator. (Athen. September 9, 1899.) 

GERMANY 

JEVER. Renaissance Monuments. Hermann Ehrenberg, author 
of Die Kunst am Hofe der Herzoge von Preussen, Berlin, 1899, is devoting 
himself to further study of the Renaissance monuments of North Germany. 



284 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

In the Rep. f. K. 1899, pp. 195-207, he discusses Die Renaissance Denk- 
maler in Jever.' This article is concerned with the work of Cornelia Floris, 
especially with the monument of Ede Wimken in the parish church, and the 
wooden ceiling in the Schloss at Jever. 

BELGIUM 

ANTWERP. Van Dyck Exhibition. The exhibition of the works 
of Antony Van Dyck, held at Antwerp in the present year, 1899, in honor 
of the tercentenary of his birth, brought together many paintings by the 
master. An illustrated notice of this exhibition is given by Henri Hymens 
in the Gaz. B.-A. September, 1899, pp. 226-240; October, 1899, pp. 320-332. 

BRUSSELS. Acquisition of a Triptych. The National Museum 
at Brussels has recently acquired the remarkable sixteenth century triptych 
owned by Count d'Oultremont de Warfusee. This was published in R. Art 
Chret. 1896, p. 349, and in the Gaz. B.-A. April and May, 1899. Camille 
Beuoit attributes the triptych to Jan Mostart of Haarlem. (R. Art Chret. 
1899, p. 270.) 

MALINES. The Tower of Saint Rombaut. In the R. Art Chret. 
1899, pp. 185-190, Jules Helbig makes an appeal for the completion of the 
tower of Saint Rombaut, metropolitan church at Malines. Although reso- 
lutions in favor of the completion of this tower were passed in 1884 and 1897, 
nothing has been done. The tower was begun in 1452, after designs by 
Jean Keldermans, but never completed. It would seem to have been a 
happy accident that this undertaking has been delayed, since the original 
plan has been only recently recovered and published by Canon Van Caster 
in a pamphlet entitled Le Vrai Plan de la Tour de Saint-Rombaut a Malines. 
Malines, 1899. 

ENGLAND 

LONDON. British Museum Exhibit of Rembrandt Etchings. 
On March 1, 1899, the British Museum opened an important chronologi- 
cal exhibit of Rembrandt etchings. Since the acquisition of the Malcolm 
collection, in 1895, the British Museum possesses a larger number of fine 
examples of Rembrandt etchings than are to be found in the museums of 
Amsterdam, Paris, Vienna, or in the collection of Baron Edmund von Roths- 
child. The catalogue is' by Sidney Colvin. In the Rep. f. K. 1899, pp. 208- 
219. W. v. Seidlitz publishes his notes upon this exhibition. 

Photographs of National Gallery Paintings. The Berlin Photo- 
graphic Company (14, East 23d Street, New York) have issued photo- 
gravures of the masterpieces of the National Gallery, London. The plates 
measure 14 x 18 inches. The series will parallel that from the Hermitage 
and the Prado, by the same firm. 

UNITED STATES 

BOSTON. Photographs in the Public Library. The Boston Pub- 
lic Library has been recently gathering a collection of photographs of archi- 
tecture, sculpture, and painting. The collection already numbers over 
fourteen thousand photographs, which are mounted, classified, and accessible 
to the public. (Am. Arch. September 23, 1899, p. 98.) 

[The Fogg Art Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge, has a similar 
collection.] 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1899 285 

CAMBRIDGE. Paintings in the Fogg Art Museum. During 
the year, Mr. E. \V, Forbes imported, and deposited in the Museum as an 
indefinite loan, the following original works : A Florentine Tabernacolo in 
tempera, which is a characteristic, arid an exceedingly fine, example of 
Florentine painting in the fifteenth century and may be the work of Veroc- 
chio or Filippo Lippi ; an Adoration of the Magi, of the school of Ferrara, 
also in tempera, or tempera and oil, and perhaps by Lorenzo Costa ; a por- 
trait of a Procurator of St. Mark, in oil color, having the characteristics of 
the work of Tintoretto. In addition to these, Mr. Forbes has a tempera 
painting of a Madonna and Child with Saints, by Benvenuto di Giovanni of 
the school of Siena, which will shortly be added to this collection. The 
Florentine tempera had been given by a member of the Torlonia family to 
the Nunnery of the Tor dei Specchi in Rome, where Mr. Forbes purchased 
it. The portrait of a Procurator of St. Mark was purchased from Count 
Macchi of Rome, a member of the Priuli family, to which the personage 
represented belonged. (From the Annual Report of the Curator.) 



ABBREVIATIONS 

Abh. : Abhandlungen. Acad. : Academy (of London). Am. Ant. : Ameri- 
can Antiquarian. Am. J. Arch. : American Journal of Archaeology. Ami d. 
Mon. : Ami des Monuments. Ann. d. 1st. : Anuali dell' Istituto. Anz. Schw. 
Alt. : Anzeiger fiir Schweizerische Altertumskunde. Arch. Ael. : Archaeologia 
Aeliana. Arch.-Ep. Mitth. : Archaol. -epigraph. Mittheil. (Vienna). Arch. 
Anz. : Archaologischer Anzeiger. Arch. Poring. : O Archeologo Portugues. 
Arch. Eec. : Architectural Record. Arch. Hess. Ges. : Archiv fiir Hessische 
Geschichte und Altertumskunde. Arch. Eel. : Archiv fiir Religionswissenschaft. 
Arch. d. Miss. : Archives de Missions Scientifiques et Litte"raires. Arch. Stor. 
d. Art. : Archivio Storico dell' Arte. Arch. Stor. Lomb. : Archivio storico lom- 
bardo. Arch. Stor. Nap. : Archivio Storico Provincie Napolitane. Arch. Stor. 
Patr. : Archivio della r. societa romana di storia patria. Athen. : Athenaeum 
(of London). 

Beitr. Ass. : Beitrage zur Assyriologie. Berl. Akad. : Preussische Akademie 
der Wissenschaf ten zu Berlin. Berl. Phil. W. : Berliner Philologische Wochen- 
schrift. Berl. Stud. : Berliner Studien. Bibl. fie. Chartes ' Bibliotheque de 
1'Ecole des Chartes. B. Ac. Hist. : Boletin de la real Academia de la Historia. 
B. Arch. d. M. : Bulletin Archaol. du Ministere. B. Arch. C. T. : Bulletin 
Arche"ologique du Comite" des Travaux hist, et scient. B.C.H.: Bulletin de 
Correspondance Helle"nique. B. Inst. fig. : Bulletin de 1'Institut Egyptien 
(Cairo). B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. : Bulletin et M^moires de la Socie"te" des An- 
tiquaires de France. B. Soc. Anth. : Bulletin de la Socie'te' d'Anthropologie de 
Paris. B. Soc. Yonne : Bulletin de la Socie'te' des Sciences historiques et natu- 
relles de 1' Yonne. B. Hon.: Bulletin Monumental. B. Arch. Stor. Dal.: 
Bullettino di Archeologia e Storia Dalmata. B. Com. Eoma: Bullettino d. 
Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma. Bull. d. 1st. . Bullettino dell' 
Istituto. B. Arch. Crist. : Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana. B. Paletn. It. : 
Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana. Byz. Z. : Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 

Chron. d. Arts : Chronique des Arts. Cl. E. : Classical Review. C. E. 
Acad. Insc. : Comptes Rendus de 1' Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 
C.I.A.: Corpus Inscriptionum Atticaram. C.I.G. : Corpus Inscriptionum 
Graecarum. C.I.G. S.: Corpus Inscriptionum Graeciae Septentrionalis. C.I.L.: 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. C.I.S. : Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. 

AeXr. 'Apx. : AeXrfoj' 'Apxai.o\oyiK6v. D. & S. Diet. Ant. : Dictionnaire des 
Antiquity's grecques et romaines par Ch. Daremberg et Edm. Saglio, avec le con- 
cours de E. Pettier. 

Echos d'Or.: Les Echos d'Orient (Constantinople). *E0. 'Apx-'- 'E<t>w*pls 
'Apx&i-oXoyiKri. Eph. Epig. : Ephemeris Epigraphica. 

Pundb. Schwab. : Fundberichte aus Schwaben, herausgegeben vom wurttem- 
bergischen anthropologischen Verein. 

Gaz. B.-A. : Gazette des Beaux- Arts. 

I.G.A.: Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, ed. Roehl. J. G. Ins.: In- 
scriptiones Graecarum Insularum. /. G. Sic. It. : Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae 
et Italiae. Intermediaire : Interm^diaire de chercheurs et des curieux. 

Jb. Alt. Ges. L. P. : Neue Jahrbiicher fiir das klassische Altertum, Geschichte 
und deutsche Litteratur und fiir Padagogik. Jb. Arch. I. : Jahrbuch d. k. d. 
Archaol. Institute Jb. Phil. Pad. : Neue Jahrbiicher fiir Philologie und Pada- 
gogik (Fleckeisen's Jahrbiicher). Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. : Jahrbuch d. k. Preuss. 

286 



Kunstsammlungen. Jb. V. Alt. llh. : Jahrbiicher des Yereins von Alterthums- 
freunden im Rheinlande. Jb. Ver. Dill. : Jahrbuch des Vereins Dillingen. 
Jli. Oesterr. Arch. I. : Jahreshefte des oesterreichischen archaologischen Insti- 
tutes. J. Asiat. : Journal Asiatique. ,/. Am. Or. 8. : Journal of American 
Oriental Society. J. Anth. List. : Journal of the Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland. J. Br. Arch. Ass. : Journal of the British Archae- 
ological Association. J.H.S.: Journal of Hellenic Studies. J. Int. Arch. 
Num. : Aitdvrjs 'E(j>r]tj,epi$ rijs vofj.tir/j.aTiK^s apxaioXoyias, Journal international 
d'arche'ologie numismatique (Athens). 

Kb. Gesammtver: Korrespondenzblatt des Gesammtvereins der deutschen 
Geschichts- und Altertumsvereine. Kb. Wd. Z. Ges. K. : Korrespondenzblatt 
der Westdeutschen Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte und Kunst. Kunstchron. : Kunst- 
chronik. 

Lex. Myth. : Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der griechischen und rb'mischen Mytho- 
logie, herausgegeben Von W. H. Roscher (Leipsic, Teubner). 

Mel. Arch. Hist. . Melanges d'Arche"ologie et d'Histoire (of French School in 
Rome). Athen. Mitth. : Mittheilungen d. k. d. Archaol. Instituts, Athen. Abth. 
Horn. Mitth. Mittheilungen d. k. d. Archaol. Instituts, Rom. Abth. Mitth. 
Anth. Ges. : Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Mitth. 
C.-Comm. . Mittheilungen der koniglich-kaiserlichen Central-Commission fiir 
Erforschung und Erhaltung der Kunst- und historischen Denkmale. Mitth. 
Nassau : Mittheilungen des Vereins fiir nassauische Altertumskunde und Ge- 
schichtsforschung. Mitth. Vorderas. Ges. : Mittheilungen der vorderasiatischen 
Gesellschaft. Mon.Antichi: Monumenti Antichi (of Accad. d. Lincei). Mon. 
Mem. Acad. Insc. : Monuments et Menioires pub. par 1'Acad. des Inscriptions, 
etc. Mun. Akad. : Koniglich Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Miin- 
chen. Mus. Ital. : Museo Italiano di Antichita Classiche. 

N.D.Alt.: Nachrichten uber deutsche Altertumsfunde. Not. Scavi: Notizie 
degli Scavi di Antichita. Num. Chron. : Numismatic Chronicle. N. Arch. 
Yen. : Nuovo Archivio Veneto. N. Bull. Arch. Crist. : Nuova Bullettino di 
Archeologia cristiana. 

Pal. Ex. Fund : Palestine Exploration Fund. IlpaKTiKd : UpaKTiicb rijs tv 
'A6-r)vais dpxaioXoyLKijs eratpe/as. 

R. Tr. Jg. Ass. : Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a Parche'ologie 
e'gyptiennes et assyriennes. Reliq. : Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist. 
Rend. Ace. Lincei : Rendiconti d. r. Accademia dei Lincei. Rep. f. K. : Re- 
pertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft. R. Assoc. Bare. : Revista da la Association 
^rtistico-arqueologico Barcelonesa. R. Arch. Bibl. Mus. : Revista di Archives, 
Bibliotecas, y Museos. R. Arch. : Revue Arche'ologique. R. Art Anc. Mod. : 
Revue de PArt ancien et moderne. R. Beige Num. : Revue Beige de Numisma- 
tique. R. Bibl. : Revue Biblique Internationale. R. Crit. : Revue Critique. 
R. Art Chret. : Revue de PArt Chretien. R. Hist. d. Rel. : Revue de 1'Histoire 
des Religions. R. Or. Lat. : Revue de P Orient Latin. R. E~p. M. Fr. : Revue 
Epigraphique du Midi de la France. R. Et. Gr. : Revue des Etudes Grecques. 
R. Et. J. : Revue des Etudes Juives. R. Num. : Revue Numismatique. R. 
Sem. : Revue Se"mitique. Rhein. Mus. : Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie, 
Neue Folge. R. Abruzz. : Rivista Abruzzese di Scienze, Lettere ed Arte. R. 
Ital. Num. : Rivista Italiana Numismatica. R. Star. Calabr. : Rivista Storica 
Calabrese. R. Stor. Ital. : Rivista Storica Italiana. Rom. Quart. : Rouiische 
Quartalschrift fiir christliche Altertumskunde und fiir Kircheugeschichte. 

tiachs. Ges.: Sachsische Gesellschaft (Leipsic). S. G.D.I. : Sammlung der 
Griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften. Sitzb. : Sitzungsberichte. S. Rom. d. Stor. 
Pat. : Societa Romana di Storia Patria. Soc. Ant. Fr. : Soci6t^ des Antiquaires 
de France. Soc. Ant. : Society of Antiquaries. 8. Bibl. Arch. : Society of 
Biblical Archaeology, Proceedings. 

'E?r. : Qpq.KiKrj 'ETrerT/pt's, trri<riov drjfjLoa-leviJM rijs I 



Wiener Z. Morgenl. : Wiener Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes. 

Z. D. Pal. V. : Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palestina Vereins. Z. Aeg. Sp. 
Alt. : Zeitschrift fiir Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. Z. Assyr. : 
Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. Z. Bild. K. : Zeitschrift fiir Bildende Kunst. 
Z. Ethn. : Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. Z. Mun. Alt. : Zeitschrift des Miin- 
chener Alterthumsvereins. Z. Num. : Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik. 

287 



American Journal of Archaeology 

AND OF THE 

History of the Fine Arts. 

5fir$t Series?. 

Vol. 1, 1885. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. The First American Classical Archaeologist. By 
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON. 2. The Panathenaic Festival and the Central 
Slab of the Parthenon Frieze. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN. 3. Inscribed 
Sepulchral Vases from Alexandria. By A. C. MERRIAM. 4. The Revival 
of Sculpture in Europe in the Thirteenth Century (i). By A. L. FROTH- 
INGHAM, Jr. 5. Ancient Crude Brick Construction and its Influence on 
the Doric Style. By ARTHUR R. MARSH. Nos. 2-3, Apr.-Sept. 1. The 
Aboriginal Relics called "Sinkers" or "Plummets." By HENRY W. 
HENSHAW. 2. The Lost Mosaics of Ravenna. By EUGENE MUNTZ. 
3. The Abbey of Jumieges and the Legend of the Enerves. By CHARLES 
C. PERKINS. 4. Notes and Inscriptions from Asia Minor (i) . By WILLIAM 
M.RAMSAY. 5. Two Modern Antiques. By ALFRED EMERSON. No. 4, 
Oct.-Dec. 1. Marble Statue of Artemis in the Museum at Constanti- 
nople. By SALOMON REINACH. 2. Law Code of the Kretan Gortyna (i). 
By AUGUSTUS C. MERRIAM. 3. Mosaic of the Fa9ade of San Paolo 
fuori-le-mura of Rome. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 4. Inscribed Base 
of an Archaic Bronze Statue from Mount Ptous. By SALOMON REINACH. 

5. The Monoliths of San Juan Teotihuacan, Mexico. By WILLIAM H. 
HOLMES. 6. The Revival of Sculpture in Europe in the Thirteenth Cen- 
tury (ii). By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. News, Notes, Reviews, etc., in 
each number. Pp. 488. Illustrated. Paper, $5.00. Cloth, $5.50. 

Vol. II, 1886. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. A Proto-Ionic Capital from the Site of Nean- 
dreia (i). By JOSEPH T. CLARKE. 2. Notes and Inscriptions from Asia 
Minor (ii). By W. M. RAMSAY. 3. Law Code of the Kretan Gortyna 
(ii). By A. C. MERRIAM. 4. Two Babylonian Seal-Cylinders. By 
WILLIAM HAYES WARD. No. 2, Apr.- June. 1. Notes and Inscriptions 
from Asia Minor (iii). By W. M. RAMSAY. 2. A Hittite Cylinder in the 
Muse'e Fol at Geneva. By EMILE DUVAL. 3. A Proto-Ionic Capital 
from the Site of Neandreia (ii) . By JOSEPH T. CLARKE. 4. Egyptian 
Antiquities: i, Two Ptolemaic Inscriptions; ii, Mummy Tablets. By 
A. C. MERRIAM. 5. Two Seals with Phoenician Inscriptions. By WIL- 
LIAM HAYES WARD. 6. The Terracotta Heads of Teotihuacan (i). By 
ZELIA NUTTALL. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. Oriental Cylinders of the 
Williams Collection. By J. MENANT. 2. A God of Agriculture. By 
WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 3. A Doric Shaft and Base found at Assos. 
By JOSEPH T. CLARKE. 4. Intailles Antiques de la Collection de Luynes. 
By ERNEST BABELON. 5. The Lost Mosaics of Rome (i). By EUGENE 
MUNTZ. 6. Two Marble Heads in the Museum at Constantinople. By 
SALOMON REINACH. 7. The Terracotta Heads of Teotihuacan (ii). 
By ZKLIA NUTTALL. 8. Proces-Verbal de 1'Ouverture de Deux Momies 
Royales au Musee de Boulaq. By G. MASPERO. No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 

1. Unpublished White Lekythoi from Attika. By JOHN HENRY WRIGHT. 

2. The Portraiture of Alexander the Great : (i) a Terracotta Head in 
Munich. By ALFRED EMERSON. 3. The Portico of the Lateran Basilica. 
By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. News, Reviews, etc., in each number. 
Pp.520. Illustrated. Paper, $5.00. Cloth, $5.50. 

Vol. Ill, 1887. Nos. 1-2, Jan -June. 1. Pasiteles and Arkesilaos ; the Venus Gene- 
trix and the Venus of the Esquiline. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN. 2. For- 
geries of Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities. By J. MENANT. 3. The 
Statue of Asklepios at Epidauros. By HAROLD N. FOWLER. 4. An 
Attic Decree ; the Sanctuary of Kodros. By J. R. WHEELER. 5. The 
Rising Sun on Babylonian Cylinders. By WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 

6. A Proto-Ionic Capital and Bird- Worship, represented on an Oriental 
Seal. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 7. Sculptures near Sindjirli. By 
WILLIAM HAYES WARD and A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 8. Mound-Build- 
ers of Manitoba. By A. MCCHARLES. 9. Review of Greek and Roman 
Numismatics. By ERNEST BABELON. Nos. 3-4, July-Dec. I. The 
Portraiture of Alexander the Great: (ii) a Terracotta Head in Munich. 
By ALFRED EMERSON. 2. Painted Sepulchral Stelai from Alexandria. 



Ey AUGUSTUS C. MERRIAM. 3. The Boston Cubit. By H. G. WOOD 
4. Egyptian Origin of the Ionic Capital and of the Anthemioii. By W. H. 
GOODYEAR. 5. Greek Inscriptions published in 1886-87. By A. C. MER- 
RIAM. <>. A Silver Patera from Kourion. By ALLAN MARQUAND. 
7. An Eye of Nabu ; A Babylonian Bronze Pendant ; The Stone Tablet 
of Abuhabba. By WILLIAM' HAYES WARD. 8. Antiquities of Southern 
Phrygia and the Border-lands (i). By W. M. RAMSAY. 9. Mittheil- 
ungen aus Italienschen Museen. By THEODOR SCHREIBER. 10. The 
Old-Fort Earth Works of Greenup County, Kentucky. By T. H. LEWIS. 

News, Reviews, etc., in each number. Pp. 530. Illustrated. Paper, 
$5.00. Cloth, $5.50. 

Vol. IV, 1888. No. 1, Jan-Mch. 1. An Inedited Portrait of Plato. By SALO- 
MON REINACH. 2. Antiquities of Southern Phrygia and the Border-lands 
(ii). By W. M. RAMSAY. 3. Archaic Ionic Capitals found on the 
Akropolis. By S. B. P. TROWBRIDGE. 4. An Engraved Bronze Bull at 
Metaponto. By ALFRED EMERSON. 5. Two Stone Tablets with Hiero- 
glyphic Babylonian Writing. By WILLIAM HAYES WARD. No. 2, Apr.~ 
Jutte. 1. The Lost Mosaics of the East. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 

2. Inscriptions found upon the Akropolis. By CARL D. BUCK. 3. A 
Laughing Girl and a Study of Coiffure : A Terracotta Head in Munich. 
By ALFRED EMERSON. 4. An Archaic Patera from Kourion. By ALLAN 
MARQUAND. 5. Reliefs at Carchemish-Jerablus. By WILLIAM HAYES 
WARD. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. The Relation of the Journal to American 
Archaeology. By the Editors. 2. Antiquities of Southern Phrygia and the 
Border-lands (iii). By W. M. RAMSAY. 3. The Ancieat Coinage of 
China. By W. S. AMENT. 4. Gargara, Lamponia, and t j ionia: Towns 
of the Troad. By JOSEPH THACHER CLARKE. No. 4, Oct. -Dec. 1. In- 
edited Terracottas from Myrina, in the Museum at Constantinople. By 
SALOMON REINACH. 2. Inscriptions from Ikaria. By CARL D. BUCK. 

3. A New Sikyonian Inscription. By MORTIMER LAMSON EARLE. 

4. Early Bronzes recently discovered on Mount Ida in Krete. By A. L. 
FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 5. Remains of an Ancient Greek Building discovered 
in Malta. By A. A. CARUANA. News, Reviews, etc., in each number. 

Pp. 550. Illustrated. Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 

Vol. V, 1889. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. The Newly Discovered Head of Iris from the 
Frieze of the Parthenon. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN. 2. Stele of a 
Warrior from Ikaria. By CARL D. BUCK. 3. The Choregia in Athens 
and at Ikaria. By CARL D. BUCK. 4. Human Sacrifices on Babylonian 
Cylinders. By WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 5. A Collection of Babylonian 
Weights. By ALBERT L. LONG. No. 2, Apr. -June. 1. The Decrees of 
the Demotionidai : A Study of the Attic Phratry. By F. B. TARBELL. 

2. Discoveries in the Attic Deme of Ikaria in 1888. By CARL D. BUCK. 

3. Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages (i). By A. L. FROTHING- 
HAM, Jr. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. Excavations by the American School 
at the Theatre of Sikyon. By W. J. MCMURTRY and by M. L. EARLE. 
2. A Sikyonian Statue. By M. L. EARLE. 3. Inscriptions from Ikaria. 
By CARL D. BUCK. 4. An Early Rock-cut Church at Sutri. By A. L. 
FROTHINGHAM, Jr. No. 4, Oct. -Dec. 1. The Thas-ian Relief Dedicated 
to the Nymphs and to Apollon. By AD. MICHAELIS. 2. Excavations by 
the American School near Stamata in Attika: i, Report on Excava- 
tions and Sculptures. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN. ii, Inscriptions. 
By F. B. TARBELL. 3. Discoveries by the American School at Plataia 
in 1889: i, A New Fragment of the Preamble to Diocletian's Edict de 
pretiis rerum venalium. By J. C. ROLFE and F. B. TARBELL ; ii, Re- 
port on Excavations. By C. WALDSTEIN, F. B. TARBELL, and J. C. 
ROLFE. 4. Discoveries by the American School at Anthedon in 1889 (i). 
By C. D. BUCK and F. B. TARBELL. 5. Sculptures from Ikaria. By 
C. D. BUCK. News, Reviews, etc., in each number. Pp. 534. Illus- 
trated. Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 

Vol. VI, 1890. Nos. 1-2, Jan.-June. 1. The Lost Mosaics of Rome of the Fourth 
to the Ninth Century. By EUGENE MUNTZ. 2. The Monastery of Fossa- 
nova. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 3. Reminiscences of Egypt in Doric 
Architecture. By ALLAN MARQUAND. 4. The Distribution of Hellenic 
Temples. By GEORGE B. HUSSEY. 5. ZeO? 'HAIOTTOAITT,?. By PAUL 
WOLTERS. (>. Greek Sculptured Crowns and Crown Inscriptions. By 
GEORGE B. HUSSEY. 7. Discoveries at Anthedon by the American 
School (ii). By JOHN C. ROLFE. 8. Discoveries at Plataia in 1889 by 
the American School: iii, Inscriptions. By F. B. TARBELL and J. C. 
ROLFE. 9. Discoveries at Thisbe by the American School: i, Report on 
Excavations. By J. C. ROLFE. ii, Inscriptions. By F. B. TARBE^L and 
J. C. ROLFE. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. The House of the Martyrs Julin and 
Paul, recently discovered on the Coelian Hill at Rome (i). By PADRE 



GEBMANO. 2. A Babylonian Cylindrical Bas-relief from Urumia in, 
Persia ; Tiamat and other Evil Spirits, as figured on Oriental Seals. By 
WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 3. The Cistercian Monastery of San Martino al 
* Cimino near Viterbo. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 4. Notes on Roman 
Artists of the Middle Ages, (ii) Architects. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 
No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1. A Vase of the Mykenai Type in New York. By 
A. S. MURRAY. 2. Discoveries at Plataia in 1890 by the American 
School : i, General Report on the Excavations. By CHARLES WALD- 
STEIN. ii, Detailed Report on the Excavations. By H. S. WASHINGTON. 
iii, Description of the Site and Walls of Flataia. By H. S. WASHING- 
TON, iv, Notes on the Battlefield of Plataia. By W. IRVING HUNT. 
News, Reviews, etc., in each number. Pp. 612. Illustrated. Paper 
$4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 

Vol. VII, 1891. Nos. 1-2, Jan -June. 1. The Mantineian Reliefs. By CHARLES 
WALDSTEIN. 2. A Phoenician Bowl in the Metropolitan Art Museum, New 
York. By ALLAN MARQUAND. 3. The House of the Martyrs John and 
Paul on the Coelian Hill at Rome (ii). By PADRE GERMANO. 4. Two 
Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo by Vassallectus and Petrus Oderisi. By 
A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 5. The Fragment of the Edict of Diocletian 
discovered at Plataia in 1890 by the American School. By THEODOR 
MOMMSEN. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. Excavations by the American School 
at Eretria in 1891. Introductory Note. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN. 

1. Historical Sketch of Eretria. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, ii, Inscrip- 
tions discovered at Eretria. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, iii, Excava- 
tions iu the Theatre at Eretria. iv, The Stage-Building of the Theatre 
at Eretria. By ANDREW FOSSUM. v, The Orchestra and Cavea of the 
Theatre at Eretria. By CARLETON L. BROWNSON. 2. Supplementary 
Excavations at the Theatre of Sikyon in 1891. By MORTIMER L. EARLE. 
3. Cistercian Monastery at Chiaravalle di Castagnola. By A. L. FROTH- 
INGHAM, Jr. No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1. Excavations by the American School 
at Eretria in 1891. vi, Topographical Study of Eretria. By JOHN PICK- 
ARD. 2. Excavations by the American School at Plataia in 1891. Dis- 
covery of a Temple of Archaic Plan. By HENRY S. WASHINGTON. 
3. Votive Inscription from Plataia. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. 4. Andrea 
Delia Robbia's Assumption of the Virgin in the Metropolitan Museum. 
By ALLAN MARQUAND. 5. Cistercian Monastery of Arbona. By A. L. 
FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 6. A Mensa Ponderaria from Assos. By F. B. TAR- 
BELL. News, Reviews, etc., in each number. Pp. 578. Illustrated. 
Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 

Vol. VIII, 1893. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. The Temple of the Acropolis burnt by the 
Persians. By HAROLD N. FOWLER. 2. Notes on the Subjects of Greek 
Temple-Sculptures. By F. B. TARBELL and W. N. BATES. 3. The Rela- 
tion of the Archaic Pediment Reliefs from the Acropolis to Vase-Paint- 
ing. By CARLETON L. BROWNSON. 4. The Frieze of the Choragic 
Monument of Lysicrates at Athens. By HERBERT F. DfiCou. 5. Dio- 
nysus ef AiVvai?. By JOHN PICKARD. No. 2, Apr. -June. 1. Some 
Unpublished Monuments by Luca Delia Robbia. By ALLAN MARQUAND. 

2. Egyptian Chronology. By SAMUEL BERWICK. 3. A Series of Cypriote 
Heads in the Metropolitan Museum. By A. C. MERRIAM. 4. A Tablet 
referring to Dues paid to the Temple of the Sun at Sippara. By THEO. 
G. PINCHES. 5. A Sepulchral Inscription from Athens. By WM. CAREY 
POLAND. 6. Some Sculptures from the Argive Heraeum. By C. WALD- 
STEIN. 7. Excavations at the Heraeum of Argos. By CARLETON L. 
BROWNSON. No. 3, Juhj-Sept. 1. Notes of Eastern Travel. By JOHN 
P. PETERS. 2. The Topography of Sparta. By NICHOLAS E. CROSBY. 

3. The Neatherd in the Art of the Mycenaean Period. By GEORGE B. 
HUSSEY. 4. Fastigium in Pliny, N. H. xxxv., 152. By HAROLD N. 
FOWLER. 5. Excavations in the Theatre at Sicyon in 1891. By M. L. 
EARLE. 6. Further Excavations at the Theatre of Sicyon in 1891. By 
C. L. BROWNSON and C. H. YOUNG. 7. Report on Excavations at Sparta 
in 1893. By CHARLES WALDSTEIN and Z. M. PATON. 8. The Cloister 
of the Lateran Basilica. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM. Jr. 9. Some Inscrip- 
tions from the Orient. By A. C. MERRIAM. No. 4, Oct.-Dec. A History 
of the Akropolis at Athens. By WALTER MILLER. News, Reviews, 
etc., in each number. Pp. 631. Illustrated. Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.. r ,0. 

Vol. IX, 1894. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. The Madonnas of Luca Delia Robbia. By 
ALLAN MAROUAND. 2. Some Unwarranted Assumptions in Archaeology. 
By HENRY W. HAYNES. 3. Byzantine Artists in Italy from the iSixth 
to the Fifteenth Century. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 4. A Torso from 
Daphne. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. No. 2, Apr. -Jim.",. 1. The 
Philosophy of Art. By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Sr. 2. A Bas-relief from 
Phaleron. By N. E. CROSBY. 3. A Terracotta Sketch by Lorenza 



Ghiberti. By ALLAN MABQUAND. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. A Head of 
Polycletan Style from the Metopes of the Argive Heraeum. By CHARLES 
WALDSTEIN. 2. Stamped Tiles from the Argive Heraeum. By RUFUS B. 
RICHARDSON. 3. Some Inscriptions from the Argive Heraeum. By J. R. 
WHEELER. 4. Some Hittite Seals. By WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 
No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1. A Silver "Mirror-case" inlaid with gold, in the 
National Museum of Athens. By RICHARD NORTON. 2. On the Possi- 
bility of assigning a Date to the Santorini Vases. By HENRY S. WASH- 
INGTON. 3. A Study in Greek Architectural Proportions : The Temples 
of Selinous. By ALLAN MARQUAND. 3. The New Faun from the Quiri- 
nal. By MYRON R. SANFORD. News, Reviews, etc., in each number. 
Pp. 014. Illustrated. Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 

Vol. X, 1895. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. A Discovery of Horizontal Curves in the 
Roman Temple called " Maison Carree " at Nimes. By WILLIAM H. 
GOODYEAR. 2. Some Recent Results of the University of Pennsylvania 
Excavations at Nippur, especially of the Temple Hill. By JOHN P. 
PETERS. No. 2, Apr. -June. 1. Some Early Italian Pictures in the 
Yale School of Fine Arts at New Haven. By WILLIAM RANKIN. 
2. Notes on Byzantine Art, and Culture in Italy and especially in Rome. 
By A. L. FROTHINGHAM, Jr. 3. A Sacrificial Calendar from the Attic 
Epakria. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. No. 3, July-Sept. 1. The 
Chorus in the Later Greek Drama, with Reference to the Stage Question. 
By EDWARD CAPPS. 2. Some Sculptures from Koptos. By SARAH Y. 
STEVENSON. 3. The Nippur Arch. By JOHN P. PETERS. No. 4, 
Oct.-Dec. 1. The Court of Columns at Nippur. By JOHN P. PETERS. 
2. Grave-monuments from Athens. By T. D. GOODELL and T. W. 
HEERMANCE. 3. A Kylix by the Artist Psiax. By JOSEPH CLARK 
HOPPIN. News, Reviews, etc., in each number. Pp. 586. Illustrated. 
Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 

Vol. XI, 1896. No. 1, Jan.-Mch. 1. Andokides. By RICHARD NORTON. 2. In- 
scriptions from the Argive Heraeum. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. 
No. 2, Apr. -June. 1. Pinax aus Athen. By PAUL WOLTERS. 2. 'HSv- 
TIS. By PAUL WOLTERS. 3. Grotesque Figurine. By HENRY W. 
HAYNES. 4. Excavations in 1895 in the Gymnasium at Eretria: i, The 
Gymnasium. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. ii, Sculptures from the 
Gymnasium. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, iii, Inscriptions from the 
Gymnasium. By RUFUS B. RICHARDSON and T. W. HEERMANCE. 
No. 3, July-Sept. 1. Excavation of the Theatre at Eretria in 1895. By 
T. W. HEERMANCE. 2. Fragment of a Dated Panathenaic Amphora from 
the Gymnasium at Eretria. By T. W. HEERMANCE. 3. The Dimensions 
of the Athena Parthenos. By ANNA LOUISE PERRY and ALFRED 
EMERSON. 4. Bronze Reliefs from the Acropolis of Athens. By PAUL 
WOLTERS. 5. Johannes Overbeck. By WALTER MILLER. 6. Notes 
from Corinth. By R. B. RICHARDSON. No. 4, Oct.-Dec. Cretan Num- 
ber. 1. Report of the Expedition of the Institute to Crete. By FEDERICO 
HALBHERR. 2. Inscriptions from Various Cretan Cities. By F. HALB- 
HERR. 3. Christian Inscriptions. By F. HALBHERR. News, etc., in 
Nos. 1-3. Pp. 613. Illustrated. Paper, $4.00. Cloth, $4.50. 



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66, FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



TWO IDOLS FROM SYRIA 



[PLATES II, III] 



THERE have lately been brought to this country two bronze 
idols, green with patination, which the Syrian who showed them 
to me declares were obtained by his brother from a native who 
found them in the ruins of an old fallen wall of a building some 
two hours north of Tyre, near a grotto, or cave, at Adlun, just 
north of the Nahr el-Kasmiye. The ruin was torn down and 
he secured these two objects. 

The smaller of the two is the familiar nude goddess, so often 
represented in Oriental art, 1 with hands under her breasts 
(PLATE II). The height of the figure, omitting the basal pro- 
jection below the feet by which it was attached perhaps to a 
column, is 0.15 in. The head is much too large, proportionately 
to the body, as are also the hands. The ears are peculiarly 
made, in a rude helix form. The hair is arranged with a braid 
across the forehead, and a braid behind reaching to the middle 
of the back, with two curls nearly as long on each side of it. 
The eye-sockets are made large for the insertion of an eye of 
glass, or of banded agate like those that have been found, of 
much larger size, with the inscription of Nebuchadnezzar and 
the name of the god, Merodach or Nebo, to whose image they 
belonged (J. Menant, Pierres G-ravees, II, p. 142). One such 
eye, of Nebo, is among the treasures of the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum in New York. On the top of the head appears the 

1 Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria, vol. I, p. 83 ; 
L. P. di Cesnola, Descriptive Atlas of the Cypriote Collection, vol. II, pis. ii, iii ; 
Schliemann, Mycenae and Tiryns, figs. 267, 268 ; ib., Ilios, fig. 233. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 289 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV OtWOt, No. tf. 



290 WILLIAM HAYES WARD 

mark of the opening in the mould through which the molten 
metal was poured in. A similar mark is seen on the head of the 
male deity. 

The other is a male deity (PLATE III), nearly 0.24 m. in 
height from the head to the foot. The body is dressed in a 
close, short garment which reaches to the knees. The waist is 
encircled with a wide belt, or girdle, which appears to be tied 
together in front with a twisted cord, the ends of which hang 
down the length of the skirt of the garment. The eye-sockets 
were doubtless filled with eyes. The beard is short and 
straight. The ears are of the same curious helix pattern as in 
the case of the goddess. The hair is arranged in the same way 
as in the case of the goddess, except that there are three curls 
on the back of the head on each side of the somewhat longer 
central braid, while a fourth curl on each side falls down from 
behind the ear in front over the shoulder. Within the closed 
hands there is an open space, which indicates that they held 
Qach some object, like a dove, or a vase, or a mace or sceptre. 
We can even imagine a Moloch furnace held on the two hands. 
The long curls and braids of the two figures are paralleled in 
the bronzes from Teti and Uta, in Sardinia, figured by Perrot 
and Ctiipiez (History of Art in Sardinia, etc. vol. I, pp. 60, 65, 
67, 68), in which now one or two long curls, and now a long 
braid falls down in front of the body from behind the ears, 
although no drawing is given of similar curls or braids down the 
back. There were Phoenician settlements in Sardinia, and 
Phoenician influence is probable in these bronzes. Earthen- 
ware statuettes from Phoenicia itself show a similar arrangement 
of the hair, as in one from Cornus (Perrot and Chipiez, Phoe- 
nicia and Cyprus, vol. II, p. 25), and in a votive statue (ibid. 
p. 34). A similar arrangement of the hair appears on some of 
the Phoenician type of statues from Cyprus in the great Cesnola 
Collection in the New York Metropolitan Museum. Such are 
three fine life-size stone statues, and a number of earthenware 
statuettes (A Descriptive Atlas of the Cesnola Collection, vol. I, 
pis. vii, viii, ix, xx, xxi ; see also A. P. di Cesnola's Salaminia, 



TWO IDOLS FllOM SYRIA 291 

p. 228) ; but I have not met with any bronze statuettes of the 
Phoenician period in which this feature is so elaborately marked. 

The extension of the worship, under various names among 
different peoples, of the nude goddess with hands supporting 
the breasts, as found in this bronze idol, is one of the most 
interesting facts in the history of the religion of Western Asia. 
What her origin was it is as yet impossible to tell. We know 
it was not Egypt, and we naturally turn to the other chief 
source of civilization and religion in Babylonia. And yet it is 
not clear that she was any more an originally Babylonian deity 
than was Ramman, who, we know, came from the Syrian 
region. Every advance in knowledge tends to enlarge the 
area, from Elam to the Mediterranean coast, over which 
extended a civilization of a parallel antiquity to that of 
Babylonia. 

With considerable plausibility Lenormant (Berose, p. 119) 
concludes that the Babylonian name of the nude goddess with 
hands supporting her breasts was Zarpanit, or Sarpanitu 
( 4 silver shining one '), to whom the scribes gave, from her 
function, the punning, or folk, etymology of Zir-banitu, mean- 
ing 4 the producer of offspring.' Neither Sarpanitu nor her 
mightier consort, Marduk, appears in the literary sources 
before the time of Hammurabi, perhaps 2300 B.C.; nor does 
the nude goddess under this form appear any earlier in art, 
although a nude goddess holding thunderbolts and standing 
on a dragon appears in primitive Babylonian art (Ward, 4 Bel 
and the Dragon,' American Journal of Semitic Studies, XIV, 
pp. 95, 104) as consort of the elder Bel, with whom Marduk 
was identified when Babylon, of which he was tutelary god, 
became paramount. It may even be that Sarpanitu, if that 
was her name, was an introduced deity, pe :haps from Syria, 
like Ramman. It was from Hani, the region between the 
Bay of Alexandretta and the Euphrates, that Agum, about 
1800 B.C., brought with great honor, and without war, the 
images of Marduk and Sarpanitu (Jensen in Schrader's Samm- 
lung von Assyr. und Bab. Texten, III, p. 139). This nude god- 



292 WILLIAM HAVES WAliD 

cless, so common in Middle Babylonian art, hardly enters into 
the purely Assyrian art ; but her figure constantly appears in 
what goes under the name of " Hittite " art, a loose term which 
includes for a period of fifteen hundred years or more the 
region north and west of Mesopotamia as far as the Medi- 
terranean, and as far as, or even merging into, the Mycenaean 
region. She often takes the purely Babylonian form, and then 
appears to be identical with the Hittite nude goddess. In a 
relief from the Hittite capital Carchemish (Ward, ' Hittite 
Gods in Hittite Art,' Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 13) she is nude, 
holding her breasts, but winged. For other nude forms see 
figs. 28, 29, 33-37 in the article cited above. Cypriote forms 
are indicated in the reference above (p. 289, note) to L. P. 
di Cesnola's Descriptive Atlas. 

While it is easy to recognize the Oriental Aphrodite in the 
female figure, it is not easy to identify the god with any par- 
ticular Canaanite deity. The two idols must have come from 
the same workshop, and they apparently represent a god and his 
wife, a divine couple, as if Baal and Astarte. There is no sign 
of either Egyptian or Greek influence. We must attribute 
them to a Canaanite or Phoenician origin. A Hittite influence 
is hardly possible. I do not know any near parallel to the god, 
and must look to scholars better acquainted with Phoenician or 
Syrian art for comparison with any similar objects. 

WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 



American 

of Classical Studies 

in Home 



PRUDENTIUS COMMENTARIES 



THE Vatican Library contains twenty-six manuscripts of 
Prudehtius : the list is given by Dressel in the preface to his 
edition, Leipzig, 1860. Of these, the most valuable for their 
commentaries are : Reg. 321, which besides being the only 
complete Prudentius in Italy has some valuable explanatory 
matter ; Pal. 1715 and 235, containing not the poet's text, but 
fragments of what must have been an extensive commentary on 
the author's works. 

Pal. 1715 is a miscellaneous manuscript in two parts, Hie 
latter being a sort of phrase-book, synonyms, etc. : its writing 
is a beautiful Saec. XI minuscule. Part I, on leaves 115, 
contains the glosses which I have transcribed. 

This codex is 175 mm. long by 105 mm. wide, in single 
columns, with twenty-three lines to the page ; writing Saecc. 
X-XI minuscule, and of German origin. Besides other inter- 
esting facts about this manuscript, it should be noted that it 
contains some O.H.G. glosses, which need not be repeated here, 
as they have already been published by Steinmeyer and Sievers, 
Althochdeutsche Grlossen gesammelt, II, Berlin, 1882. 

Even without these glosses the German origin of the codex 
would be indicated by the following orthographic peculiarities : 

b used for p : 

I Symm. 561 : Blebiclas == plebicolas. 

Oath. VII, 157 : bullati = pullati. 

Perist. II, 514 : simbuuium = simpuuium. 

American Journal of Archaeoloirv. Second Series. Journal of the 203 

Archaeological Institute of America,' Vol. IV ("Hit*)), No. 8. 



294 JOHN M. BURN AM 

p used for b : 

Hamart. 868, Palla confused with German Ball (?) 
Perist. X, 187 : lespius = Lesbius. 

c used for g : 

Exordium: clicoiiium = Glyconium. Here, however, the scribe 
may have had before him a G- with short tail, which is 
easily mistaken for C. 

Apoth. 439 : Cortinia = Gortynia. Here the same possibility 
lies before us. 

g used for c : 

Perist. X, 240 : deligatos = delicatos. 

I Symm. 184 : gretensis = cretensis. 

mediogritas = mediocritas. 

d used for t : 

Apoth. 433 : Adlas = Atlas. 

t used for d : 

Oath. Ill, 29 : quibustam = quibusdam. 

II Symm. 355 : quastam = quasdam. 

A curious case of t for c is found in Hamart. 143 morditus = 
mordicus. Other orthographical mistakes found in this codex 
are too common to call for special mention. 

Several times the scribe uses the open a in the body of a 
word ; written attached to m or n below it is quite common. 
Long i similarly attached is also in frequent use. 

The most remarkable palaeographical peculiarities of our 
scribe are the use of <f = r and d = k, and the omission or 
insertion of g between two i's or between i and e, as in 

I Symm. 373 : subiit = subigit. 
507 : uigeto = uieto. 

II Symm. 294 : uigetum = uietum. 

Oath. V. 448 : regi is corrected by erasure to rei. 



PEUDENTIUS COMMENTARIES 295 

Our scribe quotes St. Jerome, St. Isidore, and Servius : 

Oath. VII, 139 : flagellis m. yerminis. Alii volunt quod 
edera sit. Sed sanctus Hieronimus dicit quod siseio sit : siseio 
autem genus est arboris habens simile edere foliium. 

