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Full text of "The American medical lexicon, on the plan of Quincy's Lexicon physico-medicum, with many retrenchments, additions, and improvements; comprising an explanation of the etymology and signification of the terms used in anatomy, physiology, surgery, materia medica, chemistry, and the practice of physic. Compiled from the most approved authorities"

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2^EW-YORK : 


^ ^^.UED BY T. AXD J. S\\ ORCS. 
^•0. 160 PEARL-STREK i 

JDisivict of J^'etv-Yorh, ss. 

Be it remembered, that on the twenty-ninth day of December, in the thirty- 
fifth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Thomas and Jaines 
Sxvords, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the 
right whereof they ciaim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit : 

" The American Medical Lexicon, on the Plan of Quincy's Lexicon Physico- 
Medicum, with many Retrenchments, Additions, and Improvements ; comprising 
an Explanation of the Etymology and Signification of the Terms used in Anatomy, 
Physiology, Surgery, Materia Medica, Chemistry, and the Practice of Physic. 
Compiled from the most approved Authorities *' 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, ** An act 
for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and 
books to the autiiors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein men- 
tioned ;" and also to an act entitled, " An act supplementary to an act entitled. An 
act for the encotiragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and 
books toithe authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times tlierein men- 
tioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and 
etching hi^torisai and other prints/* 

I Clerk of the district of Js^e-w-York. 


To the Physicians and Students of Medicine in AmeriGa. 

2\lTHOUGH there are several Medical Dictionaries extant, yet 
there was a call for a new edition of the Lexicon Pjhysico-Medicum 
of Dr. Quincy. His work was indeed first published many years ago, 
and has undergone various editions. And in the mean time, Parr's 
Medical Dictionary^ Morris's and Hoofier's Works under a similar iitle^ 
have been offered to the public in England. IL might thence be sup- 
posed by some, that imported copies of these books would supply the 
demand within the United States. 

The Publishers weighed carefully this consideration. They reflected 
that the large quarto volumes of Parr and Morris, though respectable 
performances, were too bulky and expensive for the greater part of 
readers. And on examining the duodecimo production of Hooper, they 
found, that although it would not be subject to the objection of a high 
price, yet that it laboured under the disadvantage of being too concise 
and limited in its objects. 

In short, it was highly desirable, that a book of definitions and ex- 
planations should be offered to medical Gentlemen, which should be 
cheaper than the two former, and more comprehensive than the latter of 
these dictionaries. 

There was no publication extant, which approached so near this 

character as Quincy's Lexicon. Without costing the purchaser more 

than a very moderate price, it off'ers him a great variety of matter. In 

this edition many obsolete terms have been left out. There was 

little use in perpetuating words that were never employed by any writei* 

of note or value in modern times. To retain great numbers of hard and 

uncouth names, which the present state of knowledge did not warrant 

or require, would be superfluous and disgusting, as well as perplexing to 

beginners. In these retrenchments, however, the reader may bo assured, 

not an article of worth has been omitted. 

f ^ 

{ iv ) 

In the place of the words left out, on account of having become anti- 
quated and fallen into disuse, a very considerable number of new articles 
have been added. Some of these are names and definitions not in the 
original. Others are modern expositions of titles already in the work, 
but standing in need of correction, to adapt them to the existing state of 
practice and experiment. And in numberless places of this New-York 
copy, the pages have been cleared of the typographical errors which 
abounded in the London text. 

JVevf-Tarkf Jan. 1811. 




A A \.Q,vmm Pharmacy^ o\.\\e,V' 
J wise vyitten a, or aa, or ana^ 
^vhich being never used but after 
the mention oC two or more inr^re- 
dients, implies thea they should be 
taken in quantities oi the same 
species and denomination, whether 
by weight or measure, to form the 
composition wherein they occur. 
The word is originally Greeks o'vu-, 
a preposition, v/hich signifies se- 
parately^ or of each by itself. 

Ahalie7iatiLs^ corrupted. Celsus. 
A part so destroyed as to require 
immediate extirpation. It also 
signifies the fault or total destruc- 
tion of the senses, whether exter- 
nal or internal, by disease. 

Abbreviatio, The principal uses 
of medicinal abbreviations are in 
prescriptions ; here they are cer- 
tain marks, or half v/ords used by 
physicians for despatch and con- 
veniency when they prescribe. — 
Thus jgZ readily supplies the plajce 
of Recijie; h. s. that of /iora som- 
ni ; n. m. that of nucis inuschattn ; 
elect, tliat of clectarium.^ 8cc. and 
in general all the names of com- 
pound medicines, with the several 
ingredients,are frequently written 
only up to their first or second syl- 
lable, or sometimes to their third 
or fourth, to make them clear and 
expressive. Thus Croc. Anglic. 
stands for Crocus Anglicanus ; 
Theriac. Andromach. for Thcriaca 
Andromachi-t Sec. A point being 
always placed at the end of such 
syllables in, medicine, shows the 
word to be incomplete. 


Abdomen.^ the belly ; from ahdg, 
to hide ; because it hides the vis- 
cera. A cavity between the tho- 
rax and the pelvis, lined by a 
smooth membrane called the peri- 
toneum, and containing the omen- 
tum or epiploon, stomach and in- 
testines, liver, gall-bladder, me- 
sentery, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, 
renal glands or capsules, part of <j 
the thoracic duct, descending aor- 
ta, and vena cava ascendens. Ex» 
ternally the abdomen is distin- 
guished into the epigastric, hypo- 
chondriac, umbilical, and hypo- 
gastric regions. 

Abdominal Muscles. They are 
five on each side. '^ee. Muscles. 

Abdominal Ri?ig^J?7giiinal Ri/ig. 
An oblong, tendinous opening in 
both groins, through which the. 
spermatic cord of men, and round 
ligaments of the uterus of women, 
pass. It is through this opening, 
that the intestine or omentum falls 
in ruptures. 

Adducent Muscles^ from abduco^ 
to drawj'roni^ov those which serve 
to open or pull back divers parts 
of the body ; their opposites be- 
ing called adducent, from adduco, 
to draw to. 

Abduce7it A'erves. The sixth 
pair of nerves are so called, be- 
cause they go to the abducent or 
rectus externus muscle. 

Abductioy a species of fracture, 
Avhen a bone is divided transverse- 
ly near a joint, so that each part 
recedes from the other. In Coe- 
liusAurelianus it signifies a strain; 

and is mentioned as one of the cau- 
ses of ischiadic and psoadic pains. 

Abductor. From ab^ from, and 
duco^ to draw ; a name given to 
those muscles which pull back 
parts of the body into which they 
are inserted. 

Abductor - Brevis Alter. See 
Abductor Pollicis Manus. 

Abductor Indicis Manus. It rises 
from the os trapezium, and from 
the superior part and inner side of 
the metacarpal bone of the thumb ; 
inserted by a short tendon, into 
the outer and back part of the first 
bone of the fore-finger. Its use 
is to bring the fore-finger towards 
the thumb. 

Abductor Indicis JPedis, arises, 
tendinous and fleshy, by two ori- 
gins, from the root of the inside 
of the metatarsal bone of the fore- 
toe, from the outside of the root of 
the metatarsal bone of the great- 
toe, and from the os cuneiforme 
internum ; inserted, tendinous, in- 
to the inside of the root of the first 
joint of the fore-toe. The use is 
to pull the fore-toe inwards from 
the rest of the small toes. 

Abductor Longus Pollicis Ma- 
nus^ i. e. Extensor Ossis Metacar- 
pi Pollicis Manus. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Manus, 
arises, fleshy, from the os pisifor- 
me, and from that part of the li- 
gamentum carpi annulare next it : 
inserted, tendinous, into the inner 
side of the upper end of the first 
bone of the little finger. The use 
is to draw this finger from the rest. 
It is a name also of the Plexor 
Parvus Minimi Digiti. 

Abductor Medii Digiti Pedis, a- 
rises, tendinous and fleshy, from 
the inside of the root of the me- 
tatarsal bone of the middle toe in- 
ternally ; inserted, tendinous, into 
the inside of the root of the first 
joint of the middle toe. The use is 
to pull the middle toe inwards. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis, 
arises, fleshy and tendinous, from 


the semicircular edge of a cavity 
on the inferior part of the protu- 
berance of the OS calcis, and from 
the root of the metatarsal bone of 
the little toe ; inserted int9 the 
root of the first joint of the little 
toe externally. The use is to draw 
the little toe outwards from the 

Abductor Oculi, arises from the 
inferior part of the foramen opti- 
cum, between the obliquus supe- 
rior and depressor, being, from its 
situation, the shortest ; inserted 
opposite to the inner ^ngle. The 
use is to turn the eye towards the 

Abductor Pollicis Manus, arises, 
by a broad, tendinous, and fleshy 
beginning, from the ligamentum 
carpi annulare, and from the os 
trapezium ; inserted, tendinous, 
into the outer side of the root of 
the first bone of the thumb. The 
use is to draw the thumb from the 
fingers. Albinus names the inner 
portion of this muscle abductor 
brevis alter. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis, arises, 
fleshy, from the inside of the root 
of the protuberance of the os cal- 
cis, where it forms the heel, and 
tendinous from the same bone 
where it joins with the os navicu- 
lare ; inserted, tendinous, into the 
internal os sefamoideum, and root 
of the first joint of the great toe. 
The use is to pull the great toe 
from the rest. 

Abductor Tertii Digiti Pedis, 
arises, tendinous and fleshy, from 
the inside and inferior part of the 
root of the metatarsal bone of the 
third toe ; inserted, tendinous, in- 
to the inside of the root of the first 
joint of the third toe. The use is 
to pull the third toe inwards. 

Abelmosch. It is the Hibiscus 
Abelmoschus of Linnaeus. Its seeds 
have the same odour as iPxUsk, and 
therefore are mixed with coffee by 
the Arabians, Sec. to render it more 



cibicsy the fir-tree. Linnseus 
includes it in the genus of pines, 
culling it Pinus ylbies. 

The Silver Fir (Finns Picea of 
Linnasus) produces the Strasburg 
turpentine. The tops and leaves 
arc recommended in the scurvy. 

The CaJiada Fir (Pinus Carta' 
dcnsis of Linnseus) produces the 
Canada balsam. 

The Common Fir^ ov Pitch Tree^ 
(Pinus Abies of Linnaeus) pro- 
duces the common turpentine, 
from v/hich we have the common 
rosin, tar, common pitch, oil of 
turpentine. Burgundy pitch, &c. 

Ablactation, (from a priv. and lac- 
to^ to suckle ). Ablactation, or 
weaning a child from the breast. 
Also Q2i\\t(\ Apogalactismus . When 
the mother wants health, or 
strength ; is affected with any 
constitutional disease, or the milk 
is in small quantity; has too small 
nipples, or ill-formed ones ; when 
the infant wdll not take the breast ; 
— it is advisable to wean the 
child ; indeed, often absolutely 
necessary. It can never be use- 
ful to continue the breast more 
than eight or nine months ; but 
generally, if a child is favoured 
with a good supply by sucking, 
during its first three or four 
months, and is healthy, it will 
rarely be the worse for weaning at 
a more early period. If it feeds 
well with the spoon, and is free 
from disorders in its bowels, a ten- 
dency to convulsions. Sec. wean- 
ing may be attempted at any time. 
But, if the child refuses to feed ; 
or, though the diet be changed to 
gravy and beef tea, the bowels 
should be disordered, another 
nurse should be sougiU for, and 
weaninrr must be deferred until 


more favourable circumstances at- 
tend. In general, the sooner a 
cJiild is weaned, the more easily 
it parts with the breast. Prudence 
directs to accustom a child to ear- 
ly feeding with the spoon, and to 

continue it until the breast maV 
be wholly omitted. In general, 
children should be fed during the 
first months three or four times a 
day ; and, if not suckled in the 
night, once at least, if not twice, 
during that period. Suckling in 
the night should, if possible, be 
avoided ; for the mother, especi* 
ally in the higher ranks of life, 
wants some hours of respite. If 
the child is early brought to re- 
gular hours of feeding, it will 
soon give little trouble. 

Tlic food should be simple and 
light ; without wine or spices. 
Well fermented bread, baked hard 
and reduced to powder, will make 
a proper food, when boiled smooth 
in water. Should the stomach be 
flatulent, a few caraway seeds may 
be. added. If this food turn sour, 
beef or mutton tea (prepared by- 
infusion only) may be occasionally 
substituted, or a little beef gravy- 
may be given. A child will in 
feeding, always first endeavour to 
drink. He may be allowed to do 
so with moderation. A little time 
should be suffered to elapse, and 
the soaked bread should then be 
offered. If refused, he may drink, 
again, but in less quantity ; and 
should he still refuse the bread, it 
is a sign that he does not require 
any solid food. In feeding, he 
should be in a sitting posture ; or, 
if recumbent, should be occasion- 
ally raised, gently moved, and 
amused. After feeding, he will 
soon sleep ; but a child should ne- 
ver be awakened, unless the sleep 
be uneasy or morbidly continued, 
— Moss, Cadogan, and Armstrong. 
Abortion^ a miscarriage, or the 
expulsion of the foetus from the 
uterus before the seventh month. 
— Precursors. Pain in the back, 
loins, and hypogastrium ; shiver•^ 
ings; bleeding from the womb; 
nausea, anxiety, palpitation, syn- 
cope, an opening and moisture of 
the OS tineciT2 ; a sensation of 



weight or coldness in the epigas- 
trium, and flaccidity of the breasts. 
— Prevention. In plethoric ha- 
bits, venesection, the antiphlogis- 
tic regimen and digitalis ; in de- 
bilitated ones, bark, iron, sulphate 
of zinc or copper and acetite of 
lead ; in general recumbent pos- 
ture, occasional laxatives and opi- 
ates, and ^okl both generally and 
topically applied. 

^i[;)rasion^ from abrado^ to tear 
off. It generally expresses the 
wearing away the natural mucus 
which covers the membranes, par- 
ticularly those of the stomach and 
guts, by corrosive or sharp medi- 
cines or humours. It is also used 
to express that matter wore off by 
the attrition of bodies against one 

Abrotanum. From aC^n-j-, soft. 
Common southernwcx)d. Artemi- 
&icL Abrotanum of Linnaeus. A 
plant possessed of a strong, and, 
to most people, an agreeable smell ; 
a pungent bitter, and somewhat 
nauseous taste. It is supposed to 
stimulate the whole system, but 
more particularly that of the ute- 
rus. It is rarely used, unless in 
the way of fomentation. 

Abscessus., an abscess, from ab- 
sceclo^ to go off. The words wrratT- 
T>;/*a faposteynej^ and wTro^rrao-^f 
(iniposthumation)^ frequently us- 
ed by Hippocrates, are inmslated 
by Celsus, abscessus, and some- 
times vomica. Hence the word 
abscess, geiierally used by modern 
authors to signify a suppurated 
phleij;mcn,or inflammatory tumor. 
These words seem originally, by 
their derivation, to import any sort 
of exclusion of morbific matter, 
aP'.c^at[^oc^iUid i;«^>£7Tr/|x» signifying to 
recede and retire. Accordingly 
they are generally used by Hippo- 
crates to express any critical re- 
moval of offending humours from 
the vital parts, cither to some of 
the emunctories for an immediate 
d1seharg;e, as the glands ef the in- 

testines, kidneys, or skin, whence 
they are eliminated by plentiful 
stools, urinC; or sweat; or to some 
part where they find an easy egress 
by the rupture of a blood-vessel, 
as the uterus or nose ; or to some 
ruuscular part or gland, whence 
they cannot be so easily expelled, 
and therefore stagnate and suppu- 
rate, and at last are separated in 
the form of pus or matter. Some- 
times Hippocrates means by these 
words, the transmutation of one 
disease into another, as a quincey 
into a peripaeumony, or of a con- 
tinual fever into a quartan. Sec. 
And sometimes, the destruction 
of a part of the morbific matter 
of a distemper fixing upon it. 
Hippocrates also uses the word 
aTT'jCTTcJicrij-, to express the fracture, 
or exfoliation of a bone, when the 
parts of it which were contiguous 
in a state of health, recede from 
each other. PaulusJEgineta seems 
to have limited the signification of 
abscess to suppura.tion, by defining 
(^u?rocrrK[Acc) abscess, a corruption of 
the fleshy parts, muscles, veins, 
and arteries. Of all the significa- 
tions of an abscess, the present 
surgeons confine themselves to 
that which is the consequence of 
an inflammation. 

Abscission. The most common 
use of this M^ord is to signify the 
dividing any corrupted and use- 
less part of the body from the 
sound, by a sharp instrument. It 
is principally applied to soft parts 
of the body ; for in the bones it is 
called amputation. Sometimes it 
signifies the sudden termination of 
a disease in death, before it arrives 
at its declining state. 

Absirithium. wormwood ; a^n^iov, 
unpleasant, of » privative, and ^n- 
6or, which Hesychius interprets 
'Ti^^a, delectation; others will have 
it enrtv&toty i. e. not fiotable, from « 
priv. and fs\^a, to drink, on account 
of its bitterness ; others derive it 
of aTTstffia*, t9 touch or handle, hx 



antiphrasis, because no animal 
touches it, on account of its ex- 
treme bitterness. The English 
name wormwood is from a simi- 
lar one in the Anglo-Saxon lan- 
guage. In the College Pharma- 
copeia, two species of absinthia 
are retained ; viz. the marititman^ 
or sea ivorrtiivood^ Artemisia ma- 
ritima^ Lin. and -uuif^art;^ or com- 
mon ivormivood^ AriC7nisia Abnin- 
ihium^ Lin. The recent tops of 
the former are directed to be beat- 
en with sugar to form a conserve : 
they enter the decoctum pro fo- 
ment©, or common fomentation, 
formerly called Fotus Communis. 
This latter is a good tonic and sto- 
machic, and is given also by many 
as an antihelmintic. Externally 
it is used as an antiseptic, in fo- 
mentations. There is a tincture 
of the flowers ordered by the Edin- 
burgh Pharmacopeia ; but the 
most agreeable way of administer- 
ing this medicine is in pills made 
©f the extract. 

Absorbent^ from absorbeo^ to 
drink ufi^ is such a medicine as 
by tJie softness or porosity of its 
component parts, either sheathes 
the asperities of pungent humours, 
or, like a spunge, dries away su- 
perfluous moisture in the body ; 
and is the same with a drier or 
a sweetener. Most animal con- 
cretions, shells of fishes, and bo- 
lar earths, Sec. are possessed of 
those qualities ; hence their use in 
relieving complaints arising fron> 
acidities and sliarp humours in the 
first passages. Those chiefly in 
use at present are calcined n\ag- 
nesia, prepared chalk, oyster- 
sjiells, crabs' claws, crabs' eyes, 
and coral. 

Absorbent Vesticls. They are 
^lose lacteal vessels whicii open 
with their mouths into the sides of 
the intestinal tube, to drink in the 
chyle from thence, which they dis- 
charge into the mesenteric veins. 
Later anatomists have applied tln*> 

terra to the lymphatics, which 
are distributed in great number 
throughout the whole body, and 
whose extremities open into eve- 
ry cavity thereof, absorb all super- 
fluous moisture, and cany it back 
into the circulation. By means of 
lymphatic vessels going from the 
skin, water passes into the habit 
from baths and fomentations ; mer- 
cury also, and other penetrating 
substances, applied externally, as 
the venereal virus, &c. This com- 
pages of vessels is also called the 
system of absorbents. 

Abfitcr^ent,<i. See Detergents, 
Abstinence. It is either gene- 
ral, from all sorts of alin\ent, or 
particular, from some kinds of 
food only. Erasistratus made a 
strict ahsiinence supply the place 
of bleeding, in inflammations and 

Abstraction^ from abstraho^ or 
abtraho^ to draw from^ is a power 
peculiar to the mind of man, where- 
by he can make his ideas, arising^ 
from particular things, become 
general representatives of all of 
the same kind. Thus when the 
eye represents whiteness in a wall, 
a man can abstractedly consider 
the quality of whiteness, and find 
it attributable to many other things 
besides ; as to snow, milk, or the 
like ; and this quality, whatsoever 
it be, considered apart from the 
concrete, or the subject in which 
it adheres, is said to be taken in 
the abstract. This is the doctrine 
of Mr. Locke, and others who 
wrote before him ; but it has since 
his time been called in question; 
for some there are who deny ail 
such abstract ideas, and tell us, 
that a geneial abstract idea is a 
mere nothing, all the ideas we 
have being constantly particular ; 
so that they would say, it is im- 
possible to think of white, abstract- 
edly or independent of sonic sub- 
ject wherein it is lodged. \Vhe- 
t'her thi^s be true or not, erery man 



may best know by his ovvn experi- 
ence ; but the point well cleared, 
would open a new scene in the 
doctrine of qualities, and possibly 
overset a great part of our pre- 
sent philosophy about them. This 
term is also used in pharmacy, for 
the drawing off, or exhaling away 
a menstruum from the subject it 
was put to dissolve. 

Acceleratory Muscles^ from acf, 
?o, and celar^ swift ; or from acce- 
lerare, to hasten^ or despatch. 
These belong to the penis, and 
are generally called 

Acceleratores Urinay from their 
use in expediting the ejection of 
urine. They arise, fleshy, from 
the sphincter ani, and membra- 
nous part of the urethra, and ten- 
dinous from the crus, near as far 
forwards as the beginning of the 
corpus cavernosum penis ; the in- 
ferior fibres run more transverse- 
ly, and the superior descend in an 
oblique direction. They are in- 
serted into a line in the middle of 
the bulb, where each joins with its 
fellow ; by which the bulb is com- 
pletely enclosed. Their use is to 
drive the urine or semen forwards, 
and, by grasping the bulb of the u- 
rethra,to push the blood towards its 
corpus cavernosum and the glans, 
by which they are distended. 

Accession^ the same as 'mapo^vo-- 
fAoj', among the Greeks, and the 
exacerbatio of the Latins, is the fit, 
or time of being worst in any in- 
termittent disease. 

jiccessorius. Willis gave this 
name to a particular nerve, v/hich 
is thus named, from acf, ^o, and ce- 
dOf to a/ifiroac/i. The eighth pair 
of nerves rise from the lateral va- 
ses of the corpora olivaria, in dis- 
gre gated fibres ; and as they are 
entering the anterior internal part 
of the holes common to the os oc- 
cipitis and temporum,each is join- 
ed by a nerve, which ascends with- 
in the dura mater from the tenth 
of the head, the first, second, and 

inferior cervical nerves : this has 
the name of nervus accessorius. 
When the two get out of the skull, 
the accessorius separates from the 
eighth, and, descending obliquely 
outwards, passes through the ster- 
no-mastoid',sus muscle, to which 
it gives branches, and afterwards 
terminates in the trapezius mus- 
cle of the scapula. 

Acer^ the maple-tree. It is a 
genus inLinn-^us's system. There 
are seventeen species. 

Acerb^ from acerbus^sour, harsh. 
It signifies somewhat acid, with 
an addition of roughness ; as most 
fruits before they are ripe. Some- 
times, figuratively, it signifies 
prickly, r(v(pv»i cfxotvQiti. Dioscori- 

Acetabulum. It signifies a large 
cavity in a bone, which receives 
another convex bone, for the con- 
venience of a circular motion of 
the joint thus articulated, as that 
of the OS innominatum which re- 
ceives the head of the femur. 

Acetated -vegetable Alkali, Kali 
acetatum. See Acetum. 

Acetated volatile Alkali-^ aqua 
am?nonia acetates. See Acetum. 

Acetates. Salts fch'med by the 
combination of the acetic acid with 
diflferent bases, as alkalies, earths 
and metals : there are twenty-four 
different species o{ acetates m M. 
Fourcroy's Elements of Natural 
History and Chemistry. 

Acetic Acid. Concentrated acid 
of vinegar. Radical vinegar. It 
may be obtained by exposing vi- 
negar to frost. The frozen part 
consists almost entirely of v/ater, 
and the part which remains is the 
acetic acid. 

Acetites^ salts formed by the 
union of the acetous acid, or vine- 
gar distilled h^omcommon vinegar, 
with different bases, as alkalies, 
earths and metals. Of acetites M. 
Fourcroy has inserted twenty- 
three species in his Elements of 
Natural History and Chemistry. 



Jcetosa Pratciisis. Common 
riorrel. Runicx acetosa, of Lin- 
naeus. A common plant in mea- 
dows and pastures. Its leaves 
have a sharp and pleasant acid 
taste. They are used in many 
places as food, and are found to 
be of important advantage where 
a refrigerant and antiscorbutic re- 
gimen is required. They are, al- 
so, of infinite service to foul ul- 
cers, applied in the form of poul- 

jicetosa Esurina^ esurine spirit 
of vinegar, or hungry vinegar. 
When vinegar is concentrated, it 
creates an appetite ; hence this 

Acctosella^ sheep's sorrel. A 
species of Rumex. 

jlcetosella^ wood sorrel. Oxa- 
lis Acetosella. L. Retained in the 
Pharmacopeia among the con- 

Acetous Acid. Distilled vine- 
gar. Salts formed by the union 
of this acid with different bases, 
are termed acetites. 

Acetum^ Vinegar^ is an acid pro- 
duced by suffering substances that 
have undergone the change induc- 
ed by the vinous, or first stage of 
fermentation, to be further alter- 
ed by the next stage, called the 
acetous fermentation, wherein the 
alkohol and tartar are reunited, 
and if the vinegar be perfectly 
formed, their properties are en- 
tirely lost. During this fermen- 
tation much pure air is absorbed, 
an innoxious acid smell is emit- 
ted, and a reddish mucilaginous 
sediment is deposited. This fer- 
mentation succeeds best in an heat 
between 75 and 90 degrees of 
Fahrenheit's thermometer. The 
contactof air is necessary, on which 
account, the vessels employed 
should be loosely closed. It will 
also succeed, though more slowly, 
in the common heat of a cellar, 
with little attention. The weak- 
est and worst wines, cyder, and, in 

England, solutions of farinaceous 
matter, as wort or infusion of malt, 
are commonly employed. Milk 
readily forms vinegar. Sugar and 
water, in the proportion of little 
more than one pound to a gallon, 
make tolerable vinegar : but the 
more perfect the wine the belter 
will be the vinegar. Vinegar sq 
procured, is separated from the 
mucilage and other substances 
mixed with it by distillation in 
earthen or glass vessels : in this 
stale it is used in medicine under 
the title of acetum distillatuvi^ or 
distilled -vinegar. Common^ or 1111- 
distilled -vinegar is employed in 
several compositions in the new 
college Pharmacopeia ; viz. in the 
acetum scilla, formerly called ace- 
tum scillitic. or vinegar of squills ; 
in the oxymel <sruginis^ instead of 
the inel JEgyiitiac, in the oxymel 
scilla ; and in the oxymel simplex. 
Distilled vinegar^ or acetum dis- 
tillatum^ is employed in the kali 
acetatum^ formerly called sal diu- 
retic, in the aqua ammonia acetatar^f 
or spiritus Minder eri ; in the c<f- 
russa acetata^, formerly called sac- 
char, saturn. in the aqua lithargy- 
ri acetati, commonly called ex- 
tract. satui'7ii, and in the oxymel 
colc/iii or oxymel of Colchicum^ or 
the autu?n?ial saffron. Acidum a- 
cctosum^ called by M. Fourcroy, 
acidinn aceticunu is ordered by the 
college to be distilled from serugo 
or verdigrise ; the acidum aceto- 
sum is directed in the hydrargy- 
rus acetatus. The latter (acidum 
acctosum) is found, by experi- 
ment, to differ essentially from the 
acetum distillutum^ on account of 
the oxygen, or base of vital air, 
of the oxyd or calx of copper in 
the xrugo ceris, with which it is 
combined. Vinegar is much used 
to season food, and is highly es- 
teemed as an antiseptic, refrige- 
rant, and antiscorbiuic. Applied 
externally to inflammationsj it is 
a powerful resolvent. 


jichilleius; i.e. Achillis (tendo.) 

Achillis (tendo.) Homer de- 
scribes this tendon, which was 
probably thus named by the a.n- 
cients, from their custom of call- 
ing every thing thus that had any 
extraordinary strength or virtue. 
Some say it is thus named from its 
action in conducing to swiftness of 
pace, the term importing so much. 
This tendon is formed by the uni- 
on of those of the soleus and gas- 
trocnemius muscles, which are in- 
serted into the os calcis. 

Achor^ apC'^V ^^ ^^ ^^~^^ Crtista 
lactea.) or milk scab of authors. In 
England it is called the Scald-head. 
This kind of sore is full of perfora- 
tions, which discharge a humour, 
like ichor, whence the name achor. 
When the perforations are large, 
resembling the cells of a honey- 
comb, and the matter discharged 
is of the consistence of thin ho- 
ney, it is called Cerlon. When 
this scabby sore is on the hairy 
scalp, it is called Tinea.^ from its 
perforations being small, like those 
formed by moths ; but when the 
face only is scabbed, it is called 
Crusta lactea. When the perfo- 
rations are large, it is called Fa- 
vus by some writers. Dr. Cullen 
arranges the Tinea as a genus in 
his class iocfl/es, and order Dialy- 
ses. Mr. Bell, in his T'reatise on 
Ulcers., makes it a variety only of 
the Herpes p.ustulosus. 

Acid Spirits. Weak vitriolic 
acid, Sec. were so called, but very 

Acid. An acid is a combination 
of vital air, or oxygene, with a 
certain elementary basis. Every 
acid substance possesses a sour 
taste, changes the colour of turn- 
sole, syrup of violets, Sec. red, and 
mostly effervesces with alkalis. 
Acids are divided into animal, ve- 
getable and mineral, of each of 
which there are several. 

Acini., small grains that grow 
in fruits like the grape -stones ; 

whence anatomists have called 
many glands of a similar forma- 
tion, or that grow together. Acini 
glandulosi., as those in the liver. 

Aci7ii biliosi. The small glands 
of the liver, which separate the 
bile from the blood ; from acinus^ 
a grape-stone. 

Aciniformis tunica, the tunica 
uvea of the eye. 

Acinus. It signifies, strictly, a 
grape, but is applied to many o- 
ther fruits, or berries, that grow 
in clusters, as those of elder and 
ivy ; these are distinguished from 
bacca, a sort of berries that grow 
single, as those of the olive or 
laurel. But acinus., as now used, 
is the stone of a grape ; hence Uv(S 
ea-acinatce, grapes that have stones 
taken out. 

Acme, a,KfA-K. In general it sig- 
nifies that stateof any thing where- 
in it is in the utmost perfection, 
and is more especially used to de- 
note the height of a distemper ; 
which is divMed into four periods, 
by some writers. 1. The Archcy 
the beginning or first attack. 2. 
Anabasis., the growth. 3. The Ac^ 
me., the height. And, 4. ParacmCy 
which is the declension of the dis- 

Aconitum, wolf's-bane. A ge- 
nus of vegetables in the Linnsean 
system. Of this genus two spe- 
cies have been used in medicine ; 
viz. the J\''a/iellus., and the Antho- 
ra. This plant is a native of the 
mountainous and woody parts of 
Germany, France and Switzer- 
land, but is cultivated for its beau- 
ty in our flower gardens. Every 
part of it is strongly poisonous. 
The extract, or inspissated juice, 
is given in violent rheumatic, 
scrophulous, and venereal affec- 
tions. Its virtues are sudorific, 
diuretic, and subvertiginous. It 
should be given in small doses, 
and gradually and cautiously in- 
creased. — From gr. l-6th to grs, 



jdcor. It is sometimes usefl to 
express that sourness in the sto- 
macli contracted by indigestion, 
and from whence flatulencies and 
acid belching arise. 

ylcorus-i sweet flag, a genus in 
the Linnsean system of vegetables. 
It hath but two species. See Ca- 
lamua Aromaticus. 

Acorus (false, or yellow water 
flag). Iris Pseud-Acorus. The 
Linn, root was formerly used in 
medicine, but it hath not been re- 
tained in the present Pharmaco- 

Acousticaydtcovtrrixctf from axovuvy 
to hear. Remedies against deaf- 
ness are thus called. 

Acrid. Dr. Grew says, that a- 
crids properly belong to compound 
tastes. They are not simply sour 
or pungent, nor are they simply 
hot; but the characteristic of acri- 
tude consists in pungency joined 
with heat. 

Acrifoliuniy any plant with a 
prickly leaf. 

Acrimo7iy^ expresses a quality in 
bodies, by which they corrode, 
destroy, or dissolve others. The 
acid acrimony causes the heart- 

Acromion,) from a*^©*, extreme^ 
and w/iAOf , the shoulder. That part 
©f the spine of the scapula that 
receives the extremity of the cla- 

Actual. This word is applied 
to any thing endued with a pro- 
perty or virtue which acts by an 
immediate power inherent in it : 
it is the reverse of potential ; thus, 
a red-hot iron or fire is called an 
actual cautery, in contradistinc- 
tion from caustics, w^hich arc cal- 
led potential cauteries. Boiling 
water is actually hot; brandy, pro- 
ducing heat in the body, is poten- 
tially hot, though of itself cold. 

Acuitio^ to acuate, from actio^ 
to sharfien; the sharpening an acid 
medicine by an addition of some- 
thing more acid ; or, in general, 

the increasing the force of cCfiy 
medicine, by an addition of some- 
thing that hath the same sort of 
operation in a greater degree. 

Aculeus^ in Botany .^ a prickle, or 
sort of armature, belonging to the 
fulcra of plants proceeding from 
the cortex, as in the rose-bush, 
bramble, 8cc. 

Acupunctural acupuncture, 
bleeding performed by making 
many small punctures. 

Acutcnaculmn. Heistefcalls the 
Portagnillc by this name : it is a 
handle for a needle, to make it 
penetrate easily when stitching a. 

Acutus Morbus^ acute disease. 
It is any disease which is attend- 
ed wdth an increased velocity of 
the blood, terminates in a few days, 
and is attended with danger. It is 
opposed to the chronic disease, 
which is slow in its progress, and 
not so generally dangerous. 

Adansonia^ a genus in the Lin- 
naean system of vegetables : it is 
also called JEthioJiian sour-gourd^ 
and Monkey* S'bread. It hath one 
species ; viz. the Adansonia Bahor- 
bab. This tree is the largest pro- 
duction of the whole vegetable 
kingdom. The trunk is not above 
twelve or fifteen feet high, but 
from sixty-five to sevenly-eight 
feet round. The lowest branchea 
extend almost horizontally, and a$ 
they are about sixty feet in length, 
their own weight bends their ex-* 
tremities to the ground, and thus 
form an hemispherical mass of 
verdure of about one hundred ancl 
twenty, or one hundred and thirty 
feet diameter. The roots extend 
as far as the branches ; that in. 
the middle forms a pivot, wliicli 
penetrates a great way into the 
earth ; the rest spread near the 
surface thereof. This tree grows 
mostlv in the west coast of Africa. 
The bark is called Lgbo. The 
fruit is of the size of a lemon, of 
an acid taste ; and when (^rj it ife - 



powdered, and sold in Europe un- 
der the name of Terra Sigillata 

Additamentum^ additament ; a 
term of chemistry, which signifies 
any material mixed along with a 
principal ingredient, to fit it for 
the designed operation. Thus 
salts are distilled from bone-ashes, 
brick-dust, or the like, to prevent 
their running together, and make 
them afford their spirits with the 
greater ease. In anatomy it is 
the same as Epifihysis. Castellus 
says that the large Epiphysis of 
the ulna, at the elbow, was called 
Additamentum Xecatum. 

Additamentum Coli^ a name of 
the Appendiciila caci. 

AdducenSi i. e. Rectus internus 
oculi Muse. 

Addiiceiis Humeri^ i e. PectorU' 
lis Musculus. 

. Adducent Muscles^ from ad and 
duco^ to bring to ; are those that 
bring forward, close or draw to- 
gether the parts of the body 
whereto they are annexed. 

Adductors. The name of those 
muscles, which bring forwards or 
draw together those parts of the 
body to which they are annexed ; 
from ad^ to, an4 duco, to draw. 

Add'uctor Brevis Femoris. It 
arises, tendinous, from the os pu- 
bis near its joining with the oppo- 
site OS pubis below, and behind 
the adductor Icngus femoris . It is 
inserted, tendinous and fieshy, in- 
to the inner and upper part of the 
iinea aspera, from a little below 
the trochanter minor, to the be- 
ginning of the insertion of the ad- 
due tor lo7igus. 

Adductor Feinoris Pri7nus^ i. e. 
Adductor lon.gus femoris. 

Adductor Femoris Quartus, i.e. 
Addu ctor m agn u. s fern o ris . 

Adductor Fe7noris Secundus, i. e. 
Adductor brevis femoris. 

Adductor Femoris Tertius^ i. e. 
.Adductor magnus femoris. 

.Adductor Indlcis Pedis. It a- 

rises, tendinous and fleshy, by two 
origins, from the root of the inside 
of the metatarsal bone of the fore 
toe, from the outside of the root 
of the metatarsal bone of the great 
toe, and from the os cuneiforme 
internum. It is inserted, tendi- 
nous, into the inside of the root of 
the first joint of the fore toe. Its 
use is to pull the fore toe inwards 
from the rest of the small toes. 

Adductor Longus Femoris. It 
arises, by a pretty strong roundish 
tendon, from the upper and inte- 
rior part of the os pubis, and liga- 
ment of its synchondrosis, on the 
inner side of the pectinalis. It is 
inserted, tendinous, near the mid- 
dle of the posterior part of the Ii- 
nea aspera, being continued for 
some way down. 

Adductor Magnus Femoris, It 
arises a little lower down than the 
adductor brevis femoris^ near the 
symphysis of the ossa pubis ; ten- 
dinous and fleshy, from the tube- 
rosity of the OS ischium; the fibres 
run outwards and downwards. It 
is inserted into almost the whole 
length of the Iinea aspera, into a 
ridge above the internal condyle 
of the os femoris; and, by a round- 
ish, long tendon, kito the upper 
part of that condyle, a little above 
which the femoral artery takes a 
spiral turn towards the ham, pass- 
ing between this muscle and the 

Adductor Med'ti Digiti Pedis. It 
arises, tendinous and fieshy, from 
the roots of the metatarsal bones 
of the second and third toes. It 
is inserted, tendinous, into the out- 
side of the root of the first joint 
of the second toe. Its use is to 
pull the second toe outv/ards. 

Adductor Metacarpi Minimi Di- 
giti Manus. It arises, fleshy, from 
the thin edge of theos unciforme, 
and from that part of the ligament 
of the wrist next it. It is inserted, 
tendinous, into the inner side and 
anterior part of the mctacarpalbone 



of this finger. Its use is to bend 
and bring the metacarpal bone of 
this finger towards the rest. 

jfdductor Minimi Digiti Pedis. 
It arises, tendinous and fleshy, 
from the inside of the root of the 
metatarsal bone of the little toe. 
It is inserted, tendinous, into the 
inside of the root of the first joint 
of the little toe. Its use is to pull 
the little toe inwards. 

Adductor ad Miniinum Digitum^ 
\. e. Adductor jiollicis manus. 

Adductor Oculi. It arises from 
the inferior part of the foramen 
opticum, between the obliquus su- 
perior and depressor, being, from 
its situation, the shortest. It is 
inserted opposite to the inner an- 
gle. Its use is to turn the eye 
towards the nose. 

Adductor Pollicis^'i. e. Adductor 
indicts 7nanus. 

Adductor Pollicis Manus. It a- 
rises, fleshy, from almost the whole 
length of the metacarpal bone that 
sustains the middle finger ; from 
thence its fibres are collected to- 
gether. It is inserted, tendinous, 
into the inner part of the root of 
the first bone. of the thumb. Its 
use is to pull the thumb towards 
the fingers. 

Adductor PoUicia Pedis. It a- 
rises, by a long thin tendon, from 
the OS calcis, from ihe os cuboides, 
from the os cuneiforme externum, 
and from the root of the metatar- 
sal bone of the second toe. It is 
inserted into the external os sesa- 
moidcum, and root of the metatar- 
sal bone of the great toe. Its use 
is to bring this toe nearer to the 

Adductor Tcrtii Dig'iti Pedis. 
It arises, tendinous and fleshy, 
from the roots of the metatarsal 
bones of the third and little toe. 
•^It is inserted, tendinous, into the 
outside of the root of the first joint 
of the third toe. Its use is to pull 
the third toe outwards. 

.idenes Ca7iadensesy i.e. potatoes. 

Adenografihy. It is a treatise of 
the glands, from «o>3», agland^ and 
7^a^w, to write. 

Adenoidcs^ from a^r,)i^a ff land, and 
jt^^, aform^ glandiform, or like a 
gland. This Avord is also used for 
the Prostata^., which see. 

Adcnosus Abscessu.'i.,<:i\\?iV(\ crude 
tubercle, resembling a gland, difii- 
cult to be resolved. 

Adefis, fat, sometimes is distin- 
guished from Pinguedo., and appli- 
ed only to the harder fat common- 
ly called suet ; but by most wri- 
ters they are used indiff*erently. 

Adefits. Such are called so as 
pretend to some extraordinary skill 
in chemistry, from adipiscor^ to 
obtain ; but these have too often 
proved either enthusiasts or im- 
postors : and such Paracelsus, 
Helmont, and their followers have 
been thought. The professors of 
the Adeiita Philosojihia are also 
called adefits. 

Adhesion. For the most part, if 
any parts in the thorax or bcliy lie 
in contact, and inflame, they grow 
together. The lungs frequently 
adhere to the pleura. 

Adiachytos^ from aneg. and ^\si' 
X,vu, to disuse, scatter, or be fire- 
yz/5^, decent in point of dress. Hip- 
pocrates thinks the dress of a fop 
derogatory from the physician ; 
though thereby he hides his igno- 
rance, and obtains the good opi- 
nion of liis patients. 

Adiafmcusiia^ from the privative 
particle aiand l%u.7:\,i'j}^ fiersjiiro ; is 
a diminution or obstruction of na- 
tural perspiration, and that in 
which the ancients chiefly placed 
the cause of fevers. 

Adiarrhcca., from » priv. and h- 
a^yiVt toJJoiv out., or through-^ a to- 
tal suppression of all the necessa- 
ry evacuations. 

Adi/iocirc, is a term formed of 
adeps, fat, and cera, wax, and de- 
notes a substance, the nature and 
origin of which are thus explain- 
ed. The changes which animal 



iwatter undergoes in its progress 
towards total decomposition, have 
been, for many obvious reasons, 
but little attended to. But an op- 
portunity of this kind was offered 
at Paris in 1786 and 1787, w,hen 
the old burial ground of the Inno- 
cens was laid out for building up- 
on, in consequence of which, the 
surface soil, and the animal re- 
mains contained therein, were re- 
moved. This cemetery having 
been for ages appropriated to the, 
reception of the dead, in one of 
the most populous districts in Pa- 
ris, was eminently well calculated 
to exhibit the various processes of 
animal decomposition : another fa- 
vourable circumstance was, that it 
contained several of those large 
pits (fosses communes) in which 
the bodies of the poor are deposit- 
ed by hundreds. These pits are 
cavities 30 feet deep, with an area 
of 20 feet square, in which the 
shells containing the bodies are 
closely packed in rows over each 
other, without any intermediate 
earth, and with only a slight su- 
perficial covering of soil, not more 
than a foot thick : each pit con- 
tained from 1200 to 1500 bodies, 
and may be considered as a mass 
of animal matter of the dimen- 
sions above-mentioned. M. M. 
Fourcroy and Thouret were pre- 
sent at the opening of several of 
these receptacles ; and it is from 
a memoir by the former of these, 
that the principal part of this arti- 
cle is composed. The first pit 
that was examined had been filled 
and closed up 15 years before : on 
opening some of the cofiins (for 
the wood was still quite sound, 
only tinged of a yellow colour) 
the bodies were found within 
shrunk, so as to leave a considera- 
ble vacant space in the upper part 
of the coffin, and flattened, as if 
they had been subject to a strong 
compression ; the linen which co- 
A'ered them adhered iirmlyj and, 

upon being femoved, presented t» 
view only irregular masses of a 
soft, ductile, greyish-white matter, 
apparently intermediate between 
fat and wax : the bones were en- 
veloped in this, and were found to 
be Very brittle. The bodies thus 
changed, being but little offensive 
to the smell, a great number were 
dug up»>and minutely examined : 
in some this alteration had as yet 
only partially taken place, the re- 
mains of muscular fibres being 
still visible ; but where the con- 
version had been complete, the 
bones throughout the whole body 
were found covered with this grey 
substance, generally soft and duc- 
tile, sometimes dry, but always 
readily separating into porous ca- 
vernous fragments, without the 
slightest trace of muscles, mem- 
branes, vessels, tendons, or nerves : 
the ligaments of the articulations 
had been in like manner changed; 
the connexion between the bones 
was destroyed, and these last had 
become so yielding, that the grave- 
diggers, in order to remove the 
bodies more conveniently, rolled 
each upen itself from head to heels, 
without any difficulty. According 
to the testimony of these men, to 
whom the facts just mentioned 
had been long familiar, this con- 
version of animal matter is never 
observed in those bodies that are 
interred singly, but always takes 
place in the fosses communes: to 
effect this change, nearly three 
years are required. The soapy 
matter of latest formation is soft, 
very ductile, light, and spungy, 
and contains water ; in 30 or 40 
years it becomes much dryer, 
more brittle, and assumes the ap- 
pearance of dense laminae, and 
AV'here the surrounding earth has 
been dryer than usual, it is some- 
times semitransparent, of a granu- 
lated texture, brittle, and bears a 
considerable resemblance to wax. 
Animal matter having once passed 



into this stage of decomposition, 
appears to resist for a long time 
any further alteration : some of 
these pits that had been closed a- 
bove 40 years, were, upon exami- 
nation, found to be little else tlwn 
a solid mass of soapy matter ; nor 
is it yet ascertained how long, in 
common circumstances, it would 
continue unchanged, the-t burial 
ground of the Innocens being so 
small in comparison to the popu- 
lation of the district, as to require 
each pit in 30 or 40 years to be 
emptied of its contents, in order 
to receive anew succession of bo- 
dies : it appears, however, that the 
ulterior changes depend in a great 
measure on the quantity ©f mois- 
ture draining through the mass. 
From the history of this singular 
substance, we proceed to an exa- 
mination of its chemical proper- 
ties. It was first, however, puri- 
fied by gently heating in an earth- 
en vessel, till it became of a pasty 
consistence, and then rubbed 
through a fine hair sieve, by which 
means the hair, small bones, and 
remains of the muscular fibre were 
separated with tolerable exactness. 
In this state, being exposed in an 
earthen vessel to the naked fire, it 
readily became soft, but did not li- 
quify without considerable difficul- 
ty, rather frying as a piece of soap 
would do, and disengaging at the 
same time ammoniacal vapours. 
Four pounds being put into a glass 
retort, and submitted to slow dis- 
tillation in a water bath, afforded, 
in the space of three weeks, eight 
ounces of a clear watery fluid, with 
a foetid odour, turning syrup of 
violets green, and manifestly con- 
taining ammonia in solution ; the 
soapy matter remainin!^ in the re- 
tort had acquired a greater con- 
sistence, was become less fusible, 
of a deeper brown colour, and upon 
cooling, was evidently drier tlian 
before, though not admitting of 
being broken. Eight ounces of 

soapy matter, white and puvifiecT, 
were mixed with an ecjual weight 
of powdered quick-linie ; on the 
addition of a little water, the mass 
heated, swelled, and disengaged a 
very .strongly ammoniacal vai)our, 
accompanied by a peculiar putre- 
scent smell : a sufficiency of water 
being then added to bring the 
whole to the state of an emulsio:i, 
it was heated to ebullition, mucji 
ammoniacal vapour escaping at 
tlje same time ; the liquor being 
thrown on a filter, passed perfect- 
ly clear and colourless, and apj)ear- 
ed to be only lime-water, with a 
very small quantity of soap in so- 
lution : the matter remainincr on 
the filter, being well washed, was 
beaten up with water, but showed 
no tendency to unite with it, sub- 
siding after a time, in the form of 
a white mass ; this, by drying for 
a few days in the open air, became 
grey and much reduced in volume : 
it was then mixed with diluted 
muriatic acid, which immediately 
decomposed it, and a number of 
white clots rose to the surface of 
the liquor. This last being obtain- 
ed clear by filtration, yielded crys- 
tals of muriat of lime and a slight 
trace of phosphoric salt; the white 
clots being washed and dried, and 
afterwards melted in a water bath, 
cooled into a dry, combustible, 
oily matter, brittle, waxy, crys- 
tallizable, and perfectly insolubli? 
in water, to which the name of 
adipocire has been appropriated. 
From this series of experiments 
with lime, it appears that the sojpy 
matter is a true ammoniacal soap," 
with a base of adipocire, to which 
lime has a stronger affinity than 
ammonia; but which last compo- 
sition is at!;ain in its turn decon^.- 
posed by ail the acids, leaving tho 
adipocire in a state of purity. 
Potash and soda produce cffecis 
perfectly analogous to those of 
lime. To the foregoing expt ri- 
ments of Fourcroy, a few f.cLs 



have since been added by Dr. 
Gibbes. The receptacle at Ox- 
ford for those bodies which have 
been used by the anatomical pro- 
fessor there for his demonstrations, 
is a hole dug in the ground to the 
depth of thirteen or fourteen feet, 
and alittle stream is turned through' 
it, in order to remove all offensive 
smell : the flesh contained in this 
was found, on examination, to be 
quite white, and for the most part 
changed into the soapy matter a- 
bove mentioned. From this hint, 
pieces of lean beef were enclosed 
in a perforated box, and placed in 
running water, and at the end of a 
month were found converted into 
a mass of fatty matter ; this change 
was observed to take place much 
sooner and miore completely in 
running than in stagnant v/ater : 
in order to get rid of the foetid 
smell, nitrous acid was had re- 
course to, which immediately had 
the desired effect ; a waxy smell 
was perceived, and by melting the 
matter it was obtained nearly pure ; 
the yellow colour which had been 
given to it by the nitrous acid, was 
wholly discharged by the oxymu- 
riatic acid. A similar conversion 
of muscular fibre takes place by 
maceration in very diluted nitrous 
acid. Dr. Gibbes has not men- 
tioned whether the fatty matter 
produced by running water is pure 
adipocire, or ammoniacal soap ; it 
appears probable, however, that it 
is in the former state ; where ni- 
trous acid is the menstruum em- 
ployed, it is obviously impossible 
that the adipocire should be com- 
bined with an alkali. 

Adiftosce Aterice. They are bran- 
ches from the phrenic arteries, 
which are spread on the fat that 
covers the kidneys. 

Adifiosa Membrana. The cellu- 
lar membrane is so called, where 
it contains a white granulated mat- 
ter, capable only of being fused by 
heat. Dr, Hunter says, it is a com- 

position of ductile membranes, 
connected by a sort of net work. 
He farther observes, that it is com- 
posed of two kinds of cells ; viz. 
the reticular, which communicate 
with each other, and the adipose, 
which do not communicate. ^But 
those that are reticular are more 
properly the cellular membrane. 

Adifiosa Vena., or Vena renalis. 
It is a vein arising from the de- 
scending trunk of the cava, which 
spreads itself on the coat and fat 
that covers the kidneys. 

Adi/wsi Ductus, called also Sac- 
cull, and Vesicula adiposa, are pas- 
sages which convey the fat into the 
interstices of the muscles, or to 
the parts between the fiesh and 
the skin ; or, they are the bags or 
ducts containing the fat. 

Adifisia, from a, neg. and h-\^§i, 
thirst, want of thirst. 

Adip.sos. So the Greeks called 
the Egyptian palm-tree, whose 
fruit, before it is ripe, is said to be 
the Myrobalans, The tree is 
called adipsos, because its. fruit 
quencheth thirst. Theophrastus 
calls this tree Balanos. Adipsos is 
also a name for liquorice. 

Adnata. It is also called Alhu- 
ghiea i and is generally confound- 
ed with the Conjunctiva, which 
see. The adnata is thus formed; 
five of the muscles which move 
the eyes, take their origin from 
the bottom of the orbit, and the 
sixth arises from the edge of it ; 
they are all inserted by a tendinous 
expansion into the anterior part of 
the Tunica sclerotica ; which ex- 
pansion gives the whiteness pecu- 
liar to the fore part of the eye. It 
lies betwixt the sclerotica and 

Adolescena, expresses that part 
of life between the end of child- 
hood and a man's full strength, and 
is reckoned the most healthful. 

Adopter, in Chemistry, a large 
round receiver with two necks di- 
ametrically opposite to each other. 



one of which admits the neck of 
the retort, and the other is joined 
to another receiver, in order, in 
certain distillations, to give more 
space to the elastic vapours. 

Ad fiondua omnium^ the w^eight 
of the whole, signifies that the last 
prescribed ingredient ought to 
weigh as much as all the others 
taken together. 

Adstrictio. Costiveness. It ei- 
ther expresses the styptic quality 
of medicines, or the retention of 
the natural evacuations by the ri- 
gidity of the respective emissaries. 

Adstringents^ in medicine, are 
those substances, which possess a 
power of condensing the animal 
fibre. To the taste, they impart a 
sense of dryness, and a remarka- 
ble corrugation in the parts on 
which they immediately act. They 
are administered to restore dimi- 
nished tonic power, secretions 
morbidly augmented, as the alvine 
secretions, Sec. Those in most 
esteem 2X& aluvien^catechu^ lignum 
camfiechense^ ferrum^ rosa rubj^Uy 
acids, exercise, and cold. 

Adstringents, In surgery, ad- 
stringents are those substances 
which procure a constriction of 
the orifices of ruptured vessels ; 
such are curfium^ oleum terebiii- 
thina^ &c. 

Adulteration. It is the debasing 
medicine with bad ingredients, or. 
putting one thing for another for 
the sake of greater profit. He 
who adulterates or counterfeits 
medicines is often not only a rob- 
ber, but also a murderer. 

Adusta^ adust, burnt, scorched, 
or parched ; from a.duro^ to burn. 

Adynamia. 'A^waijua, from ec 
priv. and ^vmfjui , strength or Jbrce, 
weakness or impotence from ill- 
ness. Also lassitude, and some- 
times it signifies sleepiness. In 
Dr. Cullen's A^osology it is the 
name of an order in the class of 
neuroses ; and, by adynamia:, he 
means those diseases which con- 

sist in a weakness or loss of mo- 
tion, in either the vital or natural 

JEgilofis^Anchilop.s, w>y\\u^, vjyX^' 
A<k4', from 4w|, a goat, and w\^, an 
eye, goat's eye ; a disease so cal- 
led because goats are said to be 
subject to it. It is tne fistula lach* 
rymalis just when it begins to dis- 
charge pus. 

JEgyfitia Ulcera. Also called 
Syrian ulcers. Arteaeus describes 
an ulcer of the tonsils and fauces 
by these names ; they are attend- 
ed with a burning pain ; the mat- 
ter discharged from them infects 
the whole frame, and the patient 
is rendered miserable by the of- 
fensive smell. 

Mgyptiacum. It is an ointment 
(but improperly so called) consist- 
ing only of honey, vinegar, and 
verdigrise. It hath its name of 
JEgyptiacum, from its being said 
to be of Egyptian origin. Mesue 
is its supposed author. 

JEolijiile, is a round hollow ball, 
made of iron, brass, copper. Sec. 
and furnished with a neck, in 
which there is a very slender pipe 
opening to the ball. Sometimes 
the neck is made to screw into the 
ball, that the cavity may the more 
readily be filled with water. But 
if there be no screw, fill it with 
water thus : heat the ball red hot, 
and then throw it into a vessel of 
water ; the water will run in at 
the small hole, and fill about two- 
thirds of the cavity. And if after 
this the a:oli/iile be laid on or be- 
fore the fire, so that tiie water and 
vessel become very much heated, 
vaporous air will be forced out 
with very great noise and violence; 
but it will be by fits, imd not with 
aconstant and uniform blast. Per- 
haps they may be sometimes of 
use to blow the fire, where a very 
quick and stronj^ blast is required. 
And they may serve to scent or 
pertume a room, by filling .them 
Avith perfumed instead of common 



water. They are commonly used 
in Italy, to cure smoky chimnies, 
which they do by being hung over 
the fire, and carrying up the 
smoke thereof along with the 
steam that issues out of their ori- 

^ora, from oau^ia^ to lift ufi^ to 
suspend onhigh,, gestation. A spe- 
cies of exercise used by the an- 
cients, and of which Actius gives 
the following account : Gestation^ 
while it exercises the body and 
limbs, still they seem to be at rest. 
Of the motion there are several 
kinds. First, swinging in a ham- 
mock, which at the decline of a 
fever, is beneficial. Secondly, be- 
ing carried in a litter, in which 
the patient either sits or lies along. 
It is useful when the gout, stone, 
and such other disorders attend, 
as do not admit of violent motions. 
Thirdly, riding in a chariot, which 
is of service in most chronical 
disorders; especially before the 
stronger exercises can be admit- 
ted. Fourthly, sailing in a ship 
or boat. This produces various 
effects, according to the different 
agitation of the waters, and in ma- 
ny tedious chronical disorders is 
efficacious beyond what is observ- 
ed from the most skilful adminis- 
tration of drugs. These are- in- 
stances of a passive exercise, and 
are useful, particularly when ac- 
tive exercise would be improper 
or impracticable. Asclefiiades was 
the first who brought passive ex- 
ercise into practice, which was 
used after severe illness, in order 
to conquer debility, and invigorate 
the system by gentle means. 

The use of exercise in preserv- 
ing or restoring health, is too 
well known to require either 
arguments to enforce it, or regu- 
lations to conduct it. The exer- 
cises here enumerated, we have 
said, are passive only ; and it is 
not easy to explain in what man- 
ner these can be useful. It may 

be remarked that all are attended 
with renovation of the air, which 
surreunds the body ; all require 
some little exertion to preserve 
or restore the equilibrium. Dr. 
Cullen, taking the idea from the 
motion of a vessel, containing a 
fluid, and observing that the mo- 
mentum imparted to the latter 
continued when the motion of the 
former was suddenly stopped, sup- 
posed that the motion of the fluids 
in the blood vessels continued in 
the same way, stimulated the ves- 
sels, and thus promoted the cir- 
culation. The idea was ingeni- 
ous ; but, as the blood vessels are 
constantly full, we suspect that 
the analogy cannot be transfer- 
red ; and the whole advantages of 
exercise must probably be attri- 
buted to the renovation of the 
surrounding air, and the exertion 
necessary to preserve the equili- 
brium. The kinds of exercise 
here mentioned, are progressive 
in these respects ; and of cours^e 
adapted to different states of de- 
bility. Swinging is a more active 
exercise ; riding and walking pro- 
gressively more so, and conse- 
quently adapted to the less deli- 
cate and infirm. 

Other circumstances must, 
however, influence the choice of 
our modes of exercise. Sailing 
has been thought best adapted to 
hectic cases. The effluvia of the 
pitch in the ship may have some 
effect, but these could be obtained 
on shore ; and, when this has been 
tried, no particular benefit has re- 
sulted. The sea air is certainly 
not peculiarly salutary in suoh 
cases ; though, if the idea of Dr. 
Rush be admitted, that the mix- 
ture of sea and land air is rather 
injurious than useful, ii will ac- 
count for the disadvantages some- 
times experienced from a resi- 
dence near a harbour. The bene- 
fits, therefore, probably result from 
the exercise, which is constant ? 



Vhc general tendency of the circu- 
lation to the surface thus excited, 
assisted, perhaps, by the nausea. 
The tendency to the surface is 
evinced by the constipation of the 
bowels, a»d the rare occurrence of 
catarrhal affections on shipboard. 

Riding on horseback has been 
equally commended in hectic cases 
by Sydenham, though not confirm- 
ed by more recent experience. — 
Tliis remedy is certainly better a- 
dapted to the more languid circu- 
lation, in the chylopoctic viscera ; 
to obstructions of the liver ; bad 
digestion ; and want of appetite. 
The succussions which the viscera 
experience by the motion in the 
horse, must undoubtedly assist the 
circulation, when languid from in- 
dulgence and plethora, or when 
obstructed from indolence, or the 
immoderate use of wine and spirits. 

Swinging, another remedy for 
phthisis, should have been men- 
tioned after sailing. It has cer- 
tainly been of service : the con- 
stant renewal of fresh cool air, for 
air constantly renewed in this cli- 
mate must produce cold, checks a 
too high temperature, and lowers 
the pulse, while the exercise de- 
termines the circulation to the 

For preserving health, however, 
walking is the best exercise : in 
all the other species, the extremi- 
ties are not sufficiently warmed, 
while, by walking, the determina- 
tion of the blood to the surface is 
general, every muscle has its share 
of exertion, and the viscera expe- 
rience sufficient agitation to pre- 
serve their circulation undiminish- 
ed in force, though perhaps not 
sufficient to restore it, if the or- 
gans are previously diseased. 

JEqidlibriiim^ is when either e- 
qual weights at equal distances, 
or unequal ones at reciprocally 
proportionable distances from the 
centre, make the arm of any libra 
©r balance to hang even ; so that 

they equiponderate, and do not; 
outweigh one another: in such ^ 
case, we say, the balance is in 
xquilibrio^ a common term in me- 

JEqidnox. It is when the days 
or nights are of equal len;'th. 
Aclius places the vernal equinox 
on the 23d of March, and the au- 
tumnal on the 25th ol September; 
Paulus ^gineta makes the au- 
tumnal a day sooner. The mo- 
dern astronomers generally fix 
them about the 20th of JNlarch, 
and the 23d of September. 

Aer^ A>)p, Air^ (from the Hebrew 
term, cor, light.,) called iilso gas 
ventosum. From a variety ot ex- 
periments, atmospheric air is prov- 
ed to consist of a mixture of about 
seventy-two parts of azotic gas, to 
twenty-eight of oxygen, or vital 
air. Lavoisier says, of about f\A en- 
ty-seven parts of vital air, and se- 
venty-three azotic. But the pro- 
portion of these two gases is sub- 
ject to variation in the mixture 
which forms the atmosphere ; de- 
pending upon locc.1 causes. From 
the decomposition of the atmos- 
pheric air, these two gasses are 
obtained ; and sometimes in their 
simple state, sometimes in a pro- 
portion different from what they 
hold when forming atmospheric 
air, are used for medicinal pur- 
poses. The oxygen, or vital air, 
may be considered as a stimulant;, 
and invigorator of the system ; 
whilst the azotic gas is a sedative, 
and hurtful to the constitution, by 
destroying its irritability. Beiore 
the present sera of chemistry, it 
was the only gaseous substance 
known ; and, indeed, almost all 
that has been formerly written on 
the air relates only to its physical 
properties. The chief of wh.ich 
are : Firsts that it is a fluid ot . x- 
tremc rarefaction, obedient to the 
smallest motion : the slightest 
tation deranges its equilihiiumj 
which is continuallv eudeayouring 




to restore itself. Though very 
fluid, it passes through those ori- 
fices with difficulty, through which 
grosser fluids can pass with ease. 
Secondly^ it is invisible ; it refracts, 
but does not reflect the rays of 
light : it is inodorous, through the 
vehicle of odoriferous particles : 
it is insipid ; and its physical qua- 
lities, chiefly, aff'ect us variously. 
Thirdly^ the weight of the air is 
not perceived but in large quanti- 
ties ; nor is the comparative weight 
easily, if at all, to be ascertained, 
as no two portions are ever of the 
same weight at different heights 
in the atmosphere. However, from 
long and repeated observations, 
the greatest gravity of the air in 
Europe is found to be equal, in 
equilibrio, with thirty inches and 
half of quicksilver in the barome- 
ter, and the least raises it only to 
twenty-seven and half. The weight 
of the common air about the sur- 
face of the earth, at the time of 
the middle weight of the atmos- 
phere, and in every temperate 
season, is to that of water as one 
to 850. Fourthly^ the elasticity of 
the air is one of the properties 
upon which natural. philosophers 
have made the greatest number of 
experiments, and it has ever been 
applied with considerable advan- 
tage in the arts. Fifthly .^ air is 
necessary to animal existence. 
This is evident from the experi- 
ments made with the air-pump ; 
though not without some excep- 
tions, for toads, vipers, eels, in- 
sects of all kinds, and fish, Jive 
for a time in the exhausted re- 
ceiver. They cannot indeed live 
without oxygen, but they expend 
it slowly, and separate it more per- 
fectly from the injurious part of 
the atmosphere. Sixthly^ the par- 
ticles oiair are said to be too small 
for any microscope to discover, and 
yet they are supposed to be larger 
than- those of fire, water, oil, and 
Tti^ny other fluids, since fire per- 

vades glass ; oil; water, &c. will 
pass through many compact sub- 
stances, whilst air is resisted by 
strong paper. This argument is, 
however, fallacious. Seventhly^ 
air is a vehicle of sound, of the 
objects of taste, of effluvia to the 
nose, as is evident from observa- 
tions made on the tops of high 
mountains, where our senses be- 
come duller than when we are 
nearer the plains. Eighthly, it is 
a part in the composition of all 
bodies. Ninthly-, it cannot be ren- 
dered of itself solid by any known 
means. Tenthly^ by contact and. 
cohesion in the parts of bodies it 
becomes solid arid unelastic j but 
when separated by heat, fermen- 
tation, &c. its elasticity returns. 
Heat rarifies,and cold condenses it. 
The physical qualities of the air 
have occasioned numerous disqui- 
sitions. But extensive inquiries, 
the comparison of the tables of 
mortality, experience long con- 
tinued, have allowed us to draw 
few conclusions which will bear 
the test of careful examination. 
In spring, we find inflammatory 
complaints ; in autumn, bilious 
diseases : in every season, fevers^ 
in the commencement inflamma- 
tory, in the conclusion more or less 
putrid. To be more particular : 
Continued cold produces that ten- 
sion of the fibres, that strong and 
steady action, which we style in- 
flammatory diathesis : high situa- 
tions, with a pure bracing atmos- 
phere, produce similar effects. 
These are partly owing to an ex- 
cess of oxygen, as we shall pre- 
sently notice ; but, in a great mea- 
sure, to moderate, continued cold. 
A previous moist, temperate win- 
ter, which predisposes to scrophu- 
lous complaints, will, at this pe- 
riod, produce the most fatal con- 
sequences in hectic cases. The 
fever will increase, the ulceration 
proceed with rapidity, and the 
heat of the ensuing summer close 


the. scene. Those, however, who 
are moderately healthy and not 
peculiarly robust, will jind a win- 
ter, of no extreme cold, healthy ; 
and the opening spring, expand- 
ing the fibres, will give a genial 
glow and new life to every organ. 
Summer, of course, may produce 
its own diseases ; but, if we pe- 
ruse the history of epidemics, we 
shall, with difficulty, trace any 
particular bad effects of the heat, 
till the evenings begin to cool, the 
fruit to be plenty, and the bile to 
become a conspicuous cause of 
disease, from its accumulation and 
excessive discharges. Winter a- 
g;ain recurs, and Dr. Heberden has 
endeavoured to show, from the bills 
of mortality, that it is a fatal sea- 
son. It may be so in general ; old 
people resist cold with difficulty, 
and the catarrhus suffocativus, 
asthma, and similar complaints, 
are often fatal at this period. In 
our experience, however, it is not 
the cold, but the early warmth of 
spring succeeding cold, which is 
most injurious : the constitution, 
braced by cold, cannot bear the sub- 
sequent relaxation. A long dpanp 
summer has had similar effects. 

Philosophers have taught us how 
much pressure we bear from the 
atmosphere ; and of course, from 
the diminution of that pressure, 
we shall feel the want of tension 
or tone which results from the re- 
moval of any support. Thus, when 
the air is lighter, we find a lan- 
guor come on ; when heavier, our 
spirits are more brisk, and lively. 
The whole is not however owing 
to the absolute weight of the air, 
but, in part, to its elasticity ; or 
rather our feelings of health and 
activity are in the compound ratio 
of both. Thus, at the height of 
from 1200 to 2000 feet above the 
level of the sea, the pressure is 
greatly diminished; but we feel 
increased activity, as wo are in 
general above the region of clouds. 


and the air is more elastic ; anxl 
the languor felt in very high situa- 
tions, is not uniform or constant ; 
s-o that it cannot depend on a con- 
stant cause. During rain, the mer- 
cury in the barometer is not de- 
pressed half an inch, yet we feel 
more languor than on the top ol 
mountains, where it has probL^bly 
fallen from five to ten inches. 

In other respects the physici«j 
properties of the air seem to have 
little influence : the warmest and 
longest summers are of^.en heal- 
thy : the coldest winters, with the 
exception of accidental inflamma- 
tory complaints, are the same : 
the warmest weather, with the 
dampest fogs, have been followed 
by no peculiar epidemic. It is 
what Hippocrates long since cal- 
led the ro Gaioy, something divine 
or inexplicable, that produces fe- 
vers and similar diseases ; but, be- 
fore we notice the " divinity that 
stirs within us," we must add a 
few remarks on situation, as con- 
nected with the physical proper- 
ties of the air. 

A dry elevated spot, on a gra- 
velly soil, is said to be most wiiole- 
some, especially if sheltered from 
the east wind. Elevation is however 
relative ; light clouds float in the 
atmosphere, about 1600 feet above 
the level of the sea; and the 
healthiest spot is said to be some 
way above this elevation. This ap- 
pears, however, to be fanciful ; and 
it has not been proved that atmos- 
pheric moisture alone is inju- 
rious. In dry gravelly elevated 
spots, experience has fixed the 
most salutary residence for con- 
sumptive cases; yet, in these, oxy- 
gen seems to abound, which is pe- 
culiarly injurious in such com- 
plaints ; and air of a lower quality, 
as it has been styled, is seemingly 
as good ; in the opinion of some, 
preferable. In asthmatic cases, 
elevated spots are manifestly in- 
jurious. In fttct, theorists may 



declaim, but facts give the lie to 
the most plausible declamations. 
A change is often necessary ; and 
from the effects of that change, 
the conduct proper for each indi- 
vidual must be ascertained. 

It is observed by some authors, 
that vuults, corn-magazines, apple- 
garrets, .&c. should open to the 
north ; for that pomt is invariably 
proper : but the south and west 
are constantly improper. The 
most healthy exposure, if a house 
is to be built, is said to be found 
by cutting one of the trees that 
grow there transversely with a 
saw, observing the rings : the side 
of the tree on which the distances 
between each ring is widest is the 
most healthy exposure, and the 
windows of the house, all other 
circumstances being the same, 
should ever face that way. 

We have mentioned the effects 
of the east wind in general, and 
we shall n©w notice them more 
particularly, though it cannot be 
yet determined whether they be- 
long to the chemical or physical 
properties of the air. The atmos- 
phere, while the east winds pre- 
vail, is lurid; and, even when 
clear, the sun has not its brilliant 
hue. The strength is not equal 
to the usual exertions ; the respi- 
ration is not free ; the spirits not 
lively. Asthmatics and hypochon- 
driacs feel it severely ; yet it is 
often dry, and, when it rains dur- 
ing a southeast wind, its fall is 
frequently periodical, extending 
only to twelve or twenty-four 
hours; while the clouds constantly 
display a promise of fair weather : 
there is seemingly a perpetual 
contest between the causes of rain 
and their antagonists, whatever 
they may be. 

As we have now instruments by 
which the quality of the air may 
be measured, it might be presum- 
ed, that these would inform us of 
the cause of this singular state of 

the atmosphere. The east wind 
is not peculiar to any situation, so 
that it is not injurious from pass- 
ing over a baleful desert, or a suc- 
cessive series of marshes ; nor 
does the eudiometer show any 
particular ingredient which may 
impair health or induce disease. 
We have not mentioned this in- 
strument in our disquisitions re- 
specting air, as it chiefly informs 
us of its chemical qualities. As 
we now approach this subject, we 
may remark that, in all its forms, 
the assistance it affords is incon- 
siderable to the medical chemist. 
In crowded cities, and the most 
apparently healthy situations, re- 
mote from 'Hhe busy hum of men,'* 
its results are nearly the same. 
Chemists must decide whether 
this similarity in the appearances 
are owing to the imperfection of 
the instrument, or whether the in- 
jurious qualities of the air are not 
cognizable by it. We have now 
mentioned this instrument to ex- 
cuse our future silence respecting 
it. Its forms, however, we shall 
afterwards describe, as future en- 
quirers may be more successful. 
See Eudiometer, 

We have said that air consists 
of oxygen and azote in a gaseous 
state. To this, when we speak 
mare critically, we must add car- 
bonic acid gas. It has been dis- 
puted, whether the principal iji- 
gredients are chemically combin- 
ed, or only mixed mechanically— - 
Neither is true. We cannot in- 
deed mix oxygenous and azotic 
gas, so as to form a gaseous fluid, 
like our atmosphere ; yet they are 
not chemically united so as to form 
a tertium quid ; nor even in the more 
general sense of the word, so as to 
produce a substance partaking of 
their united properties ; as when 
we mix spirit with water, or dis- 
solve sugar in any fluid. It seems 
that the particles are united in their 
nascent state, and adhere together 



rather than form a compound. It 
appears ut first sight singular, that 
the oxygen which supports life 
should be in so small a proportion; 
but the singularity will soon vanish 
when we reflect, that oxygen alone 
would be as fatal in the lungs as 
arsenic in the stomach. It is., li- 
terally, like fire which warms ; 
but in excess, will burn. This we 
chiefly mention to explain the in- 
conveniences arising in hectic and 
in asthmatic cases, from air too 
pure : in the latter it stimulates 
the weak lungs too violently ; in 
the former it adds to the tone and 
irritubility of the vascular system, 
already too great. The moun- 
taineer and farmer, who breathe 
air highly oxygenated, are strong, 
robust, and active, but scarcely 
ever fat. Oxygen makes no part 
of this animal fluid ; and hydrogen 
and carbone, of which it chiefly 
consists, do not abound in these 
regions. Hydrogen, indeed, has 
been discovered by Saussure on 
the highest mountains ; but its le- 
vity carries it beyond human ha- 
bitations ; it is an extraneous bo- 
dy, found in air, but not a compo- 
netrt part of it. As its elasticity 
is inconsiderable, it certainly con- 
tributes to the languor experienc- 
ed in highly elevated situations. 

The aerial pathology has not 
yet been successfully cultivated. 
Man can live and enjoy health 
from the heat of twenty-eight to 
one hundred and eight degrees of 
P'ahrenheit. He can exist in a 
constant fog, where the hygrome- 
ter proceeds beyond the extreme 
of humidity ; and in air which 
supports the mercury only at twen- 
ty-two or twenty-three inches, he 
is robust and active. The sudden 
changes are indeed injurious ; but 
the injuries are often transitory 
and inconsiderable; or, if severe, 
producing only temporary and 
acute diseases. But that our ob- 
servations respecting the effects 

of the different airs may be more 
distinct, it is necessary to enlarge 
a little on the chemical properties 
of the different gases. 

Resides the common, or atmos- 
pherical air^ there are various 
other sorts, distinguished by their 
respective characteristics: 1st. 
Air^Jixcd ox fixable. By Van Hel- 
mont^ it was called gas sylvestre^ 
from being produced in vast quan- 
tities from the burning of charcoal; 
from its apparent acid properties, 
aerial acid^crctaceous ac/f/, and car- 
bonic acid ; dLX\{\. ft x e d air, as readi- 
ly losing its elasticity, and fixing 
itself in many bodies. It is an invi- 
sible, and permanently elastic fluid, 
superior in gravity to the common 
atmospheric air, and most other 
aerial fluids. It consists of twen- 
ty-eight parts of carbone, and se- 
venty-two of oxygen, with some 
caloric, forming about one sixty- 
sixth of the common atmosphere, 
though, from its gravity, gene- 
rally falling to the bottom. It is 
unjit for resjiiration ; easily dis* 
solved in water ; exceedingly de- 
structive to animal life, and ^iro- 
diiced in great quantities 7iatU' 
rally from combustible bodies and 
majiy chemical processes. It is 
found at the bottom of pits ; it rises 
from fermenting liquors ; it is one 
and a half heavier than pure com- 
mon air ; water imbibes more 
than its own bulk of it ; flame is 
extinguished, and animals arc de- 
stroyed, by its influence ; when 
the flxable air is separated from 
chalk and other calcareous sub- 
stances, they become caustic, or, 
as they are now styled, pure : it 
is antiseptic, powerfully prevent- 
ing and recovering from putre- 
faction ; whence lime-kilns, which 
discharge great quantities of this 
airy would be useful in the neigh- 
bourhood of populous towns : in 
clysters it halh been very advanta- 
geously administci'ed against pu- 
trid disorders,and, mixed with the 



drm'k,has been thought to conduce fammable azV, if heated inclose 
to the relief of patients labouring vessels; though this is usually 
under putrid fevers. In the form of mixed with air of other kinds, 
yea§t it has also been administer- with water, and with oleaginous 
ed vvith good effect in these dis- 
orders : but though it may be in- 
tr-jduced into the stomach and in- 
testines with advantage, if breath- 
ed into the lungs, it is mortal. To 
fixable air the chief property of 
some mineral waters is attributed : 
the Pyrmont and Seltzer water 
owe their brisk acidulous taste and 
sparkling appearance to it ; and 
it dissolves iron in a small pro- 
portion, when it is mixed with wa- 
ter. Fixable air hath been found 
useful in cancerous, consumptive, 
scorbutic, and other disorders, 
where an antiseptic medicine 
might be expected to afford relief. 
It has not only been considered as 
antiputrescent, but also lithon- 
triptic. When the stomach is 
disordered, carbonic acid air often 
gives a temporary and an useful 
stimulus. It is administered unit- 
ed with water by swallowing kali, 
or soda, in an effervescing state, 
or the one immediately after the 
other, that the effervescence may 
take place in the stomach. 

Air^ -vital; called also dejihlo- 
gisticated^ emp.yreal air, and oxy- 
genous gas. From a variety of ex- 
periments, modern philosophers 
have proved, that in respiration a 
portion of air is lost ; that the first 
effect produced, is the blood as- 
suming a Vermillion - colour, by 
combining with pure air. The 
second is to establish a real focus 
of heat in the lungs, maintained 
and kept up by the air of respira- 
tion. See Heaty vital; and Res- 

Air, inflammable. It is the light- 
est of all the aeriform fluids : in 
general about twelve times lighter 
than atmospheric air. All animal 
and vegetable substances, which 
can be burned in the open air, 
charcoal excepted, will afford in- 

matters. Charcoal, and several 
metals, afford inflammable air by 
heat, if water be present. Some 
metallic substances, during their 
solution in acids, afford, or extri- 
cate inflammable air. which is of 
the purest kind. The com.mon 
process for obtaining it is by dis- 
solving iron filings or shavings ill 
diluted vitriolic acid. It occupies 
the upper parts of subterraneous 
caverns ; and has been commonly 
found in mines and coal-pits, where 
it is called Fier damp, because it 
is liable to take fire, and explode 
like gunpowder. When not com- 
bined with oxygen it extinguishes - 
fire ; kills animals as readily as 
fixable air ; takes fire by the con- 
tact of the electric spark, prpvid- 
ed vital air be present, or any 
combustible body already in a state 
of ignition, and burning with a 
brilliant flame. If about two parts 
by measure, of inflammable air, 
and one of vital air, are mixed to- 
gether, and set on fire in a vessel 
strongly closed, which may be 
done by the electric spark, the air, 
if pure, will almost totally disap- 
pear, and the product be water, 
and an acid. ^ It holds about half 
its weight of water in solution, 
which imparts to it a disagreea- 
ble odour ; is absorbed by vegeta- 
bles, and becomes a component 
part of their oils and resins. 

