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Full text of "American manual of the grape vines and the art of making wine: including an account of 62 species of vines, with nearly 300 varieties. Ann account of the principal wines, American and foreign. Properties and uses of wines and grapes. Cultivation of vines in America; and the art to make good wines. With 8 figures"

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An Account of 62 Sfieciea of Vines, ivUh nearly "00 
varieties. An account of the princifial Wines, Ame- 
rican and Foreign. Frofierties and uses of TVines 
and Gra/ies. Cultivation of Fines in America ; and 
the Art U; make good Wines. 



WORKS, &C. &C. &C. 

Let every Farmer drink his own Wine, 



(9 12.. , 


Fig. I. or A. VITIS SAXATILIS, Sp. 3. 

Far. Longipes. 

Fig. II. or B. VITIS LONGIFOLIA, Sp,2l. 
Fig. III. or C. VITIS ACERIFOLIA, *Si&.23. 
Fig. IV. or D. VITIS ANGULATA, Sp 32. 

Fig. V. or E. VITIS CILIATA, Sp, 20. 

Fig. VI. orF. VITIS PROLIFERA, Sp. 40. 
Fiar. Isabella. 


Fig. VIII. or H. VITIS BLANDA, Sp. 19. 




Botanical name VITIS. 
French name VIGNE, the grape Faisin. 
German name REBE, the grape Trauhe. 
Italian name VITE, the grape Uva. 

Genus Vitis. Perfectly trioical. Calyx cuplike, 5 
lobed before the flowers expand, entire afterwards. Co- 
rolla of five petals oblong obtuse hooded, adheringat the 
summit. Five long stamina opposed to the petals. Pistil 
on a glandular disk, a stigma subsessile, capitate entire. 
Berry one celled, 2 to 5 seeds obcordate. Woody vines 
with alternate petiolate and stipulate leaves; tendrils 
and thyrsoidal racemes of flowers andfruits, opposite ta 
the leaves. 

HISTORY. I propose to give here a monography of 
the North American Grape Vines. The subject is new 
and obscure. The botanical species are scarcely indi- 
cated, and their numberless varieties have been over- 
looked by our best writers. I have ascertained about 
40 species and 100 varieties, but I must confess that it 
is not always easy to say whether one or the other. I 
was once inclined to consider all our Grapes (like our 
Strawberries) as varieties of a single species, the Fitis 
vinifera of the old Continent, and it must be so, unless 
that kind is also divided into others, such as V. labrii- 
sea, V. laciniosa, V. aurea, V. farinosa, V. aira, V. 
corinthiaca, &tc. to distinguish the wild, cut-leaved, 
mealy, black, and Currant Vines of Europe. While 
all these have been united to V. vinifera, our native 
Grapes had been made into 8 or 10 species, which dif- 
fer less than those, and can hardly be distinguished from 
them, in an exclusive point of view, except by their 
more permanent polygamy. My attempt to classify our 
Vines is therefore arduous, many species being described 
by authors under the same name ; but I hope will be 


useful in making them known, and may lead to a better 
one when all may be examined on my plan. Many va- 
rieties have no doubt escaped my researches, they abound 
in the woods, since the seeds do not always re-produce 
the identic kind, and Major Adlum has stated to me to 
have seen 200 varieties at least : some, however, differ 
but slightly ; my enumeration is ample enough to in- 
clude all the piincipal kinds. My distinguishing cha- 
racters will be taken from all the parts, branches, pe- 
tioles, leaves, flowers, and fruits. I will thus offer what 
has hardly been done yet for the Grapes of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa ; it will be the result of my observa- 
tions during many years and many thousand miles of 
travels. Our vines being all wild (except a few trans- 
planted in gardens) exhibit the spontaneous operation of 
nature and hybridity in this fine and valuable genus. 

The following are the jienera akin to Fitis, and be- 
longing to the same natural order of Sarmentacea, distin- 
guished by Stamens equal in number to the petals ; op- 
posed to them and inserted on a hypogynous disk: one 
pistil and stigma,fruit a berry. 

1. G. Cisstis. L. Calvx entire. Petals 4, not coherent. 
Stamens 4, disk cup-like. Berry one seeded. Many 
tropical species. 

2. G. Ampelopsis. Mx. Calyx 5 toothed. Petals 5, 
not coherent nor hooded. Stamens 5. Disk cup-like 
lobed. Short style. Berry 2 locular, 2 or 4 seeded. .R. 
bipinnata, (F. arborea, L.) and *5. cordifolia of North 

3. G. Quinaria. Raf. Calyx 4 or 5 lobed. Petals 4 or 
5 hooded, not coherent. Stamens 4 or 5. Disk as in Vi- 
lis. A style. Berry 4 locular, 4 seeded. Q. hederacea, 
(or Ampelopsis quinqiiefolia) and Q. hirsiita of North 

4. G. Causonis. Raf. Calyx 4 toothed. Petals 4, hood- 
ed, not coherent. Diak 4 lobed, with 4 sterile filaments 
alternate with the lobes. Stamens 4. Style filiform. 
Berry one seeded. The V.trifolia and V.japonica be- 
long here. 

The F. /jcfero;)%//a of Thunberg does not even belong 
to tliis order, but to the same as Hedera or Ivy. I call 
it G. Allosampela. Calyx superior persistent, with 5 ob- 


tuse teeth. Petals 5, oval concave hooded. Disk 5 fur- 
rowed. Stamens 5, inserted in the furrows. Pistil infe- 
rior adherent, style filiform. Berry pisiform crowned, 2 
locular, 2 or 4 seeds obcordate. 

Several species of Tltis are of doubtful g;enus, the 
flowers not having been noticed, such as T. pinnata, 
Vahl. F. pentaphylla, Th. (perhaps a Quinaria) V. ca- 
pensis and V. cirrhosa of Thunberg, V. lucida of Aus- 
tralasia, &c. 

Of the true species of Vitis, the greatest number are 
native of North America. The V. indica (under whose 
name many species or varieties are also blended) and. 
V. heptaphylla are from tropical climates ; while the 
V. vinifera or common Wine Grape, with its numerous 
varieties, are found in temperate climates, from China 
to Spain and Barbary. Several other species hardly 
known are found in Africa and Asia. After enumerating 
our American vines, I shall briefly notice these other 
Grapes, since all are interesting as useful, viniferous and 

For the sake of perspicuity, this subject shall be di- 
vided into 5 parts or sections. 1. Account of our vines. 
2. Account of foreign vines. 3. Properties and use of 
vines and grapes. 4. Cultivation of vines in America. 
5. Principles of the art to make good wine. 

Section 1. North American Grape Vines. 
The number is so great that some arrangement is 
needful ; I have long sought for the most constant dis- 
tinguishing marks, and have at last decided to use those 
afforded by the shape of the fruit and under surface of 
the leaves as most striking and least variable ; but I am 
by no n\eans confident that they are the best. I have 
thus 3 series of vines with globular berries. l.With leaves 
tomentose arachnoidal and colored beneath. 2. Leaves 
pubescent beneath. 3. Leaves perfectly smooth beneath, 
and a 4th series with fruit not globular. All our Ame- 
rican vines agree in being humble trailing vines in their 
youth, but susceptible to live from 100 to 300 years, and 
to become very large, as tall as the tallest trees that 
support them : the bark is fibrous, the wood hard, 
branches knotty, leaves very variable, but always more 


or less cordate or reniforin at the base, and toothed on 
the margin, with five branched nerves and deciduous 
stipules. Flowers in bunches, thyrsoidal or paniculate, 
small, more or less fragrant, greenish yellow, complete 
or pistiliferous or staminiferous, on 3 different indivi- 
duals, blossoming in May and June. Fruit from the size 
of a pea to that of a plumb. 

I. Series. Frondarania. Raf. Berries globular or de- 
pressed. Leaves tomentose beneath, tomentum arach- 
noidal colored, yellow, fulvous, rufous, rusty, white, 
cinerous or glaucous. 

1. Sp. Vitis fulva,^?S. ( F. esf/uaZis of many botanists, 
not of Mx. nor Elliot.) Yellow Grape. Branches tomen- 
tose. Petioles shorter. Leaves broad cordate, 3 or 5 lobed, 
unequally dentate, sinusses rounded, yellow or fulvous 
beneath. Racemes oblong. Berries round and small. It 
grows from Canada to Virginia, on rocky river banks. 
The leaves become smoother when old ', the fruits are 
commonly of a deep bluish purple, and are ripe in Au- 
gust. The varieties are : 1. Slnuata, leaves sinuate pal- 
mate, coarsely toothed. 2. Qmnqueloba, all the leaves 
with 5 lobes. 3. CoraUina, leaves yellow beneath, fruit 
larger, of a fine red color and delicious taste. In Vir- 
ginia, perhaps a peculiar species, called Red Grape and 
Coral Grape. 

2. V. ursina, Raf. Raccoon Grape. Branches striated, 
fulvous toinentose. Petioles shorter fulvous tomentose. 
Leaves reniform 5 lobed, base reniform, sinusses round- 
ed, lobes oval acuminate, Avith a few large teeth, pubes- 
cent above, rusty gray beneath, nerves fulvous. From 
Ohio to Louisiana and Texas, near streams, called Bear 
and Raccoon Grape, because greedily eaten by these 
animals. Grapes of middle size, commonly purplish, 
ripe in September and October. Young leaves rusty be- 
neath. Var. 1. CerMZea, berries dark blue. 2. Prolifera. 
3. Repens. 4. Mba. 5. Hcterophylla. 6. Triloba. 

3. V. saxatilis, Raf. Stony Grape. See figure I. or 
A. for variety Zon^ipes. Branches flexuose nearly smooth. 
Petioles villose variable. Leaves variable cordate, often 
trilobed, lobes divaricate ovate acuminate, with distant 
acute teeth, sinusses rounded, rugose and pilose above, 
gray beneath. Among stones in Arkansas and Texas, 


Many varieties : 1 . Longipes, branches fulvous hairv. 
Petioles very long, rusty. Leaves trilobe, base reniform. 
2. Media. Petioles shorter. Leaves ovate 3-5 lobed, base 
acute cordate. S.Blandina. Petioles long. Leaves cordate 
trifid, base acute cordate, lobes near or even overlaping, 
as in V. blanda. Perhaps several species, but leaves of- 
ten variable on same vine. Grapes good. 

4. V. multiloba. Raf. Dissected vine. See figure VII. 
or G. Branches tomentose rusty. Petioles very short, 
round, tomentose rusty. Leaves palmate multilobe, 
base oval acute, sinusses oboval rounded, segments 
bilobe, the middle ones trilobe, lobes oval lanceolate 
acute, with but few acute teeth, pubescent above, rusty 
glaucous beneath, nerves rusty. Found on the Washita 
and Red River, cultivated at Bartram's garden. Grape 
large, good and sweet. Var. 1. Rubripes. Petioles red. 
Leaves smaller, 5 lobed, lobes oval entire acuminate, 
without lobes, rusty gray beneath, nerves concolor. Is it 
a peculiar species ? 

5. V. digitata. Raf. Hand-chick Grape. Petioles equal 
rufous. Leaves palmate 5 lobed, base reniform, sinusses 
very broad, lobes lanceolate unequal toothed, white be- 
neath, nerves rufous stellate hairy. Berries black and 
small. In Virginia, Carolina, &c. Grapes similar to the 
Chicken Grapes. 

6. V. bracteata, Raf. ( V. labrusca, VV"alter, V. estiva- 
lis, Elliot.) Sour Grape. Branches and petioles tomen- 
tose. Leaves broad cordate, rounded, entire or lobed, 
toothed, white beneath. Panicles of several bracteated 
fascicles, 3-6 flore. Berries black and pisiform. In the 
Southern States, from Carolina to Florida. A very tall 
vine, with small fruit like a pea, black, very acid and 

7. V. callosa. Raf. Canada vine. Branches and pe- 
tioles striated pubescent. Petioles subequal. Leaves re- 
niform subtrilobe acute, with minute callous denticles, 
lucid above, white beneath, nerves rufous. Raceme com- 
pound. From Canada to Pennsylvania, in hills. Young 
leaves pubescent above, smooth when grown. Blossoms 
in June. Fruit unknown, 

8. V. hyemalis. Raf. Winter Grape. Branches groov- 
ed smooth. Petioles smooth, very short. Leaves cordate 

L 3 


subtrifid acute, with unequal obtuse teeth, smooth above, 
pale gray beneath. Racemes small. Berries globular, 
purplish black and small. From Canada to Ohio and 
Virginia, large vine, blossoms in July, fruits only ripe 
after frost, in small bunches, rather dense, of an acid 
bad taste. 

9. V. serotina. Raf. Late Grape. Branches procum- 
bent pilose, sometimes rooting. Petioles subequal pubes- 
cent. Leaves cordate palmate, 5 lobed, hardly crenate, 
sinusses rounded, lobes rounded acuminate, hairy above, 
gray beneath. Berries small and black. From Ohio to 
Missouri and Kentucky, in glades, near streams. Grape 
austere, ripe in October. Var. 1. Eepens, 2. Micracina. 
3. Sangiiinarla. Bloody grape of Missouri. Berries 
sweet, black outside, red inside. 

10. V. glareosa. Raf. Trailing Grape. Branches pro- 
cumbent, trailing, elongated and smooth. Petioles sub- 
equal smooth. Leaves lemote, cordate sagittate, broad, 
subtrifid, serrate, smooth above, white beneath. Berries 
bluish black, large and sweet. This is the summer grape 
of the western glades or barrens, found from Illinois to 
Florida. Never climbing, fruit very sweet and fine, as 
large as cherries, ripe in August. 

' 11. V. laiifoHa, Raf. (F. taurina, Walt. V. luhrusca 
of many botanists, but very different from V. labrusca of 
Europe.) Fox Grape. Branches slender striated pubes- 
cent. Petioles *hort hairy. Leaves ample coriaceous, cor- 
date oval, lobes approximated at the base, trifid angular, 
denticulate, wrinlcled and smooth above, white beneath, 
nerves yellow. Racemes small. Berries large, depressed 
and hard. From Canada to Florida and Louisiana, call- 
ed by many names. Fox Grape, Bullet Grape, Bull 
Grape, Frost Grape, Tough Grape. In woods and hedges, 
blossoms in June and July. Leaves ample, rusty beneath 
when young. Flowers green, peduncles hairy, a short 
style. Fruit commonly purple, with a hard skin and a 
tough pulp, taste foxy. Many varieties : 1 . ./5/6 a, ber- 
ries whitish. 2. Nigra, berries black, austere and harsh. 
3, Fruniformis, as large as a plumb, of a deep purple, 
fleshy when ripe, called Elkton or Plumb Grape. 4. Bu- 
brtty smaller red grapes, called Red Fox Grape. 


12. V. labruscoides. Mg. and Raf. Sweet Fox Grape. 
Branches round and smooth. Petioles subequal, hardly 
pubescent. Leaves reniform at the base, tritid or quin- 
quefid, acute, with unequal acute callous teeth, sinusses 
acute, smooth above, glaucous beneath. Racemes small. 
Berries large, depressed, juicy and sweet. From New 
York to Virginia, in woods, &c. Large vine, fruit dif- 
ferent from the last, musky rather than foxy, skin thick 
and austere, but inside Avhen ripe with a sweet rich juice. 
Var. 1. iSerofina, Frost Grape, purplish black. 2.Fubra, 
Worthington Grape, smaller berries, juice dark red, 
sweet and rough. 3. Pulposa, Luffborough Grape, ber- 
ries very large, of a deep purple, pulp dissolving in a 
sweet musky juice. 4. Precox, Early Grape, middle size 
berries, black, with a white bloom, sweet mu&ky taste, 
ripe in July in Virginia. 5. Major, Big Grape of the 
Catskill mountains. Berries purplish blue, exceedingly 
large (one measured by Mr. Eaton vv^as 3 inches around") 
fine sweet pulpy juice. All highly deserving cultivation. 

13. V. riigosa. Raf. Roughleaf Grape. Branches round 
and smooth. Petioles similar, subequal, compressed. 
Leaves cordate 5 lobed, coriaceous with rounded acute 
teeth, lobes acute, very wrinkled above, beneath glau- 
cous. Racemes elongate compound. From New York to 
Ohio, blossoms in June. Fruit unknown. 

14. V. c«nma. Raf. Dogs Grape. Branches round and 
smooth. Petiole striated pilose short. Leaves oval cor- 
date, base subreniform acute, end subtrifid, middle lobe 
much longer deltoid very sharp, teeth small broad acute, 
smooth above, with hairy nerves, glaucous beneath, with 
rusty nerves. From Pennsylvania to Virginia, &c. Fruit 
large, purple, tough, with a bad foxy taste, hardly edi- 
ble. Leaves quite ovate, much longer than bx-oad, some 
large 8 inches long, 6 broad, petiole 4 inches. 

