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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



AMERICAN 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



BEING A COMPLETE EXPOSITION 



OF 



PHONETIC SHORTHAND; 



ESPECIALLY ADAPTED TO THE SCHOOL-ROOM, AND TO AFFORD 

THE FULLEST INSTRUCTION TO THOSE WHO HAVE NOT 

THE ASSISTANCE OF THE ORAL TEACHER. 



BY ELIAS LONGLEY. 

. : 

LONGLEY & BROTHER, PHONETIC PUBLISHERS, 

WALNUT STREET, BETWEEN FOURTH & FIFTH, 

CINCINNATI. 

fr: ?, ": %v v* '4854., ::.,:, 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853, 

BY LONGLEY <fc BROTHER, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Ohio. 



A, C. JAMES, Stereotyper, Cincinnati, Ohio. 







PREFACE, 

In preparing this Manual of Phonetic Shorthand, the 
author has had but one leading object in view, namely: 
to afford a speedy means of acquiring a correct and prac- 
tical knowledge of the much coveted art. The books that 
have heretofore been used have all answered a good pur- 
pose ; but they have all, with one exception probably, 
been rendered comparatively obsolete by the introduction 
into the system of two or three important improvements. 
These are incorporated into the present work ; and in all 
probability they will be the last changes that will be made 
for a considerable length of time, if not entirely the last. 

In one important particular this treatise differs from all 
others that have been published ; namely, the exercises to 
be written by the pupil are printed in phonetic spelling. 
By this arrangement two important advantages are gained: 
First ; the learner will be made acquainted with the sim- 
.plicity and utility of phonetic spelling as applied to print- 
ing, and will undoubtedly be so pleased with it as to be- 
come its ardent advocate ; and a familiarity with it will 
also be of service to him hereafter, in enabling him to 
read with ease such phonetic books and papers as he may 
meet with elsewhere. Second ; in writing his exercises 
the pupil will more readily transcribe the words into pho- 
nography. Learners are very apt to be troubled by try- 
ing to get as many letters into their phonographic word as 
the old spelling contains, and thus make blunders ; but 
by writing from the words printed phonetically this diffi- 
culty will be avoided. And they can always tell whether 
their writing is correct, by referring to the tables where the 

456304 



PREFACE. 

shorthand characters are placed in juxtaposition with the 
printing characters. 

Another leading feature is such an arrangement 
of the lessons that no word, or class of words, is re- 
quired to be written until the principle has been ex- 
plained by which they arc written in their most approved 
forms. By this means, the student is not compelled to 
spend his time in learning how to write certain words, 
and then suffer the discouragement of having to drop and 
forget the forms thus learned, and familiarize himself with 
new and better ones. What is once learned in this book, 
remains a fixed fact with the pupil in all his after use of 
the system. There are hundreds of persons now, who, 
having studied Phonography through what was called the 
learner's style, have not yet been able to drop it and adopt 
the advanced and more practical style of writing; but they 
will have to do it before they can be recognized as good 
phonographic writers ; and the unlearning of their present 
lengthy and awkward forms for words, added to the new 
forms they must learn, is fully equal to learning the sys- 
tem from the beginning. 

In consequence of this progressive arrangement, the ex- 
ercises to be written necessarily possess an imperfect style 
of composition. The past tenses of verbs, the compara- 
tives and superlatives of adjectives, and, indeed, a large 
portion of the words in our language are written by con- 
tracted forms, which are introduced gradually through 
the book. And the words in each exercise being confined 
as much as possible to the illustration of the principle 
just introduced, renders necessary a resort to many cir- 
cuitous expressions for the development of an idea ; this 
harshness and quaintness, however, diminishes as succes- 
sive lessons are mastered. 



PREFACE. V 

The review at the close of each chapter is a new feature, 
and will be of great assistance to the teacher, especially 
to the unexperienced, in questioning his class as to what 
they have gone over ; it will also be useful to the private 
learner, filling the place, almost, of an oral teacher. The 
questions may be asked the class either collect- 
ively or individually ; the latter is generally the better 
way. It would be well, as often as convenient, to have 
the pupils illustrate their answers on the black-board. 

Immediately following the explanation of each new 
principle is an exercise for writing, which should be 
written before progressing further, while the manner in 
which the words are to be written are fresh in the mind. 
Then, at the close of each lesson, is an exercise for read- 
ing, embracing as much as possible, words illustrative of 
the preceding text. After this is a general writing exer- 
cise, embodying, beside the principles just presented, all 
that has previously been learned. This should be writ- 
ten by each pupil, during the interval between the meet- 
ings of the class ; and at the next recitation, the pupils 
should exchange their manuscripts with each other, and 
then read, each a sentence in turn, from these written 
exercises. They might then be passed to the teacher for 
his correction. 

As a substitute for t'lis, the private learner is referred 
to the constitution of the American Phonetic Society, at 
the close of this book ; which will inform him of a way 
in which he can secure the assistance of experienced pho- 
nographers, either for the correction of his exercises, or 
for mutual improvement, through the medium of phono- 
graphic correspondence. 

The aathor would acknowledge his indebtedness to the 
Phonographic Class-Book of ANDREWS & BOYLE, the first 



VI PREFACE 

text book of the system published in America, for many 
of his most appropriate illustrations ; and to the Phono- 
graphic Instructor, by JAMES C. BOOTHE, the more recent 
work generally used, for numerous sentences, and, in a 
few cases, whole paragraphs of exercises for reading and 
writing. 

Phonography is the invention of Mr. ISAAC PITMAN, of 
Bath, England. It is about fifteen years since he issued 
his first publication of the system ; but only during the 
last ten years has it been taught, and but six since it was 
introduced into the United States. In the year 1843 a 
Phonetic Society was established in Great Britain, consist- 
ing of persons who had learned to write Phonography ; 
its object was to promote the adoption of phonetic writing; 
it has gradually increased till it now numbers about four 
thousand members. A similar Society was established in 
the United States in 1849, which now numbers about one 
thousand members. But these Societies do not embrace a 
hundredth part of the persons who have learned to write 
the system. In 1850 a Phonetic Council of one hundred 
persons (fifty in Great Britain and fifty in America,) was 
elected by a popular vote of the phonographers of each 
country, for the purpose of uniting the efforts and skill of 
all in effecting some further improvements in the art, and 
in devising ways and means for promoting its general 
adoption. This Council, together with the assistance of 
both Phonetic Societies, have had the system under 
thorough revision for two years ; and after so long and 
thorough experiments it is reasonable to believe that the 
system is as near perfection as it is possible for an art to 
approximate. ( * 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION, p. 9 ; PHONOTYPY, 15 ; PHONOGRAPHY, 19 

SIMPLE CONSONANTS, 25 

VOWEL SCHF.MK, 27 

MARKS OF PUNCTUATION, 28 

DIPHTHONGS, DOT H, 32 

COMBINED CONSONAKTS, 34 

UP-STROKES, R, X, L, 38-41 

VOWEL WORD-SIGNS, 43 

CIRCLE S AND Z, 45 

PREFIXES COM, CON, AND AFFIX ING, 49 

CONSONANT WORD-SIGNS, 50 

W-DlPHTHONG 54 

W-HooK, AND TRIPTHONGS 56 

W WORD-SIGNS, 58 

Y-DlPHTHONGS 60 

L-HOOK, 64 

SPECIAL SCHEME OF VOCALIZATION, 65 

L-HooK PRECEDED BY THE S-CIRCLE, 66 

L-HOOK WORD-SIGNS, 67 

E-HOOK, 69 

E-HooK PRECEDED BY THE S-CIRCLE, 71 

DOUBLE CURVE FOR <!R, 72 

E-HOOK WORD-SIGNS, 72 

N-HOOK, 75 

N-HOOK FOLLOWED BY S-ClRCLE, 77 

SN-HOOK, 80 

VOWEL CONTRACTIONS, 81 

DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS, 82 

HALF-LENGTH STROKES, 84 

HALF-LENGTH WORD-SIGNS, 87 

LGRENS Lazi; OR, LURNING FONOGRAFI, 89 

LOOPS ST AND STR, 91 

ANOMALOUS N AND XN, 94 

PREFIXES, 97 

AFFIXES, 98 

NOMINAL CONSONANT, 100 



Ylii CONTENTS. 

STROKE H, 100 

VOCALIZING THE LARGE ClBCLE, 100 

OMISSION OF P, K, T, 100 

"OF THE," 101 

SIMILAR WORDS WRITTEN WITH DIFFERENT OUTLINES, . . . 102 

ALL THE WORD-SIGNS ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, 106 

PHRASEOGRAPHY, 109 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, (in Phonography.) 117 



INTRODUCTION. 

Within the last hundred years important changes have 
taken place in almost every department of industry. The 
mechanic no longer seeks the swiftly running stream to 
propel his machinery, but erects his mill or factory on 
ground the most convenient for labor or for market, and 
brings the elements into subjection for the performance 
of his drudgery; the stage-coach horse-power, for loco- 
motion, is almost forgotten in consideration of the iron- 
boned steed hitched to the enormous wheeled palace ; the 
sea- voyage of weary months is now performed pleasantly 
in as many weeks, by the application of steam to naviga- 
tion ; and the man of business no longer waits the rapid 
transmission of thought by such conveyance, but com- 
municates through the length and breadth of our wide- 
spreading country with lightning speed. 

Thus the genius of invention and improvement has 
been abroad in the land, and although for a long time 
she confined her skill to building steamboats and making 
railroads, constructing machinery and teaching the light- 
ning how to talk, she has not altogether forgotten the 
world of intellect; and PHONOGRAPHY, her last, most 
promising and glorious boon, presents to the world an al- 
phabet of letters so simple and facile that he who uses it 
may readily keep pace with the fastest speaker, affording 
a system of writing as much superior to that of the old 
script alphabet, as railroads are to the ancient truck- 
wheeled wagon, or the electric telegraph to the post boy's 
plodding gait. 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

We do not wish to underrate the value of the present 
system of writing ; it has been of great service in its time, 
having done much in the way of civilizing and enlight- 
ening the races of men. But the present state of things in 
the scientific world demands a change in the character of 
our written language. Science is a stern ruler ; her laws 
encircle every art; and although for a long time they may 
remain undiscovered or not applied, yet as the world pro- 
gresses in knowledge and learns wisdom from experience, 
it will cause them to be developed, and future generations 
will derive the advantages of conforming to them. 
These facts have been Illustrated in the various improve- 
ments to which we have alluded ; and they are still to be 
expected in such departments as have not yet undergone 
the remodeling process of modern ingenuity. They take 
their turn in the great circle of progression ; and it is our 
privilege now to demonstrate the laws that apply to the 
art of writing, as required at this stage of the world's his- 
tory. 

The spirit of our age demands two new features in the 
ftrt of writing: First, Speed in its execution; second, Sys- 
tcm in its orthography. In treating of the first desideratum 
we shall briefly refer to the old romanic alphabet, and 
the habits of writing it requires. Like the ancient imple- 
ments of industry and modes of labor, the alphabet of 
our fathers was constructed at a time when the ingenuity 
of man had not been brought into full play. The letters 
are complex, and the use of them cumbersome in the ex- 
treme. To illustrate: take the letter $ for example ; to 
make this letter, the fingers have to perform four inflec- 
tions or movements, while it represents but a simple sound; 
in making the letter m seven inflections are required, 
while it, too, represents but one sound; and every letter 



INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

of the old alphabet is thus complex, to a greater or less 
degree, although they are designed each to represent but 
a single sound. 

Now, while there is this complexity in the art of wri- 
ting, in spoken language the organs of speech perform but 
one movement in the enunciation of each letter; and hence 
the labor of the penman is four or five times as great as 
that of the speaker; while the latter is moving off freely, 
as on the wings of the wind, the former is trudging along 
at the snail's pace, weary and provoked at the contrast. 

The object to be accomplished, therefore, is to present 
an alphabet each letter of which can be written by one 
inflection of the pen, so that the writer need no longer 
be four times distanced by the moderate speaker ; and if 
the reader will follow us through this book, he will see 
that the system we are about to develop more than 
meets this requisition. 

But a greater difficulty, if possible, than the mere sub- 
stitution of a new alphabet, is to be overcome. The or- 
thography employed in using the old alphabet is nearly 
as cumbrous as the formation of its letters ; while its 
want of system makes it a study of many years to mem- 
orize the spelling of 'the fifty or eighty thousand words 
in our language. 

Thus, take the sound of a; if we had nothing to do, 
in order to represent it in our common writing, but to 
write the one letter called a, the evil would be trifling 
compared with what'it is. But we more frequently have 
to write two 01 three, and even four, letters to represent 
this one sound. It has, in fact, thirty-four different modes 
of representation, consisting of various combinations of 
nine different letters, a few only of which we have room 
to exhibit. Thj** 1 *"* "" ''u ^laron, ai, as in pam, aig t a* 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

in campaign ; aigh, as in straight ; elghe, as in -weighed, 
<kc. Now common sense, as well as the laws of science, 
suggests that the sound of a in each and all these should 
be written with the same letter. When this shall be done, 
more than two thirds of the labor of representing this 
sound will be saved ; but by substituting a new letter 
that can be made with one movement of the pen instead 
of the four that a requires, and of the four times four that 
several of the above combinations require, nine tenths of 
this labor will be avoided. In writing the sound a in these 
five words, instead of making fifty inflections of the pen, 
we will have to make but ficc! 

The sound of e is represented in forty different ways. 
Examples: ea, as in each ; ea-ue, as in league ; eye, as in 
keyed ; eig, as in seignor ; cigh, as in Leigh. We need 
not repeat that the sound of e in each of these words 
should be represented by the same letter ; or that by sub- 
stituting for the complex letter e a simple character that 
can be made with one motion of the pen, seven-eights or 
nine-tenths of the labor in writing would be saved. 
These are facts that are evident, after the illustrations are 
presented. And we might thus illustrate the unscientific 
mode of representing every word in our language, with 
equally formidable results. But we will only state the 
melancholy fact, that the various sounds employed in 
speaking the English language are each represented in 
from four to forty ways, and that in the large majority of 
cases two or more letters are required to do the service. 
And also, that there is no letter in the alphabet that uni- 
formly represents the same sound. They are as change- 
able as the wind or the weather, and to the young learner 
exceedingly provoking. The consequence of this want 
of system is, in the language of a distinguished writer on 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

the subject of education, that "reading is the most diffi- 
cult of human attainments." And, as a further conse- 
quence, one third of the population of England are una- 
ble to read, and one half unable to write ; while in the 
United States, although the proportion is considerably less, 
yet the number of illiterate persons is very great ; and 
this wide-spread ignorance must continue until the 
rudiments of education are simplified. Such incon- 
sistencies and mischievous errors as we have referred to, 
are not in harmony with the developments of order and 
science in most other branches of industry and art, and 
hence they must be superceeded by something truer and 
more expeditious. 

THE PHONETIC PRINCIPLE. 

The term Phonetic is derived from the Greek word 
phone, speech. A phonetic alphabet, therefore, is one 
which, referring solely to speech, derives all its laws from 
a consideration of the elements of speech. To illustrate 
what we mean by the phrase " elements of speech," we 
have but to ask the reader to adjust his lips to a round 
position and deliver the voice as he would commence to 
speak the words ode, oak, own. Now this same sound 
is heard in thousands of words in our language, and is 
what we call an element of speech. A similar element 
is heard in the commencement of the word ooze, and at 
the termination of the word who. In pronouncing the 
words see, say, saw, so, we hear, at the beginning of each 
of them, the same kind of a sound, namely a hiss, which 
is also an element of speech, for it frequently combines 
with other sounds to make words. By analyzing all the 
words in the English language, it has been found that it 
is constituted of but forty elementary sounds ; or to be 
more precise, thirty-four simple sounds and six compound 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

ones, formed by the close union of certain simple sounds 
which it is convenient to consider as distinct sounds. In 
speaking, therefore, our words consist simply in the ut- 
terance of one of these, or a combination of two or more 
of them ; and in writing these words common sense would 
suggest that each element should be represented by a sin- 
gle letter, that should never stand for any other sound. 

It is supposed the original Phoenician alphabet, from 
which our present alphabet is remotely derived, was 
phonetic ; that is, it represented the elements of speech in 
such a manner that when tho sounds of a word were heard 
the writer knew immediately what letters to use, and 
when he saw the letters he knew at once what sounds he 
was to utter. But when this alphabet was adopted by the 
Greeks and Romans, who used sounds unknown to the 
Phoenicians, many of the old letters were necessarily used 
to represent new sounds as well as old ones, so that there 
was no longer any very strict accordance between the 
sounds and letters of words. But when other European 
nations, including the English, adopted the romanic alpha- 
bet, and used it in very different ways, insomuch that no 
one could guess what sound could be attributed to any one 
letter, almost all trace of the phonetic nature of the alpha- 
bet was lost. And hence the deplorable state of English 
spelling and writing, as depicted in previous pages, 
which, in few words, is so bad that no one can tell the 
sound of an unknown word from its spelling, or the spell- 
ing of a new word from its sound. 

Phonetic spelling, therefore, is no new thing, and the 
efforts of writing and spelling reformers is simply an at- 
tempt to pl.ce the representation of the English language 
on the same rational basis that the most classic of the 
ancient languages stood, and in addition thereto to afford 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

the means of the most rapid writing that it is possible to 
attain. No further argument, therefore, should be re- 
quired, in presenting a system so accordant with truth 
and utility. 

PHONOTYPY. 

The word Phonotypy, from the Greek phone, speech, 
and tupos, type, signifies the printing of language by 
types which represent the sounds heard in speaking; while 
Phonography, also from phone and another Greek word, 
graphien, to write, signifies to write by sound, or with 
characters that represent the sounds heard in speech. 
Although the latter is the art which this work is specially 
designed to explain, yet a knowledge of the former will 
materially aid in its acquisition ; and as a sufficient ac- 
quaintance with it may be obtained in a few minutes' study, 
we shall here present a brief exposition of it. 

The forty elementary and dipthongal sounds* that it has 
been found necessary to represent in a true orthography 
of the English language, are exhibited by the italic letters 
in the following words: 



eel 


ale 


arm 




all 


oak 


ooze, 




ill 


ell 


am 




on 


up 


wood; 




tee, 


oil, 


owl, 




mute; 


yea, 


way, 


hay; 


pole, 


Jowl, 


toe, doe, 


cheer, 


yeer, 


came, 


game, 


/ear, 


veer, 


thigh, 


thy, 


seal, 


zeal, 


s/tall, 


vision, 


rare, 


lull; 


mum, 


nun 


, sing. 