The suljihureous, the ^nuriatidf 
and some other acids assume the 
form of air : but as they are nei- 
ther found in the atmosphere, nor 
applied to medical purposes, they 
form no part of the present sub- 

Mtrous air, or nitrogenous gas, 
or azotic gas, forms an object of 
considerable importance in che- 
mistry and medicine. It is fatal, 
\yhen alone, to animal life ; though., 



ift combination, highly advanta- 
geous to it. This gas, wc have 
seen, forms a large proportion of 
atmospheric air ; and the gaseous 
nitrous oxide produces effects in 
respiration highly animating and 
stimulant. It is also the distin- 
guishing ingredient of animal sub- 
stances ; the principle of animal- 

jVitrog-en gas., or the mephitic 
air of former authors, is very ex- 
tensively diffused. Its specific 
gravity is inconsiderable, for it is 
lighter than atmospheric air, in 
the proportion of 985 to 1000. 
Nitrogen, with caloric, forms this 
gas ; and, with different propor- 
tions of oxygen, the nitrous acid 
in its various forms. With the 
full proportion of oxygen, it forms 
the nitric acid, the aqua-fortis of 
the shops : with a less proportion 
it becomes nitrons acid, with still 
less nitrous gas; and withw. very 
small quantity the nitrous oxide. 
Nitrogenous gas is neither acid 
nor soluble in water ; and the ni- 
trous gas is employed as a test of 
the purity of air in the eudiometer., 
q. V. If the air contains oxygen, 
it thus changes the gas into nitrous 
acid ; and a larger proportion of 
the acid is formed when the oxy- 
gen is more abundant ; while, with 
impure air no change is produced. 
In medicine it has scarcely been 
employed : it is said to be antisep- 
tic, and to kill worms, but expe- 
rience has neglected to register 
its effects, or has disregarded it. 

The nitrous oxide is heavier than 
air, and soluble in double its quan- 
tity of Avater. The taste it im- 
parts is sweet, and the odour 
agreeable, though slight. Com- 
bustible bodies, uta high tempera- 
ture, deconipobc this oxide ; and 
it unites with alkalis, thou^^h not 
with acids. In fact, if an acid, it 
is the lowest in the scale, and to 
dispute whether it be so, is to con- 
tend with air. Its effects «n res- 

piration arc singular. It is sai<t 
to animate the person who breathes 
it to a degree little inferior to 
phrensy : the sensations produced 
are highly pleasurable, and no 
languor follows. Though much 
must be allowed to the entluisiasm 
of a discoverer, and to the expt i- 
ence of effects wholly new and 
unexpected, yet very pleasin.c sen- 
sations have been undoubtedly felt 
on its being inhaled. To what 
these are owing has not been as- 
certained. A slight reflection will 
show, that though life is really 
sustained by oxygen, yet this air 
is not proper for breathing for any 
continued period. The pleasure 
excited by fresh air does not arise 
from the oxygen, for it is not in- 
creased, or at least to an inconsi- 
derable extent, in proportion to 
the quantity contained in the air 
breathed. Why azote, that is alene 
fatal to life, should be the neces- 
sary ingredient, is not clear. The 
great principle of distinction of 
animal substances, chemically con- 
sidered, is indeed azote : this- 
principle, so copious in these, is 
found in a small proportion, and 
only in particular parts, of the 
vegetable kingdom ; and it is the 
great problem in the function of 
animalisation, to discover the 
sources of the azote. May it not 
then be the air, and may not the 
animal system feel a peculiar plea- 
sure in the supply of this princi- 
ple, which must neutralise, or as- 
similate, the vegetable food ? It is 
not an improbable supposition, but 
it has escaped us, if it has been 
noticed by any former physiologist. 
Air, in so many various ways 
injured, viz. by breathing, by burn- 
ing bodies, &c. is restored by ma- 
ny means ; a few of which only 
have been discovered. Plants ab- 
sorb carbonic acid gas, and restore, 
in tiieir turn, a pure air ; and thus 
combining with azote, may, im- 
perceptibly to our senses, reno- 



vate the atmosphere. We may 
thus account for the different re- 
sult of the experiments of philo- 
sophers, some of whom have dis- 
covered that plants exhale pure 
air, while others deny it. Inflam- 
mable air seeks the upper regions 
of the atmosphere, and is destroy- 
ed in the meteoric explosions, 
when too copious ; while the por- 
tion arrested in its progress con- 
tributes, as we have said, to the 
production of the oils^and resins 
of vegetables. 

Thus nature very completely 
restores the various changes in 
the constitution of our atmosphere, 
which the different processes con- 
stantly going on may, in her regu- 
lar course, have occasioned. Yet 
the air is accused as the cause of 
numerous diseases ; and it really 
is so. Sudden cold checking the 
perspiration, will apparently pro- 
duce almost every form of the py- 
rexiae. Partial cold will produce 
rheumatisms ; damp air, catarrhs ; 
and in old people those defluc- 
tions which are called humour al 
asthmas, and catarrhi suffocative 
The continued heat of summer oc- 
casions bilious disorders ; and the 
cold of winter a return of the more 
active inflammations. The air is, 
however, chiefly a vehicle of inju- 
rious effluvia ; some of which only 
can be ascertained. Mdi-sh mias- 
mata, as they are styled by patho- 
logists, are the cause of numerous 
intermittent and remittent fevers, 
as well as those appa.rently of a 
more continued form. 

It has been ascertained, that a 
clayey soil, when moistened, will 
attract the oxygen of the air, and 
leave its azotic part not sufficient- 
ly guarded to support the vis vitae ; 
and it is found that districts be- 
come unhealthy chiefly when the 
earth begins to appear, in conse- 
quence of a diminution of the wa- 
ter. It is singular, that Linnaeus, 
>vith a view to prove the cause of 

intermittents to be an argillaceous 
earth, has traced very minutely 
the prevalence of intermittents 
in clayey countries ; a circum- 
stance which may be explained 
from the views just assigned. To 
this diminution of the oxygen must 
be added a larger and unusual pro- 
portion of inflammable air from 
the parts of marshes still covered 
by water. To these conjoined 
causes many epidemics are owing: 
and when the changes in the phy- 
sical properties of the air appear 
to produce fevers^ they act only 
as exciting causes of these mias- 
mata, in a manner to be afterwards 
explained. See Infection and 

It is not found that an unusual 
proportion of fixed air is injuri- 
ous : it falls to the lowest strata of 
the atmosphere ; and, whatever 
be the quantity, it is apparently- 
absorbed. The very extensive 
diffusion of catarrhs and other 
epidemics, of small pox, measles, 
Sec. are from causes combined 
with the air, and no part of the at- 
mosphere. The contagion of 
putrid fevers, viz. the contagion 
conveyed by the patient, or by the 
medium of the attendant's clothes, 
are substances combined with the 
air which the nicest instruments 
have not yet been able to detect, 
though much may be expected 
from the persevering ardour of 
modern experimental philoso- 

jisrology^ from ««p, aer^ and ^cy«^» 
sermo^ a treatise on air ; or that 
branch of physical science, where- 
in the history and phenomena of 
gases or permanently elastic fluids 
are systematically treated of. 

Aerostation^ the science of ga- 
ses as applicable to the construc- 
tion and elevation of balloons. A 
balloon may be considered as a 
bubble rising in the atmosphere, 
just as a bubble ascends in water. 
These bubbles or balloons are 



c£knstructed in two ways: I. Of 
'common iilmosphcrical air, so 
much rarefied by. heat as to rise by 
its specific levity through the sur- 
rounding space of denser atmos- 
phere, until it finds its region of 
equilibrium above. 2. Of hydro- 
genous gas, or inflammable air, 
which is naturally possessed of 
so small a degree of specific gra- 
vity as to mount aloft with the ut- 
most ease. Many curious 3erial 
voyages have been made with 
these machines, which have tend- 
ed in some degree to enlarge our 
knowledge of this branch of phy- 
sics. In France, where they were 
invented, there has been establish- 
ed at Meudon an aerostatical school 
for instructing young men in the 
use and economy of balloons for 
military purposes. It vvas suppos- 
ed they might be employed suc- 
cessfully in reconnoiteringan ene- 
my's camp. 

Aerologice^ that part of medi- 
cine which treats of air, explains 
its properties and use in the ani- 
mal economy, and its efficacy in 
preserving and restoring health. 

Acrojihobi^ from a»;^, a/r, and (po- 
C(^, fear. According to Ccelius 
Aurelianus, some phrenetic pa- 
tients are afraid of a lucid, and 
others of an obscure air; and these 
fte calls aerophobi. 

Aerofihobia^ a symptom of the 
phrcnitis ; also a name of the Hy- 

Mrugo^ the rust of any metal, 
but particularly of copper, which, 
•^vhen reduced to a rust by means 
^f vinegar, is called verdigrise. 
The College have retained verdi- 
grise in their Pharmacopeia ; it 
enters the oxymcl aeruginis, a 
composition standing instead of 
the mel aegyptiacum. 

JEsciilus^ horse-chcsnut. It is 
a genus in Linnaeus*s botany. He 
enumerates two species. 

JEn-frnw Venrrr-^-rr. The venere- 

al orgasm, or the pleasant sertsa- 
tion experienced during coition. 

jEsiuarium^ aestuary, or stoves 
for conveying heat to all parts of 
the body at once ; a kind of va- 
pour-bath. Amb. Parey calls an 
instrument thus, which he de- 
scribes for conveying heat to any 
particular part ; and Palmarius 
De Morb. Contag. gives a contri- 
vance under this name for sweat- 
ing the whole body. Stoves, for 
preserving tender exotic plants 
from inclement seasons, are also 
so named 

^^fituatio^ the boiling up, or ra- 
ther the fermenting of liquors 
when mixed. 

JE'stus Volaticus^ sudden heat, 
which soon goes oft', but which 
for a time reddens the face. Vo- 
gel and CuUen place this word as 
synonymous with Phlogoaisy or 
external inflammation. Sauvage 
ranks it as a variety of the erythe- 
matous inflammation. 

JEther., athf, a supposed fine, 
fluid, subtile substance or medium, 
much rarer than air, and every 
v/ay diff*used in the interstellar 
spaces. An a(/ier, endowed with 
all the properties an ingenious 
philosopher could require, miglit 
help to explain many phenomena 
of nature, and has for tliis pur- 
pose been adapted by Sir Isaac 
Newton, and offered as the imme- 
diate cause of gravity. 

yEi/iet'i a liquor obtained by dis- 
tillation from a mixture of pwre 
alcohol and concentrated vitriolic 
acid. Its chief properties are, 
that it is lighter, more volatile, 
and more inflammable than the 
most highly rectified spiiit of 
wine. It dissolves oils and oily 
matters with threat case and rapi- 
dity. If a small quantity of at/ier 
be added to a solution oT gold in 
aqua regis, and the whole shaken 
together, the gold separates from 
the aqua regis, joins the ar/ury^xnd 
remwins (Jissolred therein. As a 




medicine it is said to be highly 
penetraling, discutient, and ano- 
dyne in nervous spasms, and such 
like complaints. 

jEthiofis Mineralis^ sethiops mi- 
neral, so called from its colour, 
which is like a(fi»o4') a blackmoor, 
from ai6w, to burn, and &;4'j ihe 
countenance. It is a preparation 
made with equal parts of sulphur 
and quicksilver, and is called, in 
the new Pharmacopeia, Hydrar- 
gyrus cum Sulfihure. 

JEthioJis Vegetabilis, vegetable 
SEthiops. It is produced by burn- 
ing the sea-wrack (Fucus vesicu- 
losus, Lin.) in the open air, by 
which it is reduced to a black 
powder. The soap boilers call it 

Mthna^ subterraneous, invisible, 
sulphureous fire, which calcines 
rocks in the earth. The igneous 
meteors about burning mountains 
are called Ethnici. 

JEtia<i ama, the cause of a dis- 

JEtiologia^ aetiology^ from atrta, 
' a cause, and Xey^, a discourse, a 
discourse or treatise on the causes 
of distempers, and their symp- 

JEtites, eagle-stone, also called 
Lapis aquila, so called, because it 
is said to be found in an eagle's 
nest. According to Edwards's 
Elements of Fossilogy, it is of the 
classof earths ; the genus is clay; 
and it, with the Geodae, may rank 
under a species which may be 
Ti?^me(\fgured clay. It is a round- 
ish stone of the pebble kind, from 
the size of a hazelnut to that of a 
walnut, with a hollow in it, in which 
Is a smaller stone, loose, and that 
rattles when shaken ; it is gene- 
rally of a dark russet, or of an ash 
colour. They are found among 
gravel in many countries, but the 
best comes from the East-Indies. 
Ajfection, is applied on many 
occasions where the name of the 
distemper is put adjectivelj, as 

hypocondrical affection, and the 
like. This term is also some- 
times used in physics, much in 
the same sense as properties, as 
the affections of matter are those 
properties with v/hich it is natural- 
ly endued. 

Affinity. Attraction. Elective 
attracticn. A term used by che- 
mists, to tlenotethe continual ten- 
dency to brinij principles together, 
which are disunited ; and to re- 
tain, with more or less energy, 
those which already in com- 
bination. There are two kinds of 
affinity or attraction distinguished 
by chemists. 1. The affi.nity of 
aggregation, which is the power 
that causes two homogeneous bo- 
dies to tend towards each other, 
and to cohere after they are unit- 
ed : thus tw^o drops of water unite 
into one, and form an aggregate, 
of which each drop is known by 
the name of an integrant part. 2. 
The affinity of composition. This 
is that affinity from w'hich new 
combinations result : thus bodies 
of different kinds exert a tendency 
or attraction upon each other, 
which is more or less strong ; and 
it is by virtue of this force that all 
the changes of composition and 
decomposition observed amongst 
them are effected. 

Agalactia. A defect of milk in 
child-bed ; from a, priv. and ylz^«,. 

jigaricus, agaric, op mushroom, 
a genus in Linnaeua's botany ; of 
the order of Fungi. He enume- 
rates twenty-eight species. 

Agaricus Qwe?'cw5, agaric of the 
oak. It is the Boletus Igniarius oi' 
Linnaeus. From its readiness t» 
catch fire it is called touchwood. 
It grows in the form of an horse's 
hoof; externally it is of a dusky 
ash colour, and internally of a 
dusky red ; it is soft and tough. 
It is said that the best grows on 
oak trees, but that which is found 
on other trees is generally as good. 



It hath brcn extolled for prevent- 
ing haemorrhages itfter amputa- 
tions, but, as a styptic, it does not 
appear to excel dry I'nt. 

jiirate. It is a genus in the or- 
der of Quartz. It is a quartzosc 
stone, which possesses all the cha- 
racters oi' flint ; accompanied with 
an elogant and delicate appearance. 
Agave^ American aloe, a p^onu^ 
in Linnaeus's botany. He enunv> 
rates four species. The species 
called agave Americana was first 
brought into Europe by Cortusus, 
A. D. 1651. 

Age^ow^ life, one hundred years, 
or a certain stage of life. The an- 
cients reckoned six stages of life, 
viz. Pueritia, childhood, which is 
the fifth year of our age ; Adoles- 
centia^ youth, reckoned to the 
eighteenth, and youth properly so 
called to the twenty-fifth year; Ju- 
I'cntus^ reckoned from the twenty- 
fiflh to the thirty-fifth year ; Virilia 
ataa^ manhood, from the thirty- 
fifth to the fiftieth year ; Senectiis^ 
old agCf from fifty to sixty; Cre- 
fiita (ctas^ decrepit age, which ends 
in death. 

Agent, is improperly sometimes 
cvttributed to menstruums, or such 
bodies as, in mixture, have the 
greatest share of motion. 

Agheustta, from a priv. and yzvc- 
fj.cety taste, want or loss of taste. 
In Dr. Cu lien's A^osology it is a 
genus in the order Dysasthesitc, 
and class Locales. The causes are 
fever or palsy. This word some- 
limes signifies a fast, or fasting. 

Ague, intermitting fever, wlie- 
ther there is a cold fit or not, is of 
no great moment as to t!ie inten- 
tions of cure, that being more ac- 
cidental than essential hereunto ; 
although indeed the term ague, if 
{\o\w algor, coldness, as some will 
have it, is applicable only where 
the cold fit is sensible. 

Air. It is generally understood 
to be that fluid in which we breathe, 
and which covers the earth lo a 

great hcigl.t. Ijeaumc defines it 
to be an invisible, colourless, in- 
sipid, inodorous, weighty, elastic 
fluid, susceptible of rarefaction 
and condensation, and affecting 
none of our senses, unless it be 
that of the touch. 

Aix la Chajielle. The medical 
water at this place is volatile, sul- 
phureous, and saponaceous, pow- 
erfully penetrating and resolvent; 
it contains a very small portion of 
iron. Of the three European hot 
w-aters of note, viz. tliat of Aix la 
Chapelle, Bourbon, and Bath, the 
first is the hottest, most nauseous, 
and purgative : the Bath is the 
least possessed of these qualities. 
Ajava. So the Portuguese call 
a seed which is brought from 
Malabar, and is celebrated in the 
East-Indies as a remedy in the 
cholic. When the gout aff'ccts 
the stomach, these seeds are very 
efl'ectual in dispelling wind, and 
procuring speedy relief from this 
painful disorder. Dr. Percival 
takes notice of these seeds in his 
Jissays Med. and Ex^ier.\o\. ii. 

Al, the Arabian article which 
signifies the: it is applied to a 
word by way of eminence, as the 
Greek "> is. The Eastern express 
the superlative by adding God 
thereto, as the mountain of Godj 
for the highest mountains ; and it 
is probable that Al relates to tho 
word Alia, Hod ; so alchemy may 
be the chemistry of God, or the 
most exalted perfection of chemi- 
cal science. 

Ala, a wing. In botany it is the 
hollow of a stalk which tlic leaf 
or pedicle makes therewith, and 
whence a new offspring usually 
puts forth. Sometimes it means 
the little branches, as when wc 
say the stocks or stems arc made 
with many ala, because branches 
grow from the stock as so many 
ala, or wings. 

The fxetala of papilionaceous 
flower? ])laccd !>ctwecn the vex- 



ilium and the carina, are called 


It is used to express the folia- 
Ceous membranes which run the 
whole length of the stem, whence 
it is called caulis alalus, a winged 

It is used to signify the slender 
membranaceous parts of some 
seeds, such as are observed in the 
fruit of the maple, Sec. 

j^la A^'asi^ or Pinna A^asi^ the 
cartilages which are joined to the 
extremities of the bones of the 
nose, and which form its lower 
moveable part. 

Ala Auris, or Pinna Auris. It 
is the upper part of the external 

Alabastrum^ alabaster, a species 
of the genus of Gypsum that is of 
a solid structure : some pieces are 
transparent, others opake ; some 
"white, others yellow. 

It takes its name from the name 
of a town in Egypt, near which it 
was found. The ancients made 
great use of it for boxes to con- 
tain their precious ointments or 

Alaris Vena^ the inner of the 
three veins in the bend of the 

ALati. Those who have promi- 
nent scapulae are so called. 

Alati Processus^ the wing-like 
processes of the Os Sphenoides. 

Albuginea Tunica. The inner 
proper coat of the testicle is thus 
named, from its white and trans- 
parent colour. It is a strong, thick, 
white membrane, smooth on the 
outward surface, rough, and une- 
ven on the inner: into the upper 
part of this membrane are insert- 
ed the blood vessels, nerves, and 
lymphatics, which send branches 
into the testicles. This coat be- 
ing distended, causes that pain 
which is felt when the testes are 
inflamed, or in the Hernia tumor- 

Alby^inose Humour, So the 

aqueous humour of the eye hatlj 
been called. 

Albugo Oculorum^ the white 
speck on the eyes. The Greeks 
named it Leucoma ; the Latins^ 
Albugo, Nebula, and Nubecula ; 
some ancient writers have called 
it Pterygium, Pennua Oculi, Onyx^ 
Unguis, and JEgides. It is a va- 
riety of Cullen's Caligo Cornea. 
With us it hath various appella- 
tions, as a cicatrice, film, haw, a 
dragon, pearl, Sec. Some distin- 
guish this disorder by Nubecula 
when it is superficial ; and Albugo 
when it is deep. Others make 
the following distinctions, viz. 
when the speck is of a shining 
white, and without pain, it is cal- 
led a cicatrice ; when of an opake 
whiteness, an albugo ; seated su- 
perficially, it hath been called a- 
speck ; and more deeply, a dra- 
gon ; if an abscess was the cause, 
its contents hardening between, 
the laminse of the cornea, causes 
it to project a little, and then it is 
called a pearl. 

Album Alvi Projluvium, the Mu- 
cous Diarrhxa. 

Album (Bals.) i. e. Balsam Ca- 

Album Gracum, the white dung 
of dogs. It was formerly applied 
as a discutient, to the inside of the 
throat, in quinsies, being first 
mixed with honey. 

Albumen, Albumor, white of an 


Alburnum, ivom albus, ivhite^lhQ 
softer and paler part of wood next 
the bark ; artificers call it the sapi 
to distinguish it from the heart, 
which is deeper coloured and har- 
der. Some call this Adeps Arbo- 

Alcahest, an Arabic word to ex- 
press an universal dissolvent, 
which was pretended to by Para- 
celsus and Helmont. Some say 
that Paracelsus first used this 
word, and that it is derived from 
the German words al and geest^ 



i. e. all sfiirit. Von Helmont bor- 
rowed the vvord, and applicul it to 
his invention which he C4.1led the 
universal dissolvent. If Helmont 
had an universal dissolvent, what 
held it? 

Alcalicfit^ a nume of the liquor 
of flints. 

Alchemy^ that branch of che- 
mistry which had for its principal 
objects the transmutation of all 
the metals into gold ; the panacea, 
or universal remedy for all dis- 
eases ; and the alkahest, or uni- 
versal menstruum. Those who 
pursued these delusive projects, 
gradually assumed the form of a 
sect, under the name of x\lche- 
mists, a term made up of the word 
chemist, and the Arabian article 
a/, as a prefix. The alchemists 
laid it down as a first principle, 
that all metals are composed of 
the same ingredients, or that the 
substances at least which compose 
gold exist in all metals, and are 
capable of being obtained from 
them. The great object of their 
researches was to convert the 
baser metals into gold. The sub- 
stance which produced this pro- 
perty they called lajufi phiiosojiho- 
runiy "the philosophers' stone;" 
and many of them boasted that 
they were in possession of that 
grand instrument. The alche- 
mists were established in the west 
of Europe as early as the ninth 
century ; but between the eleventh 
and fifteenth alchemy was in its 
most flourishing staie. The prin- 
cipal alchemists were Albertus 
Magnus, Roger Bacon, Arnoldus 
de Villa Nova, Raymond Lully, 
and the two Isaacs of Holland. 

Alcohol. It is an Arabian word, 
much used in chemistry, signify- 
ing an impalpable powder, which 
the eastern women used as a kind 
of paint for their faces, or other- 
wise as an improvement to their 
complexions. As this powder, 
being 5jn impalpable one, was caU 

led alcohoU this name was givea 
to other subtile powders : so the 
name was applied by chemists to 
the purely spirituous part of li- 
quors that have undergone the vi- 
nous fermentation. It is in all cases 
the product of the saccharine prin- 
ciple, and is formed by the suc- 
cessive processes of vinous fer- 
mentation and distillation. Vari- 
ous kinds of ardent spirits are 
known in commerce, as brandy, 
rum, SvC; butthey difi'erin colour, 
taste, smell, 8cc. The spirituous 
part, however, is the ^me in each, 
and may be procured in its purest 
state by a second distillation, which 
is termed rectification. See Dis- 
tillation^ Fermeniation^ and Recti- 
Jication. Alcohol is procured most 
largely in England from a fer- 
mented grain-liquor ; but in France 
and other wine countries, the spi- 
rit is obtained from the distilla- 
tion of wine ; hence the term spi- 
rit of wine. See Brandy. Alco- 
hol is a colourless, transparent 
liquor, appearing to the eye like 
pure water. It possesses a pe- 
culiar penetrating smell, distinct 
from the proper odour of the dis- 
tilled spirit from which it is pro- 
cured. To the taste it is exces- 
sively hot and burning ; but with- 
out any peculiar flavour. From 
its lightness, the bubbles which 
are formed by shaking, subside al- 
most instantaneously, which is one 
method of judging of its purity. 
Alcohol may be volatilized by the 
heat of the hand. It is converted 
into vapour at the temperature of 
5 5° of Fahrenheit, and it boils at 
165*3. It has never been frozen by 
any degree of cold, natural or ar- 
tificial, and on this account it has 
been much used in the construc- 
tion of thermometers. Alcohol 
mixes with water in all propor- 
tions, and during t!ie mixture heat 
is extricated, which is sensible tr/ 
the hand. At the same time there 
is a m'Uual penetration of the 




parts, so that the bulk of the two 
liquors when mixed is less than 
Trhen separate : consequently the 
specific gravity of the mixture is 
greater than the mean specific 
gravity of the two liquors taken 
apart. Alcohol is supposed to 
consist of 

Carbon 28.53: 

Hydrogen T.Sf 

Water 63.6 

Itsuses are many and important: 
it is employed as a solvent for those 
resinous gums which form the ba- 
sis of numerous varnishes : it is 
employed also as the basis of arti- 
ficial cordials and liquors, to v/hieh 
a flavour and additional taste are 
given by particular admixtures : it 
serves as a solvent for the more 
active parts ©f vegetables, under 
the form of tinctures. The anti- 
septic power of alcohol renders it 
particularly valuable in preserv- 
ing particular parts of the body 
as anatomical preparations. The 
steady and uniform heat which it 
gives during combustion, makes 
it a valuable material for burning 
in lamps. 

Alcmbicus, This word is half 
Arabic and half Greek. From 
the Arabia particle c/, and afAC»|, 
which is a^ain derived from a/x^cc- 
»>ft?, for ava^autf, to ascend, Seneca 
calls it in the Latin language, mi- 
liarium ; in English it is called 
alembic and 7noor*s-/iead. It is a 
copper cap tinned in the inside, 
made like a head ; to this the pipe 
(before worms were contrived) 
which passes through a tub of cold 
water, was fixed, to receive the 
vapour from the vessel containing 
the matters to be distilled, and to 
eonvey it to the receiver. This 
head is properly the alembic, and 
is called alembicus roatratus, i. e. 
the beaked alembic, to distinguish 
it from alembicus ccecus, or blind 
clcmbic, which is without a canal, 

as it is to receive dry substances 
that are sublimed into it. Th« 
still-head is properly an alembic. 

Alepensis, a species of ash-tree 
which produces manna. 

Alexipharmaca, alexipharmics, 
from ei>J^cttj t9 repel or drive aivay, 
Biid ^a((4.xzoi, poison. These sorts 
of medicines, though counter- 
poisons, yet chiefly relate to the 
cure of malignant fevers ; but 
from theory, alexipharmics arc 
what pass through the skin, or 
what drive the supposed poison 
through the pores. 

jilexipharmaca, &X6^i(pcifiiuxoif one 
of the names by which the Greeks 
expressed amulets. 

jilexipyreticumy aXsl^ww^ero*-, A- 
lexipyretos, or Alexipyretum, from 
aXelw, to drive aivay, and trrt/pslor, 
fever, a remedy for a fever. 

Alexiteria, aT^e^irnpm, alexite ri- 
als, from ay^i^ic, and rvjfsft;, preser- 
vative from contaf^ion. Hippo- 
crates used the word to express 
help, or remedies ; but latter wri- 
ters use it to express remedies 
against the poisonous bites of ani- 
mals. By Castellus this word is 
considered as synonymous with 

Alga, Fucus marinus, sea-oak, 
sea-wrack, sea-weed. One of the 
most common species, called Fu' 
cus vesiculosiis, hath been used 
calcined : it is then called JEthiops 

Alga marina, Zostera marina. 
Linn^i. It is gathex'ed on the 
coasts of Scotland and Ireland, 
to be burnt to ashes for the mak- 
ing of soap, glass, Sec. 

Alga, one of the seven families 
or tribes in the vegetable king- 
dom, defined by Linnaeus to be 
such as have their root, leaves, 
and csjudex, or stem, all in one, 
comprehending sea-weeds, and 
some other aquatic plants. In 
Tournefort they constitute the se- 
cond genus of the second section 
of class xvii. and are divided into 



nine species. In the Systema JSTa- 
turx of Linnaeus they constitute 
the third ordej* in the class Cryfi- 
(ogamia, and are divided into Ter- 
rcfitres and Acjuaticce ; the first 
comprehending eight genera, and 
the latter four. 

AUeiiatio Mentis-t i. e. Delirium. 

Aliformis (Processus) i. e. Pte- 
rygdides Processus., from wT»pt;|, 
«/a, a wing, and iiSot , /orma, the 

Aliforvies Musculiy the muscles 
arising from the pterygoide bone, 
and ending in the neck of the 
lower jaw, and towards the inter- 
nal scat of the head. 

Aliment., nourishment, includes 
all that is taken in, as meat or 
drink, from whence nourishment 
is expected. 

Alkali^ in chemistry, a word ap- 
plied to all bodies that possess the 
following properties : they change 
vegetable blue colours, as that of 
an infusion of violets, to green : 
they have an acrid and peculiar 
taste : they serve as intermedia 
between oils and water : they are 
capable of combining with acids, 
and of destroying their acidity : 
they corrode woollen cloth, and, if 
the solution be sufficiently strong, 
reduce it to jelly : and they are 
soluble in water. The alkalies at 
present known are three ; viz. am- 
monia, potash, and soda ; the two 
last are called fixed alkalies, be- 
cause they require a red heat to 
volatilize them; the other is de- 
nominated volatile alkali, because 
it readily assumes a gaseous form, 
and is dissipated by a very mode- 
rate degree of heat. Barytcs, 
strontian, lime, and magnesia, have 
been denominated alkalies by Four- 
croy ; but as they possess the strik- 
ing character of earths in their 
fixity, this innovation does not 
seem entitled to general adoption. 

Since writing the above, some 
discoveries of great importance, 
on tlje subject of alkiilies, have 

been made known to the philoso- 
phical world by Mr. Davy, Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry at the Royal 
Institution. We shall in this 
place give a sketch of the two pa- 
pers which he has just laid before 
the Royal Society, referring to 
some subsequent articles for fur- 
ther particulars. In a former dis- 
course read before this learned 
body, Mr. Davy, in speaking of the 
agencies of electricity, suggest- 
ed the probability that other bo- 
dies not then enumerated might 
be decomposed by the electric 
fluid. In tlie course of the sum- 
mer of 1808, this celebrated philo- 
sopher was employed in making a 
number of experiments with this 
particular view, and by means of 
very powerful galvanic troughs, 
consisting of a hundred pair of 
plates, six inches square, and one 
hundred and fifty pair four inches 
square, he has succeeded in de- 
composing potash and soda, A 
more brilliant discovery has not 
been made since those which have 
immortalized the names of Priest- 
ley and Cavendish. This was ef- 
fected by placing moistened pot- 
ash, or soda, on a plate of platina, 
and exposing it to the galvanic 
circle. Oxygen was disengaged, 
and the alkalies reduced to their 
primitive base, which is found to 
be a peculiar and highly-inflam- 
mable matter, and which assumes 
the form and appearance of small 
globules of mercury. These glo- 
bules are, however, lighter than, 
water, and when potash is used, 
they are in the proportion of six 
to ten. At the freezing point they 
are hard and brittle ; and when 
broken, and examined by a mi- 
croscope, they present a number 
of faccttcs with the appearance of 
crystallization : at 40** Fahrenheit 
they arc soft, and can scarcely be 
discriminated but by their gravity 
from globules of mercury ; at 60* 
thev arc fluid, and at the smirfl 



lieat of lOQo volatile. When ex- 
posed to the atmosphere, they ra- 
picUr imbibe oxygen, and reassume 
the alkaline character. In distil- 
led naptha they may be preserved 
four or five days, but if exposed 
to the atmosphere, they almost in- 
stantly become incrusted with a 
€oat of alkali : the incrustation 
may be removed, and the reduced 
globule will remain, either in nap- 
tha, or otherwise separated from 
all contact with oxygen. See Bi- 

One part of the base of alkali 
and two of mercury, estimated by 
bulk, form an amalgam, which 
"when applied in the circle of a 
galvanic battery, producing an in- 
tense heat, to iron, silver, gold, 
or platina, immediately dissolved 
them, and converted them into 
oxides, in which process alkali 
was regenerated.. Glass, as well 
as all other metallic bodies, was 
also dissolved by the application 
of this substance : the base of the 
alkali seizing the oxygen of the 
manganese and of the minium, 
potash was regenerated. One of 
these globules placed on a piece 
of ice dissolved it, and burnt with 
a bright flame, giving out an in- 
tense heat. Potash was found in 
the product of the dissolved ice. 
Nearlv the same effects followed, 
when a globule was thrown into 
water: in both cases a great quan- 
tity of hydrogen was rapidly libe- 
rated. When laid on a piece of 
moistened tumeric paper, the glo- 
bule seemed instantly to acquire 
an intense heat ; but so rapid was 
its movement in quest of the mois- 
ture, that no part of the paper was 
burnt, only an intense deep red 
stain marked the course it follow- 
ed, and showed a reproduction of 
alkali. The specific gravity of the 
base of soda is as seven to ten of 
water : it is fixed in a temperature 
of about 150°, and fluid at 180«>. 
JVir. Davy next tried its. effects on 

the phosphates, phosphurets, anti 
many other salts of the first and 
second degree of oxydizement, all 
of which it decomposed, seizing 
their oxygen, and reassuming its 
alkaline qualities. From many 
experiments it appears, that 109 
parts of potash contain 15 of oxy- 
gen and 85 of an inflammable base,, 
and that the same quantity of soda, 
contains 20 of oxygen and 80 base. 
This ingenious chemist, after a 
great number of complex experi- 
ments, in which he was assisted 
by Messrs. P^pys and Allen, as- 
certained that oxyg^en is also an 
essential ingredient in ammonia ; 
of which 100 grains appeared t© 
yield 20 of oxygen. Mr. Davy- 
has also found that oxygen is one 
of the constituent principles of 
the muriatic and fluoric acids, and 
likewise of the earths, barytes and 
strontites. See Chemistry, Pot" 
ash, and Soda. 

Alkali ( Saljixum)^ Potash, the 
common fixed vegetable alkali, ob- 
tained from such burnt vegetables 
as are not impregnated with sea- 
salt. This species is called, in the 
new Pharmacopeia, Kali. 

Alkali.) (Fossil), Soda, a genus 
in the order of Alkalies. It rea- 
dily shoots into crystals of a rhom- 
bic form This alkali is called, in 
the new Pharmacopeia, Js'atron. 

Alkali C Volatile J Ammoniac, a 
genus in the order of Alkalies, of 
a pungent smell, which wholly 
sublimes in no great degree of 
heat; and readily strikes a blue, 
colour, with a salt of copper. Vo- 
latile alkali is discovered not only 
in most parts of the clays, but 
likewise in the sublimations atSol- 
fatara, near Naples. This alkali, 
is called, in the new Pharmaco-- 
peia, Ajjimonia. 

Alkalies. They are apparently 
formed by synthesis during the 
decomposition of organized sub- 
stances by high heat Alkalies 
are of two kinds, salts and earths. 



The salts are of three sorts, pot- 
ash, soda, and ummoniac. Potash 
is formed during tlic combustion 
of wood, timber, and generally- 
speaking, of upland vegetables. 
Soda is produced by the iricinera- 
tion of glasswort, sea-weeds, and 
rnaratime plants. And ammoniac 
is evolved during the exposure 
of many animal and vegetable sub- 
stances to a distilling heat. Al- 
kaline earths are of four species, 
lime, magnesia, barytes,and stron- 
tian ; the tv»'o former of which 
are very plentiful irr nature, and 
the two latter exist in compara- 
tively small quantities. Their fi- 
nal cause in nature is evidently to 
repress and neutralize that pre- 
dominating jacidity which would 
otherwise overv/helm the earth ; 
and thereby to produce neutral 
and middle salts. In a particular 
manner they are capable of resist- 
ing the dangerous progress of the 
septic acid abounding in pesti- 
lential or infectious air, and there- 
by preventing the mischief which 
would otherwise ensue. Hence 
alkalies may be termed the great 
safeguards of creation ; keeping 
putrefactive and other acidity with- 
in proper limit and restraint. Al- 
kaline sai(s are more powerful than 
the earths. They have stronger at- 
tractions and greater activity. 

Alkaline salts, more especially 
potash and soda, are the greatest 
detergents or purifiers wliich are 
known. They cleanse garments 
and every thing else which is con- 
taminated with common nastincss, 
infection and contagion, and either 
;neutralize them, or carry them 
clean off. Hence they are cm- 
ployed as the principal and active 
ingredient in soaps ; and are so 
signally active in the form of lix- 
ivia or leys. Without their aid 
in overcoming and removing per- 
sonal nuisances, human life would 
suffer excessively by foulness and 

Alkaline salts, too, are the mo^t 
powerful antiseptics with which 
we are acquainted. Potash is re- 
markable for removing tainted 
and fetid odours, and for keeping 
animal substances sweet, entire, 
and free from decay. Soda was 
employed by the ancient Egyp- 
tians to envelope and penetrate 
the bodies of the dead during the 
process of embalming. And am- 
moniac is sufficiently known to 
possess a like antiseptic quality. 
Lime, too, in the great strata of 
the mountains and plains of the 
earth, evinces its wonderful anti- 
septic virtue, by preserving with- 
in its embrace the remains of ani- 
mals and vegetables from an older 
date than any other monuments 
which exist. Petrifactions of all 
kinds, as old as the everlasting 
hills, are powerful and instructive 
proofs of the antiseptic quality of 

Alkalies are admirable reme- 
dies in dysentery. Administered 
by the mouth, they neutralize, in 
their passage through the alimen- 
tary canal, the septic acid which 
is its exciting cause ; and inject- 
ed in clysters, they allay tenesnuis 
like a charm. In both cases they 
mitigate pain, allay spasmodic ac- 
tion, and restore and equalize the 
peristaltic motion. They effec- 
tually prevent the fetor and infec- 
tion of the stools. 

They are excellent helps in sur- 
gery. Many foul ulcers are very 
much benefited by their applica- 
tion with the dressings in weak 
watery solution. Experiments 
having proved, that, in foul and 
degenerate ulcers, of the common 
as well as of the syphilitic, can- 
cerous and scrophulous kinds, the 
matter secreted on their surfaces 
degenerates to a venomous acid ; 
the propriety of alkaline dressings 
v/ill be instantly apparent. These 
and other properties of alkalies 
have been treated of in Dr. Mic- 




chiU's Essays, published in the 
several volumes of the Medical 
Repository of New-York. 

J.lkalieS'i in Natural History^ are 
an order in the class of salts. 
They are salts of a peculiar taste, 
changing the purple juices of 
vegetables into a green colour. 
They are farther known by their 
vehement attraction to acids. 

Alkalis. A term given to sub- 
stances, which possess an acrid, 
burning, urinous smell ; convert 
syrup of violets to a green colour ; 
render oils miscible with water ; 
and effervesce v/ith certain acids : 
from kali, a plant so called, from 
which alkali is obtained. ^&e Ba- 

Alkanetf Anchusa iinctoria, Lin. 
This root is in common use for 
the purpose of imparting a deep 
red colour to oil, wax, and unc- 
tuous substances. 

Alliwm. Garlick. Allium sati- 
vum of Linnaeus. It is a native 
of Sicily ; but as it is much used 
both for culinary and medicinal 
purposes, it is cultivated in our 
gardens. Every part of the plant, 
but, more especially the root, has 
a pungent taste, and a peculiarly 
offensive smell. The medicinal 
uses of garlick are various ; it is 
given as an expectorant in pitui- 
tous asthmas. Its utility as a di- 
uretic in dropsies is very consi- 
derable. It is also esteemed as 
an antihelmintic ; and the decoc- 
tion of the beards of leeks is of 
infinite service in calculous and 
gravelly complaints. The syrup 
and oxymei of garlick are expung- 
ed from our Pharmacopeias, as 
the swallowing of the root in small 
pieces is considered the best way 
of administering it. — From i. to 
ii. chives. 

Ailsjiice^ i. e. Alyj'tus Pi'menta. 

Almond. See Ajnygdalus. 

Almonds of the throaty, impro- 
Tjerly called the almonds of the 
cars. See Tonsilla. As thev are 

subject to inHammation, they fre- 
quently are the seat of the sore- 

Aloes. The deep red or brown 
and very bitter juice of the Aloe 
perfcHata of Linnaeus. Aloes are 
distinguished into three species — 
soccotrine aloes, hepatic aloes, and 
cabaline aloes ; these differ only 
in their respective degrees of pu- 
rity, the first being the best. They 
are obtained in the following man- 
ner : deep incisions are made, 
from which the juice flows ; this 
is decanted from its fecula, and 
thickened by the sun's heat, in 
which state it is packed in leather 
bags, under the denomination of 
soccotrine aloes. The juice obtain- 
ed by pressure from the leaves, 
a.fter it is purified by standing, 
and dried, is the hepatic aloes. 
The same leaves, by stronger pres- 
sure, afford more juice, which, 
mixed with the dregs of the two 
foregoing, constitutes the cabaline 
aloes. The first sort contains a 
much less quantity of resin than 
the two last, which are more 
strongly purgative. Aloes is es- 
teemed the best laxative for wo- 
men >vith suppressed catamenia, 
and is much employed as an anti- 
helmintic. Several preparations 
of this drug are directed in the 
London and Edinburgh Pharma- 
copeias. — Emmenagogue grs. iii. 
to x. Cathartic 9ss. to 9ii. 

Alopecia., baldness, or the fal- 
ling off of the hair, from a,>.u'Ttr,^^^ 
a ybjc, because the fox is subject 
to a distemper that resembles it; 
or, as some say, because the fox*s 
urine will occasion baldness. 

Alphiis. Vitiligo alba. Morphea 
alba. Lepra maculosa alba. A 
species of leprosy, in which white 
spots appear upon the skin. It is 
produced by a peculiar miasma, 
which is endemial to Arabia ; 
a^i^of, from aX^aow, to change ; 
because it changes the colour of 
the skin. 

Alterantia^ alteratives, or altcr- 
injij medicines, are such as have 
no immediate sensible operation, 
but gradually g,aiii upon the con- 
stitution, by chan^-ing- it from a 
state of distemperature tohcalth. 
See CatharticH. 

Althixay from aASiw, to heal-^ 
marsh-mallow, jiltliaa ojjicinaiis 
of Linnaeus. The gluten or mu- 
cilaginous matter with which this 
plant abounds, is the medicinal 
part of the plant ; it is commonly 
employed for its emollient and de- 
mulcent qualities, in coughs, 
hoarseness, and catarrhs. The 
root had fcwmerly a place in many 
of the compounds in the Pharma- 
copeias, but now it is only direct- 
ed in the form of syrup. 

Aludd^ a chemical subliming 
vessel. They are without bottoms, 
and fitted into one another, as ma- 
ny as there is occasion for ; at the 
bottom is a pot that holds the mat- 
ter to be sublimed, and at the top 
there is a head to retain the flow- 
ers that rise up. 

Alumen^ alum ; a genus of 
earthy salt, in the order of earthy 
neutral salts. It consists of the 
vitriolic acid, and a clayey earth ; 
it changes the purple juices of 
vegetables into a red colour. It 
is of very extensive use in medi- 
cine and surgery, as an adstrin- 
gent. Internally it is given in 
liaemoptoc, diarrhcXia, and dysen- 
tery. Externally it is api)licd as a 
styptic to bleeding vessels, and to 
ulcers where there is too copious 
a secretion of pus. — grs. iv. to xx. 

Atuimva^ or Aliiminc, is a term 
in M. Fourcroy's Elements of 
Natural History and Chemistry, 
for the earth of alum, base of alum, 
or pure clay. 

Aluta JEgijtnia^ the same as 
Aluta^ leather so prepared as to 
be fit to spread plasters on. 

Aluta Alofitajia, a species of 
leather-stone ; it is soft and plia- 


ble, and not of a laminated struc- 

Alvearinm^ from alveare, a bee- 
hive. The bottom of ihe concha, 
or hollow of the external car; it 
terminates in the meatus audito- 
rius. It is in this cavity \s iiere 
the ear-wax is principally lodged. 

Alveoli, the sockets in the jaws 
in which the teeth are set. There 
are usually sixteen of these alveoli 
in each jaw of an adult. 

Alveus. Medicinally it is ap- 
plied to many tubes or canals, 
through which some fluid flows, 
particularly to ducts which con- 
vey the chyle from the receptacle 
thereof to the subclavian vein. 

Alvusf the abdomen ; but in a 
more limited and strict sense, it 
expresses rather the condition of 
the bowels ; as when a porson is 
laxative it is called Alvus liquida ; 
when costive Alvus dura ; and 
when very costive Alvus adsiricta. 

AlycCf ahvKviy anxiety, that anx- 
iety which is attendant on fevers. 

Alyfnim, from a priv. and y^virr,, 
pain, the herb terrible, a specier. 
of Globularia. 

AmalgYwia. In Chemistry it ka 
a substance produced by mixing- 
mercury with a metal. All metals 
except iron, will amalgamate with 
quicksilver. Gold amalgamates 
most readily, silver next, lead and 
tin next, copper v/ith difliculty, 
and iron scarce at all. To amal- 
gamate gold is to reduce it to a 
paste by uniting it with mercury ; 
with this paste, silver and other 
metals are gilt. 

Amatoria, vel Amatoria Fcbrifi, 
the fever of lovers : also the Chlo- 
ro.sis. Vogel defines it to be a fe- 
ver of a few hours continuance, 
beginning with a great degree of 
coldness, and arising from eager 

A ma tor a, Afn.sculi, the muscles 
of the eyes which move them when 
we are said to be ogling. When 
the abductor and humiiis act to- 



gethei*, they give the eyes this 
oblique motion. These muscles 
are also called obliquus inferior 
and superior oculi 

^maiirosis^ from afAocvpoa, obscure, 
to darken. It is a decay or loss of 
sight, when no fault is observed 
in the eye, except that the pupil is 
somewhat enlarged and motion- 
less. The Latins call this disor- 
der a Gutta serena. Dr. CuUen 
ranks it as a genus in the class 
LocaleSf and order Dysasthesia, 
and enumerates the species from 
the following causes, viz. com- 
pression, debility and its causes, 
spasm, and the application or swal- 
lowing of poisons. The sight fails 
whether the object be near or at a 
distance ; but not from a visible 
defect in the eye, but from some 
distemperature of the inner parts, 
occasioning the representations of 
flies, dust, Sec. floating before the 
eyes ; which appearances are 
nothing else than the parts of the 
Retina hid and compressed by the 
blood-vessels being too much stuf- 
fed and distended ; so that in many 
of its parts all sense is lost, and 
therefore no images can be paint- 
ed upon them, whereby the eyes, 
as it generally happens, being con- 
tinually rolling round, many parts 
of objects falling successively up- 
on them, are obscured. The cure 
of this depends upon a removal of 
the stagnations in the extremities 
of those arteries which ron over 
the bottom of the eye ; and what- 
soever forces away the matter ob- 
structing them, will also be able 
to remove the like obstructions in 
the arteries of any other part of 
the brain. For what is generally 
said concerning the optic nerves 
being obstructed in this case, is 
ridiculous ; for the arteries must 
first be obstructed, because there 
is nothing in the nerves which was 
not before in the arteries ; and 
when a nerve is obstructed it may 
be taken for incurable. 

jlmbe, aiiQri, a ll/i, edge^ or hor*- 
der, an instrument used in dislo- 
cations of the humerus. Galen 
explains the word ambe^ by et^pu^n^ 
Eiravaracif , a7i eininence like a boV' 
der, and says that the whole ma- 
chine takes that name, because its 
extremity runs out with an edge 
like the lip or brim of a pot, to- 
wards the interior cavity, which, 
as well as the edge or border of 
any thing on the top or extremity, 
are signified by the word ambe. 

Amber. A beautiful bituminous 
substance, of a yellow or brown co- 
lour, either transparent or opake, 
which takes a good polish, and af- 
ter a slight rubbing, becomes so 
electric, as to attract straws and 
small bodies ; it was called elec 
trum by the ancients, and hence 
the word electricity. When pow- 
dered it emits an agreeable smell. 
It is dug out of the earth at vari- 
ous depths, and often contains in- 
sects in high preservation, a cir- 
cumstance which proves that it 
has been liquid. Amber is alse 
found floating on the shores of the 
Baltic, and is met with in Italy, 
Sicily, Poland, Sweden, &c. From 
its colour or opacity it has been va- 
riously distinguished ; thus white, 
orange, golden, cloudy amber, Sec. 
An oil is obtained from it, which, 
as well as its other preparations, 
is much used in medicine against 
spasmodic diseases. — The oil, in 
doses of from gts. v. to xx. The 
salt from grs. v. to xx. 

Amblyojiia, from a,M,C?iyr, dull, and 
ft;^I/, the eye. It is an obscurity of 
sight, without any apparent defect 
in the organ. In Cullen's synop- 
sis it is placed as synonymous with 
Amaurosis, and with Dysopia. 

Ambra. See Amber. 

Ambra cineracia, i. e. Ambra-- 

Ambra-grisea, ambergris ; a ge- 
nus in the class of injlammables ; 
it is generally foul and opake ; 
when burning, it yields a peculiar 



fragrant smell. Some take it to 
be a vegetable matter; others a 
mineral ; but from some account 
inserted in the Philos. Transac- 
tions, it is most probably an animal 
matter, and the produce of the 
spermaceti whale. It is mostly 
found floating on the surface of the 
Indian seas, though occasionally 
on our northern seas. Mr. At- 
kins relates that it was found in 
the urine-bladder of that iish. Dr. 
Schwediar thinks it is its excre- 

Dr. Mitchill also has been in- 
formed, by several experienced 
whale-men of Nantucket, that this 
is certainly the excrement of tho 
costive whale; in proof of which, 
the appearances of the beaks of 
the ssepice, or cuttle-fishes, upon 
which the whales feed, can be 
plainly discerned in it. 

Ambrosia^ was a sounding title 
given to medicines which were 
pretended of uncommon efficacy 
for supporting the principles of 
life, and procuring a kind of im- 
mortality ; but such terms are now 
not met with. 

Ambulation walking. Ccisus says, 
that if moderately used, it strength- 
ens a weak stomach ; that it is best 
if up and down hill, except in great 
weakness. If the viscera are weak, 
riding is to be preferred to walk- 
ing. Walking preserves, and rid- 
ing recovers health the best. 

Aiyibufita^ burns. Dr. CuUcn 
places these as a variety of Phlo- 
go sis erythema. 

Ambiistio^ from amburo, burn- 
ing or scalding. 

Amenorrha'a.^ from a prJv. /'vnjna- 
I9S, monthly^ and qeo^ /hto^ a defect 
oi' want of the menses. This is 
Dr. Cullcn's generic term for de- 
fective or suppressed menses. He 
places this genus in the class /.o- 
calrsy and order K/iisrhcscs. His 
species are, 1 . Ejuansio nicnniuji ; 
that is, when the menses do not 
appear so early as is usually ex- 

pected. 2. Sufifirpsfiio tvrnsinrn, 
Avhen, after the menses appearint^ 
and continuing as UMial for some 
time, they cease without pregnan- 
cy occurring. 3. Amcnnrrhcca dif- 
Jicilisj vrl Afenorrhagia difficilisj 
when this flux is too small in 
quantity, and attended with great 
pain. Sec. 

Amentaceous Flowers. In /?o- 
tany they arc such as have an ag- 
gregate of summits hanging down 
in form of a rope or of a cat's tail, 
as the male flowers of mulberry, 
8cc. These are also called Juli^ 
and in English Catkins. 

Amentia^ from apriv. and mrns, 
the nmid^ foolishness, a defect of 
imagination, idiotic insanity, a 
slight degree of madness. Dr. 
CuUen defines it to be the weak- 
ness of the mind in judging, from 
either not perceiving or not re- 
membering the relations of things. 
He ranks this disease in the class 
J\'euroscsn and the order Fesani<r. 
His species are, 1. Amentia CogC' 
nita, natural stupidity, i. e. from 
the birth. ^. Amentia Senilis, dot- 
age or childishness, from the in- 
firmities of age. 3. Amentia Ac- 
giiisitay when from accidental in- 
juries a person becomes stupid or 

Amentu}7i^£vom etfjiiuxy vinculum, 
a bond, or thong, or catkin. See 
Amentaceous Flotvers. 

America., one of the four great 
divisions of the earth ; and until 
near the close of the 15th century 
unknown to the Europeans. Its 
inhabitants, being not intent on fo- 
reign voyages, had never crossed 
tiic ocean, and knew nothing of the 
inhaliitants of the eastern conti- 
nent. It lias furnished Europe 
M ith seveial articles of food, as 
the j)otatoo, and the turkey ; and 
with seveial medicines, as the 
guacium, ginseng, ipecacuanha, 
jalap, and Peruvian bark. Its cli- 
mate is found favourable to tlie 
production of opiunv, both from 



the poppy and the lettuce ; and 
physicians in various parts of the 
Gountry, in New-York and Penn- 
sylvania, gather their cantharides 
or blistering flies in their own 
fields. America is often used of 
iate to signify the '^ United States 
of America." In these there are 
several valuable schools of medi- 
cine, as in New-York, Cambridge, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore. For 
some years this region has been 
remarkable for the discussions 
and discoveries that have taken 
place, concerning infectious and 
pestilential distempers, by which 
the knowledge of them has been 
^r^vy much enlarged. On these 
great subjects of human interest 
and inquiry, Europe is deriving 
information, and gathering know- 
ledge from the west. For the ar- 
ticles of a remedial kind which 
this country furnishes, .Shoepf's 
"Materia Medica Americana, Bar- 
ton's Materia Medica, and Coxe's 
American Dispensatory may be 
consulted with advantage. 

Americanum Bals. i. e. Balsam. 

Americanum Tuberosum^ pota- 

Amethysia Pharrnaca^ from ot 
priv. and /*£0y, ivine, medicines 
which either prevent or take away 
the inebriating effects of wine. 

Amethi/stus, amethyst. It was 
so called from a supposition that 
it prevented drunkenness. It is 
a precious stone; a specimen of 
quartzosc crystal. Amethysts are 
met w4th amongst the species of 
four different genera, in the order 
©f quartz. 

Amianthus, amianth ; a genus 
in the order of fibrous stone ; its 
fibres are pliable and soft when 
separated, a.nd of different colours. 

Ammonia, volatile alkali ; the 
salt obtained by distilling the sal 
ammoniac of the shops with any 
substance for which the muriatic 
acid has a stronger attraction. 

When distilled from deer's horns 
it is called spirit of hartshorn ; 
when from viper's flesh, -volatile 
salt of vi/iers ; when from sal 
ammoniac, the spirit of sal ammo- 
niac, 8cc. Ammoniac is a concrete 
salt ; but usually exists in the shops 
in a liquid form, wherein it is dis- 
solved in a large quantity of vrater. 
Its smell is pungent and refresh- 
ing, and therefore is frequently 
employed for smelling-bottles. 
When taken into the stomach it 
is a good, active, and safe stimu- 
lus. It has been recommended to 
neutralize pestilential acidity in 
the air, and thereby to destroy the 
exciting cause of fevers. It ex- 
hales in great quantity from burn- 
ing coal, and doubtless has an 
anti-pestilential operation in cities 
which consume great quantities 
of that fuel. Experiments have 
proved it to be a strong antiseptic, 
as the other alkalies also are. It is 
said to be evolved in considerable 
quantity in some putrefactive pro- 
cesses. When this happens, the 
occurrence is very happy ; for, as 
septic acid is so often formed in 
corruption too, the economy of na- 
ture may be discerned, which fur- 
nishes the antidote together with 
the poison. It is believed to be a 
compound of hydrogen, phlogis- 
ton, and azote, chemically com- 
bined and associated, to a portion 
of water. See Potash and Soda. 

Ammoniac Salt (common), a 
neutral salt in the order of Alka- 
line neutral salts. It is composed 
of the muriatic acid and the vola- 
tile alkali ; it is volatile in a small 
degree of heaty its alkali is ex- 
tricated in pungent vapours on the 
admixture of quick-lime ; its acid ^ 
is extricated in white fumes, on 
pouring concentrated vitriolic acid 
upon it. Ammoniacal salt is a ge- 
neral name for such neutral salts 
as have a volatile alkali for their 
basis. That whose acid is the acid 
of sea -salt, was called sal aramo- 



niac^ and as the first known, it 
gave name to all the rest. The 
name ammoiiiac is deiivcd by Sal- 
masius from one of the Cyrenaic 
territories, Ammonia ; by others, 
from the temple of Jupiter Am- 
mon in Africa ; by others, from 
the Greek a/xft^f, saiidf or a/*|C*6»*a- 
xoir, sandi/y the salt being said to 
have been found plentifully in Am- 
monia, and near Ammon's temple, 
in sandy grounds. The sal ammo- 
niac of the ancients is commonly 
supposed to have been a species 
of 6V// Ge7n. The true modern aal 
ammoniac is never found native, at 
least not in any tolerably pure 
state. The common sal ammoniac 
is an artificial preparation, which, 
until very lately, was made only in 
Egypt. It is now produced in 
England and other countries. The 
volatile alkali obtained from this 
salt is called Ammonia in the lale 
edition of the college Pharmaco- 
peia ; the crude sal ammoniac, 
Ammonia muriata. The taste of 
sal ammoniac is penetrating, acrid 
and urinous. It is exhibited in- 
ternally in intermittent fevers, a- 
menorrhsea, &c. Externally it 
acts as a powerful resolvent and 
antiseptic. — Febrifuge grs. v. to 
XX. Diuretic, diaphoretic; to 3 i« 
In larger doses Emetic. 

Ajiimoniacum ( Gu?}ijj gum Am- 
moniac. It is brought from the 
East- Indies. It is a ffummi-re- 


sinous juice, composed of little 
lumps, or tears, of a strong and 
sgmewliat ungrateful smell, and 
nauseous taste, followed by a bit- 
terness. There has, hitherto, been 
no information had concerning the which aflbrds this drug. It 
is imported from Turkey, and from 
the East-Indies. Internally, am- 
moniacum is given in asthmas, and 
difficulty of expectoration. In 
large doses it proves pur.y:ative. 
Externally, made into a plaster 
with acetum scillae, it produces 
pasties, filler-l with tenacions ptis. 

and is a powerful resolvent. — 
From 9ss. to 9 i. 

Ammoniaciit Vegetahilis (SalJ^ 
i, e. Sfiiritus AliJidercri. Aqua 
ammoniac acetata^ in the late Phar- 

Amnesia, or Amneatia, from « 
priv. and fA,vr,irri^', memory. For- 
getfulness. Some use this word 
as synonymous with Amentia. 

Amnion, or Amnion. Martinius 
thinks it is derived from, or hath 
its name in allusion to «fcvko», a ves- 
sel, which the ancients used for 
the reception of blood in sacrifices. 
It is the internal membrane whicU 
surrounds the foetus: it is thin and 
transparent, soft, tough, smooth on 
its inside, but rough on the outer. 
Dr. Hunter says that it runs over 
the internal surface of the placenta, 
and makes the external covering 
of the funis umbilicalis, to which 
it is most firmly united, and that 
viewed in a microscope, it appears 
to have blood-vessels, but they are 

Amomum. Ginger ; a genus in 
Linnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates four species. 

Amor Insanus. The same as 

Amfihemerinos, from a■^JL(p^, abouc^ 
and >?/xip<K, a day, a quotidian fever. 

Awfihiarthrosis, a mixt sort of 
articulation, partaking of Di ar- 
throsis and Syjiarthrosis ; it re- 
sembles the first in being movea- 
ble, and the latter in its connec- 
tion. The pieces which com- 
pose it have not a particular car- 
tilage belonging to each of them^ 
as in the diarthrosis, but they are 
both united to a common cartilage, 
which being more or less pliable, 
allows them certain degrees of 
flexibility, though they cannot 
slide upon each other; such is the 
conncciion of the first rib with the 
Sternum, and of tiie bodies of the 
Vertebra: with each other. 

Am/i/iibius, Amphibius, of a/xp/, 
(nrka, and ^i©*. Ttfit. Animals are 



.thus called that live both on land 
and in the water : The amjihibious 
animals, according to Linnseus, are 
a class whose heart is furnished 
with one ventricle and one auri- 
cle, in which respiration is in a 
considerable degree voluntary. 

Amfihiblestroidesy from a/xtptCxro-- 
Tpcf, a Tzc^, and t\^Q<;^form ov shape ^ 
the retina or net-like caat of the 
eye. It is a soft, white, and slimy 
substance, which is thus named, 
because, if it be thrown into wa- 
ter, it resembles a net. It shoots 
from the centre or the optic nerve, 
and consists of the medullary sub- 
stance of it; and expanding itself 
over the vitreous humour, is ex- 
tended as far as the Ligamentum 
Ciliare^ or the ligament of the eye- 
lids. If the whole eye was to be 
considered as a flower growing to 
the brain by the optic nerve, this 
tunic would be the flower itself, 
and the other two, the Sclerotica 
and Choroidesf be only in the na- 
ture of a stem. This seems to be 
the principal organ of sight, and 
receives the visible species within 
the eye, after the same manner as 
a white wall, or a piece of white 
paper in a darkened room, receives 
and represents the visible species 
which are intromitted through a 
little hole, so as to form what we 
now call the Camera obscura ; by 
seeing whereof the nature of vi- 
sion may be prettily explained. 

Amfihidiar thro sis. So Winslow 
calls the articulation of the lower 
jaw, which is partly by a gingly- 
mus, and partly by an arthrodia. 

Amp.himerina. See Amphemeri- 
nos for its etymology. Excepting 
a very few instances, it is an inter- 
mitting fever of the quotidian-ter- 
tian kind. It is the continued-quo- 
tidian of Linnaeus and Vogel: 
others rank it as a remittent. 

Amphimerina Catarrhalis, A 
catarrh from cold. 

Amphimerina Anginosa. A symp- 
tomatic kind of quinsy, called by 

Huxham,i^e5n5 anginosa,by otherji 
the mucous quinsy, and the erysi- 
pelatous quinsy. 

Amphimerina Tussiculosa, A 
catarrh from cold ; also the whoop- 

Amphora^ aiA.(pofivry is a measure 
mentioned by ancient physical wri- 
ters, containing eight gallons ; of 
oil 72 pounds, of wine 80 pounds, 
and of honey 180 pounds, as Cas- 
tellus informs us. 

Ampulla, a vessel shaped with a 
belly, as a bottle or jug. In Che- 
77iistry (ill bellied vessels are called 
ampulla, as boltheads, receivers^, 

Amputation amputation, from arn- 
puto, to cut off. It is the cutting 
off any limb, or part of the body. 

Amputatio Vocis. A loss of 

Amputatura. A wound from, 
the entire separation of a part 
from the body. 

Amuletum. An Amulet. Amu- 
lets and charms are so nearly alli- 
ed, that they m.ay be considered 
as being the same. They are form- 
ed of any materials that fancy sug- 
gests. They seem to have been 
artfully introduced, to impose a 
belief in those not in the secret^ 
that those who were exercising 
them were in particular favour 
with some superior being. This 
gave the people a venerable idea 
of the practitioner, and so the vul- 
gar were more easily prevailed on 
to submit implicitly to them ; and 
as the mind affects the body, so 
in some cases the persuasion of 
the patient might contribute to a 

Amygdala. Almonds. The ker- 
nels of the fruit of the almond- 
tree. Amygdalus communis of Lin- 
nsus, a native of Barbary. The 
same tree produces either bitter 
or sweet almonds. Sweet almonds 
are more in use as food than me- 
dicine. They tifi'ord, on expres- 
sion, a great proportion o* piU 


tvhich, from being more agreeable 
to tlic palute than the other oils, is 
preferred for internal use, to sof- 
ten and relax the solids, in tick- 
ling coughs, hoarseness, costive- 
ness, nephritic pains, &c. Exter- 
nally it is used in tensions and ri- 
gidities of particular parts. An 
emulsion of sweet almonds pos- 
sesses the emolicnt qualities of 
the oil. 

J?nygdal<e^ Almonds. The fruit 
so called See Jmygdalus. Also 
the glands called TonailU. See 
Almonds of the throat, 

Aniygdalia. So Hippocrates 
calls the tonsils. 

Amygdalatum, The almond 

Aviygdalus Persica. Pcach- 
bcaring almond-tree. A species 
of Amygdalus. 

Amygdalusy Almond ; a genus 
in Linnaeus's botany. He includes 
the peach-tree in this genus ; and 
enumerates four species. The 
college hath retained the amyg- 
dala amara and dulcis. 

Amyla^ a/^uXov. Any sort of che- 
mical fsecula. 

AmyluirLy a,[ji.v\ov. Starch, from 
a, priv. and /xyA>j, a inill^ because it 
is made of corn without a mill, or 
without grinding. It is the faecula 
of wheat, but deprived of its salt 
and oil. It is made from all kinds 
of wheat, from potatoes, 8cc. It 
was invented in the Isle of Chios, 
and is valued by its lightness and 
smoothness. Starch is frequently 
employed in glysters against di- 
arrhoeas. Externally, surgeons 
employ it as an absorbent in ery- 

Ana. See A. 

Anccsthcsia^ ccvai jQrKnx^ from a, 
priv. and aia-9avo/xai, scntio. Loss 
of feeling by the touch, or loss of 
perception. Dr. Cullcn ranks this 
genus of diseases in the class Lo- 
cales^ and the order Dysaathesia. 

Analefisis-) «?«a*j4'*?j from PivaXocu- 


Cavo), to recover and regain vigour 
after dcknenH. Hence Analt j.iica. 

Analefitica. Analepiics. Its de- 
rivation is the same w'whAnaUfisis, 
They are such things as restore, 
particularly such also as exhila- 
rate the spirits. Besides the nu- 
tritious quality of restoratives that 
are analeptic, they have a sweet, 
fragrant, subtile, oleous principle, 
which immediately aftects the 
nerves, and gives a kind of friendly 
motion to the fluids. 

Analogia^ oivaKoyKx,, from aya?,oy^- 
^oy.xi, to compare^ or liken one thing 
with another. 

Analoglsm^ cf,4a.7.frfi(j^o:,^ ^^ j^^^rting 
of diseases by similar appearances, 
or discovering a thing unknown, 
by its similitude with something 
already known ; and this way of 
reduction v/as called by the ancient 
writers, Medicina Ratio7ialis pre- 
dogmatica^ in opposition to the 
empirica, which was conducted by 
appearances only, without theory. 

Analysis^ avuXva-ic, from avocXvuif to 
resolve. Jnuli. \is^ in chemistry, is 
the separation of any substance into 
its constituent parts, with a vievv' of 
ascertaining their nature, relative, 
proportion, and mode of union. 
An instance of this kind is to be 
had in the decomposition of wa- 
ter, by which it is found that the 
constituent parts are hydrogen and 
oxygen, in the proportion of fif- 
teen parts ofthe former and eighty- 
five parts of the latter. As every 
operation in chemistry is attended 
with a disunion of parts, the for- 
mation of new compounds is al- 
most an invariable consequence : 
hence the business of analysis 
is intimately connected with the 
whole of chemical science, und 
can be only thoroughly understood 
by one that is well versed in every 
brancii of chemistry. On so aii 
extensive a subject it is in vain to 
attempt laying down precise rules 
for the nitclc oi opcn.t'on ?.';'ne«- 
rally. We ujav, however, obsers'e 




that a compound once formed, per- 
petually acquires th« powers of an 
element, in being able to unite, 
undecomposed, with other bodies 
' simple or compounded, in various 
proportions ; and thus to produce 
new substances in which the con- 
stituent parts often retain their 
original affinities, and in analysis 
again separate into their elemen- 
tary substances. We may refer 
to nitrate of ammonia, which is a 
salt composed of nitric acid, am- 
monia, and water, each of which 
is itself a compound, but in this 
particular combination it acts as 
an elementary body : thus, nitric 
acid consists of azote and oxygen: 
ammonia, of azote and hydrogen : 
and water, as we have seen, of oxy- 
.gen and hydrogen: so that in truth 
there are only azote, hydrogen, and 
oxygen, that enter into the combi- 
nation of nitrate of ammonia; but 
in their simple state they cannot 
be made to form the salt : it is re- 
quisite that the acid, the alkali, 
and the water, should be first form- 
ed, in order to get the neutral salt. 
The business of chemical analy- 
sis is to resolve a body into its con- 
stituent parts ; but the first ques- 
tion is to determine, in every in- 
stance of analysis, whether the re- 
solution should proceed to entire 
separation into real elements, or 
only into those compounds which 
act as elements, as in the. case re- 
ferred to, v/hether the nitrate of 
- ammonia should be resolved into 
azote, hydrogen, and oxygen ; or 
' whether it should not first be re- 
duced into nitric acid, ammonia, 
and water. The former mode is 
best calculated for research, the 
latter for utility ; but a mixture of 
the two methods is commonly a- 
dopted, where the proportion and 
nature of the compound produced 
has already been fully ascertained 
by p!"evious experiment. The most 
ric;id proof of the accuracy of ana- 
^lysis, is io be able to produce the 

same compound by uniting the 
identical parts which we have giv- 
en as its constituents. This can 
rarely be performed in a manner 
perfectly satisfactory ; but it fre- 
quently happens that a substance 
may be reproduced that resembles 
the one analysed, by employing 
similar constituents, if not the 
identical substances. This proof 
even is almost totally wanting in 
the analysis of organized bodies, 
whether vegetable or animal, es- 
pecially when reduced to their ul- 
timate elements, and generally 
when only separated into their im- 
mediate constituents. The agents 
made use of in analysis, are heat-, 
the electric and galvanic fluids, if 
they are two fluids, and the appli- 
cation of re-agents or substances, 
which indicate the parts of the 
body to be examined. Analysis is 
also a term sometimes used in 
Anatomy^) to express the demon- 
stration of the parts of the human 
. body when separated by dissec- 

Ananas. The egg-shaped pine- 
apple. See Bromelia. 

Anaphrodisia^ from a priv. and 
a:ffo^tc-ia, venery. Impotence with 
respect to venereal commerce. 
Dr. CuUen makes this a genus of 
disease, in the class Locales, and 
order DysGrexz<e. 

Anasarca, ayacratpv.a, from oc-jccy 
through, and cafl, fiesh, or in the 
Jlesh. A species of dropsy from 
a serous humour, spread between 
the skin and flesh ; or rather a 
general accumulation of lymph in 
the cellular system. Dr. Cullen 
ranks this genus of disease in the 
class Cachexia, and the order Li- 
tiunescentia. He enumerates the 
following species, viz. 1. Anasarca 
serosa, as when the due discharge 
of serum is suppressed, &:c. 2. 
Anasarca oppilata, as when the 
blood-vessels are considerably 
pressed, which happens to many 
. pregnant women, S^c. 3. Anasarca 



fxanthcinatica ; this happens after 
ulcers, various eruptive disorders, 
and particularly after the Knjai- 
fielaa. 4. Anasarca analmia^ hap- 
pens when the blood is rendered 
extremely poor from considerable 
losses of it. ^. Anasarca clcbiUum^ 
as when feebleness is induced by 
long illness, 8cc. M. M. Drastic 
cathartics; crystals of tartar ; pre- 
pared or acetated kali; sqaills ; 
cantharides ; genista ; Bacher's 
pills ; tobacco ; belladonna ; cin- 
chona ; iron ; friction. 

Anastomosis^ oivc^a-roixxa-ic^ from ava, 
through^ and coixoc^ the mouth. To 
relax, or open the mouths of the 
vessels. This sometimes expres- 
ses such an aperture of the mouths 
of the vessels as lets out their 
contents ; but more commonly a 
union between the arteries and 
veins, where the former open into 
the latter ; or where an artery 
* ceases any longer to be such, and 
begins to be a vein. 

Anatoiniay ccvocToy-yi^ from ava, 
through, and te/xvo;, to cut, or dis- 
sect. It is that dissection of bo- 
dies which is necessary to lay 
open all the parts to view. 

Anchusa, Alkanet. A genus in 
Linnxus's botany. He enumerates 
eight species. 

Anchylosis. It is the Fistula 
lachrymalis, in its beginning in- 
flamed state. 

Ancon, ayum, i. e. Olecranon, 
Anconeus J\Iusculus, from a^xi-v, 
the eldorj, It arises, tendinous, 
, from the posterior part of the ex- 
ternal condyle of the Os humeri ; 
it soon grows fleshy, and is con- 
tinued from the third head of the 
Trice/is. It is inserted, fleshy and 
thin, into a ridge on the outer and 
posterior edge of the ulna, being 
continued some way below the Ole- 
cranon, and covered with a tendi- 
nous membrane. Its is to as- 
sist in extending the fore -arm. 

An(iDV(tv9 Kxtei-iius,'^ 1. e. Triceps 

Internm, C Extensor 

JMajov, J Cnhiti. 

.Elinor, i. e. .Inconatia. 

Ancorioid Process. A process 
of the cubit; from ayKy-v, the el- 
bow, and u^o:, shape. 

Andrcinatome, from av»f, a man, 
and TE/xvi', to cut, the dissection of 
a human body, especially a male. 

Andria^ from avr^, a man, an her- 

yindrogi/ni, ocv^foyvvoi, from ccvnp, a 
?nan, and yvvn, a woman, efieniinatc 
men, and hermaphrodites. Plants 
are also named androgynous, 
whose flov/ers have both male and 
female organs within the same ca- 
lyx, or corolla. 

Andromeda ; a genus in Linnse- 
us's botany. He enumerates six- 
teen species. 

Anemometer, an instrument that 
measures the strength of the wiiid. 

Anethum. Common dill. Ane- 
t hum grave lens of hmn^cus. This 
plant is a native of Spain, but cul- 
tivated in several parts of Eng- 
land. The seeds of dill are di- 
rected for use by the London and 
Edinburgh Pharmacopeias ; they 
have a moderately warm, pungent 
taste, and an aromatic, but sickly 
smell. There is an essential oil, 
and a distilled water, prepared 
from them, which are given, the 
former from 2 to 6 drops, the lat- 
ter from 5i- to J i. in flatulent co- 
lics and dyspepsia. They are also 
said to promote the secretion of 

Ancurisma, avwfva-ux^ an aneu- 
rism, from ccvsv^i-JU!, to dilate much ; 
and that from ax^, asunder, and 
vjpv:, broad. The aneurism is a tu- 
mour, caused by ti^.e dilatation or 
rupture of the coats of an ailcry. 
Arteries only are the seat of this 
disorder: and any artery, in any 
part of the body, may be thus af- 
fected, as any vein may be the seat 
of a varix. Dr. Cuilen r.iuks this 
eenus of disease in the class Z&-. 



cales^ and the order Tumores. Dr. 
Huijier divides aneurisnift into four 
kinds, viz. the true, the false, the 
mixed, and the varicose. The 
true is formed by the dilatation of 
an artery ; the false is formed by 
a rupture or wound in the coats of 
the artery ; the mixed is formed 
partly by a wound or rupture in the 
artery, and partly by a dilatation 
of the rest ; the varicose is when 
there is an anastomosis or an im- 
mediate communication between 
the artery and the vein of the part 
where the patient hath been let 
blood, in consequence of the ar- 
tery being wounded through the 
vein, so that blood passes imme- 
diately from the trunk of the ar- 
tery into the trunk of the vein, 
and so back to the heart. Mr. Bell, 
in his System of Surgery^ divides 
the aneurism into the encysted, 
and the diffused. The encysted 
includes all those instances in 
which the coats of the artery be- 
ing only dilated, the blood is con- 
fined in its proper coat : of this 
kind he reckons the varicose aneu- 
rism. The diffused includes all 
those in which, from an aperture 
in the artery, the blood is spread 
about in the cellular membrane, 
out of its proper course. 

Aneurisnia Pracordium^ aneu- 
rism of the aorta near the heart, 
or in the heart. 

jineurisma Varicosum-) the vari- 
cose aneurism. See Aneurisma. 

Aneurisma Venosum^ i. e. Aneu- 
risTua Varicosum. 

Angelica ; a genus in Linnaeus*s 
botany. He enumerates five spe- 
cies. The college have directed 
the root, stem, leaf, and seed, of 
the Angelica Arc hang elica^ Lin. 
the seed enters the spiritus anisi 

Ayigiglossi^ stammerers. 

Angina^ (7vva.yA.riy et xuvccy^yif from 
iiy;^«v, stranguiare, to strangle, is 
3uch an inflammation of the jaws, 
or throat, as renders swallowing 

and breathing very difficult and 
troublesome. Hippocrates de- 
fines this a tumour, either inter- 
nal or external, that interrupts 
respiration ; and Galen, a straight- 
ness of the jaws that renders 
breathing and swallowing difficult, 
proceeding from inflammation : 
but the moderns have given dis- 
tinct names to the different kinds 
of this disorder; ?iS Synanche, when 
the inner parts are inflamed, or 
Cynanche, expressing an inflam- 
mation of the internal muscles of 
the throat, causing the patient to 
thrust out the tongue, and to pant 
like a dog out of breaih ; and a 
Parasynache, when the external 
muscles are so tumefied as to 
straiten the passages within. But 
it hath been justly observed, that 
too nice a distinction of names of- 
ten darkens the true knowledge of 
things. The more general and 
useful distinction of the angina is 
into that of the inflammatory and 
malignant kind ; this last is com- 
monly called the putrid sore throat, 
and requires a treatment very dif- 
ferent from the former. Bleed- 
ing, and other evacuations, gene- 
rally prove prejudicial. Diapho- 
retics, the milder cardiacs, and 
such medicines as resist putrefac- 
tion, the bark, Sec. are found to be 
most serviceable. Dr. CuUen's 
generic name for angina is Cynan* 
che, which he places in the class 
Pyrexia, and order Phlegmasia ; 
and distinguishes five species, viz. 
l.Cynanche Tonsillaris; when the 
inflammation begins in the tonsils, 
and affects only the mucous mem- 
brane of the fauces. 2. Cynanche 
Maligna; when the fever is of the 
low kind, and ulcers are formed in 
the fauces. 3. Cynanche Trachea- 
lis, when the trachea is affected so 
as to constitute the disease called 
the croup. 4. Cynanche Pharyn- 
g(za ; when the pharynx is princi- 
pally affected. b.Cynanche Paro- 
tidaa; when the external paroUi^ 



and maxillary glands are so affect- 
ed as to form the disease called 
the Mumfis. 

Ant^ina Aquoaa^ an instance of 

Angina Convulsiva^ a species of 

Angina Externa^ i. e. Cynanche^ 
•oel Angina Farotidxa, or mumps. 
See Angina. 

Angina Gargrenos^ i. e. Angina 
vel Cynanche Maligna. See Angina, 

Angina Interna^ i, e. Cynanche 
Trachealis^ or the croup. See 

Angina Latena DifficiliS'^ L c. Cy- 
Tianche Trachealisf or the croup. 
See Angina. 

Angina ATembranacea^ i. e. Cy- 
mane he Trachealis^ or the croup. 
See Angina. 

Angina Mucosa^ i. e. Amfihimc- 
yina Angenosa. 

Angina Oedematosa^ an instance 
©f Anasarca. 

Angina Perniciosa^ i. e. Cynan- 
eke Trachealis^ or the croup. See 

Angina Polyfiosa^ i. e. Cynanche 
Trachealis-i or the croup. See 

Angina Suffocativa^ i. e. Cynan- 
che Maligna. See Angina. 

Angina Ulcerosa., putrid sore 
throat, or Cynanche Maligna. See 

Angiologia^ angiology, from ay- 
yaov, a vesscly and oyo^-, a wordy a 
treatise describing, Sec. the arte- 
ries, veins, lymphatics, and other 
vessels of the human body. 