Ill, 29 : nam ut Isidorus ait strophium. est aureum 

cingulum cum gemmis paratum quibusdam, etc. (JEtymol. XIX, 
33, 3). 

I Symm. 388: louis infernalis id est orci quod et seruius 
tangit dicens quosdam homines uelle iouem cestem, (1. caeles- 
tem) iouem marinum, iouem stigium ut solus super omnia fieret 
tamen mutato nomine. 

The commentary frequently shows a surprising ignorance of 
Roman history and classical mythology, e.g.: 

I Symm. 527 : Cethego id est rege quodam. 

II Symm. 51 : Berecynthian mother is confused with Diana ; 
perhaps a last reecho of pagan syncretism. 

Perist. X. 292 : fidias ( = Phidias) id est fidala (= English 
fiddle). 

In a very large number of cases the scribe gives the lemmata 
in the nominative of nouns, and in the infinitive or first person 
indicative present of verbs : so often, in fact, does this occur 
that a collation with Dressers text would be valueless. Instead 
of such collation, here follows a selection of the most important 
or most characteristic comments occurring in this manuscript. 

Praef. 8 : Toga, uestis militum, et dicta toga a tegendo et est toga sicut 
in consuetudine habebatur uestimentum quo in foro amicti sunt milites. 
(Isid. Etymol. XIX, 24, 3. Toga dicta, quod velamento sui corpus tegat, 
atque operiat. Compare also Varro ap. Non. 541, 2.) 

Cath. Ill, 18 : Seria, grauia utilia necessaria et honesta dicuntur, et sunt 
seria dicta quod non festinanter ; sed sero, id est tarde fiant. Nam sicut 
serus (id est tardus) a sera (quod est uespera) dicitur, ita a sero, serius 
appellatur, et est mobile, serius seria serium. 

28 : Cum dactylico strophio, id est cingulo. Nam ut Isidorus ait 

(Etymol. XIX, 33, 3) strophium est aureum cingulum cum gemmis paratum ; 
quibusdam autem aliis auctoribus placet strophium uel coronam esse uel 
hoc ornamentum insigni habebatur in capitibus sacerdoturn. Illud ergo 
latine stroppus uocatur. (Festus, 313 J/, s.v. stroppus.) 



L )( .M; jo us M. nuns AM 

Cath. Ill, 81 : Lyram dictint O.TTO TOV \vptiv id est a uarietate uocum, eo 
quod diuersus sonos efficiat. Lyram primus Mercurius iuuenit hoc modo. 
Cum regrediens Nilus in suos meatus, uaria in campis reJiquisset animalia, 
relicta etiani testudo est. Quae cum patefacta (1. putrefacta) esset et nerui ei 
remansissent, extent! intra coriuin percusi (1. percuss!) a Mercuric sonitum 
dederunt; ad cuius specie m Mercurius lyrain fecit et Orfeo tradidit. (Isid. 
o/>. cit. Ill, 21, 8.) 

90 : Armonia est cum fistulae per ordinem positae organum legitime 
tenent. Nos autem dicimus armoniani modulationem uocis et concordiam 
plurimorum sonorum. (Cf. Isid. op. cit. Ill, 15-21, especially III, 19, 2. 
llannonia est modulatio vocis, et coucordantia plurimorum sonorum.) 

Perist. II, 518 : Luperci, id est Panes (1. Panis) sacerdotes, diet! quod 
lupos a pecoribus arceant : hi sunt pastores. (Cf. Serv. in Aen. VIII, 343.) 

XI, 45 : Rostra, id est loca ubi rostra ex acre Antonianarum nauium 

Ivomae posita sunt. Suburra, id est proprium nomen loci Romae ubi nunc 
coria parantur. 

Apotli. 494: Zoroastres, idem dicitur Mesram qui auctor ydolatriae 
exstitit. 

Hamart. Praef. 7 : Bideiites, id est oues qui infra biinatum duos dentes 
eminentiores habent. (Serv. m Aen. IV, 57 ; Gell. XVI, G ; Isid. op. cit. XII, 
1,9.) 

- 403 : Gymnus graece nudus dicitur ; inde Gymnosophista, quia 
penitus ab amore sophiae res seculares spreuit. (This etymology is tradi- 
tional, but the explanation, quia spreuit, betrays a monkish commentator.) 

Perist. X, 84: Bellum diuis ceu gigantes inferant. Gigantes contra 
deos pugnauerunt ut caelum rescanderent ; tune f ulmine louis percussi, 
aetlina monte abruuntnr. 

140 : Floccum dicimus capilluin at hie pro inutili ponitur. 

155: Ante carpentum id est currum Ideae Matris id est Opis quae 

in Yda monte colitur quia Athlantis filia Celei uirgo pulcherrirna fuit. Quae 
response accepto a diis ut uitam cum uirginitate perduceret omnibus se 
petentibus curule certamen inposuit, ut quisquis earn praecurreret illam in 
coniugio habuisset. Si non, ipse decollaretur. Accidit ut Ippomenes qui 
malum aurem olim de horto Veneris sumptum habebat, cum ipsa currendo 
ilia uelocior cursu enm praecucurrit. At ille malum aureurn iaciente quae 
desiderio auri tardata, ipse earn uitiauit. Tune Dianae instinctu ambo in 
leones conuersi sunt trahentes currum in quo uertebatur (1. uehebatur) 
Diana. (Cf. Serv. in Aen. Ill, 113, and van Staveren's note to his Auctores 
Mythographi Latini, p. 30G.) 

Perist. X, 156 : Lapis Nigellus, qui in illo uehiculo ferebatur pro simu- 
lacro; quern praeeundo cnm nudatis pedibus cum certamine usque ad 
Almonem fluuium Italiae perducebat ibique ludos et sacrificia exercebat. 

- 188: Delfosne pergam, id est locum ubi ara Apollinis quain films 
eius Lespius qui alio nomine laquearius dicitur, fabricauit. Hie autem 
Lespius cytharoedus optimns fuit qui cum Tharento Corrinthum cum multis 
opibus peteret, et uideret sibi in a nautis tencli (1. sibi a nautis intend!) 



PRUDENTirs COMMENTARIES 297 

insidias petit ut cythara paululum caneret. Ad cuius sunitum clum delfi 
(1. delfi nes) uenissent, exculsit (I. excussit) se super unimi, et ita iumiuens 
uitauk periculuni. (Arion is meant; cf. Auct. Myth. 322-324.) 

Perist. X, 188-189 : Sed uetat palestrici conrupta effebi. Yacinctus 
puer quern Boreas et Apollo aiuauenmt. Sed ille magis Apollinem dilexit, 
cuinque sub tripoda eius iaceret, priusquam earn Apollo uiciauit, iratus 
Boreas rneiisam sub qua positus erat inonebat quae super euin cecidit sub 
qua mortuus est. Tune Appollinis raiseratione quocurnque eius sanguinis 
flos in eius nomine nascebatur. (Cf. Serv. in Buc. Ill, 63 ; Plin. N. H. XXI, 
11, 38, 66.) 

193 : Conductus idem pavit. Apollo exutus diuinitate ob occisos 

gygantes qui fulmina louis fabricaueruiit, pastor factus est Admeti regis 
iuxta Amfrisum fluuium quod orpsydia oues uellere exuit, ibique tela per- 
didit. (Cf. Myth. 113; Lact. Plac. in Stat. Tit. V, 444, VI, 375; Serv. in Aen. 
VII, 761: Porph. in Hor. Carm. T, 10, 9; Ovid, Met. X, 162-219.) 

197 : Puer obstat Gallus, id est Attis quern Diana in coniugium 

petiit qui dum se ita facere simularet ipsa in amorem eius ardens cum 
amplexu eum castrauit et mox perditum fleuit. (For the usual version of 
this myth vid. Serv. ad Aen. IX, 115.) 

206 : Quid aureorum coiiditorem temporum, id est Saturnum qui 

ut fama est, filium fugiens in Italia latebatur (sic). Conditor aureorum 
temporum ideo dicitur quia sub illo omnium errantium syderum fuit con- 
cursus: aut quia sub illo aurea dicunt esse secula. (Verg. Aen. VIII, 319, 
and Serv. ad locum, Ovid, Met. I, 89 ff.) 

213 : Lemnius, id est Vulcanus a Lemno insula ubi nutriebatur qui 

quia Martem cum Venere ligauit diisque ostendit idcirco inter se tarn magna, 
iniuria sunt (1. inimicitia). 

235 : exoletum, id est inmundum uel iuuenem. Ganimedes Trois 
iilius speciosus ab loue adamatur per aquilam armigerum eius raptus in 
coelum, minister deorum factus est ut aquain manibus eorum funderet. 
(Cf. Festus, p. 44; Verg. Aen. I, 28, and Serv. ad loc. ; Lact. Plac. in Stat. 
Th. I, 540.) 

240: neaera, id est Omfale. Hercules euiin amavit Omfalen ; qui 
(1. quae) eum persuasit et coli deligatos enervare contractus, et lasciuienti 
pollice fusi teretem rotare uertiginem. (Stat. Theb. 641-645 and Lact. 
Plac. ad locum.) 

257 : Placet sacratus. Esculapius filius Apollinis optimus medicus 
qui dum magicis suis artibus unum hoininem suscitaret serpens in spina 
eius inuentus est. (Cf. Myth. Script. 928; Lact. Plac. in Stat. Th. Ill, 398.) 

512 : Bombix, id est uermis, ex quo sericum texitur. (Cf. Isid. op. 
cit. XVI, 5. 8.) 

611-12: Mauortiam lupam. Rea Silvia Numitoris regis Alba- 
norum filia, a morte compressa geiniuos edidit quos Arnulius in Tiberim 
proiecit; hos etiam fluuius in siccum uiuos exposuit. Cum ad uagitum 
lupa uenisset admotis uisceribus eos aluit idcirco mauortia lupa dicitur. 
(Liv. I, 4, 6.) 



298 JOHN M. BURN AM 

Perist. X, 618 : Gnosiam capellam, id est Greciam (1. Graecam) capel- 
lam : quia luppiter in Dicteo monte Graeciae lacte caprae a curetibus et 
corribantibus nutritus est. (Cf. Scrip. Myth. 245-246.) 

881 : Libet experiri Lerna. Sicut traditur Lerna lacus est 
Archadiae in quo fuit ydrus, quo si quisque unum caput absumeret, tria 
succrescerent. Ad quern Hercules ueniens, Eulao (1. lolao) comitante quot 
capita Hercules abscidebat tot socius eius combussit. Sic demum interfecta 
est belua. (Cf. Serv. in Aen. VI, 287.) 

1015 : Gabino cinctu. Gabini Romanis uicini fuerunt ex quibus 

magnara partem cerimoniarum sumpserunt. 

/. Symm. 57 : Tuscis namque ille puellis. Saternus (1. Saturnus) cum 
Falerna nympha concubuit, quibus Opis (1. Ops) superueniens, ille ne 
agnosceretur ab ea se in equam mutauit: idcirco dicitur Tuscis adhinnire 
puellis. (Serv. in Georg. Ill, 93.) 

89 : Nee non Thessaliae doctissimus qui magicae artis ualde 

peritus erat : et uirgam atque serpentem in manu tenebat : quique homines 
resuscitasse magicis suis artibus dicitur atque necare. (Verg. Aen. IV, 242, 
and Serv. ad locum, Isidor. op. cit. XVII, 6, 18.) 

106 : Scortator nimius, id est Priapus qui ob scortum nimium de 
patria pulsus est, et in Italiam fugit deusque hortorum f actus est. (Cf. Verg. 
Georg. IV, 110, and Serv. ad locum.) 

117 : Argo, id est nauis. Hercules cum in Ispaniam ire uellet ad 

Gerionem [cid] mare ueniens nullam nauem inuenit. Ille alnum excidens 
ipsumque conscendens mare transfretauit. 

118 : Nee maris erubuit Nemea sub pelle foueri. Fallanthea 

Euandri filia fuit cum qua Hercules concubuit sub pelle leonis qui in Xemea 
silva captus est. 

139 : Hanc iubet assumptam neeram, id est concubinam. Cum 

Liber pater Ariadnem Minoys regis Cretae in coniugium accepisset, cui 
Vulcanus XII geminis insignitam coronam fecit in honorem Liberi quam 
mulieri tradidit atque inter astra mutauit. (Resume of Myth. Script, pp. 
432-433.) 

- 191-192 : Quos fabula manes nobilitat, id est deos infernales 
dicit. Ancus pronepos Tulli fuit et dictus Ancus quia incuruum brachium 
a cubitu habuisse dicitur. (Vid. Paul, op. Festi, p. 19.) 

234 : Maculoso corpore picus. Picus films Saturni, regnauit in 
Italia, cui uxor carmentis nympha fuit. Is cum assidue uenationes exer- 
ceret, a Circe Solis filia adamatus est quae eum in coniugium petiit, qui cum 
petitum ei negaret concubitum transfiguratus est ab ea in auem sui nomi- 
nis, ideo maculosus dicitur. (Cf. Isid. op. cit. XII, 47; Serv. in Aen. VII, 
190.) 

260-261 : Inter Fescennina, id est inter carmina nuptialia (Fescen- 
nini uersus sunt) quae canebantur in nuptiis et dicti fescennini ab urbe 
Fescenna: siue quia fascinum pellunt. Aliter fescenninus deus nuptia- 
rum. (Serv. in Aen. VII, 695; Paulus, ap. Fest. 85 and 86; Fascinus a god, 
in Plin. N. H. XXVIT, 4, 7, 39.) 



PRUDENTIUS COMMENTARIES 299 

I. Symm. 359 : Placatur uaccae quae immolabatur ei. In superis uocatur 
Diana, in terra Lucina, in inferno Proserpina. (Myth. Scrip. 908; Serv. in 
Ae. IV, 511.) 

-388: louis infernalis, id est Orci quod et Seruius tangit dicens 
qnosdam homines uelle louem cestem (1. caelestem), louem marinum, Touem 
styginm, ut solus super omnia fieret, tamen mutato nomine. (In Aen. Ill, 
134?) 

547 : Exuuias pontificales, quibus ydolis sacrifieabant. 

627 : Saturnique seiiis lapides, quia sub illius tempore lapides 
serebantur ; inde nati sunt homines. (Ovid, Met. I, 382 ft'.) 

// Symm. 28 : Rutilas pennas explicit uictoria, quia propter celeritatem 
cum pennis pingebatur. 

55 : Raptarit iuueiiem, id est Yppolitum. Theseus Egei filius 

Fedram Minoys et Pasiphae filiam duxit uxorem, quae cum Yppolitum 
priu ignnm eius de stupro interpellasset, ille noluit consentire et ipsa aput 
patrem suum accusabat quasi ei uim inferre uoluisset. Tune Theseus Nep- 
tunum rogans (1. rogauit) ut a filio eius pennas (1. poenas) exigeret. At 
Xeptunus dum Yppolitus currum suum cum equis ad lucuni Triuiae agitaret, 
phocam contra equos mittens (1. misit) qui turbati iuuenem de currum (sic) 
iecerunt et de equorum strepitu mortuus est. Tune Diana eius castitate 
commota, reuocauit eum in uitam per Esculapium medicum. (Cf. Myth. 
ScrifJt. pp. 111-112; Serv. in Aen. VI, 445, VII, 761; Lact. Plac. in Stat. Th. 
V,444.) 

221 : Graia quas Pallade. Pallade et Neptuno certante de Athena 

(x/c) ciuitate utrum de Xeptuno seu de Minerua uocaretur, dii ceteri dicebant 
qui melius munus mortalibus optulisset eius nomine uocaretur ciuitas. 
Tune Neptunus percusso tridenti litus equurn protulit; Minerua fixa asta 
oleum creauit, quae res melior quia pacem significat. Inde inuentrix oleae 
dicitur. (Cf. Serv. in Aen, VIII, 128.) 

353 : Praedam sumpsit Athenis dum Romam (1. Romani) Atheni- 

enses inuaderent et spolia multa inde auferreut, aliqua sacra ex eis aufere- 
bant. 

354 : Quosdam caniiii capitis, id est cum Caesar Augustus contra 
Cleopatram pugnaret et earn superaret, simulacra eius abstulit quod canino 
capite fuerat. 

II 

Cod. Vat. Reg. Lat. 321 is a handsome parchment manu- 
script, containing the complete works of Prudentius, preceded 
by a few elegiac lines, a very brief life of the poet, a list of 
his works, the Vita composed by Gennadius, and marginal 
notes. This Codex measures 315 x 225 mm. ; its flesh and hair 
sides are much alike, which, with the fact of its presence in 



800 JOIIX M. BCJtXAM 

Queen Christina's collection, makes its French origin very 
likely. It has sixty-six leaves, with ten in the first quire and 
eight in the others ; it has about thirty-eight lines to the page ; 
the columns are two or three, according to the verse employed. 
Its most remarkable palaeographical characteristics are an open 
a, which is not quite as frequent as the usual minuscule form ; 
the sign <f is used for the syllable et, even when the letters 
belong to two different words. On the whole, the Codex dates 
from early in the tenth century. 

After I had copied the prefatory parts of the manuscript, and 
many of the glosses (which are in a very fine hand, perhaps saec. 
X exeunt., and rubbed or yellow with age), the condition of 
my eyes forced me to relinquish this work. The glosses are 
mostly verbal ; the best of them are quoted by Dressel, who, 
however, sometimes assigns them to the wrong codex ; further- 
more, his report of the text readings is not always accurate. 
Hence, the manuscript is worth a recollation. I hereto 
append those extracts that are most likely to interest students 
of Prudentius. 

Fol. 1, verso: 

Haec lege qui rectum fidei uis dinoscere callem 

Quique heresum sellers, spicula uafra f ugis. 

Hie tibi peccati uxoris pandetur origo 

Hie noua uis animi, ministra ueterna fugans 

Funditur ydolii uirtus euersa iacebit. 

Ac penitus tetri. lingua teretur ydri, 

Inclitus hie martyr elingui concinet ore 

Herouraque acer rite canetur agon, 

Xpt (Christi) sonis ymnis libri priina ora resulta N 

Funalis uario musa canore boat ! 

Nunc tu gaeso frequens mellito gutture ructes. 

Hunc uerses animo moribus hunc teneas 

Meque imo in caelum suspiria pectore fundas. 

Pro me proque meo qui notat haec famulo. 

Then follow these words : 

Aurelius prudentius clem . . . s iste parti m in consulatu partim in fami- 
liaritate principis sic ipse host-endit secularibus litteris. Lvii annis oparam 
dedit. Sed postea illud ex toto amittens ad diuina metra componenda se 



PRUDENTIUS COMMENTARIES 301 

contulit. Fecit enim inultos libros uiiiiin quern praetitulauit djrocheum id 
est duplicem refectionem uocans de ueteri et Xouo [Testainento] et alios 
quos prae manibus habemus si perscrutari placet. 

The last clause of the preceding sentence prepares us for 
the list of the poet's works ; their names are in capitals, with 

interlinear glosses. 

trinomius fait 

AURELII. PRUDENTII. CLEMENTIS 

qui consulatuni ispaniensis ciuitatis messaliae bis optinuit 

VIRI CONSULARIS LIBRI NUMERO 

liber in laudi diei cuiusque. Cata secundum inera dies 
NOVE-CATEMERINON 

liber deitatis quomodo homines in deitatem transferuntur 
APOTHEOSES 

liber de initio peccati. Mortalis peccator. Amartian. peccatuin 
AMARTIGENIA 

liber de anime pugna. Psiche anima. Machia pugna 
PSICHOMACHIA 

quendani hereticum 

CON^A SYMMACHVM 
"IT CTRASYMMACVM 

Liber de beato roinano martyre 
R M A N V S 

De laudibus Martyrum 
PERISTEPHANON 

TITVLI ISTORIARV 

Then comes the extract from Gennadius, with some marginal 
and interlinear glosses, which are quoted below. The text in 
comparison with that of Dressel (note on page I of his Prole- 
gomena) shows the same archetype, but is a much better copy. 

GENNADIUS 

Gennadius presbyter in Catalogo uirorum illus 
triuni huius prudentii sic meminit. Pru 
dentius uir saecularis litteraturae 
eruditus. composuit dirocheum de toto ueteri 



302 JOHN M. BURN AM 

5 et nouo testamento personis exceptis 

Commentatus est et in morem grecorum exaiueron 

de mundi fabrica usque ad conditionem 

primi hominis et in praeuaricatione eius 

Composuit et libellos greca appella 
10 tione praetitulauit. APUU0HUJCIC 

Psichomachia amartigenia idest de 

diuinitate de compugnantia anirni 

de origine peccatorum. Fecit et in laude 

martyrum sub aliquorum nomiuibus 
15 inuitatorium ad martyrium librum unum 

et hymnorum alterum. Speciali tamen 

conditionem aduersus symmachum 

idolatriam defendentem et quorum lectio 

ne agnoscitur palatinus miles f uisse 

NOTES 

Line 1. illustrium : illustris nobilis uel clarus. 

3. saecularis litteratura quia per Lvii annos mundi amoribus fuit retentus 
uel quia plurimum poemata legit. 

4. dirocheum dicitur duplex refectio et ideo sic titulatur quia de uiteri et 
nouo testamento composituni habet. 

5. (exceptis) id est ab inuicem separatis. 

6. (exameron.} Exa graece VI mera dies inde exameron opus sex dierum. 
11. (psichomachia.) Psiche graece anima machia pugna hinc psichouiacliia 

pugna animae cum uitiis. 

11. amartigenia de peccato. Amartian peccatum. 

16. hymnus laus dicitur. 

18. Idolatria idea forma latria seruitus. Inde idolatria formae seruitus. 

In some cases the marginal glosses are correlated with the 
text by means of catch signs; these are often the Greek 
majuscule alphabet A-H, and then repeated ; sometimes, how- 
ever, the scribe uses a series of arbitrary marks not to be mis- 
taken for letters. These latter seem to follow no definite 
system. 

JOHN M. BURNAM. 



Smrncan School 
of Classical Studies 
in Koine 



THE TRIBUNAL AURELIUM 



THE curved terrace at the back of the Rostra in the Roman 
Forum, between the Arch of Severus and the Temple of Saturn, 
has received various names, most often that of Graecostasis or 
Graecostadium. But this name is based on little solid proof, 
and is used with hesitation, if at all, by the latest writers, and 
I venture to suggest that the monument is something quite 
different. 

Among the monuments in the Forum mentioned by ancient 
authors is the Tribunal Aurelium. Some writers, on account 
of a passage in Cicero, 1 have located this near the Temple of 
Castor. Cicero's words are : " Isdemque consulibus inspec- 
tantibus servorum dilectus habebatur pro tribunal! Aurelio 
nomine collegiorum, cum vicatim homines conscriberentur, de- 
curiarentur, ad vim, ad manus, ad caedem, ad direptionem 
incitarentur. Isdemque consulibus arma in templum Castoris 
palam comportabantur, gradus eiusdem templi tollebantur, 
armati homines forum et contiones tenebant." But, as Jordan 2 
points out, it does not follow from the references that the 
tribunal was in that region. Most of those who have written 
on the subject have considered it a temporary wooden platform, 
although there is nothing to show that it was not a permanent 
structure of masonry. 3 The word 'tribunal' seems to have been 
applied both to the raised platform on which the seat of the 
magistrate was placed, and to the whole space occupied by a 
court, the centre of which was the c tribunal ' of the presiding 

1 Pro Sestio, 15, 34. 2 Topographie der Stadt Horn, I, 2, p. 405. 

3 Cf. an inscription from Ostia, Orelli-Henzen, 3882: "tribunal in foro 
marmoreum fecit." 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 303 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 3. 






304 CHARLES JAMES O'CONNOR 

officer. Tribunals of the first kind, used by magistrates of 
various grades, were doubtless often small wooden platforms, 
while those of the second kind were sometimes permanent, as in 
the basilicas. 

Although there is no direct evidence to prove that the 
curved terrace is the Tribunal Aurelium, the hypothesis that 
it is finds strong support and explains the form and position 
of a monument which hitherto has not been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. Nichols 1 comes near to solving the problem when 
he says that the description of the tribunal in Asconius, quoted 
below, corresponds with no place so well as with the site of the 
curved terrace, and " the Tribunal Aurelium was built with a 
permanent platform and steps, which were probably of stone or 
marble ; and the tribunal of the Comitium may have been simi- 
larly constructed," 2 and again, " It is probable that, in earlier 
times, this end of the Comitium had been the site of the 
Praetor's tribunal." 3 However, he concludes that the ter- 
race is the Graeeostadium of the later empire, arid that the 
Tribunal Aurelium was near the Temple of Castor. 

The tribunal received its name either from Gaius Aurelius 
Cotta, consul in 75 B.C., or from his brother, Marcus Aure- 
lius Cotta, consul in 74 B.C. So far as the classical references are 
concerned, either date might answer. It seems more probable, 
however, that a suitable place for hearing law suits was provided 
by Gaius, a noted advocate and lawyer, who was prominent in 
public affairs long before his consulship, and proposed a number 
of laws concerning the powers of tribunes and concerning trials, 
than by Marcus, who is known to us chiefly from his connection 
with some unfortunate events in the provinces. It is to be noted 
that Cicero, the only ancient writer who mentions the tribunal by 
name, admired and praised Gaius and made him an interlocutor 
in the Brutus. These Cottas were uncles of Julius Caesar. 

The passages bearing upon the question are : 

Cic. pro Sestio, 15, 34, quoted above. It was spoken in 
56 B.C., and refers to Piso and Gabinius, consuls in 58 B.C. 
1 The Roman Forum, p. 193. * Op. cit. pp. 81, 195. 8 Op. cit. p. 185. 



THE TRIBUNAL AU HELIUM 305 

Cic. in Pisonem, 5, 11 : "Pro Aurelio tribunal! ne conivente 
quidem te, quod ipsum esset scelus, sed etiam hilarioribus 
oeulis, quam solitus eras, intuente dilectus servorum habebatur 
ab eo, qui nihil sibi umquam nee facere nee pati turpe esse 
duxit." This was spoken in 55 B.C., and also referred to the 
same events in the year 58 B.C. 

Cic. de domo sua, 21, 54 : " Cum in tribunal! Aurelio con- 
scribebas palam non modo liberos, sed etiam servos ex omnibus 
vicis concitatos, vim turn videlicet non parabas," etc. This was 
spoken in 57 B.C. of the events of 58 B.C. 

Cic. pro Cluen. 34, 93 : " Gradus illi Aurelii turn novi quasi 
pro theatro illi iudicio aedificati videbantur ; quos ubi accusator 
concitatis hominibus complerat, non modo dicendi ab reo, sed ne 
surgendi quidem potestas erat." This was spoken in 66 B.C., 
and referred to the condemnation of C. Junius in 74 B.C. Here 
theatro should be translated literally, ' Those Anrelian steps, at 
that time new, seemed built like a theatre for that trial.' 

Cic. pro Flac. 28, 66 : " Sequitur aim ilia invidia Judaici. 
Hoc nimirum est illud, quod non longea gradibus Aureliis haec 
causa dicitur. Ob hoc crimen hie locus abs te, Laeli, atque ilia 
turba quaesita est ; scis quanta sit manus, quanta concordia, 
quantum valeat in contionibus. Sic summissa voce again, 
tantum ut indices audiant ; neque enim desunt, qui istos in 
me atque in optimum quemque incitent ; quos ego, quo id 
faciiius faciant, non adiuvabo." This oration was delivered 
in 59 B.C. 

Asconius in Milon. 41 (148) : " Primo die datus erat in 
Milonem testis C. Causinius Schola. . . . Quern cum interro- 
gate Marcellus coepisset, tanto tumultu Clodianae multitudinis 
circumstantis exterritus est, ut vim ultimam timens in tribunal 
a Domitio reciperetur. Quam ob causam Marcellus et ipse 
Milo a Domitio praesidium imploraverunt. Sedebat eo tempore 
Cn. Pompeius ad aerarium perturbatusque erat eodem illo 
clamore : itaque Domitio promisit se postero die cum praesidio 
descensurum, idque fecit. Qua re territi Clodiani silentio 
vcrba testium per biduuin audiri passi sunt. . . . Dimisso circa 



306 CHARLES JAMES O' CONN OR 

lioram decimam iudicio T. Munatius pro contione populum 
adhortatus est, ut ppstero die frequens adesset et elabi Milonem 
non pateretur iudiciumque et dolorem suum ostenderet euntibus 
ad tabellam ferendam. Postero die ... clausae fuerunt tota 
iirbe tabernae ; praesidia in foro et circa omnis fori aditus 
Pompeius disposuit; ipse pro aerario ut pridie consedit saeptus 
delecta manu militum . . . Cicero cum inciperet dicere exceptus 
est acclamatione Clodianorum, qui se continere ne metu quidem 
circumstantium militum potuerunt. Itaque non ea qua solitus 
erat constaiitia dixit." 

This explains the words of the orator addressed to Pompey 
(25, 67) : " Xon iam hoc Clodianum crimen timemus, sed tuas, 
Cn. Pompei (te enim appello, et ea voce, ut me exaudire possis) 
tuas, inquani, suspiciones perhorescimus." The trial was held 
in 52 B.C. 

It is fair to make the assumption, necessary to this argument, 
that the Gradus Aurelii were a part of the Tribunal Aurelium, 
because we learn from the only writer who calls them by name 
that the two existed at the same time, that the steps were part 
of some tribunal, and that on the occasions of which he speaks 
each was used by a crowd of men for an unlawful purpose. 
Writers on topography agree that they were the same. From 
the passages, then, it appears that this tribunal was important 
enough and permanent enough to receive a name, that it was in 
use at least sixteen years, perhaps twenty-two years, if it is of 
this that Asconius speaks, and that some part of it consisted of 
steps which reminded Cicero of a theatre. 

In the so-called Graecostasis we find a monument which 
answers well to what we know of the Tribunal Aurelium. 
Although the south half of the Avail and terrace has been re- 
built in late times, it is plain that it was originally built before 
the removal of the Rostra, or at least before the Rostra received 
its present form, which Hiilsen attributes to Augustus, for it 
was almost completely hidden by the latter. The curved 
marble plinth, with its travertine support, was cut into by that 
of the Rostra, which passed on the outside. 



THE TRIBUNAL AURELIUM 307 

The use of Porta Santa marble as facing for the outside does 
not exclude the possibility of a date as early as 44 B.C. The 
Romans must have been familiar with the use of colored marbles 
long before their first recorded use in Rome, for the Greeks used 
them for decoration as early as the fifth century B.C. The 
imitation of colored marbles in the wall paintings at Pompeii, 
some of which are of the second century B.C., indicates the early 
use of the marble itself. From Pliny we learn that the importa- 
tion and use of colored marbles had begun more than a quarter 
of a century before 44 B.C. He is discussing the extravagant 
adornment of private houses, and mentions the use of marbles 
in public buildings only incidentally, although he says that the 
private practice followed the public. 1 About the year 92 B.C. 
the orator Crassus adorned his house on the Palatine with 
columns of Hymettian marble. 2 In 78 B.C. C. M. Lepidus first 
used Numidian marble in his house. 3 In 74 B.C. L. Lucullus 
introduced the marble named after him. 3 The first use of 
marble crustae, for facing the walls of a house, is accredited by 
Pliny, 4 on the authority of Nepos, to Mamurra, a friend of 
Caesar. 

In view of such testimony, and of the fact that only a few 
years later Rome was a city of marble, it is by no means im- 
probable that the marble in question was put in place as early 
as 44 B.C. The thickness of the slabs points to an early period 
in the use of colored marbles. They are 0.08 m. or 0.09 m. 
thick. The metal pins, still visible in the marble facing, may 
have served to support documents which had to do with busi- 
ness transacted in the tribunal. 5 

During the month of December, 1899, the dirt and loose 
stones were cleared away from the inner part of the terrace, and 
there is now visible a short flight of travertine steps extending 
from the Umbilicus Romae to the centre, and following the 

1 N.H. XXXVI, 4-6. 3 N.H. XXXVI, 49. 

2 Ibid. XXXVI, 7. 4 Ibid. XXXVI, 48. 

5 Cf. Suet. Gram. 17, " Statuam habet Praeneste, in superiore fori parte circa 
heinicyclium, in quo fastos a se ordinatos et marmoreo parieti incises publicarat." 



308 CHARLES JAMES O'CONNOR 

curve of the wall. They look very much like those of a theatre. 
Four are still in position, and one or two more are necessary to 
reach the top of the wall. The inner part is now an irregular 
floor of concrete from 1.5 m. to 2 m. below the top of the wall. 
Although the existing form of the steps may not be their 
original form, they could hardly have been much different. 
Their thickness is 0.28 m. Perhaps the original steps were 
thicker. 

A satisfactory hypothesis must account for the curved form 
of this structure, and if we assume that these are the Gradus 
Aurelii, we have such an explanation. The wall and steps were 
given this curvature because it was a convenient form and one 
often used in enclosing the tribunals of basilicas and in theatres. 
The steps may have served as seats for the witnesses and 
privileged spectators. Cicero l says that the partisans of the 
accuser filled the steps and crowded about the defendant. In 
the trial of Milo, perhaps, they were occupied by the judges, who 
were fifty-one in number. At a later time they may have served 
as steps to the Rostra. The curved wall would have afforded 
a firm support for the honorary statues which were erected 
behind the Rostra. 

It is strange that Caesar should have thought well to hide 
so finely constructed a monument, but he could hardly have 
found a better site for the Rostra, and the concealment of the 
exterior of a tribunal may well have seemed a trivial matter 
to him. Yet it is not out of place to note that in 77 B.C. 
Gaius Cotta successfully defended Cn. Dolabella against Cae- 
sar. 2 So that Caesar may have built it over with the Rostra 
in vindictive spirit. 

It is possible that the Rostra, in its first form, did not conceal 
the tribunal so completely as it did later, and also, that the 
latter continued to be used for some time after the building of 
the Rostra. 

Perhaps Cicero makes still another reference to the Gradus 
Aurelii when, in the year 57 B.C., he describes a meeting of the 

1 Pro Cluen. 34, 93. 2 cic. Brut. 92, 317, and Val. Max. 8, 9, 3. 



777 /<; TRIBUNAL AUEELIUM 309 

senate held a short time before : l u Turn Clodius rogatus diem 
dicendo eximere coepit ; furebat a Racilio se contumaciter in- 
urbaneque vexatum. Deinde ems operae repente a Graecostasi 
et gradibus clamorem satis magnum sustulerunt, opinor, in Q. 
Sextilium et amicos Milonis incitatae. Eo metu iniecto repente 
magna querimonia omnium discessimus." The passages quoted 
above show that the Tribunal Aureliurn was a meeting-place of 
the Clodian faction. 

In conclusion, the so-called Graecostasis is a structure well 
adapted, by its theatre-like form, to the use of a tribunal ; it is 
in a part of the Forum where we might reasonably expect to 
find an important one ; it stands where such a tribunal existed, 
according to Asconius ; it resembles a theatre as did the 
Tribunal Aurelium, according to Cicero ; and its construction 
shows it to have been in use at about the same time as the 
Tribunal Aurelium. The fact that no mention is made of the 
tribunal after 52 B.C. is accounted for by its having become a 
part of the Rostra. 

CHARLES JAMES O'CONNOR. 

1 Ep. ad Qn.fr. 2, 1, 3. 



American Scijool 
of Classical Stutites 
in 



THE CODEX DUNELMENSIS OF TERENCE 



IN the Cambridge edition of Terence, 1701, Leng employed 
a manuscript called by him the Codex Dimelmeiisis, which he 
considered of great value for the establishment of the text. 
His description is as follows (p. 475) : " Tertium atque ilium 
longe pulcherrimum ex agro Dunelmensi 1 ad me benigne trans- 
tulit vir antiqua stirpe oriundus Frevile Lambton armig. qui 
paternam a Lambtoniis in eodem comitatu originem ducit, 
maternam vero a Rogero de Frevile de Shelford parva prope 
Cantabrigiam milite ; cuius a posteris ad hunc nostrum Frevile 
Lambton hie liber tandem deveiiit : qui quadratus quidem est, 
et versuum distinctionem fideliter servat ; cuilibet etiam Scenae 
Personas non tantum Loquentes, sed et Mutas praefixas habet 
antique more delineatas, et tabulam etiam in initio, Personarum 
capita larvata exhibentem, isti per omnia respondentem, quam 
Cl. Daceria editioni suae ex Codice man user ipto Regis Chris- 
tianissimi desumtam apposuit : quocum codice hie noster 
pleraque communia habere videtur." 

That this Codex Dunelmensis was to be identified with the 
Codex Veterrimus (Vetustissimus) of Bentley (1726) was first 
conjectured by Krauss, De libris manu scriptis quos perpoliendo 
Terentio R. Bentleius adhibuit commentatio, 1840, p. 9 seq.' 2 His 

1 Umpfenbach, Phil. XXXII, p. 468, suggests that possibly the manuscript 
came from Dunholme in Lincoln. That the j*qer Dunelmensis is Durham was 
pointed out by Ellis, Academy, 1872, p. 459. Cmpfenbach was also in the dark 
as to the meaning of Armiyer, the common designation of one entitled to bear 
heraldic arms. 

2 The Dunelmensis is mentioned by Cardinal Mai, J/. Acci Plauti fragmenta 
inedita item ad P. Terentium commentationes et picturae ineditae, Milan, 1815, 
p. 46. 

American Journal of Archaeology. Second Series. Journal of the 310 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. IV (1900), No. 3. 



AMEF.ICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. IV (1900) PLATE II 




AN IDOL FROM SYRIA: FEMALE 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. IV (1900) PLATE III 



AN IDOL FROM SYRIA: MALE 



CODEX DUNELMENSIS OF TERENCE 311 

conclusions, drawn from a comparison of parallel readings cited 
by Leng and Bentley, were accepted by Brix, De Terentii libris 
manuscriptis a Richardo Bentleio adhibitis, 1852, and Umpf en- 
bach, Philologus, XXXII (1872), pp. 468-470, though with 
some reservation by the latter. 

In a review of Umpfenbach's article, Academy, 1872, p. 459, 
Mr. Robinson Ellis expressed the hope that some day the lost 
treasure might be brought to light. Shortly afterward, cer- 
tainly before 1881, 1 the manuscript (now' Auct. F. 2, 13) was 
found in the Bodleian library by Mr. T. W. Jackson, fellow 
of Worcester College, Oxford, but, so far as I am aware, he has 
never publicly announced the discovery. 

The next scholar to discuss the question was Professor Minton 
Warren, and to him is due the credit of establishing beyond all 
doubt the identity of Leng's Codex Dunelmensis, and Bentley's 
Codex Vetustissimus. Cf. Am. Jour. Philol. Ill, pp. 67 68. 2 
In the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, he found Bent- 
ley's copy (now B 17, 13) of the Faber Terence, 1686, in Avhich 
that remarkable man had made collations for his own edition, 
and on two separate pages had written out lists of the codices 
employed. These two lists differ in details unnecessary to 
mention here, but at the head of the first stands "D 3 Codex 
Dunelmensis vetustissimus 4'"; and of the second "D Codex 
Dunelmensis mine in Bibl. Bodleiana Oxonii 900 ami." 

The results contained in the remainder of this paper are 
based on my own collation of the Dunelmensis and Professor 
Warren's careful collation of the Andria and his thorough ex- 
amination of the division of verses throughout not only this 
manuscript, but also the Parisinus. To Professor W. M. Lind- 
say, now of Aberdeen, and Mr. W. H. Stevenson, of Oxford, 

1 The date of Professor Warren's visit to the Bodleian. 

2 Curiously enough, Dziatzko cites Warren's article in the preface to his 
edition, 1884, X, note 3, but in the Commentationes Woelfflinianae, 1891, p. 
221, he speaks of the Dunelmensis as "vielleicht der 'codex 900 annorum' bei 
Bentley," giving Umpfenbach as his authority. 

3 As the Dunelmensis may not be called D, for fear of confusion with the 
Victorianus, I have ventured to designate it by the letter O (Oxoniensis). 



312 CHARLES IIOEING 

I wish to express my gratitude for many helpful suggestions, 
and to Miss Annie F. Parker, of Oxford, for her painstaking 
revision of doubtful points in my collation of the Dunelmeiisis. 
Mr. Warren has also kindly allowed me to use his collation 
of the Parisinus, and whenever the reading reported by him 
differs materially from that of Umpfenbach's apparatus, I have 
adopted the former, affixing an obelisk to the letter of the 
manuscript (thus P f ). 

DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY OF THE CODEX 

The Codex Dunelmensis is a beautifully written parchment 
manuscript of quarto size and consists at present of 174 leaves 
of text with 3 fly-leaves in front and 8 blank leaves at the end. 
The leaves are 28 cm. long by 21 cm. wide, and are ruled with 
twenty-five lines to the page. The numbering is continuous 
and, therefore, comparatively recent, as many leaves are miss- 
ing. 1 The missing parts are as follows (according to the 
present method of numbering) : 

And. 459-480, between 17 v and 18 r 

" 716-742, " 25 v " 26 r 

Eun. 495-526, " 47 v " 48 r 

Ph. 437-464, 163 w 164 r, 

and Ph. 854-1055, following 174 r, with the exception of 894- 
943, which is contained in fol. 118. This leaf comes immediately 
after Ad. 762 and is followed by another leaf containing Pris- 
cian, De Metris Terentii, III. 420, 17-426, 6 (K.). 

The quaternions are in every instance marked by the proper 
numerals, and often by catchwords. 

Quaternion i ends with And. 198 (8 y) 

ii " 422 (16 v) 
" in " " 663 (23 , according to the 

present numbering) 
iv " And. 906 (30 y) 
v " Eun. 137 (38 y) 
vi " " 451 (46 v) 

1 This accounts for the fact that certain quaternions apparently consist of 
only seven leaves. 



CODEX .DUX ELM EX MS OF TE HENCE 313 

Quaternion vn ends with Eun. 721 (53 y) 

vin " " " 975 (61 v) 

ix " " Heaul. 113 (69 i?) 
x " 422 (77 y, JViam m catchwords) 

xi " " " 727 (85 r) 

xii " " " 1025 (93 y, FAus ut catchwords) 

xin " yl</. 200 (101 y, Verum catchword) 

xiv " " 471 (109 y) 

" xv " " the scene heading of Ad. V, 1 (117 y) 

xvi ' " " a blank page after the Ad. (127 v) 

xvn " " Hec. 280 (135 ) 

xvin" " " 588 (143 y, Illius stulticia catchwords) 

xix " '" " 880(151i>) 

xx " " Ph. 261 (159 y) 

xxi " " " 574 (166 v, Senectus ipsa catchwords) 

xxii " " " 853 (174 v, Nam sine catchwords) 

Without doubt the remaining 202 verses of the Phormio were 
contained in Quat. xxni, all of which is now lost except fol. 
118 mentioned above. The other missing leaves were lost 
before the numbering of the pages, but after the binding of the 
codex into its present form. Leng mentions the omission of 
the two leaves lacking in the Andria, but neither he nor Bent- 
ley has anything to say of others, though it is probable that the 
manuscript has suffered no alteration since their time. 1 

The manuscript when written consisted of 23 quaternions, 
or 184 leaves. As in the other codices of the class, each scene 
is preceded by an illustration of the characters therein appear- 
ing, and the action of these pictures agrees closely with the 
general type ; but the figures are larger and coarser, displaying 
inferior artistic ability, and the costumes show greater mediaeval 
influence. The illustrations extend across the page and take 
up from ten to fifteen lines. 

On ii r of the three leaves immediately preceding the manu- 
script proper, there is the interesting dedication : 

Hunc egregium librum 
Bibliothecae Bodleianae donavit 

Vir spectabilis 

Nic. Frevile Lambton de Hardwick in agro Dunelmensi Armiger. 
A.D. 1704. 

1 Neither Leng nor Bentley quote from the missing parts of the Dunelmensis. 



314 CHARLES HOEING 

On iii vi 

Passus est Beatus Albanus die decimo Kalend. lulii iuxta civitatem 
Uerulanu A Domenicae Incarna Ducentessimo octogessimo sexto sub Dio 
cletiano et Maximiniano ; 

and on I r in a thirteenth century hand: 

/>/ e i 

hie est liber Sti Albani qni q ei abstulerit 
aut titiilum deleuit anathema sit. 

Am. 

The latter evidently refers to the celebrated Abbey of St. 
Albans, where the manuscript must have rested in the thir- 
teenth century, and where it probably was written. 

In his second list Bentley gives the age of the Dunelmensis 
as "900 ami.," and often he speaks of another manuscript as 
"900 annorum"; }^et the Dunelmensis is always the "vetus- 
tissimus." This would throw the Dunelmensis back to at least 
the beginning of the ninth century, a very respectable age, even 
for a manuscript of Terence; but the character of the script is 
such as to assign it to the twelfth century, and so the Bodleian 
catalogue has it. 1 

It seems highly probable, nay, almost certain, that the 
Dunelmensis was written at St. Albans during the period of 
great literary activity which took its start under the Norman 
Paul, kinsman of Lanfranc, who was abbot from 1077 to 1093. 

