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Full text of "The American loyalists : or, Biographical sketches of adherents to the British crown in the war of the revolution, alphabetically arranged, with a preliminary historical essay"

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THE 



ameHican loyalists, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OP ADHERENTS TO THE BRITISH 
CROWN IN 

THE WAR OP THE REVOLUTION. 



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THE 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS, 



OR 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



OF ADHERENTS TO THE BRITISH CROWN IN "^ 



THE WAR OP THE REVOLUTION; 



ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED; 



PRELIMINARY HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



By LORENZO SABINE. , 



f 



BOSTON: 
CHARLES C. LITTLE AND JAMES BROWN. 



MDCCCXLVII. 






Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by 

Charles C. Little and James Brown, 

in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the District ofMassachusetts. 




boston: 

printed by thurston, torry and co. 

31 Devonshire Street. 



PREFACE. 



Of the reasons which influenced, of the hopes and fears which 
agitated, and of the miseries and rewards which awaited the Loyal- 
ists — or, as they were called in the politics of the time, the Tories — 
of the American Revolution, but little is known. The most intelli- 
gent, the best informed among us, confess the deficiency of their 
knowledge. The reason is obvious. Men who, like the Loyalists, 
separate themselves from their friends and kindred, who are driven 
from their homes, who surrender the hopes and expectations of life, 
and who become outlaws^ wanderers, and exilesj^ — such men, leave 
few memorials behind them. Their papers are scattered and lost, 
and their very names pass from human recollection. 

Hence, the most thorough and pains-taking inquirers into their 
history, have hardly been rewarded for the time and attention which 
they have bestowed. Were there books materially to aid such labor- 
ers, greater success would have attended their researches. But the 
third volume of Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, the Life of 
Peter Van Shaack, the Journal and Letters of Samuel Curwen, and 
Simcoe's Journal of The Operations of the Loyalist Corps called the 
Queen's Rangers, comprise, I believe, all the published works, which 
afford any considerable information of those of our countrymen who 
adhered to the mother country in the momentous struggle which re- 
sulted in making us a free people. 

My own pretensions are extremely limited. Yet, as my home, 
from early manhood, has been on the eastern frontier of the Union, 



IV PREFACE. 

where the graves and the children of the Loyalists are around me in 
every direction ; as I have enjoyed free and continual intercourse 
with persons of Loyalist descent ; as I have had the use of family 
papers, and of rare documents ; as I have devoted years to the sub- 
ject, and have made journeys to confer with the living, and pilgrim- 
ages to graveyards, in order to complete the records of the dead ; — 
I may venture to say, that the Biographical Notices, which are 
contained in this volume, will add something to the stock of know- 
ledge obtained by previous gleaners in this interesting branch of our 
revolutionary annals. 

Still, I have to remark, that I have repeatedly been ready to 
abandon the pursuit in despair. For, to weave into correct and con- 
tinuous narratives, the occasional allusions of books and State-papers; 
to join together fragmentary events and incidents ; to distinguish per- 
sons of the same surname or family name, when only that name is 
mentioned ; and to reconcile the disagreements of various epistolary 
and verbal communications ; has seemed, at times, utterly impossible. 
There are some who can fully appreciate these, and other difficulties, 
which beset the task, and who will readily understand why many of 
the Notices are meagre, and why, too, it is possible for others to be 
in one or more particulars inaccurate. Indeed, I may appeal to the 
closest students of our history, as my best witnesses, to prove that 
entire correctness, and fullness of detail, in tracing the course, and 
in ascertaining the fate, of the adherents of the Crown, are not now 
within the power of the most careful and industrious. 

Of several of the Loyalists who were high in office, of others who 
were men of talents and acquirements, and of still others who were 
of less consideration, I have been able, after long and extensive re- 
searches, to learn scarcely more than tlieir names, or the single fact, 
that for their political opinions or offences they were proscribed and 
banished. But I have deemed it best to exclude no one, whether of 
exalted or humble station, of whose attachment to the cause of the 
mother country I have found satisfactory, or even reasonable evi- 
dence. In following out this plan, repetition of the same facts^ as 
applicable to different persons, has been unavoidable. That I have 
sometimes erred, by including among the Tories a few who finally 
became Whigs, is very probable. To change from one side to the 
other, both during the controversy which preceded the shedding of 



PEEFACE. V 

blood, and at various periods of the war, was not uncommon ; and I 
have been struck, in the course of my investigations, with the absence 
of fixed principles, not only among people in the common walks of 
life, but in many of the prominent personages of the day. 

For the present, my efforts to supply the deficiencies, and remove 
the imperfections of this work, as now submitted to the public, will 
be incessant. I desire to learn, and to communicate to my country- 
men, all that can be ascertained of the losers in the revolutionary 
strife. But whether journeys to remote places, and visits to distant 
public archives, are to be undertaken, in search of additional ma- 
terials, to correct, improve, and enlarge these Notices, will depend 
almost entirely upon the degree of favor which is extended to them 
in their present form. 

These brief explanations will suffice. The reader will find in the 
Preliminary Remarks, or Historical Essay, that follows, a general 
view of the state of parties, and of the thirteen Colonies, at the com- 
mencement of the struggle ; which, it is hoped, contains thoughts 
not only new, but truthful and just to all persons to whom they relate. 
It may be proper to state, that some parts of it are borrowed from 
my own contributions to the North American Review. 

In conclusion, I would acknowledge the benefit derived from refer- 
ence to the four publications mentioned in this Preface. To Curwen, 
and the biographical and historical matter added to his Letters and 
Journal by his diligent and accomplished editor, I am particularly 
indebted. Nor should I neglect to render my thanks to the literary 
friends who have cheered me with their sympathy and advice amid 
the discouragements of my task ; and to the descendants of Loyal- 
ists, who have afforded essential aid by lending me family and other 
papers. 

Eastport, Maine, May, 1847. 






-^ 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS, 



OB 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



Some account of the Thirteen Colonies, and of the state of 
PoHtical Parties at the commencement of the Revolution, may 
form a very proper Introduction to the Biographical Notices of 
some of those, who, born and educated Colonists, preferred to 
live and die in allegiance to the British Crown. 

The thoughts and deductions, which I shall present, are 
essentially my own, and I shall address the reader directly 
and without reserve. Many things which are necessary to a 
right understandmg of the revolutionary controversy, have 
been, as I conceive, wholly omitted, or only partially and 
obscurely stated. It has been common, for example, to insist 
that questions of "Taxation," that points of " Abstract Lib- 
erty," produced the momentous struggle, which resulted in 
dismembering the British empire. To me, the documentary 
history, the state-papers of the period, teach nothing more 
clearly than this, namely, that almost every matter brought 
into discussion was practical^ and in some form or other re- 
lated to LABOR, to some branch of common industry. Our 
fathers did indeed, in their appeals to the people, embody their 
opposition to the Colonial System, or form of government, in 
one expressive term — " Taxation" — " Taxation without 
1 



2 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Representation." But whoever has examined the acts of 
ParUament which were resisted, has found that nearly all of 
them inhibited Labor. There were no less than twenty-nine 
laws, which restricted and bound down Colonial industry. 
Neither of these laws touched so much as the "south-west 
side of a hair" of an " abstraction," and hardly one of them, 
until the passage of the '' Stamp Act," imposed a direct "Tax." 
They were aimed at the North, and England lost the affection 
of the mercantile and maritime classes of the northern Colo- 
nies, full a generation before she alienated the South. They 
forbade the use of water-falls, the erecting of machinery, of 
looms and spindles, and the working of wood and iron ; they 
set the king's arrow upon trees that rotted in the forest; they 
shut out markets for boards and fish, and seized sugar and 
molasses, and the vessels in which these articles were carried ; 
and they defined the limitless ocean as but a narrow pathway 
to such of the lands that it embosoms as wore the British flag. 
To me, then, the great object of the Revolution was to release 
LABOR from these restrictions, i^ree-laborers — inexcusable in 
this — began with sacking houses, overturning public offices, 
and emptying tar-barrels and pillow-cases upon the heads of 
those who were employed to enforce these oppressive acts of 
Parliament ; and when the skill and high intellect which were 
enlisted in their cause, and which vainly strove to moderate 
their excess, failed to obtain a peaceable redress of the wrongs 
of which they complained, and were driven either to abandon 
the end in view, or to combine and wield their strength, men 
of all avocations rallied upon the field, and embarked upon 
the sea, to retire from neither until the very framework of the 
Colonial system was torn away, and every branch of indus- 
try could be pursued without fines, penalties, and imprison- 
ment. 

Such are the opinions, at least, which I have formed on the 
questions upon which, among the mass of the people, the con- 
test hinged; which finally united persons of every employ- 
ment in life in an endeavor to get rid of prohibitions, that 
remonstrance could not repeal, or even humanize. For a 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. ^ 

higher or holier purpose than this, men have never expended 
their money, or poured out their Hfe-blood in battle ! 

Leaving here this course of general remark, I propose to 
take a view of the revolutionary controversy, and of the state 
of parties, in each Colony separately and in course. And first 
in Massachusetts' Colony of Maine. Of the immense domains, 
embracing almost the half of our continent, which, in 1620, 
King James conferred upon those gentlemen of his court who, 
in popular language, are known as the '' Council of Plymouth," 
Maine formed a part. Among the most distinguished mem- 
bers of this Council was Sir Ferdinando Gorges; to whom,* 
and to John Mason, the Council, two years after the date of 
their own patent, conveyed all the lands and "fishings" be- 
tween the rivers Merrimack and Sagadahock. Subsequently, 
and rapidly, other grants covered the same soil, and angry 
and endless contentions followed. But Gorges, bent on leav- 
ing his name in our annals, obtained of Charles the First a 
grant for himself, individually, of the territory between the 
Piscataqua and Sagahadock, and thence from the sea one 
hundred and twenty miles northward. These were the ancient 
limits of the " Province of Maine." Having now a sort of 
double title. Gorges might reasonably hope that his rights were 
perfect, and that he might pursue his plans without interrup- 
tion. But Massachusetts, on the one hand, insisted that her 
boundaries were narrowed by the grants to Mason and him- 
self; while the Council, on the other, with inexcusable care- 
lessness or dishonesty, continued to alienate the very soil 
which he held, both from themselves and their common 
master. Thus he was harassed his life long, and went to his 
grave old and worn out with perplexities and the political 
suft'erings and losses of a most troubled period. He was a 
soldier, and a tried friend of the Stuarts in their times of need, 
of which their reigns were full, and was plundered and 
imprisoned in their wars. 

Thus, then, Maine was not founded by a Puritan. But 
after the death of Gorges, his son deemed his possessions in 
America of little or no worth, and took no pains to retain 



I 



4 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

them, or to carry out his designs ; and his grandson, to whom 
his rights descended, gave to Massachusetts a full assignment 
and release for the insignificant consideration of twelve hun- 
dred and fifty poimds sterling ; a sum less than one sixteenth 
of the amount which had been actually expended. By this 
purchase, however, Massachusetts acquired only a part of 
Maine as now constituted. France made pretensions to all 
that part lying east of the Penobscot, and the Duke of York 
to the part between the Penobscot and the Kennebec : nor was 
it until the reign of William and Mary, that disputes about 
boundaries were merged, and the St. Croix and Piscataqua 
became the acknowledged charter frontiers. 

Soon after the bargain was made with Gorges' s heir, Massa- 
chusetts lost her own charter; and it was not among the 
least of the causes of Charles's anger against her, that she had 
thwarted his design of procuring Maine for his natural son, 
the Duke of Monmouth. The newly acquired Province was 
thought valuable only for its forests of pine, and for the fish- 
eries of its coasts. But Massachusetts had objects beyond 
cutting down trees and casting fishing lines. Her "presump- 
tion " in crossing the path of royalty has often been con- 
demned. But the citizens of Maine cannot too often commend 
the indomitable spirit which she evinced in her struggle to 
root out Gorges and the Cavaliers or Monarchists of his plant- 
ing, and to put in their place the humbler but purer Round- 
heads or Puritans of her own kindred. Had she faltered, 
when dukes and lords signed parchments that conveyed away 
soil which she claimed ; had she not sought to push her sove- 
reignty over men and territories not originally her own ; had 
she not broken down French seigniories and English feofi"- 
doms, Maine, east of Gorges' eastern boundary, might have 
continued a part of the British empire to this hour. This 
opinion is given considerately, and not to round out a period. 
And whoever will consult the diplomacy of 1783, will learn 
that, even as it 7cas, the British Commissioners contended that 
the Kennebec should divide the thirteen states from the colo- 
nies which had remained true to the crown. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 5 

Yet fishing and lumbering continued to be the two great 
branches of industry in Maine, until the Revolution, The new 
charter, procured of William and Mary, confirmed Massachu- 
setts in her acquisitions east of the Piscataqua ; but it contained 
several restrictions which bore hard upon both of these interests. 
The most prominent I shall briefly notice, because they had a 
direct influence in the formation of political parties. And 
first, that instrument provided, that all pine trees, of the diam- 
eter of twenty-four inches at more than a foot from the ground, 
on lands not granted to private persons, should be reserved for 
masts for the royal navy; and that, for cutting down any 
such tree without special leave, the offender should forfeit one 
hundred pounds sterling. This stipulation was the source of 
ceaseless disquiet, and it introduced, to guard the forests from 
depredation, an officer called the " Surveyor General of the 
King's Woods." Between this functionary, who enjoyed a 
high salary, considerable perquisites, and great power, and the 
lumberers, there was no love. The officials of the day, who 
were now of royal appointment, and not, as under the first 
charter, elected by the people, generally ranged themselves on 
the side of the surveyors, their deputies and menials; while 
the House of Representatives, as commonly, opposed their 
doings, and countenanced the popular clamors against them. 
Nor were the controversies, caused by the efforts of the sur- 
veyors to preserve spars for the royal navy, confined to the 
halls of legislation in Massachusetts. For, besides these, and 
the frequent quarrels in the woods and at the saw-mills, the 
disputes between the parties were carried to the Board of Trade 
in England. There seemed, indeed, in the judgment of several 
of the colonial governors, no way for them to please their royal 
master more, than by discoursing about the care which should 
be exercised over the "mast-trees," and about the severity 
with which the statute-book should provide against " tres- 
passers." In a word, prerogative and the popular sentiment 
never agreed. Discussions about the forests of Maine, again 
and again ended in wrangles. Friendships were broken up, 
and enmities created for life. This is emphatically true of 
1* 



6 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Shute's administration, when Cooke, the Counsellor of Saga- 
dahock, and the champion of the ''fierce democracy" — as 
his father had been before him — involved the whole govern- 
ment of Massachusetts in disputes, which, in the end, drove 
the Governor home to England. And so, subsequently, a 
forged letter, probably written by '' trespassers " or their friends 
to Sir Charles Wager, first lord of the Admiralty, charging 
Governor Belcher with conniving with depredators, though 
seemingly aiding the king's surveyor, — that " Irish dog of a 
Dunbar," — did its intended work. Shirley, Belcher's suc- 
cessor, when he pressed upon the House the necessity of 
farther enactments to protect the masts and spars for the royal 
navy, and to punish those who obstructed or annoyed the 
royal agents, was tartly told in substance, b^ that body : " Our 
laws are sufficient ; we have done our duty in passing them ; 
let the crown officers do their duty in enforcing them." Hutch- 
inson, for a like call upon the House, was in like manner 
reminded, in terms hardly more civil, that there were already 
charter and statute penalties for '' trespassers," a surveyor 
general and deputies, and courts of law ; and that, provided 
with these, he must look to the pines " twenty-four inches in 
diameter, upwards of twelve inches from the ground," for 
himself. The means for dealing with offenders, it must be 
confessed, were ample ; the crown could try them in the Court 
of Admiralty, where there was no jury : upon conviction for 
a com/mon trespass, a fine of £100 could be imposed ; and for 
the additional misdeed of plundering the interdicted trees 
Under a painted or disguised face, twenty lashes could be laid 
on the culprit's back ; while, more than all, convictions could 
be had on probable guilt, unless the accused would, on oath, 
declare his innocence. 

But there was no such thing as executing these laws, when 
it was the popular impression, that the woods were " the gifts 
as well as the growth of nature ; " and that the king's right to 
them was merely "nominal," at the most. The provision of 
the charter was both unwise and unjust. To reserve to the 
crown a thousand times as many trees as it could ever require, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 7 

and to allow all to decay that were not actually used, was 
absurd. Men of the most limited capacity saw and felt this ; 
and to wean them from a power which insisted, in spite of all 
remonstrance, in enforcing the absurdity, was an easy task. 
And we can readily imagine, what indeed is true, that the 
woodmen of Maine, when rid, by the Revolution, of the pres- 
ence of surveyor generals and their deputies, exulted as heart- 
ily as did the peasants of France, when the outbreak there 
abolished forest laws somewhat dissimilar, but equally obnox- 
ious. 

Again. The action of Parliament with regard to taxing 
lumber, admitting it free, or even encouraging its exportation, 
by bounties, was eagerly watched. The mother country pur- 
sued all of these courses at different times, and gave dissatis- 
faction, or created discontent, among the getters and dealers in 
the article, as changes occurred in her policy ; just as she does 
now, with those Colonial possessions which yet remain to her. 
The "mast-ships" at the North, like the "tobacco-ships" at 
the South, were the common, and oftentimes the only, means 
for crossing the ocean ; and royal governors and other high 
personages were occasionally compelled to embark in them. 
In these clumsy, ill-shapen vessels, also went ladies and lovers 
to visit friends in that distant land, which some Americans yet 
call "home." Merchandise, fashions, and the last novel had 
a slow voyage back ; but men and maidens were models of 
patience, and the arrival of the eleven weeks "mast-er" gave 
as much joy when all was safe, as does the eleven days steamer 
now. In port, while loading, the " mast-ships " were objects 
of interest, and their decks and cabins the scenes of hilarity 
and mirth. We read of illuminations, and firings of cannon, 
of frolics and feasts. 

The mast- trade was confined to England ; and the transpor- 
tation of spars thither, and of the sawed and shaved woods 
required by the planter, to islands in the West Indies possessed 
by the British crown, were about the only lawful modes of ex- 
porting lumber for a long period. By the statute book, the 
" king's mark " was as much to be dreaded by the mariner and 



8 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

the owner of the vessel, as hy the "logger" and the "mill- 
man." But the revenue officers caused less fear than the sur- 
veyors of the woods, until fleets and armies were employed to 
aid them; when the interdicted trade with the French and 
Spanish islands, which had been carried on by a sort of pre- 
scriptive right, was nearly, if not entirely, broken up. No 
enactments of the mother country operated to keep down 
Northern industry so effectually, poorly as they were obeyed, 
as the navigation and trade laws ; and on none did they bear 
more severely than on that portion of the people, whose position 
or necessities left them no choice of employments. There 
were some, nor were they few, who were obliged to plunder 
the forests, and to work up trees into marketable shapes, or 
starve. Included with these inhabitants of Maine, were those 
who lived upon the coasts — the mariners, and the fishermen. 
The interests of all these classes were identical ; and to them 
the maritime policy of the government of England was cruel 
in the extreme ; since it robbed unremitting toil of half of its 
reward. Lumber and fish were inseparable companions in 
every adventure to the islands in the Caribbean sea. Enter- 
prises to get either were hazardous, at the best ; and, as prac- 
tical men can readily perceive, all who engaged in obtaining 
them, were obliged then, as they are now, to seek different 
markets ; so that to shut some marts, when access to all, would 
barely remunerate the adventurers, was, in eflfect, to close the 
whole. These employments were, as they still are, among the 
most difficult and severe in the whole round of human pur- 
suits ; and attempts to alleviate the burdens of parliamentary 
legislation upon both were made in Massachusetts, long before 
a whisper of discontent was elsewhere uttered in America. 
The discussions in that Colony, in behalf of her citizens at 
home and of those in Maine, who were engaged in getting and 
transporting the products of the forest and of the sea, though 
commenced without reference to separation from the mother 
country, took fast hold of the public mind. When, then, Otis 
at length spoke out, thousands who never heard or read his 
reasonings, and might not have felt their force, if they had, were 



•V' 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



ready, at the first call, to clear the woods, and docks, and ware- 
houses, and decks of vessels of the " swarms of officers " who 
"harassed" them, and " eat out their substance." 

The troubles which I have now enumerated, the disputes 
which grew out of the question, whether, as the territories pur- 
chased of Gorges had never reverted to the crown, the sur- 
veyor general's duty did, in fact, require him to mark and 
protect the mast-trees within its limits, and especially the 
charter inhibition of grants east of the Kennebec without the 
king's consent, kept out settlers, held titles in suspense, and 
were sufficient not only to alienate the affections of the people 
from the British crown, but to confine them to a narrow belt 
of country. 

Thus, as far down as 1719, no man of the Saxon race had 
a habitation from Georgetown to Annapolis. Fifteen years 
later, there were no more than nine thousand persons of Euro- 
pean origin between the Piscataqua and the St. Croix, and 
thence northerly to the dividing and disputed " highlands," 
where royalty last contended for the soil of Maine. In truth, 
not a grant was made beyond the Penobscot before the year 
1762 ; and Machias, though the oldest town on the French 
claim, was not alienated prior to 1770, and had no corporate 
existence until after the close of the Revolution. 

The general state of the Colony, as the controversy came to 
a crisis, may be summed up thus. The whole number of in- 
habitants was about equal to the present population of the 
cities of Portland and Bangor. The Supreme Court held one 
term at Falmouth — now Portland — and one at York, annu- 
ally. There were ten representatives to the General Court, 
none of whom lived east of Brunswick or the Androscoggin 
river. The number of clergymen was thirty-four. The six 
counsellors or barristers at law, were William Gushing, James 
Sullivan, David Sewall, Theophilus Bradbury, Caleb Emery, 
and David Wyer ; all of whom were Whigs, except the last. 
Of incorporated towns, there were twenty-five. The only cus- 
tom-house was at Falmouth. The patronage of the crown 
was confined to the officers of the revenue, to a corps of civil 



10 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

functionaries by no means numerous, to a surveyor of the 
king's forests and his deputies. 

As may be supposed, the body of the people were Whigs. 
Still, Maine had a considerable number of Loyalists or Tories. 
To afford them a place of refuge and protection, was the prin- 
cipal object, as I have been led to conclude, of establishing a 
military post at the mouth of the Penobscot. The descendants 
of Loyalists who found shelter in the garrison at Castine, rep- 
resent that it was thronged with adherents of the crown and 
their families; and after the disgraceful discomfiture of Salton- 
stall and Lovell, they were left in undisturbed quiet during the 
remainder of the war. The names of all the Tories of Maine, 
who were proscribed and banished under the act of Massachu- 
setts, as well as many others, will be found in their proper 
connexions. 

It has been a matter of some dispute, as to when, where, and 
by whom, the great drama of the Revolution was opened upon 
the sea, and it may not be amiss to state, that the honor belongs, 
beyond all reasonable doubt, to the "loggers" and "sawyers" 
of the ancient " Mechisses," now Machias, Maine. Soon after 
the affair at Lexington, these prompt and hardy Whigs captured 
in their own waters the king's armed schooner, the " Margra- 
netto," mounting four guns and fourteen swivels. They were 
themselves armed with such weapons as were within reach, 
among which were tools of their calling. The action was 
bloody ; and about twenty of their own and the vanquished 
party were killed and wounded. They received the thanks 
of the Provincial Congress, and commissions to cruise and cap- 
ture under their authority. 

The patriotic spirit evinced by the same classes, may be fur- 
ther illustrated by the fact, that the inhabitants of some towns, 
though destitute of money, voted quantities of shingles and 
clap-boards in town-meeting, for the purchase of stocks of am- 
munition. And in conclusion, it may be remarked, that, as 
Falmouth was the seat of the "mast-trade," so its destruction 
in the autumn of 1775, grew out of matters directly connected 
with its chief business. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



11 



In passing from Maine to New Hampshire, we shall find the 
general state of things very similar. The occupations of the 
people of the two Colonies were much alike. New Hampshire, 
though not an appendage of Massachusetts in 1775, had been 
twice annexed to the mother of New England, and had thus 
acquired much of her spirit. Collisions between the revenue 
officers and the mariners and ship-owners of Portsmouth, and 
between the guardians of the "king's woods" and the lumber- 
ers of the interior, had been frequent. Indeed the " loggers" 
and "sawyers" had whipped the deputies of the surveyor 
general so often and so severely, that the term, ^'■srvamp-lmo,''^ 
was quite as significant a phrase, as that of ^^lynch-law" of 
our own time. Yet, as will appear, the Whigs had many and 
powerful opponents in the Colony planted by Mason, the asso- 
ciate patentee of Gorges. 

With regard to Massachusetts, it seems to have been taken 
as granted, that because here the Revolution had its origin ; 
that because the old Bay State furnished a large part of the 
men and the means to carry it forward to a successful issue ; 
and because, in a word, she fairly exhausted herself in the 
struggle ; the people embraced the popular side, almost in a 
mass. A more mistaken opinion than this has seldom pre- 
vailed. 

The second charter, or that granted by William and Mary, 
had several obnoxious provisions besides those which had pe- 
culiar reference to Maine, and its acceptance was violently 
opposed. And Phips, the Earl of Bellamont, Shute, Burnet, 
Belcher, Shirley, and Pownall, the several governors who were 
appointed by the crown under one of these provisions, encount- 
ered embarrassments and difficulties, and some of them were 
actually driven from the executive chair by the force of party 
heats. In fact, the "old-charter," or "liberty-men," arrayed 
on the one side, and the "new-charter," or "prerogative-men," 
on the other, kept up a continual warfare. When, then, in 
the quarrel, which was commenced with Bernard, which was 
continued with Hutchinson and Gage, his successors, and 
which finally spread over the continent and severed the British 



12 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

empire, the terms of "Whig" and "Tory" were employed, 
they were not used to distinguish new parties, but were simply 
epithets borrowed from the politics of the mother country, and 
did but take the place of the party names which had previously 
existed, and under which, political leaders had long moved and 
trained their followers. As the Revolutionary controversy 
darkened, individuals of note did indeed change sides; but 
though some of our writers have hardly mentioned that such 
a state of things preceded the momentous conflict, the general 
truth was as I have stated. 

A few particulars will show the numbers and influence of 
the royal party in Massachusetts. The "Protesters " — against 
the Whigs — in Boston, were upwards of one hundred, and 
among them were some of the most respectable persons in the 
capital. On the departure of Governor Hutchinson for Eng- 
land, he was addressed by more than two hundred merchants, 
lawyers, and other citizens of Boston, Salem, and Marblehead. 
On the arrival of Gen. Gage, his successor, forty-eight persons 
of Salem presented their dutiful respects; and when he retired 
from the executive chair, he received the "Loyal Address from 
gentlemen and principal inhabitants of Boston," as they 
styled themselves, to the number of ninety-seven, and of 
eighteen ofiicial personages and country gentlemen, who pos- 
sessed landed estates, and who had been driven from homes by 
the violent proceedings against them. At Marshfield, the 
"Associated Loyalists" consisted of about three hundred per- 
sons, who belonged to that town and the neighborhood. At 
Freetown and in the vicinity, many adherents of the crown 
assembled and acted in a body against the Whigs, under the 
direction of Col. Thomas Gilbert, a noted Loyalist of the county 
of Bristol. Gage's "citizen's patrol," who wore badges dis- 
tinctive of loyalty, consisted of nearly three hundred. Briga- 
dier Gen. Ruggles, and the prominent men of Worcester. 
Sandwich, and several other places, organized, in some form 
or other, bodies of men more or less numerous, to oppose and 
counteract the proceedings of the Whigs, of their respective 
sections of the Colony. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. m 

Our recollections of Charlestown are of an opposite and of a 
most interesting nature. Thomas Danforth, a barrister at law, 
was the only inhabitant of that town, who claimed or received 
the royal protection. The course of the people of Nantucket, 
on the other hand, is hardly to be passed without censure, 
they took no part whatever for years, in the '''unhappy war" — 
as they termed the revolutionary struggle — but finally, and 
towards its close, were allowed by Admiral Digby to pursue 
their peculiar branch of industry unharmed by the king's 
fleet. This arrangement was effected after a statement of 
their condition and distresses, and the neutral position which 
they had assumed and maintained. They may justly claim 
in excuse, that their religious faith allowed of no participation 
in deeds of hostility, and that, as professed non-combatants, 
they could shed no blood. But this plea will not account 
for, or in any way explain, the secrecy which they observed, 
as to the permission which they obtained of the royal ad- 
miral to catch whales and dispose of oil and bone in British 
ports. 

As some further details of the state of parties in Massachu- 
setts will be given in another connexion, a brief notice of the 
Loyalists who abandoned their homes and the country will 
serve my present purpose. Of this description, upwards of 
eleven hundred retired in a body with the royal army at the 
evacuation of Boston. This number includes, of course, 
women and children. Among the men, howler, were many 
persons of distinguished rank and consideration. Of members 
of the council, commissioners, officers of the customs and other 
officials, there were one hundred and two ; of clergymen, eigh- 
teen ; of inhabitants of country towns, one hundred and five ; 
of merchants and other persons who resided in Boston, two 
hundred and thirteen ; of farmers, mechanics and traders, three 
hundred and eighty-two. • 

Washington spoke of these "Refugees" in terms of extreme 

severity. In a letter to his brother John Augustine, dated at 

Boston, March 31, 1776, and immediately after the evacuation, 

he said: "All those who took upon themselves the style and 

2 



14 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR ' 

title of government-men in Boston, in short, all those who 
have acted an imfriendly part in this great contest, have shipped 
themselves off * * * * but under still greater disadvantages 
than the King's troops, being obliged to man their own vessels, 
as seamen enough could not be had for the King's transports, 
and submit to every hardship that can be conceived. One or 
two have done, what a great number ought to have done long 
ago, committed suicide. By all accounts, there never existed 
a more miserable set of beings, than these wretched creatures 
now are. Taught to believe that the power of Great Britain 
was superior to all opposition, and, if not, that foreign aid was 
at hand, they were even higher and more insulting in their 
opposition than the regulars. When the order issued, therefore, 
for embarking the troops in Boston, no electric shock, no sud- 
den explosion of thunder, in a word, not the last trump could 
have struck them with greater consternation. They were at 
their wits' end, and, conscious of their black ingratitude, they 
chose to commit themselves, in the manner I have above de- 
scribed, to the mercy of the waves at a tempestuous season, 
rather than meet their offended countrymen." 

Other emigrations preceded and succeeded this; but they 
consisted principally of individuals, or small parties of intimate 
friends, or families and their immediate connexions. But the 
whole number who embarked at different ports of Massachu- 
etts, pending the controversy, and during the war, were, as I 
am inclined to believe, two thousand, at the lowest computation. 
The names and the fate of a considerable proportion of them 
will be found in these pages. Most of them took passage for 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, where they endured great privations. 
Many, however, subsequently, went to England, and there 
passed the remainder of their lives. Of those who accompanied 
Sir William Howe, in 1776, he thus wrote to Lord George Ger- 
main, in April of that year. "Many of the principal inhabi- 
tants of Boston under the protection of the army, having no 
means of subsistence here [Halifax], apply to me to find them 
a passage to Europe, which they cannot otherwise get than at 
a most exorbitant rate. They have my assurance, that the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. tS 

first transport that can be spared shall be given up for this 
purpose. I am sorry to inform your Lordship, that there is an 
absolute necessity of issuing provisions to the whole of them 
* * * * from the King's stores, without any prospect of stop- 
ping it. It must be confessed, that many, having quitted the 
whole of their property and estates, some of them very consid- 
erable in value, are real objects of his Majesty's most gracious 
attention." * 

It may be remarked, in conclusion, that Washington regarded 
the property abandoned by the Loyalists in their flight, as 
justly exposed to confiscation. He addressed the General 
Court of Massachusetts on the subject, and transmitted a copy 
of his letter to Congress, in order to ascertain the views of that 
body as to its disposal, and "as to the appropriation of the 
money arising from the sale of the same." 

Rhode Island and Connecticut may be considered together. 
There is but little to detain us in either. Both were governed 
by charters like Massachusetts, and both were "pure democ- 
racies," since, says Chalmers, " the freemen exercised without 
restraint every power deliberate and executive. Like Ragusa 
and San Marino, in the old world, they oflfered an example to 
the new, of two little republics embosomed Avithin a great em- 
pire." In 1704, Mompesson, the Chief Justice of New York, 
wrote to Lord Nottingham, that when he "was at Rhode Island, 
they did in all things as if they were out of the dominions of 
the crown." Of Connecticut, at the same period, Chalmers 
remarks, that, " being inhabited by a people of the same prin- 
ciples though of a different religion, they acted the same poli- 
tical part as those of Rhode Island;" and he quotes from a 
despatch of Lord Cornbury to the Board of Trade, the pithy 
saying, that the inhabitants of these Colonies " hate every body 
that owns any subjection to the Q,ueen" [Anne]. 

The Revolution, which so essentially affected the governments 
of most of the Colonies, produced no very perceptible alteration 
in those of either Rhode Island or Connecticut. After Wan- 

* See Sparks's Washington, Vol. 3d, pages 325, 327, and 343. 



16 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

ton, the governor of the first, was deposed, the Whigs suc- 
ceeded to power without turmoil, and in the ordinary course of 
legislative action. Trumbull, the governor of the latter, was 
a sound Whig, and occupied the executive chair from 1769 to 

83 The charters of both Colonies were admirably adapted 
to their wants and condition, whether regarded as dependen- 
cies, or as free States ; and while Connecticut continued with- 
out any other fundamental law until the year 1818, Rhode 
Island has hardly recovered from the disquiets and ani- 
mosities, occasioned by the very recent adoption of a Consti- 
tution. 

Yet, though less restrained by charter provisions than Mas- 
sachusetts, and though in theory "pure democracies," and 
bearing "hate" towards all who, in queen Anne's time, ac- 
knowledged her authority, there was no greater unanimity of 
sentiment on the questions which agitated the country in 1775, 
than elsewhere in New England. Indeed, I feel assured that, 
in Connecticut, the number of adherents of the crown was 
greater, in proportion to the population, than in Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, or New Hampshire. This impression is warranted 
by documentary evidence, and is fully sustained by facts, 
which have been communicated to me by descendants of Loy- 
alists of that Colony. Several Episcopal clergymen, in speak- 
ing of the political sympathies of their flocks, confirm the 
testimony derived from the above-named sources, while the 
fact, that most of the sect founded by Robert Sandeman were 
" friends of government," leaves me in no doubt as to the cor- 
rectness of the conclusion at which I have arrived. Many of 
the Loyalists of Connecticut emigrated to New Brunswick at 
the close of the war. Of a part, there are now no memorials, 
but of others, and of another class, who did not leave the 
country, I have been able to ascertain something. 

In passing from New England, we are to speak of American 
Colonists of difierent origin, and who lived under different 
forms of the Colonial system or form of government. Thus, 
New York had no charter, but was governed by royal instruc- 
tions, orders in council, and similar authority communicated 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 17 

to the governors by the ministers " at home." The governor 
and council were appointed by the king, but vacancies at the 
council board were filled by the governor. The people elected 
the popular branch, which consisted of twenty-seven members. 
To say, that the political institutions of New York formed a 
feudal aristocracy ^ is to define them with tolerable accuracy. 
The soil was held by a few. The masses were mere retainers 
or tenants, as in the monarchies of Europe. Nor has this con- 
dition of society been entirely changed, since the " anti-rent " 
dissensions of the present time arise from the vestige which 
remains. 

Such a state of things was calculated to give the king many 
adherents. The fact agreed with the theory. In some coun- 
ties, a Whig was a man rarely met with. Documents are extant 
to show, that in 1776, no less than twelve hundred and ninety- 
three persons acknowledged allegiance, and professed them- 
selves to be dutiful and well affected subjects, in the single 
county of Queens. In the county of Suffolk, as Gov. Tryon 
wrote to Lord George Germain, nearly eight hundred of the 
militia appeared in one body, and were sworn to be faithful to 
the crown. At White Plains, in the county of West Chester, 
there were one hundred and sixty-one "protesters" against 
the proceedings of the Whigs. In Tryon county, the signers 
of a " Loyal Declaration " were numerous ; while in the town 
of Jamaica, sixty-two persons afiixed their names to a similar 
paper. 

But details may be spared. One circumstance will prove 
the preponderance of the royal party beyond all doubt. It is 
this. Soon after the close of the Revolution, a bill passed the 
House of Assembly, which prohibited persons who had been 
in opposition from holding any office under the State. 
This bill, on being sent to the other branch of the legislature, 
was rejected, and on the ground principally, because, if al- 
lowed to become a law, no elections could be held in some 
parts of the State, inasmuch as there were not a suffScient 
number of Whigs, in certain sections, to preside at or conduct 
the election meetings. 
2* 



18 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

While so large a proportion of the people of New York pre- 
ferred to continue their connexion with the mother country, 
very many of them entered the military service of the crown, 
and fought in defence of their principles. Whole battalions, 
and even regiments, were raised by the great land-holders, and 
continued organized and in pay throughout the struggle. In 
fine. New York was undeniably the Loyalists' strong-hold, and 
contained more of them than any other colony in all America. 
I will not say that she devoted her resources of men and of 
money to the cause of the army ; but I do say, that she with- 
held many of the one, and much of the other, from the cause 
of the right. Massachusetts furnished 67,907 Whig soldiers 
between the years 1775 and 1783; while New York supplied 
but 17,781. In adjusting the war balances, after the peace, 
Massachusetts, as was then ascertained, had overpaid her share 
in the sum of 1,248,801 dollars of silver money; but New 
York was deficient in the large amount of 2,074,846 dollars. 
New Hampshire, though almost a wilderness, furnished 12,496 
troops for the continental ranks, or quite three-quarters of the 
number enlisted in the '^ Empire State." 

These facts show the state of parties in this Colony in a 
strong light. One other incident, which presents the wavering, 
time-serving course that prevailed, even after Washington had 
been appointed to the command of the army, and when, of 
course, the whole country was committed to sustain him, will 
suffice. On the 25th of June, 1775, a letter was received by 
the New York Provincial Congress, which communicated in- 
telligence that the Commander-in-chief was on his way to 
head-quarters at Cambridge, and would cross the Hudson and 
visit the city. "News came at the same time," says Mr. 
Sparks,* " that Governor Tryon was in the harbor, just arrived 
from England, and would land that day. The Congress were 
a good deal embarrassed to determine how to act on this occa- 
sion ; for though they had thrown oflf all allegiance to the 
authority of their governor, they yet professed to maintain 



Sparks's Washingtop, Vol. 3, p. 8. 



W 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 19 

loyalty to his person. They finally ordered a colonel so to 
dispose of his militia companies, that they might be in a condi- 
tion to receive " either the Generals^ or Governor Try on, which- 
ever should first arrive, mid ivait on both as well as circumstances 
iDould allov:>y Events proved less perplexing than had been 
apprehended, as General Washington arrived several hours 
previous to the landing of Governor Tryon." That a Congress 
of Whigs should have been so irresolute and timid, after the 
blood of their brethren had been poured out at Lexington and 
on Breed's Hill, is unaccountable. If such was their conduct, 
what must have been the state of feeling among the Tories, 
what the courage and confidence which animated them 7 To 
this question, the machinations of the adherents of the crown, 
the next year, may afford, perhaps, a satisfactory answer. In 
June of 1776, when Washington had advanced to New York 
with his army, a conspiracy was formed against him, which 
excited the most serious apprehensions, and which, but for a 
timely discovery, might have changed the course of the revo- 
lutionary outbreak. It was ascertained, that Governor Tryon 
was at the head of the plot, and that the mayor of the city was 
his principal agent. Other persons of note were concerned in 
the dark enterprise, and even some part of the Whig troops, 
and of Washington's own body guard, were engaged in it. 
The mayor, several citizens and soldiers, were seized and con- 
fined ; and Thomas Hickey, a member of the guard, was 
executed '' for mutiny, sedition, and treachery." 

New Jersey, says Chalmers, was " a scion from New York, 
and either prospered or withered, during every season, as the 
stock flourished or declined." Again he says, that "planted 
by Independents from New England, by Covenanters from 
Scotland, by conspirators from England, such scenes of turbu- 
lence were exhibited * * * age after age, as acquired * * * the 
characteristic appellation of ' The Revolutions.' " Chalmers 
was fond of strong and pointed expressions, and some of his 
statements are to be received, therefore, with allowance. He 
saw — as the students of our history well know — designs to 
throw ofl" allegiance, to " set up for independency," and to effect 



20 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

" Revolutions," in the common quarrels between the Colonial 
Assemblies and the Governors, and in the ordinary peti- 
tions to the mother country, for redress of real or supposed 
wrongs. 

New Jersey was indeed politically annexed to New York, 
and the connexion was dissolved and renewed several times 
prior to 1738. So, too, that part of it, which was originally 
known as "East Jersey," was at one period assigned to Wil- 
liam Penn; while both " East and West Jersey" were subse- 
quently added to the jurisdiction of New England. In 1702, 
the " Jersies " were united under one government, and received 
the present name ; and from 1 738 to the Revolution, New Jer- 
sey had a separate Colonial government. William Franklin — 
who, though the only son of the great philosopher, was a Loy- 
alist—was the last royal governor. The king's party formed 
a considerable body, and three battalions were raised and placed 
in the field, under the command of Cortlandt Skinner, the 
attorney general of the Colony ; but yet, the great mass of the 
people were undoubtedly Whigs. The losses of New Jersey, 
in proportion to her population and wealth, were greater, prob- 
ably, than in any other member of the Confederacy. Her 
soldiers, who entered the service of Congress, gained enviable 
renown ; and within her borders are some of the most memora- 
ble battle-grounds of the Revolution. It was in New Jersey, 
that Washington made his best military movements, and dis- 
played his highest qualities of character ; it was there, that he 
encountered his greatest distresses and difiiculties. and earned 
his most enduring laurels. 

From the horrid warfare, which the Tories of New Jersey 
countenanced, in which they participated, and which the royal 
generals permitted, I turn in disgust. But yet, its general 
character should be mentioned. Instead of using words of my 
own, or the digested statements of our historians, I prefer the 
record of contemporary witnesses; and to guard myself against 
unfairness, I quote from both Whig and Tory. Governor Liv- 
ingston, in his speech to the General Assembly, in 1777, thus 
spoke: The Royalists "have plundered friends and foes; 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. ^ 

effects, capable of division, they have divided ; such as were 
not, they have destroyed. They have warred upon decrepid 
old age, warred upon defenceless youth ; they have committed 
hostilities against the professors of literature, and the ministers 
of religion, against public records and private monuments, 
books of improvement, and papers of curiosity ; and against 
the arts and sciences. They have butchered the wounded, 
asking for quarter, mangled the dead, weltering in their blood, 
refused to the dead the rites of sepulchre, suffered prisoners to 
perish for want of sustenance ; violated the chastity of women, 
disfigured private dwellings of taste and elegance ; and, in the 
rage of impiety and barbarism, profaned edifices dedicated to 
Almighty God." 

In more general terms, this dreadful detail is fully confirmed 
by Joseph Galloway, the leading Loyalist of Pennsylvania, 
who, at the first, was a Whig. In his reply to Sir William 
Howe's ''Observations," and after he retired to England, he 
remarks, that; "All and more than I have said, in my letters 
to a nobleman, respecting indiscriminate and excessive plunder, 
is known to thousands within the British lines, and to a num- 
ber of gentlemen now in England ; and in respect to the rapes, 
the fact alleged does not depend on the credit of newspapers ; 
a solemn inquiry was made, and afiidavits taken, by which it 
appears, that no less than twenty-three were committed in one 
neighborhood in New Jersey ; some of them on married women, 
in presence of their helpless husbands, and others on daughters, 
while the unhappy parents, with unavailing tears and cries, 
could only deplore the savage brutality." 

Deeds like these ; the merciless warfare of Sir John Johnson, 
who ravaged extensive districts in New York, and who did not 
spare the people in the neighborhood of his own former home ; 
the burning of Danbury and Fairfield, and the sacking of 
New Haven, by Tryon ; the destruction of New London, and 
the massacre there, by the traitor Arnold ; the doings of that 
incarnate devil, John Butler, at Wyoming and elsewhere; these, 
and other similar enormities, which were the works, partially 
or wholly, of our countrymen who adhered to the royal cause, 



22 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

and who either entered the reg^ular mihtary service, or assem- 
bled in predatory bands, together with the sad fate of Jane 
McCrea, who was the daughter of one Loyahst, and was to have 
become the bride of another, and who was the victim of her 
parent's and lover's Indian allies, speak of Tory guilt, and of 
the horrors of civil war, in tones which will ring in the ears of 
men for centuries to come. 

We come now to the " proprietary government " of Penn- 
sylvania ; and a proprietary government in America was a 
monarchy in miniature. Its outlines at first were these ; — all 
legislative powers were vested in the governor and freemen of 
the Colony in the colonial council, and a general assembly. 
The governor had a treble vote in the council, which consisted 
of seventy-two members, chosen by the people. The assembly 
embraced all the freemen, but as the Colony increased, the 
number was limited to five hundred.* This system was par- 
tially changed or modified from time to time, as circumstances 
required ; and some years prior to the commencement of the 
revolutionary controversy, a strong effort was made to effect 
an entire abolition of the "proprietary" form, and establish 
another. Among the leaders of this movement was Franklin. 
But though the measure failed, the disquiets which caused it 
to be attempted, never ceased while Pennsylvania was governed 
by deputies appointed by the proprietaries — who usually re- 
sided in England — and while the other obnoxious features of 
the system existed. 

The proprietary governors were not, generally, bad men, 
but the rapacity of some of them was unbounded. Chalmers 
quotes the remark as a shrewd saying, that "a dignitary of 
this description had two masters ; one who gave him his com- 
mission, and one who gave him his pay ; and that he was, 
therefore, on his good behavior to both." Several, I suspect, 
cared very little for either of their two masters ; and he who 
said, that they had three things to attend to, " First to fleece the 
people for the king, then for themselves^ and lastly for the pro- 

* The reader will find some further particulars of the nature of the political 
institutions of Pennsylvania, in the biographical notice of John Penn. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 23 

prietaries their employers," told more truth, and had more wit, 
than the person cited by our well-informed but much prejudiced 
annalist. 

It is perhaps true, that, as a body, the party of which 
Franklin was a member, in these dissensions, was the Whig 
party of the Revolution. Yet, there were exceptions ; and 
some of his warmest personal and political friends were found 
among the adherents of the crown ; while old opponents 
ranged themselves by his side, and did good service during the 
trying scenes which preceded deeds of hostility. For a time, 
the course of Pennsylvania was extremely doubtful. Besides 
the differences which existed elsewhere, the religious faith of 
the people was opposed to the adoption of forcible means to 
dissolve their connexion with the mother country. Hence, 
as in New York, timidity and indecision were evinced among 
the most prominent Whigs. To me, the line of conduct pur- 
sued by John Dickinson is a perfect riddle. His various, elo- 
quent, and able tracts and essays, and the important papers 
and addresses, which came from his pen between the "Stamp- 
act Congress" in 1765, and the close of the first Continental 
Congress, in 1774, gave him a wide and just fame. But in 
the Congress of 1776, he opposed the passage of the Declara- 
tion of Independence with great zeal; and as John Adams was 
itSi "great pillar and support," and "its ablest advocate and 
champion," so he, of all others, was the uncompromising an- 
tagonist of the lion-hearted patriot of the North. The voice 
.of Pennsylvania, was, however, in favor of the Declaration, 
though uttered under circumstances highly painful ; since her 
delegates were equally divided, and Morton, on whom the re- 
sponsibility of rejecting or adopting the measure was cast, 
never, — it is confidentially said, — had a day's peace after- 
wards, and died the next year, in consequence of anxiety 
of mind and depression of spirits, occasioned by the part 
which he had taken. Dickinson and Morton are but exam- 
ples. 

Other Whigs fell oflT entirely ; and joining the royal side, 
became objects of dislike or contempt to the consistent and 



H^ PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

faithful, not only of the party which they abandoned, but of 
that to which they finally adhered. Of this description were 
Galloway and Allen ; both of whom were members, and 
Duche, the chaplain, of the Continental Congress. The sub- 
lime, the appropriate prayer framed by the latter, and uttered 
by him in his official capacity, moved men's hearts as often as 
he bent to repeat it, and it will move the hearts of all who read 
it now. But events show, that his own spirit was not touched 
by its fervent petitions to Almighty God, to sustain and redeem 
his country. Not content merely to go back to the power, 
which, in eloquent tones, he had exhorted his countrymen to 
oppose, his memory is loaded with the infamy of an attempt 
to sap the integrity of Washington. 

I have been able to ascertain so little of a definite character 
of the political condition of Delaware and Maryland, at the 
period to which these remarks relate, that I shall detain the 
reader in neither, and we pass to the " Old Dominion." Vir- 
ginia, like New York, was a feudal aristocracy. But there, a 
large proportion of the land-holders, unlike those of New 
York, were Whigs, and, of course, favored the revolutionary 
movement. Yet, it does not appear, that, upon the questions 
of dissolving her relations loith the mother country, she was as 
ready as, from her early and firm opposition to the Stamp Act, 
might be expected. Indeed, there is the highest possible evi- 
dence for believing, that Yirginia broke her Colonial bonds 
with hesitation. Early in March, 1776, Colonel Joseph Reed, 
of Pennsylvania, in a letter to Washington,* observed, that 
there was "a strange reluctance in the minds of many, to cut 
the knot which ties us to Great Britain, particularly in this 
Colony atid to the southioard." In writing again on the 15th 
of the same month, he was more explicit. " It is said," — 
are his words, — " the Virginians are so alarmed with the 
idea of independence, that they have sent Mr. Braxton on 
purpose to turn the vote of that Colony, if any question on 
thai subject should come before Congress. Washington, in his 

* Spark's Washington, Vol. 3, p. 347. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 40 

reply to the letter of the 15th, admits, that the people of Vir- 
ginia, '■^frorn their' form of gov eminent^ and steady attachment 
heretofore to royalty, will com,e reluctantly into the idea of in- 
dependence" but says, that " time and persecution bring many 
wonderful things to pass," and that, by private letters which 
he had lately received, he found Paine' s celebrated essay, 
called "Common Sense," (which recommended separation,) 
was " working a powerful change there in the minds of many 
men." 

This correspondence, as will be seen, occurred but a little 
more than three months prcAnous to the time when Congress 
actually declared the Thirteen Colonies to be free and indepen- 
dent States ; and the opinions of persons so well informed, so 
intimate in friendship, and occupying so responsible public 
stations, are to be regarded as decisive. 

Again.* If the rule, Avhich may be fairly applied to the/ree 
States, be used to measure the patriotism of Virginia, her claims 
to distinction will hardly be manifest. Thus, between 1775 
and 1783, Connecticut, with a population far smaller, furnished 
the Whig army of regulars with 32,039 men ; while the num- 
ber from Virginia, during the same period, was but 26,672. 
She was likewise deficient in a small sum of her quota of 
money. Yet Washington, Henry, the Lees, Jefferson, and 
Bland, were, undoubtedly, the true exponents of her principles. 

The Colonial history of North Carolina, as far as it is per- 
tinent to our purpose, may be related in a few words. It was 
long united in the same government with South Carolina, and 
was known as the "County of Albermarle; " but finally by 

* The concession to Virginia indicated in the text, is not made of right, 
inasmuch, as her ability to furnish a much larger number of troops was as- 
serted by Congress. For the years 1777, 1778, 1781, and 1782, the quotas 
to be provided by Massachusetts and Virginia were precisely the same in the 
number of battalions and men ; yet in these years, the former placed at the 
disposal of the commander-in-chief, 22,981, while his native State, though 
bound to enlist an equal number, actually enlisted but 13,403, or 9,578 
less than Massachusetts. The diiFerence would have formed a respectable 
army. 

3 



26 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

its present name. It enjoyed a separate House of Assembly 
as early as the year 1715, and was formed into an entirely 
9 distinct Colony twelve years afterwards. As late down as the 
reign of George the First, Chalmers avers, that " this wretched 
province was continually branded as the general receptacle of 
the fugitive, the smuggler, and the pirate ; as a communit)', 
destitute of religion to meliorate the heart, or of laws to direct 
the purpose of the will." In speaking of the state of society 
in the succeeding reign, he indulges in similar strong expres- 
sions, all of which are to be qualified. 

The institutions of North Carolina were decidedly monarch- 
ical from the first. Political or social disorder seems to have 
prevailed, to some extent, throughout her colonial existence. 
After the final overthrow of the Stuarts, many of the adherents 
of the last of that name who sought the British throne, fled 
for refuge to America, and settled within her borders. And it 
was singular — was it not 7 — that most of them were Loyalists, 
that men who had become exiles for the part which they had 
taken against the House of Brunswick, should here, and in 
another civil war, espouse its cause, and, a second time the 
losers, go a second time into banishment. Equally remarka- 
ble in the politics of this Colony, was the course of those who, 
in 1771, rose in insurrection, and were known as "Regulators." 
These men complained of various oppressions, but especially 
of those which attended the practice of law ; they appeared in 
arms, and were determined to prostrate the government. Gov- 
ernor Try on totally defeated them, and left three hundred of 
their number dead on the field. They were the earliest revo- 
lutionists in America — as far as hostile deeds were concerned 
— and, it might be reasonably concluded, became Whigs. But 
disappomting expectation, like the followers of the Pretender, 
above mentioned, a large majority joined the royal party, and 
enlisted under the king's banner. 

North Carolina, then, originally monarchical, and adding to 
her native Loyalists, the survivors of the large emigration 
from Scotland, was nearly divided. Some of her leading . 
Whigs, as well as their descendants, have endeavored to prove, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. ^ 

that the popular party was much in the majority. Facts, as 
it seems to me, hardly sustain them. The Whig regulars, for 
the whole period of the war, were barely 7,263, or only 1,355 
more than from Rhode Island, the smallest State in the confed- 
eracy. With a population considerably more than double to 
that of New Hampshire, how did it happen, that the number 
of continental troops furnished, was 5,233 less 7 But without 
relying upon this test — as in fairness, perhaps, I should not, 
when speaking of any slave State — what are the results ob- 
tained by an examination of separate counties? In Anson 
county, Governor Martin had two hundred and twenty-seven 
" Loyal Addresses; " in Guilford county, he had one hundred 
and sixteen ; in Rowan and Surry, one hundred and ninety- 
five ; and it is indisputably true, that the banks of the Cape 
Fear river, the vallies of its remote sources, and the ter- 
ritory bordering on the Deep and Haw rivers, which em- 
brace the present counties of Moore, Orange, Chatham, Guil- 
ford, and Randolph, and then, as now, comprising the very 
heart of North Carolina, were overrun with Tories. And, be- 
sides, in the county of Cumberland, the adherents of the crown 
so far outnumbered the Whigs, as to ravage their estates with 
impunity, and carry off their slaves and cattle, long before a 
British " regular " set his feet on the soil, to aid or countenance 
the lawless proceedings. 

In another essential particular, how was it ? In the battle 
of Moore's Creek, Colonel Caswell defeated a body of troops, 
and made eight hundred and ninety-four prisoners, every man 
of whom, officers and soldiers, were Loyalists. On no 
other field of battle, as far as I have knowledge, was there 
so large a capture of adherents to the crown, during the war, 
if those who submitted at King's Mountain be excepted. 
These facts show, then, not only the strength, but the deeply 
hostile spirit of the royal party, and leave the conviction, that 
their opponents could have been scarcely their superiors in 
point of numbers. 

Again. How was it with a />or/iow of the Whigs? There 
is proof, that many were as unstable as the wind. If the sky 



96 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

was bright, and a Whig victory had been obtained somewhere, 
and if, above all, no king's troops were near, why, then, these 
changing men were steadfast for the right; but if news of 
reverses reached them, or the royal army came in their midst, 
then they "supported," and, by their own account, "always 
had supported, their lawful sovereign, his most gracious ma- 
jesty." 

I would willingly do the Whigs of North Carolina no injus- 
tice ; on the other hand, I would relieve them from all impu- 
tations which cannot be sustained by ample and the most 
unobjectionable testimony. It is in this spirit, that I dissent 
from some of the declarations of Mr. Jefferson. That distin- 
guished man, in a written statement made a few years before 
his decease, distinctly alleges, that William Hooper, one of 
the delegates in Congress from that State in 1776, was a rank, 
an out and out Tory. Mr. Hooper was born in Massachusetts, 
and was educated at Harvard University. His father, and 
nearly all of his relatives, were, indeed. Loyalists. But he 
was a student of James Otis, and imbibed his political senti- 
ments ; nor did he leave New England until after parties were 
formed, and until after the "Stamp-Act" difficulties had 
passed away. I have read several of his confidential letters 
to his friends, while he was in Congress ; letters in which, if 
he possessed the political sympathies attributed to him by Mr. 
Jefferson, the inclinations of his mind would have been shown. 
That he was a timid man, like Morton of Pennsylvania, is very 
probable. Yet, I submit, that no defence is necessary. Hooper 
signed the Declaration of Independence, and of all documents 
to which a " Tory " would have affixed his name, that, cer- 
tainly, was among the very last. 

It is grateful, now, to turn to the brighter side, and to bestow 
words of praise. The original Whig party of North Carolina 
embraced a large proportion of the wealth, virtue, and intelU- 
gence of the State. In the county of Bute, especially, the 
king had no friends, except a few Scotch merchants, and 
vagrant pedlers ; while the number of wavering Whigs was 
so small, as that the county was nearly unanimous in favor 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 1)9 

of the change which the leaders advocated, and put their for- 
tunes and Uves at hazard to obtain. Nor should it be for- 
gotten, that in the county of Mecklenburgh a Declaration of 
Independence was passed, more than a year before the more 
celebrated instrument of the same name was adopted by the 
Continental Congress at Philadelphia. As late as the year 
1819, Mr. Jefferson made a labored argument, to prove that 
no such document exists. But that such a paper was written, 
considered, signed, and promulgated, is now as well established 
as is any event in our history. It is known, moreover, that 
Colonel Thomas Polk * originated the measure, and that the 
Declaration itself was from the pen of Dr. Ephraim Brevard. 

South Carolina, at first, and for about half a century, was 
a proprietary government, and like Pennsylvania, therefore, a 
sort of hereditary monarchy in miniature. In 1719, the people 
abolished this form, took from the proprietors the power of 
appointing governors, and erected a temporary republic. This 
change was but for a moment; and two years after, a regal 
government was established, which continued until the Revo- 
lution. As in all the Colonies, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and 
Pennsylvania excepted, the governor was appointed by the 
king. In other respects, the British constitution was the 
model. In all the essential features, then, the institutions of 
South 'Carolina were thoroughly monarchical, from the begin- 
ning to the end of her Colonial existence ; and the principal 
object of the inhabitants, in 1719, seems to have been, rather 
to transfer the power of appointing the governor from the pro- 
prietaries to the crown, than to obtain and exercise the right of 
electing their executive for themselves. When, in 1775, the 
government passed from Bull, the royal lieutenant-governor, 
into Whig hands, a provisional constitution was adopted, 
which was new modelled after the declaration of indepen- 
dence. 

The public men of South Carolina of the present generation, 
claim that her patriotic devotion in the revolution was inferior 

* Col. Polk was. I think, the great uncle of the President of the United 
States. 

3* _ 



30 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

to none, and was superior to most of the States of the Confed- 
eracy. As I examine the evidence, it was not so. The popula- 
tion, composed as it was of emigrants from Switzerland, Ger- 
many, France, Ireland, and the Northern Colonies of America, 
and their descendants, was, of course, deficient in the necessary 
degree of homogeneity or sameness of nature, to insure any 
considerable unanimity of political sentiment. It is true, 
however, that individual men took an early, a noble, and a 
decided stand against the oppressive measures of the British 
ministry. It is equally true, that South Carolina was the first 
State of the thirteen, to form an independent constitution, and 
that she overpaid her proportion of the expenditures of the 
war, in the sum of 1,205,978 dollars. She sent some gallant 
Whigs to the field, and several wise ones to the council. But 
to use the apt sayings of every-day life, " One swallow does 
not make a summer," nor " One feather make a bed ; " and 
so, a Laurens, father and son, a Middleton, a Rutledge, Ma- 
rion, Sumpter, and Pickens, do not prove that the Whig leaven 
was diffused throughout the mass of her people. 

The whole number of regulars enlisted for the Continental ser- 
vice from the beginning to the close of the struggle, was 231,959. 
Of these, I have once remarked, 67,907 were from Massa- 
chusetts ; and I may now add, that every State, south of Penn- 
sylvania, provided but 59,493, or 8,414 less than this single 
State; and that New England — now, I grieve to say, con- 
temned and reproached — equipped and maintained 118,350, 
or above half of the number placed at the service of Con- 
gress during the war.* I would not press these facts to the 

* The following table of the number of troops furnished by each State 
doriag the Revolution, has been formed from the statements and statistics 
contained in the Report of General Knox, secretary of war, to Congress, in 
1790. The number of regulars, or of continentals, was derived by him from 
the official returns deposited in the war office, and is, therefore, correct. It 
will be seen, that one class of the militia is conjectural ; the first column of 
this kind of force is accurate, as stated in the Report, and the second 
(ia which, probably, there is not much but " conjecture ") shows the supposed 
oontributions of each State, in addition to the continentals, and the returned 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



31 



injury of the Whigs of the South. The war, after the evacu- 
ation of Boston, I am aware, was transferred from New Eng- 
land to the Middle and Southern States; and these States, 
accordingly, required bodies of troops to be kept at home to 
protect themselves. But as it is to be presumed, that most of 
such bodies composed a part of the regular force employed by 
Congress, and were, therefore, included in the Continental 
establishment and pay, the argument is, in no essential par- 
ticular, weakened by the admission, that the Whigs of the 
South were of necessity employed in the defence of their own 
fire-sides. For, were this the truth of the case, the numbers 
in this service, as well as in other, would still appear, in mak- 
ing up the aggregate force, enlisted from time to time, in each 
State. The exact question is, then, not where were the battle- 
grounds of the Revolution, but what was the proportion o^ 
men, which each of the thirteen States supplied, for the contest. 



militia. A similar table was published in the New Hampshire Historical 
Collections, Niles's Register, and American Almanac, which gives the regu- 
lar force at 231,791, the number of militia at 56,163, but omits the quotas 
required of each State, and the conjectural militia. The continentals of that 
table and the following nearly agree. 





Quotas fixed 








Aggregate 


States. 


and required 


Troops furnished by each State. 


force fur- 




by Congress. 








nished by 
each State, 










Estimated, or 






Continentals. 


Militia re- 


conjectural^ 

in addition to 


including 








turned. 


continentals 
and militia 
returned. 


the conjec- 
tural 
miliiia. 


New Hampshire 


10,194 


12,496 


2,093 


3,700 


18,289 


Massachusetts 




52,698 


67,907 


15,145 


9,500 


92,552 


Rhode Island 






5,694 


5,908 


4,284 


1,500 


11,692 


Connecticut . 






28,336 


32,039 


7,238 


3,000 


42,277 


New York 








15,734 


17,781 


3,866 


8,750 


30,397 


New Jersey 








11,396 


10,727 


6,055 


2,500 


19,282 


Pennsylvania 








40,416 


25,608 


7,357 


2,000 


34,965 


Delaware . 








3,974 


2,387 


0,376 


1,000 


3,763 


Maryland . 








26,608 


13,832 


3,929 


4,000 


21,761 


Virginia . 








48,522 


26,672 


4,429 


21,880 


52,981 


North Carolina 






23,994 


7,263 


3,975 


12,000 


23,238 


South Carolina 






16,932 


6,660 


0,000 


25,850 


32,510 


Georgia . . 






3,974 


2,679 


0,000 


9,900 


12,579 
396,286 










288,472 


231,959 


58,747 


105,580 



32 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

In considering the political condition of Virginia and North 
Carolina, it was admitted, that these States were not able to 
provide troops according to their population, as compared with 
the States destitute of a ''peculiar institution." The same 
admission is now made in behalf of South Carolina. Yet, did 
6,660 Whig soldiers exhaust her resources of men ? Could 
she furnish only 752 more than Rhode Island, the smallest 
State in the Confederacy ; only one fifth of the number of 
Connecticut ; only one half as many as New Hampshire, then 
almost an unbroken wilderness 7 She did not ; she could not 
defend herself against her own Tories ; and it is hardly an 
exaggeration to add, that more Whigs of New England were 
sent to her aid, and now lie buried in her soil, than she sent 
from it to every scene of strife from Lexington to Yorktown. 

South Carolina, with a Northern army to assist her, could 
not, or would not. even preserve her own capital. When news 
reached Connecticut, that Gage had sent a force into the 
country, and that blood had been shed, Putnam was at work 
in his field ; leaving his plough in the furrow, he started for 
Cambridge, without changing his garments. When Stark 
heard the same tidings, he was sawing pine-logs, and without 
a coat ; shutting down the gate of his mill, he commenced his 
journey to Boston in his shirt-sleeves. The same spirit ani- 
mated the Whigs far and near, and the capital of New Eng- 
land was invested with fifteen thousand armed men. 

How was it at Charleston ? That city was the great mart 
of the South ; and, what Boston still is, the centre of the ex- 
port and import trade of a large population. In grandeur, in 
splendor of buildings, in decorations, in equipages, in shipping 
and commerce, Charleston was equal to. any city in America. 
But its citizens did not rally to save it, and Gen. Lincoln was 
compelled to accept of terms of capitulation. He was much 
censured for the act. Yet, whoever calmly examines the cir- 
cumstances, will be satisfied, I think, that the measure was 
unavoidable; and that the inhabitants, as a body, preferred 
to return to their allegiance to the British crown. The people, 
on whom Congress^and Gen. Lincoln depended to complete his 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. IV 

force, refused to enlist under the Whig banner ; but after the 
surrender of the city, they flocked to the royal standard by 
hundreds. In a word, so general was the defection, that per- 
sons who had enjoyed Lincoln's confidence joined the royal 
side, and men who had participated in his councils bowed 
their necks anew to the yoke of Colonial vassalage. Sir Henry 
Clinton considered his triumph complete, and communicated 
to the ministry the intelligence, that the whole State had yielded 
submission to the royal arms, and had become again a part of 
the empire. To the women of South Carolina, and to Marion, 
Sumpter, and Pickens, the celebrated partisan chiefs, who kept 
the field without the promise of men, money, or supplies, it 
was owing, that Sir Henry's declaration did not prove entirely 
true for a time, and that the name and the spirit of liberty 
did not become utterly extinct. 

Again ; what was the nature of the conflict between the two 
great parties in South Carolina? Did the Whigs and their 
opponents meet in open and fair fight, and give and take the 
courtesies, and observe the rules, of civilized warfare ? Alas, 
no ! They murdered one another. I wish it were possible to 
use a milder word ; but murder, is the only one that can be 
employed to express the truth. Of this, however, the reader 
shall judge. I shall refrain from a statement of my own, and 
rely on the testimony of others. 

Gen. Greene thus spoke of the hand to hand strifes, which I 
stigmatize as murderous. "The animosity," said he, "between 
the Whigs and Tories, renders their situation truly deplorable. 
The Whigs seem determined to extirpate the Tories, and the 
Tories the Whigs. Some thousands have fallen in this way, 
in this quarter, and the evil rages with more violence than ever. 
If a stop cannot be soon put to these massacres, the country loiU 
be depopulated in a few months mx)re, as neither Whig nor 
Tory can live.^' 

It is scarcely necessary to say, that, after Washington, Greene 
was the ablest man in commission, that his character was with- 
out blemish ; or that, as he was on the spot, his declarations 
are to pass unquestioned. Still, as the late Chief Justice 



C^V 



34 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Marshall confirms his narration, though in more general terms, 
an extract from the Life of Washington may serve to remove 
all fear, that the Northern general was influenced by sectional 
feeling. The people of the South, says the eminent jurist, 
" felt all the miseries which are inflicted by war in its most 
savage form. Being almost equally divided between the two 
contending parties, reciprocal injuries had gradually sharpened 
their resentments against each other, and had armed jieighbor 
against neighbor, until it became a war of exterm^ination. As 
the parties alternately triumphed, opportunities were alternately 
given for the exercise of their vindictive passions." 

It were a hard duty to determine, from an examination of 
the details of the contest thus vividly portrayed, which party 
was guilty of the greatest barbarities ; and I dismiss the sub- 
ject with the remark, that, whatever the guilt of the Tories, 
the Whigs disgraced their cause and the American name. 
Nor was it in South Carolina only, that deeds of shame were 
done. There were those among the Whig ofiicers who served 
in other sections, — nor were they all of inferior rank, — who 
took life without necessity, and for the sake, apparently, of 
merely enjoying the death-scene of a trembling, shrieking Tory. 
Others, mayhap, there were, who 

" Traded in the blood of innocence, and plead 
Ejcpedience as a warrant for the deed." 

Georgia, the remaining Colony, was in its infancy, and 
Oglethorpe, its founder, lived until after it became an indepen- 
dent State. The designs of himself and his associates in its 
settlement, were highly benevolent and generous; and the 
public purse contributed a considerable sum to aid their under- 
taking. By their charter, the king was to model the govern- 
ment at the end of twenty-one years; and accordingly, in 1752, 
at the expiration of this period, a royal government Avas estab- 
lished similar to that in the Carolinas, which existed until the 
Revolution. Georgia sent no delegates to the first Continen- 
tal Congress ; and that she was represented in the second, was 
owing, I am led to conclude, principally to the zeal and ex- 
ertions of Lyman Hall, a native of Connecticut, who, having 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. ^ 

graduated at Yale College, and fitted himself for the practice 
of medicine, removed to Sunbury. His ardor in the Whig 
cause exposed him to the indignation of his opponents, and 
after the royal army penetrated Georgia, his property was 
seized and confiscated. The Rev. Dr. Zubly, another of the 
delegates, proved himself unworthy of confidence, and lost his 
estate at the hands of his former friends and associates. To 
form a party of "liberty- men" within the borders of Georgia, 
to organize this party and commit it in favor of the "rebellion," 
which was fast hastening to " treason " and Revolution in 
other parts of the continent, was attended with difiiculty, and 
required time and labor. But such a party finally existed and 
acted ; and the American Confederacy was thus completed. 

Though overrun by the king's troops, and governed by 
military law during a considerable part of the war, Georgia 
overpaid her quota of money in a small sum, and furnished 
2,679 men for the Continental service. If, then, it be consid- 
ered, that her population was small, her resources limited, that 
Sir James Wright, the last royal governor, was an able and 
popular man, and rallied a considerable body of Loyalists, and 
that, in the course of events, the Whigs were compelled to flee 
into the neighboring States for safety ; her efibrts and sacri- 
fices are entitled to commendation.* 

From this rapid survey of the Thirteen Colonies, it has ap- 
peared that the adherents of the crown were more numerous 

* Georgia was, however, regarded as highly loyal. One of the ablest and 
best informed of the Loyalists, thus speaks : " Georgia had not only been 
recovered out of the hands of the insurgents, in 1779, but the province was 
put at the peace of the king by his Majesty's Conunissioners, and the king's 
civil government restored, and all the loyal inhabitants required by proclama- 
tion to return to their settlements, and an Assembly called, and actually sub- 
sisting, and all the civil officers in the exercise of their functions, when 
orders came in 1782, to evacuate the country, and deliver it up to the rebels, 
which was done accordingly, without any stipulation in favor of the attainted 
Loyalists, or their confiscated properties, although the rebel force in that 
country was so inconsiderable, that the Loyalists offered to the king^s general 
to preserve the province for his Majesty, if he would leave them a single egt 
ment of foot, and the " Georgia Rangers," to assist them.'''' 



36: PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

at the South, and in Pennsylvania and New York, than in 
New England. Neither in the regulations of the crown, nor 
in the enactments of parliament, had there been much either 
to offend the feelings or check the industry of the planters and 
agriculturists. Towards the Colonies that sold raw produce, 
the policy of the mother country had been mild, perhaps lib- 
eral. They were the Round-heads, and not the Cavaliers, 
who met her upon the ocean and in the work-shop ; hence, 
it was to them that she showed the most odious features of 
the Colonial system. But taunted, for a century and a half, 
with the heresy of their faith, and impeded in all their enter- 
prises ever after the death of Cromwell, the people of the 
North were driven to invoke the sympathy of their Colonial 
brethren whose religion and pursuits had been the more fa- 
vored objects of her regard ; and when their joint appeals to 
her justice and magnanimity failed to shake her purposes, then, 
by the union of counsel, arms, and effort, all the Colonies 
together broke from her dominion. If, therefore, the war of 
the Revolution had its origin in a long course of aggression 
upon the rights of the North, its successful issue was due in 
some measure to the more meritorious, because more disinter- 
ested, exertions of the South. If, too, this course of aggression 
gradually diffused a spirit of resistance throughout the coun- 
try, so that Episcopal and monarchical Virginia at last furnished 
a commander for the Puritan and republican soldiers of Mas- 
sachusetts, the conclusion becomes irresistible, that the wrongs 
which united men of so different characters and pursuits, were 
far too deep and grave to be excused or extenuated. 

We enter now upon a brief inquiry to show the divisions in 
the different classes and avocations of Colonial society. And 
first, those who held office. Nearly all the officials of all 
grades adhered to the crown. This was to have been expect- 
ed. Men who lived in ease, who enjoyed all the considerations 
and deference which rank and station invariably confer, and 
especially in monarchies, and who, therefore, had nothing to 
gain, but much to lose, by a change, viewed the dissensions 
that arose between themselves and the people, in a hght which 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 37 

allowed their self-love and their self-interest to have full play. 
" They were appointed and sworn to execute the laws, and in 
obeying the instructions of the ministry at home to enforce 
the statutes of the realm, they did but perform common acts 
of duty." These were the arguments, and they were neither 
the first nor the last persons in office who have reasoned in the 
same manner, and who have kept their places at the expense 
of their patriotism. Besides, they affected to believe, that the 
Whig leaders were mere needy office-hunters, and that the con- 
tests between them were in some measure personal. The de- 
scendants of Loyalists, whose homes are across our northeastern 
border, in conversations with citizens of the republic, continue 
to repeat the tale. They have been answered, that, were the 
charge true, our fathers were still the more patriotic of the two; 
since, upon this issue, it would seem that theirs, who were the 
fat and sleek possessors, would not give up the much coveted 
stations to the lean and hungry expectants and claimants, even 
to preserve the British empire from dismemberment. They 
have been answered farther, that they derive no benefit from 
the averment, even though Washington, and John Adams, and 
Jay, were just objects of the world's scorn, and though every 
associate they had were an Arnold in motive, and for the ob- 
vious reason, that separation from the mother country is still 
to be triumphantly defended on the ground of absolute neces- 
sity. For, without a dissolution of the connexion, the Saxon 
race in the New World could neither have developed the re- 
sources of the continent they occupied, nor have become great 
and happy. It has been said, too, that if it be admitted that 
the younger Otis actually did vow he would set Massachusetts 
in flames though he should perish in the fire, because his father 
was not appointed to a vacant and promised judgeship ; that, 
as has been alleged, John Adams was at a loss which side to 
take, and became a "rebel," because he was refused a com- 
mission in the peace ; that Samuel Adams was a defaulting 
collector of taxes, and paid up his arrears of money, in abuse 
of honest men ; that, as his enemies say, Hancock possessed 
neither stability nor principle, and that wounded vanity caused 
4 



38 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

his opposition to the king's servants ; that Joseph Warren was 
a broken man, and sought amid the turmoils of civil strife to 
better his condition ; that Washington was soured because he 
was not retained in the British army, in reward for his services 
in the French war; that the Lees were all unsound men, and 
that Richard Henry was disappointed in not receiving the 
office of stamp distributor, which he solicited ; that Franklin 
was vexed at the opposition to his great land-projects and plans 
for settlements on the Ohio ; and that a large majority of the 
prominent Whigs of every Colony were young men who had 
their furtunes to make, and distinction to win ; that, if all this 
be admitted, what then? The argument is as two edged as 
at the first, and though it be granted that one side of the blade 
wounds the Whigs, the other still cuts deep the Tories. For, 
upon this ground it may be asked, what claim to perpetuity 
had the institutions which denied to a man like John Adams 
the humble place of a justice of the peace; and to George 
Washington, an opportunity to display his qualities of character 
on the great field which the Being who made him intended for 
him? And if the thought ever obtruded itself upon John Mar- 
shall, that by living and dying a Colonist, he should live and die 
undistinguished and without leaving his name in his country's 
annals, I know not that the emotion was blameable. The des- 
tiny marked out for him, was to found the jurisprudence of a 
nation; and has the world been the loser because he ful- 
filled it? 

The children of the Loyalists, though thus met, complain 
because the ofiices at the close of the conflict passed from 
the " old families " into the hands of " upstarts," It has been 
replied to this, that, revolution or no revolution, it was high 
time the persons stigmatized as "upstarts," had a share of 
the royal patronage ; first, to break up the practice of bestow- 
ing upon the son, however unworthy or incompetent, the 
place held by the father ; and secondly, to introduce faithful- 
ness and responsibility, and to dismiss arrogant and disobliging 
incumbents. 

The allegations thus noticed, are proved, as those who 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 39 

make them sagely imagine, by the fact, that the Whigs, at the 
peace, received the executive chairs of the several States, 
the judgeships, the collectorships, the great law offices, and 
other public situations, previously held by their opponents. 
This argument is sufficient to disturb the gravity of a man 
who never smiled in his life ; and yet it is sometimes soberly 
urged by the intelligent and well informed, and enforced in 
strong and impassioned tones. 

But, it is time to inquire, what became of the office-holders 
whom the Revolution expelled 1 Did they, did the adherents 
of the crown, generally, evince an unconquerable aversion to 
public employment, after their retirement or banishment from 
the United States? The answer to these questions will be 
found in these pages. It will be seen, that they not only filled 
all the principal offices in the present British Colonies, but 
that their places descended to, and are now occupied by their 
sons, connexions, and relatives. In no point of view, then, 
are the Loyalists entitled to become the accusers of the Whigs; 
since it is the innocent only who can properly cast stones at 
the offending or the faulty. Nor is it to be overlooked, that 
offices under the British crown are, in many respects, of the 
nature of life-estates or life annuities, since the practice which 
prevailed in the " old thirteen," of perpetuating official dis- 
tinctions in families, still continues to a very great extent, since 
the term " Family Compact," in Colonial politics, has refer- 
ence to this fact, and since, too, while places are not thus lost 
and won at every turn of the political wheel as with us, the 
salaries, fees, and emoluments are much greater than are paid 
either under our State or national governments. Collectors of 
the customs, judges of courts, treasurers, attornies and solici- 
tors general, in British America, for example, commonly 
receive double the sums for their services, that are allowed to 
officers of the same names and duties in the United States ; 
and several Colonial chief-justices enjoy larger official incomes 
than any member of our highest Federal Court. Instead, 
therefore, of our being compelled to defend the Whigs against 
the charge of undue or of improper love of office, the Loyal- 



40 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

ists, and those of their descendants who repeat their fathers' 
accusations, are to be turned upon in quiet good nature, and 
to be put upon their men defe?ice. 

We pass to consider the course pursued by the commercial 
class. The claims of the merchants and ship-owners have 
never, as it seems to me, been fully or fairly stated. They 
were undoubtedly the first persons in America, who set them- 
selves in array against the measures of the ministry. The 
causes of their opposition have already incidentally appeared, 
but some farther notice should now be taken of their efforts 
to obtain the right of free navigation of the ocean. Nothing 
in my judgment is clearer, than that the British Navigation 
Act and the Laws of Trade, which were a part of the system 
it was meant to enforce, contained the germs of the Revolution. 
The Stamp Act, and other statutes of a kindred nature, have 
been made, I think, to occupy too prominent a place among the 
causes assigned for that event. The irritation which the du- 
ties on stamps excited in the planting Colonies, subsided as 
soon as the law which imposed them was repealed; and I sub- 
mit, that, but for the policy which oppressed the commerce and 
inhibited the use of the water-falls of New England, the 
"dispute" between the mother and her children would have 
been " left," as Washington breathed a wish that it might be, 
" to posterity to determine." 

While Cromwell lived. Colonial trade was free ; but after his 
death, the maritime interests of America soon felt the diiference 
between a Puritan and a Stuart. Measures were taken by 
Charles, with all possible speed, to restrain and regulate the in- 
tercourse of the Colonies with countries not in subjection to 
him, and even that with England herself. At the period when 
his designs were to be executed, Massachusetts, foremost in 
all marine enterprises, not only traversed the sea at will, but 
had her own plan of revenue, and a collector of her customs, 
and exacted fees of vessels arriving at her ports. The mer- 
chants of Boston had dealings with Spain, France, Portugal, 
Holland, the Canaries, and even with Guinea and Madagascar, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 41 

and had accumulated considerable wealth.* The trade of 
Connecticut, of Rhode Island, and the other Colonies, was small 
and limited. But as a commercial spirit existed everywhere, 
and as every Colony had some share in the traffic which was 
to be checked, or, if possible, to be entirely broken up. none 
Avere disposed to submit quietly to the measures which were 
meant to effect either of these purposes. When, then, the 
royal collectors of the customs came over from England, to 
carry out the will of their sovereign, they were met with re- 
sistance from one end of the continent to the other. 

Edward Randolph, who was commissioned to be the first 
collector, surveyor and searcher of Massachusetts and of all 
New England, landed at Boston in 1679. He was directed to 
fix his own residence at that port, and to appoint at least one 
deputy in the " Colonyes of Plymouth, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, the Province of Mayne, and New Hampshire." His 
instructions were tediously minute, and were arranged under 
nineteen distinct heads. They were evidently framed by one 
who was thoroughly acquainted with the course of Colonial 
trade, and the offences for which, in executing them, he might 
seize vessels and cargoes, were very numerous.! He was 

* Josselyn, who was in Massachusetts at this period, says that some mer- 
chants were " damnable rich," and Dunton, who followed a few years after, 
speaks of a lady who came over from England, " with the valuable venture 
of her beautiful person, which went off at an extraordinary rate, she marry- 
ing a merchant in Salem worth nearly thirty thousand pound." Between 
the visits of these quaint chroniclers, the commissioneis of Charles had come 
on their inglorious errand, and had made a report of the extent of the trade 
which was now by statute illicit, and in following which, the Colonists had ac- 
quired a knowledge of different parts of the world, and bettered their own 
condition. 

f These instructions were dated from the " Custom-house, London, July 
9, 1678," and affixed to them are the signatures of Ed. Dering, Ch. Cheyne, 
and G. Downing, and they were probably framed by the latter. Sir George 
Downing was a resident of Salem, Mass., for some time, and was a member 
of the first class that graduated at Harvard University. It is supposed that 
he devised the British Navigation Act, though St. John, another statesman 
of Cromwell's time, is a rival claimant in the apprehension of Mr. Bancroft. 
Sir George Downing was undoubtedly a man of talents, and possessed a con- 

4* 



& PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

furnished, also, with the several acts of Parliament which re- 
lated to the objects of his mission, and with such other doc- 
uments as were deemed necessary. Thus armed, he opened 
his office * among the Roundheads of Boston. He was 
a doomed man before his arrival. Determined upon success, 
he made eight voyages to and from America in the nine years 
which connect his name with our annals. But from the first 
to the last of his career, he was treated with aversion and con- 
tempt. The merchants determined that he should not break 
up their intercourse with places interdicted by the Navigation 
Act, and the vessels which were seized by him and his depu- 
ties were rescued, and sent upon the voyages which their own- 
ers had designed them to make, though liable to re-seizure 
upon their return to America. If he carried his complaints to 
the Colonial courts, he obtained no redress, but on the other 
hand, both he and his subordinates were fined for their official 
zeal. In a word, after enduring every indignity, Randolph 
himself was imprisoned. In a letter to Lord Clarendon, writ- 
ten from Boston in 1682, he says : "I humbly beseech your 
Lordship, that I may have consideration for all my losses and 
money laid out in prosecuting seizures here." The same year 
he wrote to the Bishop of London : "I have a great fammyly 
to mayntayne, have great losses and expences about his Ma- 
jesties service here." To a Mr. Povey, in 1687, he says : "I 
am at £5l) a year charge to keep an able clerke, and cannot 

trolling influence, after his removal from America, in the councils of the^Pro- 
tector. Yet, New England, at most, owes his memory nothing but silence. 
Her strong men of the revolutionary era regarded it with utter detestation. 
His name to them was identified with a measure, which, whether he designed 
it so or not, wronged his native country, untU she acquired strength to resist 
and overturn it. He died in 1684, near the close of the reign of Charles the 
Second. 

* The custom-house, which Randolph occupied in Boston, stood on the 
water's edge at the corner of Richmond and Ann streets. I suppose that 
it was the first building erected for collecting the King's duties in America. 
It was of wood, and was not taken down until October, 1846, when many 
parts of the frame were found in a good state of preservation. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. |3 

get any fees settled sufficient to pay that charge." In a letter 
dated from the " Gaol in Boston," to the governor of Barba- 
does, he thus writes : " The country is poor, the exact execu- 
tion of the acts of trade hath much impoverished them ; all 
the blame lyes upon me, who first attacked, and then overthrew 
their charter, and was the officer to continue their Egyptian 
servitude, by irvy office of collector.'''' Again, and from his dun- 
geon, he implored Cooke, his old enemy, to take from his 
apartment a wounded fellow-prisoner, whose sores had become 
insupportably offensive. 

Such was the treatment and the fate of the first emissary 
of the British crown to New England, who was sent upon the 
inglorious errand of restraining her commerce, and of contin- 
uing, by Randolph's own admission in the hour of his humili- 
ation, her " Egyptian servitude." 

The collectors, who were appointed to the other parts of the 
country, were received hardly more kindly. The ' '-Assemblies ' ' 
of Virginia and Maryland recognised those sent to them as 
"legal oflicers," but difliculties arose in both Colonies, though 
neither of them possessed a considerable town or mart of trade. 
In the former, earnest complaints were made against the Act 
of Navigation, and the restraints imposed upon commerce 
generally. In Bacon's harangues to the people, these topics 
were not forgotten ; and one of the objects to be gained by 
those who followed him into open rebellion was to " build ships, 
and, like New England, to trade to any part of the worlds 
Towards the close of the century, seven collectors and naval 
officers,* all of whom were members of Andros's council, 
were stationed in different parts of the Colony, and, in form 

* Ralph Wormley, secretary, collector, and naval officer of Rappahannock 
River. Colonel Richard Lee, collector and naval officer of the upper district 
of Potomac River. Colonel Christopher Wormley, collector and naval officer, 
lower district of Potomac River. Colonel Edward Hill, collector and naval 
officer of upper district of James River. Colonel Edmund Jennings, collector 
and naval officer of York River. Colonel Daniel Park, collector and naval 
officer of lower district of James River. Colonel Charles Scarborough, collector 
and naval officer on the Eastern Shores. 



44 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

at least, the Navigation Act and the kindred laws were after- 
wards observed. But though the declaration, that Virginia 
had long acquiesced in the acts restrictive of her commerce, 
occurs in her instructions to her delegates to the first Conti- 
nental Congress, I very much doubt, whether the submission 
was more than nominal, or much as it was in other Colonies, 
since there is evidence to show, that many of the king's reve- 
nue officers were themselves great traffickers^ and were quite as 
unscrupulous as others who bought^ sold, and shipped com,- 
Tnodities. 

So in Maryland, there was a strenuous opposition to the 
establishment of a custom-house, and to the presence of a col- 
lector. In the controversy, mobs and riots, which succeeded 
the attempt. Lord Baltimore became involved in great difficul- 
ties, by which his chartered rights were endangered; and 
Rousby, the collector, was killed. In North Carolina, the en- 
deavor of the king's officer to promote a more lawful trade, 
and the dispute with a New England trader as to the entry of 
a vessel at the custom-house, and the payment of duties, was 
one of the causes of an insurrection, which resulted in depo- 
sing and imprisoning Miller, the collector. In South Carolina, 
illicit traffic continued to be carried on, notwithstanding the 
exertions of Muschamp, the royal officer of the customs ; and 
great tumult and disorder were created by his attempts to sup- 
press it. In New York, Dyer, the Duke of York's collector, 
was indicted for performing his official acts ; and the memo- 
rable rebellion a few years afterwards, promoted by Leisler, — 
a wealthy merchant, who owned ships which he sent to Eu- 
rope, and who lost his life on the restoration of the lawful 
government, for the part he had taken in subverting it, — orig- 
inated partly in the disputes that arose with the principal 
officers of the revenue. In New Jersey, the collector was 
thwarted by the people who formed the juries, when prosecu- 
tions were commenced against smugglers ; while the quarrels 
between the officers of that Colony and New York, as to the 
rights of entering and clearing vessels, added to the disturb- 
ances ; and the seizures and condemnations which followed 
produced great commotion. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 45 

Such was the result of the first eifort to fasten upon the 
Colonial merchants and ship-owners the Navigation Act and 
Laws of Trade. After this signal failure, all further and se- 
rious endeavors to arrest the course or restrain the limits of 
their maritime enterprises were discontinued for nearly a cen- 
tury. Collectors of the customs were, however, continued at 
all the principal ports, but they seldom interfered to trouble 
those who embarked in unlawful adventures, and such adven- 
tures were finally undertaken without fear, and almost with- 
out hazard. In truth, the commerce of America was prac- 
tically free. Some merchants " smuggled " whole cargoes 
outright; others paid the king's duty on a part, gave "hush- 
money" to the imder-officers of the customs, and "run" the 
balance. 

Suddenly, and without warning, there came a change. The 
year 1761 was filled with events of momentous consequence. 
We find the merchants of the ports of New England, and es- 
pecially those of Boston and Salem, deeply exasperated by 
the attempts of the revenue officers, under fresh and peremp- 
tory orders, to exact strict observance of the laws of naviga- 
tion and trade ; and, by a pretension set up under these in- 
structions, to enter and search places suspected of containing 
smuggled goods. To submit to this pretension, was to surren- 
der the quiet of their homes and the order of their ware- 
houses to the underlings of the government, and the property 
which they held to the rapacity of informers, whose gains 
would be in proportion to their wickedness. Those, therefore, 
of the two principal towns of Massachusetts, who were inter- 
ested in continuing the business which they had long pursued 
without molestation, and under a sort of prescriptive right, 
and in preserving their property from the grasp of pimps and 
spies, determined to withstand the crown-officers, and to ap- 
peal to the tribunals for protection against their claims. James 
Otis threw up an honorable and profitable station to become 
their advocate, and by his plea in their behalf, he became also 
the first champion of the Revolution, 

From this period until the commencement of hostilities, 



40 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

there was no season of quiet in either of the Colonies which 
depended upon maritime pursuits ; and in Massachusetts, the 
scenes of tumult and wild commotion which occurred, were the 
prelude of open war. The nine years which preceded the affray, 
— absurdly called the " Boston Massacre," — were crowded 
with acts, which show to what extent the quarrels had spread, 
and what strength the popular wrath had attained. The re- 
vision of the " Sugar Act," and the exertions to carry out its 
new provisions, aided, as the revenue officers now were, by 
ships of war and an increase of their own corps, carried con- 
sternation to every fire-side in the North. In New Hampshire, 
Maine, and Rhode Island, there were mobs and collisions, and 
seizures and rescues of vessels and merchandise. In Massa- 
chusetts, were the seizure and rescue, and the re-seizure of some 
molasses on the Taunton river ; the resolution to stop the im- 
portations of goods from England; the bringing to of ships, 
and the tumbling of cargoes overboard all along the coast; 
the condemnation of one ship with her cargo of French wines, 
and of another which had made an illegal voyage from Hol- 
land ; the suits in admiralty against the merchants who traded 
to the French and Spanish West Indies, for the old offences of 
compounding duties with the officers, for entering the molasses 
of these islands as of the growth of Anquilla, and for smug- 
gling it outright ; the appeal of the ship-owners to the ministry 
to be released from the harpies that robbed them of their goods, 
and made prize of their vessels ; the landing of the cargo of 
wines under the guard of men armed with bludgeons ; the 
seizure of Hancock's goods and the vessel that brought them ; 
the driving of the collector and comptroller of the customs on 
board of a man-of-war, and within the walls of "Castle Wil- 
liam ; " the dragging of the revenue-boat through the streets, 
and the burning of it on the " Common ; " the mobs that de- 
manded the resignation of one obnoxious officer, stripped, and 
tarred and feathered another ; and that broke windows, demol- 
ished furniture, and destroyed buildings. 

Another step in the controversy, and we stand beside the 
" tea-ships." I have no space to discuss the question of the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 47 

" three-pence the pound duty on tea," but I must enter my 
dissent from the common view of it. To me, it was not, as it 
has been regarded, a question of " ^aa;a^iow," but essentially, 
like all the others between the merchants and the crown, one 
of convmerce. The statements of Hutchinson, the debates in 
Parliament, and the state-papers and the documents which I 
have examined, all go to prove that the object of the mother 
country was mainly to break up the contraband trade of the 
Colonial merchants with Holland and her possessions, and to 
give to her own East India Company the supply of the Colo- 
nial markets. The value of the tea consumed in America 
was estimated at £300,000 annually. Nearly the whole quan- 
tity was "smuggled." Pennsylvania, New York, and Massa- 
chusetts, were the great marts. The risk of seizure for many 
years was small ; and it is said, that, at one period, not one 
chest in five hundred of that which was landed in Boston, fell 
into the hands of the officers of the customs. Some of the 
merchants of that town had become rich in the traffic, and a 
considerable part of the large fortune which Hancock inherited 
from his uncle,* was thus acquired. 

The plan of the East India Company, backed by the minis- 
try, was shrewd, and, if it had been executed, would have 
forced the merchants to abandon the contraband trade, and 
have given the Company the business at which they grasped ; 
since their tea was considered to be of better quality than 
the smuggled, and if afforded at as low a price, would have 
had the preference with consumers. The change of policy, 
then, which encountered such fearful opposition, and which 
reduced the duty from a shilling the pound payable in Eng- 
land, to " three-pence" payable in the ports to which it should 
be exported from the Company's warehouses, allowed the 
article to be sold in America nine-pence the pound cheaper 
than it had been afforded under the old rate of duty, while, by 
securing the market, it at the same time secured a revenue on 

* Thomas Hancock's plan of smuggling, was to put his tea in molasses- 
hogsheads, and thus " run " it, or import it without payment of duties. 



«B PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

whatever quantity might actually be entered at the Colonial 
custom-houses. This, as I understand the plan, was the whole 
of it; and it is pertinent to remark, that, if the "tax" had 
really been its objectionable feature, it is singular that no 
clamor was raised while the duty was four times " three-pence" 
the pound. At that rate, Whig merchants, as well as others, 
had made small importations from England, in order "to 
cover " the larger and illicit importations from Holland and 
her dependencies. It is equally pertinent to observe, that the 
English merchants, who sent tea to parts of America where 
ihe contraband trade was less extensively pursued, were as 
hostile to a measure which threatened them with the loss of 
their customers, as were their commercial brethren in the Colo- 
nies, who were to be sufferers from the same cause. 

The "tea" which came charged with "three-pence" duty 
payable on being landed, was disposed of in various ways. 
As a punishment for the destruction of that sent to Boston, 
that port was shut up, and its commerce thus struck down at 
a blow. The cutting off the fisheries, which were then the 
very life-blood of New England, soon followed the passage of 
the " Boston Port Bill," and was the crowning act of the policy 
which produced an appeal to arms. When the tidings that no 
vessels could now enter or leave the harbor of the capital of 
the North spread through the land, the cry that " Boston is 
suffering in the cause which henceforth interests all America," 
rose spontaneously. Public meetings were held in all parts of 
the country. People met in the open air, in churches, and 
court-houses, to express their horror of the oppressors, and 
their sympathy with the oppressed. I have examined the pro- 
ceedings of no less than sixty-seven of these meetings, of 
which twenty-seven were held in Virginia, and all but one in 
places south of New England. The day that the Port Bill 
went into operation was one of gloom and sadness everywhere ; 
and the predictions, on both sides of the Atlantic, that it would 
produce a general confederation, and end in a general revolt, 
were of rapid fulfilment. 

In their opposition to the Navigation Act and Laws of 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 49 

Trade, the merchants and ship-owners were entirely right. 
Obedience to humane laws is due from every member of the 
community. But the barbarous code of commercial law, 
which disgraced the statute book of England for the exact 
century which intervened between the introduction and expul- 
sion of her Colonial collectors and other officers of the cus- 
toms, was entitled to no respect whatever. Separation from 
her would have followed as certainly in 1676, when the first 
attempt was made to fix this code upon America, as in 1776, 
when the experiment failed a second time, if there had been 
at the one period, the same strength and concert, the same 
deeply-seated irritation, and the same aid from the state of 
English and European politics, as existed at the other. There 
never was a moment, early or late, when the maritime Colo- 
nies would have submitted willingly to the requirements of 
these statutes, or have submitted to them at all without the 
use of force. And whoever carefully traces the course of 
events, for the fifteen years immediately following the year 
first above mentioned, will discover a most striking resem- 
blance to those which occurred between 1761 and the com- 
mencement of the war of the Revolution. 

This commercial code was so stern and cruel, that an Amer- 
ican merchant was compelled to evade a law of the realm, in 
order to give a sick neighbor an orange or cordial of European 
origin, or else obtain them legally, loaded with the time, risk, 
and expense of a voyage from the place of growth or manu- 
facture to England, and thence to his own warehouse. An 
American ship-owner or ship-master, when wrecked on the 
coast of Ireland, was not allowed to unlade his cargo on the 
shore where his vessel was stranded, but was required to send 
his merchandise to England, when, if originally destined for, 
or wanted in, the Irish market, an English vessel might carry 
it thither. At the North, a market for all the dried fish which 
were caught was indispensable to the prosecution of the fish- 
eries. But the policy of the mother country provided penalties, 
and the confiscation of vessel and cargo, for a sale of such 
proportion of the annual " catch," as was unfit for her own 
5 



6b 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 



ports, or was not wanted in her own possessions in the Carib- 
bean sea, if carried to the islands which owned subjection to 
France or Spain. These were some of the features of the 
odious system which prevailed, 'and which was never abol- 
ished, until American vessels went out upon the ocean under 
a new flag. 

There can be but little wonder, therefore, that the great 
body of the merchants of the Thirteen Colonies were Whigs ; 
that fourteen,* or just one fourth, of the signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and that several of the generals, and 
other officers of the Continental army, were men bred to, or 
engaged in, commerce, or the command of ships. No class of 
the British subjects in America were so cruelly oppressed, no 
class did more to emancipate their country. Yet it will be 
found, that in every principal town there were merchants 
who adhered to the crown. Many of these persons, however, 
were natives of the British Isles, who had come to the Colonies 
with the design of accumulating fortunes, and of returning, or 
those whom the functionaries of the crown had been in the 
habit of favoring with government contracts, those who had 
been selected as the East India Company's agents or con- 
signees of tea, or those who had been elevated to seats in the 
Colonial councils. 

Our attention, now, will be directed to the professional 
classes. It has often been asserted, that nearly all the clergy 
were Whigs. The truth of this may admit of a doubt ; since 
most of those of the Episcopal faith not only espoused the ad- 
verse side, but abandoned their flocks and the country. This 
was especially the case in New England ; and Dr. Parker of 
Trinity Church, Boston, and the Rev. Mr. McGilchrist of Salem, 
were, I think, the only clergymen of that communion, who 
stood by the people of their charge, and saved them from dis- 



• John Hancock, John Langdon, Samuel Adams, William Whipple, 
George Clymer, Stephen Hopkins, Francis Lewis, Philip Livingston, El- 
bridge Gerry, Joseph Hewes, George Taylor, Roger Sherman, Button Gwin- 
nett, and Robert Morris. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 61 

persion. I need not say, that, at the period of the Revolution, 
the clergy possessed vast influence. In the early settlement of 
the country, as is well known, the duty of the ministers was 
not confined to instructions in things spiritual, but embraced 
matters of temporal concern, and on questions of pressing 
public exigency, their counsel and advice were eagerly sought 
and implicitly followed. This deference to their office and to 
their real or supposed wisdom, though less general than at 
former periods, had not ceased ; and clergymen, both Whigs 
and Tories, often made a recruiting house of the sanctuary. 
Some of those of both parties disregarded the obligations of 
Christian charity, and sacrificed their kindly affections as men, 
in their earnest appeals from the pulpit. Generally, the min- 
ister and his people were of the same party ; but there were 
still some memorable divisions and quarrels, separations, and 
dismissions. 

The Sandemanians, though inconsiderable, both in numbers 
and influence, were opposed to the popular movement, and 
gave its friends no little trouble. At the North, the laymen 
of the Episcopal faith were commonly, like their rectors, lioy- 
alists; but at the South it was different, and many of the most 
distinguished Whigs of that section were zealous friends of 
the established church. 

Many Loyalist clergymen became chaplains of the corps 
which were raised by the friends of the king in the difierent 
Colonies. Most of those who thus took an active part in hos- 
tile deeds, and indeed nearly all of those who dissolved their 
connexion with their parishes, were proscribed and banished. 
When, after the war, the statutory prohibitions were either 
modified or repealed, several of the exiles returned to their old 
homes, or to other parts of the United States. But others, and 
the larger proportion, remained abroad and finished their days 
in banishment. At the close of the Revolution, the towns and 
cities in New Brunswick, which are now so well known to 
men of business or pleasure, were mere forests, and without a 
single habitation. The first ministers of these places were 
our expatriated countrymen. They lived in huts. They en- 



53 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

(lured privation and suffering. As the country around them 
increased and prospered, their situation became comfortable, 
and finally, entirely agreeable. Several of them had large 
families. The sons of some were educated to their own pro- 
fession, and succeeding to, now occupy, their pulpits. So, too. 
Loyalist clergymen settled in Nova Scotia and Upper Canada, 
where, gathering members of their old flocks, they resumed 
their clerical duties. 

We pass to members of the bar. I incline to believe that a 
majority of the lawyers were Whigs, and for several reasons. 
First, because in the course of my researches I have found but 
comparatively few who adhered to the crown ; secondly, be- 
cause of the well known fact, that a large part of the speakers 
and advocates on the popular side were educated to the law ; 
and thirdly, because one of the objects of the "Stamp Act" 
was to drive from the profession those members of it who an- 
noyed the royal governors and other officials, and who, as a 
member of the House of Commons said, were " mere petti- 
foggers." Besides, many gentlemen of the bar, on being re- 
tained by the merchants, became impressed with the enormities 
of the commercial code, and in advocating the cause of clients 
who claimed to continue their contraband trade on the ground 
of usage and prescription, they were impelled to follow the 
example of Otis, and to take the lofty stand that commerce 
should be, and on principles of justice really was, as open 
and as free to British subjects in the New World, as it was to 
those in the Old. 

Still the ministry had their partisans among the barristers 
at law, and some of them were persons of great professional 
eminence. In fact, the " giants of the law " in the Colonies 
were nearly all Loyalists. As in the case of the clergy, many 
of them were driven into exile. Several entered the military 
service of the crown, and raised and commanded companies, 
battalions, and even regiments. At the peace, a few returned 
to their former abodes and pursuits ; but the greater number 
passed the remainder of their lives either in England, or in 
her present possessions in America. The anti-revolutionary 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 53 

bar of Massachusetts and New York, furnished the admiralty 
and common law courts of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Canada, and the Bermudas, with many of their most distin- 
guished judges. 

The physicians who adhered to the crown were numerous, 
and the proportion of Whigs was less probably in the profes- 
sion of medicine than in either that of law or theology. But 
unlike persons of the latter callings, most of the physicians re- 
mained in the country, and quietly pursued their business. 
There seems to have been an understanding that, though pul- 
pits should be closed, and litigation be suspended, the sick 
should not be deprived of their regular and freely chosen med- 
ical attendants. I have been susprised to find, from verbal 
communications and from various other sources, that while the 
" Tory doctors," were as zealous and as fearless in the expres- 
sion of their sentiments as "Tory ministers " and "Tory barris- 
ters," their persons and property were generally respected in 
the towns and villages, where little or no regard was paid to 
the bodies and estates of gentlemen of the robe and the sur- 
plice. Some, however, were less fortunate, and the dealings of 
the " sons of liberty," were occasionally harsh and exceedingly 
vexatious. A few of the Loyalist physicians were banished ; 
others, and those chiefly who became surgeons in the army or 
provincial corps, settled in New Brunswick or Nova Scotia, 
where they resumed practice. Those who continued in service 
until the close of the struggle or the dissolution of the corps to 
which they were attached, were placed on the half-pay list, 
and enjoyed the annuity allowed to retired surgeons during 
life. 

Of the thirty-seven newspapers which were published in 
the Colonies, in April 1775, if the result of my inquiries be 
correct, seven or eight were in the interest of the crown, and 
twenty-three were devoted to the service of the Whigs. Of these 
thirty-seven, however, one on each side had little or no part 
in discussing the great questions at issue, as they were estab- 
lished only in the preceding month of January ; and of those 
which did participate in these discussions, and maintain the 
5* 



54 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 



right, no less than five went over to the Loyahsts in the course 
of the war. Of the number first named, two were printed in 
German, and one in German and EngUsh ; and as another of 
the thirty-seven was commenced in April, there were, in fact, 
but thirty-one newspapers in the vernacular tongue, at the 
close of 1 774. Up to the beginning of the strife, printing had 
been confined to the capitals or principal towns ; but hostile 
deeds, interfering with all employments, caused the removal of 
some of the public journals to places more remote, and were 
the means of interrupting, or wholly discontinuing the publi- 
cation of others. Those that existed at the period of which 
we are speaking, were very unequally distributed ; thus Mary- 
land, Virginia, the two Carolinas, and Georgia, taken together, 
had but one more than Pennsylvania, and but three more than 
Massachusetts. In New Hampshire, the " Gazette " was 
alone ; while Rhode Island had both a " Gazette " and a 
" Mercury." Of the editors and proprietors who originally 
opposed the right, or became converts to the wrong, several 
sought refuge in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, where they 
established newspapers, and the first which were published 
in these Colonies. f^' 

From what has now been said, it is evident that a very consid- 
erable proportion of the professional and editorial intelligence 
and talents of the Thirteen Colonies was arrayed against the 
popular movement. This volume contains notices of upwards 
of one hundred and fifty persons who were educated at Har- 
vard college, or some other American or foreign institution of 
learning ; and could the whole number of Loyalists who re- 
ceived College honors be ascertained, it would be found, pro- 
bably, that the list is far from being complete. It was alleged, 
however, by a distinguished adherent of the crown in New 
Jersey, that " most of the colleges had been the grand nurse- 
ries of the rebellion," and in a plan which he submitted for 
the government of the Colonies after the suppression of the 
revolt, he proposed to check their pernicious influence by in- 
troducing several reforms. But if, in connexion with the facts 
above-named, it be considered, that in 1761 there were but six 

*6 



^' HISTORICAL ESSAY. ' 65 

colleges in America, and only nine at the commencement of 
hostilities, we shall hardly find reason to believe, that the loyal 
had cause to complain of them. It is said, on what appears 
to be good authority, that as late as 1746 there were but fifteen 
liberally educated persons in the whole Colony of New York, 
The increase between that period and the Revolution could 
not have been very considerable ; and of the number named. 
Several were alive in 1776, and belonged to the ministerial 
party. But whatever was the relative strength of the two 
parties in the single particular of graduates of colleges, the 
Whigs far exceeded their opponents in effective writers. Among 
the newspaper essayists in Massachusetts, on the royal side, 
were Joseph Green, a wag and a wit ; Samuel Waterhouse, 
an officer of the customs, who was stigmatized as the " most 
notorious scribbler and libeller" of the time; Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Oliver ; Jonathan Sewall, and Daniel Leonard. The last 
wrote a series of papers entitled " Massachusettensis," and had 
John Adams for his antagonist, over the signature of " Nov- 
Anglus." Mr. Adams attributed these papers to his friend 
Sewall, but the fact that Leonard was the author is now well 
established. None of these "government-men " were so effec- 
tive as popular writers as Samuel Adams, and his single pen 
was probably a match for them all. Hutchinson was so an- 
noyed by his peculiar tact, and his power to agitate and move 
the public mind as to declare, that of all persons known to 
him, he was the most successful " in robbing men of their char- 
acters." But besides the two Adamses, James Otis was the 
author of four political tracts, and Oxenbridge Thacher, 
Chauncy, and Cooper, were continually transmitting their 
thoughts in popular forms ; while Josiah Quincy junior, often 
gave his countrymen the effusions of his rich, pure, and classical 
mind, and his "Observations on the Boston Port Bill " is to 
be regarded not only as a clear and cogent political essay, 
but as a finished specimen of the literature of the period. 

Among the Loyalists of New York who contributed to the 
press, were the Rev. Samuel Chandler, the Rev. John Vardill, 
and Isaac Wilkins. 1'he opponent of the latter was the youth- 



08 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

ful Hamilton.* In the South, I am disposed to conclude, that 
the crown commanded no writer of ability except Daniel Du- 
lany, the attorney-general of Maryland, who was in the field 
against Charles Carroll. I know of no ministerial writer in 
Virginia. Those on the Whig side were, it is believed, limited 
to three, namely, Jefferson, Richard Bland, and Arthur Lee. 
Some of the popular leaders in the planting Colonies conducted 
an extensive correspondence, but others seem to have been 
almost silent. It is somewhat remarkable, that the only 
editor and best biographer of Washington, found, or has pre- 
served, but three letters in which the disputes that agitated the 
country are incidentally mentioned, and but three others in 
which the subjects in controversy are fully and explicitly dis- 
cussed. At the North it was essentially difierent, and the 
letters of Massachusetts Whigs contain full and valuable ma- 
terials for history. 

In concluding the topic, it may be remarked, that while the 
number of the highest seminaries of learning was small, the 
other means of disseminating knowledge were extremely lim- 
ited. It suited the views of the mother country to keep the 
Colonial press shackled ; and it seems hardly credible, that the 
accomplished Addison, when a minister of state, should have 
directed the governors in America to allow of no publications, 
and of no printing without license. For a considerable period 
the most rigid censorship prevailed in the Colonies, and even 
almanacs were subject to examination.* The result of this 



* Hamilton's own sympathies were at first on the royal side, as he himself 
admits in his reply to Wilkins ; and his biographer relates, that a visit to 
Boston changed the current of his thoughts; I may add, — the whole course 
of his lil'e. 