15. V. liUeola. Raf. Variable Grape. Branches slen- 
der flexuose, fulvous tomentose. Petioles short similar. 
Leaves cordate oval acute, base acute, sides hardly an- 
gular, nearly entire, denticulate by the mere jutting of 
nerves, smooth deep green above, yellow tomentose be- 
neath. Grapes large, depressed, hard. In Pennsylvania, 
&c. Leaves small 4 inches long, 3 broad, petioles 2. 


Fruit foxy, tough. Var. 1. Yellow. 2. White. 3. Purple. 
4. Red Grapes. 

16. V. ferruginea. Rusty Grape. Branches rusty to- 
mentose, angular, angles obtuse. Petioles short, rusty to- 
tnentose. Leaves cordate trifid coriaceous, base sinus 
acute, lobes remote, teeth unequal mucronate, smooth 
above, rusty tomentose beneath. Fruit large, depressed, 
hard, foxy. In Pennsylvania. Leaves as broad as long, 
petioles half length, called Fox Grape as well as the 
last. Grapes commonly pale red, or white tinged of 

17. V. bifida, Raf. Bifid Grape. Branches smooth 
purple. Petioles subeqiial pubescent. Leaves ample co- 
riaceous, cordate ovate trilobe acute, end mucronate, 
sinus of the base acute, lobes remote, lateral sinusses 
obtuse, teeth unequal large acute, smooth above, rusty 
gray beneath. Racemes bifid, grapes small bluish blact, 
acid. From Pennsylvania to Kentucky, one of the Chick- 
en Grapes. Leaves 6 inches long and broad. 

18. V. obliqtca, Raf. Sandhill Grape. Branches slen- 
der, hairy, angular, angles obtuse. Petioles very short, 
hairy. Leaves obliqual ovate cordate trifid acuminate, 
base cordate acute, lobes near, commonly unequal, teeth 
unequal, very small, rugose hairy above, glaucous to- 
mentose beneath. Berries white, sweet and juicy. In the 
sandhills of Arkansas river and Oregon mountains. 
Leaves small, 3 inches long, 2 broad, petiole only one. 
Grapes said to be very good. Cultivated at Bartram's 
garclen. Very difterent from Sand Grape, variety of V. 
blanda, and more like V. longifoHa. 

19. V.blanda.B.a{. See figure VIII. or H. Bland Grape. 
Branches round and smooth. Petioles striated pilose sub- 
equal. Leaves nearly square, cordate or rather split at 
the base, sinus narrow acute, with lobes overleaping; 
trifid, sinusses small acute, segments acute, the terminal 
larger; teeth unequal obtusely mucronate; smooth above, 
glaucous and sparingly arachnoidal beneath, with rusty 
nerves. Racemes compound. Berries large and sweet. 
From Pennsylvania to Louisiana. One of the most com- 
monly cultivated as best for eating and wine : the 
bunches are large, the berries as large as the commoa 
wine grape of Europe, commonly pale purple, with a. 


thin gkin and white sweet musky juice. Many names 
given to it, Madeira Grape, although a true native, Maz- 
zei Grape, Powell Grape, Clifton Grape, &c. The rai- 
sins de Cote, or Sand Grape of Louisiana, appear only 
a variety. The leaves are arachnoidal at first, but often 
become nearly smooth when old. Many var. 1. Flava, 
grapes of a yellow white. 2. Viridis. Green Bland. Fruit 
smaller, green when ripe, yet sweet and juicy, ripens 
early in July near Catskill mountains. 3. Caroliniana. 
Smaller grapes. 4. Arenaria. Sand Grape of Louisiana 
and Arkansas. Leaves nearly smooth, except nerves be- 
neath, but similar in shape, grapes dark blue, very 
sweet, skin thicker. 5. Heteroloba. Oddleaf Grape. 
Leaves with unequal lobes at the base and top, base 
lobes approximated or overleaping, upper lobes larger 
unequal sharp, with large teeth. In Ohio. Perhaps some 
are peculiar species. - 

20. V. ciliata. Raf. See figure VI. or E. Elsinburg 
Grape. Petioles striated hairy subequal. Leaves ovate 
cordate 5 lobed, base with remote lobes, sinusses and 
lobes narrow acute, teeth large remote ciliolate, hairy 
above, dirty gray beneath, nerves fulvous gray. Berries 
blue, large, very sweet and juicy. Found in New Jer- 
sey. Begins to be cultivated, fruit as sweet as sugar, 
somewhat like the Bland Grape, but blue, and leaves 
totally different. 

II. Series. Lasijna. Berries globular or depressed. 
Leaves more or less hairy beneath, or at least on the 
nerves, but neither arachnoidal nor tomentose. 

£1. V. longifolia. Raf, See figure II. or B. Petioles 
short and hairy. Leaves oblong cordate, sinus of the 
base rounded, hardly trifid, or with two longer teeth 
near the middle, end acuminate falcate, unequal sharp 
teeth, pubescent above, liairy and gray beneath. Berries 
blue and sweet. In Arkansas and Texas, bearing fine 
blue grapes, very sweet. Cultivated by Mr. Hulin, in 
Philadelphia. Leaves small, about 4 inches long, less 
than 3 broad, petiole 2 inches : branches slender, round 
and smooth : old leaves nearly smooth. 

22. V. dimidiata. Raf. Orwisburg Grape. Branches 
slender striated smooth. Petioles subequal slender, stri- 
ated and nearly smooth. Leaves thin, oval reniform tri- 

14 - VITIS, OR 

fid, elongate acuminate, teeth large unequal acuminate, 
smooth above, glaucous beneath, sparingly pilose, chiefly 
on the nerves. Berries depressed and sweet. Found near 
Orwisburg, on the Schuylkill, in Pennsylvania, and cul- 
tivated in gardens. Leaves very thin, pretty large, about 
5 inches long and 4 broad. Grapes very good. 3 Varie- 
ties, white, purple, and black. This species appears to 
answer completely to the description of the J^. riparia 
of Poiret, (not of the otliers) which was the Vigne des 
Battures of Louisiana, and thus this fine grape is from 
Pennsylvania to Louisiana. Nerves marginal at the base. 

23. V. acerifolia. Raf. See figure IIL or C. Mapleleaf 
Grape. Trailing. Petioles very short, striated, pilose, 
redish. Leaves reniform trifid, base dilatate, nerves 
not marginal : sinusses acute, segments acuminate fal- 
cate, teeth very large, unequal and sharp, smooth and 
pale or glaucescent on both sides, nerves pubescent above 
and beneath, margin also pubescent. Brought from the 
Oregon mountains by the expedition of I^ong, cultivated 
in Bartram's garden. It has not given fruits as yet, but 
they are said to be very good and juicy. Leaves very 
much like those of many INIaples, 4 to 6 inches long and 
broad, a little variable, more or less gashed, sometimes 
sinusses very narrow, that of the base sometimes round. 

24. V. inontana, Raf. Mountain Grape. Branches 
decumbent, round and smooth. Petioles round and smooth, 
longer than the leaves. Leaves cordate trifid acute, mem- 
branaceous, unequally serrate, smooth and lucid above, 
pubescent and pale beneath. Berries small and black. 
In the Alleghany mountains from New York to Carolina. 
A small trailing vine, near to V. Odoratisima, but leaves 
larger, petioles longer, flowers hardly odorous, fruit 
hardly good. 

25. V. concolor, Raf. Dwarf Grape» Branches pro- 
cumbent green, round and smooth. Petioles round, 
smooth, exceedingly short, one fourth only. Leaves very 
thin, ovate acute subangular, base reniform, margin sub- 
angular, with unequal mucronate teeth, both sides green, 
lucid sparingly pilose. Small vine trailing on the ground, 
from New York to Missouri. Petioles only one fourth of 
the length of the leaves. Grapes small, blackish, called 
Ground Grape and Chicken Grape : this last name is 


given to all the small black Grapes, as Fox Grape to all 
the larg;e and tough indifferently. 

26. F. columhina^ Raf. Pidgeon Grape. Branches 
round, smooth. Petioles round, subequal nearly smooth. 
Leaves palmate 5 lobed, base subreniform, lobes bilobe, 
terminal trilobe, lobules unecjually ovate angular acute, 
sinusses rounded notched, teeth remote callose : upper 
surface smooth, beneath nerves pubescent and rusty. 
Racemes slender. Large vine, growing from New York 
to Louisiana, in woods, somewhat similar to V. multilo- 
ba in tlie shape of the leaves, but berries small, blackish, 
sweetish, eaten by the wild pidgeons like man}^ others. 

£7. V. popidifolia, H^if. Poplar Grape. Branches slen- 
der, green, smooth and striated. Petioles short, half in 
length, slender striated, pilose above. Leaves ovate del- 
toid, acuminate, base truncate or reniform, end hardly 
trifid, acutely serrate, smooth on both sides, nerves pi- 
lose above and beneath, pale beneath. Fruit small and 
black. Pennsylvania and Alleghany mountains. Leaves 
4 inches long, 3 broad, petioles 2. Fruit very small, bit- 
terish, bad tasted. 

28. V. cordifolia, Mx. P. N. {V.vitlpina, Torrey and 
Eaton.) Frost Grape. Branches round and smooth. Pe- 
tioles slender subequal pilose. Leaves cordate acumi- 
nate, sometimes angular, unequally serrate, smooth on 
both sides, nerves pilose. Racemes loose multitlore. Ber- 
ries small, pale, acid. In woods and near streams from 
New York to Carolina. Leaves three to four inches 
broad. This is one of the Fox Grapes of the Northern 
States, but very different from the V. latifolia, V. la- 
bruscoides, and the Southern Muscadine Fox Grapes. 
It is the Winter or Frost Grape of the Southern States : 
they are small, acid, of a pale or amber color. 

29. V. riparia of Pursh, Elliot, Torrey, &c. River 
Grape. Branches smooth striated. Petioles striated pi- 
lose subequal. Leaves small reniform trifid acuminate, 
with large unequal acute teeth, smooth above, hardly 
glaucous beneath, with nerves and margin pilose. Ra- 
cemes compound. Berries small. On the banks of streams 

"from New York to Carolina. Flowers very sweet scent- 
ed ; the sterile plant is cultivated under the name of 
Bermuda vine and Mignonette vine, for the profusion of 


the blossoms sraelling like Reseda odorata. Var. 1. Vi- 
ridis, berries greenish. 2. Purpurea, berries purplish. 

III. Series. HypoJeia. Berries globular or depressed. 
Leaves smooth beneath, but commonly pubescent at the 
axilla of the nerves, 

30. Sp. V. odoratissima, Donn. Sweet scented Grape. 
Branches and petioles smooth, not striated. Petioles 
short, half the length. Leaves small reniform trifid, sub- 
acuminate, subangular, unequally incisile toothed, smooth 
and green on both sides, axillas of nerves bearded be- 
neath. Racemes pubescent, lax, compound. Berries 
pisiform and sweet. From New York to Kentucky, 
in groves, fields, commonly procumbent, not twining : 
blossoms in May, flowers very sweet, like V. riparia, 
from which it differs by the petioles, leaves nearly angu- 
lar laciniate, not pubescent nor ciliated. !Many authors 
have united it to V. riparia. Var. l.jltropurpurea, grapes 
purplish black acerb, on the Ohio and Green Rivers. 
2. Purpurea, grapes purple and sweet, in Ohio. 3. A'i- 
gra. Petioles equal to leaves, grapes black, fine flavor, 
in Ohio. 4. Alba. Grapes white, in New York. 

31. V. Amara, Raf. Bitter Grape. Branches striated 
and smooth. Petioles very short, smooth, purplish. Leaves 
cordate acuminate, base obtuse, lobes distant, unequally 
toothed, teeth rounded mucronate, smooth on both sides, 
pale beneatl), nerves brown, with bearded axillas. Ber- 
ries small, black and bitter. Found near Philadelphia 
by Mr. Carr, and cultivated in Bartram's garden. Leaves 
about 6 inches long, 6 broad, petioles 2. Berries pisi- 
form, intolerable bitter, with two seeds and hardly any 

32. V. vulpina or muscadina^ Raf. ( V. incisa, Jaq. V. 
vulpina, L., Abbot, Walter, Smith. V. rofundifolia,Mx. 
P. N. Elliot.) Muscadine Grape. Branches pubescent 
Petioles subequal smooth. Leaves cordate acute, une- 
qually toothed, smooth and shining on both sides, nerves 
bearded at the axilla. Racemes with many capitvdes. 
Fruit depressed, large, juicy. From Virginia to Florida 
and Texas, near streams chiefly. It bears a multitude of 
vulgar names, such as Muscadine, Bullet, Fox and Scu- 
pernong Grape : the confusion in the botanical names is 
as bad, and as they do not apply, I have changed them 


all. As I have not seen this species, I have chiefly relied 
on Elliot's description. The leaves are 2 or 3 inches 
long and broad. It blossoms in July and August : 6 to 
8 flowers to the branches of the racemes. The fruit is 
large, 7 to 9 lines in diameter, oblate spheroidal or 
flattened, with a thick skin, purplish or bluish black ; 
taste pleasant, sweet and musky, makes a very good 

33. V. angulafa, Raf. See tab. 99, fig. D. Angular 
Grape. Branches cespitose, stiff, angular and striated, 
smooth and purple. Petioles subequal slender subpilose. 
Leaves small cordate rounded obtuse, with a few large 
lobular obtuse teeth, base acute, lobes divaricate, shin- 
ing on both sides, axilla of thenerves bearded, margin 
subpilose. Fruit black, sweet and juicy. From Carolina 
to Arkansas and Texas, in glades, forming a bush, sel- 
dom climbing. Cultivated at Bartram's garden. Many 
vulgar names, Arkansas, Bushy, Currant, and False 
Scupernong Grape. Leaves hardly bigger than a dollar, 
sometimes purplish beneath : the young ones sparingly 
pilose on the nerves beneath, as in the series Lasipia. 
Old leaves nearly smooth, angles of the stem acute, fruit 
small, good. 

34. V, verrucosa, Raf. Warty Grape. Branches round, 
stiff, smooth, warty or dotted. Petioles short, smooth. 
Leaves broad reniform acute, with large acute teeth, 
base subtruncate reniform, both sides lucid and smooth. 
Berries large, sweet, and juicy. From Carolina to Ar- 
kansas. This is another of the Scupernong Grapes ; this 
name is given in Carolina to all the good juicy grapes. 
Leaves 2 inches broad, 1^ long, petioles 1 inch. The 
fruit is white, sweet and good. 

35. V. pettata, Raf. or V. floridana. Florida Grape. 
Petioles short and smooth. Leaves drooping, ovate cor- 
date acute, base subpeltate, split acutely, lobes approxi- 
mated, large acute teeth all around, smooth and green 
on both sides, beneath nerves reticulated prominent with 
bearded axillas. A very singular species, lately found in 
Florida, and communicated to me by Mr. Halsey. The 
leaf is very small, I5 inch long, one broad, petioles half 
of the leai : a prominent net work beneath, formed by 



prominent nerves instead of veins, as usual. Fruit un- 

36. V. integrifolia, Raf. lior. Louis, 1817. Orbicular 
Grape. Leaves orbicular, entire, base hardly cordate, 
no teeth nor lobes. A doubtful species, inserted on the 
authority of Robin, but hardly described by him. From 

37. V. poiretia, Raf. ( V. vulpina, Poiret.) Chicken 
Grape. Leaves ample cordate, entire trilobe or 5 lobed, 
lobes distant at the base, lobes angular acuminate, une- 
qually toothed. Both sides smooth, pale beneath, with 
yellow veins. Racemes with many ombellules, with a 
linear lanceolate bract. Berries small and black. This 
species, which Poiret describes as the V. vulpina of L. 
is totally different from it, and I strongly suspect only 
a variety of my V. bracteata, improperly described as 
smooth beneath 

38. V. palmafa, Vahl, P. Imate Grape. Branches 
smooth purple. Leaves palmate cordate, segments lan- 
ceolate acute, lateral ones with lanceolate teeth, the ter- 
minal serrate. Raceme oblong and short. Only described 
and seen by Vahl, grown in Europe from seeds sent from 
America. Perhapsa variety of my V. multiloba. Stipules 
lanceolate. Raceme only one inch long. 

IV. Series. Aglobuiia. Berries not globular nor de- 
pressed, but oblong or oval, as commonly in V. vinifera. 

39. V. Virginiana. Poiret. Virginia Grape. Branches 
smooth and red. Leaves coriaceous, ovate cordate 5 
lobed, lobes unequal rounded, terminal large acuminate, 
teeth unequal short acute, above lucid, beneath with pu- 
bescent nerves. Berries oval. Described by Poiret from 
garden specimens, sent by Mr. Kingston from the Poto- 
mac. Racemes nearly simple, pedicels slender. Berry 
of middle size, of an oval round shape. 