Angiosficrmosy and a-TiPiJLOL^ a seedy 
an epithet for such plants as have 
their seed or fruit enclosed in 

Angiosfierjnia., from ajyS-, a vcs- 
xcly the second order in the class 
Didynamia of Linnseus ; it consists 
of those plants of that class whose 
seeds are inclosed in a pericar- 

Angle of Incidence^ is that an- 
gle made by the line of dirc<»ti©n 

of any body at the point of contact 
with the body whereto it is direct- 
ed ; and is measured from a per- 
pendicular to the plane, or surface, 
at the point where the two bodies 
are supposed to meet. In like 

Angle of Reflection^ is that an- 
gle made by the line of direction 
of the reflected body at the point 
of contact, where in flics off. 

Anglicus Sudor, is now com- 
monly used to express an epide- 
mical colliquative fever, eince it 
was so in England in Henry Vllth's 
reign, and elegantly described by 
Lord Bacon, in his history of those 
times. Sennertus largely treats of 
this subject, De Febr. lib. iv. cap. 
15. But there are many conjec- 
tures about its causes, that are 
merely ridiculous. Dr. Cullen 
places it as a sort of Typhus^ in 
his JVosology. 

Angonasusy i. e. Anconeus. 

Angone. In Vogers genera of 
diseases, it is an acute choaking or 
suffocation, without inflammation. 
According to some it is a nervous 

Angor, ecyunxy is defined a shrink- 
ing inwards in the native heat of 
the body, or its retiring to the cen- 
tre, upon which follows a pain and 
palpitation of the heart, attended 
with sadness. It is esteemed a 
very bad symptom when it hap- 
pens in the beginning of acute 

Angosy oiY/o:^ a vessel, a recepta- 
cle of humours. 

Angularis Arteria, i. e. Arteria 
Maxillaris F.vterna. 

Angularis iMusculusy i. e. Leva- 
tor Scn/mliV. 

Angulus .'icntus Tibi^, the spine 
of the tibia, or the shin. 

Angnstiuy anxiety, restlessness 
in distempers ; also a narrowness 
in the vessels. 

Angusfurcv Cortex, a bark first 
imported into England from the 
AVest-Indics in the year 1788, Its 



jiame is said to be taken from An- 
gustura in South -America. It 
is probably of South- American 
growth. Its external appearance 
varies considerably. When good, 
its outer surface is more or less 
wrinkled, with a greyish white 
covering, below which it is brown 
with a yellow cast : the inner sur- 
fece is of a dull brownish-yellow 
colour. It breaks short and re- 
sinous. Its smell is unpleasant : 
the taste is intensely bitter, and 
slightly aromatic, somewha.t like 
that of bitter almonds, very last- 
ing, leaving a sense of heat and 
pungency in the throat. When 
powdered, it resembles the pow- 
der of Indian rhubarb. Of its na- 
tural history there is as yet no sa- 
tisfactory account. On being in- 
fused in rectified spirit of wine, it 
gives out pure resin, and an acrid 
oily matter ; the bark, being after- 
wards tried with water, yields a 
much larger quantity of dry gum- 
my extract. This bark hath been 
given internally, and applied ex- 
ternally. The powder of the bark 
hath been given in the quantity of 
9ss. or gr. XV. for a dose, every 
three, four, or six hours, accord- 
ing to circumstances. The infu- 
sion is made w'ith ^ ss. of the bark 
to lb. i. of boiling water, and the 
decoction made with § ^s- ^^ ^^^^ 
bark, and lb. iss. of water boiled 
away to lb. i. of these from ^ i. or 
5 X. are a dose. It hath been given 
in dysenteries, diarrhoeas, inter- 
mittents, putrid fevers. See. and 
in tincture made with ^ i. of an- 
gustura, 5^j- of cinnamon, 9i. of 
saffron, and Jxviij. of brandy, di- 
gested together without heat six 
days. See Experiments and Ob- 
servations on the Angusturabark, 
by Aug. Everard Brande. 

Anhelatio^ panting, a shortness 
or difficulty of breathing, or a dif- 
ficult and small but quick respira- 
tion, which happens to persons in 
health, after strong exercise. In 

fevers, dropsies, asthmas, $cc. there 
is always an Anhelitus. 

Anima Mundiy the soul of the 
world, an ubiquitarian principle, 
supposed by Plato to do the same 
feats as Des Cartes's aether, per- 
vading and influencing all parts 
and all places. 

Animal. Every body endowed 
with life, and the power of spon- 
taneous motion, is called an aiii- 

Animalcula^ a diminutive of the 
word animal ; that is, they are such 
little creatures as require to be- 
viewecfthrough glasses, to discern 
them distinctly. 

Animal Functions^ are defined 
by the learned Boerhaave, those 
which, when performed, the hu- 
man mind conceives such ideas 
from them as are annexed to the 
respective corporeal actions ; or 
such wherein the will exerts itself 
to produce them, or is moved by 
them when produced : thus the 
touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing, 
perception, the imagination, me- 
mory, judgment, reasoning pas- 
sions of the mind, and voluntary 
motions, are animal functions. 

Animal Heat. Heat is essenti- 
ally necessary to life. That of a 
man in health is from about 94° to 
IOC of Fahrenheit. It appears 
to depend upon the absorption of 
oxygen in the lungs. 

Animal Sfiirits. See JS/'ervous 

Animation^ a term used to ex- 
press the first sure signs of life in 
an animal. It is also used by the 
hermetic philosophers to express 
a certain state of perfection where- 
to a body is brought by some par- 
ticular process ; at which time it 
becomes capable of eifecting some 
extraordinary change, or of pro- 
ducing, or affording some uncom- 
mon phenomenon. 

Animi and Anamcs Deliquiuin. 
Fainting. See Syncojie. 

Ani7misj is distinguished from 



Jnima^ as the former expresses 
the faculty of reasoning, and the 
latter the being in which that fa- 
culty resides. 

Jniscaljitor, from dmiB-i the 
breach, and scal/Ho, to scratcli. 
So called because it is in use when 
the office is performed. It is the 
Latissiiniis Dorsi. 

jlnlstimy Anise, It is the Pbn^ 
fiinella anisiim of Linnaeus. The 
college have retained this seed in 
their dispensatory ; it enters the 
spiritus anisi compositus : its es- 
sential oil enters the tinctura opii 
camphorata, formerly called Elix, 

Anisum Herbnriis^ Anesum^ Coyn- 
mon Anise. Hoffman calls the 
seeds Solamen Intestinorum^ by 
way of eminence, for their service 
in complaints of the bowels. 

Annihilation. It is the reduc- 
tion of matter into nothing. See 

Annona^ custard apple-tree. A 
genus in Linnaeus's botany. He 
enumerates nine species. 

Annotation the very beginning of 
a febrile paroxysm, called also the 
attack of the paroxysnrv. There 
is another aJinotatio or Ejiisemasia^ 
which is proper to hectic fevers 
happening an hour or two after 
eating : in this there is no shiver- 
ing with cold, as in the other sort. 

Annuena Musculus^ i. e. Rectus 
Ca/iitis hit cm us Alinor. 

Anriularisy the ring-finger. The 
one between the little and middle 

Annularis Cartilago^ from annu- 
lus^ a ring. A name of the Cri- 
coid Cartilage. 

Annularis Digitus^ the ring-fin- 
ger, or that next the little-one. 

Amiularis Vena^ the vein be- 
twixt the ring and little-finger. 

Annularis Processus. Annular 
process, is a protuberance made 
by the meeting of the processes 
of the Medulla Oblongata, under 
the sides thereof. 

Ano^ avo), is used for it/i wards y in 
opposition to /tarv, doirnwards^ and 
is often joined by Hippocrates to 
xot/\*«, Venter, to signily the mouth 
of the stomach, or Oesofihugus. It 
is also applied to things which 
work upwards, as vomits. 

.4nodijna, ocvx^^r/,, from oc, priv. 
and ojlv)iYiyfiain. Anodynes are me- 
dicines that ease pain, and procure 
sleep. They are divided into three 
sorts, viz. 

1. Paregorics, 7rocfr,yofiKx, or such 
as assuage pain. 

2. Hypnotics, vTrvuriKx, or such 
as relieve by procuring sleep. 

3. Aarcotics, yapxxnxx, or such as 
ease the patient by stupifying him. 

Anodyna, avAvjix. When used tc» 
express a disease, it signifies a loss 
of feeling, and is synonymous with 

Avomalia, avuiixXicc, inequality, 
signifies any tiling that is irregu- 
lar, and variously applied. Some 
use it for the accession of a fever, v 
which is attended with a great un- 
certainty of symptoms. Galen ap- 
plies it to the disorders of men- 
strual obstructions ; and Marcus 
Aurelius Severinus, who wrote a, 
whole Treatise of Abscesses, t© 
tumors, either unequal in shape, 
or containing matter of different 
kinds and consistences. 

Anomjihalos, from a priv. and 
o^d^oiKo;, a navel ; without a navel ; 
and is applicable only to our first 
parents, as they were created with- 
out want of nourishment that way; 
for which reason^as Paulus Ammi- 
anus says, they are so distinguish- 
ed in paintings and drawings. 

Anonymos,{xQw\ oc priv. and ovou«| 
a name, nameless. 

Anorexia, avoptfta, anorexy, from 
a priv. and o^-E^t-, afifietite. A want 
of appetite, without loathing of 
food. The Greeks call such as 
take no food Anorccti and Asiti ; 
but those who have an avcrsiof\ to 
food they call A/iositoi. Dr. Cul- 
len ranks this genus oC disease in 



the class Locales and ordei' Byso- 
rexiae ; he thinks it is generally 
symptomatic ; yet he notices two 
species, viz. the anorexia humora- 
lis, and the anorexia atonica. 

Anosmia^ avoa-ixiXy a diminution or 
loss of smelling. Dr. Cullen ar- 
ranges this genus of disease in the 
class Locales and order Dysast/ie- 
sia, and enumerates two species, 
viz. anosmia organica^2LXid anosmia 

jintacida^QX\Xi-2i.Q\^s. Dodaelus, 
in his Encyclopedia^ thus calls all 
those things which destroy acidity. 
The remedies which possess this 
power, are magnesia alba, kali far- 
tarizatum^ sa/io, creta^ oculi can- 
crorum, and most of the alkalis. 

Antagotiista, antagonists, from 
avTi, against^ and aywvt^w, to strive. 
One acting in opposition to ano- 
ther. The word is applied to mus- 
cles which counteract each other. 
Antalgicus, from avrt, against^ 
and aXyoj, fiain. Such remedies 
as ease pain. 

Antalkalines. Medicines which 
possess the power of neutralizing 
alkalines. To this class belong 
all acids. 

Antafihrodisiacos^ Antafihrodisi' 
ac^ from avrt, against, and Aip^o^Cin, 
Venusi It is a term given by We- 
delius to medicines which extin- 
guish venereal desires. Others 
use it in the same sense as anti- 

Antafihroditaca, i. e. Antaphro- 

Antelix, or ylnii/ielix, ay9HXt|. It 
is that part of the ear which is op- 
posite to the helix. 

Antemetica, from avlt, against, 
and £jusl<Ko?, voiniting^ a name given 
by Willis to medicines which allay 

Anterior auris. This muscle 
rises thin and membranous near 
the posterior part of the Zygoma ; 
is inserted into a small eminence 
on the back of the helix, opposite 
to the concha. Its use is to draw 

this eminence a little forwards and 

Anterior Mallei, i. e. Laxator 

Anthelmia, worm-grass, i. e. Spi- 
gelia marilandica. 

Anthelmintica, anthelmintics, 
from av7i, again st,?irid. IXiuvc^aivorm, 
remedies against worms Those 
in the highest esteem are, calome* 
las, stannum, sulphur, oleum linij 
sabina, santonicum, scammoniumy 
jala/ia, aloe, scndgamboga. 

Anthemis, camomile, a genus ia 
Linnaeus's botany. He enumerates 
eighteen species. This genus gives 
us the officinal camomile, called by 
Linne Anthemis JVobilis ; the col- 
lege, in their new Pharmacopeia, 
have directed the use of the sin- 
gle-flowered in preference to the 
double-flowered, on account of the 
virtues principally residing in the 
yellow central flowers, and not in 
the white circular florets. An ex- 
tract extractum chamoemeli is di- 
rected ; the flowers enter the de- 
coctum pro enemate, and the de- 
coctum pro fomento ; the former 
supplies the place of the decoct, 
commun. pro clystere ; the latter, 
that of the fotus communis. 

Ant her a, avO^ipa, from avQ®-, a 
Jlower. In the Linnaean system, it 
is that part of the stamen which 
contains within it the Pollen, and, 
when come to maturity, discharges 
the same. 

Anthracia, Anthrax, avSpaxiT?, ow- 
G^af, which strictly signifies a live 
coal, and figuratively a scab or 
blotch that is made by a corrosive 
humour, that, as it were, burns the 
skin, and occasions sharp prickling 
pains ; for which reason, some, as 
Serenus,call such an eruption Car- 
bo, and others Ignis Persicus. 

Anthropology, from av^^u-'^, a 
man, and Xtyo, to speak, is any dis- 
course or treatise of which man is 
the subject: as, 

Anthropos, a man, or a woman, 
or a husband; »y0fcu7r^, accordine: 



to some, quasi o.')a, r^wnruiv urrcct be- 
cdus'c he directH his countenance 
ufiwards ; iiccorcliiiGj to others, roc 
«ya, S=o.;f(i'y, one that conlemf)latca on 
thivi^H above. 

And,, against. Tliere are vari- 
ous terms compounded \vith this, 
as, Anti-aathmatics^ Anti-hysterics,, 
&c. which signify medicines a- 
gainst the asthma, hysterics. Sec. 

Anticardiuni^ from avit, against^ 
and xa^^ta, the heart. It is that 
part commonly called the Scrobi- 
eulus cordis.) or pit of the stomach. 
Anticrouon, to avlt^pouov, id quod 
repellit, the great repelling power 
or principle in nature, sometimes 
called heat^ as when it warms or 
burns the skin of a sentient being ; 
sometimes called 7?r<*, as when it 
glows or shines so as to strike the 
eye with considerable force ; and 
sometimes called igneous Jiuid^ as 
when it passes from body to body, 
enlarging and dilating all their 
particles in its passage. It is by 
virtue of anticrouon or the repel- 
ler, that the particles of matter 
are kept from actual or mathema- 
tical contact. The term was pro- 
posed us an amendment to the no- 
menclature by Dr. Mitchill in 1801, 
with the design of expressing, in 
more logical terms, the phenomena 
of heat or caloric, and with a fur- 
ther view of facilitatitig the com- 
prehension of Boscovich's elegant 
Theory of Matter. 

Anticusy that which lies in the 
fore -part. 

Antidotusy avTt^oT'i;, an antidote, 
from avlt, against y and ^»«Jfc'/x», togix'e^ 
a medicine given to expel the mis- 
chiefs of another, as of poison. 

Antihecticum, the name of a me- 
dicine invented by Potcrus, called 
also Antimoniuni dia/ihorcticuni Jo- 

Antihelixy a protuberance of the 
ear ; situated before the helix. 

Anfilobiuniy avTiXoiSiov, from avrj, 
against^ and AoCoi', the bottom of the 
car. It is the Tragus, or that 

part of the car which is opposite 
the lobe. 

AnfiiotJnicay from a»Ti, against^ 
and ?^o»/x^, the filagur^ remedies 
against the plague. 

Antiiussus^ from etm^ against, 
and Xwafl-a, the madness cauned by 
the bite of a mad dog. It is the 
name of any medicine for the cure 
of this sort of madness. 

Antimony., a genus in the class 
of metals. It is sometimes found 
in a particular ore, but most fre- 
quently mixed with other metals. 
Mr. Beaume describes it as a mi- 
neral composed of nearly equal 
parts of sulphur and recrulus. It 
is seldom that this combination is 
made artificially, as nature fur- 
nishes it abuntlantly. This mine- 
ral is the ore of regulus of anti- 
inony. It is of a grey slate-colour, 
approaching to that of lead. It is 
disposed in long, shining, brittle 
needles The native metal is of 
a white or silver colour. 

The Regulus o^ antimony is the 
metallic part of antimony. It is a 
semi-metal of a brilliant white, 
like that of silver. It hath the 
opacity, weight, and fusibility of 
metals ; but as all other semi-me- 
tals, it wants ductility, malleability, 
and fixity. The college have re- 
tained antimony in their Pharma- 
copeia: Antimonium Precparafum 
is described among the simple 
preparations : Antimonium Cal- 
cinatum is directed, formerly cal- 
led Calx Antimonii: Antimoniurai 
Muriatum, formerly called Causti- 
cum Antimoniale : Antimonium 
Tartarisatum, formerly called Tar- 
tarum Emeticum, or Emetic Tar- 
tar : Antimonium Vitiificatum: 
Pulvis Antimonialis. This latter 
medicine is intended to supply the 
place of James's powder Sul- 
phur Antimonii Prxcipitatum : 
Vinum Antimonii Tartarisati. 

Anfi/iat/ii(i, a»Ti7ra9«ia, antipathy, 
from ayli, against, luul -QTafid*, iiJp'C' 
tion. It expresses unv opposite 



properties or affections in matter. 
It is opposite to sympatliy ; or 
it is an aversion to particular ob- 

j7itiJihlogisHca^ such remedies 
as tend to weaken the system, by 
diminishing the living power. 

Antifihthisica^ from avli, agamst, 
and <p6ic7i?, a consumfitioii^ remedies 
against a consumption. 

Antiscorbutics. Those medi- 
cines which cure the scurvy ; 
from avlf, against, and scorbutus^ 
the scurvy. To this class belong 
oxygen gas, acids, vegetables, 
bark, &c. 

Antiseptica^ antiseptics, from 
fisvli, against^ and T-nva^^ to fiutrify^ 
such medicines, Sec. as resist pu- 

Antisefitics. Antiseptics may 
be divided into two classes: 1. 
Those things which prevent the 
putrefaction of inanimate substan- 
ces : 2. Such as obviate the putrid 
tendency in living bodies. 

Of the former class of bodies 
alkaline salts rank among the fore- 
most ; for solutions of pot-ash, so- 
da, ammoniac, and lime, have a 
strong antiseptic operation. The 
muriate of soda (sea-salt), and va- 
rious other neutral salts, have also 
exceeding great antiseptic quali- 
ties. So has alkohol and spirit of 
turpentine. Oil, too, particularly 
the more concrete forms of it, as 
tallow and lard, is possessed of a 
large share of antiseptic power. 
To these may be added certain as- 
tringent substances, as the leaves 
of myrtle, the bark of oak, and 
other similar productions employ- 
ed in tanning leather. And un- 
der this head may be reckoned 
several of the acids, particularly 
those of sea-salt and sulphur. 

To the latter head of antiseptics 
belong all those bodies which are 
capable of preserving and prolong- 
ing the vital condition of the ani- 
mal solid when threatened with 
speedy decay. Perhaps the most 

common, powerful, and necessary 
of these is oxygen, as taken into 
the body both by respiration and 
lacteal absorption. It certainly 
has a most noble effect in acute 
and chronic scurvy, and in many 
other states of the body border- 
ing on or constituting malignant 
and putrid fevers ; for here there 
seems to be an approximation to 
death for want of oxygen ; and on 
the acquisition of a due portion of 
this, the nerves, muscles, See. take 
on their due consistency and tone, 
and grow healthy again. Acids 
have long been celebrated in me- 
dicine as antiseptics. As reme- 
dies they appear to owe their an- 
tiseptic virtues chiefly to the oxy- 
gen they contain ; thus renewing 
and invigorating the living solids, 
and redeeming them from septic 
dissolution. In this sense acids 
are frequently the best of antisep- 
tics in relation to the living body ; 
whereas this is far from being the 
case in respect to dead substances. 
Where there is debility in the 
muscles, torpor in the nerves, or 
inability in both to perform their 
appropriate functions, wine is a 
good antiseptic, by keeping up the 
living energy. Peruvian bark be- 
longs to the same class of reme- 
dies, for a similar reason ; it stimu* 
lates moderately, and keeps up the 
powers of life. The same applies 
to other tonics and astringents. 
Alkohol, and even opium itself, 
may be called, in certain cases, 
powerful antiseptics, by allaying 
pain, imparting temporary vigour, 
and gaining a truce with the a- 
gents hostile to health and life.. 
In short, whatever can withstand 
the rapid tendency to dissolution 
in each of these ways, is quoad cor- 
pus vivuTU) as far as the living 
body is concerned, an antiseptic. 
Antisfiasmozdesy from afli, a- 
gainst, and o-rajr//.^, a convulsion^ a 
remedy against convulsions. A 
kind of Anodunes. 



An ti thenar^ from afTt, again sty 
ahd Sc-va^, r/ie //c/m of the hand. 
Dr. Hunter and others apply this 
to the Adductor Pollicis Pedisy 
Avhich see. Some apply it to a 
muscle that draws the thumb to 
the fini^ers. It rises from the 
bone of the vietacarfius that sus- 
tains the fore-finger, and is inisert- 
cd into the first bone of the thumb. 

Antitragicus. See Antitragus. 

Antitragusy AvTixpayoJ, from ai'7«, 
againsty r^ay®*, the thick part of 
the antihelix. One of the proper 
muscles of the ear. It arises from 
the internal part of the cartilage 
that supports the antitragusy and, 
running upwards, is inserted into 
the tip of the antitragus^ as far as 
the inferior part of the antihelix, 
where there is a fissure in the car- 
tilage. It acts only on the cartilage 
of the ear. 

Antizeumicsy i. e. preventers of 
fermentation in general. 

AntizymicSf i. e. Antiputres- 

Antrum Highmorianum. All the 
body of the upper jaw-bone is hol- 
low, and its cavity is thus named. 

Anusy a contraction of the word 
annulusy a ring. In Anatomy it is 
the lowest part of the intestinum 
rectum, commonly called the fun- 
dament. A small hole in the third 
ventricle of the brain, which leads 
into the fourth ventricle of the 
cerebellum, is also so called. 

A7ix'ietas, restlessness. 

Aortaj ece^rny a vessel. It is the 
great artery which rises out of the 
left ventricle of the heart ; from 
this it goes out in a direct course, 
nearly over against the fourth ver- 
tebra of the back. Its course is 
direct with respect to the heart; 
but with respect to all the rest of 
the body, it ascends obliquely from 
the left to the right, and from be- 
fore, backward. Soon after this, 
it bends obliquely from the rio-ht 
hand to the left, and, from before, 

backward, reaching as high as the 
second vertebra of the back ; Irona 
whence it runs down again in the 
same direction, forming an oblicjue 
arch. The middle of this arch is 
almost opposite to the right side 
or edge of the superior portion of 
the sternum, between the cartila- 
ginous extremities or sternal ar- 
ticulations of the first two ribs. 
From thence the aorta descends 
in a direct course along the ante- 
rior part of the vertebrae, all the 
way to the os sacrum, lying a little 
toward the left hand ; and there it 
terminates in two subordinate or 
collateral trunks, called Arteria 
tliaca. The aorta is generally di- 
vided into the ascendens and dc' 
scendens, though both are but one 
and the same trunk. It is termed 
ascende7isy from the part where it 
leaves the heart to the extremity 
of the great curvature or arch. 
The remaining part of this trunk, 
from the arch to the os sacrum or 
bifurcation already mentioned, is 
named descendens. The aorta de- 
scendens is farther divided into the 
superior and inferior portions ; the 
first taking in all that lies above 
the diaphragm ; the other, all that 
lies between the diaphragm and 
the bifurcation. The great trunk 
of the aorta sends ofl* several 
branches in its course. The lar- 
ger branches that go immediately 
from the trunk of the aorta are, 
the two artcriac subclavian ; two 
carotides, one caeliaca, one mcsen- 
tcrica superior, two rcnalcs, for- 
merly termed emulgcnts, one me- 
senterica inferior, and two iiiacae. 
The smaller branches are, the ar- 
teriae coronaria: cordis, the bron- 
diaphragmaticac infcriores, sper- 
maticac, lumbarcs, and sacrae. 

A/ufnia^ «7ri4'«a, from apriv. and 
TriTrlw, to digrsfy indic^cstion. 

Afiefiton^ a-rtwior^ crude or undi- 



Afieriensy aperient, from fl/i^no, 
to ofieTiy the same as deobstruent. 

Jperiens Palfiebram Rectus/l. e. 
Levator Palfiebr£ sufierioris, 

Afiertor Oculi^ i. e. Levator Pal' 
pebra sufierioris. 

Afietalus^ from the primitive 
particle a, and criTaXov, a leaf. 
Tournefort names his fifteenth 
class of vegetables Apetali. Ape- 
talous flowers are without petals. 
They have no other covering on 
the parts of generation but the 

Apex, in the Linnsean system, 
is the extremity in which the leaf 
terminates, to which various epi- 
thets are given, according to its 
figure. For example, leaves are 
called truncate, when they end in 
a transverse line ; obtuse, when 
they terminate, as it were, in the 
segment of a circle ; acute, when 
they terminate in an acute angle, 
&c. ^ee Apices. 

Ap hare sis, a^uh^iatt, from utpetiftUy 
to take away. In Surgery it signi- 
fies the amputation of whole mem- 
bers or parts become diseased. 

Aphilanthropia, from a neg. and 
^iXovfipTTia, the love of mankind. So 
Wedelius calls thefirstapproaches 
of melancholy, when persons be- 
gin to dislike company and con- 

Aphonia, ci^wMa, a name of the 
Catalepsis^ and for the palsy of the 

Aphonia, 0i^«;»(«, from *priv. and 
^4>»», a voice, one who hath lost his 
voice. Dr. Cullen ranks this ge- 
nus of disease in the class Locales, 
and order Dyscinesia; and notices 
three species. \. Aphonia gut tu- 
ralis, wh€n the gullet is affected 
by a tumour in the fauces or the 
glottis. 3. Aphonia trachealia, when 
the trachea is compressed or mor- 
bidly contracted. 3. Aphonia ato- 
nica, when the nerves of the la- 
rynx are wounded or paralytic. 

Aphorismus, a^opcr/xo;, from a^o- 
fif«, to separate or distinguish, a 

short sentence, briefly expressing 
the properties of a thing; or which 
serves as a maxim, or principle, to 
guide a man to any knowledge, es- 
pecially in philosophy and physic. 

Aphrodisia, a(p^o^Knst, from a<ppO' 
^iTn, Venus, venereal commerce. 
Some express by this word the age 
of puberty, or the venereal age. 

Aphrodisiacum, a medicine that 
excites desire to venery. 

Aphrodisiasmus, oc^fo^ta-ioca-^oi;, i. C. 

Aphrodisius Morbus, i. e. Lues 

Aphthx, oi^Qxi, the thrush, a dis- 
order which frequently appears in 
infants in their mouths, as on their 
tongues, gums, &c. It discovers 
itself in the form of white specks, 
chiefly on the tongue and the back 
part of the palate. Dr. Cullen 
ranks it as a genus of disease in 
the class Pyrexia, and order Ex' 

Apices, the same as the Anthera 
of Lihnsus, are by Ray and Tour- 
nefort defined those little knobs 
that grow on the top of the sta- 
mina in the middle of a flower. 
They are of various colours. By 
the microscope they have been 
discovered to be, as it were, a sort 
of Capsule seminales, or seed-ves' 
se/*, containing in them small glo- 
bular, and often oval particles, of 
various colours, and exquisitely 
formed. In the herb Robert these 
apices are of a deep purple colour : 
they are exactly spherical, and af- 
ford a very pleasant prospect in 
the glass. The dust of these api- 
ces, falling down into the flower, 
fecundates and ripens the seed. 

Apium, parsley, a genus in Lin- 
naeus's botany. He enumerates 
two species. 

Apium Macedonicum, i. e. Bu- 
bon Macedonicum of Linnaeus. 

Apium Sativum, celery. 

Apnota, ocwoiic, a defect of respi- 
ratijon, such as happens in a cold, 
an apoplexy, &c. 



jlfiocenoscff^ cfroKivoani;^ partial 
fluxes without fever atteiulin!^. In 
Dr. Cullen's jYosology^ it is the 
name of an order in the class Lo- 

ji/)07ieurosis^ aurovjypw^ir, of avo^ 
froin^ and »£y§«v, a nerve^ any ner- 
vous (or, as it is now called, tendi- 
nous) expansion ; the tendon, or 
tail of a muscle, called by Hippo- 
crates Turwi', a tendon^ or cord. 
These expansions of tendons, cal- 
led ajioneuroscsy or fascia^ grow 
thinner and thinner, till they are 
lost in the cellular membrane. In- 
stances of these occur in the thigh, 
as the Fascia Lata^ the legs, feet, 

jifiofihlegmatismus^ aTro^pXEyjuario-- 
^0-:, of X To^yrorn, and tpxiyixx^ /i/iiegjn, 
a medicine which, by holding it in 
the mouth, promotes a discharge 
of phlegm, such as pellitory root, 
horse-radish, &c. When solid, it 
is called Masticatoriuin. 

Afiofithem^ and jl/iothegm^ cctto^P- 
fiyfjLct^ a maxim ^ axiom^ or standing 

A/iofihyas^ oivo^vcc^j of (x.-o.ifrom^ 
and <?t;a', to groiv, an appendix. 
Any tiling that grows to, or pro- 
ceeds from another. 

Alio f^hy sis., arro^va-igy from airo^vuii 
to firoduce, or from airro and ^yw, to 
grow., an appendix. Any thing 
that grows to, or proceeds from 
another, as branches of trees. Sec. 
In anatomy it signifies the projec- 
tion of a bone. 

Jfiotihysis Gracilis^ the afiofihy- 
sis of the neck of the malleus in 
the ear. 

Afiofilecta., a name for the inter- 
nal jugular vein, which ascends by 
the side of the Asficra arteria. 

A/iofilecticas medicines against 
the AfiofUexy. Vogel says it is a 
continued fever coming on upon 
an apoplexy. 

Ajiotxlccticcc. Thus IJartholinc 
calls the internal jugular veins, 
Irom an opinion of their being par- 

ticularly concerned in the disease 
called Afiofilcxy. 

Ajiofilexy^ a7ro7rX>i|ia, from cto- 
TrX-na-cTujy to strike^ astonish^ kJiock 
doivny or smite suddenly., because 
persons are suddenly attacked with 
this disease. In it there is an al- 
most instantaneous deprivation of 
all sensation, and of all voluntary 
motion. Some define it a sleepi- 
ness with insensibility and snor- 
ing. In Dr. Cullen's JVosology it 
is a genus of disease in the class 
jYeuroses, and order Co7nata : he 
says, it is that disease in which 
the whole of the external and in- 
ternal senses, and the whole of 
the voluntary motions, are in some 
degree abolished ; while respira- 
tion, and the action of the heart, 
continue to be performed. To 
the definition of a/w/ilexy^ he adds, 
that the abolition of the powers of 
sense and motion is in some degree 
only ; meaning by this to imply, 
that under the title of ajio^ilexy 
are comprehended those diseases 
which, as differing from it in de- 
gree only, cannot, with a view ei- 
ther to pathology or practice, be 
properly distinguished from it. 
Such are the diseases named Ca- 
rus<i Catafihora^ Coma^ and I.ethar- 
gus. For the understanding of 
which, it is necessary to premise, 
that if by any means a nerve is tied 
and compressed, the part to which 
that nerve is directed loses its 
sense and motion ; that if any 
nerve is cut, there distils out a 
liquor ; that motion is performed 
from the impulse of the nervous 
fluid, by the force of the arterial 
blood through the nerves into the 
muscular fibres ; and that sensa- 
tion is from hence ; that objects 
compress or strike upon the ex- 
tremities of the nerves by their 
motion, and drive back the nervous 
fluid towards the brain. An afm- 
plexy., therefore, is produced by 
any cause which hinders such un- 
dulation of all the nerves, except 



those Avhicli are destined to move 
the heart ahd breast. But the 
cause of the motion of the heart 
and thorax remaining, or, of the 
pulse and respiration, when the 
other parts are deprived of their 
motion, is because in every mo- 
tion which is performed by mus- 
cles having antagonists, a quantity 
of nervous fluid must be derived 
into the contracting muscle, not 
only equal to that which is derived 
at the same time into the opposite 
muscle, but also greater ; for 
otherwise the part to be moved 
would remain in an equilibrium, 
without motion ; and, therefore, 
more of the nervous fluid must 
pass into a muscle that has an an- 
tagonist than into that which has 
none. But the heart is a muscle 
that has no antagonist, and, conse- 
quently, it requires a less quantity 
of nervous fluid to continue its 
motion than other muscles destin- 
ed for the motion of the limbs : 
therefore, if the cause hindering 
the undulations of all the nerves 
is such, that no juice could flow 
through the nerves, the heart it- 
self would cease from motion, and 
death ensue. But, if the cause be 
not so powerful as to take away all 
the motion of the fluid through 
the nerves, but, so far only resists 
their dilatation, that, only a very 
little fluid can pass through them, 
not sufficient to inflate those mus- 
cles which have antagonists ; then, 
those muscles only will be con- 
tracted, which require the least 
quantity of spirits, and such is the 
heart. Dr. Cullen also says, that 
the proximate cause of apoplexy 
may be, in general, whatever in- 
terrupts the motion of the nervous 
power from the brain to the mus- 
cles of voluntary motion ; or, in so 
far as sense is aff*ected, whatever 
interrupts the motion of the ner- 
vous power from the sentient ex- 
tremities of the nerves to the 
brain. Such an interruption of 

the motions of the nervous power 
may be occasioned cither by some 
compression of the origin ot the 
nerves, or by something destroy- 
ing the mobility of the nervous 

Apostema^ a7rocrT>^a, from a$Krr^fjUf 
to separate, the same as Abacessus, 
which see ; or from ccnrojfrom, and 
KTTYifMj to stand. 

ApQtheca, a:ro9«HT), from a.vori'^y,fxi^ 
to lay aside, or reposit, forn\erly 
signified a wine-cellar, but no\v a 
shop where medicines are sold; 

Apothecarius. An apothecary, 
from aro, cum, with, and Ti9»9p,i, 
pono, to put, is so called from his 
employ being to prepare and keep 
in readiness the various articles in 
the Materia Medica, and to com- 
pound them for the physician's 
use. In every European country 
except Great-Britain, the apothe^ 
cary is the same as in England we 
name the druggist and chymist. — 
The word apotheca sometimes sig- 
niiies a gaily -pot. 

Apozema, aTro^e/xa, from aro^Eo;, a 
boil, a decoction. 

Apozymos, ocTro^vixog, from ^vju.^, a 
ferment, fermented. 

Apparatus, from apparo, to pre- 
pare, or to provide, is used va- 
riously, as a disposition of instru- 
ments, and of all other things, in- 
to a readiness, by a surgeon, for 
any operation ; often mentioned 
by Scultetus in this sense : and, 
in mechanics, or experimental 
philosophy, it signifies the fitness 
of the instruments to perform 
certain things with. But in gene- 
ral it stands for all that previous 
knowledge of materials, or other 
things requisite to the study or 
practice of any art or science. 
The word is applied also to che- 

Appareil. This word is from 
the French. It is intended to ex- 
press the first eff*orts of any organ 
or gland, by which it is put in ac- 



lion, either by a spontaneous in- 
flammation, or an increased de- 
gree of sensibility. The erection 
of the penis is the afifiareil of the 
venereal orj^ans, previous to the 
excretion of the seminal fluids. 

Afificndices Coli Adij[ws(S. Along 
the threat arch of the colon, and 
its two last incurvations, are a kind 
of fringes thus named. See Aji- 
fiendices EpifilotLX. 

jifipendices Efiifiloicce. The fatty 
ajificndicca of the colon and rectum 
have always appeared to be a kind 
of small omentaov a/i/iefidiccs e/ii/i- 
io'icce. They are situated at dif- 
ferent distances along these intes- 
tines, being particular elongations 
of their common external coat. 
They are of the same structure 
with the great omentum ; and 
there is a cellular substance con- 
tained in their duplicature, more 
or less filled with fat, according 
as the subject is fat or lean. 

Afifiendicula Caci, i. e. jippen- 
4icula Vermiformis. 

ApiiendLcula Vermiformis, It is 
thus named from the supposed re- 
semblance to an earth-worm ; when 
it is touched it hath some contor- 
tions, like those of a worm. It is 
on one side of the bottom of the 
Cxcum, aad about three fingers 
breadth long, but slender. Its 
common diameter is about a quar- 
ter of an inch. By one extremity 
it opens into the bottom of the cae- 
cum ; the other extremity is clos- 
ed. Its structure is like that of 
the intestines in general ; its ex- 
ternal coat is folliculous, like that 
of the duodenum, and is reticular 
also. Its use is not known. 

Aptietitus^ appetite, in a philoso- 
phical sense, is any natural incli- 
nation, but, more strictly and phy- 
sically, a craving of food to satisfy 
hunger and thirst. The Afipctitus 
caninusy called also Pica^ and P/ia- 
g-edana^ by Galen ; and by Deckers, 
in his JS/otes ufion Berbette, xuvopjfta, 
is a distempered or insatiable crav- 

ing for food, differing from the 
Bulimia, which see. 

Ajipetitua Caninnan, i. c. Bulimia^ 
or rather an insatiable craving for 
food, with vomiting after eating. 

./j^/ii/rfjrm^aTTupElta, apyrexy, from 
a priv. and 'sruo^Jtre, or from t^r-j-i- 
cca-a-u, to be feverish. It is the in- 
termission of feverish heat. 

Acjua Vita, eau de vie, water of 
life ; a cant and familiar phrase 
for brandy or spirit of wine. 

Aqua, Water, which see. 

Acjua Medicinales, medicinal wa- 
ters ; also called mineral waters. 

Aqu£ Sulphurea, sulphureous 
waters, or hot baths, as the waters 
at Aix la Chapelle, Bath, Sec. 

Aqua Fortis, i. e. JSfitrous Acid. 

Arabic Gum. This gum exudes, 
in a liquid state, from the bark of 
the trunk of the Mimosa nilotica of 
Linnaeus, in a similar manner to 
the gum which is found upon the 
cherry-trees in this country. That 
of a pale yellowish colour is most 
esteemed. Gum arabic is neither 
soluble in spirit nor in oil, but in 
twice its quantity of water it dis- 
solves into a mucilaginous fluid, 
of the consistence of a thick syrup, 
and in this state answers many 
useful pharmaceutical purposes, 
by rendering oily, resinous, and 
pinguious substances miscible with 
water. The glutinous quality of 
gum arabic renders it preferable 
to other gums and mucilages, as a 
demulcent in coughs, hoarsenes- 
ses, and other catarrhal affections. 
It is also very generally employed 
in ardor urinae, diarrhoeas, and cal- 
culous complaints— 9i to 3ij- 

Arac, commonly called Pack, spi- 
rituous liquor produced from rice. 

Arachnoidcs, ufocx'i'O'-^^^nt from a- 
^a;^/)i, a spider, and u^oc,form. The 
external lamina of the pia mater 
is thus named, from its resem- 
blance to a cobweb. Also a name 
of the tunic of the crystalline hu- 
mour of the eye. Celsus says that 
Ilcrophilus named the coat thus 



which immediately invests the vi- 
treous humour. 

Arbor Dian<e. If a small piece 
of amalgam of mercury and silver 
be put into a solution of mercury, 
and silver mixed and diluted in 
water, there springs, some time 
after, from the amalgam, a little 
silver shrub, which is not always 
of the same form. This vegeta- 
tion is a mixed crystallization of 
silver and mercury, which appear 
with their metallic lustre. 

Arbor Vita. On each side of the 
fourth ventricle in the brain, the 
medullary substance of the Cere- 
bellum forms a trunk which ex- 
pands itself in form of laminae 
through the cortical strata. These 
ramifications are thus named. 

Arbutus^ strawberry-tree ; a ge- 
nus in Linnseus's botany. He enu- 
merates nine species. 

Arcai (Bats, vet Linim. vet 
Ung-.J i. e. The balsam or ointment 
of Gum Elemi. 

Arcanum^ a secret, or a medi- 
cine whose preparation or efficacy 
is kept from the world, to enhance 
its value. With the chemists it is 
a thing secret, and incorporeal; 
it can only be known by experience, 
for it is the virtue of every thing, 
which operates a thousand times 
more than the thing itself. 

Archaus^iToiTi oc^^'^ioc, signifying 
ancient^ as applied in medicine, 
denotes the ancient practice, con- 
cerning which, in his time, Hip- 
pocrates wrote a whole treatise. 
And some times it is used in that 
natural state which preceded any 
disease. This, by some likewise, 
is used for 

Archeus^ a term much used by 
Kelmont to express an internal ef- 
ficient cause of all things ; which 
seems no other than the Anima 
Mundi of his predecessors ; and 
as he applies it to particular ani- 
mated beings, it differs not from 
the ^i>yau,ic, or Vis Plastica of the 
old philosophers. 

Arche, «fx*'* T^^® ^^st attack of 
a disease, its first stage, that time 
of the disorder in which the pa- 
tient first takes to his bed, or in 
which help might be effectual. 

Archiater^ a^;^iaTpoj, from ct^p^n, 
firincijiium.f chief, and jal^O;-, medi- 
cus, a fihysician ; signifies chief 
physician, such as those to prin- 
ces, according to the explanations 
of Hieron. Mercurialis ; but Hoff- 
man applies it rather to the head 
or president of a college or com- 
munity of physicians. Some like- 
wise use it in the same sense as 

Arcuatus Morbus^ the jaundice. 
Ardens Febris^ from ardeo, (9 
burn. The ardent fever. It is 
when fever attends an excess of 
Crassamentum in the blood ; or 
where there is an inflammatory 
Diathesis^ without any particular 
or local inflammation. 

Ardor, a very intense acute heat 
raised in our bodies. 

Ardor Cafiitis, the Cefihalitis Si- 
riasis of Sauvage. A kind of de- 
lirium from inflammation of the 

Ardor Stomachic i. e. Ardor Ven- 

Ardor Urina, a scalding of the 
urine. See Dysury. 

Ardor Ventriculi. It is a heat 
in the stomach, and expresses it 
improperly, though generally cal- 
led the heart-burn. 

Area^ signifies the internal ca- 
pacity of any given boundary or 
limit, of what figure or shape so- 
ever. It is a term also used by 
miners for a certain compass of 
ore allotted for digging; and some 
physical writers use it for a spe- 
cies of the Alofiecia^ which see. 

ArecOy the Indian or Malabar 

Areca Indies, an ordinary kind 
of nutmegs. 

AreuGy sand or gravel in the 
kidneys. In Fossilogy sands are a 
genus of Saxum j they are saxum 



composed of granules^ which are 
loose and cohere not together, and 
formed neitherof comminuted nor 
decompounded fossil bodies. 
Arena LtCoralis, sea-sand. 
Arena Maris^, sea-sand. 

Arenarium Saxuin^ rough free- 

Arenatio. It is the casting of 
hot sand on the bodies of patients. 

Arentes^ a sort of cupping glas- 
ses used by the ancients. 

Areola. It is the circle which 
surrounds the nipple on the breast ; 
in virgins it is little and red ; in 
pre^^nant women it is larger and 
more brown. 

Aretasnoidesf from apvw, to draw, 
avotyo), to o/ien, and ft^or, form ; a 
cartilage ; and also a muscle of the 
wind-pipe bears this name. 

Argentum. See Silver. 

Argentum Vi-uum. See Mercury. 

Argilla^ Clay, which see. 

Argyrus,a,^yvfogy silver. It seems 
to be derived from a^yo;, ivhite, or 

Arida MedicamentUy dry medi- 

Arista. In Botany it is that 
sharp-pointed needle, which stands 
out from the tusk or covering of 
the grain of corn or grass, and is 
called the awn, or beard. 

Aristolochia, birthwort, a genus 
in Linnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates twenty-one species. Of this 
genus the Aristoloc/iia Serjicntaria^ 
or Virginian snake-root, hath been 
chiefly used in medicine. 

Aristolochia, such medicines as 
promote the tlux of the Lochia. 

Anna, arms, weapons : one of 
the seven kinds o^ Fulcra of plants, 
according to Linnaeus, intended by 
nature to secure them against ex- 
ternal injury ; its species are, A- 
culci, Furca, S/iincc, Stimuli. 

Armena Bolus, Armenian bole. 

Arnica, a genus in Linnxus's 
botany. He enumerates eight spe- 
cies. The species recommended 
by the Edinburgh Dispensatory is 

the Arnica Montana of Linnaeus. 
The flowers of this plant arc very 
generally employed on the conti- 
nent. Of the advantages dej-ived 
from their use in paralytic and 
other affections, depending upon 
a want of nervous energy, there 
are several proofs ; and their ex- 
traordinary virtues, as a febrifuge 
and antiseptic, have been highly 
extolled. Much caution is neces- 
sary in regulating the dose, as it is 
a medicine very apt to produce 
vomiting and much uneasiness of 
the stomach. — From 3j- to 5 ^s. 
of the flowers infused in a pint of 
boiling water may be given in the 
course of a day. 

Arnotto. See Bixa. 

Aroma, ocoui^a. It seems to be 
compounded of ap and ap<, an inten- 
sive particle, and o^o), to smell any 
thing fragrant or odorous. Some^ 
times it is taken for myrrh. 

Aromatica, spicy. 

Aromatics, from ciou}[j.oc, signify- 
ing a sweet favour, is now given 
to all medicines of a grateful spi- 
cy scent : though anciently it was 
a term given to myrrh only, and 
since, by way of pre-eminence, 
saffron hath by some been called 
Aroma Philosfihoruni, — Those bo- 
dies are properly called aromatics 
which have a fragrant or pungent 
taste or smell. 

Aromatica JVux, the nutmeg. 

Arojnaticum Lignum, i. c. Ca^ 
nella Alba. 

Aromaticum Rosatuni, rose- 
spice. An aromatic powder, for- 
merly kept in the shops, in which 
roses were part of the composi- 

Aromaticus Cortex, i. e. Canella 

Arquatus Morbus, \\\e jaundice. 

Arqiiebusadcy a French word 
that implies, it is good for gun- 
shot vjGuvds. It is the name of a 
water which is also called Aqua 
Vulncraria, Aqua Cata/iultarumf 
and Aafin Sclnfietaria. 

9 ^ 



Arrangement ; the distribution 
of the facts relating to a subject 
in regular or systematic order, as 
indi\iduals under species, species 
under genera, genera under or- 
ders, and these latter under clas- 
ses, or more general propositions. 
The sexual system of vegetables 
bv Linirxusis abeawtiful example 
of arrangemen.t. The systems of 
mineralogy by Crondstedt and by 
Kirwan arc fine instances of the 
arranerement of fossils. The work 
of Fab! icius on insects is a hand- 
some piece of zoological arrange- 
ment. And the table of the che- 
mical nom.enclature by the French 
academicians, though not free 
from great faults, was neverthe- 
less a noble specimen of analysis, 
method and arrangement. See 
these several works. 

Arseiiiates^ are arsenical salts, 
or compounds of the arsenical 
acid with the alkalis, earths, and 
metals. M.Fourcroy enumerates 
twenty-three different species in 
his Elements of Natural History 
and Chemistry. 

Arsenict or JVhite Arsenic^ a 
semi-transparent crystalline con- 
crete of a very singular nature, 
contained, in greater or less quan- 
tity, in the ores of most metallic 
bodies, particularly in those of tin 
and bismuth, and in the mineral 
called cobalt, from which last most 
of the arsenic brought to us is ex- 
tracted, in Saxony, by a kind of 
sublimation. It is a most violent 
poison ; the remedies against 
v/hich, as against most other poi- 
sons, are milk and oily liquors, 
imm.ediately and liberally drank. 
According to Mr. Edwards's ar- 
rangement of fossils, arsenic is a 
genus in the class of metals. Mr* 
Beaume says the arse^iic in the 
shops is the calx of a semi-metal ; 
it is in a white, crystalline, bril- 
liant, transparent mass, but soon 
becojninij opak-e, yet without los- 
1 . ; its whiteness. It hath some 
grG:;erties in common with salts. 

Arsenic Earth -^ a genus in the 
order of Cryjitometalliv.e earths. 

Art. It is variously defined. 
As applied to medicine, itincludes 
all that is to be done in the prac- 
tice of its several branches ; where- 
as those principles or rules which 
direct that practice, are more pro- 
perly called theory or science. 

Artery^ ccprr.picc^ as some imagine, 
from an^, aer^ the «/r, and t>;3e», ser- 
vo^ to keefi : for the ancients had 
a notion of their enclosing a great 
deal of air. There are indeed 
three ducts in the body to which 
this name is applied, viz. the As- 
jiera Arteria, the Arteria Pulmo- 
77aris, and Fena Arteriosa ; which 
see. But all the vessels that con- 
vey the blood from the heart, 
more properly are hereby includ- 
ed, and which it is of that conse- 
quence to be well acqua.inted with 
as deserves a particular descrip- 
tion here. 

An Arterij is a conical canal con- 
vcvins: the blood from the heart 
to all parts of the body. Each ar- 
tery is composed of three coats ; 
of which the first seems to be a. 
thread of fine blood-vessels, and 
nerves, for the nourishing the coats 
of the artery. The second is made 
up of circular, or rather spiral fi- 
bres, of whicli there are more or 
fewer strata, according to the high- 
ness of the artery. These fibres 
have a strong elasticity, by which 
theycontractthemselves with some 
force, when the pov/er by which 
they have been stretched out 
ceases. The third and inmost coat 
is a fine, dense, transparent mem.- 
brane, keeping the blood wdthin 
its canal, which otherwise, upon 
the dilatation of an artery^ would 
easily separate the spiral fibres 
fi'om one another. As the arte- 
ries grow smaller, these coats grov\- 
thinner ; and the coats of the veins 
seem only to be continuations of 
the capillary arteries. 

The pulse is thus accounted for: 
When th.G Lefi; vcniricie of x\\t 



heart coiitracts, and throws Its 
blood into ihc great artery^ the 
blood in the artery is not only 
thrust forward towards the extre- 
mities, but the channel oT the ar- 
tery is likewise dilated ; because 
iluids,whcn they arc pressed, press 
again to all sides, and their pres- 
sure is always perpendicular to the 
sides of the containing vessels ; 
but, the coats of the artery by any 
small impetus may be distended ; 
therefore, upon the contraction of 
the heart, the blood from the left 
ventricle will not only press the 
blood in the artery forwards, but, 
both together will distend the sides 
of the artery. When the impetus 
of the blood against the sides of 
the artery ceases, that is, when the 
left ventricle ceases to contract, 
then the spiral fibres of the artery^ 
by their natural elasticity, return 
again to their former state, and 
contract the channel of the artery^ 
till it is again dilated by the systole 
of the heart. This diastole or di- 
latation of the artery is called its 
pulse ; and the time the spiral fi- 
bres are returning to their natural 
state, is the distance between two 
pulses. This pulse is in ail the 
arteries of the body at the same 
time : for while the blood is thrust 
out of the heart into the artery^ 
the artery being full, the blood 
must move in all the arteries at 
the same time ; and because the 
arteries are conical, and the blood 
moves from the basis of the cone 
to the apex, therefore the blood 
must strike against the sides of the 
vessels, and, consequently, every 
point of the artery must be dilated 
at the same time that the blood is 
thrown out of the left ventricle of 
the heart ; and, as soon as the elas- 
ticity of the spiral fibres ciu\ over- 
Come the impetus of the blood, the 
arteries3iVC again contracted. Thus 
two causes operating alteinately, 
the heart, and fibres of the arte- 
ries keep the blood in a continual 

The chief distril)Ution of the ar- 
teries is into the Aorta asce7i(le7i.<ij 
and the Aorta descendnis ; from 
which they are branched into all 
the several parts of the body alter 
the following manner. The Aorta 
coming fiom the Icll ventricle of 
the heart, sends out two branches 
called Corojiaria to the heart, be- 
fore it pierces the PericardiKm ; 
but, after it hath pierced it, it 
ascends a little, and then it crooks 
forward, and forms the Aorta de- 
scejidens. From the upper side of 
this crook it sends out three bran- 
ches, two on the left side, which 
are one 'xudc/avian^ and one Caro- 
tid ; and one on the right side, 
which is the ri^hi Subclavia?:^ from 
which immediately aiiscsthe right 
Carotid. The Arteries Subclai'ia 
on each side send out the Jlledias- 
tina, the Ma?}i?naria, the Cervica- 
lis., or Vertebralis^ and a branch 
which goes to the muscles of the 
neck, of the breast, and to the 
Glaiidula lliyroidcs. After the 
Subclavia has passed through the 
Musculus Scalenus^ it is called Ax- 
illaris. The Arteria Carotides^as 
they ascend on each side the 7Va- 
c/icea Arteria., give some small 
branches thereunto, to the Laryn jcy 
to the Glandu/a Thyroides.,-d\u\ then 
they send out each four considera- 
ble branches. The first goes to 
the tongue, to the muscles of the 
Os Hyoide.^., and to the Pharynx. 
The second divides into two bran- 
ches, of which the first loses itself 
in the muscles Mylohyoides and 
Digastriei ; and the second goes 
along the basis of the lower jaw, 
and is lost in the muscles of the 
lips. The third branch divides at 
the angle of the lower jaw into two 
branches ; one enters into the lower 
jaw, and the other make- the Ar- 
teria tevi/ioralis The fourth branch 
goes to the nuisclcs on the hind 
part of the neck, and to the skin 
of the hind head. The Carotid 
then passes through the canal in 
the Os 2'ctrG6Ui!!j gives some bran- 



ches to the Dura Mater^ joins with 
the Cervicalis^ sends out branches 
to the Glandula Pituitaria^ Rete 
ftiirabile^ Plexus Choroides ; then 
runs through all the circumvolu- 
tions of the Cerebrum and Cere" 
belliim^ and loses its capillary bran- 
ches in their carotidal substance. 
The Axillary having pierced the 
Scalenum^ gives some little bran- 
ches to the nearest muscles ; it 
sends out the Thoraica superior 
and inferior^ the Sca/iularisy and 
then gives a branch w^hich passes 
under the head of the Humerus 
into the Musculus lojigus and bre- 
vis of the arm. The trunk of the 
Axillaris goes down the inside of- 
the arm, giving branches by the 
way to the muscles that lie upon 
the Humerus. Above the elbow it 
sends out a branch which is spread 
upon the internal Condyle of the 
Humerus. At the bending of the 
elbow this same trunk divides into 
two branches, the one externaljand 
the other internal : the external 
runs along the Radius ; it casts out 
a branch which goes to the Sufii^ 
nator^ and ascends to the Brachia- 
lis internus ; in the rest of its 
course down to the wrists, it gives 
branches to the Longus^ Rotundus, 
and benders of the fingers, wrist, 
and thuiTib. Being come to the 
wrist, it sends out a branch which 
goes to the beginning of the The- 
nar, then it passes under the ten- 
don of the Flexor Pollicis : it gives 
a branch to the external part of the 
hand, and passing under the ten- 
dons of the muscles, its branches 
run along each side of the thumb 
and fore-finger. The internal 
branch goes down along the Cubi- 
tus to the wrist, and is distributed 
in like manner to each side of the 
jniddle-finger and littld-finger. 

The Aorta descendens sends out 
ftrst xht BronchialzsyVfhich accom- 
panies all the branches of the 
Bronchia s as it descends along 
the Vertebra of the Thorax^ it 
sends out on each side the inter- 

costal arteries to the Diafihragm ; 
it gives the Phrenica ; and the 
Cceliaca is the first it sends out 
when it enters the Abdomen. The 
Caeliaca divides into two branches, 
the one on the right, and the other 
on the left, of which the first gives 
the Gastrica dextra^ which goes 
to the stomach, the Cystica to the 
gall-bladder, the Epifilois dextra 
to the Omentum,^ the Intestinalis to 
the gut Duodenum^ and to a part 
of the Jejunum.^ the Gastro-Epifi- 
lois to the stomach, to the Omen' 
tu??ty and some branches to the 
liver, which enters the Cafisula 
communis, to accompany the bran- 
ches of the Fena Portce. The left 
branches of the Cceliaca give the 
Gastrica dextra, which is also 
spread on the stomach, the Epifi- 
lois sinistra to the Omentum, and 
the Splenica to the substance of 
the spleen : then the Aorta de^ 
scendens sends out the Mesenteri- 
ca supeHor, the Renales Glanduldi, 
or fat about the reins, the Emul- 
gents to the reins or kidneys, the 
Spermaticcs to the testicles, the 
Eumbaris interior to the muscles 
of the loins, the Mesenterica infe- 
rior, which, with the superior, is 
distributed through the mesen- 
tery, and which accompanies all 
the branches of the Venae Mese- 
raica. When the Aorta is come 
to the Os sacrum, it divides into 
two great branches ; and from the 
angle they make, springs out a 
small artery called Sacra, because 
it spreads from the Gs sacrum. 
The iliac arteries divide again in-- 
to the external and internal Iliac. 
From the internal Iliac arises the 
Hypogastrica, which is distributed 
to the bladder, to the Rectum, to 
the outer and inner side of the 
Matrix, Vagina, Vesicula semina- 
les, Prostata and Penis, Os sacrum, 
and all the parts contained in the 
Pelvis or bason : and then it gives 
two considerable branches which 
pass out of the lower belly ; the 
first goes under the Pyriformis, 



and is distril)iitcd to the muscles 
called Glutcci: the second, which 
is lower than the first, gives also 
two branches pretty bi^, of which 
the first goes to the Obturaioresy 
the second pierces the cavity of 
the Abdomen^ under the Pyrifor^ 
mia, and loses itself by several 
branches in the Gluteus majar. 
As soon as the external Iliac 
leaves the cavity of the Jbdomen, 
it sends out the Efiigastrica^ which 
runs up the inside of the Muscii- 
lua rectus^ and a little below that, 
the Pudenda^ which goes to the 
privities; then it is called Crura- 
lisy diid sends out three consider- 
able branches : the first is called 
Muscula^ which gives several 
branches : the first passes between 
the muscles called Iliacus and 
Pectincus^ and loses itself in the 
third head of the Tricefis in the 
scmi-mcmbranosus^ or semi-nervo- 
«M.9, in the beginning of the Bi- 
ce/is ; in the Quadrigemini^ and 
in the cavity of the greater Tro- 
chanier. The second, third, and 
fourth, go to several parts of the 
Triceps^ and Gracilis fioaterior ; 
then the trunk of the Muscula 
goes under the first of the Tricefis^ 
and divides into three branches 
more. The first having passed 
the third of the Triceps^ is lost in 
the Semi-?n€mbranosus. The se- 
cond passes under the Femur to 
the Vastus extcrnus. The third 
goes a little lower, casts branches 
to tiie tendon of the third of the 
Triccju : it loses itself at the end 
of the Semi-ncrvosus^ and at the 
end of the great head of the Ju- 
ce/is. The second considerable 
branch of the trunk of the Crural 
goes to the external part of the 
thigh, passes under the Sartorius^ 
under the Gracilis rectus : it casts 
some brajiches to tlie end of tlic 
Jliacusy to the beginning of tiie 
Gracilis rectus, to the Vastus ex- 
ternus^ Cru?'alisy jMembra?iosusy and 
fore-part of the Glufceus minor. 

The tliird rises almost from the 
same part of the Crural, and loses 
itself in the middle of the Gracilit; 
Tcctusy Cruralis, and Va.itus extcr- 
nus. The Crural havii.g sent out 
these three branches, gives several 
more to the Sartoriusy the Gracili*. 
posterior, but the greatest goes to 
the Vastus erternus. As the Crti- 
ral descends it sinks deeper in the 
hinder part of the thigh, passing 
through the tendons of the Tri- 
ceps : being come to the ham, the 
first branch it sends out is spread 
on the hinder part of the thigh- 
bone, and it goes to the little head 
of the Biceps ; then it casts out 
several other branches, which lose 
themselves in the fat, and in the 
extremities of the muscles behind 
the Femur. Under the ham it 
sends out two Poplitcci^ which go 
round the knee ; the one on the 
inside, the other on the outside. 
It casts out a little lower several 
other branches, of which some go 
to the beginning of the Gemini^ of 
the Soleus, Plantaris, and Popli- 
t(sus, and the rest surround the 
Tibia on all sides. Then it divides 
into two branches, of which the 
first passes through the membrane 
which joins the Tibia and Fibula 
together, upon which it continues 
its way, giving branches to the 
Tibialis externus, and to the Ex- 
tensores Digitorum. The second 
branch divides into two more, ex- 
ternal and internal : the external, 
after it hath given branches to the 
Salens, to the Pcronaus posterior, 
and to the Flexor Pollicis, pierces 
the membrane between the Tibia 
and Pcrone, and rises upon the ex- 
ternal ancle, to spread itself upon 
tlie upper part of the foot. The 
internal, as it descends, gives 
branches to the Soleus, to the 
Flexorcs Dif<:i'orum, to the Tibia- 
lis posterior ; then it passes by the 
cavity of the Plbula, where it di- 
vides into two branches, of which 
one passes under the J'/ic/^ar tothe 



jfrcat tee, the other passes between 
the Musculus brevis and the Hy- 
jiothenar^ and is distributed into 
the other toes. 

And this is the order and dis- 
tribution of the principal arteries 
in the body, each of which are sub- 
divided into others, and these a^ain 
into others, till at last the whole 
body is overspread with most mi- 
nute capillary arteries^ concerning 
which there are two things neces- 
sary to remark: first, that the 
branches which go off at any small 
distance from the trunk of an ar- 
tery^ unite their canals into one 
trunk again, whose branches like- 
wise communicate with c»rie ano- 
ther, and with others, as before. 
%y this means, when any small 

The Aorta , . . . 

artery is obstructed, the blood is 
brought by the communicating* 
branches below the obstruction, 
which must otherwise have been 
deprived of their nourishment. 
These inosculations are every 
where apparent, but chiefly in the 
Uterus t Mesentery^ and brain : it 
is the same thing vt^ith the veins. 
Secondly, that the sum of the ori- 
fices of the brunches of any artery 
is greater than the orifices from the 
trunk from which they came, upon 
which account the velocity of the 
blood is greatly diminished, as it 
removes farther from the heart. 
The proportions the primary bran- 
ches bear to one another, and the 
Aorta to the Cava and pulmonary 
artery^ are as follow : 

i . . 100000 ' 

Right subclavian artery . * . . 


Left Carotid ...... 


Left axillary ...... 


Bronchial artery 


Twenty-four intercostals, each 434.2 


Coeliac . 




"Right emulgent . . . . . 


Left emulgent .... 


Inferior Mesenteric 


Six Lumbals, each 434.2 


Left iliac .... * 


Right iliac . ^ . , . 


» m 


Sum of all the b 


The pulmonary artery . .. » 


The ascending cava 

9 • 


The descending cava 

J ^ 


To the action of the arteries in 
the human body are owing the cir- 
culation of the blood, its heat, red 
colour, fluidity, assimilation of the 
seed, the conversion of fixed salts 
into such as are volatile, and the 
performance of all the secretions. 
To show all these particulars in 
their full extent, would be to give 

a curious and useful history of the 
arteries: and they may readily 
enough be drawn from the nature 
and structure of those wonderful 
canals, with the help of our pre- 
sent philosophy and chemistry. 

Arteria Venosay the pulmonary 

Arteriosus Ductus^ also called, 



iSanalh ylrteriosus. This, in the 
foetus, arises from the extremity 
of the Arter'a Jiubnonaris just 
vvhnre it is going to give off the 
two branches, and opens by its 
other end into the beginning of 
the descending Jorta, just below 
the great curvature. 

Arteriotomij^ c<pTr)fioroixix, from 
«prr)pia, an arterys and ttj^uvo, seco^ 
to ciu^ is letting blood by the ar- 
teries in some extraordinary ca- 
ses ; but the hazard makes it very 
rarely practised. 

Arthritica^ i. e. Arthritis. 

Arthritis^ apQpiTtc, from a^9^-oy, ar- 
ttculus^ a joint. Any distemper is 
properly enough thus called that 
affects the joints, but the gout 
most particularly ; and this hath 
different names, as it falls upon 
different parts, amongst some au- 
thors more nice in words than 
things ; as Podagra when in the 
feet, Chiragra when in the hands, 
and so ol' other parts. Dr. Cul- 
len, in his A^'osology^ gives the 
name of Podagra to the gout. 
lie places it as a genus of disease 
in his class of Pyrexia., and order 
of Phlcgmafi^a. He distinguishes 
its species as follows, viz. {.Po- 
dagra Regidaris. 2. Podagra Jlto- 
nica. 3. Podagra Rctrograda ; 
and, 4. Podagra Abtrrans. M. M. 
In the first species, cordials ; 
occasional laxatives and opiates ; 
soft ilannel on the part inflamed. 
In the second, corroborants, with 
occasional laxatives and emetics. 
In the third, aromatics, with wine 
or alcohol ; asafoetida; volatile al- 
kali ; camphor ; opium and blis- 
ters. In the fourth, the same as in 
idiopathic inflammation of the part 

Arthrocacr, an ulcer in the ca- 
vity of a bone, with caries. Dr. 
Cullen makes it a synonym with 
Sjiina vcntosa^ which sec. 

Arthrodia.^ af^fuhia^ from a^Q^ov, a 
jowi. It is whcD fi reuhd head is 

received into a shallow cavity, aud 
admits of motion on all sides. 

Ari/irodynia^ihe chronical rheu- 

Ari/iron^ a joint. 

Art/iro/n:osi&-, from a^Q^o?, articu- 
liis, and t^vov, /nis. This word is 
variously used by different wri- 
ters: sometimes it means an in- 
flainmation in a joint ; and then 
Phlcginone ariiculi has the same 
signification. Sometimes it is 
used for an abscess in the joint. 
Others again express by it what is 
understood by the different terms. 
Lumbago Paoadica^ Lumbago A- 
posteviatoaa^ Lumbago ab Arthro- 
cace^ Ischias ex Abscesau^ and Alor^ 
bus Coxarius^ Psoas abscess, Iliji-' 
joint abscess, Sec. 

Articiilaris Morbus. When the. 
gout rises from the toes to the an- 
cles and knees, and they swell and. 
inflame, it is thus named. 

Articularis Arteria. It arises 
from the lower and fore-part of 
the axillaris, and runs backward 
between the head of the os humeri 
and teres major, surrounding tiie 
articulation tiil it reaches the pos- 
terior part of the deltoides, to 
which it was distributed. 

Articularis Vena. Under the 
head of the os humeri, the basi- 
lica vena sends off this branch. It 
passes almost transversely round 
the neck ol that bone, from within 
backwards, and from behind out- 
wards, and runs upon the scapula, 
where it communicates with the 
venx scapulares cxternac. 

Articulations. This is peculiar 
to the bones, and distinguished in- 
to three sorts, \. Diarthrosis. 2. 
ISynchondronis; and, 3. Synart/iro- 
sis. Of the first there are two 
sorts, the Ejiarthrosist or Arthro- 
dia^ and Ginglymus. The first is 
when a round head of a bone is re- 
ceived into a round cavity of ano- 
ther, such as the articulation of 
the Pcmur with the Ischiutn; and 
(bis is called the ball ?rid socket. 



The property of this joining is, 
that the parts may move equally 
to any side. The Ginglymiis is 
described under that word, which 
see. The second, Synchondrosis^ 
is when the extremities of two 
bones are joined to one another by 
means of an intervening cartilage. 
Thus the bodies of the Vertebra^ 
and the extremities of the ribs 
and Sternum, are joined together ; 
where, though the motion of all is 
manifest, yet that of any two is 
hardly discernable. The third, 
S y 77 ari/tro sis, is also of two sorts, 
the Sutura and Goirifihosis, The 
Suturais, when two bones are mu- 
tually indented with one another : 
the teeth by which they are indent- 
ed are of various figures, some- 
times like the teeth of a sav/ ; 
sometimes broad at their extremi- 
ties, and narrow at their base ; 
sometimes the sides of the teeth 
are likewise indented, as frequent- 
ly in theSutura Lamb doid alts. This 
sort of articulation is called dove- 
tailing, and is used by joiners in 
drawers, &c. All the bones of the 
Cranium and upper jaw, as also 
the Efiifihyses of the bones, are 
joined by this articulation. Goin- 
fihosis is when one bone is joined 
to another, as a pin or nail is in a 
piece of wood ; and the teeth only 
are articulated this way in their 
sockets. To these may be added 
a third kind of Synarthrosis, very 
different from any of the former, 
which is, when a bone ha.s a long 
and narrow channel, which re- 
ceives the edge or process of ano- 
ther bone ; and thus the Vomer is 
joined to the Os Sphenoides and 
Septum JVarium : this is called 
ploughing. These comprehend 
all the different articulations of 
bones in a human body, and what 
other authors mention is to no pur- 
pose. The extremities of all the 
bones which are articulated to one 
another v/ith a manifest motion, 
arc bound together by membra- 

nous ligaments, which rise from 
the conjunction of the Epphyses 
with the bones, and passing over 
the articulation, are inserted at the 
same place in the other bone. Thus 
they form a bag, which embraces 
all that part of the extremities of 
the bones which play upon one an- 
other ; and in this bag is contain- 
ed a mucilage for the easier mo- 
tion of the joint. This is sepa- 
rated by glands which lie in fat on 
the inside of the ligaments. Those 
articulated by the Ginglymus have 
the ligaments much stronger than 
they are either behind or before, 
that the protuberances may be 
kept to play in their cavities, and 
to prevent the bones from slipping 
out of joint. 

Artocarpus, bread-fruit, a genus 
in Linnseus's botany. He hath 
but one species. 

Arum, cuckow-pint, or wake- 
robin, a genus in Linnaeus's bota- 
ny. In this genus he includes the 
Arisarum, or friar's-cowl, and Dra- 
cunculus, or dragons. Ot species 
he enumerates twenty-six. The 
collep-e have directed a conserve 


to be made of the recent root, 
Conserva Ari. 

Aryt(zno-Epiglottici. They are 
small, fleshy fasciculi, each of 
which is fixed by one end in the 
head of one of the arytaenoid car- 
tilages, and the other in the near- 
est edge of the epiglottis. 

Arytanoides, from aoxjraiva,, a 
funnel, and ul"^, shape; the Ary^ 
tdiuoid, or ewer-like cartilage. An 
epithet of two cartilages, which, 
together with others, constitute 
the head of the larynx. 

Arytanoideus Major, i. e. Aryta- 
noidaus TransDersus. 

Arytdsnoideus Minor, i. e, Ary- 
tcenoideus Obliquus. 

Arytajioideus Obliquus. This 
muscle arises from the base of one 
arytsenoid cartilage, and crossing 
its fellow, is inserted near the tip 
cf the other arytasnoid cartilage. 



When both act they pull the ary- 
taenoid cartilage towards each 

jlriitxnoidrus Tvansversus. This 
muscle arises from the side of one 
arytaenoid cartilage, from near its 
articulation with the cricoid, to 
near its tip. The fibres run 
straight across, and are inserted 
in the same manner, into the other 
arytscnoid cartilage. Its use is to 
shut the rima glottidis, by bring- 
ing these two cartilages, with the 
ligaments, nearer one another. 

Asafcetida. Gum asafoetida. The 
plant which affords this j^um-resin 
is the Ferula asafatidaoi Linnaeus, 
■which grows plentifully on moun- 
tains in the provinces of Chorasan 
and Laar in Persia. The process 
of obtaining it is as follows : the 
earth is cleared away from the top 
of the roots of the oldest plants ; 
the leaves and stalks are then 
twisted away, and made into a co- 
vering, to screen the root from 
the sun ; in this state the root is 
left for forty days, when the cover- 
ing is removed, and the top of the 
root cut off' transversely; it is then 
screened again from the sun for 
forty-eight hours, when the juice 
it exudes is scraped off, and ex- 
posed to the sun to harden. A 
second transverse section of the 
root is made, and the exudation 
suffered to continue for forty-eight 
hours, and then scraped ofl*. In 
this manner it is eight times re- 
peatedly collected in a period of 
six weeks. The juice thus ob- 
tained has a bitter, acrid, pungent 
laste, and is well known by its pe- 
culiar nauseous smell, the strength 
of which is the surest test of its 
goodness. It is highly esteemed 
as an antihysteric, nervine, and 
stimulating remedy, and is much 
used in hysteria, hypoch.ondriasis, 
dyspepsia. Sec. — 9ss. to 5i- 

Asarum^ asarabacca, a genus in 
Linnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates three species. The college 

have retained the root of the Asa- 
rum Europseum Lin. it enters the 
Pulvis Asari Compositus, formerly 
called Pulv. Sternutator. 

Asbcstosy or Asbrstus^ (xa-S-TTo;^ a 
genus in the order of fibrous 
stones; its fibres are hard, rie^id, 
and brittle, when separated ; and 
are not easily divisible as those of 
the Amiantliug. 

Ascaridcs^ from ac-KsK, to movf,, a 
sort of worms so called from their 
continual troublesome motion, 
which causes itching. They are 
vei-y small, white, and have sharp- 
pointed heads. They are gene- 
rally lodged in the rectum ; but 
sometimes are also higher up, 
even in the stomach. 

Asc/'tesy acTKirv^, from ao-x^, a'hot- 
tie. It is the dropsy ot the ueily. 
Dr. Cullen ranks this genus of dis- 
ease in the cluss Cachexia., and 
order Intumescemiie. He enume- 
rates two species. \. Ascites ad' 
dominalis ; as when the tumour of 
the belly is equal, and with evi- 
dent fluctuation. 2. Ascites sacca- 
tus, as when the ovaries. Sec. are 
the seat of the disease ; in which 
cases the tumour is not equally ex- 
tended in all parts of the belly, and 
the fluctuation is not so evident. 

Ascites San[^uineo-Utcrinus<t i.e. 

Ascites Uteri?ius, i. e. Hydro- 

Asciticusy one who labours un- 
der an ascites. 

Ash (Poison.) See Vemix. 

Ash -tree. See Fraxifiiis. 

ylsiti^ or Asitia^ cta-iTia.^ those who 
take no food for want of appetite. 

Asfialathusy a name of the Lig- 
nam Rhodium. 

As/uirag-usy asparagus, a genus 
in Linnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates thirteen species. 

As/msia., a medicine formerly 
used to constringe the vagina ; it 
consisted of wool moistened with 
an infusion of gaiis. 



Jlspera Arteria. It is called 
Aspera^ from the inequality made 
by the cartilages of it : it is called 
also Trachea. It is a canal situat- 
ed in the fore-part of the neck, 
before the Oesophagus^ whose up- 
per end is called Larynx ; from 
whence it descends to the fourth 
vertebra of the back, where it di- 
vides and enters the lungs. This 
canal is made of annular cartilages, 
which are at small and equal dis- 
tances from one another. These 
cartilages grow smaller and smal- 
ler as they approach the lungs ; 
and those of the Bronchi are so 
close to one another, that, in ex- 
piration, the second enters within 
the first, and the third within the 
second, and the following always 
enters the preceding. Betwixt the 
Larynx and the lungs these carti- 
lages make not complete rings; 
but their hinder part, which is con- 
tiguous to the Oeso/i/zG^z^*, is mem- 
branous, that they may the better 
contract and dilate, and give way 
to the food as it passes down the. 
gullet. But the cartilages of the 
Bronchi are completely annular ; 
yet their capillary branches have 
no cartilages, but, instead of them, 
small circular ligaments, which 
are at pretty large distances from 
one another. The use of the car- 
tilage is to keep the passage for 
the air open ; but in the capillary 
Bronchi they would hinder the 
subsiding of the vesicles. These 
cartilages are tied together by two 
membranes, external and internal : 
the external is composed of circu- 
lar fibres, and covers the whole 
Trachea externally : the internal 
is of an exquisite sense, and co- 
vers the cartilages internally ; it 
is composed of three distinct mem- 
branes ; the first is woven of two 
orders of fibres ; those of the first 
order are longitudinal, for shorten- 
ing the Trachea; they make the 
cartilages approach and enter one 
another : the cth,cr order is of cir- 

cular fibres, for contracting the 
cartilages. When these two or- 
ders of fibres act, they help, with 
the external membtane, in expira- 
tion, in coughing, and in altering 
the tone of the voice. The second 
membrane is altogether glandular, 
and the excretory vessels of these 
glands open in the cavity of the 
Trachea: they separate a liquor 
for moistening the cavity, and for 
defending it from the acrimony of 
the air. The third and last is a 
net of veins, nerves and arteries ; 
the veins and branches of the Vena 
Cava; the nerves of the Recur- 
rent; and the arteries, sprigs of 
the Car at ides. 

Asjierifolius, of as/ier^ rough, and 
folium^ a leaf, an epithet for such 
plants as are rough-leaved, having 
their leaves placed alternately, or 
without any certain order on their 

Jspersioy a sprinkling. Medi- 
cines administered this way were 
called by the Greeks SympMsmata^ 
and by the Latins Aspergines. 

Asphyxia, a<r?'i/|ia, from a priv. 
and a^v^ic, a pulse, and from apj^u), 
to leap, or beat like a?i artery ; a 
privation of the pulse. Though 
this cannot be absolutely the case 
whilst a person lives, yet to our 
perception it may. It happens 
from a long failure of vital and 
animal power; as from drowning, 
mephitism. Sec. Most instances of 
asphyxy are varieties oi Apoplexy; 
the rest are instances of Syncope. 

Asphyxia a Carbone, i. e. Apo- 
plexia Venenata. 

Asphyxia Congelatorum, i. e. A- 
po plexia Venenata. 

Asphyxia Flatulenta. When 
this complaint can be distinguish- 
ed by its external symptoms. Dr. 
CuUen ranks it in the genus Apo- 

Asphyxia Forisariorum, i. e. A- 
poplexia Venenata. 

Asphyxia a Funds, i. e. Asphyxia 



Anfihyxia Ivimcrsotum^ i. e. A- 
fwfilcxia Siiffocata. 

ji^sfihyxia a Mefihitide^ i. q. Jjio- 
fllexia Vcruvata. 

J.ifihyxia a Musto, i. c. A/io- 
pkxia Vevtnata. 

Axfihyxia a Patheinate^ i. e. Ajio- 
plcxia Alcn talis. 

Asfihyxia Sideratorum^ i. e. y///o- 
filcxia VcJienata. 

Anfihyxia Sjiinaiisj i. e. A/W' 
fllexia Sartguinea. 

Asfihyxia Susjiensorum^ i. e. A» 
fiojitexia Huffocata. 

