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Full text of "American medical biography: or, Memoirs of eminent physicians who have flourished in America. To which is prefixed a succinct history of medical science in the United States, from the first settlement of the country"

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JUL 27 1960 

'EST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY 
4EDICAL CENTER LIBRARY 




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HISTORY OF MEDICINE. 




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AMERICAN 

MEDICAL BIOGRAPHY: 

OR 

MEMOIRS OF EMIINENT PHYSICIANS 

WHO HAVK 

jploutCfiiijrlr in :^mciica. 

TO WHICH IS PRr.KIXKU 
A 

SUCCINCT HISTORY 

OP 

MEDICAL SCIENCE. IN THE UNITED STATES, 

FROM THK 

FIRST SKTTLEMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 



BY JAMES TFIACHF.R, M.D. 

Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Honorarr llrmbor of" the 
New-Vork Historical Society, and of the New-Vork IIorticiilturKl Society, &c. • 
Author of the American New Dispensatory, of the Modern Prarfic* aj' Ph)»ic| 
and of tho Military Journal. 



TWO VOLUMES IN ONE. 



vol.. I. 



" Thou shalt lie dov*n 
With patriarchs of the infant world — with kiir**. 
The powerful of the earth — tho wise, the gOvA* 
Fair forms, and hoary seers of agc« past. 
All in one mighty aepiilchrr." Rk >,«.■< i 



BOSTON : 

RICHARDSON k LORD am. COTTONS & KARNARD. 






District of Massachuaetti — to wit : 

DISTRICT CLERK'3 OFFICE. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the thirteenth day of February, A.D. 1828, 
in the fifty-second year of the Independence of the United States of America, 
RICHARDSON & LORD and COTTONS & BARNARD of the said Dis- 
trict have deposited in this Office the Title of a Book the Right whereof they claim 
as Proprietors, in the words following, to wit : 

" American Medical Biography : or Memoirs of Eminent Physicians who have 
flourished in America. To which is prefixed a Succinct History of Medical Sci- 
ence in the United States, from the first settlement of the Country. By James 
Thacher, M.D., Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Honora- 
ry Member of the New-York Historical Society, and of the New- York Horticultu- 
ral Society, &c.j Author of the American New Dispensatory, of the Modern Prac- 
tice of Physic, and of the Military Journal. Two volumes in one. 

' Thou shalt lie down 
With patriarchs of the infant world — with kings. 
The powerful of the earth — the wise, the good. 
Fair forms, and hoary seers of ages past, 
All in one mighty sepulchre.' — Bryant." 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled " An Act 
for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts and 
Books, to the Authors and Proprietors of such Copies, during the times therein 
mentioned :" and also to an Act entitled " An Act supplementary to an Act, enti- 
tled. An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, 
Charts and Books to the Authors and Proprietors of such Copies during the times 
therein mentioned ; and extending the Benefits thereof to the Arts of Designing, 
Engraving and Etching Historical and other Prints." 

JOHN W. DAVIS, 
Clerk of the District of Massachusetts. 



Printed by John CottOi*. 



J 

V 



/W* 






EDWARD AUGUSTUS HOLYOKE, M.D. A.A.S. et LL.D. 

Venerable Sir, 

The following work solicits the sanction of the oldest physician in the United 
States, and perhaps in the world— the first President of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society ; whose public virtues and amiable qualities have procured the respect and 
love of his fellow citizens, and the applause of all. In you we recognise the singular 
phenomenon of a lite comprising nearly a century, and yet not ceasing to be useful 
as a zealous advocate in the great cause of benevolence and philanthropy.* It is 
your peculiar felicity, Sir, by favor of Divine Providence, to have escaped the 
perils both physical and moral of a patriarchal life, and to experience the happy 
fruits of a sacred devotion to the purest principles of Christian morality and piety. 

In this volume will be brought to your recollection some distinguished names 
which you have held in estimation as your predecessors, many who have been 
your contemporaries and associates, who have gone before you to inherit the pro- 
mises, and not a few whose memory you cherish for virtues imbibed from your 
lessons of instruction and who have gloried in the opportunity of imitating your 
example. That you may long continue the living chronicle of the times, an orna« 
ment to the profession, and honored and beloved as the medical Nestor of America, 
is the ardent desire and prayer of 

your very obedient servant, 

THE AUTHOR. 

Plymouth, Mass, 
Jan. 1, 1828. 



Dr. Holyoke will complete his hundredth year on the 12th day of August, 1828. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 witii funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/americanmedicalbOOthac 



PREFACE* 



It is a delightful employment to portray the varied shades of 
the human character as exhibited on the great theatre of the 
world ; to contemplate in what manner men have lived, and how 
they have died ; and bring into view those principles and motives 
of action, and that combination of means, by which some men ar- 
rive at the highest eminence in honorable attainments, while others 
readily yield to moral and physical imperfections, and leave be- 
hind them a blemished reputation. Death triumphs over the frail 
nature of man ; all must bow to its awful summons, and quit this 
earthly tabernacle ; the last remains of mortality are consigned to 
the silent tomb, to mingle with the parent dust. It is not our gift 
to trace the condition of the spirit ; but shall the recollection of 
the most splendid and noble achievements of a meritorious life be 
consigned to irremediable oblivion 1 shall the brightest examples 
of piety, of patriotism and philanthropy be lost to posterity? No, 
— it is the attribute of biography to animate the aspiring youth to 
contemplate and admire the virtues, and learn to imitate the noble 
actions of their ancestors. The pen of the biographer is a pledge 
also to those who are still on their probationary course, that the 
memory of such as are eminently signalized by extraordinary vir- 
tues and splendid deeds, shall be recorded and transmitted for the 
applause and imitation of the rising generation. 

Biography and history are closely allied, and our own illustrious 
ancestors afford excellent and abundant scope for the pen conse- 
crated to this interesting species of literature. No profession, 
perhaps, is more rich in this department than the medical, and 
in none can it be applied with deeper interest or greater utility. 
It has been the constant solicitude of the author of the present 
work to collate from the purest sources such materials as would 



VI PREFACE. 

enable him to compile a biography, not of indiscriminate eulogy, 
but of the strictest impartiality and justice ; and to tliis rule be 
h;is adhered with laborious fidelity. In memoirs regulated by the 
legitimate laws of truth and justice, simple facts will ever be found 
the best eulogy ; nor is the author conscious of undue exaggera- 
tion or improper concealment in any instance. 

The public are now presented with an assemblage of meritorious 
medical and political characters, which would reflect honor on 
any country, many of whom participated, in the perils of the field 
or in the cabinet, in the achievement of our national independ- 
ence and for the advancement and support of our constitutions of 
government. Models may here be selected worthy of imitation 
by the physician, the christian, the patriot and philanthro[)ist. 
Such is the nature of this undertaking that considerable assistance 
has been found requisite for its accomplishment ; and it would be 
a mark of ingratitude not to acknowledge most respectfully the 
kind and liberal aid received, especially from Professors Ilosack 
and Francis of New- York, Dr. James Mease of Philadelphia, and 
the Rev. Samuel Miller, D.D. Professor in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Princeton, New Jersey. To the Rev. Dr. McVickar, 
Professor in Columbia College, the public are indebted for his 
excellent life of the venerable Dr. Samuel Bard ; and to Drs. 
Thomas Miner and Samuel B. Woodward of Connecticut, for 
■their liberal contributions. The venerable W. N. Boylston, Esq. 
and Dr. George C. Shattuck of Boston, have shown a kind inter- 
est in this undertaking, and afforded a liberal encouragement, 
which demands the author's sincere acknowledgments. Other 
gentlemen who have been pleased to furnish materials and to 
manifest an interest in the work, will please to accept the grateful 
thanks of the author. 

Materials for this work have been so abundantly accumulated 
that the author has been obliged to suppress some memoirs, and to 
retrench others, lest the volume should be augmented to an un- 
wieldy size, and the price too much enhanced ; whether the selec- 
tion has been the most judicious, and the style of execution the 
most commendable, are submitted to the candid decision of the 
public. 

Plymouth^ Mass. Jan. 1, 1S28. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE. 



Among the various sciences and literary pursuits of life, there 
16 no one more pre-eminently important than that which is empha- 
tically styled the healing art ; that which restores health, and 
brings comfort and joy to suffering humanity. It is an inestimable 
blessing, bestowed in mercy, to counterpoise the frail condition of 
our nature, and to meliorate or remedy the miseries which result 
from the indulgence of our vicious propensities. It assuages the 
anguish of corporeal disease, and soothes that keen mental distress 
which overwhelms the faculties of the soul. When we contem- 
plate the condition of the inhabitants of the earth" in the primitive 
ages of the world, we are struck with the formidable embarrass- 
ments which they were doomed to encounter. Unacquainted with 
the means of fortifying themselves against the numerous evils of 
life, they were continually exposed to casualties and disease, and 
at the same time destitute of such assistance as would afford the 
desired relief. Ignorant of the structure of the human frame, and 
of the laws of the animal economy, no rational method of cure 
could be devised, and their medical knowledge could consist only 
of an incongruous mixture of superstition and absurdities. 

The primitive inhabitants, however, were blessed with firm ori- 
ginal stamina, robust and vigorous consthutions, and were provided 
with plain and simple food for their subsistence ; either the spon- 
taneous productions of the soil, or the easy acquisitions of agricul- 
ture. The climates which they enjoyed were probably of a mild 
and genial temperature ; the air, pure and serene ; and the natural 
means of health and comfort, their peculiar patrimony. While, 
therefore, they observed the rules of sobriety and temperance in 
their living, according to the dictates of nature and reason, and 
adhered to the principles of morality and virtue, their diseases 
could be neither so numerous, nor so complicate and difficult, as to 
require profound skill for their removal. 

It is, nevertheless, presumable that this happy condition of the 
human race was not of long continuance ; but that a corruption of 
2 



10 HISTORY OF MEDICINE. 

manners was gradually introduced, and the seeds of disease sown 
either by irregularity or unavoidable accidents, and fostered by the 
baneful influence of effeminate and luxurious gratifications. The 
system of individuals having thus acquired a disposition to disease, 
it could not fail of being disseminated according to the laws of na- 
ture, and entailed, through their offspring, to succeeding genera- 
tions. The novel and affecting scenes exhibited when diseases 
terminated in the extinction of life, must have excited among the 
early inhabitants an uncommon degree of consternation and alarm ; 
and, being altogether ignorant of the true causes by which they 
were generated, they would probably ascribe such extraordinary 
phenomena to some supernatural power. Prompted by a spark of 
that reason implanted in the breast of man for his preservation, as 
the first principle in nature, they endeavoured to objain from the 
most promising sources a remedy for their diseases. '| We are not 
to be surprised that the human mind, influenced by superstition, 
and untaught by experience, should associate the idea of religion 
with medicine, and resort to charms and incantations, in full confi- 
dence of accomplishing their desired purpose of preventing and 
curing every malady. / 

Such, in fact, was the melancholy condition of our species in 
the early part of their history. Ignorant priests, magicians and 
astrologers were their only physicians, and the superstition of the 
times animated their hopes, while it gave sanction to the grossest 
impositions. If, under infatuation and despair, consolation could 
have been derived from these sources of folly, fatal experience 
must soon have taught the sufferers that a cure of their maladies 
required more potent remedies, than those of sorcery and enchant- 
ment. In process of time, therefore, an expedient better suited to 
their circumstances, was put in practice for the attainment of med- 
ical knowledge. The sick were directed to be exposed in public 
places to the view of travellers and strangers, who were required 
to examine and compare their cases v^^ith such as might have fallen 
under their observation, and to recomniend such remedies as had 
been known to produce beneficial effects in similar complaints ; 
and, when discoveries were thus made, the precious remedies were 
held in veneration, and the knowledge of them was conveyed by 
oral tradition, or recorded upon pillars in the most public places, 
or on the walls of the temples consecrated to the god of health ; 
and afterwards registers of cures were kept in those consecrated 
places for public instruction. Thus was the practice of medicine 
commenced under no other advantages than the simple principles 
of analogy ; and many ages elapsed before this abstruse and impor- 
tant science was placed upon a more substantial foundation. The 
Egyptian medicine appears to have been little else than a 
collection of absurd superstitions. Among the Greeks, iEfSculapius 
was the most celebrated of those to whom they attributed the in- 
vention of medicine. He was accounted the most eminent practi- 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE. H 

tioner of his time, and his name continued to be revered after his 
death. He was even ranked among the gods, and the principal 
knowledge of the medical art remained with his family till ihe 
days of Hippocrates, who reckoned himself the seventeenth in a 
lineal descent from ^sculapius. We are not furnished with a 
correct series of information relative to medical history, until 
about 450 years prior to the christian era ; when, amidst a cloud 
of darkness and ignorance, the superior wisdom and brilliant tal- 
ents of the great Hippocrates were displayed to the world. Under 
the auspices of this prince of physicians, the healing art first assum- 
ed the form of science, and was known and practised as a regular 
profession. In the treatment of diseases, he studied and copied 
nature with the greatest care and assiduity, as the only sure basis 
of medical science ; and so extensive was his knowledge, and so 
accurate his observations, that he has been constantly held in ven- 
eration through succeeding generations. His numerous writings on 
medical subjects remain a monument of his penetration and judg- 
ment, and are considered by the learned as replete with lessons of 
instruction, even at the present day. By his unparalleled industry 
and perseverance, this father of medicine acquired a character and 
fame, which united the applause of nations around him, and divine 
honours were instituted to his memory. This extraordinary man 
was born in the island of Cos, and died in his 99th year, B. C. 361. 
A medical school was established at Alexandria in Egypt, which 
was conducted by the most learned professors of (bis early pe- 
riod. Dissections and the study of anatomy and surgery vvere 
practised and patronised, and the institution, which flourished 
near a thousand years, has been renowned in history as the ear- 
liest and most important seat of medical literature and science. 
It was here that Herophilus and Erasistratus were distinguished for 
the vast number of human subjects which they dissected, some of 
which were the living bodies of criminals. Galen, a man of sig- 
nal talents and a disciple of the Alexandrian school, whose life 
was devoted to the study and pursuit of medical science, was 
another celebrated name among the physicians of antiquity. He 
collected and arranged the rich treasures of medical knowledge, 
which the labors of the preceding ages had acquired, and made 
considerable improvement on the original stock. He is said to 
have been the author of five hundred volumes on medical sub- 
jects, and, with the exception of Hippocrates, was esteemed the 
greatest physician of antiquity. So surprising were the cures 
which he performed, that his skill was ascribed to magic ; and so 
high was the authority of his name, that, for about fourteen cen- 
turies, his systems and doctrines were most sacredly adhered to and 
reverenced in all parts of the world. Galen is said to have been 
converted from Atheism by the contemplation of a human skeleton. 
In the early part of the l6th century, the noted Paracelsus 
flourished as a physician and chemist. He laid the foundation of 



12 HISTORY OF MEDICINE. 

a chemical system directly opposed to that of Galen, whicMie 
resolved to subvert. He was an enthusiastic laborer in the cause 
of the alchymists, and boasted of being in possession of the phi- 
losopher's stone. He travelled through almost every country in 
Europe, consulting indifferently physicians, barbers, old women, 
conjurers and chemists. In the height of his prosperity he was 
appointed to deliver lectures in the town of Basle, in Switzerland, 
and was the first public professor of chemistry in Europe ; but he 
soon quarrelled with the magistrates about a medical fee, and de- 
parted from the city. He was extremely dissolute and eccentric 
in his manners and character. While seated in his chair as professor, 
he burned with great solemnity the writings of Galen and Avicenna, 
and declared to his audience, that, if God would not impart the 
secrets of medicine, it was perfectly justifiable to consult the devil. 
He invented a medicine which he termed the elixir of life, for the 
professed purpose of procuring longevity, and pretended that, by 
the use of it, his life would be protracted to the age of Methuselah. 
Continuing to ramble about the country, he sunk into the deepest 
dissipation, being scarcely ever sober, and never changing his 
clothes, nor sleeping in a bed : neither the counsel of the devil, 
nor his universal elixir, conferred on him his boasted gift of im- 
mortality, and he died in a hospital in the 48th year of his age. 
Nearly contemporary with Paracelsus was Michael Servetus, a 
Spanish physician distinguished for attainments in anatomical 
knowledge, who actually discovered, in the year 1553, the course 
of the blood through the lungs, which is termed the lesser circula- 
tion. But, in consequence of an unfortunate controversy in which 
he became involved with John Calvin, the celebrated religious re- 
former, a cruel sentence of death at the stake was passed against 
him for heresy ; and this valuable man, together with his writings, 
was, at the age of about 45 years, consigned to the flames. 

It is an extraordinary circumstance that after the commencement 
of human dissections by Democritus, the contemporary and friend 
of Hippocrates, two thousand years should elapse before the very 
important discovery was made of the true circulation of the blood. 
Galen and his followers attributed to the liver the office of pre- 
paring the blood and transmitting it through the veins to all parts 
of the body, conceiving that air was contained in the arteries, 
and that the veins were the only true channels of the blood. It 
was also the opinion of some, that the blood moved forward and 
backward, like the ebbing and flowing of the tide. This glorious 
discovery was reserved to crown the labors of Dr. William Har- 
vey, a learned English physician, who flourished in the seven- 
teenth century. In the year 1628, his new theory of the circula- 
tion of the blood became the subject of his lectures, and by nu- 
merous experiments he demonstrated the attendant phenomena in 
a manner the most convincing and satisfactory, and it has been 
received as an invaluable acquisition to the science of medicine. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE. 13 

Gr^t and manifold are the advantages derived to mankind from 
the liigenious research and labors of the immortal Harvey. His 
noble discovery, which had eluded the research of ages, subverted 
the fallacious doctrines of the ancients, and at once effected a 
total revolution in the theory and practice of medicine. Of all 
the discoveries recorded in medical history, this is incomparably 
the most important in its effects and consequences. Such, how- 
ever, is the ignoble spirit of jealousy and envy, that it is not 
usually the fate of novel doctrines, however important, to be re- 
ceived without opposition ; accordingly we find that there were 
some, who, biassed by passion and interest, had the boldness to 
deny the facts so fairly proved, and to calumniate the name of the 
illustrious discoverer. Every argument against him was, however, 
completely refuted and silenced, and his new principles of circula- 
tion universally established before the termination of his honor- 
able life. It is observed by a judicious writer, that "the books 
of Harvey present us with many indications of a great mind, acute 
discernment, unwearied application, original remark, bold inquiry, 
and a clear, forcible and manly reasoning." He was not less dis- 
tinguished for his piety, than for his erudition ; and, at the close 
of his useful life, he was consoled with the reflection, that the 
spirit of malevolence, so hostile to his merit and fame, became 
attempered to the grateful duty of enhancing and perpetuating the 
honor justly due to his exalted character. 

Medical, like all other knowledge, is progressive, and the 
melancholy triumphs of disease over its victims, and the numer- 
ous examples of medical impotency, clearly evince that the com- 
bined stock of both ancient and modern learning is greatly insuf- 
ficient to perfect our professional knowledge. The science of 
medicine in Europe had long continued at a very low ebb until 
the era of its revival which commenced in 1719, when, by the 
splendid talents and industry of Dr. Munro senr., the establish- 
ment of the celebrated medical school of Edinburgh was happily 
accomplished. This honorable achievement was succeeded by 
similar institutions in various parts of Europe. The talents of 
William and John Hunter in London, of the great Boerhaave in 
the university of Leyden, and some kindred spirits in France, 
seemed to combine their efforts to elevate medical science to a 
signal and dignified condition of improvement. In America the 
cultivation of the healing art had not been commensurate with our 
national progress in wealth and population ; but we were not 
long destitute of brilliant and philanthropic characters to follow 
in the laudable pursuit for the benefit and the honor of their na- 
tive country. 



14 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

It is only from the most scanty materials, and with the aid of tradi- 
tion, that we can trace the origin and progressive improvements in 
the healing art, among the early settlers of the American colo- 
nies. It was not selfish views of pecuniary interest, nor motives 
of secular ambition, that wrought on the pure spirits of our fathers; 
but the noblest principles of religious liberty and religious reforma- 
tion, were awakened in their souls, and bore them on to their des- 
tined place of refuge. Physicians of high standing in professional 
acquirements and experience, could find no adequate motive to 
induce them to quit a lucrative establishment in their native land 
of civilized society, to encounter perils and hardships, and to be- 
come exiles in an uncultivated wilderness. Providence, however, 
had provided a source from which the settlers were to be supplied 
with that medical assistance, which their peculiar circumstances 
imperiously demanded. The puritanic, clergy in England were, 
for more than twenty years prior to the emigration of the first 
settlers, subjected to the sharpest persecution. The prospects of 
the nonconformists, of a peaceful and comfortable subsistence, 
rested on the most precarious tenure, constantly liable to the frowns 
of tyrants, by which they were prohibited the liberty of exercising 
the duties of their sacred calling according to the dictates of their 
own conscience. Hence, as a precautionary measure in case of 
an ejectment, a considerable number of clergymen of that period, 
were educated to the medical profession, and not a few were emi- 
nent practitioners before they crossed the Atlantic. Besides, we 
find that it was not uncommon in their day for a part of education 
to consist in the study of ancient medical authors, as Hippocrates, 
Galen, Aretaeus, Celsus, &c., as among the accomplishments of a 
finished scholar. New England, therefore, at its earliest settle- 
ment, was provided with some able and well educated physicians ; 
though not favoured with the great facilities of the present day, 
our fathers were no less learned in the science of their time, than 
we in ours. When these professional men came to form minis- 
terial connexions in the colonies, it was found that the small con- 
gregations were unable to afford them a comfortable support ; 
hence the necessity and the convenience of their resort to secular 
avocations ; and what more eligible, or more consonant with the 
benevolent views and feelings of puritan clergymen, than to minis- 
ter to the relief of their suffering brethren, and to render conso- 
lation in the solemn hour of dissolution 1 The practice of medi- 
cine, therefore, was in many instances united with the parochial 
duties of ministers of religion, / More exalted, however, were 
their avocations than those of Hl^ ancient priests of Egypt, of 
Greece and Rome, for they had made respectable attainments in 
medical science, and were well qualified for great usefulness in 
their respective callings, they were actuated by the purest motives 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 15 

and the highest considerations of benevolence. By their amiable 
manners, zealous attention and pious converse, they endeared 
themselves to their people ; mutual attachments were formed, and 
the fullest confidence was reposed in their medical skill. While 
in some instances the duties of the physician, of the teacher of re- 
ligion, and of the instructer of youth, devolved on the same indi- 
vidual, some of the eminent civilians also of our early history were 
found to participate in the same duties of benevolence. The hon- 
ourable John Winthrop, son of governor Winthrop of Massachu- 
setts, was eminent in medicine as well as in philosophy, and was 
one of the founders of the Royal Society. New England from its 
first settlement has not been without able and learned men in 
every profession. It is highly honorable to our fathers that their 
civil and religious institutions, however imbued with the imperfec- 
tions of their turbulent age, are incomparably the wisest and the 
best that any legislative body ever bequeathed to their posterity ; 
and in their literary and scientific foundations, we recognise the 
radical principles which are cherished at the present age as the 
immutable laws of civil and religious freedom. The independ- 
ence, liberty, and privileges, which the whole United States now 
enjoy, are almost entirely the emanations from the noble spirit 
which was inherited from the early settlers of New England. It 
should therefore be our endeavor to preserve their sons from dis- 
honoring their fathers' holy standard, by exhibiting to their con- 
templation in a fair and impartial light, the lives of some of their 
distinguished ancestors ; unshielded from the rigors of a boisterous 
season, they were compelled to erect citadels of defence against 
the attacks of cruel savages, while their hearts were pierced with 
the keenest anguish by the arrows of death, depriving them of 
rulers, parents, husbands, wives and children. How cheering 
would have been the consolation, could those pious fathers have 
foreseen a period like the present, when their descendents, assem- 
bling in magnificent temples are gratefully chanting their praises, 
and cultivating those principles of virtue, patriotism and religion, 
which they assiduously cherished as the objects of their fondest 
attachment. It was but shortly after the landing of the first emi- 
grants at Plymouth, December 22, 1620, that they were visited 
with severe sickness. Having undergone the perils of a long 
voyage in an inclement season, subjected to fatigue, privations and 
sufferings, their constitutions impaired, their spirits depressed, and 
their hopes in many respects frustrated ; it is no matter of surprise 
that they were afflicted with uncommon mortality, insomuch that 
nearly one half of their number perished during the first winter. 
But it was their laudable zeal, and heavenly mindedness that first 
inspirited them to commence the race of liberty and glury, and it 
was the same sublime spirit that fortified their minds against scenes 
of woe and despair. 



16 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

It is not to be considered an extraordinary circumstance that 
more tiian a century and a half elapsed after the first settlement of 
the colonies, before a single effort was made, either by public 
authority or by the enterprise of individuals, for the establishment 
of institutions for the education of physicians, or the regulation of 
the practice of medicine. Our ancestors were strongly impressed 
with the importance of general education, and it was their constant 
solicitude to provide for institutions of learning, as far as was prac- 
ticable. But the welfare of the church and their political economy 
were made paramount to all other considerations. The peculiar 
motives which prompted their emigration to this country, the dif- 
ficult circumstances which they were called to encounter, and the 
depressed state of medical science in the countries whence they 
came, will furnish the most ample apology for their neglect of the 
means of improved medical education. They possessed a spirit of 
submission to the privations incident to a new settlement, and they 
enjoyed a religious confidence in the skill of their clerical physi- 
cians ; besides which, several accomplished European physicians 
had emigrated with the early settlers. In process of time a con- 
siderable number of young graduates from our colleges repaired to 
Europe to complete their medical education in the public schools, 
and to qualify themselves to practise in the colonies.* The period 
can be recollected when it was not uncommon for a skilful surgeon 
to ride one and even two hundred miles to perform a capital ope- 
ration, and so late as about the middle of the eighteenth century 
a patient afflicted with stone in the bladder actually crossed the 
Atlantic, to have the operation of lithotomy performed by the cele- 
brated Dr. Cheselden in London. Medical libraries had no exist- 
ence in the country, and it was seldom that students could have 
access to the elementary works necessary for their instruction. 
No medical journal was published in America until near the close 
of the eighteenth century, through which physicians could commu- 
nicate the results of their experience, or make known their im- 
provements and discoveries ; not even a newspaper was printed 
till the year 1704.t Hence it is not strange that we are so little 
ac;quainted with the character and practice of our predecessors. 
/ The first physician of whom we have any account among the 



* Harvard college was founded at Cambridge .... 1638 

William and Mary college of Virginia ..... 1691 

Yale college in Connecticut ...... 1700 

Princetown college in New Jersey -..-.. 1746 

Philadelphia college -....--. 1754 

King's, now Columbia college New York ..... 1754 

All these colleges furnished students for European medical institutions. 

t The first newspaper printed in America was the Boston News-Letter, begun 
April 24, 1704, by B. Green. The first in Pennsylvania, December 22, 1719. 
First in New York, October 16, 1725. First in Charleston, S. C. 1730. In 
Rhode Island, October, 17-32. In Connecticut, 1755. In New Hampshire, 1756. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 17 

the colonists, was Dr. Samuel Fuller, (h) He formed one of the 
company who came over in the first ship, and was a deacon in 
Rev. John Robinson's church. Whether he had enjoyed a colle- 
giate education is uncertain, but he is said to have been well quali- 
fied in his profession ; he was zealous in the cause of religion, and 
eminently useful as a physician and surgeon. He extended his 
benevolent labors not only to the sick among his immediate friends 
at Plymouth and the aborigines in the vicinity, but in 1628 and 
1629, by the desire of governor Endicot, he twice visited the new 
settlement at Salem, where he manifested his skill and success in 
practice among the numerous sufi'erers under scurvy and other dis- 
eases introduced there by the ships on their arrival.^ He received 
the entire approbation of governor Endicot, and his letters of 
thanks for his useful services. In a letter to governor Bradford, 
June 28, 1630, Dr. Fuller says, " I have been to Matapan (now 
Dorchester), and let some twenty of those people blood." What 
disease prevailed among them to require the loss of blood in the 
warm season of June, we are unable to determine. In the year 
1632, the settlers at Plymouth were visited with a disease which 
they called an infectious fever, of which upwards of twenty men, 
women and children died, among whom was their pious and excel- 
lent physician. Dr. Fuller. Tlie same disease proved very fatal 
also among the native Indians. 

In the year 1633, Dr. Giles Firiner was a deacon in the Boston 
church, and was esteemed as an able physician, and a man of learn- 
ing. In l637j it is noticed that Dr. John Fisk arrived and set- 
tled at Salem, where he sustained a respectable character as a 
clergyman and physician. WillkinijGrqge?' accompanied gover- 
nor Winthrop to Boston in the character of surgeon, where he 
died gfearty lamented. At the first_conimencement at Harvard 
college, in l642, Samuel Belhngham and Henry Saltonstall 
were graduated, and were afterwards honored with the degree of 
M. D. at European universities, and both were reputed learned 
and skilful physicians. Leonard Hoar was graduated at Cambridge 
in 1650, and repaired to England, where he studied medicine and 
received the degree of M. D. ; he returned to New England, and 
was for about two years president of Harvard college. John 
Glover, in 1650, repaired to England, and returned after having 
the degree of M. D. conferred on him at Aberdeen. Isaac 
Channel/ was graduated in 1651, and was honored with the de- 
gree of M. D. in Europe. Johti Rogers M. D. was president of 
Harvard college from l6S2 to l684, but whether he was in the 
practice of medicine is uncertain. Charles Chauncy (b) was 
president of Harvard college in 1652; he had a medical education 
in England, and had six sons educated at Harvard college, all of 
whom studied medicine, and were said by Dr. Mather to have 

(6) This letter denotes those whose biography is to be found in this volume. 
3 



X 



18 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

been eminent physicians as their father was before them ; several 
of them removed to England and did not return. Mathew Ful- 
ler, a relation probably of Dr. Samuel Fuller, first of Plymouth, 
about 1640, removed to Barnstable in 1652, where he died, 1678. 
He was appointed Surgeon General of the provincial forces raised 
in Plymouth colony in 1673, and he is slso styled Captain in 1675. 
Item from his inventory. Surgeon's chest and drugs £l6.0.0. 
Library, £10.0.0. Thomas Starr, of Yarmouth, as early as 
1640, and living there in l670, is occasionally styled Chirurgeon 
in the public records. Comfort Starr, Chirurgeon, first of New- 
town, alias Cambridge, removed to Duxbury, in Plymouth colony, 
in 1638, whence after a short period he removed to Boston, where 
he died about 1663. Samuel Scabury, styled Chirurgeon in the 
records, appears in Duxbury, in Plymouth colony, at an early date, 
where he died 1680. Items of his inventory. Nicholas Culpep- 
per's Practice of Physic, £1.4.0. Ditto Anatomy 3s. Reed's 
Practice of Surgery, Is, 6d. Physician's Practice, Is. Latin Her- 
bal, £1.10.0. Art of Distillation, by John French, 2s. Surgeons' 
Instruments 12s. Antimonial Cup, 5s. Thomas Little, born in 
Marshfield, Plymouth colony, graduated at Harvard college 1695, 
settled in Plymouth as a physician about 1700, where he died, 
1712, aged 38 years. He held several civil offices in the county 
of Plymouth, and was also a merchant of some note ; one of his 
sons, Thomas Little, was a physician in Chilmark, 1726. Sur- 
geon's chest of Thomas Little senr. £17.10.0. 

Thomas Oliver, who was an elder in the Boston church, is 
mentioned with high approbation in Winthrop's Journal, as an ex- 
perienced and skilful surgeon about 1644. The new settlers, from 
exposure to extreme hardships and to famine, were frequently 
afilicted with alarming and fatal diseases, which at some periods 
threatened almost a total extinction of their population. At dif- 
ferent times from 1678 to 1702, the smallpox spread through the 
colonies, and, from the injudicious mode of treatment, its efiects 
were like a mortal scourge wherever it appeared. But in the year 
1646 these virtuous people were much grieved by the discovery 
of a disease in Boston, with which till then they were entirely un- 
acquainted, and which, the venerated Vyinthrop in his Journal 
says, raised a scandal upon the town' and country though without 
just cause. This proved to be Lues Venerea. It originated with 
the wife of a seafaring man, who after child birth was aflected 
with ulcerated breast. Many persons were employed to draw 
this woman's breast, by which means about sixteen persons, men, 
women and children, were afiected with this new and odious dis- 
ease. The nature of the complaint was at length ascertained ; 
but no physician could be found in the country who was acquaint- 
ed with the method of cure. But it fortimately happened that at 
that very season a young surgeon arrived from the West Indies, 
who had been experienced in the disease, and he soon performed 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 19 

a cure. In the summer of 1647, an epidemical sickness spread 
througli the country, among English, French, Dutch and Indians. 
It resembled a cold attended by slight fever, (probably Influen- 
za,) Those, says Winthrop, who were bled or used cooling 
things, died, those who took comfortable tilings, for most part re- 
covered in a few days. Not a family, and but a few persons es- 
caped an attack of this epidemic : about 40 or 50 died in Massa- 
chusetts, and about the same number in Connecticut, among 
whom was the Rev. Mr. Thomas Hooker, pastor of the church in 
Hartford. Dr. Nathaniel Williams was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1693. He was ordained a minister of the gospel, but 
was for many years a very useful instructor of the south grammar 
school in Boston, and was very popular as a practising physician, 
to which he devoted the latter part of his life, and was called the 
" beloved physician," from his kind and tender deportment in the 
chan)ber of the sick. He died in 1739. He published a pam- 
phlet on tlie inoculation of the smallpox in 1721. Thomas 
Thachcr, (b) who came over to New England in 1635, was edu- 
cated to the ministry, and was the first minister of the Old South 
Church in Boston. He also received a medical education, was 
considered a great divine, and learned physician ; and preaching 
and practising to general approbation, attained great eminence in 
both professions, and in the learned languages. He published a 
work entitled, "A Brief Guide in the Smallpox and Measles" in 
1677, which is the first medical publication found on record in 
New England, if not in America. In 1669, it appears that Henry 
Taylor, Surgeon in Boston, had his rate omitted in consideration 
of a cure performed and a promise to attend the sick poor, or 
such as may be hurt; and in 1671, Dr. Daniel Sfo?ie undertook 
to attend the town's poor, for twenty shillings money, and remit- 
tance of taxes. Several persons by the name of Clark are found 
on record as Physicians and Surgeons. Drs. 2^homas Oaks and 
William Hughes were in some repute as medical men in Boston 
from 16S5 to 1695. Dr. Elisha Cooke senr. practised physic 
with much reputation in the town of Boston in the latter part of 
the I7th century. He was a great politician, and for more than 
40 3'ears a popular leader in the general court, and was, a member 
of the council. He died in 1685, aged 78 years. Dr. Elisha 
Cooke jun. followed the political course of his father, and was 
one of the most popular political characters in the town of Boston, 
and a leader of the debates in the house of representatives. He 
was sent to the court of Great Britain as agent for the people of 
Massachusetts, and was afterwards elected a counsellor. He died 
in the year 1737. The two Cookes, according to Dr. Eliofs bio- 
graphy, were the most zealous republicans who ever acted their 
parts in Massachusetts Bay. Having thus exhibited such a sketch 
of the state of medicine in Massachusetts during the 17th century 
as the imperfect documents at command enable us to compose, we 



20 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

enter upon the history of medical science in the 18th century 
under more auspicious advantages, and shall close with more 
honorable and important results. 

In the year 1721, after an absence of nineteen years, the small- 
pox again invaded the settlements of the planters with its usual 
cruel ravages. This disease had ever been considered as one of 
the greatest scourges with which the human race had beeti af- 
flicted. Such was the dreadful virulence of this pestilence, that a 
large proportion of the sick became its victims, and the most of 
those who escaped with their lives, were disfigured with scars and 
pits, which destroyed the comeliness of the countenance, and in 
some instances a total blindness was the consequence. Those 
who have not been conversant with this formidable malady, can 
form no conception of the hideous spectacle exhibited by one suf- 
fering under malignant smallpox. The head is swollen to a 
monstrous size, the eyes are entirely closed, the lips swollen and 
of a livid color, and the face and surface of the whole body are 
covered with maturated pustules, from which issue purulent mat- 
ter ; the miserable being has the appearance of a putrid mass, and 
scarcely the semblance of the human form remains. The visita- 
tion of the smallpox at this period afforded occasion for an event, 
which in its consequences may be ranked among the most import- 
ant to the welfare of mankind that have ever been recorded in the 
annals of medicine. It is the introduction o{ Inoculation of Small' 
pox as a substitute for the natural infection : it is in fact a triumph 
over that mortal scourge, disarming it of its malignity, and reduc- 
ing it to comparative mildness and safety. If reliance can be 
placed on tradition, the art of inoculation may be traced back to 
remote antiquity ;* but it was not until the first part of the 18th 
century that it attracted the notice of the most intelligent and en- 
lightened class of mankind, and it was first regularly adopted in Eng- 
land in the year 1721. The celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Mon- 
tague, having resided sometime in Constantinople, became ac- 
quainted -with the method of inoculation as practised by some 
Turkish women, and satisfied with its safety and salutary effects, 
subjected her son to the operation of engrafting as it was then 

* It is a remarkable fact, that in many countries in Europe, and in Africa and 
Asia, particularly in Hindoostan and China, inoculation for the smallpox was 
practised by the common people, for many years before its introduction by the phy- 
sicians of Great Britain ; and, in some of them, as far back as tradition can be 
traced. It is also a still more remarkable fact, that in Wales, in the Highlands of 
Scotland, among the ignorant peasantry of Germany, in the interior of Africa, and 
in several parts of the Asiatic continent, distant as they«are from each other, dif- 
ferinn widely as they do, in manners, customs, law and religion, the art of com- 
munfcating this disease by inoculation was designated by the singular phrase of 
buying the smallpox ; because it was superstitiously imagined that inoculation 
would not produce the proper effect unless the person from whom the variolous mat- 
ter was taken received a piece of money, or some article in exchange for it. See 
Woodville's history of Inoculation, and Miller's 18th Century. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 21 

termed. On her return to England, she directed that her daug'.iter 
should undergo the operation, which was performed by her sur- 
geon, Mr, Maitland, in April, 1721, and this was the first instance 
of inoculation in the English dominions. About the same time, 
Dr. Cotton Mather, a learned divine in Boston, having observed 
in the Philosophical Transactions printed in London, an account 
of inoculation by Timoni & Pylarini in Turkey, communicated 
the information to several physicians in Boston, who treated the 
subject with contempt. He then recommended to his friend Dr. * 
Zabdicl Boylston (h) to adopt the practice. Accordingly with 
the little information which he could obtain from that publication, 
and in the face of the most violent opposition, on the 27th day 
of June, 1721, Dr. Boylston inoculated first his only son about 
thirteen years of age, and two negro servants, in which he was 
completely successful. This had the happy tendency, not only to 
confirm in his own mind the safety and utility of inoculation, but 
in some degree to quiet the fears of others. In the year 1721, 
and first part of 1722, Dr. Boylston inoculated 247 persons, and 
39 were inoculated by other persons in Boston and its vicinity. 
Of this number six only died, and several of these were supposed 
to have taken the infection before inoculation. In the same 
period, 5759 took the disease the natural way, of whom 844 died, 
and many of those who recovered were left with broken constitu- 
tions and disfigured countenances. The degree oi odium and /;er- 
secution which Dr. Boylston brought upon himself by this very 
laudable innovation, is almost incredible. His house was attacked 
with so much violence that he and his family could not feel them- 
selves safe in it. He was assaulted in the streets, loaded with 
every species of abuse, and execrated as a murderer. Indeed 
many sober pious people were deliberately of opinion, when he 
commenced the practice of inoculation, that if any of his patients 
should die, he ought to be capitally punished. A bill was brought 
into the legislature for prohibiting the practice under severe 
penalties, and it actually passed the house of representatives ; but 
some doubts existing in the council, its progress was arrested, and 
it never became a law. (Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, 
vol. 2d.) But Dr. Boylston was repeatedly sumn)oned before the 
selectmen of Boston, and rciceived their reprehension. He not 
only sufil'ered the greatest indignity from an enraged populace, but 
the resentment and censure of his professional brethren, who 
formed a powerful combination against him ; although he repeat- 
edly invited them to visit his patients and examine for their satis- 
faction. The novelty of the subject and the stiong prejudices 
then subsisting, caused much public agitation, and involved both 
clergymen and physicians in a spirited and intemperate controver- 
sy. The clergymen in general, however, acted an honorable part 
and many of them became zealous advocates of the new practice, 
while most of the medical faculty were its active and violent on- 



22 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

posers. The newspapers teemed with pieces on both sides of the 
interesting controversy, and from the opponents of inoculation is- 
sued some of a virulent and scurrilous character. The Netv Eng- 
land Courant printed by the Franklins, (the young philosopher 
himself being being one of the editors) was under the influence 
of the physicians, who abused the clergy for their interference 
in the matter in controversy. Some of the clergy received per- 
sonal injury, others were insulted in the street, and were hardly 
safe in their houses, nor were their services acceptable on Sun- 
day, until the success of the practice induced the people to think 
that it was the hand of Providence in their favor. Dr. WiUiam 
Douglass, (6) a Scotch physician of considerable reputation in 
Boston, took the first rank in the opposition, and his coadjutors 
were Larorcnce Dalhondc, a French practitioner of popular ta- 
lents, and Joseph Marion. Dr. Douglass was a man of learning 
and abilities, but conceited and arrogant, and behaved with great 
disingenuousness on this occasion. He published Essays on In- 
oculated Smallpox in 1722, and in 1730. During the malevo- 
lent persecution of Dr. Boylston, Dr. Dalhonde was prevailed 
upon to frame a singular deposition before two magistrates in Bos- 
ton, and the selectmen of that town had the eflVontery to publish 
it in support of their opposition. Notwithstanding the palpable 
falsehood of the deposition, it was not only industriously circulat- 
ed in New England, but even in London, where it was reprinted 
to expose its absurdity. (See note A. at the end of this sketch.) 
Dr. Boylston, however, being a man of great benevolence 
and courage, in despite of obloquy and opposition, persever- 
ed in his professional duty, and ultimately enjoyed the happy 
results of his very useful labors. The practice of inoculation 
gradually gained ground and became general in New England, and 
in a iiiw years it was extended to New York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston. By the invitation of Sir Ilans Sloane, Dr. Boylston 
visited London, where he was highly respected, and honored by 
being elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and introduceil into 
the presence of the royal family. While in that city in 17-'(), he 
published by desire of the Royal Society, an historical account 
of the smallpox inoculation as practised by him in Boston, which 
he dedicated to Princess Caroline, and after his return it was re- 
printed in Boston, a copy of which has been deposited in the 
medical library at Harvard college, by Ward Nicholas Boylston, 
Esq. See the biography of Dr. Boylston in this volume. 

In the year 17J~', the country was again scourged by a visita- 
tion of sn^llpox, and by order of the magistrates an account was 
taken ofall who were aflecied with the disease, either in the natural 
way or by inocul.iiion, in the town of Boston, and rendered on 
oath ; by which it appears that the number of inhabitants amount- 
ed to 15,734. The whole immber of smallpox patients the na- 
tural way was 5544, of which 514 died. 'The number of inocu- 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 23 

lated was 2113 of which 30 died. Hitherto mercury iiad not 
been employed as a preparatory for inoculation in Boston ; but 
according to Dr. Gale, in the year 1764 three thousand persons 
recovered from inoculation in the new method b}' the use of mer- 
cury, and eight only died, and these were chiefly children under 
five years of age. Practitioners in general had not at this lime 
abandoned the very injurious method of treatment in smallpox. 
Contrary to the cooling system of the great Sydenham, the sick 
were warmly covered in bed, heating and stimulating medicines 
were freely administered with the view of keeping out the erup- 
tion and promoting a profuse perspiration ; and some there were 
who would not permit the linen of the sick to be changed during 
the whole course of the disease, however copiously the bodily 
filth might have been accumulated. But about the year 1766, Dr. 
Sutton, an English physician, and Baron Dimsdale, an experienced 
and able practitioner, promulgated their improved mode of treat- 
ment by exposing patients to the cool air, allowing them to drink 
cold water, and administering mercurial purgatives and refrigeiant 
medicines. Ancient prejudices soon vanished, and the new plan 
gradually became general, and was adopted in America as the 
most rational and successful method of treatment. The first pub- 
lic hospitals for smallpox inoculation of which we have any re- 
cord in New England, were opened in the vicinity of Boston in 
1764, one at Point Shirly, by Dr. William Barnet, from New 
Jersey, and another at Castle Willian), in Boston harbor, by Dr. 
Samuel Gelston, of Nantucket. Mercury was at this period in 
the highest repute for its supposed specific powers as an antidote 
to the variolous poison, and it constituted a part of the prepara- 
tory course of every experienced inoculator. When the British 
army evacuated the town of Boston, in JMarch 1776, the small- 
pox was found lurking in various parts of the town, and to pre- 
vent its general spreading all the inhabitants and the American 
troops stationed there were subjected to inoculation, and with a 
successful result. Hospitals for the purpose of inoculation were 
again established in various parts of Massachusetts, particularly 
at Cambridge and Brookline, by Drs. Isaac Rand, William As- 
pinwall, and Lemuel Hayward, by whom more than two thousand 
persons were inoculated in one year, and by whose successful 
mode of treatment the practice of inoculation was greatly encour- 
aged, and its benefits extensively difi'used. The high confidence 
hitherto reposed in the efficacy of a mercurial course, was now 
considerably diminished, and practitioners were daily strengthen- 
ed in the opinion, that success depended principally on the cool- 
ing regimen, air and antiphlogistic diet with which it was ac- 
companied. 

The smallpox again visited the town of Boston as an epidemic in 
1792. The whole town was inoculated in three days to appease 
the infatuation among the inhabitants with respect to the danger of 



24 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

infection of the deadly pestilence. The hurry and confusion in 
which inoculation was resorted to on this occasion, precluded the 
possibility of affording in every instance the requisite attention, 
and of adopting the most judicious and eligible mode of proce- 
dure. The number inoculated was 9152 persons indiscriminately, 
and l65 deaths were the consequence. These, however, were 
chiefly the people of poor families, many of whom were destitute 
of the comforts of life. Little reliance was now placed on the 
specific action of mercury in this disease. In many instances it 
was entirely dispensed with, and shortly after altogether abandoned. 

In the years 1735 and 1736, the disease called angina ulcuscu- 
losa, (angina maligna) prevailed extensively throughout the country 
in its most^malignant form, and it was estimated that in Massachu- 
setts alone about one thousand persons became its victims. On this 
occasion calomel was for the first time administered as a remedy, 
and attended with the happiest success, arresting in a surprising 
manner the fatal tendency of the disease. Dr. William Douglass 
published a valuable practical essay detailing the characteristics 
and the method of treatment of this alarming complaint. 

Among the earliest publications on medical subjects in America, 
was an essay on fevers, published in Boston in 1732, by Dr. John 
Walton. Dr. John Cutler was long an eminent physician and sur- 
geon in Boston. He was the preceptor of several of the early physi- 
cians, among whom was Dr. Zabdiel Boylston. The gentlemen now 
to be noticed were those who chiefly commanded the practice in 
Boston during the middle and latter part of the eighteenth century. 
The most of whom were employed to inoculate the poor of the 
town when the smallpox was prevalent among them in the year 
1764. Dr. Sylvester Gardinei- sustained a high reputation as an 
operative surgeon and was for a long period the most noted druggist 
in New England. He died at Newport, in 1786, aged 80 years. 
Dr. Benjamin Church (h) was very popular among the whigs, and 
was gaining practice before his unfortunate transaction in 1775. 
Dr. James Lloyd, (h) was considered as highly accomplished in all 
the branches of the profession, but particularly distinguished for 
his skill in surgery and midwifery, being the first and most eminent 
practitioner in this latter branch in Boston, and probably in New 
England. He kept a genteel equipage, and entertained company 
with great liberality, and he commanded a more respectable cir- 
cle of professional business than any other phj'sician of his day. 
Dr. Joseph Warren, (b) memorable for patriotism and public virtue, 
was in a full circle of medical practice, and educated a number of 
young gentlemen for the profession before the event of the battle 
in which he so gallantly sacrificed his life. Dr. Thomas Bulfinch, 
senr. (6) was in much repute in his profession. Dr. Thomas Bid- 
jinch, junr. (/>) enjoyed a large share of very genteel practice, and 
lived in a handsome style, keeping a chariot, and was greatly valued 
and respected by all who required his attendance. Dr. Miles 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 25 

Wliitivorth was considered as possessing good medical abilities, 
cTiid, residing in Boston during the siege, he was the attending 
|)iiysici;ui and surgeon of the American prisoners who were wound- 
ed in the battle on Bunker's Hill in 1775. They were thrown 
into the common jail in Boston, and provided with little more than 
the ordinary jail provisions, in consequence of which they suffer- 
ed greatly, and many died, in particular Lieutenant Colonel Gardi- 
ner, or Parker, a very respectable man ; but their sufierings were 
greatly alleviated by the humane attentions of Dr. Wliitworth. Dr. 
Nathaniel Perkins practised in Boston before the revolutionary 
war, and was very respectable and popular. Drs. William Lee 
Perkins, John Perkins, Philip Godfrey, Benjamin Curtis, Kast, 
(h) Roberts, Barret, Pecker, and Pyncheon, were contempora- 
ries and enjoyed a good share of professional reputation and prac- 
tice, in Boston. Dr. Joseph Gardener was in high reputation both 
as a physician and surgeon, and was a dexterous operator. He 
pretended that he regarded learning as superfluous in a physician, 
that the bedside was the only school for a practitioner ; but he 
did, nevertheless, devote some time to study, and was more learn- 
ed than he chose to appear to be. He was remarkable for wit and 
satire, and retained his popularity duiing life. Dr. Joseph ^Vh^p- 
ple was taken under the patronage of Dr. Gardener, was for some 
time secretary of the Massachusetts Medical Society, was rising 
from small beginnings into notice and business, but died in 1804, 
aged 48 years. Dr. Nathaniel Applcton, was a most amiable man, 
but too ditildent to display his real worth and abilities, which were 
far above mediocrity. Dr. Charles Jarris (b) was held in much 
respect, and greatly beloved as a physician, and distinguished in 
the ranks of democracy as an active politician, after the establish- 
ment of the federal constitution. 

Dr. John Sprague was a pupil of Dr. Dalhonde, of Boston, whose 
daughter he married. He early entered into extensive practice in 
Boston, and accumulated large property. He is said to have been 
a man of a good deal of natural acumen, of considerable reading, 
and of nice observation, and a very successful practitioner ; he 
had a singular bluntness in his manners, but was amiable in his 
temper, a lover of money, but indulgent to his debtors. Havin"- 
married a second wife, who was a lady of fortune, he retired and 
spent his last days in Dedhara. Dr. John Homans wns a Surgeon 
in the army during the revolutionary war, after which he settled 
in Boston, and was elected a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society. He received from nature a great share of good sense, 
which was well cultivated, and as a physician he was much era- 
ployed and highly approved, being considered inferior to no one 
of his age. He discharged the duties of his profession with ten- 
derness and humanity, and to the poor with disinterested benevo- 
lence. In 1800 he undertook a voyage for the recovery of his 
4 



m 



26 HISTORY OF MEDlCIxNE IN AMERICA. 

heahli, but died ou the second day after the departure of the ves- 
sel, June 3d, in the 47th year of his age. 

The means of medical education in New-England were more 
limited and deficient than in the middle and southern provinces ; 
no medical school nor public lectures were known. But when the 
alarm of war pervaded our country, and an army was formed, a 
new and vigorous impulse was given to the investigation of sub- 
jects pertaining to medicine and surgery. Military hospitals were 
established under the auspices of the most eminent professional 
characters, affording a fund of practical knowledge ; and no cir- 
cumstance in our history could have been more efficient in accele- 
rating improvements in the most important of all the sciences. It 
was not, however, till since the close of the war for independence, 
that any thing more than a tardy and silent progress could have 
been expected, as our existing embarrassments and necessities re- 
quired all our efforts and resources. It was, at the early part of 
the war, found extremely difficult to select medical men who were 
fully competent to the arduous duties pertaining to the higher 
stations in the hospital department ; and numerous embarrassments 
and sufferings were experienced, till at length the most important 
offices were occupied by men no less distinguished for public vir- 
tue and genuine patriotism, than for medical dignity and emi- 
nence.* Their united wisdom and skill were happily directed to 
the melioration of the condition of our military medical establish- 
ments, and ultimately to the promotion of professional knowledge, 
and the faithful discharge of duty among the surgeons of the army. 
Since the termination of our glorious struggle in the cause of liber- 
ty, the dark clouds which, in our infant state, enveloped the science 
of medicine, have been gradually dissipated, our imprisoned men- 
tal powers and faculties liberated and improved, and our medical 
character, like our national Independence, has been honorably and 
advantageously established. In the year 1781, and in several pre- 
ceding years, great difficulties were experienced among profession- 
al men, by the fluctuating state of the old continental paper mo- 
ney. In order to obviate as far as was practicable the inconve- 

* The first Director General of our military hospitals was Dr, Benjamin Church, 
of Boston ; but being, soon after his appointment, charged with a treasonable corres- 
pondence with the British, he was tried and dismissed, and Dr. John Morgan, of 
Philadelphia, succeeded to his office. This gentleman was, however, superseded by 
Dr. William Shippen, and Dr. Benjamin Rush was appointed Physician General to 
the army, but a short time after he was induced to resign his commission. The 
following gentlemen are personally recollected as holding the stations of Physician 
or Surgeon General or Deputy Director General of the different departments of the 
army, viz.: — Malachi Treat, John Cochran and Samuel Stringer, of New-York ; 
Jetiathan Potts, of Pennsylvania ; Robert Johnston and J. Brown, of Maryland or 
Carolina ; James Craik, of Virginia; and Isaac Foster, of Massachusetts. Andrew 
Craigie, Apothecary General. Those who served as Hospital or Regimental Sur- 
geons, belonging to Massachusetts, during the war, were — Isaac Foster, Samuel 
Adams, John Warren, William Eustis, David Townsend, John Homans, Joh» 
Hart, Joseph Fisk, John Thoma*. Abijah Richardson, Daniel Shutc, Jair.c« Thacherc 



HISTORF OF MEDICINE IJS AMERICA. 27 

nience and loss sustained from this cause, tlie physicians of Boston 
instituted a club, the meetings of which were hold at the Green 
Dragon tavern. Physicians' fees had been much below par, and 
when paid in depreciated paper money, little or nothing could be 
realized from them. The fee for a visit was one shilling and six- 
pence, afterwards increased to two shillings. Midwifery and capi- 
tal operations were at a guinea, with charges for after visits. The 
first fees established by the medical club, were fifty cents for a 
visit ; if in consultation, one dollar : rising and visit in the night, 
after 11 o'clock and before sunrise, double fee : obstetrical case, 
eight dollars: capital operation in surgery, five pounds: reducing 
a dislocation, or setting a fractured bone, one guinea : bleeding, 
opening abscess, extracting tooth, fifty cents, and the usual fee for 
visit was added. All accounts were to be calculated in hard mo- 
ney, and, if paid in paper, according to such agreement as could be 
made with the parties. The profession was much benefited by 
these regulations, having a happy tendency to bring physicians ac- 
quainted with each other, and to promote harmony and good fel- 
lowship ; all party politics were prohibited at their meetings, and 
the medical fees were made more adequate to the services per- 
formed. 

In 1784 scarlatina maligna appeared, and spread through the 
New-England states, but it was more benign in its eflects than for- 
merly. But a more distressing calamity visited the town of Boston 
in 1798 : the yellow fever made its appearance, and exhibited 
every mark of great malignity. Although it was limited to a small 
section of the town, the deaths were about one hundred and fortv- 
five, during the few months of its continuance. There were no 
evidences of its having been imported, nor any instance to justify 
the supposition of its being contagious. Boston was again visited 
by this fatal malady in 1802, with all the circumstances of its for- 
mer malignant and destructive nature, and about fifty persons were 
its victims.* 

It should be noticed in this sketch, that, from about the first 
part of the 18th century, it has been the practice of many physi- 
cians of eminence in New-England, to administer mercury as an / 
efficacious remedy in febrile diseases of every description. It was 
employed, not so much for its evacuating power, as with the inten- 
tion of introducing it gradually into the system as an alterative. 
The fullest confidence was reposed in a moderate course of mer- 
cury in pleurisies and peripneumonies, esteeming it as the most 
efficacious attenuant and expectorant which the materia medica 
afforded. But the strongest prejudices against the use of mercury 
subsisted among all classes of people, and physicians were obliged 
to observe the utmost caution in its administration, as their popu- 

* A more particular account of the yellow fever will be found under the head of 
Pennsylvania. 



28 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

larity depended upon concealment. It was customary to give it 
the significant term oi ponderous medicine, imagining that mercury 
acts upon the system by its ponderosity, destroying the too great 
siziness of the blood, and rendering pervious such vessels as might 
be obstructed by the Error loci of Boerhaave. In various chro- 
nic diseases, a deobstruent course, in the form of Plummer's pills, 
was a favorite remedy. 

Among the epidemics which have visited our country, the» In- 
fluenza, or Tussis Epidemica of Sydenham, deserves some notice 
in this place. It has prevailed in America at nine or ten different 
periods since the year 1733 ; but in the autumns of 1789 and 1807, 
it was more universally extensive and severe in its effects than at 
any preceding era of its visitation. It first appeared at New-York 
and Philadelphia, from whence it was, in a short time, diffused 
through every part of the continent. It was estimated at the time 
that three fourths of the inhabitants were, in a few days, affected 
with this singular epidemic, in a greater or less degree. The 
amazing rapidity with which it spread through the country, resem- 
bled more a storm agitating the atmosphere, than the natural pro- 
gress of a disease from any contagious source. Almost a whole 
city, town, or neighborhood, became affected with its influence in 
a few days, and as it did not incapacitate people in general from 
pursuing their ordinary occupations, it was common to observe in 
every street and place of resort, a constant coughing, hawking, and 
wheezing, and in public assemblies little else was to be heard or 
attended to. Although all classes of people experienced the ope- 
ration of the influenza, it is remarkable that a small number, 
comparatively speaking, were so ill as to require medical atlend- 
ance, and instances of its fatal termination were of rare occurrence. 

In the year 1799 the glorious discovery of the vaccine disease, 
which renders the human system unsusceptible of the smallpox, 
was announced in our newspapers and in the Medical Repository 
of New-York. The honor of this important discovery belongs to 
the late Dr. Edward Jenner, a celebrated English physician. Dr. 
George Pearson, of St. George's Hospital, had some agency in as- 
certaining the fact familiarly known for years before, tliat the dai- 
ry maids were proof against the smallpox, and suggested the use 
that might probably be made of that fact.* Dr. Jenner, with ereat 
perseverance, matured and fully established the prophylactic" efli- 
cacy of the vaccine disease, and for his invaluable enterprise the 
British Parliament granted him an honorable and liberal reward. 
The first information relative to this novel and singular discovery 

* Dr. Pearson transmitted in a letter to Dr. Hosack, of New- York, a thread im- 
pregnated with the matter of the vaccine virus ; and in a letter to Dr. H., towards 
the close of 179S, and which accompanied a copy of his " Inquiry concerning the 
History of the Cowpox," published in London, November, 1797, he says, " I now 
send you my proof sheets of a new work on a subject which will mucli surprise you, 
3nd which promises to supersede that most loathsome disease, the smallpox." 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 29 

although from unquestionable authority, did not receive in our 
country universal credence. By some it was treated as chimerical, 
while others resolved to suspend their opinion for the issue of fu- 
ture experiments. Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, however, then Pro- 
fessor of Medicine in the University at Cambridge, did not hesitate 
to proclaim his full confidence in the statements and facts, which 
he had received directly from Dr. Jenner. In July, 1800, ho 
procured matter from thence, and tested the experiment in the 
persons of four of his own children, the eldest about seven years 
of age, who thus became the first subjects of vaccination in the 
United States ; and being afterwards exposed to smallpox infection 
in the hospital of Dr. Aspinwall, they proved to be unsusceptible 
of its influence. This very laudable example was soon followed 
by many others, some of whom were tested by variolous infection, 
with the happiest result. These first successful examples produced 
in a great degree the desired effect of establishing the public confi- 
dence in the prophylactic efficacy of the vaccine disease. In the 
same year and at subsequent periods. Dr. Waterhouse presented 
to the public, historical and practical treatises on the cowpox, and 
communicated, through the medium of newspapers, useful and dis- 
criminating directions and precautions relative to the genuine dis- 
ease. In the following September, Dr. James Jackson, of Boston, 
returned from London, and having acquired experimental know- 
ledge, by attending the practice of vaccination with Dr. Woodville, 
generously contributed to its propagation in Boston and the vici- 
nity. In the same year. Dr. Miller, of New-York, received vac- 
cine matter from Dr. Pearson, of London, which failed, however, 
to produce the genuine disease, nor was another supply, sent on 
from Boston, attended with better success. In fact, spurious mat- 
ter, in some instances, and want of skill and experience in the 
operator in others, occasioned numerous failures during the first 
attempts, which had the effect of damping public confidence, and 
restricting the exertions of the friends of vaccination. The Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society, early in 1801, addressed an application 
to the Vaccine Institution in England, requesting a supply of mat- 
ter. Publications on this new subject were now continually multi- 
plying, and the most gratifying evidences in favor of vaccination 
issued from various quarters. In the year 1802 the Boston Board 
of Health directed nineteen persons to be vaccinated under their 
inspection, all of whom were afterwards tested by the smallpox 
infection in the most satisfactory manner and with the happiest 
result. In the following year the junior physicians of Boston 
formed an association for the express purpose of bestowing gratui- 
tously the benefits of vaccination upon the indigent, and of disse- 
minating the matter among medical practitioners. 

In 1808, a committee was appointed by the Counsellors of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, for the purpose of collecting all 
the evidence which had transpired respecting the efficacy of the 



30 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

cowpox, as preventive of smallpox, and to report the most eligible 
method of conducting the practice. A copious and interesting re- 
port was made and published in the communications of the society, 
accompanied with evidence sufficiently strong to remove every 
vestige of prejudice and uncertainty relative to the prophylactic 
powers of vaccination. In the year 1809, the towns of Milton and 
New-Bedford made arrangements for the vaccination of a conside- 
rable proportion of their inhabitants, which was attended with a 
successful result. The next attempt to disseminate the advantages 
of vaccination will be found in the transactions of the legislature 
of Massachusetts, who, in 1810, authorized the several towns to 
appoint committees, and raise monies annually for this important 
purpose. At length the glorious triumph of vaccination over that 
most dreaded scourge of the human race, the smallpox, became es- 
tablished by incontestable proofs, and has received the sanction 
and applause of the community, and of the wise and learned in the 
remotest regions of the earth. We can now congratulate the citi- 
zens of the United States, who, in common with the whole civil- 
ized world, are in possession of this heavenly blessing, — a blessing 
which eradicates from the catalogue of human miseries the most 
loathsome and fatal disease, and which happily closes one of the 
most crowded avenues to the tomb. 

The horrors occasioned by the ravages of the yellow fever in 
our cities had scarcely ceased, when another epidemic equally for- 
midable and malignant in its nature, and fatal in its consequences, 
commenced its distressing career, and spread terror and desola- 
tion through the interior of the country. This malady, which has 
obtained the name oi spotted fever, was first noticed by Drs. Dan- 
ielson and Mann, at Medfield, Mass., in March, 1806. Its ravages 
were afterwards experienced in Connecticut, and in 1810 it pre- 
vailed in the county of Worcester with unexampled mortality, 
baffling the powers of medicine, and setting at defiance the best 
skill of physicians. On this alarming occasion, the Counsellors of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society appointed a committee, with 
instructions to make all possible inquiry and investigation relative 
to the disease in question. Their report as to its causes, history 
and mode of treatment, was elaborate, honorable to themselves, 
and of great practical utility. The fact has been well ascertained 
that the disease is not contagious, as was by some at first appre- 
hended. It is remarkable of this epidemic, that it is most rife in 
the cold seasons of winter and spring, and that it is more prevalent 
and genuine, in its character, in the interior, than in the vicinity 
of the sea-board. But, wherever it waves its standard, the arrows 
of death cross its paths, and all classes and sexes become its indis- 
criminate victims. In some situations and seasons, the proportion 
of deaths, in severe cases, is supposed to have been more than one 
half of the number seized. One instance occurred, at a considerable 
distance from any place where the disease was known to exist, of 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 31 

the death of seven adult persons out of eight, belonging to four or 
five contiguous families, before the fifth day, and the eighth sur- 
vived but a few days longer. In other more favorable instances, 
and under a more improved and judicious mode of treatment, the 
number of deaths, it is said, has not exceeded one in sixty or 
eighty. In many instances of this formidable disease, Dr. Fow- 
ler's arsenical solution proved to be a remedy superior to any 
other that was employed. 

In the autumn of 1812, a formidable epidemic made its appear- 
ance among the soldiers of the United States' Army at Greenbush, 
and other military stations, where its desolating efiects were mark- 
ed with great severity. During the winter and spring of 1813, it 
was prevalent and extremely fatal among the inhabitants of Ver- 
mont, in the upper parts of the state of New-York, in several 
towns in the interior of Massachusetts and the state of Maine, as- 
suming a multitude of treacherous shapes, and triumphing over its 
victims with inexorable sway. This pestilence has been termed 
bilious peripneumony, or typhoid peripneumony, according to its 
various symptoms and forms ; and Dr. Thomas Miner has denomi- 
nated it typhus syncopalis. In some of its appearances and forms 
it may be identified with the petechial fever above mentioned, and, 
if it be a distinct disease, there is an obvious and close analogy in 
their nature and character. It has been remarked that the pete- 
chial fever produces a peculiar derangement of the functions of 
the brain, while this latter epidemic directs its morbid powers to 
the pleura, lungs, heart and its membranes. 

The university at Cambridge, Mass., has contributed to the in- 
terest and advancement of medical science, by an institution found- 
ed on the generous benefactions of several enlightened and liberal in- 
dividuals. Dr. Ezekiel Hersey, of Hingham, who died in 1770, be- 
queathed one thousand pounds, and his widow, at her decease, a 
like sum, to be applied to the support of a professor of anatomy 
and surgery. His brother, Dr. Abner Hersey, of Barnstable, who 
died in 1786, and Dr. John Cuming, of Concord, were also donors 
to the amount of five hundred pounds each for the same laudable 
purpose ; and William Erving, Esq. of Boston, left one thousand 
pounds towards the support of an additional professor. In conform- 
ity with the views of the patrons and donors, professors of talents 
and character were in 1782 appointed, by whom lectures on the 
several branches were regularly delivered, and students received 
the honors of the institution. In 1780, Dr. John Warren, while 
surgeon of a military hospital in Boston, commenced a course of 
anatomical lectures, and in the following year they were attended 
by the students of the university. Dr. Warren furnished a plan 
for a medical school which was adopted by the corporation of 
Harvard college, and he was appointed first professor of anatomy 
and surgery, Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse professor of the theory 
and practice of physic, and Dr. Aaron Dexter, professor of cheni- 



32 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

istry. This was the first essay made in New England, for the 
establishment of an institution for medical education. George 
Holmes Hall and John Fleet, were the first who were admitted 
in course to the degree of Doctor in Medicine at the university, iu 
the year 1788. From a spirit of envy and jealousy towards the 
professors, great opposition was made to the degree being confer- 
red upon the two candidates, and it was by the address and perse- 
verance of Dr. Warren, that the object was finally acomplished. 
In consequence of many inconveniences, both to professors and 
students, and of the superior advantages which might result from 
lectures delivered in a more populous situation, the Corporation 
and board of Overseers of Harvard University deemed it expe- 
dient to establish a medical school in the town of Boston. The 
several courses of lectures were accordingly transferred, and com- 
menced in that metropolis in December, 1810. The immediate 
accession to the number of students, presents the most abundant 
and conclusive evidence, that the high expectations entertained of 
the superior advantages, which would be realized by the removal 
from Cambridge, were not imaginary. The annual increase of 
numbers at the Boston school, and the favorable attestations that 
their labors are justly appreciated, must afi'ord the learned teach- 
ers the highest gratification. It must be conceded that the privi- 
leges and the means of acquiring medical knowledge, in our me- 
tropolis, are such as to justify the respect and full confidence of 
the public. The legislature of Massachusetts have granted the 
sum of $20,000 to Harvard University, for the liberal purpose of 
improvement in the department of medicine. The professors are 
furnished with a very valuable and extensive chemical apparatus, 
which, by recent improvements and additions, is supposed to be 
most complete of any to be found in the United States. The 
university is also indebted to the liberality of Elias H. Derby, 
Esq. of Salem, for a fine collection of curious imitations in wax of 
various parts of the human body from Italy. In addition to the 
foregoing donations, very important contributions have been re- 
ceived from Ward Nicholas Boylston, Esq. In the year 1798, 
this noble spirited gentleman secured to the college an annuity of 
one hundred and thirty-three dollars, one hundred dollars of the 
sum to be offered annually in prizes for three best dissertations on 
medical subjects. The subjects to be given out, and the prizes 
adjudged by a committee of medical gentlemen appointed by the 
corporation. The remainder of this annuity was to be carried 
annually to a fund for establishing an anatomical museum, and 
when the prizes are not assigned, that part of the annuity was to 
be added to the fund for the museum as above. For several years 
three prizes were offered, of late only two of fifty dollars each, or 
a medal of that value are proposed. In 1817, Mr. Boylston secu- 
red to the university an annuity of sixty dollars to be applied in 



illSTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. S3 

five premiums, two of fifteen, and three of ten dollars each, or 
medals of that value to those who should excel in elocution at a 
public trial in speaking the day after commencement ; the cor- 
poration to join with them five gentlemen as judges of the perform- 
ances. The college is also indebted to Mr. Boylston, for his 
good offices in behalf of the university, with his friend John Nich- 
olls, L.L. D. of London, who presented a valuable part of the 
injected anatomical preparations of his father, Dr. Frank, Nicholls, 
and a manuscript owned by Dr. Mead, an admirable specimen of 
chirography. Mr. Boylston is the founder at the university of 
the Boylston medical library, consisting at present of 900 volumes 
of select works in medicine and surgery. Premiums have been 
annually awarded, agreeably to the design of the founder, for in- 
genious and approved dissertations, which sufficiently evince that 
this generous establishment is well calculated to inspire the desired 
laudable emulation among professional men of the rising genera- 
tion, and to promote the interest of medical science in general.* 
Candidates for the degree of Doctor in Medicine must attend two 
courses of the lectures of each of the medical professors in this i 
university, and also their clinical practice in medicine and surgery ^ 
during their lectures. They must study two years under the 
direction of a regular practitioner of medicine, and allow a third 
to elapse before they can be examined. Provided, however, that, 
in extraordinary cases, the medical professors, with the consent of 
the president, may dispense with one course of lectures on such 
conditions as may be thought reasonable. Those who have not 
received a university education, must satisfy the president and 
medical professors, of their knowledge in the Latin language and 
in experimental philosophy. The examination of candidates 
commences on the second Wednesday after the termination of the 
winter course of lectures, and the subjects of their examination are 
anatomy, surgery and midwifery, the theory and practice of medi- 
cine, chemistry, materia medica and clinical medicine. Each of 
the candidates approved prepares an inaugural dissertation on 
some medical subject, which dissertation, having been submitted 
to the faculty of medicine, at least fourteen days before, is read 
and defended at a public examination, in the philosophy chamber 
at Cambridge, on the Friday preceding the last Wednesday iii 



* The annual proceeds of the Boylston fund amount to one hundred dollars, 
which are divided into two premiums, to be awarded as above mentioned. Mr. 
Boylston has recently established another prize fund in connexion with the Boyls- 
ton Medical Society, particularly for the medical class attending lectures in the 
university, and designed esjjecially to improve young men in the style of writing 
on medical subjects. This jiistitution has already produced very beneficial effects. 
We rejoice that the valuable life of the liberal minded donor has been protracted to 
witness the great utility of his munificence ; and it should be gratefully acknow- 
ledged that he has devoted his wealth and influence to the promotion of medical 
•cience to a greater e:<tont than any other individunl in America. 



34 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

August, in presence of the governors and instructors of the univer- 
sity, and such members of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and 
other individuals as may choose to attend. Each successful candi- 
date is admitted to receive the degree of Doctor in Medicine, at 
the ensuing commencement. In the year 1809, John C. Warren, 
M, D. was associated with his father as adjunct professor of anat- 
omy and surgery, and John Gorham, M. D. adjunct professor of 
chemistry ; and in 1812, James Jackson, M. D. superseded Dr. 
B. Waterhouse, as professor of the theory and practice of physic. 
November 1st. 1815, John C. Warren, M. D. was inaugurated at 
the University Hall, professor of anatomy and surgery, as succes- 
sor to the' late lamented Professor Warren, who held that station 
for many years with great honor to himself and advantage to the 
institution, and who was no less distinguished for his talents and 
virtues than zeal and success in performing the arduous duties of 
his profession. On this occasion was announced the appointment 
of Jacob IVigelow, M. D. as lecturer on materia medica, and Wal- 
ter C banning, M. D. as lecturer on the theory and practice of 
midwifery in the university. The present professors are 

John C. Warren, INI. D. Professor of Anatomij and Surgery. 

John W. Webster, M. D. Professor of Chcmistri/. 

Walter C banning, M. D. Professor of Midwifery and Medical 

Jurisprudence. 
Jacob Bigelow, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica. 
James Jackson, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 

Physic. 

Berkshire Medical Institution, was founded in 1822, and located 
at Pittsfield, under the charter of Williams College. Professors, 

John P. Batchelder, INI. D. Professor of Surgery and Physi- 
ology. 

John i). Wells, M. D. Professor of General Anatomy and Phy- 
siology. 

Henry H. Childs, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Physic. 

John Delamatter, M. D. Professor of Pharmacy, Materia Med- 
ica and Obstetrics. 

Chester Dewey, A. M. Professor of Chemistry, Botany, 3Iiner- 
alogy, and Natural Philosophy. 

Stephen W. Williams, M. D. Professor of Medical Jurispru- 
dence. 

The legislature of Massachusetts having endowed the university 
with funds for the erection of a college of medicine, a commodious 
edifice has been erected in Boston,* and the lectures of Harvard 

* The Massachusetts Medical College, erected 1815, is situated in Mason- 
street near the Boston Common and Mall. The building is of brick, 88 feet in 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 33 

University commence in the lecture room annually, on the third 
Wednesday in October, and continue three months. During 
the lectures the students are supplied gratuitously with sets of 
osteological specimens for study, and can have the use of the dis- 
secting room, on defraying the attendant expenses. They are 
admitted without any expense to the surgical operations and clinical 
practice of the Hospital. The faculty of medicine in Harvard 
University have founded by their private donations a library for 
the use of the students in medicine. The Boston medical librar}', 
consisting of nearly 2000 volumes, is now united with it, and 
deposited in the Medical College. These highly valuable collec- 
tions of medical books, will afford a supply amply sufficient for all 
the purposes of students in each of the principal departments of 
medical science. A hall in the new building is appropriated and 
furnished with every necessary aid and convenience for the study 
of anatomy. Students have the aid of private demonstrations on 
any part they may prepare for the purpose, and every conve- 
nience is furnished to assist them in making preparations for their 
own use. The number of subjects for demonstration is as great 
as could be wished. The Massachusetts general Hospital institu- 
tion was incorporated February 12th, 1811, and the Legislature 
endowed the corporation with the estate commonly called the Old 
Province House and land to be sold at the discretion of the said 
corporation and the proceeds to be applied as a foundation of a 
General Hospital, There are two separate departments of the 
Institution, the one called '' The General Hospital," the other 
" The Asylum for the Insane." These are to be kept locally 
separate from each other, and the whole establishment is commit- 
ted to the immediate direction of twelve trustees, to be chosen 
annually by the corporation, except four, who are to be chosen by 
a board of visitors appointed by the government. 

The As3'him for the Insane has been established in a very eli- 
gible situation in Charlestown, and was opened for the reception 
of boarders October 1st, 1818. 

length, and 43 in its greatest breadth. Its figure is oblong, with a pediment in 
front, and an octagonal centre rising above the roof, and also forming a three-sided 
projection in the rear of the building. This is surmounted by a dome, with a sky-, 
light and balustrade, giving an appearance of elegance to the neatness ajid fit pro- 
portion of the building. The apartments on the first floor are, a spacious medical 
lecture room of a square form, with ascending semi-circular seats; a large chemical 
lecture room in the centre, of an octagonal form, with ascending seats ; a chemical 
laboratory, fitted up with furnaces and accommodations for the costly apparatus ■ 
used in the lectures ; and a room to be occupied by the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, which is filled by a medical library, already consisting of 3 or 4000 vol- 
umes. In the second story is the anatomical theatre, the most extensive room, 
occupying the whole central part of the building, covered with the dome and sky- 
light ; with semi-circular seats, which are entered from above, and descend regu- 
larly toward the centre. In this theatre are placed a beautiful statue of the Venus of 
Medici, and a noble cast of the Apollo of Belvedere, designed to illustrate the ex- 
ternal forms of the human body. A large and a small room for practical anatomy, 
together with another for the museum, occupy the extremities of the same story. 



36 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

The corner stone of the General Hospital was laid in Boston, 
on the 4th of July 1818, in masonic form, in presence of the Gov- 
ernor and Lieutenant Governor. This hospital was opened for 
the reception of patients in Septemher 1821. The Massachusetts 
General Hospital is one of the most flourishing institutions in the 
United States, having received, within a few years, more than 
$300,000 in private donations, in addition to its previous liberal 
endowment from the state legislature. Some of the most splen- 
did instances of public generosity which the present age has wit- 
nessed, are to be found among the benefactions to the Massachu- 
setts General Hospital. While this institution gives accommoda- 
tion to the full extent of its means to the sick poor, it gives also 
admission to the students of the medical class attending the lec- 
tures of the physician and surgeon. Regular clinical lectures are 
now given during the winter by the professor of the theory and 
practice of physic, and students are admitted to the patients, to 
enable them to become practically conversant with the symptoms 
of diseases and the operation and influence of medicinal agents. 
It is obvious that the privilege of gratuitous admission to so exten- 
sive a course of medical and surgical practice, is an advantage not 
usually attainable in medical schools, and one of the highest im- 
portance which can be offered during the period of preparation 
for the medical profession. The number of beds provided for 
patients is at present one hundred ; and the number of surgical 
operations of magnitude, performed in this hospital during the 
first two years and nine months, amounts to one hundred and 
twenty. The cleanliness, punctuality, and order observed at the 
hospital, the regular and daily attendance of the physician and 
surgeon, the care and attention in selecting suitable persons to 
serve as nurses and attendants on the sick, all combine to render 
this a most eligible and convenient asylum for those who may labor 
under chronic diseases, requiring the assistance of the most skilful 
physician and surgeon. 

Acting Surgeon^ John C. Warren, M. D. 

Assistant Surgeon^ George Hayward, M. D. 

Acting Physician, James Jackson, M. D. 

Assistant Physician^ Walter Channing, M. D, 

For obtaining admission, application in writing, mentioning the 
place of residence of the patient, must be left at the hospital. 
The physician or surgeon visits such patient if residing in Boston ; 
and, if the patient is free from a contagious disorder, and is a fit 
subject for the Hospital, a certificate of admission is granted. If 
such patient does not reside in Boston, the application must be 
accompanied with a certificate from a respectable physician, stat- 
ing that the patient is free from contagious disorder, &.c. The 
visiting committee fixes the rate of board, which in every case is 
as low as the funds will permit. The sum fixed, includes medi- 
cines, medical attendance, nursing, food, and every other expense. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 37 

In case of accidents or sudden disease, the patients are received 
without delay, and strangers are admitted on the same conditions 
as others. A bond is required for tlic payment of the patient's 
board. 

The Asylum for the Insane at Charlestown, is also an estab- 
lishment of the highest importance, it enjoys one of the most 
salubrious situations in that vicinity, and is provided with every 
accommodation and convenience for the comfort and support of 
its unfortunate inmates. John McLean, Esq. late of Boston, at 
his decease, left the sum of one hundred thousand dollars to be 
added to its funds. In consequence of which, the Asylum has 
taken the name of the munificent benefactor, and is hereafter to be 
called the McLean Asylum for the Insane. It is under the su- 
perintendence of Rufus Wyman, M. D. an able and experienced 
physician, whose character for humanity and faithfulness is unques- 
tionable, and whose mode of treatment has been attended with 
remarkable success, a large proportion of recent cases having 
been cured. Every application for admission must be in writing, 
and accompanied with, 1. A certificate that the candidate is insane, 
and free from contagious disease ; 2. A certificate of his or her 
property, and of any friends liable for his or her maintenance ; 3. 
A certificate of the ability of the persons proposed as principal 
and surety in the obligation for payment of board ; 4. A history 
of the case from its commencement, and the medical treatment. 
No boarders can be visited except by near relatives, or by others 
at their request in writing. 

The establishment of a botanic garden at Cambridge, will 
doubtless prove, at a future period, an excellent auxiliary to the 
study of botany and pharmacy, and facilitate a knowledge of the 
indigenous plants of the country, and their introduction into our 
materia medica. Two townships of Eastern land have been grant- 
ed by our legislature, and a subscription of $30,000 was obtained, 
for the purchase of land, and other expenses of this valuable estab- 
lishment. The situation afl"ords the best advantages for the estab- 
lishment, and the systematic arrangement adopled has been judi- 
cious and useful. It was for several years under the management 
of AVilliam D. Peck,* as professor of Natural History, and a board 

* William Dandridge Peck, Es(]. formerly Professor of Natural History in Har- 
vard University, merits a grateful recollection for his indefatigable labors in the pur- 
suit of knowledge in the various branches pertaining to his professorship. For nearly 
twenty years his mind was most assiduously and intently devoted to the pursuits 
to which the bent of his genius and taste inclined him. Mr. reck under numer- 
ous disadvantages so cultivated his mind as to become an able and profound bota- 
nist, and his knowledge of natural history was more extensive than that of any other 
individual in this part of the United States, perhaps in the nation. He was elected 
the first Professor of Natural History at Cambridge, in which he continued until 
his death, which took place in September 1822. He was a good classical scholar, 
he was fond of painting, and sculpture, and architecture, without professing to 
have skill in them. No man who ever saw the exquisite accuracy and fidelity with 
which he sketched the subjects of his peculiar pursuits, would doubt the refinement 
of hie taste. In social life, his virtues were of that pure and simple cast which a 



38 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

of trustees, of which the president of the Medical Society is ez 
officio a member. 

The Massachusetts Medical Society was incorporated by an 
act of the legislature in 1781, and in the following June, was 
organized, and Edward A. Holyoke, M. D., of Salem, elected the 
first president. By several subsequent acts the constitution and 
by-laws have been so altered and reformed, as more effectually to 
promote the views and designs of the founders of this excellent 
institution. In the act of incorporation, the legislature have dis- 
closed their views of the high importance of medical regulations 
and establishments, formed on liberal principles and fostered by 
the patronage of the government. They premise, that " It is 
clearly of importance that a just discrimination should be made 
between such as are duly educated and properly qualified for the 
duties of tiieir profession, and those who may ignorantly and 
wickedly administer medicine, whereby the health and lives of 
many valuable individuals may be endangered, or perhaps lost to 
the community." The society is therefore " authorized and re- 
quired to appoint censors or examiners of candidates, and to license 
such as may be found qualified for practice ; to devise and direct 
such S3'stematic mode of medical instruction as might be deemed 
requisite for candidates previous to examination, and to increase 
and dilfuse medical knowledge." In order to subserve the views 
of the legislature, and to render the society extensively beneficial, 
it seemed desirable to unite and associate, as far as practicable, 
into one harmonious body of brothers, all the meritorious part of 
the medical practitioners in tiie Commonwealth. For this pur- 
pose, great exertions have been made by the counsellors and fel- 
lows, since their organization, to select those gentlemen whose 
education and respectability as physicians or surgeons Justly enti- 
tle them to the honors and privileges of the society. The object 
in view is now accomplished, and the society consists of three 
hundred fellows, exclusively of honorary members and licentiates 
entitled to become menibers. The stated meeting of the society 
is on the first \Vediiesday of June annually, when a discourse on 
a subject connected with medical science is delivered by one of 
the ielluws. At the annual meeting, a projier number of the fel- 
lows in the several counties of the state are elected by ballot to 
officiate as counsellors. This branch is authorized to elect fellows 
and honorary members, to appoint the officers of the corporation, 
to establish district societies, and, in general, to watch over and 
promote the irflerest of tiie Institution. The stated meetings of the 
council are on the day following the annual meeting of the society, 
and the fust Wednesdays in October and February. The cen- 
sors meet for the examination of candidates for practice, on the 

life devoted to such innocent and delightful pursuits, was calculated to produce. 
Since the decease of Professor Peck, the botanic garden lias been committed to the 
direction of Mr. Nuttall. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 89 

Thursday next preceding the annual meeting of the society, on the 
days following the meetings of the council in October and Feb- 
ruary, and on special occasions, when the president by his written 
order may direct. The modes provided for admission into this 
society afford a facility which cannot fail of being satisfactory. 
Licentiates of the society and medical graduates at Harvard Uni- 
versity, who have been reputably engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine three years from the reception of the license or diploma, and 
have supported an honorable private character, may claim a right 
of admission. The counsellors and fellows, having labored with 
unwearied assiduity to establish this institution on a respectable 
foundation, and having imbibed a tenacious concern for its dignity 
and interest, it was not to be expected that persons of deficient 
education or undeserving character, would be admitted to a parti- 
cipation of its honors and privileges ; accordingly the by-laws pro- 
vide that no person educated within the commonwealth sliall be 
admitted to an examination by the censors of the society, or by 
those of any district society, unless he have the following qualifi- 
cations. 1. He shall have such an acquaintance with the Greek 
and Latin languages as is necessary for a medical or surgical edu- 
cation, and with the principles of geometry and experimental phi- 
losophy. 2. He shall have attended two full courses of Jectures, 
and studied three full years under the direction, and attended the 
practice of some one or more of the fellows or honorary members 
of the society ; during which time he shall have studied the most 
approved authors in Anatomy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Sur- 
gery, Midwifery and the Theory and Practice of Medicine ; or, 
at least, all those which the counsellors shall from time to time 
specify as constituting a proper course of medical or surgical edu- 
cation. No person educated out of this commonwealth, shall be 
admitted to an examination either by the censors of the society, 
or of those of any district society, unless he have the qualifications 
specified in the first of the articles above mentioned, and, instead 
of those required in the second, shall have studied three full years 
under the direction, and attended the practice of some reputable 
physician or physicians, surgeon or surgeons, as the case may be. 
To promote the laudable design of the legislature in incorporating 
this society, to prevent, as far as may be, all unqualified persons 
from practising medicine or surgery, and in order to discourage 
empiricism and quackery, it shall be deemed disreputable, and 
shall be unlawful for any fellow of this society, in the capacity of 
physician or surgeon, to advise or consult with any person, who, 
having been a fellow of the society, shall be expelled therefrom ; 
or with any person whatever, who shall hereafter commence the 
practice of medicine or surgery within this commonwealth, until 
he shall have been duly examined and approbated by the censors 
of the society, or by those of some district society, or shall have 



40 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA* 

received a degree of Bachelor or Doctor of Medicine at Harvard 
University; or, (in case he shall have been educated in, or come 
from some other state or foreign country,) shall have produced to 
the censors of the society, or those of the district wherein he re- 
sides, such evidence or testimonials of iiis qualifications for the 
practice of medicine or surgery, as they deem and certify to be 
sufficient to entitle him to the privileges of a physician or surgeon 
regularly introduced. And every fellow of the society who shall 
abet or assist any person not so qualified, by affording him assist- 
ance in the capacity of physician or surgeon, sliall, for such offence, 
be disqualified from giving his vote at any meeting of the society, 
or of the district society whereof he is a member, for one year: 
shall be liable to the censure and reprimand of the counsellors, 
and, in aggravated cases, to expulsion. " If any fellow of the 
society shdiil publich/ advertise for sale any medicine, the composi- 
tion of which he keeps a secret, or shall, in like manner, offer to 
cure any disease by any such secret medicine, he shall be liable to 
expulsion, or such other penalty as the society, at their annual 
meeting, may think proper to inflict." 

It is the duty of the counsellors, once in three years, to publish 
a list of the most approved books which should be read by medi- 
cal students. The act of the legislature, in the year 1813, author- 
izes the organization of district societies by the counsellors, on ap- 
plication of any two members of the society. In 1810, the legis- 
lature extended their liberal patronage and encouragement to this 
society, by a grant of a township of Eastern land for its support, 
and they have exempted the fellows from serving in the militia, as 
a remuneration, in some degree, for their expense and exertions in 
promoting an institution of public interest and concern.* By an 
act of the legislature, passed February 19th, 1819, it is provided, 
" That no person entering upon the practice of medicine or surge- 
ry after the first day of July, 1819, shall be entitled to the benefit 
of law, for the recovery of any debt or fee accruing from his pro- 
fessional services, unless he shall, previously to rendering those 
services, have been licensed by the censors of the society, or those 
of some district society, or shall have been graduated a Doctor of 
Medicine in Harvard University." 



* The Presidents of the Massachusetts Medical Society, from the period of its 
first organization : — Edward A. Holyoke, M. D., 1782 ; William Kneeland, M. D., 
1784; Edward A. Holyoke, M. D., 1786; Cotton Tufts, M. D., 1787; Samuel 
Danforth, M. D., 1795 ; Isaac Rand, M. D., 1798; John Warren, M. D., 1804; 
Joshua Fisher, M. D,, 1815 ; John Brooks, M. D., 1823. 

Officers elected 1825 and 1826. 
President, James Jackson, M. D. 
Vice President, Abraham Haskell, M. D. 
Corresponding Secretary, John Dixwell, M. D. 
Recording Secretary, John Gorham, M. D. 
Treasurer, Jacob Bigelow, M. D. 
Librarian and Cabinet Keeper, George Hay ward, M. D. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 41 

The most salutary and beneficial effects have already resulted to 
the community from the association thus patronised by the govern- 
ment. By fiiir the greater portion of respectable practitioners of 
medicine and surgery establislied in business in the commonwealth, 
are associated and cemented into one learned body, whose efforts 
are continually directed to the extension and increase of medical 
knowledge. Tlieir united and individual influence is exerted in 
favor of a regular system of medical education, and in discounte- 
nancing those who undertake the important business of the profes- 
sion, without being qualified for the great and serious duties it im- 
poses. They are, moreover, in some respects alert and vigilant 
guardians of tlie public health and welfare, regarding with peculiar 
interest the occurrence of every epidemic, or other disease, which 
may assail the inhabitants of our country. The judicious mea- 
sures adopted by the counsellors relative to the cowpox in 1808, 
and the spotted fever in 1810, have already been mentioned, and 
reference may be had to the society's communications for the de- 
tailed particulars of their valuable reports. At an early period of 
this institution (1790), the society published their first number of 
medical papers, containing a selection of im])ortant communica- 
tions, and a third volume has now been published and distributed 
among the fellows of the society. In the second volume will be 
found a brilliant dissertation on the mercurial practice in febrile 
diseases, by John Warren, M. D., then president of the society. 

We should not omit to mention that the Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cut- 
ler, of Hamilton, Massachusetts, presented to the Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, a valuable account of indigenous vegetables, the 
produce of New-England, botanically arranged. His collection is 
very numerous, and may be considered an honorable attestation of 
his indefatigable industry and zeal in the cause of botanical 
science, at a period when the subject was almost entirely neglect- 
ed. This production was communicated to the Academy in the 
year 1784, and was published in their first volume. Many of the 
medical plants which Dr. Cutler first brought into notice, have 
been since introduced as valuable articles in our materia medica. 
He was respected for his dignified character as a divine, distin- 
guished for piety, and learned in the sciences ; he was elected an 
honorary member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and his 
fellow citizens elected him to represent his district in Congress, 
which station he filled with dignity and usefulness. 

In the year 1808 the Massachusetts Medical Society appointed 
James Jackson, M. D. and John C. Warren, M. D. a committee to 
prepare a Pharmacnpaia conformable to the modern chemical no- 
menclatiH'c, and designed to establish uniformity in the prescrip- 
tions of physicians, wliich was published by the society, and which 
was afterwards adopted by the IMedical Society of New Hamp- 
shire for use in that state. This production was also adopted by 
the present author as the basis of" The Ameriran New Dispnna- 
6 



42 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

tory^'' which was approbated by a committee chosen by the so- 
ciety. This work has now gone through the fourth edition, and 
being an attempt to introduce many indigenous vegetables as arti- 
cles of our materia medica, it is hoped may still be found useful 
among the practitioners of our country. 

The New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery has been 
established in Boston since the year 1812. It is now entitled. 
The New England Medical Review and Journal ; and is a work of 
superior merit and utility, which reflects great honor on the learn- 
ed and indefatigable editors, and on the medical character of the 
metropolis of Massachusetts. The Medical Intelligencer is pub- 
lished in Boston, in the form of a weekly paper. The able editor 
is entitled to great praise for the judicious manner in which this 
useful publication is conducted. 



A. See page 22. 

Dr. Dalhonde's Deposition. 

" First. About twenty-five years ago, I was at Cremona, in Ita- 
ly, in the French army, where there were thirteen soldiers upon 
whom this operation was performed, of which operation four died ; 
six recovered with abundance of trouble and care, being seized 
with parotidal tumors and a large inflammation of the throat. One 
of them was opened ; his diaphragm was found livid, the glands of 
the pancreas tumefied, and the caul gangrened. On the other 
three the operation had no effect. Secondly. In the year 1701, 
being in Flanders, there was committed to my care one Captain 
Hussart, taken ill of the smallpox, who told me in these very 
words : Ten years ago I was inoculated five or six times without 
that cursed invention taking eflect upon me ; must I then perish ? 
He was so violently seized that he had several ulcers upon his bo- 
dy, especially one upon his arm, which occasioned a lameness there 
of through life. Thirdly. At the battle of Almanza, in Spain, the 
smallpox being in the army, two Muscovite soldiers had the ope- 
ration performed upon them ; one recovered, the other received 
no impression, but six weeks thereafter was seized with a frenzy, 
and swelled all over his body. They, not calling to mind that the 
operation had been performed upon him, believed that he had 
been poisoned. It was ordered by two of the King of Spain's 
physicians, that the body should be opened. His lungs were found 
ulcerated; from whence they concluded it was the eflect of that 
corruption, which having infected the lymph did throw itself upon 
that vital part, which occasioned his sudden death. By me. 

Dr. Lawrence Dalhonde." 
^^ Boston, July 22d, 1721. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA 43 

*' The foregoing is a true translation from tlie declaration made 
in French by Dr. Dalhonde, done at the instance and reqncst of 
the Selectmen of the town of Boston. By William Douglass. 

" Jurat coram nobis. Joseph Marion. 

" Tim. Clark, ? j p „ 
" Wm. Welsted, 5 ''"*^- ^"^• 

In England the opposition to the new practice of inoculation, 
appears to have been even more virulent than in Boston. Dr. 
Wagstaffe, a man of high medical standing, invidiously remarked 
" that posterity will scarcely be brought to believe that an experi- 
ment, practised only by a few ignorant women, should so far ob- 
tain in one of the politest nations in the world, as to be received 
into the royal palace." One of their writers declared " this new 
practice to be founded in atheism, quackery and avarice, which 
push men to all the hellish practices imaginable ; men murthcr 
fathers, mothers, relations and innocent children, and any that 
stand in the way of their wicked desires." But this declaration 
was exceeded by a singular sermon preached by the Rev. INIr. 
Massey, on Sunday, July 8th, 1722, against " The Dangerous and 
Sinful Practice of Inoculation," in which he bestows upon tho 
inoculators the most opprobrious epithets, as diabolical sorcerers, 
hellish vencfici, &c. &c. His text was very appropriate : " So 
went Satan forth from the yreseyice of the Lord, and smote Job 
icith sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown." Tho 
deluded preacher would have it understood that the Devil jvas the 
first inoculator, and that poor Job was his first patient.* Hence 
he terms inoculation " a diabolical operation, and an anti-provi- 
dential project, that insults our religion, and banishes Providence 
out of the world." It was alleged by the friends of inoculation 
that the practice may be justified upon the principle of curing na- 
tural, by raising artificial diseases. " What is bleeding, but an 
artificial hfemorrhagy ? purging, but raising an artificial diarrhoea ? 
Are not blisters, issues and setons, artificial imposthumations ?" To 
this it was replied, " Very good, sir ; but go on : what is correction 
at the cart's tail, but the noble art of muscular phlebotomy ? What 
is burning in the hand, but the art of applying a caustic ? What 
is hanging, but an artificial quinsy, which makes the patient feci 
for the ground, and chokes him ? What is breaking on the wheel, 
but the art of dislocations and fractures, and diflers from the 
wounds and amputations of surgeons only by the manner and in- 
tention ?" 



* This conceit of the reverend divine gave rise to the following epigram, pub- 
lislicd in the Monthly Miscellany for March, 1774 : 

We're told by one of the black robe, 
The Devil inoculated Job. 
Suppose 'tis true, what he docs tell. 
Pray, neighbors, did not Job do well ? 

I'Voodville on Jnoculalion. 



44 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

No instance of inoculation was known in Europe, until the 
daughter of Lady Mary W. Montague was inoculated by Mr. Mait- 
land, her surgeon, in April, 1721 ; and the next was the son of Dr. 
Keith, on the 11th of May following. The Princess Caroline of 
"Wales, having nearly lost one of her daughters, Princess Ann, by 
natural smallpox, became extremely solicitous to preserve her 
other children by means of inoculation ; but not satisfied of its 
safety and utility, she interceded with the king, her father, for the 
pardon of six criminals, that they might be the subjects of the ex- 
periment ; and they were inoculated at Newgate on the 9th of 
August, 1721. One of these, however, had the address to con- 
ceal the fact that he had previously undergone the smallpox. All 
of them recovered, and all escaped the halter. After this, a fe- 
male convict was reprieved, and, variolous matter being introduced 
into her nostrils, she also escaped with a slight indisposition. But 
still more to confirm the confidence of the Princess of Wales in its 
safety, she directed, early in the spring of 1722, the experiment to 
be made first upon six, and afterwards upon five, charity children, 
in all of whom it was attended with the desired success. The 
princess now consulted the celebrated Sir Hans Sloane, the court 
physician, respecting the propriety and safety of inoculating her 
children. Sir Hans being cautious in his reply, the Princess in- 
quired if it was his desire to dissuade her from it, and being an- 
swered in the negative, she said " then I am resolved it shall be 
done," and directed Sir Hans to wait on the king, George the 
First. His Majesty readily concurring, the Princesses Amelia and 
Caroline were, on the 19th of April, 1722, inoculated by Serjeant 
Surgeon Amy, and under the direction of Sir Hans Sloane. In the 
year 1724 inoculation was a second time introduced into the royal 
family. His royal Highness, Prince Frederick, aged 18 years, was 
inoculated by Mr. Maitland, at the court at Hanover, on the first 
of May, 1724 ; and his royal Highness, Prince William, was about 
the same time inoculated in London, by the king's Serjeant Sur- 
geon Amy, and under the direction of the court physician, Sir 
Hans Sloane. Both of these princes went through the disease in 
the mildest manner. Prince Frederick having not more than from 
eleven to eighteen pustules. In the years 1721 and 1722, one 
hundred and eighty-two persons were inoculated ; and in 1723 
two hundred and ninety-two were the subjects of the operation in 
England. But from June, 1721, to the first part of the year 
1722, Dr. Boylston inoculated two hundred and forty-seven, and 
thirty-nine were inoculated by other persons jn Boston and its 
vicinity. 

The foregoing statement is compiled from Woodville's History 
of Inoculation, published 1796, and Moore's, published 1815. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 45 

STATE OF MAINE. 

This district of Massachusetts, before the separation, possessed 
little claim to the merit of contributing to the improvement of med- 
ical science ; a scattered settlement over an extensive country 
affords no facilities of union and enterprise in scientific pursuits. 
There were, however, some individuals who sustained the honor 
of the profession, and were eminently useful in their day. Among 
these Dr. Nathaniel Coffm (h), the elder, and Nathaniel Coffm, 
M. D. (b), of Portland, were for many years the leading characters 
in that district. Dr. Kinsman, of Portland, Dr. Jones, of North 
Yarmouth, and Dr. Benjamin Page (b), of Ilallowell, were re- 
spectable and popular practitioners. Dr. Samuel Adams, of Bath, 
was for some time a surgeon in the American army ; he was a 
skilful physician, and an amiable and virtuous man, and in after 
life religion and piety were leading traits in his character. Dr. 
A. R. Mitchill (b), of North Yarmouth, was a man of great popu- 
larity as a physician, as well as for his useful services in political 
life, and his practical religious virtues. Dr. Thomas Rice, of Wis- 
casset, was much esteemed, and enjoyed extensive practice. 

The epidemic termed spotted fever, made its appearance in 
1810, and till 1816 prevailed at Ilallowell and its vicinity with 
great severity. It fell to the lot of the present Dr. Benjamin 
Page, of Ilallowell, to devote a large portion of his attention to the 
sick during the prevalence of this epidemic ; more than two thou- 
sand cases fell under his observation, and he is entitled to much 
honor and the gratitude of the public for his correct observation, 
his indefatigable industry, and his very judicious mode of treat- 
ment, by which the disease was divested in a great measure of its 
malignity and fatal tendency.* In 1820 the Medical School of 
Maine, was established at Brunswick, under the charter of Bow- 
doin college. This school has three professorships. 

Parker Cleaveland, M. D. Professor of Chemistry and Materia 

Mtdica. 
Nathan Smith, M. D. Lecturer on the Theory and Practice of 

Physic and Surgery. 
John D. Wells, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 

There is a medical society of respectable standing in that state, 
of which the Hon. Daniel Coney was for several years the presi- 
dent. He yet survives, venerable in years and steadfast in moral 
rectitude and public virtue. 

* See tlie American Modern Practice, new edition, p. 344. 



46 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

In this state many medical characters rendered their names con- 
spicuous for professional knowledge at a period when public med- 
ical institutions were unknown in New England. The most mer- 
itorious of these were Joshua Brackett, M. D. ('ftj, Dr. Josiah 
Bartlett (b), the two Drs. Cuttev (b), Dr. Clement Jackson (b). 
Dr. Hall Jackson (b)^ and Samuel Tenney, M. D. (b). Sinco 
the establishment of the medical school at Hanover, it has honora- 
bly supported the medical character of the state, and has sent forth 
to public suffrage men- of eminent attainments and signal use- 
fulness. The Medical School of Dartmouth College, at Hanover^ 
was founded by the enterprise of Dr. Nathan Smith, who in 1798 
was appointed sole professor of the school, and for twelve years 
gave lectures on the different branches of medicine, except two 
courses, in which he was assisted in the department of chemistry. 
Present professors : — 

Reuben D. Mussey, M. D. Professor of Anatomy, Surgery and 

Obstetrics. 
Daniel Oliver, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 

Physic and Physiology. 
Benjamin Hale, A. M. Professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy and 

Materia Medica. 

An infirmary has been instituted at Hanover, to which indigent 
patients may resort for surgical operations and medical attendance 
gratis ; and the medical class have the privilege of being present 
at the operations. 

A medical society was incorporated by the legislature of the 
state in the year 1791, which now consists of about 160 fellows. 
They have adopted a system of laws and regulations similar to 
those of Massachusetts. 



STATE OF VERMONT. 

A VERY limited knowledge only can be obtained respecting the 
medical character of Vermont. It is but recently that attempts 
were made to establish institutions for medical instruction ; but 
(heir zeal in the good cause has produced two establishments of 
that description, which now exist in the state. Vennont Academy 
of Medicine, established at Castleton in 1818. 

William Tully, M. D. President and Professor of the Theory 
and Practice of Physic ayid Medical Jtirisprudence. 

Theodore Woodward, M, D. Professor of the Principles and. 
Practice of Surgery, Obstetrics, and Diseases of Women and 
Children. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINF, IN AMKRICA. 47 

Alden March, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 

Jonatlian A. Allen, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy. 

Lewis C. Beck, M. D. Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
History. 

Amos Eaton, Esq. (of Troy, N. Y.) Professor of Natural Phi- 
losophy. 

Medical School of Vermont, organized at Burlington in 1822. 

Henry S. Waterhouse, M. D. Professor of Surgery and Ob- 
stetrics. 

George W. Benedict, A. M. Professor of Mathematics, Natural 
Philosophy and Chemistry. 

John Bell, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 

William Sweetser, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Physic and of Materia Medica. 



STATE OF RHODE-ISLAND. 

Medical science has received considerable patronage in this state 
from an early period of its history. The family of Boweu (h) has 
enjoyed for more than a century a wide spreading fame for their 
medical character, and for their patriotic virtues. The first of the 
name emigrated to that colony in 1640. John Bret, M. D. emigra- 
ted to this country and settled at Newport about 1740. He was a 
pupil of the much celebrated Dr. Boerhaave, and a graduate at the 
university of Leyden. He acquired great reputation in consequence 
of the extended fame of his preceptor, Thomas Moffat, M. D. a 
learned Scotch physician, arrived in this country and settled in 
llhode-Island in 1750. He was often consulted in diflicult cases, 
but was driven out of the country in 177- on account of his political 
opinions. Dr. Thomas Rodman came over at the same time and 
settled at Newport. William Hunter, M. D. (&), a native of Scot- 
land, was educated under the elder JNlonro at Edinburgh, came to 
Rhode-Island about the year 1752, and gave lectures on anatomy 
at Newport in the years 1754, 5, and 6, which have been consid- 
ered the first lectures given on medical subjects in New England, 
if not in America. 

The medical department of Brown University was organized at 
Providence in 1821. 

Levi Wheaton, M. D. Professor of the Theory aud Practice of 

Physic and Obstetrics. 
John DeWolf, A. M. Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy. 
Usher Parsons, M. D. Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and 

Surgery. 



48 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

Solomon Drown, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and 
Jiotany. 

There is also in this state a respectable Medical Society, con- 
sisting of nearly all its regularl}' educated physicians. 

In the years 1797? 1800 and 1805, the town of Providence was 
visited by the yellow fever, which was supposed to have been 
imported from the West Indies, and which occasioned very con- 
siderable mortality. On these occasions Dr. Pardon Bowen en- 
gaged with a laudable zeal and assiduity in the investigation of the 
subject, and in the most satisfactory manner traced the origin and 
progress of the deadly pestilence. His communications on the 
subject have been published in the 4th volume of the American 
JMedical and Philosophical Register, by Professors Hosack and 
Francis of New-York. 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT, 

Among the earliest settlers of Connecticut colony, was the 
Hon. John Winthrop, who in 1662 was made the first governor 
of the colony under the charter which he procured of Charles II. 
He was the eldest son of the first governor of Massachusetts, and 
was an eminent physician, and one of the founders of the Royal 
Society, being in England at the time as agent for the colony. 
He died 1676, aged 71. The Rev. Jared Elliot (6) was the next 
physician of distinction in the colony. He died 1763. The Rev. 
Phinehas Fisk was his contemporary and friend, and was particu- 
larly distinguished for the cure of epilepsy and insanit3\ Dr. 
John Ely was born at Lyme, 1743. He practised in Saybrook, 
and was the first physician who regularly practised inoculation 
for the smallpox in the state. He erected a hospital, where he 
pursued the business of inoculation for several years. The cool 
regimen for the smallpox, was generally practised there, success- 
fully, earlier than in Europe. During the revolutionary war Dr. 
Ely was a colonel of a regiment, and was early made prisoner and 
carried to New-York ; on account of his skilful services and 
attention bestowed on his fellow prisoners, he was suffered to re- 
main in captivity three years for their benefit. He died in 1800, 
aged 63 years. Dr. Josiah Rose was a native of Wethersfield, 
and received his medical education under Dr. Dalhonde, of Bos- 
ton, and for several years served as surgeon on board of a ship. 
He was considered as one of the ablest practitioners both in 
physic and surgery of his day. He had five sons who were edu- 
cated to the profession, two of whom were surgeons of regiments 
during the war of independence. He died in 1786, aged 70 
years. Dr. John Bird, of Litchfield, Dr. Perry, senior, of Wood- 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 49 

bury, Dr. James Potter, of New Fairficltl, Dr. William Jcpson, of 
Hartford, were all prominent professional characters of the last 
century. Hon. John Bulkeley was born at Colchester in 1704. 
He was educated at Harvard college, and was afterwards instruct- 
ed in the two professions of divinity and medicine. He was con- 
sidered as a man of talents, and well versed in all the literature and 
science of the day ; and in law and politics, he was no loss dis- 
tinguished than in medicine. He sustained the various oflices of 
colonel of the militia, member of the legislature, judge of the su- 
preme court, and was one of the most popular characters in Con- 
necticut. He died about the year 1754. Dr. John Simpson, 
Dr. John Noyes, Dr. John Watrous and Dr. John Rose, were all 
respectable surgeons in the American army, and in private life 
were held in estimation for professional merit and benevolence of 
character. Dr. Benjamin Gale (6) published a treatise about the 
year 1750, in which he advocated the utility of a course of mer- 
cury as a preparative for smallpox by inoculation, affirming 
that before that practice was adopted in 1745, one in a hundred 
of the inoculated died, while under the new method of treatment 
it proved fatal to one only in eight hundred. This production of 
Dr. Gale has been ftivorably noticed by European authors. (See 
his biography.) His life was protracted to advanced age, and was 
terminated in 1790. 

In 17SS, the Medical Society of the county of New Haven, 
published " Cases and Observations," a work which has been re- 
ferred to by foreign authors, and gives a very favorable view of 
the practice in the state of Connecticut subsequently to the revolu- 
tionary war. The work on pestilence by Noah Webster, LL.D. 
affords evidence of uncommon industry and research, and contains 
a body of curious matter illustrating the history of epidemic and 
pestilential diseases. Silliman's Journal of Science is unquestion- 
ably the most distinguished work of the kind published in this 
country, and perhaps it is not surpassed in any other. Although 
the plan is not directly medical, it is an auxiliary containing many 
very valuable papers upon chemistry, botany, and various articles 
of the materia medica. The prevalent diseases of Connecticut 
are not essentially diflerent from those of other parts of New Eng- 
land ; the yellow fever afllicted the city of New Haven in 1794, but 
it was supposed to have been of foreign origin. The same disease 
made its appearance in Middletown in the year 1820. But the 
malady which has been the most extensively formidable and de- 
structive, is the epidemic whicli has received the exceptionable 
name of spotted fever, but to which Dr. Thomas Miner has given 
the more appropriate term, " Typhus Syncopalis." From 1807 
to about ISK), this epidemic prevailed with its usual ravages; and 
in 1822 and 1823, it reappeared to an extent almost unparalleled, 
but its fatal tendency was greatly subdued by the very judicious 
management of several accurate observers and experienced phy- 
7 



50 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

sicians. (See Dr. Thomas Miner's pamphlet on Typhus Synco- 
palis, and Dr. Woodward's communication in the New England 
Medical Review and Journal, Vol. I.) 