40. V. prohfera. Raf. (See tab. 100, fig. F.) Prolific 
Grape. Branches substriated, subpilose. Petiole short, 
pilose. Leaves cordate acute, of a square form, trifid, 
trilobe or 5 lobed, base acute with distant rounded lobes, 
upper lobes and sinusses variable, margin acute serrate 
above smooth, beneath cuierous tomentose, nerves ful- 
vous. Racemes compound proliferous. Berries large el- 


Tiptical. A very interesting and valuable species, with 
many varieties, and a multitude of vulgar names, such 
as Alexander, Tusker, Schuylkill, Madeira, Muscadel, 
Clifton, Legoux, Cupe, Isabella, Catawba, Tokay, Mun- 
cy Grapes, &c. all belonging to one kind, although form- 
ing several varieties. Thej are real native grapes, found 
from Pennsylvania to Carolina and Ohio, in woods. The 
grapes are plentiful, large, fine, with a tough skin and a 
rich sweet juice. Already much cultivated and valued 
for eating and wine. The chief varieties are : 1. Vulga- 
ris. Alexander Grape. Petioles longer, leaves larger, va- 
riable on the same vine, often lobed, with broad ovate 
acute lobes and narrow obtuse sinusses. Fruit blackish, 
as large as the end of a finger. 2. Isabella. Isabella 
Grape, figured here. Leaves commonly trifid, fruit large 
and purple : found in North Carolina.' ^. Media. Clifton 
Grape. Smaller grape than the first, and not so sweet 

4. Catabiana. Catawba Grape, from North Carolina. 
Leaves large, commonly trilobe, grapes purple, lilac or 
white, according to shade and exposure, flavour musky. 

5. Prunoides. Muncy Grape. Similar to the Catawba, 
but taste different, similar to that of Wild Plumbs. 

6. Ohiensis. Ohio Grape. Grape smaller, white. 

41. V. obovata, Raf. Oboval Grape. Leaves similar to 
the V. prolifera, on long petioles, commonly cordate, tri- 
lobe acute, sinusses acute. Berries large oboval. From 
Pennsylvania to Virginia, in islands and banks of streams 
and rivers. Perhaps variation of the last ; but it has it- 
self many varieties. 1. Bupestris. Large vine, with loose 
branches, grapes purple, very juicy and sweet. 2.JVigra. 
Grapes loose, few, obovate, nearly black, very sweet. 
At the head of the Susquehannah. 3. Pallida. Grapes 
pale red, Alleghany River. 4. Prunoides. Bluish large 
grape, like a Plumb. 

N. B. By the above enumeration of our Grapes, I 
have done for this genus what Michaux did for our Oaks. 
Owing to the great confusion of former authors, and the 
difficulty of comparing the leaves and fruits of all the 
species, it is hardly as perfect as I should wish. Rigid 
botanists may perhaps wish to reduce these species to a 
minor number, or consider some as hybrids : if they can 
find good permanent collective characters, let thein re- 


(luce our Grapes and Oaks to a dozen species. But the 
angular or striated branches, the long or short petioles, 
the oval, cordate or reniform leaves, &c. must always 
be deemed essential specific characters, and several of 
my new species, such as V. bracteata, V. angulata, V. 
peltata^ T . canina, V. blanda, V. longifolia, V. acerifo' 
lia, V. amara, V. prolifera, &c. must be deemed very 
distinct. It remains for me to apply the same principle 
to the Vines of the old continent, which I shall do in a 
very concise manner, and merely as an illustration of the 
American kinds. 

II. Section. Account of Exotic Grape Vines. 

42. F. vinifera, L. Common Grape. Branches twining 
cylindric. Petioles subequal. Leaves cordate sinuate 3 
or 5 lobed, acute, base coi-date, teeth unequally acute, 
green on both sides. Racemes thyrsoidal paniculated. 
Flowers all fertile, pistil turbinate. Berries ellipsoid. 
Native of central Asia, cultivated all over the world. 
A multitude of varieties and names, perhaps as many as 
500 ; the utmost confusion has been thrown on the sub- 
ject by wi'iters, and no general classification nor syno- 
nymy attempted. The same grapes are often found in 
France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Asia, under yery dif- 
ferent names. In this dilemma, I can only ofier a first 
(and perhaps rude) attempt at distinction and co-ordina- 
tion, and thus divide the principal varieties into 3 series, 
the last of which he will include 15 species or subspe- 
cies, so diflerent from the others in many respects as to 
be probably peculiar species ; nay, 3 of them, V. la- 
brusca, V. pinnata, V. /rtcmiosa, have been so considered 
by many botanists already. 

I. Series. Berries oblong, elliptic, or sububoval. 

Var.l.Precox.Early Grape. Small leaves and branches, 
grapes small, loose, thick skin, juice insipid, pulp dry. 
Ripe in June and July. 

Var. 2. Burgunclica. Burgundy Grape. Leaves semi- 
5 lobed, red beneath, teeth subequal. Grapes black and 
sweet. I.French. 2. Italian, larger and sweeter. S.Ger- 
man, least sweet, austere. 

Var. 3. Edutis. Chasselas Grape. Long petioles and 
lobes, teeth broad. Only goad to eat. 3 subvarieties : 


1 . Yellow unequal berries. 2. Red. 3. White-green, 

Var. 4. Moschata. Muscat Grape. Leaves 5 lobed, with 
unequal segments and teeth, bunches long, grapes very 
sweet and musky. 6 subvarieties. I.White. 2. Green. 

3. Yellow. 4. Red, rounder grapes. 5. Small black. 
6. Black Constantia. 7. Persian. 8. Syracuse red. 
9. Gray. 10. Lachryma Christi, black. 

Var. 5. Zibiba. Muscatel or Raisin Grape. Very large, 
musky delicious flavor, pulp firm. Sev. var. 1 . White. 

2. Green. 3. As large as Walnuts, from Mount Atlas. 

4. Large white, from Syria. 5. Black, thick skin. 6. Red, 
from Greece. 7. Malaga white. 8. Sicily white. 9. Dam- 
son Grape, large purple like a Plumb. 

Var. 6. Malvesia. Malmsey Grape. Leaves like Mus- 
cat, grape large, juicy, very sweet, not musky. 1. Ma- 
deira purple, hard skin. 2. Sicily, purple, smaller. 

3. Yellow. 

Var. 7. Nigraria. Claret Grape, with thick black skin, 
commonly a bloom on it, juicy pulp, not musky. Sub- 
variety 1. Spanish. 2. Italian. 3. Calabrian. 4. Tripoli 
large. 5. Lombard or Canaan, with large bunches of 4 
to 10 lb. weight. 6. Claret Grape, small, juice red like 
blood, taste harsh. 

Var. 8. Violacea. Purple Grape. Skin commonly thick, 
austere, purplish, pulp firm not musky. 1. Violet color. 
2. Light purple. 3. Spanish, a little juicy. 4. Small and 
harsh. 5. Smyrna, very large. 

Var. 9. ^urea. Golden Grape. Leaves velvet-like 
above, not lobed, glaucous beneath, berries yellow ob- 
long, perhaps a peculiar species. 1. Burgundy. 2. Spanish 
large. 3. Straw Grape, thick vinose juice, delicious per- 
fume, makes the fine golden Straw Wine. 

Var. 10. Versicolor. Varied Grape. Leaves variegated 
of red, yellow and green. 1. Grapes mixt of black and 
white. 2. White and red. 3. Yellow and green. 4. Alep- 
po black and white. Curious, but indifferent. Perhaps 
var. of V. bicolor. 

Var. 11. Greca. Grecian Grape, glaucous or pale co- 
lor, skin rather thick, very juicy, not musky, hardly 
sweet. 2. Blanquette of France. 2. Medoc 3. Malaga. 

4. Cyprus. 5. Grecian bluish white. 6. White Hamburg. 

B 2 


7. Teneriffe or Vidonia. 8. Madeira Vldonia, producing 
the strong dry Wine. 9. Bagoal of Madeira, sweeter. 
10. Fayal. 1 1. Sicily Greca. IS.Sicily harsh. IS.Graves. 
14. White bitterish. 15. Rhenish or Hock. 16. Lisbon. 
17. Alpine acid. 

Var. 12. Perla. Pearl Grape. Leaves 5 lobed, much 
cut up. Grapes oblong, hard, greenish. 1. Large Pearl. 
2. Small Pearl 3. Sicily Perna. 4. White. 5. Straw 

Var. 13. Felina. Cat's Grape. Small pale green, soft, 
juicy, disagreeable taste. 

Var. 14. Acetaria. Verjuice Grape. Leaves ample, 
nearly round j grapes ovate oblong, larger green, very 

Var. 15. Dulcis. Sweet-Water Grape. Cojnmonly 
small, with a very thin skin, juice very thin and sweet, 
no pulp. I.White. 2. Black. 3. Tokay, white, delicious 
flavor. 4. Blue Tokay, small brownish, with a blue 
bloom. 5. Cotnar of Moldavia, green, makes green 
w4ne. 6. Nectar of Greece, white styptic. 7. Persian. 

Var. 16. Cuprea. Coppery Grape, of a brick or copper 
color. 1. Small sweet. 2. Large. 3. Hard and harsh. 

IL Series. Berries nearly round, but yet diameter 
a little less than the length. 

Var. 17. Oporto. Portugal Grape. Leaves large, with 
unequal lobes and deep teeth : grapes large black, with 
harsh red juice. 1. Common, leaves 4 or 5 lobed. 
2. Short bunch, leaves 2 or 3 lobed. 3. Etna or Mascali. 
4. Dalmatian. 5. Schiraz in Persia. 

Var. 18. Tinto. Tinto Grape. Similar to Oporto, but 
with sweeter and blacker juice. 1. Spanish Tinto. 
2. Tintilla. 3. Alicant. 4. Calabria. 5. Grecian. 

Var. 19. Tinctoria. Coloring Grape. Leaves 5 lobed, 
deeply toothed, bunches unequal : grapes unequal hard, 
red, with black and austere juice. Only used to color 
other wines. 

Var. 20. Crassifolia. Mansard Grapes. Leaves large 
:md thick, with small teeth ; bunches long pyramidal, 
grapes large and black. 1. French. 2. Asiatic, bunches 
from 10 to 40lb. weight. 3. Grandifolia. 

Var. 21. Velutina. Velvet Grape. Leaves trilobe, 
teeth very unequal j grapes of a fine velvet black. l.Ca- 
hors. 2. Italian. 


Var. 22. Syriaca. Syrian Grape. Large, of a delicious 
flavor, juicy, red or black. 1. Damascus black. 2. Jeru- 
salem, red musky. 3. Morillon, black early. 4. Morella 
of Italy. 5. Lisbon juicy, black. 6. Black Frontignac, 
musky, smaller. 7. Grisly, mixt of red, brown, and 

V^ar. 23. Malvagia. Malvesy Grape. Similar to Malm- 
sey, but rounder and musky, white or yellow. I.Cyprus. 
2. Sicily. 3. Yellow. 4. Mingrelia or prolific, bunches 
10 to 301b. 

Var. 24. Laxa. Loose Grape. Petioles slender and 
gray, leaves hardly lobed, unequally sinuate : grapes 
large white, loose. 1. Gouais of France. 2. Persian. 

Var. 25. Prolijica. Prolific Grape. Leaves thick, hard- 
ly lobed, sinuate : grapes black, not sweet, austere, 
middle size or small. 1. Common gamet. 2. Leaves tri- 
iobe smaller. S.Grecian. Are great bearers, but make bad 
Wine, and spoil the good. 

The above include all the chief varieties and subva- 
rieties of what I consider as the original Wine Grape. 
I shall next enumerate 15 other kinds, commonly con- 
sidered as varieties, but widely different in the leaves, 
&c. so as to aftbrd permanent specific distinctions. I 
therefore propose them as species, or at least subspecies. 
Linnxus deemed also the V. Zaanzosa a peculiar species. 

III. Series. Vines specifically dilFerent from the V. 

43. V. labrusca, Raf. Wild Grape. Branches trailing 
striated. Petioles subequal pilose. Leaves ample cor- 
date, 3 or 5 lobed, v/hitish beneath, (white when young) 
smooth above, (hairy when young) lobes acute, coarsely 
serrated. Racemes compound, short and lax, flowers all 
fertile, petals pilose at the top. Berries globular, small, 
black and acid. Native of Italy, Greece, Sicily, Bar- 
bary, &c. the only wild Grape of Europe, deemed by 
some the original of all the cultivated Grapes, by others 
a degenerated kind : both opinions appear false, since it 
is known by history that the Wine Grape came from 
Asia, and that it does not change into Labrusca. The 
blossoms are fragrant as in our V. riparia, and the ber- 
ries like the American Chicken Grapes, quite spherical, 
not eatable nor suitable for Wine, 


44. V.farinosa, Raf. Mealy Grape. Leaves trilobe, 
lateral lobes bilobate, covered with a hoary powder, 
downy in youth. Racemes short compact. Berries oval. 
Var. 1. Black and large. 2. White and large. S.White 
and small. Often called Miller's Grape, good to eat, 
makes bad Wine. 

45. V. carta, Raf. Hoary Grape. Petioles thick and 
red. Leaves hardly 5 lobed, with large teeth, green 
above, white tomentose beneath. Berries round, yellow- 
ish, sweet. Var. 1. Common. 2. Rochelle, leaves 5 lobed, 
grapes round, white, sweet, subacid, thin skin. 3. Leaves 
trilobe whiter, yellow grapes. 

46. V. bicolor, Raf. Black and white Grape. Petioles 
long. Leaves 5 lobed with double teeth, white tomen- 
tose beneath. Berries round soft, black and white on the 
same bunch. Is it a variety of V. cana ? and is V, vini- 

fera versicolor a variety of it ? 

47. F. saccharina, Raf. Sugar Grape. Leaves semi-. 
5 lobed, villose and pale beneath, small subequal teeth. 
Racemes small conical subsessile. Berries round or ob- 
long, very sweet. Var. 1. Pineau Grape. Oblong dense 
redish, 2. Griset Grape. Bunch deformed, grape round, 
gray, perfumed. 

48. V. rufa, Raf. Mormain Grape. Leaves palmate, 
pale above, nerves rose color, villose whitish beneath. 
Berries round loose, rufous, sweet and fleshy. 

49. V. apiana, Raf. Muscadel Grape. Petioles long. 
Leaves lobed laciniate, teeth acute, glaucous beneath. 
Berries round, white or rose. Var. 1. ^Iba. 2. Rosea. 
3. Parvifolia. 

50. V. punctata, Raf. Dotted Grape. Leaves hardly 
trilobe, deeply toothed, pale and smooth beneath. Ra- 
cemes short. Berries oval acute, white dotted of yellow, 
very sweet. 1. Sauvignon small. 2. Puntillo, larger. 

51. V succinea. Ambrette Grape. Leaves with acumi- 
nate lobes hardly toothed, smooth beneath. Berries obo- 
val musky, transparent. Var. 1. Yellow. 2. Blackish. 

52. V. turbinata. Ciotat Grape. Leaves 5 parted pal- 
mate laciniate, teeth elongate acute, smooth beneath. 
Berries oboval musky. Var. l.Mlba. 9..Digitata. 3. ^pi- 
folia, leaves cut like parsley, grapes red. 4. Pyriform. 

Pear Muscat. 


53. V. laciniosa, lu. Cutleaf Grape. Leaves digitate, 

4 to 6 folioles subpinnatifid, unequal obtuse, pale and 
smooth beneath. Racemes simple oval pendulous. Ber- 
ries rounded sweet and acid. Var.l. White oval. 2.White 
round and small. 3. White and red. 4. Grandifolia. 
5. Dissecta. 

54. V.pinnata, Vahl. Branches smooth, round pur- 
plish. Leaves M^ith 5 folioles, ovate petiolate serrate 
smooth, terminal lobe subsessile, lower ones often auricu- 
late outside, pale and smooth beneath. Racemes twice 
compound, partial ombellulate. Grape not knowntf'- Ge- 
nus doubtful, folioles 2 inches long. 

55. V. corinthiaca, Raf. Currants Grape. Leaves large 

5 lobed, lobes laciniate by long acute teeth, downj be- 
neath. Berries small and round. Var. 1. White. 2. Red. 
3. Transparent. 4. Sultana oi Apjrena, without seeds. 
Native of Greece. 

56. V. maura, Raf. Morocco Grape. Leaves subpal- 
mate? teeth long acute, smooth beneath. Berries like a 
heart, unequal, large. Var. 1. Violaceous. 2. Tawny. 
3. Very large purple. Native of North Africa, Morocco 
and Baibary. 

57. V, cylindrica, Raf. Long Grape. Leaves ample, 
lobes and segments very unpqiiai. Oculca ojllndrioal, 
straight or curved, commonly acute, with hard pulp and 
two acute seeds. Var. 1. Olive Grape, oblong cylindrical 
greenish. 2. Long cylindrical, very hard. 3. Oblong, 
juicy, white. 4. Incurva. Curved yellow. 5. Curved ob- 
long obtuse, green. 6. Curved, brick-red, acute. The 
French call this grape Cornichon, the Italians Dattola 
and Oliva. It is very good to eat, but rather insipid and 
not good for wine ; grapes one or two inches long. 

Here ends the supposed varieties of V. vinifera^ and 
begins the series of tropical Vines or Vjndica of authors. 