* In 1719 it was deemed necessary to obtain a license from Governor Shute, 
to publish a pamphlet upon the very harmless subject of providing Boston with 
market houses, of which the town was then destitute. The pulpit was, how- 
ever, free, and Dr. Colman preached a sermon the same year on " the reasons 
for a market in Boston." Censorship of the newspapers, at this period, con- 
tinued to be enforced so rigidly, that four years after, matter intended for 
publication in them was required to be examined by the Colonial Secretary. 



an HISTORICAL ESSAY. ' '' 57 

state of things was, that prior to the Revolution, most of the 
books were imported from England. As in other respects, 
however, the statute-book was sometimes disobeyed while this 
system was in force, and works were published which bore the 
the English imprint, and which closely resembled the English 
copies used in the publication. In this fraudulent way, the 
first American edition of the Bible was printed at Boston. 
Besides, provision for educating the people was seldom made, 
and reading and writing in some sections of the country were 
" rare accomplishments." The germ of the system of free- 
schools in New England, of schools to be ordained and con- 
tinually maintained by law, is to be sought as far back as the 
year 1670, when the profits of the public-fishery at Cape Cod 
were set apart for the purpose ; but in Virginia, it is believed, 
that education was never a subject of legislation during the 
whole course of her Colonial existence. 

We are now to speak of the Loyalists who opposed the Whigs 
in the field. Upon this topic, our writers of history have been 

Though no particular officer may have been charged with the duty of super- 
vision later than the year 1730, a publisher was sent to prison in 1754, upon 
suspicion of having printed remarks derogatory to some members of the 
Colonial government. 

It may not be without interest to show what was thought of the freedom of 
the newspaper press thirty or forty years ago. In February, 1812, the attor- 
ney general and solicitor general of Massachusetts, state, in an official report 
to Governor Gerry, that, in their judgment, there had appeared ia the Boston 
papers, since the preceding 1st of June, no less than two hundred and fifty- 
three libellous articles, to wit : in The Scourge, ninety-nine ; The Centinel, fifty- 
one ; The Repertory, thirty-four ; The Gazette, thirty-eight ; The Palladium, 
eighteen ; The Messenger, one ; The Chronicle, eight ; and the Patriot^ 
nine ; while in The Yankee there had been none. The report gives the dates 
of the papers, and divides the libellous matter into two kinds; that in which 
the truth could be, and that in which it could not be given in evidence to 
justify the party accused. These law officers state, moreover, that their 
examinations had not embraced complete files of all these prints ; and that 
they had not included in their list calumnious publications against foreign 
governments or distinguished foreigners, or libels of the editorial brethren 
against each other. It appears that the inquiry was instituted at his Excel 
lency's request. 



58 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

almost silent ; and it is not impossible that some persons 
have read books devoted exclusively to an accomit of the Rev- 
olution, without so much as imagining that a part, and a con- 
siderable part of the force employed to suppress the " rebellion," 
was composed of our own countrymen. The two wars be- 
tween England and France, which immediately preceded the 
revolt of the Colonies, were caused principally by disputes 
about rights of fishing, and by unsettled questions of maritime 
and territorial jurisdiction in America ; and in these wars the 
American people had taken a distinguished part. In fact, in 
aiding to put down French pretensions, our fathers acquired 
the skill necessary to the successful assertion of their own. A 
large proportion of the ofiicers who were engaged in the expe- 
ditions against Cape Breton, Quebec, and other places in the 
possessions of France, espoused the popular side, and many of 
them became prominent leaders. Thus, Gridley, who laid out 
the works on Breed's Hill, and Prescott, who commanded the 
troops that occupied them ; Montgomery, Gates, and St. Clair ; 
James Clinton, Mercer, and John Stark ; Morgan, Israel and 
Rufus Putnam, Gibson, Darke, Thomas, Spencer, Bull, Brad- 
ford, Zebulon Butler, and Campbell ; all of whom were gen- 
erals or colonels in the Revolution • and Thornton, Walcott, 
Livingston, and Williams, who became Signers of the Declar- 
ation of Independence, were engaged in one or both of these 
wars. 

But, oil the other hand, several officers of merit, and some of 
very considerable military talents, adhered to the royal side. 
Of this description were General Ruggles, Colonels Saltonstall, 
Gilbert, William Stark, (the brother of John), Peter Gilman, 
Tyng, Hewlett, and Brewerton. Among other persons of con- 
sideration, were Sir John Johnson, Oliver De Lancey, Robert 
Rogers, and Washington's friend Mackenzie. 

It may not be possible to ascertain the number of the Loyalists 
who took up arms, but from the best evidence which I have 
been able to obtain, I conclude there were twenty thousand at 
the lowest computation ; and unless their killed and wounded, 
in the different battles and affrays in which they were engaged, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 59 

were unusually large, I have put their aggregate force far too 
low. Thus, in the fight at Bennington, or more properly Hoo- 
suc, in the enterprise of Sullivan at Staten Island, in the ad- 
venture of Nelson in New Jersey, in the affray of Pickens with 
a band of Tories who were on their way to the British camp in 
Georgia, in the battle of King's Mountain, in four actions of 
Colonel Washington, Marion, Lee, and Sumpter, the aggregate 
of slain, wounded, or made prisoners, was upwards of twenty- 
three hundred, or more than a ninth part of my estimate. 
That, in the various conflicts of the illustrious commander-in- 
chief, in those of Greene, Lincoln, and Gates, in the ^outh, in 
the recontres of Marion, Lee, and Sumpter, not mentioned above, 
in the losses of Tryon, Simcoe, De Lancey, Johnson, and Ar- 
nold, in their various actions with the Whig forces, or hastily 
assembled neighborhoods, in the strifes between Whigs and 
Tories hand to hand, and in cases where neither had authorized 
or commissioned leaders, another ninth part of twenty thousand 
met with a similar fate is nearly certain. At the time of Corn- 
wallis's surrender, a part of his army was composed of native 
Americans, and his Lordship evinced great anxiety for their 
protection. Failing to obtain special terms for them in the 
articles of capitulation, he availed himself of the conceded 
privilege of sending an armed ship northerly without molesta- 
tion, to convey away the most obnoxious among them. Bur- 
goyne had been spared this trouble ; for, as his difficulties had 
increased, and his dangers thickened, the Loyalists had aban- 
doned him to his fate. 

Again. The estimated number of twenty thousand can be 
shown to be moderate in a manner more direct, and perhaps 
more satisfactory. Thus, in the South, Lord Dunmore drew 
a considerable number to his standard, and Martin, governor 
of North Carolina, succeeded in embodying a force of fifteen 
hundred men. Nearly or quite nine hundred and fifty of Fer- 
guson's command at King's Mountain, and about thirteen hun- 
dred of Butler's force at Wyoming, were Tories. Besides 
these corps, and besides Sir John Johnson's " Royal Greens," 
there were certainly twenty-nine or thirty regiments or battal- 



19 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

ions regularly organized, officered, and paid.* The names of 
these various corps, and the names of upwards of five hundred 
officers who were attached to them, will be found in this vol- 
ume. If the body raised by Lord Dunmore be computed at 
five hundred, and if each of the above regiments or battalions, 
including the " Royal Greens," be supposed to have numbered 
four hundred, the whole number will amount to more than 
sixteen thousand. To the force thus ascertained with some 
degree of accuracy, we have yet to add the predatory bands 
which were almost innumerable in some sections of the coun- 
try, and, during some periods of the conflict, and those who 
entered the naval service, those who enlisted in privateers, and 
those who in the Carolinas carried on the exterminating war- 
fare described by General Greene. With regard to the latter, 
it may be remarked, that they must have formed a numerous 
body, for if, as he says, "thousands" were slain, "thousands" 
were of course engaged in the murderous conflicts. 

And yet again. In an address of the Loyalists who were in 
London in 1779, presented to the king, it is said that their 
countrymen then in his Majesty's army, '■^exceeded in number 
the troops enlisted [by Congress] to oppose them^'' exclusive of 
those who were " in service in private ships of war." In a 

* The King's Rangers ; the Royal Fensible Americans ; the Queen's 
Rangers ; the New York Volunteers ; the King's American Regiment ; 
the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers ; the Maryland Loyalists ; 
De Lancey's Battalions ; the Second American Regiment ; the King's 
Rangers Carolina ; the South Carolina Royalists ; the North Carolina High- 
land Regiment ; the King's American Dragoons ; the Loyal American Regi- 
ment ; the American Legion ; the New Jersey Volunteers ; the British 
Legion ; the Loyal Foresters ; the Orange Rangers ; the Pennsylvania Loy- 
alists ; the Guides and Pioneers ; the North Carolina Volunteers ; the 
Georgia Loyalists ; the West Chester Volunteers. These corps were all 
commanded by colonels or lieutenant colonels, and as De Lancey's Battal- 
ions, and the New Jersey Volunteers consisted each of three battalions, 
here were twenty-eight. To these, the Newport Associates, the Loyal 
New Englanders, the Associated Loyalists, and Wentworth's Volunteers, 
remain to be added. Still further, Col. Archibald Hamilton of New York 
commanded at one period seventeen companies of Loyal Militia. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 61 

similar document dated in 1782, and which was addressed to 
the King and both houses of Parhament, the same declaration 
is repeated, though in stronger terms, since the language is, 
that "there are many more men in his Majesty's provincial 
regiments than there are in the continental service." These last 
addresses declare, moreover, that "the zeal" of the Loyalists 
must be greater than that of the " rebels," for " the desultory 
manner in which the war has been carried on by first taking 
possession of Boston, Rhode Island, Philadelphia, Portsmouth, 
and Norfolk in Virginia, and Wilmington in North Carolina, 
and then evacuating them," had ruined thousands,- and in- 
volved others in the greatest wretchedness, and had rendered 
enlistments tardy under " such " discouragements, and " very 
unequal circumstances." That, down to 1779, the adherents 
of the crown had not refused to serve in the field is distinctly 
stated in the Address first quoted, and in these words : "If 
any Colony or district, when covered or possessed by your Ma- 
jesty's troops, had been called upon to take arms, and had 
refused, or if any attempts had been made to form the Loyalist 
militia, * * * and it had been declined, we should not on 
this occasion have presumed thus to Address your Majesty," 
&c. The descendants of Loyalist officers who entered the 
military service early in the struggle, and continued in commis- 
sion until its close, entertain the general views expressed in 
these extracts ; and the opinion that Americans in the pay of 
the crown were quite as numerous as those who entered the 
army of Congress, is very commonly held by persons with 
whom I have conversed. Still, I doubt whether either the writ- 
ten or verbal statements are to be relied on implicitly, and for 
the reason, that in the former I am sure there are exaggerations 
on other subjects, and the latter rest on the assertions of men 
who were equally ready to attribute the success of the Whigs 
and their own ruin to the inefiiciency and bad management of 
Sir William Howe, and other royal generals. 

At the peace, the Loyalist corps were disbanded. A few of 
the officers were transferred to the regular army, and continued 
in service for life ; but the great majority were less fortunate, 
6 



OK' PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

and, while some of the highest rank went to England, others, 
in departing into banishment, were compelled to seek for homes 
in regions sparsely peopled, and, as many of them imagined, 
hardly habitable.* To ascertain the fate of all of those whose 
names and rank appear in this work, is not now, perhaps, 
possible. Those who were attached to the corps raised at the 
extreme South, were principally inliabitants of that section, 
and it is known that a large proportion of them settled in the 
Bahamas, Florida, and the British West Indies. Some of the 
officers who belonged to the " Maryland Loyalists," and some 
of the privates of that corps, embarked for Nova Scotia, but 
were wrecked in the Bay of Fundy, and a part perished. My 
information, therefore, of those who were in commission in 
Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland, is extremely 
limited. Of several of those of the "Pennsylvania Loyalists" 
under command of the apostate Allen, I have been able to learn 
a few particulars ; and of many who served in the different 
regiments or battalions raised in New York and New Jersey, 
under De Lancey, Robinson, and Skinner, I have obtained in- 
telligence of interest. 

Of the three corps organized in New England, it is singular 
to remark, that I have learned less than of most others. The 
" Wentworth Volimteers " enlisted in New Hampshire, could 
not, I suppose, have been a body of men of much efficiency. 
If they performed any exploit other than that of carrying off 
from Connecticut a "rebel" minister and his congregation, 

* Some of the officers in departing for Nova Scotia remarked, that they 
were " bound to a country where there was nine months winter, and three 
months of cold weather every year." Some idea of the views entertained of 
this Colony at the peace may be formed from an extract or two from a pam- 
phlet published in England in 1784. " It has a winter of almost insupporta- 
ble length and coldness " * ♦ * * «' there are but a few inconsiderable 
spots fit to cultivate, and the land is covered with a cold spongy moss in place 
of grass" * * • • "the land is so barren, that corn does not come up 
well in it " * * • * " winter continues at least seven months in the 
year " * » • • «' the country is wrapt in the gloom of a perpetual fog " 
* * • • " the mountains run down to the sea-coast, and leave but here 
and there a spot fit to inhabit." &c. &c. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY, 68 

and the horses and pillions of the good dames who had gone 
to meeting, history has not done them justice. The Rhode 
Island troops, or " Newport Associators," consisted, possibly, 
of three companies. The " Loyal New Englanders " were 
commanded by Col. Wightman, but their numbers, and with 
two exceptions, the names of the officers, have not been as- 
certained, after some research and personal inquiry. 

The Loyalist officers at the close of the war, and when their 
corps were disbanded, retired on half-pay. This stipend they 
received during life, and they also received grants of land ac- 
cording to their rank. Such is the fact with regard to those 
who settled in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and other parts 
of British North America, and it is to be presumed that all 
were treated alike. Many, too, held responsible and lucrative 
civil offices, and some even administered the government of the 
Colonies in which they resided. Nothing in their history is 
more remarkable than their longevity. Several lived to enjoy 
their half-pay upwards of half a century, and so common 
among them were the ages of eighty-five, ninety, and even of 
ninety-five years, that the saying, " Loyalist half -pay officers 
never die," was often repeated. Their children assure inqui- 
rers, that, to those who were in the vigor of life, the bounty of 
the crown was rather injurious than beneficial, and that, while 
it relieved the maimed, and the shattered in health, who were 
comparatively few, it impaired the energy and diminished the 
enterprise of the more numerous class, who, inhabitants of a 
wilderness coimtry, should have cleared the forests and made 
themselves farms. Their descendants state, that, secure in a 
sum annually, which would procure them food and clothing, 
and which placed them beyond the fear of want, they were not 
compelled to task their faculties to procure subsistence, and 
that, saddened by their recollections of the past, they became 
"morose," "sour," and "peevish." 

Tn fact, the representations of persons of Loyalist lineage 
afford satisfactory evidence, that, as a class, the half-pay offi- 
cers were unhappy men. The lands which were granted to 
them were not settled or made productive, and but for the 



64 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

recent timber-land mania, which attracted the speculators of 
Maine and Massachusetts, large tracts would have remained 
unexplored and valueless down to the present time. The im- 
pression that the revolutionary contest should have terminated 
differently, was very common, and in many it was very strong. 
That they, — " the loyal, the true," — should have been the 
losers in the strife, and " the false and the rebellious" the win- 
ners ; and that the former should have been driven from the 
country in which they were born, to commence life anew in un- 
broken forests, were circumstances over which they continually 
brooded, and to which they were never reconciled. They insisted, 
and those who have inherited their names and possessions, and 
many of their prejudices and opinions, still insist, that both 
Sir William Howe, and Sir Henry Clinton, his successor, could 
and should have quelled " the Rebellion," and that the former, 
especially, is wholly inexcusable. If, by their course of rea- 
soning. Sir William had occupied Dorchester heights, and the 
high-lands of Charlestown, as a sagacious general would have 
done, and as his force and park of artillery allowed him to do, 
all the disasters to the royal arms which followed would have 
been prevented. 

These remarks are to be considered as general. Some of the 
Loyalist officers, who settled in British America, bore their 
deprivations with cheerfulness, and spared no efforts to improve 
their fallen fortunes. To these, half-pay was of great benefit, 
since it enabled them to erect buildings, and improve and 
stock the lands which were granted to them; and the houses 
which they built, in which they lived and died, and which are 
now occupied by their descendants, contain every convenience 
and comfort necessary for human enjoyment. Others of a 
similar cast of character embarked in commercial pursuits, 
and became men of property and even of wealth ; and still 
others, who had been bred to the law, resumed j)ractice, and 
became able and distinguished advocates. 

The reader will find that another class of Loyalists, who held 
commissions under the crown, hovered upon our northern and 
southern frontiers, and in the depth of their malignity and hos- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 65 

tility, incited the savage tribes to deeds of rapine and murder ; 
and engaged in schemes and plots to deprive us of important 
rights and territories. The conduct of McKee, EUiot, and 
Girty, in Canada; of McGilUvray, Panton, and Bowles, in 
Florida; and of Conolly, and his associates, in their endeavor 
to raise a force to seize New Orleans, and to control the Missis- 
sippi, produced alarm in those who conducted our public af- 
fairs, and involved the settlers upon our borders in misery. 

The examination, now completed, of the political condition 
of the Colonies, of the state of parties, and of the divisions in 
particular classes in society and avocations in life, leads to the 
conclusion, that the number of our countrymen who wished 
to continue their connexion with the mother country was very 
large. In nearly every Loyalist letter or other paper which I 
have examined, and in which the subject is mentioned, it is either 
assumed or stated in terms, that the loyal were the majority ; 
and this opinion, I am satisfied, was very generally entertained 
by those who professed to have a knowledge of public senti- 
ment. That the adherents of the crown were mistaken, is 
certain. But yet, in the Carolinas and Georgia, and possibly in 
Pennsylvania, the two parties differed but little in point of 
strength, while in New York, the Whigs were far weaker than 
their opponents. 

It may be asked, why, when the Colonial System was so 
odious, when it restrained the industry, and in so many other 
respects, oppressed and wronged the Colonists, there was not 
greater unanimity ; and why persons so respectable, and hith- 
erto universally esteemed, as were many of the " government- 
men," were seemingly, or in fact, averse to breaking away 
from British dominion ? These questions have been put 
to Loyalists themselves. They have answered, that the 
South was not originally directly interested in the measures 
which excited so deep hostility at the North ; that at the forma- 
tion of parties throughout the Colonies generally, under their 
last names, they were still regarded as the common organiza- 
tions of the ins and the outs, and as the continued strivings of 
the one to retain, and of the other to gain patronage and place ; 
6* 



6§ PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

and that the mass, in taking sides with or against the royal 
governors, was stimulated by the hopes which poUticians have 
always been able to excite in their followers. It has been an- 
swered, too, that few foresaw the issue to which the quarrel 
must come, and that the Whigs continually denied an intention 
to do more than obtain a peaceable redress of grievances. It 
has been said, also, that those who received the name of Tories 
were not at first, nor indeed for some years, resisting a revolu- 
tio?i, but striving to preserve order, and an observance of the 
rights of persons and property ; that many, who took sides at 
the outset as mere conservators of the peace, were denounced 
by those whose purposes they thwarted, and were finally com- 
pelled, in pure self-defence, to accept of royal protection, and 
thus to become identified with the royal party ever after. Again, 
it has been stated, that, had the naked question of Independ- 
ence been discussed from the beginning, and before minor, and 
in many cases, local, events had shaped their course, many, 
who were driven forth to live and die as aliens and outcasts, 
would have terminated their career far differently ; that many 
were opposed to war from religious principle ; that some thought 
the people enjoyed privileges enough ; that others were influ- 
enced by their ofiicial connexions or aspirations ; that another 
class, who seldom mingled in the affairs of active life, loved 
retirement, and would, had the Whigs allowed them, have re- 
mained neutrals; that some were timid men; some were old men ; 
and that tenants and dependents went with the landholders 
without inquiry, and as a thing of course. All of these reasons, 
and numerous others, have been assigned at different times, 
and by different persons. But another cause quite as potent as 
either of those which have been enumerated operated, it would 
seem, upon thousands, namely, a dread of the strength and 
resources of England, and the belief, that successful resistance 
to her power was impossible ; that the Colonies had neither the 
men nor the means to carry on war, and would be humbled 
and reduced to submission with hardly an effort. 

That motives and considerations, hopes and fears, like these, 
had an influence in the formation of the lasi Colonial parties, 



HISTOKICAL ESSAY. 67 

cannot, be disputed, and the unprejudiced minds of this genera- 
tion should be frank enough to admit it. All, both Whigs and 
Tories, were born and had grown up under a monarchy ; and 
the abstract question of renouncing it or of continuing it was 
one on which men of undoubted patriotism differed widely. 
Very many of the Whigs came into the final measure of sep- 
arating from the mother country with great reluctance, and 
doubt and hesitation prevailed even in Congress. Besides, the 
Whig leaders uniformly denied, that Independence was em- 
braced in their plans, and constantly afiirmed, that their sole 
object was to obtain concessions, and to continue the connexion 
with England as hitherto ; and John Adams goes further than 
this, for, says he, " there was not a moment during the revolu- 
tion^ when I would not have given everything I possessed for a 
restoration to the state of things before the contest hegan^ pro- 
vided we could have had a sufficient security for its co?itinu- 
ance." If Mr. Adams be regarded as expressing the sentiments 
of the Whigs, they were willing to remain Colonists, provided 
they could have had their rights secured to them ; while the 
Tories were contented thus to continue, without such security. 
Such, as it appears to me, was the only difference between the 
two parties prior to hostilities, and many Whigs, like Mr. 
Adams, would have been willing to rescind the declaration of 
independence, and to forget the past, upon proper guarantees for 
the future. This mode of stating the question, and of defining 
the difference between the two parties — down to a certain pe- 
riod at least — cannot be objected to, unless the sincerity and 
truthfulness of some of the most eminent men in our history 
are directly impeached ; and if any are prepared to dispute their 
veracity, it may still be asked, whether the Tories ought not to 
be excused for believing them? What, then, has been said by 
men, whom we most justly reverence ? Franklin's testimony, 
a few days before the affair at Lexington, was, that he had 
"more than once travelled almost from one end of the conti- 
nent to the other, and kept a variety of company, eating, drink- 
ing, and conversing with them freely, [and] never had heard 
in any conversation from, any person, drunk or sober, the least 



l^^*'^. 



68 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

erpression of a wish for a separation, or a hint that such a 
thing would be advantageous to America.^^ Mr. Jay is quite 
as explicit. "During the course of my life," said he, "and 
until the second petition of Congress, in 1775, / never did hear 
an American of any class, or of any description, express 9 
wish for the Independence of the Colonies^ "It has always 
been, and still is my opinion and belief, that our country was 
prompted and impelled to Independence by necessity, and not 
by choice.'^ Mr. Jefferson affirmed, "What, eastward of New 
York, might have been the dispositions towards England be- 
fore the commencement of hostilities, I know not ; but before 
that I never heard a whisper of a disposition to separate from 
Great Britain ; and after that, its possibility was contemplated 
with affliction by all.'^ Washington, in 1774, fully sustains these 
declarations, and in the " Fairfax County Resolves," it was 
complained, that " malevolent falsehoods ^^ were propagated by 
the ministry to prejudice the mind of the king, ^^particularly 
that there is an intention in the American Colofiies to set 7/pfor 
independent states." Mr. Madison was not in public life un- 
til May, 1776, but he says, that " It has always been my im- 
pression, that a re-establishment of the Colonial relations to 
the parent country, as they were previous to the co?itroversy, was 
the real object of every class of the people, till the despair of 
obtaining it," &c.* 

I have to repeat, that the only way to dispose of testimony 
like this, is to impeach the persons who have given it. With 
the principles of men who, when it was ascertained that a 
redress of grievances could not be obtained, preferred to remain 
British subjects, I have neither communion nor sympathy; 
and I may be pardoned for adding, that I have watched the 
operations and tendencies of the Colonial System of govern- 
ment too long and too narrowly, modified as it now is, not to 
entertain for it the heartiest dislike. Yet I would do the men 
who were born under it, and were reconciled to it, justice ; and 



• See Sparks's Washington, Vol. 2, p. 498, 500, and 501 ; the italics are 
my own, except in the extract from the " Fairfax County Resolves." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 69 

if, as Mr. Jefferson says, a ^^ possibility ^^ of the necessity of a 
separation of the two countries, "was contemplated with afflic- 
tion by ally and if the statements made by Frankhn, Adams, 
Jay, Madison and Washington, are to be considered as true 
and as decisive, I renewed! y ask, what other Hne of difference 
existed between the Whigs and Tories, than what has been 
mentioned, namely, the terms on which the connexion of the 
Colonies with England should be continued. 

My object in the attention bestowed on this point has been 
to remove the erroneous impression which seems to prevail, 
that the Whigs proposed and the Tories ojt>/?osefl? Independence, 
at the very commencement of the controversy. Instead of this, 
we have seen, that quite fourteen years elapsed before the 
question was made a party issue, and that even then, "neces- 
sity," and not "choice," caused a dismemberment of the em- 
pire. Since it has appeared, therefore, from the highest sources, 
that the Whigs resolved finally upon Revolution, because they 
were denied the rights of British subjects, and not because they 
disliked monarchical institutions, and were disinclined to re- 
main Colonists ; the Tories may be relieved from the imputa- 
tion of being the only " monarchy-men " of the time. 

We are now to survey, very briefly, the course pursued by 
the Loyalists during the war. As I have preferred connexion 
of subject to mere chronological order, some of the details be- 
longing to this branch of our inquiry have been given, in or- 
der to complete the topics already discussed. 

Besides the Loyalists of New England who abandoned the 
country at the evacuation of Boston, and of whom I have 
spoken, there were similar emigrations in other parts of the 
country at different periods and aspects of the war. After the 
surrender of Burgoyne, especially, the number was very con- 
siderable. In time, a large part of the civil officers of the 
several Colonial governments, many of those whose age or 
infirmities, or principles, did not permit them to take part in 
hostilities, as well as many of the clergy who had become 
obnoxious, found their way to England. These various class- 
es, with their wives and children, formed at last a numerous 



m PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 



body ; and hundreds were destitute of the means of support. 
The capitulation of Lord Cornwallis caused another large 
emigration, and at the peace thousands were either partially 
or entirely dependent, and without employment. 

Several of those who went to England in the early part of 
the struggle, received allowances from the government soon 
after their arrival. Sanguine that every campaign would be the 
last, the provision which was made for these and for others, 
who, from time to time, joined them, and were added to the 
list, was small, and in some instances too small to afford essen- 
tial relief Towards the close of the year 1782, the number of 
those to whom assistance was rendered, was three hundred and 
fifteen, and the amount bestowed in regular pensions was 
£40,280,* besides about £18,000, which were applied to par- 
ticular individuals under peculiar circumstances. Under the 
expectation that the " rebellion " would soon be suppressed, 
and that the emigrants would soon return to their own coun- 
try, the allowances were at first limited to three months, but 
were finally converted into yearly and regular stipends ; and 
as the sums to be given each were fixed oftentimes without 
inquiry, (and probably by favor,) great inequality existed, 
which it was found necessary to correct. A committee was 
accordingly appointed to investigate the subject generally, and 
to report upon the cases of persons who enjoyed pensions or 
gratuities, and of those who claimed them. This committee 
accordingly examined into the condition of the recipients and 
of the applicants, and in the course of their inquiry, required 
the production of papers and witnesses. The results at which 
they arrived were, that of the three hundred and fifteen persons 
who then composed the pension list, fifty-six who did not appear 
before them received £5,595, the payment of which was sus- 
pended until farther mquiry ; that of the remaining two hun- 
dred and fifty-nine, who received £34,695 per a?inuin, twenty- 



* Curwen states, that the sum said to be paid the " Refugees " in England, 
in 1782, was " near X 80 ,000." I follow the official report of the committee, 
which gives the amount stated in the text. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 71 

five did not come within the description of Loyalists, or were 
not entitled to consideration; and that ninety of those who were 
objects of relief, and who received £16,885, were more favor- 
ably dealt with than others more needy, and therefore more 
deserving of the royal bounty. 

In accordance with the views of the committee, the allow- 
ances granted to several were wholly discontinued, while those 
to others were diminished, and those of a third class increased. 
The sum annually to be paid to the persons who were con- 
tinued on the list, under their corrections, was only £26,400.* 
But the applications of four hundred and twenty-eight of the 
new claimants were successful, and in June of 1783 the sum 
of £43,245 per annum was distributed among six hundred and 
eighty-seven Loyalist pensioners.f 

Among those who went to England was Samuel Curwen of 
Salem, Massachusetts, who kept a Journal, which has been 
published. The life which he led while a "Refugee," gives, 
I suppose, a tolerably good idea of what was seen, heard, and 
felt by those who, like himself, were not entirely destitute of 
means. His Journal, for those who have not read it, may be 
compressed thus : — 

Visited Westminster Hall. Went to Vauxhall Gardens. 

* Curwen, differing again with the official report, says that the amount of 
pensions paid on the old list was " shrunk " by the " reform to jC38,000." 
His own was continued at jClOO, and Samuel Sewall's at the same. No 
reduction was made in Thomas Danforth's, Samuel Porter's, Peter Johonnet's, 
George Brindley's, or Edward Oxnard's. In the allowance to some other 
Massachusetts Loyalists, changes were made ; thus, Lieutenant Governor Oli- 
ver's was reduced from JC300 to jG200; Harrison Gray's was wholly discon- 
tinued ; Lewis Gray's was reduced to JC50 ; David IngersoU's was reduced 
from £200 to jGIOO; Benjamin Gridley's from £\bO to £100; and Sam- 
uel H. Sparhawk's from £l50 to jC80 ; but Samuel Fitch's was raised JC20 ; 
and Colonel Morrow's £50. 

f Many Loyalists enjoyed pensions for years after the close of the war ; 
and the widows and orphans of others were continued on the list for partial 
allowances, as late, certainly, as 1788, when five hundred and fifty-seven per- 
sons were recipients of £26,526, and were either expatriated Americans or 
the survivors of their families. 



713 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Dined with a fellow-refugee. Saw the Lord Mayor in his 
court. Dined with Governor Hutchinson, in company with 
several Massachusetts refugees. Walked to Hyde Park. A 
whole army of sufierers in the cause of loyalty are here, la- 
menting their own and their country's unhappy fate. " The 
fires are not to be compared to our large American ones of oak 
and walnut, nor near so comfortable; would that I were 
away ! " Saw many curiosities brought from Egypt and the 
Holy Land. Visited Hampton Court ; saw there chairs of 
state with rich canopies ; pictures of the reigning beauties of 
the times of Charles the Second ; pictures of monks, friars, 
nuns ; pictures of former kings and queens. Went to Windsor. 
Heard news from America. Went to Governor Hutchinson's ; 
he was alone, reading a new pamphlet, entitled " An Enquiry 
whether Great Britain or America is most in Fault." Dined 
with eleven New En glanders. Went to meeting of Disputation 
Club. Bought Dr. Price on " Civil Liberty and the American 
War." Visited Governor Hutchinson, who was again alone. 
Went to Herald's office. Went to New England Coffee-house. 
New England refugees form a Club. Went to Chapel Royal, 
and saw the king and queen; Bishop of London preached. 
Heard Dr. Price preach. Dinner, tea, and evening with sev- 
eral refugees. Attended funeral of fellow-refugee ; many have 
died. At the New England Club dinner, twenty-five members 
present. News of banishment and confiscation acts. Saw 
procession of peers for trial of Duchess of Kingston. Went to 
St. Paul's; Dr. Porteus preached; several high church digni- 
taries present. Saw Lord Mansfield in Court, his train borne 
by a gentleman. Went to Bunyan's tomb. Heard Dr. Peters, 
a Connecticut Loyalist, preach. News from America. Strive 
hard for some petty clerkship ; application was unsuccessful ; 
such offices openly bought and sold. Hopes and fears excited 
by accounts from native land. Visited ancient ruins, supposed 
to be either of Roman or Danish origin. Witnessed election 
of a member of parliament. Discuss probability of war's 
closing. Sigh to return to America. Fear to be reduced to 
want ; lament distressed and forlorn condition. Visited noble- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 73 

men's estates and castles. Heard of death of Washington. 
Letter from a friend in America. Visited different colleges and 
public gardens. Fears about losing pension, and horror of ut- 
ter poverty. Attended sessions of parliament; heard Fox, 
Burke, and other great orators. Heard that Washington and 
his army were captured. Heard Wesley preach to an immense 
throng in the open air. Visited a fishing-town, and reminded 
of fishing-towns in Massachusetts. Heard that Washington 
is declared Dictator, like Cromwell. King implored to drive 
Lord North from his service, and take Chatham, and men of 
his sentiments, instead. Witnessed equipment of fleets and 
armies to subdue America. Angry and mortified to hear Eng- 
lishmen talk of Americans as a sort of serfs. Wearied of 
sights. Sick at heart, and tired of a sojourn among a people, 
who, after all, are but foreigners. New refugees arrived to 
recount their losses and sufferings. Fear, of alliance with 
France. Great excitement in England among the opposers of 
the war. Continued and frequent deaths among the refugee 
Loyalists. Pensions of several friends reduced. Fish dinner 
at the Coffee-house. O, for a return to New England ! Anx- 
ious as to the result of the war. News of surrender of Corn- 
wallis, and admission on all hands, that England can do no 
more. All the Loyalists abroad deeply agitated as to their 
future fate. Failure of British Commissioners to procure in the 
treaty of peace any positive conditions for the Americans in 
exile. Long to be away, but dare not go. Some refugees 
venture directly to return to their homes ; others embark for 
Nova Scotia and Canada, there to suffer anew. Know of 
forty-five refugees from Massachusetts who have died in Eng- 
land ; among them, Hutchinson, the governor, and Flucker, 
the secretary. 

Such were some of the things which Curwen saw and heard, 
such the hopes and fears which agitated him during his exile, 
and the course of life of hundreds of others, we may very 
properly conclude, was not dissimilar. Would that all the 
opposers of the Revolution had passed their time as innocently ! 
Some of those who remained in the country, did in fact do so ; 
7 



911 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

since they were nominal Loyalists only, and lived quietly upon 
their estates, or pursued their ordinary employments at their 
usual homes, in the towns occupied by the royal forces. 

The relentless warfare of Sir John Johnson, of Butler, Tryon, 
and the apostate Arnold ; the enormities committed in New 
Jersey ; and the murders perpetrated in South Carolina, have 
been mentioned. Elsewhere, bands of Tories killed the un- 
armed and unoffending merely to glut their revenge ; others 
contented themselves with the plundering of houses and the 
robbery of persons on the highways ; another class, to aid in 
the already rapid depreciation of the " continental-money," 
and to throw so much doubt upon it as to stop its circulation, 
assisted to emit and pass immense sums of the counterfeit, so 
well executed, as to be scarcely distinguishable from the genuine. 
Whole families engaged in the infamous work of distressing 
their former friends ; and in one instance, two sisters, who as- 
sumed male apparel, their two brothers, and their mother, 
were apprehended and tried for their lives, and the sisters, 
with one brother, were convicted. In another case, ten per- 
sons were found guilty, among whom was a father, aged 
seventy, and his son, a youth ; the boy was pardoned, but the 
sinner of threescore and ten was executed. 

Wherever there was defection, conspiracy, or treason, there 
were to be seen the stealthy footsteps of some one or more Loy- 
alists. Thus, they were connected with a plot to seize, and as 
was believed, to assassinate Washington ; and with a plan to 
destroy Albany. An adherent of the king, and a relative of 
Nathan Hale, recognised him while on his perilous service, and 
betrayed him to an ignominious death without a trial. A Tory, 
who had been in the employment of General Silliman, led the 
band that took him prisoner. In the capture of General Wads- 
worth, a Tory was the chief instrument. In the plot to attack 
Falmouth from Castine, the British troops were to do all the 
fighting, and the Tories all the mean and infamous work. 
Those who hovered in the vicinity of Washington's camp at 
Valley Forge — when his soldiers had neither food nor cloth- 
ing — to induce and aid desertions, were Americans. On the 

V 



!L 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 75 

revolt of the troops of Pennsylvania, another opportunity oc- 
curred for tampering with Whig integrity ; but the Tory emis- 
saries were dehvered up by the men whom they were sent to 
seduce, and were hung without ceremony or delay. 

Before the last named event, however, the Loyalists had 
played their last card ; I allude to the failure of the British 
commissioners to effect reconciliation, which was decisive of 
the final issue of the contest. While these commissioners were 
about their master's work, both parties seem to have felt that 
the important hour which was to determine their destiny had 
come, and both used their pens and tongues to the utmost of 
their ability. If the terms of accommodation were accepted, 
the Whigs would be, at best, only pardoned rebels; while their 
opponents, riding rough-shod over them, would enjoy all that 
a grateful sovereign could bestow. The attempt, through the 
wife of a Loyalist, to bribe a member of Congress, by the 
offer of a fortune in money, and the best colonial office which 
the king had at his disposal, to aid in uniting the Colonies to 
the mother country again, proved of incalculable service in 
recalling the doubting and irresolute Whigs to a sense of duty. 
The story of the offer, and Reed's noble reply, were repeated 
from mouth to mouth ; and from the hour that the circum- 
stances were known, the Whigs had won, and the Tories had 
lost, the control of a future empire. Henceforth, forever, the 
annals of America were to contain honorable mention of "rebel" 
names, and the high office of ruling the western hemisphere 
was to devolve upon "new families." 

We pass to take a rapid view of the measures which were 
adopted by the Whigs, to awe and to punish their adversaries. 
I find some things to condemn. And first, the " Mobs." That 
a cause as righteous as men were ever engaged in, lost many 
friends by the fearful outbreaks of popular indignation, is not 
to be doubted. The wise man of Israel said, "A brother 
offended is harder to be won than a strong city." Those who 
took upon themselves the sacred name of " Sons of Liberty," 
needlessly, and sometimes in their very wantonness, "offended," 
beyond all hope of recall, persons who hesitated and doubted. 



lO PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

and who, for the moment, claimed to occupy the position of 
"neutrals." The practice of "tarring and feathering," how- 
ever reprehensible, had, perhaps, but little influence in deter- 
mming the final course of men of these descriptions. This 
form of punishment, though so frequent as to qualify the say- 
ing of the ancient, that man is a two-legged animal without 
feathers, was borrowed from the Old World, where it has ex- 
isted since the Crusades ; and was confined, .principally, to 
obnoxious custom-house officers, pimps, and informers against 
smuggled goods. 

But what " brother," upon whose vision the breaking up of 
the Colonial System and the Sovereignty of America had not 
dawned, and who saw — as even the Whigs themselves saw — 
with the eyes only of a British subject, was won over to the 
right by the arguments of mo1)bing, burning, and smoking? 
Did the cause of America and of human freedom gain strength 
by the deeds of the five hundred who mobbed sherifi" Tyng, 
or by the speed of the one hundred and sixty on horse-back 
who pursued Commissioner Hallowell ? Were the shouts of 
an excited multitude, and the crash of broken glass and demol- 
ished furniture, fit requiems for the dying Ropes? Were Whig 
interests promoted because one thousand men shut up the 
Courts of Law in Berkshire, and five thousand did the same 
in Worcester, and mobs drove away the judges at Springfield, 
Taunton, and Plymouth 1 — because, in one place, a judge was 
stopped, insulted and threatened ; in another, the whole bench 
were hissed and hooted ; and in a third, were required to do 
penance, hat in hand, in a procession of attornies and sherifis ? 
Did the driving of Ingersoll from his estate, of Edson from 
his house, and the assault upon the home of Gilbert, and the 
shivering of Se wall's windov/s, serve to wean them, or their 
friends and connexions, from their royal master ? Did Ruggles, 
when subsequent events threw his countrymen into his power, 
forget that the creatures which grazed his pastures had been 
painted, shorn, maimed, and poisoned ; that he had been pur- 
sued on the highway by day and night; that his dwelling 
had been broken open, and he and his family had been driven 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 77 

from it ? What Tory turned Whig, because Saltonstall was 
mobbed, and OUver pkmdered, and Leonard shot at in his own 
house ? * Was the kingly arm actually weakened or strength- 
ened for harm, because thousands surrounded the mansions of 
high functionaries, and forced them into resignation — or be- 
cause sheriffs were told, that they would perform their duties 
at the hazard of their lives 1 Which party gained by waylay- 
ing, and msultin gat every corner, the " Rescinders," the "Pro- 
testers," and the "Addressers'?" Which, by the burning of 
the mills of Putnam 1 Had widows and orphans no additional 
griefs, because the probate courts were closed by the multitude, 
and their officers were driven under cover of British guns ? 
Did it serve a good end to endeavor to hinder Tories from 
getting tenants, or to prevent persons who owed them, from 
paying honest debts ? On whose cheek should have been the 
blush of shame, when the habitation of the aged and feeble 
Foster was sacked, and he had no shelter but the woods ? — 
when Williams, as infirm as he, was seized at night, dragged 
away for miles, and smoked in a room with fastened doors and 
a closed chimney-top 1 What father, who doubted, wavered, 
and doubted still, whether to join or fly, determined to abide 
the issue in the land of his birth, because foul words were 
spoken to his daughters, or because they were pelted when 
riding, or moving in the innocent dance ? Is there cause for 
wonder that some who still live, should yet say, of their own or 
of their fathers' treatment, that "persecution made half of the 
king's friends? " The good men of the period mourned these 
and similar proceedings, and they may be lamented now. The 
warfare waged against persons at their own homes and about 
their lawful avocations is not to be justified; and the "Mobs" 
of the Revolution are to be as severely and as unconditionally 
condemned, as the "Mobs" of the present day. 

The acts of legislative bodies for the punishment of the ad- 



* These cases are selected from the many that are to be found in the docu- 
ments of the times, because the objects of displeasure were men of note, and, 
before the troubles, were held in great respect. 

7* 



78 PRELI3IINARY REMARKS, OR 

herents of the crown were numerous. In Rhode Island, death 
and confiscation of estate were the penalties provided by law 
for any person who communicated with the ministry or their 
agents, or who afforded supplies to the forces, or piloted the 
armed ships of the king. Besides these general statutes, sev- 
eral acts were passed in that State, to confiscate and sequester 
the property of certain persons who were designated by name. 

In Connecticut, the offences of supplying the royal army or 
navy, of giving them information, of enlisting or procuring 
others to enlist in them, and of piloting or assisting naval ves- 
sels, were punished more mildly, and involved only the loss of 
estate, and of personal liberty for a term not exceeding three 
years. To speak, or write, or act against the doings of Con- 
gress, or the Assembly of Connecticut, was punishable by dis- 
qualification for office, imprisonment, and the disarming of the 
offender. Here, too, was a law for seizing and confiscating the 
estates of those who sought the royal protection, and absented 
themselves from their homes or the country. 

In Massachusetts, a person suspected of enmity to the Whig 
cause could be arrested under a magistrate's warrant, and ban- 
ished, unless he would swear fealty to the friends of liberty ; 
and the selectmen of towns could prefer charges of political 
treachery in town-meeting, and the individual thus accused, if 
convicted by a jury, could be sent into the enemy's jurisdiction. 
Massachusetts also designated by name, and generally by oc- 
cupation and residence, three hundred and eight of her peo- 
ple, of whom seventeen had been inhabitants of Maine, who 
had fled from their homes, and denounced against any one of 
them who should return, apprehension, imprisonment, and 
transportation to a place possessed by the British ; and for a 
second voluntary return, without leave, death without benefit 
of clergy. By another law, the property of twenty-nine per- 
sons, who were denominated " notorious conspirators," was 
confiscated. Of these, fifteen had been appointed " mandamus 
councillors," two had been governors, one lieutenant-governor, 
one treasurer, one attorney-general, one chief justice, and four 
commissioners of the customs. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 79 

New Hampshire passed acts similar to these, under which 
seventy-six of her former citizens were prohibited from coming 
within her borders, and the estates of twenty-eight were de- 
clared to be forfeited. 

Virginia passed a resolution to the effect, that persons of a 
given description should be deemed and treated as aliens, and 
that their property should be sold, and the proceeds go into the 
public treasury for future disposal ; and also a law prohibiting 
the migration of certain persons to that commonwealth, and 
providing penalties for the violation of its provisions. 

In New York, the county committees were authorized to ap- 
prehend, and decide upon the guilt of such inhabitants as were 
supposed to hold correspondence with the enemy, or had com- 
mitted some other specified act ; and they might punish those 
whom they adjudged to be guilty, with imprisonment for three 
months, or banishment. There, too, persons opposed to liberty 
and independence, were prohibited from practising law in the 
courts ; and the effects of fifty-nine persons, of whom three 
were women, and their rights of remainder and reversion, were 
to pass by confiscation, from them, to the "people." So, also, 
a parent, whose sons went off and adhered to the enemy, was 
subjected to a tax of ninepence on the pound of the parent's 
estate for each and every such son ; and, until a revision of the 
law, Whigs were as liable to this tax as others. 

In New Jersey, one act was passed to punish traitors and 
disaffected persons ; another, for taking charge of and leasing 
the real estates, and for forfeiting the personal estates of certain 
fugitives and offenders ; and a third for forfeiting to, and vest- 
ing in the State the real property of the persons designated in 
the second statute ; and a fourth, supplemental to the act first 
mentioned. 

In Pennsylvania, sixty-two persons, who were designated 
by name, were required by the executive council to sur- 
render themselves to some judge of a court or justice of the 
peace within a specified time, and abide trial for treason, or in 
default of appearance, to stand attainted ; and by an act of a 
subsequent time, the estates of thirty-six other persons, who 



80 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

were also designated by name, and who had been previously 
attainted of treason, were declared to be confiscated. 

The act of Delaware provided, that the property, both real 
and personal, of certain persons who were named, and who 
were forty-six in number, should be forfeited to the State, 
"subject nevertheless to the payment of the said offenders' just 
debts," unless, as in Pennsylvania, they gave themselves up 
to trial for the crime of treason in adhering to the royal cause. 

Maryland seized, confiscated, and appropriated all property 
of persons in allegiance to the British crown, and appointed 
commissioners to carry out the terms of three statutes which 
were passed to effect these purposes. 

In North Carolina, the confiscation act embraced sixty-five 
specified individuals, and four mercantile firms; and by its 
terms, not only included the "lands" of these persons and 
commercial houses, but their " negroes and other personal 
property." 

The law of Georgia, which was enacted very near the close 
of the struggle, declared certain persons to have been guilty 
of treason against that State, and their estates to be forfeited 
for their offences. 

South Carolina surpassed all other members of the Con- 
federacy, Massachusetts excepted. The Loyalists of that 
State, whose rights, persons, and property were affected by 
legislation, were divided into four classes. The persons who 
had offended the least, — who were forty-five in number, — 
were allowed to retain their estates, but were amerced twelve 
per cent, of their value. Soon after the fall of Charleston, 
and when disaffection to the Whig cause was so general, 
two hundred and ten persons, who styled themselves to be the 
"principal inhabitants" of the city, signed an Address to Sir 
Henry Clinton, in which they state that they have every in- 
ducement to return to their allegiance, and ardently hope to be 
readmitted to the character and condition of British subjects. 
These " Addressers " formed another class. Of these two hun- 
dred and ten, sixty-three were banished, and lost their property 
by forfeiture, either for this offence, or the graver one of afiix- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 9Si 

ing their names to a petition to the royal general, to be armed 
on the royal side. Another class, composed of the still larger 
number of eighty persons, were also banished and divested of 
their estates, for the crime of holding civil or military com- 
missions under the crown, after the conquest of South Carolina. 
And the same penalties were inflicted upon thirteen others, 
who, on the success of Lord Cornwallis, at Camden, presented 
his lordship with their congratulations; and, still, fourteen 
others were banished and deprived of their estates, because 
they were obnoxious. Thus, then, the ''Addressers," "Peti- 
tioners," " Congratulators," and "Obnoxious" Loyalists, who 
were proscribed, and who suffered the loss of their property, 
were one hundred and seventy in number ; and, if to these, we 
add the forty-five who were fined twelve pounds in the hun- 
dred of the value of their estates, the aggregate will be -two 
hundred and fifteen. 

Much of the legislation of the several States appears to have 
proceeded from the recommendations made from time to time 
by Congress, and that body passed several acts and resolutions 
of its own. Thus, they subjected to martial law and to death 
all who should furnish provisions and certain other articles to 
the king's troops in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware; 
and they resolved, that all Loyalists taken in arms should be 
sent to the States to which they belonged, there to be dealt 
with as traitors. 

The spirit and temper of some of the acts which I have 
noticed, may be thought severe and unjust. It is observable, 
that Rhode Island and Connecticut provided a difference of 
punishment for the same class of offences; and that New 
York imposed a tax upon the father for the delinquency of the 
son. But these are matters which need not detain us. The 
acts of proscription and banishment, of attainder and confisca- 
tion, are of far graver import. In discussing the expediency 
and justice of the laws which drove or kept the Loyalists in 
exile, as well as those which alienated their estates, two points 
present themselves ; namely, whether the Whigs were right in 
opposing the pretensions of England, and whether they did 



82 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

more than others have done in civil wars, — wars which are 
always the most bitter and unrelenting, — always the most ob- 
stinate and difficult to terminate ? The question suggested by 
the first query, is no longer open to dispute, for, the mother 
country has herself admitted, that she was wrong in her treat- 
ment of the thirteen Colonies. I have endeavored to show, 
that the real issue between her and our fathers was, that she 
restrained their industry^ that she prevented them from open- 
ing the country and developing its resources. In what way, 
then, has she conceded that Whigs of '76 were right? I 
answer, by abandoning, one after another, the oppressive 
measures which they resisted. Thus, the old Colonies were 
required to give up their tea-trade with the Dutch, and buy 
their tea wholly of the company who monopolized her own 
maiket ; but she now alows Colonial merchants to get it in 
China, or wherever else they will. The ship-owners of Boston, 
Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and of the other ports of the 
thirteen Colonies, were restricted to direct voyages to and from 
the possessions of her crown ; but she now allows those of St. 
John, Quebec, Halifax, and of all other places in her present 
dependencies, free trade with all the world. The iron mines of 
Pennsylvania and of other parts of America, in our fathers' 
time, could not be opened and worked, and wool and cotton 
could not be manufactured ; but now, the Colonists may forge, 
and spin and weave, and make or import machinery, at their 
pleasure. Washington was denied a commission in her army, 
and preferments, generally, were withheld from the Colonists, 
who, like him, shed their blood to extend her conquests and 
maintain the honor of her flag; but now, British Americans 
obtain high rank in each arm of her service. It was formerly 
her policy to discourage interior settlements and enterprises for 
facilitating intercourse and transportation; but she now en- 
courages both, by direct and frequent legislation, and guaran- 
tees payment of money borrowed by Colonists to open roads 
and canals. Her mandates suppressed a currency of paper in 
the dependencies which she lost ; but she now permits it in 
those that remain to her, in every form and to any extent com- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. WS 

patible with safety. The Whigs, then, were right ; they shat- 
tered the Colonial System, and left it a mere wreck ; and the 
descendants of the Loyalists are, with proud satisfaction be it 
said, in the enjoyment of the benefits of their sacrifices and 
labors. Nor is this all. The Whigs admitted that the power 
of Parliament extended to the " Regulation of Commerce," 
that the maritime concerns of the empire should be under the 
control of one supreme head ; every application of the principle 
was complained of as a grievance, but yet they conceded the 
principle itself. They set up a subtle distinction between 
"internal and external taxation," but I confess that I have 
never been able to understand it. To me there was not, as 
they argued there was, a difference either in theory or fact, 
between demanding postage on a letter,* and exacting a duty 
on the ^^ paper " on which it is written ; between the ^^ stamp" 
duty on a ship's manifest and clearance, and the impost duty 
on ^'painters' colors " spread on her sides ; the '■^ glass " of her 
cabin-windows, and the ^^ sugar," ^^ molasses, '■^loine," and 
" tea," stowed under her deck. But be this as it may, England 
has made concessions in this particular, which the Whigs never 
asked for, or even so much as imagined they could rightfully 
claim. By the abandonment, therefore, of the policy which 
caused the Revolution, and of a principle which did not enter 
into the dispute, is it not manifest that British statesmen, of 
the last and the present reign, themselves admit the justice of 
the demands made by our fathers upon their predecessors 1 

If, now, the Whigs were in the right, they might do every 
thing necessary to ensure success ; and we are thus brought to 

* There was certainly legislation of Parliament on the subject of Colonial 
post-offices and rates of postage, some time previous to the year 1710. In the 
votes of the House of Commons of February 14th of that year, the different 
rates from the several principal towns in America, are stated with great par- 
ticularity, and the space occupied by the details is equal to three octavo pages. 
The legality of the postage " Tax," was, I believe, never disputed ; the 
duty or " Tax " levied on the " Stamps," and the articles of merchandise 
named in the text, on the contrary, was resisted, and forms the most prominent 
point of the controversy. 



84 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

the second point of inquiry. The question of the banishment 
of the Loyahsts, addresses itself to me in two forms, that of 
the temporary^ and that of the permanent exile of the men who 
suffered it. Among these men were many persons of great 
private worth, who, in adhering to the crown, were governed 
by conscience and a stern regard to duty ; and the offences of 
others consisted merely in a nominal attachment to the mother 
country, or in a disinclination to witness, or participate ip, the 
horrors of a civil war. Yet they were Loyalists, and it so hap- 
pened, that the best men of that party were of all others those 
who could do the Whigs the greatest mischief, since, if they 
remained at liberty, their character and moderation rendered 
their counsel and advice of vast service to their own, and of 
vast harm to the opposite party, amidst the doubts and fears 
which prevailed, and had a direct tendency to prolong and 
embitter the contest. It became necessary^ therefore, to secure 
them either by imprisonment, or by exile. The first course, 
while requiring a considerable force to guard them, which the 
Whigs could not spare, would have been far less merciful than 
the other, and banishment, of consequence, was best for both 
parties.* Again, a considerable proportion of those who were 
proscribed, volimtarily abandoned the country, and were absent 
from it at the passage of the banishment acts ; and this was 
especially the case in Massachusetts. To prevent the return 
of these persons was as necessary to accomplish the objects of 
the struggle, as it was to secure those who remained at, or in 
the neighborhood of their homes. 

Still it may be wished that greater discrimination had been 
exercised in selecting those who were deemed fit objects of 
severity. Persons whose crimes against the country and 
against humanity deserved death, escaped the banishment 

* Many Loyalists were confined in private houses, some were sent to jails, 
and others to " Simsbury Mines." But the prisons were hardly proper places 
for the confinement of such people, hardly of criminals ; and it is believed, 
that a large proportion of the persons whom it was deemed proper to arrest, 
preferred banishment to the loss of liberty, even though they were sure to be 
comfortably quartered in the families or houses of Whigs. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 9S 

acts of the States to which they belonged ; while on the 
other hand, these acts embrace persons who, from the cir- 
cumstances of their condition, were utterly powerless, who 
had done and could do no evil. It may be wished, also, that 
those who were deemed fit objects of severity, had been allowed 
the forms of trial. Courts of Admiralty were established for 
condemning prizes, and men might reasonably claim that, 
while their property was dealt with according to the estab- 
lished rules of society, their persons should not be more sum- 
marily disposed of. Means for the trial of Loyalists were 
abundant. It is our boast, indeed, that, unlike the usual course 
of things in civil war, civil government was maintained 
throughout the whole period of our Revolution, with hardly 
an interruption any where. This is a fact as honorable as it 
is remarkable. Connecticut and Rhode Island pursued their 
usual course under their old charters; Georgia was overrun by 
the king's troops, the people were dispersed, and the military 
law was made paramount to the civil, or existed in its place ; 
but the ten remaining States actually formed constitutions 
during the struggle, most of them in the early part of it, and 
so well adapted to their wants were these instruments, that 
some of them have remained, without essential change, to the 
present time. "I will maintain as long as I live," said Dupin, 
the great French advocate, " that the condemnation of Mar- 
shal Ney was not just, for his defence was not free." Perhaps 
posterity will entertain something of the same sentiment with 
regard to the course pursued by our fathers in not allowing 
their opponents an opportunity to appeal to the tribunals. In 
this particular, Pennsylvania and Delaware, as it will be re;- 
membered, adopted a mode less objectionable than that of 
some other States, inasmuch as they "summoned" the per- 
sons against whom they proceeded, to appear and " surrender 
themselves for trial."* Besides, it was common during the 

* At least one of the Pennsylvania Loyalists went in under the proclamation, 
and was acquitted. Chief Justice McKean, a signer of the Declaration of Inde- ■ 
pendence, presided at the trial. His course gave satisfaction to the "moderate 



86 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

war, for the military commanders to order court-martials to 
take cognizance of the offences, and to fix the punish- 
ment of Tories ; and a future generation may possibly ask, 
why, when the sword was suspended amid the turmoils of the 
camp, to hear the defence of the accused, that weapon was so 
wielded in the hands of civilians, as to " transform them into 
persecutors, and into martyrs, those whom it smote." 

At the peace, justice and good policy both required a general 
amnesty, and the revocation of the acts of disability and ban- 
ishment, so that only those who had been guilty of flagrant 
crimes should be excluded from becoming citizens. Instead of 
this, however, the State legislatures, generally, continued in a 
course of hostile action, and treated the conscientious and pure, 
and the unprincipled and corrupt, with the same indiscrimination 
as they had done during the struggle. In some parts of the coun- 
try, there really appears to have been a determination to place 
these misguided, but then humbled, men beyond the pale of 
human sympathy. In one legislative body, a petition from the 
banished, praying to be allowed to return to their homes, was 
rejected without a division ; and a law was passed which denied 
to such as had remained within the State, and to all others 
who had opposed the Revolution, the privilege of voting at 
elections, or of holding office. In another State, all who had 
sought royal protection were declared to be aliens, and to be 
incapable of claiming and holding property within it, and their 
return was forbidden. Other legislatures refused to repeal such 
of their laws as conflicted with the conditions of the treaty of 
peace, and carried out the doctrines of the States alluded to 
above, without material modification. But the temper of South 
Carolina was far more moderate. Acting on the wise principle, 
that " when the offenders are numerous, it is sometimes pru- 
dent to overlook their crime," she listened to the supplications 
made to her by the fallen, and restored to their civil and polit- 
ical rights a large proportion of those who had suffered under 

Whigs," but those who were denominated " violent "Whigs," were much in- 
censed because he allowed a known Tory to escape. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 11^ 

her banishment and confiscation laws. The course pursued 
by New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia, was different. 
These States were neither merciful nor just ; and it is even 
true, that Whigs, whose gallantry in the field, whose prudence 
in the cabinet, and whose exertions in diplomatic stations 
abroad, had contributed essentially to the success of the con- 
flict, were regarded with enmity on account of their attempts 
to produce a better state of feeling, and more humane legis- 
lation. Had these States adopted a different line of conduct, 
their good example would not have been lost, probably, upon 
others, smaller and of less influence ; and had Virginia, espe- 
cially, been honest enough to have permitted the payment of 
debts which her people owed to British subjects before the war, 
the first years of our freedom would not have been stained 
with a breach of our public faith, and the long and angry con- 
troversy with Great Britain, which well-nigh involved us in a 
second war with her, might not have occurred. 

Eventually, popular indignation diminished; the statute- 
book was divested of its most objectionable enactments, and 
numbers were permitted to occupy their old homes, and to 
recover the whole or a part of their property ; but by far the 
greater part of the Loyalists, who quitted the country at the 
commencement of, or during the war, never returned. And of 
the many thousands who abandoned the United States after 
the peace, and while these enactments were in force, few, com- 
paratively, had the desire, or even the means, to revisit the 
land from which they were expelled. Such persons and their 
descendants form a very considerable proportion of the popu- 
lation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Upper Canada. 

It is to be equally regretted on grounds of policy, that the 
majorities * in the State legislatures did not remember with 

* I say majorities, because I am satisfied that in almost every State there 
were minorities, more or less numerous, who desired the adoption of a mode- 
rate course. In New York it is certain, that the first political parties after 
the peace were formed in consequence of the divisions which existed among the 
Whigs, as to the lenity or severity which should be extended to their van 
quished opponents. 



88 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Mr. Jefferson, that separation from England "^^a5 contemplated 
with affliction by all^^^ and that, Hke Mr. Adams, many sound 
Whigs " would have given every thing they possessed for a 
restoration to the state of things before the contest began, pro- 
vided they could have had a sufficient security for its continu- 
ance." Then they might have done at an early moment after the 
cessation of hostilities, what they actually did do in a few years 
afterwards, namely, have allowed the banished Loyalists to re- 
turn from exile, and, excluding those against whom enormities 
could have been proved, have conferred upon them, and upon 
those who had remained to be driven away at the peace, the 
rights of citizens. Most of them would have easily fallen into re- 
spect for the new state of things, old friendships and intimacies 
would have been revived, and long before before this time all 
would have muigled in one mass. The error of England in 
perpetuating two distinct races in Lower Canada just begins to 
be felt, and has now compelled a union of the two Colonies. 
There, as in our own case, the conquerors and the vanquished 
should have been made one. We acquired the southern pos- 
sessions of France in America forty years after she yielded 
up to British arms her remaining territories in the North ; but 
how different is the population of French origin in Louisiana 
from that in British America ! To make republican Americans 
of Frenchmen, — so to express the idea, — was a task far more 
difficult than to unite under one form of government the entire 
people of the thirteen States. And yet, while we failed to 
accomplish the latter, how very nearly have we already per- 
fected the former. 

As a matter of expediency, how unwise was it to perpetuate 
the feelings of the opponents of the Revolution, and to keep 
them a distinct class, for a time, and for harm yet unknown ! 
How ill judged the measures that caused them to settle the hith- 
erto neglected possessions of the British crown ! Nova Scotia 
had been won and lost, and lost and won, in the struggles be- 
tween France and England ; and the blood of New England 
had been poured out upon its soil like water. But when the 
Loyalists sought refuge there, what was it ? Before the war, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. M 

the fisheries of its coast — for the prosecution of which Hahfax 
itself was founded — comprised, in pubHc estimation, its chief 
value ; and though Great Britain had quietly possessed it for 
about seventy years, the emigration to it of the adherents of 
the crown from the United States, in a single year, more than 
doubled its population. Until hostile events brought Halifax 
into notice, no civilized people were poorer than the inhabitants 
of that Colony ; since, in 1775, the Assembly estimated that 
twelve hundred pounds currency, a sum less than five thou- 
sand dollars, was the whole amount of money which they pos- 
sessed. By causing the expatriation, then, of many thousands 
of our countrymen, among whom were the well educated, the 
ambitious, and the well versed in politics, we became the 
founders of two agricultural and commercial Colonies ; for it 
is to be remembered, that New Brunswick formed a part of 
Nova Scotia until 1784, and that the necessity of the division 
then made was of our own creation. In like manner we be- 
came the founders of Upper Canada. The Loyalists were the 
first settlers of the territory thus denominated by the act of 
1791 ; * and the principal object of the line of division of 
Canada, as established by Mr. Pitt's act, was to place them, 
as a body, by themselves, and to allow them to be governed by 
laws more congenial than those which were deemed requisite 
for the government of the French on the St. Lawrence. For 
twenty years the country bordering on the Great Lakes was 
decidedly American. Our expatriated countrymen were gen- 
erally poor, and some of them were actually without means to 
provide for their common wants from day to day. The gov- 
ernment for which they had become exiles, was as liberal as 
they could have asked. It gave them lands, tools, materials 
for building, and the means of subsistence for two years ; and 

* It was in a debate on this Bill, that Fox and Burke severed the ties of 
friendship which had existed between them for a long period. The scene 
was one of the most interesting that had ever occurred in the House of Com- 
mons. Fox, overcome by his emotions, wept aloud. Burke's previous course 
with regard to the French Revolution had rendered a rupture at some time 
probable, perhaps certain. 

8* 



90 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

to each of their children, as they became of age, two hun- 
dred acres of land. And besides this, of the offices created 
by the organization of a new Colonial government, they were 
the chief recipients. The ties of kindred, and suffering in a 
common cause, created a strong bond of sympathy between 
them, and for years they bore the appellation of " United Em- 
pire of Loyalists." 

Should it be replied that these Colonies, without accessions 
from the newly formed republic, would have risen to impor- 
tance ere this, — I answer, that I seriously doubt it ; because, 
in the first place, of the thousands who annually come from 
Europe to America, but a small proportion land on their shores, 
and because the most of those who do, embark again for the 
United States, notwithstanding the inducements held out by 
the Colonial and home governments for them to settle on the 
territories of the crown. But were it otherwise, the force of 
the remark is in no degree diminished, for the obvious reason, 
that had we pursued a wise course, people of our oicn stock 
would not have become our rivals in ship-building, in the car- 
riage of our great staples, in the prosecution of the fisheries, 
and in the production of wheat, and other bread stuffs. Nor 
is this all. We should not have had the hatred, the influence, 
and the talents of persons of Loyalist origin to contend against, 
in the questions which have,* and which may yet come up 
between us and England. It is to be observed, moreover, that 
the operation of these causes has been, and will continue to be, 
no slight obstacle in the way of adjusting such questions ; since 
those who were born in our Union, and their children and kin- 
dred, have no inconsiderable share in determining Colonial 
councils, in the shaping of remonstrances and representations 
to the mother country. And whoever takes into view the fact, 
that the sacrifices and sufferings of the fathers are well remem- 



* The controversy respecting our Northeastern Boundary, and that with 
regard to our Rights of Fishing in the bays and seas of British America, may 
be mentioned as two. 



\ 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. Vi 

bered by the descendants, and that, under the monarchical 
form, hereditary descent of official station is very common, 
will agree with me in the belief, that evils from this source are 
far from being at an end, and that the past and the present 
foreshadow the future. 

Thus, as it seems to me, humanity to the adherents of the 
crown, and prudent regard for our own interests, required a 
general amnesty. As it was, we not only dealt harshly with 
many, and unjustly with some, but doomed to misery others, 
whose hearts and hopes had been as true as those of Wash- 
ington himself Thus, in the divisions of families which every 
where occurred, and which formed one of the most distressing 
circumstances of the conflict, there were wives and daughters, 
who, although bound to Loyalists by the holiest ties, had given 
their sympathies to the right from the beginning; and who 
now, in the triumph of the cause which had had their prayers, 
went meekly — as woman ever meets a sorrowful lot — into 
hopeless, interminable exile. 

The position of the Whigs at the close of the Revolution 
was, indeed, beset with difficulties ; but the error of those who 
formed the vnajorities of the legislatures — for it is ever to be 
remembered, that they were much divided on the subject of 
the course which should be taken with the Loyalists — consisted 
in the belief, that they were beset with dangers. Their "prin- 
ciples like torches shone upon their career," and the mistake 
of those who merely erred in judgment, may be forgotten, 
and the passion of the excited may be forgiven ; but yet the 
effects of the conduct of both classes remain, to produce dis- 
quiets, and to disturb our relations with the British possessions 
in this hemisphere. When, in the civil war between the Puri- 
tans and the Stuarts, the former gained the ascendency, and 
when, at a later period, the Commonwealth was established, 
Cromwell and his party wisely determined not to banish or 
inflict disabilities on their opponents ; and so, too, at the 
Restoration of the monarchy, so general was the amnesty act 
in its provisions, that it was termed an act of oblivion to the 



92 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

friends of Charles, and of grateful remembrance to his foes* 
The happy consequences which resulted from the conduct of 
both parties, and in both cases, were before the men of their 
own political and religious sympathies, the Puritans of the 
North, and the Cavaliers of the South, in America. And in 
concluding the topic, I have again to express my regret, that 
the example of history, added to impulses of mercy, and 
motives of expediency, failed to erase from our statute books 
acts, which, in ages to come, will be very likely to put us on 
our defence. 

The laws which divested the Loyalists of their estates, 
demand a moment's examination. Keeping in view that the 
Whigs were right in resisting the pretensions of the mother 
country, and that of consequence they might very properly 
use every necessary means to ensure success, we shall find no 
difficulty in admitting, that the property of their opponents 
could be rightfully appropriated to aid in the prosecution of 
the war. They devoted their own fortunes, they importuned 
most of the powers of Europe for loans, and they entailed 
upon their posterity a large debt; and it would indeed be 
strange, if they could not have made forced levies upon the 
estates of those who refused not only to help them, but were 
actually in arms, or otherwise employed against them, and on 
the royal side. To emancipate the American continent was a 
great work ; the Whigs felt and knew, what is now everywhere 
conceded, that the work was both necessary and righteous, and 
requiring, as its speedy accomplishment did, the labor of every 
hand, and contributions from every purse, the throwing into the 
treasury the jewels of women, and the holiday allowances of 
children ; they are to stand justified for a resort to the seques- 
tration of the possessions of those who assisted in the vain 
endeavor to subdue them, and to renew the bonds which had 



• At the Restoration of Charles the Second, so general was the adhesion 
to that monarch, that historians pause to express wonder, and to inquire what 
had become of the Cromwell or Common-wealth men, who had overturned 
the monarchy. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. IV 

bound them. The property of those who held commissions in 
the king's army and in the Loyahst corps, was the property of 
enemies, and, as such, could be converted to public uses ; while 
that of others, who made their election to accept of service in 
civil capacities, is to be regarded in the same hght. The "Ab- 
sentees," or those who retired from the country and lived 
abroad in privacy, were a different class ; and it may be 
doubted, whether the same rule was applicable to them, and 
whether fines or amercements were not the more proper modes 
of procedure against the estates which they abandoned in quit- 
ting the country. The Whigs assumed, however, that "every 
government hath a right to command the personal services of 
its own members, whenever the exigencies of the state shall 
require, especially in times of impending or actual invasion," 
and, that "no member thereof can then withdraw himself from 
the jurisdiction of the government, without justly incurring 
the forfeiture of his property, rights, and liberties, holden 
under, and derived from that constitution of government, to 
the support of which he hath refused his aid and assistance." 

It is to be further urged in defence of the principle of con- 
fiscation, that in civil conflicts the right of one party to levy 
upon the other, has been generally admitted ; that the practice 
has frequently accorded with the theory ; and, what is still 
more to the purpose, that the royal party, and king's generals, 
exercised that right during the struggle. Thus, then, the seizure 
and confiscation of property in the Revolution, was not the act 
of one side merely, but of both. 

But, as has been remarked, there was not with us, as 
there commonly has been in similar outbreaks, a transition 
period between the throwing off" one government and the es- 
tablishment of another, and the regret that was expressed with 
regard to the indiscriminate banishment of persons, is equally 
applicable to the disposal of their estates ; and I cannot but 
feel, that inasmuch as the Whigs individually, and as a body, 
were, when compared with other revolutionists, " without spot 
or wrinkle, or any such thing," so they will be held to a stricter 
accountability by those who shall hereafter speak of them ; 



94 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

and that we shall be asked to show, for them, why, with tribu- 
nals established and open for the trial of prizes made upon the 
sea, the fundamental rule of civilized society, that no person 
shall be deprived of "property but by the judgment of his 
peers," was violated; and why, without being "confronted by 
witnesses," and without the verdict of a "jury," and decrees 
of a court, any man in America, at any time, has been divested 
of his lands. 

In extenuation of the injustice of the seizure and forfeiture 
of the estates of Loyalists who were designated by name, and 
in special laws, it is to be observed, that such acts were dis- 
countenanced by some of the wisest and purest Whigs of the 
time, who hung their heads in shame, and never ceased to 
speak of the procedure in terms of severe reprobation. Mr. 
Jay'sdisgust was unconquerable, and he never would purchase 
any lands that had been forfeited under the confiscation act of 
New York. In further palliation it may be said, that the 
wrong was partially atoned for soon after the war, by the revi- 
sion of these laws, and that several estates in different States 
were restored to their former owners, and that in South Caro- 
lina, especially, but few were finally retained. No man at the 
South had greater reason to be inexorable than the celebrated 
partisan oflicer, General Marion ; but, holding a seat in the 
legislature of his native State, when applications were made 
by the expatriated for the restoration of their alienated pos- 
sessions, he was one of the most liberal members of that body, 
and generally spoke and voted in favor of granting their peti- 
tions. 

The subject of restitution and compensation to the Loyalists, 
was a source of great difficulty during the negotiations for 
peace. The course of the matter may be learned better from 
the negotiators themselves, than from any words of mine ; and I 
therefore make some extracts from the Journal of Mr. Adams,* 
who was one of them. 

November 3d, 1782. " Dr. Franklin on Tuesday last, told 

* Sparks's Diplomatic Correspondence, Vol. VI. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. W 

me of Mr. Oswald's demand of payment of debts, and com- 
pensation to the Tories ; he said his answer had been, we had 
not the power, nor had Congress. I told him I had no notion 
of cheating any body. The question of paying debts, and 
compensating, were two. I had made the same observation 
that forenoon to Mr. Oswald and Mr. Strachey." 

November 10. [Mr. Adams waited on Count Yergennes.] 
"The Count asked me how we went on with the English. I 
told him we divided on the Tories and the Penobscot. The 
Count remarked, that the English wanted the country there 
' for masts.' I told him I thought there were few masts there; 
but that I fancied it was not masts, but Tories, that again 
made the difficulty. Some of them claimed lands in the terri- 
tory, and others hoped for grants there." 

November 11. "Mr. Whiteford, the secretary of Mr. Oswald, 
came. We soon fell into politics. [Mr. Adams said] Suppose 
a French minister foresees that the presence of the Tories in 
America will keep up perpetually two parties, a French party 
and an English party." " The French minister at Philadel- 
phia has made some representations to Congress in favor of 
compensation to the Royalists. We are instructed against it, 
or rather have no authority to do it ; and if Congress should 
refer the matter to the several States, every one of them, 
after a delay, probably of eighteen months, will determine 
against it." 

November 15. " Mr. Oswald came to visit me. He said, 
if he were a member of Congress, he would say to the refugees. 
Take your property ; we scorn to make any use of it in build- 
ing up our system. I replied, that we had no power, and 
Congress no power; that if we sent the proposition of compen- 
sation to Congress, they would refer it to the States ; and that, 
meantime, you must carry on the war six or nine months, 
certainly, for this compensation, and consequently spend, in 
the prosecution of it, six or nine times the sum necessary to 
make the compensation ; for T presume this war costs, every 
month, to Great Britain, a larger sum than would be necessary 
to pay for the forfeited estates." 



96 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

November 17. " Mr. Vanghan came to me; he said Mr. 
Fitzherbert had received a letter from Mr. Townshend, that 
the compensation would be insisted on." 

November 18. " Returned Mr. Oswald's visit. We went 
over the old ground concerning the Tories. He began to use 
arguments with me to relax. I told him he must not think of 
that, but must bend all his thoughts to convince and persuade 
his court to give it up ; that if the terms now before his court 
were not accepted, the whole negotiation would be broken off." 

November 25. " Dr. Franklin, Mr. Jay, and myself, met at 
Mr. Oswald's lodgings. Mr. Strachey told us, he had been to 
London, and waited personally on every one of the king's cabi- 
net council, and had communicated the last propositions to them. 
They, every one of them, unanimously condemned that respect- 
ing the Tories ; so that that unhappy affair stuck, as he fore- 
saw and foretold it would." 

November 26. [Dr. Franklin, Mr. Jay, and Mr. Adams] 
" in consultation upon the propositions made us yesterday by 
Mr. Oswald. We agreed unanimously to answer him, that 
we could not consent to the article respecting the refugees, as it 
now stands. The rest of the day was spent in endless discus- 
sions about the Tories. Dr. Franklin is very stanch against 
them ; more decided, a great deal, on this point, than Mr. Jay 
or myself" 

November 27. " Mr. Benjamin Yaughan came in, returned 
from London, where he had seen Lord Shelburne. He says, 
he finds the ministry much embarrassed with the Tories, and 
exceedingly desirous of saving their honor and reputation in 
this point ; that it is reputation more than money," &c. 

November 29. "Met Mr. Fitzherbert, Mr. Oswald, Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jay, Mr. Laurens, and Mr. Strachey, and spent 
the whole day in discussions about the fishery and the Tories. 
Mr. Fitzherbert, Mr. Oswald, and Mr. Strachey retired for some 
time ; and, returning, Mr. Fitzherbert said, that Mr. Strachey 
and himself had determined to advise Mr. Oswald to strike 
with us according to the terms proposed as our ultimatum, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



respecting the fishery and the Loyahsts. We agreed to meet 
to-morrow, to sign and seal the treaties." * 

Besides the want of power in Congress to make the de- 
manded recompense to the Loyalists, as stated in these extracts, 
there were other objections, and some quite as serious. First, 
many of them, by their falsehoods, misrepresentations, and bad 
counsels to the ministry, had undoubtedly done much to bring 
on, and protract the war ; so that, in a good measure at least, 
it was just to charge them with being the authors of their own 
sufferings. In the second place, those of them who had borne 
arms, and assisted to ravage and burn the towns on different 
parts of the coast, or had plundered the defenceless families of 
the interior settlements, should have made, rather than received, 
compensation. Thirdly, to restore the identical property of 
any had become nearly impossible, as it had been sold, and, in 
many cases, divided among purchasers, and could only be 
wrested by plenary means from the present possessors. Fourth- 
ly, the country was in no condition to pay those who had toiled 
and bled for its emancipation, or even to make good a tithe of 
the losses which they had suffered in consequence of the war; 
much less was there the ability to adjust the accounts of ene- 
mies, whether domestic or foreign. And finally, each party, 
taken as a whole, was bound, as in all warfare, to abide the 
issue of the contest, without claim upon the other. The Loy- 
alists, as a body, looked upon the subjugation of the Whigs as 
almost certain, to the last ; and their delegates in New York 
even went so far as to entertain a plan for the government of 
the Colonies, whenever their day of triumph should come. 
If that day had arrived, how would the Whigs have fared at 
their hands 1 Would Falmouth, in Maine, which was burned 
solely on account of troubles with the Tory merchant, Coulson; 
would Wyoming, burned and desolated by the fiend Butler and 
his band of Tories and Indians ; would New Haven, Fairfield, 

* The full conversations occupy several pages of Mr. Adams's Journal. 
In making these extracts, I have always given the substance of what was 
said ; but I have sometimes compressed a passage, or changed a word. 

9 



98 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Danbury, and New London, have been paid for? Would 
the claims of thousands who expended their estates in the 
cause of liberty, and who had no shelter for their heads, have 
been allowed ? Pardoned rebels, had pardon been extended, 
would scarcely have made terms to cover these, and other 
losses, that could be easily enumerated ; and it seems clear, 
therefore, that the whole matter, as a question of public policy, 
was rightfully enough determined for the Loyalists, as it would 
have been for the Whigs, under reversed circumstances. But 
for all that, I cannot forget that some were wrongly deprived 
of their property, and ought to have been considered.* 

Grounds somewhat similar to those which I have assumed 
induced Congress, very probably, to instruct their commission- 
ers to enter into no engagements respecting the Americans who 
adhered to the crown, unless Great Britain would stipulate, on 
her part, to make compensation for the property which had 
been destroyed by persons in her service. With this injunction 
the commissioners found it impracticable to comply, inasmuch 
as they deemed it necessary to admit into the treaty a provi- 
sion to the effect, that Congress should recommend to the several 
States to provide for the restitution of certain of the confiscated 
estates ; that certain persons should be allowed a year to en- 
deavor to recover their estates ; that persons having rights in 
confiscated lands should have the privilege of pursuing all 
lawful means to regain them ; and that Congress should use 
its recommendatory power to cause the States to revoke or 
reconsider their confiscation laws. Congress unanimously 



• Mr. Jay, in a letter to Governor Clinton, dated at Madrid, May 6, 1780, 
says : " An English paper contains what they call, but I can hardly believe 
to be, your confiscation act. If truly printed, New York is disgraced by 
injustice too palpable to admit even of palliation. I feel for the honor of my 
country, and therefore beg the favor of you to send me a true copy of it ; 
that if the other be false, I may, by publishing yours, remove the prejudices 
against you occasioned by the former." Contrary to Mr. Jay's belief, the 
copy seen by him was authentic ; he never changed the opinion of it, here 
expressed to Governor Clinton. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 99 

assented to this arrangement, and unanimously issued the 
recommendation to the States, which the treaty contemplated.* 
These terms were very unsatisfactory to the persons inter- 
ested, and to a part of the British public ; and loud clamors 
arose in Parliament and elsewhere. In the House of Commons, 

* The Articles of the Treaty which relate to the Loyalists are the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth. 

Article fourth. "It is agreed, That Creditors on either side shall meet 
with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money 
of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted." 

Article fifth. " It is agreed, That the Congress shall earnestly recommend 
it to the Legislatures of the respective States, to provide for the Restitution of 
all Estates, Rights, and Properties, which have been confiscated, belonging to 
real British subjects ; and also of the Estates, Rights, and Properties of those 
Persons, residents in Districts in Possession of his Majesty's Arms, and who 
have not borne arms against the said United States ; and that Persons of any 
other description shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of 
the Thirteen United States, and therein to remain Twelve Months unmolested 
in their endeavors to obtain the Restitution of such of their Estates, Rights, 
and Properties, as may have been confiscated ; and that Congress shall also 
earnestly recommend to the several States, a Reconsideration and Revision of 
all Acts or Laws regarding the Premises, so as to render the said Laws or 
Acts perfectly consistent, not only with Justice and Equity, but with that 
spirit of Conciliation, which, on the return of the blessings of Peace, should 
universally prevail. And that the Congress shall also earnestly recommend to 
the several States, that the Estates, Rights, and Properties of such last men- 
tioned Persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any Persons who 
may be now in possession, the bona fide price (where any has been given) 
which such Persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said Lands, 
Rights, or Properties, since the Confiscation. And it is agreed, That all Per- 
sons who have any Interests in Confiscated Lands, either by Debts, Marriage 
Settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in prosecution 
of their just Rights." 

Article sixth. " That there shall be no future Confiscations made, nor 
any Prosecutions commenced against any Person or Persons for or by reason 
of the Part which he or they may have taken in the present War ; and that 
no Person shall on that account suffer any future Loss or Damage, either 
in his Person, Liberty, or Property, and that those who may be in confine- 
ment on such charges at the Time of the Ratification of the Treaty in Amer- 
ica, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the Prosecutions so commenced be 
discontinued." 



100 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

Mr. Wilberforce said, that " when he considered the case of 
the LoyaHstSj he confessed he there felt himself conquered ; 
there he saw his country humiliated ; he saw her at the feet 
of America ; still he was induced to believe, that Congress 
would religiously comply with the article, and that the Loyal- 
ists would obtain redress from America." Lord North (who 
was more in opposition) said, that " never was the honor, the 
principles, the policy of a nation, so grossly abused as in the 
desertion of those men, who are now exposed to every punish- 
ment that desertion and poverty can inflict, because they were 
not Rebels." Lord Mulgrave declared, that "the article re- 
specting the Loyalists, he could never regard but as a lasting 
monument of national disgrace." Mr. Burke said, that "avast 
number of the Loyalists had been deluded by England, and 
had risked everything, and that, to such men the nation owed 
protection, and its honor was pledged for their security at all 
hazards." Mr. Sheridan " execrated the treatment of those 
unfortunate men, who, without the least notice taken of their 
civil and religious rights, were handed over as subjects to a 
power that would not fail to take vengeance on them for their 
zeal and attachment to the religion and government of the 
mother country; " and he denounced as a " crime," the cession 
of the Americans who had adhered to the crown, "into the 
hands of their enemies, and delivering them over to confisca- 
tion, tyranny, resentment, and oppression." Mr. Norton said, 
that " he could not give his assent to the treaty on account of 
the article which related to the Loyalists." Sir Peter Burrell 
considered, that "the fate of these unhappy subjects claimed 
the compassion of every human breast, for they had been 
abandoned by the ministers, and were left at the mercy of a 
Congress highly irritated against them." Sir Wilbraham 
Bootle's " heart bled for the Loyalists ; they had fought and had 
run every hazard for England, and at a moment when they 
had a claim to the greatest protection, they had been deserted." 
Mr. Macdonald " forbore to dwell upon the case of these men, 
as an assembly of human beings could scarcely trust their 
judgments, when so powerful an attack was made upon their 
feelings." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 101 

In the House of Lords, the opposition was quite as violent. 
Lord Walsingham said, that " he could neither think nor 
speak of the dishonor of leaving these deserving people to 
their fate, with patience." Lord Viscount Townshend consid- 
ered, that " to desert men who had constantly adhered to loyalty 
and attachment, was a circumstance of such cruelty as had 
never before been heard of." Lord Stormont said, that " Britain 
was bound in justice and honor, gratitude and affection, and 
every tie, to provide for and protect them." Lord Sackville 
regarded " the abandonment of the Loyalists, as a thing of so 
atrocious a kind, that if it had not been already painted in all 
its horrid colors, he should have attempted the ungracious task, 
but never should have been able to describe the cruelty in lan- 
guage as strong and expressive as were his feelings ; " and 
again, that "a peace founded on the sacrifice of these unhappy 
subjects, must be accursed in the sight of God and man." 
Lord Loughborough said, "that the fifth article of the treaty 
had excited a general and just indignation," and that neither 
'•in ancient nor modern history had there been so shameful a 
desertion of men who had sacrificed all to their duty, and to 
their reliance upon British faith." 

Such attacks as these did not, of course, pass without replies 
in both Houses. The nature of the defence of the friends of 
the ministry will sufficiently appear, by the remarks of the 
minister himself. Lord Shelburne thus frankly admitted, that 
the Loyalists were left without better provision being made for 
them " from the unhappy necessity of public affairs, which in- 
duced the extremity of submitting the fate of their property to 
the discretion of their enemies." And, he continued, " I have 
but one answer to give the House ; it is the answer I gave my 
own bleeding heart. A part must be wounded, that the lohole 
of the empire may not perish. If better terms could be had, 
think you, my Lord, that I would not have embraced them 1 
I had but the alternative either to accept the tervns "proposed, or 
continue the warP The Lord Chancellor parried the a.ssaults 
of the opposition with other weapons. He declared, that the 
stipulations of the treaty are " specific," and said he, '■'• my 
9* 



102 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

own conscious honor will not allow me to doubt the good faith 
of others, and my good wishes to the Loyalists will not let me 
indiscreetly doubt the dispositions of Congress," since the un- 
derstanding is, that " all these imhappy men shall be provided 
for," yet, if it were not so, "Parliament could take cognizance 
of their case, and impart to each suffering individual that re- 
lief which reason, perhaps policy, certainly virtue and religion, 
required." 

It was not expected, probably, by the British government, 
that the " recommendation " of Congress to the States would 
produce any effect. In 1778, and after the evacuation of Phila- 
delphia, the request of Congress to the same, to repeal the 
severe enactments against the adherents of the crown, and to 
restore their confiscated property, had been disregarded, and a 
similar desire at the conclusion of hostilities, though made for 
different reasons, it could not have been supposed would be 
more successful. Indeed, the idea, that the States would refuse 
compliance, and that Parliament would be required to make 
the Loyalists some compensation for their losses, seems to have 
been entertained from the first. Lord Shelburne, in the speech 
from which I have just quoted, remarked, that " without one 
drop of blood spilt, and without one fifth of the expense of one 
yearns campaign, happiness and ease can be given to them in 
as ample a manner as these blessings were ever in their enjoy- 
ment.^^ He could have meant nothing less by this language 
than that, by putting an end to the war, the empire saved both 
life and treasure, even though the amount of money required 
to place the Loyalists in " happiness and ease," should amount 
to some millions ; and the Lord Chancellor, it may be observed, 
hinted at compensation as the remedy, provided the " recom- 
mendation " of Congress should not result favorably. Besides, 
during the negotiation of the treaty, it appears to have been 
considered by the commissioners on both sides, that each party 
to the contest must bear its own losses and provide for its own 
sufferers. 

But whatever were the expectations at Paris or in London, all 
uncertainty was soon at an end. A number of Loyalists who 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 103 

were in England, came to the United States to claim restitution 
of their estates, but their applications were unheeded, and 
some of them were imprisoned, and afterwards banished. 

New York, among other resolutions on the subject, stated, 
" that there can be no reason for restoring property which has 
been confiscated or forfeited, the more especially, as no com- 
pensation is offered on the part of the king and his adherents, 
for the damages sustained by this State and its citizens, from " 
the wanton desolation of "a great part of this State by burn- 
ing, not only single houses and other buildings, but even whole 
towns and villages, and in enterprizes which had nothing but 
vengeance for their object," and in which, "great numbers of 
the citizens of this State have, from affluent circumstances, 
been reduced to poverty and distress." Elsewhere, a similar 
spirit prevailed, and all hope of obtaining relief under the stip- 
ulations of the treaty was abandoned. 

The claimants now applied to the government which they 
had ruined themselves to serve, and many of them, who had 
hitherto been " Refugees " in different parts of America, went 
to England to state, and to recover payment for their losses. 
They organized an agency, and appointed a committee com- 
posed of one delegate or agent from each of the thirteen States, 
to enlighten the British public, and adopt measures of proced- 
ure in securing the attention and action of the ministry in their 
behalf In a tract,* printed by order of these agents, it is 
maintained, that " it is an established rule, that all sacrifices 
made by individuals, for the benefit or accommodation of others, 
shall be equally sustained by all those who partake of it ;" 
and numerous cases are cited from Puffendorf, Burlamaqui, and 
Vattel, to show that the "sacrifices" of the Loyalists were 
embraced in this principle. As a further ground of claim, it 
is stated, that in the case of territory alienated or ceded away 
by one sovereign power to another, the rule is still applicable, 
for that in treatises of international law, it is held, "the State 

* " The Case and Claim of the American Loyalists, impartially stated and 
considered," published in 1783. 



104 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

ought to indemnify the subject for the loss he has sustained 
beyond his own proportion." And the course pursued at the 
close of the civil war in Spain, when the States of Holland 
obtained their independence, under the treaty of Utrecht, and at 
various other periods, proved that the rights of persons similarly 
situated had been respected and held inviolate. The conclusion 
arrived at from the precedents found in history and diplomacy, 
and in the statute-book of the realm, is, that, as the Loyalists 
were as " perfectly subjects of the British State as any man in 
London or Middlesex," they were entitled to the same protec- 
tion and relief The claimants, said the writers of the tract, 
had been ''called on by their Sovereign, when surrounded by 
tumult and rebellion, to defend the Supreme Rights of the 
Nation, and to assist in suppressing a rebellion, which aimed 
at their destruction. They have received from the highest au- 
thority the most solemn assurances of protection, and even 
reward for their meritorious services ; " and that " His Majesty 
and the two Houses of Parliament having thought it necessary, 
as the price of peace, or to the interest and safety of the em- 
pire, or from some other motive of public convenience, to ratify 
the Independence of America, without securing any restitution 
whatever to the Loyalists ; they conceive that the Nation is 
bound, as well by the fundamental laws of the Society, as by 
the invariable and eternal principles of natural justice, to make 
them a compensation." 

At the opening of Parliament, the king, in his speech from 
the throne, alluded to the "American sufferers" who, from 
" motives of Loyalty to him, or attachment to the Mother Coun- 
try, had relinquished their properties or professions," and 
trusted, he said, that " generous attention would be shown to 
them." Both parties assented to the suggestion ; and a mo- 
tion was made early in the session for leave to bring in a Bill, 
" For Appointing Commissioners to Enquire into the Circum- 
stances and former Fortunes of such Persons as are reduced to 
Distress by the late unhappy Dissentions in America." Leave 
was given ; but in fixing the details of the Bill, there was some 
difficulty, and considerable debate. The measure was finally 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 105 

made agreeable to all, and was adopted without opposition. 
The act, as passed, created a Board of Commissioners who 
were empowered to examine all persons presenting claims un- 
der oath, to send for books, papers and records ; and who were 
directed to report all such as fraudulently claimed a greater 
I amount than they had lost, in order that they should be de- 
< prived of all compensation whatever. The time for receiving 
claims was limited to March 25th, 1784, but the act was to re- 
main in force two years. This time was, however, found far 
too short, and the Board was continued in commission by re- 
newals of the act from time to time, and did not finish their 
labors until 1789, when they made their twelfth and last 
report; and Parliament finally disposed of the matter in 1790, 
seven years after it first engaged its attention. 

The first thing to be ascertained by the commissioners, was 
the " Loyalty and conduct of the claimants." In their first 
report, they divided them into six classes,* and very properly 
placed the apostates from the Whigs in the last; but no difier- 
ence was finally made on account of the time or circumstances 
of adhering to the cause of the crown, and all, without refer- 
ence to differences in merit, who were able to establish losses, 
shared alike. 

The commissioners commenced their arduous duties " by 
sending to the most respectable and intelligent " of the persons 
interested, "who might be most able and willing to answer 
such general inquiries as might tend to facilitate the investiga- 
tion of each particular claim." Most of those who appeared 
before them were examined separately, viva voce, but some 
gave their opinions and sentiments in writing. The claimants 

• First class. Those who had rendered services to Great Britain. 

Second class. Those who had borne arms for Great Britain. 

Third class. Uniform Loyalists. 

Fourth class. Loyal British subjects resident in Great Britain. 

Fifth class. Loyalists who had taken oaths to the American States, but 
afterwards joined the British. 

Sixth class. Loyalists who had borne arms for the American States, but 
afterwards joined the British navy or army. 



106 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

■were required, moreover, to state in proper form every species 
of loss which they had suffered, and for which they thought 
they had a right to receive compensation. In making up their 
schedules agreeably to this rule, some sufferers claimed for 
losses which others did not ; and in adjusting the claims, the 
disproportion between the sum asked for and the sum allowed, 
was often very large. A few received their whole demands 
without the deduction of a shilling, while others received 
pounds only where they had demanded hundreds, and a third 
class obtained nothing, having been excluded by inability to 
prove their losses, or deprived of the sum which they could 
prove, by attempts to obtain allowance for claims which the 
commissioners reported upon as fraudulent, in accordance with 
the provisions of the act. The rigid rules enforced, and which 
it would seem applied to all claimants, created much murmur- 
ing. The mode pursued of examining the claimant and the 
witnesses in his behalf, separately and apart, was branded with 
severe epithets, and the commission was called an "Inquisi- 
tion." But it is hard to conceive, why such a manner of 
eliciting truth should have been objected to ; it was well calcu- 
lated to expose fraud, and the dishonest might therefore have 
complained of it. Yet, with all the caution which it was pos- 
sible for the commissioners to exercise, false losses were pre- 
sented and allowed, and men who did not really suffer a single 
penny, who were entirely destitute of property when the war 
commenced, and to whom hostilities were actually beneficial, 
by affording pay and employment, were placed in comfortable 
circumstances ; and stories which show the plans and schemes 
that were devised to baffle the rigid scrutiny of the board are 
still repeated. 

In the fiirst renewal of the act by which the commission was 
created, a clause was inserted which authorized the commis- 
sioners to send an agent to the United States, and John Anstey, 
Esq., a barrister at law, was accordingly despatched; and 
Colonel Thomas Dundas and Mr. Jeremy Pemberton, two mem- 
bers of the board, personally visited Canada and Nova Scotia, 
" to inquire into the claims of such persons as could not, without 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 107 

great inconvenience, go over to Great Britain." The particu- 
lar duty assigned to Mr. Anstey, seems to have consisted in 
obtaining information as to the confiscation, sale and value of 
the landed estates, and the total loss of the property of the claim- 
ants, and he procured much valuable and authentic testimony, 
not only to aid the honest and correct the mistaken, but also 
to detect and confound the dishonest. 

The 25th of March, 1784, it has been remarked, was the 
latest period for presenting claims which was allowed, and on 
or before that day, the number of claimants was two thousand 
and sixty-three, and the property alleged to have been lost, was, 
according to their schedules, the alarming sum of £ 7,046,278, 
besides debts to the amount of £2,354,135. In July of 
that year, though the commissioners state that they had been 
very assiduous in the discharge of their trusts, they had been 
able to examine and determine the cases of but a part of these 
persons, and had awarded £201,750, for £534,705 claimed, 
thus reducing the amount considerably more than half The 
second report, which was made in December of the same year, 
shows that one hundred and twenty-eight additional cases had 
been disposed of, and that for £ 693,257 claimed, the propor- 
tion of allowance was still smaller, or £ 150,935. Much the 
same difference is to be seen in the succeeding one hundred 
and twenty-two cases, which were disposed of in May and July 
of 1785, and in which £253,613, were allowed for £898,196 
claimed. In April, 1786, the fifth report announced that 
one hundred and forty-two other claims of the amount of 
£733,311, had been liquidated at £250,506. The commis- 
sioners proceeded with their investigations during the years 
1786 and 1787; meantime, South Carolina had restored the 
estates of several of her Loyalists, and caused the withdrawal 
of the claims of their owners, except that, in instances of 
alleged strip and waste, amercement, and similar losses, in- 
quiries were instituted to ascertain the value of what was 
taken compared with that wKich was returned. 

On the 5th of April, 1788, the commissioners in England 
had heard and determined one thousand six hundred and eighty 



108 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

claims (besides those withdrawn), and had hquidated the same 
at £1,887,548. Perhaps no greater despatch was possible, but 
the delay caused great complaint. The king, his ministers, 
and Parliament, were addressed and petitioned,* either on the 
general course pursued by the commissioners, or on some sub- 
ject connected with the Loyalist claims. Letters and commu- 
nications appeared in the newspapers, and the public attention 
was again awakened by the publication of essays and tracts 
which renewed the statements made in 1783, of the losses, 
services, and sacrifices of the claimants. Two years previ- 
ously (1786), the agents of the Loyalists had invoked Parlia- 
ment to hasten the final action upon the claims of their con- 
stituents in a petition drawn up with care and ability. " It is 
impossible to describe," are words which occur in this docu- 
ment, "the poignant distress under which many of these per- 
sons now labor ; and which must daily increase, should the 
justice of Parliament be delayed until all the claims are liqui- 
dated and reported ; * * * ten years have elapsed since many 
of them have been deprived of their fortunes, and with their 
helpless families reduced from independent aflluence to poverty 
and want; some of them now languishing in British gaols, 
others indebted to their creditors, who have lent them money 
barely to support their existence ; and who, unless speedily re- 
lieved, must sink more than the value of their claims when 
received, and be in a worse condition than if they had never 
made them ; others have already sunk under the pressure and 
severity of their misfortunes ; and others must, in all proba- 
bility, soon meet the same melancholy fate, should the justice 
due to them be longer postponed. But that, on the contrary, 
should provision be now made for payment of those whose 
^.^ claims have been settled and reported, it will not only relieve 



* The reader will find the views of the Loyalists on the subject of their 
claims, and their objection to the course -pursued by the commissioners, in two 
documents inserted in the biographical notice of Colonel James De Lancey, 
who petitioned Parliament, and addressed Mr. Pitt in their behalf, and in op- 
position to the commissioners. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 109 

them from their distress, but give a credit to the others whose 
claims remain to be considered, and enable all of them to pro- 
vide for their wretched families, and become again useful 
members of society." This vivid picture of the condition of 
those who waited the tardy progress made in the final adjust- 
ment of their losses, is possibly highly colored. Mr. Pitt had 
introduced and carried through, in 1785, a bill for the distribu- 
tion of £ 150,000 among the claimants, but as that sum, it was 
held, was to be applied to a distinct class, namely, to those 
who had lost " property," and to neither those who had lost 
"life-estate " in property, nor to those who had lost " income," 
it is not improbable that many of these classes were at this 
time greatly in want of the relief, which their agents so earn- 
estly implored the government to afford 

A tract * printed in 1788, which was attributed to Galloway, 
the distinguished Loyalist of Pennsylvania, presses the claims 
and merits of the sufferers with much point and vigor, and 
rebukes the injustice of neglecting and deferring payment of 
the compensation conceded on all hands to be due them, with 
singular spirit and boldness, and states their situation in the 
following forcible language. "It is well known," says the 
writer, '• that this delay of justice has produced the most mel- 
ancholy and shocking events. A number of the sufferers have 
been driven by it into insanity, and become their own destroy- 
ers, leaving behind them their helpless widows and orphans to 
subsist upon the cold charity of strangers. Others have been 
sent to cultivate a wilderness for their subsistence without 
having the means, and compelled through want to throw them- 
selves on the mercy of the American States, and the charity of 
their former friends, to support the life which might have been 
made comfortable by the money long since due by the British 
Government ; and many others, with their families, are barely 
subsisting upon a temporary allowance from Government, 
a mere pittance when compared with the sum due to them." 

* " The Claim of the American Loyalists reviewed and maintained upon 
incontrovertible principles of law and justice." 
10 



110 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

The commissioners submitted their eleventh Report in April 
of the year in which this statement was made, and Mr. Pitt, in 
the month following, gave way to the pressing importunities of 
the claimants, to allow their grievances to be discussed in Par- 
liament. Twelve years had elapsed since the property of most 
of them had been alienated under the confiscation acts, and 
five, since their title to recompense had been recognized by 
the law under which their claims had been presented and dis- 
posed of. 

The minister, meantime, by frequent conferences with the 
commissioners, had made himself familiar with all the points 
involved and requiring consideration, and in expressing his 
views, raised three questions ; first, whether there should be 
any deduction made from the value put upon the estates to be 
paid for ; secondly, if any, what the deduction should be ; and 
thirdly, what compensation should be made to the Loyalists 
who had lost their incomes by losing their offices and profes- 
sions. In his speech, Mr. Pitt laid down as the basis of his 
plan, that, however strong might be the claims of either class, 
neither should regard the relief to be extended, as due on prin- 
ciples " of right and strict justice." In proceeding with his 
remarks, he proposed to pay all of six designated classes, who 
consisted of tliirteen hundred and sixty four persons, whose 
liquidated losses did not exceed ten thousand pounds each, the 
full amount reported by the commissioners ; while, increasing 
the rate of discount with the increase of losses, he proposed a 
deduction of ten per cent, on the losses (of persons of these six 
classes) between ten and thirty-five thousand pounds, and of 
fifteen per cent, on those between thirty-five and fifty thousand, 
and of twenty per cent, on those upwards of fifty thousand ; 
casting, however, these several rates of deduction only on the 
differences between ten thousand pounds and the amounts lost 
as reported by the commissioners.* 

• This plan was objected to by the Loyalists, and their reasons were trans- 
mitted to Mr. Pitt, in a document of some length, which may be found entire 
in the notice of Colonel James De Lancey. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. til 

With regard to persons of another description, and whose 
losses had been caused ^principally, if not entirely, by depriva- 
tion of official or professional income, he submitted a plan of 
pensions. To those whose incomes had not exceeded four 
hundred poimds, he considered pensions of fifty per cent, of 
the incomes actually lost to be adequate ; to those whose emol- 
uments were ascertained to have been between four hundred 
and fifteen hundred pounds, he thought two hundred pounds, 
and forty per cent, of the amount lost exceeding four hundred, 
would be sufficient ; while on incomes above fifteen hundred 
pounds, he would make a still further deduction, and allow 
two hundred pounds as in the other cases, and thirty per 
cent, on the difference between four hundred pounds and the 
real incomes.* 

Having presented his reasons for the course which he re- 
commended, and agreed to some alterations in the rate of com- 
pensation to be made to proprietors of land in America who 
resided in England, he moved, that " Provision should be 
made accordingly." The house assented; and the commis- 
sioners were directed to issue certificates for sums to which the 
claimants were respectively entitled. Payments were to be made 
in debentures of the government, bearing three and a half per 
cent, interest, which was nearly equal to money ; these deben- 
tures, Mr. Pitt suggested, should be redeemed by instalments, 
and by means of a lottery. 

After this adjustment, several additional claims were pre- 
sented, examined, and allowed ; and upon the settlement of the 
whole matter, it appeared that the number of claimants in Eng- 
land, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada, was five 
thousand and seventy-two, of whom nine hundred and fifty-four 
withdrew, or failed to prosecute their claims ; that the amount 
of losses, according to the schedules rendered, was £8,026,045, 



* The number of these persons was two hundred and four; amount of in- 
come lost £80,000 ; pensions granted £25,785 



112 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR 

of which the sum of £3,292,455 was allowed.* From this 
sum, the deductions which have been mentioned were about 
£180,000; leaving for distribution nearly fifteen and a half 
millions of dollars. The Loyalists, then, were well cared 
for. Whatever were the miseries to individuals occasioned by 
delay ; whatever the injury sustained by those who were unable 
to procure suflficient evidence of their losses; and whatever 
were the wrongs inflicted upon others by the errors in judgment 
on the part of the commissioners; the Americans who took 
the royal side, as a body, fared infinitely better than the great 
body of the Whigs, whose services and sacrifices were quite as 
great ; for, besides the allowance of fifteen and a half millions 
of dollars in money, numbers received considerable annuities, 
half-pay as military officers, large grants of land, and shared 
with other subjects in the patronage of the crown. The re- 
wards of those who served under Congress, on the other hand, 
were extremely limited ; and excepting those who filled the 
public offices under the State, and after the adoption of the 
constitution of the United States, under the national govern- 
ment, few who served in the field, or who sufiered by the rav- 

* The principal facts with regard to the compensation of the Loyalists are 
derived from a " Historical View of the Commission," &c., by John Eard- 
ley Wilmot, Esq., one of the Commissioners. In the aggregate amount 
claimed, there seems some discrepancy. According to the summary of Mr. 
Wilmot, made in March, 1790, '* the claims preferred " were jC 10,358,413 ; 
whereas, in a table from which I take the statistics above, the amount is stated 
at £8,026,045. Again, in March, 1790, it is said by Mr. Wilmot, that the 
number of " claims preferred in England and Nova Scotia was three thousand 
two hundred and twenty-five, of which were examined two thousand two 
hundred and ninety-one, disallowed three hundred and forty-two, withdrawn 
thirty-eight, not prosecuted five hundred and fifty-three ; " that the amount 
of claims allowed was -£3,033,091 ; whereas, in the table which I have fol- 
lowed as giving a later and final view, the claims examined are stated at four 
thousand one hundred and eighteen, and the amount allowed at the sum in the 
text ; from which it follows, that one thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven 
persons recovered only the diflference between JC3,292,455 and jE^3,033,91, 
or the small sum of i;259,364. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 113 

ages of the king's troops, obtained considerable or adequate 
recompense. In truth, thousands were allowed to go down to 
the grave in abject want and destitution. 

All the topics necessary to introduce the reader to the Bio- 
graphical Notices of the Loyalists, have now been discussed to 
as great an extent as the limits of the work will allow. It has 
been my constant endeavor to speak of those who opposed the 
Whigs, in the momentous conflict which made us an indepen- 
dent people, calmly and mildly. For, 

" Mercy to him that shows it is the rule 
And righteous limitation of its act, 
By which Heaven moves in pardoning guilty man ; 
And he that shows none, being ripe in years, 
And conscious of the outrage he commits. 
Shall seek it, and not find it, in his turn." 

There are those among my countrymen, who imagine that 
they know quite all that can be said of the causes which sev- 
ered the British empire, and enough of those who were prom- 
inent actors in the struggle that preceded it, and who seek to 
know no more of either. To such persons, and to others who, 
equally conceited, are ready to do battle for every " Whig," 
and to denounce every " Tory," these pages will prove of no 
possible value. But of a spirit wholly different are the search- 
ers after truth, and the close students of history. These 
have ascertained, from the various sources open to them, that 
all who called themselves Whigs were not necessarily and on 
that account disinterested and virtuous, and the proper objects 
of unlimited praise; and that the Tories were not, to a man, 
selfish and vicious, and deserving of unmeasured and indis- 
criminate reproach. Virtuous men, whatever their errors and 
mistakes, are to be respected ; and with regard to others, it is 
well to remember the beautiful sentiment of Goldsmith, that 
" we should never strike an unnecessary blow at a victim over 
whom Providence holds the scourge of its resentment." 

While intending to be just, I have felt that I might also be 
generous. The wiriners in the revolutionary strife are now 
twenty millions of people; and, strong, rich, and prosper- 
10* 



114 PRELIMINARY REMARKS, OR HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

ous, can afford to speak of the losers in terms of moderation. 
Besides, 

" Can he be strenuous in his country's cause, 
Who slights the charities for whose dear sake 
That country, if at all, must be beloved \ " 

I may be permitted to say, in conclusion, that the history of 
individuals and of nations has been dehghtful to me from my 
earliest youth ; that the annals of my own country have been as 
dihgently studied as circumstances would permit; and that, 
of all men of whom I have obtained any knowledge, the Whigs 
of the American Revolution have impressed me with the great- 
est respect and reverence, both on account of their personal 
virtues, and the objects which they sought to accomplish for 
themselves, their posterity, and mankind. 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



OF 



I 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 



I 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Abercrombie, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

AcHiNCLoss, Archibald. Was proscribed and banished under 
the act of 1778. 

AcHiNCLoss, Thomas. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In 
May, 1775, he wrote a Submission, which was published, and 
in which he expressed his sorrow that " any part of his con- 
duct should have given uneasiness to any friends of America." 
In 1778 he was among those who were proscribed and ban- 
ished. 

AcHiNsoN, Alexander. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Royal Fensible Americans. 

Acker, Abraham. Of West Chester County, New York, and 
a Protester at White Plains, April, 1775. 

Ackerly, Obadiah. Of New York. In 1783 he abandoned 
his home and property, and settled in New Brunswick. He 
died at St. John in 1843, aged eighty-seven. Catharine, his 
wife, died at the same city in 1830, at the age of seventy-two. 

AcRiGG, Rachel, She went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and the crown granted her a building lot in that 
city. 

Adams, Doctor . State of New York. In 1774, or 

early in 1775, he was hoisted up and exposed upon " landlord 



118 BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Fay's sign-post, where was fixed a dead catamount." The 
party who inflicted this punishment regretted that they had 
not tied him and given him instead five hundred lashes. 
His residence was at Arhngton. 