With regard to medical improvement, it must be conceded that 
in Connecticut the field of science has been cultivated with great 
diligence and the happiest results. Numerous productions have 
emanated from that state, which evince talent, industry and re- 
search, and which have proved of signal utility. In 1810] Dr. 
Nathan Strong published a Dissertation on Spotted Fever, and in 
1811 Dr. North published a Treatise on the same disease, and 
has since written and published in the periodicals a dissertation 
on the vitality of the blood. Henry Fish, M. D. was author of re- 
marks on spotted fever. Drs. Monson, senior {b) and junior, wrote 
upon the yellow fever of New Haven iu 1794. Joseph Corn- 
stock, M. D. is the author of a valuable Essay on Prognosis, and 
the compiler of an elementary chemical work, and Dr. Sumner is 
the compiler of an elementary system of botany. Thomas ]Mose- 
ly, M. D. was a respectable practitioner at East Haddam. He 
was for several years president of the Medical Society of Con- 
necticut, and died about 1812, aged upwards of 80. Dr. Rock- 
well wrote on puerperal hemorrhage, and Drs. Woodward and 
Bestor wrote on spotted fever. Professor Smith, besides his 
treatise upon Typhus, has published in the periodical works of 
the day many interesting surgical and other cases, and has also 
written on bloodroot and other articles of the materia medica. 
The Hon. Sylvester Wells, JNl. D. published a series of valuable 
essays on the spotted fever of 1809 ; and William Buel, M. D. is 
the author of an able account of a disease that appeared in Sheflield. 
Dr.jWilliam Tully is author of an Essay on Pneumonia Typhoides, 
and other papers in the New-York Medical Museum ; of an Essay 
upon Sanguinaria Canadensis, Strictures upon Orfila on Poisons 
in the New England Journal, and of an essay upon Scutellaria 
Lateriflora ; he also wrote a paper on Secale Cornutum in Silli- 
man's Journal. He has besides written upon the yellow fever as 
it appeared in Middletovvn in 1820 ; a work inferior, perhaps, to 
no other on that subject. In 1823 Dr. Thomas Miner and Dr. 
William Tully published ''' Essays upon Fevers and other medical 
subjects ;" the first part by Dr. JMiner and the second by Dr. Tully. 
This is to be considered as a work of superior merit, equally hon- 
orable to the authors and interesting to the profession, giving a 
correct view of the nature and treatment of febrile diseases. In 
1825 Dr. Miner favored the public with his valuable account of 
Typhus Syncopalis. This pamphlet is the result of a long course 
of experience, and the most accm'ate observation ; as proof of its 
acknowledged merit, it may bo mentioned that it has passed 
through three editions, and a fourth will shortly appear. Dr. 
Miner is also a writer in the periodical works of the day, author 
of biographical sketches of several distinguished physicians of 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 51 

Connecticut, occasional essays upon medical subjects and transla- 
tions from French medical journals. 

The science of chemistry, under the able supervision of Profes- 
sor Siiliman, and indigenous materia medica under Professor 
Ives, are, perhaps, at a higher standing at Yale College than 
at any other similar institution in the United States. But the 
establishment of a general hospital would be an important acqui- 
sition as an auxiUary to the advancement and interest of the dif- 
ferent branches of medical science in that state. The Asylum for 
the Deaf and Dumb, and the Retreat for the Insane, both estab- 
lished at Hartford, redound to the honor of the community, and 
are auspicious to the cause of humanitj'. Under the able treat- 
ment of Dr. Todd, the practice at the Retreat for the Insane has 
been attended, it is said, with an almost unparalleled success, more 
than ninety per cent, of all the recent cases having recovered. 

The Medical Institution of Yale College was incorporated by 
the legislature in the year 1810. Lectures commenced in 1813, 
and are continued annually. Professors in 1825 : — 

Eneas Monson, M. D. Professor of the Institutes of Medicine. 
Nathan Smith, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 

Physic, Surgery and Obstetrics. 
Benjamin Siiliman, M. D. Professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy, 

Mineralogy and Geology. 
Eli Ives, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and Botany, and 

Lecturer on Diseases of Women and Children. 
Jonathan Knight, IM. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, 

and Lecturer on Obstetrics. 

There is also in Connecticut an incorporated Medical Society 
of very respectable standing, and regulated by laws adopted by 
other similar societies. 

In this brief sketch it may be proper to bring to recollection 
the Metallic Tractors invented by Dr. Elisha Perkins, which 
he announced to the public in the year 1796, as a new remedy for 
a variety of topical diseases. This singular remedy attained a 
considerable share of celebrity and ultimately excited a universal 
interest throughout the United States, and in various parts of 
Europe. A particular detail of the origin and progress of this 
discovery will be found in connexion with the biography of Dr. 
Perkins in this volume. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 

This state has strong claims to pre-eminence in the noble pur- 
suit of improvement in medical science and literature. Among 
the earliest physicians we find the names of Dr. Du[)ey, Dr. Du- 



52 HISTORY or MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

bois, and John Nicoll, M. D. The latter was a native of Scotland, 
who was graduated in medicine at the university of Edinburgh, and 
came to this country and settled in New York about the year 
1700. He has been noticed as a successful practitioner, and was 
beloved for his private virtues. After having spent a life devoted 
to the work of benevolence and piety, he died in 1743, aged 63 
years. Dr. Magraw, a physician of the Radcliife school, emigrat- 
ed to this country and settled in New York about 1740. In 1743 
Cadwallader Colden, F,sq.(b) Lieut, governor of the Province of 
New York, and a distinguished physician, communicated his 
thoughts on the probable method of curing a malignant fever, 
which occasioned great mortality in that city in 1741. He also 
published a treatise on the cure of cancer, and an essay on the 
virtues of the Great Water Dock, which introduced the learned 
author to the notice of the celebrated Linnaeus. The same author 
published in 1753, some observations on an epidemic sore throat, 
which appeared in Massachusetts, and spread over great part of 
North America. Dr. John Bard (b), eminently distinguished as a 
practitioner in New York for more than fifty years, was the author 
of an interesting account of the malignant pleurisy, which pre- 
vailed at Long Island in the year 1749, besides some other medi- 
cal papers. Dr. Ogden, of Long Island, about the year 1704, 
favored the public with valuable observations on the malignant 
sore throat, which then was prevalent and very mortal. Dr. Peter 
Middleton (Jb)^ a man of professional ttilents, was author of a medi- 
cal discourse or historical inquiry into the ancient and present 
state of medicine, published in 17^9. In the year 1750 the body 
of Hermanus Carroll, a criminal who had been executed for mur- 
der, was dissected in the city of New-York, by Dr. John Bard (b) 
and Dr. Peter Middleton (b), two of the most eminent physicians 
of that day, and the blood vessels were injected for the instruction 
of the young men then engaged in the study of medicine; this is 
the first essay made in the colonies for the purpose of imparting 
medical knowledge by dissection, of which we have any record. 

In 17S8 there occurred in the city of New York a popular tu- 
mult, commonly called the doctors' mob. This was in consequence 
of a suspicion that the physicians of the city had robbed the grave- 
yards to procure subjects for dissection. The concourse assem- 
bled on this occasion was immense, and some of the mob having 
forced their way into the dissecting room, several human bodies 
were found in various states of mutilation ; enraged at this dis- 
covery, they seized upon the fragments, as heads, legs and arras, 
and exposed them from the windows and doors to public view, 
with horrid imprecations. The rioters had now become so out- 
rageous, that both the civil and military authorities were summoned 
to quell the tumult, and the medical students were confined in the 
common prison for security against the wild passions of the popu- 
lace. The mob continued for two days, setting ut defiance both 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 63 

the civil and military authorities of the cit}^ but was at length 
quelled without the loss of lives. 

In the autumn of 1775 a surgical work entitled " Plain Re- 
marks upon Wounds and Fractures," was published by Dr. John 
Jones (6) of New-York. This work was intended for the instruc- 
tion of the young and inexperienced surgeons, who were about en- 
gaging in the American army. A work of this description was at 
that time of indispensable importance, and no one in America 
could be found so well qualified for the undertaking as Dr. Jones, 
who held the highest standing for knowledge and experience in the 
art of surgery. The advantages which the surgeons of the army 
derived from this valuable production, are incalculable. It passed 
through three editions, the latter of tvhich, with notes and observa- 
tions, was published in 1795 ; to this is prefixed a biographical 
memoir, by a very respectable pupil of the author, Dr. James 
Mease, of Philadelphia. It was not till 1768, that a medical es- 
tablishment was effected and organized ; in which were united the 
learning and abilities of Drs. Glossy (h), Bard (b), Jones ('6), 
Middleton (6^, Smith (h)^ and John V. B. Tennent, by whom 
lectures on the several branches were delivered. This school was 
connected with King's, now Columbia college, where in 1769, the 
degree of bachelor in medicine was conferred upon Samuel Kissam 
and Robert Tucker. " In 1770 the degree of doctor in medicine 
was conferred upon the last mentioned gentleman, and in May of 
the succeeding year, the same degree was conferred upon the for- 
mer." These were the first instances of medical degrees being con- 
ferred in America, being a short time before those which were given 
at Philadelphia in the same year. Dr. Kissam's Inaugural disserta- 
tion on the anthelmintic property of cowhage, was published in 
May 1771, for the medical doctorate in King's college. The events 
of the revolutionary war deranged and frustrated in its infancy 
the immediate design of this promising establishment. In 1769 
Dr. Samuel Bard (h) delivered a public address at the first medi- 
cal graduation, in which he inculcated the necessity and utility of a 
public infirmary ; and such was the influence of his memorable 
discourse, that, upon the same day on which it was delivered, a 
subscription was commenced by Sir Henry Moore, then governor of 
the Province, and the sum of eight hundred pounds sterling wa« 
collected for the establishment of a hospital ; and, three hundred 
pounds being added by the corporation of the city, the foundation 
of the New- York hospital was laid in 1773. But, unfortunately, 
before the edifice was completed, it was destroyed by fire, and, 
the war intervening, it was not until January 1791, that it was re- 
built and in a proper condition to receive patients. 

After the return of peace in 1783, various attempts were pro- 
jected with the hope of reviving the medical school of New- York, 
but, from feuds and collisions among professional brethren, all ef- 



54 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

forts directed to that effect resulted in disappointment. Courses 
of lectures, however, were delivered by many learned teachers, 
until a new organization of a medical school was effected by the 
ti-ustees of Columbia college in 1792. Although the learned pro- 
fessors devoted themselves with commendable assiduity and faith- 
fulness to their respective duties, from various causes the benefits 
arising from this school were very limited and unsatisfactory. The 
board of Regents, therefore, deemed it expedient to grant a charter 
establishing the presenj college of physicians and surgeons in March 
1807. The incorporation of this institution was sanctioned by the 
Legislature, and gave very general satisfaction. It was soon dis- 
covered, however, that its successful progress was to be impeded 
by feuds and discontents arising from competition and rivalry be- 
tween it and other medical schools in the same city. In April 
1811, the Regents were induced to remodel the college of physi- 
cians and surgeons with a view to their union with the medical 
faculty of Columbia college. In 1813 this union was happily ef- 
fected, and the venerable Samuel Bard, M. D. was placed at the 
head of the college as president. By this consolidation of the two 
medical schools the most eminent medical talents in the state were 
combined into one splendid seminary, under the general superin- 
tendence of the board of regents, aided by the patronage and libe- 
ral endowments of the legislature.* In 1816 the regents made 
the following report to the legislature : " The college of physi- 
cians and surgeons in the city of New- York, is advancing to that 
celebrity, which must soon place it at the head of similar institu- 
tions in the United States. Perhaps no place can afford greater 
opportunities for giving medical instruction to the best advantage, 
on all the variety of cases in which the human frame is liable to 
disease, and where more opportunities are daily offered to exhibit 
them to the inspection, and for the instruction of students. It is, 
therefore, the decided opinion of the regents, that this institution 
should receive the undivided support of the state : and that no 
other should be countenanced, which, by a spirit of rivalship or 
hostility, might, in any degree, succeed in repressing its justly de- 
served and increasing reputation as a medical school." The most 
sanguine expectations were entertained respecting the utility of 
the institution thus reorganised, and the result of a few years ex- 
perience, clearly evinced that the learned professors filled the im- 
portant stations assigned them, with ability and success. The 
number of medical pupils in 1815, was one hundred and seventy- 
one, and the number of graduates was twenty-seven, greatly ex- 
ceeding the number attending at any prior session. The author 
of a historical sketch of the present institution, concludes his ob- 
servations in the following words : " When the advantages which 



* The legislature in 1808, made the liberal grant of $20,000 for the benefit of the 
medical college. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 55 

New-York possesses for a great medical establisliment, arc consider- 
ed, advantages arising from its natural situation, its extensive popu- 
lation, now nearly equal to most of the capitals of Europe, its 
large and well endowed hospital, and other public charities, its 
botanical garden, its well organized medical college, and the exten- 
sive system of education which it embraces ; and when it is further 
considered, that these advantages are increased by tlie munificent 
patronage of the state, it is not too much to say that, in the means 
of instruction, the College of Physicians and Surgeons is second 
to no similar institution in the United States. The college opens 
annually, on the first Monday in November, and the several courses 
begin, successively, that week, after the introductory lecture of 
the respective professors. Tlie session closes on the last day of 
February. 

For a period of about seven years subsequent to the union of 
the two schools, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, whose 
weight of character was sustained by the most able teachers which 
the state could produce, was on the march to the highest degree 
of eminence, and its reputation was recognised in every portion 
of the union. The class of students consisted of two hundred, 
and the number was increasing with the opening of each session. 
But from some cause those professors, whose talents and zeal had 
been universally acknowledged, were assailed with clamorous 
accusations, and charges of serious import were arrayed against 
them : these, however, on investigation by the regents in March, 
1S25, were declared to be unsubstantiated, and were pronounced 
by that honorable body, in their elaborate Report, to have arisen 
from jealousy and professional rivalry. Broils and contention, 
nevertiielcss, continued, and the opposition assisted systemati- 
cally in their purpose. In April, 1826, the professors, wearied 
with unavailing attempts to silence the opposition, came to 
the conclusion that " it would best consist with their own self 
respect" to withdraw altogether from the institution, and ac- 
cordingly they tendered their resignations of their professorships 
and offices. The board of regents accepted their resignations, 
April 17, 1826, and presented their thanks " for the faithful and 
able manner in which they had filled their respective chairs as 
instructers and lecturers in the said college." The Professors 
were, 

David Ilosack, M. D. Vice PrcsidcJit, and Professor of the 
Theory and Practice of Physic and Clinical Medicine. 

William James Macneven, M. D. Professor of Chemistry. 

Samuel L INlitchell, M. D. Professor of Materia 3Icdica and 
Potany. 

Valentine Mott, M. D. Professor of Surgery. 

John W. Francis, M. D. Professor of Obstetrics and the Dis- 
eases of Women and Children, and Registrar of the College. 



56 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

Wright Post, M. D. Professor of Anatomy. (Had given in his 
resignation before.) 

The places of the above professors were filled as follows. Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons : — 

John Augustine Smith, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Phy- 
siology. 

Alexander H. Stevens, M. D. Professor of the Principles and 
Practice of Surgery. 

James F. Dana, M. D. Professor of Chemistry. (Since dead.) 

Joseph M, Smith, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Physic and Clinical Medicine. 

Edward Delafield, M. D. Professor of Obstetrics and the Diseases 
of Women and Childreyi. 

John B. Beck, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and Botany. 

The College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District 
of the state of New York, was incorporated by the Regents of the 
University in 1812, and the legislature made a grant of ^15,000. 
It is located in the town of Fairfield, Herkimer county. 

Joseph White, M. D. President^ and Professor of Surgery. 

Westel Willoughby, M. D. Vice-President, and Professor of 
Obstetrics. 

James Hadley, JM. D. Professor of Chemistry and Materia 
Medica. 

T. Romeyn Beck, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Physic and Medical Jurisprudence. 

James McNaughton, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Phy- 
siology. 

Medical School of Auburn, at Auburn : 

James Douglass, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 
Pliny Hays, M. D. Professor of the Principles and Practice of 

Surgery. 
E. D. Tuttle, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 

Physic. 
S. Mosher, M. D. Professor of Midwifery and Diseases of 

Women and Children. 
Jedediah Smith, M. D. Professor of Chemistry and Materia 

Medica. 

The following gentlemen were practitioners of considerable 
merit in the city of New- York since the American war, and their 
names are deserving of commemoration. 

Dr. Malachi Treat was a surgeon in the hospital department 
during the whole of the American struggle for independence, and 
part of the time officiated as deputy director of the hospital. He 
died in New-York of the yellow fever. Dr. William Pitt Smith 
was a pupii of Dr. Treat, and was also in the hospital department 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 57 

during the war, and he also fell a victim to the yellow fever in 
1797. Ebenezer Crosby, M. D. was a native of Braintree, Mas- 
sachusetts, was graduated at Harvard University in 1777, and 
completed his medical education at the University of Pennsylva- 
nia. Dr, Crosby was at an early period of the war appointed sur- 
geon to General Washington's guard, and was received into his 
military family, in which he continued until near the close of the 
war. On the return of peace he took his residence in New-York, 
where he soon acquired a respectable circle of practice, and in the 
year 1785 was chosen Professor of Midwifery in Columbia Col- 
lege, which appointment he retained until his death, which occur- 
red 16th July, 1788. Dr. Amasa Dingly was a native of Marsh- 
field, Massachusetts, and was graduated at Harvard University in 
1785. He settled in New-York, where he displayed abilities and 
a spirit of enterprise which would have raised hira to eminence 
had his life been protracted. Benjamin DeWitt, M. D. merits 
great praise for the services which he rendered to the college, 
more particularly in obtaining the liberal grant from the state of 
$30,000. He was prematurely cut off by the yellow fever 
while in the discharge of his official duties of physician of the 
port of New- York, in 1819. He published on the Datura Stramo- 
nium, and a paper on the salt works of Onondaga. " Richard 
Bayley, M. D. (h) was among the most eminent of the physicians 
of his time, and equally distinguished in medical and surgical 
practice ; after a life of great activity and usefulness, he died of 
yellow fever, which he contracted in the discharge of his official 
duties as health officer of the port of New- York, in August, 1801, 
aged 56 years. His medical writings are, his letter on Croup, 
addressed to his preceptor, Dr. Hunter of London, and his account 
of the epidemic fever of New-York in 1795. They are sufficient 
ev dence of his talents : his wide and disinterested benevolence 
io remembered by thousands." John V. B. Tennent, M. D. com- 
{■leted his medical education in Europe. While in London, in 
1765, he was created a member of the Royal Society. His 
course of instruction in obstetrics was able and satisfactory, and 
laid a foundation for improvement in that branch in the Medical 
School of New- York. He died at an early age of the yellow 
fever, in the West Indies, whither he had gone for the benefit of 
his health. 

The prevailing diseases of the state of New- York are of a simi- 
lar character with those in the New-England states, but it has had 
a large share of the epidemics of our country. In the city of 
New- York consumption has also been very prevalent and fatal. 
The yellow fever has been known to prevail in that city at various 
periods during the last century. The same pestilence has revisit- 
ed that city and Long-Island in 1798, 1803, 4, 5, 9, and 1822 ; 
at some seasons its course has been marked with great mortality. 
The year 1798 was most fatal to the faculty, more than twenty 
8 



68 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

physicians of the city becoming its victims within three months. 
The legislature and citizens have been liberal in the establishment 
of Hospitals, Infirmaries, Dispensaries, and other humane and 
charitable institutions, for the relief of the poor and destitute, for 
the insane, and for the deaf and dumb. The Cowpock Institu- 
tion was established in New-York in January, 1802, for the pur- 
pose of substituting vaccination for the smallpox, more particu- 
larly among the poor, and for preserving a constant supply of 
genuine matter. The first physician appointed to vaccinate for 
the Dispensary was Dr. Valentine Seaman. According to the 
annual report, dated January, 1826, no less than 1223 patients 
enjoyed the advantage of the city Dispensary, besides those who 
had received vaccination gratis. In the year 1808 the number of 
patients who enjoyed the advantage of the Dispensary was 1340 : 
in 1811 the number was 1446 : the trustees also stated that in 
addition to these patients, 1016 had been vaccinated at their office 
since the first of January, 1811, gratis, and that in every instance 
the cowpock has proved a perfect security against the smallpox. 
The state of New-York has furnished a full portion of learned 
and scientific professors, lecturers and teachers, by whose labors 
medical literature and science have flourished, and been exten- 
sively diffused. From this source, also, medical and philosophi- 
cal works of sterling worth have emanated, which have received 
approbation and applause in various foreign countries. The 
periodical journals on medicine and the collateral branches of 
science, which have appeared in New- York at different times, 
have been the following: — The Medical Repository, first project- 
ed in 1798, and the earliest journal which was issued in this coun- 
try in this department of learning ; its editors were Drs. Mitchell, 
Miller and Smith. It has been extended to twenty-three volumes 
by subsequent editors. The New- York Medical and Philosophi- 
cal Journal, commenced in 1809, and published anonymously — 3 
volumes. The Medical Magazine, by Drs. Mott and Underdonk ; 
it terminated with the publication of one volume. The American 
Medical and Philosophical Register, edited by Drs. Hosack and 
Francis ; it began in 1810, and was terminated in 1814. The 
four volumes which it embraced are composed exclusively of 
original materials ; and these can safely be referred to for many 
papers of great value on medical and surgical subjects, as well as 
for biographical memoirs of American physicians, and detailed 
accounts of most of the public and literary associations for which 
New-York is so much distinguished. The last periodical, which 
still exists, is the New-York Medical and Philosophical Journal ; 
it was began in 1822, by Professor Francis and Drs. Dychman, 
and Beck ; a volume appears annually. The transactions of the 
New-York Literary and Philosophical Society contain various 
papers on medical subjects, and the collections of the New- York 
Historical Society may be referred to for similar topics. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 59 

V It may not be irrelative in this account, before we part with 
New-York, to state that this city holds no inconsiderable rank, as 
having been the place where most of the prominent operations of 
American surgery have been first performed. Dr. McKnight's 
operation for extra-uterine conception, is well known. Hydrocele, 
treated after the manner revived by Sir James Earle, and the ope- 
ration for femoral aneurism, though, in the present state of surgical 
science they do not afford any particular novel principles, were 
carried into successful results by Professor Hosack, then of Colum- 
bia College, so long ago as 1795, and in 1807. In 1812 Profes- 
sor Post tied the common carotid for aneurism successfully ; it was 
the first operation on this artery for aneurism that had been per- 
formed in this country. In 1817 Professor Post tied successfully 
the subclavian artery above the clavicle, external to the scaleni 
muscles, for a brachial aneurism. This is the first successful 
operation of this character ever performed. The first ligature 
upon the arteria innominata of a human being was applied by 
Professor Mott, then of the University of New- York, for an aneu- 
rism of the right subclavian artery. It was performed in May, 
1818. In November, 1821, Dr. Molt performed his first opera- 
tion upon the lovver jaw, for osteosarcoma of that bone. Nearlv 
half of the lower jawbone was successfully removed. He has 
subsequently operated upon three other cases ; in one the jaw was 
removed at the articulation and sawed through on the opposite 
side, after extracting the first bicuspid tooth. Three out of the 
four patients recovered. Professor Mott was not aware that the 
operation on the lower jaw bad ever been performed before that 
by himself. For a similar disease of the upper jaw, Dr. Mott has 
operated seven times. In October, 1824, he successfully amputa- 
ted at the hip joint, for a necrosis of the femur. The same sur- 
geon has also tied the carotid artery six times ; the external iliac 
three times ; the femoral artery fifteen times. But, as if further 
to add to the surgical renown of New- York, the same eminent 
operator has lately tied the common iliac near the aorta for an 
aneurism of the external iliac, March, 1827. This is the first 
operation ever performed upon the primitive iliac for aneurism ; 
it was completely successful. These displays of surgical science 
are worthy of the highest praise, and with those of Physick, Gib- 
son, and Dorsey of Philadelphia, and Warren of Boston, present 
essays worthy of the profoundest study of our American youth. 

In practical medicine, New-York has also done her part. On 
the vexed subject of yellow fever, her authors have furnished 
many valuable papers ; and the treatment of the disorder by them 
seems to be more rational and better defined than by those who 
have so vehemently contended for the lancet and mercury. That 
after ihe disorder has affected the human system, the constitution 
is rarely affected a second time with the complaint, is now gene- 
rally thought to be the fact. This interesting feature in the nature 
of the disease, was first promulgated in the United States by Pro- 



60 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

fessor J. W. Francis, in his letter on Contagion, dated at London 
in June, 18l6, and has been confirmed by numerous observers in 
various sections of the country. Tracheotomy has several times 
been successfully performed for the removal of foreign substance 
from the windpipe by Dr. Mott ; and though, as it is believed, 
not yet in croup, still in the membranous or fatal stage as it is gene- 
rally called, the vitriolic emetics (white and blue,) have restored 
the little sufferer when every other hope has been abandoned. For 
this novel and felicitous principle in practice in this truly alarming 
complaint, the*public are also indebted to Dr. Francis, who has 
published several successful cases. The monographs of Bayley 
and of Middleton, on Croup, ought not to be omitted in this cur- 
sory enumeration. 

The present section of our history of medical affairs in New- 
York, would hardly be deemed satisfactory, without a few particu- 
lars concerning that extensive charity, the New- York Hospital, 
and the Bloomingdale Asylum for the treatment of the Insane. 
Both these extensive institutions have been most amply endowed 
by legislative munificence, and are directed by the governors of 
the New-York Hospital. 

The ground on which the hospital stands, is an area of about 
four hundred and fifty-five feet in length, and four hundred and 
forty in breadth, bounded in front on Broadway, and near the City 
Hall. The principal building, denominated the Hospital, is of 
grey stone and of the Doric order : in front one hundred and 
twenty-four feet ; fifty feet deep in the centre and eighty-six feet 
deep in the wings, which project on each side. It consists of 
three stories above the basement : the height above the ground is 
fifty-two feet. In the third story, looking to the northwest, is the 
theatre for surgical operations, fitted up so as to accommodate 
about two hundred persons. The building contains sixteen wards, 
thirty-six feet long and twenty-four feet broad, in which about three 
hundred persons may be accommodated. On the southerly section of 
the grounds is another large and commodious edifice, ninety feet long, 
forty feet deep in the centre and sixty-five feet deep in the wings, 
which project twelve and a half feet on each side. The hospital is 
furnished witii a most valuable and extensive library on medical 
science and the collateral branches, particularly on botany. It 
has a kitchen garden, ice houses, a bathing house, and convenient 
stables. From the last printed report of this Institution for^ 1826 
we gather the following facts : 

Remaining in the hospital, December 31, 1825, pay patients 

including U. S. seamen 110 

Paupers 55 

Admitted during 1826, of the first order 1097 

of the second 676 

1938 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 61 

Of these 1284 are reported to have been discharged cured ; — re- 
lieved 123 ; discharged by request 72 ; improper objects 25 ; dis- 
orderly and eloped 22 ; died 198. Of the whole, 1177 were na- 
tives of America. 

The Bloommgdale Asylum for the Insane. — In the month of 
April, 1815, the late Thomas Eddy submitted to the governors of 
the Hospital a small tract entitled "■ Hints for introducing an im- 
proved mode of treating the Insane in the Asylum." This com- 
munication met with a favorable reception, and the benevolent 
plans of the distinguished projector were carried into effect with 
all practicable facility. " It would be," says Mr. E."an undertaking 
singularly interesting and instructive, to trace the different methods 
of cure which have been pursued in different ages, in the treat- 
ment of those laboring under mental derangement ; and to mark 
the various results with which they have been attended. The 
radical defect in all the different modes of cure that have been 
pursued, appears to be, that of considering mania a physical or 
bodily disease, and adopting for its removal merely physical reme- 
dies. Very lately, however, a spirit of inquiry has been excited, 
which has given birth to a new system of treatment of the insane; 
and former modes of medical discipline have now given place to 
that which is generally denominated moral management." 

It is almost superfluous to state the plan of the Retreat at York, 
in England; the successful issue of that benevolent establishment, 
as made known to the world by Mr. Tuke's publication, fortified 
the patrons of the New-York Asylum in their enlarged and en- 
lightened views. The legislature ofNew-York were not reluctant in 
countenancing the undertaking, and in April 18l6, passed a muni- 
ficent act appropriating the yearly sum often thousand dollars for 
forty-one years, to enable the governors to erect further and more 
extensive accommodations for insane patients. Accordingly a 
purchase was made of a suitable location about seven miles from 
the city of New-York, near the Hudson river, and fronting on the 
Bloomingdale road : the whole quantity of ground is stated to be 
somewhat over seventy-seven acres. It is remarkably dry and 
pleasant, and from its elevated situation affords an extensive and 
delightful view of the East and Hudson rivers and the adjacent 
country for an area of nearly forty miles. The plan of the edifice 
adopted was that of Thomas C. Taylor ; it comprehends a centre 
building which is two hundred and eleven feet in length and sixty 
feet deep, with two wings, each placed at the distance of fifty feet 
from the principal building and connected with it by a colonnade. 
Each wing is one hundred and ninety-four feet in length and fifty 
feet deep. The middle or principal centre building is calculated 
to accommodate about two hundred patients. It would require 
many pages to notice the various accommodations and advantages 
which this great institution possesses, and it is to be hoped that au 
ample publication of such a nature wdl not much longer be with- 



62 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

held from the public. The state, in her patronage to this Asylum, 
has added to her renown for public works, great as it has previous- 
ly been, and the names of Clinton, Clarkson and Eddy, will be 
cherished with the most lively and lasting gratitude by every friend 
of afflicted humanity. The"lbllowing is an abstract of the report 
of this Institution for 1826. During the above period, admitted, 
males 97 — females 45 ; total 142 : of these the recent cases were 
93 — old 49. Recovered, including males and females, 56 : much 
improved, 6: improved, 5 : discharged by request, 9. Died, all of 
them of the old cases, 6, — The forms of the diseases were mania, 

63 : monomania, 28 ; delirium a potu, 35 ; dementia, 15 ; idiotisra, 
1. Total 142. 



STATE OF NEW-JERSEY. 

We are destitute of materials for the medical history of this 
state. It is, however, well known that medical men of distinguish- 
ed character have flourished in it during the last century ; me- 
moirs of some of the most meritorious have been procured and 
are inserted in this volume. A medical school, connected with 
Rutgers College in New-Brunswick, has recently been instituted, 
and is conducted by professors of exalted character for scientific 
attainments,* a majority of whom lately formed the Faculty of me- 
dicine in the University of New- York. 

Officers of the College. 
David Hosack, M. D. F. R. S. President of fitc Medical Faculty. 
Samuel L. Mitchell, M. D. LL.D. Vice President. 
Peter Townsend, M. D. Registrar. 

Professors. 

David Hosack, M. D. Professor of the Institutes and Practice of 
Physic and Clinical Medicine. 

William James Macneven, M. D. Professor of Therapeutics and 
Materia Mcdica. 

Valentine Mott, M. D. Professor of Obstetrics and Forensic Me- 
dicine. 

John D. Godnian, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 

John Griscom, LL.D. Professor of Chemistry. 

The several courses of instruction commence on the first Mon- 
day in November, and terminate on the last day of February, an- 

* Rutgers' College, originally called Queen's College, was founded in the year 
1770. In that year the Dutch Reformed Church of New-York and New-Jersey, 
then united and formed the plan of erecting a college in New-Brunswick, for the 
purpose of preparing young men for the gospel ministry, and obtained a charter from 
the legislature of New-Jersey. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 63 

nually. " Colonel Henry Rutgers, of New-Jersey, has eslablislied 
in perpetuitv the premium of a gold medal, to be awarded annual- 
ly to the student of that institution, who shall exhibit the most sa- 
tisfactory testimonial of talent and attainment in medical science, 
in his inaugural dissertation for the doctorate ; the same to be ap- 
proved by the board of professors, and the decision to rest with 
them. The honor to be delivered to the successful candidate at 
the public commencement." A silver medal has also been pro- 
posed by the liberality of a distinguished citizen of New-York, to 
be awarded to the author of the approved dissertation on some 
subject connected with the indigenous diseases and topography of 
the country. These incentives to exertion cannot but produce 
the most salutary emulation among the students of the newly or- 
ganized school. During the first session of this school in the win- 
ter of 1S26-7, the total number of students attending the several 
classes, was one hundred and fifty-three. At the medical gradua- 
tion, held in July, 1827, twenty-nine students of the institution re- 
ceived the honors of the doctorate. 

The location of the Rutgers Medical College is in the city of 
New- York. It is situated in Duane Street, near Broadway, in the 
immediate vicinity of the New-York Hospital. It was erected by 
the medical faculty at their own expense expressly for the accom- 
modation of students of medicine. It is admitted by all that this 
building combines with the necessary spaciousness, a degree of 
neatness, convenience and comfort, very rarely found in similar 
establishments. The lecture rooms are three in number. The 
chemical room is on the lower floor, and is provided with neces- 
sary furnaces and fixtures. Adjoining the laboratory is the room 
for the raincralogical cabinet and such philosophical apparatus as 
is employed in pneumatics, hydrostatics, and other departments of 
science connected with chemistry. The hall for the lectures on 
the practice of physic, materia medica, botany, and obstetrics and 
forensic medicine, is on the second floor. This hall is also design- 
ed for the delivering of introductory lectures and for public col- 
legiate exercises. The library room is on the same floor with the 
hall. The surgical and anatomical amphitheatre is on the third 
floor. The saloon of practical anatomy on the fourth floor, is un- 
rivalled in this country for its extent and the entire convenience of 
its arrangements. This apartment is of the length and width of 
the whole building, and is during the day lighted by a fine sky- 
light and four windows. At night it is brilliantly illuminated by 
ten large gas burners, which entirely obviate the necessity of using 
table-lamps. The cistern of water is supplied by means of a forc- 
ing pump in the basement. A furnace of appropriate construction 
is employed for the daily removal of fragments usually allowed to 
accumulate in and about anatomical apartments. The use of this 
furnace and the regular attention paid to the tables, remove from 
the study of practical anatomy all the circumstances usually pro- 



64 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

ductive of disgust. An angle of the saloon is screened off for the 
accommodation of practitioners of medicine, who may wish to re- 
vise their anatomical studies free from interruption. The anato- 
mical cahinet is rich and valuable. The collection of the profes- 
sor of surgery is so in an especial degree, on account of its being 
principally composed of morbid specimens, removed by himself in 
his operations, or procured from subjects with whose previous his- 
tory he is acquainted. Collections to a valuable extent are form- 
ing by the professor of the materia mcdica ; and tiie illustrations, 
casts and preparations for obstetrical knowledge, are constantly 
augmenting. The whole of this college is furnished with gas 
lights, and warmed by a single fire burned in the basement, from 
which heated air is conveyed by flues to all parts of the house. 
The arrangement is so effectual that but a few minutes are neces- 
sary to the production of a summer temperature even in the cold- 
est winter. The heated air flows from below the seats in the dif- 
ferent lecture rooms, so that they are equally warmed throughout. 

The school is abundantly supplied with the material necessary 
for practical anatomy at a very moderate expense, and the stu- 
dents enjoy the opportunity of witnessing the extensive surgical 
and medical practice of the New- York Hospital. The qualifica- 
tions of candidates for the doctorate are similar to those of the 
New- York College, and the graduates are vested with the usual 
powers to practise. The candidate must have arrived at the age 
of twenty-one years, and have studied medicine three years under 
the direction of a regular practitioner ; during this period he must 
have attended two full courses of lectures at the college, or one 
full course in another and one full course in Rutgers College. 
The examination takes place immediately after the close of the 
lectures. 

The Medical Society of the state of New-Jersey for the regula- 
tion of the practice of physic and surgery,^was incorporated in 
1783, and is governed by provisions similar to those of the society 
of Massachusetts. There are also three district medical societies. 



^ STATE OF DELAWARE. 

In this state have originated men of professional talents and 
profound erudition. To Dr. James Tilton (6) our country is 
greatly indebted for important services in the line of his profession 
during both the former and the latter war with Great Britain. Dr. 
Sykes (b) was eminently distinguished. Dr. Joshua Clayton was 
governor of the state, and a member of the United States senate ; 
lie died in 1799. During the war of Independence, from the 
great scarcity of the Peruvian bark. Dr. Clayton found an eligible 
substitute in the bark of the root of dogwood (Cornus florida) and 



HISTORT OF MEDICIXE IN AMERICA. b& 

the inside bark of the while oak tree, combined in eqnal parts. 
This proved equally efllcacious in all those cases in which the Pe- 
ruvian bark is usually employed. In this state a respectable med- 
ical society is established, and the professional character honora- 
bly supported ; but its vicinity to wealthy and populous cities ren- 
ders the establishment of medical schools altogether unnecessary. 



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

It appears that in the latter part of the 17th and early part of 
the 18th century, many learned and enterprising medical men 
emigrated from Europe, and established themselves in Pennsylva- 
nia and the more southern provinces. Thomas Wynn, an emi- 
nent Welsh physician, who practised medicine several years with 
high reputation in London, and his brother, can)e to this country 
in 1682 with the original settlers, located themselves in Philadel- 
phia, and were the earliest physicians of that city. These gentle- 
men were followed by a succession of regular and well educated 
professional men. Dr. Griflilh Owen arrived in the prime of life, 
and is said to have done the principal medical business in the city 
of Philadelphia, where he was highly distinguished for his talents, 
integrity and zeal. He died in 1717, about the age of 70 years, 
and left a son who practised in Philadelphia some time after his 
father's death. Dr. Gramme came from Great Britain with the 
governor, Sir William Keith, in the year 1717- He was about 30 
years of age when he arrived, had an excellent education and 
agreeable manners, and was therefore much employed as a practi- 
tioner, and greatly confided in by his fellow citizens. Dr. Lloyd 
Zachary probably commenced the practice of medicine in Phila- 
delphia between 1720 and 1730, and died in the year 1756 in the 
meridian of life, greatly and most deservedly lamented. He was 
one of the founders of, and a very liberal contributor to, both the 
college and the hospital. Dr. Kearsly sen. was for many years a 
very industrious practitioner both in medicine and surgery. He 
was not deficient in public spirit. The public are more indebted 
to him than to any other man for that res|)ectable edifice, Christ 
Church; and by will he founded and endowed a hospital for poor 
widows. He educated Dr John Redman and Dr. John Bard, of 
New-York. Foibles are common to humanity, and we often find 
them blended with the most splendid virtues in the human charac- 
ter. Dr. Kearsly possessed a morose and churlish temper, which 
banished all cheerfulness and social converse from his pupils, and 
rendered him an unpleasant companion. Dr. Cadwallader Evans (6) 
was one of the first pupils of Dr. Thomas Bond, and completed 
his medical education in England. He was descended from a 
much venerated early settler, and had a great share of public spi- 
9 



66 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

rit, as well as of professional worth. In 1769 some observations 
appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine of London, from Dr. John 
Kearslyjun, of Philadelphia, relative to angina maligna, which pre* 
vailed in 1746 and 1760. " It extended," says the author, '" through 
the neighboring provinces with mortal rage, in opposition to the 
united endeavors of the faculty. It swept off all before it, baffling 
every attempt to stop its progress, and seemed by its dire effects 
to be more like the drawn sword of vengeance to stop the growth 
of the colonies, than the natural progress of disease. Villages 
were almost depopulated, and numerous parents were left to be- 
wail the loss of their tender offspring." An essay on the iliac 
passion by Dr. Thomas Cadwallader (b), a respectable physician 
in Philadelphia, appeared in the year 1740, in which the author 
opposes with considerable talent and learning the then common 
mode of treating that disease. This was one of the earliest pub- 
lications on a medical subject in America. Dr. Thomas Bond (6), 
about 1754, was author of some useful medical memoirs, which 
were published in a periodical work, in London. Phineas Bond, 
M. D. (6), a younger brother of Thomas Bond, after studying med- 
icine some time in Maryland, visited Europe, and passed a con- 
siderable time at the medical schools of Leyden, Paris, London 
and Edinburgh ; on his return he settled in Philadelphia, where he 
enjoyed a high reputation for many years. He was one of the 
founders of the College, now the University of Pennsylvania. 
About the middle of the 18lh century Dr. Adam Thompson, of 
Pennsylvania, or Maryland, published a discourse on the prepara- 
tion of the body for the reception of the inoculated sn)allpox, and 
the manner of receiving the infection, as it was delivered in the 
public hall of the academy before the trustees and others, in No- 
vember, 1750. This production was highly applauded both in 
America and Europe, as at that period the practice of inoculation 
was on the decline. The author states that inoculation was so un- 
successful at Philadelphia, that many were disposed to abandon 
the practice ; wherefore, upon the suggestion of the 1392d apho- 
rism of Boerhaave,* he was led to prepare his patients by a com- 
position of antimony and mercury, which he had constantly em- 
ployed for twelve years with uninterrupted success. 

As connected with medical science, it might appear improper to 
omit the distinguished name of John Bartram, Esq. to whom our 
country is so greatly indebted for improvements in natural history 
and botany. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1701. His grand- 
father of the same name accompanied William Penn to this coun- 
try in 1682. This self-taught genius early discovered a great thirst 
for the acquisition of knowledge, and especially of botanical know- 



* Boerhaave's 1392d aphorism : — " Some success from antimony and mercury 
prompts us to seek for a specific for the smallpox in a combination of these minerals 
reduced by art to an active, but not to an acrimonious or corrosive state," 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 6t 

ledge. lie travelled in pursuit of it, with unwearied diligence, in 
various parts of his native country from Canada to P'lorida, and 
made such proficiency in the study tliat Linnaeus is said to have 
pronounced him the "greatest natural botanist in the world." 
He corresponded with many of the most distinguished men of 
science, both in America and in Europe. He was elected a mem- 
ber of several of the most eminent societies and academies abroad, 
and was, at length, appointed botanist to his Britannic Majesty 
George HI. He died in 1777, in the 76 year of his age. Mr. 
Bartram was the first native American wlio conceived and car- 
ried into effect the plan of a botanical garden for the reception 
and cultivation of indigenous as well as exotic plants, and of trav- 
elling for the purpose of accomplishing this plan. He purchased 
a situation on the banks of the Schuylkill, and enriched it with 
every variety of the most cinious and beautifid vegetables, col- 
lected in his excursions, which his sons have since continued to 
cultivate. 

It was reserved for the accomplished Dr. AVilliam Shippen (h) 
and Dr. John Morgan (6), to construct a permanent foundation for 
the medical institutions of our country. Both these gentlemen 
were natives of Philadelphia, and after receiving the usual pre- 
paratory course of instruction, repaired to Flurope to complete a 
scientific education. Here they enjoyed am|)le means of qualify- 
ing themselves for the great duties of professors and teachers, and 
while in Europe they concerted the plan of establishing a medical 
school in their native city. Accordingly in 1762 Dr. Shippen 
commenced a course of lectures on anatomy and midwifery, ac- 
companied by dissections, to a class of ten students, and this was 
the first systematic course of lectures on medical subjects ever de- 
livered in America, if we except those delivered at Newport in 
1756, by Dr. Himter. In 1765 Dr. Morgan returned from 
Europe and was appointed Professor of the Institutes of iMedicine, 
and Dr. Shippen the Professor of Anatomy ; and they were the 
only professors of this new institution until 1768, when Dr. Kuhn 
(6) was elected Professor of Botany, and in the following vear 
Dr. Benjamin Rush (6) was chosen Professor of Chemistry. 
These learned characters, assisted by the venerable Thomas Bond 
(6) as lecturer on Clinical Medicine, zealously devoted their tal- 
ents to the duties of the several departments of medical instruc- 
tion. This first Medical School in the American colonies, wa»j 
soon after confirmed and established by the authority of the trus- 
tees of the College of Philadelphia, while Dr. Franklin officiated as 
their president. The science of medicine was unfortunately de- 
prived of the benefits and improvements expected from this hon- 
orable association, by various circumstances connected with the 
revolutionary war. The Pliiladelphia Dispensary fur llie niedical 
relief of the poor, the first institution of its kind in the United 
States, was founded in 1786. The College of Physicians of Phila- 



68 nisTORy of medicine in America. 

delphia, was established in 1787, and the labors of the Professors 
commenced under circumstances eminently auspicious to the 
improvement of medical science ; an unfortunate competition 
and discord, however, between the medical college and an 
opposition school, for a time marred their prospects, and impeded 
that useful progress which the friends of the institution and the 
public had confidently expected. But in 1791 some important 
changes took place, an harmonious union of the contending parties 
was etfected, and Dr. Rush was appointed Professor of the Insti- 
tutes and Practice of Physic and of Clinical Medicine. From this 
period, the progress and improvement of the institution have been 
no less honorable to the venerable founders, than beneficial to the 
community. The commanding talents and profound erudition of 
Professors Rush (b), Barton (6), Physick (6), Dorsey (b), Chapman 
and others, have given the Medical School of Philadelphia a 
celebrity, which will probably long remain unrivalled in the United 
States, and will enable it to vie with the most elevated seminaries 
of the European world. It has become the resort of students 
from every section of our united confederacy. Five hundred in 
some seasons have attended the various courses of lectures, and 
the inaugural dissertations of those who from time to time have 
received its honors, have extended the fame of the school from 
which they emanated. At the commencement in June, 1771? 
the degree of A. B. was conferred on seven, and the degree of 
M. D. on four candidates. Such has been the prosperity of this 
medical institution, first founded in our country, that from the 
most accurate calculation that can be made, it is computed that, 
between 7 and 8000 young men have received instruction within 
its walls since its first establishment, and from this source the 
remotest parts of our union have been furnished with learned phy- 
sicians who are ornaments to their profession. During the four 
months attendance on the lectures, the class expend not less than 
^200,000 in the city of Philadelphia. The present faculty : — 

Philip Syng Physick, M. D. Professor of Anatomy. 

John Redman Coxe, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and 

Pharmacy. 
Nathaniel Chapman, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Prac- 

tice of Medicine and Clinical Practice. 
Thomas C. James, M. D. Professor of Midwifery, 
Robert Hare, M. D. Professor of Chemistry. 
William Gibson, M. D. Professor of Surgery. 
William C. Horner, M. D. Adjunct Professor of Anatomy. 

It is ascertained by historical records, that the yellow fever 
made its appearance in the city of Philadelphia in 1699 and 1740, 
and that the same malady again visited that city, JNew-York and 
some other parts of North America, in the years 1744, 1747, 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 6A. 

1760, and 1762 : nt the last mentioned period it was attended with 
such nialij^nity as ballled the skill of tlie most experienced physi- 
cians. Tlie medical characters of those times, as well as the pub- 
lic generally, considered the disease to be contagious, and import- 
ed from the West Indies. l»ut the city of riiiladelphia was alllicted 
with a dreadful visitation of the yellow fever in 1793, which is to 
be regarded as a memorable event in the history of the United 
States. Such was the magnitude of this awful calamity, as to ex- 
cite in the breasts of all classes of people the keenest emotions of 
sympathy and commiseration. The city was abandoned by a 
large proportion of its inhabitants, and those who remained were 
not sufficient to administer comfort to the sick and to bury the 
dead. It was not uncommon for persons to expire alone in a 
house, and without a human being to witness the awful scene. A 
negro leading a horse and hearse was to be seen in every street, 
and at almost every hour. If a solitary passenger was met, his 
gloom and ghastly visage proclaimed the horrors of his soul, as if 
conscious that with every breath is mingled the sting of death. 
No less than four thousand and forty-four persons fell victims to 
this destructive epidemic in that ill fated city, between the first of 
August and ninth of October.* 

I'lie same pestilential fever has at several subsequent periods 
been permitted to ravage that and almost all the cities and sea- 
port towns in the United Stales. The alarm and distress which 
pervaded our cities on these melancholy occasions, were in- 
expressible. The nature, origin and propagation of this for- 
midable disease, became the topics of interesting inquiry and 
universal concern. The investigation was pursued by many of 
our most distinguished medical philosophers with commendable 
zeal and perseverance ; but from the conllict of opinions, a spirit 
of illiberality was, in loo many instances, allowed to mingle with 
discussion, atid impede the progress and attainment of truth. 
AVhether the yellow fever, as then prevalent, was of an inflan)ma- 
tory or tyi)hoid character, whether the disease was actually of a 
contagious nature and imported from a foreign country, or origi- 
nated iti some domestic and local cause existing in our cities, were 
questions agitated with j)eculiar interest and considerable warmth, 
by the learned laborers in this ample field of controversy. The 
discordant opinions of contagionists and nnn-con!agionists, were 
little calculated to satisfy and soothe the public mind while afllict- 
ed with this awful source of mortality. From the investigation 
and inquiries cjf some of the most eminent physicians in the Unit- 
ed States, much light has been elicited relative to this recondite 

* For a particular narrative of the sufTerings of the inhabitants of Philadelphia 
by this tremendous visitation, the reader is referred to Rush on the Yellow Fever 
of 1793, and a publication by Matthew Carey, Esq. and the periodical publications 
of the day. 



70 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

subject. It would require volumes to examine and illustrate the 
various points in controversy, and those who may be desirous of 
more satisfactory information, may consult the numerous publica- 
tions of that period relative to the subject in question. 

Dr. Rush, after having experienced the palpable inefficiency of 
all the known curative remedies in the yellow fever of 1793, was 
induced to adopt the depleting plan, and boldly resorted to the 
lancet and to mercurial purges, as his last hope ; at subsequent 
periods of its prevalence, however, the lancet was more cautiously 
employed, and mercury used as the sovereign remedy. It was 
given with tiie view of evacuating the alimentary canal, or in such 
form as would speedily affect the salivary glands, in which event 
it proved eminently efficacious. Influenced, probably, by the 
opinion and example of Dr. Rush, most of the learned physicians 
of the United States have declared themselves advocates for the 
mercurial mode of treatment. Being thus sanctioned by the high- 
est medical authority and by general assent, the mercurial prac- 
tice is now received and adopted by a majority of our practition- 
ers as the safest and most successful method of cure, not only in 
the yellow fever, but also in typhus and other forms of malignant 
febrile affections. This plan of treatment was found to be coinci- 
dent with the practice of some respectable men of extensive expe- 
rience in the yellow fever of the West Indies. Dr. Chisholm, 
indeed, is reputed to have been one of the earliest of those who 
resorted to mercury as an agent in controlling the violence of that 
fatal disease, in that climate, in the years 17^9 and 1790, and he 
is worthy of being styled the champion of the mercurial practice ; 
having in one instance exhibited by the mouth, by inunction and 
by clyster, no less than five thousand seven hundred and four 
grains of mercury in five days, and the result was the rapid re- 
covery of the patient. It would seem scarcely credible, a priori, 
that the human system were capable of sustaining such an enor- 
mous quantity of this active metal, and it is presumed that the 
learned gentleman will long remain without a rival in this respect 
in the United States. 

Works of great merit have been and still are produced by the 
profoundly learned and literary professors and teachers of Phila- 
delphia, particularly Rush, Barton, Wistar, Dorsey, Physick, 
' Mease, Currie, Chapman, Dewees and others. Among our peri- 
odicals, those published in that city stand pre-eminent in point of 
merit and utility. The Medical Recorder has long been establish- 
ed and its fame extensively disseminated. The Philadelphia Jour- 
■^4 nal of the Medical and Physical Sciences, was commenced in 
1820, and is edited by Drs. Chapman, Dewees, &c. This is a 
work of superior merit. It is proposed to render it still more 
valuable by enlarging its plan, and uniting in its support the prin- 
cipal medical talents of the country. It will hereafter be known 
under the name of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. ' 71 

The North American Medical and Surgical Journal was com- 
menced in 1S2G, and is conducted by gentlemen of talent, Tlie 
Philadelphia Monthly Journal of Medicine and Surgery was com- 
menced in June last, and is gaining reputation and respectable 
patronage. 



STATE OF MARYLAND. 

The following were the earliest physicians who flourished in this 
state. Dr. Hamilton, a Scotch physician of eminence, emigrated 
to this country about 1700, and settled in Maryland, where he 
practised fur many years with acceptance ; nearly contemporary 
with him were Dr. Sprigg, Weisenthall, Pue, Scott, Murray, and 
Tootell ; and at a later period Drs. Thomas, Warfield, Stewart 
and Gauth. Tliese gentlemen were educated in foreign schools, 
and several of them were natives of Europe. They were all emi- 
nent practitioners, and did much in forming the medical character 
of Maryland in the eighteenth century. Gustavus R. Brown, M. 
D., an eminent physician of Charles county, received liis medical 
education at Edinburgh, and was graduated in medicine at that 
university in 17()8, at which time he defended a thesis on " Ani- 
mal Heat." On his return he settled in his native place, and en- 
joyed through life an extensive practice. Dr. Rush, who was con- 
temporary with Dr. Brown at Edinburgh, used to say of him that he 
was not second to any student of the university at that period. Dr. 
Brown was not only a well read physician, and an able practitioner 
of medicine, but a good classical scholar, and indulged his taste for 
general reading during the whole course of his laborious practice. 
It is said that he used but few remedies in his practice, and those of a 
most eflicient character. Drs. Gustavus Brown and William Brown 
were nephews of the preceding, and educated at Edinburgh at near- 
ly the same period. They were both eminent practitioners of 
medicine, the former of St. Mary's county, Maryland, and the 
latter of Alexandria, It is not known that either of these gentle- 
men left any medical writings behind them, except the inaugural 
thesis which they defended at the time of their graduation. Dr. 
Parham, of Charles county, JNIaryland, was contemporary with the 
Drs. Brown, and also educated at Edinburgh. He was a distin- 
guished practitioner of medicine and surgery in his native state.* 
Dr. John Owen practised medicine in the city of Baltimore. He 
is eulogised in the newspapers as possessing the qualities which 
gained unbouuded confidence in his skill and in his probity. Dr. 
John Archer, who first introduced the seneca root as a remedy in 

* See Lecture delivered at Columbia College, D. C. by Thomas Sewall, M. D. 
Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, to whom I am indebted for this and other 
extracts. 



72 HSTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

croup, deserves to be commemorated ; but no memoir of his life 
could be obtained. 

The College of Medicine in Maryland, established at Baltimore, 
was regularly organized by an act of the legislature of that state, in 
1807. This school owes its origin to Dr. John B. Davidge, who in 
1804 commenced a course of lectures in Baltimore on midwifery 
to a class of six students. In 1807 two eminent physicians, Dr. 
Cocke of Virginia, and Dr. Shaw of Maryland, united in the 
school, and lectures were given on the different branches of medi- 
cine ; in the same year a charter was granted, and the school be- 
came regularly organized by the style of the " College of Medicine 
of Maryland." By the influence and zeal of its distinguished 
founder, and the labors of other eminent teachers, this institution 
has been rapidly rising into importance, and at the present time is 
one of the most respectable institutions in the country. An in- 
firmary has recendy been erected in connexion with the school, 
for the purpose of clinical instruction. The following are the 
Professors : — 

John B. Davidge, M. D. Professor of the Principles and Prac- 
tice of Surgeri/. 

Nathaniel Potter, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 
Medicine. 

Elisha De Butts, INI. D. Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

Samuel Baker, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica. 
Professor of Anatomy. 

Richard W. Hall, ]M. D. Professor of Midwifery and the Diseases 
of Women and Children. 

Maxwell McDowell, M. D. Professor of the Institutes of Medicine. 

The state of Maryland has an excellent pauper establishment 
which contains an infirmary, a lying-in hospital, a workhouse for the 
employment of vagrants, an asylum for destitute children, a lunatic 
hospital, and a medical and chirurgical school. 



STATE OF VIRGINIA. 

In the history of this state are recognised the names of distin- 
guished medical men among the earliest colonists. " In l608, 
being the year after the planting of the colony of Virginia at 
James Town, the arrival of Walter Russel, doctor of physic, is 
mentioned by the colonists ; and he is afterwards spoken of as 
accompanying Capt. Smith on a voyage of discovery, from James 
Town to the Chesapeake, and up the Potomac to the Falls ; and 
also, of having rendered surgical aid to Capt, Smith, in the case of 
an accident which happened to him on this occasion. Some is- 
lands, which we discovered in the Chesapeake, during the voyage, 



HISTORY OP MEDICIIfE IN AMERICA. ^3 

were called Russel's Islands, says Capt. Smith, in honor of Dr. 
Russel, Anthony Bagnal, surgeon, is also mentioned by Capt. 
Smith, as accompanying him on a similar voyage, made the same 
year from James Town to Nansamond, the place where Norfolk 
is now situated. Drs. Russel and Bagnall, therefore, wore proba- 
bly the first physicians who came over to the colony of Virginia ; 
but whether they remained in the country or soon returned to 
Europe, we have no account ; but it is probable that their resi- 
dence in America was only temporary ; for, in l60<>, when Capt. 
Smith was badly wounded by the explosion of gunpowder, he says 
there was neither chirurgeon nor chirurgery at the fort ; and he 
was compelled to return to Europe, for the recovery of his health. 
In ]6ll Dr. Bohun is mentioned, being about to leave the colony 
of Virginia, and to take ship with Lord Delaware for the West 
Indies. But no particular account is given of either of these phy- 
sicians." 

John Mitchell, M. D. (&), a distinguished physician and botanist, 
came from England and settled in Virginia about 17OO, He wrote 
an interesting and original essay on the causes of the different 
colors of people of different climates, which was published in the 
Philosophical Transactions. He was also the author of several 
valuable productions, which will be particularized in his biography 
in this volume. Dr. John Clayton (6), an eminent botanist and 
physician, came to Virginia in 1705 ; as a practical botanist he 
was probably not inferior to any one of the age, and his practical 
observations gave him a respectable rank among the learned natu- 
ralists of that period, Mark Catesby, F. R. S. though not a phy- 
sician, may be noticed as a very eminent naturalist. He was born 
in England, 1679, and came to Virginia in 1712, and in 1722 re- 
moved to South Carolina. He spent nearly his whole life in the 
cultivation of natural science. In 1748 he published a natural 
history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, containing 
numerous plates. Dr. John Tennent, a respectable physician of 
Port Royal, Virginia, who brought into view the virtues of the 
Seneca snake root, published in 1736 at Williamsburgh an essay 
on pleurisy, in which he treats of the Seneca as an efficient remedy 
in the cure of this disease. Dr. Tennent, it is believed, was a 
family connexion of the late celebrated Dr. Richard Mead, of Lon- 
don. He held a medical correspondence with Dr. Mead for 
many years, and it was to him that he first communicated his ac- 
count of the Seneca. Dr. George Greham, a respectable physi- 
cian of Virginia, emigrated to this country in the early part of the 
last century. He was a native of the north of England, and was 
educated at Edinburgh. When he came over to this country he 
settled at Dumfries in Virginia, where he enjoyed an extensive 
practice for many years, and sustained a high reputation. Dr. 
Currie, of Richmond, practised through his life with great reputa- 
10 



74 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

tion. He seemed to possess, intuitively, the facult}' of distinguish- 
ing the character of disease, and of discovering the remedy. He 
received his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. 
Dr. Siccary, a practitioner of medicine, was, it is believed, a Por- 
tuguese Jew. It is said by Mr. Jefferson, that we are indebted to 
him for the introduction of that admirable vegetable, the tomato. 
He was of opinion that a person who should eat a sufficient 
abundance of these apples, would never die. Whether he follow- 
ed his own prescription, is not known ; but he certainly attained 
to a very old age, and particularly for tlie climate in which he 
lived. The tomato is raised in abundance in Virginia and the 
adjoining states, and is regarded as a great luxury, and by some is 
considered a preservative against bilious diseases. Dr. Andrew 
Robertson was a native of Scotland, and received his medical edu- 
cation at the Edinburgh University. He first served as a military 
surgeon in the British army in Flanders, and came to America 
with Braddock's arn)y in 1755. He remained in the country, and 
settled in Virginia, where he acquired a high reputation, and for 
many years enjoyed an extensive practice. He was particularly 
distinguished for his charity and attention to the indigent sick. 
He made several valuable medical communications, which were 
publisiied in the " London Medical Inquiries and Observations." 
He died in 1795. 

Arthur Lee, M. D. was a native of Virginia, and brother to 
Richard Henry Lee, the celebrated patriot of the revolution. 
Dr. Lee received his classical education at Edinburgh, and after- 
wards studied medicine in that university. As soon as he was 
graduated, he returned to his native state and settled at Williams- 
burg, where he practised medicine for several years ; but after- 
wards abandonedjthe profession, went to England, and commenced 
the study of the law in the Temple. He soon entered into politi- 
cal life, and rendered important services to his country during the 
revolutionary war. He died in Virginia, in 1792. Hugh Mercer, 
M. D. a general of the revolutionary war, was a distinguished 
physician, who, like Warren, fell in the defence of the liberties of 
his country. He was a native of Scotland, and educated at Edin- 
burgh. He early emigrated to Virginia and settled at Fredericks- 
burg, where he practised medicine for several years with great 
reputation. During the revolution, he zealously engaged in the 
support of the liberties of his adopted country, and fell in the bat- 
tle of Princeton in 1777- James McLurg, M. D. was a native of 
Scotland, and was educated at Edinburgh. He was graduated in 
medicine about 1771, and defended an experimental thesis on the 
bile. He settled at Williamsburg, and was by common consent 
placed at the head of the profession. Dr. William Baynham (6) 
was long considered as the most eminent surgeon in the southern 
states, and was particularly distinguished for his accurate know- 
ledge of anatomy, He died in 1814. Walter Jones, M. D. (6), 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 75 

one of the most eminent physicians in our country, was born in 
Virginia, and received his medical education at Edinburgh, where 
he was graduated about the year 1770. He practised in Virginia, 
and sustained through life the highest standing both as a scholar 
and physician. Dr. James Craik (b), a respectable Scotch physi- 
cian, was educated at Edinburgh and came over to this coun- 
try with Braddock's army in 1755, and served as surgeon in Gene- 
ral Braddock's campaign, after which he settled in Virginia. He 
sustained an important office in the medical department during the 
whole of the war of independence, and enjoyed the personal 
friendship and confidence of Washington, and attended that illus- 
trious chief in his last illness. He died at Alexandria in 1814, at 
the age of 84 years. Dr. Dick was also one of the attending 
physicians of Washington, but we have no information respecting 
his life and character. 

Medical School of the valley of Virginia, established at Win- 
chester in 1826. Professors : — 

John G. Cooke, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 

Phi/sic and Obstetrics. 
Phillip Smith, Professor of Materia Medica. 
H. H. McGuire, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 
A. F. Magill, M. D. Professor of Surgery and Chemistry. 



STATE OF SOUTH-CAROLINA. 

For eighty or ninety years after the settlement of this state, 
according to the late Dr. Ramsay, the practice of physic was 
almost entirely in the hands of Europeans : among these were 
several able physicians, who possessed an accurate knowledge of 
the diseases of our country, and, says the great man just mention- 
ed, at a period before Dr. Rush began his brilliant career as an 
author, there were more experiments made, more observations 
recorded and more medical writings ushered into public view by 
the physicians of Charleston, than of any other part of the Amer- 
ican continent. Between the years 1768 and 1778, ten native 
Carolinians obtained the honors of a medical degree at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh ; three of these were afterwards presidents 
of the Medical Society of that state, viz. Drs. Fayssoux, Harris 
and Chandler. About the year 1748, John Lining, M. D. (6) 
published an accurate history of the American yellow fever, which 
was the first on this subject which issued from an American press. 
Lionel Chalmers, M. D. (h) in 1754 communicated to the Medical 
Society of London some valuable remarks on Opisthotonus and 
Tetanus, and he published also an essay on fevers in 1767. 



76 HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

Alexander Garden, M. D. [b) presented to the public in 1764 
an account of the medical properties of the Spigelia Marylandica, 
or Carolina Pinkroot, with a botanical description of the plant. 
John Moultrie, M. D. (6), a distinguished physician of Charleston, 
was a native of Europe, and came to this country in 1733. For 
40 years he stood at the head of his profession in the city. He 
possessed great talents for observation, and was wonderfully suc- 
cessful in finding out the hidden causes of disease. He was the 
idol of his patients ; and such were the affection and attachment of 
his female friends that at his death, in 1773, many ladies of the 
city went into mourning on his account. The year following his 
death, an unusual number of females died in childbed, and appar- 
ently from despondency. Dr. Moultrie had a son who was grad- 
uated at Edinburgh in 1749, and was a distinguished scholar and 
an eminent practitioner of medicine in Charleston. At his grad- 
uation he defended a thesis, " De Febre Flava." William Bull, 
M. D. (6) was a physician of South Carolina, and a native of the 
state, distinguished for his literary attainments, as well as for an 
extensive knowledge of the science of medicine. He was the 
pupil of Boerhaave, and received the degree of M. D. at the 
University of Loyden in 1734, at which time he defended a thesis 
on " Colica Pictonum." He is quoted by Van Swieten as his fel- 
low student, with the title of the learned Dr. Bull, and was the 
first native of South Carolina, and probably the first American, 
who obtained a degree in medicine. Drs. Alexander Baron, 
Tucker, Harris and Samuel Wilson, should be mentioned in terms 
of high respect ; they died in advanced age. But of all the medi- 
cal characters which have adorned the southern states, no one has 
displayed more brilliant talents, or professional erudition, than the 
late David Ramsay, M. D. (b). An interesting memoir of this 
learned physician will be found in the biographical department in 
this work. 

In 1824 the Medical College of South Carolina was established 
at Charleston. In this school there are seven professorships. 
The students have the privilege of attending the practice of the 
Marine Hospital. The professors are : — 

John Edwards Holbrook, M. D. Professor of Anatomy. 

S. Henry Dickson, M. D. Professor of the Institutes and Prac- 
tice of Physic. 

James Ramsay, M. D. Professor of Surgery. 

Thomas G. Prioleau, M. D. Professor of Obstetrics and the Dis- 
eases of Wotnen and Children. 

Henry Rutledge Frost, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica. 

Edmund Ravenel, M. D. Professor of Chemistry. 

Stephen Elliot, LL.D. Professor of Botany and Natural History. 

The yellow fever was known to exist in Charleston so early as 
the year l699, and again in 1748, when Dr. Lining published aa 






HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 77 

ccurate history of the disease, and pronounced it imported iind 
ontagious. At several subsequent periods that city has been 
fflicted with the same mortal epidemic. 
In the year 1738 smallpox was brought from Africa b)' a cargo 
of slaves into Charleston, where from the beginning of June to 
the end of August it proved exceedingly fatal. Mr. Mowbray, a 
surgeon, was the first vvho introduced inoculation into this Prov- 
ince, and in a short time performed the operation upon 450 per- 
sons. He was seconded by Dr. Kirkpatrick and others, so that 
the number of the inoculated in a kw months amounted to 1000, 
including whites and blacks. Six of the former and two of the 
latter died of the disease thus communicated. 



The Medical College of Ohio was established in Cincinnati in 
1818. Professors : — 

Jedediah Cobb, M. D. Professor of the Institutes and Practice 
of Medicine. 

Elijah Slack, A. M. Professor of Chemistry a7id Pharmacy. 

John Moorhead, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and Medi- 
cal Obstetrics. 

Jesse Smith, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. 

Transylvania University. Medical School at Lexington, Ken- 
tucky. Professors : — 

Benjamin W. Dudley, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. 
Charles Caldwell, M. D. Professor of the Institutes of 3Iedicine 

and Clinical Practice. 
Daniel Drake, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice of 

Medicine. 
William H. Richardson, Professor of Obstetrics and the Diseases 

of Women and Children. 

Short, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica and 3Iedi- 

cal Botany. 
James Blythe, M. D. Professor of Chemistry. 

The Medical School of Jefferson College, located in Philadel- 
phia. Professors : — 

John Eberle, M. D. Professor of the Theory and Practice, and 

Clinical Medicine. 
George McClellan, M. D. Professor of Surgery. 
Jacob Green, A. M. Professor of Chemistry. 
B. Rush Rhees, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica. 
F. S. Beattie, M. D. Professor of the Institutes of Medicine and 

Midwifery. 
Nathan R. Smith, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 



78 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

Columbia College, D. C. Instituted under a charter of the 
Congress of the United States, and located at Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, in 1824. Professors : — 

Thomas Sewall, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 
James M. Stoughton, M. D. Professor of Surgery. 
Thomas Henderson, M. D. Professor of the Theory aiid Prac- 
tice of Medicine. 
N. W. Worthington, M. D. Professor of Materia Medica. 
Edward Cutbush, M. D. Professor of Chemistry. 
Frederick May, M. D. Professor of Obstetrics. 

The following is a statement of the several medical institutions 
in the United States, with the date of their respective organization, 
and the number of students attending the lectures in 1825-6, 
as correct as possible. 

No. St. No. St. 

Med. School of Maine 1820 60 

Med. School of Brown Uni- 
versity 1821 40 
Med. School of the University 

of Vermont 1822 42 

Berkshire Med. School 1822 94 

Med. College of S. Carolina 1824 50 
Med. School of Jefferson Coll. 1824 
Columbia College, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia 1824 
Med. School of Auburn 1823 
Med. School of the Valley of 

Virginia 1826 

Rutgers Med. College 1826 153 



University of Pennsylvania 1765 480 
Med. School of New-York 1768 196* 
Med. School of Harvard Col- 
lege 1782 130 
Med. School of Dartmouth Col- 
lege 1798 80 
College of Med. of Maryland 1807 215 
College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons of the Western Dis- 
trict of the state of N. Y. 1812 120 
Med. School of Yale College 1813 82 
Med. College of Ohio 1818 22 
Vermont Academy of Med. 1818 124 
Med. School of Transylvania 1819 235 



We have now detailed, in the order of time of their respective 
establishments, no less than twenty medical schools and colleges 
in the United States, and it is hoped that no one is omitted ; there 
is the best reason to believe that they have been organized with 
great judgment, and are conducted with commendable zeal and 
ability. It will be perceived that a course of lectures is given in 
all the institutions on the various branches of medical science, 
from three to five months annually. The subjects of anatomy and 
surgery are illustrated by dissections and operations on the dead 
body, and by models, drawings, and dried preparations ; the sub- 
ject of chemistry, by the exhibition of chemical experiments. Most 
of the schools are in possession of valuable medical libraries, ana- 
tomical and mineralogical cabinets, museums, &,c., and, in almost 
all instances, hospitals or infirmaries are established in connexion, 
affording the young student the best possible opportunities of im- 
provement in practical medicine. Every school is invested with 

* In 1826-7 reduced to 84. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 7 9 

the power of conferring medical degrees on those who, on exami- 
nation, are found to be entitled to such honors ; the manner and 
form are nearly similar in all the schools. Such is the unexam- 
pled progress in medical improvement, and such the ample means 
of instruction at the present day, although <^one hundred and fifty- 
eight years of our history elapsed after the first settlement of Ame- 
rica, before a single medical school existed in the country" 'J and 
though about sixty years ago one only was established, and but 
ten pupils attended its first lectures, we may at the present time 
boast of twenty schools, occupying the talents of more than one 
hundred eminent professors, imparting public instruction to more 
than two thousand young students annually. Besides the nume- 
rous seminaries already noticed, medical societies for the regula- 
tion of the practice of physic, and the suppression of quackery and 
empiricism,. have been formed in most of the states of the union. 
The establishment of these institutions originated with the legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts, who in the year 1781 incorporated the first 
body of this description, by the name of the Massachusetts Medi- 
cal Society. The views and design of the founders of this excel- 
lent institution, with the very important advantages which have re- 
sulted to the community by its operation, have already been de- 
tailed in page 38. Similar societies have since been incorporated 
by the legislatures of most of the states. In some of the states 
where such societies exist, persons who are not licensed are per- 
mitted to practise, and are allowed the benefit of the law ; and in 
some states, a severe penalty is inflicted for prescribing medicine 
without a licence. 

By the establishment of medical schools and societies through- 
out our country within the last half century, most important im- 
provements have been made in almost every branch of the science 
of medicine, and it must be gratifying to every patriot to know 
that our citizens have acted a very conspicuous part in effecting an 
object, in which the character of our nation and the interest of 
mankind are so deeply concerned. These circumstances will be 
hailed as propitious omens of the prosperity and literary fjime 
which await our aspiring citizens. Important and auspicious effects 
are already visible in the character of our physicians. A thirst for 
the acquisition of knowledge, a laudable emulation, a taste for ob- 
servation, inquiry and reseaich, have been excited, and the talents 
and efforts of medical men in various sections of the union have 
been happily combined. Within the last half century medical 
publications have greatly multiplied in the United States, and many 
of them reflect honor, both on their authors and on the national 
character. The numerous and valuable works of our late medical 
philosopher, Professor Rush, hold the first rank in the American 
catalogue. These, with the learned productions of Professors Bar- 
ton, Hosack, and Mitchell, have been translated into various for- 
eign languages, and received the meed of applause from some of 



80 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

the most celebrated characters of the European continent. The 
|. Anatomy of the late professor Wistar has been received with uni- 
*'''versal approbation, as a display of uncommon talent, and will be a 
lasting monument to his memory. Dr. Dorsey's " Elements of 
Surgery," an original work in two volumes, has been republished, 
and, it is said, made a text book in the celebrated medical school 
at Edinburgh.* There are numerous other writers in the United 
States, who by their labors have honorably contributed to our do- 
mestic literature and science. Many handsome specimens of 
ability, industry and learning, will be found among the inaugural 
dissertations published by the students of our medical schools ; and 
the most considerable portion of our journals and periodical publi- 
cations, in point of merit and utility, may vie with the long estab- 
lished vehicles and repositories of medical intelligence beyond the 
Atlantic. The plans and means of instruction in our establish- 
ments and seminaries, are continually improving. The road to 
medical knowledge is laid open, and is fraught with allurements. 
Emulation and fashion are directing their votaries into its various 
avenues, and conducting them to the fountain of professional hon- 
ors, distinctions and emoluments. No longer, therefore, need our 
young men humbly reap the fruits of European fields, but assidu- 
ously cultivate and diffuse the ample advantages to be found in 
our own. In duly appreciating the advantages of our own institu- 
tions we advance the interest and reputation of our native country, 
and prevent the necessity of an expensive resort to Europe iu 
pursuit of medical knowledge. We recognise in our institutions 
no uniform theoretical system as the rule of practice. Medical 
history affords abundant evidence of the instability of human sys- 
tems. Every age has teemed with theories or visionary hypo- 
theses fleeting as the wind, scarcely surviving their authors, but 
yielding to others as transient and unsubstantial as themselves. 
The medical authorities most respected, are CuUen, Rush and 
Good. These, modified and improved according to the judge- 
ment and views of the respective professors, are adopted and taught 
in the various American universities. In the art of surgery the 
leading authorities are Pott, the Bells, Desault, the Coopers, 
Abernethy, Cline, Home, Latta and Hey, to whom we may add 
our own countrymen, Physick and Dorsey of Philadelphia, Post 
and Mott, of New-York, and the late John Warren, and John 
C. Warren of Boston, and others, whose names we may with pride 
associate with those #vho have adorned the annals of surgery, in 
either hemisphere, in ancient or modern times. In the depart- 
ments of chemistry and botany, the most modern European authors 
are consulted, together whh the labors and improvements of our 
own enlightened professors. American botany is now cultivated 

* This it is hoped will silence those invidious writers in that country, who for 
years have labored to detract from the merit of American physicians. 



HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 81 

with that commendable ardor and solicitude, which the importance 
of the subject demands, and many indigenous medicinal plants have 
been introduced as new articles of our materia medica. 

Although there is no uniform standard of attainments establish- 
ed, in order to graduation, in most of our schools it is required, 
that before a student can be admitted to an examination for a de- 
gree, he must have attained to the age of twenty-one, have studied 
three years with some regular physician, attended two full courses 
of lectures on the different branches of medicine, and, if he has not 
enjoyed the advantages of a collegiate education, he must furnish 
satisfactory evidence of having made respectable classical attain- 
ments ; and particularly that he has acquired a competent know- 
ledge of the Latin and Greek languages, has studied mathematics, 
natural and experimental philosophy, geography, and belles lettres. 
In several of our schools it is required that he shall have attended 
the clinical practice of some infirmary for a specified term. It is 
also required that, before he can receive his degree, he must pass 
a close examination in the different branches of medicine, and write 
and defend a thesis on some medical subject, 

A national Pharmacopoeia, adapted to the present state of medi- 
cal science in the United States, had long been a desideratum, as 
the only mode by which a uniform system of practice could be es- 
tablished. In January, 1817, Dr. Lyman Spalding submitted to 
the New- York County Medical Society a project for the formation 
of a national Pharmacopoeia, by the authority of all the medical 
societies and medical schools in the United States. The plan 
adopted for the purpose of accomplishing this great object, was to 
divide the United States and territories into four districts, viz. the 
northern, middle, southern and western. In each of these dis- 
tricts a convention was called, consisting of delegates from the 
several medical societies, colleges of physicians and surgeons, 
medical schools, faculties of medicine and voluntary associations of 
physicians. It was proposed that each district convention should 
form a Pharmacopoeia, or select one in general use, and make 
therein such alterations and additions as might adapt it to the 
present state of medical science. The district conventions were 
requested to appoint one or more delegates to meet in a general 
convention and submit to the same their Pharmacopoeia. Circu- 
lar letters were transmitted to the medical schools and institutions 
throughout the United States, and met with universal approbation. 
The places designated for the meeting of the district conventions 
were Boston, Philadelphia, Columbia in South Carolina, and 
Lexington in Kentucky. These district conventions held their 
meetings accordingly, and appointed delegates to meet in a general 
convention to be held in the city of Washington, for the purpose 
of compiling the American Pharmacopoeia from those which were 
presented by the district conventions. It was agreed that each 
medical society, or medical institution, should defray the expenses 
11 



i 



82 HISTORF OF JIEDICINE IN AMERICA. 

of its own delegation and its proportion of the expenses of the dis- 
trict convention : that the general convention should adopt a plan 
for revising the American Pharmacopoeia at the end of every ten 
years ; and that no alteration should be made therein except at those 
periods, and then only by the authority aforesaid. The general 
convention for the formation of the Pharmacopoeia assembled in 
the capitol at Washington on the first day of January, 1820, and 
elected Samuel L. Mitchell, M. D. as their president, and Thomas 
T. Hewson, M. D. as secretary. Two Pharmacopoeias, being 
those prepared in the northern and middle districts, were submitted 
to examination. These works were duly examined and compared 
in detail, and their contents, with such additions as were thought 
necessary, consolidated into one work, which, after full revision, 
was adopted by the general convention as the American Phar- 
macopoeia, and ordered to be published by a committee appointed 
for that purpose. It was a preliminary that the general conven- 
tion should sell, for ten years, the copyright of the American 
Pharmacopoeia, and that they should defray their expenses out of 
the proceeds of the sale, and also that it be recommended to every 
medical society, <S6C. to adopt the Pharmacopoeia, and encourage 
the use of it by all druggists and apothecaries. It was resolved 
by the general convention that tlieir president shall on the first 
of January, 1828, issue writs of election to the several incorporated 
state medical societies, &c. requiring them to ballot for delegates 
to a general convention to be held at Washington on the first of 
January, 1830, for the purpose of revising the Pharmacoposia, and 
introducing such alterations and additions as the progress of medi- 
cal and pharmaceutical science may require. 

The following periodical publications on the subject of medicine 
have been established in the United States. 

The New- York Medical Repository was the first medical jour- 
nal published in the United States, and was commenced in that 
city in 1797 by the joint labors of Drs. Samuel L. Mitchell, Ed- 
ward IMiller, and Elihu H. Smith. Since the commencement of 
this work, a succession of periodical journals has been established, 
among which are : — 

The Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal, com- 
menced in - - _ - . 1804 
Philadelphia Medical Museum, in - _ _ 1805 
Baltimore Medical and Physical Recorder, in - 1808 
New-York Medical and Philosophical Journal and Review, 

in ------ - 1809 

American Medical and Philosophical Register (at New- 
York), in .-..-- 1810 
The American Mineralogical Journal (at New- York,) in - 1810 
Eclectic Repertory (at Philadelphia), in - - 1811 
Baltimore Medical and Philosophical Lyceum, ia - 1811 



18$> /$ 



BISTORT OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 83 

New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery (at Bos- 
ton), in - - - - - " - 1812 

American Medical Recorder (at Philadelphia), in - 1818 
Philadelphia Journal of Medical and Physical Sciences, 

in - - - - - - 1820 

American Journal of Science and Arts (at New-Haven), 
in------- 

New- York Medical and Physical Journal, in - - 1822 

Western Medical Reporter (at Cincinnati, Ohio), about - 1822 

Hartford Analectic Journal of Medicine and Surgery, in - 1823 

Boston Medical Intelligencer, in - - _ 1823 

Medical Review and Analectic Journal (at Philadelphia), in 1824 

New-York Monthly Chronicle of Medicine and Surgery, in 1824 
Carolina Journal of Medicine, Science, and Agriculture 

(at Charleston), in - - - - - 1825 

The North American Medical and Surgical Journal (at 

Philadelphia), in - - - - - 1826 

Philadelphia Monthly Journal of Medicine and Surgery, in 1827' 

" These publications have, in general, been well sustained, and 
while they have been useful in disseminating medical information, 
and in exciting a more general taste for reading and inquiry, they 
have called forth the talents of physicians in every part of the 
United States, in exploring the medical topography of the coun- 
try, investigating the causes of its epidemic and endemic diseases, 
examining its animal, vegetable, and mineral productions, and in 
publishing the results of their observations and discoveries to the 
world. They have thus been among the most efficient means of 
advancing medical science, and elevating the character of the 
profession. Several of the journals which have been established, 
are discontinued, and others have assumed a different title."* As 
vehicles imparting useful knowledge, and improving the science of 
medicine, they have been of the highest importance. If the 
advancement of science in the early periods of our history was 
marked with tardy and feeble steps, we can boast of honorable 
amendment by the rapid strides observable in our own times. 
Within the last sixty years our progress has been without a par- 
allel. We have established no less than twenty medical schools, 
besides medical societies ; numerous hospitals, infirmaries and 
dispensaries, devoted to the cause of humanity and benevolence, 
have been erected ; a system of medical education and of medical 
police has been established, and their benefits extensively diffused. 
In the language of a late elegant writer,! " We have produced 
a host of able teachers, successful practitioners, and some of the 
best writers of the age. If much has already been accomplished, 

* Professor Sewall's first lecture at the opening of Columbia College, D. C 
March, 1826. t Ibid. 



84 HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN AMERICA, 

much still remains to be done. Though our large towns and cities 
and the more populous parts of our country are supplied with well 
educated pliysicians, a large portion of our territory, remote from 
the schools, is still without those who have enjoyed the benefits 
of public instruction. If we have ten thousand physicians, as 
computed by a late writer, we have more than fifteen thousand 
practitioners of medicine, many of whom have never heard a pub- 
lic lecture, or seen a demonstration in anatomy." " If, in sixty 
years, with the limited means we have possessed, and with all the 
difficulties we have had to encounter, we have produced the best 
system of medical education, the most perfect code of medical 
police that has been exhibited to the world ; if we have pro- 
duced some of the best practical and elementary books, and some 
of the most eminent physicians and surgeons of any age or 
country ; if we have done this in the short [)eriod of sixty years 
that are passed, what will be our advance in sixty years to 
come ?" The foregoing sentiments of Professor Sewall, as it re- 
spects the multiplication of medical schools, and the increased 
facilities of acquiring professional knowledge, cannot but receive 
universal acquiescence, as a happy display of the prosperity of 
our country, and auspicious to our national character. But it has 
unfortunately happened, that in some of our cities instances have 
occurred to prove that prosperity and successful progress depend 
less on the number of schools, than the harmoniously combined 
efforts of a single institution. Collision and unfair rivalry, ought 
to be reprobated by all who have at heart the true interest and 
honor of the profession. But so multiplied and copious are now 
the fountains of medical honors that the streams flow into every 
one's soil, and the diploma is prepared to announce from 
numerous sources talent and acquirements with surprising facility. 
Notwithstanding, however, we may pride ourselves on the number 
of our medical institutions, it is to be apprehended that the degree 
of medical knowledge and attainments of our students generally, 
is inferior to that which is required of graduates at the European 
schools. Experience has verified the fact, that in too many in- 
stances degrees are conferred on candidates who are not qualified 
to discharge the duties of the profession, or to reflect honor on 
their instructers. The subject, therefore, is not unworthy of ma- 
ture consideration, whether a more limited number of medical 
institutions in our country would not better subserve the great 
object in view, the improvement of medical science and literature. 
This would afford an opportunity of selecting professors from 
among those of the highest grade in point of talent and weight of 
character, and the increased number of students would yield them 
ample encouragement and support. This object effected, a uni- 
form system of instruction and terms of admission to practice 
might be established, a longer period for education and a greater 
amount of scientific acquirements be made n requisite stipulatioU| 



HISTORY OP MEDICINE IN AMERICA. 85 

and all pretence obviated for students to prefer a particular school 
with the view of obtaining a diploma on more favorable conditions. 
In consequence of diligent and learned research, and of emulatioa 
among medical philosophers, new and important facts have been 
developed, and the restoring art has reached an honorable and 
dignified rank among the sciences. Yet it is still fraught with 
deficiencies and altogether inadequate to our desires. To what 
extent the frail condition of human nature is capable of being 
meliorated, and existence protracted by the application of the 
principles of medicine, must be reserved to the wisdom and in- 
dustry of future generations to determine. It is, nevertheless, 
incumbent upon us to consecrate our talents to this noble science, 
duly to appreciate and exalt its merit, to cherish its dignity, to 
study and improve its principles, and to cultivate a religious sense 
of the inestimable blessings which mankind derive from its influ- 
ence. " So great," says the pious Dr. Rush, " are the blessings 
which mankind derive from the healing art, that if every other 
argument failed to prove the administration of a Providence in 
human affairs, the profession of medicine would be fully sufficient 
for that purpose." 



AMERICAN MEDICAL BIOGRAPHY. 



Peace to their ashes, and the stamp of immortality on their memory. 



AMERICAN MEDICAL BIOGRAPHY. 



ADAMS, SAMUEL, M.M.S.S. was the only son of Sam- 
uel Adams, late governor of Massachusetts. He was born 
at Boston, 27th October, 1751. His preparatory education 
was at a Latin school in his native town. He entered Har- 
vard University at tlie age of fourteen years, and was gra- 
duated in 1770. His professional education was acquired 
under the direction of Dr. Joseph Warren, and he prac- 
tised one year in Boston. 

When hostilities commenced with Great Britain in 1775, 
Dr. Adams, imbued Avith the patriotic spirit of his father, 
engaged as surgeon in the hospital department of our ar- 
my. Commencing his public services at Cambridge, by 
attending the soldiers who were wounded at Lexington and 
Bunker's Hill, he afterwards removed to Danbury and 
successively to various stations in several of the states, and 
continued in the service during the revolutionary war ; 
after which he returned to his native town with a broken 
constitution, and was unable to recommence his profession- 
al pursuits. He died of a scrofulous affection of several 
of the vital organs, on the 17th of January, 1788. He was 
a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society. He pos- 
sessed a substantial mind, social feelings and a generous 
heart, and his greatest pleasure was to do good to his fel- 
low men. 

It was fortunate for Dr. Adams that, instead of sell- 
ing his demands upon government for his army services, 
as did many of his military companions, for a trifle, he 
retained possession of them until by the funding system 
they were established at their full value ; and he was thus 
enabled to leave to an aged parent a competency for his 
declining years, without which the venerable patriot must 
12 



90 JAMES ANDERSON. 

have depended for subsistence upon the kindness of his 
friends or the charity of the public. 

ANDERSON, JAiMES, M.D. Having successfully ter- 
minated his academical pursuits at an early age, Dr. An- 
derson commenced the study of medicine under the direc- 
tion of his father, a very respectable physician from Scot- 
land. He attended a course of lectures by Professors Ship- 
pen and Morgan in the school of Philadelphia, then in its 
infancy ; and next sailed for Edinburgh, at that time the 
focus of medical literature. Circumstances, which it is 
unnecessary to mention, not permitting him to remain long 
enough to obtain a degree, he returned to this coimtry 
with an ample certificate signed by his preceptors, Cullen, 
the elder Munro, and the whole board of professors. 

Immediately on his return he commenced the practice 
of physic in conjunction with his father. Deeply versed 
in general, and particularly in medical, science, and devot- 
ed almost beyond example to the performance of his pro- 
fessional duties, he soon obtained a reputation unenjoyed 
by any of his competitors. For a period of upwards of 
thirty years, he retained a practice of an extent certainly 
without a parallel in this section of the country. Advanc- 
ing rapidly towards his sixtieth year, and feeling the infirm- 
ities consequent on a life so laborious, he retired to his 
seat near Chestertown. In this situation, however, he was 
not allowed the repose which he anticipated. Though the 
native Angor of his constitution was broken down bv the 
invasion of disease and by those accidents to which his 
course of life subjected him, he attended, almost to the 
close of it, to the calls of his patients. 

As a physician, though attached to the doctrine of the 
old school, his rank was second to none in the state. 
Prompt in his decisions, and drawing from a rich fund of 
learning and experience, it may be truly said, that in his 
diagnostic discriminations and clinical calculations he sel- 
dom failed. As a husband, father, friend, in every domes- 
tic and social relation, the world had not his superior. His 
rank as a christian was eminently distinguished. Equally 
removed from lukewarmness and enthusiasm, he was a dis- 
ciple of Wesley, and strenuously contended that not to ad- 
mit the truth of his tenets, was to deny the obvious doc- 
trines of the holy scriptures. Communicative and affable 
in his deportment to all, he never for a moment forgot the 
dignity of his charncter, or what it exacted. Easy of ac- 



WILLIAM ABPINWALL. 91 

cess, and acutely sensible to the wants of others, the needy 
sufferer rarely made a fruitless application for aid. His 
home was an asylum for the indigent, and such were his 
liberality and benevolence, that, though his practice was 
extensive and lucrative, he was precluded from the accu- 
mulation of wealth. 

In his last and painful illness his demeanor was instruct- 
ive and exemplary. Patient to a degree seldom equalled, 
never surpassed, he was always thankful for the little at- 
tentions and services of his friends ; and in the final trying 
scenes submitted with meekness to the will of his Heavenly 
Father. He died December Stli, 1820, at his seat in the 
vicinity of Chestertown, Maryland, in the 69th year of his 
ao-e. — Phila. Journal of Med. and Phys. Sciences^ Vol. II. 

ASPINWALL, WILLIAM, M.D. M.M.S.S. was born in 
Brookline, Mass. on the 23d May (old style), 1743. His 
ancestors emigrated from England about the year 1630 
with the 4000 emigrants. Peter Aspinwall first settled at 
Dorchester, and afterwards at Brookline about the year 
•1650, and the farm which he occupied is still in the hands 
of the descendants. The house built by Peter, being the 
oldest house in Brookline, with the venerable elm near it 
which was planted by liim, also remains. William, the 
subject of this memoir, was the sole survivor of three gen- 
erations which were born in tliis place.* He was fitted 
for college by the Rev. Amos Adams, minister of Roxbury, 
and Avas graduated at Harvard University in 1764. Having 
determined on devoting his life to the medical profession, 
he pursued his studies with the celebrated Dr. Benjamin 
Gale of Connecticut, and completed his education at the 
hospital in Philadelphia, where he received the degree of 
Doctor of medicine in the University of Pennsylvania about 
the year 1768, Dr. Aspinwall returned to his native vil- 
lage and commenced the practice of medicine, being the 
first physician who settled in the place. 

At the commencement of our revolutionary war, imder 
an enthusiastic impulse to espouse the cause of his country, 
he applied for a commission in the army ; but his kinsman 
and friend Dr. Joseph Warren, afterwards Major General 
Warren, dissuaded him from this pursuit and induced him 
to serve his country in the medical department. According- 
ly Dr. Aspinwall received the appointment of Surgeon in 

* See History of New England (Winthrop's) edited by Jamei Savage, Esq. 



92 WILLIAM ASPINWALL. 

General Heath's brigade, and, soon after, that of deputy 
director of the hospital on Jamaica Plain, by the recom- 
mendation of General Warren. On the memorable day of 
Lexington battle, Dr. Aspinwall was a volunteer and com- 
batted personally in the conflict. He bore from the field 
the corpse of Isaac Gardner, Esq. Avhose eldest daughter 
he afterwards married. Mr. Gardner commanded the 
Brookline company of militia, and fell in Cambridge, 
having his body perforated with twelve bullets. His son, 
the late General Isaac S. Gardner, then at the age of 16, 
was in his father's company the day above mentioned. 
Dr. Aspinwall had the body of his revered friend carried 
to his house and buried at midnight, in order that the num- 
ber of our martyred citizens might as much as possible be 
concealed from public view. 

It was the personal interest which he took in the revolu- 
tionary contest, acting upon a mind deeply imbued with a 
sense of his country's wrongs, that gave strength and tone 
to his sentiments in after life. Dr. Aspinwall's language 
on political subjects was bold and strong, his creed being 
that of a democratic republican. In tlie unhappy scenes of 
party excitement he unwaveringly adhered to what he 
deemed original and fundamental principles, but he aimed 
to preserve a good conscience, and to do justice to the 
honest opinions, the pure motives and undoubted integrity 
of his opponents. He was not a political persecutor, and 
when he Avas in the councils of the state, resolutely de- 
clined acting with his coadjutors, who were disposed to 
drive from office incumbents, whose only fault w'as what 
they deemed political heresy. 

After the death of the eminent and distinguished Dr. 
Zabdiel Boylston, the first inoculator of smallpox in 
America, Dr. Aspinwall established himself in that under- 
taking, and erected hospitals for that purpose in Brookline. 
Perhaps no practitioner in the United States ever inocu- 
lated so many persons or acquired such skill and celebrity 
in treating this malignant disease as Dr. A. Besides his 
practice in this disorder when it generally spread, he was 
allowed after the year 1788 to keep a hospital open at all 
times, to which great numbers resorted, and from which 
they returned with warm expressions of satisfaction. He 
continued in the successful treatment of this disease till the 
general introduction of vaccine inoculation. He had made 
ample accommodation for enlarged practice, and establish- 



WILLIAM ASPINWALL. 98 

ed wliat might liave been justly deemed a sure founda- 
tion for prosperity, when vaccine inoculation was first in- 
troduced. He well knew that, if vaccination possessed the 
virtues ascribed to it, his schemes of fortune and useful- 
ness arising from inoculation at his hospital, were ruined, 
that he should be involved in loss, and his anticipations of 
fortune would be blasted. But as an honest man and faith- 
ful physician, he deemed it his duty to inquire into the ef- 
ficacy of the novel substitute. With the utmost alacrity, 
therefore, he gave the experiment a fair trial, promptly 
acknowledged its efiicacy, and relinquished his own estab- 
lishment. The foregoing is corroborated by the following 
statement recently made by Dr. Waterhouse in the Medical 
Intelligencer. 

" The late Dr. Aspinwall, a man of great sagacity, and 
uncommonly Avell grounded in the principles of his profes- 
sion, gave evidence of it on the first sight of a vaccine pus- 
tule. I had invited all the elder physicians of Boston and 
the vicinity of Cambridge to see the first vaccine pustules 
ever raised in the new world. They gave them the ordi- 
nary inspection of an unusual eruption on the skin ; — all 
but Dr. Aspinwall, whose attention was riveted on the 
jDustule, its areola and efflorescence. He came a second time, 
and viewed the inoculated part in every light, and re- 
viewed it, and seemed loath to leave the sight of it. He 
seemed wrapped in serious thought, and said repeatedly — 
' this pustule is so like smallpox, and yet it is not smallpox, 
that, should it on scabbing take out a portion of the true 
skin, so as to leave an indelible mark or pit behind, I shall 
be ready to conclude, that it is a mild species of smallpox, 
hitherto unknown here.' He had been in the habit of ex- 
amining the smallpox pimple and pustule, througli glasses, 
to know if it ' had taken ,•' and he remarked that they 
were peculiar, unique, and unlilte any otlier eruption he 
ever saw ; but that this Kine Pock came the nearest to it. 
Sometime after, I gave him a portion of the virus to make 
his own experiments, and observe the progress of its ino- 
culation, and coincidence of the constitutional symptoms, 
when he o1)served, that its progress, febrile aflection, and 
mode of scabbing were very like smallpox, and so of the in- 
delible mark left on the arm ; yet throughout tlie whole 
visible affection, different. To crown the whole of his hon- 
orable conduct, he some time after took all those of my 
family whom I had vaccinated, into his smallpox hospital, 



94 WILLIAM A6PINWALL. 

the only licensed one in the state, and there tested them 
to his satisfaction, and one to the very verge of rigid ex- 
periment ; and then he said to me and to others — ' this 
new Inoculation of yours ^ is no Sham. As a man of humanity, I 
rejoice in it ; although it will take from me a handsome annual 
income.'' His conduct throughout was so strongly mark- 
ed with superior intelligence, generosity and honor, as to 
excite my esteem and respect ; and I accordingly dedicate 
this effusion of gratitude to the memory of the Hon. 
William Aspinwall, M. D. ; a gentleman respectable in 
public life as a counsellor, and an honor to his profession 
as a physician." 

In the character of a physician. Dr. Aspinwall was par- 
ticularly distinguished. His practice embraced a wide cir- 
cle, and he devoted himself to it with unremitting ardor 
and fidelity for forty-five years. During the largest part 
of his time he rode on horseback, often upwards of forty 
miles a day, and it was not usual for him to retire to rest 
until after midnight. The natural strength of his constitu- 
tion, his constant exposure to the elements, and his resolute 
devotion to his profession, enabled him to endure the fa- 
tigues of mind and body consequent upon such daily and 
incessant labor. The necessity of reading and writing to a 
late hour almost every night with but one eye (having lost 
the other by accident in his youth), brought on at length a 
disease in that organ, which terminated in the formation of 
a cataract and deprived him of sight. In his profession he 
was distinguished for prompt attendance, for soundness of 
judgment, just discrimination, caution in untried experi- 
ments, and for fearless confidence in what stood approved 
to his reason and resulted from experience. His patients 
reposed unlimited confidence in his judgment, skill and 
fidelity. To them he was an angel of consolation, a phy- 
sician greatly beloved. In the aflairs of his native town, 
the birth place, and place of burial of so many kindred, 
Dr. Aspinwall ever took a lively concern. He devoted 
much time to its interest in various offices. He represent- 
ed the town in the general court several years, was thrice 
elected a senator for Norfolk county, and served one term 
as counsellor. He was solicited to become one of the jus- 
tices of the Court of Common Pleas, but he declined and 
retired from public employment. In all these trusts he 
was faithful to the interest of liis constituents and to the 
public weal, as well as unwavering in his political creed. 



WILLIAM ASPINVVALL. 95 

Dr. Aspinwall made a public profession of religion at an 
early age, and during a long life he maintained a good pro- 
fession. He honored the institutions and ministers of reli- 
gion, and was never absent from pviblic worshijj when pro- 
fessional duty permitted his attendance. He imparted re- 
ligious counsel, as well as medical aid, at the bed of sick- 
ness. Of his holy faith he always spoke with profound re- 
spect. Under bereavement, infirmity and sickness, his re- 
ligious principles yielded him firm support and buoyed 
him above the vicissitudes of life. During a confinement 
of several of the last years of his life, when deprived of his 
sight, the religion of Jesus Christ was his support and con- 
solation. It was the theme of his discourse, and he con- 
sidered his testimony in its favor the best legacy he could 
bequeath to his children. He died on the 1 6th of April, 
1823, of natural decay, having nearly completed his eight- 
ieth year. Dr. A. was endowed with a strong intellect, and 
a resoluteness that shrunk from no labor or duty. He was 
an example of perseverance amidst vmtoward circumstances, 
and of accommodating them to his peculiar situation. To 
young physicians his example holds out encouragement, 
that economy, integrity, constant industry and unremitting 
study of his profession, will finally succeed, and bring 
reputation and competence. Dr. A. was a fellow of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society and a Justice of the peace 
throughout the commonwealth. 

A few years before his death Dr. Nathan Smith at- 
tempted to remove the cataract over his eye, but was un- 
successful, and the glimmering light that had remained 
was unfortunately totally extinguished. He bore this phy- 
sical darkness with resignation and tranquillity. He con- 
sidered it a merciful dispensation in his Maker to suspend 
his labors and give him leisure and opportunity, which 
during a very active life he had too seldom enjoyed, for 
religious reflection and preparation for death. By daily 
exercise of mind and body he preserved both in full vigor. 
His curiosity about public events and daily occurrences 
continued, and some of his last thoughts were on his coun- 
try, its prosperity, its improvements, its distinguished men, 
its relation with foreign powers. He was anxious that wise 
and good men should bear sway in our land, and that the 
intellectual, benevolent and religious institutions received 
from ovir forefathers, should be perpetuated. — Tappan. 



96 ISRAEL ATIIERTON. 

ATHERTON, DR. ISRAEL, M.M.S.S. This gentleman 
was a native of Harvard, Massachusetts, and was graduated 
at Cambridge in 1762. He received his medical education 
under the able tuition of Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, of Sa- 
lem, and commenced his practice at Lancaster, A.D. 1765, 
peculiarly qualified for the duties of his profession by his 
constitution, his benevolent and amiable temper, and his 
acquirements in medical science. He early became eminent, 
and practised with increasing reputation until the infirmi- 
ties of age, accelerated by the fatigues and privations of a 
laborious calling, compelled him to retire from active em- 
ployment. He retained his mental powers, and died as he 
had lived, collected and resigned, in 1822, aged 82 years. 
Commencing his business with a vigorous and discrimi- 
nating mind, Dr. Atherton made his knowledge from books 
subservient to his practice so far only as it assisted him in 
unfolding the great book of nature. He was governed by 
no system whose theory was not simple and defined, and 
Avhich did not obviously lead to rational and judicious prac- 
tice. At the period when he resolved upon his profession, 
preparatory knowledge was deemed in most country towns 
of little value, except for the pulpit or the bar; the practice 
of physic was only in name among the learned professions. 
He was the first, and for some years the only, physician 
in the county of Worcester, who had passed a course of 
collegiate studies, or commenced the profession of medicine 
under the advantages of a regular competent prejiaration ; 
and for a long period the only one whose professional sci- 
ence seemed to entitle him to be made a fellow of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society. He lived, however, to witness 
what he ardently strove to promote, an emulation among 
the faculty to elevate their profession to a respectable 
standing in science and substantial usefulness ; and to see 
the patronage and preference which the community had so 
generally extended to impostors, in a great measure with- 
drawn. — Hon. 0. Fiske. 

BARD, DR. JOHN. The subject of this memoir was of 
French descent ; his ancestors preferring their faith to their 
country, became exiles under the provisions of the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes. His fiither, Peter Bard, on his 
arrival in America, immediately fixed himself on the Ijanks 
of the Delaware, not far from Philadelphia, where he 
soon became attached to a neighbor and fellow exile. This 
ladv was the daughter of Dr. Marmion, an English gentle- 



>c 



• ^ 




JOIIir BARBoMB. 



I 



#"• 



JOHPf BARD. 9T 

man, who, as appears from a manuscript journal kept by 
his wife, a woman of perha})s stronger sense than her hus- 
band and equal piety, had ahaiulontnl Enghuid, liis liome 
and his church, from the scruples of a misguided con- 
science. The sympathy of a similar fate seems here to 
have imited tiiose, whom, under other circumstances, dif- 
ference of nation and language would probably have repel- 
led. From the marriage which ensued, John Bard was 
the issue, born in February, 1716. 

He received the rudiments of a polite and classical edu- 
cation at Philadelphia, and at the age of 14 or 15 years 
was, according to the custom of that day, bound apprentice 
to Mr. Kearsly, an English surgeon of good talents, but of 
so unhappy a temper, that his presence banished cheerful- 
ness from his family. He treated his pupils with great ri- 
gor and subjected tiiem to the most menial employments ; 
to which, Dr. Bard has been heard to say, he would never 
have submitted, but from the apprehension of giving pain 
to his excellent mother, who was then a widow with seven 
children and a very moderate income, and from the en- 
couragement he received from the kindness of her particu- 
lar friend. Mrs. Kearsly, of whom he always spoke in terms 
of the warmest gratitude, affection and respect. Under 
such circumstances, he persevered to the end of seven te- 
dious years, stealing his hours of study from sleep after the 
family had retired to rest, and before they arose in the 
morning. Before he was released from tliis thraldom he 
became acquainted with Dr. Franklin, of kindred mind, 
and no unequal fortune ; whose friendship and cheerfulness 
brightened his leisure hours, whose example roused, and 
whose indefatigable industry stimulated his exertions and 
perseverance. This early intimacy was refined by a simi- 
larity of dis])osition into a lasting friendship, which ended 
only with their lives, and which, Dr. Franklin reminded 
him in a letter not long before his death, " had never been 
obscured by the slightest shade." 

Dr. Bard first settled in his profession in Philadelphia, 
but after practising in that city aliout five or six years he 
was induced to remove to New-York, in the year 1746. 
By the urbanity of his manners, his professional talents, 
and the charms of his conversation, which was enlivened 
by an uncommon flow of cheerfulness, enriched by sound 
sense, aiul adorned by a large fund of anecdote, he so ef- 
fectuallv recommended himHclf to the notice and friend- 



98 JOHN BARD. 

ship of the most respectable families, that he was almost 
immediately introduced into a valuable scene of business, 
and very soon arrived at the first rank of professional emi- 
nence, which he retained through a long life of more than 
fourscore years. 

From the confined circumstances of his education. Dr. 
Bard was neither classically nor professionally a learned 
man ; but he possessed a lively fancy, a sound judgment 
and a correct taste. He read with great delight the best 
authors, particularly the poets of his own language ; and 
whatever he read and admired, he made so completely his 
own, that he could recal it almost at pleasure to his memo- 
ry, and would frequently surprise and delight his friends 
by long and appropriate quotations from authors he had 
not seen for many years. In his profession he read all the 
best authors of his day ; but his studies were rather select 
than general. Sydenham and Huxham were his favorites. 
He formed himself upon their plan, was so familiar with 
their histories of diseases and their rules of practice, that 
he applied them with great ease, and acquired from them 
a correct and happy talent in discriminating diseases, and 
such sound principles of practice, as rendered his own emi- 
nently successful. 

About the year 1759 the city of New-York M^as alarmed 
by the arrival of a ship from Amsterdam, freighted for the 
transportation of Palatines, among whom a malignant fe- 
ver had broken out during the passage, and destroyed a 
great number. On this occasion Dr. Bard was employed 
by the corporation to take proper measures to prevent the 
disease from spreading. The sick were quartered at a dis- 
tance from the city ; but notwithstanding every attention, 
many of the passengers perished ; and, although the dis- 
ease was confined within the limits of the hospital, it was 
communicated to every nurse and assistant, Dr. Bard only 
escaping. He immediately drew up a memorial, in which 
he represented the expediency of providing a pest house 
against similar occasions, which was immediately eftected 
by the purchase of Bedloioh Island and the buildings upon 
it ; the care of which, with the appointment of health offi- 
cer, was given to him. He was likewise appointed sur- 
jBjeon and agent for the sick and wounded seamen of the 
British navy at New-York. 

Captivated by the pleasures and employments of a coun- 
try life. Dr. Bard in the year 1778 retired to an estate h© 



JOHN BARD. 99 

possessed in Dutchess county. But the events of the Amer- 
ican revolution having greatly injured his fortune, he 
again returned to New-York at the jDeace of 1783, and was 
received with the greatest satisfaction by most of his old 
friends who had remained in town, or who returned with 
him ; and although now far advanced in life, a good con- 
stitution and an active mind enabled him to discharge the 
duties of his profession with ease to himself, and much to 
the satisfaction of his patients. On the establishment of 
the Medical Society of New-York in the year 1788, he was 
unanimously chosen their president ; and in the year 1795 
gave an eminent instance of his discernment and know- 
ledge of diseases by pointing out, in an address to that 
body, the existence of the yellow fever, which then ap- 
peared in that city, and which he had not seen for forty 
years. On this occasion he met much opposition and some 
obloquy ; but he persisted in his remonstrances with his 
brethren and advice to his fellow citizens, until conviction, 
too fatally earned, silenced the most obstinate of his oppo- 
nents. He likewise pointed out the sudorific plan of treat- 
ing that fatal disease, Avhich on good grounds is believed to 
have been more successful than any other Avhich has been 
pursued. 

At the bed side Dr. Bard was distinguished by an affec- 
tionate attention to the situation and feelings of his pa- 
tients, a careful examination and correct discrimination of 
their diseases, and a diligent application of appropriate re- 
medies ; so that, even when unsuccessful, he never had oc- 
casion to reproach himself with neglect, and seldom failed 
to obtain the gratitude and esteem of their friends. In his 
intercourse with his fellow practitioners, he was to all can- 
did and sincere ; but between him and his particular 
friends, among whom he numbered Dr. Peter Middleton 
and Dr. John Jones, both men of distinguished reputation, 
there prevailed an unbounded liberality and confidence, 
which, whenever it exists between men of eminence in the 
profession of medicine, must redound greatly to the safety 
and happiness of their patients. 

Convinced from his early youth of the great truths of 
natural and revealed religion. Dr. Bard never spoke on 
these subjects but with the utmost reverence. He would 
frequently take occasion from the w onders of creation and 
the beauties of nature, of which he was an enthusiastic ad- 
mirer, to expatiate on the infinite wisdom and goodness of 



100 JOHN BARD. 

the Deity ; and on these occasions the feelings of his heart 
would glow in his language and glisten in his eye, and sel- 
dom failed to warm his hearers into a kindred enthusiasm. 
At his own peculiar lot, which was very far from what the 
world calls prosperous, he was never heard to murmur or 
despond ; but resigning himself cheerfully to the dispensa- 
tions of Providence, and pouring forth praises and grati- 
tude for the blessings he enjoyed, he rose from every dis- 
appointment with renovated hope and more vigorous ex- 
ertion. 

The charms of his conversation were protracted to the 
latest period of his life ; his vivacity and cheerfulness even 
then enlivened all companies into which he entered, and 
rendered his society peculiarly agreeable to young persons 
of both sexes, who never left him but with expressions of 
admiration and esteem. When surrounded by his friends 
he literally forgot all care, and would frequently beguile 
the time until young and old wondered how the hours had 
passed. Thus he lived, admired, respected and beloved. 
About a year before his death, he again retired into the 
country from the fatigues of business. In his eighty-fourth 
year, after a few days' illness, the first of which deprived 
him of his recollection, and saved him from the only cir- 
cumstance he dreaded in death, the pain of parting from 
his friends, he closed his long, useful and honorable ca- 
reer on the-30th of March, 1799. 

For the following very interesting detail I am indebted 
to the Rev. Dr. McVickar.* The afternoon which pre- 
ceded his fatal attack, was passed by the father at his son's 
house. He came, as usual, attended by his servant, (bear- 
ing before him two bottles of water from his own favor- 
ite spring, with which he contended, with an old man's 
partiality, none other could compare) ; occupied, as he was 
wont, his high backed elbow-chair, and was more than 
usual the delight and admiration of the family circle. As 
he sat looking at the brilliancy of the setting sun,^jthe glo- 
ries of creation seemed to remind him of his own sources 
of happiness, and he suddenly exclaimed, " I think I am 
the happiest old man living." Of the two following let- 
ters, the first contains the painful reverse of this picture, 
(at least to mortal eyes,) which the next morning exhibit- 
ed : and the second, his character, drawn by a skilful, 

* See Life of Dr. Samuel Bard by the Rev. John McVickar, Profeesor of Mora! 
PhiloBophy and Rhetorie, Columbia College, New-Yorlt, 1822. 