Assimilo^ to assimilate, from ad 
and fiimilis^ to make like to. Ansi- 
7nilation commonly expresses the 
union of aliments^ to the body, in 
nourishment; but in a more gene- 
ral sense signifies the reduction of 
any one body to the nature of an- 
other. In animal oeconomy, it is 
that process by which the differ- 
ent ingredients of the blood are 
made parts of the various organs 
of the body. Over the nature of 
assimilation, says Dr. Thomson, 
the thickest darkness hangs, there 
is no key to explain it, nothing 
to lead us to the knowledge of 
the instruments employed. Facts, 
however, put the existence of the 
process beyond the reach of doubt. 
The healing of every fractured 
bone, and of every wound of the 
body, is a proof of its existence, 
and an instance of its action. E- 
very organ employed in assimila- 
tion has a peculiar office, and it 
always performs this office when- 
ever it has materials to act upon, 
even when the performance of it 
is contrary to the interest of the 
animal. Thus the stomach always 
converts the food into chyme, even 
when the food is of svicii a nature 
that the process of digestion is re- 
tarded rather than promoted by 
the change. If warm milk be ta- 
ken into the stomach, it is decom- 
posed by that organ, and convert- 
ed into chyme, yet the milk was 
more Dcarlv assimilated to ihe ani- 

mal before the action of the sto- 
mach, than after it. The same 
thing occurs when we eat animal 
food. If a substance be introduc- 
ed into an organ employed in as- 
similation, that has already under- 
gone the change which that organ 
is fitted to produce, it is not acted 
upon by that organ, but passes on 
unaltered to the next assimilating 
organ. Thus it is the office of the 
intestines to convert chyme into 
chyle ; and whenever chyme is in- 
troduced into the intestines, they 
perform their office, and produce 
the usual change ; but if chyle it- 
self be introduced, it is absorbed 
by the lacteals without alteration. 
Again, the business of the blood- 
vessels, as assimilating organs, is 
to convert chyle into blood ; chyle 
therefore cannot be introduced in- 
to the arteries without undergoing 
that change; but blood may be 
introduced from another animal 
without any injury, and conse- 
quently without undergoing any 
change. Though the different as- 
similating organs have the power 
of changing certain substances in- 
to others, and of throwing out the 
useless ingredients, yet this power 
is not absolute, even when the sub- 
stances on which they act are pro- 
per for undergoing the change 
which the organs produce. The 
stomach converts food into chvme, 
and the intestines change chyme 
into chyle ; and the substances that 
have not been converted into chyle 
are thrown oui of the body. If 
there should be present in the 
stomach and intestines any sub- 
stance which, though incapable of 
undergoing these changes, at least 
by the action of the stomach and 
intestines, yet has a strong affinitv 
either for the whole chyme and 
chyle, or for some particular part 
of it ; and no affinity for the sub- 
stances which are thrown out, that 
substance passes with the chyle, 
and in manv cases continues to re- 



main chemically combined with 
the substance to which it is unit- 
ed in the stomach, even after the 
substance has been completely as- 
similated, and made a part of the 
body of the animal. Thus there 
is an affinity between the colour- 
ing matter of madder and phos- 
phate of lime ; and when madder 
is taken into the stomach, it com- 
bines with the phosphate of lime 
of the food, passes with it through 
the lacteals and blood vessels, and 
is deposited with it in the bones. 
In the same way musk, indigo, &c. 
when taken into the stomach make 
their way into many of the secre- 
tions. These facts prove that as- 
similation is a chemical process ; 
that all the changes are produced 
according to the laws of chemis- 
try ; and Dr. Thomson adds, that 
we can derange the regularity of 
the process by introducing sub- 
stances whose mutual affinities are 
too strong for the organs to over- 

Association ; a word lately intro- 
duced into medical writings, in- 
stead of the old term " sympathy." 
It means the train of sensations 
or actions, whether healthy or 
morbid, which constitute the more 
complicated phenomena or func- 
tions of life. The term is borrow- 
ed from the metaphysicians, who 
write much and familiarly con- 
cerning the " association of ideas" 
in the mind. By this is meant the 
order and succession of ideas, or 
their connection and dependency 
one upon another. Thus the idea 
of a shepherd may be associated 
with that of his flock, and these 
with the ideas of rich pastures 
and variegated country prospects; 
with these may be associated the 
delineations of natural scenes in 
landscape, painting, and pictur- 
esque beauty; and with these again 
may be associated the ideas of 
sheep-shearing, and of wool, and 
of the whole manufacture, trade 

and consumption of woollen goods, 
ana the like. In somewhat the 
same manner there seems to be an 
*' association of bodily motions ;'* 
the actions of our complicated liv- 
ing machine being performed in 
certain trains, or in a certain or- 
der and succession : as when, for 
instance, bad news is brought to a 
man in the midst of a meal which 
he has begun with a good appe- 
tite, the unpleasant impression is 
no sooner made on the part of the 
brain which is the proper seat of 
perception, than, by the process 
of association, the vigour of the 
stomach is diminished, the appe- 
tite for food impiaired or destroy- 
ed, and the power of digestion in 
a great degree overcome : in con- 
sequence of an association with 
the stomach, the muscles of the 
jaws and throat are relaxed, the 
hands let fall their instruments of 
eating, and a considerable degree 
of weakness pervades the whole 
frame : in consequence of which 
associations the motions of the 
heart become more feeble, the 
blood flows more tardily, and so 
on : whence it appears that the 
brain is associated with the sto- 
mach, the stomach with the heart, 
and the remotest parts of the bo- 
dy with them all. — The knowledge 
of the laws of associated motions 
in the animal body is of great con- 
sequence to the physiologist and 
physician. They form cities to 
the right understanding of many 
obscure and perplexing cases of 
practice. Indeed, in the nosolo- 
gical arrangement of Dr. Darwin, 
diseases of association constitute 
one of the four great classes of 
human maladies. For the parti- 
culars of this the reader is refer- 
red to the second part of that great 
and valuable work the Zoonomia. 

Assodes, an ardent kind of ter- 
tian fever, attentled with great 
inquietudes, nauseas, vomitings, 
thirst, and raving: the outward 



parts arc moderately warm, but in- 
wardly there is jjrcat licat. 

Jliitacus Fluviatilis^ the ere vis or 
cray-fish. These are found in ri- 
vers—are of the same general na- 
ture as crabs and lobsters. They 
afford the concretes called crabs- 

Asthenia^ c6o-v?vE<a, extreme debi- 
lity. This debility may be of two 
kinds, according to the Brunonian 
doctrine: 1. Asthenia dirccta^ or 
direct debility, which arises from 
a subtraction of natural or needful 
stimuli, as in cold, hunger, thirst, 
and darkness, where the exciting 
powers of heat, food, drink, and 
light, are withdrawn. 2. Asthenia in- 
directa, or indirect debility, which 
is produced by an over-action or 
excessive operation of stimuli, 
exuding in lassitude, torpor, and 
inability to perform the functions 
of health ; as in drunkenness from 
ardent spirits, languor from too 
much opium, strokes of lightning 
and other powerful electrical 
shocks, violent heat and strokes of 
the sun, excessive ap})lication and 
exertion of body and mind, and 
the like ; whereby the excitability 
is benumbed, and the powers of 
the body considerably overcome. 
See Brown's Elements of Medi- 

Asthma^ c/m^Ixoc^ from aw, to 
breathe ; or rather from ao-Q/xa^i', 
anhclo^ to breathe with diffieulty ; a 
chronic, lal)orious, wheezing res- 
piration. Gulen says that the 
Greeks give this name to a quick 
respiration, such as happens to 
people who run, 8cc. The word is 
now applied to a disorder, llic chief 
symptom of which is a dlfl'icult or 
a short breathing, or a laborious 
wheezing respiration, with a sense 
of straightness in the breast. Dr. 
Cullen ranks the Asthma in his 
classof .'Vi^wro.ff.v, and order S/iaaml. 
He distinguishes three species, 
viz. 1. Asthma Sfiontancuni ; when 
there is no manifest cause, or anv 

other disease attending. 2. Asth* 
Tiui Kxanihematicum ; as when 
some acrid humour is repelled 
from the surface of the body. 3. 
Asthma Plethoricum ; when any 
accustomed evacuation of bloocj 
ceases, or when, from any other 
cause, the vessels are too full. 

Asthma CatarrhalC', i. e. JJysfi- 
ncea Catarrhalis. 

Asthma a Gibbo^ i. e. Dysfinaa, 

Asthma Infantum Sfiasmodicumy 
\. e. Cynanche Trachcalis of Cul- 
len. Also called Suffocatio Stridula. 

Asthma Metallicum^ i. e. Dysji- 
anoe lixtrinseca. 

Asthma JVocturnum^ i. e. Incubus. 

Asthma Pituitosum^ i. e. Dysfi- 
ncea Catarrhalis. 

Asthma Pneumodes, i. e. Dys/i- 
ncca Catarrhalis. 

Asthma Pneu7nomcum,i. e. Dys/i' 
naa Catarrhalis. 

Asthma Pulverulent or um^ i. c. 
Dysjincea Extrinseca. 

Astragalus-i the first bone of the 
foot ; so named from its being 
used in ancient sports, or some- 
thing of that shape called cockal, 
in like manner vi'ith our dice, and 
going by the same name. It is 
the upper bone of the foot ; the 
Tibia rests upon it : its upper and 
under sides are covered with car- 
tilage, and, OH its under side, it 
articulates with the os calcis : the 
fore-part of this bone is cartilagi- 
nous, and there it articulates with 
the OS scaphoides. 

.4stricta. When applied to the 
belly, it signifies costiveness. 

Astrictoria^ astringents. 

Astriuf^en'la., astringents. Sub- 
stances that coagulate the animal 
solids are called astrinj^enfs ; of 
those that are used medicinally, 
some rank those only i\?>astringen<\\ 
that are taken by the mouth, cal- 
ling those styptics that are only 
applied externally. 

Ataxia^ araftx, ataxy, from aprir. 
and locerjx, to order } some purticu- 



lar irrcgulavity or disorder. This 
word is used frequently by the an- 
cients, and sometimes by the mo- 
derns, to express an irregularity 
in a disease or a distemper out of 
the common course of symptoms. 

j^thanasia^ cc9ccvacrfix, from a priv. 
and $aiva7o?, deaths immortality. It 
is a name of several ancient com- 
positions ; as antidotes, collyriums, 
&c. Also of the herb tansy, be- 
cause when stuffed up the nostrils 
of a dead corpse, it is said to pre- 
vent putrefaction. 

Atheroma^ from aG)ipa)|/a, pulse ^ 
pap, or a kind of poultice. It is a 
kind of tumour, thus named from 
its contents, which resemble a 
poultice. It is a species of wen. 
It is colourless, without pain, of 
an irregular shape, not easily pres- 
sed with the finger, and, when pres- 
sed, does not easily rise again ; in 
which it differs from the Meliceris. 

Athletes, from oc^Xio:, to contend, 
a wrestler ; also one who is robust, 
or of a vigorous constitution. 

Atlas, cctXccc, from rccXan}, to sus- 
tain, or the name of the first ver- 
tebra of the neck. So called, be- 
cause it sustains the head, as Arias 
l5'as supposed to sustain the earth. 

Atmosphere. The atmosphere 
is composed of whatever substan- 
ces are capable of being turned to 
vapours or gases by the heat to 
which the surface of the earth is 
exposed : and hence it happens 
that its lower portions are remark- 
ably impregnated with terrestrial 
exhalations, forming a medley of 
various sorts of air and other mat- 
ters. As all land animals, and 
among others, human beings, are 
surrounded by these atmospheri- 
cal fluids incessantly from the mo- 
ment of their birth during the 
whole course of their lives, it will 
be evident that a thorough ac- 
quaintance with it is very impor- 
tant. It is the vehicle of caloric 
as applied to our bodies, and we 
experience through it the vicissi- 

tudes of hot and cold. It is the 
menstruum of that immense body 
of water which, descending in 
rains, snows, and dews, supplies 
the rivers and fountains of our 
globe ; we therefore experience 
moisture and dryness through its 
mediation. The atmosphere is 
also the great field of a.ctipn for 
the electrical fluid, one of the most 
remarkable agents in creation* 
About one fourth of it consists 
of oxygenous air, which ministers 
to the wants of breathing animals, 
and renews the vital properties of 
the blood in their lungs. The 
other three fourths are septous, 
or azotic, or phlogisticated air, not 
chemically combined with the for- 
mer, but forming a mixture, where 
the two airs float freely through 
and among the particles of each 
other without combination. The 
upper parts of the atmosphere 
abound sometimes with inflcimma- 
ble air, extricated from bodies on 
the earth's surface, and nmounting 
thither by reason of its small spe- 
cific gravity ; and this, set on fire 
by an electrical spark, causes fiery 
meteors, and bails, and streams of 
light. That portion of the atmos- 
phere in which men live, becomes 
frequently much contaminated by 
exhalations from putrefying sub- 
stances. Near the bodies of cor- 
rupting animals (as of dead horses 
and whales for example), the vola- 
tile septic acid gas proceeding from 
them has oftentimes poisoned per- 
sons who have lived or only pas- 
sed near them. The atmospheres 
of cities, as of New-York, Boston, 
Providence, New-London, and 
Philadelphia, have been repeat- 
edly found so much contaminated 
by corrupting animal provisions, 
by full and overflowing privy pits, 
by the abominable masses of rot- 
tenness with which the new 
grounds near the rivers have been 
made, and the like, that, in the last 
ten years of the 18th century, 



they suffered threat mortality, and 
Averc almost deserted by their in- 
habitants. The atmosphere in and 
around a house in the country has 
been known to be rendered un- 
healthy and deleterious by a nasty 
duck-pond or mud-hole near the 
door, by putrid cabbages in the cel- 
lar, and by dung of swine, poultry 
and human creatures accumulated 
on all sides. The atmosphere of 
ships, between decks, is generally 
very impure : pestilential air, or 
infection, is produced there from 
human excretions, from corrupt- 
ing provisions, and from decaying 
cargoes, in great quantity ; and 
then the inbred poison, and the 
distempers which the poison pro- 
duces, are preposterously said to 
be imported from foreign coun- 
tries. Corrupting substances can 
make an atmosphere locally un- 
healthy any where. Volcanic ef- 
fluvia, and vapours issuing from 
the internal parts of the earth, in 
consequence of subterranean fire, 
alter singularly the constitution 
and qualities of the atmosphere ; 
causing, as Mr. Holm relates, in 
the neighbourhood of Mount He- 
cla, in Iceland, pestilential rain 
and sickly vapours, and giving 
countenance to the opinion that 
eruptions of unwholesome steams 
and fumes from the earth are a 
frequent exciting cause of ende- 
mic and epidemic distempers. For 
the details on this curious subject 
the reader is requested to consult 
Mr. Webster's History of Festi- 

Atmosfihere is that invisible elas- 
tic fluid which surrounds the earth 
to an unknown height, and enclo- 
ses it on all sides. This fluid is 
essential to the existence of all 
animal and vegetable life, and even 
to the constitution of all kinds of 
matter whatever, without which 
they would not be what they are : 
for by it we literally may be said 
to live, move, and have our being : 

by insinuating itself into alj the 
pores of bodies, it becomes the 
great spring of almost all the mu- 
tations to which the chemist and 
pliilosopher are witnesses in the 
chiuiy;es of bodies. Without the 
atmosphere no animal could exist; 
vegetation would cease, and there 
would be neither rain nor refresh- 
ing dews to moisten the face of 
the ground ; and though the sun 
and stars might be seen as bright 
specks, yet there would be little 
enjoyment of light, could we our- 
selves exist without it. Nature 
indeed, and the constitutions and 
principles of matter, would be to- 
tally changed if this fluid were 

The mechanical force of the at- 
mosphere is of great importance 
in the affairs of men, who employ 
it in the motion of their ships, in 
turning their mills, and in a thou- 
sand other ways connected with 
the arts of life. It was not till the 
time of Lord Bacon, who taught 
his countrymen how to investigate 
natural phenomena, that the at- 
mosphere began to be investigat- 
ed with any degree of precision. 
Galileo introduced the study by 
pointing out its weight; a subject 
that was soon after investigated 
more completely by Torricelli and 
others. Its density and elasticity 
were ascertained by Mr. Boyle and 
the academicians at Florence. Ma- 
riotte measured its dilatibility ; 
Hooke, Newton, Boyle, and Der- 
ham, showed its relation to light, 
to sound, and to electricity. Sir 
I. Newton explained the effect pro- 
duced upon it by moisture, from 
which lialley attempted to explain 
the changes in its weight indicat- 
ed by the barometer. 

The atmosphere, we have said, 
envelops the whole surface of the 
earth, and if they were both at 
rest, then the figure of the atmos- 
phere would be globular, because 
all the parts of tlic surface of afluid 



in a state of rest must be equally 
pemoved from its centre. But as 
the earth and the surroundinp: parts 
of the atmosphere revolve uniform- 
ly together about their axis, the 
different parts of both have a cen- 
trifugal force, the tendency of 
which is more considerable, and 
that of the centripetal less, as the 
parts are more remote from the 
axis, and hence the fig-ure of the 
atmosphere must become an ob- 
late spheroid, since the parts that 
correspond to the equator are far- 
ther removed from the axis than 
the parts which correspond to the 
poles. The figure of the atmos- 
phere must also, on another ac- 
count, represent a flattened sphe- 
noid, namely, because the sun 
strikes more directly the air which 
encompasses the equator, and is 
comprehended betv/een the two 
tropics, than that which pertains 
to the polar regions : hence it fol- 
lows, that the mass of air, or part 
of the atmosphere adjoining to the 
poles, being less heated, cannot 
expand so much nor reach so high. 
Nevertheless, as the same force 
which contributes to elevate the 
air diminishes its gravity and pres- 
sure on the surface of the earth, 
higher columns of it about the 
equatorial parts, other circum- 
stances being the same, may not 
be heavier than those about the 
poles. Mr. Kirwan observes, that 
in the natural state of the atmos- 
phere, that is, when the barome- 
ter would, every where at the le- 
vel of the sea, stand at 30 inches, 
the weight of the atmosphere at 
the surface of the sea must be 
equal all over the globe ; and in 
order to produce this equality, as 
the weight proceeds from its den- 
sity and height, it must be lowest 
where the density is greatest, and 
highest vrhere the density is least, 
that is, highest at the equator, and 
lowest at the poles, with the inter- 
mediate gradations. On this and 

other accounts, in the highest re- 
gions of the atmosphere, the den- 
ser equatorial air not being sup- 
ported by the collateral tropical 
columns,- gradually flows over and 
rolls dow.n to the north and south ; 
these superior tides have been 
supposed to consist of hydrogen 
gas, inasmuch as it is much ligh- 
ter than any otiier, and is gene- 
rated in great plenty between the 
tropics ; it is also supposed to fur- 
nish the matter of the aurora bo- 
realis and australis. 

With regard to the weight and 
pressure of the atmosphere, it is 
evident that the whole mass, in 
common with all other matter, 
must be endowed with weight and 
pressure : and it is found by un- 
deniable experiments, that the 
pressure of the atmosphere sus- 
tains a column of quicksilver in 
the tube of a barometer of about 
30 inches in height; it accordingly 
foliov»s, that the whole pressure 
of the atmosphere is equal to the 
v/eight of a column of quicksilver 
of an equal base, and 30 inches in 
height, or the weight of the at- 
mosphere on every square inch of 
surface is equal to Impounds. It 
has moreover been found, that the 
pressure of the atmosphere balan- 
ces, in the case of pumps, &c. a 
column of water 34 i feet high ; 
and the cubical foot of water weigh- 
ing just 1000 ounces, or 62 i 
pounds, 34 -|- multiplied by G2 i, 
or 2158/6. will be the weight of a 
column of water, or of the atmos- 
phere on the base of a square foot; 
and consequently the 144th part 
of this, or iSlb. is the weight of 
the atmosphere on a square inch. 
From these data, Mr. Cotes com- 
puted the pressure of the atmos- 
phere on the whole surface of the 
earth to be equivalent to that of a 
globe of lead, 60 miles in diame- 
ter. Dr. Vince and others have 
given the weight at 77670297973- 
563429 tons. This weight is how- 



ever variable ; it sometimes bein^ 
much jjrcatcr than at others. If 
the surface of a man, for instance, 
be equal to 144 square feet, the 
pressure upon him, when the at- 
mosphere is in its lightest state, 
is equal to 13*. tons, and when 
in the heaviest, it is about 14 tons 
and one third ; the difference of 
which is about 2464/<^. It is sur- 
prizing that such weights should 
be able to be borne without crush- 
ing the human frame : this indeed 
must be the case, if all the parts 
of our body were not endowed with 
some elastic spring, whether of 
air or other fluid, sufficient to 
counterbalance the weight of the 
atmosphere. Whatever this spring 
is, it is certain that it is just able 
to counteract the weight of the 
atmosphere, and no more ; of 
course it must alter in its force as 
the density of the atmosphere 
varies : for if any considerable 
pressure be superadded to that of 
the air, as by going into deep wa- 
ter, it is always severely felt; and 
if, on the other hand, the pressure 
of the atmosphere be taken off 
from any part of the human body, 
by means of the apptu'atus belong- 
ing to the air pump, the inconveni- 
ence is immediately perceived. 

The difference in the weight of 
the atmosphere is very considera- 
ble, as has been observed, from the 
natural changes in the state of the 
air. These changes take place 
chieily in countries at a distance 
from the equator. In Great-Bri- 
tain, for instance, the barometer 
varies from 28. 4 to 30. 7, On the 
increase of this natural wcigju, 
the weather is commonly clear and 
fine, and we feel ourselves alert 
and active ; but when the weight 
of the air diminishes, the weather 
is often bad, and we feel listless- 
ness and inactivity. Hence inva- 
lids suffer in their hcalih from 
very sudden changes in tiic almos- 
pbere. In our observations on the 

barotnetcr, "we have known the 
mercury to vary a full inch, or even 
something more, in the course of 
a few hours. Such changes, how- 
ever, are by no means frequent. 
Ascending to the tops of moun- 
tains, where the pressure of the 
air is very much diminished, the. 
inconvenience is rarely felt, on ac- 
count of the gradual change ; but 
when a person ascends in a balloon 
with great rapidity, he feels, we 
are told by Garnerin and other 
aeronauts, a difficulty of breathing, 
and many unpleasant sensations. 
So also, on the condensation of 
the air, we feel little or no altera- 
tion in ourselves, except when the 
variations are sudden in the state 
of the atmosphere, or liy those who 
descend to great depths in a diving- 

It is not easy to assign the true 
reason for the changes that hap-» 
pen in the gravity of the atmos- 
phere in the same place. One 
cause is, undoubtedly, the heat of 
the sun ; for where this is uniform, 
the changes are small and regular. 
Thus, between the tropics the ba- 
rometer constantly sinks about half 
an inch every day, and rises to its 
former station in the night. But 
in the temperate zones, the alti- 
tude of the mercury is subject to 
much more considerable varia- 
tions, as we have seen with re- 
spect to what is observable in our 
own country. 

As to the alteration of heat and 
cold, Dr. Darwin infers, that there 
is good reason to conclude that in 
all circumstances where air is me- 
chanically expanded, it becomes 
capable of attracting the fluid mat- 
ter of heat from other bodies in 
contact with it. Now, as the vast 
region of air which surrounds our 
globe is perpetually moving along 
its surface, climbing up the sides 
of mountains, and descending into 
the valleys; as it passes along it 
must be perpetnally varying the 
1 1 



degree of heat according to the 
elevation of the country it tra- 
verses : for, in rising to the sum- 
mits of mountains, it becomes ex- 
panded, having so much of the 
pressure of the superincumbent 
atmosphere taken away ; and when 
thus expanded, it attracts or ab- 
sorbs heat from the mountains in 
contiguity with it; and, when it 
descends into the valleys and is 
compressed into less compass, it 
again gives out the heat it has ac- 
quired to the bodies it comes in 
contact with. The same thing 
must happen in the higher regions 
of the atmosphere, which are re- 
gions of perpetual frost, as has 
lately been discovered by the aerial 
navigators. When large districts 
of air, from the lower parts of the 
atmosphere, are raised two or three 
miles high, they become so much 
expanded by the great diminution 
of the pressure over them, and 
thence become so cold, that hail 
or snow is produced by the preci- 
pitation of the vapour : and as 
there is, in these high regions of 
the atmosphere, nothing else for 
the expanded air to acquire heat 
from after it has parted with its 
vapour, the same degree of cold 
continues till the air, on descend- 
ing to the earth, acquires its for- 
mer state of condensation and of 
■warmth. The Andes, almost un- 
der the line, rests its base on 
burning sands : about its middle 
height is a most pleasant and tem- 
perate climate covering an exten- 
sive plain, on which is built the 
city of Quito ; while its forehead 
is encircled with eternal snow, 
perhaps coeval with the mountain. 
Yet, according to the accounts of 
Don Ulloa, these three discordant 
climates seldom encroach much 
on each other's territories. The 
hot winds below, if they ascend, 
become cooled by their expansion ; 
"and hence they cannot affect the 
snow upon the summit ; and the 

cold winds that sweep the summit, 
become condensed as they descend 
and of temperate warmth before 
they reach the fertile plains of 

Various attempts have been 
made to ascertain the height to 
which the atmosphere is extend- 
ed all round the earth. These 
commenced soon after it was dis-_ 
covered by means of the Torri- 
cellian tube, that air is endued 
with weight and pressure. And 
had not the air an elastic power, 
but wxre it every where of the 
same density, from the surface of 
the earth to the extreme limit of 
the atmosphere, like water, which 
is equally dense at all depths, it 
would be a very easy matter to 
determine its height from its den- 
sity and the column of mercury 
which it would counterbalance in 
the baromieter tube : for, it hav- 
ing been observed that the weight 
of the atmosphere is equivalent 
to a column of 30 inches, or 24- 
feet of quicksilver, and the den- 
sity of the former to that of the 
latter, as 1 to 1 1040; therefore the 
height of the uniform atmosphere 
would be 1 1040 times 2^ feet, that 
is, 27600 feet, or little more than 
5 miles and a quarter. But the air, 
by its elastic quality, expands and 
contracts ; and it being found by 
repeated experiments in most na- 
tions of Europe, that the spaces 
it occupies, when_ compressed by 
different weights, are reciprocally 
proportioned to those weights 
themselves; or, that the more the 
air is pressed, so much the less 
space it takes up ; it follows that 
the air in the upper regions of the 
atmosphere must grow continually- 
more and more rare, as it ascends 
higher ; and indeed that, accord- 
ing to that law, it must necessarily 
be extended to an indefinite height. 
Nov/, if we suppose the height of 
the whole divided into innumera- 
ble equal parts ; the quantity of 



each part will be as its density ; 
and the weij^ht of the whole in- 
cumbent atmosphere being ulso as 
its density ; it follows, that the 
weii^ht of the incumbent air is 
every where as the quantity con- 
tained in the subjacent part ; which 
causes a difference between the 
wei^;hts of each two contiguous 
parts of air. But, by a theorem 
in arithmetic, when a magnitude 
is continually diminished by the 
like part of itself, and the remain- 
ders the same, these will be a se- 
ries of continued quantilies de- 
creasing in geometrical progres- 
sion : therefore, if, according to 
the supposition, the altitude of the 
air, by the addition of new parts 
into which it is divided, do con- 
tinually increase in arithmetical 
progression, its density will be 
diminished, or, which is the same 
thing, its gravity decreased, in 
continued geometrical proportion. 
And hence, again, it appears that, 
according to the hypothesis of the 
density being always proportional 
to the compressing force, the 
height of the atmosphere must 
necessarily be extended indefi- 
nitely. And, farther, as an arith- 
metical series adapted to a geo- 
metrical one, is analogous to the 
logarithms of the said geometri- 
cal one ; it follows therefore that 
the altitudes are proportional to 
the logarithms of the densities, 
or weights of air ; and that any 
height taken from the earth's sur- 
face, which is the difference of 
two altitudes to the top of the at- 
mosphere, is proportional to the 
difference of the logarithms of 
the two densities there, or to the 
logarithm of the ratio of those 
densities, or their corresponding 
compressing forces, as measured 
by the two heights of the barome- 
ter there. 

It is now easy, from the forego- 
ing property, and two or three ex- 
periments, or barometrical obser- 

vations, made at known altitudes, 
to deduce a general rule to deter- 
mine the absolute height answer- 
ing to any density, or the density 
answering to any given altitude 
above the earth. And accordingly 
calculations were made upon this 
plan by many philosophers, parti- 
cularly by the I'rench ; but it hav- 
ing been found that the barometri- 
cal observations did not corres- 
pond with the altitudes as measur- 
ed in a geometrical manner, it was 
suspected that the upper parts of 
the atmospherical regions were 
not subject to the same laws with 
the lower ones, in regard to the 
density and elasticity. And, in- 
deed, when it is considered that 
the atmosphere is a heterogeneous 
mass of particles of all sorts of 
matter, some elastic, and others 
not, it is not improbable but this 
may be the case, at least in the 
regions very high in the atmos- 
phere, which it is likely may more 
copiously abound with the electri-^ 
cal fluid. Be this however as it 
may, it has been discovered that 
the law above given, holds very 
well for all such altitudes as are 
within our reach, or as far as to the 
tops of the highest mountains on 
the earth,when a correction is made 
for the difference of the heat or 
temperature of the air only, as was 
fully evinced by M. De Luc, in 
a long series of observations, in 
which he determined the altitudes 
of hills both by the barometer, and 
by geometrical measurement, from 
which he deduced a practical rule 
to allow for the difference of tem- 
perature. Similar rules have also 
been deduced from accurate expe- 
riments, by Sir George Shuck- 
burgh, and (iencral Roy, both con- 
curring to show, that such a rule 
for the altitudes and densities 
holds true for all heights that are 
accessible to us, when the elasti- 
city of the air is corrected on ac- 
count of its density : and the re- 



suit of their experiments showed, 
that the difference of the loga- 
rithms of the heights of the mer- 
cury in the barometer, at two sta- 
tions, when multiplied by 1 0000, 
is equal to the altitude in English 
fathoms, of the one place above 
the other; that is, when the tem- 
perature of the air is about 31 or 
32 degrees of Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer; and a certain quantity 
more or less, according as the ac- 
tual temperature is different from 
that degree. 

But it may be shown, that the 
same rule may be deduced inde- 
pendent of such a train of experi- 
ments as those referred to, merely 
by the density of the air at the 
surface of the earth. Thus, let 
D denote the density of the air at 
one place, and d the density at the 
other; both measured by the co- 
lumn of mercury in the barome- 
trical tube: then the difference of 
altitude between the two places, 
will be proportional to the log. of 
D ■ — the log. of of, or to the log. 

of — . But as this formula expres- 
ses only the relation between dif- 
ferent altitudes, and not the abso- 
lute quantity of them, assume 
some indeterminate, but constant 
quantity A, which multiplying the 

expression log. — ,may be equal to 

the real difference of altitude a, 

that is, c = A X log. of — . Then, to 

determine the value of the gene- 
ral quantity /z, let us take a case 
in which we know the altitude a 
that corresponds to a known den- 
sity d ; as for instance, taking a = 
1 foot, or i inch, or some such 
small altitude : then because the 
density D may be measured by the 
pressure of the whole atmosphere, 
or the uniform column of 27600 
feet, when the temperature is 55° ; 
therefore 27600 feet will denote 

the density D at the lower place, 

and 27599 the less density a? at 1 
foot <ibove it ; consequently 1 = A 

^ 27600 
X log. of — -, which by the na- 

"Oi 5y y 

ture of logarithms, is nearly = h 

X or 

27600 635TI ^""'^y' ^"^^ 

hence we find h = 63551 feet; 
which gives us this formula for 
any altitude a in general, viz. a c= 


6355lXlog.of-7-, or a = 63551 X 

M M 

log. of — feet, or 10592 X lo?. of — 

m ni 

fathoms; where M denotes the 
column of mercury in the tube at 
the lower place, and m that at the 
upper. This formula is adapted 
to the mean temperature of the 
air 55° : but it has been found, by 
the experiments of Sir George 
Shuckburgh and General Roy, that 
for every degree of the thermo- 
meter, different from 55°, the al- 
titude a will vary by its 435th part; 
hence, if we would change the fac- 
tor A from 10592 to 1 0000, because 
the difference 592 is the 18th part 
of the whole factor 10592, and be- 
cause 18 is the 24th part of 435 ; 
therefore the change of tempera- 
ture, answering to the change of 
the factor A, is 24*^, which reduces 
the 55° to 31^. So that, a = 10000 


X log. of — fathoms, is the easiest 

expression for the altitude, and 
answers to the temperature of 3 1 ''j 
or very nearly the freezing point: 
and for every degree above that, 
the result must be increased by so 
many times its 435th part, and di- 
minished when below it. 

From this theorem it follows, 
that at the height of 3 |- miles, 
the density of the atmosphere is 
nearly 2 times rarer than it is at 
the surface of the earth ; at the 
height of 7 miles, 4 times rarer ; 
and so on, according to the fol- 
lov/ing table ; 



Height in miles. 

Number of tinies rarer 























And, by pursuing* the calculations 
in this table, it might be easily 
shown, that a cubic inch of the 
air we breathe would be so much 
rarefied at the height of 500 miles, 
that it would fill a sphere equal in 
fliameter to the orbit of Saturn. 

It has been observed above, that 
the atmosphere has a refractive 
power, by which the rays of light 
are bent from the right lined di- 
rection, as in the case of the twi- 
light ; and many other experi- 
ments manifest the same virtue, 
which is the cause of many phe- 
nomena- Alhazen, the Arabian, 
who lived about the year 1 100, it 
seems was more inquisitive into 
the nature of refraction than for- 
mer writers. But neither Alha- 
zen, nor his follower Vitello, knew 
any thing of its just quantity, which 
was not known, to any tolerable 
degree of exactness, till Tycho 
Brahe, with great diligence, set- 
tled it. But neither did Tycho nor 
Kepler discover in what manner 
the rays of light were refracted by 
the atmosphere. Tycho thought 
the refraction was chiclly caused 
by dense vapours, very near the 
earth's surface : wiiile Kepler 
placed the cause wholly at the 
top of the atmosphere, which he 
thought was uniformly dense ; and 
thence he determined its altitude 
to be little more than that of the 
highest mountains. But the true 
constitution of the density of the 
atmosphere, deduced afterwards 
from the Torricellian experiment, 
afforded a juster idea of these re- 

fractions, especially after it was 
found, that the refractive power 
of the air is proportional to its 
density. By this variation in the 
density and refractive jjowcr of 
the air, a ray of light, in passing 
through the atmosphere, is rou- 
tinually refracted at every point, 
and thereby made to describe a 
curve, and not a straight line, as it 
would have done were there no 
atmosphere, or were its density 

The atmosphere, or air, has 
also a reflective power ; and this 
power is the means by which ob- 
jects are enlightened so uniform- 
ly on all sides. The want of this 
power would occasion a strange 
alteration in the appearance of 
things; the shadows of which 
would be so very dark, and their 
sides enlightened by the sun so 
very bright, that probably we could 
see no more of them than their 
bright halves; so that for a view 
of the other halves, we must turn 
them half round, or if immove- 
able, must wait till the sun could 
come round upon them. Such a 
pellucid unreflective atmosphere 
would indeed have been very com- 
modious for astronomical observa- 
tions on the course of the sim and 
planets among the fixed stars, visi- 
ble by day as well as by night ; but 
then such a sudden transition from 
darkness to light, and from light 
to darkness, immediately upon the 
rising and setting of the sun, with- 
out any twilight, and even upon 
turning to or from the sun at noon 
day, would have been very incon- 
venient and oflcnsive to our eyes. 
However, though the atmosphere 
be greatly assistant in the illumi- 
naiion of objects, yet it must also 
be observed that it stops a great 
deal of light. 

The knowledge of the compo- 
nent parts of the atmosphere is 
among the discoveries of the mo- 
derns. The opinions of the car- 



licr chemists were too vague to 
merit any particular notice. Boyle 
however, and his contemporaries, 
put it beyond doubt that the at- 
mosphere contained two distinct 
substances, viz. an elastic fluid, 
distinguished by the name of air, 
and water in the state of vapour. 
Besides these two bodies, it was 
supposed that the atmosphere con- 
tained a great variety of other sub- 
stances, which were continually 
mixing w-ith it from the earth, and 
which often altered its properties, 
and rendered it noxious or fatal. 
Since the discovery of carbonic 
acid gas by Dr. Black, it has been 
ascertained that this elastic fluid 
ahvays constitutes a part of the 
atmosphere. The constituent parts 
of the atmosphere are, according 
to Mr. Murray, 

By measure. By weight. 

Nitrogen gas '• 7f.S ....... 7b 5b 

Oxygen gas 21 23 32 

Aqueous vapour 1.42 1 03 

Carbonic acid gas 08 10 

100.00 100.00 

It has been imagined that a por- 
tion of hydrogen may exist in the 
atmospheric air. But in the usual 
analysis of it oxygen is abstracted, 
and the residual air is found to be 
nitrogen. The nitrogen is proba- 
bly not perfectly pure, and it is 
possible a small portion of hydro- 
gen is mixed with it, which, from 
the quantity being very trifling, is 
difficult to be detected. 

The properties of atmospheric 
air appear to be merely the aggre- 
gated properties of the gases of 
which it consists. It is invisible, 
inodorous, insipid, compressible, 
and permanently elastic. It sup- 
ports combustion, and as it does 
so from the oxygen it contains, the 
combustion is less rapid and vivid, 
and continues for a shorter time. 
By the same agency it supports 
animal life ; a portion of its oxy- 
gen is censumed in respiration, 

and from , some experiments of 
Mr. Davy, there appears to be a 
consumption of a very small por- 
tion of its nitrogen. Atmospheric 
air is very sparingly absorbed by 
water ; and the absorption is une- 
qual, more of the oxygen being 
combined with the water than of 
the nitrogen. It is difficult, even 
by long boiling, to expel from wa- 
ter the whole of the oxygen which 
it holds dissolved ; and, if expos- 
ed again to the atmosphere, it 
very quickly imbibes it. 

Atmospheric air is an important 
agent in many of the operations 
of nature. Besides serving as 
the vehicle of the distribution of 
water, it is, by its mobility, the 
great agent by which temperature 
is in some measure equalized, or 
at least its extremes moderated. 
Animals, as we have seen, are de- 
pendent on it for life. It is essen- 
tial to respiration ; in the more 
perfect animals its deprivation can- 
not be sustained for a few mo- 
ments ; and even in the less per- 
fect, the abstraction of it is fol- 
lowed, though not so immediately, 
by death. Its agency depends 
chiefly on its oxygen, a quantity 
of which is spent in every inspira- 
tion in producing chemical chan- 
ges in the blood. A part of its 
nitrogen also is consumetl, while 
a portion of carbonic acid gas is 
formed and expired. Vegetable 
life is also in part dependent on 
it ; it conveys water, and perhaps 
carbonic acid gas, and other prin- 
ciples, to the leaves of plants, and 
is thus subservient to their nutri- 
tion and growth. 

Jtmosliheric Air. In 100 parts 
of atmospheric air there are 72 of 
azote, 27 of oxygen, and 1 of car- 
bonic acid. 

Atomus^ jj-o?, an atom, from a 
priv. and rs/xvi;, to cut or divide ; 
that is, which cannot be farther 
divided. Asclepiades taught that 
atoms were the primordia of all 



things, and tliiit they were not 
perceptible to our senses, but on- 
ly to our understanding ; that they 
had no qualities, for the qualities 
of bodies which they compose de- 
pend on the order, figure, number, 
Sec. of many atomn joined toge- 
ther ; and this last circumstance 
he proves by observing, that a lump 
of silver is white, but if filed 
down it is black ; and horns of 
goats are black when whole, but 
white if filed down. Galen says 
that Asclepiades, adhering to the 
opinions of Democritus and Epi- 
curus, with regard to the princi- 
ples of bodies, had only changed 
the former names of things, cal- 
ling adorns molecules, and a vacuum 
pores. — N. B. Molecules were 
divisible, but atoms not. 

jitonia, aa-onaf from a priv. and 
TEiw, to stretchy atony ; defect of 
muscular power ; relaxation, lax- 
ity, debility, or distemperature. 
It is generally synonymous with 

^trabilarious Humour^ may very 
well be understood of the thick 
part of the blood deprived of its 
due proportion of serum, or finer 
and more volatile parts, whereby 
it is rendered gross, black, unctu- 
ous, and earthy. The same may 
not improperly be called by the 
name of iiuccus Melmicholicus^ 
which we meet with in some au- 
thors. See jitra Bills. 

Atrabilarix ( Cajisul(e).^i. e. Re- 
nes Succenturiati. 

Atra Bilist black bile, or melan- 
choly. According to the ancients, 
it hath a two-fold origin. 1. From 
the grosser parts of the blood; 
and this they called the melancholy 
humour. 2. From yellow bile be- 
ing highly concocted. Dr. Perci- 
val, in his Essays Aled. and Kx/i. 
suggests, that it is the gall ren- 
dered acrid, by stagnation in the 
gall-bladder, and rendered viscid 
by the absorption of its iluid parts. 

Atrofia, dwale, or deadly night- 

shade, a genus in Linnccus's bo- 
tany. He enumerates six species. 

Atrofilnj^ocTfo'^iix^ from ot priv. and 
Tp^^w, to flourish ; a falling away of 
the flesh. Some say that in an 
atrofihy^ the fat only is wasted. 
Others describe it as a mere col- 
lapsion of the cellular, vascular, 
and muscular systems, with uni- 
versal weakness, from too great 
wastings, or too small recruits, of 
chyle, blood, lymph. Sec. through- 
out the whole habit ; without ul- 
ceration, or organical destruction 
of the solid vessels and viscera. 
A Phtkisisy or consumption of the 
lungs, they say, is from obstruc- 
tion ; an atrophy from inanition. 
Dr. Cullen defines it to be a wast- 
ing, with extreme debility, but 
without the hectic fever. He ranks 
this disease in the class of CacheX" 
i(?, and order Marcores ; and enu- 
merates four species. 

Attenuation^ is making a body or 
fluid thinner than it was before. 

Attenuantiay from attenuoy to 
make thin^ attenuating medicines.. 
These act on the solids and fluids. 
Such as operate on the fluids by 
immediate contact are but few, 
and indeed only such as are wa- 
tery, and they act only by the wa- 
ter in them. Viscid humours, al- 
kaline, and other salts, are dissolv- 
ed by water. Most of, or all the 
other attenuantsy act on the solids 
by increasing their tone, and there- 
by enabling them to attenuate the 
too thick fluids. 

At to II ens Auricula Superior^ a 
muscle which rises from the cor- 
rugator supercilii by a thin fascia. 

Attollcns A'aresy a muscle that 
arises from the ends of the two 
upper bones of the nose, and is 
inserted into the upper part of 
the v'//<f, pulling the nose upwards 
when contracted. 

Attollcns Oculiy i. e. Miisculut 
Superior, and Rectus Superior 0- 
culi : It is also called Superdus, 
which signifies proud, because it 



lies upon the upper part ©f the 
globe, and pulls up the eye, which 
gives an air of haughtiness. 

Attonitus Morbus,, a name of the 
Apoplexy^ and of the Efiilepsy. 

Attonitus Stuhor^ i. e. ApofiLexy. 

Attraction^ a general term, used 
to denote the power or principle 
by which bodies mutually tend to- 
wards each other, without regard- 
ing the cause or action that may 
be the means of producing the 

The philosopher Anaxagoras, 
who lived about 500 years before 
the Christian sera, is generally 
considered as the first who noticed 
this principle, as subsisting be- 
tween the heavenly bodies and the 
earth, which he considered as the 
centre of their motions. The doc- 
trines of Epicurus and of Demo- 
critus are founded on the same 

Nicholas Copernicus appears to 
hare been one of the first among 
the moderns, who had just notions 
of this doctrine. 

After him, Kepler brought it 
still nearer perfection ; having de- 
termined that bodies tended to the 
centres of the larger round bodies, 
of which they formed a part, and 
the smaller celestial bodies to the 
great ones nearest to them, instead 
of to the centre of the universe : 
he also accounted for the general 
motion of the tides on the same 
principle, by the attraction of the 
moon ; and expressly calls ifvirtus 
tractoria qua in luiia tst ; besides 
this, he refuted the old doctrine of 
the schools, " that some bodies 
were naturally light, and for that 
reason ascended, while others were 
by their nature heavy, and so fell 
to the ground;" declaring that no 
bodies whatsoever are absolutely 
light, but only relatively so, und 
that all matter is subject to the 
law of gravitation. 

Dr. Gilbert, a physician at Lon- 
don, was the first in England who 

adopted the doctrine of attraction; 
in the year 1600, he published a 
work entitled, ''De Magnete Mag- 
neticisque Corporibus ;" which 
contains a number of curious 
things ; but he did not sufficiently 
distinguish between attraction and 

The next after him Avas Lord 
Bacon, who, though not a convert 
to the Copernician system, yet ac- 
knowledged an attractive power in 

In France also, we find Ferinat 
and Roberval, mathematicians of 
great eminence, maintaining the 
same opinion. The latter, in par- 
ticular, mude it the fundamental 
principle of his system of physi- 
cal astronomy, which he publish- 
ed in 1 644, under the title of 
" Arist. Samii de Mundi Systema.'* 

Dr. Hooke, however, was the 
person who conceived the most 
just and cleai notions of the doc- 
trine of gravitation, of any before 
Newton ; in his work called '* An 
Attempt to prove the Motion of 
the Earth:" 1674. He observes 
that the hypothesis on which he 
explains the system of the world, 
is in many respects different from 
all others ; and that it is founded 
on the following principles : 1. 
That all the heavenly bodies have 
not only an attraction or gravita- 
tion towards their own centres, but 
that they mutually attract each 
other within the sphere of their 
activity. 2. Tliat all bodies which 
have a simple or direct motion, 
continue to move in a right line, 
if some force operating without in- 
cessantly does not constrain them 
to describe a circle, an ellipse, 
or some other more complicated 
curve. 3. That attraction is so 
much the more powerful, as the 
attracting bodies are nearer to 
each other. 

But the precise determination of 
the laws and limits of the doctrine 
of attraction, was reserved for the 



§-cnius of Newton : in the year 
166G, he first began to turn his 
attention to this subject, when, 
to avoid the pUii^ue, he had retir- 
ed from London into the country ; 
but, on account of the incorrect- 
ness of the measures of the ter- 
restrial meridian, made before 
this period, he was unable to bring 
his calculations on the subject to 
perfection at first. 

Some years afterwards his at- 
tention was again called to attrac- 
tion, by a letter of Dr. Hooke's ; 
and Picard, having about this time 
measured a degree of the earth, 
in France, with great exactness, 
he employed this measure in his 
calculations, instead of the one 
he had before used, and found, by 
that means, that the moon is re- 
tained in her orbit by the sole 
power of gravity, supposed to be 
reciprocally proportional to the 
squares of the distances. 

According to this law, he also 
found, that the line described by 
bodies in their descent is an el- 
lipse, of which the centre of the 
earth occupies one of the foci ; 
and considering afterwards, that 
the orbits of the planets are in 
like manner ellipses, having the 
centre of the sun in one of their 
foci, he had the satisfaction to per- 
ceive, that the solution which he 
had undertaken only from curi- 
osity, was applicable to some of 
the most sublime objects in nature. 
These discoveries gave birth to 
his celebrated work, which has 
justly immortalized his name, en- 
titled " Philosopliicae Naturalis 
Principia Mathematica." 

In generalising these research- 
es, he showed that a projectile 
may describe any conic section 
whatsoever, by virtue of a force 
directed towards its focus, and 
acting in proportion to the reci- 
procal squares of the distances. 
He also developed the various 
properties of motion in these 

kinds of curves, and determined 
the necessary conditions, so that 
the section should be a circle, an 
ellipse, or an hyperbola, which 
depend only upon the velocity and 
primitive position of the body, as- 
signing in each case the conic sec- 
tion which the body would de- 

He also applied these researches 
to the motion of the satellites and 
comets, showing that the former 
move round their primaries, and 
the latter round the sun, accord- 
ing to the same law ; and he point- 
ed out the means of determining 
by observation the elements of 
these ellipses. 

He also discovered the gravita- 
tion of the satellites towards the 
sun, as well as towards the planets^ 
and that the sun gravitates to- 
wards the planets and satellites, 
as well as that these gravitate to- 
wards each other: and afterwards 
extending, by analogy, this pro- 
perty to all bodies, he established 
the principle, that every molecule 
of matter attracts every body in 
proportion to its mass, and reci- 
procally as the square of the dis- 
tance from the body attracted. 

Having ascertained this princi- 
ple, he from it determined, that 
the attractive force of a body on a 
point placed without it is the same 
as if the whole mass were united 
at the centre. He also proved 
that the rotation of the earth upon 
its axis must occasion a flattening 
of it about the poles ; which has 
since been verified by actual mea- 
surement : and determined tiic 
law of the variation of the de- 
grees in dilTcrent latitudes, upou 
the supposition that the matter of 
the earth was homoj^eneous. 

But with the exception of what 
concerns the elliptical motions of 
the plrnets and comets, and the 
attii'ctions of the heavenly bodies, 
these discoveries were not wholly 
completed by iNcwton. His theory 



of the figures of the planets is li- 
mited by the supposition of their 
homogeneity ; and his solution of 
the problem of the precession of 
the equinoxes is defective in seve- 
ral respects. He has perfectly 
established the principle which 
he had discovered ; but left the 
complete developementofits con- 
sequences to the geometers that 
should succeed him. 

The profound analysis also, of 
which he was the inventor, had 
not been sufficiently perfected, to 
enable him to give complete solu- 
tions to all the difficult problems 
which arise, in considering the 
theory of the system of the world ; 
so that he was oftentimes obliged 
to give only imperfect sketches 
or approximations, and leave them 
to be verified by a more rigorous 

Attraction may be divided, with 
respect to the law it observes, in- 
to two kinds : 1. That which ex- 
tends to sensible distances ; such 
is the attraction of gravity, of 
which we have been treeiting, 
which is found in all bodies, and 
the attraction of magnetism and 
of electricity found in some par- 
ticular bodies : 2. That which ex- 
tends to very small, or insensible 

The attractions belonging to 
the first class must be as nume- 
rous as there are bodies situated 
at sensible distances. It has been 
proved that their intensity varies 
with the mass and the distance of 
the attracting bodies ; it increases 
with the mass of those bodies, but 
diminishes as the distance betvv een 
them increases. The rate of va- 
riation has been demonstrated to 
be inversely as the square of the 
distance in all cases of attraction 
belop.ging to the first class. 

The nature of the attraction of 
gravity has been already discus- 
sed. It is, as far as the e>:peri- 
cnce of man can extend, univer- 

sal in all matter. The attractions 
of magnetism and of electricity 
are partial, being confined to cer- 
tain sets of bodies, while the rest 
of matter is destitute of them; 
for it is well known that all bodies 
are not electric, and that scarcely 
any bodies are magnetic, except 
iron, cobalt, nickel, and chro- 
mium ; and there is good reason 
to suspect that the magnetism of 
the three latter substances is caus- 
ed by their containing some iron 
united to them. 

The intensity of these three at- 
tractions increases as the mass of 
the attracting bodies, and dimi- 
nishes as the square of the dis- 

The first extends to the great- 
est distance at w^iich bodies are 
known to be separated from each 
other. How far electricity ex- 
tends has not been ascertained; 
but magnetism extends at least so 
far as the semi-diameter of the 
earth. All bodies possess gravity; 
but it has been supposed that the 
other two attractions are confined 
to two or three subtile fluids, which 
constitute a part of all those bo- 
dies that exhibit the attractions of 
magnetism or of electricity. 

If we compare the different bo- 
dies acted on by gravitation, we 
shall find that the absolute force 
of their gravitation is in all cases 
the same, provided their distan- 
ces from each other, and their 
mass be the same ; but this is by 
no means the case with electrical 
and masrnetic bodies : in them the 
forces by which they are attracted 
towards each other, called elec- 
tricity and magnetism, are ex- 
ceedingly various, even when the. 
mass and the distance are the 
same. Sometimes these forces 
disappear almost entirely ; at 
other times they are exceedingly 

gravity, therefore, is a force 
inherent in bodies ; electricity and 



magnetism not so ; a circumstance 
which renders the opinion of their 
dependinj^ on peculiar fluids ex- 
tremely probable. If we compare 
the absolute force of these three 
powers with each other, it would 
appear that the intensity of the 
two last, every thintj else being 
equal, is greater thaw that of the 
first ; but their relative intensity 
cannot be compared, and is there- 
fore unknown. Hence it follows, 
that these different attractions, 
though they follow the same laws 
of variation, are not the same in 

The attractions between bodies 
at insensible distances, have been 
distinguished by the name of affi- 
nity, while the term attraction has 
been more commonly confined to 
cases of sensible distance. 

Affinity may be considered as 
operating on homogeneous or he- 
terogeneous substances. Homo- 
geneous affinity urges substances 
of the same nature together, as 
iron to iron, soda to soda. Hete- 
rogeneous affinity draws substan- 
ces of different nature into union, 
as acid and alkalis. 

Homogeneous affinity is usually 
denominated cohesion, and some- 
times adhesion, when the surfaces 
of bodies are only referred to ; it 
is nearly universal ; as far as is 
known, caloric and light alone are 
destitute of it. 

Heterogeneous affinity is the 
cause of the formation of com- 
pound substances ; thus muriatic 
acid unites with soda, and forms 
sea-salt; and sea-salt in saturated 
solution is united into masses by 
homogeneous aflinity. Heteroge- 
neous affinity is universal as far as 
is known ; that is to say, there is 
no substance which is not attract- 
ed by some other substance. It is 
generally taken for granted, that 
every substance has more or less 
affinity for all others, though it is 
certainly assuming more than even 

analogy can warrant, and is a point 
which we have no means of ascer- 

7\ffmity,like sensible attraction, 
varies with the mass and the dis- 
tance of the attracting bodieai 
That cohesion varies with the 
mass cannot indeed be ascertain- 
ed, because we have no means of 
varying the mass without at the 
same time altering the distance. 
But in cases of the adhesion of the 
surfaces of homogeneous bodies, 
which is undoubtedly an instance 
of homogeneous affinity, it has 
been demonstrated that the force 
of adhesion increases with the sur- 
face, which in some respect is the 
same as with the mass. 

That heterogeneous affinity in- 
creases with the mass has been 
observed long ago in particular 
instances, and has been lately de- 
monstrated by Berthollet to take 
place in every case. Thus a given 
portion of water is retained more 
obstinately by a large quantity of 
sulphuric acid, than by a small 
quantity. Oxygen is more easily 
abstracted from oxides which are 
oxydised to a maximum, than from 
those wliich arc oxyded to a mi- 
nimum. Lime only takes off the 
greatest part of the carbonic acid 
from potash, which still retains a 
portion of it ; and sulphuric acid 
does not totally displace piiospho- 
ric acid from the lime united to it 
in phosphate of lime, a part of it 
re.iains undistui'bed. In these 
and many other cases, a small por- 
tion of one substance is retained by 
a given quantity of another more 
strongly than a large portion; and 
Berthollet has shown, that in all 
cases a large quantity of one sub- 
stance is capable of abstracting a 
portion of anotiicr from a small 
portion of a third, how weak so- 
ever the aflinity between the first 
and second is, and how strong so- 
ever that between the second and 



That the force of affinity in- 
creases as the distance diminishes, 
and the contrary, is obvious ; for 
it becomes insensible, whenever 
the distance is sensible, and, on the 
other hand, itbecomes exceedingly 
great, when the distance is exceed- 
ingly diminished. But the parti- 
cular rate which this variation fol- 
lows is still unknown ; some have 
supposed the rate tft be the same 
as that of sensible attraction, and 
that its intensity varies inversely, 
as the square of the distance ; no 
sufficient argument has ever been 
advanced, to prove this law to be 
incompatible with the phenomena 
of affinity ; but, on the other hand, 
no proof has ever appeared in sup- 
port of this opinion. 

Affinity agrees with sensible 
attraction in every determinable 
point : like sensible attraction, it 
increases with the mass, and dimi- 
nishes as the distance augments ; 
consequently it is just to conclude, 
that attraction, whether it be sen- 
sible or insensible, is, in all cases, 
the same kind of force, and regu- 
lated precisely by the same gene- 
ral laws. 

The forces of affinity, though 
the same in kind, and possessing 
the same rate of variation with re- 
gard to distances, and also in re- 
spect to the mass, are vastly more 
numerous than those of sensible 
attraction ; for, instead of three, 
they amount to as many as there 
are heterogeneous bodies. But 
even when the distance and the 
mass are the same, as far as can 
be judged, the affinity of two bo- 
dies for a third is not the same. 
Thus barytes has a stronger affi- 
nity for sulphuric acid than potash 
has; for, on equal portions of them 
being mixed with a small quantity 
of the acid, the barytes seizes a 
much larger proportion of the 
acid than the potash does. The 
difference of intensity extends to 
all substances^ for there are 

scarcely any two bodies whose 
particles have precisely the same 
affinity for a third, and scarcely 
any two bodies whose component 
parts adhere together with ex- 
actly the same force. 

Because these affinities do not 
vary in common circumstances, 
like magnetism and electricity, 
but are always the same when 
other circumstances are equal, it 
has been argued that they do not, 
like them, depend on peculiar 
fluids, the quantity of which may 
vary ; but that they are permanent 
forces, inherent in every part of 
the attracting bodies. 

But after the extraordinary dis- 
coveries that have been lately 
made of the powerful eff'ects 
which electricity, as excited by 
the galvanic apparatus, has in 
chemical attractions ; and Avhen 
the great force of the affinity of 
the -bases of potash and of soda 
to oxygen have been overcome by 
it, we must hesitate at least in 
continuing the above opinion ; if 
we do not totally reject it, to 
adopt its reverse, and consider 
electric fire in future as the great 
agent of elective affinities. There 
is no reason why electric fire may 
not be subject to the same laws of 
attraction as other substances, and 
why it may not remain united to 
bodies in a latent or inactive 
state, as well as caloric; we have 
already shown, that the mass of 
any substance has a powerful ef- 
fect on its degree of affinity ; 
many of the eff'ects of electric fire 
on affinity might be explained by 
this increased power of it when 
acting in a mass, or at farthest 
by supposing, that its power in- 
creased with its mass in a greater 
ratio than that of other substances. 
It has been judiciously remark- 
ed, by a respectable chemical 
writer, that the variation of inten- 
sity, which forms so remarkable 
a distinction between affinity and 



gravitation, may be only apparent, 
and not real, and may only arise 
from the much nearer approach 
Avhich the parts of one substance 
may be capable of, to those of a 
second, than to those of a third ; 
and that thus it may be that ba- 
rytes attracts sulphuric acid with 
greater intensity than potash, be- 
cause the particles of barytes, 
when they act upon the acid, are 
at a smaller distance from it than 
the particles of the potash ; to 
which we shall add, that it is pos- 
sible that the decree of insensible 
distance to which the parts of sub- 
stances can approach, depends on 
the quaiuity of latent electric fire 
combined with them, or in other 
words, on the degree of their re- 
lative attractions to electric fire. 

This conjecture of the agency 
of electric fire, in elective attrac- 
tions,, has, at least, the advantage 
of the atomic theory, which has 
been advanced to account for the 
same phenomena, that it relates 
to matters which we know really 
exist, and which are not beyond 
the bounds of hope, indetermina- 
ble by experiment. With all due 
deference to the respectable cha- 
racters who have used the atomic 
theory as an universal explainer, 
we beg leave to remind its admi- 
rers, that it is totally inconsistent 
with the laws of sound philosophy, 
to assume a fact as the basis of 
argument, which itself has never 
had tiie shadow of proof to sup- 
port it, and which in its nature is 
incapable of experiment. It is 
idle, in the present respectable 
state of science, to talk any more 
of atoms : as well may wc again 
revive the dreams of the ancients, 
aboutthe materia subtilis ; or those 
of Des Cartes, relative to vortices, 
as to reason of the shape, form, 
nature, and properties of atoms, 
which, from their very definition, 
arc merely visionary, and which, 
the moment wc conceive them as 

having shape, lose tlicir essential 
quality of indivisibility ; if the ex- 
istence of atoms cannot be dis- 
proved, that is no argument in fa- 
vour of their existciice, in the way 
usually supposed ; and the atomic 
theory has only this property in 
common with every other which 
lies beyond the reach of our senses. 

Judicial astrology, magic, and 
many other chimeras, cannot be 
disproved; but, at least since the 
great law of truth has been adopt- 
ed for philosophy, that no argu- 
ment was to be admitted in it that 
was not demonstrable by experi- 
ment, or by proof equally satis- 
factory, mankind has ceased to be 
led astray by them. 

It is now high time either to 
banish the atomic theory into the 
same regions of oblivion as the 
others above mentioned, or to 
prove the existence of the atoms 
on which it is founded : but as this 
is in its nature an impossibility, it 
is to be hoped that the time is not 
far distant, when philosophers will 
cease to confound imaginary be- 
ings with real existences, and when 
all that has been written of atoms, 
will be in no more esteem than the 
voluminous treatises de Pygmcis 
et Salamandris, which are to be 
found among the folios of some of 
our great academical libraries. 

It is true, that the atomic theory 
accounts plausibly for many things 
we otherwise must be content to 
own are as yet beyond our know- 
ledge ; this may be a convenience 
to those who wish to impose oa 
tiie ignorant ; but all true lovers 
of science will despise so paltry a 
resource, especially when so much 
is now known, that we need no 
longer blush to own those points 
which are still involved in obscu- 
rity, and show the boundaries on 
the map of science between tiic 
regions of knowledge, and the ter- 
ra incognita of visionary theory. 

In the above respect of account- 



ing for matters unknown, the ideal 
system of Bishop Berkley is equal- 
ly powerful as, if not superior to,, 
the atomic theory, and has the ad- 
vantage over it, of turning our 
thoughts incessantly to the Al- 
mighty Author of all things ; for 
which reason, if we must have 
recourse to improved theories, 
Berkley's very much deserve the 

As to the more minute nature 
of bodies, we know that all mine- 
ral substances are resolvable into 
small laminae or spicula, of deter- 
minate shapes,which by their mul- 
tifarious combinations produce the 
variously formed chrystals, which 
all mineral bodies may be resolv- 
ed into by art, which most may be 
made to exhibit by skilful dissec- 
tion, and which so many show na- 
turally. Vegetable substances are 
resolvable into small fibres, as are 
likewise animal substances for the 
most part : and from the laws of 
sound philosophy, we must consi- 
der the laminae or spicula, which 
form the basis of crystallization, 
as the primary parts of mineral 
bodies, and fibres as those of or- 
ganized bodies, until something 
further can be proved on the sub- 
ject. These primary parts of bo- 
dies adhere together, it is most 
probable, by the attraction of co- 
hesion, (as do also their combi- 
nations into crystals and other 
forms), modified in some degree 
by that attraction caused by elec- 
tric fire. 

The attraction which takes place 
among substances in solution is 
not so easily comprehended ; as 
we know nothing as yet of the 
exact state in which a substance, 
capable of solidity, exists, when 
dissolved in a fluid. In our pre- 
sent state of knowledge, we can 
only consider it as a fluid itself, 
capable of reassuming a solid form 
in certain circumstances. 

The attraction which takes 

place between bodies in a state of 
vapour, is similar to that in a fluid 
state ; their precise and minute 
state in that condition is unknown; 
but the combinations which ensue 
from the attractions of many in 
both states, are familiar to all che- 
mists, and from them have pro- 
ceeded many of the most useful 
substances which we possess. It 
is very fortunate for us, however, 
that if the knov/ledsre of the mi- 
nute and primary state of bodies 
is, as it were, concealed from our 
view by an impenetrable veil, it is 
not of any very great importance 
to us ; as the eff'ects which bodies 
produce on each other can be 
known to us without it, and it is 
this latter species of knowledge 
that aff'ords us the dominion over 
nature, supplies our wants, and 
forms the basis of worldly happi- 

The characteristic marks of af- 
finity may be reduced to the three 

1. It acts only at insensible dis- 
tances, and of course aff"ccts only 
the minute parts of bodies. 

2. This force is always the same 
in the same substances ; but is 
diff'erent in different substances. 

3. This diff'erence is considera- 
bly modified by the mass. Thus, 
though A has a greater affinity for 
C than B has, if the mass of B be 
considerably increased, while that 
of A remains unchanged, B be- 
comes capable of taking a part of 
C from A. 

Auditoria Arteria Interna. It 
goes off" from each side of the Ar- 
teria basHaris to the organ of hear- 
ing, accompanying the auditory- 
nerve, having first furnished seve- 
ral small twigs to the Membrana 

Auditorius Meatus^ the passage 
that conveys the air to the auditory 

Auditorius JVervus. The seventh 
pair of nerves are called auditory 



7icrve9<, so aro the Symfiathetici 

jiuru^ any airy exhalations, spi- 
rit, or vapour; particularly such 
as arise from mephitic caves. 

jiura E/iilcfitica^ a sensation in 
epileptic patients, as of a blast of 
cold air ascending from the lower 
parts towards the heart and head. 

jiura Vitalis. So Helmont calls 
the vital heat. 

jlura7ifiiun^ the orange tree, a 
species of Citrus. The college 
hath directed Citrus Aurantium, 
Lin. its leaf, flower, juice of the 
fruit, and outer rind are ordered : 
the juice enters the Succus Coch- 
leariae Compositus, formerly cal- 
led Succ. Scorbutic : a conserve 
is directed to be made with the 
peel,Conserva Corticis Exterioris 
Aurantii Hispalensis : and a sy- 
rup, Syrupus Corticis Aurantii : 
the dried peel is used in the Tinc- 
tura Corticis Peruviani Compo- 
sita: TincturaGentiansc Compos. 

jiuriculUy the external part of 
the ear, which is divided into the 
upper part called pinna, and the 
lower soft part called the lobus. 

Auricula Cordis. . At the basis 
of the heart are observed two 
muscular bags, which are called 
its auricles ; they are joined to the 
ventricles, into which they have 
openings. The right auricle re- 
ceives the blood from the vena 
cava ascendens and descendens, 
then transmits it to the right ven- 
tricle ; the left auricula receives 
the blood from the lungs, and sends 
it into the left ventricle. 

.Auricula Iiifima^ the lobe of the 

Auricularis Digitus. The little 
finger is called the ear-finger, be- 
cause with it we are most apt to 
rub or pick the inner ear. 

Auricularius^ belonging to the 
ear ; also an ear-doctor. 

Auricularum St'/i(u?n^ the divi- 
sion or partition betwixt the auri- 
cles of the heart. 

Auriga^ a name of the fourtii 
lobe of the liver. Also a sort of 
bandage for the sides, described 
by (Jalcn. 

Aurifiignientum^ yellow orpi- 

Aurijngmenturn^ i. e. Realgar. 

Auris^ the ear. 

Auriscaljiigim., from auris, an ear, 
and scal/io^ to scratch^ an instru- 
ment to pick and cleanse the ears 
from wax, Sec. 

Auriujn Sordesj the ear-wax. 

Aurujn. See Gold. 

Aurum Fulininans^ a prepara- 
tion made by dissolving gold in 
Aijua-regla^ and precipitating it 
with salt of tartar ; whence a very 
sma.ll quantity of it becomes capa- 
ble, by a moderate heat, of giving 
a report like that of a pistol. It 
is also said to be a good medicine 
for lowering a salivation, or 
where too much mercury has been 

Aurum Potabile. If it would be 
of any service in medicine, it were 
very easy, by means of chemistry, 
to reduce the body of gold into a 
liquor, that might be taken inter- 
nally, with the utmost safety. 

Austere, is a rough astringent 
taste, arising, according to JScri- 
bonius Largus, from an union of 
earthy and tartareous particles ; 
and according to the Cartesian 
philosophy, from obtuse-angled fi- 
gures. Sylvius takes a great deal 
of pains to show how these gene- 
rate the stone ; and likewise how 
they do service in particular cases. 

Automaton, ai/ro/xarov, expresses 
properly a machine that hath the 
power of motion within itself, and 
which stands in need of no foreign 

Autofisy, aKTOx^ta, from ayrr, iflSQy 
one's scl/\ and o^k, visus, sig/it ; 
signifies the same as ocular de- 
monstration ; seeing a thing one's 

AvellanOf the hazel-nut. 

.ivena^ oats, a genus in Lin- 



useus's botany. He enumerates 
twenty-one species. The college 
hath directed the seed of Avena 
Sativa, Lin. or Common Oat. 

Avoir du Pois. This in the 
French language, signifies to have 
iveig/it, because the pound so cal- 
led, contains sixteen ounces, and 
hath more weight by ;iome ounces 
than that which is called Troy 
weighty which contains twelve 

Axilla^ the cavity under the 
upper part of the arm, called the 
arm -pit. 

Axillary Artery. The subcla- 
vian artery having left the thorax 
immediately above the first rib, in 
the interstice between the portions 
of the scalenus muscle, there re- 
ceives the name axillary^ because 
it passes under the axilla. 

Axillaris 'JVervns<f the axillary 
nerve ; also called the articular 
nerve. It arises from the last two 
cervical pairs ; it runs in the hol- 
low of the axilla, behind the head 
of the OS humeri, between the 
musculus teres major and minor, 
and turns from within outwards 
and backwards, round the neck 
of the bone, and runs to the del- 
toid muscle. 

Axillaris Vena^ the axillary 
vein. It is the continuation of the 
subclavian vein, in its passage out 
of the thorax to the opposite side 
of the axilla. 

Axio7n, a self-evident proposi- 
Uon ; so it neither requires nor 
admits of demonstration. 

Axis, that round which any 
thing revolves, or is supposed to 
revolve. It also expresses that 
quiescent right line of a vessel, 
which is always equi-distant from 
the sides. 

Axis. In Botany it is a taper 
column placed in the centre of 
some flowers or katkins, about 
which the other parts are disposed. 

Axis, the name of the second 
vertebra (acc©rding to some, ©f 

the first, and to others the third) 
of the neck, reckoning from the 
head downwards. This* second 
vertebra hath a tooth which goes 
into the first vertebra, and this 
tooth is by some called the axis, 
by others the axle. 

Axis Arteria Coelincx, i. e. Cosli- 
aca Arteria. 

Axungittf hog's-lard, so called 
from its use of ufigueiida, anoint- 
ings axe?!!, the axle, of a chariot 
or such like. 

Axungia de Mumia, marrow. 

Axungia Vitrea, sandiver, or 
salt of glass. It separates from 
glass whilst it is making; it is 
acrid and biting. It has been 
used to clean the teeth. 

Azalea, American wild honey- 
suckle, a genus in Lihnasus's bo- 
tany. He enumerates six species. 

Azedarach, the bread-tree, a 
species of Melia. 

Azote, or Azotic Gas, exists in 
a large proportion in the atmos- 
phere ; is so named from its fatal 
effect en the lives of animals, 
which, as well as combustion, it 
quickly destroys and extinguishes. 
Dr. Priestley called this elastic 
fluid phlogisticated air. See M. 
Fourcroy's Elements of Natural 
History and Chemistry. 

Azote, from a, priv. and ^(tir\, x'ita, 
life, is a name in the French che- 
mical nomenclature for the ba- 
sis of atmospherical mephitis, or 
phlogisticated air. This term is 
applied because the air which 
azote chiefly assisted to compose 
possesses no vital properties, and 
was, in some of its modifications, 
directly noxious. The term was 
allowed, by the academicians who 
proposed it, to be faulty and ex- 
ceptionable. It was too vague and 
indefinite ; including all the radi- 
cals of the gases except that of 
oxygenous gas, which is the only 
one that is not properly azotic or 
unvital. It has by some been very 
improperly called A''itrogene and 



(ilkaligen. A proposal has also 
been made to call it Se/ito?i, or 
" the corrupter," from its dispo- 
sition to disorganize and break 
down the structure of all organ- 
ized bodies into which it enters. 
See Se/iton. 

Azoth^ the same as Azoch. Pa- 
racelsus also signifies by it the 
universal remedy prepared of the 
sun, moon, and mercury. Azoth 
is also taken for the liquor of sub- 
limed mercury, or quicksilver, 
mixed with vitriol and salt, and 
so sublimed, which is also called 
Aqua Permanens^ Crystalli Philo- 
sofihorum, and Luna Fhysica. — 
Azoth is a name for brass. It 
sometimes signifies the mercury 
of any metallic body. 

Azotic Gas-, azote, or septon, 
united to as much caloric as to be 
rendered volatile, or turned to an 
aeriform fluid. This is the air 
which constitutes about three- 
fourths of the atmosphere, the 
other fourth being oxygenous gas. 
Between these two gases there is 
no chemical union, in the ordinary 
state of things ; the mixture being 
merely such an one as exists be- 
tween oil and water shaken toge- 
ther, where the particles indeed 
of the one fluid arc interspersed 
with those of the other, but still 
not united with them. The great 
use of azotic gas seems to be, to 
temper the excessive stimulant 
properties of oxygenous air, and 
tliereby lessen the injurious con- 
sequences that would result from 
an atmosphere of this air alone. 
It is supposed to minister largely 
to the nourishment of plants, and 
some late experiments have led 
to a similar belief in respect to 
animals. It combines readily with 
water, which it elevates from the 
surface of the earth above the 
summits of the highest mountains, 
and lets it fall in the form of rain, 
giving rise to showers, steady 
rains, hail, snow, sleet, fog, mist, 

dew, and hoar-frost. This easy 
association of azotic air with wa- 
ter had led some expcrunenters 
into a persuasion that the whole 
of any given quantity of water is 
convertible to azotic air ; and, con- 
sequently, that, vice versa,, azo- 
tic air is capable of being changed 
to water. The later experiments 
of Dr. Priestley lead to this con- 
clusion, though they are not con- 
formable to the other and more 
fashionable opinion, that water is 
resolvable into hydrogenous and 
oxygenous airs. See Septous Gas. 

Azure Blue. Zafl're mixed with 
fixed alkaline salt, and brought 
into fusion by an intense heat, is 
changed into a glass of a very 
deep blue colour. This is pow- 
dered, then sold under the name 
of azure blue,, azure enamel blue,, 8cc. 

Azygos^ a name of the Os Sjihe- 

Azygos,, aft;yo;, from cc priv. and 
i^yyo?, a flair,, without a fellow. The 
musculus azygos of Morgagni 
rises tendinous from the junction 
of the ossa palati, and runs down 
the palatum molle to the middle of 
the uvula, serving X.b elevate it. 

Azygos Processus. See Sjihe- 
noides fos.J 

Azygos Vena, a vein so called, 
because it hath no fellow. It is 
also called Fe?ia sine pari and^w^o. 
The azygos is a considerable 
branch of the Cava. It descends 
through the right side of the ca- 
vity of the Thorax,, and at its ar- 
rival at the eighth or ninth verte- 
bra, it begins to keep the middle, 
and sends forth on each side inter- 
costal branches to the interstices 
of the eight lower ribs, and there 
is divided into two branches, of 
which the larger descends to the 
left, betwixt the processes of the 
diaphragm, and is inserted, some- 
times into the cava above or below 
the emulgent, but oftener into 
the emulgent itself. The other, 
which goes down en the right, 



enters the cava commonly a little ^viJLri,ferme?it^ unfermented bread, 

below the emulgent, but is very as sea-biscuit, which, as Galen 

seldom joined to the emulgent says, is not very wholesome, ex- 

itself. cept where the digestive powers 

jizyjnosf a^v(xo;f from a priv.and are too strong. 


BACCA, a berry, in Botany^ is 
a fleshy or pulpy pericarpium 
without valve, the seeds within 
which have no other covering or 
cell, as in the gooseberry. Sec. 

jBacca, are small roundish fruit 
that grow scattered upon trees 
and shrubs, and in that are distin- 
guished from ^cina^ which are 
berries hanging in clusters. 

Balanusj the glans or nut of the 

Balaustium^ the double flowered 
wild pomegranate-tree. It is the 
Punica granatum^ varietas plena 
major^ Linnaeus. Properly balaus- 
tium is the cup of the flower of 
this tree. 

Ballstown- Springs^ mineral wa- 
ters in the State of New-York, 
about fifteen miles north of the 
Mohawk River, at Schenectady. 
They contain as much carbonic 
acid as they can dissolve, and the 
overplus rises through to the sur- 
face in large bubbles. This air, 
when collected in vessels, is found 
to extinguish flame, to render 
lime-water turbid, and to be ca- 
pable of being poured from one 
vessel into another like a liquid, as 
Dr. Mitchill experienced. It soon 
escapes in the open atmosphere. 
Bread can be made light and 
spongy with this aerated water 
without the aid of yeast ; for, on 
mixing it with flour into dough, 
and putting it quickly into a bak- 
ing-pan, the carbonic acid is ex- 
tricated by the heat, and made to 
puff* up the mass very beautifully. 
Beside carbonic acid, the Balls- 
town waters contain a small quan- 
tity of iron, the yellow oxyd of 

which is deposited upon the stones 
over which they run. They con- 
tain also a large quantity of neu- 
tral salts. Persons on first tasting 
them have rather a disrelish for 
them, but on drinkint^ a few times 
grov/ very lond of them. The 
waters are agreeably stimulant to 
the stomach, and powerfully diu- 
retic ; they possess also, a mode- 
rately purgative quality. Many 
valetudinarians resort to them for 
the benefit of their health ; and 
the place has also become a fa- 
shionable resort for well persons 
who wish to pass a few w'ecks 
agreeably during the hot season. 
See Dr. Seaman's Dissertation on 
these waters. 

Balneuvt^ from |5zXX«, to cast 
avoay^ and avici, grief. This word 
I^roperly signifies the hot bath 
only ; and under this head we 
shall consider only the general 
and partial warm baths, referring 
for cold bathing to the article 

Warm bathing gives a softness 
and flexibility to the skin and 
muscles; and from some rarefac- 
tion of the blood, or from its de- 
termination to the surface, in- 
creases the bulk. It seems to in- 
crease all the secretions, as it cer- 
tainly does those of the skin ; nor 
after the sweat excited by bathing 
is the perspiration diminished, 
though the increase of any evacu- 
ation, in general, occasions a tem- 
porary suppression afterwards: 
the pulse becomes fuller and 
quicker ; the face flushed ; the 
respiration laborious. A mode- 
rate stav in the bath increases the 



spirits as well as the activity, and 
improves the general health : con- 
tinuini; in it too long induces lan- 
guor and debility. 

We do not recollect any direct 
experiments on this sul)ject but 
those in a Thesis by Dr. Parr, 
which have been generally copied 
in every subsequent publication. 
He tiied the effects of warm bath- 
ing at 96°, 08°, 100°, 102O, 1040, 
and 106°, of Fahrenheit. At 96°, 
the general effects above mention- 
ed were observed ; the pulse, if at 
first slightly quickewed, was soon 
natural ; the respiration, in the 
earliest period a little more rapid, 
soon became free and easy, and 
but little change was produced in 
the heat of the body. 

At 98° the pulse was slightly 
increased in quickness, and did 
not subside ; but the heat appear- 
ed to remain stationary. There 
was no sweat, though a free copi- 
ous perspiration : the urine was 
not increased ; and, after some 
time, the pulse became slower 
than before the bathing. The cu- 
ticle was observed to be slightly 

At lOOo the pulse was increased 
from 60° to 72^; the respiration 
much affected; the face red and 
swollen, and a copious sweat broke 
out : the cuticle appeared more 
corrugated. The heat was raised 
two degrees ; and, after about ten 
minutes, faintness came on. The 
perspiration was free and copious; 
and, after a short time, every dis- 
agreeable symptom vanished ; the 
pulse sinking a little below its na- 
tural standard. 

At 102"J the pulse was soon rais- 
ed from 68Q to 100°, and, in ten 
minutes, the sweat on the face was 
copious, the vessels turgid, the 
skin not corrugated, and the heat 
of the body raised from 98° to 102°. 
A beating noise was heard in the 
head ; and, in half an hour, giddi- 
ness came on. When laid between 

blankets, the sweat was copious 
and free, the pulse soon became 
natural, and the quantity of urine 
was not increased. 