Of interest are the words of Newcome, History of the Abbey 
of St. Alban, 1795, p. 48: "But among other things, one 
Robert, a very stout soldier, who lived at Hatfield, and being- 
one of the Norman leaders had received that vill and manor in 
the distribution, gave two-tenths of the tithes of his demesne; 
assigning it for the purchase of books for the monks: for this 
Robert was a man of letters and a diligent hearer and lover of 
the scriptures. The tithes of Redfern were assigned to the 
same purpose. 

1 The catchwords at the end of quaternions show that the manuscript could 
not have been written before the eleventh century. Cf. Thompson, Handbook 
of Greek and Latin Palaeography, p. 62. 



CODEX DUNELMENSIS OF TERENCE 315 

" And the best writers and copyists were sought for far and 
near for transcribing books; and their diet so provided for 
them, that they might not be taken off or hindered in this 
employment. ... A particular room in the Abbey was set 
apart for these copyists, called the Scriptorium : and by their 
means twenty-eight volumes of the choicest books were pro- 
cured, Lanfranc furnishing the originals." 

The next step in the investigation is to determine as closely 
as possible when the manuscript was written. The character 
of the script points to the twelfth century, but the date may be 
far more accurately decided by means of certain notices in the 
G-esta Abbatum Monasterii S. Albani (Riley, 1867). 

The first of these (Vol. I, p. 184) states that Simon, nine- 
teenth abbot, 1167-83, " Non desiit libros optimos et volumina 
authentica . . . quibus non vidimus nobiliora scribere." Of 
the same abbot the following statements are made on p. 192: 
" Notandum quoque quod iste immortalis memoriae Abbas 
Simon duo vel tres electissimos scriptores continue in camera 
sua honorifice sustinuit, unde librorum optimorum copiam 
impretiabilem ad unguem praeparavit et in speciali almario 
reposuit." What is more likely than that the Dunelmensis 
was one of those " libri optimi " ? 

Of greater interest is the notice in Vol. II, p. 200, under 
Richard II, twenty-eighth abbot, 1326-35: "Iste abbas . . . 
contulit . . . Domino Ricardo de Byri (Richard de Bury) 
clerico portanti sigillum privatum regis quattuor istos libros 
videlicet, Terentium, Virgilium, Quintilianum, et leronymum 
contra Rufinum . . . Venditi sunt praeterea . . . triginta duo 
libri eidem Domino Ricardo de Byri pro L libris argenti." 

The account further states that many of the monks were highly 
displeased with their abbot's action, and that Richard de Bury, 
" ductus conscientia," restored certain of the books after he had 
been made Bishop of Durham (1333), whilst others were recov- 
ered from the bishop's executors on his death in 1345. 

Is the Terence, which was acquired by Richard de Bury 
from St. Albans and taken by him to Durham, to be identified 



316 CHARLES HOEING 

with the Codex Dunelmensis? If so. it is highly improbable 
that the manuscript was among those restored to the abbey, 
and that it again made its way to Durham. 

For a long time prior to 1704 we know that the Dunelmensis 
was in the possession of the Freviles of Durham, but how it 
devolved to them, or why it was not ent to Durham 1 College, 
Oxford, along with Richard's other books, I am not prepared 
.to say. 

According to Surtees, History of Durham, 1823, III, pp. 34- 
36, Hardwick became the property of George Frevile, a Staf- 
fordshire gentleman, in 1570. His nephew and heir, Nicholas 
Frevile, was the maternal grandfather of Frevile Lambton 
(ob. 1731, aet. 70). The signature, " Nic : Frevile," in bold 
characters, is seen at the bottom of II r. 

Leng says that the Dunelmensis was inherited by the Dur- 
ham Freviles from the descendants of Roger de Frevile, of 
Little Shelford, near Cambridge. If from this statement the 
inference is necessary 2 that the Dunelmensis was owned at 
Little Shelford before it went to Durham, one of two con- 
clusions must be adopted, either that the manuscript ob- 
tained by Richard de Bury from St. Albans was not the 
Dunelmensis, or else that Leng is in error. I incline to the 
latter alternative for this reason, among others, that the thor- 
ough and painstaking Surtees is silent as to any connection 
between the two branches of the Freviles, and even as to 
the existence of the Little Shelford family. 

To return to the description of the codex, the remainder of 
Iv, and all of Ilr, are taken up by an amplified form of the 
Vita Oxoniensis (cf. Dziatzko, J.J. 1894, p. 472), which 
abounds in absurdities, with respect to Terence himself, 
Calliopius, the metres of the plays, etc. 

II v contains a picture of Terence with a masked figure on 
either side. Ill r has the aedicula with the thirteen masks, as 
in CP, but it should be observed that the aediculae and masks 
are omitted before all the other plays. 

1 Now Trinity. 2 To me it seems natural, but not necessary. 



CODEX DUNELMEN8IS OF TERENCE 317 

On III v is the well-known poem in elegiac verse : 

" Natus in excels^ tectis Karthaginis altis 

Komauis ducib ; bellica preda f ui 
Descripsi mores hominu iuuenuraq; senumq; 

Qualiter & serui decipiant doniinos 
Quid meretrix qd leno dolls constringat auarus 

II^c quicumque legit sic puto cautus erit." 

At the bottom of Lllr, in a seventeenth-century hand, is 
the self-explanatory distich, 

Henry Allen wrote the same & would for this he had no blame, 
& Thomas 

which may give us a clew to the disappearance of certain 
leaves, e.g. Eun. 495-526, and Ph. 437-464, which have 
unmistakably been cut out. 

The order of the plays is the same in O as in the other illus- 
trated manuscripts: And., Eun., Heaut., Ad., Hec., Pli. 

Below the illustrations there is usually a commentary bear- 
ing on the scene. So at the beginning of the Andria: "Vos 
istec et cetera. Quia Simo nuptias se velle celebrare serui 
illius eulogias detulerunt et ministri qd unusquisque poterat 
quidam lac et cetera talia que omnia pcepit intro in aliam 
domum deferri. Istec autem in omni Terentio disyllabe pro- 
nun tiandum est cu diptongo et resoluitur hec ista. Et istuc 
jjc.p istud et istoc p hoc istud. Sosia adesdum. Id est dum 
ades prope anteqm longius recedas. Faucis te volo. Sosias 
iste seruus eius fuerat, fecerat eum libertum commendans ei 
que in domo erant et ad coquinam ptinebant," etc., etc. 

More interesting is the commentary inserted in 'place of the 
didascalia of the Adelphoe : " Acta est ista f abula qua Terentius 
Latine composuit post Menandrum ludis funebribus quos exerce- 
bant in anniuersariis principum aut eroum quos inter eroas com- 
putabant Quinto Fabio Maximo Bullio Cornilio Africano Emilii 
Pauli filio edilibus, fecerunt Lucius Attilius Praenestinus Mi- 
nutius Prothimus, modos fecet Flaccus Claudi tibiis Sarranis. 
Claudium sicut iam diximus genus est tibiarum inequalibus tibiis 
compositum. Sarrane aut dicuntur tibie a Sarrano auctore qui 



318 CHARLES HOEING 

illud genus tibiarum adinuenit. Fabula aut Adelphoe,, quam Ter. 
composuit post Menandnim recitata e Rom dum isti supradicti 
ediles curules essent et dum ludi funebres agerentur. Greca 
uero Menandri facta est Annicio Marco Cornilio consulibus." 

LEXG AND BENTLEY 

Little need be said of Leng's use of O, and I shall simply 
call attention to two passages, where he misquotes the readings 
of the manuscript : 

Heaut. 852, "Sed nostri manuscript! omnes apud me legunt." Here the 
reading of O is apud te. 

Hec. 552, Leng gives the reading of O as haec fecit, but , the manuscript 
has h$c facit. 

Bentley evidently considered the manuscript of great value. 
Often he speaks of it as " Codex primariae notae " (And. 237 ; 
353, etc.), and sometimes follows its readings when supported by 
no other manuscript known to him, or at any rate cited by him. 

Cf. And. 353, "In altero primariae notae codice (O) non comparet illud 
Sese." 

Hec. 581, " Rem conficit noster veterrimus. Teque ante quod me amare 
rebar ei rei firmasti jidem" 

Ph. 26, " Graeci Lalini Phormionem nominant. Id vero miraculi instar est, 
si iam Latini nominant Phormionem, priusquam acta f uerit, priusquam earn 
cognoverint. Menduni sine dubio hie latet; quod iam eruimus et eluemus. 
Unus ex Meadianis Graeci Laline ; at vetustissimus noster Graece Latine. 

Re pone, 

Epidicazomenon quam vacant Comoediam 

Graece, Latine hie Phormionem nominal. 

Hie est auctor Terentius . . . Graece autem et Latine, non Graeci et Latini." 

Ph. 526, " Stercilinium Dorio. Sic dedit Faernus, versu ipso rnelius 
admonente. Noster quoque 900 annorum Sterculinium ; sed veterrimus 
Sterculinum. Vel hoc retine vel Stercilinum (Bentley retains Sterculinum)" 

Ph. 559, "A veterrimo abest Hinc" ; and Bentley follows the Dunelmen- 
sis, which here stands alone. 

Heaut. 811, "cum istoc, etc. Sic dedit Faernus; dubito an ex libris : 
Nostri enim omnes tuo addunt, cum tuo istoc. Lege ex vetustissimo nostro, 
cum tuo isto, etc." 

Heaut. 925, "Praeterea veterrimus noster, ut sentiat " (which he adopts). 

Heaut. 980, " Pro Etiam fame codex noster veterrimus, Etiam a fame. 
Recte." 



CODEX DUNELMENSIS OF TERENCE 319 

It would require too much space to give a detailed discussion 
of all the passages in which Bentley follows the reading of O 
when supported by other manuscripts, or by the testimonia of 
ancient authors. Let the following suffice : 

And. 395, "Nam quod tu speras. Liber Vaticanus et Donatus Speres 

(Faernus). Ita et ex nostris veterrimus." 

And. 451, " Duo ex nostris libris priuiarii Est obsonatum. Recte." 
Eun. 680, "Praeter Bembimun, etiam ex nostris veterrimus, Namque." 
Eun. 837, " lllo unus veterrimus et Priscianus, p. 1101. Ceteri ///, nescio 

an rectius." 

Cf. also And. 712, 864, 941, 971 ; Eun. 28, 553, 861 ; Heaut. 
589, 746, 788, 1050 ; Ph. 209, 755 ; Hec. 594, 846 ; Ad. 84, 
484, 500, 577, etc. 

Few indeed are Bentley's actual errors of collation, but in 
very many passages the inexact method of reporting readings 
naturally leads to false inferences. Often, too, he refers to the 
Dunelmensis in a very vague and indefinite way. 

And. 238, " Duo tan turn ex nostris Decrevit ; alii rnagno numero Decrerat " 
(Decreuerat O). 

And. 287, " Nostri omnes, uno excepto, agnoscunt illud Res " (Res om. O). 

And. 485, " Mox ego hue revertar. Aliqui libri et Donatus, Revertor (Faer- 
nus). Ita et nostrorum pars maior et melior " (Reuortar O). 

And. 627-628, "Unus tantum e nostris Gaudeanl, Comparent" (Sic O). 

And. 635-638, 

" Quis tu es? Quis mihi es f Cur meant tibi f 
Heus proximus sum egomet mihi. Attamen ubi fides 
Si roges, nil pudet. Hie ubi opus est, 
Non verentur: illic ubi nihil opus est, ibi verentur. 

Ita Faernus et codices nostri ; nisi quod in nostro omnium veterrimo, et 
manuscripto Regio apud Lindenbrogium deest illud Non verentur." He 
might have added that in O Heus is at the end of the preceding line, the 
position adopted in his own text. 

And. 754, " Porro meliores ex nostris Ahahe : non ut in risu solet Ha ha he " 
(Ha ha hae O). 

And. 882, " 0. 1. s. quotquot vidi, post ascriptam Simonis personam habent 
Hem (Faernus). Sic et nostri omnes " (Hem om. O). 

Eun. 874, " Malo ex principio . .. . Sex e nostris Ex malo principio " (Et 
malo principio O). 

Eun. 883, "Tres ex nostris veterrimi . . . Turn pol ab istoc tibi" (Tibi ab 
istoc O). 

Eun. 1069, "Porro omnes habent Volo, non Velim" (Uoluo O). 



320 CHARLES HOEING 

Heaut. 503, " Nostri ut editum " (Id est Ita : Ita 

Heaut. 606, " Nostri omnes, uno excepto, Daturum " (Daturani O). 

Ad. 95, " Vetustiores nostri magno nuiriero Rei opcram dare" (Rei dare 
operam O). 

Ad. 304, "Nostri codices Saeclum" (Seculum O). 

Ad. 518, " Recte Cum maxume : Nostri Eum vel Autem, vel nihil omnino '* 
(Cum maxume O). 

Ad. 825, "Nostri Quod, Quod" (Quid, Quod O). 

Hec. 846. " Anulum suum ceteri codices; sed veterrimus, cum Petrensi, 
Suum anulum" (Anulum suum O). 

Hec. 867, "Par fuerat resciscere, nostri universi " (Verborum ordo recte 
datur, sed Sciscere habet O). 

Ph. 143, "Nostri etiam plerique Addit, unus et alter Addet, vel Addat" 
(Addet O). 

Ph. 182-183, " Quae si non astu providentur, me aut herum pessum dabunt 
. . . Abest ab uno veterrimo nostro " (Hunc versum habet O). 

Ph. 260, "Nostri Egone " (Egon O). 

a. b. 
Ph. 519, " Ex nostris tres primarii Es dignus" (Es quod dignus O). 

Ph. 619, "Codex noster veterrimus pro Eius habet Prius" (Pius O). 
Ph. 826, " Ex melioribus nostris quattuor Ostenta " (Ostentata O). 
Ph. 828, " lubeas nostri fere omnes " (fubeat O). 



NICHOLSON'S THEORY 

On a fly-leaf of the Dunelmensis is the following interesting 
suggestion : 

" From fol. 17 a I conjecture that this Ms. is copied from a 9th century 
Ms. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 7899. Cf. Quentin Bauchart, La Biblio- 
de Fontainebleau, 156-7. 



This hypothesis, to be sure, seems to have been founded 
simply on a comparison of the facsimile of a page of P (And. 
422-434), as given by Bauchart, with the corresponding passage 
in the Dunelmensis ; yet the two manuscripts are so closel}' 
related, that for some time I sought additional evidence to sub- 
stantiate Mr. Nicholson's position, only to become finally con- 
vinced that it is untenable. 

The most striking testimony is that offered by verses 804- 
853 of the Andria. These verses are omitted by C^P 1 , but are 

1 Librarian of the Bodleian. 



CODEX DUNELMENSIS OF TEUENCK 321 

supplied on new leaves by a different hand. That is to say, in 
C 1 ! 11 854 immediately follows 803 without any break in the 
text. Now th Dunelmensis not only does not omit these 
verses, but has the illustrations at the head of V, 1 and V, 2, 
manifest and conclusive evidence that the Dunelmensis could 
not have been copied from P, in which the later hand has sup- 
plied the text alone, not the illustrations. 

In addition, P 1 omits verses 1-30 of the prologue of the Eun., 
and the missing portion is supplied by the later hand on one 
of the new leaves. In C 1 the whole of the prologue is lacking 
and is supplied by the later hand. In the Dunelmensis, on 
the contrary, there is no trace of any such omission in the 
original. 

To dispose of this theory once and for all, I have collected 
data along a slightly different line. Variant readings, even 
though numerous, are not sufficient proof in themselves that 
the one manuscript is not a copy of the other, for that would 
be denying the fallibility of scribes; but when the codex agrees 
in many readings with other members of its family and in the 
same passages differs from its supposed original, such corrobo- 
rative testimony should be considered very strong. Some of 
the many readings that might be cited are given below: 

And. 353, prehendit C 1 O 

apprehendit C 2 P 
" 444, cauit ne O cum relL praeter P 

caute ne P 
" 686, quid est hem CO 

quis est hem P 
" 703, Scio hie quid P 

Scio quid O cum relL 
Ph. 57, quod ni metii 1* 

quo in metii O cum relL 
" 73, usu FO, usus C, usus P 
" 175, Ego infelix incidi in eum locum P 

Ego in eum incidi infelix locum O cum relL (+) 1 
" 249, esse CFO 

est EP 

1 The sign () is used to indicate that the manuscripts placed before it have 
approximately the same reading. 



322 



CHARLES HOEING 



Ph. 475, feciFO 

fecit rell. 
Hec. 154, tu O cum rell. praeter 

ta om. P 
Ad. 320, imperare P 

impertire O cum rell. 

But enough of these instances have been given, I think, to 
prove that O is not a copy of P. On the contrary, the Dunel- 
mensis is not the copy of any manuscript now known. The 
fact still remains, however, that O, though close to F and even 
closer to C, yet seems in some respects most nearly related to P. 

Before taking up this side of the question, it may be just as 
well to point out the readings of O which do not agree with any 
of the manuscripts cited by U mpfenbach. 



And. 16, decere ex decet 

" 25, relictum O ; relicimm vel 

reliquum rell. 
il 59, haec onmia O 

omnia haec rell. 

* 86, phedram O; phedria (is 
in ras.) D; phedrium 
E; phaedrum rell. 
" 102, despondit O ; despondi 

rell. 
" 157, opera || do ex operando O 

operam do rell. 

" 441, sinet O ; desinet rell. () 
" 611, incoluinen O ; incolumem 

rell. () 

" 813, ei O ; eius rell. (ei 9 F) 
" 831, atque dolore O 

atque eius dolore rell. 
" 888, ut om. O 
Eun. 149, meo beneficio O 

beneficio meo rell. 
" 208, sati 8 ne O ; satine rell. 
" 300, ullura O ; ilium rell. 
" 385, uti O ; uta P f ; ut rell. 
" 534, Post hunc versum O liabet, 
ecquis cum ea una quid 
habuisset cum periit 
(= 522) 



, omisso Chaereae 



Eun. 546, ipsus est om. O. 
" III, 5, ANTIPHO CHAREA (EA 

atramento niyro) O 
ANTIPHO 
II- 
nomine P 
ANTIPHO CHEREAS F 

(Warren). 
CHEREA ANTIPHO 

ADVLESCENS 
CHEREA del. et CHAE- 
REA post ANTIPHO add. 
man. rec. (Warren). 
552, ulta (sic) O 

uita rell. 

< k 699, nec quis esse' audiera 1 di- 
cier O 

nec quis esset umquam 

audieram dicier DEFG 

ne c qs uq audiera dicier 

eetP 2 

neq s eet unqua audiera di- 
cier int. lin. add. schol. C 
nec dicier om. AP 1 C 1 
" 705, istic O ; isti rell. 
*' 728, accumbebam O (accuba 
|| || bam P*, ba man. rec., 
accurnbebam/brtasseP 1 ) 



CO'DKX DUNELMEN8I8 OF TERENCE 



323 



(Ew 



734, 

777, 
851, 
940, 

1020, 
1052, 
1061, 
1069, 



Heaut. Per. 9, 

52, 

273, 

449, 

667, 

914, 

" 946, 

" 981, 

Ph. 10e*33, 

26, 
148, 

" 184, 

287, 

*< 360, 

480, 
484, 

" 559, 

" 690, 

804, 
809, 
822, 



Hec. 



846, 
336, 



suiit om. EO) 
hutic () ; hue rdl. 
factum e () ; i'actum rell. 
est salus O ; salus est 

rell. 

Hunc versum om. O 
est om. O 
hinc O ; hie rell. 
uoluoO; uolim 1); uolo 

CEFGP 

tectinis O ; tech n is rell. 
michi O ; sibi rell. 
hoc om. O 

habere O ; haberi rell. 
olim om. O 
qnod O ; quo rell. 
recondam O ; retundam 

rell. 

quid O ; quae rell. 
auctoris O ; actoris rell. 

(auctoris F in 33) 
Cf. supra, p. 318 
certum satis scio O 
certum scio rdl. 
turn ex tune () 
turn rell. 
familia est O ; familiae 

rell. 
O audatia O ; O auda- 

ciarn rell. () 
aiebaut O; aiebat rell. 
a O ; ab rell. 
Cf. supra, p. 318 
ulcus hoc O ; hoc ulcus 

rell. 

emisti O ; errasti rell. 
ipsuni O ; ipsam rdl. 
qua O; quain P 2 ; ex 

quas P f ; quas rell. 
Non tu intelligis O 
Xum " " rdl. 
nescio O ; inisera rell. 



Hec. 372, 
>< 550-551, 

737, 
796, 



93, 

99, 

123, 
149, 

171, 
189, 

260, 



271, 
274, 

440, 
48-2, 

562, 
640, 

706, 
764, 

825, 
961, 



nidende O ; uidendi rell. 
PHI om. O ante vs. 550 et 

add. ante quid turn 
ignoscique O; ignosci 

rell. 
hecinum O ; haec nunc 

rell. 
ascribendum O ; ad scri- 

bendum rell. 
onini om. O 
quid nisi O; qui nisi 

rell. 
queinuis cedo O ; cedo 

queniuis rell. 
hie amauit O ; hie 11011 

arnauit rell. 
nee O ; ne rell. 
est iniuria orta 
est orta iniuria CEFP 
orta est iniuria rell. 
exspectat Tesipho doini 

'/ hem ("A Th'e in 

marg.') O 
exspectat domi, 

hem rell. 
O Tesipho O ; Ctesipho 

rell. 
ah a hah O ; aha vel ah 

rdl. 

a om. O 1 
nunc O 

him , h in ra.s-. pt (n P 1 ) 
hunc rell. 
homonernC); hominem 

rell. 
ipse michi O ; mihi ipse 

rell. 

tu om. O 

administratiuum O 
administrasti tuumrell. 
non quid O ; non qd rell. 
quid O ; quod rell. 



From this list one may readily see that Bentley seized upon 
the two most interesting readings (PA. 26 and 559), and there 



324 CHARLES HOE1XG 

are but four others which have, or seem to have, any value, 
viz., And. 813; Eitn. 851; Heaut. Per., 9; Hec. 372. 1 

RELATION TO P 

As we have just seen what slight influence the unique read- 
ings of O can possibly have on the text of Terence, it may be 
well now to discuss the relation of the codex to the others of 
the illustrated type, for it is in the corroboration of the readings 
of other manuscripts that O's chief value lies. 

Let us begin with P, to which O is undoubtedly most closely 
akin. The relationship may best be shown by the correspond- 
ence of verse division in the two codices ; but before proceed- 
ing to that more important point, some of the passages will 
be noted, in which O and P agree in opposition to all the 
other manuscripts. 

And. 204, sed hoc dico O 
sed hoc dico P 
sed dico relL 

" 495, certiOP; certe veil. 
864, ego om. OP 
Ph. 490, aft'eres O 
adferes P 
adferres rell. 
" 619, pius O 

r ei' 

pius P 
eius rell. 
Hec. 296, scitum est OP 

est scitu vel scitu est rell. 
325, te nunc OP; mine te rell. 
532, adeo OP; adeon rell. 

" 581, ante quod O; ante qd P; ante quam rell., 
etc., etc. 

In a discussion of verse division, C must, of course, be disre- 
garded, and FOP be taken up. Close affinity is displayed by 
these three manuscripts, in the division of verses, with respect 
not only to whole, but also to broken lines. In this regard O 

1 In Hec. 372 Fleckeisen 2 reads uidendae. 



CODEX .DUNELMEN8IS OF TERENCE 325 

and P are much closer to each other than either is to F, for 
in the latter manuscript there are many vagaries peculiar to 
itself alone. In consequence of this fact, and of the frag- 
mentary nature of F, it seems best to confine the discussion 
to O and P. 

The most striking instance of the loss of verse division in P 
is in the Eun. 275-515. This whole passage is written as 
prose, with only an occasional verse preserved. In O the same 
is true, and the division of lines corresponds almost exactly 
with that of P, Avord for word and syllable for syllable, the only 
exceptions being 291, where in P the line closes with properans, 
in O with the following word, uenit, and 311, where P closes 
with nunc, O with the following promissa. 

As a concrete example of the utter loss of verse division, and 
of the exact correspondence of the two manuscripts, I give 
below the opening and closing words of each line from 292 to 
310 in both O and P (exclusive of the notae) : 



Occidi . . 


. conspectu 


-moratus . . . non {post ilium 


P, 


Amisi . . 


. percenter 


n int. /m.) 




Quam . . 


. diu 


Flocci . . . es 




Celari . . 


. ani 


Tristis ... is 




-mo . . . 


formarum 


Ego . . . ita 




Ecce . . . 


infor- 


Prorsus . . . mei 




-tunatum 


. . . amare 


Qui . . . ostendes 




Luduin . 


. . huius 


Qui . . . aliquid 




Rabies . 


. dabit 


Inueni . . . cog- 




Ut . . . re- 


-noseas . . . congerebam 





The correspondence of O and P may be noted, not only 
where there is a false, division of verses, but also where the 
lines are broken. In the archetype many verses which were 
too long to be written on one line were continued to the next, 
and the part of the verse which fell on this second line was set 
in from the left margin, so that it should not be mistaken for a 
complete verse. With singular fidelity O and P (and often 
F) have copied these lines just as they stood in the original, 
even when there was an abundance of space for the completion 
of the verse. E.g., And. 272, Quae . . . ere- takes only 9 cm. 



326 CHARLES HOEING 

of space, 1 leaving 5 cm. on the line, yet -didit is written below 
in both O and P. 

There are scores of instances similar to this, but the agree- 
ment is much more striking, when in one of the manuscripts 
the first line is at the bottom of a page, and the continuation is 
at the top of the next page, set in from the margin. In every 
example cited below there was enough room to finish the verse 
on the last line of the page without continuing at the top of 
the next. 

FROM THE DUNELMENSIS 2 

And. 599, 21 v begins with illi. DAY. Null us sum 

" 621, 22 y " " meritus? DAY. Crucem 

" 645, 23 v " " -placita est tibi 

" 707, 25 r " ; ' -mento estis 

Eun. 217, 41 r " " me affirmare et 

" 234, 42 r " " hinc atque ordinis 

" 272, 43 r " " -do : at numquid aliud 

" 652, 52 r " " PHA. Quid istuc est rei? 
etc. 

FROM THE PAIUSINUS 
In P this is not so common, yet instances may be noted: s 

And. 307, 11 c' ends with amo- and 12 r begins with -rein 
" 702, 25 r begins with quaere 

The extreme care which the scribe of O exercised in copying 
may be illustrated by other interesting phenomena in the 
division of verses. E.g., in Eun. 440, the line in the manu- 
script from which he was copying ended in pamphilam; and 
not having quite enough room in his own manuscript, he 
finished the line thus, pampJd tan \ though there was no reason 
why he should not break the verse and continue it on the next 
line, as had so often been done in the archetype of O and P. 

1 These measurements are from P. 

2 It should be borne in mind that the verse division in P agrees exactly with 
that of O, though in these instances the broken line in P does not happen to 
come at the bottom of the page. 

3 Here again the broken lines coincide in the two manuscripts, but in they 
do not fall at the bottom of the page. 



CODEX DU8ELMEN8I8 OF TERENCE 327 

So in Ph. 715, opus is placed above for lack of room, and in 
Ad. 524, the same is true of longius. 

To conclude, let us take up briefly those lines in which the 
verse division of O does not agree with that of P. The num- 
ber of such lines is in the neighborhood of forty. Many may 
be accounted for by the fact that the line was simply too short 
to contain the whole verse, which was of necessity continued 
below, if the surplus word or words could not be placed above 
(cf. supra, p. 326). 

So in Heaut. 732, the verse is broken in O after fundo 
" 743, " uult 

Similar are Ad. 264, 517, 538, 542, 696. 

In many other passages the verse division differs by onlv 
a word or a syllable. 

So And. 178 is broken in P after fecit, in O after neque 

" 227 " " u impru- in O after impruden- 

. Similar are And. 236, 249, 264, 301, 350, 397, 409, 533, 614, 
926, 943, 960, 979; Eun. 291, 311. 

Lines which are broken in O and not in P are as follows: 
And. 928, 929, 936, 937, 943, 956, 963, 975, 977. 

An interesting example of verse division is Eun. 698-699. 
P 1 has PH. Quicum . . . non on one line, to which P 2 has 
added, Ne qs uq, audiera dicier eet. In. O, PH. Quicum . . . 
dicier is intended as one verse, and the line is broken .after eum. 
As this is the last line on the page, prius is at the top of 53 v. 

Of course, whenever a later hand has supplied parts of P, no 
conclusions must be drawn from differences in verse division. 
E.g., in the And. 804-853, there are six broken lines in O, and 
none in P. Again, in Eun. 643-651, the verse division differs 
widely in the two manuscripts, but here too a later hand is 
responsible for the text of P. 

To what conclusion are we drawn by the remarkable simi- 
larity that has been pointed out as existing between O and P ? 

We have already seen that O cannot possibly be a copy of 
P. The most natural hypothesis, then, would be that O and P 



828 C11AULES HOEING 

(\vitli C) are copies of the same manuscript ; but this also is 
impossible, for the original of CP did not contain And. 804-853, 
or at least had lost it when these copies were made, and O, 
which was written two or three centuries later, could not have 
been immediately derived from the same manuscript. 

After a careful consideration of the data available, I offer the 
following theory as best adapted to explain the manifestly close 
kinship of O and P :' O was copied from a sister manuscript of 
CP, one that was itself copied before CP, and before the original 
had lost And. 804-853. 1 

The mere fact that O has the text of And. 804-853, and in its 
proper place, would not force the conviction that Y was copied 
before CP, for the missing passage might have been supplied 
later in it as in CP ; but the illustrations given by O (and 
omitted by CP) at the head of And. V, 1, and V, 2, are so 
similar in type to all the others as to lead irresistibly to the 
conclusion that O drew them from Y, and Y from X. 

The following diagram will serve to illustrate the genealogy 

of the manuscripts : 

A. 

A manuscript \ ' 1 \ 

of the DG [ . . . . Y P C 2 

class (?) ) 

The occasional agreement of O with one or more of the 
manuscripts of the DG class may best be accounted for by 
supposing that Y was corrected from a manuscript of that 
family, as is indicated in the diagram. The influence of the 
DG class may be seen from the following examples : 

And. 709, mihi incipit DEGO 

incipit mihi rell. 
Eun. 44, animaduertite DEGO () 

animadutite 

animumadtendite P 

aniinum attendite C (X adutite in marg.} 

1 For convenience this lost original of O will be designated Y, and the manu- 
script from which CPY were copied, X. 

2 If C and P are not copied from the same original, but are several generations 
later than X, the tree need not be changed materially. 



CODEX DC \KLMKN8IS OF TERENCE 329 

Eun. -M7, heus tibi DK) 

heus heus tibi rell. 
Ph. 26*2, me om. DEFGO 
Hec. 64, te misereat DEFO 

inisereat te (te add P 2 ) P 

misereat C 

1:54, istoc DO ; isto rell. 
Ad. 3!)5, ille futilis somnium DEGO ( t) 

ille somnium (futilis in mary.) CFP 
" 854, cui rei opus est ei rei hilarem hunc DEGO 

cui rei est ei rei hunc OF 1 ? 1 

The foregoing list contains what seems to me the most cer-* 
tain instances of the correction of Y by a manuscript of the 
DG class, omitting, to be sure, all the passages in which OP 
are by a later hand, for in such cases it is very difficult to 
decide which truly represents the original X. Of course there 
are many other passages where it would seem that Y might 
have been copied from a DG manuscript, but the probabilit}^ of 
double reading in X, together with the idiosyncrasies of the 
scribes of Y and O, renders any absolute decision impossible. 1 

So it seems that O is corrupted only to a slight extent by 
the influence of the DG family, and that it is a comparatively 
pure and unadulterated representative of the illustrated type. 
Hence it follows that O should be of considerable importance 
whenever we do not have the testimony of C 1 ? 1 . 

In the And. 804-853, O is probably the best representative 
of its family. From what source this missing part of CP was 
afterwards supplied cannot be determined, but certainly it was 
not from X. 

Below will be found a collation of O, And. 804-853, com- 
pared with the text of Umpfenbach (omitting some minor 
details of orthography) : 

804, satin nos ne 

807, nondum 

809, Semper eius dicta est he^c 

810, fuere 

1 Dr. Warren is of the opinion that interlinear glosses in X, some of which may 
have been preferred by the scribe of Y, may account for all cases of agreement 
between O and the DG class. Probably he is right. 



330 CHAELES HOEING 

811, Litis sequi quam id michi 

813, ei 

814, grahdiuscula 

815, sicofantam 

817, O optime antiquum 

818, maxime 

Vj 1, Cremes Senex Simo 

821, inc^pi 

822, pene 

823, quam maxime abste oro atque postulo 

824, benefici^um (sic) re'comprobes (sic) . 

825, iniquus 

830, atque incertas 

831, atque dolore 

832, incejpi te tulit 

835, maxime deterrimum 

836, ficta incej>ta 

837, iis 

838, Versus exit in CHR. At. (ita P + ) 

839, Uero presens erat 

840, SI om. O 

841, quid tibi 

V, 2, Dauus Seruus Cremes Simo Dromo Lorari' 

842, nunc iam hem dauum 
845, Quemnam 

848, arcesse ex accerse 

849, responde negotii est 

850, Micliine ego om. O introii 
852, dixtin carnifex 

The whole of the prologue to the Eun. is omitted by C 1 , and 
verses 1-30 by P 1 , whereas O is complete here as it is in And. 
804-853. The collation of O, Eun. Prol., with the text of 
Umpfenbach, follows : 

5, sic existurnet sciat presiunet 

6, quale sit prius 
9, fasma 

10, in thesaurd corr. O 1 (?) 

11, suum 

12, thesaurus 

u 

13, monimentum 

16, desint 

17, condonabuntur 

22, adessent 



CODKX DUNELMENSIS OF TERENCE 331 

25, neuii 

27, iinprudeiiti^ est 
h 

35, isdem uti alii.s non licet 

36, currentis seruos 
39, seruum 

41, sit dictum 

42, quare ^quum est 

44, et cuiu silentio animadvertite 

A detailed comparison shows that in the preceding passages 
O has the better reading fully four times as often as the later 
hands of CP, and that, therefore, it more truly represents the 
archetype of the illustrated family than does either of the 
others. 

Again, Eun. 643-651 is by a later hand in P, and for the sake 
of completeness O's readings for these verses are given here : 

643, impium queram 

644, Iloccine perii PIIA. 
646, misere 

648, inuoluem 

650, queris 

651, egon queram ii liinc quo dignus es 

RESTORATION OF X 

We have come now to the consideration of O as an aid to the 
restoration of X ; and from this point of view it is that the 
manuscript deserves a place in the critical apparatus of any 
edition of Terence aiming at completeness. 

In numerous instances C and P differ in their readings, and 
the testimony of O often decides between the two. In the fol- 
lowing list there are some passages selected from the And. and 
Eun. for the purpose of illustration. 



,4nd. 204, sed dico C 

sed hoc dico O 
sed hoc dico P 

hoc 

sed dico fortasse X 
" 267, quid agit OPX 

quid agat C corr. C 2 



And. 276, uerear O 

uereor P, or in ras. 
uereor C (Warren) 
uerear X? 
' 301, pamphilo hodie imptnm 



COX 



I! !! II II H 



pamphilo n upturn Pt 



332 



CHARLES HOEING 



A nd. 313, prodat COX 

ptraat (ptra in ras.) P 
" 353, prehendit ait OX (?) 

ap ait 

prehendit C corr. C 2 

apprehendit ait P 
" 504, dari OPX 

dare C 
" 531, nollit O 

noflit P corr. PI 

nollit C corr. C 2 

noliit X 

" 569, quot PX 
t 

quod C corr. C 2 

quod in ras. O (quot O 1 ) 
" 575, ais OPX 

agis C 
" 684, erit O 

erat C 

erit int. tin. P- 

?X 
" 686, quid est COX 

quis est P 
" 699, poterit OPX 

potuerit C 
" 703, Scio quid COX 

Scio hie quid P 
" 751, dicturan es COX 

dicturane|es P, es in ras. 
a man. rec. (dicturan es 
P 1 ?) 



And. 854, ex me audias OPX 

ex mem dices C, audias in. 

marg. add. C 2 
" 864, Iain te OPX 

SYM. Ego ia te in rax. C 
" 873, ac mitte COX 

et mitte Pt, et in rax. 
" 881, hanc COX; banco///. P 
< 980, ex(s)pectetis OPX 

exspectatis C 
Eun. 86, tun OX 

tune, e add. corr. rec., P 

tune 

tu C corr. C 2 
" 197, paruam OPX 
parurn C 

" 401, quod O 

i 

quod C 

qui || P, i in ras. 

quod X 
' 402, gestare CM)X 

gestire C' 2 

gestire ex gestare Pt 
u 776, GNA. eccum adest OX 

SAN. " " P, SAN. 
in ras. 

SAN. 

GNA. eccum adest C, 

corr. C 2 
SA eccum adest F, SA 

add. F 2 



ON THE AGE OF X 

Very little evidence can be brought to bear, which will help 
us in determining the age of X. . In COP there are many 
wrong word divisions, but these merely* seem to show that the 
originals were written continuously. 

Of interest is Heaut. 746, 

C 

harunt C 
harunc F 1 

m 

harunfp P 
harunc O, 



CODEX DUNELMENtSIS OF TERENCE 333 

which proves that the original of C, whether X or a descendant 
of X, was written in minuscules 1 (c and t confused). 

Jn O there are three similar cases of confusion, two of u and 

open a, 

And. 86, phedram O 

phaedruhi relL () 
Ph. 809, ipsum O 

ipsam rell. j-, 
the third of c and , 

Ileaut. 946, recondam O 
retundam rell. 

These errors may not with certainty be traced back beyond 
Y, for which they indicate a minuscule script. 

On p. 828 I have intimated that possibly X was not the 
immediate original of CP, but the facts in the case are not 
sufficient to warrant more than a suspicion. 



ON THE PAGING OF X 

A puzzling question is this. X must have contained And. 
804-853, when Y was copied from it, and afterward have lost 
the leaf or leaves which held the passage. Now O has 6 broken 
lines in And. 804-853 (837, 838, 843, 844, 845, 850), making 56 
lines to be accounted for, in addition to 2 illustrations. 

If we suppose a single leaf to have been lost, X must have 
had 36 lines to the page, allowing 8 lines for each illustration. 

( I r, 804-831 
Scheme | I V , 832-853 

But 36 lines to the page seem excessive, 2 and we cannot well 
reduce the number materially by giving less space to the illus- 

1 But And. 780, attigam C 

atticam rell. (), seems to point to some original written in 
capitals and strengthens the suspicion that C and P may not have been copied 
immediately from the same manuscript. 

2 Yet C has 33 lines to the page (cf. Chatelain, PI. IX), J of Plautus, 40 lines 
(Chatelain, PL IV a), B of Plautus, 36 lines on some pages and as many as 54 on 



834 CHARLES HOEING 

trations, for in sucli a manuscript the lines would be very close 
together. 

Now suppose X,to have lost 2 leaves, e.g. the inner sheet (or 
double leaf) of a quaternion. In order to divide the passage 
properly, 842-853 (4 broken lines) must be assigned to IIv, 
and 804-819 to Ir, i.e. exactly 16 lines to the page. There 
remain 2 illustrations and 24 lines of text (22 lines + 2 broken 
lines) to be contained in 2 pages. Such a division allows but 
4 lines to the illustration. 



I v, Illustration -831 
{ II r, 832-841 (2 broken lines) + the illustration 



II v, 842-853 

This scheme is objectionable on account of the small number 
of lines to the page and to the illustration, a difficulty which 
may be partially met by supposing that in X there was a 
vacant space of several lines after verses 819 at the bottom of 
I r, yet not sufficient for the following illustration, and that at 
the same time verse 842, the beginning of a new scene, did 
not commence at the very top of II v. 1 In this way we might 
conjecture 18 lines to the page and 6 to the illustration. 

I r, 804-819 + 2 vacant lines 

I y, Illustration -831 

II r, 831-842 (2 broken lines) + the illustration 
II v, 2 vacant lines 4- 832-853 (4 broken lines) 

Thus far the prologue to the Eun. has not been brought into 
the discussion, principally for the reason that in certain manu- 
scripts of Terence the prologues cover more space than would 
ordinarily be assigned to a like amount of text. 2 Now C 1 omits 

others (Chatelain, PL II). In order to allow 10 lines to the illustration (a fair 
average), we might suppose X to have had even 38 lines to the page. 

1 Or else that X had more than 4 broken lines in 842-853. 

2 Dr. Warren has furnished me some statistics bearing on this point, and I se- 
lect the following from the prologue to the Heaut. as preserved in the Bembinus : 

Fol. xxx r has PROLOGVS, followed by verses 1-16 
" xxxv " verses 17-33 
" xxxi r " " 34-52 (omitting 48 and 49) 

The Bembinus usually has 25 lines to the page. 



CODEX DUNELMENSIS OF TERENCE 335 

all of this prologue (4"> verses), whereas P 1 omits only verses 
1-30. According to the theory of 16 (or 18) lines to the page 
in X, we must suppose that manuscript to have lost the leaf 
containing verses 1-30 before P was copied, and then the fol- 
lowing leaf before C was copied. This second leaf must have 
contained verses 31 to on the recto, the verso being blank. 

I formerly thought that the omission of 1-30 by P 1 had some 
connection with the placing of 30-45 before 1-29 by DG, possi- 
bly indicating a corruption antedating X ; but such could not 
have been the case, if my present theory of the genealogy of 
the manuscripts is correct, for X was complete when Y was 
copied from it. 

If the prologue to the Eun. be admitted as a witness, its tes- 
timony will be given in favor of the theory that X contained 16 
(or 18) lines to the page. 



PARTIAL COLLATION OF THE DUNELMENSIS 

The collation of the Andria l as given below will be made on 
the basis of the readings of P, that is, O will be noted only 
when it differs from P, not from Umpfenbach's text. Advan- 
tage will be taken of the collation to give Warren's readings 
for P whenever they differ essentially from those reported by 
Umpfenbach. Many unimportant orthographical variants will 
be omitted. 2 



Per. 11, agnitam adgnitam P 
Prol. 16, decere ex decet 

k - 'J5, relictum 

33, his 

44. beneficii OP 

45, quid me uelis OP 
53. quid, d add. man. rec. 



63, iis sese dedere O 

is|se se dedere P 
79, dehmc OP 
84, abeuntis ex abientis O 

abeuntis P 1 , abeuntes P- 
86, phedram 
88, pamphilus O 



59, hec oiuuia pamphylus P 

1 The collation of the entire manuscript will probably appear in a contem- 
plated critical edition of Terence. Cf. Kauer, Wiener Studien, 1898, p. 267. 

2 Orthography is not a strong point with the Dunehnensis. Michi is regular 
for mihi and mi. nichil for nihil and nil, e or for ae, \- for h at the beginning of 
words, etc.. etc. 



336 



CHARLES HOEING 



96, 


turn ex cum 


329, proficiscor OP 1 


102, 


despondit 


331, cum is 


117, 


effertur OP 


345, oportime OP 


121, 


que, turn 


349, caues O 


144, 


posttridie 


P 


151, 
157, 
171, 
191, 
192, 


prescripsisti 
opera || do ex operando 
i pre'sequar corr. man. rec. 
DAY. Hoc quid sit. SYM. 
DAY. Ita 


caues. p et s a corr., P 
349, tu illam OP 
353, prehendit ait 
356, ascendo 
359, redeunti, i a corr. 


200, 


inde 


362, hostium 


204, 


sed hoc dico 


369, ferre obolo 




hoc 


370, CHA. DAY. O 


205, 


tu dices (sic) 


PAM. DY. P, atram. nigro- 


1,4, 


Archilis (at ram. nigro) Mysis 


et in ras. 




Ancilla 


386, hac OP 


230, 


committas O 


393, suam mutet OP (sic P 1 sine 




commitas P 


corr.) 


233, 


dii OP 


395, speres OP 1 


235, 


tristici^ 


speras P 2 


238, 


decreuerat 


397, e^quo animo O 


238, 


dare sese michi hodie O 


animo om. P 1 




hodie 


427, alteri 




dare sese mihi (sic) CP corr. 






C 2 P 2 


Nomlna Gliscerium et Lesbia atra- 


242, 


quoniam me OP 


mento nigro saec. xiii duabus personis 


243, 


glicerio 


data, quae in margine libri O pictae 


256, 


obstupui 


aunt. 


268, 


die 


441, sinet 


276, 
289, 


uerear 
dexteram oro & O 


442, recta om. CWP 1 , int. lin. C 2 P* 
444, cauit ne 




/. oro '/. 

dexteram & P 


151, drachmis 


297, 


in 


451, obsonatum 


298, 


seruabo, Mvs.O 


458, em illic O 




seruabo ^-. MYS., et in marg., 


em illic P 1 , em illec P 2 




^. nemo rii earn adimet nisi 






mors P 


Folium, ijuod remit* 59-480 con- 


301, 


byrria 


linehat perdidit O. 