JOHN BARD. Ml 

though, perhaps, ])artiul j)en, after that painful scene was 
over. 

" I write to you, my dear friends, from the tick cham- 
ber of our revered parent, who is in a situation which fdis 
us wdtli the greatest aj)i)rehcnsions for his life. On Friday 
morning, (having parted from us the night l)cfore in re- 
markahly good health and spirits,) his servant found that 
on awaking he spoke incoherently ; he, however, attempt- 
ed to rise, but returned to bed before he left the chamber. 
On arriving, I found him with sym])toms that indicated an 
approaching palsy, his ideas incoherent, and his articidation 
very bad ; so that, at his age, I dare not encourage either 
myself or you with any hopes of his recovery. Our conso- 
lation is that he suffers no pain, lying, for the most part, in 
a sweet sleep, except when we arouse him to administer a 
little nourishment ; and farther, that no one circumstance 
is wanting which can either alleviate uneasiness, or add, in 
the smallest degree, to his comfort ; and that his enjoyment 
of life, to the last moment, was such as to be the continued 
theme of his discourse, and of gratitude to Almijihty God. 

" Hyde Park. Yours affectionately, S. B." 

'' Mv Df. AR Son, — Since the death of your dear and vene- 
rable grantlfather, sucli a crowd of business jjas pressed up- 
on me, fts almost to prevent me from reflecting npon my 
loss ; certainly, to lessen my sense of the bereavement we 
have sustained. Indeed his death was attended by circum- 
stances which afford the most effectual consolation ; and 
such a life as his, terminated by siuh an exit, must be our 
best wish for ourselves and our friends. And when I re- 
flect on his unblemished honor, unbounded jihilanthropy 
and uncxamj)led cheerfulness, his unsul)dued fortitude 
which never sunk under the pressure of the severest misfor- 
tunes, his jiersevering industry which never tpiitted him 
to the last, his steady friendshij)s, his tender attachment to 
every branch of his family, and his exalted j)iety which 
continually called forth a flow of gratitude for his jiood 
fortune, forjjetting every circumstance of ill, I jilory in him 
as a parent, aiul recommend him to you as a most worthy 
example for vour imitation. Your affectionate father, 

^' S. B." 

The writings of a professional nature, which Dr. Bard 
has left, are an interesting essav on the nature and cause of 
the malignant pleurisy, which proved so remarkably fatal 



102 JOHN BARD. 

to the inhabitants of Huntington and some other places on 
Long-Island in the winter ot 1749, drawn up at the request 
of a weekly society of gentlemen in New-York, and address- 
ed to them at one of their meetings, January, 1749 ; a case 
of extra-uterine foetus, published in the London Medical 
Observations and Inquiries ; and several papers on the na- 
ture and character of the yellow fever and the evidence of 
its importation into this country, (published in the Ameri- 
can Medical and Philosophical Register, edited by Drs. 
Hosack and Francis). In the year 1750 Dr. Bard assisted 
Dr. Middleton in the first dissection of a human subject in 
America of which we have any record. In all his Avritings 
he evinced a strong mind, sound judgment and correct ob- 
servation, which will ever reflect honor on his character. 

In September, 1761, the beloved and most dutiful son 
of Dr. Bard at the age of nineteen, was about to embark 
for Europe to receive his medical education. The folloAV- 
ing is an extract from a letter of advice, handed to him 
at parting, which richly merits being recorded here. 

" With regard, my dear Sam, to your moral conduct, I 
do not flatter you, when I assure you I have the greatest 
confidence in your piety, prudence and honor : still a se- 
vere test of all these is now approaching, since you are go- 
ing to a part of the world where you will be surrounded 
with allurements. Your greatest security will lie in the 
first choice of your company. If, according to all your 
former conduct, you associate with men of sense and busi- 
ness, of sobriety and honor, and with ladies of character 
and family, your time will be most agreeably and honora- 
bly filled up between a course of business and of pure and 
refined pleasure. Tliis will render all your correspond- 
ence with tlie world easy and delightful, and enlarge your 
sphere of valuable connexions and friends On the contra- 
ry, should you suffer yourself to be captivated with the 
idle or the'gay, so far as to give in to their schemes of dis- 
sipation, you cannot tell how far the powers of yovu' mind 
may become enervated, and by habit lose tliat manly firm- 
ness which is the principal guard to a generous, virtuous 
and innocent life. Remember, my dear Sam, a maxim of 
Gay, ' Plant virtue, and content 's the fruit.' I do recom- 
mend to you, in a very particular manner, to attend upon 
the public worship of God constantly, at least every 
Sunday, which your piety, I hope, will naturally prompt 



^y.?.»<»'o(N?W>V«?;«5<t!Jtp:iV 



ff■\^:cK^>\f^•^ry!Hr■■Clp■>:^^*}s'Hl'y^v■^v^^ 



.Wl!ie.?«?;«3y«f*«*a'4A.<fAi!tK' 







M*"C1. EM-ANT) 1>1 



SAS/IIUEIL ]BA]IlID),M.,Ii)„l[..iJ]) 



SAMUEL BARD. 103 

you to ; and arm yourself against any arguments you may 
accitlentallv be exposed to, that have a design to lessen the 
authority and exceUency of tlie cluisti;in religion. Be as- 
sured that it is not only more right in itself, hut infmitely 
more lionorahle and becoming the character of a gentle- 
man, to appear an advocate on the side of religion, tiian to 
give the least countenance to the schemes of deism and infi- 
delity. The greatest and the best of men have always i)een 
on this side ; and these are the characters I would advise 
you to emulate. I do sincerely beg of God to bless you in 
all your undertakings, and am your atfectionate father, 

"John Bard." 

In another letter this pious j)arent says, " Above all 
tlungs, my dear son, suffer not yourself by any company or 
example, to depart, either in your conversation or prac- 
tice, from the highest reverence to God and your religion ; 
always remem1)ering that a rational and Ijecoming view of 
these duties, is the most likely means of influencing your 
moral conduct, and is, in truth, the briglitest ingredient in 
a gentleman's character, naturally producing not only 
that decent, chaste and polite style in conunon conversa- 
tion, so essentially necessary in one of yoiu- profession ; l)ut 
also laying the foundation of a virtuous and honorable 
life." — Hosack and Francis^ Med. and Phil. Register, and 
Rev. Mr. McVickar^s Life of Samuel Bard. 

BARD, SAMUEL, M.D. LL.D., son of the preceding, 
was born in Philadelphia April 1st, 1742. He was jdaced 
at the grammar school of Mr. Smitii, a teacher of con- 
siderable merit. Of precocity of talent no evidence ap- 
pears ; the few anecdotes, however, related of his youth, 
show the peculiar traits of his character to have been rath- 
er a felicity of nature, than the tardy fruits of discij)liiie. 
He was regarded at school '' as a (|uick, industrious and 
amial)le child :" and of the opinion entertained of his ability 
at home, the different treatment of him and his brother, 
prescribed to the master by their observant luothor, affords 
a simj)le, but stronjr proof. "' If Peter," said she, " does 
not know his lesson, excuse him — If Sam, punish him, for 
he can learn at will." It would, however, be doing in- 
justice to his own acknowledffment, to allow nothing to 
the carefid disciplino of a watchful father. He attributed 
no small portion of the veneration with which he regard- 
ed that fust of moral virtues, veracity, to the severe les- 



104 SAMUEL BARD. 

son which once attended an early departure from it : To 
screen from punishment a servant boy of about his own 
age, who had broken his father's cane, he falsely took the 
blame upon himself; the deceit being discovered, his 
father praised his generosity, but punished his falsehood. 
His narration of this circumstance seventy years after its 
occurrence, shows the strength and value of such early im- 
pressions. The lesson he then received, he transmitted to 
his children ; " any fault," he used to say, " may be ex- 
cused, but want of truth." Nor was he less indebted to 
the tender care and valuable instructions of his mother, 
who planted early and deep in his mind the seeds of the 
truest wisdom. In a paper of religious reflections bearing 
the date of his seventy-first year, he thus commemorates it. 
'* I thank God for the tender and affectionate care of my 
dear mother througli the hazards of a sickly infancy, and 
for having impressed upon my mind, almost from the first 
dawnings of reason, an early sense of religion." 

When about the age of fourteen, his constitution, which 
from infancy had been feeble, received so severe a shock 
by a continued fever, that his father judged it prudent to 
remove him, for a time, both from the city and his studies. 
He accordingly passed the ensuing summer at Coldenham, 
in the family of one of his father's most intimate friends, 
Cadwallader Golden, lieutenant governor of the Province. 
His residence not only restored him to health, but filled 
his memory with pleasing recollections both of the society 
and studies to which it introduced him. In this family re- 
sided Miss Golden, well known as the correspondent of 
Linnaeus, and in whose honor the Goldenia bears its name 
in the Linnaean Gatalogue. With this lady, differing in 
years, but united in tastes, Mr. Bard formed an intimate 
friendship ; under her instruction he became skilful in 
botanizing, a pursuit which ever remained to him a favor- 
ite amusement, and which owed, perhaps, a part of its at- 
tractions to the pleasing associations with which it was 
originally connected, since to the end of life he never men- 
tioned the name of his instructress without some expression 
of admiration or attachment. Nor was the obligation un- 
returned ; with a degree of native taste^ whicli through 
life made him a delicate, if not a critical judge of painting, 
he had united at this early age much practical skill, which 
enabled him to double the value of his companion's botani- 
cal researches by perpetuating^ tlieir transient beauties or 



SAMUEL BARD. 105 

peculiarities. The delicate respect paid him on the fol- 
lowing occasion, excited a feeling of gratitude jiroportion- 
ed rather to his own embarrassment, than the importance 
of the circumstance. The first day of his arrival, Mr. 
Colilen l)eing absent, he was called upon at the dinner ta- 
ble to ask a blessing ; through confusion or forgetfulness 
he began the Lord's prayer : he had not proceeded far, be- 
fore lie was sensible of his mistake, and overwhelmed with 
confusion ; casting, however, a timid glance around, he 
becanie reassured by the composed looks of the ladies, his 
auditors, and so proceeded gravely to its close. To this 
mistake they never made, he said, the sligiitest allusion, 
until the intimacy of friendship justified a smile at his long 
and unusual grace. 

Young Mr. Bard received his classical instruction at 
King's, now Columbia College. His father placed him as 
a private pupil in the family of the classical teacher, re- 
garding the studies of that department as the broad basis 
of a refined and liberal education. Dr. Leonard Cutting 
then filled that })rofessorship with conspicuous ability. 
He applied in full force that great instrument of learning, 
rej)etition, " line upon line," making his pupils thorough 
in all they learned, and by frequent perusal filling their 
memories with the language, and imbuing their feelings 
with the spirit of the great authors of antiquity. Bv sucli 
instruction Mr. Bard added to tlie numlier of those of that 
school who were distinguished for classical ])urity, and he 
always spoke of his teacher, not only in terms of aflfection 
and respect, but as one to whose refined taste and critical 
acuteness, he owed whatever he himself possessed of either. 
Industrious by nature, it Avas here that Dr. Bard laid the 
foundation of that liabit of early rising which doubles tlie 
powers botli of body and mind ; a practice from which, in 
the remainder of his life, he never swerved, but always 
most earnestly recommended to the young around him, 
as the greatest source of health, of leisure and enjovment. 
Daylight in summer, and an hour previous to it in winter, 
seldom found him in bed, and this practice traiiied him to 
ha1)its of strict economy of time, and a vigorous employ- 
ment of it. 

In the choice of a profession, his father's wishes coincid- 
ed with his own ; while his opening talents were viewed 
by ft partial parent in so strong a liffht. as to determine to 
11 



106 SAMUEL BARD. 

attempt educating him abroad : a plan much more conso- 
nant with his inclinations, than with his means. The 
school of Edinburgh was at this time in the highest repute, 
and this was selected as the great source from which the 
young pupil was to derive his medical education, and form 
his character for future life. After much anxious prepara- 
tion, at the early age of nineteen, young Mr. Bard bade 
adieu to his native country with a mind stored with such 
learning as the colonies then afforded, and a heart not un- 
tutored by parental instruction. He embarked in Septem- 
ber, 1761, at a period when Great Britain was at war with 
France ; nor did young Bard escape the hazards which at- 
tend a sea voyage under such circumstances ; the first in- 
telligence which his anxious father received from him, 
was contained in a letter dated Bayonne Castle, announc- 
ing that in three weeks after leaving New-York he fell in- 
to the hands of the enemy, and was in confinement. It 
was fortunate for Mr. B. that Dr. Franklin, a close friend 
of his father, then resided in London as agent for several 
of the colonies. By his kind offices the gloom of a prison 
was exchanged for the freshness and freedom of the coun- 
try, and after five months' residence in France he proceed- 
ed on his way to London. In a letter to his father he 
says, " But although I cannot charge myself with any un- 
necessary extravagance, except it Avas purchasing a Ger- 
man flute and employing a teacher, in order to pass my 
time with some little content in the prison, I have, during 
my stay in France, together with my expenses on my 
voyage and journey from Plymoutli, spent near forty 
pounds sterling. I am afraid you will think this a very 
extravagant sum ; but I do assure you that there was not 
twenty shillings, (except my flute) which I spent unneces- 
sarily." Upon the great object of his visit he now entered 
with that diligence and zeal, which through life marked 
his character. During the whole of his five years' resi- 
dence abroad, his correspondence with his father and fami- 
ly was full and frequent. His letters bespeak good sense 
and warm feeling, and never failed to cheer the heart of 
his fond parentg»and friends. His letters of introduction 
were to the first characters, by which he became imme- 
diately introduced to Drs. Fothergill, Hunter, Smith of 
St. Thomas's Hospital, Mackenzie and others. The gen- 
tleman under whose peculiar instruction he placed him- 



SAMUEL BARD. 107 

self, was Dr. Alexander Russell, an able and amiable man, 
well known l)y his various communications to the Royal 
Society ami other Avritinas. 

He (juittcd Loiidon in September, I7G2, and repaired to 
the jrreat medical school at t:dinburgli. Here, as in Lon- 
don, he enjoyed the privilege of associating with charac- 
ters of the first eminence. "I attend," says he, " three 
classes, Drs. Cullcn, Monro and Ferguson. Cullen, i)ro- 
fessor of chemistry, lectures in Knglisii in a clear, nervous 
style, and Avitli a natural, strong tone of voice. He has a 
new way of examining Ids jmpils in his lecture room ; and, 
as I was recommendeil to his notice, he did ine the honor 
this winter to commence with me ; from Avhich 1 would 
rather have been excused, for I was not a little confused to 
l)e thus questioned before above a hundred students, who 
all liad their eyes fixed ujion me, to hear my answers ; 
liowever, I came off with flying colors." The application 
oi Ins time, as given l)y himself, affords no weak proof of 
hrmness of mind. Young and ardent, awav from home, 
and surrounded by the teini)tations of a large metropolis. 
It alfords an honorable example of the conscientious per- 
lormance of duty, and a lesson, not without its use, to 
those who may be similarly circumstanced. " My dav, in 
general," says he, '^ is thus spent : from seven to lialf after 
ten I am at present employed in the mathematics, whidi 
will soon, however, l)e changed for professional readino- 
and the examination of my notes ; I then dress, and am b? 
eleven at college, attending Professor Ferguson until 
twelve ; from that hour until one, at the hospital • from 
one till two, with Dr. Cullen ; from two to three, 1 allow to 
dinner ; from three to four, with Monro in anatomv; from 
four to five, or half an hour after, I generallv sjicnd at mv 
flute and takiuir tea, either at a friend's room, or with a 
friend m my own : after this 1 retire to my studv, and 
spend from that time until eleven o'clock in connectino- 
my notes, and in general readinjT. This is the pbm I have 
set down to myself, and am resolved to stick close to it, 
for the winter at least. In the summer I shall not be so 
busy, but have a little time (if I do not go to London) to 
amuse myself with botany, and seeing the countrv ; then 
you shall have as long letters as vou j>lease from" me, for 
there is nothing I take more pleasure in than writing to 
you, unless it be in hearing from you. for in either of 



108 SAMUEL BARD. 

these, especially the last, I cannot help imagining myself 
conversing with you. 1 am very much obliged," he goes 
on to add, " by the good opinion my New-York friends 
entertain of me, and hope I shall never, by any negligence 
of mine, disappoint them. If liking a profession be a good 
omen of proliciency, I can assure you I begin to be most 
highly delighted with mine ; I daily discover so many 
beauties in it, that I am at a loss which first to investigate; 
and, were it not for the regular plan I have laid down, 
should be bewildered and lost in the labyrinth." To a 
zeal thus grounded in love, no labors seemed arduous, nor 
any aims too lofty to be attempted. Tiiis is evinced in an- 
other letter to his father, in Avhich he suggests, at that 
early day, the establishment of a medical school in the 
city of New-York ; a plan which, in his riper years, he ef- 
fected, and to which his grey hairs brought reverence. At 
this period the University of Edinburgh was in a flourish- 
ing state : Robertson, the historian, was its principal ; 
Rutherford, Whytt, the two Monros, father and son, Cul- 
len, Hope, Ferguson, Gregory, and Blair, were its teach- 
ers and supporters. Under such men was Dr. Bard train- 
ed, and at this pile was that torch lighted, which subse- 
quently inflamed many kindred bosoms. Of his teachers 
he appears to have enjoyed (so far as a young stranger can 
be supposed to do) the friendship as well as instruction ; 
was received as an inmate into the family of Dr. Robert- 
son, and kept up a frequent correspondence with his Lon- 
don instructers, especially Dr. Fothergill. With Cullen's 
lectures he was peculiarly deliglited ; in matter he styles 
him, " that accurate professor;" and of his manner he 
says, " I own I think nothing can exceed it, being so en- 
tertaining as well as instructive, that I could listen to him 
with pleasure for three hours, instead of one." Of Mon- 
ro's anatomical lectures he speaks highly, and comparing 
him with Hunter says, " but for want of opportunities of 
dissection, I should have no occasion to regret the change 
from London ; but to have a subject in my possession here, 
would impose the risk of banishment, if not of life." In 
his letters he frequently expresses a strong sense of grati- 
tude for his father's " bounty ;" " I do assure you, sir, I 
never think of the great expense you are at in mj'^ edu- 
cation, without sentiments of the warmest gratitude ; at 
the same time I feel much uneasiness lest it should fall 



SAMULL BARD. l09 

heavily on you." " I am laying out to tiie l)est advanlagc 
now, to return it double when we come to a reckoning." 
" Last week the judges lor tlie uinuuil medal, given by the 
professor ol botany of this university, examined the llor- 
tus Siccus of the candidates, aiul I have tiie i)hasure to ac- 
quaint you decided in my favor ; in consecjuence of which 
determination tiie medal is to be i)ublicly given to me 
some time in April by J)r. Hope." In another letter, " I 
caimot omit this opportunity of sending you a copy of the 
papers I read before the medical society this winter ; tliey 
may perhaps afford you half an hour's entertainment, ami 
let you a little into the nature of that institution of whi( li 
I informed you some time ago that I was admitted a mem- 
ber." " In the year 1737 tiiis society Avas first organized by 
Drs. Cullen, Akenside, and some others, who are now at the 
head of their ])r()fession here or in London ; and since that 
time it has had many members, wlio have l)ecome orna- 
ments to society. As is natural, it has undergone many 
chanffcs, and now consists of between twenty aTid thirty 
members, who meet every vSaturday evenmg m a room in 
the infirmary, when they dispute upon medical subjec ts in 
the following manner : each member has, about six months 
beforehand, a set of jiapers given him, to write a comment 
upon, consisting of a j)ractical case, a question on some 
medical point, and an aphorism of Hippocrates. Every 
Saturday a set of these pajiers is produc ed and read before 
tlie society by the author, having circulated for a week 
before amongst the members, who come prepared with 
objections, and tiie autiior with arguments to defend tiiem. 
In this exercise of disjuitation we spend al)Out four hours, 
and to very good purpose, for we are oliliired to muster 
our wiiole stock of icnowlediie, to defend opinions, wliicii 
are never allowed to |»ass witiiout being tliorougldy exam- 
ined ; and as tliere are always a number of members, men 
of real knowledge, we young men are not allowed to l)e 
carried away iiy false reasoning, nor led into erroneous 
opinions." Tiie followinjr letter contains gratifyinij infor- 
mation to his father ; " I am at present enuasied in a va- 
riety of studies ; l)esides my coli(^ge duties, I iiave two 
private tutors who attend me. AN itii one, I sjxMid an iiour 
every day in writing and speakinsj Latin ; witli tiic otlier, 
French : ami also three liours in tiie week witii a most 
excellent drawing master. So many branches, togetlier 



110 SAMUEL BARD. 

with reading practical authors, entirely fill up my time, 
and are attended with considerable expense ; but I hope I 
sliall never repent it, and that it will one day be returned 
to me with interest. I sent you sometime ago, a letter from 
Dr. Hope ; since that the medal has been publicly given to 
me, and the enclosed paragraj)h published on the occasion. 
I had an opportiniity this winter of showing my prepara- 
tions to Dr. Pulleney, a man of eminence in the literary 
world, and fellow of the Royal Society ; he praised them 
inucli, and assured me they exceeded any in the British 
museum. He presented me on going away, with a thesis, 
with the following compliment on the first page : — 

FROM THE AUTHOR, TO MR. BARD, 
AS A SMALL TRIBUTE OF RESPECT DUE TO HIS SUCCESS 

IN 
CULTIVATING BOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE. 

In the following letter we find the father's fond anticipa- 
tions, and the arduous toils of the son in a good measure 
consummated. 

Edinhurghy May 1 5th, 1765. 

" My Dear Father, — My work being now over, and 
my mind at ease, I lay hold of the first opportunity of 
spending an hour Avith you, and communicating to you a 
little of the satisfaction I myself feel. The day before yes- 
terday I received my degree, with all the form and cere- 
mony usual upon such occasions. The two Monros, with 
Dr. Cullen, were in all my private examinations. My 
good friend Dr. Hope j)ublicly impugned my thesis ; and 
to all of them I consider myself much indebted for their 
behavior on this occasion, in which, although they kept 
up the strictness of professors, they never lost sight of the 
politeness of gentlemen." 

Dr. Bard described his private instructer as a man 
" learned and ingenious, but at the same time bold and 
dogmatic ;" nor will medical men be inclined to dispute 
tlie justice of this description, when it is added that it re- 
lates to Dr. John Brown, afterwards so well known as the 
author of the Medical Theory wliich bears his name ; a 
pathology so simple in its principles, and so easy in its 
application, as to have been lial)lc to great practical abuse. 
In the lectures of Dr. Blair Mr. Bard took great delight ; 
they gratified a naturally delicate and discerning taste, 



SAMUEL BARD. t 1 1 

which fitted him to excel in such studies. On one occa- 
sion the ahility he displjiyed in the criticism of u jmper 
suhmittcd to liiui, drew Ironi the professor Ji marked j>uh- 
lic connnc luhitioM. In u mind of sut h a tt'mpcranuiit, 
praise stinnduted exertion, and not a littk- of ids snhse- 
quent fondness for these studies and ahility in them, may 
])e traced to the assiduity witli which he then cultivated 
them. In this art Dr. iJard was no mean proficitiit. In 
after life he always commanded in pnl)lic delivery, a de- 
gree of attention, which went far hryond the ( laims of his 
figure or voice ; but which was the result of graceful gest- 
ure, correct emphasis anil, above all, the nice discrimina- 
tion and animated ex})ression of the sense and feeling of 
that which he delivered. Dr. Hard was an orator of no 
common stamp ; he threw his heart into his words, and 
from the fulness of his own, poured persuasion into the 
breast of others. The letter of recommendation which 
Dr. Bard received from the medical society on his depart- 
ure, has the sign manual of each of its mendiers, aujong 
whom may l)e found the names of some whom kiuiis have 
since " »lelii,dited to honor," and what is nu)re to their 
credit, who have themselves done honor to their profes- 
sion. Among such may be mentioned, Saunders of Lon- 
don, and Sir Lucas Pepys, physician to the late king ; 
Percival of .Man( luster ; Professor Duncan of Ediid)ur<ih ; 
Professor Parsons of Oxford ; Ilayuarth, ami AN atson of 
Cand)ridge, and Professor Morgan of Philadelphia ; names 
widely scattered, yet indebted, perhaps, to this early union 
for the first excitement of that native talent which subsc- 
(piently rendered them conspicuou;!. 

Of his Thesis " de viribus Opii," which he defended 
at his examination, medical men have spoken with t;reat 
respect. Soon after its a])pearance, it attra<ted the atten- 
tion of Haller, and recently has been quoted by Crumpe in 
lauffuase sincularly respectful for an academical thesis, 
but not perhaj)s beyoml its merits, if we look to the phi- 
loso))hical manner in which its materials were collected. 
Mavinu sidectedas his subject, the I'ffects of o|)ium on the 
human system, which in conunon with his teachers he 
regarded as a stimulant, he instituted a set of exi)eriments, 
first upon himself, and subse<piently upon a fellow student 
to test, or rather to verifv, that o{)ininn. His room-mate. 
Dr. Saunders of London, submitted, upon the oflTer of re- 



112 SAMUEL BARD. 

ciprocal aid, to be the subject of this experimental analysis. 
The experiments were frequently and carefully repeated ; 
and the results accurately noted. His facts being thus ob- 
tained, he proceeded with his inductions, and concluded, 
if not with truth, at least with singular freedom from 
prejudice, in the opposite opinion from that which he had 
proposed maintaining. Whether tliat opinion ])e right or 
wrong, the mode of arriving at it was creditable alike to 
his candor and his enterprise ; it evinced an openness to 
conviction and a fairness of mind, which form not only 
the basis of moral excellence, but the corner stone of true 
philosophy. In fulfilment of his offer, Mr. Bard became 
in his turn the subject of a series of experiments to his fel- 
low student. Tlieir object, it is believed, was the opera- 
tion of Ammonia ; but, whatever it was, they Avere either 
less safe in their nature, or less cautiously conducted ; 
since a state of torpor, which continued several hours, Avas 
in one instance their result, and probably checked, for the 
time, the zeal of these young experimentalists. This the- 
sis, thus carefully prepared and ably defended, admitted 
Mr. Bard to his medical degree. His diploma bears date 
September 6th, 1765, and has the signatures affixed of the 
two Robertsons, Rutherford, the two Monros, Whytt, 
Hope, Young, Hamilton, Gumming, Ferguson, Russell, 
and Blair. With the botanical professor he was a great 
favorite. " My good friend. Dr. Hope," is his ordinary 
designation of him ; and he justly felt it no small praise 
to be thus distinguished in botany by the friend of Lin- 
naeus. The particular intimacy with Dr. Monro, of which 
Dr. Bard speaks in one of his letters, related to the young- 
er of that name ; one whom he resembled much in char- 
acter, and not less in fate. Four years older tlian his 
pupil, Monro died the same number of years before him ; 
both rising to the highest eminence in their profession, 
and in the medical schools of their respective countries ; 
both retaining, amid the bodily weaknesses of age, all 
their mental vigor, and each closing his academical career 
by tlie delivery of a valedictory discourse in the seventy- 
seventh year of life ; Monro to his medical class, and Dr. 
Bard to the graduates of the college over which he 
presided. 

Among the traits of character which distinguished Dr. 
Bard throughout life, was an insatiable inquisitiveness of 



SAMUEL BARD. llS 

mind, wliich led him, wlierevcr he was, to ransack and 
examine whatever came within his reacli, whether of art 
or nature. Minerals, j)lants, animals, man and liis works, 
were rapidly and by turns the ol)je( t of his attintion. Wliat- 
ever was rare or l)eautit"ul or useful, iuiiufdiatcly seized 
iij)on his imagination, and aliorded matter lor curious in- 
vestigation, or a basis lor ingenious theory. Even while 
eniiaiied in his medical studies, the various branches of the 
arts and maiuilactures and of agrictdture, received a share 
of his iu(|uirv and pursuit. Having completed his course 
of medical e(lucation, lie employed some time in an excur- 
sion through the most interior j)arts of Scotland, and vari- 
ous jiarts of England, and the scenes which presented af- 
forik'd him the liiiihest gratification, to which he often 
al'terward alluded with the fcdinjis of enthusiastic admira- 
tion. But from some unknown cavise he was disap])ointed 
in the execution of his project of a continental tour. A 
visit to the celebrated Liniversity at Leyden he had long 
contemplated with delioht. Boerliaave he venerated as 
one of tlic greatest and l)est of men, whose character ho 
reconnnendeil to the young as a model for their imitation, 
and a high and encouraij;inii; picture of what virtue and in- 
dustry can j)erform. He may even l)e said to iiave closed 
his professional career with his name ujion his lips, as the 
last discourse he delivered to the medical graduates con- 
cludes with a forci])ie delineation of the cijaracter of this 
great man, as the best embodied pietiu'c he could <:ive them 
of the perfection at which th<'y should aim. Of his last 
visit to Dr. Fothergill he told the following anecdote. 
After nmch salutary advice, suitable to a ]>arting visit. Dr.* 
F. con( luded with what he t( rined the secret of his own 
success ; " I crept,'' said he, " over the l^acks of the poor 
into the j)ockets of the rich." It would be doing injustice 
to a character of more than common ])hilanthroj)y, to in- 
terpret this as a recommendation of coldhearted selfish- 
ness ; as such it was neither intended nor felt ; but as a 
prudential maxim, which Dr. Bard often himself repeated, 
and enforced uj)on vounij plivsicians, viz. : that the l)asis 
of their practice and their faiue, to be permanent, should 
l)e laid in tlie ojnnions of the many, and thus L^rowing up 
by insensible degrees, it would be free from the dangers 
that attend on a prematiire reputation or a narrow and 
wavcrinj; j)atronage. 
15 



114 8A.MUEL BARD. 

After a five years absence Dr. Bard was restored to his 
anxious and- longing parents. The emotions excited by 
their first interview have already been noticed in the pre- 
ceding article ; and it may here be added that his cousin, 
Miss Mary Bard, a lady highly accomplished and of j)er- 
sonal beauty, was then residing in his father's family, who 
had previously enjoyed his affection, and was soon to con- 
summate his happiness. The expenses of Dr. Bard's educa- 
tion had exceeded one thousand pounds, and his father was 
involved in debt. He entered at once upon the exercise of 
liis profession in partnership with his father, devoting him- 
self to it with his native enthusiasm and faithful persever- 
ance. For three years he drew nothing from the profits 
of their joint business, which amounted to near fifteen hun- 
dred pounds per annum, beyond his necessary expenses, 
allowing all the remainder that he might justly have claim- 
ed, to go towards the liquidation of debts which, in honor, 
he regarded as his own. Considering himself, after that 
time, as exonerated from all other claim than that of grati- 
tude, he proceeded to form a more tender and more last- 
ing union by fulfilling his engagement with his cousin ; 
and trusting to Providence and his own exertions, the mar- 
riage took place upon the slender stock of one hundred 
pounds ; " wisely calculating," as he often observed with 
a smile, " that his wife's economy would double his earn- 
ings." Nor in this loverlike conclusion can it well be 
said that he was mistaken. With this lady he was destin- 
ed to pass a period equal to the ordinary duration of hu- 
man life ; and in its joys and sorrows to find her, to use 
his own expressive language, " a steady, judicious and afl'ec- 
tionate friend, and a dear and excellent wife." 

Dr. Bard's early formed plan of a medical school, was 
not abandoned by him on his return from abroad ; but, 
instead of the youthful assistants originally proposed, he 
had the higher credit of exciting older and abler men to 
the task. Within a year after his return it was organized, 
and united to King's College. His associates were Drs. Glos- 
sy, Jones, Middleton, Smith, and Tennant ; while to him, 
then but in his twenty-eighth year, was given by common 
consent the most responsible and influential department of 
the practice of physic. Thus early did he begin to repay 
his debt of education to this literary institution, which for 
forty years he continued to serve, as circumstances demand- 
ed, in almost every branch of experimental and medical 



SAMUEL BARD. 1 15 

science ; and for the last twenty years of his residence in 
the city, as Trustee and Dean of the Faonlty of Physic. 
Medical decrees were first conferred by thisschool in 17G9, 
when a public address was delivered by Dr. Bard, in which 
he displayed that persuasive elocpience with whicli lie al- 
ways urged a <i;ood cause. On the IGth of May, being the 
day of its annual conunencenient, he delivered, before the 
officers of the college and the governor and council of the 
Province, a discourse in which he enforced the usefulness, 
or rather necessity of a public hospital, and the j)ropriety 
of its immediate establishment, as the most efficient means 
of relief to the suflering poor of the city, and of instruc- 
tion to medical students. So convincing were his argu- 
ments, or so well timed the appeal, that it aroused the in- 
dividual upon whom it was, perhaps, most intended to 
operate. Sir Henry Moore, governor of the Province, as 
soon as the address was closed, expressed warmly both his 
admiration of the speech, and his patronage of the plan ; 
and immediately headed a subscription paper with the sum 
of two hundred j)Ounds. This was followed with propor- 
tional liberality by the members of the comicil, and other 
gentlemen present, and the sum of eight hundred pounds 
sterling was on the same day collected. The city authori- 
ties added to the number of its patrons, and a suitable 
structure waserected ; but, when on the point of completion, 
the building was entirely destroyed by an accidental fire, 
so that this noble design remained unaccomplished imtil the 
year 1791. From that period until his retirement, Dr. 
Bard continued to be its visiting physician, in which he 
never omitted a single^day. In this excellent discourse of 
Dr. Bard, he exj)os«il the unreasonable and dangerous 
practice which then prevailed of the charges of physicians 
being grounded solely on the medicine given to their pa- 
tients ; thus unjustly deprivini; them of any remuneration 
for that wherein alone the value of the services consisted, 
and exposing them to the constant temptation, if not abso- 
lute necessity, of making prescriptions often needless, and 
sometimes hurtfid. Tliis bold expostulation probably 
tended to hasten the change which soon afterward took 
])lace on this point. 

In the year 1772 Dr. John Bard, tlie father, removed to 
Hyde Park, his country residence, and his city establish- 
ment was purchased by his son, who entered at once into 
his father's circle of practice, out of the profits of which he 



116 SAMUEL BARD. 

continued for five years to allow him a large proportion. 
In 1774 Dr. Bard added to his existing duties the labors 
of a public course of chemical lectures. But when, in the 
year 1775, the sword was about to be unsheathed, and a 
mighty contest for liberty was to be decided, Dr. Bard was 
found among many other upright and patriotic men who 
could not at once shake off their reverence for the obliga- 
tions under which they had been born, and educated, and 
prospered ; and the native tenderness of his heart render- 
ed him averse to all acts of violence. Towards the end 
of the year he placed his wife and children under his 
father's roof at Hyde Park, and he himself remained in 
New-York until the great question of peace or war should 
be decided. Finding, however, all hopes of reconciliation 
vain, and the torch of discord already lighted, he aban- 
doned the city of New-York previous to the British army 
taking possession of it, joined his family at Hyde Park, and 
after various I'emovals took up his residence in New-Jersey. 
But in the following year, finding he could engage in no 
employment which would enable him to provide for his 
family, and learning that his property in New-York was 
wasting in his absence, he came to the resolution of return- 
ing to the exercise of his profession in that city. He ob- 
tained permission to return thither, and on his arrival 
found his house in other and unfriendly hands ; and it was 
still more difficult to resume the exercise of his profession. 
The government viewed him with suspicion, and his for- 
mer intimates with a prudent coldness. His father's resi- 
dence witliin the American lines, and his brother's holding 
a commission in the continental army, seemed to justify 
this caution ; while the moderation#nd candor of his cha- 
racter were in those days of hostile zeal misconstrued, or 
unappreciated. He remained a considerable time without 
a professional call, and was reduced literally to his last 
guinea. Walking down the Broadway in a melancholy 
mood, his mind filled with painful forebodings, a wife, 
two sisters and five children, all dependent on exertions 
he had no opportunity to make, he was accosted l)y a for- 
mer friend whom he had not before met ; this was Mr. Mat- 
thews, then mayor of the city, whose well known loyalty 
and official standing setting him above all low suspicion, 
he not only addressed Dr. Bard with his accustomed cor- 
diality, but immediately on some slight pretext requested 
his professional attendance at his house. His frequent let- 



SAMUEL BARD. 117 

ters to his American friends, had given color to a malicious 
accusation preferred against him of maintaining a treason- 
able correspondence. The commandant was just issuing an 
order for his arrest, when Mr. Matthews entering, heard 
the name of Dr. Bard ; he immediately interfered, claim- 
ed him as his family physician and friend, pledged himself 
for the falsehood of the charge, and calling on Dr. Bard, 
gave him an opportunity to refute it. To suspicion now 
succeeded confidence ; his talents and professional skill 
rapidly extended his business, and wherever he found a 
patient, by his kindness and sympathy he made a friend. 
It may be allowed to one who has had experience of that 
watchful solicitude which characterized him at the sick 
bed, to say that in this he was a model to his profession. 
His disregard of self, and anxious tenderness for his patient 
originated a debt that could never be paid but in returns 
of gratitude ; and account for the fact of the permanent 
and gratefid recollections that were entertained of his pro- 
fessional services twenty years after his retirement to the 
country. While these qualities gained him business and 
friends, his scientific character gathered around him a lite- 
rary circle, with whom, after the labors of the day, he 
generally passed the evening. The late bishop Moore ; his 
old friends, Mr. Kempe, attorney general, and Lindley 
Murray, the grammarian; and his new intimates, Dr. Nooth, 
superintendent of the hospital, and Dr. Michaelis, the son 
of the learned commentator, were his most frequent and 
acceptable guests. 

Dr. Bard, in common with all good men, hailed with 
pleasure the return of peace ; to him, however, it was not 
without its anxieties, as the patriotism and honor of his 
conduct were again to undergo a scrutiny from heated, if 
not unfriendly, judges. Notwithstanding the advice of 
many who urged his removal, he trusted again to the up- 
rightness of his motives, and was not mistaken. His coun- 
trymen knew how to distinguish between moderation and 
indifference ; and Washington, " the father of his country," 
by selecting him as his family physician, marked the opin- 
ion he entertained both of his character and medical skill. 

A new enemy now assailed his domestic happiness : out 
of six children, four perished by a rapid and untimely fate ; 
two were buried in the same grave : one, a child of so 
much loveliness and promise, as to have called forth, in the 
anxious mind of its mother, the usual apprehensions of an 



lis SAMUEL BARD, 

early death. The disease which thus desolated tliis happy 
family, was the scarlatina in its most virulent form. Chil- 
dren, parents, nurses and servants, were all seized with it ; 
and the delirium which rapidly ensued, added to the hor- 
rors of an infection, which already restrained or disabled 
their friends from giving assistance. Two children were 
hardly snatched from the grave, and recovered hy slow de- 
grees. As the mother's care ceased to be necessary, her 
health and spirits sunk under the greatness of her loss and 
her exertions ; and Dr. Bard was called to forget the feel- 
ings of the father in those of the husband. A deep melan- 
choly settled upon her mind, which threatened almost the 
extinction of reason. Alive only to this great duty, he im- 
mediately gave up all attention to business and, for near a 
twelve iPionth, devoted himself to her recovery with an as- 
siduity and faithfulness which were fully repaid by success. 
During this period of sickness and affliction, a series of let- 
ters passed between Dr. Bard and his family connexions, 
the perusal of which could not fail to arouse the feelings of 
sympathy even in the most obdurate heart. The pious re- 
signation and edifying devotion displayed, are among the 
finest traits of character in this excellent man.* In the 
summer of 1784 Dr. Bard resumed the duties of his pro- 
fession in the city of New-York, leaving his wife in better 
health, at the house of her uncle in New-Jersey. His re- 
ligious feelings on the restoration of his wife's health, are 
expressed with pious gratitude in a prayer found among his 
papers. 

Dr. John Bard, having suffered some losses after his re- 
tirement, was under pecuniary eml)arrassmcnt, and writes 
thus to his son. " I view my aifairs, so far as they are 
encumbered with debt, with great anxiety and pain ; and, 
old as I am, being blessed with a happy constitution, I find 
myself still disposed to exert myself in tlie most efficient 
manner to free my estate from this encumbrance ; which 
if I could do, I should, I think, leave the world with com- 
posure and ease." The appeal was not in vain ; his son 
had not forgotten his early debt of education, and inrnie- 
diately applied the whole of his accumulations, amounting 
at that time to five thousand guineas, to his father's relief, 
preferring this application of it to the most tempting specu- 

* For the very interesting letters above mentioned the reader is referred to the 
Life of Dr. Samuel Bard, by Rev. John McVickrir , New-York. 



SAMUEL BARD. 119 

lations then opened to cajpitalists by the sale of tonfis< ated 
estates. He accordhigly relieved his father from his load 
of debt, and by his persuasions induced him to return to 
the exercise of his profession in rs'evv-York, in which he 
continued until the year 1797, when his son's j)rojccted re- 
moval iletermined his own ; and he retired, for tlie last 
time, to close a long and chequered, but cheerful life, in 
the shades of his early retirement. 

Dr. Bard's character having been displayed in the light 
of a son and husband, it remains but to sJiow that the (hi- 
ties of a parent were fulfilled by him with e(jual tender- 
ness and judgment. Out of ten children, but two had been 
spared to him ; to these a third was afterward added, not 
only the child, but the companion and solace of his old age : 
and to tiieir education he now devoted most of the leisure 
which l)usy days and broken nights afl'orded liim. His 
numerous letters to his children exiiibit a j)leasing picture 
of the animated tenderness of his manner.* Kind and ju- 
dicious j)raise, as his letters indicate, was the medium bv 
which Dr. Bard oj)erated on the minds of his children ; 
and seldom did a father succeed better in awakeninii a 
warm and generous enthusiasm to deserve it. In all their 
early performances they were sure to receive, in his ani- 
mated commendation, a sufficient recompense for their ex- 
ertions ; and the a})plause which at first arose from paren- 
tal fondness, became an excitement to what miiiht l)e truly 
deserving of it. "The earliest recollection," says his 
youngest daughter, " which 1 have of my beloved father, 
is associated with the affectionate caress and animated 
praise he bestowed upon me, when, jdaced u|)on his knee, 
I repeated to l;im Thomson's Lavinia, which I bad com- 
mitted to memory during one of his short absences from 
home : it left a very strong impression upon my mind." 
Such was the parental discipline by which he guided tlie 
tender minds of his childrin. As they grew older, he be- 
came their con\])anion and friend ; leadinj; tbem to tune- 
served comiiMinic ation of their actions and sentiments ; 
coimscUinn tlicm in tbe langua<ie ol aflection ; and resting 
all his influence on tbe attachment, and almost veneration, 
which his solicitude for their happiness excited. But with 
all this fondness he united perfect candor and plain dealing. 
This gained their confidence and ripened, as they grew up, 

* See the production just referred to. 



120 SAMUEL BARD. 

into the most reposing friendship : a bond which advanc- 
ing years and commerce with the world, instead of weak- 
ening, strengthened, by enabling them better to estimate 
the value of such a friend and adviser. 

While the general government were sitting in New-York, 
President AVashington had recourse to Dr. Bard's profes- 
sional skill in his own case. In a letter to a friend he 
says, " the President's complaint continues to amend, so 
that I have not the least doubt of effecting a perfect and, 
I hope, a speedy cure. It Avill give you pleasure to be told 
that nothing can exceed the kindness and attention I receive 
from him." It was a case of anthrax, so malignant as for 
several days to threaten mortification. During this period 
Dr. Bard never quitted him. On one occasion, being left 
alone with him. General Washington, looking steadfastly in 
his face, desired his candid opinion as to the probable ter- 
mination of the disease, adding, with that placid firmness 
which marked his address, "Do not flatter me with vain 
hopes ; I am not afraid to die, and, therefore, can bear 
the worst." Dr. Bard's answer, thovigh it expressed hope, 
acknowledged his apprehensions. The President replied, 
" whether tonight, or twenty years hence, makes no dif- 
ference ; I know that I am in the hands of a good Provi- 
dence." Dr. Bard, senior, was then called in consultation 
at the suggestion of General Washington, and by the bless- 
ing of that " good Providence" in Avhich he trusted, his 
life was preserved to his country, at a period when it never 
more needed the counsels of his calm, prospective wisdom. 
The resuH of this illness was an intimacy with his patient, 
Avhich Dr. Bard Justly felt proud of. It continued unbrok- 
en until the removal of the seat of government to Phila- 
delphia, an event which he much lamented for many 
and obvious reasons. 

Temperance, exercise and early rising had strengthened 
a weakly constitution, and enabled Dr. Bard to go through 
a daily course of extraordinary professional labor. One 
of his early students thus speaks of a winter residence in 
his family. " He rose at the earliest hour ; at five o'clock 
he was superintending the studies of his son and myself, and 
engaged in preparing his public lectures ; from breakfast 
till night I saw no more of him, except in the streets on 
professional liusiness ; there, indeed, himself, his phar ton 
and servant were to be seen at most hours both of the day 
and nijrht." 



SAMUEL BABD. Ift 

Into his literary gratifications Dr. Bard carried all the 
ardor of his cliararter ; he sei/xil upon every new publica- 
tion of merit with the avidity of a fainislad appetite, and 
durin<r its })erusal was I)oth deaf and hlind to all causes of 
interruption. Tiiis absorption of mind was so great in his 
latter years, as sometimes to be made the subject of good 
humored experiment ; of which lie seemed to be unaware, 
as of every thing else tliat j)assed around liim. On looking 
into a cojiy of the " \'icar of AVakefieUr' when it first 
came out. lie reserved it for evening reading to his family. 
Commencing it at rather a late hour, his high relish of it 
would not permit him to lay it down until he finislied it ; 
and his hearers not choosing to retire, he closed the volume 
as the morninjj; sun was rising. In reading Shakspeare he 
not only delighted, but excelled ; and his graceful action 
was in just and harmonious accordance with the sentiment 
expressed. On (juestions of a moral and religious nature, 
where the arguments flow rather from the heart than tlie 
heail, he was l)oth powerful and persuasive ; not, indeed, 
in the nice distinctions of schoolmen, l)ut in the energetic 
enforcement of broad and lcadin<i truths. He had liere 
that peculiar tone of eloquence, which arises from full- 
hearted sincerity, a language that can neither be riiisunder- 
stood nor counterfeited, and wliich never can be otherwise 
than persuasive and conunandino;. 

Of ])ersonal courage Dr. Bard liad a great share, but it 
did not arise fron\ forgetfulness of danger, so much as from 
disregard to it. His mind was intent ujjon the duty to be 
performed, and weighed not the risk that attended it. A 
proof of this occurred during tlie revolutionary war, in 
which a fire burst out contiiiuous to a powder magazine in 
his neighborhood. Upon the smhlen alarm liis first 
thought and motion were to retreat with his family to a 
place of safety ; l)nt, immediately checking himself with 
the recollection tliat the dreaded explosion migiit yet be 
averted, ho committed his wife ami chihh'en to the care of 
a friend, forced his Avay throufjh the retreatiuii; crowd to 
the scene of danger, and was anions the first who returned 
to tlie spot, and by whose exertions the fire was extinguish- 
ed without accident. As another instance may be men- 
tioned his conduct in the popular tumult, commonly 
called the Doctors' Mol), excited in the year 1788 affainst 
the physicians of the city, from suspicion of their robl)ing 
the grave yards. In this riot, which for two davii set at 
16 ' 



122 SAMUEL BARD. 

defiance both tlie civil and military force of the city, Dr. 
Bard exhibited a calm and dignified composure, which 
seemed to awe even the wild passions of the populace. 
Conscious of his innocence of the alleged charge, he re- 
sisted the most urgent solicitations to flee or conceal him- 
self ; but, as the infuriated mob approached hi? house, 
ordered the doors and windows to be thrown open, and 
paced his hall in full view of tliem as they drew near. His 
calmness, or his character saved him : they approached 
with horrible imprecations ; gazed awhile in silence, and 
then passed on with acclamations of his innocence. 

But Dr. Bard, like his favorite teacher Cullen, possessed 
a natural sensibility too keen for a calm and scientific sur- 
gical operator. The first operation he performed, he 
went through with a steady hand ; but fainted when he 
had bound up the wound : and, in a second, he operated 
successfully, but, it may be presumed, tremulously, since 
the expectation of it had made him pass the night in pacing 
his chamber. As a physician, this acute sensibility, so far 
from an impediment, was, in no small measure, the ground 
both of his popularity and success. It gave the warmth of 
friendship to professional formalities, inspired the patient 
with confidence in his care ; and, thus giving relief to the 
mind, paved the way for that of the body. To the friends 
of the sick his manners, or rather his character, was pecu- 
liarly comforting ; to the skill of a physician, he added 
the interest of a relative : they were satisfied that every 
thing was done his art could do ; that neither coldness, 
nor selfishness, nor the pursuits of pleasure or ambition, 
withheld him from any personal exertion. The compari- 
son Dr. Bard once made use of, in a case of violent dis- 
ease, will illustrate this excitement. " I feel," said he, 
" as if I had a giant by the throat, I must fight for life." 
He cautions young practitioners against a readiness to re- 
ceive new names, new theories and new remedies. " New 
names are always deceiving ; new theories are mostly false 
or useless ; and new remedies for a time are dangerous. 
This rage for novelty pervades our profession, especially 
in this country. Hence our extended catalogue of new 
fevers, and hasty adoption of new remedies ; hence the 
unlimited and unwarranted application of mercury with- 
out weiglit, brandy without measure, and the lancet without 
discrimination ; and hence, I am afraid I may say, the 
sacrifice of many lives which might have been preserved. 



SAMUEL BARD. 123 

had tlicy been left to water gruel and good nursing." Dr. 
Bard was far from undervaluing the iujprovenients of 
modern niedieal seience ; whieli in one of his medical dis- 
courses JR- states as consisting in its "• greater knowledge of 
the animal economy, the powers of a more cll'cctual phar- 
macy, and the rules of a more enlightened practice, which 
prescribes witli u view to defmite juul intermediate re- 
sults." With respect to his communicating to liis j)atients 
a knowledge of their danger he says, " Tliere is in the 
liuman mind a j)rinciple of acijuiescence in the disj)ensa- 
tions of Divine Providence, wliicli, wlien treated with 
prudence, seldom fails to reconcile the most timid to their 
situation. Such information I have generally found rather 
to calm perturbation of mind, than to increase danger or 
liasten the event of the disease. Whenever, therefore, the 
duties of piety, or even the temporal interests of friends, 
have demanded it, I have never hesitated making, and sel- 
dom or never rei)ented such communication." 

Having accunudated by his own industry the sum of 
fifteen liundred guineas, he sent it to Europe to be invested 
in the British fimds ; the banker in whose hands it was 
deposited, failed, and the loss was announceil in a letter ; 
his wife observed him to change countenance wliile read- 
ing it, and anxiously inquired its contents : "■ We are 
ruined," said he, " that is all." " If that be all," rejoined 
his calmer companion, " never mind the loss, we will soon 
make it ujj again." Such a spirit was contagious ; Dr. 
Bard took courage from tlie example of his wife, and re- 
turned to the task with cheerful resolution. The necessi- 
ties of his father three times absorbed all his means, and 
involved him in debt ; but the same resolute and prudent 
management as often freeil him, and eventually secured for 
their declining age, that hap|)y ineiliiim of wealth, which 
the wise have ever jjreferred, as allordin^ the greatest 
enjovments with the fewest cares ; and which so fully 
answered all their desires, tliat they retired to the quiet of 
the country at a time when the extent of his practice, and 
the rising charges of the profession, woidd have doubled 
his fortune in the s\r.icv of a very few years. 

Dr. Bard continued devotedly attached to the hospital. 
He was one of the fouiulers and physicians of the City 
Dispensary ; and an original and active member of the A^- 
riculturarSociely of the st.ite. His exertions rontribuled 
to the foundation of the first public library ; and. in ^hort, 



124 SAMUEL BARD. 

his heart and hand were with every scheme of benevolence 
and public improvement. In the year 1791 the trustees of 
Columbia College, with the co-operation of the medical 
society, reorganized the department of medicine, which the 
war of the revolution had broken up, at the head of which 
as Dean of the Faculty was placed Dr. Bard, who, anxious 
to contribute his personal exertions to the advancement of 
medical education, gave to the students in the wards of the 
hospital a course of clinical lectures. At the bedside of 
the patient Dr. Bard exhibited the finest model for imita- 
tion, as teaching not merely the learning, but the manners 
of tJie physician. His kindness, his patience, his minute 
inquiries, and cheering words of consolation addressed 
even to the poorest and meanest, had the value of moral, 
as well as medical instruction, impressing the minds of the 
students with a conscientious sense of the responsibility of 
life and health, which rested upon them. " Avoid," he 
used to say, " that affectation of quick discernment and 
hurried practice, which generally marks the ignorant and 
ostentatious, hurrying from patient to patient, without 
once reflecting on the mischief and misery they may occa- 
sion, and that life thus trifled away will one day be 
required at their hands." In one of his sketches of the 
good physician, he says " the physician who confines his 
attention to the body, knows not the extent of his art ; 
if he know not hoAvto soothe the irritation of an enfeebled 
mind, to calm the fretfulness of impatience, to rouse the 
courage of the timid, and even to quiet the compunctions 
of an over tender conscience, he will very much confine 
the eflicacy of his prescriptions ; and these he cannot do 
without he gain the confidence, esteem and even the love, 
of his patients." 

The period was now approaching in which Dr. Bard 
thought that, consistently with duty and prudence, he 
might retire to the bosom of his family and the enjoyment 
of those quiet pleasures to which he had always been 
attached. He tlxought, too, that some pause for reflection 
should intervene between the business of life and its close ; 
and he resolved to carry into eflfect a plan, which most 
wise men propose, but few execute, — that of retiring vol- 
untarily from the bustle of life. To this plan many ob- 
jections were started and Avarmly urged ])y his friends. 
To the calculations of interest, he replied that he had 
enough ; to the predictions of after repentance, he was 



SAMUEL BARD. 125 

content to answer that lie was not afra'ul to try ; bnt 
against tlic solicitations of friontlshij), he Connd it (liiUcult 
to maintain his resolution. His tathtr's removal and his 
daughter's settlement at Hyde Park, at length decided 
him, and in the sj)ring of the year 1798 he removed to his 
well known seat, within a short distance of his father's 
residence. J)uring a temporary visit he made the year 
previous, in Avhich iiis only son accompanied him, a suthiea 
and violent illness reduced hoth his son and grandson to 
the hrink of the grave. To watch over the declining age 
of a fiither who so tenderly loved him, was a consolation 
not long sjiared to Dr. Bard. His father survived their 
united removal to the country hut two years, and tlien 
suddenly sunk, full of days, hut free from the infirjnities of 
age ; retaining to the very last that indescril)al)le ciuirm 
of manneis and conversation, which attached to him hoth 
youns and old, and eidivened every soci(;ty with a con- 
tinued How of cheerful and uiuiffected good humor. These 
two yeais, thouiih (juickly passed, were long and grate- 
fully rememhered by his son. Upon his father's character 
he loved to expatiate ; wdiile tlie firm health, the cheerful 
mind, and the many blessings wiiich cheered the close of 
his lil'e, were a subject to him of frequent thaidvfulness. 
For some time })revious to Dr. Bard's removal from the 
city, an intimacy luul snlisisted between him and Dr. Da- 
vid Hosack ; and as soon as his removal wms decided upon, 
he took him into paitnership, j)artly with a view to his 
own relief at a j)eriod of nmch exertion, but principally 
that he might introthice to his large circle of j)atients one 
to whose medical skill he was content to transfer their 
safety. 

Althougli Dr. Bard bade adieu to the city in the year 
KOS, the fearful epidemic (yellow fever) again making its 
appearance the same vear, he resolved not to abandon his 
post when about to l*ecome one of anxiety and danger. 
Amidst that calnmitv lie addressed his Avife as follows. 
" I begin to j^roM" very impatient, my d<'ai* Mary, to hear 
from you. Drop me a line by the post, to assure me of 
your health, of which I cannot bear the least uncertainty. 
As to myself, dejiend uj»on it, I will not deceive you ; and 
in case of necessity shall call for my friend, my nurse and 
comforter, without wIioh' aid I <an neither bear sorrow 
nor sickness, and who, I know, would not forgive me, 
was I to rob her of her share of either to which 1 must 



126 SAMUEL BARD. 

necessarily be exposed." For this call her anxious affec- 
tion did not wait ; but as soon as the existence of the fever 
was ascertained, and his stay determined upon, she in- 
stantly joined him to share together a risk which then 
seemed almost desperate. His fearless exposure of him- 
self, wherever benevolence called him during that season 
of flight and alarm, was the means of rescuing many poor, 
deserted wretches from death, and still oftener, of bestow- 
ing upon them some comfort and consolation when relief 
was hopeless. But the aid he so liberally gave others he 
soon needed himself, being seized with the prevailing 
fever, in wliicli his long tried companion was to him all 
that his warm j)en had described her, '' a friend, a nurse, 
and comforter." His life was spared to her affection and 
prayers ; and with her he returned to his longing family, 
who, during his absence and especially his sickness, had 
been a prey to the agonizing fears which their own appre- 
hensions, or the hasty reports of others, excited. 

From this period during the remainder of his life Dr. 
Bard made the country his permanent residence ; diversi- 
fied, however, by occasional visits to his friends in town. 
Few men could bear the change from necessary to volun- 
tary occupation so easily as Dr. Bard. The untired 
curiosity of his mind found a new and boundless 
range in the o])jects and employments of the country. 
His poetic enjoyment of the beauties of nature ; his taste 
in planning, and fondness for effecting improvements, and 
skill in directing them ; his desire of knowledge of what- 
ever kind, and eagerness in acquiring it ; his early and 
active habits ; and, above all, the enthusiasm Avhich stimu- 
lated and supported him in all his undertakings ; set him 
above the i)ower of indolence, that " master vice," as 
Burke terms it, of our nature, and secured to him to the 
very last week of his life all his energy, activity and 
cheerfulness. It would not seem easy to crowd into life 
more sources of enjoyment than filled the twenty-three 
years of retirement wJiich adorned and dignified the close 
of his career. All the descendants of his father were l)y 
degrees drawn around him ; his own cliildren successively 
settled in life, and gathered into the circle ; his grand 
children grew up upon his knees, and as he looked upon the 
health and prosperity and promise with whicli he was sur- 
rounded, he looked, and felt and spoke, like a patriarch of 
a better age. But this is anticipating the picture of a later 



SAMUEL BARD. 127 

period. At the time of his retirement his son was just 
comj)letinfr his lef^al studies in the city, and his youngest 
daughter was his pujiil and conij);iirH)n at home. 

To ilhistrate the eare with whic h he watched over and 
guided the formation of his son's character, it mav not l)e 
amiss to give extracts from letters addressed to him about 
this time. 

*' My Dear William, — I am very happy you express 
yourself pleased with your new studies ; and at the ardor 
with which you enter uj)on them. You j)Ossess very 
peculiar advantages in the atfectionate attentions, as well 
as in the talents of Mr. P. of which, I doubt not, you will 
make the most, and return them by every mark of respect 
and regard to his interests. Amidst all your studies, how- 
ever, remember to give a j)roper j)ortion of your time to 
exercise and polite comj)any ; the one is necessary to 
health, the other to cheerfulne.«:s. The manner in which 
you say your day is spent, is certainly good for j)rofit, for 
pleasure and instruction, and, I hoj)e, not injurious to 
health ; to prevent its being so, I would advise you to 
walk fre(juently, to stand upright when you study, as long 
sitting in a bent posture is always injurious to the digest- 
ive organs ; and now and tlien to ritle an Jiour before tlin- 
iier, which prevents accumulations of l)ile. Nothing grows 
upon a man so much as the habits of a sedentary life ; at 
the same time nothing is so })ernicious. I beg, my dear 
boy, that for all our sakes you will pay due attention to 
this important advice. I have been practising the lessons 
received from F. in reading Shakspeare aloud ; at every 
new perusal I discover new beauties. Study him ; — to 
one destined to speak in public, there must be oreat ad- 
vantaiic in a familiar accpiaintance with his beautiful and 
expressive lancuaije." * * * * "If vou had made an 
appointment with Dr. W. to attend his lecture, 1 think 
all the charming Miss C.'s in the world should not have 
detained you from it. Remember through life, that 
every man, and more particularly a literary man, thinks 
what he is engaged in of great importance, and although 
it may happen that you do not feel uu)ch interest in it, 
it is both jirudiMit and polite to apjiear to be so. Be- 
sides, it is a good rule never to break an appointment : 
that is a sufficient excuse to leave any company." * * * * 
" Employ more of your time in private visits ; you will 



128 SAMUEL BARD. 

learn more of cliaracter in one family visit, than at a dozen 
entertainments, where you see all under tlie mask of false 
merriment." ****''! very much commend your reso- 
lution to take the advice of your uncle in all matters of po- 
litics, or, indeed, any other point of conduct in which you 
entertain the least doubt of your own judgment, which, 
however, I do not doubt, will be in general no bad guide, 
provided you have resolution enough to follow steadily 
the dictates of your own unbiassed opinion. Be open, my 
dear boy, to conviction ; but never suffer yourself to be 
led in opposition to your own judgment, unless in the case 
of friends whose age and experience qualify, and whose 
relationship authorizes them to give you advice." * * * * 
" Never become the hanger on of a party, nor suffer your- 
self to be carried beyond the bounds of sober judgment, 
when measures are the subject of dispute ; nor of candor 
and moderation, when men are : but on all occasions en- 
deavor to think for yourself, and support a perfect inde- 
pendence both in your conduct and opinions." * * * * 
" The late unhappy occurrence between two of my friends, 
has filled me with grief and apprehension. In the fate of 
Mr. J. I lament the untimely death of an inoffensive and 
worthy man ; and 1 sincerely sympathize with the survi- 
vor, whose feelings on this occasion are probably such as 
to make him envy tlie fate of his antagonist. How tyran- 
nical is that custom which can impose such cruel necessi- 
ties on us ; and how unbecoming a wise and brave man to 
yield to its dictates ! Whatever may be our feelings on 
such occasions, the sacrifice of our cool and unprejiuliced 
judgment can never ]>e justified, and, at best, admits but of 
the Aveak excuse, that our passions were too strong for our 
reason and sense of duty. I know the answer to these ar- 
guments, and would acknowledge its force, were it put in 
our choice or within tlie limits of our duty, to live, or not, 
as we might choose. But when we reflect, on the contra- 
ry, that it is absolutely our duty to live, under any circum- 
stances and trials to which it shall please God to subject 
us, and that there can be no valid excuse whatever, but 
selfdefence, for depriving another of liis life ; tliis, and 
every other argument in defence of duelling must fidl to 
the groiind." 

Dr. Bard thus addressed his son on his recovery from 
sickness : — " Your letter of last Sunday gave us all great 
pleasure, as it confirmed the good liopes witli wliich I left 



i 



SAMUEL BARD. 119 

you of the complete re-establish mcnt of your health. Yours 
may almost ho called a resuscitation, and fdls us all with 
joy and j;ratitude in proportion to our prccciling despond- 
ency. I confess to you, my dear boy, that the near pros- 
I)ect of your death t\n*ned my thoughts very forcibly to a 
self examination how far I had fullilled my duty in re- 
spect of your education ; and I felt some apprehension that 
in tlie conduct of it I liad not paid that constant attention 
to the great object of religion, that its imj)ortance, my du- 
ty, and your happiness retpiired. It has ever been my 
wisli to build my own and my cliildren's religions opin- 
ions on the great and fundamental truths of God's creation 
and government of the world. This leads to revelation, 
in which, as there is notliing impossible or unreasonable, 
so was it very necessary, that God should instruct us in 
the knowledge of His laws ; the practice of which alone 
can secure our liappiness. And as the external evidences 
of God's power, and wisdom, aiul goodness, manifested in 
the works of creation, afford the most satisfactory and un- 
deniable proofs of His existence and natural government 
of the world ; so, on the other hand, do the internal evi- 
dences of the christian revelation, manifested in the wis- 
dom, purity and sublimity of its doctrines, prove most satis- 
factorily its divine origin, and His moral government. If 
you will but attentively read the life of our Savior, as de- 
livered in tlie Gospels, and form your own opinion of his 
character and mission from his conduct, and what he says 
of himself, you will, I hope, find no difficulty in believing 
that he spake not solely from his own authority, but from 
that of Him who sent him, the great God and Fatlier of us 
all. I advise you to enter upon this inquiry, and to devote, 
at least, a part of every Sunday to it : and I sincerely pray 
that God may enlighten your mind, and give you such 
conviction as will establish your principles, regulate your 
conduct, and secure your happiness." 

We next find Dr. Bard addressing his only son on occa- 
sion of his marriage. "• I rejoice, my dear son, in your 
present liappiness ; auvl I rejoice, too, to find you are not 
so much intoxicated with it, as to suffer yourself to dream 
of its uninterrupted continuance ; because that conviction 
will induce you early and always to apply to the only re- 
medy against those evils which you justly call unavoida- 
ble, since virtue itself is not secure against them, — I mean 
religion. This is our strong hold, our castle and rock of 
17 



130 SAMUEL BARD. 

defence, our refuge in times of adversity, our comforter 
under misfortune, our cheerful companion and friendly 
monitor in the hours of gladness and prosperity. ' Who- 
so walketh uprightly, walketli surely' ; and he is most 
likely to walk uprightly, who considers himself constantly 
under the eye and government of God and His Providence. 
This has ever been the joy and consolation of the good 
and wise ; and is the only philosophy which can satisfy a 
reasonable mind, and reconcile us to what we daily see, 
and hear, and feel. But I am satisfied it is not necessary 
to press these reflections upon you ; some expressions m 
your letter have led me into them, and I own I delight to 
dwell on them." * * * * "I observe by your letter that 
some of your friends were to dine with you on Sunday ; 
I will take occasion from this circumstance, to caution you 
against its becoming a habit ; for, although I do not think 
it necessary to hear ' seven sermons on that day,' yet it 
should certainly be a day of rest both to yourself and ser- 
vants ; and should be spent in devotion, rational retirement 
from business and fashion, tranquillity, and, by the lower 
ranks, in cheerful relaxation from labor. Avoid it, there- 
fore, for the sake of your servants, if not your own. You 
know there is nothing I have more at heart, than that you 
should deliberately form opinions for yourself upon every 
important duty or concern of life ; and that, when you 
have settled your own opinions, you should steadily ad- 
here to them, nor suffer yourself to be swayed by the 
breath of fashion, or the prejudice or custom of others : 
think for yourself." 

With what mutual pleasure the studies with his young 
pupil at home were pursued, it may be permitted to use 
her pen to describe. " My father's time after his settle- 
ment in the country, was passed with much regularity : 
the principal part of my instruction he took upon himself. 
Arithmetic, geography, &c. occupied the early part of the 
morning ; drawing and botany succeeded ; and our studies 
generally ended with a walk in the woods, or a scramble 
among the rocks, in which I delighted to follow him. 
His pockets, on such occasions, were generally filled with 
such new plants as we could collect ; affording a botanical 
lesson for tlie day, and specimens for future illustration. 
I had a little of his own fondness for drawing and plants, 
and look back with delight on the pleasure and employ- 



SAMUEL BARD. ISl 

inent I thus jifibrtlecl liiiii. An illustration of the system 
ol" LiniKiius, iuitl suf)se(|uently of Miss Rowden's hotuuy, 
WJis the manner in which he nuuU' nw unite these sluilies ; 
orntunentini^ every i>a<5e or two witli a «rioin) or hasket of 
flowers, with some approjjriate sentence, either from scrip- 
ture, or our hest poets. Thus uniting in my mind, as he 
ever enck'avored to th), tlie cuUivation of taste wiih reli- 
gious and moral truth ; a favorite sentiment of his, wliich 
lie often expresscul in the woids of Langliorne.'' 

Soon after Dr. Bard hecamc a resident in the country, 
his zeal in agricultural jjursuits led him to unite in the 
formation of a county society of that nature, over which 
he was called to preside ; a trihute due not only to hissci- 
entihc knowleilge, hut to the ardor with which lie applied 
to its useful purposes. To this society, on its succeetling 
anniversaries, he addressed several discourses, which evince 
a union of much practical skill in farming w^ith enlighten- 
ed tlieorv : and anticipated in some degree the course of 
Sir Ilumplirey Davy, in ajjplying the powers of chemistry 
to eluciilate the princii>les, and im])rovc tjje practice, of 
hnshanilrv. At a later period, when his fiiends Chancel- 
lor Livingston and Col. Humphreys introducetl into the 
country the merino hreed of sheep. Dr. Bard entered with 
more zeal, perhaps, than j)rudence into thai s])ecuhition. 
One danger attending their introduction Dr. Bard eaily 
perceived and lahorecl to ohviate. Finding them liahleto 
jnany new and fatal diseases, the natiue and cure of these 
hecame a matter of the first imj)oriance, hoth to save the 
individuals, and to prevent infection. With this view he 
l)id)lished a work entitled " The Shei)hcr(rs Guide," 
which, thoimh small, was the result of nmcli investigation, 
and re|)eateil and carefid experiment. 

With all the scrui)ulousness of a moralist. Dr. Bard con- 
sidered ids medical skill as a talent committed hy Provi- 
deiue to his charije, and one which he was hound to use 
diliiTcntly and conscientiously. These feelings prevented 
coinjdete retirement irom professional <hities, and made 
him alive to every call of sickness in his n(iLdd)orhood ; 
especially where poverty |)recluded remuneration, or 
wliere the case demamled experience heyoud that of the 
resident physician. On these occasions he would hreak off" 
from any occupation, however ensaginij, and run almost 
any personal risk, rather than fail in his daily visit ; audit 
was a moral lesson, which sometimes put to ehame young- 



13t SAMUEL BARD. 

cr men, to witness such sensibility to duty and such vigor 
in its performance, in one whose age and services might 
so well have pleaded an apology for indulgence. At such 
calls he would often shake ofl' indisjiosition that was con- 
fining him to his chamber, and throwing his cloak around 
him, mount his horse or chair, be for an hour the active 
and vigorous physician, and then return to the quiet and 
repose which his health required. His " patients' health," 
he was wont to say, he " considered as committed to his 
keeping, — his own as in the hands of Providence." 

In compliance with his age and character, he was imme- 
diately on his settlement in the county of Dutchess, elect- 
ed president of its medical society, in which station he la- 
bored to advance the interests and reputation of the pro- 
fession by increased strictness in examinations for license, 
and by various schemes for its improvement. 

It is, perhaps, to be regretted that Dr. Bard did not turn 
his attention more to public authorship. The clearness of 
his mental perceptions, the inductive character of his rea- 
soning, and the manly vigor of his style, would have add- 
ed much to his own celebrity, and somewhat, no doubt, 
to the advancement of science ; while the warm tone of 
moral and religious earnestness which pervades all his 
writings, w^ould have given them additional value, and 
served to wipe out from the character of his profession 
that base stain of irreligion, which has too long, and too 
unjustly, rested upon it. Upon this subject he thus ex- 
presses himself in one of his academical charges : — " Galen 
is said to have been converted from atheism by the con- 
templation of a human skeleton ; how then is it possible 
that a modern physician can be an infidel ! — one who is 
acquainted with the mechanism of the eye and the ear, 
witli the circulation of the blood, the processes of nourish- 
ment, waste and repair, and all the countless wonders of 
the animal economy ! He must be blind indeed, if he do 
not see in these the unquestionable marks of infinite wis- 
dom, power and goodness." 

Besides the works already mentioned. Dr. Bard's publi- 
cations consist of a treatise written in the year 1771 upon 
" Angina Suffocativa," a disease which then appeared in 
the city under a new form, or with new virulence ; anoth- 
er upon the use of cold in hemorrhage ; many occasional 
addresses to public bodies ; anniversary discourses to medi- 
tal students ; and, the largest of his works, a treatise upon 



SAMUEL BARD. 133 

obstetrics, wliicli was |)rf|)are(l hv lum after liis retiic- 
inent. This is a work oi" superior value, if not merit, from 
the salutary caution it tea<hcs in the use of those instru- 
ments, which in rash and unskilful hands have rendeied 
this jxirt of the art rather a curst' than a hlessinjj. 

Dr. Hard's literary habits were a moth I for lit<'rarv men. 
His early hours, and active employment of them ; bis jireat 
temperance, antl habitual exercise, are habits which would 
go far, if adopted, in j)reservinf> the race of authors from 
those mental diseases which have become their })roverbial 
iidicritance ; ami which arise iuu( h more from indolence 
of body or imprudent exertion of mind, tiian from that 
superior delicacy of temperament, to which they are will- 
in<r to impute them. Tliese habits saveil him from the 
most melancholy accompaniments of age, and j)revented 
that gloom which too often darkens the clos<' of life ; and 
in his domestic letters there are j)leasing evidences of a 
cheerfid, virtuous and happy old age. Our extracts from 
them must of necessity be limited. Feliruary, lfSU2 ; 
" Our studies, business and amusements, fill every moment 
of our time, cxcej)t what is devoted to food and sleep ; 
and in these we waste none. Whatever be the cold with- 
out, we l)anish it from within ; and our bla/ing hearth, 
around Avhich each of us finds a cond"ortal)le seat, adds 
cheerfulness to comfort. Tims ])asses the even tenor of 
our days ; whilst you, j)erhaps, under the name of pleas- 
ure, are shivering at a feast, or rubbing your fingers and 
kicking your heels in the side box of the theatre. Healthy 
and at ease, we feel no want of amusement or variety. 
Work, conversation and i)ooks, fill up our duv. — Oowper 
occupies our evening most pleasantly ; and in his letters to 
his friends continually reminds us of our own feelings ; ex- 
cept that, thaidv (iod, we know imne of his depression ; a 
truth which, although I believe you need not be informed 
of, yet it will bear re])etition, and I feel a jileasure in re- 
peating it. He exj)resscs, however, all our love for our 
friends, and all our impatience to meet again ; oidy nuich 
better than we can say it." Decend)er 22, 1.S05 ; "We 
are now settled in our plans of study for the winter ; I am 
much pleased with those I have adopted for the im])rove- 
ment of your sister. Hetweenthis delightful emj.lovinent, 
the busiru'ss of my farm, and tin societv of my family, my 
time is very j)leasantly and fully filled up ; nor do F see in 
any of us the least symptom of ennui. I am deep in Asiat- 



134 SAMUEL BARD. 

ic researches, and much interested in the study of tliat an- 
cient and extraordinary people. As to myself, I never was 
better, and do my best to preserve the blessing. I spend 
two or three hours every day in the open air, — the rest of 
my time is divided between reading and writing ; so that 
I hope I shall not rust for want of use." * * # * "My 
horse is saddled regularly after breakfast, when I spend 
two hours abroad, this winter very often in the deepest 
recesses of my forest, where the foot of man has, at 
least, seldom trod : and here I find my contemplations 
particularly agreeable and soothing." November, 1807 ; 
Wednesday. — " I got a tumble to-day ; but as both 
aunt and wife say I deserved it, I will say no more 
about it, only that to the confusion in my head I 
attribute having this evening lost one point at back- 
gammon and three at whist. Thursday. — 1 have not 
stirred out of the house, owing to a slight indisposition 
which succeeded my fall, but which, I thank God, has 
now entirely disappeared. Friday. — Yesterday I examir- 
ed my desk, and set my papers in order ; read some, and 
played ja little : in the evening we pursued our studies as 
usual ; which, although serious, we find very delightful. 
We so far varied them as to read tlie life of our author 
William Jones, instead of his works : thoug-h deliohtful 
throughout, his dying moments gave us the greatest com- 
fort. A little while before his dissolution, as his curate 
was standing by his l:»edsidei he desired him to read the 
seventy-first psalm, which he had no sooner done, than, 
taking him by the hand, he said, ' if this be dying, I had 
no idea wliat dying was before ;' adding in a stronger voice, 
' thank God, thank God, it is no M^orse !' He had long 
very much dreaded the pains of death : — you may be sure 
we read the psalm." 

In the year 1813 Dr. Bard was appointed president of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in which honora- 
ble station he continued during life ; and rendered his ofii- 
cial duties valuable to the institution by the warm interest 
he took in its success, the judicious plans he framed for its 
improvement, and the impressive discourses with which 
he accompanied the delivery of its degrees. In these he 
drew, with his accustomed energy, a vivid picture of the 
accomplished physician ; in his education, in his subse- 
quent improvement, in his professional conduct, and in his 
private deportment. Over all these sketches he threw a 



SAMUEL BARD. 135 

moral and religious coloring, which gave them richness 
and force ; showing the happy influence which pure morals 
and firm religious principles must ever exercise over pro- 
fessional success ; and concluding one of his last, as already 
noticed, with the character of Boerliaave, as approaching 
to this rare union of the physician, the scholar, the gentle- 
man and the christian.* 

In the flowers and fruits of the garden Dr. B. became a 
learned and skilful horticulturist ; conversed, read and 
wrote upon the subject ; laid exactions on all his friends 
who could aid him in obtaining what was rare, beautiful or 
excellent in its kind ; drew from England its smaller fruits, 
the larger ones from France, melons from Italy, and vines 
from Madeira, managing them all with a varied yet ex- 
perimental skill, which bafiled the comprehension of minds 
of slower perception. These plans, though novel, were, 
in general, judicious ; being the result of much reading and 

* At the opening of the school in November he delivered one of the most digni- 
fied and impressive discourses on the importance of medical education which can be 
found on record. It affords honorable attestations of talent and powers of eloquence, 
and is fraught with the purest sentiments of moral and professional rectitude. " In 
the study of diseases," he says, "and in the practice of medicine, no histories 
however accurate, no reasoning however just, can convey the knowledge necessary 
for their treatment and cure. The student must see, and hear, and feel for him- 
self; the hue of the complexion, the feel of the skin, the lustre or the languor of the 
eye, the throbbing of the pulse, and the palpitations of the heart ; the quickness and 
the ease of respiration, the tone and tremor of the voice, the confidence of hope or 
the despondence of fear expressed in the countenance, baffle all description : yet all 
and each of these convey important and necessary information. Where can these 
be learnt but at the bedside of the sick, and where shall a number of young men, 
who cannot be admitted into the privacies of families, or to the chambers of wo- 
men, acquire this necessary and important information, but in public hospitals, 
which are not only intended to relieve the complicated misery of poverty and sick-~ 
ness, but as schools, should always be made conducive to the public good, and as 
.such, even more than as charitable institutions, merit and receive the patronage of 
government." " Indolence is the greatest enemy to learning; but indolence is fa 
vice bred and nourished in solitude, and can hardly exist at a public school, except 
in minds of so heavy a mould as to be incapable of culture. On the other hand, 
to labor without plan or design, may indeed accumulate a confused mass of mate- 
rials ; but use, beauty, order and proportion, are the result of skill, and to erect 
such materials as we have collected, into a convenient and elegant edifice, requires 
the hand of a master." " Nor are the happy copsequences of a good education in 
medicine confined to the chambers of the sick. A physician must necessarily, in 
some measure, become the companion, and frequently the intimate friend of his pa- 
tient. His knowledge, therefore, and his example become extensively useful or 
prejudicial. Is he wise, and good, and learned '? his learning will instruct, his hu- 
manity will bless, and his good example will amend many among those with whom 
he daily converses. Is he ignorant, and loose, and debauched '? what mischief may 
he not do to the younger members of those families who put their confidence in him, 
and who generally look up to him as a character of superior talents, learning and 
worth. And again, the medical character is not only very influential, it is the most 
numerous among the learned professions ; the example, therefore, of a physician's 
knowledge and virtues, or the contamination of his ignorance and his vices, will as- 
sume a wider and more extended ran^e " — Amer. Med. and Philo. Res^isfer. 



136 SAMUEL BARD. 

long experience, and, above all, of an imagination trained 
to what Bacon terms " tentative experiments." 

In the year 1811, circumstances favoring its establish- 
ment, the Church of St. James, at Hyde Park, was erect- 
ed, of which Dr. B. was in effect the foinider. Attached, 
not only by habit, but by rational conviction, to the Epis- 
copal branch of the Protestant Church, he had long been 
anxious for its establishment in his neighborhood. So 
highly did he value the public exercises of devotion, as 
means botli of instruction and conviction, that after the 
erection of the church, in order to supply the occasional 
absence of its rector, he submitted to the necessity, at the 
age of seventy years, of receiving from episcopal authority 
the license required to entitle him to act as lay reader in 
the church. The following is an extract from the form of 
daily devotion made use of by himself and wife : — 

" O God ! enlighten our understanding that we may 
comprehend thy will, strengthen our resolution to obey 
thy commands, endow us with resignation under thy dis- 
pensations, and fill our hearts with love and gratitude for 
all thy benefits. Give unto us, Lord, whose lives thou 
hast continued to so late a day, sincere and true repent- 
ance, and grant that, as age advances upon iis, our minds 
may be more and more enlightened by the knowledge of 
thy will, more resigned to thy dispensations, and more in- 
vigorated with the resolution to obey thy commands. 
Calm all our thoughts and fears ; give peace and quiet to 
our latter days ; and so support us by thy grace through 
the weakness and infirmities of age, that we may die in 
humble hope and confidence of thy merciful pardon and 
acceptance tlirough the merits of our Redeemer." 

In one devotional habit he resembled Boerhaave ; and, 
perhaps, Avas guided by his example. He regularly devot- 
ed a part of his early morning to religious reading and re- 
flection ; by which, as he himself expressed it, he endea- 
vored to " set his mind to a right edge for the business of 
the day." 

In the church which he erected, Dr. B. continued to 
find, unto the very close of life, a more than ordinary 
comfort and satisfaction. " No equal expenditure of mo- 
ney," he was used to say, " had ever returned to liim so 
large an interest ;" and by those who ever saw him engag- 
ed in its services, its truth will not be doubted. His vene- 
rable looks, his devout but animated manners, his loud 



lAMUEL BARD. 157 

response, and eye glistening with gratitude and thankful- 
ness, surrounded I)y cliildren and grundchihlren, form a 
picture on which memory loves to dwell. From these 
meetings, sanctified alike hy devotion and family afl'ection, 
he was rarely ahsent. Sickness could liardiy detain him ; 
and absence from homo he always lelt as a misfortune. 

In passing through Princeton at the period of its public 
commencement. Dr. B. received a mark of the high re- 
spect in which his character was held by being waited up- 
on by a deputation from the trustees of that institution, 
and by the honorary degree of LL.D. conferred upou iiim. 

In Dr. B. we recognise a remarkable instance illustra- 
tive of the position, tiiat the powers of usefulness are not 
necessarily lost with age ; tiiat feebleness of mind is rather 
the rust of indolence than the decay of nature ; and that 
old age may continue to the very latest period, honored 
and beloved, teaching the young by its experience, in- 
structing them with its learning, and turning into love and 
veneration tliose natural feelings of res])ect with which it 
is regarded. He was alike the counsellor and the com- 
panion, the instructer and the friend of all the young per- 
sons who were so fortimate as to have a claim upon liis at- 
tentions. His plans for their imj)rovement were novel 
and varied, his pursuit of them eatfer, his commendation 
warm and animated, and his reproof, though tender, " ve- 
hement in love." The correspondence which, under these 
circumstances, he maintained with his grandson while un- 
der the tuition of his medical instructer, abounds in les- 
sons of practical wisdom, and contains tlie result of his 
medical experience upon most of the subjects which dur- 
ing its continuance attracted public or professional at- 
tention. 

The following letter of religious reflections was found 
m his desk after his decease. 

Jipnl2d, 1813. 

" Yesterday I entered into my ?eventy-first year; and 
when 1 review my past life, I find through the whole 
course of it, reason only for gratitude for an almost unin- 
terrupted succession of blessings. For the liberality, al- 
most beyond his means, with which my kind and generoui 
father conducted my education ; for his watchful care 
through tlie dangerous period of my youth ; for the excel- 
lent example of his just, honorable, useful and benevolent 
life : for his early introduction into the business of my 
18 



133 SilMUEL BARD. 

profession ; and for the invariable and affectionate friend- 
ship '.vith which he treated me unto the day of his death. 

" For the many Ivind friends who took me by the hand 
at my setting out in life, and for that success in my profes- 
sion, by which I have all along been comfortably support- 
ed, and enabled to lay by sufficient for an easy and inde- 
pendent old age. 

" For the many virtues, and most useful talents of my 
dear and excellent wife ; for the good order, neatness and 
liberal economy, with which she has always conducted my 
family ; for the steady, judicious and affectionate care, with 
which she has assisted me in the education of our children, 
and to which, I firndy believe, we are in a great measure 
indebted for the happiness we now enjoy in their society ; 
for her courage and support under domestic afflictions, 
professional vexations, pecuniary losses, and other difficult- 
ies I have met with ; for the constant love and fidelity 
with which she has blest me in health ; and for the patience 
with which she has endured my fretfulness, and the ten- 
derness with which she has almost annihilated the pains of 
sickness. 

" For the virtues and affectionate gratitude, the health 
and prosperity of the children with which God has blessed 
my old age ; for the kind attention of the excellent wife 
He has given my son, by whom we are enabled to enjoy 
our present easy and tranquil life ; for the virtuous charac- 
ter, and kind and affectionate temper of the husbands He 
has given to our daughters, by which we enjoy the un- 
speakable happiness of seeing them happy, and being as- 
sured that whenever it shall please God to take us from 
them, we shall leave them under affectionate and tender 
protectors. 

" For the pleasing prattle and promising virtues of all 
our grandchildren ; for the society and affectionate friend- 
ship of my sisters and brother-in-law, and for the hopes 
and promise of their children ; and lastly, for having, by 
His most gracious and singular providence, now in the 
evening of my days, brightened my setting sun by collect- 
ing all these blessings around me. 

" Give me grace, Heavenly Father, constantly to ac- 
knowdedge in all these blessings thy most merciful good- 
ness ; to feel my own demerits ; to repent sincerely of the 
ingratitude of my past life ; and to dedicate the future to 
thy service, in promoting to the utmost of my power the 



SAMUEL BARD. 139 

temporal and eternal happiness of my family, friends, 
neiiihl)ors, and all others within the icac'h of iny ability 
and inflnencc. Continue thy most irracious j)rotc(tion and 
blessing to me and my dear wife, (hiring tlie residue of otir 
lives ; sustain us in death, and linally i)aiclon aiul accej)t 
us, for the sake and merits of thy Son Jesus Christ, our 
Lord and Savior."* 

The last winter of Dr. Bard's life was passed by him in 
more tlian usual enjovuieut. Preceded by a long aiul sat- 
isfactory visit to liis slaughter in town, it rolled rapidly 
by in his usual interchange of study and amusemeni. 
Engaged in j)rcparing an enlarsred edition of his chief med- 
ical work, he found no time to han<j lieavy on his liands ; 
and it w^as difTicult to say from wliich of his varied em- 
j)loyments, whether of lal)or, or anuisement, lie derived 
the greatest pleasure. In a letter to his son dated Christ- 
mas, 1820, he says " I walk, ride, and annise myself out 
of doors with my green-house, and in doors with my lit- 
tle transparent orrery ; to Avhich I am (ontemplating some 
additions and familiar illustrations. My gretii-house and 
flower stands afford me considerable amusement. The 
j)lants flourish exceedingly ; I spent two hours among 
them yesterday, and shall do so occasionally through the 
winter. Every plant, from the royal orange and myrtle 
to the humble crocus, in fragrance, grace and beauty, per- 
form their jiart to admiration ; and althouffh tliev excite 
no passion of fear or mirth, of love or alarm, yet they do 
better, — they calm all my j)assions, sooth disapj)oiiitment, 
and even mitigate the feelings of sorrow." Again, '' I 
have already mentioned my good health ; and, thank 
God, have j)assed the winter free from pain ; and now be- 

* In the family of Dr. Bard was the venerable Mrs. Barton, a laJy whose warm 
attachment to Dr. and Mrs. Bard through a lonp life, demands some passinp re- 
cord, — a tribute now doubly due, since the shock of their united dearh seemed to 
breal( the last feeble thread which detained her in this state of mortality ; and with- 
in a few days she followed them at the advanced age of ninety years, neither over- 
come by <lisease, nor broken down by infirmity. Mrs. Barton was aunt both to 
Dr. and Mrs. Bard, and widow to tho friend and brother-in-law of our eminent 
countryman, David Rittcnhouse. So highly was she esteemed and so warmly be- 
loved, that Mrs. Bard made her aunt's residence with her a previous requisite to 
consenting,' to remove to the country. From the period of that event she continued 
to reside with them ; not only aiding by her counsel and skill, but enlivening by her 
good sense and cheerfulness, the varied employments ol a country life. Indi^rien- 
dcnt in her occupations, actively and benevolciillv employed, piriicipalinj iii jil 
family festivities, and with a tremulous, thoupli sweet, voice, (which in youth had 
gained her the title of the " American nightingale,") leading at the supper table a 
united chorus, in which the voices of four nucccMive generatiunt cmulously con'« 
tended. 



140 SAMUEL BARD. 

^in to enjoy the spring by riding on horseback and amus- 
ing myself in my garden ; but I do both with caution. 
When it is fair over head, but damp under foot, I ride iny 
pony into the garden to give my directions, and to see my 
plants bursting into life, in which I take very great de- 
light. 

" I have several beautiful and rare plants coming for- 
ward ; and 1 watch their progress with an interest which, 
by many people, would be thought trifling in a man of 
four score : but I appease my conscience by the innocency 
of the pursuit, and my inability for such as are more 
active." 

About this period the tranquillity of this good man was 
tried with affliction by the death of a young, but favorite 
grandson, on which occasion he observed, "It is a hard 
lesson, and one, I cannot believe, required of us, to receive 
pain and sorrow at our Father's hand with the same feel- 
ings we do joy and blessing, — submit without murmur- 
ing we can, and even acknowledge the goodness and mercy 
of the hand which chastises us : yet we cannot but feel 
the stripes ; and, indeed, if we did not, they would be no 
chastisement. Still I yield him up with the composure of 
christian resignation to the will of our merciful Father, 
who not only knows, but determines what is best for those 
who put their trust in him." In another letter he uses the 
following language — " Misfortune properly improved, 
becomes the source of our greatest blessings. If it serve to 
moderate our desires, at the same time that it rouses us to 
greater exertion ; if it control our unridy passions, and 
strengthen our virtuous inclinations ; above all, if it excite 
in our hearts true religion, and confirm our humble de- 
pendence upon the mercy and goodness of God ; then we 
may say, with truth, ' it is good for us that Ave have been 
afflicted,' Whenever I pursue this train of thought, I gain 
strength, and become ashamed and repentant that I suffer 
the comparatively slight reverses which Ave have met 
with, for a moment to damp me. I buckle on my armor, 
and prepare for the conflict Avith rencAved vigor and fresh 
hopes. Something like despondence, I confess, will now 
and then assail me ; and, in spite of my better convictions, 
the prospect of difliculties, now Avhen my strength begins 
to fail me, brings a load upon my spirits Avhich I find it 
difllicult to shake off" ; until again an appeal to that Good 
Being, who has so long conducted me forward in a pros-- 



SAMUEL BARD. Ml 

pcrous and happy career, calms iny troubled mind, and 
again I feel able to submit to whatever His wisdom mav 
direct." 

Having attended this venerable j)liysi( ian and christian 
through his long career of honorable life, we come to 
notice its conclusion in the ripeness of its age and in the 
fulness of its powers. 

In the montli of May, 1821, while prej)ariiig for their 
annual spring visit to the city, Mrs. liard was attacked 
witii a pleuritic alfection ; whicli after a few days gave 
evidence of a fatal termination. Dr. Bard, though labor- 
ing under a similar attack, would not be sei)arated from 
her ; but continued to be, as formerly, her con)j)anion, 
nurse and physician. »Such a long and afit'ctionate union 
as their's had been, had early excited the wish, the j)rayer, 
and the expectation, that in death they were not to be 
divided. What was thus both wished for and expected, 
had become, it seems, the subject of their sleeping 
thoughts ; and a remarkable dream of Mrs. Bard's to this 
effect, was now remembered and repeated by her husband 
with feelings, not of superstitious, but pleasing antici- 
pation. 

The last effort of his pen was to give comfort to those 
who were absent. On Sunday, 20th instant, three days 
before his own death, he wrot(^ with a treml)linq; hand a 
consolatory letter to iiis fii<Mids in New-Y ork, who were 
anxiously waitiuij Iiis arrival. This letter, wliich convey- 
ed to his daughter the first intimation ol" danger, brought 
her to lier paternal home a few hours too late to receive a 
mother's l)lessing ; but in time to spend a few short ones 
of affectionate intercourse with lier dyinjr father. It was 
passeti in calmness by both : indeed, there was no room 
for sorrow in such a trancpiil, jx-aceful (lej)arture. His 
calm, but affectionate inquiiies about absent friends, his 
rational directions as to future arrangements, and his free- 
dom from all perturbation of s])irit, Avere so foreifin from 
the common conception of dejiartiutr humanity, that the 
feelings could iu)t realize it, — tlierc were in it ni) imiges 
of grief from whicli imagination nii<>ht draw her ])attern. 

Under these circiunstances, not of stoical, l)ut ( hristian 
composure, he sutdc to rest at 5 o'clock in the morning of 
the 2 1th May, in the eightieth year of his age, twenty-four 
hours after the death of his wife ! — a common grave re- 
ceived their remains. Their affectionate relative, Mr?. 



142 SAMUEL BARD. 

Barton, sunk under the bereavement, and within a few 
days joined them in the kind of rest. 

As a summary of Dr. Bard's character, says his able 
biographer, I close with the concluding sentence of a com- 
munication made to me by one who best knew his worth, 
and most deeply felt his loss. " Of my father's general 
character," says he, " of his candor, of the purity of his 
intentions, of his integrity, of the tenderness of his feel- 
ings, of his polite and affectionate manners, of his ardor in 
every honorable and virtuous pursuit, of his calm, but 
profound religious feelings, of his domestic virtues, of his 
cheerful temper, of his love to mankind, I dare not speak, 
— the recollection of them is deeply engraven on my lieart, 
and but too fresh in my memory." Numerous testimonials 
of individual respect and condolence, exhibiting the estima- 
tion in which Dr. Bard was held, were called forth by the 
lamented event of his death, among which was a very 
affectionate letter of condolence from his Excellency Hyde 
De Neuville, minister of France at Washington. 

The following minute is taken from a meeting of the 
governors of the New-York Hospital. 

June 5, 1821. 

" The governors receive with unfeig-ned regret the 
account of the decease of their late fellow member of this 
corporation. Dr. Samuel Bard. 

" It is due to the memory of that eminent physician 
and philanthropist, to state, that by means of his benevo- 
lent exertions, in the year 1769, setting forth in a public 
discourse the benefits to be derived from the establishment 
of an hospital in the city, the present institution was ori- 
ginally founded. That for a number of years, amidst the 
arduous avocations of an extensive private practice, he 
performed with imceasing fidelity and punctuality, the 
duties of a physician to tliis establishment, and was the 
means, under Providence, of extending its usefulness, and 
of elevating its character, not only as an asylum for the 
sick poor, but as an important means of promoting medi- 
cal education in the city. The signal services rendered by 
Dr. Bard to this community in general, and to this institu- 
tion in particular ; the virtuous and religious character for 
which he was uniformly distinguished ; the zealous devo- 
tion to the interests of humanity which he ever manifested 
as a citizen, as well as in discharge of the duties of his pro- 
fession ; render it in a peculiar manner becoming this 



JOSHUA BARKER. M.) 

board to express their high sense of his great worth, his: 
professional merit and services, and the benefits he has 
conferred upon his native city and country." 

CONCLUSION. 

Ahliough in the narrative now conchided, affection may 
a})pcar in some instances to have dictated the huiguage, the 
author is not aware that in any it has exaggerated the 
sentiment. He believes it will meet the recollection of 
those who best knew the subject of it. Indeed it was not 
easy to know Dr. B. intimately, without loving and reve- 
rencing him ; so that to exclude affection from giving the 
picture, is to exclude that knowledge wliich is necessary 
to secure resemblance. Of his public conduct and profes- 
sional character, the author believes he has sj)oken with 
due deference to the o})inion of those who may be better 
judges. Of that wliich has been the great aim of the me- 
moir, the display of private character, he has spoken con- 
fidently, because he knew intimately ; and in the varied 
relations of social and domestic life, having j)ro]iosed him 
as a model to himself, he is not afraid to hold him up to 
others as an example worthy of imitation. 

The foregoing is an abridged narrative from the life of 
Dr. Samuel Bard by the Rev. John McVickar, A. M. Pro- 
fessor of Moral Philosophy and Rhetoric, Columbia Col- 
lege, New-York. The reader will require no apology for 
its length, when it is considered, as it unquestionablv will 
be, that the memoir affords one of the best of models for 
imitation for the physician, the cliristian and the philan- 
thropist. 

BARKER, JOSHUA, M.M.S.S. was the son of Fran- 
cis Barker, a respectable shipwright in Hingham, Massa- 
chusetts. He was born 24th of March, 1753, and was 
graduated at Harvard University in 1772. Havinii chosen 
for his profession the practice of medicine, he acquired his 
education under the instruction of Samuel Danforth, M.D. 
of Boston, and established himself as a physician in his 
native town, where his ])ractice, thoush not very exten- 
sive, was successful and satisfactory. Had he been j)laced 
in a situation in which his whole powers could have been 
developed, he would have taken elevated ground, and his 
reputation been more extensively diffused ; but in the sit- 
uation he selected, he had to contend with all the preju- 
dices incident to a location in the place of iiis birth, v.ith the 



144 ALEXANDER BAROTf. 

competition of old and experienced physicians who had 
preoccupied the business and possessed the public confi- 
dence, and in a part of the country stationary, or nearly so, 
in its population. With all these disadvantages his repu- 
tation stood high, and he acquired and preserved the 
friendship and confidence of his fellow citizens. 

He had a good taste and respectable acquirements in 
general literature, and was an excellent scholar. As a 
physician his attention to the sick was always prompt, 
kind and impartial, administering with the same readiness 
to the rich and poor. In the domestic and social relations 
and as a member of civil society, few men weie more 
justly esteemed and respected than Dr. Barker. An easy 
politeness, refined taste, cheerful hospitality and intelligent 
conversation, made his house a pleasant resort to his 
friends and acquaintances ; and by attentive notice of 
strangers who visited Hingham, he was an honor to tlie 
place in which he lived. In friendship he was warm and 
affectionate, yet steady and faitliful. In his dealings he 
was regular, methodical, punctual and conscientiously 
upright. As a citizen, a firm friend to liberty, order and 
peace, he was a friend to all the institutions of his country- 
which have the promotion of these for their object, 
whether civil, religious or literary, and was always ready 
by his example, influence, exertions and contributions, to 
promote them. 

He was a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
and contributed to its usefulness, until he was visited with 
an attack on the nervous system, which after a gradual 
and distressing decay of near eleven months terminated in 
dissolution in April, 1800. 

BARON, ALEXANDER, M. D. was born of respecta- 
ble parents in the year 1745 in the county of Kincardine, 
in Scotland, where he received the first rudiments of his 
education. When sufficiently prepared, he was sent to 
Aberdeen and entered upon his course of academical study 
in the college of that place. Being gifted with genius and 
of quick apprehension, he made rapid progress in the 
classics and philosophy, so that he was qualified much 
earlier than is usual for the study of one of the learned 
professions, for which he was designed. The bent of his 
genius inclining him to medicine, he made choice of it as 
his profession, and was accordingly placed as a private 
pupil under the care of Drs. Livingston and Robertson,, 



ALEXANDER BAROn. 145 

two eminent pliysiciuns in Aberdeen, and when sufficiently 
instructed, he entered the medical scliool at Edinburgh 
and commenecil a nuulical cour.-c under thr patronage of 
the Lite celebrated Dr. John Gregory, Professor in that 
university. 

Having attended three courses of lectures with great 
diligence, he was graduated the 12th Septemljer, 17G0, on 
which occasion he published and j)ublicly defended a 
"• Tliesis de Tusse Convulsiva." During bis residence at 
Etliuburgh, bis correct moral deportment, his extensive 
erudition, his habits of study and observation deservedly 
secured to him the friendship and esteem of all his ac- 
quaintances ; and among the number of his intimates were 
several medical students and others, distinguished ])y tbeir 
virtues and scientific acquirements. Being now qualified 
for the exercise of tiie duties of his important and ardu- 
ous profession, he embarked for Cliarleston, South Caro- 
lina, where he arrived and commenced his medical career 
in the year 1769. 

Endowed by nature with almost every attribute of 
genius, he cultivated her choicest gifts with unabating ar- 
dor ; antl possessing a sound and discriminating judgment, 
gentleness of manner and an affectionate disposition, few 
men Avere better qualified for the discharge of all the im- 
portant duties of tlie j)rofession ; and of course his pros- 
pect of an early establishment in practice, was highly 
flattering to his friends and himself. Exclusive of all this, 
his studies had been so various, that he had something 
to say uj)on almost every topic of discourse, so that he 
rendered himself the delight and ornament of every cir- 
cle ; and surely a physician with such professional attain- 
ments, could not fail to make a favorable impression upon 
those of his own profession, as well as others ; and accord- 
ingly. Dr. Milligan, at that time conspicuous as a j)ractis- 
ing physician in Charleston, was induced to offer him a 
share of his practice, which was accepted, and the connex- 
ion continued a considerable time. Dr. Baron afterwards 
connected himself in professional copartnership with Drs. 
Oli|)bant, and Samuel and Robert A\ ilson. 

With a rich fund of miscellaneous knowledjie derived 
from reading and an extensive intercour.*;c with the world, 
he rendered himself one of the most a<;recal)le and instruc- 
tive conqianions. In the familiar intercourse of life, in 
the capacity of physician or friend, his manners, cheerful 
19 



146 ALEXANDER BARON. 

and graceful, with the affability and dignity of true polite- 
ness ; his sympathy Avitli the distressed, and his mind well 
stored with anecdote, he seldom visited the hale or the 
sick, upon whom he did not make a favorable impression. 
Of christian charity, the vital principle of religion, he was 
endowed with an uncommon share, and so unbounded was 
his generosity, that his heart and purse were always open 
to his friends ; considering every one as his friend, whose 
situation was such as to require his assistance. Dr. Baron 
was easy of access and agreeable, in consequence of which he 
became so great a favorite among the younger members of 
the profession, whom he invariably patronised, that they 
were extremely fond of consulting with him in all cases of 
difficulty ; for, while they derived benefit from his coun- 
sels, they never had reason to apprehend that they should 
be borne doAvn by an ostentatious display of his superior 
talents, whicV too frequently occurs on such occasions. 
He was one of the founders of the Medical Society of South 
Carolina and was elected its vice president in 1790. 

Like the great Sydenham, Dr. B. was an accurate ob- 
server of nature. Patient and minute in the investigation 
of diseases, and deliberate and cautious in forming his judg- 
ment, the sick had a well founded prospect of deriving bene- 
fit from the advice and prescriptions of such a physician. As 
might be supposed, his practice was influenced by his great 
master, the celebrated Cullen ; but it appeared that the 
theories of all the various medical schools, as well ancient 
as modern, with which he was acquainted, had lost much 
of their weight upon his mature understanding. Dr. 
Baron in the year 1770, soon after his arrival at Charles- 
ton, joined the St. Andrew's Society, the oldest charitable 
association in the state ; and was elected its annual presi- 
dent for twenty-eight successive years. From his first 
settlement he continued the exercise of his profession with 
great reputation, to a short period before his death. His 
constitution had for some time felt the effects of a long and 
laborious practice, and the progress of old age ; but his 
mind had lost none of its vigor. In almost every case of 
difficulty or danger, he continued to be consulted, and his 
opinions were always received with the greatest respect. 
For a few weeks before his death, he became unable, from 
his increasing infirmities, to attend to the arduous duties of 
his profession ; and he died on the 9th day of January, 
1819, universally regretted. — [Jlbridged from a Sketch by 
Samuel Wilson^ ,M. 7).] 



JOSIAH BARTLETT. 147 

BARTLETT, JOSIAH, M.D. Governor of New-Hamp- 
shire, was born in Anicshury, Massachusetts, in Novenilier, 
1729. He was early put to learn the rudiments of the 
Latin and Greek langua<>;es, wliich he accomplished with 
consideraMe rapidity, having a quick perce])tion and tena- 
cious memory. At the age of sixteen he was i)laccd with a 
Dr. Ordway to study physic, but he soon exhausted tlie 
Doctor's scanty library and resorted to others for a 
suj)j)ly. 

In 1750, having completed his medical education at the 
age of twenty-one, he commenced the practice of his pro- 
fession at Kingston in New-Hampsliire. Two years after he 
was seized with a fever which in all probability would 
have proved fatal to him, had not his own reason counter- 
acted tlie hackneyed modes of his attending j)hysician. At 
the apj)roach of a crisis his strengtli Avas so much exhaust- 
ed by a warm and stimulating regimen and seclusion from 
the air, that his physician pronounced his disorder fatal ; 
but the patient prevailed upon two young men that night 
to procure for liim a (juart of cider, which he took by 
half a teacupful at a time, by which he was so invigorat- 
ed that in the morning a coj)ious j)erspiration ensued, and 
his fever was effectually checked. Ever after this event 
Dr. Bartlett was a strict observer of nature in all diseases, 
and rejecting all arbitrary medical rules, he founded his 
practice upon the details of nature and experience. He 
soon became j)opidar as a j)hysician, and secured a large 
share of ])ractice both lucrative and honorable to himself, 
and highly useful to the peoj)le. 

In the year 1733, and again in 1735, a " distemper" 
originated in Kingston, Avliich eluded ail the powers of 
the physicians of that period. It was called the " throat 
distemper" (angina maligna.) This disease was considered 
a.s entirely new in the country, and was not understood, 
althougli in some ancient authors a similar disease has been 
noticed. The physicians considered it to be of an inflam- 
jnatory nature, and adopted their mode of treatment upon 
that princij)le. The disease spread rapidly, and among 
children it ])roved almost universallv mortal, like the 
plague in warm climates ; many families lost nearly all 
their children under ten years of age, death often taking 
place in twelve hours from the attack, and some dying 
while sitting with their playthings in their liands. The 
depleting and antiphlogistic course of practice wa« pursued 



148 JOSIAH BARTLETT. 

almost invariably with death, and the physicians were 
entirely at a loss for a successful method of cure. In 
1754 the angina maligna again made its appearance, but 
with less malignity ; Dr. Bartlett being now in practice 
in Kingston, iinding the antiphlogistic course constantly 
unsuccessful, devoted much attention to the investigation 
of the disease and decided in his own mind that it was of 
a highly putrid character, and that antiseptic remedies were 
clearly indicated. In the case of one of his own children, 
therefore, he employed the Peruvian bark and other anti- 
septics with a happy result, and he afterward adopted the 
same mode of }>ractice with such general success as to 
establish his fame. 

From his integrity and decision of character Dr. B. was 
soon designated as a magistrate and sustained various 
offices from the lowest to the highest. He was also ap- 
pointed by Governor John Wentworth to the command of 
a regiment of militia, where he discharged his duties Avith 
much promptness and fidelity. In the year 1765 Col. 
Bartlett began his political career as representative for the 
town of Kingston in the legislature of the Province. He 
seems to have been endowed with the innate principles of 
civil and religious liberty, and although young and inex- 
perienced in politics he was soon found with a small 
minority in opposition to royal policy ; voting against 
what they supposed to be unjust violations of a right, and 
arbitrary usurpations. Governor John Wentworth, know- 
ing Dr. B. to be an influential member of the assembly, 
appointed him a justice of the peace, but his independent 
spirit was not to be allured from his sense of duty and his 
principles. In 1774 he was a conspicuous and zealous 
advocate for the cause of the whigs, and was among the 
principal leaders in the house of assembly against the 
measures pursued by the governor and his friends. He was 
elected a delegate to the general congress who were to meet 
at Philadelphia, but, having recently lost his house by fire, 
he declined the office. In February, 1775, Dr. B. was by 
Governor Wentworth deprived of his commission of the 
peace and also of his command in the militia. In Septem- 
ber, 1 775, he was appointed to command a regiment by the 
provincial congress, and being again chosen a delegate to 
the Continental congress, he attended in that honorable 
assembly, and when the vote for American independence 
was taken Col. Bartlett'g name was first called, as repre- 



.UiblAll BAKTLtlT. 149 

scntinff the most easterly province, aiul he boldly ans^er- 
ex\ in the anirmntive. He was the first, tlierefore, who 
voted for, and the iin^t alter the ]»resident who sicrned tliat 
nieniorahU' iiistrunient. Col. BarthHt's task was extremely 
ardnoMs and ialioninir, con.jress heinjr oecn])ied from nine 
o'elo( k, A. M. to fonr, P. M. hefore dining ; after which 
he was on committee till nine or ten o'clock in the eve- 
ning. The increasinij j.rospect of nntried events in which 
their lives, their families and their estates were pnt tr) tin; 
hazard ; the deatli of their late valnahlc jjresident ; the 
death of General iMontiromery, and other disastrous 
events ; the ravaces of the infnViated enemv ; their un- 
justifiahledestrnction of an innocent people ; "together with 
the thoughts of his distant family who were in arfemharrass- 
ed situation in consecjuence of his recent loss by fire ; all 
conspired to de])ress his spirits. He, hoAvevef, sustained 
these cares with a consciousness of the justice of his cause 
and a reliance on the goodness of the Supreme Disjioser of 
all events, which confirmed his j)erseveran(e in dutv. 

In 1779 Col. Bartlett Avas ajjjjointed chief justice "of the 
superior court, whidi oftice he held until he was apj)oint- 
ed chief justice in 1188. Col. B. was an active member 
ol the ( onvention for adopting the confederation in 1788, 
and was chosen a senator in congress in 1789, but this 
oflicc he declined through the inhrinities of age. We next 
find this estimable man occupying the statioirof President 
of the state of New-Hampshire in 1790, and in 1793 he 
was elected the first governor of the state under the new 
form of government. In this ofiice, as in all others, his 
duties were promptly and faithfully discharged. He was 
indeed a ruler in whom the wise placed confidence, and of 
whoni even the captions coidd find nothing to coin])lain. 
In 1791 Governor B. retired from the chair of chief matris- 
trate of the state and from all public emplovment. ^ 

On the 19th of May, 1795, this distinguished patriot paid 
the debt of nature, being in the 65th year of his age. The 
following just description of his character is e"\tracted 
from the sermon |)reache(l at his interment bv the Bev. 
Mr. Thayer. '' His mind was (puck and penetrating, his 
memory tenacious, his judgment souml and prospective ; 
his natural temper was open, humane and compassionate.' 
In all his dealings he was scrupulously just, and faithful in 
the performance of all hi? engagements. These shining 
talents accompanied with distinigiushed probitv, early in 



150 JOSIAH BIRTLETT. 

life recommended him to the esteem and confidence of his 
fellow citizens. But few persons by their own merit, with- 
out the influence of family or party connexions, have risen 
from one degree of honor to another as he did ; and fewer 
still have been the instances in which a succession of hon- 
orable and important offices even to the highest, have been 
held by any man with less envy, or executed with more 
general approbation." — Jfew- Hampshire Hist, and Biograph. 
Collections. 