At 104° all these appearances 
were still more striking and more 
rapid : a vertigo coming on, at the 
end of about twenty minutes, put 
a stop to the experiment. At 106° 
the effects came on still more 
quickly and more violent. The 
faintness and sickness supervened 
more early ; the sweat was more 
copious, but the frequency of the 
pulse did not subside even after 
twenty-five minutes. From these 
experiments, seemingly made with 
care and attention, we perceive 
that little is to be dreaded from 
the stimulating effects of the hot 
bath under about 102°; and that, 
probably, under 94° it has no pe- 
culiar or appropiiate power. As 
the limits of the cold bath we shall 
find to be about 84*^, the tempera- 
ture, in the interval, has the ef- 
fects of neither. Above 102° the 
warm bath determines powerfully 
to all the extreme vessels, parti- 
cularly to the head and breast; and 
at this temperature it must be used 
with caution, when the contents of 
either are disordered. The ba- 
lance between the urine and the 
skin is nearly even at about 98°. 
Dr. Cullen supposed the effects of 
the warm bath to arise wholly from 
the relaxation of the skin, and, of 
course, the diminished pressure 
of that peripherical band which 
confines the fluids. Though cor- 
rect to a certain extent, this view 
is too simple to explain all the be- 
nefit derived from the remedy. It 
will undoubtedly account for the 
determination to the skin, and, 
joined with the stimulus of the 
heat, to the evacuations occasion- 
ed by warm bathing. When we 
reflect however that the sub cuta- 
neous nerves, as closely connect- 
ed with the skin as the vessels, are 
sub] crt to this relaxing warmth, v;e 



must suppose some of the benefit 
to be derived from this source also. 
In higher degrees, the stimulus we 
shall find to be very advantageous. 
The state of the extreme vessels is 
soon communicated to other or- 
gans ; and as these in every part of 
the body sympathise with the ves- 
sels of the surface, a considerable 
relaxation must be thus obtained. 
In a certain degree their increas- 
ed action gives a tone to the 
nerves ; and we may therefore 
suppose that their relaxation pro- 
duces an opposite state. In this 
way the effects on the nerves 
may be explained without suppos- 
ing any immediate effect of the 
bath on the nervous system ; and 
we thus see how moderate heat 
may relax, and a higher tempe- 
rature give a tone to the nerves. 

Two other opinions must be no- 
ticed. One of these is the gene- 
ral language of relaxing contract- 
ed ligaments, as if from the ex- 
ternal action of warm water, the 
subjacent parts were macerated 
like the skin. There is not the 
slightest evidence of the fluid 
penetrating beyond the surface ; 
indeed the oily fluid below the 
skin must prevent it ; and, from 
what has been said, its immediate 
contact will appear to be unne- 
cessary in the explanation of the 
effects of bathing. 

Dr. Stevenson has attributed all 
the effects of warm bathing to a 
rarefaction of the blood ; and this 
idea is supported by all the ap- 
pearances of external fullness. 
The language is echoed in every 
medical work without careful ex- 
amination. In fact, the blood is 
one of the l€ast expansile fluids 
by heat which has ever been tried. 
Sauvages enclosed it in a thermo- 
metrical tube, and found that at 
212° it did not expand ^^^^ part. 
Haller exposed it to a still greater 
heat with the same result. In- 
deed, the expansility of fluids fol- 

lows n© given law. jEther and 
quicksilver are nearly equal in this 
respect ; at least, as we were in- 
formed by Dr. Black, who had tri- 
ed the experiment, the difference 
was very inconsiderable. 

In the cure of diseases, there- 
fore, the beneficial effects of warm 
bathing are to be expected from 
its relaxing power ; the increase 
of the circulation in the extreme 
vessels ; with the perspiration ex- 
cited, and its general stimulus. In 
melancholy^ its effects as a relax- 
ant are most conspicuous ; and in 
some spasmodic diseases without 
inflammation, particularly tetanus^ 
it has been useful. In ileus it has 
been highly commended ; but we 
have suspected that it hastens the 
progress of mortification, and are 
convinced that its free use has had 
injurious effects. Dr. Heberden 
however, in the Medical Transac- 
tions, mentions the case of a wo- 
man who went into the bath nine 
times in one day, while labouring 
under an ileus in consequence of 
a hernia. In the sfiasmodic asthma 
of children it has been employed 
with success. In the croup, also it 
has been commended, but scarce- 
ly any benefit has been derived 
from its employment. 

Modern theory supposes a spasm 
on the extreme vessels to prevail 
in case of fevers ; and warm bath- 
ing must, of coui'se, be a remedy 
of importance. We are not pre- 
pared to discuss the question of 
the cause of fevers, but may re- 
mark, that the circulation during 
the paroxysm is not carried on in 
the smaller branches of the san- 
guiferous system. In intermit tents 
it has consequently prevented the 
return of a fit; and in continued 
fevers it is often highly useful. In 
the beginning of continued fevers 
it is, however, less advantageous 
than in their decline ; and in this 
state the bath must be supplied by 
the pediluvium,or, more common- 



ly, by Avarm fomentations to the 
legs and thighs. Ininjlammatory 
fever it is less useful ; yet at 98^^, 
where the action o£ the heart and 
arteries is scarcely, if at all, in- 
creased, it may safely be employ- 
ed ; and Dr. Whytt, on the fourth 
day of this fever, has used it with 
advantage. In the latter period of 
tyfihus^ when the low delirium oc- 
curs, it has been freely employed, 
and at least with some alleviation 
of the symptoms, if not with more 
decisive advantages ; and should 
even inflammation have taken 
place in the brain, as it is of a 
less active kind, no injury is likely 
to result. Dr. Whytt supposes 
that fomentations are less useful 
than pediluvia ; but in the low 
state to which the patient is usu- 
ally reduced before the bath is em- 
ployed, the former only are ad- 
missible. It will be remarked, 
that in vapour greater heat can be 
borne than in water; and, conse- 
quently, when the fomentation is 
properly employed, the heat of th'e 
flannels is seldom less than 120*^ 
of Fahrenheit. 

Of the exanthemata^ the only 
disease in which bathing has been 
employed, is the small-fwx. In 
Upper Hungary, Fischer has de- 
scribed it as the domestic remedy 
for this disease ; and, in ah epide- 
mic small-pox of considerable vi- 
rulence, by imitating this prac- 
tice, he was very successful. Dr. 
Stack, in his Thesis published at 
Leyden, has shown that variolous 
fevers threatening a copious erup- 
tion, were mitigated by warm bath- 
ing, and the disease proceeded 
mildly and safely. When the 
eruptions are repelled also, it has 
been very useful. The heat of 
the bath should be carefully regu- 
lated, and should certainly not ex- 
ceed 100°. 

In hamorrhat^^cs and Jihlegmasi.z 
the use of bathing is equivocal ; 
yet, with caution, it has been 

employed in the latter succcli- 

In amacnorrhoea from cold it has 
been useful ; and such is the po- 
pular prejudice in favour of pedi- 
luvium, that it is too indiscrimi- 
nately used. It is chiefly adapted 
to the strong and robust, where 
the suppression has been owing 
to a violent occasional cause. In 
the pain from stone in the ureters^ 
or the gall diicts^ from its relaxing 
power, it is a valuable remedy. 

From its power of determining 
to the surface, it is useful where 
any acrimony is to be discharged, 
or any unequal balance of the cir- 
culation is to be removed. In the 
former view we find it employed 
in cuta7ieous diseases and sy/i/iiiis ; 
in the latter, in chronic catarrhs 
and diarrhoeas. In the first it 
chiefly assists the effects of mer- 
cury, and in the latter only sup- 
plies the advantages of a milder 
climate. In hydrophobia it has 
been employed, though with no 
very particular success. The an- 
cient physicians used it in their 
complicated form, but concluded 
with immersing the patient into 
the piscina, the cold bath. 

As a stimulus, the warm bath 
has been found very useful ; and 
in the diseases for which it is most 
successfully employed, the heat 
must be raised very high, far be- 
yond that used in the experiments 
described. To this high degree 
of heat the peculiar virtues of the 
Bath waters are to be attributed, 
ratiier than to their impregnation. 
They are assisted also by the per- 
cussion in pumping on an aflcct- 
ed part; a mode of application 
which greatly adds also to the 
tonic power of the cold bath. 

In cases of hami/ihlegia there 
have been many doubts respecting 
the use of the warm bath. These 
chiefly arise from the disease be- 
ing often occasioned by effusion 
on the brain, which the necessary 



stimulus mi^ht increase ; and ma- plied for their assistance ; ik)p 
ny instances have been adduced of need we despair of imitating their 

its producing in such cases a fatal 
apoplexy Untloubtedly, where 
marks of a determination to the 
head are strong ; where the pa- 
tient has not passed the meridian 
of life ; -ov where the vessels have 
been stimulated by a continued 
excess of v/ine aiid spirituous li- 
quors ; warm bathing is a preca- 
rious remedy. In palsies in gene- 
ral, however, it may perhaps be 
allowed ; and, as we have said, in 
amaurosis : so we shall find in hae- 
miphlegia, that the effusion hav- 
ing once taken place, the disease 
is continued in consequence of the 
injury which the nervous system 
has received from the compres- 
sion. We may then disregard the 
cause, except in the younger and 
more inflammatory constitutions 
just described. It should, how- 
ever, be managed with caution : 
a drain from the head should be 
established by a perpetual blister, 
and the bowels freely emptied pre- 
vious to its employment. 

There is little management re- 
quired in the use of the balneum 
in chronic rheumatism. It is a dis- 
ease nearly allied to palsy, as the 
vessels, from the previous disten- 
sion, are rendered paralytic, and 
contract spasmodically on fluids, 
probably in too large a proportion. 
The warm bath is particularly 
useful, and often alone will cure 
the disease. In that species of it 
confined to the hip joint, sciatica^ 
bathing and pumping on the part 
affected, is a very valuable re- 

In the hip joint also, the relax- 
ation of the ligament often occa- 
sions or endangers dislocation. It 
is the morbus coxarius of Dr. 
Haen ; the arthrojinods of other 

efl'ects by employing an equal tem- 
perature, and pouring it from a 
height. It would not require any 
great ingenuity to contrive a hand 
pump fixed in a reservoir, which 
is continually filling from cocks 
conveying boiling and cold water. 
The size of the aperture, or the 
number of cocks conveying cold 
water, might easily regulate the 
heat. A common garden engine 
might be readily converted to this 

Contracted limbs are greatly be- 
nefited by warm pumping, and gra- 
dually moving the limb during the 
relaxation obtained. Dr. Blegbo- 
rough, in these local diseases, has 
contrived a receptacle for the part 
from which the air is exhausted 
while the vapour is applied ; but 
this seems unnecessarv. If the 
vapour is confined, all the benefit 
will be obtained without previous 
exhaustion ; or, in reality, the va- 
pour itself, by rarefying the air, 
will exhaust the vessel sufficiently. 
The warm bath, if the tempe- 
rature is too high, will certainly 
be injurious to the plethoric, or 
those disposed to any accumula- 
tions in particular parts, unless 
they are such as the bath may dis- 
sipate. In the weak, the relaxed, 
and the irritable, it is hurtful ; 
and hence the indiscriminate use 
of pediluvium in chlorosis and 
amsenorrhoea has been highly in- 
jurious. In both views it is inju- 
rious in hectic fevers, and in schir- 
rosities of the liver. Hoff'man 
thinks it hurtful in asthma ; and 
it will be seemingly so from its 
effect on the respiration. Dr. Fal- 
coner differs from him in this re- 
spect ; and on trial, in convulsive 
asthma, it has not seemed parti- 

authors. If it has not yet advanced cularly injurious, though so much 
to a suppuration, the Bath waters benefit was not derived from it as 
have certainly relieved a large to induce a repetition. Those sub- 
proportion of those who haveap- jectto haemorrhage should be cau- 



tious in its use ; and, in general, 
diinger may attend its cinploynunt 
alter any agitation of mind or body, 
which greatly quickens the circu- 
lation. The Romans used it in 
the time of the emperors after a 
full meal : the practice is repro- 
bated by Juvenal and Horace, ra- 
ther as a luxurious than a danger- 
«us indulgence. 

After tlic bathing, sweating be- 
tween flannels is generally enjoin- 
ed ; but if we wish to employ it 
as a stimulus, a copious perspira- 
tion should not be too freely in- 
dulged. The contracted ve sels 
should be excited to action, but 
their powers should not be ex- 

Fomentations and embroca- 
tions are partial warm baths, and 
supposed to derive some virtue 
from their impregnations ; but in 
general the heat and moisture, 
wlien the latter are used warm, 
are the most beneficial agents. 

Warm baths, imjircgnated with 
different inedicifial substances, are 
said to derive, from these, peculiar 
advantages. We know of no in- 
stance in which the v/atersof Bath 
have been imitated for external 
use. Those of Harrowgate have 
been prepared by adding sulphu- 
rated kali to water, in the propor- 
tion of two ounces to a sufiicient 
quantity of fluid for a bath. They 
are chielly used in cutaneous com- 
plaints, but we have had no ex- 
perience of their efficacy. 

An impregnation of warm wa- 
ter, though not an artificial one. 
is employed in warm sea-water. 
This bath is supposed to be a more 
active stimulant than common wa- 
ter, and to be more useful, not on- 
ly in palsy, but from the absorp- 
tion of its salts in scrophulous 
complaints. We have reason to 
think that its powers are consider- 
able ; and it may be used at a low 
temperature in constitutions that 
cannot bear the shock of cold im- 

mersion, and in weak habits as a 
good preparative for sea-bathing. 
The greater weight and pressure 
of salt-water has been supposed 
to render it more useful as a bath 
than fresh. It certainly is so; 
though, during the short immer- 
sion, we cannot easily perceive 
how any advantage can arise from 
its weight. In pumping, or pour- 
ing from a height, the momentum 
is certainly greater, and the ad- 
vantages are proportionally in- 

Near smelting huts it is not un- 
common to impregnate baths with 
the scoriae of iron, and sometimes 
with the mixed slag of copper, 
cobalt. Sec. The slags and scoriae 
are immersed in water while hot, 
or heated again for the purpose ; 
and the baths thus prepared arc 
supposed to be peculiarly useful 
as tonics. With a similar view, 
it has sometimes been a practice 
of boiling alum and quick-lime 
toQfether for a bath. 

Scheutzer describes the pep- 
per-water of the Alps, which was 
formerly highly esteemed as a 
bath. It breaks out in a place al- 
most inaccessible with great im- 
petuosity in the spring, and con- 
tinues till near October. The 
water, however, according to this 
author, contains no particular mi- 

The VAPOUR BATH conveys heat 
less speedily than water, but a 
greater heat can be borne, and for 
a longer period. This, in reality, 
was the warm bath of the Romans, 
as it is of the Swedes, Russians, 
and the native Americans; and it 
is probably more cfiicacious, both 
as a relaxant and a stimulant. It 
is certain, that water in a vesicular 
state is more powerful in its hy- 
grometicalaflinity than when fluid; 
and Saussure, when he fixed tlie 
extreme point of moisture in his 
hygrometers in water, found that 
the index, in a fog, pi^ssed beyond 



it. This was our meaning when 
we remarked that man could live 
in air beyond the point of extreme 

A bath of a different kind is that 
of ivarm sand or earth. The for- 
mer is used by sailors in scurvy ; 
the latter, we believe, has only 
been employed by quacks. We 
remember attending some experi- 
ments of this kind. A glowing 
heat was felt in the parts surround- 
ed by the earth, but we remarked 
no peculiar change in the counte- 
nance that would lead us to sup- 
pose it a powerful remedy, and 
certainly no disease was relieved 
by it. The complaints to which 
it is apparently best adapted are 
cutaneous. See Edinb. Med. Com- 
ment. Decad. 2d. vol. x. p. 153 ; 
also among the ancients, Hippo- 
nrates,Celsus, Coelius, Aurelianus, 
Aretaeus, and Trallian; and among 
the moderns, Sir John Floyer, Dr. 
Wainwright on Bathing, and par- 
ticularly Hoffman. 

Balneum is a word much used by 
chemists, and generally signifies a 
vessel of water, in which another is 
placed that requires a less heat than 
the naked fire : but their Balneum 
Maria is a mistake for Balneum 
Maris, which signifies only a sea 
or water-bath. A sand-heat is also 
sometimes called Balneum Siccum^ 
©r Cinereum. But what comes 
more properly under this term 
in medicine, are baths which are 
made so by art or nature, to wash 
the patient in. The artificial baths 
have, by the ancients, been in great 
esteem, and contrived for many 
purposes, especially in complaints 
to be relieved by revulsion ; as in 
inveterate head-achs, by opening 
the pores of the feet ; and also, in 
cutaneous cases they were much in 
esteem. But the modern practice 
has greatest recourse to the natu- 
ral baths. The cold baths are only 
the most convenient springs or re- 
servateries of cold water to wash 

in. They have been long banish- 
ed out of medicine by a monkish 
philosophy and chemistry ; for the 
ancients had them in great esteem ; 
and, by good luck, some improve- 
ments in physical reasoning, from 
the assistances of geometry and 
mechanics, have brought them 
into tolerable countenance again ; 
and the present age can produce 
us abundance of noble cures per- 
formed by them. 

Balneum Arena, Balneum Sic- 
cum. "^rhe Sand-Bath. 

Over the mouth of a common 
wind furnace place one end of an 
iron plate with a ledge round it, 
and under this plate the canal must 
run, by which the furnace commu- 
nicates with its chimney ; the plate 
must then be filled with sand or 
other dry matter for placing the 
m.edicines to be digested in. The 
heat from the fire will be different 
in different parts of the plate ; and 
thus, as more or less warmth is 
required, dilferent situations are 

The vessel containing the matter 
to be heated hath its bottom and 
sides totally covered with the sand, 
and there it is continued until the 
digestion is completed. 

Ashes may be used in this bath 
when a lesser heat is wanted, sand 
for a greater, and iron filing for 
the greatest. 

Balneum Maria, \e\ Maris. The 
Sea-ivater Bath; which admits of 
greater heat than boiling water, 
though sometimes it implies this 
only. In this bath, water supplies 
the place of sand ; and when a 
greater heat than that of boiling 
water is not required, this method 
of digestion is preferable to that 
by the sand-bath, because the heat 
cannot exceed at any time that 
which is required. 

Balneum Siccum. See Balneum 

Balneum Vafioris. A Vafiour 
Bath. This is properly when the 



vessel containlni^- the matter to he 
diy^cslcd is exposed only to tlic 
steam that arises from hoilin^ water. 
Balsanifi. Balsams are fluid, 
odorous, combustilile substances, 
that communicate a sweet taste to 
water, and contain concrete acids, 
which may be obtained by subli- 
mation or decoction. Chemists 
are not aijreed as to the difTercnce 
between balsams and resins. 

Balfiam of Cofiaiba. A yellow 
resinous juice, of a moderately 
agreeable smell, and a bitterish 
biting taste, that remains a long 
time in the mouth. It is obtained 
from the Copaifera officinalis of 
Linnaeus, by making deep incisions 
near the base of its trunk. The 
juice flows so freely as to aff"ord 
twelve pounds in about three 
hours. Balsam of Copaiba, like 
most other balsams, is nearly al- 
lied to the turpentines, with which 
it is ahvays mixed in the shops. 
It was formerly thought to be a 
very efficacious remedy. It de- 
termines very powerfully to the 
kidneys, and impregnates the urine 
with its qualities. It is given prin- 
cipally in gonorrhaeas, phthisis 
pulmonalis, fluor albus, and in ne- 
phritic complaints. — Gts. x. to Ix. 
Balsam of Gilead. Balsamum de 
Mecca. 0/iobalsamum. Balsammn 
verum. This resinous juice, ob- 
tained by making incisions into 
the bark of the amyris gileadensis 
of Linnaeus, is of a light yellow 
colour, of a bitter, acrid, adstrin- 
gent taste, and of a very strong 
smell, resembling that of lemons. 
The chief mark of its goodness is 
said to be founded on this, that 
when dropped on water, it spreads 
itself all over the surface, forming 
a thin pellicle, tough enough to 
be taken up upon the point of a 
pin, and at the same time impreg- 
nating the water with its smell 
and flavour. Its virtues are simi- 
lar to those of the Canada and Co- 
paiba balsams. 

fialsam of Peru. Balsamum 
firruvianum. The tree which pro- 
duces this resioous fluid is de- 
scribed by the younger Linnaeus 
by the name of iMyroxylon fierui- 
fcrum. Two species of this bal- 
sam are imported into this coun- 
try — the common or black, and 
the white. The first, which is 
chiefly used, is about the consis- 
tence of a syrup, of a dark, opake, 
reddish brown colour, inclining to 
black, and of an agreeable aroma- 
tic smell, and a very hot pungent 
taste. The white balsam, called 
also white storax, is brought over 
in gourd-shells, and is of a pale 
yellow colour, thick and tenacious, 
becoming, by age, solid and brit- 
tle. They are esteemed as warm 
nervine medicines, and are some- 
times used by surgeons in certain 
conditions of wounds and ulcers. —^ 
Gts. iv. to XV. 

Balsam of Toki. This juice, 
which is considered as a true bal- 
sam by modern chemists, is of a 
reddish, yellow, transparent co- 
lour ; in consistence thick and te- 
nacious ; by age it becomes so 
hard and brittle, that it may be 
rubbed into a powder between the 
finger and thumb. Its smell is 
extremely fragrant, somewhat re- 
sembling that of citrons: its taste 
is warm and sweetish : on being 
chewed it adheres to the teeth. 
Thrown into the fire it immedi- 
ately liquefies, takes flame, and. 
disperses an agreeable odour. The 
tree which aff*ords this balsam, 
from incisions of its bark, is the 
Toluifera bahamum of Linna;us, 
which grows in South-America, 
between Carthagena and Hor.du- 
ras. Tolu balsam possesses cor- 
roborant, stomachic, and nervine 
qualities. It has been chiefly used 
as a pectoral, and is directed in the 
Pharmacopeias in the syru/iua to- 
lutarni,^^ tinctiira tohit^nay and sy^ 
rujius balsamicus. — Gts. v. to 9i. 

Balscimics, A term generally 



applied to substances of a smooth 
and oily consistence, which possess 
€molient, sweet, and generally 
aromatic qualities. 

Balsamum Canadense. One of 
the purest turpentines procured 
from the fiinus balsaviea of Lin- 
naeus, and imported from Canada. 
For its properties, Sec. see Tur- 
fientines. — Gts. x. to xl. or more. 

Bangue^ an Indian plant W'hose 
stalk resembles that of hemp. Its 
seeds and leaves are heating, and 
strangely affect the imagination. 

Barba, a beard. In Botany a 
species of pubescence covering 
the surface of plants. 

Barbadoes Oil^ a variety of the 
black species of Petroleum. It is 
opake and thick, like treacle. 

Barbary-bush. See Berberis, 

Bardana^ burdock. 

Bardana Major^ clotburr, or 
great burdock. Aretium lapfia of 
Linnseus. A plant which grows 
about waste grounds, and in hed- 
ges. The Pharmacopeia directs 
the root for medicinal use : it has 
no smell, but tastes sweetish, and 
mixed, as it were, with a slight 
bitterness and roughness. It does 
not appear to possess those quali- 
ties which have been attributed to 
it; yet, as a diuretic and pectoral, 
in form of decoction, it has some 
claim to our attention.— 3 i- 

Bardana Minor^ lesser burdock, 
or louse-burr. 

Barilla. Soda. Katron. The 
plant from which this mineral al- 
kali is principally procured, is the 
Salsola kali of Linnaeus, \vhich is 
cultivated on the coast of the Me- 
diterranean. The plants, about 
the time the seeds become ripe, 
are pulled up by the roots, and 
exposed in a suitable dry place, 
where their seeds are collected ; 
this being done, the plants are 
tied up in bundles, and burned in 
an oven constructed for the pur- 
pose, where the ashes are conti- 
nually stirred, v/hile hot. The 

saline matter falls to the bottom^ 
and, on becoming cold, forms a 
hard solid mass, which is after- 
wards broken into pieces of a con- 
venient size for exportation. 

This alkaline salt has been sup- 
posed to be a decomposition of the 
sea-salt of the kali-plant, by fire, 
during its incineration. This, 
however, is a mistake ; for the 
quantity of alkali is very far great- 
er than the amount of sea-salt 
which could be extracted by any 
process before burning. If the 
plant be not completely burned, 
or if it be rotten, very little barilla 
is obtained. Barilla, hov»ever, al- 
ways contains a portion of sea- 
salt, either naturally or intention- 
ally mingled with it. Hence it 
appears that the alkali is the crea- 
ture of the fire, produced by syn- 
thesis in the act of burning these 
maratime plants, as pot-ash is dur- 
ing the combustion of oak, beech, 
and other upland vegetables. Ba- 
rilla is the commercial name for 
this article, and in the shops of 
apothecaries it is known by the 
term of soda, or sal sodse. It is a 
precious article of the materia 
medica. It is mild, and possesses 
but little causticity, and therefore 
may be prescribed wdth great 
safety, even to delicate constitu- 
tions and tender infants. Dissolv- 
ed in water, soda or barilla is an 
excellent cleanser of the mouth 
from, febrile, syphilitic and ulcer- 
ous sordes. It is even the most 
pleasant mouth-wash and preser- 
ver of the teeth for persons in. 
health ; destroying the septic acid, 
and all other acidity about the 
teeth, without inflaming or in the 
least injuring the gums or other 
parts of the mouth. It renders 
the teeth smooth, and destroys 
the foetor of the breath. Taken 
into the stomach, soda is an ad- 
mirable remedy for the heart-burn 
and pain and uneasiness caused by 
acids jhere. In the dysentery, it 



is one of the best of all medicines ; 
for if administered in the early 
staj^es of the disease, its benefi- 
cial elTects are soon perceptible. 
It neutralizes the septic acidity of 
the faeces, relaxes the spasms of 
the guts, heals up the ulcerations, 
if there be any, and acts as a gen- 
tle purgative. If tenesmus is vio- 
lent, it may be given most advan- 
tageously in clysters, and in this 
way it almost immediately gives 
relief. Another advantage of pre- 
scribing soda in dysentery is, that 
the offensiveness of the stools is 
almost wholly destroyed by it, and 
their infectious quality entirely 
prevented and overcome. Those 
foul and intolerable evacuations 
which render a dysenteric patient 
so horribly offensive, and often- 
times considerably dangerous to 
the attendants, are unknov/n to the 
alkaline mode of practice. In the 
diarrhoea infantum barilla is also a 
safe and pleasant remedy, very 
neat and easy to be administered. 
A weak solution of it in water is 
a good wash for eruptions upon 
the skin, and for foul blotches and 
unsightly spots^ See Bilc^ jXitre, 
and Soda. 

Barley. See Hordeum. 

Barometer., from /5apoc, a weighty 
and /msrpov, a measure ; frequently 
called Torricellian Tiibe^ from Tor- 
ricclli, its inventor. It is an instru - 
ment for measuring the weight 
or pressure of the atmosphere ; 
and by that means the variations 
in the state of the air, foretelling 
the changes in the weather, and 
measuring heights or depths. Sec. 
About the beginning of the 17th 
century, when the doctrine of a 
plenum was in vogue, it was a 
common opinion among- philoso- 
phers, that the ascent of water in 
pumps was owing to what they 
called nature's abhorrence of a va- 
cuum; and that thus lluids might 
be raised by suction to any height 
whatever. Rut an accident hav- 

ing discovered that water could 
not be raised in a pump unless the 
sucker reached to within 33 feet 
of the water in the well, it was 
conjectured by Galileo, who flou- 
rished about that time, that there 
might be some other cause of the 
ascent of water in pumps, or at 
least that this abhorrence was 
limited to the finite height of 33 
feet. Being unable to satisfy him- 
self on this head, he recommend- 
ed the consideration of the difficul- 
ty to Torricclli, who had been his 
disciple. After some time Tor- 
ricclli, fell upon the suspicion, 
that the pressure of the atmos- 
phere was the cause of the ascent 
of water in pumps ; that a column 
of water 33 feet high was a just 
counterpoise to a column of air of 
the same base, and which extend- 
ed up to the top of the atmosphere ; 
and that this was the true reason 
why the water did not follow the 
sucker any farther. And this sus- 
picion was soon after confirmed by 
various experiments. See Atmos- 

It was some time, however, be- 
fore it was known that the pres- 
sure of the air was various at dif- 
ferent times in the same place. 
This could not, however, remain 
long unknown, as the frequent 
measuring of the column of mer- 
cury must soon show its variations 
in altitude ; and experience and 
observation would presently show 
that those variations in the mer- 
curial column were always suc- 
ceeded by certain changes in the 
weather, as to rain, wind, frosts, 
Sec. : hence this instrument soon 
came into use as the means of 
foretelling the changes of the wea- 
ther, and on this account it ob- 
tained the name of the weather- 
glass, as it did that of barometer 
from iis being the measure of the 
wei..> ht or |>rcssure of the air. Wc 
may now proceed to take a view 
ef its various forms and uses. 



The .common mercurial baro- 
meter, or weather-glass, is a cy- ' 
lindrical glass tube, whose diame- 
ter is generally about one third or 
one fourth of an inch, and length 
34 inches, filled with prepared 
mercury ; one end of the tube is 
hermetically sealed, and the open 
end inserted into a bason of mer- 
cury. The tube and bason are 
fixed to a frame of wood, and 
suspended in a verticle situation. 
The height of the mercury in the 
tube above the surface of the mer- 
cury in the bason is called the 
standard altitude, and the differ- 
ence between the greatest and 
least altitudes is called the limit 
or scale of variation. 

The mercury in the barometer 
tube will subside, till the column 
be equivalent to the weight of the 
external air upon the surface of 
the mercury in the bason, and it 
is therefore a criterion to mea- 
sure that weight, and chiefly di- 
rected to that purpose. In Eng- 
land the standard altitude fluctu- 
ates between 28 and 31 inches; 
and from hence it is justly infer- 
red, that the greatest, least, and 
intermediate weights of the at- 
mosphere upon a given base are 
respectively equal to the weights 
of columns of mercury upon the 
same base, whose vertical alti- 
tudes are 28, 31 inches, and some 
altitude contained between them. 

The standard altitude ought to 
be the same, whatever be the dia- 
meter of the barometer tube ; but 
when this diameter is very small, 
the attraction of cohesion between 
the mercury and glass prevents a 
variation of altitude, which ought 
to be, and in larger tubes is, sen- 
sible from small diff*erences in the 
•weight of the atmosphere. 

Barrel. A pretty large cavity 
behind the drum of the ear is so 
called. It is lined with a mem- 
brane, in which there are several 
veins and arteries. It is always 

full of purulent matter in children; 
and in its cavity there are four 
small bones, viz. the Malleolus^ the 
Incus, the Stapes^ and the Os oT" 

Bartholiniana Glandula^ i. e. 
Sublinguales glandules. 

BaryteSf or Baryta, i. e. Terra 
fionderosa,ediYih of ponderous spar, 
or barotes. It exists ordinarily in 
two modifications: l.Ot combina- 
tion with carbonic acid, furmiiig a 
carbonate of barytes ; and, 2. Of 
connection with sulphuric acid, 
making a sulphate of barytes. This 
latter is the most common form of 
it ; of which cockscomb spar is 
one of the most remarkable spe- 
cies. Its attraction for the sul- 
phuric acid is remarkably strong, 
and therefore a solution of barytes 
in muriatic acid is employed as a 
good reagent in analizing waters 
to determine the presence of the 
sulphuric : for, on dropping mu- 
riate of barytes into water con- 
taining sulphuric acid in any form, 
the earth will join the acid, form 
an insoluble sulphate of barytes, 
grow turbid, and finally fall to the 
bottom. Every maker of experi- 
ments upon waters ought there- 
fore to be possessed of this solu- 
tion, which is such an excellent 

Basalt es, ^cc<7<x,\rv]<,2i genus in the 
order of Cry fitometallijie stones. It 
is mineralized with iron and other 
metals. Bergman says it consists 
of argillaceous earth intimately 
united with half its weight of sili- 
cious earth (or more,) and a little 
mild calcareous earth. 

Basaltes, a variety of the black 
species of Saxum vulgare ; it is of 
a compact granulated structure ; 
set with some shining granules ; 
found in the Giant's Causeway, 

Basilare (Os), a name of the Os 
Cuneiforme. It is also a name of 
the Os Sphenoides, from its form- 
ing the middle of the basis of the 



■okull. The On Sacrum is culled 
by this niimc. 

Bafiilurix Jrteria. It is a branch 
of the vertebral artery upon the 
ji/iofihysis basilaris of the Os Occi- 
piiis. It runs forward under the 
great transverse protuberance of 
the MtduLla Oblongata^ to which 
it gives branches as well as to the 
neiglibourini>; parts of the Medulla. 
Sometimes it divides into two 
brunches from about the Jjiofihy- 
sis basilaris, which communicate 
with the posterior branches of the 
two internal carotids, and are lost 
in the posterior lobe of the brain. 

Basilaris Afiophysis-, the great 
Ap'.'iilnjHis of the Os O capitis. 

Basilica Ve?ia. The ancients 
termed the basilic vein of the right 
arm, the vein of the liver (Vena 
hfiiatica brachii )., and that of the 
left arm, the -oein of the spleen, 
(Vcya splenica brachii.) 

Basilica^ (SxctiXiky}, from ^aa-iXeu}, 
to govern. The middle vein of 
the arm, by way of pre-eminence, 
is thus called. i?onietimes it hath 
a double origin, by a branch of the 
communication with the trunk of 
the Axillaris. It continues its 
course along the middle of the 
Qs humeri.^ between the muscles 
and integuments ; and, having 
reached the inner condyle, and 
sent off obliquely in the fold of the 
arm, the Mediaiia Basilica, it runs 
along the Ulna, between the inte- 
guments and the muscles, a little 
towards the outside, by the name 
of Cubitalis externa; and, a little 
below it, sends off another branch 
which runs along the inside of the 
fore-arm near the Ulna : this 
branch may be called Cubitalis in- 

Busilicon, /saa-AjKov. Thus an 
ointment is named, from /9a5-A<Ho,', 
royal, the royal ointment, or from 
^y.<nXiV(;, a king, derived {v on\ ^.ca-.i, 
a foundation, and Xa/^, the /leo/ilr. 
It was so called from its supposed 
kingly virtues. 

Basiogloasum, from /5:/-ri;, the 
foundation, yXucraa,, the tongue, a 
pair of muscles which depress the 
tongue ; they arise tleshy from the 
basis of the Os Hyoides. They 
are also called Ccratoglossua and 

Basio-Pharyngxi, i. e. Hyoplia- 

Basis, /5x(TK, from (Sonvui, to go, 
the support of any thing ui)on 
which it stands or goes. In A/ia- 
tomy, it expresses the upper and 
broad part of the heart, opposite 
to the Aliicro or point ; because, 
considering it as a cone, which it 
resembles in shape, this name is 
proper to it, although by its natu- 
ral situation, it is uppermost. 
The foundation of the Os Hyoides 
hath likewise this name. And it 
is also used sometimes to signify, 
in a figurative sense, the chief in- 
gredient of a composition. 

Batatas. So the natives of Peru 
call the potatoe (which is a native 
of that country), from whence our 
word potatoe. It is a species of 
night-shade, viz. the Solanum tu- 
berosum of Linnaeus. They were 
first brought into Europe by Sir 
Francis Drake, in 1486, and plant- 
ed in Ijondon. They are natives 
of Peru. 

Batatas, Spanish potatoes, a 
species of Convolvulus. 

Bathing, Cold and Sea. By the 
cold bath is meant that application 
of cold water which produces a 
sense of coldness called a shock-y 
and which is followed by the in- 
creased action of the extreme 
vessels styled a glor^K One ex- 
treme of the scale we well know, 
that of the freezing point ; the 
other is undetermined. The Bux- 
ton water of 82<^ occasions a slight 
but sensible shock, so that the 
limits are below this degree ; and 
as temperate heat is placed at 62<>, 
we shall not be greatly in error if 
we fix the other extreme at 72^. 

The first effects of the cold bath 



are well known. The whole body 
is contracted ; the bulbs of the 
hair are conspicuous ; and the skin, 
resembling that of a newly pluck- 
ed goose, has been styled cutis an- 
serina. The debility and tremor 
are considerable; a sense of weight 
is felt in the head ; the respiration 
is quick and laborious. These ap- 
pearances are followed by a very 
different series. A glow soon re- 
turns to the surface ; the weight 
in the head is almost instantane- 
ously relieved, and every func- 
tion appears to be carried on with 
increased activity. If a person 
stays for a longer period in the cold 
bath, the glow will be slighter and 
soon disappear, while every pre- 
vious symptom of debility will re- 
turn and continue. 

Few experiments have been 
made on the effect of the pulse 
after cold bathing. Dr. Stock has, 
in the trials he made, found in ge- 
neral the pulse quicker and weaker 
after immersion ; in a few instan- 
ces only, slower. The writer of 
this article has found similar re- 
sults ; but the pulse, felt at a more 
distant period than that mentioned 
by Dr. Stock, has been usually 
more slow and full. In a slight 
feverish complaint, the quickness 
of the pulse was greatly mitigat- 
ed. Other authors have found the 
pulse much slower, but this was 
the consequence of partial cold 

If the immersions are at due in- 
tervals repeated, and the stay in 
the bath be not improperly con- 
tinued, the general health and spi- 
rits are greatly improved ; the dif- 
ferent necessary evacuations pro- 
perly carried on and supported ; 
and the body and mind appear to 
act with increased vigour. 

The explanation of these phe- 
nomena is not difficult. The cold, 
by its sedative power, represses 
the circulation in the extreme ves- 
sels, and the fluids are accumu- 

lated in the larger arteries and 
veins. Whether the distension 
excites the action of the former; 
whether in consequence of repres- 
sed irritability it is afterwards 
restored with greater vigour; or 
whether the vires medicatrices re- 
act to conquer debility ; we must 
not now inquire : but in every 
such circumstance, from one of 
these causes, the circulation is 
again restored with additional ac- 
tivity. The repetition of cold 
bathing produces tonic eiTects, 
which we are inclined to attribute 
to the frequent exertion of this 
re-acting power. 

According to the management 
of this remedy, we may therefore 
secure very different and opposite 
eff'ects. A sudden change in the 
determination of the blood and 
nervous power, assisting its re- 
action, M'iil produce a very diff'er- 
. ent efi"ect from the continued^ and 
this again from the refieated^ ap- 
plication ; a distinction necessary 
to be attended to, in considering 
the diff'erent diseases in which the 
application of cold water has been 
considered as a remedy. 

From the sudden changes in 
the determination of the blood it 
has been employed in msvny dis- 
eases, and particularly to prevent 
or remove the paroxysms of an 
intermittent. In the attack of this 
disease, there is a similar change 
of determination to that which 
has been described from the ef- 
fects of the cold bath ; and it is 
relieved by a similar exertion of 
the constitution. The cold bath 
therefore may be supposed to ex- 
cite that exertion, and to render 
the subsequent relief more per- 
manent and effectual ; or, if the 
determination to the skin from the 
bathing has come on, the fit may 
be wholly prevented. The plan 
certainly has succeeded, and it is 
mentioned by Senac to have been 
useful even after the cold fit ha^ 



appeared. (Dc reconditiiFcbriiim 
Natura, p.21H.) 

If cojitinucd fevers arc only in- 
tcrmittcnts whose paroxysms run 
into each other, so that tlie earlier 
stages are less observable, we may 
see some founrlation for its use in 
these also. Remittents are con- 
fessedly of the same nature as in- 
lermittents ; and in the Breslaw 
fever (the trytaeofihya Wratiala- 
vienfsis of Sauvai^es), De llahn 
used the application of cold wa- 
ter with success. It brought on 
a glow of warmth ; and, in the 
language of the ancient physician, 
hide iiovl 7fL0tus iniuurn. In some 
other cases of trz/i/ms it has been 
employed, seemingly with suc- 
cess ; but in some late trials, at a 
period of the disease when the 
powers of nature were unable to 
excite these new motions, it was 
unsuccessful, and even dangerous. 
Dr. Currie's practice of cold ab- 
lutions we shall soon consider. . 

In ileus the practice of dashing 
cold water against the legs and 
ihighs of a patient standing on a 
cold lloor has certainly succeeded. 
It is mentioned by Brassavolus as 
the practice of Savanarola, and is 
recommended by Hoffman (iv. 
349). The latest authorwho seems 
to have employed it successfully 
is Dr. Stevenson (Edinburgh Me- 
dical Essays, vi. 895). We re- 
member having tried it with little 
advantage. If sudden immersion 
in cold water has prevented threat- 
ening paroxysms of hysttria and 
epilepsy, it must be referred to 
altered determination. 

The debility occasioned by con- 
Unuing long in the cold bath, has 
occasioned its employment in many 
instances, where the excitement 
of both the nervous and sane:uife- 
rous systems was morbidly in- 
creased. In cases of phrcnsy it 
has been employed with success ; 
but the most striking instance of 
this kind is in Dr. Willis's work. 

De AnimalJrutorum, p. 264. The 
most frequent cases in which its 
advantages have been conspicuous, 
occurred from phrcnitic i)atients 
escaping their confinement and 
running spontaneously to a river 
or pond. Applications of cold 
water to the head are frequently 
employed ; but the more general 
influence of cold must produce a 
more powerful efi'cct. There may 
appear to be some danger from 
rupture of the over-distended ves- 
sels of the brain, but no such ac- 
cident seems ever to have oc- 

In scarlatina Dr.Currie has lately- 
shown the advantages of cold ablu- 
tions, and the necessity of continu- 
ing them steadily to obviate the vio- 
lent heat which attends the parox- 
ysms of this complaint; and he has 
been successfully followed with 
equal spirit and perseverance by 
Dr. Gregory. As the object is to 
abate heat, it is only used in this 
complaint when the heat is very 
violent, and continued until it is 
mitigated. In .small-fio.r^ accident 
has also shown its utility ; and in 
tlie whimsical compilation of Dr. 
haynard there arc numerous in- 
stances of this kind. It has in this 
complaint also been continued till 
the extreme heat is repressed, and 
on returning to bed a gentle per- 
spiration has come on ; some of the 
pustules have filled, and the greater 
number in the skin have disappear- 
ed. Since the general progress of 
vaccination we shall probably have 
little occasion for this remedy, ei- 
ther conmiunicated by air or water. 
In h(£morrhagcs, cold bathing, or 
more frequently, cold applications, 
have been employed with the same 
views; nor, excepting in haemorr- 
hoids and hxmoptyses, has it been 
neglected : in the former, as a sup- 
posed criticiil discharge ; and in 
the latter, from apprehension of 
acciimulating the blood in the 
lungs. Cold drinks have, how- 



ever, in hsemoptyses supplied their 
place ; and it is doubtful whether 
the American practice of giving- a 
■% solution of common salt may not 
derive part of its advantages from 
the cold of the water, which com- 
mon salt however will not increase. 
The utility of nitre in all haemorr- 
hages, is certainly increased by the 
eold it imparts to water during its 
solution. Hippocrates remarks, 
that the cold should be applied 
" non supra ipsas partes, sed circa 
ipsas, unde profluit." The hse- 
morrhage most certainly relieved 
by cold is monorrhagia, and par- 
ticularly that of pregnant or puer- 
peral women. It may be safely 
and advantageously carried to a 
very considerable extent. 

In more general fevers^ cold in 
every form is useful. In those of 
our own climate, cool air and cool 
drinks are perhaps sufficient. In 
those of warmer regions, however, 
the cold must be more actively 
exhibited. It is chiefly confined 
to such fevers as have considera- 
ble internal heat without topical 
affections ; and whether with Hip- 
pocrates we give water Z^ \vx^O' 
zii.7o-f ; with Lommius and Avicen- 
na apply cold water or snow to the 
extremities ; with Celsus apply 
vine-leaves dipped in water to the 
pit of the stomach ; the principle 
is the same. Paulus ^gineta re- 
commends bathing ; and in later 
periods it has been employed by 
Doctor Stevenson. But the most 
striking and satisfactory case is 
that of Sir J. Chardin in the Gom- 
bron fever of the remittent kind, 
related by himself, in which the 
coldest 'drinks, and the application 
of cold v/ater externally, was of 
the p'reatest service. The Nea- 
politan physicians, following the 
ancients, according to the plans 
detailed by Lommius, give the 
coldest drinks ; and if faint sweats 
come on, the water is if possible 
rendered still colder wiUi snow 

and ice ; for Cyrillus adds, that 
" a person who sweats while un- 
der this course, is in danger of 
losing his life by faintness.'* If 
cold drinks do not produce this 
effect, " the patient is uncovered, 
exposed to cold air, and continu- 
ally fanned ; and some have gone 
so far as to sprinkle snow powder- 
ed on the skin." The /^/a^'Zie is at- 
tended with great internal heat, 
and cold applications have been 
found useful. Dr. Baynard has 
detailed many rambling stories of 
this kind, and we apprehend that 
they have been of service in our 
late experience of this disease in. 
Egypt. Dr. Rush used cold ap- 
plications vvdth advantage in the 

In maniaj cold bathing seems to 
have attracted the attention of 
Van Helmont, in consequence of 
an accident which happened to a 
carpenter at Antwerp, and he af- 
terwards employed it designedly. 
The patient was immersed so long 
as was necessary to repeat, dis- 
tinctly, the psalm " Miserere ;" 
and though he would be often 
taken up apparently lifeless, Van 
Helmont adds, that he might be 
recovered; "since people do not 
die from being under water so 
soon as is imagined.'* It is how- 
ever more to the purpose to re- 
mark, that this remedy is spoken 
of with respect by Boerhaave, 
and countenanced by VanSwieten. 

The refieated action of cold 
bathing affords numerous oppor- 
tunities of relieving some of the 
most troublesome and obstinate 
diseases to which the human 
frame is subject. Every com- 
plaint arising from debility in its 
varied forms and numerous con- 
sequences often yields to this re- 
medy, when every other has prov- 
ed ineffectual. Palsy, so often 
benefited by the stimulus of the 
warm bath, is greatly relieved by 
the tonic power of the cold j nor 



is the danger of its beinjj impro- 
perly applied so threat. It must 
not be used early in the complaint 
if the case is hemiphlegia, nor 
until every symptom of congestion 
is removed. The partial palsies 
will not require even this precau- 
tion ; but the cold is more useful 
if the water is poured from a 
height, or thrown from a pump, 
«n the part affected. 

Chronic rheumatism we have 
said is a paralytic affection of over- 
distended vessels, and cold bath- 
ing is a singularly useful remedy. 
Sir John Floyer thinks it more 
beneficial if the patient is after- 
wards put between blankets to 
sweat. In the intervals of gout^ 
if the patient is perfectly free from 
the disease, it is of service in re- 
storing flexibility to the stiffened 
limbs, giving strength, and per- 
haps protracting, v/ith safety, the 
return of the paroxysm. In stiff- 
ness of the joints from old strains-^ 
or any cause, it is useful ; and the 
sea bathing has been supposed 
particularly so in white sivellings 
of the knee. In other forms of 
scrophula^ bathing and drinking 
salt water alternately are very- 

In the hemorrhages without fe- 
ver, called by pathologists passive^ 
and in the mucous discharges 
from relaxation^ the tonic power 
of the cold bath is useful. In 
those little fevers, connected with 
debility, or owing to excess, it re- 
lieves ; though it is doubtful whe- 
ther it be from its tonic power, or 
in the language of Petron, from 
its exciting new motions. In c/o- 
rosis, though it does not produce 
any very rapid benefit, it is often 
of the greatest service to the ge- 
neral health, and ultimately brings 
on the expected evacuation. 

When /ioiso?2s or infectious mi' 
asmata have been communicated 
to the animal body, we often find 
that they lie dormant, till some 

exciting and generally debilitating 
cause gives them activity. This 
renders cold bathing of use dur- 
ing the progress of an epidemic, 
and it is a valuable part of the 
prophylaxis. Bathing has been 
supposed also to prevent hydro- 
phobia ; but as few of the animals 
supposed to be mad are really so, 
and of those really bitten by mad 
animals, few are infected, the ad- 
vantages from bathing arc equi- 
vocal. If we look into the old 
authors, we shall find that bathing 
was employed with considerable 
severity, and with every circum- 
stance that Ctould agitate the mind 
and fix the attention. Tulpius, 
one of the chief advocates for the 
utility of this remedy, considers 
the mode of administration to be 
a very important part of the pro- 
cess ; and it may have been so, 
for modern practitioners have not 
found it very successful. When 
narcotic poisons have been swal- 
lowed, and tremors. Sec. have been 
produced, cold bathing has been 
very beneficial. Baccius men- 
tions its efficacy against the poi- 
son of the juice of the mandrake. 
The Indians are recovered from 
the stupefaction occasioned by 
the datura, by moistening the soles 
of their feet with cold water ; 
dogs stupified by the carbonic acid 
air of the Grotto del Cani, are re-^ 
covered by being thrown into the 
neighbouring lake ; and sailors 
recover their intoxicated com- 
rades by a dip in the sea. 

The spasmodic and convulsive 
diseases are relieved by the tonic 
powers of the cold bath. In cho- 
rea, though often used, it is less 
successful, and in tetanus there is 
seldom time for the proper action 
of this remedy, though it has 
been employed witli advantage. 

Sir John Floyer has remarked, 
that cold bathing is injurious in 
palsies when the patient is ple- 
thoric and feverish. It probably 



is so whenever any partial pletho- 
ra or local obstructions exist in 
any of the more important viscera. 
Jaundice may perhaps be an ex- 
ception to this opinion. In the 
passage of a stone through the 
gall duct it seems to have been of 
service ; but it was probably in 
cases where the liver was other- 
wise sound. In some of the west- 
ern islands, a patient in the jaun- 
dice is laid on his belly, and a pail 
of cold wa.ter unexpectedly thrown 
on his back (Smith's Curiosities 
of common Water). It is injurious 
also when the stomach is full, 
or when the patient has been 
previously weakened. A ruptur- 
ed blood-vessel, or an incurable 
obstruction, may be the result of 
the former error ; and in the lat- 
ter case the constitution may not 
have sufficient power to restore 
the determination to the surface. 
When the body is heated it is also 
dangerous to bathe, though the 
young and strong transgress this 
rule with impunity. 

Bathing in the Sea is on the 
whole preferable, as the heat is 
more uniform. It is, we think, 
also, perhaps from the agitation 
of the water, more refreshing. 
Other causes of preference have 
been assigned: one is, the greater 
pressure of the water impreg- 
nated with salt ; the other, the 
stimulus of the salt left on the 
skin. Each may have some effect, 
and the latter ground of prefer- 
ence is assuredly more certain than 
the former. We cannot easily 
conceive how the momentary in- 
crease of pressure can have any 
considerable effect, except by the 
increase of momentum ; and the 
stay in the sea is too short to ex- 
pect much advantage from this 
source. The river water, heated 
from the vicinity of the shore, is 
less active than the sea water, 
whose heat is unifoi m in summer, 
and more so in winter ; aiid the 

sea water, warmed from 75'' ta 
82*^5 may be an useful bath for in- 
valids, preparatory to immersion 
in the sea. In these baths of a 
higher temperature the patient 
should stay a longer time than iiL 
the sea or fresh water. It is an 
observation of Galen, that a more 
temperate bath is not less useful 
than a cold one, if the stay be 
protracted in it. 

The shawer bath, a modern il\- 
vention, in which the water fails 
through numerous apertures otl 
the body, is a remedy much less 
pleasing, but probably more useful 
than the sea or river bath. The 
cold is greatly increased from the 
momentum ; and, as the water is 
usually taken from wells, its heat 
is uniform, about 51^* in this cli- 
mate, the mean of the earth. In 
winter the river water is much 
cooler, but generally superior in 
heat to that of the air. Bathing, 
therefore, through the winter is 
not a practice so severe as may- 
be supposed, except when it is ne- 
cessary to break the ice. Even 
then, however, the water below is 
higher than the freezing point, as 
its latent heat cannot escape, and 
the temperature of the air is often 
far below it. 

The time of bathing should be 
as soon in the spring as settled 
weather can be obtained ; and^ 
from the long prevalence of eas- 
terly winds on the eastern coasts, 
the southern seem preferable at 
that time. The most advantage^ 
ous part of the day is the morn- 
ing, before breakfast ; but, when 
the weather is not warm, and the 
patient is much debilitated, it may 
be proper to begin in the fore- 
noon, after a light and early break- 
fast. The usual mode of immer- 
sion, first plunging the head, is 
undcubtedly preferable ; but if the 
whole body is very soon immers- 
ed, this precision is of little im- 
portance. The stay in the bath is 



c>f moreconsc(iucnce : many come 
out after the first immersion, and 
indeed this is the most common, 
and often the most advantageous 
method. It sometimes happens, 
however, that the t^low is so vio- 
lent, as to leave in the subsequent 
pi\rt of the day a chilliness ; and 
in such circumstances we have 
advised a second dipping, which, 
repressing the too violent deter- 
mination to the surface, has ren- 
dered it more equable and perma- 
nent. If any debility arises from 
staying too long, some warm wine 
and water, warm tea, or any simi- 
lar fluid, drank frequently while 
the patient is laid between blan- 
kets, will relieve it. 

It has been supposed that where 
the fluids are too much attenuated, 
bathing will be injurious. We 
have already said that we have 
scarcely any evidence of this tak- 
ing place. We knov/ from fre- 
quent experience that no such ef- 
fect is produced by sea water ; 
and if any of the neutral salt 
were absorbed independent of the 
fluid, it might produce the eff'ect. 
Seamen, however, fishermen, and 
the sea bathers, who are constantly 
immersed in salt-water, never ex- 
perience any inconvenience from 
this cause. 

One other form of cold bath 
has been employed, viz. the cold 
air bath. This consists only in 
exposing the body for a few mi- 
nutes to the cold air, partly se- 
cured by a loose dressing-gown. 
With prudent precautions this 
practice may be useful, and even 
salutary. The efl'ects to be ex- 
pected must depend on the heat 
of the atmosphere, and the tem- 
perature of the body when expos- 
ed to it. S/iongini{ the whole body 
wiih cold water is of the greatest 
consecjuence, particularly in cases 
of chronic debility, where the cold 
l:|ath cannot be obtained, or is from 
circumstances inadmissible. 

Bat/ionia Jr/ua, Bath water. It 
is the hottest of the waters in 
England that are called Sul/i/iu- 
rcous. Most hot waters (that are 
naturally so) contain a ferrugi- 
iicous and a sulphureous part, 
though always but a small propor- 
tion of them. The sulphureous 
principle is in a volatile state, and 
the iron in Bat/i water is not one 
quarter of a grain in a gallon. 
Of acidulous gas there are about 
twelve ounces in a gallon ; of 
earthy matters near half an ounce ; 
and of sea-salt about a dram. The 
heat of this water raises Fahren- 
heit's thermometer from about 
100 to 114, and, perhaps, to this 
circumstance it is owing that much 
of its usefulness depends. 
Bay-tree, Laums. 
Bdellium, the name of a gum- 
my resinous juice, produced by a 
tree in the East-Indies, of which 
we have no satisfactory account. 
It is brought into Europe both 
from the East-Indies and Arabia. 
It is one of the weakest of the 
deobstruent kind. 

Beards-foot, a species of Helle- 

Becabunga, brook-lime, a spe- 
cies of Veronica. The college 
have retained this plant in their 
Pharmacopeia ; it enters the Suc- 
cus Cochlcarice Compositus, for- 
merly called Succi Scorbutici. 

Bechica, /5>j;^;tKa, from /S»i|, a 
cough, or from {onr'ij}, to cough, any 
medicine designed to relieve a 
cougJi. It is of the same import 
as the word ficctoraL 

Beef, the flesh of common neat 
cattle slaughtered for the food of 
man. It enters largely into hu- 
man diet, both in its fresh and 
salted condition, especially among 
the Anglo-Americans and British. 
It is one of the great articles of 
export from the middle and north- 
ern States of America. Large 
quantities of it in barrels are an- 
nually brought to the Atlantic sea- 



ports from the interior parts of 
the country, pickled or packed 
with sea-salt. The history of beef 
is very curious in a -medical as 
well as a dietetic and commercial 
point of view. Some facts which 
have been carefully noted in New- 
York, the great deposit of this 
commodity, are remarkably in- 
structive. In the year 1798, an 
uncommonly large quantity of 
loeei was in the city. A dulness 
of sale kept a mor^ihan common 
quantity at home. The law regu- 
lating the salting of it was at that 
time vague and dubious, both as 
to the quantity and quality of the 
salt. Liverpool salt, of which large 
importations have been made to 
New-York, had been used to cure 
it ; and this, improper as it was, 
was put into the barrels very spar- 
ingly. The season was excessive- 
ly hot. The beef corrupted ; and 
being stored in cellars and ware- 
houses in some of the central and 
busy parts of the city, emitted 
disagreeable effluvia. The pro- 
prietors and consignees, finding 
the beef was tainted and spoiling, 
began in the heat of the season, 
to overhale and repack it. In do- 
ing this, the putrid pickle was 
thrown in great parcels into the 
streets ; and the exhalations from 
the meat in the cellars, and the 
stinking brine in the gutters, were 
horribly offensive. A pestilential 
disease broke out in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of these effluvia, and 
destroyed the lives of many citi- 
zens, particularly of those who 
Jived to leeward of their sources. 
It was remarked by the persons 
engaged in examining and re-pick- 
iing these barrels ot beef, that 
when the meat was beginning to 
corrupt, it became slimy or slip- 
pery to the touch, and always emit- 
ted a sour odour. The Inspector 
General of provisions, and almost 
«very one of his assistants, amount- 
ing to between thirty and forty men^ 

were uniformly sensible of this acid 
flavour. But not only were they 
sensible of this sourness in the ga- 
seous emanation from the beef, but 
the putrid pickle in which it was 
soaking, was likewise sour to the 
taste. Nor was the noxious ef-^ 
feet of this acid vapour confined to 
the city. Much of this corrupting 
beef was carried out of town, and 
there examined. One of the sworn. 
Inspectors reported to the Health- 
office, that, in examining a parcel 
of beef belonging to one merchant 
only, and that on the healthy shore 
of Long-Island, six of his men 
were taken sick. Of the Inspec- 
tor General's men, almost all were 
poisoned by the effluvia in differ* 
ent degrees. 

Of the pork then in the city, a 
far less quantity corrupted, and of 
that which did spoil, very little 
either of offensiveness or noxious- 
ness was remarked. 

The observations made coincid- 
ed perfectly with Dr. MitehiU's 
reasoning in his argument in fa- 
vour of tallow-chandlers and soap- 
makers of New-York, in 1797. See 
his discussion before the Legisla- 
ture, ^e^ corrupts much sooner 
than pork } because the former 
consists principally of lean^ and 
the latter oi fat. Of the differ- 
ent parts of beef, the fat putrifies 
much less easily than the lean ; 
and of the pork, its lean, though 
small in quantity, spoils much more 
readily than its fat. Upon the 
whole, it was ascertained that the 
fat was remarkably more slono to 
putrefy^ and when it did corrupt, 
it afforded 7io pestilential air. 

The mischievous product, then, 
comes from the lean part of ani-^ 
mal flesh, whether beef or pork. 
And as lean differs from fat chiefly 
in being charged with septon or 
azote, it is plain this septon must 
be at the bottom of the destructive 
work. The product being sour, 
the septon must be oxygenated ; 



and thence it is inferred, that tlic 
oxygen associated with it, consti- 
tutes septic acid. And this septic 
acid cxistint^ sometimes in a liquid, 
and sometimes in an aciial form, 
gives rise to dysenteries, yellow 
and malit^nant fevers, as their prin- 
cipal exciting cause. 

Such are the facts relating to 
the decay of lean and fat meats. 
They lead to important conclu- • 
sions, more favourable to the dis- 
cernment of Bramha, who forbade 
beef to be eaten, than to that law- 
giver who would not allow pork 
to be used as an article of diet. 
Whatever may have been remark- 
ed in the eastern parts of the world 
concerning the flesh of the swine, 
the experience of the west has 
amply and unquestionably shown 
it to be the most wholesome kind 
of animal food. Beef, on the con- 
trary, being exceedingly prone to 
corrupt and turn to poison in the 
casks where it is pickled, indulges 
its natural propensity in the sto- 
mach and intestines of those who 
feed largely upon it, both in its 
salted and unsalted condition. This 
is so much the case, that wherever 
a beef-ration enters into the diet of 
seamen, farmers and soldiers, dy- 
senteries and malignant distem- 
pers are very apt to make their 
appearance. The same remarks 
apply to other kinds of lean meaty 
as that of the camel, the sheep 
and the horse, particularly that 
which is badly saltcdand that which 
is quite fresh. The like observa- 
tion is true of fish and fowl, the 
iean parts of which, abounding in 
septon, arc more likely to be con- 
verted to septic or pcstilcntial'poi- 
son, than articles of food consist- 
ing principally of oil ^\\(\fat. Sec 
these words respectively. — A con- 
sequence of this pronencss of beef 
and other lean meat to turn to pes- 
tilence and venom is, that the con- 
tents of the intestines of the per- 
sons who feed largely on thciji, 

may become infectious within their- 
botlies, as in dysentery, and im- 
mediately after their discharge may 
poison the air of a room, as the 
beef might have done if it had pu- 
trified without having been eaten. 
The alvine evacuations of such 
beef-eaters consist of a great pro- 
portion of decayed or rotten beef; 
and if they do not abound with sep- 
tic acid before their expulsion, 
they commonly turn to it a short 
time after^ rendering the pit or 
sink into which they are thrown, 
abominably nauseous, and poison- 
ous beyond iuiy other species of 
excrement : for remedy of which 
evils, a.lkalies are the natural and 
efficacious applications, by virtue 
of their extraordinary and anti- 
septic power. Weak solutions of 
mild soda and pot-ash taken into 
the stomach, and injected into the. 
rectum, will neutralize the cor- 
roding acid in the alimentary ca- 
nal, and destroy the fee tor and poi- 
son of the stools. A little ley 
poured into the bed-pan will have 
a similar operation there, and ef- 
fectually guard nurses and atten- 
dants against infection. And (he 
same applications will overcome 
similar effluvia in a jakcs or privy, 
or any where else. 

Belladonna. Deadly night-shade. 
Atropa belladonna of Linnxus. 
This plant has been long known 
as a strong poison of the narcotic 
kind, and the berries have furnish- 
ed us with many instances of their 
fatal effects, particularly upon 
children that have been tempted 
to eat them. The leaves were 
first used externally, to discusr. 
schirrhous and cancerous tumours, 
and from the «;ood effects attend- 
ing their use, physicians were in- 
duced to employ them internally 
for the same disorders; and there 
are a considerable number of well 
authenticated facts, which prove 
them a very serviceable and im- 
portant remedy. The dose, at first, 



should be small, and gradually and 
cautiously increased. Five grains 
are considered a powerful dose, 
and apt to produce dimness of 
si.eht, vertigo, Sec. 

~Ben. The oily acorn, oily nut, 
©r ben-nut. 

BenzoGt8<, (Benzoas^ tzs, s. m.) 
Salts formed by the union of the 
benzoic acid with certain bases ; 
thus benzoat of alumine ^amraoniac -^ 
antimomj^ 8c c. 

Benzoinum^ Beuzoe^ Benjamin 
tree. A species of Styrax. The 
college have retained this resin in 
their Pharmacopeia ; it enters the 
Tinctura Benzoes Composita, for- 
Bierly called Bals. Traumatic ; its 
flowers enter the Tinctura Opii 
Camphorata, formerly called Elix. 
Pareg. This substance is classed, 
by modern chemists, amongst the 
balsams. There are two kinds 
of benzoin : benzoe amygdaloides^ 
which is formed of white tears, 
I'esembling almonds, united toge- 
ther by a brown matter ; and com- 
mon benzoin.^ W'hich is brown and 
without tears. The tree that af- 
fords this balsam is the Styrax 
benzoin^ according to the London 
Philosophical Transactions; from 
which it is obtained by incisions. 
The benzoin of the shops is usu- 
ally in very large brittle masses. 
When chewed, it imparts very lit- 
tle taste, except that it impresses 
on the palate a slight sweetness ; 
its smell, especially when rubbed 
or heated, is extremely fragrant 
and agreepJjle. It has rarely been 
used medicinally in a simple state, 
but its preparations are much es- 
teemed against inveterate coughs, 
asthmas, and phthysical com- 
plaints. The acid of benzoin is 
employed in the tinctura opii cam- 
phorata^ and a tincture is directed 
to be made of the balsam — grs. v. 
to 5ss. 

Berheris^ Barberry^ or Pippe- 
ridge Bush. A genus in Linnse- 
us's botany. He enumerates four 

Bergamote^ or Bcrga:not^ a spe- 
cies of Citron^ produced at first 
casually, by an Italian's grafting a 
citron on the stock of a Bergamot 
pear-tree ; whence the fruit pro- 
duced by this union participated 
both of the citron-tree and the 
pear-tree. The essence of Ber- 
gamot is also called Essentia de 

Biceps Musculus^ from bis and 
caput ^ a double-headed muscle. 

Biceps Cruris^ i. e. Biceps Flexor 

Biceps Cruris yi. e. Bice/is Flexor 

Biceps Fxte7'?iusj i. e. Triceps 
Extensor Cubiti. 

Biceps Flexor Cruris. It arises 
by two distinct heads ; the first, 
called Longusj arises, in common 
with the semitendinosus, from the 
upper and posterior part of the 
tuberositv of the os ischium. The 
second, called Brevis, arises from 
the linea aspera, a little below the 
termination of the glutseus maxi- 
mus, by a fleshy acute beginning, 
which soon grows broader as it de- 
scends to join with the first head, 
a little above the external condyle 
of the OS femoris. It is inserted 
by a strong tendon into the upper 
part of the head of the fibula. Its 
use is to bend the leg. This mus- 
cle forms what is called the outer 
ham-string ; and between it and 
the inner, the nervus popliteus, 
arteria and vena poplitea, are si- 

Biceps Flexor Cubiti, also called 
Biceps Humeri, s^nd Biceps Flexor, 
It arises by two heads. The first 
and outermost, called Longus, be- 
gins tendinous from the upper 
edge of the glenoid cavity of the 
scapula, passes over the head of 
the OS humeri within the joint, 
and, in its descent without the 
joint, is enclosed in a groove near 
the head of the os humeri, by a 
membranous ligament that pro- 
ceeds from the capsular ligament 
and adjacent tendons. The se- 



cond or innermost head, called 
Brevifi^ arises, tendinous and fle- 
shy, from the coracoid process of 
the scapula, in common with the 
coraco-brachialis muscle. A lit- 
tle below the middle of the fore- 
part of the OS humeri these heads 
unite. It is inserted by a strong 
roundish tendon into the tubercle 
on the upper end of the radius in- 
ternally. Its use is to turn the 
hand supine, and to bend the fore- 
arm. At the bending of the elbow, 
where it begins to grow tendinous, 
it sends off an aponeurosis, which 
covers all the muscles on the in- 
side of the fore-arm, and joins 
with another tendinous membrane, 
which is sent off from the triceps 
extensor cubiti, and covers all the 
muscles on the outside of the fore- 
arm, and a number of the fibres, 
from opposite sides, decussate each 
other. It serves to strengthen the 
muscles, by keeping them from 
swelling too much outwardly, 
when in action, and a number of 
their fleshy fibres take their ori- 
gin from it. 

B'tcuspides. See Molar £s. 

Biennial. Herbs are said to be 
biennial when their roots continue 
t)yo years. 

Bifurcated^ is said by anatomists 
of such vessels and parts as divide 
into two branches. 

Big-astrr, a name given to mus- 
cles that have two bellies. 

Bigno7iia, trumpet-flower. A 
genus in Linnacus's botany. Pie 
e4iumerates twenty-one species. 

Biliaria Arteria.^ the biliary ar- 
tpry. When the hepatic artery 
hath advanced as far as the vesi- 
cula fellis, it gives out the bilia- 
ria^ which accompanies the two 
cystic branches in the gall-blad- 
der, and then is lost in the great 
lobe of the liver. 

Biliary Ducts, The very vas- 
cular glomeruUi or aciJii diliosi, 
which compose almost the whole 
substance of tlie liver, terminate 

in very small canals, called biliary 
ducts, which at length form one 
trunk, the ductus /lefmiiru.s. Tiicir 
use is to convey the bile, secreted 
by the liver, into the hepatic duct. 
Bile. A bitter yellowish fluid, 
of a smell somewhat like musk, 
secreted in the glandular substance 
of the liver, and conveyed by the 
biliary ducts, through the ductus 
hepaticus, into the ductus com- 
munis choledochus, from whence 
it is, in part, carried into the in- 
testinum duodenum. The other 
part regurgitates through the cys- 
tic duct into the vesica fellis, or 
gall-bladder. Thus there are tw» 
kinds of bile ; the one, which flows 
from the liver into the duodenum, 
is termed hepatic bile ; this is thin, 
inodorous, and slightly bitter : the 
other, which regurgitates from the 
hepatic duct into the gall-bladder, 
and there becomes thicker and 
more acrid, is called cystic bile. 
Bile is a fluid of considerable im- 
portance in the animal economy ; 
it extricates the chyle from the 
chyme, excites the peristaltic mo- 
tion of the intestines, and prevents 
the abundance of mucus and aci- 
dity in the primae vice. Next t© 
the semen, it is the most extra- 
ordinary secretion in the animal 
body, as it consists of a quantity 
of soda or barilla dissolved in a. 
watery menstruum, together with 
a portion of a bitter material. It 
has, therefore, been called by Dr. 
Mitchill the "bitter of soda." See 
his letter in the id volume of the 
Medical Repository. It has been 
stated under the article " Alka- 
lies," that they were the most pow- 
erful of known antiseptics, for in- 
animate substances. And the Cre- 
ator, foreseeing that the food of 
animals would be liable to deten- 
tion, acidity, and corruption some- 
times in the stomach and intes- 
tines, has provided an alkaline 
spring in the neiglibourhood of 
the bowels, which, from its situa- 



tion in the liver, should tiii'nish an 
adequate supply of this wholesome 
and antiseptic liquor to prevent 
the bad consequences of putrify- 
ing and sour aliment. From its 
peculiar constitution, the bile or 
gall is little prone to corruption. 
It may, accordingly, be kept for 
years in the gall-bladder of an ani- 
mal after death, vathout spoiling. 
For the secretion of so important, 
3o antiseptic, and so health-pre- 
serving a liquid, the constitution 
is endowed Avith a large viscus, the 
liver'; whose function it is to pre- 
pare a due quantity of bile for the 
purpose of keeping the contents 
of the alimentary canal from run- 
ning too rapidly into soiirness and 

When bile meets v^ith an acid, 
it turns from a yellowish colour to 
a green. The greenness, there- 
fore, of the bile when discharged 
by vomiting or by stool, is a sure 
indication that it has done its duty 
by neutralizing, as far as possible, 
the offending acid. When the 
duodenum abounds with acidity, 
the irritation which it causes near 
the orifice of the ductus commu- 
nis choledochus, provokes an in- 
creased secretion, and a more 
abundant flow of the gall to re- 
move or overcome the offending 
cause ; after the same manner that 
snuff applied to the nostrils pro- 
motes a flow of mucus, dust in the 
eyes excites a gush of tears, and 
tobacco in the mouth augments 
the secretion of spittle. The bile 
then is not the cause of the dis- 
eases in which it plentifully ap- 
pears ; but it is the friend and ally 
of the constitution in getting the 
better of noxious, septic, or other 
acidity, by which it is assailed. 

There is scarcely any thing more 
worthy of admiration in the hu- 
man frame, than the provision of 
this alkaline, antiseptic and salu- 
tary liquid in the midst of the vis- 
cera, where, in its appropriate 

gland, it is prepared copiously, 
and whence it issues as from a 
never-failing fountain. When the 
bile is deficient in quantity or qua- 
lity, the alimentary canal at first, 
and the whole constitution after- 
wards, become disordered. On 
the other hand, when it flows free- 
Iy,and the noxious or peccant cause 
is seated high in the alimentary ca- 
nal, the bile, by a kind and v/hole- 
sorae provision, sometimes regur- 
gitates in the intestine, and ascends 
to the stomach itself, r.elieving it 
from oppression and danger. The 
good done by the refluent gall in 
such cases, has led to the pre- 
scription of it when dried and 
moulded into pills as a remedy. 
And it is related that a dose of fresh 
gall is a good preventive of indi- 
gestion, and the ill consequences 
of gluttony and excessive eating. 

From these considerations, the 
reason is evident v/hereforethc bile 
is admitted into the intestines so 
far from their termination at the 
anus ; to wit, that it may visit and 
regulate their whole tract down- 
wards as it descends, and may also 
occasionally exert its corrective 
and neutralizing influfence in the 
stomach, whenever, by a small in- 
cision of the peristaltic motion, its 
presence is required there. Of all 
the fluids of the animal body, the 
bile is the least disposed to under- 
go spontaneous changes. Its al- 
kaline quality enables it to resist 
the tendency to fermentation and 
putrefaction in a most remarkable 
manner; for while blood, urine, 
milk, lymph, saliva, 8cc. by expo- 
sure to the air, change very rapid- 
ly, and grow corrupt, tlie bile parts 
with its watery part, grows thick, 
hardens, and remains, after long 
keeping, as sweet and good as 
ever. See Soda.^ Barilla^ and Kitre, 

Bilious. A term very generally 
made use of to express diseases 
which arise from too copious a 
secretion of bile. 



Bilious Diseases, morbid states 
of body, in which there is an ( x- 
, cretion of much bile. Hence Iji- 
lious fevers, bilious dysenteries 
and diarrhccus, and bilious colics, 
are very IVecjuently talked of. If 
the excretion of bile in considera- 
ble quantity during- these disorders 
had served to t^ive them a name 
merely, there would not have been 
much harm in it. But the case has 
been far otherwise : for by a most 
improper and unjust interpreta- 
tion, the bile, which comes with all 
its powers to succour the endan- 
gered constitution, has been gene- 
rally deemed the cause itself of 
the very mischiefs that its compo- 
sition and nature enable it to pre- 
vent. Hence, we find this pre- 
cious and wholesome fluid spoken 
of in the most opprobrious terms. 
Notwithstanding its grand anti- 
septic qualities, it has been called 
a corrupt and acrimonious humour. 
Though its anti-febrile and anti- 
pestilential virtues are eminently 
great, physicians have most un- 
wisely termed it the worst secre- 
tion that ever pestered the consti- 
tution. They denounce it as the 
author of half the bodily evils 
"which mortals endure ; and some 
have wondered for what purpose 
such a troublesome fluid, so apt to 
degenerate into acrimony and poi- 
son, was placed within the body. 

Such have been the ravings and 
delusions of mankind concerning 
the use and functions of the bile. 
And under such impressions they 
have said, that a heated, exalted, 
or acrimonious bile was the excit- 
ing cause of the fevers, dysente- 
ries, colics, and other maladies, 
in which a considerable quantity 
of gall appeared. And the epithet 
*' bilious" is as familiarly applied 
to these classes of diseases, to de- 
signate their exciting cause, as if 
it really and truly had some agency 
m the business ; whereas, nothing 
in the whole circle of vulgar or of 

learned absurdity is more remote 
from the truth. It is in conse- 
quence of this fundamental error, 
and of the prejudice growing out 
of it, that every body, patients as 
well as doctors, speak of bilious 
diseases with the utmost familia- 
rity, as well known and perfectly 
comprehended ; and that " bilious 
pills," and " anti-bilious pills," ad- 
vertised by the year in our news- 
papers, perpetually insult the eye 
and understanding. 

The real exciting cause of those 
disorders called " bilious," being 
generally a hostile, stimulant, and 
pestilential acid in the primae via?, 
the bile sallies forth to meet the 
enemy, and to save the constitu- 
tion. But this saver of the indi- 
vidual body, like the Great Sa- 
viour of the world, has been op- 
posed, reviled, scourged, spit 
upon, and crucified by the high- 
priests, Pharisees, and rabble of 
the medical tribes. It is to be 
hoped, that its true character and 
virtues will not be kept out of 
sight much longer. 

Bismiuhmn, bismuth. The ores 
of bismuth very much resemble 
those of lead. They are, like them, 
disposed in facets, but have a yel- 
lowish cast. Ores of bismuth are 
frequently found mixed with co- 
balt. Bismuth is a semi-metal, of 
a bright, pale, lead-colour ; and 
when broke, it appears of a silver 
white. It is of a llakcy contexture. 
Its earthy part affords as good a 
blue as that from cobalt. It melts 
rather sooner than lead, but later 
than tin. 

Bistorta, bistort. Polygonum 
bistorta of Linnseus. A native of 
Britain. Every part of the plant 
manifests a degree of stipticity to 
the taste, and the root is esteem- 
ed to be one of the most powerful 
of the vegetable adstringents. 

Bittern. When the brine is eva- 
porated for obtaining salt for the 
table, and all the table salt is col- 



Icctcd fromitj there remains at last 
a. large quantity of liquor which re- 
fuses to yield any crystals. These 
liquors are very bitter, and are cal- 
led by chemists Mother-Waters ; 
but that now spoken of is called 
bitterji in the salt-works. The bit- 
tern^ or mother-water of sea-salt, 
contains a great quantity of sea- 
salt, with an earthy basis, and a 
little Glauber's salt. 

Bitumens. Bitumens are com- 
bustible, solid, soft, or fluid sub- 
stances, whose smell is strong, 
acrid, or aromatic. They are found 
either in the internal part of the 
earth, or exuding through the 
clefts of rocks, or floating on the 
surface of waters. Like oils they 
burn with a rapid flame. Natural 
historians have divided them into 
several genera ; but modern che- 
mists arrange them according to 
their chemical properties, and are 
only acquainted with six species, 
which are very distinct from each 
other ; these are, amber, asphal- 
tos, jet, pit-coal, ambergris, and 

Biventer^ from bis^ tivice, and 
venter, a belly. A muscle is so 
called that is divided into two bel- 
lies. See Digastricus. 

Biventer Cervicis, i. e. Com- 

Biventer Maxillae Inferioris-^ i. e. 

Bladder. This is situated be- 
tween the duplicature of the peri- 
tonaeum, and the lower part of the 
abdomen, betv>^een the os sacrum, 
and the os pubis, above the straight 
gut in men, and on the neck of the 
womb in women. It is tied to the 
navel by the urachus degenerated 
into a ligament, its sides to the 
umbilical arteries, and its neck to 
the iniestinum rectum of women. 
It is composed of three coats : the 
first is a covering of the perito- 
naeum; the second is composed of 
muscular fibres, which run irregu- 
>arly several ways ; and the third,- 

which IS full of wrinkles for facili- 
tating its dilatation, isboth glandu- 
lous and nervous. Its glands se- 
parate a viscous and slimy matter, 
which defends it from the acri- 
mony of the salts in the urine. 
Around its neck there goes a small 
muscle, called sphincter vesicae; 
which contracts the orifice of the 
bladder^ that the urine may not run 
out but when it thrusts open the 
passage, by the contraction of the 
second coat of the bladder, which 
is therefore called Z)e^rw5or Urina. 
The blood-vessels of the bladder 
are branches of the Hyfiogastrics. 
Its nerves come from the Tntercos- 
tals. Its use is to be a reservatory 
of the urine, that it may not in- 
cessantly run from us, as it is se- 
parated in the kidneys. 

Bladder in the throat. So the 
Cynanche Trachealis is called in 

Blende, a species of the ore of 
Zinc ; it is always glaring ; it is 
mineralized by sulphur, and often 
contains iron. 

Blennorrhea. Gonorrhoea mu- 
cosa. A gleet. An increased dis- 
charge of mucus from the urethra 
of men, arising from weakness ; 
from ^Xmcc, mucus, and fsw, to Jionv. 
M. M. Astringent injections ; cin- 
chona ; olibanum ; alum ; sulphu- 
ric acid ; balsam of copaiba ; cold. 

Blennorrhagia. The name Go- 
norrhoea implies a discharge of se- 
men, which never takes place in 
the complaint to which at present 
it is applied ; and for which, if a 
Greek name is to be retained, Dr. 
Swediar proposes to call it Blen- 
norrhagia, from /SXcvva, mucus, and 
^Ea;, to Jloiv, i. e. Mucifiuxus (acti- 
uus); and thus, to distinguish both 
from real gonorrhoeas, and from 
gleets, to which latter he proposes 
to s'ive the name Blennorrhmi 
Mucijiuxus (passi-vus), i. e. with- 
out phlogistic symptoms. 

Blennorrhagia balani . Dr. Swe- 



(liar proposes Ihis name as more 
properly expressive of the disor- 
der called Gonorrhcea fifmria^w\\\z\\ 
see. The disorder is an active 
discharge from the part. 