* Worcester's dictionary, and later writers on orthoepy, contend 
for a more minute analysis of sounds; thus, between the second and 
Ihird vowels in the above scheme, they would represent the sound 
in care as differing from either that in ale or that in arm; and be- 
tween the vowels in arm and am they would mark a different one in 
fast, last, &c.; also the vowel in cur, as distinct from that in cut. 
The dipthongs in ice, oil, owl, mute, they would represent by their 
elements, that is, in the case of i, they would represent it by the 
two letters that would represent the vowels in rm and eel; the 
dipthong in oil, by the vowels in all and ill; that in owl by the 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

Of course the old twenty-six letter alphabet was incom- 
petent to give a character for each of these forty sounds. 
And in determining upon the introduction of new letters, 
two important considerations presented themselves to the 
mind, both grounded on the fact that the romanic style 
of spelling already existed in printed books, and flourish- 
es wherever our language is spoken or read. First, that 
those who can already read romanic spelling should have 
very little difficulty in acquiring phonetic spelling; and 
secondly, that those who are taught to read phonetically 
should find that the greater part of the difficulties attend- 
ant on the acquirement of romanic reading were then 
overcome. In order to accomplish these two very impor- 
tant objects, it was necessary to use as many of the 
old romanic letters as possible in the senses which 
they most frequently have in the romanic spelling of 
English; and to make the new phonetic letters suggest the 
letters or combinations of letters which are most fre- 
quently employed to express their sounds romanically. 
The grand object was to make English reading easy not 
merely in phonetic but also in romanic spelling, in order 
that the large number of books already printed should be 
still useful, or rather should be made useful to those to 
whom they are at present useless tho book-blind, those 
who cannot read. This has been effected. Not only is 
phonetic reading so easy to those who read romanically, 
that few find any difficulty in the matter at all, but those 

vowels in arm and OOZK\ and that in mute, by the vowels in ill and 
ooze. The consonants ch and .;' they would dissolve into t-sh and 
d-zh. But the representation of such delicate shades of sounds is 
hardly practicable, at the present time, at least ; it may be that un- 
der phonetic teaching the public ear will be trained so that a more 
nice representation will be advisable; though as regards the dip- 
thongs and double consonants, it would be exceedingly distasteful 
to represent them by the letters of which they are composed, and 
we have no idea it will ever be done. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

who have only learned to read phonetically are more than 
two-thirds on their way towards romanic reading. 

Out of the twenty-six romanic letters, three, c, q, x, 
have been rejected. The fifteen consonants, 
bdfhjlmnprtvwyz 

are used in their usual romanic sense ; that is, in the 
sense which the English romanic reader would naturally 
expect them to have in any new word, as they are pro- 
nounced at the beginning of the romanic words, 

bed, deed, fit, head, jest, Zull, man, wun, 
peep, rare, toe, vote, woe, yes, zeal. 

The five vowels, a, e, i, o, u, and the remaining three 
consonants, Jc, g, s, are to be pronounced as at the begin- 
ning of 

am, egg, in, on, up, &ite, get, sup. 

New letters have been in vented for the sounds expressed 
by the italic letters in the under-written words in the fol- 
lowing examples : 

0e G> o tUui Uu I< j CTe 

ice oil 

sing 

On the following page the whole alphabet is presented 
in a systematic arrangement ; first, the vowels; second^ the 
compound vowels ; third, the liquids ; fourth, the conso- 
nants. In this particular, unimportant though it may 
seem, the new alphabet is an improvement on the old 
which is little more than a string of confusion here a 
vowel and there a vowel, a consonant here and another 
there. 



8e 


SLa 


Hq, 


0e 


Oo 


HI 


Ul 


Tffu 


eel 


age 


arm 


all 


oak 


ooze 


foot 




"5" K 


U H 


GJ q 


Kt 


cEd 


sj 


g; g 




owl 


mwle 


catch 


thin 


thine 


she 


vision 



18 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE ENGLISH PHONETIC ALPHABET. 



written 

9 6 



ITie letter 

prntd 



/ j 

<r * 

u& 



fla 

Go 
O o 
UJui 



Ee 
Aa 
Oo 
Ua 
Uu 



Yy 
Ww 



is altcayi 
sounded as 

ee in eel 

a ..ale 

a . . aim A 

a .. all 

o .. ope 

oo .. food 



am 
olive 

P 
foot 

z'sle 
oil 
owl 
mule 



way 



i 

oi 
ow 
u 

y 

to 



Hh h .. 



JL 



The letter 
written prntd 

Pp 
Bb 
Tt 
Dd 



Kk 



Ff 
Vv 
Et 

ad 

Ss 
Zz 



Rr 
LI 
Mm 
Nn 



Mm 



is a!vayt 
sounded a* 

p injaole 
b . . Jowl 
f ..toe 
d .. doe 
ch 



c . . came 
ff . . ffamt 

f --/ear 

v .. peer 

th ..Wigh 
tk-..thj 

s . . seal 

x .. zeal 

e . . vicious 

* . . viiiop 



n . . mum 
n ..nun 
ng . . siry 



NOTE. In the above table, in addition to the printing letters of 
the phonetic alphabet, are presented the longhand script characters. 
It will be observed that, as in the phonotypic scheme, the old let- 
ters are retained in their usual sense, and new ones introduced, 
having resemblance to their corresponding printed letters, and of 
as easy formation as possible. This alphabet is used by Spelling 
Reformers, who are so in truth, in all cases where the phonetic 
shorthand could not be read by the person for whom the writing 
is done ; for phonetic longhand may be read, with very little hesi- 
tation, by all who can read the old manuscript. And the writer, 
in addition to the satisfaction of employing a scientific orthogra- 
phy, economizes twelve per cent of his paper and time, by dis- 
pensing with double letters. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

PHONOGRAPHY. 

Phonography being intended for the pen alone, and the 
principal object being rapidity of execution, with a mod- 
erate degree of legibility, considerable lisense is taken as 
regards strictly phonetic principles. It cannot be said of 
phonetic shorthand that " no sound must be represented 
by more than one sign," and that "no sign must represent 
more than one sound." The reverse of this statement is 
true in frequent instances; but not in such away as mate- 
rially to impair the scientific accuracy of the system. In 
point of utility there are great advantages derived from 
having two or three forms to represent certain sounds, and 
no serious disadvantage. 

The simplest signs which it was possible to obtain for 
the phonographic alphabet, are, 1st, the dot; 2d, the dash; 
3d, the straight line; 4th, the curve. The dots and dashes 
are used to represent the vowels; the straight lines and 
curves represent the consonants. The following diagrams 
exhibit the source from which the latter are derived, or 
rather the different positions to each other in which they 
are placed to represent different letters. 




It will be observed that the straight line assumes four 
different positions, and the curved one eight; these are as 
many positions as can be recognized without danger of 
confusion; and these two simple characters can be written 
in these twelve positions so as to be just as distinct and 
legible as though this number of differently shaped letters 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

were employed. Here now we have the means of repre- 
senting twelve consonant sounds; but since in writing we 
can make either light or heavy marks, this number may 
be doubled by recognizing the same number of heavy 
lines and curves. 

While it is found necessary to make each of the prim- 
itive characters heavy, in order to obtain a sufficient 
number, it is also found a useful and philosophical method 
of distinguishing between the natures of different sounds. 
Thus, eight of the sounds which these characters are to 
represent are mere whispers, produced by the transition of 
the organs of speech from one position to another, or by 
the simple contact of different parts of the mouth, with- 
out any vocal sound; and there are eight others made in 
the same manner, but have in addition a slightly rough- 
ened or vocal sound, which require a greater effort to 
produce them. To follow nature, therefore, and preserve 
a correspondence between signs and sounds, the light 
signs are made to represent the light or whispered sounds, 
and the heavy signs to represent the heavy sounds. Thus, 
both the difference between the sounds and their resem- 
blance are at once represented. And it being so natural 
to represent a light sound by a light stroke, and a heavy 
sound by a heavy stroke, the phonographic pupil finds, 
after a little practice, that he makes the difference in the 
strokes without any thought about it. But the similarity 
of sound between the heavy and light strokes is so great 
that, if at any time the difference in the thickness of the 
lines is not clearly made, it will not seriously affect the 
legibility of the writing to the experienced phonographer. 
Thus, for example, if the word Sinsinati were written so 
as to be pronounced Zinzinadi, the reader could hardly 
mistake the intention cf the writer. 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

The consonant sounds are classified as follows: 

1. Abrupts: These elements are produced by a total 
contact of the different organs of speech, abruptly inter- 
rupting the outward passage of the breath, or the voice. 
They are eight in number, and have the eight straight 
marks appropriated for their representation, as illustrated 
in the following table, the italisized letters of the words 
indicating the sounds represented : 

Whispered, \ pole, | foe, / cAair, came. 
Spoken, \ bow], \ doc, / jeer, ^rame. 

By a little observation in comparing the sound of p with 
that of b, in the words pole and bowl, the distinction of 
whispered and spoken, or light and heavy, will be appre- 
ciated. As far as articulation, or the contact of the organs 
of speech is concerned, the consonants p and b are identical; 
the sound of the former, however, is produced by the 
breath only, while the latter requires the assistance of the 
voice, which commences before the lips, the organs by 
which the articulation is produced, are disconnected. The 
same remarks apply to each of the other pairs of abnipts, 
as the reader will discover by speaking the illustrative 
words in connection. 

2. Continuants: The organs of speech are in contact 
in the production of these elements, yet not so firmly as 
to totally obstruct the passage of breath, or voice; but the 
articulation may be continued any length of time. There 
are, also, eight of these elements half of them whispered 
and half spoken. They may be illustrated as the ab- 
rupts were : 

Whispered, V^/an, ( thm, ) seal, ^) shun. 
Spoken, ^_van, ( (hen, ) zeal, 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

3. Liquids: These are r and /, and are called liquids 
because they readily run into or unite with other conso- 
nant sounds. They are not distinguished by any variation 
of sound, as the abrupts and continuants, and are repre- 
sented by light curves; thus: 

"^ row, f~ 7ow. 

4. Nasals: The sounds oi m, n, and nig, are called 
nasals from the fact that the organs are brought in com- 
plete contact and the voice driven through the nose. 
The m, and n are represented by the two remaining 
light curves, and ng by the heavy curve corresponding 
to n, as being nearly related to that sound ; thus: 

^~N mum, ^-s mm, \^ sing. 

5. Ambiffues : These are y, w and /*, and hold, as it 
were, a middle place between the vowels and consonants ; 
their powers are more feeble than the other consonants, 
yet they must be recognized as belonging to that class of 
sounds, on account of their want of vocality.* They 
never occur in English except before a vowel ; the h being 
simply a breathing upon the following vowel is often term- 
ed an aspirate. The following are their phonographic 
signs, and the words illustrating their powers : 

f~ yea, "^ way, </ Aay. 

* Many persons imagine the powers of y and w to be i and w 
or w; (see Phonotypic alphabet, p. 18,) and would spell words pho- 
netically thus : yet iet; yale ial; yam iam; week uwc or utc, wall 
uiel, worm uiurm; &c. We admit this representation is an approx- 
imation to the true one; but these vowels have too great powers 
for the weak whispers to be represented, as will be seen if we take 
words in which the same vowel would follow; take yeast iest, year 
ier, and mound uimnd, or wool uul; and it will readily be seen that 
they do not afford just the pronunciation we want; and beside, this 
representation would make monosyllables into words of two sylla- 
bles, because every vowel in a word requires a distinct syllabic 
pronunciation. 



w 

INTRODUCTION. 23 

VOWEL ARRANGEMENT : In order to represent the 
twelve vowel sounds by the two signs, a dot and a dash, 
a scheme similar to that of representing musical sounds 
by the round note is resorted to. As the vowels rarely 
occur except in combination with a consonant, they are in- 
dicated by the position in which the dot or dash is placed 
to the consonant stroke ; thus, a dot placed at the begin- 
ning of a consonant represents the vowel e (ee,) at the 
middle, a (age,) at the end, q (ah ;) the dash at the be- 
ginning is e (awe,) at the middle, o (owe,) at the end, ? 
(oo.) The remaining six vowels are short or brief, as com- 
pared with the foregoing six, and are appropriately repre- 
sented by the dot and dash in the same manner, but made 
lighter; and all that has been said in regard to light and 
heavy consonants applies to the vowels. In the following 
illustration the vowel signs are placed to a dotted line 
merely to indicate the position of the dot and dash ; it is 
no part of the vowel. The italic letters in the accom- 
panying words suggest the vowel sounds : 

eel, ! ale, J arm, "iall, -j oak, J ooze. 

ill, -\ ell, j am, j on, -j up, _! wood. 
VipJitlwngs : These being compound sounds, and all the 
simple characters being otherwise disposed of, they are 
represented by complex signs. They will be understood 
by the following illustration : 

Vi . i A: ., ; , 

! zsle, | oil, A ! owl. 

Tripthongs ; These result from the union of w with 
each of the above diphthongs, which are more convenient 
to represent by single characters than otherwise ; thus : 

I wine, n j <]uoit, J wound. 

On the following page the whole alphabet is present- 
ed in a tabular form. 



PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET. 






CONSONANTS. 






'\ p ^post 
N b ioast 




V_ v rat 


LIQUIDS. 


i r ray 


ABRUPT*!. 


i t ^ip 
1 d dip 
' c/iest 

f vp^t 
j j^^^ 


en 

O 
O 


v ^ thy 
) s seal 
) z real 


KB. NASALS. 


'-^ m met 
< ^-^n wet 

[/" j y ea 




-k lite 




i?i *Ae 


o 


\ ^\vr u-ay 




rr_g ^t 




^ 3 vision 


^ 


[ (^ h hay 




VOWELS. 






j E eel 




' i ill 


S 


v | i isle 

i 


8. 
c 
3 


j a ale 
I q arm 
-j e awed 


h 

c . 

a 
02 


- e ell 
a am 
o odd 


1 

r 

a 

L 


A cr oil 

A X OJfl 

1 wj trind 




-j o ope 




- u up 





T -1 

;WO quOit 


_; ui fool 




u fwll 


* 


-,'wy wond 


ADDITIONAL. For the satisfaction of those who wish to rep- 
resent a more critical pronunciation than tue above scheme en- 
ables them to do, the following additions ire suggested: 
For the vowel in care, '! written thus, """"N. 
For the vowel in ask, >\ wiitten thus, '} 
For the close diphthong in mute, ,j written thus, / ~"Jj 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



LESS OX I. 
ON WRITING AND VOCALIZING THE SIMPLE CONSONANTS. 

If the learner of Phonography has attentively read the 
preceding Introduction, and obtained a clear idea of the 
phonetic principle, he will find no difficulty in mastering 
the course of lessons which follows. The following ar- 
rangement of the consonant phonographs affords a kind of 
picture to the student which will enable him to fix in his 
mind the power of each letter by the position it has in 
the table. It will be as important to learn the phono- 
typic as the shorthand letters, because the exercises to be 
written are printed in phonotypy, as a means of greatly 
assisting the pupil in writing his lessons. 

\p \b I t |d /q /j 

^ v (* (<* ) s ) z 

~\r S~ 1 ^ m ^-'n 



1. The perpendicular and inclined consonants are 
written from the top downward; the horizontal ones are 
written from left to right. 

2. EXCEPTIONS. The f~ /, when the only conso- 
nant in a word, is always written upward; at other times 
it may be written either upward or downward, as is most 
convenient. _J f is always written downward when the 
only consonant in a word, and either downward or 
upward at other times. </ is written upward. 

3 (25) 



26 MANUAL OF PII JNOGRAPHY. 

3. Ruled paper should be used ; and, for the first few 
exorcises, until the pupil becomes familiar with the char- 
acters, a pencil should be employed in preference to a pea, 
after which either a pen or pencil may be used, cither of 
which should be held loosely between the first and second 
fingers and the thumb, as when u;ed for drawing. The 
beginner generally experiences some difficulty, unless he 
has been accustomed to back-hand writing, in making the 
strokes from left to right ; and is apt to imagine that he 
shall never be able to strike \ with the same ease with 
which he can execute / This difficulty is, however, en- 
tirely the result of habit in writing otherwise ; and after a 
very short practice he will find that the muscles acquire 
complete facility in this and all the other movements re- 
quired in Phonography. 

4. The consonants should be written about the size of 
those given in these pages ; and particular attention should, 
at first, be observed in writing the curved thick letters, mak- 
ing them thick in the middle only, and tapering to a light 
line toward each extremity. The inclined strokes should 
be written at an inclination of 45 degrees, or midway be- 
tween the horizontal and vertical. Commence the strokes 
so that when of the proper length they will rest on the 
line of writing. 

Let the pupil now take his pen or pencil, and go 
through the list of consonants, writing them as in the pre- 
ceding table, speaking at the same time the power of the 
letter; and observing, also, the light and heavy character 
of the signs, and their proper length. 

5. In order to establish some mode of writing th 
vowels, the point where the consonant stroke is commenced 
is called ihe first place, the middle of the stroke its second 
place, and where it ends, the third place. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 27 

VOWEL SCHEME. 
long. short. long. short. 



-o 



6. The proper sounds of these dots and dashes, in their 
several positions, should be well memorized. They may 
be designated thus: s is the first place heavy dot; a is 
the second place heavy dot; q is the third place heavy dot; 
o is the first place heavy dash; o is the second place heavy 
dash; w is the third place heavy dash ; i is the first 
place light dot, &c.; o is the first place light dash, <fec. 

7. In order to insure getting the dots and dashes in 
their proper positions, the consonant phonographs, wheth- 
er one or many, are always written first; thus, | _ tJc, 
~~1 nd, r\^ III, - gg. This gives what is called 
the skeleton of the word, and the vowels are jotted in af- 
terward, similar to dotting the is and crossing the is in 
the longhand. 7 

8. In vocalizing the consonants, that is, in placing the 
vowels to them, they should be written near the strokes, 
but not so that they will join; the dashes should be written 
at right angles with the consonants ; thus, V^ ev, 



\po, |_ tui, ^fo, ~T ffo, -7' no. 



7. This may seem like atedious process, and is, to the learner, for 
sometime; but, as he becomes accustomed to it, it will be done 
very readily; and as he becomes familiar with the appearance 
of the writing the necessity for vocalizing will cease, to a consider- 
able extent, and only the accented, or distinguishing vowels will 
need to be inserted ; the consonant outlines of words, assisted by 
the seme of the sentence, generally indicating the true words; just 
as the frame work of a building, or the skeleton of an animal, sug- 
gests to the mind at once what the structure would be if all its parts 
were 



28 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPH!". 

9. As in covering a page with writing we proceed from 
left to right, and from the upper to the lower line, so, in 
writing the dots and dashes, if we wish the vowel to read 
first we write it before the consonant, if perpendicular or 
inclined, (the inclined strokes, whether straight or curved, 
being treated as though they were perpendicular,) and 
above, if horizontal ; thus, | et, ^\ ap, ^ ar, ^ am, 
ok, if we wish it to read after the consonant, we write 
it after or below the stroke; thus, \ ~bo,<?* ha, f Is, 
_J fut, ^ mq, ^ ns. 

10. Words containing only horizontal consonants, if 
the accented vowels be first place, are written about the 
height of a vertical stroke above the line ; as *~^ ms, ks ; 
if the vowels be second or third place, they are written on 
the line ; as, ga, ^ mo. EXCEPTIONS : him is written on 
the line, to prevent confounding it (should the vowels be 

omitted,) with the word ins; and eni is written above the 
' 

line, to obviate its being read no. 

MARKS OF PUNCTUATION : x period, J colon, in- 
terogation, f wonder, | grief, ? laughter, { ) parenthesis; 
the comma and semi- colon may be written as in common, 
manuscript. 

An emphatic word or sentence is indicated by a waved 
line being drawn beneath it, thus : ^ ; if it is desired to 
indicate that a word should commence with a capital let- 
ter, it is shown by two parallel dashes being written direct- 
ly under it : thus, 

KIVIEW. (1.) \Vhieh of the consonant phonographs are written downwards 1 } 
How are the horizontal ones written? What are they? (C.) Arv there any 
exceptions to these general rules ? and what are they V (.>.) How are the sounds 
of the vowels designated? Speak the three heavy dot vowels. The three 




(9.) In what directions are the letters in a phonographic word read '! To which 
class do the inclined strokes belong ? (10.) How are words containing only hor- 
izontal strokes written? What are the exceptions? 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 29 

READING EXERCISE I. 

The following exercises should be read over frequently, 
till the learner acquires the correct sounds of the vowels 
and their consecutive order. They will, at the same time, 
become familiar with many of the consonants. 

eel ale arm all ope fool 



f r c /f r 



til ell am on up full 

1-1 J 1 \ J 

\ \ \ -\ x x 

.r r r ^ r. /~ 



30 MANUAL OP PHONOGRAPHY. 

READING EXERCISE II. 