BARTLETT, JOSIAH, M.D. M.M.S.S. was born in 
Charlestown, Mass. in the year 1 759. At an early period 
he became a pupil ol Dr. Isaac Foster, a very respectable 
physician of the same town, who entered the medical de- 
partment of the American army on its first formation at 
Cambridge, on the 20th of April, 1775, the day following 
the battle of Lexington. 

Young Bartlett continued his pupilage under Dr. Foster, 
who was appointed chief surgeon in the general hospital 
at Cambridge, and who subsequently procured the office 
of surgeon's mate for his pupil, then at the age of sixteen 
years, in which station he continued to serve until the 
year 1780, wJien he resigned both his pupilage and his 
commission, and was engaged for two voyages as surgeon 
to ships of war. During his public service Dr. Bartlett 
manifested a degree of activity, attention and faithfulness, 
which secured to him a high reputation and the approba- 
tion of his superiors in office. About the close of the war 
he settled in his native town, and soon became distinguish- 
ed as a practitioner in medicine. 

Dr. Bartlett attended a single course of lectures on anat- 
omy delivered by Dr. John Warren in 1780 ; and, not- 
withstanding his extensive practice, he attended a com- 
plete course of medical lectures at Cambridge in 1790, and 
in 1791 became Bachelor of Medicine, and in 1801 the de- 
gree of M. D. was conferred upon him. In 1789 he was 
admitted to l)e a member of the Massachusetts Medical So- 
ciety, soon after became recording secretary of that high- 
ly respectable body, and continued in office in various 
situations until his death ; and perhaps no man contributed 
more time and active exertion to improve tlie state of tlie 
society, and tlirough it the interests of medical literature. 
He delivered two public discourses of a medical nature, 
one before the Middlesex Medical Association, the other 
before the Massachusetts Medical Society, the latter of 



BENJAMIN B. BARTON. 151 

which is well known as aflbrdintj a very interesting his- 
torical sketch of medical cliaractcis in this j)art of the coun- 
try, from its settlement. Me also j)iil)lisheil various pajiers 
on meilical subjects in the communications of the Medical 
Societv and in the New-Enjrland Medical Journal. 

Althouirh en<ra<red in a most extensive practice, Dr. 
Bartlctt found time to emj)loy a })art of his activity in civil 
olKces, and was at varioiis times elected rej)resentative, 
senator, and counsellor, in the state government. Soon 
after his settlement at Charlestown, he became a mend^er 
of the honorable fraternity of masons, among whom he 
was very distinguished, and occupied all the posts of hon- 
or to that of grand master, and especially was cons])icuous 
for the number of occasional and appropriate addresses 
which he delivered in that society. 

Dr. Bartlett's character was remarkable for industry, 
activity and intelligence. He never declined any duty 
which was assigned him, and always executed it speedily 
and thoroughly ; and was of course constantly resorted to 
for difficult services. Perhaps no individual in this vici- 
nity delivered so great a numl)er of pu])lic orations, medi- 
cal, political and literary. He possessed a physical consti- 
tution which promised a long as well as active life ; but 
his spirits being broken by unfortunate occurrences, his 
health in consequence became impaired. Two years be- 
fore his death his activity was paralyzed, his desire of life 
was extinguished, and at length on the third day of March, 
1820, he was struck with an apoplexy, which in two days 
after terminated his existence. 

BARTON, BENJAMIN SMITH, M. D. Professor in the 
University of Pennsylvania, was born at Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, February 10th, 1766. His mother was the sister 
of the celebrated philosopher, Rittcidio\ise. The deatli of 
his parents occasioned his lemoval in 1782 to the family 
of a brother in Philadelphia, where he spent several years 
in the study of literature, the sciences and medicine. In 
1786 he went to Great Britain, and prosecuted his uiediral 
studies at Edinl)uriih and London. He afterward visited 
Gottingen, and there obtained the dejjree of Doctor in 
Medicine. On returninfj to Philadelphia in 17S9, he es- 
ta])lished himself as a physician in that city, and his supe- 
rior talents and education soon ])rocured him competent 
employment. He was that year appoitited Professor of 
Natural History and Botany in the (College of Philadel- 



^^2 BE>fJAMm S. EARTOX. 

phia, and continued in the office on the incorporation of 
the college with the university in 1791. He was appoint- 
ed Prolbifsor of Materia Medica on tlie resignation of Dr. 
Griffiths, and on the deatli of Dr. Rush succeeded him in 
the department of the Tlieory and Practice of Medicine. 
He died December 19th, 1815. 

Dr. Barton was highly distinguished by his talents and 
professional attainments, and contril)uted much by his lec- 
tures and writings to the progress of natural science in the 
United States. He published " Elements of Zoology and 
Botany," in which he made respectable additions to the 
zoological science of our country, and displayed a degree 
of genius, diligence, learning and zeal in this pursuit, 
wliich do honor to our repvddic, and which bid fair to 
place him among tlie most accomplished and useful natur- 
alists of his time. In 1803 Dr. B. pu1)lished " Elements 
of Botany, or Outlines of the Natural History of Vegeta- 
bles, &c." He has the honor of being the first American 
who gave to his country an elementary work on Botany, 
and if Ave judge, says Dr. Miller in his Retrospect of the 
18th Century, of the subsequent harvest from the first 
fruits, it will be rich indeed. This work is illustrated by 
thirty plates, and discovers an extent of learning, an acute- 
ness and vigor of mind, and an elegance of taste, highly 
honorable to the author. Of the thirty plates which ac- 
company this work, twenty-eight have claims to more or 
less originality, and many of them are completely original. 
They are well executed ; and most of the subjects selected 
for delineation, are remarkable for their rarity, their beau- 
ty, or some other j)eculiarity of character. Every part of 
this work discovers that the author has not been contented 
with compiling the facts and opinions of his predecessors, 
but that he has accurately observed and thought for him- 
self. He will, therefore, no doubt, be pronounced by the 
best judges to have presented his countrymen with the 
most comprehensive and instructive work of this kind in 
the English language. 

Dr. B. published " Collections for an Essay towards a 
Materia Medica of the United States," which "^is the only 
work professedly on the subject of which it treats that hai 
at that time issued from the American press. In 1810 the 
author puljlished a third edition of this very valuable pro- 
duction. It is an original work of great merit, and was 
peculiarly acceptable to the public, as it brought into no- 



EDWARD BARTO:^. 163 

tice numerous medicinal remedies, the produce of our own 
soil, which hud been entirely ncpflected, but which have 
since luiiiuuMiled and enriched the American materia niedi- 
ca. Ill \^0b Dr. 13. commenced the pulilicatioii of the 
" Medical and Piiysical Journal," to which he contributed 
many valuable articles. 

As a naturalist, the merits of Dr. B. arc of no common 
kind ; and he has deservedly received a lar^e share of 
praise in Ids own and in foreign countiies for his many 
and successfid exertions in enlar<riiig the sphere of natural 
knowledge, lie j)ublished "• Fragments of the Natural 
History of Pennsylvania," " Essay on the Fascinating 
Power ascribed to Serjjents, &,c." and several memoirs on 
particular sj)ecimens in zoology in the American Piiilo- 
soplucal Transactions. In his new " Views of the Origin 
of the Tribes and Nations of America," will be found vo- 
cabularies of a number of Indian languages that were never 
before committed to the jjress ; comparing these with lan- 
guages more generally known, both on the eastern and 
western continents ; and thence deducing new evidence in 
support of the opiiuon that the nations of America and 
those of Asia have a common origin, and that all mankind 
are derived from a single pair. But the public have been 
called to lament his premature deatli, which took place in 
1815. " His various works evince a closeness of observa- 
tion, an accuracy of in(|uiry, an extent of learning, and a 
vi<Tor and comprehensiveness of mind, which are equally 
honorable to their j)Osses>or and to his country." 

In conclusion, it is but justice to observe that American 
science and literature are immensely indebted to the inde- 
fatigable labors of him whose memoirs we have now re- 
corded. — J\fillcr's Retrospect and sundry Doctnnentt. 

BARTON, EDWARD, iM. D. was a native of England. 
He came to the United States at an early period of life, 
under the immediate care and superintendence of the Ab- 
be Tisserant, a French gentleman of uncommon attain- 
ments, exemplary piety, and of peculiar sweetness of man- 
ners and disposition. To the parental care of this accom- 
plished scholar Barton was indebted for an excellent fomid- 
ation in classical learninff, which was built upon with sig- 
nal success. After the usual course of academic instruction, 
he passed some time, with great advantage to himsell and 
with usefulness to others, at the Roman Catholic Collejie 
at Bahimore, where hi« classical education may be consid- 
30 



154 EDWARD BARTON. 

ered as having been completed. His views relative to the 
business of life, were directed to the profession of medi- 
cine. He s})ent some months at Hanover, N. H. and at- 
tended a course of lectures delivercil by Dr. Smith. He 
came to Philadel])hia and, as an immediate pupil of Dr. 
Pliysick, passed tlirough the course of medical studies re- 
quired by the vmiversity, and received his degree with pe- 
culiar favor and approbation from his instructers. 

Soon after he Avas graduated Dr. Barton went to Europe, 
and devoted himself assiduously to the attainment of know- 
ledge in his profession, l)y means of all the advantages 
which he could command in Great Britain and France. 
He returned to the United States in a few years, and set- 
tled in Philadelphia for the purpose of practising physic 
and surgery. With the aid aH'orded by the kind and 
friendly patronage of a gentleman whose name is another 
name for benevolence, he was favorably introduced into 
this community ; and by means of the most diligent study 
and attention he fulfilled every expectation concerning him. 
His progress in the practice of his profession, though grad- 
ual, was such as convinced those Avho regarded him with 
kindness, that he was advancing with a certain march to 
distinction and usefulness. He had passed through the 
tedious and exhausting noviciate, which must be passed by 
every man of merit in his profession, and he was known 
with higli esteem by the most eminent of his medical breth- 
ren, and with favor by a respectable portion of this com- 
munity. At this moment, when, it may Avitli truth be 
said, the hopes of many were fixed upon him as calculated 
for signal usefulness, when he had already acquired some- 
thing of the strength and confidence of success, and when 
his ambition was most ardent, and his prospects most flat- 
tering, it pleased God to visit him wilh a pulmonary affec- 
tion, from which he and his friends apj^rehended his speedy 
dissolution. Under the advice of his friend and preceptor, 
Dr. Physick, he sailed from Philadelphia on the fourth 
day of August, 1821, for Lisbon, and from that port he 
went to Genoa, at which place his eyes were closed in 
death by the hands of strangers. 

It is believed by the friend who writes these lines, that 
few yotmg men have been removed by death, who were 
more entitled to be lamented, and whose loss could be re- 
garded as more truly severe upon the community, than the 
subject of this notice. We do not u,ndertake to speak from 



EU>VARD BARTON. 



155 



our own knowledge of his jjiofessional attainments ; hut 
we are authori/.od (Voni the known sentiments of those 
most conijutt'nt to jiulgr, to spc.ik of the in ;is unc o)nn;on 
for his period of life. We can sj)eak, and with the (Uep- 
est sincerity, of the manners and deportment of our fiiend 
in the chamher of disea-e ; they were all that all'ection and 
feelinjj couUl recpiiri* and prudence diitate. lie was viiii- 
lant, ten(U'r, untirin<r and fiithful to the last. Ills pnticnts 
will readily assent to the truth of our assertion, that he 
never spared himself, nor regarded iiimselias an ohje^t of 
thousfht, when his presence, his care, his watchings, could 
tend even to allay the anxiety of the sick. lie visited, 
Avith ecpial fidelity to the patient, the ahode of pove;ty 
and the man-ion of the rich ; and it may he allirmed with 
justice that he took jx'cidiar pleasure in his ministrations 
to the lowly ami the liumhle. His mind was of too lofty 
a character to suffer him to avail himself of adventitious 
circumstances to ohtain the favor of the community. He 
scorned even the apj)earance of seckinof to win thivt favor 
by anv other means than his merit ; and though sometimes 
inclined to (U'sj)on(U'n(V, hr confided for uUimate success 
in that just discrimination of talents, to which alone the 
professional man who has duly qualified himself for his 
business, can look, as the sure foundation of his hopes. 
The friends of Dr. Barton only can speak of him in the 
character of a friend ; and they, if tiiey did justice to his 
memory, would probably incur the chariic of extrava- 
gance. We will venture to assert tliat the imj)ressions 
which he made uj)on the hearts of those who were in the 
enjoyment of his friendship, will never be effaced. It is 
most consolintj to those who immediately feel the loss of 
this young man, and must be irrateful to all to whom it 
may be known, that in the latter staiics of life his impres- 
sions of the solemnity of tin' c haiiuc which he was about to 
make, were deej) and affectiuii. He was enabled to look 
back upon the toil and trials, through which he had jiass- 
ed to the very verge of eminence and usefulness, without a 
pang of rcLjret : he was enabled to contemplate the fading 
of earthly prosj.ects and promises with comi)Osnre ; be- 
cau-e lie was enabled to look forward to the scenes of an 
immortal existence with hope and with joy. His friends 
have suffered a bitter loss : tliis community has suffered a 
loss : but he has, we humbly trust, mad<' that exchange 
which is infinite gain. 



156 RlCHAnD BATLET. 

The above memoir has been taken from the Philadel- 
phia Journal of the Medical and Pliysical Sciences, edited 
by the learned Professor Chapman, wJio in a note to the 
above gives the following addition. " We cannot let the 
above obituary notice, Avhicli has been executed by the 
hand of kindness, be committed to our pages, without 
bearing testimony to the truth and fidelity with which the 
character and attainments of our deceased friend have 
been delineated. It was our good fortune very early to 
have becojne acquainted with Dr. Barton, and the relation 
of preceptor and pupil Avas soon ripened into the more in- 
timate connexion of a cordial friendship. He was a man 
of no ordinary talents, highly cultivated by a liberal edu- 
cation, of great proficiency in his profession, and with that 
excpiisite sense of honor which feels ' a stain like a 
wound.' Deeply conversant with medical literature, he 
lent to this journal his ready support, and contributed to 
it some of its most valuable articles. By the energies of a 
determined spirit he pushed on in ' sickness and in sor- 
row,' and though retarded by other trials and difficulties, 
had already won hisAvay to a very enviable degree of emi- 
nence, when it pleased his God to dash the hopes of his 
friends and his OAvn bright prospects, by the termination 
of his earthly career." — Philadelphia Journal of Medical and 
Physical Sciences, Vol. 5. 

BAYLEY, RICHARD, of New-York. The subject of 
the following sketch has long since received at the hands 
of French pathologists the credit so justly his due ; but in 
his own country, excepting some few brief and detached 
notices by sucli as from personal knowledge were enabled 
to speak of him as he was, nothing has been known of him 
to the profession in general. 

It is Avith feelings of regret that Ave find ourseh'es crip- 
pled by a Avant of facts in a biography, Avhich to the phi- 
lanthropiht and physician must neces-sarily have been pecu- 
liarly interesting, and to the student most instructive. But 
small as are tlie materials, AA'e cannot consent to their loss, 
nor force ourselves to believe that the name of Bayley is 
to be lost from the records of American physicians and 
surgeons, when his practice and obserA^ations did so much, 
and at so early a period, to bring their profession honora- 
bly before foreigners. 

Richard Bayley AA'as born at Fairfield, Connecticut, in 
the year 1745 : his father Ava« of English and his mother 



RICHARD BAYLET. 157 

of French descent. From this connexion on the mollier's 
side and the rosiihuico of his pnieiits amongst the French 
protcstant emigrants at New Uoc hcile, N. V. yonnji; Hayley 
was early faiuiliarizcil with the J'^rcnch hm<!;uajr(', to wliicli 
was adtled an actiuaiiitance witii the Latin chis-sics whii h 
the constant occnj)ation of his after life j)revented him 
from renewing or continuing. How his youth Avas pas^t'd 
is ludvuown. Althouuli some degree of uncertaiiitv rests 
U])on our chitcs throuuhout, still a multitucU' of colhitcral 
events tend to prove that the extent of thai uncertaintv is 
comprised within a very few months antecedent or poste- 
rior to the time assumed. In 17GG, when ahout twenty 
years of age, we find him engaged as a student of medicine 
uniler Dr. Charlton, a nuich respected })hysician of the day. 
Havinii completed his studies to the ])erfect satisfaction of 
his j)reccptor, by his advice he determined to avail him>elf 
of the l)enefits of the London lectures and hosj)itals, 
whither he went in 1769 or 70, having j)reviously married 
Miss Charlton, the sister of his instructer. 

In London he aj)])ears to have excited tiie attention of 
his instructers by his industry, ])eiseverance and dexterity : 
for in a letter to his wife, written at this period, he says, 
" The Anatomist Dr. Hunter gives me great encourage- 
ment, and thinks that by applying myself closely to ana- 
tomy and the operative j)art of surgery this winter (1770), 
which I shall have entirely at my power in his dissecting 
rooms, and after that to be punctual next summer in my 
attendance on the hospit.ds, I may with case (|nalily my- 
self for a practitioner in surgery in any j)art of the world;" 
adding in the fullness of confidential intercourse " I will 
mention to you that they tell me I have a very uncommon 
dexteritv with the knife, but this LoTidon is a sad j)lace for 
fl.atterv." llavinu remained at Lon(U)n a year oi* two, he 
returiu (1 to Psew-Vork in HTi, and commenced jtractice 
in coimexion with Dr. Chailton. 

At this period his attention was first drawn to the then 
prevalent and fatal* croup ; a disease of which so little was 
known that men of hiiih character and good education 
confounded it (])eriiaps from its fret|uent comjjlii ation with 
that disorder) with putrid sore throat, and thus, overlook- 
ing its inllammatory character, treated it witli due regard 
to the still immortal phantom, putrescency, until extinc- 

• Michaelip ft«te<i that until H.ivIpv's active treatment wat adopted on* half of 
all »ffect»d died.— 5i6. Chi. dt Richter. 



158 RICHARD BAYLEY. 

tion of life gave full play to a physical demonstration of 
its existence. How such an error could have been in- 
dulged by the observant Bard, we cannot understand ; but 
are willing to receive his e.vcuse even at the hands of a 
foreigner, who after remarking that " L'ouvrage de Bard 
n'apprend rien de precis sur le sief^e du croup, et que I'opin- 
ion de ce medecin sur la nature de cette maladie est 
fausse,"* thus proceeds, " Mais Ics circonstances dans les- 
quelles se trouvait S. Baid lorsqu'il a ccrit sur le croup, 
excusent, en quelque sorte, I'opinion erronee qu'il a mani- 
festt'e sur la nature de cette maladie ; l'ouvrage de Home 
venait de paroitre ; Thumorisme regnait encore. Home 
avait cu occasion de voir le croup simple en Angleterre ; 
Bard Tobserva en Amerique complique d'angine couen- 
neu^e trts intense. C'est pour ces raisons, sans doute, qu'il 
attribue cette maladie a la putridite, et lorsqu'il observe 
des phenomenes inflammatoires, il en trouve la cause dans 
un genie malin qu'il combat par les mercuriaux a haute 
dose."f Such indeed were the prevalent opinions at the 
period when Bayley's attention was first drawn to this dis- 
ease, which was in April, 1774, when he saw a child perish 
in thirty-six hours under the use of stimulants and antisep- 
tics. Another case soon presented itself with a like result; 
this he obtained permission to examine, and found an ashy 
mucus lying upon the palate and tonsils, beneath which 
covering the lining membrane was found entire, without 
abrasion, but highly inflamed and gorged with blood. 
The trachea was lined with an adventitious membrane of 
extraordinary tenacity, which extended into the broncliial 
tubes, where it gradually changed into a glairy mucus. 
Such is his own record of the case. A few days after this 
examination he saw another child whose voice was loud 
and Jioarse, wiih sore throat, and ulcers visible upon the 
tonsils ; this case terminated fatally upon the seventh day. 
This case was also examined by Bayley, who found the 
tonsils and the palate both involved in a slough, but no 
marks of inflammation, nor any membranous deposit in the 
trachea. Comparing these two cases in his own mind, 
and reflecting upon their morbid ap])earances, he was con- 
vinced that tliere were two distinct diseases prevalent, the 
one of a highly inflammatory character, the other less so ; 
which diseases might be complicated the one with the 

* DesniellBS Traite du Croup, p. 105. 
t DssruclUs Traitc, p. 135. 



RICHARD BAYLEV. 159 

other, and even when s^o complicated rcqniring j[rreatrr en- 
ergy of troatiuent than Avas then m'licrally recommended ; 
for, as has hcen statetl, tlie j)nl)lic mind had heen mishnl in 
a treatise of the day* hy the antlior's coidounding the two 
dise,is(>s ; and yet with the accuracy of the dissections 
which lie appears to have ma(U% how he couM have fallen 
into an error so fital,t is diilicwlt to conceive ; not inten- 
tionally, clearly, for when the treatment of Bay ley, of 
which we shall speak, hecame so decidedly successful, 
Bard with honorable regard to truth rejected his own 
views and ad()])ted those of Bayley.:}: Bard's dissections, 
as Bayley remarks, show croiij) in its simple state, and as 
complicated with the putrid sore throat and sloughs ; 
"which slouglis, as they were termed, were not in croup 
strictly such, for tlierc was no membranous abrasion 
heneath, and no ulcers ; they might be wiped off, and the 
lining membrane woidd appear whole, thou<iij gorned with 
blood ; therefore Bayley inferred that they were adven- 
titious or newly formed parts of hardened mucus oi' in- 
spissated lymph, adding the following passag<; on the 
pathology of croup, which is the more remarkable as 
ivQ^n dates it is evidently antecedent to any other author. 
'^ When Angina Trachealis" says Bayley " is theoretically 
considered, there Avill j)rol)al)ly be formed, as is generally 
the case when facts are not ascertained, oj)inions as various 
as the information and different faculties of men may sug- 
gest — I am induced to adopt the following; : 

" That the larynx, trachea and bronchial jiipeshave one 
common membrane, which we are informed l)y injection 
consists of little more than an infinity of blood vessels, 
and is consecpiently liable to inllammation, as all vascular 
parts are. An increased action of these vessels, as in pleu- 
ritic and ])uerperal fevers, occasions a preternatural secre- 
tion of lymph, which from the ingress and egress of air 
becomes condensed and assumes the appearance of a mem- 
brane, whose comj)actness will dej)end upon the use and 
liabit of the ])atient, the violenct of the inflammation and 
the state of the atmosphere. 

* BarH'i Essay on Angina Siiffbcativn. 

t Hard on rapport a la putriilitc dii Croup administrc Ics Antiscptiques ct pprd 
beaucoup dr. maladu. — Lettrei de MichatU* a Richler. Journal Gen. de Mtd. 
t. 35, p. 44.5. 

X Ccpoml.inl ce dernior aiitcur (Bard) frappc do non siicrcs de la mothodc adopla 
cello do B.iyloy. — DrtrMtlltt Trait f, p. 296 an the authority of MirhaeliM. Al'o 
Valentin titr Croup. 



160 RICHARD BAYLET. 

" The common opinion is that they who die of tliis com- 
plaint, are suffocated by the mejnhraiie's closing the wind- 
pipe. Another jnoie respectable opinion is that a spasm 
of tlie muscles of the larynx closes the scene. The cir- 
cumstances which precede death in this disease, compared 
with those appearances which have rei^ularly taken place 
in the cases which I liave seen successfully treated, explain 
the cau?e of tlie patient's death from the laws of the 
blood's circulation. To preserve the healthful state of an 
animal, it is necessary that the whole mass of blood should 
circulate through the luno;s in a given time ; the free ad- 
mission and expulsion of air contributes to this regular 
process ; the change, also, Avhich grachially takes place in 
the lungs, seems more diiectly to account for the swelled 
face, tumid jugulars and tlie full staring eyes, M'liich are 
the symptoms that accompany the progress of this com- 
plaint ; and add to this that the larynx, trachea, and bron- 
chia have been found pervious in every subject I liave 
dissected, whilst their ramifications have been as regulai^ly 
filled with a glairy mucus."* 

Nothing can be more explicit or more accurate than the 
above, wliether we consider it as to its pathology, or as 
giving in very clear terms the cause of death so long re- 
ferred, and even at no very distant period, to suffocation 
from membranous obstruction of the trachea. 

Such was the view of croup taken by Bayley in the 
years 1774 and 5, although not published by him until 
several years after, as he was always particularly careful 
to have his facts well weighed before he hazarded tliem in 
print : and it is a singular fact that Bayley's opinions on 
this disease, and his successful practice in coui^onance to 
those opinions, were published in Richter's Surgical Re- 
pository several years antecedent to the appearance of his 
own letter on croup. These opinions were conveyed in 
the letters of Michaelis, the distinguished chief of the Hes- 
sian Medical Staff, whose celebrated dissert ationf on this 
subject had yet to be improved by observations in America 
derived from the views, practice and dissections of an Amer- 
ican surgeon. It is no less true than honorable, that to 
Richard Bayley did his friend, the celebrated Michaelis, 
yield up his own opinions of the croup ; and with a candor 

* Med. Rep. vol. 14, p. 346, Bayley's paraphlst. 
t De Angina polyposa sive membranacea. 



KICHARD BAYLCr. 161 

and love of truth so characteristic of a scientific man, the 
titled authority, as he then was, u(k)ptr(l the opinions and 
practice of a young American j)liy.»ician, tiic unknown 
Day ley. 

After Iiavini^ thus distinguished himself, Baylcy in the 
autunm of 1775 revisited En<rlan(l, to avail liimstlf ol the 
aid of Hunter and liis collection. His conversations with 
that dislin<]juished man led to a request that Bavley's 
observations and dissections mii^ht be placed before tlic 
public : wliich finally, in 1781, nine years after his oj)in- 
ions were first formed and after they had fully stood the 
test of experience, was done in the form of a letter to Dr. 
Hunter, wliich notwithstanding its merits would long 
since have perished but for tiie treasury of the American 
Medical Repository. Bayley spent a winter in London, 
where he was busied in studies, dissections and compari- 
sons xipon the merits of different modes of treatment and 
views of disease as evinced in Loiulon and Edinburgli, 
whicii resulted in a preference of the former.* 

In the spring of 1776 he returned to New-York in the 
capacity of surgeon in tlie English army under Howe. 
This was a step of neressity rather than of inclination, as 
the sequel proves. For like genius in every clime, Bavley 
was poor ; aiul the necessity of a lovely wife and beloved 
children, will often dictate a course which sober reason 
might not approve. In the fall of this year he proceeded 
with the fleet and a detachment of five or six thousand 
troops wlikJi took possession of Newport, Rhode-Island, 
and was there established as hospital surgeon of that po^t. 
His wife being then at New-York and in delicate health, 
his desires and affections strongly coincided to induce a 
return to that city ; but the sternness of military law 
yields not to the entreaties of private affection, whilst the 
duties of the station forbade even a short furlough. Under 
these circumstances, his wife being in an exposed citv, ill 
and dependant upbn the charity of strangers, the very 
object of his exertions was lost ; and in addition he learned 
with mortification that, under a certain term of service, 
not even a half pay establishment, the object of his enter- 
ing the service, could be expected. His ardent mind ex- 
cited by anxiety aivd distress saw but one alternative left, 
viz. resignation ; he accordingly threw up his commis- 

* Vide MS. letter ofEdnvd Siovena to Baj'U/. 

21 



162 RICHARD BATLEY. 

sion, and returned to New-York in the spring of 1777, just 
in time to receive a last pledge of aflection from his expir- 
ing wife. 

A new scene now opened upon him. Beloved by his 
former officers, and esteemed by his fellow citizens, he 
seemed to be fast gaining repu*tation and comfort ; whilst 
the influence he possessed with the several commanding 
officers, was often exerted in saving the lives and rescuing 
the property of his absent friends and fellow citizens from 
confiscation or destruction. About this period the croup 
again made its appearance, and Bayley adopted his old 
method of treatment, still however instituting post mor- 
tem examinations ; one of which in particular, as being 
very decidedly characteristic of Bayley's views, was 
shown to Michaelis, and was one of the causes that indue- 
ed the latter to adopt Bayley's opinion of its highly in- 
flammatory character. Three years afterwards, viz. 1781^ 
his " Letter," was published recommending venesection ad 
deliquium and from the jugular vein, blisters to the throat, 
antimony to nauseate and occasionally pushed to emesis, 
and calomel and enemata as evacuants and alteratives of 
secretion. It was added in a postcript, " That as a recent 
publication dissuades from venesection in the advanced 
stage from a fear of its putrid tendency, he would state 
that unless ulcers accompany it, there is no fear of putres- 
cency, dissections proving the inflammatory action of the 
trachea and bronchia and its fatality in the inflammatory 
stage." 

Appended to Bayley's tract is a very interesting and 
valuable letter to him from that gentleman and scholar^ 
Dr. Middleton, bearing date November 30th, 1780, in 
which, after adverting to their frequent previous conver- 
sations upon the subject, he fully coincides with Bayley's 
view of the inflammatory nature of the disease, and the 
efficiency of the prompt remedial applications by him re- 
commended. It is remarkable, however, in this letter of 
Middleton that nothing is said of emetics ; for it was not 
to his bold and extensive venesection alone, that Bayley 
was indebted for success in croup ; he constantly and effi- 
ciently employed emetics, generally however premising 
venesection ; because, in addition to the rapidly inflam- 
matory progress of the disease, he had once observed an 
emetic to produce convulsions from a want of such pre- 
liminary treatmei>t. 



RICHARD BATLET. 163 

All things then considered, it is to Richard Baylcy that 
we are indebted for our present active and sncres^l'urniode 
of treatment in cronp ; and this method lie adopted con- 
trary to popnlar o|)ini()n and in tlie teeth of j)roles>ional 
disaj)prol)ation, for lie knew that there was but one nnerr- 
injT record of disease, viz. Pathology, and that taught him 
the luiihly inflannnatory character oVcronj). 

Indeed such was Hayley's attention to m()rl)id anatomy 
and intiM-nal pathology, that it iKHame the subject of in- 
vitlious objeition to him l)y some of his narrow minded 
contemporaries, who circulated a report that during his 
winter residence at Newport he was in the hal)it of cut- 
ting up his patients, and performing cruel experiments 
upon the sick soldiery. 

But IJayley was not only assiduous in cultivating know- 
ledge ; he^wa-s likewise disposed to impart it ; and so 
early as 1787 he delivered lectures, in a then unoccupied 
edifice since converted into the New-York Hospital, upon 
surgery, whilst his son-in-law Dr. Wrijiht Post, so distin- 
guished by his subclavian operation, lectured uj)on ana- 
tomy. In the year 17S8, however, in consecpience of 
imprudence on the part of some students, the populace 
became excited against the profession, and the celebrated 
*' Doctors' Mob" broke into the building, especially in its 
south wing, where they found Bayley's alreadv valuable 
cabinet, which Avas forthwith hea})ed into carts, carried 
forth and trinm])hantly buried ; a loss which is the more 
to be regretted, as in addition to a rare collection in mor- 
bid anatomy, of which sj)ecimens he had the particular 
histories, there \vere some extremely delicate preparations 
which evinced his anatomical dextc'ritv, as strikingly as 
the former illustrated the accuracy of his ])at]iorogical 
])rofnieiu'V. 

In the spring of 1792 the Faculty of CoInmI)ia College, 
in conformity with their charter privileges, deeming it 
expedient to erect a medical faculty elected both Bayley 
and Post as professors, the former of Anatomv, and the 
latter of Surcery ; Imt as Dr. Post rej)aire(l inunediatelv 
to London, Bayley dis( barged the chitiis of ho[]i profess- 
orshijx during the winter of 1792 and ;J. Po>t, however, 
returnin«r in the fall of 1 793 asstnne.j the anatomical chair, 
whilst Bayley took his favorite subject, surgery, in which 
he was certainly distiuLTuished as a clear, precise and 
practical lecturer ; for his surgery was not theoretical nor 



164 RICHARD BATLET. 

founded upon reading and authorities, but was the result 
of experience and observation. In addition to being a 
most experienced and successful lithotomist, notwithstand- 
ing his constant use of Hawkins' gorget, he also in the 
year 1 782 successfully removed the arm from its glenoid 
cavity by the operation of the shoulder joint ; an operation 
at which Dr. Post, then a student, assisted ; and which, 
as far as it has been in our power to examine, is the first 
instance of its being practised in the United States, and 
among the first of its proving completely successfnl in 
any country. As an optician, a department of surgery 
then as little known as it lias latterly been widely estab- 
lished through the country by the creditable exertions of 
two gentlemen whom we are gratified to claim as fellow 
citizens,* he gained deserved celebrity ; whilst his general 
preference of extraction above depression of the lens in 
cataract, sufficiently indicates his sound judgment and 
ready skill. 

Devoted to his profession, he left no individual exertion 
unemployed to elevate its character and give permanence 
to its utility ; hence he was one of the earliest promoters 
of the New-York Dispensary, as is evinced by his corres- 
pondence on that subject with Dr. Bard. To him, then, 
amongst others are we to ascribe the benefits of that Avell 
conducted charity, whose exertions are limited only by a 
want which in a city like New-York is of all others the 
most disgraceful, a want of funds. 

Soon after the war of the revolution, that scourge of 
unclean places, yellow fever, appeared among our cities. 
Its fatality clothed it with all the mysticism implied in the 
often used though still little understood terms of Conta- 
gion, Infection and Pestilence, until the populace became 
so excited with these chimeras of terrific and mysterious 
influence, that an attack of this fever became a death war- 
rant to the patient ; from whose presence or proximity 
physicians, nurses, friends and relatives fled, leaving the 
sufferer's last hope to be extinguished by the desertion of 
all whose assiduities and attentions might have soothed at 
least, if not prevented, his hour of doom. But during this 
period of alarm Bayley stood firm and undismayed : 
busied in giving personal attentions to the sick, he became 
practically familiar with the disease and its more success- 

* ProfosBor Edward Delafield and Dr. J. K. Rogers, of New-York. 



RICHARD BAYLLf. IG5 

ful rem'^dial applications. Not satisfied with this, lie 
investigated its causation, and in July 2(Jth, HOG, he 
writes to tiie Rev. R. C. Moore in reply to a letter from 
that geiitkinan intpiiriiig if lie njight with safety return to 
the city, that he might so return to the district in whith 
that gentleman resided, as the dock fever, as he termed it, 
was a murderer of our own creating, wIiojc origin is local 
and referriMe to the recent filling in of docks with filth, 
ofllids, the carcases of horses, &.c. iLc. afilirming " that when 
a more rigid police prevails to free the city from nui- 
sances, no more will he heard of particular diseases." 

In 171)7 he puhlished his Avork " on Yellow Fever," 
wherein he is at great j)ains to give distinctiveness to the 
terms Contagion and Infection, saying " By contagion we 
underst md something peculiar and specific, poss^essing 
properties essentially different from any thing else, e. g. 
measles, small})OX, &.c. not requiring the concurrence 
of certain causes to render them contagious ; they are so 
under all circumstances. But other diseases may or may 
not be infectious, according to the conditional state in 
whi(h tliey are j)laced."* In tlie same essays he adchices 
the strongest te>timony of its local origin. Indeed so 
strong was his belief upon this point, and so clear and 
just his conce])tions of the causes pioducing it, that he 
predicted the very spot where it afterward appeared in 
the year 1799. This work of Bayley's, now little known 
except to his contemporaries, is written in a concise, plain 
and nervous style, with a lucid and methodic arrangement 
of facts, whence his deductions leave it free for every read- 
er to Judge how fir the one may justify the other : it is 
a work j)urely practical, the fruit of a painful and hazard- 
ous experience in the disease, which he most uuhesitat- 
inirly pronounces not contagious, an o])iiiion, jjrofessorial 
dicta to the contrary notwithstanding, which he never 
pubse(|uently saw reason to alter or modify, and which has 
now become tiie opinion of the impartial practitioners of 
every clime. His remarks upon the condition of the 
atmosphere and its remarkal)le deficiency of eledricity 
combined with excessive humidity, as illustrated by the 
observations of Mr. Gardiner Baker at the nniseuni, are 
highly curious and valuable, and strongly tend to corrobo- 
rate his views and opinions. 



• Em*j on Yellow F»T«r, p. 38. 



166 RICHARD BAYLEY. 

Not satisfied with this exposition of his opinion and 
practice, and having in 1795 or 6 been appointed Health 
Physician to the port of New-York, he in 1798 published 
*' Letters from the Health Office submitted to the New- 
York Common Council," being a series of letters in the 
years '96 — 7 and 8 ; one letter, dated December 4th, 1798, 
assigns his reasons wliy the fever of '98 was more exten- 
sively prevalent than in '95 — 6 or 7, which refer to the 
excessive rains flooding large portions of the city, its low 
levels, neAV made ground and a hot sun. 

In this same year, 1798, a correspondence took place be- 
tween Governor Mifflin, of Pennsylvania, and the Phila- 
delphia College of Physicians, and afterward between the 
city of Philadelphia and the city of New-York. In the 
course of this a proposition was made by the Philadelphia 
committee to the committee of New-York, soliciting their 
co-operation in a memorial to the general government for 
a Quarantine Law, in which, amongst other clauses, one 
amountinor to the total exclusion of all West India com- 
merce, or a non-intercourse act for the summer months, 
was proposed ; but it was objected to by the New-York 
committee. A modified memorial was, however, jointly 
presented to the Congress of the United States, for the pass- 
age of some general Quarantine Regulations. This exact- 
ly suited Bay ley, who served on one of the New-York 
committees, for he had been long and ardently engaged 
winter after winter at the capitol of New-York, seeking 
the adoption and enactment of certain regulations proposed 
by him ; and he in fact is the person to whom we are chief- 
ly indebted for our State Quarantine Laws, although they 
have been since altered and amended. Accordingly Bay- 
ley seized this opportunity of impressing upon the general 
government the propriety of a quarantine establishment 
or lazaretto below and at a distance from the city, or port 
of entry, where suspected vessels might be brought to an- 
chor, examined, suffered to pass on if deemed proper, or 
imladen, ventilated and purified ; the sick removed from 
their confined situation on ship lioard, and comfortably 
established in a well appointed hospital, &c. &c. 

Accordingly this joint petition was granted by the pass- 
age of the Act of 1799. In November of that year Bay- 
ley addressed a letter to Governor Jay upon the fever of 
1798, in which, after referring to his pamphlet on the fe- 
ver of 1795, and recapitulating its local causes, he remarks 



RICHARD BAYLCr. 167 

that cool weather, thTindcr and rain suspeiKleil it for a 
time, and that its extension from its sonne was in the di- 
rection of tho i)rov;deMt winds ; addini; tliat moist weather 
not only predisposes to the causation of this disease, but 
also predisposes the constitution to he more easily acted 
upon by it, whilst in a hot dry air there is less liahility to 
Its spreadinjj, as it then recpiires persons to be innucnced 
af the i)la(e where the excitinjr cause is most concent rate, 
spreadii.ir very little beyond that point. He concludes by 
dwellinjr on the importance of be iM<r aware of its local ori- 
gin, in order to remedy it by the adoption of suitable and 
efficient means ; and he particularly animadverts upon the 
then prevalent mode of makincr new ground, and states 
that, in a district which suH'ered under this condition, af- 
ter covering the surface with a few feet of fresh and good 
earth the fever soon began to abate, the weather remiiinincr 
unchanged. Human contagion he denies, adducing as a 
proof that there was no instance of a nurse or attendant in 
the hospitals taking the disease ; but that it may be con- 
veyed by goods or foinites, as they arc technically termed, 
he gives an instance by statincr that, when tiie liosj)ital at 
Bedlow's Ishuul was first opened, for want of proper bed- 
ding, &c. the old ones which had that summer been used 
for fever patients, had been brought unventilated from 
Bellevue to it, and that such as were encjaged in their 
transportation, and the nurses who received and arranged 
them, fell a sacrifice to the disease ; but every tliintr w-ent 
on well after their destruction and purification. * 

But the period had now arrived when Bayley Avas to 
end a life of active utility upon the very spot aiid in the 
very cause where his labors had been so 'extensively bene- 
ficial to his profession and to humanity. In the discharcre 
of his duty as Health Physician in Auir„st, 1801, he dirert- 
ed the passengers and crew of an Irish emicrrant ship with 
ship f,.vcr to ffo on shore to the rooms and tents ai)j)ointed 
lor them, leaving their i)a<Tgage behind. This was in the 
evening ; early the foUowiiifr morning upon froinfr to the 
Hospital he found that his orders had been disolu'ved ; 
an( that crew and passengers, men, women and children, 
well, sick and dyinii, ^vith all their bag era rre, were huddled 
together in one apartment, where thev had passed the 
nicht. Into this apartment, before it had been ventilated, 
he imprudently entered and remained but a moment • be- 
ing compelled to retire l)y the most dcadlv sicknesi at 



WILLIAM EAYNHAM. 

stomach and intense pain in the head, wliich seized him 
immediately upon entering the apartment. Returning home 
he retired to bed, and in the afternoon of the seventh day 
following he expired, leaving behind him a high character 
as a clinically instructed physician, an excellent and bold 
operator, a prompt practitioner, of rapid diagnosis and 
unhesitating decision. In demeanor a perfect gentleman ; 
honest and chivalrously honorable ; of perfect integrity, 
and therefore little tolerant of obliquity in others ; ever 
ready to serve the cause of his profession ; inflexible in 
his attachments ; invincible in his dislikes, and unbrooking 
of insult : in temper fiery, yet suddenly cool ; a fault which 
he knew and regretted ; thoroughly fearless, somewhat 
too strongly partial to certain patients, but withal chari- 
table to a fault. — MS. Letter to the Author. 

BAYNHAM, WILLIAM, ESQ. Surgeon, was the son 
of Dr. John Baynham of Caroline County, Virginia, and 
was born December 1749. After having devoted five years 
of his early life to acqviiring the elements of his profession 
\mder the auspices of Dr. Walker, at that time considered 
as one of the most eminent surgeons in America, and thus 
by a regular and laborious apprenticeship laid that founda- 
tion for future eminence, which unfortunately by too many 
is deemed unnecessary, he was sent by his parents or guard- 
ians to complete his education in London in 1769, where 
he entered as a student at St. Thomas's Hospital. 

Here he soon acquired the notice of Mr. Else, the Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, which ripened into a reciprocal attach- 
ment that continued through life. Under his direction he 
became particularly attached to the study of anatomy and 
surgery, and by application and perseverance he soon ac- 
quired a complete knowledge of both these departments of 
science. He Avas remarkable for unwearied and minute 
attention and diligence in every thing he attempted, and 
thereby ensured success if at all attainable. As a proof of 
his early anatomical knowledge it may be mentioned that 
he was employed in 1772 by the Professor of Anatomy at 
Cambridge to dissect and prepare the subjects for his lec- 
tures. Mr. Baynham continued to assist the Professor in 
his dissections, &c. for several winters, and in the remain- 
ing part of the year was a partner of Mr. Slater, an emi- 
nent surgeon of Margate, which was a very profitable and 
agreeable connexion, as appears from some observations in 
Mr. Baynham's own hand writing. Whilst he was in thi« 



WILLIi^M BAYNHAM. 169 

situation he received an invitation from Mr. Else, the dis- 
tinguished Professor of Anatomy at St. Thomas's, to re- 
turn to London and become his assistant demonstrator. 
A proposition so flattering and apparently so advantageous, 
was immediately acceded to by Mr. Baynham, Avith the con 
sent of Mr. Slater, who, however, wishing to retain him, 
offered liim an equal share in the partnership. 

Mr. Baynham engaged with Mr. Else on the following 
terms : he was to superintend the anatomical theatre and 
dissecting room, prepare the bodies for his public demon- 
strations, make preparations for the museum, and to instruct 
the pupils in the arts of dissecting, injecting, making ana- 
tomical preparations, &c. with a salary of eighty and nine- 
ty pounds the two first years, and one hundred pounds a 
year for five succeeding years ; at the expiration of which 
(having qualified himself in the interim for the office) Mr. 
Else was to relinquish to him the professor's chair, or to 
take him as joint professor on equal terms, as he (Mr. 
Baynham) might choose. Having returned to St. Thomas's 
he pursued his occupation with unremitted assiduity, and 
thereby acquired that minute knowledge of anatomy for 
which he was so justly celebrated. He prepared for the 
museum more than three times the number of rare and 
valuable preparations which he found there. Their con- 
nexion continued five years, at the end of which time Mr. 
Else died suddenly of an apoplexy, without making any 
preparation for him as his successor. Mr. Baynham was 
even an entire stranger to the governors of the Hospital, 
in whom was vested the power of appointing a successor 
to the late professor. His reputation as an anatomist and 
surgeon, hoAvever, was so Avell established, that when the 
election was made his opponent obtained the appointment 
by one vote only, and that because two of Mr. Baynham's 
friends Avere absent. 

Mr. Else bequeathed to him the museum by his Avill at 
the price of six hundred pounds, Avhich he afterAvards sold 
to Mr. Cline, Avho obtained the aj)pointment, for eiffht 
hundred pounds ; reserving to himself some very beautiful 
and valuable preparations Avhich Avere on hand and unfin- 
ished at the time, and which with others occasionally made 
by himself, were sold for one hundred guineas to Mr. 
Blizard, Professor of Anatomy in the London hospital. 
Among these Avas a very fine preparation of a testis, beau- 
tifully injected, which satisfactorily df^rlded the lon§ din- 
22 



170 WILLIAM BAYNHAM. 

puted question between Else, Pott, Hunter, and others, 
whether in the operation for hydrocele by caustic as per- 
formed by Else tliC cure was ellectcil by adhesion, or by a 
total dei^trut tion of the tunica vaginalis, as was asserted by 
Else. In this case the caustic was applied in his ordinary 
way by Mr. Else, and, the patient having died of another 
disease, Mr. Baynham dissected out the parts and injected 
them by the spermatic artery with a very fine injection 
colored with vermilion. The tunica vaginalis was much 
tliickencd, l)ut otherwise perfectly sound in every part, 
except where the caustic had acted ; and every appearance 
clearly demonstrated the actual existence of what Mr. 
Hunter termed adhesive inflammation and, conjointly with 
the aj)pearance of soundness in the tunica vaginalis, estab- 
lished the fact beyond a doubt, that the cure is perform- 
ed by adhesion and not by the destruction of the sack. 

Mr. Baynham injected and demonstrated a fine vascular 
membrane on the surface of the cutis immediately under 
the rete mucosum, separate and distinct from the cutis and 
capable of separation from it throughout its whole extent. 
Dr. William Hunter was satisfied of this fact from the pre- 
parations which were made and shown to him, expressing 
his surprise by saying, " what have we been doing so long, 
that we never observed this before .'"' Mr. Cruikshanks was 
then about to publish his observations on the absorbents, 
and proposed to attach an account of this discovery to his 
book, which was agreed to ; and in that book is the only 
notice of it which the writer of this has seen, except one 
apparently taken from the same source in Wistar's Anato- 
my. The account given by Cruikshanks is a gross mis- 
representation, and an attempt to confound this with that 
part of the cutis he had been operatinjsf^upon to discover the 
seat of the variolous pustules. He presented a copy of this 
work to Mr. Baynham, which has on its margin various 
remarks in his (Mr. Baynham's) writing, expressing his 
indignation against the author for so doing, and clearly 
marking wliat he ought to have j)ul)lished. This mem- 
brane explains the seat and appearance of erysipelatous in- 
flammation, the cure of it l)y blistering, and the probabili- 
ty that scarification throiigli this membrane would arrest 
its progress, and accounts for the progress of superficial 
gangrene being stojjped by a blister applied above it. 

On the 7th day of June, 1781, Mr. Baynham became a 
member of the company of surgeons of London (which is 



W'lrHAM DAVNHAM. 171 

to the surpjeon what the degree of M. D. is to the physician) 

and rominrncod the praclico of sur^rry in London, and 
])rol)al)ly continued to do so while he remained in (hat city. 
Having resided sixteen years in England, Mr. Baynha n 
returned to his native country, and shortly after settled in 
Essex, where he contiinied until his death, which took 
place on theSth of l)e<«Mid)er, IHl 1, liiiviiiir the day hefo e 
conij)lete(l tlu> Glith year of a life which had hetn actively 
and usefully spejit in the j)ursuit of a hihorious prole-sion 
and in the service of his fellow creatures. It is not to hv 
wondered at that having laid such a solid foundation, and 
brouiiht with hitn so di^tinfJuished a reputation, he should 
immediately obtain an extensive practice, and support and 
even augment his celelirity. To enumerate the difl'erent 
operations upon which his re])utation rested, would he 
suj)errtnons ; many arc already known to the public, and 
especially to medical men. There is scarcely any tlifhcult 
operation in surgery which he did not perform, and with 
almost invarial)le success. He particularly sitrnalizetl him- 
self hv several ojierations for stone, cataract and extra-ute- 
rine conce])tion. A detailed account of a case of the latter 
may !)e wen hv reference to the New-Vork Medical an. I 
Surgical Journal. 

It is no sinall proof of the siiperior merit of Mr. Bayn- 
ham, tliat, nolwithstandinij (he obscure and confined thea- 
tre of his practice, his talents hitlden as (hey were in some 
measure from (he public eye by the seclusion of a country 
life, and restricted l)y a limited po|)ulation, he acquinil a 
reputation tpiite as spleuditlaml almost as extensive as any 
of those eminent surgeons, who possessed for the display 
of their abilities the advantage of the most populous citif^s^ 
and the most consj)icuous oflicial stations. Ilewasfrtf- 
(pientlv sent for to oui- lar<;c cities and sometimes eVi-n ih- 
to other states. He was applied to for ad\ ice by pers(fVis 
living in remote parts of the union, and had patients at- 
tencling him at his own residence who were brought thith- 
er by his fame to obtain the benefit of his skill. As a 
surgeon, it is probabl(> that .Mr. Baynham had n(» su]>**rior; 
as an anatomist, it i>: certain that be had none. The "most 
ample testimonies exist to prove the resjM-ct in wlitcli his 
talents havr alwavs been held l)otli in Europe and America. 
He is always mentioned bv the several Professor*: of Ana- 
tomy in our Universities in their lectures with the greatest 
respect, and we have heard a distinguished teacher assert 



171 



niLLIAM BAII^UAM. 



that he considered him in the art of making anatomical 
preparations only second to Ruysch. One remark I 
will add, says his biographer, which is that Dr. Physick 
and Mr. Baynham are the only persons whom I know in 
America that have really improved the surgical proiession. 
It has been falsely supposed by some, who were probably 
misled by his great surgical reputation, that he was not 
eminent as a physician. But if success can be assumed as a 
criterion of excellence, he deserved tlie highest credit in 
the latter character ; and accordingly it has been awarded 
him by the suffrages of those Avho had the l)est opportu- 
nity of judging of his merit, his own patients. To the super- 
ficial observer, Avho measures the altitude of the mind by 
the vibrations of the tongue, and considers fluency and 
eloquence of discourse as the only unerring criterion of 
talents, he could not have appeared worthy of his high 
reputation. He was slow ancl not very distinct in the 
enunciation of his ideas. Entirely unambitious of orna- 
ment, talking only to be understood and never for effect, 
despising the prismatic glare of factitious refinement and 
exaggerating declamation, by which the feebleness of the 
idea is so often concealed beneath the sj)lendor of the dress, 
it is not to be wondered at that he s-eldom made a favor- 
able impression on strangers, and that he generally on first 
acquaintance disappointed those whose expectations had 
been raied, and whose opinion of him hacl been formed 
from the report of fame. 

We now approach that part of his character which to 
himself and to his posterity is of infinitely more import- 
ance than all the fame andall the favors which the world 
can be.tow, his moral worth, his merit as a man and a 
mendjer of the great human family. In most of the rela- 
tions in which Mr. Baynham was connected with society, 
he discharged all his duties in an unusually exemplary 
manner. That he had some eccentricities of temper must 
be confessed, but that they have been exaggerated by mali- 
cious observers is also true. AVith an exterior somewhat 
gloomy and austere he possessed the kindest and most 
philanthropic feelings — indeed few men had naturally 
warmer hearts. In him the poor ever fotmd a friend and 
benefactor ready by the humane offices of his skill to as- 
suage the pangs of bodily disease, or by his beneficent 
liberality, which sometimes bordered even on munificence, 
to relieve them from the equally cruel pangs of poverty. 



JOHN BLATTT. 1*73 

He was one of those very few men, says another writer, 
whose loss will he a puhlic inisforlune, for I know not 
who is to suctced him in \ iiaiiiia as a Mirycon. In his 
profession he was second to Dr. Fhysic^k only, and nothing 
hut the most narrow, inveterate and mali^jiiant jealousy 
rould asperse his medical reputation. He was a memher 
of the Royal College of 8ur<ieons, and con>e(|U('iillv had 
the same >taiulini2, in the proles>ion as Pott, John liuiiter, 
(,'o()pi'r and Aherneth\'. In the dis>e(tin<r room he was 
j)re-eminent, heinj" uncpiestionahly the hest pra(ti(al ana- 
tomist in Great Britain. The hest j)rej)arations in the 
museum of Messrs. dine and Cooper were made hy him ; 
one j)articularly of a female hreast, it is supposed, has never 
been e(|ualled. 

His name is mentioned in anatomical works as the dis- 
coverer of the vascularity of tlie rete mucosum. In the first 
volume of the Medical and Philosojihical Journal and Re- 
view printed in New-York, is a paper of Mr. Baynham 
containinij an account of an operation which he is supposed 
to he the first to have performed successfully, and in the 
Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences 
are to i)e ft)und m.uiv i)Osthumous puMications of sur<[ical 
cases, which reflect the highest honoi* on his talents and 
character. — Philadelphia Journal of JMedical and Physical 
Sciences^ Vol. 4. 

BEATTY, JOHN, M.D. This gentleman was a native 
of Buck's county, Pennsylvania, l>ut received his educa- 
tion in New-Jersey, where he resided for more than forty 
years of his life. He was the eldest son of a clergyman 
of distinguished i)iety, learning and usefulness, and de- 
scended from Governor Reading of New-Jersey, who Avas 
his maternal grandfather. He was graduated at Princeton 
in the year HGO, and was highly respected for his dili- 
gence and learning ; and afterwards studied the science of 
medicine imder the celebrated Dr. l{ush. 

In the vigor of youth at the commencement of the revo- 
lutionary war, his pacific profession was soon exchanged 
for the habiliments of the warrior ; at a very early j.eriod 
of that contest, he enrolled himself among the defenders 
of his country, and so ra])id was jiis promotion, that in 
Septemiter 1170. he had attained the rank of lieutenant 
colonel in the Pennsylvania line. In this caj)acily he 
greatly distinguished himself, until by the unfortunate 
capture of Fort AN'ashington in the autumn of that year. 



174 JOSHUA BELDEN. 

Jie was consigned to imprisonment by the enemy at a cri- 
sis when the severity of their treatment exceeded that of 
any other period of the war. It was a considerable time 
before he was exchanged, and the hardships endured in 
his military career materially impaired his constitution 
and health, which it was some years before he fully 
recovered. Being able at length to resume the active 
duties of life, he was appointed in the year 1 779 successor 
to Elias Boudinot, Esq. in the responsible and laborious 
office of commissary general of prisoners, which station it 
is believed he held till the conclusion of the war, and in 
which he was particularly distinguished for activity and 
fidelity in the discharge of his duty. 

At the close of the war he settled at Princeton, where 
he pursued his professional calling as a physician with 
approbation and success. At different times he was elected 
a member of both branches of the legislature, and was 
chosen speaker of the house of assembly ; he also repre- 
sented the county of Middlesex in the convention which 
adopted the federal constitution. In 1793 he was elected 
to congress ; and served in that body with distinction as 
an active and useful member. After the death of Samuel 
W. Stockton, Esq. then secretary of the state, the office 
was conferred on General Beatty by the legislature at the 
autumnal session of 1795, the duties of which he most 
faithfully and ably discharged for the space of ten years. 
He was soon after selected by the Delaware Bridge Com- 
pany to superintend the erection of the bridge across the 
Delaware at Bloomsbury. After the decease of the late 
Col. Jonathan Rhea, he was elected president of the Tren- 
ton bank, which appointment he held with unblemished 
integrity, for the last eleven years of his life. He was a 
member of the society of Cincinnati of New-Jersey, and 
held the office of treasurer at the time of his decease, 
which took place April 30th, 1826, in the 78th year of his 
age. For many years before his death he was a ruling 
elder in the Presbvterian church in Trenton. 

BELDEN, DR. JOSHUA, was born in Wethersfield, 
Connecticut, March 29th, 1768. He was the son of the 
Rev. Joshua Belden, long the pious and exemplary minis- 
ter of that place, under whose instruction and influence he 
was trained in correct habits, and taught the usefulness of 
good principles by which his future life was controlled. 
He was prepared for Yale College imder the tuition of the 



BETH BIRD. 175 

Rev. Dr. Perkins of West Hartford, and having passed his 
collegiate course with reputation both as a scholar and a 
youth of correct deportment, he received his degree in 
1787 at the age of nineteen years. After leaving college 
he commenced the study of divinity under the instruction 
of the Rev. Dr. Smalley of Berlin ; he continued, how- 
ever, but a short time, when he changed his plan of life, 
and commenced and pursued the study of medicine vmder 
the direction of the celebrated Dr. Lemuel Hopkins of 
Hartford. When prepared for practice, by the influence 
of his venerable father he took up his residence as the 
physician of his native village, where he soon gained the 
entire confidence of the people. He was well furnished 
with books, and made it his care to unite study with prac- 
tice, as the surest mode of being always prepared for the 
duties of his profession, and of increasing and correcting 
his experience, by comparing the observations of others 
with his own. 

The native tenderness of his feelings, cultivated by hab- 
its of kindness to those whom he visited, rendered him 
extremely solicitous for their safety and recovery, and 
their cases would dwell upon his mind with such intense- 
ness as often to deprive him of his sleep. Such was the 
general satisfaction in the skill and judgment of Dr. Bel- 
den, that the inhabitants considered themselves as enjoying 
under his care all that could be reasonably desired in the 
healing art, and it is gratifying to the lover of excellence 
to hear his old patients at this day portray his merits as a 
physician and his kindness and sympathy as a man. The 
traits of his character in domestic and social life were 
honorable, for he was affable, frank and sincere, full of 
filial piety and respect for his venerable father, who at the 
age of ninety years leaned upon him with satisfaction as 
his staff" and comfort in life. He was employed in various 
offices of public trust, and took a warm interest in public 
improvements, in the diff'usion of general knowledge, in 
literature and in education. He was an ardent friend and 
supporter of religious and charitable institutions, and pub- 
lic schools ; and his whole life was an exhibition of moral 
and religious virtues. Dr. Belden fell a victim to the 
fatal epidemic called spotted fever, prematurely and sud- 
denly, June 6th, 1818, aged forty years. 

BIRD, DR. SETH, was born in Bethlem, state of Con- 
necticut in 1733. He studied his profession under the in- 



176 8ETH BIRD. 

struction of the eccentric Dr. Hurlbut of Berlin, and settled 
in the town of Litchfield, society of South Farms, Avhere ht 
soon gained great and extensive celebrity as a physician. 
Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, who was his i)upil, used to say of 
him that lie was the greatest physician with whom he was 
ever acquainted, and believed him not inferior to Boer- 
haave himself. 

Dr. Bird possessed a vigorous and investigating mind, 
ardent love of his profession, and zeal in its pursuit. He 
was more distinguished for acute sagacity, correct judg- 
ment, and talent at discrimination, than for learning or 
science ; his reading was principally confined to his pro- 
fession, and he became early accp.iainted witli the works of 
Boerhaave, probably while yet a student with Dr. Hurlbut, 
who understood them better perhaps than any man of his 
time in the state. Dr. Bird was enthusiastic in his attach- 
ment to the works of this great author, and to the last day 
of his medical career, would vindicate his theory and 
practice from the aspersions of the more modern followers 
of CuUen and Brown, with much warmth of feeling and 
force of argument. 

In his person Dr. Bird was of middle size, rather corpu- 
lent, his complexion dark, hair black, face ruddy ; his 
speech was slow and apparently laborious. He had a>. 
peculiar mode of raising his hand when al)out to speak, 
which was always an indication that something was to be 
said ; his remarks were learned and pithy, often severe 
and sarcastical, and sometimes on medical subjects lie was 
interesting and even eloquent. His education was limited 
in general science and literature, but nature made him a 
philosopher and a physician ; he had a genius for investi- 
gation, and a relish for inquiry into the operations of 
nature, especially as regarded man in a healthy or diseased 
state. His prescriptions were simple, often inelegant, but 
always well adapted to the circumstances of his cases. 
His powers of memory were remarkable, which, joined to 
correct judgment and habits of observation, with the very 
ample opportunities which his extensive practice afforded, 
enabled him to accumulate a vast fund of experience. Dr. 
Bird was employed in consultation more frequently than 
any other in a Avide extent of country, and he was always 
precise in point of punctuality on such occasions ; he once 
reproved a young physician, whom he met, for a short 
delay, observing that he had never made a physician wait 



TI1(»M\S P,(iND. n7 

a moment during a prart'uT of (oilv vcais, :illhouj;Ii fie 
lived in ;i tliinly settled eoimtry and olu n r()<le from 
lliirly to fifty miles. 

His last illness was linj^crin^, he heinfr of a dropsieal 
haltit induced hy liberal j)otations of ardent spirits, to 
Avliieli lie was jrreatly addicted in the last years of his life. 
His eollin was niade hy his directions a considerable time 
before his death, and kept (onstantly by the side of his 
chair ; beinp; asked by a friend if it did not make him 
melancholy to have that unwelcome tenement so eon>tant- 
ly in view, " No," said he with his sitrnificant motion of 
the hand, " I shall slide into it in a few days." lie lived 
to the age of seventy-two years, and died in 1805. Dr. 
Bird ac(|uired a handsome fortum^ l)y his ])rofessional 
business and riijid economy, while others of his standing 
with ecpial advantaiics died without j)roperty. 

ROND, THOMAS, M. D. This celebrated physician 
and surgeon was a native of Maryland, and sttidied his 
profession there un(h>r Dr. Hamilton, a very learned jirac- 
titioner. Afterward he travilled in Europe, and spent a 
considerable time in Paris, where he attended the practice 
of the Hotel Dieu. 

He began the practice of medicine in Philadelphia about 
the year 1734, and soon attracted the ])«d)lic attention. 
He was the founder of the college and academy, and one 
of the most active managers of tlie Pennsylvania hosjiital 
at its commencement. With his brother Dr. Phineas 
Bond and Dr. Lloyd Zachary, he made the first offer to 
attend that institution as ])hysicians and surjieons. In the 
year 1769 Dr. Bond was selected to give clinical lectures 
in the Pennsylvania Hospital, and about the same time he 
drew »ip some useful m<'dical memoirs, which were pub- 
lished in a])eriodical work in London. He was an otlicer 
of the Philosophical Society from its first establishment, 
and appears by the old records to have been a member of 
a smaller society instituted in 1713, of which Dr. Benja- 
min Fraiddin, William Coleman, John Bartram, Thomas 
Godfrey the inventor of the fpiadrant, and Dr. Phineas 
Bond were also nKinbers. This society in 17GS united 
with another which had also been a lon^j time in existence, 
and the two bodies then assumed the name and form 
which are now employed. The oriLMnal proposals for 
this society, drawn up by Dr. Fraiddin himself, mav be 
23 



178 PHINEAS BOND. 

seen in the American Medical and Philosophical Register, 
Volume II, 

Dr. Bond's publications were, 1. An account of a worm 
bred in the liver ; Medical Observations and Inquiries of 
London, Volume I, dated May 1, 1754. This was the case 
of Charles Holt of Philadelphia. Upon dissection, the 
liver was found very much enlarged and partly scirrhous. 
On its internal part there was a large cavity containing 
nearly two quarts filled with bloody water, and a few 
lumps of coagulated blood. The worm was annular, and 
discharged by stool a short time before death in two parts. 
The first was thrown away before Dr. Bond saw it, but 
from the description given to him by the sister of the suf- 
ferer and l)y the nurse, and the resem1)lance of the remain- 
der to that described by Mr. Paisley in the second volume 
of the Edinburgh Medical Essays, this appears to be 
exactly of the same kind. 

2. A Letter to Dr. Fothergill on the use of the Peruvian 
Bark in Scrofula. Two cases are related of the decided 
efficacy of the bark. The disease appeared in the form of 
numerous tumors, some of which were ulcerated. Med- 
ical Inquiries and Observations, Volume II. 

In 1782 he delivered the annual address before the 
American Philosophical Society. The subject was " The 
rank and dignity of man in the scale of being, and the 
conveniences and advantages he derives from the arts and 
sciences, and a prognostic of the increasing grandeur and 
glory of America, founded on the nature of its climate." 
He was for half a century in the first practice in Philadel- 
phia, and remarkable for attention to the cases under his 
care, and his sound judgment. He was an excellent sur- 
geon, and in the year 1768 performed two operations of 
lithotomy in the Pennsylvania Hospital with success. 

By nature Dr. Bond was of a delicate constitution, and 
disposed to pulmonary consumption, for which he went a 
voyage when a young man to the island of Barbadoes. 
By unremitted care of his health, the strictest attention to 
diet and to guard against the changes of temperature, and 
also by frequently losing blood, Avhen he found liis lungs 
afiected-,-.jje lived to an age which the greater part of man- 
kind never re.^©k. He died in the year 1784, aged 72. 

BOND, PHINEAS, M. D. This gentleman was seve- 
ral years younger than his brother Thomas abovemention- 



PARDON BOWEN. 179 

cd. He also was educated in Maryland, the jilace of liis 
nativity, and j^ubscfjiK'ully stiulicd nicdicint! npon a most 
extensive scale. He pJisM'd a consiiUrahh' time at Lcyilen, 
Paris, iMlinlxiriih and London, and was not less disjtoM'd 
to j)ronu)te tiian well (jnalilied to jndjie of every nndcitak- 
ing for the improvement of the medical character of his 
country. In conjuiution with the nnicii respech'd Tliomas 
llopkinson, he originated the scheme of tiie coUeffe, now 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

lie enjoyeci a liiuh reputation as a successful practitioner 
of medicine in Philadelphia. Not practisinfj surgery he 
moved in a ditl'erent line from his brother ; but no medi- 
cal man of his time in this country left behind him a 
higher character for professional sayacity, or the amiable 
qualities of the heart. He was lemarkable for convivial- 
it v, but never habituated to intemperance. Hi- died in 
June 1773, aged fifty-six years. 

BOWEN, PARDON, "M. D. This accomplished j.hy- 
sician and excellent man was born in Providence, Rhode- 
Island, on the 22d of March, in the year 1757. His 
remote ancestors were useful and hiiibly resj)ectable mem- 
bers of the society in which they lived ; and the irre- 
])roachable name they left behiiul them several of their 
descendants have sij^nalized in the medical history of 
Rhode-Island, by no ordinary attainments in ])rofessional 
science, and by a diligent, successful and honorable prac- 
tice. Richard Bowen, the ancestor of this family, emi- 
grated to this country al)ont the year 1G4(). 

The sul)jcct of this notice was the fifth son of Dr. 
Ephraim Bowen, an eminent physician of Providence, 
whose valuable life, protracted to near a century, termina- 
ted in the year 1812. During the professional career of 
this venerable patriarch, tli(> character of the ])revailing 
diseases iu Providence and the adjacent reuion underwent 
material chaniies, produced, it is not unreasonable to con- 
clude, partly by the gradual melioration of the climate, 
and partly by those habits of life which accompany a pro- 
gressive advancement in the comforts and luxuries of 
social existence. Of these changes it is umiecessary to 
produce more than two examples. Fever ami aijuc, and 
dysentery were formerly extremely prevalent in and 
arouiul Providence. A case of the former, it ix b< lieved, has 
not oriijinated in that town for more than half a century, 
and the latter, wiiich is seldom epidemic, has parted with 



180 PARDON BOWEiX. 

much of its former malignancy, and yields generally, 
except in the case of children, to judicioui? medical treat- 
ment. 

The incidents of Dr. Pardon Bowen's early life, avc 
have been unable to collect with nullicient accuracy to 
warrant us in committing them to the pages of an authen- 
tic memoir. The com})anions of his youth unite their 
testimony in praise of his singular exemption from the 
vices and the follies of youth. They speak with imcheck- 
cd complacency of his amiable conduct and manners in 
the different relations of life, of the disciplined enthusiasm 
of his heart, and the well directed energies of his under- 
standing. His academical education he acquired at 
Rhode-Island College, now Brown University, under the 
presidency of the Rev. Dr. Manning, receiving in the 
year 1775, at tlie age of eighteen, the honors of that institu- 
tion. After the usual course of preparatory study, under 
the direction of his brother Dr. William Bowen, he in the 
year 1779 embarked as the surgeon of a private armed 
ship, fitted out for the destruction of British commerce. 
He was soon destined to experience the fortune of war, the 
ship being captured and carried to Halifax, where during 
an imprisonment of seven months he endured no common 
privations and sufferings. After Ijeing regularly exchanged, 
he returned home, and with ardor undiminished by the 
disastrous issue of his first cruise, he in the course of the 
tw^o subsequent years engaged in several enterprises of a 
similar nature. Capture and imijrisonment were the result 
of two of these cruises, and a third was signalized by an 
obstinate engagement for more than two hours with an 
enemy's vessel, which was finally captured, though not 
without bloodshed. After experiencing a variety of peril- 
ous fortune, he reached home some time in the year 1782, 
and never again committed himself to the chances of war 
or encountered the storms of the ocean. 

In all his domestic connexions Dr. B. w'as blessed and 
happy beyond the common lot of man. Early in life he 
was married to Miss Elizabeth Ward, daughter of Henry 
Ward, Esq. for many years secretary of the state of Rhode- 
Island. This lady, who participated with him largely in 
educating an interesting family, still survives. 

Resolved to establish himself in his native town, he in 
the year 1783 repaired to Philadelphia, for the purpose of 
perfecting himself in the knowledge' of his profession. In 



PARDON BOWEN. 1^1 

tlic distiii(ruislii.>(1 incilical school of that city lie was a 
Uili^nit student, aiul prolitcil larj^cly hy the instructions 
of its cnrment professors. Acconl|lli^hiIl^ the h*iu(hihh; 
object of iiis tempoiary residence in IMiihuKlphia, h«' 
returned to Proviih-nce and ininuiliately coniineiued the 
practice of his profession in its diil'erent branches, lie 
tlitl not escape the lot of nearly all yomijr physicians at 
their outset in professional lile. JLnteriiig uj)oa a fieUl 
already prt'occupied by more e.\j)erienced practitioners, his 
early practice was far from extensive, ami several years 
elaj)sed before his |);rseverinu; endeavors were atUciuatelv 
rewariled. lie continued, however, to advance >tea(lily 
in the coniidence and favor of the comnmnity till amjile 
success fdled tiic measure of his hopes. For a lonfj .series 
of years j)rior to the lanientetl calamity whit h terminated 
his usefulness, he was almost incessantly eii<ia<fed in pro- 
fessional duty, his rej)utatioii as an eminent j)hysician and 
surgeon beinj^ extensive and undisputed, and ids character 
as a man composed of s\ich pure and bland elements, that 
love and veneration mingled for him their spontaneous 
tribute. Dr. Bowen was devoted to his profes>i()n. He 
perceived its imi)ortant relation to the cond'ort ai.d happi- 
ness of society ; and faithful to his liijih trust, he indulged 
no complacent toleiatiou for the arroijaiit pretensions of 
ignorance and emj)iricism. To his j)atients of every de- 
scription he was invariably faithful, and, though devotedly 
fond of domestic satisfactions, and alive to the pure rel- 
ishes of social converse, he never post[)oned the wants of 
the sick to tlie joys of iiis own fireside or to tiie attrac- 
tions of yeneral society. 

During the prevalence of the yellow fever in l*rovi- 
dencc, when dejection and dismay sat upon many a brow, 
and the sense of j)ersonal danjjer threatened to absorb the 
sympathies of our common nature, and death mocked at 
tlie exjx'dients of human s<ienc(^ tt) avi-rt hi> blow, ])v. 
IJowen shnmk not from the p»'rils in Iiis wav. More than 
once was his life endanjiered by an attack of that fearfid 
malady, ])ut God j)re>erved him from thus becoming a 
victim to his noble intre])idity in tlie service of humanity. 

Dr. Bowi'n confined his attention to no |)articular <le- 
partment of his profession, but aimed at excclleiu-c in all. 
For bis skill in operative suryerv lu" was hiuhlv respected; 
and duriiii; many years most of the sur<fical o|»er;ition-- in 
and aroiuul Providence were jierformed by him. In medi- 



182 PARDON BOVVEN. 

cal surgery he was thought to be extremely judicious ; 
and his uncommon science, experience and success in 
obstetrics left him without a superior in that difficult branch 
of his profession. In the treatment of fevers and of chron- 
ic affections generally, he was excelled by no one within 
his sphere of practice. Wedded to no system, he followed 
the indications of nature and the directions of true science, 
avoiding a timid caution on the one hand, and vmauthoriz- 
ed experiments on the other, never dogmatizing in support 
of a favorite opinion, but seeking to establish the truth by 
sound analogies and cautious induction. For much of his 
skill and success as a practitioner he was indebted to his 
nice philosophical discernment of the moral, intellectual 
and physical idiosyncrasies of his patients. He regarded 
man not simply as a machine, but as a being mysteriously 
compounded and organized, exposed to morbid influences 
from the combined operation of moral and physical 
agencies. 

Dr. Bowen contributed occasionally to the medical 
journals of the day, and in the fourth volume of Hosack 
and Francis's Medical and Philosophical Register may be 
found an elaborate account from his pen of the Yellow 
Fever, as it prevailed in Providence in the year 1805. De- 
sirous to keep pace with the progress of his profession, he 
was diligent in reading those periodical publications which 
treat of new phenomena in diseases and improved modes 
of medical treatment. 

Dr. B. was an active member of the Rhode-Island Medi- 
cal Society, and for some time its presiding officer. He 
was also a fellow of the American Antiquarian Society, and 
a member of the Board of Trustees of Brown University. 

In the winter of 1 820 the professional usefulness of this 
eminent and beloved physician was terminated by an at- 
tack of hemiplegia, which seized him without premonition, 
and threatened the immediate extinction of life. The 
worst fears of his friends were not, however, thus sudden- 
ly realized ; he partially recovered the use of his limbs, and 
not long afterward retired to the residence of his son-in- 
law, Franklin Greene, Esq. at Potowomut (Warwick) 
about fifteen miles from Providence. This spot had been 
for many years his favorite retreat from the toils of pro- 
fessional life, and was destined to receive his last sigh. 
There, in the bosom of an affectionate family, he passed 
years of suffering, which, though sometimes relieved by 



PARDON BOWEN. 183 

intermission and cheered by the hope of restoration, was 
but too often exasperated to agony, in spite of every alle- 
viation which the instinctive promptitude and ingenuity 
of affection could administer. These, however, were not 
years of melancholy vacuity, of hopeless dejection, or of 
monotonous anguish. The exercise of benevolent affec- 
tions, the reciprocation of domestic endearments, and the 
pleasures of a cultivated intellect, brightened the path of 
the sufferer with intermittent gleams of tranquil enjoy- 
ment, while Christianity, with its train of gracious in- 
fluences, purified him for the joys and comforted him with 
the hopes of heaven. In his hours of health and ease, he 
had an eye for nature, he loved her sweetest influences, he 
observed her mighty energies, her wonderful operations, 
her varied appearances of sublimity and beauty, and he 
delighted to refer these glorious things to the wisdom and 
benignity of the Parent of the universe. But it was in the 
page of revealed truth, it was in the life giving energy of 
the doctrines, precepts and promises of the Bible, that he 
found the only adequate support and solace, when pain and 
anguish came upon him, and his way upon the earth look- 
ed dark. Death at last approached, kindly commissioned 
to relieve him from protracted suffering, and, sustained by 
the promises of that Savior in whom alone he trusted, he 
cheerfully resigned his being on the 25th of October, 1826, 
aged 69 years. 

We cannot close this imperfect sketch without again ad- 
verting to the personal character of Dr. B. ; and, happily, 
such were the gifts and graces of his moral being, that in 
dwelling upon these there is no hazard of incurring the 
charge of exaggeration. By his friends he was, indeed, a 
man to be ardently loved ; for they daily witnessed the 
benignity of his nature, the engaging suavity of his man- 
ners, the variety and richness and clear intelligence of his 
conversation, the generous expansion of his sensibilities, 
and the inflexible rectitude of his principles. The pressure 
of business never made him careless of the feelings and in- 
terests of others. Indeed he was remarkable for that moral 
cultivation which respects the rights of all, and few showed 
a nicer discernment of the essential peculiarities which 
distinguish one being from another, and a more benevolent 
and delicate adjustment of conduct to all in every class. 
Notwithstanding his elevated reputation as a physician, 
and the opulence of his intellectual attainments, hewas on 



184 WILLIAM C. nOWF.N. 

all occasions a pattern of cnj^aging modesty, seeking rather 
to promote the happiness of others than to win their ap- 
plause. Singularly exempt from that feverish thirst for dis- 
tinction Avhich is allayed by the cheap honors of society, he 
was happy in his walk of revered hut unobtrusive usefulness, 
ministering to the comfort of his fellow creatures when 
bereaved of health, or oppressed by poverty, or sinking 
in death. Though for nearly half a century engaged in 
the active discharge of professional duty, his heart retain- 
ed its original purity, imcorruj)ted by an undue attach- 
ment either to wealth or to fame. His fortune was never 
ample, but the stream of his beneficence flow^ed Avitli an 
ecpial and imchecked current. Such were some of the 
prominent characteristics of Dr. Pardon Bowen. He had 
high cajiacities, and he exerted them for the good of his 
kind. His life, in all its stages, was a beautiful exhibition 
of the virtues, and, at its close, an example of christian 
holiness. His pin-e spirit, wdiile on eartli, took a wide and 
lofty range ; and now that it has ascended to its Maker, 
the belief is not presumptuous that it is gladdened by the 
joys of Heaven, and svdilimed by the contemplations of 
immortality. — William G. Goddard^ Professor in Brown 
University. 

BOWEN, WILLIAM C, M. D. was the only son of 
Dr. William Bowen of Providence, wdio is at this time 
actively engaged in professional business, and enjoying the 
undiminished confidence of the most respectable part of 
the communitv, thousfh arrived at the advanced age of 
eighty years. Tlie subject of this notice was born June 2, 
1785. He entered Rhode-Island College, but removed to 
Union College in the State of New-York with the Rev. Dr. 
Maxey, at the time he accepted the presidency of that in- 
stitution, and was graduated there in 1803. On his return 
to Providence he commenced the study of medicine with 
his uncle Dr. Pardon Bowen, Avith whom lie continued 
till 1806, when he embarked for Europe to complete his 
education. He studied in Edinburgh under the instruc- 
tion of Professor Hamilton, and in 1809 received his de- 
gree, choosing for the subject of his dissertation " De 
Sanguine Mittendo." Having passed some months in 
Holland and Paris, he returned to London and became 
tlie private pupil of Sir Astley Cooper, with whom he 
continued till August, 1811, wlien he returned to Provi- 
dence and there commenced the practice of physic and 



ZABDIET. BOYLSTON. 185 

surgery. In 1812 he was chosen professor of chemUtry 
in JJrown University, atul sul)sc(|uenlly delivered two 
courses of lectures. At this time he coniuicnced ;i course 
of e.vperinients to discover tlic basis of the hhachiii^ Tujuor, 
whicli was just iliscovered and apjilied in l^nglaud, j)rc- 
paratory to the formation of a hleai hiiio estahlishnicnt in 
Providence ; and it was the exj)Osure of his luuf^s to the 
action of powerful acids in lids j)ursuit, tliat laid the foun- 
ihition of the disease that finally destroyed him, April 23d, 
1-S15, in the tlurticth year of his a<re. In tlic death of Dr. 
William C. Bowen, Rhode-Island lost its bri<;ht('.-t orna- 
ment of the medical profession. No one before his time 
enjoyed the advantages of such distinguished instructers 
.so great a length of time, and with his ardor in the ])ursuit 
of j)rofessional knowledge, his discriminating and compre- 
hensive powers of mind, he was uncommonly ca])al)le of 
being improved by such advantages. Mis suavity and 
kindness of maimer endeared him to all who were the 
subjects of his professional care, and no one could be more 
successful in gaining the respect and confidence of the 
good and the wise ; in proof of whicli it may be ol)>erved 
that his j)receptor, Dr. Hamilton of Edinburgh, called on 
him as a consulting physician in a perilous disease of his 
own wife, and the writer of this notice had the satisfaction 
of hearing very honorable mention made of his acqiiire- 
ments by Sir Astlcy Cooper. His labors upon chlorine, 
though destructive to his own jjroperty and life, laid the 
foundation of the present very flourishing bleaching estab- 
lishments of Rhode-Islanil, which, in connexion with the 
extensive manufacturing interest of the state, have become 
of immense value to the proprietors and to the public 
general! v. — U. Porsonf!. 

BOYLSTON, DR. ZABDIEL, F.R.S. This distinguish- 
ed g(;ntleman was the son of Dr. Thomas Boylston, a native 
of England, who, after obtaining tiic degree of Doctor of 
Medicine at the University of Oxford, came over to Amer- 
ica, and settled at Brookline, Massachusetts, in the year 
1635. 

Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, his eldest son, was born in the 
year IGSO. He married Jerusha Minot of Boston, and had 
several children. He accpiired his professional education 
under the instruction of his father, and Dr. John Cutter, 
an eminent physician and surgeon of Boston ; and com- 
menced the practice of phvsir in that town under very 
24 



186 ZABDIEL BOYLSTON. 

favorable circumstances in the early part of the last cen- 
tury. In a few years he arrived at great distinction in his 
profession and accumulated a handsome fortune. He was 
remarkable for his skill, his humanity, and close attention 
to his patients. He had been led under the direction of 
his father to the study of Botany and Natural History, 
whicli he so successfully cultivated as soon to establish a 
correspondence with several learned societies and eminent 
individuals in England, particularly with Sir Hans Sloane, 
president of the Royal Society, and one of the most cele- 
brated naturalists of his time. In order to illustrate the 
subjects on which he wrote, Dr. Boylston spared no labor 
nor expense in obtaining rare plants, animals and insects, 
a great variety of which, then unknown in Europe, he at 
different times transmitted to England. Indeed such were 
his ardor, industry and research in these pursuits, that he 
acquired no inconsiderable degree of distinction as a 
naturalist. 

In the year 1721 the smallpox appeared in Boston, and 
pursued its usual desolating career, carrying with it the 
utmost terror and confusion. On this alarming occasion 
Dr. Cotton Mather, the learned and distinguished divine, 
communicated to Dr. Boylston a publication in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society, announcing the discovery of 
a new method of mitigatinff the virulence of this fatal dis- 
ease. This intelligence was from Drs. Timoni and Pila- 
rini,* being a concise account of the process of inocula- 
tion, as then practised in Turkey by scarifying the skin 
and applying the matter under a nut shell, but giving no 
other directions concerning the practice or mode of treat- 
ment. Dr. Boylston was forcibly impressed with the 
benefit of the discovery, and accordingly, after deliberating 
on the most safe and expeditious mode of thus artificially 
introducing the disease into the system, he communicated 
to the medical gentlemen in Boston the plan he proposed 
to adopt, and the source whence he derived the first hints 
of the operation, desiring their concurrence in the under- 



* Dr. Emanuol Timoni Aljspcck, who was graduated both at Padua and at Ox- 
ford, was residinj,' in Constantinople in the year 170.3, and was then struck with 
liie instances which he witnessed of the mitigated nature of the smallpox, when the 
virus was artificially communicated to the human frame. Ho wrote an account of 
his observations to Dr. Woodward, by whom it was inserted in the Pliilosophical 
Transactions of the year 1714. Pilarini was a Venetian physician, and published 
m 1715 at Venice a statement of the success of the Turkish practice. 



ZABDIEL DOYLSTON. 187 

taking. But Dr. William Douglass, a Scotch physician of 
sonic eminence, who Jiatl i^ceIl tlir puhlication in Dr. 
Mather's possession, and Dr. DaihomUs a French j)liysi- 
cian, also of some repute in liostoii, united in a violent 
opposition to the plan, and ])ublicly denouncctl it as intro- 
ductory of the j)lague, which had so often visited and 
nearly depopulated many cities in Europe and Asia ; and 
declared that the attempt to put it into practice woukl be 
no less criminal than murder. The other j)liysicians in 
Boston not oidy reluseil their co-operation in so novel and 
hold an experiment, bui condemned it in their writings, 
and opposed it in every shape. Dr. Boylslon, however, 
was a man of benevolence and courage, and fniding before 
him a promising opportunity for diminishing the evils of 
human life, he was not afraid to struggle with prejudice, 
nor uuAvilliiig to encounter abuse in the nol)le cause. The 
clergy in general were disposed to aid the j)roject, but a 
few of the less liberal were instigated to preach against it, 
and such was their influence, added to that of Douglass 
and Dalhonde, that the inhr.bitants became enraffed, and 
were excited to commit atrocious acts of outrage on the 
person of Dr. Boylston. They patvoled the town in par- 
ties with halters, threatening to hang him on the nearest 
tree. The only place of refuge left him at one time was 
a private place in his house, where he remained secreted 
fourteen days, unknown to any of his family ])ut his wife. 
During this time parties entered his house, by day and 
by night; in search of him. Nor was this all ; their ran- 
cor extended to his family ; for one evening, while his 
wife and children were sitting in the parlor, a lighted hand 
grenade was thrown into the room, but the fusee striking 
against some of the furniture fell off before an explosion 
could take place, and thus providentially their lives were 
saved. Even after the madness of the midtituile had in 
some measure sulisided, Dr. Boylston ventured to visit his 
patients only at midniirht and in disguise. 

Undismayed, however, by all this violence, and un- 
5\ipi)orted by the friendship of any but Dr. Mather, 
he commenced on the 2*th of June Hil, whih' the 
smalli)ox was in its most destriictive progress through 
the town, this untried experiment of inocuhition on 
his own son, a child of thirteen years of age, and two 
blacks in his family, one of thirty-six and the other of 
two years of age ; and on all with complete success. 



188 ZABDIEL nOYLSTON. 

This rekindled the fury of the poi)ulace5 and induced the 
authorities of the town to summon him before them to 
answer for his practice. He underwent repeated exami- 
nations, and although he invited all the practitioners in 
Boston to visit his patients and judge for themselves, he 
received only insults and threats in reply. These facts 
we have thought worthy of notice, as remarkable in them- 
selves, and as in some degree characteristic of the excitable 
spirit of the times. In thus encountering obloquy and re- 
proach, however, Dr. Boylston but experienced the for- 
tune of most of those who have attempted to innovate on 
long established usages, or to take the lead in the career of 
public improvement. The smallpox ceased its ravages in 
May 1722, and during its prevalence Dr. B. continued the 
practice of inoculation to all who could be induced to 
submit to it. He inoculated, with his own hand, two hun- 
dred and forty-seven of both sexes, from nine months to 
sixty-seven years of age, in Boston and in the neighboring 
towns ; thirty-nine were inoculated by other physicians 
after the tumult had in some measure subsided, making in 
the whole two hundred and eighty-six ; of whom only six 
died, and of these, three were supposed to have taken the 
disease in the natural way some days previous to their 
being inoculated ; three of those who died, were his old- 
est jjatients. It appears by the account published by the 
selectmen, that during the same period five thousand seven 
hundred and fifty-nine had taken the natural smallpox, 
eight hundred and forty-four of whom fell victims to the 
disease, being more than one in six. In the vicinity of 
Boston it had been still more malignant and fatal. The 
utility of the i)ractice was now established beyond dis- 
pute ; and its success encouraged its more general practice 
in England, in which country it had been tried upon but 
a few persons, most of whom were condemned convicts 
and charity children. The daughter of Lady Mary W. 
Montague was inoculated in London in April 1721, being 
the first instance in Europe, arid the convicts were made 
the subjects of the experiment in August of the same year.* 
il Dr. Boylston therefore is justly entitled to the honor of 
*' being the fir.-t inoculator in America, and this even before 
\ the single instance of the experiment in Europe had come 
to his knowledge. 

* Sec page 20 and 44 of this volume. 






ZABDIEL BOYLSTON. ISO 

III tlic prosecution of this good work, Dr. B. it h.is been 
shown, was oliliged to meet not only tlio most virulent, 
but the most dangerous opposition. Dr. William Doug- 
lass, a Scotchman, violent in his j)reju(lices and bitter and 
ontraireous in his conduct, bent his whole force to annihi- 
late the practice which hud been iiitroihiced ; and Dr. 
Dalhonde was prevailed upon to make a sin^fidar deposi- 
tion relative to the subject, which, however absurd, the 
selectmen had the etfrontery to j)ublish in support of their 
opposition. (This production may be seen in page 42 
of this volume.) The newspaj.ers of the day teemed with 
calumny and a])use of all the friends of inoculation, and 
numerous pain[)hlets were published with the design of 
prejudicing the pul)lic mind against the new practice. 
Douglass asserted that it was a crime, which came under 
the description of poisoning and spreading infection, 
which were made penal by the laws of England. Some 
of the pamphlets contained sucli language as tliis, " To 
spread abroad a mortal contagion, what is it but to cast 
abroad arrows and death .•' If a man should wilCully throw 
a bomb into a town, burn a house, or kill a man, ought 
he not to die .'' I do not see how we can be excused from 
great impiety herein, when ministers and people, with 
loud and stroncf cries, made sujiplications to AlniiLdity God 
to avert the judgment of the smalliiox, and at the same 
time some have been carrying alioiit instruments of inocu- 
lation, and bottles of the })oisonous humor, to infect all 
who were willing to submit to it, whereby we might 
as naturally expect the infection to spreatl, as a man 
to break his bones by castins; himself headlong from 
the hifrhest jiinnacle. Can any man infect a family in 
town in the morning, and pray to God in the evening 
that the distemper may not sjneaii ?" It was contended 
that, as the small^jox was a judgment from God for the 
sins of the j)eoj)le, to endeavor to avert the stroke, would 
but provoke him the more ; that inoculation was an en- 
croachment upon the prerogatives of Jehovah, whose 
right it is to wound and to smite ; and that as there was 
an appointed time to man upon earth, it would be useless 
to attempt to stay the approach of death. 

Dr. B. durinii his unjust persecution held a ( orrespond- 
ence with Sir Hans Sloane of London, the court jdiy^i- 
cian, who beiu:f apprized of his very eminent services 
in first introducing inoculation into America, honored 



190 ZABDIEL BOYLSTON. 

him Avith an invitation to visit London.* He accordingly- 
embarked for that city, and on his arrival was greeted 
with the most cordial affection and respect. He was 
elected a member of the Royal Society, the first American, 
we believe, ever admitted to that honor. He was, more- 
over, honored by being introduced to the Royal family, 
and received the most flattering attentions and friendship 
of some of the most distinguished characters of the nation. 
The same spirit of calumny and misrepresentation, which 
he had experienced in his native land, it is said pursued 
Dr. B. in England. He and his practice were violently 
denounced, and Dr. Wagstaffe and others cautioned the 
public against him. He continued, notAvithstanding, dur- 
ing his residence of a year and a half, to enjoy the respect 
and friendship of the wise and good in England, and was 
repeatedly solicited to settle there ; but his preference of 
his native land induced him to forego all the advantages 
wliich might residt from such a determination. Before 
leaving England, however, he published at the request of 
the Royal Society, an account of his practice of inocula- 
tion in America, which he dedicated to the Princess 
Caroliiie. This was in 1726, and it was republished in 
Boston in the following year. A copy of this edition ele- 
gantly bound, has been deposited in the medical library of 
Harvard University by Ward Nicholas Boylston, Esq. Dr. 
Woodvillc in his History of Inoculation, observes that 
Dr. Boylston had the discernment to discover that the 
smallj)Ox, as usually received, is much longer in taking 
effect than when communicated by inoculation ; and that 
the latter precedes the former by four or five days : a 
discovery, of which a more modern inoculator has taken 
the credit. 

* These memoirs are composed chiefly from documents furnished by Ward 
Nicholas Boylston, Esq. a descendant of Dr. Boylston. This gentleman asserts 
that the letter of invitation was addressed to Dr. Boylston by order of the king, 
•with the intention that he should inoculate the Royal Family, and that he did 
actually perform tliat operation first upon Princess Caroline, and subsequently upon 
other members of the Royal Family, and that the king compensated his services bjr 
a purse of one thousand guineas. But this statement is opposed by the history of 
inoculation by Drs. Woodville and Moor, two English physicians, who have detailed 
an account of inoculation of the Royal Family, performed by his majesty's Serjeant 
surgeon Amyand in 1722, and others in 1723. (Sec page 44 of this volume.) It 
would appear by the family tradition and documents that Dr. Boylston visited Lon- 
don in 1723, and it is clear that he published his book in London and dedicated it 
to Princess Caroline in 1726. Whether he did or did not inoculate the Royal 
Family, his merit and highly important services would naturally claim for him the 
royal bounty, and it is certain that he returned home with ample funds to cnablo 
him to retire from professional business. 



ZABDICL BOYLITUN. 101 

After his return to his native country, Dr. H. continued 
at the ht'ad of his profrssiou, and <ii<iaiiril in literary pur- 
suits, uiaUiiii" nianv in^ieiiious and iisrl'id coinuninicatioiis 
to the Royal Society, and corresponding witii his numer- 
ous friend?, nmonn; whom he used to mention with ^rcat 
respect and atU'ction the Rev. Dr. Watts, wlio appears hy 
his h'tters to have heen a warm advocate for inoc idation. 
After a lon^ peiiod of oininence in his profession, his ajie 
and infirmities calhd for retirement ; and h( in<,M'SM nlially 
aideil in his pecuniary concerns hy his visit to I^oncU)n, he 
was enabled to reliinpusli ids professional avocations and 
retire witli his family to his paternal seat at IJrookline, 
where he passed the residue of his days in indei)endence 
ami comfort. He had the })leasure of seeing ino( ulation 
universally ])ractised, and his efforts crowned with the 
attainment of a noble object, whi( h has heen received as 
an invalua1)le acquisition to the science of medicine. 
Having retired from professional labors, Dr. B. devoted 
himself to the cultivation of his farm, and the pursuit of 
his favorite studies. Amon<T his aiiricultural oc(iij>ations 
was the im])rovement of the breed of domestic animals, 
particularly of horses, for which his farm was cchbrated. 
Nor was he content with merely breedinii fine animals, but 
being an excellent horseman, he broke them for the car- 
riage and saddle. This practice he followed almost to the 
last days of his life. He has been seen in Boston at the 
age of eighty-four, ridinjj a colt he was breakinir. 

Dr. B. possessed a stronn aiul rctlcctino; mind, and acute 
discernment. His character throu<i;h life was one of unim- 
peached integrity. He was charitable in his opinions of 
others, i)aticnt under the severest persecution, and forgiv- 
in<r of his l)itt('rfst enemies. When his family were alarm- 
ed for his safctv, he expressed to them his resiirnation to 
the will of I haven, and at the close of his usefid life, he 
was consoled with the reflection, that the sj)irit of malevo- 
lence, so hostile to his merit and fame, became attem])ered 
to the grateful duty of enhancing and perpetuating the hon- 
or so ju.Mlv due to his cliaracter. He was not dis])Osed to 
doixniati/.e on any subject, but communicated his extensive 
knowlediie in the m<»st free manner. These (pialities. add- 
ed to ti>e natural ease and suavity of his manners, which had 
been improved by intercourse with the xvorld, caused his 
society to be much sought, and to his family and his 
friends rendered him a most interesting and instructive 



MB JOSHUA BRACKET?. 

companion. His health was often interrupted by severe 
attacks of asthma, to which he was subject for tlie last forty 
years of his life. He met death with calmness and perfect 
resijcf nation in the eiojhty-seventh year of his age, saying 
to his friends, " My work in this world is done, and my 
hopes of futurity are briglitening." He was buried in the 
family tomb at Brookline, on which is inscribed the fol- 
lowing appropriate and just language. " Sacred to ihe 
memory of Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, Esq. physician and 
F.R.S. who first introduced the practice of inoculation 
into America. Through a life of extensive benevolence, 
he was always faithful to his word, just in his dealings, 
affable in his manners, and after a long sickness, in which 
he was exemplary for his patience and resignation to his 
Maker, he quitted this mortal life, in a just expectation of 
a happy immortality, March 1st, 1766." His wife died a 
few years before him. 

BRACKETT, JOSHUA, M.D. M.M.S.S. Hon. The 
subject of these memoirs was born at Greenland, in the 
vicinity of Portsmouth, New-Hampshire, in May, 1733. 
Having gone through the preparatory studies under the 
tuition of the Rev. Henry Rust, at Stratham, he became 
an alumnus of Harvard College in 1748, the usual honors 
of which he received in 1752 and 1755. His collegiate 
course being finished, lie attended to various pidjlications 
on the science of theology. In contemplating this for a 
profession, he consulted the pleasure of his parents, more 
than his own inclination. However, he proceeded in his 
studies, was licensed and became a preacher ; but the state 
of his health soon became such, as obliged him to deter- 
mine on some other pursuit. He then devoted himself to 
the study of a profession, whicli was ever more congenial 
to his turn of mind, and in which Providence had design- 
ed him for eminence. He devoted his time diligently to 
the study of medicine under the direction of Dr. Clement 
Jackson of Portsmouth, where he continued a practitioner 
until his death. 

On the SOth of October, 1783, lie was chosen an 
honorary member of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 
He was one of the nineteen who first formed a similar in- 
stitution in the state of New-Hampshire, for whicli an act 
of incorporation was obtained in 1791. In 1792 he was 
presented by his alma mater with a medical doctorate. 
On the 19th of June, 1793, he succeeded the late Dr. 



JOSHl'A UriACKtTT. 1 93 

Bartlctt in the presidency of the New-FIami)slure Medical 
Society, and by repeated elections continued in tfiis olVue 
till the 15th ot May, n!)9, Avhen in c()n^c(^nen(•e of his 
declniing state of health he resigned it. He had j)^- 
viously presented the institution with one hinuh-cd and for- 
ty-three volumes of valuable hooks, as a foundation of a 
medical library. On retirinjr from the j)residciicy, he 
received an adih'css, which haiidsomelv exj>ies>cd the rc- 
sj)ectful acknowlediiinent of this society for his diliirent 
and friendly attention to its interests, and for his lil)eral 
donation. Dr. Brackett had interested himself in the sub- 
ject of a professorship for Natural History and IJotanv, at 
the University in Cand)rid<!;e. He lolil the write r of these 
memoirs, not many weeks before his death, that it was a 
s»d)ject which hail much eunrossed his mind for thirty 
years. It aflbrded him no small satisfaction that, before 
his decease, a plan had been adoj)ted for carrying so use- 
ful an establishment into etiect, and that donations for the 
p>n-pose, to the amount of several thousaml (h)llars, had 
i)een sul)scribed. He left the re(|uest with his consort, 
that a certain property of the value of tifteen hundred 
dollars, when she should have done Avith it, might be con- 
veyed to the corporation of Harvard College for the be- 
fore suggested design. Mrs. Brackett, after his decease, 
said sin' >hovdd " hold his every wish oj« the sid)ject 
sacred as a word from Heaven." She accordinglv con- 
veyed the property, with a generous additional sum, a 
])e(juest of her own, to the coi])oration of the college, the 
benelits of Avhich are now expeiienced in the beautiful 
establishment at Cambridge. 

Dr. Brackett was nnuh distiiiijuished for his activity 
and zeal in the cause of American inde])endeiice. He Avas 
one of the conunittee of safety during the revobitioirirv 
war. At an early period of it, he was appointed judjie of 
the maritime court in New-Hampshire, and sustained that 
office with re])utation. His profe-sioji, however, in which 
he was eminent, was his peculiar deliiiht, as the natural 
bias of his soul led him to the relief of those wants and 
vlistresses, which it c<nitiini;illy presented fo his view. To 
increase his knoA\ l(>dirc and usefulness in it, his rea(]ing, 
which was uncommonly extensive, his observations, Avhich 
were accurate, and his reflections, which were judicious, 
were principally directed. He was pxtremily attentive to 
his patien(5, and spared no pain5 \o investigatP the cant« 
25 



194 JOSHUA BRACKETT. 

and the nature of their maladies, and to afford relief. Ar- 
tis obstetricae valde peritus fuit, (jiiippe quo curante nun- 
quam fjemina part ur lens morti succiibuit. While a happy 
general success attended his professional ministrations, his 
tenderness and sympathy with tlie sons and daughters of 
disease and distress, were striking traits in his character, 
and greatly endear his memory. Dr. Brackett occasion- 
ally made minutes of important cases which came under 
his care, and of the measures pursued ; but as these were 
merely for his own use, few of t'.iem have been found in 
a finished state. He also kept for twenty-five years before 
his death, a thermometrical and meteorological registry, 
which would be a valuable acquisition to the archives of 
any philosophical society. Although his religious tenets 
were different from those of the writer of his memoirs, he 
has no hesitancy in saying, that his moral deportment ap- 
peared to be founded on the principle recognized in the 
golden rule. He was mild in his temper, of an affable 
turn, amiable in his disposition, unassuming in his man- 
ners, and was sincerely beloved and highly respected in the 
social walks of life. He was a man of warm friendship, 
great benevolence, an enemy to flattery, and no one was 
ever less ambitious of popular applause. Humanity made 
a prominent appearance in the group of his excellences. 
It ought to be recorded that, in his professional labors, he 
was pecvdiarly kind to the poor, and never made a charge, 
where he had reason to think the payment would occasion 
the smallest embarrassment. This was a conduct which 
would not have been unworthy of the man of Ross. 

For a considerable time before his death, he found that 
his constitution was under a gradual and general decay 
through a disease in the region of his heart, as to the na- 
ture of which he never could be satisfied. At length he 
determined to try the efficacy of the Saratoga waters, for 
which purpose he set out from Portsmouth on the 23d of 
June, 1802. Having arrived at the springs, he continued 
there but a few days, for he found that his disorder must 
bring him to the grave ; and, feeling a consciousness that 
the time of his departure was at hand, he hastened to re- 
turn, that he might be among his friends before the closing 
scene. He reached home on Friday the 9th of July, vis- 
ited several patients, and continued to walk out till the 
Tuesday following. From that time he, was confined till 
his death, which took place on Saturday the 17th of July, 



WILLIAM BllADFOUD. 195 

1802. On the ensuiiif^ Monday the remains of this philan- 
thropist and pliysiciaii were inttrred with great resj)e(t, 
and tlie tears of the widow ami the orj)Iian wateied his 
grave. He was, in jud<rinent, sound ; in friendship, linn ; 
in sentiments, liberal ; and in h«;nevolenee, inihounded. — 
JMcdical Ucpv'iiiory by Rev. T. Jl. 

In early life Dr. lirackett was married to Miss Hannah 
Wliipplc of Kittery, who was a most amiable, accom- 
plislied and dii^nified woman. Her mental endowments 
were inferior to none. Her education and ac(|uirements 
surj)assed those of her sex in the vicinity of her residence. 
Her favorite studies were Natural Philosophy, and more 
especially Botany. She had an excellent gartlen well 
stored with choice and rare shrubs, plants ami fruits. In 
henevolence she was not exceeded by her husl)and, for it 
was by her Avill the New-Hampshire Medical Society real- 
ized a letjacy of 500 dollars. She died May, 1805, aijed 70 
years. To perjietuate in the New-Hampsiiirc Medical So- 
ciety's Library the name of its founder, it was resolved by 
the Society, that the name of Brackett shall be marked in 
golden letters on the covers of all the books that were pre- 
sented by him or j)urchased by Mrs. Brackett's legacy, in 
manner and form as under written. 

BRACKKTT 
TO THE NEW HAMPSHIRE MEDICAL SOCIETY. 

BRADFORD, Hon. WILLIAM, was a son of Lieut. 
Samuel Bradford, and a descendant in the fourth genera- 
tion from the Hon. William Bradfoid, the second gov- 
ernor of the Old Colony of Plymoutli. His descent was 
in a direct line, through families of distinction ; many of 
the collateral branches of which are removed into various 
parts, and are respectable. He was horn at Plympton in 
the County of Plymouth, on the 4th November (old style) 
1729. His j)romisiug talents and early jjroficiencv in lit- 
erature, gave his friends fair hoj)es that he was destined to 
adorn a professional character ; advantages were, accord- 
ingly, afl'orded him for acipiiring a good education. The 
natural bias of his mind led him to turn bis attention to 
the medical art ; and he was regidarly instructed under 
the tuition of Dr. Ezekiel Hersey of Ilingbain, a physi- 
cian of eminence, and one of tlie generous benefactors of 
Harvard College. 

At the age of 22 he left his instructcr with sentiments of 
friendship and esteem, which were cherished to the end of 



196 WILLIAM BRADFORD. 

liis life, and commenced tlie practice of physic in the 
town of Warren, State of Rhode Ishiiul. His affable and 
affectionate manner, imited to his skill and success, soon 
trained him a liberal encouragement, which seldom falls to 
the share of so young a practitioner, however meritorious. 
He was particularly well qualified in the art of surgery, 
■was considered as tlie principal operative surgeon in the 
vicinity where he resided and in an extended circle, per- 
forming difficult operations with great dexterity, skill and 
judgment. In April, 1751, he married Miss Mary LeBaron, 
daughter of Dr. Lazarus LeBaron of Plymouth. A union 
with an amiable partner, rendered his domestic life happy, 
as his public life w'as honorable and useful. After a few 
years he found it convenient to remove from Warren to 
iBristol, where he erected an elegant seat on that memora- 
ble and romantic spot. Mount Hope. Some time after his 
residence in this town, he entered upon the study and the 
practice of the law, not only from motives of indulging 
his own taste for juridical science, but to gratify that pro- 
pensity to industry and usefulness, which animated him in 
all his pursuits. His great assiduity, correctness and can- 
dor in his office at the bar, procured him a rank among 
the first civilians of Rhode Island, and it may be justly 
said of him that very few^ ever arrived so near to superior 
eminence, in two professions which required so much at- 
tention necessary to a proper discharge of each. 

He was a leading member of the committee of corres- 
pondence when our struggle with England commenced, 
and having taken a decided part in favor of the rights of 
the colonies, he was considered as a jiillar in the cause of 
the revolution, and sustained a distinguished rank in the 
councils of New England in those trying times. During 
the cannonade of Bristol in the evening of October 7th 
1775, by the Rose, Glasgow and Siren men of war. Gov- 
ernor Bradford went on board the Rose in behalf of the 
inhabitants, and treated Avith Captain Wallace for the ces- 
sation of the bombardment. His own house was among 
the ruins of this invasion, (See Providence Gazette, Octo- 
ber 14th, 1775). In the year 1792 he was elected by the 
suffrages of his fellow citizens a Senator to Congress, 
wliere he was chosen President of that body pro tempore ; 
biit unambitious of public honors, and, like liis friend the 
immortal Washington, fond of retirement from the busy 
V^orld, he soon resigned his seat in that august body, for 




Sl;jM-rt fi 



iirt:- 



s' (()) m H m iR eO) <:()) ik. § i^ii oiii) 



I'eitd/etcjis- Li.tht;. Hostvn,. 



JOHN BROOKS. 197 

tlic deliglitful shades of his fiivoritc retreat at Mount 
Hope. He "Was frequently called to fdl oflices of jjreat 
trust in his own state, as l)ej)wty Ciovernor, and Sjx-aker of 
the Ilotise of Assemhly, the duties of which olhce for many 
years he disch:ir<!,ed with honor and fuh-iity. It may he 
said of him that, excepting a few years hefore his death, lie 
Avas continually in the alternate discharj^e of the duties of 
jnihlic anil private life. Me, notwithstandintj, acijuired an 
independent fortune, not more from his characteristic hah- 
its of industry, than from the practice of economy ; in each 
of which he was an e\am])le worthy of imitation. 

His conduct through life, was modelled on the standard 
of strict morality and the warmest j)hilanthropy. His 
heart Avas ever open to the wants of the poor, and it was 
his practice, for many years, to dej)Osit with the clergy- 
man of the parish, a liheral sum to he distrihuted at the 
discretion of the minister among the worthy ohjects of 
charity. He was averse to ostentation and parade in at- 
tendance, although hospital)le to a provcrh, and he would 
often say that he wished not to survive his ahility to wait 
upon himself. He was an early riser, walking over his 
extensive domains hefore the sun a])peared ; temperate and 
moderate in his enjovments, and uniformly retirinir in the 
evening at an early hour ; he thus j)reserved health and 
activity to fourscore jTars. He was sociahle in his dis])0- 
sition ; and his greatest solicitude was to make his family 
and friends happy, from whom he derived more than com- 
mon satisfaction and enjoyment. By his liheral entertain- 
ment of associates and strangers, he cheered the solitary 
hours of a single life during 38 years ])revious to his de- 
cea.«!e, his wife having died Octoher 2d 1775. His own 
departure took place in Bristol, Rhode Island, July 6ih 
1808. Bisho]) Griswold, then Rector of St. Michael's 
Church, delivered a sermon at his interment, from Gene- 
sis -lOth chaj)ter. ^Oth and 3 1st verses, whi( h was j)rinted. 
His eldest son, M.ijor Williiun Bradforil, was aid to Gen- 
eral ("harles Let' of the revolutioiiarv armv. 

BROOKS, JOHN, M.I). M.M.S.S. et LI>.I). The 
Honorahle John Brooks was horn in Medford, Massachu- 
setts, in the year 1752. His father. Captain Calel) Brooks, 
was a resjx'ctahle, independ(>nt farmer, and the son spent 
his earliest years in the usual occupations of a farm. He 
received no education preparatory to his professional stud- 
ies, but that of the town school ; at which, however, he 



198 JOHN BROOKS. 

was able to acquire sufficient of the learned languages to 
qualify him for the profession of medicine. At the age of 
fourteen he was placed under the tuition of Dr. Simon 
Tufts of Medford, by a written indenture as an apprentice 
for seven years ; this being the usual custom of that day. 
No master was ever more faithful to his charge, and the 
pupil by his amiable deportment and excellent conduct 
abundantly repaid his master's care. At this school the 
celebrated Count Rumford was his companion and friend, 
and their intimacy was continued by correspondence until 
the death of the Count. The skill and science of the in- 
structer and the indefatigable attention of the pupil, sup- 
plied the deficiencies arising from the want of a liberal 
education. His progress in medical science and in judi- 
cious practical observation, was such as to secure the con- 
fidence and respect of his master during his pupilage ; the 
amiable traits of his character were more fully developed, 
and he began to manifest that talent and fondness for mili- 
tary discipline which were eminently displayed at a sub- 
sequent period, and contributed to establish that erect and 
manly port for which lie was so remarkably distinguished. 
In the hours of relaxation from study he amused himself 
with the drill and exercise of the soldier. His manners 
were so gentle and attractive, that he was the delight of 
all the village boys : they collected about him as the chief 
source of their pleasures and amusements ; he formed them 
into companies, and trained and exercised them in all the 
duties of military discipline. Dr. Tufts's yard was often 
converted into a trainfield, and displayed in miniature all 
" the pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war." 