Adams, Jabez. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Was a 
member of the Loyalist Association at Reading, who were 
pledged " to defend, maintain, and preserve, at the risk of their 
lives and property, the prerogatives of the crown, and the privi- 
leges of the subject, from the attacks of any rebellious body of 
men, any Committees of Inspection, of Correspondence," &c. 

Adams, James. Of Reading, Fairfield County, Connecticut. 
Was a member of the Loyalist Association at Reading. 

Adams, John. Went from some part of the United States to 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, was a grantee of that city, 
and died there in 1820, aged forty-nine. 

Adams, Joseph. Of Townsend, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Adams, Samuel. Of South Carolina. An Addresser of Sir 
Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Adair, Robert. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Adamson, George. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was 
an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton after the surrender of 
Charleston. 

Adamson, John. Of South Carolina. After the surrender of 
Charleston, held a commission under the crown, and his estate 
was confiscated. 

Addison, A. Of Maryland. Went to England, and in 1779 
became a member of the Loyalist Association formed in 
London. 

Addison, Daniel Dulany. Of Maryland. Was a captain 
in the Maryland Loyalists in 1782, and at the peace was a 
major in the same corps; he went to England, and died in 
London in 1808. 

Addison, H. Of Maryland. In July, 1783, was one of the 
fifty-five who petitioned, at New York, for lands in Nova 
Scotia. See Abijah WiUard. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 119 

Affeck, Thomas. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was ordered 
to be sent prisoner to Virginia for disaffection to the Whig 
cause. 

Agling, John. Of Boston. A Protester against the Whigs 
in 1774. 

Agnew, John. He was rector of the Established Church, 
parish of Suffolk, Virginia. On the 24th of March, 1775, the 
Whig Committee of Nansemond County called him to an ac- 
count for the loyalty of his pulpit performances. He soon after 
quitted that part of the country, and became chaplain of the 
Queen's Rangers, a Loyalist corps. He finally settled in New 
Brunswick, and died near Fredericton, the capital of that colony, 
in 1812, aged eighty-five. He was taken prisoner with Stair 
Agnew and others during the Revolution, and carried to 
France. On the passage out, the ship encountered a severe 
gale, and lay a wreck for twenty-four hours. 

Agnew, Stair. Believed to have been a son of the Rever- 
end John Agnew. He was certainly from Virginia, and a 
captain in the Queen's Rangers, and settled at Fredericton, 
where he resided until his death, in 1821, at the age of sixty- 
three. He enjoyed half-pay. While attached to the Ran- 
gers he was taken prisoner and carried to France, and was 
not exchanged until near the close of the war. It seems, that 
at the battle of the Brandywine he was severely wounded, 
and while on his passage to Virginia for recovery was captured 
by the French squadron. Franklin, minister to France, was 
appealed to, to effect his release and that of others made 
prisoners at the same time. Captain Agnew's letter from the 
castle of St. Maloes, February 26th, 1782, details the circum- 
stances of his captivity, and contains some feeling allusions to 
his " aged and beloved mother." He closes : " Oh, God ! who 
knows, perhaps she at this moment, from an independent 
affluence, is reduced by the vicissitudes of the times to penury. 
My heart, afflicted with the misfortunes of our family, can no 

more r" He was a member of the House of Assembly of 

New Brunswick for thirty years, and a magistrate of York 
County for a considerable period. His wife, Sophia Winifred, 
died in that county, in 1820, at the age of fifty-two. 



120 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Albertson. In 1776, Derrick, Daniel and Albert, of Queen's 
County, New York, professed themselves to be loyal and well 
affected subjects. In 1783 a party of Whigs plundered the 
house of Derrick Albertson at North Hempstead, and, among 
other articles, carried off his wedding-shirt. 

Albright, John. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Albus, George. In 1782 he was an officer of cavalry in 
the Queen's Rangers. 

Alden, Doctor . One of the two Loyalists of Saco and 

Biddeford, Maine. An armed party took him, placed him on 
his knees upon a large cask, and with their guns presented to 
his body, told him to recant his opinions, or suffer instant 
death. He signed the required confession, and was released. 
Subsequently he removed to Scarborough, in the same State. 

Aldington, John. In 1782 he was a captain in the Guides 
and Pioneers. 

Alexander, Charles. Of Norfolk, Virginia. In May, 1775, 
the Whig Committee published him as inimical to America, 
and recommended that all dealings with him should be discon- 
tinued. 

Alexander, John. Of Craven, North Carolina. His pro- 
perty was confiscated in 1779. 

Alexander, Robert. Of Maryland. Went to England. 
When, in 1783, it was ascertained that the State legislatures 
refused to comply with the recommendation of Congress to 
restore the confiscated estates of Loyalists, he was appointed 
agent for those of Maryland, to present and prosecute their 
claim for compensation of the British government. He was in 
London in 1788, and on the 2d of July signed an Address to 
the King. 

Allaire, Anthony. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment, and at the peace a captain in the 
same corps. He settled in New Brunswick, and received half- 
pay. He was one of the grantees of the city of St. John, but, 
removing to the country, died in the parish of Douglas, in 
1838, at the age of eighty-four. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 121 

Allee, Prestly. Of Duck Creek, Delaware ; husbandman. 
In 1778 he was required by law to appear and be tried for 
treason, on or before August 1st, or suffer the loss of his pro- 
perty. 

Allen, Adam. He was an officer in the Queen's Rangers, 
and, it is believed, a lieutenant. He went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. He received half-pay. In 1798 he was in command of 
a post at Grand Falls, on the river St. John, and wrote a piece 
in verse descriptive of these Falls, which his son, Jacob Allen, 
of Portland, New Brunswick, sent to the press in 1845. He 
died in York County, New Brunswick, in 1823, aged sixty- 
six. 

Allen, Andrew. Of Pennsylvania, son of Chief Justice 
William Allen, and himself the successor of Judge Chew, 
who succeeded his father. He, at first, was found among 
the leading Whigs, and was a member of Congress, and 
of the Committee of Safety. In 1776 he put himself under 
protection of General Howe, at Trenton, and during the war 
went to England. He died at London in 1825, at the age of 
eighty-five. 

Allen, Isaac. A lawyer of Trenton, New Jersey. He en- 
tered the military service of the crown, and in 1782 was lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the second battalion of New Jersey Volun- 
teers. He had property in Pennsylvania, and the executive 
council of that State ordered, that, unless he should surrender 
himself, and take his trial for treason within a specified time, 
he should stand attainted. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
He rose to distinction in New Brunswick, and among other 
offices held a seat in the Council, and was a Judge of the Su- 
preme Court. His residence was at Fredericton, and he died 
there about the year 1812. His sister Sarah died at the same 
place in 1835, aged ninety-one. 

Allen, James. Of Philadelphia ; the remaining son of Chiel 
Justice William Allen, and the only one of them who did not 
join the royal army. He remained at home wholly inactive, 
11 



122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

though his sympathies were supposed to be loyal. He was in 
declining health in 1776, and died before the close of the 
following year. 

AlleNj John. Of Pennsylvania, a son of Chief Justice 
William Allen. In 1776 he joined the British under General 
Howe, at Trenton. Unlike his brother, he was an avowed 
Ijoyalist from the first. 

Allen, John. State unknown. In 1782 was surgeon of 
the King's Rangers, Carolina. 

Allen, Jolley. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Went to Eng- 
land, and in 1779 was in London, and one of the Loyalists 
who addressed the King. 

Allen. Of New York. Eleven persons of this name, of 
Queen's County, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To 
wit : Abraham, Daniel, David, Robert, Philip, Henry, John, 
Philip, Darius, Baruch, Andrew. 

Allen, William. Of Pennsylvania, and son of Chief Justice 
William Allen. He was a Whig, and accepted the commission 
of lieutenant-colonel in the continential service, and served 
under St. Clair. But in 1776 he abandoned the cause of his 
country, and joined General Howe, with his brothers. In 1778 
he raised a corps called the Pennsylvania Loyalists, and, with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, was the commanding officer. 
From the influence of his family, and from his own personal 
standing, he expected to make rapid enlistments for this corps, 
but was disappointed. In 1782, and near the close of the con- 
test, though still in service, the Pennsylvania Loyalists were of 
but little consequence in point of numbers. Colonel Allen 
was noted for wit, for good humor, and for afiable and gen- 
tlemanly manners. The names of all the officers imder his 
command at the period last mentioned will be found in this 
work. 

Allen, William. Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. On the 
approach of the Revolution he went to Ehigland, and died Sep- 
tember, 1780. He was distinguished for his love of literature 
and the arts ; was a friend to Benjamin West when he needed 
a patron, and assisted Franklin to establish a college at Phila- 



\ 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 123 

delphia. His father was an eminent merchant, and died in 
1725. No person in Pennsylvania, probably, was richer than 
Judge Allen, or possessed greater influence. 

Allen, William. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, and 
was a grantee of that city. 

Alliuock, Charles John. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of 
cavalry in the South Carolina Royalists. 

Allison, Edward. Of Queen's County, New York. Ac- 
knowledged allegiance October, 1776. He entered the service, 
and was a captain in De Lancey's third battalion. At the 
peace he settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. 
He died in that Colony. 

Allison, Robert. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Almond, William and John. Of Brandywine, Delaware. 
Were required to surrender themselves on or before August 
1st, 1778, and abide legal trial for treason, or suffer the loss of 
their property, both real and personal. 

Alsop, Richard. Of Queen's County, New York. In Octo- 
ber, 1776, he acknowledged himself a loyal and well affected 
subject. In April, 1779, the same name appears as an Addres- 
ser of Lieutenant Colonel Sterling. 

Alston, George. Of Granville, North Carolina. His pro- 
perty was confiscated in 1779. 

Althouse, John. Of New York. In 1782 he was a cap- 
tain in the New York Volunteers. At the peace he went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, and was one of the grantees of the city. 
He died in New Brunswick. 

Althouse, John, Junior. In 1782 he was an ensign in the 
New York Volunteers. It is believed that he is still (1845) 
living. 

Alwood, Joseph and Silas. Went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783, and received grants of city lots. 

Amberman. Six persons of this name, of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Isaac, Isaac junior, John, Derrick, Nicholas, and Powel. 

Amberman, John and Abraham. Were signers of a Declara- 
tion at Jamaica in 1775. 



124 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Ambrose, Michael. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Prince of Wales American Volunteers. He went to New 
Brunswick at the peace, and received half-pay. He died in 
the parish of St. Martin in that Colony. 

Ambrose, Robert. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Amory, John. Of Boston, Massachusetts. In 1760 was one 
of the fifty-eight memorialists, who were the first men to array 
themselves against the officers of the crown; but in 1778 he 
was proscribed and banished. He went to England, but re- 
turned to the United States in 1783. 

Amory, Thomas. In 1775 was an Addresser of Governor 
Gage. 

Ancrum, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 
1782. His property was confiscated. 

Anderson, Abraham. Of Delaware. A mariner ; was required 
by the act of that State, in 1778, to surrender himself for trial 
for treason on or before a certain day, or his property would 
be forfeited. 

Anderson, James. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was at New York 
in July, 1783, and one of the fifty-five who petitioned for lands 
in Nova Scotia. See Ahijah Willard. At Boston, Mr. Ander- 
son was a merchant. 

Anderson, John, Of Thickety Creek, South Carolina. After 
the surrender of Charleston in 1780, he accepted of employ- 
ment under the crown. In 1782 he was a lieutenant, and at 
the peace a captain in the King's Rangers, Carolina. His 
estate was confiscated. 

Anderson, Peter. State unknown. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city ; he 
died at Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1828, at the age of 
ninety-five. 

Anderson, Samuel. Of New York. At the commencement 
of the Revolution he went to Canada. He soon entered the 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

service of the crown, and was a captain under Sir John Johnson. 
In 1783 he settled near Cornwall, Upper Canada, and received 
half-pay. He held several civil offices; those of magistrate, 
judge of a district court, and associate justice of the court of 
king's bench, were among them. He continued to reside upon 
his estate near Cornwall, until his decease in 1836, at the age 
of one hundred and one. His property in New York was 
abandoned and lost. 

Anderson, William. Of West Chester County, New York. 
Was a Protester against the Whigs at White Plains in 1775. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
one of the grantees of that city. 

Andrews, John, D. D. Provost of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He was born in Maryland in 1746, and educated 
at Philadelphia. In 1767 he was ordained in London as an 
Episcopal clergyman, and became a missionary ; and subse- 
quently a rector of Queen Ann's County, Maryland. " Not 
partaking of the patriotic spirit of the times," he removed from 
Maryland, and was absent several years. In 1785 he was 
appointed to the charge of an Episcopal academy at Philadel- 
phia, and four years after received the professorship of moral 
philosophy in the college of that city. In 1810 he succeeded 
Doctor McDowell as provost. He died in 1813, aged sixty- 
seven. Doctor Andrews was considered an eminent man. 

Andrews, Samuel. An Episcopal clergyman of Connecticut. 
His principles separated him from his flock, and he became the 
first Rector of the Church of his communion at St Andrew, 
New Brunswick. After a ministry of fifty-eight years, he 
died at that place, September 26, 1818, aged eighty-two. 
His wife Hannah died at St. Andrew, January 1st, 1816, at 
the age of seventy-five. 

Annods, Basset. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Hali^ 
fax with the British army. 

Ansley, Ozias. In 1782 he was an ensign in the first bat- 
talion of New Jersey Volunteers, and adjutant of the corps. 
At the peace he settled in New Brunswick, and received half- 
pay. He was a magistrate and a judge of the Common Pleas 
11* 



126 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

for several years. He died at Staten Island, New York, in 
1828, aged eighty-five. His son, the Reverend Thomas Ansley, 
an Episcopalian clergyman of Nova Scotia, died at St. Andrew, 
New Brunswick, in 1831, aged about sixty-five. His grandson, 
Daniel Ansley, Esq., resides at St. John. 

Anstnether, William. In 1782 he was major of the Royal 
Garrison Battalion. 

Appleby, Benjamin. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and was a grantee of that city. 

Appleby, Elnathan and Joseph. Of West Chester County, 
New York. Were Protesters against the Whigs at White 
Plains in April, 1775. 

Appleby, John. Was a Cow-Boy ; settled in New Brunswick 
at the peace, and died in that Colony about the year 1825. 
Sarah, his widow, died in 1828. 

Appleby, Thomas. In October, 1776, signed a representation 
and petition to Lord Richard and Sir William Howe, acknowl- 
edging allegiance. 

Apthorp, Charles Ward. Of New York. Was a member 
of the Council of the Colony, and was considered to be in 
office in 1782 ; he had property in Massachusetts, which was 
confiscated by an act of that State. 

Apthorp, East. An Episcopal clergyman of Massachu- 
setts. He was born in 1733, and was educated in England. 
In 1761 he was appointed a missionary at Cambridge, by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; and 
during his labors there, was engaged in a warm theological 
controversy with Doctor Mayhew. Retiring to England, he 
died there in 1816, aged eighty-three years. His wife was a 
niece of Governor Hutchinson, and a daughter of Judge Foster 
Hutchinson. His only son was a clergyman. One daughter 
married Doctor Cary ; one. Doctor Butler ; and a third, a son of 
Doctor Poley : the husbands of the two first were heads of 
colleges. Mr. Apthorp was a distmguished writer. In 1790 
he lost his sight. 

Apthorp, Thomas and William. Of Boston, Massachusetts. 
Both merchants ; were proscribed and banished in 1778. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 127 

Arden, Doctor Charles. Of Jamaica, New York. In 1775 
he was a signer of a Declaration against the Whigs. In 1776 
he was accused of further defection ; and one of his offences 
consisted in persuading other adherents of the crown to have 
no concern with a Congress or with Committess. Several wit- 
nesses were examined. 

Armstrong, Andrew. In 1782 was an officer in the Queen's 
Rangers. 

Armstrong, George. Was surgeon of the Second American 
Regiment. 

Armstrong, Swift. Was an ensign in the same corps. 

Armstrong, William. He entered the royal service, and was 
a captain in a Loyalist corps. At the peace he retired on half- 
pay, and, as is believed, settled in New York. In 1806 he 
joined the celebrated Miranda in his expedition to effect the in- 
dependence of the province of Caraccas, and, in due time, of all 
Spanish America. Captain Armstrong was known to possess 
considerable military knowledge, method, industry and vigi- 
lance, and received a commission as colonel, and the command 
of the First Regiment of Riflemen in the Columbian Army ; 
and, as he had become familiar with the duties of the quarter- 
master's department, in the Revolution, he was created, also, 
quartermaster-general, with two assistants. Under Miranda, 
Colonel Armstrong was extremely unpopular, and was accused 
of "obsequiousness to his superiors, and of superciliousness and 
tyranny in his treatment of those in his power." He seems to 
have been involved in many quarrels. While the Leander 
was in the harbor of Jacquemel, (February, 1806,) he and 
Captain Lewis, the ship's commander, had a warm controversy 
regarding their rank and rights while associated on ship-board. 
The steward's slovenly habits displeased the former, and he 
gave the delinquent a "hearty rope's ending," which enraged 
Lewis, and drew from him the declaration, that every person 
in his vessel was subject to his authority, and should be punish- 
ed by no other. Armstrong insisted, on the other hand, that 
he would chastise whomsoever he pleased. Both resorted to 
great bitterness of speech in the war of words which ensued. 



128 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Miranda took the side of the Colonel, and behaved worse than 
even Lewis or Armstrong, and, "before the storm was over, 
appeared to be more fit for bedlam than for the command of an 
army." Not long after this occurrence, the Bee, another of the 
vessels attached to the expedition, ran foul of the flag-ship, and 
caused considerable damage ; when Armstrong, seizing a trum- 
pet, called to the master of that vessel, and bade him never to 
approach so near the Leander in future. Lewis, angry at the 
interference of the quartermaster-general, rebuked him severe- 
ly for the act, and the quarrel between them was renewed. 
In this instance, Miranda decided in favor of Lewis. The dis- 
like between the two officers, who took so opposite views of 
their right to supremacy, became settled and irreconcilable, and 
a third quarrel soon occurred, in which the chief sustained 
Armstrong; and Lewis, in the violence of his passion, resolved 
to resign, and ordered his servant to collect his baggage and 
prepare to leave the ship. A mediator was, however, found, 
and the dispute apparently settled. At a subsequent time, 
Miranda and the Captain became involved in a controversy, 
and Armstrong endeavored to produce a reconciliation between 
them; but he not only failed in this, but drew upon himself the 
resentment of both. Lewis renewed his threat to resign, and 
now actually threw up his commission. Besides these quar- 
rels, the Colonel had several others. The moment the Leander 
cast anchor at Grenada, Lieutenant Dwyer quitted the ship. 
During the passage, he had been in continual collision with 
Armstrong, either on his own account, or in defence of his ofli- 
cers and men, whom the lordly personage assailed with words 
or violence. The notions of the duartermaster-general of the 
Columbian Army appear to have been not a little tyrannical 
and arbitrary. It is related, that he kept three officers (on 
very slight provocation) confined to the ship's forecastle up- 
wards of two weeks, and during this time refused them the 
liberty of walking on the quarter-deck and of entering the 
cabin. 

Miranda required of his oflSicers subscription to the following 
oath. "I swear to be true and faithful to the free people of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 129 

South America, independent of Spain, and to serve them 
honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers 
whatsoever, and to observe and obey the orders of the supreme 
government of that country legally appointed ; and the orders 
of the general and officers set over me by them." Some objec- 
tion was made to the form of this oath, which the General 
obviated by assurances to the gentlemen who were citizens of 
the United States, that they might annex to their signatures 
the condition that they did not intend to cancel their allegiance 
to their own country. After this difficulty was settled, Arm- 
strong read and explained the Articles of War of the United 
States, and the alterations in fortn^ not in substance or spirit, 
which had been made to adapt them to the service in which 
they were engaged. " Notice, gentlemen," said the Colonel, 
" the object of the change is to suit the wording of the Articles 
to the local names and situations of the country where they are 
to take effect. Thus, for the Army of the United States, will 
be substituted, the Army of South America ; and for the Presi- 
dent, or Congress of the United States, will be used, the 
Supreme Authority of the free people of South America, or 
something of this kind." 

The Americans who had connected themselves with this en- 
terprise were generally persons of some ability, but it is under- 
stood that most, if not all of them, were in straitened circum- 
stances, and that some were extremely needy. Armstrong's 
half-pay as a Loyalist officer might have prevented him from 
being in a situation of destitution. His pay under Miranda 
was fixed at ten dollars per day, to commence January 1, 1806, 
which was the date of his commission of Colonel. 

The common men, sailors and soldiers, were an ignorant 
and undisciplined mob, and the quartermaster-general had 
enough to do to keep them quiet. As in his intercourse with 
the officers, his disputes with them were continual; hardly 
a day passed without some one or more of them being 
taken to task for misconduct, or placed in arrest and con- 
finement. 

The failure of Miranda to pay his officers was a new 



130 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

source of difficulty and contention, and was a principal cause 
of bringing matters to a crisis. John Orford, a lieutenant of 
engineers, was especially importunate, and in answer to his 
second commmunication on the subject of arrearages due to 
him, received the following letter: — 

" Port of Spain, December 2d, 1806. 

"Sir, — By order of General Miranda, I have to inform you, 
that he received yours of the twenty-ninth ult., the purport of 
which he conceives to be highly improper, and contrary to 
every military principle ; that in duty to himself, and for the 
good of the service, he thinks it proper that you should be dis- 
missed from it, and you are hereby dismissed from it, and no 
longer to be considered as an officer under his command. 

" I am, Sir, yours, 

William Armstrono, 

Quartermaster-general. ' ' 

"Mr. John Obfobd." 

Other officers connected with this ill-starred attempt to re- 
volutionize South America, applied for dismissals, and the 
defection became general. Armstrong, however, retired with- 
out notice or leave, and his chief accused him of desertion. 
Departing in the sloop of war Hawk, for Dominica, the Quar- 
termaster-general of the Columbian Army took passage at 
that island for London. Inferior officers, induced to believe 
that the desertion of one so near Miranda's person gave them 
full liberty to abandon him in the same informal manner, re- 
tired from his service without writing letters of resignation, 
though some of them did observe that form in taking their 
leave of him and his fortunes. Of Armstrong's career 
after his arrival in England I have obtained no informa- 
tion. 

Arnode, John. Of West Chester County, New York ; and a 
Protester at White Plains, April, 1775. The name of Stephen 
Arnode was affixed to the Protest also. 

Arnold, Benedict. Of Connecticut; and a major-general 



t 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. __ 131 

in the Whig army. He was descended from the Arnolds of 
Rhode Island, an honorable family, who for a long period fig- 
ured in the public affairs of that Colony. He was bred an. 
apothecary, and from 1763 to 1767 was settled at New Haven, 
as a druggist and bookseller. His career in the Revolution is 
too well known to require notice here. I am inclined to be- 
lieve, that Arnold was a finished scoundrel from early man- 
hood to his grave. Nor do I believe, that he had any real and 
true hearted attachment to the Whig cause. He fought as a 
mere adventurer, and took sides from a calculation of personal 
gain, and chances of plunder and advancement. He was 
brave, and among the bravest of men ; and had the additional 
merit of inspiring troops with his own courageous spirit. These 
were his chief merits. 

The Loyalists seem to have known his character far better 
than the Whigs, and to have supposed, that he favored them 
long before his treason. There is proof of this, from various 
sources. As early as 1778, it appears from the private corres- 
pondence of Galloway, the leading Loyalist of Pennsylvania, 
that he was considered by the refugees as lenient, if not friendly 
to them, and in this light was represented to the British min- 
istry. Thus, Charles Stewart, under date of December 17, 
1778, wrote: "General Arnold is in Philadelphia. It is said 
that he will be discharged, being thought a pert Tory. Certain 
it is, that he associates mostly with these people, and is to be 
married to Miss Shippen, daughter of Edward Shippen, Esq." 
David Sproat, on the 11th of January, 1779, said : "You will 
also hear that General Arnold, commandant in Philadelphia, 
has behaved with lenity to the Tories, and that he is on the 
eve of marriage to one of Edward Shippen's daughters." 

No honorable man would have formed a copartnership with 
Others for purchasing goods within the enemy's lines as he did, 
and to the enormous amount of one hundred and forty thousand 
dollars. And no honest man would have lived, could have 
hved as he did, while at Philadelphia. His play, his balls, 
his concerts, his banquets, were enough to have impaired the 
fortune of an European noble. His house was the best in 



132 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

the city, and had been the mansion of Penn, the last royal 
governor of Pennsylvania, and the descendant of the illustri- 
ous founder of the Colony. This dwelling he furnished mag- 
nificently, kept his coach and four, and a numerous retinue of 
servants, and indulged in every kind of luxury, and ostenta- 
tious and vain profusion and display. 

Among the many families who had kept up close inti- 
macy with the British officers while Howe held Philadel- 
phia, and who were known to be disaffected to the Whig 
cause, was that of Edward Shippen. The Shippens were 
of the first rank there, and are of distinction to this day. 
The youngest daughter of Edward was under the age of 
eighteen, was gay, beautiful, attractive, and ambitious. She 
had been admired and flattered by Howe's officers, and was 
a conspicuous personage at the gorgeous fete and festival 
given by them on the occasion of Sir William's departure for 
Europe. It is to be remembered, that her acquaintance with 
the ill-fated Andre, was familiar, and that she corresponded 
with him, after the British army had retired to New York 
and before the treason. And this lady became the wife of a 
Whig general ; of a general in the pay of a poor, distressed, 
and exhausted country. The splendor, the equipage, the 
military display of Arnold, captivated her, and their destiny 
became one. 

But Arnold should have the benefit of evers^ circumstance 
which, in the judgment of any, can lessen or pguliate his guilt. 
Beyond all doubt, then, Congress treated him unjustlj'-. If his 
case had never been submitted to that body, or if it had been 
examined and disposed of by Washington, it is certainly 
possible that his career might have terminated far less dis- 
honorably. 

He was made a brigadier-general in the British service, and 
received a large amount of gold to cover his alleged losses in 
deserting the standard of his country. But his commission 
was dyed with a gentleman's blood. His acquisition cost the 
British army the life of one of its most accomplished officers. 
In 1782 he commanded the American Legion. After Arnold 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 133 

went to England, Mr. Van Shaack, a New York Loyalist, who 
was also there, paid a visit to Westminster Abbey. " His 
musings were interrupted by the entrance of a gentleman 
accompanied by a lady. It was General Arnold, and the lady 
was doubtless Mrs. Arnold. They passed to the cenotaph of 
Major Andre, where they stood and conversed together. What 
a spectacle ! The traitor Arnold in Westminster Abbey, at the 
tomb of Andre, deliberately perusing the monumental inscrip- 
tion which will transmit to future ages the tale of his own 
infamy. The scene, with the associations which naturally 
crowded upon the mind, was calculated to excite various emo- 
tions in an American bosom ; and Mr. Van Shaack turned 
from it with disgust." 

From the conclusion of the war till his death, Arnold resided 
chiefly in England ; but for awhile he was engaged in trade 
and navigation at St. John, New Brunswick. He was disliked, 
was unpopular, and even hated at St. John. Persons of that 
city still relate instances of his perfidy and meanness ; some 
who knew him are yet alive. George Gilbert, Esquire, (a son 
of Bradford Gilbert, who was a Massachusetts Loyalist,) has 
now (August, 1846) twelve chairs which are called the Trai- 
tor's Chairs, and which were carried from England to St. John 
by Arnold. AVhen he removed from New Brunsv/ick he sold 
them to the first Judge Chipman, who, after keeping them some 
years, sold them to their present possessor. They are of a 
French pattern, are large, and covered with blue figured dam- 
ask ; the wood- work is white, highly polished or enamelled, 
and striped with gold. 

General Arnold owned the first ship which was built in New 
Brunswick. It is said that he obtained this vessel of the 
builder, who was unable to procure the necessary sails and 
rigging, and who unfortunately was in his power, by fraud. 

He died in London in 1801, and Margaret, his widow, died 
in the same city in 1804, at the early age of forty-three. 

Of General Arnold's personal career, Mr. Sparks has left 
nothing to be recorded, but I may state some additional partic- 
ulars of his family. When he removed from New Brunswick, 
12 



134 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

he seems to have been the father of seven children. His first 
wife bore him Benedict, Richard, and Henry. Benedict was 
an officer of artillery in the British army, and, it is believed, 
was compelled to quit the service ; he died young in the West 
Indies. The children by his second marriage, were James 
Robertson, Edward, George, and Sophia. James Robertson, I 
conclude, was the only one of these four born in the United 
States. At the time of the treason he was a child, and had 
just reached West Point from Philadelphia, with his mother. 
He entered the British army, and rose to the rank of colonel of 
engineers. He was stationed at Bermuda from 1816 to 1818, 
and from the last named year until 1823 was at Halifax, and 
the commanding officer of engineers in Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick. While thus in command he was at St. John, and 
on going into the house built by his father in King street (which 
is still standing), wept, as my informant states, like a child. 
His wife was a Miss Goodrich of the Isle of Wight. He is a 
small man, has eyes of remarkable sharpness, and in features 
bears a striking resemblance to his father. A gentleman who 
has been in service with him, and is intimately acquainted with 
him, speaks of him in terms of high commendation, and relates 
that he expressed a desire to visit the United States. Since the 
accession of Queen Victoria, he has been one of her Majesty's 
aids-de-camp. In 1841 he was transferred from the engineer 
corps, and is now (1846) a major-general, and a Knight of the 
Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order. 

Edward, some years ago, was in a banking-house in England. 
George, in 1816, was an officer of dragoons. Sophia was an 
infant when her parents departed from America, and her fate 
is unknown to those to whom I am indebted for the informa- 
tion here given. It may be added, that the first General 
Arnold's mother had six children, of whom he and his sister 
Hannah alone lived to the years of maturity. This sister 
adhered to her brother Benedict throughout his eventful and 
guilty career, and was true to him in the darkest periods 
of his history. She died at Montague in Upper Canada in 
1803, and was, as is uniformly stated, a lady of excellent 
qualities of character. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 135 

Arnold, Henry. A son of General Arnold by his first mar- 
riage. He entered the king's service after his father's defection, 
and was a lieutenant of cavalry in the American Legion. He 
accompanied his father to St. John, and was employed in his 
business. He slept in the warehouse near Lower Cove in 
that city, and lodged there the night the building was burned. 
He lived afterwards at Troy, New York, with his aunt Han- 
nah, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits. At a subsequent 
period, he removed to Canada, where, in 1829, he was a man 
of property. He received half-pay, and a grant of lands from 
the British government. 

Arnold, Oliver. Of Conecticut. He was born in that 
State, and graduated at Yale College. He went to St. John at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. Having 
labored some years as an Episcopal missionary, he was in- 
ducted into office as rector of Sussex, New Brunswick, and 
finished his course in that capacity in 1834, at the age of 
seventy-nine. He was ardently attached to the Episcopal 
church, and was regarded as an excellent man. In domestic 
life he was peculiarly kind and affectionate. 

Arnold, Richard. Brother of Henry. In 1782 he was 
also a lieutenant of cavalry in the American Legion, com- 
manded by his father. In every particular his history, down 
to the year 1829, is identical with that of his brother Henry, 
and need not, therefore, be repeated. Persons are still living at 
St. John, who resided there when General Arnold's store was 
burned. The impression was, at the moment, and still is, that 
the fire was caused by design, and for the purpose of defraud- 
ing a company in England, that had underwritten upon the 
merchandise which it contained, to an amount far exceeding 
its worth. These persons differ as to the fact, whether Arnold 
himself was at St. John, or absent in England, at the time of 
the fire ; and hence, the degree of blame which should be 
attached to the two sons may be uncertain. That both Henry 
and Richard slept in the store on the night of the conflagration, 
and that neither could give a satisfactory account of its cause, 
seems, however, to be certain. 



y 



136 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Arnott, Hugh. In 1782 he was surgeon of the American 
Legion under Arnold. 

AsBY, James. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 
1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. In 
July of 1774, a Boston Whig wrote to a friend at New York 
as follows : " The Addressers of Mr. Hutchinson, and the 
Protesters against our public measures, lead a devil of a life. 
Inthe country the people will not grind their corn, and in 
the town they refuse to purchase from, and sell to, them." 

AscouGH, William. Of West Chester County, New York, 
and a Protester at White Plains, 

Ash, Richard. Of Beaufort, South Carolina. After the sur- 
render of Charleston, he accepted of a commission under the 
crown ; his estate was confiscated. 

Ashley, Jonathan. Minister of Westfield, and subsequently 
of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Died in 1780. He was a warm 
Loyalist, and difficulties occurred between him and his people 
in consequence. An Ecclesiastical Council, convened in May, 
1780, by mutual consent, to arrange the difference, dispersed 
after a session of eleven days without arriving at any result ; 
the death of Ashley, about three months after, closed the con- 
troversy. He expressed his particular sentiments freely and 
boldly. The following anecdote is related as an instance 
of his zeal : " When the provincial Congress of Massachusetts 
issued the proclamation for the Annual Day of Thanksgiving, 
they substituted the ejaculation, ' God save the people,' instead 
of the former one, ' God save the king.' He read the procla- 
mation from the pulpit, but when he had come to the close, 
he raised himself above his ordinary height, and, with great 
vehemence, subjoined, 'And God save the king,' I say, ' or 
we are an undone people.' " Mr. Ashley graduated at Yale 
College in 1730. He was a man of strong mind, and was an 
earnest and pungent preacher. At his decease, in 1780, he 
was at the age of sixty-seven. Several of his sermons were 
published. 

Ashley, Joseph, Junior. Of Sunderland, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. He went to Halifax 
in 1776. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 137 

Askew, Leonard. Of Charleston, South CaroHna. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Chnton in 1780. 

Atkins, Charles. Of Charleston, South Carolina. In 1774 
he was appointed a member of the Committee of Correspon- 
dence of that city. In 1780 he was an Addresser of Sir Henry 
Clinton, and a Petitioner to be armed on the side of the crown. 
He received a military commission, and in 1782 was an officer 
in the Volunteers. He was banished, and his property was 
confiscated. He went to England. In 1794, in a memorial 
dated at London, he stated to the British Government, that 
large debts due to him in America at the time of his banish- 
ment remained unpaid, and he desired relief. 

Atkins, David. Laborer of Sandwich. Joined the royal 
forces in Rhode Island in 1777, and was embraced in the 
banishment act the next year. 

Atkins, Gibbs. Cabinet-maker of Boston, Massachusetts. 
Went to Halifax in 1776, and in 1778 was proscribed and 
banished. 

Atkinson, John. Merchant of Boston, Massachusetts. Was 
an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775, and 
was proscribed under the act of 1778. 

Atkinson, Theodore. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1718, and in after life 
rose to much distinction. He held, at various times, the offtces 
of Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Colonel of the militia, 
Collector of the customs. Secretary of the Colony, and Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and had a seat in the Council. In 1775 
a committee of the Provincial Congress requested him to de- 
liver up all the records and papers in the secretary's office, which 
he refused, as " against his oath and honor." On a second visit 
the committee, without heeding his objections, took possession 
of the documents of his office, except the volumes which con- 
tained the charter grants of lands, which were then in the 
hands of Governor Wentworth. The missing books. Congress, 
by resolution of July 7, 1775, voted that Mr. Atkinson should 
be held accountable for to the people. In 1779 Mr. Atkinson 
died at the advanced age of eighty-two. He bequeathed 
12* 



138 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

£200 sterling to the Episcopal Church of Portsmouth, the 
interest of which he directed to be expended in bread and dis- 
tributed on Sundays, to the poor of the parish. 

Atkinson, Hon. Theodore, Junior. Of New Hampshire, 
and son of the preceding. He graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1767. Entering upon political life, he became a mem- 
ber of the Council and Secretary of the Colony. He died at 
Portsmouth, on Saturday, October 28, 1769, at the early age 
of thirty-three, and his remains were deposited in the family 
tomb. Queen's Chapel, with great pomp and circumstance. 
On Saturday, November 11 — just two weeks after — his widow, 
whose maiden name was Frances Deering Wentworth, was 
married in the same chapel by the Reverend Arthur Browne, 
to Governor John, afterwards Sir John Wentworth. She was 
a Boston lady, very accomplished and gay; and, as Lady 
Wentworth, had a diversified career. She was a cousin of 
both husbands, and her earliest attachment was for Went- 
worth ; but while he was absent in England she married 
Atkinson. There was much gossip at Portsmouth about the 
three cousins at the revolutionary era, founded on the facts 
here stated. And within a few years, a story relating to the 
parties appeared in one of the magazines, which, extracted by 
the newspaper press, went the rounds. The leading incidents 
of the tale were both ridiculous and untrue. 

Atkinson, William. In 1782 was an officer of infantry in 
the Queen's Rangers. 

At WOOD, Isaac. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
American Regiment. 

Atwood, . Practitioner of physic and comb maker of 

Christiana, Delaware. He was ordered to surrender himself 
within a specified time in 1778, or sufier the loss of his estate. 

Auchmuty, Robert. Brother of Samuel. He was a law- 
yer of Boston, and held the office of Judge of Admiralty, a 
place which had been filled by his father. He possessed fine 
powers as an advocate, and was associated with John Adams 
in the defence of Captain Preston, on his trial for the Boston 
Massacre in 1770. His letters to persons in England were 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 139 

sent to America, with those of Governor Hutchinson, by Frank- 
hn in 1773, and created much commotion. He went to 
England in 1776, and at one period was in very distressed 
circumstances. He never returned to the United States. 

AucHMUTY, Samuel, D. D. His father was Robert Auch- 
muty, an eminent lawyer and a judge of admiralty of Massa- 
chusetts. Samuel graduated at Harvard University in 1742. 
He was Rector of Trinity Church, New York, and died 
March 3d, 1777. His doctorate of divinity was derived from 
Oxford, England. Trumbull calls him a "high-church clergy- 
man " and makes him the subject of remark in McFingal. In 
April, 1775, Dr. Auchmuty wrote from New York to Captain 
Montresor, chief engineer of General Gage's army at Boston, 
that " we have lately been plagued with a rascally Whig mob 
here, but they have effected nothing, only Sears, the King, 
was rescued at the jail door "***<« Our magistrates 
have not the spirit of a louse," &c. 

Auchmuty, Lieutenant General Sir Samuel. He was the 
youngest son of the Reverend Doctor Samuel Auchmuty, and 
was born in 1758. He was educated at Columbia College, 
New York. In 1776 he joined Sir William Howe as an ensign 
in the forty-fifth regiment. He died in 1822, aged sixty-four 
years, and lieutenant general of the British army. 

Augustine, Frederick. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Austin, Nicholas. Of New Hampshire. In 1774 he was 
charged by the Whig Committee with procuring artificers, &c. 
to go from New Hampshire to Boston to erect barracks for the 
royal troops, and was obliged to get upon his knees and con- 
fess his fault. 

Avery, Samuel. Died at Horton, Nova Scotia, in 1836, 
aged ninety-four years. 

Aylwin, Thomas. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 

Aymar, Francis. Descended from a family that fled to the 
United States during the religious persecutions in France. 
Was born in the city of New York in 1759, and died at St. 



140 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Andrew, New Brunswick, October, 1843, aged eighty-four 
years. He was one of the grantees of, and settled at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in the autumn of 1783, and continued his 
residence there until 1807, when he returned to the United 
States, and lived alternately at Eastport, Maine ; New York ; 
and St. Andrew, up to the time of his decease. He was the 
father of fifteen children, of whom the following survived him : 
Daniel, William, John, Francis, Nancy, Mary, Betsey, Eleanor, 
Sarah, and Phebe. John Aymar, the father of Benjamin 
Aymar, a distinguished merchant of New York, was his 
brother. 

AxTELL, William. Of New York. He was a member of 
the Council of the Colony, and was considered to be in office 
in 1782. He was a man of wealth. His property was con- 
fiscated. 

Babbit, Daniel. He died at Oagetown, New Brunswick, in 
1830, at the age of eighty-seven. 

Babcock, Luke. Episcopal minister at f*hilipsburgh. New 
York. In 1775 he was one of the Protesters at White Plains 
against the Whigs. The Protest was signed by three hundred 
and twelve persons ; the names of Frederick Phillips, Isaac 
Wilkins, and Samuel Seabury, precede that of Mr. Babcock. 
The form of this document is given in the notice of Mr. 
Seabury. 

Bache, Theophilact. Of New York. He was a determined 
Loyalist. His brother Richard married Sarah, daughter of 
Doctor Franklin, and was a Whig. The political sympathies 
of Theophilact were, possibly, the same as Richard's at the 
outset; since he was associated with Jay and Lewis on the 
Committee of Correspondence. At one period of the war his 
place of residence was at Flatbush, Long Island. Extremely 
obnoxious to some of the Whigs, in the course of events, a 
daring attempt to carry him off was made in 1778, by a Cap- 
tain Marriner, an eccentric, Avitty, and ingenious partisan, 
which resulted successfully. Marriner's plan embraced Sher- 
brook, Axtell, and Mathews, three other Loyalists of rank 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 141 

and consequence; but Bache and Sherbrook were the two 
whom he actually captured, and they were placed in a boat 
and conveyed to New Jersey. In 1782 Mr. Bache was Vice 
President of the New York Chamber of Commerce. He died 
in that city in 1807, aged seventy-eight. His kindness to 
Whigs who were carried to New York and its vicinity as pris- 
oners, during the Revolution, is worthy of respecful mention. 

Backer, Benjamin, Senior. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Was an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; was banished 
and lost his estate under the confiscation act in 1782. He died 
soon after. 

Backer, John, Junior. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. Went 
to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778 ; 
but was afterwards in the United States. He arrived at St. 
John, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1783, in the ship 
Union. 

Backer, Thomas. State unknown. Arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and the crown granted him a city 
lot. ' 

Bacon, Edward. Member of the General Court from Barn- 
stable, Massachusetts. He incurred the displeasure of the 
Whigs in the neighborhood of Barnstable, and several mem- 
bers of the Legislature were instructed by their towns to move 
for his expulsion. 

Baddely, Thomas, In 1782 he was a captain in the Royal 
Garrison Battalion. 

Badger, Moses, An Episcopal clergyman. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1761, His wife was a daughter of 
Judge Saltonstall of Massachusetts, and sister of Colonel Rich- 
ard and Leverett, the two Loyalist sons of that gentleman. 
Mr, Badger went to Halifax in 1776, but was at New York at 
or about the time of the death of Leverett, and wrote to the 
family on the subject. At one period he was chaplain to De 
Lancey's second battalion. After the Revolution, Mr. Badger 
was Rector of King's Chapel, Providence, and died in that 
city in 1792. It appears, that some years prior to the war he 
was an Episcopal Missionary in New Hampshire, authorized 
to labor throughout that Colony. 



142 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Bailey, Jacob. He graduated at Harvard University in 1755. 
Principally through the instrumentality of the Plymouth pro- 
prietors in Maine, an Episcopal Church was erected at Pow- 
nalborough, now Wiscasset, in that State, and for several years 
Mr. Bailey was the officiating clergyman, as a missionary of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Few around 
him agreed with him in political sentiment, and as the revolu- 
tionary controversy darkened, he quitted the country, and went 
to Annapolis, Nova Scotia, where he became the Rector of 
St. Luke's Church, in which relation he continued until his 
death in 180S, at the age of sixty-seven. During the last 
twenty-six years of his life he was absent from his Church 
only one Sunday. It may be remarked here, that nearly all 
the Loyalists of Maine were Episcopalians, and that few of 
other communions in that State adhered to the king. 

Bailey, Oliver and Joseph. Went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and were grantees of the city. 

Bailey, Samuel and Jonathan. Of Fairfield County, Con- 
necticut. Were members of the Reading Association. 

Bailey, Thomas. Of Pennsylvania. Was tried in 1778 on 
a charge of supplying the king's army with provisions, found 
guilty, and sentenced to confinement to hard labor for one 
month. 

Bailey, William. State unknown. In 1782 was captain- 
lieutenant of the Loyal American Regiment ; he settled after 
the war in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died 
on the river St. John, near Fredericton, in 1832, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-seven. 

Bailey, Zachariah. Died at Fredericton, New Brunswick, 
in 1823, aged seventy-two. 

Baird, William. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was the grantee of a lot in that city. 

Baizley, John. Of West Chester County, New York. Was 
a Protester at White Plains. 

Baldween, John. He served the king throughout the Revo- 
lution, and at its close sought refuge in Charlotte County, New 
Brunswick. He was distinguished for bravery and for forti- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 143 

tude in surmounting obstacles. He died at St. George, New 
Brunswick, August, 1840, aged ninety-one years. 

Balentine, Alexander. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace. He was one of the grantees of that city. 

Ball, Elias. Two of this name in South Carohna. One 
Uved at Wambaw, the other at Curmantee ; both held commis- 
sions under the crown after the fall of Charleston ; and both 
lost their estates under the confiscation act. 

Ball, . Captain of a militia company in the town 

of Berne, New York. His command consisted of eighty-five 
men ; of whom sixty-three joiijed him in going over to the 
king at the commencement of hostilities. His ensign, Peter 
Deitz, and the remainder of his men, were Whigs. Deitz was 
commissioned captain, and his brother, William Deitz, lieuten- 
ant. Peter was killed in 1777, and William succeeded him in 
command, and by his activity incurred the hate of the Tories, 
when with his family they made him their prisoner, and tied 
him to his gate-post to witness the death of his father and 
mother, his wife and children, who were successively brought 
out and murdered before his eyes. The unhappy Deitz him- 
self was carried to Niagara, where he ultimately became a 
victim of Tory cruelty. 

Ballingall, Robert. Of South Carolina. He was in coin- 
mission under the crown after the surrender of Charleston in 
1780 ; his estate was confiscated. 

Balmaine, William. He settled at Grand Lake, New Bruns- 
"Vick. While at St. John, in 1809, he fell from a window and 
was killed. His age was seventy-two. 

Bangs, Seth. Mariner of Hardwick, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Banister, Thomas. A petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia, 
in July, 1783. See Abijah Willard. 

Bank, Thomas. Of Pennsylvania. He was in London in 
July, 1779. 

Banks, Seth. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of the 
Association. 

Banyer, Goldsbrow. In 1782 he was Registrar of the 
Court of Chancery of New York. 



144 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Barbarie, John. In 1782 he was a captain in the second 
battahon of New Jersey Yolunteers. He went to St, John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was' a grantee of that city. 
He received half-pay. He was a colonel of the militia, and a 
magistrate of the County of York, He died at Sussex Vale 
in 1818, at the age of sixty-seven. His son, Andrew Barbarie, 
Esq,, is a member of the House of Assembly of New Bruns- 
wick. 

Barbarie, Oliver. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment, He settled at St, John in 1783, 
and was the grantee of a city lot. He died at Sussex Vale, 
New Brunswick. 

Barcas, James. Husbandman of Little Creek, Delaware. 
He was required in 1778 to surrender himself, or to lose his 
estate, both real and personal. 

Barcas, Stephen, Husbandman of Little Creek, Delaware. 
By an act of 1778 his estate was to become absolutely forfeit, 
unless he should surrender himself for trial on or before 
August 1st of that year. 

Barclay, Andrew. Of Boston. A Protester against the 
V^higs in 1774. 

Barclay, Reverend Doctor Henry. An Episcopal clergy- 
man of New York, He was a native of Albany, and graduated 
at Yale College in 1734, and after taking orders in England, 
was employed as a missionary to the Mohawk Indians, After 
some years' labor in this capacity, he was appointed Rector of 
Trinity Church in the city of New York, His death dissolved 
the connexion in 1765. His daughter Nancy married Colonel 
Beverley Robinson the younger, at Flushing, New York, 
January 26th, 1778. 

Barclay, Thomas, Was the son of Henry Barclay, D, D., 
Rector of Trinity Church, New York, and was born in that 
city, October 12th, 1753, He was a graduate of Columbia 
College, and a student of law of John Jay. At the commence- 
ment of the Revolution he entered the British Army under Sir 
William Howe, as a captain in the Loyal American Regiment, 
and was promoted to a major by Sir Henry Clinton in 1777. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 145 

He continued in active service until the peace. His estate in 
New York was confiscated, and at the close of the contest 
he fled with his family to Nova Scotia. Of the House of As- 
sembly of that Province he was for some time speaker ; and of 
the militia, adjutant-general. From 1796 till 1828 he was 
employed in civil stations under the British crown of great 
trust and honor. He was successively a commissioner under 
Jay's Treaty, the consul-general for the Northern and Eastern 
States, and commissary for the care and exchange of prisoners. 
At the conclusion of the war of 1812, between the United 
States and Great Britain, he was appointed commissioner un- 
der the fourth and fifth Articles of the Treaty of Ghent, which 
post he continued to hold until within two years of his decease. 
In private life he was estimable. He was a sincere and devout 
Christian of the communion of the Church of England. A 
prominent trait in his character was kindness and charity to 
the poor. His official conduct was the subject of frequent and 
marked approbation of the sovereigns whom he served, and at 
the close of his services he was rewarded with a pension of 
£-1200 per annum. His habits of industry and application 
were extraordinary ; and he was never in bed at sunrise for 
forty years. He died at New York in April, 1830, aged 
seventy-seven years. His son. Colonel Delancy Barclay, an 
aid-de-camp to George the Fourth, died in 1826; he had 
repeatedly distinguished himself, particularly at Waterloo. 

Bardsley, Abel. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. He 
arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife and one 
child, in the ship Union, in 1783. 

Barker, Abijah. Whose place of residence is unknown, 
arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and received the 
grant of a city lot. 

Barker, William and Thomas. Of Westchester County, 
New York. Were Protesters at White Plains in 1775, and the 
latter, in 1782, was an ensign in the King's American Regi- 
ment. 

Barlow, Nathaniel. Of Reading, Connecticut. Was a 
member of the Association. 
13 



146 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Barlow, Thomas. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and was a grantee of that city. 

Barnard, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Hah- 
fax with the British army. 

Barned, Henry. Of Pennsylvania. He went to England, 
and was in London in 1779. 

Barnes, Henry. Merchant of Marlborough, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. Henry Barnes Esq., 
a native of the United States, died in London in 1808, aged 
eighty-four ; probably the same. 

Barnham, Comfort and Elijah. Of Fairfield County, Con- 
necticut. Were members of the Reading Association. 

Barnham, Nathan. Was an ensign in De Lancey's third 
battalion. 

Barnum, Nathaniel. He was an ensign in De Lancey's 
third battalion. 

Barragin, Luke. Of Jamaica, Long Island, New York. A 
signer of the Declaration against the proceedings of the Whigs, 
January, 1775. 

Barrell, Colburn. Of Boston. In 1774 was a Protester 
against the Whigs, and one of the Addressers of Hutchinson 
the same year. He was at New York in 1783, and one of the 
fifty-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. See Abijah 
Willard. He was a Sandemanian. 

Barrell, Walter. Was inspector-general of the customs; 
and in his religious sentiments a follower of Robert Sande- 
man ; he embarked at Boston with the British army in 1776, 
for Halifax, and arrived in England in the summer of the 
same year. In 1779 he was a member of the Loyalist Associ- 
ation formed in London ; his second daughter, Polly, died in 
London in 1810. 

Barrett, Joseph. He died at Halifax in 1809, aged sixty- 
one. 

Barrick, James. Merchant of Boston. Went to Halifax- in 
1776, and in August of that year arrived in England ; in 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. In 1779 he was in London 
and addressed the king. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 147 

Barrick, James, Junior. Was in London in July^ 1779. 

Barrow, Samuel. Of Bedford County, Pennsylvania. In 
1778 it was ordered in Council that, failing to surrender him- 
self for trial for treason, he should stand attainted. 

Barry, Robert. At the close of the Revolution he embark- 
ed at New York for Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He became an 
eminent merchant, established branch-houses in various parts 
of the province, and his name is connected with the largest of 
the early commercial enterprises of Nova Scotia. He was dis- 
tinguished for qualities which adorn the Christian character, 
and throughout life was highly esteemed. His death occurred 
at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, September, 1843, in the eighty- 
fourth year of his age. 

Barry, W. He was a lieutenant in the Royal Foresters 
under ConoUy, and died on Long Island, New York, in 1781. 

Barson, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Address- 
er of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Bartels, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Bartlett, Richard. Of New York. Was included in the 
disfranchising law of that State of 1784, but in 1786 was 
restored to his civil rights, on his taking the oath of abjuration 
and allegiance. 

Barton, Colonel . State unknown. Commanded a 

body of Tories, and was captured on Staten Island in 1777, 
with about forty of his men, and carried to New Jersey. 

Barton, David. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1775. 

Barton, James and Henry. In 1782 were ensigns in the 
first battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Barton, Thomas. An Episcopal clergyman. He was a 
native of Ireland, and educated at the University of Dublin. 
In 1753 he married a sister of Mr. Rittenhouse, and was 
ordained the next year in England. To Mr. Rittenhouse his 
talents and learning were of great service. From 1755 to 
1759 he was a missionary. In the French war he became 
acquainted with Washington, while a chaplain to the troops. 



us 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Subsequently, he was rector at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for 
many years. An adherent of the crown, he refused to take a 
required oath; and in 1778 retired to New York, where he 
died in 1780, aged fifty years. The memoirs of Rittenhouse 
were written by his son William Barton. Another son, Ben- 
jamin Smith Barton, doctor of medicine, was a distinguished 
professor in the University of Pennsylvania, and succeeded 
the celebrated Rush. Professor Barton was the first Ameri- 
can who published an elementary work on botany. 

Bartram, John. Of Fairfield County, Coimecticut. A mem- 
of the Association at Reading. 

Bartram, Paul. Of Reading. A member of the Associa- 
tion. 

Batchelder, Breed. Of New Hampshire. His estate was 
confiscated, and he was proscribed and banished. 

Bates, Walter. Of Stamford, Connecticut. In the spring 
of 1783 he arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship 
Union. He settled in King"s County, and for many years was 
its sherifi". He died at Kingston in that county in 1842, aged 
eighty-two. 

Batt, Thomas. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Royal 
Fensible Americans. 

Batwell, Daniel. In 1782 he was chaplain of the third 
battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers. 

Baum . He was tried by a court-martial, and executed 

in Maine in 1780, by General Wadsworth, who commanded 
the eastern department between the Piscataqua and the St. 
Croix. This act of severity gave the General himself great 
pain, and was condemned by many Whigs, but it appears to 
have been necessary, and to have checked the treacherous 
intercourse of the eastern Tories with their British friends 
who held Castine. 

Bauman, John. Of Tryon County, New York. In 1775 a 
signer of a Declaration of loyalty. 

Baxter, Simon. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished, and lost his estate imder the confiscation act. He 
fell into the hands of a party of Whigs during the war, and 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 149 

was condemned to die. When brought out for execution, he 
broke and fled with the rope about his neck, and succeeded in 
reaching Burgoyne's army. He went to New Brunswick at 
the peace, and died at Norton, King's County, in 1804, aged 
seventy-four. His widow Prudence died the same year, at 
the age of seventy-three. 

Baxter, Stephen. Of Jamaica. Embarked for Nova Scotia 
in June, 1783. 

Baxter, William. Was proscribed and banished. 

Bayard, John. Of New York; as were also the five fol- 
lowing. In 1782 was lieutenant colonel commandant of the 
King's Orange Rangers. 

Bayard, Robert. Was Judge of the Admiralty Court, and 
considered to be in ofiice in 1782. His estate was confis- 
cated. 

Bayard, Samuel. In 1774 was engaged in a controversy 
with other proprietors of lands in New York, and in behalf of 
himself and associates, submitted a memorial to the British 
government, praying to be put in quiet possession of a part of 
the tract called the Westenhook Patent. After General Lee 
took command in the city in 1776, Mr. Bayard was made 
prisoner, and placed under guard at the house of Nicholas 
Bayard. He entered the service of the crown, and in 1782 
was major of the King's Orange Rangers. 

Bayard,- Samuel, Junior. Was deputy secretary of the 
Colony previous to the Revolution, and was considered to be 
in office in 1782. 

Bayard, Samuel Vetch. Served under the crown, and was 
a military officer. He died in Wilmot, Nova Scotia, in 1832, 
aged seventy-five. 

Bayard, William. Was associated with Jay, Lewis, and 
others, as a member of the Committee of Fifty of the city of 
New York, and he appears to have been of Whig sympathies 
at the beginning of the controversy. In 1773 Mr. Quincy, 
of Massachusetts, on his return from the South, passed through 
New York, and recorded in his journal, under the date of May 
12th, "Spent the morning in writing and roving, and dined 
13* 



150 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

with Colonel William Bayard at his seat on the North River." 
His property was confiscated. 

Bayeux, Thomas. In 1782 he was an officer in the Super- 
intendent Department at New York. 

Bayley, Philip. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In 1775 
he signed and published a Submission, or Recantation, in 
which he asked forgiveness for the past, and promised that 
his future conduct should convince the public, that he would 
risk his life and interest in defence of the liberties of the 
country. In his case, as in several others, the "written recan- 
tation was probably extorted from an unwillmg mind to avert 
some impending blow. Many recanters went into exile. 
Bayley, in 1778, was proscribed and banished. The cap- 
tain lieutenant of the Royal Fensible Americans in 1782 was 
Philip Bailey, and, possibly, the subject of this notice. 

Bayley, Richard. An eminent physician of New York. 
He was born in Connecticut in 1745, and in 1769 and 1770 
attended lectures and hospitals in London. In 1772 he com- 
menced practice in New York, and his attention was early 
attracted to the croup, which professional men had treated 
as putrid sore throat. His experiments resulted in the adop- 
tion of the present active treatment of the croup, and in an 
entire change of remedies for that formidable disease. In 
1776 he was in the British army under Howe, as a surgeon, 
but incapable of enduring separation from his wife, he resign- 
ed just before her decease in 1777. For the remainder of his 
life he was engaged in the duties of a professional kind. He 
occupied the chairs of anatomy and surgery in Columbia 
College, and published letters and essays on medical subjects. 
He died in 1801, aged fifty-six. He is represented as a man 
of high temper, strong in his attachments, and invincible in 
his dislikes, and of honorable, chivalrous character. 

Baynton, Benja]min. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Pennsylvania Loyalists. 

Bazzey, James. Of North Carolma. He went to England. 
In 1779 he was in London, and addressed the king. 

Beach, Ezekiel. Of Mendham, New Jersey. In July, 1775, 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 151 

the Committee of Observation of that township published him 
for his unfriendly conversation and conduct towards the Con- 
tinental Association, and recommended that all persons forbear 
dealing and connexion with him. 

Beach, Reverend John. He graduated at Yale College in 
1721, and for several years was a Congregational minister in 
Connecticut; but finally became an Episcopalian. In 1732 he 
went to England for ordination, and on his return, was em- 
ployed as an Episcopalian Missionary in Reading and New- 
town, Connecticut. After the Declaration of Independence, he 
continued to pray for the king, and to give other evidence of 
his loyalty. His course gave great displeasure to the Whigs, 
and he suffered at their hands. He died in March, 1782. 
During his life, he was engaged in one or more religious con- 
troversies. Several of his compositions of this description, 
and a number of sermons, were published. The following 
extracts from two of his letters to the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel, whose missionary he was, contain 
interesting information. The last, as will be seen, was dated 
only a few months before his death. 

" Newtown, May 5, 1772. 

" As it is now forty years since I have had the advantage 
of being the venerable Society's missionary in this place, I 
suppose it will not be improper to give a brief account how I 
have spent my time, and improved their charity. Every Sun- 
day I have performed divine service, and preached twice, at 
Newtown and Reading alternately. And in these forty years 
I have lost only two Sundays through sickness ; although in 
all that time I have been afflicted with a constant colic, 
which has not allowed me one day's ease or freedom from 
pain. The distance between the churches at Newtown and 
Reading is between eight and nine miles, and no very good 
road, yet have I never failed one time to attend each place 
according to custom, through the badness of the weather, but 
have rode it in the severest rains and snow storms, even when 
there has been no track, and my horse near mining down in 



152 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

the snow banks, which has had this good effect on my parish- 
ioners, that they are ashamed to stay from church on account 
of bad weather, so that they are remarkably forward to attend 
the pubhc worship. As to my labors without my parish, I 
have formerly performed divine service in many towns where 
the common-prayer had never been heard, nor the Scriptures 
read in public ; and where now are flourishing congregations 
of the Church of England, and in some places where there 
never had been any public worship at all, or any sermon 
preached by any preacher of any denomination. 

" In my travelling to preach the Gospel, once was my life 
remarkably preserved in passing a deep and rapid river. The 
retrospect on my fatigues, as lying on straw, &c., gives me 
pleasure, while I flatter myself that my labor has not been 
quite in vain, for the Church of England people are increased 
much more than twenty to one ; and what is infinitely more 
pleasing, many of them are remarkable for piety and virtue ; 
and the independents here are more knowing in matters of 
religion than they who live at a great distance from our 
church. We live in harmony and peace with each other, and 
the rising generation of the independents seem to be entirely 
free from every pique and prejudice against the church, 
&c. &C. 

"John Beach." 

" Newtown, October 31, 1781. 

" It is a long time since I have done my duty in writing to 
the venerable Society, not owing to my carelessness, but to the 
impossibility of conveyance from here, and now do it spar- 
ingly. A narrative of my troubles I dare not now give. My 
two congregations are growing ; that of Reading being com- 
monly about three hundred, and at Newtown about six hun- 
dred. I baptize about one hundred and thirty children in one 
year, and lately two adults. Newtown and the Church of 
England part of Reading are (T believe) the only parts of 
New England that have refused to comply with the doings of 
the Congress, and for that reason have been the butt of general 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 153 

hatred ; but God has dehvered us from entire destruction. 
I am now in the eighty-second year of my age, yet do con- 
stantly ahernately perform and preach at Newtown and Read- 
ing. I have been sixty years a pubhc preacher, and, after 
conviction, in the Church of England fifty years ; but had I 
been sensible of my insufficiency, I should not have under- 
taken it. But now I rejoice in that I think I have done more 
good towards men's eternal happiness than I should have 
done in any other calling. I do most heartily thank the ven- 
erable Society for their liberal support, and beg that they will 
accept of this, which is, I believe, my last bill, £ 325, which, 
according to former custom, is due. 

"At this age I cannot well hope for it, but I pray God I may 
have an opportunity to explain myself with safety ; but must 
conclude now with Job's expression — ' Have pity upon me, 
have pity upon me, O ye my friends.' " 

Beach, Lazarus. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Beaman, Thomas. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Bean, Thomas. He went from New York to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783, and of the latter city was a grantee. 
He and Dowling were contractors for the building of Trinity 
Church, St. John. He died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 
1823, aged seventy-nine. 

Beard, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished. In 
1782 his property was confiscated. 

Beardsley, John. In 1782 he was chaplain of the I^oyal 
American Regiment. He went to New Brunswick after the 
war, and settled as an Episcopal clergyman at Maugerville, 
where he died, 

Bearslee, Jesse. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Beavan, Thomas W. W. In 1782 he was examiner in the 
Court of Chancery of New York. 

Beck, Joseph. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was grantee of a city lot. 



154 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Beckwith, Nehemiah. He settled at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, but removed to Fredericton, where he died in 1815. 

Becraft, . A Tory leader, cruel, and noted for deeds 

of blood. He boasted to his associates, of having assisted to 
massacre the family of a Mr. Vrooman, in Schoharie, New 
York, The family, he said, were soon despatched, except a 
boy of fourteen, who ran from the house, when he started in 
pursuit, overtook him, and cut his throat, took his scalp, and 
hung his body across the fence. After the peace, he had the 
hardihood to return to Schoharie. He was seized, stripped 
naked and bound to a tree, and whipped nearly to death by 
ten men, some of whom had been his prisoners, and had 
heard him recount this exploit. Thus beaten, he was dis- 
missed with a charge never to shqw himself in that country 
again, an injunction which he carefully kept. 

Bedle. There were a number of Loyalists of this name 
in New York. In 1776 Benajah, Joseph, David, Jacob, Syl- 
vanus, Mordecai, and Jacomiah, of Queen's County, acknowl- 
edged allegiance. Five of the name went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and were grantees of that city. 
These were Paul, John, Joseph, Stephen, and William. Paul 
and Joseph were merchants at St. John, as early as 1784, or 
the next year after its settlement. John lived at Woodstock, 
where he was a magistrate for forty years; and after the 
division of York County was a magistrate, a Judge of Com- 
mon Pleas, and Register of Wills and Deeds for the County of 
Carlton ; he died in 1838, aged eighty-three. Mary Cranston, 
the widow of Paul Bedle, and born in Newport, Rhode 
Island, died at St. John in 1842, at the age of eighty-three. 

Beebe, Doctor . He was tarred and feathered, and 

otherwise roughly treated, by a mob styled the Sons of Lib- 
erty, at East Haddam, Connecticut, in the year 1774. 

Beebell, Robert. Clerk of the Customs. He embarked 
at Boston with the British army for Halifax, in 1776. 

Bell, Andrew. Residence unknown. In 1783 was a peti- 
tioner for lands in Nova Scotia. See Abijah Willard. 

Bell, Daniel and John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Were Addressers of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 155 

Bell, George. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. 

Bell, James. Who, I suppose, had been heutenant of a 
Loyalist corps. 

Bell, John and Jacob. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and were grantees of that city. 

Bell, Robert. Of Granville County, North Carolina. Lost 
his estate under the confiscation act. 

Bell, Richard. Surgeon of the Royal Garrison Battalion. 

Bell, William. Residence unknown. In 1782 was a lieu- 
tenant in the King's Orange Rangers. 

Bellin, Allard. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Bellinger, Edward, Senior. Of South Carolina. In 1782 
his estate was amerced twelve per cent. 

Belton, Jonathan. Of South Carolina. After the surren- 
der of Charleston in 1780, he held a commission under the 
crown. Estate confiscated. 

Benedict, Eli. In 1782 was an ensign in the Guides and 
Pioneers, commanded by Colonel Beverley Robinson. 

Benedict, Michael. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. 
Was a member of the Reading Loyalist Association. 

Bennet, or Bennett. Fifteen persons of this name of 
Queen's County, New York, acknowledged allegiance, Octo- 
ber, 1775. To wit : John, Jacob, William, John junior, 
James, Cornelius, Nicholas, W., Jeromus, W., Garset, Jeromus 
senior, George, John junior, John. — John, Cornelius, and 
Isaac, of Jamaica, were signers of a Declaration in 1775. 

Bennison, George. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Bentham, James. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Bergen. Of those who signed a Declaration of loyalty in 
1775, were several of this name; namely, Derrick Bergen, 
Teunis Bergen, John Bergen, Jacob Bergen, Jacob Bergen 
junior, and John Bergen junior ; all of Jamaica, Long Island, 
New York. Five persons of this name of Queen's County, 



156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

New York, acknowledged allegiance, October 1776. To wit : 
Jacob, Johannes, Teunis, Luke, Derrick. During the war, 
some Whigs entered the house of Michael Bergen, at Gowan- 
nus. New York, and though a party of the royal troops 
were near, they made prisoner of a Hessian major, who 
was* Bergen's lodger. 

Bernard, Sir Thomas, Baronet. He was the third son of 
Sir Francis Bernard, Baronet, Governor of Massachusetts, and 
graduated at Harvard University in 1767. He went to Eng- 
land, where he married a lady of fortune. On the death of 
his brother. Sir John Bernard — who was a Whig — he suc- 
ceeded to the title. His time was much devoted to institutions 
of benevolence in London ; and he wrote several essays with 
a design to mitigate the sorrows, and improve the condition 
of the humbler classes of English society. The University 
of Edinburgh conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 
He died in England in 1818. 

Bernard, Sir John. The brother of Sir Thomas — above 
mentioned — remained in America ; and, as remarked, was a 
Whig. Soon after the Revolution he was in abject poverty, 
and the misfortunes of himself and his family seem to have 
unsettled his mind. When, in 1769, Sir Francis was recalled 
from the Government of Massachusetts, he possessed a consid- 
erable landed estate in Maine, of which the large island of 
Mount Desert, Moose Island, (now Eastport) and some territory 
on the main, formed a part. John, at or about the time of his 
father's departure, had an agency for the settlement of these 
and other lands ; and, probably, until the confiscation of his 
father's property in 1778, was in comfortable circumstances. 
His place of residence during the war appears to have been 
at Bath, though he was sometimes at Machias. Not Ibiig 
after the peace, he lived at Pleasant Point, a few miles from 
Eastport, in a small hut built by himself, and with no com- 
panion but a dog. An unbroken wilderness was around him. 
The only inhabitants at the head of the tide waters of the 
St. Croix were a few workmen, preparing to erect a saw- 
mill. Robbinston and Perry were uninhabited. Eastport con- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 157 

tained a single family. Yet, at the spot now occupied by the 
remnant of the tribe of the Passamaquoddy's, he attempted 
to make a farm. He had been bred in ease, had hardly done 
a day's work in his life ; and yet he believed that he could 
earn a competence by labor. He told those who saw him, 
that " other young men went into the woods, and made them- 
selves farms, and got a good living, and he saw no reason 
why he could not." But he cut down a few trees, became 
discouraged, and departed. His abject condition in mind 
and estate rendered him an object of deep commiseration ; 
and his conduct during hostilities having entitled him to con- 
sideration, the legislature of Massachusetts restored to him 
one half of the island of Mount Desert. Of his subsequent 
history, while he continued in the United States, but little is 
known to me. He came to Maine occasionally, and was 
much about Boston. Later in life he held offices under the 
British crown at Barbadoes and St. Vincent ; and was known 
as Sir John Bernard, Baronet. He died in the West Indies 
in 1809, when his brother Thomas, — the subject of the pre- 
ceding sketch — succeeded to the title. 

Berrien, Abraham. Of Queen's County, New York. 
Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 

Berry, Edward. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Berry, John. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and a Protester against the 
Whigs the same year. 

Berry, Thomas. Of Westchester County, New York. Was 
a Protester at White Plains. 

Bertram, Alexander. Of Philadelphia. His estate was 
confiscated in 1779. 

Bethell, Robert. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
Orange Rangers. 

Bethune, George. Of Boston. In 1774 he was an Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in May, and one of the Protesters 
against the proceedings of the town meeting in June of that 
year. The next year he had retired to Jamaica, New York, 
14 



158 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

where he was suspected of carrying on a correspondence with 
the British forces, and was summoned to appear before the 
committee with his papers. Mr. Bethmie graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1740, and died in 1785. 

Betts, Azor. a physician ; settled in Nova Scotia, and died 
at Digby in that Colony in 1807. His widow, Gloriannah, 
died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1815, aged sixty-nine. 

Betts, Stephen. Of Reading, Connecticut. Was a mem- 
ber of the Loyalist Association. 

Betts, Thomas and Richard. Of Queen's County, New 
York. Acknowledged themselves loyal and well affected 
subjects, October, 1776. In April, 1779, Thomas was an 
Addresser of Lieutenant Colonel Sterling, while Richard 
signed a Declaration against the Whigs as early as 1775. 

Betts, William. In 1778 kept a tavern at Jamaica, New 
York, sign of General Amherst. In 1779 he advertised 
"choice hquors, dinners on the shortest notice, and good 
stabling." The same year Loyal Refugees were recruiting 
at his house. 

Betts, Captain R. Of Queen's County, New York. In 
1780 was an Addresser of Governor Robertson. 

Bettys, Joseph.. A noted Tory. "Joe Bettys" was known 
as a shrewd, intelligent, daring, and bad man. It is said, that 
pity and mercy were emotions which he never felt, and that to 
all the gentler impulses he was thoroughly insensible. At the 
breaking out of the Revolution he lived at Ballston, New 
York, and was a Whig. Entering the Whig service he per- 
formed feats of extraordinary valor in Arnold's battle with 
Carlton on Lake Champlain, where he was taken prisoner 
and carried to Canada. While a captive, he was unfortunately 
seduced to attach himself to the interests of the crown, and 
to accept the commission of ensign. Admirably fitted to act 
as a messenger and spy, he undertook to perform the duties 
of one or both as occasion should require, but was captured 
by his former friends, tried, and condemned to the gallows. 
Washington, however, spared his life on his promise of refor- 
mation, on the entreaties of his aged parents and the sohcita- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 159 

tions of influential Whigs. But Bettys returned directly 
to the ranks of the enemy, and his subsequent career was 
marked by almost every enormity that can disgrace a human 
being. His very name struck terror, and a record of his 
enterprises and crimes would fill a book. He burned the 
dwellings of persons whom he hated, or took them off" by 
murder. Fatigue, distance, or clanger, were no obstacles in 
the accomplishment of his designs. He knew that he carried 
his life in his hand. He scorned disguise or concealment. 
He fell upon his victims at noon as well as at midnight. 
Many plans were laid, many efforts made to seize him. At 
last, in 1782, the Whigs were successful, and detected him 
with a despatch to the commander of the British forces in 
New York. He was taken to Albany and executed as a 
spy and traitor. His death was deemed an event of no 
small consequence, both because it put an end to his own 
misdeeds, and because his fate was calculated to awe others 
who were engaged in the same perilous employments. 

Beveradge, David. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was one of 'the grantees of that city. 

BiBBY, Thomas. He was seized at Long Island, New York, 
in 1775 ; sent to Massachusetts, and confined within the limits 
of the town of Lunenburgh. 

BiDDLE, John. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Was 
collector of excise, and a deputy quartermaster of the Whig 
army. He changed sides, and in 1779 his estate was con- 
fiscated. His office of collector of excise was worth, in 1775, 
but £15. 

BiGBY, James. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Bigg, John. He died in New Brunswick in 1836, aged 
seventy-eight. 
. Biggs, Peter. Of Pennsylvania. Was in London in 1779. 

Biles, Samuel. Sheriff of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 
His estate was confiscated in 1779. 

BiLLOPP, Christopher. Of New York. Was a gentleman 
of character and property, and a member of the House of 



*i 



160 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Assembly. He commanded a corps of Loyalists, or of loyal 
militia, raised in the vicinity of New York city, and was 
actively employed in military duty. He was taken prisoner 
by the Whigs and confined in the jail at Burlington, New 
Jersey. Mr. Boudinot, the commissary of prisoners, in the 
warrant of commitment, directed that irons should be put on 
his hands and feet, that he should be chained to the floor 
of a close room, and that he should be fed on bread and 
water, in retaliation for the cruel treatment of Leshier and 
Randal, two Whig officers who had fallen into the hands of 
the royal troops. In 1782 Colonel Billopp was superintendent 
of police of Staten Island, where he lived and where he had 
an estate. His property, which was large, was confiscated 
under the act of New York. At the old Billopp House, which 
he erected, Lord Howe, as a commissioner of the mother 
country, met Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge, 
a Committee of Congress, in the hope of adjusting difiiculties, 
and of inducing the Colonies to return to their allegiance. 
During the war, Lord Howe, General Kniphausen, Colonel 
Simcoe, and other officers of rank in the royal service, were 
frequent guests of Colonel Billopp, at this house. In 1783 he 
was one of the fifty-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. 
See Abijah WiUard. He went to New Brunswick soon after, 
and for many years bore a prominent part in the administra- 
tion of its afiairs. He was a member of the House of As- 
sembly, and of the Council, and on the death of Governor 
Smythe, in 1823, he claimed the Presidency of the Government, 
and issued his proclamation accordingly; but the Honorable 
Ward Chipman was a competitor for the station, and was 
sworn into office. Colonel Billopp died at St. John in 1827, 
aged ninety. His wife Jane died at that city in 1802, aged 
forty-eight. His daughter Louisa married John Wallace, Esq., 
Surveyor of the Customs. His daughter Mary, the wife of the 
Reverend Archdeacon Willis, of Nova Scotia, died at Halifax 
m 1834, at the age of forty-three. His daughter Jane, wife 
of the Honorable WiUiam Black, of St. John, died in 1836. 
His two sons settled in the city of New York, and were 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 161 

merchants. They were partners, and in business at the time 
of the yellow fever ; the one married, the other single. The 
unmarried brother said to the other, — "It is unnecessary that 
both should stay here. You have a family, and your life is 
of more consequence than mine; go into the country until 
the sickness subsides." The married brother retired from the 
city accordingly, while the other remained and was a victim 
of the fever. The survivor, whose name was Thomas, failed 
in business some time after; joined the expedition of the 
celebrated Miranda, and was appointed a captain ; he was 
taken prisoner by the Spaniards and executed. 

BiNGAY, Robert. He died at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 
1830. 

Bingham, Charles. In 1782 he was captain lieutenant of 
the Second American Regiment. 

Bird, Henry. An officer in the royal service, and who, 
I conclude, belonged to New York. His diary fell into the 
hands of Colonel Gansevoort. 

Birdsill, Benjamin. Of New York. Went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and settled in Queen's County. He died at 
Gagetown in that county in 1834, at the age of ninety-one. 
Descendants to the number of two hundred and two survived 
him. Rachel, his widow, died at Gagetown in 1843, aged 
ninety-seven. 

Bishop, John. Died at Horton, Nova Scotia, in 1815, aged 
eighty-six. 

Black, David. Merchant of Boston, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Black, John. Of Boston. Embarked with the royal army 
for Halifax in 1776. 

Black, Joseph. Of South Carolina. Held office under the 
crown after the surrender of Charleston, and lost his estate 
under the confiscation act. 

Blackburn, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Blacker, William. In 1782 he was a captain in the Second 
American Regiment. 
14* 



'4 



162 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Blackwell, John, Junior. Laborer of Sandwich, Massa- 
chusetts. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. He had 
joined the enemy at Rhode Island in the fall of 1777. 

Blair, James. Residence unknown. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and received the grant of a city lot. 
A Loyalist of the name of James Blair died at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, in 1^33, aged seventy-five. He was barrack-master of 
the garrison there, and an old officer. 

Blair, John. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Embarked with 
the royal army for Halifax. 

Blair, John. Residence unknown. Was tried as a spy in 
1778, and executed at Hartford, Connecticut. A large amount 
of counterfeit continential money was found in his possession. 

Blair, Robert. Merchant of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Blair, Robert. Of South Carolina. Held a commission 
under the crown after the capitulation of Charleston, and lost 
his estate in consequence. 

Blair, William. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of Hutch- 
inson, and a Protester against the Whigs. 

Blair, Captain . Of Virginia. Joined Lord Dunmore. 

Was a captain in the royal service ; was taken prisoner and 
perished, it is supposed, on the passage to France. 

Blake, William. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Blakenham, Henry. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his es- 
tate was amerced twelve per cent. 

Blakslee, Abraham. Of New Haven. Commanded a com- 
pany in the second regiment of the militia, and the House 
of Assembly appointed a Committee, in 1775, to inquire into 
charges against him of disaffection and contemptuous speak- 
ing. 

Blakslee, Asa. Removed to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and died in that city in 1843, aged eighty-seven. 

Blane, Thomas. A petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia, 
July, 1783. See Abijah Willard. 

Bleau, Uriah. Was an ensign in the third battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers in 1782. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 163 

Bleau, Waldron. Was a captain in the third battaUon 
of New Jersey Vohmteers in 1782. 

Bliss, Daniel. Of Concord, Massachusetts. Was a son 
of Reverend Samuel BHss of that town. He was born in 
1740, graduated at Harvard University in 1760, and died at 
Lincoln, near Fredericton, in the province of New Bruns- 
wick, in 1805, aged sixty-six years. He was one of the 
barristers and attornies who were Addressers of Hutchinson 
in 1774 ; and he was proscribed under the act of 1778 ; and 
joining the British army, was appointed commissary. After 
the Revolution, he settled in New Brunswick, and became 
a member of the Council, and Chief Justice of the Inferior 
Court of Common Pleas. His widow died in 1807, at the 
age of sixty. 

Bliss, John Murray. Son of Daniel Bliss. He was a 
native of Massachusetts, whence he removed at the com- 
mencement of hostilities. He did not settle in New Bruns- 
wick until 1786. Having practised law for several years, 
and filled several offices connected with his profession, and 
having represented the County of York in the House of 
Assembly, he was, in 1816, elevated to the bench and to 
a seat in his Majesty's Council. In 1824, on the decease 
of the Honorable Ward Chipman, who was President and 
Commander-in-chief of the Colony, Judge Bliss succeeded 
to the administration of the government, and continued in 
office until the arrival of Sir Howard Douglas, a period of 
nearly a year. At his death, he was senior justice of the 
Supreme Court. He commanded universal confidence and 
esteem. His manners were dignified, and his conduct open, 
frank, and independent. He died at St. John, August, 1834, 
aged sixty-three years. His daughter Jane died at Halifax 
in 1826, and his daughter Sophia Isabella died at St. John 
the same year. 

Bliss, Jonathan. Of Springfield, Massachusetts. Gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1763; and died at Frederic- 
ton, New Brunswick, in 1822, at the age of eighty years. 
His wife and the wife of Fisher Ames were sisters. He 



164 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

was a member of the General Court of Massachusetts in 
1768, and one of the seventeen Rescinders; and was pro- 
scribed under the act of 1778. In New Brunswick, he 
was a personage of distinguished consideration, and at- 
tained, finally, to the rank of Chief Justice, and to the 
Presidency of the Council. 

Bliss, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Was a brother of the 
Honorable Daniel Bliss. He died at St. George, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1803. 

Bliss, Samuel. Shopkeeper of Greenfield, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Bloomer, Joshua. Episcopal clergyman of Jamaica, New 
York. He graduated at King's College, New York, in 
1761, and went to England for ordination in 1765. In 
1769 he settled at Jamaica, where he continued until his 
death, in 1790. Before taking orders, he was an officer in 
the provincial service, and a merchant in New York. While 
at Jamaica, he officiated, occasionally, at Newtown and 
Flushing; and Domine Rubell, an itinerant Dutch minister, 
whose loyalty induced him to pray heartily for the royal 
family, occupied his pulpit. 

Blowers, Sampson Salter. Of Boston. Proscribed and 
banished. He graduated at Harvard University in 1763. 
The class of that year is celebrated for the numbers of 
Loyalists and Judges of Courts. Mr. Blowers entered upon 
the study of law with Hutchinson, then Judge of Probate, and 
Lieutenant-governor. In 1770 he was associated with Messrs. 
Adams and Quincy in behalf of the British soldiers who 
were tried for their agency in the Boston Massacre, so 
termed, in that year. In 1774 he went to England, and 
returning, in 1778, found his name in the proscription act. 
He was imprisoned, but being soon released, went to Hal- 
ifax, Nova Scotia, where he died in 18'12, at the age of 
one hundred years. In that Colony he was long a distin- 
guished character. In 1785 he was appointed Attorney- 
general, and Speaker of the House of Assembly ; and in 
1^97 was created Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ; hav- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 165 

ing had for some years previous to his judicial elevation a 
seat in his Majesty's Council. He retired from public life 
in 1833. When ex-president Adams was in Nova Scotia, 
in 1840, he paid Judge Blowers a visit. The Judge him- 
self, it is believed, never set foot on the land of his na- 
tivity, after he was driven from it. Sarah, his widow, died 
at Halifax, July, 1845, in the eighty-eighth year of her age. 
She, I think, was a daughter of Benjamin Kent, of Mas- 
sachusetts, who, at first a Whig, became a Loyalist and a 
refugee. It is said, that of thirty-six hundred departed 
graduates of Harvard, two only reached one hundred years. 
These were both Loyalists, the subject of this notice having 
been one, and Doctor Holyoke, of Salem, the other. 

Bloxham, . In 1782 he was an ensign of the North 

Carolina Independent Company, under Branson. 

Blundell, Archibald and Charles. Were lieutenants in 
the Royal Garrison Battalion. 

BoDEN, Nicholas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

BoGART, Isaac. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

BoGGs, James. Of Pennsylvania. He entered the service 
of the crown, and was attached to the medical staff of the 
royal army. In 1783 he went to Nova Scotia, and for 
many years was surgeon of the forces at Halifax. He died 
in that city in 1832, at the age of ninety-one. 

BoGGs, John. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace. He was one of the grantees of that city. In 
1792 he was a magistrate of Queen's County. 

BoissEAU, James. Of South Carolina. He held an office 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston in 1780. 
Estate confiscated. 

Bond, Joseph. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

Bonker, Abraham. Of New York. In June, 1783, he was 
preparing to embark for Nova Scotia. 

BoNNETT, Isaac. He was born in New Rochelle, New 



166 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

York. He abandoned his property in New York at the 
close of the war, and removed to Annapolis Royal, Nova 
Scx)tia, where he passed the remainder of his life. He died 
in 1838, aged eighty-six, leaving a widow and five children. 

BoNSALL, Richard. He was a native of Wales, and a 
brother of Sir Thomas Bonsall. He commenced the study 
of medicine, but abandoned it. In consequence of a dis- 
agreement with Sir Thomas, he emigrated to New York 
some years prior to the Revolution, where he remained until 
the close of hostilities. In 1783 he went to St. John, and 
was a grantee of that city. He died at St John in 1814, 
aged seventy-two. His wife was a lady of the name of 
Smith, of Long Island, New York. Six children survived 
him; only one is now (1846) living. 

BooKHURT, John. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was grantee of a city lot. 

Bookless, Henry. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Boone, Samuel. Of Rhode Island. Was passenger in the 
ship Union. 

Boone, Thomas. Was in London in lT85, and a peti- 
tioner to the government for relief. 

Boone, William. Of Rhode Island. Accompanied by his 
wife and six children, arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in the spring of 1783, in the ship Union. 

Booth, B. He appears to have been for a time secre- 
tary of the Loyal Refugees of the different Colonies. In 
September, 1778, he issued a call for a meeting in the city 
of New York. From the proceedings, it would seem that 
about two thousand Loyalists, who then resided in New York 
and on Long Island, were present. 

Boorum, Aury. Of Jamaica, Long Island, New York. 
A signer of the Declaration in 1775. In 1776 he signed 
an acknowledgment of allegiance. Previous to the Revolu-* 
tion, he was a member of the House of Assembly. 

Borland, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 167 

Borland, John Lindall. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Son of John Borland. Graduated at Harvard University 
in 1772, entered the British army, and became Ueutenant- 
colonel. He died in England, November, 1825. 

Bosseau, James E. In 1782 he was an ensign of infan^ 
try in the South Carolina Royalists. 

BosTwicK, David and Isaac. Arrived at St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783, and lots in that city were granted them 
by the crown. 

BoTSFORD, Amos. Of Newtown, Connecticut. In 1775, 
in a document remarkable for its guarded form of expres- 
sion, though drawn up in opposition to a paper which 
disapproved of the proceedings of the Continental Congress, 
he made known his determination to be compliant with 
the measures of that body. But, subsequently, adhering to 
the side of the crown, he removed to New Brunswick after 
the conclusion of hostilities, and devoted himself to the 
profession of the law. In 1784 he was elected a member 
of the House of Assembly, and was uniformly returned from 
the County of Westmoreland, at every election, during his 
life. He was Speaker of the House of Assembly a3s early 
as 1792. He died at St. John in 1812, at the age of 
sixty-nine ; and was the senior barrister at law in the 
Colony. His son, the Honorable William Botsford, who 
was appointed Judge of Vice-admiralty of New Brunswick 
in 1803, and for a long period subsequently was a member 
of the Council, and a Judge of the Supreme Court, has 
lately retired from his judicial duties. 

Boucher, Jonathan. Episcopal clergyman of Virginia. 
He was rector, first of Hanover, and then of St. Mary. 
Governor Eden gave him also the rectory of St. Anne, An- 
napolis, and of (iueen Anne. He was an unshaken and 
uncompromising Loyalist. In 1775, resolving to quit the 
country, he preached a farewell sermon, in which he de- 
clared that as long as he lived, he would say with Zadok, 
the priest, and Nathan, the prophet, '^God save the king." 
Arriving in England, he was appointed vicar of Epsom, 



168 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

and there he spent the remainder of his life. He died in 
1804, aged sixty-seven. He was regarded as one of the best 
preachers of his time. While in Virginia, the son of Mrs. 
Washington, by her first marriage, was his pupil. During 
the last fourteen years of his life, Boucher was employed 
in making a glossary of provincial and archaeological words, 
and in 1831 his manuscripts were purchased of his family 
by the proprietors of Webster's Dictionary. In 1799 were 
published fifteen discourses preached in America, between the 
years 1763 and 1775, on the causes and consequences of 
the American Revolution, which were dedicated to his old 
friend, Washington. 

BoucHOMEAu, Charles. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

BouMAN, Archibald. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage 
in 1775. 

BouRK, William. Of North Carolina. In March, 1776, 
he was charged with being inimical to the liberties of 
America; and on a hearing before the Council, John Strange, 
a witness against him, swore, in the course of his testi- 
timony^ that Bourk said, " General Gage deserved to be 

d d because he had not let the guards out at Bunker 

Hill, and it would have settled the dispute at that time." 
This, and other particulars, Bourk acknowledged; when it 
was resolved to commit him to close jail until further orders. 

Bourn, Edward, Elisha, Lemuel, and William. Of Sand- 
wich, Massachusetts. Were proscribed and banished. Lem- 
uel joined the royal forces at Rhode Island. 

Bourne, Shearjashub. Of Scituate, Massachusetts. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1743. In 1774 he was 
among the barristers and attornies at law, who were Ad- 
dressers of Governor Hutchinson on his departure. He died 
at Bristol, Rhode Island, in 1781. 

Boutineau, James. Of Boston. Attorney at law. Was 
appointed Mandamus Counsellor in 1774, and was one of 
the ten who took the oath of office. He was included in 
the conspiracy act of 1779, and his estate was confiscated 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 169 

under its provisions. In 1772 his son-in-law, John Robin- 
son, a commissioner of the customs, was found guilty of 
a most violent assault on James Otis, for which the jury 
assessed two thousand pounds sterling damages. Boutineau 
appeared as attorney for Robinson, and in his name signed 
a submission asking the pardon of Otis, who, thereupon, 
executed a free release for the two thousand pounds. Otis 
never recovered from the effect of this assault, and, shat- 
tered in health and reason, soon retired from public life. 
Boutineau's fate is unknown, but he was in England in 
1777. Though a banished Loyalist, he was one of the 
fifty-eight memorialists of Boston, who, in 1760, were the 
first men in America to array themselves against the oiR- 
cers of the crown. 

BowDEN, Charles. Of New York. Officiated in 1775 as 
one of the chaplains of the Provincial Congress; at a later 
period he became chaplain of De Lancey's First Battalion. 

BowDEN, John. In 1783 was a petitioner for lands in 
Nova Scotia. See Abijah Willard. 

BowDEN, Thomas. In 1782 was major in De Lancey's 
Second Battalion, and at the peace went to England. 

BowEN, Ansel and Francis. Residence unknown. Went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and received grants 
of lots in that city. ' 

BowEN, Henry. Of Tryon County, (now Montgomery 
County), New York, was a neighbor and adherent of the 
Johnsons, and accompanied Sir John to Canada, and, subse- 
quently, appearing in arms on the side of the crown, belonged 
to a party who desolated the country inhabited by his former 
friends and associates. William Bowen, of the same family, 
was engaged in the same enterprise. The Bowens of this 
region were from New England, and emigrated to New 
York about the year 1728. 

Bowen, Jeremiah. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

Bowen, John. Residence unknown. In 1782 was a cap- 
tain in the Prince of Wales American Volunteers. 
15 



170 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

BowEN, John. Of Princeton, Massachusetts. Went to Hal- 
ifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished two years after. 

BowEN, Nathan. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Was 
an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

BowEN, Peter. Of Tripe's Hill, New York. In 1775 
refused to sign the Whig Association. 

Bower, Patrick and Samuel. Addressers of Sir Henry 
Clinton in 1780. 

Bower, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Bowers, Archibald. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for 
Halifax with the British army. 

Bowes, William. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. He went to Halifax in 1 776. 

Bowles, William Augustus. Of Maryland. In 1791 he 
was among the Creeks, with whom he possessed great in- 
fluence ; and styled himself General William Augustus Bowles. 
On the ISth of May, 1792, James Seagrove, Esquire, our 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in "a talk" with the kings, 
chiefs, head men and warriors of the Creek nation, said of 
him: "This Bowles is an American of low, mean extraction, 
born in Maryland ; he was obliged, on account of his villany, 
to fly from home and follow the British army, where he was 
despised and treated as a bad man and a coward. Finding 
he could not live there, he returned to America ; but being 
too lazy to work at his trade for a living, he renewed' his 
bad acts, for which he was compelled to fly from his native 
country, or be hanged." Bowles had assumed to act among 
the Indians under authority of the British government, but 
on inquiry by the President, the ministry promptly and ex- 
plicitly denied that they had afforded him comitenance, as- 
sistance, or protection. At the time of Seagrove's "talk," it 
would appear, that Bowles had absented himself from the 
Creek country ; but in 1801 he was again in mischief there, or 
in its vicinity, and means were taken by our government to 
counteract his plans and plots. A gentleman connected with 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 171 

Indian Affairs, saw a portrait of this creature suspended in 
the house of a Chief, under which was written, " General 
Bowles, commander-in-chief of the Creek and Cherokee na- 
tions." He saw also a number of engraved dinner cards, 
which Bowles had received while in England, styling him, 
"Commander-in-chief of the Creek nation." 

He was undoubtedly a bold and wicked man. At one 
time the Spanish government offered a reward of six thou- 
sand dollars for his apprehension, on account of his pernicious 
influence over the Florida Indians. He was accordingly 
seized, and sent prisoner to Madrid, and thence to Manilla. 
Obtaining leave to go to Europe, he repaired to the Creek 
country, where he commenced his mischievous course anew. 
In 1804 he fell into the hands of the Spaniards a second 
time. He was then sent to the Moro Castle, Havana, where 
he died in December of 1805. While among the Creeks he 
married an Indian woman. 

Bowls, William. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Mary- 
land Loyalists. 

BouRA, Peter. An early settler at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. In 1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery of 
that city. He died in 1804 while on the homeward passage 
from Jamaica, at the age of forty-nine. He was a shipmaster. 

Boyd, George. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A mem- 
ber of the Council under the Royal government of that Pro- 
vince. On approach of the troubles of the Revolution he 
abandoned the country, and was included in the proscription 
act of New Hampshire of 1778. He died in 1787, on his 
return from England to America. 

Boyd, Colonel . Of Carolina. He commanded a corps 

of Tories, who were robbers rather than soldiers. What they 
could not consume, nor carry off, they burned. Advancing 
to join the royal army near the river Savannah, Boyd en- 
countered Colonel Pickens at the head of a strong detachment 
of Carolina Whigs, and was defeated. The battle raged with 
great fury ; neighbor fought against neighbor, and both par- 
ties evinced much rancor. Boyd himself was left dead upon 



172 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

the field; and of the prisoners, the Whigs condemned seventy 
to suffer death, but executed only five. This affair occurred 
in 1779, and repressed the ardor of the Loyalists in that re- 
gion, who previously were embodying themselves in consid- 
erable numbers. * 

BoYLSTON, Ward Nicholas. Of Boston. He was bom in 
that town in 1749. He went to England in 1775, at the close 
of a tour to some parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa ; and 
was a member of the Loyalist Association formed in London 
in 1779. He continued in England until the year 1800, 
when he returned to the place of his nativity, and estab- 
lished his residence there. He died in 1828, aged seventy- 
eight. 

BoYNE, Daniel. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

BouRDET, or BuRDET, Oliver. Hc wcut to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Brace, James. In 1782 he was major of the Royal Fensi- 
ble Americans. 

Bradby, Enoch. Of North Carolina. He was taken pris- 
oner by the Whigs under Caswell, in 1776, and imprisoned. 

Bradford, Williams. Graduated at Harvard University in 
1760. He removed from the United States, and held an oflice 
under the crown at the Bahamas. 

Bradish, Ebenezer. a lawyer of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1769. In 1774 he 
was one of the barristers and attorneys who were Addressers 
of Hutchinson. He died in 1818. 

Bradish, . Of West Cambridge, Massachusetts. He 

kept a public house in that town, which was the place of re- 
sort for the adherents of the crown, as was the tavern of 
Cooper for the Whigs. 

Bradley, William. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. 

Bragaw. In 1776 Peter, John, and Isaac, acknowledged 
allegiance. In 1779 John and Andrew were Addressers of 
Lieutenant Colonel Sterling; all of Queen's County, New 
York. 



1 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 173 

Branden, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Hali- 
fax with the British army. 

Brannan, Charles. He was in the king's service during 
the war, and at its close went to St. John, New Brunswick. 
He removed from that city to Fredericton in 1785, and con- 
tinued there until his decease in 1828, at the age of eighty- 
one. 

Branson, Eli. In 1782 he was captain of the North Caro- 
lina Independent Company. 

Branton, Henry. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- "^^0 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Braten, Thomas. Of Charlotte County, New York. He 
was a constable ; and in 1775 some Whigs declared that 
" they would have him, if he could be found above ground." 

Brattle, Thomas. Of Massachusetts. He was born at 
Cambridge in 1742, and was graduated at Harvard University 
in 1760, and received the degree of A. M. at Yale and at 
Nassau. His family connexions were among the most respect- 
able of New England. In 1775 he went to England, and 
was included in the proscription and banishment act of 1778. 
While abroad, he travelled over various parts of Great Britain, 
and made a tour through Holland and France; and was 
noticed by personages of distinction. Returning to London, 
he zealously and successfully labored to ameliorate the condi- 
tion of his countrymen, who had been captured, and were in 
prison. In 1779 he came to America, and landed at Rhode 
Island. In 1784 the enactments against him in Massachusetts 
were repealed, and he took possession of his patrimony. He 
was a gentleman of liberality, humanity, and science; of 
public spirit, and of large and noble views of men and things. 
He died in February, 1801. 

The late Governor James Sullivan, who knew him well, 
thus wrote: — "Major Brattle exercised a deep reverence to 
the principles of government, and was a cheerful subject of 
the laws. He respected men of science as the richest orna- 
ment of their country. If he had ambition, it was to excel 
in acts of hospitality, benevolence, and charity. The dazzling 
15* 



\ 



174 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

splendor of heroes, and the achievements of poHtical intrigues, 
passed unnoticed before him; but the character of the man 
of benevolence filled his heart with emotions of sympathy." 
* * * " In his death, the sick, the poor, and the distressed, 
have lost a liberal benefactor ; politeness an ornament ; and 
philanthropy one of its most discreet and generous support- 
ers." 

Brattle, Willla.m. Of Massachusetts. A man of more 
eminent talents, and of greater eccentricities, has seldom lived. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1722 ; and, subse- 
quently, was representative from Cambridge; and for many 
years a member of the Council. He seems to have been of 
every profession, and to have been eminent in all. As a 
clergyman, his preaching was acceptable. As a physician, he 
was celebrated, and had an extensive practice. As a lawyer, 
he had an abundance of clients ; while his military aptitudes 
secured the rank of major-general of the militia, an office in 
his time of very considerable importance and high honor. 
He loved good living. He possessed the happy faculty of 
pleasing the officers of government, and the people. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage, and approving of his plans, he at length 
forfeited the good will of the Whigs, and went into exile. 
Accompanying the British troops at the evacuation of Bos- 
ton, he went to Halifax, and died there in 1776, a few months 
after his arrival. His father was Reverend William Brattle 
of Cambridge. His first wife was a daughter of Governor 
Saltonstall. His son, Thomas Brattle of Cambridge, died in 
1601. 

Bremner, John. Of Queen's County, New York. In 1776 
he signed a profession of loyalty and allegiance. A person 
of this name died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1807, aged 
fifty-four. 

Brenton. Many descendants of William Brenton of Bos- 
ton, who removed to Rhode Island, and was governor of that 
Colony, were Loyalists. Among them were Benjamin and 
Jahiel, who were "contractors" for the royal forces, and whose 
estates were confiscated under the act of Rhode Island, in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 175 

1780. William Brenton, another of the family, who was an 
absentee or exile during the war, was allowed, by a law of 
1783, to visit and remain with his friends one week, but was 
then required to depart and not to return. Of the Rhode 
Island Brentons, it is further known, that one of the name of 
Jahiel, who was born at Newport, was an admiral in the 
British navy, and that a second member of the family re- 
ceived the order of knighthood, about the year 1810. The 
name is distinguished in Nova Scotia. In 1799 James Bren- 
ton was sworn in as a member of the Council, knd the next 
year was appointed Judge of Vice-admiralty; and in 1809, 
Edward Brenton was commissioned surrogate of the Colony. 

Brewer, Daniel. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Brewerton, George. Of New York. Commanded a New 
York Regiment in the French war ; and in the Revolution, 
the second battalion of De Lancey's corps ; he died in 1779. 

Brewerton, George and James. Were ensigns in the second 
battalion of 1)e Lancey's corps. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783, and were grantees of city lots ; both re- 
ceived half-pay. 

Breynton, John. In 1782 he was chaplain of the Royal 
Fensible Americans. 

Brickerhoff. Fourteen persons of this name of Queen's 
County, New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 
To wit: Abraham, Jores, Isaac, Abraham junior, Elbert, 
Teunis, George, Tennis junior, George, George the third, 
Daniel, Teunis, Al, Hendrick. In April, 1779, Hendrick 
Brickerhoff, George, George junior, George, and Abraham, 
were Addressers of Lieutenant Colonel Sterling. In 1783 
Abraham Brickerhoff went to St. John, New Brunswick, and 
was one of the grantees of that city. 

Bridgen, Edward. Of North Carolina. An estate confis- 
cated during the war, was restored to him by act of Novem- 
ber, 1785. 

Bridge water, John. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
Prince of Wales American Volunteers. 



176 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Bridgham, Ebenezer. Merchant of Boston. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. He went to Hahfax in 1776. 
In 1782 he was deputy inspector-general of the Loyahst 
forces. In 1783 he went to St. John, New Brunswick, and 
was a grantee of that city. 

Bridgham, James. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Prince 
of Wales American Volunteers. 

Brinckle, John. Shallopman of Dover, Delaware. In 1778 
he was required by law to be tried for treason, or lose his 
estate. 

Brinley, George. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775 ; was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He was in England in 1783, at which 
time he was deputy commissary-general. In 1799 he was ap- 
pointed commissary-general of his Majesty's forces in British 
America. His son Thomas, lieutenant-colonel in the army, 
and quartermaster-general of the British troops in the West 
Indies, died in 1805 on one of the islands of his station. 

Brinley, Nathaniel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage 
in 1775. A gentleman of this name died at Tyngsborough, 
Massachusetts, in 1814, aged eighty-one. 

Brinley, Thomas. Merchant of Boston. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. His name appears among the 
one hundred and twenty-four merchants and others, who ad- 
dressed Hutchinson at Boston, in 1774 ; and among the ninety- 
seven gentlemen and principal inhabitants of that town, who 
addressed Gage in October of the following year. He was 
proscribed under the act of 1778, and is supposed to have died 
in banishment, — having gone from Boston to Halifax in 1776, 
and to England the same year. 

Brisbane, James. Of South Carolina. A Congratulator of 
Cornwallis on his victory at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his 
estate was confiscated. He was banished. 

Brittain, Bailey. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Second 
American Regiment. 

Brittain, James. Of New Jersey. He wished to take no 
part in the Revolutionary controversy, but having become ob- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 177 

noxious, his house was surrounded by a party of about thirty, 
who robbed and plundered him at pleasure. He escaped to 
the woods, where his wife fed him for nearly a month. 
Emerging from his hiding place, he joined Skinner with sev- 
enty men, whom he had engaged to bear arms against the 
rebels. He was in a number of battles. In one, he was 
taken prisoner, and doomed to suffer death. The day be- 
fore that appointed for his execution, he broke from prison, 
swam the Delaware, and joined his corps. In 1782 he was 
an ensign in the first battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, and 
at the peace, a lieutenant. In 1783 he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in the ship Duke of Richmond, and was the 
grantee of a city lot. He received half-pay. He was a 
colonel of New Brunswick militia, and, at his decease, the- 
oldest magistrate of King's County. He died at Greenwich 
in that county in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. Ten 
children survived him. His widow, Eleanor, died at Green- 
wich in 1846, aged ninety-four. His daughter Eleanor is the 
wife of Walker Tisdale, Esquire, of St. John. 

Brittain, Joseph. Of New Jersey. Brother of James. 
He was an ensign in the New Jersey Volunteers, and was 
taken prisoner with James, doomed to the same fate, and 
made his escape at the same time. He went to St. John in 
the ship Duke of Richmond in 1780, and died in 1830, at the 
age of seventy-two, in King's County. He received half-pay. 

Brittain, William. Of New Jersey. Brother of James 
and Joseph. He was in the king's service, but not in commis- 
sion. He shared in the captivity, and in the escape of James 
and Joseph. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was a grantee of that city. He died in New 
Brunswick about the year 1811. 

Brittenny, John. In 1783 he removed to New Brunswick, 
and settled in King's County, where he continued to reside 
until his decease, a period of upwards of sixty-three years. 
He died at Greenwich in that county in 1846, in the ninety- 
fifth year of his age. 

Brockenborough, Austin. Of Virginia. The Whig Com- 



I 



178 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



mittee of King George's County, after an attempt to reclaim 
him from error, published him in April, 1775, as an enemy 
to American liberty. Of this Committee John Washington 
was a member. 

Brockington, John, Junior. Of South Carolina. He held 
a place under the crowii after the surrender of Charleston in 
17S0. Estate confiscated. 

Brooks, John. Of New Hampshire. In 1778 was pro- 
scribed and banished. 

Brooks, John. Of New York. Went to England, and was 
a member of the Loyalist Association formed in London, in 
1779. 

Brooks, Captain . Commanded a party of plunderers. 

On one occasion, early in 1783, while on an expedition in the 
Ddaware, a Methodist preacher fell into his hands, and was 
required to preach or to be whipped to death. The minister 
declining to give a sermon to such hearers, was tied up and 
received nearly one hundred lashes. On his promise never to 
serve the rebels more, he was allowed to depart, much ex- 
hausted and lacerated. 

Broomer, Joshua. Of Massachusetts. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. 

Brothers, Joseph. He died at Carlton, New Brunswick, in 
1836, aged seventy-two. 

Brown, Daniel. Of Maine. Emigrated in early youth from 
Scotland to Castine, and in the Revolution took an active 
part in the royal cause. At the peace he removed to New 
Brunswick, where he passed the remainder of his days. He 
died at St. Stephen, March, 1835, aged ninety-one, and left 
upwards of two hundred descendants. His memory was 
good, and the events of his life were impressed upon its 
tablets to the last. His daughter Catharine died a few days 
after him, aged fifty-five. 

Brown, Daniel and Bostwick. Residence unknown. Went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and were grantees 
of the city. 

Bbown, Elijah. Of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Was con- 



i 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 179 

fined for disaffection, and subsequently sent prisoner to Vir- 
ginia. 

Brown, Henry B. Residence unknown. Settled in New 
Brunswick. Was registrar of deeds and wills for the County 
of Charlotte, and died there. 

Brown, Hugh and Malcolm. Of South Carolina. Held 
commissions under the crown in 1780, and lost their estates 
under the confiscation act. 

Brown, Isaac. Residence unknown. Was chaplain of the 
New York Volunteers. 

Brown, Isaac, Josiah, and Thomas. Of Westchester 
County, New York. Were Protesters against the Whigs in 
1775. 

Brown, Jacob. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Brown, James Caldwell. Residence unknown. Was a 
lieutenant in the King's Rangers Carolina. 

Brown, John. Of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Was sent 
by Congress to the Executive Council of Pennsylvania, in 
1777, to answer for his political oflences. 

Brown, John. Of Virginia. Was a merchant of Norfolk. 
On the 6th of March, 1775, the Whig Committee held him 
up as an object of just indignation, for wilfully violating 
the Continential Association, and in April following, it was 
resolved, "That we will not hereafter transact any business, 
or have any connexion with the said Brown." 

Brown, Jonathan. Residence unknown. An ensign in the 
Guides and Pioneers. 

Brown, Lemuel. Residence unknown. Joined the royal 
troops in Rhode Island in the fall of 1777. 

Brown, Meltiah. Of Sandwich, Massachusetts. Was com- 
mitted to jail in 1778 for disaffection to the Whig cause. 

Brown, Roger and Archibald. Of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. Were Addressers of Sir Henry Clinton the same year, 
and the latter was banished, and was deprived of his pro- 
perty. 

Brown, Thomas. Of Augusta, Georgia. Was an early 



180 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



victim of a mob, and was tarred and feathered, soon after the 
division and array of parties in the Southern Colonies. He 
entered the royal service, and commanded, as Heutenant- 
colonel, a corps called the King's Rangers Carolina. At the 
peace, he retired, it is believed, to Florida, and thence to the 
Bahamas. He was known during hostilities as a sanguinary 
and active partisan officer, and his conduct is open to severe 
censure. 

Brown, Thomas. Residence unknown. Embarked at Bos- 
ton for Halifax with the British army in 1776. 

Brown, William. Residence unknown. In 1782 was a 
captain in the Royal Garrison Battalion. 

Brown, William. Residence unknown. Ensign in the 
Royal Garrison Battalion. 

Brown, Zachariah. Residence unknown. A lieutenant in 
De Lancey's Third Battalion, retired to the pame Colony, 
received half-pay, and died in the County of Sunbury in 
1817, aged seventy-eight. 

Browne, Arthur. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. An 
Episcopal clergyman. Was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin. He was ordained by the Bishop of London, and 
assumed the charge of a society at Providence, Rhode Island. 
In 1736 he removed to Portsmouth, and became the first 
minister of the Episcopal church of that town, and continued 
his connexion until his decease. He died at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, in 1773, aged seventy-three. 

Browne, Ebenezer. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
Guides and Pioneers. 

Browne, Marmaduke. Son of Arthur. He was rector of 
Trinity Church, Newport, Rhode Island, and died there about 
the year 1771. His son Arthur, who died in 1805, was doctor 
of laws, and King's professor of Greek in Trinity College, 
Dublin, and a very eminent man. 