) *-s.- f \,\ 
x i / v/" 
x-i / _^rx i- 



\ 



C T 



_,_-( -) ^j X /-,-V. (- 



. 



11. In vocalizing the consonants of a word, the first 
thing to be done is to ascertain whether the first vowel to 
be written is a dot sign or a dash sign ; and, secondly, 
whether it is a long sound or a short sound ; and lastly, 
what place to the consonant it should occupy. If the 
learner's memory is not good, or his perception quick, so 
that he can decide these points readily, a good plan for ar- 
riving at the results is to commence at the beginning of 
the scale of vowels and speak them thus, e i, a, e, q ,?, 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 31 

(observing that thus far the signs are dots, heavy and 
light, and that the remainder are dashes,) o o, o u, m u, 
till he arrives at the one he wishes to write ; just as the 
learner of music, when he cannot strike the proper sound 
of a note, commences at do and runs up the scale till 
he obtains the proper sound. 

NOTE. For the purpose of assisting the learner until he becomes familiar 
with phonetic printing, a few of the first exercises for writing will be printed 
ijj both modes of spelling. 

WRITING EXERCISE I. 

Ape, eat, eight, age, ache, eve, ease, ale, ear, air, aim. 
ip, et, at, aj, ak, ev, ez, al, er, ar, am. 

Ebb, it, ate, add, itch, edge, egg, if, ill, am. 
Eb, it, et, ad, ic,, ej, eg, if, il, am. 

Ope, ought, ode, oak, off, oath, owes, ooze, all, or, own. 
Op, ot, od, ok, of, 06, oz, tuz, el, er, on. 

Up, odd, of, us, err, on. 
Up, od, ov, us, ur, on. 

Pea, pay, pa, tea, day, jay, key, gay, fee, they, see, 
Pe, pa, pq, te, da, ja, ke, ga, fe, da, se. 

say, she, ray, lee, me, may, ma, nay, yea, way, hay. 
sa, Je, ra, le, me, ma, mq, na, ya, wa, ha. 

Paw, beau, toe, do, jaw, caw, coo, go, thaw, though, 
Pe, bo, to, dm, jo, ko, kra, go, 6e, do, 

saw, sow, show, law, low, raw, rue, know, woe, hoe. 
so, so, Jo, le, lo, re, rui, no, wo, ho. 



32 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

LESSON II. 

THE DIPHTHONGS DOT //COMBINED CONSONANTS. 

V! A! 

1 1- ! - A! 

12. These diphthong characters occupy but two places, 
the beginning and end of a consonant. When written in 
the first place, with the point downward, the angle repre- 
sents the first sound in isle ; with the point upward, in the 
same place, the first sound in oil"; with the point upward, 
and in the third place, the first sound in our. The charac- 
ters should be written without lifting the pen, and placed 
in a perpendicular position -to the inclined and horizontal 
strokes as well as to the vertical ; thus, X^ pi, ( v #/, 
^ m}, \ bo, A kv,~^\ vr, ^_-. nv. 

WRITING EXERCISE II. 

Bi, tj, fj, vj, dj, SJ, Ji, lj, rj, mj, nj; js, 
By, tie, fie, vie, thy, sigh, shy, lie, rye, my, nigh ; ice, 

jz, jl, jr, jsi. Bcr, to-, jo-, ke ; el, aner. By, 
eyes, aisle, ire, icy. Boy, toy, joy, coy ; oil, annoy. Bow, 

dy, ky, vs, &&, rar, al^, n~s ; st, -sr, xl. 
dow, cow, vow, sow, row, allow, now ; out, our, owl. 



13. DOT Ti. Since the aspirate never occurs in English 
except before a vowal, a briefer mode of representing it than 
the long sign <^ is generally employed, namely, alight dot 
placed immediately before the vowel ; it should be written 
to the left of the dot vowels that belong to a vertical or in- 
clined stroke, and above those belonging to horizontals ; 
and above the dash vowels of the former, and to the left of 
those of the latter; thus, ") hit, ^ hig, X> hem, "~| hod, 
"v\ hvr ^* horn. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 33 

Although this li is the same in shape as the light dot 
vowels, it need never lead to any mistake, from the fact 
that no dot vowel ever occurs immediately before an- 
other dot vowel. 

READING EXERCISE III. 



\ -i ..i -I 7 /../ _i ..r *\ ^< 

"WRITING EXERCISE III. 

Hep, hat, hed, hev, het hel, hal, her, har ; 
Heap, hate, heed, heave, heat, heal, hail, hear, hair; 

hat, hcd, hie,, hej, haj", hil, him, ham, hag. 
hat, head, hitch, hedge, hash, hill, him, ham, hang, 

Hop, hrap, hod, hek, hoi, horn ; hop, hub, hot, 
Hope, hoop, hoed, hawk, hole, home; hop, hub, hot, 

hud, hog, hug, hur, hum, hug ; hapi, hevi, heti, 
hood, hog, hug, her, hum, hung; happy, heavy, haughty, 

holi, huni. 
holy, honey. 

Hit, hjv, hjr, hjli; hsl. 
Height, hive, hire, highly ; howl. 

He ma go horn n-s. So no heti ar. 
He may go home now. Show no haughty air. 



34 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

COMBINED CONSONANTS. 

14. In commencing to write a word, the first thing the 
learner has to do is to pronounce it slowly, and ascertain 
what are the elementary sounds of which it is composed, 
and then write the consonant signs, as heretofore direct- 
ed. When the first consonant to be written requires a 
downward stroke, it is commenced its length above the 
line of writing and struck to the line, and if a downward 
stroke follow, it is carried on below the line ; thus, ~-y 
pt, L dp ; if the first consonant be a horizontal stroke, 
and a down-stroke follow, it is written above the line and 
the second one carried to it; thus, ~\kd, / ng ; but if 
an up-stroke sign follow the horizontal, the latter should 
be written on the line ; thus, ^^f ml, f kl. 

15, In reading the consonants in a word, they must of 
course be uttered in the order in which they were written; 
thus, for example, in reading /^ the "~ *" must be read 
first, because it is evident it was written first, as the writer 
could not have begun at the angle and written the /' and 
then gone back and written the , without violating the 
rule requiring the skeleton of a word to be written be- 
fore lifting the pen ; and he could not have begun at the 
bottom of the / ', and written it upwards, and then the 

backwards, without violating the two rules, that c is 
to be written downwards and n from left to right. 

It sometimes happens that a consonant which seems to 
be farther along than another in the line of writing, must 
be read first; as / ; but from the fact that / is always 
to be written downward, we know the letters are to be 
ready/ and not Ij. By a little observation of this kind the 
learner will soon see at a glance, and without thought, 
how any word is to be read. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 36 



16. In vocalizing two or more consonants it is very im- 
portant to keep the vowel signs away from the angles or 
places where the consonants join, especially from the in- 
side of angles, as in such positions it is impossible to tell 
to which stroke they belong ; thus, it cannot be told 
whether v-^ * s ' ne wor< i & m or bqm. 

17. After the shape of a vowel, and the place it should 
occupy, are determined, the following rules, in addition to 
those for vocalizing single consonants, are to be observed: 

Flr&t. When a first place vowel, or diphthong, comes be- 
tween two consonants it is placed immediately after the 
first ; as " ~\ krp, \_ rem, v ] k[t. 

Second. A second place vowel, if it be long, is also 
written after the first consonant ; as ^| gat, ]^ dom ; but 
if short, it is written before the second; as ~~] get, Jj^ dum; 
by which arrangement we arc enabled to determine the 
sound of the middle place vowel by position as well as 
by the size of the dot or dash. 

Third. Third place vowels arc written before the second 
consonant ; as v-, bqm, \^ lint, I dst. 



A 

Fourth. If two vowels come between two consonants, 
the first one spoken is written to the first stroke, and the 
next one to the second ; thus, \X. poem, \/^\ palM. 

Some deviations from these rules occur in contracted 
forms of writing ; but their general observance renders 
the manuscript more legible than it could otherwise be. 

18. If two vowels precede the first consonant in a 
word, the first is written farther from the consonant than 
the second ; thus, v -| join ; if it terminate with two, 
the last is written farther from the consonant sign ; as, 

T. 



36 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

19. When the diphthong v commences a word it is> 
customary to go on writing the following consonant with- 
out lifting the pen, as in the word idea,, just given, \^item, 
&c. ; and the practice is extended, without any dan- 
ger of ambiguity, and with much saving of time, to the 
connection of the pronoun f with the following word; as, 
v ^y^"( I bihv, ^ ifer. In this latter case the writing 

is entirely legible, even if the first prong of the angle is 
omitted, which is often done, for the sake of brevity. 

20. In reading words of two or more consonants, it 
must be observed that each stroke, and the vowel-sign or 
signs placed to it, must be read precisely as they would 
be if they stood unconnected with other consonant strokes; 
thus, \^)' read in this way would be considered thus : 
\ C ) po-li-si ; ~V"]' , if analyzed thus: "^ (T | 
would reveal the word realiti. This process will be neces- 
sary till the learner can read words from their general ap- 
pearance. 

READING EXERCISE IV. 




MANUAL OF PIIONOGBAPBY. 37 

REVIEW. (12.) How many diphthongs are there ? Speak the first, and de- 
scribe its sign ; the second ; the third. How are they to be written ? (33.) 
What is the second form of the aspirate ? How should it be placed to the dot 
vowels ? the dash vowels 'I (14.) How are the consonant signs adjusted to the 
line of writing ? (15.) What is the order of reading words having two or mora 
consonants? (16.) In vocalizing what is very important? (17.) What is the 
rule for writing first-place vowels that come between two consonants ? the rule 
for second-place vowels? for third place vowels? If two vowels occur be- 
tween two consonants, how are they to be written ? (18.) If two vowels begin 
or terminate a word, how are they to be written? (19.) What peculiarity is 
pjacticed in writing the diphthong / f (20.) What is the rule for reading a word 
having two or more consonants and accompanying vowels ? 



WRITING EXERCISE IV. 

Bet, bak, bar, peg, bq,m, pad, pal, pq,m, tern, dam, tqr, 
ded, dat, cjep, gar, cjer, cjef, kep, gat, kel, gal, kam, kak, Jam, 
qrk, qrm, hq,rp, lep, lat, lq,f, nav, nam, awak, awar. 

Bit, pet, pad, pig, beg, bag, pil, del, fil, vali, ril, rim, rali, 
lip, lej, liv, mac;, mej, maj, mil, milk, ahed. 

Bet, pop, buit, tet, dor, tuil, qek, jok, kel, kol, kuil, gedi, 
fel, ferm, vot, fuid, rog, ruim, lof, mel, muiv, neti, awok. 

Pot, bug, buk, bodi, dot, doj, dug, kuk, foli, fuli, Jok, Juk, 
rok, rug, ruk, lok, luk, luk, mok, mug, muj, nok, nuj, nuk. 

Pjl, abjd, bol, qjd, fsl, cjjm, ab^t, mil, deker, deljt, av^d, 
al^d, enje, berlur, fjlur. 

Get me mj buk. Put awa mj dul njf. Fil mj kup ful. 
Ferm no bad habit in bo-hud ; it ma efect dj helO d| hop in 
aj. He ma be felti na, gilti. Foli ma fal at leg 6. 



456304 



38 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



LESSON III. 

UP-STROKES Jf, X AND L VOWEL WORD-SIGNS. 

21. In order to prevent words from running too far 
below the line for convenience or beauty, and to afford 
a variety of skeleton outlines, by which different words 
having the same consonant sounds may be written differ-, 
ently, and thus be distinguished without being vocalized, 
provision is made for representing several of the conso- 
nant sounds by both upward and downward strokes. This 
provision also makes the writing more easy of execution, 
since these op-strokes are all in the inclination of the line 
of writing, from left to right. The letters thus represent- 
ed are/, /, and ;; the latter of which, only, requires a dif- 
ferent character. 

22. The second sign for r is a straight line struck up- 
ward at an angle of thirty degrees ; thus, ^^ Though 
this character is specially available in writing words re- 
quiring two or more consonants, yet it is frequently used 
alone ; as ^/ ?/, and more frequently when terminating 
with a circle or hook, ( Lessons IV, VI,) when it is 
less likely to be confounded with <?, written downward and 
of nearly the same inclination ; in neither case, however, 
is there any difficulty experienced by the adept, since the 
sense of the preceding words nearly always suggests 
what the following word is. 

23. When written in connection with other consonants, 
there is never any ambiguity, since it can be seen at a 
glance whether the stroke is written upward or downward; 
thus, [/ tr, \ tg, /\ rt. So that while the rule is that 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPH?. 39 

g shall be written at an angle of sixty degrees, and r 
at an angle of thirty degrees, they may both be written 
at the same inclination, except when either is the only 
consonant in a word ; and except, also, when one of them 
immediately follows the other, as /] , in which case ne- 
cessity compels one to be written at a different inclinat en 
from the other. 

24. The rule that the beginning of a consonant stroke 
is where the first-place vowel is written, and the termina- 
tion of a stroke the third-place, must be observed in 
vocalizing this up-stroke/ ; thus, SY rig, ^\ r^p, 
S*\ gariti. 

25. The following rules in regard to the use of the 
two forms of r, will guide the learner to the best forms 
of words : 

First. The up-stroke should be used when the follow- 
ing consonant is to be written downward, as in the ex- 
amples above. (24.) 

Second. When r is the initial letter of a word, and is 
followed by the s-circle, w-hook, (see Lessons IV and 
VIII, ) k, g, f, I, or another r, the up-stroke is employed ; 

as /<r~"~ r S> <^/ r<? /> <*ff r l> ^f~^^ rsr - But if a 
vowel precede r as the first consonant, the down-stroke is 

employed; as, ~"X_ qrk,^ tfrif, ^/Y^~ urli, ~V^ crur. 

Third. Whenever preceded by v, t, or m, the upward 
r is employed ; as ^s/ ver, /T\/ mir. 

Fourth. Whenever followed by n or r), the up-stroke 
is employed; as /^ rsmi, ^^ ' roy. 

Fifth. When r is the final stroke consonant in a word, 

and followed by a vowel, the up-stroke is to be used, as in 

the words *\s^ beri, _: J kari : but if no vowel 

follow, the down-stroke is employed; as \^ puir, 

" 



40 



MANUAL 0V rHONOGRAFHT. 



Sixth. When one r follows another, except at the be- 
ginning of a word when preceded by a vowel (as in erur,) 
they are both written upward; as ^^ rariti, _js^ 
Tcariur. 

Seventh. When followed by m, the down-stroke is al- 
ways used ; as "~V-J ruim, ^1 $qrm. 



READING EXERCISE V. 




WRITING EXERCISE V. 

Repel, retjr, red em, redi, ratifj, revjl, ravej, pqrti, periud, 
derjd, arjv, araiij, nrj, urd ; raj, rak, riketi. Boro, feri, jvori, 
Oeori, kari, memori, rotari, 6uroli, mer, demur, admjr. Ran- 
clum, ragk, reanimat, adorig. Borour, borur, bariur, infe- 
riur, narour, kurinr, mirur, dernr, Jerur, karer. Rem, rjm, 
remedi, remuiv, ruiminat, lq,rk, reform. 



26. L and /may be written upward or downward with- 
out any change of form ; and in vocalizing, or reading, 
the direction in which they were made, as in the case of the 
up-stroke r, will be known by their connection with other 
consonant signs ; as O toy, f\ lev, <^ fop, J fel. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 41 

27. The following rules will guide, as near as possible, 
to the most approved use of I. 

First. When I is the initial letter of a word, and fol- 
lowed by Jc, g, or wi, the up-stroke I is employed ; as /\, 
lik, (. leg, (."^ lim. But if a vowel precede, the 
down- stroke is used, as ,(^_ alik, "(^ helm. When 
other consonants follow Ik, lg, Im, the / may be written 
either upward or downward. 

Second. Immediately before or after n and 77, the down- 
stroke is employed ; as ^f waZ, (^ liyk. If a down- 
stroke letter is to follow I after n, the up-stroke I must be 
employed ; as ^j^/' analoji, ^J/" | anihilat. 

Third. When I is the final stroke consonant in a word, 
and is preceded by /, v, or upward r, it is written down- 
ward ; as s. fel, -<^K. revil, ^^ riul, ^^f moral. 
But if a vowel follows, the up-strok is used; as 



Fourth. After and 77, a final Z is always written 
downward, even though followed by a vowel, as Cxi lonli, 

~^f' kiyli. 

Fifth. Final I, following all other consonants but f t v, 
up-stroke r, n and 77, is written upward, whether a vowel 
follows or not ; as ^\/^ psL _ f ktul, s^f~ mal. 

28. Z is usually written downward ; before /, however, 
and after / and v, it is always written upward ; as 
felf, 



NOTE. Many of the foregoing rules in regard to writing r and I 
upward or downward, are designed to secure consonant outlines 
tliat will be more legible, when not vocalized, than if written dif- 
ferently: Thus, when either up-stroke r or I is used at the com- 
mencement of a word, we know it does not commence with a vowel; 
if up-stroke r terminate a word, we know a vowel follows ; and 
the same if up-stroke I after/, v and upward r terminate a word ; 
and hence the chances of misreading the word are lessened. 

The observance of the other rules will produce uniformity of 
writing, and thus ensure greater fluency in reading. 
4 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 
READING EXERCISE VI. 




WRITING EXERCISE VI. 

Lek, log, lorn, legasi; alkali, elmanak. Lq,nq, larjk, 
Ieg6ili, linsi, lunq, felig; amil, onli, kanal; analitik, lonjeviti, 
enlqrj; fjl, fuil, vjl, unfalig, revel, iinval. Rel, real, relm, oral, 
karul, barel, peril. Felo, fuli, vali, rali, reali, realiti ; onli, 
menli, feligli, luvigli ; Jili, Jel, Jalo ; daj, navij, efijensi, de- 
fijensi ; [down-stroke /,] relij, fuilij, publij, polij, abolij, 
raJU 



WORD-SIGNS. 



29. By a word-sign is meant the use of a single char- 
acter of the alphabet to represent an entire word. This 
scheme is resorted to that the penman may attain greater 
speed in writing ; and those words are chosen thus to be 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



43 



represented, which occur the most frequently in com- 
position ; twenty-five of them actually constituting one- 
fourth of any given chapter or discourse, and one hundred 
of them amounting to almost half. The signs are so 
chosen as to suggest, generally, the words they represent. 
They should be memorized by copying the table once or 
twice. 

30. TABLE OF VOWEL WORD-SIGNS. 

the x all ' already f or 

. a \ two | oh, owe / who 

N of "on 

an, and N to ( but / should 

DIPHTHONGS, v 1, A how. 

The first line of signs, since they are first-place vowels, 
are to be written at the height of a stroke above the 
line of writing ; those in the second line, consisting of 
second and third -pi ace signs, are to be written on the line. 
The second-place vowels are thus brought down because 
three places cannot be distinguished without a consonant 
stroke ; but no confusion arises from it, since, when the 
second-place sign is thus transferred, the third-place sign 
is not used as a word-sign, and when the third is used the 
second is not. The third and fourth lines of the table 
have the same relation to each other as the first and se- 
cond. 

31. The is a word-sign that often follows immediately 
after most of the others, and in order to avoid lifting 
the pen to write each separately, it is joined to the pre- 
ceding sign in the shape of a light tick ; thus, > of the, 
1 on the, > to the. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY, 
READING EXERCISE VII. 



* > '* 



j-" : *> 9H V I -V TV 

I - X ..I P s ^ | 




WRITING EXERCISE VII. 