Blefiharofihthalmia. An inflam- 
mation of the eye-lid. M.M. Ca- 
lamine cerate or equal parts of 
'veak citron ointment and lard \ a 
blister on the neck. 

lUeJiharoJilosifi. A prolapse, or 
falling down of the upper eye-lid, 
so as to cover tlic cornea ; from 
^Xi^xpov^ an cijC'lid^ and '^rrujTic^ from 
TTiTrlo;, to full. 

Blisters^ when applied to the 
skin, first produce a tingling heat, 
a redness, and afterwards the cu- 
ticle is elevated, and a portion of 
i^uid, resembling the serum of the 
blood, is enclosed, as in a bladder. 
When this is evacuated, a redness 
continues, the serum gradually 
thickens, at last becomes a whit- 
ish curdly substance, under which 
the new skin is again formed, or 
assumes a truly purulent appear- 
ance, and the blistered part con- 
tracts until the whole wound is 

From this very simple and con- 
fmed operation, it is not, afiriori^ 
probable that extensive benefit 
should be produced. The first 
effects are pain and irritation ; and 
it was once supposed that blisters 
were only useful by their stimu- 
lant power. The evacuation fol- 
lowed ; and others then thought 
that from this source only they 
were beneficial, and that their lirst 
effects were injurious. They were 
then antispasmodics from some 
\mknown influence ; they coagu- 
lated or thinned the blood, accord- 
ing to the fancy of the ixithologist ; 
but the manner in which they re- 
ally operate is still uncertain, not- 
withstanding the labours of Tral- 
les in his closely printed quarto, 
entitled, Usus Vesicantium. 

The first effect of blisters is un- 
doubtedly stimulant J yet this sii- 

mulus is local, and seldom commu- 
nicated to the whole system. In 
irritable skins, however, when the 
pain is considerable, when restless- 
ness and want of sleep arc the con- 
sequence, they are certainly for a 
time injurious from their stimu- 
lant power, but in general they re- 
lieve more pain than they give ; 
they lessen previous irritation or 
uneasiness, and dispose to sleep. 
These are their effects in fevers 
and inflammations, where we 
might chiefly dread their stimu- 
lant power. It may be asked if 
they are never used as stimulants? 
Undoubtedly, but chiefly as local 
ones, and where we come near the 
affected nerve : and, indeed, from 
the moment of their application, 
they must be considered as such, 
though the external stimulus, re- 
lieving the internal, renders the 
former an object of little compa- 
rative importance. The great dif- 
ficulty arises from considering the 
benefits derived from so small an 
external inflammation, when the 
internal, which it relieves, is so 
extensive and violent. Various 
have been the modes of resolving 
the question, and numerous the 
discussions which the various so- 
lutions have occasioned. The ef- 
fects are undoubtedly dispropor- 
tioned to the cause, but it is pro- 
bLible that the smallest relief given 
to the internal over-distended ves- 
sels, gives nature an opportunity 
of exerting her powers, and the 
turgid arteries of propelling more 
cfTcctually their contents. 

The stimulus of a blister seems 
also of service in lessening the 
excessive action of the nervous 
power. We well know that the 
tone and the sensibility of the 
nerves, and the consequent irrita- 
bility of the muscles which they 
supply, are intimately connected 
with the state of the circulation in 
their exti-emities. We can easilv 
see thorcforr \hc means hv which 



this excessive action may be miti- 
gated. In some peculiar circum- 
stances, however, we have thought 
that diseases more purely nervous 
have been relieved by this remedy, 
and have suspected that there may 
be a balance between the excite- 
ment of the internal and external 
nervous power, as there more evi- 
dently is of the circulation. We 
need not enlarge on the subject, 
but leave this hint to suggest fu- 
ture inquiry. We may, however, 
add, that if blisters ever act as an- 
tispasmodics, it must be from this 
or a similar effect. 

The discharge, in many instan- 
ces, gives a greater permanence 
to the benefits derived from blis- 
ters, and in some cases seems to 
be the chief source of their ad- 
vantages, particularly in dropsies, 
in humoral asthmas, the more de- 
cidedly serous apoplexies, and a 
rfcw other diseases. It is continu- 
ed however with some difficulty, 
as in many constitutions the blis- 
ter rapidly heals, whatever be the 
application. The sabine ointment 
now generally supplies the place 
of the blister ointment, which is 
inconvenient by its effects on the 
neck of the bladder. 

Though, as we have said, the 
inflammation is confined and slight, 
and the discharge inconsiderable, 
yet it probably has more effect on 
the constitution than we might 
suspect from the absolute quanti- 
ty ; for in many constitutions the 
continued discharge from blisters 
produces considerable debility ; in 
some they can scarcely be borne 
for even the period of two or three 
days. We might attribute this to 
the quality of the discharge ; but 
M. Margueron, who has analysed 
it (Annales de Chimie, vol. xiv.), 
found that it very nearly resembled 
the serum of the blood, containing 
only a little less of the albuminous 
portion. It is seemingly darker 
coloured from the tinge of the 

plaster, whose peculiar smell it 
retains. He found it the same 
when the blister was applied in 
putrid fevers, as when the person 
was in health. 

Blisters have on many constitu- 
tions a cordial and exhilarating ef- 
fect, generally on those of full ha- 
bits, and probably of languid cir- 
culation, by relieving the over- 
distended vessels. A gentleman 
once highly distinguished at the 
bar, and of brilliant convivial 
powers, always applied a blister 
when he wished to shine in either 
sphere, and the effect was pro- 
duced as soon as the warmth in 
the part began. We have heard 
also many, who even felt the pain 
of blisters acutely, declare, that 
the relief of the languor they pre- 
viously experienced, counterba- 
lanced all their sufferings. 

In our enumeration of the dis- 
eases benefited by blisters, we shall 
be guided by their effects, and 
shall consider them as altering the 
determination of the fluids from 
parts overloaded ; influencing 
the determination of the nervous 
power ; as stimulants, evacuantS) 
and cordials. 

In fevers<f we generally find 
the equilibrium of the circulation 
greatly disturbed ; and, in gene- 
ral, the two organs which chiefly 
suffer from over-distension, are 
the brain and the liver. We have 
a more ready access to the latter 
by more easy remedies. The dis- 
tension of the vessels of the brain 
is chiefly relieved by blisters. In 
soTCit, inflammatory fevers the load 
in the head is considerable ; and 
in cases not truly phrenetic, the 
delirium is of that wild and vio- 
lent kind which approaches very 
nearly to phrenzy. V/hen bleed- 
ing is admissible, it must be pre- 
mised; and, in other cases, the 
stomach and bowels must be freely 
emptied. Blisters will then greatly 
relievcj but they should be appli- 



cd very near the head, and in ge- 
neral imniediately below the hair, 
on the buck part of the head. 
Near the head we have still the 
temples, as well as the parts be- 
hind the ears, for a succession of 
blisters, if necessary ; since the 
first effects of this remedy are 
those most beneficial, and it is 
unnecessary to continue the dis- 
charge from one part more than 
thirty-six or forty-eit^ht hours. 
We must still, however, look for- 
^vard to the possibility of a con- 
tinued determination ; and should 
the fever not terminate in four- 
teen or sixteen days, shave the 
vertex, that cold applications may 
be employed, or any accidental 
scratch be healed, before it be ne- 
cessary to apply a blister to that 
part. These frequent repetitions 
of blisters are, however, seldom 

In the typhus', there is also a 
determination to the head, though 
less violent, and with inflammation 
less active. In these our chief 
reliance is on blisters, for bleed- 
ing is improper, and active purg- 
ing sometimes inadmissible. The 
inexperienced practitioner has 
been alarmed by the debilitating 
powers of this i^emedy ; but these 
are observed in very few conRtitu- 
tions, nor have we ever found 
them permanently injurious in fe- 
vers of this kind. In the worst 
kind of asthenic fevers they are 
less proper; and in highly putrid 
fevers, they have been considered 
as rather injurious than useful. 

The greatest advantages of 
blisters are experienced in wfam- 
niations. In fihrcnvtic cases their 
administration does not greatly 
differ from that we have descril)- 
cd, when speaking of inllamma- 
tory fevers. In sore throats we 
have mentioned them as highly 
useful, and they should extend 
from behind the car under the 
lower jaw to the trachea. In every 

inflammation of the face they 
should be applied in the same 
way, arid are highly useful. The 
tic doloreux, in Dr. Fothcrgill's 
language the dolor faciei crucians, 
is an exception to this rule, and 
indeed can scarcely be called an 
inflammation. In injlammatory af- 
fections of the chesty blisters are 
our chief dependance ; and in 
every disease of this kind, except 
perhaps the putrid pneumonia, 
they are of service : in this how- 
ever they are certainly not inju- 
rious, and, as we have said, they 
are not so in angina maligna. We 
' spoke with less confidence of their 
effects in highly putrid fevers, as 
these have not very often occurred 
to us. In inflammatory cov^hs 
they are useful ; and in many of 
these, especially if not attended 
with expectoration, they seem to 
be more beneficial when applied 
to the bone of the neck, than to 
any part of the chest. In genera!, 
however, if there i^zny fixed pcin 
in any part, to it they must be di- 
rected. In croufi we have said 
they are used, but, like most other 
remedies, with little advantage : 
and in hoofiing-cough they rather 
guard against any inflammatory 
accumulation in the chest, than 
shorten or materially mitigate the 

In inflarmnation of the abdomen 
they are highly useful, with the 
exception only of those of the 
bladder ; but even in the latter, 
when the inflammation is confined 
to its neck, a short application of 
a blister to the pcrinccum has been 
of service. In all local fiains of 
the abdomen blisters will relieve, 
and wc think they oven facilitate 
the passage of a gall-stone through 
the duct. They are certainly use- 
ful in preventing inflammation of 
that part from the distension. la 
5*rt5r7or/f/72y«, whatever be the cause; 
they seem to relieve. 

In all irflamniatiGTiB of the Joi'ifs 



blisters are useful ; even the pa- 
roxysms of gout they shorten and 
mitigate, though we have had 
reason to fear with disadvantage 
to the constitution. The nvhite 
swelling is a peculiar disorder, 
which we cannot at present enlarge 
on. It consists however in its 
•commencement of a rigidity of 
the ligaments, and in its progress 
of deep seated inflammation. In 
the early state, there is perhaps 
no more certain remedy than blis- 
ters repeatedly applied ; their first 
action seems to be the most use- 
ful. Modern ' practitioners have 
substituted the stimulus of emetic 
tartar in these and some other 
swellings, particularly the bron- 
chocele, it is said with success. 
In our hands, however, it has ap- 
peared less useful; and the pe- 
culiar deep irritable little sores 
which it occasions, soon prevent 
the use of this and every other 
external application. 

In the exanthemata we find blis- 
ters chiefly useful in small-jiox and 
measles. In the former, when the 
head and breast are greatly loaded 
previous to the eruption, they are 
often useful, and occasion a more 
mild and distinct kind. When 
repelled, also, they assist in their 
reproduction, and often prevent 
the inconveniences which arise 
from their disappearance. In 
measles they are more useful, on 
account of the violent catarrhal in- 
flammation, which often becomes 

Active hemorrhages 2iTe greatly 
relieved by blisters. The sc/z- 
guine effusions in the brain pro- 
ducing apoplexies^ require their 
immediate application without 
waiting for the eff'ect of evacua- 
tions. Bleedingsfrom the nose and 
the lungs are equally relieved by 
them. It has not been usual to 
apply them in discharges of blood 
from the bowels, chiefly perhaps 
because these are seldom of the 

Active kind ; and as it is not easy 
to ascertain the part particularly 
afiectcd, with accuracy. Dis- 
charges of blood from the kidneys 
and bladder also are not relieved 
by blisters. In diarrhceas from the 
measles they are supposed ser- 
viceable ; and indeed this must be 
considered as an inflammatory 
complaint. In dysen-.n-y \hty 2iYQ 
said to relieve pain, but are sel- 
dom employed. 

Blisters are employed also to 
alter the determination of the 
nervous power. This is certainly 
a vague indication; but they are 
useful in spasmodic pains of tliein- 
testines when there is no inflam- 
mation ; they relieve the parox- 
ysms of angina pectoris, of spas- 
modic asthma, as well as epilep- 
sies not connected with local ple- 
thora and extravasation ; they re- 
move pains in the stomach, aris- 
ing wholly from the irregular ac- 
tion of that organ; and coughs 
that are nervous and independent 
of inflammation. These are cer- 
tainly facts, though the mode of 
their operation may be doubted. 

Though the stimulus of blisters 
be transitory and local, yet they 
are certainly useful as stimulants. 
On the back part of the neck they 
stimulate the nerves sent to the 
throat, and relieve aphonia, and 
deglutition impeded from palsy. 
On the internal humerus they re- 
lieve paralytic affections of the 
hands and fingers ; on the internal 
part of the thigh they are equally 
useful in weakness of the legs. 
They are certainly employed as 
stimulants in palsy and apoplexy, 
yet their power as such is doubtful. 
It is too much the custom to ac- 
cumulate stimulants and evacu- 
ants in these emergencies till we 
know not to what the relief is to 
be attributed, and unfortunately to 
what our failure is owing, for the 
little remaining excitability is of- 
ten thus destroyed. A gentte 



breath uill rc-illumine the flame, 
which a violent wind will irreco- 
verably extinguish. In asphyxy, 
in carus, in catalepsy, and in hys- 
teric affections, which for a time 
apparently destroy life, they have 
been employed as stimulants ; yet 
we doubt if with any good effect, 
cxcei)t in the species aimulatit. 

As evacuants we have already 
mentioned the good effects of blis- 
ters in anasarca, in humoral asth- 
ma, and in serous apoplexies ; 
nor does our recollection at pre- 
sent supply any other disease to 
which from this power they are 
applied. In tumours, and collec- 
tions of a doubtful nature, setons 
and issues are preferred. Where 
the iluid to be discharged lies 
deeply imbedded, the two last are 
more useful. 

We have mentioned the foun- 
dation of their employment as 
cordials. This rests, as we have 
seen, on a loose equivocal founda- 
tion ; nor do we find them used 
by practitioners with this view, 
except in some cases of low ner- 
vous fever, in which their utility 
may perhaps be explained more 
satisfactorily by their power of 
altering the determination. 

The inconveniences arising 
from cantharides have induced 
physicians to employ other stimu- 
lants with a view of exciting 
blisters. The flour of mustard, 
garlic, arum root, emetic tartar, 
and the vitriolic acid, have been 
used for this purpose. They pro- 
duce, however, a very inadequate 
discharge. The only substance 
which may probably with advant- 
age be substituted, is the inner 
bark of the daphne mcscrcum or 
laureola. The small branches 
are cut into portions of the re- 
quired length, and macerated in 
warm water or vinegar ilil the 
bark can be loosened. This must 
be applied to the part previously 
rubbed with vinegar. 

Blocd. A red homogeneous 
iluid, of a saltish taste, and some- 
what urinous smell, and glutinous 
consistence, which circulates in . 
the cavities of the heart, arteries, 
and veins. The quantity is esti- 
mated to be about 28 pounds in an 
adult: of this, four parts are con- 
tained in the veins, and a fifth in 
the arteries. The colour of the 
blood is red ; in the arteries it is 
of a florid hue ; in the veins dar- 
ker; except only the pulmonary 
veins, in which it is of a lighter 
cast. Physiology demonstrates, 
that it acquires this florid colour 
in passing through the lungs, from 
the oxygen it absorbs. The blood 
is the most important fluid of our 
body.* Some physicians and ana- 
tomists have considered it as alive, 
and have formed many ingenious 
hypotheses in support of its vita- 
lity. The temperature of this 
fluid is of considei-able importance, 
and appears to depend upon the 
circulation and respiration. The 
blood of man, quadrupeds, and. 
birds, is hotter than the medium 
they inhabit; hence they are term- 
ed animals of warm blood : whilst 
in fishes and reptiles, animals with 
cold blood, it is nearly of the tem- 
perature of the medium they in- 
habit. The microscope discovers 
that the blood contains a great 
number of red globules, which are 
seen floating about in a yellowish 
fluid, the serum. The blood also 
possesses remarkable physical pro- 
perties; while hot, and in motion, 
it remains constantly fluid and red ; 
'when it cools, and is at rest, it 
takes the form of a fluid mass, 
which gradually and spontaneously 
separates into two parts ; the one, 
wliich is red and floating, becomes 
of a darker colour, remains con- 
crete, and is called the criior, eras- 
samentumy or cake ; the other, 
which occupies the lower part of 
the vessel, is of a yellow Li;reenish 
colour, and adhesive, and is called 



the serufn, or lymfih. The impor- 
tance of this general fluid is very 
considerabie ; it distends the cavi- 
ties of the heart and blood-vessels, 
and prevents them from collaps- 
ing ; it stimulates to contraction 
the cavities of the heart and ves- 
sels, by which means the circula- 
tion of the blood is performed; it 
gene rates within itselfanimal heat, 
which it propagates throughout the 
body ; it nourishes the whole body : 
and, lastly, it is that source from 
which every secretion of the body 
is separated. 

Blood-letting. Under this term 
is comprehended every artificial 
discharge of blood made with a 
view to cure or prevent a disease. 
Blood-letting is divided into ge- 
neral and topical. As examples 
<if the former, vencesection and ar- 
teriatomy may be mentioned ; and 
of the latter, the application of 
leeches, cufifiing-glassesj and sca- 

Boerhaavian System. Few phy- 
sicians enjoyed for so long a pe- 
riod, such unbounded, such unal- 
loyed, reputation as Boerhaave. 
He was represented, as equally 
amiable in private life, and respect- 
able in science : he first gave che- 
mistry a philosophical systematic 
form, and reduced medicine to a 
science at least plausible, neat> 
and perspicuous. Athisera, the 
chemical reveries of Van Hel- 
mont were yielding to the more 
abstract sciences ; and from un- 
real fancies, the change to the ne- 
cessity of demonstration was so 
rapid, as to leave scarcely the ves- 
tige of an intermediate step. 
Calm, penetrating, and reflecting, 
Boerhaave could distinguish be- 
tween the visionary theorist and 
the attentive observer ; and, equal- 
ly judicious, could appreciate the 
merits of each. We have no rea- 
son to think that he expected to 
be the founder of a sect ; yet he 
proceeded with the caution of a 

veteran, and culled from each the 
flower which was to adorn his own 
parterre. Though Paracelsus had 
burnt the writings of Hippocrates 
and Galen in solemn state, yet they 
were not forgotten ; and the wise 
observations of the Grecian sages 
formed the ground-work of hia 
system. The Galenic doctrine 
of humours he assimilated with 
wonderful address to his chemi- 
cal doctrines, and gave them a 
specific character, founded on 
their chemical relations. The 
mechanical philosophy, then at- 
tracting universal attention, added 
to the fabric : the vessels were 
cones or cylinders ; the fluids, 
consisting of various particles, 
adapted only to given apertures, 
were at times forcibly impelled 
and impacted in vessels to which 
they were not fitted, and conse- 
quently produced numerous com- 

The whole of this doctrine was 
combined with so much precision, 
with such scientific skill, as high- 
ly to prepossess even the expe- 
rienced observer. Each found 
his own opinions placed in a re- 
spectable view, illustrated by lan- 
guage elegant and perspicuous, 
and supported by collateral doc- 
trines, vv^hich in another situation 
he would have rejected. The 
Galenist could not object to the 
elegant illustration of the various 
humours ; the chemist saw, with 
surprise, that the works which his 
master had burnt, illustrated his 
favourite system ; and the me- 
chanical philosopher, probably, 
never suspected the very exten- 
sive application of doctrines which 
he had cherished exclusively for 
their own sake. In fact, Boer- 
haave's system was a selected 
one : and he has, of course, been 
styled an Eclectic. 

We have engaged in this short 
comprehensive view, partly to ac- 
count for the enthusiasm with 



\Wiicii this system was received ; 
for it must not be concealed, that 
in treating of the properties and 
functions of a living body, he over- 
looked the principle of life, and 
the laws of a living organized 
machine. He seems to have seen 
his error, and in his later works 
he speaks, but still in the lan- 
guage of a sectary, of the ' iner- 
tia liquidi nervosi.' The first de- 
cisive step in opposition to this 
mechanical pathology was taken 
by his own nephew, and this jicrcsy 
is followed, apparently with some 
reluctance, by Gaubius, the pupil 
of Boerhaave. 

Yet though we have spoken 
thus freely of his. doctrines, we 
mean neither to depreciate the 
man nor his talents. He was far 
above the common race of mor- 
tals ; and, with Newton almost 
alone, might be shown by angels 
as imitating their superior powers, 
and emulating their brighter in- 
tellectual acquisitions. 

Those who have contemplated 
the state of medicine previous to 
his time, will see order rise from 
confusion, precision from vague 
analogy ; in a worxl, science from 
doubtful unconnected facts. 

The practitioners of the Boer- 
haavian school have, in general, 
been distinguished , for patient 
attention and acute observation. 
They have not perhaps extended 
the bounds of medicine, but been 
contented to imitate t/uir master, 
and /lis preceptors, Hippocrates 
and his successors. This was pcr- 
iiaps an error, and it resulted from 
the unbounded admiration tliey felt 
for Boerhaave. It was a very advan- 
tageous trait of Dr. Cullcn's cha- 
racter, that he wished to raise his 
pupils into critics on himself 

Body. The body is divided by 
anatomists into head, trunk, and 
extremities. The trunk, or iDody, 
is subdivided into the neck, tho- 
Tcix, abdojTien. and pelvis, 

Boletusi spunk. A genus of the 
fungusses in Linnseus's botany. 
He enumerates twenty-one spe- 
cies. A species of this genus, 
viz. iht igiiiarius, Linn. Agaricus 
pedis equini facie, Tournefort, 
hath been used as a styptic appli- 
ed after amputations. 

Bolt-head^ is a bellied glass that 
rises up with a long cylindrical 
neck, much slendeicr than the 
body, being neitrly of the same 
make with a glaes g%%. 

iJo/w.9, bole. A genus of earth. 
It readily falls down into a loose 
mass in water; haying a degree 
of ductility when not pervaded 
with too much water ; smooth and 
rather unctuous to the touch. 
Boles^ which fertilize land, are 
called Maries. The college have 
retained the Bolus Gallicus in 
their Pharmacopeia. 

Bolus, /5a.'Aor, a bole Or bolus. 
Boluses differ not from electaries, 
only in that they are made in sin- 
gle doses, and are therefore more 
proper where it is necessary to 
be exact, and where drugs are 
used that soon perish. The quan- 
tity of each is a morsel, or mouth- 
ful, (i. e. as much as can be con- 
veniently swallowed at once) ; 
whence their name Bucella. 

Bo77ibiateSf are salts formed by 
the union of the Bombic Acid 
with alkaline, eartln , or metallic 

Bombic Jcid.^ Acid of the silk 
worm. Silk-worms contain, espe- 
cially when in a state of chrysalis, 
an acid liquor in a reservoir placed 
near the anus. It is obtahied by . . ; 
expressing their juice in a cloth, '.j 
and precipitating the mucilage by 
spirit of wine, and likcvvisc by in- 
fusing the chrysalides in that li- 
quor. This acid is very penetrat- 
ing, of a yellow amber colour, 
but its nature and combinations 
are not yet well known. 

Bones. Bones are hard, dry, 
and insensible parts of the bodv, 



of a whitish colour, and compos- 
ed of a spongy, compact, or reti- 
cular substance. They vary very 
much in their appearances, some 
being long and hollow, others flat 
and compact, &c. The greater 
number of bones have several pro- 
cesses anu':^avities, which are dis- 
tinguished from their figure, si- 
tuation, use, Sec. thus crista^ spinesy 

tubcvQsities^ acetaduiu?n^ fQramen^ 
&c. The uses of these organs 
are various, and are to be found 
in the account of each bone ; it 
is, therefore, only necessary to ob- 
serve, in this place, that they give 
shape to the body, contain and de- 
fend the vital viscera, and afford 
an attachment to all the muscles. 






I Parietal 
Bones of the cranium^ or J Occipital - 
skull, ] Temporal - 

J Ethmoid 
• t^Sphaenoid - 

Superior maxillary' 
J Lachrymal 
^ Palatine 
I Inferior spongy - 
I Vomer 
^Inferior maxillary 

Bones of the/ace. 

Denies, oy teeth. 

Bone of the tongue. 

< Cuspidati - 

Hyoides os - 

Bones of the ear, within J Incus 
the temporal bones. j Stapes 

LOrbiculare os 












The sfilne. 

The thorax. 
The fielvis^. 

f Cervical 
rVertebras."^ Dorsal 
J (^Lumbar 


LCoccygis OS - 
C Sternum 
I Ribs 
Innominata ossa 













The shoulder. 
The ar//z. 
Thtfore arm. 


Carjius^ or wrist. < 

The hand, < 


'The ^//z^-A. 
The /f^. 


Humeri os 

"Navicularc os 
Lunare os - 
Cunciforme os 
Orbiculare os 
Trapezium os 
Trapezoiclcs os 
Magnum os 
v^Unciforme os 








r Patella - - 2 

< Tibia - - 2 

(^Fibula . - 2 

{Calcaneus - 2 
Astragalus - 2 
Cuboicles os 2 

Naviculare os 2 
Cuneiformia ossa 6 



Sesamoid bones of the thumb and great toe, occa- 
sionally found - - - . 

Bofioniensis fLa/iJsJj the Bono- 
nian stone, or Bononian Phospho- 
rus. It is a small, grey, soft, 
glossy, fibrous, sulphureous stone, 
about the size of a walnut. When 
broken, a kind of crystal, or starry 
talc, is found therein. This stone 
is met with in the neighbourhood 
of Bologna, or Bononia, in Italy ; 
and when duly prepared, makes a 
species of phosphorus. When 
this phosphorus is held to the 
light, it retains it for six or eight 
hours after. As a medicine, this 
stone is said to be caustic and 

Borates f Boras., ti's^s. ?n.J Salts 
formed by an union of tlie boracic 
acid with different bases ; thus boraC 
ofalu}ui7if^ borat ofammoniar^ 8?c. 

Total 248 

Borax. A neutral salt, formed 
by the combination of the acid, 
improperly called sedative salt, 
with the marine alkali. It is dug 
out of the earth, in the kingdom 
of Thibet, in the East-Indies. It 
is also said to be formed or pro- 
duced by certain artificial proces- 
ses. There arc several kinds of 
borax, but that used in medicine 
is called Dutch or purified borax ^ 
it has a very regular form ; its 
crystals are six-sided prisms, tMo 
of tlie sides being commonly lar- 
ger than the others j its crystalli- 
zation, however, varies : the taste 
is styptic, and acts strongly on the 
fibres of the tongue. It is gene- 
rally employed in solution, to de- 
tach mucus, 8;c. from the mouth 



in putrid fevers. The salts form- 
ed by the union of the acid of 
borax with different bases, are 
called borates. — Grs. v. to xl. 

Borborygmus. The rumbling 
noise occasioned by the flatus in 
the intestines ; (3opBo^vyi/,oc, from 
/So^jSo^ufwj to make a noise. 

JSoi'ani/y^oravyi., a herb, ov grass, 
from ^oTKu:, to feed. Borav)) is that 
grass which is perfect, but not 
quite fit to be mowed. Botany is 
that part of natural science which 
includes 6very thing respecting 
vegetables, as their division into 
classes, orders, genera, species ; 
external figure, internal proper- 
ties, and their application to their 

Bougie. A term applied by sur- 
geons to a long, slender instru- 
ment, that is introduced through 
the urethra into the bladder. Bou- 
gies made of the elastic gum are 
preferable to those made of wax. 
The caustic bougie differs from 
the ordinary one in having a thin 
roll of caustic in its middle, which 
destroys the stricture, or any part 
of the urethra it comes in contact 
with, and is consequently a hazar- 
dous application. Those made 
of catgut are very seldom used, 
but are deserving of the attention 
of the surgeon. 

Brachialis Internus. A muscle 
of the fore arm, situated in the 
fore part of the os humeri. Its 
use is to bend the fore arm, and to 
prevent the capsular ligament of 
the joint from being pinched. 

Brachial Artery. The continu- 
ation of the axillary artery, situ- 
ated between the axilla and the 
bend of the arm ; in its course it 
gives off many lateral vessels, and 
about the bend of the arm divides 
into the cubital and radial arteries. 
B vac hio- Cubit ale Ligamentum. 
The expansion of the lateral liga- 
ment (see Later alia Ligamenta ) , 
%vhich is fixed in the inner condyle 
of the OS humeri, runs ovep the 

capsula, to which it closely ad- 
heres, and is inserted like radii on 
the side of the great sigmoide ca- 
vity of the ulna ; it is covered on 
the inside by several tendons, 
which adhere closely to it, and 
seem to strengthen it. 

Brachio-Radiale Ligamentum. 
The expansion of the lateral liga- 
ment (see Lateralia Ligamenta), 
which runs over the external con- 
dyle of the OS humeri, is inserted 
round the coronary ligament, from 
thence all the way down to the 
neck of the radius, and also in the 
neighbouring parts of the ulna. 
Through all this passage it covers 
the capsular ligament, and is co- 
vered by several tendons adhering 
closely to both. 

Brachium. B^ccx^ov. The arm, or 
that part of the upper extremity 
that lies between the shoulder and 
elbow joint. 

Bractea^ in Botany, a floral leaf, 
ranged by Linnaeus among the ful- 
cra, props, or supporters of plants. 

Bradyfitfisia, /Spa^y7rE-s|/ta, weak 
concoction of food ; or when di- 
gestion in the stomach is perform- 
ed slowly and with difficulty. 

Brain. See Cerebrum and Cf- 

Branchus, IB^ccyxo^i a defiuxion 
of humours upon the fauces. It 
is a species of Catarrh, which 
Coelius Aurelianus calls Raucitas. 

Brandy. A colourless, slightly 
opake, and milky fluid, of a hot 
and penetrating taste, and a strong 
and agreeable smell, when first 
distilled from the wine. It con- 
sists of water, ardent spirit, and a 
small portion of oil, which ren- 
ders it milky at first, and after a 
certain time colours it yellow. It 
is the fluid from which rectified 
or ardent spirit is obtained. The 
utility of brandy is very consider- 
able, but from its pleasant taste 
and exhilarating property it is 
too often taken to excess. It gives 
enerciy to the animal functions; 



is a powerful tonic, cordial, sto- 
machic, and antispasmodic ; and 
its utility with camphirc, in j^un- 
grenous affections, is very great. 

Branks, a name in Scothmd for 
the Cyna7icheParoticUa^ ovAIuin/i.'i. 

Brass. Copper, melted witli 
zinc, loses its red, and acquires a 
yellow colour, without losing much 
of its ductility ; and is thus named. 

i?7'a,9.9zca, cabbage. A genus in 
Linnseus's botany. He enume- 
pates fourteen species. 

Brassica Italica^ broccoli. 

Brasfsica Sadellica^ borecole, or 
Scotch kale. 

Brassica Sylvestris^ sea colewort 
or cabbage. 

Breasts. Mam7na. Two soft 
hemispherical bodies, composed 
of common integuments, adipose 
substance, and lacteal glands and 
vessels, and adhering to the ante- 
rior lateral regions of the thorax 
of females. On the middle of 
each breast is a projecting portion 
termed the fiajiilla or iiipfile^ in 
whicli the excretory ducts of the 
glands terminate, and around 
which is a coloured orb or disc, 
called the areola. The use of the 
breasts is to suckle new-born in- 

-B7-ome//a, pine-apple. A genus 
in Linnaeus's botany. He includes 
in this genus the ./^//awa*, the pine- 
apple, and the j)inguin, or Karaias, 
the wild pine-applc. He enume- 
rates seven species. 

Bromatoloj^ij. A discourse or 
treatise on food; from/5/.ua, food, 
and "Koyoc., a discourse. 

Bronchia^ ^yoyxia. The aspcra 
arteria descends from the fauces 
down the throat, growing narrow- 
er as it approaches to the lungs ; 
and a little before it approaches 
to them, it divides into two bran- 
ches, called the Bronchia. Those 
ramifications are divided into 
numberless others, which arc dis- 
tributed through the substance of 
the lunors, a,nd terminate in small 

vesicles, like clusters, which ad- 
here to these small bronchial ra- 
mifications, constituting the chief 
part of the lungs. The use of the 
Bronchia is for the conveyance of 
air into, and out from the lungs, 
and for the discharge of such 
other matter as is ready to be car- 
ried out of the body this way. 

Bronchial Arteries. They some- 
times go from the fore-side of the 
superior descending aorta, some- 
times from the first intercostal, 
and sometimes from the arteries 
of the (Esophagus. Sometime^i 
they arise separately from each 
side, to go to each lobe of the 
lungs ; and sometimes, by a small 
common trunk, Avhich afterwards 
separates towards the right and 
left hand, at the bifurcation of the 
aspera arteria, and accompanies 
the ramifications of the bronchia. 
The bronchial artery^ on the left 
side, often comes from the aorta* 
while the other arises from the 
superior intercostal on the same 
side; which variety is owing to 
the situation of the aorta. 

Bronchiales GlanduU. At the 
angle of the first ramification of 
the trachea arteria, we find on 
both the fore and back sides cer- 
tain soft, roundish, glandular be- 
dies, of a bluish or blackish colour, 
and of a texture partly like that of 
the thymus, and partly like that of 
the thyroid gland. There are many 
similar glands at the origin of each 
ramification of the bronchia. 

Bronchialis Glaiidulu^ i.e. Thy- 
roid aa G land u la. 

Bronchoceley ^foyxoKy)Xvf, from 
^f^oyxo?, the iirind-Jii/ie, and x>5^n, a 
tu.'no7ir. Its seat is the thyroid 
gland, which lies just below the 
larynx, round the trachea. The 
tumour appears in the fore part 
of the neck, between the skin and 
the wind-pipe. In this consists 
that disfiguration of the fore part 
of the ueck and throat, called in 
Switzerland, cretinage, or goitre ; 



in M'hirh, besides an cnormoub 
enlargement of the thyroid gland, 
the individual frequently has an 
impaired understanding, and of- 
tentimes is an ideot. The goitre 
lias been observed too in several 
parts of America, both among the 
aborigines and the whites, and a 
particular account of both may be 
found in Dr. Bai'ton's pamphlet 
an the subject. 

Bi'OTic/iotoinyy from /??oy;^o-', t/ie 
^aiftd'fiifiey and rsuv^, to cut. It is 
a division made between the rings 
of the wind-pipe. It is also called 

Brunneri Glandida. They are 
lodged under the villous coat of 
the intestines, closely adjoining 
to the nervous. They are more 
numerous in the small intestines, 
and smaller also than in the lar- 
ger. They are also called Peyer's 

Brunonian System. The histoiy 
of Dr. Brown would not be of im- 
portance in this place, were it not 
necessary to explain some parts of 
his doctrines. Originally a teacher 
©f Latin, he attended the medi- 
cal classes by the permission of 
the different professors ; and, as 
the tutor of his sons in that lan- 
guage, was first connected with 
Dr. Cullen, to whom he became 
an useful assistant, and of whose 
doctrine he was a warm admirer. 
His great object for a future main- 
tenance, was to repeat Dr. Cul- 
len*s lectures in London after his 
death. Some disagreement turn- 
ed him to a virulent antagonist, 
and from hence arose the Bruno- 
nian doctrine. 

We mean not by this to pre- 
j^udge or disparage the system ; it 
must rest on its own merits : but 
to explain that decided opposition, 
and the virulent language employ- 
ed Vi^hen speaking of the Cullenian 
doctrines. We suspect, however, 
that it may explain the source of 
some of his own opinions, without 

giving him the credit of a vei»y 
brilliant genius ; for, in posses- 
sion of a system with the argu- 
ments in its support, it is not very 
difficult to say that any part is 
^false^ and to wrest the arguments 
to the opposite opinion. If, how- 
ever, his system be well founded, 
it proves his genius to be pre-emi- 
nent, for little was gained by study. 
We recollect but one author quot- 
ed, which is Triller ; and from the 
manner of the quotation, we should 
suspect that he was not intimately 
acquainted with him. The opi- 
nions and practice of different au- 
thors he could not have been igno- 
rant of, from the lectures he at- 
tended; yet it is singular that his 
practice is so little discriminated, 
that he seems scarcely to have 
visited the sick bed, or attended 
to the distinguishing symptoms 
which influence the practical phy- 
sician in the minuter variations of 
his conduct. 

Dr. Brown, however, started as 
a self-appointed lecturer, and the 
avowed opponent-of the Cullenian 
system. His doctrine, even more 
simple than that of the methodists, 
admitted only of the strictum and 
laxum, the sthenic and asthenic 
states, without allowing the union 
of both. 'Simplicity is attractive 
to youth ; it is falsely called ' the 
seal of truth ;' and to escape from 
professorial dogmas, added to the 
seduction. It is at least certain, 
that after some months of hesita- 
tion. Dr. Brown was greatly fol- 
lowed, and his doctrines were 
echoed in the " Medical Society," 
where the Cullenian system had 
gained a complete victory over the 
Boerhaavian ; and, by the aid of the 
numerous pupils of that school, 
w as disseminated through Europe, 
Asia, and America. It was ea- 
gerly caught at on all sides ; but, 
by a strange perversion, in escap- 
ing from the humoral pathology, 
many professed Brunonians adopt- 



ed doctrines essentially distinct 
from those of Brown, supposing 
that it they were not Bocrhaavi- 
ans, they were of his sect. 

Dr. Brown seemed to consider 
man not as a being compounded of 
an organized system, to which the 
principle of life was superadded, 
but as a machine, to which a cer- 
tain series of actions and effects is 
allotted by means of an excitabi- 
lity, differing in degree, but ge- 
nerally, though on the whole im- 
perceptibly, exhausting. In fact, 
it is a flame kept alive by excite- 
ments, such as heat, food, pas- 
sions, &c. which, however, destroy 
by degrees the pabulum, or, in his 
language, the excitability. As the 
machine is merely passive, and the 
flame kept up by blowing, it can- 
not be depressed except by an in- 
termission of the blast. It may, 
however, be exhausted by blowing 
too violently ; or the pabulum, not 
exhausted by the constant blast, 
may burn with greater fury on 
its recommencement. We mean 
merely to facilitate the reader's 
conception by our metaphor, not 
to render the subject ludicrous. 

Life, therefore, is ' a forced 
state ;' every thing stimulates ; 
some substances too violently, 
others not sufficiently ; and we thus 
have two kinds of debility, indi- 
rect and direct. In the former 
case, the strongest stimuli are ne- 
cessary; in the second, the slight- 
est destroy, in consetjucncc of too 
great irritability. In the jail fe- 
ver, for instance, we must give 
the strongest stimulants ; to tlic 
man long pent up in darkness, with 
scanty food, the light must be mo- 
derate, the aliment of the mildest 
kind, and stimuli of every sort 
most sparingly administered ; as 
the flame, long repressed, would 
be roused by the slightest excite- 

Such is the basis of Dr. Brown's 
system; and for one part of it, 

accumulated excitability, he dx: 
serves tlie greatest credit. It is u. 
law of the animal economy so ge- 
neral, that the attention to it di- 
rects tlie practitioner in various 
ways ; nor should he, on any oc- 
casion, lose sight of its conse- 
quence, that too frequent and vio- 
lent excitements are destructive. 
It had been well if Dr. Brown had 
kept it more often in view, parti- 
cularly in his arrangement of dis- 
eases. There is, however, ano- 
ther law of the system connected 
with this, which has been less ad- 
verted to, viz. that excitabilitylong 
repressed, is, with difficulty, if at 
all, to be roused by stimulants. 
Constitutions of this kind are ru- 
ined from inactivity ; they rust, as 
we have said, on their hinges, and 
the Brunonian will not refuse this 
addition to his system, since it is 
so connected with his principle, 
that life is a forced state. 

This principle, however, we can- 
not admit. Life is superadded to 
organized matter ; for organiza^ 
tion itself will no more produce it, 
than the most skilful union of 
wheels will produce a time-piece 
without its spring. This leads to 
a fundamental objection to the 
Brunonian system ; that, by giv- 
ing man in the beginning a deter- 
mined proportion of excitability, 
he has no where provided for its 
renewal, when exhausted. It ac- 
cumulates from want of exhaus- 
tion, but from what source ? For, 
let only an atom be taken from a 
mountain, and in no way restored, 
the mountain must in that propor- 
tion be diminished, and cannot re- 
gain its former l)ulk. Boerhaave 
and Cullcn felt the difficulty. Boer- 
haave supplied it by secretion; 
CuUen, more indistinctly, made it 
the consequence of collapse, al- 
luding, by some remote analogy, 
to the electrical fluid. Brown cut 
the knot, and, like Jack in the tale, 
would be ' as unlike the rogue Pe- 



ter as possible ;* so that there must 
be no collap,se» Brown himself 
speaks of ' recruiting' the excita- 
bility ; and his followers, when 
urged by the difficulty, have either 
evaded it, or explained in a way 
not very consistent with the gene- 
ral principle. 

Again : Dr. Brov/n speaks of 
indirect and direct debility, of the 
two states of exhausted and accu- 
mulated irritability. The jail 
fever is allowed to be an instance 
of the former, and the person, se- 
cluded from light and air, of the 
latter. Yet, did Dr. Brown never 
^ee (we believe he never did) in 
the jail fever, inordinate stimuli 
fatal by their excess? Did he ne- 
ver see phlegmonic inflammation 
sometimes supervene ? To the 
angina maligna too, a very similar 
disease, the inflammatory angina 
sometimes succeeds from too vio- 
lent and long-continued stimuli. 
How, however, in the jail fever, 
one of his own instances, is the 
excitability exhausted by excess 
of stimuli ? Every previous cause, 
every concomitant circumstance 
has a tendency totally cliff"erent. 
In this and the other instance of 
indirect debility? we see only the 
powers of life gradually exhaust- 
ing, in a certain degree to be rous- 
ed with augmented violence by 
stimuli ; but, after a certain period, 
incapable of any excitement : 
while even the eff'ects of stimuli, 
though apparently for a time suc- 
.cessful, often contribute to destroy 
the remaining portion of excita- 
"bility. The difference of the two 
cases consists in this only, that the 
excitability in the latter is only 
accumulated ; but in the former, 
by the debilitating power of the 
fever, added to that from the con- 
finement, in a great measure de- 
stroyed, or at least so far diminish- 
ed, as to be very generally irre- 

A striking instance of accumu- 

lated excitability occurred in that 
singularly intrepid exertion of 
captain Bligh, when he crossed 
the Pacific in a small boat, with 
a very inconsiderable stock of pro- 
visions. On reaching Timor, one 
of his crew died of an inflamma- 
tory fever. Had these men, after 
their voyage, been throv/n into a 
loathsome prison, or an infected 
hospital, would they have escaped? 
We know they would not, for si-- 
milar instances have occurred ; 
yet in these we might in vain look 
for the stimuli by which the exci- 
tability had been exhausted. 

A consequence of this doctrine 
must be, that every medicine sti- 
mulates ; and the difference be- 
tween what are styled stimulants 
and sedatives is, that the latter are 
not sufficiently stimulating. This, 
however, must soon become a ver- 
bal controversy. The oxygen of 
the atmosphere stimulates the 
lungs, and hence the whole sys- 
tem ; but if the oxygen is defi- 
cient, the stimulus is abstracted, 
and the machine no longer urged 
on. Yet this is not the only sti- 
mulus ; if we abstract oxygen, we 
may supply an additional stimulus 
by warmth : abstract warmth also, 
and the passions may supply its 
place. Without all these exciting 
powers, we need not despair ; we 
have brandy, laudanum, and sether. 
It is sufficient to state this reason- 
ing, which, on Brunonian princi- 
ples, is fair, to show its fallacy. 
Azote and hydrocarbonate, when, 
breathed without dilution, imme- 
diately kill. Is this from defi- 
cient or excessive stimulus? If 
from the former, it differs in no 
deQ:ree from a sedative: if from 
excessive stimulus exhaustm.gex- 
citability, we can only say that the 
existence of the previous stimu- 
lus is gratuitous ; and we have 
long since learnt, \.\\2i\.,quodverbo 
dicitur, verbo negare sat est. If 
no stimulus appears, we cannot 



place sufficient confidence in any 
assertion to believe that it exists. 

But these are harmless specu- 
Itttions. When we find them ap- 
plied to pracdcc, humanity shud- 
ders at the dangerous tendency 
of many of these doctrines. If 
we can trust reports, their appli- 
cation has been very extensively 
injurious. As the trammels of a 
system are every where conspi- 
cuous, so diseases are supposed 
to be either sthenic or asthehic. 
Those arranged under the former 
class diVe<,fu'riJin€mnonia^phre7iiti^y 
varioiay rubeola^ eri/si/ieias, r/ieu- 
7natismy cynayiche torisillaris-, ca- 
tarrhusy synoc/ia, scarlali7iaj manias 
fiei^igiliumy and obesitas. The 
asthenic diseases are, ?nacies, in- 
(jfuietudo, eruptio scabiosay diabetes 
ieniory rachitis^ menstruorum ccs' 
satio suppressio ^ retention m<r.- 
novrhceUy cpiis taxis y hc^morrhoisy 
sitis voviitus ^ indigestio cum af- 
finibus alimentarii canalis morbisy 
pueriles affectus scil. vermes if 
tabesy dyscnteria t5* cholerciy scor- 
butiiSy hysteria leviovy rheiimatal' 
i^ioy lussis asthenicaypertussisy cys' 
tirrhocay fiodagra validiorum i:f im^ 
bccHiormny ast/nnoy f^pasmay ana- 
sarcay colicodyjiiay dyspep<iodyiiiay 
hysteria graviory hypochondriasis^ 
hydropsy epilcp.siay paralysisy apo- 
plexiay trininiisy tctamiSy intermit- 
tcntesy dyscnteria l^ colica graviory 
synochasy typhus sim/ileXy cy?ian- 
che gangrcnosUy variola co?iflitc7iSy 
typhusy pcstilcns l^ pcstis. The 
local diseases follow, among which 
we sec, with some surprise, the 
internal injiammations of the abdo- 
meiiy abortiouy and difficult births. 
Deep ivoundsy suppuration y pus- 
tuluy anthraxy buboy gangrc?ie, 
sphacelusyscrophuloustur.iojtrs and 
schirrusy may with more propriety 
be considered as local diseases, 
yet these often require general 
methods of treatment. 

The cure is as simple as the 
arvangemeni. Bleeding, low diet, 

and purging, cure the sthenic 
diseases ; stimuli, of different 
kiiids and degrees, the asthenic. 
Is it surprising then that this sys- 
tem should have its admirers ? 
The lai)our of study is at once 
abridged. The works of Galen 
and his followers may be again 
burnt in solemn state ; and the 
degree of strength or debility re- 
gistered on a scale, may be at once 
attacked by the appropriate wea- 
pon. Sad ife the history which 
must follow. The victims of the 
yellow fever in the West-Indies 
were often laid low after full doses 
of Madeira, bark, and laudanum. 
We have seen the hectics raised 
into a destructive flame by simi- 
lar means ; and the typhus fever 
aggravated by equally undistin- 
guishing management. 

We cannot pursue the list mi- 
nutely, but shall take an instance 
or two from each class. Perip- 
neumony is a sthenic disease, and 
is attacked, as usual, by bleeding 
and purging. If this plan be fol- 
lowed, the fever is mitigated, but 
the aftection of the breast remains 
the same. For this, the only sa- 
lutary discharge is the expecto- 
ration, which should be conduct- 
ed with care. Of this discharge 
Dr. Brown takes no notice ; and, 
unfortunately, active purging will 
not only supersede, but prevent 
it : and we have no hesitation in 
saying, that few patients treated 
in this way would survive. We 
might notice also scarlatina and 
erysipelas. Either, treated by ac- 
tive bleeding and purging, would 
soon prove fatal. Once more ; 
obesity is a disease to be cured by 
bleeding and purging. In fact, 
there is no state of the system in 
which these evacuations arc hornc 
with so little advantage. The tru- 
ly inflammatory habit is the strong, 
thin, firm, muscular highlander, 
or the English mountaineer. The 
opposite state is the irriiiiblc, hys- 



leric female, generally plump, 
but weak, and soon sunk by dis- 

In the second class v/e see the 
asthenic cough, by Avhich Dr. 
Brown means consumption ; and 
apoplexy. In each case we must 
use active stimulants. In the lat- 
ter we have said they must soo?i 
be employed, but not without pre- 
viously lessening the quantity of 
fluids in the head, clearing the 
bowels with the most active laxa- 
tives, and establishing some drain 
to prevent the secondary accumu- 
lation. Of these precautions not 
a word is said, and without them 
the physician will not be very suc- 

Of the fatal consequence of the 
stimulating plan in consumption, 
we have unfortunately had too 
many instances. With the best ma- 
nagement the picture is gloomy ; 
with the methods proposed it is 
deeply darkened. If there is any 
more stiking feature than another 
in this complaint, it is increased 
irritability of the arterial system, 
and a larger proportion of oxygen 
in the fluids, with its accompany- 
ing irritation. Every meal of an 
animal nature increases the heat, 
the smallest quantity of wine or 
spirits raises it to a greater de- 
gree ; and when again cooled, the 
patient sinks with languor and de- 
bility. Yet this is the disease 
treated with all the warmth of 
Brunonian stimulus ! We are free 
to ov,n that the lowering system 
has been carried too far ; and that 
wTiile we were guarding against 
fever, we neglected properly sup- 
porting the strength. 

Of the gout we shall not again 
speak. Undoubtedly the system 
may be brought too low ; and Dr. 
Brown, we suspect, would raise 
his arthritics too high. He him- 
self suffered severely when he 
changed his free plan of living to 
a more abstemious one ; but his 

case is not to be brought as an ex- 
ample, till his plan and its long 
continuance are more particularly 
known. We knew it ; and in these 
more days, till we find si- 
milar plans have been adopted by 
our patients, we shall not recom- 
menc those in the v/ork now be- 
fore us, his own Latin edition, 
published in 1784. 

Scurvy also is to be treated by 
stim.ulants ; and these without the 
usual remedies, it is said by this 
author, will succeed. Unifoi^m 
experience has decided different, 
ly ; and lemon-juice without sti- 
mulants is, even at sea, found to 
be an eti'ectuai remedy. In the 
hooping-cough, stimulants are also 
essential in Dr. Brown's opinion. 
Change of air is nonsense (fabula), 
and vomitings death. It is some- 
what surprising that, in opposition 
to this dogma, hooping-cough is 
seldom fatal, though these use- 
less or dangerous remedies are 
employed, and with those recom- 
mended — but we have not heard 
of any one who has so far sinned 
against common sense as to em- 
ploy them. 

We have enlarged on this sys- 
tem and its application, because, 
as we have said, it is seductive 
from its simplicity, and the little 
labour required either in its study 
or its management. We have not 
dwelt on the minute investigation 
really required to adapt the stimu- 
lus to the state of direct or indi- 
rect debility in a given case ; for, 
though we know that every dis- 
ease varies in this respect, yet no 
provision is made for it in the sys- 
tem : the name and the class are 
only necessary. We observe, in- 
deed, that Dr. Brown, in one. or 
two instances, orders the stimulus 
to be somewhat less than that of 
the disease ; but he no where 
points out the symptoms which 
discriminate its degree. 

It is not wholly the neglect of 



distinguishing the degree of debi- 
lity either indirect or direct, and, 
of course, the proportion of sti- 
mulus to be employed, that ren- 
ders the application of this sys- 
tem dilhcult or dangerous, but the 
very imperfect distinction of dis- 
eases. The descriptions arc often 
the most meagre and imi)erfect ; 
the diagnosis is seldom attended 
to. These, in fact, would require 
what the author never possessed, 
practical knowledge. The distinc- 
tion also of different circumstan- 
ces of a disease, which would re- 
quire very different and often op- 
posite treatment, is neglected ; 
> and when we find in the same class, 
to be treated with the same reme- 
dies, menstruorum,suppressio, and 
maenorrhoea, we shall begin to sus- 
pect that an attachment to system 
has precluded the observation of 
the operations of nature. When 
we see in the opposite classes, per- 
vigilium and inquietudo, phrenitis 
and epistaxis, colica gravior and 
enteritis ; in the same chapter the 
podragra imbeciliorum and vali- 
diorum, treated in the same man- 
ner, we cannot greatly rejy on the 
judgment or practical knowledge 
'of the author. 

Bryony. White bryony. Bryo- 
nia alba of Linnaeus. A very com- 
mon plant in woods and hedges. 
The root has a very nauseous 
biting taste, and disagreeable 
smell ; and is employed in hydro- 
pical cases as a diuretic or drastic 
purge, which qualities depend up- 
on the dose that is administered. 

Bubo., from /5oi/5*a.'v, the groin. It 
is a tumid gland which is inUamed, 
or tends to suppuration ; but it is 
generally understood ohly of those 
glands wiiich arc in the arm-pits, 
or the groins. 

Bubonocele^ /S«/5a.'voxrjX», from (i-jv 
Cwv, the groin ^ and k>j >i, a tumour. 
It is also called Hernia Inguinalisy 
9V rupture of the groin ; and is 
■-vhen the intestines force the in- 

teguments through the ring of the 
cxlei-nal oblique muscle of the 
belly, or, according to Dr. Friend, 
through the cavity in tlic thigh, 
between the pectineus and the 
sartorius ; thout^h this latter is 
called Hernia fcnioralis^ or Hernia 

Bucca^ the cheek. The cheeks 
arc the sides of the face ; they 
reach from the eyes and temples 
between the nose and the ears. 
The upper prominent parts of the 
cheeks are called Mala. 

Buccales GUmdulix. All the in- 
sidcsof the cheeks near the mouth 
are full of small glandulous bodies 
called by this name. They open 
by small holes or orifices through 
the inner membrane of the mouth. 
Buccinator Musculus^ the trum- 
peter's muscle. It is thus named 
because of its use in forcing the 
breath to sound the trumpet. It 
arises, tendinous and fleshy, from 
the lower jaw, as far back as the 
last dens moralis, and fore part of 
the root of the coronoid process ; 
fleshy from the upper jaw, between 
the last dens moralis, and ptery- 
goid process of the sphenoid bone, 
from the extremity of which it 
arises tendinous, being continued 
between l)oth jaws to the constric- 
tor pharyngis superior, with which 
it joins ; from thence proceeding 
with straight fibres, and adhering 
close to the membrane that lines 
the mouth, is inserted into the an- 
gle of the mouth, within the orbi- 
cularis oris. Its use is to draw 
the angle of the mouth backwards 
and outwards, and to contract its 
cavity, by pressing the check in- 
wards, by which the food is thrust 
between tiie teeth. 

Bulimia^ /?.v,\i/xi«, bulimy, from 
/9i'5-, an oa-, and Ai/xc;, hunger y a ra- 
venous appetite ; or rather, when 
the same inclination to cat exists 
as in tlie canine appetite, without 
the power ; autl after the patient 
does ent he f.tin's. Iv mostlv oviscs 



from worms,rachitis,or from acids. 
M. M. Fat meats ; oils ; Avine ; 
brandy ; tobacco; opium ; emetics ; 
anthelmintics; antacids; aroma- 
tics ; cinchonia ; iron. 

Bulla. Pustules on any part of 
the body, the size of a nutmeg. 

Burgundy Fitch. The juice of 
the Finns abies of Linnaeus boiled 
in water, and strained through a 
linen cloth. It is chiefly imported 
from Saxony, is of a solid consis- 
tence, yet somewhat soft, of a red- 
dish brown colour, and not disa- 
greeable smell. It is entirely con- 
fined to externa.1 use as a stimu- 
lant, in form of a plaster. 

Bursalogy. The doctrine of the 
bursse mucosae ; from ^v^a-cx,^ a bag^ 
and Aoyoc, a discourse. 

Bursa Mucosa. Mucous bags, 
composed ef proper membranes, 
containing a kind of mucus fat, 
formed by the exhaling arteries of 
the internal coat. They are of 
different sizes and firmness, and 
are connected by the cellular mem- 
brane with articular cavities, ten- 
dons, ligaments, or the periosteum. 
They are divided into vaginal, 
which are long and cover a ten- 
don ; and vesicular, which are 
round. The use of the bursae 
iTiu'cosae is to secr^te^ and contain 

a substance to lubricate tendons, 
muscles, and bones, in order to 
render their motion easy. 

Bursalis Musculus, so called 
from its resemblance to bursa, a 
purse. It is the muscle which 
Bartholine calls Marsuhialis, and 
Innes calls the Obturator Lit emus <) 
which see. 

Butter. A concrete and soft 
substance, of a yellow colour, ap- 
proaching more or less to that of 
gold, and of a mild agreeable taste> 
It melts by a gentle heat, and be- 
comes solid by cooling. Fresh 
butter is mild, temperate, and re- 
laxing, but it readily becomes sour, 
and in general agrees with few 
stomachs. Rancid butter is one 
of the most unwholesome and in- 
digestible of all foods. 

Buxton Water. This is the se- 
cond in its degree of heat among 
those of Great-Britain. The wa- 
ter of St. Anne*s well contains a 
trifling portion of calcareous earth, 
fossil alkali, and sea-salt ; of all 
not much more than twenty grains 
in a gallon. It contains so much 
fixed air as to be rather lighter 
than pure common water. It 
seems to be most efiicacious in 
cool weather. 

CACHEXIA, xux^iiscjYom^c.- 
Ko:, ill or bad, and £|k> a habit,' 
a bad habit of body. Dr. Cullen 
defines it to be a depravity of the 
constitution of the whole, or of a 
great part of the body, without any 
febrile or nervous disease as the 
primary one. 

Cachexia Icterica, the jaundice. 

Cachexia Uterinay i. e. Fluor 

Cacochijlia, indigestion, or de- 
praved chylification. 

Cctcochymia, xawxu/zia, from xa- 
yn:, ill, and x^l^^^i humour, a deprav- 
ed state of the humours. 

Cacoethes, Kscx-Vft^q, from -ammv, ill. 
and ^?oj, a word which, when ap- 
plied to diseases, signifies a qua- 
lity, or a disposition. Hippocrates 
applied this word to malignant and 
difficult distempers. Galen, and 
some others, express by it an in- 
curable ulcer, that is rendered so 
through the acrimony of the hu- 
mours flowing to it. Linnseus and 
Vogel use this term much in the 
same sense with Galen, and de- 
scribe the ulcer as superficial, 
spreading, weeping, and v/ith cal- 
lous edges. 

Cacophonia, K<x,y.o<P'jjr.^., a denravl- 



ty of the voice. Vogel defines it 
to bo a disagreeable sharp kind of 
voice. Cullen uses this word as 
synonymous with Parafihonia. 

Cacotrophia^ xajtoTpo^iot) from -Kccy-o:^ 
illy and Tpo(p>9, nutriment^ any sort 
of vicious nutrition in general. 

Caciusi melon thistle. A genus 
in Linnseus's botany. He adds to 
this genus, the Cereus or Torch 
Thiatlcy and Ofiuntia or Indicm Fig. 
He enumerates twenty-four spe- 

Caducus Morbus., the epilepsy. 

Cacitas, i. e. Amaurosis. 

Cxcum Intestinuin^ the blind 
gut, so called from its being per- 
forated at one end only. It is about 
three fingers breadth long. Wins- 
low observes that its diameter is 
more than double that of the small 
intestines. By its open end it is 
connected with the beginning of 
the colon, to which it seems to be 
an appendage. Whatever goes in- 
to it and returns, passes both ways 
by the same orifice. 

Ccesarea Sectio, the Caesarean 
section or operation. It is the 
operation whereby the fcetus is 
extracted from the uterus through 
the teguments of the belly. It is 
called thus from Julius Caesar, 
who was brought into the world 
this way. Some say it was one 
Cseso who was the first that was 
thus taken from the mother's 
womb, and from whom the opera- 
tion is named. 

Cxsaresy children who are 
brought into the world by the Ce- 
sarean operation. 

Cajejiuti Oleum. It is thought 
to be obtained from the grains of 
paradise. It is recommended as 
a nervous medicine. The dose is 
four or five drops. 

Calamine Stone. The yellow, 
red, brown, and green coloured, 
are the four species of Zinc Stone ; 
a variety of the yellow species of 
Zinc Flos, is also a calamine stone ; 
it is like wax, transparentj or glos- 

sy ; of a solid structure and com- 

Calamint. A name of several 
species of Melisna. 

Calamus Aromaticus. Sweet flag, 
or acorns. Acorus calamus of Lin- 
nxus. The root of this plant has 
been long employed medicinally. 
It has a moderately strong aro- 
matic smell, and a warm, pungent, 
bitterish taste ; and in doses of 
grs. V. to 9i. is deemed useful as 
a warm stomachic. Powdered, 
and mixed with some absorbent, 
it forms a useful and pleasant den- 

Calamus Scrifitorius. The fourth 
ventricle in the brain terminates 
backward like the point of a writ- 
ing pen; hence the under end of 
it is thus named. 

Calcaneus, also called Os Calcis, 
the heel-bone. It is the largest 
bone in the foot ; it lies under the 
astragalus. Behind, it hath a large 
protuberance, which forms the 
heel, and into which the Tendo 
Achillis is inserted. 

Calcareous Earth, a genus of 
Earth which effervesceth with 
acids ; earth which burns to a 
calx or quick-lime. This proper- 
ty distinguishes the lime-stones 
from the magnesias, which, though 
exposed to the hottest fire, will 
not burn to lime. Calcareous 
earth is very abundant in nature, 
and exists in the following forms : 
Being soluble in water, and mis- 
cible with acids, it exists in great 
abundance in the ocean, in the 
form of a transparent solution. 
This collection of waters may 
therefore be considered the vast 
repository of calcareous earth. 

1. It enters largely into the co- 
verings or habitations ol" the in- 
visible worms which construct the 
calcareous masses called corals, co- 
rallines, madrepores, brain-stones, 
sea-fans, and the like, in the bot- 
tom of the sea. 2. In like manner 
it coinposcs a great part of the 


testaceous animals called shell- 
fishes, such as oysters, clams, 
muscles, conchs, whelks, perri- 
"winkles, scollops, and all similar 
creatures, whose relics are so nu- 
merous and bulky on the shores. 
S. The cataphractous coats or co- 
verings of crustaceous insects are 
composed also of calcareous earth, 
as the coats of crabs and lobsters, 
the scales of sturgeons and cuttle 
fishes ; as also the shells of eggs. 
4. The teeth and bones of men, 
quadrupeds, birds and fishes, con- 
sist of a large quantity of calca- 
reous earth, which enters into 
them as a constituent part of the 
healthy fabric. Thus the bodies 
of animals are the machines which 
collect calcareous earth from its 
dispersed state in the waters of 
the ocean, and in fresh waters, a 
greater part of which contain 
some portion of it in solution. 

The calcareous earth so gather- 
ed together by the living functions 
of animals both of the water and 
land, does not crumble to atoms 
immediately on their death, but 
oftentimes remains in a very com- 
pact and durable form for ages af- 
terwards, accumulating continu- 
ally into immense strata or layers. 
Undergoing friction by the agita- 
tion of the waves, these animal re- 
lics become worn down in some 
degree, and in process of time 
harden into stones and rocks. 
These frequently contain portions 
of shells, bones, corals, or other 
organized animal relics, plainly 
distinguishable, which prove, be- 
yond a doubt, from v/hat they were 
formed originally. 

There is no doubt entertained 
that in this manner reefs and is- 
lands have been formed in the sea ; 
and the shelly materials of Ber- 
mudas and Barbadoes, and the 
reefs surrounding Otaheite and 
other trophical islands in the Pa- 
cific Ocean, are plain proofs of the 
fact. The remains of animals thus 


bedded in stone are called iietri- 
factions^ incrustations, and imjircs- 
sionsy according to their respec- 
tive degrees of approximation to 
their primitive structure. In some 
of these strata, the shells and bones 
are very perfect, and allow a good 
judgment to be formed of their 
genera and species. In other ca- 
ses, as in Monte Bolca, near Ve- 
rona in Italy, anvnalmummies have 
been found in complete preserva- 
tion in the midst of calcareous 
rocks. From these particulars, 
it appears, that calcareous earth 
is a great antiseptic, for it pre- 
serves the remains of animals lon- 
ger from corruption and decay, 
than all the fine injections, and 
balsams, and spices, that embalm- 
ers of the dead have ever con- 
trived. When the bodies of the 
dead are placed in catacombs, or 
vaults of calcareous earth, they 
are preserved longer from putre- 
faction than in any other way. 

Such being the preserving and 
antiseptic property of calcareous 
earth, v/e can explain wherefore 
animal bodies have been so libe- 
rally supplied with it. A safe- 
guard was thus aff'orded to their 
bodies against the hostile acids by 
which they were surrounded and 
annoyed. And after the death of 
the individuals to whom these col- 
lections of calcareous earth be- 
longed, and by whom they were 
made, they have descended as a 
precious and invaluable inheri- 
tance io the generations who have, 
succeeded them. From this brief 
history, it can be readily under- 
stood why calcareous earth, which 
was more recently gathered to- 
gether than any other of the spe- 
cies, of earth, should occupy the 
highest regions or upper strata of 
the globe, while the clay, flint, and 
magnesian minerals, being of older 
date and existence, lay below. 
The great calcareous strata being 
thus but of comparatively recent 



formation, and placed last, must 
be found uppermost in the work 
of stratification. They according- 
ly occupy the superior ranges in 
the niineralogical structure of the 

Calcareous earth dissolves in 
water; and on analyzing most of 
ihc waters which gush out of the 
hills, there is found to be a small 
admixture of this material. It 
serves to alkalize, in some degree, 
the water, and thus to render it 
healthy. If it is deposited after 
having undergone solution in wa- 
ter, which frequently happens, it 
forms the stony masses called ^ra- 
lactiteny stalag7nites, d7^o/i-sto?iesy 
nvatriclesy and incrustations and 
concretions of various sorts. In 
the midst of these modern pro- 
ductions, organic remains of ve- 
getables and animals have been 
frequently found in a state of ex- 
cellent soundness and preserva- 
tion ; showing the antiseptic power 
of calcareous earth. 

When calcareous earth is com- 
bined with carbonic acid, it is cal- 
led, if very beautiful, marble ; if 
compact and unhandsome, lime- 
sto7ie ; if granulated and easily 
worked, freestone ; and if white 
and friable, chalk. When com- 
bined with sulphuric acid,it forms, 
if compact and fair, alabaster ; if 
more \'o\iv;\\^ gyfisum ; and in other 
forms, zelrnitcs and talck. When 
united with spaihic acid, it consti- 
tutes the bcaiitiful family oijluors, 
'Ani\ Jluoric and c«6/fa/ spars. When 
combined with muriatic acid, it 
constitutes the deliquescent, and 
part of the bitter portion of ocean 
water. With the acid of putre- 
faction, or peptic acid, it forms a 
compound which is an admirable 
manure, and very remarkable for 
itsqualityof promoting the growth 
of plants : and if pot-ash be min- 
gled with this septite of calcareous 
earth, it attracts the septic acid, 
and forms salt-petre. Sec Lime. 

Calcination. A term given b) 
chemists to that process by which 
minerals, when exposed to a cer- 
tain degree of heat, are deprived 
of their water ; stones converted 
into lime ; and metals into calces. 
A metal never becomes calcined, 
but when in contact witli air; the 
more cxten Jve this contact, tJie 
larger is the quantity of metal 
which becomes calcined ; and La- 
voisier has proved, that a given 
quantity of air can only serve for 
the calcination of a given quanti- 
ty of metal. The metal thus cal- 
cined is termed a metallic calx. 

Calculun^ the stones which form 
in the cysts and bladders for con- 
taining secreted fluids. They arc 
of two kinds. 1. Such as are form- 
ed in the urinary bladder. They 
are believed to consist chiefly of a 
peculiar acid, called the lithic^ or, 
latterly, the uric acid in a crystal- 
line form, united w^ith a portion of 
mucus, blood, or whatever else 
happens to come in contact with 
the crystallizing surface. Though 
an acid, it has a weaker attraction 
for alkalies than even the carbo- 
nic ; therefore, as alkalies cannot 
be taken into the stomach, or in- 
jected into the bladder, in their 
caustic state, but in extremely 
small quantities, and very much 
diluted, but must be administered 
in the form of carbonates, or in 
connection with carbonic acid, 
they are rendered thereby incapa- 
ble of dissolving or bringing away 
the calculus. 2. Such as are form- 
ed in the gall-bladder. These are 
of a resinous and inflammable na- 
ture, and when sticking in the 
ducts of the liver, are a frequent 
cause of icterus or jaundice. 

Calif acicntiay such stimulants as 
excite a degree of warmth in the 
parts to which they are applied. 

Calendula., marigold. A genus 
in Linnceus's botany. He cnume^ 
rates nine species. 

Calenture., is a distemper pecu- 



liar to sailors, wherein they ima- 
gine the sea to be green fields, 
and will throw themselves into it 
if not restrained. Bonetus gives 
an account of it in Med. Sept. as 
also does Dr. Stubbs in the Philo- 
sofihical Transactions. 

Caligo. A disease of the eye, 
known by diminished or destroyed 
aight ; and by the interposition of 
a dark body between the object 
and the retina. It is arranged by 
Cullen in the class locales., and or- 
der dyscssthesice. The species of 
caligo are distinguished according 
to the situation of the interposed 
body ; thus caligo lentis, caligo cor- 
netEf caligo/iu/iilla:, caligo humorum, 
'dud caligo fial/iebraru?n. M. M. In 
the first species, mercury ; couch- 
ing or extraction of the lens. !2d. 
Escharoticsjor cutting off the film 
when external ; mercurials and 
cooling purgatives when in the 
substance of the cornea. 3d. In- 
cision of the iris. 4th. Incision 
of the cornea. 5th. Destroying the 
adhesion with a probe or scalpel. 

Calix. See Calyx and Ferian- 

Callosity^ and Callus., is a kind 
of swelling without pain, like that 
of the skin by hard labour, and 
therefore, v/hen wounds, and the 
edges of ulcers grow so, they are 
said to be callous. 

Calomel, is a name commonly 
given to Mercurius Dulcis ; but it 
seems at first to have m.ore pro- 
perly belonged to the JEthiops Mi- 
neral, from /asXac, niger, black, and 
%ot,\7'.oc,p.ulcher,fair; but some will 
have it given to Mercurius Dulcis, 
from the authority of a whimsical 
chemist who employed a black in 
his elaboratory, with a regard to 
the same etymology, signifying 
both white and black, the medi- 
cine answering to the one, and the 
operator to the other. If the Mer- 
curius Dulcis is ground with vola- 
tile spirit, it becomes black, and 
perhaps is the true calomel. 

Caloric, principle of heat, fixetl 
heat, or latent heat. Disputes 
have been entertained whether ca- 
loric was itself a substance or ma- 
terial being, or whetherdt was but 
a modification of other substances. 
Hence arose two doctrines con- 
cerning it: 1. The mechanical doc- 
trine of fire, or caloric, which 
taught that it consisted in a sub- 
tile, intense, and vibratory motion 
among the intestine particles of 
bodies, as the heat excited by the 
friction of a wheel against its axle- 
tree, of the mill-stones upon the 
grain crushed between them, of 
an iron rod hammered upon an an- 
vil, of an iron cannon suffering the 
operation of boring under water, 
&c. where much caloric is evolved 
by mere agitation or percussion, 
without derivation ab extra, or 
communication from any heated 
substance. 2. The cheinical doc- 
trine of fire, affirming that it is a 
most attenuated and penetrating 
fluid, travelling through all space 
and nature, insinuating itself int© 
the pores and interstices of every 
species of bodies, producing re- 
pulsion and enlargement of vo- 
lume wherever it goes. No at- 
tempts hitherto made have been 
able to prove its ponderosity or 
m.ateriality. It cannot be weighed 
in the balance. Its addition aug- 
ments not sensibly the gravity of 
bodies; nor does its subtraction 
lessen their weight. In many 
cases, too, there is an impossibi- 
lity of explaining whence the ca- 
loric present in certain bodies is 
derived. These considerations 
have led some of the most dis- 
cerning of modern philosophers 
to doubt, or even to deny the ma^ 
teriality of caloric ; and some or 
them profess to believe it is a non- 
entity. To these, caloric must 
appear only a repelling power, in- 
herent in the atoms of matter, and 
susceptible of increase and dimi- 
nution. And in this sense, which 



is probably the true one, caloric, 
or anlicrouon, is but the counter- 
part of attraction. Between these 
attractive and repelling powers all 
tlje particles of matter seem to be 
poized or held in equilibrio. Now, 
if the attractive power is not a 
materia lier sc^ why need it be con- 
tended that the rtpuhive power is 
a peculiar and independent thinii: ? 
See Anticroiion. Count Rumford's 
Essays contain a body of excel- 
lent instruction on this subject. 
Calva^ } The cranium, the 

Calvaria, 5 "pper part of the 
head, which grows bald first ; also, 
the bird called a coot. 

Calvities^ baldness on the sinci- 

CaljCf the sarne as Calcaneus ; 
which see. It is also a term in 
Chemistry for any thing that is ren- 
dered reducible to powder, by 
burning; the word signifying lime^ 
which is so made. 

Calx fir efiarata^ i. e. Calx lota. 
Calx viva^ quick-lime. Calx, or 
lime, is retained in the college 
Pharmacopeia ; and is employed 
ia the Aqua Kali Puri, formerly 
called Lixiv. Saponarium ; in the 
Kali Purum, or Caustic fixt Vege- 
table Alkali ; in the Calx cum 
Kali, Puro, formerly called Caus- 
ticum Commune Fortius ; in the 
Aqua Ammonia Purae, or Spirit. 
Sal Ammoniac : cum Calce. in 
the Linimcntum Ammoniac For- 
tius, and Linimentum Camj)hora;. 
Crt/j/ca;//'////.v, Carolinian allspice. 
A genus in Linnacus's botany. He 
enumerates two species. 

Calyfitcry from xcxAhtIw, to hicle^ a 
carnous excrescence covering the 
hemorrhoidal vein. 

Calyfitra. In Botany it is the 
thin involucrum. or cover of some 
seeds. Also a thin cup w iiich co- 
vers the anthera: of sojuc of the 

Calyx. In Botany^ a general 
term expressing the cup of a flow- 
er, or that part of a plant which 

surrounds and supports the othe'r 
parts of the ilower. They are 
various in their structure, and, on 
that account, distinguished by se- 
veral names, as Perianthium^ In,' 
volucrum^ jimcntum., i^fiatha.^ Glu- 
7/2ff, Sec. which see. 

Caniara^ the fornix of the brain ; 
also the vaulted part of the auri- 
cle leading to the external fora- 
men ; also the name of a species 
of Lantana. 

Cambogia, a genus in Linnaeus's 
botany. There is butone species, 
viz. the Cambogia Guttu. 
Cainoniilr. Soe Anthemis. 
Cainpaniform^ ^ from cam/ianay 
Campanulousif 5 " bell^ such 
plants as have flowers that are 
shaped like a bell. 

Campeachy IFood, Lignum Cam- 
pechensc. See Hcematoxylum. 

Camphora. Camphor or Cam- 
phire. The tree from which this 
substance is obtained is the Lau- 
rus camphora of Linnaeus, indi- 
genous to Japan, where it grows 
abundantly. Thecamphoris foujid 
to lodge every where in the inter- 
stices of the fibres of the wood, 
pith, and knots of the tree. The 
crude camphor, exported from Ja- 
pan, appears in small greyish pie- 
ces, and is intermixed with various 
extraneous matters ; in this state 
it is received by the Dutch, and 
purified by a second sublimation ; 
it is then formed into loaves, in 
which state it is sent to England. 
Pure camphor is white, pellucid, 
somewhat unctuous to the touch; 
of a bitterish, aromatic, acrid taste, 
yet accompanied with a seiise of 
coolness ; of a fragrant smell, and 
approaciiing to that of rosemary, 
but much stronger. It is totally 
volatile and inflammable, soluble 
in vinous spirits, oils, and the mi- 
neral acids ; not In water, fixed 
nor volatile alkaline liquors, nor 
in acids of the vegetal)le kingdom. 
The use of this important medi- 
cine, in different diseases, is very 



considerable. It has been much 
employed, with great advantage, 
in fevers of ail kinds, particularly 
in nervous fevers attended with 
delirium and much watchfulness. 
The experienced Werihoff has 
witnessed its utility in several in- 
flammatory diseases, and speaks 
highly in favour of its refrigerant 
qualities. The benefit derived 
from its use in putrid fevers, where 
bark and acids are contra-indicat- 
ed, is remarkable. In spasmodic 
and convulsive affections, it is also 
of much service, and even in epi- 
lepsy. In chronic diseases this 
ittedicine is likewise employed ; 
and against rheumatism, arthritis, 
and mania, we have several ac- 
counts of its efficacy. Nor is it 
less efficacious when applied ex- 
ternally in certain diseases ; it 
dissipates inflammatory tumours 
in a short time, and its antiseptic 
quality, in resisting and curing 
g-argrene, is very considerable. 
There are several other proper- 
ties peculiar to this medicine, 
which, it is lamented, must be 
passed over ; one, however, must 
not be omitted, viz. the power it 
possesses of obviating the stran- 
gury that is produced by cantha- 
rides, when sprinkled over a blis- 
ter. The preparations of cam- 
phor are spiritus cavifihoratus, 
eleum camphoratum^ linimentum 
camphoras^ tinctura ofiii camphorata^ 
and the mtstura ca7}iphorata.—Gvs. 
iii. to 5ss. 

Camphor at es ( Camphor is ^ atis^ 
s. m.) Salts formed by the union 
of the camphoric acid v\^ith differ- 
ent bases ; thus comphorat of alu- 
-iTiinc^ camphorat of ammoniac^ &c. 

Camphoric Acid. If nitric acid 
be distilled several limes (six or 
tight) from camphor, a crystaliz- 
ed salt is obtained, called the acid 
of camphor, and which reddens 
eyrup of violets and the tincture 
of turnsole. Its taste is bitter, 
aiid it differs from oxalic acid, in 

not precipitating lime from the 
muriatic acid. The union of this 
acid with different bases forms 
what is called a camphorat. 

Canaiis Arteriosus. Canalis Bo- 
talli. A blood-vessel peculiar to 
the foetus, disappearing after birth; 
through which the blood passes 
from the pulmonary artery into 
the aorta. 

Canales Semicirculares. The 
three semicircular canals are plac- 
ed in the posterior part of the la- 
byrinth of the ear, and open by 
five orifices into the vestibulum. 
See £.ar. 

Canalis Vc72osus. A canal pe- 
culiar to the fcetus, disappearing 
after birth, that conveys the ma- 
ternal blood from X\\q porta of the 
liver to the ascending ve?mcava. 

Cancelli. Lattice-work, gene- 
rally applied to the reticular sub- 
stance in bones. 

Cancer, the crab. The shell- 
fish so called. The college have 
retained the Chelae Cancrorum in 
their Pharmacopeia: their pre- 
paration is described among the 
more simple preparations : they 
are employed in the Pulvis e Che- 
Us Cancrorum Compositus ; Pul- 
vis Contrayervs Compositus ; Tro- 
chlsci e Creta, formerly called Ta- 
bell. Cardial g. and Conf. Aroma- 
tica, instead of the Conf. Card. 

Carreer. Carcinoma. A painful- 
hard, indolent tumour of a glan- 
dular part, which terminates in 
the foulest ulcer. Those tumours 
were so called by the ancients, 
that exhibited large blue veins, 
like crab's claws; from cancer a 
crab. — M. M. Excision. When 
that is not permitted, arsenic ; a 
carrot poultice ; cicuta, belladonna 
or stramonium. 