Browne, William. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was a 
grandson of governor Burnet, a great grandson of Bishop 
Burnet, and a connexion of Winthrop, the first resident gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts; and graduated at Harvard Univer- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 181 

sity, in 1755. A member of the General Court in 1768, he 
was one of the seventeen Rescinders. He was a Colonel of 
the Essex County militia ; one of the ten Mandamus Counsel- 
lors who were sworn in, and a Judge of the Supreme Court. 
He was an Addresser of Gage in 1774 ; was included in the 
banishment act of 1778 ; and in the conspiracy act of the year 
following. He was the owner of immense landed estates, 
which were confiscated. Prior to the revolutionary troubles, 
he enjoyed great popularity, and strong inducements were 
held out to him to join the Whigs. After leaving Massachu- 
setts, he was appointed Governor of the Bermudas. He died 
in England, February, 1802, at the age of sixty-five years. 

Brownell, Jeremiah. He died in Westmoreland County, 
New Brunswick, in 1835, aged eighty-eight. 

Brownell, Joshua. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Brownrig, John Studholme. Went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace. He was grantee of a city lot. 

Bruce, David. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished. In 
1782 his property was confiscated. 

Bruce, James. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was proscribed 
and banished. This gentleman, I conclude, commanded the 
ship Eleanor ; and if so, he, like Hall, of the Dartmouth, and 
Cofiin, of the Beaver, is connected with the celebrated tea 
controversy. The Eleanor, Captain James Bruce, arrived 
in Boston, December 1st, 1773, with a part of the tea sent 
over by the East India Company, which, after several days 
of fruitless negotiation, was thrown into the harbor, at 
Griffin's Wharf 

Brundage. Four persons of this^name settled at St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the close of the war, of whom, Joshua, 
Andrew, and Daniel were grantees of that city. The other, 
Jeremiah, died at St. John in 1816, at the age of fifty-six; 
and his widow, Elizabeth, died at the same place, in 1831, 
aged fifty-eight. 

Brush, . Of Cumberland County, New York. A 

16 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

member of the House of Assembly. In February, 1775, he 
dehvered a set-speech against the proposition of Mr. Thomas, 
to elect delegates to the Second Continential Congress, which 
was published. He was answered by Messrs. Schuyler and 
Clinton, who spoke several times. Mr. Brush's name is found 
continually among the " Nays^' on Whig measures, and with 
the members of the ministerial party ; and he is mentioned 
in McFingal. 

Bryan, Samuel. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

Bryant, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Bryant, Seth. Of Marsh field, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Brymer, Alexander. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser 
of Gage in 1775. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 
In 1782 a gentleman of this name, and supposed to be the 
same, was sworn in as a member of His Majesty's Council. 
He died at Halifax in 1809. 

Bubler, Joseph. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Buchanan, Gilbert. Of Maryland. He was in London in 
1779, and addressed the King, July 6th, of that year. 

Buchanan, William. Innkeeper of Wilmington, Delaware. 
A statute of 1778 declared, that his property should become 
forfeit to the State, if he failed to surrender himself within 
a certain day. 

Buckingham, Elias. Of South Carolina. He held a com- 
mission under the crown after the surrender of Charleston 
by General Lincoln in 1780. Estate confiscated. 

Buckle, Thomas, Senior. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was ban- 
ished, and his property was confiscated. His son Thomas 
ofiended in the same manner, and his person and property 
were disposed of in the same way. 

Buckley, Thomas. He went to St. John, New Brunswick 
at the peace. He was one of the grantees of that city. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 183 

BuDD, Elisha. In 1782 he was an ensign in the King's 
American Regiment. 

BuDD, Jonathan. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

BuDE, Joseph. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

BuFFiNGTON, Jacob. He settled in Charlotte County, New 
Brunswick, and was a surveyor of lands. His surveys were 
very accurate. He returned to the United States. 

BuLKLEY, Gersham. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. 

BuLKLEY, Peter. Was also a member of the Association 
at Reading. 

Bull, Captain . Of New York. He was in the ser- 
vice of the crown, and his name appears in the interview be- 
tween the celebrated Mohawk, Brant, and the Whig General 
Herkimer, at Unadilla, New York, in 1777. When the Indian 
chief met the Whig, he was accompanied by Bull, a son of 
Sir William Johnson by Brandt's sister Mary, or Molly, and 
about forty warriors. During the meeting, Herkimer de- 
manded the surrender of several Tories, which Brant pe- 
remptorily refused. This was the last conference held with 
the hostile Mohawks. 

Bull, George. He was born in the city of New York. In 
1782 he was a lieutenant of cavalry in the American Legion 
under Arnold. He retired on half-pay at the peace, and 
settled in New Brunswick. He died at Woodstock in 1838, 
at the age of eighty-six. 

Bull, William. Of South Carolina. His father, Honorable 
William Bull, was Lieutenant-governor of that Colony, and 
died in 1755, aged seventy-two. The subject of this notice 
was a native of South Carolina, and is supposed to have been 
the first American who obtained a degree in medicine. He 
was a pupil of Boerhaave. Returning to this country after 
completing his studies, he rose to distinction in literature, 
medical science, and politics. In 1751 he was a member of 
the Council; in 1763 Speaker of the House of Delegates; 



184 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

and in 1764 Lieutenant-governor of South Carolina. In the 
last office he continued many years, and was commander- 
in-chief of the Colony. He accompanied the British troops to 
England in 1782, and, continuing there, died in London, July 
4, 1791, aged eighty-one. 

BuLYEA, Abraham. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783 ; 
and died in King's County in that Colony in 1833, aged sev- 
enty-seven. 

BuLYEA, John. In 1795 he was a member of the Loyal 
Artillery of St. John, New Brunswick. Sarah, his widow, 
died in King's County, New Brunswick, in 1843, aged nine- 
ty-nine, leaving six children, fifty-five grand-children, and 
fifty-seven great grand-children. 

BuMPUs, Thomas. Of Sandwich, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

BuNNEL, Isaac Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Bunting, Roland. He died at Loch Lomond, New Bnms- 
wick, in 1839, at the great age of one hundred years. 

BuRCH, William. Commissioner of the Customs, Boston. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778 ; and included in the 
conspiracy act of 1779. 

BuRD, John. Butcher, of Philadelphia. In 1778 the 
Council of Pennsylvania ordered, that failing to surrender 
himself to some Judge of a Court, or to a Justice of the 
Peace, prior to December 15th, to abide a legal trial for trea- 
son, he should stand attainted. 

Burden, Thomas. Of Massachusetts. He arrived at St. 
John, New Brunswick, with his wife and seven children, in 
1783, in the ship Union. 

Burden, Willl&m. Of Massachusetts. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. 

BuRGE, David. Blacksmith of Solebury, Pennsylvania. In 
1778 the Council ordered, that he appear and abide a trial for 
treason, or that he stand attainted. 

BuRGEs, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 185 

Burke, John. Of the Manor of Moorland, Pennsylvania. 
In 1778 the Council ordered him to surrender and abide a 
legal trial for treason, or to stand attainted. 

BuRKETT, John. Waterman, of Philadelphia. In 177S the 
Council of Pennsylvania ordered, that unless he appeared and 
was tried for treason, he should stand attainted. 

Burling, Joseph. Of Jamaica, Long Island, New York. 
A signer of the Declaration in 1775. 

Burlock, Widow Hester. Of Norwalk, Connecticut. She 
arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, with one child, in the 
ship Union, in the spring of 1783. 

Burn, Patrick. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Burnet, Mathias. Of Jamaica, New York. He was born 
in New Jersey, and graduated at Princeton College, in 1769. 
He was settled at Jamaica in 1775, and continued with his 
people during the war. After the peace, and in 1785, he was 
compelled, by the force of party spirit, to dissolve the connex- 
ion. It is said that he was the only Presbyterian minister of 
Queen's County who was reputed to be a friend to government. 
His wife was an Episcopalian, and, removing to Norwalk, 
Connecticut, he took charge of a church of that communion. 
He died at Norwalk in 1806. 

BuRNHAM, Charles. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Burns, George. In 1782 he was a captain in the Royal 
Fensible Americans. 

Burr, Abel, Abel Junior, Jonathan, and Joseph. Of Fair- 
field County, Connecticut. Were members of the Reading 
Loyalist Association. 

Burr, Hudson. Hatter, of Philadelphia. Was required 
by a proclamation of the executive Council in 1778, to 
surrender himself for trial for treason, or stand attainted. 

BuRRis, Samuel. A Whig soldier. In 1778 he was tried 
on a charge of attempting to desert to the royal side. He 
confessed his guilt, and was sentenced to receive one hundred 
lashes. 

16* 



186 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Burroughs, John. He was at Halifax in July, 1776, a 
Loyalist Refugee. 

Burroughs, John, Junior. Of Boston. A Protester against 
the Whigs in 1774. 

Burrows, William. Of Little Creek, Delaware. In 1778 
it was declared by law, that his estate would become forfeit 
to the State, on his failing to appear and take his trial for 
treason, on or before the first of August of that year. 

Burt, Willum. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 
1782. His property was confiscated. 

Burtis. Seven persons of this name of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To 
wit: Elias, John, John, Carman, John, James, John. Two 
others of the name of Burtis, and probably of the same 
family, went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and 
were grantees of the city. These were William, who died 
at St. John in 183.5, at the age of seventy-five ; and Thomas, 
whose fate has not been ascertained. 

Burton, William. Of Boston. A Protester against the 
Whigs in 1774, and one of the Addressers of Hutchinson the 
same year. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 

Bur WELL, William. Of Newtown, Connecticut. In 1775 
he acted as the clerk, or secretary, of a public meeting that 
passed several votes in opposition to the Whigs. 

Bury, John. Of. Charleston, South Carolina. An Address- 
er of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Bush, David. Of Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Bussing, Peter, Junior. Of Westchester County, New York. 
A Protester at White Plains. His father's name is to be 
found on the Protest, but was placed there without au- 
thority. 

BusKiRK, Henry. Of New York. He removed to Nova 
Scotia in 1783, and was many years a magistrate of King's 
County. He died at Aylesford, Nova Scotia, in 1841. 

Bustin, Thomas. Of Virginia. He joined the royal army 



r 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 187 

at New York after the commencement of hostilities ; and at 
the peace removed to St. John, New Brunswick, where he 
lived until his decease, some years since, at the age of ninety- 
Seven children survived him. 

Butler, Captain . He was a Tory leader, whose 

crimes and ferocity were well known in the region of the Pe- 
dee. During a period of Whig ascendency in that part of 
South Carolina, he went into General Marion's camp at Birch's 
Mills, and submitting himself, claimed the protection which 
the Whig officer had granted to some other Loyalists who 
had preceded him. Against this, some of Marion's officers, 
whose friends had suffered at Butler's hands, protested. But 
Marion took the humbled Butler to his own tent, and declared 
that he would protect him at the hazard of his own life. The 
officers, still determined to indulge their hate, sent their com- 
mander an offensive message to the effect, that " Butler should 
be dragged to death from his tent," and that, " to defend such 
a wretch was an insult to humanity." Marion was not to be 
intimidated; and though the meeting among his followers 
threatened to be formidable, he succeeded in conveying Butler 
under a strong guard to a place of safety. 

Butler, Gillam. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished. He went to Halifax with the British troops. 

Butler, James. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Halifax 
with the British army. 

Butler, John. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New 
York. I know of no men of the Revolution so entirely infa- 
mous as the Butlers, — father and son. Before the war, Colonel 
Butler was in close official connexion with Sir William, Sir 
John, and Colonel Guy Johnson, and followed their political 
fortunes. At the breaking out of hostilities, he commanded a 
regiment of New York militia, and entered at once into the 
military service of the crown. During the war his wife was 
taken prisoner, and exchanged for the wife of the Whig Colonel 
Campbell. The deeds of rapine, of murder, of hellish hue, 
which were perpetrated by Butler's corps, cannot be related 
here. It is sufficient, for the purpose of these Notes, to say, 



168 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

that he commanded the sixteen hundred incarnate fiends who 
desolated Wyoming. I feel quite willing to allow, that his- 
tory has recorded barbarities which were not committed. But 
though Butler did not permit or directly authorize women to 
be driven into the forest where they became mothers, and 
where their infants were eaten by wild beasts, and though cap- 
tive officers may not have been held upon fires with pitch- 
forks until they were burned to death; sufficient remains 
undoubted, to stamp his conduct with the deepest, darkest, 
most damning guilt. The human mind can hardly frame an 
argument, which shall clear the fame of Butler from obloquy 
and reproach. To admit even as a solved question, that the 
Loyalists were in the right, and that they were bound by the 
clearest rules of duty, to bear arms in defence of lawful and 
existing institutions, and to put down the rebellion, will do 
Butler no good. For, whatever the force of such a plea in 
the minds of those who urge it, he was still bound to observe 
the laios of civilized warfare. 

That he, and he alone, will be regarded by posterity as the 
real and responsible actor in the business and slaughter at 
"Wyoming, may be considered, perhaps, as certain. The 
chieftain Brant, was, for a time, held accountable, but the 
.better information of later years transfers the guilt from the 
savage to the man of Saxon blood. There was nothing for 
which the Mohawk's family labored more earnestly than to 
show, that their renowned head was not implicated in this 
bloody tragedy, and that the accounts of historians, and the 
enormities recounted in Campbell's verse, as far as they relate 
to him, are untrue. It has been said very commonly, that 
the Colonel Butler, who was of the Whig force at Wyoming, 
and Colonel John, were kinsmen ; but this, too, has been con- 
tradicted. The late Edward D. Griffin, — a youth, a writer 
and a poet of rare promise, — and a grandson of the former, 
denied the relationship. 

Colonel John Butler was richly rewarded for his services. 
Succeeding, in part, to the agency of Indian affairs — long 
held by the Johnsons — he enjoyed, about the year 1796, a Sft}^ 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 189 

ary of £500 sterling per annum, and a pension as a military 
officer of £200 more. Previously, he had received a grant of 
five hundred acres of land, and a similar provision for his 
children. His home, after the war, was in Upper Canada. 
He was attainted during the contest, by the act of New York, 
and his property confiscated. Colonel Butler lived before the 
Revolution in the present town of Mohawk. His dwelling 
was of one story, with two windows in front, and a door in 
the centre. It was standing in 1842, and was then owned 
and occupied by Mr. Wilson. The site is pleasant and com- 
manding, and overlooks the valley of the Mohawk. 

Butler, Josiah. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1812, aged fifty. 

Butler, Walter N. Son of Colonel John Butler. Entered 
the British service, and became a major. His name is con- 
nected with some of the most infamous transactions of the 
Revolution. While a lieutenant under St. Leger, he was 
taken prisoner at the house of a Loyalist who lived near 
Fort Dayton, and was put upon his trial as a spy, convicted 
and received sentence of death. But at the intercession of 
several American officers who had known him while a student 
at law in Albany, his life was spared by a reprieve. The 
friends of the Butler family, in consequence of his alleged ill- 
health, induced his removal from rigorous confinement to a 
private house under guard, and he soon escaped, and joined 
his father. Tt is believed, that he took mortal offence at his 
treatment while the prisoner of the Whigs, and that he re- 
entered the service of the crown, burning with resentment and 
thirsting for revenge. His subsequent career was short, bold, 
cruel, and bloody. He was killed in battle in 1781, and his 
remains were left to decay without even the rudest rites of 
sepulture. It is represented that his disposition was so vin- 
dictive and his passions so strong, that British officers of rank 
and humanity viewed him with horror. The late Doctor 
D wight — a careful writer — relates, that at Cherry Valley 
he ordered a woman and child to be slain in bed, and that 
the more merciful Brant iaterposed and said : " What ! kill 



190 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

a woman and child ! No ! That child is not an enemy to 
the king, nor a friend to the Congress. Long before he will 
be big enough to do any mischief, the dispute will be set- 
tled." 

Byington, John, Junior. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. 
A member of the Reading Association, 

Byles, Mather, D. D. Of Boston. He was born in Boston 
in 1706, graduated at Harvard University in 1725, and was 
ordained the first pastor of the Hoi lis Street Church in 1733. 
On his mother's side, he was descended from Richard Mather 
and John Cotton. He continued to live happily with his 
parish until the Revolution, when, in 1776, the connexion was 
dissolved, and never renewed. In 1777 he was denounced in 
town-meeting, and having been by a subsequent trial pro- 
nounced guilty of attachment to the royal cause, was sen- 
tenced to confinement, and to be sent with his family to 
England. This doom of banishment was never enforced, and 
he was permitted to remain in Boston. He died in 1788, 
aged eighty-two years. He was a scholar, and Pope, Lans- 
downe, and Watts, were his correspondents. His witticisms 
would fill many pages ; some of his finest sayings have been 
preserved. In his pulpit, he avoided politics, and on being 
asked the reason, replied : " I have thrown up four breast- 
works, behind which I have entrenched myself, neither of 
which can be enforced. In the first place, I do not understand 
politics; in the second place, you all do, every man and 
mother's son of you ; in the third place, you have politics all 
the week, pray let one day in seven be devoted to religion ; 
in the fourth place, I am engaged in work of infinitely greater 
importance ; give me any subject to preach on of more conse- 
quence than the truth I bring to you, and I will preach on it 
the next Sabbath." On another occasion, when under sen- 
tence of the Whigs to remain in his own house under guard, 
he persuaded the sentinel to go on an errand for him, promising 
to perform sentinel's duty himself, and to the great amusement 
of all, gravely marched before his own door with a musket 
on his shoulder, until his keepei^ returned. This was after 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 191 

his trial, and alluding to the circumstance, that he had been 
kept prisoner, that his guard had been removed, and replaced 
again; he said, that "Ae had been guarded, re-guarded, and 
disregarded." Near his house, in wet weather, was a very bad 
slough. It happened that two of the selectmen who had the 
care of the streets, driving in a chaise, stuck fast in this hole, 
and were obliged to get out in the mud to extricate their 
vehicle. Doctor Byles came out, and making them a respectful 
bow, said : " Gentlemen, I have often complained to you of 
this nuisance without any attention being paid to it, and 1 am 
very glad to see you stirring in this matter now." On the 
celebrated dark day in 1780, a lady who lived near the Doctor, 
sent her young son with her compliments, to know if he could 
account for the uncommon appearance. His answer was : 
" My dear, you will give my compliments to your mamma, and 
tell her that I am as much in the dark as she is." He paid his 
addresses unsuccessfully to a lady, who afterwards married a 
gentleman of the name of Quincy ; the Doctor on meeting 
her said: "So, madam, it appears that you prefer a Quincy 
to Byles." "Yes, for if there had been anything worse than 
biles, God would have afflicted Job with them." 

Doctor Byles's wit created many a laugh, and many an 
enemy. In person he was tall and commanding. His voice 
was strong and harmonious, and his delivery graceful. His 
first wife was a niece of Governor Belcher, the second, a 
daughter of Lieutenant Governor Tailer. His two daughters 
lived and died in the old family house at the corner of Nassau 
and Tremont streets. One of them deceased in 1835, the 
other in 1837. They were stout, unchanging Ijoyalists to the 
last hour of their existence. Their thread of life was spun 
out more than half a century after the royal government had 
ceased in these States ; yet they retained their love of, and 
strict adherence to, monarch and monarchies, and refused to 
acknowledge that the Revolution had transferred their alle- 
giance to new rulers. They were repeatedly offered a great 
price for their dwelling, but would not sell it, nor would they 
permit improvements or alterations. They possessed old- 



192 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

fashioned silver plate which they never used, and would not 
dispose of. They worshipped in Trinity Church — under which 
their bodies now lie — and wore on Sunday dresses almost as 
old as themselves. Among their furniture was a pair of bel- 
lows two centuries old ; a table on which Franklin drank tea 
on his last visit to Boston ; a chair which more than a hundred 
years before the government of England had sent as a pre- 
sent to their grandfather, Lieutenant Governor Tailer. They 
shewed to visiters commissions to their grandfather, signed by 
Queen Anne, and three of the Georges ; and the envelope of a 
letter from Pope to their father. They had moss, gathered 
from the birthplace of the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey. They 
talked of their walks arm in arm on Boston Common with 
General Howe and Lord Percy, while the British army occu- 
pied Boston, They told of his Lordship's ordering his band 
to play under their windows for their gratification. 

In the progress of the improvements in Boston, a part of their 
dwelling was removed. This had a fatal influence upon the 
elder sister; she mourned over the sacrilege, and, it is thought, 
died its victim. "That," said the survivor, "that is one of 
the consequences of living in a republic. Had we been living 
under a king, he would have cared nothing about our little 
property, and we could have enjoyed it in our own way as 
long as we lived. But," continued she, " there is one comfort, 
that not a creature in the States will be any better for what 
we shall leave behind us." She was true to her promise, for 
the Byles' estate passed to relatives in the Colonies. One of 
these ladies of a by-gone age, wrote to William the Fourth on 
his accession to the throne. They had known the " sailor- 
king" during the Revolution, and now assured him, that the 
family of Doctor Byles always had been, and would continue 
to be, loyal to their rightful sovereign of England. 

Byles, Mather, Junior, D. D. Of Boston. An Episcopal 
clergyman. Son of Mather Byles, D. D. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1751, and became a minister in New 
London, Connecticut. Dismissed in 1768, he was inducted 
into office as the rector of Chijjst Church, Boston, the same 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 193 

year. Of Christ Church he was the third in succession, and 
continued to discharge his ministerial duties until 1775, when 
the force of events compelled him to abandon his flock. In 
1776 he went to Halifax. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He settled at St. John, New Brunswick, after the 
war, and was rector of the city, and chaplain of New Bruns- 
wick. He died at St. John in 1814. His daughter Anna mar- 
ried Thomas Deisbrisay, lieutenant-colonel of artillery in the 
British army in 1799. His daughter Elizabeth married Will- 
iam Scovil, Esquire, of St. John, and died in 1808, at the age 
of forty-one. His son Belcher died in England in 1815, aged 
thirty-five. 

Cable. Loyalists of this name were numerous in Q,ueen's 
County, New York. In 1778 Jabez Cable, accompanied by 
John, Jonathan, and Jared, belonged to a party that had an 
affray with some Whigs who landed on Long Island. In 
1783 several of the Cables removed to New Brunswick. 
Jabez, David, John, Denbo, and Daniel, are remembered. 
Jabez, David, and Denbo were grantees of lots in the city 
of St. John. Daniel died at St. John in 1818, and John in 
1827. 

Cabot, William. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Addresser 
of Gage in 1774. He was in England in 1776. 

Cagney, William. Was a cornet of cavalry in the American 
Legion. 

Caldwell, Captain . Was killed in Pennsylvania in 

1780, by a Whig captain, McMahon, whom he and an In- 
dian had taken prisoner. 

Caldwell, William. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. 

Calef, John. A physician and surgeon. He died at St. 
Andrew, New Brunswick, in 1812, aged eighty-seven. 

Calef, Robert. Son of John Calef Died at Norfolk, 
Virginia, in 1801, at the age of forty-one. 

Callagan, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 
17 



I 



194 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Callahan, Charles. Mariner of Pownalborough, now Wis- 
casset, Maine; was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Callahan, Nicholas. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Calp, Philip. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 he was tried for 
attempting to carry flour to a post occupied by the royal forces, 
and was sentenced to receive fifty lashes, and to be employed 
on the public works during the time the British remained in 
Pennsylvania, unless he would enter the Whig service for 
the war. The lashes were disapproved by the Commander- 
in-chief, and were not inflicted. 

Cameron, Donald. Of North Carolina. Was in arms 
against the Whigs at an early moment. In 1776 he was 
a lieutenant, and was taken prisoner by Colonel Caswell, and 
confined in jail. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
Rangers Carolina. 

Cameron, Archibald. Of North Carolina. Was a lieuten- 
ant in the King's Rangers Carolina. 

Cameron, William. Cooper, of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Was an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was 
banished in 1782, and his property was confiscated. 

Cameron, Allen. Residence unknown. Was a lieutenant 
of cavalry in the British Legion. 

Cameron, Daniel. Residence unknown. Was a lieutenant 
in De Lancey's Second Battalion, and adjutant of the corps. 

Cameron, James and Duncan. Residence unknown. Went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and were grantees of 
city lots. 

Camp, Abiathar, Abiathar Junior, and Eldad. Loyalists 
of Connecticut. Settled at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and received grants of city lots. Abiathar was one of 
the fifty-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. He died 
in New Brunswick, in 1841, aged eighty-four. He appears 
to have been a Recanter, but, like most of this class, finally 
became an exile. October 2d, 1775, he wrote and subscribed 
the following: — 

"I, Abiathar Camp, of New Haven, in the County of New 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 195 

Haven, in the Colony of Connecticut, although I well knew 
that it was the opinion of a number of the inhabitants of said 
town, that vessels ought not to clear out under the Restrain- 
ing Act, which opinion they had, for my satisfaction, ex- 
pressed by a vote when I was present ; and although I had 
assured that I would not clear out my vessel under said 
Restraining Act, did, nevertheless, cause my vessel to be 
cleared out agreeable to said Restraining Act ; and did, after 
I knew that the Committee of Inspection had given it as 
their opinion, that it was most advisable that vessels should 
not clear out under said Restraining Act, send my vessel off 
to sea with such clearance, for which I am heartily sorry ; 
and now publicly ask the forgiveness of all the friends of 
America, and hope that they will restore me to charity. 
And I do now most solemnly assure the public, though I 
own that I have by my said conduct given them too much 
reason to question my veracity, that I will strictly comply 
with the directions, and fully lend my utmost assistance to 
carry into execution all such measures as the Continential 
Congress have or may advise to. 

"Abiathar Camp." 

Campbell, Alexander. Of South Carolina. Was a captain 
of cavalry in the South Carolina Royalists. 

Campbell, Alexander and Duncan. Of Granville County, 
North Carolina. Were attainted in 1779 ; and the former 
in 1772 was a lieutenant in the North Carolina Volunteers. 

Campbell, Colin. Settled at St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the close of the war, and devoted himself to the profession 
of the law. He died in New Brunswick. His widow, who 
was a daughter of Bishop Seabury, died at New York in 
1804. 

Campbell, Colin. At the close of the Revolution, he re- 
moved from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where he 
lived forty years. At one time, he was collector of the Cus- 
toms at St. Andrew, New Brunswick. He died in the County 
of Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1834, aged eighty-three. 



196 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Campbell, Colin. Residence unknown. Was an ensign 
in De Lancey's Second Battalion, and quartermaster of the 
corps, and subsequently a lieutenant ; and his son, Colin 
Campbell, Esquire, was Sheriff of Charlotte County, New 
Brunswick. 

Campbell, Donald. Of North Carolina. Was an ensign 
in the North Carolina Volunteers. 

Campbell, Donald. Residence unknown. Was a captain 
in the third battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Campbell, Donald and James. Of North Carolina. Were 
lieutenants in the North Carolina Volunteers. 

Campbell, Dugald. Residence unknown. Was a lieuten- 
ant in the King's American Regiment. 

Campbell, Farquard. Of North Carolina. Was a gentle- 
man of wealth, education, and influence, and regarded as a 
"flaming Whig." Was elected a member of the Provincial 
Congress, took his seat, and evinced much zeal in the popular 
cause. When, however, Governor Martin abandoned his 
palace and retreated, first to Fort Johnston, and thence to an 
armed ship of the crown, it was ascertained that he visited 
Campbell at his residence. And this circumstance gave rise 
to a suspicion of his fidelity. Soon after, the Governor asked 
Congress to give his coach and horses safe conduct to Camp- 
bell's house in the County of Cumberland. The President of 
Congress submitted the request to that body, when Mr. Camp- 
bell rose in his place, and expressed his surprise that such 
a proposal should have been made without his knowledge and 
consent, and implored that his Excellency's property might 
not thus be disposed of. On this positive disclaimer, a reso- 
lution was passed, which not only acquitted him of all impro- 
per connexion with the Governor, but asserted his devotion 
to the Whig interests. But his character never recovered 
from the shock, and the belief that he continued a secret 
correspondence with the retreating representative of royalty, 
was commonly entertained by his associates. Yet his votes, 
his services on committees, and his course in debate, remained 
unchanged. After the Declaration of Independence, his part 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. IW 

became too difficult to act, and his double dealing could no 
longer be concealed. In the fall of 1776 he was seized at his 
own house while entertaining a party of Loyalists, and borne 
off for trial. His name next appears in the revolutionary an- 
nals of North Carolina, in the banishment and confiscation act. 

Campbell, George. Residence unknown. Was lieutenant- 
colonel in the King's American Regiment. 

Campbell, John. Residence unknown. Was a major of 
the Second American Regiment.' 

, Campbell, John. Of Pennsylvania. Was tried in 1778 on 
the charge of supplying the royal troops with provisions, 
and found guilty. For this offence he was sentenced to be 
confined at hard work for one month. At a later time in 
the same year, he was ordered by proclamation to appear 
and take his trial for treason within a specified day, on pain 
of being attainted. 

Campbell, John. Of North Carolina. Was a captain in 
the Tory force that encountered Colonel Caswell in 1776, 
and was slain. 

Campbell, McCartin. Of South Carolina. His estate was 
amerced twelve per cent, of its value in 1782. 

Campbell, Patrick. Residence unknown. Was a captain 
in the second battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Campbell, Peter. Of Trenton, New Jersey. He entered 
the military service of the crown, and at the peace was a 
captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. He had property in 
Pennsylvania, and was directed by the executive council of 
that State to surrender himself for trial within a specified 
time, or stand attainted of treason. He settled in New Bruns- 
wick, and received half-pay. He died at Maugerville in that 
Colony in 1822, and was buried at Fredericton. 

Campbell, Walter. Residence unknown. In 1782 was a 
captain in De Lancey's Second Battalion, and at the close of 
the war settled in New Brunswick, received half-pay, and died 
at Musquash, New Brunswick. 

Campbell, Willum. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. In 1775 
the committee of that town appointed to watch and deal with 
17* 



198 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

the disaffected, resolved to send him to the Provincial Congress 
at Watertown, to be disposed of as that body, or the Com- 
mander-in-chief at Cambridge, should think proper; "it being 
judged highly improper that he should tarry any longer " at 
Worcester. He was at Boston in 1776, and embarked with 
the royal army at the evacuation. In 1783 he was at New 
York, and one of the fifty petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. 
See Ahijah Willard. He went to Halifax in the last men- 
tioned year, where he remained in 1786, when he removed to 
St. John, New Brunswick. He was mayor of St. John twenty 
years, and died in that city in 1823, aged eighty-two. Eliza- 
beth, his widow, died in 1824, at the age of eighty-four. 
Agnes, his only daughter, died at St. John in 1840, aged 
seventy-eight. 

Campbell, William. Of North Carolina. Lost his estate 
under the confiscation act in 1779. 

Campbell, William. Of Pennsylvania. Failing to appear 
and be tried for treason, was to be attainted, by an order of 
the Council of October 30, 1778. 

Canby, Joseph. Of Pennsylvania. He went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
He commenced business as a merchant. In 1795 he was a 
member of the company of Loyal Artillery. He was killed 
by falling from a wharf in 1814, at the age of fifty-seven. 

Cane, Barney. He boasted of having killed upon Diamond 
Island, Lake George, a gentleman named Hopkins, who was 
there with a number of others on an excursion of pleasure. 
" Several were killed by our party," said Cfane, " among 
whom was one woman who had a sucking child, which was 
not hurt. This we put to the breast of its dead mother, and 
so we left it. Hopkins was only wounded, but, with the butt 
of my gun, and the third blow, I laid him dead." 

Caner, Henry, D. D. He graduated at Yale College in 
1724, and in 1727 went to England for ordination. For some 
years, subsequently, his ministry was confined to Norwalk 
and Fairfield, Connecticut ; but in 1747 he was inducted into 
office as rector of the First Episcopal Church, (King's Chapel) 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 199 

Boston. The troubles of the Revolution drove him from his 
flock in 1776, in which year he was at Halifax. He went to 
England, and resided there until his death, in 1792, aged nine- 
ty-two. He was proscribed and banished, under the stat- 
ute of Massachusetts in 1778. His talents were good, his 
manners agreeable, and he was highly esteemed by his people. 
The Society of King's Chapel was formed in 1686. The 
church was of wood. In 1749 the corner stone of the present 
edifice was laid by Governor Shirley. The site was formerly 
owned, or a part of it, by Johnson, the founder of Boston, and 
his residence was in front of it ; and at his request his remains 
were deposited in the burial ground attached to it. Beneath 
the church are vaults or tombs, and in them lie the mortal 
remains of many distinguished men. 

Canfield, . Of Northampton, Massachusetts. He was 

a Whig, and a soldier in the first New Hampshire regiment, 
but deserted and joined the Rangers. While on a plundering 
excursion in 1782 he was captured, tried for his life, and sen- 
tenced to be executed at Saratoga on the 6th of June of that 
year. 

Cape, Brian. Of South Carolina. An officer under the 
crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confiscated. 

Capen, Hopestill. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. He was a Sandemanian. 

Capers, Gabriel. Of South Carolina. An officer under 
the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis- 
cated. Probably a Whig at first; as in 1775 he was a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Congress, and was placed upon an 
important standing committee of that body. His wife, and 
his daughter Catharine, (wife of Hugh Patterson, Esquire,) 
died at Charleston in 1808. 

Card, Elijah. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Garden, John. In 1782 he was major of the Prince of 
Wales American Volunteers. 

Carle, Thomas. Of Duchess County, New York. He 



200 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, accompanied by his 
wife and six children, in 1783, in the ship Union. 

Carlisle, Abraham. Of Philadelphia. When the royal 
troops took possession of that city, he received a commission 
from Sir William Howe, to watch and guard its entrances, 
and to grant passports. For this offence he was tried for his 
life in 1778, and having been found guilty of an overt act of 
aiding and assisting the enemy, was executed. Thomas 
McKean, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and 
at that time Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, presided at the 
trial. In 1779, and after his death, the estate of Carlisle was 
confiscated. 

Carman, Richard. Of New York. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
Sarah, his widow, died in the county of York, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1835, aged seventy-one. Several persons of the 
name of Carman, of Queen's County, New York, acknowl- 
edged allegiance to Lord Richard and Sir William Howe in 
1776. 

Carmichael, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Carne, Samuel. Of South Carolina. A Congratulator of 
Comwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his 
estate was confiscated, and he was banished. 

Carpenter, Coles, Jacob, Isaac, James, John, Joseph, Joshua, 
and Nehemiah. Of Queen's County, New York. Acknow- 
ledged allegiance, October, 1776. Nehemiah signed a Decla- 
ration of loyalty in 1775. In 1778 the house of Jacob was 
entered and robbed by a party from Connecticut. Their 
leader was one Carehart, who pretended to be a friend of 
government, and who was treated with the greatest hospi- 
tality and kindness by Carpenter and others whom he plun- 
dered. 

Carpenter, Thomas. Was an ensign in De Lancey's Third 
Battalion, and an adjutant of the corps. He went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees 
of that city. He received half-pay. 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 201 

Carpenter, Willet. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and died at St. John in 1833, aged seventy-seven. 

Carr, Parcifer. Of the Unadilla Settlement, New York. 
Was on terms of intimacy with Brant. In 1778 the chief- 
tain wrote to him for provisions, men, guns, and ammunition, 
and said: "I mean now to fight the cruel rebels as well 
as I can." 

Carrington, Abraham. Of Milford, Connecticut. Accom- 
panied by his wife, he went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
the ship Union, in 1783. 

Carson, Archibald. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Carson, William. Of South Carolina. Went to England; 
was in London in 1779, and addressed the king. 

Cartelyou, Aaron. Of New York. Announced his inten- 
tion of removing to Nova Scotia, July, 1783, and was one 
of the fifty-five petitioners for grants of land in that Colony. 
See Abijah Willard. 

Cartelyou, Simon. Of New Utrecht, New York. Was 
seized by the eccentric Whig partisan. Captain Marriner, and 
carried prisoner to New Jersey, because he had been uncivil 
to some Whigs who were prisoners. But Marriner carried off, 
also, his tankard, and several other articles, without a pre- 
tence, and without excuse. 

Carver, Caleb and Melzer. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. 
Were proscribed and banished in 1778. The latter embarked 
at Boston with the royal army for Halifax, in 1776. 

Cary, Nathaniel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. In 1775 an Addresser of Gage. 

Cascis, Daniel. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. 

Case, Elisha. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Casey, James. Of South Carolina. An ofiicer under the 
crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confiscated. 

Cassels, James. Of Georgetown, South Carolina. An ofiicer 



202 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Caswell, Joseph. Of Massachusetts. In 1783 he went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, accompanied by 
his wife and four children. 

Cater, Stephen. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Caverly, Peter. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of the 
Declaration in 1775. 

Cazxeau, Andrew. Of Boston. His name is found among 
the Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774, and among those of 
Gage in 1776, and in the banishment and proscription act 
of 1778. He was educated to the bar; was a barrister 
of law and a Judge of Admiralty; and a gentleman of 
character, talents, and virtue. In 1775 he went to England, 
but not remaining long there, took up his residence in Ber- 
muda, where he held an honorable post under the crown. 
He returned to Boston in 1788, and passed the remainder of 
his days in his native land. His wife was Hannah, the 
daughter of John Hammock, Esquire, merchant of Boston, by 
whom he received a fortune of eighty thousand dollars. An 
only daughter survived him. In 1790 she married Thomas 
Brewer, Esquire, a merchant of Boston, who, as is supposed, 
perished about the year 1812, while on a voyage from the 
Cape of Good Hope to Sumatra. The property of Mr. Caz- 
neau escaped the confiscation act, and was inherited by Mrs. 
Brewer. That lady has been the mother of eleven children, 
seven of whom survive. A venerable relic of the "old school" 
of manners, respected and beloved, she still survives at East- 
port, Maine, at the age of seventy-four years. 

Cazneau, William. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. In 1775 an Addresser of Gage. 

Cecil, Leonard. Of Maryland. Went to England. In 
July, 1779, he was in London, and met with other Loyahsts 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern. 

Ceely, John. Petty officer of the Customs. He went with 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 203 

the British _ Army to Hahfax, at the evacuation of Boston 
in 1776. 

Chace, Ammi and Levi. Of Sandwich, Massachusetts. 
Were proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Chace, Shadrach. Of Massachusetts. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. In 1782 he was an ensign in De Lancey's 
Third Battahon. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. He 
received half-pay. His death occurred in New Brunswick 
about the year 1829. 

Chadwal, Samuel. Petty officer of the Customs. Embark- 
ed at Boston for HaHfax with the British army in 1776. 

Chalmers, George. Of Maryland. Was a native of Scot- 
land, and was born in 1742. After receiving an education at 
King's College, Aberdeen, and after studying law at Edin- 
burgh, he emigrated to Maryland, and entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession. The revolutionary troubles caused his 
return to England, where he was soon appointed to office. 
For many years he filled the station of chief clerk of the 
Committee of the Privy Council. He died in England in 
1825, aged eighty-two. He possessed rare opportunities for 
the examination of State-papers, which he diligently improv- 
ed. His historical works were numerous, are highly esteemed, 
and generally cited by annalists. His Political Annals of the 
United Colonies appeared in 1780; his Estimate of the 
Strength of Great Britain, in 1782 ; his Opinions on subjects 
of Law and Policy, arising from American Independence, in 
1784 ; his Opinions of Lawyers on English Jurisprudence, in 
1814; and his Life of Mary Queen of Scots, in 1822. He 
published other works. In 1845, his Introduction to the 
History of the Revolt of the British Colonies was issued at 
Boston. Its publication was commenced in England during 
the Revolution, but was abandoned, and the part printed 
suppressed. As Mr. Chalmers had access to the highest 
sources of information, as he possessed remarkable indus- 
try, and a very commendable degree of truthfulness, the In- 
troduction is to be regarded as a valuable addition to our 



^Qyl BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

books of history. It embraces a political view of all the 
Colonies, and of the whole period between the early settle- 
ments in Virginia and the close of the reign of George the 
Second. But the author's dislike to New England was un- 
conquerable, and is sometimes manifested at the expense 
of truth and propriety. His opening passage is singular, 
and thus : " Whether the famous achievements of Colum- 
bus introduced the greatest good or evil by discovering a 
new world to the old, has in every succeeding age offered a 
subject for disputation." Perhaps were he now alive he might 
so far yield his prejudices as to admit, that the " good of the 
achievement " greatly predominates over the " evil." He was 
a stout, and it is readily conceded, an honest Loyalist. But 
since he would have kept the new world in a state of vassal- 
age to the old, and would have had our country to remain 
as it was when he wrote of it, there need be no better refuta- 
tion of his political errors, than can be found in contrasting 
his own account of our condition as Colonies with our present 
wealth, power, and prosperity. 

Chalmers, Gilbert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished. 
In 1782 his property was confiscated. 

Chalmers, Isaac In 1782 he was surgeon's mate of the 
North Carolina Volunteers. 

Chalmers, James. Of Maryland. He was a gentleman of 
consideration in his neighborhood, and raised and commanded 
a corps called the Maryland Loyalists, with the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Though more successful than Colonel Clifton, 
he does not appear to have completed his quota of recruits. 
His corps was in service in 1782, but was very deficient in 
numbers. 

Chaloner, Niayon. Settled in New Brunswick, and was 
register of deeds and wills for King's County. He died at 
Kingston in that County in 1835. 

Chaloner, Walter. Of Rhode Island, and Sheriff of the 
County of Newport. He Avas at New York in 1782, a deputy 
commissary of prisoners. In 1783 he was one of the fifty-five 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 205 

petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. See Abijah Willard. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the close of the con- 
test, and was a grantee of that city. He died at St. John in 
1796. Ann, his widow, died in 1803. Elizabeth, his daugh- 
ter, in 1814, and John, his son, in 1827. 

Chalterton, Michael. Of Westchester County, New York. 
A Protester, &c. 

Chandler, Colonel . Of Cumberland County, New 

York. Was Chief Justice of the County Court. During the 
difficulties between the Whigs and Loyalists in Cumberland 
in 1775, which ended in bloodshed, as is related in the notice 
of W. Patterson, Esquire, he appears to have conducted with 
prudence, and to have used his exertions to prevent the melan- 
choly consequences which resulted from the unwise proceed- 
ings of other adherents of the crown. 

Chandler, Gardner. Trader, of Hardwick, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Chandler, John. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. In 1 774 
he was driven from his seat and family, and sought pro- 
tection at Boston. In 1776 he accompanied the royal army 
to Halifax. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. The 
late President Dwight spoke of Mr. Chandler and his family 
as distinguished for talents and virtue. 

Chandler, Joshua. Of New Haven, Connecticut. In 1775 
he was a member of the House of Assembly. In August, 1782, 
he addressed to Governor William Franklin a letter in behalf 
of the Loyalists of that State. The Honorable Joshua Upham, 
Judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick, married his 
daughter. Mr. Chandler removed to Nova Scotia at the close 
of the war, and perished in crossing the Bay of Fundy. 
William, son of Joshua, conducted the royal forces to New 
Haven in 1779. 

Chandler, Nathaniel. Died at Portland, New Brunswick, 
in 1816. 

Chandler, Nathaniel. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. Son 
of Colonel John Chandler. Graduated at Harvard University 
in 1768 ; and commenced the practice of the law. He was one 
18 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

of the eighteen country gentlemen who addressed Gage on his 
departure in 1775. In 1776 he went to Hahfax. In 1778 he 
was proscribed and banished. Entering the British service, 
he led a corps of volunteers. Returning after the Revolution, 
he died at Worcester, in 1801, aged fifty-one years. 

Chandler, Rufus. A lawyer, of Worcester. Son of Colonel 
John Chandler. Was bom at Worcester in 1747, and graduated 
at Harvard University in 1766. He was one of the barristers 
and attornies who were Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774 
In 1776 he went to Halifax. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He died in London, October, 1823, aged seventy- 
six years. 

Chandler, Samuel, D. D. An Episcopal clergyman of 
New York. He was one of the earliest in that city to declare 
his opposition to the course of the Whigs, when the difficulties 
between the colonies and the mother country approached to a 
crisis; and was regarded as one of the leaders of the loyal 
party. In McFingal he is alluded to as "a high church and 
Tory writer." He went to England in 1775. 
f» Chandler, William. Was a captain in the North Carolina 
Volunteers. 

Chandler, Willum. Son of Colonel John Chandler of 
Worcester, Massachusetts. Graduated at Harvard University 
in 1772, and died July, 1793, at Worcester, aged forty years. 
He was one of the eighteen country gentlemen who were 
driven from their homes to Boston, and who addressed Gage 
on his departure in 1775. In 1776 he went to Halifax. He 
was proscribed under the act of 1778, but returned to Massa- 
chusetts after the close of the Revolution. 

Chapman, Abraham, Junior. Was a lieutenant of cavalry 
in the British Legion. 

Chapman, John. Was a magistrate in New Brunswick, 
and died at Dorchester, in that Colony, in 1833, aged seventy- 
two. 

Chapman, Samuel. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 he was re- 
quired by proclamation to surrender himself and abide a trial, 
on the charge of treason. This he failed to do, but falling 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 80? 

into the hands of the Whigs at a subsequent period, he was 
tried for his offences in 1781. Much to the disappointment of 
the " violent Whigs," he was acquitted. The Samuel Chap- 
man who, in 1782, was a lieutenant of cavalry in the British 
Legion, (a Loyalist corps), may have been the same. 

Chapman, Thomas. Was in the military service of the 
crown, and in 1782 a captain in the King's American Regi- 
ment. 

Chew, Benjamin. Of Pennsylvania. Was Recorder of Phil- 
adelphia, Register of Wills, and Attorney General, and, finally, 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. His course was doubtful in 
the early part of the controversy, and he was claimed by both 
parties. In 1774 Washington dined, with him. In 1776 his 
opposition to the Whigs was fixed, and he retired to private 
life. In 1777 he refused to sign a parole, and was sent pris- 
oner to Fredericksburgh, Virginia. After the Revolution, 
in 1790, he was appointed President of the High Court of 
Errors and Appeals, and held the office until the tribunal was 
abolished in 1806. He died in 1810, aged eighty-seven. His 
father, the Honorable Samuel Chew, was of the religion of the 
Friends, and a judge and physician. 

Chew, Joseph. Of New London, Connecticut. Was a 
commissary in the royal service, and in 1777 he was taken 
prisoner by a party of Whigs at Sag Harbor. 

Chew, Joseph. A magistrate of Tryon, now Montgomery, 
County, New York. Signed a Declaration of loyalty in 1775. 
In 1792 he was in Canada, an officer under Sir John John- 
son, and in correspondence with Brant, in relation to pend- 
ing difficulties with the United States. 

Chew, William. He was a lieutenant in a corps of Loy- 
alists. He settled in New Brunswick at the close of the wart 
and received half-pay. He died at Fredericton in 1812, aged 
sixty-four. 

Chick, John and Johannes. Of Long Island, New York. 
Arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1783, 
in the ship Union ; the latter accompanied by his wife and 
two children. 



208 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Chipman, George. Who held the office of Sheriff of the 
same County for twenty-nine years, died at Kentville, Nova 
Scotia, in 1838, aged sixty-four. 

Chipman, John. He died in CornwaUis, Nova Scotia, in 
1836, aged ninety-one. He held the office of custos rotu- 
lorum, for the County of King's. 

Chipman, Ward. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1754, and graduated at Harvard University in 1770. In 
1775 he was driven from his habitation to Boston, and was 
one of the eighteen country gentlemen who that year were 
Addressers of Gage. He left Boston at the evacuation in 
1776, and went to Halifax, and thence to England, where 
he was allowed a pension. Relinquishing his stipend in less 
than a year, he returned to his native country, and joined 
the king's troops at New York. During the remainder of 
the war, he was employed in the military department and 
Court of Admiralty. In 1782 he held the office of Deputy 
Muster Master General of the Loyalist forces. In 1783 he 
was one of the fifty-five, who petitioned for extensive grants 
of lands in Nova Scotia. See Ahijah Willard. Removing 
to New Brunswick, he attained the highest honors. He was a 
member of the House of Assembly, Advocate General, Solicitor 
General, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, member of the 
Council, and President and Commander-in-chief of the Colony. 
He died at Fredericton, the capital, in 1824. His remains 
were taken to. St. John, where a tablet recites his public ser- 
vices. The wife of the Honorable William Gray, of Boston, 
was his sister. His son, and only child, the Honorable Ward 
Chipman, graduated at Harvard University in 1805, and is 
now Chief Justice of New Brunswick ; he resides at St. John, 
possesses a large estate, and has no children. 

Chipman, William Allen. Died at CornwaUis, Nova Scotia, 
in 1845, aged eighty-nine. He lived with his wife sixty-eight 
years; she and numerous descendants survived him. 

Chisholm, Alexander and W. Of South Carolina. Were 
amerced twelve per cent, of the value of their estates in 
1782. Another Alexander was a lieutenant in the Royal 
Garrison Battalion the same year. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 209 

Christie, Cn. Of Maryland. He adhered to the royal 
army, and his estate was confiscated. But the act did not 
apply to his debts ; since, after the Revolution, he recovered 
of Colonel Richard Graves of that State upwards of £1200 
sterling for a debt due him before the war. 

Christie, James, Junior. Merchant, of Baltimore. In July, 
1775, the Committee of that city published him '• as an enemy 
to his country," for sentiments contained in a letter written 
by him to Lieutenant Colonel Gabriel Christie of the British 
army, which letter had been intercepted and laid before them. 
Regarding " his crime of a dangerous and atrocious nature," 
the Committee determined to consult their delegates at the 
Continental Congress, and meantime to keep a guard at his 
house to prevent his escape ; he to pay the expense thereof, 
"each man five shillings for each twenty-four hours, and 
the officers seven shillings and sixpence." This Committee 
was large, and on this occasion thirty-four members were 
present; the vote against Christie was unanimous. He had 
recently lost his wife, and was at this time sick and con- 
fined to his bed. 

Christie, Thomas. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

Chrystal, John. Was surgeon of the Pennsylvania Loy- 
alists. 

Chubb, John. Of Philadelphia. Went to St. John, New 
Bruswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. In 
1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery Company. 
He died in 1822, aged sixty-nine. His son, Henry Chubb, 
Esquire, is the proprietor of the St. John Courier. 

Church, Doctor Benjamin. Of Massachusetts. Proscribed 
and banished. He was equally distinguished as a scholar, 
physician, poet and politician, and among the Whigs he stood 
as prominent, and was as active and as popular, as either War- 
ren, Hancock, or Samuel Adams. He was educated at Har- 
vard University, and graduated in 1754. About 1768 he built 
an elegant house at Raynham, which occasioned pecuniary 
embarrassments, and it has been conjectured that his diffi- 
18* 



210 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

culties from this source caused his defection from the Whig 
cause. However this may be, he was regarded as a traitor, 
having been suspected of communicating inteUigence to Gov- 
ernor Gage, and of receiving a reward in money therefor. 
His crime was subsequently proved, Washington presiding, 
when he was convicted of holding a criminal correspondence 
with the enemy. After his trial by a court martial, he was 
examined before the Provincial Congress, of which body he 
was a member, and though he made an ingenious and able 
defence, was expelled. In 1776 he was allowed to depart 
the country; and embarked for the West Indies. He was 
never heard of after, and doubtless he and all with him 
perished. 

Clarey, Daniel. Of Ninety-Six, South Carolina. An officer 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Clark, Benjamin. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. 

Clark, James. Of Edisto, South Carolina. His estate was 
amerced in 1782. 

Clark, James. Of Rhode Island. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. He died at St. John in 1820, aged ninety. His son 
James died at the same place in 1803, at the age of forty-one. 

Clark, John. This gentleman is now living (August, 1846,) 
at St. John, New Brunswick. He arrived at that city on 
the twenty-ninth of June, 1783, at which time only two log 
huts had been erected on its site. He received the same year 
the grant of the lot on which he has since resided. The 
government gave him, and every other grantee, five hundred 
feet of very ordinary boards towards covering their buildings. 
City lots sold in 1783 from two to twenty dollars. He 
bought one for the price of executing the deed of conveyance, 
and " a treat." Mr. Clark was clerk of Trinity Church up- 
wards of thirty years. 

Clark, John and Isaac. Of Boston. Physicians. Were 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 211 

Clark, Jonathan. Of Boston. A son of Richard Clark. 
Went to England, but came to Canada after the Revolution. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Clark, Joseph. A Physician, of Stratford, Connecticut. In 
1776 he fled to the British army. His wife and children, 
whom he left at home, were sent to New York, where he 
joined them. He went to New Brunswick, accompanied by 
his family, consisting of nine persons, in 1783, and resumed 
the practice of medicine. He settled at Maugerville on the 
river St. John, and was a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for the County of Sunbury. In 1799 he visited his 
friends in the United States. He was a physician in business 
for quite half a century. He died at Maugerville in 1813, 
aged seventy-nine, and his widow, Isabella Elisabeth, died 
the same year, at the age of seventy-one. 

Clark, Joseph. Of Stratford, Connecticut. Son of Doctor 
Joseph Clark. He accompanied the family to New Brunswick, 
and became a resident of the Colony. He died in New York, 
while on a visit to some friends, in 1828, at the age of sixty- 
five. 

Clark, Nehemiah. During the Revolution he was a sur- 
geon in the king's service. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
He received half-pay. He died at Douglas, New Brunswick, 
in 1825, aged eighty-six. 

Clark, Samuel. Of New Jersey. In 1780 he was detected 
in conducting an illicit trade with the royal forces, and com- 
mitted to prison. A Loyalist of this name was the grantee 
of a lot in the city of St. John, in 1783, and died in 1804. 

Clark, William. Of Danvers, Massachusetts. Son of Rev- 
erend Peter Clark. Graduated at Harvard University in 
1759, and was Episcopal minister of Quincy for several years. 
He went to England, obtained a pension, and died November, 
1815. 

Clarke, Alexander. Died at Waterborough, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1825, aged eighty-two. For several years, he was 
master armorer in the ordnance department at St. John. 



212 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Clarke, Isaac. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Clarke, Isaac Winslow. Of Boston. He became Commis- 
sary General of Lower Canada, and died in that Colony in 
1822, after he had embarked for England. His daughter 
Susan married Charles Richard Ogden, Esq., Solicitor-General 
of Lower Canada, in 1829. 

Clarke, James. Residence unknown. A petitioner for 
lands in Nova Scotia, July, 1783. See Ahijah Willard. 

Clarke, John. Died at Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 1825, 
aged eighty-four. 

Clarke, Richard. Merchant of Boston. He was a gradu- 
ate of Harvard University. His name is found among the 
Addressers of Gage; and in the statute of proscription and 
banishment. He and his sons were consignees of a part of 
the tea destroyed in Boston by the celebrated tea-party. The 
Whigs treated him with much severity, and his son Isaac, 
while at Plymouth for the collection of some debts, was as- 
saulted by a mob, and fled at midnight. He went to England 
in 1775, and died there in 1795. The present Lord Chancel- 
lor Lyndhurst is a grandson. 

Clarke, Richard Samuel. The tablet which covers his re- 
mains, records that he was minister of New Milford, Connect- 
icut, nineteen years, of Gagetown, New Brunswick, twenty- 
five years, and of St. Stephen, New Brunswick, thirteen 
years ; in all, an Episcopal clergyman for fifty-seven years. 
He was the first Rector of the Church at St. Stephen, and the 
oldest Missionary in the present British Colonies. He was 
much beloved by the people of his charge, and his memory is 
still cherished. He died at St. Stephen, October, 6, 1824, 
aged eighty-seven. His wife Rebecca died at the same place, 
May 7, 1816, aged sixty-nine. His only surviving daughter 
Mary Ann, who was born in Connecticut before his removal, 
and who was never married, died at Gagetown, New Bruns- 
wick, February, 1844, at the age of seventy-three, highly and 
deservedly lamented. 

Clarke, William. He was born at North Kingston, Rhode 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 213 

Island. He entered the service of the crown, and was a cap- 
tain in Colonel Whiteman's regiment of Loyal New England- 
ers. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and was an 
alderman of St. John. He died in that city in 1804. 

Clarry, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Claus, Daniel. He married a daughter of Sir William 
Johnson, and served for a considerable time in the Indian de- 
partment of Canada, under his brother-in-law. Colonel Guy 
Johnson. Brant, the celebrated Mohawk chief, entertained 
towards him sentiments of decided personal hostility. His 
wife died in Canada in 1801. WilliB,m Claus, Esq., Deputy 
Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, was his son ; and 
Brant, in the name of the Five Nations, made a speech of con- 
dolence on the death of Mrs. Claus, on the 24th of February 
of that year. William, deeply affected at the loss of his 
mother, was not able to reply, although he met the Chiefs in 
Council ; but he afterwards transmitted a written answer. 

Clayton, Samuel. In 1782 he was a cornet of cavalry in 
the Queen's Rangers. 

Clement, Captain Joseph. Of Boston. He held a com- 
mission in the royal service during the war, and at the peace 
settled in New Brunswick. His wife, Mary, died at St, John 
in 1812. 

Clements, Peter. He entered the service of the crown, 
and at the close of the war was a captain in the King's 
American Regiment. In 1783 he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. He received half- 
pay. He removed to the County of York, and was a magis- 
trate. He died at his residence on the river St. John near 
Frederic ton, in 1833, at the age of ninety-four. His daughter, 
Clarissa, died in 1814, aged thirty-two. His daughter, Abi- 
gail Julia, is the wife of Charles R. Hatheway, Esquire, of 
St. Andrew, New Brunswick. 

Clemings, Jane. A "woman of loyal principles." In 1778 
she was taken well laden with " hard-money," vermilion, and 
other articles for the Indians on her way from Albany to the 
savage tribes of New York. 



h 



H^ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Clifton, . A gentleman of the Catholic faith, who 

resided either in Delaware, or Maryland. He was authorized 
to raise a command of Loyalists, with the rank of colonel. 
His success does not appear to have been great, in inducing 
his countrymen to bear arms on the side of the crown, though 
he was a prominent member of his religious communion. 

Clinch, Peter. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the Royal 
Fensible Americans, and adjutant of the corps. He settled in 
New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died in the 
County of Charlotte, New Brunswick. 

Clitherell, Doctor James. Of South Carolina. A Con- 
gratulator of Comwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. 
In 1782 his estate was confiscated. He was banished. 

Clopper, Garrett. In 1782 he was an ensign in the New 
York Volunteers, and quartermaster of the corps. He went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and was the grantee of 
a city lot. He received half-pay, was Sergeant-at-arms of the 
House of Assembly, and a magistrate of York County. He 
died in New Brunswick. 

Clopper, James. He was a lieutenant in a corps of Loyal- 
ists, and at the close of the contest settled in New Brunswick 
and enjoyed half-pay, and was a magistrate of the County of 
York. He died at Fredericton in 1823, aged sixty-seven. 

Closs, Abraham. Was an ensign in the Guides and Pio- 
neers. 

Clow, Cheney. Husbandman, of Little Creek, Delaware. 
In 1778 he was required to surrender himself, or to suffer the 
forfeiture of his estate, both real and personal. 

Clowes. There were several Loyalists of this name in New 
York. Gerardus Clowes was a captain, and Samuel and John 
were lieutenants in De Lancey's Third Battalion, and, with 
Timothy, went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, 
and were grantees of that city. The three who were officers 
received half-pay. Samuel, John, and Timothy lived for 
some time in New Brunswick, but their fate has not been 
ascertained. Gerardus was a major of militia and a magis- 
trate, and resided in the County of Sunbury ; he was killed in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 215 

1798 by a fall from his horse. In 1781 a person of the name 
of Samuel Clowes, who had been an Addresser of Governor 
Robertson, was appointed clerk and surrogate of Q,ueen's 
County, New York. 

Cobb, Nicholas. Laborer, of Sandwich, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Cochran, James. Of New Hampshire. His father in his 
youth, and about the year 1730, lived in the vicinity of the 
present town of Belfast, Maine. His family subsequently re- 
moved to Londonderry, New Hampshire. He went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, where he closed his life in 1794, aged 
eighty-four years. 

Cochran, Captain John. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
Son of James Cochran. Was proscribed and banished. The 
Portsmouth Journal, from which paper I derive the following, 
states that the account is published on the authority of his 
daughter, who (November, 1845,) is still living in that town. 
Captain Cochran led a sea-faring life in his younger days, and 
sailed out of Portsmouth a number of years, as a ship-master, 
with brilliant success. A short period before the war of the 
Revolution broke out, he was appointed to the command of the 
fort in Portsmouth harbor. The day after the battle of Lex- 
ington, he and his family were made prisoners of war by a 
company of volunteers under the command of John Sullivan, 
afterwards the distinguished Major General Sullivan of the 
Revolution, President of New Hampshire, &c. Captain Coch- 
ran and his family were generously liberated on parole of 
honor. 

Not far from this time. Governor J. Went worth took refuge 
in the fort, and Captain Cochran attended him to Boston. In 
his absence, the only occupants of the fort were Mrs. Cochran, 
a man and a maid servant, and four children. At this time 
all vessels passing out of the harbor had to show their pass at 
the fort. An English man-of-war one day came down the 
river, bound out. Mrs. Cochran directed the man to hail the 
ship. No respect was paid to him. Mrs. Cochran then directed 
him to discharge one of the cannon. The terrified man said, 



216 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

" Ma'am I have but one eye, and can't see the touch-hole." 
Taking the match, the heroic lady applied it herself; the 
frigate immediately hove to, and showing that all was right, 
was permitted to proceed. For this discharge of duty to his 
Majesty's government she received a handsome reward. 

It was thought by some of the enemies of Governor Went- 
worth that he was still secreted at the fort, after he had left for 
Boston. A party one day entered the house in the fort, (the 
same house recently occupied by Captain Dimmick,) and asked 
permission of Mrs. Cochran to search the rooms for the Gov- 
ernor. After looking up stairs in vain, they asked for a light 
to examine the cellar. " O yes," said a little daughter of 
Mrs. Cochran, " I will light you." She held the candle until 
they were in a part of the cellar from which she well knew 
they could not retreat without striking their heads against low 
beams, when the roguish girl blew the light out. As she 
anticipated, they began to bruise themselves, and they swore 
pretty roundly. The miss from the stairs in an elevated tone 
cried out, " Have you got him ? " This arch inquiry only 
served to divide their curses between the impediments to their 
progress and the "little tory." 

Captain John Cochran (who was a cousin, and not the 
father, as has been stated, of Lord Admiral Cochran) imme- 
diately joined the British in Boston ; and, as it was believed, 
being influenced by the double motive of gratitude towards a 
government that had generously noticed and promoted him to 
offices of honor, trust, and emolument, and for the sake of 
retaining a valuable stipend from the crown, remained with 
the British army during the war. It is due to his honor to 
state, however, that he was never known to take an active 
part in the conflict. At the close of the war, he returned to 
St. John, New Brunswick, lived in the style of a gentleman 
the remainder of his days, and died at the age of fifty-five. 

Among the papers of the Cochran family, we find the fol- 
lowing letter written from England, by Governor J. Went- 
worth, at the close of the war, to Captain John Cochran. It 
held out no very strong inducements for Loyalists to take 
refuge in England. 



J 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 217 

" Hammersmith, May 6, 1783. 

"My dear Sir, — I received your kind letter by Captain 
Dawson, and render you many thanks ; be assured there is 
scarce any object so near to me as your welfare, which I 
should rejoice to promote. As to my advice, at this distance 
from the scene of action, it can only be conjectural. How- 
ever, as you ask it, I can only say, that you will find it 
expedient to remove to, and settle in Nova Scotia. The 
Commander-in-chief will most certainly cause your pay to be 
issued there ; nor do I conceive there is any probability of its 
being reduced, especially as Captain Fenton's is suppressed 
here, among other reasons, as it is said, because you were 
paid in America and resident there. As to your coming here, 
or any other Loyalist, that can get clams and potatoes in 
America, they most certainly would regret making bad worse. 
It would be needless for^me to enter into reasons, the fact is so, 
and you will do well to avoid it. It is the advice all our 
friends will be wise to follow ; hard as it is, they that are fools 
enough to try, will find it harder here. I hope this will find 
you and your family in good health. We are all well. Charles 
is grown a stout boy ; we are obliged for your kind inquiries 
about him. My destination is quite uncertain ; like an old 
flapped hat thrown off the top of an house, I am tum- 
bling over and over in the air, and God only knows where 
I shall finally alight and settle to rest. It would give me 
great pleasure, if it so happens as to afford me any means to 
add to the comfort of those I esteem and regard. Be assured, 
my dear Sir, in that description you would have my early 
attention. Pray present Mrs. W.'s and my compliments to 
your family ; old Mrs. W. also begs to join us. Benning has 
been nearly four years a captain, and not being able to estab- 
lish his rank as he expected, has sold out, and is now in the 
country ; so that we are all seeking something to do. 

"Adieu, my dear friend, and always believe me to be, with 
great regard, your faithful and obedient servant, 

" J. Wentworth." 
19 



St8 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Cock. Loyalists of this name were numerous in Queen's 
County, New York. In 1776 Gabriel, Clark, Penn, John, 
Daniel, Daniel junior, Levi, Benjamin, Elijah, Peter, and 
Thomas, professed themselves loyal and well affected subjects. 
Of these, the house of Clark was robbed of a considerable 
amount in money, and of goods to the value of £400, in 1779. 
Others of the name were quite as unfortunate. Thus, a party 
of rebels from Connecticut plundered the dwelling of William 
Cock of goods to the amount of £140, in 1778 ; and Abraham 
Cock, master of the schooner Five Brothers, was captured 
early in 1779. 

CoDNER, James. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Second 
American Regiment. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and was a grantee of that city, and a magistrate of 
the county. He died at St. John in 1821, aged sixty-seven. 

Codner, William. Book-keeper of Boston. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He went to Halifax in 1776. 

Coffere, Lewis. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Coffield, Thomas. At the termination of the war he was a 
lieutenant in the North Carolina Regiment. As he was pre- 
paring to leave New York, the following advertisement ap- 
peared in Rivington's paper of September 10, 1783. 

"Whereas Martha, wife of Thomas Coffield, lieutenant in 
the North Carolina Regiment, is concealed from him, (sup- 
posed by her mother, Melissa Carman of Hempstead,) to keep 
her from going with her loving husband to Nova Scotia, or 
St. Augustine, the public are cautioned," &c. 

The " loving" and bereaved lieutenant arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, before the close of 1783, and received the 
grant of a city lot. 

Coffin, John. Of Boston. He was a son of Nathaniel Coffin, 
Cashier of the Customs, and a brother of Admiral Sir Isaac 
Coffin, of the Royal Navy. A warm and decided Loyalist, he 
volunteered to accompany the royal army in the battle of 
Breed's or Bunker's Hill, and soon after obtained a commis- 
sion. He rose to the rank of captain in the Orange Rangers in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 219 

a short time, and effecting an exchange into the New York 
Vokmteers, went with that corps to Georgia, in 1778. At the 
battle of Savannah, at that of Hobkerk's Hill, and in the ac- 
tion of Cross Creek, near Charleston, and on various other 
occasions, his conduct won the admiration of his superiors. 
At the battle of Eutaw Springs, which he opened on the part 
of the king's troops, he was a brevet major, and his gallantry 
and good judgment attracted the notice and remark of General 
Greene, who commanded the Whig forces. He retired to New 
Brunswick at the close of the contest, with the rank of major, 
and received half-pay. In the war of 1812, he raised and 
commanded a regiment, which was disbanded in 1815. He 
served in several civil offices ; was a member of the House 
of Assembly, Chief Magistrate of King's County, and a mem- 
ber of the Council. Of the latter dignity he was deprived, 
in 1828, in consequence of his not having attended the ses- 
sions of the Council for several previous years. Had his place 
not been thus vacated, the government of the Colony would 
have devolved upon him as senior Councillor, during the 
absence of Sir Howard Douglas. He died at his seat, King's 
County, New Brunswick, in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. 
At the time of his decease he held the rank of lieutenant 
general, and enjoyed the emoluments of a half-pay officer of 
that grade. His widow died at Bath, England, in 1839, aged 
seventy-four. His daughter, Mary Aston, the wife of Charles 
Richard Ogden, Esquire, Solicitor-General of Lower Canada, 
died at Montreal in 1827. His daughter Caroline married the 
Honorable C. W. Grant, seigneur of the Barony of Langueull, 
Lower Canada. 

Though of great sensitiveness, the personal controversies of 
General Coffin were not numerous. But he had a public 
dispute with a high functionary of New Brunswick, which 
was long and bitter. In his dealings he was exact ; yet to 
the poor he dispensed liberally in charity, and for persons in 
his neighborhood devised useful and profitable employment. 
His own habits were extremely active and industrious. He 
was fond of talking with citizens of the United States of 



220 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

the Revolution, and of the prominent Whigs of his native 
State. "Samuel Adams used to tell me," said he, "'Coffin, 
you must not leave us ; we shall have warm work, and want 
you.' " The battle of Breed's Hill was regarded by General 
Coffin as ^he event which controlled every thing that fol- 
lowed. " You could not have succeeded without it," he fre- 
quently said to his American friends, " for, something was 
indispensable in the then state of parties, to fix men sotne- 
where, and to show the planters at the south, that northern 
people were really in earnest, and could and would — fight. 
That, that did the business for you." While the British 
claimed and held Eastport, General Coffin seldom visited it. 
He would sail round Moose Island — as he ever continued 
to call that town — in his sloop Liberty, examine the move- 
ments on shore through his spyglass, and, after gratifying his 
curiosity, return to St. John. After the surrender to the 
United States, in 1818, he came to Moose Island frequently. 
Notwithstanding his choice of sides in the Revolution, he 
never lost his interest in the "old thirteen," and he remem- 
bered that he was " Boston born," from first to last. " I 
would give more for one pork-barrel made in Massachusetts," 
was one of his many sayings, " than for all that have been 
made in New Brunswick since its settlement. Why, sir, I 
have now some of the former which jire thirty years old, but 
I can hardly make the Province barrels last through one 
season." In his person. General Coffin was tall and spare. 
Until well advanced in years, he was remarkably erect. His 
countenance indicated a quick and sensitive nature. His 
manners were easy, social, and polite. His conversation was 
animated and interesting, frank, and without reserve. 

Coffin, John. Of Boston. Was Assistant Commissary 
General in the British army, and died at Quebec in 1837, 
aged seventy-eight. 

Coffin, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Graduated at Harvard 
University in 1744. At the period of the Revolution he 
was cashier of the Customs at Boston. In 1774 he was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson, and in 1775 of Gage. He went 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 221 

to Halifax at the evacuation in 1776, and in July of that 
year embarked in the ship Aston Hall for England. He died 
in England before the peace. Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, who, 
it is believed, entered the British navy previous lo the revo- 
lutionary controversy, was his son. 

Coffin, Nathaniel, Junior. Of Boston. Son of Nathaniel, 
the Cashier. Was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and 
a Protester against the Whigs the same year. He was at 
New York in 1783, and one of the fifty-five petitioners for 
lands in Nova Scotia. See Abijah Willard. At a subsequent 
period he was appointed Collector of the Customs at the 
island of St. Kitt's, and filled that station for thirty-four years. 
He died in London in 1831, aged eighty-three. 

Coffin, Nathaniel. Of Boston. After the Revolution he 
settled in Upper Canada. In the war of 1812 he^ served 
against the United States. For a number of years he was 
adjutant-general of the militia of Upper Canada. He died at 
Toronto in 1846, aged eighty. 

Coffin, Thomas Aston. Of Boston. Son of William Cof- 
firl. Graduated at Harvard University in 1772, and died in 
London, May, 1810, aged fifty-six years. He was private 
secretary to General Carlton, and subsequently commissary 
general in the British service. Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, and 
Lieutenant-general John Coffin, were his cousins. 

Coffin. Besides the above, five others of Boston adhered 
to the crown. William, the third, was a Protester against 
the Whigs in 1774. William, Junior, was an Addresser of 
Gage in 1775, and accompanied the royal army to Halifax in 
1776. William, Esquire, was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 
1774, went to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and ban- 
ished in 1778. I suppose he returned to Boston ; Mary, the 
widow of William Coffin, Esquire, died in that town in 1803, 
aged seventy-six. John, a distiller, was also an Addresser 
of Hutchinson, and was included in the banishment act. 
Jonathan Parry, went to England, was in London in 1779, 
and addressed the king. 

19* 



222 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

CoGGEswELL, James. In 1782 he was an officer in the 
Superintendent Department established at New York. 

Golden, Alexander. Of New York. Son of Lieutenant 
Governor Golden. He was postmaster, and successor of his 
father in the office of Surveyor-general. He died in 1774, 
aged fifty-eight. 

Golden, Gadwallader. Of New York. He wg^ in Scotland, 
and came to America in 1708, and was a successful practi- 
tioner of medicine for some years. In 1718, Governor Hun- 
ter having become his friend, he settled in the city of New 
York, and was the first Surveyor-general of the Golony. 
Besides this office, he filled that of Master in Ghancery ; and, 
on the arrival of Governor Burnet, in 1720, he was made a 
member of the King's Gouncil. Succeeding to the Presidency 
of the Gouncil, he administered the government in 1760. 
Having previous to the last mentioned time purchased a tract 
of land in the vicinity of Newburgh, on the Hudson, he re- 
tired there with his family about the year 1755. In 1761 he 
was appointed Lieutenant Governor of New York, and held 
the commission during the remainder of his life, and was 
repeatedly at the head of aflfairs in consequence of the death 
or absence of several of the governors. While administering 
the government, the stamped paper came out, and was placed 
under his care. A multitude of several thousand persons un- 
der leaders, who were afterwards conspicuous Whigs, assem- 
bled, and determined that he should give up the paper to be 
destroyed. Unless he complied with their wishes, the massa- 
cre of himself and adherents was threatened ; but he exhibited 
great firmness, and prevented them from accomplishing their 
design. Yet the mob burned his effigy, and destroyed his 
carriages in his sight. Governor Tryon relieved him from 
active political duty in 1775, and he retired to Long Island, 
where he had a seat, and where he died the following year, 
at the age of eighty-eight. He was hospitable and social, 
and gave his friends a cordial welcome. The political 
troubles of his county caused him pain and anguish. These 
troubles he long predicted. In science, Mr. Golden was high- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 223 

ly distinguished. Botany and astronomy were favorite pur- 
suits. 

Golden, David. Of New York. Son of Cadwallader Golden. 
His estate was confiscated. The farm at Spring Hill, Flush- 
ing, Long Island, which was devised to him by his father, 
is now the property of the Honorable Benjamin W. Strong. 
He went to England at the close of the war, and died there 
July 10, 1784. He was fond of retirement, was much de- 
voted to scientific pursuits, and maintained a correspondence 
with the learned of his time, both in Europe and in Amer- 
ica. His wife, who died in August, 1785, was Ann, daughter 
of John Willet, Esquire, of Flushing. His son, Cadwallader 
D. Golden, of New York, (a lad in the Revolution,) was a 
lawyer of great eminence, and one of the earliest and most 
efficient promoters, in connexion with De Witt Glinton, of 
the Erie Canal, and other works of extensive improvement. 
He died at Jersey City, February 7th, 1834, universally 
lamented. 

Golden, John. In 1782 he was a captain in the First 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Golden, Thomas. Was a captain in the Pennsylvania 
Loyalists. 

Cole, David. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Cole, Ebenezer. Of New York. Was a magistrate of the 
County of Albany. Early in 1775 he apprehended an attack 
upon his dwelling by the rioters or rebels of the neighbor- 
hood, and kept armed men ready to repel them. 

Coles. Eight persons of this name, of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To 
wit: Albert, Benjamin, Daniel, Jarvis, Jordan, Joseph, W., 
Nathaniel. In 1779 Albert was carried prisoner to Connec- 
ticut by a party of Whigs, who took him from his house 
on Long Island. 

Collet, John. In 1782 he was a captain in the Prince 
of Wales American Volunteers. 

Collier, Isaac. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 



^4 BIOOBAFHICAL SKETCHES 

New York. In 1775 he signed a Declaration of loyalty. 
I suppose his house was plundered and destroyed by a band 
of Whigs in 1778. 

CoLLiM, John. A magistrate of Tryon, now Montgomery, 
County, New York. In 1775 he signed a Declaration of firm 
adherence to the crown, and abhorrence of Whig proceedings. 

Collins, Davis. An early settler of St. David, New Bruns- 
wick. Died at Tower Hill, August, 1837. His death was 
caused by the falling of a tree. 

Collins, Thomas. Of North Carolina. A major in the 
Loyalist force, defeated by Colonel Caswell in 1776. Was 
taken prisoner and confined. 

CoLLUM, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Colston, John. Stocking weaver, of Philadelphia. In 
1778 the Council ordered that he appear and be tried for 
treason, or stand attainted. 

Colville, John. He settled at St. John in 1783, and re- 
ceived the grant of a city lot, and commenced business as 
a merchant. In 1795 he commanded the company of Loyal 
Artillery. 

CoLWELL, Edmond, Hervey, Robert, Thomas, and Tillot. 
Of Queen's County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance, 
October, 1776. 

CoLYEB, Ab. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of the 
Declaration in 1775. 

Comb, Dennis. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Comely, Joseph. Of the Manor of Moorland, Pennsyl- 
vania. It was ordered by the Council in 1778, that, failing 
to appear and be tried for treason, he should stand attainted. 

Comely, Robert. Of Pennsylvania. Arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in the spring of 1783, in the ship Union. He 
died at Lancaster, New Brunswick, in 1838, aged eighty-three. 

Commander, Thomas. Of South Carolina. An ofiicer under 
the crown, after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis- 
cated. 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 225 

CoMPTON, William. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

CoMPTON, William. He died at St. Martin's, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1804. 

Conkay, Israel. Of Rutland, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Conner, Abraham. Husbandman, of Duck Creek, Dela- 
ware. His estate, both real and personal, was to be forfeited 
to the State, on his failing to appear and abide his trial for 
treason, on or before August 1st, of that year. 

Conner, Constant. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Royal Fensible Americans. He went to Nova Scotia after 
the war, where he fought a duel and killed his antagonist. 
He died at Halifax. 

Conner, Isaac Cooper, of Newcastle, Delaware. Required 
to appear and abide his trial for treason, or in failure thereof, 
to forfeit both real and personal estate. 

CoNOLLY, John. He was born in Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania, and was bred a physician. Before the Revolution 
he lived at or near Pittsburg, and was in correspondence 
with Washington on matters of business. In 1770 Washing- 
ton, on his tour to Ohio, invited Doctor Conolly to dine with 
him, and said he was " a very sensible, intelhgent man." His 
difficulties with the authorities of Pennsylvania, in 1774, oc- 
cupy considerable space in the records of the Council of that 
Colony. In the course of these difficulties, and while he was 
at the head of an armed party, he was seized and imprisoned. 
It appears that he claimed lands under Virginia, at the falls 
of the Ohio, which, it was contended by Pennsylvania, Lord 
Dunmore, the Governor of the former Colony, had no right to 
grant. But he and John Campbell advertised their intention 
of laying out a town there, and invited settlers. They set 
forth the beauties and advantages of the location in glowing 
terms, and said, that " we may with certainty affirm, that it 
(the proposed town) will, in a short time, be equalled by few 
inland places on the American continent." 

As the controversy ripened to war, Conolly became active 



226 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

on the side of the crown, and in 1775 was employed by Lord 
Dunmore, who authorized him to raise and command a regi- 
ment of Loyalists and Indians, to be enlisted in the western 
country and Canada, and to be called the Loyal Foresters. 
While on his way to execute this design, he was taken pris- 
oner. His papers having been sent to Congress, it was deter- 
mined to retain his person. He wrote to Washington several 
times, but the Commander-in-chief declined to interfere, and 
he remained a captive till near the close of the contest. The 
Loyal Foresters were in service in 1782, and probably later. 
Always, as it would seem, moving in some doubtful enter- 
terprise, we hear of Colonel Conolly soon after the peace, and 
about the year 1788, at Detroit. At this time he and other 
disaffected persons held conferences with some of the promi- 
nent citizens of the West as to the seizure of New Orleans, 
and the control of the navigation of the Mississippi by force. 
The precise plan, and the degree of support which it received, 
are not, perhaps, known. But the attention of Washington 
was attracted to the subject, and measures were taken to detect 
and counteract the plot. 

CoNROY, William, Junior. Was a lieutenant in the Prince 
of Wales American Volunteers. 

Cook, Ariel. Of Little Compton, Rhode Island. He was 
denounced as "an enemy to his country, and the liberties of 
America" in 1775, for selling sheep to go on board of the 
Swan, British ship of war at Newport. The Whigs took 
the sheep at Forkland Ferry, and voted to send them as 
a present to the army at Cambridge. Cook confessed the 
sale, and avowed his intention of repeating the act every 
opportunity. 

Cook, George and James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Were Addressers of Sir Henry Clinton; and the former a 
Petitioner to be armed on the side of the crown. Both were 
banished two years after, and lost their estates. 

Cook, Jacoh and Jordan. In 1783 went to St. John, and 
were grantees of that city. 

Cook, Robert. Embarked in 1776 at Boston for HaUfax 
with the British army. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 227 

Cook, Thomas Ivie. In 1782 was an officer of cavalry in 
the Queen's Rangers. 

Cooke, Samuel. Of Connecticut. He removed to New 
Brunswick, was the first rector of the Episcopal Church at 
Fredericton, and received the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 
He remained at Fredericton until his decease. Lydia, his 
fifth daughter, died there in 1846, aged seventy-six. 

CooLEY, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Halifax 
with the British army. 

CooMBE, Thomas. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was con- 
fined in that city for disaffection to the Whigs, and ordered to 
be sent prisoner to Virginia. In 1775 a person of the name of 
Thomas Coombs was collector of the duties on the tonnage of 
vessels. 

Coombs, Abijah. Settled in St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and received a grant of a city lot. 

Coombs, Gilbert. Of Jamaica, New York. Signed a De- 
claration in 1775. 

Coombs, John. Was a lieutenant in the Second Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in New Brunswick in 
1783, received half-pay, and died in that Colony in 1827, at 
the age of seventy-four. 

Coombs, Michael. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Was a 
merchant of that town; and during the Revolution was in 
England. After the peace he returned, and died at Marble- 
head. 

Coombs, Nathaniel. Was an ensign in the Second Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. 

CooNE, Jacob, Jeremiah, and Peter. Of Westchester Coun- 
ty, New York. Were Protesters against the Whigs in 1775. 

Cooper, Myles, D. D. He was educated at Oxford, Eng- 
land, and coming to America in 1762, was elected President of 
King's College, New York, the year following. His political 
opinions rendered his resignation of that office necessary as 
the revolutionary storm darkened, and in 1775 he retired to 
England. He died at Edinburgh in 1785, aged about fifty, 
having previously lived there, and officiated as an Episcopal 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

clergyman. He was a gentleman of literary distinction, and 
published several works. Four lines of an epitaph written by 
himself are : — 

" Here lies a priest of English blood, 

Who, living, Uked whate'er was good ; 

Good company, good wine, good name, 

Yet never hunted after fame." 

The son of Mrs. Washington, by her first marriage, was a 
pupil of Doctor Cooper at King's College ; and Washington, 
after Mr. Custis left the institution, late in 1773, expressed the 
conviction, that he had been under the care of " a gentleman 
capable of instructing him in every branch of knowledge." 
Young Custis, it appears, abandoned his studies, and married 
against Washington's wish, though with the approbation of 
his mother and most of the family friends. 

Cooper, Richard. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Third 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Cooper, Robert. Of South Carolina. He went to England. 
In 1779 he was in London, and signed an Address to the king. 

Copley, John Singleton. Of Boston. An eminent painter, 
and father of Lyndhurst, late the Lord Chancellor of England. 
He was born in Boston in 1738, and going to England early 
in. the controversy, rose to eminent fame in his profession. 
The works from his pencil in this country, previous to his de- 
parture, are held in much repute. His name is to be found 
among the Addressers of Hutchinson. He died in England, 
September 25th, 1815. His wife was a daughter of Richard 
Clarke, Esquire, a consignee of the Boston tea ; and the wife 
of the late Gardner Greene, Esquire, of that city, was his 
daughter. His mother was of the Old Plymouth Colony fami- 
ly of Winslows, of whom two were governors. 

Coram, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Corbet, Edward. Of South Carolina. He was in London 
in July, 1779. 

Corbett, Thomas. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 229 

CoREE, Gideon. Of Rhode Island. He arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, in the ship Union. 

Cornell, Samuel. Of Newborn. A member of the Coun- 
cil of North Carolina. In 1775 he was present in Council, 
and concurred in the opinion, that Whig meetings were ob- 
jects of the highest detestation, and gave his advice to Gov- 
ernor Martin to issue his proclamation to inhibit and forbid 
them. Before the Declaration of Independence he went to 
Europe, but left his family at Newbern. During the war he 
returned to New York, and went to Newbern in a flag of 
truce, but was forbidden to land, unless he would take an oath 
of allegiance to the State under its Whig rulers. This he re- 
fused to do. While on board of the vessel in the harbor, he 
conveyed his estate to his children by several deeds of gift, 
and duly proved and registered the conveyances. Having 
thus arranged his afl^airs, he removed his family, by permission 
of the executive of the State, to New York. Subsequently 
this property was confiscated and sold. A Mr. Singleton be- 
came the purchaser of a part of it, and the portion which Mr. 
Cornell had given to one of his daughters. This lady claimed 
to hold under her father's deed, and instituted a suit to eject 
Singleton ; but on a hearing and trial, the confiscation act was 
held to be valid, and judgment was given against her. This 
case, of course, determined that all the deeds of gift were void. 
The conveyances were made, it will be recollected, prior to 
the passage of the confiscation act of North Carolina. 

Cornell. Thirteen persons of this name of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Gilbert, Oliver, Charles, Samuel, Mott, Samuel, Charles, Caleb. 
Baruch, Comfort, Sylvester, William, and Thomas. 

Cornell, Captain Charles. Was an Addresser of Governor 
Robertson in 1780. 

Cornish, Benjamin. Of Queen's County, New York. Was 
an Addresser of Colonel Sterling. 

Cornish, John. Was quartermaster of the King's Rangers, 
Carolina. 

20 



1m 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Cornwall, or Cornell, Benjamin and Eluah, Of Queen's 
County, New York. Were in arms against the Whigs. Dur- 
ing the war, the house of Cornehus Cornwall was robbed of 
money, 

Cornwall, Daniel. Residence unknown. Was a lieutenant 
of cavalry in the South Carolina Royalists. 

Cornwall, John. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester in 1775. 

Cornwall, Thomas. Residence unknown. Was a captain 
in the King's American Regiment. 

Cornwall, William. Of Jamaica, New York. Was a loyal 
Declarator. 

Cornwall. Nine persons of this name, of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance to Lord Richard and 
General William ^ Howe, in a Representation and Petition, 
October, 1776. To wit : Charles, James, Obadiah, Cornelius, 
John, W., George, Daniel, and Stephen, Junior. 

Coskel, Thomas. A Whig soldier. In 1778 he was tried 
on a charge of attempting to desert to the royal side ; and, 
confessing his guilt, was sentenced to receive one hundred 
lashes. 

CossTELL, Charles M. Of South Carolina. Was an Assis- 
tant Judge of the Supreme Court of the Colony. He went 
to England. 

Gotten, James. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

Cotton, John. Of Boston. He graduated at Harvard 
"University in 1747, and became Deputy Secretary of Massa- 
chusetts. In 1774 he was a Protester against the proceed- 
ings of the Whigs in town meeting of June of that year. 

Couch, Stephen. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. 

Cougle, James. Of Peimsylvania. Was a captain in the 
First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He went to New 
Brunswick at the close of the contest, and died at Sussex 
Vale in 1819, aged seventy-three. 

CouLBouRNE, Charles. Was a lieutenant in the Loyal 
American Regiment, and quartermaster of the corps. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 231 

CouLsoN, John. Of Anson County, North Carolina. A 
person of considerable influence. In August, 1775, his con- 
duct became the subject of inquiry in the Provincial Con- 
gress, and a numerous committee was appointed to report 
upon his offences. To submit and confess, or go to prison, 
was Coulson's only course, and he accordingly made a full 
and penitent acknowledgment for his past guilt, and ample 
promises for the future. 

CouLsoN, Thomas. Merchant and ship-owner, of Falmouth, 
now Portland, Maine. The difficulties with him caused the 
burning of that town by the miscreant Mowatt, in 1775. It 
appears, that, contrary to the agreement of the Association 
as to importation of merchandise, a ship arrived at Falmouth 
with the sails and rigging for a ship which he was fitting 
for sea. These articles, it was determined by the Whigs, 
should be returned to England, together with some goods 
brought in the same vessel. Coulson resolved otherwise. A 
quarrel ensued, which continued for several weeks. The 
Canseau sloop of war arrived for the protection of him- 
self and property, and mobs and tumults, and conflagration, 
were the final results. 

Courtney, Thomas. Tailor, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Gage in 1775. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. He 
went to Halifax in 1776. 

CouRTONGUE, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Covert, Abraham. He died at Maugerville, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1824, aged seventy-nine. His widow, Phebe, died 
at the same place in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. 

Covert. Five persons of this name, of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To 
wit: Isaac, Johannes, Teunis, Teunis junior, and Walter. 
Tennis, and Teunis junior, signed a Declaration in 1775, as 
did Richard Covert, of the same county. 

CowPER, Basil. Of South Carolina. A Congratulator of 
Cornwallis on his victory at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his 
estate was confiscated, and he was banished. 



^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



CowpER. A clergyman of this name, of South Carohna, 
refused to take an oath prescribed by the Whigs at the com- 
mencement of the war, and abandoned the country. 

Cox, Daniel. Of New Jersey. Was a member of His 
Majesty's Council in New Jersey. Through his agency, 
principally, it is believed that the Board of Refugees, con- 
sisting of delegates from the Loyalists of the Colonies, was 
established at New York in 1779. Of this board, he was 
the president; and Christopher Sower, an highly influential 
Loyalist of Pennsylvania, in a letter of December 5th, 1779, 
wrote as follows : " The Deputies of the Refugees from the 
different provinces meet once a week. Daniel Cox, Esquire, 
was appointed to the chair, to deprive him of the opportunity 
of speaking, as he has the gift of saying little with many 
words." 

Cox, Edward. Merchant, of Boston. Was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. 

Cox, Francis. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was a lieuten- 
ant in the regiment commanded by Colonel Mansfield, and 
deserted from the camp at Cambridge, in June, 1775, and 
left the service. General Ward submitted to the Provincial 
Congress, the propriety of making him a public example, for, 
besides his own desertion, he incited his men to follow his 
example. 

Cox, George. Residence unknown. In 1782 was a lieu- 
tenant in the King's American Regiment. 

Cox, John. Of Falmouth, Maine. Was the son of John 
Cox, of that town, and married Sarah Proctor in 1739, and 
by her and two other wives had a family of twenty chil- 
dren. He was a shipmaster. During the war he abandoned 
the country and settled in Nova Scotia, where he died. 
• Cox, Lemuel. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Near the close 
of the year 1775, he was in prison at Ipswich for his attach- 
ment to the cause of the crown. Mr. Felt, in his very in- 
teresting work, the "Annals of Salem," supposes this Lemuel 
Cox to have been the chief architect of Essex Bridge in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 233 

1788, and who, subsequently, constructed bridges in England 
and Ireland. "In 1796," says Mr. Felt, "he had a grant of 
1000 acres of land in Maine from our Legislature, for being 
the first inventor of a machine to cut card-wire, the first 
projector of a powder-mill in Massachusetts, the first sugges- 
tor of employing prisoners on Castle Island, to make nails, 
and for various other discoveries in mechanical arts." 

Coy, Amasa. Of Connecticut. He went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783. He died at Fredericton in 1838, aged eighty- 
one. 

Cozens, Daniel. Was a captain in the Second Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Crabb, John. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Craig, George. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Craig, James. Of Oakham, Massachusetts. Was proscrib- 
ed and banished. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1782, and received a grant of land; as did also Robert 
Craig. 

Crane J Jonathan. Settled in Nova Scotia, and was a ma- 
gistrate. His widow, Rebecca, died in Horton, Nova Scotia, 
in 1841, aged eighty-eight. 

Crannell, Bartholomew. Of New York. He was a pub- 
lic notary in the city, in 1782. The year following he 
announced his intention of removing to Nova Scotia, and 
was one of the fifty-five petitioners for lands in that Colony. 
He arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, before the close 
of 1783, and received the grant of a city lot. He com- 
menced business as a merchant. In 1785 he was Clerk of 
the Common Council. 

Crawford, John, John Junior, and William. Settled at St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and received grants of city 
lots from the crown. 

Creighton, James. In 1782 he was secretary of the police 
department of Long Island, New York. 
20* 



234 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Cromwell, Josiah. He died at Portland, New Brunswick, 
in 1803. 

Ckonin, Jeremiah. Of South Carolina. He went to Eng- 
land, and in July, 1779, signed an Address to the king. 

Crookshank, George. He died at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1797, aged sixty-five. 

Crowell, Joseph. Was a captain in the First Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and died at Carlton in that Colony. 

Crowfoot, David, Of Reading, Connecticut. A member 
of the Association. 

Cross, William. He went from New York to Nova Scotia, 
at the close of the war, and died at Annapolis Royal, in 1834, 
aged eighty-three. 

Crossing, William. Of Rhode Island. A noted marauder 
and robber. He plundered women of their jewelry and fancy 
articles of dress. 

CuDNEY, Hezekiah. Of Westchcster, County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

Cruger, John. Of New York. In 1775 he was Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, and during the recess that year, 
with thirteen other members of the ministerial party, address- 
ed a letter to General Gage on the alarming state of public 
affairs. This communication is dated May 5th, on which 
day two members of the Council of New York sailed for 
England. When, in 1769, he was elected to the Assembly, 
the success of his party was deemed a victory of the Epis- 
copalians over the Presbyterians. 

Cruger, John Harris. Of New York. He was a member 
of the Council of the Colony, and considered to be in ofiice 
in 1782. At that time, he was Lieutenant Colonel of De 
Lancey's First Battalion. His property was confiscated. At 
the peace he went to England. His wife was De Lancey's 
daughter. 

CuLLEN, Walter. Was surgeon of the Royal Fensible 
Americans. 

CuMMiNGs, John. A merchant, of Philadelphia. Was de- 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 235 

tected in November, 1780, in prosecuting an illicit trade with 
the royal forces, and committed to prison. 

CuMMiNGs, Thomas and Samuel. Of New Hampshire. Were 
proscribed and banished in 1778, and the property of the 
latter was forfeited. 

CuNLiFF, Joseph, In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the First 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

CuNNABEL, Edward G. He died at Union Point, New 
Brunswick, in 1838, aged seventy-six. 

CuNNARD, Robert. He died at Portland, New Brunswick, 
in 1818, aged sixty-nine. 

Cunningham, Andrew. Of the District of Ninety-Six, South 
Carolina. He held a commission under the crown, and lost 
his estate under the confiscation act. 

Cunningham, Archibald. Shopkeeper, of Boston. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Cunningham, David. Brother of General Robert Cunning- 
ham. Before the Revolution, he was Deputy Surveyor of the 
District of Ninety -Six. During the war, he accepted the place 
of Commissary of the royal army at Charleston. He was 
allowed to continue in the State at the peace, and became a 
planter in Ninety-Six. 

Cunningham, John. Of South Carolina. Was also a brother 
of General Robert Cunningham. He was a planter ; but in 
the course of the war, removing with his brothers to Charles- 
ton, was a Commissary in the British army. In 1782 his pro- 
perty was confiscated. He was permitted to reside in the 
State at the conclusion of hostilities ; and embarking in com- 
mercial pursuits, accumulated a large fortune. 

Cunningham, John. Residence unknown. Was an ensign 
in the Loyal American Regiment, and adjutant of the corps. 
He settled in New Brunswick, received half-pay, and died at 
Fredericton. 

Cunningham, Patrick. Of South Carolina. Brother of Gen- 
eral Robert Cunningham. In 1769, he was appointed Deputy 
Surveyor General of the Colony. After attempting to effect the 
release of his brother Robert in 1776, and the temporary ac- 



F 



236 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

commodation of afiairs that year, Patrick removed to Charles- 
ton. In 1780 he received the commission of Colonel, and the 
command of a regiment. His estate was confiscated in 1782. 
At the conclusion of the contest, he joined Robert in a request 
to be allowed to remain in the State. The application was 
not successful, and he went to Florida. In 1785, a second 
petition to be restored to his rights in South Carolina was 
more favorably received ; and the Legislature, amercing his 
estate twelve per cent., and imposing some personal disabili- 
ties for a term of years, annulled the previous act of banish- 
ment and confiscation. He was elected a member of the 
Legislature, but his position was an unpleasant one, and 
after servhig for a short time he retired. He died in 1794. 

Cunningham, Robert. Of South Carolina. One of the 
most prominent Loyalists of the whole South. In 1769, he 
settled in the district of Ninety-Six, and was soon commis- 
sioned a Judge. He incurred the displeasure of the Whigs 
in 1775, when he disapproved of their proceedings in sus- 
taining the cause of Massachusetts, and in the adoption of 
the non-importation act. In the course of that year he 
was seized and imprisoned at Charleston. His brother 
Patrick assembled a body of friends in order to effect his 
release. The Whigs despatched Major Williamson with a 
force to prevent the accomplishment of this object, but Cun- 
ningham's party being superior, he was compelled to retreat. 
A truce or treaty was finally arranged, and both Whigs and 
Loyalists dispersed. In July of 1776, Robert Cunningham 
was allowed his freedom without conditions, and removed to 
Charleston. In 1780 he was created a Brigadier General, 
and placed in command of a garrison in South Carolina ; but 
in 1781 was at the head of a force in the field, and en- 
countered Sumpter. His estate was confiscated in 1782. 
After the peace, he petitioned to be allowed to continue in 
South Carolina. His request was refused, and he removed to 
Nassau, New Providence. The British government made him 
a hberal allowance for his losses, and gave him an annuity. 
He died in 1813, aged seventy-four years. It is not unlikely 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 237 

that his sympathies were with the Whigs at an early period of 
the controversy. In 1775 the Provincial Congress placed him 
upon the committee of the Colony, to carry out the Conti- 
nental Association. 

Cunningham, Thomas. Residence unknown. Was a lieu- 
tenant in De Lancey's First Battalion, and adjutant of the 
corps. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, 
and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Cunningham, Walter. Of North Carolina. Lost his pro- 
perty in 1779, under the confiscation act. In 1782 there was an 
ensign of this name in the Second American Regiment, and 
probably the same. 

Cunningham, William. Of South Carolina. Was known 
as " Bloody Bill ; " and there seems no little evidence to show 
that he well deserved the appellation. At the commencement 
of the controversy he was inclined to be a Whig, and indeed 
accepted a military commission, and served in the campaign 
of 1776. Changing sides, he became an officer and a major 
in the service of the crown, and was engaged in many desper- 
ate exploits, and hand to hand fights. In 1782 his property 
was confiscated. He retreated to Florida at the peace. 

Cuple, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

CuRRiE, Ross. Was a lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Loy- 
alists, and adjutant of the corps. He settled in New Bruns- 
wick, received half-pay, and devoted himself to the profession 
of the law. He died in New Brunswick. 

Curry, David, Joshua, and Richard. Who, it is believed, 
belonged to New York, settled at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and received grants of land in that city. 

Curry, Griffin. Was a Protester in 1775. 

Curry, John. He settled in New Brunswick after the war, 
and as early as 1792 was senior Justice of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas for the County of Charlotte. He died in that 
County. His son, Cadwallader Curry, Esquire, was for some 
years a merchant at Eastport, Maine, and subsequently at 
Campo Bello, New Brunswick. 



238 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Curry, Niel. In 1782 was quartermaster of the North 
CaroHna Vohinteers. 

Curtis, Charles. Of Scituate, Massachusetts. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1765. He was one of the eighteen 
country gentlemen who were driven into Boston, and who 
were Addressers of Gage on his departure, in October, 1775. 
He was proscribed under the act of 1778. His death occurred 
at New York previous to 1832. 

Curtis, John and Jarel. Of Q,ueen's County, New York. 
Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 

Curtis, John. Was an Addresser of Lieutenant-colonel 
Sterling of the Forty-second Regiment, April, 1779. 

CuRWEN, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1735. He was in the commission of the 
peace for thirty years, and at the breaking out of the Revo- 
lution, a Judge of Admiralty. He went to England in 1775, 
remained there until 1784, when he returned to Salem, where 
he passed the remainder of his days, dying in 1802, at the age 
of eighty-six years. While in exile, he kept a Journal, which 
has lately been published, and is an interesting book ; its 
editor, the accomplished George A. Ward, Esquire, of New 
York, has enriched it with several notices of his relative's 
fellow Loyalists, and thus added greatly to its value. No 
work extant contains so much information of the unhappy 
exiles while abroad. 

Cushman Elkanah. Petty officer of the Customs. In 1776 
he embarked at Boston for Halifax, with the British army. 

Guthbert, James. Went to St. John, New Brmiswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Cutis, Solomon. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. 

Cutler, Ebenezer. Of Northborough, Massachusetts. In 
May, 1775, the Northborough Committee of Correspondence 
made charges against him, and sent him, with the evidence of 
his misconduct, to General Ward at Cambridge. His case 
ixras submitted to Congress, when it appeared that he had 
spoken "many things disrespectful of the Continental and 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 239 

Provincial Congresses," that he had " acted against their re- 
solves," had said that " he would assist Gage," had called 
such as signed the town-covenant or non-consumption agree- 
ment, " damned fools," &c., &c. A resolve to commit him to 
prison was refused a passage, and a resolve that he be allowed 
to join the British troops at Boston, was also lost. But sub- 
sequently he was allowed to go into that town " without his 
effects." Cutler had formerly lived at Groton. In 1777 he 
accompanied the British army to Halifax. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. He settled in Nova Scotia, and was 
protonotary of the County of Annapolis. He died at Anna- 
polis Royal, in 1831, quite aged. Mary, his widow, died at 
the same place in 1839. 

Cutler, Zaccheus. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished, and lost his estate under the confiscation act. 
Two persons of the name of Thomas Cutler were proscribed 
and banished in 1778 ; one by the act of New Hampshire, the 
other by that of Massachusetts. The Thomas of the latter 
belonged to Hatfield. There died at Gaysborough, Nova 
Scotia, in 1833, Thomas Cutler, Esquire, at the age of eighty- 
five, who was a Loyalist, and who was, undoubtedly, one of 
them. 

Cutting, Leonard. An Episcopal clergyman, of New York. 
He graduated at Oxford, England, in 1754, and shortly after 
was appointed a tutor and a professor in King's College, New 
York. In 1766 he was settled as minister of St. George's 
Church, Hempstead, New York. In 1776 he signed an 
acknowledgment of allegiance, and professed himself a loyal 
and well affected subject. While at Hempstead, he preached 
occasionally at Huntington and Oyster Bay. He also taught 
a classical school of high repute, and educated several young 
men who became eminent. In 1784 his pastoral relation at 
Hempstead was dissolved. I suppose he died prior to 1803, 
as in that year the decease of his widow occurred at Phil- 
adelphia. 

CuYLER, Abraham C. Of Albany, New York. He was 
authorized to raise a battalion of six hundred men for the 



240 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

royal service, and in November, 1779, was recruiting Loya. 
Refugees at Betts's tavern, Jamaica, New York. He was 
attainted, and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went to 
England. He returned to America, and died in Lower Can- 
ada in ISIO. His son, Cornelius, a major in the British ser- 
vice, died at Montreal in 1807. 

Dabney or Daubent, Doctor . Of Salem, Massachu- 
setts. He went to England near the close of 1777, and died 
before the peace. I conclude that he and Nathaniel Dabney, 
who was an Addresser of Hutchinson, but a Recanter ; and 
Nathaniel Daubney, who was an Addresser of Gage, were one 
and the same. 

Dalglish, Anprew. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. 

Dalzall, Edward. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Dana, Samuel. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1755, and was ordained minister of Groton, Massachusetts, in 
1761. His real or supposed political opinions involved him in 
difficulties with his people, and in May, 1775, he made a 
written confession, which, at the moment, was held to be satis- 
factory. In the hope that all trouble might terminate, the 
Whig committee of Groton, (of whom Colonel Prescott, who 
shortly after commanded the American force at Breed's Hill, 
was one,) published a card to the efiect, that Mr. Dana had 
fully atoned for his offences. The good will of his parishion- 
ers was, however, alienated, and separation was the conse- 
quence. For several years after dissolving his connexion at 
Groton, he had no steady employment, but finally commenced, 
and continued, the practice of law. He died in 1798. 

Danforth, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. He was a son of 
Reverend John Danforth of Dorchester, and was educated at 
Harvard University. For several years he was President of 
the Council ; was a Judge of a Court ; and in 1774, a Manda- 
damus Councillor. He died in 1777, aged eighty-one. He 
was distinguished for his love of natural philosophy and 
chemistry. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 241 

Danforth, Samuel. Physician, of Boston. He was born 
in Massachusetts in 1740, and graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1758. He pursued his medical studies with Doctor 
Rand, and commenced practice at Newport ; but finally set- 
tled in Boston. For his political principles he incurred the 
displeasure of the Whigs, and received harsh treatment at 
their hands. From 1795 to 1798 he was President of the 
Medical Society. He excelled in medicine, but not in surgery. 
He continued in full practice until he was nearly fourscore 
years. After about four years' confinement to his house, he 
died at Boston in 1827, aged eighty-seven. The family from 
which he was descended, occupy a distinguished place in the 
annals of New England. He was a son of Honorable Samuel 
Danforth aforenamed. 

Danfokth, Thomas. Counsellor at Law, Charlestown, Mas- 
sachusetts. Son of Honorable Samuel Danforth. He was 
a graduate of Harvard University ; an Addresser of Hutch- 
inson ; and was proscribed and banished. He was the only 
lawyer at Charlestown, and the only inhabitant of that town 
who sought protection from the parent country at the com- 
mencement of serious opposition. He went to Halifax in 
1776. He died in London in 1825. 

Daniel, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Darington, John. He emigrated to New Brunswick at the 
peace, and died in that Colony. Joanna, his widow, died in 
Portland, New Brunswick, in 1840, at the age of ninety-five. 

Davenport, Captain . He was a Whig, and held a 

military commission under Congress, but " was found wholly 
destitute of honor and principle." His connexions were re- 
spectable, and he possessed the air and manners of a man of 
tlie world. He remained at New York after the retreat of 
Washington from Long Island, and until the city was occu- 
pied by the British troops ; and thus became a voluntary cap- 
tive, if not a deserter. 

Davids, William, Esquire. Of Westchester County, New 
21 



242 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

York. A Protester at White Plains, April, 1775. The name 
of David Davids is to be found on the same paper. 

Davidson, Hamilton. He died in York Coimty, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1841, aged ninety-two. 

Davidson, John. Of New Hampshire. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. In 1782 a Loyalist of this name 
was a lieutenant in the King's American Dragoons. 

Davie, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Davis, Benjamin. Merchant, of Boston. Was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He was at New York in July, 1783, 
and a petitioner for a grant of lands in Nova Scotia. In his 
religious faith Mr. Davis was a Sandemanian. 

Davis, Captain . Of Brimfield, Massachusetts. Was 

tarred and feathered for his obnoxious acts and sentiments, 
by a mob at Union, Connecticut, in 1774. 

Davis, James. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Was a 
member of the Reading Association. 

Davis, John. Of Massachusetts. In 1775 was sent under 
guard by the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts to Wash- 
ington's camp at Cambridge, charged with desertion from Fos- 
ter's company of Artillery, and with joining the royal forces. 
He had been seized at Long Island, and sent to Massachusetts. 

Davis, John. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New 
York. Was a loyal Declarator in 1775 ; as was also D. Davis, 
an attorney at law. 

Davis, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780, and also a Petitioner 
to be armed on the side of the crown. He was banished in 
1782, and his property was confiscated. He probably went to 
England. John Davis, an attainted Loyalist was in London 
in 1794, and represented to the British Government that he 
had been unable to recover several large debts due to him at 
the time of his banishment. It may be remarked here, that 
though the sums of money due to Loyalists proscribed, were 
now included in the confiscation acts, the courts of some of 
the States were slow to coerce the debtors. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 243 

Davis, Doctor Lewis. Residence unknown. Was surgeon 
in the King's Rangers. Towards the close of 1782 he was at 
the Island of St. John, Gulf of St. Lawrence, where, it appears, 
he designed to settle. 

Davis, H. Residence unknown. Was a lieutenant of cav- 
alry in the British Legion in 1782. 

Dawkins, George. Of South Carolina. In 1782 he was a 
captain of cavalry in the South Carolina Royalists. His estate 
was confiscated. 

Dawson, David. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. He 
joined the royal army in Philadelphia, and went with it to 
New York, and was employed in passing counterfeit conti- 
nental money. He was detected in 1780, and executed. 

Dawson, George. In 1782 was a captain in the King's 
Orange Rangers. 

Dawson, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was 
an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Day, Abraham, Hendrick, John, and William. Went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, at the close of the Revolution, and 
were grantees of that city. 

Dayley, John and Francis. Embarked with the royal army 
at Boston for Halifax in 1776. 

Dealey, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. He and 
Locklan Martin were tarred and feathered, and driven in a 
cart through the streets of that city in June, 1775; and Dea- 
ley was, besides, compelled to leave the country, and go to 
England. The Secret Committee of Charleston, at that time, 
was composed of distinguished men, one of whom was subse- 
quently in nomination for the highest honors, and there is 
evidence that they countenanced, if they did not actually di- 
rect the procedure. 

Dean, Jacob. Of New York. Was a loyal Declarator in 
1775. He became an inhabitant of New Brunswick, and died 
at St. John in 1818, aged eighty. 