Having finished his studies, he chose the neighboring 
town of Reading as his residence, and commenced his 
practice there. But by this time the storm" of the revolu- 
tionary war was gathering, and, as its distant thunders 
rolled towards our shores, the hearts of the gallant youth 
of our country responded to the sound, and preparations 
for the field superseded the minor concerns of life. A 
company of minute men was raised in the town, and young 
Brooks was chosen its commander. He was indefatigable 
in drilling and disciplining them, having first gained some 
knowledge himself by observing the military trainings of 
the British soldiers in Boston. He was soon called upon 
for actual service. On the news of the expedition of the 
British to Lexington and Concord, he instantly marched 



JOHN BROOKS. 199 

with such of his company as were prepared, and ordered 
the rest to follow. Tiicy were delayed on the road l)y the 
orders of a higher oHicer ; hut Brook.';, tlu']i about twenty- 
two years of age, and the brave yoiuig men of his cojnpa- 
ny, puslied on towards Concord, and as they drew near to 
the town they met the whole British force returning. He 
immediately ordered his corps to place themselves l)ehind 
the barns and fences, and fire continually on the British. 
Tiiey did great execution, and contribulcd much to pro- 
duce that panic with which the proud, but humbled, troops 
retreated to their (piarters in Boston. 

The military talents and calm courage which he dis- 
played on this occasion, were remarkable in a young man 
only twenty-two years of age, wiio had never seen a battle. 
They were noticed by those who had the direction of pub- 
lic affairs, and he soon after received the commission of 
Major in the continental army. He now entered on the 
duties of a soldier with ardor, and devoted all the powers 
of his mind to the cause of his country and the j)rofession 
of arms. He carried into the service a mind pure and ele* 
vated, and ardent in the pursuit of knowledgi-. He had a 
high sense of moral rectitude, which governed all his ac- 
tions. Licentiousness and debauchery were strangers to 
his breast ; they fled from his presence, awed l)y his supe- 
rior virtue. His gentlemanly deportment and unassuming 
manners securetl the favor of his superiors in office, and 
rendered him the delioht of his ecjuals and inferiors. When 
our troo})s were preparing to fortify Buidier's Hill, Major 
Brooks volunteered his services, and was active during the 
whole night of the 16th of June in throwing up intrench- 
ments, in reconnoitring the groimd, and in watch iiifr the 
movements of the enemy. On the morning of the 17th, 
Avhen it was perceived that the enemy were making prepa- 
rations for an assault, he was desjiatched by Colonel Pres- 
cott as a confidential oflicer to inform General Ward, then 
at Cambridge, of the movements, and to press him to send 
on reinforcements. Not a horse could be jirocnreil for this 
service, and he went on foot. This duty jnevented his 
beinj; engaged in that glorious ])attle, which has immortal- 
ized the heroes who were engaged in it, and consecr.ited 
the ground to everlastinjx fame. 

Major Brooks had already acquired such knowledge of 
tactics that he had been consulted by superior officers on 
a system of discipline to be introduced into ourannv. He 



200 JOHN BROOKS. 

now applied himself with renewed diligence to this impor- 
tant part of his duty, and soon acquired a high reputation 
as a disciplinarian. The corps he commanded were dis- 
tinguished during the Avhole war for the superiority of 
their discipline, evinced by their gallant conduct in battle 
and by their regular movements in retreat. He was con- 
sidered second only to the celebrated Baron Steuben, in 
his knowledge of tactics. After the Baron joined the army 
and was appointed Inspector General, Ave ftnd that Brooks 
was associated with him in the arduous duty of introduc- 
ing a uniform system of exercise and manoeuvres. In the 
battle of White Plains the regiment to which he belonged 
was the last to quit the field, and it retired under his com- 
mand with the steadiness of veteran soldiers, and received 
the distino[uished acknowledo:ments of General Washington 
for its gallant conduct. In the year 1777 he was promoted 
to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the 8th Massachusetts 
Regiment, the command of which devolved on him in 
consequence of the sickness of the Colonel. 

In August, 1777, Colonel Brooks was detached with a 
command under General Arnold against Colonel St. Leger, 
who with a body of Canadians, Indians and tories had be- 
sieged our fort on the Mohawk river. Advancing toward 
the enemy he captured Major Butler, and found within 
our lines one Cuyler, a proprietor of a handsome estate in 
the vicinity, who, having been much with the enemy, was 
taken up as a spy. Colonel Brooks proposed that he should 
be employed as a messenger to spread the alarm and induce 
the enemy to retreat from before our fort. General Ar- 
nold soon after arrived and approved of the scheme ; it 
was accordingly agreed that Cuyler should be liberated, 
and his estate secured to him, on the condition that he 
would return to the enemy and make such exaggerated 
report of General Arnold's force as to alarm and put them 
to flight. Tliis stratagem was successful, the Indians in- 
stantly determined to quit their ground and make their 
escape, nor was it in the power of St. Leger and his offi- 
cers, with all their arts of persuasion, to prevent it. The 
capture of General Burgoyne and his army may be attri- 
buted in no small degree to the gallant conduct of Colonel 
Brooks and liis regiment, on the 7th of October, in the 
battle of Saratoga. Witli fearless intrepidity he led on his 
regiment, turning the right of the enemy, stormed their 
entrenchments, entering them at the head of hi?: men with 



JOHN BROOKS. 



«0I 



sword in hand, and put to rout the veteran German 
troops which defeniled tlieni. It was on this occasion that 
he wrote to a friend: — "We have met the British and 
Hessiims and have beat them ; and not content with this 
victory, we have assaulted their intrenchments and carried 
them." In the battle at Monmouth lie was acting Adju- 
tant General, and on this as on all occasions conducted 
with great coolness and l)ravery. 

The confidence wiiich Washington reposed in him was 
shown on many occasions, and particularly in calling him 
to his councils in that terrible moment when at Newburgh, 
in March, 1783, a conspiracy of some of tlie officers, ex- 
cited by the ])ublication of inflammatory anonymous let- 
ters, had well nigh disgraced the army and ruined the 
country. On this occasion the commander in cliief, to 
whom this was the most anxious moment of his life, rode 
up to Brooks with intent to ascertain how the officers stood 
affected. Finding him, as he expected, to be sound, he 
requested him to keep his ofiicers within cpiarters to j)re- 
vent tliem from attending the insurgent meeting ; Brooks 
replied, " Sir, I have anticipated your wishes, and my or- 
ders are ;^iven." Washington, with tears in his eyes, took 
him by the hand and said, "Colonel Brooks, this is just 
what I expected from you." Colonel Brooks was one of 
the committee who brought in the resolutions of the offi- 
cers expressing their abliorrcnce of this vile })lot. So 
strongly were his brother officers impressed with his wis- 
dom and j)rudcnce, that they appointed him one of tlieir 
connnittee to make an adjustment of their accounts witli 
Congress. W^ishington did not forget him after the war 
was over, Imt afterward when an army was raised in ex- 
pectation of a war with France, he designated him for the 
command of a brigade. Believing, however, that the dan- 
gers of the coimtry were not so imminent as to recjuire a 
second sacrifice of domestic comfort, he declined the ap- 
pointment. 

The following pages are copied from Dr. Dixwell's me- 
moir of Governor Brooks. 

" After the army was disbanded Colonel Brooks return- 
ed to private life, rich in the laurels he had won, in the 
affections of his fellow soldiers and in the esteem of the 
wise and good. He was not only free from the vices inci- 
dent to a military life, but, what was remarkable, he had 
acquired more elevated sentiments of moralitv and religion. 
«6 



202 JOHN BROOKS. 

He was received in his native town with all the kindness, 
the congratulations and attentions wliich love and friendship 
could elicit; or respect inspire. He was rich in honor and 
glory, but he had nothing to meet the claims of his beloved 
family, but the caresses of an affectionate heart. 

" His old friend Dr. Tufts being infirm and advanced in 
life, was desirous of relincpiishing his practice into the 
hands of his favorite pupil, whom he thought so worthy of 
confidence. His fellow townsmen responded to the wishes 
of his patron. He accordingly recommenced the practice 
of physic, under the most favorable auspices, in Medford 
and the neighboring towns. He was' soon after elected a 
fellow of this society, and was one of its most valuable and 
respected members.* On the extension and new organiza- 
tion of the society, in the year 1803, he was elected a 
counsellor, and continued to discliarge the duties of this 
office with fidelity until he Avas Governor of the Common- 
wealth. He was then discontinued at his own request. In 
the year 1808, by the appointment of the board of coun- 
sellors, he delivered an anniversary discourse on Pneumo- 
nia, which has been published, and evinces a mind well 
stored with medical science and correct practical obser- 
vation. 

" On his retiring from the chair of state, he was again 
chosen a counsellor, with the view of electing him Presi- 
dent of our society. It is unnecessary for me to expatiate 
on the pride and satisfaction we derived from his accept- 
ing this honor. Yovir own feelings will best convey to 
you the height of tlie honor wliich he reflected on our so- 
ciety. That he felt a deep interest in our prosperity, we 
have ample evidence in his so kindly remembering us in 
his will.f 

" As a physician he ranked in the first class of prac- 
titioners. He possessed in an eminent degree those quali- 
ties which were calculated to render liim the most useful 
in his professional labors, and the delight of those to whom 
he administered relief. His manners were dignified, court- 
eous and benign. He was kind, patient and attentive. 
His kind offices were peculiarly acceptable from the feli- 
citous manner in which he performed them. His mind 
was well furnished with scientific and practical knowledge. 

* Massachusetts Medical Society. 

+ Governor Brooks benuf^athed to tlio Massachusetts Medical Society the wholt 
of iiii medical library, wiiicli contains niamv valuabla works. 



JOHN BROOKS. 



203 



He was accurate in his invest iyat ions, and clear in his dis- 
cerinncnt. He, therefore, rarely iaihd in fbrniin<r a true 
diatrnosis. If he were not so bohl and (hirin<r as some, in 
the administration of renietlies, it was because liis jud<;nient 
and «'ood sense k'd him to i)refcr erring on the side of pru- 
dence rather than on that of rashne^s. He watched the 
0])erations of nature, and never interfered, unless it was 
obvious he could aid and support her. He was truly, the 
'■'■ Hierophant of nature,'' studying her mysteries and obey- 
ing her oracles. 

'^ In his practice, he added dignity to his profession by 
his elevated and ui)righl conduct. His lofty spirit could 
not stoop to the empirical arts which are too often adopt- 
ed to obtain a temporary ascendancy. He soared above 
the sordid consideration of the property he should accu- 
mulate by his professional labors. Like the good and 
great Boerhaave, he considered the poor his best patients, 
for God was their paymaster. In short, he was the con- 
scientious, the skilful and the benevolent j)hysician — the 
grace and ornament of our profession. 

'' His mind, however, was not so exclusively devoted 
to his professional duties, as to prevent his taking a deep 
interest in the affairs of state. He had contributed so 
lart^ely toward*; establishing the independence of his coun- 
try, and had exhibited such sincere devotion to its welfare, 
that his countrymen, who have ever been distinguished for 
the acuteness of their discernment in judging of public 
men and measures, were always ready to display their con- 
fidence in him. They felt an assurance that they might 
safely rci)()se on his conscientious integrity, wisdom and 
patriotism. He was consc<iuently called to fill numerous 
offices of hiiih importance in the state. 

" He was for m:uiv years major-general of the militia 
of his county, and established in his division such excel- 
lent discipline, and infused into it such an admiral)le spirit 
of emulation, that it was a mosi brilliant example for the 
militia of the state. In tlie insurrection of 17SG, his divi- 
sion was very ellicient in th'eir protection of the courts of 
justice, and in their supjiort of tlie iiovernment of the 
state. At this time Gen. Brooks represented his town in 
general court, and he gave support to the firm and judi- 
cious measures of Gov. Bowdoin for suppressing that 
alarming rebellion. He was a dilerrate in the state conven- 
tion for the adojjtion of the federal constitution, and was 



204 JOHN BROOKS. 

one of its most zealous advocates. After the establishment 
of the federal government, he was the second marshal ap- 
pointed by Washington for this district, and afterwards re- 
ceived further evidence of his confidence and approbation, 
by being appointed inspector of the revenue.* He was 
successively elected to the senate and executive council of 
the state. He was appointed by the acute and discriminat- 
ing Gov. Strong, as liis adjutant-general, in that perilous 
crisis of our affairs, the late w^ar with England. Tlie pru- 
dence and discretion with which he discharged this ardu- 
ous duty, will be long remembered by his grateful coun- 
trymen. 

" These multifarious and laborious public services were 
performed with so much punctuality and ability, and with 
such dignity and urbanity, that on the retirement of Gov. 
Strong in the year 1816, wise and discreet legislators from 
all parts of the commonwealth, selected him as the most 
suitable candidate for that high and responsible office. It 
will be recollected, how forcibly every judicious mind was 
impressed with tlie excellence of the selection, and how 
strongly the public suffrages confirmed that opinion. His 
very name seemed to disarm party spirit with talismanic 
power ; for many, who had never acted Avith his political 
friends, prided themselves in testifying their unlimited 
confidence in him. 

"It is fresh in your memories, with what trembling ap- 
prehensions he shrunk from the lofty altitude of the chair 
of state, and yet when placed there, with what singular 
ease and dignity he presided, and with what signal ability 
he discharged its various important duties. His govern- 
ment was firm and decided, yet it was so mild and gentle, 
that its influence was chiefly perceptible in his happy faci- 
lity of allaying party spirit and all the angry passions of 
our nature. It Avas like that of a beloved and revered 
parent, whom all are disposed to honor and obey. 

" Amidst these high military and political honors which 
his fellow citizens took delight in bestowing on him, al- 
most every institution of a literary, religious, patriotic, be- 

* When President Washington visited JNIassachusctts in the year 1789, he ap- 
peared solicitous to show Gen. Brooks that he held his character in high estimation, 
and cherished a strong; personal regard for him. Among other attentions he review- 
ed his division ol Ihc militia, and expressed the highest approbation of its discipline, 
and when he was about to depart for Salem he requested to take Gen. Brooks's 
house in his course, although a deviation from his route, that he might take leave of 
his friend and compatriot in arm?. 



JOBIt DROOKft. 205 

nevoleiit or j)rofessionnl character, seemed to vie wilh each 
other ill conlcrriiij; their hii^hest lionors on liim. Harvard 
University a(kii()\vlrcl<;ed the vahie of his litcrarv a( (juirc- 
incnts, hy coiih'rriiijj on him the tlejjree of A. ftl., in the 
year 1787, ami in ISIG lie received the liighest honors of 
that seminary, the degrees of M.D. and LL.D. 

" The society of (yincinnati recoijiiiscd liiiii a< one of 
their most ilistiiimiishcd members. lie was cU'( ted to dc- 
liver the first oration heCorcthem onthelth ol July, 17iS7 ; 
and on the deatii of Gen. Lincoln, their first presitlcnt, 
Gen. Brooks was elected to succeed him. 

" He was a member of tlie Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
He was President of tlie Washin<rton Moiniment Associa- 
tion, of the Bunker Hill Monument Association, and of 
the Bil)le Society of Massachusetts. 

" Having; faithfully and ably discharj^cd the duties of 
chief maiiistratc for seven successive years, he expressed 
his determination to retire from the cares and anxieties of 
public life. How fjreat were the j)ublic regrets, and how 
gladly would a larije majority of his fellow citizens have 
retained his valuable services ; but tliey forebore urging 
liiin to any further sacrifices for the good of his country. 
He retired to private life with dignity, ami with the love 
and blessings of a grateful jieople. 

'■'■ Having imperfectly traced the brilliant patli of his pub- 
lic career, let us for a moment contemplate Gov. Brooks 
in his private character ; and perhaps we may discover the 
true source of all his greatness, ihe charm which bound 
the hearts of his countrymen to him in ties so strong. He 
j)Osscssed a heart free from all guile, and every inor- 
dinate fclfish feeling — an eveimcss of temjicr and sweetness 
of disj)osition. His discordant passions, for we presume 
he had thi'in, being human, were kept in comj)lete subjec- 
tion to his virtues. He hatl a peculiar tomposureand 
complacency of countenance ; and the ilclicacy and courte- 
ousncss of his manners were imcommonly attractive. But 
above all, his conduct was regiilated by the influence of 
that jiure morality, derived from our holy religion, which 
was impressed deeplv on his mind at an earlv period of 
life. 

" The mind of Gov. Brooks was clear in its perceptions, 
and discriminating in its judgment ; it was active, ardent 
and industrious in the pursuit of every valuable attain- 
ment, and powerful in the a]»j)lication of those attainnicntt 



J206 J^OHN BROOKS. 

for the benefit of others. Although his mind shrunk from 
observation, with the delicate excitability of the sensitive 
plant, it was like the oak in sustaining the pressure of every 
duty to his friends or his country. 

" In his relation to his native town, he completely re- 
versed the maxim, that a prophet has no honor in his own 
country, for the inhabitants of Medford idolized him. 
They knew liis worth, and fully appreciated it. He was 
truly their friend and benefactor. He took so deep an in- 
terest in all their concerns, let their station in life be ever 
so humble, that they could always approach him with ease 
and confidence. They referred to him all their disputes, 
and so judicious were his decisions, that he had the rare 
felicity to satisfy all parties, and to reconcile them to 
bonds of amity. It was observed by an eminent lawyer, 
who resided there, that he had no professional Inisiness in 
Medford, for Gov. Brooks prevented all contentions in the 
law. In addition to these intrinsic services, he was the 
grace and the ornament of their social circles, and seemed 
to fill up the measure of all their enjoyments. 

" But what avail these noble talents, these splendid 
achievements or these godlike virtues ! The grim messen- 
ger of death has swept them from our reach. Our beloved 
and revered friend- in whom they were so eminently dis- 
played, now lies a cold and inanimate clod of the valley, 
' and the places which knew him, shall know him no more 
for ever.' ' But thanks be to God, who giveth us the 
victory !' his spirit has risen to Him who gave it, and his 
virtues shall remain engraven on our hearts." 

His death took place March 1st, 1825, in the 73d year of 
his age. His wife died early in life. He had one daughter, 
who married the Rev. George Oakley Stewai-t of Quebec, 
where she resided until her decease. His sons were Alexan- 
der Scammel and John, both of whom devoted themselves 
to tlie service of their country.. The former is a major 
in tlie artillery of the United States army, and inherits his 
paternal estate. The latter, beautiful and accomplished, 
was a lieutenant in the navy, and died in the midst of vic- 
tory, heroically fighting for his country, in the glorious 
battle of Lake Erie. 

At a meetiu<5 of the counsellors of tlie Massachusetts 
Medical Society, March 2d, 1825, it was '■'■Resolved, that the 
coimsellors regard witli deep sensibility the loss by death 
of the late president of the society; and that they feel as- 



ARCHIBALD BRUCE- 207 

sured that they shall express the sentiments of the society 
as they do their own, in stutinir that the society has derived 
honor from l\avin«r luid as tlieir head a mun lieloved in 
private life, justly respected in ins profession, and distin- 
guished in his state and coi'.ntry, for the faithful and hon- 
orable performance of hi;:h miliiary and civil duties." 
A large nnmbcr of the members of the society attended the 
funeral solemnities in conjunction v/ith the mendiers of 
the Cincinnati and several other societies to v/hicJi the de- 
ceased bclonircd, a:id a p;reut concourse of our most distin- 
guished citizens, who uiilL'-.i with the afllicted relatives and 
connexions in te.Uifying th.'ir respect for his memory 

BRUCE, ARCHIBALD, M.D. was born in thecity of 
New-York, in February, 17'?7. His father, William Bruce, 
was at that time at the head of the medical department of 
the British army tlicn statioiied at New-York. He had 
early determined that his son Archibald should not be 
bronglit np to tlie medical profession ; fvnd enjoined such 
instruction upon his wife and friends to wdiom the charge 
of the boy was committed upon the occasion of his being 
ordered to the We^t India station. After his decease the 
same injunction was repeated by his uncle, then in Europe. 

Young Archibald Avas first placed ])y his mother under 
the care of William Almon, M.D. of Halifax, a particular 
friend of her husband. Here, however, he remained but 
a sliort time, and returning to New-York was taken to a 
school on Long-Island, under the direction of the late Pro- 
fessor Wilson, LL.D. a distinguished teacher of the dead 
languages. 

He was admitted as a student of tlie Arts in Colund>ia 
College in HOi, and duly graduated A.B. Nidiolas Ro- 
mayne, M.D. was about this time engaged in delivering 
lectures on several branches of medical learninj;, and the 
instruction of this eminent teacher was the first advance 
young Bruce made in a knowledge of phy>i<-. This he 
commenced notwithstanding the prohibition of his friends, 
and even while engaged in the school of arts. He after- 
ward became a private pu})il of Dr. Hosack, and attended 
the several courses of instruction delivered l>y the Medical 
Facnlty of Colnmbia Collece. In 1793 he repaired to Eu- 
rope, and in ISDO obtained the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine from the I'niversity of KdinbMr<rh, after havinir de- 
fended his inaugural exercise, •• De \ ariola \ accina." 



SOS ARCHIBALD BRUCE. 

He was now amply prepared to make an advantageous 
visit to the Continent, and enlarge the stock ol medical 
and physical science which he had already accumulated 
both in his own country and at the famous Scotch school 
of medicine. If there was any one particular branch of 
natural study whicli was more peculiarly attractive to him, 
it was mineralogy ; and his subsequent success in this de- 
partment is to be accounted for from the admirable and 
peculiar opportunities he possessed in New-York while 
under the care of his medical preceptor. Dr. Hosack. Dr. 
H. had but a short time previous to this period returned 
from Europe with a cabinet of minerals, the first one in- 
troduced into the American States, and it was arranged by 
the conjoint assistance of young Bruce. This exercise first 
awakened his attention to this branch of study, and laid 
the foundation of that reputation which was afterward so 
readily awarded him. 

During a tour of two years in France, Switzerland and 
Italy, Dr. Bruce collected a mineralogical cabinet of great 
value and extent. Upon his return to England he married 
in London, and came out to New-York in the summer of 
1803, to enter upon the duties of a practitioner of medicine. 

In 1806 was passed the act establishing the state and 
county medical societies, one of the most important meas- 
ures ever adopted by the legislature of New-York ; and in 
the following year was organized the College of Physicians 
aiKl Surgeons of tlie University of New-York by the hon- 
orable the Board of Regents. In this new institution Dr. 
Bruce was appointed Professor of Materia Medica and Min- 
eralogy, and continued to give public instruction on those 
branches to the students of the university until the reor- 
ganization of tlie college in 1811, when the presidency of 
that establishment was placed under the authority of the 
venerable Samuel Bard, and his own professorship of Mate- 
ria Medica transferred to Benjamin DeWitt, M.D. and the 
office of Registrar to John W. Francis. The chair of min- 
eralogy was subsecjuently filled by Professor DeWitt, who 
upon the demise of Dr. Bruce became the proprietor of 
his valualde cal)inet of minerals. These and other changes 
in the college were the result of the deliberations of the 
regents, who assigned as a reason for their adoption, that 
intestine feuds had greatly marred the progress of the in- 
stitution, and that these as well as other measures had be- 



THOMAS BULFmCH. 209 

come necessary in orilor to cnaMc tlie college to go on in 
the nuircli of ofl'octive ini|)i()vt'ni(iit. 

J)r. Hnice, in coinuxioM with his friend Romayue and 
sevcivil other gentieuuMj, afterward constituted another 
medic^ faculty, and lie delivered lectures on his favorite 
studies, mineralogy and materia medica, for some short 
while, when the institution was dissolved. 

In 1810 lie coiniuenced the editorshij) of a Journal of 
American Mineralogy, after the manner of the well known 
work issued by the School of Mines at Paris. It met with 
becoming success, and had many valualde contributors to 
its pages ; but owing to various causes was never carried 
beyond the completion of the first volume ; a circumstance 
the less to be regretted by the friends of science, as the 
jieriodical work of Professor Sillijnan now started into ex- 
istence. The mineralofjical journal contributed materially 
to extend the fame of Dr. Bruce, as well as his discovery 
of the hydrate of magnesia, at Hoboken. He was enrolled 
as a member of the American Philosophical Society, of 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York, be- 
sides other institutions in his own covuitry and learned asso- 
ciations in Europe. Among his distin<Tuishcd (•orresj)ond- 
ents abroad, it is sufficient to mention llauy and Jameson. 

After repeated attacks of severe indisposition Dr. Bruce 
died in his native city, of an apoplexy, on the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, 1818, in the forty-first year of his age. About the 
same time his wife also died, leaving no i.ssuc. — Sec Silli- 
inan''s Journal^ Voh. I. and I J". 

BULFINCH, THOMAS, M.D. was the son of Adino 
Bulfinch, who came to this country from England about 
the year 1C80. He was actively engaged in < ommercial 
pursuits in Boston, and was cho.«en by that town Surveyor 
of Hifjhways in HOO. His son, the subject of this me- 
moir, was born in 1G94. He did not receive a college ed- 
ucation, l)ut obtained the rudiments of medical instruction 
under Dr. Zabdicl Boylston. Letters from him still ex- 
tant show that he studied anatomy and surgery in London 
under the famous Cheselden in 1718, and afterwards com- 
pleted his medical studies at Paris in 1721. Dr. Boylston 
wished him to join him in partnership, which he dcclinrd, 
as at the time of the invitation he had not completed his 
regidar course of lectures. On his return to Boston he 
married the (huiffhter of John Colman, a distinjruished 
merchant, brother of Dr. Benjamin Colman, first pastor 
«7 



jjH) THOMAS BULFINCH. 

of Brattle Street Church. Tlie following obituary notice 
is from the pen of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Cooper, who mar- 
ried his only daughter. 

Boston^ December Stk 1757. Last Friday morning, died, 
universally lamented, Dr. Thomas Bulfinch in the 63d 
year of his age. He was a gentleman whose knowledge, 
fidelity and success in his business rendered him an orna- 
ment to his profession ; as the easiness and composure of 
his behavior, and the agreeableness of his manners, made 
him amiable in f\imiliar life. He was a tender husband, an 
affectionate father, a just and kind master, and a constant, 
unshaken friend. His piety was sober and unaffected, his 
temper luunane and benevolent, his heart felt for the dis- 
tresses of others, and his hands were ever ready to relieve 
them. He was a lover of English liberty, of good order, 
and good government ; and in Itis family a pattern of econ- 
omy and hospitality : so that the public have reason to 
regret his loss, not only as an excellent physician, but as a 
good citizen whose example was beneficial to the commu- 
nity. 

BULFINCH, THOMAS, M.D. the only son of the 
preceding, was born in Boston in 1728, and fitted for col- 
lege in the Latin school under Mr. Jolin Lovell ; he was 
distinguished for his classical attainments, and entered col- 
lege in 1 742 ; the class was small on account of the trou- 
bled state of the times occasioned by the efforts making by 
the Pretender of the house of Stuart for the recovery of 
the British crown. It consisted of only twelve members, 
of whom the venerable Dr. Holyoke of Salem survives. 
After leaving college he entered upon his studies with his 
father in 1753, and afterward passed four years in Eng- 
land and Scotland, attending the hospitals in London, and 
going through a regular course of instruction at Edin- 
burgh, where he took his degree of M.D. in 1757. Being 
called home by the deatli of his father, he returned and 
commenced the practice of medicine at Boston. In Sep- 
tember, 1759, he married Susan, tha daughter of Charles 
Apthorp, Esq. 

At the general spread of the smallpox in 1763, he was 
actively engaged in introducing the antiplilogistic mode of 
treatment in that disease, which was attended with extraor- 
dinary success ; and in conjunction with Drs. Joseph War- 
ren, Gardiner and Perkins, attempted the establishment of 
a smallpox hospital at Point Shirley in Boston Harbor, 



THOMAS fiULFir^CH. 211 

which was soon relinquished for want of encouragement, 
the prejudice beiii<j very stronii; aa;ain.st ii vohiiitary ami, as 
it was (hen ralicil, a j)icsiiiii|)tu()us cxpOKure to ilihease. 
Dr. HuHiiuii lived in the sti>rniy jieriod which led to the 
revolutionary war ; he was in feeliujj; and jjriiiciple a 
decided friend to the rights of the colonies, but remained 
with his family in Boston while the place was occupied by 
the British troops in lllo. He was t-ubjccted not only to 
the j)rivatious ( onunon to llie inhal>itanls, hut to tlif loss 
of a lariiC quantity of niedicinc lorcihly taken by order of 
the British oeneral for tlie use of ihv troops, without any 
acknowleilgment or renuuieration. lie had, however, the 
pleasure of seeing the enemy abandon our shores in March, 
177t), and tlie town immediately occupieil by the patriot 
army of liis fellow countrymen. Aft<'r tiiis time he enjoy- 
ed an extensive jjractici-, aiul numbered among his friends 
Governors Ilancot k ami Bowdoin. 

The character of Dr. Bullinch was of tiie same mild and 
unobtrusive kind as that of his father ; he was possessed of 
the same cheerfulness and noodnt.'ss of heart, ami sincere 
and uiq)retendin;r pi^^'ty- Contented witli the love and es- 
teem of his munerous accpuiintance, and especially of all 
who came under his professional care, he avoided every 
occasion of public disj)lay ; and when on tlie formation of 
the Massachusetts Meilical Society he was invited to take 
a Icailintj part in that institution, he declinetl it u})on the 
plea that such undertakings should of ri^ht devolve on the 
younger mendjers of the profession. He j)ublished only 
two small treatises, one on the treatment of scarlet fever, 
in the cure of which he was remarkably successful ; and 
the other on the yellow fever, a subject tiien but little un- 
derstood, and which seemed to baflle at the time all the 
efforts of medical practitioners. Of an active, healthy 
frame, ami distiii<ruished for an imconunon attraction of 
j)erson and elegance of manners, he continued in jtractice 
until two years previous to Ids death, which took plate in 
February, 1802. He left one son, who is the ingenious 
architect and superintendent of the public buildings at the 
city of Washington, and two daughters ; all of whom 
were married durin<i the life of the father, the son to Han- 
nah, the daughter of John Apthorj), Est)., his elder dan::Ii. 
ter to Geoijie Storer and the younger to Josej)h Coo- 
lidge, son of Joseph Coolidge, Esq. 



t\% WILLIAM BULL. 

BULL, WILLIAM, M.D. was the son of the Hon. Wil- 
liam Bull, Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina in 
1738. He was the first white })orson horn in South Caro- 
lina, and is supposed to he the first American who ohtaincd 
a degree in medicine. He was a pu})il of the great Boer- 
haave, and distinguishetl for his knowledge of medicine 
and literature. In 1734 he defended and published at the 
University of Leyden, his inaugural thesis ••' de Colica Pic- 
tonum ;" and he is quoted by Van Swieten as his fellow 
student in very respectful terms, as the learned Dr. Bull. 
After returning from Europe to his native State, he was 
elected successively a member of the Council, Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, and in 1764 Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, wliit h office he held for many years. When the 
British troops removed from South Carolina in 1782, he 
accompanied them to England, and died in London, July 
4th, 1791, in the 82d year of his age. 

CADWALLADER,' THOMAS, M D. This eminent 
physician was born in Philadelphia, and was the son of 
John Cadwallader. After finishing his studies in this coun- 
try, which were conducted under the father of Dr. John 
Jones, late of New-York, he completed his medical educa- 
tion in Europe, and settled in Philadelphia, where he 
practised medicine many years with the most distinguished 
reputation. 

Upon the establishment of the Pennsylvania hospital in 
the year 1752, he was elected one of its physicians, and was 
honored by an annual re-election until the time of his 
death, which was more than thirty years after the erection 
of that institution. Having studied anatomy under the 
celebrated Dr. Chcselden in London, on his return home 
he made dissections and demonstrations for the elder Ship- 
pen and some others who had not been abroad. This 
probably was the first business of tlie kind ever performed 
in Pennsylvania. He was greatly useful in promoting the 
interest of the Hospital, College and Philosophical Society, 
and always had a great share of well merited influence 
with his fellow citizens. Among the earliest publications 
on a medical subject in America was " An Essay on the 
Iliac Passion," by Dr. Cadwallader, printed about the year 
1740, in whicli he exploded the practice, which till that 
time was common in the country, of giving quicksilver 
and drastic purgatives. He recommended in their place 



THOMAS CADWALLADER. 213 

mild cathartics, and the use of opiates. Dr. Ruph used to 
quote it constantly in his h'cturcs \villi praise. In some of 
the British Journals this practice is mentioned as the most 
successful in Enijland in tho.-^e counties Aviiere the di^ease 
still prevails ; in our own country it seldom occurs at 
present. 

As a j)hysician, he was uncommonly attentive and hu- 
mane ; and as a man, he was as remarkable for the tender- 
ness and benevolence of his disj)()sition. Constantly l)lcst 
with a serene mind, it was as rare to sec him too much 
cast down l)y bad, as tmusually elated by good fortune. 
So distinguished a trait was this cheerfjd disj)osition in his 
character, that it was once the means of saving his lile on 
an occasion so extraordinary as to deserve mention ; for 
while it serves lo point out the importance of good humor, 
more than the perusal of volumes on the subject, it also 
tends to show that an amiable behavior, and politeness of 
manner, are not only pleasing, l)ut useful in our inter- 
course with the world. A provincial officer before the 
independence of this country, soured by some disirust, 
became weary of life, and resolved to deprive himself of 
an existence which was no longer a ])leasure, ])ut a bur- 
then to him ; with this view he walked out early one 
morning with a fusil in his hand, determiniuf; to shoot the 
first person he should meet. He had not gone far before 
he met a pretty izirl, whose beauty disarmed bim. The 
next that presented was Dr. C:ulwallader ; the Doctor 
bowed jiolitely to the officer, who tiiouyh unknown to 
him had the appearance of a gentleman, and accosted 
him with, '* Good viornins;, Sir, %chat sport V The officer 
answered the Doctor civilly, and, as he afterward de- 
clared, was so struck bv his pleasing manner and address, 
that he had no resolution to execute his desporat«' intention. 
Impelled, howrvei", by the same yloomy disj)osition that 
actiuated him when he set out, he repaired to an ac'joining 
tavern, and shot a Mr. Scull, and therel>y obtained his 
wished for end ; bein" afterwards himg in sight of the 
very housc> where be conunitted the premeditated act. 
The ceh brated Dr. John Joiu's of New-Vork was a pupil 
of Dr. ( adw;ill;uler, and when lie j)ublislie(l bis surgical 
work, he dedicated it to his venerable preceptor in the 
following language. " To you, whose whole life has 
been one continued scene of benevolence and humanity, 
the most feeble ctforts to soften hiiman misery aiul smooth 



214 ISAAC CATURALL. 

the bed of death, will, I know, be an acceptable present, 
however short the well meant zeal of the author may fall 
of his purpose. Nor will you suspect me of the vanity 
of sup])03ing I shall convey any thing new or instruct- 
ive to men ot knowledge and experience in their prof s- 
sion, much less to yourself ; to whose excellent precepts, 
both in physic and morals, I owe the best and earliest les- 
sons of my life ; and if I have attained to any degree of 
estimation with my fellow citizens, it is with the most sin- 
cere and heartfelt pleasure that I publicly acknowledge the 
happy source." 

CATHRALL, ISAAC, M.D. was a native of Philadel- 
phia, and studied medicine under the direction of the late 
Dr. John Redman, the preceptor of Rush and Wistar. 
After acquiring all the instruction in his profession, which 
the opj)ortunities of our capital offered, aided by a dili- 
gent attention on his part, he visited Europe, and attended 
the practice of the London hospitals, and the lectures of 
the most distinguished professors in that city. He con- 
tinued his studies at Edinburgh, and finally visited Paris. 
He then returned home in the beo;inning of the year 1793, 
and commenced practice in Philadelphia. He obtained a 
very respectable share of business, and was uniformly dis- 
tinguished by regular attention to his patients, and the 
faithful performance of the duties imposed upon him by 
his profession. It may be safely said that he never lost a 
patient for want of either. During the prevalence of the 
widely destroying epidemic fevers of 1793, '97, '98, and 
'99, he remained in the city, instead of seeking safety by 
flying, and was a severe sufferer by the disease of the first 
of those years. Previously to his illness, and after his 
recovery, besides attending to practice, he lost no oppor- 
tunity of investigating every phenomenon connected with 
that pestilential epidemic, which could in any way tend to 
illustrate its pathology, or the peculiarities it exhibited ; 
and in the year 1794 he published his remarks thereon, 
and the mode of treatment he pursued. In conjunction 
with Dr. Physick, he dissected the bodies of some subjects 
of the fever of 1793, in order to discover the morbid ef- 
fects produced by it on the system, and in particular refer- 
ence to the nature of that singvdar, and generally fatal 
symptom, the dark colored ejection from the stomach in 
some cases of the disease. The result of their joint labors 
was published by them, with their individual signatures, 



ISAAC CATHRALL. 213 

and he afterwards continued his dissections alone, with 
iinabatiiijT zeal, whenever opportunity oHered, cluriiifr the 
Kubsequeut ei)ideini(s, and occasioual appfaiancc oi" the 
disease, \vhi< h more or less occurred lor f^everal years, 
until he obtained all the lifrht \viii( h he tboujTht dissec- 
tion and experiment could throw tipon its j)rodu(tion and 
1 ature. In the year If^OO lie reacl to tiie American I'hi- 
losoj)hical Society, of wITu h he had been ele( ted a mem- 
ber, an interestinij paper on that subject. Tliis paper 
affords ample evidence of the patient and accurate manner 
in whicli he investigated that hitherto inexj)li<al)le and 
suj)posed pestilential ajipearance, and of his fearless zeal in 
the prosecution of medical science. It is inserted in the 
5th volume of the Transactions of the Society, and was also 
piddished in jiamphlet form of 32 ])ages. A full account 
of it may be found in the 4th volume of the New-York 
Medical Repository. Like the admirable papers of God- 
win on the respiration of animals, Stevens on digestion, 
and the writings of the immortal Rush, it is pointed, con- 
cise, and sententious, and shoidd be read by every mem- 
ber of the medical profession. It may well serve as a 
model for those who are engaged in exj)erimental inquiries. 

In the year 1802 he published a pamphlet in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Wm. Currie, on the epidemic pestilential 
fever that prevailed in that year in Philadelphia. 

In the year 1806 he was elected one of tiie surgeons of 
the city Alms-IIouse, and was continued by the successive 
managers of that institution until the year 1816. The ])en- 
sioners of the Aims-House warmly expressed their regret, 
when they were informed that their old friend had ceased 
to attend them. 

In the year 181 G he was appointed by the governor of 
Pennsylvania, a mcml)er of the Board of Health of Phila- 
delphia, but was contiiuied only one year, astheboartl was 
reorganized, and new mend^ers chosen by the city coun- 
cils, to whom the power was by law then given. 

In that year he was suddeidv seized, without any pre- 
vious indisposition, with a ])aralvtic affection of the nms- 
clcs of his face, tongue, and lower extremities, from which 
he ])artially recovered by medical aid in a few weeks. 
He suffered two subsecpient attacks, and his speech and 
mind became evidently affected. He frequently wandered 
in conversation, anil exhibited svmptoms of wrong associa- 
tion of ideas. At length, on the night of the 22d February, 



216 ISAAC CATHRALL. 

1819, a stroke of apoplexy, in the course of three hours, 
deprived him of life, in the 56th year of his age. 

Dr. Cathrall was not only a most judicious physiciEui, 
but an excellent anatomist and surgeon ; a close student, 
and sedulously bent on improvement in those branches of 
his profession, to wliich he more esj)ecially devoted him- 
self. He paid great attention to morbid anatomy, and lost 
no opportunity which his public practice in the alms- 
house, or private patients afibrded him, of making collec- 
tions of such parts of the human structure, as had been the 
subject of disease. Of these he left a numerous and in- 
structive collection of wet and dry preparations, and of 
bones, which, having suffered various accidents or opera- 
tions, evinced either the eflbcts of disease, or the wonder- 
ful power of nature in tlie restoration of parts, or substitu- 
tions for those which had been destroyed. He also made 
several masterly prej)arations calculated to explain certain 
nice and important operations, which to a yovmg surgeon 
must be sources of great instruction. Had his life been 
spared, it was his intention to publish a volume of interest- 
ing surgical cases he had met with, the rough materials for 
which he left ; but it is mentioned with regret, and for the 
benefit of those who read this sketch, that they are written 
in so hasty a manner, as to be decyphered with difficulty. 
He is not the first medical or scientific man, whose useful 
labors have failed to do all the good tliey might have pjo- 
duced, in consecpience of this unfortunate careless manner 
of writing. The celebrated Haller deemed an apology 
necessary in the preface to a learned Avork,* for the mis- 
takes he made in quotations, arising from this fault. But 
the evils therefrom have been so fully pointed out in a 
volumef which it is taken for granted is in the office of 
every medical man, that no remark on the subject is here 
necessary. 

Dr. Cathrall was educated in the religious principles of 
the Society of Friends, and naturally possessed a grave 
turn of mind, and a serious deportment. Retired in his 
habits, he was shy in making acquaintances, but firm in 
his friendships, and a well })red gentlemcan in his manners. 
In the important and endearing relations of a son, husband, 
and father, he was truly estimable. As a member of so- 

* Bibliotheca Medicinas Practicac, vol. iii. 

t Ruih's 16 Introd. Lectures, Philadelphia, 1811, p. 171- 



LIONEL CHALMERS. 217 

riety, he set an example of ri^id morality and infle\ibl •. 
integrity, attributes which every medical man ought to be 
jiroud to have annexed to his character, however dibtin- 
gui^hcil his literarv ac(|niicinents may be. — J. J\l. 

CHALMKRS, r.IONKL, iM.D. a'native of Great Bri- 
tain, was a graduite of the University of lidinbtirgii, and 
came to this country and settled in South Carolina. He 
was an eminent physician, and distinguislied for his va- 
rious and extensive attainments. lie made and recorded 
observations on the weather of Soutli Carolina for ten i-uc- 
cessivc years, viz. from H-OO to 17G0. He coiniMunicatcd 
to the Medical Society in London a pa])cr on '• Opi-thoto- 
nus and Tetantis" in 1751, which was published in the first 
volume of the Transactions of the society. He aho wrote 
" A Treatise on tlie Weather and Diseases of South Caro- 
lina," which was public-lied in London in 177G, and "■ An^ 
Essav on Fevers," a valual)le work, published in Charles^ 
ton7'l767. *' In this he unfoldeil the outlines (tf the mod- 
em spasmodic theory of fevers. Holfman had before 
glanced at the same principles ; but their complete illus- 
tration was reserved for Cullen, and laid the foundation of 
his fame." 

CHAUNXY, CHARLES, M.D. secoml President of 
Harvard College, xvas born in England in L'.89. He had 
his grammar education at Westminster, and was at the 
school when the gunpowder plot was to have taken effect, 
and must have perisiuul if the i>arliament house had been 
blown iij). At the I'niversity of Cambridge he commenced 
Badielor of Divinity, and took the deiiree of M.D. Being 
intimately actpiainted with Archbishop I'vher, one of the 
finest scholars in Euroj)e, he had more than common ad- 
vantages to expand his mind and make improvements in 
literature. A more learned man' than Mr. Chauncy xvas 
not to be found ainons the fathers of New Enoland. He 
had been chosen Hebrew Professor at Cambrid<ie by the 
heads of both houses, and exchanged this branch of in>truc- 
tion to oblige Dr. Williams, Vice Chainellor of the Uni- 
versity. Ho was well skilled in many oriental languages, 
but especially the Hebrew, which he knew by very close 
study, and l)y conversing with a Jew who resided in the 
same house. He was also an a<<urate Creek s( ludar, and 
wa.<5 made professor of this lan<:uai:c ^^ hen he left the other 
professorship. This uncommon «( holar be( ame a pr«'a( h- 
er, and wa« settled at Ware. lit displeased Archbishop 
2S 



218 CHARLES CIlAUNCy. 

Laud by opposing the book of sports and reflecting upon 
the discipline of the church. This being viewed as a de- 
sign to raise a fear among the peojjle that some alteration 
of religion would ensue, he was questioned in the High 
Commission, and by order of that court the cause was re- 
ferred to the Bishop of London, being his ordinary, who 
ordered him to make a submission in Latin. 

This worthy man came over to New-England in 1G38, 
arriving at Plymouth January 1st. He was soon after or- 
dained at Scitiiate. In 1G54 he was appointed President 
of Harvard College, and for a number of years performed 
the duties of that office with honor to himself and to the 
reputation of that seminary of learning. He was very in- 
dustrious, and usually employed his morning hours in 
study or devotion. He constantly rose at four o'clock, 
winter and summer. In all his avocations he acquitted 
himself to universal approbation. At length on the Com- 
mencement of 1671 he made a solemn address, a kind of 
valedictory oration ; and having lived to some good pur- 
pose, he prepared to die in peace, like a good servant who 
expected his reward. He died at the end of this year, 
aged eighty-two, having been about sixteen years pastor of 
the church in Scituate, and seventeen years president of 
Harvard College. 

• • • • 1 

President Chauncy is said to have been an emment phy- 
sician ; but we are not informed to what extent he devoted 
himself to the practice. He left six sons, all of whom 
were educated at Harvard C.ollege, and were preachers. 
Some of them were learned' divines. Dr. Mather says 
they were all eminent physicians, as their father Avas be- 
fore them. " In a new country," says the author of the 
New-England Biographical Dictionary, " where there are 
no physicians, a minister, who is a scientific man, may 
render himself eminently useful if able to practise physic ; 
but we are not of the opinion of Dr. Chauncy that there 
ought to be no distinction between physic and divinity." 
Dr. Channcy's character was singular in many respects ; 
he allowed himself but little time for sleep, he fasted and 
prayed frequently and fervently, and in his sermons often 
spoke of the wearing of long hair with the utmost detesta- 
tion, representing it as a heathenish practice, and one of 
the crying sins of the land. 

CHILDS, TIMOTHY, M.D. M.M.S.S. was born at 
Deerfield, Massachusetts, February, 1748. He was enter- 



iiMOTiiv ( iiiLni. 219 

ed as a member of Harvard Collecjc in \1Q4, but was under 
the necessity of taking a disinissioii at the ( lo>e of his ju- 
nior year, hy the failure of the funds on \vhicii he liad 
relied to carry him throu<r|i the regular cours-e of that 
seminary. From Camhridt^e he returned to Deerfield, 
where he studied jihysic and surgery with Dr. AViUiams, 
aiul from uiunc*' in 1771, at the age of twenty-three, he 
removed to practise in Pittsfield. 

An ardent and decided friend of civil liberty, he took a 
deep interest in those great political (juestions, which at 
that period were agitated between Great Britain and her 
American colonies. No youn<r man, perhaps, was more 
zealouslv ojiposed to the arhitrary encroachments of the 
British j)arliament than Dr. Clnlds, and as a proof of the 
confiden(e reposed in him ])y the fathers of the town, it 
need only be mentioned that in 1774, when the crisis of 
open liostility was approaching, he was appointed chair- 
man of a committee to draw a })etition to his Majesty's 
Justices of Common Pleas in the county of Berkshire, le- 
monstratinij against certain acts of j)arliament which had 
just been pronudgated, and praying them to stay all jjro- 
ceedings till those unjust and oppressive acts should be re- 
pealed. 

In the same year, 1774, Dr. Childs took a commission 
in a company of minute-men, wliich, in compliance with a 
recommendation from the convention of the New-Enorland 
states, Avas organized in that town. When the news of the 
battle at Lexington in 1775 was received, he marched with 
his company to Boston, where he was soon after apjiointed 
a surgeon of Colonel Patterson's regiment. From Boston 
he went with the army to New-York, and fiom thence ac- 
companied the expedition to Montreal. In 1777 he left 
tlie army and resumed his practice in the town of Pitts- 
field, and continued in it till less than a week before his 
death, at the advanced age of seventy-three. 

In 1792 Dr. Childs was elected a representative to the 
General Court, and for several years received the same 
pledge of public confidence . He also held a seat in the 
senate for a number of years, by the sutrraces of the county 
in which In* lived and died. But it was in his jirofcssion 
he was most hisihly honored and extensively useful. He 
was early elected a mend)er of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, and held the ofhce of counsellor of that society to 
the time of his death. In the year 181 1 the University of 



220 BENJAMIN CHURCH. 

Cambridge conferred on him tlie degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine. When a district society, comj)oscd of the fellows of 
the state society, was established in the county in which he 
lived, he was appointed censor and elected to the office of 
presiilent. 

As a practitioner Dr. Childs stood high in public esti- 
mation, both at home and abroad. For more than thirty 
years he was the only physician of note in the town, and 
this single fact strongly testifies to the uncommon estima- 
tion in whicli he was held by those who were most com- 
petent to judge of his professional skill and success. He 
was also highly esteemed and often employed in the neigh- 
boring towns. Dr. Childs was always the steady advocate 
and supporter of religious institutions, and during the last 
year of his life he manifested an uncommon interest in ex- 
perimental religion, and in his last sickness, especially, he 
spoke often of the blood and righteousness of Christ as the 
only hope of a sinner. Few men have continued in the 
practice of the profession so long, or have held out with 
such vigilance of body and mind to the last, or have been 
more useful in their professional and social circles. He 
died on the 25th of February, 1821, as he lived, honored, 
respected and lamented. — J^ew-England Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery. 

CHURCH, Dr. BENJAMIN, was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1754. He established himself as a physician in 
the town of Boston, where he rose to very considerable 
eminence in his profession. As a skilful and dexterous 
operator in surgery he was inferior to no one of his con- 
temporaries in New-England ; and as a physician he was 
in a career of distinguished reputation. He possessed a 
brilliant genius, a lively poetic fancy, andAvas an excellent 
Writer. For several years preceding the American revolu- 
tion he was a consjiicuous character, and had great influ- 
ence among the leading w]iig.> and patriots of the day. 
When the Avar commenced in 1775, his ciiaracter was so 
high that he was appointed pliysician general to the army. 

But while he was performing the duties assigned him, 
circumstances occurred which led to a suspicion that he 
held a treacherous correspondence with the enemy- Cer- 
tain letters in cypher were intercepted, which he had writ- 
ten to a relation in Boston. lie was immediately arrested, 
imprisoned, and tried before a military tribunal appointed 
to investigate his conduct, and was pronounced guilty of a 



BENJAMIN CHURCH. 221 

criminal correspondence with the enemy. It appears that 
the only c\ idciuc by wliirh he was (orivicteil, rested on 
an inttM(( pled Ictlor diiettod to a friend in Boston. This 
letter was wiitten in cypi»<'r ; and wlien do(;yj)lierrd and 
exanuneil, its contents seemed in a consideruljic decree to 
justify the plea which he had made, that it was de^i<Tned 
as an innocent stratagem to deceive and draw from the 
enemy some infornjation for the l>eiielit of the pnMic* 
Dr. C. was at the same time a nu^mln'r of tlu- Iloiiso of 
Re])resentatives, from whidi he wouhl have hecn exju Ihd 
hu(.l lie not resigned his seat. He was, however, arraigned 
before the House, subjected to a rigid examination, and 
his letter was read by himself by parafjrajjhs, and com- 
mented upon and ex])lainod. His defence before the House 
may l)e considered as a specimen of l)riiliant talents and 
great iufjenuity. " Confirmed," said he, *' in assured in- 
nocence, I stand prepared for your keenest searchinjjs." 
" The warmest bosom here does not flame with a blighter 
zeal for the security, happiness and liberties of America, 
than mine." So high was party zeal, and such the jeal- 
ousy and ])rejudice of the day, that a torrent of indi<rna- 
tion was ever at haiul to sweep from the land every guilty 
or suspected charai ter. In the instance of Dr. C. there 
were not a few among the most respectable and intelligent 
of the community, who expressed strong doubts of a crimi- 
nal design in his conduct. It was, however, his hard fate 
to pine in prison until the following year, when he ob- 
tained permission to dejiait for the West Indies. The ves- 
sel in whicit he sailetl was supposed to have foundered at 
sea, as no tidings respecting Iut were ever obtained. 

The writings of Dr. C. both in poetry and prose, have 
been much celebrated. Of his poetical ])ieces there remain 
some which are now read witli ])leasure. The *•' Elegy 
upon Dr. Mavhew,'' who died HOG ; and the " Eleuy up- 
on Mr. U'hitetield/' 1170, are serious and pathetic. The 
" Kletiy uj)on the Times," printed in tlie year 1705, is 
rather satirical ; but breathes the spirit which animated 
the patriots of that day. The poem No. XI. in the col- 
lection styled " Pietas et Gratulatio," in the opinion of 
the monthly reviewers, had the preference over the others. 

• It TT15 for sometime difficult to find any person rapaM* of drcyphering Dr. 
Church'* Inter ; but at length the task was undcrlakerj by the R*v. Samuel W^eii, 
D.D. of Dartmouth, county of Rrmtol, who pcrfomed it with arruracy and pr«- 
ciaion. 



222 JOHN CLARK. 

His prose writings are mostly essays of a witty and philo- 
sophical kind, which are scattered in e})hemeral })ublica- 
tions, though some of tliem, perhaps, are known by those 
who were contemporary with him. The oration on the 
5th of March, which he pronomiced before the town in 
1773, discovers a rich fancy ; it is certainly one of the very 
best of the " Boston Orations." 

CLARK, JOHN. The name of John Clark has been, 
for a longer succession of years than any other in our coun- 
try, distinguished in the ranks of medical practitioners. 

Of the earliest physician of that name, who probably 
came from England in 1631 or 1632, and after living a 
few years in Boston removed to Rhode-Island, where he 
died April 20th, 1676, filling a long course of service in 
administering to the religious as well as natural wants of 

1 • • • 

his neighl)ors, it cannot be necessary here to give any 
larger account, as it must be only a transcript from the 
American Biographical Dictionary of Rev. Dr. Wm. Allen. 

CLARK, JOHN, a copy of whose portrait adorns this 
volume, arrived in America about the year 1650, as the 
first notice that can be discovered of him is in March, 
1651, when it appears by the records of Boston he obtain- 
ed liberty to build a wharf before his premises. Nothing 
is discoverable of this gentleman in print ; but the tradition 
in the family is, tliat he was lionorcd with a diploma in 
England for his success in cutting for the stone. An error 
of the date in the engraving may be corrected. It should 
be 1664 ; and of course he died soon after the artist paint- 
ed him. His age, being marked 66, makes his liirtli to be 
in 1598. It has not been generally known that portraits 
were so early taken on tliis side of the ocean. 

By the family tradition credit is claimed for the care 
which he bestowed in the introduction of a breed of horses 
into our country, long known, it is said, in Plymouth, as 
Clark's breed ; and some confirmation of this report may, 
perhaps, be obtained from tlie will, by which to his son 
John, besides liis books and instruments, are given " horses, 
mares and colts, both in this colony of Massachusetts and 
in Plymouth colony." The inventory shows, for those 
days, a respectable estate, amounting to £1295.6, wherein 
is found " the mares and horses, young and old, 12 at £5 
each = J£60." Other interesting items are, " money, gold 
and silver, £50 ; hooks and instruments, with several chi- 
rurgery materials in the closet, £60 ; medicines and drugs, 
jEIO ; and a pocket-watch, £3." 




JOirflM (DJI.AEK M,D, 



• '/•: 60'. f&inffj .^£?. /&OV. 



JOHN CLARK. 223 

CLARK, JOHN, the son of the last named, j)ursucd his 
father's profession. He, however, partook of the interest 
of his fellow citizens in civil iiH'uirs, and in the iii-li lilnrty 
times was chosen a representative for Boston, 1G8D and 
1690, in wliich latter year, 17th Dei ember, he died with- 
out leavin<r a will. The inventory ol his estate returned 
by his eldest son, John, makes the value of his books X2-1, 
of the «rraiUllather's tl2. 

JOHN, the grandson of the first ancestor, born 27th 
January 1C68, was graduated at Harvard College in 1687, 
and inherited the patriotic feelings of iiis father, for which 
he was liighly honored. He was a representative for Bos- 
ton from 1708 to 17 11, and was chosen Speaker in 1709. 
In tlie controversy with Governor Sliuie, he was a strong 
O])poser of j)reroj';ative, and for his service was elected to 
the Council in 1720, when the Governor interposed his 
negative. Upon this he was ajiain ( hosen in the autunm 
of that year a representative for Boston, and so continued 
till n24, being Sj)eaker of the House for the last three 
years. While he was a representative, in 1721, a contro- 
versy arose between the House and the Council, and at the 
same time began to spread that destructive disease, the 
smallpox, against winch in that year the preservative of 
inoculation was first introduced. Hutchinson, in his His- 
tory, Vol. II. 271, says : "In the niidst of the dispute, 
Mr. Hutchinson, one of the members for Boston, was 
seized with the smallpox, ami died in a few ilavs. The 
Speaker, Mr. Clark, was one of the most noted physicians 
in Boston, and notwithstanding all his care to cleanse him- 
self from infection after visiting bis patients, it was sup- 
posed, brouffht the distemper to his brother member," 
which so terrified the Ct)urt, that it was not possible to 
keej) them toi^i'tlier. 

From 1724 to his deatli, Gth Decendier, 1728, in the 
60th year of his age, he was in the Comicil of the Pro- 
vince. His epitaph may here be inserted. 

KPITAPII. 

He who amone Physicians shona so lato, 

And by his wise Proscriptions conquered Falc, 

Now lies extended in the Silent Grave, 

Nor him alive would his vast Merit save. 

But itill his Fame shall last, his Virtues live, 

And all sepulcl\ral Monuments survive : 

Still flourish shall his name ; nor shall thin ston* 

Long 4s his Piety and Love b« known. 



224 JOHIt CLATTON. 

His first wife, Sarah Shrimpton, to whom he was mar- 
ried 30th April, 1691, died 20th November, 1717; his 
second, Elizabeth Hutchinson, married 16th April, 1718, 
died 2d December 1722. A third wife, Sarah Leverett, 
married 1 5th July, 1 725, survived him, and became wife of 
the celebrated Rev. Dr. Benjamin Colman. All his instru- 
ments and utensils of surgery whatsoever, he gave by his 
will to his son John. In the inventory of his estate is 
mentioned the jjicture of old Dr. Clark, which is, without 
doubt, tjiat of his grandfather, engraved for this work. 

JOHN, son of the Counsellor, born 15th December, 
1698, died of paralysis, 6th April, 1768, in his 70th year. 
He was a practitioner of medicine in Boston, and had a 
son of the same name, also a physician, who died before 
his father. Two other children are remembered by the 
father's Avill, William, to whom he gives all his drugs and 
medicines, and Elizabeth, who was wife of the famous Jon- 
athan Mayhew, D.D. To the grandson, John, son of the 
deceased fifth John, were bequeathed all the books, chests 
of utensils, &c. relating to surgery or pliysic. 

This grandson was educated at Harvard College ; after 
graduation in 1772, he studied medicine with James 
Lloyd, a distinguished pliysician, and after visiting Eu- 
rope for enjoyment of experience in the Hospitals, return- 
ed to participate the practice of his instructer. Being 
threatened with consumptive appearances, he removed to 
Waltham, where he died 29th July, 1788. He left a son, 
John, the seventh in succession of the family, who was 
graduated at Harvard College 1799, and received his de- 
gree of M.B. 1802. He died at Weston on Sunday, 21st 
April, 1805, aged 27, leaving no male issue. 
^ CLAYTON, Dr. JOHN, an eminent botanist and phy- 
sician of Virginia, was born in England in 1685, and came 
to Virginia in the year 1705, and resided near Williams- 
burg. He was elected a member of several of the first 
literary societies of Europe, and corresponded with many 
of the most learned naturalists of that period. As a practi- 
cal botanist he was probably not inferior to any one of the 
age. He passed a long life in exploring and describing 
the plants of his country, and is supposed to have enlarged 
the botanical catalogue as much as any man who ever lived. 
He is the author of " Flora Virginica," a work published 
by Gronovius, at Leyden, 8vo. in 1739, 1743, and 1762. 
He published in the Philosophical Transactions several 



JOSHUA CLAYTO.X. 225 

communications, treating of the culture of the diflercnt 
species of tohacco, and an an)})le account of the medicinal 
plants whicli lie had discovered in Virginia. He also left 
l)eliiiul hiiii two volumes of manuscripts neatlv prepared 
lor the i)rcss, and a llortus Siccus, with marginal notes 
and references, for the engraver who slioidd prepare the 
jdates for his proposed work. He died Deccn.her 15th, 
1773, m the S8lh year of his age. During tlie year pre- 
ceding Iiis decease, such was the vigor of his colistitution 
even at this advarued period, and such iiis 7.eal in hotani- 
cal researches, that he made a botanical tour through 
Orange county ; and it is believed that he had visited 
most of tlie settled parts of Virginia. His cliaracter stands 
very high as a man of integrity, and as a good citizen. 

He was a strict, thongli not ostentatious observer of the 
practice of the Cluircli of England, and on all occasions 
seemed piously disposed. He was heard to say, whilst exam- 
ining a tlower, that he could not look into one without see- 
ing the display of infinite power and contrivance, and that 
he thouirjit^ it impossible for a botanist to be an atheist. 
Clayton's Flora Virginica is frecjuently referred to by Lin^ 
n.-eus, and by all the succeeding botanists, who have had oc- 
casion to treat of the plants of North America. His valua- 
ble manuscripts in two volumes, with the Hortus Siccus, 
were in possession of his son when the revolutionary war 
commenced, and were lodnred in the olHce of the clerk of 
Ne\y-Kent, as a place of security from the invading enemv. 
An incendiary i)ut a torch to the buildinu ; and thus per- 
islied not only the records of the countv, but the labors 
of Clayton. Mr. Jefferson in his Noteson Viroinia says 
that Dr. Clavton was a native of Vircrinia. "^ 

CLAYTON, Dr. JOSHUA, was Governor of the state 
of Delaware, and a member of the United States Senate • 
he died in 1799. He was hiirhlv respectable in the medi- 
cal profession, in which lie j)ractised for manv vears. 

In 1792 he addressed a friend as follows. " During the 
late Mar the Peruvian bark was very scarce and dear. I 
was at that time engaged in considerable practice, and was 
under the necessity of seeking a substitute for the Peru- 
vian bark. I conceived tliat the poplar, Uiriodendron 
tulipifera, had more aromatic and bitter than the Peru- 
vian, and less astringency. To correct and amend those 
qualities, I added to it nearly an equal quantitv of the 
bark of the root of doffwood, cornu* florida, and' half the 



SJSS SAMUEL CLOSSEr. 

quantity of the inside bark of the white oak tree. This 
remedy I prescribed for several years, in every case in 
which I conceived the Peruvian bark necessary or proper, 
with at least equal, if not superior success. I used it in 
every species of intermittent, gangrenes, mortifications, 
and in short, in every case of debility." 

CLOSSEY, SAMUEL, M.D. was an Irish physician, of 
very respectable attainments, who established himself in 
medical practice in New-York. He had, previously to his 
arrival in America, attained a high degree of eminence in 
the medical profession, both as a practitioner, and an au- 
thor of an interesting volume on morbid anatomy. This 
was entitled " Observations on some of the Diseases of the 
Human Body, chiefly taken from the Dissections of Mor- 
bid Bodies." It was published in London in 1763. He was 
for a short time chosen to the anatomical chair, and the 
Professorship of Natural Philosophy in King's College, 
now Columbia College. Upon the organization of the first 
medical school in New-York in 1768, Dr. Clossey was 
chosen the Professor of Anatomy ; and directed his labors 
with great assiduity to the establishment of that institution. 
Political difficulties in the American government caused 
him to return to his own country, where he died a short 
time after his arrival. 

COCHRAN, JOHN, M.D. This gentleman was born 
on the 1st of September, 1730, in Chester county, in the 
state of Pennsylvania. His father, James Cochran, was a 
respectable farmer, who had come from the north of Ire- 
land, and the lands which he first purchased still continue 
in the possession of his descendants. Discovering in his 
son John the desire of a learned profession, he sent him to 
a grammar school in the vicinity, that was conducted by 
the late Dr. Francis Allison, who was confessedly one of 
the most correct and faithful grammarians that ever taught 
in this country. Having finished his preliminary educa- 
tion, Mr. Cochran betook himself to tlie study of physic 
and surgery under the late Dr. Thompson, in Lancaster. 
Under this gentleman he improved greatly, by his dili- 
gence and attention, in the knowledge of his profession. 

About the time at which he finished his medical studies, 
the war of 1755 commenced in America between England 
and France. The army then presented to the mind of Dr. 
Cochran a scene of usefulness and further improvement. 
As there were not any great hospitals at that time in the 



JOHif COCHRAN. 22* 

provinces, he readily perceived that the army would ]>« an 
excellent scliool lor his iinjjrovenient, especially in sur- 
gery, as well as in the nu'dic al treatment ol many diseases. 
He soon obtained the appointment of surpjeon's mate in 
the hospital do])artment ; an<l havinjj contiinied with the 
northern arujy dnrin;>r the whole of tiiat war, enjoying the 
friendship and advice of Dr. Munro, and other eminent 
surijcons and physicians, ho quitted the service with the 
character of an al)le and experienced practitioner. 

At the close of the war lie settled in Albany, where he 
married Miss Gertrude Schuyler, the only sister of the 
late General Schuyler. From that city he removed in a 
short time to New-Brunswick, in the state of New-Jersey, 
where he continued to j)ractise physic and surtrery with 
great reputation. In discharging the duties of his jirofes- 
sion he bestowed that attention, and exercised that tender- 
ness and liumanity, which never fail to solace the feelings 
of the afilicted. 

When the war became serious between Great Britain and 
the United States, Dr. Cochran was too zealous a whig, 
and too much attached to the interests of his native coun- 
try, to remain an idle spectator. Towards the last of tiie. 
year 17*0, he offered his service as a volunteer in the lios- 
pital dejiartment. General Washington was too good a 
judge not to discover the value of a physician who joined 
great experience to diligence, fidelity and a sound judg- 
ment, and accordingly, in the winter of HTT, he recom- 
mended him to Congress in the following words: " I would 
take the liberty of mentioning a gentleman whom I think 
highly deserving of notice, not only on account of his abil- 
ities, but for the very great assistance which he has afford- 
ed us in tlie course of tliis winter, merely in the nature of 
a volunteer. This gentleman is Dr. John Cochran, well 
known to all the faculty. The j)lace for which he is well 
fitted, and which would l)e most agreeable to him, is Sur- 
geon General of the middle department ; in this line he 
served all the last war in the British service, and has dis- 
tinguished himself this winter, particularlv in his atten- 
tion to the smallpox patients and the wounded.'' He was 
accordingly appointed on the 10th of April. 1777, Phvsi- 
cian and Surgeon General in the middh' dejiartment. In 
the month of October, 17S1, Congress was pleased to give 
him the appointment of Director General of the hospitals 
of the United States, an appointment that was the more 



228 NATHANIEL COFFIN. 

honorable, because it was not solicited by him. It is hardly 
necessary to observe that the Doctor was much indebted 
to his observation and experience wliile he was in tlie 
British service, for the great improvement lie made in the 
hospital department, from the time it was put under his 
care. Nor is it necessary to observe that while other gen- 
tlemen, high in the medical stall', were disgusting the pub- 
lic with mutual charges and criminations, Dr. Cochran 
always preserved the character of an able physician and 
an honest man. 

A sliort time after the peace, Dr. Cochran removed with 
his family to New-York, wliere he attended to the duties 
of his profession until the adoption of the new constitu- 
tion, AvJien his friend. President Washington, retaining, to 
use liis own words, " a cheerful recollection of his past 
services," nominated him to the office of Commissioner of 
Loans for the state of New-York. This office he held un- 
til a paralytic stroke disabled him in some measure from 
the discharge of its duties, upon which he gave in his re- 
signation, and retired to Palatine, in the county of Mont- 
gomery, where he terminated a long and useful life, on 
the 6th of April, 1807, in the 77tli year of his age. 

In reviewing the character of this respectable physician, 
we have only to remark that without the flights of ima- 
gination which tempt some gentlemen to theorize and 
specidate at the risk of their patients, lie united a vigorous 
mind and correct judgment, with information derived and 
improved from long experience and faithful habits of at- 
tention to the duties of his profession. 

He had in early life received impressions, under the 
care of a religious father, which he never lost ; for though 
he served long in tlie army, in which men are too apt to 
become infidels or deists, he never cherished a single doubt 
concerning the truths of revelation. — Medical and Philoso- 
phical Res^ister. 

COFFIN, Dr. NATHANIEL, M.M.S.S.* Dr. Nathan- 
iel Coffin came to Portland in 1738 from Newburyport, 
his native place, where he studied physic with Dr. Tap- 
pan. In 1739 lie was married to Patience Hale, by whom 
he had eight cliildren. Dr. Coffin had an arduous task 
in pursuing his professional duties, having nearly the 
whole of the eastern country to attend, from Welles to the 

♦ Written by Iiif »o»>, Dr. NAfhaniel Coffin, at the advanced age of 82. 




i^ATHANIEJL fHOlKFJlir., M, 



NATHANIEL COFFIN. 229 

Kenncbcck. He was frc(iuontly called to perform opera- 
tions oil persons who liiul hoeii toiiiiiliawked iiml scalped 
hy llu" Imliaiis. lie was so inucii re>>j)ettc(I l>y tliese that 
they always fjirnished him with a safe coiivevaiice throiiijh 
their settlements, and treated him with tiie greatest kind- 
ness and hospitality. 

From his stuilies in Newhuryport he coidd not have ac- 
quired the information lu; possessed, ami which made liim 
so extensively useful, j)articulai"ly in surncry ; hut it may 
be easily accomtted for, l>y the opportunity he had of in- 
tercourse with the youni; irentlemeii who came out in the 
ships as surgeons. After having served their apprentice- 
ship in London, they were admitted for one year or more 
into some of the hospitals there, to finish their education, 
and were then employed in the above ca})acity. Discov- 
ering their superior advantages, he always matle them wel- 
come at his house, ami also provided them with tlu- means 
of accompanying him to visit his patients. In this manner 
be obtained yearly information of every new discovery or 
improvement relative to the science of medicine or surge- 
ry. In May, 1703, he was attacked with a palsy, notwith- 
standing which he persevered in his intention of sending 
bis son to London, to attend the bosj)itals of St. Thomas 
and Guy in the horough. 

In January, 176G, he had anotber attack of tbe palsy, of 
which he died, ajred fifty years. 

COFFIN, NATHANIEL, M.D. M.M.S.S. son of the 
j)recediiig, was at the time of his decease the oldest and 
one t)f the most eminent j)hy>i(ians in the State of Maine. 
The first ancestor of his family who came to this country 
was Tristam Cotrin,* who emigrated from Englaiul in IG 12. 

Dr. Collin was born in Portland, on the 3d of May, 
1741, in which j)lace he always lived, and where he closed 
liis loiuj and us<ful life. The country at the time of his 
birth, for many miles round Casco hay, includiiiif the site 
of Portland, was called Falmouth ; afterward the part 
most thickly settled, lying on the harbor, was incorpo- 
ratril into a separate town by the name of Portland. 



• Some few years linco Sir Isanc Coffin, Bart, had a medal struck in commemo- 
ration of his anoe!iif)r, Trisitam Coffin ; which with hin acr\Mtomrd hberality he 
presented to all the male descendants of the name. It boro on one side a full lcn;;th 
figure of their ancestor in the Spanish costume, with this inscription, " Tristaoi 
Coffin, the first of the raro that settled in America. 1642"; and on the roTtrso wore 
bar hands joined — '• Do honor to his nam<»" — *' Be united." 



230 NATHANIEL COFFIN. 

He completed his preparatory medical education under 
his father ; but the limited means of scientific improvement 
then existing in this thinly peopled section of the country, 
induced the son with the advice of his father to embark 
for England at the age of eighteen. He there prosecuted 
his studies at Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, under the 
distinguished Hunter, Akenside, McKenzie and others ; 
and returned to commence the practice of his profession at 
the early age of twenty-one. 

The time which he passed in a land, then as far excel- 
ling his own in the advancement of the arts and sciences, 
as the vigor of manhood excels the weakness of infancy, 
was faithfully improved. His industry and desire for 
knowledge were greatly promoted by the ready tact and 
practical good sense which were distinguishing features of 
his mind ; and at the death of liis father, which occurred 
in 1766, he was qualified in no ordinary degree to succeed 
to an extensive and arduous practice. He married in the 
26th year of his age the only daughter of Isaac Foster, 
Esq. of Charlestown, by whom he had eleven children. 

In consequence of the rapid increase of population in 
this part of the country after the close of the war, his la- 
bors, though greatly multiplied, soon became confined 
principally to his native town. His father, who had re- 
sided on the same spot with himself, had within the memo- 
ry of his son been compelled to travel with his healing art 
over an extent of country reaching forty miles west, and 
more than fifty on the east, the only messenger of health 
and consolation that could then be procured within these 
limits ; while the son found in his native town and its vi- 
cinity, a constant demand for his time, his talents and his 
benevolence. At the commencement of his professional 
career, Dr. Coffin might often be found travelling tlirough 
unfrequented and dangerous roads, to visit patients who 
possessed none of the comforts and scarcely the necessaries 
of civilized life, while the cannon of the enemy was sound- 
ing in his ears, and before his eyes lay all the desolation 
with which war ravages the land. Could this amiable and 
enterprising physician, while watching in the abodes of 
miserv, have relieved the tedious hours with an anticipa- 
tion of the peace and prosperity which were so soon to 
reward the constancy of his covmtrymen, how would his 
benevolent heart have been cheered at the prospect ! He 
loved his country, and ardently desired her freedom and 



NATHANIEL COFFIN. 231 

advjinccmcnt ; but fcw j)crsons at that period dreamed of 
independence. It was not long, however, l)efore tlie pros- 
pect hriiihtened, anil America, though struggling with a 
power incalc ulahly sujterior to liti- own, gave signs ol" a 
resolution not to he overcome. 

'riu> inhahitants of Falmouth caught the jfeneral :-:pirit 
of patriotism which was daily gaining grouml, and deter- 
mined to reliiu|uish their commerce with England, 'i'his 
resolution was first enforced on Mr. Coulson, an Eniilish 
resident there, who hait married a sister of Dr. Collin. In 
consetjucnce of the>e oifcni-ivc j)roceedinus an order wa^ 
oblained from the admiral on this station for tlie destruc- 
tion of the town ; and Captain Mowatt drew uj) his naval 
force in the port to execute tlic order. 

On this occasion Dr. Collin, with two others, was em- 
ployed by his townsmen to repair on hoard the Canceau, 
to expostulate with the commander upon the severity of 
his commission, and to endeavor to avert or mitigate its 
evils. In this attempt he was unsuccessful. Caj)tain Moav- 
att was determineil to burn the town, and a short interval 
onlv was ohtaiiicd for the iidiahitauts to iemo\c some of 
their effects, §Hid to escaj)C with their families into the ad- 
jacent country. Tliis excellent man contiimcd to share 
the lot of his sulfcrins" townsmen dm ing that trying sea- 
son, and his faithfulness deserves to be recorded with that 
of the respectable and worthy pastors of the flotk, who 
abode by their charce in their dispersion. Alter the alarm 
had a little subsided, the inhalitaits ventured to return to 
their ruined homes, and bejran grachially to rebiiild their 
houses. Dr. Coffin was the first to er.ler the town, and to 
animate by his couirifre and theelfull.es^ the hearts of the 
people, sunk into despondency by the melancholy specta- 
cle which on all side^ met their view. His services as a 
physician were at this time particidarly acceptable to his 
fellow-citi/ens, liar;is<ed as thev were In* a foreiirn enemy, 
and lial)le to all those diseases and misfortunes incident to 
j)erilous times. In seasons of public calamity an intelli- 
gent and benevolent physician is indeed an anijel of mercy 
wherever he appears. Sickncs.s is one of the severest ag- 
gravations of ])overty and misfortune ; it unnerves the 
strong arm and the stout heart, whic h in the vigor of 
health fmd new resources and new enterprise from peril 
and dillicully. 



233 NATHANIEL COFFIN. 

During the period of the revolution sick and disabled 
feamcn and soldiers were frequently brought by our fhips 
into Poiilaiul. Dr. Coffin was thus offered repeated op- 
j)Oituiiitict for a display of tliose principles of j)ractice 
which he had previously acquired in foreign hospitals, 
and which a lare skill and discriminaiing judgment ena- 
bled him at all times to apply with the most successful re- 
sults. As a surgeon, Di'. Coffin was in his native town 
ranked at the head of the profession ; always prompt and 
ready, with a resolution that never wavered in the boldest 
operations, with an eye s-teadily fixed on its object, and a 
hand that never trembled,* and all the practical know- 
ledge of anatomy essential to«the successful treatment of 
surgical diseases, he was prfi|)ared to accomplish what no 
other practitioner around him presumed to undertake. If 
he possessed a peculiar facility in any one branch of his 
profession, it was certainly operative surgery. Some of 
his operations were performed at the advanced age of 80, 
with all the promptness and decision of a youthful 
professor. His reputation was also high as a medical 
practitioner ; and what is said of the learned and distin- 
guished Dr. Baillie may Avith truth be applied to him : 
" He had a most natural, unassuming but decided manner, 
which in the exercise of his professional duties was the 
same to all persons and on all occasions. His mind was 
always quietly, ])ut eagerly directed to the investigation of 
the symptoms of the disease, and he had so distinct and 
systematic a mode of putting questions, that the answer 
often presented a corrected view of the whole, and could 
not fail to impress the patient with his clear and compre- 
hensive knowledge." 

He was honored with all those professional distinctions 
which his merits and attainments so truly deserved. The 
honorary degree of Doctor in Medicine was conferred on 
him by the College of Brunswick ; he was the first Presi- 
dent of the Medical Society of Maine, and for many years 
discharged the duties of Hospital Surgeon for marine pa- 
tients in the district of Maine. 

Possessing a constitution naturally healthy and vigorous, 
and a mind resolute and intelligent, there was no peril 
which he was not prepared to encounter, and no adversity 



* It is worthy of remark, that Dr. Coffin performed operations equally well with 
cither hand. 



NATHANIEL COFFIN. 233 

Avlilth lie could not endure, and he has well deserved the 
distinction awarded him by the pithlic for his constant and 
unremitted exertions durin<; a j)eriod of more tlian i-ixty 
years. 

Dr. Collin was surrounded in theearlv j)art of his career 
hy sullerinii frieiuls and patients, hut his life was closed 
amid the hlessin<rs of freedom and indejxndence. In the 
peaceful eveninj; of his days, all tlie enjoyments of pros- 
perity and aflection chistered round his dweilin^i ; hut it 
tiliould not he foriiotten that the resj)C(tal)ility and hapj)i- 
ness he then exjxrienced, were the well earned reward of 
the virtues, tlie tidents and the iaithftdness of early years. 

It appears that Dr. Coihn had no ambition to figure as 
an author, thouuh he read the best medieal publications, 
and reflected attentively upon what he read. We are not 
aware that he has left behind him any pajurs for the pid)- 
lic eye. This is to be re<rrette(l, for no oni- had a better 
opj)ortunity of noticinu; the diseases of our climate for the 
last half century, and of re(oriling the various (hancrs 
which they have assumed and the consequent chanjie of 
practice which must have necessarily followed in their 
treatment and cure. 

His private cliaracter, thouoh known oidy to a small 
ciri le of fellow citizens and friends, will never be eflaced 
from their memory. The keenness and ready tact of his 
intellect, increased by the peculiar and diflicult circum- 
stances in which he commenced practice, his sound judg- 
ment, founded on lonji experience and rational dedu( tion, 
the j)erfe(t sinipru ity and sinileness of his heart, his ])cne- 
volence and readiness to answer the ctdl of (hity or human- 
ity at the risk of any personal sacrifice, his fondness for the 
young and his affectionate solicitude to promote their hap])i- 
ness, and his equaiumity and courage in cases of misfortune 
and (Hffnulty, are qualities, which, althouuh they do not 
make much fii^ure in a narrative, insure to their ])osse^sor re- 
sped and ]iaj)piness, anil slu'd a pure and sacred li<iht around 
the memory of departed worth. 

In his manners he was a polished specimen of the state 
of American society existing before the revolution ; he was 
one of the most eraceful eentlenien of the old school, and 
his deportment was marked by a uniform and cajUivating — 
urbaiiitv. 

His long experience, added to ]\\u varied knowledge, ren- 
dered his services valuable to the last, and the faculties of 
SO 



254 CADVVALLADtR I OLDEN. 

his mind retained a singular fresliness even in tlic ordin- 
ary decays of nature. 

He made an early profession of liis religious principles 
and was one of tiie iirst who united in tlie Unitarian faith 
with the Rev. Dr. Freeman of Boston, more than 40 years 
ago ; and for a number of years since, he was associated 
with the church of the first parish in his native place. 

The manner of his decease is briefly told. In 1823 lie 
had a slight attack of asthma, which disappeareil in a few 
days ; but it returned in April, 1824, and brought on ex- 
treme dc])ility which threatened his life, and ended by a 
general l^rcaking up of his robust and healthy constitution. 
From this period he began to decline, while a gouty affec- 
tion appearing, produced, according to its ordinary effects 
on a debilitated system, hydrothorax, which at last })roved 
fcital ; and notwithstanding the unremitted and affection- 
ate attentions of an anxious family, and the constant ser- 
vices of his medical friends, with as little bodily suffering 
as could be expected, and a mind but slightly impaired, 
he expired on the 18th October, 1826. It may be no- 
ticed that he died on the anniversary of the destruction of 
Portland, which he survived 51 years.* 

GOLDEN, CADWALLADER, Esq. This truly emi- 
nent and worthy character, who united in himself the 
several qualities we are accustomed to admire in the phy- 
sician, naturalist and philosopher, was the son of the Rev. 
Alexander Colden, of Dunse in Scotland, and was born on 
the 17th day of February, 1688. After he had laid the 
foundation of a liberal education under the immediate in- 
spection of liis father, he went to the University of Edin- 
burgh, where in 1705 he completed his course of col- 
legiate studies. He now devoted his attention to medicine 
and mathematical science until the year 1708, when ])eing 
allured by the fame of William Penn's colony, he came 
over to this country about two years after. He practised 
physic with no small share of reputation till 1715, when he 
returned to England. Wliile in London he was intro- 
duced to that eminent pliilosopher, Dr. Edmund Halley, 
who formed so favorable an opinion of a paper on Animal 
Secretion, written by Dr. Colden in early life, that he 
read it before the Royal Society, the notice of which 



* W« are inriebteci to the n^wsfnipRr notices of the decease of Dr. Coffin for much 
4>f th« information contiiined in tliii memoir. 



CAUWALI.M)r.H ( OLDEX. 235 

Icarnoil hody it greatly atlractod. At this tiino lie formed 
au :i((|uaiiitau(t' with some ol" the most distiiimiishcd litiT- 
nry and sciriitilic, i haraitors, with whom he cvrr after 
maintained a regular eorresjjondenee. From London he 
went to Scotland, and married a younir lady of a respecta- 
ble Scottli family by the name of C'hristie, with whom he 
relurncd to Anu-iica in 171G. 

In 1718 lie settled in the city of New-^'oik ; hut soon 
after reliiujuished the practice of j)hysic, and became a 
j)ublic charat ter : he helil in succession the office of Sur- 
veyor General of the province, Master in Chancery, Mem- 
ber of the Council, and Lieutenant Governor. Previous 
to his acceptance of this last station, he obtained a ])atent 
for a tract of land, designated by the name of (^oldenham, 
near Newburgh, to which place he retired with his i'amily 
al)out the year 1755, and spent a great part of his life. 
Here he appears to have been occupied without interrup- 
tion in the pursuit of knowledge, particularly in botanical 
and mathematical studies, at the same time that he con- 
tinued his corresj)ondcnce with learned men in Europe 
and America. 

In 17GI lie was aj)pointed Lieutenant Governor of New- 
York, which commission he held until the time of his de- 
cease, the administration of the government repeatedly 
falling on him by the death or absence of several govern- 
ors in chief. His political character was rendereil very 
conspicuous by the firnmess of his conduct during the vio- 
lent commotions which preceded th<' revolution. His ad- 
ministration is also memorable for several charters of in- 
corporation for useful and benevolent purpo.«es. After the 
return of Governor Tryon, in 1775, he was relieved from 
the cares of govt-rnment. He then retired to a seat on 
Long-Island, where a recollection of his former studies, 
and a few select friends, ever welcomed bv a social and 
hospital)le disposition, cheered him in his last days. He 
died in the S9th year of his age, on the memorable 28th of 
September, 1776, a few hours before the city of New-York 
was in flames, retaining his senses to the last and expiring 
without a groan. 

Dr. ("olden began at an early period of hi< life to pay 
great attention to the vegetable jiroductions of America, in 
which delightful study his dauohter afterwards l>eeame 
distinguisheil. In honor of Dr. (dlden Linnxus named a 



236 CADWALLADER COLDEN. 

plant of the tetrandrous class, Coldenia * This plant Miss 
Golden had first described. He was attentive to the phy- 
sical constitution of the country, and left a long course of 
diurnal observations on the thermometer, barometer and 
winds. He also wrote a history of the prevalent diseases 
of the climate, and, if he Avas not the first to recommend 
the cooling regimen in the cure of fevers, he was certainly 
one of its earliest and warmest advocates, and opposed 
with great earnestness the prevailing mode of treatment in 
the smallpox. 

In the years 1741 and '2 a fever which occasioned great 
mortality, prevailed in the city of New-York, and created 
much alarm. He communicated Ids thoughts to the pub- 
lic on the most probable method of curing the calamity in 
a small treatise, in which he enlarged on the pernicious 
effects of marshy exhalations, moist air, damp cellars, 
fdthy stores, and dirty streets ; showed how much these 
nuisances prevailed in many parts of the city, and pointed 
out the remedies. The corporation of the city presented 
him their thanks, and established a plan for draining and 
clearing out the city, which was attended with the most 
salutary effects. He published a treatise " On the Cure of 
Cancer." Another essay of his " On the Virtues of the 
Great Water Dock," introduced him to an acquaintance 
with Linnaeus. In 1753 he pvdDlished some observations 
on an epidemical sorethroat, which appeared in Massachu- 
setts in 1735, and had spread over a great part of North 
America. These observations are to be found in Cary's 
American Museum. 

When he became acquainted with Linnasus's system of 
botany, he applied himself with new delight to that study. 
His descriptions of between tliree and four hxnidred Amer- 
ican plants, were printed in the Acta Upsaliensia. He pub- 
lished the " History of the Five Indian Nations," in 2 vols. 
12mo. But the subject which drew Dr. Colden at one 
time of his life from every other pursuit, was what he first 
published under the title of The Cause of Gravitation, 
which, being mucli enlarged, was re]nd)lished by Dodsley, 
in 1751, in 1 vol. ^Ito., entitled, The Principles of Action in 
Matter, &c. 

Tliough his principal attention, after the year 1760, was 
necessarily directed from philosophical to political mat- 

* See the Correspcndence of Lirnaeus by Sir James Edward Smith. 



CADWALLADER COLDEN. 237 

ters, he maintained with great pinw tuality his literary cor- 
respondonto, particuhiily Avith l>imKXMis of U])sal, Groin*- 
viiis of Luydoii, Drs. Poitciruhl and W hyttc of Kdiii- 
burgh, Dr. Fothcrgill and >Ir. Colliiison, F.R.S. of Lon- 
don. TluM'c were also several eonuiuinications on niathe- 
inatical and astronomical subjects, between bini and the 
Earl of Macclesfield. With most of the eminent men of 
onr own country he held an almost nninterrn])te(l epistol- 
ary corresjiomlence. Among them we may mention the 
names of Dr. Garden, Mr. J. Bartram, Dr. Douglass, Dr. 
John Bard, Dr. Samncl Bard, James Alexander, Es(p, and 
Dr. Franklin. With Dr. Franklin in particular he was a 
constant and intimate corresj)Ondent, and they regularly 
comnnmicated to each other their j)hilosopliical and phy- 
sical discoveries, especially on electricity. In theii" letters 
are to be observed the first dawnings of many of those dis- 
coveries which Dr. Franklin has communicated to the 
world, and which so much astonished and benefited man- 
kind. In a letter to one of his friends Dr. Fraidvlin gives 
an accoimt of the organization of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, in which he mentions that Dr. Golden first 
suggested the idea and plan of that institution. 

The numerous manuscript paj)ers left by Dr. Golden at 
tlie time of his death, whicli for many years were supposed 
to have been lost, have been lately found, ami are iu)w in 
the possession of his grandson, Gadwalladcr D. Golden, 
Esq., Attorney General for the Southern district of tiie 
state of New-York. They are chiefly on historical and 
philosophical subjects, and many of them are of the great- 
est value. Among these are Ol>servations on Smith's His- 
tory of New-York, in a series of letters to his son Alexan- 
der Golden : An Introduction to the Study of rhilosojjhy : 
A corrected copy of his Account of the Fever which pre- 
vailed in New-York in the years n41 — 2. This protluc- 
tion may be found in Hosack and Francis's Register, vol. 
1. An ln(|uirv into the Principles of Vital Motion: A 
Translation of the Letters of Giccro, with an Introduction 
by G. Golden : Planta? Goldenhamia? in jirovincia \ove- 
boracensi spontanea crescentes, (pias a<l jnetJKxhun Linnaei 
Sexualem, anno 1712, observavit Gadwallader Golden : 
A corrected and augmented copy of his Prin( i|)lcs of Ac- 
tion in Matter : \ Treatise on Electricity, &c. Besides 
these there is a great ma>s of correspondence on medical, 
philosophical, and literary subjects, with many eminent 



238 JAMES CRAIK. 

pliy^icians and philosopliers in Europe and America. 
These letters carry his correspondence back to the year 
1710, and bring it down, almost uninterruptedly, till the 
time of his death. There are, too, a great variety of i)apers 
on public affairs, which must be considered as documents of 
primary importance, as they necessarily contain numerous 
facts which throw light on the history of this state. Dr. 
Colden was unquestionably a man of various and exten- 
sive learning, of superior talents, of the most indefatigable 
industry, and, indeed, in many respects, his character will 
not sutler by a comparison with that of our illustrious 
countiyman, Benjamin Franklin. — -American Medical and 
Philosophical Register ^ vol. 1. 

CRAIK, JAMES, M.D. Dr. Craik was born in Scotland, 
where he received his education for the medical service 
of the British army. He came to the colony of Virginia 
in early life, and had the honor to accompany the youth- 
ful Washinjrton in his expedition against the French and 
Indians in 1754, and returned in safety after the battle of 
the Meadows and surrender of Fort Necessity. In 1755 
he attended Braddock in his march through the wilder- 
ness, and, on the 9th of July, assisted in dressing the 
wounds of that brave, but unfortunate commander. At 
the close of tJie French war, the subject of this article re- 
sumed and continued his professional labors till the com- 
mencement of the revolution in 1775. By the aid of his 
early and fast friend. General Washington, he was trans- 
ferred to the medical department in the Continental army, 
and rose to the first rank and distinction. In 1777 he liad 
an opportunity, which he gladly embraced, to show his 
fidelity to his general and to his adojttcd country, by tak- 
ing an active part in the d('velo})ment of a nefarious con- 
spiracy, the oljject of wliich was the removal of the com- 
mander in chief. In 1730 he was dc})uted to visit Count 
De Rochainbeau, then recently arrived at Rhode Island, 
and to make arrangements for the establisliment of hospi- 
tals to accommodate the French army. Having performed 
this difficult duty, he continued in the army to tlie end of 
the war, and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis, 
on the memorable 19th of October, 1781.* 

* Dr. Craik was the Director General of tlie Hospital at Yorktown, and the 
present author has a distinct recollection of receiving from his hands the necessary 
surgical im])lemcnts when a battle was expected on our approach to the British 
lines, and of receiving his directions to keep near in the view of tho Marquis De 
Lafayette, and to pay the first attention to liim in case he shodd bo wounded. 



.IAMr.» IKAIK. 



239 



After the cessation of hostilities, the Doctor settled as a 

physician in Charh's coinity in Maryland ; but soon re- 
moved to the nc'iiihhorhooil of his illustrious iVirnd and 
coiupanion, the fanner of Mount \ rrnon, at his ])arti<ular, 
ropcateil anil urgent request, in HUb, when, like a guard- 
ian angel, the never to be forgotten Washington again 
stepped forth to redress the wrongs of his country, the 
venerable Craik was once more appointed to his former 
station in the medical stalf. VN ith the disbandnicnt of the 
army tlu>n called into service, ceased the j)uhlic profes- 
sional labors of the subject of this memoir, whose life, for 
nearly half a century, hatl been devoted with zeal and high 
reputation to the cause of his country. 

One trying duty yet remained to be performed. It was 
to witness the closing scene, anil to receive the la^t sijili of 
his revered commander, the most distinguished man ol his 
age. Their youthful commissions had been signed on the 
same day. They had served together in the ranks of war. 
Their friendship Avas cemented by a social intercourse of 
fifty years continuance, and they were greatly endeared to 
each other by common toils, privations and honors. At 
lenglli the moment of j)arting arrived. It was tender, af- 
fectionate, solemn, and im[)ressive. In reference to that 
painful event, the Doctor is said to have expressed himself 
in this manner : " I, who was bred amid scenes of human 
calamity, who had so often witnessed death in its direst 
and most awful forms, believed that its terrors were too 
familiar to my eye to shake my fortitude ; but when I saw 
this great man die, it seemed as if the bonds of my nature 
were rent asunder, and that the pillar of my country's 
happiness had fallen to the ground." 

As a ])hysi( ian. Dr. Craik was greatly distinguished by 
his skill and success, and his professional merits were 
highly and justly appreciated. In tlic various relations of 
private life, his character was truly estimable, and his 
memory is precious to all who had the happiness and the 
honor of his acquaintance. He was one, ami what a 
proud eulogy it is, of whom the inunortal AVashinjiton 
was jileascil to write, '^ »n/ roinpatrint in arws. mij old and 
intimittr fricml.'" He departed this life at flu* jilace of his 
resilience in Faiifax countv, onthe()lh of February, 1811. 
in the 8tth year of his age. — Jlldcn's Epitaphs^ and other 
DocumciUs. 



JOHN CUMING- 
CUMING, JOHN, M.M.S.S. was the son of Mr. Robert 
Ciiniiiig, who emigrated from Scothmd at the close of the 
rebellion in 1745. He settled and died in the town of Con- 
cor'l, Massachusetts. His son John entered college at Cam- 
bridge, but was not graduated. He left college, and en- 
tered the army in the French war of 1755, in the capacity 
of Lieutenant, and was taken })risoner by the French and 
Indians: After the termination of the war, he studied 
physic, and became a respectable and successful practition- 
er in his native town. 

Dr. Cuming had a taste for military operations. He 
held the commission of Colonel in the militia, and had 
the offer of a General's commission at the commencement of 
the American revolution. But the situation of our army and 
country appalled his spirit, and liis courage failed him. 
Being a member of the Provincial Congress, which sat at 
Watertown, he was one of a committee appointed to view 
the sea coast from Boston to Plymouth, and to report 
what defence might and ought to be made against the in- 
vading British. The defenceless state of the coast, and 
our inability to erect any works of importance, discour- 
aged the spirits of the Colonel, and on being appointed 
to the command of a ])rigade in the Northern army, he 
declined the commission, retired to his house, and scarcely 
visited his patients till our affairs brightened, and a good 
prospect of success opened to view. Owing to this cir- 
cumstance, j)robably. Dr. Cuming has not been publicly 
noticed according to his real merit. Some years before 
his death, he was admitted to the degree of Master of Arts 
in Harvard University. He died of pneumonia, July 3d, 
1788, aged 60 years. In his last will he bequeathed five 
hundred pounds sterling to Harvard University for the 
support of a medical professor : several legacies to indi- 
viduals, and to the churcli and town of Concord ; one of 
fifty pounds sterling to procure plate for the church ; one 
of twenty-five, for the silent poor of the church and town ; 
and one for schools. 

Dr. Cuming was remarkably active and affable in the 
exercise of his professional duties ; an able and honest 
physician, and a sensible, generous friend. He was early 
disposed to the profession and practice of religion, andwas- 
considercd to be a sincere Christian. 

CUTTER, AMMI R. M.D. M.M.S.S. Hon. The sub- 
ject of this memoir was born in North Yarmouth, in the 



AMMI U. CI TTER. 5Jl 

utatc of Maine, in the year 1734. His father, who was 
graduated at Candiridj^e in n2;3, was the first minister in 
North Yarmouth, and at the time of his deatli was chap- 
lain of one of tlie Now-Enjrhmd regiments at the siege of 
LouisbonrjEj in 1715. Ilis mother, whose name was Brad- 
bury, was from Newli\nyj)ort, in tlic county of Essex, and, 
as a[)j)ears from lier letters now remaininj^ in the posses- 
sion of her descendants, was a j)ious anil well echjcated 
woman. Soon after the decease of lier husband, she sent 
this, her eldest son, at the early aye of twelve years, to be 
educated under the care of a clergyman at Cambridge. 
The distance was then, probably, not less than 150 miles, 
and much of the road lay through a thick wilderness. 
The journey was performed l)y the youth on horseback, 
attended by a servant ; it was a difficult and perilous en- 
terprise, and more than seventy years afterward the 
writer of this has heard the venerable old man recite his 
" hair-breadth 'scapes" during the ride. He entered Har- 
vard College in 1748. Among his contemporaries were 
some young gentlemen from Portsmouth, S\ H., one of 
whom was John Wcntworth, afterwards Governor of the 
Province of New-Hampshire. With these, particulaily 
with Mr. Wentworth, he formed habits of close intimacy, 
and was prevailed upon by them to select that town as the 
place to pursue his professional studies, after being gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1752. There are now before us letters 
to Dr. Cutter fiom his yo\in<r friends, which indicate that 
the cpialities of his mind and heart, which in after life ren- 
dered him so justly beloved and esteemed, were then fully 
developed. 

He commenced the study of medicine under IJie care of 
Dr. Clement Jackson, an eminent ))hvsician in Portsmouth, 
in 1752, and immediately upon being admitted to practice, 
was appointed surgeon of a body of rangers under the 
celebrated Robert Rogers, which formed a part of the 
army on the frontiers in the war with the Indians 
in 1755. He remained with these troops in their fa- 
tiguing and hazardous service, until tliey were disband- 
ed. In the year 1758 he was appointed surgeon of the 
New-Hampshire troops which en<:aged in the successful 
expedition against Louisbourg. ^^ hile employed in this 
service he was near falling a victim to the smallpox, which 
committed greater ravajjes among the Americans than 
the arms of the enemv. and whicli carried off, nmon£r-t 
31 ■ 



243 AMMI R. CUTTER. 

others, the commander of the New-Hampshire troops, 
the friend and patron of Cutter. We have often 
heard Dr. Cutter speak of the events of this inter- 
esting expedition, in which the military resources, cour- 
age and talents of New-England were a second time suc- 
cessfully displayed to the world. He delighted to speak 
of General Wolfe, the second in command, whom he per- 
sonallv knew, and whose easv and engaging manner? 
and chivalrous character, rendered him no less the idol ot 
tlie army, than his subsequent services justly made him the 
favorite of his country. Dr. Cutter used to say that the 
death of Wolfe was a fortunate event for the Americans ; 
an opinion which the remarkable incapacity of the British 
generals during the war of our revolution, seems to justify. 
Upon his return from Louisbourg in 1758, he married 
the lady who now survives him, and immediately entered 
upon the sober duties of life. As he united great court- 
eousness and suavity of manners to unwearied diligence 
and unwavering integrity, he soon obtained a very exten- 
sive range of practice. In 1759 Major Rogers urged him. 
to resume his station in the service in another expedition 
of the Rangers to the frontiers and into Canada ; but his 
professional engagements and the sweets of domestic life 
counterbalanced his inclination. From tliis period until 
the commencement of the revolution, it does not appear 
that there were any events in Dr. Cutter's life worthy of 
being made public ; the cares of an increasing family, and 
the duties of a responsible and laborious profession, were 
enough to fully occupy his attention. The breaking forth 
of the revolution presented tlie great question to his mind 
under circumstances of more than common embarrassment. 
Sir John Wentworth, Governor of the Province, had been 
the friend of his youtli, and their mutual friendship had 
ripened with their years. He was an amiable and accom- 
plished gentleman, and an efficient, liberal and public- 
spirited magistrate, and he had projected schemes for ad- 
vancing the prosperity of the Province, which were al- 
ready in the course of successful completion. In joining 
the whigs, therefore, against the Governor, which Dr. 
Cutter did early and decidedly, he had to make a sacrifice 
of private feelings upon the altar of patriotism, which fell 
not to the lot of all. The Governor had previously pro- 
cured for him a commission as a mandamus counsellor, 
•\rhich, foreseeing the embarrassments which were coming> 



AMMI R. CUTTER. 



243 



he very wisely declined accepting. Tlicir friendly inter- 
course, however, was not iiiterru])tc(l l)y ditrerenit; of po- 
litical opinions ; for after the (Joveraor had heen compel- 
led to take refuge on hoard the ship of war near the lort, 
he sent a pressing recpiest to Dr. Cutter to give him an- 
other meeting. It was their last interview, as the Govern- 
or soon after left the liarhor never airain to return, and Dr. 
Cutter Avas prohahly the last New-Hampshire gentleman 
he had an ()p|)ortunity of seeing within ilw. limits of the 
republic. Forty years afterward, when a gentleiuaii from 
Portsmouth hapj)ened to see Sir John at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, when he was Governor of that Province, tiie first 
question he askcul, after the usual salutation, was as to the 
welfare of his early friend. 

In the heuinning of the year 1777 Congress resolved to 
reorganize the medic.il department, and Dr. Cutter was 
called upon to give his time and services to his country in 
her hour of need. He had then a family of ten young 
children, and an extensive and lucrative range of practice ; 
btit in those days no man felt at lil)erty to choose between 
tlie service of his country and his own convenience. The 
post olfered to Dr. C. was that of Physician General of 
the eastern department, and his station was to be at Fish- 
kill, on the North River. The followinj extract of a let- 
ter from General A\'hipj)le, who signed the declaration of 
independence, and who Avas then a member of the Congress, 
will show the nature of this appointment, and serves to 
exhibit the hish estimation in which Dr. Cutter was held. 
It is dated at Philadelphia, April 15, 1777. "The army 
now forming will, I hope, under Heaven, free America 
from the calamities of a destructive war. The scenes of 
horror and distress occasioned by some mismanasement in 
\hv medical department last year, were reallv shockiiiir to 
humanity. Congress being sensible of this, and determined 
to remedy the evil if possible, have formed a plan on the 
most liberal princij>les, with a design if po-sible to draw 
into the service of their country, {gentlemen of the first emi- 
nence from different parts of the continent, many of whom 
have already eiifjaijed. Voiir humanilv, and firm attach- 
ment to the most glorious cause that ever mankind Avas 
•rniiaiieil in, Avill, I Hatter myself, induce you to forego the 
]>leasures of domestic happiness for a time, as you Avill 
thereby render a most essential service to your country. 
I hope, tlicrefore, soon to have the pleasure of hearing of 



344 A.MMI R. CUTTER. 

your acceptance of the trust, and of your arrival at the 
hospital, which for the department in which you are placed 
will be at some convenient place on the eastern side of the 
Hudson River." 

Dr. Cutter remained at Fishkill and its neighborhood 
during the greater part of this year, and did not return 
home until the beginning of the next, when the circum- 
stances of his family compelled him to resign his office, 
and he returned once more to the business of his profes- 
sion and to the task, to him a delightful one, of educating 
his children. He was, in the New-England phrase, emi- 
nently a domestic man ; he sought no higher enjoyments 
than he could find at his own parlor fire side ; that was 
the scene of his pleasures and the centre of his hopes, and 
his absence from it during the past year had been render- 
ed doubly distressing by the death of his oldest son, then 
a promising youth at college. 

Dr. Cutter had no taste and no time for political life ; 
and it is believed that he held no other civil office than a 
seat in the Convention which framed the Constitution of 
New-Hampshire. His opinions, however, on political 
questions were not wavering ; he was a whig before the 
revolution, as we have before stated, and when our own 
governments were establislied, he attached himself from 
the beginning to that party which formed and carried in- 
to operation the Constitution of the United States, and he 
adhered to it so long as it remained a distinct party. 

About the year 1794 he admitted his third son William, 
a scion wortliy of the parent stock, into partnership in his 

{)ractice ; and gradually withdrawing himself from the 
aborious duties of his profession, as the infirmities of age 
came upon him, he finally resigned the whole into his hands. 
As a physician Dr. Cutter was intelligent, kind and attent- 
ive ; he remained in active practice more than fifty years, 
and no one ever possessed in a greater degree the afiection 
and entire confidence of his patients. His scientific attain- 
ments were greater than those of most physicians of the 
times in which he was educated ; his literary acquisitions 
were very respectable, and his fondness for literary pur- 
suits continued to afford employment and gratification un- 
til the very close of his protracted life. He was one of 
the original members, and for a long time President of the 
New-Hampshire Medical Society, and, without derogating 
from the merit of others, it may be said that for many 



JAMKS FKEIiMAN UA.NA. 245 

years he was at the liead of the profession in tliis state. 
He received the honorary degree of M.D. from Harvard 
College, and was chosrn an honorary mcniher of tlie Ahis- 
sachuM'tts Medical ami Iluinanc Socielifs. 

He was ahont the niitUlle height ; his manners were dig- 
nified, yet courteons, and his conntenance was strongly 
marked with the moral energy, intelligence and benevo- 
lence, which formed the leading traits of his character. 
He imited to a naturally (ine trnijxT, great vivacity and a 
social <lisj)Osition ; his collociuial powers were remark:i- 
ble ; he had a tenacious memory, and the diversified 
scenes of his long life he used to relate with a felicity of 
language and happiness of allusion, interspersed with fre- 
(juent flaslies of native humor, that made him an instructive 
and delightful comjianion. 

Dr. Cutter's distinguishing intellectual powers, were 
quickness of perception, a retentive memory, an vmder- 
standing which rarelv erred in its decisions, and a will 
"whose energy seldom failed of accom])lishing its determin- 
ations. His prominent moral qualities, were an unbend- 
ing integrity, a lofty sense of honor and a benevolence 
which came from the heart, and which reached the hearts 
of all around him. This "■ good man," as he was emphat- 
ically called by the reverend clergyman who ])reached 
liis funeral sermon, died suddenly on the eighth of Decem- 
ber, A.D. 1819, aged 85 years, in the midst of his family, 
breathing out his pure and kind sjtirit in a short ejacula- 
lory ])rayer to the Being who created it, and who now re- 
ceived it willing to depart ; before the frosts of age had 
palsied his intellect, or lessened in the slightest degree the 
warm affections of his heart. The influence of his charac- 
ter, and the remend)rance of his kindness and his virtues, 
yet remain, and will not soon jierish amid that commun- 
itv, of which he was so long an active and valued uuMn!»er. 

DANA, JAMES FREEMAN, M.D. was the oldest son 
of Luther Dana, E.«<<j., and was liorn in AnduM'st, in the 
state of New-Hampshire, September the 23d, 1793. His 
mother's maiden name was Lucv Giddings. At the age of 
sixteen he entereil tlie Universitv of Cambridne, after com- 
pleting his preparatorv course of studies at riiiHij)< Acad- 
emy in Exeter, N. H. He passed through the usual course 
of instrtiction at the University, and received his first de- 
gree in 1813. 



246 JAMES FREEMAN DANA. 

After his graduation he commenced the study of medi- 
cine under Dr. John Gorham, at that time Professor of 
Chemistry in Harvard University. In the year 1815, be- 
fore he had completed his professional studies, he had be- 
come so well known as a practical chemist, tliat he was 
selected by the University to go to London as an agent for 
the pur})0se of procuring a new apparatus for the chemi- 
cal department. While in England, where he remained 
several months, he prosecutecl the study of chemistry in 
the laboratory of Accum, a celebrated operative chemist. 
In this situation so favorable to his views, he became fa- 
miliarized with the details of practical chemistry, and laid 
the foundation for a dexterity in its manipulations, which 
has probably been seldom surpassed, and which afterward 
became one of his most striking excellences as a Lecturer. 
On his return from England he was employed in superin- 
tending the repairs of the laboratory, and in preparing it for 
the reception of the new apparatus, a task which he exe- 
cuted with great judgment and ingenuity ; and soon after 
was appointed assistant to the Professor of Chemistry, his 
former instructer. In 1817 he receiv^ed the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine ; and in the autumn of the same year 
he was appointed Lecturer on Chemistry in Dartmouth 
College, and soon after married a daughter of the late Pre- 
sident Webber of Harvard University. 

With Dartmouth College he remained connected in the 
capacity of Lecturer on Chemistry until the year 1820, 
when he received the appointment of Professor of Chemist- 
ry and Mineralogy in the same Institution. This office 
he held until the year 1826 ; and tliose M'ho enjoyed the 
privilege of liearing his admirable lectures, will long re- 
member witli what a])ility and success he discharged its 
duties. In 1826 he was appointed one of the Board of 
Visiters of the Military Academy at West Point, and im- 
mediately after his return from the discliarge of this duty 
he was chosen Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
New-York. This appointment, which opened a wide field 
for the exertion of liis talents, he readily accepted, and re- 
moved with his family to the city in the autumn of the 
same year. 

A severe calamity awaited him on his removal to New- 
York, in the ^untimely death, under circumstances pecu- 
liarly distressing, of his only child, a beautiful female in- 



iAMF.S FREEMAlt DAITA. 841 

fant a few months old. Those who were ncquaintcd with 
the streiiiilh of his iittaclmn'iits, and with thr fxtrj me tfn- 
derness ol" liis allt'ctioii iov this inti'rt'>tiii<^ ohjcct, prctlid- 
cd the most serious fonstMjui'nccs to his own h<-altli from 
this uiislortune ; and a lew niontlis were sulhcicnt to vtri- 
fy the predidion. Under the j)ressnrc of a calnniity, 
which, with fetliuirs such as liis, was almost the greatest 
which could have heCallen him, he made extraortlinary 
exertions to support his spiiits. IJut the >ho( k in its ( on- 
se([uenccs was prohal)ly fatal to him. lie submitted with 
calm resi<ination to a blow, which destroyed in a moment 
his most cherished antl tleli}rlitlul hopes ; but his appetite 
and health ileclined, and in Ajiril, 1827, uhout six nu)nths 
after his removal to New-York, he sunk under an attack 
of erysipelas, at the early ai^e of thirty-three, and when 
just entering upon an extended sphere of usefidness and 
honor. 