Canella Alba. Laurel-leaved 
canelia. Caiiella alba of Linnseus. 
The tree, which produces the 
bark so called, is a native of the 
AVest-Indies. It is brought into 
Europe in long quills, somew'hat 



thicker than cinnainon: their t^te 
is moderately warm, aromaiic, and 
bitterish ; and of an agreeable 
smell, somewhat resembling that 
of cloves. Canella alba has been 
supposed to possess a considerable 
share of medicinal power, and is 
said to be a useful medicine in 
scurvy and some other complaints. 
It is now merely considered as a 
useful and cheap aromatic, and is 
chieAy employed for the purpose 
of correcting, and rendering less 
tlisagreeablc, the more powerful 
and nauseous drugs : it is there- 
fore an ingredient in the /uilvis 
4ilocticus of the London Pharma- 
copeia, and in the tinctura amarciy 
vinum amaruni, vinum rhxi^ See. of 
the Edinburgh. — Bi to Sii* 

Canine Apfictite. It is an inor- 
dinate hunger, to the degree of a 
disease, so thut the person becomes 
as voracious as dogs ; whence the 

Canine Teeth. The four cus- 
pidati or eye-teeth are so called 
from their resemblance to those 
of the dog. See Teeth. 

Canities^ greyness of the hair, 
or f-;rey-headed. 

Canker. Eroding ulcers, form- 
ed without a previous tumour, 
and seated in the gums, are thus 

Cannula. A tube adapted to a 
sharp instrument, with which it is 
ihrust into a cavity or tumour, 
containing a lluid ; the perforation 
being made, the sharp instrument 
is withdrawn, and the cannula left, 
in order that the fluid may pass 
through it. 

Cant har ides. Spanish Hies. JSIe- 
loe vcsicatorius of Linnxus. The 
importance of these flies, Ijy their 
stimulant, corrosive, and cj)ispas- 
tic qualities, in the practice of 
physic and surgery, is very con- 
siderable ; indeed, so much so, as 
to induce many to consider them 
as the most powerful medicine in 
the materia mcdica. When ap- 

plied on the skin, in the form ol 
a ]jlaster, it soon raises a blister 
full of serous matter, and thus 
relieves inflamiiiaioiy diseases, 
as phrenitis, plcuritis, hepatitis, 
phlegmon, bubo, myositis, arthri- 
tis. Sec. The tincture of these 
Hies is also of great utility in se- 
veral cutaneous diseases, rheuma- 
tic affections, sciatic pains, &c. 
but ought to be used with much 
caution. In New-York and Penn- 
sylvania several species of blister- 
ing flies have within a few years 
been discovered. They are so 
plentiful on certain ])laiits, espe- 
cially the conunon potatoe (sola- 
num tuberosum), that country 
physicians can easily collect 
enough for their own use in their 
fields and gardens. If pains were 
taken to catch them in their pro- 
per season, the necessity of im- 
porting the cantharides of the 
shops from foreign parts might 
be wholly dispensed with. See 
Chapman's ajid Woodhouse's 
communications in the 2d and 3cl 
volumes of the Medical Reposi- 

Canthus^ kx/Jo?. An angle of tlje 
eye, or the corner of the eye. 
The greater canthus is next the 
nose ; the lesser caiilhus lies to- 
wards the temples. 

Caochouch. > This elastic gum 

Caoutchouc. 3 is the produce of 
the Jatrofiha f/a6>//ca of Linnaeus, 

Cafiillary Ves.^els^ are the small 
rauiiflcations of the arteries; so 
CiiUed from ca/ii/lus, a little hair. 

Caftillares Vermicuiijthose small 
worms in infants which some call 
Crineis.,Crinedones.) and Dracunciili. 

Cujiillatio.) a capillary fracture of 
the cranium. 

Capillitiumy i. e. Cafnllanicntum ; 
also the Trichiasis, and the hairy 

Cajiillcrum JJrJIuvium, i. e. ^ilo- 

Ca/iillus, the hair of the head ; 
also hair in general. The hairs 



are hollow, as appears from the 
Plica Polonica. 

Capital Lees-t are the strong ones 
used by soap-makers ; which are 
also used to make the lapis infer- 
nalis with. 

Cafisicum^ Guinea, or Indian 
pepper. A genus in Linnaeus's 
botany. He enumerates five spe- 
cies. From a species of this ge- 
nus we obtain Cayenne pepper. 

Capsular e Lig amentum <f the cap- 
sular ligament ; also called the 
Mucilaginous Ligaments^ as they 
contain many glands to separate 
the synovia. Every articulating 
bone is furnished with a capsular 
ligament y which is composed of two 
layers ; the external is the stron- 
ger, and is made of the perios- 
teum ; the inner is thin and uni- 
form. The use of this ligament 
is, 1st. to connect the bones, which 
is performed by the other lamella ; 
2dly, to confine the synovia, which 
is the office of the inner layer. 

Caput. The head, cranium, or 
skull, is situated above the trunk, 
upon the cervical vertebrse. For 
its bones, see Bones. Upon the 
hairy part is observed the vertex 
or crown, sinciput or forepart, oc- 
ciput or hinder part, and the tem- 
ples. The parts distinguished on 
the face are well known, as the 
forehead, nose, eyes, Sec. The 
arteries of the head are branches 
of the carotids ; and the veins 
empty themselves into the jugu- 

Caput Gallinaginis, a wood- 
cock's, snipe's, or cock's-head ; 
is a kind of Caruncle, a spongy 
border, at the extremities, or 
apertures of the vesiculae semi- 
nalcs, to prevent the impetus of 
the seed from being sufficient 
there to dilate the orifices of the 
vasa deferentia, except when as- 
sisted by the compression of the 
surrounding parts in copulation. 

Caraivays. See Carum. 

Carbone. Elementary charcoai 

is perhaps found no where in cre- 
ation in a pure and unmingled 
state ; and difficult indeed, if not 
impossible, to procure so by art. 
But although it is so rare to be 
met with by itself, it exists abun- 
dantly in combination with ©ther 
things. It enters largely into the 
constitution of vegetable and ani- 
mal bodies. In many plants there 
is so much carbone, that after the 
water, hydrogen and essential oils 
are consumed or expelled, there 
is enough carbone left to retain the 
shape of the branch or trunk, and 
to exhibit its annual circles. This 
is called charcoal ; and when this 
part of vegetables is wholly burn- 
ed, it turns, by combination with 
oxygen and caloric, to carbonic 
oxycl, carbonic acid, and carbonic 
acid gas. Large quantities of car- 
bonic acid gas are produced dur- 
ing respiration, fermentation, in- 
flammation, and corruption of or- 
ganized bodies. Its specific ^Ta- 
vity is very great ; it being the 
heaviest of the aeriform fluids ; 
therefore it is to be met with in 
mines, caverns, wells, vaults, and 
holes where one or more of the 
beforementioned processes is go- 
ing on, or into which it subsides 
by its great weight. As it fre- 
quently destroyed the lives of ani- 
mals in such places, it has been 
called choak-damp. It is frequent- 
ly found above ground also in the 
lower stratum of atmosphere ; on 
analyzing which, there is disco- 
vered to be, besides oxygenous 
and septous gases, a small portion 
of carbonic acid air. 

Carbonic acid is thus an abun- 
dant production ; and unless there 
were some means provided for 
its diminution and destruction, the 
atmosphere would be overcharged 
by it, and grow uninhabitable. 
These means are two: 1. The 
combination of vast quantities of 
it with lime, magnesia, and alka- 
line saKs, into the compounds cal- 



kd carbonates ; and, 2. The de- 
composition of carbonic acid, and 
the severing of it into its elements 
by the livintj economy of plants. 
AVncn plants feed upon carbonic 
acid they retain the carbone in 
their own bodies, and expel the 
oxygen in a form fit for animal 
respiration through their leaves. 

Carbone thus becomes an ingre- 
dient in the vegetable economy, 
and on the decuy of this class of 
feeings, great quantities of it are 
strewed over the earth's suri^ce, 
and contribute to form black 
mould, grassy sward, peat and turf, 
as wel> as a large portion of ma- 
nures. In all these, carbone is a 
predominating material. Hence 
may it be comprehended how 
vegetables acquire the carbone 
which they possess in such large 

Animals feed upon vegetables, 
and thence derive the carbone with 
which their bodies are replenish- 
ed : and this is distributed in such 
a manner, that, with phlogiston or 
hydrogen, it forms their oil and 
fat^ and with phlogiston and sep- 
ton it constitutes their lean and 
brawn. Carbone perseveres in 
its connection with these ingre- 
dients as long as the life of animals 
lasts, and for an indefinite time 
longer, and then mingles with the 
black mould of the soil, or turns 
to carbonic acid gas. The blood, 
as well as the muscles, nerves, fat. 
Sec. contains a great deal of car- 

In the interior parts of the su- 
perficial strata of the earth, and 
often in company with calcareous 
free-stone, carbone is found mi- 
neralized. Like calcareous earth 
and lime-stone, it belongs to the 
sccondarij class of fossils. Accord- 
ingly, coal is never found among 
the/2r/mzV/i;e materials of the globe; 
and, therefore, where whinstone, 
granite, slate, micaceous rock, 
and shorl abound, strata of coal 

are not to be expected. But, on 
the other hand, as the experienc- 
ed professor John Walker ob- 
serves, where frce-sionc, lime- 
stone, rock and slate -marie, and 
iron-stone, and more especially 
dogger^ blacf-y and ihiver abound, 
it is almost certain that coal ac- 
companies them. 

Coal is a combusiible substance, 
but in its pure state exhibits no 
flame or blaze whatever ; and this 
forms an obvious and disiinctive 
character between it and phlogis- 
ton or hydrogen, whose criterion 
it is to burn with flame in all cases. 
Another distinction between the 
two is, that carbone with oxygen 
forms carbonic acid ; while phlo- 
giston with oxygen affords water. 
Whenever coal burns with flame 
it is a pure token of the presence 
of phlogiston, which escaping in 
the form of inflammable air, burns 
as it flies off*. See Phlogiston. 

Carbonates^ are salts formed by 
the union of carbonic acid with 
different alkaline, earthy, and me- 
tallic b^ses : there are twenty- 
four species enumerated in M. 
Fourcroy's Elements of Natural 
History and Chemistry. 

Carbuncle. This is sometimes 
used in the same sense as Anthrax 
v/hich see ; but is more generally 
taken for that particular boil which 
appears in pestilential fevers, and 
is a red hard swelling with great 
pain, and a burning heat. From 
its similitude to the colour of fire 
likewise, this term strictly signi- 
fying a live coal, is sometimes 
given to a precious stone of the 
ruby kind. 

Carbure of Iron^ implies plum- 
bago in M. Fourcroy's Elements 
of Natural History and Chemis- 

Carcinoma^ ^ Koc^Kivi^iJLit^ from xap- 

Carcinos^ 3 ^^^^y cancer^ and 
vEjUo), dc/iasco^ to feed ufion., is a par- 
ticular ulcer, called commonly a 
Cancer^ which is very difficult to 



tore. A disorder likewise in the 
lioa*ny coat of the eye is thii& cal- 
led by some writers. 

Cardamme. Common lady's 
smock, or cuckoo flower. Carda- 
mine /iratensis of Linnaeus. It is 
the flower of this plant, which is 
a native of England, that has a 
place in the materia medica, upon 
the authority of Sir George Baker, 
who has published five cases, two 
€>f chorea sancti Viti, one of spas- 
modic asthma, an hemiplegia, and 
a ease of spasmodic affections of 
the lower limbs, wherein the flores 
cardamines were successfully used. 
— 9i. to 5i. 

Cardan: Q mum Miyius. Officinal 
cardamom. Amomum refiens-^ seu 
le cardamome de la cote de Malabar^ 
of Sonnerat. The seeds of this 
'plant are imported in their capsu- 
les or husks, by which they are 
preserved, for they soon lose a 
part of their flavour when freed 

from this covering. 

On being 

chewed, they impart a glowing 
ftro-matic wai^mth, and grateful 
pungency ; they are supposed 
gently to stimulate the stomach, 
and prove cordial, carminative, 
and antispasmodic, but without 
that irritation and heat which 
many of the other spicy aromatics 
are apt to produce. Simple and 
compound spirituous tinctures are 
prepared from them, and they are 
ordered as a spicy ingredient in 
many of the officinal compositions. 
-— Grs. iij. to 9ss. 

Cardamomurti Majus^ greater 
cardamom, the Amomum Gfana 
Paradisi of Linnaeus. 

Cardza, k<x^^k%.. So the Greeks 
called the heart. But now this 
word is used for the left orifice of 
the stomach, which was supposed 
by some anatomists to have an 
extraordinary consent therewith. 
And hence, things which are sup- 
posed to influence the heart im- 
mediately, as cordials, are called 

Cardiaca. In Pharmacy it sig- 
nifies cordials. 

Cardiaca Arteria^ i. e. Coronaria 
Cordis Arteria. 

Car dialgi a J the heart-burn, from 
xap^ia, the heart, or rather, the left 
orijice of the stomach, and aXysw, to 
he pained i so more properly pain 
or uneasiness about the upper ori- 
fice of the stomach. It is an in- 
stance of Dyspepsia. This disor- 
der is called Soda, or spurious 
Cardialgia ; and pain in the sto- 
mach, or the true Cardialgia. In 
the spurious kind the pain is not 
so great, nor does the strength 
fail, nor is there any tossing or re- 
markable inquietude. In the true, 
there is pain in the stomach, or 
about its orificeSj but generally 
felt about the part called the pit of 
the stomach ; it is attended with 
great anxiety, difficulty of breath- 
ing, want of strength, inquietude, 
retching to vomit, coldness, and 
trembling of the extremities. 
Sometimes the uneasy sensation 
extends the whole length of the 
oesophagus, with a pressure or 
constriction, and usually attacks 
by fits. The general means of re.- 
lief are alkalies, absorbent earths, 
and whatever improves the power 
of digestion. 

Carditis. Inflammation of the 
heart ; from xd^^iay the heart. It 
is a genus of disease arranged by 
Cullen in the class pyrexix, and 
ov^er phlegmasia. It is known by 
pyrexia ; pain in the region of the 
stomach ; great anxiety ; difficulty 
of breathing ; cough ; irregular 
pulse ; palpitation, and fainting.— 
M. M. Same as in pneumonia. 

Carduus Benedictus. Blessed 
or holy thistle. Centaurea bene- 
dicta of Linnseus. This exotic 
plant obtained the name of bene- 
dictus, from its being supposed 
to possess extraordinary medici- 
nal virtues. In loss of appetite, 
where the stomach was injured 
by irregularities, its good effects 



have been frequently experienced. 
— Bi. to 5i. 

Carica. The fij^. The plant 
which aflbrds this fruit is the Ft- 
rui' carica. Fresh fii^s are, when 
completely ripe, soft, succulent, 
vind easily digested, unless eaten 
in immoderate quantities, when 
they are apL to occasion flatulency, 
pain of the bowels,, and diarrhsea. 
The dried fruit, which is sold in 
our shops, is pleasanter to the 
taste, and more wholesome and 
nutritive. They are directed in 
the decoctiun hordci cvinpositiim^ 
and in the electuarium lenitivum. 
Applied externally, they promote 
the suppuration of tumours ; hence 
they have a place in maturating 
cataplasms ; and are very conve- 
nient to apply to the gums, and, 
when boiled with milk, to the 

Ca?'/<?,§, expresses the rottenness 
©f a bone ; whence 

Carious is said of a foul bone, 
or one inclined to rottenness. 

Carmin^ carmine. It is a pre- 
paration from cochineal. It is 
used chiefly for miniature paint- 

Carminative. A term applied 
to those substances, which allay 
pain, and dispel flatulencies of the 
primie viic. The word is derived 
from car/7ie?i, a verse, or charm ; 
because practitioners in ancient 
times ascribed their operations to 
a charm or enchantment. 

Caros. Ka^or. Insensibility and 
sleepiness, with easy respiration. 
It rises on a coma, and is a sli.«;ht 
degree of .4jio/ilcj:i/ ^in which you 
get some broken incoherent an- 
swers from the patient ; when 
called he scarce opens his eye ; 
yet if he be pricked, he hath feel- 
ing enough to manifest his sense 
of it. 

Carotids. Two considerable ar- 
teries that proceed, one on each 
side of the cervical vertebrae, to 
the head, and which supply it with 

blood. The right carotid doesno^ 
arist' immediately from the arch 
of the aorta, but is given ofl* from 
the ai'teria innominata. The left 
arises from the aroh of the aorta. 
Each carotid is divided into cxt- - 
nal and internal, or that portion 
without, and that within the cra- 
nium. The externU gives off 
eight branches to the neck and 
face, viz. anteriorly^ the superior 
thyroideal, the sublingual, the in- 
ferior maxillary, the external max- 
illary ; float criorly^ the internal 
maxillary, the occipital, the ex- 
ternal auditory, and the temporaL 
The internal carotid or cerebral 
artery, gives off four branches 
within the cavity of the craniuna ; 
the anterior cerebral, the poste- 
rior, the central artery of the op- 
tic nerve, and the internal orbital. 

Carfiobalscm. The fruit of the 
balsam tree, Amyris gileadensis of 
Linnseus ; from >cae7ro,-, fruity aiid 
^^xXa-aiJ-oVf baUujn. Now in disuse. 

Carjius. KaoTToc, the wrist, or 
carpus. See Bones. 

Carthamus^ bastard saffron, or 
saf-flower. A genus in Linnaeus's 
botany. He enumerates ten spe- 

Carthusianus Pulvis^ i. e. Kcr- 
7nes Alinerai. 

Cartilac^e. A white, elastic, 
glistening substance, growing to 
bones, and commonly called gris- 
tle. Cartilages arc divided by ana- 
tomists into obducent, whi :h ct)- 
ver the moveable articulations of 
bones ; inter-articular, which arc 
situ.ited bc^ween the artiru'ations, 
and uniting cartilages, .vhich unite 
one bone with another. Their use 
is to lul)ricatc the articulations of 
bones, and to connect some hones 
by an immoveable connection. 

Cartilago Jinsiformis^ and also 
called Xiphoidcs., fron\ ft^a;, ensisn^ 
« srjord, and ;*^o,', /brwa, shafi-c ; is 
the tip or extremity of the ster- 
num, which is broad at its unp>er 
end, and narrower towaj-'ls the 



extremity, where it is sometimes 
a little forked, and bends down- 
wards, so as to hurt the stomach, 
and cause vomiting. See Ster- 

Cartilago innominata, so called 
by Galen, is the same as the mo- 
derns call Annularis, or Cricoides ; 
which is the second cartilage of 
the larynx, and, according to Bar- 
tholine, is the basis of all the 

Cartilago Scutiformisy so called 
from its resemblance to a helmet 
in shape ; is that cartilage whose 
prominence is discernible, exter- 
nally, in the throat, and by some 
called Pomum Adami^ from a con- 
ceit of its being left as a mark of 
the divine wrath upon Adam's 

Carum^ caraways. A genus in 
Linnaeus's botany. He hath one 

Caruncula^ a caruncle. This 
word is a diminutive from caro^ 
fiesh; it is either preternatural, as 
those little excrescences in the 
urinary passages, in venereal cases 
especially ; or natural, as the 

CarunculiE Myrtiformes^ from 
their resemblance of myrtle-ber- 
ries, so called ; as also Glandula 
Myrtiformes. They are made by 
the rupture of the hymen in the 
first copulation, which contracting 
in several places, forms those ca- 
runcles or glands. 

Caruncula Lac hry male s^ Puncta, 
Lachrymalia^ and Glandule La- 
chrymales : all concur in the same 
offices, and will hardly admit of a 
separate description ; thus distin- 
guished from lachrymte^ tears. On 
the back-side of the adnata tunica 
of the eye, upon the upper part of 
the globe istheglandula lachryma- 
lis, pretty large, divided into seve- 
ral lobes, each of which sends out 
an excretory channel, which opens 
in the fore side of this membrane, 
where it covers the upper lid. 
This gland separates the matter 

of the tears, which, by the conti- 
nual motion of this lid, moisten 
the cornea, which otherwise would 
dry and wrinkle by the continual 
action of the external air. The 
edge of the eye-lid being of an 
equal convexity with the ball of 
the eye, which they touch, as the 
tears fall off from the cornea, they 
are stopt by the edge of the under 
eye-lid, along which they run till 
they fall into two small holes in 
the great canthus, one in each lid. 
These holes are called Puncta La- 
chrymalia : and these lead to a 
small membranous bag, which is 
situated in this corner, upon the 
OS lachrymale ; from the bottom 
of which goes a small pipe, which 
pierces this bone into the nose, and 
opens under the upper lamina of 
the OS spongiosum. It moistens 
the inner membrane of the nos- 
trils by the humour of the lachry- 
mal glands^ v/hich runs from off 
the globe into them. Sometimes 
the acrimony of this humour caus- 
efeh sneezing, which may be hin- 
dered by pressing the angle of the 
eye to stop its flowing. Now, be- 
tween these two puncta there is a 
caruncle which serves to keep 
them open when the eyes are shut, 
and this by some is ignorantly cal- 
led the Glandula Lachrymalis, 

Caruncul(Z Pajiillares^ are those 
little protuberances on the inside 
of tlie pelvis of the kidneys, made 
by the extremities of the tubes, 
which bring the serum from the 
glands in the exterior parts to the 

Caruon. Common caraway. Cc* 
rum cauri of Linnaeus. Caraway 
seeds are well known to have a 
pleasant spicy smell, and a warm 
aromatic taste, and on this account, 
are used for various economical 
purposes. They are esteemed to 
be carminative, cordial, and sto- 
machic, and recommended in dys- 
pepsia, flatulencies, and other 
symptom-S attending hysterical and 



hypochondriacal disorders. An es- 
sential oil and distil'led water are 
directed to be prepared from them 
by the London college. — 9ss. 3 ss. 
Oil of gt. i. to iii. 

Carus, insensibility and sleepi- 
ness, with quiet respiration. It 
sometimes signifies a loss of sense 
and voluntary motion, respiration 
rcmahiing uninjured : the same 
authors call the disease an yljio- 
Jilexy^ if to this is added an op- 
pressed respiration to a consider- 
able degree, or so as to snort or 
snore. Sometimes it signifies a 
profound sleep, but without fever. 

Carus a frigore^ i. e. Ajiojiltxia 
SaJi guinea. 

Carus a hydro ceiihalo^ i. e. jifiO' 
filexia Serosa. 

Carus ab Insolationcy i. e. Ictus 

Carus Sjiontaneus^ i. e. Ap.O' 
plexia SanguiTiea. 

Caryo^ihyllum Aromaticum. The 
clove. The tree which affords 
this spice is the Caryofihullus aro- 
maticus of Linnaeus, and grows in 
the East-Indies, the Moluccas, &c. 
The clove is the unexpanded flow- 
er, or rather the calyx ; it has a 
strong, agreeable smell, and a bit- 
terish, hot, not very pungent, taste. 
The oil of cloves, commonly met 
with in the shops and received 
from the Dutch, is highly acrimo- 
nious, and sophisticated. Clove is 
accounted the hottest and most 
acrid of the aromalics, and by act- 
ing as a powerful alimulant to the 
muscular fibres, may, in some cases 
of atonic gout, paralysis, &.c. su- 
periicde most others of the aro- 
matic class ; and the foreign oil, 
by its great acrimony, is also well 
adapted for several external pur- 
poses : it is directed by several 
Pharmacopeias, and the clove it- 
self enters several officinal prepa- 
rations. — Grs. v. to 9i. 

Caryofihyllum Kubrum. Clove 
pink. This fragrant plant, Dian- 
thn^ Caryofihyllus of Linnaeus, 

grows wild in several parts of 
England; but the flowers, which 
are pharmaceutically employed, 
are usually produced in gardens : 
they have a pleasant aromatic 
smell, somewhat allied to that of 
clove spice j their taste is bitterish 
and subadstringent. These flow- 
ers were formerly in extensive 
use, but are now merely employed 
in form of syrup, as a useful and 
pleasant vehicle for other medi- 

Caryo/i/iyllus. See Caryofihyllum 
aroviuticum ; also a species of Di- 
anthus. The college have retained 
the flower of the Dianthus Caryo- 
phyllus, Lin. in their Pharmaco- 
peia ; a syrup, Syrupus Caryo- 
phylli rubri, is directed. 

Caryophyllus aromaticus A7neri' 
canusy the Jamaica pepper-tree. 

Cascarilla Cortex. ILlutJierid 
seu Eluteria. The tree that af- 
fords this bark is the Clutia elute- 
ria seu cascarilla. Cascarilla comes 
to us in quills, covered on the out- 
side with a rough, whitish matter, 
and brownish on the inner side, ex- 
hibiting when broken, a smooth, 
close, blackish brown surface. It 
has a lightly agreeable smell, and 
a moderately bitter taste, accom- 
panied with a considerable aroma- 
tic warmth. It is a very excellent 
tonic, adstringent, and stomachic, 
and is deserving of a more gene- 
ral use than it has hitherto met 

Cassada. It grows in the warmer 
parts of the western world. Its 
root is the part used : it is poison- 
ous, and called Yuca : wlicn it is 
prepared into flour it is called C«»- 
savi. Though the root is a strong 
poison, it is prepared into whole- 
some bread; for by boiling all the 
poisonous quality is dissipated. 

Cassava, the Jafrofihoy and seve- 
ral of its species, particularly the 

Cassia^ cassia, or senna. A ge- 
nus in Linnaeus*s botany. He in- 



dudes in thisgenusthe •S'(?«7mjand 
enumerates thirty-eight species. 

Cassia^ cassia, or wild cinnamon. 
A species of Laiirus. 

Cassia Canella, i. e. Cassia Lig- 

Cassia CarijophyUala. It is the 
bark of the Jamaica pepper-tree. 

Cassia Cinnamomeaj true cinna- 

Cassia, Fistularis. Purging Cas- 
sia. This tree, Cassia fistula of 
Linnaeus, is a native of both In- 
dies. The pods of the East-India 
cassiaare of lessdiameter, smooth- 
er, and aiford a blacker, sweeter, 
and more grateful pulp, than those 
which are brought from the West- 
Indies. Those pods which are the 
heaviest, and in which the seeds 
do not rattle on being shaken, are 
commonly the best, and contain 
the most pulp, which is the part 
medicinally employed, and to be 
obtained in the manner described 
in the Pharmacopeias. The best 
pulp is of a bright shining black 
colour, and of a sweet taste, with 
a slight degree of acidity. It has 
been long used as a laxative medi- 
cine, and being gentle in its ope- 
ration and seldom disturbing the 
bowels, is well adapted to children 
and pregnant women. The offi- 
cinal preparation of this drug is 
electuarium e cassia ; it is also an 
ingredient in the electuarium esen- 
7ia. 5ij. to^ij. 

Cassia Ligmc. It is the JLaurus 
Cassia, Linnaei. 

Castor, the beaver. It is an am- 
phibious quadruped, inhabiting- 
some parts of Prussia, Poland, 
Russia, and Germany ; but the 
greatest num.bers are in Canada. 
In the inguinal region of this ani- 
mal are found four bags of an oval 
shape, a large and a small one on 
each side ; in the two large ones 
is contained a softish greyish yel- 
low, or light brown substance, 
which, in a warm dry air, grows 
hard and brittle, and of a darker and 

browner colour; this is also called 
Castor, and is whatis used in medi- 
cine. The two smaller bags are of 
little or no value. Castor has an 
acrid, bitter, and a nauseous taste ; 
its smell is strong, aromatic, and 
even foetid. It is medicinally used 
as a powerful antispasmodic in hys- 
terical and hypochondriacal affec- 
tions, and in convulsions. It has 
also been successfully administer- 
ed in epilepsy and tetanus. — Grs. 
iiij to 9i. 

Castor Gil, i. e. Ricini, (01.) 

Castration, the taking away the 
testicles of any animal. 

Catalepsy. Y.u.'7CAky!^i<;,ivoVi\.KXxoi-. 
Xccij.jSccniv, to seize, to hold, A sud- 
den suppression of motion and 
sensation, the body remaining in 
the same posture that it was in 
when seized. M. M. Antispas- 
modics; bitters; cinchona: opium. 

Catamenia. Me?ises. The month- 
ly discharge of blood from the ute- 
rus of females, between the ages 
of 16 and 50 ; from y.ccra., accord- 
ing to, and ij.rrj, the month. 

Cataplasma, xa,ra.TKcc(Tixa, a Cata- 
plasm, or poultice, from xa7*- 
TcT^ixG-a-xy illino, to spread like a plas- 
ter. They are softer than plas- 
ters or ointments. They are ge- 
nerally formed of some vegetable 
substances, and applied of such a 
consistence as neither to adhere 
nor run. They are also particularly 
useful when the intention is to be 
effected by the perpetuity of heat 
or cold, which they retain longer 
than any other kind of composition. 

Cataract, from koCica^xo-ctj:, to rmn- 
gle togetlier, to confound. See 

Cataria, catmint or nep, a spe- 
cies of iN'epeta. Tournefort cal- 
led the JSfepeta of Linnaus by the 
name of Cataria. 

Catarrhus. Coryza. A catarrh. 
Koila.fpog, a defluxion ; from kcctcc, 
and fsx, to flow down. An increas- 
ed secretion of mucus from the 
membranes of the nose, fauces, 



and bronchix, w ilh pyrexia, and 
attended with sneezing, cough, 
thirst, lassitude, and want of appe- 
tite. It is a genus of disease in 
the class fiyrexix, and order firo- 
Jiuvia, of Cullen. There are two 
species of catarrh, viz. catarrhus 
a/rigorCf wliich is very common, 
and is called a cold in the head; 
and catarrhus a coiitagione^ the in- 
fluenza, which sometimes seizes a 
whole city. Catarrh is also symp- 
tomatic of several other diseases. 
M. M. Warm clothing and drink ; 
venesection; emetics; cathartics; 
mucilages; antimonials; squills; 
digitalis; camphor; opium; blis- 

Catechu. Terra jafionica. An 
extract prepared in India from the 
juice of the Mimosa catechu of 
Linnaeus, by boiling the wood and 
evaporating the decoction by the 
heat of the sun. In its purest 
state, it is a dry, pulverable sub- 
stance, outwardly of a reddish co- 
lour, internally of a shining dark 
brown, tinged with a reddish hue; 
in the mouth it discovers consider- 
able adstringency, succeeded by a 
sweetish mucilaginous taste. It 
may be advantageously employed 
for most purposes where an ad- 
stringent is indicated, and is par- 
ticularly useful in alvine fluxes 
where its use is required, lie- 
sides this, it is employed also in 
uterine profluvia, in laxity and de- 
bility of the viscera in general ; 
and it is an excellent topical ad- 
stringent, when suffered to dissolve 
leisurely in the mouth, for laxi- 
ties and ulcerations of the gums, 
aphthous ulcers in the mouth, and 
similar affections. This extract is 
the basis of several formulae in ou.' 
Pharmacopeias, particularly of a 
tincture and an extract : but one 
of the best forms under which it 
can be exhibited, is that of a sim- 
ple infusion in warm water with a 
proportion of cinnamon, for by this 
means it is at once freed of its im- 

purities and improved by the ad- 
dition of the aromatic. The word 
catechu is derived froni cate.^ which, 
in the Oriental language, signifies 
a tree, and c/tw, juice. Fourcroy 
says, it is prepared from the ad- 
dition of the seeds of a kind of 
palm, called areca. Bss to 5ss. 

Catharsis^ y.aSa^o-t?, purgation, 
whether by the menses, lochia, 
urine, or stool ; in a way natural 
or artificial. 

Catharticfi. Those medicines, 
which taken internally increase the 
number of alvine evacuations ; from 
xaSaip, to fiurge ; such a.s jalafioy 
scanunoniuniy aloe^ colocynthis, ca- 
lomely sal catharticus amarus^ kali 
vitriolatum^ kali tarttirizatumy ere- 
jnor tartarij rhabardarum, oleum 
riciiiiy manna ^ 8c c. 

Catheter^ Kocdirnp, is a hollow in- 
strument, and somewhat crooked, 
to thrust up the yard into the blad- 
der, to assist in bringing away 
urine, when the passage is stop- 
ped by a stone or gravel; though 
some writers use it also for lina- 
ments and other external applica- 

Catheterts7nus, from xaGslr*, ca- 
theterus. The introduction of the 
catheter into the bladder ; an ap- 
pellation given by P. ^gineta to 
this operation, which is required 
in the following cases. 

1. When a stone lies internally 
on the neck of the bladder, and 
stops the discharge of the urine. 

2. When a preternatural weak- 
ness of the bladder hinders the 
urine from being discharged in the 
usual manner; and when other re- 
medies fail, which often happens 
in women weakened with labour, 
or when the head of the child pres- 
ses on the urethra. 

3. When, by long retention of 
urine, the bladder is so distended 
and weakened as not to be able to 
discharge its contents. 

4. When mucus, blood, pus, or 
o*iicr matter, sticks in the neck of 



the bladder, from ulcers, or wounds 
of the kidneys, or from discharges 
of bloody urine. 

5. When the urethra, or the neck 
of the bladder, is contracted or ob- 
structed ; but in this case bougies 
are preferred ; or when the pros- 
tate is schirrous, and prevents the 
passage of the urine.. 

6. In the last months of preg- 
nancy ilis sometimes useful to in- 
troduce the catheter, to draw off 
the urine, as the weight of the 
uterus obstructs its discharge. 

7. When a prolapsus uteri pro- 
duces an ischury. 

8. When a liquor is to be inject- 
ed into the bladder ; in which case 
a bladder, or an elastic bottle, may 
be filled with the liquor to be in- 
jected, fastened to the catheter, 
and, by gentle pressure, conveyed 
through it. 

It is easy to introduce the cathe- 
tciis into the female bladder, since 
the direction of the urethra is nearly 
straight ; but in males there is 
some difiicuity. Heister directs 
the man to lie on his back, and the 
operator to take the penis in his 
left hand, as he stands on the pa- 
tient's left side, reclining the pe- 
nis towards the navel ; then he is 
to introduce the catheter, with its 
concave part to the belly, into the 
urethra, so far as the os pubis ; 
and so thrusting it under the sym- 
physis of those bones, and moving 
the handle gently outwards, forces 
it into the bladder. 

If the catheter is too small, it is 
the more apt to stop in the corru- 
gations and foldings of the urethra, 
"which often occur in elderly men. 
Dr. Hunter adds, that some impe- 
diments are often met with at the 
caput gallinaginis, in which case 
he advises to draw the catheter a 
little back, and press the end of 
the catheter a little higher, and 
then it will slip in ; but he cautions 
against using any force. If a dif- 
ficulty is still found, he advises the 

operator to put a finger into the 
anus, at the same time draw the 
perinaeum forward, and therewith 
endeavour to assist the catheter in 
its introduction. 

Mr. Ware, in a paper expressly 
written on this subj :ctj says, " the 
mode in which I pass the instru- 
ment is as follows : Being first tho- 
roughly oiled, I introduce it into 
the urethra, with its convex part 
uppermost, and carry it as far as 
it will pass without using force ; 
then I turn it slowly round, so as 
to bring its concave side upper- 
most ; and in doing this, I make a 
large SM^eep with the handle of the 
instrument, and, at the same time 
keep my attention fixed steadily 
on its apex, or inner termination, 
which I take particular care nei- 
ther to retract nor to move from 
its first line of direction. When 
the catheter is turned, it must still 
be pressed omvard, and its handle 
at the same time gently depressed : 
by this method it will be made to 
enter the bladder." 

The catheter made use of by 
Mr. Ware is twelve inches long, 
which is more than an inch above 
the ordinary length ; and the cur- 
vature larger than common ; and 
with which he has succeeded of- 
ten, where others of a diff'erent 
size and curvature had failed. 

Those catheters are the best that 
are made with small holes at their 
ends, instead of long rhomboidal 

In the following cases this in- 
strument cannot be used : 

1. When the neck of the blad- 
der is greatly inflamed, for then 
the urethra is much contracted, 
^nd force in this case would en- 
danger a sphacelus. 2. When a 
caruncle, cicatrix, or hard tuber- 
cle, obstructs the passage. 3. In 
old men, sometimes from the stric- 
ture shrinking, or from wrinkles 
in the urethra. 4. From the dis- 
tension of the spongy substance of 



the urethra with blood. 5. From 
a schirrosity, or preternatural tu- 
mour of the prostate gland. C>. 
From a stone lodged in the neck 
of the bladder. 7. When the ute- 
rus is remarkably prominent and 
pendulous over the ossa pubis, the 
neck of the bladder, then forming 
an angle with the body of the blad- 
der, hinders the passage of the 
catheter. 8. When the uterus is 
retroverted, in which state it drags 
the bladder upwards and back- 

Cauda Equina. The lumbar fas- 
ciculi, from their origin to the ex- 
tremity of the OS sacrurn, form, 
through the whole canal of the 
lumbar vertebrae, and of the os 
sacrum, a large bundle of nervous 
ropes, called by anatomists cauda 
equina.) because of some resem- 
blance which it bears to a horse's 
tail, especially when taken out of 
the canal, and extended in clear 

Caudatio. So an elongation of 
the clitoris is called. 

Caudex^ the trunk of a tree. It 
is that part of any plant which is 
betwixt the root and the branches. 
According to Linnaeus it is the as- 
cending and descending body of 
the root. In herbs and under 
shrubs this part is called Cauiis, 
the stalk. 

Caul, i. c. Omentum. 

Caulifcrous. Such plants are so 
called as have a stalk. 

Caulis Floridus, cauliflower. 

Caulis, y.xvXo:, the stalk or stem. 
The stalk of a tree is called its 
trunk. Linnaeus defines it to be 
the proper trunk of the herb, 
which elevates the leaves and fruc- 

Causiicy CausticOy xat'o-riKa, from 
xatw, uroy to buruy are such things 
as, by their violent activity, and 
heat thence occasioned, destroy 
the texture of the part to which 
they are applied, and eat it away, 
as we commonly express it, or burn 
it into an Es'-.havy vrhich they do 

by the extreme minuteness, aspe- 
rity, and quantity of motion, that, 
like those of the fire itself, tear 
asunder all obstacles, destroy the 
texture of the solids themselves, 
and change what they are applied 
to into a substance like burnt flesh ; 
which, in a little time, with deter- 
gent dressings, falls quite off, and 
leaves a vacuity in the substance 
of the part. These are of use ge- 
nerally in abscesses and imposthu* 
mations, to eat through to the sup- 
purated matter, and give it vent ; 
and also to make issues in parts 
where cutting is difficult or incon- 

Caususy Kccv<Tvgy from -Ko-iuyto burn. 
An highly ardent fever. Accord- 
ing to Hippocrates, a fiery heat, 
and insatiable thirst, are its pecu- 
liar characteristics. Others also 
are particular in describing it; but 
whether they are ancients or mo- 
derns, from what they relate, this 
fever is no other than a continued 
ardent fevevy in a bilious constitu- 
tion. In it the heat of the body is 
intense ; the breath is particularly 
fiery; the extremities are cold; 
the pulse is frequent and small ; 
the heat is more violent internally 
than externally, and the whole 
soon ends in recovery or death. 

Cauteriumy KocvTvifiovy from xajv, to 
burn; a cautery, either actual or 

Cava (Vena.) The large vein 
which receives the refluent blood, 
and conveys it to the heart, is thus 
named. See Vena. 

Ceanothusy New-Jersey tea-tree. 
A genus in Linnaeus's botany. He 
enumerates three species. 

Ccley >t»iX>i, a tumour caused by 
the protrusion of a soft part. 

Cclcriy a species of Allium. 

Celiac Artery and Veins. See 
Artery and Vein. 

Cellsy little bags or bladders, 
where fluids or matter of different 
sorts are lodged ; common both to 
animals and plants. 



Cella Turcica. See Brain, and 
Pinealis Glandula. 

CelluU Adiposa, i. e. Adlposi 

CelluU Mastoids (e. These are 
very irregular cavities in the sub- 
stance of the mastoid apophysis, 
which communicate with each 
other, and have a common open- 
ing towards the inside, and a little 
above the posterior edge of the 
orbicular groove. The mastoid 
opening is opposite to the small 
opening of the Eustachian tube, 
but a little higher. 

Cellulosa AIeinbrana,the ccllnlsir 
membrane. It is most commonly 
understood to be that part of it 
only which lies under the skin, 
next the flesh, and which contains 
but little fat in the cells ; but it is 
found to invest the most minute 
fibres that we are able to trace, so 
that it is considered as the univer- 
sal connecting medium of every 
part of the body. It is composed 
pf an infinite number of minute 
cells united together, and commu- 
nicating with each other. 

Centaurium Minus. Centaury. 
Gentiana centiaurium of Linnaeus 
and Hudson, and Chironia centau- 
ritim of Whithering and Curtis. 
This plant is justly esteemed to be 
a most efficacious bitter. It has 
been recommended by Cullen as a 
substitute for gentian, and by seve- 
ral is thought to be a more useful 
medicine. The tops of the centaury 
plant are directed for use by the 
colleges of London and Edinburgh, 
and are most commonly given in 
infusion ; but they may also be 
taken in powder, or prepared into 
an extract. 

Central Forces. This is a ge- 
neral appellation for the two grand 
species, centrifugal and centripe- 
tal forces. 

Centrifugal i^orce, from centrum, 
a centre, and fugo, to Jly, is that 
force by which all bodies moving 
round any other body in a circle, 

or an ellipsis, do endeavour to fly 
off* from the axis of their motion 
in a tangent to the periphery of it. 
And this force is gJways propor- 
tional to the circumference of the 
curve in which the revolving body 
is carried round. The centrifugal 
force to the centripetal, is as the 
square of the arch which a body 
describes in a given time, divided 
by the diameter, to the space 
through which any heavy body 
moves in falling from a place 
where it was at rest in the same 
time. If any body swim in a me- 
dium heavier than itself, the cen- 
trifugalforceis then the difference 
between the specific weight of the 
medium and the floating body. 

Centripetal Force, from centrum, 
a centre, Q.nd peto, to seek, is that 
force by which any body moving 
round another is drawn or tends 
towards the centre of its orbit, 
and is much the same with Abso- 
lute Gravity. If a body, being sj>e- 
cifically heavier than any medium, 
sinks in it, the excess of that body's 
gravity above the gravity of the 
medium, is the centripetal force of 
the body downwards. 

Centruin Tendinosum, the same 
as Centrum Nerveuiii. 

Cc^G, onion. Linnseus includes 
the onion in the genus of Allium. 

Cephalaa, Ki^ocXuix, a long con- 
tinued pain in the head. 

Cephalalgia, KE^aXxXyia, from k3- 
<PocA^, the head, and aXyoc, pain ; the 
head-ach. By some this word is 
used for a dull pain in the head, 
which is of short duration ; but 
most frequently it is used as ex- 
pressive of pain in the head in ge- 
neral, without regard to circum- 

Cephalalgia Catarrhalis, i. e. ca- 
tarrh, from cold. 

Cephalalgia Infammatoria, i. e. 

CephaUcs, remedies that relieve 
disorders of the head ; from -/cs^oAjj, 
the head. 



Cejihalitis^ inflammation of the 

Cephalica Polikis, a branch from 
tlie cephalica vena, sent off from 
ubout the lower extremity of the 
radius, and runs superficially be- 
tween the thumb and the meta- 

Cephalica Vcna^iho. cephalic vein. 
It was so called, because the head 
was supposed to be relieved by tak- 
ing blood from it. It comes over 
the shoulder, between the pectoral 
and deltoid muscles, and runs down 
the back part of the arm : when it 
j^ets to, or a little below, the bend- 
ing of the arm, it divides into two ; 
the inner of the two branches is 
called the Alediana Cephalica. It 
is a branch from the axillary vein. 

Cephalicus^ Kz^aXiKo^, cephalic, 
from K'-^aXrij the head. Thus re- 
medies against disorders of the 
head are called. 

Cephalo-Phai'inigaust from xE(pa- 
?.K, the head-, and (po-.^vy^, the throat. 
A muscle of the pharynx is thus 
named. It arises above from the 
cuneiform process of the os occi- 
pitis, before the foramen magnum, 
from the pterygoid process of the 
sphenoid hone, from the upper and 
under jaw, near the roots of the 
last dentes morales, and between 
the jaws. It is inserted in the 
middle of the pharynx. Its use is 
lo compress the upper part of the 
pharynx, and to draw it forwards 
and upwards. 

Cera/fava^ and Cera alba^ yel- 
low and white wax, arc both re- 
tained in the college Pharmaco- 
peia ; they enter into various ce- 
rates, plasters, Sec. 

Ccra&JiSy the cherry-tree. A 
species of Prunus. 

Ccratoglossufij from xE^ac, a horn^ 
and yXua-j-oiy a tcjigue. See Jlyo- 

Cercosisy xs^xa>rt>;, from k^j^xo;, a 
tail) a disease of the clitoris, which 
consists of its preternatural en- 

Cerealiaj the same as A'utrien- 
tia^ or all sorts of corn of which 
bread is made. 

Cerebellum^ the little brain, or 
cerebellum. A round viscus, of 
the same use as the brain ; com- 
posed, like the brain, of a cortical 
and medullary substance, divided 
by a septum into a right and left 
lobe, and situated under the ten- 
torium, in the inferior occipital 

Cerebrum^ the brain. A large, 
round viscus, divided superiorly 
into a right and left hemisphere^ in- 
feriorly into six lobes, two anterior, 
two middle, and two posterior; 
situated within the cranium, and 
surrounded by the dura and pia 
mater, and tunica, arachnoides. It 
is composed of! a. cortical substa?icey 
which is external; and a medullary y 
which is internal. It has four ca- 
vities, csiWed venti'icles ; two ante- 
rior or lateral, which are divided 
from each other by the septum lu~ 
cidum, and in which is the choroid 
plexus, formed of blood-vessels 
and glands ; the third ventricle is 
a space between the thalami ner- 
vorum opticorum ; and the fourth 
ventricle is a space between the 
cerebellum and medulla oblongata. 
Its principal prominences are, the 
corpus callosum, a medullary emi- 
nence, conspicuous upon laying a- 
side the hemispheres of the brain ; 
the corpora striata, two striated 
protuberances, one in the anterior 
part of each lateral ventricle ; the 
thalami nervorum opticorum, two 
whitish eminences behind the for- 
mer, whicli terminate in the optic 
nerves ; the corpora cjuadrigemina, 
four medullary projections, called 
by the ancients nates and testes; 
a little cercbrine tubercle, lying 
upon the nates, called the pineal 
gland; and, lastly, the crura cere- 
bri, two medullary columns which 
proceed from the basis of the brain 
to the medulla oblongata. The ce- 
rcbrine arteries are branches of 



the carotid and vertebral arteries. 
The veins of the head are called 
sinusses, which return their blood 
into the internal jugulars. The 
use of the brain is to giveoif nine 
pair of nerves, through whose 
means the various senses are per- 
formed, and muscular motion ex- 

Cerebrum Hlongatum, i. e. ATe- 
dulla Sjiinalis. 

Cerumen^ is the wax or excre- 
ment of the ear, to which Schro- 
der and some other writers ascribe 
very strange virtues as a medi- 

Ceruse.^ is a preparation of lead 
with vinegar, which is of a white 
colour, whence many other things 
resembling it in that particular, 
are by chemists called ceruse, as 
the ceruse of antimony, and the 

Cervicales. The nerves which 
pass through the vertebrae of the 
neck are thus called. 

Cervicales Jlrterix, the arteries 
of the neck. They rise from the 
subclavians on their upper part, 
and are soon divided into two. 
The anterior ones go to the ante- 
rior muscles which move the neck 
and head ; the posterior to the sca- 
lenus, trapezius, £cc. 

Cervicalis Descendens Dorsi^ i. e. 
SacrO'Lumbaris Accessorius. 

Cervix, the hinder part of the 
neck, as the fore part is called 
Co Hum. 

Cervix Uteri, the neck of the 

Cevadilla, Indian or American 
caustic barley. 

Chalcedonius, chalcedony ; a spe- 
cies of agate, of a milk like colour, 
and only somewhat transparent. 

Chalcoideum Os. The os cueni- 
form of the tarsus. 

Chalk ( White.) See Creta Alba, 

Chalybis Sal. i. e. Sal Martis. 

Chalybs, steel. As a medicine 

it differs not from iron. It is softer 

or harder than iron, according to 

the niaiuigement of the artist : 
when soft it is more easily pre- 
pared for medicinal purposes. 

Chalybs Tartarizatus, i. e. Mars 

Chamcemelum, common camo- 
mile. Anthemis nobilis of Linnaeus. 
The name camomile is supposed 
to be expressive of the smell of 
the plant y.x,uccijj:.iXo)i, guoniam odo- 
re?n mali habeat. Both the leaves 
and flowers of this plant have a 
strong, though not ungrateful 
smell, and a very bitter, nause- 
ous taste ; but the latter are the 
bitterer and considerably more 
aromatic. They possess tonic and 
stomachic qualities, and are much 
employed to restore tone to the 
stomach and intestines, and as a 
pleasant and cheap bitter. A sim- 
ple infusion is frequently taken to 
excite vomiting, or for promoting 
the operation of emetics. Exter- 
nally they are used in the decoctum 
pro foment 0, and are an ingredient 
in the decoctum firo enemate. 

Chancre. A venereal ulcer on 
the parts of generation. M. M. 
Mercury ; caustics. 

Charcoal. See Car bone. 

Chartreux (Poudre dej i. e. 
Kermes Mineral. 

Chemistry. Dr. Black defines it 
to be " a science which teaches by 
experiments the effects of heat 
and mixture on bodies." Various 
are the opinions of etymologists 
as to the derivation of the word 
chemistry. Some say, that what 
knowledge of this art was retained 
after the flood, was taught by 
Cham, whence the names Chwmia 
and Cheraia. Dr. Wall, in his Dis- 
sertation on the Study of Chemis- 
try, seems to think that the word 
;)^.:uria was derived from the name 
of a district, or perhaps of the 
whole of Egypt, applied originally 
from some peculiar appearance of 
its soil, and borrowed afterwards, 
at a very distant period of time, to 



distinguish an art which was con- 
ceived to have had its rise and 
principal cultivation in that coun- 
try. Plutarch, he adds, calls E- 
gypt Xv/Jiioi. 

This science is one of the two 
great branches of experimental 
physicks ; one of which treats of 
the mechanical properties of mat- 
ter, such as are detected by aid of 
the mechanical powers, as in com- 
mon mechanics, pneumatics, hy- 
drostatics, hydraulics, optics, &c. 
and the other inquires into their 
c/zemzVa/ properties, by attending to 
the alterations wroughtamong- their 
component particles, or constitu- 
ent elements ; as in the corruption 
and evaporation of organized bo- 
dies, and the employment of their 
materials in building up new forms 
of being ; in the production of acids, 
of aeriform fluids, of alkalies and 
of water, and of the destruction and 
decomposition of all these again ; in 
the knowledge and economical use 
of caloric ; in processes upon ores 
and metals ; in the cooking of food ; 
in the preparation of medicines ; in 
the manufacture of glass ; in the 
tanning of leather ; and an infinity 
of other effects brought about by 
a new arrangement among the mi- 
nute and imperceptible ingredi- 
ents of bodies. 

The principles of chemistry are 
of such various and extensive ap- 
plication, that to a person unac- 
quainted with them, narrow indeed 
must be the scope or circle of his 
knowledge of nature. And, doubt- 
less, the neglect of this most orna- 
mental and useful department of 
science in the ordinary cotirsesof 
polite education, taught in univer- 
sities and colleges, is the reason 
why scientific inquiries arc so lit- 
tle relished, and make such slow 
progress. So lamentably backward 
are the English universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford on this 
most important science, and its re- 
lations) that a new association has 

been made, under the royal pa- 
tronage, on a plan of Count Rum- 
ford's, and through the direction 
of Dr. GarneW, in the metropolis 
of England, for teaching, among 
other things, its principles, and 
their application to the purpose* 
of increasing the comforts, and 
lessening the wants of mankind. 
This late institution is a sei^erer 
satire on plans of common colle- 
giate education, terminating in 
Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctor's 
degrees, and of their emptiness 
and vanity, than has, perhaps, ever 

In the college of New-York che- 
mistry has been made an under- 
graduate course for students of ail 
kinds, during several years past. 

It has been objected, by some, 
to the study of chemistry, that it 
abounds in hard and frightful 
words, difficult to remember, and 
uncouth to pronounce. To this it 
may be replied, that there are not 
above twenty radical technical 
terms, and these are as easily ac- 
quired as the terms of whist or 
picquet ; nay, every reader of 
newspapers may find more strange 
and barbarous names of East-In- 
dia and Chinese merchandize in 
one advertisement, than the whole 
Chemical Nomenclature furnishes. 
Every science, art, trade and pro- 
fession, has its appropriate and 
peculiar words ; and to learn the 
technology of chemistry is scarce- 
ly so ditticult as to become ac- 
(|uainted with the points of the 
mariner's compass. 

In spite, however, of the supinc- 
ness of public institutions" in re- 
gard to chemistry, it is forcing its 
way daily among the more wise, 
learned, and liberal part of man- 
kind, by its own inherent beauty 
and excellence. And it is to be 
hoped the time is not far distant, 
when to be ignorant of chemistry 
will be as reproachful to a man of 
education, as to be unacquainted 



with the humblest parts of mathe- 
matics. The understanding of 
such writings as those of Priestley, 
Woodhouse and Webster, would 
repay a young man for studying it. 
Indeed there is one reason for ac- 
quiring a knowledge of chemistry 
which is alone inducement enough, 
and that is to be enabled to com- 
prehend the Mitchillian doctrine 
of pestilence ; a series of investi- 
gations, capable of rewarding am- 
ply of themselves. See jicids, 
wfzr, Alkalies^ Infection^ Calcareous 
Earthy Sec. 

Chemosis. Inflammation of the 
conjunctive membrane of the eye, 
in which the cellular structure is 
distended with a florid fluid, and 
elevated above the margin of the 
transparent cornea: from Jtaivi^, to 
gape. M. M. Bleeding, general 
and local ; cathartics ; blisters ; 
antiphlogistic regimen ; collyria 
of acetite of lead, sulphate of zinc 
or alum. 

Chicken-fiox. See Varicella. 

Ckilblain. Pernio. Erythema 
ofCuUen. An inflammation of the 
extreme parts of the body, from 
the application of cold, attended 
with violent itching, and soon form- 
ing a gangrenous ulcer. M. M. 
Camphorated spirit; oil of tur- 
pentine ; ungt. basilicon ; cala- 
mine cerate. 

China Chime^ the Peruvian bark. 

Chinchina^ Peruvian bark. 

Chio Turpentine. Cyprus tur- 
pentine. Chian turpentine. This 
substance is classed among the re- 
sins. It is procured by wounding 
the bark of the trunk of the Phis- 
tachia terebinthus of Linnseus. 
The best Chio turpentine is about 
the consistence of honey, very te- 
nacious, clear, and almost trans- 
parent ; of a w^hite colour, inclin- 
ing to yellow, and a fragrant smell, 
moderately warm to the taste, but 
free from acrimony and bitterness. 
Its medicinal qualities are simiivir 
to those of the turpentines. 

Chiquesj a name for the worms 
which get into the toes of the ne- 
groes, and which are destroyed by 
the oil which flows out of the ca- 

C Mr a gray xstpaypa, from %ei^, the 
handy and ay^a, a seizure, the gout 
in the hand. 

Chirurgitty ;!^£ip«pyto5, from %£if, a 
handy^iid. t^yovyU work, manual ope- 
ration, or surgery ; or that part of 
medicine which consists of manual 

Chivesy in Botany, are the fine 
threads of flowers, or the little 
knobs w^hich grow on the tops. 

Chlorosisy from ;;(;Xw^©', ^r fen, or 
;i^Xa,'^i^i;, to appear green, the green 
sickness. It is also called Febris 
Alba, the virgin's disease, Febris 
jimatoria, and Icterus Albus. Dr. 
Cullen places it in his Nosology, as 
a genus in the class JVeurosis^ and 
order Adyna?nia ; but since that 
time, he hath seen cause for a 
change of his opinion, and now 
considers it only as a symptom of 

Choke-damp. A noxious gas is 
found in many caverns, as in the 
Grotto del Cani, in mines, wells, 
and other deep pits. This gas is 
called choke-damp by the English 
miners. It is heavier than com- 
mon air, therefore lies chiefly at. 
the bottom of pits ; it extinguishes 
flame, and is noxious to animals. 
It is reckoned of the same kind as 
the calcareous gas. 

Cholagoga, cholagogues, from 
p^oX^, bile, and a,yu, to evacuate. By 
c/!o/a^o^M(?5the ancients meant only- 
such purging medicines as expel- 
led the internal faeces, which re- 
sembled the cystic bile in their 
yellow colour,and other properties. 

Choledochus Ductus. It seems to 
be a continuation of the ductus 
cysticus; for it is often observed 
that the ductus hepaticus runs, for 
some space, within the side of the 
ductus cysticus, before it opens 
into its cayity ; ^Isoj at the open- 



ing of tlic hepatic duct into the 
cystic, there is a small loose mem- 
brane, to hinder the bile from re- 
turning into it. 

Cholera^ A:'''*^fpa, or Cholera Mor- 
bus. It is when the bile so ex- 
ceeds in quantity or acrimony, as 
to irritate the bowels and stomach 
to eject it both upwards and down- 
wards. Or it is a purging and 
vomiting of bilious or other acrid 
matter, with great pain and fever. 
Ccelius Aurelianus says the name 
is derived from xoX>9, bile^ and ^o)i, 
ajiux. Dr. Cullen names it Cho- 
lera ; he places it in the class A'Vw- 
roscs^ and order Spasmi^ and men- 
tions two species. I. Cholera Sfioii- 
tanea, which happens in hot sea- 
sons, and without any manifest 
cause. 2. Cholera Accidentalism 
which occurs after the use of food 
that digestcth slowly, and becomes 
too acrid. 

Chondro-Pharyngi£iis. It is a 
muscle which rises from the carti- 
laginous appendage of the os hyoi- 
des, and is inserted into the mem- 
brane of the fauces. 

Chorda Txjmjiani. The fifth pair 
of nerves from the brain divides 
into three capital branches, one of 
"which is called the inferior maxil- 
lary; a branch of this forms the 
lingual, which soon is accompani- 
ed by a small distinct nerve, which 
runs upward and backward towards 
the articulation of the lower jaw, 
in company with the lateral mus- 
cle of the malleus, and passes 
through the tympanum, between 
the handle of the malleus and the 
long neck of the incus, by the 
name of the chorda tympani. 

Chordis Tendinex. From the 
edg i of the valves in the ventri- 
cles of the heart, there are tendi- 
nous strings thus named, which 
arise from the fleshy columnx in 
the two cavities, and lead to the 
internal structure of the heart. 

Chordee, a spasmodic contrac- 
tion of the penis, that sometimes 
attends gonorrhsea. 

Chorea Sancti Viti. St. Vitus's 
dance. Convulsive motions of the 
limbs. It is a genus of disease, 
arranged by Cullen in the clas9 
A^eurosrsj and order S/iamni ; from 
;!Copc<a, dancing. M. M. Evrietics; 
cathartics; valerian; cinchona; 
iron ; cold bath ; electricity : a daily 
exhibition of purgative medicines, 
early commenced, is strongly re- 
commended by Dr. Hamilton. 

Chorion^ X'^;^^^, a name of the ex- 
ternal membrane of the foetus. It 
hath this name from tlic chorus 
of blood-vessels which are spread 
upon it. It is divisible into tvyo 
lamellae. Some call the internal 
lamina the true chorioii^ and the 
external lamina the false chorion. 

Choroid. From x°r^^h the cho- 
rion,, and £<(^05, resemblance. 

Choroid Membrane., the second 
tunic of the bulb of the eye, which 
is extremely vascular, and which 
forms the iris and uvea anteriorlv. 
Choroid Plexus, a plexus of 
blood-vessels and glands, situated 
in the lateral ventricles of the 

Chronic. From ;;tpvo;, time. A 
disease is so called that is of long 
duration, lasting above six or eight 

Chrupsia. Visus coloratus. A 
disease of the eyes, in which the 
person perceives objects of a dif- 
ferent colour than their natural. 
From Xr^'^f colour, and o4*«., sight. 
Chrysalis, from ;)^;:'croc, gold ; also 
called ^urc//a, and .'V^w/z/ia. Thus 
naturalists call the worm or mai^- 
got while it lies hidden under a 
hardish pellicle : during this time 
it is in a state of seeming insensi- 
bility ; but quitting this covering, 
it comes fortli a moth, or a butter- 
ily, or other winged insert. 

Chyle, the milk-like liquor, ob- 
served some hours after eating, in 
the lacteal vessels of the mesen- 
tery, and in the thoracic duct. It 
is separated by digestion from the 
chyme, and is that Huid substance 
from which the blood is formed. 



Chylification^ the process carri- 
ed on in the small intestines, and 
principally in the duodenum, by 
which the chyle is separated from 
the chyme. 

Chylofioietic^ any thing connect- 
ed with the formation of chyle ; 
thus chylofioietic viscera^ chylofioic' 
tic vessels) &c. 

Chyme, the indigested mass of 
food, that passes from the stomach 
into the duodenum, and from which 
the chyle is prepared in the small 
intestines. From ;)(;umo?) which sig- 
nifies humour J or juice. 

Cicatricula, a little white speck 
or vesicle in the coat of the yolk 
of an egg, wherein the first chan- 
ges appear towards the formation 
of the chicken or the nervous cy- 
linder. It is commonly called the 

Cicatrisantiay i. e. Efiulotica, 

Cicatrix.^ from cicatrico^ to skin, 
a seam or elevation of callous flesh, 
rising on the skin, and remaining 
there after the healing of a wound 
or ulcer, which is commonly cal- 
led a Scar. 

Cichorium, succory or endive. 
A genus in Lrinnaeus's botany. He 
enumerates three species. 

Clcuia. Hemlock. This plant, Co- 
nium maculatum of Linnaeus, is dis- 
tinguished from those plants which 
bear some resemblance to it, by the 
spotted stem. It is generally be- 
lieved to be a very active poison. 
When exhibited in immoderate 
doses, it produces anxiety, cardial- 
gia, vomiting, convulsions, vertigo, 
coma, and death. Baron Stoerck 
was the first who brought hemlock 
into repute as a medicine of extra- 
ordinary efficacy: and although it 
does not effect the wonderful cures 
of cancer it was said to perform, it 
certainly possesses narcotic and 
antispasmodic virtues. There is 
scarcely any disease, to which hu- 
man nature is subject, in which 
this remedy, like mercury, is not 
exhibited internally by some phy- 

sicians, and in those of the glan- 
dular system it appears some- 
times to be productive of benefit. 
Nor is it less efficacious when ap- 
plied externally : a poultice made 
ofoatmealand the expressed juice, 
or a decoction of the extract, when 
the former cannot be obtained, al- 
lays the most excruciating tortu- 
rous pains of a cancer, and thus 
gives rest to the distracted patient. 
Grs. ij. to 5iiij- 

C^7^>, the edges of the eye-lids- 
They are semicircular, and carti- 
laginous, with hairs fixed in them, 
which by some are called Cilix. 
See Tarsus. 

Ciliar Ligmnent. The circular 
portion that divides the choroid 
membrane from the iris, and which 
adheres to the sclerotic membrane. 
It appears like a white circular 

Cinara, Common artichoke* 
Cynara scoly?nus of Linnaeus. A 
native of the soiithern parts of 
Europe, but cultivated here for 
culinary purposes. The leaves 
are bitter, and afford, by expres- 
sion, a considerable quantity of 
juice, which, when strained, and 
mixed with an equal quantity of 
white wine, has been given suc- 
cessfully in dropsies ; but it is an 
uncertain remedy. 

Cinchona. Quinquina. Cortex 
Peruvianus. Officinal cinchona, or 
Peruvian bark. The tree which 
affords this valuable medicine, is 
the Cinchona officinalis, a native of 
Peru. The bark is brought to us 
in pieces of different sizes, some 
rolled up into short, thick quills, 
and others flat : the outside is 
brownish, and generally covered 
in part with a whitish moss ; the 
inside is of a yellowish, reddish, 
or rusty iron colour. The best 
sort breaks close and sm.ooth, and 
proves friable betwixt the teeth : 
the inferior kinds appear, when 
broken, of a woody texture, and in 
chewing separate into fibres. The 



former pulverises more easily thnn 
the latter, and looks, when pow- 
dered, of a light brownish colour, 
resembling that of cinnamon, or 
somewhat paler. It has a slight 
smell, approaching to mustiness, 
yet so much of the aromatic kind 
as not to be disagreeable. Its taste 
is considerably bitter, adstringent, 
very durable in the mouth, and 
accompanied with some degree of 
aromatic warmth, but not sufficient 
to prevent its being imgrateful. 
The medicinal properties of tliis 
drug arc very considerable. It 
cures intermittent, remittent, ner- 
vous, and putrid fevers ; putrid 
sore throat, scarlatina, and dysen- 
tery ; stops excessive discharges, 
and is in general use as a tonic, 
and stomachic ; it also is of infi- 
nite service in local affections, as 
gangrene, scrophula, ill-condition- 
ed ulcers, rickets, scurvy, &c. 
and in most diseases where there 
is no inflammatory diathesis. The 
officinal preparations of this bark, 
are the powder, the extract, the 
tincture, and the decoction .—-9i. to 
3 i. or more. Extract of Bl. Tinc- 
ture of 3i- to J ss. Decoction J ij. 
or more. 

Cinchona Cortex Peruvianus 
Ruber. The medicinal qualities of 
this red bark arc similar to those 
of the former. 

Cinchona Cortex Peruvianus 
Plavus. The medicinal properties 
of this new species are also near- 
ly the same as those of the cin- 
chona officinalis. 

Cinnabar. A red mineral sub- 
stance composed of mercury na- 
turally combined with sulphur. 
It is found in the Dutchy of Dcux- 
ponts, in the Palatinate, in Spain, 
South-America, 5cc. It is called 
native vermillion, and cinnabar in 
flowers. Artificial cinnabar is em- 
ployed as a mild mercurial, and as 
an alterative. — Grs. iij. to 9i. 

Cinnamomum. Cinnamon. The 
tree which affords the true cinna- 

mon, which is its inner bark, is the 
haiirus cinnajnomum of Jacquin, a 
native of Ceylon. Cinnamon bark 
is one of the most grateful of the 
aromatics ; of a very frai^rant 
smell, and a moderately pungent, 
glowint^, but not fiery taste, ac- 
companied with considerable 
sweetness, and some degree of 
adstringency. It is one of the best 
cordial, carminative, and restora- 
tive spices we are in possession 
of, and is generally mixed with 
the diet of the sick. The essen- 
tial oil, on account of its high price, 
is seldom used : a tincture, sim- 
ple and spirituous water, are di- 
rected to be kept in the shops.— ^ 


ss. to 5ss. 

Circocelc^ or Clrsocele^ xipc-oKnXri, 
an enlargement of the arteries and 
veins of the spermatic cord. From 
«i^o-o?, varixy and H»Ar, a tuinour. It 
is the same as Hernia Varicosa. 

Circulation from circuloy to co7n- 
pass abouty moving as it were in a 
circle. Circulation. In anatomy 
it is the circulation of any fluid 
through the vessels destined for 
its conveyance. Strictly speaking, 
circulation is only applied to the 
blood, because it moves from the 
heart to return to it again ; but the 
other fluids do not return to the 
organ from which they were first 

The honour of the discovery of 
the circulation is undoubtedly due 
to Dr. Ilarvcy ; but it has been 
claimed for Servetus, Columbus, 
and Caesalpinus. 

Servetus was an opponent of 
Calvin, and persecuted by him. 
He was a Spanish physician ; but 
was not the autjior of any known 
medical work. In a theological 
tract, by way of allusion, he men- 
tions the circulation of the blood 
tlirough the lungs, rather indeed 
as an hypothesis than as an esta- 
blished fact. It is of more import- 
ance, in another view, to remark, 
that he considers the object of the 



t:irculat*ion through the lungs to 
be the inhaling a spirit from the 
air, and the escape of a fuliginous 
vapour. He was unacquainted, 
however, with the structure of the 
heart, or the uses of the valves ; 
and, with Galen, confines the blood 
to the liver and veins, while he 
supposes the heart and arteries 
filled with a spirit. Columbus, in 
1569, followed him in describing 
this lesser circulation, and first 
explained the structure and use of 
the sigmoid and tricuspid valves ; 
but with little consistency adopted 
also the fancies of Galen, first 

Caesalpinus published about 
twelve years after Columbus, viz. 
in about 1681 ; and had not the au- 
thority of Aristotle and Galen pos- 
sessed his imagination so strong- 
ly as to shut out the most obvious 
consequences of the best establish- 
ed facts, the honour of the disco- 
•wevy must have been his own. But 
his claims to genius of the highest 
rank are undisputed without this 
additional laurel. Aristotle first 
misled him by distinguishing two 
kmds of blood ; one for the in- 
crease, and the other for the nou- 
rishment of the body ; the first he 
supposed to be derived from the 
liver, and poured into the vena 
cava, attracted by the heat of the 
heart. From the right ventricle 
he traces the blood, with Colum- 
bus oi' Servetus, to the lungs, 
where he supposes it to be cooled 
only. The blood, now become 
spirituous and alimentary, in suc- 
cessive periods, according to this 
system, causes, by the fermenta- 
tion excited, the succession of pul- 
sations, while the aliment destined 
for increase is elicited from the 
veins ; yet in sleep this efferves- 
cing blood, he admits, is returned 
by the veins, the valves of v/hich 
bad been described by J. B. Can- 
Kanus, and, more accurately, by 
Fabric us ab Aqua pendente. 

Such were the opinions which 
Harvey found in the schools ; and 
he need only have recollected that 
simplicity was the criterion of 
truth, to suppose that blood, v/hich 
circulated in the night, might also 
circulate in the day. The claim 
to this quality distinguished both 
Harvey, Newton, and Columbus ; 
nor, if we know any thing of the 
human mind, does this representa- 
tion diminish their credit. Peaches 
had for ages fallen from the tree ; 
the structure of the valves t^f the 
heart had been for years known ; 
and the Indies long discovered by 
an eastern course ; when the calm 
dispassionate examination of these 
three first of philosophers, drew 
consequences which had escaped 
all their predecessors. They have 
received their reward ; for they 
havx demonstrated how high hu- 
man intellect can soar : it is for 
their opponents to .show how low 
it can descend. 

With regard to the circulation, 
however, it is thus clearly describ- 
ed. Th^ blood is conveyed from 
the left ventricle of the heart, by 
the aorta and its branches, to the 
minutest and most remote parts 
of the body ; and then passing from 
the extremities of the smallest ar- 
teries into the incipient veins, 
whether continuous or not anato- 
mists have not decided, circulates 
through them into their larger bran- 
ches and into the right auricle of 
the heart, and in succession to the 
right ventricle. It is forced, with 
the fresh supplies that it receives 
from the chyle, passing into the 
subclavian vein, from thence into 
the pulmonary artery ; and after 
circulating through the lungs, in 
its passage, is returned by the 
pulmonary vein into the left auri- 
cle, and thence into the left ven- 
tricle. The same round recurs 
until death concludes the progress. 

When Harvey promulgated this 
doctrine is uncertain. It has been 



supposed, that he delivered his 
new system in the Lumley lec- 
tures, 1615. It is, however, sin- 
gular, that a discovery so import- 
ant should have passed unnoticed ; 
though little doubt can be enter- 
tained that this important fact was 
established in his own mind early 
in the following year. This ap- 
pears clearly from his MS. De 
Anatomia Universa. In the year 
1619 this great discovery was pro- 
mulgated ; for, if we are not mis- 
taken, in that year his Exercitatio 
Anatomica de Cordis, and San- 
guinis Motu, appeared at Frank- 
fort ; a choice probably dictated 
by the convenience of circulation 
on the continent. This treatise 
is a masterpiece of simple, but co- 
gent and decisive argument. Af- 
ter shortly confuting the errors 
of his predecessors, he describes 
the motion of the heart as it ap- 
pears in a living animal ; points 
out the alternate dilatations and 
contractions of its different auri- 
cles and ventricles, and their ef- 
fect as regulated by the various 
valves. Pie then shows, by calcu- 
lation, that the blood flows faster 
into the arteries than it can be 
supplied by aliment imbibed by 
the veins ; and, as the arteries 
can receive no supplies but from 
the veins, the former must be gra- 
dually more distended, or the lat- 
ter more emptied, unless the veins 
and arteries anastomose, which 
was supposed less improbable, as 
this communication takes place in 
the lungs. A few simple expci i- 
ments illustrate this idea, and es- 
tablish it beyond contradiction. 

The clamour that this publica- 
tion excited was inconceivable. 
It was either not true, or the an- 
cients had already taught tlie same. 
Riolan, a more respectable anta- 
gonist tliun the common herd, was 
alone honoured with an answer ; 
and the venerable antagonist re- 
tired with some di'igrace from the 

field, accused of cavilling, un- 
meaning quibbles, rash unfounded 
assertions, and even unfaithful ex- 
periments. The number and names 
of his other antagonists which lie 
before us would fill our page, with 
little advantage or satisfaction to 
our readers. 

During the dilatation of the 
heart, when the blood enters the 
ventricles, the coronary arteries 
receive that fluid, contrary to all 
the other arteries of the body, and 
thus supply the muscular fibres 
of the heart with the blood ; for 
the passage of the blood is freer 
through the arteries during the 
heart's inflation than at the con- 
traction, because those vessels are 
then less convoluted. That the 
heart is not the one and sole cause 
of circulation appears, because 
the arteries all perform their dias- 
tole at the same instant in healthy 
people. If the heart's propelling 
the blood was the sole cause of the 
circulation, the pulsation of the 
artery would be an undulation, and 
in difl'erent parts it would be per- 
ceived at diff"erent times, as the 
impulse at diff'erent distances of 
the artery from the heart would 
be in succession. 

That some other power than 
the velocity of the blood dilates 
the capillary arteries to give pas- 
sage to the globules, seems evi- 
dent also from the experiments 
of Dr. Hales. He poured water 
into the aorta and other arteries 
of dogs ; and though its force and 
velocity were equal to that givc!i 
to the blood by the heart, yet it: 
never passed by tlie anastomoses 
of the arteries and veins, buc 
through the sides of the arteries; 
and this seems to prove that the 
arteries arc totally stopped by the 
contraction of their fibres after the 
vital power no longer continues t(^ 
act, and that the force of the heait 
hath not a power equal to what is 
rei|uired to dilate them. To th:*^ 



experiment indeed objections may- 
be made ; but strong arguments 
may be adduced to render the prin- 
cipal position highly probable. It 
is supported with great force by 
Dr. Whytt. 

The whole arterial tube, there- 
fore, contributes to the motion of 
tfie blood ; and the heart, instead 
of moving a weight equal to the 
whole mass in this way, impels no 
more than about two ounces, the 
quantity supposed to be contained 
by the ventricle in each diastole. 
See Haller's Physiology. 

The laivs of the circulatioii^ or 
the general circumstances that in- 
fluence its various modifications, 
must detain us a little longer. 
Physiologists have anxiously en- 
deavoured to ascertain the quan- 
tity of blood thrown out by each 
contraction of the heart, as well as 
its velocity. But these circum- 
stances are of little real import- 
ance, and we need not examine 
nor attempt to refute the calcula- 
tions and errors. It is enough 
that the left ventricle contains 
about two ounces ; and that proba- 
bly somewhat less is thrown out 
at each contraction. Whatever 
the velocity may be, it is gradually 
diminishing ; for the areas of all 
the branches exceed that of the 
aorta, and the angles must some- 
times impede rectilineal motion. 
A proportion of the impetus is in 
this way lost ; nor is the resistance 
of the coats of the arteries, or the 
friction, to be w^holly overlooked ; 
though the elasticity and the mus- 
cular power, as well as the mu- 
cous secretion on the internal sur- 
faces, greatly lessen its effects. 

The velocity of the blood in the 
arteries will be in proportion to 
the frequency of contraction ; and 
this in proportion to the return of 
blood in the veins, which is influ- 
enced by a variety of causes, 
chiefly exercise and agitation of 
mind. The frequency of the con- 

traction, which arises from irrita^ 
bility, does not increase the velo- 
city of the blood, since, in such 
instances, the left ventricle con- 
tracts before it is filled, and this 
state is not attended with a deter- 
mination to the surface. In a 
healthy state the arteries are al- 
ways full, and consequently each 
impulse gives successive mo- 
menta to the whole mass ; but this 
succession is so rapid, and the ac- 
tion of the arterial coats so imme- 
diate, that the pulsation, which is 
the consequence, is apparently 
synchronous over the whole body. 
As, however, the velocity dimi- 
nishes from the causes mentioned, 
this pulsation must be at last im- 
perceptible ; and at some distance 
from the heart, and more particu- 
larly in the veins, it is of course 
lost. The velocity of the blood 
will therefore vary in proportion 
to the power of the heart, to the 
distance from it, to the causes in- 
fluencing the action of the arte- 
ries, and to the direction as aff"ect- 
ed by gravity. 

The quantity of blood distribut- 
ed to any part of the system will 
differ in proportion to the action 
of the arteries of that part ; an ac- 
tion increased by resistance of 
every kind : but the effects of that 
resistance, at first owing to the 
action of the arteries of that part, 
and afterwards to the general con- 
sent of every part of the circulat- 
ing system, is little affected by the 
state of the circulation in a distant 
part. The contrary idea has in- 
duced the most singular and pre- 
posterous practice. It is the pa- 
rent of the doctrines of derivation 
2ind revulsion. Thus, if the head 
was affected, blood was drawn 
from the feet ; but it will be at 
once obvious, that sixteen ounces 
of blood from a vein, if affecting 
one thousand six hundred arteries, 
will lessen the quantity of blood in 
each only 0.01 j consequently, on 



the contraction of the left ventri- 
cle, only one-hundredth part less 
of blood will be sent to the head. 
But if the sixteen ounces be taken 
from the temporal arteries, or ju- 
gular veins, the head will be de- 
pleted in the same proportion, 
without any diminution. It is to 
be re arretted that this idea conti- 
nues to prevail among practition- 
ers ; and we still find blisters and 
cataplasms applied to the legs to 
relieve congestions in the head or 

The quantity of blood distribut- 
ed to different parts varies at dif- 
ferent periods. In the growing 
state, the heart evidently increases 
in its bulk in a less proportion than 
the capacity of the arterial system. 
As age approaches, the number of 
the arteries lessens, and the pro- 
portion of the heart gains the as- 
cendency. In this state the ve- 
nous system is proportionably ful- 
ler than the arterial. In young 
animals the head is large, and its 
vessels full. Diseases of the head, 
from fulness, and haemorrhages 
from the nose, are then common. 
At a subsequent period the deter- 
mination is to the lungs, and soon 
afterwards to the genital system 
in both sexes ; at a more advanced 
period to the haemorrhoidal ves- 
sels. When the number of arte- 
ries diminishes from age, we find 
venous pletjiora in the head, with 
serous a])oplexiv:s and palsies ; in 
the lungs, with humoral asthmas 
and catarrhus sufibcativus ; in the 
abdomen, with discharges of black 
bile ; in the extremities, with va- 

Any general increase of the ac- 
tion of the arteries detern»incs the 
blood rather to the surface than 
the internal parts ; but, if checked 
in its determination to the surface, 
or irregularly accelerated or re- 
tarded, the vicera chielly suffer. 
Jf, from the continued action of 
uny cAusc, a fixed determination 

to any part is established, it be- 
comes a necessary part of the con- 
stitution, and cannot, without dan- 
ger, be altered. 