Deane, Honorable Silas. Of Cormecticut. Graduated at 
Yale College in 1758. He played a distinguished part among 
the Whigs in the early part of the contest, but his political 



244 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

sun went down in gloom, sorrow, and destitution. He may 
have been wronged. A member of the first Continental Con- 
gress in 1774, and the first diplomatic agent to France, a 
brilliant career was before him. But while abroad, his engage- 
ments and contracts embarrassed Congress, and he was re- 
called. Called to an account for his pecuniary transactions, 
he did not dispel suspicion of having misapplied the public 
funds intrusted to his care. The delegates of Connecticut in 
Congress appear to have distrusted his integrity from the first. 
In turn, he accused Arthur and William Lee, who were 
abroad in public trusts, as well as their brothers in Congress, 
of conducting a secret correspondence with England. In 
1784 he attempted to retrieve his fame, by an address to the 
country, but failed. He now went to England. Mr. Jay, 
who was in Europe, had been his friend, and wished to aid 
him, and would have done so, had he been able to remove 
the accusations that had blighted his hopes and injured his 
character. But Mr. Jay had heard that he was on terms of 
familiarity with Arnold, and " every American who gives his 
hand to that man," he wrote to Deane, " in my opinion pollutes 
it." Silas Deane died in England in 1789, in extreme want 
and misery. I have said that he may have been wronged. 
He may have been careless in his accounts, but not dishonest ; 
he may have been incapable, not corrupt. In 1842 his long 
disputed claims were adjusted by Congress, and a large sum 
was found to be due to his heirs, under the principles recog- 
nized by the government, and applicable to all claimants ; 
hence the doubt, whether he received entire justice at the 
hands of his associates ; a man driven to despair is to be 
judged mercifully. 

De Beck, John Dudwick. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in 
the New York Volunteers. 

Deblois, George. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Addresser 
of Gage in 1774. He went to England. 

Deblois, Gilbert. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to Hali- 
fax in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. In 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 245 

1779 he was in London, and addressed the king. A person of 
this name died in Boston in 1803, probably the same. 

Deblois, Isaac. He was in the service of the king, and a 
lieutenant. In 1784 a lot in the city of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, was granted him by the crown. 

Deblois, Lewis. Merchant, of Boston. He was an Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1775, and in 1776 was at Halifax. In 1778 ■ 
he was proscribed and banished. He was in London in 1779, 
and in 1784 still in England. At a later period he was a 
merchant in St. John, New Brunswick, and in 1795 a member 
of the company of Loyal Artillery. He died at St. John in 
1802. His daughter, Elizabeth Cranston, is the wife of 
James White, Esquire, the present (1846) sheriff of the Coun- 
ty of St. John. 

Decrow, Thomas. Of Marsh field, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Deforest, Ephraim. Of Reading, Connecticut. He was a 
member of the Loyalist Association at Reading. In the spring 
of 1783, accompanied by his wife and three children, he went 
to St. John, New Brunswick. 

Deighton, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Delahowe, John. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

De Lancey, James. Of New York. He was elected a 
member of the House of Assembly of New York in 1769, 
and his success in obtaining a seat was regarded as a triumph 
of the Episcopalians over the Presbyterians. When the Loyal- 
ists commenced the organization of military corps, he accepted 
of a commission, and commanded a battalion or regiment. 
He was taken prisoner and confined in the jail at Hartford, 
Connecticut; and while there received the following letter 
from Mr. Jay, who was an old friend. 

'' Sir, — Notwithstanding the opposition of our sentiments 
and conduct relative to the present contest, the friendship 
which subsisted between us is not forgotten ; nor will the good 
21* 



246 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

offices formerly done by yourself and family cease to excite 
my gratitude. How far your situation may be comfortable 
and easy, I know not ; it is my wish, and it shall be my en- 
deavor, that it be as much so as may be consistent with the 
interest of the great cause to which I have devoted everything 
I hold dear in this world. I have taken the liberty of request- 
. ing Mr. Samuel Broome immediately to advance you one hun- 
dred dollars on my account. Your not having heard from me 
sooner was unavoidable. A line by the first opportunity will 
oblige me. Be explicit, and avail yourself without hesitation 
of the friendship which was entertained as well as professed 
for you by 

"Your obedient and humble servant, 

"John Jay." 

" Poughkeepsie, January 2d, 1778." 

Colonel De Lancey was attainted, and lost his estate under 
the confiscation act. He went to England at the close of the 
war, and at the formation of the Loyalist agency for prosecu- 
ting claims for compensation, was appointed agent for New 
York, and became vice president of the board. His own 
losses were large and difficult of adjustment, and occupied the 
attention of the commissioners for some days. Excepting Sir 
William Pepperell, Colonel De Lancey appears to have been 
the most active member of the agency ; and as two papers on 
the subject of the Loyalists claims which bear his signature 
contain much information, and cannot but interest the reader, 
I insert them entire. Both were written in 1778. The first 
is a petition to Parliament, and 

" Humbly she weth, — That, in pursuance of four several 
acts of Parliament, passed in the years 1783, 1785, 1786, and 
1787, for appointing Commissioners to inquire into the losses 
and services of all such persons who have suffered in their 
rights, properties, and professions, during the late unhappy 
dissensions in America, in consequence of their loyalty to his 
Majesty, and attachment to the British government, the said 
Commissioners have proceeded in the said Inquiry, and made 
several Reports thereon to the Lords Commissioners of his 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 247 

Majesty's Treasury, as directed by the said Acts, statements 
whereof, up to the fifth day of April, 1788, have, by order, 
been laid before your Honorable House. 

"That, by the Statement made up to the 25th day of 
December, 1787, the gross sum of £7,067,858, appears to have 
been claimed for the loss of property only, by two thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-four Claimants, of which number not . 
more than twelve have been reported to be fraudulent, seven 
rejected for want of Loyalty, and only two hundred and fifty 
disallowed for want of sufficient proof, out of seventeen hun- 
dred and twenty-four which they had examined and reported 
upon, whose Claims had amounted to £6,572,896, as appears 
by their statement up to the 5th day of April, 1788, but to 
whom they had allowed no more than £1,887,548, in full 
compensation thereof, which is not equal to one third of the 
amount of the said Claims. And that several of the Claim- 
ants have represented to your Petitioners, that the sums al- 
lowed them as Compensation have been much less than they 
conceived to be the value of their property thus lost; and 
which, in their opinion, had been substantiated by the evi- 
dence produced before the said Commissioners. And that they 
apprehend the deductions which have been made were in con- 
sequence of some general principles or rules adopted by the 
Commissioners in the investigation of the Claims of the Loy- 
alists with which they are unacquainted, and which they 
conceive may possibly have been founded on mis-information 
or mistake. 

" Your Petitioners trust, that the Commissioners of Amer- 
ican Claims cannot possibly have any objection to disclose, in 
the present stage of the inquiry, the principles and the rules 
which they have formed for their direction in the liquidation 
of Claims on the justice and liberality of Parliament to the 
amount of many millions, and in an inquiry so interesting to 
the public, and the individuals aflfected by their decision. 

"Your Petitioners therefore pray your Honorable House, 
that the Commissioners of American Claims be ordered to lay 
before the House the General Rules and Principles which they 



248 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

have formed for their inquiry, and under which they have 
acted in the liquidation of the Claims of the Loyalists. 
"Jas. De Lancey, 

" Agent of the Committee." 

The second is a letter to Mr. Pitt, the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and contains the reasons of the Loyalists, why no 
discrimination or deduction ought to be made from the sums 
found due them by the Commissioners. 

" Sir, — We have the honor of submitting to your consid- 
eration sundry reasons against any deductions being made 
from the sums found due to the American Loyalists ; demon- 
strating, that after they shall have received the full amount, 
the losses they have sustained will greatly exceed those of 
their fellow subjects in consequence of the war. Persuaded 
as we are of your upright and liberal intentions towards them, 
we flatter ourselves that those reasons have convinced your 
judgment of the injustice upon which any deductions what- 
ever must be founded. But as you were pleased to intimate 
to our Committee a possibility that Parliament might, in the 
final payment, proceed on the distinction which has been made 
between the Loyalists who had borne arms, and those who 
have not ; we beg leave to lay before you the following addi- 
tional reasons, not only against such deduction, but against 
any discrimination whatever in the compensation to be made 
for loss of property. 

" The distinction was made by Parliament in an early stage 
of the inquiry, when no certain idea could be formed of the 
whole amount of the losses, for the purpose of affording relief 
to those who wanted it. But we cannot suppose that Parlia- 
ment intended, at the time, to adopt it in the final administra- 
tion of justice, for the following reasons : — 

"1. It is a distinction which never has been, nor ever can 
be rationally made ; because it is impossible to ascertain the 
numerous and various degrees of Loyalty produced by an infi- 
nite variety of acts, during a long continued rebellion ; and 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 249 

t 

equally so to apportion, upon any principle of law or equity, 
the sums which the Loyalists ought to receive in consequence 
thereof. Besides, were this possible, it would be fundamentally 
unjust, because the Loyalist whose person has been attainted, 
and whose property has been confiscated, in consequence of 
one act of Loyalty, has cAddently suffered on the public ac- 
count as much ' injury and damage ' as he who has suffered 
in consequence of ten thousand, and of course is equally an 
object of public protection, and full compensation ; although 
the other must be allowed to have a stronger claim to gratitude 
and reward from Government for his services. Hence it is, 
that there is no instance to be found in the Journals of Parlia- 
ment, of any such discrimination. But, on the contrary, it 
appears from every case of a sirhilar nature, that the uniform 
usage of Parliament has been to make full compensation to 
subjects who have suffered in consequence of their fidelity to 
the State ; even where that fidelity has been shown by a dis- 
charge of the least of their political duties, without making 
any discrimination or deduction from the sum found due. To 
this we will add, that there never has been any point of law, 
or principle of justice, more solemnly settled than what we 
here contend for. In the case of Daniel Campbell, who had 
suffered in his property by a mob, on account only of his 
voting for the malt-tax, all the branches of the Legislature 
concurred in declaring, ' That as the losses and damages he 
had sustained, were on account of the concern he had, or was 
supposed to have had, in promoting the act for laying a duty 
on malt, it is just and reasonable that the said damages and 
losses should be made good and repaid, clear of all deductions.' 
Does it not then follow, beyond all possibility of doubt, in the 
case where the subject has lost his property on account of his 
fidelity to the State, and ultimately by an act of the State 
itself, manifestly done for its own security and preservation, 
that he ought to receive equal compensation with the sub- 
ject who has suffered for giving a vote for an Act of Parlia- 
ment? 

"2. Upon a little consideration of his Majesty's Proclama- 



250 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

tion, and the resolutions of the two Houses of Pariiament, it 
will further appear, that any such discrimination or deduction 
■will be evidently inconsistent with, and derogatory to, because 
a manifest failure in the performances of, the royal and parlia- 
mentary assurances held out by them to the Loyalists. For 
by those assurances, the Royal Faith, and the Honor of Parli- 
ament, stand most solemnly pledged for the ' protection ' of, 
and for making ' ample and full compensation ' to, every Loy- 
alist, indiscriminately who had been ' aiding and assisting in 
suppressing the rebellion,' or 'who, on account of a desire 
manifested to assist in carrying into execution any Acts of 
the British Legislature, has suffered any injury or damage ' 
whatever. 

"3. In pursuance of his Majesty's Proclamation, and the 
resolutions of the two Houses of Parliament, a Commission 
has been instituted for Inquiring into Losses and Services of 
those who had ' suffered in consequence of their Loyalty to his 
Majesty, and their attachment to the British Government, and 
their obedience to his Majesty's Proclamation,' (fcc., &c. And 
the Loyalists whose losses have been inquired into, and liqui- 
dated under that Commission, are clearly included in the de- 
scription of, and are identically the persons who (by the 
express words of his Majesty's Proclamation, and the resolu- 
tions of the two Houses) are declared to be ' entitled ' to the 
* protection of the laws,' and to full and ' ample compensa- 
tion.' 

" 4. Neither his Majesty's Proclamation, nor the resolutions 
of the two Houses, nor the Statute of Inquiry, nor any one 
Precedent to be found in the Journals of Parliament, allude 
to, or even mention, the degree of Loyalty requisite to entitle 
the subject to the ' Protection and Compensation ' declared to 
be due, and solemnly promised by his Majesty and the two 
Houses ; but as the evident principles of policy, reason, justice, 
and law required, all of them unite in constituting and estab- 
Ushing ' the having suffered any injury or damage in conse- 
quence of Loyalty,' the criterion and express condition upon 
which the ' title ' to protection, and * ample and full compen- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 251 

sation' shall be completely vested; and as every Loyalist, 
whose loss had been inquired into and reported, has complied 
with that condition, his right or ' title ' to the full amount of 
the sum found due, is unequivocally established upon the said 
Proclamation and Resolutions. We therefore most humbly 
trust, that Parliament will not deviate from all former Prece- 
dents, and from the principles of reason and justice so sol- 
emnly established, by making any deduction whatever from 
the sums found due to subjects, who have suflfered so much, 
and such long continued loss and distress on the public ac- 
count, and for the public advantage ; sums, in the complete 
and liberal discharge of which, the sacred faith of Majesty, 
the inviolable honor of Parliament, the irreproachable char- 
acter of the Nation, and the momentous security of the State, 
are so evidently concerned. 

"We could, Sir, offer to your consideration other arguments 
on the subject ; but, confiding in your upright sense of public 
justice, and the benevolence of your feelings for the virtuous 
and distressed, we will conclude with requesting that you will 
favor our Committee with the promised interview, by which 
alone the anxiety of our minds on the occasion can be re- 
lieved. 

" I have the honor to be, by the direction, and on behalf, of 
the Agents for the American Loyalists, with great respect, 

" Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 
"James De Lancey, 

" Vice President." 

" Right Honorable William Pitt, &c." 

These papers produced no effect, except as is stated in the 
preliminary remarks to this work, no discrimination was finally 
made between Loyalists of different degrees of loyalty, merit, 
and grades of service.* In this respect all were treated alike ; 
but the commissioners were not required to revise their pro- 
ceedings, as was asked for in the address to Parliament ; nor 
was Mr. Pitt induced to change his purpose of making certain 
rates of reduction on the sums reported to be due to claimants 



252 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

by the commissioners, as was solicited in the communication to 
him. The petition and the letter are, however, valuable doc- 
uments, and able and authorized statements of the views of 
adherents of the crown, who were interested in the matters to 
which they relate. 

Indeed, the claimants appear to have acquiesced in the deci- 
sion of the minister; and the board of agents, after Mr. Pitt's 
plan was confirmed by an act of Parliament, presented an 
Address to the King. Colonel De Lancey affixed his signature 
to this address, and with his associates had an audience of his 
Majesty, and " had the honor to kiss his Majesty's hand." 

Colonel De Lancey finally fixed his residence in Nova 
Scotia, and in 1794 was sworn in as a member of the Council 
of that Colony. He died at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, about the 
year 1809. Martha, his widow, died at the same place in 
1837, at the age of seventy-three. 

De Lancey, James. Of New York. He was an officer 
in Oliver De Lancey' s Second Battalion. James De Lancey, 
Esquire, Collector of his Majesty's Customs, died at Crooked 
Island, New Providence, in 1808, and was perhaps the 
same. 

De Lancey, Oliver. Of New York. His father, who was 
a French refugee, was a gentleman of wealth, and of the first 
rank. His career for some years may be considered in con- 
nexion with that of his brother James, who was Chief Justice 
and Lieutenant Governor of that Colony. James was a man 
of talents, of learning, of great vivacity, and of popular man- 
ners; but if the writers of the time are to be followed, he 
was also an unprincipled demagogue, who opposed the gov- 
ernors whom he could not rule, and who, for unworthy pur- 
poses of his own, kept the public mind in continual agitation. 
He was at the head of afiairs and administered the govern- 
ment after the removal of Clinton and the death of Osbom, 
and a second time, as the successor of Hardy. He died in 
1760. His daughter married the celebrated Sir William Dra- 
per. The party opposed to his advancement, in denouncing 
his ambitious projects, did not spare Oliver, the subject of 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 253 

this notice. On some occasions, Oliver seems to have promoted 
his brother's designs, at the expense of propriety and deco- 
rum. But yet Oliver De Lancey, at the period of the French 
war, occupied a commanding position, and perhaps he did 
not overrate his personal influence when he said, that if in 
the expedition against Crown Point, he " should accept the 
command of the New York regiment, he could in ten days 
raise the whole" quota of troops allotted to that Colony. 
This standing he maintained after his brother's death, and 
until the Revolution. At the commencement of the contro- 
versy he may not have been a zealous adherent of the crown. 
Some of the Whigs insisted, indeed, that he heartily approv- 
ed of the course of the ministry, and a letter appeared in 
a newspaper in England, in 1775, which, if genuine, au- 
thorized the opinion. But this letter he publicly averred to 
be an infamous and a malicious forgery. Nor did he stop 
there, for he submitted, as he declared upon his honor, the 
whole of his correspondence with his friends in England, 
from the earliest moment of the dispute, to Mr. Jay, who, 
rinding nothing objectionable, so stated in a card which was 
published. But whatever was his course before the question 
of separation from the mother country was discussed, he 
opposed the dismemberment of the empire, and put his life 
and property at stake to prevent it. In 1776 he was appoint- 
ed a brigadier-general in the royal service. Skinner, of New 
Jersey ; Brown, a former governor of the Bahamas ; Arnold, 
the apostate; and Cunningham, of South Carolina, were of 
the same grade, but their commissions were of later dates. 
General De Lancey was, therefore, the senior Loyalist offi- 
cer in commission during the contest. His command con- 
sisted of three battalions, known as De Lancey's Battalions. 
In his orders for enlistments, he promised to any well re- 
commended characters, who should engage a company of 
seventy men, the disposal of the commissions of captain, 
lieutenant, and ensign. The common soldiers, he said, 
would be "in British pay." Yet his success in filling up 
his battalions was not flattering. Of the fifteen hundred 
22 



254 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

men required, only five hundred and ninety-seven were em- 
bodied in the spring of 1777, and but seven hundred and seven 
a year later. 

Previous to the Revolution, General De Lancey was a mem- 
ber of the Council, and was considered to be in office in 1782, 
though a constitution was formed in New York in 1777, and 
a government organized under it. By this government he was 
attainted of treason, and his large property confiscated. He 
went to England at the close of the war, and was a member 
of Parliament, but did not long survive. He died in 1785, 
aged sixty-eight. I suppose ,that Van Shaack alludes to his 
decease in the following passage. " Our old friend has at last 
taken his departure from Beverley, which he said should hold 
his bones; he went off without pain or struggle, his body 
wasted to a skeleton, his mind the same. The family most 
of them collected in town [London]. There will scarcely be 
a village in England without some American dust in it, I 
believe, by the time we are all at rest." 

De Lancey, Oliver, Junior. Of New York. Son of Oli- 
ver De Lancey. While most of the Loyalists who entered the 
military service were attached to Provincial corps, and were of 
course liable to be dismissed at the close of the war, De Lan- 
cey appears to have obtained a commission in the British 
army as early as 1776, at which period he was a captain of 
horse. At a subsequent day he was major of the Seventeenth 
Regiment of Dragoons, and after the death of Andre, adjutant 
general, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He continued in 
the army, and at his decease, within a few years, was barrack- 
master general of the British empire. His treatment of Gen- 
eral Nathaniel WoodhuU, an estimable Whig of New York, 
who became his prisoner in 1776, should never be forgotten. 
There seems no room to doubt, that, when that unfortunate gen- 
tleman surrendered his sword to De Lancey, he stipulated for, 
and was promised, protection ; but that his Loyalist country- 
man basely struck him, and permitted his men to cut and hack 
him at pleasure. And it is no less certain that the General, 
maimed aiid wounded, was denied proper care, attention, and 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 255 

accommodation, and that he perished in consequence of the 
barbarities of his captors. 

De Lancey, Stephen. He entered the mihtary service of 
the king, and in 1782 was lieutenant-colonel of the First Bat- 
tahon of New Jersey Volunteers. At the peace he left the 
country ; and subsequently was Chief Justice of the Bahamas. 
His wife was a daughter of Reverend Henry Barclay, rector 
of Trinity Church, New York. A son was aid to Wellington, 
and was killed at Waterloo. 

De Lancey, Warren. Of New York. In 1780 he was 
commissioned a comet of dragoons. 

Belong, James. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 the Council 
ordered that he surrender for trial, or stand attainted. 

Delue, Jacob. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1825, aged sixty-five. 

Delyon, Isaac. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate was 
amerced twelve per cent. 

De Mayern, Philip. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
Orange Rangers. 

Dement, . Was a Whig officer of Colonel Magaw's 

command, who deserted to the enemy under Howe, a short 
time before the affair of Fort Washington. 

Demile, John. A grantee of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Demott, Abraham, John, Michael, and Samuel. Of Queen's 
County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 
Michael was subsequently in the military service of the 
crown. 

Denholm, George. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Dennis, John, Junior. Of Richland, Pennsylvania. In 
Council, in 1778, it was ordered, that failing to surrender and 
be tried for treason, he stand attainted. 

Dennis, Richard. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was 
an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 17S0. He was banished 
in 1782, and his property was confiscated. 

Denton. In 1775 Joseph Denton, of Brook-haven, New 
York, assisted Major Benjamin Floyd in procuring signatures 



256 BIOGKAPHICAL SKETCHES 

to a paper expressive of a determination to support the royal 
authority. In 1776 Thomas, Amos junior, Joseph, Samuel, 
Isaac, and Amos Denton, of Queen's County, professed them- 
selves to Lord Richard and General William Howe, loyal and 
well affected subjects. In 1780, James Denton of that County 
was in arms against the Whigs. The name of Joseph Denton 
is found among the Addressers of Lieutenant Colonel Sterling. 

Deonezzau, Adam. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for 
Halifax with the British army. 

De Peyster, Abraham. Of New York. He entered the 
king's service, and was a captain in the New York Volun- 
teers. He was second in command at the battle of King's 
Mountain, in 1780, and after the fall of Ferguson, hoisted a 
flag as a signal of surrender. The firing immediately ceased, 
and the royal troops laying down their arms, the most of 
which were loaded, submitted to the conquerors at discretion. 
It seems not to be generally understood, that nearly the whole 
of Ferguson's force was composed of Loyalists; but such is 
the fact. He went into action with eleven hundred and 
twenty-five men, of whom only one hundred and sixty-two 
were regulars. Of the Loyalists, no less than two hundred 
and six were killed, one hundred and twenty-eight wounded, 
and six hundred and twenty-nine taken prisoners. The loss 
of regulars, was eighteen slain, and one hundred and three 
wounded and captured. Captain De Peyster was paid off the 
morning of the battle. Among the coin which he received 
was a doubloon, which he put in a pocket of his vest. While 
on the field, a bullet struck the gold and stopped, and his 
life was thus saved. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. He 
received half-pay. He was treasurer of New Brunswick, 
and a colonel in the militia. He died in that Colony pre- 
vious to 1799, as in that year leave was given to sell a part 
of his estate in the hands of his administrator. 

De Peyster, Frederick. Of New York. He was a cap- 
tain in the New York Volunteers in 17S2. In 1784 he was 
at St. John, New Brunswick, and received the grant of a city 



i 

1 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 257 

lot In 1792 he was a magistrate in the County of York. 
He returned to the United States. A gentleman of this name 
was a student of Peter Van Shaack in early life, was much 
esteemed by him, and "one of his principal correspondents 
in his old age." This Mr. De Peyster — and possibly the 
same — was living in New York in 1S28. 

Derickson, Captain Jacob. Of Brandy wine, Delaware. In 
1778 he was required by law to surrender himself within a 
specified time, or suffer the confiscation of his estate. 

De Rosset, Lewis H. A member of the Council of North 
Carolina. He was present in Council, April 2, 1775, and 
gave his assent to the issuing of a Proclamation to forbid the 
meeting of a Whig Convention at Newbern on the following 
day. This Convention was for the purpose of electing Dele- 
gates to the Continental Congress. He was in communication 
with Governor Martin, after the royal authority had ceased, 
and his Excellency had abandoned the palace. 

Deveaux, Andrew, Junior. Of South Carolina. An officer 
of the crown after the surrender of Charleston in 1780. Es- 
tate confiscated. 

Deveaux, Jacob. Of South Carolina. Was a Congratulator 
of Cornwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 1782 
his estate was confiscated. He was banished. 

De Veber, Gabriel. Of New York. He entered the mili- 
tary service of the crown, and in 1 782 was lieutenant-colonel 
of the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers. He settled 
in New Brunswick at the close of the war, and was a grantee 
of the city of St. John, He received half-pay. In 1792 he 
was Sheriff of the County of Sunbury, and colonel in the 
militia. He died in that County. Margaret his wife, third 
daughter of Doctor Nathaniel Hubbard, of Stamford, Con- 
necticut, died in King's County in 1813. 

De Veber, Gabriel, Junior. Of New York. Son of Gabriel 
De Veber. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in De Lancey's Third 
Battalion. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, was a grantee of that city, and received half-pay. He 
died in New Brunswick. 
22* 



258 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Devoe, Frederick and James. In 1783 arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, and lands were granted to them ; the latter 
died at Hampton, New Brunswick, in 1833, aged seventy- 
nine. 

Devoe, Levi. Was a Protester in 1775. 

Dewsenburgh, John. Of Westchester County, New York. 
Protester, 6cc. 

DiBBLEE, Frederick. He was born at Stamford, Connecticut, 
and graduated at King's College, New York. After the Revo- 
lution, he settled in New Brunswick, and became rector of 
the Episcopal Church at Woodstock. He died at that place 
in 1826, aged seventy- three. Nancy, his widow, died at the 
same place in 1838, at the age of eighty-three. 

DiBBLEE, Fyler. Attomcy at Law, Stamford, Connecticut. 
In 1775 he was captain of the first military company of 
Stamford, and a person of consideration. He early incurred 
the displeasure of the Whigs, and the Assembly of Connecticut 
appointed commissioners to inquire into hig conduct. In 1778 
he and sixteen other Loyalists were taken prisoners on Long 
Island, New York, by a party of Whigs who landed there from 
boats. His property in Connecticut was confiscated. In 1783 
he was a deputy agent for the transportation of Loyalists 
from New York to Nova Scotia, and in April of that year, 
sailed from Huntington Bay in the ship Union for St. John, 
New Brunswick, and arrived in May. He was accompanied 
by his wife, five children, and two servants. In 1784 he 
received the grant of two city lots. Some years after he com- 
mitted suicide. Various reasons have been assigned for the 
melancholy termination of his Ufa. 

DiBBLEE, Ralph. Died at Kingston, New Brunswick, in 
1799. 

DiBBLEE, Walter. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He arrived 
at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 1783. 
The crown granted him a city lot in 1734. He died at Sus- 
sex Vale, New Bruns\^^ick, in 1817, 'aged fifty-three. 

DiBBLEE, William. Of Stamford, Connecticut. In the spring 
of 1783 he arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship 

TTnion. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 259 

Dick, John. A Loyalist of the emigration from the United 
States of the year 1783. He died at St. George, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1839, aged ninety-five years. 

Dickenson, William. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of 
Gage in 1775. Francis embarked at Boston for Hahfax with 
the royal army in 1776. Nathaniel, of Deerfield, and Roger, 
of Hatfield, Massachusetts, were proscribed and banished in 
1778. Besides these of the same name, Turtullus, was a 
major in the royal service ; was at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1784, and received a grant of land. Samuel, went to New 
Brunswick also, was a grantee of land, and in 1792, a magis- 
trate in Queen's County. 

Dickson, Robert. Settled in Nova Scotia. Was a member 
of the House of Assembly, and magistrate of the District of 
Colchester. He died in 1835. 

Dickson, William. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. ^ 

Dickson, W. Of New York. He commanded a company 
in the New York Volunteers. In 1780 he was drowned at 
Long Island while bathing. His body was found and in- 
terred. 

DiNGEE, Solomon. He died at Gagetown, New Brunswick, 
in 1836, aged eighty. 

Dingwell, Arthur. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. In 
1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John. 

DiTMARs, Abraham, Douw, Garret, Isaac, and John. Of 
Q,ueen's County, New York. Were signers of a Representa- 
tion and Petition to Lord Richard and General William Howe, 
acknowledging allegiance, October, 1776. Isaac signed a 
Declaration of I.oyalty in 1775, and Douw Ditmars, junior, 
did the same. In 1777, Douw was appointed a trustee to pro- 
vide fuel and other articles. for the hospital on Long Island. 
Some of the Ditmars of ,Q,ueen's County went to Nova Scotia 
at the peace. John J. Ditmars died in that Colony in 1829, 
aged ninety-seven. 



%«M| 



260 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Dix, Jonathan. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Dixon, Charles. He became an inhabitant of New Bruns- 
wick at the peace, or perhaps a httle earlier, and continued a 
resident of the Colony until his death, in 1817, at the age of 
eighty-nine. 

Dixon, Joseph. He died at Hampton, King's County, New 
Brunswick, in 1812, aged ninety-two. 

DoBBs, Edward Brice. Of North Carolina. In 1777 his 
property was confiscated. 

DoGGiT, John. Of Middleborough, Massachusetts. He went 
to New Brunswick, and died on the Island of Grand Menan, 
Bay of Fundy, in 1830, aged seventy. 

DoLSTON, Isaac, Isaac Junior, and Matthew. Of Wyoming, 
Pennsylvania. Were severally required to surrender them- 
selves for trial on a charge of treason to the State, within a 
specified time in 1778, or stand attainted. 

Donaldson, Samuel. He was at New York in July, 1783, 
and was one of the fifty-five who petitioned for grants of lands 
in Nova Scotia. See Abijah Willard. 

DoNAVAN, James, Junior. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Was an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. In 1782, 
J. Donaven, and probably the same, was a lieutenant of in- 
fantry in the British Legion. 

Dorlan, or DoRLAND. Benjamin, Benjamin junior, David, 
Elias the third, John, Joseph, Samuel, and Thomas, of Queen's 
County, New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 
In 1780 Joseph Dorian, of that County, was in the military 
service of the crown. 

Dougherty, Edward. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for 
Halifax. A Loyalist of this name died in extreme poverty 
on the river St. John, New Brunswick, where he had lived 
many years, about the year 1808. 

Doughty. Two of this name were attached to De Lancey's 
Third Battalion in 1782 ; Charles, as surgeon, and Bartholo- 
mew, as a captain. 

Doughty, Samuel. Of Jamaica, New York. Was a signer 



I' 



r 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 261 

of the Declaration of loyalty, January, 1775. His son Sam- 
uel, and a John Doughty, of Jamaica, signed the same. 

Doughty, William. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Douglas, Benjamin. In 1782 he was an ensign in the 
King's Rangers, Carolina. 

DouNiE, John. Of Camden, South Carolina. Was in com- 
mission under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. 
Estate confiscated. 

DouNiNG, Benjamin. Of Westchester County, New York. 
A Protester at White Plains. 

DouNS, Archibald, or Arthur. Of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was 
banished. In 1782 his property was confiscated. 

DowLiNG, Samuel. Was one of the grantees of the city of 
St. John, New Brunswick. 

DoxsTADER, John. A Tory leader. On an incursion to 
Currietown, he and his Indian associates took nine prisoners, 
who, in an affair at a place called Ourlagh, New York, the 
day succeeding their capture, were bound to standing trees, 
tomahawked and scalped. The bodies of these unfortunate 
men were hastily buried by friends. But one of them, Jacob 
Diefendorff", was alive, and was afterwards found on the out- 
side of his own grave ; he recovered and lived to relate the 
story. In 1780, on one of his incursions in New York, Dox- 
stader carried away a horse belonging to a Whig ; but com- 
ing to the same region, from Canada, after the war, he was 
arrested by the owner, and compelled to pay the value of the 
animal. 

Doyle, John. In 1782 was a captain in the Second Ameri- 
can Regiment. 

Drake, John. Innkeeper, of Newcastle, Delaware. Was 
required m 1778 to surrender himself, or to submit to the for- 
feiture of his property. 

Drake, Jeremiah. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died at St. John in 1846, aged eighty. 

Drake, Francis. Died at dueensbury, New Brunswick, in 



kir4 



262 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

1836, aged eighty-one. He was in the service of the crown 
for some years. 

Drake, Uriah. Of New York. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
He died at Carlton, New Brunswick, in 1832, at the age of 
seventy. 

Draper, Richard. Printer and proprietor of the Massachu- 
setts Gazette, and Boston News Letter. He was the appren- 
tice, silent partner, and successor of his father, John Draper. 
He was early appointed printer to the Governor and Council, 
which employment he retained during life. His paper was 
devoted to the government, and in the controversy between 
Great Britain and the Colonies, gave strong support to the 
royal cause, and had some able contributors. He was a man 
of feeble health ; and was remarkable for the delicacy of his 
mind, and gentleness of his manners. No stain rested upon 
his character. He was attentive to his affairs, and was es- 
teemed the best compiler of news of his day. He died June 
6th, 1774, aged forty-seven years ; without children. 

Draper, Margaret. Wife of Richard Draper, of Boston. 
With the aid of John Howe, continued the publication of the 
Massachusetts Gazette, and Boston News Letter from the time 
of her husband's death in 1774, until the evacuation of Bos- 
ton in 1776 ; and her paper was the only one that was pub- 
lished during the siege of that town. She accompanied the 
British army to Halifax, and proceeding to England, lived 
there for the remainder of her days. Her death occurred, it 
is believed, about the opening of the present century. The 
British Government allowed her a pension. Trumbull, in his 
McFingal, calls her " mother Draper." 

Dredden, W. Of New York. An officer in a band of 
marauders. 

Drew, John, Isaac, and Peter. Of Fairfield County, Con- 
necticut. Were members of the Reading Association. 

Drew, Joseph. A grantee of the city of St. John, New 
Brunswick ; he died there in 1808, 

Drinker, Henry. Of Philadelphia. In 1777, charged with 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. S69 

disafTection to the Whigs, he was confined in that city, and 
sent to Virginia. 

Drummond, Alexander. In 1782 he was surgeon of the 
King's American Regiment. 

Drummond, James. Was one of the grantees of the city of 
St. John in 1783. 

Drummond, Robert. Was major of the Second BattaUon 
of New Jersey Volunteers in 1782. 

Dry, William. Of North Carohna. He was collector of 
the customs, and a member of the Royal Council. When Mr. 
Quincy of Massachusetts was on his southern tour in 1773, 
he was his guest, and recorded in his journal, that " Colonel 
Dry's mansion is justly called the house of universal hospital- 
ity." At this time, it is probable, from circumstances related 
by Mr. Quincy, that Mr. Dry was inclined to the popular side. 
But, by the records of the Royal Council, it appears, that April 
12, 1775, he " took again the oath appointed to be taken by 
Privy Counsellors." The Board at this meeting dismissed 
from a commission of the Peace Colonel John Harvey, one of 
the most zealous Whigs in North Carolina, and with the con- 
sent of all the members present. Yet I find that, after the 
adoption of the Constitution in 1776, Colonel Dry was elected 
a member of the new, or Whig Council. But a man who 
changed so often was not a Whig. 

Du Bois, Peter. Of New York. His property was con- 
fiscated. I suppose that Colonel Dubois, who commanded a 
corps of Loyalists, and was in service under Sir John Johnson, 
was the same. 

DucHE, Jacob, D. D. An Episcopal minister of Philadelphia. 
He was born in that city, and graduated at the college there 
in 1757. He entered the ministry, and after the first Conti- 
nental Congress assembled, in 1774, ofiiciated as chaplain on 
the 7th of September, and was thanked by a vote of that body, 
"for the excellent prayer which he composed and delivered" 
on the occasion. At this time he was assistant rector of two 
churches, but on the death of Reverend Doctor Richard Peters, 
an Episcopal minister of Philadelphia, in 1775, was appointed 



4«« 



264 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

his successor. In 1776 he was elected chaplain to Congress, 
with a salary. The following is the form of prayer, which 
he made use of after Independence was declared. 

" O Lord ! our heavenly Father, high and mighty, King of 
kings, and Lord of lords, who dost from thy throne behold all 
the dwellers on earth, and reignest with power supreme and 
uncontrolled over all kingdoms, empires and governments. 
Look down in mercy, we beseech thee, on these our American 
States, who have fled to thee from the rod of the oppressor, 
and thrown themselves on thy gracious protection, desiring to 
be henceforth dependent only on thee ; to thee have they ap- 
pealed for the righteousness of their cause ; to thee do they 
now look up for that countenance and support, which thou 
alone canst give : take them, therefore, heavenly Father, 
under thy nurturing care ; give them wisdom in council, and 
valor in the field ; defeat the malicious designs of our cruel 
adversaries ; convince them of the unrighteousness of their 
cause, and if they still persist in their sanguinary purposes, 
O ! let the voice of thine own unerring justice, sounding in 
their hearts, constrain them to drop the weapons of war from 
their unnerved hands in the day of battle. Be thou present, 
O God of wisdom, and direct the councils of this honorable 
assembly; enable them to settle things on the best and surest 
foundation, that the scene of blood may be speedily closed, 
that order, harmony and peace may be effectually restored, 
and truth and justice, religion and piety, prevail and flourish 
amongst thy people ; preserve the health of their bodies and 
the vigor of their minds ; shower down on them, and the 
millions they represent, such temporal blessings, as thou seest 
expedient for them in this world, and crown them with ever- 
lasting glory in the world to come. All this we ask in the 
name, and through the merits of Jesus Christ, thy Son and 
our Saviour. Amen." 

He ofiiciated as chaplain about three months, when he aban- 
doned the Whigs, and resigned. In October, 1777, he wrote 
an extraordinary letter to Washington, which was delivered 
by Mrs. Ferguson, and which the Commander-in-chief trans- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 265 

mitted to Congress. The objects of this communication were, 
to cast a general odium on the Whig cause, to induce Wash- 
ington to apostatize, and resign his command of the army, or, 
at the head of it, to force Congress immediately to desist from 
hostilities, and to rescind the Declaration of Independence. If 
this is not done, said Duche, "You have an infallible resource 
still left ; negotiate for America at the head of your arrny^ 
In the course of this letter, he represents Congress in a most 
despicable view ; as consisting of weak, obscure persons, not 
fit associates for Washington ; and he speaks of the members 
from New England, especially, with great indelicacy. The 
army, in his estimation, both officers and men, were possessed 
neither of courage nor principle, and were taken from the low- 
est of the people. 

Various motives were assigned for his apostasy ; some be- 
lieved that it was occasioned by the gloomy aspect of affairs ; 
others supposed that it arose from a change in his sentiments 
respecting the justice of the Whig cause. But whatever was 
the reason, the aspersions contained in his letter admit of no 
excuse ; he degraded his profession, and loaded his name and 
memory with infamy. After quitting Philadelphia, Doctor 
Duche went to England, and became chaplain to an asylum 
for orphans. He was a man of brilliant talents, an impressive 
orator, had a fine poetical taste, and figured as a preacher 
even in London. He was banished, and his estate was con- 
fiscated. In April, 1783, he solicited Washington's influence 
to effect a repeal of the act that kept him in banishment from 
his native country, " from the arms of a dear aged father, and 
the embraces of a numerous circle of valuable and long-loved 
friends. Washington replied, that his feelings as an individual 
were favorable, but that his case must continue to rest with 
the authorities of Pennsylvania. In 1790, the laws of that 
State having allowed the refugee loyalists to return, Doctor 
Duche came back to Philadelphia in shattered health. He 
died in 1798, aged about sixty years. One account states that 
his decease occurred in 1794. His wife was a sister of Francis 
Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His 
23 



266 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



daughter Sophia married John Henry, a person whose real or 
supposed connexion with our politics about the time of the 
war of 1812, caused considerable sensation. He pubhshed 
several sermons before his defection, and two volumes in Lon- 
don, in 1780. 

DucKi>fFiELD, Sir Nathaniel, Baronet. Of North Carolina. A 
member of the Council. In 1779 his property was confiscated. 

Dudley, Charles. Collector of the Customs, Newport, Rhode 
Island. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Halifax with the 
British army. 

Duelly, William. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for 
Halifax with the British army. 

DuFFUs, Charles. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1818, at the age of seventy. 

Duker, Henry. Was a grantee of the city of St. John, 
New Brunswick. 

DuLANEY, Walter. In 1782 he was major of the Maryland 
Loyalists. 

DuLANY, Daniel. Of Maryland. Early in the controversy, 
he and Charles Carroll engaged in a warm newspaper discus- 
sion, which attracted much interest. Dulany wrote over the 
signature of Antilore, and his Whig antagonist adopted that 
of the First Citizen. Dulany was an eminent lawyer, and 
was considered one of the most distinguished men of his 
time. Before the Revolution he held the offices of Secretary 
and Attorney-general of Maryland, and was a member of the 
Council. Few memorials remain of him, but he is ever men- 
tioned in terms of the highest respect. Mr, Quincy, of Massa- 
chusetts, while on his journey to the South in 1773, spoke of 
spending " three hours with the celebrated Daniel Dulany." 
He died soon after the commencement of hostilities. 

Dulany, Lloyd. Of Annapolis, Maryland. On the 27th 
of May, 1774, the Whigs of that city passed the following 
Resolution. 

" That it is the opinion of this meeting that the gentlemen 
of the law of this Province bring no suit for the recovery of 
any debt due from any inhabitant of this Province to any in- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 267 

habitant of Great Britain, until the said Act [Boston Port Bill] 
be repealed." 

Three days after, Mr. Dulany's name appeared at the head 
of the following Protest. 

" Dissentient. 1. Because we are impressed with a full con- 
viction, that this resolution is founded in treachery and rash- 
ness, inasmuch as it is big with bankruptcy and ruin to those 
inhabitants of Great Britain, who, relying with unlimited secu- 
rity on our good faith and integrity, have made us masters of 
their fortunes ; condemning them unheard, for not having in- 
terposed their influence with Parliament in favor of the town 
of Boston, without duly weighing the force with which that 
influence would probably have operated, or whether in their 
conduct they were actuated by wisdom and policy, or by cor- 
ruption and avarice. 

"2. Because, whilst the inhabitants of Great Britain are 
partially despoiled of every legal remedy to recover what is 
justly due to them, no provision is made to prevent us from 
being harassed by the prosecution of internal suits, but our 
fortunes and persons are left at the mercy of domestic credi- 
tors, without a possibility of extricating ourselves unless by a 
general convulsion ; an event, in the contemplation of sober 
reason, replete with horror. 

"3. Because our credit as a commercial people will expire 
under the wound ; for what confidence can possibly be re- 
posed in those who shall have exhibited the most avowed and 
most striking proof that they are not to be bound by obliga- 
tions as sacred as human invention can suggest." 

Mr. Dulany became a refugee Loyalist. He went to Eng- 
land ; in 1779 he was in London, and addressed the king. 

DuMARESQUE, Philip. Merchant, of Boston, An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. In 1776 he 
was at Halifax. Two years later he was proscribed and 
banished. 

DuMONT, Peter. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Dunbar, Daniel. Of Halifax, Massachusetts. Was an offi- 



269 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



cer in the militia, and in 1774 a mob demanded of him the 
surrender of the colors of his company. He refused, when 
the multitude broke into his house, took him out, forced him 
to get upon a rail, where he was held and tossed up and down 
until he was exhausted. He was then dragged and beaten, 
and gave up the standard to save his life. In 1776 he went to 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, with the royal army. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. 

Dunbar, George. Residence unknown. In 1782 was a 
captain in De Lancey's Second Battalion. 

Dunbar, Jesse. Of Halifax, Massachusetts. Bought some 
fat cattle of a Mandamus Councillor in 1774, and drove them 
to Plymouth for sale. The Whigs soon learned with whom 
Dunbar had presumed to deal, and after he had slaughtered, 
skinned, and hung up one of the beasts, commenced punishing 
him for the offence. That punishment was cruel in the ex- 
treme. His tormentors, it appears, put the dead ox in a cart, 
and fixed Dunbar in his belly, carted him four miles, and re- 
quired him to pay one dollar for the ride. He then was deliv- 
ered over to a Kingston mob, who carted him four other miles, 
and exacted another dollar. A Duxbury mob then took him, 
and after beating him in the face with the creature's tripe, and 
endeavoring to cover his person with it, carried him to Coun- 
cillor Thomas's house, and compelled him to pay a further 
sum of money. Flinging his beef into the road, they now left 
him to recover and return as he could. 

Dunbar, Joseph, Senior. Of Jamaica, New York. Was a 
signer of the Declaration of loyalty in 1775. 

Duncan. Alexander. Embarked at Boston for Halifax in 
1776. 

Duncan, James. Blacksmith, of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Was an Addresser of Sir Henry CHnton in 1780; was ban- 
ished, and his property was confiscated in 1782. 

Duncan, William. Was chaplain of the North Carolina 
Volunteers. 

Dunham. Captain Asher Dimham, and Daniel Dunham, 
were among the Loyalists who went to St. John, New Bruns- 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 269 

wick, in 1783, and both received grants of city lots. John 
Dunham, who emigrated the same year, and who was a cap- 
tain in the miHtia of New Brunswick, died at Carlton in 1829, 
aged eighty-one. 

DuNLAPj Alexander. Of Queen's County, New York. Was 
in arms against the rebels, and in 1780 belonged to the party 
under lieutenant McKain. 

DuNLAP, John. Of North Carolina. Lost his property by 
confiscation in 1779. 

Dunlap, Charles and St. John, Were officers of infantry 
in the Queen's Rangers. 

Dunn, John, Esquire. Of New York. He left the United 
States at the termination of hostilities, and was one of the 
founders of St. Andrew, New Brunswick, and through life 
contributed to its improvement and prosperity. For many 
years he held the honorable and lucrative post of Comptroller 
of His Majesty's Customs at that port. He died at St. An- 
drew, April 14, 1829, aged seventy-six. His wife, Elizabeth, 
survived until January, 1835, and at her decease was seventy- 
three. He was a man proverbially kind, liberal, and hospit- 
able. 

Dunn, Joseph. Was adjutant of the Royal Garrison Bat- 
talion, and held a commission of ensign. 

Dunn, Sellick. Was a grantee of the city of St. John, New 
Brunswick. 

Dunning, . Of North Carolina. In 1776 he was an 

ensign in a corps of Loyalists, was in arms against the Whigs 
of that State, and was captured and imprisoned. 

Dunning, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

DupoNT, Gideon, Junior. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was ban- 
ished. In 1782 his property was confiscated. 

Durfee, Joseph. Of Rhode Island. In 1777 he was com- 
missioned a lieutenant in the Loyal Newport Associators. 

Durling, Garret. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of 
a Declaration of loyalty in 1775. 
23* 



270 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Durst, John. Of Charleston, South Carohna. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Chnton in 1780. 

DuRYE, RuLiFF. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of a 
Declaration of loyalty in 1775. 

DuTARQUE, Lewis. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

DwiGHT, Timothy. Was surgeon's mate of the King's 
American Dragoons. 

DwYER, Edward. Petty officer of the Customs. In 1776 
he embarked at Boston for Halifax with the British army. 

Dyer, Henry. Was a grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. 

Dykerman, Abraham. Of New Haven, Connecticut. Ar- 
rived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1783, in 
the ship Union. Garret Dykerman arrived the same year, 
and was a grantee of that city. 

, Eagar, John. Of Rutland, Massachusetts. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

Eagar, James. Of Northborough, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Earle, Edward. Was a captain in the Third Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. Settled in New Brunswick ; re- 
ceived half-pay ; and died at Grand Lake, in that Colony. 

Earle, Justus. Was a lieutenant in the Third Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. Settled in the Colony of New 
Brunswick. 

Earle, Philip. Went to New Brunswick. He was a gran- 
tee of the city of St. John. 

Easterbrooks, James. He was an early settler of New 
Brunswick, and was a magistrate and member of the House 
of Assembly for many years. He died at Sackville, New 
Brunswick, in 1842, at the age of eighty-five. 

Eddis, Willum. Of Maryland. Was in London in 1779, 
and was a Loyalist Addresser of the king. 

Eddy, Charles. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was appre- 
hended and ordered to be sent to Virginia, as a prisoner. He 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 271 

went to England, subsequently, and was in London in July, 
1779. 

Edmiston, William. Of Maryland. Went to England, 
and was there previous to July, 1779. 

Edson, Josiah. Of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He was 
a noted politician of the time, and was known by the two 
most odious appellations which prevailed ; namely, as a Re- 
scinder, and a Mandamus Councillor. Hutchinson speaks 
of him in 1771, when he was a member of the House of 
Representatives, as one of the several gentlemen of that body, 
who, in common times, would have had great weight, but 
who, then, discouraged by the great superiority of the num- 
bers against them, were inactive. In 1774, Mr. Edson was 
driven from his house by a mob, and was compelled to reside 
in Boston, under protection of the British troops ; and at the 
evacuation in 1776, he accompanied the army to Halifax. 
He went from Halifax to New York, and died in that city, 
or on Long Island, not long after his arrival. He was a 
graduate of Harvard University, a colonel in the militia, a 
deacon of the church, and a respectable, virtuous man. He 
is alluded to in McFingal, as " That old simplicity of Ed- 
son." 

Edwards, James. In 1782 he was a captain of infantry in 
the British Legion. 

Edwards, Joseph, Junior. Of Fairfield County, Connecti- 
cut. Was a member of the Reading Association. 

Edwards, Morgan. A Baptist clergyman. He was bom 
in Wales in 1722, and came to America in 1761. He was 
at first pastor of a church in Philadelphia, and, subsequently, 
labored in various places, either as lecturer or preacher. Op- 
posed to the Revolution, he gave up the ministry during the 
war. He was an eccentric man, and among his acts was 
the preaching of his own funeral sermon. He lived a quarter 
of a century after the solemn farce, dying in 1795, aged 
seventy-two. He published many sermons, and left nume- 
rous manuscripts. 

Edwards, Samuel. Pilot, of Delaware. He was required 



272 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

to surrender and abide a trial for treason, or lose his property 
by forfeiture. 

Edwards, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Edwards, William. In 1782 he was surgeon's mate of the 
Loyal American Regiment. 

Effa, Casper. He went to St John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Egan, Daniel. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the Georgia 
Loyalists. 

Egbert, Anthony. Was a grantee of the city of St. John, 
New Brunswick, and, subsequently, city surveyor. 

Eldridge, Joshua. Mariner, of Falmouth, now Portland, 
Maine. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Eldrif, Luke. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of a 
Declaration against the proceedings of the Whigs, January, 
1775. 

Elinstone, David. Was a grantee of the city of St. John, 
New Brunswick. 

Elliot, Andrew. Of New York. He was Collector of the 
Customs for the port of New York, from about the year 1764 
until the Revolution, and performed his official duties in a 
manner highly satisfactory. His first difficulty with the peo- 
ple of a serious nature occurred in 1774, when he seized 
some fire-arms, and was threatened with a visit from the 
" Mohawks and river Indians," or, in other words, with a coat 
of tar and feathers. After the royal army took possession of 
New York, he continued to perform his duties of collector, 
and during the war held various important offices. In 1782 
he was not only at the head of the Customs, but was Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Receiver General of Q,uit-rents, Superintend- 
ent General of Police, and Chief of the Superintendent De- 
partment, estabhshed by Sir William Howe in 1777. And 
when, in 1780, Sir Henry Clinton made his last efibrt to save 
Andre, Mr. Elliot was one of the three eminent persons who 
were sent to confer with Washington. Mr. EUiot's estate in 
^ew York was confiscated ; and the Executive Council of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 273 

Pennsylvania, to reach property possessed by him in that 
State, ordered by proclamation, that on his failing to appear 
within a specified time, to take his trial on the charge of 
treason, he should stand attainted. 

Elliot, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Elliot, Captain — '—. Noted for his revengeful disposition 
and infamous deeds. In the documents of the time, McKee, 
Elliot, and Simon Girty, are mentioned together, and as form- 
ing a sort of triumvirate. The three were imprisoned by the 
Whigs at Pittsburgh, but made their escape, and in 1778 
traversed the country to enlist the savages against the rebels. 
The effects of their councils were long felt and deplored. 
After the Revolution, and during the Indian troubles of Wash- 
ington's administration, Elliot's hostile feelings towards the 
country which he had abandoned, were sufficiently manifest 
to deserve marked and emphatic consideration, and universal 
and lasting detestation. He was dismissed from the British 
Colonial service about the year 1801, without trial, but 
whether for misconduct, is unknown to the writer. 

Ellis, Abiel. Of Sandwich, Massachusetts. Was impris- 
oned for disaffection to the Whig cause in 1778; and Ephraim, 
Junior, of the same town, was proscribed and banished. 

Ellis, Daniel. Was an ensign in the King's Rangers, 
Carolina. 

Ellis, David. Was adjutant of the King's Rangers, Caro- 
lina. 

Ellis, Edmund. Of South Carolina. Lost his property un- 
der the confiscation act of that State in 1782. 

Ellison, Abraham. Of Boston. A Protester against the 
Whigs in 1774. 

Ell WOOD, John. Of Bristol, County of Bucks, Pennsylvania. 
His estate was confiscated in 1779, 

Elms, Thomas. Was a grantee of the city of St. John, 
New Brunswick. 

Else, William. Of South Carolina. Held an office under 
the crown after the surrender of Charleston, was banished, and 



274 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

lost his estate. Thomas, was an Addresser of Sir Henry CHn- 
ton, and met a similar fate in person and property. 

Elton, Peter. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for HaUfax 
with the British army. 

E31ERSON, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Hahfax 
with the British army. 

Emerson, Thomas. A physician. He died at Fredericton. 
New Brunswick, in 1843, aged eighty-one. 

Emmens, Hendricks, Senior. Of Jamaica, New York. A 
signer of a Declaration in 1775. His son Hendricks signed 
the same. 

English, Robert. Of South CaroUna. Was in commission 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Ephraim, Henry. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Erving, George. A merchant, of Boston. He was one of 
the fifty-eight memorialists who were the first men in America 
to array themselves against the officers of the crown. He 
was an Addresser of Governor Hutchinson in 1774; was pro- 
scribed under the act of 1778 ; and his estate was confiscated 
under the conspiracy act of the year 1779. He went to Hali- 
fax at the evacuation, and thence to England. He died in 
London in 1806, at the age of seventy. His wife was a 
daughter of the Honorable Isaac Royall, of Medford. 

Erving, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage in 1775. 

Erving, John, Junior. Of Boston. He graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1747. In 1760 he signed the Boston Me- 
morial, and was thus one of the fifty-eight who were the first 
men in America to array themselves against the officers of the 
crown. But in 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson, and 
the same year was appointed a Mandamus Councillor. In 
1776 he fled to Halifax, and went thence to England. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished ; and in 1779 his pro- 
perty was confiscated under the conspiracy act. He died in 
England in 1816, aged eighty-nine years. His wife was a 
daughter of Governor Shirley. The wife of Governor Bow- 
doin was his sister. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 275 

Eustace, Stephen. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
King's American Regiment. 

Eustace, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Ah 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished 
in 1782, and his property was confiscated. 

EvERiTT, Benjamin, Daniel, James, and Nicholas. Of Queen's 
County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 
James signed a Declaration of loyalty previously, and in 1775 
settled in Nova Scotia, and died in Digby in 1799. 

Everitt, George. Was a quartermaster in the king's ser- 
vice. Went to New Brunswick in 1783 ; and died at Fred- 
ericton in 1829, aged seventy. 

Evans, Edmund. In 1782 was a lieutenant in Do Lancey'd 
Third Battalion. 

Evans, John and William. Carpenters, of Philadelphia. 
Were ordered to surrender themselves, or stand attainted ; 
while by another act the property of Joel, a merchant of that 
city, was confiscated. 

Fagen, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Fairchild, James M. He went to New Brunswick in 1783, 
and died at St. John in 1807. 

Fairfax, Bryan. Of Virginia. He was the third son of 
the Honorable Colonel William Fairfax. His wife was a 
daughter of Wilson Carey, of Virginia, and his residence was 
at Towlston Hall in Fairfax County, though for some years, 
during the latter part of his life, he was an Episcopal clergy- 
man at Alexandria. An affectionate intercourse existed be- 
tween him and Washington throughout life ; both were of too 
elevated a cast to allow political differences of opinion to alien- 
ate and separate them. In 1774 Washington expressed an 
earnest wish that he should stand as a candidate for the 
House of Burgesses, but he declined. He was opposed to 
strong measures, and in favor of redress by remonstrances and 
petitions. "There are scarce any at Alexandria," he wrote, 
" of my opinion ; and though the few I have elsewhere con- 



276 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

versed with on the subject are so, yet from them I could learn 
that many thought otherwise ; so that I believe I should at 
this time give general dissatisfaction, and therefore it would be 
more proper to decline, even upon this account, as well as 
because it would necessarily lead me into great expenses, 
which my circumstances will not allow." Washington in 
reply, remarked, that he would heartily join in his political 
sentiments " so far as relates to a humble and dutiful petition 
to the throne, provided there was the most distant hope of 
success. But," said he, "have we not tried this already? 
Have we not addressed the Lords, and remonstrated to the 
Commons 7 And to what end ? Did they deign to look at our 
petitions?" &c. 

Prior to July IS, 1774, Mr. Fairfax attended several meet- 
ings of the Whigs of Fairfax County, but at that time with- 
drew from them. The immediate cause of withdrawal seems 
to have been his disapprobation of some of the resolutions 
prepared by a committee, and submitted to a general meeting 
of the inhabitants of the County. W^ashington was chairman 
of both the committee and the meeting, and Fairfax addressed 
to him a communication expressing his views and objections, 
which he desired might be publicly read. Yet the two friends 
did not relinquish their correspondence upon the great ques- 
tions which agitated the country; and the letters of Washing- 
ton to this gentleman contain the fullest and most satisfactory 
exposition of his sentiments that Mr. Sparks has preserved. 
On the death of Robert Fairfax (in 1791), who was the seventh 
Lord Fairfax, Bryan Fairfax succeeded to the title, and was 
the eighth and last Baron of the name. Benevolence and 
kindness were marked traits in his character, and he was uni- 
versally respected and beloved. Washington bequeathed to 
him an elegant Bible in three volumes folio. Lord Bryan died 
at Mount Eagle, near Cameron, in 1802, aged seventy-five, 
after a long illness, which he bore with resignation. 

Fairfax, George William. Of Virginia. He was the great 
grandson of Thomas, the fourth Lord Fairfax. His father 
was the Honorable Colonel William Fairfax, who was Lieu- 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 277 

tenant of the County of Fairfax, Collector of the Customs of 
South Potomac, member and President of the King's Council 
in Virginia. He was educated in England, but was the early- 
companion of Washington, and his associate as surveyor of 
lands. On the death of his father in 1757, he succeeded to his 
estate. He married a daughter of Colonel Carey, of Hamp- 
ton, became a member of the Council, and lived at Belvoir. 
Some property in Yorkshire descended to him in 1773, and he 
went to England ; and in consequence of the political difficul- 
ties which followed, did not return to America. He fixed his 
residence at Bath, where he died in 1787, aged sixty-three. 
During the war he evinced much kindness to American pris- 
oners who were carried to England. A part of his Virginia 
estate was confiscated, by which his income was much re- 
duced. Washington esteemed him highly, and they were ever 
friends. The illustrious Commander-in-chief was named an 
executor of his will, but declined fulfilling the trust in conse- 
quence of his public engagements. Mr. Fairfax left no chil- 
dren. He bequeathed his American property to Ferdinando, 
the second son of his only surviving brother. 

Fairfax, Lord Thomas. He was the son of Thomas, the 
fifth Lord Fairfax, and of Catharine, daughter of Lord Cul- 
peper, and was born in England in 1691. He was educated 
at Oxford, and was regarded as a good scholar. Succeeding to 
the title and to the family estate in Virginia, he came over to 
that Colony about the year 1739. After residing there a year, 
he returned to England; but desirous of improving and indu- 
cing rapid settlements on his land, and pleased with America, 
he determined to make Virginia the place of his permanent 
abode. He accordingly closed his afiairs in England, and came 
a second time to his estate in 1745. He lived several years with 
William Fairfax, at Belvoir, but at length fixed his residence 
a few miles from Winchester, on the western side of the Blue 
Ridge, where he laid out a farm, and put it under high culti- 
vation. His mansion house was called Green way Court, and 
he lived in a style of liberal hospitality. He was fond of 
hunting, and indulged in the diversion nearly to excess. He 
24 



278 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



was kind to the poor, and allowed them a large part of the 
surplus produce of the land under his immediate management, 
and aflforded them the use of other parts of his estate on terms 
almost nominal. Indulgent to all who held lands under 
him, and to all around him, faithful in the discharge of his 
private duties, and in the performance of several honorable 
public trusts, he lived respected and beloved by men of all 
parties. Though a freftik and open Loyalist, he was never 
insulted or molested by the Whigs. When he heard of the 
surrender of Cornwallis, it is related that he said to the ser- 
vant; " Come, Joe! carry me to bed, for it is high time for me 
to die." Nor did he long survive this event. He died at 
Greenway Court in 1782, in the ninety-second year of his age, 
much lamented. His literary attainments were highly respect- 
able, and it is said that in his youth he was a contributor to 
the Spectator. His remains were deposited under the com- 
munion-table of the Episcopal Church at Winchester, but were 
removed in 1833, to provide a place for the erection of a pile of 
buildings on the site of the church. 

Lord Fairfax was the friend and patron of Washington's 
early life, and though he died before the mother country ac- 
knowledged the independence of the thirteen Colonies, he 
saw that the widow's son who surveyed his lands, was des- 
tined under Providence to be the great instrument to dismem- 
ber the British empire. 

His barony and his immense domain in Virginia, between 
the rivers Potomac and Rappahannock, consisting, as ap- 
pears by parliamentary papers, of five million, two hundred 
and eighty-two thousand acres, descended to his only surviving 
brother, Robert Fairfax, who was the seventh Lord Fairfax, 
and who died at Leeds Castle, England, in 1791. But as this 
domain was in possession of Lord Thomas during the revolu- 
tionary controversy, it was confiscated. Lord Robert, how- 
ever, (claiming in behalf of himself, of Frances Martin, 
his widowed sister, of Denny Fairfax, a clergyman, of Philip 
and Thomas Martin, his nephews, and three Misses Martin, 
his nieces), applied to the British government for compen- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 279 

sation, under the provision made to Loyalist sufferers, and 
stated the value of the estate at £98,000. The commissioners 
made a special report upon this claim, but do not appear 
to have come to a final decision with regard to it; and 
after their labors were closed, it was among the few cases 
which were referred to Parliament for settlement. It was con- 
sidered by a committee of that body, who, as the commission- 
ers had done, reduced it to £60,000. Lord Robert's life inter- 
est therein, they find by the established rules of computation, 
at £13,758. The value of the life interest Mr. Pitt recom- 
mended to be paid, but at this time (1792) advised no compen- 
sation to those who possessed the reversionary interest. But it 
is believed, that at a subsequent period, an allowance was 
made to nearly or quite the sum originally claimed. 

His estate was one of the largest and most valuable in 
America at the Revolution. It was granted May 8, 1681, by 
Charles the Second to Thomas Lord Culpeper, the grandfather 
of Lord Thomas, and Lord Robert Fairfax, on a " rent of 
£6. 13. 4. payable as therein mentioned." At Lord Culpeper's 
death it became the property of his daughter, the Right Hon- 
orable Catharine, Lady Fairfax, who, by her will of April 21, 
1719, devised the whole in trust thus : " Upon trust in the 
first place by mortgage, a sale of sufficient part of the estates 
thereby devised, to raise a sufficient sum for discharging all 
her debts, legacies, and funeral expenses; and after such mort- 
gage sale and disposition ; " as follows, namely, — 

"To the use of her eldest son, Thomas Lord Fairfax, and 
his assigns for life. Remainder to the first and other sons of 
said Thomas Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to her second 
son, Henry Culpeper Fairfax, and his assigns, for life. Re- 
mainder to the first and other sons of said Henry Culpeper 
Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to her third son, Robert 
Fairfax, and his assigns, for life. Remainder to trustees to pre- 
serve contingent remainders. Remainder to the first and other 
sons of said Robert Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to the 
daughters of the said testatrix, as tenants in common, in tail. 
Remainder to the right heirs of the said testatrix, in fee." 



280 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Such was the tenure of the Fairfax estate in Virginia, The 
magnitude of the property, and the circumstances of the case, 
caused an unusual degree of investigation in Parhament, and 
Lord Robert's memorial for relief was the subject of a separate 
and elaborate report. His individual loss, if computed at the 
value of his life interest, was less than that of several of the 
Loyalists whose property was confiscated ; though we have 
seen that the government gave him, without hesitation, nearly 
seventy thousand dollars, after reducing his valuation more 
than a quarter part. A considerable portion of this estate had 
been granted prior to the Revolution, upon the quit-rent 
system, and thus a part of its value had been transferred to 
others. Still the reversionary interest on the decease of Lord 
Robert, which the committee of Parliament fixed at a sum 
equal to a quarter of a million of dollars, was by no means 
extravagant, even if the worth of lands at that period be alone 
considered. 

Fairlee, James. In July 1783 he was one of the fifty-five 
Loyalists who petitioned for grant of lands in Nova Scotia. 
See Abijah Willard. 

Fales, David. Of Dedham, Massachusetts. In 1763 he 
removed to Maine, upon the Waldo Patent, and within the 
limits of the present town of Thomaston ; where he practised 
as a physician, taught school, and surveyed lands. He was 
also employed by Mr. Flucker, the secretary of Massachusetts, 
and son-in-law of General Waldo, as agent of lands embraced 
in the Patent. 

Fairweather, Benjamin, JeDediah, and Thomas. Settled in 
New Brunswick in 1783, and received grants of lands. 
Thomas died at Norton in that Colony in 1825, at the age of 
seventy-seven, and Elizabeth, his widow, at the same place, 
in 1846, aged seventy-nine. Jedediah died at Norton in 1831, 
at the age of ninety-six. 

Fall, Thomas. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Halifax 
with the British army. 

Fanning, Barclay. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
King's American Regiment. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 281 

Fanning, David. He was an officer under the crown during 
the war, and at its close settled in New Brunswick. He lived 
some years in Queen's County, and was a member of the 
House of Assembly; but in 1799 removed to Nova Scotia, 
where he was a colonel in the militia. He died at Digby, 
Nova Scotia, in 1825. 

Fanning, Honorable Edmund. Of North Carolina. He was 
a personage of considerable note in that Colony ; and respect- 
able men aver, that he was remarkable " for all the vices that 
degrade the most abandoned and profligate minion." Among 
the public offices which he held, was that of Recorder of Deeds 
for the County of Orange ; and it is alleged, that to his abuses 
in this capacity, the war or rebellion of the Regulators in 
Governor Tryon's administration is, in a good measure, to be 
attributed. The averment is, that by his vicious character, 
" nearly all the estates in Orange were loaded with doubts as 
to their titles, with exorbitant fees for recording new and 
unnecessary deeds, and high taxes to support a government 
which supported his wickedness." This charge rests on very 
high authority ; and during the war of the Regulators against 
the royal government, neither the person nor property of Fan- 
ning were respected. His losses were presented to the Assem- 
bly by Governor Martin, the successor of Tryon, but that 
body not only peremptorily refused to consider the subject, but 
administered a rebuke to the Governor, for thus trifling " with 
the dignity of the House." It is not impossible that his un- 
popularity was greater than his oflences deserved; since neither 
the members of the Assembly, nor the people at large, were, 
at this juncture, in a frame of mind to do exact justice to op- 
ponents. 

Fanning joined Governor Tryon, who was his father-in-law, 
in New York, where he was his secretary. In 1777 he raised 
a corps of four hundred and sixty Loyalists, which bore the 
name of the Associated Refugees, or King's American Regi- 
ment, and of which he had command. To aid in the organi- 
zation of this body, £500 was subscribed at Staten Island, 
£310 in King's County, £219 in the town of Jamaica, and 
24* 



I 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

£2000 in the city of New York. In 1779 the property of 
Colonel Fanning in North Carolina was confiscated. In 1782 
he was in office as Surveyor-general of New York. He went 
to Nova Scotia near the close of the war, and September 23d, 
1783, was sworn in as Councillor and Lieutenant Governor of 
that Colony. About the year 1786 he was appointed Lieuten- 
ant Governor of Prince Edward's Island ; and having served 
nearly nineteen years, was succeeded in 1805 by Des Barres, 
who is celebrated for his charts of parts of the American 
coast 

Fanning, John. Of South Carolina. Was in commission 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Fanning, . A notorious marauder, of considerable tal- 
ents, but brutal, reckless, and sanguinary. When Marion, the 
celebrated Whig partisan, admitted to terms Major Gainey, 
and a band of Loyalists of Carolina under his command, Fan- 
ning was specially named as excluded from the benefits of the 
arrangement. But both he and his wife reached Charleston, 
South Carolina, which was in possession of the royal troops, 
in safety. Previous to his flight, however, he made a fruitless 
attempt to reanimate the friends of the crown with whom he 
possessed influence. He was a most determined enemy of 
the Whigs and their cause. 

Fanueil, Benjamin. Merchant, of Boston. One of the con- 
signees of the tea which was destroyed there in 1773. Went 
to Halifax in 1776, and thence to England. 

Fardo, John Geokge. Of South Carolina. He held a royal 
commission after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis- 
cated. 

Farnsworth, Daniel. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished. His estate was confiscated. 

Farnsworth, David. In 1778 he was tried as a spy, con- 
victed of the ofience, and executed at Hartford, Connecticut, 
on the 10th of November. A large amount of counterfeit con- 
tinental money was found in his possession. 

Farrar, William. Of Virginia. Went to England, and 
•was a Loyalist Addresser of the king in 1779. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 283 

Farrow, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Felling, Nicholas. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. In 1775 a signer of a Declaration of loyalty. 
Jacob Felling, of that County, was also a signer. 

Fenton, John. Of New Hampshire. He was a captain in 
the British army, but disposing of his commission, settled in 
New Hampshire, where 4tie became a colonel in the militia, 
clerk in the Court of Common Pleas, and Judge of Probate 
for the County of Grafton. In 1775 he was also a member of 
the House of Assembly for the town of Plymouth, and was 
expelled. Enraged at the indignity, and at the measures of 
the Whigs generally, he gave vent to his passions, and fell 
into the hands of the people, who pursued him to the residence 
of Governor Wentworth with a field piece, which they threat- 
ened to discharge unless he was delivered up. Fenton surren- 
dered, and was sent to the Committee of Safety at Exeter for 
trial. " Upon a full hearing of sundry compaints against " 
him in Provincial Congress, it was voted, that he was " an 
enemy to the liberties of America," and that he should "be 
confined in the jail at Exeter," and " be supported like a 
gentleman, at the expense of the Colony, until further orders." 
By a subsequent vote it was ordered, that his place of confine- 
ment should be at the Whig camp ; but he was finally allowed 
to escape, and to go to England. He was proscribed and ban- 
ished under the act of 1778. 

Fenwicke, Edward. Of South Carolina. Was a Congratu- 
lator of Cornwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 
1782 his estate was confiscated, and he was banished. He 
was opposed to the measures of the ministry in 1774, since 
he was in London that year, and joined Franklin, Lee, and 
other patriots then in England, in a remonstrance against the 
passage of the Bill for the Government of Massachusetts 
Bay. 

Fenwicke, Thomas. Of South Carolina. Held a commis- 
sion under the crown after the fall of Charleston, was ban- 
ished, and lost his estate. 



I» 



284 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Ferguson, Henry. Residence unknown. In 1782 was an 
ensign in De Lancey's Second Battalion. 

Ferguson, Henry. Held a commission under the crown in 
South CaroHna, and lost his estate. 

Ferguson, Henry Hugh. Of Pennsylvania. During the war 
he was made a commissary of prisoners. His wife was 
Elizabeth, a daughter of Doctor Graeme, the Colonial Col- 
lector of Philadelphia, and grandii^aughter of Sir William 
Keith, one of the proprietary Governors of Pennsylvania; 
and her name is connected with one of the most memorable 
incidents of the Revolution. In 1778, after the British Com- 
missioners arrived in America, and had entered upon their 
duty of attempting to effect a reconciliation between the 
mother country and the Colonies, Governor Johnstone, who 
was one of them, became acquainted with Mrs. Ferguson, 
and engaged her to oflfer General Joseph Reed of Pennsylvania 
a bribe. The answer of the Whig was this : " I am not 
worth purchasing, but such as I am, the King of Great 
Britain is not rich enough to do it." The offer to the General 
was £10,000 sterling, and any office in the Colonies in his 
majesty's gift. The estate of Mr. Ferguson was confiscated. 

Ferguson, John. Belonged to a northern State ; settled at 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783 ; received a grant of land 
in that city, and became a merchant. 

Ferris, Caleb and Joshua. Of Westchester County, New 
York. Were Protesters against Whig Congresses and Com- 
mittees, in 1775 ; the latter settled at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783, and was a grantee of that city ; and George, 
and Peter, were the same. 

Ferris, Joseph. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He raised a 
company, joined Colonel Butler, and was a captain in the 
Rangers. During the war he was taken prisoner by a brother- 
in-law who was a Whig, but escaped from captivity. After 
the peace he went to Newfoundland, but removed to New 
Brunswick, where he settled. He was fond of visits to the 
States and to the scenes of his youth ; and sometimes met 
those whom he had opposed in skirmishes and battles. He 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS, 285 

lived at Eastport, Maine, after it was captured by the British 
forces in the war of 1812, but returned to New Brunswick on 
its being surrendered to the United States. He died at Indian 
Island, New Brunswick, in 1836, aged ninety-two. He en- 
joyed half-pay from the close of the Revolution until his 
decease, a period of fifty-three years. 

Fewtrell, John. Of South Carolina. He was a Judge of 
the Superior Court; and was permitted to depart from the 
State. 

Field, Nehemiah. A pilot, of Delaware. Was required, by 
the act of 1778, to surrender himself to some Judge or Justice 
of the Peace, and be tried for his treason and offences, or 
suffer the loss of his property. 

Field Williaji. Of Westchester County, New York. Was 
a Protester in 1 775. 

Field, William, and John, Junior. Of Guilford, North Caro- 
hna; and Joseph, of some other section of the State, lost their 
estates under the confiscation act in 1779. 

Field. Ten persons of this name of Queen's County, New 
York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Philip, Benjamin, Gilbert, Benjamin, Robert, Jacob, Whit, 
David or Daniel, Joseph, James. 

Fields, Daniel, Gilbert, and George. Of Wyoming, Penn- 
sylvania. Were required in 1778, by proclamation of the 
Executive Council, to surrender themselves, or stand attainted 
of treason. 

Finch, Henry. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1814. 

Findley, Hugh. He and John Foxcroft were the two Post- 
masters-general of the thirteen Colonies, and were continued 
at the head of that department until 1782, certainly, and 
probably until the peace. 

Finney, Francis. Laborer, of Sandwich, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Fish. Eight persons of this name of Queen's County, New 
York, acknowledged allegiance in October, 1776. To wit : 
Samuel, Lorance, Jesse, Ambrose, Jonathan, John, Jonathan, 
Samuel. 



286 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Fisher, Jabez Maud. Of Pennsylvania. Went to England, 
and was a Loyalist Addresser of the king in 1779. 

Fisher, Colonel John. Of Orangeburgh, South Carolina. 
Held a commission under the crown ; was banished, and lost 
his estate under the act of 1782. 

Fisher, John. Naval-officer, at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire. Salary, derivable from fees, £200 per annum. Was pro- 
scribed by the act of New Hampshire of 1778. It is believed, 
that this is the gentleman who was in the Customs at Salem ; 
who was brother-in-law of Sir John Wentworth, the last royal 
governor of New Hampshire ; and who, on going to England, 
was employed as secretary to Lord George Germaine. 

Fisher, John. Cabinet-maker, of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. Was an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; was 
banished, and lost his estate under the act of 1782. 

Fisher, John. Residence unknown. Was at St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783, and received a grant of land. 

Fisher, Miars, Samuel, and Thomas. Of Philadelphia. Were 
apprehended in that city in 1777, and confined; but were sent, 
subsequently, prisoners to Virginia. 

Fisher, Turner. Of Boston. Son of Wilfred Fisher. He 
accompanied the British troops from Boston to Halifax, and, 
entering the royal navy, became a sailing-master. After the 
Revolution, he married Esther, the daughter of Ezekiel Foster, 
of Machias, Maine, and settled in New Brunswick. He was 
in Boston about the time of the war of 1812, but his subse- 
quent fate is unknown to his family. His son, Wilfred Fisher, 
Esquire, is a highly respectable merchant and magistrate of 
the island of Grand Menan, New Brunswick. His wife died 
in November, 1844, at the age of eighty-eight years, at the 
residence of her son. 

Fisher, Wilfred. Of Boston. At the evacuation of that 
town, he accompanied the British troops to Halifax, where he 
received an appointment which attached him to a corps of 
light-horse. He died at Halifax before the close of the war. 
He was proscribed and banished under the act of 1778, and 
his estate in Boston was confiscated. His son Wilfred was a 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 287 

Whig, and a ship-master. Captured by the British, he was 
carried to New York, and died there a prisoner, during the 
Revolution. 

Fitch, Samuel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774. In 1776 he went to Hahfax. In 1778 he was pro- 
scribed and banished. He held the office of Sohcitor or 
Counsellor at Law to the Board of Commissioners ; and, like 
most of his official associates, was included in the conspiracy 
act of 1779. He went to England, was a Loyalist Addresser 
of the king in 1779, and was abroad in 1783. 

Fitch, Thomas. Of Connecticut. He graduated at Yale 
College in 1721, and devoted himself to the profession of the 
law. He held the offices of Councillor, Judge of the Superior 
Court, and Lieutenant Governor; and in 1754 was elected 
Governor. These various stations he filled with unsurpassed 
integrity and wisdom. His legal knowledge is said to have 
equalled, and perhaps exceeded, that of any other lawyer of 
Connecticut during the period of her Colonial history. In 
1765 he took the oath of office prescribed in the Stamp Act, 
and was driven into retirement in consequence the next year ; 
having occupied the Executive chair for the whole period 
between 1754 and 1766. His successor was the Honorable 
William Pitkin. 

Copy of Inscription on the Monument of Governor Fitch, at 
Norwalk, Connecticut. " The Hon'ble Thomas Fitch, Esq., 
Gov. of the Colony of Connecticut. Eminent and distin- 
guished among mortals for great abilities, large acquirements, 
and a virtuous character : a clear, strong, sedate mind : an 
accurate extensive acquaintance with law, and civil govern- 
emment : a happy talent of presiding : close application, and 
strict fidelity in the discharge of important truths : no less than 
for his employments, by the voice of the people, in the chief 
offices of state, and at the head of the colony. Having served 
his generation, by the will of God, fell asleep, July 18, Ann. 
Domini, 1774, in the 75th year of his age." 

FiTZPATRicK, Nathaniel. Was an officer of infantry in the 
Queen's Rangers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

FiTzsiMMONs, Peter, Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

FiTzsiMONs, Christopher. Of Charleston, South CaroHna. 
An Addresser of Sir Henry CHnton in 1780 ; was banished, 
and his property was confiscated in 1782. 

Fleming, John. In 1775 he was seized at Long Island, 
New York, sent to Massachusetts, and confined within the 
limits of the town of Sutton. 

Fleming, John. Printer, of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished by the act of 1778. He was copartner with Mien. 
Some of the books which they printed had a false imprint, 
and were palmed off as London editions, because Mien said, 
that books thus published met with a better sale. In 1767 
they commenced the Boston Chronicle, a paper which, in the 
second year of its publication, espoused the royal cause, and 
became extremely abusive of numbers of the most respectable 
Whigs of Boston. To avoid the effects of popular resent- 
ment, Mien thought fit to leave the country. The Chronicle 
was the first paper published twice a week in New England; 
and was suspended in 1770. Fleming found it prudent to 
retire from Boston in 1773, and embarked for England in that 
year with his family. He came to the United States more 
than once, subsequent to 1790, as the agent of a commercial 
house in Europe. His residence was in France for some 
years, and he died there. 

Fletchall, Thomas. Of South Carolina. He was a Colonel, 
and at the head of a considerable force of Loyalists in that 
State, during the difiiculties with the Cunninghams in 1775 ; 
and signed the truce or treaty which was agreed upon be- 
tween the Whigs and their opponents. After the surrender of 
Charleston, he was in commission under the crown. In 1782 
his estate was confiscated. He appears to have been a person 
of much consideration in South Carolina, previous to the 
Revolution ; and to have been regarded as of rather doubtful, 
or undecided politics, though the Whigs made him a member 
of an important standing Committee, raised with the design of 
carrying out the views of the Continental Congress. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 



2^9 



Fletcher, Duncan. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment. 

Flewelling, Abel and Morris. Of New York. Settled in 
New Brunswick at the peace, and were grantees of lands in 
St. John. Abel became a magistrate, and died at Maugerville 
in 1814, aged sixty-eight. For James Flewelling, see Richard 
Smith. 

Flint, John. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New 
York. In 1775 he signed a Declaration of loyalty. 

Floyd, Benjamin. Of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, New 
York. In 1775 he circulated a paper for signatures, to sup- 
port the royal authority, in opposition to the proceedings of the 
Whigs, and obtained the names of about one hundred persons. 
He was a major in the New York militia. 

Floyd, Matthew. Of South Carolina. Was in commission 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Floyd, Richard. In 1782 was quartermaster of De Lan- 
cey's Third Battalion. 

Floyd, Richard. Of New York. He was the eldest son of 
Honorable Richard Floyd, a colonel of New York militia, a 
Judge of the Common Pleas, and a gentleman of wealth and 
reputation. His wife was Arrabella, a daughter of Judge David 
Jones, of Queen's County, New York. His children were 
Elizabeth, Anne, and David Richard. The latter, in pursu- 
ance of the will of Judge Jones, and by legal authority, 
adopted the name of Jones ; he died in 1826, leaving two 
sons, to wit: Brigadier General Thomas Floyd Jones, and 
Major General Henry Floyd Jones. Mr. Floyd's estate was 
confiscated; and abandoning the country, he died at St. John, 
New Brunswick. His family was one of the most ancient in 
New York, and is distinguished in its annals. Descended 
from the same ancestor was the Whig General William Floyd, 
who signed the Declaration of Independence. The Floyds 
were of Welsh origin, and the first of the name emigrated in 
1654, and settled at Brookhaven, Long Island, where many of 
his descendants continued until the Revolution. 
25 



29Q BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Flucker, Thomas. Secretary of Massachusetts. He was a 
Mandamus Councillor, was banished, and his estate confis- 
cated. He went to England, and died there suddenly early in 
1783. His wife was a daughter of General Waldo, proprietor 
of the Waldo Patent in Maine. His daughter married the 
Whig chief of artillery, General Henry Knox, and inherited a 
considerable share of her grandfather's domain on the Penob- 
scot river and bay. 

Flucker, Thomas, Junior. Of Massachusetts. Son of 
Thomas Flucker. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1773, and in the Revolution was an officer in the British 
service. 

Flynn, Thomas. Was a lieutenant in the Second American 
Regiment. 

FoissiN, Elias. Of South Carolina. Held a royal commis- 
sion after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confiscated. 

Folker, John. Was quartermaster of the Second Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. 

FoLLioT, George. Of New York. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Congress for the City and County of 
New York, in 1775, but declined serving, and the vacancy 
was filled in June of that year. He was also appointed a 
member of the committee of one hundred, but refused to act. 
For his adherence to the crown, his estate was confiscated. 

Fonda, John. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New 
York. In 1775 a signer of a Declaration of loyalty. 

Forbes, Gilbert. Gunsmith, of Broadway, New York. 
In 1776 he was arrested and put in irons, on the charge of 
being concerned in the Plot of certain adherents of the crown 
to murder a number of Whig officers, to blow up the maga- 
zine, &c. When told that he had but a short time to live, he 
asked to be carried before Congress, and said he would confess 
all he knew. 

Ford, John. Of New Jersey. Compelled to leave his resi- 
dence to avoid the Whigs who molested him, he fled to the 
royal forces on Staten Island, where he remained some years. 
In 1783 Sir Guy Carleton commissioned him to take charge of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 291 

a company of Loyalists, who were emigrating from New York 
to Nova Scotia. He settled at St. John, New Brunswick, and 
received the grant of a city lot ; but removed to Hampton, and 
became one of the best farmers in that Colony. He died at 
Hampton in 1823, aged seventy-seven. 

Foreman, Alexander. Tailor, of Delaware. In 1778 it 
was declared by law, that his property would be forfeited to 
the State unless he surrendered himself for trial for treason, on 
or before August 1st of that year. 

Forrest, James. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774. In 1776 he went to Halifax. He was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Forrester, George Peabody. Died at Hampton, King's 
County, New Brunswick, in 1840, aged eighty-three years. 

Forrester, John. Was a grantee of the city of St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783. 

Forrester, Joseph, At the peace, was one of the grantees 
of St. John, New Brunswick. In 1795 he was a member of 
the Loyal Artillery of that city. He died while at Boston in 
1804, aged forty-six. 

Foskie, Brian. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Foster, Edward, and Edward, Junior. Of Boston. Black- 
smiths. Went to Halifax in 1776, and in 1778 both were pro- 
scribed and banished. The senior Edward was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and in his religious faith a Sandema- 
nian. The father and son died in Union, Maine. There is a 
tradition that, while the royal army occupied Boston, one or 
both of them assisted to make a quantity of horse shoes with 
three erect prongs, which were distributed all over the "Neck," 
for the purpose of wounding cavalry, should the rebels venture 
to make an attack. 

Foster, John. Residence unknown. A soldier in Colonel 
Malcolm's Regiment; deserted to the royal side, and was tried 
for the offence in 1778. The common punishment for this 
crime was death, but as Foster was a young man, he was 
only sentenced to receive one hundred lashes on his bare back. 



292 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Foster, Frederick. Residence unknown. Settled in New 
Brunswick, and died on the island of Grand Menan in 1834, 
aged seventy-four. 

Foster, Thomas. Of Queen's County, New York. Ac- 
knowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 

Foster, Thomas, Esquire. Of Plymouth, Massachusetts. 
He represented that town in the General Court several years ; 
and in 1765 instructions were furnished him to govern his 
course on the exciting questions of the time. Aside from his 
political preferences, he was esteemed by his townsmen for his 
attention and fidelity to the municipal and civil concerns in- 
trusted to his care. His father, Deacon John Foster, was also 
a representative from Plymouth, and pursued an independent 
line of conduct in that relation, never accepting of executive 
favors. His son Thomas was a graduate of Harvard Univer- 
sity, and instructed a school at Plymouth. His grandson 
Thomas, was an officer of a bank at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, and died there in 1808, aged fifty-eight. Branches of 
this family settled in Middleborough and Kingston, Massa- 
chusetts, and in Norfolk, Virginia. Mr. Foster accompanied 
the British army to Hahfax in 1776, on the evacuation of 
Boston. 

Fotheringham, Alexander. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in 
the North Carolina Volunteers. 

FowLE, John. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Address- 
er of Hutchinson in 1774. Jacob Fowle, of that town, was 
the same. 

Fought, George. Of New York. He went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and died at St. John in 1823, aged eighty-three. 

Fountain, John. Died at Deer Island, New Brunswick, in 
1829, aged eighty-five. 

Fountain, Stephen. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He ar- 
rived at St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife, in 1783, in 
the ship Union. 

FouLTs, Christian. Of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 
His estate was confiscated in 1779 j he is styled Colonel in the 
statute. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 293 

FowLE, Robert. Served an apprenticeship with his uncle, 
Daniel Fowle, of Portsmouth, and became his partner in the 
publication of the New Hampshire Gazette, the only news- 
paper in New Hampshire at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tion. As the nephew was a Loyalist, and the uncle a Whig, 
their connexion terminated in 1774; when Robert established 
himself as a printer at Exeter. The new paper currency, which 
he printed, having been counterfeited soon after, suspicion 
rested on him as a participant in the crime; and his flight to 
the British lines in New York, and thence abroad, served to 
confirm the impression. Some years after the peace he re- 
turned to the United States, married the widow of his younger 
brother, and lived in New Hampshire until his decease. His 
father was John Fowle, first a silent partner of Rogers and 
Fowle, of Boston, and subsequently an Episcopal clergyman at 
Norwalk, Connecticut. The firm of Rogers and Fowle printed 
the first edition of the New Testament in the English lan- 
guage which was published in this country. Robert, the 
subject of this notice, received, with other refugees, a pension 
from the British government. 

Fowle, Robert L. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished, and his estate was confiscated. 

Fowler, Caleb. Of New York. In 1782 he was an ensign 
in the Loyal American Regiment. He settled in New Bruns- 
wick ; received half-pay, and died on the river St. John. 

Fowler, Caleb. Of Westchester County, New York. He 
was one of the Loyalist Protesters at White Plains, April, 
1775, who denounced Whig Congresses and Committees, and 
who pledged themselves "at the hazard of their lives and 
properties, to support the King and Constitution." He entered 
the royal service, and was a captain in the Loyal American 
Regiment. At the peace he retired to New Brunswick on half- 
pay. He died near Fredericton. 

Fowler. Besides the above, v/ere George, of Westchester 

County, New York, who signed a Declaration of loyalty in 

1775 ; and John, Thomas, and David, of the same County, 

who acknowledged allegiance in 1776 ; and John, of Massa- 

25* 



294 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

chusetts, who, accompanied by his wife and two children, 
arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in the 
spring of 1783. Of those whose places of residence are un- 
known, were William, who was a captain, and Gilbert, who 
was an ensign in the Loyal American Regiment ; Gabriel, 
who settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died in that Col- 
ony in 1832, at the age of seventy-five ; Daniel, who boasted 
of being a firm Loyalist, who settled in the same, and died in 
King's County in 1813, aged sixty-five ; Henry, who died in 
Eling's County in 1843, at the age of eighty-seven; and James, 
who also settled in New Brunswick at the peace, and was a 
grantee of a lot in the city of St. John. 

FoxcROFT, John. One of the two Postmasters-general of 
the crown in the thirteen Colonies ; and was nominally in 
ofiice in the year 1782, and probably until the close of the 
contest. After Galloway retired to England, he became a 
correspondent. 

Franklin, William. The only son of Doctor Franklin, and 
the last royal governor of New Jersey. He was born about 
the year 1731. He served as Postmaster of Philadelphia, and 
as clerk of the House of Assembly of Pennsylvania. In the 
French war he was a captain, and gained praise for his con- 
duct at Ticonderoga. About the close of the war he went to 
England with his father, and visiting Scotland, became ac- 
quainted with the celebrated Earl of Bute, who recommended 
him to Lord Fairfax. The latter, without the solicitation of 
himself or his father, gave him the appointment of Governor 
of New Jersey in 1763. For a time. Governor Franklin en- 
joyed considerable popularity. His first dispute with the 
Assembly appears to have been caused by his course in rela- 
tion to the removal of the treasurer of the Colony, who was a 
defaulter. It is supposed that he was a thorough monarchist 
from settled principle, and that he viewed the sentiments and 
conduct of his father with the most determined disapprobation; 
and it is certain, that no adherent of the crown in America 
was more firm and zealous in his measures to prevent concert 
and union among the Whigs. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 295 

Some extracts from his letters to Lord Dartmouth, in 1774, 
will show the state of feeling in New Jersey, and his own 
opinions upon the condition of public affairs. On the 31st of 
May, he said: "Since my last I have received two circular 
despatches from Mr. Pownall, dated March 10th and April 
6th, enclosing copies of his Majesty's message to both Houses 
of Parliament relative to the late disturbances in America 
respecting the port of Boston. The latter has been published 
in the usual manner, though the people in that Colony are not 
concerned in carrying on any commerce with the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay. It is difficult as yet to foresee what will 
be the consequence of the Boston Port Act. It seems as if the 
merchants of Philadelphia and New York, at their late meet- 
ings, were inclined to assist or co-operate with those of Boston, 
in some degree, but not to carry matters so far as to enter into 
a general non-importation and exportation agreement, as was 
proposed to them by the town of Boston. However, I believe 
it may be depended upon, that many of the merchants, on 
the supposition that a non-importation agreement (so far as 
respects from Great Britain) will be certainly entered into by 
next autumn, have ordered a much greater quantity of goods 
than common to be sent out by the next fall ships from Eng- 
land. A Congress of members of the several Houses of 
Assembly has been proposed in order to agree upon some 
measures on the present occasion ; but whether this expedient 
will take place, is yet uncertain. The Virgmia Assembly, 
some time ago, appointed a Committee of Correspondence to 
correspond with all the other Assemblies on the Continent, 
which example has been followed by every other House of 
Representatives. I was in hopes that the Assembly of this 
Province would not have gone into the measure; for though 
they met on the 10th of November, yet they avoided taking 
the matter into consideration, though frequently urged by 
some of the members, until the 8th of February, and then I 
believe they would not have gone into it, but that the Assem- 
bly of New York had just before resolved to appoint such a 
Committee, and they did not choose to appear singular." 



296 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

On the 11th of June, 1774, the Whigs of Essex County 
met in Convention, and adopted various resolutions expressive 
of their sentiments on the alarming state of affairs, which gave 
Governor Franklin much uneasiness. Seven days after, in 
transmitting Lord Dartmouth a copy of these resolutions, he 
remarked, that the meeting in that County " was occasioned 
it seems by an advertisement, requesting the attendance of the 
inhabitants on that day, and published in one of the New 
York papers, and signed by two gentlemen of the law, who 
reside in that County. I have likewise had an application 
made to me by some of the members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, to call a meeting of the General Assembly in August 
next, with which I have not, nor shall not comply, as there is 
no public business of the Province which can make such a 
meeting necessary. It seems now determined by several of 
the leading men, in most, if not all the Counties of this Pro- 
vince, to endeavor to follow the example of the freeholders in 
Essex. Meetings of this nature there are no means of pre- 
venting, where the chief part of the inhabitants incline to 
attend them. I as yet doubt, however, whether they will 
agree to the general non-importation from Great Britain, which 
has been recommended." 

In January, 1775, Governor Franklin met the Assembly. 
A considerable part of his speech is devoted to the controversy 
between the Colonies and the mother country, and to warn- 
ings to the members against imitating the example of those 
whose course of conduct was likely to involve the country in 
afflictive calamities. "It is not for me to decide," said he, 
"on the particular merits of the dispute, nor do I mean to cen- 
sure those who conceive themselves aggrieved, for aiming at a 
redress of their grievances ; it is a duty they owe themselves, 
their country, and their posterity." But in the manner of 
seeking redress, he adds, there are "two roads, one evidently 
leading to peace, happiness, and a restoration of the public 
tranquillity, the other inevitably conducting you to anarchy, 
misery, and all the horrors of civil war." He concluded his 
speech thus : " But it is, says one of the wisest of men, a 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 297 

most infallible symptom of the dangerous state of liberty, 
when the chief men of a free country show a greater regard to 
popularity than to their own judgment." 

The Representatives made a caustic reply, which drew from 
Franklin the following : — 

" Gentlemen : — Were I to give such an answer to your 
Address as the peculiar nature of it seems to require, I should 
be necessarily led into the explanation and discussion of sev- 
eral matters and transactions, which, from the regard I bear to 
you and the people of this Colony, I would far rather have 
buried in oblivion. It is, besides, in vain to argue on the sub- 
ject, as you have, with a most uncommon and unnecessary 
precipitation, given your entire approbation to that destructive 
mode of proceeding which I so earnestly warned you against. 
Whether, after such a resolution, the Petition you mention can 
be reasonably expected to produce any good effect ; and 
whether you or I have best consulted the true interests of the 
people on this important occasion, I shall leave others to de- 
termine. You may be assured, however, that the advice 
which I gave you was totally uninfluenced by any sinister 
motive whatever. It came from a heart sincerely devoted to 
my native country, whose welfare and happiness depend, as I 
conceive, upon a plan of conduct very different from what has 
been hitherto adopted." 

The Governor and the Assembly parted in bad temper. An 
attempt was made to reduce his Excellency's salary from 
£1200 to £1000, and in appropriating £60 for the payment of 
the rent of his house, the condition that he should reside either 
at Perth Amboy or Burlington was annexed to the grant. His 
situation was unhappy. All intercourse between himself and 
his father had now been suspended for more than a year ; and 
he was involved in a helpless quarrel with the delegates and 
the people of New Jersey. 

On the 13th of February he prorogued the Assembly. In a 
letter to Lord Dartmouth, dated on the first of that month, 
which was published in the Parliamentary Register, it was 
alleged that he said: "At the opening of the session, I had 



298 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

some hopes of prevailing on the House of Representatives not 
to approve of the proceedings of the General Congress held at 
Philadelphia, for which purpose a paragraph of my Speech 
was particularly calculated; but the Delegates from this Pro- 
vince took the alarm, and used their utmost endeavors with 
the members to persuade them to give their approbation to 
those proceedings, as otherwise one grand end the Congress 
had in view would be entirely frustrated ; namely, the pre- 
serving an appearance of unanimity throughout the Colonies, 
without which, they said, their measures could not have that 
weight and efficacy with the Government and people of Great 
Britain, as was intended. The scheme, however, met with 
some opposition in the House, every member proposing to 
defer the consideration of it to a future time, or to give their 
approbation to only some parts of the proceedings of the Con- 
gress ; but by the artful management of those who espoused 
the measure, it was carried through precipitately the very 
morning it was proposed, as your Lordship will see by a copy 
of their Resolutions now enclosed, which were all previously 
prepared for the purpose." 

This letter, as above quoted, was laid before the House of 
Commons on the third of March, by Lord North ; and when 
the Assembly of New Jersey met in the following month of 
May, a message was sent to the Governor requesting him to 
inform that body whether it was genuine, or whether it con- 
tained the substance of any letter which he had written rela-. 
live to the measures adopted at the last session of the Assem- 
bly. In his answer, he explicitly denies its authenticity, and 
that no similar sentiments had been uttered by him in any 
communication to the king's ministers. But his message of 
reply is bitter and uncompromising throughout. " It has been 
my unhappiness almost every session during the existence of the 
present Assembly," — is the opening remark, — " that a major- 
ity of the members of the House have suffered themselves to 
be persuaded to seize on every opportunity of arraigning ray 
conduct, or fomenting some dispute, let the occasion be ever so 
trifling, or let me be ever so careful to avoid giving any just 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 299 

cause of offence. This, too, has been done with such an 
eagerness in the promoters of it, as can only be accounted for 
on a supposition that they are either actuated by unmanly 
private resentment, or by a conviction that their whole polit- 
ical consequence depends upon a contention with their Gov- 
ernor." He concludes this ill-natured document with saying, 
that those who knew him best would do him the justice " to 
allow that no office of honor in the power of the Crown to 
bestow would ever influence him to forget or neglect the duty 
he owed his country, nor the most furious rage of the most 
intemperate zealots induce him to swerve from the duty he 
owed his Majesty." 

The Assembly was prorogued on the 20th of May, (and on 
the day of transmitting this answer), to meet on the 20th of 
June following; but affairs had now reached a crisis, and 
Governor Franklin never communicated with that body again. 
Three days after the prorogation, the first Provincial Congress 
of New Jersey commenced their session at Trenton, and the 
royal government soon ceased to be respected, and to exist. A 
constitution was adopted in July, 1776, and William Living- 
ston, a member of the first Continental Congress, became 
Franklin's successor. 

The deposed representative of royalty was declared to be an 
enemy to his country, and ordered to be sent a prisoner to 
Connecticut. He was accordingly placed in the custody of a 
a guard commanded by a captain, who had orders to deliver 
him to Governor Trumbull. The officer in charge halted at 
Hackensack, and was rebuked by Washington for his delay. 
The Commander-in-chief was of the opinion, from circum- 
stances communicated to him, that the fallen Governor de- 
signed to effect his escape ; that his refusal to sign the parole 
proposed by the Whig Convention of New Jersey, and a 
letter to Mrs. Franklin which had been intercepted, afforded 
sufficient reasons for the exercise of great watchfulness and 
care. 

It appears that he was indulged in selecting the place of his 
confinement, and that he made choice of Connecticut. He 



9ii 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



was conveyed to East Windsor, and quartered in the house of 
Captain Ebenezer Grant.* In 1777 he requested liberty to 
visit his wife, who was a few miles distant and sick. In reply, 
he received the following letter. 

"Head Quarters, July 25lh, 1777. 

"Sir, — I have this moment received yours of the 22d inst. 
by express. I heartily sympathize with you in your distressing 
situation ; but, however strong my inclination to comply with 
your request, it is by no means in my power to supersede a 
positive Resolution of Congress, under which your present 
confinement took place. I have enclosed your letter to them ; 
and shall be happy, if it may be found consistent with pro- 
priety, to concur with your wishes in a matter of so delicate 
and interesting a nature. I sincerely hope a speedy restora- 
tion of Mrs. Franklin's health may relieve you from the 
anxiety her present declining condition must naturally give 
you. 

" I am, with due respect, 

" Sir, your most obedient servant, 
"G. Washington." 

Congress declined to allow the Governor to visit his wife, 
and he continued at East Windsor. This lady was born in 
the West Indies ; it is said that she was much affected by the 
severity of Doctor Franklin to her husband while he was a 
prisoner. She died in 1778, in her forty-ninth year, and it is 
inscribed on the monumental tablet erected to her memory in 
St. Paul's Church, New York, that, " Compelled to part from 
the husband she loved, and at length despairing of the sooth- 
ing hope of his speedy return, she sunk under accumulated 
distresses," &c. 

In 1778, after the arrival in America of Sir Henry Clinton, 
an exchange was effected, and Governor Franklin was re- 



* This building is still (1844) standing ; it is near the Theological Semi- 
nary. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 301 

leased. Little seems to be known of his proceedings during 
the remainder of the war. He served for a short period as 
President of the Board of Loyalists which was organized in 
New York ; but soon went to England. 

The adherents of the crown were greatly alarmed at the 
distinction made between themselves and other subjects, in the 
articles of capitulation of Cornwallis at Yorktown, and Frank- 
lin wrote to Lord George Germaine, who was then secretary for 
the American department, on the subject. His Lordship, in 
answer, stated that " the alarm taken by the loyal Refugees is 
not to be Avondered at," and that, by command of his Majesty, 
he had directed Sir Henry Clinton to make the strongest assu- 
rances for their " welfare and safety." 

In West's picture of the "Reception of the American Loyal- 
ists by Great Britain, in the year 1783 " ; Governor Franklin 
and Sir William Pepperell are the prominent personages repre- 
sented, and are placed at the head of the group of figures ; 
the first (in the words of the description or explanation) is a 
" son of Doctor Benjamin Franklin, who having his Majesty's 
commission of Governor of New Jersey, preserved his fidelity 
and loyalty to his Sovereign from the commencement to the 
conclusion of the contest, notwithstanding powerful incite- 
ments to the contrary." * 

In 1784, the father and son, after an estrangement of ten 
years, became reconciled to one another. The son appears to 
have made the first overture. Doctor Franklin, in acknowl- 
edging the receipt of his letter, says in reply, on the 16th of 
August of that year ; "I am glad to find that you desire to 
revive the affectionate intercourse that formerly existed be- 
tween us. It will be very agreeable to me ; indeed nothing 
has ever hurt me so much, and affected me with such keen 
sensations, as to find myself deserted in my old age by my 
only son ; and not only deserted, but to find him taking up 
arms against me in a cause wherein my good fame, fortune, 

* For the remainder of the description of this picture, see notice of Sir 
William Pepperell. 

26 



302 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

and life, were all at stake. You conceived, you say, that 
your duty to your king and regard for your country required 
this. I ought not to blame you for differing in sentiment with 
me in public affairs. We are all men, subject to errors. Our 
opinions are not in our power ; they are formed and governed 
much by circumstances, that are often as inexplicable as 
they are irresistible. Your situation was such, that few 
would have censured your remaining neuter, though there are 
natural duties which precede political ones, and cannot be ex- 
tinguished by them. This is a disagreeable subject ; I drop it. 
And we will endeavor, as you propose, mutually to forget 
what has happened relating to it, as well as we can." 

The Doctor, I conclude, was never able to forget, entirely, 
the alienation which had happened between them. Since in 
his Will, which is dated June 23, 1789, nearly five years after 
this letter, and a few months previous to his own decease, he 
thus remembers his son William, late Governor of the Jerseys. 
" I give and devise all the lands I hold or have a right to in 
the Province of Nova Scotia, to hold to him, his heirs and 
assigns forever. I also give to him all my books and papers 
which he has in his possession, and all debts standing against 
him on my account-books, willing that no payment for, nor 
restitution of, the same be required of him by my executors. 
The part he acted against me in the late war, which is of 
public notoriety, will account for my leaving him no more of 
an estate he endeavored to deprive me of." 

Though the part he acted against his father was of pub- 
lic notoriety, rumors reached the ears of the commission- 
ers of Loyalist claims, that the disagreement between the 
Doctor and his son had been collusive, and was more politic 
than sincere; and the Governor was accordingly required to 
exhibit proofs of his loyalty and uniform attachment to the 
royal cause. The commissioners themselves, probably, enter- 
tained no doubts on the subject, but examined the charge to 
satisfy the public, and to relieve the accused from what they 
believed to be an unfounded imputation. 

Among the witnesses who testified in his favor was Sir 



I 






OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 303 

Henry Clinton. He made a schedule of his losses, which were 
by no means considerable. Indeed, Governor Franklin must 
have been poor. His personal estate was valued at only 
£1,800, which sum the commissioners allowed him. He had 
several shares in back lands and grants, but as he was in- 
debted to his father, and had conveyed to him all his real 
property in New York and New Jersey, the loss of his office 
and its emoluments, and the £1,800 above mentioned, com- 
prised the principal items in his account, and for which he 
claimed compensation. 

The commissioners were, however, impressed with the 
hardship of his case, and made a special report, in which 
they recommended an allowance of £300 per annum in addi- 
tion to £500 yearly pension previously granted to him, as 
being half the value of his salary and fees in America. 
Governor Franklin continued in England during the re- 
mainder of his life. He enjoyed a pension, and it is believed, 
of the amount of £800 per annum. He died in November, 
1813, at the age of about eighty-two years. Some years after 
the death of his first wife, he married a lady who was born 
in Ireland. His son, William Temple Franklin, who edited 
the works of Doctor Franklin, died at Paris, in May, 1823. 

Frazer, Francis. Residence unknown. Was a captain in 
the Guides and Pioneers. 

Frazer, James. A physician, of South Carolina. Held a 
commission under the crown, and lost his estate under the 
confiscation act of 1782. A Doctor James Frazer died at 
Charleston, in 1803, — probably the same. 

Frazer, John. Of New York. Was born in Scotland, emi- 
grated to New York some years prior to the Revolution ; went 
to Nova Scotia at the peace, and died at Shelburne in 1840, 
aged eighty-eight. 

Frazer, John. Residence unknown. Surgeon of the King's 
Orange Rangers. 

Frazer, IjEwis. Residence unknown. Settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and died in King's County in 1835, aged 
seventy-two; Mary Harkley Frazer, his widow, who was 



304 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

born in Charleston, South Carolina, died at St. John, New- 
Brunswick, 1836, at the age of seventy-three. 

Frazer, Thomas. Of South Carolina. Was a major of the 
South Carolina Loyalists. 

Freeman, Lewis. Was a cornet in the King's American 
Dragoons. 

Freer, John. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate was 
amerced twelve per cent. 

French, James. Of New York, He accepted a commission 
in De Lancey's First Battalion, and in 1782 was a captain. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, was the 
grantee of a city lot, and received half-pay. He settled in 
the County of York, and was a magistrate for several years. 
He died in that County in 1820, at the age of seventy-five. 

French, Joseph. Of Jamaica, New York. He was elected 
to the Provincial Congress in 1775, but declined to take his 
seat on the ground that the majority of the freeholders of 
that town were opposed to being represented in that body. 
In 1777, Jamaica contributed £219 to a corps of Loyalists 
raised in New York at the instance of Governor Tryon, 
which sum passed through the hands of Mr. French. In 
1780 he was an Addresser of Governor Robertson. 

French, Thomas. Of New York. In 1782 he was a cap- 
tain in De Lancey's First Battalion. 

French, . A Loyalist in arms, and of some note. He 

was killed in the battle of Bennington. 

Frey, Barent. Of New York. He was an officer in the 
royal service, and was engaged with Brant, and a band of 
Indians and Tories, in devastating the country on the Mo- 
hawk. 

Frey, Hendrick. Of New York. He served the crown 
during the war, and was a major. After the peace he returned 
to his native State. In 1797 he and Brant met at Canajoharie, 
where, at a tavern, " they had a merry time of it during the 
live long night. Many of their adventures were recounted, 
among which was a duel that had been fought by Frey, to 
whom Brant acted as second." The meeting of the Chief and 
the Major, is described as "like that of two brothers." 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 305 

t 

Frey, Philip R. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. He entered the military service of the king, and 
was an ensign in the eighth regiment. He was engaged 
in the battle of Wyoming. He died at Palestine, Montgomery 
(formerly Tryon) County, in 1723. His son, Samuel C. Frey, 
settled in Upper Canada, and communicated particulars of 
the sanguinary scenes at Wyoming, for Colonel Stone's use in 
writing his Life of Brant. The testimony of the Freys is, 
that Brant was not present with Butler at Wyoming, and this, 
according to the son, the father steadily maintained through 
life. 

Friday, David. Of South Carolina. Estate confiscated. 

Frink, Nathan. He was born at Pomfret, Connecticut. He 
entered the British military service, and was a captain of 
cavalry in the American Legion, and aid-de-camp to Arnold 
after his treason, and was engaged in the burning of New 
London. At the peace he went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
where he remained several years, but removed to St. Andrew, 
and finally to St. Stephen, in the same Colony. He died at 
the latter place, December 4, 1817, aged sixty years. His 
wife, Hester, died at St. Stephen, February 22, 1824, at the 
age of sixty-five. His sister Alida married Schuyler, the 
oldest son of General Israel Putnam. Seven children survived 
him. His son James is a magistrate and ship-owner of St. 
Stephen, and married Martha G. Prescott, a niece of Roger 
Sherman. Captain Frink was educated for the bar. In New 
Brunswick he was a merchant and ship-owner ; and a magis- 
trate of Charlotte County for about thirty years. He received 
half-pay as an oflicer. His family connexions in the United 
States are highly respectable. It is believed, that his political 
sympathies were originally adverse to the royal cause, and 
that less intolerance on the part of his Whig neighbors and 
friends, would have produced a difierent line of conduct on 
his part. 

Frisby, James. Was a captain in the Maryland Loyalists. 