Professor Dana's taste led him at an early period to the 
cultivation of the natural sciences, jiartictdarly chemistry, 
in wliich he afterward attained so hiiih a de<:;ree of excel- 
lence, mineralojiy, entoiuolony, and l)otany. To these 
pursuits he tjave much of his leisjire time when in collet^e ; 
and to those who were acquainted with the character of 
his mind and the decided tendency of his genius, it must 
be a source of regret, that nuuh of his time when in col- 
lege, was necessarily devoteil to subjects wholly unconge- 
nial to his taste. He affords one instance among many 
others of di^tinguislied tahMits, to the cultivation of wirKJi 
the system of study estal)li>hed in our colleges is wholly un- 
suitable. He had one characteristic of genius in an eminent 
degree, a decided and almost exclusive taste for studies of a 
particular class ; and these sul)jects are j)recisely those to 
xvhich least attention has beeu usuallv |)ai(l i'l our higher 
seminaries of learning, and whicli, indeed, until lately, seem 
scarcely to have fallen within the sco|h' of a college eiluta- 
tion. To a mind like his, remarkably active, incpiisitive and 
observing, the subjects of philologv, meta|)]ivsics and ab- 
stract mathematics, whii h constitute so large a portion of 
the studies enjoined at our colh'ges, possessed no attrac- 
tions ; and however eri'oneoiis an estimate he may have 
formed of the general imj)ortancc of these stinlies, it is cer- 
tain that to him they possessed little value ; and a reluct- 
ant attention to them exacted bv the laws of the universi- 
ty, must be regretted as a sacrifice of talent, perhaps un.i- 



248 JAMES FREEMAN DANA. 

voidable, to the spirit of system. In the character of his 
mind one striking feature was a disposition to convert its 
acquisitions to practical purposes ; to estimate the value of 
scientific pursuits chiefly by their susceptibility of this ap- 
plication ; and, as a natural consequence, to undervalue 
those speculations which lead to no practical results. His 
mind was fertile in those analogies which suggest the 
means of accomplishing any practical effect in science or 
the arts ; and hence he was even from childhood distin- 
guished by his mechanical ingenuity. His perceptions 
were remarkably keen and discriminating, and his talent 
for observation of external objects, of their distinguishing 
qualities, their analogies, and of the slightest shades of dif- 
ference between them, was perhaps seldom surpassed. 
This talent, which was the foundation of his accurate and 
extensive knowledge of mineralogy, was frequently illus- 
trated in a very amusing manner by the facility with which 
he would seize upon and exhibit, by an exquisite power of 
imitation, those undefined peculiarities of manner or ap- 
pearance which distinguish individuals, and which are 
often very difficult to catch and to analyze. Connected 
with the same talent he possessed a keen perception of the 
beauties of the fine arts, particularly architecture and mu- 
sic. As a lecturer on chemistry he had few superiors. His 
excellence consisted in a thorough and profound know- 
ledge of every part of the science ; great clearness of me- 
thod and of illustration ; a manner interesting and impress- 
ive ; and extraordinary dexterity and success in his expe- 
riments. 

But his greatest excellences were those which leave no 
memorial of themselves except in the cherished recollec- 
tions of friendship. In these his character was rich. His 
heart was the abode of every kind and generous sentiment, 
and of every social virtue. The quickness and ardor of 
his feelings sometimes betrayed him into hasty and incor- 
rect judgments of persons and things ; his resentments 
were sudden, though never deep nor lasting ; but the kind- 
ness and benevolence of his disposition were uniform and 
invariable, and exercised alike upon enemies and friends. 
In his professional practice this amiable trait was exem- 
plified in his unwearied personal attention to the comfort 
of his patients. Tliis most estimable part of his character 
was sustained and guided by great rectitude of moral prin- 
ciple, and a firm belief in the momentous truths of re- 



JAMES FREEMAN DANA. 249 

vcaled relisjion. With tliese graver excellences of charac- 
ter were imiteJ a disposition eiiiiiuntly social, and a tal- 
ent for pleasantry and humor, \n lii( li rendered his society 
irresistibly nltractive. His personal aj)pearance and his 
manners were extremely prepossessing, and perfectly ex- 

{)ressivc of the frankness and gentleness of his disposition. 
«'ew individuals have enjoyed the affections of a wider 
circle of j)ersonal friends. 

Professor Dana died young ; hut his talents and indus- 
try enabled hiin to accomplish enough for science to jus- 
tify high expectations of future excellence, and to create 
deep regret at the premature fate by which these were 
destined to be disappointed. 

His principal publications were the following, viz. 
" Outlines of the Mineralogy and Geology of Boston and 
its vicinity," a work of considerable merit, the joint jjto- 
duction of himself and his brother Dr. Samuel L. Dana, 
published in 1818. " Epitome of Chemical Philosophy," 
published in 1825, while he was Professor of Chemistry 
in Dartmouth College. This is a work of no ordinary 
merit ; though designed merely as a text book for the use 
of students while attendinii lectures on ciiemistry. It ex- 
hiliits a condensed view of the j)hilosc>phy of chemistry, 
with a reference to all the imj)ortant facts of the science, 
and to the principal recent sources of information, well 
arranged and written in a style of great clearness and puri- 
ty. It is evidently the result of much research, anil in 
one respect may be proposed as a model for elementary 
treatises on scientific subjects. He exhibits the j)rin( ipal 
facts and doctrines of chemistry in a clear but concise and 
scientific manner, stripped of all unnecessary matter, and 
not diluted by difl'usc and tedious commentary. A very 
interesting " Report on a singular Disease of Horned Cat- 
tle in the town of Burton, New-Hampshire," the ca\ises of 
which he was appointed to investigate by tlie New-Hamp- 
shire Medical Society, and which he traced with greai 
probability to the presence of muriate of lime in the waters 
of that town. 

Besides these publications he contributed several papers 
to the American Journal of Science, the New England Jour- 
nal of Medicine, and the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural 
History of New-York, some of them of very considerable 
merit, and some of which have been reprinted in Kurope. 
The principal of tlie.<e arc the followin<i. '■'■ An Accomit 
3J 



850 JaHN SYNG DORSET. 

of the Grand Monadnock Mountain of New-Hampshire" ; 
an elaborate " Account of Iodine" ; " On a new form of 
the Electrical Battery" ; " Chemical Examination of the 
Berries of the Myrica Cerifera, or Wax Myrtle" ; " On 
the Effect of Vapor or Flame" ; " On the Existence of 
Cantharidin in the Lytta Vittata, or Potatofly" ; " Chemi- 
cal Examination of some Animal Products" ; " Notices on 
the connexion of Electricity, Heat and Magnetism, the 
preparation of Euchlorine Gas, &c." ; " Account of a 
Galvanic Magnetic Apparatus" ; " On the Theory of the 
Action of the Deutoxicle of Azote, or Nitrous Gas, in Eudi- 
ometry" ; '• On the Ignition of Platinum" ; " Remarks 
on Mr. Patten's Air Pump" ; " Remarks on the common 
Method of detecting Cobalt" ; " Additional Remarks on 
Mr. Patten's Air Pump" ; " Analysis of the Copper Ore 
of Franconia in New-Hampshire," &c. published after his 
death. 

In 1815, while a medical student. Dr. Dana received the 
Boylston medical prize for a Dissertation on the Tests of 
Arsenic, and on his passage home Irom Europe he wrote 
a Dissertation on the Composition of the Oxy muriatic 
Gas, to which the Boylston premium was assigned in 
1816. 

DORSEY, JOHN SYNG, M. D. Professor of Anatomy 
in the University of Pennsylvania, was born in the city of 
Philadelphia, December 23d, 1783. In early life he re- 
ceived an excellent elementary and classical education at a 
school in Philadelphia of the society of Friends, then in 
high repute, and here manifested the same vivacity of 
genius and quickness in learning with the mild and gra- 
cious dispositions, for which he was subsequently so con- 
spicuous. At the age of fifteen years he entered the office 
of his relative, the celebrated Dr. Physick. Medicine he 
cultivated with unusual ardor, and so successfully that, 
though by far the most juvenile member of the class, he 
had no superior in the estimation either of his teacher or 
fellow students. Of the force of his application and 
its results, a conception may be formed when it is told 
that, while still very much within his minority, he was 
fully prepared for the highest medical honors of the vmi- 
versity. In the spring of 1802, then in his nineteenth 
year, he was graduated as a Doctor in medicine, having 
previously defended with ability an Inaugural Dissertation 
'' On the Powers of the Gastric Liquor as a Solvent of the 



JOHN SYNr. D0R8LY. 25l 

Urinary Calculi." This, says his Mofrraphcr, exhibits 
some oriirinal views, illustrated and maintained by a set of 
pertinent aiul well conduct(>d experiments. 

Not long after receiving his donree the yellow fever re- 
appeared in the city, and prevailed so widely that a hos- 
pital was opened for the accommodation exclusively of 
the sick with this disease, to which he was appointed resi- 
dent physician. So great was the value attaclicd to his 
services, that it is difficult to sj)eak too hiiihly of tin* man- 
ner in which he discharged the duties of this'office of haz- 
ardous benevolence. Nor did he neglect the vast oppor- 
tunities which his situation afforded of investigating the 
disease, ami happily by his extensive dissections elucidated 
some of the more intricate parts of its j)athology, and aid- 
ed in the establisjiment of u better system of j)ractice. It 
may be safely affirmed that no one was more correctly 
informed on the subject of this epidemic, and not a little 
which has appeared under the authority of other names, 
was derived from his observations and researches. At the 
close of the same season he proceeded to Europe for the 
purpose of improving his medical knowledge, and liberal- 
izing his views by a wider survey of the world. During 
his absence he divided his time between the English and 
French metroiwlis, and diligently availed himself of the 
immense advantages, which in these respects each city 
affords. That his talents and ac(piisitions were d»dy ap- 
preciated abroad we have ample evidence in the attention 
wliich was paid him, and in tlie very flattering notices he 
has since received in several foreign i)u])lications. In De- 
cember, 1804, he returned home and immediately entered 
on the practice of his profession. The rej)utation he 
brought with him, his amiable temjier and po|)ular man- 
ners, his fidelity and attention, speedily introduced him 
into a larjxe share of business. From this jyeriod j)rofes- 
sional honors were heaped on him with j)rofiision. He 
was appointed surijeon to the dispensarv, the alms-house 
and hospitals, and in all our medical associations he held 
some elevated office. But there was reserved for him a 
still hiuher and more diffuified station. In 1S07 he was 
elected adjunct Professor of SurL^ry, in which office he 
continued till he was raised to the chair of Anatomy by the 
lamented death of the venerable Dr. Wistar. 

Consiclering himself now placed for the first time in the 
pi-oi>er sjihere for the cxerci>P of his talents and the grati- 



Zo2 JOHN SYiNG DORSEY. 

fication of a generous ambition, the appointment gave him 
much delight, and with ample preparation he opened the 
session l)y one of the finest exhibitions of eloquence ever 
heard in these walls. But here his bright and prosperous 
career ended, and the expectations of success thus created, 
were not permitted to be realized. Elevated to a position 
above which he could liardly ascend, and surrounded by 
all that we most value, Providence seems to have selected 
him as an instance to teach a salutary lesson of the short- 
ness of life, the insignificance of things transitory, and the 
importance of that eternity which absorbs all being and all 
time. On the evening of the same day that he pronounced 
his introductory lecture, and while the praises of it still 
resounded, he was attacked with a fever of such vehe- 
mence that in one short week it closed his existence, leav- 
ing to us only his enviable name and inestimable example. 
He died November, 1818, aged 35 years. 

Dorsey was a man of no ordinary powers, and deserv- 
edly occupied a large space in the public eye. Naturally 
acute, vigorous and discriminative, his mind was highly 
improved by education, and embellished by taste. Every 
department of medicine he had cultivated assiduously : 
but it was surgery for which he evinced a decided predi- 
lection, and in which he had the greatest proficiency. As 
a science he thoroughly studied it, and^>y the unequalled 
advantages he enjoyed, had become no less expert in the 
practice. Excepting one illustrious character, who has no 
rival, he was indisputably the most accomplished surgeon 
of our country, and this higli praise is conceded to him on 
account of the number, the variety, the difiiculty of his 
operations, and the skill, dexterity and boldness, with 
which they were performed. So many, indeed, were his 
qualifications that, under almost any circumstances, he 
must have attained excellence in this province of his pro- 
fession. Clear in his views, and of sound judgment, he 
had also great mechanical ingenuity, delicacy of touch, and 
promptness of decision ; and hence, in conducting an ope- 
ration, however new or complex, there was a tone and 
firmness of manner which always inspired confidence and 
insured success. As a teaclier of medicine, his merits were 
great and universally acknowledged. Early employed in 
this field of exertion, his mind became perfectly disciplin- 
ed, and it developed witliont faltering or embarrassment 
the various subjects to whicli it was directed. It was this 



JOHN SYN(; DORSEY, 253 

quickness of apprehension, and fncility of execution, wiiich 
caiised him constantly to he rosorticl to in seasons of tjnrr- 
gcncy, to sii|)ply the deficiencies produced by casualties 
Ml the school. We have seen hiui, on these occasions, in 
the same day illustrate the operations of surfrery, and de- 
liver the details of the materia medica, demonstrate the 
minntifc of anatomical structure, and exponntl the laws of 
the animal economy. Talent so flexible, and kiiowledfre 
Ihiis diversified, have rarely been concentrated in one in- 
dividual, and still more rarely exhibited ^vith sm h impos- 
ing etiect. Never failino; in whatever he enframed to teach, 
it was, however, in the cleujon&trative branches of medi- 
cine he j)articularly excelled. He was fitted for the un- 
dertakiniT not less by nature than study. To exactness of 
knowledge, which lie owed to a retentive memory, cor- 
roborated by the habit of intense application in early life, 
he added a fluent elocution, an entire self possession, imd a 
methodical and luminous mode of exposition. 

But in no situation did lie appear to j^reater advantage 
than in the discussions of our Medical Society. Constitu- 
ted of many of the more active, intellif^ent and enterpris- 
ing of the practitioners of the city and of the members of 
the medical class, this institution is adiHiral)ly adapted for 
the display of talent and the reciprocation of j)rolcssional 
information. As a debater he never had a superior among 
us. The style of his speaking was peculiar and distinct- 
ive. De-stitute of rhetorical pretensions, it had the char- 
acter of warm and elevated < onvcrsation, and while it was 
sufliciently strong to cojie with the most j)Owerful, it was 
intelligible by its simplicity to the meanest capacity. 
E(|ualiy adroit in attack or defence, the resources he exhi- 
bited in these contests, and esj>ecially when pressed by the 
weight of an adversary, were surprising, and often drew 
forth strong expressions of admiration and npj.lause. It 
has been objected to his s))caking, that though always in- 
genious and forcible, it was occasiouidly loose and desul- 
tory. But this defect was visible only in those extempore 
effusions which escaped from him without ])remeditation 
or reflection, and proceeded in a great measure from the 
fecundity of his genius, and the <o])iousness of his matter. 
Teeming with ideas and exuberant in fads, he could not 
always preserve his arrangeuu'iit, nor the chain of his rea- 
soning, jHirspicuous antl consecutive. As a medical writer 
he is certainly entitled to be placed among the most 



254 JOHN SYNG DORSEY. 

prominent we have produced. He contributed many 
valuable papers to the periodical journals, and published 
the " Elements of Surgery" in two large octavo volumes, 
which is probably the very best Avork on the subject ex- 
tant. Composed in a plain and unornamented style, it 
embraces within a narrow compass a digest of surgery, 
with all the recent improvements it has received in Eu- 
rope and this country. Dedicated as he was to his profes- 
sion, he still did not neglect elegant literature nor the 
liberal arts ; on the contrary, he cultivated them with care, 
and found in the intervals of his leisure, that they smooth- 
ed the ruggedness of his severer studies, and afforded a 
refuge from the care and irritation of business. 

Extraordinary as were the powers of his mind, they did 
not surpass the qualities of his heart. What was said by 
Burke of Fox, " that he was born to be beloved," is strik- 
ingly applicable to our friend. As much as any man whom 
I ever knew, was he calculated to win attachments and dis- 
arm enmities. Cordial, warm, generous, practising all 
the courtesies, and extending every kindness in his inter- 
course with society, it Avas impossible to approach him 
without being conciliated, and further acquaintance served 
only to confirm the agreeable prepossessions. Frank and 
unreserved, there was nothing in his deportment to inspire 
awe, or excite doubt or suspicion of his sincerity. No 
one, such was his habitual graciousness, however humble 
was thrown at a distance, or rendered uncomfortable in 
his presence. Easy, cheerful and good humoured, he dif- 
fused these pleasant feelings around him, and enlivened 
every scene into which he entered. Mixing much in the 
circles of fashion, his manners, naturally urbane, were 
highly polished, and his conversation, so various was his 
intelligence and such the pliancy of his address, would 
amuse the gay, and instruct the illiterate, entertain the 
learned, and delight the grave and pious. Yet, with this 
versatility of genius and diversity of pursuits, he overlook- 
ed no important concern, nor slighted any material duty. 
The review already presented sufficiently shows how at- 
tentive he was to his leading occupation, and its collateral 
engagements. Endowed with that peculiar constitution 
of character which readily accommodates itself to circum- 
stances, he could in the most remarkable degree intermix 
amusement and business without any serious encroachment, 



WILLIAM DOUGLASS. 255 

and preserve to a great extent undisturbed the order of 
systematized life 

As he livcil, so lie died ; never shall I forget the truly 
imi)re>sivc scene. When ]>y his jxTomptory cojninand the 
awful toninuuiication was niacle of his irrecovcral)h' state, 
he was loniposed, firm and resolute, confiilinir in the mercy, 
and resi<fned to the will of Heaven. As a Christian, prac- 
tising with more than ordinary punctuality the duties of 
his religion, death had to him few terrors. Emphati- 
cally and witii fervor did he reiterate the expression of 
his confidence in the atonement of his Savior, and tlic 
comfort which he derived from this source. What else 
indeed can sustain us at such a crisis .'' An audacious spirit, 
roused by the pomp and pride of war or a sense of duty 
or honor, will in the field affront death, and brave its con- 
sequences. But even he, in the gloomy chamber, and 
under the anguish of disease, where no such adventitious 
impulse exists, without this only support, will shudder at 
the idea of dissolution, and the destinies of eternity. — Pro- 
fessor Cliapman^s Eulogium delivered before the JMedical Class, 
1st March, 1819 ; See Philadelphia Journal of JMedical and 
Physical Scieiices, Vol. I. 

DOUGLASS, WILLIAM, M. D. was a native of Scot- 
land, who came to America when a young man, ai)out the 
year HIG. He fixed himself in the north part of Boston, 
and soon became conspicuous for his abilities as a physi- 
cian, and for his general intelligence and enterj)rise. He 
was a man of great learning, but deficient in judgment, 
prudence and correct taste ; yet he assumed the task of 
animadverting upon the actions and characters of others, 
filling the ncwspa|)ers with political essays fraught with 
sarcastic remarks uj)on the magistrates, the clergy, the 
physicians, and the people of New-England. 

When Dr. Cotton Mather conununicated to him the 
success of Timoni of Constantinople in inoculatinjj for 
the smallpox, he treated the account with contempt though 
recorded in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don. When Dr. Bo) Iston, in the vear 1721, introduced 
the practice in Boston and met with the greatest success, 
he still raved against Timoni, Mather and Boylston. He 
published several tracts on the subject, in wJiit h he at- 
tacked with intemperate language, the clergymen, the 
physicians, and all who encourtigcd the practice of inocu- 
lation, which he held to be a presumptuous exposure to 



25C WILLIAM DOUGLASS. 

disease and death. His prejudices were very strong, and 
such was the obstinacy of his temper, that he would 
never retract his errors, however palpable or unjust. His 
notions of religion were very loose and unsettled. 

His publications were, The Inocidation of the Smallpox 
as practised in Boston, 1722 ; Tiie Abuses and Scandals of 
some late Pamphlets in Favor of Inoculation, 1722 ; A 
Practical Essay concerning the Smallpox, containing the 
History, &c. 1730 ; Practical History of a New Eruptive 
Miliary Fever, with Angina Ulcusculosa, which prevailed 
in Boston in 1735 and 1736. This publication may be 
considered a valuable practical essay on angina maligna, 
in which are detailed the characteristics of the disease and 
the method best adapted to its treatment. Some physi- 
cians about that period adopted the plan of bleeding from 
the vein under the tongue, which proved extremely fatal ; 
and Douglass says, " most of those who died of the phy- 
sician, died by immoderate evacuations." He publisiied 
a summary, historical and political, of the first planting, 
progressive improvements, and present state of the British 
settlements in North America ; the first volume appeared 
in 1748, and the second in 1753. In this work he is said 
to be often incorrect in point of fact. It can only be con- 
sidered as a strange medley of aflairs relating to his family, 
his private squabbles, and public transactions, without 
judgment or sound discretion. He would not take pains 
to arrange his materials, nor to inform himself of particu- 
lar facts. 

He was so opinionated that he never would correct his 
mistakes. When Cape Breton was taken, it frustrated 
many of his printed declarations. He had ridiculed the 
expedition because it was a measure of governor Shirley's 
administration, and called that place the Dunkirk, which 
such forces would never dare to assail. But though the plan 
succeeded, it did not make any difference in his views. 
Instead of having his pride wounded, he, porcupine like, 
wrapped himself in his own down, and darted his quills at 
others. He said he was right in his conjectures, but for- 
tune would always wait upon blunderers and quacks ! 
Douglass was a mathematician ; in 1743, 44, he published 
an Almanac, which was useful at the time, and is now 
valuable for its list of chronological events, and also the 
account of all the sovereigns of Europe and their families. 
It was called " Mercurius Novan^licanus," bv William 



.I.\( or DYCKMAN. 267 

NniVir, S. X. Q. A town in llic (oimty of Worccf^tcr, 
State of M:iss;i(liu<(tts, of wliicli lio was a |ti(>|trirt()r and 
hcnofactor, hear.-; tlio name of Doiijilass. lie ilinl Octo- 
ber 21vf, \'ii)2. — A'///n/\ and .'Jllcn^s liinu^raphy. 

• DYCKMAN, JACOB, M. P., was Wn of highly re- 
spcctahlc parontaiic at Yonkcrs, Wcstclicstcr coiiiilyi in 
tlic state of New York, on the first of Dec «inl)rr, 1*88. 
His oarly years, spent as they were in the retirement and 
of)senrity of the eotnitry, fnrnish no remarkable inri<lents 
for the narrative of the hio^rajjher. Yet it can liardly be 
s»ipj)Osed that a mind snch as his did not develop some 
prominent featnre, even in the days of his childhood ; 
and esjx'cially as he was always the subject of j)raise 
nmon^ his a((|naintance, and of ambitious hoj)e amon^ 
his friends. AVithout jiossessinj]^ that vivacity of s])irits, or 
that sj)ri£,ditliness of remark, which are fre(|ueiitly the indi- 
cations of infant jjenins, tliere is said to have been somethinij 
peculiar in his deportment, and jiointed in his conversa- 
tion, Avhich, at a very early period, excited in the bosoins 
of his friends a hope that he was d<>>tined to be no ordi- 
nary man. Accordiniily he was sent to the city to be 
l)repared for his entrance into college. After receiving a 
very complete and solid preparation at a grammar school, 
he Was admitted into Columbia College in the year 1806. 
Althonirh he did not possess that flippancy which often 
passes for brillian<y of parts, and obtains for a youni; 
man a rank above his fellows Avho are in realitv possesse<l 
of more capacity and solidity of mind, he maintained, 
during the whole period of his collefriate studies, a highly 
respectable station in his class. There was not in him 
any of that frivolity of character which leads young men 
to engage in the fashionable anuisements of life ; and he 
was too stronfjly fortified by prin( iple to be led into dis- 
sijiation. It is no wonder, then, that he should surpass 
many of his coUeniate associates, who trifled away the 
time which he devoted to study, in tlie pursuits of ])le:i- 
sure or the haunts of dissipation. He was graduated in 
the year 1810, after passing through all the classes of that 
excellent institution. 

Shortly after his fjraibiation in the arts, he commenced 
the study of medicine under the jiupilace of Dr. Hosack. 
He w.as a pattern of dilifjence in his studies, of proprietv 
in his deportment in the office, and an example in nil 
respects worthy of imitation. From the character he 
33 



258 JACOB nrCKMAN. 

then held, every one augured his future usefulness and 
distinction. In the spriug of 1813 he received the honors 
of the doctorate, in one of the early classes that were 
graduated in tlie newly organized College of Physicians 
and Surgeons. On his public examination he presented 
and defended an Inaugural Tlicsis on the Pathology of 
the Human Fluids ; a production which, afterwards revis- 
ed and enlarged, laid the foundation of his professional 
fame, and is destined to be remembered as a work of 
standard excellence on the subject of whicli it treats. 

Immediately after liis graduation he was apj)ointed one 
of the Physicians of the City Dispensary, a situation 
which, at that time, was not to be obtained by the influ- 
ence of family connexions, or by acquiescence in a con- 
tracted and mercenary policy. Dr. Dyckman was then 
an obscure young man, without friends to urge his claims, 
or to exert their influence in his behalf. He continued to 
discharge the arduous duties of this charity for several 
years ; and at last resigned his situation, partly, as he told 
me, through disgust at the conduct which he witnessed in 
the institution, and partly in consequence of increased de- 
mands upon his time by the duties of a more important 
office. 

In the year 1819 Dr. Dyckman was appointed the Sur- 
geon of the New-York Alms House. This charity, al- 
though extensive in its character, presents, in consequence 
of its location beyond the limits of the city, and the 
peculiar description of the objects of its bounty, a very 
limited field for the cultivation and display of surgical 
dexterity. During Dr. Dyckman's attendance, however, 
several great and important cases occurred in the institu- 
tion, which gave him an opportunity of exhibiting that 
versatility of talent, which can familiarize itself to the knife 
without an exclusive attention to operative surgery. From 
the judgment and deliberation with which he conducted his 
operations, and the prudent dexterity which he exlxibited 
in their performance, there is good reason to believe, that 
when experience had given him a necessary confidence, 
and matured the dexterous talent he possessed, he would 
have become a highly respectable and '^kilful surgeon. 

In ihe year 1819 he was commissioned by the Board of 
Health of New-York to })rocced to Philadelphia, for the 
purpose of investigating tlie nature and origin of a pesti- 
lential fever Avhich prevailed in a section of that city. 



.IA( on I)V( K5IAN, 259 

Ho (lisi li;irjT(>(l this iiitporlHiit duty with so iniich manly 
in(le[)en(UMu»», so miirh piofossioiial (lisrrction, and so 
inn'h satisfaction to the niil»li( , that hr was si'iit upon a 
siujilar mission to l'hihi(ltl|ihia in the suocrcdiuir year. 
In th(Mrar ISil ]iv was chrtcd rccordinir socrt'tary of tho 
Now- York Liti'rary aiul l*hilosophi<al SocictN, an ollice 
uhicli ho licUl to tlie day of his ilcatli, with universal 
satisfaction to the members of that body. Nothinjr caii 
show in n more convincinij manner the e>timation in 
which he was lu'ld by that learned society, than the fact, 
that a special (ommiilee has, by their nnaidinons n solu- 
tion, been appointed to prejiare a biographical nuinoir of 
him in the next volume of their tran-^actions. The respect- 
ability of the committee charffed with this duty, is an 
additional honor to his memory. In the year 1821 J)r. 
Dyckman was ap|)ointed to the ofhce ol Health Commis- 
sioner, and in 1<S22, in spite of the intrijrues whi( h were 
used for a host of others, lie was appointed hy thi* honor- 
able rejjeuts of the university, a trustee of the CoUeire of 
Physicians and Sur<^cons. By his appointment as Health 
Commissioner, he became, c.r o/^cto, a memherof the Board 
ol Healtli. It is priiuipally in seasons of pestiieiu-e that 
a member of that body has any oj)poitunit v of sirriializing 
himself as a public olHcer. No sooner had the epidemic 
which lately desolated the fairest portion of our city, 
made its aj)pearance, than the profession, the board, and 
the public, looked to J)r. Dyckman as their princi])al 
counsellor. His medic al associate in the couunission of 
health, hy an unfi)rtunate inadvertence whicji the Uiost 
experierued mi<iht hav«> committed, or, perhaj)s, throunh 
the mischievous insimiations of jealousN and malice, lost, 
in a ^reat measure, the confideiue of the puhlic* Or, 
J)yekman at this time was laboring; tinder a severe indis- 
position ; yet, feeling the importance of his station, and 
animated by a sense of duty, he scorned to evade by 
flight the iesponsiI)ilities and the dangers of his ollice. 
Contrary to the renu)nst ranees of his friends. In* determined 
to remain in the city, anil for some weeks spent his time 
alternately in his bed and at the sittings of the Board of 
Health. His fet>ble constitution, already undermineil by 
a strong predisposition to j)ulmonary disease, could not 
support the anxieties of his mind, and his unusual bodily 



• Se« TownacDd on Ihe V< How Fever ol New-York, in 1822. 



;^G0 JAIJUIJ DVtKMAN. 

exertions at tliis period of terror and dismay. He Avas 
shortly conHJcUcd to request j)ermission of the Board 
to retire into the country to recruit his health. He pro- 
ceeded to the residence of his father, at King's Bridge — 
never to return. Alter lingering for several weeks, ex- 
hausted l)y the hectic and the cough of consumption, he 
died on Thursday, the 5th of December, 1822, with the 
comjjosure and the triumpii of a christian. 

It is impossible to contemplate the character of Dr. 
Dyckman, without feelings of respect, and even emotions 
of admiration. 

As a physician, he was versed in the scientific depart- 
ments of his profession, not contenting himself with mere 
elementary knowledge, but ambitious of becoming famil- 
iar with the great masters of the art. He delighted in his 
books, and justly merited the character of a well-read 
physician. But he was not a mere speculative man, vers- 
ed in the doctrines of the schools, and unskilled in their 
practical application. It was in his admirable practical 
sagacity that his great merit consisted. 

The success of his practice is the best eulogy that can 
be pronounced upon his professional skill. I have often 
heard him speak of it as one of the most delightful con- 
templations of his life, (and indeed have had constant 
opportunities of verifying his assertions by personal 
knowledge,) that of the numerous cases of disease which 
presented themselves in tlie practice of the Dispensary, 
Avhere a physician necessarily prescribes under many disad- 
vantages, he lost so very few patients. It is no inconclusive 
evidence of a physician's skill, that he should not lose 
more than two or three patients out of the hundreds that 
annually fall under his care, whose constitutions are brok- 
en down by the accumulated miseries of poverty and 
complicated disease, and who cannot procure even those 
comforts of life which are indispensalile to the efficient 
operation of medicines. 

But Dr. Dyckman was not the mere physician. He 
possessed a noble expansion of soul, which would not per- 
mit him to confine himself to the routine of practice. He 
has justly attained no humble character as an author. I 
claim not for him, indeed, the veneration that is due to 
exalted genius, but the more enviable praise of being a 
useful and a practical writer. His style was by no means 
splendid or ambitious, but neat, perspicuous and sim])le. 



.lAtun urcKMAu. 2G1 

His first literary cirort, " An Inuiijrursil Dit^Kcitulioii on 
the Putlioloiry of the Iluiniui Fluids," would have done 
licuior to tin- j)on ot" an oIiUm- ;uul luoic rxpniciic «(1 wiiicr. 
his ji jUUmko of the huinoi;d j):itliolo^y in the njodificd 
form ill which it is tinijrht, and has lor ytars been tau<^ht, 
by the distinguished Professor of the Practice of Physio 
in tills University. J)r. Dy« kman, as I have before said, 
w;is his \)U]n\ ; and fired with the zeal of his prec <'j»tor, he 
boldly stepped forward in the vindication of truth, at a 
time when it could only be exjjccted to draw down uj)on 
him the ridicule and the condemnation of the facnltv. 
The doctrine is defended, however, with acknowledjjcil 
dexterity ; and exj)laincd with a readiness and in^reiuiity 
which show hiin to have been familiar with his subject. 
In the judgment of the avowed oj)ponents of the theory 
it espouses, it displays more reci»ndite research, more 
dexterity of statement, more in<jenuity of arjiument, more 
j)lausibility of style and manner, than almost any other 
production of the kind.* 

Dr. Dye kman's improved edition of Duncan's Disj)cn- 
satory, pul)lislu(l in the year 181.S, is by far the best and 
most useful work upon that subject. His monthly reports 
of the dis<\ises occurrini: in the City Dis|iensary, j)ul)lished 
originally in the Monthly Majiazine, and afterwards in the 
Literary Journal, evince a talent for close ol)servation, and 
a judgment in recording facts, which would not dishonor 
the niasterly reports of Dr<. Willan and liaieman. 

Several fuuitive productions of his pen are preserved in 
the periodical journals of our country ; the most remark- 
able of which are, an Essay upon Adipo(ire, pii})lished in 
the Transiictions of ihe New-York Lyceum of Natural 
History ; and an anomalous case of siirgery whii h fell 
under his care.f 

He had lonir had in contemplation a work upon the ve- 
getable Materia Medica of the United States, and had made 
very considerable progress in the collection of materials 
towards it. He, however, had resolved that it should be, 
as it ought to be, the lal>or of years. Man pr(.j)OM's, but 
Ciod disposes. Death suddenly "interrupted his labors, ami 
leaves xih another instance of the untertainty of human 
plans, and the vanity of human hoj)es. In contemplatinfr 



• Sec Pliiladclphia Journal of iho Mclienl and Phytical Scioncoi, vol. iv. [..370. 
t S<jc Mcdic&l and Pliysical Journal of >'cw-V'ork. 



262 JACOB DYCKMAN. 

the charat ter of Dr. Dyckman as a literary man, and as 
an author, it is i)ropcr to notice his connexion as one of 
the editors of the New-York Medical and Physical 
Journal. He zealously entered into the enlightened 
and lofty views of the spirited gentlemen who projected 
tliis work ; and was proud to associate his name as an 
editor with the names of men, who, though only com- 
mencing life, liad justly accjuircd a character for talents, 
and a literary reputation, of Avhich veteran cultivators of 
science might have been ambitious. 

Respectable as he was as a professional and literary 
man, it is in his personal and private character that he 
appears to highest advantage. Time would fail me to 
speak of all the virtues of this estimal)le character ; and 
to tell you of his filial affection, and of his excellence 
in tlie relations of a brother and a friend. O ! there 
was a tenderness in his friendship, which I have a thou- 
sand times experienced, but which I would in vain en- 
deavor to describe. Hear the touching language of 
bereaved affection bearing testimony to his worth : " All 
who were acquainted with the deceased, will delight to 
dwell on the amenity of his disposition, and the blameless 
tenor of his life. Remarkably free from the malignant 
passions, his heart was the seat of generous feelings, and 
was ever alive to the sensibilities of humanity. In every 
sphere in which he moved, his worth was confessed ; and 
in every situation to which private confidence or public 
favor called him, his zeal and assiduity were incessant and 
unwearied. He has left behind him many connected by 
the endearments of friendship : none who can deny the 
benevolence of his heart, or the purity of his character."* 

Dr. Dyckman, in the days of his health, did not view 
religion as the great and important subject in wliich every 
man has a personal concern superior to every otlier inter- 
est. So far as a becoming respect for it was concerned, 
he was unexceptionable ; and in the duties of morality . 
trenerally, I believe he was as sincere, as conscientious, and 
as irreproacliable as any man can be without tlie saiutify- 
'm<r influence of religion. He never made any religious 
profession, though he was often lieard to express a partial- 



* Now- York Medical and Physical Journal, vol. i. p. 523. To this editorial 
obituary notice of Dr. Dyckman, marked by a beauty^f style, a loftiness of senti- 
ment, and a tenderness of feeling, highly creditable to The work, 1 am iudcLted for 
acvcral jidrticulars in the lile of our friend. 



JARF.n F.I.IOT. 2G3 

ity for the Episcopal Cliurth. His faiill on this great 
suhject was, that he considered morality as the sum and 
substance of relioion : and eonsc ions of an irreproaehahle 
eharactei- on that score, he rested contented here. But in 
his last ihiys he obtained a truer view of the subject. He 
was enabled to discover that the high and holy law of 
God is the required standard of morality, and' not our 
own imperfect and often erroneous con( ept'ions of duty. 

The foregoing is an al)ridged tribute to the memory of 
Dr. D. by Henry W. Ducachet, M.D., delivered attlie 
desire of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of New York. 

ELIOT, DR. JARED, a clerical j)hysician, was tlic son 
of the Rev. Joseph Eliot, of Guilford, "in Connecticut, and 
grandson of the Rev. Joseph Eliot, of Roxbury, Mass. 
the celebrated Indian apostle. He was l)orn Nov. 7th, 
1685, and dicil April 22d, 17G3. He was one of the ear- 
liest students of Yale College, and received hi.? bachelor's 
degree in 1706. From 1730 to 1762 he was one of the 
corporation of that institution ; and from 1709 to his 
death, was the minister to the first ecclesiastical society 
of Killingwortli, in Connecticut. He was uiujue^tion- 
ably the first ]»iiysician of his day in Connecticut, and was 
the last clerical physician of eminence, prol)ablv, in New 
England. He was an excellent botanist, and was equally 
distinguished as a scientific and practical agriculturalist. 
He introduced the white mulberry into Connecticut, and 
with it the silk worm, and jiublished a treatise uj)on the 
subject. He was also a mineralogist, and in HGl received 
from a society in London a gold medal, as a prenuum for 
his discovery of a process of extracting iron from black 
sand. He was the j)ersonal friend and correspondent of 
Bishop Berkely and Dr. Franklin, and of several other 

fhilosophical characters both in Euroj)e and America. 
le \yas, liowever, in his life time, more known by tiie 
j)ublic as a |»hysician, and was very eminent for hi> iud;r- 
ment and skill in tlie manajrement of <iironic complaints. 
In these he apj)ears to have been more extensively consult- 
ed, than any other pliysician in New Enjiland, frr(|ncntly 
visiting every county of Connecticut, and bein<r often call- 
ed to Ro>ton and Newport. He was a good lingui-t, and 
fromtlie libraries left l)y him and his ( ontemporaries it is 
evident, that he was in the habit of reading and studying 
Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen, Aretaeus, tV:c. in the oriyinals^ 
Some very hunjorous anecdotes arc still related, which 



264 JAUKD ELIOT. 

serve to show that he managed melancholies and maniacs 
with fjn at ingenuity and s^uccess. All of Dr. E.'b s( ience 
and philosophy were of the practical kind, and adapted 
to the improvement of his infant country. He puhli.-^hed 
" agricultural essays," and devised various plans for drain- 
ing swamps in the interior, and also for reclaiming marsli- 
es from tlie sea. He was very industrious and methodi- 
cal, and was peculiarly careful that whatever he under- 
took, should be well executed. It is difficxdt to conceive 
how one could be successful in such a variety of pursuits, 
as those in which he was engaged ; for he seldom if 
ever failed in any important undertaking. He possessed 
a very large estate in land, which consisted of farms in 
different sections of the state, or rather colony. These 
were generally better cultivated, and furnished more pro- 
fits, than those of his neighbors. Amidst all his avoca- 
tions, he was distinguished for his i)iety and talents as a 
clergyman. He published several sermons, and so consci- 
entious was he in the discharge of his duties as a minister, 
that he always so contrived his journies, as to be, if possi- 
ble, with his people every Sunday, and for forty success- 
ive years in the course of his ministry, he never omitted 
preaching either at home or abroad on the Lord's day. 
Dr. E. resided on the main road from New-York to Bos- 
ton, and was always visited by Dr. Franklin, when he was 
journeying to his native town, as well as by most of the 
literary and religious characters of his day, who always 
met with a very affectionate reception in his hospitable 
mansion. He was distinguished for his charities, .and 
many of his medical services were performed gratuitously. 
It is mentioned of him that, though an ardent 
friend of his country, and a great patron of improve- 
ments, and though as a clergyman and philosopher, 
a physician, and a trustee of Yale College, his influence 
with the public was very great, and his opinions and ad- 
vice much esteemed, yet he always avoided interfering, or 
taking an active part, in any of the purely political strug- 
gles of his day. Such men as Eliot are not only highly 
useful and honorable to the age they live in, but are a 
blessing to future generations. They give a spring to the 
human intellect, and excite a spirit of inquiry, experiment 
and observation, and thus diffuse a light among their con- 
temporaries, which has an influence upon remote posterity. 
See Eliot's Biographical Dictionary. — Medical Intelligencer. 



CADWALLADER KVAiNS. 2G5 

EVANS, DR. CADWALLADER, was ii dcsccncUmt 
from Olio of tho niaiiy rcspochihle faniilios who oniij^raUd 
from Wales to Pennsylvania nj)on tlir -cltlcmenl of liie 
Provinco, ami rosicUul in PliilaiUljjIiia connty. He was 
one of the first j)uj)ils of Dr. Thomas Hond, ami sailed 
with a view of fmishinf^ his medical education at Kdin- 
burn;h. But as the war was then j)revailin<r between Spain 
and France and England, the vessel was taken hy a Span- 
ish privateer and carried into Hayti, where he was attack- 
ed hy a severe fever, from which he happily rc( overed. 
After some time he was permitted to sail for Jamaica, 
where he resolved to enter into professional practice for a 
short period ; but finding the climate disagree with his 
constitution, he sailed for England after a residence of two 
or three years. After a year spent at Edinburgh, and a 
short time at London, he returned to Philadelphia and 
commenced practice, in which he continued al)ont twenty 
years, and died in 1773, aged 57. He was long one of 
the physicians of the Pennsylvania Hospital, and highly 
esteemed its a physician and a man. 

Dr. Evans published, when a student, a case of convul- 
sions which occurred in a girl about fourteen years of atjo, 
and were repeated forty times in twenty-four hours. Af- 
ter an intermission of a month or two, they would return. 
Sometimes she was affected by violent craiTH)s in different 
parts of her body : at others with the whole train of hys- 
teric symptoms. She continued to be thus afflicted for 
ten years, when in 1752 she was perfectly cured by elec- 
tricity kindly administered by the scientific hands of Dr. 
Franklin. She received four severe shocks moriiinos and 
evenings, and was cured in two weeks of the fits : hut the 
cramp continued somewhat longer. The lady was the 
sister of Dr. Evans, and the cure was perfect and j)erma- 
ncnt. Her mind was not affected, as is common, l)y tlie 
disease ; she possessed uncommon powers of reasoning, 
and was distinjiuished for the sprightliness of her wit, ami 
the charms of her conversation. She lived to the age of 
79 vcars. 

FLAGG, DR. JOHN, M. M.S. S. was son of the Rev. 
Eiienezer Flagg, the first mini>ter of Chester in New- 
Hampshire. He was graduated at Harvanl Tniversity in 
1761, and studied medi< ine under the direction of Dr. 
Osgood of Andover. He commenced practice at ^^ oburn, 
but in 1760 removed to Lynn, where he enjovcd the full 
34 



JOHIt FLAGG. 

confidence of his fellow citizens, and acquired a high 
standing in his profession. 

When, in 1775, tlie dark cloud overspead our political 
hemisphere, Dr. Flagg was prepared to unite in the strong 
measures of resistance against every encroachment upon 
the rights and freedom of his country. He was an active 
and useful member of the committee of safety, and con- 
tributed largely to the promotion of the military prepara- 
tions to meet the exigences which soon after happened. 
From a native modesty, he declined any appointment in 
the councils of the state, but was prevailed upon to accept 
the commission of Lieutenant Colonel of Militia under the 
venerable Col. Timothy Pickering, which, however, he 
soon after resigned, that he might devote his whole atten- 
tion to the practice of medicine, which he preferred to 
military pursuits. 

He was elected a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society immediately after its incorporation, when the 
number of fellows was restricted to seventy in the whole 
Commonwealth. He held a commission of Justice of the 
Peace before the revolution and after the adoption of our 
state constitution, till his death. The fatigues of an exten- 
sive circle of practice and the exposures incident to a pro- 
fessional life, impaired his constitution, and he fell a victim 
to pulmonary consumption. May 27th, 1793, in the 50th 
year of his age. 

FULLER, DR. SAMUEL, one of the memorable plant- 
ers of Plymouth, who came over with the first settlers in 
1620. He was the first regularly educated physician that 
visited New England. He was a deacon of the Rev. 
John Robinson's church, with Mr. Carver, who was after- 
wards governor of the plantation. His services were in 
very special request both for the souls and bodies of the 
people. Besides his duties in the church, which he was 
active in performing, he was eminently useful as a surgeon 
and physician. 

Nor did he confine his benevolent offices to the inhabi- 
tants of New Plymouth and to the al)originals of the coun- 
try, but readily gave his assistance to the people of Naum- 
keak (Salem) and Charlestown, after Mr. Endicot came 
to that part of Massachusetts Bay. Several of the people 
died of " scurvy and other distempers," and many were 
subjected to diseases arising from unwholesome diet and 
want of proper accommodations. Having no physician 



• AMUEL FULLER. 2G7 

among themselves, it was fortunate for those planters that 
Plymouth could supply them Willi one so well qualified 
as Dr. Fullei-, who visited them at the reauest of Governor 
Endicot, and met with great success in his practice. He 
visited Salem first in 1628, and again in 1G29, on account 
of the sickness introduced there by the newlv arrived 
ships. When he arrived at Plymouth from .Salem. Gov- 
ernor Endicot wrote to Governor Bradford a letter of 
thanks, speaking liighly in prai>c of tiu' physician, and 
also expressing his hearty concurrence with their clnirch 
at Plymouth, its form and discij)line. From which it is 
evident that the conversation of Dr. Fuller had some 
effect upon his religious o])inions, for there was a differ- 
ence of sentiment before this interview, and a jealousy 
le>t the Plymouth church should exercise a jurisdic- 
tion over the church in Salem. lu a letter to Governor 
Bradford, June 28th, 1630, Dr Fuller says, " I have been 
to Matapan, (now Dorchester), and let some twenty of 
those people blood." What disease j)revailed among those 
people tiiat required tlie loss of blood in the warm season 
of June, we are unable to determine. 

In his medical character, and for his christian virtues 
and unfeigned piety, Dr. Fuller was held in the highest 
estimation, and was resorted to as a father and wise coun- 
sellor during the j)erils of his day. He was fmally one of 
several heads of famili<s avIio died of a fever which pre- 
vailed in Plymouth in the summer of 1633, and was most 
deej)ly lamentetl bv all the colonists. 

GALE, DR. BENJA.MIN, was born on Long-Island in 
1715. When a child, his parents removed with him to 
Goshen, in the State of New-York. He studied medicine 
with the distinguished Dr. Jarcd Eliot, of Killiiiixsworlh, 
Connecticut, and afterwards married his daughter, and 
settled in that town. 

Dr. Gale was author of a Dissertation on the Inocula- 
tion of the Smallpox in America about the year 1750, in 
which he advocated the utility of a course of mercurv as 
a jtreparative to the disease. This production was ([uoted 
by Dr. Wilson Philip, and also by the celebrated Dr. 
Huxham, who in a letter pul)lislied in Jamiary, 1765. says 
" the use of mercury and antimony in jircpariniT persoiis 
for ino( Illation, will more Wully aj)pear by what the inge- 
nious Dr. IJ. Gale, of Connecticut in New Ennland, has 
communicated to me in his " Dissertation on the Inocula- 



268 BENJAMIN GALE. 

tion of the Smallpox in America" : in which he says, 
" Before the use of mercury and antimony in preparing per- 
sons for inoculation, one of one hundred of the inoculated 
died ; but since, only one in eight hundred." According 
to Dr. Gale the use of mercury in the smallpox was first 
resorted to in the English American colonies in 1745, 
when it was employed with success by Dr. Thompson of 
Pennsylvania or Maryland, and Dr. Morison of Long-Isl- 
and, in the Province of New-York. 

Dr. Gale published some Essays in the Transactions of 
the Medical Society of New-Haven. His reputation for 
medicine and other sciences was little, if at all, inferior to 
that of his father-in-law ; and he kept up the same scien- 
tific correspondence with distinguished foreigners, and the 
eminent men of his own country. Like Eliot, he was 
both a scientific and practical agriculturalist, and he re- 
ceived a medal from a society in England, for the inven- 
tion of an improved drill plough. But he was unlike his 
predecessor in his attention to the politics of the day, as 
he took great interest in the events of the American revo- 
lution, and in those that passed during the formation of 
the Federal Constitution, and employed much of the latter 
part of his life in writing political essays for the newspa- 
pers of the time. It is believed that as a politician, he 
was not inferior to many of his contemporaries, and that 
his talents would have been much more serviceable to his 
country had he confined them to subjects more immedi- 
ately connected with his profession. He was also an 
ingenious and speculative divine and a biblical critic, and 
wrote a Dissertation on the Prophecies. He is said to 
have been a good Greek scholar. He died in 1790. 

GARDEN, ALEXANDER, M.D. F.R.S. born in Scot- 
land about the year 1728, was the son of the Rev. A. Gar- 
den of Aberdeen. He received his first medical education 
under the celebrated Dr. John Gregory, and studied also 
twelve months in Edinburgh, having received his philo- 
sophical and clerical education in the University of Aber- 
deen. He arrived in South Carolina about the middle of 
the 18th century, and commenced the practice of physic 
in Prince William parish in connexion with Dr. Rose. 

Here he began liis botanical studies ; but having lost 
his health he was obliged to take a voyage to the north- 
ward for its recovery. In the year 1754 he went to New- 
York ; where a professorship in the college, recently form- 



ALEXANDER GARDEN. 269 

ed in that city was offered to him ; but he declined the 
acceptance of it. On his return he settled in Charleston, 
and continued to practise physic about thirty years. In 
this period he amassed a handsome fortune, being deserv- 
edly in very high esteem and extensively employed. He 
brought with him a haernoptoic constitution, but the com- 
plaint was suspended during his residence in Carolina. 

He was well acquainted with the Latin and Greek class- 
ics, understood the French and Italian languages, and was 
a considerable proficient in the knowledge of the belles 
lettres, in mathematics, philosophy, history and miscella- 
neous literature ; but his attention, when the tkities of his 
profession permitted any relaxation, was chiefly directed 
to the study of natural history, and particularly to that 
branch of it which is called botany. Linnaeus, with whom 
he corresponded in Latin, gave his name, Gardenia, to a 
most beautiful flowering shrub, and often mentioned him 
with applause. He was also highly esteemed by the lite- 
rati throughout Europe, with several of whom he corres- 
ponded. About the year 1772 he was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society of London. Shortly after his return to 
Europe in 1783 he was appointed one of its council, and 
afterwards one of its vice presidents. To extend his 
knowledge in natural history Dr. Garden accompanied 
James Glen, governor of South Carolina, in the year 1755, 
when he penetrated into the Indian country and formed a 
treaty with the Cherokees in their own mountains. In 
this expedition Dr. Garden discovered an earth, which 
upon a fair trial by the manufacturers at Worcester in 
Great Britain was deemed equal to the finest porcelain 
that was ever imported from India. Unfortunately no 
precise knowledge can now l)e had of the spot where this 
valuable earth was found. Hitherto no advantage has re- 
sulted from the discovery, though no doubt exists of its 
reality and importance. 

On Dr. Garden's return to Europe his consumptive 
diathesis, which had been long suspended, began to show 
itself. He endeavored to parry its attacks by travelling. 
This answered a valuable purpose, but failed in its pri- 
mary object. He found that wherever he went, his lite- 
rary fame had preceded him and induced many to court 
his acquaintance. In France he was treated by men of 
science with the most pointed attention and hailed as a 
brother. He met with a similar reception in Switzerland, 



270 SYLVESTER GARDINER. 

and was particularly caressed by Lavater, the author of 
the elaborate work on Physiognomy. In the course of his 
travels he tried the effects of breathing his native air and 
of revisiting the haunts of his youth, hoping that the pleas- 
ing recollections of juvenile scenes would have a salutary 
influence in arresting the progress of his disease. He was 
received as a man who had done honor to his native land 
and extended its reputation as the soil of genius. He 
found that his venerable father, after reaching his 90th 
year, had lately died. Nought remained but to do honor 
to his memory. The son drew up a monumental inscrip- 
tion in elegant classical Latin, commemorative of the vir- 
tues of the father. This is shown to strangers as honora- 
ble to both, and is respectfully mentioned in the statistical 
account of the parish, edited by Sir John Sinclair. 

Dr. G. was highly pleased with the attentions he every- 
where received in his travels, but all this time his disorder 
was advancing. Having made every exertion to preserve 
his life he finally made up his mind to his situation, re- 
solved to travel no more and to meet his approaching fate 
in the bosom of his family. He accordingly settled at 
London, and soon after expired in that city in the year 
1792. The high reputation for literature which he attain- 
ed, reflected honor both on his native and adopted coun- 
try. In the first a good foundation was laid, especially in 
classical learning ; in the latter the superstructure was 
raised. He came young to Carolina, and was then barely 
initiated in the favorite studies in which he particularly 
excelled. He acquired most of his botanical knowledge in 
the woods of Carolina. He was fond of good company, 
and particularly of refined female society, and to it he de- 
voted a considerable portion of his time ; but enough was 
reserved for mental improvement. He introduced into 
medical use the spigelia marilandica or Carolina pinkroot, 
a valuable vermifuge, and published in 1764 an account of 
its medical properties and gave a botanical description of 
the plant. — JVeic-York Medical Repository, Vol. 5th ; also, 
Linn(Ban Correspondence by Sir J. E. Smith. 

GARDINER, DR. SYLVESTER, was born in the year 
1717, in Narragansett, in the colony of Rhode Island, on 
an extensive estate purchased by his grandfather, who 
with a younger brother emigrated from England at an 
early period of the settlement of the country. In early 
youth it was observed that the bent of his genius led him 



SYLVESTER GARDINER. 271 

to traverse the fields and meadows for the purpose of bo- 
tanical discoveries, and the investigation of the medicinal 
properties of plants ; and manifesting a predilection for 
the medical profession, he was at the age of fourteen years 
put under the tuition of Dr. Gibbin, an English physician 
residing in Boston. 

In process of time, however, his ardent thirst for 
knowledge painted to his imagination the more ample 
advantages to be enjoyed in Europe for tlie accom- 
plishment of his education. Being indulged in his incli- 
nation by his parents, he repaired to France and devoted 
himself with great assiduity to the study of medicine 
and surgery in the various hospitals at Paris. After 
a residence of four years in that city he visited England, 
where he continued two years engaged in the same pursuit, 
when he returned to his native country and united himself 
in marriage with the daughter of Dr. Gibbin, to whom 
he was previously engaged. Still, however, his insatiate 
mind prompted him to a further prosecution of know- 
ledge in the various branches of science, especially that of 
optics. With this view he embarked a second time for 
France, where he devoted one or two years more to his 
favorite studies. 

Thus accomplished and abundantly qualified for the 
duties of his profession. Dr. Gardiner commenced his 
career of practice in the town of Boston, where uncom- 
mon success, wealth and fame awaited him in anticipation. 
For his skill in the several branches of medicine, operative 
surgery and obstetrics, he became eminently distinguish- 
ed, and on occasions of capital operations it was not un- 
common for him to receive calls at the distance of fifty 
or sixty miles. Being amply qualified as a medical in- 
structer, he took students under his direction for educa- 
tion, and read to them private lectures, which he illus- 
trated by anatomical preparations which he brought from 
Paris. In a few years his enterprising spirit led him to 
the establishment of an extensive drug store. He import- 
ed in this line on a very large scale, and soon became the 
most noted druggist in New England, and from his know- 
ledge in the art of pharmacy^ and his well known honor 
and integrity, he commanded the principal share of 
custom. 

From his various sourcjes wealth had at length accunm- 
lated so abundantly in his coffers that it became a matter 



212 SYLVESTER GARDINER. 

of some concern in what manner to appropriate his funds. 
With this view he became a member of the Plymouth 
land company, and purchased extensive tracts in the un- 
cultivated regions of Maine. Here in the vicinity of the 
Kennebec river he erected churches for public worship in 
the Episcopal form, and at his own expense supported the 
Rev. Mr. Baily to preach the gospel for many years. He 
erected a town in that territory which still bears the name 
of Gardiner, and imported people from Germany to culti- 
vate the soil, furnishing them annually with the needed 
supplies of cattle, implements of husbandry, food and 
clothing ; here houses and mills were built, and a church 
endowed at his own expense. From his high standing and 
extensive acquaintance, Dr. Gardiner's select associates 
were those most distinguished in his day for rank and fami- 
ly, and his house in Boston was the resort of the literary 
and scientific from both sides of the Atlantic. Among his 
select guests were Sir William Pepperil, Governor Hutch- 
inson, Earl Percy, Admiral Graves, Major Pitcairn, Gen- 
eral Gage, Major Small, &c. &c. 

But he was not destined to enjoy uninterrupted pros- 
perity, a revolution in human affairs awaited him, and he 
was called to witness the annihilation of his earthly en- 
joyments ; his fortune, his peace and happiness appeared 
to be dissipated as the morning dew. In the midst of his 
prosperous career he became, in common with many oth- 
ers, involved in the political struggle between the mother 
country and her oppressed colonies in 1775. Having im- 
bibed from his ancestors a great veneration for a monarch- 
ical government, he united with his loyal associates, and 
justified the hostile proceedings of the British parliament 
against the liberties of his native country. He was of 
course stigmatized as a tory, and became at once odious to 
the majority of his countrymen who were engaged in the 
great cause of liberty and freedom. He continued in Bos- 
ton during the siege with part of his family, and was sub- 
jected to great privations and sufferings. When the Brit- 
ish army evacuated the town, he was compelled to embark 
in a small crowded cabin, badly provided with provi- 
sions, and in this forlorn condition he bade adieu to his 
native country to seek a temporary shelter in Quebec : 
from thence he repaired with a heavy heart to England, 
where for ten or twelve years he experienced all the calam- 
ities of exile, having it in his power to take with him 



THOMAS GREEN. 273 

four hundred pounds only of his princely fortune. The 
legislature of Massachusetts having enacted that all pro- 
perty belonging to tory refugees should be confiscated for 
the use of the public, Dr. Gardiner's whole estate was ad- 
vertised and sold at auction. The estate consisted of one 
undivided twelfth in the Plymouth patent lands in Massa- 
chusetts, and county of Lincoln, amounting to 98,700 
acres, with houses, mills and wharves. His stock of drugs 
was said to fill from twenty to twenty-five wagons. But 
in consequence of some informality in the legal process by 
the attorney general, the heirs of Dr. Gardiner were re- 
invested with the land in the District of Maine, on favor- 
able terms. 

Not long after the close of the war of independence 
Dr. G. returned to Newport in Rhode Island, where he 
was attacked with a malignant fever, which after the se- 
verest sufferings terminated his eventful life, August 8th, 
1786, in the 69th year of his age. In the life of Dr. G. 
piety and family devotion, charity and benevolence, and 
all the moral virtues were united and conspicuous. He 
compiled a formula of prayers, and distributed many 
hundred copies among the poor and destitute. 

GREEN, THOMAS. The family of Green has made 
itself remarkable in the medical profession by its humble 
and singular origin. The subject of this notice, the me- 
dical ancestor of the family, was born in Maiden, and was 
one of the first settlers of Leicester, county of Worcester. 
He received his first medical impressions and impulse from 
a book given him by a surgeon of a British ship, who re- 
sided a few months at his father's, and took an interest in 
his vigorous and opening intellect. His outfit for the wild- 
erness consisted of his gun, his axe, his book, his sack, 
and his cow. His first habitation was built by nature, its 
roof composed of a shelving rock. Here he passed the 
night in sound repose after the labor of the day in felling 
and clearing the forest. 

Soon after he began his settlement, he was attacked by 
a fever. Foreseeing the difficulties which must attend his 
situation without a friendly hand to administer even the 
scanty necessaries of life, he had the precaution to tie a 
young calf to his cabin formed under the rock. By this 
stratagem he was enabled to obtain sustenance from the 
cow, as often as she returned to give nourishment to her 
young. In this manner he derived his support for some 
35 



274 JOHN GREEN. 

weeks. By the aid of his book and the knowledge of 
simples, a proficiency in which he early acquired by an 
intercourse with the Indians, he was soon enabled to pre- 
scribe successfully for the simple maladies of his fellow 
settlers. By practice, from the necessity of the case, as 
well as from choice, he acquired theory and skill, and 
soon rose to great reputation. Thus, from fortuitous cir- 
cumstances and a humble beginning, the name of Green 
has attained its present eminence in the medical profession. 

GREEN, DR. JOHN, Senior, son of the abovemen- 
tioned, was born at Leicester, in the year 1736. By the 
aid of his father he early became a physician, and settled 
at Worcester. He married a daughter of Brigadier Rug- 
gles, of Hardwick, and became the father of a large fa- 
mily. Not satisfied, as too many are, with the limited 
means of knowledge which necessarily fell to his lot, he 
afi'orded his children the best education in his power. He 
was extensively employed ; and distinguished himself for 
his tenderness and fidelity. He inherited a taste and skill 
in botany, with his profession, from his father. In his 
garden were to be found the useful plant, the healing herb 
and the grateful fruit ; which either his humanity bestow- 
ed on the sick, or his hospitality on his friends. He died 
November 29th, 1799, aged 63 years. 

GREEN, DR. JOHN, JR., son of the preceding, was 
born A. D. 1763. Descended from ancestors who made 
the art of healing their study, Dr. Green was easily initi- 
ated in the school of physic ; and from his childhood the 
natural bias of his mind led him to that profession which 
through life was the sole object of his ardent pursuit. To 
be distinguished as a physician, was not his chief incen- 
tive. To assuage the sufferings of humanity by his skill, 
was a higher motive of his benevolent mind. Every duty 
was performed with delicacy and tenderness. With these 
propensities, aided by a strong, inquisitive and discriminat- 
ing mind, he attained to a preeminent rank among the phy- 
sicians and surgeons of our country. To this sentiment 
of his worth, correctly derived from witnessing his prac- 
tice on others, a more feeling "tribute is added by those 
who have experienced his skill ; for so mild was his de- 
portment, so soothing were his manners, and so indefati- 
gable was his attention, that he gained the unbounded con- 
fidence of his patients, and the cure was in a good meas- 
ure performed before medicine was administered. To 



SAMUEL POWEL GRIPFITTS. 275 

those who were acquainted with Dr. Green the idea 
that " some men are born physicians" was not absurd ; 
for he not only possessed an innate mental fitness for the 
profession, but was constitutionally formed to bear its 
fatigues and privations. Few men of his age have had 
such extensive practice, or endured a greater variety of 
fatigue, or have been so often deprived of stated rest 
and refreshment. It is worthy of remark that in all the 
variety of duty incident to his calling, he was never known 
to yield to the well intended proifer of that kind of mo- 
mentary refreshment, so ready at command and so often 
successfully pressed upon the weary, exhausted and incau- 
tious physician. 

The firmness and equanimity of his mind, which were 
conspicuous in all the exigences of life, forsook him not 
in death. With christian resignation he " set his house 
in order," knowing he " must die and not live." In per- 
fect possession of his intellectual faculties, with a mind 
calm and collected, he spent the last moments of life, per- 
forming its last duties with the sublime feelings of a phi- 
losopher and christian. And when by an examination of 
his pulse he found the cold hand of death pressing hard 
upon him, he bade a calm adieu to his attending physi- 
cians, who he wished should be the sole witnesses of 
nature's last conflict. Placing himself in the most favora- 
ble posture for an easy exit, he expressed a hope that his 
fortitude would save his afliicted family and friends from 
the distress of hearing a dying groan. His hope was ac- 
complished ! He died August 11th, 1808, aged forty-five 
years. At his request his body was examined. The cause 
of death was found in the enlargement and consequent 
flaccidity of the aorta. — Hon. 0. Fisk. 

GRIFFITTS, SAMUEL POWEL, M.D. born in 
Philadelphia, on the 21st day of July, 1759, was the third 
and last child of William Griffitts and Abigail Powel. 
His parents were members of the religious society of 
Friends ; the tenets of which sect he adopted, and so 
steadfastly adhered to, as to afford a happy illustration of 
their influence upon the human character. 

The classical education by which he was so well quali- 
fied for the study of a liberal profession, he received for 
the most part in the College of Philadelphia ; an institu- 
tion which, from the changes eflfected by the revolution, 
has been subsequently supplanted by the University. He 



276 SAMUEL POWEL GRIFFITTS. 

possessed an accurate knowledge of the Greek and Latin 
languages, and such a mastery of the French as to enable 
him to speak it with the greatest fluency and correctness. 

From the benevolence which predominated in his cha- 
racter, it is highly probable that, in the choice of a profes- 
sion, he fixed on the medical as applying most immediately 
to the relief of human suffering. He studied under the 
late Dr. Adam Kuhn, professor of materia medica and 
botany in the College of Medicine, then the only school 
in America where the science was taught by public lec- 
tures. The intimate friendship which commenced at this 
time and ever afterwards subsisted between him and his 
preceptor, may be adduced as an infallible evidence not 
only of his early merits, but of his subsequent good con- 
duct.* 

It was during the period of his professional studies that 
the disastrous battle of Germantown was fought. Re- 
strained by the strictest precepts of his religion from the 
performance of military duties, humanity led him to com- 
miserate the sufferings of the wounded, and to apply his 
efforts towards their relief. 

Aiming at the highest honors of the profession, he cross- 
ed the Atlantic in 1781, to visit the schools of Europe. 
He attended upon the lectures and the practice of the hos- 
pitals in Paris, and afterwards attended a course of lectures 
at the much celebrated school of Montpelier, and having 
taken a tour through the south of France, he repaired to 
London in June 1783. Here he availed himself of all 
the opportunities for collecting information which were 
offered, until the following autumn, when he repaired to 
Edinburgh, which was then, as it is now, the chief seat of 
medical science in Great Britain. The eminent advanta- 
ges held out by this school may be estimated from the 
names of its professors, the several chairs being then filled 
by CuUen, Monro, Gregory, Black, and Hamilton. In 
the spring of 1784 he returned to London, soon after 
which he embarked at Portsmouth for his native country, 
and arrived in Philadelphia early in the fall, after an ab- 
sence of about three years. 

With the superior qualifications which he now possess- 
ed, he commenced practice in his native city ; where he 



* For an intcrestinjr and faithful biographical notice of the late Dr. Kuhn, writtcii 
by Dr. Griffitts, see the Eclectic Repertory, vol. viii. 



SAMUEL POWEL GRIFFITTS. 277 

soon displayed strong proofs of the maturity of his talents ; 
and to these added a striking evidence of the natural bene- 
volence of his disposition, by his successful exertions in 
establishing the Philadelphia Dispensary. 

The chief design of this charity vras to afford medical 
relief to such of the poor, whose former circumstances 
and habits of independence, would not permit them to 
expose themselves as patients in a public hospital, when 
afflicted by diseases. It was the first institution of its kind 
established in America, and was founded early in the year 
1786, without any other patronage or support than the 
voluntary contributions of many excellent citizens, and the 
gratuitous attendance of humane physicians. 

It deserves record as a remarkable fact, that, during its 
primitive obscurity in Strawberry street, and its sub- 
sequent more eligible location in Fifth street, he was, with 
very few exceptions, a daily visiter of the Dispensary 
for more than forty years ; a circumstance in itself suffi- 
cient to account for the prosperity of the institution, and 
the uncommon regularity with which its affairs have been 
managed. In addition to his duties as manager, he dis- 
charged the laborious office of physician to that institution 
for seven years. Satisfied when he saw the establishment 
ably fulfilling the objects for which it was instituted, he 
seemed anxious to shun notoriety and every thing like 
public commendation. His great ambition was to effect the 
most good with the least show. The beautiful sentiment 
applied by Sallust to Cato — esse, quam videri, bonus malebat 
— ^liappily illustrates the christian spirit by which he was 
always actuated. 

In the year 1816, thirty years after the institution of the 
first Dispensary in Philadelphia, the extended limits and 
multiplied population of the city, and consequent increas- 
ed number of the poor, rendered it necessary to establish 
two others, one for Southwark and one for the Northern 
Liberties. In the foundation and support of these addi- 
tional charities, he took an interest and an active part, not 
less perhaps than he displayed in the origin of the first ; so 
that he may be fairly considered as the father of the Dis- 
pensaries of his native city. 

In the same year in which he was so actively engaged in 
establishing the Dispensary, he joined the Humane Soci- 
ety, instituted for the purpose of rendering timely assist- 
ance in cases of suspended animation, and encouraging 



278 SAMUEL POWEL GRIFFITTS. 

efforts to restore life. This institution always received a 
large portion of his attention. He was likewise chosen a 
member of the Philosophical Society, of which Dr. 
Franklin was then president. In the following year the 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia was founded, he 
being one of its original members. 

The particular interest which he entertained for the 
College of Physicians, was evinced by a constant attend- 
ance of its meetings, from its first organization until his 
death ; during all which time he rendered it the most effi- 
cient services, both as a zealous member and faithful officer. 
In 1817 he was chosen its Vice President ; an honor 
which he retained until his death. 

Strongly impressed with the belief that great advan- 
tages would result to the medical profession in this coun- 
try from the adoption of a National Pharmacopoeia, he 
entered warmly into the project when it was brought for- 
ward. For this object a convention of the middle states 
met on the 1st of June, 1819, in the chamber of the Col- 
lege of Physicians of Philadelphia ; and closed its session 
on the 4th instant, after having made what was deemed a 
proper selection of the several articles and preparations, 
and appointed delegates to represent the middle district of 
the United States in a general convention, for the forma- 
tion of a Pharmacopoeia, to be held at Washington, on the 
1st of January, 1820. The College of Physicians having 
appointed him a member of a committee to prepare an 
Essay of a Pharmacopoeia, to be laid before the general 
convention, this arduous task was chiefly performed by 
him. 

In the pursuit of knowledge, he never permitted him- 
self to be borne away by those ingenious speculations and 
sophistical arguments, which in scientific works and asso- 
ciations are so often advanced and plausibly supported. 
Endowed with a clear perception and sound judgment, his 
mind was always directed to subjects of practical utility. 
Upon these, and especially upon such as were connected 
with his profession, he was always capable of contributing 
important information. He was a diligent reader, and 
never allowed himself to be left in the rear of the march 
of improvement. Unlike those whose learned pursuits 
are for the most part limited by mere selfish gratification, 
or the pride of possession, his main object was to attain 
that wliich miglit be applied to some useful or humane 
intention. 



SAMUEL POWEL GRIPFITTS. 279 

In the great pestilence which in 1793 desolated Phila- 
delphia, he remained in the city, actively engaged in ex- 
tending professional aid to the sick, except when laboring 
himself under the disease. Nor was it alone in this season 
of calamity that he remained firmly at his post, and per- 
formed the most laborious and hazardous services. In the 
memorable epidemics of 1797, '98, '99, 1802, and 1805, 
he stood in the midst of the desolation, and regardless of 
personal danger, was solely intent upon extending relief to 
his suffering fellow-citizens, who, wasted by pestilence in 
darkness and at noonday, were falling on every side. In 
1798 he united his own exertions with those of the late Dr. 
Rush, in preparing and publishing accurate directions for 
the prevention and treatment of the prevailing fever ; 
which, under the sanction of their names, they affection- 
ately recommended to those who were unable to procure 
the regular advice and attendance of physicians. Surely 
nothing can more strongly recommend a physician to 
grateful remembrance than such meritorious acts and mag- 
nanimous devotion ; and when we take into consideration 
the nature of the calamity, and all its distressing accom- 
paniments, we can readily appreciate that affectionate 
ardor of the Athenians, which, for services rendered by 
Hippocrates in one of their plagues, led them to bestow 
upon him a golden crown, and to honor his memory with 
divine festivals. 

The distress which in the year 1793 fell upon the for- 
mer proprietors of St. Domingo, in consequence of the 
successful insurrection in that island, furnished an addi- 
tional opportunity for the display of his benevolence. 
Most of the French who were driven by this event to seek 
refuge on our shores, had on their arrival little else to 
boast of than their lives. Their strong claims for assist- 
ance were liberally answered in Philadelphia, where in a 
short time twelve thousand dollars were collected for 
their relief. On this occasion Dr. Griffitts made himself 
very active, both in procuring the means and appropriat- 
ing them to the necessities of the sufferers. He was parti^ 
cularly qualified for this last office, by the facility he pos- 
sessed of making himself intimately acquainted with their 
situation and circumstances. Besides the money collected 
by himself, he was entrusted with the distribution of large 
sums raised by public or individual bounty. The part 
which he bore in alleviating the sufferings of the unfortu- 



280 SAMUEL POWEL GRIFFITTS. 

nate French emigrants, both in 1793 and several subse- 
quent years, left an impression which I have often heard 
them express with tokens of the most heartfelt gratitude. 
A circumstance which we may here introduce, is calculat- 
ed to throw a very strong light upon his character. It 
might reasonably be supposed that his constant intercourse 
for several years with the French refugees, the forlorn 
condition to which they were reduced, and the distressing 
and sanguinary details they had to relate, would be direct- 
ly calculated to inspire a hatred of the successful conspira- 
tors, which no philanthropy could overcome. Such, 
however, was not the result. Deeply as he sympathized 
with the vanquished, he continued to the day of his death 
to evince a strong solicitude for the general welfare of the 
present masters of Hayti ; forwarding to them gratuitous- 
ly, by every favorable opportunity, supplies of fresh vac- 
cine virus, withojit which that island would be almost 
deprived, by the nature of its climate, from sharing in the 
advantages of Jenner's discovery. 

In the year 1790 he joined the " Pennsylvania Society 
for promoting the abolition of slavery, the relief of free 
negroes unlawfully held in bondage, and improving the 
condition of the African race" ; a charter for which had 
been obtained the year previous. The objects embraced 
by this association, he always had very much at heart. 
The community of feeling which subsisted on these sub- 
jects between him and Gregoire, bishop of Blois, the 
famous champion for the abolition of negro slavery in 
France, led to a long continued and intimate correspond- 
ence between them. 

Dr. Griffitts was always a strenuous advocate for the 
salutary modifications, which for many years have been 
gradually finding their way into the penal code of his 
native state, and felt the most lively interest for the suc- 
cess of the humane system of punishment, which is now 
about to be applied on a scale well calculated to test its 
efficacy. 

In the year 1792 he was chosen Professor of Materia 
Medica in the University of Pennsylvania ; and during the 
four years for which he filled this chair, his lectures 
evinced great industry in the acquisition of useful mate- 
rials, method and perspicuity in their arrangement, and 
zeal for the advancement of his class in solid information. 
But the situation of a public lecturer was not altogether 



SAMUEL POWEL GRIFFITTS. 281 

congenial to his feelings ; which were most gratified by an 
active discharge of the less conspicuous duties of private 
life. Perhaps, too, the disinclination which he always 
manifested to hold any place of emolument, may have 
exercised some influence in producing his resignation of a 
chair, which was every year becoming more profitable^ 
and even at that period conferred one of the highest hon- 
ors within the reach of his profession. 

Dr. Griffitts was one of the first to appreciate the im- 
portance of vaccination, and to introduce it into this city ; 
and in no way did he display more zeal and industry than 
in advocating and spreading, by every means in his 
power, the blessings flowing from this inestimable discov- 
ery. Besides what he accomplished in his individual ca- 
pacity, he was an original member and active promoter of 
the Vaccine Society, instituted in the year 1809, by a. 
number of benevolent citizens, who formed themselves 
into committees, and sought out the objects of their Asso- 
ciation among the poor and obscure inhabitants of the 
city, Southwark and the Northern Liberties, persuading 
them to submit to vaccination, which was performed at 
their own dwellings, by physicians appointed by the 
Society. 

Of the various afflictions entailed upon mankind, that of 
mental derangement makes the strongest appeal to human- 
ity for sympathy and assistance. We might therefore rea- 
sonably expect to find Dr. Grifiitts actively engaged in 
some plan for the relief of individuals and families suffer- 
ing from the eflfects of this dispensation. Accordingly, 
when, in the year 1811, proposals were made to the Phila- 
delphia yearly meeting of the religious society of Friends, 
to make provision for such of their members as were de- 
prived of their reason, he eagerly embarked in a subject 
which had already occupied his mind for many years. 
The information he had previously acquired, the zeal by 
which he was actuated, and the persevering disposition for 
which he was so remarkable, qualified him peculiarly for 
rendering the most essential aid towards an establishment 
of the nature proposed. The highest expectations of him 
were fully realized. It was agreed upon by the society, 
that an establishment should be formed, and placed under 
the direction of such members of the Pliiladelphia yearly 
meeting as might become contributors. The original plan 
was draAvn up by him, and he took a most active part in 
36 



282 SAMUEL POWEL GRIFFITTS. 

all the arduous duties connected with the erection of the 
extensive buildings, and the necessary arrangements for the 
reception of inmates. This admirable institution, such as 
it was formed by the joint labors of himself and his val- 
uable colleagues, amply attests the judgment and wisdom 
which guided its projectors and managers.* 

In stature Dr. Griffitts was about the middle size ; and 
although his constitution was by no means robust, it was 
nevertheless capable of supporting considerable fatigue. 
As the best proof of this we may mention, that although 
his practice was very extensive, yet he always visited his 
patients on foot. Such indeed was his predilection for 
walking, that he never could be induced either by the en- 
treaties of his friends, the increased extent of the city, or 
the advance of age, to adopt the usual method of riding. 

He was extremely plain, abstemious and regular in his 
mode of living ; which, with the free exercise he took in 
attending to his patients, no doubt contributed greatly to 
the preservation of his health. His dress was such as be- 
came an elder of the religious society to which he belong- 
ed ; and conformed with the simplicity and dignity of his 
manners and character. Free from even a shade of affec- 
tation or ostentation, his deportment was distinguished for 
its ease and courtesy. 

The situation of a physician, who, in the performance 
of his duties, is liable to be called upon at all hours of the 
day, does not readily admit of that accurate distribution 
of time which is allowed by many other avocations. Up- 
on this account, the extreme regularity acquired and main- 
tained by Dr. Griffitts, in all his habits and pursuits, forms 
a more distinguished trait in his character. He was an 
early riser, and always began the day by reading a portion 
of the New Testament in Greek or Latin. Impressed with 
a deep sense of the paramount obligations of religion, he 
was seldom known to be absent from the meetings of wor- 
ship or business of his society. The punctuality with 
which he visited the Dispensary, has been already remark- 
ed, and as an additional proof of the regularity of his 
habits, and a striking example of parental solicitude, we 
may mention, that it was his uniform custom to visit daily 
such of his children and grand-children as resided in the 



* A detailed and highly interesting account of this institution, will be found ia 
the Philadslphia Joiu-nal oif Medical and Physical Sciences, for August, 182S. 



SAMUEL POVVEL GRIPFITTS. 283 

city. Bat it was in his professional engagements that his 
punctuality shone forth most conspicuously. Rarely indeed 
did it occur, that in keeping the time set for consultation, 
or other purposes, he was so long as five minutes from the 
hour appointed. This strict observance of such engage- 
ments, he regarded as one of the cardinal virtues of a 
medical practitioner, considering all violations of it as so 
many deviations from truth, productive of endless incon- 
venience. The example of his preceptor, whose conduct 
in this respect, during a practice of half a century, has 
perhaps never been surpassed, was well calculated to con- 
firm him in the same habit. 

In his consultations with other physicians, his conduct 
was ever open and ingenuous ; whilst the thorough know- 
ledge he possessed of the rules and etiquette prescribed by 
medical ethics, was strongly demonstrated by his scrupu- 
lous observance of them. 

The practice of Dr. Griffitts was distinguished by close- 
ness of observation, clearness of judgment, and when the 
occasion required, prompt decision and efficient energy. 
To the well established principles of medicine, he adhered 
with great strictness ; but was nevertheless always ready 
to adopt useful innovations, when these were in accord- 
ance with the dictates of sound reason, and attested by im- 
partial experiments. His attentions to his patients were 
sedulous, evincing a strong interest in their welfare, and 
inspiring confidence of a happy result. 

As a writer. Dr. Griffitts had one formidable obstacle to 
contend with, and this was his reluctance to appear before 
the public. His communications, which were never made 
except when drawn forth by a sense of duty, possess an 
easy, plain and concise style. Fidelity and perspicuity 
in narration were more his objects than grace or elegance 
of composition. He was one of the editors of that highly 
useful medical journal the Eclectic Repertory ; a publica- 
tion which reflects great credit upon the judgment and 
talents of those by whom it was conducted, and the sus- 
pension of which is a loss to the profession. Among the 
original papers it contains, are some valuable contributions 
by Dr. Griffitts ; in all of which he has strictly confined 
himself to a relation of facts, without advancing any theo- 
retical remarks. They are very much condensed, ;ind 
strongly impressed with that candor and good sense for 
which he was eminently distinguished. 



284 SAMUEL POWEL GHIFriTTS. 

In the first volume he has evinced the particular interest 
he felt in the success of vaccination, by giving some very 
useful observations on the best means of preserving and 
using the vaccine crust. In the third volume he intro- 
duces the subject of blistering as a remedy for preventing 
and arresting mortification. The sixth volume contains a 
paper upon the subject of re-infection in the yellow or ship 
fever of tropical climates ; the non-occurrence of whicli 
he ably maintains. Among other evidences which he 
brings in support of his position, he states, that during the 
seven years of its appearance in Philadelphia^ he did not 
meet with one instance of the same person's having the 
yellow fever a second time. He was a firm believer in the 
contagious nature of this disease, and a warm advocate for 
enforcing restrictions and precautionary measures, calcu- 
lated to prevent its introduction from abroad. In the 
ninth volume he has recorded an instructive " Case of 
supposed aneurism of the right carotid artery ;" which is 
intended as a salutary caution to his medical brethren. It 
affords a fine specimen of his candor. 

In the year 1787 he married Mary Fishbourne, daugh- 
ter of William Fishbourne, formerly a respectable mer- 
chant of Philadelphia. From this marriage six children 
with their mother yet survive. (1827.) 

The private worth and domestic virtues of Dr. Grifiitts 
will forever endear his memory to his family, and to all 
who knew him intimately. As a friend, he was kind, 
sincere and obliging ; as a husband, attentive and affect- 
ionate ; as a father, fond and indulgent. His piety was 
founded upon unshaken faith in the doctrines and efficacy 
of the christian dispensation, as inculcated in the precepts, 
and maintained in practice by the religious society of 
Friends. 

Thus, by the purity of his life and the possession of 
religion, was he happily prepared for the final summons, 
Avhich on the 12th of May, 1826, so suddenly called him 
away. For several days previously he felt rather more 
debility than usual, but continued to visit his patients, 
although he was unable to attend them all. Early on the 
morning of his death he complained of some unpleasant 
feelings about his chest, which he thought might be re- 
lieved by bleeding. He arose and began to dress himself. 
In the mean time, his wife became alarmed and sent for 
his friend Dr. Parrish ; who, although he attended imme- 



TUCKER HARRIS. 285 

diately, found on his arrival the lifeless body of Dr. Grif- 
fitts resting in an easy posture upon the bed. Having es- 
caped the infirmities of age, he was thus removed in his 
67th year, and, as if through a special interposition of 
divine favor, exempted from the ordinary penalties of sick- 
ness and pain. — G. Emerson, M.D. 

HARRIS, TUCKER, M.D. was born in the city of 
Charleston, South Carolina, in the year 1747. While a 
youth, he was remarked for his prudent conduct and assi- 
duity ; and discovering a predilection in favor of medicine, 
his parents were induced, at a suitable age, to place him 
with Dr. Lionel Chalmers, a physician of great respecta- 
bility and distinguished abilities. Under such a preceptor 
he made a flattering progress in the acquisition of know- 
ledge. The correctness and acuteness of observation in 
his pupil, were early appreciated by Dr. Chalmers, who 
was himself an accurat^e observer of nature. The Ameri- 
can medical schools being in their infancy, after acquiring 
a proficiency in pharmacy, young Harris was sent in 1768 
to Edinburgh to prosecute his studies. Here he diligently 
attended three courses of lectures of the most illustrious 
professors of the age, among whom was the father of mod- 
ern medicine, Dr. Cullen, as well as Dr. Gregory. He 
there wrote and defended an inaugural thesis, " De Chole- 
ra Spontanea," and received from that celebrated Univer- 
sity the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

On his return to his native country, in 1771, Dr. Har- 
ris commenced the practice of medicine under the most 
favorable auspices ; his talents were recommended to the 
people by his friend and former preceptor. Dr. Chalmers, 
who, a few years after, departed this life, leaving Dr. 
Harris a successor to his fame, in every respect worthy 
the patronage bestowed. An eventful political epoch, the 
revolutionary war, had now arrived ; the patriotic ardor 
of Dr. Harris induced liim to engage in the cause of liber- 
ty, and during the great conflict, he not only served as 
Hospital Surgeon in garrison, but occasionally discharged 
his duties in camp. On the restoration of peace he resum- 
ed the practice of his profession in the city of Charleston, 
which increased rapidly, and soon became respectable and 
extensive. From 1783 to '86 Dr. Harris was connected 
in business with the venerable Dr. Oliphant ; but for ma- 
ny years posterior to this, and during the greatest part of 
his life, his professional duties were conducted by himself. 



LEMUEL HAYWARD. 

Dr. Harris was one among the first of the officers of the 
Medical Society of South Carolina, and for the years 1796 
and '97 Avas chosen president. 

As a physician he was eminently skilful, and greatly es- 
teemed for his sensibility and affectionate attention to his 
patients. His purity of manners, circumspection, inflexi- 
ble integrity and sound judgment, exalted him in the es- 
teem of his fellow citizens, by whom he was elected to fill 
important and responsible municipal offices. His attain- 
ments in literature were respectable ; he was of a studious 
disposition, and continued through life a diligent inquirer 
cifter truth. During the several melancholy seasons of the 
prevalence of epidemics in the city, he was faithful and 
constant in the discharge of his practical duties, and his 
pen was profitably employed, and with profoundness of 
reasoning, in several well written essays which have ap- 
peared in the public journals. As a friend Dr. Harris was 
ever sincere, kind and undeviating ; his deportment and 
conversation were unafiected, pleasing and instructive ; 
from him the cause of religion uniformly received the 
most liberal support ; he was a zealous advocate of every 
measure tending to its advancement ; his charity was ever 
active and always unostentatious ; his sympathetic feelings 
Were at all times alive to the complaints of the widow and 
the orphan. 

Having arrived to advanced age he suffered a lingering 
illness, which he was well aware would eventuate in disso- 
lution ; he sustained his infirmities with becoming forti- 
tude, and with calm resignation awaited the awful crisis. 
So perfectly composed and prepared was this excellent 
man, that on the day of his decease, with his fingers upon 
his faltering pulse, he seemed to employ his last moments 
in contemplating the solemn transition from time to eter- 
nity. The approach of death was gradual, and he expired 
on the 6th of July, 1821, in the 74tli year of his age, 
without a struggle. Always averse to pomp and pa- 
geantry, pursuant to his earnest request made some time 
previous to his decease, his remains were attended to the 
grave by his nearest male relatives only, and privately in- 
terred in the family burial place, at St. Paul's Church. — 
G. Logan, M.D. 

HAYWARD, LEMUEL, M.D. M.M.S.S. was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, and received his degree at Cam- 
bridge in 1768. In about a year after, he came to Boston, 



LEMUEL HAYWARD. 287 

and placed liimself as a medical pupil under the direction 
of Dr. Joseph Warren, who afterwards fell at the battle on 
Bunker's Hill. He had for his fellow students three gen- 
tlemen, all distinguished for their patriotism and public 
services, Dr. Samuel Adams, Dr. Eustis and Dr. Town- 
send. 

Having completed the usual term of study, he establish- 
ed himself, by the advice of his preceptor, at Jamaica 
Plain, near Boston, and soon acquired a lucrative and re- 
spectable practice. When the revolutionary war broke out, 
he was, in June, 1775, appointed a surgeon in the general 
hospital in the continental army, and served in that post 
till the British evacuated Boston, and the American troops 
marched to the middle States. In 1776 he began the prac- 
tice of inoculation for the smallpox in connexion with the 
venerable Dr. Isaac Rand, of Charlestown, the first of the 
name, and continued it for several years successively, in 
company with Dr. Davies of Roxbury, Dr. Aspinwall of 
Brookline, and Dr. John Warren of Boston. In 1783 he 
removed to the capital, without at first intending to en- 
gage in medical practice ; but he was afterwards induced 
to resume his business, and from this time his reputation 
increased rapidly, and his professional occupations soon 
became very considerable, and continued so until the year 
1798. The appearance of the yellow fever in that year, 
induced him to purchase a retreat for his family in the 
country; and his property being now ample, and his health 
impaired by a severe asthmatic complaint, he afterwards 
spent several weeks in the country during the summer 
season. 

Dr. Hayward was admitted to the Massachusetts Medi- 
cal Society in the year 1784 ; and was chosen correspond- 
ing member of the London Medical Society in 1791. He 
was also a member of the Bristol Medical Society in Eng- 
land ; and of the Massachusetts Agricultural and Humane 
Societies. For many years he was a counsellor in the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and also for a long time 
filled the responsible and delicate otfice of chairman of 
the censors, and of the committee of Boylston Prize Quest- 
ions. In the early part of his life his professional read- 
ing was extensive ; but in his latter years he preferred 
reading history, theology and works of fancy. Though 
he read and thought much, and often committed his reflect- 
ions and observations to writing, he was wholly unambi- 



968 EZEKIEL flERSEy. 

tious of literary and professional honors, and never could 
be brought to overcome the reluctance he felt to publishing. 
He was a firm believer in the truths of Christianity, and be- 
came a public professor of it at the early age of nineteen. In 
the social and domestic relations of life he appeared to the 
greatest advantage ; for he was cheerful, kind, hospitable, 
and full of agreeable and instructive conversation. As a 
physician, he was excellent for his powers of discriminat- 
ing diseases, and especially for his skill in varying the re- 
medy according to the stage of disease. His interest in 
his patients was very strong, but his sensibility did not 
brook any neglect or want of confidence. 

The asthmatic affection, which had troubled him through 
a considerable part of his life, disappeared some years be- 
fore his last illness ; instead of it, he exhibited symptoms 
of an organic disease of the heart. Probably this derange- 
ment disposed him to the complaint of which he died. In 
the early part of March he was seized with inflammation 
of tlie lungs, which, after more than once assuming a flat- 
tering aspect, terminated fatally on the 20th of March, 1821. 

HERSEY, DR. EZEKIEL, was a native of Hingham, 
Massachusetts, and one of three sons of James Hersey, all 
of whom were respectable practising physicians. He was 
graduated at Harvard University in 1728, and was a dis- 
tinguished scholar. He studied medicine with Dr. Dal- 
honde, a Frenchman considerably distinguished as a phy- 
sician in Boston, and not less so for his violent opposition 
to Dr. Boylston, when he first introduced the inoculation 
of smallpox. Young Hersey had the courage to enter the 
class with those who were first inoculated, and his exam- 
ple was an encouragement to others. 

Having completed his professional studies he established 
himself in his native town ; and his fame soon spread, and 
his practice became greatly extended, especially in cases of 
surgery, embracing a circuit to the westward as far as 
Dedham, and to the south and east to Middleborough and 
Plymouth, and occasionally through the whole county of 
Barnstable. He was a man of strong powers of mind and 
correct judgment, and emphatically the agent of humanity 
and kindness, visiting the afflicted under all circumstances 
indiscriminately, faithfully acquitting himself of the moral 
duties which his profession imposes, without consulting his 
own pecuniary interest. His fees were moderate, and he 
never distressed the poor. He was heard to say that he 



ABNER HERSEV. 289 

never sued but one person, and that was to recover a dis- 
puted demand of £8 ($26.66), for two journies of more 
than sixty miles, and performing a capital surgical opera- 
tion. He educated a considerable number of pupils, many 
of whom attained to professional eminence, and reflected 
honor on his character. His attachment to literary estab- 
lishments was evinced by his liberal bequest at his death 
of f 1000, and a like sum at the decease of his widow, to be 
applied to the support of a Professor of Anatomy and Sur- 
gery at Harvard University ; and it was by his influence 
that his brother Abner added £500 to the same fund. Dr. 
Hersey is said to have extended his liberality also to an- 
other important literary object, the establishment of an 
academy at Hingham. Having no children, it is under- 
stood that he entrusted his wife with funds for the estab- 
lishment of this institution. After his decease she married 
Captain Derby of Salem, and erected the academy, which 
was incorporated by the name of Derby Academy.* Dr. 
E. Hersey died December 9th, 1770, aged 62 years. 

Upon the character of Dr. Hersey we ponder with ven- 
eration and love ; it is that of intelligence, fidelity and 
kindness ; of one eminently humane and a benevolent 
friend to the poor, sacrificing his ease, his domestic pleas- 
ures, his health, and even exposing his life, to aflford relief 
to those in distress. Of this we have a striking example, 
which is to this day remembered. Dr. Hersey was called 
to a colored female while in critical circumstances, another 
physician having failed to afford relief. It was in a winter 
night, and during a cold snow storm, the distance eight 
miles. The message was delivered to him under some 
doubts whether he ought to expose himself, but he replied, 
" Whetlier black or white, she is of the human family and 
shall have my assistance." When lie arrived at the log hut 
in the woods, he found he had left some articles at home, 
which the case required ; he returned for the purpose, rode 
a second time to the patient, and administered tiie neces- 
sary assistance, and her life was preserved. 

HERSEY, DR. ABNER, M.M.S.S. a younger brother 
of the jireceding, a native also of Hingham. His advan- 
tages of education were greatly deficient, having labored 

* The reverend and venerable Joseph Thaxter, from whom the above information 
was obtained, in a letter says, Mrs. Derby was, not long before her death, sensible 
of the error in giving the name of Derby to the academy, and had she lived a little 
longer would have had it altered. 

37 



290 ABNER HERSEY. 

with his father in husbandry during his early years. He 
commenced the study of medicine under his brother James 
of Barnstable, a physician of reputation and extensive 
practice, enjoying entire confidence and popular favor 
wherever he Avas known. After a pupilage of about one 
year the decease of his brother proffered him, at the age 
of nineteen, the benefit of his name, and the field of his 
professional labors. 

At a youthful period of life, perliaps unexampled in the 
annals of medicine, and under the disadvantage of a penu- 
rious education, young Hersey began his career, and ever 
after pursued it with a zeal and fidelity in the highest de- 
gree honorable to his character. He at once embraced the 
whole circle of practice which his brother had enjoyed, 
and it was not long before he acquired the confidence and 
respectful regard of the people. For many years he com- 
manded without a rival the whole practice on Cape Cod, 
a distance of forty miles, and containing a population of se- 
ven or eight thousand inhabitants, controlling at pleasure his 
practice and his fees. He possessed a sound judgment, and 
by his correct observation and experience he supplied in a 
considerable degree the deficiency of medical education. 
He was indefatigable in his pursuits, faithful and punctual 
in his engagements, and successful in his practical applica- 
tions. As a surgeon he was considered judicious and skil- 
ful, though he performed no capital operations. He pos- 
sessed a rigid sense of moral rectitude and honesty, no man 
ever suggested that he had suflfered injustice from him. 
Often has the writer of this sketch, while under his pupil- 
age, received his warning voice, that if a patient die 
through the ignorance, neglect or inattention of the phy- 
sician, that life will at a future day be required at his 
hands. He strictly and religiously regarded the Sabbath, 
seldom riding on that day unless from imperious necessity, 
and as seldom absenting himself from public worship, 
when his health would permit. He was moderate in his 
charges, punctual in making his annual demands, and an 
example of economy in all his appropriations and expen- 
ditures, by which he accumulated an ample competency. 

Dr. Hersey was subject to hypochondriac afiTcctions, and 
in his domestic character he was eccentric in the extreme, 
a mere compound of caprice and whim ; domestic happi- 
ness and social intercourse were strangers in his family. 
During an apprenticeship of five years I was oftener chast- 



ABNER HERSEY". 291 

eiied by his frowns, than clieered by any expressions of 
approbation or regard. He had never passed through the 
smallpox, and the idea of receiving that disease was dur- 
ing life a gieat terror to him. He was more than once 
greatly exposed to the infection ; on one occasion he had 
seated himself by the bedside of his patient, when he per- 
ceived that her face was overspread with pustules, which 
could be no other than smallpox. Struck with alarm he 
immediately left the house, and as soon as he reached 
home, he changed his garments and exposed them to the 
air, and proceeded to prepare both soul and body for the 
awful event. He dispersed his family, and with a single 
attendant, who had gone through the disease, shut himself 
up in his house to await the result. At the usual time for 
the attack his imagination was not idle, he complained of 
the usual precursory symptoms, these were allowed to agi- 
tate his mind for a few days, when the scene was happily 
changed, and all apprehension removed. He adopted a very 
abstemious mode of living, rejecting all animal food, ardent 
spirits, and even wine, and confining himself chiefly to a 
diet of milk and vegetables. But in nothincr was his sin- 
gularity more conspicuous, than in the peculiar fashion of 
his dress. He was a declared enemy to the follies of the 
world, and an admirer of simplicity in dress and manners, 
detesting every thing that approached the prevailing fash- 
ions of the day, and making it his constant theme of ani- 
madversion. His own garments were of a fashion pecu- 
liar to himself, remarkably large and loose, and lined 
throughout with baize. In a warm summer day, he was 
seen to chase a flock of sheep from his enclosure ; he soon 
found himself drenched in perspiration ; throwing off" his 
wig he said to a friend, "This is not strange, for I have more 
wool upon my back, than the whole flock of sheep." 
Such was his whimsical fancy, that he had a great coat 
made of tanned leather ; seven calfskins were cut and 
formed into an outer garment as a defence against the rain. 
At the commencement of the American revolution Dr. 
Hersey was not found in the ranks of those bold spirits 
who would at all events stand in defence of the rights and 
liberties of our country ; he was among the doubtfid, the 
prudent and the timid. He was no political partisan, but 
was a friend to his country, and it was his sentiment that 
those who are girt with the sword of the law, should be 
found enroI)ed in the garment of moral rectitude and re- 



292 ABNER IIERSEY. 

ligion. He suffered much in his pecuniary affairs by the 
instability of our paper currency, and he always deemed 
it unjust that his patients should avail themselves of de- 
preciated money to pay his demands at par. He would 
often relate the story, that in the spring he sold a cow for 
thirty dollars, and that in the ensuing autumn he paid the 
whole sum for a goose. He was by nature churlish in his 
temper and abrupt in manners, and when in his peevish 
mood, it was common for him to express himself in such 
language as this, " I had rather be chained to a galley oar, 
than to suffer such vexation." A curious instance of this 
kind occurred when Mrs. D. the widow of his brother, 
contemplated in company Avith another lady making him a 
visit. She informed him by letter of their intention. The 
doctor knowing they would appear in a style rather dif- 
ferent from that to which he had been accustomed, was 
greatly agitated, and immediately replied to the letter as 
follows. " Madam, I can't have you here> I am sick, and 
my wife is sick ; I have no hay, nor corn for your4iorses ; 
I have no servants in my family, and I had rather be chain- 
ed to a galley oar than to wait on you myself." Dr. 
Hersey was elected a member of the Medical Society of 
Massachusetts. He died January 9th, 1787, in the 66th 
year of his age, leaving no children. 

His last will may appear as a fair epitome of his char- 
acter. It may be considered as one of the strangest 
schemes ever devised to preserve and perpetuate an estate, 
and the event has proved its absurdity. In his last will 
he gave to Harvard University, towards the establishment 
of a professorship of anatomy and surgery, the sum of 
£500, equal to $1666,66. The remaincler of his estate, 
which was ample for the region in which he spent his 
days, he gave to thirteen of the congregational parishes 
in the county of Barnstable in different proportions, accord- 
ing to the siiare of professional business he had performed 
in each, the net proceeds of which, after the demise of his 
widow, were to be laid out annually, for one hundred 
years, in the purchase of Doddridge's Rise and Progress 
of Religion in the Soul, and other works, Evans's Sermons, 
and Grove on the Lord's Supper. After the completion 
of one hundred years, those who shall then be the ministers 
of the thirteen parishes, are to be at liberty to select any 
other books, calculated to promote piety and religion, 
except one year in every four, when the other prescribed 



ABNER HERSEY. 295 

books are still to be purchased. The deacons of the thir- 
teen parishes have the sole care of the estate, the particu- 
lar mode of managing which is specified with great mi- 
nuteness in the doctor's will, in the same manner as had 
been usual with him ; the fences to be kept entire, certain 
lots of land to be ploughed in rotation, but not oftener 
than once in seven years, a limited quantity of wood to be 
cut annually, &.c. &c. The deacons were to pay over the 
net income to the ministers of those parishes, who were 
to vest the same in books agreeably to the testator's direc- 
tions, and distribute them gratuitously among the members 
of their respective churches. The scheme of the doctor's 
will was carried into execution for a few years, when it 
appeared, that by the annual meetings of the deacons of 
the several churches, and other contingent expenditures, a 
large proportion of the income was exhausted ; very few 
books were distributed ; the parties interested became dis- 
satisfied, and petitioned the legislature to have the will 
abolished, and the whole property sold and divided in 
due proportions to the several churches interested. This 
petition the legislature deemed proper to grant, and the 
property has been sold and distributed accordingly, a com- 
promise, however, Avith some distant heirs being first 
effected. 

Dr. Hersey never wearied his mind with theoretical 
investigation, but contented himself with simple practical 
observations. In chronic diseases he was, with his con- 
temporaries, in the constant practice of administering a 
mercurial alterative course accompanied with a milk diet. 
Mercury combined with antimony in the form of Plum- 
mer's pills, was the favorite alterative in which he reposed 
the fullest confidence. In some gastric affections it was 
his practice to administer a moderate course of antimony 
in the form of Dr. Lockyer's pills, beginning with one or 
two, and increasing to eight or ten according to the effect ; 
in this way he considered the medicine as a sort of intelli- 
gent agent, indicating by its effect either that the stomach 
or intestines required evacuating. Six or eight of Lock- 
yer's pills* when reduced to powder, he often administer- 
ed as an efficacious emetic, but he never employed emetic 
tartar in any case. The Turpeth mineral was a prepara- 



* The panacea of antimony was the basis of Lockyer's pills, and they were for 
near a century highly celebrated. 



294 SAMUEL HOLTEN. 

tion in which he had great confidence, especially as an 
expectorant in peripnenmony and pleurisy ; and he fre- 
quently combined this with ipecacuanha as an emetic. In 
tlie low nervous fever, the compound powder of contra- 
yerva with calomel and camphor constituted his favorite 
remedy. Opium was sparingly used by the physicians of 
that period, the dose rarely exceeded one grain, and the 
liquid laudanum of Sydenham was always held in prefer- 
ence to opium in its crude state. Dr. Hersey was much 
attached to the use of chalybeate medicines in chronic dis- 
eases, but his only preparation was the simple rust of iron 
reduced to powder. He also employed the oak bark as a 
sulistitute for the Peruvian bark. 

HOLTEN, SAMUEL, M.M.S.S. was born of respecta- 
ble parents in that part of Salem long knoAvn by the name 
of Salem Village, now Danvers, June 9th, 1738. His an- 
cestors rank among the early settlers of that ancient town. 
Nature w^as kind and liberal in her endowments. His 
form was majestic, his person graceful, his countenance 
pleasing, his manners easy and engaging, his address 
courtly, his talents popular, his disposition amiable and 
benevolent, and he possessed good intellectual powers. 
It was the intention of his parents that he should have a 
collegiate education, but while pursuing the preparatory 
course at twelve years of age he was visited with a danger- 
ous indisposition, which so enfeebled his constitution and 
impaired his hearing, that the favorite object was relin- 
quished, and the medical profession received his devoted 
attention. His cjualifications for the practice of medicine 
were acquired under the direction of Dr. Jonathan Prince 
of Danvers. So intense was his application, and so rapid 
the progress he made in this pursuit, that at the age of 
nineteen he commenced practitioner in the town of Glou- 
cester, from whence in two years he removed to his native 
town, where with growing reputation he pursued his pro- 
fessional course during sixteen years. 

In the year 1768 he was elected by the town of Danvers 
a representative in the general court, and this was a pre- 
lude to his constant employment in offices of civil govern- 
ment in after life. During the difficulties between the 
parent country and her American colonies, and the politi- 
cal fermentation in the public mind indicating the ap- 
proach of revolutionary scenes, Dr. Holten took a noble 
and decided i)art in behalf of his country, and soon became 



SAMUEL HOLTEN. 295 

a very active and influential character, which he continued 
to be during the whole of the ensuing revolution. He 
was at an early period elected a member of public conven- 
tions and committees. Highly electrified by the spirit of 
the times, few men were more zealously engaged in the 
common cause, or more constantly employed on important 
services preliminary to the freedom and sovereignty of 
our country. In 1775 Dr. Holten relinquished his medi- 
cal profession entirely and all private business, and as a 
venerable patriot courageously stepped forward at his 
country's call, and risked his life and fortune to save its 
sinking liberties. Holding a seat as a representative from 
Danvers in the Provincial Congress at Watertown, he was 
appointed one of a committee of safety, and one of the 
medical board for the purpose of examining candidates for 
the medical department in the continental army then form- 
ing at Cambridge. The present author has a perfect re- 
collection of undergoing a rigid examination before Dr. 
Holten and Dr. Taylor, who formed the medical board in 
1775. In 1776, when independence was declared, he was 
appointed judge of the court of general sessions of the 
peace, and also justice of the quorum, which office he held 
for forty years. 

In 1777 he was one of the delegates from Massachusetts 
who assisted in framing the confederation of the United 
States, and in the following year he was chosen a delegate 
to the American congress, and annexed his ratifying signa- 
ture to that constitution of government. To this station 
he was repeatedly elected, and so high did he stand in the 
esteem of that august body that they elected him president 
of congress, and thus raised him to the first seat of honor 
in his country. For more than a year Dr. Holten was 
the only medical character in congress ; and to him Avas 
committed the charge of the medical department in the 
army. He held a seat in congress, when in the year 1783 
a party of insurgent soldiers surrounded the hall of their 
session, imperiously demanding compensation for their 
services. He and several otiier members, with their lives 
in their hands, ventured to expostulate and reason with 
them to pacify their minds and quell the tumult. But so 
violent and outrageous were the insurgents that with bayo- 
nets pointed at their breasts, for several hours they loaded 
them with execrations and threatened immediately to sac- 
rifice tlicm unless they would grant their request ; at 



296 SAMUEL HOLTEPr. 

length, liowever, they were prevailed upon to desist and 
await the issue. When the first minister of state was re- 
ceived by congress from the United Netherlands, Dr. H. 
was appointed to conduct the business as master of cere- 
monies. When the Federal Constitution was submitted to 
the people, he was one of the delegates in the convention 
of the state of Massachusetts which adopted that excellent 
plan of republican government. In 1793 he was again 
elected representative to congress ; and twice he was ap- 
pointed an elector of president and vice president. He 
Avas one whose name is found in the act of incorporation 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society, of which he was a 
counsellor and a vice president ; and he was a member of 
many other societies. 

Though he made no pretensions to the liberal arts and 
sciences, and never attempted to shine in the republic of 
letters, he was a steady friend to civil, religious and lite- 
rary institutions, ever consulting and promoting their best 
interest. Dr. H. continued to sustain his popularity Avith 
the public and the confidence of his compatriots to the last. 
Having been elected eight years as a representative in the 
general court, five in the senate, twelve in the council, five 
in congress under the confederation, and two under the 
federal constitution ; in 1796 being in feeble health, he de- 
clined a reelection to congress, but accepted a commission 
as judge of probate for the county of Essex, and discharg- 
ed the duties of the office to general approbation nearly 
nineteen years. In May, 1815, he resigned, and spent the 
remaining months of his life in contemplative retirement. 
In his native town he served in various offices many years, 
and possessing a happy talent at healing breaches and set- 
tling private differences, he was frequently employed as an 
arbitrator in difficult cases, and occasionally attended 
ecclesiastical councils. Forty-seven years he served his 
country in public stations ; a period that comprised one 
of the most extraordinary revolutions the world had ever 
witnessed. Patriotism warmed his heart, and his feelings 
imiformly sympathized with the aspect of public affairs ; 
but not even in the darkest season did he despair. The 
righteousness of the cause in which he was engaged, and 
dependence on Heaven for success, supported him. Integ- 
rity, fidelity and perseverance were prominent features in 
his character ; a noble rectitude of heart marked his judi- 
cial proceedings ; and never did he sacrifice the public 



ROBERT HONYMAN. 297 

good to private emolument. Skilled in human nature and 
the art of government, he rendered his country eminent 
services. Whatever station he filled, he was all attention 
to its duties, and remarkably punctual to his engagements. 
Judge Holten affected no parade of living, but chose a 
truly republican style. He lived to be useful ; and being 
ever ready to counsel, advise and assist, he was a favorite 
of the people. The charm of popularity he felt in full 
force, nor was he insensible to the love of fame. No man 
possessed more ambition to please, and few had a happier 
talent. His heart was alive to the tender sympathies of 
humanity. Formed " to feel another's wo," objects of 
distress, the widow's sigh, and orphan's tear, contained a 
rhetoric he could not resist. He was the poor man's 
friend ; and his hand was open to the relief of misery and 
indigence. Nor was he a brighter example of the public, 
than of the private and domestic virtues. Never was there 
a more affectionate husband and kinder parent, nor one 
more studiously attentive to consult the convenience and 
promote the happiness of every branch of family connex- 
ions : and his affability, urbanity and instructive conver- 
sation endeared him to his numerous friends. But piety 
is the consummation of human character. We should 
leave his memory under a cloud, did we forget to notice 
the uniform regard he paid through life to God and divine 
things. Blessed with pious parental instructions, his mind 
became serious at an early period. Before he had attained 
twenty-one years, he was admitted a member of the 
church ; and amidst the greatest multiplicity and pressure 
of business, he manifested a sacred veneration for divine 
institutions. The cause and interest of religion he ever 
patronised ; the sacred scriptures he searched for himself ; 
he shone a pattern of family devotion, but he was no friend 
to bigotry, superstition or religious enthusiasm. Catholic 
in his sentiments, he embraced in the arms of charity the 
pious and good of every denomination, wherever found. 
When the load of years and decay of nature premonished 
him of approaching dissolution, he declared his resignation 
to the will of God, and breathed out life in an assured 
hope of a blessed and glorious immortality, January 2d, 
1816, in the 78th year of his age. — Funeral Sermon by B. 
Wadsworth, A. M. Pastor of the First Church in Danvers. 

vHONYMAN, DR. ROBERT, a native of Kincardine in 
Scotland, for several vears held tlie rank of surgeon in the 
38 



298 LEMUEL HOPKINS. 

British navy. In 1774 he resigned his commission and 
emigrated to America. Soon after his arrival in Virginia 
he settled in the county of Louisa, and commenced the 
practice of medicine and surgery, which he pursued with 
unrivalled skill, fidelity and industry until a short time 
before his death. 

At the commencement of the revolutionary war, unlike 
most of his countrymen, Dr. Honyman espoused the 
cause of his adopted country, and from the station of a 
common soldier was speedily promoted by General Scott 
to the rank of surgeon in a regiment. 

Although daily employed in the duties of a most labor- 
ious profession, he was so great an economist of time, 
that he made extraordinary attainments in literature. Be- 
sides a knowledge of almost every book in our language, 
worth reading, JDr. Honyman was thoroughly acquainted 
with the works of the most eminent Greek, Latin, French 
and Italian authors, and read them with nearly as much 
facility as English. It would hardly be saying too much 
to affirm, that he had read more and remembered better 
what he had read, than any man in Virginia. Neither age 
nor affliction could abate his ardent thirst for knowledge, 
and his astonishing memory was vivid and retentive to his 
last hour. As a man and a citizen, the whole tenor of his 
life was honoral)le, upright and truly exemplary. 

Dr. Honyman wrote a journal of his voyage to St. He- 
lena, while surgeon of the Portland in 1771, together with 
an interesting account of the picturesque and romantic 
scenery of that island. 