Eariti tarieO log ; lajdeO mucj rog ; qeriJcO no il ; apereO 
bolli luvli amug us. <le urO and de ar. 1 livli and hapi, 
but gidi, bor. 4 o nuOig. 3e bet ov de fjr. Go tu de dor. 
He ma rjt el de tjm. La it on de Jelf. Go tu mj Jop and 
rig de bel. Ct Jadi porq and kuilig Jsur. Ma bqrmoni log 
abjd in -sr Qurq. FuiliJ bff ! 'J b^ dar he lavij mi muni on so 
vijus a polisi j 01 bui no de rjt Jud dui it. 



REVIEW. (21.) What are the letters that may be written either upward or 
downward? (22.) Explain the up-stroke r as compared with 5. (24.) Where 
are the first and third-place vowels put to the up-stroke r ? (25.) Give the 1st 
rule for writing r; the 2d, ditto; 3d; 4th; 5th; 6th; 7th. (26.) How is it 
determined when the strokes /", r, I are written upward ? (27.) Give the 1st 
rule for writing I ; the 2nd ; 3rd ; 4th ; 5th ? (28.) Under what circumstance 
is / always written upward? What is the object of these rules ? (29.) What 
is a word-sign? (30.) Give and describe the flrst-plaee long vowel word-signs ; 
the third-place ; the first-place short ; the third-place ; the diphthongs. (31 ) 
What is the license taken with the 1 



MANUAL OF PHONOORAPHY, 



LESSON IV. 

THE CIRCLB 3 AND ZCOM, CON, ING, AND MP 
CONSONANT WORr-SIGXS 

The fact that s and z represent sounds of very frequent 
recurrence, renders it necessary, in order to secure the 
greatest brevity and beauty in writing, that they be fur- 
nished with an additional sign. Indeed, each subsequent 
chapter of these lessons is but to introduce some more 
abbreviated method of writing ; which, while it seems to 
render the system more complex, adds to it new beauty 
as well as value. 

32. The second forms for s and z are, a small cir- 
cle, made light for the first, and thickened on one side 
for the latter; thus, o *, o z; the thickening of the s 
circle, however, is scarcely ever necessary, as the sense 
will nearly always indicate whether the circle should be 
s or z. Where great precision is requisite, the stroke z 
should be used. 

33. The circle is used much more frequently than the 
stroke s ; it is employed, however, only in connection with 
stroke consonants, except as a word-sign. The table on 
the following page will assist the learner in fixing in his 
mind the peculiar connection the circle has with each 
long sign ; it will also be of great service for reference, in 
writing out the exercises in the lesson, if he finds any dif- 
ficulty in remembering on which side of any stroke the 
circle should be written. 



46 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

THE CIRCLE S AND Z. 

\ sb P sd / sj o sg 

\sf r sO ^ ss 9 sj 
\JBV ^ sd ) sz _^ 55 

0-^ sm Q_^ sn Q.^ sg ^ stc ^ sk 

34. The stroke y never takes an initial circle, be- 
cause not needed; it is used on its termination, how- 
ever. The table presents the circle written only at the 
initial end of the strokes, whereas it may be written at 
either end, according as it is desired to read before or after 

the stroke; thus, \o ps, o ks, ~^ ws, (^ hs ; and 

it may also, of course, be written between two strokes , 
thus, ~ kst, ^^fsn. 

35. The learner must observe the following rules in 
writing the circle: 

First. On all the straight vertical and inclined strokes, 
it is written on the right-hand side, both beginning and 
end. 

Second. On the straight horizontal signs, which include 
the up-stroke r, since it is nearer horizontal than vertical, 
it is written on the upper side. 

Third. It is written on the inner or concave side of all 
the curved signs. Compare the foregoing with the table. 

Fourth. When it comes between two consonants it is 
turned in the shortest way ; thus, J tsk, <C- gsn, 



36. In vocalizing words in which the circle * is used, 
the vowel-signs are to be placed to the strokes before 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 47 

which or after which they read, without any reference to 
the circle. As rules to assist the learner, the following 
observations are sufficiently explicit : 

First. If there be an initial circle, iti3 always read first, 
and then the vowel that precedes the stroke, and lastly 
the stroke itself, as *P set, ~p set. 

Second. If there be no vowel preceding the stroke, 
the circle, stroke, and following vowel are read in the or- 
der named ; as ^ p/, j- sto, o_/" skat. 

Third. When the circle terminates a word, it is always 

the last to be read; as, fctiis, _ o goz, ( r ~ n luks, T* ssmz, 

j& enjvz, ^>4 supoz ; when written between two strokes, 

the proper place for vowels can always be found ; as will 

be seen in examining ( lesun, "^ 



READING EXERCISE VIII. 



t \ f r- T y s *- .<L ,c 




^ <c/a ^n- ^ 



43 MANUAL Off PHONOGRAPHY. 

WRITING EXERCISE VIII. 

Sip, srap, sap, sop, set, sjd, set, set, sej, suq, sek, sok, sav, 
aid, SU0, sez, saj, sur, ssr, sel, sol, sam, sum, sjn, sum, sig, sugk. 
Spj, sta, skj, sla, slo, slj, sno. Pes, daz, qez, jerz, gas, fez, 
vjsez. <Iis, doz, Juiz, raz, rjs, -srz, las, mis, njs. 

Spek, spok, skem, sfer, slep, slak, smok, smel, snal, sigk 
Besto, beset, task, itself, spas, spesifj, skjz, siksO. agkjus, sedi- 

fus, risk, resit, rezun, deniz, solles, holmes, cjozen, masun, 
izioloji. 



37. There are four cases where the long s or z must al- 
ways be employed . First, when it is the only stroke con- 
sonant in a word ; as, ) as, ') ez, )- so. Second,, when 

it is the first consonant and preceded by a vowel ; as .} 

ask, ^-^. esJeap. Third, when two distinct vowel sounds 
come between the s and following consonant; as in the 
word l^y siens. Fourth, when * or z is the last conso- 
nant.in a word and followed by a vowel ; as _/ / also, 
polzi. Fifth, when z commences a word ; as 
eel, )^ Zjun. 

38 When the sound of or z is heard twice in the same 
syllable, either of two forms may be used, ss, ^ or ) ss; 
if the last sound is that of 2 the circle should be made 
first and the stroke be written heavy ; thus, v ^) s^z. 

39. When the indistinct vowel i or e comes between 
ss or an s and a s, or between zz, in the middle or at 
the end of a word, the syllable is represented by a 
circle double the usual size ; thus, \o pesez, Q_ qiuzez, 
Xo sufjsez, ^Q? nesesari. It should never begin a word, 
as in sistem. In the word eksurs}z, it is allowable to put 
the vowel i in the double circle, thus, 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 49 

40. The circle is used as a word-sign for iz, written 
above the line, thus, ; and for as, written on the line, 
thus, o ; with the dot aspirate prefixed they become 
' his, -o has. 



READING EXERCISE IX. 



K> 



WRITING EXERCISE IX. 

(37.) Hsa, jsi, aslep, csp-szal, asjnz, sjunz ; bizi, spjsi, lazi, 
hersa, ckselcnsi, obstinasi epilepsi, sufijensi ; Zooloji, zer<D, 
zelusli, zigzag. 

(38.) Ses, sez, sez, sizurz, sizm. 

(39.) Basis, dosez, quitez, kisez, diskusez, vjsez, -snsez, 
propozez. relesez, egzist, pozesur. 



THE PREFIXES COM AND CON THE AFFIX INGMP. 

41. For the sake of rendering Phonography as brief as 
possible, a few arbitrary signs are used, for the represen- 
tation of prefixes and syllables in such words as would be 
inconvenient to write out in full. Thus, a light dot placed 
at the beginning of a word expresses the prefix com or 
con; thus, [.-^ kondem, ^"" konsol ; and at the end, the 
termination iy, when a separate syllable ; as, ) adiy, \^ 
liviy. 

42. It is more convenient, however, after the s-circle 
preceded by p. b, f, v, k, g, n, or up-stroke r, to write the 
alphabetic y; as \Q^ pasiy, \^ korifesiy, 

5 



50 MANUAL OF P1IOKOGRAPHT. 

and after b, bt, br, t, ?/i ; as "^O- nuiiy, '^ ^-' ssmly. 
Generally ^-P is written for iyz ; as \^ bslijz, /fcg 
rejvsiyz. A large dot may be used when more conven- 
ient; as I dv.dyz, <^\ /teditjz. 

43. The stroke for m is the only one that is not given 
in the alphabet heavy as well as light ; and in order to 
make good use of all the means the alphabet affords, this 
stroke written heavy ismade to represent the not unfre- 
quent combination of in with/*, either at the beginning, 
middle, or end of a word ; thus, O/ enipjr, ^^x^ tempo- 
rari, / x v * lamp. 

WRITING EXERCISE X. 

(41-2.) Kompar, kompjl, kompozig, kombat, kontaminat, 
kontenjus, konvinsig, konva, konspjr, konspirasi, konsolatori, 
konsuljip, konsurvatizm, konsjuir), konjusnes. 

(43.) Pump, tempel, temporal, damp, jumpig, rump, Oump, 
eimplifj, simplisiti, egzampcl, rornp, limp. 



44. CONSONANT WORD-SIGNS. 








\ up ! it / which 


j kingdom 


\ be | do / advantage 


j give-n 
( together 


(^ for { think ) so J shall 




^ have ( them ) was J usual-ly 




C will ~^\ are f your 


"^ way 


( me j importance-t ( in 
v \ may " ( improve-ment ^"^ \ no 


J thing 
| language 



In the above, and all other lists of word-signs, when 
a word i< printed With a hyphen, as givc-n, the sign will 
represent either the whole word, or only so much as pre- 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 51 

cedes the hyphen, which -is, by itself, another word ; thus 
is either give or given. Such words being nearly alike 
in sound, and yet different parts of speech, or otherwise 
incapable of being taken one for the other, cause no diffi- 
culty to the reader. Inasmuch as the horizontal strokes 
do not fill the space which a line of writing occupies, they 
are made to represent two words, as in the case of the 
vowel word-signs, one above the line and the other on the 
line ; these words and their respective positions are indi- 
cated in the table, by being placed one above the other, in 
braces, aftei the signs. 



READING EXERCISE X. 



o 



y- > 

fa 




52 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHIC 




WRITING EXERCISE XL 

$ Ijk no kigdum az j dru a rcpublik. ^Dui da 0igk da wil 
kum up on de Sinsinati mal-bot? fl felig ov e Jud fil dj sol 
in dis holi \ITSS. Asperiti Irazez de qef ov its dezjnz. 
Hiz lazines iz eksesiv; he diyliks hiz buks. Hiz fansi iz 
yuigvyili riq, and hiz dezjnz ful ov Ijf. IHaz dis juj no justis? 
Oncsti iz rjt polisi. 01 eskap tu de siti iz hoples. SXud de 
nam be put on de'stsjd and on de top ov deboks? 'ill's mcni 
q,r tu go. It iz tui mug tia divjd amug dem. Lisen tu de 
lesnn, and be bizi, az a ber Jud be, hm aspjrz tia be at de hcd 
ov de sk'uil. Sinser soro iz ezili sen besjd fols. Sojal Ijf givz 
mug hapines. Ask nofasiliti in biznes afarz,unles it be nesesari. 
Sunset senuri Joz riq kulurz and hansum Jadz; and it qanjez 
intu meni varid formz. Riqez qr sot bj sum, az de cjef hap- 
ines in dis Ijf, becez reali nesesari, az da supoz. 



MANUAL OF PIIONOGttAPHT. 53 

REVIEW. (32.) What arc the sscond forms for s and z? (33.) How is the 
circle employed ! (34.) Where may it be written V (35.) On what side of tho 
vertical and inclined strokes is it turned? Which side of the straight horizon 
tals? Which side of all the curves V How is it written between two strokes? 
(36.) How are two strokes having an s-circle vocalized? If there bo an initial 
circle and preceding vowel, what is the order of reading ? If vowels both pre- 
cede and follow, what is the order? (37.) How many cases are there where 
the strokes must be used? What ia tiie 1st; 2nd; 3rd; and 4th? (38.) How 
should the ss in the same syllable be written? How sz? (39.) What sylla- 
bles does the double circle represent ? What is the exception? (40.) Desig- 
nate the word-signs of the circle. (41.) What- are the prefixes? The affixes 1 
(42.) When is it more convenient to write the alphabetic y 1 (43.) What is the 
signification of m made heavy ? (44.) Give the words for the first eight conso- 
nant signs; for the next eight; fot the next four; for the last four. 



MANUAL OK PHONOGRAPHY. 



LESSON V. 



IMPROPER DIPHTHONGS IT-HOOK -TRIPTHONGS. 



JF-SERIES. 



long. 
:i c 

| we 


short, 
wi 


1 

D 


ong. e, 
wo 


lort. 
wo 


Tr 

L 


ipthongs 


! wa c 


we 





wo J 


wu 


1 


Wff 


j wa 


wa 


3 


wui . s 


wu 


-, 


w* 



45. The improper diphthortys are so termed because they 
consist of the union of consonants with vowels ; namely, 
to and y with each of the twelve vowels ; the improper 
tripthongs are the union of w with the diphthongs i, v, 
and y. The fact that w and y never occur in English 
except before vowels, and thus occur so frequently, in- 
duced the inventor of Phonography to represent the 
combined sounds by a single letter, and thus save time 
and space for the writer. 

46. To obtain suitable characters for the representa- 
tion of the 70-series a small circle is divided perpendicular- 
ly, thus <j> , the first or left-hand half of the circle repre- 
senting the union of w with the first, or dot series of vowels; 
and like them it is made heavy for the long sounds ; as 
CN X wep, */ waj, __/- kicqw ; and light for the short ; 
as /^ ung, j^" dwel, c wag. 



MANCJAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 65 

47 The second half of the circle represents the union 
of w with the second, or dash series of vowels, heavy and 
light; as, ,-% worm, J^jcov, ^_ wmf, / woo, ^Y^ 
wurm, -J wud. 

48. The first-place sign of the second series of diph- 
thongs, both long and short, when followed by k, up-stroke 
r, and n, is written in connection with such consonants ; 
thus, 5 wuJc,-^^ tcor,^ -- won. 

49. These signs should be written as small as they 
well can be and preserve distinct semi-circles ; and, like 
the proper diphthongs, they must always be written verti- 
cally, and not change with the different inclinations of 
the consonants. 

READING EXERCISE XI. 




WRITING EXERCISE XII. 



Wek, wat, wav, weknes, bewal, swar. aswaj, wajez ; widO, 
wet, waft, wiked, swel, kwak, ekwiti, akwies, reliijkwij. 
Wekur, wok, \vuid, wermli, kwota, k\vorum ; woq, wud, woj'- 
;g, skwolid, swomp. Werljk, werfar, werti, wekigstik. 



56 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

60. THE JF-HooK. The half circle, light, is joined 
to the first end of I, up-stroke r, m and , to represent the 
simple sound of w ; the stroke to which it is -written is then 
vocalized as in the case of the s-circle ; thus, If wal, 
if tcuri, c ~ "/' wumanli, <^s wan. 

51. The alphabetic sign must always be employed when 
w is the only consonant in a word, (except in the word-sign 

we ;) and in words that commence with a vowel, fol- 
lowed by w, and also when w is followed by s; thus, 
awak, ~^tf~~ Wesli. 



READING EXERCISE XII. 




WRITING EXERCISE XIII. 

Walig, wel, wiligli, Wilsun, kwel, ekwali; Woles, \vuli ; 
weri, bewar, warh-ss, werisum ; kworel, wurk, wurkmanjip, 
wurjip, wur61es, wurdili. Wemz, wompum, wiamanljk, 
skwemijnes ; windo, kwenq, twenti, twinj, entwjn. Wir, 
kwcri, inkwjr, wel-beig, skwolur, elokwens, ekwanimiti. 
"Wui, awar, wjzli. 



52. TBIPTHONGS. The characters with which to repre- 
sent the combination of w with the diphthongs, are obtained 
by dividing a small square thus, "X ; the first right-angle 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 57 

representing the tripthong w'i, the second, ws, and the se- 
cond put to the first place, wo ; thus, L l, wjf, ^~] kwvt. 

Since the introduction of the -w-hook to r, I, m, n, the ws 
character is not needed. Sometimes L- may be connected 
with the following consonant ; as L j w'ld, \ wjf. 

53. By placing the aspirate before these improper diph- 
thongs and tripthongs, we get the proper representation of 
the first two sounds in such words as wheat, whig, while, 
(the w coming before the h in the old orthography being 
an inversion of the order of the elements in speaking the 
words ;) thus, ' c | hwet, Jiwig. 

54. When the w-hook.is used, the aspirate is indicated 
by making the hook heavy ; thus, .(^ hwsl, c/\L^ hwar- 
for. But when the alphabetic w is employed, the aspirate 
is indicated by a small tick, thus, ^ hwiz. 



READING EXERCISE XIII. 

L \ \r V* I" x "I *- 




WRITING EXERCISE XIV. 

Wjvz, kwjet, wjdnes, kwjetnes, kwert, Irikwer. 

Hwip, hwjt, hwiguri; hwarbj, hwarwid, hwarat, hwurlpral, 
enihwar, nob-war ; hwelbaro, hwelrjt, hwalur, bwimzikaliti, 
hwelin ; hwens, liwjn ; bwiskur liwislur. 



58 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

5. W WORD-SIGNS. 

c we " -with ' what ~ why ^-^ when 

c were 5 would </ where L while <^, one 

'f well 

These word-signs, like the simple vowel-signs, are 
to be written above or on the line, as their positions in the 
table indicate. 



HEADING EXERCISE XIV. 



\ sf 

1 Ox '- 



01 /I / <^-x v x. 

I - ^f ? / 

-t ' 

b 



r 1r ' 



MANUAL OF PHONOGIiAPI.Y, 59 





X 

v ^ J ^ I" " r "~7 V- /"" 

<^S /' g o "I X -/ V/ x (/ 

/> \ 

o -\ i ^LS> 

y 


WRITING EXERCISE XV, 

Bewar ov de wjn kup. fl wjz qere. We wud be hapi wid 
hiz kumpani. 1 Hwj Jud we kil and et swjn. <\ Hwot iz hiz 
\vij, and hwar wud he go. Hwj, q, ! hwj, mj sol, dis aggwij. 
$ go awa hwar wo and agkjus kar dm not asal eni wun. Wud 
j wur at horn. Wor wurks mizuri, hwjl pes givz kqm repoz 
tu el. 



60 



MAKUAL OF PHOKOG KAPUT. 



THE r-SKRIES. 



long. 



ya 



short. 



long. 
l 

I y e 

/>! yo 



short, 
yo 

yu 



56. To obtain characters to represent the y-series of 
improper diphthongs, the small circle is taken and divided 
horizontally, thus, -^- ; the under half represents the dot 
group of vowels, and is made heavy for the long sounds ; 
as, w ^\ x yer, y" Yal, J)_ Yqzm ; and light for the short ; 
as, ) yis, ( a common but not approved pronunciation of 
yes,) /^ yel,/~^yam; the upper half represents the 
union of y with the dash group of vowels, heavy and light; 

as > ^ y^ -2- y k i J y> its ; ^ y n > ^^-y u y ; y never 

occurs before u in the English language. 

57. In writing, the same rules must be observed in re- 
gard to these signs as with the w-series. (48) 

68. WOKD SIGNS. w ye, * yet, n beyond, n yui. 



READING EXERCISE XV. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



61 



WRITING EXERCISE XVI. 