301, 


pamphilo hodie nuptum O 

!! 1! !! 1 1 


486, perecastor in ras. 




pamphilo nuptum P 


495, certi OP 


310, 


sentias 


496, retulit 


313, 


prodat O 


511 '*eq., = P 2 C (<;/: Umpfenbacli) 




ptraat, ptra in ras., P 


515, accersitum 


320, 


consilii O 


518, extimplo 




consilii|| fortasse ex consiliis, P 


531, nojlit O 


327, 


pqtes OP 


nollet P 



CODEX DUNELMEXHIti OF TEliENCE 



337 



III, 3, Syiuo Seuex. Chremes 
536, paucis 
542, ita om. O 
546, si in rem 
565 et 566, periclum 
569, quod in ras., quot O 1 
574, maxime O 
max u me P 
577, queani O 

qua'm P ex corr. 

III, 4, Dauus Seruus. Synio. Chre- 

mes 

585, Hunc vcrsum in marg. Jiabrt (') 

(non O 1 ) 

586, habeo lain OP 

604, astutia 

605, occidi om. O 1 , add. man. rec. 
611, incolumen 

614, nee quidem me 

616, heodum 
622, despiciam 

IV, 1, Charinus Adulescens Pamphi- 

lus Dauus Seruus 

625, hoccinee st 

626, uecordia 

627, gaudeant O 
gaudea||t P 

628, comparent 

630, inde negando . . . paululum 
om. O 

659, ilium O 1 ! 31 
illam CO 2 P 2 

660, enicas CWP 1 
enecas C 2 O 2 P 2 

665, factum hoc est O 

factum est hoc P 
671, primo O 

primo int. lin. P 
680, repperi 

683, hem int. lin. O 1 

IV, 2, Mysis Ancilla. Pamphil' Adu- 
lesces. Charinus. Dauus 
Seruus. 

684, erit 
686, quid est 



689, sicine 

702, CHA. fortis 

703, PAM. Scio quid 

704, PAM. lam 

708, quo hi uc O 
quo|| hinc P 

709, niichi incipit 

714, DAY. Tu . . . quapropter int. 
lin. 



"16-742 



Folium, (jttoi/ rfn 
tinebat, perdidit O. 

745, quid illic OP, quid ex qui P 2 
751, dicturan es O 

dicturanejes P, es in ras. a 

man. rec. (dicturanes P 1 ) 
771, pariendo OP 
775, tu scis 
786, hinc om. OP 
804-853, Cf. xupra, pp. 329 f. 
857, tristis ueritas O 

so 

tristis ueritas P corr. P 2 
DAY. 

8:J4, CHR. tamen etsi O 

DAY. in rax. P (CHE erax.) 
873, ae mitte O 

et mitte P, et hi ras. 

881, lianc 

882, hem om. OP 1 
S88, ut om. O 

895, at tandem dicat sine OP 

V, 4, Pamphilus Crito Chremes 
Simo O, PAM CRI CRE SYM 
P, at ram. pallido. Crito 
chremes symo senes tres 
pampliilus adulescens P 2 

908, CIIK. hie. SYM. Simo men 

009, quare O 

de 
qua re P e.r corr. 

r )10, adulescentulos 

915, arbitrate OP 

)19, uide atqui OP 

922, ego om. OP 

939, STM. ne O 

SA. 

SIM. ne P 



338 CHARLES HOEING 



941, odium 

945, CRI ipsa est CHR 

946, inilies 



950, CH ow. O 
967, nactus 
980, hue 



CALLIOPIVS RECENSVI 
EXPLICIT ANDRIA FELICITER TER I 

INCIPIT GLOSA SVBSEQVENTIS LiBRi uidelicet eunuchi ei'd 

CHAKLES HOEING. 



1899 
July December 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS 

SUMMARIES OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES CHIEFLY IN 
RECENT PERIODICALS * 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

The Scope and Purpose of Archaeology. In II end. Ace. Lincei, 
VIII, 1899, pp. 221-240, (.1. Patron i discusses what he calls a new orien- 
tation of archaeology. Scientific study began with Winckelmaim, but since 
then archaeology has gradually become more distinct from the kindred sci- 
ences. Stress is laid especially upon the importance of preclassical and 
Christian monuments. 

Greek and Roman Coins. A recent volume in the Macmillan series- 
of Handbooks of Archaeology and Antiquities is .1 Handbook of Greek and 
Roman Coins, by G. F. Hill (Mac mill an, 1899; xv, 2J)~> pp. ; :}} cuts; 15 pis.; 
12.25). The book is a handbook to serve as an introduction to the study of 
ancient coins or as a reference book. Besides the body of the book, which 
treats with sufficient detail the various parts of its subject, there are five 
appendices, 'Ancient Standards,' 'Table of Equivalents/ 'Mint-names on 
Roman Coins,' 'The Imperial Families of the Western Empire to A.D. 470,' 
a 'Select Bibliography,' an Index of Subjects, a Greek Index, and a Latin 
Index. 

Index of Sources and Resting Places of Statues. In K. Arch. 
XXXIV, 1899, pp. 419-447, 8. Reinach gives an index of the places and 
collections from which the ancient statues described in his Repertoire are 
derived, and tells who are now or have been their owners. 

The Cat in Antiquity. Unmistakable representations of domestic 
cats occur on Attic vases of .the early fifth century, and later on Apuliaii 
vases and in Etruscan and Pompeian wall-paintings. Since they appear in 
the earlier instances as rare or strange pets, they probably were introduced 
from Egypt when that country was opened to foreigners in the sixth cen- 
tury, and gradually became more common. (R. ENGKLMANN, Jb. Arch. I. 
XIV, 1899, 3, pp. 136-148; 3 cuts.) 

The Turkey, Peacock, Cock, and Parrot in Ancient Art. In A then. 
September 30 and October 14, 1899, George Birdwood has two articles on 
the turkey, peacock, cock, and parrot in ancient art, called forth by the fact 
that in Frazer's Pausanias, Vol. Ill, p. 259, a turkey is mentioned as repre- 
sented on an ancient vase. The turkey, being an American bird, does not 

1 For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 280, 2S7. 
339 



340 AMERICA* JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

occur in ancient art. The peacock, cock, and parrot were known to the 
ancients, though not native in the regions about the Mediterranean. Their 
names and their occurrence in ancient literature as well as art are discussed. 
In A then. November 4, 1899, J. G. Frazer calls attention to some errors of 
his own in the identification of other animals on the ancient vase above 
mentioned. 

Sea Plants in Mythology. Under the title Le mythe du chene 
inarm,' Constantin, in R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 341-358, discusses the 
belief in the origin of living beings from marine plants. 

Ancient Cameos. In Gaz. B.-A. XXI, 1899, pp. 33-43, 101-116, E. 
Babelon writes, with twenty-five illustrations, of the ancient cameos in the 
Bibliotheque Rationale. He discusses chiefly the uses to which the cameos 
were put. They were used as personal ornaments, as well as upon jewel 
cases, toilet boxes, and other articles. Some of the largest carneos were 
probably richly set and deposited in temples as votive offerings. The 
custom of keeping such richly set cameos as reliquaries in churches in the 
Middle Ages was, then, naturally derived from Roman traditions. The 
history of several of the cameos in the Bibliotheque Nationale is touched 
upon. 

The Evolution of the Grist-mill. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 413- 
427 (7 figs.), L. Lindet traces the evolution of the grist-mill from the primi- 
tive stone for cracking grain, through the use of a roller upon a flat stone 
and that of a mortar and pestle, to the revolving mill of the Romans. 

EGYPT 

Chronology of the Middle Empire. The Berlin Museum has re- 
ceived, for the most part as a loan from Dr. Reinhardt in Cairo, a series 
of papyri from the ancient city near the pyramid of Illahun. The new 
documents are letters, receipts, etc., relating to the treasury of a temple. 
Two of these show that Sirius rose on the sixteenth day of the eighth month 
of the seventh year of Usertesen III. This would be possible only in the 
years 1876-1873 B.C. The seventh year of Usertesen III fell therefore in 
these years. The twelfth dynasty, to which Usertesen III belongs, must 
therefore be dated from 1996 to 1780 B.C., about 150 years later than the 
latest conjectural date, that of Eduard Meyer, 2130-1930. (Berl. Phil W. 
October 7, 1899. From the Reichsanzeiger.) 

Egyptian Relief . In R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 321, 322 (pi. ix), 
G. Maspero publishes a stele with relief belonging to M. de Saint-Marceaux. 
He ascribes it to Upper Egypt of the time of the eleventh or twelfth dynasty. 

Roman Officials in Egypt. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, Beiblatt, 
pp. 107, 108, A. Stein discusses the date of the Prefect Volusius Maecianus 
and incidentally some points in connection with other officials mentioned in 
papyri. 

An Inscribed Scarab. A rudely formed scarab from Egypt, inscribed 
A.culAai/', a name known only as that of a dog, may have been hung as an 
amulet around the neck of a hound or pet dog. A superfluous s follows the 
^. (E. A. GARDNER, J.H.S. XIX, 1899, p. 341 ; cut.) 

L. Lusius Geta, Prefect of Egypt. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 
428-430, S. de Ricci maintains that in the inscription published on p. 185 
of Vol. V of Petrie's History of Egypt (by Grafton Milne), the word erased 



SYRIA AND PALESTINE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 341 

after Aov/ao? Aoixrtos was Ferns, and identifies the man with the Lusius 
Geta mentioned by Tacitus, Ann. Xfl, 42. 

BABYLONIA 

The Management of Lands about 5000 B.C. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1899, pp. 394-419, J. Oppert discusses inscriptions in the British Museum 
relating to the measurement of lauds. These belong to the dynasty called 
the first dynasty of Ur, which the author regards as earlier than the dynasty 
of Sargon I and Naraiu-Sin. The system of measurement is less simplified 
than at a later date. Translations of several inscriptions are given, and 
the signs for numbers as well as the method for surveying are explained. 
In some cases the proportion of produce of land to be paid by the farmer to 
his lord or the state is given. This, the author declares, has been misunder- 
stood and explained as a term of measurement by Reisner and Thureau- 
Dangiu. The change in the values of commodities, especially silver, in later 
times, is briefly discussed. 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE 

Ptolemais-Ake. In B. Arch. C. T. December, 1899, pp. ii f., J. "Rouvier 
describes a bronze coin of Ptolema'is with the inscription AKE. The coin 
is dated LMA (44), i.e. 3 B.C. Evidently, then, for a brief period under 
Augustus the city of Ptolemais resumed the name Ake. Remarks were 
made by E. Babelon. 

El-Kahf and the Cave of the Seven Sleepers. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1899, pp. 564-576, Clermont-Ganneau discusses the legend of the seven 
sleepers, especially the place where they are supposed to have slept. He 
decides in favor of the cave, an ancient tomb chamber, at El-Kahf or 
Magharet el-Kahf, four and a half English miles south-southeast from 
'Amman. The cave is described, and two plates give plans and sections and 
views of the fa9ade of this tomb and another near it from photographs by 
Briinnow. 

Syrian Antiquities. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 34-53, Paul 
Perdrizet discusses : (4) The dedication of the Propylaea at Gerasa (see Am. 
J. Arch. 1893, pp. 449 ff.). (5) An inscription from Eleusis ('E<. 'Apx- 1894, 
p. 210) mentioning the Phoinikarch Ptolemaeus of Gaza. (6) The question 
to what province Gerasa belonged, concluding that Gerasa belonged to 
Syria until 162 A.D., to Arabia from 162 to 195, then to Syria Phoenice, 
then later to Arabia. (7) The 7roAtrev/xa of the Caunians at Sidori. This 
body is mentioned on a painted stele from Sidon (R. Arch. 1898, II, pp. 
109-112). The use of the word TroXtVev/xa to designate half-independent 
foreign inhabitants in cities, especially its application to the Jews at 
Alexandria, is discussed. (8) A coin of Gythium found at Bosra, which 
confirms what is known of the commercial prosperity of Gythium under the 
Severi. (9) Gadara xP^ a " ro P- OV(ri ^- This e P itnet occurs on an epitaph 
found near Lake Tiberias, and is interpreted to mean "where the Muses are 
cultivated." (10) At/fyaptos avay/<atos, a title occurring in an inscription at 
Baalbek. (11) Thracian names in Syrian inscriptions. (12) The Bacchic 
mosaic at Medaba. The inscriptions 'AptaSn?, Bavx^ an( ^ Sarvpo? show 
the nature of the scene represented. 

Charac -Moba. Among coins recently sent from Palestine to Mr. L. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Hamburger of Frankfurt are two, quite unknown hitherto, of Charac- 
Moba, in the land of Moab (cf. Isaiah, xv, 1). Both are " Greek imperial " 
of the Emperor Elagabalus, and show the Roman conception of Fortuna.. 
with rudder and cornucopiae. One has the town-name in its Greek 
form XAPAXMWBA, while the other is said to show the ethnic form 
XAPAX[MWBH]NQN; though the cut given by E. Babelon shows only 
the first live letters. (R. Num, 1899, p. 274.) 

The Siloah Inscription. In Z. D. Pal. V. XXil, 1891), pp. 61-64, the 
late Professor Albert ISocin, who died June 24, 1899, has a brief discussion 
of the Siloah inscription with a translation. PI. ii is a fac-simile of the 
inscription. 

ASIA MINOR 

The Altar at Pergamon. In Sitzb. Berl. Akad. 1899, pp. 612-625 
(7 figs.), If. Schrader discusses the place of offering in the Pergamene altar. 
Within the colonnade of the great altar was the altar proper, a structure 
probably of elongated rectangular form. Upon a simple base rose a smooth 
wall, with a frieze of a rich palmetto pattern and an Tonic cornice adorned 
with a running vine. Fragments of all parts of the structure are preserved. 
Two flights of steps led to the top of this structure from the eastern side, 
the side away from the entrance. The top was adorned with statues of 
gods, about three-fourths life size, parts of which have been found (BescJtr. 
d. Pergamenischen Bildirerke, p. 26). Upon the top was the altar of ashes 
mentioned by Pausanias, V, 13, 8. This raised the height to about 6 m. 
above the platform upon which it stood, making the entire height from the 
ground about 12 m. or 40 feet. (Ampelius, liber memorialis, miracula mundi 
C. 14.) 

Work at Pergamon, 1886-1898. A then. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, Heft 2 
(pp. 97-240; pi. ix; 28 cuts), is entirely given up to an account of * Die 
Arbeiten zu Pergamon, 1886-1898,' by A. Conze and C. Schuchhardt. Water- 
works, roads, and sites in the neighborhood have been investigated and are 
described in detail. Plans of Elaea, Pitane, and Atarneus have been pre- 
pared. Hadrianuteba, Sandiana, and Doidye have been identified, and 
several other sites discovered. Fourteen fragments of sculpture are de- 
scribed, and sixty-four inscriptions from Pergamon, besides eighty-nine in- 
scriptions (mostly fragmentary) from the neighborhood, are published. 

The Julian Calendar in Asia Minor. Of the documents relating to the 
introduction of the Julian calendar into the province of Asia, under Augustus, 
fragments have been found at Apamea. Eumenea, Dorylaeum, and finally 
at Priene. The text, based chiefly on the Priene copy, is published in Athen. 
Mitth. XXIV, 1899, pp. 275-293, with introduction by Th. Mommsen, and 
epigraphical commentary by U. von Wilamowitz-Mo'lleudorff. From one of 
the documents it seems that the law of Sulla which regulated the movements 
of the proconsuls also regulated the election of provincial magistrates. This 
interference of the Republic in the arrangements of the dependent provincial 
cities is new. The special importance of the text from Priene lies in fixing 
definitely the relation of the Asiatic calendar, with the Macedonian names 
for the months, to the reformed Roman calendar. The style of the message 
and the decree is good, belonging to the type of Trf.pl fyovs and Philo, which 
led to the classical revival. Another example of this Asiatic style is found 
in Inscriptions of the British J/M.-W/W, 994, from Halicarnassus. 



GKEEK SCULPTUKK] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 343 

Antiochia Chrysaoris. In Cl. R. 1809, pp. 319-321, \V. R. Paton con- 
tends that the city called Antiochia Chrysaoris, the sanctity of whose terri- 
tory is continued by an Ainphictyonic decree (B.C.H. XVIII, p. 235) is 
Alabanda. Iladet, Revue des Unicersitts du Midi, [], p. 275, had identified 
Antiochia Chrysaoris with Mylasa. Historical and epigraphical evidence is 
advanced for the new identification. 

Houses in Priene. The dwelling-houses at Priene are all of one type, 
having the anteroom of the main apartment opening to the south on the 
court, and smaller rooms communicating with it on one or both sides. The 
court was never entirely surrounded by colonnades. These houses make 
Vitruvius's description of a Greek house clear, and enable us to follow the 
development back to the Homeric Megaron. (Tn. WIEGAND, June meeting 
Berl. Arch. Gesellsch. Arch.~A.nz. 1899, p. 133.) 

Diadems of Priests. In Jh. Oeaterr. Arch. /. II, 1899, pp. 245-249 
(pi. vii; tigs.), G. F. Hill publishes and discusses (in English) several 
heads and fragments from Ephesus. The diadems worn by the persons 
represented are adorned with busts, some of which are identified as those 
of Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Geta. Coins are cited, and one from 
Tarsus published, in comparison with these heads. The diadems are those 
of Augustales, priests of the emperors. A fragment of a bronze diadem 
from Ephesus is also published. 

GREECE 

ARCHITECTURE 

The Origin of Acroteria and Antefixes. In .///. Oeaterr. Arch. /. 
1899, pp. 199-201 (3 cuts), Georg Treu confirms Benndorf's theory of the 
origin of acroteria by calling attention to the terra-cotta antefix, Olympia, 
III, pi. 88, with a gorgoneion in an incuse rectangle with pointed gable 
upon a semicircular plate. A later form is seen in the limestone shrine 
from Amorgus in Dresden (Arch. Anz. 1898, p. 53). The so-called Nike of 
Archermus was really an acroterium. 

Pre-Persiaii Buildings on the Acropolis. The fragments of pre- 
Persian architecture on the Acropolis at Athens belong to six Doric build- 
ings, the most important of which was the predecessor of the Athena temple 
of Pisistratus, on the same site. It was a double templum in antix. with 
marble metopes and flattened echinus. The Typhon and the group of Triton 
and Heracles belong to its pediments, and it was richly ornamented wifh 
polychrorny in archaic patterns. Portions of the buildings have been set up 
in the small museum. (Tir. WIKGAND, July meeting Berl. Arch. Gesellsch. 
Arch. Anz. 1899, 3, p. 135.) 

The Optical Qualities of the Greek Theatre. In A then. Mitth. 
XXIV (1899), pp. 310-320, \V. Dorpfeld, 'Die optischen Verhaltnisse des 
griechischen Theaters,' discusses the views advanced by A. Miiller, Unter- 
suchungen zu den Btihnenaltertumem. He shows that the spectator in the 
upper rows was not hindered by those in front of him, and that the spec- 
tators in the proedia did not command a good view of a high stage. 

SCULPTURE 

The Evolution of Greek Sculpture. In Gaz. B.-A. XXI, 1899, pp. 
177-188 (4 figs.), and 313-324 (5 figs.), Henri Lechat traces the development 



344 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

of Greek sculpture from the beginning to the end. The earliest Greek 
sculptors owed little to Egypt or the East. With more and more success 
the archaic sculptors strove for truth in form. Phidias attains this truth, 
giving it sovereign beauty, and shows that " life is not incompatible with 
the most ideal perfections of form." Praxiteles adapts the old themes to a 
new taste. He is the master of grace and rhythm. The art of Scopas is 
powerful, pathetic, and dramatic, appealing more strongly to the multitude, 
while Lysippus is a realist. The Pergamene sculptors combine the qualities 
of the art of Scopas and Lysippus, while the sculptors of Alexandria 
combine realism with Praxitelean grace. Later their art became more 
picturesque. In the Hellenistic period all kinds of sculpture were prac- 
tised. Greek sculpture is pagan, not Christian. It exhibits the feelings of 
the Greeks at all periods of their history. Hence the importance of col- 
lections of casts, such as those now being formed at the University of 
Paris and the Louvre. 

Studies in Early Greek Art. I. The earliest, hand-fashioned, shape- 
less Greek terra-cottas, corresponding to the geometric period of vases, were 
succeeded by well-modelled hollow figures, formed in moulds, a varied and 
widely diffused class which appears to be native in Samos. The correspond- 
ing advance in sculpture is that from the planklike figures, such as Nican- 
drr/s Delian statue, to the cylindrical, draped marble from Samos in the 
Louvre; and it is safe to conclude that the step was taken when bronze- 
casting was applied to statues by the Samian artists Rhoecus and Theo- 
dorus, between 000 and 550 B.C. The cylindrical form is exactly such as 
would first be attempted in this new technique, and it is imitated in the 
moulded terra-cottas, as well as in the marble. (F. WINTER, Jb. Arch. /. 
XIV, 1899, 2, pp. 73-78.) 

The Archaic Marble Head in the Sabouroff Collection in Berlin. 
The peculiarity of short hair in a head corresponding in every other way 
to the long-haired early heads, such as the Calf-bearer, is not due to por- 
traiture, but to the fact that the head originally wore a bronze helmet. 
The surface of the hair was never finished like the beard, and a piece has 
been cut away over the forehead to make room for the visor. A head 
of Hermes, from Thera, had a hat similarly set on, without fastenings. 
(B. GRAEF, Jb. Arch. I. XIV, 1899, 2, pp. 87-89.) 

Archaic Bronze Statue. A hollow bronze statue was found in 1897 
in the water of the Corinthian Gulf at a place called Agios Basileios (cf. 
Am. J. Arch. 1897, p. 351). Here is a small bay, which probably served as 
the harbor of Plataeae. Some remains of ancient buildings exist near the 
shore, and in the church is an inscription XAIAHPAKAEIAOY. The 
statue is 1.18 m. in height. The head, which seems to have been broken 
off and fastened on again in ancient times, is almost perfectly preserved, 
but the rest of the statue was found broken into many pieces and much 
defaced. It has been restored, all except the arms, which are missing. The 
base bears the inscription TO Iloret&xovos \ 7/tapo? in archaic letters, from 
the shapes of which, taken together with the form of the name HoretSaovos, 
the inscription may be regarded as Boeotian. Poseidon himself is no doubt 
represented. The god is nude, standing with his right foot advanced. He 
wears a pointed beard and drooping mustache. His hair is curled over 
his forehead, and forms a roll at the back of the head. Above the curls 



GRKEK SCULPTUKK] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 345 

and the roll is a simple baud or circlet. The eyes were once set in of some 
other material than bronze. The right arm probably extended downward 
and forward, the right hand holding a dolphin. The raised left hand 
probably held a trident, the butt of which rested on the ground. The head 
is compared with the bronze Zeus, Ausr/r. von Oiympia, III, pi. 22, and the 
bronze in Athens, Muse'es d' Athene*, pi. 14. It is a beautiful piece of work 
of the end of the sixth or possibly the beginning of the fifth century B.C. 
The statue was probably made at Athens, and dedicated at the harbor in 
the waters of which it was found. (D. PHILIOS, 'E<. 'Apx- 1899, pp. 
57-74; 2 pis.; cut.) 

The Ephebus of Tarsus. In R. Arch, XXXV, 1899, pp. 19-33 (3 pis.; 
2 cuts), A.Joubin discusses the ephebus from Tarsus, now in Constantinople 
(Catal. des bronzes du Musee de Constantinople, No. 2; Gaz. Arche'ol. 1883, 
pi. 1). Fragments of the legs, hitherto unpublished, enable the figure to 
be partially restored. The youth stood with his weight on both feet, 
though rather more on the left, and raised both hands above his head with 
the elbows bent. The right hand was higher than the left. In his hands 
he held some burden, the nature of which is unknown. The style and date 
of the bronze are discussed. Comparison with other statues shows that this 
is an Attic work of the fifth century B.C. Its nearest analogies are the 
athlete in Florence (Rom. Mitth. 1882, p. 79), two heads in the Louvre 
(Athen. Mitth. 1891, pis. 4, 5; FURTWANGLER, Intermezzi, p. 10), the Hermes 
Ludovisi, and related figures. The artist is under the influence of Critios 
and Nesiotes, though more advanced than they. He worked before 450 B.C., 
and preceded Myron. 

Replicas of the Medici Torso. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 1899, pp. 155- 
173, Paul Herrmann publishes (2 pis. ; 4 figs.) arid discusses two replicas 
of the Medici Torso in the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. The new 
replicas are in the Casa de Pilatos in Seville. Both are of about the same 
size as the Medici Torso, but a little smaller. Both are restored. The 
first (HUbner's Catalogue, No. 830) has modern arms, a modern shield, 
modern battle club, and modern helmet. Beneath the modern helmet, 
however, part of an original Attic helmet is visible. The head is ancient, 
and belongs to the figure. The work is of late date and poor. The head 
is held nearly upright, and looks almost straight forward, turning very 
slightly to the left. The second figure (Hiibner, No. 840) is of better 
workmanship, but head, both arms with the attributes (shield and spear), 
and the feet, so far as they are nude, are modern. Both statues came from 
Italy, and appear to have been part of a gift from Pope Pius V to Per 
Afan de Ribera, first Duke of Alcala. Comparison with the Medici Torso 
shows differences of treatment, but it is evident that the two statues at 
Seville and the Medici Torso are replicas of the same original, but that 
none of the three is the original. The style is evidently that of the fifth 
century B.C., and of the school of Phidias. Comparison with the reliefs 
from the base of the statue of Nemesis at Rhamnus, and with other works, 
points to Agoracritus as the probable author of the colossal Athena repre- 
sented by these three copies. It is shown that the Medici Torso cannot be 
the Athena from the eastern pediment of the Parthenon. 

Athena Lemma. Actual measurements and comparison of sections 
and breaks fully establish Furtwangier's contention that one of the 'Lena- 



84G AM Eli 1C AX JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

uian ' statues at Dresden has its original head, and that the headless one 
and the Bologna head belong to replicas of the same original. The rela- 
tively small size of the face is no evidence against its being the work of 
Phidias, and the style favors this. 

One of the rival claimants to the name of Athena Lemnia is disposed of 
by comparing the foot-marks on the Hygieia basis by the Propylaea with 
the Farnese Athena at Naples, the Mope Athena, and another replica in the 
Vatican. These are all copies of the work of Pyrrhns, who was probably 
a me tic, rewarded with citizenship for this work, as the ethnic 'A dip/tubs is 
added to the original artist inscription, destroying its symmetry. (F. STUD- 
XICZKA, July meeting Berl. Arch. (Jesellsch. Arch. Anz. 1899, 3, p. 134.) 

Painted Marble Head in Athens. The following appear to be the 
facts with regard to the painted marble head in Athens (Nat. Mus. No. 177), 
though the fixed glass case which protects it prevents very close examina- 
tion. The back is broken off; the top has contact surfaces as if for a 
helmet; the hair is covered with dark red under-paint, and in places shows 
the surface gilding. The skin is highly polished, but shows no painting. 
The eyebrows are painted like the hair; the eyeballs are of a white stone; 
the irises and bronze eyelashes are missing, but dark streaks from the 
oxidation of the latter extend down the cheeks. The high triangular 
forehead and the treatment of the hair put any identification with the 
Athena Parthenos out of the question. (P. WOLTERS, Jb. Arch. I. XIV, 
1899, 3, pp. 143-145; cut.) 

A Papyrus with Chronological Data. In the second volume of The 
Oj-yrhynchus Papyri edited by Grenfell and Hunt, and published by the 
(iraeco-Rornan Branch of the Egypt Expl. Fund, is a list of Olympic victors 
for seven Olympiads, 476-448 B.C., omitting Ol. LXXX, 460 B.C. Theodore 
Reinach discusses it, R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 399-412. The list fixes the 
following dates of importance to the historian of literature and art: Ol. 
LXXVI, 476 B.C., Pindar, Olymp. 1 (to Hiero), 2, 3 (to Theron) ; Bacchy- 
lides, Ode V (to Hiero) ; Pindar, Olymp. 10 and 11 (to Agesidamus of Locri); 
Pythagoras of Rhegium, statue of Astvlus of Syracuse. Ol. LXXVII, 
472 B.C., Pindar, Olymp. 12 (to Ergoteles of Himera) ; Pythagoras, statue of 
Euthymus of Locri; Micon, statue of Callias of Athens. Ol. LXXVI II, 
468 B.C., Pindar, Olymp. 9 (to Epharmostus of Opus) ; Bacchylides, Ode III 
(to Hiero). Ol. LXXIX, 464 B.C., Pindar, Olymp. 7 (to Diagoras of Rhodes). 
Ol. LXXXI, 456 B.C., Myron, statue of Timanthes of Cleonae. Ol. LXXXII, 
452 B.C., Pindar, Olymp. 4 (to Psamnis of Catnarina) ; Bacchylides, Odes VI 
and VII (to Lachon of Ceos) ; Pythagoras, statue of Leontiscus. of Mes- 
sina; Polyclitus, statues of Pythocles of Elis and Aristion of Epidaurns. 
Ol. LXXXI 1 1, 448 B.C., Xaucydes, statue of Chimon of Argos. It is evident 
that the dates here given do not, in every instance, agree with those hitherto 
accepted. 

Hermes Discobolus? CJ-eorg Habich sees a type of Hermes in the 
standing discobolus in the Vatican (Jb. Arch. /. XIII, p. 57). Michaelis 
replied, Ibid. pp. 175 f. (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, pp. 120, 298). Now Habich 
publishes the Arnastrian coin from the specimen in the British Museum, 
which shows quite closely the pose of the statue, with the addition of a 
cailuc.eus held in the right hand. He further adds, in support of his conten- 
tion, another coin, in bronze, of Commodus, struck at Philippopolis in 



GRKKK SCI:MTI:KK] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS* 1899 347 

Tli race, with a similar but more complicated reverse type. Both coins 
leave something to be desired in the matter of preservation. (J. Int. Arch. 
Num. 1899, p. 137.) 

The Bardini Athlete. hi the Festschrift recently published in honor 
of Otto Benndorf, P. v. Bienkowski published a statue in the possession 
of the dealer Bardini in Florence. The same figure is published by 
Arndt-Amelung, Eitrzelaufnahnien, II, p. 24. Bienkowski's photographs are 
repeated and the statue is subjected to renewed examination by Franz 
Studniczka, Jh. Oesterr. Arch. /, 1899, pp. 192-198 ; 3 figs. The statue lacks 
both arms, and the legs all except the upper part of the thighs. The head 
is shown not to belong to the body. Comparison with other figures and 
heads shows that this head is a replica of the doryphorus of Polyclitus, 
while the torso is a replica of the diadumenus. 

Athena by Alcamenes. The idea of Emil Reisch that Alcamenes was 
the author of the group in the Athenian Hephaestus temple, and therefore 
the creator of the mild, peaceful Athena type, is supported by a head in the 
National Museum at Stockholm, which undoubtedly has the characteristics 
of Alcamenes' work. Its origin is the same as that of the head of the 
Athena statue from Crete in the Louvre, and, like 'that, it is useful for the 
restoration of the Cherchel statue. (LENNART KJELLBERG, Rom. Mitth. 
1899, pp. 114-118; pi.) 

Original Greek Statues in Venice. In AWi. Mun. Akad. XXF, ii, 
1899, pp. 275-316 (7 pis.; 10 figs.)? A - Furtwangler publishes and discusses 
twelve marble statues, less than life size, in Venice. All are draped female 
figures. Ten are in the Museo Archeologico in the Doge's Palace, one in 
the Museo Civico-Correr. 1. A statue of Pentelic marble, removed from 
the courtyard of the Doge's Palace to the Museo Archeologico in 1811. 
(Diitschke, Antike Bildtuerke in Oberitalien, V, No. 73; Clarac, Mus. de Sculp. 
460, 854.) The head is of Roman work, and does not belong to the torso, 
which is an Attic original of the fifth century B.C.. inspired by the Athena 
Parthenos. The remaining originals in the Doge's Palace came from the 
Grimani collection. They are of Parian marble. All the statues probably 
belong together, and, as two represent Demeter, they probably came from 
some sanctuary of Demeter in Asia Minor or on one of the Greek islands. 
2. Diitschke, V. No. 210. About half life size. Forearms and some minor 
parts restored. Apparently a work of a Peloponnesian (Sicyonian) artist, 
about 440 B.C. 3. A somewhat smaller figure, with modern head, right 
forearm, left hand and feet, Diitschke, V, No. 234 ; Clarac, pi. 943, 2423. 
Ascribed to a second-rate artist of the latter part of the fifth century B.C., 
and compared especially with the Attic figure from Peiraeus, Cavvadias 
TAvTrra, No. 176; Friederichs-Wolters. No. 1209. 4. Diitschke, V, No. 80. 
Head modern. Wrongly restored with cornucopia in the left hand. The 
lower forearm, feet, and various details are modern. Earlier than the pedi- 
ment figures of the Parthenon, and resembling in drapery the pediment fig- 
ures at Olympia. 5. Diitschke, V, No. 219. The head is original. Right 
forearm, left forearm with cornucopia, and various minor parts are modern. 
Compared especially with a fine head in Taranto (Berl. Phil. W. 1888, 
col. 1452). Ascribed to the late fifth century. 6. Diitschke, V, No. 310; 
Clarac, pi. 554, 1179. Restored as Hygieia, The head is ancient, but does 
not belong to the figure. Ascribed to the period of the Peloponnesian War. 



348 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 

7. Diiischke, V, Xo. 207 ; Clarac, pi. 640, 1450. The head, most of both 
arms, and some minor parts are modern. Especially compared with the 
"Venus genetrix" ascribed to Alcamenes. 8. Diitschke, V, No. 181. Less 
than half life size. The head, though ancient, does not belong to the body. 
The head is evidently Deineter, characterized by a veil. The drapery is 
simpler than in the last-mentioned figure, reverting to earlier methods. 
The figure is ascribed to the early fourth century. 9. The finest work of 
the series. Diitschke, V, No. 203; Clarac, pi. 774, 1930. Only the forearms 
and some details are restored. Calathus and veil show that Demeter is rep- 
resented. The beauty and dignity recall the Demeter of Cnidus, but this 
Venetiaji Deineter seems somewhat earlier. The statue in the Louvre (Catal. 
sommaire, Xo. 2283; Clarac, pi. 978 B, 2524 F; Reinach, repertoire II, 240, 9) 
shows a later development of the use of the veil, and is ascribed to Prax- 
iteles. 10. Diitschke, V, 108. Height, 1.11 m. The head is lost, but an 
ancient head, of Hellenistic times, is set upon a modern neck. The figure 
belongs to the first half of the fourth century B.C., and probably represents 
Cora. 11. Diitschke, V, 215. The figure belongs to the first half of the 
fourth century, B.C. The head is a Roman portrait; the neck, right arm, 
left hand, and a few other parts are modern. 12. In the Museo Civico- 
Correr ; from the Morosini collection. Of Parian marble ; about one-third 
life size. Head and forearms are gone. The general arrangement of the fig- 
ure is derived from the Athena Parthenos, though the treatment of drapery is 
later. Artemis is represented, accompanied by her dog, now partly broken 
away. The article is, for the most part, a detailed study of the drapery of 
the Venetian statues in comparison with that of other Greek works. It is 
shown how the drapery known in the Olympian female figures, and the dra- 
pery of the Athena Parthenos, are developed in Athens and elsewhere ; how 
the less simple and less natural drapery of the so-called Venus genetrix is 
supplanted in the early fourth century by a simpler, more severe treatment, 
which then develops into the Praxitelean style. The drapery of the Eirene 
of Cephisodotus is, therefore, not an isolated phenomenon. An appendix 
states that in the relief in Venice (Reseller's Lexicon d. Mythologie, I, coll. 
2157) the figures are genuine and ancient, but the accessories are much 
restored. So, too, the relief in the Giardino Giusti at Verona (Jahn, Bilder- 
chroniken, pis. 2, 6) has been worked over in modern times. 

Portrait Head of Plato. hi Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, pp. 250-254 
(pi. iv; 3 figs.), O. Benndorf publishes and discusses a somewhat ill-preserved 
marble head of Plato, recently acquired by the museum in Vienna from an 
Athenian dealer. Other portraits of Plato are compared, and two of the 
figures represent a double herm of Plato and an unknown Greek in the 
museum at Athens. 

Praxitelean Tripod Base. The marble tripod base in Athens, Fried- 
erichs-Wolters, Xo. 2147, Cavvadias, Catalogue des Musc'es d'Athenes, 1895, 
p. 71, Xo. 1463, bears upon its sides three reliefs representing Dionysus and 
two winged Victories. Analysis of the style in connection with that of other 
works, among them the reliefs from Mantinea, the so-called Urania in the 
Vatican, and a figure from the Parthenon frieze, makes it probable that Praxi- 
teles was the author of the reliefs of the tripod base. Perhaps this is what 
remains of the monument referred to in the inscription C.I.A. II, 1298. (OTTO 
BEXNDOKF, Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II. 1899, pp. 255-269; pis. v-vii ; 9 figs.) 



GREEK SCULPTURE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1890 349 

Likenesses of Maussolus and Alexander. In Ri> m . Mittft. 1899, 
pp. 81-90 (1 fig.), J. Six continues his * Ikonographische Studien.' Coins 
of Cos show that the statue from Ilalicarnassus, formerly supposed to have 
stood in the chariot on the Mausoleum, really represents Maussolus. The 
Heracles head on some coins of Syria and Mesopotamia is claimed as a por- 
trait of Alexander, and the Sidon sarcophagus and the head in the Lateran 
support this claim. The type of the Louvre statue may possibly have been 
created by Lysippus in 336 B.C. Certain coins having a head with the horns 
of Zeus Ammon, and an elephant skin, represent not Alexander the Great 
(cf. IMHOOF-BLUMER, Griech. Portratkopfe, p. 14), but Alexander the son of 
Roxana (cf. MASPERO, Archeolot/ie Egyptienne, p. 229, fig. 202). 

Alexander's Hunt. An epigram found in situ at Delphi has identified 
the chamber in which stood the bronze group by Lysippus and Leochares, 
commemorating the rescue of Alexander by Craterus, when in peril at a lion 
hunt. The first satisfactory clew to the composition of the group is found in 
a small intaglio belonging to Mr. A. J. Evans. In the foreground are the 
bodies of the lion and the half -prostrate king, while behind, Craterus, on a 
rearing horse, strikes a vertical blow at the lion. The dogs are omitted for 
want of space, but enough is given to show the pyramidal grouping, the 
spirited action, and the half -realistic, half -heroic treatment of the figures. 
With this incident, a favorite Oriental motive made its entrance into Greek 
art. (P. PERDRIZET, J.H.S. XIX, 2, 1899, pp. 273-279; pi.) 

Two Statuettes of Aphrodite. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 369-375 
(pis. xx, xxi ; cut), S. Reinach publishes two statuettes of a nude Aphrodite. 
The first is from a cast in Cologne, the original of which is lost. A bronze 
statuette (Repertoire de la Statuaire, II, p. 341, No. 2), now in the possession of 
P. Dubois, is also published. The right hand shows the same motive as that 
of the Cologne cast, being raised as if in adjusting a necklace, the left arm is 
gone almost from the shoulder, but evidently hung down, though the fore- 
arm was probably bent upwards. The left leg is gone below the knee. 
This bronze cannot be the original of the work from which the Cologne 
cast is taken, but is an older representation of the same motive, belonging 
to the earlier part of the fourth century B.C. Other statuettes, e.g. one in 
the British Museum (WALTERS, Catal. of Bronzes, pi. v, No. 1084; Reper- 
toire de la Statuaire, II, pp. 341-344), repeat the same motive. It may have 
originated with Praxiteles, and was certainly made popular by him, though 
whether it is the motive of his Pselioumenc or not is uncertain. 

Asclepius and his Family. A then. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, pp. 294-309, 
pi. x, contains * Epidaurische Weihgeschenke, iii,' by Chr. Blinkenberg, who 
describes and discusses a relief representing Asclepius and Machaon in the 
presence of two diminutive adorants, who are separated from the divinities 
by an altar. Behind Asclepius are the rest of his family 1 , Epione, Panacea, 
laso, and Podalirius, united in a family group, and evidently not connected 
with the worshippers. The greater part of the article is devoted to establish- 
ing the correctness of the identification of the members of the family, which 
was evidently recognized at Epidaurus in the fourth century, though most 
of the members held no prominent place in the cult. 

The Lion of Admiral Halgan. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. Memoires, 1897, 
published 1899, pp. 27-117, E. Michon discusses some monuments in the 
department of Greek and Roman antiquities of the Louvre. Several lions 



;>50 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, UMX) 

iu the department are briefly described. The Lion of Admiral Halgau 
(cut) is shown from letters of the admiral and others to have been found, 
apparently in 1824, in an ancient necropolis near Cape Zoster, between 
Athens and Sunium. The region is stony, and the reports call it the "champs 
Phelleens," evidently the Greek <eAAcTs. The lion was no doubt a grave 
monument. It was probably found by Fauvel, who carried on excavations 
in the necropolis mentioned. 

Aphrodite at her Toilet. In Gaz. B.-A. XXI, 1899, pp. 360-368, E. 
Habelon publishes (pi.) and discusses a statuette of sapphirine chalcedony 
found in 1897 at Kirmasti, near Cyzicus, where several other objects were 
found at the same time. A draped Aphrodite is standing with her weight 
on her right foot. She wears a necklace of real beads and a gold bracelet. 
Beside her is a small herm of Priapus. Aphrodite is arranging her long locks 
of hair. The statuette is of somewhat clumsy workmanship, and is to be 
compared with cameos rather than with works of large sculpture. In spite of 
the fine material used, the figure was colored. It is probably a work of the 
Pergamene school, belonging to a time before 100 B.C. The statuette is now 
in the possession of Mr. E. Rothschild. 

A Thessalian Bust of Ge. In R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 329-334 
(pi. xii), A. Jonbin publishes a bust from Phaestus, now in the museum at 
Constantinople, with a dedication Fa Trai/rapcVa. 

The Satyr with a Wine-skin. The action of the youthful satyr in 
Naples (RAUMEISTER, Denkmaler, I, p. 358, fig. 385; RKIXACH, Repertoire 
de la Statuaire gr. et rom. II, p. 142, No. 6) has been explained in various 
ways. Adrian Blaiichet, in B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 175-176, thinks the 
satyr is astonished. He expected vine to flow from the skin and sees water 
flowing from it. The figure was used for a fountain. A terra-cotta from 
Egypt, of the third or fourth century B.C. (RAYET, Monuments de V Art 
Antique, pi. 85, No. 2), representing a satyr who has opened a bag of wind 
greatly to his own astonishment, offers a certain analogy to the Naples 
figure as now explained. 

Rhea from Cyzicus. A passage in Zosimus, II. 31 (cf. Apol. Rhod. I, 
1117 f.), is the basis of an article by AV. Arnelurig in Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 
8-12, on the wooden statue of Rhea removed by Constantino from Cyzicus 
to Byzantium. At that time the lions which had formed part of the group 
were removed and the figure was altered to represent a woman praying. 
The goddess was undoubtedly represented as the TTOTVUJ. Orjpwv of the Greeks, 
of the type of the seventh or sixth century B.C. A stele of Dorylaeum of 
the sixth century B.C. (Athen. Mitth, 1895, p. 1) shows the same representa- 
tion of Cybele. Cybele was evidently established as the protectress of 
Byzantium, holding a position similar to that of Tyche at Rome. 

Bronzes in Constantinople. fn R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 202-209, 
A. Joubin publishes (pis. xvii-xix; 2 cuts) five bronzes in the museum at 
Constantinople : (1) (RKINACH, Repertoire de la Statuaire, II, 283, 2, JOUBIN, 
Catalogue des Bronzes, No. 79.) Found at Abydos. An archaic statuette of 
Athena, lacking the right arm, and both legs below the knee. The face is 
much injured. The proportions are heavy. The style is less advanced than 
that of the figurine 793 (de Ridtler) of the Acropolis, but freer than that of 
782. It belongs to the second half of the sixth century B.C. Where such 
figurines were made is uncertain. Chios, Sainos, Naxos, and Chalcis are 



GREEK VASES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 351 

suggested. (2) (JouBiN, Catalogue, No. 26.) Statuette of a standing, 
bearded, nude Heracles. The head is wreathed with laurel. In the right 
hand is part of the club on which the hero was leaning when the statuette 
was intact. The left arm is wanting. It probably held the lion skin. The 
type may go back to Scopas. The statuette is careful work of the Hellen- 
istic period. (3) Statue of a child holding a duck. (JOUBIN, Catalogue 
No. 6.) From Seleucia in Cilicia. Excellent Hellenistic work. Life size 
(height, 0.78 in.). (4) Group of wrestlers. (Jb. Arch. I. 1898, pp. 177 if., 
JOUBIN, Catal. No. 2!).) Not fine work. Similar to REINACH, Repertoire, 
234, 2. It may well be a work of Roman imperial times, and there are 
indications that this and similar works were made in Lower Egypt. 
(5) (JousiN, Catal. No. 3.) A fragmentary statue of more than life size 
(height, 2.10 m.) from Samsoun. A nude man in the attitude of an orator. 
Apparently a portrait. Provincial work of late date. 