58. V. indica of Rheede, L- Malabar Grape. Leaves 
cordate without lobes, smooth beneath, teeth acute. Ber- 
ries globular and red. In Malabar and India. 

59. V. flexuoso, Thunberg. Japan Grape. Branches 
smooth in zigzag. Leaves cordate acute serrate, downy 
beneath. Flowers glomerate in long panicles. In Japan, 
called there Itodori. 


60. V. glomerata, Raf. {K indica of the West Indies.) 
Tropical Grape. Branches gray pubescent. Petioles long 
tomentose. Leaves oval acuminate, base reniform, denti- 
culate, cinereous pubescent beneath, Racemes tomentose 
pedunculate glomerate long. Berries glomerate subses- 
sile, globular and red. In Cuba, Hajti, &c. The grapes 
are of middle size, 3-4 seeded, edible- 

61. F. maritima, Raf. Seaside Grape. Leaves cordate 
rounded, acute with small teeth, tomentose and white 
beneath, tendrils floriferous. Berries small globular red, 
roughj. harsh, and acid. In Jamaica and Yucatan, on the 
sea siae. Grapes not larger than currants and very much 
like them, not edible, and yet make a good Wine. The 
twigs, when cut, distil a cool water. Many other kinds 
of Vines appear to grow in tropical climates, perhaps 
different from these 4 last, and the grapes of Mexico, 
Brazil, Africa, Abyssinia, Persia, Thibet, China, &c. 
have never been described as yet. The 3 south African 
grapes of Thunberg, V. pentaphylla, V. capensis, and F. 
cirrhosa, are probably species of Qidnaria or Cissiis- 

62.Another species, F. heptaphylla, L. is said by Smith 
to be merely the Aralia sciodaphylla, yet by Poiret's de- 
scription it is a true Fitis, although it has the habit of 
Quinaria, It is a native of the East Indies. Leaves with 
7 folioles (or 5 to 8) ovate entire, panicles branched, 
flowers verticillate. Calyx 5 toothed, 5 petals cohering 
at the top. 5 stamens, a sessile stigma as in FitiS' 

III. Section. Qualities and Properties of Grape Vines 
and Wines. 
Eveiy part of these useful Vines is valuable and avail- 
able. The countries where they are a staple, boast of 
being blessed above all others, and are envied by their 
neighbours. The ancient nations have cultivated them 
from the most remote antiquity, and ascribe their intro- 
duction to primitive legislators and benefactors. The 
Hindus, Persians, Armenians, Arabs, and Jews to Na- 
husha or Noah. The Greeks said that Bacchus carried 
them from Asia to Greece and India, Saturn to Crete, 
Orestes son ot Deucalion, to Sicily, Osiris to Egypt, 
Janus to Italy, Geryon to Spain, &c. Their various uses 


were known very early, and many Wines made at very 
early periods. 

Vines live from 100 to 500 years, when allowed full 
scope, their roots and steins become very large, some- 
times several feet in circumference. The bark is used 
for straps, ropes, baskets, mats, &c. The wood of the 
root and stem is very hard, and has a fine grain ,• it re- 
sembles VS^alnut and Cypress, is employed to make ta- 
bles, doors, implements, &c. which are very durable j 
it is too valuable for burning when large. The branches 
and twigs are chiefly used for burning, and fagots made 
with them after trimming the Vines ; much used in vine 
countries for ovens, to li^ht fires and cook, &c. In the 
spring, the vernal sap of the Vines is similar to water, 
and very cooling. 

The leaves are used for many purposes, to carry fruits, 
butter, and saleables to market, to cover, clean, scour, 
&c. Cattle are fond of them : they are given to cows 
goats, and hogs. They form one of the best manures for 
the Vmes themselves. A kind of Wine may be made 
ot them with sugar. 

The blossoms of the fragrant kinds are used as per- 
fume, and to give this perfume to Wine, being put in 
when fermenting. 

From the Grapes are made, 1. Verjuice 2 Must 
S. Syrup. 4. Grape butter. 5- Sugar. 6- Wines. Z.Boiled 
Wmes. 8. Nectar. 9 Piquette. 10- Lees. 11. Vinegar 
12. Brandy. 13. Alcohol. 14. Varnish. 15. Preserves' 
16. Pies and Tarts. 17. Raisins. 18. Tartar or Aro-ol! 
19. Cordials. 20. Perfumes, &c. and they are one of*the 
most palatable and healthy fruit of the table, of which 
there is a succession from the end of June to November: 
they may even be preserved fresh the whole winter iii 
saw dust, and are thus exported. 

The seeds of Grapes are eaten by fowls, pidgeons and 
birds ; they are astringent and oily. A fine fixed oil is 
made from them by pressure in Parma, Lombardy, and 
other parts of Italy, similar to Olive oil, and used for 
burning and frying. The husks and peduncles are a va- 
luable manure. When burnt, they make the best Pot- 
ash used for soft soap. Argol or Tartar is extracted from 
the lees or settlings of Wine, and is incrusted In the 


vats and casks : burned lees are called Wine ashes. 
From Argol are made tartaric acid and cream of tartar. 
Acetic acid is made from vinegar. 

Verjuice is the juice of unripe Grapes and chiefly of 
the Verjuice Grapes, which never ripen. It is acid and 
harsh, containing malic acid, tartrMe of potash, and ex- 
tractive. It is used as a condiment lilce vinegar and 
lime juice. It is cooling and laxative : a peculiar Wine 
can be made with it by the addition of sugar, which re- 
sembles fine Cider or Champaigne, according to the mode 
of fermenting. 

Ripe Grapes contain 1. Tartaric acid. 2. Sugar. 3.Wa- 
ter, and 4. Mucilage, in different proportion, according 
to the kinds : these are the essential elements of Wine 
before fermentation. The adventitious elements are : 
1. Malic acid. 2. Carbonic acid. 3. Potash. 4. Tannin. 
5. Aroma. 6. Coloring principle, which are not always 
present, except tannin, which is always found in the husk 
or skin, as well as the peduncles and seeds of the 
Grapes. Ripe Grapes are cooling, antiseptic, and nutri- 
tious : when eaten in large quantities, they become diu- 
retic, laxative, and pectoral. They form an excellent 
diet in all inflammatory diseases, incipient phthisis, 
phlegmasis, convalescence from fevers, &c. The sweet- 
est and well flavored kinds are the best, all the harsh 
and bad tasted are only fit to make Wine. It is \^ith 
"Grapes as with Apples, the best for the table do not al- 
ways make the best Wine or Cider. Among American 
Grapes, out of 40 species, we have only 17 suitable to 
make good Wine, and among these only 8 very palata- 
ble, such as the Bland, Alexander, Scupernong, Musca- 
dine, Elsinburg, Owisburg, River and Maple Grapes, 
with their varieties. 

Raisins are the dried Grapes, which is commonly done 
by scalding the bunches in boiling water with ashes, 
which shrivels them, and next hanging them on strings 
to dry in the shade. A few are dried in the sun in very 
wann countries. These operations dissipate the water 
of the Grapes ; they diminish the acid and increase the 
sugar, which often crystallizes spontaneously in thenu 
Raisins are less cooling than Grapes ; nay, eaten in 
quantity, they are heating and flatulent. Boded Raisins 


are almost restored to the primitive state of Grapes ; 
they become very emolient, pectoral, and laxative. We 
could make raisins in America with most of the 8 kinds 
mentioned above as palatable, and also with ",ime of the 
large Fox Grapes. 

Many culinary preparations are made with fresh 
Grapes and Raisins, such as pies, tarts, plumb puddings, 
dumplings, preserves, jellies, &c. In America, we use 
for pies and tarts almost all the kinds except the bitter 
sort, and even the smallest Chicken and Pidgeon Grapes: 
they improve and enlarge by cooking. Grape Butter is 
made like Apple Butter, by boiling the Must or juice of 
the Grapes to the consistence of honey ; it is much used 
in Europe and Asia, the French call \i Raisinet ; the 
best is made sweeter and granular by the addition of 
sugar, and is then one of the greatest delicacies. We 
could easily make it with our Grapes. 

The unboiled and unfermented Must or recent juice is 
used as a pleasant and cooling beverage, with water and 
sugar, all over the Oriental countries ; it is called Sher- 
bet, and much liked by the Mahometans, who are forbid 
the use of wine ; several kinds are made by the addition 
of raisins, cinnamon, rose water, spices and other ingre- 
dients J the best is cooled with snow. Syrup and sugar 
can be made from Must and raisins. The Must of sweet 
Grapes give a syrup by condensation or evaporation, 
which prevents fermentation j and raisins boiled to a pulp 
and strained give the same. This syrup has the flavor 
of the grape, and may be used like any other syrup. 
From it sugar is made by chemical operations, concen- 
tration, saturation, separation of water, granulation, &c. 
The Grape Sugar is peculiar, it never crystallizes per- 
fectly, commonly forms lumps, and it is difficult to bleach 
it 5 but it makes very good and sweet coarse sugar. In 
Europe, the manufacture has been tried on a large scale, 
but chiefly in France, where the Grapes are not so sac- 
charine as in Spain, and the preference has been given 
to the better and whiter home sugar of Beets and 

But WINE is the chief and most useful produce of 
the Grape. It is the juice of the Grape altered bj the 
vinous fermentation. There are innumerable kinds of 


Wines produced by the various Grapes, their mixture* 
climate and soil, cultivation and manipulation, care and 
skill. Perhaps 3000 kinds! of which 500 in France, 
700 in lU^j, 600 in Spain and Portugal, 100 in GerM\a- 
ny and Hungary, 300 in Greece and Turkey, 100 in 
Persia, 200 in Thibet and China, 150 in Egypt and Bar- 
bary, 30 in South Africa, 50 in the Atlantic Islands, 60 
in North America, 40 in South America. But several of 
these diflfer little from each other. 

The chemical analysis of Wine gives, 1. Water. 2. Al- 
cohol. 3. Sugar. 4. Carbonic, tartaric, and malic acids. 
5. Tannin. 6. A coloring matter. 7. A volatile oil dif- 
ferent in each Wine, and producing the bouquet or 
perfume distinguishing them. The predominance of these 
principles aftbrds the best classification of Wines into 
8 classes, red, white, sparkling, acid, astringent, strong, 
sweetened, exquisite Wines. 

1. Jled Wines owe their color to the coloring matter j 
they are the most common, often called table Wines or 
Clarets, they vary from pale purple to black, and from 
the thinness of water to the thickness of syrup. When 
new, or less than three months old, they are less agreea- 
ble, difficult to digest, flatulent, liable to irritate and 
inflame the bowels. When from 3 to 18 months old 
they are palatable and perfect. When older they be- 
come better still, lighter, milder, and healthier, very 
stomachic and reviving. 

2. White Wines are made with white Grapes or red 
Grapes without husks, they are commonly limpid, thin 
and dry, whence often called Dry Wines or Sack. The 
color is white, pale, yellow or brownish. They are milder 
and less acid than the red Wines, very diuretic and 
useful in dropsies. Such are Hock, and Sherry. 

3. Sparkling Wines contain an excess of carbonic 
acid. Commonly called Champaigne, white and frothy, 
very mild and healthy ; but liable to affect nervous per- 

4. Acid Wines have too much malic acid ; they are 
thin and sourish, but very cooling. The northern and 
mountainous countries afford hardly any other, the grapes 
being deficient there in sugar. Several American grapes 


can produce no other unless sugar is added. The colors 
are white or pale red. 

5. Astringent Wines contain more tannin, they are 
commonly red, rough and austere. Such are Port or 
Oporto, Catalonia, Roussillon, &c. Useful for persons of 
lax fibres, or who have undue evacuations ; but liable to 
bring on gout. 

6. Strong Wines liave an excess of alcohol, which 
makes them affect the head ; they are commonly white 
or brown. Such are Madeira, TenerifFe, Lisbon, &c. 
Unless drank very moderately, they produce intoxica- 
tion, dyspepsia, inflammation, and chronic diseases. 

r. Sweet f Fines contain much sugar, some strength 
and perfume, they are commonly white or pale, but some 
are red also, commonly thick, luscious, delightful, acting 
as mild cordials, and very nourishing. Such are Cyprus, 
Malaga, Lachryma, Muscat, Malmsey, Constantia, &c. 
Used moderately, they are reviving, tonic, stimulant, 
and useful in all diseases of debility. 

8. Exquisite Wines abound in delicious and fragrant 
aroma, are sweet, but not strong. Such are Tokay and 
Nectar, the best of all Wines or Cordials, the best kinds 
of which sell on the spot at gl5 the bottle, or §60 the 
gallon, while common table wines often sell in Europe 
at 5 cents the gallon. The finest perfumed sweet Wines 
may be concentrated by frost into exquisite Essence of 

Some of the most famous or valuable Wines are the 
following kinds : each has its peculiar flavor. 

French Wines. 1. Sillery^ amber color, dry, fine 
perfume, stomachic. 2.Rose colored Champaigne. 3. Mo- 
selle, white, light, agreeable. 4. Straw Wine, similar to 
Tokay, made with Grapes kept on straw till spring. 
5. Bangen, white, very strong, bad for the nerves, may 
cause palsy. 6. Pineau, sweet, light, fragrant. 7. Vou- 
vray, sweet, soft, strong, white. 8. Grosnoir, black, 
thick, rough, looses color and taste by age. 9. Burgun- 
dy, red, brisk, delicate. 10. Coted^or, red, strong brisk, 
high flavor. \l.Auxerre,red, fine, delicate, fine bouquet. 
12. Leclos, white, quite limpid, fine. 13. Chambertin, 
red fine, sweet perfume. 14. Volnay, red, very fine, de- 
lightful smell. 15. Grillet, white brisk perfumed, sweet 


when young, dry when old. 16. Hermitage, red fine per- 
fumed. 17. Golden Hermitage, golden color, delicious 
perfume and flavor. 18. Mef/oc, or best perfumed Claret, 
19. Graves, white Claret. 20. Roussillon, red, rough. 
21. Muscat, white, sweet, delicious. 22. Ciotat, similar, 
but thin. Most of these best wines are drank as luxuries 
or medical tonics, and the very best are seldom export- 
edf costing from 1 to §5 the bottle. 

Spanish Wines. l.Tinto, black, thick, strong. 2. Tzn- 
iillo, ditto red. 3. Seco, white dry bitterish. 4. Xeres, 
or Sherry, white, dry, nutty, strong. 5. Paxaret, white 
sweet, high flavor. 6. Grenada, amber color, very sweet 
when young, losing the sweetness by age. 7. Albaflora, 
like Hock, white, not so dry. 8. Sweet Malaga, brown, 
sweet, strong, a fine cordial when old. 9. Dry Malaga, 
whiter, thinner and dry. 10. Alicant, red, strong, very 
tonic. W.Catalonia, red and rough like Port. 12. Malm- 
sey, sweet, redish, fine flavor. 13. Bed Malaga, fine 
strong. 14 Salamanca, pale red fine. 

Wines of Portugal are commonly called -Porf when 
red, and Lisbon when white : both are strong and rough, 
but improve by age, unless adulterated as usual with 
brandy. 1. Carcavelos is the sweet Lisbon. 2. Bucellas, 
the dry Lisbon. 3. Setubal, like Muscat. 4. Minho, best 
pale Port. 5. Douro, very rough. 

Italian Whines. 1. Chiaretto, pale red fine. 2. Pen- 
nine, white, thin like water, acid, made in the Alps and 
Appennines. 3. Florence or Tuscany, similar to Bur- 
gundy, thinner, cannot keep. 4. Lombard, Modena and 
JMontserrat, red thin acid. S.Montepvlciano, red, strong, 
hot. 6. Vicentino, red, strong. 7. Falerno and Salerno, 
red delicate. 8. Calabrese, black thick sweet. 9. Ta- 
rento, red, rough. 10. Malvagia, sweet, strong, delicate. 
ll.Lacrima, red, sweet, strong, perfumed. 12..Moscatel" 
lo, yellow sweet luscious. 13. Nobile and Vergine, ex- 
quisite, similar to Tokay. 14. Rosolio, or Fiascone, 
white, sweet, thick, like a cordial. 15. Paglino, straw 
color, fine. \Q. Jgrodolcc, sweet and acid, white. 
IT.Venacio, black and thick. 18. Puglia, pale red, brisk. 
19. Viterbo, red and rough. 20. Trappola^ sweet and 
bitter. 21. Amnro, red bitterish. 22. Zafferano, saffron 
color. 23. Doro, golden sweet. 24. Mhano and Sangui- 


nello, bright and pleasant. 25. Greco, yellow pungent 
sweet. 26. Morello, black strong. 27. Vesiivio, red 
strong. 28. Ischia, pale strong. 29. Pergola, pale, thin, 
flat. 30. Passola, fine, made with shrivelled grapes. 
51. Miele, yellow, as sweet as honey. 32. Corsican, simi- 
lar to Catalonia. 33. Sardinian, similar to Burgundy, 
many kinds. The Italian wines are hardly known out 
of Italy, being seldom exported j those of south Italy 
alone keep well. 