NOTE. In Phonography, ' it ' in the following lessons may be written as ' yra.' 
Yerli, yen, yerlig, yeloij", yelpig,yomanri, Yokigani, yurjij, 

NH, York, hijj, s^t, amn,z, redi^s, du^ti, rei'v^z, kontiimli, anyuial. 
3e yiut ov ~sr koniyiuniti Jud eg quiz sum far egzampel, 

and folc> it kontinyuiali. Pij,r simplisiti givz me jer. QLis 

Manyuial Jud be yuir gjd. It iz a wurk ov yuitiliti. 



READING EXERCISE XVI. 



^ \^ ( ' f y\ L 

/ V_r>\ T X^U 



C- ' )' \ -) , - ^-v 




62 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY^. 

WRITING EXERCISE XVII. 

NH York iz a popyuilus siti. Yui no hui j am, yst j am at a 
los tu spek yuir nam. Hiimaiiiti Jud liv in pes az wun kom- 
yumiti ; da Jud dwel tugedur in el deurt in nqnnoui andluv. 
If yui mak falyurz in dijti, yiu wil resev de laj ov justis. 3e 
miz-bo 1 amnzez himself h\vjl \vekig. Ho yes ! ho yes ! sez 
de vug bcl rigur. tie yok ov de oks iz hevi ; it golz hiz nek 
dis "worm da. In daz ov yor, hwen we wer vug. 

AYe yuignali giv deni at -srz for slepin, ten for wurk, and 
siks hwifj da ma impruiv in eni wa. tie bo-z j am teqig q. r 
dez|nu ov impruivmeiit ; da scm tu tigk in dis wa hwot iz 
wart: dmig at ol, iz \vnrfc dmig wel. !< hop da wil ehvaz liv 
up tu dis maksim, so Jal da hav sukses in Ijf. . Sun, giv me 
yuir cr, and i wil tcq yui d& wa ov l^f. Leijt ov daz iz given 
us for sojal and rclijue impruivment. 



KKVIEW. (45.) Exi>laiu the improper diphthongs; the tripthongs. (4C.) How 
are the former represented? Which series of vowels, combined with tc, does 
the left-hand half of the circle represent? (47.) What are the sounds of the 
right-hand half of the circle ? (48.) To what consonants may the signs foi 
wo and ico be w-ritten without lifting the pen? (50.) To what strokes docs the 
tr saiui-circ-le coniiect and form a hook? On which side of the up-stroke r is it 
written? How does it differ in power from the improper diphthongs? (51.) 
When must the alphabetic w be employed? (52.) Designate the representa- 
tion of the tripthongs. (53.) What is the phonographic representation of tch? 
(54.) How is the i hook aspirated ? (55.) Designate the first line of word- 
tigns; the second. 

(56.) What are the signs to represent the y-series? Which half of the circle 
represents the dot series? What are their sounds? What are the sounds of 
the upperhalf ? (57.) How are they to be written to the consonants? (58. 'i Whsii 
are the word-signs? 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 63 



LESSON VI. 

INITIAL HOOKS THE Z HOOK EXPLAINED. 

59. A peculiar characteristic of 7 and r is, that they 
readily unite with preceding consonants, they flow back 
into them, as it were; and hence their classification as 
liquids. This union, though a kind of double sound, is 
formed by a single effort of the voice. Take, for illustra- 
tion, the two words play and pray, and observe how sim- 
ultaneously the pi and pr are spoken ; so in the termina- 
tion of the words title and acre ; in the former class of 
words no vowel sound comes between the two consonants, 
of course ; in the latter a very indistinct one is heard, but 
which it is not necessary to represent in Phonography. 

60. For the purpose of farther abbreviating phonograph- 
ic writing, this combining of / and r with previous conso- 
nants is represented by hooks written to those consonants. 
As the long consonants are heard first in the words, consis- 
tency would seem to require that they be written first and 
the hooks afterward ; but the reverse of this is the case, 
for the reason that hooks on the termination of the strokes 
maybe more philosophically and advantageously employed 
for other purposes ; and besides, the pi, pr, bl, br, &c. t 
being considered single sounds almost, the stroke and the 
hook may be regarded in the same light ; they should ac- 
tually be spoken as such in spelling and reading, 5. e., as 
the final syllables in able, (bl) little, (tl~] paper, (pr) lover, 
(vr); and not as p, I ; k, I] p, r; b, r. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

TABLE OF THE Z-HOOK. 
P l f tl / $ - kl 

bi f di r ji c_ gl 

ti 

struck 



Gl. The hook is first turned, and then the long conso- 
nant struck in the usual manner. The Z-hook, like the 
s-circle, is made on the right-hand side of the vertical 
and inclined straight strokes, on the upper side of the 
straight horizontals, and on the inside of the curves. 

62. This hook to the strokes s, z, down-stroke r and y 
is not needed, since for si and zl, the circle is used with 
more advantage; as,/;' sla, /-pjf mu:el; and the initial 
hook to I, xip-stroke r, m and n, is more useful as w. 

63. The /and 5 take the Z-hoak only when they are 
combined with other stroke consonants, and then they 
are struck upward; thus, ^ ^/ esenfal, ^^\J ambro^al. 

64. The stroke and the hook being considered as one 
sign, are vocalized as though no hook were used ; and in 
writing, if a vowel precedes a hooked stroke it is written 
before it; thus, X, a ^> *^_m7; and if the vowel fol- 
lows, it must be placed after ; thus, \^ pla, r ^ Mas; or 
a vowel may be written both before and after; thus, S\ 
ttbli, v p idlur, J* deklar, -~c? ^-^ eksklani. 

A T \ 

(>5. In some combinations of consonants it is difficult 
to make a good Z-hook, but it can generally be understood, 
as in the word^\ repli ; in some cases, however, it is 
necessary to write the long 1; as in 



NOTE. The learner must remember that the hook I is to be used 
only when its sound follows a preceding stroke consonant; hence 
Ip, Id, Ik, 8fC., must be written with the stroke I. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 65 

BEADING EXERCISE XVII. 



WRITING EXERCISE XVIII. 

Pla, bio, gle, flj, ply, aplj, obljj, aflikt, bjbel, tjtel, kupel, 
plenti, blazez, klasez, regal, fikel, reklam, inflam, remuival, 
fatal, radikal, klerikal. bujel, espejal, mqrjal, influzenjal. 

SPECIAL SCHEME OF VOCALIZATION. 

66. It has been stated, (59) that the /-hook is de- 
signed to be used when no vowel comes between the sound 
of / and a preceding consonant, or when the vowel is but 
indistinctly heard; of the latter class are the following: 
<: \,.. > spelz, '-^ sgeh; of this class of words, however, 

it is held by some that there is no vowel sound heard 
in the last syllables. But it is found very convenient, 
occasionally, to take a little license with the rule, and 
use the hook even where a vowel sound is distinctly heard 
between it and the stroke. Thus, in writing the word 
falsehood, it is much easier and quicker to write the hook I, 
thus, ^P than thus, C_/71 . 

67. When this is done, a peculiar scheme of vocaliza- 
tion is resorted to ; namely, the dot vowels are indicated 
by a small circle placed in the three positions, before the 
stroke for the long, and after for the short vowels ; as 

(!~ ddifslv, f" til, f^~~Z legal; when the dash vowels are to 

be read between the stroke and the hook, it is indicated by 
striking the dash through the stroke ; as CH ~\ Tculpalel; 01 

6 



66 MAKTTAt OF PIIOKOGRAPHT. 

when its place is at the hooked end it may be written just 
before the hooked stroke ; thus, {/^ lolurabel; the diph- 
thongs, when necessary, are written as the stroke vow- 
els; thus, j* gildif* ^-^Ljhorfsfif. 

This method of writing is used to a very limited extent; 
and the learner is cautioned against using it for any words 
but such as are designated, in this and subsequent les- 
sons, to be written thus. 

READING EXERCISE XVIII. 




WRITING EXERCISE XIX. 

Felsiti, fuilzkap, felo-sitizenz, fulnes, fulminat, vulgat, 
filosofikal, voluptuous, konvtilsiv, kolonial, galvanik, kal'araiti, 
kolekt, kaiki^lat, 



Z-IIOOK PKECEUED BY THE S-CIKCLE. 

68. The 5-circle is prefixed to the compound consonant 
signs, as well as to the simple. It is first written, and the 
pen carried round so as to form the hook before making 
the long sign ; thus, 7^ supel, ./ sa^el t \^ siviliz. 

69. No new rules are required for vocalizing ; it needs 
only to be borne in mind when the long is to be used 
(37); and that the stroke and hook are considered as one 
sign, and if the vowel is heard before them it is written 
before them ; if after, it is written afterward ; as in the 
previous examples. 

Se Lesson X, on Half-length Strokes. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



67 



70. In reading, the circle is read first, then the 
vowel, if one precede the compound stroke ; and lastly 
the compound consonant, with its following vowel if there 
be one. 

71. WORD-SIGNS. c kel, c difikulti, ^ ful, f 1 til 

and felt ^_ vulym. 

READING EXERCISE XIX. 



*-i ^ < ^ V 

Tl ^^y x \ \ 




^ v ^ 
v. 



>' \ A / x 






? ' V ' ' ^ I 



I- ' 



68 MANFAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 




r*. 



<\ 



WRITING EXERCISE XX. 



Setel, sjdcl, sutelti, sikelz, siviliti, supelnes, siviljzig, 
swivel, spljsin, pesful, posibel, splendid, fezabcl, advjzabel, 
displaig, disklozez. 

SDELNES. lEdelnes iz a plag tu de skolur, for miles he 
apljz himself klosli tia hiz buks, he luizez ol klam tu dc 
aploz ov hiz famili or hiz ofijal siiperiur. It iz Jamful; for 
he Jud rckolckt dat hiz famili hav a rjt tu luk for sumtig 
yuisful in him tu repa dem for tel and ag/jeti. It iz unrc- 
zunabel; fsr, unles hs giv up hiz evil \va and dm hiz dij,li 
fatfuli, no blesig awats him, but he iz displezig tu hiz klas- 
feloz, tu himself, and tu ol pepel. Fjnali, it iz oful; for jdel 
habits qr apt tu bekum wurs, and de evil wun " olwaz misqif 
seks for jdel yxut tu dui." But de skolur hm fatfuli apljz 
himself tu \vurk, \vil obljj him hut teqez him, and plez el 
pepel hm. no him. 



REVIEW. (39.) Explain the peculiar character of I and r. (60.) How are 
strokes with / and r-liooks to lie spoken? (61.) On which side of the vertical 
and inclined straight strokes is the /-hook written ? Which side of the straight 
horizontals ? Which side of the curves? (62.) To which of the strokes is the 
Z-hook not written, and why t (63.) How do/and 3 take the Miook 1 (64.) How 
are {-hook strokes vocalized'/ (C6.) What is said about a vowel sound between 
the stroke consonant and the hook? (67.) How are vowels of the dot series 
represented in the scheme for vocalizing the hook? How the dash series? 
How the dlpthongs ? (68.) How may the s-circle be written to the initial end 
of the hooked strokes? (70.) What is the rule for reading such compound 
strokes? (71.) What are the Miook word-signs? 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 69 



LESSON VII. 

THE -HOOK DOUBLE CURVE FOR SS. 

72. The r-hook is written on the left-hand side of the 
vertical and inclined straight strokes, and on the underside 
of the straight horizontals, just the reverse of the Z-hook. 
Some of the curved strokes take this hook irregularly. 



<\ pr 1 tr / y: <_ kr 

*\ br T dr /* jr < gr 

c Afr 

^ vr 

f.-^ mr (^/ nr 

73. It will be seen from the table that/, v, t and # 
take the r-hook by assuming the positions of r, to, s and z; 
thus, ^ frs, 7^ ovur, *)_ triu, . <c ) t?r, which they can do 
without danger of ambiguity, since these letters never re- 
ceive an initial hook: rr not being wanted, wr existing in 
the tii-hook to the up-stroke r, and the sr zr being supplied 
by the s-circle; thus, */, ^ and ^ 

74. To indicate the r-hook on m and n, the strokes are 
made heavy, which distinguishes them from wm icn; thus, 
=^" onur, r^ dinur, <__ ^ gramur; y does not take any 
hook, and hence n made heavy with a hook will not make 
confusion. 

Sometimes this hook, like the Z-hook, has to be made 
rather indistinctly, as (I _ degre. \ _ x askrib. After _} 
the downward r is used instead of the hook, as ,/L , fakur. 




70 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

76. The remarks in regard to vocalizing the /-hook 
strokes apply in every particular to the r-hook strokes. It 
should especially be borne in mind that the hooked strokes 
are regarded as one letter, and spoken as the last syllables 
in reaper, letter, acre, &c.; and that as a general thing the 
hook is only used when no distinct vowel sound comes be- 
tween another consonant and a following r; as in *\ /?ra, 
c ~i Jcnu, I utitr, /^3<^ I e 3 ur - 

76. When 1 is preceded by r (we), they may be 
united; as in | wetur, and all its compounds. 

READING EXERCISE XX. 



1 - J I X- 




WRITING EXERCISE XXI. 

Drj, tve, dra, krj, gro, akur, odur, npur, aprjz, ajml, aprrav, 
drem, brij, frek, frjda, muivur, klovur, tro, gadur, plegur, 
eragur, pluniur, murdnr, manur, onurabel, ovurluk evuri- 
hwar, Criminal, purqesez, transpoz, trembel, brudur, jurni, 
jurnal, framur, Fransis, wundurful. 6ckur, jokur. 

77. A limited license is taken with the above rule(75), as 
ki the case of the Z-hook, and the r-hook is used when a dis- 
tinct vowel sound does come between it and the previous 
consonant ; in which case the same peculiar scheme of 
vocalization is employed; thus, d^Dsrsur, | __ ciqrk, 
^^ piirsnn, cH- Tears, ^- <rt refaojrz, *\^ postyur. 

n* 



MANUAL Oi" PHONOGRArHY. 7[ 

READING EXERCISE XXI. 




WRITING EXERCISE XXII. 

Gerful, karles, merli, nerli, Gqrlz, qq,rkol, paragruf, Jqvk, 
Jqrpur, terni, purvurs, korsli, moraliti, nert, nurij, enermiti, 
prelimiuari, fetyur, lektyur. 



THE B-HOOK PRECEDE!} BY THE S-CIRCLE. 

78. The s-circle precedes the r-liook in much the same 
manner as it does the /-hook ; thus, it might be written *\ 
spr, G tier; but since the s-circle alone never occupies 
the r-hook side of the straight strokes, advantage is taken of 
the circumstance, since a circle is more easily written than a 
circle and a hook, to write simply the circle; thus, \* stra, 
n ^ skrsm. '\ siaur, \ . si'kar, / srjur. But with the 
curves this contraction cannot be made, since the simple 
s-circle occupies the place ; hence the circle and hook must 
both be written ; thus /"\ sufur, &^ s/tmttr, ^ sinur. 

79. When the s-circle and r-hook come between two 
straight consonants, it is often more convenient to write 
the hook in addition to the circle than not ; as in ^"s\ 
prospur, ~^\ eJcstra. 

80. The same rules are .to be observed in vocalizing 
and reading that were given for the Miook preceded by 
the -s circle. (68, 69.) 



MANUAL OP PHONOGRAPHY. 
READING EXERCISE XXII. 




WRITING EXERCISE XXIII. 

Sprj, stra, strjk, strem, skrap, skrrapel, skrjb, stregt, strugel 
stranj, stroggur, supiir, sabur, si^premasi, sekresi, sjfur, suf- 
urig, sevur, simur, suinur. 



THE DOUBLE CURVE FOR 3X. 

81. When a curved stroke is repeated, an angle is made 
between the two ; thus, ^_ ff t ^-^-^ nn, which leaves 
at liberty, to be used for some other purpose, the douUe- 
lengtli strokes. A somewhat arbitrary, though convenient 
use, is made of them thus : Doubling the length of a 
curved stroke, adds the syllable tiur to the single strokes ; 
thus, \^_fcifiur, '^-^anudur. These forms are used chief- 
ly as word-signs foifq$ur,mu^ur ) ns&ur, (above the line,) 
imufiur, radur, furctur. 

82. .E-HOOK. WORD-SIGNS. 

\ principle-al ^ from J) sure 

\ re-member ^ every J pleasure 

1 truth ^ tliree /-^ * Mr< re " mark 

c care there, their ' ( more 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

READING EXERCISE XXIII. 



73 



t 



'^v r v ^\ 

\ I- $ a 

. < *X L_D 

f -. 



\ 

W 



f 



' X 



-1 



MABUAL OF PUUSOCKAPHT. 




) . j, ' 



WRITING EXERCISE XX IV. 

SemusNES. AND SOBRIETI. Nu'ig nobol iz tu be had but 
wid seriusnes and sobrjeti. [ sobur pnrsun scks tu wa dc 
trm valyui ov tigz and tia la no tresurx in trjfelz, but radiir 
on hwot iz important. Nutig, pnhaps, strjks us az so stranj 
and fralij" az tu obznrv pepel serins abst tqfelz, and trjflit} 
wid serius tigz. Sosjeti snfurz konsidurabli bj de trjflur, bin 
bats sobrjeti and seriusnes, and wud suiunr bav foli tia ruil 
sqprem. Supljd wid strez tu pla wid, be sufurz <te strem ov 
lif tu flo awa, until det puts in hiz sikel, and separats de strip 
ov Ijf. NV iz no t|m fer sukur or eskap. He stqks wid 
stregt and unerig am; strips bim ov el biz plez, strraz bix 
hops intu de ar, and a strugel klozez lii/ karer. It ia bot 
untrai and stranj tu konstrui seriusnes intu sadnes, er tu kon- 
sidur sobqeti de sam az unbapines ; fer it iz skarsli posibel tu 
be propurli ga or truili hapi, unles we no hwen tu be sobur. 

REVIEW. [T2] On which side of the straight strokes is the r-hook written ? 
[73.] What strokes do not take the j-hook ? In what way do,/', r, /, if, ta'.e t!u* 
r-hook? Why this irregularity ? (74.) How do m and ,i take this hook ? (15.) 
What is said about vocalizing! (77.) What is the license in regard to the use of 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 75 

LESSON VIII. 

TERMINAL HOOKS. 

83. Since the hooked strokes, although representing 
two elementary sounds, are written with nearly the same 
facility as the simple strokes, the method of hooking is 
applied to the termination of the consonant signs as well 
as to the beginning. The most useful purposes which the 
two terminal hooks can subserve, are to represent the very 
frequent sound of n and the common final syllable fun, 
heard in such words as passion, nation, 2>hysician, &c. 

TABLE OF THE A'-HOOK. 
\ P 11 





J tn 


i/ Q n 




Jdn 


c/ J n 


Sj tn 


J sn , 


s/JJfn 


(dn 


t) zn 


J 3" 



vn _ .. _ 

s~> s~ . 

^^ mn v_? nn A wn 



84. On the straight strokes the n-hook is written on 
the same side that the r-hook occupies ; that is, on the 
left hand side of the vertical and inclined, and on the un- 
der side of the horizontal strokes, embracing , of course, 
the up-stroke ; ; while on the curves it is written on the 
inner or concave side, whether to the left or right ; as 
illustrated in the preceding table. 

85. The n-hook might be written on all the strokes; 
but on the y it would seldom, if ever, be of any advantage. 
The fc-hook to the n answers every purpose that an n- 
hook to the K would ; the h with a final hook would not 
be so serviceable as the dot aspirate. 



76 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

86. Of the two forms for///,///, the down-stroke/ and 
the up-stroke I are generally used, the others being em- 
ployed only in connection with other strokes wh:n the 
first mentioned would be unhandily written. 

87. The w-hook is always the last thing, belonging to 
a stroke, to be read; thus,^ pan, \^_, fin, (^ iiii, (/ din, 
X\ run, /^ lin. If no distinct vowel sound is heard be- 
tween the stroke and the hook, no vowel sign is written; 
as. ]j^ listen, \J of an; where a third-place vowel sound 
is heard, the sign must be placed on the outside of 
the hook; thus, ,, - man, (,. dan, ^ wugnn; thus the 
vocalization is the same as in other compound strokes. 