His will, bearing date June, 1821, and admitted to re- 
cord at the Hanover superior court, April 29th, 1824, 
which disposes of a very large estate, is admirably written. 
The following is an extract from it : — " I also give and 
bequeath to my son, my thermometer, my diploma of 
Doctor of Physic, also a human rib which will be found 
in a small trunk in my chest, with my earnest request that 
he will carefully keep the said rib, wliich is of James the 
Vth, king of Scotland, and transmit it carefully to his 
descendants." 

HOPKINS, DR. LEMUEL, M.M.S.S. Hon. From the 
time of the Hon. Edward Hopkins, one of the early gov- 
ernors of Connecticut, the name has been frequently dis- 
tinguished by several men of eminence. A branch of the 
family removed from Hartford to Waterbury in 1680, in 



LEMUEL HOPKINS. 



299 



which town, in the parish now called Salem, Dr. Lemuel 
Hopkins was born June 19th, 1750. The Rev. Samuel 
Hopkins, D.D. the distinguished theologian, was a native 
of the same town, and a cousin of his father's. Dr. Lem- 
uel Hopkins began the study of his profession under Dr. 
Jared Potter of Wallingford, and afterwards pursued it 
with Dr. Seth Bird of Litchfield ; after having practised 
some years at Litchfield, he removed to Hartford, where 
he continued in practice during life. 

He was the most distinguished pupil of his two eminent 
instructers, being among the first physicians of the state, 
if not at the head of his profession, for several years pre- 
vious to his death. In addition to a full practice in Hart- 
ford, he was extensively employed in consultation, and 
had a greater reputation in chronic diseases, more particu- 
larly in the early stages of phthisis pulmonalis, than any 
practitioner of his vicinity. He was possessed of a great 
originality of genius, and had a peculiar facility of investi- 
gating the causes and seats of obscure diseases, the events 
of which generally proved him to be uncommonly correct 
and discriminating upon these subjects. It may with jvist- 
ice be remarked that he retained the highest reputation 
both in the theory and practice of medicine, of any physi- 
cian in his county, or perhaps in the state. The eccen- 
tricities of his character were peculiarly striking. He 
possessed strong confidence in himself, and a talent to iH- 
spire the same in others ; he had a just sense of the influ- 
ence of the mind upon the body when either were particu- 
larly diseased, and often remarked " a wounded spirit who 
can bear." To obviate this he uniformly administered 
comfort and consolation, and even hope, as long as life 
remained. 

In his person Dr. Hopkins was tall, lean, stooping, his 
countenance strongly marked, his features large, eyes light, 
limbs uncommonly long, yet in his youth he was very 
muscular and strong. He was for a short time in the 
American army as a volunteer, and at one time some of 
the ofHcers were attempting to fire a king's arm held in 
one hand, and extended at full length ; all failed in the 
attempt, but Hopkins on trial was completely successful to 
the astonishment of all present. 

Dr. H. was one of the founders of the Medical Society 
of Connecticut, and while he lived was an active and use- 
ful member of it. He received the degree of Master of 



300 LEMUEL HOPKINS. 

Arts from Yale College in 1784. He was intlefatigablc in 
his literary and scientific labors, his knowledge was very 
extensive, his mind highly cultivated, he was not only 
thoroughly read in the best writers of his profession, but 
in those of the arts and sciences and modern literature 
generally. His memory was remarkably strong and 
retentive ; he would quote every writer he had read, 
whether medical or literary, with the same readiness that 
a learned clergyman quotes his bible. So familiar to him 
were the great English poets, that he would entertain his 
friends by repeating their more interesting writings ; the 
works of Pope and Milton were his particular favorites. 
His powers of abstraction were uncommon ; he not un- 
frequently sat up the whole night, when engaged in any 
subject that greatly interested him ; his wife has said that 
she has frequently found him sitting in the same attitude 
and position in the morning, that she left him in on retir- 
ing at night. 

On visiting a patient in the crisis of fever. Dr. H. found 
that her friends supposed her in a dying state ; the father 
said to him " My daughter is dying, had I not better send 
for a clergyman .^" " No," replied the doctor, "but you 
may send for the undertaker, and have her measured for 
her coffin." The father, indignant at the harshness of the 
reply, remonstrated in severe language for trifling with 
his feelings in this moment of anxiety and affliction. The 
doctor explained, " My meaning is, you may as well send 
for one as the other ; if your daughter is left undisturbed, 
and allowed to be quiet, she will recover, or I will forfeit 
my reputation ; but if you disturb her as you propose, she 
will in my opinion certainly die." The doctor's advice 
was followed and she recovered. 

In acute diseases Dr. H.'s practice was efficient and ener- 
getic. He used the lancet, and antimony, and calomel and 
opium with a liberal hand. Whenever he became much 
interested in a case, his attentions were unceasing ; denying 
all other calls he would devote his days and nights often 
for many days in succession to the case, and not unfre- 
quently administer every dose of medicine with his own 
hand. In one case, about a critical period, he was suspi- 
cious that his medicines might require variation ; he could 
not sleep, got up in the night, rode four miles to his pa- 
tient, entered the room without uttering a word, felt his 
pulse and skin, made signs for him to put out his tongue, 



LEMUEL HOPKINS. 301 

and left the house without speaking to the patient or nurse, 
being satisfied that his patient was better. Physicians pre- 
vious to that day were in the alexipliarmic practice in 
febrile diseases, but Dr. H. introduced the antiphlogistic 
regimen and practice. Being called to a child in scarlet 
fever, the little sufferer was loaded with bed clothes, the 
room heated, and every crack and key hole stopped ; the 
day was pleasant in summer, Dr. H. was a stranger in the 
family, his personal appearance was ugly and uncouth ; he 
entered the room in his usual unceremonious manner, his 
large eyes staring around, without uttering a word, he 
took the child into his arms, and proceeded hastily out of 
the house and sat down with it under a refreshing shade. 
The whole household and neighborhood followed, and 
threatened the doctor with broomsticks. He kept them 
off however, and ordered wine to be brought, and soon 
recovered the child. 

Dr. H., it is believed, fell a victim to the pursuit of an 
improper remedy in his own case ; he was always appre- 
hensive of nulmonary consumption. After exposing him- 
self to col^, he was attacked with pain in the side ; he 
was bled repeatedly, notwithstanding the opposition and 
remonstrance of his medical friends, lived upon the low- 
est diet, and took repeated doses of neutral salts. Unex- 
pectedly a hydrothorax ensued, and proved fatal to him 
in a few weeks. He died April 14th, 1801, in the 51st 
year of his age. 

The moral character of Dr. H, was irreproachable, and 
his whole life was distinguished for the practice of moral 
virtue. In early life, it has been said, he was an admirer 
of the writings of Voltaire, Rousseau, Volney, D'Alembert, 
and other infidel philosophers, who flourished about the 
time of the French revolution. But a friend says, that in 
the latter part of his life he made the bible his particular 
study, and thought very favorably of the christian religion 
and its author. His friend by particular request passed 
the night with him when he died, and witnessed the calm 
and dignified composure of a great mind ; his last words 
were, " God, who is the great author and governor of all 
things, regulates and controls all events ; even the smallest, 
as well as the greatest, are the objects of his care. It is as 
necessary for us to die as to be born, that we may fill up 
the changes essential to the perpetuation of our natures." 
He then paused, and said " let my family be called," which 



S02 LEMUEL HOPKINS. 

was done ; after this interview, which was more tender and 
affectionate than can be described, he said " I have now 
finished the last duties of life, lay me upon my bed and 
stay by me till I die." With the assistance of his friend he 
walked to his bed, composed himself in his last attitude and 
never moved again. Such was Dr. Hopkins ; his life was 
full of incidents, full of usefulness, full of honor ; he 
lived the admiration of his friends, he died, deeply and 
extensively lamented with the blessings of thousands 
resting upon him. 

Dr. Hopkins was a star of the first magnitude in the 
constellation of poets and political writers, who were dis- 
tinguished about the time of the revolution, and after that 
event. It is well known that from a few years previous to 
the struggle, to about 1800, several branches of literature, 
and more particularly poetry, were so much cultivated in 
Connecticut that the state was frequently during that pe- 
riod denominated the Athens of America. Among the 
most distinguished literary characters were the Hon. John 
Trumbull, the Hon. Joel Barlow, General David Hum- 
phries, the Rev. Timothy Dwight, D.D., Noah Webster, 
LL.D. the Rev. Nathan Strong, D.D. and Dr. Lemuel 
Hopkins. Beside works upon various subjects, which 
most of these gentlemen published with their names, 
Trumbull, Barlow and Hopkins, were the joint authors of 
the Anarchiad, a satirical work which contributed much 
to draw the attention of the public to the precarious state 
of the union, under the old confederation. They were 
probably assisted by Strong and Humphries, and perhaps 
by Dwight. Subsequently the doctor was associated with 
Richard Alsop, Esq. the Hon. Theodore Dwight, Mason 
F. CogsAvell, M.D., William Brown, Esq., and several 
others. The Echo, Political Green House, many satirical 
poems, and several able essays in prose, were produced. 
This association, it is believed, were occasionally assisted 
by the Hon. Zephaniah Swift, the Hon. Uriah Tracy, the 
Hon. Tappan Reeve and many other public characters of 
that time. Out of Connecticut, they were generally 
known by the appellation of the Hartford wits. They 
were strong supporters of the administration of Washing- 
ton, their efforts giving a tone to the public feeling and 
sentiment in its favor ; and their influence was acknowl- 
edged to be very great with tlie literary and cultivated 
])art of tlie community, not only in their state, but in all 



LEMUEL HOPKINS. 303 

parts of the union. Of the poetry that was exclusively 
written by Dr. Hopkins, the Hypocrite's Hope, and an 
Elegy on the Victim of a Cancer Quack, arc the best 
known. He also versified the 88th Psalm in Barlow's col- 
lection, which has been much admired for its spirit and 
justice to the original. As he published nothing with his 
name, it is difficult to distinguish all the pieces that were 
written by him. The associates of Hopkins were a large 
proportion of the ablest men of the state and of the day. 
Under their exertions and influence, during the last quarter 
of the eighteenth century, Connecticut was the seat of the 
muses in the United States ; and the political characters 
were also prominent in the council of the nation. Previous 
to his death, his friend and one of his literary associates. 
Dr. Elihu H. Smith, published in one of the London jour- 
nals a well written sketch of his life and character, which 
was republished in some of the periodical works of this 
country. Exclusive of this, it is believed, no authentic 
account of him has ever appeared. As a number of his 
friends and later associates still survive, his scattered works 
might yet be ascertained, collected, and published in a vol- 
ume by themselves ; and since, after Trumbull, the author 
of McFingal, he was the most eminent satirist of his day, 
they ought to be preserved. Some of his poems may be 
found in the volume of " American poems ;" one on 
Ethan Allen, the Hypocrite's Hope, and the Cancer Quack. 
The four most distinguished, that are nearly or quite lost, 
were his Political Green House, the Anarchiad, the Echo 
and the Guillotine. He left some manuscripts on medical 
subjects, and particularly one on consumption, which is 
too valuable to be lost ; it is now in the hands of one of 
his medical friends. The Echo was published in a series 
of newspaper numbers ; the Anarchiad in tAventy-four 
numbers, and the Guillotine in the newspapers of the day. 
Dr. H. has the credit of devising the plan of the Anarchi- 
ad ; it is apolitical poem published by the " Hartford wits." 
Anarchiad, the evil spirit of the poem and the hero, was 
supposed to he the author of all the confusion and politi- 
cal jarring which was so much the order of the day before 
the states had a confederate head. The object of the poem 
was to lash certain characters whom the authors supposed 
either too liberal, or too strict in their notions of govern- 
ment. The characters represented were the very men who 
figured in tli0i<c times, and especially in Connecticut. The 



304 JOHN C. HOWARD. 

speech of Hesper, the best specimen of serious poetry in 
the work, is preserved in the same volume of American 
poems with the Hypocrite's Hope and Cancer Quack ; it 
was an address to the convention of 1787. These poems 
may be found in the periodical publications from the year 
1786 to about 1791, 2, S.— Thos. Mimr, M.D ; Samuel 
B. Woodward, M.D. 

HOWARD, DR. JOHN CLARKE, was born at Bos- 
ton, A. D. 1773. His father was the Rev. Dr. Simeon 
Howard, who was graduated at Harvard, A. D. 1753, and 
for a number of years was connected with the university 
as fellow, and as secretary of the board of overseers. He 
was a sound divine, a classical scholar, and the worthy suc- 
cessor of Dr. Mayhew. His mother, a woman no less re- 
markable for the qualities of her mind, and her christian 
virtues, than for her personal charms, was the widow of 
this celebrated man, and a lineal descendant of Dr. John 
Clarke, one of the earliest practitioners and first graduat- 
ed physicians that arrived in this country. Dr. H. the 
subject of this memoir, was graduated at Cambridge, A. 
D. 1790, in the class with Joseph Dennie, &c. He pursu- 
ed his professional studies with Dr. Samuel Danfortli, and 
after receiving his degree, visited Europe. 

Dr. Howard was eminently qualified for the profession he 
had chosen ; he had a sound, discriminating mind, and an 
affectionate heart. His countenance, strongly marked with 
good sense and integrity, and beaming with benevolence, 
at once inspired confidence, and conciliated regard. His 
simple unaffected manners indicated the ingenuousness of 
his disposition, and the uprightness and singleness of his 
purpose ; whilst his tender sympathy and unwearied at- 
tention evinced that he had not failed to profit by his OAvn 
experience of the sufferings incident to feebleness and dis- 
ease. No one of his profession has been more popular as 
a practitioner, none more truly loved, or more deeply la- 
mented. He fulfilled the relations of social life, as a son 
and brother, husband, father, and friend with a fidelity, 
that endeared him to all who had the happiness of being 
connected with him. He died August 11th, A. D. 1810, 
aged 37 years. 

HUNTER, WILLIAM, M.D., was a native of Scotland, 
a near relative of Drs. William and John Hunter, who 
have done so much for the world's benefit and the honor of 
the profession. Dr. Hunter was born about the year 1729, 



WILLIAM IIUiNTER. 305 

and died at Newport, 1777. He was educated under the 
elder Monro at Edinburgh, was a contemporary of Cullen, 
with whom, as Avell as with his own illustrious kinsman, 
he corresponded after his removal to this country. He 
was one of the young men, who, personally addressed and 
flattered by the Pretender, left their collegiate studies, and 
followed him to the fatal field of Culloden ; a mere boy, 
he held the place of surgeon's mate, the celebrated Dr. Mid- 
dleton, formerly of New-York, being his jirincipal. His 
offence, or treason, was easily forgiven, and he afterwards 
pursued his studies with great assiduity, both at Edinburgh 
and Leyden. 

He came to Rhode-Island somewhere about the year 
1752, gave lectures on anatomy, on the history of anato- 
my, and comparative anatomy, at Newport, in the years 
1754, 5 and 6, which were the first lectures given on the 
science in New-England, if not in America. Advertise- 
ments of these lectures may be seen in the Boston papers 
of that day. He was soon appointed by the colony of 
Rhode-Island surgeon to the troops sent by them to Cana- 
da, where he rendered important professional services, and 
afterwards returned to Newport, to reap the fruits of his 
distinguished and well earned professional fame. He 
married the daughter of Godfrey Malbone, Esq. one of the 
most opulent merchants and land proprietors of the 
country. 

Independent of his lectures, his literary contributions in 
behalf of his profession, were principally letters addressed 
to his London namesakes ; and his name and communica- 
tions are often referred to by them. He was a most emi- 
nently successful practitioner, as well as an operator in 
surgery ; he appeared at that day to be bold and rash, but 
the truth was, he brought with him from Europe a more 
exact knowledge of anatomy, and greater chirurgical skill 
grounded on that knowledge, than existed in the colonies 
at that period. As to person Dr. Hunter is reported to 
have been " somewhat too handsome for a mem ;" his man- 
ners were courtly and amiable, his opinions liberal, and 
his literary relaxations were tlie classics. His medical li- 
brary was the largest in New-England at his day, and con- 
tained most of the standard Greek and Latin authors of 
antiquity, as well as the modern works of his own time. 
The latter were mostly dis})ersed by the accidents of the 
revolutionary war ; what remained of llie former have 
39 



306 JAMES HURLBUT. 

been distributed to individuals and medical institutions by 
his only son the Honorable William Hunter, late senator 
in the Congress of the United States from the State of 
Rhode-Island. According to the New-York Medical Re- 
pository his manuscript lectures are said still to be in 
existence. 

HURLBUT, DR. JAMES, was a native of Berlin in 
Connecticut, and was born in the year 1717. His advan- 
tages of early education were probably no other than such 
as were ordinarily attainable at that period. It appears, 
however, that in the course of his life he acquired a know- 
ledge of the Latin, Greek and Hel)rew languages ; for on 
hearing it observed that clergymen, from their learning, 
possess superior understanding of the true import of the 
Bible, he remarked that he had read it in as many differ- 
ent languages as any of the clergy. It is supposed that he 
was permitted to make use of the library of the elder Dr. 
Osborn of Middletown, where he became acquainted with 
the works of the celebrated Boerhaave, which he greatly 
admired, and it is said he committed the greater part of his 
aphorisms to memory. 

He was a man of great and various reading, of extensive 
and accurate observation, and in consequence of his inti- 
mate acquaintance with the writings of Boerhaave, he pos- 
sessed advantages over most of his contemporaries, which, 
united to the strength and sagacity of his mind, and a 
thorough knowledge of the laws of diseases, gave him 
great celebrity with the Faculty and the public. With the 
latter he was in high repute, by the former he was consid- 
ered as an oracle. His attention was not exclusively de- 
voted to the medical profession ; he examined with great 
attention and research the subjects of moral and natural 
philosophy, was a thorough scholar in theology, and an 
able controversialist, although his own opinions were ex- 
tremely wavering on the subject of religion. Locke on 
the Human Understanding, Boerhaave and Sydenham in 
medicine, Bishop Sherlock and Foster in divinity and 
morals, were his favorite authors. The mechanical arts 
also received much of his attention, particularly architect- 
ure. One of the ablest architects in this country acknow- 
ledged the extent of his acquaintance with this department 
of the arts, and is said to have derived great advantages 
from intercourse and conversation with him on the subjects 



JAMES HURLBUT. 



307 



In early life the personal appearance and selfrespect of 
Dr. Hurlbiit comported with the conspicuousness of his 
station ; he possessed considerable property, and had col- 
lected a handsome and valuable library. But he Avas de- 
void of economy, and set no value upon money ; of course 
he became destitute, and finally dependent. His books 
were taken by an officer on attachment to satisfy debts ex- 
hibited against him. In the latter part of his life he be- 
came a spectacle of wretchedness and despair, and his ap- 
pearance was like that of a vagrant. A respectable patient 
of his once said that " he never knew so much good sense 
covered by a bundle of rags." In his old age he was una- 
ble to ride on horseback on account of a diseased leg of 
long continuance, and he walked with a staff in visiting 
his patients. His early residence was in Berlin, but the 
latter part of his life was spent in Wethersfield, where he 
had many friends and employers on whom he was depend- 
ent for support. Many inhabitants of that town, assisted 
by the public authorities, contributed to his comfort in the 
season of affliction and want, in a manner least calculated 
to wound the delicacy of his feelings, or those of his 
friends. They also afforded a decent burial of his remains 
in the churchyard of that village. He died at the house 
of one of his early patrons, of a lingering illness, April 
11th, 1794, at the advanced age of 77 years. 

In the meridian of his medical fame Dr. Hurlbut was 
the instructer of many pupils, some of whom attained to 
eminence. His mind was eccentric, but powerful, acute 
and discriminating ; his memory was uncommonly active 
and tenacious, he remembered every thing that ever occur- 
red to him, and being extremely inquisitive he treasured 
up and retained in his memory a vast fund of facts and an 
ecdotes. On hearing others say that they had known liut 
had forgotten, he would lose all patience and exclaim with 
vehemence, " You never half knew or you would never 
forget." It is said of him tliat after reading a pamphlet 
or sermon, he would repeat the whole or most of it. As 
a physician Dr. H. bears the title of one of the fathers of 
medicine in Connecticut, although he has not favored the 
profession with any production from his pen. 

In his intercourse with his professional brethren, he was 
overbearing and dogmatical, his own opinions were not 
to be questioned, nor op])OPed by any one, he would '' go 
for the whole or not at all." He was not to be employed 



SOS JAMES HURLBUT. 

to prescribe, and then have the propriety of his prescrip- 
tions questioned on any ground. If the attending physi- 
cian or the friends deviated in the least point from his 
directions, he would often, upon the discovery of it, take a 
sudden departure without giving a single reason. His 
manner with the sick was that of close attention and nice 
observation of every symptom and every change. He was 
very particular in examining the pulse, and wished to do 
it repeatedly, and at different times in the day. He often 
remained a whole day in the house of his patient, before 
he would give an opinion, or make a prescription. He 
maintained that he did not wish the patient to point him 
to the seat of pain or disease, but he would describe it to 
the patient; and his knowledge of actual changes in acute 
diseases, and his predictions of changes founded on that 
knowledge, were so often seen and verified, as to lead 
many to suppose him endowed with the gift of prophecy, 
or foreknowledge. It was rare that he seated himself in 
any house ; it was his custom to walk slowly about the 
room with his hat on his head, but he was in the habit of 
uncovering his head when in the presence of a certain cler- 
gyman whom he greatly respected. In the latter part of his 
life he was very attentive to his patients, and when he felt 
interested in a case, no entreaty would induce him to re- 
linquish his charge. He examined, reflected, i-ead, and 
remembered so much that almost all changes of which dis- 
ease is susceptible, were entirely familiar to him. He had 
a high respect for the members of the learned professions, 
and an utter contempt for the opinion of the illiterate in 
the medical profession, and ever detested cpiackery and 
imposture. 

Many of his prescriptions are yet to be found amongst 
his eariy employers, which attest his knowledge of that 
branch of his profession. Some of his recipes still visit 
the apothecary shops, having maintained a reputation for 
half a century. Dr. Hurlbut's knowledge of our indige- 
nous materia medica was probably superior to that of any 
other physician of his time. The blood root, geranium, 
the asclepias, the cornus, the trillium, and other native 
articles, were in common use in his practice. He often 
directed the potentilla norvegica in strangury and other 
affections of the urinary organs under the common name 
of dropwort, and from repeated trials the writer is of 
opinion that it is more useful than uva ursi 



JAMES HUTCHINSON. 309 

All who have heard of Dr. Hiirlbut, have been ac- 
quainted with his strong attachment to the use of ardent 
spirits and opium. In speaking of his intemperance, the 
common expression is, " a square bottle of rum a day !" 
He would not prescribe or even look at a patient in the 
last years of his life, till the full bottle was placed in his 
entire control, and daily replenished ; it was his practice 
to take very frequently small potations, and at tlie same 
time swallow enormous quantities of opium. For many of 
his last years all the avails of his medical practice were 
expended in the purchase of this one drug ; his spirits he 
obtained from his employers, which was a heavy tax, and 
he probably took as much opium as the most devoted 
Turk. He was rarely intoxicated, and when so much 
under the influence of alcohol as not to be able to stand, 
his mind would appear to be clear, and his judgment un- 
impaired. When in the attire of a vagrant, he walked 
about supported by his staff, lame, filthy and miserable ; 
if his attention was engaged in any subject of learning, or 
branch of science, he would exhibit such resources of in- 
formation, such powers of logic, such judicious and sensi- 
ble remark, as would astonish all his auditors, and parti- 
cularly surprise strangers. 

Such was Dr. James Hurlbut, the greatest genius, per- 
haps, that could be found in the ranks of the medical pro- 
fession in Connecticut during the last century. A man, 
the bright side of whose character exhibited a lustre in 
science, and original conceptijons of mind, that would not 
suffer in comparison with the brightest ornaments of Eu- 
ropean fame. Tarnished on the other by indulgence in 
the grossest and most degrading vice ; and thereby sunk 
down to the lowest state of human wretchedness, poverty 
and disease, dependant upon charity for support, and dy- 
ing without the means to procure decent interment, and 
now lying without a stone to tell us where ! — /S. B. JVood- 
icard, M. D. 

HUTCHINSON, JAMES, M.D. was born in Wake^ 
field township, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on tlie 29tli 
of January, 1752. His education commenced first under 
Paul Preston, then a distinguished teacher, was continued 
at the Burlington, New-Jersey, academy, and at another 
in Virginia, and finished at the College of Philadelphia, 
where he obtained the first honor when he received the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. He studied medicine under 



310 JAMES HUTCHINSON. 

Dr. Evans of Philadelphia, and finished his studies in 
London tinder the particular patronage and direction of 
the celebrated Dr. John Fothergill. In the year 1774 
the trustees of the Philadelphia College, presented him 
with a gold medal for his superior knowledge in chem- 
istry.* 

While he was pursuing his studies in Europe, the dis- 
putes between England and the American colonies were 
approaching a crisis, which he saw must end in an open 
rupture. The prospect of this event hastened his return 
to his native country, the cause of which he warmly 
espoused. He returned home by the way of France, and 
was entrusted with important despatches from Dr. Frank- 
lin, the American minister there, to the Congress of the 
United States ; when near the American coast the ship in 
which he was passenger, was chased by a British armed 
ship, and being anxious to save the despatches he left the 
vessel in an open boat under a heavy fire from the enemy, 
and landed safely. A short time after he escaped from 
the vessel, she was captured by the enemy in sight, and he 
lost every thing he had, including a fine medical library 
which he had collected in England and France. He join- 
ed the American army soon after he arrived, and served as 
a surgeon and physician during the Avhole of the war. 

A change in the establishment of the University of Penn- 
sylvania was effected in the year 1779, and he was appoint- 
ed one of its trustees by the legislature, and continued a 
member of the board until his death. He was elected a 
member of the American Philosophical Society and served 
several years as one of its secretaries. In the year 1789 
the corporate rights of the old college, academy and char- 
itable school of Philadelphia, which had been suspended 
by the establishment of the University of Pennsylvania, 
were restored, and a medical department being attached to 
each institution. Dr. Hutchinson filled the chair of Materia 
Medica and Chemistry in the University, and upon the 
union of the two institutions and the new organization of 
the medical faculty in 1791, he was elected Professor of 
Chemistry. He held the office of physician of the port for 
many years, and until his death. He was also for several 



* The medal presented to him had on one side a laurel branch with this inscrip- 
tion on the exergue, " Jacobus Hutcliinson, 1774." On the reverse, a retort : on 
the cxctgue, natuRjE aktisquk akcana retexi. — Coll. Philad. 



CLEMENT JACKSON. 31 i 

years one of the physicians of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 
and was continued until his decease. He possessed emi- 
nent talents as a physician and surgeon ; and was fitted for 
the exercise of his profession, by his natural axniability of 
temper, pleasant address and agreeable manners. 

Dr. Hutchinson took a warm part in the local politics 
of Pennsylvania, both during the American war and after 
the peace. He belonged to the democratic party, and pos- 
sessed great influence. But although often solicited to fill 
respectable offices at the choice of the people, he always 
declined the compliment. After the evacuation of the city 
of Philadelphia by the British, he was called upon as one 
of the committee of safety to arrange the affairs of the 
city, and was active in that capacity. He was the intimate 
and confidential friend of the leading men of the revolu- 
tion, and was at all times received at head quarters and 
often invited to give his advice by the commander in chief 
relative to the medical department. He died of the yel- 
low fever on the 6th of September, 1793. 

He married Miss Sydney Howell, the daughter of a 
respectable citizen of Philadelphia, and left two sons, one 
now Consul of the United States at Lisbon, the other a 
lawyer resident in Philadelphia. His widow survives him. 
He was an excellent husband, a fond father, and a most 
generous and humane man. 

JACKSON, DR. CLEMENT, was esteemed one of the 
most eminent physicians in Portsmouth, N. H., and indeed 
in the state. He had laid the best foundation for profess- 
ional knowledge, which the limited advantages in tliis 
country then afforded ; and possessing a discriminating 
mind and habituating himself to accurate observation, he 
soon became acquainted with the diseases prevalent in this 
climate, and the best method of treating them. His dis- 
position was amiable, his benevolence universal, his prac- 
tice extensive, and he was tndy " a man greatly beloved." 
He died the 10th October, 1788, in the 83d year of his 
age. 

^JACKSON, HALL, M.D. M.M.S.S. Hon., son of the 
above, was born in Portsmouth, and received the rudi- 
ments of his education in his native town. He studied the 
theory of his profession under his excellent father ; after 
which he Avent to London and attended the lectures in 
the hospitals for three years, to perfect himself in liis pro- 
fession. While here he received honorable notice from the 



312 ' HALL JACKSON. 

Faculty for an ingenious invention by which a ball was ex- 
tracted from a gunshot wound, whicJi had baffled ,tlxe sldll 
of all the surgeons. 

After his return to his native town he soon become emi- 
nent, more especially as a surgeon. No operation of im- 
portance was performed for many miles round, without 
consulting him, and seldom without his aid. He had great 
experience in the smallpox, had the superintendence of 
many hospitals for inoculating with that disease, and was 
remarkably successful in conducting his patients safely 
through its stages. In the year 1764 he resided two or 
three months in Boston, where he inoculated several classes 
and carried them safely through, which added much to 
his reputation in the commencement of his medical career. 
His reputation as an accoucheur was deservedly high, and 
often called him into families which he did not usually 
attend. He was the first surgeon who ever attempted, in 
that part of our country, if not in America, the operation 
of couching the eye ; this operation he frequently per- 
formed and always with success. He was remarkable for 
his friendship, his readiness to advise, instruct and patron- 
ise all young physicians within the sphere of his acquaint- 
ance, whom he considered worthy to be countenanced. 

Harvard University conferred on him the degree of 
M.D. in 1793, and placed his name among her honorary 
graduates with the class of 1757. The Massachusetts Med- 
ical Society elected him an honorary member of their body. 
He was Grand Master of Free and Accepted Masons at 
the time of his decease. His sprightly talents, lively im- 
agination, social habits and strong memory, rendered him 
a welcome guest in every circle ; facetious and pleasant, 
his friends enjoyed in his company the " feast of reason 
and flow of wit ;" and the several societies of which he 
was a member, found their entertainment greatly heighten- 
ed by his presence. When visiting his patients he was 
overset in his gig, and some of his ribs were fractured ; 
this resulted in the termination of his useful life, in the 
58th year of his age. He died September 28th, 1797. 

Dr. Jackson was author of a small tract containing ob- 
servations on the putrid malignant sore throat, which pre- 
vailed in New-Hampshire from 1784 to 1786 inclusively, 
but it was published without his name. He was the first 
surgeon of his country, it is believed, who introduced the 
method of healing wounds by the first intention ; and if 



CHARLES JARVIS. 313 

it was not till the practice had been tried in Europe, with 
him it was entirely original and the result of experiment 
and observation. Dr. Jackson was one of the first, if not 
the earliest physician who introduced the use and cultiva- 
tion of foxglove into New England. In a letter to the 
present author, dated April 29th, 1789, he says, " with 
much pleasure I send you some of the seeds of foxglove, 
and some of the leaves of the same for your trial of its 
efficacy until you can cultivate it. It is a beautiful flower 
in a garden, and has arrived at full perfection in my gar- 
den from seeds sent me by Dr. Withering." Dr. Jackson 
was then in correspondence with Dr. Withering, an emi- 
nent English physician, from whom he received the article 
with directions for its use and culture. 

JARVIS, CHARLES, M.M.S.S. This gentleman was 
born in Boston in 1748, and was the third son of Colonel 
Leonard Jarvis, an eminent merchant of that place. At 
an early age he discerned in his son singular marks of 
genius and strength of mind, and in consequence determin- 
ed to educate him for one of the learned professions. 
Accordingly, he was sent to the Public Latin School in 
Boston ; entered Harvard College at the age of fourteen, 
and received the customary degree of Bachelor of Arts in 
1766. His diffidence in youth was so remarkable, that 
until he had nearly completed his collegiate studies, he 
mingled in conversation in company reluctantly, and spoke 
with embarrassment. This may appear the more extraor- 
dinary, since as he advanced in years, he became decided 
in his opinions, and distinguished for fluency, energy and 
copiousness of speech. 

Mr. Jarvis on leaving college determined on the study 
of physic ; and in this choice his parents concurred, enter- 
taining apprehensions of his success at the bar on account 
of his uncommon diffidence. He commenced his studies 
with Dr. Perkins, a learned and distinguished physician 
of Boston ; who shortly after going to England, he fin- 
ished them with Dr. Joseph Gardner. After he had com- 
pleted the usual course of study, he went to England, 
where he was thoroughly prepared by lectures and prac- 
tical courses in physic and surgery for the duties of his 
profession. 

On his return he commenced the practice in his native 
town, and perhaps no young man of his time was better 
fitted for his vocation. He had not contented liimself with 
40 



314 CHARLES JARVIS. 

the mere routine of his collegiate and professional studies ; 
but, possessing a taste for reading, and a desire of know- 
ledge, he devoted nearly all his spare time to searching the 
fields of science and literature. Having always enjoyed 
the advantages of the best society, he Avas affable and ele- 
gant in his manners ; and, being by nature frank and sin- 
cere, he was peculiarly engaging in his intercourse with 
society. In conversation he developed extensive and vari- 
ed resources, and was remarkable for the ease and bril- 
liancy of his wit and repartee. 

With such endowments and qualifications, he immedi- 
ately entered into a highly respectable and successful 
practice, and could early number among his patients some 
of the most opulent and fashionable families in the town. 
In his practice Dr. Jarvis was not an implicit follower of 
systems. He had studied with care Hippocrates, Aretaeus, 
and Celsus, and favorably considered their practice, so far 
as it related to the diseases of his own time. Indeed he was 
not inclined to countenance hasty departures from it. He 
did not, however, oppose the more modern discoveries and 
improvements, but availed himself of the advantages they 
afforded. He was particularly attentive to investigate the 
remote, as well as proximate causes of the complaints, for 
which he was to administer ; and in discerning the peculiar 
habits and diatheses of the sick he seemed to possess intu- 
itive skill and perspicacity. His prescriptions were gener- 
ally simple. He was opposed to the use of a variety of 
medicines and remedies, and would often remark that he 
only wanted opium, antimony, mercury, cantharides, bark 
and the lancet, in the general course of his practice, aided 
by judicious nursing and regimen. 

In the practice of physic, as in the profession of arms, 
the quality called the coup d'oeil, is sometimes important. 
This enables the physician, as well as the general, to collect 
all the circumstances of the case, and from this combination 
to draw some conclusion, which often favorably decides it. 
These sudden conclusions are sometimes called lucky 
thoughts, but ordinary minds are not usually blest with such 
fortunate emanations. The doctor was somewhat remarka- 
ble for this description of resource, and many instances might 
be adduced to illustrate its happy effects upon patients at 
the point of death. In surgery, on accoimt of the many ad- 
vantages he derived from practice and observation in the 
Englisli hospitals, and availing himself of the improve- 



CHARLES JAHVIS. 



3ia 



ments of the French in this art, he performed the most 
difficult operations with uncommon dexterity and success. 
But he never resorted to the knife, while any rational 
hope remained of bettering the condition of the patient. 
In various cases, where he decided against operating in 
opposition to tlxe opinion of others, he saved limbs and 
effected cures. 

On the accession of Mr. Jefferson to the presidency Dr. 
Jarvis was appointed Physician and Surgeon to the Marine 
Hospital at Charlestown. 

In the year 1773 Dr. Jarvis married the sister of Sir 
William Pepperell, and granddaughter of Sir William 
Pepperell who took Louisburg in 1756. This was a loyal 
family, and left this country for England about the time 
hostilities commenced. But the doctor was true to the 
cause of his country, notwithstanding that flattering in- 
ducements were held out to give his principles a different 
direction. Dr. Jarvis's liberality was evinced by advocat- 
ing, in the legislature, the recall of those imfortunate men 
who had been exiled for an adherence to the enemy ; by 
defending the toleration of theatrical representations ; and 
by his friendly aid to schools and seminaries of learning. 
He was a member of the state convention that adopted the 
federal constitution, and was for several years a member 
of the state legislature, until 1796 when he declined being a 
candidate on account of ill health. It may be truly said that 
he had uncommon qualifications for public life. He possess- 
ed quickness of perception and acute penetration, and was 
a very powerful and impressive orator. He had the ad- 
vantages of a fine person, countenance and voice, and 
spoke with fluency, accuracy and elegance. As his head 
was bald and finely shaped, his nose aquiline, and his 
countenance remarkable for its expression, he was called 
by a gentleman of taste and learning, in compliment to his 
manner and appearance, the Bald Eagle of the Boston seat, 
an appellation by which he was afterwards familiarly 
known. The doctor entered with great zeal into the po- 
litical events of his time, and was popular, until his opin- 
ions in regard to Jay's treaty and the French revolution, 
left him in the minority. He favored tlie cause of France 
through all her mutations, and, whether in democratic dis- 
order or under imperial misrule, he thought her success was 
more propitious to the rights of man, than that of her alli- 
ed enemies ; and that there was no danger of changing for 



316 JOHN JEFFRIES. 

the worse by breaking the galling chains of the old govern- 
ments. Upon the last clay of his existence, when he had 
given up all hopes of life, he remarked, with composure, 
tliat " he should not die, like a certain French philoso- 
pher, who boasted that he died without hope and without 
fear ; for though he should die without fear, he should 
not without hope." In his last illness, which lasted but 
two or three days, during which he was subjected to the 
most excruciating pain, he behaved with exemplary pa- 
tience, fortitiule and resignation. He watched the progress 
of his own disease to the last, and, what is remarkable, as 
he raised himself up in his bed, he remarked " I am 
gone, for my mind wanders ;" he then threw himself 
out of his bed, with much muscular strength, rose upon 
his feet, and fell dead into the arms of an attendant, on the 
15th day of November, 1807. 

^> JEFFRIES, JOHN, M.D. M.M.S.S. was born at Bos- 
ton on the 5th of February, 1744. He was the third son 
of David Jeffries, Esq. (who for more than thirty years 
honorably filled the office of town treasurer) and Sarah, 
daughter of George Jaffrey, Esq. of Portsmouth. At an 
early age he was adopted by his uncle, the Hon. John Jef- 
fries, who placed him under the care of Mr. Lovell, a 
popular and experienced tutor. In 1759 he entered the 
University of Cambridge, where he was graduated with its 
first honors, and immediately afterwards commenced his 
medical studies under Dr. Lloyd. 

The smallpox, which raged at this period with uncom- 
mon violence, afforded him an ample field for observation 
and improvement. A close and careful investigation of 
this disease induced him to consider it as one of the most 
important that could afflict mankind ; not on account of 
its general fatality, but because its regular stages furnished 
data, which tended to elucidate many of those anomalous 
symptoms of other diseases, that perplex and baffle the 
most experienced practitioners ; and the principles he de- 
duced therefrom, as he has remarked frequently, " stood 
him in good stead" at the bedside of his patients. While 
■under the tuition of Dr. Lloyd, Mr. Jeffries was sent by 
his instructer to attend the Smallpox Hospital on Castle 
Island, where the following accidental occurrence afford- 
ed him an opportunity of evincing that peculiar talent of 
attributing effects to their proper causes, and of founding 
rational theories on practical observations, which subse* 



r 'W^:. 




>/<'A',-/r iy Ore-en 



eU (0) M^T uD rw WW RIDE S . M B 



JOHN JEFFRIES. 317 

quently marked the course of a long and successful pro- 
fessional career. Four of his patients, in the delirium of 
the most active stage of smallpox, escaping from their 
attendants, proceeded across the flats and plunged into the 
channel ; they were, however, rescued from the water and 
brought back to their apartments ; favorable symptoms 
immediately succeeded, and, although many of the other 
patients fell victims to the malignity of the disease, these 
all speedily recovered. Reflecting deeply on the manner 
in which this beneficial efiect was produced, Mr. Jeffries 
was convinced that the popular mode of treating inflam- 
matory affections was erroneous, and he therefore success- 
fully resorted to the antiphlogistic practice, before advo- 
cated and since adopted by the most distinguished practi- 
tioners of Europe. 

The degree of Master of Arts having been conferred 
upon him by the University of Cambridge, Mr. Jeflfries 
arrived at that important period when the principles he 
had imbibed as a pupil^ were^to be submitted to the test 
of more extensive professional practice ; on their correct- 
ness and efiicacy depended every hope of future success : 
the event exceeded his most sanguine expectations. Un- 
aided by friends, and devoid of private patronage, he 
speedily obtained, by his merit and exertions, a considera- 
ble share of town and country practice. The first entry 
in his professional day book, of which the whole is ex- 
tant, was made on the 16th of March, 1766, from which 
time his emoluments were progressively increasing. 

But notwithstanding these flattering prospects, his am- 
bition to excel in his profession impelled him to visit the 
medical schools of Europe ; he accordingly embarked for 
England, and placed himself under the tuition of Dr. 
William Saunders, whose lectures on chemistry and on the 
theory and practice of physic, have been justly celebrated 
He also sedidously attended two courses of lectures on 
anatomy and surgery, by Mr. Joseph Else ; twelve courses 
on the theory and practice of midwifery, by Dr. Colin 
Macken?:ie ; and ofliciated for twelve months, as dresser at 
Guy's Hospital, under Messrs. Way, Smith, Else and 
Martin. From all these distinguished professors he then 
received testimonials of approbation, and subsequently en- 
joyed their friendship and esteem. On the first of June, 
1769, having written and defended a Latin dissertation, 
the University of Aberdeen conferred on him the degree 



318 JOHN JEFFRIES. 

of Doctor of Physic, he being, as it is believed, the first 
native of the American provinces who obtained that hon- 
orable rank. 

In the same year he recommenced his professional labors 
in Boston, with very great success. His friend. Admiral 
Montague, commander in chief of the naval forces on the 
North American station, appointed him in 1771 assistant 
surgeon of the Captain, ship of the line, then lying in the 
harbor, and having her hospital on shore, which he regu- 
larly attended until the 30th of June, 1774, when the ves- 
sel changing her station. Captain Symonds, her command- 
er, sent him a handsome written acknowledgment of the 
benefits which the service had derived from the exercise 
of his skill in surgery and medicine. At the commencement 
of the American revolution, having previously acquired 
the principal share of military patronage, he was profess- 
ionally engaged by the commander in chief of the British 
forces ; and many of those who w^ere wounded at the 
dreadful conflict on Bunker's Hill, both Americans and 
British, experienced the advantage of his skill and atten- 
tion. He identified to General Howe, the lifeless body of 
the lamented Warren. 

The British garrison having evacuated Boston, Dr. Jef- 
fries accompanied their general to Halifax, who on the 
24th of May, 1778, conferred on him the appointment of 
Surgeon General to the forces in Nova Scotia, to which on 
the 21st of August, 1778, was added by his friend, Gen- 
eral Eyre Massey, commander in chief of the province, 
that of Purveyor General to the Hospitals ; and in De- 
cember following, he received from the British govern- 
ment the rank and pay of Apothecary General. While he 
filled these important stations, and largely benefited by 
their incidental private practice, he eagerly availed him- 
self of every opportunity to alleviate the afflictions of his 
captured countrymen, as appears from the numerous 
grateful letters and other documents found among his pa- 
pers. The commander in chief ordered fifteen hundred 
men to be inoculated for the smallpox at one time, which 
was accomplished without any loss, for which service he 
received a letter of thanks and voluntary certificate sent 
by General Massey when about to sail for Europe. Hav- 
ing obtained leave to return to Europe, he and his family 
embarked on board the Iris frigate, commanded by his 
intimate acquaintance, Captain Keppel ; and, after a dan- 



JOHN JEFFRIES. 319 

geroiis voyage of twenty -eight days, landed at Portsmouth 
on the 28th of March, 1779. 

His stay in England, however, was but of short dura- 
tion. His friend General Massey had spoken so favora- 
bly of his abilities to the Secretary of War and other 
leading members of the government, that he was ordered 
to be examined at Surgeon's Hall on the first day of July 
following, preparatory to his receiving the appointment of 
Surgeon Major to the forces in America, a newly created 
office. He accordingly underwent a rigid examination by 
the celebrated John Hunter and other distinguished pro- 
fessors, at the conclusion of which he was told by the 
president, Mr. Hunter, that his answers and observations 
did infinite honor, not only to himself, but to his instruct- 
ers, and that he would be reported in every way qualified 
for the important office for which he was destined by 
government. Mr. Hunter invited him to attend a capi- 
tal operation which he was about to perform ; and, during 
the remainder of his stay in London, he daily witnessed 
the operations and dissections of that eminent surgeon. 
Having received his commission, he embarked on board 
the Raleigh frigate, Captain Gambier, on the 4th day of 
October, 1779, and sailed in company with the Richmond 
for Cork, to collect a fleet of transports which they were 
to convoy across the Atlantic. Here he had the happiness 
of meeting his esteemed friend General Massey, now com- 
mander in chief on this station, whose former kindness he 
partly repaid by essential professional services. 

Contrary winds and the delays incident to collecting a 
fleet of transports, detained the Raleigh and Richmond at 
Cork for a considerable time, during which Dr. Jefiries 
was actively and profitably employed by the military and 
by numerous families in the vicinity ; from some of whom 
he obtained recommendatory letters to the commanding 
officers and other distinguished persons in America. 

At length he re-embarked, and proceeding to sea on the 
24th of December, arrived at Savannah on the 1 7th of the 
succeeding February ; here, however, he did not land, but 
proceeded to Charleston, South Carolina, and on the 11th 
of March joined the grand army under Sir Henry Clinton, 
who ordered him back to Savannah, where his services 
were urgently required, numerous important surgical ope- 
rations waiting his arrival. The opportunity he here en- 
joyed of observing the progress of inflammation and dis- 



320 JOHN JEFFRIES. 

ease in a hot climate, materially benefited his future prac- 
tice, particularly during the torrid summers of his native 
state. 

He now received intelligence of a severe domestic 
affliction, which rendered him extremely anxious to return 
to England. As a preparatory step, he solicited and, with 
some difficulty, obtained an order for his removal to New- 
York, where, after having again visited Charleston, he 
arrived in the Beaumont man of war, on the 14th of July, 
1 780, and was immediately employed at the head of the 
surgical department. His private practice also became so 
extensive, that he received from Dr. Baillie, who has 
since become one of the most eminent physicians of Eu- 
rope, very advantageous proposals to join him in a per- 
manent medical establishment ; the motives which urged 
him to visit England were irresistible. Having resigned 
his commission in favor of Mr. Loring, surgeon of the 
hospital, he obtained a passage on board the Yarmouth of 
sixty-four guns, and, much to the regret of his American 
friends, recrossed the Atlantic ocean, and on the 26th of 
December, 1 780, safely landed at Falmouth. Soon after 
his return he was appointed by Lord McCartney as his 
private physician and head of the medical staff then about 
to embark for India, a situation which in a short period 
would have afforded extensive wealth and gratified every 
wish for fame ; but his love for his native place and the 
hopes of returning there, prevailed over these flattering 
prospects, and it was accordingly declined. 

The following anecdote evinced a laudable state of feel- 
ing in relation to liis professional obligations. He had 
become particularly acquainted with a family of high 
rank and station in consequence of preserving the life of a 
son in his own country. During one of his visits he wit- 
nessed much suffering from the advice of an eminent pro- 
fessional gentleman to one of the family ; he promptly 
interposed, and immediately afforded the relief which he 
asserted was withheld from indolence under the weight of 
a great name. On the following morning he received a 
note requesting him to consider himself as the physician 
of the family, and was informed that a chariot was at the 
door which he must accept, as they could not be regularly 
attended by a physician who walked. This he promptly, 
but courteously, declined, observing that he wished to 
stand upon his own merit, and not to rise by the adventi- 



JOHN JEFFRIES. 321 

tioiis aids to which some of the profession resorted. In 
the course of iiis practice in America, Dr. Jeffries had 
essentially benefited the honorable Captain Fielding, who 
gave him a letter of introduction to his relation. Lady 
Charlotte Finch. This lady filling an exalted station in 
the house of the Queen, her patronage and influence were 
extensive, and slie gratefully exerted both in the service of 
her relation's benefactor. She introduced and strongly 
recommended him to the royal physicians, Drs. Turton 
and Warren, from both of whom he subsequently receiv- 
ed much kindness and attention. They consulted with 
him as to the best means of promoting his future interests : 
Dr. Warren advised him to conform to the usual custom 
of the metropolis, and confine himself to a particular de- 
partment of the profession. Although of opinion that the 
several branches, in as much as they tended to elucidate 
and assist each other, should always be united, he thought 
it prudent to follow this friendly advice, and finally de- 
termined to confine his attention to midwifery and the 
diseases of children. His American friends, however, in- 
sisted upon his violating this determination, and he in 
consequence procured a special license to practice also in 
surgery and medicine. 

He was busily engaged at this time, not only in storing 
his mind with useful professional knowledge, but in phi- 
losophical enquiry and scientific research. Pursuing such 
objects he was led to undertake two aerial voyages, which 
originated in an ardent desire to ascertain experimentally 
the correctness of certain preconceived hypotheses relative 
to atmospheric temperature and the practicability of some 
aerostatic improvements which had suggested themselves 
to his inventive imagination. The first voyage was on 
the 13th of November, 1784, from the Rhedorium near 
Grosvenor Square, London, into the Parish of Stowe in 
the county of Kent. The second voyage was on the 7th 
of January, 1785, from the cliffs of Dover across the Bri- 
tish channel into the forest of Guines in the Province of 
Artois in France, and was the first successful attempt to 
cross the sea par la route de Pair. These engagements 
were not without professional advantages ; for, besides 
procuring him the notice of the King of France, the 
personal civilities of the unfortunate Maria Antoinette, 
and the friendship of the Duke of Dorset, the Britisli 
ambassador, they obtained him an introduction to all the 
41 



322 JOHN JEFFRIES. 

learned and scientific societies of Paris, of which he was 
elected an honorary member, and facilitated his access to 
the medical and anatomical schools of that intellectual 
metropolis. But his duty to his patients in England, urg- 
ed his speedy return to that country. He drew up a pa- 
per, detailing the result of his various experiments, and 
presented it to the Royal Society, before whom it was 
read with much approbation. Dr. Blagden, secretary of 
that learned body, had assisted him with many valuable 
hints previously to his first ascension, and was subsequent- 
ly most active in promoting his professional interests, ob- 
serving that a private individual, who had voluntarily 
expended so large a sum in the cause of useful science, was 
truly worthy of public patronage. The collateral benefits 
that resulted from his aerial expeditions, were greater than 
he expected ; they secured him the interest of Sir Joseph 
Banks, President of the Royal Society, the Duchess of 
Devonshire, and other powerful friends. 

His practice and his reputation rapidly increased from 
this period until the summer of 1789, when he received 
letters urging the necessity of his immediately repairing 
to Boston, to secure some property which had devolved 
to him by the death of a near relative ; in compliance 
with which he embarked on board the ship Lucretia, on 
the 13th of August, in that year, and on the 11th of No- 
vember following arrived in his native town. He was 
affectionately welcomed by his earliest medical instructer 
and many others, for whom, in the days of his youth, he 
had formed a sincere attachment. The entreaties of his 
friends, and the love of his native town, prevailed over 
his successful practice in London, and on the 11th of April, 
1 790, he resolved to establish himself once more as a med- 
ical practitioner in Boston. The political animosities 
resulting from the recent successful struggle for independ- 
ence had not yet subsided ; and few individuals who, like 
him, had filled offices of high responsibility under the 
British government, during the greater part of the con- 
flict, would have ventured to make an experiment of such 
doubtful success ; but he felt that, while he had honorably 
discharged his duty towards those in whose service he had 
been before the commencement of the revolution, he had 
neglected no opportunity, consistent with that duty, of 
benefiting his countrymen ; and he now confidently relied 
upon their justice and liberality. To the honor of both 



JOHN JEFFRIES. S23 

parties, this confidence was amply repaid ; and he Bi)eedily 
acquired the esteem and professional patronage of a large 
proportion of the most respectable population of Boston 
and its vicinity. 

Dr. Jeffries was eminent as a surgeon, midwife and phy- 
sician. He became early attached to anatomy, and, it is be- 
lieved, delivered the first public lecture in this branch in 
Boston. It was, however, but a single one ; for on the 
second evening a mob having collected, entered his anatom- 
ical room and carried off in triumph his subject, whicli was 
the body of a convict given him by the governor after ex- 
ecution. This study he pursued with attention up to the 
period of his death ; many of his most valuable prepara- 
tions were made but a few years before his decease. From 
his acquaintance with William Hunter, he probably adopt- 
ed the principles of that great man. His surgical records 
show that he had early learned that but little action was 
required to carry inflammation to its adhesive stage ; his 
mode of dressing after operations was always light and 
cool. He was opposed to the knife when possible to avoid 
it, averring that more skill was required to save, than to 
remove a limb ; by which he escaped that fondness for 
operation to which he was exposed by the extent of his 
surgical practice in the English hospitals. Midwifery he 
regarded as the handmaid of medicine. He considered 
the regular constitutional changes effected by nature in the 
various stages of gestation, and her extraordinary efforts 
to afford relief, as loadstars, not only in this particular 
department of his profession, but in the investigation of 
other constitutional changes under nature's guidance, 
which his intelligence discovered to be analogous. In the 
medical department he was much afraid of visionary spe 
culation. He was, however, an ardent promoter of phy- 
siological inquiry, and readily adopted rational improve- 
ments. His own systems in medicine were what Lord Ba- 
con's were in moral philosophy ; being chiefly founded on 
inductive reasoning. The vast importance which he at- 
tached to the chylopoietic viscera, was a distinguishing 
peculiarity of his physiological opinions. To the digest- 
ive organs he referred for an explanation of many of the 
phenomena in the animal economy ; regarding them as 
the emanating point of most morbid affections, lie Avas en- 
abled to establish those pathological principles u])onwlu(li 
was founded the successful administration of cathartic 
remedies. 



334 JOHN JOIfES. 

The sick chamber was the point to which all his attain- 
ments were made to bear, and for this he was particularly 
qualified, not only by the experience of practice, but by 
the more solid experience of reflection. The name of the 
disease lost much of its weight when he prescribed ; the 
actual state of the system at the time was the subject of 
investigation and the object of relief. 

He was never known to refuse a professional call, but 
bestowed his attentions indiscriminately on the poor and 
the rich. This enabled him to educate a large number of 
pupils, and gave them what he considered most highly 
necessary, a good opportunity for practical improvement. 
Had he been fond of public life, his talents, attainments and 
attention would have added much more to his public use- 
fulness : but he resisted every effort of his friends to place 
him before the public as a professor or as an author. A 
proof of liis industry is found in the fact that he kept for 
more than forty years a surgical diary of all but unimpor- 
tant cases ; a medical diary of every serious affection ; a 
history of nearly two thousand cases in midwifery ; and 
a meteorological journal noted three times a day. 

After an uninterrupted and successful practice of fifty- 
three years, he was seized with an inflammation in his 
bowels, originating in a hernia, occasioned by great exer- 
tions in his first aerial voyage ; which defying the skill of 
able and friendly brethren, he died on the 16th of Septem- 
ber, 1819, aged 76, deeply lamented, but most by those 
who knew him best. 

. JONES, JOHN, M.D. The family of Dr. Jones was 
of Welsh extraction, and of the religious society of 
Friends. His grandfather, Edward Jones, who was a phy- 
sician of eminence in his native country, married Mary, 
the eldest daughter of Thomas Wynne, who was likewise 
a physician, and one of the original settlers in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Their son Evan, the father of the subject of these me- 
moirs, studied medicine with his father, and practised it 
many years in Merion ; for causes not known he removed 
to the city of New-York, and afterwards to Long Island, 
and there married Mary, the daughter of Mr. Ste- 
phenson, by whom he had four sons ; John, Thomas, 
Evan and James. 

John Jones was born in the town of Jamaica, Long 
Island, in tlie year 1729 ; and received his education partly 



JOHN JONES. 325 

from his excellent parents, but chiefly at a private school 
in the city of New-York. He was early led, both by the 
advice of his father and his own inclination, to the study 
of medicine, and was placed under the care of the late 
Dr. Thomas Cadwallader, of Philadelphia, with whom he 
continued during the period of his studies in this country. 
Dr. Jones early indicated an attachment for that profes- 
sion, which at a subsequent period he cultivated with so 
much ardor, by his fondness for anatomical researches ; 
and though, as it may be readily supposed, these could 
only be of the comparative kind, yet it is a remarkable 
fact, that this love for pursuits of the same nature, has 
been noticed in the youth of some of the most distinguish- 
ed anatomists that ever lived. 

At the age of eighteen years he began to study medi- 
cine under the above mentioned physician. This country 
then afforded no opportunity, by means of public institu- 
tions, of increasing the knowledge of the student. The 
private practice of physicians was almost the only source 
from whence the student could derive any practical infor- 
mation ; to this Dr. Jones paid the greatest attention, and 
I have heard that his preceptor bore testimony to the assi- 
duity and marks of early genius in his pupil ; and pre- 
dicted from them his future eminence in his profession. 

After completing his studies in this country. Dr. Jones 
visited Europe, in order to improve himself still further 
in his profession. He first went to London, and there at- 
tended the lectures of Dr. William Hunter, M'Kenzie, and 
others, who were then eminent in the several branches 
which they taught ; and the practice of the different hos- 
pitals, particularly that of St. Bartholomew, of which 
Mr. Pott was senior surgeon, and in the height of reputa- 
tion. From London he went to France, where he arrived 
in May 1751 ; and obtained the degree of Doctor in Medi- 
cine from the University of Rheims. He then proceeded 
to Paris, where he remained until the month of April in 
the following year ; and attended the anatomical lectures 
of Mr. Petit and the practice of the Hotel Dieu, of which 
well known institution, Messrs. Le Cat and Le Dran were 
then surgeons. He afterwards spent some time at the Uni- 
versity of Leyden, and finally visited Edinburgh, which 
completed his medical tour. 

Under masters like these, and enjoying such opportu- 
nities, he could not fail, with the assiduity which he em- 



326 JOHN JONES. 

ployed, of acquiring all the knowledge at that time to 
be obtained. In consequence of the zeal which he showed 
in the acquisition of every species of useful knowledge, 
he attracted the notice of the above celebrated surgeons, 
which was of essential benefit to him in the prosecution of 
his studies : to Mr. Pott in particular he considered him- 
selfgunder peculiar obligations for the marks of friendship 
he experienced from him. 

During the prosecution of his studies in Europe, Dr. 
Jones was industrious in collecting all the useful informa- 
tion in his power, especially upon those branches of sci- 
ence more immediately connected with his profession. 
To anatomy, as the handmaid of surgery, and the basis of 
medical science, he paid the greatest attention ; but he did 
not suffer this to engross the whole of his time ; convinced 
of the intimate connexion between the different branches 
of the profession, he considered the separation of them 
as highly detrimental to the progress of the science, and 
therefore believed that a knowledge of the one part, was 
indispensably requisite to a right understanding of the 
other. 

Upon the return of Dr. Jones to this country, he settled 
in New-York, where his abilities soon procured him ex- 
tensive practice. To the profession of surgery, in parti- 
cular, he devoted much attention : he was the first who 
performed the operation of lithotomy in that city, and 
succeeded so well in several cases that offered shortly after 
his return, that his fame as an operator became generally 
known throughout the middle and eastern states of Ame- 
rica. The operation had likewise been frequently attempt- 
ed in the other states ; but the want of success attending 
it was generally so great, as to prevent it from being per- 
formed there in future ; the fortunate manner, however, 
in which those cases under his care succeeded, fully prov- 
ed that it was no longer the dangerous operation many 
had been made to apprehend, an opinion which induced 
them rather to submit to a miserable life, than to suffer 
the risk of falling a sacrifice to the means instituted for 
their relief. 

In the year 1 755, during the existence of a war between 
France and the colonies, as a part of the British domin- 
ions, a considerable alarm was occasioned by the report of 
an intended attack of the enemy upon the frontiers of the 
state ; and Dr. Jones, among others, entered as a volunteer 



JOHN JONES. 327 

surgeon to the troops raised upon the occasion. In that 
capacity lie served with distinguished reputation until the 
close of the campaign. In a severe repulse which the 
French suffered on the borders of Lake George, from the 
American and British troops under Sir William Johnson, 
General Dieskau, commander of the French, was danger- 
ously wounded, and being taken prisoner, immedately 
placed himself under the care of Dr. Jones, who carefully 
attended him for a considerable time in New-York.* At 
the close of the campaign he again returned to private 
practice with increased reputation ; and some years after, 
upon the establishment of the Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia, was elected one of its first members. 

Upon the institution of a medical school in the College 
of New- York, Dr. Jones was appointed professor of sur- 
gery, upon which branch he gave several courses of lec- 
tures, and thereby diifused a taste for it among the stu- 
dents, and made known the improved modes of practice 
lately adopted in Europe, with which most of the prac- 
titioners in this country were entirely unacquainted. 
Viewing tljie science in an enlarged and honorable light, 
as tending to the alleviation and abridgment of human 
misery, he taught his pupils to despise the servile conduct 
of those, who consider the profession as worthy of cultiva- 
tion, only in proportion to the emoluments which it 
yields ; and to rely upon the solidity of their own endow- 
ments, as the best security of general esteem, and for 
acquisition of business. He could with propriety recom- 
mend the pursuit of this conduct to others, having in his 
own person furnished an instance of its success, and on an 
occasion also, which, though trifling in itself, deserves to 
be recorded as a proof of the triumph of abilities over 
ignorance and pride. 

At an early date of Dr. Jones's settlement in New-York, 
some of the physicians entered into a resolution to distin- 
guish themselves from the rest of their fellow citizens by 
a particular mode of wearing their hair ; and among the 
rest, it was proposed to Dr. Jones ; but instead of reeeiv- 

* Professor Silliman in his tour to Canada, in a note n»akes a query as to the 
death of Baron Dieskau. It appears in the Pennsylvania Journal, January 14th, 
1768, that the Baron died at Surene, in France, on the 8tli September, 1768. His 
death is said to have been occasioned by the wounds he received on the 8th Sep- 
tember, 1755, in the battle of Lake George. His name was John Harmahd,aB(i 
he had attained the high rank of Lieut. General in the French army. 



328 JOHN JONES. 

ing his assent, the principle of it was strongly opposed by 
him. Persuaded of the dignity of the medical chai-acter 
in itself, he did not see the need of calling in artificial aid 
to increase it, and therefore refused to consent to the plan, 
and insisted upon the great impropriety of establishing 
any external mark to distinguish them from the rest of 
mankind. He declared at the same time, that he consid- 
ered that and every similar means to impose upon the 
weakness or credulity of others, as unworthy the members 
of a liberal profession, and as intended to enforce that 
attention and respect, which their own conduct and abili- 
ties should always command. While the rest of the prac- 
titioners, therefore, were seen strutting about in their new 
fashioned bob, Dr. Jones could not be distinguished from 
any well bred gentleman of another profession. It might 
be naturally supposed that the persons who were weak 
enough to enter into the resolution, would likewise be 
capable of the low passion of envy, and seek for a proper 
occasion of revenge upon those who should dissent. This 
was actually the case in the present instance ; for the 
consequence of Dr. Jones's refusal to adopt the plan, was 
an agreement among the rest, not to consult with him. 
This resolution, however, was of but little avail ; for one 
of the associates, on expressing this determination to a 
respectable citizen in whose sick room they happened to 
meet, was, to his great mortification, unexpectedly dis- 
missed, and Dr. Jones was retained. Such a compliment, 
paid to the abilities of a young man, must have been flat- 
tering in the extreme ; and so effectually did the disclos- 
ure of the scene operate, and so general was the ridicule 
which followed, that the object of the association was en- 
tirely defeated ; and the members were under the necessity 
of wearing their hair like the rest of their fellow citizens. 
The same principle which actuated Dr. Jones in the 
trifling circumstance of refusing to distinguish himself 
from the rest of his fellow citizens, by any peculiar self 
created badge, actuated him in matters upon a larger 
scale. Pure in his principles as a republican, he consid- 
ered titles as the pageantry of coxcombs, and like the 
royal stamp set upon false coin ; by covering much base 
metal, instead of creating respect, they serve to detract 
from the little honor to which their possessors might oth- 
erwise be entitled. 



JOHN JONES. o29 

For a considerable part of the previous life of Dr. 
Jones, he had been afflicted by tlie asthma, and for a long 
time had struggled to overcome that painful disease ; but 
the exertions of both his own skill, and of the rest of his 
medical brethren, in most parts of the continent, had 
hitherto proved ineffectual towards even his relief. He 
determined therefore to take a voyage to Europe, and 
accordingly sailed for London. Here, in a thick smoke, 
and an impure atmosphere where so many asthmatics have 
found such remarkable benefit, he also experienced a con- 
siderable alleviation of his complaint ; and probably the 
permanent alteration in his health which he afterwards 
enjoyed, may in some measure be attributed to the effects 
of his residence in London. He also employed himself 
during his continuance in the metropolis in collecting sub- 
scriptions for a hospital in New-York, which he had been 
chiefly instrumental in establishing. 

In London he again had an opportunity of seeing his 
friend Mr. Pott, at the head of his profession, and of re- 
newing that intercourse which liad been previously com- 
menced between them. He had now been for some years left 
to the guidance of his own judgment ; but, unlike many 
who suppose all knowledge to become stationary at the 
time of their leaving college, he was still willing to be 
taught by those who had formerly been his instructers, 
and who, from the greater opportunities they enjoyed, 
would be enabled to afford him much information. Eager 
for the acquisition of knowledge, whenever and wherever 
it was to be obtained, he again attended the lectures of 
his old master Dr. Hunter, and those of his friend Mr. 
Pott, who lost no opportunity of showing the consistency 
between liis professions and proofs of respect : during his 
short stay there he paid Dr. Jones the most particular 
attention, and presented him with a complete copy of his 
lectures, just before his departure from London. His 
kindness, however, did not end here ; for in the frequent 
applications which he received for advice from all parts 
of this country, in difficult and important cases, he never 
failed to recommend his old pupil, as capable of affording 
any relief to be derived from surgical assistance. In con- 
sequence of this his attendance was frequently desired in 
the different states ; and while he showed by his skill ;ind 
success that the opinion which had been formed of him 
42 



330 JOHN JONES. 

was just, his fame became thereby diffused throughout the 
continent of America. 

The following year he returned to his native country, 
the political situation of which at that time called loudly 
for the exertions of all her citizens. He again resumed 
his lectures, and delivered several courses, and in the 
autumn of the next year, 1775, published his " Plain Re- 
marks upon Wounds and Fractures," which he inscribed 
to his old preceptor Dr. Cadwallader in a neat dedica- 
tion.* A work of this kind which would give the young 
practitioner clear notions of the improved mode of treat- 
ing diseases, without embarrassing him with refined specu- 
lations or useless disquisitions, was much wanted. He 
attempted no systematic arrangement ; but simply treated 
of those subjects, to which the attention of the surgeons of 
the army and navy would be most continually directed. 
No present could have been more acceptable to his country, 
and no gift more opportunely made ; for, in the situation 
of American affairs, many persons were chosen to act as 
surgeons, who from their few opportunities, and their 
ignorance of the improvements that had lately been made 
in practice, were but ill qualified for the office. His well 
meant endeavors were not lost ; for the improvements 
which he made known, though new to most practitioners 
and surgeons, were readily adopted when recommended 
by such authority. This was the only work ever pub- 
lished by Dr. Jones ; it might have indeed been readily 
supposed that more would have come from his pen, con- 
sidering how well qualified he was to make observations, 
and to impart to others some portion of that knowledge 
of which he himself possessed so great a share. Such was 
actually his intention ; and he had prepared another work 
for the press, but was prevented by the most base treache- 
ry from giving it to the world. This was a complete col- 
lection of meteorological observations, made for ten suc- 
cessive years in New -York, with an account of the reiffning 

* In the dedication to Dr. Cadwallader we have a good specimen of the public 
virtue and benevolence of the author. " The present calamitous situation of this 
once happy country, in a peculiar manner demands the aid and assistance of every 
virtuous citizen : and though few men are possessed of those superior talents, 
which are requisite to heal such mighty evils, as now threaten the whole body poli- 
tic with ruin and desolation, yet every man has it in his power to contribute some- 
thing towards so desirable an end, and if he cannot cure the fatal disease of his 
unfortunate country, it will, at least, afford him some consolation, to have poui-ed 
a little balm into her bleeding wounds." 



JOHN JONES. 331 

diseases during that period ; which, as he has often in- 
formed me, was ready for the press at the time of his 
departure from New-York, when he placed it, together 
with all his valuable manuscripts and the anatomical pre- 
parations he had collected during his two voyages to Eu- 
rope, in a place of apparent safety in a neighboring state : 
and in safety they might have remained, had not a brother 
professor, who became acquainted with the circumstance 
and knew the value of the deposit, perfidiously seized on 
it, with a view of converting it to his own profit ; by 
whom the whole were lost to the world and himself. 

The business of teaching, as well as of private practice, 
was soon after interrupted by the commotions of his coun- 
try, and by the actual existence of the storm, which had 
for some time before been collecting in its political hori- 
zon. War was already declared, and the blood of hun- 
dreds had been shed in the cause of freedom. The British 
army having taken possession of New-York, and the adja- 
cent country becoming the seat of war. Dr. Jones, with all 
the friends to the American cause, had previously left the 
city, and retired to some distance into the country. Many 
of his friends who were attached to the British interest, 
protested against this measure with all the warmth that a 
sincere esteem and disinterested friendship could inspire ; 
and though he received the most positive assurances of not 
being disturbed on account of his political principles, if 
he remained in the city, but of having full liberty to fol- 
low the extensive and very lucrative business in which he 
was engaged, he refused to accept the oifer of protection, 
that he might not be under the painful necessity of wit- 
nessinof, much less countenancinop the devastations commit- 
ted by the enemy. Fully convinced of the danger with 
which the liberties of America were threatened, he con- 
ceived it criminal even to be a silent spectator of a contest 
carried on against a country that gave him birth, and 
therefore accepted of a seat in the senate of New-York, for 
the southern district, to which he was appointed by the 
convention chosen for the organization of the state gov- 
ernment. When he could no longer be useful in his legis- 
lative capacity, he exerted his professional abilities by 
entering the medical department of the army, where he 
rendered important services to his suffering fellow sol- 
diers, by healing the wounds which they received in the 
cause of liberty. But this liigldy satisfactory employment 



SB% JOHN JONES. 

was of a short duration ; for the natural delicacy of his 
constitution not comporting with the hardships of a mili- 
tary life, and the manifest injury his health had already 
received, rendered it necessary for him to return again to 
private practice ; accordingly on the evacuation of the 
city of Philadelphia by the British troops, in 1778, he 
went thither, and found that during a short stay there he 
enjoyed so much freedom from the asthma, that he deter- 
mined to take up his future residence in that city. In the 
latter end, therefore, of the following year, or beginning 
of 1780, he removed to Philadelphia. This separation 
from his former friends and acquaintances, was, as might 
be naturally expected, severe in the extreme. The great 
alteration, however, in the state of his health, which he 
had observed since his change of situation, was sufficient 
to overbalance every other consideration, and determined 
him in his choice. The citizens of Philadelphia were not 
insensible of his merits ; for the same success in practice 
as a professional man, and the same agreeable manners as 
a gentleman, which placed him so high in the esteem of 
his fellow citizens at New-York, could not fail of attract- 
ing those of his new place of residence. 

On the resignation of Dr. John Redman, as one of the 
physicians of the Pennsylvania hospital, in the year 1780, 
Dr. Jones was unanimously elected by the managers to fill 
the vacancy, and was continued in office until the time of 
his death. In liis attendance upon this institution he 
was as remarkable for his regularity, as for the success of 
his practice ; and the plain, though honorable mention 
made of him by the managers in their minutes, sufficiently 
testifies the sense they entertained of his services in the 
cause of suffering humanity. In the same year he was 
elected first president of the Humane Society. 

In the year 1786 the attention of the citizens of Phila- 
delphia was called to the poor of the place, who at that 
time were in a peculiar and distressing situation from the 
want of proper medical assistance wlien sick. The Penn- 
sylvania Hospital, which previously to the late revolution 
used to contain a great number of patients at a time, was 
prevented from extending its charity, in consequence of 
the loss it sustained by the removal of many who were 
indebted to it, and by the depreciation of tlie paper bills 
of credit in which others paid the sums due by them to 
the institution. In consequence of this, the managers were 



JOHN JONES. 33S 

under the necessity of confining within narrow limits that 
charity which was formerly so liberally dispensed, and 
many poor people being thus precluded from proper medi- 
cal attendance, often suffered very materially. A design 
was therefore formed of establishing a Dispensary, by sub- 
scription, from which the poor might be furnished with 
medicines at their own houses, and attended by eminent 
physicians. This humane plan met with all the encour- 
agement which it deserved, and the institution was in a 
short time duly organized. A number of physicians and 
surgeons were appointed constantly to attend the patients, 
and others of longer standing in the profession to consult 
occasionally with the former in extraordinary and difficult 
cases. Among the latter number Dr. Jones was elected, 
and annually rechosen until the time of his death. 

In the succeeding year the physicians of Philadelphia, 
influenced by the many advantages which have arisen in 
every country from well conducted literary institutions, 
agreed to establisli a college among themselves, for the 
advancement of the interests of medicine in general, but 
especially in this country ; they elected Dr. Jones vice pre- 
sident, the chair of the college having been conferred upon 
Dr. Redman. But a part of the first volume of this society 
is published, and to this he has communicated one of the 
most interesting papers, upon anthrax. 

Dr. Jones was not only the intimate friend, but also phy- 
sician to Dr. Franklin, and attended him in tlie last ill- 
ness, which deprived his country and the world of that phi- 
losopher. As it may not be unsatisfactory to know some- 
thing of the manner in which so great a man conducted 
himself, when about to close his earthly scene and enter 
upon another, the existence of which he was falsely report- 
ed to have disbelieved, I have preserved the following 
short account of his last illness, drawn up by Dr. Jones, 
and published at the time. 

••' The stone, with which he had been afflicted for several 
years, had for the last twelve months of his life confined 
him chiefly to his bed ; and during tlie extremely i)ainful 
paroxysms, he was obliged to take large doses of lauda- 
num to mitigate his tortures ; still, in the intervals of pain, 
he not only amused himself by reading and conversing 
cheerfully with his family and a few friends who visited 
him, but was often employed in doing business of a public, 
as well as of a private nature, with various persons who 



334 JOHN JONES. 

waited upon him for that purpose ; and in every instance 
displayed not only the readiness and disposition to do 
good, which were the distinguishing characteristics of his 
life, but the fullest and clearest possession of his uncom- 
mon abilities. He also not unfrequently indulged in those 
jeux d'esprit, and entertaining anecdotes, which were the 
delight of all who heard him." 

" About sixteen days before his death, he was seized with 
a feverish disposition, without any particular symptoms 
attending it till the third or fourth day, when he com- 
plained of a pain in the left breast, which increased till it 
became extremely acute, attended by a cough and labori- 
ous breathing. During this state, when the severity of his 
pains drew forth a groan of complaint, he would observe 
that he was afraid he did not bear them as he ought ; ac- 
knowledging his grateful sense of the many blessings he 
had received from the Supreme Being, who had raised 
him from small and low beginnings, to such high rank and 
consideration among men : and made no doubt but that 
his present afflictions were kindly intended to wean him 
from a world in which he was no longer fit to act the part 
assigned him. In this frame of body and mind he con- 
tinued until five days before his death, when the pain and 
difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family 
were flattering themselves with the hopes of his recovery ; 
but an imposthume which had formed in his lungs, sud- 
denly burst, and discharged a quantity of matter, which 
he continued to throw up while he had power ; l)ut as that 
failed, the organs of respiration became gradually oppress- 
ed ; a calm lethargic state succeeded ; and on the 17th of 
April, 1790, about eleven o'clock at night, he quietly 
expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years 
and three months." 

In tlie summer of the year 1790 the President of the 
United States then at New York, after having been for 
some days indisposed, became so ill, that other assistance 
in addition to that of his attending physician became neces- 
sary. An express arrived for Dr. Jones, and notwith- 
standing he was then much engaged in private practice at 
Philadelphia, he lost no time in flying at the call of a man, 
in whose welfare so many millions of freemen were inter- 
ested. Upon his arrival at New York, he found that the 
disease from being of an inflammatory nature, had termi- 
nated in an alarming state of debility, and violent spas- 



JOHN JONES. 835 

modic difficulty of breathing, which threatened the greatest 
danger. An unacquaintance with the i)articular circum- 
stances of the case prevents me from asserting positively 
to whose fortunate advice the happy recovery is to be at- 
tributed ; but the fact is that in a few hours after the first 
visit, a manifest alteration for the better was perceived, 
and in a few days the President was out of danger. The 
importance of the service rendered was not forgotten. 
On the removal of the federal government to Philadel- 
phia, the President chose him physician to his family, 
and he continued in that honorable station until the time 
of his death. 

But at the very time when he was reaping the benefits 
of a long and steady pursuit of his profession, and was 
happy in the possession of the highest confidence of his 
fellow citizens, death put a stop to his earthly career. In 
the month of June, 1791, Dr. Jones rode out on horse- 
back some miles from town to visit his friend Mr. Charles 
Thompson, secretary to congress during the late war. The 
day was warm, and he was so fatigued by his excursion 
that he did not entirely recover himself for several days. 
On the evening of the 17th he paid a visit to the President 
of the United States ; and previously to his return home, 
from being a very sultry day the air became remarkably 
cool ; he was dressed in a light manner suitable to the 
weather when he set out ; but it was not sufficiently warm 
for the remarkable and sudden alteration in the tempera- 
ture of the air that succeeded. Having some patients who 
required his attendance, he visited them before his return 
home, where he had no sooner arrived, than he felt him- 
self much indisposed ; the next morning he awoke with a 
smart fever, attended with a diarrhoea and great prostra- 
tion of strength. He continued for four days in this situ- 
ation, with but little alteration, passing almost sleepless 
nights. Upon the fifth day he became considerably better ; 
was able to sit up, and the most flattering prospects were 
entertained of a quick recovery ; exhausted, however, by 
the violence of the disease, the want of sleep and the con- 
versation of numerous friends, who had that day visited 
him, he retired early to bed in the evening, with a view 
by the help of an anodyne to procure some rest. This, 
however, was denied him, and he continued in a very rest- 
less and uneasy state the whole night, during wliich time 
he had a violent return of his aithma. Early in the morning 



536 JOHN JONES. 

of the 23d he felt some inclination to sleep, and desired to 
be left alone. His orders were perhaps too punctually obey- 
ed ; at eiglit o'clock his servant entered his room, and 
observed him in a calm slumber ; he again visited him 
two hours after, when he found him in the same position 
with his hand under his head, to all appearance in a pro- 
found sleep, but on approaching the bed he perceived that 
he breathed no more. The quiet and easy manner of his 
death, and the apparent strength of body exhibited the 
preceding day, induced some of his brethren to hope that 
a suspension of animation only had taken place ; the usual 
means of recovery were accordingly tried for some time, 
but all in vain ; the scene was finally closed. He died in 
the 63d year of his age. His remains were deposited in 
the Friends' burial ground, Arch-street ; and his funeral 
was conducted agreeably to a desire he often expressed, in 
a plain manner, and strictly suitable to the excellent regu- 
lations of that religious society. It was attended by the 
members of the Philosophical Society, his medical breth- 
ren of the college, and those numerous citizens who knew 
his worth, and will long regret his death. 

The person of Dr. Jones was about the middle size ; his 
chest was moderate, but perfectly well formed ; his habit 
was thin, owing to his constant affliction with the asthma. 
His eye was quick and penetrating, his countenance cheer- 
ful but sedate, and his whole deportment was easy, though 
polite. He was free and easy of access ; for as he owed 
his fame and reputation neither to powerful friends or con- 
nexions, nor to any of those lucky circumstances, which 
exclusively of abilities so frequently determine the fortune 
of physicians, but rose into the esteem of his fellow citi- 
zens solely by merit, so he depended upon this alone for 
the continuance of that interest and support in the profess- 
ion by which he lived. There was, notwithstanding, such 
a gravity of appearance and dignity of manners, as never 
failed to command respect and esteem. Few persons have 
died more sincerely regretted ; for few persons possessed 
more of those engaging qualities, which render a man 
estimable, whether in liis professional character or private 
capacity, than Dr. Jones. His conversation was of the 
most pleasing and interesting kind. While his language 
flowed in that easy spontaneous manner, which evinced at 
once how little it was studied, he at the same time enliv- 
ened it liy a sprightly vein of wit that delighted as well as 



JOHN JONES. 337 

commanded the attention of the hearer. He was, however, 
never known to make use of it to the injury or even em- 
barrassment of another, as is frequently done by tliose who 
possess that power, and who woukl rather suffer the risk 
of hurting the feelings of their friend, than lose the mirth 
that was raised at his expense. He was fond of the belles 
lettres, and read much poetry of the best authors, whose 
happy expressions he had the utmost readiness in introduc- 
ing and applying to proper and seasonable parts of a con- 
versation. He had seen much of life, and his memory 
suffered few things to escape which were worth retaining. 
These accomplishments rendered him a most agreeable, as 
well as entertaining and instructing companion ; and being 
joined to professional merit, served to fix and secure the 
regard of his friends in a most powerful and remarkable 
manner. 

As a surgeon, Dr. Jones stood at the head of the pro- 
fession in this country ; and he may be deservedly con- 
sidered as the chief instrument in effecting the remarkable 
revolution in that branch of the healing art, which is now 
so apparent, by laying aside the former complicated modes 
of practice, and substituting those which are plain and 
simple. The operation to which he principally confined 
himself for many of the last years of his life was lithoto- 
my ; and his success in this difficult and important object 
of a surgeon's duty, was great indeed. Even in the month 
before his death, in a most capital and nice operation, 
there did not appear to be any diminution of that dexte- 
rity and steadiness of hand, for which he had always been 
remarkable, and of which those not half his age might 
have boasted. From long practice also, and from that 
readiness wliich appeared to be constitutional, he had 
acquired a facility in operating, to which few surgeons 
have arrived ; I have seldom known him longer than three 
minutes in lithotomy, and he has sometimes finished the 
whole in one minute and a half ! Happy, however, as he 
was as to the manner, and fortunate as to the event of the 
operation, he was not so anxious about the shortness of 
the time in which it was performed as to the certainty of 
its success. " Respice finem," was the rule of his conduct, 
as it ought to be of every surgeon and physician ; and as 
much as he attended to the shortness of the operation, as 
connected with tlic important consideration of alleviating 
pain, he nevertheless considered it of secondary conse- 
43 



JOHN JONES. 

quence, and rather wished to accomplish that well in a 
little longer time, than slight his work by a studied des- 
patch. 

Connected with this part of his professional character, 
was his merit as an accoucheur ; and in this difficult and 
important branch his success was great. During the 
prosecution of his studies in Europe he paid particular 
attention to this subject ; and availed himself of every 
opportunity, to become qualified to practise it, both by a 
strict attendance upon the various hospitals founded for 
this particular purpose, and upon the private practice of 
the different jirofessors. In the lectures which he himself 
delivered in the College of New-York he dwelt much upon 
this subject, and he may justly be considered as the first, 
who gave the medical students of that state a proper and 
rational notion of the art. Convinced that nature, or, 
more properly speaking, the exertions of the system, were 
in the greatest number of instances sufficient for its own 
necessities, he seldom had recourse to those artificial aids, 
by the frequent use of which the lives of the subjects were 
formerly often endangered, and whose general neglect 
now marks an era in the history of the art. In cases, 
however, of absolute necessity, which sometimes, though 
fortunately seldom, occur, he never failed to derive from 
them every possible aid ; and while on the one hand his 
becoming modesty and delicacy of deportment not only 
marked the gentleman, but held him dear to the female 
sex, his expertness in operating sufficiently testified his 
knowledge of its use. 

The merit of Dr. Jones as a physician, was likewise con- 
siderable. Though educated in the school of Boerhaave, 
he never professed an implicit faith in that, or any other 
system. He was guided by just general principles, and he 
varied his practice like every judicious physician, with 
the varying circumstances of the case. The success of 
his practice, was the best proof of the truth of his 
principles, and of the judgment which directed their ap- 
plication. He lamented the imperfection of the science, 
and never refused the adoption of any rational means of 
increasing its certainty, or the use of any remedy because 
it was new, which had been sanctioned by experience, and 
had reason and probability to recommend it ; on the other 
hand, the caution with which he gave way to many much 



JOHN JONES. 339 

famed antidotes whose short lived reputation proved their 
merit, marked him the safe and prudent practitioner. 

There was one particuhir trait in the character of Dr. 
Jones, which as aiFording a very uLieful lesson of instruc- 
tion, deserves to be mentioned. He made it a rule never 
to offer advice, and seldom to give it, except lie liad well 
grounded assurance that it Avas asked in sincerity ; and in 
this case, when demanded upon a subject concerning which 
he thought himself capable of informing, he seldom scru- 
pled to give it, observing, however, never to make use of 
any persuasion to induce it to be followed, but leaving the 
party to decide for himself. 

The same prudential motives, which influenced Dr. 
Jones in the above particular, likewise showed themselves 
in the caution with which he contracted friendships. The 
best knowledge, and that Avhich is of the greatest advan- 
tage to mankind, is derived from experience. In the early 
part of his life he had suffered, as I was informed, by the 
villany of a man, in whose honor he had the greatest rea- 
son to confide ; and dear as the price was at which this 
specimen of human nature was afforded, it was not pur- 
chased in vain : it taught him a lesson by which he profit- 
ed during the remainder of his life ; and pointed out the 
necessity of not placing such implicit confidence in men, 
who, though they sliow a specious outside garb of friend- 
ship, are actuated solely by selfinterest in their apparently 
disinterested conduct. Though thus cautious in contract- 
ing friendships, yet when tried worth had induced him to 
form an attachment, he was sincere and firm. His friend- 
ship did not show itself by those convulsive acts of gener- 
osity, which sometimes are performed ; but in a constant 
and uniform disposition, which was ready to assist in the 
hour when most needed : not like the bursting of a scorch- 
ing sun from behind a cloud, wliich brings on disease 
while it flatters with health ; but like the moderate and 
gentle sunshine, which imparts health to thej body and 
serenity to the mind. 

He is now gone to that " country from whose bourn no 
traveller returns ;" and while we mourn his loss, let us if 
possible derive instruction from the record of his life. To 
my fellow members of the profession, and especially to 
those who are about to commence their medical career, I 
would set him as a pattern every way worthy of imitation. 
He was their friend while living, and he contributed 



340 NOBLE WIMBERLY JONES. 

much to their improvement by his labors. Like him, let 
them entertain a just sense of the dignity of the medical 
profession ; let them rely upon actual merit and real 
worth for their advancement, and despise every art that 
Avould tend to raise them in the esteem of mankind upon 
any other than this solid and substantial basis. — James 
Mease. M. D. 

JONES, DR. NOBLE WIMBERLY. This gentleman, 
distinguished in the political as well as in the medical an- 
nals of Georgia, was born at a village near London, about 
the year 1723 or 24. His father, Noble Jones, was a phy- 
sician, and being intimately acquainted with General Ogle- 
thorpe, was prevailed upon to accompany him in his enter- 
prise to fovmd a new colony on this continent. His family 
then consisted of a wife and two children, a daughter and a 
son, the subject of this memoir. General Oglethorpe, with 
a military force and about forty families, arrived at what 
was afterwards called the city of Savannah, on the first of 
February, 1733. The colonists had to encounter all the 
difficulties and dangers incident to anew settlement, which 
nothing less than the diversified talents of its founder could 
have surmounted. General Oglethorpe possessed a combi- 
nation of qualities rarely seen united in the same individual. 
He was an able military leader, a benign legislator and ma- 
gistrate, and a man of most extensive philanthropy. His 
character has been well sketched in the following extract. 
" The life of General Oglethorpe would require but little 
embellishment to make it a tale of romance. It was full 
of variety, adventure and achievement. His ruling pas- 
sions were the love of glory, of his country, and of man- 
kind, and these were so blended together in his mind that 
they formed but one principle of action. He was a hero, 
a statesman, an orator, the patron of letters, the chosen 
friend of men of genius, and the theme of praise for great 
poets.* 

Amid the scenes of turbulence and danger to which the 
new settlement was constantly exposed, it was not to be 
expected that many facilities for education could be afford- 
ed. Accordingly, the only instruction that Dr. Jones 
received, both in the common branches of education and 
in his profession, was from his father. In the early years 
of his life he took an active part in the military expedi- 

* Verplanck's discourse before the New- York Historical Society. 



NOBLE WIMBERLY JONES. S4I 

tions in which the colonists were engaged against the Span- 
iards and Indians, and both himself and his father were 
honored by the particular regard of General Ogle- 
thorpe, who sent them his portrait from England, which 
was unfortunately lost when the British troops took pos- 
session of Savannah in 1778. 

Dr. Noble Jones had continued the practice of his pro- 
fession after his arrival in Georgia, and about the year 
1748 associated his son in business with him. This connex- 
ion was maintained to 1756 ; and as the settlement extend- 
ed, the professional duties of Dr. N. W. Jones, upon 
whom the business chiefly devolved, became very arduous, 
as his circle of practice reached many miles from Savannah. 

At the commencement of the dissensions between Great 
Britain and her colonies, Dr. Jones became conspicuous as 
a political leader. He early joined with others in stating 
to the mother country the grievances of the colonies, and 
held a correspondence with Dr. Franklin, then the agent 
of Georgia in England, on the subject. He was also among 
the first who associated for the purpose of sending dele- 
gates to a general congress at Philadelphia, and was either 
chosen or was offered the appointment ; but his father, 
who was the treasurer of the province and a member of 
the council, being then advanced in years, and becoming 
infirm, prevailed upon him to decline it. The provincial 
legislature through him as their speaker, had frequent al- 
tercations with the governor and council } the house of 
commons was in consequence several times dissolved, but 
in every new election he was returned, and again chosen 
speaker. During his residence in the state he was speaker 
of the first legislature of Georgia, which during the revo- 
lution consisted of a single branch. 

On the British taking possession of Savannah, in De- 
cember 1778, Dr. Jones left that city with his family, 
and went to Charleston, where he commenced practice 
in January 1779, and continued until November or De- 
cember 1780. He was then arrested by order of the Brit- 
ish commander, conducted on board a ship, and, with a 
number of other gentlemen, carried to St. Augustine, then 
in possession of the British forces, in violation of the arti- 
cles of capitulation entered into at the surrender of 
Charleston in May 1780, by which these gentlemen were 
to remain in that city on parole until exchanged. Dr. J. 
remained in St. Augustine until the following July, when 



342 NOBLE WIMBERLY JONES. 

he was released on a general exchange of prisoners effected 
by General Greene. He sailed for Philadelphia, and ar- 
rived about the 15th of August, where he soon after began 
the practice of his profession, having scarcely any other 
means of supporting his family, as all his property in 
Georgia had been sequestered by th€ British, and sold by 
Governor Wright and Lieutenant Governor Graham, for 
damages which they alleged they had sustained from him 
by his signing, as Speaker of the General Assembly, the 
act of the state that confiscated their property. 

Dr. Jones received great attention from the medical gen- 
tlemen of Philadelphia, particularly from Dr. Rush, and 
soon derived an income from his practice sufficient for his 
support. In the course of a few months he was appointed 
a delegate to congress by the legislature of Georgia, and 
continued in that capacity until December 1782, Avhen 
hearing of the evacuation of Savannah by the British 
troops in July preceding, he left Philadelphia and return- 
ed to Georgia, having advised the legislature of his in- 
tention. He had been previously elected a member of the 
general assembly, ajid at their meeting in January 1783, 
was chosen speaker. This was a session of considerable 
commotion ; several of the members on a question of im- 
portance to the finances seceded ; a mob collected at night, 
and was guilty of many excesses. Mr. Telfair, an active 
member in the majority, had his house attacked by the 
mob, and Dr. Jones, who was in the house advising the 
leaders to disperse, was wounded by a broadsword on 
the head. He called upon the Governor at a late hour of 
the night, demanded his interference, and the mob was 
quieted. The next day the seceding members refused to 
come in, but were at length brought to a sense of duty. 

After the adjournment of the legislature. Dr. Jones 
visited Charleston ; and by the solicitation of many of his 
former patients was induced to resume the practice of med- 
icine in that city. He remained there in extensive and 
very lucrative business until December 1788, when he 
again returned to Savannah, where he continued to reside, 
with the exception of a few weeks, actively engaged in 
practice during the remainder of his life. In 1795 he was 
chosen President of the Convention at Louisville, which 
amended the constitution of the state ; after which he de- 
clined public employment. He was taken ill on the first 
of January, 1805, in consequence of exposure the two pre- 



NOBLE WIMBERLY JONES. 343 

ceding nights in attending several obstetric cases, and died 
on the ninth, universally regretted. 

Few men have lived to witness greater vicissitudes than 
Dr. Jones. The colony, which he may be said to have 
assisted in planting, had become during his life a powerful 
and independent state ; and the very spot on which his 
father's family had encamped, he bequeathed as a valuable 
lot in a flourishing city to his descendants. Of the active 
share which he had in bringing about these changes, it 
belongs perhaps to the political historian of his state to 
speak. The foregoing sketch, however, affords sufficient 
evidence of the confidence reposed in him by his fellow 
citizens, and of his worth as a public character. In the 
various offices to which he was elected, he displayed a 
firmness and decision peculiarly suited to the troubled 
times in which he lived. Cautious and deliberate in form- 
ing his opinions, when he had once taken his determina- 
tion he was not to be diverted from his purpose. He was 
always ready to sacrifice his private feelings and interest 
to the welfare of his country, the object he had most at 
heart, and he was not unfrequently called on to make 
this sacrifice. His political situation necessarily brought 
him acquainted with Generals Washington, Greene, 
Wayne, and most of the statesmen and military command- 
ers who had a conspicuous part in the revolution. In 
common with every American citizen he esteemed and 
revered Washington's character, but he disapproved of 
the British treaty, and was chairman of the meeting of the 
citizens of Savannah who addressed tlie President on that 
subject. He deprecated all foreign influence and party 
violence, and believed that talents, combined with virtue 
and moderation, would most effectually secure our union 
and independence. 

As a pliysician Dr. Jones was skilful, humane, attentive 
and regardless of personal hazard or danger when visiting 
or contributing to the relief of his patients. These quali- 
ties gave him an extensive practice, which he Avas enabled 
to continue, in every branch of the profession, to the 
period of his last illness. 

In the relations of private life, Dr. Jones was most ex- 
emplary. His benevolence and charity were unbounded. 
He was a member and for several years president of the 
Union Society, the oldest charitable institution in the 
state ; and, although attached more particularly to the 



344 WALTER JONES. 

Episcopal Church, he contributed liberally to religious 
societies of every denomination. He was remarkable for 
extreme delicacy and refinement of manners, and for the 
most affectionate disposition. So exceedingly fearful was 
he of occasioning trouble to any of his friends, that he 
would scarcely make known the simplest want. In his 
personal habits and appearance, he retained that neatness 
and love of order which he had acquired from his mili- 
tary service. He was temperate and abstemious in his 
modes of living, of the strictest morality, and a sincere 
believer in Christianity, and he terminated a long and val- 
uable life the object of the veneration and regard of all 
who knew him. 

JONES, WALTER, M.D. one of the most eminent 
physicians of our country, was born in Virginia, and re- 
ceived his medical education at the University of Edin- 
burgh, where he was graduated about the year 1770. 
While at this institution he became a favorite of the school, 
and enjoyed the particular friendship and esteem of CuUen, 
and the other professors of that time. 

On his return to his native country, he settled in North- 
umberland county, Virginia, where he acquired an exten- 
sive practice, and sustained through life the highest stand- 
ing both as a scholar and physician. " He was," says a 
distinguished gentleman, who for some time enjoyed his 
acquaintance, " for the variety and extent of his learning, 
the originality and strength of his mind, the sagacity of 
his observations, and the captivating powers of his conver- 
sation, one of the most extraordinary men I have ever 
known. He was an accurate observer of nature and of 
human character, and seemed to possess intuitively the 
faculty of discerning the hidden cause of disease and of 
applying with a promptness and decision peculiar to him- 
self, the appropriate remedies." For a few years he was 
returned a member of the national legislature ; but he 
spent the most of his life in tlie practice of that profession 
of which he was a distinguished ornament. — Setvall. 

KAST, THOMAS, M.M.S.S. was born in Boston, Au- 
gust 12th, 1750. He was educated at Harvard College, 
where he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1769, 
and of Master of Arts in 1774. He commenced his medi- 
cal studies under the care of his father. Dr. Philip God- 
frid Kast, in Boston. In the year 1770 he went on board 
the British ship Rose, Benjamin Caldwell commanderj 



THOMAS KAST. 345 

as a surgeon's mate, and sailed for Halifax, Newport and 
New-York, and continued in that station until 1772, when 
he arrived in England and spent two years in London at- 
tending the several profess^ional lectures at Guy's and St. 
Thomas's Hospitals, as dresser to Mr. Warner, and the 
lectures and practical part of midwifery as taught by Dr. 
Mackenzie. 

. In 1774 he returned to Boston and commenced tlie prac- 
tice of physic, surgery and midwifery, which he continu- 
ed to follow until December, 1804, when a very severe 
rheumatic fever deprived the public of his usefulness. 
With the view of improving his health he was induced, 
in the autumn of 1810, again to visit Europe, and he pass- 
ed seven years in England, Scotland, France, Switzerland, 
Italy and Holland. The change of climate partially re- 
stored his health ; but in September, 1817, his debility and 
weakness increasing to an alarming extent, hastened his 
return to his native country, where in October he arrived. 
He continued gradually to decline until June 20th, 1820, 
when he departed this life in Boston. 

Dr. Kast was one of the original members named in the 
act of incorporation of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
and for several years was their treasurer. He enjoyed a 
very respectable and extensive circle of practice, was a 
neat and successful operator in surgery, and performed 
with success the first operation for aneurism in the thigh 
in the town of Boston. (Vide medical papers of Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society.) His obstetric practice was more 
extensive than that of any of his contemporaries, and in 
this branch he obtained a deserved popularity. 
^ KISSAM, RICHARD S., M.D. The father of this dis- 
tinguished surgeon was Benjamin Kissam, an eminent prac- 
tising lawyer in the city of New-York, where the subject 
of this sketch was born in 1763. Richard was the third 
of five brothers, two of whom engaged in medical studies 
and followed the practice of the profession. At an early 
age he was sent to the grammar school under the super- 
intendence of the late eminent scholar, William Cutting, 
at Hempstead, on Long Island. Here he became imbued 
with a fondness for the classics, which he continued to 
cherish throughout life. On the completion of his ele- 
mentary education he became a pupil of the late Dr. Mc- 
Knight, a gentleman of great professional merit ; with 
him he continued for some time ; but subsequently rei>air- 
44 



$4G RICHARD S. KISSAM. 

ed to Europe and became a resident of Edinburgh, at the 
famous university of which he was matriculated as a stu- 
dent, and continued for the long period of five years. 

Among his contemporaries at this great seat of medical 
education, were Sir James Macintosh, the late Professor 
Wistar, Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, and Thomas Addis 
Emmet, the late profound jurist and eloquent advocate 
of New-York. Upon receiving the Doctorate in 1789, 
he published an inaugural dissertation " De Rheuma- 
tismo." From Edinburgh he repaired to the continent, 
whence he retuj'ned to his native city. In 1791 he com- 
menced the practice of that profession of which for thirty 
years he was a most distinguished ornament, and his re- 
nown as a surgeon was founded upon the promptitude and 
success of his operations. As a lithotomist he was particu- 
larly celebrated. It is stated that of sixty-five operations 
in his hands for the stone, three only proved fatal. He 
at an early period in his practice had recourse to tapping 
for dropsy of the ovarium with success. In one case nearly 
six quarts of water were drawn off ; the patient afterwards 
proved pregnant, and became the mother of five children. 
Upon the formation of the medical faculty of Columbia 
College in 1792, he was appointed Professor of Botany, 
but declined the honor. For the period of thirty years 
he was one of the surgeons of that extensive charity, the 
New-York Hospital. 

Dr. Kissam died in October, 1822, in the 59th year of 
his age. 

Notwithstanding some untoward events in his early life, 
Dr. Kissam arose to the height of celebrity and reputation. 
To a mind admirably adapted by nature for the practice of 
the profession, clear, acute and sagacious, he united a firm- 
ness of nerve which was equal to the urgency and magni- 
tude of any undertaking. It is not known that he left be- 
hind him any writings, by which posterity may be enabled 
to judge of his merits ; but his career was too long and too 
triumphant amidst powerful and vigorous competitors to 
leave the possibility of a doubt as to the solidity of his 
pretensions. His fame as a successful operator must rest 
upon the verbal and vanishing testimony of his contem- 
poraries. It may be proper to add that his integrity was 
beyond the reach of calumny or cavil. 
» KITTREDGE, THOMAS, M.D., M.M.S.S. was dis- 
tinguished as a practitioner of surgery and medicine 



THOMAS KITTREDGE. 347 

throughout the state of Massachusetts. He was born at 
Andover in July, 1746, received his academic education 
at Dummer Academy in Byfield, and studied his profession 
with Dr. Sawyer, a distinguished physician in Newbury- 
port. 

In 1768 he returned to Andover, and began the prac- 
tice of medicine and surgery. At the commencement of 
the revolution he was appointed a surgeon in the army, 
and being stationed at Cambridge, had an opportunity of 
being present at the action of the seventeenth of June, 
1775. Dr. Kittredge sustained many municipal and 
political offices ; he was often a member of the legis- 
lature of the commonwealth, and was there useful to 
the Medical Society by exerting his extensive influence 
in its favor. His practice as a physician was very large ; 
but he was most distinguished as an operating surgeon for 
a great number of years. In the practice of medicine he 
was thought remarkable for his readiness in discrim- 
inating diseases. He begun to be affected by angina pecto- 
ris in the year 1810, and died of this disease in October, 
1818, after an illness of three hours. 

The family of which he was a member, has become so 
distinguished for surgical skill in New England, that in 
many places the name alone is a passport to practice ; and 
the number of practitioners of this name is very consider- 
able. This is to be attributed, not only to the well earned 
reputation of Dr. Kittredge, but to that of his father, who 
had also a high reputation in surgery ; and it is not impro- 
bable that his grandfather and greatgrandfather, the latter 
of whom came to this country from Germany at an early 
period and settled at Tewksbury, were eminent in the 
same line. 

In political sentiment Dr. K. was of the party denomi- 
nated republican, and on all occasions a strenuous advo- 
cate for their measures ; but his patriotism and public vir- 
tue were nnimpeached. 

KNEELAND, WILLIAM, M.M.S.S. was a native of 
Boston, and graduated at Harvard College in 1741. While 
a child he discovered a capacity above the common level. 
Under the care of worthy and pious parents, he received 
those impressions, which were never obliterated, and which 
he ever acknowledged with filial gratitude. At school 
he outstripped most of his fellows, and was exceeded by 
none. While a student in the university, the expansion of 



$4S WILLIAM KNEELAND. 

his intellectual powers was equal to the sphere in which 
they were to be displayed. He received from the govern- 
ment of that institution an ample testimony of his attention, 
industry, and progress in literature and science, by the 
assignment of a distinguished part in the exercises previ- 
ous to his receiving the first honors of the University. 
Soon after he went through a regular course of medical 
studies with an eminent physician, whose approbation and 
patronage he justly merited. 

While he was qualifying himself for his profession, he 
ardently pursvied various branches of science, acquired the 
character of a scholar, and became particularly eminent 
in logic and metaphysics. Before he entered on the prac- 
tice of physic a tutorship in the college became vacant, 
and his qualifications pointed him out to the government 
of that institution as the most suitable person to fill the 
office. In this a field was open for the full display of his 
talents. He did not disappoint the fondest hopes of his 
friends, nor the expectation of his electors. He showed 
himself well skilled in each department of his office. He 
communicated his instructions with perspicuity, and 
governed with impartiality ; and he hereby commanded 
the respect and esteem of his pupils. Having with dig- 
nity and approbation discharged the duties of his ofiice 
about nine years, he quitted it for the pleasures of domes- 
tic life. 

His eminence in his profession was honorably recognis- 
ed by the Medical Society of Massachusetts, who repeat- 
edly elected him their president. While Register of Pro- 
bate, the widow and orphan had frequent experience of his 
aid and friendship. His accuracy, fidelity and inflexible 
integrity as a civil magistrate and in every other depart- 
ment of life, were acknowledged by all who were conver- 
sant with him. The social virtues formed a distinguished 
trait in his character. Facetious, ingenuous, hospitable 
and agreeable in his deportment, his acquaintance was 
sedulously cultivated by those of a similar disposition. He 
wished the happiness of mankind ; and the religious soci- 
ety and church of which he was a member, experienced 
in an especial manner the beneficial effects of his benevo- 
lent exertions in their behalf. Truly catholic and unaffect- 
ed in piety and devotion, he exemplified the religion of 
which he was a professor, by the morality of his conduct. 



ADAM KUHN. 349 

Dr. Kneeland departed this life in November, 1788, aged 
56 years. Sagacious in many things, lie gave counsel to 
many who consulted him, and performed punctually and 
faithfully his private and public duties. He was a sincere 
friend and pleasant companion, an honorable man, and a 
guardian of the poor. 

KUHN, ADAM, M.D., M.M.S.S. Hon. was born at Ger- 
mantown, near Philadelphia, Nov. 17th, 1741, old style. 
His grandfather, John Christopher Kuhn, and his father, 
Adam Smith Kuhn, were natives of Farfeld, a small town 
near Heilbronn, on the Neckar, in the circle of Swabia. 
They both came to Philadelphia in September, 1733. His 
father was a man of bright natural parts, improved by the 
benefits of a liberal education, and was considered as a 
very skilful, attentive and successful practitioner of med- 
icine. He was a magistrate of the borough of Lancaster, 
and an elder of the Lutheran church ; and was the princi- 
pal, and almost the only person, who was actively con- 
cerned for the promotion of classical learning amongst 
the youth of that place. For this end he procured 
the erection of a school house, in which tlie Greek 
and Latin languages were taught by the best qualified 
masters. There was no one amongst his contempo- 
raries, who had more at heart the spreading of religion ; 
and there was no place of worship built throughout the 
country, to which he did not liberally contribute. The 
utmost pains were bestowed by him on the education of 
his numerous offspring, to enable them to become useful 
members of the community. 

Dr. Adam Kuhn's first studies in medicine were directed 
by his father, until the autumn of 1761, when he sailed 
for Europe, and arrived at Upsal, by tlie way of London, 
in the beginning of January, 1762, having traversed Nor- 
way and part of Sweden. He studied medicine and bota- 
ny under Linnasus, and the other professors of the Univer- 
sity of Upsal, until July or August, 1764, when he leturn- 
ed to London, where, it is believed, he remained a twelve- 
month. The particular estimation in Avhich he was held 
by Linnasus, will be sufficiently manifested by the letters 
of that eminent man addressed to Dr. Kuhn, and publish- 
ed in the 8th volume of the Eclectic Repository. They 
will also serve to show the correctness of his pupil's con- 
duct, and his unremitted attention to his studies. 



^50 ADAM EUHI7. 

At what time Dr. Kuhn went to Edinburgh cannot be 
precisely ascertained. He took his degree of Doctor of 
Medicine in that university on the twelfth day of June, 
1767. The Thesis published by hina on the occasion, " De 
Lavatione Frigida," was dedicated to his friend and in- 
structer Linnjeus. 

He visited France, Holland and Germany ; but whether 
before, or after his residence at Edinburgh, is not known. 

In the month of January, 1768, he returned from Lon- 
don to his native country, and settled in Philadelphia, 
where he quickly rose to a high degree of estimation 
amongst his elder medical brethren, and soon succeeded to 
the most respectable practice. He was appointed profess- 
or of materia medica and botany, in the College of Phi- 
ladelphia, in January, 1768; and commenced his first 
course of botany in May following 

A society for inoculating the poor with the smallpox, was 
instituted at Philadelphia in January, 1774, and Dr. Kuhn 
was chosen one of the physicians. It appears from the 
bills of mortality for 1773, that of one thousand three 
hundred and forty-four persons, who died in the City and 
Liberties during that time, above three hundred perished 
with the natural smallpox. The labors of the society ter- 
minated in the April following, on account of the unset- 
tled state of public affairs. What a happy contrast does 
the important discovery of vaccination offer to this afflict- 
ing report ! 

In May, 1775, Dr. Kuhn was elected one of the physi- 
cians to the Pennsylvania Hospital ; which he attended 
until his resignation in January, 1798, having served the 
institution, with his usual diligence and faithfulness, up- 
wards of twenty-two years. It may not be improper to 
add that his medical prescriptions bore the stamp of ener- 
gy and simplicity. 

The Philadelphia Dispensary for the medical relief of 
the poor, the first institution of its kind in the United 
States, was founded in 1786. Dr. Kuhn was appointed 
one of the consulting physicians, and ever proved himself 
to be amongst the foremost of its steady friends and 
patrons. 

The College of Physicians of Philadelphia was estab- 
lished in 1787 ; of v/hich Dr. Kuhn was always an active 
member. On the decease of Dr. William Shippen, in July, 



ADAM KUHN. 351 

1808, he succeeded him as president, and was continued 
during his life in this distinguished station. 

In November, 1789, he was appointed professor of tiie 
theory and practice of medicine in the University of Penn- 
sylvania ; and on the junction of the two medical schools 
of the College and University, was chosen professor of the 
practice of physic, in January, 1792. In 1797 he resigned 
his medical chair. As a teacher, he was faithful and clear 
in the description of diseases, and in the mode of apj)lying 
tlieir appropriate remedies ; mostly avoiding theoretical 
discussions. His lectures were eminently calculated to 
form useful practitioners in the healing art, to the pro- 
motion of which his whole life was devoted. Dr. Kuhn 
was also a member of the American Philosophical Society, 
and an honorary member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society. 

Of his writings nothing can be recollected but his Thesis, 
and a short letter addressed to Dr. John Coakley Lettsom, 
on the diseases succeeding the transplantation of teeth, 
which was published in the first volume of the memoirs 
of the Medical Society of London. This is not the only 
instance, in which a dislike to appear before the public has 
deprived us of the experience of those, who were best 
qualified by their talents and observation to communicate 
instruction. 

The account of men who have been uncommonly use- 
ful, although they may have passed through life without 
much eclat, is of great importance, when they can be held 
up as profitable examples to survivers. Of the subject of 
the present notice it may truly be said, that in him were 
united the characters of the able and of the conscientious 
practitioner. His contemporary medical brethren will 
unanimously adjudge him the palm of excellence as a phy- 
sician ; and his uTimerous patients will unite in deploring 
the loss of a friend, whose judgment and attention have 
not been surpassed. 

In his common intercourse with mankind Dr. Kuhn ap- 
peared to be reserved ; but this was not his natural dispo- 
sition. He placed a high value on a real friend, and in 
the company of his friends no man was more affable and 
communicative. His kind and unassuming behavior to 
younger physicians, his manners void of ostentation, and 
his firmness and decision of conduct, will long be remem- 
bered. 