VASES AND PAINTING 

Vases from Menidi. II. The vase-fragments from the dromos of the 
beehive tomb are in a continuous succession of styles, from Mycenaean down 
to developed red-figured, and include, beside the pots used in preparing food, 
votive offerings in the shape of shields, tablets, horses, singly as well as 
in pairs and fours with drivers but with no chariots, lecythi and drinking 
vessels of various shapes, ewers, amphoras, and, especially characteristic and 
numerous, large bowls with high support used for bath-offerings. Evidently 
the worship of the dead was carried on here without interruption from the 
earliest times until it came to a sudden close in the fifth century, probably 
at the time of the Peloponnesian War, when Attica was occupied by the 
Lacedaemonians. (P. WOLTP;RS, Jb. Arch. I. XIV, 1899, 3, pp. 103-135; 
31 cuts.) 

Geometric Vases from Greece. II. In the Jb. Arch. I. XIV, 1899, 2, 
pp. 78-86, S. Wide publishes (18 cuts) and describes seven specimens of 
Boeotian geometric ware, chiefly in Athens ; also the few known pieces of 
Laconian and Argolic geometric ware, each of distinct style, though rare ; 
and two simple amphoras from Troezen, perhaps of Attic origin. The 
Laconian decoration is crude ; the Argolic recalls Mycenaean treatment. 
The Boeotian examples come down to the time of eastern influence. 

A New Vase of the Dipyloii Class. A " Dipylon " lebes from Thebes, 
recently acquired by the British Museum, has a bireme crowded with rowers 
on one side, and two bic/ae driven by figures in feminine costume, on the 
other. Both scenes probably represent races in the funeral games of some 
great man. The same principle applies to all " dipylon " chariots, shown in 
procession before the actual race, and also ships, when not engaged in 
combat. These last may indicate the manner of death, like the stele of 
Dexileos. The single rider who follows the chariots on the Theban vase, 
dismounting or sitting his horse in a peculiar fashion, if he represents 
any part of the funeral display, is post-Homeric. The attitude of the 
steersman who is about to enter the ship, taking leave of a woman who 
holds a crown, anticipates the sentiment of the parting scenes on Attic 
stelae. (A. S. MURRAY, J.H.S. XIX, 2, 1899, pp. 198-201; pi.) 

Cothoii and Censer. The low, round, sixth-century vessel, with deeply 
inward and downward curving rim, styled " cothon " (a Laconian soldier's 



352 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV. I'.M) 

drinking cup) by Panofka and Conze, is rather an incense-burner. Several 
other forms of incense-burners existed. One of these, of metal, in which 
the iron bottom was in one piece with the support and sometimes had a 
projecting horizontal rim on which rested the upper part of bronze, is 
imitated in marble votive vessels and in the Eleusinian Kerch noi. (E. 
PERNICE, Jb. Arch. I. XIV. 1899, 2, pp. 60-72; 20 cuts.) 

Vases with Perforated Bottom. In R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 323- 
.'528 (4 cuts), Clermont-Ganneau discusses the interpretation of a Boeotian 
vase published ibid. pp. 7 if. by Pettier. The vase is called an "c'/iituf/r 
nmericaine" i.e. a vessel with perforated bottom, for use in taking a shower 
bath. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, p. 341, S. Reinach publishes a sketch of a 
similar vase in St. Petersburg. This specimen was found in a tumulus in 
the province of Kouban, in 1898. It is adorned with a representation of 
three nude youths. (Cf. Arch. Anz. 1899, p. 57.) In Athen. Mitlh. XXIV, 
1899, pp. 339-344 (4 figs.), R. Zahn, <Zur Midasvase aus Eleusis,' adds a 
specimen from Tanagra. To the same class belongs the Midas vase from 
Eleusis. (Athen. Mittk. XXII, 1897, p. 387, pi. 13.) These vases have a 
sieve in the bottom, while the only opening above is a small hole in the 
hollow handle. When the vase had been filled by plunging it into a liquid, 
the hole in the handle was closed by the finger, and the contents remained 
in the vase until air was admitted. Pettier and Clermont-Ganneau thought 
they might be for use in the bath, or as watering pots, but Zahn compares 
Heron of Alexandria I, 7, and decides that they were for dipping out wine 
from the crater. A bronze instrument, closely resembling the description of 
Heron, is in the National Museum at Athens. (DE RIDDER, Bronzes de la 
Soc. Arch. No. 114.) These utensils combine the ladle and sieve. Two 
sieves were used by the Greeks ; a large one laid over the mouth of the 
crater, and a small one through which the wine was poured into the cuu. 

Representations of Helios and of Selene. A black-figured lecythus 
from Eretria, now in Athens, representing the rarely found encounter of 
Heracles with the rising sun, is noteworthy for delicacy in treatment of sub- 
ject and in technique. Red and white paint are used upon the black, and a 
thin wash veils the objects in the otherwise black sea. The chariot of the 
sun shows the fifth century decorative motive in which the winged horses 
are turned toward the centre in profile a design used also for Selene. 
On a "fine" red-figured bell-crater from Boeotia, also in Athens, Selene, in 
profile, is driving her car and escorted by Hermes as the god of dreams. 
For the conception of Selene in a chariot in preference to Selene on horse- 
back, in the fifth century, to which the vase belongs, we may compare the 
Parthenon pediment, and for the Hermes, the frequent association of Hypnus 
with Selene, and the appearance of the latter with Hermes Psychopompus 
on later sarcophagi. (L. SAVIGNOXI, J.H.S. XIX, 2. 1899, pp. 265-272; 2 
pis. ; 3 cuts.) 

A New KoAos Vase. A new red-figured lecythus in the British Mu- 
seum has a scene in the style of Brygos, a young woman hurrying out of a 
door which she leaves open behind her, and stretching out her hands eagerly 
toward some person or object not shown in the picture. The name 'AAK/xeW 
seems to issue from her lips, and the word KaA.6s is below. Though this 
name is known in only one other KaAds inscription, various names from the 
famous Alcmaeonid family, such as Megacles and Hippocrates, occur com- 



GREEK INSC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 353 

monly. The woman's figure, evidently copied from pictures of Eos in pur- 
suit of Cephalus, suggests her pursuit of Cleitus and the connection of the 
latter with the legendary Alcmaeon (Od. XV, 248). We may have here a 
mythical subject adapted to real life, and another of the rare instances of a 
connection between subject and /caAos name. (ISABEL A. DICKSON, J.H S 
XIX, 2, 1899, pp. 202-204; cut.) 

The Boreadae Racing. Miss C. A. Hutton, 'Peinture de Vase repre- 
sentant les Boreades,' B.C.H. XXIII, 1899, pp. 157-164 (3 figs.), publishes a 
Nolan amphora belonging to Mrs. Hall of London. The vase seems to 
belong to the group bearing the KaXos names Charmides and Timoxenus. 
(Cf. J.H.S. IV, p. 96.) The front shows a seated /fya/ifcv's, before whom 
runs a nude winged figure. On the ground is a a-KaTrdvr)- The reverse 
shows a similar nude figure. The scene is explained as the Boreadae, Zetes 
and Calais, as contestants at the funeral games of Pelias or Thoas. The 
winner has just passed the judge, and looks back at his still running 
brother. The (rKairdvr) was part of the developing apparatus of every 
gymnasium, and is shown also in a vase in the British Museum (cf. Schol. 
Theocr. IV. 10). 

The Birth of Aphrodite. An Attic hydria of the fifth century B.C. 
in the municipal gallery at Genoa is described by E. Petersen in Rom. 
Mitth. 1899, pp. 154-162 (pi.). It represents the birth of Aphrodite. The 
artistic development of this subject is marked chronologically by the Ludo- 
visi relief, the basis of the Zeus statue at Olympia, the Genoa vase, and the 
silver medallion of Galaxidi. The Genoa vase is nearest to the work of 
Phidias, both representations including the figures of Eros and Peitho. 
The development shows itself in the constantly increasing animation of the 
central figure. 

In the same article Petersen discusses Panaenus' paintings surrounding 
the Zeus throne at Olympia (Pans. V, 11, 4), arguing that Pausanias mentions 
them in order, and that the arrangement formerly generally accepted is 
substantially correct. 

Vases and the Stage. The influence of the stage on vase painting is 
seen in an Andromeda bound to a chair, at Bari, Andromeda bound to two 
trees made from the columns of the proscenium, in an Orestes at Delphi 
and a Hercules Furens with columns for a background, and in other in- 
stances. (R. ENGELMANN, May meeting Berl. Arch. Gesellsch. Arch. Anz. 
1899, 3, p. 132.) 

INSCRIPTIONS 

Notes on Greek Inscriptions. In Berichte d. Sachs. Ges. LI, 1899, 
iii, pp. 141 ff., R. Meister discusses four Greek inscriptions : (1) The inscrip- 
tion relating to the letting of meadows in Thespiae, published by Colin, 
B.C.H. XXI, pp. 553-568. (2) The temple-law from the temple of De- 
spoina at Lycosura, published by Leonardos. 'E<. 'Ap^. 1898, pp. 249-272, 
pi. xv. (3) The sacrificial inscription from the Epidaurian temple of As- 
clepius, published by Kavvadias, 'E<. 'Ap^- 1899, pp. 1 if., pi. i. (4) The 
colonial law of Naupactus, Berichte d. Sachs. Ges. November 14, 1895, Dit- 
tenberger, C.I.G.S. Ill, No. 334, and Danielsson, Eranos III, 1898, pp. 49- 
80. The full text of the first three is given. The notes relate in part to the 
interpretation of the meaning, in part to the dialects. They are in great 
measure directed against special points in the previous discussions. 



354 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Archaic Votive Inscriptions from the Acropolis. The first num- 
ber of the first volume of the Catalogue of the Inscriptions in the Epigraphical 
Museum at Athens, published (in Greek) by the Archaeological Society at 
Athens, contains the archaic votive inscriptions from the Acropolis. The 
inscriptions published number 398. The text is accompanied by a descrip- 
tion of each stone and references to the previous publications. A table 
gives references from the C.I. A. to the new publication. A plate of the 
characters used in the inscriptions is added. The publication is in the main 
the work of the late H. G. Lolling, whose name appears on the title-page, 
but its final preparation is due to P. AVolters, who adds an introduction to 
the preface written by Lolling. 

Poems of Simonides. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, pp. 221-244 
(3 figs.), A. Wilhelm discusses three inscriptions. (1) C.I. A. II, 1677, con- 
sists of fragments of the epigram given under the name of Simonides, Anth. 
Pal. VII, 254. If this really refers to those who fell at Tanagra, the date 
excludes the authorship of Simonides. (2) The first distich of Anth. Pal. 
VI, 144, is found on a herm from Salamis, now in the museum at Athens. 
The second distich is a later addition, and there is no certainty that the dis- 
tich of the herm inscription is really by Simonides. (3) The inscription 
C.I.G. 1051, of the fourth or fifth century after Christ, has been rediscov- 
ered at Megara. It is the only inscription with the name of Simonides. 
Certainly not more than the first distich is by Simonides. 

The Greek Figure-poems. The earlier of the Greek carmina Jigurata, 
those from Hellenistic times, were probably actually inscribed on dedicated 
objects, which prescribed their shapes. The question how far other dedica- 
tory inscriptions were adapted to the objects, requires close study of the 
monuments, especially epigraphic. (U. v. WILAMOWITZ-MOELLENDORFF, 
Jb. Arch. I. XIV, 1899, 2, pp. 51-59 ; 4 cuts.) 

Athens and Samos from 405 to 403 B.C. In the Revue des Etudes 
Anciennes, 1899, pp. 181-207, P. Foucart gives text and translation of the 
three decrees in honor of the Samians, published C.I. A. IV, p. 1, II, Add. 
p. 393, and elsewhere. An exhaustive commentary follows. The first decree 
is later than the battle of Aegos Potami, but earlier than the blockade of 
Athens. The formula yi/w/XTy KAeio-o^ov /ecu <rw7rpvTai/eW may indicate 
that the Athenians, disgusted with the effect of the free initiative of indi- 
vidual orators in moving decrees, had substituted that of a board of pry- 
tanes. This decree not only bestows upon the Samians all customary 
honors, but makes them citizens of Athens, giving some details of their 
enrolment and of the relations of Athens and Samos in various contin- 
gencies of war and peace. The second and third decrees were passed after 
the fall of Samos. These are in honor of the Samians, by which the demo- 
cratic Samians, then in exile, are meant. The second decree confirms the 
advantages previously voted to the Samians, authorizes them to send envoys 
to Sparta, nominates Athenian envoys to support their demands, praises the 
people of Notium and Ephesus for kindness to the Samians, presents Samian 
deputies to the assembly, and invites them to dinner in the prytaneum. 
The third decree, in form an amendment to the second, repeats the confir- 
mation of the advantages previously voted to the Samians and the invitation 
to dinner, CTTI Setm/ov, not TTI ^via, to emphasize the citizenship of the Sami- 
ans. In spite of the humbled condition of Athens, she still dares to show 



GREEK INSC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 355 

her gratitude to those who had been faithful to her. Some details of read- 
ing and interpretation are discussed. 

The Salaminian Decree. A. Wilhelm's publication of the Salaminiaii 
decree (Athen. Mltth. XXIII, 1898, pp. 466 ff.) has led W. Judeich to a 
renewed study of the whole document. lie restores it as follows : 

e8o^(rev rot Se'/xoi [rov e2a]Aa[/Au>i KCLTOLKOVTO. 

oi/ceV ea^aAoyuvi [KO.I TTO] Ae v [7rapa 8e 'A0eraibi- 

(n T[A]ev /cat err par [euecr^] ai r[ov heavro /cAepo/u.- 

/u[o-$]6V. ea/xe oiK^T CKCI A]o [KCITOIKO? TOKAepo- 
5 v 8c [/x]io-$oT, a7rort'[vcv ro/xto-^d/xevoi/ re /cai ro/a- 

iaOovra 7/eKaTe[pov TO rerpaTrAao-iov TO /AUT#O 

es 8 [e] jLukrio [v, fcnrpdrev 8e TOV e/<et a- 

PXM Ta ' ** v [^fwA^t aJufYov o<e'Aei/ T- 

a 8e [7i]o7rAa 7r[apexc<r]0u[(, ie KaraOevai: r- 

pta[fc]ovra : 8p[ax/xas] 7/6 [s av ^c'Aa, CITTO TOTO- 

v 8e [T]OV ap^o[vTa TO, lioirXa. avroi irap^- 

ev [eTTJt TCS /3[oAes TCS CTTI . . . 

This restoration is justified in detail. The decree regulates the relations 
between the subject population of Salamis and the Athenians, and cannot 
therefore be separated in date from the final occupation of the island about 
570 B.C. The decree is therefore to be dated about 560 B.C. Wilhelm's 
caution as to dating early Attic inscriptions on palaeographical grounds is 
fully justified. The decree belongs with the Pythion dedication, but is cer- 
tainly older. The neatness and care in execution are not against an early 
date, especially as the inscription, with its alternate lines of blue and red 
letters, must have been regarded as akin to a work of art. (Athen. Mitth. 
XXIV, 1899, pp. 321-338.) 

EVO-TOV, Swine. In Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, pp. 267-274, L. Ziehen 
discusses the word "Euorov," already known in the tepo? I/O/AOS of Miletus. 
(DITTENBERGER, Si/lloge 1 , Xo. 376.) A fragment ('E<. 'Ap^. 1857, Xo. 
2667) belongs with C.I. A. II, 631, and enables line 13 to be read a 7ravT]6s 
CVO-TO TJeAeo : h h h : A discussion of the Milesian and Attic decrees shows 
that the word is connected with eveiv, "to singe." It is probably a collective 
name for the different varieties of the swine, as xoTpos, Ka?rpos, cn)s, crtaAos. 
The inscription was probably found, as Pittakis says, in some country deme, 
and removed to the Acropolis where the first two fragments were seen by 
Ross. 

Sacred Law of the Eleusinia. In Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, pp. 241- 
266 (2 cuts), II. von Prott publishes a corrected version of C.I. A. I, 5, to 
which he has been able to add a third small but important fragment. As 
restored, the text reads as follows : 
"E8oxo-e]v [ ; TCI /?oAei] KOL [T]OI 
7rpOTe']Aeia 0[yi\v TO? 7uepO7rotos ' 
Tot 'EA] tvaiv [tot, ; F]et Hep/xet 'Evayovtbt Xapto-iv afya[ 

Kpt V] ov 

IIoori8]ovt i [/<pt6]i/ 1 ['ApTe/xi8i atya \ 
IIAovTo]vt i A[oAt?]^o6 Beoiv TptTToav ^Sdap^ov v TCI eop[Ttt 

r l'hese restorations, as well as the shape and use of the stone on which the 
inscription is found and the significance of the inscription, are discussed in 



356 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

detail. .The gods mentioned are closely parallel to those honored in the 
Thesmophoria at Athens. The mysterious trias, cos, ea, and Eubuleus, 
is also discussed, eos and ca are Pluto and Cora, so far as they are iden- 
tified with Hades and Persephone, the dreadful powers of the lower world : 
the cult, however, has never obliterated the essential difference in the origi- 
nal religious conception. The vague personality of Daeira is also brought 
into connection with ea, as the original consort of the god of the lower 
world, who was superseded by the introduction of the story of the rape of 
Cora. Tn conclusion is treated in detail the conflict of gods and cults of 
which the result is the Demeter religion of Eleusis. 

A Letter of the Empress Plotina. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, 
pp. 270-275, A. Wilhelin discusses the inscription C.I. A. Ill, no. 49. He 
gives a photographic facsimile, complete readings, and discussion of minor 
points. A Latin letter of Plotina to Hadrian is followed by his reply in 
Latin, after which is a Greek letter from Plotina to " all her friends." The 
entire inscription has to do with the succession of the head of the Epicu- 
rean school, and allows the election of either a Greek or a Roman. 

Archaic Dedication at Delphi. The archaic inscription, part of 
which was published by Lolling, Sitzb. Be.rl. Akad. 1888, p. 581, and Bau- 
nack, Philoloyus, 1889, p. 385, is published with the addition of another 
fragment, by Paul Perdrizet, Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1899, pp. 208-210. 
He reads the whole: euyeves Hv@oK\.o[v<s dv][0eKe TOTre'AAj^ovi] Horc(i)- 
Sa[iaras.] j Ad/xi? roi[e(i)]. This is the first archaic inscription of Potidaea. 

The Delphic Aristotle-Decree. In Berl Phil. W. September 9, 1899, 
Stanislaus Witkovvski proposes to read in the decree concerning Aristotle's list 
of Pythian victors (cf. Am. J. A reft. 1899, p. 307), [<rv] vtra&v '*. iriva.K\a T]WI/ 
afJi\_<f>6Tepa vev] jiKry/corwi/ r[a TJv0ta] |. The list then included the musical 
and gymnastic victors at the greater and lesser Pythian games. It also 
gave the names of the agonothetae. Aristotle wrote a connected history 
of the Pythian games (PLUTARCH, Solon, 11). This, combined with the 
list, was known to Plutarch as HV&OI/IKWI/ draypa<ai'. 

The Younger Craterus. In 11. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 302-305, 
Amedee Hauvette discusses the inscription from Delphi, B.C.H. XXI, 1898, 
p. 598, and concludes that the Craterus who dedicated the sculpture and 
inscription was the son of Craterus, the general of Alexander, and Phila, 
the daughter of Antipater. As the marriage of Craterus and Phila took 
place after the death of Alexander (Diod. Sic. XVIII, 18, 6), the younger 
Craterus was a child at the time of his father's death. Phlegon of Tralles 
(TTf.pl OavfjuKTiw, 32) mentions a Craterus, brother of Antigonus Gonatas. 
Phila was the mother of Antigonus by her later husband Demetrius. The 
younger Craterus is probably identical with the author of a collection of 
decrees, j^^ucr/zaTaJv trwaywyTy. 

'EpcOovcrios = 'ApeOovo-ios. In the Revue des Eludes A nciennes, 1899, pp. 
210-211. Paul Perdrizet thinks that the form 'EpetfovVios in the inscription 
from Delphi, published B.C.H. 1897, p. 107, and the form 'EppiScuos in the 
inscription from Olynthus last published by Hoffmann, Griech. Dialekte, 
III, p. 9, belong to the dialect of Chalcidice, showing the Ionic tendency to 
replace a by e in the neighborhood of liquids. 

Delphic Decree. In B.C.H. XXIII, 1899, p. 96, Th. Homolle publishes 
1 Un Decret de Delphes pour le Koi Paerisades.' The stone contains a frag- 



GREKK INSC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 18M 357 

ment of the preamble of a decree conferring honors on King I'aerisades 
and Queen Camasarya. The inscription is probably of the middle of the 
second century B.C., or somewhat earlier. Cf. Latichevv, Timer. Pont. Eux. 
II, pp. xxvii-xxxiii, and no. 19; C.f.G. 2855, and Ilaussoullier, K. d. Philol 
XXII-XXIII. 

Decree of the Roman Senate in 112 B.C. In Li.C.H. XXIII, 1899, 
pp. 1-55 (4 cuts), (T. Colin publishes an inscription of Delphi dealing with 
a quarrel between the Dionysiac artists of the Isthmus and Xemea and 
those of Athens. The former body had apparently suffered severely by the 
Roman conquest in 146 B.C., while the Athenian association had prospered 
so greatly that both parties found an alliance desirable. The agreement 
had been ratified by the praetor of Macedonia, and a se.natus conxultum had 
fixed the places of meeting for this union at Thebes and Argos. The 
Athenians seem to have profited most by the alliance, and dissensions 
broke out, not only between the Isthmian association and the Athenians, 
but also between the Peloponnesians, joined by the Thebans, and the officers 
of the old association. At a special meeting, seemingly at Sicyon, the 
Athenians were excluded, and the money they had furnished confiscated. 
The Athenians appealed to the Roman senate, and the decision was in 
their favor, especially on the points where violation of the decrees of the 
senate was charged. The document is somewhat fragmentary. Another 
stone, badly damaged, contained the original agreement before the praetor 
of Macedon, Sisenna, probably in 139-188 or 135-134 B.C. Colin discusses 
the arrangement of the slabs in the treasury of the Athenians, and also 
gives a full commentary on the inscription, and its bearing on the history 
of the re^nrat. 

Inscriptions of Acraephiae. In fi.C.H. XXIII, 1899, pp. 90-90, 
P. Perdrizet continues ' Inscriptions d' Acraephiae,' publishing four decrees 
of proxeny, probably of the early part of the second century B.C. Two are 
proposed, not by an orator, but by the polemarchs and syndics, the latter 
a body hitherto known in the Boeotian confederacy only from an inscription 
of Orchomenus, where they are also joined with the polemarchs and are 
four in number. 

The Edict of Diocletian. In 'E<. 'Ap^. 1899, pp. 149-176, B. Staes 
publishes and discusses two inscriptions found at Rovalona, near the ancient 
Aigeira, in Achaia, containing fragments of the edict of Diocletian fixing 
maximum prices. Each slab has two columns. Those of the first slab 
containing seventy-one and seventy-four lines, those of the second twenty- 
nine and thirty. The first .slab begins with the beginning of the edict, 
after the introduction, and continues with hardly a break to the tenth line 
of the sixth section. Heretofore most of this part of the edict has been 
known only in Latin. The second slab contains the last three lines of 
section seven and section eight to line 38. This slab gives nothing new, ex- 
cept verbal variations. A brief account of previous publications of the 
edict is given, followed by a detailed commentary on the text. 

Archaic Arcadian Dedication. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 
I, 1899, p. 281, P. Perdrizet publishes a bronze handle from an oenochoe. 
It is inscribed Atepa 'Apre/xt. Epsilon has the form of a simple horizontal 
line, a form derived from the running hand. This bronze was said by the 
owner, an Athenian dealer, to have been found in the Peloponnese. This 



858 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

form of epsilon occurs also on tickets to the theatre at Mantinea. These 
belong to the fifth or fourth century B.C., to which this bronze must be 
ascribed. The form 'A-prc/u also points to Arcadia. . 

Arcadian History. In Hermes, XXXIV, 1899, pp. 520-552, is an arti- 
cle by B. Xiese, entitled 'Beitrage zur Geschichte Arkadiens.' The third 
and fourth sections of the article discuss the decree of the Arcadian League. 
in honor of Phylarchus (Dittenberger, Sylloge, I 2 , no. 106), and the decree 
of an Arcadian city in honor of Magnesia on the Maeander (Dittenberger, 
Sylloqe, I 2 , no. 258). The first is assigned to the period 255-245 B.C. 

Inscriptions from Delos. In B.C.H. XXIII, 1899, pp. 56-85, < Fouilles 
du Port de Delos,' Pierre Jouguet publishes a number of the inscriptions 
found in the excavations of the port and docks. The first nine belong to 
dedications of the 'Ep//.aioTai', who appear to have been in part freedmen, in 
part freemen. Six dedications belong to a class represented in Delos hith- 
erto by but one inscription. They were set up by the Ko/i/TreraAiao-Tai', i.e. 
the mayistri of a collegium of freedmen and slaves formed to celebrate the 
Roman festival of the Lares cerupitales. These show the growth of Roman 
influence, for the three oldest are dated by the archons of Athens or the 
epimeletae of the island, while after 94 B.C. the Roman consuls are placed 
first, followed by the epimeletae. A new corporation is represented by the 
XpvcroTrooAxu, who may have been like the dpyvpo/coTroi of Ephesus, men- 
tioned in the Acts of the Apostles. Other corporations are the olearii and 
the Tpa7remu. A freedman and four slaves dedicate a statue to Zeus Eleu- 
therius. In all twenty-three dedicatory inscriptions are published. The 
article concludes with a short sketch of Delos in the middle of the first 
century B.C. as it must have appeared to a traveller from Athens. 

As a supplement to this article (I.e. pp. 85-89), G. Colin, ' La Dodecade 
delienne,' publishes three inscriptions from a single stone, relating to AooSc- 
Kr/tSes, celebrated under the direction of the priest of the Delian Apollo. 
The word indicates a sacrifice of twelve victims. The inscriptions of 
Delphi furnish a number of examples. About the beginning of the first 
century after Christ, it seems to have become the name of the $e<opia of the 
Athenians to Delphi, and doubtless also of the corresponding mission to 
Delos. These documents, though they cannot be dated exactly, are cer- 
tainly of the time of Hadrian. 

Sostratus of Cnidus. Sostratus, the builder of the Pharos at Alex- 
andria, is mentioned by Lucian (Hipp. 2, Erotes, 11), Pliny (N. H. xxxvi, 
18), Eusebius (Chron. p. 118, ed. Schoene), Strabo (xvii, 791), and Suidas, 
s.v. <apos. His date has been debated, but it can be fixed under Philadel- 
phus. The epigram of the Didot papyrus (Anthol. ed. Cougny, III, p. 301, 
306), three Delian inscriptions (B.C.H. Ill, 1879, p. 369, B.C.H. VII, 1883, 
p. 6, and a decree of the Delians, published for the first time in the article 
under review), and an inscription from Delphi (B.C.H. XX, 1896, p. 584) 
fix the date in the earlier part of the third century, about 290-260. Sos- 
tratus was evidently a person of varied and great gifts, not merely an archi- 
tect, but also a man of business, who received honors from Delians and 
Delphians, as well as from the kings of Egypt. (PAUL PERDRIZET, 
R. Etudes Anciennes, I, 1899, pp. 261-272.) 

The Parian " Hetaerae-inscription." In Athen. Mitth. XXIV, 1899, 
pp. 345-347, A. AVilhelm publishes i Xachtrage zu der sog. Hetareninschrift 



GREEK Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 359 

aus Paros.' (Cf. Athen. Mittli. XXI H, 1898, pp. 409 ff. 9.) Examination of 
the stone shows that Soto-rpoi}? tepr/s is the correct reading, confirming Wil- 
helm's explanation. The discovery by Rubensohn of the sanctuary of 
Eileithyia makes a connection of the inscription with this goddess more 
probable, though the reading of the first line is still uncertain. Additional 
references for proper names in the inscription, and notes on the inscription 
from Tanagra, published by Th. lleinach in R. Et. Gr. 1899, pp. 53 if., 
conclude the article. 

COINS 

The Duoviri of Corinth. The work of the American school at Corinth 
renders anything connected with that ancient city of especial interest at the 
present time. The Roman colony of Corinth was established by Julius 
Caesar, and the colonial officials, duoviri, enjoyed the privilege of coining- 
money until the death of Galba in 09. From a large number of coins 
that have been attributed to Corinth, Mr. Earle Fox sifts twenty-three 
authentic series that bear in Latin the names of duoviri, as follows : 

Julius Caesar: (L.) Certus Aeficius, C. lulius ; *P. Tadius Chilo, C. Julius 
Nicephorus ; * Inst , L. Cas M. Antonius: P. Aebu- 
tius, C. Pinnius ; *Q. Caecilius Niger, C. Heius Pam(philus) ; * ? , 

M. Ant(onius) Orest(es). Augustus : C. Servilius C. f. Primus, M. Ant(onius) 
Hipparchus; M. Novius Bassus, M. Ant(onius) Hipparchus; P. Aebutius 
Sp. f., C. lulius Hera(clius) ; *P. Aebutius Sp. f., C. Heius Pamphilus ; 
C. Heius Pol(lio), C. Heius Pam(philus) ; C. Heius Pollio, C. Mussidius 
Priscus; L. Arrius Peregrinus, L. Furius Labeo. With head of Drusux : 
P. Caninius Agrippa, L. Castricius Regulus. Caligula (?) : A. Vatronius 
Labeo, L. Rutilius Plancus ; P. Vipsanius (or Vipsanus) Agrippa, M. Bel- 

lius Proculus. Claudius : Octavius, Licinus ; L. Paconius Flam , 

Cn. Publi(cius) Regulus. Nero: Ti. Claudius Anaxilaus, P. Ventidius 

Fronto; M. Ac Candidus, Q, Ful(vius) Flaccus; Ti. Claudius Optatus, 

C. lulius Polyaenus ; L. Rut(ilius) Piso, P. Memius (sic) Cleander. Galba (?) : 
L. Can(inius) Agrippa (without colleague). 

The names starred are dated by inference only. After Galba, no names 
of magistrates appear on Corinthian coins. (./. Int. Arch. Num. TT, pp. 89 ff.) 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Zagreus, the Horned Serpent. In 72. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 210- 
217, S. Reinach discusses the myths of Zagreus imperfectly recorded by 
ancient authors. He appears to have been born as a horned serpent, his 
mother Persephone having taken a similar form, and his father Zeus having 
become a serpent to pursue her. Pliny's account of the serpent's egg (N.H. 
XXIX, 52), and the worship of serpents, especially a horned serpent, by the 
Druids, are discussed. The cult of Zagreus is Orphic, and was supposed to 
have entered Greece from Thrace. The ancients also believed that the 
Thracians and the Celts had intercourse with each other. At any rate, the 
Celtic worship of a horned serpent is prehistoric in its origin, and is seen to 
be not isolated in Europe. 

The Stone used in the Decoration of Monuments at Mycenae. 
In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 16-18, L. de Launay gives analyses of several 
fragments of stone of different colors from the buildings at Mycenae. He 
finds the stones called by various writers porphyry, basalt, and breccia are 



360 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, HlOO 

all crystalline limestone, more or less silicious, more or less ferruginous, 
more or less fine, probably derived from the metamorphic regions which 
occupy a large part of Greece and the islands of the Archipelago. 

Sanctuary of Asclepius at Epidaurus. The second volume of the 
library of the Archaeological Society at Athens is entitled : To 'lepov TOV 
'Ao-KXT/Triov ev 'E7ri<$avpa> KO.L 17 epaTreta roiv 'Ao-0evu>v. (8vo. 303 pp. ; 8 
phototype pis. ; 1 topographical pi. ; 9 cuts.) The author is P. Cavvadias. 
The introduction treats of the god Asclepius, the progress of his worship 
from Thessaly to Boeotia, to Epidaurus, and to other parts of the Greek 
world, of the topography of Epidaurus, of the history of the place, and of 
the excavations. There follows a detailed description of the sanctuary, each 
building being described and discussed with the greatest care, with due atten- 
tion to questions of chronology, history, and archaeology. Besides the tem- 
ple of Asclepius, the following buildings and structures are treated : the 
Tholos or Thymele, the Theatre, the Stadium, the Hippodrome, the Abaton, 
the Ancient Temple and the house of the priests, the Temple of Artemis, 
the Temple of Aphrodite, the Sanctuary of Themis, the Epidoteion, the 
Anakeion, the Propylaea of the sanctuary and the road from Epidaurus, 
the Gymnasium with its propylaea, the Temple of Hygieia, the Odeum, the 
Greek Bath, the Stoa of Cotys (palaestra), the Bath of Asclepius and the 
Library, a building like a stoa, a Roman Bath, the Temple of Apollo and 
Asclepius built by Antoninus, a house of Roman times, an inn, wells, cis- 
terns and water conduits, springs and fountains, buildings of the times of 
the Antonines, buildings of the last times of the sanctuary, the cemetery, 
and the sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas. The worship of Asclepius and 
Apollo, as here carried on, is then described in detail, after which the wor- 
ship of the many other deities honored in the sacred precinct is expounded. 
Sacred animals (especially the serpent) are enumerated, and the worship of 
Asclepius as a serpent is discussed. Then the votive offerings, the sacri- 
fices, the hymns and paeans, the sacred festivals and games, and the persons 
occupied in the cults are passed in review. The management of the sanctu- 
ary, its sources of income, the disposal of its funds, the agreements made 
with architects, workmen, and sculptors receive careful attention. A descrip- 
tion of the care of the sick in Greek and Roman times is followed by a dis- 
cussion of the relation of medical practice to the Asclepieum, and the book 
closes with a treatise on the decadence and end of the worship of Asclepius. 
Throughout the book the inscriptions and other monuments found at Epi- 
daurus are naturally the material upon which the descriptions and discussions 
are based. 

Archaic Greek Bronze Vessel from Leontini. The fifty -ninth 
<% Winckelmannsprogramm " of the Berlin Archaeological Society is entitled 
^4 Itgriechisches Bronzebecken MX Leontini (35 pp. ; 2 pis. ; 15 figs.). The author 
is Hermann Winnefeld. The bronze vessel is a large one (diameter 0.538 m., 
height 0/215 m., diameter of the mouth 0.354 m.). It was found in the 
ancient necropolis of Leontini in 1883 or 1884 (Not. Scavi, 1884, p. 252) with 
several other objects gold and silver ornaments, a vase of Corinthian 
style, etc. All except the gold objects are now in the Berlin antiqnarium, 
where the bronze vessel has been accurately restored. Four rarn's-heads of 
cast, not beaten, bronze are soldered, not riveted, about the opening of the 
vessel. The vessel itself recalls the similar vessels found at Olympia and 



GREEK Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 801 

elsewhere. The ram's -he ads are to be compared in style and technique with 
the latest of the griffin 's-heads from Olympia. Three of the ram's-heads are 
nearly identical, the fourth noticeably different, yet all belong to the vessel, 
and are of the same school and date. The ram's-head of the sima from 
Athens (see Am. J. Arch. 1898, pi. viii) and other representations of the 
same object are discussed. The vessel from Leontini is ascribed to the end 
of the seventh, or beginning of the sixth century, B.C. Apparently no tripod 
belonging to it was buried with it. The other objects found in the graves 
(three in number), from one of which the bronze vessel was taken, are 
described and illustrated. 

Delphica. The religion of the early inhabitants of Greece, who buried 
their dead, was a belief in the spirits of the dead as potent for good or evil, 
closely associated with the earth, and haunting their mound-shaped tombs in 
the form of snakes, often oracular. All of these features are found occasion- 
ally in tragedy and in art, especially vase-painting. The later conception of 
the spirit as a winged eidolon, the conception of a people who burned the 
dead, rs found, together with the snake form, on an archaic prothesis vase. 
These snake spirits, anthropomorphized, but not always completely, and 
made female by association with the fertile earth, are the Nymphs, Charites, 
Semnae, Moerae. K^pes, and especially the Erinyes, originally singular. To 
this stratum of belief belong Saturn and Gaia, Demeter and Cora, all the 
chthonic deities, and even the great female divinities, Athena's companion 
snake still recalling her own original form. The later worship of Zens and 
Apollo prevailed only partially even at Delphi, where the omphalos-tomb, 
the maiden Pythia, and the Python itself, the original oracular spirit still 
to be traced as female, all belong to the earlier epoch. The omphalos 
found in the course of the recent excavations is a marble copy of the primi- 
tive, white-plastered grave-mound of earth, bound with a network of fillets. 
(J. E. HARRISON, J.H.S. XIX, 2, 1899, pp. 205-251 ; 12 cuts.) 

Greek Discus from Sicily. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 1899, pp. 201-205 
(pi. i), Robert v. Schneider publishes a bronze discus from the neighborhood 
of Terranova, in the territory of the ancient Gela. The discus is about 
0.007 hi. thick, 0.28 m. in diameter, and weighs 3800 gr. It is, then, one of 
the largest known specimens. It is of bronze, covered with a fine patina. 
On one side is the figure of a dolphin sunk in the bronze. This was origi- 
nally filled with silver, and the dolphin may have symbolized the rapid 
flight of the discus. Comparison with dolphins on coins, etc., fixes the date 
of this discus about 500 B.C. 

Erotes at the Pyre. The second part of S. Reinach's * Notes Archeo- 
logiques,' in R. Arch. XXXIV. 1899, pp. 385-340, is devoted to the tiara of 
Saitaphernes. The winged spirits at the funeral pyre of Patroclus, are at 
once Erotes, with reference to the love of Achilles and Patroclus, and wind 
spirits or personified winds. The fusion of the two conceptions is explained 
from the tendencies of Alexandrine art. 

The Silenus Terpon. The first part of S. Reinach's ' Notes Archeo- 
logiques' in R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 335-340, is a collection of all 
material relating to the representation of the Silenus Terpon. 

Heron's Dioptra. The Dioptra of Heron of Alexandria can be recon- 
structed in a thoroughly practical shape from his description, although there 
is a lacuna of several pages in the text. It comprised : a sighting apparatus 



362 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

on a disk which, though normally horizontal, could be turned and tilted in 
every direction, even to the vertical; a separate water-level which could 
perhaps be attached to the same support; and the surveyor's poles. (H. 
SCHOENE, Jb. Arch. I. XIV. 1899, 3, pp. 91-103; 9 cuts.) 

The Scenery of the Greek Stage. The early plays of Aeschylus re- 
quired no background, being acted around an altar, tomb, or natural object 
represented by the platform which served as stage. When, with the Oreslea 
and later plays, a palace or temple was needed, the architectural features 
were probably painted directly on the wooden front of the scene-building 
which stood behind the long, narrow stage. The elaborate stone scene- 
fronts of the third century, of which Aspendus is typical, show what was 
represented in a simpler way on the wooden scene of the earlier time. The 
familiar use of color, to express details of form in architecture and sculpture, 
when extended so as to indicate the main feature of the building itself on a 
flat surface, became the art of perspective, of which the first scene-painter, 
Aristarchus, was a master. The Greeks always applied the art to archi- 
tectural designs, never with success to landscape or to natural objects. The 
architectural background answered for both tragedy and comedy, while 
various changes of scene and the natural surroundings of a satyr drama 
were sufficiently indicated to the imagination of the fifth century by a few 
typical objects placed upon the stage or shown on the revolving periacti, 
which stood at the sides and may have corresponded in their use to the 
right and left doors. The actual doors of the scene were visible and in use. 
Marine deities entered on the ordinary level, as coming from the harbor ; 
others descended by the " machine." "(P. GARDNER, J.H.S. XIX. 2, 1899, 
pp. 252-264.) 

ITALY 
SCULPTURE 

Roman Historical Reliefs. A former member of the ficole Francaise de 
Rome, Edmund Courbaud, is the author of a treatise on Roman sculpture : Le 
bas-relief romain a representations historiques. Etude arche'ologique, historique, 
litteraire. 8vo, xiv, 402 pp., with 19 plates. Fontemoing, Paris, 1899. This 
volume forms the eighty-first ' fascicule ' of the Bibliotheque des Ecoles Fran- 
Daises (T Athene* et de Rome. After having carefully distinguished Graeco- 
Roman reliefs as essentially decorative from Roman reliefs, as essentially 
historical, and having explained why the historical relief did not appear 
until the period of the Empire, the author considers the monuments as 
belonging (1) to the Augustan or formative period, (2) to the period of 
perfection, from Claudius to Trajan, (3) to the period of decadence, the 
days of Hadrian and the Antonines. In this portion of his volume he 
selects the typical, influential monuments which illustrate the formation, 
the perfection, and the decadence of the historical relief, without attempting 
to give a complete catalogue of such monuments. Xearly half the volume is 
then given to a study of Hellenistic life, in which the realistic and picturesque 
elements in the literature, painting, and sculpture of this period are empha- 
sized. These two qualities characterized especially the schools of Pergamon 
and Alexandria, and these two centres had an important share in moulding 
the character of Roman historical reliefs. 

The Political Meaning of Trajan's Arch at Beneventum. In Jh. 



ITAL. VASES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 363 

Oesterr. Arch. I, 1899, pp. 173-192 (13 cuts), A. v. Domaszewski discusses the 
Arch at Beneventum. The side toward the city is the chief side. The arch 
offers three main divisions to the sculptor : the city side, toward Rome as 
well as toward Beneventum ; the country side, facing the road which the 
emperor had made to connect Italy with the provinces; the side walls of the 
passage through the arch, through which the citizens of Beneventum passed 
back and forth. Accordingly, the reliefs of the first side show the relations of 
the emperor to Rome, those of the second celebrate his benefactions to the 
provinces, those of the passage walls are intended to keep the memory of 
his kindness alive in the minds of the Beneventines. This general concep- 
tion of the significance of the reliefs is established by an elaborate discussion 
of the scenes and groups represented, with interpretation of individual 
figures and explanations derived from the history of the time. 

Relief in Rome. In Rom. Mittli. 1899, pp. 3-7 (1 pi.), W. Amelung 
discusses the fragmentary relief published by Savignoni in B. Com. Roma, 
1897, p. 73 f. (cf. Robert in the twenty-first Hallisches Winckelmannspro- 
gramm, pp. 4 f.). It was found on the Palatine and is now in the Museo 
Nazionale. It is a poor copy of an excellent original, probably of the fifth 
century B.C., representing three female figures, the one on the right being 
separated from the two others. A large fragment of the same relief, showing 
the head and bust of the middle figure, recently found in the Giardino della 
Pigna of the Vatican, is published here for the first time. The figure on the 
right is evidently the important one, but the meaning of the relief cannot be 
determined. The writer agrees with Robert that it is not a reconciliation 
of Leto and Niobe. 

Art in Mithraic Ornaments. In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 193-202, 
Franz Curnont discusses the art exhibited in the monuments pertaining to 
the cult of Mithras. Few have any artistic merit, but beauty was not what 
their makers aimed at. The figures are all borrowed from Greek types 
except that of the lion-headed Cronus, the archetype of which is Oriental. 
With all its imperfections, the art of these monuments exercised considerable 
influence, its types being utilized by early Christian artists. 

The Funeral Banquet on Roman Tombstones. At a meeting of the 
Archaeological Institute (English), November 1, 1899, F. J. Haverfield con- 
tributed a paper ' On the Sepulchral Banquet on Roman Tombstones,' in 
which he traced the origin of the type back to Oriental sources, and followed 
its course from Assyria to Greece, and thence to Italy and all parts of the 
Roman world. (Athen. November 11, 1899.) 

The Ammendola Sarcophagus. In the centre of the battle scene on 
the Ammendola Sarcophagus in the Capitoline Museum (/t. Arch. 1888, 
pis. xxii, xxiii ; HELBIG, A ntiquities, II, p. 304, No. 422) is an overthrown 
barbarian. His attitude has been explained as that of suicide, but no wound 
is visible, and he is really trying to wound the mounted enemy nearest him. 
The story of the destruction of the Gauls at Delphi (Paus. X, 23, 8) contains 
no mention of suicide, and suicide in actual battle would be sheer desertion. 
(A. BLANCHET, B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, p. 177.) 

VASES AND PAINTING 

Pre-Hellenic Ware of Peucetia. In Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 13-80 (4 pis. ; 
21 figs.), M. Mayer has an exhaustive treatment of the pre-Hellenic vases of 



304 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Peucetia, the central district of Apulia. The article includes a partial 
catalogue of the vases in the Museum of Bari, with a detailed description of 
each specimen. The favorite element in the decoration is a cornb-like design 
of parallel straight lines, which is thought to be derived from a local cult of 
Venus; similarly, another ornament, resembling a trident, is referred to a 
cult of Xeptune. The 'swastika' is a common element, as is also a series 
of semicircles or arcs. The writer places the development of these vases 
between the years of 550 and 400 B.C. An earlier stage of this art he finds 
in certain fragments discovered at Putignano, which contain in primitive 
form nearly all the decorative elements of the Bari vases. The article 
includes a description of the grotto at Putignano, a discussion of the name 
of the town, which is compared with that of Hurra in Crete, and an attempt 
to prove a connection of this part of Italy with Crete and certain parts of 
Greece. 