Sicilian Wines. 1. Di Pasto, pale strong. 2. Cata- 
nia, similar, with the pitch taste. 3.Mascali, red, strong. 
4. Etna, white, firy. 5. Palermo, pale i-ed, strong, but 
thin. 6. Cas;e/t;efrano, yellow, strong, limpid. The Mar- 
sala or Sicily Madeira is made with this Castelvetrano, 
brandy, bitter almonds, &c. well fined and kept two 
years. 7. Tusa, sweet brown, flavor of Cyprus. 8. Sira- 
cusa, sweet strong, yellow like Muscat. 9. Noto and 
Lipari, strong pale rough. 10. Modica, pale red, flavor 
of Malaga. 

Swiss Wines. 1. Be Valid, dvylike'Rhenish. 2. Neuf- 
chatel, red, like Burgundy. 3. Boudry, red, good flavor. 

4. Montagnard, thin and acid. 

German Wines. Commonlydry and acid. I.Treves, 
a specific for gravel. 2. Hock, white, very dry. 3. Rhe- 
nish, white delicate. 4. Berg, strong and perfumed. 

5. Heidelberg, fine red. 6. Bohemia, like Burgundy. 
7. /)anw6e, delicate, do not keep. 8. .^ws^mm, greenish, 
strong. 9. Styrian, pale strong. 10. Spitz, fine. 11. Ty- 
rol, red, weak. 

Hungarian Wines. l.Auspruck Tokay, white, lus- 
cious, soft, mild, oily, exquisite. 2. JlfarZas and Common 
Tokay, inferior, thinner. 3. Szeghi, white, aromatic 
perfume. 4. Moda, nearly similar to Mazlas. 5. Zombor, 
strong, pale red. 6. Matra and Arad, red, sweet, strong 

Russian Wines. Only produced in the South. l.Zim- 
lansk, red, fine. 2. Don, white, fine. 3. Tangarog, disa- 
greeable taste. 4. Kaffa or Champaigne of Crimea. 
5. Sudagh, white, sweet, similar to Hungarian. 6. Cut- 
nar or Moldavian, green, very strong. ' 

Grecian Wines. 1. Car/ouiVz, red, fine brisk. 2. Po- 
sega, white, fine flavor. 3. Dalmatian, red, strong fine, 
c 2 


4. Lissa, dark red, very strong, the strongest of all 
wines. S.Morea, red perfumed. 6. Nupoli Malmsey. 
7. Malmsey of Mount Ida in Candia. 8. Nectar of Can- 
dia, exquisite, delicate sweet. 9. Samos, sweet and acid 
white. \Q. Nectar of Scio, sweet astringent. 11. Scio, 
nale red, fine. 12. Tenedos, like Medoc. 13. Tenedos, 
red Muscat. 14. Sanlorin,, very sweet and agreeable, 
but sulphurous. 15. Pilch wine, brown, with the taste of 
tar. 16. Holy ivine, very fine. 17. Cyprus, sweet per- 
fumed, red when young, yellow when old, similar to 
Malaga, a fine cordial and stomachic. 

Asiatic Wines. I.Smyrna, red, strong, fine. 2. ^s- 
iracan, red. similar to Lacrima. 3. Caspian, like Mo- 
selle. 4. Cas/jfan, Champaigne. 5.Kmna, red light thin. 

6. Tartary, strong, made very intoxicating by poppies. 

7. Tiflis, tine wine made from wild grapes! 8. Armenian, 
red and white, fine strong. 9. Syrian Claret. 10. Da- 
mascus, golden dry. \\. Lebanon, thick perfumed red. 
12. Gold wine, yellow, from Syria. 13. Jerusalem, white 
"•ood. 14. Sana in Arabia, good. 15. Shiraz, red harsh, 
hio-h flavor. \6. Nectar of Shiraz, \\\\\{q sweet, strong 
pel-fumed. IT. Ispahan, white fine. 18. Tabriz, red and 
white, many kinds. 19. Shirvan, red like best claret. 
29. c^g-Qrt, Vunilar. 21. Many wines in Bukaria, Thibet 
and China, hardly known. 

African Wines. 1. Jews wine, red, good. 2. Berber, 
white, fine. ^. Madeira or nrfon-o, dry, strong, yellow, 
flavor of bitter almonds. 4. Bagoal of Mijdeira, sweeter. 
S.Pingo, Malmsey of Madeira, exquisite. 6. Tinto of Ma- 
deira,°ed, perfumed, austere, useful in dysentery. T.Ca- 
nary, white, similar to Lisbon. 8. Vidonia of Teneriffe, 
similar to Madeira when old. 9.Gomer, white, sharp, lim- 
pid as water, flavor of Madeira. iO. Palma, yellow, 
liMit dry. \\. Palma Malmsey, f\a\ or of Pine apple. 
12. Fayal, white, thin, strong.' 15. tSzorian, pale red, 
like light Port. 14. Constantia, red, highly perfumed, 
sweet. 15. Cape or Henapop, less perfumed. 16. Stotiy, 
dry like Graves. IT. Rota, red, strong. These 4 last from 
• the Cape of Good Hope. 

vSouTH American Wines. Only made in Qhili, Cuyo, 
Tucuman, &c. little known, similar to Catalonia, pale 
red. In the Andes of'Pcru wine is also made, but weak 


and bad tasted. The wine made in the West Indies 
with V. ghmerata and V. maritima, is red, harsh acid. 

North American Wines. Are made from Canada to 
Mexico, chiefly from native grapes. In the United 
States, 17 species can make good wine, either alone or 
with a little sugar. The principal wines already made 
are, 1. Vincennes, pale red, light. 2. Vevay, red, acid. 
3. P^evay prime, hi'own and sweetish, fine. Q. Jllexander, 
pale red, flavor of raspberries, and similar to best Bur- 
gundy, made with V. prolifcra. 4. Bland, acid, strong, 
yellow, made with V. blanda. 5. Lvf borough, red, rich, 
fine musky flavor. 6. Catawba, yellow, fine body and 
perfume. 7. Scupernong, yellow, limpid, very strong, 
firy when brandy is added. 8. Muscadine, yellow, sweet 
perfumed. 9. Catskill, strong, between Madeira and 
Port in taste and color. 10. Coopers, brown, similar to 
Lisbon, but acidule. W.Elsinburg, fine flavor. 12. Or- 
wisburg, very fine, white. 13. Isabella, pale and fine. 
14. Worihington, ^m\\\a.Y to Port. 15. Winter wine, dark 
red, acid and harsh. 1 6. Fo/^, red, harsh. \7. Harinony, 
red, acid, good. 18. ./^Z«^ama, brown, fine, i^^c. The Eu- 
ropean vines thrive in our gardens, and produce good 
eatable grapes with some care j but are often injured in 
the fields by late frosts, and do not ripen well, or give 
a thin acid juice unsuitable for good wine : we must, 
therefore, rely on our native hardy grapes, some of which 
are equal to the best exotic. 

The Mexican wines made from Spanish vines, produce 
wines similar to Spanish, but little known as yet. 

Good wines have wonderful effects on the human sys- 
tem. Externally they are useful in frictions and lotions, 
in cases of local debility ; they may restore to life new 
born and very weak children, likely to die, by merely 
rubbing it on their stomach. 

Internally they are good for suckling infants, trou- 
bled with worms, or with weak bowels, a teaspoon full 
is sufficient for them with milk or sugar. A popular 
vermifuge for children in Italy, is a mixture of wine, 
lime juice, olive oil, and sugar. Children, youths, and 
females ought to abstain from the daily use of it, and 
then it will be a cordial for them in almost all the dis- 
eases. The use of wine as a beverage ought to begin 


only when the body is ripe, and always with modera- 
tion, avoiding all those adulterated by brandy or perni- 
cious ingredients, as are Madeira, Port, and Sherry, 
which are never pure ; the best wines for daily use be- 
ing the French wines, Clarets, Burgundy, Malaga, Lis- 
bon, Fayal, Samos, Cyprus, besides our own American 

In old age good wines become more needful, they 
support strength and life. Plato called them the milk of 
old age. An old Italian proverb says, that milk is the 
wine of youth, but wine the milk of old age. Aged peo- 
ple can indulge with benefit in their daily use, but never 
to excess, and always with water in large proportion. 

Temperance does not consist in abstaining from wine, 
but in using with moderation, and with water, none but 
the good and mild. The Temperance Societies lately 
established with us, have done a great deal of good in 
checking the vile habit of drinking spirituous liquors, 
but have done wrong in proscribing such wines : they 
ought merely to proscribe the vile trash called Port and 
Madeira, which are not Wines, but impure brandy mix- 
tures or Wine Grogs! and encourage the importation 
and cultivation of mild healthy wines for substitutes. 
Christians and Jews can never abstain altogether from 
wine like the Mahometans, since it is needful in some 
of their religious rites. 

When wines are drank in extra doses, they produce 
hilarity, and in excess intoxication. In both cases they 
quicken the pulse, stimulate all the organs, inflame the 
fluids, excite tlie mind, the nerves and head are more 
or less affected ; but this excitement is followed by 
drowsiness, head-ache, sleep, dejection, relaxation, stu- 
por, diarrhoea, stupidity, or madness. All these effects 
are owing to the brandy or alcohol contained in the 
wines, thus they depend on their amount in each dose or 
glass, and on the habit of the drinker. Children may be 
intoxicated by a single small glass. Drunkards get gra- 
dually used to wines, and require more and more to 
affect them, thus losing for them altogether its medical 
effects. At last their bloated red face shows the appetite 
to have become a disease, Oinomania, or craving for 
wine, and they become liable to a multitude of chronic 


diseases, gout, epilepsy, pleurisy, palsy, tremors, ner- 
vous diseases, liver complaints, dropsy of the chest, 
consumptions, inflammatory fevers, dyspepsia, madness, 
apoplexy, &:c. and they entail them on their offspring ! 

This disease is rare in wine countries, not one in 500 
becoming drunkards there, as they are despised and 
hooted J while in countries where wines are scarce, 
England, Sweden, Russia, and the United States, five 
at least in 100 become drunkards, and get beastly drunk 
on strong liquors and strong wines, rum, brandy, whis- 
key, Port and Madeira, without being despised as they 
ought, drunkenness being rather considered as a bad 
habit or infirmity, than a moral disease or shameful vice. 
The best cure for drunkenness are abstinence, mild and 
cooling drinks, bathing and emetics, besides moral re- 
straint, religious feeling, and public opinion. Tliere 
would be no more drunkards if they were all despised and 
avoided by men and women ! or put into hospitals as sick, 
insane, vicious,.and criminal. 

The medical properties of good wines on temperate 
persons are numerous. They are useful in all atonic 
diseases arising from debility, in scrofula, scurvy, ra- 
chitis, paleness, leucorrhea, promoting digestion, stimu- 
lating the heart, increasing the heat of the body. They 
are the best vehicles for tonic medicines used in all fe- 
vers, debilities, prostrations, &c. Wine is to be forbid 
or avoided by those who have a nervous, irritable, or 
plethoric constitution, or some inflammatory diseases ; 
but even then some acid wines, well watered, may be 
available and serviceable. 

Several modifications of Avine deserve to be known. 
Must is the pure unfermented juice. Pure wine is made 
of Must alone. Impure or brewed toines have ingredients 
added. Colored ivines have a coloring matter added. 
Mixed wine is made with different grapes. It is adulte- 
rated when wines are united after fining. Brandy wines 
are those adulterated by brandy, like Madeira and Port. 
Mouslille is sharp and sweet wine still fermenting. 
Boiled wine is reduced and thickened by boiling. Pi- 
quette, wine made by throwing water on the husks after 
pressure, it is like cider, and is drank without water by 
the labourers. Protopion wine made without pressure 


by mere percolation of the grape, such is Tokay. Dm- 
terion of the Greeks, is pressed, or rather wine made by 
mashing the grapes. Nectar is made by a slight pressure 
of the sweetest grapes. Essence of ivine made by expos- 
ing wine to frost, throwing oflf the icicles, and thus con- 
centrating the strength. It may be made as strong as 
brandy, without its pernicious quality, is very portable 
retains the perfume, and may be restored to wine by 
adding water. Honey of wine, congealed by age in 100 
years to the state of honey, may be restored by warm 
water. Solar wine, exposed to the sun, made by it 
thicker, sweeter, and milder. Crust of wine, some thick 
wines, such as Arcadian or Morea, become hard and 
dry like salt or argol by age, may be dissolved again in 
warm water. The Lees or settlings of wine, are depo- 
sited by fermentation and fining, they are rich in argol 
and potash : from those of the best wines is made the 
Oil of Wine, by a very slow distillation with water. This 
oil which has the flavor and perfume of the peculiar 
wine it comes from, serves to give it to other wines, or 
to make false brandy with alcohol and water. 

Quelled wine is such as was stopped in fermenting by 
throwing cold water in it, or exposure to cold weather. 
Eager or Pricked wine is becoming sour by the acetous 
fermentation having begun. Flat wine has lost its flavor 
by being exposed to the air or other means ; many poor 
wines become flat or sour by age ; they may be restored 
by chemical processes, lime, plaster, brandy, oil of wine, 
&c. Burnt ivine is any wine made hot, but not boiled 
and drunk with spices, &c. useful for gout, cholics, and 
chills. Wine is often employed in cookery, for sauces, 
soups, ragouts, stews, puddings, and jellies ; it is al- 
ways preferable to brandy and stronger liquids; the 
ancients used to boil some fish in wine instead of water 
as a luxury. 

Medicated wines are vehicles of various soluble medi- 
cines, chiefly tonics, emetics, and febrifuges. They are 
excellent preparations, although latterly some deluded 
physicians have preferred alcoholic tinctures, which are 
pernicious, unless used merely in drops. Wine tinc- 
tures are milder, more palatable, and quite as efficient. 
Those of iron, gentian, opium, colchicum, &c. are much 


used. The Iron wine was known to the ancients ; it 
was made by putting rusty nails into it, or quenching in 
it nails made red hot : it is a powerful tonic and restora- 
tive. The Emetic wine is now made with tartar emetic 
dissolved into wine : it is one of the most certain and 
less disagreeable emetics. Every febrifuge medicament 
ought to be given in mild wine, as it increases the effect. 
Vinegar is the result of acetic fermentation ; the best 
is made with sour wine, both red and white. Any bad 
wine unfit to drink becomes vinegar by itself after a 
while. When wanted quick, it must be put into a bar- 
rel washed with boiling water. Vinegar is used as a con- 
diment in sallads and many dishes : to make pickles, 
sauces, syrup, distilled vinegar, acetic acid, medicated 
vinegars, perfumed vinegars, &c. It is highly medical, 
antiseptic, refrigerant, analeptic, &c. The external use 
of it is very useful in fevers, head aches, syncope, as- 
phyxia, hysteric and nervous affections. From it are 
made the vinegar of squills, colchicum, opium, camphor, 
&c. Vinegar can be discolored and made as clear as 
water, by filtration over animal charcoal or burnt bones: 
and it is then a good vehicle for perfumes, scented wa- 
ters and washes used by ladies. The ancient Romans 
drank vinegar and water. A kind of lemonade may be 
made with it and sugar. The syrup of vinegar is very 
refreshing in summer. Pickles are only good when the 
substances pickled are healthy, thus boiled beets, car- 
rots, onions, tomatos, &c. make good pickles, while pick- 
led cucumbers, walnuts, cayenne pepper, &c. are very 
bad and unhealthy. 