3S2 JASON V. 0. LAWRENCE. 

But a most prominent feature in his character was a 
strict punctuality, and observance of all his engagements. 
This inestimable virtue can never be too highly inculcated 
on a physician. The want of it is a deviation from truth, 
and the cons^equence of such deficiency is replete with 
endless inconvenience. It would be difficult justly to 
charge him v/ith a voluntary departure from this correct 
course, in the long period of nearly fifty years practice. 
And whilst we admire and applaud the propriety of his 
conduct, an occasion like the present should not be lost, 
of holding up to public view the practice of an estimable 
fellow citizen, who always acted like one that regarded 
punctuality as a sacred duty. 

Dr. Kuhn was not remarkable for the powers of imagin- 
ation ; but in sound judgment he greatly excelled. His 
talent for observation was profound. He was through life 
a studious reader, a lover of music from his youth, re- 
markably abstemious and regular in his diet, and neat in 
his person. During a long and active attention to the 
duties of his profession, he enjoyed so much health, as to 
use his carriage only in inclement weather. He was mar- 
ried in May, 1780, in the island of St. Croix, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Isaac Hartman, Esq. by whom he had two 
sons, respectable characters, now living in Philadelphia. 
For some time before his death his bodily strength began to 
fail ; which induced him, in the autumn of 1815, to relin- 
quish his practice, to the great regret of the families whom 
he had attended. It has fallen to the lot of the compiler 
of the present notice, very frequently to be gratified with 
hearing the expressions of regard for his medical abilities, 
from those who had long known him as a physician, and 
who continue to lament his loss. 

After a confinement to the house of about three weeks, 
he expired July 5th, 1817, aged 75 years, without pain, 
and fully sensible of his approaching dissolution. — Eclectic 
Repository^ volume Sth. 

« LAWRENCE, JASON VALENTINE O^BRIEN, M.D. 
was born in the city of New-Orleans, in the year 1791, to 
which place his father had emigrated from the state of 
New-Jersey, and where he had married a lady of Irish 
descent. He was early deprived of his paternal protector, 
and the guidance of his youth devolved on his maternal 
grandmother, who resided near Baton Rouge, on the Mis- 
sissippi. His early education was at the s<hools then af- 



JASON V. 0. LAWRANCE. oOJ 

forded by his native city, after attending which till his 
fifteenth year, he entered at Lower Dublin Academy, near 
Pliiladeli)hia. When his stay in this seminary, which was 
extended to upwards of three years, was expired, he re- 
turned to New-Orleans, to commence the study of medi- 
cine under his stepfather. Dr. Flood. Here he possessed 
practical opportunities not always enjoyed by the pupils 
of physicians in large cities ; having frequently the charge, 
in the violent and acute diseases of that climate, of a part 
of his father's patients. 

In December, 1812, Dr. Lawrance quitted New-Orleans 
and repaired to Philadelphia, that he might avail himself 
of the advantages it presents to the medical student, and 
terminate his studies by crowning them with the honors 
of her widely and justly celebrated school. He became 
one of the pupils of Dr. Physick, then professor of sur- 
gery, whose private friendship he had the honor of enjoy- 
ing during; the remainder of his life. After distinguish- 
ing himself among the class for talents in the acquisition 
of knowledge, and a remarkable degree of assiduity in 
any employment, however laborious or disgusting, w^hich 
belonged to his profession, he entered the Pennsylvania 
Hospital in 1814, to fill a temporary vacancy as house 
physician and surgeon. In this establishment he remained 
till the ensuing spring, when he was graduated, and soon 
after returned to New-Orleans to commence the practice 
of physic under the paternal auspices of Dr. Flood. Here 
he immediately obtained a large and lucrative business, 
and continued, till he left that city, the acting physician 
and surgeon of the New-Orleans Hospital, of which his 
stepfather was principal. Dr. Lawrance could not, how- 
ever, remain long satisfied in this situation. The recollect- 
ion of the advantages which Philadelphia possessed in 
every scientific point of view, an early attachment, the 
friendships which he had formed there, and particularly 
its great facilities for the prosecution of his favorite pur- 
suit, the study of anatomy, worked upon his mind, until 
he finally resolved to sacrifice the present possession of a 
large, profitable and increasing practice, w^ith the best 
grounds for confidently expecting, at an early period, to 
reach the summit of professional eminence in the place of 
his birth, for the object of living where he could to more 
advantage pursue his inquiries into nature. The increase 
of knowledge was a tonic to his mind, with which he 
45 



354 JASOIf V. 0. LAWRANCE. 

could not dispense ; and every consideration of ambition 
or pecuniary advantage was small in the comparison. 

From the period of his settling in Philadelphia, Dr. 
Lawrance was obliged to buffet all the difficulties to which 
those physicians are subjected who settle in large cities. 
His talents were universally, and with pleasure acknow- 
ledged by his numerous acquaintance ; his industry, which 
was of a kind beyond that usually termed indefatigable, 
was obvious to all ; his experience and acquirements were 
great, and generally known ; his conversation was courted 
with pleasure and pride by the first names in science, and 
with some of them he was intimately bound in the relat- 
ions of private friendship : yet neither talents, nor indus- 
try, nor learning, nor experience, nor influential friend- 
ship could supply the place of the opportunities which he 
had so magnanimously relinquished ; and it is believed 
that, though his prospects were fast brightening at the 
close, he continued to struggle with difficulty, till the ter- 
mination of his useful life. An attack of the epidemic 
fever, which has in such a distressing manner visited the 
neighborhood of our city, augmented by a continuance of 
the unparalleled exertions which he was in the constant 
habit of making, rapidly hurried him to his end. He 
was taken ill on the 9th of August, 1823, while visiting 
in the infected neighborhood of the Ridge-road, and im- 
prudently continued to labor in the day and curtail his rest 
at night, till the eleventh, when he was obliged to be con- 
veyed home in the carriage of a friend, from an operation 
at the almshouse. He immediately took his bed, soon 
became delirious, rapidly sunk, and in defiance of the best 
medical attendance, on the 19th he expired. 

Thus was society deprived of a man, of whom, although 
it had already began to award him fame, it had never 
known the value. Assiduous and noiseless in his pursuits, 
he was, perhaps, the individual whose real merit bore the 
largest proportion to his pretensions. Always actuated by 
the love ofscienceandof his species, he was uniformly more 
ready to labor for the advantage of otliers than for his 
own. His assistance is gratefully acknoAvledged by many 
whom he has obliged in this way. This temper gained 
him many friends among tlie medical students, at the sug- 
gestion of whom he commenced, in the spring of 1822, to 
give a six months course of lectures on anatomy and 
surgery, perhaps one of the fullest courses of lectures ever 



JASON V. 0. LAWRANCE. 355 

given in this city, Philadelphia. In this novel and labor- 
ious undertaking, which began immediately after the 
spring commencement, and lasted, with the exception of 
the month of August, till the ensuing November, six lec- 
tures being delivered every week, he was encouraged by a 
considerable class. In the progress of this year he gradu- 
ally acquired the habit of lecturing witli ease and perspi- 
cuity ; his enunciation, which originally was rapid and 
somewhat difficult to be understood, gained a more even 
flow. He at all times possessed the warm personal attach- 
ment of his pupils, and their high estimation of his talents, 
to which he was rapidly adding the elegance and facility 
of an eloquent lecturer. He was engaged in a second 
course of lectures of the same kind, at the period of his 
lamented decease. Dr. Lawrance's principal medical merit 
was the prosecution of morbid anatomy. The opportuni- 
ties for this pursuit in Philadelphia, are very great, and 
he embraced them to the fullest extent. He was in the 
constant habit of recording facts and observations of every 
kind, relating to medical science, which occurred in his 
daily pursuits, and particularly accounts of dissections. 
His accumulations of this natui-e rose to the vast amount 
of above three thousand pages ; and an index was carefully 
kept, referring to every case. This was the common em- 
ployment of those hours which he uniformly stole from 
sleep. By these means lie became, probably, the best qual- 
ified among our American physicians to publish one of those 
useful works on morbid anatomy, which do honor to the 
names of their authors, and form, in fact, the greatest and 
surest support of medical knowledge. His inaugural thesis 
was upon fracture of the thigh, a subject which he treated 
from observation in the hospital and elsewhere, with a can- 
dor and caution in stating the results of different modes of 
practice, highly creditable to his feelings and principles. 

He was bred a Roman catholic, though upon the subject of 
religion he maintained, in his conversation, a reverent silence. 
He did not deem it a fit theme for discussion in mixed com- 
panies. His friends, however, knew that he had a toler- 
ance for all, nor thought that belief in any particular was 
a part of the necessary duties of man in tliis world, or of 
the commands of theCreator. In all the duties of social 
life he was truly exemplary. Dr. Lawrance was a mem- 
ber of the American Philosophical Society and of the me- 
dical associations existing at the time among his equals in 



356 FRANCIS LE BARON. 

age. Beside the two copious courses of lectures mention- 
ed above, lie delivered the greater part of another on ana- 
tomy, during one winter, at the university. He had been 
for aliout a year surgeon to the Philadelphia almshouse. 

Such was the unostentatious life of one, who would 
probably, in a few years, have become a light of the age. 
In merit solid, as in disposition benevolent and kind, 
though his worth may not be known to future times, it 
will be deeply felt and remembered during a period co- 
equal with the life of his friends, his fellow laborers, and 
his pupils. 

^ LE BARON, DR. FRANCIS, a native of France, in 
the year 1696 was surgeon to a privateer fitted out of Bor- 
deaux, cruising on the American coast, which was wrecked 
in Buzzard's bay. The crew were carried prisoners to 
Boston. The surgeon, the subject of this notice, came to 
Plymouth, and having performed a surgical operation, and 
the town being at that time destitute of a physician, the 
selectmen petitioned the executive, Lieutenant Governor 
Stoughton, for his liberation, that he might settle in the 
town. This was granted, and he married and practised 
physic during life in Plymouth, where he died in 1704, 
aged 36 years. Items of his goods, surgeon's instruments, 
medicines and books, £10.7.0. Dr. Le Baron did not re- 
linquish the Roman catholic religion, and was so strongly 
attached to the cross that he never retired to rest without 
placing it on his breast ; this constantly reminded the peo- 
ple of a religion which they abhorred, and which they 
were scarcely willing to tolerate even in a single instance. 
His son Lazarus Le Baron studied medicine with Dr. Mac- 
kay,* a Scotch physician of Southampton, Long Island, 
about 1718. He enjoyed a long and extensive course of 
practice in Plymouth and the vicinity, and died 1 773, aged 
75 years. Two of his sons, Joseph and Lazarus, were also 
physicians, both of whom after residing a short period in 
the West Indies died in Plymouth, as did three other sons ; 
and the only surviver is Rev. Mr. Lemuel Le Baron, min- 
ister of a church and congregation in Rochester, county 
of Plymouth. 

LEE, ARTHUR, M.D., was a native of Virginia, and 
brother to Richard Henry Lee, the celebrated patriot of 
.^-. — .^ „ ■ i 

♦Father of the late Dr. Andrew Mackay of Wareha m, who died April, 1817 
aged 70 years. 



ARTHUR LEE. 367 

the revolution. Di*. Lee received his classical education 
at Edinburgh, and afterwards studied medicine in that 
university. As soon as he was graduated, he returned to 
his native state, and settled at Williamsburg, where he 
practised medicine for several years ; but afterwards aban- 
doned the profession, went to England and commenced 
the study of the law in the Temple. 

He soon entered into political life, and rendered impor- 
tant services to his country during the revolutionary war. 
To the abilities of the statesman, he is said to have united 
the acquisitions of the scholar. In the year 1775 Dr. Lee 
was in London as the agent of Virginia, and he presented 
in August the second petition to the king. All his exer- 
tions were now directed to the good of his country. He 
was appointed minister to France in 1776 ; and he was for 
many subsequent years engaged in the afi'airs of the public 
until the close of life, which, after a short illness, took 
place December 14th, 1792, at Urbanna, in Middlesex 
county, Virginia. 

He was a man of uniform patriotism, of a sound under- 
standing, of great probity, of plain manners and strong 
passions. During his residence in England for a number 
of years he was indefatigable in his exertions to promote 
the interests of his country. He was a member of tlie 
American Philosophical Society. He published the Mon- 
itor's Letters in vindication of the colonial rights in 1769 ; 
Extracts from a Letter to the President of Congress in an- 
swer to a libel by Silas Deane, 1780 ; and observations on 
certain commercial transactions in France laid before con- 
gress, 1780. — Jlllen^s Biographical Dictionary^ and other publi- 
cations. 

LINING, JOHN, M.D., an eminent physician and phi- 
losopher of South Carolina, was a native of Scotland, and 
received an excellent education. He came to America about 
the year 1730. He corresponded with Dr. Franklin on 
the subject of electricity, and was the first person who in- 
troduced an electrical apparatus into Charleston. He 
made and published a series of judicious statistical experi- 
ments, which were conducted through the whole of the 
year 1740. lu 1753 he published a history of the yellow 
fever, which was the first account of that disease that was 
given to the world from the American continent. He 
seems to have been satisfied that this disorder aflfected the 



358 JOHN LINING. 

system but once in life, an opinion which has been recent- 
ly maintained by several physicians. — Miller and Ramsay. 
" LITTLE, MOSES, M.M.S.S., was born at Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, in the year 17G6 ; graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1787, and was a very distinguished 
scholar. He studied his profession with Dr. Jonathan 
Swett of Newbiiryport, and for the purpose of procuring 
funds to enable him to commence the duties of his profess- 
ion, engaged in instructing some pupils in Virginia for 
one year. 

Soon after commencing business in Salem, he was em- 
ployed by the town to inoculate with the smallpox, and 
carried great numbers through tlie disease with remarkable 
success. About this time he performed some difficult op- 
erations in surgery, which gave him such reputation that 
he rapidly rose into extensive practice. One of the oper- 
ations referred to, was puncturing the liver through the 
external integuments ; a vast quantity of matter was dis- 
charged and the patient recovered. He was particularly 
celebrated in Salem and its vicinity as a surgeon and accou- 
cheur, though his practice in all the branches of his profes- 
sion was continually increasing. In 1808 he was present at 
the births of precisely one half of all the children born in 
Salem during that year. Notwithstanding his numerous 
professional engagements he found time for very respecta- 
ble acquirements in literature, and his gentle and amiable 
manners and benevolent disposition rendered him univer- 
sally beloved. Soon after his return from Virginia he was 
afflicted with an obstinate attack of jaundice, but under the 
direction of his preceptor Dr. Swett, who recommended 
his living on raw eggs and milk, and using exercise on 
horseback, he entirely recovered. 

The manners of Dr. Little were very gentle, but his 
purpose was on all occasions firmly fixed, and he was as 
remarkable for his great prudence in his words and con- 
duct as for his perseverance. He was able to judge of the 
characters of men, as well as of their diseases, with great 
quickness and discrimination. Although much engaged 
in his profession, his services were bestowed upon the poor 
and wretched, as readily as upon the affluent, by night as 
well as by day, and without regarding the inclemencies of 
the weather. His mind was intelligent and discriminat- 
ing, rather than brilliant, practical rather than speculative. 
He was not governed by prejudice either in regard to his 



MOSES LITTLE. 



359 



theory or practice ; but having investigated as well as he 
could, he then resolved, and pursued his course in the 
mildest manner. 

He married the daughter of George Williams, Esq. an 
eminent mercliant of Salem, who was a most excellent and 
accomplished lady. She fell a sacrifice to a consumption 
of the lungs, and from her in consequence of his unceasing 
attentions, it is believed, he inhaled the fatal disease. In 
the year 1809, being sensible that he was threatened with 
some hectical complaints, he determined to spend the en- 
suino- winter in a southern climate, but on accoimt of the 
multiplicity of his professional avocations that measure 
was neglected. He was perfectly aware of the rapid ap- 
proach of the insidious disease, and marked all its differ- 
ent stages with peculiar accuracy. He wrote for himself 
the following epitaph : 

Here lies the body of Doctor Moses Little who died aged 45. 
Phthisis insatiabilis ! 
Patrem matremque devorasti — 
Parce ! O parce ! liberis. 

Which his executor placed upon his grave stone, filling 
up the blank of the time of his death with 13th October, 
1811. 

He left three children, two of whom have already fallen 
victims to the same all destroying disease. 
- LLOYD, JAMES, DR., for nearly sixty years a dis- 
tinguished physician of Boston, Massachusetts, was the 
son of Henry Lloyd, Esq., of the Manor of Queen's Vil- 
lage, in Queen's County, on Long Island, in the state of 
New-York. 

His grandfather, James Lloyd, was the first of the fami- 
ly who emigrated from Somersetshire in England to Amer- 
ica, about the year 1670, and having married a lady at 
Shelter Island resided there for a short time, and then at 
Rhode Island, but finally settled in Boston, where he de- 
ceased in 1693 ; having become possessed by purchase, 
and from marriage of a valuable estate in New-York, sub- 
sequently the property of his son Henry Lloyd, the father 
of the doctor, who removed to, and resided on it greatly 
respected during a long life ; having prior to his removal 
from Boston married the daughter of a respectable gentle- 
man, a relative of the families of Temple and Grenville, 
who came to America in 1675, as the executor of his uncle 



360 JAMES LLOYD. 

Sir Thomas Temple, a former governor of Nova Scotia, 
and the proprietor of large landed estates in that province, 
in Maine, and in New-Hampshire. 

This gentleman is referred to, by Hutchinson in his His- 
tory of Massachusetts, as "John Nelson, a revolutioner." 
Probably the first person to whom that appellative was 
ever applied in New-England ; and which designation was 
given him, in consequence of being one of the signers of a 
message to Sir Edmond Andros in 1689, then governor of 
the colony, requiring him " forthwith to deliver up the 
government and the fortifications ;" to the latter of which 
he had retired for safety, and heading the Bostonians for 
the enforcement of the demand ; and to whom the gov- 
ernor eventually surrendered both himself and the fort ; 
and whose subsequent disinterested public services, and 
severe and long continued suiferings and privations in con- 
sequence of them, entitle his memory to be embalmed in 
the annals of Massachusetts and New-Hampshire ; from 
having at the peril of his life, and at the price of being 
transported to France, and for several years imprisoned in 
the Bastile, a considerable part of which time he was im- 
mured in a dungeon, saved those provinces from a bloody 
and merciless invasion, which was then meditated by the 
French and the Indians against them. 

The books and papers of James Lloyd the elder, which 
still remain, indicate that he was a man of intelligence and 
education ; of uncommon regularity in the management 
of his concerns, and that great confidence was reposed in 
him ; while the executors of his will, and the guardians 
of his children show, that his intimates were to be found 
among those of the most note and standing at that date in 
the colony. The traditions of the family also show that 
it had been both ancient and respectable ; while one of his 
nearer ancestors, having been " Doctor in Physic to Queen 
Elizabeth," probably gave a professional destiny to the 
subject of the present memoir, who was born on Long 
Island in April, 1728, the youngest of a numerous family 
of ten children. 

At an early age he was sent for his education to Strat- 
ford in Connecticut ; where, and at New-Haven, but with- 
out entering Yale College, he remained for this object 
several years ; at school he became associated with the 
late justly celebrated Dr. Samuel William Johnson, exten- 
sively and honorably known, by his talents and services 





/E. ^0. 



JAMES LLOYD. 5G 1 

in various elevated public stations, and as President for 
some years of Columbia College in the state of New-York ; 
between whom and Dr. Lloyd, a friendsliip thus commenc- 
ing in boyhood, was cherished at maturity, and existed, 
with uninterrupted interest and regard on either side, dur- 
ing the respective long and useful lives of both parties. 

At the age of seventeen Dr. Lloyd left Connecticut for 
Boston, where two of his brothers had been previously 
settled and very eligibly connected ; the elder as a much 
respected merchant, and for many years agent of purchases 
for the British government, which office he held at the 
commencement of the revolution ; and there entered on 
the study of medicine with Dr. Clarke, one of the most 
eminent physicians of his time, whose instructions he con- 
tinued to receive for nearly five years. 

At twenty-two years of age he embarked for England, 
and devoted two years more to an attendance on the Lon- 
don hospitals, where he had an opportvuiity to avail of the 
best professional advantages that could then be command- 
ed, and to witness the practice of Chesselden and Sharpe, 
as well as to attend the lectures of the other celebrated 
men, wlio then presided, and officiated in those institu- 
tions ; of William Hunter, Professor of Anatomy, not only 
whose public lectures for two courses, but whose private 
instructions, dissections, and operations in surgery Dr. 
Lloyd sedulously attended ; of William Smellie, the dis- 
tinguished lecturer on midwifery ; and Joseph Warner, the 
principal surgeon of Guy's Hospital ; from all of whom, 
on leaving London, to return to America, he received full 
assurances of their estimation of his merits : some of 
which are still extant. 

The recollection of him remained so strongly preserv- 
ed by the gentlemen who gave them, as to lead them, to 
the numerous medical students, who in a long course of 
years. Dr. Lloyd had occasion to introduce to the hospi- 
tals, frequently to instance him, as an example of correct 
deportment, close attention, and zeal in his profession well 
worthy of the emulation of his countrymen ; and on his 
again visiting England in 1789, after the expiration of nearly 
forty years, he was recognised, and received with unabated 
respect and regard by the last surviver of his instructers, 
the venerable Mr. Warner of Guy's, who at an advanced 
age, in the enjoyment of an affluent fortune, yet retained 
the use of his faculties, and an interest in his friends. WitK 
46 



S62 JAMES LLOYEf. 

this gentleman Dr. Lloyd had in his pupilage been more 
intimately connected, than with the other professors ; as for 
twelve months he had constantly attended him as an assist- 
ant in the duties of the hospital, or as technically denomi- 
nated, his first dresser. 

It was a custom at that time which probably may yet 
be continued, after the students had gone through the usual 
routine of lectures, and conducted unexceptionably, to 
give them at tlie end of their terms, a certificate in a print- 
ed form, stating only in writing the single characteristic of 
their conduct ; the blank left for which, was generally 
filled, if deserved, with the words " diligently," or 
" carefully" as applied to their attendance ; this Mr. 
Warner considered as a too feeble, and common-place tes- 
timonial, to do justice to the merits and acquirements of 
Dr. Lloyd ; to whom on taking leave of him he volunteer- 
ed, in presenting the following autograph certificate. 

Guy^s Hospital^ London, March, 1752. 
These are to certify, that Mr. James Lloyd, hath diligent- 
ly attended the Hospital under me as a dresser, and the lec- 
tures of anatomy and surgery for one year ; during which 
time, he hath behaved with the utmost diligence and care. 
And as I know him to be perfectly well qualified in his 
profession, I think it incumbent on me to recommend him 
in the strongest manner I am capable of ; and should think 
myself happy, was it in my power to serve him further. 
Witness my hand, 

JOSEPH WARNER. 

During his attendance on the hospitals. Dr. Lloyd was 
the contemporary of John Hunter, afterwards distinguish- 
ed as the first surgeon, physiologist and anatomist of his 
age, and made not only the acquaintance of this gentle- 
man, but of most of the prominent medical men in Lon- 
don at that time, with many of whom he subsequently 
long continued in friendly and professional correspond- 
ence. 

In 1752, Dr. Lloyd returned to America, with a high 
degree of reputation from his deportment, while previously 
resident at Boston, and the character he had acquired in 
his attendance on the hospitals in London, and shortly at- 
tained to extensive professional employment ; in the pro- 
secution of which, he adopted t!ie modern practice then 
existing in England, and especially in surgery and midwife- 



JA.MES LLOYD. 363 

ry ; in the former introducing the much improved meth- 
od of amputation of Chesselden, by the double, instead of 
the single incision ; and it is believed Avas the first prac- 
titioner of surgery in Boston, if not in New-England, 
w^ho performed the hazardous operation of lithotomy ; 
and also the first v^dio substituted ligatures, in lieu of sear- 
ing the mouths of the arteries by actual cautery, as had 
been previously in use ; the latter a mode of practice at 
all times dangerous, and not unfrcquently fatal in its con- 
sequences to the patient, from the sloughing of the surface 
of the wound, and the exfoliation of the bone. 

Not long after his return, he was appointed Surgeon of 
Castle William in the harbor of Boston, now Fort Inde- 
pendence ; at that time a garrison station, and depot for 
the king's troops, on the various changes of the British 
forces, as it was needful to transfer them, from one post 
to another in the colonies ; during his holding this station 
Sir William Howe, then an officer in the army of Genera! 
Amherst, part of which, after the reduction of Louisbourg, 
had been ordered to the Lakes, in a severe and dangerous 
illness fell under the immediate care of Dr. Lloyd, his re- 
covery from which, he always gratefully and publicly at- 
tributed to the skill and unceasing attention of his young 
]>hysician. 

The increasing professional calls on Dr. Lloyd, soon 
obliged him to retire from the Castle ; and when the pro- 
posal was agitated of a general inoculation for the small- 
pox in Boston in 1764, and was again the subject of much 
apprehension, opposition, and superstitious excitement. Dr. 
Lloyd became a strenuous advocate for its adoption ; and 
on its being permitted by the municipal authority, the 
applications to him for inoculation, in which he was greatly 
successful, were so numerous as to deprive him of the [phy- 
sical ability to comply with them, as promptly as was desir- 
ed, although aided by the able and intelligent students tlien 
with him, Drs. Rand senior, and Jeffries ; he inoculated 
five hundred persons in one day, as stated by the former 
of those respectable gentlemen. 

At this period his profession employed all his time, and 
his practice became more extended, than had been known 
to have been before possessed by any physician in Boston ; it 
being said, that in the course of the year, he scarcely enjoy- 
ed an undisturbed night's rest ; and that the inhabitants of 
the street in which he resided, as regularly expected to 



364 JAMES LLOYD. 

hear during the stillness of the night, the well-known 
clatter of his horse's feet, as the cry of the watchman. 
To this animal the doctor was always much attached, and 
was not only a good master to it, but an excellent judge of 
its properties, as well as an able and graceful horseman to 
a late period of his life ; and even until his decease, when 
something more than an octogenarian, he continued to be 
remarked for the beauty and goodness of his horses. 

From the date just referred to, or from about 1758 to 
1775, the medical engagements of Dr. Lloyd were as ac- 
ceptable as could have been desired, while many pupils 
were attracted to him for the benefit of his instruction, 
and the advantage of witnessing his practice ; the exact 
number of these cannot now be ascertained, as neither a 
list of them has been kept, nor his professional books pre- 
served ; they are known however to have been numerous, 
several of them to have possessed great merit, and some of 
them to have attained to great distinction. Among those 
justly entitled to be thus characterized, may be named, 
Major General Joseph Warren, who immortalized his fame, 
by his patriotic death at Bunker's Hill ; Dr. Isaac Rand, 
senior, Dr. John Jeffries, Dr. John Clarke, and Theodore 
Parsons. 

On the arrival of the British troops in Boston, in 1775, 
under the command of General Howe, he immediately 
sought out, and renewed his acquaintance with his former 
physician ; and together with Lord Percy, subsequently 
the Duke of Northumberland, who had become the tenant 
of Dr. Lloyd, from occupying an estate adjoining his own, 
now the property of Gardiner Greene, Esq., and then un- 
der his care from belonging to his relation William Vas- 
sal, afforded to him every accommodation, the circum- 
stances of a beleagured and garrisoned town under martial 
law would admit ; and from his having remained in Bos- 
ton during the siege, into which the smallpox was intro- 
duced by the soldiery, he was happily enabled from his 
influence with those officers, to aid in procuring permiss- 
ion for a general inoculation, which after being some time 
refused, from an apprehension of its effects on the troops 
then exposed to an attack at any moment, was eventually 
granted ; when he renewedly devoted himself, to relieving 
and guarding his fellow citizens from this pestilential 
distemper. 



JAMES LLOYD. 3G5 

On, or before tlie evacuation of the town, many of tlie 
connexions and friends of Dr. Lloyd, from being in the 
employment of the government ; the possession of estates 
in the British West Indies ; or from other causes left the 
country ; the Doctor was urged to pursue the same 
course, and to take up his future residence in London, 
where he was assured of professional patronage and sup- 
port ; this he declined to do, having determined to remain 
at Boston. 

Lnmersed in the labors of his profession, and interfering 
no further in political discussions, than to express his sen- 
timents as an individual when called for ; not theorizing as 
to the future, and seeing the country at large generally 
happy, and rapidly increasing, and enjoying himself great 
prosperity, it could not be a matter of surprise, that with 
many others, and some of them among the prominent and 
patriotic actors in the early scenes of that day, he should 
have thought that the most suitable hour for final separa- 
tion had not arrived ; that the fruit was not sufficiently 
matured to be plucked from the j:)arent tree ; and that a 
course less decisive might have procured a redress of 
grievances,^with a repeal of the oppressive measures of the 
British government, and have ensured for a still further 
time, the tranquillity and happiness of the country, with- 
out passing for their attainment through the hazards of a 
revolution. 

The error of tliese opinions, the event has amply proved ; 
but as the results of an honest independence of judgment 
they were never disguised by Dr. Lloyd ; without, how- 
ever, his seeking to find for them either advocates or pro- 
selytes, and accompanied also with the avowal, that if lie 
did not wholly coincide with a majority of his country- 
men, in the expediency of the measures they pursued, his 
fortunes were embarked in the same venture with theirs, 
and would not be counteracted by him. Exempted by his 
profession from military duty, and taking no active part 
in political life, this disposition could alone be evinced in 
an obedience to the laws, tlie countenance of some of his 
younger friends in the American service, and in meeting, 
when required, his proportionate contributions to the 
public necessities ; which he always did, promptly and 
without a murmur. 

But although ever exulting in the growing greatness of 
the land of his nativity and his residence, it was scarcely 



566 JAMES LLOYD. 

to be expected, that in the vivid periods of revolutionary 
excitement, sentiments qualified even as these were, should 
not have been to a certain extent unpopular, if not obnox- 
ious to suspicion. If this were the case for a short time, 
the integrity of his character, and the manly unreserved 
consistency of his conduct, speedily dissipated all unfa- 
vorable imputations, and secured for him the continued 
regard and confidence of his friends, and the respect of the 
public ; and of so little weight was any such impression 
when it would have most strongly existed, that the first 
house entered by the veteran and intrepid American 
Orion,* when in 1776 with the army from Cambridge, he 
marched into Boston, to take possession of the toAvn, on 
its evacuation by the British, was that of his friend the 
Doctor, to inquire of his welfare, and that of his family, 
during their protracted confinement, and to take up his 
abode with them for a short period. 

And of the estimation entertained, not only of himself, 
but of his more immediate connexions, by those who had 
known both him and them, long and well, not only prior 
to, but at the commencement, the progress, and issue of 
the revolutionary contest, some opinion may be formed 
from the following extract of a letter from the late Presi- 
dent Adams to the son of Dr. Lloyd, under date of January 
28, 1815, in which he writes : 

" Although I have no recollection that I ever met you 
in society more than once, and that I presume was the in- 
stance you have recorded, yet I feel as if I was intimately 
acquainted with you ; the want of familiarity betAveen us I 
regret, not only because I have known, esteemed, and I 
may say loved, your family from an early age ; but espe- 
cially — " for other reasons, which this venerated statesman 
then assigned, but which having only a personal reference 
to the gentleman to whom they were addressed, are irrele- 
vant to the present occasion. 

Of tlie patriotic and successful leader of the armies of 
the revolution, and the earliest President of the United 
States, under that benign, and equal, yet efficient form of 
government which he assisted to prepare, and give to the 
American people, under the influence and impress of his 
mighty name ; of the man, equally without compeer or 
rival, and standing first on the lists of fame, Dr. Lloyd 

* General Israel Putnam. 



JAMES LLOYD. 367 

was a warm admirer, and to the period of his deatli, a 
constant supporter of the system and policy he introduced. 

Until the commencement of the American war, the 
course of Dr. Lloyd had been eminently gilded with sun- 
shine ; he had married at Boston a lady of Scotch parent- 
age, of refinement, and considerable intellectual j)owers, 
to whom he was strongly attached ; his connexions were 
numerous, and of the first standing, embracing a large 
proportion of those most conspicuous for wealth, or sta- 
tion in the Province ; his engagements occupied all his 
time, his medical reputation ranking high both at home 
and abroad, with his professional brethren, as well as 
with the public ; and to complete this circle of felicities, 
he was personally beloved by his friends, and respected 
and esteemed by his associates. p 

But this summer sea of prosperity was destined like all 
other human possessions, to feel its ebb, as well as flood ; 
and although not a political partizan, nor probably having 
ever attended a political meeting in his life, the tempera- 
ment of Dr. Lloyd was one of too great sensibility not to 
be affected by the collisions and contentions of the times, 
pregnant as they were with momentous results ; the sharp 
divisions of sentiment between friends of long standing ; 
the emigration of his family connexions ; and perhaps 
even more than these, the loss at nearly the same time, of 
two of his children, sons who were just reaching their 
adolescence, with the prospect, as he thought, of affording 
him much future gratification, threw a pall over his hith- 
erto unclouded course, greatly prostrated his spirits, and 
although constitutionally and habitually of a cheerful and 
social disposition, caused a depression from which he did 
not entirely recover for many years, and induced in him a 
strong desire to withdraw from active life, and to give up 
or very much abridge his professional business. 

This inclination never wholly forsook him, recurring at 
intervals with great force ; but continuing in the same 
residence, amid families who had been in the habit of rely- 
ing on his friendly and professional aid in the hours of 
adversity and disease, and who were personally attached 
to him, it was not easily to be effected, without a decision 
of purpose, alike foreign to his feelings and his habits ; 
the consequence therefoie was, that he retained in the cir- 
cle of his more immediate friends, a respectable but com- 



368 JAMES LLOYD. 

paratively limited practice so long as he was enabled to be 
abroad, and until witliin a few months of his decease. 

That this change in the flattering adventitious circum- 
stances with whicli he had been before surrounded, created 
in the mind of Dr. Lloyd, no alienation of feeling towards 
his country, may be demonstrated by sometliing more 
than by professions. From inheritance he had become 
possessed of between six and seven hundred acres of the 
eastern part of his father's estate on Long-Island in 
New-York, called Queen's-Viilage or Lloyd's Neck, then 
remarked for the old and fine growth of timber with 
which it was covered. This estate, situated about forty 
miles, by land or by water from the city, and bounded, 
east and north by the sound, with a navigable bay on the 
south, (j^asily accessible to shipping, presented too invit- 
ing and important an object, either to be overlooked or 
neglected by the British commander, with his army coop- 
ed up in New-York, hemmed in by the American forces on 
every side on the land, and in extreme want of fuel, both 
for the use of the garrison and the inhabitants. 

A strong detachment of troops was therefore sent on to 
the estate, who took and retained military possession of it, 
as long as the British army remained in that vicinity ; and 
stripping the neck, about three thousand acres in extent, 
of its wood, forming its greatest value, of a growth coeval 
with the first settlement of tlie country, yielding from 
thirty-five to forty cords the acre, and which had been 
preserved with great care, it furnished so abundant a sup- 
ply of fuel, as not only to meet the wants of the troops, 
but as was said, to give handsome fortunes to some of 
those, who iiaving a commodity thus indispensable under 
their exclusive control, were enabled to dole out the sur- 
plus beyond the wants of the army, to the destitute and 
distressed inhabitants of the city, at prices far beyond its 
accustomed value. 

A few years after the termination of the revolutionary 
war, when compensation was made by the British govern- 
ment to those who had suffiered in their property under 
it, Dr. Lloyd was strongly advised by his friends in Eng- 
land to visit that country, and prefer a claim for the wood 
that had been taken from his estate on Long-Island. After 
consulting the late Judge Lowell, a friend of many years, 
and on whose good judgment the doctor placed great re- 
liance, as to the propriety and expediency of doing this ; 



JAMES LLOYB. 269 

and preparing the needful documents under the direction 
of this distinguished jurist, Dr. Lloyd visited England for 
that purpose in 1789. 

On his arrival he was received with great kindness and 
cordiality by his former friends, who also manifested 
every disposition to aid him in the recovery of his claim ; 
after an examination of Avhich, a single, but apparently 
an insuperable objection was stated to exist against its 
allowance ; this was, that as the remuneration was grant- 
ed to British subjects, he must avow himself to be one, 
before he could receive a proportion of it. As the declara- 
tion of independence had conclusively settled that ques- 
tion in his mind, he at once declined doing this ; after a 
time it was however suggested from a source whicli, though 
not official, was entitled to respect, that if he would state 
an intention of becoming a British subject at some future 
period, the difficulty might probably be gotten over, and 
compensation be awarded him. 

To this he also replied that having no such design in 
contemplation, he could neither affirm nor intimate it ; 
the object of his voyage in consequence wholly failed, and 
in about twelve months after his departure he returned 
home, sustained for the inconvenience and expense of his 
absence by a consolation, not without its value, which 
was derived from the gratification of his having met 
the wishes of his friends in his efforts to promote the 
interests of his family ; and from the preservation of a 
conscious integrity, of greater wortii to him, than the 
treasures of the exchequer. 

In 1800 the invaluable discovery of the preventive 
power of vaccination was made known to the civilized 
world by Dr. Edward Jenner of Gloucestershire in Eng- 
land ; who by so doing, and by his able, and unremitting 
endeavors to extend a participation in this blessing to every 
region of the habitable globe, has entitled himself to the 
noble characteristic of a benefactor of the human race. 

Dr. Jenner's first correspondent in America was Dr. 
Benjamin Waterhouse, at that time Professor of the Theo- 
ry and Practice of Physic at the University in Cambridge ; 
to whom he made early, detailed and precise communica- 
tions of the nature, the symptoms, and the effects of the 
cowpox in its original state, as wftll as in its progress. 
and operation on the human system. 
47 



JAMES LLOYD. 

These communications, together with the admirably 
colored engravings which accompanied them, giving the 
most minute and striking representations of the disease in 
all its tints and phases, Dr. Waterhouse immediately on 
their receipt, submitted to the inspection and examination 
of Dr. Lloyd, with whom he had long been in habits of 
intimate acquaintance, and on whose experience, frankness 
and good judgment he had an entire reliance. 

Fully persuaded of the magnitude of the discovery. Dr. 
Lloyd promoted the exertions to introduce the practice of 
vaccination into general use in the United States, by his 
private consultations ; by his attention to the progress and 
effects of the disease in the first experiments that were 
made of it ; and by the public professional certificates he 
gave of his belief in its importance, its mildness, and its 
efficacy. 

To literary occupations Dr. Lloyd did not give an atten- 
tion, further than was needful to become possessed of the 
current, and more popular topics of the day, and of the 
improvements and discoveries in his profession ; of the 
latter of which he kept himself well informed, and ever 
gave to them an earnest observance. 

In physic, surgery, and obstetrics, which at the period 
of his practice were required to be united, he was distin- 
guished for his skill and ability ; having carried to them 
a mind more than commonly retentive, and well ground- 
ed in his profession, and prepared by a seven years prev- 
ious, and assiduous application under the best instruction, 
and advantages the time afforded, both in England and 
America ; to which were added in after life, an experience 
which had not been exceeded in the sphere of his residence ; 
and at all times an interest, tenderness, and humanity 
rarely equalled. 

Except in cases of emergency, he was a cautious rather 
than bold practitioner, preferring to mark the indices of 
nature in her efforts to obtain relief, and by judiciously 
following out, to aid all the minute indications, which the 
*' vis medicatrix" could afford him, rather than by hastily 
prejudging, perhaps rashly to mistake them. 

As remarked in a " notice" published in the New Eng- 
land Medical Journal of 1813,* " Dr. Llovd owed much 



* By Dr. James Jackson, President of the Massachusetts Medical Society and 
Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic in Cambridee UnivoraitV. 



JAxMEB LLOTD. $ti 

to his education ; but he owed much also to the kind- 
ness of nature ; to an excellent disposition, and to a cor- 
rect deportment. He was endued with senses, which 
were remarkably accurate and acute ; with a faculty of 
perception unusually prompt ; and as he thought not of 
words but of things, his combinations were rapid. He 
read the language of nature with the eye of watchful 
intelligence, and ministered to her aid with the hand of s^ 
master." 

Keenly sensitive in his feelings, he at times sympathized 
perhaps too deeply in the sufferings of his patients, espe- 
cially when the harrowing siroc of our climate, swept 
from the scene of earthly action, the opening buds of 
beauty and of promise, he has occasionally appeared to 
experience a degree of distress and of sorrow, little less 
poignant than that of the nearest relatives of the sufferer ; 
but if this propensity, from the hazard it might sometimes 
create, of the effect of intense anxiety operating on the 
judgment, should in the estimation of cooler professional 
men be considered as a defect ; it would at least in a 
measure be counteracted, by the sustaining influence, which 
a knowledge of such dispositions and interest on the part 
of a physician could scarcely fail to excite in the mind of 
the patient. 

From pretension, jealousy, or sinister projects of every 
description, no one could be more entirely exempt than 
Dr. Lloyd ; with his professional brethren he constantly 
harmonized, his treatment of them being ever courteous, 
open and respectful ; with them he could have no conten- 
tions, for he envied no man's fame, nor feared his competi- 
tion. To the younger members of the profession, more 
particularly when he discerned the germs of future useful-, 
ness and respectability, he was at all times accessible, and 
his counsel and patronage to them were as freely afforded, 
as they were constantly solicited. 

Few individuals have been more exempt from a selfish 
ambition of fame, or avarice of money ; official honors 
he not only omitted to seek, but was desirous to avoid, and 
at an early period after the institution of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, in opposition to the wishes of his friends, 
he declined the office of its President. 

One of the first diplomas of Doctor in Medicine from 
the University at Cambridge was granted to Dr. Lloyd, 
without his previous solicitation or knowledge ; and in 



372 JAMES LLOTD. 

1771, under the like circumstance?, he was elected an hon- 
orary member of the American Philosophical Society at 
Philadelphia, probably on the nomination of his friend 
Dr. Morgan of that city, afterwards Surgeon General of 
the American forces, who had been long known, and much 
esteemed by Dr. Lloyd, and who with his family were 
domesticated w^ith him when attached to the medical statf 
of the army at Boston and its vicinity, in 1776. He was 
also a member of numerous benevolent and charitable in- 
stitutions, to wliich, although he declined to partake their 
honors, he always readily afforded his counsels, and his 
contributions. 

The very extended practice of Dr. Lloyd, in the early 
and middle parts of his professional career, undoubtedly 
afforded him the means of accumulating a large estate, but 
he was moderate in his fees, and for some years negligent 
of their collection : to the poor his services were at all 
times most humanely rendered, and ever free from charge ; 
not content with this, lie frequently became not only their 
medical adviser, but the almoner to their necessities, and 
one of the provisions of his last will was, that the debts to 
him, from those who could ill afford to pay them, should 
be cancelled ; an injunction that was scrupulously compli- 
ed with by his executor. 

While in the fulness of his business, it is believed he in- 
cluded in the list of his patients, every gentleman of the 
clerical profession in Boston ; and notwithstanding he had 
for many years previously been desirous of narrowing his 
practice, many of these revered and respected pastors 
aslced a continiiance of his services, and remained greatly 
attached to him to the latest period of their lives. 

In his person Dr. Lloyd was about the middle stature as 
to height, not broad, but erect, compactly formed, and re- 
markable for agility, muscular strength, and a resolution 
which never faltered. He received from his parents, a 
sound constitution, which was confirmed in youth, by 
rural habits, simple diet, and the healthful occupations of 
the country ; and among them, the pursuit of the deer, 
which then abounded at the place of his birth, during 
the moonlight nights of the winter, when the hoofs of the 
stag breaking through the crust of the snows, left him after 
short chaces at the mercy of his pedestrian pursuers : 
these gave to him a vigor of health, which never trespass- 
ed on by irregularity, and fortified in after life, by tem- 



JAMES LLOYD. 373 

perance, and by constant exercise in the open air, which 
his profession required, remained nearly unimpaired, and 
secured to him the enjoyment of this inestimable blessing 
with some slight exceptions, for the long period of more 
than eighty years. 

In his intercourse with the world, he was decorous, 
spirited, and gentlemanly, avoiding at all times to 
give offence ; but easily excited thougli plac.ible in his 
dispositions, promptly repelling it when considered as 
so intended against himself ; sympathetic and generous 
in his own dispositions, and readily participating in the 
feelings and misfortunes of others, not a small number of 
those who commenced as his patients, became his personal 
friends, and made him, not only their physician, but the 
depository of their sorrows, and their counsellor in afflic- 
tion. 

Fond of society, and of employment ; a familiar inter- 
course with his family and friends, and an attention to his 
garden, which from a rude hill of gravel, he fashioned 
into a picturesque, terraced panorama, ornamental of the 
city ; they afforded to him his chief sources of amusement, 
and relaxation, when in middle life, he escaped from the 
toils of his profession ; and at a later period when in its 
decline, he sought in tranquil and innocent occupation, to 
smooth the onward progress of his course from time to 
eternity. 

In the cultivation of this garden, he was a scientific and 
practical horticulturist, and which although circumscrib- 
ed as to its area, from its position in a densely populated 
seaport, he stocked with the choicest fruits the climate 
would mature ; for many years, trimming for the greater 
part, his trees, his vines, and his bushes, Avith his own 
hands, and the grapes, the pears, and the English mul- 
berries, the latter a very line fruit when fully ripe, and 
scarcely even yet cultivated among us, wliich it produced, 
were much prized, and in the vicinity nowhere surpassed. 

In making this appropriation of part of his time, he de- 
rived a sensible gratification in addition to the pleasing 
resource it afforded, from its ena1)ling him, not only to 
contiibute to the enjoyment of the immediate circle of his 
friends, but from the means it gave him, of occasionally 
assuaging the feverish anguish even of hopeless disease, by 
an offering of this balsam of nature, to the parched and 
burning lips of a dying sufferer ; as well as from a wide 



374 JAMES LLOYD. 

distribution of the scions of liis trees and vines, to extend 
their propagation, and a participation in them by others 
as far as they could be supplied ; and many of the pro- 
prietors of gardens in the capital, and its neighborhood, 
are indebted to the care and selection of Dr. Lloyd for 
some of the best fruits they now possess. 

Believing that an overgrown estate, contributed neither 
to the felicity of its possessor, nor the benefit of his poster- 
ity, and that wealth was valuable, not as the end, but the 
means of enjoyment, he had no avarice of money, and 
was at all times free in his expenditures, and regardless of 
them, provided they did not exceed his income ; on this 
point he was rigidly tenacious, and without urgent cause 
would not have departed from it ; averse through life 
from incurring debts, and entering into no speculations, 
he was enabled, from keeping an aggregate account of his 
annual expenses to regulate his disbursements in this re- 
spect according to his wishes ; but while doing this, his 
hospitality, although wholly exempted from parade or os- 
tentation, was liberal and expanded ; his house being open 
to his friends, especially for those of them who had seen 
better days, and whose fortunes were on the wane, from 
the interruption of their pursuits, the emigration of their 
connexions, the event of revolutions, and the unavoidable 
casualties, and vicissitudes of life ; for several aged and 
respectable persons of this description of either sex, his 
mansion was long an Oasis, and probably for the space of 
thirty years, a week never passed, without the civilities 
and accommodations of his table, being participated by 
some one, or more, of these ancient acquaintances. 

In domestic life, the conduct of Dr. Lloyd was exem- 
plary ; his attention to his lady whom he married shortly 
after his establishment at Boston, and who soon became 
subject to frequent illness from pulmonary affections, 
which confined her to her chamber, exhibited an instance 
of the utmost conjugal affection and devotion, as well as 
of professional skill, and probably by them, her life was 
preserved for many years ; to do this, was to him an ob- 
ject of his unceasing care, of his morning thoughts and 
nightly vigils ; and for nearly a quarter of a century, he 
literally would not suffer the winds of Heaven to visit her 
too rudely. To his children he allowed an indulgence so 
unlimited, as could alone find its source, and perhaps its 
excuse, in the tenderness of his affection, the warmth of 



JAMES LLOYD. S75 

his feelings, and the external occupations by which, at the 
earlier period of their lives he was engrossed. Of his 
domestics, he was at all times considerate ; especially in 
sickness, when they were sure to receive all tlie care and 
comfort he could afford them ; and who in return fre- 
quently becoming duly sensible of his kindness, remained 
long in his family, in which several of them deceased, 
after a service of from thirty to forty years. 

The religion of Dr. Lloyd Avas of the heart ; educated 
in the Episcopal form of worsliip, he adhered to it during 
life, and attended divine service at Trinity Church in 
Boston, whenever his professional engagements would ^id- 
mit. He was not, however, the slave of forms, or of dog- 
mas, but was ever in charity with all sects of Christians ; 
believing that those who improved the talents committed 
to their charge, according to the best lights of their un- 
derstanding, in purity of purpose, and in imitation of the 
blessed example of Him who went about doing good, 
would, as he trusted, hereafter receive, from an all-merci- 
ful and bountiful God, the reward of good and faithful 
servants. 

Tiie health of Dr. Lloyd, which had remained unbrok- 
en for so long a period, a fe v years before his death met 
a severe shock from two falls he received, one with his 
horse, and the other on the icy steps of his garden ; of 
these he said little, for he rarely permitted himself to 
complain, but they evidently shook his frame ; from the 
time of the occurrence of these accidents, which were not 
distant from each other, his strength obviously declined 
until the autumn of 1809, v/hen his debility so much in- 
creased, as to induce him to confine himself to the house, 
and shortly after to his chamber ; occasional slight hae- 
morrhages from the .chest supervened, but without any 
great suffering ; his prostration of strength gradually be- 
coming more marked, until March, 1810, when after a full 
knoAvledge of the approaching termination of his course, 
and within a few days of his attaining to the age of eighty- 
two years, he deceased, leaving two children ; a son, be- 
fore mentioned, bearing his name, and Mrs. Sarah Borland, 
relict of Leonard Vassal Borland. 

Dr. Lloyd bequeathed to his descendants a moderate, 
but wholly unincumbered estate ; leaving to them also a 
remembrance greatly endeared to those who knew him 
best, from an experience of his probity, Ids skill, Ids sym- 



S76 JAMES LOW. 

pathies and his tenderness ; and still after a lapse of nearly 
twenty years from his death, it not unfrequently happens, 
that on viewing an almost speaking likeness of him, from 
the pencil of the most eminent portrait painter of his 
time,* by persons of this description, it is apostrophized 
by them in terms of mingled respect, affection and regret. 

The concluding remarks in the discourse delivered 
March 25th, 1810, on the occasion of the death of "this 
excellent physician," by the Rev. Dr. Gardiner, will close 
the present biographical sketch, in which the eloquent 
divine, after describing the character, and many of the 
occurrences in the life of the deceased, observes, " for 
most of these, relative to his profession, I am indebted to 
one who knew him well,f who loved and revered him 
while living, and will never cease to cherish his memory 
with the fondest recollection." 

" Such, my bi'ethren, was Dr. James Lloyd ; and if the 
value of a citizen is to be estimated by his public and pri- 
vate utility, this town has never, perhaps, sustained a 
greater loss : for nearly fifty-eight ^^ears he was in exten- 
sive practice, and there is perhaps no physician now liv- 
ing, to whom so many individuals have been under pro- 
fessional obligations. 

" The public have lost in him a practitioner of first rate 
skill and respectability ; polished society, a gentleman of 
consummate good breeding ; his country, a firm friend ; 
the poor, a most benevolent benefactor ; his own family, 
the fondest parent and grandfather ; and his domestics, the 
kindest master and patron. 

" He has descended to the grave full of years and honor, 
an ornament to his profession, and an example to his sur- 
vivers, with the esteem and veneration of all who knew 
him, and with the blessing of those ready to perish." — 
Hon. James Lloyd. 

LOW, JAMES, M.D., was born at Albany, December 
9th, 1781. His early education was completed at the acad- 
emy and college in Schenectady. He then commenced the 
study of medicine with the late Dr. William McClelland, 
of Albany, and after remaining with him for three years, 
proceeded to Edinburgh, where he spent four years in at- 
tending the lectures at the celebrated university in that 
place. During a part of the above time he was a private 

* Gilbert Stewart. t Dr. Rand, senior. 



JAMES LOW. 377 

pupil of the late eminent lecturer on chemistry, John Mur- 
ray, M.D. Dr. Low was graduated at Edinburgh in 
1807. The subject of Iiis inaugural dissertation was Teta- 
nus, but the writer of this sketch lias often heard him men- 
tion that he had prepared one on the non contagious na- 
ture of yellow fever ; objections were, however, made to 
it from a quarter which could not be resisted, and he was 
obliged to select another subject. The standing of Dr. 
Low among his fellow students, may be estimated from 
the fact that he was elected one of the presidents of the 
Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. 

After travelling over many parts of England and Scot- 
land, Dr. Low returned to his native country in 1808, and 
shortly after commenced the j^ractice of medicine in con- 
nexion with his former preceptor Dr. McClelland. His 
reputation as a skilful and learned physician, and an able 
and expert surgeon, soon became widely diffused and in- 
troduced him into extensive business. He was also distin- 
guished as a man of science, and became one of the most 
useful and active members of the society for the promotion 
of useful arts. Among his successful labors, besides those 
mentioned below, was the publication, in 1809, of Hoop- 
er's Physician's Vade Mecum, with translations of all the 
formula?, and the addition of many valuable notes. In 
1814, in conjunction with another, he edited Benjamin 
Bell's Treatise on the Venereal Disease, adding copious 
notes adapted to the improved state of practice in these 
diseases. 

During the last years of his life his health was much 
impaired, and after much suffering he died at Albany, Feb- 
ruary 3d, 1822. His loss to society was great, as he bade 
fair at one period of his life, not only to be one of the first 
physicians in the state, but also to become a leading agent 
in promoting the interests of learning. During sev^eral 
years he delivered lectures on chemistry with great accept- 
ance, and displayed a perfect acquaintance with that im- 
portant and popular branch of study. He was a scholar 
well versed in the languages, an entliusiast in poetrv, and 
a man of extensive and varied information. The follow- 
ing is believed to be a complete list of the publications of 
Dr. Low. 

1. Dissertatio Inauguralis De Tetano. Edinburgh, 1807. 
Dedicated to John Murrav and Alexander Macdonald, Esq, 
48 



378 JOHN MANNING. 

2. Account of the Epidemic Pneumonia, which lately 
prevailed at Albany ancl other parts of the state of New- 
York. Published in the Medical Register, Volume IV . 

3. Researches on the Light manifested in the Combustion 
of inflammable Substances. Translated from the French 
of Count Rumford. Transactions of the Society of Use- 
ful Arts, Volume III. 

4. Observations on the Moth which proved destructive 
to Bees. Ibid. Volume IV. 

5. Notes to Hooper's Vade Mecum. 

6. Notes to Bell on the Venereal.— T. R. Beck. 

* MANNING, DR. JOHN, was the oldest son of Dr. 
Joseph Manning of Ipswich, Massachusetts, a respectable 
practitioner of medicine in that place for nearly sixty 
years, who died in the 80th year of his age. Dr. John Man- 
ning was born in November, 1737, was fitted for the prac- 
tice of medicine under his father's instruction, and com- 
menced practice at Newmarket, New-Hampshire, in 1759. 

He returned to Ipswich in 1760, where he continued to 
practise in his profession until 1771, when with the laud- 
able view of a more finished education he repaired to 
England, and visited, as a medical student, several hos- 
pitals in London, particulaily Westminster Lying-in Hos- 
pital ; attended Professor John Leake's lectures, and re- 
ceived his certificate under the hospital seal, declaring 
that Dr. John Manning had frequent and uncommon op- 
portunities of extensive practice ; also of seeing the method 
of treating, and the manner of prescribing for the various 
disorders incident to childbearing women, and infants ; 
and that he was in all respects regularly qualified for the 
practice of midwifery. Dr. Leake has, at the close of his 
second volume on chronic diseases, seventh London edit- 
ion, printed 1793, included Dr. Manning's name in his list 
of medical students. While in London, he made himself 
particularly acquainted with Dr. Sutton's improved mcth- 
odof treating smallpox, and was himself inoculated in 
London. 

He returned to America in 1772, and resumed practice 
in his native town ; and having erected insulated tempora- 
ry hospitals he carried several classes through the smallpox 
successfully by inoculation. After the battle on Bunker's 
Hill he volunteered his assistance in dressing tlie wound- 
ed, was at Cambridge with the American troops, and serv- 
ed as surgeon one campaign on Long Island and Rhode 



JAMES MC CLURG. 379 

Island. Dr. Manning was frequently employed in Boston 
as an inoculator of the smallpox, and by his address and 
successful mode of practice he overcame tlie prejudice and 
opposition which he was called to encounter. As a prac- 
tising accoucheur he attained to considerable celebrity, and 
was highly valued not only in his native town, but in an 
extensive surrounding country, where he was frequent- 
ly called in consultation, and he enjoyed the confidence 
and affection of the people. 

He was for several years a member of the house of re- 
presentatives, and constantly adhered to the party denom- 
inated democratic republicans. He was a regular attend- 
ant on })ublic worship, and always opposed to sectarian 
controversies. lii his habits he was undeviatingly temper- 
ate and regular. His life was long protracted, and after 
about a week's illness he quietly departed in November, 
1824, having nearly completed his 87th year. Among the 
children of Dr. Manning, three sons have been initiated 
into the medical profession, and are respectably estab- 
lished. 

McCLURG, JAMES, M.D. was born in the county of 
Elizabeth City in Virginia, and was educated at the Col- 
lege of William and Mary in Williamsburg. He was 
highly distinguished for his attainments in classical learn- 
ing at a place where at that period this department of lite- 
rature was taught by able professors from the English uni- 
versities, and cultivated Avith as much ardor and success 
as in any other part of this country. 

The state of his healtji induced his father, Dr. Walter 
McClurg, to send him to Europe before he had attained 
the age of manhood, and he devoted a much longer time 
than is usual to the study of his profession. He was en- 
gaged several years as a student of medicine in Edin])urgh, 
where his genius and acquirements were held in the higli- 
est estimation by the professors of tliat university, ;md 
obtained for him the friendship of the celebrated Drs 
Cullen and Black, and other eminent men at that seat of 
literature. 

In June, 1770, he took the degree of Doctor of Modi- 
cine. His inaugural essay "• De Calore," was highly 
thought of at the time, as containing profound and oriia- 
nal tlioughts on the subject to wliich it relates, and has 
been since said to have the credit of first advancinir sonu- 



380 JAMES MC CLURG. 

of the opinions which have been confirmed by the found- 
ers of the French school of chemistry. 

From Edinburgh he went to Paris, where he attended 
several courses of medical lectures, and he afterward 
spent some time in the study of his profession in London. 
While in that city he published his " Essay on the Bile," 
a work which at once established his character as a man 
of talents and a learned physician, and still maintains a 
high reputation, as well for acuteness and accuracy of in- 
vestigation, as for a purity and classical elegance of style, 
seldom attained by writers on professional or scientific 
subjects. 

Though strongly advised by some of those who occu- 
pied the highest standing among the Faculty in London to 
fix in that capital, he returned to his native country about 
the year 1772 or 1773, and established himself in Wil- 
liamsburg, then the seat of government ; and though in 
that part of Virginia there was a number of able physi- 
cians, educated in the first schools in Europe, he was in a 
short time universally admitted to be at the head of his 
profession, and that station, without effort or pretension 
on his part, was by common consent assigned to him until 
at an advanced age he retired wholly from practice. The 
seat of government being removed to Richmond, he 
changed his residence to that city about the year 1783, and 
continued to reside thereuntil his death, which took place 
in July, 1823, at the age of seventy-seven. 

In the exercise of his profession Dr. McClurg enjoyed 
the advantages derived from the study of the works, in 
the languages in which they were wri'tcn, of the most 
distinguished authors on the science of medicine, ancient 
and foreign, as well as English, from an assiduous attend- 
ance on the first schools abroad, and a personal acquaint- 
ance Avith many of the most learned physicians in Europe ; 
and his profound views of the philosophy of the art, his 
intuit! re sagacity, his minute attention to the varying 
symptoiiis of diseases in different constitutions and under 
different circumstances, the eminent success with which 
his methods of treatment were attended, and his humanity 
and tenderness towards his patients, while they inspired 
confidence, secured respect and affection. Those diseases 
of climate most freqiient in the country where he practis- 
ed, were necessarily the constant subjects of his observa- 
tion, and in the course of a long and successful treatment 



JAMES MC CLURG. 381 

of them it can hardly be doubted that much public benefit 
would have accrued from his publishing the result of his 
experience ; and it is to be regretted that he never wrote 
for the public on professional subjects after his return 
from Europe. This might in some degree be owing to 
his pecuniary circumstances, which rendered it unnecessary 
for him to engage actively in general practice, but more 
to his modesty and aversion to every appearance of dis- 
play, which perhaps he carried too far. Had he remain- 
ed in Europe, or established himself in one of our large 
cities, it is not improbable that his zeal for the advance- 
ment of medical science might have led him to a different 
course. For many years before his decease he was most 
generally employed as a consulting physician, and although 
well acquainted with the science of anatomy, and in his 
earlier years with the art of surgery, from the beginning 
of his practice in Virginia the great delicacy of his nerves 
rendered him averse to the performance of any surgical 
operation, and in his own opinion unfit for it ; and he 
rarely, if ever, performed one. 

In private life his habits were studious and sedentary. 
Though well acquainted with the modern history of medi- 
cal science, his attention, after lie had passed the meridian 
of life, was more generally directed to the study of polite 
literature. Averse to mixing in crowds, his conversation 
and acquaintance were sought after and cultivated by most 
of the eminent men who in his time have done honor to 
Virginia ; and he took pleasure in improved and intelli- 
gent society, where he Avas always distinguished by the 
simple dignity and amenity of his manners, the extent of 
his knowledge, the solidity of his understanding, and the 
brilliancy of his wit ; never obtrusive and always control- 
led by taste and good breeding. 

Though never a candidate for public favor, he was for 
a long time one of the council of state in Virginia. He 
was also a member of the convention that formed tlie con- 
stitution of the United States, lal his private affairs called 
him from Philadelphia before a final vote was taken on 
that instrument. 

Having had the misfortune to lose first his only son, and 
afterwards his wife, a number of years before his decease, 
he passed the latter period of his life in the family of his 
daughter and only remaining child. 



382 JAMES MC CLURG. 

In old age his constitution, always delicate, became 
more infirm ; but the faculties of his mind remained unim- 
paired, and the serenity of his temper undisturbed to the 
last. He died as he had lived, universally esteemed and 
respected, and most beloved and venerated by those who 
best knew him. 

Such was Dr. McClurg, and none will deny the fidelity 
of the delineation. It has been already stated that his 
work on the Bile may be considered as a most favorable 
exhibition of his powers, and the curious will revert to it 
as one of the early efforts made for the purpose of unfold- 
ing animal chemistry, a science since so elaborately and 
successfully cultivated. In his introductioii on reasoning 
in medicine he fully shows that his views of the study of 
physic were of the most extensive sort. He considered 
every branch of science as kindred and capable of mutual 
illustration. " The sciences," says he, " like the graces, 
march hand in hand, and nothing would be more vain 
than an attempt to pursue any one of them separately." 
He warmly opposed the separation of physic and surgery 
as unnatural, and insisted that it would be for the advan- 
tage of both to unite them : yet he does admit, as far as 
simple dexterity is concerned, the chirurgical art has been 
improved by the separation. " We expect," says he, 
" that the surgeon should be acquainted with the powers 
of the machine, and be able to tell, quid ferat, atque faciat 
natura. And thus, his art is so strictly connected with 
medicine as to justify the remark of Petit ; and though it 
may be useful to practise them separately, they should 
certainly be studied together." The interesting paper of 
Dr. McClurg from which the preceding is taken, will be 
found in the Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and 
Physical Sciences, edited by Professor Chapman, Vol. I. 

The local situation of Dr. McClurg prevented him from 
witnessing the operation of that malignant pestilence 
which has so frequently desolated our large cities. Yet 
his active mind appears to have reflected much on tlie 
subject, and with his usual force and discrimination. In 
a letter to his friend Dr. Hosack, from whom many of 
the particulars of the present article are derived, written 
some time previous to his death, in speaking of the nature 
of the yellow fever, he puts this query ; " May not tlie 
Philadelphia fever, which seems to depend upon lieat for 
its exiilcnce, have been ratlier suspendcHl, in some inj^tances. 



CHARLES MC KNIGHT, 383 

than extinguished by the winter's cold, and have revived 
again in a favorable season without a fresh importation ?" 
This is a suggestion which has had some little influence, 
but its support on the solid basis of facts cannot be 
admitted. 

i Mcknight, charles, m.d. m.m.s.s. The sub- 
ject of the present memoir was born on the 10th of Octo- 
ber, 1750, at Cranbury, Monmouth county, New-Jersey. 
His father was Charles McKnight, a native of Ireland aiid 
son of the Rev. John McKnight, a dissenting minister of 
respectability in that country. At an early age he gave 
evidence of superior talents, and after having passed 
through his preparatory studies with much credit, was 
admitted a student in the college at Princeton, and receiv- 
ed the degree of A. B. in 1771. 

He now commenced the study of medicine under the 
direction of the late Dr. Shippen of Philadelphia. Before, 
"however, he had qualified himself for the exercise of his 
profession, the revolutionary war in America took place, 
and young McKnight, with a num1)er of medical gentle- 
men, entered the army, considering that the place best 
calculated to enlarge his practical knowledge. Here his 
abilities soon attracted the attention of the commander in 
chief, and lie was in a short time promoted to the rank of 
senior surgeon of the flying hospital in the middle depart- 
ment. In the discharge of the important and arduous du- 
ties of his station, his talents and indefatigable zeal were 
equally conspicuous. Although surrounded by the most 
discouraging circumstances, and exposed to all the hard- 
ships necessarily connected "^v/ith that department of the 
American army, he was preeminently conspicuous for the 
performance of all those duties, which the peculiar situa- 
tion of his country required, and his humane disposition 
led liim to undertake. 

At the conclusion of tlie war lie removed to New-York, 
and married Mrs. Litchfield, only daughter of the Hon. 
John M. Scott. Our city could not, at that time, boast 
of the medic al school it now has, or his talents Avould un- 
doubtedly have procured for him the Professorship of 
Anatomy and Surgery. He, however, delivered lectures 
on these two ])ranclies of Uiediral science to a numerous 
and attentive class of schokirs, while the profundity of his 
researcli, and the acutcness of liis genius, gained for liim 
the approl)ation even of the most fastidious. In a life of 



584 PETER MIDDLETON. 

constant activity, both as a practitioner and a teacher, he 
continued until he arrived at his forty-first year, when a 
pulmonic affection put a period to his labors and use- 
fulness. 

Dr. McKnight, though eminent as a physician, was par- 
ticularly distinguished as a practical surgeon, and, except 
ing the late Dr. Richard Bayley of New-York, was with' 
out a rival in this branch of his profession. Gifted by 
nature with talents peculiarly calculated for the exercise 
of the important duties of a surgeon, his education, in an 
especial manner, enabled him to attain the highest reputa- 
tion. The only production of Dr. McKnight which is 
published, is an interesting account of a case of extra-ute- 
rine foetus, in the memoirs of the Medical Society of Lon- 
don, Volume IV. This case is often referred to by med- 
ical writers, and its interest has lately increased by the 
discovery of the preparation itself, preserved in a glass 
jar and found in the ground of a cellar in New-York. It* 
confirms tlie views of those who believe in the entire pro- 
duction and perfection of the human foetus extra uterum. 
— Hosack and Francises Medical and Philosophical Register^ 

1^0 IV/'ilX B IT* 

MIDDLETON, PETER, M.D. This gentleman, a na- 
tive of Scotland, flourished in the profession of medicine 
in the city of New- York about the middle of the last cen- 
tury, and was one of the very few medical men of this 
country who at that early period were distinguished 
equally for various and profound learning and great pro- 
fessional talents. He with Dr. J. Bard, in 1750, dissected 
a human body and injected the blood vessels, which was 
the first attempt of the kind to be found on medical re- 
cord in America, and in 1767 he proffered his services for 
carrying into effect the establishment of a new medical 
school in the city of New-York, of which he was appoint- 
ed the first professor of Physiology and Pathology, and 
afterwards was the instructer in Materia Medica. 

In his profession he was learned and liberal, and his 
whole life was a practical illustration of his doctrines. 
He wrote an able letter on the Croup, addressed to Dr. 
Richard Bayley, which was published in the Medical Re- 
pository, Volume IX. He was also author of a Medical 
Discourse or Historical Inquiries into the ancient and 
present state of medicine, the substance of wliich Avas de- 
livered at the o]ion!ng of tlie Medical School of New* 



CbWARD MILLER. 385 

York ; it was published in 17G9, and is an honorable spe- 
cimen of his talents and attainments. 

This liighly respectable man for a considerable period 
struggled with an impaired state of health, induced by the 
toils of a laborious practice, and after enduring the se- 
verest bodily suffering for more than ten months from a 
stricture and scirrhous state of the pylorus, died in the 
city of New-York in i7M.- / j </ / ' " 

MILLER, EDWARD, M.D., was a native of Dover, 
in the state of Delaware. He was born on the 9th of May, 
1760. His father was the Rev. John Miller, A.M., origin- 
ally of Boston, Massachusetts, who, for more than forty- 
three years, sustained the office of pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church in Dover, and who died in the year 1791. 
His mother was Margaret Millington, daughter of AUum- 
by Millington, Esq. of Talbot County, Maryland, a wo- 
man of extraordinary prudence, piety and benevolence, 
who was removed by death about eighteen months before 
her husband. Edward was their third son, and received 
the early part of his education under the paternal roof. 
His father who was an excellent Greek, Latin and Hebrew 
scholar, commenced his instruction in classical literature. 
At the age of fourteen, he was sent to the Academy of 
Newark, in his native state, which then enjoyed a very 
high reputation. There, under the direction of the Rev. 
Drs. Francis Allison and Alexander McDowell, he devoted 
four years to the diligent study of the Latin and Greek 
languages, and went through the usual course of arts and 
sciences pursued in colleges. Indeed the academy of New- 
ark was at that time a college in every thing excepting 
the name. Having completed his academic course in 1778, 
he entered on the study of medicine soon afterwards under 
tlie direction of Dr. Charles Ridgely, an eminent physi- 
cian of Dover, who regarded him as a favorite pupil, and 
always treated him with peculiar and affectionate con- 
fidence. 

He had been a little more than two years with Dr. 
Ridgely, when, in the autunm of 1780, fired with that pa- 
triotic ardor which he manifested till his latest breath, 
not at all discouraged by the loss of a beloved brother, 
also a physician, who a little more than three years before, 
had fallen a sacrifice to the liardships of the revolutionary 
contest ; and desirous also of enjoying the advantages for 
medical improvement, which a large militarv hospital cm- 
49 



38<J EDWARD MILLER. 

inently affords ; he accepted the appointment of surgeon's 
mate in the army of his country. In this capacity he serv- 
ed a little more than a year. In tlie latter part of the year 
1781, at the solicitation of some friends, he accepted the 
place of sur.oeon on board of an armed ship bound to France. 
In this voyage, and in that country, he spent the greater 
part of a year. In the course of this time he acquired the 
French language, which he ever afterwards read and spoke 
with fluency. Towards the close of ViS2 he returned to 
his native country. In each of the two following winters 
he attended regular courses of medical lectures in the 
University of Pennsylvania ; and in that institution re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Medicine, after WTiting, 
defending, and afterwards printing, as was then required, 
a medical dissertation De Physconia Splenica. 

Dr. Miller in the year 1784 commenced the practice of 
medicine in the village of Frederica, a short distance from 
his native town in Delaware ; but soon afterwards removed 
to Somerset County, in Maryland. Here also his stay was 
short. In 1786 he returned to Dover, and entered on the 
practice of his profession in his native place. Here he 
remained ten years, enjoying a large and lucrative prac- 
tice, and rapidly growing in knowledge and reputation. 
During this time he was not only a devoted and successful 
student himself ; but he was unwearied in his exertions to 
promote medical science throughout his native state. In 
company with his venerable friend, Dr. Tilton, and 
others, he assisted in forming the first " Medical Society 
of Delaware ;" delivered its first annual Oration ; and as 
long as he remained in the state, took an active part in all 
the important proceedings of that association. 

In the year 1793, when the yellow fever first prevailed 
to an alarming extent in Philadelphia, the medical contro- 
versy respecting its origin began to attract general atten- 
tion in this country. Dr. Miller, though then residing in 
Dover, and of course considerably removed from the cen- 
tre and heat of the battle, was by no means inattentive 
to its nature or its progress. He at that time, from the 
best comparison of testimony on the subject which he was 
able to make, decided in favor of the doctrine of domes- 
tic origin, and wrote a long and interesting letter to Dr. 
Rush, stating his views, and the grounds of his opinion. 
This letter was afterwards published in most of the Ameri- 
can newspapers, and drew from the illustrious man to 



ED'.VARU MILLCR. S8T 

whom it was addressed, the public declaration, that he 
considered its author as " second to no physician in the 
United States." It is believed that tho letter in question 
was one of the earliest publications made in support of the 
opinion which it espoused. 

In 1796 Dr. Miller removed from Dover to the city of 
New-York. Here he soon conciliated the esteem and con- 
fidence of Ids medical brcthien ; and notwithstanding the 
many disadvantages vuuler which a stranger engages in the 
competition for medical practice in a great city, he suc- 
ceeded beyond his most sanguine expectations. His busi- 
ness, in a few months, became such as to afford him an am« 
pie support, and continued to become more and more ex- 
tensive until his death. 

In a few weeks after liis removal to New-York, Dr. 
Miller, in connexion with his friends, Dr. Mitchell and 
the late Dr. Elihu H. Smith, formed the plan of a period- 
ical publication to be devoted to medical science. Their 
prospectus was issued in November of that year, 1796 ; 
and in the month of August, 1797, the first num1)er of the 
work a])peared, under the title of the " Medical Reposit- 
ory." The commencement of this publication undoubt- 
edly forms an era in tlie literary and medical history of 
our country. No work of a similar kind had ever ap- 
peared in the United States. Its influence in exciting and 
recording medical incpiiries, and in improving medical 
science, soon became apparent. It led to the establishment 
of other and similar works in different parts of our own 
country, as well as of Europe ; and may thus, with great 
truth, be said to have contributed more largely than any 
other single publication to tliat taste for medical investi- 
gation and improvement, which has been, for a number of 
years, so conspicuouslj' and rapidly advancing on this side 
of the Atlantic. Dr. Miller lived to see tiie fifteenth vol- 
ume of this work nearly brought to a close, and rejoiced 
in the generous competition which it had been so evi- 
dently the means of exciting. 

Dr. Miller had not been many years established in the 
practice of his profession in New-York, before he received 
testimonies of public confidence of the most decisive and 
honorable kind. In 1803, under the act of the legislature 
of the state for preventing tb.e introchution of pcstilenti.il 
diseases, lie was appointed " Resident Physician" for the 
city of New-York. This office lie continued to hold from 



388 



EDWARD MILLER. 



tliat time, with the exception of a single year, until his 
death ; and through the several pestilential seasons which 
succeeded this appointment, he fulfilled its duties, as all 
acknowledged, with skill, intrepidity, and universal ac- 
ceptance. The summer and autumn of 1805 was the last 
season in which Dr. Miller was called to witness, to any 
considerable extent, the ravages of yellow fever. At the 
close of the season, in his official character as Resident 
Physician, he addressed to His Excellency Governor Lewis, 
a report of the rise, progress and termination of that dis- 
ease. To this detail he added an exhibition and defence 
of the doctrine concerning the origin of yellow fever, 
which, after much inquiry and long experience, he had 
adopted. This report was shortly afterwards laid before 
the public ; and has been pronounced by good judges to 
be one of the most luminous, forcible, comprehensive and 
satisfactory defences of the doctrine which it supports, 
that ever appeared, within the same compass, in any lan- 
guage. 

In 1807 Dr. Miller was elected Professor of the Practice 
of Physic in the University of. New-York. This appoint- 
ment was made in the month of March, he entered on the 
duties of the office in November following ; and continued 
to fulfil tliem, with increasing popularity and usefulness, 
until near the period of his death. In 1809 he was 
appointed one of the physicians of the New-York Hos- 
pital ; and soon afterwards received the appointment of 
clinical lecturer in that institution. To the arduous duties 
of these several stations he devoted himself with indefat- 
igable zeal and fidelity, and, at the same time, with an nr- 
banity of manner, which conciliated the respect and ad- 
miration of all who had an opportunity of witnessing 
them. 

While Dr. Miller was assiduously and ably fulfilling 
these duties, and attending also to the multiplied calls of 
a large professional practice, he carried on an extensive 
correspondence with distinguished physicians, and other 
literary gentlemen of eminence, in almost every part of 
Europe and America. From Great Britain, Ireland, France, 
Germany, and the West India Islands, he habitually re- 
ceived communications, which rendered him, in a degree 
which could be ascribed to very few medical gentlemen 
in the United States, a centre of intelligence for every 
thing pertaining to the improvement of the science to 



EDWARD MILLER. 389 

which he had devoted Iiis life. For this (:orresi)ondciw;e 
he was peculiarly qualified. He had a facility and ele- 
gance in letter writing, wliich have been rarely equalled, 
and perhaps never surpassed. 

In 1805 he was elected a juember of the " Philosophical 
Society held at Philadeli)hia, for promoting useful know- 
ledge.^' The principal medical societies of almost all the 
states in the Union also enrolled his name among their cor- 
responding or honorary members. And tlie letters which 
every week flowed in upon him from all quarters, com- 
municating medical intelligence, or soliciting professional 
advice, furnished the most decisive evidence of the large 
share of public confidence which he enjoyed, and of his 
growing reputation. 

Thus occupied in public and private business, accumu- 
lated to such an amount as scarcely to leave him an hour 
of repose, either by day or by night, he was arrested by 
that iron grasp of Disease, from which he had so often 
been the means of disengaging others ; and to the grief of 
all who knew him, sunk under its power. He fell a vic- 
tim to an inflammatory attack upon the lungs, which, after 
symptoms of convalescence, degenerated into a tyj)hus 
fever, which put an end to his valuable life on the 17th 
day of Marcli, 1812, in the 52d year of his age. 

From the foregoing details it will be manifest that Dr. 
Edward Miller was a physician of very uncommon en- 
dowments, and that he filled an uncommonly large and 
important space in the republics of medicine and literature 
in his day. His native talents were, undoubtedly, of the 
first order. Nor was his intellectual culture less eminent. 
His acquaintance with the best writers in his own language 
was unusually intimate and extensive, and hence his own 
style of writing had an ease, elegance and spirit very rare- 
ly attained. He was also a radical and accurate Latin, 
Greek, and French scholar, and took pleasure in maintain- 
ing to the end of life a familiarity with many of the best 
works in tho^e languages. But in medical science, and as 
a practitioner of the healing art, he shone with peculiar 
lustre. Dr. Rush, as we have seen, pronounced him " in- 
ferior to no physician in the United States." 

Dr. Miller's published writings were not numerous. A 
few of them were originally printed in detached pamph- 
lets ; but the greater part first appeared in the Metlical 



390 EDWARD MILLER. 

Repository. Since his decease they have been collected 
and reprinted in one large octavo volume. 

The moral and social qualities of Dr. Miller were 
worthy of no less praise than his talents, learning and pro- 
fessional skill. His probity and honor were of the most 
scrupulous and delicate character. From his earliest 
youth he appeared not only to abhor every thing directly 
and openly dishonest ; but even to recoil with the most 
delicate sense of moral obligation from every species of 
intrigue and questionable dealing. This characteristic 
became more strongly marked as he advanced in life. If 
any measure approaching to obliquity were proposed in 
any association of which he was a member, he never fail- 
ed to express his entire disapprobation of it, and utterly to 
decline taking any part in its execution. Nor could any 
thing more decisively induce him to take a final leave of 
such an association than the discovery, that it was begin- 
ning to be the theatre of cabal, or of any kind of crooked 
policy. It may be doubted whether any man ever left 
behind him a reputation for integrity and honor more per- 
fectly unsullied. 

His humanity and practical beneficence were no less 
conspicuous. These were manifested througliout his pro- 
fessional life, and especially in his attendance on the poor 
and friendless, to an extent truly rare. The amount of his 
gratuitous services to this class of his patients, has been 
seldom equalled in a medical life of eqiial length. But to- 
ward all classes of his patients, kindness, gentleness, lib- 
erality of feeling and generosity shone with unrivalled 
Ivi. tre. 

His delicacy in conversation has been seldom equalled ; 
perhaps never exceeded. Nothing ever escaped from his 
lips, even in his most unreserved moments, to which the 
most refined and scrupulous might not listen Avithout 
offence. This was remarkably the case even in those 
periods of his life when he was less under the influence of 
religious principle, than during the latter stages. To say 
any thing which might tinge the cheek of modesty, or 
wound the ear of piety,^ he considered to be as unworthy 
of a gentleman, as it was criminal. 

Nor was hi> temperance less conspicuous than his deli- 
cacy. He not only avoided the use of ardent spirits, with 
a scrupulousness which to some might appear excessive ; 
but he was unusually sparing, and even abstemious in the 



EDWARD MILLER. 391 

use of every kind of drink stronger tlian water. He re- 
jected the use of tobacco in every form, not only as an 
odious and unhealthful practice, but also as a most insidious 
provocative to the love of drinking. Nor was his temper- 
ance confined to a sin^-le class of stimuli. It was no less 
exemplary, and even rigid witli regard to all the indul- 
gences of the palate. Perhaps no man, who, from early 
life, mingled so much with all classes of society, was ever 
more uniformly abstemious both in eating and drinking 
than Dr. Miller. 

His superiority to the love of money, was anotlier dis- 
tinguishing feature in his character. Had the acquisition of 
wealth been his supreme, or even among his principal objects, 
he might have died rich. But he was too much engaged 
in the studies and duties of his profession, to think much of 
its emoluments. It was seldom that he could be prevailed 
upon to present an account, and even when it was pro- 
duced, his debtors themselves being judges, it was seldom 
to such an amount as justice to himself required. From 
the great extent of his practice, some of his less intimate 
acquaintances imagined that its profits were propoitionally 
great. But besides medical services, to tlie amount of 
many thousand dollars, which his benevolence prevented 
him from charging at all, many thousands more were 
either voluntarily surrendered at the solicitation of real 
or fancied poverty, or totally lost from having never been 
sought after. 

Dr. Miller never married. But although he left no im- 
mediate family to mourn over his premature death, it may 
be truly said, that such was his social amiableness, as well 
as his profe>:sional eminence, that thousands, Avhen his 
death was announced, considered themselves as having lost 
a beloved relative. 

Although Dr. Miller never united himself to the chris- 
tian church, in what is commonly called full communion, 
he was always a firm believer in Revelation ; often declar- 
ed his persuasion that the system usually deemed correct 
by the denomination of christians in connexion with 
which he was educated, is the sys'tem taught in the Holy 
Scriptures ; uniformly treated religion as an object of in- 
finite importance, and worthy of the deepest veneration ; 
and toward the latter part of his life, was employed as 
much as his numerous engagements permitted, in the de- 
vout perusal of the Holy Scriptures. There was scarcely 



392 JOHN MITCHELL. 

uny thing which he more disapproved, or which was more 
apt to excite his indignation, than sneers or scoffing direct- 
ed against religion or its professors. 

Perhaps this imperfect record of a distinguished man 
cannot be more properly closed than by the following sen- 
tences, from the pen of Dr. Rush, who, after having spoken 
in the most exalted terms of his professional learning and 
skill, concludes thus. " But his principal merit was of a 
moral nature. The charm that was constantly diffused 
over his countenance and manners, was the effect of the 
habitual benevolence of his temper. The silence of pain, 
and the eye of hope, which took place in his patients the 
moment he sat down by their bedsides, were produced, 
not more by their conviction of his skill, than by their 
unlimited confidence in his sympathy and integrity ; and 
the affectionate attachment and esteem of his friends were 
founded in a belief that his deeds of kindness to them were 
not simply the effects of spontaneous feeling, but the result 
of a heartfelt sense of moral obligation ! Let the profess- 
ors and students of the healing art, and the lovers of sci- 
ence every where, deplore the death of this eminent phy- 
sician and excellent man. Let the friends of humanity 
drop a tear over his untimely grave. In the records of 
illustrious men who have promoted and adorned the sci- 
ence of our country. Dr. Miller will always maintain a 
distinguished rank." — S. Miller. 

MITCHELL, JOHN, M.D. F.R.S. a distinguished 
physician and botanist, came from England to this coun- 
try about the year 1700, and settled in Virginia at the 
small town of Urbanna, situated on the Rappahannock. 
While he was occupied in an extensive practice, he spent 
considerable time in the cultivation of botany, and wrote 
a useful work on the general principles of the science, con- 
taining descriptions of several new genera of plants, which 
was published in 1769. In 1743 he wrote au interesting 
and original Essay on the Causes of the Different Colors 
of People of Different Climates, which was published in 
the Philosophical Transactions. He attributes the differ- 
ence of complexion in the human species to the influence 
of climate and the modes of life ; and thinks that the 
whites have degenerated more from the original complex- 
ion of Noah and his family, than tlie Indians, or even Ne- 
groes. The color of the descendants of Ham, he considers 
a blessing rather than a curse, as without it they could not 



AMMI R. MITCHKLL. . 

well inhabit Afri<a. His principles were afterwards adopt- 
ed by President Smith, of Princeton College, New-Jersev* 
who wrote a more extended essay on the subject. 

lie wrote various other essays, which were pulilished in 
the PhilosoplH(al Transactions, and which did him great 
credit as a man of genius and observation ; but liis most 
valuable production, perhaps, is a paper which lie drew 
up on the yellow fever as it appeared in Virginia in 1737, 
1741 and 1742. This paper, left by him in manuscript, 
fell into the hands of Dr. Franklin, who communicated it 
to Dr. Rush. Dr. Rush not only read tlie essav with in- 
terest, but acknowledges that he derived from it hints 
which assisted him in detecting the true nature and method 
of treating the yellow fever, as it appeared in Piiiladelphia 
in 1793. Few physicians who have lived in our country, 
have been more justly celebrated for originality of genius 
and accuracy of observation, than Dr. Mitchell. He lived 
to practise his profession nearly fifty years in Virginia. 
TJie series of highly interesting papers above mentioned, 
including the account of yellow fever written in 1744 by 
Dr. Mitchell, with a reply of Dr. Coldcn of New-York to 
Dr. M., and a subsequent letter of Dr. Mitchell on the same 
subject, were placed in the hands of Dr. Hosack by the 
late Professor Rush, a short time previous to his death, 
with the intention of their being published in the American 
Medical and Philosophical Register. These, with addi- 
tional observations on the yellow fever of Virginia, ad- 
dressed to Dr. Franklin by Dr. Mitchell in 1745, may be 
found in the fourth volume of that work. Few papers, it 
is believed, v/ill be read with more interest, particularly 
when it is considered how extremely important Dr. Rush 
viewed them as affording him new facts respecting the 
nature of the same epidemic at the time it prevailed in 
Philadelphia in 1793. 

MITCHELL, DR. AMMI RUHAMMl, M.M.S.S. was 
born at North Yarmouth, District of Maine, May 8th, 
1762. He was the eldest son of the Honorable David 
Mitchell, who was for nineteen years a judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas for the County of Cumberland, and was 
repeatedly chosen into both branches of the legislature of 
Massachusetts. The subject of this notice was in infancy 
dedicated to God, and enjoyed the faithful religious in- 
structions and examples of pious parents during the period 
of his childhood and vouth. He early discovered a rijjor- 
50 



394 AMMI R. MITCHELL. 

ous and active mind, and particularly a ready and retentive 
memory, He had an ardent thirst for knowledge, and 
made more than ordinary attainments in classical learning 
in the grammar school of his native town. Tiic '' trou- 
blous times" of the revolutionary war jorevented his enter- 
ing college agreeably to his own desire and his father's 
intention. 

Before he had completed his nineteenth year, he com- 
menced the study of medicine Avith the late Dr. Cutter, of 
Portsmouth. While there, a favorable opportunity pre- 
sented for going abroad to finish his professional stu- 
dies. The America, a 74 gunship built at Portsmouth 
by the United States, was presented to the French na- 
tion by our Congress as a token of gratitude for the 
services rendered in the struggle for Independence, and to 
replace a French ship which had been lost on our coast. 
Dr. Meaubec, an amiable French gentleman of professional 
eminence, had come to this country to return as surgeon 
in the America. During his short stay in Portsmouth 
he had formed a strong attachment for young Mitchell, 
and invited him to accompany him on his return to France, 
offering him the place of surgeon's mate. The kind offer 
was accepted ; and in a short time they landed at Brest, 
where he enjoyed all the advantages which the large ma- 
rine hospital in that city could supply. Here he had con- 
stant opportunities of witnessing or assisting at almost 
every variety of chirurgical operations which were known 
at that time. He received while in France every proof of 
affection and kindness, not only from Dr. Meaubec, wliose 
friendship was abiding and whose conduct truly paternal, 
but also from others, and his voyage abroad, with all its at- 
tending advantages, was without expense to himself, ex- 
cept, perhaps, his passage home. 

Soon after his retiirn to the land of his nativity, he com- 
menced practitioner of physic and surgery at North Yar- 
mouth, where he continued during life. As a physician 
and surgeon, his abilities were undisputed ; and in the 
early part of his life his practice extended into the sur- 
rounding region, affording him constant employment, and 
acquiring for him professional fame. His practice was at- 
tended with success, and the confidence of his patients in 
him was unlimited. If they could procure Dr. Mitchell, 
they were satisfied that all would be done for them which 
human skill could effect. There seemed to be two causes^ 



AMMl R. JlITCllKLL. 395 

independently of his medical skill, which contributed ma- 
terially to his success ; one, his habitual practice of asking 
the blessing of God on the means he employed ; the other, 
the power which his winning and affectionate manner gave 
him of quelling the groundless and unreasonable apprehen- 
sions of his patients. Yet when he believed them to be in 
real danger, it was his uniform practice to urge them in 
the tenderest manner to prepare for the worst. 

His memory was uncommonly retentive, his mind well 
disciplined, and so versatile, that he could apply it to a 
new task every half hour in the twenty-four, if there was 
a call for it ; and appear as much at home in each, and 
with as entire a command of his faculties, as if that had 
been his only and constant study. With all his weight 
and influence he had a vein of humor, which sometimes 
flowed to excess, and an exhaustless fund of anecdote, the 
effect of Avhich was not easily resisted, but would spread 
like contagion through the company, even when sobriety 
would have been more suitable. His flashes of wit und 
facetious remarks rendered him an entertaining associate in 
all companies. With his affectionate manner, his winning 
address, his obliging disposition, his noble generosity, his 
fascinating conversation, and the readiness with which he 
could make his way to the heart, he might have allured 
thousands to destruction. But he perverted not his gifts 
and faculties, but employed his influence in resisting the 
tide of human depravity, and in promoting moral rectitude 
and the eternal welfare of the human species. 

Religion was indeed the most prominent trait in his 
character. For thirty-five years he was a preeminently 
active member of the church, nor did his exertions in her 
cause cease but with life. Dr. Mitchell was a deacon in 
the first church in North Yarmouth tweiity-one years, his 
father twenty-six years, and the same office was sustained 
by his grandfather and great grandfather. His engaged- 
ness in the cause of religion and the welfare of the church, 
was indeed extraordinary, and appeared to be the ruling 
affection of his soul. He was zealously attached to all the 
ordinances and institutions of religion, and was remarka1)lc 
for his liberal and benevolent contributions, and for his 
love and hos])itality to the ministers of tlie gospel. Tho 
manner of Dr. IJitchcirs death was somewhat singular. 
He was returning home from professional visits, and within 
oneiinilc of iiis dwelling was seen descciiding a small hill. 



396 JlMMI R. MITCHELL. 

and a minute after his horse was seen ascending another 
with an empty carriage. The spot was immediately visited, 
and he was found a corpse, but without any visible marks 
of injury, or of any struggle or convvdsion. This happen- 
ed on the 14th of May, 1824, in the 63d year of his age. 

Dr. Mitchell knew too well the connexion of religion 
with sound learning, to be indifferent to the interests of 
literature and science. As a guardian and patron of learn- 
ing, he for several years held a seat in the board of over- 
seers of Bowdoin College. He was one of the Trustees of 
the Maine Charity School. He was among the most lib- 
eral contributors for founding an academy in his native 
place. There are few situations of importance in which 
he has not served the town. Before the part he took in 
its municipal regulations, he was its representative ten 
years in the legislature of Massachusetts. His knowledge, 
accuracy and despatch eminently qualified him to preside 
in public assemblies ; and his townsmen availed themselves 
of these talents by electing him moderator of all their an- 
nual meetings in April and May, excepting one, and of 
many special meetings, from 1801 to 1823. He presided, 
also, with great dignity and propriety at the meeting of 
clergymen and delegates, when the Cumberland Confer- 
ence of Churches was organized, and the constitution 
adopted. The poor and necessitous always found in Dr. 
Mitchell a liberal benefactor. His affectionate attachment 
and solicitude in conjugal life can scarcely be described. 
As a parent, he was unceasingly affectionate and faithful 
to his charge, and, happily for his children, many tokens 
of his regard survive him. His private correspondence 
was extensive, and his letters were full of piety and feel- 
ing. There are some specimens of his composition before 
the public, particularly an Eulogy on General Washington, 
pronounced February 22d, 1800, and "an Address on Sa- 
cred Music, delivered before the Beneficent Musical So- 
ciety in the County of Cumberland," in 1812 ; which dis- 
play the eloquence of feeling, some beautiful imagery, and 
the same savor of piety which characterized most that 
he did. 

Happy would it have been were there no blighting 
traits in the active life of Dr. Mitchell ; but it must be con- 
fessed that he was not faultless, there was a want of uni- 
formity and consistency of conduct, which bespeaks the 
imperfection of human character. Blemishes in those who 



GEORGE MONRO. 397 

havo rendered themselves conspicuous, always attract pub- 
lic observation, and their example is more injurious in its 
effects than that of ordinary persons. From some cause, 
either an excess of good nature, or too strong a desire to 
accommodate, he would give a reluctant assent to many 
solicitations, which he ought to have met l)y a prompt de- 
nial. There was a culpable negligence in tlie managenu.nt 
of his worldly concerns, and a want of punctuality to mi- 
nor engagements, by which all concerned sufl'ered much 
perplexity, and which greatly embarrassed his own affairs, 
and occasioned an incalculable loss of property. A settle- 
ment of pecuniary accounts, whether the balance was in 
his favor or against him, was equally his aversion. These 
frequent disappointments occasioned irritation to the feel- 
ings of those concerned with him, and afforded a pretext 
for remarks discreditable to his veracity. But we woidd 
not too severely censure those foibles in Dr. Mitchell, 
which had not their origin in vmworthy motives or vicious 
propensities ; and which in their aggregate bear no propor- 
tion to his numerous excellences. It appears that during 
the last months of his life he was deeply conscious of the 
errors upon which we have animadverted, and most feel- 
ingly lamented them. That his repentance was genuine 
is evident, for he had resolved upon reformation, and 
commenced the work with alacrity. 

The principal part of the foregoing sketch was taken 
from the funeral sermon by Rev. Asa Cummings. 

'MONRO, GEORGE, M.D. was a native of the state of 
Delaware. He was born in the town of Newcastle, Feb- 
ruary 22d, 1760. His father, of the same name, was a na- 
tive of Scotland, who had emigrated to this country a few 
years before. His mother was Lydia Hall, of Delaware, 
a niece of Governor Hall, of that state. 

His education in English and in the learned languages 
was begun at Newcastle, and continued at the academy at 
Newark, in his native county, a seminary of great excel- 
lence and celebrity. He studied medicine witli Dr. John 
Archer, of Hartford county, Maryland, a gentleman of 
much professional respectability, though of eccentric me- 
mory. After completing his studies with Dr. Ai cher, lie 
attended the regular medical lectures in the University of 
Pennsylvania, antl received the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine from that institution. 



398 GEORGE MONRO. 

Toward the close of the revolutionary war, Dr. Monro 
served a number of months as surgeon in the army of his 
country. He was connected with that part of it termed 
the " Virginia Line ;" and during his military career was 
tent-companion with the venerable General Finley, of 
Chilicothe, Ohio. 

Immediately after the close of the war he went to Eu- 
rope, to avail himself of the advantages to be enjoyed in 
the mature medical schools of the old world. After spend- 
ing about a year in London, attending the lectures and 
hospitals of that great metropolis, he went, in October, 
1784, to Edinburgh, where he remained nearly two years, 
diligently employed in gaining every species of profession- 
al and liberal knowledge, for which the capital of Scotland 
has been long so eminently distinguished. The well- 
informed reader does not need to be reminded that the 
professors who adorned that far-famed medical school at 
the time of which we speak, were Drs. Cullen, Gregory, 
Black, Home, Brown and Monro. On the lectures of all 
these gentlemen he had the privilege of attending ; and to 
any one that knew him it would be unnecessary to add, 
that he availed himself of the privilege with industry, 
with intelligence, and with great success. 

Before leaving Edinburgh Dr. Monro received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine in that University. On tliis 
occasion he composed, and, agreeably to the laws of the 
institution, defended and printed a Latin dissertation on 
the disease called " Cynanche Trachealis." It is believed 
that in that dissertation Dr. Monro first recommended 
calomel as an efficient medicine in this disease ; a remedy 
which has been since extensively, if not universally, adopt- 
ed. Dr. Cullen, in some of the medical reviews of that 
day, spoke of this dissertation in terms of the most mark- 
ed respect, and more particularly of the remedy just men- 
tioned. 

Dr. Monro left Edinburgh in the month of July, 1786 ; 
and after spending a few months in Paris, he returned to 
the United States in the autumn of that year. He first 
estai»lished himself on a valuable farm which he possessed 
near the town of St. George's, in NeAvcastle county, 
where for some years he combined the practice of iiis pro- 
fession, with the amusement of farming, of wliich he ap- 
pears to have been extremely fond. 



GEORGE MONRO. 399 

In 1793 Dr. Monro formed a matrimonial connexion 
with Miss Jemima Haslet, youngest daughter of Colonel 
Jolin Haslet, whose patriotism and bravery during the 
revolutionary war were greatly distinguitlied, and whose 
fall, at the battle of Princeton, has been so often commem- 
orated and deplored among the honored martyrs to tlie 
cause of freedom in that great national conflict. 

In 1797 Dr. Monro removed to Wilmington, in his na- 
tive state, and established himself in the practice of his 
profession in that borough. Here, as might have been 
expected from his talents and advantages, he soon attained 
a high standing. Both as a pliysician and surgeon he was 
eminently popular, skilful and successful. No man in the 
state, it is believed, had a higher reputation. In this place 
he spent the remainder of his life, daily growing in public 
Iionor, confidence and usefulness. 

Up to the time when Dr. Monro settled in Wilmington, 
he had been an infidel. But about the year 1799 or 1800, 
his views on this subject underwent an entire change. He 
publicly renounced his deistical sentiments, professed his 
cordial belief in the religion of Jesus Christ, and united 
him elf to the Presbyterian church of Wilmington in fidl 
comiunnion. Not long afterwards he was elected a ruling 
elder of the church of which he was a meml)er, and to 
the end of life discharged and adorned the duties of the 
office, in the most exemplary and edifying manner. 

Dr. Monro published but little. His inaugural disser- 
tation printed at Edinburgh, and a few medical papers pub- 
lished in the Medical Repository at New-York, were 
all that can now be recollected. They all did him honor, 
and evinced a sound, cultivated and rich mind. 

The character of Dr. Monro was very strongly marked 
in a variety of respects. He had peculiar sensibility of 
tem.perament. In his friendships he was warm, constant 
and active ; and although naturallj'^ irritable, he was, at 
the same time, easily appeased, and ever ready to do good 
to those wlio liad offended him. The same warmth was 
carried into all his social relations. The attachments of 
few men have been more fervent ; the benevolence of feiv 
more unwearied. 

Dr. Monro was also remarkable for his great simplicity. 
It extetulcd to every thing ; his diet, liis dress, his man- 
ners, all were as simple as possible. He drank nothing but 
water ; and appeared reluctant to spend the smallest por- 



400 GEORGE MONRO. 

tion of property to gratify appetite, or tlie love of show, 
while he gave liberally and cheerfully to every benevolent 
object. Indeed so uncommonly large and frequent were 
his donations to pious and charitable objects, that he was 
generally supposed by his friends to be in the receipt of 
a large income ; whereas it was barely sufficient, after 
these charities were deducted, to support his family with 
the most rigid economy. 

Another remarkable trait in his cliaracter was perfect 
punctuality to all his appointments. He always made his 
arrangements to be on the spot where he had promised to 
be, a few minutes before the specified time, and would 
wait but a few minutes afterwards, if others failed to at- 
tend. And on tjie Sabbath, he never failed to have all his 
regular visits despatched, and to be in his seat in church 
some minutes before the commencement of public worship. 

But by nothing was this excellent man more distinguish- 
ed than by the uniformity and fervor of his piety. He 
was not only punctual in his attendance in the house of 
God, and on every public religious ordinance ; but in 
all of them he manifested a spirit of sincere and elevated 
devotion truly luiusual. He appeared to drink in the 
truths of the gospel from the preacher's lips with the most 
marked avidity. Every pious, orthodox sermon, however 
plain, was to him a feast. Every one was good ; but the 
last always seemed the best. Every thing approaching to 
levity or unseasonable criticism in speaking of sermons or 
preachers, appeared to give him pain, and to be an object 
of his abhorrence. He uniformly carried his religion with 
him, too, into the chambers of the sick and dying. He 
never failed to seek the eternal as well as the temporal 
salvation of his patients. For this purpose he took every 
opportunity to converse with them on spiritual subjects, to 
pray with them, and to distribute among tliem appropriate 
religious tracts. During the latter years of his life by far 
the largest portion of his time was spent in devotional ex- 
ercises. In fact, all his time not necessarily expended on 
domestic and professional calls, was employed in preparing 
for eternity. His Bible was always open before him ; and 
he seemed to relish no company, book, or employment, 
but that which was spiritual and heavenly. He often 
prayed in social meetings ; and the prayers of few men 
were ever more remarkable for their humility, compre- 
hensiveness, variety, and spirituality. 







,<p/fy<C/?.€yi^j^(^Af^" (U.^n^Tzeci^r/// 



/ 



^NEAS MONSON. 401 

His last illness was short and only occasionally severe. 
The disease which terminated his life was an ossification 
of the heart. For some days before his death he express- 
ed a full expectation of a speedy removal from the world ; 
still, however, his friends were not alarmed ; and even 
those members of his family with whom he frequently, 
and with the most interesting composure conversed on the 
subject of his anticipated speedy departure, could not 
admit the idea that his death was near. His anticipations, 
however, were realized. After a remarkably tender and 
pious conversation on the subject on Sabbath evening, and 
retiring to bed without assistance, his family were over- 
whelmed with grief to find in the morning that his spirit 
had gently taken its flight. He died on tlie 11th day of 
October, 1819, in the 60th year of his age. 

MONSON, ^NEAS, M.D. was born in New-Haven, 
June 24th, 1734, and was graduated at Yale College in 
1753 : after which he entered upon the study of Divinity 
under the instruction of Dr. Styles, then a tutor at Yale 
College. At the period of the French war, in 1755, he 
officiated as chaplain to Lord Gardner, who was stationed 
on Long-Island ; but finding his health decline in conse- 
quence of the exertions necessary in preaching, he com- 
menced the study of medicine under the direction of Dr. 
John Darly of Easthampton. In 1756 he entered upon 
his professional course in the town of Bedford, state of 
New-York, from whence in 1760 he removed to New- 
Haven, where he obtained a permanent and very respecta- 
ble establishment. 

He was active in forming the Medical Society of Con- 
necticut, was early called to the presidency of that body, 
and was annually reelected as long as he was willing to 
serve. He was appointed a professor in tlie medical in- 
stitution of Yale College at the time of its organization, 
and continued in office until his death, although he did 
not enter upon the discharge of the active duties of the 
station. This venerable man sustained for more than half 
a century the highest reputation as a learned, profound, 
devoted and successful physician. EndoAved 1)y his Crea- 
tor with a powerftd and discriminating mind, animated by 
an ardent love of knowledge, and habituated from early 
life to observe, reason and investigate, he was, until age 
and infirmities checked his career, constantly advancing 
in professional science and usefulness. Although he came 
51 



402 ^NEAS MONSON. 

upon the stage before many of the great modern discove- 
ries and improvements had been made, he maintained an 
extensive acquaintance at home, and a correspondence with 
eminent men abroad ; he procured and studied the most 
recent and celebrated works ; obtained specimens of new 
and important substances ; made many experiments in 
pharmacy and in the kindred branches of physical science, 
and allowed no valuable improvement to escape his ob- 
servation. He first introduced many indigenous articles 
of the materia medica into regular practice, and laid the 
foundation for the study of that important branch, which 
has since been so successfully pursued at Yale College. 
Had he entered on professional life thirty years later, he 
would probably have been one of the most successful and 
distinguished cultivators of science, which lie always lov- 
ed for its own sake ; but his great object was practical 
utility, and he hastened to carry to the bedside of his 
patients every remedy and every alleviation, the efficacy 
and safety of which had been fully ascertained. 

His devotion to his patients was unwearied, and the 
spirit which prompted his efforts was highly benevolent. 
He was the active friend of the poor, the distressed and 
the forsaken, and his deportment was happily adapted to 
the varying character and situation of his patients. When 
immediate danger was not apprehended, and especially 
where the spirits of the invalid needed the cordial of 
cheerfulness, no man knew better than he, how to dissipate 
the gloom which grows out of the habitual contemplation 
of corporal infirmities. This he effected by kind and en- 
couraging remarks, by sallies of humor and pleasantry, 
and by the historical, biographical and characteristic anec- 
dotes and recollections, which a life eventually covering 
nearly one half of the whole existence of English America, 
and rendered the more interesting by personal acquaint- 
ance with many distinguished men of the very momentous 
epochs in which he lived, had enabled him to collect and 
preserve in his capacious and retentive memory. But 
Dr. Monson knew also when to be grave, and no unsea- 
sonable sprightliness was permitted to appear when serious 
danger filled the sick room with anxiety. On such occa- 
sions, he was able and willing to proffer the comfort and 
consolations of religion ; and in that awful hour, when all 
the aids of science and skill avail no more, he could act 
.the part of a christian friend and instructer, and in solemn 



WILLIAM MOORE. 403 

prayer at the bedside of his patient could commend the 
departing soul to tlie mercy of God through the Savior 
of men. 

During the war of the revolution he was repeatedly a 
member of the legislature, and for many years in the com- 
mission of the jieace. While in public life he actively 
cooperated with those who now sleep with him in the 
dust, in securing the rights of the people of his native 
state. His profession, however, was his theatre of action, 
and for the long period of seventy years he was here emi- 
nently respected. Such Avas the habitual and even filial 
confidence, reposed by the community in his superior tal- 
ents, knowledge, skill and professional zeal, that in the 
risinor and risen g;enerations this feeling had become almo-t 
traditionary ; and it was with extreme reluctance that bis 
numerous friends and patients could be induced to relin- 
quish his services, even when old age had rendered this 
indulgence indispensable. After he became confined for 
the greater part of the time to his own house, he was still, 
in difficult cases, the oracle for advice and cons»dt;Uion ; 
and his capacity and his disposition to be in this manner 
useful, continued to the last. 

Through his long career of almost a century, when he 
had lived until no one remaining in his native city had 
survived so long, he found religion the staff of his age, as 
it had been the guide of his youth. His habitual trust in 
God tlxrough Christ, brightened as he advanced into tlie 
full glow of assured hope, and, although his last days 
were distressed by bodily suffering, his sun set with un- 
clouded splendor, tlie cheering harbinger of a glorious 
morning. He died June 16th, 1826. 

vMOORE, WILLIAM, M.D. This ornament of the 
profession and of Christianity, was born at Newton on 
Long-Island, in 1754. His father Samuel, and his grand- 
father Benjamin Moore, were agriculturalists. He receiv- 
ed Ihe rudiments of a classical education under the tuition 
of his elder brother, afterwards Bishop Moore, and Presi- 
dent for many years of Columbia College. He attended 
the lectures on medicine delivered by Drs. Clossey and 
Samuel Bard. 

In 1778 he went to London and thence to Edinburgh. 
In 1780 he was graduated Doctor of Medicine, on which 
occasion he pu])li<hcd his dissertation De Bile. For more 
than forty years he continued unremittingly engaged in 



404 WILLIAM MOORE. 

the arduous duties of an extensive practice, particularly in 
midwifery, estimating his number of cases at about three 
thousand. He died in the seventy-first year of his age, in 
April, 1824. 

The medical papers of Dr. Moore may be found in the 
American Medical and Philosophical Register, the New- 
York Medical Repository, and tlie New-York Medical and 
Physical Journal. For many years Dr. Moore was Presi- 
dent of the Medical Society of the county of New-York, 
and an upright and vigilant Trustee of the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons. On his death the college recorded 
their testimony to his preeminent worth. 

With the consent of Dr. Francis, at that time Professor 
of Obstetrics in the College, I insert a part of his notice of 
this estimable man as delivered to the class. " Before I 
conclude, permit me to pay my feeble tribute of homage 
and respect to the memory of the late Dr. William 
Moore, recently called from among us by the fiat of 
Providence ; a bright exemplar of the various and im- 
portant qualifications demanded of the practitioner in that 
department of the profession, the duties of which I have 
attempted to exhibit. I am persuaded that I do not allow 
feelings of personal friendship to prevail over the decis- 
ions of the severest scrutiny, when I assert that no member 
of our profession has exhibited in his life and conduct a 
more beautiful example of the dignity and benignant lustre 
of the medical character. Honored for many years with 
his friendship, and admitted to the privilege of his con- 
versation, I was early taught to look upon Dr. Moore 
with a respect and veneration, which all my subsequent 
acquaintance with him served only to strengthen and con- 
firm. Thousands among us can testify to the mildness 
and urbanity of his manners ; to his tender and watchful 
regard to the suffering patient and sympathizing attend- 
ants ; to his warm hearted benevolence of feeling, and de- 
votedness to the good of all whom his eminent attainments 
or the lesson of a pure and vmspotted life could profit ; to 
his strictness of moral principle, and uniform devotion to 
the sacred obligations of religion. It was but a few 
months ago, that the governors of this institution were 
honored with his cooperation and enlightened by his coun- 
sels. How great their loss has been can be known to 
those only who were acquainted with the liberality of his 
views, and his freedom from every mean and selfish bias. 



JOHN MORGAN. 405 

Dr. Moore rose to liis great eminence by tlic force of per- 
sonal and professional merit. A liberal education had pre- 
pared him to commence with advantage his medical pur- 
suits, and amid the toil and cares of his lal)orious career 
he ever continued to recur with ardor and delight to those 
classical studies in which he had been imbued in his 
youth. Seldom, indeed, has it hapj.ened that the two 
professions were adorned with such attainments and sucli 
private excellence, as were exhibited in the instances of Dr. 
William Moore, and his brother the late pious and venera- 
ble bishop of the church. While we cherish their worth, 
let the regret at our bereavement give place to a noble 
emulation of their pure virtue