Frye, Peter. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. He was representative to the 
26* 



# 



306 EIOGEAPHICAL SKETCHES 

r 

General Court, and being a member in 1768, was a Rescinder. 
He was also a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Register 
of Probate, and Colonel of militia in the County of Essex. 
His name appears among the Salem Addressers of Gage, June, 
1774. He died in England, February, 1820, aged ninety- 
seven years. The first husband of his daughter Love, was 
Doctor Peter Oliver, a Massachusetts Loyalist ; and her 
second was Admiral Sir John Knight of the British navy. 
Lady Knight died at her seat near London in 1839. 

Fuller, George. Of South Carolina. Estate confiscated. 

Fulton, James. Of New Hampshire. In 1778 he was pro- 
scribed and banished. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
American Dragoons. James Fulton, Esquire, a magistrate in 
the County of Halifax, died in Nova Scotia in 1826. 

Furlong, William. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of infantry 
in the American Legion. 

FuRMAN, Joseph. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of a 
Declaration against the Whigs, January, 1775. 

FuRNER, Edward. Of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. It was 
ordered in Council in 1778, that he surrender himself for trial 
or stand attainted. Morris Furner, of Wyoming, was included 
in the same proclamation. 

Fyffe, Charles. A physician, of South Carolina. He was 
in ofiice under the crown after the fall of Charleston in 1780. 
Estate confiscated. 

Gabel, John. Was one of the first of the Loyalists who 
settled in New Brunswick, and died at St. John in 1816, aged 
eighty-four. 

Gaillard, John and Theodore. Of South Carolina. Were 
both members of the Provincial Congress in 1775, and were 
then, it is to be presumed, Whigs. But in 1780 they held 
commissions under the crown, and lost their estates under the 
confiscation act of 1782. 

Gaine, Hugh. Printer and Bookseller, of New York ; and 
publisher of the New York Mercury. Died April 25, 1807, 
aged eighty-one years. His political creed seems to have con- 



! 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 307 

sisted of but one article, and that — to keep loith the strongest 
party. At first he was a Whig, and when, in 1776, the Brit- 
ish troops were about to take possession of New York, he 
retreated with his press to Newark ; but, in the beUef that the 
Whigs would be subdued and the Revolution suppressed, he 
soon after privately withdrew from Newark, and returned to 
New York, where he printed under the protection of the king's 
army, and devoted the Mercury to the support of the royal 
cause. At the conclusion of the war, he petitioned the legis- 
lature of the State for liberty to remain in the city, which was 
granted ; but he discontinued the publication of his paper, 
and turned his attention to the printing and selling of books. 
He occupied a stand in Hanover square more thali forty years, 
and by close application to business, regularity and punctual- 
ity, he acquired a handsome estate. As a citizen, he was 
moral and highly respectable. As a politician, his unstable 
course excited several poetical essays from a wit of the time ; 
among them, is a versification of his petition to the new gov- 
ernment already alluded to, of some three hundred and fifty 
lines. The writer's manner may be judged of by the follow- 
ing extract. After relating the evils of his sojourn at Newark, 
Gaine is made to speak thus of his return to New York, and 
taking part with the Loyalists. 

*' As matters have gone, it was plainly a blunder, 
But then I expected the Whigs must knock under, 
And I always adhere to the sword that is longest, 
And stick to the party that 's like to be strongest : 
That you have succeeded is merely a chance, 
I never once dreamt of the conduct of France ! — 
If alliance with her you were promised — at least 
You ought to have showed me your star in the East, 
Not let me go off uninformed as a beast. 
When your army I saw without stockings or shoes. 
Or victuals or money — to pay them their dues. 
Excepting your wretched congressional paper. 
That stunk in my nose like the snuff of a taper," &c. 

Galbreath, James. Was a captain in De Lancey's First 
Battalion. 



308 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Gale, Samuel. Of New York. In 1775 he was a member 
of the House of Assembly, and joined Cruger and others, in 
the recess that year, in a letter to General Gage at Boston. 
He is alluded to in McFingal. 

Gale, . Clerk of the Court of Cumberland County, 

New York. During the difficulties between the Whigs and 
Loyalists of Cumberland in 1775, — as particularly related in 
the notice of W. Patterson, Esquire, — he does not appear to 
have conducted with wisdom or decorum. According to the 
account of the affair drawn up by the Whig Committee, he 
drew a pistol upon the multitude, who asked for a parley, and 

exclaimed, "d — n the parley with such d d rascals as 

you are" ; and holding up his weapon, added, "I will hold no 

parley with such d d rascals, but this." Collision soon 

followed, and human life was taken. 

Gallison, John. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Gallop, Antill. Embarked at Boston for Halifax, with the 
British army, in 1776. 

Gallopp, William. He settled in Charlotte County, New 
Brunswick, and was a magistrate. He died in that County 
about the year 1806. 

Galloway, Joseph. He was a son of Peter Galloway, and 
was born in Maryland about the year 1730. His family was re- 
spectable, and of good estate, and his education was probably the 
best that could be obtained in the Middle Colonies. He went 
early in life to Philadelphia, commenced the practice of the 
law, became eminent in his profession, and held many impor- 
tant trusts. He married the daughter of the Honorable Law- 
rence Growdon, who was for a long period Speaker of the 
Assembly of Pennsylvania, by which connexion he enjoyed a 
considerable fortune. In 1764 Mr. Galloway was a member of 
the Assembly, and on the question of a change of the govern- 
ment from the proprietary to the royal form, as in some other 
Colonies, made an able speech in answer to the celebrated 
Dickinson, who opposed the petition. Both speeches were 
published. Galloway continued in the Assembly for some 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 900 

years, and attained the Speakers chair of that body. In 1774 
he was elected a member of the Whig Congress of the Conti- 
nent, and took his seat, and was an active participant in its 
leading recommendations and measures. On the 28th of Sep- 
tember he submitted to Congress the following motion and 
Plan. 

" Resolved, That this Congress will apply to his Majesty for 
a redress of grievances, under which his faithful subjects in 
America labor, and assure him that the Colonies hold in ab- 
horrence the idea of being considered independent communi- 
ties on the British Government, and most ardently desire the 
establishment of a political union, not only among themselves, 
but with the mother state, upon those principles of safety and 
freedom which are essential in the constitution of all free Gov- 
ernments, and particularly that of the British Legislature. 
And as the Colonies from their local circumstances cannot be 
represented in the Parliament of Great Britain, they will hum- 
bly propose to his Majesty, and his two Houses of Parliament, 
the following Plan, under which the strength of the whole 
Empire may be drawn together on any emergency ; the inter- 
ests of both countries advanced ; and the rights and liberties 
of America secured. 

"A plan for a proposed Union between Great Britain and 
the Colonies of New Hampshire, the Massachusetts Bay, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, the three lower Counties on the Delaware, 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. 

" That a British and American Legislature, for regulating 
the administration of the general affairs of America, be pro- 
posed and established in America, including all the said Col- 
onies ; within and under which Government each Colony 
shall retain its present Constitution and powers of regulating 
and governing its own internal police in all cases whatever. 

" That the said Government be administered by a President 
General to be appointed by the King, and a Grand Council, to 
be chosen by the Representatives of the people of the several 
Colonies in their respective Assembhes, once in every three 
years. 



4r 



310 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

" That the several Assemblies shall choose members for the 
Grand Council in the following proportions, viz : [the 

Colonies are recited, but number of members are left blank.] 

"Who shall meet at the City of ***** for the first 
time, being called by the President General, as soon as con- 
veniently may be after his appointment. 

" That there shall be a new election of members for the 
Grand Council every three years ; and on the death, removal, 
or resignation of any Member, his place shall be supplied by 
a new choice at the next sitting of the Assembly of the Colony 
he represented. 

" That the Grand Council shall meet once in every year if 
they shall think it necessary, and oftener, if occasions shall 
require, at such time and place as they shall adjourn to at 
the last preceding meeting, or as they shall be called to meet 
at, by the President General on any emergency. 

" That the Grand Council shall have power to choose their 
Speaker, and shall hold and exercise all the rights, liberties, 
and privileges as are held and exercised by and in the House 
of Commons of Great Britain. 

" That the President General shall hold his office during the 
pleasure of the King, and his assent shall be requisite to all 
Acts of the Grand Council, and it shall be his office and duty 
to cause them to be carried into execution. 

" That the President General, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Grand Council, shall hold and exercise all the 
Legislative rights, powers, and authorities, necessary for reg- 
ulating and administering all the general police and affairs of 
the Colonies, in which Great Britain and the Colonies, or 
any of them, the Colonies in general, or more than one Colony, 
are in any manner concerned, as well civil and criminal as 
commercial. 

" That the said President General and Grand Council be 
an inferior and distinct branch of the British Legislature, 
united and incorporated with it for the aforesaid general pur- 
poses ; and that any of the said general resolutions may origi- 
nate, and be formed and digested, either in the Parliament of 




OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 3tl 

Great Britain, or in the said Grand Council ; and being pre- 
pared, transmitted to the other for their approbation or dissent; 
and that the assent of both shall be requisite to the validity of 
all such general Acts and Statutes. 

" That in time of war, all Bills for granting aids to the 
Crown, prepared by the Grand Council, and approved by the 
President General, shall be valid and passed into a law with- 
out the assent of the British Parliament." 

No disposition seems to have been made of this Plan. On 
the 20th of October, Congress adopted the celebrated measure 
of "Non-Importation, Non-Consumption, and Non-Exporta- 
tion," and ordered that the several members subscribe their 
names to it. The signature of Mr. Galloway is among them ; 
and his name is to be found, also, to the Address to the Inhab- 
itants of the Province of Quebec. Near the close of the ses- 
sion he was appointed, with Mr. Adams and others^ to rev; 
thr jjinnt nn o f C nnf;;rr-n — — 

No man in Pennsylvania, at this time, was more in favor 
with the popular party. In the attack upon the proprietary 
rights, he had been regarded the leader ; and with Franklin,* 
he was on terms of intimacy and confidence. His disaffection 
or disinclination to continue in the public councils soon became 
manifest. By the proceedings of the House of Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, on the 12th of May, 1775, it appears, that 
"Joseph Galloway, Esquire, having repeatedly moved in 
Assembly to be excused from serving as a Deputy in the Con- 
tinental Congress, the House this day took his motion in con- 
sideration, and do hereby agree to excuse him from that ser- 
vice." In 1776 he aband oned the Whigs, and b ecame ona-of 
^e m ost virulent and proscriptive Loyalists of the time. His 
former friends often feTf thelofce of his"powers, and the evil 
effects of his influence with the agents of the crown, both in 
America and England. He joined the royal army in New 
York soon after his defection, and continued there until June 

* A will executed by Franklin, some years prior to 1784, was left in his 
care. 




i 



312 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

of 1778. His only daughter accompanied him to England. 
In 1779 he was examined before the House of Commons as to 
the state of aflfairs in the revolted Colonies, and did not spare 
the king's generals. Between this time and the peace, his pen 
was almost constantly employed on subjects connected with 
the war, and its management on the part of officers of the 
crown. In addition to an extensive correspondence with Loy- 
alists who continued in America, he published observations on 
the conduct of Sir William Howe ; a letter to Howe on his 
naval conduct ; letters to a nobleman on the conduct of the 
war in the Middle Colonies ; reply to the observations of Gen- 
eral Howe ; cool thoughts on the consequences of American 
Independence; candid examination of the claims of Great 
Britain and her Colonies; and reflections on the American 
rebellion. 

His estate, which he valued at £40,000, was confiscated by 
Pennsylvania, in pursuance of his proscription and attainder. 
A large part of his property was derived from his wife, and a 
considerable proportion of it was restored finally to his daugh- 
ter, and is still possessed by his descendants. When the agency 
for the prosecuting the claims of the Loyalists to compensa- 
tion was formed, Mr. Galloway was appointed a member of 
the board for Pennsylvania and Delaware. But his own pre- 
tensions to consideration were disputed. The circumstance, 
that he had been a Whig and a member of the first Continen- 
tal Congress, occasioned a jealousy among the adherents of 
the crown, who had never changed sides, and the Commis- 
sioners made a minute investigation into his conduct. They 
examined numerous witnesses, among whom were General 
Gage, Lord Cornwallis, and Sir William Howe; and they 
found and reported him to be " an active though not an 
early Loyalist," and of course entitled to compensation. A 
tract attributed to him, on the subject of the Loyalist Claims 
for Losses, was published in 1788 j from which, as the reader 
will remember, some extracts appear in the preliminary re- 
marks of this volume. He died in England, September, 1803, 
at the age of seventy- three years. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 313 

His path was filled with vexations and troubles. He was a 
politician by nature ; and he had many qualities indispensable 
to success in political life. For some years prior to the Revo- 
lution, he was the secret or open mover of many of the public 
issues that arose. In the alienation of friends he was unfortu- 
nate. In 1766 he connected himself with Goddard and Whar- 
ton, in publishing a newspaper called the Pennsylvania Chron- 
icle. By the terms of the arrangement, he and Wharton were 
to furnish a share of the necessary capital, and Goddard was to 
print and manage the concern. And it is a singular fact con- 
nected with this matter, that the articles of copartnership 
provided for the admission of Franklin as a partner, should he 
choose to join them on his coming home from England, where 
he was then absent. But the philosopher never availed him- 
self of the opportunity; the three partners quarrelled, separated 
on the worst possible terms, and Goddard and Galloway filled 
the public prints with the vilest mutual abuse. The difficulty 
reached the ears of Franklin, and he thus wrote to his son 
William from London. "I cast my eye over Goddard' s piece 
against our friend, Mr. Galloway, and then lit my fire with it. 
I think such feeble, malicious attacks cannot hurt him." The 
events of a few years produced strange changes in the relations 
of the several parties here spoken of, and show the effects of 
civil war in a most striking manner. Galloway, as has been 
said, turned Loyalist, and Franklin renounced him ; while 
Goddard, who made the " feeble and malicious attacks," was 
appointed to the second office in the Continental Post-office 
department, when Franklin was placed at its head. While, 
again, Goddard, soured and disaffected, on the retirement of 
Franklin from that service, because he was not named to 
succeed him, incurred the displeasure of the Whigs, and was 
the object of hate, and the victim of mobs. And yet again ; 
Franklin's only son, the royal governor of New Jersey, also 
became a Loyalist; which entirely alienated his father, so 
that there was no intercourse between them for ten years. 

Galloway, after deserting the Whigs, was the mark at which 
many writers levelled their wit and their anger. Trumbull 
27 



314 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

says of him, that " he began by being a flaming patriot, but 
being disgusted at his own want of influence, and the greater 
popularity of others, he turned Tory, wrote against the meas- 
ures of Congress, and absconded," and, that "just before his 
escape, a trunk was put on board a vessel in the Delaware, to 
be delivered to" him, which, on opening, "he found contained 
only, as Shakspeare says, 

" A halter gratis, and leave to hang himself." 

Trumbull, in his McFingal, still further discourses thus : — 

" Did you not, in as vile and shallow way, 
Fright our poor Philadelphian, Galloway, 
Your Congress, when the loyal ribald 
Belied, berated and bescribbled ? 
What ropes and halters did you send, 
Terrific emblems of his end, 
Till, lest he 'd hang in more than effigy, 
Fled in a fog the trembling refugee ? " 

The unhappy Loyalist deserved all that was said of him ; 
since it seems improbable that he changed sides from convic- 
tion, and from justifiable motives. A man of so great aptitude 
for the administration of afiairs, of so mature judgment, of 
so much political experience, of so penetrating sagacity, of 
powers of mind that led his fellows in masses, can hardly 
stand excused, upon the most charitable view of his conduct 
that is possible. 

Galway, William. Of Conway, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Gamble, David. Belonged to the Eighth Pennsylvania Reg- 
iment, but deserted. In 1778 he was tried for this ofi"ence, and 
for having in his possession counterfeit continental money; 
and was sentenced to sufier death. 

Gamble, James. Of North Carolina. Lost his estate in 
1779, under the confiscation act. 

Gamble, Doctor . Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 

and received the grant of a city lot. 

GardeNj Alexander. Of South Carolina. A Congratulator 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 316 

of Cornwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his 
estate was confiscated. He was banished. Doctor Garden 
fitted himself for professional pursuits at Edinburgh. He 
acquired a fortune. He was much devoted to the study of 
natural history, and was a valuable writer in that branch of 
science, especially in botany. He went to England in 1783, 
and died in London in 1791, at the age of sixty-three years. 
He was doctor of medicine and of divinity, and a fellow of 
the Royal Society. 

Garden, Benjamin. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. In 1775, Colonel Benjamin 
Garden was a member of the Provincial Congress. 

Garden, William. He received employment under the 
crown, after the Revolution ; and at the time of his decease 
was assistant deputy commissary general of the garrison at 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. He sank under the pressure of 
sickness and trouble; and closed his life in the County of 
York, New Brunswick, in 1812, aged sixty-three. 

Gardiner, Alexander. Was wharf officer at Staten Island, 
in the Superintendent Department established at New York 
by Sir William Howe. 

Gardiner, George. A magistrate of the County of Albany. 
Early in 1775 he stated the difficulties of exercising his offi- 
cial duties, and claimed of the government of the Colony pro- 
tection from the apprehended misdeeds of the rioters of that 
section. 

Gardiner, George, Henry, and Jacob. Residence unknown. 
Were grantees of the city of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Gardiner, Samuel. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. Was a loyal Declarator in 1775. 

Gardiner, Sylvester. He was born in Rhode Island in 
1717, and having fitted himself for the practice of medicine in 
England and France, entered upon, and pursued a successful 
professional career in Boston. He acquired great wealth, and 
purchased extensive tracts of land in Maine. A Loyalist and 
a Refugee, he abandoned his native country with the small 
sum of £400. His landed estate, consisting of about one hun- 



316 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

dred thousand acres, was confiscated, but finally restored to his 
heirs. He was an Addresser of both Hutchinson and Gage. 
In 1776 he went to Halifax with the British army. His name 
is to be found in the proscription and banishment act of 1778. 
He returned to the United States after the war, and died at 
Newport, Rhode Island, August 8, 1786, aged sixty-eight. 
Previous to his decease, some progress was made in settling 
his domain on the Kennebec. Prior to the Revolution, he built 
a mill on the Cobesseconte at Gardiner, and at a period some 
years later, he erected an Episcopal church in the same town, 
which was burned by the maniac, McCausland. Gardiner, at 
this time, is one of the most flourishing towns in Maine ; 
but when Robert H. Gardiner, Esquire, came into possession 
in 1803, there were not above six hundred and fifty people 
within its limits. 

Gardner, George. Of Rhode Island. He settled at St. 
John, New Brunswick, and was an alderman of that city. 

Gardner, Henry. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Address- 
er of Gage on his arrival in 1774. He died at Maiden in 1817, 
aged seventy-one. 

Garnett, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Was in London in 
1779, and addressed the king. Of the Massachusetts family, 
I conclude, were Patrick, who was an ensign in the Prince of 
Wales American Volunteers ; and Joseph, who settled in New 
Brunswick, was Master in Chancery, and Deputy Surrogate, 
and died in St. Andrew in 1801. 

Garrison, John. He became an inhabitant of New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was a member of the House of As- 
sembly for several years. His end was sad. He died on the 
river St. John in 1810. Joseph Garrison died at Deer Island, 
New Brunswick, in 1819, aged fifty. 

Garvey, Patrick. An assistant apothecary in the Whig 
service. He was suspected of conducting an illicit trade with 
the royal forces, and in 1780 was detected at Philadelphia, 
and committed to prison. 

Gawason, Abraham, Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. In 1775 a signer of a Declaration of loyalty. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 317 

Gay, Martin. Founder, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775 ; was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He went to Hahfax in 1776. I sup- 
pose he returned ; a gentleman of this name died at Boston 
in 1809, aged eighty-two. Mr. Gay was the son of Reverend 
Doctor Ebenezer Gay, of Hingham, Massachusetts, who died 
in 1787, aged ninety. 

Gay, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Son of Martin Gay. 
He was born in Boston, and graduated at Harvard University 
in 1775. Soon after the commencement of the Revolution, he 
abandoned his native country. He settled in New Brunswick, 
where he held several important public stations. He was a 
member of the first House of Assembly organized in the Colony, 
and represented the County of Westmoreland several years. 
He was also a magistrate of that County, and Chief Justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas. He died at Fort Cumberland, 
New Brunswick, (where his father had a grant of land from 
the crown,) January 21, 1847, in the ninety-third year of his 
age. The late Honorable Ebenezer Gay of Hingham, Massa- 
chusetts, was his brother. 

Gaynor, James and Peter. Were grantees of St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783. James was a member of the Loyal 
Artillery in 1795, and died at St. John in 1823, at the age of 
seventy-two. 

Geake, Samuel. A Whig who was taken prisoner by the 
British, corrupted, and induced to act as a spy. After enter- 
ing the service of the enemy, he enlisted among his former 
friends, the better to accomplish his purpose of betraying 
them. His designs were ascertained, and he was arrested 
in 1778, tried and condemned to die. He confessed his crime, 
but Washington spared his life, because the court martial that 
tried him was irregularly constituted, and because his tes- 
timony was deemed important against Hammell, formerly 
brigade-major to General James Clinton, who had also entered 
into treasonable designs with the British. Geake, according 
to his confession, was to receive a commission of lieutenant in 
27* 



k 



318 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

a corps that Hammell was to command, as soon as it could be 
raised from deserters from the American army. 

Geaubeau, Anthony. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Geudes, Charles. Died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1807, 
aged fifty-six. 

Geiger, Jacob. Of South Carolina. In commission under 
the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis- 
cated. 

Gerow, Andrew. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

Gerkish, Moses. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1762. In the Revolution, he was attached 
to the commissary department of the royal army. After the 
peace, he and Thomas Ross, and one Jones, obtained License 
of Occupation of the island of Grand Menan, New Brunswick, 
and its dependencies, and on condition of procuring forty set- 
tlers, a schoolmaster, and a minister, within seven years from 
the date of the License, were to receive a grant of the whole 
from the British crown. They commenced the settlement of 
the island, and sold several lots in anticipation of their own 
title, but failed to fulfil the conditions, and did not obtain the 
expected grant. Jones returned to the United States, but 
Gerrish and Ross continued at Grand Menan. Gerrish was 
an able man. A gentleman who knew him long and inti- 
mately remarks, that "he would spread more good sense on 
a sheet of paper than any person of my acquaintance." His 
powers were not, however, devoted to any regular pursuit. 
He never acquired any considerable property, "yet always 
seemed to have enough." He " did nothing, yet was always 
about something." He was a magistrate at Grand Menan for 
many years, and until his decease in 1830, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Geyer, Frederic William. Merchant, of Boston. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

GiBB, Thoivias. In 1782 he was surgeon of the New York 
Volunteers. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 319 

GiBBENS, Edward. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 the Council 
ordered, that unless he appeared and took his trial for treason, 
he should stand attainted, 

GiBBs, John W. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 17S0. Was banished in 1782, 
and his property was confiscated. 

GiBBs, Zachariah. Of South Carolina. Was in commission 
under the crown. Estate confiscated. 

GiDNEY. Lieutenant Isaac Gidney, and John, Caleb, Jona- 
than, Joshua, James, Isaac, Bartholomew, Jacob, Solomon, 
and Joseph, were Protesters at White Plains, and inhabitants 
of Westchester County, New York. 

Gilbert, Bradford. Of Freeto^vn, Massachusetts. Brother 
of Thomas Gilbert, Junior. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and re- 
ceived the grant of a lot in the city of St. John. In 1795 he 
was a member of the St. John Loyal Artillery, and in 1803 an 
alderman of the city. He died at St. John in 1814, aged 
sixty-eight. 

Gilbert, Francis. He was naval officer of New Brunswick, 
and died at St. John in 1821, aged eighty-two. 

Gilbert, Perez. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. Brother 
of Bradford Gilbert. He was proscribed and banished. He 
settled in New Brunswick with his father and brothers ; agd 
died in that Colony. 

Gilbert, Sa.muel. Of Berkley, Massachusetts. He was a 
brother of Colonel Thomas Gilbert, and went with him to 
Halifax in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 
He lived in New Brunswick for a time after the Revolution, 
but finally returned to the United States. 

Gilbert, Thomas, Junior. Of Berkley, Massachusetts. Son 
of Francis Gilbert. He fled to Boston in 1775, and joined 
his father ; but it is believed did not accompany him to Hali- 
fax. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. During the 
war he continued with the royal troops, and was active in 
his endeavors to suppress the popular movement. He settled 
in New Brunswick after the war, and died on the river 
St. John. 



320 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Gilbert, Thomas. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. His an- 
cestor was an early settler in Taunton. John Gilbert, as is 
supposed, came from Devonshire, England, at an age some- 
what advanced, and lived first, with his family, at Dorchester. 
He died previous to 1654, but Winnifred, his widow, was then 
living. He, with Henry Andrews, were the two first Repre- 
sentatives from Taunton to the General Court at Plymouth in 
1639. His sons, Thomas and John, removed with him to 
Taunton, and were among the first proprietors of that town. 
Of Thomas, Governor Winthrop gravely records, that, 

" 8th mo. August 18, 1636 : Thomas Gilbert brought be- 
fore us; he was drunk at Serjeant Baulson's, and the Con- 
stable being sent for he struck him. He was kept in prison 
all night, and the next day his father John Gilbert, and his ' 
brother John Gilbert of Dorchester, undertook in £40 that 
John Gilbert the younger would appear at Court to answer 
for him, and perform the order of the Court, &c. The reason 
was, that he was to go to England presently, and not known 
to have been in any way disordered, and was his father's 
oldest son, who was a grave, honest gentleman, &c. They 
did undertake, also, that he should acknowledge his fault 
openly to the constable, &c." 

Thomas went to England as he intended, and never re- 
turned, but died there in 1676. His wife, Jane, who was a 
daughter of Hugh Rossiter, and his children, remained at 
Taunton. His marriage is supposed to have been the first 
that occurred in that town. The name of his oldest son was 
Thomas, who was the immediate ancestor of Thomas Gilbert, 
the Loyalist, who is the subject of this notice, and who, on 
his mother's side, was descended from Governor William Brad- 
ford, the second chief magistrate of Plymouth Colony. In 
1745, the Thomas, of whom we are now to speak, was a 
captain at the memorable siege and reduction of Louisburg, 
under Sir William Pepperell. In the French war of 1755, he 
was a lieutenant-colonel in the Massachusetts forces under 
Brigadier General Ruggles. He was engaged in the attempt 
against Crown Pomt; and after the fall of Colonel Ephraim 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 321 

Williams, in the battle with the French under Baron Dieskau 
at Lake George, he succeeded to the command of the regi- 
ment. 

In the Revolutionary controversy he took an early and de- 
cided stand in behalf of the crown. At this time he was a 
member of the House of Representatives, a Justice of the 
Quorum, and a Colonel in the militia. In 1774 a large body 
of the people proceeded to Freetown, to desire him not to 
accept of the office of sheriff under the new laws, and to in- 
form him, that if he acted under the commission which it was 
reported he had received, he " must abide by the consequen- 
ces." Soon after he was at Dartmouth ; and a party of about 
a hundred assaulted the house in which he was a lodger; but 
with the help of the family he prevented their entrance. In 
the autumn of 1774 the commotions in Bristol County had 
become so great, that an armed force was deemed requisite by 
General Gage, to keep the people in subjection to the king's 
authority ; and at his request. Colonel Gilbert raised and com- 
manded a body of three hundred Loyalists. In March, 1775, 
he wrote the following letter to the Honorable James Wallace, 
Esquire, commander of His Majesty's ship Rose, Newport, 
which was intercepted, and which appears to have been 
the second addressed by him to that officer. 

" Honorable Sir : — Since writing the lines on the 21st by 
Mr. Phillips, many insults and threats are, and have been 
made against those soldiers which have taken our arms and 
train, and exercise in the King's name; and on Monday next 
the Captains muster at the south part of the Town, when we 
have great reason to fear thousands of the rebels will attack 
them, and take our lives, or the King's arms, or perhaps both. 
I, Sir, ask the favor of one of His Majesty's Tenders, or some 
other vessel of force might be at or near Bowers', in order if 
any of onr people should be obliged to retreat, they may be 
taken on board. Nothing but the last extremity will oblige 
them to quit the ground. 

"I am your obedient humble servant, 

" Thomas Gilbert." 



322 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

These proceedings attracted immediate attention, and pro- 
duced great indignation. In April, 1775, the Congress of 
Massachusetts unanimously declared, that " Colonel Thomas 
Gilbert is an inveterate enemy to his country, to reason, to 
justice, and the common rights of mankind," and, that " who- 
ever had knowingly espoused his cause, or taken up arms for 
its support, does, in common with himself, deserve to be 
instantly cut off from the benefit of commerce with, or counte- 
nance of, any friend of virtue, America, or the human race." 
These words are explicit enough ; and contain as full and as 
comprehensive denunciation, as can be found in the records 
of any deliberative body during the controversy. And Con- 
gress, in further speaking of him, use the term — "Gilbert 
and his banditti." 

A few days after the passage of these resolutions of bitter 
censure. Colonel Gilbert fled to the Rose, which vessel was 
still at Newport, Rhode Island, and thence to Boston. On the 
4th of May, 1775, he wrote to his sons, from Boston, thus : — 

"On the 27th of April, I left the ship, took passage on 
board a packet sloop on the first instant, in health arrived 
here, where I expect to stay till the rebels are subdued, which 
I believe will not be long first, as the ships and troops are 
daily expected. My greatest fears are, you will be seduced 
or compelled to take arms with the deluded people. Dear 
sons, if these wicked sinners, the rebels, entice you, believe 
them not, but die by the sword rather than be hanged as 
rebels, which will certainly be you fate sooner or later if you 
join them, or be killed in battle, and will be no more than you 
deserve. I wish you in Boston, and all the friends to govern- 
ment. The rebels have proclaimed that those friends may 
have liberty, and come in ; but as all their declarations have 
hitherto proved, I fear, false, this may be so. Let Ruggles 
know his father wants him here. You may come by water 
from Newport. If here, the King will give you provisions 
and pay you wages ; but by experience you know neither 
your persons nor estates are safe in the country, for as soon as 
you have raised anything, they [the rebels] will rob you of it, 



! 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 323 

as they are more savage and cruel than heathens, or any other 
creatures, and, it is generally thought, than devils. You will 
put yourselves out of their power as soon as possible. This 
is from your affectionate father, 

" Thomas Gilbert." 

In 1776 Colonel Gilbert accompanied the royal army to 
Halifax ; and in 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He 
continued with the king's troops during the war, " often em- 
ployed, and constantly rendering every service in his power, 
for the suppression of the Rebellion." In 1783 he went to 
Nova Scotia, and on the 16th of November of that year he 
was at Conway, in the County of Annapolis, and a petiti- 
tioner to Governor Parr for a grant of lands. At a subsequent 
period, he settled in New Brunswick, and died on the river 
St. John, near the year 1796, aged about eighty-two. On 
retiring from service at the close of the French war. Colonel 
Gilbert declined to receive half-pay. He held no commission 
in the Revolution, and was consequently entitled to no allow- 
ance as a disbanded officer ; but he received compensation as 
a Loyalist for his losses. 

Gilbourne, Edward. In 1782 he was an ensign in the 
Second American Regiment. 

Gill, Thomas. Of Delaware. Died in York County, New 
iBrunswick, in 1833, aged seventy-seven. Mary, his widow, a 
native of Newport, Rhode Island, died in the same County, 
1837, at the age of eighty-one. 

Gillies, Archibald. Died at Carlton, New Brunswick, in 
1821, aged sixty-six. 

Gillispie, Hugh. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the Second 
American Regiment. 

GiLLSNOEz, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Gilman, Peter. Of Oilman ton. New Hampshire. He was 
son of Major John Gilman, and was born in 1704. He com- 
manded a regiment in the French war ; was Speaker of the 
Assembly ; and member of the Council of New Hampshire. 



324 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

He remained in the country, and died in 17S8, aged eighty- 
four. Colonel Gilman's regiment was employed in scout duty; 
his men, alert, and accustomed to savage warfare, rendered 
great service, and his own merits are entitled to the most re- 
spectful mention. 

GiLMORE, Joseph. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

GiLMouR, Robert. He was banished and attainted, and 
his estate was confiscated. In 1794 he represented to the 
British government, that, at the time of his banishment, debts 
were due to him in America, which he had been unable to 
recover. I suppose this person to have belonged to New 
Hampshire, and the same who was proscribed by act of that 
State in 1778. 

Gilpin, Thomas. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was confined 
in that city for being inimical to the Whig cause, and ordered 
to Virginia a prisoner. 

Girty, Simon. He figures in the difficulties of Doctor Con- 
oily and his party, with the authorities of Pennsylvania, in 
1774. Girty's career was entirely infamous. He was an early 
prisoner of the Whigs at Pittsburgh, but escaped. In 1778 he 
went through the Indian country to Detroit, with McKee and 
Elliot, proclaiming to the savages that the rebels were deter- 
mined to destroy tTiem, and that " their only chance of safety 
was to espouse the cause of the crown and fight." In 1782 
Colonel Crawford was captured by the Indians and perished at 
the stake, after suffering the most horrible and excruciating 
tortures, which Girty saw with much satisfaction. The same 
year his instigations caused the removal of the Moravian 
missionaries, who were quietly and usefully laboring among 
the Wyandots. He personally engaged in driving away these 
self-denying ministers, treated them with great harshness on 
the march, and subsequently procured their arrest. At the 
defeat of St. Clair in 1791, Girty was present on the British 
side ; and saw and knew General Butler, who lay upon the 
field writhing from the agony of his wounds. The traitor 
told a savage warrior that the wounded man was a high 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 325 

officer ; whereupon the Indian buried his tomahawk in But- 
ler's head, whose scalp was immediately torn off, and whose 
heart was taken out and divided into as many pieces as there 
were tribes engaged in the battle. 

In 1793 Commissioners on the part of the United States 
attempted to negotiate with the Confederated Nations for an 
adjustment of our difficulties with the Indians, when Girty 
acted as interpreter. His conduct was exceedingly insolent ; 
and it is related, that he was not only false in his duty as an 
interpreter, but that he run a quill or long feather through the 
cartilage of his nose cross-wise, to show his contempt for the 
American gentlemen present. The failure of the negotiation, 
it is supposed, was in a good measure owing to the evil influ- 
ence of Girty and other Loyalists. 

Glen, John. Of South Carolina. A Congratulator of Corn- 
wallis on his success at Camden, in 1780. In 1782 his estate 
was confiscated, and he was banished. 

Glen, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780, and also a Petitioner 
to be armed on the side of the crown. He was banished, 
and in 1782 his property was confiscated. He went to Eng- 
land. 

Glover, Henry. Of Newtown, Connecticut. In 1775 he 
was Chairman of a public meeting that passed several votes in 
opposition to the Whigs. 

Glover, Jonathan. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Glover, . Of Newtown, New York. In 1779, under 

the direction of Sir Henry Clinton, he and eight other Loyalists 
crossed Long Island Sound in a boat, for the purpose of cap- 
turing Major General Silliman, who had been appointed to com- 
K mand on the opposite shore of Connecticut. Glover had been 
employed by the General, and was familiar with his house. 
The party approached his dwelling at night, and awoke him- 
self and family by a violent assault upon the door. Silliman 
attempted to fire, but his musket only flashed ; when the as- 
sailants broke through a window and seized him, and bore him 
28 



326 ' BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

off. On approaching the Long Island shore, Colonel Simcoe, 
of the Loyalist corps of Queen's Rangers, was in waiting, and 
exclaimed, " Have you got him? " He was answered, " Yes." 
" Have you lost any men 1 " " No." " That is well," said 
Simcoe, "your Sillimans are not worth a man, nor your 
Washingtons." 

GoDDARD, William. Son of Giles Goddard, Postmaster of 
New London, Connecticut ; had a checkered career. He was 
bred a printer, and established the first printing press at Prov- 
idence, Rhode Island, in 1762 ; and soon after, commenced 
the publication of a newspaper. Not meeting with sufficient 
encouragement, he went to New York, and connected himself 
with John Holt in publishing the New York Gazette and Post 
Boy. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, in 1766, he removed 
to Philadelphia, and became the partner of Galloway and 
Wharton, in a paper called the Pennsylvania Chronicle. These 
gentlemen were, in the end, both Loyalists. It would seem 
that the firm expected that Franklin, who was then in Eng- 
land, would take an interest in the concern ; and provision 
was made in the articles of copartnership accordingly. The 
Chronicle was ably conducted. Galloway was an eminent 
lawyer, a writer of great vigor; and, as was supposed, a 
friend of the popular cause. In 1770, after many disputes, the 
partners, — who, in the meantime, had admitted Benjamin 
Towne as a member of their establishment, — came to an open 
rupture ; and having dissolved their connexion, filled the pub- 
lic prints, handbills, and pamphlets, with the ebullitions of 
their animosity. Unable to meet the demands against the 
firm, Goddard, in great embarrassment, left Philadelphia in 
1773, and went to Baltimore, in quest of more lucrative busi- 
ness, and greater tranquillity of life. Here he started another 
newspaper; but the plan of setting up a line of post-riders 
from New Hampshire to Georgia, in opposition to the Post- 
Office establishment of the crown, soon engaged the attention 
of leading minds ; and Goddard, intrusting his printing afiairs 
to the care of his sister, journeyed throughout the Colonies, to 
promote the adoption of the measure. He was eminently sue- 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 327 

cessful, as the Whigs entered into the scheme with great readi- 
ness, and cheerfully subscribed the necessary funds. Goddard 
was appointed surveyor of the roads and comptroller of the 
offices, on the organization of the department ; and on the 
retirement of Franklin, who was placed at its head, expected 
to succeed him as Postmaster General. To his great disap- 
pointment, Bache, son-in-law to Franklin, received the place ; 
and Goddard resigned his situation in disgust. It was sup- 
posed, that now, he not only suffered his ardor in the Whig 
cause to abate, but that he actually abandoned his political 
principles. He resumed his residence in Baltimore, where his 
paper, the Maryland Journal, had been, and was still continued, 
by and in the name of his sister ; but in which it was known 
that he had an interest, and over which, it was believed, that 
he maintained the entire control. Early in 1777, two articles, 
one of which was signed " Tom Tell Truth," and the other, 
" Caveto," appeared in the Journal, and excited the indigna- 
tion of the Baltimore Whig Club, who, on the 4th of March, 
resolved, 

" That William Goddard do leave this town by twelve 
o'clock to-morrow morning, and the County in three days," 
&c. He immediately claimed the protection of the Assembly, 
then in session at Annapolis ; and though that body formally 
and severely rebuked the Club, there was no resisting the pop- 
ular impulse against him, and before the quarrel, thus com- 
menced, was ended, he was mobbed on several occasions, and 
was otherwise insulted and ill-treated. This was especially 
the case in 1779, when the publication in the Journal of certain 
Queries, excited the ire of the Whig Club anew ; and caused a 
great ferment. He was variously employed until 1784, when 
he appeared as the proper proprietor of the Journal. In 1787 
he became involved in a bitter controversy with the publisher 
of a rival print, in which he displayed eminent ability. In 
1792 he sold his press, and bidding adieu to the cares and tur- 
moils of party and political strifes, retired to a farm in Johnston, 
Rhode Island. He subsequently changed his abode to Provi- 
dence, where he continued to reside until his decease in 1817, 
aged seventy-seven years. 



328 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Goddard was a man of fine talents, and as the manager of 
a press, had, it is said, few or no superiors. General Charles 
Lee continued his friend, and bequeathed him a portion of his 
extensive landed estate in Virginia. Lee, it will be remem- 
bered, failed in the execution of his orders at the battle of 
Monmouth, was disgraced, and spent the remainder of his 
days in retirement. He was the writer of the Queries which 
caused Goddard's trouble with the Whig Club in 1779. 

GoLDiNG, Isaac Residence unknown. Was a grantee of 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

GoLDiNG, Joseph and William. Of Jamaica, New York. 
Were loyal Declarators in 1775. 

GoLDiNG, Palmer. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. A true 
friend to government, and a captain in the militia. Early in 
1775, he was returning from a visit to a friend, who was sus- 
pected of desertion from the Whigs, and of being a Tory, and 
whose political course he was supposed to influence, when he 
was knocked down, and much bruised and wounded. 

GoLDiNG, Stephen. Residence unknown. Settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783; and died at Long Island, Hampstead, 
dueen's County, of that Province, in June, 1845, at the age of 
eighty-three years. For the thirty years previous to his de- 
cease, he held a commission of the peace for Queen's County. 
For fifty-five years he was an oflicer in the Provincial militia, 
and retired with the rank of major. He was a consistent mem- 
ber of the Church of England. His descendants are numer- 
ous, — namely, eleven children, seventy-one grandchildren, 
and seventy-four great-grandchildren. 

GoLDiNG, Zenus. Residence unknown. Died at French Vil- 
lage, New Brunswick, in 1814, aged fifty-six. 

GoLDSBURY, Samuel. Of Wrentham, Massachusetts. Went 
to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Goldsmith, Henry. He settled in New Brunswick, and was 
Collector of the Customs for the port of St. Andrew. 

GoLDTHWAiTE, EzEKiEL. Of Bostou. AVas an Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the 
same year. He was Register of Deeds for the County of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 329 

Suffolk. The Reverend John Bacon, who was minister of the 
Old South, and whose son, Ezekiel, was a member of Congress 
before the war of 1812, married his daughter. Though Mr. 
Goldthwaite became an Addresser, he was one of the fifty- 
eight Boston memorialists who, in 1760, arrayed themselves 
against the crown officers, and set the ball of the Revolution 
in motion. 

Goldthwaite, Joseph. Of Boston. Brother of Philip Gold- 
thwaite. Was an Addresser of Hutchinson ; connected with 
the quartermaster's department of the royal army in Boston 
in 1775 ; proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Goldthwaite, M. B. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of both 
Hutchinson and Gage. 

Goldthwaite, Philip. Of Maine. He was one of the two 
persons of Saco and Biddeford, Maine, who was dealt with 
by the Whigs of that section for their loyal principles. He 
was an officer of the Customs, and lived at Winter Harbor. 
As soon as the war commenced, he placed himself under Brit- 
ish protection at Boston. 

Good, David. Went to New Brunswick in 1783, and died 
at King's-clear, County of York, 1842, aged ninety-five. His 
widow, with whom he lived sixty years, survives, (1845) as 
do one hundred and eleven descendants. 

GooDALE, Nathan. Of Salem, Massachusetts. In 1774 he 
was an Addresser of Hutchinson, but signed a recantation. 
The same year, however, he was an Addresser of Gage. Early 
in 1775 he secured a retreat at Nantucket. 

Gordon, Alexander. A physician, of Norfolk, Virginia. In 
February, 1775, the Whig Committee of Observation held him 
up for pubhc censure, for the importation of medicines, con- 
trary to the Continental Association. This Committee was 
composed of thirteen persons, and they were unanimous in 
their opinion of the Doctor's delinquency. He went to Eng- 
land, and was a Loyalist Addresser of the king, July, 1779. 

Gordon, Charles. Attorney at law, of St. George, Delaware. 
He was required to surrender himself for trial for treason on 
or before August 1, 1778, or to lose his estate. 
28* 



330 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Gordon, Charles. Attorney at law, of Cecil County, Mary- 
land. In 1775, the Whig Committee of that County, at a 
meeting at Elk Ferry, "Resolved, That he lies under the im- 
putation of being an enemy to this country, and as such we 
will have no dealings or communication with him, nor permit 
him to transact any business with us, or for us, either in a 
public or private capacity, which shall be commenced after 
the date hereof," &c. Mr. Gordon ''had treated with great 
disrespect, and maliciously aspersed the Continental Congress, 
the Provincial Congress, and the Committee of this County ; 
and had, at various times, and by sundry ways, vilified their 
proceedings." A newspaper controversy ensued, in which the 
delinquent admitted that his politics were not quite agreeable 
to his accusers, &c. 

Gordon, George. Of Danbury, Connecticut. Arrived at 
St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife, in the spring of 1783, 
in the ship Union. 

Gordon, Harry. Of Pennsylvania. Was summoned by 
proclamation to appear before November 1, 1781, else he 
would be attainted; and failing to do so, his estate was 
seized by the commissioners of forfeitures, and most of it sold. 
These proceedings were against Henry Gordon ; and, by an 
act of January, 1783, the misnomer was corrected, and the 
Executive Council of that State, under that law, sold the re- 
mainder of his estate in 1790. 

Gordon, James. Of South Carolina. Was in commission 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Gordon, Thomas K. Of South Carolina. Was Chief Jus- 
tice of the Colony under the royal government; he was 
allowed to leave the country. 

Gore, John, Esquire. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of 
Gage. He went to Halifax at the evacuation, and thence to 
England, but returned to Boston. His son, Honorable Christo- 
pher Gore, was long one of the most conspicuous public char- 
acters of Massachusetts, and a gentleman of eminent worth 
and talents. The name of John Gore is found among the list 
of the proscribed and banished in 1778. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

GoRHAM, David. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1733. In 1774 he was one of the barristers 
and attornies of Massachusetts who addressed Hutchinson. 

GoRHAM, Joseph. Was Ueutenant-colonel of the Royal Fen- 
sible Americans ; at the peace he went to England. 

GoRHAM, John and Joseph A. Were ensigns in the Royal 
Fensible Americans. 

GoRHAMj Nathaniel and John. Were grantees of the city of 
St. John, New Brunswick. 

Gornley, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

GoRT, William. Of New York. In 1780, he and James 
Plateau, another Loyalist, hired the house of Garret Putnam, 
a Whig, who, receiving orders to repair to Fort Hunter, took 
his family with him. Two days after Putnam's departure, a 
party of Sir John Johnson's Royal Greens came to the settle- 
ment (now embraced in the town of Mohawk), and supposing 
the house was still occupied by Whigs, entered it at night, and 
murdered and scalped two men. In the morning, the dead 
bodies of Gort and Plateau revealed to them that they had 
murdered two friends. 

GoRUM, Nathaniel. Went to New Brunswick in 1783. He 
died at Kingston, King's County, in that Colony, February 9, 
1846, aged ninety-four years. Numerous offspring of children, 
grandchildren, and great-grandchildren, survive. 

GoucHER, Joseph. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Gould, John. Of Massachusetts. Went to England, and 
was a Loyalist Addresser of the king in 1779. 

Graham, John. Of Ulster %)unty, New York. In 1775, a 
number of his Majesty's loyal subjects met at his house and 
erected a Royal Standard, on a mast seventy-five feet high, 
with the following inscription. 

" In testimony of our unshaken loyalty and incorruptible 
fidelity to the best of Kings ; of our inviolable afiection and 
attachment to our parent State, and the British Constitution ; 
of our abhorrence of, and aversion to, a Republican Govern- 



332 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



ment ; of our detestation of all treasonable associations, 
unlawful combinations, seditious meetings, tumultuous assem- 
blies, and execrable mobs ; and of all measures that have a 
tendency to alienate the affections of the people from their 
rightful Sovereign, or lessen their regard for our most excellent 
Constitution ; and to make known to all men, that we are 
ready, when properly called upon, at the hazard of our lives 
and of every thing dear to us, to defend the King, support the 
magistrates in the execution of the laws, and maintain the 
just rights and constitutional liberties of freeborn Englishmen, 
this Standard, by the name of the King's Standard, was 
erected, by a number of his Majesty's loyal and faithful sub- 
jects in Ulster County, on the 10th day of February, in the 
15th year of the reign of our most excellent sovereign, George 
the Third, whom God long preserve." 

Graham, John. Of Georgia. Lieutenant Governor of that 
Colony. He went to England. After the death of Sir James 
Wright, he and William Knox were appointed joint agents of 
the Georgia Loyalists for prosecuting their claims for losses. 
He was in London as late as 1 788. 

Grant, Alexander. An ensign in the King's American 
Regiment. 

Grant, Daniel. Was a native of Gillespie, Sutherland, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States previous to the 
Revolution. At the peace of 1783 he removed with other 
Loyalists to St. Andrew, New Brunswick, where he continued 
to reside, and where he reared a numerous family. He died 
January, 1834, aged eighty-two years. 

Grant, George. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton. 

Grant, James. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. Went to Halifax, but returned, and 
was at Boston in January, 1776 ; at which time he had been 
promised a commission in the royal army. There was a 
major James Grant, of the King's American Regiment, who 
died previous to October 15, 1783, and who may have been 
the subject of this notice. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

Grant, John. Of Jamaica, New York. A loyal Declarator 
in 1775. 

Grant, John. A captain in the Royal Garrison Battalion. 

Grant, Robert. An ensign in De Lancey's Second Battalion. 

Graves, John. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. In 1775 he 
was sent to the jail at Northampton, on the charge of holding 
improper intercourse with General Gage at Boston. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. 

Graves, John. Of Providence, Rhode Island. He was the 
vicar of Clapham, Yorkshire, England, and in 1754 came to 
Providence, to succeed the Reverend John Checkley, an Epis- 
copal clergyman, who died the previous year ; and as the 
Missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts. In 1770 Mr. Graves wrote to the Society, 
that " the face of public affairs here is melancholy. Altar 
against altar in the church, and such open, bold attacks 
upon the state, as, I believe, the English annals do not 
furnish us with the like since the reign of King Charles I." 
These were signs of the coming storm. In September, 
1776, he wrote: "Since independency has been proclaimed 
here, my two churches have been shut up ; still I go on to 
baptize their children, visit their sick, bury their dead, and 
frequent their respective houses with the same freedom as 
usual ; and add, with gratitude, that their benefactions to me 
since the above period have been great, and far beyond what 
I have ever experienced from them before, founded upon their 
commiserating sense that the necessary means of supporting my 
large family — a wife and seven children — were now entirely 
cut off." In 1782 Mr. Graves was expelled from the parsonage 
and glebe, because he refused to open his church in conformity 
with the principles of independency. He soon after resigned 
his ministry, after a labor of twenty-six years. His fate, after 
dissolving his relations with the Episcopal church at Provi- 
dence, is unknown. 

Gray, Andrew and John. Of Boston. Embarked for Hali- 
fax with the royal army in 1776. Joseph Gray, of that town, 
died at Halifax in 1803. 



334 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



GraYj Benjamin Dingley. Of Yirginia. Was one of the Non- 
AssociatorSj or a person who refused to join the Continental 
Association, and was posted hy the Whig Qommittee in March, 
1775, accordingly. On seeing his name in the Hst he said, 
" that he looked upon this Committee as a pack of damned 
rascals for advertising him as they had done," &c. Subse- 
quently, the Committee denounced his conduct by a resolution 
in which they declare, that he should " be looked upon as 
inimical to the liberties of America," and that "no person 
ought to have commercial intercourse with him." 

Gray, Harrison. Receiver General, of Massachusetts. He 
was an Addresser of Hutchinson, was a Mandamus Councillor, 
was proscribed and banished, and was among those whose es- 
tates were confiscated by statute. At the evacuation of Boston, 
he accompanied the British troops to Halifax ; thence he went 
to England, and died there. In abandoning home, country, 
and friends, he parted with his only daughter, the first wife of 
S. A. Otis, father of the Honorable Harrison Gray Otis. In 
McFingal it is said, — 

" What puritan could ever pray 
In godlier tones, than Treasurer Gray, 
Or at town-meetings speechifying, 
Could utter more melodious whine, 
And shut his eyes, and vent his moan, 
Like owl afflicted in the sun." 

Mr, Gray was an exemplary gentleman in every relation, 
and among the Loyalists there was hardly one more deserving 
of respect and kind remembrance. Trumbull's muse, there- 
fore, was not honored by such sentiments. 

Gray, Harrison, Junior, Of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished. He was a son of Harrison Gray, and his clerk in 
the Treasury-ofiice. 

Gray, James, of Reading, and James, Junior, of Fairfield 
County, Connecticut. Were members of the Reading Associa- 
tion. 

Gray, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 339 

Gray, Lewis. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of Gage in 
1775 ; was proscribed and banished in 1778 ; and was in 
England in 1783. 

Gray, Robert. Of South Carohna. Held a royal commis- 
sion after the fall of Charleston. Estate confiscated. 

Gray, Thomas. Of Boston. Was a Protester against the 
Whigs, and an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Gray, William. Of Westchester County, New York. Was 
a Protester in 1775 ; settled in New Brunswick at the peace ; 
was a magistrate of King's County, and died in 1824, aged 
ninety-six. Justus Gray also settled in the same Colony in 
1783, and died there in 1843. 

Gray. Residence unknown. Four were in the military 
service, namely, Robert, who was a captain in the King's 
American Regiment, and probably belonged to New York; 
William, who was a captain in the New York Volunteers, 
and, as I suppose, lived in Westchester County; Gregory, 
who, was surgeon's mate, and George, who was a cornet 
of cavalry in the British Legion, were, possibly, from the 
South. 

Green, Francis. Merchant, of Boston. Graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1760. He was an Addresser of Hutchinson 
and of Gage, and was proscribed and banished. At the begin- 
ning of the war he went to England, but returned in 1799, 
and resided in Medford until his death, April, 1809, aged sixty- 
seven. He was a gentlemen of some literary acquirements ; 
and having two children who were deaf and dumb, published 
several papers on the subject of imparting speech to persons 
thus afiiicted. 

Green, James. Of North Carolina. A mariner; lost his 
estate under the confiscation act in 1779. 

Green, Joseph. Of Boston. A wit, a poet, and a merchant. 
He was appointed Mandamus Councillor, but, it is believed, 
did not take the oath of office. His name is found among the 
Addressers of Hutchinson. He went to England, and died 
there in 1780, aged seventy-four. He published several of his 
performances, which were mostly humorous ; of these may be 



336 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

mentioned, the burlesque on g. psalm of his fellow wit, Doctor 
Byles, ridicule of free-masons, and lamentation on Mr. Old 
Tenor — paper money. Mr. Green graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1726, at the age of twenty ; having been born at 
Boston in 1706. He was proscribed and banished. Though 
the gentleman was found, finally, among the adherents of the 
crown, and became an exile, he was one of the fifty-eight 
Boston memorialists in 1760 ; and in 1764 was a member of a 
committee with Samuel Adams, to report instructions to the 
Boston representatives. This report is very — Whiggish. 

Green, Richard, Samuel, and Morris. Of Queen's County, 
New York. Acknowledged themselves to be loyal and well 
afiected subjects in 1776. Morris Green subsequently bore 
arms. 

Green, Thomas. Of Pennsylvania. Was ordered by pro- 
clamation to appear and be tried, or to stand attainted. A 
Loyalist of the name of Thomas Green, died in New Bruns- 
wick previous to the year 1805 ; his widow married Clayton 
Tilton of Musquash, New Brunswick. 

Green. In Boston, were Benjamin, an Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774 ; Benjamin Green, Esquire, died in Boston, in 
1807, aged sixty. Richard, an Addresser of Gage in 1775 ; 
Richard Green, Esquire, died in Boston in 1817, aged eighty- 
seven. David, an Addresser of Hutchinson, went to England, 
and was proscribed and banished in 1778. Besides these, 
Daniel, of Massachusetts, was taken prisoner in the afiair at 
Lexington, sent to the jail at Concord, and ordered to be con- 
fined until the further order of the Provincial Congress ; and 
Hammond Green, an ofiicer of the customs, who embarked 
at Boston for Halifax with the royal troops in 1776. 

Greene, Benjamin. Was a Protester in 1774. Rufus, Jere- 
miah, and Benjamin, junior, all of Boston, were Protesters, 
and Addressers of Hutchinson the same year. 

Greene, Joseph. Major of De Lancey's First Battalion. At 
the peace he went to Ireland. 

Greenlaw, Charles. Of Castine, Maine. Brother of Eben- 
ezer Greenlaw. He accompanied Jonathan and Ebenezer to 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 337 

St. Andrew, where he settled, and died in 1811, aged about 
sixty-eight. 

Greenlaw, Ebenezer. Of Castine, Maine. Brother of 
Charles Greenlaw. He removed to St. Andrew, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, where he died about the year 1810, aged 
seventy. 

Greenlaw, John. Shopkeeper, of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774; was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Greenlaw, Jonathan. Of Castine, Maine. Brother of 
Charles Greenlaw. At the evacuation of Castine by the royal 
forces in 1783, he removed to St. Andrew, New Brunswick, 
where he died in 1818, aged eighty. His sons, six in number, 
were Whigs. His son William, the only one who entered the 
service, was a soldier under Washington, and at the peace 
settled at Deer Isle, Maine, where he died in 1838, aged eighty- 
seven ; his son, Jonathan Babbage Greenlaw, is a shipmaster, 
and resides at Eastport, Maine. 

Greenlaw, William. Of St. George's River, Maine. Brother 
of Charles Greenlaw. He remained on his farm during the 
war, and continuing in the country after the close of the strife, 
died at St. George in 1828. 

Greecart, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage in 
1775. 

Greenleaf, Stephen. Of Boston. Was Sheriff of Suffolk 
County. He was a Protester against the Whigs in 1774, and 
one of the ninety-seven gentlemen and principal inhabitants 
of the capital who addressed Gage on his departure in 1775. 
He died in 1795. 

Greenoock, John, and John, Junior. Of Queen's County, 
New York. Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 

Greenough, Moses. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Greenwood, John. Cooper, of Newcastle, Delaware. Was 
ordered to surrender himself for trial in 1778, or submit to 
the forfeiture of his property. 

Greenwood, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Was a Protester and 
Addresser in 1774. 

29 



338 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

GREENWood, Samuel. Of Boston. A Sandemanian. Was 
a Protester in 1774 ; accompanied the royal army to Halifax 
in 1776 ; remained in Nova Scotia, and died at Halifax ; his 
son, Samuel, died at the same place in 1832, aged fifty-seven. 

Greenwood, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; was also a Petitioner 
to be armed on the side of the crown ; was banished in 1782, 
and his property confiscated. 

Gregg, Frederick. Of New Hanover, North Carolina, In 
1779 his property was confiscated. 

Gregory, Benjamin. Of South Carolina. In commission 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Gregory, William. Of South Carolina. An assistant 
Judge of the Superior Court under the royal government; 
was allowed to depart the country. The only native Ameri- 
can on the bench, at the commencement of the Revolution, 
was William Henry Drayton, who was a Whig; he made 
the last circuit with Gregory and his other associates, in the 
spring of 1775. 

Greiswold, Joseph. Merchant, of Pennsylvania. In 1780 he 
was detected in keeping up an illicit trade with the royal 
forces, and committed to prison in Philadelphia. 

Gridley, Benjamin. A lawyer, of Boston. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1751. He was among the barristers 
and attornies who addressed Hutchinson in 1774, and one of 
the Addressers of Gage in 1775. He went to Halifax in 1776. 
In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was in England 
at the close of the Revolution. 

Gridley, Jeremy. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1725, and becoming, subsequently, a 
distinguished lawyer, was appointed attorney-general. When 
the ofiicers of the customs applied for the celebrated Writs of 
Assistance, James Otis, his former student, who held a place 
under the crown, was applied to by these ofiicers, to defend 
the legality of the measure, but he declined the service, and 
resigned his commission. Mr. Gridley undertook the duty, and 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

was met by Otis on the other side. Mr. Gridley died in 1767. 
Besides his high legal station, he was colonel of militia, and 
grand master of free masons. He was a man of fine talents, 
of distinguished learning and virtue. His brother, Richard, 
was a major general in the army of the Revolution, and 
laid out the fortification on Breed's Hill, the night before the 
battle of June 17, 1775. 

Grierson, George. Of Warsaw, South Carolina. In com- 
mission under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. 
Estate confiscated. 

Grierson, James. Was a native of the Highlands of Scot- 
land, and emigrated to America before the Revolution. He 
served in the royal army, and at the peace settled in New 
Brunswick, where he died in 1846, at the great age of one 
hundred and five years. He was a pensioner of the British 
government more than sixty years. 

Griffin, Silas. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Was a 
member of the Reading Association. 

Griffin. Benjamin, a captain, and William, of Westchester 
County, New York, were Protesters in 1775 ; and James, the 
same year, was seized at Long Island, sent to Massachusetts, 
and confined to the limits of the town of Rutland. In 1776, 
Edmund embarked at Boston for Halifax with the royal 
army. 

Griffiths, Benjamin P. Was a lieutenant in De Lancey's 
Second Battalion. 

Grison, Edmund. Embarked for Halifax with the British 
army in 1776. 

Griswold, Seth. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died at Queensbury, York County, in 1838, aged eighty-one 
years. 

Grozart, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Halifax 
with the British army. 

Grymes, . Of Virginia. He was a gentleman of rank 

and education, and entering the military service of the king, 
was second major of Simcoe's corps of Loyalists, called the 
Q,ueen's Rangers. He appfears to have resigned his conmiis- 



340 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



sion about the close of 1773. He had won the confidence of 
his commander, and of the corps, by extricating them from a 
very disadvantageous situation, by a decisive and bold exer- 
tion at Brandywine. John R. Grymes, a Virginia Loyalist, 
went to England, remained there as late as the year 1788, 
and probably later, and was agent for prosecuting the claims 
of the adherents of the crown in that State. 

GuERARD, David. Of South Carolina. Estate confiscated. 

Guest, Willum. Of Tiger River, South Carolina. In 
commission of the crown after the surrender of Charleston. 
Estate confiscated. 

GuiLDART, Francis. Was a captain of cavalry in the British 
Legion. 

GuiLLAUDEAU, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Gyer. Five of this name, of Reading, Connecticut, were 
members of the Reading Association. To wit : John, Joseph, 
Darling, Thaddeus, and Nathaniel. 

Habersham, James. Of Savannah, Georgia. He was the 
acting Governor of Georgia in 1771, during the temporary 
absence of Sir James Wright. In April, 1775, he wrote to a 
friend in London thus : — " The fiery patriots in Charleston 
have stopped all dealings with us, and will not sufler any 
goods to be landed there from Great Britain ; and I suppose 
the Northern Provinces will follow their example. The people 
on this Continent are generally almost in a state of madness 
and desperation ; and should not conciliatory measures take 
place on your side, I know not what may be the consequences. 
I fear an open rebellion against the Parent State, and conse- 
quently amongst ourselves. Some of the inflammatory resolu- 
tions and measures taken and published in the Northern Colo- 
nies, I think too plainly portend this. However, I must and 
do, upon every occasion, declare that I would not choose to 
live here any longer than we are in a state of proper subordin- 
ation to, and under the protection of, Great Britain ; although 
I carmot altogether approve of the steps she has lately taken, 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

and do most cordially wish that a permanent line of govern- 
ment was drawn and pursued by the mother and her children ; 
and may God give your Senators wisdom to do it, and heal 
the breach ; otherwise, I cannot think of the event but with 
horror and grief. Father against son, and son against father, 
and the nearest relations and friends combating with each 
other ! I may perhaps say the truth, cutting each other's 
throats. Dreadful to think of, much worse to experience. 
But I will have done with this disagreeable subject," &c. 

Hackett, . Weaver, of Newcastle, Delaware ; the 

statute of 1778 declared that his property should become for- 
feit, unless he surrendered himself before a certain day. 

Hadden, Job, Junior. Of Westchester County, New York. 
A Protester at White Plains. 

Haggerty, Patrick. In 1762 he was a lieutenant in the 
First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Haight, Benjamin. At the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

Hains. Among the Westchester County Protesters, were 
James Hains, Gilbert, Alexander, and Joseph Hains, Junior. 

Hait, Israel. Of Norwalk, Connecticut. With his wife 
and six children he went to St. John, New Brunswick, in the 
spring of 1783, in the ship Union, Consett Wilson, master. 

Hait, James. Of Connecticut. At the peace he went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. In 
1784 he was one of the two vendue masters of the district of 
the river St. John. He removed from New Brunswick about 
the year 1799, and died at Newfield, Connecticut, in 1804. 

Hale, Samuel, Junior. Of New Hampshire. He was pro- 
scribed and banished. He embarked at Boston for Halifax in 
1776, with the British army. 

Halferson, James. In 1776 he embarked at Boston with 
the British army for Halifax. 

Hall, Luke, and Adam 3d. Both of Mansfield, Massa- 
chusetts. Were proscribed and banished; Luke had aban- 
doned the country in 1776. 
29* 



342 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Hall, Captain Joshua, and John. Of Reading, Connecti- 
cut, were members of the Association. 

Hall, Ebenezer. Of Fairfield, Connecticut. Was de- 
nounced in March, 1775, by the Whig Committee of Inspection, 
who declared, that " all connections, commerce, and dealings 
ought to be withdrawn from him," for violating the Association 
of the Continental Congress. 

Hall, James. Of Boston. His name is connected with one 
of the most memorable incidents of the revolutionary contro- 
versy. Tn 1773 he was in command of the ship Dartmouth, 
owned by Francis Rotch, and arrived at Boston on the 28th of 
November, with one hundred and twelve chests of the cele- 
brated Tea, which was thrown overboard in the following 
month of December. The next year he was an Addresser of 
Hutchinson, and in 1778 was proscribed and banished. The 
morning after Hall's arrival in 1773, the following notice 
appeared. 

"FRIENDS, BRETHREN, COUNTRYMEN. 

" That worst of all plagues, the detested Tea, shipped for 
this port by the East India Company, is now arrived in this 
harbor. The hour of destruction, or manly opposition to the 
machinations of Tyranny, stares you in the face. Every 
friend to his country, to himself, and to posterity, is now called 
upon to meet at Faneuil Hall at nine o'clock this day, (at 
which time the bells will ring), to make a united and success- 
ful resistance to this last, worst, and most destructive measure 
of administration." 

" Boston, November 29, 1779." 

Bruce, in the Eleanor, and Coffin, in the Beaver, came into 
port soon after ; and the rebels disguised as Indians threw the 
cargoes of the three vessels, consisting of two hundred and 
forty whole, and one hundred half chests, into the harbor. 

Hall, John. Of Westchester County, New York. Was a 
Protester at White Plains in 1775. Richard Hall, Collector of 
the Customs at Digby, Nova Scotia, who died in 1803 ; and 
Nathaniel Hall, Collector of the Customs at Nassau, New 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 343 

Providence, who died in 1807, were, I conclude, members of 
Loyalist families. 

Hallet, Damel. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in De Lan- 
cey's Second Battalion. At the peace he went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. He received 
half-pay. He died in the County of York, New Brunswick, 
1827, aged seventy-six. 

Hallet, Samuel. In 1782 he was a captain in De Lancey's 
Second Battalion. He retired on half-pay in 1783. He set- 
tled at St. John, New Brunswick, and in 1784 received the 
grant of a city lot. In 1792 he was a member of the vestry 
of the Episcopal Church. He died at St. John previous to 
1804; Elizabeth, his widow, died that year, at the age of 
sixty-nine. 

Hallet, Samuel, Junior. Went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783, and was a grantee of that city. 

Hallet, or Hallett. Eight persons of this name, of 
Q,ueen's County, New York, acknowledged allegiance, Octo- 
ber, 1776. To wit : Thomas, Jacob junior, George, Richard, 
W., James, W., David. In 1778 the house of Joseph Hallet, 
of that County, was robbed of money and other valuables. 

Hallowell, Benjamin. A Commissioner of the Customs, at 
Boston; was proscribed and banished in 1778 ; and included 
in the conspiracy act of 1779. While passing through Cam- 
bridge in his chaise, in 1774, he was pursued toward Boston, 
by about one hundred and sixty men on horseback at full 
gallop. The place of his residence was Medford. He went to 
Halifax with the British army. In July, 1776, he embarked 
in the ship Aston Hall for England. At the peace he returned 
to America, and lived in Canada. His daughter, the widow 
of Chief Justice Emsly, resides at Toronto. The office held 
by Mr. Hallowell at Boston was extremely unpopular ; and 
often brought him and his associates into collision with ship- 
owners, masters, and seamen. The township of Manchester, 
Nova Scotia, (or a large part of it), was a grant to Mr. Hallo- 
well ; and after the Revolution, a number of Loyalists went 
there and settled. 



^^^ 



344 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Hallowell, Robert. Of Boston. Was proscribed and ban- 
ished in 1778. He appeared as as Addresser of Gage in 1775. 
It is stated in the Annals of Portsmouth, that Robert was col- 
lector at that place, and exchanged offices with Meserve, the 
comptroller at Boston. In some documents, Benjamin is de- 
nominated a comptroller ; while in the conspiracy act, he is 
called late commissioner of the customs. As it is believed 
that these offices were distinct, and were held by different 
individuals, there is an apparent difficulty in discriminating 
between the two gentlemen. He accompanied the British 
troops to Halifax at the evacuation of Boston, and in July, 
1776, was waiting at the former place to embark for England 
in the ship Princess Royal. His sister, Sarah, wife of Samuel 
Vaughan, Esquire, of London, died in England in 1809 ; and 
his sister Anne, widow of General Gould, died at Bristol, 
England, in 1812. 

Halsey, Elisha. At the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

Halstead, Ezekiel and Philemon. Of Westchester County, 
New York. Were Protesters at White Plains. 

Hambleton, William. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. 
A member of the Association at Reading. 

Hamilton, Archibald. Of Queen's County, New York. 
In June, 1776, he declared upon his honor that he would not 
" directly or indirectly oppose or contravene the measures of 
the Continental Congress, or of the Congress of" New York. 
He, however, became an active friend of the crown, and Aid- 
de-camp to General Robertson, and commandant of the militia 
of Queen's County, with the pay of the army. In December, 
1780, his house at Flushing, New York, was burned to the 
ground, together with the " elegant furniture, stock of provi- 
sions, various sorts of wines, spirits intended for the regale 
of his numerous friends, the military and other gentlemen of 
the neighborhood." His command consisted of seventeen 
companies. His name heads the address to General Robert- 
son, when he succeeded Tryon, as Governor of New York, in 
1780. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 34$ 

Hamilton, John. Of South Carolina. Accepted military 
employment under the crown, and became lieutenant-colonel 
of the North Carolina Volunteers. In 1779 his property was 
confiscated. In 1794 his agent at London, in behalf of the 
firm of which he was a member, presented a memorial to the 
British government on the subject of debts due in America at 
the time of his banishment, which had not been recovered, 
and prayed for relief Of others of the same name in North 
Carolina, William and Thomas were captains ; James was a 
lieutenant, and Robert was an ensign, in the North Carolina 
Volunteers. Archibald, of Halifax County, held no commis- 
sion, but his property was confiscated in 1779. 

Hamilton, Paul, Senior. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished 
in 1782, and his property confiscated. 

Hamilton, William. Of Pennsylvania. He was proprietor 
of the principal part of the site of the city of Lancaster in 
that State. This land escaped confiscation, and ground-rents, 
to a considerable extent, are yet claimed and collected under 
his title. The Courts have acknowJedged the validity of the 
call upon occupants for the rents, but there exists much un- 
willingness to pay them, and efibrts have been made to avoid, 
or to commute them. The original proprietor of Lancaster was, 
I suppose, James Hamilton, Esquire. Witham Marshe was 
there in 1744, with the commissioners of various Colonies, who 
were sent to form a treaty with the Six Nations, and recorded 
in his journal, that this gentleman "made a ball and opened 
it, by dancing two minuets with two of the ladies here, which 
last danced wilder time than any Indians." 

Hamm, Andrew. Died in Westfield, New Brunswick, 1816, 
aged sixty-two. 

Hammell, . An officer of the American service, and 

brigade-major to General James Clinton. He was taken 
prisoner by Sir Henry Clinton, and entered into treasonable 
designs against his former friends. By the confession of 
Geake, a confederate who was arrested, he was promised, for 
his defection to the Whigs, the office of Colonel of a new Irish 



346 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

regiment, to be raised from deserters from the American army, 
and such others as could be enUsted. 

Hammel, John. In 1782 he was surgeon of the Third Bat- 
tahon of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Hampton, Abner. At the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

Hancock, Thomas. Bookseller, and subsequently a mer- 
chant, of Boston. Was the son of the Reverend John Han- 
cock, of Lexington, Massachusetts. Relinquishing his busi- 
ness of binding and selling books, he turned his attention to 
merchandise, generally, and became one of the principal com- 
mercial characters of New England. He acquired a large 
fortune, and having no children, bequeathed the greater part 
of his estate to his nephew, John Hancock, who occupies 
a conspicuous rank among the Whigs of the Revolution. 
Among his other bequests, was that of £1000, for the purpose 
of founding a professorship of Hebrew and other oriental 
languages at Harvard University. He was a member of the 
House of Representatives, and of the Council of Massachu- 
setts. While going into the Council-chamber, on the 1st of 
August, 1764, he was seized with apoplexy, and died the 
same day, aged sixty-two years. He had the character of 
benevolence, and of liberal religious and political sentiments. 
He was always on the side of government ; and though his 
death occurred early in the controversy, party lines were as 
well defined in Massachusetts, in his time, as afterwards. 
Hutchinson sets the sum which he left his nephew at more 
than £50,000 sterling; besides the reversion of £20,000 after 
the decease of his widow. From the same authority, it would 
seem, that a considerable proportion of his property was ac- 
quired in the Dutch tea trade, which, under the British navi- 
gation laws, was illicit ; and from supplying the ofiicers of the 
army, ordinance, and navy. 

Hand, John. Of New Jersey. He arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, with his wife and two children, in the ship 
Union, in the spring of 1783. 

Handly, Elijah. Of Queen's County, New York. He was 
in the military service of the crown in 1780. 



i 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 347 

Hanford, Thomas. Of Connecticut. At the peace he went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 
He commenced business, and became an eminent merchant. 
In 1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery. He died at 
St. John in 1826, aged seventy-three. Ann, his widow, sur- 
vived several years, and died at the age of seventy-eight. 

Hankinson, Reuben. Was an ensign in the First Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Hannah AM, William. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Happie, George. Of Duchess County, New York. He ar- 
rived at St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife, in the spring 
of 1783, in the ship Union. 

Harburn, Jesse. Of Pennsylvania. He was tried in 1778 
on a charge of supplying the enemy with provisions, and 
found guilty. He was sentenced to be confined, but to be kept 
at hard labor by day, for one month. 

Hardenbrook, Abel A. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Hardin, George. An ensign in the Pennsylvania Loyal- 
ists. 

Harding, William. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and was a grantee of that city. He died there in 1818, 
aged seventy-three. 

Haruroff, Henry. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Hardy, Elias. He settled at St. John, New Brunswick, and 
devoted himself to the profession of the law. While at the 
bar. General Arnold sued Hoyt, his former partner, for slander, 
and for saying that the Traitor burned his warehouse, in 
order to defraud the company that had underwritten upon the 
property ; and Mr. Hardy was retained as Hoyt's counsel. 
Arnold's side of the case was managed by the first Ward 
Chipman, and Jonathan Bliss, both of whom were subse- 
quently on the Bench of New Brunswick. The jury returned 
a verdict of two shillings and sixpence damages. A gentleman 
who heard the trial, assures me, that the public at the time, and 



348 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



that Arnold's own counsel, entertained no doubt of his guilt. 
In 1792, Mr. Hardy was a member of the House of Assembly. 
He died at St. John soon after, as papers which relate to the 
administration of his estate bear the date of 1799. 

Hare, Edward. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished, and in 
1782 his property was confiscated. 

Hare, Michael. Of Bedford, County, Pennsylvania. Unless 
he should surrender, and take his trial for treason, it was or- 
dered in Council, October 30, 1778, that he stand attainted. 
Jacob Hare, of Bedford County, was included in the same 
proclamation. 

Hare, Lieutenant . Of New York. Entered the ser- 
vice of the crown, and was engaged in the bloody border 
affrays with Brant and the Johnsons. In 1779 he was seized 
by the Whigs, tried by a court-martial, convicted and hanged. 
General Schuyler said, "in executing Hare, we have rid the 
State of the greatest villain in it." General Clinton remarked, 
that his death gave entire satisfaction to all the inhabitants in 
the region where his infamous deeds were committed. 

Harleston, John. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Harper, James. Of Queen's County, New York. Acknowl- 
edged allegiance, October, 1776. The name of James Harper 
appears on an Address to Lieutenant Colonel Sterling of the 
Forty-second Regiment, April, 1779. 

Harper, Thomas. He was banished and attainted, and his 
estate was confiscated. In a memorial dated at London in 
1794, he represented to the British government, that debts due 
to him in America, at the time of his banishment, were still 
unpaid, and he desired relief. That proscribed Loyalists could 
recover sums of money owing to them, appears to have been 
conceded both in England and America, and several decisions 
of Courts in the United States affirmed the opinion. 

Harris, Abel. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Second 
American Regiment. 

Harris, Joseph. A runaway mulatto slave, belonging to 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 349 

Mr. Henry King of Hampton, Virginia. In 1775 he gave in- 
formation against a smuggling schooner, which was seized in 
Cherry-stone Creek, and on being threatened with death, was 
recommended to Captain Sqiiew, of his Majesty's ship Otter, 
by Captain Montague, of the Fowey, as a pilot. Montague 
said he had always appeared very sober and prudent, and 
that he was a freeman. Harris, it seems, had been a pilot in 
the waters of Virginia, but was driven from the employment 
after giving intelligence against the illicit trader. 

Harris, Massy. Of Rhode Island. He arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in the spring of 1783, in the ship Union. 

Harris, Samuel. Died at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1834, 
aged seventy-two. 

Harris, William. Of Pennsylvania. Was at the Crown 
and Anchor tavern, London, July 6, 1779. 

Harrison, Charles. He was a captain in the Second Bat- 
talion of New Jersey Volunteers. At the peace he went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 
He received half-pay. He was lieutenant-colonel in the militia 
of New Brunswick. His fate is unknown. The late General 
William Henry Harrison, President of the United States, was 
a relative. 

Harrison, John and S. Of South Carolina. Were captains 
in the South Carolina Royalists. The estate of Nathaniel Har- 
rison was confiscated. 

Harrison, James. Was a lieutenant in the Second Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and was a grantee of that city in 1783. 

Harrison, . He was Collector of the Customs at Boston 

in 1768, and after the seizure of Hancock's sloop in that year, 
was roughly treated by the mob, and pelted with stones. The 
windows of his house, which was adjacent to the Common, 
were also broken ; and a large pleasure boat belonging to him 
was dragged through the streets and burned near his residence, 
amidst loud shouts and huzzas. Peter Harrison, Esquire, was 
Collector of the port of New Haven, Connecticut, and died 
before June, 1775. 

30 



. 350 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

HarTj Benjamin. Of New Hampshire. Was a prisoner, 
and examined by the Provincial Congress in 1775 ; proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

Hart. * Among the Protesters of Westchester County, at 
White Plains, were Joseph, Monmouth, and James Hart. 

Hartley, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. James Hartley of that 
city was also an Addresser. 

Hartshorn, Davidson. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783, and was a grantee of that city, 

Hartwell, Edward. He was a member of the General 
Court of Massachusetts in 1771 ; and Hutchinson speaks of 
him as one of those on the ministerial side, who, in common 
times, would have had great weight. 

Harvey, Alexander. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. 

Hasell, James. A member of his Majesty's Council of 
North Carolina. In March of 1775 he was present in Council, 
and advised Governor Martin to issue his Proclamation against 
the Whig Convention to Assemble at Newbern on the follow- 
ing 3d of April. " The Board," says the record, " conceiving 
the highest detestation of such proceedings, were unanimous in 
advising his Excellency to inhibit such illegal meetings." 
While Governor Martin was absent at New York, for the ben- 
efit of his health, Mr. Hasell, as President of the Council, 
administered the government ; but with less energy and popu- 
larity than the Governor. He was also appointed to act as 
Chief Justice during the absence of Judge Howard. 

Haskins, John. Of Boston. A Protester against the Whigs 
in 1774. 

Hastings, Joseph Stacy. Of New Hampshire. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1762, and was ordained at 
North Hampton in 1767. After a few years he embraced 
Sandemanianism, and resigned his ministerial office in 1774. 
He went to Halifax, but returned to Boston, where he kept a 
grocery store. He died in 1807, while on a journey to Ver- 
mont. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 36t 

Hatch, Christopher. Of Boston. In 1778 he was pro- 
scribed and banished. He accepted a commission under the 
crown, and was a captain in the Loyal American Regiment. 
He was wounded and commended for his gallantry. At 
the peace he retired on half-pay, (about £80 per annum.) 
He was a grantee of the city of St. John, New Brunswick, 
but soon after going to New Brunswick, established himself as 
a merchant near the frontier, and finally, at St. Andrew, 
Charlotte County. He was a magistrate, and- colonel in the 
militia. He died at St. Andrew, 1819, aged seventy. Elizabeth, 
his widow, died at the same place, 1830, at the age of seventy- 
five. His son, the Honorable Harris Hatch, of St. Andrew, is 
a gentleman of consideration ; holding the ofiices of member 
of her Majesty's Council; Commissioner of Bankruptcies; 
Surrogate; Registrar of Deeds; Member of the Board of Edu- 
cation ; Lieutenant-colonel in the militia ; and Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas. 

Hatch, Hawes. Of Boston. Brother of Christopher Hatch. 
He went to Halifax with the royal army in 1776. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. He entered the King's ser- 
vice; and in 1782 was a captain in De Lancey's Second Bat- 
talion. He retired on half-pay at the close of the war, and 
was a grantee of the city of St. John. For some years after 
the Revolution he lived at and in the vicinity of Eastport, 
Maine. He finally returned to Massachusetts, where he died. 

Hatch, Nathaniel. Of Dorchester, Massachusetts. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1742 ; and, subsequently, 
held the office of Clerk of the Courts. In 1776 he accompanied 
the British troops to Halifax, at the evacuation of Boston. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished, and in 1779 was included 
in the conspiracy act, by which hi^ estate was confiscated. 
He died soon after the war. 

Hatchell, Philip. In 1782 he was surgeon of the Loyal 
American Regiment. 

Hatfield, David. Of New York. He went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and was one of the founders of the 
city. He used to relate, that in 1784 he sold a city lot and a 






352 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

log-house for four dollars ; that some lots the same year sold 
for only one dollar; others for a jug of rum; and that the 
highest sum paid for choice money in King street was but 
twenty dollars. Mr. Hatfield established himself in business, 
and for half a century was a principal merchant. He died at 
St. John in 1843, aged eighty. Ann, his widow, died in 1845, 
at the age of seventy-seven. Recounting, on one occasion, to a 
gentleman of Maine, the sufferings and difficulties of himself 
and his companions in exile on their first arrival at St. John, 
he was asked by his American friend why he went there. He 
straightened himself up, and with emotion, that brought tears 
to his eyes, replied, " for my loyalty, sir ! " and in a moment 
added ; " Sir, my principles are as dear to me, as yours can be 
to you." 

Hatfield, Abraham. Of Westchester County, New York. 
The Loyalists who adopted the Protest against Whig Con- 
gresses and Committees, and pledged their lives and properties 
to support the king and constitution, April, 1775, met at his 
house. An Abraham Hatfield was a grantee of land at St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1783; probably the same. 

Hatfield, Cornelius. Was a captain in the royal service, 
and engaged in predatory excursions. 

Hatfield, Daniel. In 1783 was a grantee of St. John, New 
Brunswick. 

Hatfield, Gilbert. Of Westchester County, New York. 
Was a Protester at the house of Abraham Hatfield in 1775. 

Hatfield, Isaac Of New York. He was lieutenant-col- 
onel and commandant of the Loyal Westchester Volunteers. 
At the peace he went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a 
grantee of that city. He subsequently settled in Digby, Nova 
Scotia, and lived there thirty-six years, until his decease. 
He died in 1822, aged seventy-four. 

Hatfield, John Smith. Of Elizabethtown, New Jersey. He 
joined the royal forces at or in the vicinity of New York in 
1778, and by his course of conduct, subsequently involyed 
hunself in much misery. One infamous act is well authenti- 
cated. A Tory, sent out as a spy by the British, was taken 



•i 



k 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 3S3 

within the American lines, regularly tried by a court-martial, 
found guilty, and executed. This act Hatfield and some other 
Tories determined to revenge, by retaliating upon one Ball, 
who, contrary to law, was in the habit of secretly supplying 
the British camp at Staten Island with provisions. The first 
time that Ball went over to that Island, after the execution of 
the spy, (of which it does not appear that he had any knowl- 
edge), he was seized by Hatfield, against the express orders of 
the British commanding officer, and carried beyond the British 
lines, where Hatfield hung him with his own hands. The 
British officer sent a message to the Whig commander in the 
vicinity, disavowing the deed, and declaring that those alone 
who had perpetrated the act ought to suffer for it. 

Some time after the war, about the year 1788, Hatfield 
returned to New Jersey, where the murder of Ball was com- 
mitted, and was arrested and imprisoned. A witness at the 
examination testified, that he heard Hatfield say, that " he had 
hanged Ball, and wished he had many more rebels, as he would 
repeat the deed with pleasure;" and he testified also, that 
Hatfield had showed him the tree on which he suspended Ball, 
and the place where he buried his victim. While Hatfield 
was in jail at Newark, his debaucheries were excessive, and 
nearly cost him his life. He was put upon his trial at the reg- 
ular term of the Court of Bergen County, New Jersey, but no 
witnesses appeared against him, and he was released from 
prison on bail, when he immediately fled, and never returned 
to the State. This case formed a subject of inquiry and com- 
ment, in the correspondence between Mr. Jefferson, Secretary 
of State, and Mr. Hammond, the British Minister, in 1792 ; 
the latter adducing the proceedings against Hatfield as one of 
the alleged infractions of the treaty of peace. 

Hatfield, Samuel. Husbandman, of Murderkill, Delaware. 
He was required to submit himself for trial for treason on or 
before August 1st of the year 1778, on pain of forfeiting his 
estate. 

Hathaway, Ebenezer, Junior. Of Freetown, Massachu- 
setts. He was proscribed and banished. Entering the royal 
30* ■ 



354 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

service, he was a captain ; but disagreeing with his colonel, 
resigaed his commission on the promise of a majority in a new 
corps, but in this he was disappointed. After ascertaining that 
he was not Hkely to receive employment on the land, he fitted 
out and commanded a privateer. While thus engaged he was 
captured, and with his officers and crew confined in Simsbury 
Mines. He had been extremely active in annoying the Whigs, 
and having excited their deepest enmity, was tried for his life, 
but escaped conviction. His most celebrated feats consisted in 
carrying off Committee-men, and he frequently went thirty 
miles in boisterous weather to capture one : and he used to 
say, that " he would willingly run any risk, and incur any 
fatigue, to make th6se busy and troublesome creatures his 
prisoners." He endured much for the cause of the crown, but 
was unable to obtain pecuniary recompense, and in conse- 
quence of his resignation, did not receive a pension. His 
hardships and wounds, during the war, ruined his health. He 
died on the river St. John, New Brunswick, about the year 
1811, aged sixty-three. Seven sons survived him; namely, 
Ebenezer, Warren, Calvin Luther, Charles Reed, James Gilbert, 
Cushi, and Thomas Gilbert. His wife was of Whig princi- 
ples, and remained true to them throughout her life ; though 
compelled by the course of events to follow him into hopeless 
and interminable exile. One of her sons, a gentleman of 
wealth who resides in New Brunswick, has related to me the 
following interesting incident. " My father," said he, " was 
the son of a Tory captain ; my mother, the daughter of a 
Whig major ; and the two families were thus divided, even to 
some of the collateral branches. The political discussions 
were, of consequence, frequent and warm. Qn the birth of 
one of my brothers, it was insisted on the one side, that he 
should receive a Whig, and on the other, a Tory, name. Nei- 
ther party would yield, and after many disputes, my father 
proposed to take the Bible, and give the child the first proper 
name he should see on opening it. This was assented to ; the 
name happened to be Cushi, and Cushi was my brother called 
during his life." 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 355 

Hathaway, Luther. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. Brother 
of Ebenezer Hathaway. In 1778 he was proscribed and ban- 
ished. He was in the royal service as lieutenant of a corps 
called the Loyal New En glanders. He settled in Nova Scotia, 
and died at Cornwallis in 1833. 

Hathaway, Shadrach and Calvin. Of Freetown, Massa- 
chusetts. Were proscribed and banished in 1778. They both 
died in exile ; the former during the war on Long Island, 
New York. 

Hatton, James. In 1782 he was surgeon of the South 
Carolina Royalists. 

Hatton, John. Was a lieutenant in the Second Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Hauxhurst, Hbnry, Simon, John, Samuel, and W. Of Queen's 
County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 

Haviland, Joseph. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains, 

Haviland, Archelaus and Isaac. Residence unknown. Went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and were grantees of 
that city. 

Hawley, Samuel. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Hawse, Prince. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Hawser, Frederick. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and was a grantee of that city. 

Hay, John. Of Massachusetts. Died at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1812, at the age of forty-three. 

Hayes, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Hayes, John. Was seized at Long Island, New York, in 
1775, sent to Massachusetts, and confined within the limits of 
the town of Lunenburgh. 

Hayter, William. At the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

Hayter, William. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1817, aged eighty-eight years. 



356 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Hazen, John, Removed from Massachusetts to New Bruns- 
wick in 1775. He became a magistrate, and died in the Coun- 
ty of Sunbury in 1828, aged seventy-three. 

Head, Edmund. He was banished, and attainted, and his 
estate was confiscated. In 1794 he applied to the British gov- 
ernment, in a petition dated at London, to interpose for the 
recovery of some large debts due to him in America at the 
time of his banishment. 

Heath, William. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with the 
British army, for Halifax. 

Hedden, Isaac In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the First 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He retired on half-pay, 
and settled in New Brunswick, where he was clerk of the 
House of Assembly. He died in that Colony. 

Heddon, Zopher. At the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

Helmer, . Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New 

York. He accompanied Sir John Johnson to Canada, when 
the Baronet violated his parole and fled ; and was one of the 
party who, in 1778, returned to Johnstown for the purpose of 
securing some of Sir John's valuable effects. While bearing 
ofi" the iron-chest, he injured his ankle, and was compelled to 
go to his father's house, where he remained concealed. But 
in the spring of 1779 he was arrested as a spy, tried, and 
sentenced to death, chiefly on his own admissions to the 
Court. 

Hencksman, Obadiah and John. Of Jamaica, New York. 
Wefe signers of the Declaration against the proceedings of the 
Whigs, January, 1775. 

Henderson, Hugh. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He was a petitioner for a grant of 
land in Nova Scotia, July, 1783. See Ahijah Willard. 

Henderson, James. Trader, of Boston. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778 ; he had abandoned the country in 1776, 
with the royal army. 

Henderson, John. Of Philadelphia. His estate was con- 
fiscated in 1779. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

I 

Henderson, Thomas. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment. He went to New Brunswick at 
the peace, and in 1803 lived at the island of Campo-Bello, 
where he was an officer of the Customs. He removed to St. 
Andrew, New Brunswick, and died there, 1828, aged seventy- 
seven. 

Hendricks, Conradt. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783. 

Hendrickson. Ten persons of this name of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. To wit : 
Daniel, William, Barnadus, Aaron, John, Stephen, Abraham, 
Albert, Harman, Hendrick. John Hendrickson, of Duchess 
County, New York, with his wife, arrived at St. John, New 
Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 1783. 

Hendrix, Obed. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Heney, Josiah. Was born near Portland, Maine, in 1754, 
and died at Deer Island, New Brunswick, in 1836, aged 
eighty-two years. He went to Halifax in the Revolution, and 
married at Windsor; but returned to Maine, and resided for 
some time at Castine. Changing his abode again, he lived at 
the place where he deceased, about forty years. His sons, 
Josiah, Archibald, and Henry, are now (July, 1844) residents 
of Deer Island. 

Henley, James. Of Maryland. In 1782 he was an ensign 
in the Maryland Loyalists, and adjutant of the corps. He 
retired at the peace, when he was a lieutenant, on half-pay. 
He was a grantee of the city of St. John. His widow, Ruhe- 
mah, died at Fredericton, 1841, aged ninety-one. 

Hepburn, James. Of North Carolina. He was attached to 
a corps of Loyalists as secretary, and in 1776 was taken 
prisoner and confined. He was in New York in 1782, and a 
notary public. 

Herkimer, John Joost. Of New York. His property was 
confiscated. 

Herring, Peter. Of the city of New York. In July, 1775, 
the Committee of Safety sent him under guard to Connecticut, 



358 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

there to be confined in close jail at the Continental charge, 
until he should be released by the Continental Congress, for 
aiding one Lundin, a prisoner to the Whigs, to escape on 
board his Majesty's ship the Asia. 

Hester, John. In 1776 he embarked with the British army 
at Boston for Halifax, 

Hewlet, Charles. In 1782 he was a captain in De Lan- 
cey's Third Battalion. 

Hewlett, Richard. Of Hempstead, New York. He was a 
captain in the French war, and assisted in the capture of Fort 
Frontenac. In the Revolutionary strife, he took an early and 
active part on the side of the king. In 1775 he told a dis- 
tinguished Whig, that he had mustered his command a few 
days previously, when, "had your battalion appeared, we 
should have warmed their sides." Before the close of that 
year, he received from the Asia ship of war, a great quantity 
of ammunition, some small-arms, and a cannon. In March, 
1776, his course had rendered him very obnoxious to the 
Whigs; and General Lee directed, that "Richard Hewlett is 
to have no conditions offered to him, but is to be secured with- 
out ceremony." He accepted a commission when De Lancey's 
corps was raised, and was lieutenant-colonel of the third of 
De Lancey's Battalions. At the close of the war he retired 
on half-pay, and settled in New Brunswick. He was a 
grantee of the city of St. John, and its mayor. He died on 
the river St. John, near Gagetown, in 1789. 

Hewlett, Thomas. Of New York. He was a captain in the 
New York Volunteers, and in 1780 was killed at Hanging 
Rock. 

Hewlett. Ten persons of this name, of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Richard, John, W., James, Joseph, Samuel, John senior, Dan- 
iel junior, Stephen, Daniel senior. In 1779 a party of Whigs 
carried off Justice Hewlett from Oyster Bay, in that County. 
Richard Hewlett was robbed in 1783. John was an Addresser 
of Governor Robertson in 1780. 
- Hews, Lieutenant Donald. Of North Carolina. He was 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 359 

taken prisoner in 1776 by the Whigs under Caswell, and sent 
to jail. 

Heyden, S. a captain in the King's Rangers. In Novem- 
ber, 1782, he had retired to the Island of St. John, Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, where he invited other Loyalists to follow him. 

HiBBEN, Andrew. Of South Carolina. In commission 
under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

HicKEY, Patrick. In 1775 he was sent prisoner from Long 
Island, New York, to Massachusetts, and confined within the 
limits of the town of Brookfield. 

HicKEY, Thomas. In 1776 a plot of the disaffected to the 
Whig cause extended to Washington's own camp, and part 
of his guard were engaged in it. Hickey was one of the 
number. He was tried, and having been convicted by the 
unanimous opinion of a court-martial, was executed on the 
28th of June of that year. 

Hicks, Charles. Of Long Island. Was an Addresser of 
Governor Robertson in 1780 ; he commanded a company of 
Loyal Militia, and a party of Whigs having captured a 
schooner in Jamaica Bay, in August of that year, he assem- 
bled his company, and with a few volunteers in two boats, 
went in quest of them. He offered the rebels good quarters, 
provided they would surrender ; this they refused, and a smart 
action ensued, in which the Whigs were overcome. They 
accordingly accepted the terms at first rejected, and became 
prisoners. Twenty-eight thus fell into Hicks's hands, of whom 
one was a clergyman. 

Hicks, Gilbert. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Lost his 
estate under the confiscation act of that State, in 1779. 

Hicks, John. Printer, of Boston. Was born in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 
His father was a Whig, and lost his life in the affair of Lex- 
ington. John, it was supposed, was a Whig also; but in 1773, 
he and Nathaniel Mills bought the Massachusetts Gazette and 
Post Boy, of Green and Russell ; and devoted it to the support 
of the measures of the ministry. His paper was conducted 



^^n^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

with much abihty, spirit, and vigor. Among the writers for it 
were persons of great political knowledge and judgment. It 
was believed at the time, that officers of the British army were 
likewise contributors to its columns. Hicks went to Halifax in 
1776, and continued with the royal troops at different posts 
throughout the war, supporting, professionally, the side which 
he last espoused ; and on the evacuation of New York, went 
again to Halifax, Nova ^otia, where he remained a few years, 
and then returned to Boston. Having acquired considerable 
property by his business during the Revolution, he purchased 
an estate at Newton, Massachusetts, on which he resided until 
his death. 

HicKs, John, and Robert. Residence unknown. Were 
grantees of the city of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

HicKs, Jonathan. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1770 ; and fitted himself for the prac- 
tice of medicine. In 1773 or 1774 he was at Gardinerston, 
(now Gardiner, Maine,) where he "expressed himself highly 
against Whig Committees, calling them rebels, and using other 
opprobrious language against the people who appeared for lib- 
erty." He was afterwards at Plymouth, Massachusetts, and 
continued the same course of conduct, and "at certain times 
appeared very high, and once drew his sword or spear upon 
certain persons." The evening after the battle of Lexington, 
he left Plymouth, and took shelter with a detachment of the 
royal troops at Mansfield ; and finally retired to Boston. 
Soon after. General Gage despatched the sloop Polly to Nova 
Scotia for supplies, and he embarked ; designing, as he said, 
to remain at Halifax, "if he could find business, in order to 
be out of the noise." On the passage, the Polly was captured, 
and Hicks was sent prisoner to the Provincial Congress. That 
body ordered a Committee to investigate his case in June, 
1775 ; and as Hicks himself owned that his conduct had, on 
the whole, been that of a person " whom the people for liberty 
call a Tory," he was sent under guard to Concord, and com- 
mitted to jail. He entered the royal service, subsequently, 
and was a surgeon. He died at Demarara in 1826. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 361 

Hicks, Thomas. Was elected to the Provincial Congress of 
New York in 1775, from the town of Hempstead, Queen's 
County, but decHned taking his seat. 

Hicks, Whithead. Was mayor of the city of New York, 
during a part of the war. 

Hicks. Nine persons of this name, of Queen's County, New 
York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Edward, Thomas, Benjamin, Charles, Y., Thomas, Charles 
junior, Charles, and George. In 1781, Thomas Hicks, of 
Flushing in that County, was robbed of law-books and other 
property. 

HiEL, John. Of Virginia. Went to England, and was in 
London in 1779 ; a Loyalist Addresser of the King. 

HiGBiE, or HiGBEE. Nathaniel, Henry, Samuel, Thomas, 
and Moses, of Queen's County, New York, acknowledged 
allegiance, October, 1776. Henry and Nathaniel signed a 
Declaration of loyalty in 1775. Jonas, probably of the 
some County, was a grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783. 

Hill, David. Merchant, of New Ipswich, New Hampshire. 
In 1775 he was published in the Essex Gazette, by the Com- 
mittee of that town. He made a statement of the matters 
complained of by the Whigs, to which the Committee rejoined. 
In the rejoinder, it is said, that a quantity of his goods were 
burnt at New York during the Stamp Act troubles, as a pun- 
ishment for his offences; that the people of New Ipswich 
" had unanimously agreed not to use tea," but that Hill had 
still brought that hated article there for sale; and, that his 
proceedings had been condemned in a full town meeting, 
which had been called at his own request. 

Hill, Ezekiel. Of Reading, Connecticut. Was a member 
of the Loyalist Association. 

Hill, John. Of New York. In 1782 he was an inspector 
in the Superintendent Department established at New York, 
and was stationed at Brooklyn. A Loyalist of this name died 
in York County, New Brunswick, in 1804. 

Hill, Joshua. Of Delaware. A member of the General 
31 



362 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Assembly. In 1778 it was enacted, that unless he should sur- 
render himself for trial for treason on or before August 1st, his 
property would be absolutely forfeited to the State. 

Hill, Patrick. Of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. In 1778 he 
was ordered to surrender himself for trial, or to stand at- 
tainted. 

Hill, Thomas. Of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. It is stated 
that he was engaged in the Massacre in 1778, and that with 
his own hands he killed his mother and several other relatives; 
but, like the story of similar deeds by the Terrys, the relation 
is of doubtful truth. 

Hill, William. Of Massachusetts. Embarked at Boston 
for Halifax with the royal troops in 17^6. 

Hilt, William. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1822, 
aged seventy. 

Hinchman, Thomas, Obadiah, and John. Of Queen's County, 
New York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 

Hinds, Patrick. Of South Carolina. A Congratulator of 
Cornwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his 
estate was confiscated, and he was banished. 

Hinkly, Richard. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Hinston, John. Of Boston. Was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. 

Hirleigh, Timothy. Of Middletown, Connecticut. He 
had property in Massachusetts, which by an act of that State 
was confiscated. 

Hirons, Richard. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 

Hitchcock, John. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

HoEG, Nathan. Of New York. In June, 1783, he was 
preparing to embark for Nova Scotia. 

Hogg, John. Of North Carolina. One of the last official 
acts of Governor Martin was to commission this gentleman as 
a magistrate, for the County of Orange. The Whigs at this 
time (1775) had so far obtained the ascendency in the public 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

councils, as to cause his Excellency to dissolve the Assembly ; 
and no new House was elected during the remaining period of 
his administration. 

HoLcoMB, .Teremiah. Of Hackinsack, New Jersey. He 
went to St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife and two 
children, in the ship Union, in 1783. 

Holland, John. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. A Loyalist of this name was sheriff of the County 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1792. 

Holland, John Wentworth. In 1762 he was an ensign in 
the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers. ♦ 

Holland, Richard. Of Massachusetts. He was proscribed 
and banished. In 1782 he was an ensign of infantry in the 
Queen's Rangers. At. the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. He settled subse- 
quently on the coast, at Dipper Harbor, where he now (1843) 
lives, and receives half-pay. 

Holland, Stephen. Of Londonderry, New Hamphire. He 
was a colonel in the militia, a member of the House of Assem- 
bly, and a man of note. In 1775 he appeared at a town-meet- 
ing, and made a written declaration that the charges against 
him as being an enemy to his country, 6lc. were false ; and 
concluded with saying, that " he was ready to assist his coun- 
trymen in the glorious cause of liberty, at the risk of his life 
and fortune." But in 1778 his estate was confiscated, and he 
was proscribed and banished. In 1782 there was a captain 
Stephen Holland in the Prince of Wales's American Volun- 
teers. 

Holland, . A surveyor. By a communication laid 

before the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in July, 1775, 
it appears that he had loaned to Alexander Shepard, junior, 
(who also was a surveyor) a plan or survey of Maine, which 
Shepard disliked to return, fearing that it might be used in a 
manner prejudicial to the Whig cause, as Holland was an 
adherent of the crown, and then in New Jersey. Congress 
considered the matter, and by resolve, recommended to Shepard 
to retain Holland's plan, and another which he himself had 



364 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

made by order of the king's surveyor general, until leave 
should be granted for other disposition of them. There were 
a number of surveyors of the name of Holland, at the revolu- 
tionary period. Major Samuel Holland was the royal survey- 
or general; this gentleman's eldest and only surviving son, 
John Frederick Holland, Esquire, who was barrack-master, 
and ordnance storekeeper, at Prince Edward's Island, died at 
Charlottetown, in that Colony, in 1845, at an old age. Major 
Holland's plans were used by Des Barres, in compiling his 
celebrated charts of the American coast. It may be added, 
that a Loyalist of the name of Samuel Holland was proscribed 
and banished under the act of New Hampshire. 

Holmes, Absalom. Residence unknown. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and was a grantee of that city. 

Holmes, Benjamin M. Distiller, of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775 ; went to Halifax 
in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

QoLMEs, James. Of South Carolina. An estate belonging 
to him, which had been confiscated by the law of that State, 
during the war, was, by an act of August 15, 1783, vested in 
certain persons in trust, for the benefit of a public school. Mr. 
Holmes, after the surrender of Charleston, (1780) had accept- 
ed a commission under the crown. 

Holmes, Joel. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished in 1782, 
and his property confiscated. 

Holt, Moses. Was a lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Loyal- 
ists, and quartermaster of the corps. 

Holyoke, Edward Augustus. Of Salem, Massachusetts. 
Son of President Holyoke, of Harvard University ; was bom 
August 13, 1728, and graduated in 1746. His first wife was 
a daughter of Colonel Benjamin Pickman, of Salem ; his 
second, of Nathaniel Yiall, of Boston. He was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson, on his departure, and of Gage, on his arrival ; 
and for addressing the first, became a Recanter. He committed 
himself no more, and was allowed to remain in the country 
without molestation. He died at Salem, March 31, 1829, aged 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

one hundred years; having practised medicine for seventy- 
nine years. On the day he was a century old, his professional 
brethren of Boston and Salem, to the number of about fifty, 
gave him a public dinner. 

Homer, Joseph. In 1776 he accompanied the royal army 
from Boston to Halifax ; and immediately fixing his abode in 
Barrington, Nova Scotia, lived there ever after. He held the 
offices of Collector of his Majesty's Customs, and of Collector 
of Colonial Duties ; and was a magistrate. He died in 1837, at 
the age of eighty-one. 

HooGLAND. Elbert, Cornelius, Tennis, William, and Corne- 
lius junior, of Queen's County, New York, acknowledged 
allegiance, October, 1776. Captain B. Hoogland, of that 
County, was an Addresser of Governor Robertson in 1780. 

Hooper, Jacob. Embarked at Boston for Halifax, with the 
British army, in 1776. 

Hooper, Joseph. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Was a 
graduate of Harvard University. In 1774 he was an Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson, and in 1775 abandoned home for Eng- 
land, where he resided. A refugee in England; he was a 
manufacturer of paper ; and died there, in 1812. Several per- 
sons of Marblehead of the name of Hooper were Addressers of 
Hutchinson. To wit : Robert, Robert junior, Robert the third, 
and Sweet. Robert Hooper, Esquire, died in that town, in 
1814, aged seventy-two. 

Hooper, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Hooper, William. Of Boston. He was settled first as a 
Congregational minister of the West Church ; but succeeded 
Mr. Davenport as rector of Trinity Church in 1747. A num- 
ber of Congregational clergymen became Episcopalians about 
the same time. He was a man of eloquence and talents. He 
died in 1767. The Reverend Doctor Walter was his suc- 
cessor. His son, William, graduated at Harvard University 
in 1760, studied law with James Otis, emigrated to North 
Carolina about the time of the Stamp Act troubles, and became 
a member of Congress, and a signer of the Declaration of 
31* 



366 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Independence. Mr. Jefferson has left behind him the recorded 
opinion, distinctly and pointedly expressed, that in the Con- 
gress of 1776 he was a rank Tory. Possibly it was so; but 
most men — very likely — will regard William Hooper the 
younger, as of a very different political school. The fact, that 
he was a signer, affords very questionable proof of his attach- 
ment to the British crown, at the least. And some persons — 
not improbably — will be ready to ask, " If the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence were Tories, where shall we 
look for the Whigs?" 

HoPTON, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was also a Peti- 
tioner to be armed on the side of the crown. He was ban- 
ished. In 1782 his property was confiscated. Prior to the 
Revolution he was a merchant. At the evacuation of Charles- 
ton he left the country. The British government made him a 
partial allowance for his losses. He died in 1831. 

Horn, Henry. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with the 
British army, for Halifax. 

Horner, William. Of Virginia. Was in London, July, of 
1779, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern. 

HoRSEMANDER, Daniel. Of Ncw York. He was recorder of 
the city; and, subsequently. President of the Council, and 
Chief Justice of the Colony. In 1773, at which time he held 
the last named office, he was appointed a commissioner under 
the great seal of England, to inquire into the affair of burning 
the king's ship Gaspee, by a party of Whigs of Rhode Island, 
the previous year. In 1776, he, with Oliver De Lancey, and 
nine hundred and forty-six others of the city and county of 
New York, were Addressers of Lord Howe ; and on the same 
day (October 16,) he addressed Governor Tryon in behalf of 
the same persons. He died in 1778, and was buried in 
Trinity church-yard. His history of the Negro Plot, or New 
York Conspiracy, was republished in 1810. Of the conspira- 
tors of whom this publication treats, fourteen were burnt, and 
eighteen were hanged. Judge Horsemander was engaged in 
the public affairs of New York for a period of thirty years. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 367 

HoRSFiELD, Thomas. In July, 1783, he was at New York, 
and one of the fifty-five petitioners. See Abijah Willard. He 
went to St. John, New Brunswick, soon after, and was one of 
the grantees of that city. In New Brunswick he was a mag- 
istrate. He died at St. John, 1819, aged seventy-nine. Ann, 
his wife, died in IS 15, at the age of seventy-two. Mr. Hors- 
field left a large and valuable estate. His son James was also 
a Loyalist, accompanied him to New Brunswick, and received 
a grant of land. 

HoRTON, Jonathan P. A magistrate, of Westchester County, 
New York. A Protester at White Plains. 

HoRTON, Nathan. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

HoRRY, Daniel. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. In 1774, after the port of 
Boston was shut by act of Parliament, Daniel Horry was a 
member of the committee of the city of Charleston, to receive 
donations for the sufferers in that town. 

Hough, Benjamin. A magistrate of the New Hampshire 
Grants, now Vermont. He was seized, beaten, stripped of his 
property, driven from his family, and compelled to take refuge 
in New York. Furnished with a document of which the 
following is a copy, he began his sad journey. 

" Sunderland, 30 Jan. 1775. 

" This may certify the inhabitants of New Hampshire 
Grants, that Benjamin Hough has this day received a full 
punishment for his crimes committed heretofore against this 
country, and our inhabitants are ordered to give him, the said 
Hough, a free and unmolested passage toward the city of 
New York, or to the westward of our Grants, he behaving as 
becometh. Given under hands the day and date aforesaid." 

'' Ethan Allen. 

" Seth Warner." 

When Ethan Allen was both judge and executive officer, 
there can be no doubt of the sufficiency of punishment. 



368 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Hough, it seems, was tied to a tree and received two hundred 
lashes, and he was told that if he returned from his banish- 
ment, he should receive, five hundred lashes more. Among 
the grave offences charged against him was, that he had in- 
formed the Governor of New York, of the mobbing and injury 
of Benjamin Spencer, Esquire, a gentleman of his own politi- 
cal sentiments. 