88. Strokes having an initial circle or hook, of any 
kind, may also have a final hook or circle ; as \. plan, 
j* strait. 

89. When the n is the last consonant in a word, fol- 
lowed by a vowel, it must be written at length ; as ,^. 
muni, ^ Gi>ia. 

READING EXERCISE XXIV. 




WRITING EXERCISE XXV. 

Pan, pin, bum, ton, dsn, qan, jern, kan, gon, fjn, van 
den, Ji, ojan, ran, run, Ion, Ijn, mjn, mum, uon, nsn; open, 
i^pen, gq,rdeu, Jaken, ergan, erfan, enliven, morn, wernig, felen, 
balum, roman, wuman. Brsn, dran, rcstran, pqrdun, burden, . 
refran, regan, enjen, abstan. 



MANFAL OF PHONOGRAPHY", 77 

THE JT-HOOK FOLLOWED BY S. 

90. When ? follows after n, without an intervening 
vowel, the circle may be turned on the hook, as in the 
case of s preceding the -hook and /--hook ; thus, \$fanz, 
\^ s f/j, -'""a mam, % /" mafinz, /;$) refran:. With the 
straight strokes, however, it is unnecessary to make both 
the hook and circle, since the circle itself embraces the 
hook, and will not be mistaken for s, which is always 
written on the other side of the stroke ; thus, "^ pm, 
\- dittis, X $anz, ^-^/ morns ,\ _ begim. 

"91. The double circle for nsez is conveniently used on 
the straight strokes, for such words as \-teiisez, ^ gansez, 
V'O koitsikicensez ; but as a double circle cannot well bf: 
formed on the hook attached to a curve, a stroke n must 
be used in such words as \^r) finalises '^^9 evinsez. 



READING EXERCISE XXV. 



'% j- 





WRITING EXERCISE XXVI. 



_ Panz, benz, penz, tcnz, qanz, ganz, mornz, burnz, orfanz 
vjnz, Junz, balans, remanz, Junnanz, pron-sns; komplanz, ek.s- 
planz, akerdans, kwestyunz, kristyanz, enjenz, inkljnz. Prin- 
sez, dansez, kondensez, glansez, ekspensez, konsekwensex, 
pronunsez, advansez, konjensez. 



78 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

92. X-HOOK WORD-SIGNS. 

^ upon 3 can (j than 

\j been Vo phonography /"* alone 

J done \^f phonographer ^ ^ men 

(/ generally V^ phonographic <^_? opinion 

READING EXERCISE XXVI. 



\ \^p ^/? D o n 

nT^' (~ I x 




- 5 ^ I 3 ^. ^ 



\ ^ 

..i \ A A 
V 

"V'-f "n/'X r 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 




WRITING EXERCISE XXVII. 

KUUEJ. Trui kurej haz its orijcn in vurti],. Animal fer- 
Icsnes puts on de scmblans ov kurej, and iz ofen taken fer it, 
bj n jn t ov ten arnug men ; but de falasi ov dis opinyun haz 
bin j'on bj jenural ekspericns, for pruulens iz ekwali esenjal tu 
it. Tu at an trui kurej, entur upon nutig rajli, egzamiu AVC! 
h\vot de ijyui iz Ijkli tu be, and t'erm yuir opinyun befor yui 
begin, ^li-g kan yen den fer, if yui bav gon tu \vurk upon prin- 
sipel, and hav dun el yui kan dvu; or Shwj Jud yui fel a kon- 
surn for konsekwensez, hwiq hav bin elredi wad bj yui. In 
humbel reljans upon de asistans ov Heven, go openli and Avid 
konfidens tu finij yuir planz. c[is simpel fat alon, de relians 
ov qildren upon a Hevenli Fqdur, \vil kari yra safli trui. Re- 
membur dis truit, hyevur, dar iz jenurali mor tvui kurej Jem 
bj a pasiv rezistans tu de skorn and snerz ov men, dan haz 
evur bin sen in eni bodili defens hwotsoevur. Trui kurej in 
bj no menz savej vjolens, ner a fuil-hq,rdi insensibiliti tta 
danjur; nor a hedstrog rajnes tu run sudenli intu it; ner a 
burnig frenzi broken luis from de guvurnig p-sur ov rezun ; 
but it iz a seren, furm deturminig -de kurej ov a man, but 
nevur de fersnes ov a tjgur. 



REVIEW. (83.) What are final hooks? (84.) On which side of tho 
straight strokes is the n-hook written ? On which side of the curves? (85.) 
On what strokes is the n-hook not written? (86.) Which forms oftlie 
In. and fii are generally used? (87.) How are the n-hook strokes 
vocalized? (89.) In what case must the stroke n be employed? (90.) 
How is the circle written to the n-hook on the curves ? How on the straight 
strokes? (91.) What is the double circle when written in the n-hook place? 
(92.) Designate the straight stroke word-signs ; the curved strokes. 



80 MANUAL OF PHONOGQAPHT. 

LESSON IX. 

J.y-HOOK VOWEL CONTRACTIONS DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS. 

93. This hook is entirely arbitrary ; that is, it is not 
phonetic at all, in that it is but one sign used to represent 
three sounds ; but it is nevertheless more consistent than 
the old method of writing, for it always represents the 
same sounds. Of course the means exist in the alphabet 
for writing out the syllable in full, if preferred. 

TABLE OF THE 2.Y-HOOK.. 

\> P/n b t/n / qjn _^ k/n 

\i bjn I d/n /, j/n -, gfn 

V} flu (; t/n % sfn J J-/n 

\j vjn (j d/n ^ z/n (J $$n 

^/r/n ?C IJn 
'O mjn vO Dfn <^ 9/n &? h/n 



94. On the straight strokes, the /?*-hook is made on 
the opposite side from the n-hook ; and on the curves it is 
made in the position of the -hook, but double its size, as 
illustrated above. 

95. The most general use of this hook is at the ter- 
mination of words; as 'N^ opfun, X/* porfun. If a vowel 
follow the stroke on which the hook is written, it is read 
between the stroke and the hook ; as V^) naym, ^S 7 -* 
rela-fun, .[/? adorafun \j kofisiduraf/m. m 

96. The/M-hook is often conveniently used in the mid- 
dle of a word also ; thus, j <^ dikfunari, 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 81 

97. The 5-circIe m?y be added by writing it distinctly 
oa the inside of these hooks, to the straight strokes as 
well as the curves ; thus, [ kondifitnz, l ~"~^3 invaymz. 

98. WORD-SIGNS. "\zobjekf /in, \^ aubjckfun, 

READING EXERCISE XXVII. 
\ 

v 




WRITING EXERCISE XXVIII. 

Pojun, stajun, kompajun, ambijun, kondijun, negajun, 
komycDiiikaJim, dqra/an, petijun, iudikajun, fugun, inva3ufi, 
ilngun, revoliijun, konaolajun, emojun, admijun, nafun, am- 
yuinijun. Prof^gun, refermajun, selekjun, delegajun, deprj- 
vafun, Hipurvijnn, kohegun. 

Petijunur, eksekiijunur, okajunal, revolujunari. Pajunz, 
sedijunz, vigunz, efiisunz, mijunz, nojunz, administrajunz. 



99. VOWEL CONTRACTIONS. The vowels being so simply 
and easily formed, but little is to be desired in the way of 
abbreviating the method of writing them; but as consider- 
able time is lost by lifting the pen in passing from one to 
another, it is no small advantage to write two vowel sounds 



82 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

in one sign, where it can be done without ambiguity. 
Such a contraction is quite common in words where the 
short vowel i immediately precedes another of the simple 
vowels ; as in the words varius, efl",toi,i, enunfiafuti, rafio: 
becoming nearly like vtiryns, ejlmrya, enunfyftfun, rafi/o. 
This coalition of vowels so nearly produces the articula- 
tions ya, yn, yo, yu, that the signs for these improper diph- 
thongs are used in such cases ; thus, (^^ varius, J^}* 
asofiafun, ^,-^r* rafio. 

103. DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS. The following is an 
additional scale of diphthongs, simply formed, and some 
of which are very useful: 

< ei <|ai <J q,i > fei >joi > uii; as in 

< Mai, snot, \^ o'nj |> stolk t [ > Intl. The siyn 

for oi may also be used for oe in a few words that would 
otherwise be inconveniently written; as C O X h/censoec- 
ur, hioarsvevur, loest, Sj-c. 

101. The close diphthong heard in the word aye, though 
differing but little from either i or qi, is written thus, v 

READING EXERCISE XXVIII. 



' > ' -^ i 




MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 83 

/*,,* 



'> ' 1; 



\ 

i 




*s7 ^ (. ^ 



UxX, r ^ ; r 




s ^ 



WRITING EXERCISE XXIX. 



Envius, eronius, variajun enunjiajun, glorius, serius, pali- 
ajun, aleviajun, homiopati. 

Klai, flei, biloi, stoikal, loest, gluii. 

Ambijun iz de okagun ov sedijun, konfugun, and desola- 
Jun, and arezez evuri evil emojun and pajun. 

An qa, pikig up a Ijunz skin h\vk had bin tron awa, put it 
on; and runig intu de wudz and pastyurz, began to bra, in im- 
itajun ov de Ijunz ror, hwiq trui de floks intu teribcl kcmfi^un. 
At legt de onur kam alog and wud hav bin struk wid ken- 
sturnafun olso, but upon hiz lisnig mor klosli, he suin se de 
ihl^uu in de vas, and se, morovur, de qscz erz stikig ^t. Wid 
no hezitajun he ran up tu de qs and wid hiz kujel bet him se- 
verli, saig : "Yui foil, yui hav bin de okagun ov skarig de floks, 
but i'l hav yui tu no eldo yoo luk Ijk a Ijun, yet. yui bra Ijk 
an qs. 

Aplikafun. Afektajun wil Juirli ekspoz a raan tu derigun 
in proporjun tu hiz asumpjun. 

REVIEW. (94.) On which side of the straight strokes is the _/-hook made ? 
How is it made to the curves? (95.) How is the/n-hook read? (96.) Give new 
examples of the two situations in which it may be used. (97.) How is the 
-circle added ? (98.) What are the word signs? (99.) Explain the vowel 
contractions. (100.) Th di-wllftbic diphthongs. (101.) How is aye written? 



84 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



LESSON X . 

HALF-LENGTH STROKES. 

102. In consequence of the frequent recurrence of the 
sounds t and d, it is found very convenient to give them 
another and more contracted representation ; it is also 
rendered necessary by the fact that one frequently follows 
the other, and since they are both perpendicular signs 
their repetition at full length would carry the writing too 
far below the line for convenience. 

103. But every philosophical means has already been 
resorted to for the purpose of giving to Phonography the 
ultimatum of brevity ; and if the following scheme has 
only the semblance of philosophy in it, it will be as much 
as can be expected. In chemistry, it is well known, the 
more a substance a poison, or steam, for instance is 
concentrated, the greater is its power : so, in order to get 
a repetition of the consonants t and d without writing 
them at kngth, the single strokes j and | , by being 
compressed into half tlieir length, are made to represent 
the addition of a t and d. And the principle is extended, 
by license, to the other consonants. 

104. The strokes y, y, w, h, are not made half-length 
for the addition of t and d. 

105. To illustrate this principle, suppose the word 
faded is to be written : there are three consonants in it, 
all downward strokes, which would carry the last d the 
length of two strokes below the line ; but by making the 
first d half its usual length, another d is supposed to be 
added, and the word is thus neatly written: I; faded. 



MAM'AL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 85 

The principle is further illustrated by the following 
words: 
[__ toJc, Q hkt; A rap, /* rapt; A. UP, /^ livd. 

106. A vowel before a half length consonant is read 
before both letters; as \ apt, ') est, ~7\ qrt, _^ akl; but 
when placed after, it is read immediately after the primary 
letter, and the added t or d follows it; thus, ~ koi, ~^\ rot, 
\ spit, 1^ kontemt, f*. lilel. 

107. As a general thing the light strokes, when halved, 
are followed by the light sound, t, and the heavy ones 
by the heavy sound, d; thus, ( tet, ^> gift, ) ymsd, 

- fot. This is always the case where no vowel inter- 
venes between the sound of the stroke and the t or d ex- 
pressed by the halving, as in the above words. But 
under other circumstances a heavy consonant sound often 
follows a light one, and vice versa ; and in such cases 
the half-length light strokes must express the addition 
of d , and the heavy ones that of t; as ^~^^' melted, % S^ 
pspeld, /^V_A; alfabtt. 

108. Since, however, the heavy strokes occupying the 
places of r, I, in, and n, are not made half-length, these 
four letters, when followed by a d, are, for the sake of 
distinction, made heavy ; as / g&rd, y ^> ^\_ 
formd; and light when a t follows; as "^ qrt, j^r de/it, 
"S^ remit. The I is struck upward when t is to be 
added, and when d, downward, since in this direction it is 
more easy to make a heavy stroke. 

109. A stroke beginning or ending ^ith the s circle, or 
either of the hooks, or both hook and circle, is also made 
half-length, when necessary ; thus, ^* sped, \ swift, T 
tret, ^ Tcomplst, *\ frat, \'strfit, f seteld; ** bedz, ^ mats, 
\ band, \> pafent, <^. plant, rr? grand; the order of read- 
ing being the same as in the full length strokes. 



86 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

110. It must be observed that when the circle s is writ- 
ten to a half-length consonant it must be read after the 
added t or d; because the s is added to the consonant after 
it has been halved; thus, \. pat, \> pals, (not past,) 
V- f*t,'\ofats, (not fast.) 

111. Half- length consonants, unconnected with other 
strokes, should be employed only for words containing but 
one vowel; as ^ trod, ^ntf; and the two full length let- 
ters should be used in words containing two or more vow- 

I A ^ 

els; as V avvd, ^~ "] ytunit. 

112. The past tense of verbs ending like \^ pqrt, are 
more conveniently written thus, \y^ pqrted, than \/?| 

113. There are a few words in which t and d occur 
three times in succession, which make it necessary to sep- 
arate the half-length from the long stroke; thus,.) , atitifd. 

I/"* 

114. Since the half-lengths occupy only a portion of the 
usual space 3 they follow the rules given to the horizontals, 
of accented vowel positions, above or on the line according 
as the consonant has a first place, or a second or third- 
place vowel; thus, 1 stret, ^ spred, ^-* find, \^A fund. 

READING EXERCISE XXIX. 



V 

s 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 87 

WRITING EXERCISE XXX. 

Fet, fat, Jet, lat, mat, not, spot, skot, savd, selt, snijt, sent; 
pent, bend, kontend, erdand, enjemd, kjnd, refjnd, legtend, 
land, m^nd; pants, bandz, pretendz, kontents, disk^nts; frend, 
advent, hqrdli, survd, konsvimd, holdz, heted, habit, hurld, 
perild, uprj,t, gqrded, deljted, upwurd, purssvd, qjld, lektyurd. 



115. Under certain circumstances t and d should not be 
represented by half-length strokes: First, When a vowel 
follows t or d at the end of a word; thus having . f~ gill, 
we cannot make gilti by placing i after the half-length /, 
for it would then re&Affilit; hence the stroke t must be writ- 
ten in order to give a place after it for the vowel ; thus 

. ( \ gilti. Second, In many words of one syllable, where 

if the vowels were omitted, or indistinct, they would be mis- 
taken for the vowel word-signs ; thus, ?S bad, instead of 

\ ; _} put, instead of V Third. When the half-stroke 
would not make a distinct angle with the preceding or fol- 
lowing stroke , as *" i amend, instead of ' ; and in 
some other cases that will suggest themselves to the learner. 

116. HALF-LENGTH WORD-SIGNS. 

c ( particular ( cannot ( Lord 

\ opportunity ~ \ account * \ word 

\ spirit _ ( God ^ ( immediate-ly 

p told ~ good (made 

1 toward e- great ^ might 

( gentlemen ^, after ^j ^ not 

" ^gentleman ( thought ^nature 

^ quite . ( that ^ went 

"" ^ could ^ i without ^ ^ wont 

=- called ) establish-ment ^ under 

c~ according-ly ? short </ world 



88 MANUAL OF PHOJs'OGKAPHT. 

READING EXERCISE XXX. 

v V Y' % V 

s~< a. v> <\ , ^ ; 

iv \ v ^ X 

ks 5 v^x -\ \ / x^ 



'L 



' I J 



\ 



) I 



MANUAL OF PHONOGIIAPHY, 89 

WRITING EXERCISE XXXI. 
L6KENS LQZI, 6R LURNIW FQNOGBAFI. 

Tu lurn, er not tu lurn, dat iz de kwestyun: 

hwedur 'tiz noblur in de mind tu sufur 

dekompleks kwibelz ov ambigyuius Loghand; 

er tu opoz wid pen and vers a t^zand erurz, 

and, bj opozin, end dem? Tu lurn, tu rjt, 

and, bj FonograSi, tu sa we end 

de felsitiz, de tszand tedyus ilz 

Loghand prodnsez 'tiz a konsumajun 

devstli tu be wijt. Tu rjt; tu lurn; 

tu lurn! but deu tu wurk ; qi, dqrz de rub* 

for, tu akwjr dis qrt, hwot terl ma kum 

ar j kan Jufel of mj habits old, 

Jud giv me pez: dai"z de respekt 

dat maks Grtografi ov so log \if', 

for S hui wud bar de inq,murabel ilz ov Loghand, 

its bqvbarus legb, its ambigniti, 

its qild-tormentig difikultiz, and 

its wont ov ruil, tuigedur wid de terl 

hwiq pajent skqbz pv suq a sistem hav, 

hwen he himself mjt hiz relesment mak 

wid a Duzen Lesunz. Illva yet wud ymz 

dis bqrbarus relik ov sr bjgon daz, 

but dat de dred ov sumtig tu be lurnt, 

(dat wek unmanli ez, from buiz embras 

no lazi man kan got,) puzelz de wil, 

and males him radur bar e'n felsitiz, 

dan lurn de trait he yet noz nutig ov. 

flus indolens tra eft retqrdz de mjnd; 

and dus de progres ov a ytusful qrt 

iz qekt, but not prevented; for detjm 

wil kum hweu dis sam bref Fonografi 

Jal trjumf OT its fjnal oponent. 

I'EVIEW. (102.) What is the necessity fora second mode of represeuting ' 
e;id rf ? (1C3.) \Vbat is tlieir second ropreseutation? Explain the philosophy of 
halving a consonant. (104.) "What strokes are not written half-length? (107.; 
What is the general rule for knowing whether a t or a d is added? In what 
case does this rule never fail? (108.) Whathalf-lengthlight strokes are mado 
heavy for the addition of d f In what direction are the half-lengths I and r 
struck, for tlio addition of d? for the addition of t? (109.) May strokes hav- 
ing initial and terminal circles and hooks be halved? (110.) When the circle;.- 
is written to a half-length sign, is it read before or after the added t or d ? 
(111.) Should a half-length letter alone be used with two vowels? (113.) How 
are words written in which t and d occur three times in succession? (114.) 
"What is the ruls for the position of half-length strokes? (115.) Wli;;t is the first 
fiisj in which a stroke should not be halved for a following t or </? I'll a 
Etui? the 3rd? <,11G.) Give the first column of word-signs; the 2nd; the 3rd. 



90 MANTAV OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



LESSON XI. 



SPECIAL CONSONANT CONTRACTIONS. 