Amphorae with Disks on the Handles. In B. Paletn. It. 1899, pp. 
42-49 (2 figs.), G. Patroni discusses two vases, hitherto unpublished, with 
reference to his theory that the amphorae, with disks on the handles, found 
in Lucania and Apulia are derived from the Greek colonists on the western 
coast of Italy. (B. Paletn. It. 1898, pp. 65 f.) The first vase is a fully 
developed disk amphora, with high handles, not later than the sixth century 
B.C., and was found at Sala Consilina, in the province of Salerno. It 
resembles closely the later Lucanian vases just mentioned. The other vase 
has come to light in 'the Museo Campano at Capua, and was found at Santa 
Maria Capuavetere or in the necropolis of ancient Capua. It resembles, 
though not closely, the Villanova ossuary, and also a vase found at Tarentum ; 
the latter resemblance is shown to be accidental. 

Dioscuri, not Corybantes. In Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 101-102, E. Petersen 
argues against the theory of Amelung (Rom. Mitth. 1898, pp. 97 f.) that 
the mounted figures on the Ruvo vase (Heydemann 3256) are Corybantes. 
He explains them as the Dioscuri, admitting that the armed figures on foot 
and the one with the cymbals may be Corybantes. This is not enough, 
however, to prove an Orphic element in this class of south-Italian vases. 

Artemis and Hippolytus. In Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 91-100 (2 figs.), 
E. Petersen discusses the wall painting representing Artemis seated, with 
three attendant maidens standing, and a young man also standing. There 
are four copies of this, three described by Helbig, Wandgem&bde, Nos. 253 f., 
and the fourth by Sogliano, Le Pitture murali, No. 119. After pointing out 
the resemblance in details between these and the pictures of Admetus and 
Alcestis (Arch. Zed. 1863, pp. 105 f.), which are possibly due to the same 
artist, the writer calls attention to a painting recently found at Pompeii 
(Not. Scavi, 1897, pp. 32 f.), representing Artemis and Hippolytus, seated. 
The love of the goddess for the mortal, and the feeling of awe with which he 
responds are the motives in this picture. a conception taken from Euripides, 
as is that of the Admetus and Alcestis pictures. In the group of four 
pictures mentioned above, the young man is again Hippolytus ; he is relating 
to Artemis the story of Phaedra's love. The incident is not mentioned by 
Euripides, but is a most natural conception. 

Wooden Tablets ; Encaustic Painting. O. Donner von Richter has 
an article in Rom. Mitth. 1899. pp. 119-140 (5 figs.), on the quadrangular 
wooden tablets which have left their impress on the walls in certain houses 



ITAL. COINS] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, /.sv/.'y 365 

at Pompeii. He argues exhaustively against the theory that they \\riv 
paintings, and suggests that possibly they were the back walls of 'clipboards, 
or served as blackboards for written notices, or were a background for nails 
or hooks. The second part of this paper is devoted to a discussion of 
encaustic painting, based especially on Pliny N. H. xxxv, 122 and 140. Two 
points are brought out: the fact that the painting process was entirely 
finished before heat was applied; and that no preliminary coat of wax was 
necessary when colors were applied to a wooden surface. 

INSCRIPTIONS 

Review of Epigraphic Publications relating to Roman Antiquity. 
The R. Arch, xxxv, 1899, pp. 171-192, contains R. Cagnat's 'Revue des publi- 
cations epigraphiques relatives a 1'antiquite romaine.' Here seventy-four 
inscriptions from various periodicals are republished. Brief notes on books 
relating to Roman epigraphy are appended. A plate gives a photograph of 
the tabula devotionis from Carthage, published by BABELON, CAGNAT, and 
SALADIN, Muse'e Laviyerie de Saint-Louis de Carthage, 1899, vol. II, pis. 21, 22, 
pp. 87 ff. The revue ' is continued, ibid. pp. 484-516, by Cagiiat and Besnier. 
One hundred and thirty inscriptions are republished. Fac-similes are given 
of the inscription of Maximus from Villa Franca de los Barros (see above, 
p. 264), of an inscription from Bohming, and of the archaic cippus from 
the Roman Forum. An index fills pp. 517-524. 

The Archaic Inscription from the Forum. See above, p. 257. In 
Atene e Roma, 1899, Luglio-Agosto, pp. 145-164, D. Comparetti publishes 
the inscription, not in fac-simile, with a commentary. The inscription, 
he thinks, has to do with the place where it was found, the tribune later 
called rostra. The beginning reads in substance: Quoi. ho[nce loqom sciens 
vwlatsid"] , mcros esed ; sord[eis quoi faxsid~\ . The penalty attached to violation 
of the place follows ; then further provisions. The date is not earlier than 
509 B.C., but hardly much later than 500. The year 493 B.C. is suggested, the 
date of the establishment of the tribunes of the people. The inscription 
has been discussed in numerous articles by Ceci (see above, p. 257, to which 
must be added numerous controversial articles in the daily paper, // Popolo 
Romano}, Gamurrini, Mariani, Huelsen, Ramorino, Otto (Arcldv f. latein. 
Lexicographie), Skutsch (Literarisches CenlralUati), Pais (inNuova Antologia), 
Tropea (Cronaca della Scoperta e del/a Diacussione intorno la Stele Arcaica 
del Foro Romano, Messina, 1899), von Duhn (in Neue Heidelberger Jahrbucher) 
and others. 

Oscan Inscriptions at Pompeii. In Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 105-113 
(1 fig.), A. Mau discusses an article by H. Degering, published in Rom. Mitth. 
1898, pp. 124-146 (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, pp. 143-144), on five Oscan inscrip- 
tions at Pompeii. He shows that Degering's objections to Xissen's theory 
are not sound, and that Degering's own theory is untenable. 

COINS 

The Types of Annona. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 243-246, the 
types of Annona on Roman coins and tesserae are discussed (cf. Rostovtsew 
in R. Num. 1898), and two engraved gems are published (cuts) by A. 
Blanchet. The gems have figures closely resembling the Annona on certain 
tesserae. 



366 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Mint or Jeweller's Workshop? One of the famous little cupid-frescoes 
of the Domus Vettiorum in Pompeii, representing the amorini as metal-workers, 
at forge, blow-pipe, and anvil, was published by A. Sogliano (Mon. Antichi, 
1808) as a scene from a jeweller's workshop. But another view has been 
strongly urged by E. J. Seltman (in Num. Chron.), that these are no jewellers, 
but coiners engaged in the operations of the mint. His reasoning did not 
convince J. A. Blanchet of the Bibliotheque Rationale, who came to the de- 
fence of Sogliano in an article in Rev. Num. 1899, pp. xvi f. Now we have 
still further considerations from Seltman in support of his position (J. Int. 
Arch. Num. 1899, p. 225), which is also sustained by Svoronos (ibid. p. 231). 
Man (Pompeii, translated by Kelsey, p. 329) recognizes the cupids only as 
jewellers. 

Roman Coins found in India. Last autumn, there was a find of 
denarii in Pakll, a part of the Ilazara district beyond Manschra, which is 
sixteen miles north of Abbottabad. The coins got into the hands of Pindl 
dealers. It is not known just how many coins the hoard contained, but 
twenty-three have been examined, showing twenty-one distinct types. The 
earliest is a denarius of Q. Curtius and M. lunius Silanus, assigned by 
Babelon to circa 114 B.C.; then one each of Cassius Longinus, On. Plancius, 
and Scribonius Libo (circa 54 B.C.), and one each of Sex. Pompeius and 
Caepio Brutus, dating shortly after Caesar's death. The majority (12) 
belong to the reign of Augustus ; then there are two of Tiberius, and finally, 
with an interval of almost a century, there is a denarius of Hadrian. (Num. 
Chron. 1899, p. 263.) 

Romano-Campanian Coinage. For several years, Dr. Max Bahrfeldt, 
of Breslau, has been studying the Roman coins of the Republican period. 
His Nachtrdge und Berichtigungen (1897) brought together a mass of notes 
in correction and enlargement of Babelon's Monnaies de la RepuUique 
Romaine, comprising the coins that bear magistrates' names, the so-called 
' family series.' The field was immense, and the Nachtrdge were a collection 
of running notes. The smaller series of ' Romano-Campanian ' coins of 
Southern Italy, summarily treated by Babelon, afforded a narrower field of 
investigation. Following the methods of M. le Baron d'Ailly (Recherches, 
1864), with the enlarged facilities and wider knowledge of to-day, Dr. 
Bahrfeldt has gathered much interesting material, and the results are trans- 
lated by Dr. Serafino Ricci for R. Ital. Num. (1899, pp. 387-446; pi. iii), 
and are to be continued in a future number. Dr. Bahrfeldt produces such 
an amount of new material as cannot fail to place the study of this series of 
coins upon a scientific basis. 

The Mints of the Age of Constantine. The investigation of the 
coinage of Constantine, his co-rulers, and his family has been begun by 
Jules Maurice. He studies the issues of the various mints, and essays a 
chronological sequence. In Num. Chron. 1899, p. 208, he examines the mint 
of Antioch between the years 306 and 337, and in R. Nu?n. 1899, p. 338, he 
proceeds to a parallel study of the mint of Rome itself. The rapid succes- 
sion of Caesars and Augusti furnishes the first clew to a classification, with 
the further aid of mint-mark, type, legend, and weight. The field is limited 
here, and the results will be subject to revision ; but the method is as sound 
as the material will allow, and will lead eventually to a satisfactory classifi- 
cation of these coins. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, pp. 366-369, 404, 405, Jules 



ITAL. Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL JJISCUtiSIONS, 1899 367 

Maurice describes some coins of Constantino in the British Museum and the 
Imperial Museum at Vienna. He also calls attention to the fact that four 
coins with the legend on the reverse: SAC MON VRB - AVGG ET 
CAESS, associated with 1, IMP - G - MAXIMIANVS P F- AVG 
2, MAXIMINVS NOB - CAES (Cohen 148), :-$, CONSTANTINVS 
NOB CAES (Cohen 470), 4, IMP C - SEVERVS P F AVG 
(Cohen 62) must have been struck before the capture of Rome by Maxen- 
tius and after Constantino was made Caesar, i.e. between July 25 and Octo- 
ber 28, 300 A.D. 

Chrysopolis Aquileia. In Jit. Oe.zterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, Beiblatt, 
pp. 105 f., E. Maionica publishes (2 figs.) two piombi from Aquileia. 
One has obverse head of the goddess Aquileia with diadem ; inscription, 
CHRYSOPOLIS AQVILEIA; reverse, Victory moving to left. The other 
has obverse, Aquileia enthroned, wearing a diadem and holding a horn of 
plenty; inscription, AQUILEIA FELIX; reverse, wreath, and inscription 

HORR. AQUIL. 

Sulpicia Dryantilla. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. II, 1899, pp. 206-210, 

E. Groag reviews what is known from coins and the inscription from 
Oenoanda (Denkschriften d. k. Akad. d. Wins. Wien, PJtU-hist. Clasxe, XLV, 
1897, pp. 41 if.) of the empress Sulpicia Dryantilla. She appears to have 
been the mother of the usurper Regalianus, and to have been made Augusta 
by him. The coins of Regalianus and Dryantilla are described (24 figs.) 
and discussed by W. Kubitschek, Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 1899, pp. 210-221, 
also Beiblatt, p. 111. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

A New Book on Pompeii. Under the title, Pompeii, its Life and A rt. 
the Macmillan Company has published in popular form the results of Pro- 
fessor August Mau's long study of the remains of Pompeii. The book 
(xxii, 509 pp. ; 12 pis. ; 6 plans ; 268 figs. ; $6.00) is translated by Professor 

F. AV. Kelsey from Mau's German manuscript, and is in no sense a new edi- 
tion of the Overbeck-Mau Pompeji, but an entirely new work. An intro- 
duction of six chapters treats of the situation of the city, its history before 
79 A. P., its burial in the volcanic eruption at that time, its unearthing in 
modern times, its internal topography, its building materials, construction, 
and six architectural periods. Then follows a careful description of the 
Forum and the surrounding buildings, the other public buildings and the 
defences of the city, the Pompeian house in general, and the most interesting 
Pompeian houses separately. Among these is, of course, the house of the 
Vettii, excavated in 1894-95. Roman villas are then described, the Villa of 
Diomedes and the Villa Rustica at Boscoreale being used as examples. A 
chapter is devoted to household furniture, one to the bakers and their trade, 
one to the fullers and tanners, and one to inns and wineshops. The street 
of tombs before the Herculanenm gate occupies a chapter, and the burial 
places near the Xola, Stabiau, and Nocera gates are described in another. 
Pompeian art, in its three divisions of architecture, sculpture, and painting, 
is treated in three chapters. These are followed by three chapters on Pom- 
peian inscriptions and a brief concluding chapter on the significance of the 
Pompeian culture. The book is furnished with an index, but is without 
bibliographical or other notes, and almost free from argumentative discus- 
sion. Even a new view, as (p. 150) that the small doors near the ends of 



368 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

the stage of the smaller theatre Were for the use of the occupants of the 
tribunals, is introduced without discussion or note (see p. 150 of this Jour- 
nal). So, too, the suggestion that the Doryphorus in Naples is really a 
Hermes (p. 161) and the positive statement (p. 445) that the so-called Nar- 
cissus is really a Dionysus have passed into the text with no -notes to distin- 
guish them from statements of assured and long-known facts. Thus, in 
spite of its scientific character, the book is thoroughly popular. The illus- 
trations are, for the most part, reproductions of photographs. . 

Early Remains near Piperiio. The polygonal walls and other antiq- 
uities in the neighborhood of Piperno have recently been studied by G. B. 
Giovenale and Lucio Mariani, and the results are announced in. Not. Scavi, 
March, 1899, pp. 88-101 (15 figs.). Probably in pre-Roman times a part of 
the slope of Monte Macchione was cut into three terraces, which were sur- 
rounded by retaining walls of polygonal construction, large portions of 
which still exist. There are also remains of buildings of early date. In 
a circular subterranean structure were found the head of a female statue r 
the hair dressed in the fashion of Caracalla's time, and several mediaeval 
vases. Whether the enclosed terraces formed a necropolis or a sacred 
temenos is doubtful. 

There are many other ancient remains in the neighborhood. It is proba- 
ble that the top of Monte Macchione was an acropolis, but no trace survives. 
On the slope there are indications of roads with polygonal supporting walls,, 
especially one leading from the terraced enclosure to the top. The Roman 
Privernum was about 2 km. north of the modern Piperno; among the antiq- 
uities found there are republican and imperial coins ; a fragment of a round 
marble altar, sculptured and inscribed ; a piece of basalt, on which are 
Egyptian letters and a representation of the goddess Sekhet ; an archaic; 
bronze figurine of Apollo; and many fragmentary Roman inscriptions^ 
sepulchral and honorary. 

The Necropolis at Genoa. In Rend. Ace. Lincei, VIII, fasc. 3, 4, pp. 
151-157, G. Ghirardini discusses the necropolis recently discovered in Genoa, 
as announced in Not. Scavi, 1898, pp. 395-402. The custom of burial sur- 
vived for a long time among the Ligurians. Cremation appeared first in. 
the eastern part of the country, and these tombs at Genoa are, with the 
exception of those of Savignone, which are of the same period, the earliest 
example of the change of custom. These tombs differ from others in Ligu- 
ria, moreover, in the abundance of Greek products, especially painted vases 
and bronzes due to an early commerce with Greek colonies in this part of 
the Mediterranean. 

Four Periods at Este. In 1895-98 a new group of tombs was exca- 
vated by Professor Prosdocimi and Alfonso Alfdnsi in the northern part of 
the necropolis at Este. The result was important, confirming in the most 
positive way the classification previously made by Professor Prosdocimi. The 
four periods are indicated clearly by tombs at different depths, as well as by 
the funeral equipment, which became constantly more sumptuous and more 
artistic, until the latest period, when a decline had begun. The tombs are 
of two types, the earlier and lower ones being generally mere holes, contain- 
ing the ossuary, the later ones nearer the surface being commonly boxes of 
limestone. In the first period the ossuary is either of the Villanova form or 
is a terra-cotta situla, which is only an imitation of the bronze situla. la 



ITAL. Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 369 

the second period the two types continue, but there are more accessory 
vases; these have a decoration of incised lines or raised bosses. Painted 
vases appear in the transition from the second to the third period ; also 
bronze situlae, evidently a local product of artistic and commercial im- 
portance. In the third period there is a decided departure from the situla 
type, and we find gracefully curved vases with colored decoration. In the 
fourth period the ossuary is large, poorly made, and colored. The four 
periods are by no means distinct, but overlap one another. There is no 
break, no sudden change ; the development is gradual and continuous from 
the end of the bronze age to the coming of the Gauls, when degeneration 
begins. (G. GHIRARDINI, Rend. Ace. Lined, VIII, fasc. 3, 4, pp. 102-113.) 

The " Gladiators 1 Barracks " at Pompeii. At a meeting of the Ger- 
man Institute in Rome, January 13, 1899, E. Petersen advanced the theory 
that the so-called gladiators' barracks at Pompeii were originally not a 
promenade for the large theatre, but a gymnasium or palaestra. He com- 
pared this especially with the palaestra at Olympia. (Rom. Mltth. 1899, pp. 
102-103.) 

Objects found at Pacengo. In R. Paletn. It. 1899, Nos. 1-3, pp. 32--J7, 
Arrigo Balladoro gives a list of objects (arrowheads, hatchets, etc.) found 
in recent investigations at Pacengo on Lago di Garda. No new light has 
been thrown on the prehistoric inhabitants of this site, but it is proved that 
the settlement was a large one. For a statement of the excavations of 
1892-95, see Not. Scm-i, 1895, pp. 453 f. and B. Paletn. It. 1896, p. 247. 

Rome founded in the Twelfth Century B.C. O. Montelius, in a 
communication printed in Rend. Ace. Lincei, VIII, 1899, p. 196, says that 
Rome was founded at least as early as the twelfth century B.C. He bases 
the statement apparently upon the date of tombs found in the city. 

The Necropolis of Remedello Sotto. In B. Paletn. It. 1899, Nos. 
1-3, pp. 1-27 (7 figs.), G. A. Colini continues his discussion of the necropolis 
of Remedello Sotto, near Brescia, and the eneolithic period in Italy. The 
present paper is devoted to a minute description of arms and utensils of 
flint, formed by a rough chipping process, found in tombs of the eneolithic 
period in all parts of Italy. Many of these are survivals of the palaeolithic 
age, preserved on account of their simplicity and great variety of uses. 

Alba Longa. Mr. Thomas Ashby, Jr., has published a paper on the 
probable site of Alba Longa in Vol. XXVII of the Journal of Philology, pp. 
37-50. Mr. Ashby's careful study of the ground leads him to the conclusion, 
which I most decidedly endorse, that Alba Longa, so called, " ab situ por- 
rectae in dorso urbis " (Livy, I, 3, 3), occupied the ridge of Castel Gan- 
dolfo between the present Pope's summer palace and the convent of the 
' Riformati.' (RODOLFO LANCIANI, A then. September 30, 1899.) 

Nero's Great Ship Canal. In Atlien. August 12, 1899, Alfred Marks 
discusses the passages in Suetonius (Nero, 31) and Tacitus (Ann. XV, 42) 
relating to Nero's project of connecting Portus Julius by a ship canal w r ith 
the Tiber. He describes the tunnel known as the Grotta di Pace. This 
tunnel, about two-thirds of a mile long, 16 feet wide, and, in parts, 30 feet 
high, starts on the northwestern side of Lake Avernus, pierces the crater 
wall, and comes out just where we should expect to find the mouth of a 
tunnel designed to cany the waters of a canal from Avernus to the shore. 
This is what remains of Nero's great undertaking. The Grotto della 



370 AMERICAX JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1000 

Sibilla, on the southern shore of Avernus, is the one mentioned by Strabo 
as the work of Cocceius, employed by Agrippa. This tunnel is between 
200 in. and 300 m. long, and was originally 10 feet high and 17 feet wide. 

Basilicas of Matidia and Marciana. In Rom. Mitth. 1899, pp. 141- 
153 (plan ; 2 figs.). Ch. Huelsen attacks the theory of Lanciani (Z2. Com. 
jRowrt, 1883, pp. 5-16) that near the Piazza Capranica in Rome, instead of 
two basilicas, one of Matidia, the other of Marciana, there was a temple 
dedicated to both women, but called Templum Matidiae. Lanciani is 
shown to be inaccurate in his description of the existing remains near the 
Vicolo della Spada d' Orlando, and his arguments are refuted in detail. 
The facts are as follows : Between the Pantheon, the north end of the 
Saepta, and the column of M. Aurelius, probably north of the modern 
Via dei Pastini, was a group of three buildings two basilicae, one of 
Matidia, the other of Marciana, and a Heroum of Hadrian. The orientation 
was like that of the Pantheon. To which building the existing remains 
belonged is doubtful. 

The Legend of the Capitol. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 246- 
247, E. Babelon describes a gem. presented by Pauvert de la Chapelle to 
the Cabinet des Medailles. It represents two augurs surrounded by the 
statues of Mars, Juventus, and -Terminus, in reference to the story that 
these three refused to leave their ancient seats and make room for the 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Juventus is here as occasionally else- 
where represented as a young man. 

SPAIN 

Pre-Roman Agricultural Colonies of the Valley of the Baetis. 
In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 126-159 (35 figs.), G. Bonsor gives a general 
description of the coast from Almeria to Cadiz, of the valley of the Baetis, 
and the neighboring hills. Most of the coast cities of Baetica were of 
Phoenician origin. Excavations of tumuli and tombs at eleven places are 
to be described. In this article the necropolis of Acebuchal is the subject of 
a detailed account. Some bodies are buried in a crouching posture, some 
are burnt, and some are buried in a cave of fixed orientation. Here are 
many tumuli, usually with rectangular tombs, but under one were three 
circular siios connected by short passages. Objects found include personal 
ornaments, e.g. a silver fibula, a buckle of silver and one of copper, gold 
beads, an earring, a ring, etc., fragments of bone and ivory with animals 
and patterns engraved upon them, apparently of Oriental origin, and pottery. 
In R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 232-325 (15S*cuts), the account is continued. 
The discoveries of nine sites are described in detail. In the tombs were 
found, besides pottery, many ivory combs adorned with animal figures of 
Oriental style, vases and utensils of bronze, and numerous other objects. At 
Acebuchal are pre-Roman walls and a sacrificial rock in addition to tombs. 
The tombs investigated belong to various pre-Roman periods and to Roman 
times. The pottery is of various kinds, primitive, rudely ornamented, 
indigenous of different dates, Oriental, Celtic, Graeco-Punic, and Roman. 
These classes are described, with illustrations. The article is continued in 
Ji. Arch. XXXV, pp. 376-391 (27 figs.). The tombs are classified, and the 
article closes with a table giving the classification, with hints of the historical 
events which may have changed the customs of the inhabitants, as follows : 



FRANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 371 

I. Indigenous inhabitants ; deposits of broken bones in the si ion of Campo 
Real. II. Indigenous; collective inhumation in crouching posture under 
tumulus (BencaiTon) ; foundation of Gadir by the Tyrians. III. African 
colonists; incineration under tumuli; Tyre subdued by the Assyrians. 
IV. The Turdetanians ; cave for inhumation under tumulus; Greeks visit 
Tartessus ; Carthaginians take Gadir and the coast. V. Libyo-Phoenicians ; 
cinerary urn under tumulus ; Celtic invasion. VI. The Turdetanians; people 
buried with crushed skulls (probably killed on the spot) at Acebuchal; 
the Carthaginians undertake the conquest of Spain. VII. The Libvo- 
Phoenicians; necropolis of Cruz del Negro; the Punic wars. VIII. The 
Romans ; necropolis of Carmona. 

Spanish Ceramics with Mycenaean and Geometrical Ornament. 
As a result of his investigations in Spain, Pierre Paris rinds that there 
was, in early times, pottery made there, ornamented with designs of Myce- 
naean and geometrical styles, evidently derived from the east. The color is, 
however, not the lustrous black of Greek ware, and the designs and execu- 
tion are inferior to those of real Mycenaean pottery. How communication 
between primitive Greece and Spain was established is unknown. This 
early art seems to have been practised even down to the coming of the 
Romans. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 436 f.) 

Bronze Amphora and Plate in Madrid. In R. Etudes Anciennes I, 
1899, pp. 318-320 (pi. iv), P. Paris publishes a bronze amphora and plate in 
Madrid. The two belong together, and are of Italian origin. They are 
adorned with reliefs representing warriors in combat. Though the work is 
not fine, and the motives have no originality, the effect is pleasing, and the 
form of the amphora good. The whole shows what excellent works the 
poorer artists and artisans of imperial times were able to imitate. 

FRANCE 

The Inscription on the Gourd-vase in Paris. In Berichte d. Sachs. 
Ges. LI, 1899, iii, pp. 173-175, Otto Bohtliugk discusses this curious inscrip- 
tion (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 638). He accepts the reading of Thedenat, 
but regards the gourd as the speaker, interpreting, " Hostess, fill the vessel 
(me) with beer. Host, you have spiced wine ; it is so (i.e. you cannot deny 
it); fill (me with it), give (the guest to drink)." Similar inscriptions on 
other vessels lead to this interpretation. 

Inscriptions of the Civitas Bellovacorum. In R. Arch. XXXV, 
1899, pp. 103-125, Seymour de Ricci gives the first part of a ' Repertoire 
Epigraphique des Departemen-ts de FAisiie et de 1'Oise.' He publishes, with 
bibliographical and other notes, fifty inscriptions from the state of the Bel- 
lovaci. A relief representing Mercury is published, the original of which is 
in the museum at Beauvais. The accompanying inscription, sacrum Mer- 
curio Augusta C. Julius Healissus v. I. s. w., is a forgery. 

Inscription from Amiens. The inscription in the Cabinet des Medailles 
of the Bibliotheque Nationale has frequently been published. In R. Arch. 
XXXV, 1899, p. 226, S. de Ricci gives a facsimile with the correct reading 
of lines 1 and 2 : pro salute et victoria {e} Aug(usti). 

Relief representing a Bride. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. Memoires, 1897, 
published 1899, pp. 81-117, E. Michon discusses the relief in the Louvre, 
CLARAC, II, pi. 162, 332, and shows that it is a copy of a relief in the Palazzo 



372 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

del Drago, formerly Albani, in Rome. The copy was made by Michel 
Monier, a student in the Academic de France h Rome as early as 1684. 
The two reliefs are published side by side. The copy is not exact, but 
shows such variations as were frequently allowed in those days. The family 
of Monier, Maunier, Meunier, is discussed. Nine works of sculpture men- 
tioned in a list of the ninth Fructidor, year II, are identified. 

Stone Tombs in the Valleys of the Cure and the Cousin. In 
R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 7:3-96 (10 figs.), F. Poulaine describes and dis- 
cusses some tombs of pre-Roman, Gallo-Roman, and Merovingian times. 
The valleys of the Cure and the Cousin were evidently thickly populated in 
those periods. The tombs are walled with slabs of stone. The valuable 
objects once contained in them have been removed, and doubtless utilized 
long ago. The objects found consist of bronze and iron utensils and arms 
(though arms are noticeably absent from the Gallo-Roman tombs), with a 
few rings and other ornaments of gold. In one ring is an onyx in three 
colors, in which a nude youth carrying a lance is carved. At his feet is a 
dog, running toward a tree. The changes in burial customs in these valleys 
are discussed. 

Gallo-Roman Topography. In the third number of his * Notes Gallo- 
Rornaines,' Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1899, pp. 233-244, Camille Jullian 
shows that the Nerbune mentioned in the Chanson de Roland is not Nar- 
bonne, but the now inconsiderable village of Arbonne, near Biarritz, the 
Latin name of which was Narbona. This is shown by an inscription: 
L. Valerius. Muntanus \ Tarbellus IHIsignanus \ domu Narb. The 
greater part of the article is taken up with a discussion of the capture of 
Bordeaux as described in the Chanson de Roland. 

Excavations at Rom (Deux-Sevres). Rom, in Poitou, is the site of 
an ancient Gallo-Roman town, probably Rauranum or Rarauna. Impor- 
tant roads crossed there, and Roman milestones have been found. Excava- 
tions were carried on there for some time, beginning in January, 1887, by 
Blumereau. They are described by him, with remarks by C. Jullian, in 
B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. Me'moires, 1897, published 1899, pp. 118-148; 9 figs. A 
series of buildings was discovered, consisting of what appears to be a villa 
(though Blumereau thinks of a bath or a basilica), and an adjoining open 
court surrounded in part by walls and passages. The walls were once 
painted. Considerable remains of hypocausts are described. Near these 
buildings were a few others of less importance and a well. Numerous small 
objects were found, among them a bronze disk upon which a chariot drawn 
by two horses is engraved, several intaglios, some fragments of " Samian " 
pottery with stamps, some Roman coins, and fibulae. An inscription on a 
base reads : \_Po8th~\umus scamnum. A curious relief is published representing 
a bearded male bust, perhaps a Gallic Dispater. 

The Discoveries at Martres-Tolosanes. The villas and vici discov- 
ered in the plain of Martres-Tolosanes (Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 266) are 
described in detail by L. Joulin, B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 231-238. The 
coins found appear to show that all these establishments ceased to be inhab- 
ited not far from the beginning of the fifth century after Christ. Probably 
the villas were destroyed by the Vandals before their passage into Spain in 
408. In the most important villa, that of Chiragan, most of the sculpture is 
attributed to the first and second centuries after Christ. The sculptural 



FKANCB] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1S99 373 

decoration of Chiragau surpasses in importance and in variety of subject all 
that has been found in similar establishments of Roman imperial times. 
The same author describes the excavations in C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899 
pp. 596-604. 

Sculptures in the Museum at Montauban. In B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1898, 
pp. 349-366, E. Michon discusses two monuments in the Museum at Mon- 
tauban. The first is an Eros bending his bow. (REINACH, Repertoire 
de la Statucdre Grecque el Romaine, II, p. 247, No. 7.) This came to the 
museum with the Ingres collection. It was formerly in the Louvre, having 
been before that in the collection of Quintin Crawfurd. Several sculptures 
formerly in the Crawfurd collection are described. The finest of these is 
the Satyr with a panther, now in the Somzee collection. The second monu- 
ment is of brown marble, bearing three bearded busts above a thunder-bolt, 
"below which is the inscription DIIS PROPI M HERENNI VIVATIS 
in three lines. This monument is declared to be a forgery. 

The Choiseul-Gouffier Collection. In B. M. Soc. A nt. Fr. Me'moires, 
1897, published 1899, pp. 160-211, Esperandieu gives, with appropriate dis- 
cussion, a number of unpublished letters and other documents relating to 
the collection of Count Choiseul-Gouffier, which now forms an important 
part of the collection in the Louvre. The first monuments belonging to the 
Count reached France in 1787. At the time of the Revolution, his collec- 
tion was at Marseilles, where it was sequestrated in 1792. The large statue 
from Santorin, restored as a Muse (CLARAC, III, p. 289, REINACH, Reper- 
toire, I, pp. 259, 459, No. 1951), was at one time to be employed in a public 
monument at Marseilles. It was to be restored by a sculptor, Alexandre 
Renaud, who probably did restore the feet. The other restorations head, 
right forearm, and left hand are ascribed to Lange. 

The Antinous of Chateau d'6couen. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. Memoires, 
1897, published 1899, pp. 54-80, E. M.ichon discusses, with three figures, the 
marble bust in the Louvre, which goes by the name of the Antinous of 
Chateau d'ficouen. He shows that the records give no foundation for the 
belief that the bust was ever at Ecouen. The bronze bust of Antinous from 
Ecouen is not a copy of this marble bust, but of a marble bust in the Vati- 
can. The bronze was in existence as early as 1775, and is probably a work 
of the Renaissance. The bust of Hadrian from ficouen is a bronze copy 
of some now unknown original. Documents giving lists of sculptures at 
IScouen are published. 

Bronze Heracles from Feurs. Feurs, the ancient Forum Segusiavo- 
Tiim, has preserved many traces of Roman times. In 1873, the Museum 
of Saint-Germain obtained casts of two statuettes from Feurs, a satyr and 
a walking Heracles, the originals of which have disappeared. Inscriptions 
found at Feurs testify to the worship of Jupiter, Silvanus, dea Segeta, and 
dea Dunisia. Coins show that Hercules was worshipped in connection with 
a youthful person identified with Telesphorus. A statuette, found at Feurs 
at some time not known, a cast of which is in the museum at Roanne, repre- 
sents Heracles seated on a rock over which is spread a lion's skin. His atti- 
tude resembles that of the seated Hermes in Naples. A statue in the 
palazzo Altemps at Rome, and a little bronze in Florence (REINACH, Re'pert. 
dc la Statuaire, I, 475, 5 ; II, 229, 5) represent the same motive. The Altemps 
statue is a type of the fifth century B.C., the statuette of Feurs a reproduc- 



374 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1000 

tion of a type belonging to the school of Lysippus. (S. REIXACH, 7?. A /r/L 
XXXV, 1899, pp. 54-01 ; cut.) 

Bibracte Haeduorum. As early as 1867, systematic excavations were 
begun by M. de Barthelemy at Mont-Beuvray, the site of the Haeduan capi- 
tal, Bibracte. In 1870 he published in the R. Arch, a description of ~>2~> 
ancient coins found in the old oppidum. Excavations have been carried OIL 
with more or less regularity from 1870 until the present time, but more than 
135 hectares remain still to be explored. Meanwhile, M. Joseph Dechelette, 
who has taken charge of the excavations since 1896, publishes, in R. Num- 
(1899), p. 129, a summary description of the 1579 coins found there since the 
excavations began ; of which 1033 are native Gaulish, 114 Roman, one Celti- 
berian, one of Juba II of Mauretania, and 430 badly preserved and indetermi- 
nate. As to metal, there were 4 gold, 202 silver, 119 bronze, and 708 potin. 
The greatest interest and importance attaches to the native coins, which 
are assigned, on more or less authority, to twenty-three Gallic tribes, includ- 
ing almost all those mentioned by Caesar. The Haedui, Remi, Santones r 
Segusiavi, and Sequani place the tribal name on some of the pieces; the 
others are attributed only by conjecture, based chiefly on the localities 
where they were found. All seem to belong to the first century B.C., and 
most of them to the latter half of this century. Of the 1033 coins, no less 
than 762 are assigned to the Haedui themselves ; and next in number are 
the forty-three silver coins of the neighboring Sequani. Perhaps of greatest 
interest are the Haeduan coins with the names of Orgetorix and Dumnorix 
(ORCETIRIX or ORCETIR, four specimens; AOYBNO, DUBNORIX, 
or DV B N OR E I X, seven specimens). It seems from the results of the exca- 
vations that the inhabitants of Bibracte abandoned the town in a body 
about the year 5 B.C., and migrated to Augustodunum (Autun). 

Tesserae in the Bibliotheque Nationale. MM. Rostovstew and Prou 
have begun a catalogue of the lead tesserae of the Bibliotheque Xationale of 
Paris. These objects are arranged by classes. So far, 517 numbers have 
been described, as follows : seals ; commercial, national, and municipal tes- 
serae ; the saturnalia; public spectacles (venationes, theatre, circus, gladia- 
tors, athletes, seat-tickets (?), victors), and private tesserae with names of 
divinities or persons. (7?. Num. 1899, pp. 199 and 278.) 

AFRICA 

The Aedes Memoriae at Carthage. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 
205-207, Heron de Villefosse mentions that Paul Gauckler proposes to pre- 
sent to the Louvre two ex-votos from Carthage, the "dedication to Jupiter 
Hammon " and the " votive bull to Saturn." He takes occasion to discuss 
the inscription on the bull, which he proposes to read : S(aturno) A(ugusto) 
S(acrum). | C. Fabius Sat(urninus), sacer(dos) Mart-is, tem(enorus) Aed(is) 
Memo(riae), | et Fortunula co(n)iux ems, | cum fil(i)is suis votum | solvit. 
This is the first inscription mentioning the Temple of Memory. The word 
temenorus is the Greek re/xei/wpos. 

The Site of the Temple of Ceres at Carthage. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
Memoires, 1897, published 1899, pp. 1-20, Father D.elattre gives the evidence 
for his belief that the site of the Temple of Ceres was at the cemetery of 
Bordj-Djedid (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 274). The worship of Demeter and 
Persephone was introduced from Syracuse after the disasters of 396 B.C., and 



AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1S99 375 

the worship was conducted by Greek priests. To their influence may be due 
the introduction of cremation instead of burial. Four plates represent 
fragments of architecture : an Asclepius with Telesphorus, a Pomona or 
Ceres, a head of Ceres and a fold of a serpent upon which an Eros was 
riding, and a headless and armless draped female figure. 

Memmius Seiiecio. In his article on the site of the Temple of Ceres 
at Carthage, Father Delattre publishes an inscription which is further dis- 
cussed by Heron de Villefosse, B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. Me'moires, 1897, published 
1899, pp. 21-26. With the aid of C.I.L. XIV, No. 3597, it is partially 

restored to read : . . (Memmio) | (fti<>) - - (Memmi} \ (ne- 

poti . L . ) Memmi \ (Tusci)lli . pronepoti . Memmi \ Senecionis . consular!* . | 
sacerdotes . cereal . uniuersi \ sua . pecun .fecer . \ Three generations of the 
family of Memmii are here mentioned. The dedication is by the sacerdotes 
Cereaiium universi, priests, or rather ex-priests, of Ceres. This body is 
mentioned in two other inscriptions published by Father Delattre. 

The Punic Belief in Spirits. Ph. Berger, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 
307, f. translates the first line of the curse inscribed on a lead tablet from 
Carthage "Great Haua, goddess, queen." (Cf. ibid. p. 179, Am. J. Arch. 
1899, p. 565.) The name Haua, which is the name of Eve in Hebrew, means 
" breath," " life." This shows the belief of the Phoenicians in a world of 
spirits and in the efficacy of magic to invoke them. Clermont-Ganneau, ibid. 
pp. 490-492, publishes a brief discussion of the inscription. The discussion 
appears at greater length in the Recueil d'Arche'ologie Orientale. 

Notes on Punic Inscriptions. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 612-614, 
Clermont-Ganneau discusses some of the inscriptions published by Ph. 
Berger, ibid. pp. 423-430. In the inscription, p. 424, Clermont-Ganneau 
removes the name Katrtw [Seo/jos by suggesting KCKTKO [Veia or Kcuriw [73-77, ail( l 
explains the patronymic as a transcription of Mupcn'Aos Mv/ori A.OS. 

Neo-Punic Inscriptions from Maktar. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1899, pp. 
525-538, Ch. Clermont-Ganneau discusses several obscure points in three 
inscriptions from Maktar, published by Ph. Berger in the C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1898. A more detailed discussion is to appear in the Recueil d'Arche'ologie 
Orientate. 

Punic Inscription from Carthage. An inscription in Etruscan letters 
on a plate of ivory found by Father Delattre at Carthage is transcribed by 
Breal, Journal des Savants, January, 1899, pp. 63 ft', mi put melkarth aviekl 
Kq . . . na. A fac-simile is given by Martha, B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, 
pp. 185-189, who reads : mi puinel Kartliazie . . . q ... na. Not Melkarth, 
but Carthage is mentioned. 

African Coins and Lamps. The Comptes-Rendus of the Academic 
d'Hippone, 1898, pp. XLI-XLVII, publishes and discusses two bronze coins, 
one of which may be of Micipsa or Jugurtha, the other having the head of 
Severus Alexander. The same article describes two terra-cotta lamps, found 
at Tebessa; one ornamented with a boat under sail, thought to be symbolical 
of the Christian church, the other showing an animal, which is supposed to 
represent the strength of the Christian faith. 



376 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV. 1900 

BYZANTINE AND MEDIAEVAL ART 
GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Description of a Christian Church of the Second Century. In the 
library at Mossoul a manuscript dated 1654 has been found which contains, 
besides the Syriac version of the Bible, the Apostolic Constitutions and two 
treatises cited in early days but since lost. These are entitled the Testa- 
incntnm Domini and the Jussa et Statuta Domini. Internal evidence shows 
that these treatises existed at least as early as the third century of our era. 
The description of the early Christian basilica in the Testamentum Domini 
must be that of a church of the second century. It is not very different in 
type from the church of Chore at Constantinople, with its diaconicon, its 
atrium, and its place for catechumens. The document as found is in Syriac, 
but has been translated into Latin by the learned patriarch of Antioch and 
published by W. Drugulin, Leipzig. The chapters referring particularly to 
the basilica are translated into French by Albert Battaudier in R. Art Chre't. 
1899, pp. 515-517. 

Horizontal Curves in Columbia University. In previous numbers of 
the Architectural Record Professor W. H- Goodyear has considered the 
problem of curvature in classic and mediaeval architecture. In the same 
journal for July, 1899, pp. 82-93, he describes the curvature of the steps 
leading up to the library of Columbia University and the curvature of 
the entablature as well as stylobate of the unfinished University Hall of 
the same University. The architects, Messrs. McKim, Mead, and White, by 
reviving this lost art, have added a new charm to modern architecture. 

The Removal of Frescoes. In the R. Art Chret. 1899, pp. 191-207, 
M. Gerspach discusses the various methods of removing frescoes. As early 
as 1397 a fresco painting was transferred from Santa Reparata to the 
Cathedral at Florence. The method employed was doubtless that of removing 
wall, plaster, and fresco together, a cumbersome and expensive method of 
removing frescoes, though not infrequently employed. In 1725 Antonio 
Contri devised a way of detaching the fresco painting from the plaster 
by applying to it a canvas steeped in glue. The method was improved by 
Succi of Imola in 1775, who transferred to canvas the famous fresco by 
Melozzo da Forli, removing it from the Floreria to the Pinacoteca of the 
Vatican. This method is an extremely dangerous one and is rarely perfectly 
successful. It is inapplicable to wall-paintings executed in tempera or in 
oil. The most recent method surrounds the wall-painting by a frame which 
penetrates through the plaster and encases the painting and its plaster 
ground as in a box. The outside surface of the painting is then carefully 
cradled to the frame in a manner calculated to prevent its warping or 
cracking. The wall behind the plaster is then removed as far as is necessary 
to free the painting. The back of the painting, that is to say its plaster 
ground, is prevented from breaking by a system of cross wires, which replace 
each portion of the supporting wall as soon as it is removed. This method 
is not so cumbersome as the first nor so dangerous as the second and may be 
employed for tempera and oil wall-paintings as well as for frescoes. 

Relics from Constantinople. Thorns, purporting to be relics from 
the Crown of Thorns, are preserved in reliquaries at Vicenza and Assisi in 
Italy, at Parnpelune, Mont-Saint-Eloy, Saint Maurice en Valais, and Vezelay 



MEDIAKVAL AKT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 18<J9 377 




Art Chret. 1899, pp. 318-324. Other thorns are preserved at Fermo, Ascoli, 
Bari, Catania, Pavia, Monreale, Venice, Bergen, Marienthal, Besai^on, 
Josephat-les-Chartres, Bourboii-l'Archambault, Notre Dame de Clery, Nancy, 
and elsewhere. These are noticed in R. Art Chret. 1899, pp. 478-490. 

The Development of the Toga and Pallium. In the Byz. Z. 1899, 
pp. 490-492, J. Wilperfc publishes a short article entitled 'Der Parallelismus 
in der Entwickelung der Toga und des Pallium.' It presents the conclusions 
reached on this subject in his < Un capitolo di storia del vestiario,' published 
in L'Artej 1899. 

Mediaeval Earrings of Oriental Type. In Russia, Hungary, and even 
in France have been found earrings of a peculiar type, resembling a finger 
ring with a polyhedral ball. They are usually found accompanied by small 
crescent shaped objects. In the B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 189-193, several 
of these are published by J. de Baye, who suggests that the crescent was 
attached to the ear and served to carry the ring. 

Monastic Architecture in Russia. In the Arch. Rec. IX, 1, pp. 21- 
49, Charles A. Rich describes a series of monasteries in and near Moscow. 
This article is accompanied with numerous illustrations. 

ITALY 

Professorial Tombs at Bologna. In the R. Art Chret. 1899, pp. 400- 
405, M. Gerspach studies the tombs erected to professors at Bologna, publish- 
ing illustrations of the pyramidal tombs of the jurists Accorso and his son 
(f 1265), the sculptured sarcophagi of Giovanni d' Andrea, lecturer on canon 
law (|1348), and of Antonio Galeazzo Bentivoglio, professor at the university 
(fl435). The latter sarcophagus, carved by Jacopo della Quercia, is thought 
by M. Gerspach to have been designed for Vari, lecturer on medicine, but 
afterwards acquired by the Bentivoglio family and dedicated to the professor. 
Illustrations are also published of the tomb by Francesco di Simone, erected 
to Alessandro Tartagni, jurist (f!477), and of the charmingly carved slab 
erected to Pietro Canonici, lecturer on civil law (f 1502). 

Choir Books from Brescia. When the monasteries of Brescia were sup- 
pressed in 1790, many of their books passed into the Biblioteca Queriniana 
Comunale. Amongst these were a splendid collection of choir books from 
S. Francesco, of which eleven are antiphonals and six graduals. These were 
executed in 1490 at the expense of Fra Francesco Samson of Brescia. The 
text of the antiphonals was executed by Fra Evangelista of Saxony, and that 
of the graduals by Fra Benedetto of Siena. Stephano Fenaroli, the author 
of Dizionario deqli Artisti Bresciani, is inclined to believe that the minia- 
tures which adorn these volumes are the work of Fra Apollonio da Calvisano. 
(Arch. Star. Lomb. XXII, 1899, pp. 398-411.) 