Houghton, Nahum. Of Massachusetts. The Committee of 
Lancaster published him July 17, 1775, as being " an un- 
wearied pedlar of that baneful herb. Tea," and as otherwise 
odious ; and they cautioned " all friends to the community to 
entirely shun his company, and have no manner of dealings 
or connections with him, except acts of common humanity." 

House, Joseph. Of Lancaster, Massachusetts. Went to 
Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

HousEAL, Michael. In 1782 he was a captain of infantry 
in the American Legion under Arnold. 

HoussACKER, Colonel . He was originally a Whig, and 

was commissioned a major in Wayne's command ; but went 
over to the enemy. It is said of him, that he was " a soldier 
of fortune, and a true mercenary." 

Houston, James. Of North Carolina. On the passage of 
the Stamp Act, he was appointed Stamp Master of that 
Colony. On the arrival of the ship with the Stamped Paper, 
he was an inmate of Governor Tryon's house. A large mob 
repaired to the Governor's residence, and demanded that 
Houston should come to the door; but Tryon "refused to 
allow the claims of such a body to an audience," and persisted 
in his course, until the threat of the multitude to fire his 
dwelling was on the point of being executed. Houston was 
led out finally, and conducted to the market place, where he 
took an oath never to perform the duties of his office. 

Houstoun, Sir Patrick. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his 
estate was amerced twelve per cent. 

Howard, John. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
Orange Rangers. For some part of the contest, he was under 
command of Tarleton, and had much difficulty with that 



i^ 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. V" 369 

officer. He and Colonel Beverley Robinson were intimate. He 
settled in New Bjunswick, and was a magistrate many years. 
He died at Hampton, 1824, aged eighty-two. 

Howard, Martin. Of North Carolina. He removed to that 
Colony from Rhode Island. During the Stamp Act excite- 
ment, in 1765, his house at Newport was destroyed, and his 
person injured. He fled to North Carolina, where he was 
appointed a member of the Council, and Chief Justice. His 
reputation does not appear to have been good ; nor does it 
seem, that the calm and moderate respected him; while from 
others, he sometimes received abuse, and even bodily harm. 
Careful pens speak of his profligate character, and of his cor- 
rupt and wicked designs ; and aver, that the members of the 
Assembly hated him. 

In the great riot at Hillsborough in 1770, Judge Howard 
was driven from the Bench, but the mob respected his asso- 
ciate. Judge Moore. In 1774 Howard's judicial functions 
ceased in consequence of the tumults and disorders of the 
times; and the suspension from office of one who " was noto- 
riously destitute not only of the common virtues of humanity, 
but of all sympathy whatever with the community in which 
he lived," was a matter of much joy. In 1775 he was pres- 
ent in Council, and expressed the highest detestation of un- 
lawful meetings, and advised Governor Martin to inhibit and 
forbid the assembling of the Whig Convention appointed at 
Newbern. In July, 1777, he embarked with his family for 
a northern port, and thence, I suppose, went to England in 
1778. A person of this name died in exile during the Revolu- 
tion, and from the manner in which several persons of New 
England mentioned his decease, I incline to believe that 
he was the subject of this notice. The circumstance that 
Judge Howard's name does not appear in the banishment and 
confiscation act of North Carolina in 1779, favors this sup- 
position ; since, one so exceptionable, if then alive, could 
hardly have escaped. 

Howe, Caleb. In 1782 he was an officer of infantry in the 
Queen's Rangers. 



^■'^ 



370 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Howe, John. Of Boston. He was proscribed and banished. 
He was a native of that town, and at the JLevolutionary era 
conducted, in connexion with Mrs. Draper, the Massachusetts 
Gazette and Boston News Letter. Leaving Boston at the 
evacuation in 1776, he went to HaHfax, Nova Scotia, where 
he estabUshed a newspaper, and was king's printer. He was 
much respected and beloved, and died at Hahfax, 1835, in 
his eighty-second year, greatly lamented. His widow, Mary, 
deceased at the same city in 1837, aged seventy-four. His 
family are distinguished. William Howe, assistant commis- 
sary general, who died at Halifax, January, 1843, aged fifty- 
seven; John Howe, queen's printer, and deputy postmaster- 
general, who died at the same place the same year ; and David 
Howe, who published a paper at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, 
some twenty years ago, were his sons. Of the same relation, 
is the Honorable Joseph Howe, late of his Majesty's Council, 
and Collector of Excise at Halifax ; a politician of ready and 
able powers, and the present leader of the Liberal party of 
Nova Scotia. John Howe, Esquire, the deputy postmaster- 
general of New Brunswick, is a grandson. 

Howell, Robert. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of 
the Declaration in 1775. 

HovENDON, MooRE. Was a lieutenant of cavalry in the Brit- 
ish Legion. 

HovENDON, Richard. Was a captain of cavalry in the Brit- 
ish Legion. 

HoYT, Israel. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Died in 
Kingston, in King's County, New Brunswick, in 1803, aged 
sixty-one. 

HoYT, James. Of Fairfield, County, Connecticut. Was a 
member of the Association in 1775 ; went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783, and became a merchant. He was a mem- 
ber of the Loyal Artillery in 1795, and died in King's County, 
New Brunswick, in 1803. 

HoYT, Joseph. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Settled 
at St. John, but returned to the United States about the year 
1800. 



i 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 371 

HoYT, MoNsoN. In 1762 he was a lieutenant in the Prince 
of Wales's American Volunteers, and quartermaster of the 
corps. He retired on half-pay ; settled in New Brunswick ; 
engaged in commercial business, and was a partner with Gen- 
eral Arnold at St. John. He publicly accused Arnold of his 
burning his warehouse ; and was sued by the Traitor for defa- 
mation. The jury gave damages of two shillings and sixpence 
New Brunswick currency (just fifty cents). The fate of Lieu- 
tenant Hoyt is doubtful. 

HoYT, Stephen. In 1782 he was a captain in the Prince of 
Wales's American Volunteers. He retired on half-pay, and 
settled in New Brunswick. 

Hubbard, Daniel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. In 
1775 he was an Addresser of Gage. 

Hubbard, Isaac. He settled in New Brunswick, and at his 
decease, was the senior magistrate of the County of Sunbury. 
He died at Burton, 1834, aged eighty-six. 

Hubbard, Nathaniel. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and was a grantee of that city. He removed to the 
.parish of Burton, County of Sunbury, where he was a magis- 
trate, and where he died in 1824, aged seventy-eight. 

Hubbard, William. At the peace he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. He settled in 
Sunbury County, and was Register of Deeds and Wills ; 
Deputy Surrogate ; member of the House of 'Assembly ; and 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. He died in that' 
County in 1813. 

Hubbel, Nathan. I suppose he belonged to Connecticut. 
At the peace, a large part of the town of Guysborough, Nova 
Scotia, was granted to him and two hundred and seventy- 
eight others, who, during the "^ar, had been connected with 
the civil department of the royal army and navy. 

Hubert, Michael. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

HucK, Christian. A lawyer, of Philadelphia. He aban- 
doned that city and went within the British lines at New 



^» 



372 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

York. In the course of the war, he joined Tarleton at the 
South, and was a captain of dragoons. He was killed in an 
affray with a party he was sent to disperse. The captain 
was "notorious for his cruelties and violence." 

HuGGEFORD, Peter. Of Wcstchestcr County, New York. 
A Protester at White Plains. 

HuGGEFORD, WiLLUM L. Was a lieutenant in the Loyal 
American Regiment. 

Hughes, John. Of Philadelphia. On the death of James 
Nevin, Esquire, Collector of the Customs at Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, in 1769, he succeeded to the office. In common 
with officers of the Customs of other ports, he encountered 
difficulties in executing the duties of his station ; and property 
which he seized, was rescued by disguised men armed with 
clubs. He returned to Philadelphia in 1772. 

Hughes, Peter. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 

Hughes, Samuel. Of Boston. He was one of the fifty- 
eight Boston memorialists in 1760, but followed the royal 
army to Halifax in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. In 1784, administration was granted John Hazen, 
Esquire, on the estate of a Loyalist of this name, who died 
on the river St. John, New Brunswick. 

Hughes, Uriah, Junior. Of the township of Buckingham, 
Pennsylvania. In 1778, the Council ordered, that failing to 
appear and be tried for treason, he should stand attainted. 

Hull, Seth. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of the 
Association. 

Hulton, Henry. Of Boston. Was proscribed and banished 
in 1778 ; and included in the conspiracy act of 1779. He was 
one of the four commissioners of the Customs; all of whom 
suffered banishment and confiscation of estate. He accom- 
panied the British army to Halifax, and embarked for Eng- 
land with his family, in July, 1776, in the ship Aston Hall. 

Humbert, Stephen. He was born in New Jersey. During 
the war he was in the city of New York. At the peace he 
went ^o St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 373 

city. He has been a member of the Assembly, alderman of 
St. John, and captain in the militia. In the war of 1812 he 
was in commission in the preventive service. He now (1846) 
resides at St. John, and is attached to the Colonial treasury 
department. 

Hume, John. Attorney-general, of Georgia. He left America 
during or at the close of the war. 

Hume, John. Died in King's County, New Brunswick, in 
the year 1805. 

Hume, Joseph. Of Georgia. Was in England, July, 1779. 

Humphreys, James, Junior. Was the son of a conveyancer, 
and was educated at the college in Philadelphia. He com- 
menced the study of medicine, but disliking the profession, 
learned the art of printing; and in January of 1775, com- 
menced the publication of a newspaper called the Pennsyl- 
vania Ledger, which, it was said, was under the influence of 
the friends of the British government. He was, in conse- 
quence, in the hands of the people several times ; but he had 
good friends among the Whigs, of whom the celebrated Ritten- 
house was one. Discontinuing his paper, he retired from 
Philadelphia to the country, where he remained until the 
British army approached the city, when he returned to it, and 
continued under royal protection there, and at New York, 
throughout the war. After the peace he went to England, 
thence to Shelburne, Nova Scotia ; but returned to Philadel- 
phia in 1797, opened a printing house, and Was engaged in 
book printing until his death in February, 1810. 

Humphries, Nicholas. He was an ensign in the New York 
Volunteers. 

Humphries, Nicholas. A physician. He was a surgeon in 
the New Jersey Volunteers ; settled in New Brunswick, and 
died at Sugar Island in the year 1822. 

Hunkin, Matthias. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

HuNLocK, Thomas. In 1782 he was a captain in the Second 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He retired on half-pay 
32 



374 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

and was in New Brunswick after the war ; but left the 
Colony, and — it is believed — returned to the United States. 

Hunt, Benjamin. Residence unknown. In 1782 he was a 
lieutenant of cavalry in the British Legion. 

Hunt, Cosby. Of New York. In 1782 he was a lieutenant 
in the New York Volunteers, and adjutant of the corps. He 
settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He was 
drowned in the river St. John previous to the year 1805. 

Hunt, Isaac. Of Philadelphia. A mob seized him and 
carted him through the streets. He escaped ill usage by com- 
mending the multitude for their forbearance and civility. In 
an hour or two he was returned miharmed to his dwelling. 
He soon after went to the West Indies, where he took church 
orders. Subsequently he removed to England, and was tutor 
in the family of the Duke of Chandos. His wife was Mary, 
daughter of Stephen Shewell, merchant of Philadelphia, whose 
sister was the wife of Benjamin West. Mr. Hunt was the 
father of Leigh Hunt, one of the most eminent of the literary 
men of England at the present time. 

Hunt, James. Residence unknown. In 1782 he was a 
lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Battalion. 

Hunt, John, the 3d. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of 
Gage in 1775. 

Hunt, John. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was ordered 
to be sent prisoner to Virginia, for disaffection to the Whig 
cause. 

Hunt, John. Residence unknown. (Probably one of the 
above,) was a lieutenant under Colonel Robinson in the 
Guides and Pioneers. 

Hunt. John, Esquire, Phineas, Enoch, Benjamin, and El- 
nathan ; all of Westchester County, New York. Were Pro- 
testers at White Plains. 

Hunter, John. Of Virginia. Went to England previous to 
July, 1779. 

Hunter, William. Of Boston. A Protester against the 
Whigs in 1774. In 1775 he was an Addresser of Gage. 

Hunter, William. Of Virginia. His father, whose name 



J 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 3^5 

was William, was a native of Virginia, and was a printer at 
Williamsburg, to the house of Burgesses ; and having a rela- 
tive who was pay-master to the king's troops in America, 
obtained the appointment of deputy postmaster-general for 
the Colonies under Franklin, which office he held until his 
death, in 1761. The subject of this notice attained to his 
majority about the time the Revolution commenced, and being 
a Loyalist, attached himself to the British standard, and 
eventually left the country. 

Huntington, Miner. A magistrate ; died at Yarmouth, 
Nova Scotia, in 1839, aged seventy-six. 

HuNTY, Laurence de la. Was a captain in the Royal Gar- 
rison Battalion. 

HuRD, Nathaniel. Of Boston. A Protester against the 
Whigs in 1774. 

HuRLSTON, Richard. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with 
the British army, for Halifax. 

Husband, Andrew. Was an ensign in the Guides and 
Pioneers. 

Hustice, John, Timothy, and Jabez. Were grantees of St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

HuTCHiNGs. Samuel, Thomas, William, and Jonathan, of 
Queen's County, New York, acknowledged allegiance, Octo- 
ber, 1776. John Hutchins, of the same County, signed a 
Declaration of loyalty in 1775. 

HuTCHiNs, William. Of Boston. A Protester against the 
Whigs in 1774. 

Hutchinson, Edward. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage 
in 1775. 

Hutchinson, Eliakim. Of Boston. He graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1730 ; and became a member of the Coun- 
cil, and the Judge of a Court. He died in 1775. 

Hutchinson, Elisha. Of Massachusetts. Brother and com- 
mercial partner of Thomas Hutchinson, junior. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1762. He was proscribed and ban- 
ished. He died in England in 1824, aged eighty. His wife 
Mary, who was the eldest daughter of Colonel George Watson, 



376 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

of Plymouth, Massachusetts, died at Birmingham, England, 
in 1803. 

Hutchinson, Foster. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1743. Raised to the bench of the 
Supreme Court, he was one of the last of the royal Judges of 
that Colony. His name appears among the Mandamus Coun- 
cillors, among those who were proscribed and banished, and 
among those whose estates were confiscated. He went to 
Halifax in 1776. Governor Hutchinson was his brother. He 
died in Nova Scotia in 1799. His son Foster, an assistant 
Judge of the Supreme Court of that Colony, died in 1815 ; and 
his daughter Abigail deceased at Halifax, July, 1843, aged 
seventy-four. 

Hutchinson, Thomas. Of Massachusetts. His father was 
Honorable Thomas Hutchinson, a merchant, and member of 
the Council, who died in 1739. The subject of this notice 
was born in 1711, and graduated at Harvard University in 
1727, and applied himself to commerce. Unsuccessful as a 
merchant, he devoted himself to politics, and rose to the high- 
est distinction, having been a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and Speaker of that body ; Judge of Probate ; 
member of the Council ; Lieutenant Governor ; Judge of the 
Supreme Court; and Governor. The regularity of his hfe, 
his sympathy for the distressed, his affability, his integrity, his 
industry, his talents for business and the administration of 
affairs, his fluency and grace as a public speaker, his com- 
mand of temper and courteousness under provocation ; united 
to form a rare man, and to give him a rare influence. A Judge 
of the highest Judicial Court, a member of the Council, and 
Lieutenant Governor at the same time, — he seems to have per- 
formed the duties of these incompatible offices, to the satisfac- 
tion of the community. And the fact, that unlike most of the 
crown officers, he was a native of Massachusetts, and not of 
the Episcopal communion, added to his popularity. 

The Revolution produced a fearful change of sentiment, and 
he became an exile ; was attainted, and lost his property by 
confiscation. His political ruin gave him inconceivable an- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 377 

guish, and prematurely closed his life. There were tales, 
indeed, that his death was produced by his own act ; but this 
is not probable. After his retirement to England, a baronetcy 
was offered him, but he declined it. He died in 1780, aged 
sixty-nine, and was buried at Croydon, England. It may not 
be possible to form a correct opinion of the character and mo- 
tives of action of Governor Hutchinson. But I cannot think, 
that his contemporaries among the Whigs did him exact jus- 
tice. The spontaneous and universal respect in which he was 
held by all parties, previous to the revolutionary controversy, 
the long, faithful, and highly valuable services which he ren- 
dered his native Colony, surely entitled him to honorable men- 
tion then, and to our regard now. Had he lived at any other 
period, his claim to be included among the Avorthies of Massa- 
chusetts, would not, probably, be doubted. It is to be deeply 
lamented, that, being the son of a merchant, himself bred a 
merchant, and his own sons merchants, he did not see, or 
would not see, that if the navigation acts and laws of trade 
were enforced, the commerce of the Colonies would be ruined 
at a blow. His position enabled him to have prevented the 
enforcement of the hated measures of commercial restriction, 
and he is hardly to be held excused for using his influence on 
the adverse side. As a historian, no man was more familiar 
with the opposition to these laws when Randolph and Andros, 
a century before, attempted to fasten them upon New England; 
and he knew, that all that a single Colony could do, to shake off 
the royal authority, was done by Massachusetts, in the time of 
these hated emissaries of the British crown. Could he have 
thought that the opposition of his countrymen would be less, 
in his own time, when they were required to sacrifice an ex- 
tensive and rich commerce, — a commerce unlawful by the 
statute book, but yet permitted, for a long course of years, by 
the officers of the Customs 7 It does not appear probable. 
And yet, how is his pertinacious adherence to the measures of 
the ministry to be accounted for 7 Did he think the measures 
just 7 The Whigs of his generation almost unanimously 
believed, that he knew that the servants of the king were in 
32* 



^^. 



378" BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

the wrong, but that his ambition, and full confidence that he 
espoused the winning side, caused his assent to, and support 
of, their acts. It may be so. His private virtues, his historical 
labors, his high station, his commanding influence, his sorrows, 
have an interest which none who arft n^rqut^intpjwith his life 
can fail to feel. There is no Loyalist of the RevoTuuSfr'^^ose 
character I have studied so much, nor for whom my symj 
Uii^s have been oftener moved. But I have never been able 
^satisfy myself, whether he owed his fall to the love of place 
/ and power, or to the convictions of his conscience. The third 
I volume of his history of Massachusetts, which embraces his 
N. own career, is, if the circumstances under which it was 
ife»-4u;;ejconsidered, a w;ork of singular. mndnration-gntTTairness; 
and its statements are to be received, probably, with quite as 
much respect as the records of any gentleman who writes of 
his own times, his own deeds, and his own enemies. I can 
never cease to regret that Governor Hutchinson countenanced 
the revival of the long obsolete statutory provisions, affecting 
the navigation and maritime interests of his country. I forget, 
in his melancholy end, all else. 

Hutchinson, Thomas, Junior. Of Massachusetts. Son of 
Governor Hutchinson. He was a merchant of Boston, and a 
third part of the tea destroyed there, was consigned to him and 
his brother Elisha. He was a Mandamus Councillor, and an 
Addresser of Gage; and was proscribed and banished. He 
went to England, and died there in 1811, aged eighty-one. 

Hutchinson, Thomas. Of New Britain, Pennsylvania. Was 
ordered by the Council, in 1778, to surrender himself, or to 
stand attainted. Marmaduke and Isaac Hutchinson, of New 
Britain, were included in the same proclamation. 

Hutchinson, Thomas. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. A person of this 
name was member of a committee of the Provincial Congress 
in 1775. 

Hutchinson, William. Of Massachusetts. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1762. In 1775 he went to England, 
and subsequently held an oflice in the Bahamas. He died in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 379 

1791 in Europe. A son, it is believed, of Honorable Foster 
Hutchinson. 

Hutchinson, William. In 1782 he was captain lieutenant 
of the First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He retired on 
half-pay, and lived in New Brunswick ; but removed to Upper 
Canada, where he died. 

HuTTON, William. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1799, aged forty-two. 

Hyatt, Lieutenant Thomas. Of Westchester County, New 
York. A Protester at White Plains. 

Hybart, John. A lieutenant of the King's Rangers, Car- 
olina. 

Hyslop, John. A lieutenant in the Third Battalion of New 
Jersey Volunteers, and adjutant of the corps. 

Hyson, Michael. Of Pennsylvania. He went to Nova 
Scotia during hostilities. He married when upwards of a 
hundred years old. He died at Ship Harbor, Nova Scotia, in 
1833, aged one hundred and three. His third wife survived 
him, as also numerous descendants of the second, third, and 
fourth generations from him. 

Imlay, William. Of New York. In 1777 he was in Penn- 
sylvania, and was sent prisoner to Virginia by the Whig au- 
thorities. 

Ingersoll, David. Of Great Barrington, Massachusetts. 
His name appears among the barristers and attornies who ad- 
dressed Hutchinson in 1774, He was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. He was in England in 1779, and in 1783. During the 
troubles which preceded the shedding of blood, he was seized 
by a mob, carried to Connecticut, and imprisoned ; while on 
a second outbreak of the popular displeasure against him, his 
house was assailed, he was driven from it, and his enclosures 
were laid waste. 

Ingersoll, Jared. Of Connecticut. He was born in Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, in 1722. In 1742 he graduated at Yale 
College. He settled in New Haven, and engaged in the prac- 
tice of the law. In 1757 he was agent of the Colony in Eng- 



380 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

land. In 1765 he received the appointment of Stamp-distrib- 
utor for his native Colony, and arrived at Boston on his way 
to enter upon the duties of the office. While at Boston, many 
attentions were paid to him ; and on his departure, Mr. Oliver, 
who had received the same appointment fOr Massachusetts, 
accompanied him out of town. This act occasioned murmur- 
ing among the people ; an inflammatory article appeared in the 
next Boston Gazette ; labels were posted on the Liberty Tree ; 
and, finally, a mob destroyed Oliver's building designed for his 
stamp-office. 

In Connecticut, matters reached the same extremity ; and it 
was threatened before his arrival there, that he should be hung 
on the first tree after he entered the Colony. Though this 
threat was not executed, effigies of his person were made in 
several places, tried in form, and condemned to be burned. 
Mr. IngersoU formally resigned his office at New Haven in 
August, 1765 ; but his resignation was not deemed satisfactory 
to the people of another section ; and a large body set out for 
that town with a determination to compel a more explicit de- 
claration of his intentions. They met him at Weathersfield, 
where they obtained the required satisfaction; and extorted 
from him the cry three times, " Liberty and Property." Hun- 
dreds then escorted him to Hartford. About the year 1770 he 
was commissioned Judge of Vice Admiralty for the Colonies 
of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
Virginia, and removed to Philadelphia. The Revolution sus- 
pended his official functions, and he returned to Connecticut. 
He died at New Haven, 1781, at the age of fifty-nine. His 
son Jared, a gentleman of distinguished worth and talents, 
held various public stations, and was a candidate for the Vice- 
presidency of the United States in 1812. 

Ingleby, Thomas. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1813, aged fifty-four. Eliza, his wife, died at the same place, 
1811, at the age of fifty-seven. 

Inglis, Alexander. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; also a Petitioner to be 
armed on the side of the crown. He was banished in 1782, 
and his property confiscated. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 381 

Inglis, Charles, D. D. Of New York. He was rector of 
Trinity Church, New York, from 1777 to 1783. After Gallo- 
way, the great Pennsylvania Loyalist, went to England, Doc- 
tor Inglis was a correspondent, and his letters evince no little 
harshness towards the fomenters of the rebellion. He went to 
Nova Scotia at the peace, and was appointed liord Bishop of 
that Colony. In 1809 he became a member of the Council. 
He was the first Protestant Bishop of any British Colonial 
possession in either hemisphere. He died in 1816, aged eighty- 
two, in the fifty-eighth year of his ministry, and the twenty- 
ninth of his consecration. His name, and that of his wife 
Margaret, occurs in the confiscation act of New York. Anne, 
his daughter, married the Reverend George Pidgeon, and died 
at Halifax in 1^27, aged fifty-one. His son, the Right Rever- 
end Lord John Inglis, is now (1841) Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
and a member of the Council ; having received both honors in 
1825. Within his diocese, Lord John Inglis, in 1826, con- 
firmed four thousand three hundred and sixty -seven persons, 
and consecrated forty-four churches. 

Ingram, James. Of Virginia. Went to England, and was 
in London, July, 1779. 

Inman, George. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1772; and became an officer in 
the British army. He died in 1789. 

Inman, John. Of Boston. A Protester against the Whigs in 
1774. In 1775 he was an Addresser of Gage. In 1776 he 
accompanied the royal army to Halifax. 

Inman, Ralph. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage in 1775. 

Ireland, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with the 
British army, for Halifax. 

Ireland, John. Of Long Island, New York. In 1777 he 
was taken in arms at Lloyd's Neck, and retained a prisoner ; 
but in the spring of 1778 he was allowed to return home to 
procure clothing and other necessaries, on condition that he 
should deliver himself to his captors in thirty days. 

Irving, Alexander. Of South Carolina. Went to England 
previous to July, 1779. 



382 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Irving, George. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 177-1, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 

Ives, David. Of Rhode Island. I suppose he was a cap- 
tain in a corps called the Associated Loyalists. At the peace 
he went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of 
that city. 

Ives, John. Of Rhode Island. Went to New Brunswick, 
and was appointed master carpenter of ordnance. He died at 
St. John in 1804, aged fifty-six. 

Jackson, Peter. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Was a 
member of the Association at Reading. 

Jackson. Nineteen persons of this name of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Richard, Thomas, Samuel, Thomas, Jacob, David, Robert, 
John junior, Robert junior, Parmenas, John, Benjamin, Rich- 
ard junior, Obadiah, John, Robert, Samuel the 3d, Isaac, and 
Townsend. In 1780, Reuben Jackson of Queen's County was 
in arms against the Whigs. 

Jackson, David. Of North Carolina. A captain in a Loyal- 
ist corps ; was taken prisoner by Colonel Caswell in 1776. 

Jackson, Henry and William. Residence unknown. Henry 
was a lieutenant in De Lancey's Third Battalion ; and William 
was adjutant of the King's Orange Rangers. Both probably 
belonged to Queen's County, New York. 

Jackson, Richard. Of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. 
Of this man, there is a singular but well-authenticated story. 
Having adhered to the crown from a conviction of duty, he 
felt bound to aid his sovereign in suppressing the rebellion, 
by all means in his power. When, therefore, the news reached 
him, in 1777, that Colonel Baum was advancing with a body 
of troops towards Bennington, he prepared to join him. In 
the battle of Hoosac — erroneously called the battle of Ben- 
nington — he was taken prisoner, and sent to Great Barring- 
ton, then the shire town of Berkshire ; and by General Fellows, 
the sheriff, committed to prison. The county jail was in so 
ruinous a condition, that Jackson could easily escape; but of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 383 

this he had no intention. He felt that he had acted right, and 
determined to abide the consequences. After quietly remain- 
ing in jail a few days, he told General Fellows, that he was 
losing his time, earned nothing, and wished permission to go 
out to work in the day time, and promised to return at evening 
and be confined for the night. His great simplicity and hon- 
esty of character, led the sheriff to confide in his word. Jack- 
son accordingly went out to labor almost every week-day, for 
some months. In May of 1778, he was to be tried at Spring- 
field for high treason, and General Fellows made the necessary 
preparations to conduct him to that town in person. But 
Jackson said, "he could go alone quite as well," and thus 
save the sherifl^ both inconvenience and expense. Again, 
General Fellows confided in his integrity ; and he commenced 
his journey. In the woods of Tyringham, he met the Hon- 
orable T. Edwards, who asked him the object of his travel. 
Jackson answered, that he " was going to Springfield, to be 
tried for his life." To Springfield he did go, was tried for his 
life, found guilty, and condemned to die. Application was, 
however, made to the executive authority of the State to par- 
don him. But it was reasoned by the members of the Board, 
that the facts against Jackson were clear and incontestable, 
that his crime was unquestionably high treason, and that, if 
he were pardoned, all others who might commit the same 
crime ought to meet with the same clemency. But Mr. Ed- 
wards, who was a member of the Board, told the story of 
meeting Jackson, with great particularity, yet without embel- 
lishment. The simple truth moved the hearts of his associ- 
ates, and their feelings, as men, prevailed against reasons of 
State policy. Jackson was pardoned, and returned to his 
family. 

Jackson, William. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775 ; was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. He went to England, where he died in 
1810, at the age of seventy-nine. 

Jaffrey, George. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1736. He became a merchant. 



384 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



In 1744 he was appointed Clerk of the Superior Court of New 
Hampshire, and held that office twenty-two years. In 1766 
he was admitted one of his Majesty's Council ; and soon after, 
received the post of Treasurer of the Province. He possessed 
a large estate, and was one of the original purchasers of Ma- 
son's patent. He was molested on account of his political 
opinions several times. When removed by the Whigs from the 
office of Treasurer, he paid over to his successor £1516.4.8, 
being the exact balance of public monies in his hands. 
Though opposed for his attachment to the crown, he left be- 
hind him an unsullied reputation for strict integrity, punc- 
tuality in his dealings, and correctness of manners. He died 
at Portsmouth in 1802, aged eighty-six years. 

James, Edward. Was a lieutenant in the King's Orange 
Rangers. 

James, Jacob. Was a captain of cavalry in the British Le- 
gion. 

Jarvis, Munson. Of Connecticut. He was born in Nor- 
walk, in 1742. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and was a grantee of that city. In 1792 he was a 
member of the vestry of the Episcopal church. At a later 
time, he was a member of the House of Assembly. He died 
at St. John, 1825, at the age of eighty-three. His son, the 
Honorable Edward James Jarvis, was formerly a member of 
the Council of New Brunswick, and is the present Chief Jus- 
tice of the Colony of Prmce Edward's Island. 

Jarvis, Robert, Mariner, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to Hal- 
ifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. He 
was in London, July, 1779, a Loyalist Addresser. 

Jarvis, Stephen. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of cavalry in 
the South Carolina Royalists. He was in New Brunswick 
after the Revolution ; but went to Upper Canada, and died at 
Toronto, at the residence of Reverend Doctor Phillips, 1840, 
aged eighty -four. During his service in the Revolution he 
was in several actions. 

Jarvis, Wulliam. In 1782 he was an officer of cavalry in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 385 

the Queen's Rangers. At the peace he settled in Upper Can- 
ada, and became Secretary of the Colony. His widow, Han- 
nah, a daughter of Reverend Doctor Peters, of Hebron, Con- 
necticut, died at Queenston, Upper Canada, 1845, aged eighty- 
three. 

Jarvis. Besides the above, John, of Boston, was a Protester 
in 1774. Nathaniel, and Samuel (residence unknown) were 
grantees of St. John, New Brunswick, 1783; and John, settled 
in that colony the same year, and died in Portland, New 
Brunswick, 1845, aged ninety-three. 

Jauncey, James. Of New York. He, like Low and Sher- 
brook, was an associate with Jay, on the Committee of Cor- 
respondence of Fifty, and probably, at the outset, was inclined 
to take the side of the Whigs. His property was confiscated. 
In 1775 he was a member of the House of Assembly, and one 
of the fourteen of that body who, in the recess, addressed 
General Gage, at Boston, on the subject of "the unhappy 
contest." At this period he held under the crown the office of 
Master of the Rolls. 

Jayne, William, Junior. Of Queen's County, New York. 
In July, 1780, he was captured by a party of Whigs, and car- 
ried to Connecticut. A Whig of the name of William Phillips 
had been taken prisoner at Smithtown previously ; and the 
object in seizing Jayne appears to have been to exchange him 
for Phillips. 

Jeffrey, Patrick. Of Boston. Went to England. Mary, 
his wife, died in Bath, England, in 1808. 

Jeffries, John. Of Boston. Proscribed and banished. He 
was born at Boston in 1744, and graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1763 ; and having pursued his medical studies with 
Doctor Lloyd, of that town, and attended the medical schools 
of England, commenced practice. From 1771 to 1774 he was 
surgeon of a British ship of the line in Boston harbor. After 
the battle of Bunker's Hill, he assisted in dressing the wounded 
of the royal army. At the evacuation he embarked with the 
troops and went to Halifax, and was appointed chief of the 
surgical staff of Nova Scotia. In 1779 he went to England, 
33 



38^ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

and returning to America, held a high professional employ- 
ment to the British forces at Charleston and New York. In 
1780 he resigned, and going to England again, commenced 
practice in London. In 1785, he crossed the British Channel 
in a balloon. Returning once more to his native land, he re- 
sumed his professional career at Boston, and died there, 
September, 1819, aged seventy-five. 

Jenkins, John. In 1782 he was chaplain of the South Caro- 
lina Royalists. 

Jenkins, John. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the Second 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and was a grantee of the city of St. John. 
He received half-pay. 

Jenkins, Joseph. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. In the act he is styled Colonel. 

Jenkins, S. H. Was banished and attainted, and his estate 
confiscated. In 1794, he represented to the British govern- 
ment, in a memorial dated at London, that at the time of his 
banishment, several large debts were due to him in America, 
which were still unpaid, though the debtors were rich. 

Jenkins, Samuel Hunt. Of Georgia. Went to England, 
and was in London in 1779. 

Jenkinson, Daniel. Died at Kingston, New Brunswick, in 
1827, aged seventy-three. 

Jennings, John. Of Sandwich, Massachusetts. In 1778 he 
was arrested and imprisoned for his disaflfection to the popular 
cause. A Loyalist of this name died at Grand Lake, New 
Brunswick, in 1839, at the great age of one hundred and 
three years. 

Jennings, Thomas. Went to St John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was grantee of a city lot. He died there in 
the year 1805. 

Jennings, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Jerow, Daniel. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

Jervice, Charles. Of Philadelphia. He was ordered to be 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 



m 



i^nt prisoner to Virginia in 1777, for being inimical to the 
Whig cause. 

Jewett, John. An ensign in the Third BattaUon of New 
Jersey Volunteers. 

Johnson, Guy. He married a daughter of Sir William John- 
son, and at the death of the Baronet succeeded him as Super- 
intendent of the Indian Department. He was well versed in 
the business of that office, having long held the place of deputy 
under his father-in-law. His own assistant or deputy, was 
Colonel Daniel Claus, who also married a daughter of Sir 
William. His residence was in Tryon County, near the Ba- 
ronial Hall. Colonel Johnson's intemperate zeal for his royal 
master, caused the first affray in that County. In the early 
part of 1775, about three hundred Whigs assembled at the 
house of John Veeder, in Caughnawaga, for the purpose of 
deliberating upon the public concerns, and the setting up of a 
Liberty-pole. Their proceedings were interrupted by the ar- 
rival of Sir John Johnson, Colonel Claus, Colonel John Butler, 
and Colonel Johnson, with a large number of their retainers, 
well armed. Colonel Johnson mounted a high stoop and ad- 
dressed the people. In the course of his remarks he became 
so abusive, that Jacob Sammons interrupted him, and pro- 
nounced him a liar and a villain. Johnson thereupon seized 
Sammons by the throat, and called him a d — d villain in re- 
turn. A scuffle ensued, in which Sammons was severely 
injured. The Whigs present, the members of three families 
excepted, fled, and left Sammons to fight with the enraged 
Loyalists as he best could. The following correspondence will 
throw light on the proceedings at the time, and on the course 
of Colonel Johnson. He wrote from Guy Park to the magis- 
trates of Schenectady and Albany, May, 1775, thus : 

" Gentlemen : — As the peace and happiness of the country 
are objects that every good man should have at heart, I think 
it highly necessary to acquaint you, that for a few days I 
have been put to the great trouble and expense of fortifying 
my house, and keeping a large body of men for the defence of 
my person ; and have received repeated accounts that either 



388 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

the New Englanders, or some persons in or about the city of 
Albany, or town of Schenectady, are coming up, to a consid- 
erable number, to seize and imprison me, on a ridiculous and 
malicious report that I intend to make the Indians destroy the 
inhabitants, or to that effect. The absurdity of this appre- 
hension may easily be seen by men of sense ; but as many 
credulous and ignorant persons may be led astray and inclined 
to believe it, and as they have already sent down accounts, 
examinations, &c., from busy people here, that I can fully 
prove to be totally devoid of all foundation, it is become the 
duty of all those who have authority or influence, to disabuse 
the public, and prevent consequences which I foresee with 
very great concern, and most cordially wish may be timely 
prevented. Any differences in political ideas can never justify 
such extravagant opinions; and I little imagined that they 
should have gained belief amongst any order of people who 
know my character, station, and the large property I have in 
the country, and the duties of my office, which are to preserve 
tranquillity amongst the Indians, hear their grievances, «&>c., 
and prevent them from falling upon the trade and frontiers. 
These last were greatly threatened by the Indians, on account 
of the disturbances last year between the Virginians and 
Shawanese ; during which, my endeavors prevented the Six 
Nations from taking a part that would have sensibly affected 
the public. And I appointed last Fall, that the Six Nations 
should come to me this month, in order to receive, amongst 
other things, final satisfaction concerning the lands said to be 
invaded by the Virginians, who have now sent me their 
answer. In the discharge of this duty I likewise essentially 
serve the public. But should I neglect myself, and be tamely 
made prisoner, it is clear to all who know anything of Indians, 
they will not sit still and see their Council fire extinguished, 
and Superintendent driven from his duty, but will come upon 
the frontiers, in revenge, with a power sufficient to commit 
horrid devastation. It is therefore become as necessary to the 
public, as to myself, that my person should be defended. But 
as the measures I am necessitated to make for that purpose 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 389 

may occasion the propagation of additional falsehoods, and 
may at last appear to the Indians in a light that is not for the 
benefit of the public, I should heartily wish, gentlemen, that 
you could take such measures for removing these apprehen- 
sions, as may enable me to discharge my duties (which do not 
interfere with the public) without the protection of armed men 
and the apprehension of insult. And as the public are much 
interested in this, I must beg to have your answer as soon as 
possible. 

" I am, gentlemen, your humble servant, 

"G. Johnson." 

To this letter Colonel Johnson received two answers : one 
from the mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of Albany, ad- 
dressed to the Committee for Palatine district, Tryon County ; 
and the other, from the Albany Committee, and addressed to 
himself Both were much of the same tenor. The last is 
dated " Committee Chamber, May 23, 1775," and was in these 
terms. 

"Sir: — Several letters have been handed to us, addressed to 
the magistrates of Schenectady and mayor and corporation of 
Albany, some of which you requested to be communicated to 
us, whereby we, with great concern, observe you are much 
alarmed with apprehensions of evil intentions against your 
family, and self in particular, from a body of New England- 
ers, or people from those parts, so as to put you under the 
necessity of fortifying yourself for safety. From what cause 
these terrible ideas have sprung, we are entirely ignorant. If 
any real ones, you must be better acquainted with them than 
we are; however, we do assure you that the first and last 
knowledge of such designs have come to us from you, and of 
course must have originated somewhere near you. We are 
not ignorant of the importance of your office as Superintendent, 
and have been perfectly easy with respect to any suspicions 
of the Indians taking a part in the present dispute between 
Great Britain and her Colonies, knowing them to be a people 
of too much sagacity to engage with the whole Continent in a 
33* 



390 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

controversy that they cannot profit by, and which would 
throw them into endless war and misery. As long as they are 
peaceable, they need not be under apprehensions of hostilities 
commencing against them. 

" We have been some time ago informed that there was to 
be a Congress at your house of the Indians, and hope such 
methods may be taken then as will give them a just sense of 
the nature of the present disturbances, and that they may 
govern themselves by such a line of conduct, as will appease 
the minds of such persons in your County as may be uneasy 
on their account. The information we have from time to time 
received, very lately from travellers passing by your house, 
has given us some pain, as we find the communication betwixt 
this and your County in a manner stopped, insomuch that no 
person is permitted to pass without undergoing a strict exami- 
nation. These proceedings will, if not speedily stopped, raise 
the resentment of the people, we fear, and cause them to 
undertake such acts as will not be in the power of any au- 
thority to restrain. We would, therefore, be glad, and permit 
us to recommend it seriously to your attention, that you would 
leave the communication free, and disperse your guards, and 
not interfere with the meetings of the people, intended solely 
to concert measures for the preservation of their liberties, in 
conjunction with the other counties of this and the rest of His 
Majesty's Colonies." 

Five days previous to the date of this reply, Colonel John- 
son had said, in a communication to the Whig Committee of 
Schenectady, that he had " taken precaution to give a very 
hot and disagreeable reception to any persons that shall at- 
tempt to invade his retreat " ; yet that, " at the same time he 
had no intention to disturb those who chose to permit him the 
honest exercise of his reason and the duties of his office," 
Meantime, the Tryon County Committee and the Colonel be- 
came involved in difficulty, and the former, in denouncing his 
proceedings, used the following among other equally severe 
expressions. " Colonel Johnson's conduct in raising fortifica- 
tions round his house, keeping a number of Indians and armed 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 39t 

men constantly about him, and stopping and searching travel- 
lers upon the king's highway, and stopping our communication 
with Albany, is very alarming to this County, and is highly 
arbitrary, illegal, oppressive, and unwarrantable ; and con- 
firms us in our fears, that his design is to keep us in awe, and 
oblige us to submit to a state of slavery " ; and abhorring that 
state, they resolved " to defend their freedom with their lives 
and fortunes." On the 2d of June, 1775, the Committee of 
Tryon County, in a long letter, begged him to use his "en- 
deavors to dissuade the Indians from interfering in the dispute 
with the Mother Country and the Colonies." " We cannot 
think," they continue, " that, as you and your family possess 
very large estates in this County, you are unfavorable to 
American freedom, although you may diifer with us in the 
mode of obtaining redress." His course was watched with 
much anxiety. It was well known that the Johnsons could 
induce the Six Nations to remain neutral, or to take part with 
the crown, at their pleasure. The Reverend Doctor Wheelock 
wrote to the New Hampshire Provincial Congress, from Dart- 
mouth College, June 28th, that he had "seen a man direct 
from Albany, and late from Mount Johnson," who informed 
him that Colonel Johnson had " received presents to the 
amount of three thousand pounds from the King, to be dis- 
posed of to engage the Indians within his jurisdiction against 
the Colonies ; and that all his endeavors for that purpose had 
been fruitless. Not one of the Indians would receive the 
presents." 

We next find the subject of this notice in collision with the 
Provincial Congress of New York. In his reply to a letter 
from that body, dated July 8th, he says : — " As to the endea- 
vors you speak of, to reconcile the unhappy differences between 
the Parent State and these Colonies, be assured I ardently wish 
to see them. As yet, I am sorry to say, I have not been able 
to discover any attempt of that kind, but that of the Assem- 
bly's, the only true legal representatives of the people ; and as 
to the individuals who you say officiously interrupt, in my 
quarter, the mode and measures you think necessary for these 



392 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

salutary purposes, I am really a stranger to them. If you 
mean myself, you must have been grossly imposed on. I once, 
indeed, went with reluctance, at the request of several of the 
principal inhabitants, to one of the people's meetings, which I 
found had been called by an itinerant New England leather- 
dresser, and conducted by others, if possible, more contempti- 
ble. I had, therefore, little inclination to revisit such men, or 
attend to their absurdities." In conclusion, and in allusion to 
the fears that his influence would be used to excite the Indians 
to hostilities, he remarks : " I trust I shall always manifest more 
humanity than to promote the destruction of the innocent 
inhabitants of a Colony to which I have been always warmly 
attached, a declaration that must appear perfectly suitable to 
the character of a man of honor and principle, who can on no 
account neglect those duties that are consistent therewith, 
however they may differ from sentiments now adopted in so 
many parts of America." 

Notwithstanding the many and the explicit assurances of 
Colonel Johnson, Brant, the acknowledged chief of the Six 
Nations, joined the royal standard; and whatever were the 
Colonel's own purposes and intentions, the force of circum- 
stances or his own inclination induced him to retire to Canada, 
and thence to repair to scenes of savage warfare ; and his 
name appears in the bloody exploits of the Mohawk chieftain, 
and the miscreant Butler. That, at the time he was in com- 
munication with the Committees of Albany, Schenectady, and 
Tryon County, and with the Provincial Congress of New 
York, he was also in communication with Brant, seems cer- 
tain. The chief who signed himself " secretary to Guy John- 
son," wrote the Oneidas in the Mohawk tongue, thus : " Writ- 
ten at Guy Johnson's, May, 1775. This is your letter, you 
great ones or sachems. Guy Johnson says he will be glad if 
you get this intelligence, you Oneidas, how it goes with hitn 
now, and he is now more certain of the intention of the Boston 
people. Guy Johnson is in great fear of being taken prisoner 
by the Bostonians. We Mohawks are obliged to watch him 
constantly," &c. This letter was found in an Indian path, 



I 

I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 393 

and was lost, as was supposed, by the person to whom it had 
been entrusted. It is certain, too, that Johnson, Brant, and 
the Butlers, — father and son, — fled to Canada together. 
Colonel Johnson in 1780 was about forty years of age; and is 
described " as being a short, pursy man, of stern countenance 
and haughty demeanor, — dressed in a British uniform, pow- 
dered locks, and a cocked hat." His mansion, — Guy Park, — 
is still (1840) standing. It is of stone, and situated about a 
mile from the village of Amsterdam, on the north bank of the 
Mohawk. The Western Railroad passes a few rods north, and 
in front of it. His estate was confiscated. In 1784 he was in 
England, a petitioner for relief. 

Johnson, Sir John. Knight and baronet, was the son of 
Sir William Johnson, to whose estates and title he succeeded, 
and to whose office of major general in the militia of New 
York he was appointed in November of 1774. The father, we 
have seen, was removed from the difficulties which attended an 
elevated position in society at the revolutionary era, before the 
commencement of hostilities ; and a brief notice of the career of 
the son will show, that these difficulties were neither few nor 
easily surmounted. The office of general superintendent of 
Indian affairs, on the death of Sir William, passed into the 
hands of Colonel Guy Johnson, (who married a daughter of 
Sir William Johnson,) but in other respects, the new baronet 
was the heir, not only of his parent's fortune and honors, but 
of his cares, perplexities and perils. Of the early life of Sir 
John, not much appears to be known ; he, however, served 
under his father, and acquired considerable military experi- 
ence. He was not as popular as Sir William, being less social 
and less acquainted with human nature ; and failed to secure 
in so pre-eminent a degree the affections of the retainers of 
Johnson-Hall, and of the Indian tribes. Yet he took means to 
secure the favor of the latter. On the 25th July, 1775, he 
wrote to Mr. Alexander White, of New York, from Johnson- 
Hall, thus : — 

"Dear Sir: — The bearers will deliver you some provi- 
sions and clothes, and Mr. Clement will give you a paper 



394 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

containing a ten pound note, which I received from Mrs, White 
this morning. The Indians having desired some cash from me 
to expend when they come among the inhabitants of Canada, 
which I have not to give them, I must beg you to supply 
them, and charge it to Colonel Johnson," &c. 

His official relations and supposed political sympathies 
caused a strict watch to be kept upon his movements, and 
early in 1776 a Whig force of some hundreds under command 
of General Schuyler, was despatched to Tryon County, to 
counteract his reported designs, to disarm the Loyalists said to 
be embodied there, and to obtain satisfactory assurances for 
the future good conduct of the baronet and his friends and de- 
pendents. The General executed these delicate and responsi- 
ble duties in a manner highly satisfactory to Congress, and 
received a vote of thanks. Reluctant to proceed to extremi- 
ties, he opened a correspondence with Sir John, and proposed 
an arrangement by which the shedding of blood would be 
spared, and the objects of his mission be accomplished. After 
some modification of the original terms, an accommodation 
was effected by which Sir John stipulated to a pacific line of 
conduct, and to remain within certain prescribed limits, on his 
parole of honor. For some unexplained reason, this agreement 
was soon violated, and the Whigs attempted to secure the bar- 
onet's person. Sir John, learning of this intention, hastily 
secured his most valuable effects, and fled to the woods with 
about seven hundred followers, determined to proceed to Can- 
ada. After enduring almost every imaginable hardship and 
deprivation, he and the principal part of his associates arrived 
at Montreal, 

He was soon commissioned a colonel, and raised two battal- 
ions of Loyalists, who bore the designation of the Royal 
Greens. From the time of organizing this corps, he became one 
of the most active, and one of the bitterest foes that the Whigs 
encountered during the contest ; so true is it, as was said by the 
wise man of Israel, that " A brother offended is harder to be 
won than a strong city ; and their contentions are like the bars 
of a castle," Sir John was in several regular and fairly 



OP AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 395 

conducted battles. He invested Fort Stanwix in 1777, and de- 
feated the brave General Herkimer, and in 1780 was himself de- 
feated by General Van Rensselaer at Fox's mills. In predatory 
enterprises, the Royal Greens enjoy an infamous celebrity. 
They committed quite every enormity known in savage war- 
fare. Their own former neighbors and friends on the Mohawk 
were objects of their sweetest revenge, and suffered even more 
at their hands than strangers ; and the chieftain Brant, though 
he be compelled to bear the worst, and all of the charges 
which have been made against him and his warriors, will not 
answer to posterity for any darker or more damning deeds 
than those which the Royal Greens perpetrated. Upon one 
occasion, their colonel was thus addressed by Mr. Sammons, 
an aged and respectable Whig; "See what you have done, 
Sir John. You have taken myself and my sons prison- 
ers, burnt my dwelling to ashes, and left the helpless mem- 
bers of my family with no covering but the heavens above, 
and no prospect but desolation around them. Did we treat 
you in this manner when you were in the power of the Tryon 
County Committee? Do you remember when we were con- 
sulted by General Schuyler, and you agreed to surrender your 
arms? Do you not remember that you then agreed to re- 
main neutral, and that upon that condition General Schuyler 
left you at liberty on your parole 7 These conditions you 
violated. You went off to Canada ; enrolled yourself in the 
service of the king ; raised a regiment of the disaffected, who 
abandoned their country with you ; and you have now re- 
turned to wage a cruel war against us, by burning our dwell- 
ings, and robbing us of our property. I was your friend in 
the Committee of Safety," continued the bold Whig, "and 
exerted myself to save your person from injury. And how 
am I requited 1 Your Indians have murdered and scalped old 
Mr. Fonda at the age of eighty years ; a man who, 1 have 
heard your father say, was like a father to him when he set- 
tled in Johnstown and Kingsborough. You cannot be suc- 
cessful. Sir John, in such a warfare, and you will never enjoy 
your property more." 



396 



BIOGKAPHICAL SKETCHES 



In the flight of the baronet from the Hall in 1776, Lady 
Johnson and the family papers, plate, and bible, were left 
behind. An incident with regard to each will show the state 
and necessities of the times. Her Ladyship, — who was Mary 
Watts, of the city of New York, daughter of Honorable John 
Watts, a member of the Council of the Colony, and sister of 
the late venerable John Watts, who died in September, 1836, — 
was removed to Albany, where it was designed by the local 
Whig authorities, that she should be detained as a kind of 
hostage for the good conduct of her husband. She solicited 
the Commander-in-chief to release her, but Washington de- 
clined to interfere. Lady Johnson possessed much beauty, 
understanding, and vivacity. Her playful humor exhilarated 
the whole household. The papers were buried in an iron 
chest, and in 1778 General Haldimand, at the request of Sir 
John, sent a party of men to carry them away. On taking 
them up, they were found to be mouldy, rotten, and illegible, 
in consequence of the dampness which had been admitted 
through the open joints of the chest. To recover the silver, 
the baronet in 1780 went to Johnstown himself. It was found 
where a faithful slave had buried it, and was transferred to 
the knapsacks of about forty soldiers, who took it to Montreal. 
The devotion of the slave is worthy of remembrance. He 
had long lived with Sir John's father, who was so much at- 
tached to him, that he caused him to be baptized by his own 
name of William. When the estate was confiscated by the 
Provincial Congress of New York, William formed a part of 
it, and was sold, but finally, by a re-purchase or otherwise, 
returned to the baronet's family. While he remained with his 
purchaser, who was a Whig, he never gave the least hint as 
to the valuables of Sir John, though he had secreted them all. 
The family bible was sold with the furniture by auction at 
Fort Hunter. John Taylor, late Lieutenant Governor of New 
York, was the purchaser of the sacred volume, and on discov- 
ering that it contained the family record, he wrote a civil note 
to Sir John, offering to restore it. Some time afterward, a 
messenger from the baronet called for the bible, but did his 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 397 

errand in a manner rude and offensive. " I have come," said 
he, '' for Sir WilHam's bible, and there are the four guineas 
which it cost." On being asked what word Sir John had sent, 
he repHed, " to pay four guineas, and take the book." 

Soon after the close of the contest, Sir John Johnson went 
to England, but returned in 1785, and established his residence 
in Canada. He was appointed superintendent general and 
inspector general of Indian affairs in British North America, 
and retained that office until his decease; and for several 
years he was also a member of the legislative Council of 
Canada. To compensate him for his losses, the British gov- 
ernment made him several grants of lands. He died of old 
age, at the residence of Mrs. Bowes, his daughter, Montreal, 
in 1830, aged eighty-eight; and was succeeded by his son. 
Sir Adam Gordon Johnson. 

It is thought that he was a conscientious Loyalist ; and this 
may be allowed. He lived in a style of luxury and splendor, 
which few country gentlemen in America possessed the means 
to support. His domains were as large and as fair as those of 
any Colonist of his time, the estate of Lord Fairfax only ex- 
cepted ; and no American hazarded more, probably, in the 
cause of the crown. Faithfulness to duty is never a crime ; 
and if he sacrificed his home, his fortune, and his country, 
for his principles, he deserves admiration. But all approba- 
tion of his course during the revolutionary struggle must end 
here. The conduct of the Whigs towards him may have 
been harsh, and, in the beginning, too harsh for his offences. 
There may be room to doubt, whether, prior to the arrange- 
ment with General Schuyler, he did more than any zealous 
loyal gentleman would consider he was bound to do, to put 
down the disloyal proceedings in his neighborhood, and at his 
very door. The charges found against him in the documents 
of the day, may, in some particulars, be false, or highly col- 
ored. And, to allow to him all the points of defence which 
can be claimed or urged, it may be conceded, that the Loyal- 
ists had as much at stake as the Whigs, and that the one 
party had the same right to appear in arms as the other. And 
34 



398 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

it may be admitted in his behalf, that though Sir John pledged 
himself to remain neutral upon his parole of honor ; yet, that 
as the friend of existing institutions, he might freely break his 
faith with Rebels. But there still remains unanswered, the 
very grave question, whether, as a civilized man, he was not 
bound to observe the rules of civilized warfare. The Baronet's 
fame, even though the Loyalists' course of reasoning be fol- 
lowed throughout, can never be redeemed from the blight 
which rests upon it. His eldest son, Colonel William Johnson, 
inspecting field officer of the militia of Canada, and Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of His Majesty's twenty-eighth regiment of 
foot, died at Montreal in IS 12, aged thirty-seven. 

Johnson, John. Of Pennsylvania. Went to England, and 
was in London in 1779. 

Johnson, Martin. Of Jamaica, New York. Was a loyal 
Declarator in 1775. 

Johnson, Martin. Of Queen's County, New York. In 
1776 he signed an acknowledgment of allegiance. 

Johnson, Nathaniel. Residence unknown. Died at Sussex, 
King's County, New Brunswick, in 1830, aged eighty-eight 
years. 

Johnson, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton, and a Petitioner to be armed, 
in 1780 ; was banished and lost his estate in 1782. 

Johnson, Samuel. Of Pennsylvania. Resided at York, and 
prior to the Revolution, was Prothonotary and Clerk of the 
duarter Sessions of the County. He was twice married ; his 
second wife was a lady from Maryland. His office of Protho- 
notary was conferred by the Governor, and in 1775 was worth 
£150. 

Johnson, Samuel and William. Of Queen's County, New 
York. In 1780, were in arms on the side of the crown. 

Johnson, Sir William, Baronet. A major-general of the 
militia of New York, Superintendent-general of Indian AlSairs, 
&«. Was born in Ireland, about the year 1714. His uncle, 
Sir Peter Warren, a naval officer of distinguished merit, mar- 
ried a lady of New York, and purchased a considerable tract 






OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 399 

of country in the interior of that Colony, and induced him to 
come to America to take charge of his affairs, when at about the 
age of twenty, Johnson established his residence on the Mo- 
hawk, and applying himself to the study of the Indian charac- 
ter and language, soon acquired an ascendency over the native 
tribes, that has never, probably, been surpassed. His rise in 
affairs was rapid. In 1755 he was placed in command of 
the Colonial forces of New York, destined to operate against the 
French, and for his services was created a Baronet, and received 
a grant of £5000 in money. But his right to rewards so munifi- 
cent has been severely, and perhaps not improperly disputed, 
since his success at the battle of Lake George, which was his 
principal claim to the royal regard, was mainly due to the exer- 
tions and good conduct of the brave General Lyman, of Con- 
necticut, after he was wounded. In 1759, and in 1760, Sir Wil- 
liam's military operations were highly beneficial to the crown 
and he retired at the close of the French war, in much favor. 
He had been able to organize an Indian force of one thousand 
men, a greater number than had ever before been seen in arms 
at one time in the cause of England. Sir William possessed 
talents as an orator, and deeply impressed the Indians with 
his powers ; and his shrewdness in treating and dealing with 
them, is said to have been remarkable. Allen relates, that on 
his receiving from England some finely laced clothes, the 
Mohawk Chief, Hendrick, became possessed with the desire of 
equalling the Baronet in the splendor of his apparel, and with 
a demure face pretended to have dreamed that Sir William 
had presented him with a suit of the decorated garments. As 
the solemn hint could not be mistaken or avoided, the Indian 
monarch was gratified, and went away highly pleased with 
the success of his device. But, alas for Hendrick's short- 
sighted sagacity, for in a few days Sir William, in turn, had a 
dream/ to the effect that the Chief had given him several 
thousand acres of land. " The land is yours," said Hendrick, 
" but now. Sir William, I never dream with you again ; you 
dream too hard for me." 

The Baronet's seat was Johnson Hall, Johnstown, Tryon 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

County, New York, about twenty-four miles from Schenec- 
tady, on the Mohawk river. He died there suddenly, July 11, 
1774, aged sixty years. Owing to his influence, and that of 
his family and connexions, there were more Loyalists, proba- 
bly, in the valley of the Mohawk, the population considered, 
than in any other section of the northern Colonies. 

As the revolutionary troubles progressed, the unhappiness 
of Sir William is represented to have been very great. And 
it is said, that no inconsiderable part of his sorrow arose from 
the contest within his own bosom, between his love of liberty 
and sympathy with the oppressions of the people, on the one 
hand, and the duty which he owed the sovereign whom he 
had long served, and whose rewards had been princely, on the 
other. It has been asserted, even, that his distress of mind 
became insupportable, and that he died by his own hand. 
The tradition is, that on the day of his decease he received de- 
spatches which showed that civil war was inevitable and near; 
while another version is, that these despatches required of him 
the use of his influence with the Indian tribes to secure their 
services to the crown in the event of blows. That the em- 
ployments, and news, of the last day of his life, deeply excited 
him, there is sufficient proof; but, as his system was predis- 
posed to apoplexy, and as he was seized with a fit and lin- 
gered some hours, it is very uncertain whether he committed 
suicide. Some weight, however, appears to have been given 
to his declaration in the spring of 1774, and soon after his 
return from England, in substance, that he " should never live 
to see the Colonies and the mother country in a state of open 
war." That this declaration was made with a view to self- 
destruction, is possible, yet a man who had so much at stake, 
was far more likely to have spoken it as expressive of his 
strong hope of the final accommodation of the difficulties 
which existed. 

Sir William was uncommonly tall and well made. His 
countenance was fine, but melancholy ; and he possessed a 
remarkable command of it, under the most exciting circum- 
stances. Johnson Hall is still (1842) standing, and is 



or AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 401 

occupied by Mr. Wells. In Sir William's time it was sur- 
rounded by a stone breast-work. The hall itself is of wood, 
but the wings are of stone. The two daughters of Sir William 
Johnson were educated almost in solitude, and in the following 
singular manner. Their mother died when they were young, 
and bequeathed them to the care of a friend, who was the 
widow of an officer killed in battle. She retired from the 
world, and devoted herself to her fair pupils ; to whom she 
taught the nicest and most ingenious kinds of needle-work, 
and reading and writing. In the morning, the two girls rose 
early, read their Bible, fed their birds, tended their flowers, 
and breakfasted. Later in the day, they employed themselves 
with their needles, and in reading. After dinner, in summer, 
they regularly took a long walk, and in the winter they rode 
a distance upon a sledge. Thus uniformly passed their lives, 
year after year ; and at the age of sixteen, they had read no 
books except the Scriptures, their prayer-book, some romances, 
and Rollin's Ancient History ; nor had they ever seen a lady, 
except their mother and her friend. Their dress was quite as 
uniform as their habits of life. And though they continually 
made articles of ornament, according to the fashion of the day, 
they wore none of them, but summer and winter, and without 
the least change, appeared in wrappers of the finest chintz, 
and green-silk petticoats. Their hair, which was long and 
beautiful, they tied behind with a simple riband. In summer, 
they covered their heads with a large calash ; in winter, long 
scarlet mantles completely enveloped their persons. Sir 
William did not live with them, but visited their apartment 
daily. One married Colonel Guy Johnson, the other Colonel 
Daniel Claus. Their manners soon became polished, they 
soon acquired the habits of society, and made excellent wives. 

Johnson, Uzael. Of New Jersey. Was surgeon of the First 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Johnson, . Of Georgia. A stanch government man ; 

held a military commission in the royal service. 

Johnston, Alexander and John. Of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. Were Addressers of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 
34* 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Johnston, Charles. Of South Carolina. Was a Congratu- 
lator of Lord Cornwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. 
Banished and estate confiscated in 1782. 

Johnston, or Johnstone, John. Of Jamaica, New York. 
Was a loyal Declarator in 1775. In 1782, the surgeon of 
De Lancey's Second Battalion was John Johnston. 

Johnston, Lewis. Residence unknown. Was banished and 
attainted, and his estate confiscated. In 1794 he represented 
to the British government, by his attorney, John Irvine, 
Esquire, that, at the time of his banishment, several large 
debts were due to him in America, which he had not been able 
to recover. It appears to have been conceded that the confis- 
cation acts did not embrace sums of money owing to proscribed 
Loyalists, though many of them found great difficulty in en- 
forcing payment. 

Johnston, Thomas and John. Residence unknown. Thomas 
died at Frederickton, New Brunswick, in 1799 ; and John, in 
the county of Westmoreland, New Brunswick, in 1803. 

Johnston, William. Of Georgia. Was an ensign in the 
Georgia Loyalists, and adjutant of the corps. 

Johnston, William M. and Alexander. Residence unknown. 
William M. was a captain, and Alexander a lieutenant, in the%, 
New York Volunteers. 

Johonnet, Peter. Distiller, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Gage in 1775; was proscribed and banished in 1778. He 
went to Halifax in 1776, thence to England, and was a Loy- 
alist Addresser of the king in 1779. He died at London in 
1809. 

Joice, Isaac. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

Jones, Caleb. He served under the crown, and in 1782 was 
a captain in the Maryland Loyalists. He went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
He received half-pay. Elisabeth, his wife, died at St. John in 
1812, aged sixty-eight. 

Jones, Isaac. Of Weston, Massachusetts. Innholder and 
trader. In January, 1775^ the Whig Convention of Worcester 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 403 

County denounced him in the following terms. "Resolved, 
That it be earnestly recommended to all the inhabitants of 
this County, not to have any commercial connections with 
Isaac Jones, but to shun his house and person, and to treat 
him with the contempt he deserves ; and should any persons 
in this County be so lost to a sense of their duty, after this 
recommendation, as to have any commercial connections with 
the said Tories, we do advise the inhabitants of this County 
to treat such persons with the utmost neglect." He died at 
Weston in 1813, at the age of eighty-five. 

Jones, Josiah. Physician, of Weston, Massachusetts. He 
joined the British army at Boston soon after the battle of Lex- 
ington in 1775, and was sent by General Gage, in the sloop 
PoUy, to Nova Scotia, to procure hay and other articles for the 
use of the troops. On the passage he was made prisoner, and 
sent by the Committee of Arundel, Maine, to the Provincial 
Congress ; and after due investigation of his case by a com- 
mittee of that body, he was committed to jail at Concord. 
Obtaining release after some months imprisonment, he again 
joined the royal forces, and received an appointment in the 
commissary department. In 1762 he went to Annapolis, 
Nova Scotia, where he settled. He made a voyage to Eng- 
land to obtain half-pay, and was successful. He was senior 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for the County of An- 
napolis many years. He died in 1825 at Annapolis, aged 
eighty; and Margaret Jude, his widow, died at Digby, Nova 
Scotia, in 1828, at the age of eighty-four. Four children sur- 
vived him, namely, Stephen, who resides in Canada ; Charlotte, 
the wife of Doctor Thomas White, of Westport, Nova Scotia ; 
Charles, a merchant of Halifax ; and Edward, a merchant of 
Westport. His property in Massachusetts was confiscated. 
Doctor Jones was a man of good powers, and of a cultivated 
mind. His family retain the impression that he was educated 
at Harvard University, but his name does not appear on the 
catalogue of graduates. 

Jones, Samuel. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 



404 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Jones, Simeon. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the King's 
American Dragoons. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and received the grant of a city lot in 1784. He 
removed to Nova Scotia, and died at Weymouth in 1823, at 
the age of seventy-two. He received half-pay. A Loyalist 
of this name, who was Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas 
of the County of Cheshire, was proscribed and banished in 
New Hampshire, in 1778. 

Jones, Stephen. He accepted a commission under the 
crown, and was an officer in the King's American Dragoons. 
He settled in Nova Scotia at the close of the contest, and at 
his decease, was the oldest magistrate of the County of An- 
napolis. His father was Colonel Elisha Jones, and he was 
the last survivor of fourteen sons. He died at Weymouth in 
1830, aged seventy-six. 

Jones, Thomas. Of New York. By his marriage of a 
daughter of Lieutenant Governor James De Lancey, and a 
sister of the wife of the celebrated Sir William Draper, he 
became connected also with the families of Sir Peter Warren 
of the British navy, and of Sir William Johnson of New 
York. At the Revolutionary era, he was a Judge of the 
Supreme Court, and in consequence of his adherence to the 
royal cause, lost his estate under the confiscation act. In 
1779, in retaliation for the capture of General Silliman by 
Glover and others, a party of Whigs determined to seize upon 
Judge Jones at his seat on Long Island. Twenty-five volun- 
teered for the purpose under command of Captain Daniel 
Hawley, of Newfield (now Bridgeport), Connecticut. Hawley 
and his associates crossed the Sound on the night of Novem- 
ber 4th, and reached Judge Jones's house — a distance of fifty- 
two miles — on the evening of the 6th. There was a ball, 
and the music and dancing prevented an alarm. The Judge 
was standing in his entry when the assailants opened the 
door, and was taken prisoner and borne off. A party of royal 
soldiers was near, and Jones in passing, hemmed very loud to 
attract their attention. Hawley told him not to repeat the 
sound, but he disobeyed, and was threatened with death, 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 405 

unless he desisted from further endeavors to induce the sol- 
diers to come to his rescue. Though six of the Whigs were 
captured by a troop of horse, the remainder of the party car- 
ried their prisoner safely to Connecticut. The lady of General 
Silliman invited the Judge to breakfast, and he not only 
accepted of her hospitality for the morning, but continued her 
guest for several days. But he remained gloomy, distant, and 
reserved. In May, 1780, the object of his seizure was accom- 
plished ; the British commander having, at that time, con- 
sented to give up General Silliman and his son, in exchange 
for the Judge and a Mr. Hewlett, — the Whigs, however, 
throwing in as a sort of make-weight, one Washburn, a Tory 
of infamous character. Judge Jones retired to England, and 
there passed the remainder of his life, and, as it is believed, in 
retirement. 

Jones. Loyalists of this name were numerous ; in addition 
to the above, some were as follows : — 

Jones. David, tavern-keeper and constable, of Philadel- 
phia ; Jesse, of Bensalem, County of Bucks ; Jonathan, and 
Edward, of Hilston, were severally ordered, in 1778, to sur- 
render themselves for trial, or stand attainted of treason. 
Abel, of Pennsylvania, was tried in 1778 for supplying the 
royal forces with money, for trading with them, and for buy- 
ing and passing counterfeit and continental money. He was 
found guilty, and sentenced to receive one hundred lashes on 
his bare back, to be sent to some public place in Pennsylvania, 
and to be kept at hard labor during the war. 

JoNEs, David. Of Connecticut. Suffered much at the hands 
of the Sons of Liberty, in 1775 ; and the Reverend Doctor Peters 
of Hebron, in a letter to his mother, recommended that he 
" should draught a narrative of his woes," to be sent to him 
at Boston. This, as I suppose, was the David Jones who 
entered the royal service, and was a captain. If so, he was 
to have married the beautiful Jane McCrea, whose cruel death 
in 1777, by the Indians whom he sent to convey her to the 
British camp, is universally known and lamented. Captain 
Jones survived her but a few years, and is supposed to have 
died of grief for her loss. 



406 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Jones, Elisha. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Was committed 
to the jail at Northampton in 1775, on the charge of holding 
improper communications with General Gage at Boston ; and 
in 1778 was proscribed and banished. Ephraim and Jonas, 
of East Hoosuck, were also included in the banishment act. 

Jones, Joseph. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Jones, Owen, Junior. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was 
apprehended and ordered to Virginia, as a prisoner of the 
Whigs. In 1775, a person who was styled Owen Jones, 
Esquire, was Provincial Treasurer, with a salary of £300.- 

JoNEs, . Of Ridgefield, Connecticut. Was executed by 

General Putnam in 1779, at a place called Gallows Hill. The 
scene is described as shocking. " The man on whom the duty 
of hangman devolved left the camp, and on the day of execu- 
tion could not be found. A couple of boys, about the age of 
twelve years, were ordered by General Putnam to perform the 
duties of the absconding hangman. The gallows was about 
twenty feet from the ground. Jones was compelled to ascend 
the ladder, and the rope around his neck was attached to the 
cross beam. General Putnam then ordered Jones to jump from 
the ladder. ' No, General Putnam,' said Jones, ' I am inno- 
cent of the crime laid to my charge ; I shall not do it.' Put- 
nam then ordered the boys before mentioned to turn the ladder 
over. These boys were deeply affected with the trying scene ; 
they cried and sobbed loudly, and earnestly entreated to be 
excused from doing anything on this distressing occasion. 
Putnam, drawing his sword, ordered them forward, and com- 
pelled them at the sword's point to obey his orders." 

Jones. Seven in Queen's County, New York, acknowledged 
allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : Nicholas, Peter, Samuel, 
William, David, John, and Walter. Nicholas Jones had sign- 
ed a Declaration of loyalty the year before. 

Jones. Residence unknown. A Captain Jones commanded 
a small Tory Privateer, and was a man of violence and cruelty. 
Laurence Jones was an ensign in the New York Volunteers ; 
and William, a lieutenant in the King's Rangers, Carolina. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 407 

Samuel, a lieutenant in the king's service, (and probably of 
Westchester County, New York) ; and Naaham, were grantees 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783 ; and last, Edward Jones, 
who settled in New Brunswick at the peace, died at Spoon 
Island in that Colony, 1831, aged eighty-eight. 

Jordan, John, Francis, and James. Removed to New 
Brunswick in 1783. John and Francis were grantees of St. 
John. James died in that city in 1846, aged eighty-five 
years. 

JosTLiN, Andrew. Of Rhode Island. Arrived at St, John, 
New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 1783. 

JouETTE or Jewett, Zenophon. Of New Jersey. In 1782 
he was an ensign in the First Battalion of New Jersey Volun- 
teers. He settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. 
In 1792 he held the office of sheriff of York County. He 
relinquished the post during the war of 1812, and was at- 
tached to a regiment raised in that Colony. He was gentle- 
man usher of the black rod to the Council many years. He 
died at St. John in 1843. 

Joy, John. House- wright, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. . In 1776 he went 
to Halifax, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. In 
1779 he was in England. 

JuDD. Samuel Judd, and his son Samuel ; Jonathan Judd, 
and William Judd, of Fairfield County, Connecticut. Mem- 
bers of the Reading Association. 

JuDsoN, Chapman. Went to- St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was grantee of a city lot. He received an 
appointment in the ordnance department. He died at St. 
John in 1817, at the age of sixty-six. * 

JuDsoN, Joseph. Of Delaware. Was proscribed by statute 
in 1778. 

JuLiN, G. Of South Carolina. Estate confiscated. 

Kane, Barnard. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association at Reading. He entered the ser- 
vice of the crown, and was a captain in the New York Vol- 
unteers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES •JiJ^^n^ f 

Kane, John. Of New York. His property was confiscated. 

Kean, William. Of Pennsylvania. He was adjutant of the 
Pennsylvania Loyalists, and settled in New Brunswick after 
the corps was disbanded. Ann, his widow, died at St. John 
in 1820, aged sixty-four. 

Kearney, Francis. In 1782 he was major of the Pennsyl- 
vania Loyalists under Allen. 

Kearney, Michael. In 1782 he was searcher in the Super- 
intendent Department, established at New York in 1777 by 
Sir William Howe. 

Keaesley, Doctor . Of Philadelphia. A man of ardent 

feelings ; his zealous attachment to the royal cause, and his 
impetuous temper, made him obnoxious to those whose acts 
he opposed. He was seized at his own house, tarred and 
feathered, and carted through the streets to the tune of the 
Rogue's March. 

Keech, Robert. Of New York. Died in Dorchester, New 
Brunswick, in 1842, at the age of eighty-three. 

Keed, Isaac Of Westchester County, New York. A Pro- 
tester at White Plains. 

Keefe, Daniel. At the peace he was grantee of the city of 
St. John, New Brimswick. 

Kellock, Alexander. In 1782 he was surgeon of the 
Queen's Rangers. 

Kellogg, Ezra. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. A mem- 
ber of the Association at Reading. 

Kelly. Waldron Kelly was a captain in the Royal Garri- 
son Battalion. John Kelley died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1827, at the age of eighty-one. William Kelly died at the 
same place the previous year, aged seventy-four. John was 
blind for sixteen years. 

Kempe, John Tabor. Of New York. He was Attorney- 
general of the Colony, and considered to be in oiRce in 1782. 
His property was confiscated. The wife of Francis Lewis, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, having fallen into 
the hands of the enemy, and the wife of Mr. Kempe having 
become a prisoner of the Whigs, an exchange was effected 
towards the close of 1776. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 409 

Kenan, Felix. Of North Carolina. A man of whom it 
was pithily said — "he had not the independence to be a Tory, 
or the honesty to be a Whig." Thousands, in different parts 
of the country, were as like him as possible. 

Kendele, Anthony. In 1782 he was an officer in the Super- 
intendent Department established at New York. 

Kendrick, Thomas. He died on the Island of Campo Bello. 
New Brunswick, in 1821, aged seventy-two. 

Kenen, L. a captain of cavalry in the South Carolina 
Royalists. 

Kennard, Joseph. Of Plumstead, Pennsylvania, Ordered 
in 1778 in Council, that he surrender and be tried for treason, 
or that he stand attainted. 

Kennedy, Dennis. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains, April, 1775. A Ca|)tain Kennedy 
and wife, of New York, went to England, and were there in 
1785. 

Kennedy, Patrick. Accepted a commission under the 
crown, and in 1782 was a captain in the Maryland Loyalists. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
a grantee of that city. He received half-pay. 

Kennedy, William. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1814, aged fifty-one. 

Kenney, William. At the peace he was a grantee of the 
city of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Kennison, Jude. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

Kent, Benjamin. Of Massachusetts. Graduated at Harvard 
University in 1727. He was minister at Marlborough for a 
short time ; but entered upon the profession of the law, and 
established himself at Boston. He was a Whig, it appears, 
for awhile, and his name is to be found among those of Sam- 
uel Adams, Cushing, Warren, Hancock, and other prominent 
leaders of the patriot band. A Refugee ; he died at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, in 1788, at an advanced age. He was eccentric, 
and a wit. His conduct as a clergyman is said to have been 
35 



f 



^HO 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



unclerical and humorous. Elisabeth, his widow, died at HaH- 
fax in 1802. 

Kent, Stephen. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, was a grantee of that city, and died there in 1828, aged 
eighty. 

Kerr, GeoRGE. In 1782 he was a captain in De Lancey's 
First Battahon. 

Kerr, James. He accepted a commission under the crown, 
and was a captain in the Queen's Rangers. The corps was 
disbanded at the close of the war, when he retired on half- 
pay. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a 
grantee of that city ; but removed to King's County, Nova 
Scotia, where he settled, and was a colonel in the militia. 
Colonel Kerr died at Amherst, Nova Scotia, in 1830, at the age 
of seventy-six.' Eliza, his widow, died at Cornwall is. Nova 
Scotia, 1840, aged seventy-four. Three sons and a daughter 
preceded him, but twelve children survived him. 

Kerr, John. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate was 
amerced twelve per cent. 

Ketcham, Isaac. Of New York. Died in King's County, 
New Brunswick, in 1820, aged sixty-four. His widow died 
in 1821, at the age of fifty-four. 

Key, Philip Barton. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
Maryland Loyalists. 

King, Edward. A Sandemanian, of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs. 
Embarked for Halifax with the king's army in 1776. Samuel, 
also of Boston, accompanied him, and died at Halifax in 1822, 
at the age of seventy-one. 

King, Joseph. Of Path Valley, Pennsylvania. Was or- 
dered by the Executive Council to surrender himself for trial, 
or stand attainted. 

King, Colonel Richard. Of South Carolina. Held an office 
under the crown after the fall of Charleston, but died before 
the peace. His estate in the possession of his heirs was con- 
fiscated. 

King. Residence unknown. James, in 1782, was a captain"^ 



i 



% 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 411 

in the Second American Regiment. Daniel settled in St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, but removed from that city in 1803. 
William, clerk in the royal engineer department, died at Fred- 
ericton, New Brunswick, in 1804. And John died at the 
same place, 1814, aged forty-five. 

KiNGSBY, Zeph. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; also a Petitioner to be 
armed on the side of the crown. He was banished in 1782, 
and his property confiscated. 

KiNLocK, Cleland. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Kipp, Samuel. Of New York. A captain in De Lancey's 
Loyal Refugee Cavalry. In charging a body of Whigs, in 
1781, he was wounded by a bayonet, and his horse was killed. 

Kipp, Thomas. Of Queen's County, New York. Acknow- 
ledged allegiance October, 1776. 

KiRBY, Daniel and Thomas. Of Queen's County, New 
York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 

Kirkham, Hugh. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

KiRKLAND, MosEs. Of South Carolina. A man " whose 
vanity and ambition had not been sufficiently gratified by his 
countrymen." Early in the contest he was employed by Stu- 
art, the Indian Agent of the British authorities with the Chero- 
kees and Creeks, to concert measures with General Gage for 
an attack on the Southern States. The plan appears to have 
been, for the royal forces to operate by sea, and the savages by 
land. Kirkland was captured on his voyage to Boston, his 
papers were seized, and the plot fully discovered. After the 
surrender of Charleston, in 1780, he held a royal commission. 
In 1782 his estate was confiscated. Kirkland, at the outset, 
was considered to be a Whig, and his disaffection is said to 
have arisen from his being " overlooked by the Provincial 
Congress in the military appointments." He changed sides in 
the affair with the Cunninghams, July, 1775. At the time of 
his desertion he commanded a troop of Rangers, who followed 
him to a man, and by his influence others in the Whig service 



412 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

joined the royal party. A short time before his defection, 
Kirkland was placed upon an important standing committee 
raised by the Provincial Congress to act throughout the Colony. 

KissAM. Five persons of this name, of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit: 
Joseph, John, Daniel the 3d, D. W., and Daniel. In 1780, 
Daniel Kissam, Esquire, of that County, was an Addresser of 
Lieutenant Colonel Sterling. The same year, Major Kissam 
was an Addresser of Governor Robertson. In 1781, the Major 
and his younger brother, Benjamin T. Kissam, were made 
prisoners at the house of Justice Kissam, North Hempstead, 
by a party of Whigs. Daniel Kissam was a member of the 
Committee of Correspondence in 1774, and of the House of 
Assembly in 1775 ; and one of the fourteen who in the latter 
year addressed General Gage at Boston, on the subject of the 
unhappy contest. In 1779, the property of Daniel Kissam 
the elder was confiscated. 

Kitchen, Thomas. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783. In 
1799 he was murdered. 

Kitching, James. Of Georgia. Was in England in 1779. 

Knap. Moses Knap, of Fairfield County, Connecticut ; and 
Andrew, Jonathan, and David, of Reading ; were members of 
the Reading Association. 

Knap, Lieutenant Daniel. Of Westchester County, New 
York. A Protester at White Plains. 

Kneffin, James. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

Knight, Samuel. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Knight, Thomas. Shop-keeper, of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Knowles, Israel. Of Sandwich, Massachusetts. He was 
imprisoned for his ofiences, real or alleged, in February, 1778. 

Knowles, S. Of Rhode Island. His estate was confiscated 
previous to the peace, and by the act of October, 1783, he was 
banished from the State, on pain of death if he returned. 

Knox, T. A petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia, July, 1783. 
See Ahiiah WiUard. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 413 

Knox, William. Of Georgia. Went to England. A fter the 
death of Sir James Wright, he was joint agent with Graham, 
of the Georgia LoyaUsts, for prosecuting their claims to com- 
pensation for losses. He was in London in 1788. 

Knox, William. In 1782 he was Secretary of New York. 

Knutting, Joseph. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Knutton, John. Tallow-chandler, of Boston. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. John Knutton, a Loyalist, died 
at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1827, aged eighty-five ; and 
his widow Margaret at the same place, in 1829, at the age of 
seventy-two. They settled there in 1783, and he was a 
grantee of the city. 

Knutton, William. Of Boston. A Protester in 1774. In 
1783 he was at St. John, New Brunswick, and received a 
grant of land in that city. 

KoLLocK, Simon. He entered the king's service, and in 1782 
was a captain in the Loyal American Regiment. He settled 
in Nova Scotia. His wife, Ann Catharine, died in 1845, at 
the advanced age of ninety-seven. Simon Kollock, Junior, of 
Sussex County, Delaware, was proscribed under the act of 
1778 ; perhaps the same. 

Lacy, Stephen. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

Laensberry, Lieutenant W. Of Westchester County, New 
York. He was one of the Protesters at White Plains, April, 
1775, against Whig Congresses and Committees. 

Laffen, Michael. A lieutenant in De Lancey's Third Bat- 
talion. 

LA.FFERTY, Bryan. Clcrk of the Court of Quarter Sessions, 
Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New York. In 1775 he 
signed a loyal Declaration and expressed his abhorrence of the 
conduct of the Whigs. 

Lamb, Walter. Of North Carolina. In December, 1775, 
he was brought before the Council by a zealous Whig, who 
prayed that he might receive condign punishment. But the 
35* 



tit 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



judgment of the Council was, that the Whig should keep 
Lamb, and produce him for trial before the Committee of 
Safety for the District of Halifax. 

Lambden, Thomas. Of Worcester County, Maryland. The 
Committee of that County published him as an enemy to his 
country, June, 1775. It appears that he was Crier of the 
Court. The proof against him was, that he had declared, 
" all those who took up arms, or exercised agreeably to the 
Resolves of the Provincial Convention at Annapolis, were 
rebels," and that, in conversation relative to a quantity of salt 
which the Committee at Baltimore had thrown into the water, 

he had said, "the Committee were a parcel of d d rascals, 

and would not be easy until some of them were hanged up." 

Lambekson, or Lambertson. Of the Lambersons of Jamaica, 
New York, John and his son John, Tennis, Waters, Cornelius, 
Matthias, and Nicholas junior, signed a Declaration of loyalty 
in 1775. In October, 1775, Waters, David, Simon, and John, 
all of Queen's County, signed an acknowledgment of allegiance 
addressed to Lord Richard and General William Howe. John 
Lamberson was appointed a trustee, in 1777, to provide neces- 
saries for the use of the hospital and guard house at Jamaica, 
New York. 

Lambert, George. Was a lieutenant in the Third Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Lambert, Peter. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Lambton, Richard. Deputy auditor general, of South Caro- 
lina. His estate was confiscated. 

Lancaster, John. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. He went to England, and was in London 
in July of that year. 

Lance, Lambert. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Lane, Ephraim. Of Fairfield, Connecticut. He arrived at 
St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in the spring of 
1783. 

Largin, Michael. Was a lieutenant of cavalry in the Brit- 
ish Legion, and adjutant of the corps. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 415 

Lasky, Robert, Senior. Died in King's County, New 
Brunswick, 1803, aged sixty-eight. 

Latham, Joseph and Samuel Of Queen's County, New 
York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 

Latteu, Garret. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of a 
Declaration in 1775. 

Latuff, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Laucks, Adam. A magistrate of Tryon, now Montgomery, 
County, New York. In 1775 he signed a Declaration of loyal 
attachment to the crown, and expressed his abhorrence of 
Whig proceedings. 

Laughton, Henry. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774. He went to Halifax in 1776, and was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Lawe, Robert. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
Rangers, Carolina. 

Lawler, William Digby. In 1782 he was adjutant of the 
Queen's Rangers. 

Lawless, John. Of Massachusetts. Went to England. In 
1779 he was a Loyalist Addresser of the king. 

Lawrence, John. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the First 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He went to Upper Can- 
ada, and died there about the year 1820. 

Lawrence. The following, of Queen's County, New York, 
signed a Representation and Petition to Lord Richard and 
General William Howe, acknowledging allegiance, October, 
1776, namely : — Abraham, Leonard, John, Silas, William 
junior, Caleb, Stephen, Somerset, Robert, Jordan, Joseph, 
Stephen junior, Daniel, Isaac, Thomas, Clarke, Joseph, Ja- 
cobus, Obadiah, Abraham. In April, 1779, Joseph and 
Thomas Lawrence were Addressers of Lieutenant Colonel 
Sterling, of the Forty-Second Regiment. A Colonel Law- 
rence commanded a corps of Loyalists ; and in 1777 was sur- 
prised at his own house, on Staten Island, and with several 
officers, and about eighty privates, captured, and carried to 
New Jersey. At this time he had just completed embodying 



416 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

a force. There was also a Captain Lawrence of New York, 
who commanded a party of marauders. Richard Lawrence, 
•who was born on Staten Island, settled in New Brunswick in 
1783, and died at St. John, 1846, after a long and severe ill- 
ness, at the age of eighty-two. 

Lawson, Lawrence. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Lawton, Isaac Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. He died 
there, 1810, aged eighty. 

Lawton, John. Of Philadelphia. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and died at St. John in 1846, aged eighty-nine, 
leaving a large circle of relatives and friends. 

Lawton, Thomas. Of Rhode Island. Was a grantee of St. 
John, New Brunswick, and died there in 1803. 

Lawton, William. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Layne, John. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of the 
Association. 

Layton, James. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Layton, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Lazarus, Samuel. Embarked at Boston with the British 
army, for Halifax, in 1776. 

Leake, Robert. Of New York. His property was confis- 
cated. 

Leavens, Joseph. He was an early settler of Canada, an 
emigrant from New York, and, as I suppose, a Loyalist. He 
was long a preacher of the Society of Friends, and was highly 
beloved. He died at Hallowell, Canada West, May, 1844, 
aged ninety-two. 

Lechmere,- Richard. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774 ; was appointed Mandamus Councillor, but did 
not qualify ; was proscribed and banished in 1778, and in- 
cludcsd in the conspiracy act of 1779. He went to Halifax in 
1776, and thence to England. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 417 

Leddle, Henry. Book-keeper, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774. He went to Halifax in 1776, and was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Lee, Joseph. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Judge of 
Common Pleas for the County of Middlesex, and Mandamus 
Councillor ; died at Cambridge, December, 1802, at the age of 
ninety-three years. Though a Loyalist, he was not warm in 
his pohtical sentiments, and escaped particular notice from the 
Sons of Liberty. Of the thirty-six gentlemen appointed to the 
Council, by mandamus, only ten were sworn in; of whom 
Mr. Lee was one ; but he found it prudent to resign the office. 
He was a graduate of Harvard University, and a member of 
the class of 1729. 

liEE, Joseph and John. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. 
Were Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774. Henry, of Boston, 
was a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 

Lee, Enos, John, William, Nathaniel, and Silas. Of Fair- 
field County, Connecticut. Were members of the Reading 
Association. 

Lee, Joseph and George. Of New Jersey. Joseph was a 
captain, and George an ensign, in the Second Battalion of New 
Jersey Volunteers. 

Lee, Nehemiah. Residence unknown. Died at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1804. Joseph Lee, a Loyalist, and pro- 
bably from New Jersey, was a magistrate. County of York, 
New Brunswick, in 1792. 

Lee, Richard. Of Maryland. Went to England. He was 
in London, July, 1779. 

Lee, Samuel. He entered the military service, and was an 
officer. After the Revolution he retired to New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and filled several public stations. He died 
at or near Fredericton. Sarah, his widow, died at Roxbury, 
Massachusetts, in 1831. 

Leesh, George. Of Boston. A Protester against the Whigs 
in 1774. 

Lefferts, Joseph and Isaac. Of Queen's County, New 
York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 



418 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Legge, Benjamin. Of South Carolina. Held an office un- 
der the crown after the fall of Charleston. He was banished, 
and lost his estate under the confiscation act. 

Legge, Edward, Junior. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Was an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton. Was banished, and 
lost his estate under the confiscation act. 

Legge, Edward, Senior, Of South Carolina. Was fined 
twelve per cent, of the value of his property in 1782. 

Leggett, John. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

Leggett, John. Of North Carolina. In 1779 his property 
was confiscated. In 1782 he was a captain in the North Car- 
olina Volunteers. 

Leigh, Sir Egerton, Baronet. Of South Carolina. He 
was Attorney-general, Surveyor-general, and a member of 
the Council of that Colony. Before the Revolution, he was 
created a baronet. His father was a Chief Justice of South 
Carolina. His second wife was the daughter of Henry Lau- 
rens, a distinguished Whig, who was President of Congress, 
commissioner to Holland, and a commissioner with Franklin, 
Adams, and Jay, for negotiating a peace at Paris. 

Lenthwait, William. One of the grantees of St. John, New 
Brunswick, 1783. 

Leonard, Daniel. Of Taunton, Massachusetts. Gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1760, and died in London, June, 
1829, aged eighty-nine years. He was bred to the law. He 
became a member of the General Court, and a political writer 
of merit. In 1774 he was one of the barristers and attornies 
who were Addressers of Hutchinson, and the same year was 
appointed a Mandamus Councillor, but was not sworn into 
office. Bullets were fired into his house by a mob, and he 
took refuge in Boston. In 1776 he accompanied the British 
army to Halifax. He was included in the banishment act of 
1778, and in the conspiracy act of 3 779. After leaving America, 
he was Chief Justice of the Bermudas. A series of papers 
signed " Massachusettensis," which John Adams, as " Novan- 
glus," answered, were for a long time attributed to Jonathan 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 419 

Sewall. but it is now well ascertained that they were written 
by Mr. Leonard. " Massachusettensis " bear dates between 
December, 1774, and April, 1775 ; " Novanglus," between 
January and April, 1775. Both were reprinted in 1819, with 
a preface by Mr. Adams, and some other letters. 

Leonard, George. Of Massachusetts. He settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and was much employed in public affairs. 
The year of his arrival, he was appointed one of the agents of 
government to locate lands granted to Loyalists, and was soon 
after made a member of the Council of the Colony, and com- 
missioned as a colonel in the militia. He died at Sussex Vale 
in 1826, at an old age. Sarah, his consort, preceded him a 
year, aged eighty-one. His daughter Caroline married R. 
M. Jarvis, Esquire, in 1805 ; and his daughter Maria married 
Lieutenant Gustavus R. H. M. Rochfort, of the Royal Navy, 
in 1814. His son. Colonel Richard Leonard, of the 104th 
Regiment of the British Army, and sheriff of the District of 
Niagara, died at Lundly's Lane, Upper Canada, in 1833. 

Leonard, George, Junior. Son of George Leonard. He 
was a grantee of the city of St. John, New Brunswick, and 
removed there with his father in 1783. He was bred to the 
law, and devoted himself to his profession. He died at Sus- 
sex Vale in 1818. 

Leonard, George. A miller, of Boston. "Was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to 
Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Leonard, George. Of New York. He entered the royal 
army, and was a sergeant. He emigrated to New Brunswick 
at the peace, and died at Deer Island in that Colony in 1829, 
aged seventy-two. His descendants are numerous. 

Leonard, Jeremiah. Of Massachusetts. Was a member of 
the General Court in 1773, and was one of the four who voted 
against the resolves of Mr. Adams, which declared that an 
union of the Colonies was necessary to resist the systematic 
attempts of the ministry to invade their rights and liberties. 

Leonard, Samuel. Was a captain in the First Battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers ; and John Leonard was an ensign in 
the Second Battalion of the same corps. 



420 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Leonard, Thomas. Of Freehold, Monmouth County, New 
Jersey. In April, 1775, the Whig Committee of Inspection 
averred, that " every friend to true freedom ought immediately 
to break off all connexion and dealings with him, and treat him 
as a foe to the rights of America." He settled in St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and was a grantee of the city. 

Lessence, Isaac. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Leverich. In 1776, John and W. professed loyalty and 
allegiance. In 1779, John and Samuel were Addressers of 
Lieutenant Colonel Sterling. All of Queen's County, New 
York. 

Lewis, Captain . He commanded a band of Loyalists. 

Towards the close of the war, he and Colonel Peter Horry, of 
Marion's corps, met in deadly conflict. Lewis was armed 
with a musket, while the Whig officer's only weapon was a 
small sword. When in the act of firing at Horry, Lewis was 
shot from the woods by a boy of the name of Gwin, and fell 
dead from his horse. 

Lewis, Curtis. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. His 
estate was confiscated in 1779. 

Lewis, John. An officer of the Customs, at Boston. Em- 
barked with the royal army for Halifax in 1776. 

Lewis, Thomas. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Lewis, Waitstill. Residence unknown. Died at Yarmouth, 
Nova Scotia, in 1838, aged eighty-three. 

Lewis, William. Residence unknown. Was a grantee of 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

Leydick, Godfrey. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. In 
1792 he was sergeant at arms of the House of Assembly. 

Leydicker, Samuel. One of the grantees of St. John, New 
Brunswick, 1783. 

Liber, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Addresser j 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

LiGHTFooT, Richard. One of the grantees of St. John, Ne^ 
Brunswick, 1783. He became a merchant. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 421 

Lightly, William. Probably an inhabitant of Connecticut. 
In 1775 he was employed by Joshua Winslow, Esquire, a dis- 
tinguished Loyalist of Boston, to proceed in the Brigantine 
Nancy from Stonington to New York, — and thence, as was 
supposed, to Boston, — with a cargo of molasses. The Pro- 
vincial Congress of Massachusetts addressed Governor Trum- 
bull of Connecticut on the subject, and suggested the propriety 
of detaining both vessel and merchandise, " rather than to 
suifer them to fall into the hands of General Gage, when they 
would be improved to the support of our enemies." At this 
time (July 12, 1775) Lightly had been seized, was then in 
custody, and ordered to be committed to jail at Concord, Mas- 
sachusetts. From a letter of Governor Trumbull to Washing- 
ton, at a subsequent period, it appears that the vessel and 
molasses were removed to Norwich, and placed in the care of 
the Committee of Inspection and Correspondence. This inci- 
dent, besides introducing the name of Lightly, will serve to 
show the manner of disposing of the property of Loyalists. 

LiGHTON, John. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, 1822, 
aged seventy. 

LiLLiE, Theophilus. Merchant, of Boston. He was one of 
those denounced as Importers, contrary to the non-importation 
agreement, made by two hundred and eleven merchants and 
traders in 1768, and renewed by the principal part of that 
number in 1 770. On the 22d of February, of the last named 
year, some persons erected near his store a large wooden head, 
fixed on a pole, on which the faces of several Importers were 
carved. One Richardson, who was regarded as an Informer, 
endeavored to persuade some countrymen with teams to run 
the post down, but they, understanding the nature of the 
pageantry, declined. Richardson foolishly attempted to pos- 
sess himself of the teams, when a crowd of boys pelted him, 
and drove him into his house. A multitude gathered, noise, 
angry words, and the throwing of stones followed ; and Rich- 
ardson, finally, discharged one musket from his door, and 
another from his window. Christopher Snider, a boy of eleven, 
received a mortal wound in his breast, and was the first mar- 
36 



422 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



tyr of liberty. He was buried on the 26th ; four or five hun- 
dred schoolboys, in couples, preceding his remains ; six of his 
playfellows supporting his pall ; his relatives, about thirteen 
hundred of the inhabitants, and thirty chariots and chaises, 
following in procession. From this imposing funeral until 
March 5th, Boston was in a state of commotion, and on the 
evening of that day occurred the affray between the people 
and the soldiers, which is known as the Boston Massacre. 
Lillie was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774 ; and went to 
Halifax in 1776, at the evacuation. 

LiNDALL, Henry. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage in 1775. 

LiNDER, John, Senior. Of South Carolina. Estate confis- 
cated. 

LiNDER, John, Junior. Of South Carolina. In commission 
under the crown, after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

LiNDSEY, Charles Stewart. In 1782 he was captain of in- 
fantry in the South Carolina Royalists. 

LiNDSEY, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780; also a Petitioner to be 
armed on the side of the crown. He was banished in 1782, 
and his property confiscated. 

LiNKLETTER, ALEXANDER. Embarked at Boston, with the 
British army, for Halifax in 1776. 

Linn, John. He was a native of Maryland, but emigrated 
to New Jersey about sixty years prior to his death, and died 
at Belvedere in that State, June 28, 1841, aged one hundred 
and eight years. He remembered the boyhood of Washing- 
ton ; but in consequence of his political attachments, was not 
fond of speaking of the events of the Revolution. He was a 
carpenter, and, when a young man, assisted in building a log 
Court House near the site of the city of Washington. 

Lint, or Lent, Jacobus, Abraham, and Daniel. Of Queen's 
County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 
The names of Jacob and Abraham Lent appear on an Address 
to Lieutenant Colonel Sterling of the Forty-second Regiment, 
April, 1779. 






OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 423 

LippiNCOTT, Richard. A captain in the service of the crown. 
He murdered the Whig captain Joshua Huddy, and obtained 
an infamous and general notoriety for the deed, both in Amer- 
ica and Europe. In March, 1782, the Whigs had made a 
Tory prisoner, of the name of Phihp White, and while con- 
veying him to camp, he attempted to escape ; though warned 
to stop, he continued to run, until he was cut down. Soon 
after, Lippincott was sent by the Board of Loyalists at New 
York to Middleton-point, or Sandy Hook, with Huddy and 
two other prisoners, where he was directed to exchange them. 
On his return, he reported that he had exchanged the two as 
he was ordered, and that " Huddy had been exchanged for 
Philip White; " when in fact he had hung Huddy in retalia- 
tion, and of his own authority, on a tree on the Jersey shore. 
W^ashington immediately demanded of Sir Henry Clinton that 
Lippincott should be surrendered, but the Board of Loyalists 
interposed, and the demand was refused. Washington then 
determined to retaliate on a prisoner in his possession, and se- 
lected by lot, captain Asgill, of the guards, the heir and hope 
of an ancient family of England, and fixed the time for his 
execution. Asgill's mother, on learning the condition of her 
son, implored Vergennes, the French minister, to interfere to 
save him. Her pathetic appeal was published, and excited 
sympathy throughout England and France. The unfortunate 
youth was finally released by order of Congress, and lived to 
become Sir Charles Asgill, and a general in the British army ; 
he died in 1823, aged seventy. The fate of Lippincott is un- 
known; but after Washington had failed in his application to 
Clinton, Captain Hyler, a famed partisan leader in nautical 
adventures, projected an enterprise to capture him. On inquiry, 
Hyler ascertained that Lippincott resided in a well-known 
house in Broad Street, New York, and in disguise, proceeded 
to the city in the night, and leaving his boat at Whitehall in 
charge of his men, went directly to the miscreant's abode, but 
he was absent, "and gone to a cock-pit." Hyler, not to be 
foiled entirely, went on board of a sloop at anchor off the Bat- 
tery, cut her cables, hoisted her sails, and by day-light, had 



424 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

carried her to Elizabethtown, and landed her cargo, which 
consisted of forty hogsheads of rum. 

Lister, Benjamin. In 1782 he was a heutenant in De Lan- 
cey's Second BattaHon. He settled in New Brunswick at the 
close of the war, and in 1784 a lot was granted to him in the 
city of St. John. In the winter of 1803, while travelling in 
a sleigh on the ice, he broke through and was drowned. He 
received half-pay. 

Lister, Thomas. He entered the military service of the 
crown, and in 1782 was a captain in De Lancey's Third Bat- 
talion. At the peace he settled in New Brunswick, and was 
a major in the militia. After a residence of some years in 
that Colony, he returned to the United States. He received 
half-pay. 

Lithgow, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Little, James. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 the Council 
ordered, that failing to appear and be tried for treason, he 
should stand attainted. 

Little, Stephen. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished by act of 1778. 

Little, . Of Massachusetts, and probably of Pitts- 
field. In 1775 his conduct drew upon him the indignation of 
the Whigs, and when a hue and cry was raised against him, 
he fled to New York for safety. 

Livermore, Jonathan. Of New Hampshire. He was bom 
in Northborough, Massachusetts, in 1739, and graduated at 
Harvard University in 1760. In 1763 he was ordained at 
Wilton. In 1777 he was dismissed from his people, in conse- 
quence of political diflerences. He died at Wilton in 1809, in 
his eightieth year. 

Livingston, Henry. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of cavalry 
in the South Carolina Royalists. 

Livingston. Of New York. In the divisions of families, some 
of this name adhered to the crown. John, junior, was seized 
bythe Whig Committee of Jamaica in 1776, and sent prisoner 
to the city. Congress required that he should ask pardon of 
the Committee, which he refused, when he was sent to jail. 



J 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 425 

Livingston, Gilbert. Was a captain in Arnold's American 
Legion. 

Livingston, John W. Entered the service, and in 1782 was 
a captain in the King's American Regiment. 

Livingston, Philip J. He gave notice in 1780 to " those 
who have petitioned for houses and lands of persons in rebel- 
lion," to call on him at Hell Gate, " and receive answers to 
their petitions." The object was, to relieve the loyal ■Subjects 
driven from their possessions, by dividing among them the 
property of the rebels, in small lots, and in proportion to the 
number of claimants from the destitute refugee families. In 
1783 he was a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. See Abijah 
Willard. 

Livius, Peter. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A mem- 
ber of the Council under the royal government ; was pro- 
scribed by the act of 1778, and died in England in 1795, 
aged, it is supposed, about sixty-eight years. Of the members 
of the Council of New Hampshire, in 1772, seven were rela- 
tives of the Governor. Having been left out of commission 
as a Justice of the Common Pleas, on the division of the 
province into Counties, when new appointments were made, 
and dissenting from the views of the Council as to the dispo- 
sition of reserved lands in grants made by a former governor, 
Livius went to England, and exhibited to the lords of trade, 
several and serious charges against the administration of which 
he was a member. These charges were rigidly investigated, 
but were finally dismissed. Livius appears, however, to have 
gained much popularity among those in New Hampshire who 
were opposed to the governor, and who desired his removal ; 
and was appointed, by their influence. Chief Justice of the 
Province. But as it was thought that the appointment, under 
the circumstances, was likely to produce discord, he was trans- 
ferred to a more lucrative office in the province of Quebec. 
Livius was of foreign extraction, and, as would seem, a gen- 
tleman of strong feelings. He wrote to General John Sullivan 
from Canada, to induce him to abandon the Whig cause. 
The letter was published. Mr. Livius possessed a handsome 
36* 



426 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

fortune. He was educated abroad, but received an honorary 
degree from Harvard University in 1767, 

Lloyd, Henry. Of Boston. Agent of the contractors for 
supplying the royal army ; was an Addresser of Gage in 1775. 
In 1776 he went to Halifax, and was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. 

Lloyd, Henry. Of New York. Brother of James Lloyd. 
He was born August 6, 1709. He was attainted, and in the 
act is denominated, " Henry Lloyd, the elder, late of Massa- 
chusetts Bay." Some time after the confiscation of his estate, 
his brother John purchased it of the commissioners of forfeit- 
ures. The Lloyds were ancient and extensive land owners, 
the manor of Queen's Village, Long Island, having been in 
possession of the family as early as 1679. 

Lloyd, James. Of Boston. He was born on Long Island 
in 1728 ; was educated in Connecticut ; studied medicine for 
a time in Boston ; attended the London hospitals two years ; 
and, returning to Boston in 1752, obtained an extensive prac- 
tice. A moderate Loyalist, he remained in that town while 
occupied by the British troops, zealously devoted to his profes- 
sion. In 1789 he went to England in order to obtain compen- 
sation for losses incurred in the Revolution, but would not 
consent to become a British subject, nor express an intention 
to become such, and was unsuccessful. He was an Episcopa- 
lian, and worshipped at Trinity Church. Of a noble mind, 
he dispensed charity with a liberal hand, and professionally, 
was extremely kind to those who were unable to pay for his 
services. He died in 1810, aged eighty-two. He was an 
Addresser of Gage in 1775, but seems not to have been mo- 
lested. His son, Honorable James Lloyd, was Senator to Con- 
gress from Massachusetts. 

Lloyd, Samuel. Clerk of the Customs. Embarked at Bos- 
ton with the British army in 1776, for Halifax. 

LocKLiN, Martin. Of Charleston, South Carolina. In June, 
1775, he was tarred and feathered, and carted through the 
streets of that city. It is believed that he and Dealcy, who 
was his companion in this punishment, were the first victims 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 427 

to tar and feathers in South Carolina. The Secret Committee 
of Charleston was at this time composed of the most distin- 
guished Whigs, and they must — from the circumstances — 
have permitted, if they did not directly authorize, the outrage. 

LocooK, Aaron. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished in 1782, 
and his property was confiscated. He was a member of the 
Provincial Congress in 1775, when his sympathies, very pro- 
bably, were with the Whigs. 

LoDER, Jacob. Died at Sheffield, New Brunswick, 1917, 
aged seventy-one years. 

Lofland, Dormand. Sheriff of the County of Sussex, Del- 
aware. Unless he should surrender himself on or before the 
1st of August, 1778, and abide a legal trial for treason, it was 
enacted by a law of that year, that his estate would be for- 
feited. 

Longfellow, Samuel. Mariner, of Falmouth, now Portland, 
Maine. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

LoNGwpRTH, Isaac One of the fifty-five Loyalists who 
petitioned for lands in Nova Scotia in July, 1783. See Abijah 
WUlard. 

Loosee, Nicholas. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of a 
Declaration in 1775. 

LoosLEY, Charles. One of the grantees of St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783. 

Lord, Charles. He was at Halifax in July, 1776, a Loy- 
alist Refugee. 

LoRiNG, Joshua. Of Massachusetts. He was proscribed 
and banished. He was in the king's service during some part 
of the war, and a commissary of prisoners. The writers of 
the time charge him with cruelties to the unfortunate Whigs, 
of whom he had the care, that are beyond all example in civ- 
ilized countries. But it may not be easy to fix upon his 
exact responsibility; yet a humane man could never have 
been so unconditionally odious. He died in England in 1782. 

LoRiNG, Joshua, Junior. Merchant, of Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage 



4^ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

in 1775. In 1776 he went to Halifax, and was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. 

LoRRAiN, William. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. He died 
there in 1803. 

LosEE, Simon. Of Long Island, New York. He arrived 
at St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife, in the ship Union, 
in 1783. 

LoTT. Signers of the Declaration at Jamaica, New York, 
in 1775, were Abraham. Stephen, Johannes, and Jacob. Ste- 
phen, Johannes H., Jacob, and Abraham, of Queen's County, 
acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. The loyalty of the 
Lotts occasioned them no little trouble. In August, 1781, 
some Whigs, in a whale boat, went to the residence of Colonel 
Abraham Lott, from New Jersey, and robbed him of about 
six thousand pounds, and carried off two slaves. The same 
or another, and a similar lawless and inexcusable act, is re- 
lated as follows. The noted Captain Hyler surprised Colonel 
Lott in his house at night, and himself and two of his negroes 
were taken prisoners to New Brunswick. The Colonel had 
been treasurer of New York, and a contractor for supplying 
the ships of war, and was known to be rich ; and plunder was 
the object of his Whig captors. They found some silver in a 
cupboard, and in the course of their search, two bags which 
they supposed contained guineas. After their departure, and 
while going up the Raritan, they agreed to divide their booty; 
but to their disappointment the bags were found to contain 
only half-pennies, which belonged to the church at Flatlands. 
Determined, however, to make the best of the exploit. Colonel 
Lott was compelled to ransom his slaves, when he was himself 
released, and permitted to return home. During the same 
year, the house of Captain Lott, of Flatbush, was robbed of 
a considerable sum in specie, by a party from New Jersey. 

Loughborough, John. Of the manor of Moorland, Penn- 
sylvania. The Council in 1778 ordered, that unless he surren- 
dered himself and submitted to be tried for treason, he should 
Stand attainted. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 429 

Love, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

LovEBURY, Jonathan. Of New York. In June of 1783 he 
was preparing to embark for Nova Scotia. 

Lovelace, Thomas. In 1781 he was found within the 
American lines with a British commission in his possession ; 
and by order of General Stark, who had established his head- 
quarters at Saratoga, was brought before a court-martial, tried, 
condemned, and executed, as a spy. He had family connex- 
ions in the neighborhood, who sought to avert his fate by 
addressing a remonstrance to the Commander-in-chief, but 
Washington refused to interfere. The country included in 
Stark's command was, at this time, overrun with spies and 
traitors. Of a band of these miscreants, Lovelace was the 
commander. 

Lovell, Benjamin, Of Boston. Graduated at Harvard 
University in 1774. He retreated to Halifax, and finally to 
England, where he was settled in the ministry, and died 
March, 1828, aged seventy-three years. He was the youngest 
son of John Lovell. 