Brandy is distilled wine, consisting of alcohol, water, 
and the peculiar oil of wine. It contains over one half 
of alcohol. Wines produce more or less brandy, accoi'd- 
ing to their strength, many weak French wines produce 
only one-fifth. The quality of the brandy depends on 
the wine, and the mode of distilling it. W^hen new it is 
as clear as water, but gets a coloring in the oak casks : 
it is also colored by burnt sugar, and thus is always im- 
pure. By age it loses its firy taste, and becomes mel- 
low or milder. It is always unhealthy, even drank mo- 
derately and with water, but perhaps less so than rum 
and whiskey. It speedily produces the worst kind of 


intoxication and the disease of intemperance. It acts on 
the stomach and brain as a pernicious stimulant and cor- 
rosive. It is, however, used medically in sudden chills 
of the stomach by gout or cold water ; but warm wine 
has exactly the same effect. Externally it is often em- 
ployed in bruises, contusions, w^ounds, sprains, as a sti- 
mulant and resolvent. A peculiar kind called aniseed 
brandy, (Zambu in Sicily) is made in Italy with wine 
and aniseeds, which makes water milky. Brandy is call- 
ed oil proof when lighter than olive oil, a drop sinking 
in it. To know how much oil proof brandy any wine 
will give, boil slowly a measure of it, as soon as 
the vapour rises set fire to it, and when the blaze sub- 
sides, take it from the tire and measure it again; the de- 
ficienc}' will be the brandy contained in the wine. A 
very pernicious custom consists in adding brandy to 
weak wines ; brandy thus added never amalgamates 
well, decomposes the wine by a slow process, and changes 
the wine into bad grog ! "VV henever strength is required 
in wine, the brandy must be put in the Must before fer- 
mentation, by which it is incorporated and modified ; 
the alcohol of wine is always so chemically combined as 
to be harmless. Fruits preserved in brandy are very 

The only proper use of brandy is to make alcohol by 
a second distillation : this of course can only be done in 
wine countries, where wine is worth 5 cents the gallon, 
and brandy £0 cents, when alcohol comes to 50 cents 
only. Alcohol being the principle of all fermented 
liquors, and a chemical alteration of their sugar, is pro- 
duced by cider, beer, rum, arrack, rice, and barley malts, 
at a rate nearly as cheap. Alcohol is a violent poison 
taken in any quantity, it burns and corrpdes the stomach 
like aqua tortis ; but externally it is a good stimulant 
and strengthen ng tonic. It is, however, much used in 
medicine and the arts, being a powerful solvent of many 
substances, resins, oils, &c. With it are made medical 
tinctures, elixirs, sweet scented essences, lotions, var- 
nishes, cordials, &c. Used also to preserve animals for 
museums ; but it has the defect to destroy their colors. 
It ought to be much diluted when for internal use. It is 
saturated with sugar to make cordials, and thus rendered 


Hiilder and luscious ; but yet the alcoholic cordials are 
pernicious, even in small doses, and pure good wines are 
bj far better for all the purposes of cordials. The best 
use of alcohol is for economical fuel to heat and cook in 
tin vessels. 

Wine and water is, after all, the best of all beve- 
rages, and the most healthy, when mild wines alone are 
used. Wines of good body are those that bear a great 
deal of water without losing their flavor. All white 
wines bear water sparingly, and some are spoiled by it, 
such as Madeira, Graves and Hock, while Clarets are 
improved by it, and bear from 3 to 5 parts of water to 
one of wine. Some thick and strong wines bear 15 or 
20 parts of water. The strongest of all wines, such as 
Lissa and Cutnar, give 40 per cent of alcohol, or 80 per 
cent of brandy. The strong wines, such as Port, Ma- 
deira, Marsala, Sherry, Lisbon, &c. hold from 40 to 60 
per cent of brandy. The mild wines from 20 to 40 only: 
the mildest (and thus the best) is Tokay, which has only 
27 brandy, or 10 per cent alcohol, no more than cider I 
The quantity of brandy afforded by mild wines is thus 
the measure of their healthiness and body. Clarets have 
30 to 36, Burgundy 30 to 32. Hock 9,7 to 30. Cham- 
paigne 25 to 27. Muscat 22 to 25, &c. The milder they 
are the less water they bear, and vice versa. 

Section IV. Principles of the cultivation of Grape Vines, 
and chiefly in North A?nerica. 

1. It is not my intention to give an elaborate treatise 
on the cultivation of vines all over the world, but rather 
practical hints on the management in the United States 
of our own kinds. 

2. Vines being cultivated in all parts of the world, in 
different climates and soils, require different manage- 
ment, are often not kept alike, even in the same coun- 
tries, and thrive under several modes of cultivation. 

3. In general, temperate climates (from which they are 
mostly native) are the best for them : the boreal and tro- 
pical climates are not suitable for them, as the excess of 
cold or heat either chills or burns them. 

4. In Europe, vines are cultivated for wine every 
where, except in England, Netherlands, Denmark, Swe- 



den, Prussia, Poland, and Russia, and even there are 
found in gardens producing grapes for the table ; but 
their juice has not sugar enough to make tolerable wine. 

5. In North An^erica, the wild vines grow as far as 
Canada, in lat. 45, and from thence to the Gulf of 
Mexico ; how far south they extend in Mexico is not 
known. Wherever found wild, wine can be made. In 
Europe, the wine limits extend from lat. 48 to 50 N. and 
south to Africa. 

6. In France alone, the vineyards occupy five millions 
of acres, (besides the garden grapes) which produce 
yearly about 1000 millions of gallons of wine, besides 
the grapes eaten, thus averaging 200 gallons per acre. 
The wines sell from 7 cents to %4 the gallon wholesale, 
according to quality. France having 32 millions of in- 
habitants, this produce gives 20 gallons for beverage to 
each, and 360 millions for exportation or making brandy, 
vinegar, &c. 

7. In Italy and the Islands, with a population of 24 
millions, nearly as much wine is made, and as many 
acres cultivated; thus giving a much larger average to 
each individual, since less is exported or made into bran- 
dy. The price varies from 4 cents to S5 the gallon. 

8. In Spain and Portugal the amount is less, much 
brandy and raisins being manufactured and wines ex- 
ported. In Germany and Greece but little is made in 
proportion ; and in all Mahometan countries, except 
Persia, where wine is less proscribed, none but the 
Greeks, Armenians, and Jews make wine and drink it j 
but grapes are much cultivated fur the table, preserves, 
raisins, &c. 

9. In North America wine was very early made from 
our native grapes, by the French in Illinois. Our native 
tribes draiik the juice or must of the grapes, but were 
unacquainted with the art of making wine. Small trials 
were made in the English colonies and United States at 
several periods ; but all the trials directed towards the 
imported vines have failed, owing to our climate being 
unfavourable to them, while it is very favorable of course 
to our native grapes. 

10. Tlie European and African grapes succeed pretty 
well in our sheltered gardens, and thus will give us good 


tVuit for the table ; but when planted in exposed vine- 
yards, the late frosts and heavy showers of the spring in- 
jure them or render them sterile. 

11. A capital mistake was the attempt to make Ma- 
deira wine in America, instead of American wine. Our 
climate and soil being neither dry nor volcanic as in 
Madeira, could never produce similar wine, even if we 
jiad tlie Vidonia or Madeira Grape, and knew how to 
cultivate it and manage the wine. Besides Madeira, 
although a fashionable and costly wine, is bad, unhealthy, 
and not wortliy of our attention. The same with Port 

12. These and other causes have discouraged the at- 
tempts of a vine company established on purpose in 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Legoux, the manager, by his decep- 
tions in grapes, calling them by false names, and his bad 
management, threw discredit on the attempt. However, 
by calling our Bland and Alexander grapes, Madeira 
and Cape, he was instrumental in diffusing them among 
those who would not have noticed nor bought them if 
known as native vines. 

13- Notwithstanding these difficulties, many patriotic 
individuals have persisted in the endeavor to make the 
United States a wine country, by establishing nurseries 
and vineyards. Such were Major Adlum, of George- 
town, and Mr. Dufour, of Vevay, who have also both 
published works on the cultivation of vines. Mr. Samuel 
Maurick, of South Carolina (the first exporter of our 
cotton in 1784) who establislied a large vineyard at Pen- 
dleton. Mr. Thomas Echelberger, of York, Penn. who 
has been instrumental in establishing 20 vineyards near 

14. In 1825 I collected an account of our principal 
vineyards and nurseries of vines. They were then only 
60 of 1 to 20 acres each, altogether 600 acres. While 
now, in 1830, they amount to 200 of 3 to 40 acres, or 
nearly 5000 acres of vineyards. Thus having increased 
tenfold within 5 years, at which rate they promise to 
become a permanent and increasing cultivation. 

15. Wishing to preserve the names of the public bene- 
factors who had in 1835 established our first vineyards, 


I herewith insert their names. They are independent of 
the vineyards of York, Vevay, and Vincennes. 

In New York, George Gibbs, Swift, Prince, Lan- 
sing, Loubat, &c. 

In Pennsylvania, Carr, James, Potter, J. Webb, Le- 
goux, Echelberger, i.. Bonsall, Stoys, Lemoine, Rapp. 

In Delaware, Broome, J. Gibbs, &c. 

In Maryland, Adlum, W. Bernie, C. Varle, R. Sin- 
clair, W. Miles, &c. 

In Virginia, Lockhart,Zane, R.Weir, Noel, J. Browne, 
J. Duling, &c. 

In Carolina, Habersham, Noisette, &c. 

In Georgia, Maurick, James Gardiner, S. Grimes. 
Checteau, M'Call. 

In New Jersey, Cooper at Camden. Another at Mount 

In Ohio, Gen. Harrison, Longworth, Dufour, &c. 

In Indiana, Rapp of Harmony, the French of Vin- 

In Alabama, Dr. S. Brown, and at Eagleville. 

16. The average crop of wine with us is 300 gallons 
per acre. At York, where 2700 vines are put on one 
acre, each vine has often produced a quart of wine, and 
thus 675 gallons per acre, value !S675 in 1823, besides 
S200 for 5000 cuttings. One acre of vineyard did then 
let for g200 or 300, thus value of the acre about §5000! 
This was in poor soil unfit for wheat, and for mere 

17. Now in 1830, that common French Claret often 
sells only at 50 cents the gallon, the income must be 
less. I hope our claret may in time be sold for 25 cents 
the gallon, and table grapes at one cent the lb. and even 
then an acre of vineyard will give an income of §75, and 
be worth ^1000 the acre. 

18. The greatest check to this cultivation is the time 
required for grapes to bear well, from 3 to 6 years : our 
farmers wishing to liave quick yearly crops ; but then 
when a vineyard is set and in bearing, it "Cvill last for- 
ever, the vines themselves lasting from 60 to 100 years, 
and are easil}^ re-placed as they decay. 

19. The next check is the precarious crops if badly 
managed. Every year is not equally plentiful, and some- 


times there is a total failure when rains drown the blos- 
soms ; but an extra good crop of 500 or 600 gallons 
commonly follows and covers their loss. 

20. The cultivation of the vines includes several con- 
siderations, a choice of ground, soil, and vines, repair- 
ing the ground, planting, manuring, dressing, trimming, 
grafting, harvesting, besides the diseases of the vines 
and grapes. 

21. Vines may grow any where, but do not thrive 
equally every where. Table grapes thrive best in shel- 
tered gardens, espaliers, and bowers, producing more and 
better fruit. Wine grapes thrive best of all on the east- 
ern slope of hills exposed to the rising sun, and in a vol- 
canic or gravelly soil, producing stronger and better 
\\ ine. 

22. All our native grapes will grow well near to their 
native soil, and produce different wines. Some species 
are peculiar to the Southern States, and will not thrive 
so well north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers. They 
grow spontaneously in rich soils, or loam, sand, gravel, 
rocks, near streams : in fact every where, but seldom in 
clay and mountains. 

23. The best situations for native vineyards are shel- 
tered valleys, banks of streams, on the eastern and 
southern sides of hills in the Northern States ; but fur- 
ther South plains and open grounds will do as well. If 
they have a wood to the north west or south west to 
shelter them from the cold blasts or sudden storms, so 
much the better. In the north they may also require 
such shelter from the north east storms. 

24. These are the best soils for them in the order of 
excellence. 1. Volcanic, scarce with us. 2.Pseudovol- 
canic, of New York and Connecticut. 3. Granitic, rot- 
ten rocks. 4. Sandstone gravel. 5. Gravel and sand. 
6. Barren and worn out soils. 7. Rich or loamy soils are 
the worst, except clay and damp or cold soils, which 
always produce bad wine. Pine barrens will do. 

25. Thus it is seen that the worst soils for all other 
agricultural purposes are the best for vines. Many mil- 
lions of acres of our rocky, gravelly, or barren soils, now 
haitlly worth any thing, may thus, if turned to vine- 

D 2 


yards, give S50 at least neat yearly income, becoming 
worth B500 or more an acre, at a small expense of a few 
years. A single million of acres of vines mio-ht produce 
yearly 200 millions of gallons of wine, worth S50,000,000 
at only 25 cents, and affording from 10 to 20 gallons 
yearly to each individual for beverage. 

26. In the choice of vines, select those that grow best 
near you or bear the best fruit. If you find in the woods 
any vine bearing plenty of good grapes, mark it, and 
cut it up into cuttings in the winter for your use. It is 
essential with our wild grapes to see them in fruit, in 
order to ascertain if they are worth cultivation, and that 
the mother vine is a fruitful one, there being many ste- 
rile with us. 

27. If we raise our vines from seeds, we are never 
sure to have the same kind, a variety will often spring 
up : besides half of those thus raised are sterile or male 
vines with us, which does not happen with the exotic 
grapes. Moreover, a seedling vine (unless grafted) will 
not bear fruit till 10 or 15 years old, while cuttings bear 
in 3 to 5 years. Therefore seeds ought never to be sown 
except for experiments. 

28. Whether for gardens or vineyards, let us select 
none but the best kinds of exotic or American vines. 
The ample account given of them may serve to guide 
the choice. The very best of our vines being V. blanda, 
V. prolifera, V. mtiscadina, V. ciliata, V. dimicUata, V. 
labruscoides, V. longifoUa, V. acerifolia, &c. 

29. All vines may be cultivated alike, and bear very 
different treatment. When allowed to grow over trees, 
or on the sides of a house, or in bowers, without much 
trimming they last several centuries! and a ^ngle stock 
may produce 150lbs. of grapes, giving 10 gallons of 

30. The very best mode would be to cultivate the 
vines together with mulberry trees, as in Italy, allowing 
them to mingle and hang in festoons. This saves the 
great expenses of poles for support, and afford silk and 
wine on the same spot. One acre produces as much in 
this way as if it was a solitary vineyard. 

31. Our Anjerican grapes are impatient of control, 
and thrive best when left to climb aloft without much 


trimming. When kept under as usual in vineyards by 
annual cutting, they only last from 40 to 60 years, and 
thus less than the European vines. 

32. The best foreign grapes ought to be raised in shel- 
tered gardens for table fruit. Even the most delicate 
may be naturalized gradually, by sowing the seeds, and 
sowing a second or third time the best seeds produced 
in the country. This, however effectual, is a very long 
process, which requires patriotism and patience. 

33. To prepare the ground for vines or a vineyard, a 
crop of potatoes or turnips ought to be raised on it be- 
fore planting, which improves and opens the ground, or 
else it ought to be manured and ploughed deep several 
times in the fall previous. 

34. The best manure for vines then, and at any other 
times, are composts made to suit the soil, or mixtures of 
good earth, ashes, gravel, sand, iron dregs, rubbish, 
brick dust, oyster shells, vine leaves, and grape husks, 
with a little ilung. If the ground is rich of itself, it re- 
quires more ashes, sand, and other loosening manure. 
If poor, more earth and dung. 

35. But the very best manure for vines are volcanic 
ashes, which might be imported on purpose in ballast, 
from Naples, Sicily, Portugal, the Canary or Azore Isl- 
ands. Puzzolana above all, which is a kind of it, useful 
also for water cement. These ashes might highly im- 
prove our wine. Next to them are crumbling iron stone 
and granite ; also the gravel dregs of forges, or tlie pow- 
dered dross. The residue of the grapes, after mashing 
them for wine, the lees of the wine itself, and even the 
decayed leaves of the vines are also excellent manures. 

36. A regular vineyard ought to be in rows, if to be 
worked with a plough ; but in Europe, where the hoe is 
more commonly used, they often plant the vines checker 
wise. The hoe is better than the plough, because more 
vines can be planted on one acre, the whole ground is 
kept better open, and the produce is greater ; but with 
us the plough is preferred as cheaper. 

37. The rows from 5 to 1 feet apart, and each vine 
from 2 to 5 apart: thus allowing from 1200 to 3000 vines 
on one acre. The more on the acre the greater the ex- 
penses at first, but also the greater the produce after- 


wards. Each good vine ought to bear from 30 to 60 clus- 
ters of grapes, weighing from 5 to 15lbs. 

38. The rows must run north and south, so as to have 
the full advantage of the rising and setting sun, or else 
from north east to soutli west, so as to be better shelter- 
ed from those winds which with us bring sudden rains 
and storms, while the first protect the others from the 
bleak vernal north west wind. 

39. When rows and vines are crowded, nothing can 
grow besides in tlie vineyards ; but 3000 vines in one 
acre, if only producing 5lbs. each, may give 1000 gal- 
lons of wine. While, when kept remote, many crops 
can be raised in the intervals, such as potatoes, turnips, 
beans, &c. It is a prejudice to think this injurious to 
the vines : it is not so, provided the crops are such as 
require previous ploughing and do not shade the vines. 

40. But different grapes must not be planted pro- 
miscuously, so as to prevent the mixture of blossoms, 
pollen, and change of fruit. Each kind ought to be kept 
separate, and even divided by fence, walls, hedges, or 
meadows, forming a vineyard by itself. 

41. Plant the cuttings in pits or a trench one or two 
feet deep, made with the hoe or plough, and filled with 
good manured earth or rich made soil with some rubbish, 
gravel, or ashes at the bottom, below the cuttings. 

42. The time of planting is from October to May: the 
best months are November and March. If you plant in 
tlie fall, cover each plant with a little hillock, and unco- 
ver it in the spring. If the weather be dry after plant- 
ing, water them. 