The Oldest Franciscan Work of Art. The oldest work of Franciscan 
art seems to have escaped attention as such, since it is not found in a 
Franciscan church. In the Baptistery of Florence the mosaic of the Scarsella 
in the apse is signed with an inscription which concludes Sancti Francisci 
Frater fuit hoc operatus Jacopus in tali pre cunctis arte probatus. The date of 
this work was from May 12, 1225, to July 15, 1228. The Liber de laudibus 



378 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV. l!oo 

beati Francisci, III, 666, informs us that Jacopus was one of the first twelve 
brothers gathered by Saint Francis. Jacopus is said to have seen the soul 
of Saint Francis depart .to Heaven and to have been buried in the Porti- 
uncula at Assisi. (R. DAVIDSOHX, Rep.f. K. 1899, pp. 315-316.) 

A Florentine Caricature of the Fourteenth Century. In the city 
archives of Florence, in the Proceedings of the Mercangia, is to be found an 
interesting pen sketch of the date 1320. It is a caricature of a combat of 
two knights. This is the earliest caricature of this subject, and its date 
shows how early Florence began to outgrow the spirit of the middle ages. 
(R. DAVIDSOHX, Rep.f. K. 1899, pp. 250, 251.) 

The Treasures of S. Ambrogio at Milan. In the R. Art Chret. 1899, 
pp. 306-317, 502-512, II. Barbier de Montault begins a very careful descrip- 
tion of the treasures of the church of S. Ambrogio, Milan. In the first and 
second articles he treats of the Eucharistic Boxes (fourth and fifth centu- 
ries), the Dalmatica of S. Ambrogio (fourth to eleventh centuries), and, in 
detail, of the Altar of Gold (circ. 835 A.D.). 

Sixth Century Mosaic in the Apse of S. Michele in Africisco, 
Ravenna. The sixth century church of S. Michele in Africisco once con- 
tained mosaic decoration, which is no longer in place. A drawing and an 
engraving of it, however, are preserved at Ravenna. M. Gerspach publishes 
the engraving in the R. Art Chret. 1899, p. 398. In the concha of the apse 
is represented Christ between the Archangels Gabriel and Michael. On 
either side of the concha are SS. Cosmas and Damian, and above it Christ 
enthroned in the midst of angels. 

FRANCE 

Merovingian Fibulae. In R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, pp. 363-381 (pis. x, 
xi), H. Hubert publishes two fibulae of the "Baslieux," which he ascribes to 
the Merovingian period. 

The Art of the Thirteenth Century in France. Emile Male, pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in the Lycee Lakanal, recently published a volume entitled 
L'Art reiigieux du XIII siecle en France. Etude sur Uiconographie du moyen 
age et sur ses sources d' inspiration. (8vo. Leroux, Paris, 1898.) The volume 
shows much study of mediaeval iconography, especially as illustrated in 
sculpture, in painted glass windows, and in miniatures. It also shows inti- 
mate acquaintance with mediaeval religious literature, and application of 
this knowledge to the interpretation of religious art. This determines the 
form of the work, which, like the Speculum maju$ of Vincent de Beauvais, is 
divided into four parts, the Mirror of Nature, the Mirror of Science, the 
Mirror of Morals, and the Mirror of History. 

The Cathedral and the Forest. The jest of Chateaubriand and the 
doctrine of Warburton that Gothic architecture originated in the imitation 
of French forests is developed by E. Lambin in a brochure entitled La Cathe- 
drale et la Foret, Lechevallier, Paris, 1899. The use made of native flora by 
French Gothic sculptors was certainly extensive, and has been studied in 
detail by no one more carefully than by this author. (L. CLOQUET, R. Art 
Chret. 1899, pp. 339-341.) 

Some French Rood-screens. In the Am. Architect, August 5, 1899, 
p. 43, W. T. Partridge discusses and publishes drawings of several rood- 
screens. Gothic jules or rood-screens are found at Evreux, Fecamp, Chartres, 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 379 

Albi, Troyes, Brou ; Renaissance examples in stone may be seen at Chartres, 
St. Croix (Quimperle), St. Florentin (Yonne), Limoges, and Kodez, and in 
wood at Lamballe, Faouet, Villemaur, Arques, Luyeres, and Appoigny. 

The Priory and Church of La Haie-aux-Bons-Hommes at Angers. 
In the R. Art Chrct. 1899, pp. 213-220,275-289, T. L. Houdebine describes 
the priory and the architecture and paintings of the monastic church of 
La Haie-aux-Bons-Hommes, outside of Angers. The monastery belonged to 
the rigid order of Grandmont, and was built by Raoul de Veo and fitienne 
de Mersay between 1178 and 1182. It was richly endowed by kings of 
France and princes of Anjou, and became one of the most important of the 
order. The church, according to the traditions of the order, is very long 
and narrow, and extremely simple and austere in its decoration. The wall 
paintings have been assumed to belong to the twelfth century, but docu- 
mentary evidence, as well as the inscriptions and style of workmanship, 
prove them to be fourteenth century productions. 

Byzantine Textiles at Baume. The abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs 
(Jura) contained a rich treasure of textiles now somewhat fragmentary, but 
representing various periods. Six or seven pieces date from Merovingian 
times, others from the ninth and tenth centuries, some from the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries, and others again from the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. (B. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1899, pp. 169-170.) 

The Fagade of Chartres Cathedral in the Twelfth Century. 
Writers upon the cathedral of Chartres differ in regard to the date of the 
facade with its two towers. This makes it the more necessary that details 
of style should be carefully noted. Such a study is begun by Maurice Lanore 
in the R. Art Chrct. 1899, pp. 328-335. By observing the forms of the 
mouldings, the character of the vaulting, and the position of the windows 
iu the two towers, he reaches the conclusion that the Clocher Neuf is earlier 
than the Clocher Vieux, and was constructed as an isolated tower in front of 
the Cathedral when it was shorter than it is at present. The Clocher Vieux 
was never constructed as an isolated tower, but built tangent to the facade 
when the cathedral was enlarged to its present length. 

Sepulchral Slab of the Bruniel Family at Maing. In the church of 
Maing, near Valenciennes, is a sepulchral slab of blue stone inscribed with 
the effigies of no less than five persons, Jean Bruniel, his wife, daughter, 
son, and daughter-in-law. It dates from 1356, and is reproduced for the first 
time in the R. Art Clm't. 1899, pp. 337-339. 

Notre Dame de Lescar. In the village of Lescar, a few kilometres 
from Pan, is the church of Notre Dame, formerly the cathedral church of 
the district of Beam. Constructed on the site of a Roman town, Bene- 
haruin, this Romanesque church of the eleventh century exhibits the strong- 
influence of Roman architecture. Of special interest are the simple barrel 
vaults of the side chapels, which serve as buttresses for the barrel vault of 
the central nave. It is described by G. Clausse in the R. A rt Chre't. 1899, 
pp. 466-477. 

Historical and Archaeological Notes on the Cathedral of Nar- 
bonne. In the Annales du Midi. 1899, July, pp. 273-287, V. Mortet con- 
tinues (cf. ibid. October, 1898) his notes on the cathedral of Narbonne. 
With the aid of documents, he shows the relations that existed between the 
cathedral of Girona in Catalonia, and that of Narbonne. In 1320, Jacques 



380 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

Favari, director of the works of the cathedral at Narbonne, was put in 
charge of the cathedral at Girona, his predecessor there, a certain Henri, 
probably from northern France, having died. The cathedral of Clermont is 
compared with the cathedrals of Limoges and Clermont-Ferrand, and the 
spread of French art in Lariguedoc discussed. Finally, it is established that 
the cloister at Narbonne was begun under Pierre de la Jugie, and the dates 
of further work upon it, under his successors, are given. In the October 
number, pp. 439-457, the notes are brought to an end. The Archepiscopal 
Palace at Narbonne was already partially finished in 1346. The materials 
for the building were derived from Sijean and the island of Sainte Lucie. 
The close artistic relations between Narbonne and Avignon are emphasized. 

History of the Cathedral of Noyon. In the Bibl. EC. Charles, 1899, 
pp. 457-490, M. Eugene Lefevre-Pontalis writes a Histoire de la Cathedrale 
de Noyon.' This is not an architectural study, but an examination of the 
texts which concern the existing cathedral and the religious edifices which 
preceded it. 

How the Abbey of Cluny was destroyed. In the R. Art Chre't. 
1899, pp. 238-242, Henri Chabeuf publishes an eighteenth century engrav- 
ing made after a design of J. B. Lallemand, showing the appearance of the 
abbey before its destruction. Chabeuf traces the destruction of the abbey 
from the decree of Nov. 4, 1789, which placed the property of the clergy at 
the disposition of the nation, down to 1811, when the abbey was blown to 
pieces with powder. Following the arguments of A. Pen j on in his Cluny, 
la Ville et VAbbaye, Chabeuf shows that the people and municipality of 
Cluny did what they could to save the abbey. 

The Relics of the Crown of Thorns at Saint-Denis. In R. Arch. 
XXXV, 1899, pp. 392-398, F. de Mely traces the history of the thorns of the 
Crown of Thorns. The thorns were brought to Aix-la-Chapelle in 799. In 
804 there were eight thorns there. The records of the fortunes of these 
thorns is traced, and it is shown that in 1204 there was at Saint-Denis but 
one thorn, the others having been scattered. One thorn is now at Andechs, 
one at Grande-Trappe de Soligny, near Mortague, and one at Moiit-Haro, 
1'Eure. 

The Vase from Saint Savin. In 1897, Mgr. Barbier de Montault pub- 
lished a very interesting study entitled Le Vase antique de Saint-Savin, 
describing an olla of blue glass ornamented with rings and buttons of white 
enamel. It was found encased within the high altar of Saint Savin, where 
it was used as a reliquary. A consensus of archaeological opinion assigns 
it to the earliest centuries of the Christian era. The original purpose of the 
vase and the locality of its manufacture remain undetermined, as the argu- 
ments of Mgr. Barbier de Montault for its being a Christian eucharistic 
vase of local workmanship are not decisive. (JULES HELBIG in R. Art 
Chret, 1899, pp. 235-237.) 

GERMANY 

St. Magnuskirche at Fussen-im-Allgau. In the Rep. f. K. 1899, pp. 
300-305, F. J. Schmitt gives an historical account of the St. Magnuskirche 
at Fussen-im-Allgau, near Augsburg. This church belonged to the Bene- 
dictine monastery at this place, and is noteworthy as having a double choir. 
Herr Schmitt enumerates twenty-five other Benedictine churches with double 
choirs. 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 381 

The Early Mediaeval Basilica in Germany. Tn Sitzb. Miln. Akad. 
1899, iii, pp. 295-377, Berthold Riehl traces the history of the basilica in Ger- 
many from the time when the Lombards first became acquainted with archi- 
tecture in Italy to the twelfth century. The buildings in various places are 
treated in detail, and the influences of different schools are discussed. The 
variety of development is emphasized. The treatise is illustrated with cuts 
from Dehio und v. Bezold, Die kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes. 

A Trip through Swabia. Tn the Gaz. B.-A. 1899, Eugene Miintz pub- 
lishes two articles of a series entitled 4 A trip through Swabia.' The first 
article, October, pp. 293-306, treats especially of Stuttgart and the art edu- 
cational facilities it afforded twenty-five years ago. The second article, 
November, pp. 369-380, is concerned with Ulm, and especially with the 
sculptures of Georges Syrlin. 

HUNGARY 

The Tomb of St. Wenceslas at Prague. Tn a rare work, the Phospho- 
rus Septicornis, published by Pessina de Czechorod, at Prague, in 1675, is 
found a description of the Cathedral of Prague, containing also the inven- 
tory of January 4, 1387, which describes an extraordinarily magnificent tomb 
of St. Wenceslas. This inventory is republished by F. de Mely, in the R. A rt 
Chre't. 1899, pp. 335-337. 

HOLLAND 

Early Dutch Art. Early Dutch art is now 7 being seriously studied. 
In 1894, M. Pit published, in Paris, a volume entitled Les origines de Vart 
hollandais, and in 1898 Diilberg issued his important study Die Leydencr 
Malerschule: I. Gerandus Leydanus ; II. Cornells Enghelbrechtsz. The sub- 
ject is resumed by Emile Gavelle in the R. Art Chre't. 1899, pp. 221-226, 
325-327, in an article entitled Contribution a I'etude de Vnrt holhmdais ant( : - 
rieur au XVII siecle ; Enghelbrechtaz. Enghelbrechtsz (1468-1533) inherited 
the conscientious realism of the mediaeval Dutch painters, and an ideal of 
beauty which was of Flemish origin. His art was modified by Italian influ- 
ence. One example of his influence may be cited. His 'Crucifixion,' form- 
ing the central panel of a triptych now in the Museum at Leyden, was copied 
by a Flemish sculptor for an altar piece now in the Cluny Museum, Paris. 

ENGLAND 

Lacock Abbey Church. At a meeting of the Iloyal Archaeological 
Institute, December 6, 1899, Mr. Harold Brakspear read a paper on Lacock 
Abbey Church, Wiltshire, which was founded in 1232 by Ela, Countess of 
Salisbury. He briefly described the building. The site of the abbey church, 
which has been entirely destroyed except its north wall, was excavated a 
year ago. It was found to have been an aisleless parallelogram 143 ft. by 
28 ft., vaulted in seven bays. A Lady chapel, 59 ft. by 25 1 ft., was added 
in 1315 on the south side", the building agreement for which still exists. 
(Athen. December 16, 1899.) 

Knights Templars 1 Chapel at Garway. Tn the private chapel of the 
Knights Templars at Garway the carved ornamentation over a trefoiled 
recess was laid bare in November, 1898. A cup from which a wafer projects 
(i.e. bread and wane) is supported on wings. Below is at one side a fish 
(the Christian), at the other an adder (the worldly-minded person). 
a broken tympanum inside of the west doorway are carved a spear, a ladder, 



382 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 

a diadem, a cross, three nails, a sword, a sponge on a reed, and a cup with 
triangular cover. The symbolism of these designs and of that described 
above is discussed by P. J. Oliver Minos, Reliq. 1899, pp. 193-190 ; cut. He 
adds that the present chancel was the original church, the present nave being 
an addition. The old west door jambs were used as the jambs of the 
present "very fine chancel arch of transitional date, perhaps about 1170." 
The broken tympanum appears to belong to the first structure. 

The Sword-hilt of Leofric. In the Saxon room of the British Museum 
is a bronze sword-hilt with the inscription Leofric me f. The inscription 
was misinterpreted and the sword-hilt regarded as Roman by W. T. P. Shortt, 
Sylca Antiquu Isana, p. 143. The hilt is adorned with a diagonal key 
pattern. Similar patterns on a cross-shaft at Penally and a coped stone at 
Llanivet are compared. All three probably belong to the tenth or eleventh 
century, the old Celtic ornamentation surviving until the Norman times. 
(Rellq. 1899, pp. 189-192 ; 3 cuts.) 

RENAISSANCE ART 
ITALY 

Ambrogio Volpi da Casal-Monferrato. This sculptor has only been 
recently recognized as the author of important works of sixteenth century 
sculpture in Italy. His earliest known work was upon the reliquary and altar 
of S. Enasius in the Cathedral of Casal-Monferrato. This work was assigned 
in 1547 to Cristoforo Lombardo and Agostino Busti, and on the death of 
Bust! assigned to Ambrogio Volpi, his pupil. Three years later he was 
called to execute the high altar and ciboriiim in the Certosa at Pavia. A 
bronze tablet has recently been discovered showing that the ciborium was 
completed by Volpi June 2, 1568. The bronze work of this ciboriurn he 
left to others, executing the marble work himself. The gospel pulpit and 
the architectural decoration of the small apses near the high altar in the 
Certosa are probably by the same sculptor. (C. v. F. in Rep. f. K. 1899, 
339-340.) 

Amico di Sandro. In the Gaz. B.-A. June, 1899, pp. 459 ff. and July, 
pp. 21-36, Bernhard Berenson publishes a series of Italian pictures of the 
School of Botticelli, which he attributes to a single artist, whom, for the 
time being, he christens Amico di Sandro, though suggesting that he may 
be the Certo Linaiuolo mentioned by Vasari. This artist, though owing 
much to Botticelli, has certain marked characteristics, and in turn seems to 
have exerted considerable influence upon Filippino Lippi. 

Ghiberti's Methods of Composition. In the eighteenth volume of 
the Abh. d. Philolog.-Histor. Clause d. k. Sachs. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. No. 
IV, Leipzig, 1899, August Schmarsow writes on 'Ghiberti's Kompositions- 
gesetze-an der Xordtiir des Florentiner Baptisteriums.' Ghiberti's earliest 
compositions are here studied, as found on his first Baptistery Gates. His 
adaptation of each composition to the form of the panel, his method of 
uniting two or more panels into a series, his various schemes of composition, 
are all noted and utilized to show (1) that while designing these gates 
Ghiberti made rapid strides in the art of composition, and (2) that the panels 
representing the Fathers of the Church were inserted in a different order 
from that originally designed. 



KKXAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 383 

The Master of the Venetian Sketch-book. In the Rep. f. K. 1899, 
pp. 171-182, Kurt Moritz-Eichhorn writes 'Zur Frage nach dem Meister des 
Yenezianischen Skizzen-buches.' The sketch-book he argues cannot be 
the work of Raphael. With this negative result he rests content, though 
evidently inclined to attribute it to Pinturrichio. 

Michelangelo's Drawing for Marcantonio's 'Mars, Venus, and 
Amor.' In his dissertation Marcanton und sein Sill (Leipzig, 1898), II. 
Hirth calls attention to the 'Mars, Yenus, and Amor/ referring the inspira- 
tion of the composition to Michelangelo. He compares the ' Mars ' with the 
' David ' of Michelangelo. However, this seated figure in its somewhat 
strained attitude recalls strongly the famous torso of the Belvedere, which 
was discovered in 1432, was known to Michelangelo, and might easily have 
formed the basis for a completed figure in a group like that in Marcantonio's 
engraving. (R. KAUTZSCH, Rep.f. K. 1899, pp. 183-187.) 

Works of Alfonso Lombardi. During a recent visit to Bologna, M. 
Gerspach made a special study of the works of Alfonso Lombardi. He 
mentions in the R. Art Chret. 1899, pp. 405-407, the following works: 
* Death of the Virgin,' Hospital Office ; ' Resurrection of Christ,' S. Petronio; 
'Tomb of Ramazotto,' S. Michele in Bosco; 'Episodes of the Lives of 
Saints,' base of the Area, S. Doinenico; 'Madonna,' Madonna dei Baraccani; 
4 Heracles and the Hydra,' Old Apostolic Palace; Funerary Statue of Ercole 
Bottrigari, Certosa; S. Bartolomeo, Orphanage of S. Maria Maddalena; 
Statues of SS. Petronio, Proculo, Franceso, and Domenico, at the Podesta; 
Annunciation, 'The Fall of Adam,' in interior of S. Petronio. 

Lorenzo Ottoiii at Mantua. Two busts in the gallery of the Ducal 
Palace at Mantua, attributed to Bernini, and representing two princesses, 
when cleaned were found to be inscribed LOREZO OTTONI R F. 
The same artist produced also the ' S. Taddeo ' in St. John Lateran, Rome. 
(Arch. Stor. Lomb. XXIII, 1899, pp. 254-255.) 

Lorenzo Leonbruno at Mantua. The famous ceiling in the Ducal 
Palace at Mantua, known as the Volta della Scalcheria, and attributed in 
part to Mantegna and in part to Giulio Romano, is now established by 
documentary evidence to be the work of Leonbruno. (Arch. Stor. Lomb. 
XXIII, 1899, p. 252.) 

The Triumphal Arch of Alfonso I at Naples. ' Der Triumphbogen 
Alfonsos I am Castel Nuovo zu Neapel ' is the title of a study by C. von 
Fabriczy of the documentary and monumental evidence concerning the 
Triumphal Arch of Alfonso I in Naples, published in the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 
1899, pp. 1-30, 125-158. The' documents show that Isaia da Pisa, Antonio 
da Pisa, Pietro da Minano, Domenico Lombardo, Francesco Azzara, and Paolo 
Romano were engaged upon the monument. The task of now assigning to 
each sculptor his share in the monument is no easy one. It is all the more 
important if, with Fabriczy, we regard this as the earliest Renaissance 
monument in which Roman architecture is utilized as a distinct prototype. 

A Forgotten Duchy and its Capital. The town of Sabbionetta, not 
mentioned in Baedeker, Murray, and other guide-books, is but eighteen 
miles from Mantua, and is important for its sixteenth century monuments. 
It was planned and largely built by Vespasian Gonzaga Colonna, Duke of 
Sabbionetta, in the years following 1559. The theatre was designed by 
Scamozzi. The equestrian statues of Gonzaga and his ancestors may be 



384 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1H)0 

considered the masterpieces of Leone Leoni. The wall-paintings in the two 
palaces were executed by pupils of Titian and Giulio Romano. {American 
Architect, September 30, 1899, pp. 107-108.) 

' The Assumption of the Virgin ' in the Cathedral at Treviso, by 
Capriolo. ' The Assumption of the Virgin ' in the Cathedral has long 
passed as a work of Piero Maria Fennacchi. Recent investigation in the 
archives of Treviso, however, show 7 it to be the work of Domenico Capriolo, 
a pupil and son-in-law of Pennacchi. (C. v. F. Rep. f. K. 1899, p. 251.) 

Notes from the Archives on Venetian Painting. In the Rep. f. K. 
1899, pp. 255-278, Pietro Paoletti and Gustav Ludwig contribute ' Xeue 
archivalische Beitrage zur Geschichte der venezianischen Malerei.' Tliese 
concern the Vivarini family: Bartolomeo Seniore, Alvise, Bartolomeo Giti- 
niore, and Battista. Many details and dates in the history of this family of 
painters are here established from the archives. 

Santa Maria dei Miracoli at Venice and the Lombardi. Tn the 
Am. Architect, 1899, Xos. 1220-1229, 1235-12:37, 1245 and following, A. B. 
Bibb writes a series of illustrated articles on the Lombardi family of sculp- 
tors, and especially upon the beautiful church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli, 
Venice. 

Attributions of Paintings in Venice. The widely circulated Cata- 
logue raisonne de Venice, by Lafenestre and Richterberger, as w r ell as the 
guidebooks and local catalogues, give many traditional and other attribu- 
tions of doubtful value. In an article entitled ' Bildernennungen in Vene- 
dig,' in the Rep. f. K. 1899, pp. 341-363, Emil Jacobsen reviews the 
attributions of many paintings in the Accademia, the Museo Civico, the 
Palazzo Ducale, the Galleria Stampalia, and in a number of the churches. 

FRANCE 

Charles Le Brun. Some of his Paintings which no longer exist. 
In the Gaz. B.-A. November, 1899, pp. 353-3(58, Olivier Merson publishes 
some of the vanished works of Charles Le Brun. Between 1673 and 1676 
Le Bonn executed some fine wall paintings at the Chateau de Sceaux. 
Some of these are preserved only in the engravings of G. Audran, others in 
the engravings of Louis Simonneau. Two of these are reproduced by 
Merson. During the same period, Le Brun worked also at Versailles. 
These works, though destroyed, may be studied in the engravings of Baudet, 
Sinionneau. and Surugue, and better still, in the original sketches of Le Brim 
preserved in the Louvre. 

GERMANY 

Old German Copper-plate Engravings. Tn the Rep. f. K. Vols. XT 
XVII, Professor Lehrs has had occasion to describe engravings from forty-two 
of the minor collections. Under the title 'Beit-rage xur Kunde der altesten 
deutschen und niederlandischen Kupferstiche,' Max Geisberg, in the Rep. 
f. K. 1899, pp. 188-194, describes nine early engravings from the University 
Library at Munich, and four from the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

The ' Ars Moriendi.' a Nuremberg Production. Tn the Jb. Preuss. 
Kunsts. 1890, Max Lehrs holds that the famous blockbook, Ars Moriendi, 
derived its woodcuts from the engravings of the Master E. S. The same 
thesis is upheld by Lionel Cust in The Master E. S. and the Ars. Moriendi, 
Oxford, 1898. In the Sitzh. Sachs. Ges. 1899, August Schmarsow argues 



RENAISSANCE Am] AllCHAKOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1899 385 

that this attribution is an error. He holds that the woodcuts are of Flem- 
ish origin, but are by liogier van der Weyden. Henry Thode now enters 
into the discussion with an article 'Das Blockbuch Ars Moriendi eine Niirn- 
berger Schopfung,' published in tlie Eep.f. K. 1899, pp. 364-370. He holds 
that the woodcuts are German work under Flemish influence, that they 
originated in Nuremberg, and may be the work of Wilhelm Pleydenwurft'. 

Stoneware Pottery of Cologne. German stoneware is discussed in 
M. L. Solon's The Ancient Art Stoneware in the Low Countries and German i/, 
London, 1892. The historical development of this ware is, however, but 
improperly understood. A contribution to this subject is the article 'Kol- 
nisches Steinzeug,' by O. von Falke in the Jl>. Preuss, Kunsts. 1899, pp. 
30-53. 

Engraved Fewterware of the Sixteenth Century. In the Jb. Preuxx. 
Kunsts. 1889, p. 171, Julius Lessing described the well-known Temperantia- 
Schiissel as u eines der schonsteu Stiicke aus dem Kunstvorrath der Renais- 
sance." Very nearly as fine is the Mars-Platte, published by Hans Demiani 
on PL 24 of his Francois Briot, Caspar Enderlein und das Edelzinn, Leipzig, 
1897, and described as of French workmanship. Otto von Falke, in a 
review of Demiani's book, attributes the Mars-Platte definitely to Francois 
Briot. Demiani is unwilling to go so far, and, in an article in Rep. f. K. 
1899, pp. 306-314, he shows that it may be attributed to the school of Briot, 
but not to the master. 

HOLLAND 

Two Proofs of Rembrandt's Etching of 'Christ Preaching.' In the 
Gaz. B.-A. November, 1899, pp. 381-389, Henri Bouchot reproduces a first 
state of Rembrandt's etching of ' Christ Preaching.' Two other examples 
in the Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris, are then considered. One from the 
Peters collection is shown, from the omission of various details and from 
the exaggeration of others, to be a fabrication. The other, a legacy from 
M. Wasset, is shown to be an impression from the original plate after it had 
been worked over by Norblin (died 1830). 

The New ^Vanitas' Rembrandt. A reply by Malcolm Bell to some 
of J. C. Robinson's arguments in favor of the genuineness of the Rembrandt 
recently discovered by him, appears in A then. July 8, 1899. To this a brief 
rejoinder appears, ibid. July 15. A further discussion of the question by 
J. C. Robinson is published in A then. September 9 and November 18. In 
the last article, the writer devotes some space to the technique of Rem- 
brandt and his contemporaries, and to the two styles of painting, on a light 
and on a dark ground. 

ENGLAND 

Hans Holbein's First Visit to England, 1526-1529. In the Proceed- 
ings Soc. Antiq. XVII, pp. 132-145, F. M. Nichols publishes some notes 
concerning the work of Holbein in England, during his first visit, 1520-1529. 
These concern the portrait and sketches for the portrait of Sir Thomas 
More, the decoration of the Greenwich Banqueting House, two sculptured 
capitals dated 1528 in the old Chelsea Church, which he considers very 
decidedly in the manner of Holbein, and a stained glass window in the 
church at Shelton in Norfolk. The window represents Sir John aiid 
Lady Shelton, is thoroughly German in style, and may be dated about 1527. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

AECHAEOLOGICAL BOOKS 1 

1899 

HAROLD K. FOWLER, Editor 

*** Books, pamphlets, and other matter for the Bibliography should be addressed 
to Professor FOWLER, 49, Cornell Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 



P. Allard, Etudes d'histoire et d'arche'- 
ologie. Paris, 1899, Lecoffre. 436pp. 

8vo. Ashmolean Museum and 

University Galleries. Reports. No 
place [Oxford], 1898. 15 pp. 8vo. 
[Contains: Report of the keeper of 
Ashmolean Museum for the year 

1898 (A. J. Evans), pp. 1-9]. H. 

d'Arbois de Jubainville, Cours de 
literature celtique. Tome 6. La 
civilization des Celtes et celle de 
I'e'pope'e home'rique. Paris, 1899, 
Fontemoing. xvi, 418 pp. 8vo. 
P. Aucler. Les villes antiques. Pano- 
ramas en cartes murales. I. Athenes ; 
II. Rome ; III. Carthage ; IV. Je"ru- 
salem. Restaurations arche"ologiques. 

Paris, 1899, Delagrave. Authority 

and Archaeology, Sacred and Pro- 
fane. Essays on Relation of Monu- 
ments to Biblical and Classical Lit- 
erature. By S. R. Driver, E. A. 
Gardner, F. Haverfield, A. C. Head- 
lam, D. G. Hogarth. Edited by D. 
G. Hogarth. London, 1899, Murray, 
xiv, 440 pp. 8vo. 

E. Babelon, Catalogue . des intailles et I 
camees donnes au departement des I 



me'dailles et antiques de la Biblio- 
theque Nationals (collection Pauvert 
de la Chapelle). xxiv, 67 pp.; 10 
pis. ; figs. 8vo. Inventaire som- 
maire de la collection Waddington. 
Paris, 1898, Rollin et Feuardeiit. xv, 
576 pp.; 21 pis. 8vo. K. Bae- 
deker, Italien. 2. Teil : Mittelitalien 
und Rom. 8. Teil : Unteritalien und 
Sizilien. 12 ed. Leipzig. 1899, K. 
Baedeker. Spanien und Portugal. 
Handbuch fiir Reisende. 2. Aurl. 
Leipzig, 1899, K. Baedeker. xciv, 
584 pp. ; 7 maps ; 84 plans ; 18 ground 

plans. 8vo. Henry Balfour, The 

Natural History of the Musical Bow. 
Oxford University Press, 1899. $1 .2.'). 

C. J. Ball, Light from the East, 

or, The Witness of the Monuments. 
London, 1899, Eyre and Spottis- 
woode. [A profusely illustrated work 

on Biblical archaeology.] P. Bau- 

ron, De Carthage an .Sahara. Tours, 
1899, Marne et tils. 288 pp. 4to. 

Illustrated. A. Blanchet and Fr. 

de Villenoisy, Guide pratique de 1'An- 
tiquaire (Petite bibliotheque d'art et 
arche'ologie). Paris, 1899, E. Leroux. 



1 Articles in periodicals will no longer be mentioned in the Bibliography. Refer- 
ences to nearly all important articles will, it is hoped, be found in the News and 
Discussions. 



388 AMERICAS JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



Bv 



268 pp. 

tite histoire ancienne. 



D. Blanchet, Pe- 
L'Orient; La 
Grece ; Koine. Paris, 1899, Belin. 

W. Bornemann, Die Allegoric 
in Kunst, Wissenschaft uud Kirche. 
Freiburg i. B., 1899, J. C. B. Mohr. 

55pp. 8vo. 1 M. E. Bosc, Die- 

tionnaire raisonne" d' architecture et 
des sciences et arts qui s'y rappor- 
tent ou qui en dependent. Paris, 
1899, Librairies-Imprimeries re"unies. 

G. Brandes. Julius Lange. Breve 
fra haus Ungdoin. Med en Indled- 
ning og en Ramine. Andet Oplag. 
Kobenhavn, 1898, Nordiske Forlag. 
244 pp. 8vo. With portrait. 
A. Brocard, Ce que c'est Part. Paris, 

Giard et Briere. 1 f r. R. Brown, 

Jr., Researches into the Origin of 
the Primitive Constellations of the 
Greeks, Phoenicians, and Babyloni- 
ans. Vol. I. London, 1899, William* 

& Norgate. 8vo. H. Bulle, see 

G. Hirth. 

F. Castagnedi. Iscrizioni del comune di 
Soave (romane, medieval!, moderne). 
Verona, 1898, G. Franchini. 133 pp. ; 

pi. 4to. Catalogo del la collezione 

Nuvolari di Castel d' Ario : monete 
greche, romane, consolari ed imperi- 
ali, bizantine ecc. [Sale catalogue, 
Galleria Sangiorgi in Rom.] Cifta di 
Castello, 1899, Lapi. 79 pp. 8vo. 

(Conwentz) XIX amtlicher 
Bericht iiber . die Verwaltung der 
naturhistorischen, archaologischen 
und ethnologischen Sammlungen 
des Westpreussischen Provinzial- 
Museums fiir das Jahr 1898. Dan- 
zig, 1899. 28 figs. F. Coppee, 

see P. MSgnin. C. de la Croix, 

Melanges arche"ologiques. Fouillcs 
arche'ologiques de 1'Abbaye de St. 
Muur de Glanfeuil (Maine-et-Loire) 
entreprises en 1898-99 d'apres des 
textes anciens. Me'moire lu a 1'Aca- 
de"mie des Inscriptions et Belles- 
Lettres dans la seance du 28 avril 
1899. Paris, 1899, A. Picard et fils. 
23 pp. ; 15 cuts, and 5 pis. [among j 
other things, the discovery of a Ro- 
man villa with a nymphaeumj. 4to. 

Henry Cunynghame, Theory 
and Practice of Art-enamelling upon 
Metals. Macmillan & Co. 135 pp. 
12mo. Illustrations in colors, etc. 
SI. 60 net. 

S. R. Driver, see Authority. J. N. 

Durst, Die Hinder von Babylonien, 
Asjsyrien, und Agypten und'ihr Zn- 
sammenhang mit den Rindern dt-r 



alteii Welt. Ein Beitrag zur Ge- 
schichte des Hausrindes. Berlin. 
1899, in Comm. bei G. Reimer. 94 
pp.; 8 pis. 4to. 8 M. 

A. J. Evans, see Ashmolean. 

A. Faust, Einige deutsche und grie- 
chische Sagen im Lichte ihrer ur- 
spninglichen Bedeutung. Programm 
des Gymnasiums zu Miilhausen i. 

Elsafs, 1898. 47 pp. 4to. J. 

Flach, L'origine historique de 1'habi- 
tation et des lieux habitus en France. 
Paris, 1899, L. Larose. 100 pp. 4to. 

R. Foerster, August Rossbach. 
Reprint from the Chronik der Uni- 
versitat zu Breslau fiir 1898-99. 24 

pp. 8vo. R. Forrer, Die Heiden- 

mauer von St. Odilien, ihre prahistori- 
schen Steinbriiche und Besiedelungs- 
reste. Strassburg, 1899, Schlesier & 
Schweikhardt. 48 pp. ; 120 figs. ; 
plans ; maps ; 2 leaves of explana- 
tion. 4to. ( W. Froehner), Col- 
lection H. Hoffmann. Antiquites. 
Objets ^gyptiens, vases peints, terres 
cuites, verrerie, bronzes, bijoux, 
sculptures en marbre. Vente a 1'ho- 
tel Drouot, le lundi 15 mai et jours 
suivants. Paris, 1899. x, 154 pp. ; 

portrait ; 44 pis. ; 24 figs. F. 

Furchheim, Bibliografia della isola 
di Capri e della penisola Sorrentina, 
aggiuntavi la bibliografia di Amalfi. 
Salerno e Pesto. Napoli, 1899., p 87 

pp. 8vo. A. Furtwangler, t'^ber 

Kunstsammlungen in alter und neuer 
Zeit. Festrede zur Feier des 140. 
Stiftungstages der k. bayerischen 
Akademie. Miinchen, 1899, Verlag 
der k. b. Akademie (G. Franz in 
Commission). 30 pp. 4to. 

G. J. de Guillen Garcia. Les He'the'ens 
ont-ihs colonist la Catalogue ? Aero- 
pole cyclope"enne de Tarragone. Fri- 

bourg, 1899. 63 pp. 4to. E. A. 

Gardner, see Authority. E. Gar- 

nier, see E. Guignet. Richard 

Glazier, A Manual of Historic Orna- 
ment. Prepared for the use of stu- 
dents and craftsmen. New York, 
1899, Scribner's. 139pp. 8vo. $2.50. 

F. Gori. see M. Michaeli. 
L. Gregoire. Dictionnaire encyclope"- 
dique d'histoire, de biographic, de my- 
thologie et de ge"ographie. Nouvelle 
Edition revue par M. Wahl. Paris. 

1899, Garuier. 8vo. E. Guignet 

et E. Gamier, La Ce'ramiqne an- 
cienne et moderne. Paris, 1899, F. 
Alcan. 316 pp. ; 69 illustrations. 
8vo. 



GKNKKAI.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1899 



389 



H. Havard, Histoire et philosophie des \ 
styles. Paris, 1898, 1899, Schniid. 2 

vols. 4to. $24.00. F. Haverfield, 

see Authority. A. C. Headlam, j 

see Authority. J. Heierli, Die! 

archaologische Karte des Kantons I 
Aargau, ncbst allgemeinen Erlaute- j 
rungen und Fundregister (from Ar- 
govia). Aarau, 1899, H. 11. Sauer- 
lander & Co. 100 pp. ; map. Large 
8vo. J. Hirschberg, Geschichtc j 
der Augenheilkunde im Alterthum 
[Handbuch der gesamten Augenheil- 
kunde hrsg. von Th. Saemisch. Bd. 
XII 2, 1]. Leipzig, 1899, W. Engel- 
mann. xii, 419 pp. ; 5 illustrations. 

8vo. G. Hirth, Der Stil in den 

bildenden Etinsten und Gewerben. 
I. Serie : Der schone Mensch in der 
Kunst aller Zeiten. I. Band : Der 
schone Mensch im Altertum, bear- 
beitet von H. Bulle. Munich, 1899, 
G. Hirth. 78 pp. ; 216 pis. ; 38 figs. 
4to. Historische Ausstellung fur 
Naturwissenschaft und Medici n in 
den Raumen des Kunstgewerbe-mu- | 
seums (70. Versammlung deutscher 
Naturforscher und Arzte zu Diissel- 
dorf, 1898). Dusseldorf, 1898, gedr. ' 
bei A. Bagel. 222 pp. 8vo. [Con- 1 
tains, pp. 4-37, objects of antiquity, \ 
comprising those connected with 
Phoenician, Egyptian, Mesopota- 
mian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and 
early Indian medicine, the pre-Hip- 
pocratic medicine of Asia Minor and 
Greece, classic Greek, Ibero-Etruscan, 
classic Roman, and late Roman med- 
icine.] Historische Studien und 
Skizzen zu Naturwissenschaft, Indus- 
trie und Medizin am Niederrhein. 
Festschrift zur 70 Versammlung der 
deutschen Naturforscher und Arzte, 
dargeboten von den wissenschaft- 
lichen Vereinen Diisseldorfs. Dus- 
seldorf, 1898, Bergisch-Rheinische 
Verlaga-Anstalt und Druckerei (G. 
M tiller). 134, 173 pp. 8vo. [Con- 
tains among other things : Noren- 
berg, ' Die germanische Fauna zur \ 
Zeit der romischen Eroberung des 
Rheingebietes.' Vogel, ' Steinkoh- i 
lehbergbau in rmnischer Zeit.' ! 
Hoenen, ' Die rb'mische Heilkunde : 
am Niederrhein.'] O. A. Hoff- 
mann, Gymnasium und Museum, j 
Zur Verwertung unserer Landesalter- 
tiimer fiir den Gymnasialunterricht. 
Elautert an den gallo-romischen und 
frankischen Bestanden der Metzer 
stadtischen Saminlungen. Metz, 



1899. 40 pp. 4to. D. G. Ho- 
garth, see Authority. F. Hotten- 

roth, Die Trachten, Hans-, Feld-. 
und Kriegsgeratschaften der Volker 
alter und neuer Zeit. Stuttgart, 1899, 
Gustav Weise. 2 vols. Large 4to' 

$30.00. F. Houzelle. Des se"pul- 

tures antiques dans le pays montme"- 
dien. Montm&ly, 1899. imp. Pier- 
rot. 71 pp. ; figs. 8vo. 

H. Joly, Meisterwerke der IJaukunst 
und des Kunstgewerbes aller Lander 
und Zeiten. Leipzig, 1899, K. F. 
Koehler. 8 Lfg. [among them 7, 
Agypten I, with 3 pis.]. A. Jou- 
bin, see Musee Imperial Ottoman. 

L. Jouron, Les ateliers pr^his- 

toriques de la Montagne d'Avize. 
Avize, 1899, P. Laniasse. xiv, 261 
pp. ; 11 pis. ; map. 

Kabierski, Das Breslauer Hallen- 
schwimmbad. Seine Geschichte nebst 
einem geschichtlichen Uberblick iiber 
die Entwickelung des Badewesens 
und Schwimmens. Breslau, 1899. 
Illustrated. 8vo. [Begins with Tiryns, 

etc.] C. M. Kaufmann, Die se- 

pulcralen Jenseitsdenkmaler der An- 
tike und des Urchristentums. Bei- 
trage zur Vita-beata-Vorstellung der 
romischen Kaiserzeit mit besonderer 
Berucksichtigung der christlichen 
Jenseitshoffnungen (Forschungen zur 
monumentalen Theologie und ver- 
gleichenden Religionswissenschaft. 
Vol. I). Mainz, 1900. F. Kirch- 
heim. xix, 212 pp. ; 10 pis. ; 30 figs. 
4to. Katalog der Miinzen- und Me- 
daillen-Sammlung aus clem Nachlasse 
des Herrn August Artaria. Munchen, 

1899, Bruckmann. 16pp. 8vo. A. 

Kisa, Die antiken Glaser der Frau 
Maria vom Rath geb. Stein zu Koln. 
Bonn, 1899, C. Georgi. iv, 159 pp. ; 33 

pl s . 4to. P. Kronthal, Lexikon 

der technischen Ktinste. I Bd. 8 u. 
9 Lfg. Berlin, 1899. 8vo. $0.75 
each. 

L. Le Clert, Muse"e de Troyes : Bronzes. 
Catalogue descriptif et raisonn^. 
Troyes, 1898. 294 pp. ; 73 pis. ; 7 
figs. 8vo. [Ext, des Mein.de la Soc. 
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B. M. Lersch, Einleitung in die 
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London, Edinburgh, and New York, 
Henry Frowde. xii, 224 pp. ; 8 pis. 
8vo. $2.25. [A careful and com- 
plete catalogue of the contents of the 
Cyprus Museum. The introduction, 
pp. 13-35, gives a clear and compre- 
hensive account of Cypriote art and 
its development in the Stone, Bronze, 
Graeco-Phoenician, and Hellenistic 
ages, followed by a brief treatment of 
Cypriote Modelling and Sculpture, 
Gem Engraving, and Jewellery. ] 

M. Frh. v. Oppenheim, Vom Mittel- 
meer zum Persischen Golf. Dureh 
den Hauran, die Syrische Wiiste und 



CLASSICAL: GENERAL] BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1899 



395 



Mesopotainien. Bd. 1. Berlin, 1899. 
D. Reitner. 4 Original maps by 
R. Kiepert ; 1 finding map ; numer- 
ous illustrations, 8vo. 

J. M. Price, The great cylinder-inscrip- 
tions A & B of Gudea. Copied from 
the original clay cylinders of the 
Telloh-Collection, preserved in the 
Louvre. Autographed, signs listed, 
tentatively transliterated and trans- 
lated. With Commentary and Notes. 
Part I. Text and sign-list (Assyrio- 
logische Bibliothek hrsg. v. F. De- 
litzsch und P. Haupt, Bd. XV). 
Leipzig, 1899, J. C. Hinrichs. vi, 
111 pp. ; 1 cut. 4to. 

G. Rauch, Aus den Ergebnissen der 
orientalischen Geschichtsforschung. 
Die Assyrer. 2. Heft. Die assy- 
rische Cultur. Programm, Briinn, 
1899, C. Winckler in Comrn. 83 pp. 

(pp. 67-99). 8vo. M. Ohne- 

falsch-Richter, see J. L. Myres. 

W. Ruge and E. Friedrich, Archa- 
ologische Karte von Kleinasien. 
Massstab 1 : 2,500,000. Mit 2 Neben- 
karten und ausfuhrlichem Register. 
Halle, G. Sternkopf. viii pp. 4to. 

A. H. Sayce, Babylonians and Assy- 
rians. Their Life and Customs. New 
York, 1899, Scribners. 8, 260 pp. 
12mo. $1.25. [A popular book.] 
M. Sidzbarski, Handbuch der 
nordseinitischen Epigraphik nebst 
ausgewahlten Inschriften. Weimar, 
1898, E. Felber. Teil I. Text, xiv, 



508 pp. 8vo. Teil II. Tafeln. 46 

pis. ; 4 pp. text. 4to. G. Smith 

Entdeckungen in Assyrien. Ein 
Bericht der Untersuchungen und 
Entdeckungen zur Richtigstellungder 
Lage von Ninive in den Jahren 1878 
und 1874. Uebersetzt von E. Frei- 
frau v. Boecklin. Leipzig, 1898, 
E. Pfeiffer. x, 512 pp. ; 1 map ; 24 
tigs. 8vo. 