117. The s-circle, initial and final hooks, and half- 
leugth stems, are contracted modes of writing that admit 
of general application, and of perfect vocalization. But 
as Phonography studies the greatest degree of abbrevia- 
tion, consistent with legibility, a few combinations of con- 
sonants, and some syllables of frequent occurrence, are 
provided with special forms of contraction, some of which 
only are capable of vocalization. Of these there are the 
frequent at, in the past participle of verbs ending in s, in 
the superlative of adjectives, and in many other words, as 
pressed, wisest, slake ; the sir in the comparative of ad- 
jectives, &c., as faster, sister; the initial insfr, of instruc- 
tion. &c., and the final s-slm of some nouns, as position', 
all of which it would often be inconvenient to write in the 
usual manner. There are also prefixes, derived from the 
Latin, of frequent occurrence, but of inconvenient length, 
as accom-plish, incou-siderate, recom-pense, enter-prise, 
clrcum-cenL The method of writing these contractions 
constitutes the last lesson proper of the system, and is one 
that should receive special attention, in order that the 
somewhat arbitrary mode of writing shall not be forgotten. 

There is a kind of principle manifested, however, in 
most of the contraction?, which renders it almost impossi- 
ble for them to escape the memory, if they be once thor- 
oughly mastered and have been transfixed by the magical 
influence of practice. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 91 

THE LOOPS ST AND STS. 

1 1 8. The plan of writing si in some shorter way than 
by the circle s and stroke t, was devised chiefly for the 
purpose of still farther obviating the difficulty of words 
running too far below the line. By simply lengthening 
the s-circle to one-third the length of the stroke on 
which it occurs, the sound of t is aded; thus, >o bas, 

\> lastf^^^^nyvs, -<-'"0 A rrjn-at ; \g vast, <i \>prcst. 
In other words, a loop written one-third the length of 
the consonant to which it is attached, represents the com- 
bined sounds of s and t, with no vowel between them; and 
by license it may aiso signify zd, as in <^=> Jelozd. 

119. The s or z may be added for plurals, &c., by 
striking the loop through the long sign and forming the 
circle on the opposite side ; as s^ bests, ^g^gests^g nests. 

120. This loop may also be written initially; as in the 
words '\ s'op, -f stat, \__ staf, V Q stjl, '^^ stem. 
And it may be used between two strokes, only when writ- 
ten to /, d, (j,j; as kv testifi, ^VT~7 disthjgwif, fc/ justifi. 

121. When this loop is written in the position of the 
r-hook, like the -s-circle it takes the additional power of r; 
thus, ^\ sttnpnr c ~ stifcur; and when turned in the 
n-hook position, it assumes the power of that hook ; as 

J- koi/dei/sf, __^ .igenst. 

122. Half-length strokes also admit of the sMoop, to 
a limited extent ; as ' midst, ^J). student. 

123. When a word begins with a vowel, followed by 
at or zd, the half-length stroke, and not the loop, must be 
used; as "}.^ histuri, t-> wizdum, 2-^ sistem. 

124. By extending the loop to two thirds the length 
of the stroke, r is added ; as in the words c x Wcbstur, 

$ sistur, ^ mastur. This loop should not be used initially 



92 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

It may be turned on the w-hook side of the stroke to ex- 
press nstr; as X punstur, and the circle s may bo used 
as with the &l loop ; thus, ^ festurz, "^>. musturz. 
125. WORD SIGN. The *Moop is used as a word- sign 
for first, written on the line and inclined to the right, 
thus, $ 



READING EXERCISE XXXI. 



\ 



r -^ / x -\ \ -r 1 



\ 



WRITING EXERCISE XXXII. 



Past, host, dust, tast, qest, kost, gust, fest, safest, rosfc, arest, 
avszd, rust, lest, last, mist, most, amu,zd, fjnest, deivsust; stuip, 
stedfast, stagnant, stif, stov, ster, stil, stem; stopur, stajur, sta^- 
ur; distigktli, justifikajun; bests, basts, kasts, rezists, infests, 
masts; stilt, sturd, stord, stamt; kondenst, agenst. Bostur, 
blustur, fastur, blistur, sistur, impostur ; punstur, spinstur/.. 
Stated, advanst, suprest, pretekst, prodq,st. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 93 

READING EXERCISE XXXII. 



\_s, 



/ 



X 



^ 



\ 

/ . 



x 



WRITING EXERCISE XXXIII. 
LUV. Polok. 

Hal, holi luv! Q.-8 wurd dat sumz el blis, 
givst and resevst el blis, fulest hwen most 
(k$ givst! sprig -heel of el sr hapines, 
depest hwen most iz dren! emblem ov God! 
ovfloig most hwen gratest numburz drigk; 
ontirli blest, bekoz fe sekst no mor, 
hopst not, ner ferst, btit on de prezent livst, 
and holdst purfekjun smjlig in djn qrmz. 
Dizurnur ov de rjpest graps ov jer, 
j"? gadtiret and selektet wid hur hand 



94 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPH?. 

el finest relijez, ol farcst sjts, 

el rarest odurz, ol divjnest ssndz, 

el lets, ol feligz derest tu de sol, 

and brigz de holi mikstytir horn, and filz 

dehqrt wid el sxipurlativz ov blis. 



ANOMALOUS A r AND N. 

126. When the sounds spr, sir, and &kr follow n in such 
words as inspirafun, instruct, inskr'ib, it is impossible, "with 
the use heretofore made of n, to write the circle sr to the 
strokes p, t, k, without making it on the back of the n, 
thus, ~^\ which is difficult to do, and unseemly when 
done. To obviate this difficulty the stroke ----- is permitted, 
in these cases, to be struck backward or vertically, as the 
nature of the case may require ; but, as there is never 
occasion for any vowel but the first-place /, the stroke for 
the n need not be written full length; indeed, it may be re- 
garded as the n hook used initially; thus, c jj_. ) instrukfun , 

f**\ -x 

\ insiipuralel, ? \^ inskrlpfun. 

127. In a considerable class of words the syllable////! 
follows after the sound of 5 or z, as pozifun, dssi^un, &c., 
which would require that the strokes for these sounds, 
with the fun hook appended, be employed; but such 
would be inconvenient forms, and hence it is allowable to 
use the circle and turn a hook for fun on the opposite side 
of the stroke ; thus, J* design, ;^ si/pozifun; the same 
license is allowed for the loops st and sir, thus, ^jv^ 
molestafun, '|^ ilustrsfun. This hook is used in rome 
such words as ^p c purswa^un; and it may al 20 be used 
when followed by the termination al; as, p? pozifunal. 

128. If it be required to write the syllable/.>/, after s, 
the circle for the latter combination may be employed, and 



MANC7AL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 95 

the hook turned on the opposite side ; thus, ^^ compensa- 
fun. The plural may be formed, in all these cases, by add- 
ing the circle to the y?z-hook ; thus, ^ sypurstifunz, ,j 
kondenssLfunz. 

READING EXERCISE XXXIII. 



"TV dK > 




WRITING EXERCISE XXXIV. 


Insijpurabli, instrukt, instruirasnt, instrramcutaliti, Inskrjbd, 
inskruitabel ; pozijun, desigun, kezajtin, sivilizajun, miizijan ; 
rnanifestafun, inkrustajuu, kondensajun, dispensajun ; sup- 
tozijunz, akiizajunz, ilustrajunz, sensajunz, 

Studi kondensajun in yuir stjl ov kompozijun, for do it ma 
kost yui sum trubel at furst, yet it wil asist yui tu mastur 
purspikn,iti and presi^un, on de akwizijun ov bwiq, qast and 
ptfurful rjtig iz bast. Prorated bj a dezjrfer de akwizijun ov 
\velt, man stemz de stermz ov de ojan, landz on evuri kost, in 
spit ov de gratest danjurz ar^zig from kljmet or de hand ov 
unsiviljzd man. Relijun foloz in de wak ov komurs, kontcnd-^ 
in agenst its evilz ; and dus, hwjl savej najunz q,r blest \vid ds 
l^t ov sivilizajun, da qr put in pozejun ov de wurd ov inspiiv 
ujun, and tet (le egust trmdz ov de gospel dispensajun. 



96 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

KEVJEW. (117.) What arc the sp.ji-i.il ronsonant contractions? (11.?.) How 
are st and sd written 1 (119.) How may the circle he added? (l-JO.) In v 
nations may the loop be written? (121.) When written in the plao-a of tlrj 
r-hook what power docs it give the stroke? What, when wiiif-n iii tir ,.-!i,,<>k 
(ICi!.) How should the words wi>W aiKl x'uileat be v/rilton' (123.) In 
what case is the loop not to be used? (124.) Hew is.i.V wrHt-'n? What effect 
ilojs it have on this loop to place it on the -ho<\ s.Jo? If the sound of x 
follow, how is it wrtten? (125). Wh;it is the word-sign in this lesson? (1C.) 
\\ lum is it necessary to i^e Hie anomalous mode of wrrtlhg n 1 How is it writ- 
ten? (127.) Under "what circumstance is the anomftlous />< employoil? Huu 
i . H written? (128.) Suppose it bo required to write/.; nftcr .<, how is H Jone? 
if follow the//i, how may it be written? 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY, 9"* 



LESSON XII. 

PREFIXES AND OTHER CONTRACTIONS. 

129. PREFIXES. The following are some additional 
prefixes and affixes that are found convenient and sug- 
gestive with the advanced phonographer. They should 
be written near the word, but not joined. 
Akom is expressed by a heavy dot, placed before the in- 

itial end of the following consonant ; thus, \^; akum- 

jpani, \^ ako'inplis. 
Swkum, by a small circle placed in the first vowel posi- 

ition of the next consonant; as, ^f surkiimstans, 

v~~\ surkumskr'ib. 
Dekom, by | as, I F> dt-kompozifun. 
Dlskom, diskon, by ^ as, \>o^' diskonsurled. 
Iitkom, inkon, by ^~ x written above the other part of the 

word ; as, v ^ inkomplet, 'L> r inkon sistent. 
Intur, iutro, by ^ in any position near the following 

letter; as, "\j: inturvy, ~~~\^-, introdukfun. By some 

kind of license, the frequent word inturest, is allowed 

to be written thus: " j the prefix int/ir being united 

with the stroke st. 

Irrekon, by ^\ as, ~^\ v ^> irrekonsfiabel. 
Magnu, magni, by s~~^ written above the after part of the 

word ; as, :^-*Tb magnanimus, ^_ magnif}. 
Rekog, by / as, /'$ ^ rekogn'iz. 
Rekom, rekon, by /^ as, /, rekomend, -^v >S rekon- 



Self, by a circle at the middle place of the next consonant ; 
as, / sel/if. 
9 



98 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHT. 

Unkom, unkon, by x __ written on the line; as ^^ 
unkomun, -^X, unkondifunal. 

It is allowable to represent a prefix which is similar in 
sound to one of the foregoing, by one of the signs there 
furnished; thus, ^ may represent entur, as well as irttitr; 
and^-^ may represent enkum, inkum, as well as inkom, inkon. 

130. AFFIXES. The following affixes are written near 
the preceding part of the word : 

Bilili, by \ as, y\ durabiliti, "^^ probabiliti. 

L ; , by * written after the word; thus, \^f pafentli, 

ffkonstantli. But where it can be written on with- 

out lifting the pen, it is better to do so ; thus, ^?- 

abund nntli. 
Ment, by <r> as, -^ ttonment, fa Contentment. But H 

may often be written without disconnecting it from 

the body of the word. 
Self, by a circle, as, miself. Sehz, by making the 

circle double size ; as, (o tfemsehz, fo ywrsehz. 
y ^ as, "[V lerdfip. 

131. A word-sign may be used as a prefix or an affix ; 
as, ^ advantajus, it. heraflur. 



I 



READING EXERCISE XXXIV. 
C oo v II- 

A L 



PJ ) 



<\ .U\ 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 99 

r v . -L . ' 



. . x-s c J- s 




v 



WRITING EXERCISE XXXV. 

Akomplij'ment, akomodajun, surkumfleks, surkuranavigat, 
dekompoz, diskontinyuid, inkorapatibel, inkonsolabel, intur- 
tipjun, introdn,s, magnifisent, rekognijun, rekonsiliajun, self- 
ajurans, unkompromjzig, posibiliti, konsekwentli, himself, 
hersmanjip, darfor, displegur. 

Lurn tui akoraodat yuirself tu surkurastansez. Surkum- 
stanjal evidens Jiad bs kojusli enturtand agenst hqinan IJf. 
Be surkuraspekt in ol ymr \vaz. It iz unkonfermabel tu truit 
tu sa dat kompajun, frendjip, &s., <\r at botura onli selfijnes 
in disgjz; bekoz it iz we srselvz hui fel plcgur er pan in de gud 
or evil ov udurz; for de menig ov self-luv iz, not dat itiz j.dat 
luvz, but dat i luv miself. 

If de urt be surkumskrjbd at ds ekwatur, we obtan its grat- 
est surkumfurens, hwiq iz abt 24,780 mjlz; a magnittid hwiq 
WB kan not turm inkonsevabel, eldo we ma not enturtan a veri 
distigkt jdea ov it, muq mor wud de savcj be unkonjus ov de 
fakt and unkonvinst, in epjt ov ymr endevurz tu pruiv it. 
Per unlea tanjibel pruif akumpani de astir Jun, ym kan not 
akoraplij yuir am, and sue; pruif iz unkontrovurtibli imposibel. 



100 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

131. NOMINAL CONSONANT. It is sometimes necessary 
to express one or more vowels or diphthongs without a con- 
sonant. In this case 'f \ \s , may be employed as out- 
lines having no specific values, to which the. vowels may 
be placed ; thus, ^ for Edward or Edmund 'j A for Al- 
fred, %" Eah, an Irish family surname, &c. The stroke- 
vowels may be struck through the nominal consonant, as 
T O for Oliver, -\- U. Proper names should be written 

in full when they are known. 

132. STROKE PI. The stroke-A is generally used when 
it is initial, and is followed by s; thus, ^* hasen; also 
when r and a vowel, or r and some other consonant folio v; 

^ .S f ^ ^] 

thus, ^ hurl, f_ -^/" horizontal ^ ' hurt; also, 
in words chat contain no other consonant than hi, and end 
in a vowel; thus, (= ^- holt. 

133. VOCALIZING THE LARGE CIRCLE. The large cir- 
cle ss is considered to represent a syllable containing the 
vowels i or e, thus, s?' or se:. It may be vocalized to 
express almost any vowels or diphthongs ; as, ^0_ pur- 
swaziv. 

134. When^> occurs between m and /, and k between 
y and /, (the p and k being organically inserted in 
speech, in passing to the next consonant,) these letters 
may be omitted ; thus, *s limp, ^ limt, <7~*< t>tamp, 
ey< sta,mt t ^y( aykfus, JJJ distiykfun. 

In cases where t comes between s and another conso- 
nant, the t may generally be omitted without detriment to 
legibility; thus, ^p"~ mostli, ^ resiles, ^^ 2 )ost ~ 
pon, "~ tr ~ mislstk. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 101 

(35. OF THE. The connective phrase "of the," 
which merely points out that the following noun is in the 
possessive case, is intimated by writing the words between 
which it occurs near to each other, thus showing by their 
proximity that the one is of the other ; thus, 

luv ov 4s bqt/ful, ^^~ subjekt ov $e wurk. 



REVIEW. (129.) How is the prefix accent written ? Surcum ? Decom ? 




- (131.) Expla 

consonant. (132.) Under what circumstances is the stroke h generally used? 
[1T13.) How may the double circle be vocalized? (134.) When may p be omit- 
tcd j i, and t? (135.) What is said of the phrase of tte? 



102 MANUAL OF 1'HONOORAPIIT. 



LESSON XIII. 



UKVOCALIZKD WRITING PHRASEOGRAPHY, 40. 

136. As in some of the preceding exercises the man- 
ner of writing certain words has been introduced that 
would not admit of full vocalization, the learner may com- 
mence omitting some of the least prominent vowels in his 
common words. As a general thing these omissions 
should be the unaccented vowels. But in reporting, no 
vowels are inserted, except an occasional one that is nec- 
essary to distinguish one word from another, where both 
have the same consonant outline. It requires a good de- 
gree of familiarity with the system to be able to read this 
style of writing readily. After reports are taken, however, 
it is customary to go over the manuscript and insert the 
prominent vowels, so that any one may afterward read it 
with ease. 

137. Positive and negative words containing the same 
consonants, should be distinguished thus : When the 
word commences with r, (except this letter is followed by 
m,) write the upward r; for the positive word, and the 
downward one for the negative ; thus, s\ rr//onsi- 
bel, <\ iresponsibel ; /*> re:oli[t, 0~ irezolyt. The 
common words (~ mortal, <^- _ imerUl , ^-/ matt-- 
rial, J23- itnjitfrial, may be distinguished by writing 
the positive on the line, and the negative above it. In all 
other case?, insert the initial vowel in the negative wordi 
thus; ^ ilejibel, &c. The vowel should be inserted 
first that it may not be omitted in rapid writing. 



MANUAL OF PHOKOGRAPHT. 103 

LIST OF WORDS CONTAINING THE SAME CONSONANTS: 

DISTIMGOISHED BY X DIFFERENCE OF OCTL1KB. 



^i pattern, patron 
\ patient, passionate 
\ purpose, perhaps 
proceed, persued 
property, propriety 

preparation, appropriation, proportion 
proportioned, proportionate 
\ _ =, i' protection, production 
*\ \/J pertain, appertain 
cs \ \f~ prosecute, persecute 
^s^ -> <\/~ prosecution, persecution 

>^ \/) oppressor, pursuer 
v N beautify, beatify 




<\ birth, breath 
]A \ A Tartar, traitor, trader 
\ I/ 7 train, turn 



104 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



attainable, tenable 



- | - " daughter, debtor, and deter 
.~x.-i^--' L auditor, auditory, editor 
1 \ diseased, deceased 
f" p> desolate, dissolute 
Y^ A} desolation, dissolution 
[_9 y^ idleness, dullness 

hl^-O demonstrate, administrate 
V 

,, agent, gentleman 
/ / gentle, genteel 

_^a - P 

cost, caused 

.r=zrL _____ yj^~ collision, coalition, collusion 
v^ ^\/t corporal, corporeal 
J credence, accordance 

v~ greatly, gradually 
favored, favorite 



^N 



V \c^- fiscal, physical 



J 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 105 

finn, frame, form, farm 

"*^ 

support, separate 
f f steady, study, stead 
situation, station 
sure, assure 

labored, elaborate 
r$ learned, v. t adj. 
A ~\~^ ~^. A writer, reader, orator, rhetor 

/** /"""*! ruined, renewed 

impatient, impassioned 
innovation, invasion 

indefinite, undefined 
unavoidable, inevitable 



This list might be greatly extended, but space wiH 
not permit it here ; from the examples given, the 
student will learn what forms to give each word, where 
different outlines are lequired for words that might be 
misread, if written alike. Quite an extensive list of words, 
two or more of them having the same outline, necessarily, 
are distinguished by position ; of which take the following! 
piety, 1 pity, 2 opposition, 1 position, 2 possesion; 3 prescrip- 
tion, 1 proscription; 2 diminish, 1 admonish, 2 &c. 



10 J MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

ALL THE WORD SIGNS ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. 

Those marked with a * are written above the line. 