43. Choose your cuttings from good vines, and strong 
shoots of last years growth, from 1 6 to 24 inches long, 
with 5 or 6 buds. Let them be cut smooth below at a 
joint and slanting one inch above the upper bud j the 
slope must be opposite to the bud, that no bleeding of 
the sap may follow it. 

44. If the cuttings are to be kept over wititer, or sent 
to any distance, keep them in sand or dry earth, or else 
in moss or straw. They must be kept dry, moisture is 
pernicious, and frost still worse. 

45. Put the cuttings in the loose ground of the pit or 
trench, at the chosen distance, in a slanting way, bend- 


ing the bottom of it and pressing the earth close to it 
with the foot. Put the whole in except the upper bud, 
which is to become the shoot, all the others, 4 or 5, are 
to become I'oots. Sometimes 2 buds may be left out. 

46. Keep the ground very clean and free of weeds at 
all times, but above all the first years, by working it 
often with the plough or hoe, or by pulling the weeds. 
At the end of the first year, cover each vine with a hil- 
lock in November, and uncover it the next spring. 

47. Second year. Begin to preserve the vine either by 
rubbing the buds or cutting weak shoots, leaving only 2 
or 3 strong buds or shoots. Put in the stakes or poles 
on which they are to climb. Plough or hoe the ground 
and clear the w^eds. 

48. Third year. Rub off the lower buds and prune the 
side shoots. Put on cross poles if meant to be used. 
Plough, hoe, and weed. Many vines will begin to beai* 
grapes this year, 

49. The fourth year ought to be the first crop, a full 
bearing beginning at 5 or 6 years old. The annual 
pruning and ti-imming must then depend on the mode 
adopted for cultivation. 

50. It is well to rub off in the spring all the buds ex- 
cept such as are meant to bear, in the summer to cut off 
all superfluous or weak shoots without blossoms, and in 
the fall to make cuttings for planting, selling, or burn- 
ing of all shoots grown too long. But it must be re- 
membered, that too much pruning weakens the vine as 
much as extra foliage and extra bearing. 

51. Trim the vines to suit the chosen method, leading, 
bending, and fastening them over the poles, cross poles, 
treillisses, trees, bowers, side walls, &c. of the vineyard 
or garden. The poles or stakes must be of durable wood, 
oak, chesnut, locust, or cedar with us ', but need not be 
large nor thick. Thin split ones will do for cross bars. 
Even canes and split canes will do well, and are com- 
monly used in south Europe as cheap and light : the 
large ones being used for standing stakes. 

52. The grapes commonly grow on the spring shoots, 
and these on the last year shoots : it is therefore need- 
ful to spare these in pruning. All dangling branches 
must be raised ; when trees are the support, they may 


be led from one to the other, still less pruning is requir- 
ed with trees for support. 

53. In warm countries, vines must be left well shaded 
by the leaves. In a cold climate or a cold season, it is 
usual to cut many leaves so as to expose the grapes to 
tlie sun to ripen well. Leaves, shoots, and grapes must 
never be pulled, but cut with the sickle, knife, or nail. 

54. In a dry climate, a circular hollow ought to be 
dug at the foot of the vine, so as to allow rain to collect 
there, while in a wet climate or season, the reverse is 
needful, and a small hillock must be raised around it. 

55. When the vineyard is in full bearing, a single 
ploughing or hoeing is required, very early in the spring. 
Manuring is only required once in 3 or 5 years, similar 
to what has been mentioned already ; the whole ground 
need not be manured, but merely the foot of each vine 
in the winter. Dung compost, in small quantity, is very 

56. Gi-afting is needful upon bad or sterile vines or 
seedlings, &c. It must be performed in March, with 
good scions and cuttings by cleft, grafting and binding 
with clay : also by approach in a pot. Good grafts ought 
to bear fruit the same year. In gardens, a variety of 
grapes may thus be procured. Our wild vines are ex- 
cellent hardy supports for all exotic grapes, which thus 
become less liable to early motions of the sap. 

57. The crop or harvest of grapes is called vintage. 
It is always a season of festivity. Although grapes may 
be produced for eating from July to November, the vin- 
tage is always in September, when most are ripe. The 
clusters are cut with a knife, and carried in baskets to 
the vat or press. 

58. Many diseases attack the vines in Europe, and 
several insects prey on them. Our own vines are sel- 
dom liable to them, and have fewer insects than any 
other fruit. The worst diseases are the blight and the 
yellows. -^ 

59. The blight or mildew may affect the leaves, blos- 
soms, and fiuits. It is always caused by drops of rain 
of a shower on which a hot sun shines, which burns them 
by acting as a lens. The leaves and fruits become co- 
vered with shrivelled brown spots. There is hardly any 


remedy for this, but the diseased leaves and fruit ought 
to be cut off. 

60. Another kind of blight happens in the critical time 
of the vines being in blossom, if a heavy shower then 
falls, the pollen or farina is drowned, and cannot ferti- 
lize the fruit buds. This sometimes spoils the whole 
crop. If we could shelter the vines from our south west 
vernal storms by buildings, walls, woods, or a thick fo- 
liage, this would seldom happen. Never work the vines 
when in blossom. 

61. The yellows are caused by the root becoming weak 
by bad food or overbearing. The leaves then become 
sickly and yellow. This is more easily cured by re- 
moving the leaves, pruning the shoots, cutting some clus- 
ters, but above all by manuring, removing the earth 
from around the root, and re-placing it with good com- 

62. Some small caterpillars group under the leaves, 
curl and eat them. They must be destroyed by cutting 
the leaves attacked, and crushing the insects under foot. 
Bugs and other insects feeding on the vines are not dan- 
gerous. No Aphis is found on our vines, and no insects 
destroy the roots nor the grapes. 

63. Depredations on the grapes when ripe is a great 
evil, but as this happens only for a short while, it must 
be guarded against by watching the vineyards night and 
day as soon as the grapes begin to get ripe. Rural watch- 
men are paid on purpose in Europe. Dogs will not do, 
because they are fond of the grape. Foxes and birds are 
also depredators. Vineyards ought not to be near roads, 
or easily accessible, on that account. 

64. Let us conclude by giving a pro forma account of 
the expense of forming and keeping up a vineyard, cal- 
culating all charges as cash to be paid, although most 
farmers may own the land, and give their own labor, or 
procure their own cuttings and props, which will be so 
much less. 

One acre of land, from - - - gl to 10 

Preparing the same and manure, - - 5 to 10 

1000 to 3000 cuttings, if bought, - - 5 to 30 

Planting them, 5 to 20 

Expenses of first year, - - gl6 to 70 


Brought forward, - - - - gl6 to 70 

Second year, poles, caues, &c. - - 5 to 10 

Cultivation, pruning, &c. - - - 5 to 8 

Third year, cultivation, &c. - - 5 to 8 

Fourth year, cultivation, manure, &c. 5 to 8 

Total, - - g36tol04 

65. This shows the lowest and highest cost, the me- 
dium may be ^40 or 50 per acre. On the fourth year 
the income may cover this whole cost, if it is only 150 
gallons of wine at 50 cents ; g25 being deducted for 
casks and making the wine. 

66. On the fifth and succeeding years, the annual ex- 
penses will be only from ^10 to 30, or g5 to 10 for cul- 
tivation, pruning, manure, and the remainder for making 
and keeping the wine, while the income will be from 
SlOO to 200, for 2 to 400 gallons of wine at 50 cents, or 
half if only sold at 25 cents. Thus, at the lowest, leav- 
ing a yearly clear income of ^40 to 100, or as much 
yearly for ever as was spent at first to plant the vine- 
yard ! The land will be worth from g500 to 1000 the 
acre! and may let at g25 to S50 to tenants. Thus 
upon an average, each vine is worth half a dollar, and 
any one who plants 100,000 vines, acquires a fortune of 
S50,000, or a clear yearly income of ^2000 or more ! 

Section V. General principles of Vinijication, or the art 
oj making Wine. 

1. I do not mean to give the numberless modes of mak- 
ing all kinds of wines j but rather the general principles 
of the art, with their application to American wines. 

2. Whatever wines we make here, can never be Bur- 
gundy, nor Champaigne, nor Hock, nor Port, nor Lis- 
bon, nor Tin to, nor Madeira, nor Malaga, and so forth -, 
but American Wines. It is idle, it is silly, it is need- 
less, and it is a deceit to attempt it, or to give them fo- 
reign names. 

3. But we may make, nay, we have already made, se- 
veral very good American wines, quite peculiar to us ', 
and we may imitate several foreign wines, such as Claret, 


Burgundy, Oporto, Malmsey, Carcavelos, and many 
more. Let us be honest and give them as such, with 
pompous American names if we like. 

4. Wines can be made with almost all juicy fruits, al- 
though the real wines are the produce of the grapes. 
Thus, currants, gooseberries, elder berries, huckle-ber- 
ries, persimons, black-berries, oranges, peaches, pears, 
apples, pine apples, &c. have all been used to make pe- 
culiar wines. Those of apples and pears are called 

/Cider and Perry. Each other kind ought to have also 
a peculiar name, because they all differ somewhat from 

5. These fruit or domestic wines will only be men- 
tioned slightly. The wine of currants or Ribesium., is 
the most important for us, because it is already often 
made, is nearest to the best grape wines, and can be 
made to any amount with profit. Several kinds are 
made, which are very good when not spoiled by the ad- 
dition of brandy, which makes them firy and pernicious* 

6. Currant wine or Ribesium, always requires water 
and sugar, because currants contain malic acid and no 
tartaric acid. But it requires no brandy nor whiskey. 
To make it more like wine, some good wine, with a lit- 
tle quicklime and argol, may be put into it before fer- 

7. Mr. Dyers' currant yard near Providence, Rhode 
Island, may be mentioned as an example worthy of imi- 
tation. This yard contains 40 acres; each acre has 
1400 currant bushes, and produces yearly 120 to 150 
bushels of fruit, which, with water and 4000lbs. of su- 
gar, make about 1600 gallons of wine from each acre, 
selling at 75 cents and one dollar per gallon. Thus each 
acre producing ^1200, or S800, deducting the cost of 
sugar, casks, cultivation, &c. as I was informed. 

8. At this rate, the whole yard would give 64,000 gal- 
lons of wine, and an income of §32,000 ! if all made into 
wine and sold. Mr. Dyers makes two kinds of wine, 
Groseille, or Red Ribesium, and Malmsey, or White Ri- 
besium. He uses no brandy nor strong liquors. Both 
are excellent, and equal to many fine foreign wines. He 
exports much of it to the West Indies. Is not this a pro- 
fitable industry ? 



9. Wine making is a chemical operation, in which a 
due proportion of needful elements is essentially requi- 
site. No liquor is a wine unless it has undergone the 
real vinous fermentation. 

10. The needful elements of fermentation are, 1. Su- 
gar. 2. Water. 3. Tartaric acid. 4. Mucilage. The ad- 
ventitious elements, which may or may not exist, are 
tannin, potash, carbonic and malic acids, arome, color- 
ing principle, &c. 

11. The Must is the liquor produced by grapes. A 
perfect Must ought to have a due proportion of the four 
elements of wine. When deficient in any, it ought to 
be supplied, if we want to make good wine. If any ele- 
ment is in excess, it ought to be corrected. 

12. The due proportion of sugar or sweet principle, is 
3lb. in one gallon of Must. When less, the Must makes 
a very dry or weak wine, when more, a very svveet 
wine. The sugar is changed by fermentation into alco- 
hol, chemically combined in the wine, and only evolved 
as a vapor by fire or the process of distilling. In all 
sweet wines, a portion of the sugar is not decomposed, 
still more involving and weakening the alcohol. 

13. The due proportion of tartaric acid and mucilage 
does not exceed 5 per cent, of each. The excess of tar- 
taric acid makes the wine sour or acid. When deficient, 
or supplied by malic acid, the wine is deficient in body 
and strength. Malic acid changes wine into cider li- 
quors ; grapes have little malic acid, whence best to 
make wine. 

14. Currants, gooseberries, blackberries, apples, &c. 
containing too niuch malic acid, and no tartaric acid, can 
never make but bad and sharp cider wines by them- 
selves ; but by the addition of quicklime, the acid is 
absorbed and corrected, the tartaric acid may be sup- 
plied ; water dilutes the juice, and sugar strengthens it, 
whereby imitation wines are made. 

15. When mucilage is deficient, no due fermentation 
can take place. The substitution of yeast spoils the 
wine, and gives to it the flatness of beer. Mucilage is 
rather to be supplied by dissolved gum, in case of need. 
An excess of mucilage produces only a greater quantity 



wFlees. Wine hardly i-etains any mucilage when clear; 
it ought to be precipitated in the process of fermentation 
and clarification along with tartar and potash. 

16. Tannin, or the astringent principle, is communi- 
cated to wine by the peduncles, husks, and seeds, whence 
rough wines are made, such as Port. Delicate wines 
ought to have no perceptible astringency or roughness, 
and the seeds ought not to be bruised in mashing the 
grapes, nor allowed to fall in the Must, nor the husks 

17. The arome, or peculiar taste and smell of wines, 
also called flavor and bouquet, is produced by a fixed 
oil, different in almost every kind of grape and wine. A 
peculiar grateful flavor and scent enhances the value of 
wine many fold, (witness Tokay) and all excellent wines 
ought to have this quality. 

18. To preserve the arome of wines, it is needful to 
stop the fermentation before the natural end of it; and to 
procure it to deficient grapes, some peculiar flavored 
substance must be immersed in the Must while ferment- 
ing. In this depends the art or secret of making valua- 
ble wines, worth from gl to 5 a gallon, instead of 5 to 
25 cents. Each celebrated vineyard has a peculiar secret 
process. Time and experience alone can teach us this 
secret art to its full extent. 

19. Yet we know the substances employed ; they are 
oil of best grapes, vine blossoms, Reseda, or Mignonette, 
cowslip blossoms or Primula, elder blossoms, violets, 
oris root or Iris florentina, raspberries, strawberries, 
&c. In Cyprus, they are Smilax blossoms. In Xeres, 
Madeira, and Marsala, bitter almonds are employed. 
These substances are suspended in the casks in bags, 
while fermentation is proceeding. 

20. Our best native grapes give to our wines a peculiar 
grateful flavor similar to raspberries. Our fox grapes, 
with a musky or foxy taste, impart to their wine a Mus- 
catel flavor, somewhat similar to Constantia. Our fine 
scented vine blossoms, even when dried, give a rich 
grateful flavor and scent to our wines. To currant wine, 
which is made when the vines are in bloom, these fresh 
blossoms may give a flavor near to Tokay wine. 


21. The coloring principle is immaterial to wines. 
There are wines of all colors, clear as water, white, yel- 
low, green, hyacinth, red, brown, black, &c. These 
colors do not impart any value to wine 3 although the 
finest and dearest wines are commonly pale, yet Con- 
stantia and Lachrynia, &c. are red. 

22. Some wines lose their color or change it by age. 
Any wine catx be made colorless, or clear as water by 
infiltration through animal charcoal or ivory black. It 
may be colored afterwards to any shade of yellow by 
burnt sugar, and any shade of red by cochineal or Bra- 
zil wood. The red Champaigne is colored by elder- 
berries juice, boiled with tartar, a few drops are suffi- 
cient to color a bottle of wine. Some kind of grapes are 
used to color pale wines. 

23. Therefore, the essential operations to correct a 
bad Must, or to make a good Must and wine, are to ob- 
viate any deficiency in the juice of the grapes or other 
fruits, by supplying the due proportion of sugar, tartaric 
acid, mucilage, and water that may be lacking, besides 
destroying or absorbing the malic acid, avoiding the 
mixture of tannin, and procuring a grateful aroma. 

24. The art of wine making includes, besides this fun- 
damental knowledge, many practical operations, such as 
gathering the grapes, carrying them, extracting the juice, 
mending it, fermenting the liquor, fining and clarifying, 
preserving the wine, obviating the defects and diseases. 
It is even a part of this art how to drink the different 

25. Carbonic acid is always evolved in the act of fer- 
mentation, and escapes with some alcohol by evapora- 
tion. When restrained and prevented from escaping, it 
produces the brisk and sparkling wines. When fermen- 
tation is allowed to take its course, all the carbonic acid 

26. Grapes ought to be gathered in the day time and 
a dry fair day. For the best wines, none but the sound 
clusters are to be used ; for the very best, the sound 
grapes ought to be separated from the peduncles, which 
are to be thrown away. Grapes are to be carried to the 
vats or presses in baskets, without being crowded and 
bruised. If dirty, they ought to be washed. 


27. The thin skin grapes require peculiar care in 
handling. Our native grapes have ali a thick skin, and 
require little care. Tokay and some other delicate wines, 
are made with grapes so soft as to drop their juice by 
their mere weight. All wines thus made without mash- 
ing, were called Protopion by the ancient Greeks ; they 
are the very best. 

28. Must and wine are made not only with ripe grapes, 
but also with unripe ones, also shrivelled or over ripe 
ones from the vines, grapes kept on straw, scalded or 
half dried grapes, nay, even with raisins and vine leaves. 
Very different wines are thus made. 