Lovell, John. Of Boston. He graduated at Harvard 
University in 1728. After some years of service as assistant 
of the South grammar, or Latin school, he was placed at the 
head of it in 1738. He was the master nearly forty years, and 
many of the principal Whigs of Massachusetts had been his 
pupils. He accompanied the British army to Halifax at the 
evacuation, and died at that place in 1778, aged about seventy. 
He was a good scholar, a rigid disciplinarian, yet humorous, 
and an agreeable companion. His son James was a Whig, 
and it is a singular circumstance, that the father went to Nova 
Scotia a Loyalist, while the son was a prisoner of his protec- 
tors, and both were at Halifax at the same time. James, 
after his release, returned to Boston, and was elected a member 
of Congress. He was Collector of Boston under the confeder- 
ation, and afterwards under the present constitution, naval 
officer of Boston and Charlestown. He died in that office in 
1814, aged seventy -six. It is worthy of mention, that Master 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Lovell delivered the first Address in the Cradle of Liberty in 
1743. The occasion was on the death of Peter Faneuil, Esq., 
the founder; and in the course of his funeral oration, Mr. 
Lovell said : " May this Hall be ever sacred to the interests of 
Truth, of Justice, of Loyalty, of Honor, of Liberty. May 
no private views, nor party broils, ever enter within these 
walls." Thus was Faneuil Hall dedicated. 

LowNSBURY, John. One of the grantees of St. John, New 
Brunswick, 1783. 

Low, Isaac Of New York. He favored the popular cause, 
and was indeed a prominent Whig. He made a judicious 
speech at a public meeting of the merchants of New York 
in May, 1774, and was an active member of the committee of 
fifty, appointed to correspond with our sister Colonies. In a 
published appeal to the people at that period, Mr. Low used 
the following spirited language. " Let us," said he, " with 
the brave Romans, consider our ancestors and our offspring. 
Let us follow the example of the former, and set an example 
to the latter. Let us not be like the sluggish people, who, 
through a love of ease, 'bowed themselves, and became servants 
to tribute,' and whom the inspired prophet, their father, justly 
compared to asses. Had I the voice which could be heard 
from Canada to Florida, I would address the Americans in the 
language of the Roman patriot," &c. 

Mr. Low was elected a member of the first Continental 
Congress, and took his seat in that body, and participated in 
its proceedings. He signed the Association, October 20, 1774, 
and later in the session, the Address to the Inhabitants of the 
Province of Quebec, He was a member of the New York 
Provincial Congress in 1775, for the city and county of New 
York, but his name soon after disappears from the revolution- 
ary history. In 1782, he was President of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce. He was attainted, and his property 
was confiscated. He went to England. In consequence of 
his course in the early part of the struggle, his application 16 
be compensated for his losses as a Loyalist, was not at first 
favorably considered. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 431 

Low, Jacobus. Of Ulster County, New York. In April, 
1775, he was admonished by the Whig Committee to discon- 
tinue the sale of Tea ; but he declared that he had and would 
sell Tea ; whereupon a public meeting published him to the 
country, as an enemy to the rights and liberties of America. 

Low, John. Died at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, June, 
1844, aged ninety-two years. He emigrated to that town 
when it was an unbroken wilderness. 

Lowe, Charles. Embarked at Boston, with the British 
army, for Halifax in 1776. 

Ludlam, Daniel, Nicholas, Henry, Junior, Henry, Joseph, 
Thomas, and William, Senior. Of Queen's County, New 
York. Acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. Nicholas 
had signed a Declaration of loyalty in 1775. Ephraim Lud- 
lam, of Queen's County, had also performed the same act. 

Ludlow, Cary. Of New York. Was Surrogate and Mas- 
ter in Chancery in the city, in 1782. 

Ludlow, Gabriel G. Of New York. He entered the mili- 
tary service of the crown, and in 1782 was colonel and com- 
mandant of De Lancey's Third Battalion. He went to New 
Brunswick at the peace, and filled various public stations. In 
1792 he held the office of Judge of Vice-Admiralty, and was 
a member of the Council of the Colony, and a colonel in the 
militia. In 1803 Governor Carlton embarked for England, 
when Colonel Ludlow was sworn in as commander-in-chief. 
He died m 1808, aged seventy-two. Ann, his widow, died at 
Carlton, New Brunswick, in 1822, at the age of eighty. Fran- 
ces, his second daughter, died at New York in 1840, aged 
seventy- four. 

Ludlow, George Duncan. Of New York. He served an 
apprenticeship Avith an apothecary, but disliking the business, 
resolved to study law. In consequence of sickness, his tongue 
was too large and his speech defective, and his friends, antici- 
pating his certain failure at the bar, opposed his design. But 
he persisted and completed his studies. Those who were in- 
terested in his success, attended Court on the first trial of his 
powers, predicting as they went, that his discomfiture and 



432 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

their own mortilication were certain. Much to their surprise, 
he was fluent, and argued the case intrusted to him wi^ 
great skill and judgment. His rise was rapid ; and at the 
Revokitionary era, he was one of the Judges of the Supreme 
Court, and one of the most considerable characters in the 
Colony. In 1779 his house at Hempstead was plundered, 
and it is said, that the Judge himself escaped being made 
prisoner, by getting upon the roof through the scuttle, and 
hiding behind the chimney. In 1780 he was appointed Master 
of the Rolls, and Superintendent of Police on Long Island, 
" with powers or principles of Equity, to hear and determine 
controversies, till civil government can take place." The 
Whigs of New York formed a constitution as early as 1777, 
organized a government, and appointed Judges ; but the party 
who adhered to the crown, considered Judge Ludlow to be in 
ofllce until 1782, and indeed until the peace, when he was 
compelled to leave the country. His seat at Hyde Park, and 
his other property, passed to the State under the confiscation 
act. He« retired to New Brunswick in 1783, where he occu- 
pied the first place in public affairs. He was a member of the 
first Council formed in that Colony, and as senior Councillor 
administered the government ; and he was the first Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court. His place of residence was at 
Fredericton, the capital, and he died there, February 12, 1808. 
Frances, his widow, and daughter of Thomas Duncan, Es- 
quire, died at St. John in 1825, at the age of eighty-seven. 
Elizabeth, his daughter, and wife of the Honorable John Rob- 
inson, of St. John, died in France in 1828. 

Ludlow, Thomas. Of New York. Marshal of the Court 
of Admiralty. He was in ofiice near the close of the war. 

LuGRiN, Peter. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1814, 
aged sixty-one. 

LuGRiN, Simeon. At the peace was one of the grantees of 
St. John, New Brunswick. He taught a school in that city. 

LuMSDEN, George. Of New Haven, Connecticut. He, his 
wife, and four children, arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in the ship Union, in the spring of 1782. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 433 

LuTWYCHE, Edward Goldstone. Of New Hampshire. He 
was a gentleman of some consideration, and as early as 1767 
commanded a regiment of militia. He fled to Boston, and in 
1776 accompanied the British army to Halifax. In 1778 he 
was proscribed and banished, and his estate confiscated. In 
1780, Matthew Thornton, a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, became the purchaser of his farm. He was at New 
York in 1783, and a petitioner for a grant of lands in Nova 
Scotia. 

Lyde, Byfield. Of Boston. Graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1723. He was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 
1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year, and 
in 1775 an Addresser of Gage. In 1776 he accompanied the 
royal army to Halifax, and died there the same year. 

Lyde, Edward. Merchant, of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. 

Lyde, George. Of Boston. In 1770 he was appointed Col- 
lector of the Port of Falmouth, Maine, and continued there 
until the commencement of the Revolution. The custom-house 
at that period was kept in a dwelling-house at the corner of 
King and Middle streets, and was burnt when Mowatt set fire 
to the town in 1775. Mr. Lyde was an Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774, and in 1778 was proscribed and banished. 

Lyman, Daniel. Of New Haven, Connecticut. He accepted 
a military commission under the crown, and in 1782 was a 
captain in the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers. At 
the peace he was a major. He settled in New Brunswick, 
and was a member of the House of Assembly, and a magis- 
trate. He went to England, and died in London in 1809. 

Lyman, Phineas. Of Connecticut. A distinguished man, but 
one of the most unfortunate in our history. He was born at 
Durham in 1716, graduated at Yale College in 1738, was 
appointed tutor in 1739, and continued in that ofiice three 
years, when he devoted himself to the profession of the law, 
and became eminent. In civil life he was employed to adjust 
a disputed boundary between Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
and held the offices of representative to the Assembly, and 
37 



434 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

member of the Council. In 1755 he was appointed major 
general and commander-in-chief of the Connecticut forces, and 
was in service throughout the French war. In the battle of 
Lake George, Sir William Johnson of New York, who com- 
manded, was soon wounded; when Lyman maintained the 
conflict for five hours, and was himself personally exposed the 
whole time. But Sir William Johnson obtained the rewards 
of the splendid victory, which was achieved over the French 
by the Colonial troops on this occasion. In 1758 General 
Lyman served with Abercrombie, and was with the gallant 
and estimable Lord Howe when he was killed. In 1762 
Lyman was again engaged in the important enterprise against 
Havana, and was in command of the Colonial forces em- 
ployed in the expedition. His wisdom, integrity, bravery, and 
military skill, won universal commendation. Several British 
officers who had been his associates, solicited him to visit Eng- 
land after the peace ; and having connected himself with a 
company composed principally of Colonial officers and soldiers, 
who had been engaged in the war, and whose object was to 
obtain a grant of lands of the British government on the 
Mississippi and Yazoo, he accordingly went to the mother 
country in 1763, as agent of these persons, who styled them- 
selves Military Adventurers. He remained in England for 
eleven years, in all the misery, suspense, and anxiety, delay, 
and false promises of attendance upon the Court, and a victim 
to the suffering, which ever awaits the endeavors of a sensi- 
tive mind, employed in an arduous and unsuccessful undertak- 
ing. In a word, he well nigh sunk into hopeless imbecility ; 
and rather than return to America without accomplishing his 
purpose, he resolved to remain and die in England. But 
about the year 1774 the grant was obtained. Many of the 
original projectors were then dead, and others had become too 
advanced in life, or so changed in circumstances, as to have 
lost their desire to emigrate to a wilderness. But General 
Lyman, soon after arriving in Connecticut from his embassy, 
resolved upon carrying through an enterprise that had cost 
him so much time and anxiety ; and in 1775, accompanied by 



OF AMERICA.V LOYALISTS. 435 

his oldest son and a few settlers, he arrived upon the land 
which he had secured for himself and others of the company. 
His preparatory arrangements were hardly made before he 
died, at the age of fifty-nine. Yet, the year following, in 
1776, Mrs. Lyman, attended by her only brother. Colonel 
Dwight, and her remaining children — the second son ex- 
cepted — commenced and accomplished a journey to the same 
country. She, a woman, who in endowments and education 
was superior to most of her sex, had been broken down 
during her husband's long absence, by the distresses in which 
the family had become involved ; and died the same year. 
Her brother lived only until the next summer. The survivors 
continued in the country and in the neighborhood of Natchez 
for several years. When it was invaded by the Spaniards in 
1781 and in 1782, they abandoned it, and attempted to make 
their way to Savannah. The war, and their political sympa- 
thies, rendered a direct journey dangerous ; and they accord- 
ingly selected a route which caused them to travel upwards of 
thirteen hundred miles, and occupied one hundred and forty- 
nine days. They were all mounted on horseback, but the 
ruggedness of the ground often required them to travel long 
distances on foot. Women and children, and infants at the 
breast, formed a part of the returning and suffering band. 
Some were sick, all endured the most exhausting fatigue, 
were in constant dread of meeting with savages, and were 
sometimes without sufficient food and water. After reaching 
Georgia, the party formed themselves into two companies. 
One division became the prisoners of the Whigs ; the other, 
after surmounting many difficulties, reached Savannah in 
safety. The captives were soon released. Among those who 
arrived at Savannah, were two daughters of General Lyman, 
both of whom died at that place. Such was the calamitous 
issue of the life of a gentleman, who enjoyed before the Revo- 
lution a reputation possessed by few of our countrymen j such, 
too, the sad end of several members of his family. 

Lyman. The five sons of General Phineas Lyman adhered 
to the crown. Four were alive at the close of the contest ; 



436 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



of whom three accompanied their mother as already related ; 
but of them little else is known. All were born and educated 
' to high hopes. The ascertained fate of two, will show how 
prematurely their prospects declined, and how utterly the ex- 
pectations of their youth were blasted. The eldest son of 
General Lyman was educated at Yale College, and received a 
commission in the British army, but he resigned, and devoted 
himself to the study of the law. The distresses consequent 
upon the long absence of his father, and various other causes, 
combined to ruin his health ; and when the parent finally 
returned, he found him in a state of confirmed insanity. In 
the hope that a change of scene and climate Avould conduce to 
his restoration, the afflicted father took him to West Florida. 
But the broken-hearted maniac died in 1775, soon after com- 
pleting the journey. The second son was sent to England in 
1774, by his grief- worn mother, to solicit his father to remain 
no longer abroad ; and while there, received a commission in 
the British army. Soon after his return, he was ordered to 
join his regiment at Boston ; and repairing thither, he con- 
tinued in service until 1782, when he sold his commission. 
His disappointments and mental sufferings had rendered him 
almost reckless of pecuniary affairs, and receiving a part of 
the purchase money, he gave credit for the balance, and lost it 
by neglect ; and lending a considerable part of what he did 
receive, without taking evidence of the loan, he returned to 
Connecticut nearly penny less. He was urged to take a school, 
and consented. But he made no effort to collect the payments 
which became due for his services, and failed to provide him- 
self with articles of necessity, from the scanty funds that came 
into his possession. His friends, when his clothing had be- 
come indecent, bought and carried him garments of which he 
stood in need ; but he was too sad, too sorely stricken, to wear 
them; and in a little time "joined his friends in the grave." 
Thus ended the career of the fourth child of General Lyman, 
and of a man who was "brilliant, gay, and ingenious, beyond 
most of mankind." The ultimate fate of the three who re- 
turned with the survivors of the Military Adventurers, as 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 437 

related in the notice of the father, is unknown. One of them, 
at the evacuation of Georgia by the royal forces, went to New 
York, and subsequently to Connecticut, for the purpose of dis- 
posing of the remains of his father's estate ; another retired to 
Nova Scotia ; and the third went to New Providence. Of a 
truth, this was a doomed family. 

Lynah, James. A physician, of South Carolina. He was 
in commission under the crown after the fall of Charleston in 
1780, and his estate was confiscated. In 1809 there died at 
Charleston, Doctor James Lynah, physician and director- 
general of all the military hospitals in South Carolina. 

Lynch, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Lynde, Benjamin. Of Salem. Chief Justice of Massachu- 
setts. He graduated at Harvard University in 1718. For 
many years he was a member of the Council. He presided at 
the trial of Captain Preston, who was held to answer to the 
tribunals for the Boston Massacre, so called, in 1770. In 1772 
Mr. Lynde resigned his seat on the bench. In 1774 he was 
one of the Salem Addressers of Gage. He died in 1781, aged 
eighty-one. His father was the Honorable Benjamin Lynde, 
a Chief Justice of Massachusetts, who died in 1745, aged 
seventy-nine. 

Lyon, Enoch. Of New Jersey. Was a lieutenant in the 
Second Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Lyon, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton. 

Lyon, Sylvanus. Of Westchester County, New York. Was 
a Protester in 1775. 

Lyon. Of Connecticut. Eleven persons of this name were 
members of the Reading Association. Lieutenant Peter, and 
Lieutenant Daniel, Jabez, Eli, and John, of Reading ; Joseph, 
Jonathan, Thomas, Jesse, Ebenezer, and Gershom junior, of 
Fairfield County. A number of the Connecticut Lyons, and 
two of the above, settled in New Brunswick ; thus, John, John 
junior, Reuben, and Joseph, arrived at St. John in the spring 
of 1783, in the ship Union : and Hezekiah arrived the same 
37* 



198 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

year, and was a grantee of the city. John was accompanied 
by his wife and five children. John, junior, died in Kingston, 
New Brunswick, in 1845, aged eighty-three, and left many 
descendants. 

Mabee, Jacob. Of New York. Fled to the British lines, 
thence to the city of New York, where he remained during 
the war. At the peace of 1783, he retired to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and thence to St. Stephen in the same Province, 
at which place he died about the year 1820, aged upwards of 
eighty years. His property in New York was confiscated. 
His son Solomon was impressed into the British navy, and 
served during the contest ; at its close he went to St. Stephen, 
but removed to Eastport, Maine, in 1795, and died there in 
1828, aged sixty-six years. His son William still survives 
(1844), and resides at St. Stephen. 

Mabee, William. Of New York. Arrived at St. John, New 
Brunswick, in the ship Union, in the spring of 1783. Jasper 
died in that city, very aged, in 1822. Jeremiah died at Kings- 
ton, New Brunswick, 1824, aged eighty-five. 

Macauley, James. In 1782 he was surgeon's mate of the 
Q,ueen's Rangers, 

Macbeth, Alexander. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. 

Mackay, John. Of North Carolina. Went to England. In 
1779 he was an Addresser of the king. 

Mackenzie, Robert. Of Virginia. This gentleman was a 
friend of Washington, and one of the very few of his letters 
devoted to the subject of the revolutionary controversy, written 
before the appeal to arms, was to him. It was dated at Phila- 
delphia, October 9, 1774; and Mr. Sparks, in a note, remarks 
of Mackenzie, that " he had been a captain of the Virginia 
regiment, commanded by Washington in the French war, and 
a friendly intimacy seems always to have subsisted between 
them. Mackenzie had obtained a commission in the regular 
army, and was now attached to the forty- third regiment of j 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 439 

foot. He was wounded at the battle of Bunker's Hill, while 
fighting in that regiment." At a later period, there was a 
Major Mackenzie of the Royal Welsh Fusileers, of which Sir 
William Howe was the Colonel ; perhaps the same. 

Macknight, Thomas. Of North Carolina. He was a mem- 
ber of the Assembly under the royal government ; and so far 
sided with the Whigs, as to take a seat in the Convention of 
1775, which Governor Martin denounced. But he refused to 
sanction the proceedings, and was censured by his associates, 
in a Resolve of great severity and bitterness. Still a member 
of the Assembly, he was placed on a committee with Hewes, 
Hooper, and other Whigs, to frame an answer to the Gover- 
nor's speech. In 1779 his property was confiscated. He was 
in England in 1784, a petitioner for relief. 

Magee, Henry. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778, the Council 
required him to appear and take his trial for treason, or stand 
attainted. 

Mainwaring, Edward. A captain in the King's Rangers. 
In November, 1782, he had retired to the Island of St. John, 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Malcolm, John. A custom-house officer, at Portland, Maine. 
Early in 1774 he was seized at Boston, tarred and feathered, 
and carried through the streets in derision. A few days before 
this occurrence he struck a tradesman, who, as he alleged, had 
frequently insulted him, when a warrant was issued against 
him ; but as the constable had not been able to find him, a 
mob gathered about his house, and broke his windows. Mal- 
colm was in the house, and pushing his sword through a 
broken window, wounded one of the assailants. The multitude 
then made a rush, broke in, and finding him in a chamber, 
lowered him by a rope into a cart, tore off his clothes, and 
tarring and feathering him, dragged him through several 
streets to the Liberty Tree, and thence to the gallows on 
the Neck, where he was beaten and threatened with death. 
Having been detained under the gallows for an hour, he 
was conveyed to the extreme north part of the town, and 
thence back to his house. He was kept stripped four hours, 



440 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

and was so bruised and benumbed by the cold, that his life 
was despaired of. His offences — besides striking the person 
above mentioned — appear to have consisted in seizing a vessel 
at Portland for want of a register, and in using great freedom 
and rudeness of speech at Boston, in condemning the proceed- 
ings of the Whigs. 

Mallard, Thomas. During the war he was in the city of 
New York. The following receipt has been preserved. 

" New York, 13 Novbr. 1780. Rec'd by order of the Com- 
mander in Chief of Mr. Thomas Mallard thirty pounds, being 
half a year's rent due the 1st inst. for No. 522 Hanover Square, 
for the use express' d in said order. 

John Smyth, CoU'r of rents." 

£30:0:0 



It may be remarked, that the above is one, probably, of 
many hundred receipts given by John Smyth for payment of 
rents while the royal army occupied New York. After the 
evacuation, the question arose, whether the persons who had 
occupied buildings under the authority of the British Com- 
mander-in-chief, could plead payments to Smyth in bar of 
actions commenced against them by the owners. This ques- 
tion, before it was finally disposed of, caused much excitement 
among the people, in the courts, and in the legislature. Mr. 
Mallard settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died at St. 
John about the year 1803. 

Mallery, Caleb. Was a grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, 1783. 

Mallery, John, Jonathan, Junior, and Nathan, Junior. Of 
Fairfield County, Connecticut. Were members of the Reading 
Association. 

Malony, Michael. In 1775 he was sent prisoner from Long 
Island, New York, to Massachusetts, and confined within the 
limits of the town of Shrewsbury. 

Manlove, Boaz. Of Delaware. In 1778 it was enacted, 
that, unless he should surrender himself for trial for treason 
within a specified time, his property would be confiscated. 

Mann, George. A gentleman of great wealth and influence. 



I 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 441 

■who resided in the interior of New York. He was distinguish- 
ed for his attachment to the royal cause, and the king's com- 
missioners met at his house for the purpose of administering 
the oath of allegiance to the surrounding inhabitants. On one 
occasion, in 1778, when upwards of one hundred had thus 
signified their loyalty, and had been paraded before Mann's 
door with the red badge upon their hats, and he had com- 
menced a most stirring and loyal oration, a body of Whig 
cavalry dashed in, and spoiled the speech, and caused the 
speedy flight of all present. Word was given to pursue Mann, 
and bring him in alive if possible, but to bring him in, dead or 
alive. Mann sheltered himself upon the top of a wheat-stack, 
where he was discovered by the son of a Whig, a lad of six- 
teen, who made known the order, that if he did not surrender 
he must be shot. Mann implored for mercy, but the stripling re- 
peated the terms. The boy's heart, however, failed him, for his 
prisoner had lived a neighbor to his father, and had been kind 
to him. It was night, and the rain descended in torrents, and 
Mann contrived to escape to the mountains, where he remained 
fifteen days. He subsequently gave himself up, on condition 
made through friends, that he should receive no personal 
harm, and was taken to Albany and kept in confinement 
to the close of the war. His estate was not confiscated, and 
he was suffered to repossess himself of it, and to live and die 
upon it. 

Mann, John. Of New York. Settled in Nova Scotia, and 
had charge of a parish. He died at Newport, Nova Scotia, 
1817, aged seventy-three. 

Manning, George. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Mansfield, Isaac. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774. A Loyalist of this name, and 
a Sandemanian, died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1835, aged 
eighty-four. 

Mansfield, John. In 1776 he was a Loyalist Refugee at 
Halifax. 

Mansfield, Richard. An Episcopal clergyman, in Connecti- 



442 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

cut. He commenced his ministerial labors about the year 
1748, and continued them without intermission until near the 
close of 1775, when he was compelled to leave his people. 
He had the care of two churches, and of the one hundred and 
thirty families which composed his flock, one hundred and 
ten of them were firm and steadfast friends to government, or 
LoyaHsts. I suppose that Mr. Mansfield's two churches were 
those in Derby and Oxford. He fled to Hempstead, New York. 
In 1775 he was fifty-two years of age. He left his wife and 
children in Connecticut ; of the latter, one was an infant just 
weaned, four others were small, and four were adults. 

Manrow, William. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member 
of the Association. David Manrow, of that town, was also 
a member. 

Manson, Daniel. In 1782 he was major of the North Car- 
olina Volunteers. 

Manson, Thomas. An ensign in the North Carolina Vol- 
unteers. 

Manych, Isaac. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Marchington, Philip. Of Pennsylvania. His estate was 
confiscated. He was at New York, some part of the war, a 
merchant. He settled at Nova Scotia, and died at Halifax in 
1808, aged seventy-two. His daughter Mary married Lieu- 
tenant Colonel John Wellsford, 101st Regiment, British Army, 
and died at Halifax, 1842, at the age of fifty-six. 

Margiston, William. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783. 

Marks, Nehemla^h. He was born , at Derby, Connecticut. 
Soon after the war commenced, he repaired to New York, and 
engaged with the British commander there to act as a despatch 
agent. At the peace he retired to Nova Scotia, but in the 
spring of 1781, he settled at St. Stephen, New Brunswick, 
where he died July, 1799, aged fifty-two years. His wife 
Betsy died at the same place in 1812, aged sixty. Eight chil- 
dren survived him. His son Nehemiah, a highly enterprising 
ship-owner of St. Stephen, is Lieutenant Colonel of Charlotte 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 443 

County Militia, and a magistrate. His daughter Hannah 
married General John Brewer, a distinguished citizen of Rob- 
binston, Maine. 

Marr, Lawrence. In 1781 he was convicted as a spy, and 
sentenced to death. After a respite of a few days, he was 
executed at Philadelphia in November of that year. 

Marshall, Emanuel. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Marshall, John. A grantee of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Marshall, Joseph. In 1782 he was a captain in the King's 
Rangers, Carolina. 

Marshall, William. Pilot, of Philadelphia. In 1778 the 
Council of Pennsylvania ordered, that he should stand attaint- 
ed, if he failed to appear and be tried for treason. 

Marston, Benjamin. Son of Colonel Benjamin Marston, of 
Salem, Massachusetts. Graduated at Harvard University in 
1749, and died on the coast of Africa, while in the service of 
the African Company, in 1793. He was a merchant at Mar- 
blehead, and his name appears among the Addressers of Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson in 1774. He went to Halifax in 1776, and 
was proscribed under the act of 1778. 

Martin, John. Of North Carolina. A captain in the North 
Carolina Volunteers. 

Martin, Josiah. He was a major in the British army, and, 
on Governor Tryon's being transferred to New York in 1771, 
was appointed Governor of North Carolina, and was the last 
royal chief magistrate of the Colony. His first duty seems to 
have been to conciliate the Regulators, who had been in open 
rebellion and in arms, during the administration of his prede- 
cessor. His efforts were successful, and a very considerable 
proportion, and perhaps a majority, of the Regulators, — sin- 
gular as is the fact, — adhered to the crown in the Revolution. 
But Tryon had bequeathed the far more serious and general 
controversy with the Whigs; and Martin soon became involved 
in difficulties. In his last speech to the Assembly in April, 
1775, he reviews the whole course of affairs at length, and 
with more than common ability. The House returned a spir- 



444 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

ited answer, and he immediately dissolved it. As Governor 
Martin had no mihtary force, his sole dependence now, to carry 
on the government, was on such of the Council as remained 
faithful to the interests of the king. He proposed, or at least 
suggested, the propriety of issuing writs for the election of a 
new Assembly, but his advisers recommended delay. But he 
commenced fortifying the palace, and the embodying of a force 
of Loyalists. These hostile preparations, and the knowledge 
that he had written to Gage at Boston for arms and ammunition, 
soon produced an open rupture. Some bold Whigs seized and 
carried off the cannon which he had planted, while he and 
his council were in session, on the 24th of April. On that 
day, the records of the royal government in North Carolina 
cease ; and in the evening. Governor Martin fled to Fort John- 
ston, on the Cape Fear river. But the Whigs pursued, and 
drove him from the Fort, to the king's sloop of war, the 
Cruiser, from which ship, on the 8th of August, he issued a 
proclamation, and one of the longest, probably, on record. 
The battle of Moore's Creek, in which the Loyalists under 
McDonald were defeated and dispersed by Colonel Caswell, 
followed in February, 1776 ; and Governor Martin, embarking 
on board the fleet of Sir Peter Parker, arrived at Charleston, 
South Carolina, early in June of that year. He retired, subse- 
quently, to New York, and died at Rockaway in November, 
1778. His estate in North Carolina was confiscated. The 
documents which relate to his administration, show that he 
was a man of remarkable force and energy of character. 
His age at his decease is stated at seventy-nine years ; but this 
must be an error, as his father. Colonel Samuel Martin, was 
alive in 1774, and wrote a spirited letter on public affairs. 

Martin, Josiah. Of North Carolina. In 1782 was colonel 
of the North Carolina Highland Regiment. 

Martin, Laughlin. Of South Carolina. Was tarred and 
feathered at Charleston, and was ordered to depart to England. 
Subsequently, on expressing his contrition for his offences, 
he was allowed to remain in the city, and to pursue his avo- 
cation. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 445 

Martin, Samuel. Of Virginia. Lost his estate under the 
confiscation act. The British government, in considering the 
claims of the Loyahsts, fixed the vahie of the fee simple of 
his landed property at £13,115, and of his life interest therein 
at £6,500, and for the life interest gave him a certificate of 
compensation. An attempt was made to secure the reversion, 
estimated at £6,615, for his son, George Martin, but it is be- 
lieved that the Legislature of Virginia refused to interfere with 
its previous act of confiscation, by which the whole interest 
was presumed to be vested in the father. 

Martin, Stephen. A physician, of Far Rockaway, New 
York. Gave his parole of honor in 1776, that he would not 
directly or indirectly oppose the Whigs. 

Ma^rtin, William, of Boston, and Michael, of Brookfield, 
Massachusetts. Were proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Marvin, John. Of Norwalk, Connecticut. He arrived at 
St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in the spring of 
1783. 

Mason, Samuel. Settled in New Brunswick. In 1795 he 
was a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John. He died in 
that city, 1827, aged sixty-six years. 

Massey, James. Hatter, of Duck Creek, Delaware. Unless 
he surrendered himself for trial on or before August 1, of 1778, 
his estate was to become forfeit. 

Massinbird, George. Of North Carolina. In December, 
1775, a Whig who had caught him in the course of his offi- 
cial excursions, carried him before the Council, and prayed that 
condign punishment might be inflicted. But Massinbird played 
the penitent, and was released. 

Massingham, Isaac. Petty officer of the Customs. He 
embarked at Boston for Halifax with the British army in 1776. 

Mather, Samuel. Clerk of the Customs. In 1776 he em- 
barked at Boston for Halifax with the British army ; and in 
August of that year arrived in England. 

Matheson, Alexander. Was quartermaster of the Queen's 
Rangers. 

38 



446 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Matheson, Charles. An officer in the Queen's Rangers. 
In 1783 he was a grantee of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Mathews, David. Of New York. He was mayor of the 
city, and in 1782, Register of the Court of Admiralty. He 
had a house in New York, and another in Flatbush, and kept 
up an establishment at both. His estate was confiscated. 

Mathews, Fletcher. Of New York. During the war he 
was proceeded against by the commissioners appointed to the 
charge of persons who adhered to the crown, and was ordered 
to be sent within the British lines. But Governor Clinton 
having so far interfered with the decision as to detain him for 
the purpose of exchange, he was suffered to remain in the 
country without interruption. 

Mathews, George. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1832, aged eighty-four. 

Mawdesley, John. He was at New York in July, 1783, 
and was one of the fifty-five who petitioned for grants of lands 
in Nova Scotia. See Abijah Willard. 

Maxwell, Andrew. In 1782 he was a captain in the Prince 
of Wales's American Volunteers. 

McAdam, John Loudoun. The projector of the improve- 
ment in the making of roads, known as McAdamized roads. 
He was born in Scotland in 1756, emigrated to New York 
when a lad, and remained in that city throughout the Rev- 
olution. Under the protection of the British troops, he accu- 
mulated a considerable fortune, as agent for the sale of prizes. 
At the close of the war he returned to his native land, with 
the loss of nearly the whole of his property. He died poor in 
1836, aged eighty-one. His system of making roads is too 
well known to require description. By his first wife, a lady 
of the name of Nicholl, whom he married at New York, he 
had six children, most of whom survived him. His second 
wife, of the (Loyalist) name of De Lancey, brought him tio 
family. When he came to America, he lived until manhood 
with his uncle William, a merchant of New York, who, as I 
suppose, was the William McAdam of the following notice. 

McAdam, William. Merchant, of New York. His estate 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 447 

was confiscated. Like many of his associates of the committee 
of fifty of that city, " appointed to correspond with our sister 
Colonies," he was, I conclude, from the documents of the day, 
disposed at the outset to favor the popular cause. 

Mc Alpine, Anthony. An officer under Sir John Johnson. 

McAlpine, Donald. A lieutenant in the North Carolina 
Volunteers. 

McAlpine, Peter and Walter. Were grantees of St. John, 
New Brunswick. 

McAlpine, William. Printer and bookbinder, of Boston. 
An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775; 
was proscribed and banished in 1778. He remained in that 
town during the siege, but embarked with the British army, 
and went to Halifax. Subsequently, he went to Great Britain, 
and died at Glasgow in 1788. His place of business, while 
in Boston, was at one time opposite to the Old South Church. 

McAlpine, William. Was a captain in the Guides and 
Pioneers. 

McArthur, Niel. Was a captain in the North Carolina 
Regiment. 

McAuslen, Alexander. Of Newbern, North Carolina. His 
property was confiscated in 1779. 

McCall, George. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He established 
himself as a merchant. There was an Addresser of Hutchin- 
son at Marblehead, 1774, of this name. 

McCall, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

McCanish, John. An ensign in the King's Rangers, Carolina. 

McCann, Andrew. An officer of infantry in the Queen's 
Rangers. 

McCartney, Justin. Was a lieutenant in De Lancey's 
Second Battalion. 

McClatchey, . I suppose of Georgia. In 1793 he 

lived in Florida, and was largely concerned in the Indian 
trade, under permission of the Spanish government to import 
goods directly from England. 



448 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

McClellan, William. Of Edgecombe, North Carolina. His 
property was confiscated in 1777. 

McClintock, Nathan. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with 
the British army, for Hahfax. 

McCoLLUM, Farquer. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

. McCoLLUM, John. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. 

McCoMB, . He commanded a company in the battle of 

Bennington in 1777, and was there killed. 

McCoRMicK, William. Of North Carolina. Went to Eng- 
land. In July, 1779, he was in London, and presented an 
Address to the king. His property was confiscated. 

McCoy, Alexander. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

McCoy, Archibald. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

McCowAN, Patrick. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783. 

McCrea, Creighton. An ofiicer in the Queen's Rangers. 

McCrea, Jane. She was the daughter of the Reverend 
James McCrea, of New Jersey ; and was beautiful and good. 
Her sad fate is well known. Of Loyalist parentage, she was 
to have become the bride of David Jones, another Loyalist, 
and a captain in the British service. Her nephew. Colonel 
James McCrea, lived at Saratoga in 1823. 

McCrea, Robert. An ofiicer of infantry in the Queen's 
Rangers. 

McCrimmen, Donald. Was a lieutenant of infantry in the 
British Legion. 

McCuLLocH, Henry. Of North Carolina. His property 
was confiscated in 1779. 

McCuLLOH, Alexander. A member of the Council of North 
Carolina. He advised Governor Martin to issue his Proclama- 
tion against the Whig Convention appointed to meet at New- 
bern, April 3d, 1775, to elect Delegates to the Continental 
Congress. 



1 



OP AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 449 

McCuLLOH, Henry Eustace. Of North Carolina. He was 
a member of the Council, and for a number of years agent of 
the Colony. From the latter office, he was dismissed by the 
Assembly in 1774. His integrity may well be questioned, 
since, in his capacity of Councillor, he sold his vote in favor of 
the Tuscarora grant of lands to Williams, Pugh, and Jones, 
for one thousand acres of land. The fact that he was thus 
bribed seems to have been notorious. Mr. Alexander Elmsly, 
a gentleman who filled an official station of responsibility 
while in London in 1774, wrote to a friend in North Carolina 
thus: "Mr. McCulloh has often been talking to me of buying 
the one thousand acres of land he got for his vote in Council 
from Pugh and Williams. I have never listened to him," &c. 
In 1779 McCuUoh's estate was confiscated. He went to 
England. After the war, he was agent of the North Carolina 
Loyalists for prosecuting their claims to compensation for losses. 
He was in London in 1788. 

McDonald, Alexander. A captain in the regiment of North 
Carolina Highlanders. His wife was the celebrated Flora 
McDonald, who was so true, so devoted to the unfortunate 
Prince Charles Edward, the last Stuart who sought the throne 
of England. The story is familiar to all, and I will not repeat 
it. Suffice it to say, that Flora and her husband emigrated to 
North Carolina, where, when the Revolution came on, they 
espoused the royal cause, and the husband accepted a com- 
mission and took up arms against his adopted country, as did 
two of his sons. At the close of the war they, of course, left 
America. On their passage home, they encountered a French 
ship of war, and in the action which ensued, the intrepid 
Flora, true to her heroic character, remained upon deck, and 
endeavored by her voice and example to encourage the sailors. 
In the bustle of the fight she was thrown down and broke her 
arm. In relating the incident afterwards, she said, that she 
"had now perilled her life in behalf of both the house of 
Stuart and that of Brunswick, and got very little for her 
pains." She died in 1790, and was actually buried in a 
shroud made from the sheet in which Prince Charles had slept, 
38* 



450 BTOGRAPHTCAL SKETCHES 

and which she had preserved for this very purpose forty-five 
years, through her many adventures and migrations. Her 
husband survived her a few years, and died on the half-pay 
hst as a British officer. Her son, Lieutenant Colonel John 
McDonald, was alive in 1833, as was also a daughter. 

McDonald, Charles. Of North Carolina. Son of Alexander 
McDonald. In 1782 he was a captain of cavalry in the 
British Legion. I suppose that, previously, he had been a 
captain in the Queen's Rangers, and had exchanged into this 
corps. He went to Great Britain at the peace, and died there 
prior to 1833. As the late Lord McDonald saw his remains 
lowered into the grave, he remarked, "there lies the most 
finished gentleman of my family and name." 

McDonald, David. Was a grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783. 

McDonald, Dennis. Embarked at Boston, with the British 
army, for Halifax in 1776. 

McDonald, Donald. Of New York. He served the crown 
under Sir John Johnson seven years. He died at the Wolfe 
Islands, near Kingston, Upper Canada, in 1839, aged ninety- 
seven. 

McDonald, Donald. Of Johnstown, New York. In 1781, 
at the head of a band of Indians and Tories, he made an 
attack upon the house of John Christian Shell, at a place 
called Shell's Bush, near Herkimer, New York. During the 
afiray he attempted to force the door with a crow-bar, when 
Shell, "quick as lightning," opened the door and drew him 
within his dwelling a prisoner. McDonald, to save his life, 
gave up his ammunition to be fired against his own party with- 
out, Shell's being nearly exhausted. The Loyalists soon after 
attempted to carry the house by an assault, and rushing up to 
its walls, five of them thrust their muskets through its loop- 
holes ; but Shell's wife ruined every musket by bending the 
barrels with an axe. The assailants finally retired, but Shell 
and his family repaired to Fort Dayton, leaving McDonald, 
who had been wounded in the leg, alone in the house. He 
was removed the next day, and suffered amputation of the 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 451 

injured limb, but the blood could not be stanched, and he 
died a few hours after the operation. He wore a silver 
mounted tomahawk, on which Shell, who took it from him, 
counted thirty scalp notches — showing the number of persons 
he had scalped — honorable trophies, indeed ! 

McDonald, Donald. Of North Carolina. He was known 
to be warmly attached to the royal interests, and early in the 
struggle, Governor Martin authorized him to raise and em- 
body all of like sympathies in the Colony. Of the troops thus 
enlisted on the side of the crown, McDonald was to be placed 
in command as captain general. His success was very great. 
The Whigs, alarmed at the aspect of affairs, placed General 
Moore in the field with all the militia of the popular party 
that could be assembled without delay. The opposing forces 
soon met. McDonald was defeated and made prisoner. Many 
other Loyalists were captured, among whom were his son 
who was a colonel, and Kennett, and Daniel McDonald, who 
were also officers. This discomfiture was of much benefit to 
the Whigs, and for a considerable time, subsequently, the 
friends of the king in North Carolina were too much dis- 
heartened to attempt further offensive operations. The pre- 
cipitation of the Loyalists was the cause of their ruin. 

McDonald, James. Of North Carolina. Son of Alexander 
and Flora McDonald. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of infantry 
in the British Legion. 

McDonald, James. An officer of dragoons. After the Revo- 
lution he was high-constable of St. John, New Brunswick, 
and died in that city in 1804. 

McDonald, Lewis. Of Bedford, Westchester County, New 
York. He was at first a Whig, and a captain, and a commit- 
tee-man, but incurring the displeasure of his early political 
associates, was compelled to abandon his home. In 1779 he 
was on Long Island, and was robbed by about thirty rebels 
from Connecticut. 

McDonald, . Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 

New York. He was a lieutenant in the service of the crown, 
and engaged in the border affrays with Butler and other New 



452 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

York Loyalists. During the battle of the Oriskany in 1777, 
he fought hand to hand with a Whig officer named Gardenier, 
who, though wounded, seized a barbed spear and thrust it into 
his side. McDonald dropped dead. 

McDonald. There were several Loyalists of this name 
besides the above ; between some of whom I am not able to 
discriminate. Thus there were many having the sirname 
Alexander. 

McDonald, Alexander. Of Richmond County, New York. 
Was examined in 1775 before the Provincial Congress, and by 
a resolution of that body was ordered to be secured and kept 
in custody, on the charge of concerting measures and employ- 
ing agents to enlist men for the royal army. Alexander, of 
the Parish of St. George, Maryland, July 5, 1775, was de- 
nounced in the public papers as a violator of the Association 
of the Continental Congress. 

McDonald, Alexander. Of North Carolina. Was second 
major of the Cumberland County regiment, but was dismissed 
by the Whigs in 1776, in consequence of his adherence to the 
crown. 

McDonald, Alexander. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
Loyal Foresters. 

McDonald, Alexander. In 1782 was a lieutenant in the 
King's Orange Rangers. 

McDonald, Alexander. Was an officer in a Loyalist corps ; 
went to New Brunswick in 1784, and died in that Colony in 
1835, aged seventy-two. 

McDonald. The same difficulty occurs in distinguishing 
between those of the name of Angus McDonald. 

McDonald, Angus. In 1775 he was arrested in New York 
and sent prisoner to Connecticut ; and the 6th of July of that 
year, complained in a letter from Fairfield Jail, of having been 
placed in close confinement, and said, that he expected " to be 
treated more like a gentleman than a highwayman," &c. His 
wife arrived at his prison on that day, and while she remained 
he prayed for more liberty ; and he averred his willingness to 
suffer death, should he abuse such privileges as might be 
granted to him. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 453 

McDonald, Angus. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Guides and Pioneers. 

McDonald, Angus. In 1782 he was an ensign in the King's 
Rangers, Carohna. 

McDonald, Angus. An officer of the Seventy-first Regiment, 
died at Montreal in 1812. Angus, who served in the Revolu- 
tion, died at Cumberland, New Brunswick, in 1842, aged one 
hundred and six years. 

McDonald. The following, none of whom have been men- 
tioned among the foregoing, were certainly in commission in 
1782. 

McDonald, Archibald. Was surgeon of the Guides and 
Pioneers. 

McDonald, Charles. Was a captain in the Second Ameri- 
can Regiment. 

McDonald, Forbes. Was a captain in the King's Orange 
Rangers. 

I McDonald, James. A lieutenant in the Prince of Wales's 
■ American Volunteers. 

m McDonald, S. Was an ensign of infantry in the British 
B Legion. 

M McDonald, Thomas. Was an ensign in the North Carolina 
^L Volunteers. 

^B^ McDonell, Allan. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. .When, in 1776, General Schuyler was dispatched 
to that County to reduce and secure the Loyalists, he and Sir 
John Johnson entered into a joint negotiation for terms, and 
his name appears with that of the Baronet, in the communi- 
cations to the General. Sir John had previously sent him on 
a secret embassy to Governor Tryon ; and it is probable that 
the severe treatment which the Baronet received at the hands 
of the Whigs, was owing to the knowledge which reached 
Congress, through some of their agents, of this mission to 
Tryon. 

McDonough, Thomas. Of New Hampshire. He was pro- 
scribed and banished, and his estate also was confiscated. He 
was secretary of Governor Wentworth ; and left Portsmouth 
in 1776. 



454 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



McDouGALL, Archibald. An ensign in the North Carohna 
Volunteers. 

McDowALL, Alexander. A Whig officer, and adjutant of 
Colonel VVelles's regiment of the State troops of Connecticut. 
In 1781 he was found guilty of desertion to the royal cause, 
and ordered to be executed. 

McEachran, . In 1782 he was an ensign in the North 

Carolina Highland Regiment. 

McEllery, William. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, 1783. 

McEwEN, James. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774. Among the magistrates who addressed Sir Charles 
Douglas at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 1784, was one of this 
name. 

McFarland, William. A lieutenant in De Lancey's Third 
Battalion. 

McGiLL, John. In 1782 he was an officer of infantry in the 
Queen's Rangers, and at the close of the war went to New 
Brunswick. He removed to Upper Canada, and became a 
person of note. He died at Toronto in 1834, at the age of 
eighty-three. At the time of his decease, he was a member of 
the legislative council of the Colony. 

McGiLCHRisT, William. An Episcopal clergyman, of Salem, 
Massachusetts. He commenced his labors in Salem in 1747, 
and continued in that town until his death in 1780, at the age 
of seventy-three. Before he came to Salem, I suppose, he was 
a minister in South Carolina. Few memorials remain of him; 
but the meagre accounts that exist, give him an excellent 
character. I conclude, that, though he remained with his 
people, the troubles of the times interfered with the regular 
discharge of his duties. He suffered a considerable loss of 
property, and was exposed to many trials; and he said, that 
he " could not freely nor safely walk the streets by reason of 
parly rage and malevolence, and the uncontrolled rancor of 
some men." He bequeathed the arrears of three years' salary 
due to him, and his share of a sum that had been given to 
such Episcopal missionaries as were sufferers by the Revolu- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 455 

tion, to the Society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign 
parts. 

McGiLLis, Donald. He resided at the commencement of the 
Revokition, on the Mohawk river, New York. Embracing 
the royal side in the contest, he formed one of " a determined 
band of young men," who attacked a Whig post, and in the 
face of a superior force cut down the flag-staff, and tore in 
strips the stars and stripes attached to it. Subsequently, he 
joined a grenadier company called the Royal Yorkers, and 
performed eflicient service throughout the war. He settled 
in Canada at the peace, and entering the British service 
again in 1812, was commissioned as a captain in the Colonial 
corps by Sir Isaac Brock. He died at River Raisin, Canada, 
in 1844, aged eighty years. 

McGiLLivRAY, Lachlan. Of Georgia. His property was 
confiscated by that State, and he settled among the Creeks, 
where he became a principal agent of Indian affairs, and ex- 
ercised a hostile spirit towards Georgia. In 1789, his son 
Alexander, by "a principal woman of the Upper Creeks," who 
had been his deputy, and was then his successor, resided in 
the Indian country, and was a personage of vast influence. 
General Knox, Secretary of War, in a report to the President, 
said of him : " He had an English education ; his abilities and 
ambition appear to be great; his resentments are probably 
unbounded against the State of Georgia, for confiscating his 
father's estate, and the estates of his other friends, refugees 
from Georgia, several of whom reside with him among the 
Creeks." From a state paper of an earlier date, I find that 
Alexander, in 1785, obtained permission to form connexions 
with, and establish British commercial houses for the supply of 
the Indians ; and that he was an agent of Spain with a salary. 
He is everywhere spoken of as a man of great talents. He 
died at Pensacola, February 17, 1793. 

McGillivray, William. Of Georgia. He went to England. 
He was in London in 1779. 

McGiNxNis, R. A lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Bat- 
talion. 



456 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

McGlaughlin, William. He was quartermaster of the 
Queen's Rangers, and settled in New Brunswick, and received 
half-pay. He died in the County of York, in 1827, at the age 
of seventy-five. 

McGregor, John. A lieutenant in the New York Volun- 
teers. 

McGuiRE, Thomas. A memher of the Council of North 
Carolina. On the 7th of April, 1775, the Whig Convention 
for electing Delegates to the Continental Congress, was in 
session at Newbern, when the Council advised Governor Mar- 
tin to issue his Proclamation to dissolve the unlawful Assem- 
bly. There were present in Council on this occasion, Hasell, 
Rutherford, Howard, De Rossett, McColloh, Strudwicke, Cor- 
nell, and McGuire, — eight members. 

McGuLLivROY, William Henry. Of South Carolina. After 
the fall of Charleston in 1780, he held a commission under the 
crown. He died, I suppose, before the close of the war. His 
estate was confiscated. 

MoIntosh, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

McKam, Patrick. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

McKay, Angus. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1799, aged forty-four years. 

McKay, James. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the King's 
American Regiment. 

McKay, John. He entered the royal military service, and 
was a captain in the Queen's Rangers, under Simcoe. He 
settled in York County, New Brunswick, after the war, and 
held public stations of honor and trust. He died in that 
County in 1822. His wife was a sister of Chief Justice Saun- 
ders of New Brunswick. 

McKee, Alexander. A "Loyalist of revengeful machina- 
tions." He was imprisoned by the Whigs at Pittsburgh, but 
effected his escape. In 1778 he went through the Indian terri- 
tory to Detroit, to excite the warriors to espouse the royal 
cause. After the peace, he was deputy agent of Indian affairs in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 457 

Canada, in which capacity he found ample opportunity to in- 
dulge his hatred towards the country which he had deserted 
in the hour of peril ; and the Indian war of Washington's ad- 
ministration is attributed, principally, to his influence with 
the savage tribes. In 1794, during General Wayne's cam- 
paign, his barns, stores, and other property, were burned. 

McKeel, Joseph. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. His son John was 
killed in King's County, New Brunswick, in 1846, in an affray 
with a neighbor. 

McKenzie, Andrew. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was 
an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton, and a Petitioner to be 
armed in the royal service. Was banished, and lost his estate 
in 1782. 

McKenzie, Colonel Robert. Of South Carolina. Was in 
commission under the crown. Was banished, and lost his 
estate in 1782. 

McKenzie, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was 
an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton. 

McKethan, Dugald. An ensign in the North Carolina Vol- 
unteers. 

McKiE, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. 

McKiMMEY, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. 

McKloun, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

McKouN, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston with the 
British army, for Halifax. 

McLean, Archibald. He was a captain in the New York 
Volunteers, and was in several battles. In the severe conflict at 
Eutaw Springs, he was distinguished for his bravery and good 
conduct. In 1783 he went to St. John, New Brunswick, and 
was a grantee of that city. During the war of 1812 he was 
again in commission, and was staff adjutant. His place of 
39 



458 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

residence was in York County, and he was a member of the 
House of Assembly, and a magistrate of that County, for 
many years. He died at Nashwaak, New Brunswick, in 1830, 
aged seventy-six. He received half-pay. 

McLean, Charles. A grantee of the city St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783. 

McLeod, John. Of North Carolina. Lost his estate under 
the confiscation act in 1779. 

McLeod, Norman. Of North Carolina. Was a captain in 
the North Carolina Highland Regiment. 

McLeod. Of North Carolina. Murdock was surgeon, and 
Roderick an ensign and adjutant of the North Carolina Vol- 
imteers. Besides these, a Captain McLeod was killed in 
battle, — upwards of twenty bullets went through his body. 

McLeod, Norman. In 1782 was a captain in the third 
battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

McLeod, Roderick. Residence unknown. Was a lieuten- 
ant in the King's American Regiment ; and in 1782 there was 
a Donald, a lieutenant in the King's Orange Rangers, and the 
same year a Donald, of the same rank, in the British Legion. 
Among the grantees of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, were 
Duncan, and John McLeod. John was a merchant, and died 
in that city in 1805, aged forty-five. 

McLeod, William. Of Elizabethtown, New Jersey. Was 
appointed an ensign in the Fifty-second Regiment, in 1775. 
On the 6th of July, the Whig Committee of that town, hear- 
ing that he had gone to New York, for the purpose of embark- 
ing there for Boston, and of joining his regiment, detained his 
baggage, and notified their friends at New York. The Provin- 
cial Congress of New York was in session, and voted to arrest 
him and send him back to Elizabethtown ; but to treat him 
with all possible lenity as a gentleman and soldier. 

McLinachus, James. Of Charleston, South Carohna. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

McMahon, John. He was a captain in the Second American 
Regiment in 1782. 

McMaster, Daniel. Merchant, of Boston. Implicated in 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 459 

some measure in the transactions which involved James and 
Patrick, he was compelled to leave that town. He went to 
Halifax in 1776. Resuming the business to which he was 
educated, at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, after the war, he 
became eminent. He married Hannah Ann, the only daughter 
of the Reverend Samuel Andrews, a Loyalist clergyman. She 
died at St. Andrew, September 28, 1827, and his own death 
occurred at the same place, June 16, 1830, at the age of 
seventy-six years. He was a gentleman of courteous and affa- 
ble manners. 

McMaster, James. Merchant, of Boston. Having violated 
the non-importation agreement, he found popular opinion so 
strong against him, that he removed to Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire. At that place, his delinquency was soon known, 
and a public meeting was held, at which it was resolved that 
it was highly unreasonable to suffer persons who had counter- 
acted the plans of the Whigs of the neighboring Colonies, to 
come there and sell their goods, and that those who encour- 
aged, aided, or assisted such persons, should be regarded as 
enemies to the town. McMaster, in 1775, signed and published 
a Submission, but was compelled to leave. By the act of New 
Hampshire of 1778, he was proscribed and banished, and his 
property confiscated. In Boston his offences seem to have 
been two-fold : first, the selling of Tea. and the enrolling 
himself among the Addressers of Hutchinson. He settled 
eventually at St. Patrick, New Brun.swick, where he resumed 
mercantile pursuits, and was highly respected. One of his 
daughters married the late Honorable James Allanshaw, mem- 
ber of her Majesty's Legislative Council of New Brunswick, 
and another daughter is the wife of Reverend Samuel Thomp- 
son, rector of the Episcopal Church, St. George. McMaster 
died in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, in 1804. 

McMaster, John. He was proscribed and banished, and 
his estate confiscated by the act of New Hampshire. 

McMaster, Patrick. Merchant of Boston, and a partner 
of James. He was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 
Quitting the country witk» the British army at the evacuation 



460 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

of Boston in 1776, he became a merchant at Hahfax, Nova 
Scotia. 

McMath, William. He was a Whig soldier of Colonel 
Lamb's Artillery, and in 1778 was tried for desertion to the 
royal forces. The Court found him guilty, and sentenced him 
to be immediately executed. Washington, subsequently, post- 
poned his doom, and finally pardoned him. 

McMillan, Alexander, In 1782 he was a lieutenant in De 
Lancey's Second Battalion. 

McMillan, . A lieutenant in De Lancey's First Battal- 
ion ; and a grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

McMoNGLE, Hugh. After settling in New Brunswick, he 
was a member of the Assembly, from the County of Westmore- 
land. In 1S03, while travelling on the ice, he broke through, 
and was drowned. 

McMuLLEN, Alexander. Embarked at Boston, with the 
British army, for Halifax in 1776. 

McNab, Allan. A lieutenant of cavalry in the Queen's 
Rangers, under Colonel Simcoe. During the war he received 
thirteen wounds. He accompanied his commander to Upper 
Canada, then a dense unpeopled wilderness, where he settled. 
His son. Sir Allan McNab, is a noted man. He was bora 
some years after his father became an inhabitant of Canada, 
and in the war of 1812 was a lad. But at the age of fourteen 
he volunteered to join a grenadier company of the eighth 
British regiment, in an attack in which most of the company 
were killed ; and was subsequently engaged in several other 
actions. His afiair, in cutting out and burning the steamer 
Caroline, during the recent insurrection in Canada, is too fresh 
in the public mind to need a particular mention. For his 
conduct on this occasion he was knighted ; and for this and 
other services at the head of the loyal militia in the course of 
the outbreak, thanks were voted him by several Colonial legisla- 
tures, the militia of Upper Canada presented him with a sword, 
and the United Service Club in London, in opposition to a 
standing rule, selected him an honorary member. Previous to 
the union of the two Colonies, he was Speaker of the House of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 461 

Assembly of Upper Canada, but lost the place and its emolu- 
ments, when the act of parliament creating but one legislative 
body went into operation. He applied for indemnitication, 
but, it is believed, has been unsuccessful. He held also the 
post of dueen's Counsel in the district in which he resides, 
but has been superseded, " to gratify the revenge," says Sir 
Francis Head, "of rebels against whom Sir Allan had been 
obliged to appear as prosecutor for the crown." 

McNair, John. Of North Carolina. His property was con- 
fiscated in 1779. One of the last acts of Governor Martin, 
before the royal government came to an end in 1775, was, to 
appoint this gentleman a Justice of the Peace for the County 
of Orange. 

McNair, Ralph. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. Before the Revolution, he was a member 
of the House of Assembly. 

McNamara, Patrick. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, 1783. 

McNiEL, Archibald. Baker, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774. and of Gage in 1775 ; went to Halifax in 
1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

McNiel, Charles and Niel. Of Connecticut. Were mem- 
bers of the Reading Association. 

McNiel, Charles. Residence unknown. Was captain lieu- 
tenant of the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers. Archi- 
bald, (possibly the Archibald of Boston,) was a member of the 
Loyal Artillery in 1795, and died on the river St. John about 
the year 1808. 

McNiel, Daniel. In 1782 was captain of the North Caro- 
lina Volunteers ; and John was an ensign in the same corps. 

McNiel, Dominick. Of Tuscarora, Pennsylvania. Failing 
to appear and to be tried for treason, the Council, in 1778, 
directed that he should stand attainted. 

McNiel, Duncan. Of North Carolina. Was major of the 
Cumberland County regiment, but in consequence of his ad- 
herence to the crown, the Whigs dismissed him from office in 
1776, and commissioned David Smith, Esquire, in his stead. 
39* 



462 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

James, of Halifax County, and Arthur, lost their estates in 
1779, under the confiscation act. 

McNiEL, Hector. Of North Carolina. Was a person of ' 
some consideration. In the first military elections after the 
royal government was at an end, he received a commission at 
the hands of the Whigs. But in 1776 he appeared in arms 
against them, and was taken prisoner, and confined in jail. 

McNiEL, James. Was proprietor of a lot at Red Head, New 
Brunswick, in 1784. 

McNiEL, William. Of Boston. Accompanied the British 
troops to Halifax at the evacuation, and remained in exile 
during the war. In 1784 he returned to Boston by way of 
Philadelphia. 

McPherson, Charles. Was a grantee of St. John, New 
Brunswick. He removed from King's Bridge, New York, and 
died at St. John, 1823, aged seventy. 

McPherson, Donald. Was a captain of infantry in the Brit- 
ish Legion. 

McPherson, Lieutenant . Of the New York Volunteers ; 

was a grantee of St. John, New Brunswick. 

McPherson, Peter. Was a captain in the Guides and Pio- 
neers. 

Mecan, Edward. An ensign in the King's American Regi- 
ment. 

Mecklejohn, George. An Episcopal minister, of North 
Carolina, Though " a high church-man in his religion, and 
a high Tory in politics," the Provincial Congress in August, 
1775, were compelled to employ him as their chaplain. The 
service was one of necessity on both sides ; and quite as un- 
willingly as he was engaged on the part of the Whigs, he per- ^ 
formed the duty. His place of residence seems to have been 
Hillsborough. 

Meeker, Jonathan. Of Reading, Connecticut A member 
of the Association of Loyalists ; as was Ephraim Meeker of 
the same town. 

Meetin, Peter. A magistrate, of New York. He lived at 
or near Warrensburgh. In 1775 he declared in a company of 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS, 463 

men who had met to talk about the troublesome times, that he 
" had the king's proclamation from Governor Gage, to offer 
pardon to any person who would recant from the Whig Asso- 
ciation," and that he "expected soon to have the handling of 
the estates of all such as refused," &c. 

Meggett, William. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

Megoun, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Mein, John. Printer and bookseller, of Boston. Partner 
of Fleming in the publication of the Boston Chronicle. He 
was well educated, and possessed literary talents to a very 
respectable degree. He took a decided part in favor of the 
oppressive acts of the British ministry ; and the Chronicle be- 
came a vehicle for the most bitter attacks upon some of the 
prominent Whigs of Massachusetts. Mein, who was the 
editor, became so obnoxious, that he finally secreted himself 
until an opportunity occurred for going to England. He em- 
barked in November of 1769 ; his bookstore was then closed, 
and the Chronicle was discontinued soon after, in 1770. In 
London he engaged himself, under pay of the British govern- 
ment, as a writer against the Colonies, but after the* com- 
mencement of hostilities, sought other employment. He never 
returned to the United States. 

Mellows, Michael. In 1775 he was sent prisoner from 
Long Island, New York, to Massachusetts, and confined 
within the limits of the town of Sutton. 

Melville, David. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city; and in 1784 was 
proprietor of lands opposite Long Island, New Brunswick. 

Menzies, Alexander. Of New York. Was major of De 
Lancey's Third Battalion, and died at Hempstead, New 
York, in 1781. 

Menzies, Alexander. Of New York. Was an ensign in a 
corps of Loyalists. In ] 783 he went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and received the grant of a city lot. He enjoyed half- 
pay. 



464 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Menzies, John. Of New York. Was a grantee of St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and established himself as a naer- 
chant. 

Menzies, Thomas. Of New York. Was a major in the 
American Legion, the corps commanded by Arnold after his 
treason. In 1783 Major Menzies settled in New Brunswick, 
and held various civil and military offices. He died near St 
John in 1831, at the advanced age of ninety-eight. He re- 
ceived half-pay nearly half a century, 

Mercer, Joseph. A captain in a corps of Loyalists. He 
settled in New Brunswick, and died there. Sarah, his widoWy 
died in Norton, King's County, in 1837, aged ninety. 

Merren, Perez. In 1775 he was sent prisoner from Long 
Island, New York, to Massachusetts, and confined within the 
limits of the town of Shrewsbury. 

Merrin, Joseph. Surgeon of the Georgia Loyalists. 

Merritt, Thomas. Of New York. In 1782 he was comet 
of cavalry in the Queen's Rangers. He settled in Upper 
Canada, and held the offices of sheriflf of the District of 
Niagara, and surveyor of the king's forests. He received half- 
pay as a retired military officer. He died at St. Catharine's, 
May, 1842, aged eighty-two. His brother Nehemiah, who 
was a gentleman of great wealth, died at St John, New Bruns- 
wick, the same year, at the age of seventy-two. 

Merritt, Thomas. Of New York. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick, and died at St. John in 1821, aged ninety-five. 

Merritt. Several of Westchester County, New York, were 
Protesters ; namely, Elisha, Edward, and Edward junior, Na- 
thaniel, and Elisha. 

Mersereau, John, David, and Paul, Junior. Were grantees 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

Meserve, George. Distributer of Stamps for New Hamp- 
shire, and Collector of the Customs at Portsmouth ; was pro- 
scribed by the acts of New Hampshire of 1778, and his estate, 
real and personal, confiscated. He was a native of Ports- 
mouth, and his father, who was a ship-carpenter by trade, 
was lieutenant colonel of the New Hampshire troops at the 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 465 

siege of Louisburg in 1745, and was engaged in the expedi- 
tion against that city in 1758. History assigns to Colonel 
Meserve the device of constructing the rude sledges on which 
the cannon were drawn over the morasses near Louisburg 
during the first siege. George, the son, while in England, re- 
ceived the appointment of stamp distributer ; and embarking 
for home, arrived at Boston in September of 1765. Before 
landing, he was informed of the opposition to the act, and 
was advised to resign his office, which he did. On reaching 
Portsmouth, he resigned a second time on the parade, be- 
^re going to his residence. Subsequently, on receiving his 
commission, the Sons of Liberty compelled him publicly to 
surrender that instrument, which they bore about the town on 
the point of a sword; and required of him on oath before 
Justice Claggett, that he would not directly or indirectly at- 
tempt the performance of official duty. After the repeal of the 
act, and on the arrival of Secretary Conway's circular in 1766, 
enclosing a resolution of parliament to the effect, that the 
Colonies should make recompense to such persons as had suf- 
fered injury or damage in consequence of their assisting to 
execute the act, Meserve applied to the Assembly of New 
Hampshire for compensation, which application was referred 
to a committee, who made a report adverse to his claim, and 
it was dismissed. He afterwards went to England and ob- 
tained the office of Comptroller of the Customs at Boston ; but 
by permission of the British government, he exchanged places 
with Robert Hallowell, Collector of the Customs at Ports- 
mouth. This collectorship was worth about £600 sterling 
per annum ; and Meserve held it for some years, until the 
commencement of the Revolution. He retired from New 
Hampshire in 1776, and accompanied the British army to 
Halifax. 

Metzner, Frederick. Was a captain of cavalry in the 
American Legion under Arnold. 

Michie, Harry. Of South Carolina. Went to England. 
He was an Addresser of the king in 1779. 

MiDDLETON, A. Of Virginia. Went to England. In 1779 
he was in London. 



I 



466 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



MiLBY, William. Yeoman, of Sussex County, Delaware. 
In 1778 it was declared by law, that failing to surrender and 
be tried for his treason and offences, his property should be 
confiscated to the State. 

Miles, Elijah. In 1782 he was a captain in De Lancey's 
Third Battalion. In 1783 he settled in New Brunswick, and 
became a person of note. He was a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas, a Colonel in the militia, and a member of the 
House of Assembly. He died at Maugerville, in the County 
of Sunbury, in 1831, at the age of seventy-nine. He received 
half-pay. • 

Miles, Samuel. He settled in New Brunswick, and in 1805 
was an alderman of St. John. He died in 1824, aged eighty- 
two. 

Miles, Thomas, Junior. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. 

Millar, Charles Henry. An officer in the Queen's Ran- 
gers. 

Millar, John. A lieutenant of cavalry in the British 
Legion. 

Millar, Nathaniel B. Was lieutenant of cavalry in the 
South Carolina Royalists. 

Millar, Thomas. A captain of infantry in the British 
Legion. 

Miller, Alexander. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1827, aged seventy-four. 

Miller, Andrew. Merchant, of Halifax, North Carolina. 
The Whig Committee of Halifax County, December 21, 1774, 
"Resolved unanimously, To show our disapprobation of his 
conduct, and to encourage such merchants who have signed 
the Association, that we will not, from this day, purchase 
any goods, wares, or merchandises of any kind whatever, 
from said Andrew Miller, or any person acting for, or in 
partnership with him^; and that we will have no commerce or 
dealings with him, after paying our just debts, and fulfilling 
the contracts already entered into for commodities of this year's 
produce; and we also recommend it to the people of this 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 467 

County in particular, and to all who wish well to their coun- 
try, to adopt the same measure." In 1779 his property was 
confiscated. He was, probably, a person of standing. I find 
in a letter from a gentleman of North Carolina, who was in 
London in 1774, to a friend at home, the following passage. 
" When I left my power of attachment with you, I told you 
that Andrew Miller and I had agreed, that all money you or 
he might receive of mine, should lie in his hands for three 
years, he paying me interest at the rate of five per cent, for 
two years and a half only. I had a letter from him lately, in 
which he appears perfectly to recollect this, but seems to have 
forgot that the money was to be remitted at the Virginia ex- 
change, making an allowance of thirty-five per cent, to bring 
the product into Virginia money j he charges thirty-three and 
one half," «fec. 

Miller, E. An Episcopal clergyman, at Braintree, Mas- 
sachusetts. He was a missionary from the Society for Pro- 
pagating the Gospel, and his name is connected with the 
earliest disputes of the Revolution. He died in 1762 or 1763, 
at which time the project of sending a Bishop to America had 
been agitated for some years ; and the minds of the people 
were well prepared for an attack upon the established church. 
His decease was unkindly noticed in one of the newspapers, 
which created a heated controversy ; and before the excite- 
ment was allayed, the dissenters found themselves arrayed on 
one side, and the dependents of the crown on the other. The 
writings which his labors and decease produced, are to be 
considered as a part of the revolutionary dissensions in Mas- 
sachusetts. For it is to be remembered, that in that Colony, the 
question of Episcopacy, had very great influence in the forma- 
tion and in the action of the two political parties. 

Miller, George. An eminent merchant, of Dobbs County, 
North Carolina. His property Avas confiscated in 1779. For 
a while he seems to have acted heartily with the Whigs. He 
was a member of the Conventions in 1774 and 1775, which 
Governor Martin denounced, and which sustained thf proceed- 
ings of the Continental Congress. Hewes ind Hooper, who 



468 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

signed the Declaration of Independence, were his associates in 
1774. In 1776, he fell off, declaring, that he was by no rpeans 
ripe for so strong and questionable a measure, as that of 
entire separation from the mother country. His defection was 
much regretted, since he was a gentleman of consideration, 
and of noble traits of character. Yet he did much to oppose 
the sanguinary intolerance of the Loyalists of North Carolina, 
and on one occasion, appeared in opposition to them at the 
head of a company of volunteer riflemen. He went to Scot- 
land. In 1779 he was in London, a Loyalist Addresser of 
the king. 

Miller, John. Embarked at Boston with the British army, 
for Halifax, in 1776. 

Miller, Robert. Of Virginia. Went to England. He was 
in London July, 1779. 

Miller, Stephen. He was a magistrate of the County of 
York, New Brunswick, and died at Fredericton in 1817, aged 
ninety. 

Miller, Thomas. An ensign of infantry in the British 
Legion. 

Miller, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. In 1782 there was a 
cornet of cavalry in the British Legion of this name. 

MiLLiDGE, Thomas. Of New Jersey. Previous to the Rev- 
olution, he was his Majesty's surveyor general of that Colony. 
He entered the military service, and was major of the first 
battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, raised by Skinner. At 
the close of the war he went to New Brunswick, and made 
survey of the river St. Croix, and the waters adjacent. H< 
settled in Nova Scotia, and was a colonel in the militia. Hi 
died at Granville, Annapolis County, in 1816, aged eighty-one 
Mercy, his widow, survived him four years, and died at' 
Annapolis at the age of eighty-one. His son Thomas was an 
eminent merchant, a magistrate, and a member of the House 
of Assembly, and resided at St. John, New Brunswick, until 
his decease, at the age of sixty-two. 

MiLLiDGE, Phineas. Of Ncw Jersey. Son of Thomas Mil- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 469 

lidge. He was an ensign ,in his father's battalion, and retired 
on half-pay. He died at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1836, 
figed seventy-one. 

MiLLiGAN, Joseph. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Mills, John. Of South Carolina. Was in England, July, 
1779. 

Mills, Nathaniel. Printer, of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. He was born in Massachusetts, and served 
his apprenticeship with Fleming, already noticed. The friends 
of the royal government urged him and John Hicks to pur- 
chase of Green and Russell, the Massachusetts Gazette and 
Post Boy, which they did in 1773. Under their management, 
this paper took strong ground in opposition to the measures of 
the Whigs, and defended the ministry and Colonial servants of 
the crown, with great zeal and ability. The commencement 
of hostilities in 1775, put an end to its publication. Mills re- 
mained with the British troops while they occupied Boston, 
and on the evacuation, accompanied them to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, Thence he proceeded to Great Britain, but soon re- 
turned to New York, and became interested with the Robert- 
sons, in the Royal American Gazette. He continued in New 
York during the remainder of the war, and at the peace went 
a second time to Halifax, and from thence to Shelburne, in the 
same Colony. 

Mills, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished in 178i, 
and his property confiscated. He may have been inclined to 
the Whig side in 1775, since in that year the Whig Convention 
made him a member of the Committee to carry out the views of 
the Continental Congress on the subject of the Association. 

Mills, William Henry. Of South Carolina. He held a 
royal commission after the fall of Charleston in 1 780. He died 
probably before the close of the Revolution. His property 
was confiscated. 

Mills. Several persons of this name signed a Declaration 
of loyalty in January, 1775. To wit : David Mills, Obadiah 
40 



470 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Mills, John Mills, Nathaniel Mill§, junior, and Hope Mills 
junior. They all belonged to Jamaica, Long Island, New 
York. In 1776 the following, of Queen's County, signed an 
acknowledgment of allegiance ; to wit : Isaac, Obadiah, 
Amos, Nathaniel junior, and Samuel, John Mills was a 
grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

Mitchell, Andrew. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was 
an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Mitchell, Augustine, John, John Junior, and Robert. Of 
Queen's County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance Oc- 
tober, 1776. 

Mitchell, Cary. Of Virginia. Went to England, and was 
in London July, 1779, 

Mitchell, John. Of South Carolina. After the fall of 
Charleston in 1780, he held an office under the crown. Estate 
confiscated. 

Mitchell, Thomas. Mariner, of Boston. Went to Halifax 
in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Mitchelson, David. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. In 1776 he accompanied the royal army to Halifax. 

Mitchelson, David. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with 
' the British army, for Halifax. 

Minot, Christopher. Tide-waiter, of Boston. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. He went to Halifax in 1776. 

MiNOT, Samuel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 

MioT, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Moffat, James. Was a lieutenant in the Second American 
Regiment. 

Moffat, Thomas. Physician, of New London. He had 
property in Massachusetts, which was confiscated by an act of 
that State. He was one of the writers of the letters sent to 
Massachusetts by Franklin. He went to England, and was a 
Loyalist Addresser of the king, July, 1779. 

MoNCRiEF, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 



1 



'W 



OF AMERICAX LOYALISTS. 471 

MoNDEN, Charles. In 17? 2 he was chaplain of the Second 
BattaUon of New Jersey Vohinteers. 

MoNFORT, Garret, John, Peter, and W. Of Queen's Coun- 
ty, New York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. 

Montell, Anthony. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Montgomery, Archibald. Was at New York, June, 1783, 
preparing to embark for Nova Scotia. 

Montgomery, John. Was a grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, 1785. 

Montgomery, Joseph. Was an auctioneer in St. John, New 
Brunswick, 1785. 

Montgomery, William. Was an ensign in De Lancey's 
Third Battalion. 

Moody, James. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the First 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He was a celebrated 
partisan officer, and performed many exploits peculiar to that 
species of warfare. He delighted in seizing and carrying off 
Whig Committee-men, and was fond of relating the means 
which he employed to catch them. At the peace, he settled 
in Nova Scotia, where he was known as Colonel Moody. He 
died at Sissibou, Nova Scotia, in 1809, aged sixty-five. He 
received half-pay. 

Moody, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with the 
British army, for Halifax. He was accompanied by John 
Moody, junior. 

Moody, John. In 1781 he was executed at Philadelphia as 
a spy. 

Moore, Benjamin. Of New York. An Episcopal clergyman. 
Was deputy chaplain of the hospital staff, and was stationed 
at the city in 1782, and at the same time was assistant rector. 

Moore, John. Of Massachusetts. In 1776 he embarked at 
Boston, with the British army, for Halifax. The death of a 
Loyalist of this name occurred on the river St. John, about 
the year 17j0. He was supposed, by one who remembers 
him, to have been a native of New England. 

Moore. Loyalists of this name were numerous. Those of 



«•?* 



472 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



Queen's County, New York, who acknowledged allegiance in 
1776, were, Joseph, John, Jacob, Samuel senior, John junior, 
James, Lambert, Stephen, Nathaniel, Nathaniel junior, Benja- 
min, Samuel, and David. Among the Addressers of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Sterling of the Forty-second Regiment, in April, 
1779, were, John Moore, John junior, Samuel senior, Jacob, 
Samuel the 3d, John, David, Samuel junior, Nathaniel, and 
Nathaniel junior. 

Moore, John. In 1782 was deputy receiver-general of quit 
rents of New York. In July, 1783, he announced his deter- 
mination to remove to Nova Scotia, and was one of the fifty- 
five petitioners who applied for extensive grants of land in 
that Colony. See Ahijah Willard. 

Moore, Lambert, Of New York. Was a notary public in 
the city, and an officer in the Superintendent Department. 

Moore, Thomas William. Of New York. Was a captain 
in De Lancey's Second Battalion. 

Moore, Thomas. Of New Jersey. Was chairman of a 
Loyalist meeting at Hackensack, in 1775. 

Moore, John. Of Tryon County, North Carolina. Lost his 
estate in 1779, under the confiscation act. 

MoRAN, James. Was an officer in the Superintendent De- 
partment at New York. 

More, John. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, New 
York. He was a soldier under the crown, and served under 
Sir John Johnson, and was living in 1838, to relate his adven- 
tures and those of the corps to which he belonged. 

Morehouse, Daniel. Of Connecticut. A member of the 
Reading Association. He became an officer in the Queen's 
Rangers, and retired at the close of the war on half-pay. He 
went to New Brunswick, and was a magistrate, and a major 
in the militia. He died in the County of York in 1835, aged 
seventy-seven. 

Morehouse, James. A grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783. 

Morehouse, John. Of Connecticut. A member of the Read- 
ing Association. He settled in Nova Scotia, and at his de- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 473 

cease was one of the oldest magistrates in the Colony. He 
died on Digby Neck in 1839, aged seventy-eight. 

Morgan, Captain James. Of Reading, Connecticut. A mem- 
ber of the Association. 

MoRGANAN, William. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 he was 
tried on a charge of holding intercourse with the royal forces, 
and for other offences; and was sentenced to be kept at hard 
labor during the war, not less than thirty miles from the British 
camp, and to suffer death if caught making his escape. 

MoRGRiDGE, John. Of South Carolina. Went to England. 
In 1779 he was in London. 

MoRRELL. Eleven persons of this name of Queen's County, 
New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
John, Robert, John, James, John, Thomas, John, Richard, 
Caleb, Jonathan, and Joseph. Among the Addressers of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Sterling of the Forty-second Regiment, April, 
1779, were John Morrell, Richard, James, Jonathan, Abraham 
senior, and Abraham junior. John Morrell, a Loyalist, died 
at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1817, aged sixty-nine ; proba- 
bly one of the above. 

Morris, David. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1817, 
aged sixty-six years. 

Morris, Enoch. Wheelwright, of Hilstown, Pennsylvania. 
In Council, in 1778, it was ordered, that, failing to surrender to 
be tried for treason, he stand attainted. 

Morris, John. Comptroller of the Customs of South Caro- 
lina. 

Morris, Roger. Of New York. In the French war he was 
a captain in the British army, and one of the aids of the ill- 
fated Braddock. He married Mary, daughter of Frederick 
Phillipse, Esquire, and settled in New York. At the com- 
mencement of the Revolution he was a member of the 
Council of the Colony, and continued in office until the peace, 
although the Whigs organized a government as early as 1777, 
under a written and well framed constitution. A part of the 
Phillipse estate was in possession of Colonel Morris in right of 
his wife, and was confiscated; and that the whole interest 
40* 



"% 



474 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



should pass under the act, Mrs. Morris was included in the 
attainder. It is believed that this lady, her sister Mrs. Robin- 
son, and Mrs, Ingles, were the only females who were at- 
tainted of treason during the struggle. But it appeared in due 
time, that the confiscation act did not affect the rights of Mrs. 
Morris's children. The fee-simple of the estate was valued by 
the British government at £20,000 ; and, by the rules of de- 
termining the worth of life interests, the life interests of 
Colonel Morris and his wife were fixed at £12,605, for which 
sum they received a certificate of compensation. 

In 1787 the attorney-general of England examined the case, 
and gave the opinion, that the reversionary interest (or property 
of the children at the decease of the parents) was not included 
in their attainder, and was recoverable under the principles of 
law and of right. In the year 1809, their son. Captain Henry 
Gage Morris of the royal navy, in behalf of himself and his 
two sisters, accordingly sold this reversionary interest to John 
Jacob Astor, Esquire, of New York, for the sum of £20,000 
sterling. In 1828 Mr. Astor made a compromise with the 
State of New York, by which he received for the rights thus 
purchased by him (with or without associates) the large 
amount of five hundred thousand dollars. The terms of the 
arrangement required, that within a specified time he should 
execute a deed of conveyance in fee-simple, with warrantee 
against the claims of the Morrises — husband and wife — their 
heirs, and all persons claiming under them ; and that he 
should also obtain the judgment of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, afllrming the validity and perfectibility of his 
title. These conditions were complied with, and the respecta- 
ble body of farmers, who held the confiscated lands under 
titles derived from the sales of the commissioners of forfeitures, 
were thus quieted in their possessions. Colonel Morris died in 
England in 1794, aged sixty-seven; and Mary, his widow, 
died in 1825, at the age of ninety-six. Their remains were 
deposited near Savior-gate Church, York. Their son, above 
mentioned, erected a monument to their memory. It is under- 
stood that the British government made them a second com- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 475 

pensation for their losses, and that the whole sum received 
was £17,000 sterling. Their children were as follows ; Henry- 
Gage, a captain in the royal navy ; Amherst, who was named 
for his god-father Lord Amherst, wjio was also a captain in 
the royal navy, and who died unmarried in 1802; Joanna, 
who married Captain Thomas Cowper Hincks, of the British 
Dragoons, and who died in 1819 ; and another daughter whose 
name and fate have not been ascertained. To the memory of 
Captain Amherst Morris, there is a monument at Baildon, 
England. Of Captain Henry Gage Morris, honorable mention 
is made in the British naval history. Of Mrs. Morris's early 
life, there is a most interesting incident. That Washington 
had some desire to become her suitor, is a fact which rests on 
the highest authority. 

In Mr. Sparks's Life of the illustrious Commander-in-chief, 
there is the following passage. *' While in New York," in 
1756, Washington " was lodged and kindly entertained at the 
house of Mr. Beverley Robinson, between whom and himself 
an intimacy of friendship subsisted, which indeed continued 
without change, till severed by their opposite fortunes twenty 
years afterwards in the Revolution. It happened that Miss 
Mary Phillips, a sister of Mrs. Robinson, and a young lady of 
rare accomplishments, was an inmate in the family. The 
charms of this lady made a deep impression upon the heart of 
the Virginia Colonel. He went to Boston, returned, and was 
again welcomed to the hospitality of Mr. Robinson. He 
lingered there till duty called him away ; but he was careful 
to entrust his secret to a confidential friend, whose letters kept 
him informed of every important event. In a few months 
intelligence came that a rival was in the field, and that the 
consequences could not be answered for, if he delayed to renew 
his visits to New York. Whether time, the bustle of the 
camp, or the scenes of war, had moderated his admiration, or 
whether he despaired of success, is not known. He never 
saw the lady again, till she was married to that same rival. 
Captain Morris, his former associate in arms, and one of 
Braddock's aids-de-camp." In an English work, shown to me 



I 



476 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

by Mrs. Morris's relatives in New Brunswick, it is stated that 
she refused Washington. But this is very doubtful ; and the 
passage just cited, which is founded upon Washington's 
papers, seems to utterly disprove the assertion. Imagination 
dwells upon the outlawry of a lady whose beauty and virtues 
won the admiration of the great Whig Chief. Humanity is 
shocked, that a woman was attainted of treason, for no crime 
but that of clinging to the fortunes of the husband, whom she 
had vowed on the altar of religion never to desert. 

Morrison, Archibald. Of New York. Was an ensign in the 
Loyal American Regiment. 

Morrison, George and Malcolm. Of New York. Lost 
their estates under the confiscation act of that State. 

Morrison, John. Of New Hampshire. He was ordained 
at Peterborough in 1766. In 1772 the connexion was dis- 
solved, when he visited Charleston, South Carolina. After 
his return, in 1775, he joined the army at Cambridge, but 
went over to the royal army immediately after the battle of 
Bunker's Hill, and was appointed to a place in the commissary 
department. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished under 
the Act of New Hampshire. He died at Charleston, South 
Carolina, at the close of the year 1782. His wife was Sarah 
Ferguson, of Peterborough. Mrs. Morrison was living in 
1822. • 

Morrow, Colonel . Of Boston. He was in IJn gland 

in 1776, and in 1783 a Loyalist Refugee; and was a pensioner 
of the British government. 

Morton, Alexander. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, 1783. 

Morton, Lemuel. Of Massachusetts! Settled in Nova Scotia, 
and was a magistrate, and a major in the militia. He died at 
Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 1811. 

MosELEY, John. A grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, 
1783. 

MoTT, Jacob S. After the war, he was King's Printer for 
New Brunswick. He died at St. John, 1814, aged forty-one. 

MoTT.' Eleven persons of this name of Queen's County 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 477 

New York, acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. To wit : 
Richard, Jacob junior, Sylvester, Jackson, Adam senior, John, 
Adam, Samuel, Samuel the 3d, Jacob, and Noah junior. In 
1780, Joseph and John Mott, of Queen's County, assisted in 
the capture of the Whig privateer Revenue. During the war, 
William Mott, of Great Neck, was robbed and much beaten ; 
and Adam Mott, (father of Samuel,) of Cow Neck, was also 
visited by a party of marauders ; both of these Motts were 
known as prominent Loyalists. 

Mount, John. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was a grantee of that city. He removed to Lan- 
caster, New Brunswick, but died while at St. John, 1819, 
aged fifty-seven. 

Muir, George. Of Virginia. Went to England. He was 
an Addresser of the king in 1779. 

Mulball, Edward. Petty officer of the Customs. He em- 
barked at Boston for Halifax, with the British army, in 
1776. 

Mulcarty, Patrick. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with 
the British army, for Halifax. 

Mullens, Thomas. Blacksmith, of Leominster, Massachu- 
setts. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. A Loyalist of 
this name was a grantee of, and died at, St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1799, at the age of fifty-four ; and administration 
was granted on his estate the following year. 

MuNCREEF, Richard. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his estate 
was amerced twelve per cent. 

MuNDAY, Nathaniel. In 1782 he was an officer in the 
Queen's Rangers. He was in New Brunswick after the Revo- 
lution, and received half-pay; but left that Colony, and, as it 
is believed, went to Canada. 

Munuer, Simeon. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association. 

MuNN, Alexander. Of North Carolina. His property was 
confiscated in 1779. 

MuNRO, Henry. Was a captain in the Second American 
Regiment. 



478 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

MuNRo, Duncan. A lieutenant of cavalry in the British 
Legion. 

MuNRo, . In 1782 was a major in the North Carolina 

Highland Regiment. 

MuNRO. Among others of the name, John was a grantee of 
St. John, New Brunswick ; Alexander died in that city, 1828, 
aged seventy-four ; and Hugh emigrated to New Brunswick 
in 1783, became a magistrate and member of the House of 
Assembly for the County of Northumberland, and died in the 
County of Gloucester in 1846. 

MuNsoN, Thomas. Of Reading, Connecticut. A member of 
the Association of Loyalists. 

MuRELL, Joseph. Of Pennsylvania. He was tried in 1778, 
on the charges of giving intelligence, and of acting as a guide 
to the enemy. He was convicted of the latter, and sentenced 
to immediate death. His execution was subsequently post- 
poned, and probably he finally escaped the penalty. 

Murphy, Garret. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of 
the Declaration of Loyalty in 1775. 

Murray, Daniel. Of Brookfield, Massachusetts. Son of 
Colonel John Murray. He graduated at Harvard University 
in 1771. In July, 1775, he applied to Washington for leave for 
his sister and two of his brothers to go into Boston. The 
Commander-in-chief, unacquainted with the circumstances of 
the case, referred the subject to the Committee of Safety, and 
that body laid the application before the Provincial Con- 
gress, when the request was refused. Mr. Murray subsequently 
entered the military service of the crown, and was major of 
the King's American Dragoons. In 1778 he was proscribed 
and banished. At the peace, he retired on half-pay. In 1792 
he was a member of the House of Assembly of New Bruns- 
wick. In 1803 he left that Colony in embarrassed circum- 
stances. He died at Portland, Maine, in 1832. 

Murray, James. Of Boston. Was an Addresser of Gage 
in 1775 ; went to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. I suppose he was an officer of the cus- 
toms. 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 479 

Murray, John. Of Rutland, Massachusetts. He was a 
colonel in the militia, for many years a member of the Gen- 
eral Court, and in 1774 was appointed a Mandamus Councillor, 
but was not sworn into office. He abandoned his house on 
the night of the 25th of August of that year, and fled to Bos- 
ton. In 1776 he accompanied the royal army to Halifax. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished ; and in 1779, he lost his 
extensive estates under the conspiracy act. After the Revolu- 
tion, Colonel Murray became a resident of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. He built a house in Prince William street, which (1846) 
is still standing. The lot attached to this dwelling is very 
large, and the market value at the present time is, perhaps, 
£4,000. A part of it is owned by Chief Justice Chipman, and 
is rented to a horticulturist, who raises flowers for sale. The 
Honorable R. L. Hazen of St. John, a member of the Execu- 
tive Council of New Brunswick, and a grandson of Colonel 
Murray, has his portrait, by Copley. He is represented as 
sitting, and in the full dress of a gentleman of the day ; and 
his person is shown to the knees. There is a hole in the 
wig — and the tradition in the family is, that a party who 
sought the Colonel at his house after his flight, vexed because 
he had eluded them, vowed they Avould leave their mark 
behind them ; and accordingly pierced the canvass with a bay- 
onet. 

The descendants of Colonel Murray in New Brunswick, 
have also several relics of the olden time, not destitute of 
interest. Among them are articles of silver-plate of a by-gone 
fashion, books of accounts, business memoranda, muster rolls, 
or list of officers of the regiment which he commanded, deeds 
of his estates, &c. Of the latter, there are no less than 
twenty-two of his lands in Rutland, and several of property in 
Athol. One of the deeds is stamped, but it bears date some 
years previous to the passage of the odious stamp-act. The 
manner in which Colonel Murray kept his books and papers, 
shows that he was a careful, calculating, and exact man in his 
transactions — method is seen in everything. In person, he 
was about six feet three inches high, and well proportioned. 



• 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

In Massachusetts he was a principal man in his section, and 
one of the country gentlemen or colonial noblemen, who lived 
upon their estates in a style which has passed away. The 
wife of the Honorable Daniel Bliss, and the first wife of the 
Honorable Joshua Upham — Loyalists mentioned in these 
pages — were his daughters. 

Murray, John. Son of Colonel John Murray. In 1782 he 
was a captain in the King's American Dragoons. After the 
Revolution, he was an officer of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 
British army. 

Murray, Lindley. Of New York. The celebrated Gram- 
marian. He was born near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1745, 
of Quaker parents. His father, from owning a flour mill, 
became one of the most respectable merchants of America, 
and in 1753 settled at New York. Lindley desired to study 
law, but his wish was opposed, and he entered his father's 
counting room, and commenced preparing himself for com- 
mercial life. But mercantile pursuits proved so disagreeable, 
that he appealed to his father a second time, to be allowed to 
adopt the profession of the law. The parent yielded, and he 
was placed in the office of Benjamin Kissam, Esquire, where 
for about two years he was the fellow student of the illus- 
trious John Jay. After four years' study, he was called to 
the bar, and met with success ; but his practice was interrupt- 
ed by a voyage to England on account of his father's affairs 
and health. In 1771 he returned to New York, and resumed 
the law. His business was very successful, and continued to 
increase, until the- revolutionary controversy reached a crisis. 
He was in a feeble state of health at the time of the suspen- 
sion of proceedings in the courts, and retired from the city 
to Long Island, where he made preparations at a considerable 
expense, to begin the manufacture of salt; but Long Island 
soon after fell into the possession of the royal army, and the 
enterprise was abandoned, as salt could then be freely imported 
from England. Dissatisfied at length with his inactive life, 
and desirous to make provision for his family, he returned to 
the city, which was also occupied by the British troops, and 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 481 

embarked in commerce. He continued in New York until 
about the conclusion of the war, and accumulated an ample 
fortune. Retiring from business, he purchased a country seat 
at Bellevue, three miles from the city, where he remained until 
near the close of 1784, when he embarked for England. His 
attachment to the home of his fathers, he said, "was founded 
on many pleasing associations. In particular, I had strong 
prepossessions in favor of a residence in England, because I was 
ever partial to its political constitution, and the mildness and 
wisdom of its general system of laws." * * * * "On 
leaving my native country, there was not, therefore, any land 
on which I could cast my eyes with so much pleasure ; nor is 
there any which could have afforded me so much real sat- 
isfaction, as I have found in Great Britain. May its politi- 
cal fabric, which has stood the test of ages, and long attracted 
the admiration of the world, be supported and perpetuated by 
Divine Providence." 

He established his residence at Holdgate, near the city of 
York. In 1787 he published his first work, — The Power of 
Religion on the Mind, — which met with favor. Having been 
often solicited to compose a Grammar of the English Language, 
he finally consented to undertake the task ; and in 1795, gave 
the world the fruit of his labors. A second edition was immedi- 
ately called for, and Murray's Grammar soon became a stand- 
ard work. Encouraged to continue his literary career, he 
composed his Exercises, and Key, and published both in 1797 ; 
and in the same year he made an Abridgment of the Grammar. 
His English Reader, the Introduction, and the Sequel, soon 
followed, as did his Spelling Book. For these publications, he 
was liberally paid by the booksellers of London, to whom he 
sold the copyrights. From 1809 until his decease, a period of 
more than sixteen years, he was wholly confined to his house, 
except that during this time he took an occasional airing. 
His physical debility was very great, and for years his infirmi- 
ties did not allow him to rise from his seat. His mental pow- 
ers were, in a good measure, unimpaired to the last. He died 
in 1826, in the eighty-first year of his age. He was an excel- 
41 



482 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



lent man. " His life and death were blessed, and his memory is 
blessed." "His literary works and his good deeds are a 
lasting memorial of him." His integrity and truthfulness 
were unimpeachable. His benevolence was universal. He 
was hospitable and generous, mild, affectionate, and kind. In 
a word, he was a true Christian. In person he was tall and 
stout. His appearance was prepossessing, his features regular, 
his manners and address courteous. " Some have said after 
their first introduction to him, that his aspect and demeanor, 
together with the purity and sanctity of his character, recalled 
to their minds the idea of the apostles and other holy men" of 
the early ages of Christianity. Mr. Murray was a member 
of the Society of Quakers, or Friends ; and his remains were 
interred at York, in the burying-ground of that communion. 
His wife, with whom he lived upwards of fifty-eight years, 
survived him. 

Murray, Robert. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of the 
King's American Dragoons. He settled in New Brunswick, 
and died there of consumption. He received half-pay. 

Murray, Samuel. Son of Colonel John Murray, of Rutland, 
Massachusetts, Graduated at Harvard University in 1772. 
He was with the British troops at Lexington in 1775, and was 
taken prisoner. In a General Order, dated at Cambridge, 
June 15, 1775, it was directed; "That Samuel Murray be 
removed from jail in Worcester to his father's homestead 
in Rutland, the limits of which he is not to pass until further 
orders." In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He died 
previous to 1785. , 

Murray, William. Of Massachusetts. Embarked for Hal- 
ifax with the royal army in 1776. 

Murray. Residence unknown. Several Loyalists of the 
name of Murray, beside the sons of Colonel John, were in the 
royal service. Thus, John was a lieutenant of cavalry in the 
South Carolina Royalists ; Thomas, Edward, and James, 
were officers of infantry in the Queen's Rangers ; and another 
Thomas, a lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Battalion. And 
in South Carolina, Patrick Muckle Murray was in commission 



I 



n 



OF AMERICA.N LOYALISTS. 483 

under the crown, and lost his estate in 1782 under the confis- 
cation act. 

MuRRELL, Robert. Of South Carolina. Estate confis- 
cated. 

MusGROVE, John. Of South Carolina. He was in commis- 
sion under the crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate 
confiscated. 

Nase, Henry. Of New York. He joined the royal army 
at King's Bridge in 1776, and served six years in the Loyalist 
corps called the King's American Regiment. In 1783 he set- 
tled in New Brunswick ; was lieutenant-colonel in the militia, 
and filled several civil offices. He died in King's County, 
New Brunswick, in 1836, aged eighty-four. Before entering 
the service of the crown, his loyalty involved him in much 
trouble with his Whig neighbors ; and he was a great sufferer 
by the events, which made his country free — but himself an 
exile. 

Nash, Richard. Was seized at Long Island, New York, in 
1775, sent to Massachusetts, and confined within the limits of 
the town of Brookfield. 

Nealie, Christopher. Of South Carolina. Held a royal 
commission after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis- 
cated. 

Nelson, Robert. Of North Carolina. Went to England. 
He was in London July, 1779, and a Loyalist Addresser of 
the king. 

Nelson, Theophilus. Of New York. He was included in 
the disfranchising act of that State of 1784, but by an act of 
1786, was restored to his civil rights, on his taking the oath of 
abjuration and allegiance. 

Nervcob, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Ness, John. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Prince of 
Wales's American Volunteers, and adjutant of the corps. 

Newberry, . A Tory sergeant in the British service. 

In 1778, the daughter of a Mr. Mitchell of Cherry Valley, a 



184 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

little girl of ten or twelve years old, in the massacre of the 
family by the Indians, was left alive, though wounded and 
much mangled. Newberry, by a blow of his hatchet, put an 
end to her life. He fell into the hands of General James CUn- 
ton, at Canajoharie, the next year, and was executed. 

Newble, James. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1821 , 
aged ninety-four years. 

Nichols, Widow Ruth. Of Newport, Rhode Island. In the 
spring of 1783 she and her two children arrived at St, John, 
New Brunswick, in the ship Union. 

Nicholson, Arthur. A cornet in the King's American 
Dragoons, and adjutant of the corps. He settled in New 
Brunswick; received half-pay; and died in that Colony. 

NisBETT, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. 

Nixon, Robert. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 the Council 
required him to surrender himself for trial, on pain of standing 
attainted. 

Noble, Benjamin. Of Pittsfi.eld, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Noble, Francis. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. A Loyalist of this name settled 
at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and was a grantee of 
that city. 

Nodes, Thomas. Cordwainer, of Newcastle, Delaware. In 
1778 it was declared by statute, that his property, both real 
and personal, would become absolutely forfeited to the State, 
unless he should surrender and abide trial for treason. 

Norrice, Henry. Of Pennsylvania. Was tried in 1778, on 
a charge of supplying the royal forces with provisions, and 
found guilty. He was sentenced to confinement and to hard 
labor for one month ; and in addition, to the payment of fifty 
pounds for the use of the sick of the Whig camp. 

North, Captain Joshua. Of Brandywine, Delaware. In 
1778 it was declared by law, that, on failing to appear to 
answer to the charge of treason on or before August 1, his 
estate should be confiscated. 



* 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 485 

NoRTHRUP, Benajah. Of Connecticut. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and died at Kingston, King's County, in 1838, 
aged eighty-eight, leading fourteen children, one hundred and 
eighteen grandchildren, and one hundred and eleven great- 
grandchildren. 

Norton, Asa. A physician, of Reading, Connecticut. A 
member of the Association. 

NosTRAND, George. Of Queen's County, New York. Ac- 
knowledged allegiance October, 1776. John and Garret Nor- 
strant, of the same County, signed a Declaration of loyalty 
the year before. 

NosTRANDT. Eleven persons of this name of Queen's 
County, New York, acknowledged allegiance October, 1776. 
To wit : Daniel, Peter, Garret junior, Frederick, Jacob, Peter, 
Garret, Daniel, Garret, Peter junior, and John. 

Nugent, John. An officer in the Superintendent Department 
established at New York. 

Nutting, John. Carpenter, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. 

Nutting, Joseph. He was collector of taxes of the city of 
St. John, and died there in 1826, aged sixty-eight. 

Oakly, David. A magistrate, of Westchester County, New 
York. A Protester at White Plains. 

Obman, Jacob. A lieutenant in the Georgia Loyalists. 

Odell, Reverend Jonathan. An Episcopal clergyman. He 
was a graduate of Yale College. During the Revolution he 
was chaplain of a Loyalist corps. At the close of the war he 
settled in New Brunswick, and is mentioned in the annals of 
that Colony, as the " Honorable and Reverend Jonathan 
Odell." He was the first Secretary of New Brunswick, and 
was Register and Clerk of the Council, and had a seat as 
Councillor. He died in 1818. His daughter Lucy Ann, wife 
of Lieutenant Colonel Rudyerd, of the Royal Engineers, died 
at Halifax in 1829. His widow, Anne, died at Fredericton 
in 1825, aged eighty-five ; and his son, the Honorable William 
Odell, who was his successor as secretary, and held the office 
41* 



*% 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

for thirty-two years, died at Fredericton in 1844, at the age of 
seventy. 

Odell, William. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. Abraham Odell, of that County, 
was also a Protester. 

Ogden, Benjamin. Of Westchester County, New York. A 
Protester at White Plains. Benjamin Ogden, Esquire, Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas, died at Antigonish, Nova 
Scotia, in 1835. 

Ogden, David. He was principal clerk of the post-office de- 
partment of the Colonies, and was considered to be in office in 
1782 — certainly — and probably until the peace. 

Ogden, David. A member of His Majesty's Council, and a 
Judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. After Galloway, 
the celebrated Loyalist of Pennsylvania, retired to England, 
Ogden was a correspondent, and his letters betray much bitter- 
ness of feeling. He was a member of the Board of Refugees 
or Loyalists established at New York in 1779, and composed 
of delegates from the several Colonies. He devised the out- 
lines of a plan for the government of America after her sub- 
mission to Great Britain, an event which he deemed " certain 
and soon to happen, if proper measures were not neglected." 
That plan is curious in many respects, and is here inserted. 
It proposed, — " That the right of taxation of America by the 
British parliament be given up. That the several Colonies 
be restored to their former constitutions and forms of govern- 
ment, except in the instances after mentioned. That each 
Colony have a Governor and Council appointed by the crown, 
and a House of Representatives to be elected by the free- 
holders, inhabitants of the several Counties, not more than 
forty, nor less than thirty for a Colony, who shall have power 
to make all necessary laws for the internal government and 
benefit of each respective Colony, that are not repugnant or 
contradictory to the laws of Great Britain, or the laws of the 
American parliament, made and enacted to be in force in the 
Colonies for the government, utility, and safety of the whole. 
That an American parliament be established for all the Eng- 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 487 

lish Colonies on the continent, to consist of a lord lieutenant, 
barons (to be created for the purpose) not to exceed, at present, 
more than twelve, nor less than eight from each Colony, to be 
appointed by his majesty out of the freeholders, and inhabi- 
tants of each Colony; a House of Commons, not to exceed 
twelve, nor less than eight from each Colony, to be elected by 
the respective Houses of Representatives for each Colony, 
which parliament, so constituted, to be three branches of legis- 
lature of the Northern Colonies, and to be styled and called 
the Lord Lieutenant, the Lords, and Commons of the British 
Colonies in North America. That they have the power of 
enacting laws in all cases whatsoever, for the general good, 
benefit, and security of the Colonies, and for their mutual 
safety, both defensive and offensive, against the king's ene- 
mies, rebels, &c. ; proportioning the taxes to be raised in such 
cases by each Colony. The mode for raising the same to be 
enacted by the General Assembly of each Colony, which, if 
refused or neglected, be directed and prescribed by the North 
American parliament, with power to levy the same. That 
the laws of the American parliament shall be in force till 
repealed by his majesty in Council ; and the laws to the sev- 
eral legislatures of the respective Colonies to be in force till the 
same be repealed by his majesty, or made void by an act and 
law of the American parliament. That the American parlia- 
ment have the superintendence and government of the several 
colleges in North America, most of which have been the 
grand nurseries of the late rebellion, instilling into the tender 
minds of youth principles favorable to republican, and against 
a monarchical government, and other doctrines incompatible 
to the British constitution." Mr. Ogden went to England, and 
was agent of the New Jersey Loyalists for prosecuting their 
claims to compensation for losses. He was in London in 
1788. 

Ogden, Isaac. Barrister at law, New York. Was also a 
correspondent of Galloway. 

Ogden, Jonathan. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died at Greenwich, King's County, November, 1845, aged 



488 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

ninety-seven. Mary, his widow, died at the same place, 
August, 1846, aged eighty-one. " They were both among the 
faithful and intrepid band of LoyaHsts, who, for their unshaken 
attachment to the Throne and Constitution of Great Britain, 
suffered much in their early days." 

Ogden, Peter. Of New York. Was secretary of the police 
department of the city, in 1782. 

Ogden, Robert. Of New Jersey. Speaker of the House 
of Assembly, He was a member of the Stamp Act Congress, 
so called, and refused to sanction the proceedings of the major- 
ity. An attempt was made at his instance to conceal his de- 
fection, but without success. He was accordingly burned in 
effigy in several places in New Jersey, and was removed 
from the Speaker's chair at the next meeting of the Assembly. 

Ogden, . Of New Jersey. When, in 1781, a considera- 
ble part of the Pennsylvania line became discontented, he 
acted as the guide of the emissary who was sent by Sir Henry 
Clinton to seduce them. Instead of meeting the overture, they 
surrendered Ogden and his associate to General Wayne ; and 
January 10th, both were tried as spies, convicted, and subse- 
quently executed. 

Ogilvie, Charles. Of South Carolina. Was in commis- 
sion under the crown after the fall of Charleston. His prop- 
erty was confiscated. 

Ogilvie, David. A captain of cavalry in the British Le- 
gion. * 

Ogilvie, George. Of New York. Son of the Reverend 
Mr. Ogilvie. Was an officer in a corps of Loyalists. 

Ogilvie, J., D. D. An Episcopal clergyman of New York. 
He succeeded Doctor Barclay as missionary to the Mohawk 
Indians, and was again his successor as rector of Trinity 
Church at his decease, in 1765. One who knew him while he 
was stationed among the Mohawks, thus speaks : '' His ap- 
pearance was singularly prepossessing ; his address and man- 
ners entirely those of a gentleman. His abilities were respect- 
able, his doctrine was pure and scriptural, and his life 
exemplary, both as a clergyman and in his domestic circle, 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 4S9 

where he was peculiarly amiable ; add to all this a talent for 
conversation, extensive reading, and a thorough knowledge of 
hfe." He died in New York in 1774. 

O'Hala, Dennis. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed and 
banished. 

O'Hallam, .Tohn. An ensign in the King's Rangers, Caro- 
lina. 

Oldfield, Joseph. Of Jamaica, New York. A signer of 
the Declaration in 1775. 

Oldham, Thomas. Of Chowan, North Carolina. His pro- 
perty was confiscated in 1779. He was a member of the 
House of Assembly ; and seems at first to have been with the 
Whigs, since he had a seat in the Convention which approved 
of the proceedings of the Continental Congress, and which 
Governor Martin denounced by proclamation. 

Olding, Nicholas Purdie. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in 
the Royal Garrison Battalion, and a deputy muster master 
general of the Loyalist forces. 

Oliphant, Alexander. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Olive, William. A member of the Loyal Artillery, St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1795. He died at Carlton, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1822. 

Oliver, Andrew. Of Massachusetts. His father was the 
Honorable Daniel Oliver, a member of the Council, and he 
graduated at Harvard University in 1724. He entered public 
life, and was Secretary, Stamp-distributer and Lieutenant 
Governor of Massachusetts. In 1765, soon after receiving 
the appointment of stamp-officer, the building which he had 
fitted for the transaction of business was demolished by a mob, 
and he was compelled to resign. He was then allowed to 
enjoy his post of secretary without molestation for several 
months. But before the close of the year, a report that he was 
seeking to be restored to his place of stamp-officer, obtained 
circulation, and he was required to make a public statement 
upon the subject. He complied with the demand, and pub- 
lished a declaration, that he would not act under his commis- 



^190 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

sion ; but this was deemed unsatisfactory, and he was desired 
to appear under the Liberty Tree, and there resign the office 
in form, and in the presence of the people. With this demand 
he also complied, and at the proper time, and while two 
thousand persons surrounded him, he made oath to the fol- 
lowing declaration; — "That he had never taken any mea- 
sures, in consequence of his deputation, to act in his office as 
distributer of stamps, and that he never would, directly or 
indirectly, by himself, or any under him, make use of his 
deputation, or take any measures for enforcing the stamp-act 
in America." The multitude gave three cheers, and allowed 
him to depart. But so determined a course on the part of the 
Whigs gave him great pain, and caused intense suffering both 
to himself and his family. 

In 1770, Mr. Oliver was appointed Lieutenant Governor. In 
1773, several letters which he had written to persons in Eng- 
land were obtained by Franklin, and sent to Massachusetts. 
These letters caused much excitement, and became the subject 
of discussion throughout the Colony. The Whigs of the 
House of Representatives agreed upon a report, that the man- 
ifest tendency and design of these and other similar commu- 
nications of Hutchinson, Paxton, Moffat, Auchmuty, Rogers, 
and Rome, was to overthrow the constitution, and introduce 
arbitrary power. In addition to the assaults at home, Junius 
Americanus, a writer in the public papers in England, charged 
him with the grave crime of perjury. Mr. Oliver was now 
advanced in life. He had always been subject to disorders of 
a bilious nature ; and unable to endure the disquiet and mis- 
ery caused by his position in affairs at so troubled a period, 
soon sunk under the burthen. After a short illness, he died 
at Boston in March, 1774, aged sixty-seven. In private life, he 
was a most estimable man ; but his public career, though earn- 
estly defended by his brother-in-law. Governor Hutchinson, is 
open to severe censure. That he was "hungry for office and 
honor," there seems no reason to doubt. No man in Massa- 
chusetts was more unpopular ; and Hutchinson remarks, that 
the violence of party spirit was evinced even at his funeral ; 



OF AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 491 

that some members of the House of Representatives were 
offended because the officers of the army and navy had pre- 
cedence in the procession, and retired in a body; and that 
" marks of disrespect were also shown by the populace to the 
remains of a man, whose memory, if he had died before this 
violent spirit was raised, would have been revered by all orders 
and degrees of men in the province." 

Oliver, Brinley Sylvester. A son of Lieutenant Governor 
Andrew Oliver, of Massachusetts. He graduated at Harvard 
University in 1774, and became a surgeon in the British 
service. 

Olhter, James. Of Conway, Massachusetts. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. 

Oliver, Peter. Of Salem. Son of Lieutenant Governor 
Andrew Oliver, of Massachusetts, who died at Boston, March, 
1774; became a surgeon in the British army, and died in 
London, April, 1795. His widow married Admiral Sir John 
Knight, and died at her seat near London in 1839. Doctor 
Oliver was one of the eighteen country gentlemen who ad- 
dressed Gage on his departure in 1775, and was proscribed 
under the act of 1778.