. A 


1 dear 


^^ improvement 


x all* 


,-__ difficulty 


^ in * 


1 already * 


| do 


o is * 


. an, and 


J done 


1 *t 


c" according* 


) establish 


kingdom* 


~^> account 


^ every 


\^ language 


/ advantage 


o first 


> Lord* 


Rafter 


V^ for 


*\ member 


"~5 again 


"^N from 


*^ might * 


f* alone 


^.' full 


^^more 


"^\ are 


y general 


f- " Mr. * 


o as 


,/ gentleman 


^my* 


\ be 
>5 been 


(/ gentlemen * 
give-n * 


- - nature 
^^ no 


rt beyond* 


- God* 


^ nor * 


i but 
call * 
^ called* 


good 
e- great 
^ have 


"^ not* 
\object 
\j objection 


u can 


"-^ him 


^ of* 


""= cannot * 


A how 


1 oh 


cr- care 


v I* 


/ on* 


come 


^ immediate * 


c-^ one 


could 


'""* importance * 


^ ? opinion * 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 


<\ opportunity 


*) their, there 


< were 


/or * 


( them 


(/ where 


c \ particular * 


^ then 


> what * 


^Phonography 


^s thing * 


c^-when * 


J) pleasure 


( thought * 


/ which 


c \ principle 


*) three 


u while 


quite * 


x to 


s who 


f~^ remark * 


together 

O 


L why * 


% remember 


r toid 


f wUl 


J shall 


1 toward 


< with* 


J short * 


T truth 


( without 


/ should 


v two 


c^ wont 


) so 


^ under 


"N word 


c \ spirit * 


\ U P 


</ world 


\ subject 


_> usual 


> would 


NO subjection 


) .was 


W y e * 


_2 sure 


"> way 


\> yet 


P tell, till 


< we * 


A you 


( that * 


C well 


f your 


. the * 


c^ went * 


C y urs 



107 



On the following- page is a different class of word-signs; 
but two or three new characters are used, the signification 
being indicated by the position in which the sign is writ- 
ten to the line. Three positions are recognized: on the 
line, above the line, and through or below the line. In 
the table the line of writing is suggested by a dotted 
line, which will guide the learner as to where the word 
should be written. 



100 MANUAL OF PtUN )GnAP;iT. 


~f^- Allow 


<; "Y- lio.vevcr 


perfect 


- s another 


Sr. if 


-^^- practice-able 


x " any 


1 


~> read 


b itselt 


"T"" at 


~~> kind 


") see 


i 





----- 


-^V- away 


./-, large 


._/.._ than 


\ by 


jsi may 


/ . thank 




I diffcrent-ce 


^ me 


( thee 


J Doctor 


^"^ mind 


(^ these 


, *-/- much 
J down 


..A... those 


--"] during 
/ each 


neither 
^N;-- number 


.-/ though 
y through 


*) either 


-^~ other 

1 ought 


| time 




^ ever 


. 


->- us 




--V-- our 




-V-.- few 


...r^,-. ours 


...\.. use (verb 


...|- had 


^^- ourselves 


-^-- value 


.X-. happy 


__}._ out 


A^- view 


^N here-ar 


v^>- own 


(T will (noun) 



MAKUA.L OF PHONOGRAPHY". 
CONTRACTED WORDS. 



109 



In addition to the word signs that have been given, 
represented by the alphabetic signs, simple and compound, 
a list of contracted words is given below. These are 
abbreviated by giving the more prominent consonants 
that would be employed in writing the word in full- 
Words having a* affixed, are written above the line. 



/ acknowledge, 


>- \ indispensable, 


~~Z acknowledged, 


^^^ individual,* 


because,* 


v influence,* 


L doctrine, 


^^ -^ influential,* 


J 
^ especial-ly, 


I instruction. 
1 interest, 


~~\ expensive, 


^\ irregular, 


\/ extraordinary, 


^~^ knowledge, 


~~^ extravagant, 


-~*S? s manuscript, 


Vj/ forward, 


^~^ myself,* 


^L highly,* 


....y. natural 


^~*> himself, 


^ V^ never, 


~.....^: imperfect, 


Hs^ nevertheless, 


.^ imperfection, 


4 new, 


^~t> importance,* 


v^mxt, 


<r^^. impracticable, 


M^ notwithstanding, 


^^P inconsisteiit, 


v^NVOW, 



no 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 



\ peculiarity, 

^. A Phonetic Society, 
Phonographer, 
Phonographic, 

\ P robab -nif y 

\, ,. sh-ed 
publication 

/""" regular, 

/\ represent, 
/\ I represented, 

/\> representation, 
/\ republic, 

X. respect, 
X^ responsible, 
._{L satisfaction, 



^ several, 
g-s^ something, 

( * vA ^x Spelling Reforcv 
^ surprise, 
J:-^ transcript, 
1 transgress, 
^f understand, 
^ understood, 
universal, 
whenever, 
whensoever, 
wherever, 
wheresoever, 



In the complete reporting style, the list of contracted 
words is considerably extended; but, like the above, they 
are all very suggestive to the reflective student, and when 
met with in correspondence or elsewhere, there will sel- 
dom be any difficulty in determining what they are. The 
Reporter's Manual, or other text book of the kind, adver- 
tised on the cover, contains complete lists of word signs, 
contracted words, phraseography, &c., the study of which 
will be essential to verbatim reporting, but unnecessary 
for ordinary purposes of writing. 






MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. HI 

PHRASEOGRAPHY. 

Pliraseography consists in writing two or mor: word 
signs together, without lifting the pen ; and in the report- 
ing style, it is extended to the writing of word-signs with 
words written in full, but not vocalized. The lirst sign 
in a phrase should be written in its natural position, while 
those that follow take any position that most faciliates the 
"writing. 



/ all which 


\ be able to 


'^-^*' any thing 


- could be 


~v> are not 






-^-^ could not be 


Sas far 


J do not 


..; ji -'"* " 

v^ as far as 


V^p for instance 


o-o as good as 


<'> he has been 


<r- as great as 


I if there is 


cX. as it has been 


C^ have been 


QJJ as soon as 


^"~^ I am 


Qn as soon as possible 
<? 


" ^ I am not 


^ as well as 


\ I do 


L^ at the same time 


J I do not 



12 MANUAL OF PUONOO'RAl'HT. 


P I do not think 
3 I had not 


^ I will not 
<^~(T may as well 


Sfc. I have 
'V^ I have been 
^Vh- I have done 
'Vs I have not 


^~X m;iy be 

^>w must be 
^~\ must have 
-^~b -' must not 


V. if it 
^ if it had not 


^_^ no doubt 
^ of course 


Sr if it were 
y^ in such 


"^"^ on account of 
L ouo'ht to be 

^^ 


Q - / is not 

{, ^ * S 

j.^ it is not 


. should be 
/t should have 
r-' should not 


|j it would 
L it would be 
-S~ I will 


o( so as to 
dz such as can 

(j that is 






MANUAL OF PI1OXJGRAP1IY. 

there are ! we were 

i 

^- ^ when there is 



113 



^\ 

1 tliere are not 

7_. there would not 



whether or not 



there would not have 6 which would 
been 



I think that 


^ which would not be 


x} this is 


^ which it would 


be 


V to be 
"\ to do 


k which it would 
been 

/ will not 


have 


\ to have 


' \ will rot be 




/v* you should be 
r/^ you will 


f without doubt 
/ with which 




s\ 

ff \you will be able to 

*/ you will not 


/ with which it 
f with which it is 


njt 


" X. we have 


^ who are 




X> we have not 

V^ we have not had 
10 


D would be 

^^ would not be 
N 





J14 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPH*. 

A word of caution is necessary against a too extensive 
use of phraseography; it should never be allowed to de- 
stroy the lineality of the writing, nor make difficult join- 
ings. In either case, time will be saved by removing the 
pen from the paper, and commencing afresh. 

In phraseography, the, or some other unimportant word, 

is occasionally omitted; as, "-^ in the world; ^~a for 

the sake of. The connective word ami is sometimes writ- 
ten in connection with the following word, where it may 
be represented by a short horizontal stroke; ^ and (he, 

5- and which. 

WRITING EXERCISE XXXVI. 

NOTE. In the following exercise, instead of repeating the initial words of 
phrases every time they are to be written, they are indicated by dashes; and 
the words forming a phrase are connected by hyphens. 

01. 01-hiz, (0l'z) iz lost, hwic,, dis, dat-iz-sed, 

men, dar, suq-tigz, important. 

Ov. Ov-it, hwiq, suq, az-qr, me, (mi,) rajn, 

(men,) dar, impertans, hiz, advantej, dis k^nd, 
dat, dem, kors. 

On. On-el, sue,, aksnt-ov, mj, us, hur, 

dar, hiz, sid. 

Tu. Tu-it, dui, be, hav, bin, dun, 

sum-ekstent, luv, him, dat, meni. 

Hui. Hui-iz-dis, wud, not, ma, not, 

(man-t,) kan, no, qr, not, (qrn't.) 

Xud. Xud-bc, not-be, hav, dui, not-hav-sed, 

tink-dat. 

4. >E-am, ma, am-not, or ma-not, dui, (had,) 

not, (don't hadn't,) hav, not, (wid huk,) bin 

kan-not, wil, tigk, Jal, nevur, ned, 

not-sa, hop, fer, beg, am-veri-sori-inded, hop- 
yxu-wil-not-hav-rezun-tu-regret, hav-uo-dst. 

H. Hs-kud, kan, iz-dis, - - iae< : , ma, so- 
evur. 

Yui. Yui-Jiad, not, kud, - kar., ma, wil, 

qr, (r up stroke) not, (qrn't,) must, be-surten. 



MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 11 j 



We. We-wer, diu, did, hav, -- sen, 
fal, qr, (r up strok,) -- not, f jnd. 

Wid. Wid-it, hwiq, dis, dat, dem, hwiq-yui- 
qr-akwantcd, suq-az-qr. 

Wer. Wer-da, we, dat. II\var-iz, (hwarz) (r up 
strok.) 

H\vot. Hwot-iz, wer, wud, dui, if, qr, 
kud-be, -- posibli. 

Wud. Wud-yui, be, dui, hav, not, not-hav- 
sed. 

B. Be-sed, abel-tu. B^-dis, me, meni, sum- 
menz, evuri-menz, sum-pursunz, dar. 

T. It-iz, -- not. -- sed, -- sran, (de last tui wid 
a dubel surkel,) -- raj, ma, kan, kud, wud. 
Ot-tu-be, At-suq, prezent, de-sam-tjm. 

D. Dui-da, not, (don't,) -- dt. 

(5. Hwiq- wud, bad, kud, kan, haz, -- bin, 

iz-not, qr, -- not, ma, mjt, wil, (ql.) Hvviq- 
it-iz, -- ma, -- wud, --- kud-not-bav. 

F. If-dat, yui, dar, (dubel-f abuv de Ijn.) Fer-suq, 
--- az-qr, hwiq, sum-tjm, fer-dar, (dubel-f on de 
Ijn.) K-it-wer -- be -- iz, -- had. 

V. Hav-ytu, bin, had, sed. Veri-giad, gi'at, 
sam, surten, wel, sum, muq. Evuri-pqrt, wun, 

pursun, man. 

B. Eigk-dat, yra-qr, -- wil, -- ma. 
(L. Widst-d-st, hwiq, suq. flat-it, -- iz, -- 
haz-bin, -- woz, qr, -- not, iz-not. -- tu-be, 

haz, hwiq. <Ia-wer, dui, had, hav, ma. 
clis-tim, da, -^- advantej. 3ar-wud, kan, kud, 

not-hav-bin, iz, (haz,) Jal, wil, qr, -- sum- 
pursunz, ma. 

S. So-az, tu, it-semz, veri, litel, niuq, 

meni. Suq- wud, iz, az, qr, -- ma, -- 
kan, -- kud, -- hav, -- woz, -- wil. 

Z. Iz-it, -- not; az-it, -- wud, -- woz, -- ma, 
-- haz. Az-gud, -- az, grat, -- az, fqr, -- 
az, wel, meni, stun-az. Iz-not; haz-not. 

S. Xal-be, hav, dui, find, not, Jort-hand. 

L. Wil, not, be, hav, fjnd. 

R. Hr-yui, sumtjmz, sori, not; yui qr veri, -- 
tnuli. 

M. Ma-be, hav, da, az-wel, konsidur. Mjt- 
hav, dis, sem. Must-be, tr^, dui, kum, go, 



116 MANUAL OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

se, not. Most-hapi, (mos'-hapi,) Ijkli, impor- 
tant. Meni-tjmz, tigz, mor, ov-dem. 

N. In-el, konsekwens, fakt, dis, suq, raeni- 
tigz, hiz. Eni-wun, 6ig, bodi. No-pq,rt, Avt, 

rezun, mor, tjm, wun, tig, (in ful.) N-sur. 

Not, be, kwjt, dat, in, onli, ny, non; ned- 
not. Ner-wer, iz-dis, qr. 



WRITING EXERCISE XXXVII. 
(In phrasoography, and containing all the Word-Signs.) 

ON IMPRUJVMENT. 

Establijments fer impruivment, pqrtikyxulurli ov dc mjnd, 
q,r veri important tigz in a kigdum; and de mor so hwar it-iz 
yuijuial wid-dem tu establij and prakti& giad prinsipelz. [ 
fonografik establijment in pq,rtikyuilur, iz not-ouli an imediet 
advantej tu evuri jentelman Viui iz a membur ov-it r but tu ol. 
Akerdig tu jenural opinyun, Fonografi iz a subjckt we Jud el- 
hav plegur in, and tigk upon; widst it,laggwe5 iz not h\vot-it- 
Jud-be a remqjk iu-hwi^-dar-iz grattruit, and tu-hwie dar- 
kan-be no objekjun. 'iHs, er-on hwot priusipel, kan we be 
gud or grat widst-impruivment. Remcmbnr, dat evnri tig iz 
an objekt ov-impertans dat kurnz undur it; and, beyond el, dat 
de Juir wiird ov de Lord God \voz given for impruivment. 

Aftur hwot-j-uav-told-yui, <:q.r-dar yet objekjunz tu-it. 
Wer dar, an aksnt ov-dcrn wud elredi hav-bin given. Grat 
and gud tigz kan not kum tugedur widst-iuiprmvment. Xud 
j-be-told-dat it-ma-hav-bin so, j-Jal remqrk-dat, from hwot 
j no ov-de jenural spirit ov el, de trvut iz az j-hav given it, ner 
kan yui objekt tu-it. In Jert, jentelmen, establij it az yiur 
furst prinsipel, dat-yui-wil-not giv up; but, az yui hav opur- 
tn,niti, dui el dat-kan-be-dun tordz impruivment in evuri tig; 
so wil yui giv plegur, not tu-me-alon, but tu el. 



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124 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



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Published & Sold by Longley & Brother, Cin'ti,, 0. 

O"A liberal discount made when purchased by the quantity ..0 
In Phonetic Spelling. 

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Commencing Jan, 7th, 1854. 
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In the opinion of the publishers of the paper herein proposed, and in the 
estimation of many of their friends and former patrons, in the publication of 
the "WEEKLY PHONETIC ADVOCATE," wo have labored in too limited a sphere. 
Accordingly, witti tho commencement of a new volume, Jan. 7, 1854, it will 
assume a new name one more in accordance with the grand purpose of our 
calling and enterprise. 

Of newspapers, we readily admit there is a great superabundance ; but 
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II. A genuine catholic spirit in reference to Religious matters; entire free- 
dom from sectarian bent, but liberal in giving expression to all sentiments, 
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III. A mind sufficiently progressive to appreciate the theoretical consisten- 
cy and the practical utility of ail genuine Reforms, whether in our Social, Re- 
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On this Platform we propose to conduct a journal of the above title ; and, 
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of 



In regard to the Manual of Phonography. 

The publishers of the MANUAL prefer giving the opinions of 
,'eachers who have used the book, and can speak from experi- 
ence of its merits, to copying the editorial (and paid for) no- 
tices of reviewers who have most likely never read a dozen 
pages of the work, and know as little of Phonography itself. 
The expressions of approval below were entirely unsolicited, 
and of course were not designed for publication. 

The first is from an experienced and competent Phonographic 
Teacher in Delaware (0.) College, H. PERSING. 

I have seen Pitman's, Andrews and Boyle's, Webster's and 
Booth's text books on Phonography, and to all of these yours is far 
superior ; the explanations being more lucid and the examples 
more copious than in any of the others ; and indeed it is better 
calculated to give the private learner full instruction in the art 
than anything that has ever been presented to the public. 

An excellent Phonographer, GKO. H. FLEMING, now in Buffalo, 
1* Y., writes thus : 

By the way, I like your Manual very much ; I consider it as 
Far ahead of Webster's, for real, practical instruction, as his 
work is in advance of Andrews & Boyle's Class book. The 
rules forthe upward R, L, and E, I consider invaluable ; at least I 
know this, that if I had had them when I commenced the study 
of Phonography, it would have saved me easily one month's 
application, if not considerable more. The carrying out the 
phraseography to the extent you have, I think a very important 
and acceptable feature. The very limited extent to which this, 
and even the list of grammalogues are carried in the Class-book, 
was the cause of much dissatisfaction on my part toward that 
work, and when I obtained Webster's Teacher, his introducing a 
few new phrases and grammalogues was the cause of my pre- 
ferring the Teacher to the Class-book ; but on receiving the 
Manual, Teacher and Class-book were left, as our hoosier frienda 
would say, " no whar." 

" Please to send immediately, two copies more of your Manual. 
I have just received those you sent me and of all the Phonogra- 
phic instruction books that I have used, I think it is by far the 
best." H. D. SMALLKY, New Baltimore, Ohio. 

" I like your Manual better than anything I have yet seen." 
REV. J. W. TOWNER, Leroy, Ohio. 

" The Manual has been received and is the best book of th<> 
kind I have seen. It is just the thing needed." G. K. HICKOC* 
Congress, Ohio. 



A. WORD OF ADVICE. 

The student of Phonography, after lie has gone through the MANDAL, will 
still need further help, to make him a fluent writer and ready reader. The 
author would suggest two sources from which to obtain aid: 1st. Membership 
in the AMERICAN PHONETIC SOCIETY ; 2d, a subscription to the WEEKLY PHO- 
NETIC ADVOCATE and monthly shorthand SUWLEMENT, advertisements of which 
ee below. 

THE AMERICAN PHONETiO SOCIETY. 

This Society was established the first of November, 1848, having its origin, 
in Cincinculi O. Its principal objects are, 

1. The union and the co-operation of all friends of the Spelling Reform In 
tie United States, Territories, and the Canadas. 

2. To keep a census of the extent and progress of the reform movement. 

3. And by publishing the names and addresses of new members every week 
in the Phonetic Advocate, and annually a list of the whole- Society, to furnish 
each member with a directory that will enable him or her to hold correspond- 
ence, in phonetic writing, with individuals in almost any part of America, 
thus rendering their phonetic knowledge of immediate practical advantage. 

There are three classes of members: 1. Those who write phonetic short- 
hand : 2. Those who write only the phonetic longhand, whose names are 
printed in italics; and honorary members, distinguished by a * who contribute 
$1 or more to the Spelling Reform Fund. All other members are expected to 
contribute according to their ability and disposition to forward the great pho- 
netic cause. Minors are requested to give their age, 

The funds of the Society will be used to defray the expenses of publishing 
the Annual List, in printing tracts for gratuitous circulation, and other means of 
propagation. 

Application for membership and contributions of money to be forwarded, 
post paid, to . Longley, Secretary. 



THE WEEKLY TYPE OF TUB TIMES 

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Printed in Phonetic Spelling. 
(See Prospectus for 1854 on page 

SUPPLEMENT TO THE "TIMES." 

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The Supplement is the largest and cheapest Phonographic periodical publisli- 
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style? of the art: the first half of the sheet in the simple Corresponding style, 
another portion in a kind of Transition hand, in which the reporting forms are 
explained by doted outlines, or the words re-written in long-hand ; and a fev 



'Reporter," as well as from the best writ.-rs ill our own country, will be pre- 
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Thus the Supplement will constitute an invaluable companion to every pho- 
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