29. Green and unripe grapes make dry light wines, 
similar to Champaigne, Hock, Rhenish, Moselle, and* 
Graves. Their elements are similar to currants and 
gooseberries, composed of pure acid and extract, but de- 
ficient in sugar, wliich must be added, else their Must is 
nothing but verjuice. All our acid wild grapes, sour 
even when ripe, have a similar juice, and may make a 
red dry wine with sugar. 

30. The due proportion is 40lbs. of fruit to 5 gallons 
of water, added by degrees while mashing. Then add 
SOlbs. of sugar, half a pound of crude tartar, the whole 
should make 10 gallons of Must at least. Keep 12 
hours, strain, put in a tub or vat, cover with a blanket 
and boards, keep two days, put next in casks with a 
vent hole and peg. Decant in December, fine it several 
times, and bottle in March. If too sweet, ferment again 
before fining by exposure to air and heat upon the lees. 

31. All grapes shrivelled or OA'^er ripe make good strong 
wines often sweet. Some grapes thus used, produce 
very valuable wines, but the quantity is always less. 
They never require addition of sugar. Raisin wine is 
seldom made, although many good sweet wines can be 
made with them. Raisins must be scalded, pressed, and 
the juice treated as common Must. 

32. The wine of vine leaves and tendrils is altogether 
artificial : it is brisk like Champaigne. The process is 
to infuse lOOlbs. of leaves and tendrils for 24 hours in 
16 gallons of water, poured boiling hot over them. Press 
them twice very hard, add to the juice 50lbs. of sugar, 
and water sufficient to make up 20 gallons of Must. 

E 2 


Then ferment it as above for green grape wine. If a 
sweet wine is desired, more sugar is required, and the 
termentation must be stopped by racking in sulphured 
casks • 

33. There are many ways to procure the juice of ripe 
grapes. Mashing is the most ancient, and as yet, the 
most usual. Tliis is done for common and cheap wines 
by trampling the grapes under naked feet over the 
boards ol the vats, where they are heaped, by walking- 
and dancing over Ihem. Although this antique process 
appears not very clean, yet it is not more unclean than 
kneading the bread dough with the hands, and besides 
the fermentaton purifies the juice completely. 

34. But for the best or valuable wines, the grapes are 
mashed by rollers in a trough, or a peculiar press with a 
circular trough. Juicy grapes are very easily mashed j 
tlie hard or tough grapes even require but little pres- 
sure, and nothing like apples for cider. Our fox grapes 
with tough pulp, require rather to be left standing after 
bruising or mashing, so as to allow the pulp to dissolve, 
before the juice is extracted. 

S5. In no case are the seeds to be bruised, else the 
wine will be rough and harsh : thus any hard pressure 
that might mash the seeds and husks is to be avoided. 
AVhen the seeds fall in the vats, and are allowed to re- 
main there during the fermentation, they impart an aus- 
tere taste to the wine. It is therefore essential to avoid 
seeds, husks, and peduncles, in making delicate wines, 
unless we wish to imitate Port wine. This may be done 
by straining. 

36. Commonly fifteen pounds of grapes ought to afford 
one gallon of Must, and 5 gallons of Must ought to give 
4 gallons of wine, after fermenting, settling, and fining. 
But juicy grapes give more, and tough grapes less, thus 
trom 12 to 18lbs. of grapes may give a gallon of Must. 

37. A deficient Must may be mended by the rules 
already stated. It is then ^ that sugar, water, brandy, 
lime, scented substances, &c. may be introduced to ad- 
vantage before fenuentation, so as to incorporate well, 
which can never be done after it. 

38. Sugar is not the leaven of wine, as often errone- 
ously supposed, but the parent of strength and alcohol, 


into whicli it is changed bj fermentation. Therefore, 
adding sugar to the Must, if not sweet enough, is equal 
to giving strength to it, and is by ftir preferable to add- 
ing brandy then or afterwards. 

39. Sugar is seldom added to weak wines in Europe, 
because it is too dear : while brandy is added because it 
is cheap. We may easily avoid this error in America, 
where the reverse happens. In Spain, they often add 
the brandy to the Must, this makes Sherry tolerable. 
In Port, Madeira, &c. the brandy is added after fer- 
mentation, and thus they become Wine Grogs! 

40. Any other spirituous liquors added to the Must 
or wine besides brandy, spoils the wine completely j 
rum and whiskey, above all, give a very bad burning 
taste. Peach brandy is used for our Scupernong wine, 
wlwch spoils it also and makes it firy. 

41. In many countries, a part of the Must is boiled to 
condense the sugar of it, and then added to the whole to 
strengthen the wine. This is a very old and very good 
practice ; but since sugar is now in general use, and so 
cheap, it is hardly needful. When the whole Must is 
boiled, very sweet wines are produced. 

42. To know the strength of the Must, which varies 
every year, let it be weighed with the hydrometer or 
any other means. A good Must ought to weigh at least 
one tenth more than water, or 1.100 up to 1.140 when 
water weighs 1.000. Or if a gallon of water weighs 8lbs. 
a gallon of good Must ought to weigh 9lbs. : the more 
the weight the better, and greater the strength. When- 
ever an egg floats in the Must, the weight is 1.125. Our 
wild grapes give a Must of 1.040 to 1.100 weight, the 
Muscadine or Scupernong is only 1.040. 

43. By a simple yearly trial, we may thus know the 
state of our Must, and now much sugar is required to 
give it a proper strength. This will vary from 4 to 20 
ounces per gallon, in order to produce strong excellent 
wines. Many of our grapes, however, can produce good 
thin clarets without sugar, like common French and Ita- 
lian wines ; but if superior wines are wanted, sugar be- 
comes needful. Every 4 ounces of sugar per gallon in- 
creases the weight of Must 11 in 1.000, or above 1 per 


44. Water is seldom wanted to dilute the Must, unless 
to make Piquette, or a very thin poor wine, in quantity 
rather than quality. Coarse sugar is the best to sweeten 
the Must, because it contains mucilage. Syrup will do 
as well 'f but molasses will not do, unless deprived of 
their bad taste by charcoal. Honey gives a flat taste to 
wine. Our maple sugar will do very well, and also the 
fresh syrup or molasses of maple. 

45. Mucilage is the leaven of wine ; it separates by 
fermentation into lees that sink, and froth or yeast that 
rises. Whenever mucilage remains in the wine, it is 
liable to ferment again even in bottles, therefore, the 
whole must be separated by racking and fining. If a 
second fermentation is needed, it may be produced by 
putting any wine over lees, and mixing them by rolling 
the casks. 

46. Yeast of beer must never be used for any wine, 
not even currant wine ; it gives a bitter taste of hops, 
an ammoniacal flavor and flatness. A wine leaven, use- 
ful for all artificial wines, may be prepared by drying 
the lees and froth of wine : it may be kept long for use. 

47. So true are these principles, that sugar and vege- 
table mucilage or extract may form wine alone with wa- 
ter, but tartar adds to the strength and helps the fer- 
mentation by promoting the change of sugar into alcohol. 
But such artificial wine would be tasteless unless flavor- 
ed by fruits. 

48. Sweet wines are the best of all wines, because the 
whole sugar has not been converted into alcohol, either 
by a deficiency of mucilage or by the fermentation being 
suspended before the end of it : which may be done at 
any time by decanting or separating the liquor from the 
lees and froth, then straining or filtering, clarifying and 

49. Whenever tartar must be added, crude tartar is 
the best, because it contains some mucilage of the grapes. 
Cream of tartar is not so good, although it is said to pro- 
mote the briskness or sparkling property. 

50. Quicklime is the ingredient commonly used to 
correct the acidity of some grapes : but if not used spa- 
ringly it gives a bad urinous taste to wine. In Spain, 
they only sprinkle the grapes with it. In France, they 


put one gjillon of slacked lime for 100 gallons of wine. 
Pidgeon dung, being almost pure lime, is often used for 
the same purpose. It is often collected and sold for 
this purpose in Europe. If not sparingly used, the urin- 
ous taste is still worse in the wine. Ground plaster is 
also used. 

51. Turpentine, tar, firwood, &c. cover the acidity 
of wine, but impart to it the tarry taste. This is the 
great defect of common Grecian wines ; but the Greeks 
do not dislike that taste. Our spruce twigs would give 
to our wines the taste of spruce beer. 

52. The best heat for fermentation is variable. It 
merely begins at 54 degrees F. and is very slow till 60 
degrees : from this up to 100 degrees it improves j the 
greater the heat in the vintage time, the quicker and 
the more violent is the fermentation, and the wine is 
commonly the better for it. The froth of fermentation, 
when allowed to escape, makes the wine sweeter, when 
kept in the wine, drier. 

53. Fermentation ought to be carried on under sheds, 
in the open air, and in close vessels, with bungs, spile 
holes, pegs, or safety valves. The larger the casks the 
sooner it is completed, whence the usual use of vats or 
large tuns and tubs, holding 1000 gallons or more. Light 
brisk wines, like Burgundy and Champaigne, are allow- 
ed to remain only for a few hours, (from 6 to 24) in the 
vats. White wine only 36 hours. Red wine from 2 to 5 

54. Wines removed from the vat to casks after strain- 
ing through the hair sieve, will continue in a slow state 
of fermentation, depositing lees and throwing froth. If 
the froth is removed repeatedly, or the wine often chang- 
ed from cask to cask, it will ultimately cease. The casks 
are kept in cellars, wells, or cool stores. 

55. The choice of casks is not useless. Old casks are 
always preferred. New casks, unless burnt, communi- 
cate a taste and color to wine, therefore, the inside 
ought always to be charred ; the best casks are made of 
oak or chesnut staves ; the larger they are the better, 
for the sake of uniformity in the wine. 

56. Each change of casks leaving the lees behind, is 
called a racking, the best wines require several, and 


thus a set of casks on purpose. Sulphuring is the ope- 
ration by which a cask or the wine is impregnated with 
sulphuric acid, whereby the mucilage is precipitated and 
the fermentation stopped. The black oxide of manga- 
nese has the same properties. 

57. A sulphuring liquor may be made by the action of 
sulphuric acid on saw dust, the fumes being conveyed to 
the wine, and some of the dust liquid thrown in it. 
However, the most usual mode is to fumigate the empty 
cask, before racking, by burning sulphur matches in 

58. Another mode has lately been found to destroy 
fermentation in wine or other liquors, or even to prevent 
it altogether. It is the use of Sulphite of Potash (not 
the sulphate) diluted in them. A single ounce weight of 
it will do for 600 or 800 gallons. 

59. Fining or clarifying the wine is the next opera- 
tion, and always needful before bottling. Many sub- 
stances are employed, sand, gypsum, fishglue or isinglass, 
salt, gum, starch, rice, milk, cnarcoal, albumen or white 
of eggs, ox blood, ^c. They all act in the same way, 
by precipitating the tartar, acid, and every remain of 
mucilage : whereby the turbid wine becomes perfectly 
clear and transparent. 

60. The use of these substances is optional, the cheap- 
est being most frequently used. They must be dissolved 
in wine before mixing, and are all precipitated them- 
selves. The proportion required depends on the foul- 
ness of the wine : they may be added by degrees. Eggs 
and milk are the best. The ox blood and salt give a bad 
taste to delicate wines. Isinglass may destroy the aro- 
ma, if not sparingly used. 

61. The acid fermentation of wine, whereby they are 
changed into vinegar, takes place when there is too 
much water in it, when the vinous fermentation has been 
imperfect in weak wines, or when the leaven predomi- 
nates over the sugar. Vinegar may even be produced 
by mixing brandy and milk, or by passing the compound 
carbonic acid gas of the vinous fermentation through 
water and mucilage. 

62. No acetic fermentation can take place as long as 
there is a portion of undecomposed sugar in the wine : 


^vhence the need of stopping fermentation before it is 
quite decomposed. Sweet wines never change into vine- 
gar. Sugar put into light and dry wines prevents the 
acetic fermentation ; but if put in after it has begun, it 
increases it. Charcoal, plaster, and lime must then be 
used to absorb the acid. Brandy is of no use then. 

63. The fretting of the wines in the spring after vin- 
tage, is a second slow fermentation. It is the best time 
then to bottle brisk wines, to give flavor to insipid wines 
by immersions of odorous substances, and to clear the 
whole mucilage by fining, else the wine may fret and 
become pungent. 

64. Sherry wines are made by sprinkling the grapes 
with brandy and wine, some brandy is put in the Must ; 
several rackings, at one month's interval, with some bran- 
dy added each time. This is the least objectionable 
mode of making strong wines, yet the brandy is not to- 
tally incorporated. In Vidonia, Sercial, Madeira, Te- 
nenife. Port, Fayal, &c. the same precautions are seldom 
used, and the brandy put in is only diluted : whence 
their unhealthy and pernicious use. Brandy can only 
be put in strong wines to make them still stronger : be- 
cause it decomposes and destroys all the delicate fine 
wines like Claret, Burgundy, Champaigne, Hock, &tc. 

65. The mixture of wines can be subject to no rules, 
as it may be varied in numberless ways. Many wines 
are only used for mixing and improving (or spoiling) 
others. Some dark wines serve to color the pale clarets. 
The Catalonia is made into Port, with brandy and log- 
wood. Nay, it is said that much Port is drank in Eng- 
land, which has no wine at all in it ! Madeira is made 
with TenerifFe, brandy, and Prussic acid! Thus drunk- 
ards are gratified and poisoned. 

66. The only proper mixtures of wine ought to im- 
prove them. This may be done by adding some good 
wine, or some essence of wine, or oil of wine, to wines of 
inferior quality. The essence of pure excellent wines, 
concentrated by frost, is the most valuable addition to 
any kind. The art of mixing wines and grapes is the 
practical secret of vineyards. 

67. All poor wines, whether thin or brisk, do not keep 
long, and ought to be drank new. The best wines are 


those that keep well, and are improved bj age and a sea 
voyage : they are commonly sweet and rich. These best 
wines must be drank alone, in small glasses, like cor- 
dials. Good table wines ought to bear from 3 to 6 times 
their bulk of water, to be improved by it, and always drank 
with it. 

68. Delicate and superior wines ought to be bottled as 
soon as perfectly clear and 6 to 9 months old, particu- 
larly if to be transported. Common wines ought to be 
kept or sent in barrels or quarter casks. Large casks 
are only useful at the vineyards. Some wines improve 
by travelling, and are better than on the spot j this they 
owe to the shaking and time elapsed. 

69. Mustiness, harshness, acidity, and ropiness are 
the four principal diseases of wines. When wines ac- 
quire a musty or bad taste, they may be restored by 
charcoal and toasted bread put in gradually. To mend 
harsh wines, put in it gradually milk, salt, and sand. If 
too acid, sugar, lime, or ground gypsum, or add sweet 
wine to it. Lead formerly used, is a poison, and must 
never be employed, as it makes the wines deleterious, 
producing cholics, &c. When wines get ropy, they must 
be fined or clarified again. 

70. To recapitulate. Wine is as easy to make as 
cider, notwithstanding such needful cares. Very little 
additional trouble will produce superior wines, of double 
value at least. The same grapes may produce several 
kinds, white or red, sweet or dry, rough or sparkling, 
according to the mode of fermenting. Sugar must be 
used to strengthen the wines, and never brandy. It is . 
worth while to attend to the quality rather than the 
quantity. Time and experience will teach us still better 
the practical details. 



1. Bruce, in his travels, mentions that a small black 
and sweet Grape is wild all over Tigreh in Abyssinia. 

2. The red coloring matter of the skins of black Grapes 
is soluble in alcohol, it crystallizes and is a peculiar sub- 
stance Vitine, near to Hematine. 

3. Inferior Brandy is often made with the lees of 

4. The carbonic acid gas produced by fermentation is 
dangerous if breathed, and may asphyxiate. 

5. The substances used to colorate Wines are black 
grapes, elder berries, mulberries, poke berries, privet 
berries, Brazil wood, &c. Poke gives a bad taste. 

6. A new process has been invented in France to fer- 
ment Wines in close vessels, with caps and refrigerants 
like stills, in order to keep in the aroma and make bet- 
ter Wines. 

7. A piece of Ice put in the Wine in casks prevents 
acidity in summer. 

8. Wine acquiring the taste of wood by being put in 
new casks not charred, may be restored by shifting into 
old casks over good lees, with a little sweet oil added ; 
oil is also'good for mustiness and bad taste of all Wines. 

9. Cream of tartar put in boiled Wine, and thrown in 
the casks, corrects the ropiness and fatness of Wines. 

10. Vine leaves are much liked by cattle and horses: 
their taste is acid acerb, owing to the surtartrate of pot- 
ash and other salts. They were formerly used for diar- 
rhea and in chronic catarrh. 

1 1. The sugar of potato starch is extensively used now 
in France to ameliorate Wines, and is found the best of 
all sugars for that purpose. 

12. This sugar is very easily made by boiling one part 
of starch in four parts of water, with a little sulphuric 
acid, saturation of the acid by lime water, and clarifica- 
tion, evaporation, &.c. as usual.