E. Trampe, Syrien vor der Einwan- 
derung der Israeliten (nach den 
Thontafeln von Tell-el-Amarna). 
Programm des Lessing Gymnasiums. 
Berlin, 1898. 34 pp. 4to. 

A. Frhr. v. Warsberg, Eine Reise 
durch das Reich des 8arpedon. 
Neue Ausgabe. Wien, 1899, Graeser. 

xii, 271 pp. ; 21 figs. 8vo. 

H. Winckler, Die Volker Vorder- 
Asiens. Leipzig, 1899, Hinrichs. 
36 pp. 0.60 M. [Vol. I, No. 1 of 
Der alte Orient. ] Altorientalische 
Forsclmngen. 2 Reihe, Bd. I, Heft 4. 
Bd. II, Heft 1, 2. Leipzig, 1898-99, 
E. Pfeiffer. pp. 143-192, 1U5-240, 
241-320. 8vo. 

H. Zimmerer, Eine Reise nach Amasia 
im Jahre 1555. Programm des Gym- 
nasiums zu Ludwigshafen a. Rh. 

1898-99. H. Zimmern, Beitrage 

zur Kenntnis der babylonischen Re- 
ligion. 2. Lief. (Assyriologische 
Bibliothek XII, 2.) Leipzig. 1899, 
J. C. Hinrichs. 48 pp. (pp. 81- 
128) ; pi. 4to. 



CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



GREEK AND ROMAN 

(Works treating of the monuments of 
the Greeks and Romans, but not 
exclusively of those of either.) 

W. Amelung, see P. Arndt. 

P. Arndt, see Brunn-Bruckmann- 
Arndt. P. Arndt and W. Ame- 
lung, Photographische Einzelaufnah- 
men antiker Sculpturen. Serie IV. 
Mit Beitragen von P. v. Beinkowski, 
H. Bulle, H. Graeven, P. Herrmann 
u. a. Munchen, 1899. F. Bruck- 
mann. 300 pis. [No. 901-1200] in 

cabinet size ; 28 pp. 8vo. Arndt- 

Brunn-Bruckmann, Griechische und 
romische Portrats. Munchen, 1899, 
Verlagsanstalt f . Kunstu. Wissensch. 

[XLIV. Lieferung. Nr. 431. Sog. 
Lykurg. Rom, Vatican. 432, 433. 
Kopf, der Statue Taf. 431 aufgesetzt. 

434, 435. Unbekannter Grieche. 



Rom, Villa Albani. 436, 437. Un- 
bekannter Grieche. Neapel. 438, 
439. Unbekannter Grieche. Athen, 
National-Museum. 440. Unbekann- 
ter Grieche. Athen, Akropolis- 
museum. XLV. Lieferung. Nr. 
441, 442. Antisthenes. Rom, Vati- 
can (Sala delle Muse). 443, 444. 
Antisthenes. Rom, Vatican (Galleria 
Geografica). 445, 446. Sog. Lucius 
Junius Brutus. Rom, Conservato- 
renpalast. 447, 448. Unbekannter 
Grieche (?). Neapel. 449, 450. 
Sog. Ennius. Rom, Vatican. 
XL VI. Lieferung. Nr. 451, 452. 
Unbekannter Romer. Rom, Vatican, 
Mus. Chiaramonti. 453, 454. Un- 
bekannter Romer. Neapel, Museo 
Nazionale. 455, 456. Bronzebiiste 
des L. Caecilius lucundus, Neapel, 
Museo Nazionale. 457, 458. Bronze- 
buste des C. Norbanus Sorix. Neapel, 



396 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



Museo Nazionale. 459, 460. Bronze- 1 
biiste eines unbekannten Romers. ' 
Neapel, Museo Nazionale. XL VII. | 
Lieferung. Nr. 401, 462. Broiizekopf | 
eines Flam en. Neapel, Museo Nazio- | 
na le. 463, 464. Kopf eines Flamen. 
Madrid, Prado. 465, 466. Kopf 
eines Flamen. Miinchen, Glypto- 
thek. 467, 468. Biiste des sog. 
Alkibiades. Rom, Vatican. 469, 
470. Kopf des sog. Alkibiades. Mtin- 
chen, Kgl. Residenz.] 

R. Bianchi. II popolo in Grecia e in 
Roma. Studio di scienza sociale. 
Nicastro, 1897, Hevilacque. 55 pp. 

8vo. G. Botti et V. Nourrisson, 

Rapports sur la bibliotheque muni- 
cipale en 1898 et sur le Musee 
Gre'co-Romain, Alexandria, 1899. 

H. Brunn, see Arndt. Brunn- 

Bruckmann Arndt, Denkmaler grie- 
chischer und romischer Sculptur. 
Lieferung XC VII I. [No. 486. Reliefs 
vom Heroon von Gjolbaschi-Trysa. 
Wieu, Kunsthistorisches Hofmuseum. 
No. 487. Kopf der Statue des 
Apoxyornenos des Lysippos (Tafel 
281). Rom, Vatican. 488. Fries- 
relief vom Denkmale des Lysikrates. 
A then. 489. Friesreliefs vom Fo- 
rum des Nerva. Rom. 490. Bak- 
chischer Sarkophag, Sammlung Ou- 
waroff in Poredje bei Ouwaroffka, 
Russland. Medeasarkophag, Berlin. 
Lieferung XCIX. No. 491. Soge- 
nannte Hestia Giustiniani. Rom, 
Museo Torlonia. 492. Sogenannte 
Hera Barberini. Rom, Vatican. 
493. Amazonen-Sarkophag. Wien, 
Kunsthistorisches Hofmuseum. 494. 
Statue des Poseidippos. Rom, Vati- 
can. 495. Statue, sogenannter 
Menander. Rom, Vatican.] Munich, 
1899, Bruckmann. 

E. Ciccotti, L' evoluzione della storio- 
grafia e la storia economica del 
mondo antico. Milano, 1899. 155pp. 

8vo. F. W. Cornish, A Concise 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman An- 
tiquities. London, 1898, Murray. 

Charles Daremberg, see Dictionnaire. 

Dictionnaire des Antiquites 

grecques et romaines. Ouvrage re"- 
dige" sous la direction de MM. Ch. Da- 
remberg et Edm. Saglio, avec le 
concours de M. Edm. Pottier. 26 e fas- 
cicule (Int.-Jur.). [Important arti- 
cles : lo (conclusion) (F. Durrbach), 
p. 569 (2 tigs.). Iphigenia (P. De- 
charme), pp. 570-572 (2 rigs.). Iris 
(J.-A. Hild), pp. 573-576 (5fi<rs.). ! 



Isis (G. Lafaye), pp. 577-586 (12 
figs.). Isthinia (L. Couve), pp. 
588-591. laculum (A. de Ridder), 
pp. 594-602 (12 tigs.). lanua (E. 
Pottier), pp. 603-609 (15 figs.). 
lanus (J. Toutain), pp. 609-615 (6 
figs). lason (F. Durrbach), pp. 
616-619 (3 figs). ludaei (Th. Rei- 
nach), pp. 619-632. ludex, ludi- 
cium (G. Humbert [Ch. Le*crivain]), 
pp. 632-642. ludicatuin (E. Cuq), 
pp. 643-646. Indicia publica (G. 
Humbert [Ch. Le"crivain]), pp. 646- 
658. ludiciariae leges (Ch. Le"cri- 
vain), pp. 658-661. ludicium do- 
mesticum (G. Humbert [Ch. Le"cri- 
vain]), pp. 661-663. lugum. (A. 
Baudrillart), pp. 663-668 (10 figs.). 
luno (J.-A. Hild), pp. 668-690 
(34 figs.). lunones (J.-A. Hild), 
pp. 690 f. Inpiter (P. Perdrizet), 
pp. 691-713 (50 figs.). lur- 
gium (E. Cuq), pp. 713-715. lur- 
idicus (C. Jullian), pp. 715 f. luris- 
consulti (E. Cuq), pp. 716-726. 
lurisdictio (E. Cuq), pp. 726-728.] 
27 e fascicule (Jur-Labro). 161 pp. 
(pp. 729-889) ; 67 figs. Paris, 1899. 
Festschrift fur Otto Benndorf, zu seinem 
60. Geburtstage gewidmet von Schii- 
lern, Freunden und Fachgenossen. 
Wien, 1898, A. Holder. 7 leaves; 
320 pp. ; portrait ; 12 pis. ; numer- 
ous illustrations. 4to. [Contents : A. 
Engelbrecht, Erlauterungen zur ho- 
merischen Sitte der Todtenbestat- 
tung, pp. 1-10 (illustration). J. 
Juthner, Der homerische Diskos, pp. 
11 f. S. Wide, Theseus und der 
Meersprung bei Bakchylides xvii, pp. 
13-20 (2 figs.). K. Schenkl, Zu 
Xenophons Schrift uber den Staat 
der Lakedaimonier, pp. 21-28 (2 
figs.). II. Schenkl, Zu den lateini- 
schen Monatsgedichten, pp. 29-36 
(fig ). _F. Marx,, Der Bildhauer C. 
Avianius Euander und Ciceros Briefe, 
pp. 37-48 (fig.). J. Ziehen, Ar- 
chaologische Bemerkungen zur latein- 
ischen Anthologie, pp. 49-58 (fig.)- 

M. Hoernes, Griechische und west- 
europaische Waffen der Bronzezeit. 
pp. 59-02 ( 1 6 fiu'.s. ) . W. Reichel, Ein 
angeblicher Thron des Xerxes, pp. 
63-65 (fig.). J. Banko", Bogenspan- 
nerauf einem Vasenbilde, p. 66 (fig.)- 

J. Boehlau, Jasons Auszug, pp. 
67-71 (fig.)- H- Winnefeld, Gigan- 
tenkampf auf einer Vase in Berlin, 
pp. 72-74 (pi. i). E. Pernice, Ein 
korinthischer Pinax, pp. 75-80 (2 



CLASSICAL: GENRKAL] BIBLJOGliAPllY, 1890 



397 



figs.). E. Pettier, Deux documents 
relatifs & 1' Hermes d'Olympie, pp. 81- 
85 (3 figs.). P. Hartwig, Ein 
Schalenfragment ini Stile des Duris, 
pp. 86-88 (fig.). R. Weisshaupl, 
Die Anfange der attischen Grableky- 
thos, pp. 89-94 (fig.). Th. Schrei- 
ber, Zwei griechische Wandbildercy- 
clen des vierten Jahrhunderts, pp. 
95-98. G. Treu, Der Dresdener 
Zeus, pp. 99-110 (pis. ii, iii ; 4 
fjgs.). R. Heberdey, Das Weihre- 
lief des Lakrateides aus Eleusis, pp. 
111-116 (pi. iv). P. v. Bierikow- 
ski, Uber eine Statue polykletischen 
Stiles, pp. 117-120 (pi. v ; fig.). - 
R. Kekule v. Stradonitz, Archaischer 
Frauenkopf aus Sicilien, pp. 121-125 
(pi. vi; 5 figs.). P. Wolters, Vo- 
tive an Men,' pp. 126-128 (2 figs.). 
E. Petersen, Herakles oder Polyphe- 
mos? pp. 129-138 (3 figs.). E. 
Reisch, Amphiaraos, pp. 139-147 (2 
figs.). O. Rossbach, Arnykos, pp. 
148-152 (2 figs.). K. Wernicke, 
Eine Bronzestatuette des Berliner 
Museums, pp. 153-158 (2 figs.). I). 
Mackenzie, Der Westi'ries von Gjol- 
baschi,pp. 159-162 (fig.). F. Stud- 
niczka, Zum myronischen Diskobol, 
pp. 163-175 (pis. vii, viii ; 3 figs.). 
A. Conze, Athena mit der Eule, 
pp. 176 f (pi. ix ; fig ; ). J. Six, 
Grabgemalde in der Dberlieferung 
erwahnt, pp. 178-180. P. Sticotti, 
Zu griechischen Hochzeitscebrau- 
chen, pp. .. 181-188 (fig.). F. v. 
Luschan, Uber den antiken Bogen, 
pp. 189-197 (pi. x; 13 figs.). W. 
Kubitschek, Marsyas und Maron in 
Kremne (Pisidia). pp. 198-200 (5 
figs.). _E. Imhoof-Blumer, Die Prii- 
georte der Abbai'ter, Epikteter, Gri- 
menothyriten und Temenothyriten, 
pp. 201-208. A. Ko'rte, Das Alter 
des Zeustempels von Aizanoi. pp. 209- 
214 (pi. xi; 3 figs.). F. .Kalinka, 
Weihgeschenk und Ehrenbasis des 
Sex. Vibius Gallus, pp. 215-223 (9 
figs.). F. Hiller v. Gaertringen, 
Anthister, pp. 224-230 (2 figs.). 
S. Bugge, Zur Xanthos-Stele, pp. 
231-236. E. Hula, Nikeinschriften, 
pp. 237-242 (4 figs.). A. Wilhelm, 
Zwei griechische Inschriften, pp. 243- 
249 (fig.). H. Swoboda, Zur Ver- 
fassungsgeschichte von Samos, pp. 
250-255. Th. Gomperz, Die Schii- 
lerliste der neueren Akademie, pp. 
256-258 (pi. xii ; 2 figs.). E. Szanto, 
Zum lykischen Mutterrecht, pp. 259 f . 



A. y. Premerstein, Das Trojaspiel 
und die tribuni celerurn, pp. 261- 
266. E. Nowotny, Ein norisches 
Militftrdiplom des Traian, pp. 267- 
275 (2 figs.). F. Bulic, Wo lag 
Stridon, die Heimat des heil. Hierony- 
mus? pp. 276-280 (fig.). A. Frlir. 
v. Ludwigstorff, Ein Portrfttkopf aus 
Carnuntum, pp. 281 f. (2 figs.). K. 
Bormann, Cn. Domitius Calvinus 
pp. 283-286 (fig.). C. Patsch, Der 
Landtag von Moesia Superior, pp 
287 f. (fig.). A. Zingerle, Uber ein 
paar neue romische Funde und die 
Maiaf rage, pp. 289 f. F. Cumont, 
Masque de Jupiter sur mi aigle 6ploy6, 
bronze du Mus^e de Bruxelles, pp. 
291-295 (fig.). E. Maionica, Zwei 
Statuen vom Grabmale der Ferronien- 
ses Aquatores in Aquileja, pp. 296- 
300 (4 figs.). C. Sittl, Uber die 
Bernalung figuraler Plastik iin Alter- 
thume, pp. 301-306 (fig.). H. 
Thode, Andrea Castagno in Venedig, 
pp. 307-317 (2 figs.).Erklarung 
der Kopfleisteu und Vignetten, pp. 
318-320.] 

A. Furtwangler, Xeuere Falschungen 
von Antiken. Berlin und Leipzig. 
1899, Giesecke und Devrient. 39 
pp. ; 25 illustrations. 4to. 

W. Helbig, Fiihrer durch die b'ffent- 
lichen Sammlungen klassischer Al- 
tertiimer in Rom. I. Bd. Die vati- 
kanische Skulpturensammlung, das 
kapitolinische und das lateranische 
Museum, das Magazzino Archeolo- 
gico Comunale auf dem Caelius. 
II. Bd. Die Villen, das Museo Bon- 
compagni, der Palazzo Spada, die 
Antiken der vatikanischen Biblio- 
thek, das Museo delle Terine, von W. 
Helbig. Das etruskische Museum im 
Vatican, das kircherische und pra- 
historische Museum im Collegio Ro- 
mano von E. Reisch. 2. Auflage. 
Leipzig, 1899, B. G. Teubner. x, 
506, 485 pp. ; illustrated. 8vo. 
G. F. Hill, A Handbook of Greek 
and Roman Coins (Handbooks of 
Archaeology and Antiquities). Lon- 
don, 1899, Macmillan & Co. ; New 
York, 1899, the Macmillan Co. xv, 
295pp.; 31 cuts; 15 pis. 8vo. -$2.25. 
[Gives the history of coinage in 
Greece and Rome, a discussion of the 
uses of coins and of monetary stand- 
ards, a list of signatures and mone- 
tary officials, besides a treatment of 
coin-types, inscriptions, and dates. ] 

A, Joubin, Le theatre antique. Le$on 



398 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



dVmverture du cours d'arche'ologie, 
faite a la Faculte" des lettres de 1'Uni- 
versite' de Montpellier, le 6 Janvier 
1899. Montpellier, 1899, impr. Fir- 
iiiin et Montane. 28 pp. 8vo. 

G. v. Kobilinski, see E. Wagner. 

Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der griechischen 
und romischen Mythologie, hrsg. von 
W. H. Roscher, Leipzig, 1899, B. G. 
Teubner. 39. Lieferung (Nike-Nu- 
mitor). Vol. III. coll. 321-480. 
[Important articles : Nike (H. Bulle), 
coll. 321-351 (27 cuts). Niobe und 
die Niobiden (Enmann, Sauer), coll. 
372-423 (19 cuts). Nisos (W. H. 
Roscher), coll. 425-433. Kit (Drex- 
ler), coll. 433-446 (2 cuts). Kosoi 
(Roscher), coll. 457-468 (2 cuts).] 
40. Lieferung (Numitor Odysseus). 
Vol. Ill, coll. 481-640. [Impor- 
tant articles: Nusku (A. Jeremias), 
coll. 482-487 (fig.). Nut (Drexler), 
coll. 487-491 (3 figs.). Nymphen 
(Bloch), coll. 500-567 (7 figs.). 
Nyx (\Veizsacker), coll. 569-576(2 
figs.). Oannes-Ea (A. Jeremias), 
coll. 577-593 (12 figs.). Odysseus 
(J.Schmidt), coll. 602-640.] 41. Liefe- 
rung, coll. 641-800 (36 figs.). [Im- 
portant articles : Odysseus, conclu- 
sion (Joh. Schmidt), coll. 641-681 
(20 figs.). Ogygos (Worner). coll. 
683-694. Oidipus (Hofer) , coll. 699- 
746 (4 figs.). Oineus (Turk), coll. 
751-763 (fig.). Oinomaos (Weiz- 
sacker), coll. 764-784 (7 figs.). 
Oinone (Weizsacker), coll. 784-791 
(3 figs.). Oinopion (Worrier), coll. 

791-798 (fig.)]. E. v. Leyden, 

see J. Marcuse. 

L. Macdonald, Catalogue of the Greek 
and the Etruscan Vases and of the 
Greek and Roman Lamps in the Nich- 
olson Museum, University of Sidney. 

Sidney, 1898. 51 pp. J. Marcuse, 

Diatetik im Altertum. Eine his- 
torische Studie. Mit einem Vor- 
worte von E. v. Leyden. Stuttgart, 
1899, F. Enke. vi, 51 pp. 8vo. 



R. G. Moulton, The Ancient Classi- 
cal Drama. A study in literary evo- 
lution. Second edition. Oxford, 1898, 
Clarendon Press, xx, 480 pp. ; pi. 

8vo. Ch. Miicke, Vom Euphrat 

zum Tiber. Untersuchungen zur 
alten Geschichte (Die Legende von 
den athenischen Tyrannensturzern. 
Die romische Geschichtslegende. Die 
Uberlieferung iiber Alexander. Der 
Xerxes- und der Keltenzug). Leipzig, 
1899, E. Pfeiffer. 110 pp. 8vo. 



V. Nourrisson. see G. Botti. 

G. Oliver!, Sulla identificazione dei 
fiumi che scurrono presso Girgenti 
coi norni antichi di Akragas e Hypsas. 
Firenze, 1899. 10 pp, 8vo. [From 
the Rivista geografica italiana.~\ 

Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie der classis- 
chen Altertumswissenschaft. Keue 
Bearbeitung hrsg. v. G. Wissowa. 
Band III 2 (Sechster Halbband). 
Campanus ager Claudius. Stutt- 
gart, 1899, J. B. Metzler. 734 pp. 
(coll. 1441-2908). Large 8vo. [Im- 
portant articles : Capitolium (Hiilsen, 
Wissowa), coll. 1531-1546 (plan). 

Casia (pick), coll. 1637-1051. 
Cassius Dio (Schwartz), coll. 1684- 
1722. C. Ceionius Commodus [ = 
Emperor L. Aurelius Verus] (Stein), 
coll. 1832-1857. Censores (Kubit- 
schek), coll. 1902-1908. Census (Ku- 
bitschek), coll. 1914-1924. Cen- 
tumviri (Wlassak), coll. 1935-1952. 

Ceres (Wissowa), coll. 1970-1979. 

Chaldaioi (Baumstark), coll. 2045- 
2062. Chalkidike (Biirchner), coll. 
2069-2076. Chalkis (Oberhummer), 
coll. 2078-2088 (2 maps). Chariten 
(Escher), coll. 2150-2167. XeipiSw- 
rbs x"-^" (Amelung), coll. 2206-2217. 

Chersonesus Thracica (Biirchner), 
coll. 2242-2254. Chersonesus Tau- 
rica (Brandis), coll. 2254-2269. 
Chios (Burchner), coll. 2286-2300 
(map). XITO>J> (Amelung), coll. 
2309-2335. Chor (Reisch), coll. 
2374-2404. Xopriyia (Reisch), coll. 
2409-2422. Chronicon Paschale 
(Schwartz), coll. 2460-2477. Chry- 
sippus (v. Arnim), coll. 2502-2509. 

Circus (Pollack, Hiilsen), coll. 
2571-2585 (cut). Cista (Mau), 
coll. 2591-2606. Classis (Fiebiger), 
coll. 2632-2649. Claudianus (Voll- 
mer), coll. 2652-2660. Claudius 
(Groag, Miinzer, Stein, etc.), coll. 
2662-2900, including among others 
No. 251, Emperor Claudius (Groag, 
Gaheis), coll. 2778-2839, No. 361, 
Emperor Tacitus (Stein), coll. 2872- 

2881.] G. Pompa, Vita e viaggi 

dell' apostolo S. Paolo, con studi 
archeologici, geografici e nautici. 
Roma, 1899, Voghera. iv, 306 pp. ; 

3 pis. 8vo. E. Pettier, see Dic- 

tionnaire. 

S. Reinach, Repertoire des Vases 
Feints grecs et e"trusques. Tome I. 
Peintures des vases grave'es dans 
P Atlas et le Compte-Rendu de St. 
Pe"tersbourg, les Monumenti, Annali 



GKEEK : GENERAL] 



li III L IO G U . 1 PH F, 1890 



300 



et Memorie de 1'Institut tie Borne, 
I'Archaeologische Zeitung, le Bullet- 
tiuo Napolitano, le Bullettino Itali- 
ano, 1'Ephemeris (1888-1894), le 
Museo Italiano. avec ties notices ex- 
plicatives et bibliographiques. Paris, 
1881), E. Leroux. vi, 588 pp. 8vo. 

E. Reisch, see W. Helbig. 

W. H. Roscher. see Lexikon. 

E. Saglio. see Dictionnaire. 

A. Tegge, Kornpeiidium tier griechi- 
schen Altertlimer. Bielefeld und 
Leipzig, 1891), Velhagen & Klasing. 
v, 114 pp. 8vo. 

E. Wagner und G. v. Kobilinski. 
Leitfadeii tier griechisclien und ro- 
mischen Altertiimer. 2. Aufl. Ber- 
lin, 1899, Weidmann. xvi, 188 pp. ; 
24 pis. ; 2 plans ; 14 figs. 8vo. 
H. B. Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes, 
Greek, Roman, and Etruscan, in the 
Department of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities, British Museum. Lon- 
don, 1899, printed by order of the 
Trustees. Ixx, 894 pp. ; 82 pis. ; 88 

cuts. 8vo. G. Wissowa, see 

Pauly. 

GREEK 

(Including also titles of works relating 
to pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece 
and to kindred peoples, and to monu- 
ments of Hellenic art wherever 
found.) 

I. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 
NEOUS 

A. H. Allcroft, The Making of Athens: 
a History of Greece, 495-481. Lon- 
don, 1898, W. B. dive, xi, 209 pp. 
8vo. History of Greece, 481-404 
B.C. With Test Questions. London, 
1899, Clive. 391 pp. 8vo. [Uni- 
versity Tutorial Series.] Antho- 

logia graeca epigrammatum Falatina 
cum Flanudea, ed. H. Stadtmiiller. 
Vol. II. pars I. Palatinae libr, VII. 
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vo. H. S. Anton, Die Mysterien 

von Eleusis. Naumburg, 1899, A. 
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8vo. B. Apostolides, Essai sur 

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'O irepl <xpxaiOTT|Ti>v /3x,us' No/tos 
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47 pp. 8vo. F. 

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vanitopullo, Question! tli diritto at- 
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A. Balsamo, IStudi di filologia greca. 
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Kyknos e le rappresentanze figurate 
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L. Campbell, Religion in Greek Liter- 
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10, 428 pp. 8vo. A. J. Church, 

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M. Collignon, Manual of Mythol- 
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188 illustrations. 

W. Dorpfeld. H. Dragendorff, see 
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W. Ebstein, Die Pest des Thukydides. 
Erne geschichtlich-medicinische Stu- 
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Frhr. Hiller v. Gaertringen. 
F. J. Engel, Zum Rechte derSchutz- 
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76 pp. 8vo. Eratosthenis Cat- 

asterismorum fragmenta \'aticana 
editit A. Rehm. Programm ties 
Gymnasiums zu Ansbach, 1898-99. 



400 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



G. Fougeres, De Lyciorum communi 
(A-vxiuvrb KOivbv}. Paris, 1898, Fon- 

temoing. 144 pp. 8vo. G. 

Fritzsche, Geschichte Plataa's bis 
zur Zerstorung der Stadt durch die 
Thebaner im 4. Jahrh. v. Chr. Pro- 
gram m des Gymnasiums zu Bautzen, 

1898. 28 pp. 4to. Fiihrer durch 

die Ruinen von Pergamon. Hrsg. 
v. der Generalverwaltung der Kgl. 
Museen zu Berlin. 2. Aufl. Berlin, 

1899, W. Spemaun. 31 pp. ; 1 fig. ; 

2 plans ; 12mo. A. Furtwangler, 

see J. Lange. 

P. Garofalo, Intorno Sibari e Turio. 

Napoli, 1899. 212pp. 8vo. A. 

Gosset, En Grece. t A propos du 
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tionale de Reims). Reims, 1898. 

68 pp. ; 8vo. F. Groh, Studie k. 

Aristotelovu spisu ' K6t]va.Lwv TroXtreta 
(Studies on the ' KB-nvaiwv iroXireia of 
Aristotle). Prag, 1898, Simaeek. 
100 pp. 8vo. [Bohemian. Con- 
tents : I. The Athenian Ephebia. 
II. Lenaea und Anthesteria. III. 
'EKTT^opoi. IV. Draco's Constitu- 
tion.] 

K. Hachtmann, Olympia und seine 
Festspiele (Gymnasial-Bibliothek. 
30. Heft). Giitersloh, 1898, C. Ber- 
telsmann, viii, 100 pp. ; pi. ; 23 

figs. 8vo. A. E. Haigh, The 

Attic Theatre. A description of the 
stage and theatre of the Athenians, 
and of the dramatic performances at 
Athens. Second edition. Oxford, 

1898, Clarendon Press, xv, 420 pp. ; 
1 pi. ; 35 cuts. 8vo. J. Ham- 
pel, Was lehrt Aischylos' Orestie fur 
die Theaterfrage ? Eine Untersu- 
chung liber den Standort der Schau- 
spieler im Dionysostheater in Athen 
im 5. Jahrhundert. Prag, 1899, J. 

G. Calve. 65 pp. 8vo. J. E. 

Harrison, see M. Collignon. 

J. L. Heiberg, Den gamle attiske 
Kornedies Frisprog (Studier fra 
Sprog-og Oldtidsforskning No. 39). 
Kobunhavn, 1899. 38 pp. 8vo. 
Den Homeriske Tids Kuitur (Grun- 
drids ved folkelig Universitetstm- 
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Universitetsudvalget. Kobenhavn, 

1899, Erslev. ' 16 pp. 8vo. 
Th. v. Heldreich, see F. Frhr. 

Hiller v. Gaertringen. Heronis 

Alexandrini opera quae supersunt 



omnia. Volumen T. Herons von 
Alexandria Druckwerke und Auto- 
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Deutsch hrsg. von W. Schmidt. Im 
Anhang Herons Fragment liber- Was- 
semhren, Philons Druckwerke, Vi- 
truvs Kapitel zur Pneumatik. Mit 
einer Einleitung liber die Heronische 
Frage und Anmerkungen. Leipzig, 
1899, B. G. Teubner. Ixxii, 512 pp. - r 
124 illustrations. 8vo. Supple- 
ment : Die Geschichte der Textliber- 
lieferung, griechisches Wortregister. 
182 pp. ; 6 illustrations. 8vo. 
R. Herzog, Koische Forschungen 
und Funde. Leipzig, 1899, Dietc- 

rich. xii, 244 pp. ; 7 pis. 8vo. 

F. Frhr. Hiller von Gaertringen, 
Thera Untersuchungen, Vermessun- 
gen und Ausgrabungen in den Jahreii 
1895-1898. Unter Mitwirkung von. 
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Wilski, P. Wolters. Erster Band, Die 
Insel Thera in Altertum und Gegen- 
wart, mit Ausschluss der Nekropolen. 
Berlin, 1899, G. Reimer. xv, 404 
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text ; 12 maps and views in port- 
folio. 4to. 180 M. H. Hitzig, 

see Pausanias. C. A. Hutton, 

Greek Terracotta Statuettes. With 
preface by A. S. Murray. London, 
1899,, Seeley. New York, The Mac- 
millan Co. xvi, 79 pp. ; 8 colored 
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E. Jacobs, see F. Frhr. Hiller v. 

Gaertringen. C. Jorgensen, see 

J. Lange. 

T. Ch. Kandiloros, 'H ToprvAa. T6/to? 
'I&Topia airb rCiv ap-^ano- 



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und Glaser. Auktion in Miinchen, 
am I. Mai ISOOunter Leitungvon II. 
Helbing. Miinchen, 1899, Druck 
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1 cut [Margaritis collection]. 4to. 
G. Kazarow, De foederis Pho- 
censium institutis. Inauguraldisser- 
tation, Leipzig. 1899. 47 pp. ; gr. 

8vo. Frederic G. Kenyon, The 

Palaeography of Greek Papyri. Ox- 
ford, 1899. Chr. Kirchhoff, Dra- 

matische Orchestik der Hellenen. 
Leipzig, 1899, B. G. Teubner. vi, 
511 pp. ; 2 pis. 8vo. H. Koester. 



GKKKK : GENERAL] 



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401 



fiber den Einfluss landschaftlicher 

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4to. J. Kulakowsky, Death and 

Immortality according to the Ideas 
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J. Lange, Darstellnng des Menschen 
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Th. Mandibur, Olympia. Programme 
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M. Mann, see J. Lange. 
M. Meinecke, Arkadische Friihlings- 
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A. Milchhofer, Uber die alten 
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H. Meuss, Tyche bei den 
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B. Niese, Geschichte der griechischen 
nnd makedonischen Staaten seit der 
Schlacht bei Chaeronea. 2. Teil 
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pp. 8vo. 

A. Olivieri, A proposito di Teseo e 
Meleagro in Bacehilide. Bologna, 
1899. 36 pp. 4to. 

L. Parmentier, see J. Bidez. J. 

Patigler, Quer durch den Peloponnes. 
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nasiums in Weidenau, 1897. 20 pp. 

8vo. Pausaniae Graeciae de- 

scriptio. Edidit, graeca emendavit, 
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turn cum (6) tabulis topographicis 
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zig et H. Bluemner. Vol. I, pars 2, 
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zig, 1899, O. R. Reisland. xv, 496 

pp.; pp. 381-876. 8vo. E. Per- 

nice, Hellenistische Silbergefasse im 
Antiquarium der koniglichen Mu- 
seen. 58. Programm zurn Winckel- 
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sellschaft zu Berlin. Berlin, 1898, 
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4to. A. Philadelpheus, Der Pan 

in der antiken Kunsl. Eine archao- 
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A. Philippson. see F. Frhr. 
Hiller v. Gaertringen. 

W. Radtke, Beitrage zu der Lydischen 
Geschichte des Xanthos. Programm 
des Progymnasiums zu Bischweiler, 

1808., 91 pp. 4to. Les debuts 

de 1'Ecole frangaise d'Athenes. Cor- 
respondance d'Emanuel Roux, 1847- 
1849. Publie' avec une Introduction 
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A. Saletti, I fiditii spartani. Bologna, 

1899. 28 pp. 8vo. Th. v. Schef- 

fer, Die Eleusinien. Berlin & Leip- 
zig, 1898, Schuster &. Loeffler. 86 

pp. 8vo. A. Schiff, see Frhr. 

Hiller v. Gaertringen. H. A. 

Schmid, see Frhr. Hiller v. Gaertrin- 
gen. E. Schmidt, Pergamon. 

Programm des Katharineums zu Lii- 
beck, 18tf9. 46 pp. ; 1 map ; 2 plans. 

4to. M. Schmidt, ber grie- 

chische Dreireiher. Programm des 
Kgl. Prinz Heinrichs Gymnasiums zu 
Berlin, W. (Schoneberg). 1899. 24 

pp 4to. W. Schmidt, see 

Heron. Hans Schrader, Die 

Opferstatte des pergamenischen Al- 
tars. Berlin, Reimer. 14 pp. ; illus- 
trated. 0.50 M. J. Schreiner. 

Hercules redivivus. Die Haupt-Ge- 
stalten der Hellenen-Sage, an der 
Hand der Sprachvergleichung zurtick- 
gefiihrt auf ihre historischen Proto- 
type. Sieben Retrometamorphosen. 
Mainz. 1899, F. Kirchheim. viii, 

112 pp. 8vo. R. Schroter, Die 

Argonautensage und Verwandtes. 
Ein Beitrag zur prahistorischen My- 
thologie. Programm des Realgym- 
nasiums zu Posen, 1899. 28 pp. 

4to. K. Stittl. Dionysisches Trei- 

ben und Dichten im 7. und 6. Jahr- 



402 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



hundert v. Chr. V.-VII. Jahres- 
bericht des Kunstgeschichtlichen 
Museums (v. Wagner'sche Stif- 
tung) der Universitat Wurzburg. 
Wurzburg, 1898, Stahel in Comm. 

46 pp. ; 3 pis. ; 12 tigs. 4to. A. 

Solari, Fasti ephororum spartan o- 
rum. Ab Anno ante Olymp. 70, 1 : 
500 a. Chr. usque ad Olymp. 148, 

1 : 188 a. Chr. Pisis, 1898, ex offic. 

Nistriana. 65 pp. 8vo. H. 

Stadtmiiller, see Anthologia. 

J. Svoboda, amphiktyonii delpfske" 
(On the Delphic Amphictyony). 
Programme of the Bohemian Upper 
Gymnasium in Troppau, 1896. 24 

pp. 8vo. [Bohemian.] Swctrtov 

Ilpay/JLareia we pi TOV 
opvy/j-aros fj-era iro\\u>v 
Samos, 1899. 

G. Tropea, Giasone il tago della Tes- 
saglia. Messina, 1898, Tipi della 
Kevista di Storia Antica. 68 pp. 
8vo. 

Aegyptische Urkunden aus den konig- 
lichen Museen zu Berlin : Griechische 
Urkunden. Vol. Ill, Parts 2-4. 
J. L. Ussing. Pergaraos, seine Ge- 
schichte und Monumente. Nach der 
danischen Ausgabe neu bearb. Ber- 
lin und Stuttgart, 1899, W. Spemann. 
164 pp. ; 6 pis. ; 24 figs. 4to. 

J. Vafeka. On the Island Delos. Pro- 
gramme of the Realobergymnasium, 
Prague, 1899. 35 pp. [Bohemian.] 
E. Vassiliu, see F. Frhr. Hiller 

v. Gaertringen. A. H. de Ville- 

fosse, see Monuments. 

O. Waser, Charon. Charun, Charos. 
Mythologischarchaologische Mono- 
graphie. Berlin, 1898, "Weidmann. 

vii, 158 pp. 8vo. F. Weber, 

Platonische Notizen iiber Orpheus. 
Eine litterar-historische Untersu- 
cliung. Program in des Luitpold- 
Gymnasiums zuMiinchen. 1898-99. 
-W. Wilberg, P. Wilski, see 
F. Frhr. Hiller v. Gaertringen. 
H. Winnefeld, Altgriechisches 
Bronzebecken aus Leontini. 59, Pro- 
gramm zum Winckelmannsfeste der 
Archaologischen Gesellschaft zu Ber- 
lin. Berlin, 1899, G. Keimer. 36 pp. ; 

2 pis. ; 15 figs. 4to. P. Welters. 

see F. Frhr. Hiller v. Gaertringen. 

II. GREEK ARCHITECTURE 
V. Hahn, Dorpf eld's Theory of the 
Ancient Greek Stage in the Light of 
the Latest Criticism. Kolonea, 1898. 

47 pp. 8vo. [Polish.] 



N. H. Isham. The Homeric Palace. 

London, 1899, The Preston and 

Rounds Co. 
R. Koldewey und O. Puchstein, Die 

griechischen Tempel in Unteritalien 

und Sicilien. Berlin, 1899, A. Asher 

6 Co. Bd. I. (Text) : vii, 233 pp. ; 
165 figs. Bd. II. (Plates); 29 pis.; 
folio. 

Bruno Sauer, Das Sogenannte Theseion 
und sein Plastischer Schmuck. Leip- 
zig and Berlin, 1899, Giesecke and 
Devrient. xiii, 274 pp.; 6 double pis. 
with superposed pis. on thin paper ; 
numerous cuts. 4to. 32 M. [The 
building is the Hephaesteum. In the 
pediments were Ge raising the infant 
Erichthonius from the earth, and 
Hephaestus received under the sea by 
Eurynome and Thetis. The arrange- 
ment and style of these lost sculptures 
and of the temple statues is dis- 
cussed. New interpretations of the 
friezes are given. Plans and recon- 
structions.] 

III. GREEK SCULPTURE 
J. H. Holwerda, jr. Die attischen 
Graber der Bliithezeit. Studien iiber 
die attischen Grabreliefs. Leiden, 
1899, E. J. Brill. 201 pp.; 13 figs. 
8vo. 

W. Klein, Praxitelische Studien. Leip- 
zig, 1899, Veit & Co. 62 pp.; 2 pis. ; 

16 cuts. 4 to. 

A. S. Murray, Greek Bronzes. Lon- 
don, 1898, Seeley & Co. (The Port- 
folio monographs on artistic subjects, 
No. 36.) 104 pp. ; 4 pis. ; 40 figs. 8vo. 

C. Robert, Kentaurenkampf und Tra- 
goedienscene. Zwei Marmorbilder 
aus Herculaneum. Nebst einem 
Excurs iiber das Heraklesbild in 
Casa del Centenario. 22. hallisches 
Winckelmannsprogramm. Halle a. 
S., 1899, M. Niemeyer. 44 pp. ; 2 pis. ; 

7 cuts. 4to. Der miide Silen. Mar- 
morbild aus Herculaneum. Nebst 
einem Excurs iiber den Ostfries des 
sog. Theseions. 23. hallisches Winck- 
elmannsprogramm. Halle a. S., 
1899, M. Niemeyer. 34 pp.; 1 pi.; 

17 figs. 4to. 

Drei Wandtafeln fur den Gebrauch 
der Gymnasien hrsg. vom Kaiserlich 
Deutschen Archaologischen Institut. 
Miinchen. 1895-99, F. Bruckmann. 
A. Wherry, Greek Sculpture 
with Story and Song. London, 1898, 
Dent. 332 pp. ; 110 illustrations. 
8vo. 



GREEK COINS] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, ISM 



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IV. GREEK VASES AND PAINT- 
ING 

R. Delbriick, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der 
Linienperspektive in der griechischen 
Kunst. Dissertation, Bonn 1899. 
44 pp. 8vo. 

J. Endt, Beitrage zur jonischen Vasen- 
malerei. Gedruckt auf Kosten der 
Gesellschaft zur Forderung deutscher 
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78 pp. ; 3 pis. ; 44 figs. 8vo. 

L. Pollak, Zwei Vasen aus der Werk- 
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4to. 

H. Thiersch, " Tyrrhenische " Am- 
phoren. Eine Studie zur Geschichte 
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XXVII). Leipzig; 1899, E. A. See- 
maim. 162 pp. ; 6 pis. ; 98 figs. 8vo. 

V. GREEK INSCRIPTIONS 

J. Baunack, see Sammlung. F. 

Bechtel, see Sammlung. 

H. Collitz, see Sammlung. 

W. S. Ferguson, The Athenian Secre- 
taries. (Cornell Studies in Classical 
Philology, No. VII.) New York, 

1898, The Macmillan Co. vi, 80 pp. 
8vo. The Athenian Archons of the 
third and second centuries before 
Christ (Cornell Studies in Classical 
Philology, No. X.). New York, 

1899, The Macmillan Co. 5, 98 pp. 
8vo. 

Inscriptiones graecae insularum maris 
Aegaei. Consilio et auctoritate 
Academiae Litterarum Regiae Borus- 
sicae editae. Fasciculus alter. In- 
scriptiones Graecae insularum Lesbi, 
Nesi, Tenedi, edidit G. R. Paton. 
Additae sunt tabulae geographicae 
duae. Berolini, 1899, G. Reimer. 
iv, 156 pp.; 2 plans, Folio. . 

O. Kern, Inscriptiones Thessalicae. 
Prooemium zum Index Lectionum der 
Universitat Rostock, Winter, 1899- 

1900, 13 pp. ; 4 pis. 4to. 

W. Larfeld, Handbuch der griecliischen 
Epigraphik. Bd. II. Die attischen 
Inschriften. Erste Halfte. Leipzig, 
1898, 0. R. Reisland. 392 pp.; pi. 
8vo. [Vol. I. is to appear last, after 



Vol. IV.] H. G. Lolling. Kard- 

Xo7os TOV iv 'Aftjwus 'EiriypaQiKov 
Movaeiov, ^/cStSo/xei/os vwo TT)S ' Apxaio- 
\oyiKTJs 'Eraipeias ( BipXiofl??* 77 TTJS tv 
'A077I/CUS '^pxaioXoyiKTjs 'Eraipeias I.) 
T6/xos TrpcDTos. 'Eiriypa.(j)al TTJS '\Kpoirb- 
Xews. TeOxos Trpurov. 'Ev 'A(?ijvats, 
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of letters. 4to. [Introduction by 
P. Walters.] 

W. R. Paton, see Inscriptiones. 

Sammlung der griecliischen Dialektin- 
schriften. Hrsg. von F. Bechtel und 
H. Collitz. Bd. II. 6. (Schluss-) 
Heft. J. Baunack, Die delphischen 
Inschriften, 4. Teil. Gb'ttingen, 189t>, 
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 321 pp. 

[pp. 643-963]. 8vo. Helen M. 

Searles, A Lexicographical Study of 
the Greek Inscriptions. Studies in 
Classical Philology, University of 
Chicago, Vol. II." Chicago, 1898, 
University of Chicago Press.. 114 
pp. 8vo. 

U. Wilcken, Griechische Ostraka aus 
Aegypten und Nubien. Ein Beitrag 
zur antiken Wirtschaftsgeschichte. 
Leipzig, 1899. Giesecke & Devrient. 

2 vols. (I: xi, 860; II: v. 497 pp.) 

3 pis. 8vo. P. Wolters, see H. 

G. Lolling. 

VI. GREEK COINS 

Comte A. du Chastel de la Howard- 
ties, Syracuse, ses mommies d' ar- 
gent et d'or au point de vue artistique. 
La coiffure antique et ses developpe- 
ments successifs. Londres, 1898, 
Spink & Son. 12 pis. with explana- 
tion. 8vo. 

G. Macdonald, Catalogue of Greek 
Coins in the llunterian Collection, 
University of Glasgow. Vol.1. Italy, 
Sicily, Macedon, Thrace, and Thes- 
saly. Glasgow, 1899, J. Maclehose 
& Sons. Ixvi, 495 pp. ; 30 pis. 4to. 

S. Pennisi, L' arte nella iiumismatica 
greco-sicula. Acireale, 1899. 34 pp. 
8vo. [Extr. from Atti delV Ace ad. 
dff/li Zelanti- di Acireale, vol. X.] 

W. Wroth, Catalogue of the Greek 
Coins of Galatia, Cappadocia, and 
Syria. London, 1899, printed by 
order of the trustees of the British 
Museum, xci, 341 pp. ; 38 pis. ; 1 
map. 8vo. 



404 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. IV, 1900 



ROMAN 

(Including also titles of works relating 
to the monuments of the Etruscans 
and other peoples who inhabited Italy 
before or contemporaneously with the 
Romans as well as to Roman monu- 
ments outside of Italy.) 

I. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 
NEOUS 

P. D'Amelio, Pompei. Nuovi Scavi, 
Casa dei Vettii. Appenclice ai di- 
pinti murali. Napoli, no year (1899), 
Richter & Co. 6 leaves ; fol. ; plan ; 

8 pis. E. Anthes, Das Kastell 

Gross-Gerau. Darmstadt, 1899, Wit- 
tig. 16 pp. ; 3 pis. ; table. 8vo. 
Zur Geschichte des Mainthales in der 
Romerzeit. Ein Vortrag gehalten 
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