The whole of the blood sent 
from the heart is not returned to 
that organ by the veins. The ex- 
halations from the arteries into the 
cellular substance employ a part 
of it ; the various secretions also 
greatly lessen it. The arterial 
system, however, always continues 
full, in consequence of the con- 
tractility of its muscular coat. The 
venous system has not this advant- 
age, but the motion of the blood 
is slower in these ; and, as it is 
kept up by the pulsation of the ar- 
teries, muscular action. See. while 
advantage is taken of every action 
by the frequent interposition of 
valves, these vessels must continue 
full, since, from the want of any- 
active force, a portion must be dis- 
charged into the heart, before that 
below can be propelled forward. 

Some other circumstances re- 
s])ecting the circulation can only 
be understood when the structure 
of the heart is known. 

We have remarked, that there is 
some doubt whether arteries ter- 
minate by continuous vessels ia 
veins ; in the corpora cavernosa 
penis they do not, and the veins 
there certainly absorb the effused 
blood. The course of the circu- 
lation also, when minutely exa- 
mined, is not regularly progres- 
sive. It sometimes is retrograde 
for a little way, favoured by an 
anastomosis, chiefly when the ves- 
sel will not admit the red globules. 
The veins too do not all pass im- 
mediately to the heart ; for, as wc 
have remarked, those^f the abdo- 
men unite in fcrnung the vena, 
portre dispersed in the liver, appa- 
rently for the secretion of tile. 

The circulation of the blood in 
the foetus hath sonic peculiarities 
different from v. hat is observed in 
adults. 1st. The blood does not 



all pass through the lungs ; a very 
small part OHly takes that course 
each time that it returns to the 
heart. 2dly. The blood brought 
by the two vense cavae into the 
right auricle of the heart passes 
chiefly into the right ventricle, bat 
not entirely; for some portion goes 
immediately through the foramen 
ovale into the left auricle, and 
especially that brought up by the 
cava inferior. Suppose then two- 
thirds of the blood passes into the 
right ventricle, in order to circu- 
late through the pulmonary ar- 
tery ; yet all the blood that flows 
into it in the foe'us will not circu- 
late through the lungs, for a con- 
siderable part must necessarily 
pass by the ductus arteriosus, di- 
rectly to the aorta, before it hath 
arrived at the lungs; so that pro- 
bably not above one-third of the 
blood circulates through the lungs 
every time it is brought back to 
the heart. That blood which was 
thrown out directly from the right 
to the left auricle, goes thence to 
the left ventricle, and so on to the 
aorta, without touching at either 
the right ventricle or pulmonary 
artery, and, consequently, not ar- 
riving at the lungs. After the 
child is born, and a little grown 
up, the foramen ovale is closed up 
in most subjects ; though, in some 
instances, it is found to continue 
more or less open during the 
v/hole life of the person. 

Circulatorium^ a circulatory 
glass. It is a vessel in which the 
contained liquor, when put over 
the fire, circulates by ascending 
and descending in such a manner, 
that the more volatile parts of the 
liquor rai^d by the fire, not find- 
ing a passage, may always fall back Thus, chemical circula- 
tion *s only a species of digestion. 
Repeated distillation sometimes 
answers the end of circulation. 

Circulzta Arteriosus Iridis, It is 
composed of two arteries, going 
round the l^sis of the iris. 

Circwnflexusy i. e. Circumfiexns 

Circuwjiexus^ or Tensor Palatt. 
A muscle situated between the 
lower jaw and os hyoides laterally, 
that stretches the velum, to draw 
it downwards. 

Citrates^ are salts formed by the 
union of the acid of citrons with 
alkaline, earthy, or metallic bases ; 
there are twenty-four species enu- 
merated in M. Fourcroy*s Ele- 
ments of Natural History and 

Citrusi the citron-tree. A ge- 
nus in Linnaeus's botany. He joins 
with this genus the Aurantium^ 
Limon^ and Lima, There are four 
species. See Lemon. 

Ciita^ xiTTa, the disease called 
Pica^ or unnatural longings for 

Clarification., in Medicine^ is the 
fining liquors from their grosser 
parts, and is generally done by 
beating up with the whites of eggs, 
decoctions and turbid liquors into 
a froth ; which, upon boiling, will 
entangle the grosser parts, and 
carry them up to the top in a tough 
scum ; which is either taken off 
with a spoon, or separated by a 
flannel bag, called Hippocrates's 
sleeve. Another way also is by- 
standing in a convenient vessel to 
suffer the grosser parts to settle, 
which is also sometimes promoted 
by a mixture of such matter as 
will give what should settle a 
greater weight, and make it fall 
sooner, as in distilled waters, which 
are milky, fine sugar, with a few 
grains of alum, will carry down 
the oily parts, and leave the clear; 
and this is generally called Defiii- 
ration.^ which see. 

Class, in Botajiy^ is by Linnaeus 
defined to be an agreement of se- 
veral genera in the parts of fructi- 
fication, according to the princi- 
ples of nature, distinguished by 
art. He divides the vegetable 
kingdom into twenty-four classes. 
See Sexual System, 



Classification and Classis, (from 
classes facer e^ and ultimately from 
x\oiS:y to divide). Classification 
may perhaps scarcely at first ap- 
pear to be a subject which belongs 
to the present work ; but-^ as we 
wish not to conceal that we con- 
sider the arranc^emcnt of diseases 
us an object of importance, and as 
we have tacitly acquiesced in the 
j)ropriety of the classification of 
j)Iants, animals, and minerals, con- 
nected with medicine, by adopting; 
the plans of naturalists, it is pro- 
per, in this place, to explain their 

Nature, it is said, has created 
only species : it is not true ; for 
she has created only individuals. 
The similarity of these has occa- 
sioned the establisliment of 5/?*?- 
cies ; for similar individuals form 
a species. Individuals, differing 
in circumstances arising from ac- 
cident ; in plants and animals, 
from soil and climate ; in diseases, 
from constitution ; in minerals, 
from locality, are styled varieties : 
and these, wll'en circumstances are 
changed, return to the species 
from which they started. These 
distinctions, though apparently 
simple and obvious, are, however, 
necessary ; for naturalists have 
usually began at the other extre- 
mity, and formed " methods^''* clas- 
ses and orders, before they have 
established species, and, at this 
moment, in nosology and mineral- 
ogy, the great impediments to im- 
provement arise from the uncer- 
tainty of what are species. Even 
in botany this difiicuUy was once 
so great, that more than half of 
Tournefort's supposed species 
have been found to be varieties 
only. Three-fourths of Sauvages' 
species of diseases are varieties 
or symptoms. Having shortly 
then pointed out the distinctions 
between species and varieties, as 
>yell as the means by which the 
former are ascertained, we shall 
next consider genera. This is 

the first step in arrangement; for 
the establishment of speciee con- 
sists in ascertaining identity; of 
genera, similarity. A striking dis- 
criminating mark, in many spe- 
cies, sometimes establishes a ge- 
nus ; at otliers, a general simila- 
rity. The conduct of botanists, 
however, has differed in this part 
of their labour, from the differ- 
ence of their dispositions. Some 
naturalists, catching hastily at ana- 
logies, have included numerous 
species under a genus: others^ 
more wary and exact, have re- 
trenched them too rigorously. The 
latest botanists have rendered the 
genera more, sometimes too, nu- 
merous ; but this of the two is the 
more venial error, since new dis- 
coveries continually enlarge them. 
An order is an association of 
genera; but orders are usually 
too comprehensive, including too 
great a number of genera ; and to 
facilitate investigation, these are 
often divided into separate groups, 
as in mineralogy the species arc 
sometimes again divided into sub- 
species. Each is a proof of im- 
perfection in arrangement. 

A class contains the different 
orders ; and though, in reality, it 
should be the last, or nearly the 
last, labour, it has usually been the 
first ; and, to make the system 
elegant in appearance, the classes 
have been few and comprehensive. 
The classes are connected by w hat 
in botany is styled a " w/rr/iorf," 
which we have already mentioned. 
Thus, in the Linnxan system of 
"•plants, they are said to have evi- 
dent or concealed fructification ; 
and in nosology Dr. Cullen has 
first divided diseases into general 
and local, forgetting that with lit- 
tle change ot appearance or treat- 
ment they pass insensibly into 
each other. 

Clausura^ an imperforation of 
any canal or cavity of the body. 
Thus Clausura Uteri is a preter- 
natural imperforation of the womb ; 



Clausura Tubarum Fallofiianarum^ 
a morbid imperforation of the Fal- 
lopian tubes, which is mentioned 
by Ruysch as one cause of barren- 

Clavatio^ i. e. Gomfihosis. 

Clavellati Cineres, i. e. Pot^ashes, 

Clavicle^ collar bone. A bone 
shaped like the letter s, situated 
obliquely upon the upper part of 
the chest, and connecting the sca- 
pula and humerus to the thorax. 

Clavus, a nail. Some physicians 
give this name to a pain in the 
small part of the head, commonly 
a little above the eyes, which seems 
as if that part was penetrated by a 
nail ; and Dr. Sydenham calls such 
a pain on the top of the head in 
hysterical persons, Clavus Hyste- 
ricus, the hysterical nail. 

Clay. It is a genus of earth ; it 
is soft, very ductile an-d tenacious 
when moist, and rendered very 
hard by fire. It is said to be a 
mixture of aluminous earth (earth 
of alum) and silicious earth, or 
flint. It has been called Potter's 
earth, and Argillaceous earth. 

Cleanliness^ the removal of ex- 
creted fluids, and the new com- 
pounds formed of them, from the 
persons, clothing, and habitations 
of men. If a man, and a marble 
statue as large as a man, be kept 
in the same chamber, the man will 
become unclean much more ra- 
pidly than the statue. The latter 
may receive dust, smoke, or fo- 
Teign particles of other kinds,yro7;z 
without, but will not become nasty 
from any internal cause. Not so 
with the former; his living body, 
which has been long ago, and very 
justly, compared to a smoking 
dunghill, incessantly emits, dur- 
ing life, exhalations foul enough 
to soil linen, and rank enough to 
be smeiled by dogs. The accu- 
mulation of these in the pores of 
the cuticle, and every v*'here about 
the cuticle, makes it nasty and un- 
comfortable, and very often ren- 
ders it the seat of disease, as of the 

itch, blotches, sores and pimples. 
If this nastiness is not washed or 
wiped off, so as to be removed en- 
tirely from the body, it will be 
wiped off by the shirt and other 
clothing constantly in contact with 
the body, and will infect that cloth- 
ing with its peculiar taints, stick- 
ing to all its threads and filaments. 
And whenever sheets and bed- 
clothes have been saturated with 
the excreted discharges wiped 
from human bodies, they also are 
uncomfortable and unhealthy. A- 
mong poor and negligent people 
in all countries, this animal mat- 
ter surcharges their cuticles, 
clothes and beds : and in the heat 
of about 96° of Fahrenheit's scale, 
the ordinary heat of the human 
body, the moist ingredients with 
which the body and bed-clothes 
are charged, though not poisonous 
at first, are, by chemical and putre- 
factive action among themselves, 
changed in part to septic acid or 
pestilential air. 

Among the poor and wretched 
inhabitants of the large manufac- 
turing and commercial towns of 
Great-Britain, a blanket is some- 
times put upon a bed, and kept 
there without washing or chang- 
ing until it is worn out. The like 
happens to some articles of brown 
or black colours, which, after be- 
ing put on, are never washed as 
long as they will hang together. 
In the narrow, sequestered, for- 
lorn, unalkalized, and unventilated 
abodes of these persons, a poison 
is engendered, which often kills 
the people from whose excretions 
it is produced. The reader will 
recollect that it is not affirmed, 
for it is not true, that the excre- 
tions of these poor people of whom 
we are writing are commonly poi- 
sonous at the time of their secre- 
tion. On \\\^\v first formation they 
are as free £roinactual noxiousness 
as the excretions of other people. 
But in their unhappy situations, 
the long accumulation and deten- 



tion of the same nasty matcriuls 
which bcibiilf;* shirt or a bhinket, 
will turn to pestilence, and infect 
the atmosphere of a whole apart- 
ment, tenement, or house. 

The point particularly worthy of 
notice in this statement is, that the 
septic poison /.? not secreted such 
from the mouths of the exhaling 
arteries; but that common secret- 
ed matter, havijig orii^inally no- 
thing directly venomous, cha7igcs 
by clegrec.t to a fioison^ by beings 
after secretion^ cTfioscd to the at- 
moHJihere in a heat equal to that of 
the human body. The reader is 
desired to turn to the words Con- 
tagion and Infection^ for more pre- 
cise information on these two im- 
portant points : and there he will 
find it stated, that the former of 
these is a virus produced by the 
vascular action of a living body, 
and the latter a poison formed dur- 
ing the putrefaction going on in 
inanimate matter. 

This inanimate matter is of four 
different sorts: 1. Matter vomited 
tifi in times of sickness, both at sea 
and on shore, and left adhering to 
the floors, bedding or clothing ; a 
very common case. 2. Matter 
discharged by stool, in cases both 
of health and sickness, and taint- 
ing floors, utensils, clothing and 
bedding ; an occurrence unavoid- 
able where there is a family of chil- 
dren, and frequent enough among 
grown persons, especially when 
infirm or sick.. S. Matter discharg- 
ed from the urinary and sexual or- 
gans., more or less of which in- 
heres to clothing and bedding. 4. 
Matter discharged by fiersftiration, 
happening to all human beings 
every moment of their existence, 
and sufficient, of itself, when ac- 
cumulated and concentrated, to 
produce the most active and ma- 
lignant poison. liut the statue 
has none of these evacuations, and 
therefore remains clean. 

The sufferings of men, in the 

early stages of society, from the 
collection of these excrcmentitious 
things around them, were exces- 
sive. The diseases incidental (o 
their \mclcanliness among the 
Jev/s, gave rise to many strict re- 
gulations and ceremonies in the 
Mosaic Law. Almost the same- 
nasty way of living still continups 
among the common people of Sy- 
ria, Kgypt and Barbary. By a 
change in their religion, they have 
thrown off the Jewish, and adopted 
the Mahometan faith, much to 
their detriment ; for they are not 
now under equally rigid injunc- 
tions to keep their clothes and their 
houses clean. The degree of nas- 
tiness among the ancient Hebrews 
induced a distemper w^hich they 
called lefirosy. The greater de- 
gree of it, prevalent among th.e 
modern Syrians, Egyptians and 
Natolians, produces what they now 
C2i\\ the plague. Among the En- 
glish, the circumstances of climate 
and constitution under which their 
nastiness is worked up to poison, 
make it constitute a disease amontr 
the emaciated poor, which they 
call typhus. When engendered iu 
sea-vessels, from similar materir 
als, it is denominated shifi-fever ,• 
when in prisons, from llic like 
causes, they call xXjai/ fever ; wheii 
in crowded and badly-managed in- 
firmaries, it is known by the deno- 
mination of hosf.ital-fever ; and 
when, in addition to somewhat of 
domestic uncleanness, the septic 
acid vapours of corrupting beef, 
fish, hides, offal, and the like, in 
tlie cities of North- America, aic 
made to operate, under an intense 
heat, and high living, upon human 
constitutions, the malady produc- 
ed has been called yelloiv-fcver. 

How, then, the reader will ask, 
is the wide-spreading and sore- 
wasting mischief to be arrested ? 
Being bred in contact with our bo- 
dies, and clinging to our very 
skirts, how can it be made to un- 



clench its gripe or quit its hold ? 
Experience, the mother of all use- 
ful inventions, has sufficiently- 
shown how this can be done. Pure 
air is one of the most easy, cheap, 
and obvious expedients for thin- 
ning and carrying away infectious 
fluids, when they exist in an aerial 
form. Jt is the nature of infectious 
fluids to diffuse themselves aroujid 
and among the surrounding bodies^ 
until they impregnate all alike^ and 
thus find their level. If clean at- 
mospheric air is admitted into an 
infected apartment, a portion of 
infectious gas will join the admit- 
ted portion of atmosphere, and 
thereby the contaminated air will 
be rendered more dilute or less 
concentrated. And if this clean 
air is made to pass through in a 
stream or current, the infectious 
gas mingling with it may be waft- 
ed away, and be so attenuated, and 
removed so far, as to do no more 
harm. The operation of a clean 
fiuid, when applied to a firm or 
solid body in a nastier state than 
itself, is called washing. Clean 
air, passing by and through infect- 
ed clothing aud rooms, washes 
away a part of their filth. This 
might very significantly be called 
AIR-WASHING, as the application 
of it to the human body has been 
aptly called the air-bath. In or- 
dinary language, however, this 
process of washing through the 
medium of an aerial fluid has been 
known by the name of ventila- 

But cases occur where venti- 
lation, or WASHING WITH AIR, is 
either not efiicacious or not expe- 
ditious enough* The nastiness 
and infection are either not wash- 
ed out completely by it, or are re- 
moved too slowly for ordinary con- 
venience. In such instances pure 
WATER is a good auxiliary to pure 
AIR. Septic poison, or, what is 
the same thing, infection, is dis- 
posed to diffuse itself, and find its 

level in clean water very readily, 
as well as in clean air : and water 
is better adapted to attract to it- 
self, and carry away with it, gross 
and unvolatile matters, than air is. 
For the removal, therefore, of 
those thick, unctuous, and adhe- 
sive excretions, which do not quit 
their connection with the cuticle 
and garments, and rise in vapour, 
WATER has a more exact and de- 
terminate fitness than air has. 
Water has for this reason been, 
by the common usage of mankind, 
employed for this purpose ; and 
the operation has been called 
WASHING, or, as it ought more 
properly to be expressed, .wash- 

If mankind wove few clothes to 
collect and confine their nastiness 
about themx ; if they lived in tempe- 
rate latitudes, under open sheds, 
with little bedding and furniture ; 
if they frequently used both the 
AIR-BATH and the water-bath ; 
and if they fed moderately upon 
food chiefly vegetable, whereby 
their excretions would be diminish- 
ed in copiousness and rankness, 
as the natives of Otaheite seem to 
do ; perhaps these two kinds of 
washing would answer most of the 
purposes of ridding them of their 
personal and domestic nuisances. 

But with the greater part of the 
human race the case is v/idely dif- 
ferent. Their shirts, breeches, 
stockings and coats, cover them 
by day, and their feather, flock or 
straw beds, sheets, blankets and 
coverlids, invest them by night. 
Their dwelling places are often 
close and narrow : and only now 
and then, by way of a rarity, are 
the persons, clothes, beds, bed- 
ding, furniture, and chambers of 
these families, washed as they 


The condition of such mortals 
was unhappy to be sure. Doom- 
ed to exist, without the purifying 



streams of God*s free gifts of air 
and water, sickness and abridj^- 
ment of life were the unavoidable 
consequences. Butthis situation, 
though for a while deemed forlorn 
and desperate, was found, by ex- 
perience, to be susceptible of great 
alleviation, and even of comfort. 
In the abundant stores of the Al- 
mighty, men at length discovered 
that great quantirties of alkaline 
SALTS AND EARTHS had bccu trea- 
sured up for their relief. And 
they have since found that the pro- 
cesses for keeping up the stock 
of these articles will be as dura- 
ble as the existence of fire, which 
prepares pot-ash and soda by the 
incineration of plants, and as last- 
ing as the labours of shell-fish, 
which collect lime from the floods 
of the sea. See Alkalies^ Calca- 
reous Earthy Lime^ Soda, and Pot- 

Asia seems to have been the 
cradle of mankind ; though Egypt, 
a north-eastern corner of Africa, 
was, perhaps, the best seminary of 
learning in early ages. The pow- 
er of alkalies to prevent corrup- 
tion, to repress noxious vapours, 
and to give activity and despatch 
to water in removing nastiness 
from the human skin and clothing, 
had undoubtedly been discovered 
as long ago as the descent of the 
grandson of Abraham to that coun- 
try. There were natural circum- 
stances, in some parts of that re- 
gion, peculiarly favourable to these 
discoveries. The surface of the 
land abounded with calcareous 
rock and brine of sea-salt ; and 
these, acting upon each other, un- 
derwent a double decomposition, 
whereby the carbonate of lime and 
the muriate of soda were changed 
to a muriate of lime and a carbo- 
nate of soda. This carbonate of 
soda lay ready to their hands in 
the dry season, and required little 
more than to be scraped together 
for use. Its ej^^ei'vescivg' qualify, 

when the acetic acid, or vinegar, 
was poured upon it, is noticed by 
King Solomon, who flourished one 
thou:iand years before the bii th of 
Christ ; and its cleansini^ fiower is 
remarked by the Prophet Jere- 
miah, six hundred years prior lo 
that aera. So early was it known 
that the most comfortable and 
healthy consequences arose from 
ALKALIZING watcr, ov rendering 


This discovery, which was of 
more consequence to the physical 
purity, and, through it, to the mo- 
ral proficiency and excellence of 
man, than the invention of the al- 
phabet, has come down to us with- 
out its author. It belongs to some 
Memphian genius, whose name 
ought to be mentioned with those 
of Theban Hermes and Syrian 

Such a solution of soda in water 
was called a lixivium, ov ley, and 
afterwards all salts capable of 
forming a solution possessing such 
antiseptic, detergent, neutralizing, 
and sweetening qualities, were 
distinguished as lixivial salts. The 
theory of their operation is briefly 
this : soda (and the same is true 
of pot-ash) has a double property 
of neutralizing acids, and of ren- 
dering grease soluble in watcr. 
A portion of greasy as well as in- 
fectious matter inheres in gar- 
ments, Sec. which neither mere 
air nor unmixed luater can wash 
away. Bui no sooner is water 
charged with an alkali, than, like 
a peace-officer authorised by a 
warrant, it searches every suspi- 
cious corner and lurking place, 
and drags forth mischief, with its 
aids and abettors, from their con- 

Water, thus, to be rendered 
quick, SAfc and cflicacious, ought 
to be alkalized. But as soda is not 
every where to be got, or, if to be 
purchased, costs too high a price 
for common tise, pot-ash began 



to be employed in its stead. Pot- 
ash was gathered on every hearth 
where wood was burned ; and, in 
process of time, it began to be un- 
derstood, that whosoever kept a 
wood fire, to obviate the evils of 
eold, and guard against the seve- 
rity of hunger, would find in its 
ashes a sovereign antidote against 
nastiness, infection and pestilence. 
Water, therefore, was alkalized 
with, pot-ash, and this lixivial salt 
was substituted for soda in the 
business of removiug corrupt ex- 

Experience, however, soon 
taught that pot-ash, taken hot from 
the fire-place, was of a caustic 
quality, and preyed upon the skin 
and flesh of those who put their 
hands into a ley made of it. Gar- 
ments, too, soaked or boiled in this 
acrid lixivium, were sometimes 
rendered rotten, and fell to pieces 
on being handled afterwards. To 
secure thediands and the goods at 
the sam.e time against this destruc- 
tive alkali, another expedient was 
tried, and another discovery made. 
In almost every house, whether of 
a huntsman, a shepherd, or a cul- 
tivator of the earth, there were 
scraps and morsels of fat, and other 
animal substances, not consumed 
as food, and these often lay as in- 
cumbrances about the house, or 
w^ere wastefuliy thrown into the 
fire. Now it was found that they 
might be employed for a very im- 
portant domestic purpose ; for the 
ley of the caustic pot-ash would 
combine with them, and in so do- 
ing there would be formed from 
the two a new product, possessing 
all the detergent and alkalizing 
pov/ers of the pot-ash as respected 
the garments, without its corrod- 
ing and disorganizing effects as 
regarded the hands of the washer. 
Thus soap ivas discovered ; and 
such is the reason why its alkali 
is connected with and disguised by 
*j:rease or oil. 

The great and efficacious means 
of cleanliness are therefore found 
to consist in washing; with, 1. 
Clean air : 2. Clean water : 5. 
Water alkalized with soda: 4. 
Water alkalized with pot-ash : 
and, 5. Water alkalized with soap. 
And these, when seasonably and 
sufficiently employed, are capable 
of overcoming and removing every 
particle of nastiness, septic acid, 
or infection, which are engender- 
ed on the cuticle, in the clothing 
and bedding of men, within their 
habitations, and amidst their furni- 
ture. These agents are sufficient 
to prevent its formation, and to 
destroy it wherever it exists. 
And wherever infection arises, as 
on ship-board, in poor-houses and 
jails, in hospitals and camps, there 
is always a neglect of these venti- 
lating and alkalizing processes 
which make pestilence vanish be- 
fore them. See Fumigation. Lime 
has, also, an operation neutraliz- 
ing, sweetening and wholesome, 
like the alkalies, but is not so ac- 
tive and powerful. See Lime, 
The virtues of alkalies are such^ 
that to alkalize a thing is but ano- 
ther phrase for destroying pesti- 
lence and infection in that thing. 

Climactericus Annus-t climacte- 
ric year. From cUmacter^ the 
round of a ladder. 

Climacterical Years, are certain 
observable years which are sup- 
posed to be attended with some 
considerable change in the body ; 
as the 7th year ; the 2 1 st, made up 
of three times seven; the 49th, 
made up of seven times seven ; the 
63d, being nine times seven; and 
the 8 1st, which is nine times nine ; 
which two last are called the grand 
climacterics. Aulus Gellius tells 
us, that this whimsy first came 
from the Chaldaeans, from whom 
it is very probable to have come 
to Pythagoras, who was very fond 
of the number seven, and used 
much to talk of it in his philosophy. 



ClimatCy KXifxcc^ is a spticc on the 
tcrrcstriiil globe, comprehended 
between two circles parallel to 
the equator; so that from the be- 
ginning of one climate to that of 
another next to it, there is half an 
hour's dift'crence in the longest 
summer's day ; these are also di- 
vided into parallels, which is just 
half so much; but tlie former is 
small enough to tlistinguish the 
different constitution and tempe- 
raments of air, which this term is 
generally used to express. 

C/ifiicus, >cA»vixos, c//V^zc, from xX*v»), 
a bcd^ clinical. It is applied to pa- 
tients who keep their beds. Hence 
a clinical physician is one who at- 
tends the sick, who are confined 
to their beds. 

Clinoidesy K7<i\!osi^ric, from x.Xiyri, a 
bcdy and si^oj, resemblance. The 
four small processes in the inside 
of the OS sphenoides, forming a 
cavity called Cclla Tercica. 

C/27oris,a small glandiform body 
like a penis in miniature, situated 
above the nymphae, and before the 
opening of the urinary passage of 
■women : from xAstw, to enclose or 
/lide, because it is hid by the labia 

Clitorismusy a morbid enlarge- 
ment or swelling of the clitoris. 

Clonicusy i. e. Clonus. 

Clonici, diseases from clonic 

Clonic S/ias?n. In a morbid state, 
the contraction of the muscles, or 
of the muscular fibres, are invo- 
luntary, and are excited by unu- 
sual and unnatural causes. When 
the contractions are succeeded by 
a relaxation, but, at the same time, 
arc repeated without the concur- 
rence of the will, or the repeti- 
tion of natural causes, and are, at 
the same time, repeated more fre- 
quently, and commonly more vio- 
lently, than in a healthy state ; this 
state of morbid contraction hath 
been named clonic spasm, and is 
what we name, strictly, a Canvul- 
ston. Cullen. 

Clonosy xAoyoi, any tumultuary, 
interrupted, or inordinate motion. 
It is applied to epileptic and con- 
vulsive motions. 

Clove-Tree. See Caryo/ihyllus. 

Clunes, the buttocks. 

Clunesia, inflammation and pain 
of the anus. See Proctitis. 

Clyster, x/.uo-rrjp, Clt/sma, 
or Clysmuity y-Xvo-ixo;, a glystcr, from 
kXv^w, to ivash or cleanse out ; also 
called Enema, from e;?jw.«, which 
strictly signifies the injection of a 
liquor into any part, to wash or 
cleanse it; but custom has now 
confined this term to an injection 
into the fundament, to procure 

Cneviodactylaus, i e. Musculus 
Extensor Digitorum Pedis Com- 

Coacus, or Coan. It is frequent- 
ly applied to Hippocrates, or any 
thing relating to him or his writ- 
ings, from his being born in the 
island of Cos or Coos. Particular- 
ly it is an epithet of a treatise of 
Hippocrates's, called Coaae Prte- 

Coagulation, from con, and ago^ 
to drive together, the curdling of 
milk, whereby some more viscid 
parts form coalescences, and leave 
the rest thinner and more fluid. 

Coal. A genus in the class of 
inflammables; of a black colour; 
breaking generally in an horizon- 
tal direction ; burning with smoke 
into an inflammable residuum ; 
and much more hard and compact 
than any other genera of this class 
with which it can be confounded. 
Jet is ranked as a species of coal. 

Coarctation, a rendefing the ca- 
nals narrow, or contraction of the 
diameters of the vessels. A coarc- 
tation of the pulse is its diminu- 

Cobalt. The ores of cobalt re- 
semble those of antimony. Their 
surface is almost always covered 
with an cfilorc cencc of a dingy 
scarlet. These ores contain much 



arsenic, and it is from them that 
arsenic is usually got. They also 
frequently contain a portion of 
bismuth. Those which contain 
cobalt alone are very rare. Beaumc. 
The metallic part is of a white co- 

CoccineUa^ cochineal. It is an 
insect brought from New-Spain 
and Mexico. It is found on the 
leaves and branches of the Ofiiin' 
tia^ called jYo/icJ in New-Spain ; 
by Linnaeus Cactus coccintUifer. 
Coccinclla is retained by the col- 
lege ill their Pharmacopeia ; it 
enters the Tinctura Cantharidis, 
the Tinctura Cardamomi Compo- 
sita, the Tinctura Cbrticis Peruvi- 
ani Composita. 

Cocculi IndiAromaticif Jamaica 

Cocculus Indus, India berry. In 
Linnasus's botany it is the Menis' 
permum Cocculus. 

Coccus Indicus Tinctorius, co- 

Coccyg(Xus Musculus. It rises 
from the spine of the ischium, 
and is inserted in the side of the 
Os coccygis. This muscle and its- 
feilow form a sling to bring that 
bone upwards and inwards. It is 
nothing else but a continuation of 
the posterior part of the Levator 
Ani. It is Winslow's Coccygaus 

Coccygceus Anterior. It rises 
from the anterior portion of the 
small transverse ligament, at the 
upper part of the foram^en ovale 
of the OS innominatum ; runs \ c- 
tween the great transverse liga- 
ment of the pelvis, and the mus- 
culus obturator internus, and is 
inserted into the lower part of the 
OS coQcygis. 

Coccygis Os. It is situated at 
the extremity of the os sacrum. 
It is bent forward towards the pel- 
vis ; it is made up of four or five 
pieces, like false vertebrae, joined 
together by cartilages. The first 
piece is the largest, the rest are 
less and less as they descend. 

Cochlea. A cavity of the inter^ 
nal ear, that resembles the shell 
of a snail, and in which are ob- 
served, the modiolus^ ov nucleus, 
extending from its basis to the 
apex, and in the centre of the scala. 
Cochlcaria, scurvy-grass, or 
spoon-wort. A genus in Linnaeus's 
botany. He enumerates eight spe- 
cies. The college have retained 
the Cochlearia officinalis in their 
Pharmacopeia; it enters the Suc- 
cus Coehleariae Compositus, for- 
merly called Succ. Scorbutic : and 
the Spiritus Raphani Compositus, 
formerly called Aqua Raph. Comp. 

Cochleare, a spoon, perhaps sa 
called from resembling a shell. 
The ancients had two kinds of 
Cochlearia ; the greater, which 
contained a dram, and the lesser, 
which contained a scruple. In 
the present London and Edinburgh 
Dispensatories, a cochleare is half 
on ounce of syrup, and three 
drams of water, in weight. 

Coction, in a medicinal sense, 
signifies that alteration, whatever 
it be, or however occasioned, which 
is made in the crude matter of a 
distemper, whereby it is either fit- 
ted for a discharge, or rendered 
harmless to the body. This is of- 
ten brought about by nature, as we 
speak, that i§, by the vis vitae, or 
the dispositiop or natural tendency 
of the matteif itself, or else by 
proper remedies, which may so 
alter its bulk, fi^gure, cohesion, or 
give it a particular determination* 
so as to prevent any farther ill ef- 
fects, or drive it quite out of the 
body. And that time of a disease 
wherein this action is performing, 
is called iXjs,- state of coction. 

Coecalis Vena, a branch from the 
concave side of the Vena Mesaraica 
Major; it runs to the beginning of 
the colon. 

Ccscu?n. See Cuscum. 

Cceliaca, Kornaxn. It is that spe- 
cies of diarrhoea, in which the dis- 
charges are chylous, and appear 
white, like milk. 



Caliac Artery. The first large 
-artery so called, which is detached 
from the descending trunk oi" the 
aorta into the abdomen. It divides 
into two branches, the one on the 
rij^^ht, the other on the left, of 
wiiich the first gives the gastrica 
dextra, which goes to the stomach.; 
the cistica, which goes to the gall- 
bladder, the epiplois dextra to the 
omentum, the intcstinalis to the 
duodenum, and to' a part of the 
jejunum, the gastro-epiplois to the 
stomach, to the omentum, and some 
branches to the liver, which enter 
the capsula communis, to accom- 
pany the branches of the vena 
1)0 rta : the left branch of the coe- 
liaca gives the gastrica dextra, 
which is also spread on the sto- 
mach, the epiplois sinistra to the 
omentum, and the splenica to the 
substance of the spleen. 

Caliaca mucoaa^ i. e. Diarrhoea 

Ca'llaca Passio, the coeliac pas- 
sion. A species of Diarrhceay in 
which the aliment is carried off'in 
a liquid state, but not well digested. 
The discharges resemble chyle. 
Aretaeus calls those afiiicted with 
this disorder, JcoiXio-Koi; Caelius Au- 
relianus calls them Vcntriculnsi. 

Coffee^ coffee-tree. A genus in 
Linnaeus's botany. He enume- . 
rates two rpecics. 

Cohobaiion^ is the returning any 
distilled liquor again upon what it 
was drawn from, or upon fresh in- 
gredients of the same kind, to 
have it more impregnated with 
their virtues. 

Coitus^ signifies strictly the con- 
junction of male and female in the 
act of generation. 

Colatura^Ziwy strained or filtered 
liquor is called the colature. 

Cole hie u?nj meadow saffron. A 
genus in Linnaeus's botany. The 
Colchieiim Autumnalc is much com- 
mended as a diuretic medicine. 
The college have introduced the 
recent root of this plant into their 

Pharmacopeia; an Oxymcl, Oxy- 
mel Colchici is directed. 

Cold. Cold is an agent peculi- 
arly powerful in producing dis- 
eases, and removing tiiem; indeed 
almost the fabled spear, which 
heals the wounds that it has in- 
flicted. Though we have styled 
cold an agent, it is seemingly a 
privation of heat ; and the appli- 
cation of cold to the human body, 
is only the application of such bo- 
dies which powerfully attract heat 
in consequence of their lower tem- 
perature; apparently, in some ca- 
ses, from their possessing a greater 
affinity for caloric, or from carry- 
ing off heat in consequence of 
their evaporation. 

In the human body cold is a re- 
lative term. We style it cold when 
the thermometer is at 70°, if it has 
suddenly sunk from 84° to that 
point ; but it is cold only at 32^, if 
the air has been long at 40", with 
little wind. Temperate heat is 
generally placed at 62°; but the 
uniform heat of the earth in Eng- 
land is about SI''. From about 
these two last points (for, from 
many circumstances, there must 
be a considerable variety) cold di- 
minishes the irritability of mov- 
ing fibres : they contract more 
slowly; but, as cold condenses the 
skin, it presses more firmly on the 
subjacent vessels, and gives addi- 
tional tone to the whole system. 
This effect of general pressure is 
evinced by the hilarity which we 
feel in a dense clastic atmosphere ; 
and the same effect sometimes 
arises even from the support of 
clothes : an advantage felt by the 
weak and irritable of the softer 
sex. In this state of the atmos- 
phere, the perspiration is dimi- 
nished ; but the discharge of that 
gazeous, insensible halitus, which 
contributes so powerfully to our 
feelings of health, seems to be 
continued with unabated vigour, 
and to be occasionally incveascd. 



The discharges from the bronchial 
glands, From the lacrymal, and 
from those of the whole Schnei- 
derian membrane, are augmented; 
and these, with the increased dis- 
charge of urine, seem chiefly to 
supply the deficiency of the per- 
spiration : for, in steady continu- 
ed cold, the bowels are by no 
means relaxed, often in a contrary 

The nervous system seems to 
suffer in nearly the same manner 
with the moving fibres. Its sen- 
sibility is diminished ; but the 
mental powers, we mean the in- 
tellectual, do not suffer. They 
seem to acquire vigour with the 
tone of the body ; while tender- 
ness, sensibility, and those feel- 
ings connected with an irritable 
system, are, in proportion, less 
acute. The stomach, which par- 
takes of the state of the nerves 
and moving fibres, experiences an 
increased tone. Its functions are 
less rapid, but performed more 
perfectly ; and, for similar reasons, 
the bowels are frequently less ac- 
tive, and the nutritious particles, 
by delay, more completely sepa- 
rated. In short, if we were to fix 
the limits where the animal system 
was in its most perfect vigour, we 
should say it was in those regions 
where the heat seldom rises above 
70°, or falls below 32o. 

When, during a great part of 
the year the heat is below the lat- 
ter point, we find all the effects 
mentioned more striking, except 
the vigour of the intellectual fa- 
culties. When the irritability is 
further lessened, strength of mind 
becomes torpor; energy and vi- 
gour are sunk in insensibility, 
and roused only by violent causes 
to temporary exertions. When 
still further lessened, the distin- 
guishing features of humanity are 
almost wholly lost. Even paren- 
tal affection has little influence ; 
and the great duties of religion 

are heard with indifference. The 
exertions necessary for the sup- 
port of life, few as they are, oc- 
cupy the mind and body. Love, 
which in warmer and more genial 
climates, refines the heart, and 
awakens every finer feeling, here 
sinks into an animal passion, nei- 
ther importunate nor refined; and 
the same want of irritability pro- 
tructs the period of puberty, and 
lessens the proportional number 
of the offspring.— A truly wise 
provision, where the means of sup- 
port are so scanty. 

The temporary effects of cold 
we have in part anticipated, un- 
der the article of bathing. All 
the changes just noticed come on 
rapidly ; but the accumulated irri- 
tability, when no longer repres- 
sed, restores the glow. If, how- 
ever, the cause continues, the de- 
bility is increased ; the pulse flut- 
ters with an irregular interrupted 
action ; the senses become gradu- 
ally weaker ; a propensity to sleep 
so irresistible, that the victim is 
content to purchase it with his life, 
supervenes, and death creeps im- 
perceptibly on this lethargy. The 
torpid animal, who passes his win- 
ter in this state of apparent death, 
recovers on the approach of 
spring. His irritability, suspend- 
ed for a time, is accumulated ; and 
he wakes from his death-like sleep 
with new vigour. When examin- 
ed with a microscope, the vessels 
appear like dark lines ; for the 
fluids are apparently coagulated. 
The action is first perceived in 
the vessels : this breaks the line 
into minute portions before these 
become undistinguishable in a 
circulating fluid. 

The partial action of cold has 
similar effects ; but they are con- 
fined to the part only. The bulk 
of the organ is diminished; the 
vessels are less distinguishable ; 
the skin becomes pale ; and,if th-e 
cold is too long continued, its life 



IS destroyed. Before, however, 
this last effect takes place, we 
avail ourselves of the chanj^e ; the 
hernia is reduced ; the puerperal 
discharp^e checked ; inflammation 

The diseases which cold pro- 
duces are not numerous, if we 
speak only of continued cold. It 
checks, as we have said, the 
growth ; it protracts the period of 
puberty ; and renders the female 
less prolific. All these, however, 
are within the limits of health : 
and we may as well say, that the 
Italian female, full of fire and pas- 
sion, is diseased from excess of 
fulness and irritability, as the 
Laplander from the defect of both. 
But, when the paucity of the men- 
strual discharge becomes a sup- 
pression ; when the circulation 
can be no longer carried to the 
extremities, but chilblains and 
sphacelus affect the fingers and 
toes ; when the whole system lan- 
guishes ; disease must be present. 
Yet, if we consider the variety of 
climates ; the rigour of the arctic 
winters ; the hardships of the 
Esquimaux, or of the sailor, in 
pursuit of the whale and seal ; 
■when we see, at the same time, the 
few diseases to which they arc 
subject; we are almost tempted to 
assert, that continued cold is very 
rarely the cause of disease. 

The principal disorders attri- 
buted to cold are owing to its irre- 
gular application to the body over- 
heated, or to a partial stream of 
cold air on one particular organ. 
From hence arise catarrhs, with 
all their attendant symptoms, and 
their accustomed danger ; from 
hence fevers, rheumatisms, diarr- 
hcEa, and all the vaiiety of epide- 
mics, with their attendant evils, 
date their origin. Kvcn the most 
destructive miasmata often rest 
innocuous in the body, unless ex- 
cited to action by cold ; and when 
we hinted that all catarrhs may 

originate from miasmata, we ad- 
mitted that cold was an exciting 

In this enumeration we have 
omitted two diseases attributed to 
cold : the chaps on the lips and 
skin, from the contraction of cold 
air ; and the frae;ility of the bones, 
the fragile vilrcum of Gaubius, 
supposed to be equally the effect 
of condensation. The former are 
scarcely diseases ; and there is 
much reason to conclude, that the 
deep-seated bones arc little affect- 
ed by the inclemency of the air. 
The internal parts preserve their 
usual heat in air of every tempe- 
rature, without increase or dimi- 
nution, as we have already shown ; 
and if fractures are more common 
in cold weather, it must be recol- 
lected that our steps are then more 
unsteady, the ground harder, and 
irregularly uneven. 

It has been contended, that cold 
is, in its primary action, a stimu- 
lant ; but the idea arises from the 
refinements of system, rather than 
observation. From the first ef- 
fects of cold, what has been styled 
reaction so suddenly follows, as 
to mislead the incurious or the 
prejudiced attendant. The dis- 
pute will, however, at last become 
verbal: for it is in no case con- 
tended that its stimulus will be in- 
jurious ; and generally admitted, 
that with little, often imp<.rcepii- 
ble, stimulus, it may be quickly 
rendered a powerful sedative. 

If we look to cold as a remedy, 
we shall find a more cheering 
prospect. In our observi»tions on 
cold bathing, we have distinguish- 
ed it in its immediate, its continu- 
ed, and repeated action. Wiien 
•we speak of cold in this place, we 
treat chiefly of its immediate and 
its continued action ; lor cold ap- 
plications are principally useful in 
these ways. We were almost led 
to confine our remarks to the lat- 
tery but there arc some facts which 



Vill not admit wholly of this ex- 

Cold is highly useful in fevers 
of almost every kind, though it 
M'ill often admit only of the slight 
application of cold air ; and rheu- 
matic fevers seem to be the only 
exception. The heat forms the 
true indication for its use ; since, 
in the early stage of intermittents, 
or in the exhausted state of pro- 
tracted typhi, it is less admissible. 
When there is considerable heat, 
and no fixed organic affection of 
the internal parts, cold is often a 
very salutary remedy. Vv^e have, 
indeed, some instances, where, in 
a protracted cold fit, the applica- 
tion of cold has hastened die reac- 
tion ; but the practice will be dan- 
gerous, unless the patient is strong 
and active. The effect of cold in 
the hot fit of fevers is to lessen the 
heat, and hasten the perspiration. 
This discharge is checked when 
the heat is considerable, and sel- 
dom takes place when it is much 
above 100'^. Dr. Alexander places 
the perspirable heat too high, viz. 
at 108^. 

Synocha is well adapted to this 
remedy; but it seldom occurs 
without the combination of inter- 
nal inflammation, except when 
owing to v.'orms, or sordes in the 
abdomen. In each case, cold must 
be employed with some caution 
and discrimination. Yet cool air 
and cool drinks may be allowed. 
L,et us take this opportunity of 
making the distinction. By cold^ 
when we speak of drinks, we 
Tnean, in general, from 5 1 ° to 40^ ; 
by cooly from 48° to 60^. The 
coolness of air is more relative : 
and, in general, means from 10° 
to 15° below the mean heat of the 
chamber, which should never ex- 
ceed, if possible, 62°. It will be 
obvious, that these numbers are 
not to be taken with minute preci- 
sion, but only as a general stan- 
dard, si^ 

In tyfihus^ the use of cold is a 
subject of greater nicety. Cool 
air and cool drinks are always 
proper, except when the patient 
sinks from faintness. Yet De 
Hahn used it in a low epidemic 
fever, at Breslaw, with some ap- 
pearance of success ; Dr. Gregory 
has sponged the body with cold 
water or vinegar ; and the practi- 
tioners of America have employ- 
ed it even more boldly in this, and 
its kindred disease, the yellow fe- 
ver. The exhibition of calomel, 
at the same time, does not seem 
to deter them. ; and, indeed, till 
some effect on the gums appears, 
no benefit is derived from the me- 
dicine. Should it produce this 
peculiar symptom, its worst conse- 
quence, little disadvantage would 
probably arise. In some instan- 
ces, very cold water has been em- 
ployed as a clyster ; and ice, in a 
bladder, applied to the stomach, or 
other-parts, suffering under acute 
pain. From ourselves we can say 
little ; we have, in a few instan- 
ces, employed it certainly without 
injury; we can scarcely say with 
any striking advantage. Where 
the heat is great, it may be most 
freely used ; when inconsiderable, 
sponging is the most adviseable 
application of cold, and vinegar 
mixed with water may have its 
advantages. The different parts 
of the body should be sponged 
also in succession. 

Phlegmasia. Ophthalmia has 
been constantly benefited by cold 
applications ; and the fact is so. 
generally understood, that we need 
not enlarge on it. Even ether, 
which produces a considerable de- 
gree of cold by evaporation, has 
been employed. Cynanche^ we 
are told by Dr. Rogers, is relieved 
in the northern climates by rubbing 
ice externally on the throat. A 
practice not very dissimilar is re- 
commended in some parts of Eng- 
land, holding a piece of nitre or 



sal prunella in the mouth. Some 
caution is necessary, that this re- 
medy be not employed in the ma- 
lici^naut angina. In fihreniiis^ the 
utility of cold applications is suf- 
ficiently known and well establish* 
ed; but in the other internal in- 
flammation it is a suspicious re- 
medy. From its utility in hernia 
"we may be led to employ it in en- 
teritis. In this disease, cold wa- 
ter has been dashed against the 
legs and thighs with advantage ; 
but it will be recollected, that, in 
hernia, enteritis, and cynanche, we 
approach so near the part affected 
that the cold is almost an external 
application ; and, though we have 
mentioned among the effects of 
cold a costive state, we then spoke 
of its continued application in a 
cold climate. In nejihritis we are 
told, by Mercurialis, that cold is 
useful ; and, as we can so nearly 
reach the bladder, either by the 
perinasum or above the pubes, -we 
suspect it may be useful also in 

In external phlcgmonc^ and all 
znjiammaiions of the joints^ cold is 
a more doubtful remedy. It has 
never, we believe, been employed 
in rheumatism ; and in gout we 
still think it must be injurious. In 
strains, in the white swellings of 
the knee, and in the morl)us cox- 
arius, cold, in the early stages, is 
advantageous ; and it is rendered 
more effectual, by increasing the 
momentum of the water, the form 
in which it is usually employed, 
by pumping, whicli also regularly 
renews the cold application to the 

In the HiEMORRHAGiiE, wilh 
scarcely, if any, exception, cold is 
useful ; and cold drinks, coUl air, 
cold applications, are of the great- 
est importance. Even in ha:morr- 
hages from the lungs it may be 
employed with little apprehen- 
sion ; and nitre, a remedy so pow- 
erful in every case of hemorrha- 

ges, acts only by tlic cold whitii 
it produces. Hcimorrhagea from 
the. uterus arc restrained by cold, 
though they often require it in the 
most active degree ; and, perhaps, 
iced injections into the rectum 
would l)e serviceable. Cold injec- 
tions in the ha?norrhoidesiire\)uv:- 
crful and efficacious remedies. 
Cold is perhaps best adapted to the 
active haemorrhages ; but even 
those from debility and tenuity of 
the blood reap little less advant- 
age from its use. 

In the EXAxVTHEMATA, culd iv 

also a very useful remedy. In the 
s?nall-/iojc, we know it is freely and 
advantageously employed in the 
form of cold air and cold drinks. 
Accident has even shown, that 
cold bathing, in the worst kinds 
of the complaint, has preserved 
the patient from the most immi- 
nent danger. If, however, cold is 
used in these eruptive diseases, 
it must be employed with steadi- 
ness and perseverance. Slight 
cold, soon discontinued, will be 
rather injurious than beneficial. 
The effect of cold in these cases 
is to moderate the too active de- 
termination to the skin ; which, 
pouring the fluids under the cuti- 
cle faster than they can be trans- 
mitted, are detained, and, by their 
irritation, produce the peculiar 
pustules. When this determina- 
tion is restrained, moderate per- 
spiration, or the insensible halitus, 
which we have called, with Che- 
not, the dia/uioc, succeeds. The 
eruption of the small-pox may be 
thus, in a great degree, or even 
entirely, suspended with safety : 
we scarcely dare to say the same 
of the other exanthemata. 

In ?)ieaslesy the poison is direct- 
ed to the eyes, the bronchial 
glands, and often to the breast. 
These affections have prevented 
the free use of cold. In peripncu- 
mony, the advocates for its use 
can only allege, that when cold 



has been employed in other dis- 
eases with which the peripneu- 
mony was complicated, it has done 
no injury. In catarrh we find a 
few instances, but from a suspi- 
cious source, in which it is said to 
have been useful ; but, on the 
whole, we find little foundation 
for pronouncing cold even gener 
rally safe in affections of the breast. 
We must, therefore, dissuade the 
practitioner from employing it in 
measles ; nor is itneccssary, when 
we find that we can easily dimi- 
nish all the dangerous symptom.s 
by cathartics. In scarlatina the 
experience of Dr. Currie, and the 
decisive conduct of Dr. Gregory, 
have established the utility of cold 
aifusions. They are employed to 
counteract the heat, and must be 
continued while any considerable 
heat remains. 

In the miliaria^ the use of coid 
drinks and cool air has been long 
established ; and such is their suc- 
cess, either in preventing or re- 
moving the disease, that we sel- 
dom want actual cold ; at least 
such has been the fortune of the 
author. In violent cases, there is 
certainly no objection to actual 

In erysifielas^ some apprehen- 
sions have been entertained of the 
effects of cold as a repellent ; we 
believe without foundation. When 
in this disease, the brain is affect- 
ed, subsequent to the tumour and 
inflammation of the face and head, 
the latter does not subside : it is 
a continuance of the same affec- 
tion, or rather a greater extent of 
disease ; and authors of credit 
have employed it with success. 

In the plague^ if it be really a 
genus of this order, our late ex- 
perience in Egypt has fully esta- 
blished the advantages of cold ap- 
plications, cold air, and cold affu- 
sions. These are particularly said 
to prevent bubos ; and it is highly 
probable that considerable and 

continued cold would be useful to 
anthrax in other situations. The 
practitioner should, however, re- 
collect, that anthrax is sometimes 
apfiarently critical. 

Projluvia^ the next order, con- 
tains but two genera ; and in one 
of these catarrh, we have said that 
cold is inadmissible : yet in the 
epidemic catarrh, cool air and 
cool drinks have been generally 
useful. We know not that the 
application of cold has been car- 
ried further. 

In dysentery, cold affusions are 
recommended by Dr. Lind. An 
Italian physician, Signer Rosa, re- 
commends clysters of the coldest 

In the sanguineous afioplexy (of 
the order Comata)-. cold applica- 
tions will undoubtedly be useful ; 
but we find little authority foi* 
their use. In the hydrocephalusy 
which has been lately classed un- 
der this genus, the coldest water 
applied to the head is said, by Dr. 
Rush, to be serviceable ; but it is 
not easy to say in so early a stage 
what the disease really is. Little 
danger will, however, probably 
ensue from cold applications in 
any kind of headach. The apo- 
plexy from narcotic poisons Js al- 
ways greatly relieved by cold ap- 
plications. (See Bathing). Tis- 
sot mentions the good effects of 
cold affusions in the coup de So- 
leil. In partial palsies, pumping 
on the affected limb, and then co- 
vering it with warm flannel, is of- 
ten serviceable ; and in weak 
joints, a similar remedy is equally 

In the SPASMI, cold is chiefly 
useful in the form of cold-bathing, 
which we have already noticed. 
In colic and cholera, coid drinks 
will be useful ; but they should be 
administered with caution, in small 
quantities, frequently repeated. 

The success of cold, in every 
form, in maniacal cases y is well 



established by a great variety of 
the most respectable evidence ; 
particularly of cold applications to 
the head. In tyinfianites it is re- 
commended by Dr. Cullen ; and 
in ischuria^ placing the patient on 
a wet -stone i!oor, on his naked 
feet, has often removed the ob- 
struction. It has been common 
to recommend bathing scrojihulous 
tumours with sea-water : but the 
effect is apparently from the cold ; 
and we have often employed com- 
mon water with similar success. 
In burns we have already mention- 
ed the utility of cold wuter. 

Il may not be amiss to add an 
account of some easy methods of 
producing a considerable degree 
of cold. When ice or snow are to 
be procured, we want no further 
assistance, for we can cool water 
only to the freezing point. When 
these are not at hand, water from 
a deep well will be found to be at 
the heatof about 50°. liy adding 
gradually a mixture of nitre and 
crude sal ammoniac (muriated am- 
monia), in the proportion of 8 to 5, 
this water may be gradually cool- 
ed down to about 38°. When we 
reflect that the heat of the body is 
98°, and that of Uie diseased part 
at least 1 04^, even the first degree 
will be considerable ; and by re- 
peating the application we shall 
often obtain the expected relief. 
From the water artificially cooled 
the benefit maybe increased. liut 
if this water be put into a bladder, 
and moistened with ether, spirit 
of wine, or indeed with common 
water, in a free current of air, the 
temperature will be nearly that of 
ice, and fully equal to any of the 
indications before laid down. The 
greatest extremity of cold requir- 
ed, is in some cases of puerperal 
uterine haemorrhage. In this we 
have known the patient exposed 
to the severest winter cold, cover- 
ed only with a sheet, which has 
been kept constantly wetted ; and 

life has been only preserved by 
such severe treatment, hut we 
must repeat that in every case, 
where cold is indicated, its use 
must 1)6 steady and constant. 

Coli Dcxtrum ( JJgamcnlian ). 
Where the mesentery changes its 
name for that of mesocolon (which 
is about the extremity of the ileum) 
the particuhir lamina which is 
turned to the right side forms a 
small transverse fold, which is thus 

Coli Si7nstru77i ( Ligameiituin.) 
It is a contraction of the mesoco- 
lon, a little below the left kidney. 

Colica. The colic; from k&Aov, the 
colon, one of the large intestines. 
It is known by a pain in the belly, 
and a sensation like a twisting 
round the navel, attended with vo- 
miting and costiveness. This ge- 
nus of disease is classed by Cullen 
in the class neuroses^ and order 
sfmsmi. The species of colic are, 
1. Colica s/iasmodica, arising from 
spasm : 2. Colica picio?iu?n, the 
painter's, or Devonshire, or white 
lead colic, which arises from the 
poison of white lead, and induces 
palsy of the hands : 3. Colica stcr- 
corea, common to persons of a 
costive habit. IVI. M. Venesec- 
tion ; eathartics ; ocnemas ; opium ; 
aromatics ; emollient fomenta- 

Colica sinistra C^rteriaJ^ i. e. 
Mcsenterica inferior Arteria. 

Colica sufwrior ( jirtcriajy i. e. 
J\lcscntcrica su/ierior. 

Colica Vena. It is a branch 
from the mesaraica major. It runs 
to the middle of tlie colon, where 
it divides to the right and to the 
left, and forms arches. On the 
left it communicates with the up- 
per branch of the haemorrhoidalis, 
and on the right wilh the secojid 
branch of the mesaraica. 

Colica recta (Vena.) It is n 
branch of the gastro-colica v. r- 
It goes to the right portion of'tiif; 
colon, from thence to the iippei 



part thereof, where it divides, and 
anastomoses with the colica and 
and the coecalis. 

Collaterales. So Spigelius calls 
the erectores penis, from their 
collateral order of fibres. 

Colliquation, is the melting of 
any thing whatsoever by heat ; but 
is more particularly used to ex- 
press such a temperament or dis- 
position of the animal fluids as 
proceeds from a lax compage, and 
wherein they flow oft' through the 
secretory glands, and particularly 
through those of the skin, faster 
than they ought ; which occasions 
fluxes of many kinds, but mostly 
profuse clammy sweats. The re- 
medy of this is in giving a better 
consistence to the juices by bal- 
samics and agglutinants, and har- 
dening the solids by subastrin- 
gents. Hence a 

Colliquati-ve Fever, is such an 
one as is attended with a diarrhoea, 
or profuse sweats, from too lax a 
contexture of the fluids. 

Collutorium Qris^ i. e. Garga- 

Collyrium. From Hi-Aua, to check, 
and pac, a defluxion. Any medi- 
cine was formerly so called, which 
was applied with that intention. 
It is now only given to fluid ap- 
plications for the eyes, or eye-wa- 

Colocynthis* the Coloquintida^ or 
bitter gourd, a species of Cucumis. 
The college have retained the me- 
dulla or pith of the colocynth fruit 
in their Pharmacopeia ;. it enters 
the Extractum Colocynthidis Com- 
positum, formerly called Extract. 

Colomba, a bitter root which 
hath been imported from the East- 
Indies ; it hath been received into 
practice on account of its eff'ects 
as a bitter in debilities of the vis- 
cera, arising from a long residence 
in warm climates, or from long 
continued diarrhoeas and dysente- 
ries. The college have introduc- 

ed it into their Pharmacopeia; a 
Tincture, Tinctura Columbaa is 
directed. On an occasion of a 
great scarcity of this root, some 
fraudulent dealers in drugs most 
wickedly mixed white bryony root 
with it ; the latter is an active 
purgative, and would therefore 
increase instead of remedying the 
disease, for which the Colomba 
was given. 

Colon, the second portion of the 
large intestines; from koiXo^^ hoi- 
low, because it is generally found 
empty in the dead body. See In- 

Colostrum, is the first milk in 
the breasts after delivery, accord- 
ing to some authors ; but Kartho- 
line applies it to an emulsion made 
by the solution of turpentine with 
the yolk of an Q^%' 

Colubrinum Lignum, is some- 
times applied to the snake-root 
that we have from Virginia, be- 
cause of its supposed virtues 
against the bite and poison of 

Columna J^asi, is that fleshy part 
of the nose which is prominent in 
'the middle. 

Columna Oris, i. e. Uvula. 

Columnar Cordis, the pillars of 
the heart. See Heart, 

Columna Se/iti fialati. These 
are two arches on each side of the 

Coma, x^jxcx,, signifies a propen- 
sity to sleep, not unlike what is 
meant by a Lethargy, which is not 
so aggravated with an entire loss 
of sensation as in a confirmed jlfio- 

Coma Somnolentum, is an uni- 
form deep and distempered sleep, 
from which the patient being a- 
waked, suddenly relapses into it 

Co7na Vigil, is an insuperable 
disposition to steep, from which 
the person frequently awakes as 
from a frightful dream. 

Comata. Under this najjie Dr. 



Cullen hath an order in his A'oso- 
logy<i under the class JVewrosr,?. In 
this order he comprehends those 
affections which have generally 
been called 6'o//o7"ose diseases ; but 
(he says) they arc most properly 
distinc^uished by their consisting 
in some interruption or suppres- 
sion of the powers of sense and 
voluntary motion, or of what are 
called the animal functions. These 
(he adds) are usually suspended in 
the time of natural sleep ; but in 
all these diseases, sleep, or even 
the appearance of it, is not con- 
stantly a symptom. 

Comatose^ those who have a 
strong propensity to sleep. 

Combination of Medicines. In 
the rage of reformation, it is not 
uncommon to step beyond the pro- 
per limits ; and, in almost every 
science, it is necessary, in differ- 
ent eras, to review dispassionately 
the conduct of its professors ; to 
correct, at times, their intempe- 
rate zeal, or to supply their omis- 
sions. Physicians have for many 
years aimed at simplicity in pre- 
scription, with propriety and suc- 
cess ; but they have sometimes 
failed, in wholly rejecting combi- 
nations with which their ancestors 
succeeded. And it was rather a 
spirit of empiricism than philoso- 
phical induction, which gave a ge- 
neral currency to Dover's sweat- 
ing powder, and many of Ward's 

To check, in some degree, the 
rage of simplicity, and the gene- 
ral tendency to too great refine- 
ment, we shall, from the different 
classes in medicines, select some 
instances, where combination is 
not only defensible but advanta- 

In the exhibition of emcdcfi wc 
are often disappointed, by the me- 
dicine remaining inactive in the 
stomach, and escaping, with its 
slimnlant powers unimpaired, into 
the intcslines. The addition of 

an antimonial to the ipecacuanha 
may cjuickcn its action ; but this is 
subject to a similar inconvenience. 
By the addition of a few grains of 
the white vitriol, we can often, 
with either of the others, produce 
the effect. A sedative emetic, 
less dangerous than the tobacco 
or the foxglove, would be a great 
acquisition to the materia mcdica ; 
but, even at present, in some pul- 
monic cases, the foxglove may be 
actively given for this purpose. 
The union of the squills with the 
ipecacuanha has often been highly 
useful, and equally so with the an- 

In the class of cathnrtics, com- 
bination is often essentially neces- 
sary. We distinguish cathartics 
as operating by increasing the se- 
cretions from the glands of the 
chylopoetic viscera, and thus af- 
fording the natural stimulus to the 
intestines ; as increasing the ac- 
tion of their moving fibres, by a 
stimulus peculiarly their own; or, 
as occasioning an extraordinary 
effort of the constitution, to throw 
off a poisonous substance intro- 
duced. It will be obvious, by- 
uniting the two first, we gain many 
advantages. The effect of rhu- 
barb, for instance, will be quick- 
ened and increased, if the poly- 
crest salt assists in increasing, at 
a more early period, the motions 
of the alimentary canal ; soap will 
sheath the acrid particles of aloes, 
and extract of jalap, while it as- 
sists their action ; and the warmer 
gums, as in Dr. Fordyce's formula, 
gently stimulate the superior pan 
of the canal, while they sheath and 
mitigate the too great acrimony 
of some of the ingredients. The 
old formulx of manna with the 
salts, quickened by some of the 
more active tinctures, or occa- 
sionally with metallic preparations, 
though apparently a disagreeable 
and discordant iniion, had many 
advantages, which arc, in vain, ex- 



pected from the more elegant for- 
mulae of modern times. In gene- 
ral, the more gentle laxatives 
should be quickened by the more 
powerful purgatives ; and the lat- 
ter (if indicated) softened by the 
oily, saccharine, the mucilaginous, 
or the saponaceous cathartics. 
There is, perhaps, no class of me- 
dicines in which greater latitude 
of combination may be allowed 
with advantage. 

In diaphoretics^ a judicious com- 
bination produces the m,ost singu- 
larly beneficial effects. Generally 
speaking, the. fluids are thrown to 
the surface by the stimulus of 
warmth, or other powers exciting 
the action of the heart and arte- 
ries. This stimulus, however, re- 
quires regulation ; for we have 
found (see Cold)^ that excess of 
temperature is unfavourable to the 
discharge fiom the skin. Stimu- 
lus, when fever is not present, will, 
however, often succeed ; but, in 
general, it requires the addition 
of a relaxant. Thus opium has, 
in every age, been the chief ingre- 
dient in sudorifics. But Dover 
refined on the former plans, by 
adding another relaxant; Ward, 
by the union of the white helle- 
bore, which he, perhaps, suppos- 
ed to be a stimulant, but which 
acted probably in a different way. 
Some poisonous medicines, by ex- 
citing nausea, relax the skin, and 
prove diaphoretic. Of this kind 
is the veratrum album, which 
Ward employed ; and all the va- 
riety of narcotic vegetables will 
produce the same effect. In combi- 
nation with the warmer stimulants, 
therefore, a great variety would 
probably form useful diaphoretics, 
did we want any more powerful 
than those we possess. 

Diuretics are of a similar na- 
ture ; and, independent of the 
more immediate and active stimu- 
lus conveyed to the kidneys, nar- 
cotics, by inducing general relax- 

ation, promote greatly the flow of 
urine. Some combinations of the 
two kinds we have employed with 
effect ; and, if Bacher's tonic pill 
is useful, it is from a combination 
of this kind. The necessity of 
the union is sufficiently perceived, 
by joining aromatics with the fox- 
glove. Why not rather the oils 
of juniper or turpentine ? 

Errhines are also of two kinds, 
the stimulant and evacuant: these 
are usually combined. We have 
but one internal sialogogue ; but 
the Hindoo unites the stimulant 
with the sedative in the prepara- 
tion of his betel. 

In the exhibition of emmena^ 
g»gues we occasionally combine, 
with advantage, the more general 
stimulants and tonics with the to- 
pical stimulants of aloetic purga- 
tives ; sometimes the latter with 
relaxants : and, in lithontrifiticsy 
we unite bitters, designed to coun- 
teract the calculous diathesis, with 
medicines that act on the calculus 

Medicines of a more general 
action do not so frequently require 
combination. We allude to stimu- 
lants and sedatives. Astringents 
and tonics') however, demand a 
more exact attention, properly to 
appropriate the medicine to the 
disease, as each is seldom without 
an admixture of the other, and a 
stimulant principle is sometimes 
combined. But this part of the 
subject requires a minuteness of 
detail, which can only be advan- 
tageously pursued when connect- 
ed with the consideration of sepa- 
rate diseases. 

In many of these classes Dr. 
Fordyce seems to think, that the 
union of two or more substances 
of the same class can be more ea- 
sily borne, and be more effectual, 
than the same bulk of a single 
medicine ; as water, when satu- 
rated with one salt, will dissolve a 
portion of a different kind. It is 



not improbable ; and "while, as in 
the classes just alluded to, we are 
measiirint^ the degree in which 
we shall add the warmer to the 
purer astringent, we may perliaps 
increase the aclivity of the medi- 
cine. On this subject we cannot 
properly decide ; for we^ too, are 
of '-St. Thomas, and hard of be- 

Another method in which com- 
bination will be useful is, where 
two indications can be at once 
answered by the union of differ- 
ent medicines. The instance given 
by Dr. Fordyce is the union of 
tormentil with ipecacuanha in old 
diurrhceas. The one strengthens 
the bowels, while the other deter- 
mines to the skin: an effect highly 
advantageous in the cure. This 
consequence of combination is pe- 
culiarly important, and we would 
strongly recommend it to the prac- 
titioner's attention : but it will be 
obvious, that it rather relates to 
the management of particular dis- 
eases; and to pursue the subject 
%vould require a volume. See 
Transactions for improving Me- 
dical and Chirurgical Knowledge, 
vol. ii. p. 314. 

Combustion. It is difficult to 
give a good definition of combus- 
tion. It is a collection of pheno- 
mena, which certain bodies exhi- 
bit, when heated with access of 
air; the principal of which are the 
continuance or augmentation of 
heat, agitation, or intestine motion, 
the emission of light, flame, and a 
total change of the matter burnt d. 

Comiste^ the epilepsy. This 
name arose from the frequency of 
persons being seized witli tliis dis- 
order while in the assemblies cal- 
led Conutia. 

Comilialis Morbus^ i. e. Comiste. 

Comiiissa PulviSj i. e. Cort. Pc' 
rnv. Puiu. 

Commctica^ the same as Fucusy 
or Ars fucalis^ arc such things 
which give beauties not before in 

being, as paints to the face ; dif- 
fering from cosmetics, which are 
only to preserve beauties already 
in possession. 

Cummiy gum. When alone it 
signifies gum Arabic. The xo/z/x* 
AfU/iov mentioned by Hippocrates in 
his De AlQrb. Mulieb. is gum Ara- 

Commissural a suture or joint. 

CommisfiUresy the angles of the 
labia pudendorum above and be- 
low, or the point where the lips 

Communis Sal^ 'i. e.Sal Mar in us. 

Comparative Anatomy^ is that 
kind of anatomy which considers 
the same parts of different animals 
with relation to that particular 
structure and formation as is most 
suited to the manner of living, and 
necessities of every creature : as 
in the comparative anatomy of sto- 
machs ; for instance, it is remark- 
able, that those creatures which 
have the opportunities of frequent 
feeding, have their stomachs very 
small in comparison to some crea- 
tures of prey, which may proba- 
bly be under a necessity of fasting 
for a great while, and therefore 
have stomachs large enough to 
hold food sufficient for a long 

Complexus^ is a muscle of the 
hinder part of the head, that arises 
from the transverse processes of 
the vertebrae of the neck, and as- 
cending obliquely, adheres to the 
spine of the same vertebrae, and 
is inserted into the occiput. It 
moves the head backwards to one 

Compl^xus Magnus^ i. e. Com- 

Comfilexus Alinnr^ called also 
MastoidiX:us Lateralis^ and Tra- 
cliclo iMastoidaus. It arises from 
the transverse processes of the 
three uppermost vcrlebraj of the 
back, and from the five lowermost 
of the neck, where it is connected 
to the transveii'salis cervicis, by as 


many tbiii tendons, which unite 
into a belly, and run up under the 
splcnius ; inserted into the mid- 
dle of the posterior side of the 
mastoid process, by a thin tendon. 
Its use is to assist the complcxus ; 
but it pulls the head more to a side. 

Complicatus^ the same muscle 
that is called Comfilexus. 

ComfUicatioK ofDiseases, is when 
a person labours under divers dis- 
tempers at a time, and more espe- 
cially if they have any affinity to 
one another ; as the dropsy, asth- 
ma, and jaundice, or the like, 
trhich frequently happen together 
to the same person. 

Co?n/iound Medici?ie% is what con- 
sists of more ingredients than one. 

Coftifiressor Aaris. A muscle 
of the nose, that compresses the 
alae towards the septum nasi, par- 
ticularly when we want to smell 
acutely. It also corrugates the 
skin of the nose, and assists in ex- 
pressing certain passions. 

Com/iressus, from con and pre- 
7/20, to press together^ compress. 
It is the way by which, with bol- 
sters of linen rags, surgeons suit 
their bandages for any particular 
part or purpose : and hath so long 
ago as Avicen been used for such 
contrivances as prevent the flux of 
matter upon any part. 

Conception. The impregnation 
of the ovulum in the female ova- 
rium by the subtile prolific aura 
of the semen virile. In order to 
have a fruitful coition, it is neces- 
sary that the semen be propelled 
into tiie uterus or vagina, so that 
its fecundating vapour shall be 
conveyed through the Fallopian 
tubes to the ovarium : hence it is 
necessary that there be a certain 
state of the ovarium of the fe- 
male in order to impregnate it ; 
which is, that the ovum shall be 
nature, and embraced by the fim- 
briae of the Fallopian tube to con- 
vey that vivifying substance to the 
• vum. See Generation. 


Cvnch^ A'arliim Inferiores^ also 
called the inferior spongy lamina 
of the nose. They are situated in 
the nasal fossse, on each side ; they 
are suspended like the ethmoidal 
concha, without resting on any 

Conch<^ JYarium Snperiores. So 
Winslow calls the interior part of 
each lateral portion of the Os Eth- 

Concoctio^ (from concoquo, to di- 
gest J. Concoction. It is gene- 
rally understood to be such a 
change upon the morbid matter, 
by the power of nature, generally 
with assistance of art, as renders 
it fit for separation from the heal- 
thy parts of our fluids, and to be 
thrown out of our bodies. But this 
doctrine, at least in fevers, is cer- 
tainly false. That morbid matter, 
when it exists, passes off from the 
blood in its pristine state, appears 
from the matter of the small -pox 
and measles, both which commu- 
nicate the same disease at every 
period after the eruption. It is 
most probable also, that, in every 
infectious fever, the morbid mat- 
ter, after assimilating some of the 
fluids of the patient aff'ected, pas- 
ses off" in the same state that it was 
received. Acrimony in the blood 
is in no case rendered mild by any 
process in our constitutions ; on 
the contrary, it is always expelled 
unaltered by some of the emunc- 
tories. Pus is never formed' of a 
kindly nature whilst the heat of 
the body much exceeds the de- 
gree that is proper to health. 

The theory of concoction, how- 
ever, which has prevailed since 
the days of Hippocrates, has been 
of the most fatal consequence to 
the science of medicine, and to 
patients aff"ected with fevers. It 
precluded all observation of the 
eff"ects of medicines in the early 
stages of such fevers, and left the 
patient to the ravages of their 
cause. When the idea was adde^, 



ihat heat was the instrument by 
which the change was effected, 
the miseries ot the sufferers were 
t^reatly augmented. The curtains 
were drawn ; the windows sliut ; 
tlic fires large and incessant ; and 
the medicines of the most stimu- 
lating kind. It was truly said, 
that those who recovered escaped 
^»« TTi/^o?, tlirough the fire. 

Sydenham supposed that the 
concoction of the febrile matter 
meant no more than a preparation 
and separation of the morbific from 
the sound particles. See Kirkland 
on Fevers, p. 14, 27. 

Condimcntum^ and Conditiira, 
arc used to signify those pickles 
or liquors in which other bodies 
are preserved from decay : the 
person doing this is the conditory 
and the, thing so preserved the 
conditum. But all this branch of 
pharmacy is now the business of 
him we call a confectioner. 

Conductor^ is an instrument to 
put up into the bladder, to direct 
the knife in cutting for the stone ; 
from conduco, to lead. 

Condyle. A rounded eminence 
of a bone in any of the joints : kcv- 
vvXoi ; from xcvov, an ancient cup 
shaped like a joint. 

Candy liy jcov^Aoj, knots in the 
bones about the joints of the fin- 
gers, which make them thicker. 

Condyii, are the little knots or 
protuberances of those short bones 
which make them thick about their 
articulations, as on the knuckles. 

'Candy loide Jljiojifiyais. See AIux- 
illa Inferior. 

Condyloma^ kov^vXuijjlix^ from xovoy- 
X©-, JJigi/i Articulus^ is tlie knit- 
ting of the bones in articulation, 
but more particularly those of the 

Condyloma CVai'W.v, a corn. Dr. 
Aitken reckons it a kind of Sar- 

Condyloma (a^ are a soft kind of 
tumours arising on the internal 
foat of the anus, unattended with 

pain, and of the natural colour of 
the skin. 

Confection^ may signify any com- 
position, from cum and facio^ to 
make iifi together ; but it is gene- 
rally api)licd to a particular soim 
of medicine, compounded with 
dry ingredients of many kinds, 
powdered and made into the con- 
sistence of a tliin electuary with 
honey or syrup. 

Conferva., river weed. A genu.s 
in Linnaeus's botany, of the ordt;r 
of Algas., or Thong fs. He enume- 
rates twenty-one species. 

Covfirmantia meOdcamenta^ me- 
dicines winch restore or confirm 
the strength of the body, or any 
part of it ; or medicines which fas- 
ten the teeth in their sockets. 

Canjinent., flowing togetiier, are 
any liquors joining into a common 
stream; but this is geiierally used 
for that sort of the small-pox 
wherein the pustules run into one 

Conformation^ is used to ex- 
press that particular make and 
construction whicli is peculiar to 
every individual ; and hence a 
inala confonnatlo signifies seme 
fault in the first rudiments, where- 
by a person comes into the world 
crooked, or with some of the vis- 
cera or cavities unduly propor- 
tioned. Thus many are subject 
to incurable asthmas, from too 
small a capacity of the thorax, and 
tlie like. 

Confusx Fcbres.) are such fevers 
which come loj^ctlicr alternately 
in the same persons, but keep not 
their periods and alternations so 
exactly as to be easily distinguish- 
ed from one another. 

Co7ige7icr€s, wlien spoken of 
muscles imports those which con- 
cur in the same action. 

Co7ig€8tiony\\\c. same as collec- 
tion of matter, as in abscesses and 

Conglobate Gland. Lymphatic 
gland. Globatc rclr.nd. A ro»ind 



gland formed of a contortion of 
lymphatic vessels, connected to- 
gether by cellular structure, and 
having neither a cavity nor an ex- 
cretory duct ; such are the mesen- 
teric, inguinal, axillary glands, Sec. 

Conglomerate Gland. A gland 
composed of a number of glome- 
rate glands, whose excretory ducts 
all unite into one common duct ; 
suchare the salival, parotid glands, 

Coniferous^ from conusj a ccne^ 
and fero.f to bear., are such trees 
or shrubs as bear a squaniose scaly 
fruit, of a woody substance, and a 
figure approaching to that of a 
cone, in which there are many 
seeds ; and when they are ripe the 
several cells or partitions in the 
cone gape or open, and the seeds 
drop out. Of this kind are the fir, 
pine, beech, and the like. 

Conimn maciilatum.^ spotted hem- 
lock, a species of Conium. The 
plant is the officinal hemlock. The 
college hath directed the herb, 
the flower, and the seed ; its ex- 
tract is called Succus Cicutae 
Spissatus, and is ordered to be 
made as soon as the flowers ap- 

Conjuncti Morbi^ are when two 
or more diseases come together, 
which are distliiguished into con- 
nexi and conaequentes ; the for- 
mer subsisting at the same time, 
and the latter following one ano- 

Conjuneta'^gna. The pathog- 
nomonic signs of a disease are so 

Conjunctiva Tunica. See Adna- 
ta. The conjunctiva is often con- 
founded with the adnata ; they are 
two distinct coats, and both but 
partial coverings of the fore part 
of the eye, though the conjunctiva 
is also spread over the inside of 
the eye-lids. The conjunctiva is a 
thin transparent membrane, which 
lines the inner surface of the eye- 
lids, and at the edge of the orbit 

has a fold, and is continued for- 
ward over the anterior half of the 
globe of the eye. It is exterior 
to ail the other coats of the eye, 
and connected with the albuginea, 
by means of a cellular substance, 
from which it may easily be sepa- 
rated in the dead subject by dis- 

Connutus^ oTivrcvjc, used much by 
Hippocrates for what is born with 
a person ; the same with congenite, 

Co?mutrituS) <Tvvlpo^o:y is what be- 
comes habitual to a person from 
his particular nourishment, or what 
breaks out into a disease in pro- 
cess of time, v/hich gradually had 
its foundation in the first aliments, 
as from sucking a distempered 
nurse, or the like. 

Consent of Parts, is that per- 
ception one part has of another at 
a distance, by means of some fibres 
and nerves which are common to 
them both, or communicated by 
other branches v/ith one another; 
and thus, the stone in the bladder, 
by veilicatingthe fibres there, will 
aff'ect and draw them so much 
into spasmus as to aflect the coats 
of the bowels in the same manner 
by the intermediation of nervous 
threads, and cause a colic there ; 
and also extend their twiches 
sometimes so far as the stomach, 
and occasion grievous vomitings. 
The remedy therefore in such 
cases is to regard the part origi- 
nally affected, how remote and 
grievous soever may be the con- 
sequences and symptoms in other 

Co72sfri^a,aconserve. Conserves 
are compositions of recent vege- 
table matters and sugar, beat to- 
gether into one uniform mass. 

Co7iservatio._ In Pharmacy.) it is 
preserving, pickling, or keeping 
from putrefaction and evapora- 
tion by the addition of some other 

Con^ervatio Medica^ called by 



the Greeks <Pv'>.o(.xlix.v) and vynivyi^ is 
that part of a physician's care that 
preserves a person in health, by- 
preventing the attack of a distem- 
per, in distinction from the phar- 
maceutic, vvliich applies remedies 
to the diseased. 

Constipation^ and Conatriction^ 
from constringo^ to bind together, 
is the binding up wounds, or clos- 
ing the mouths of vessels so as to 
prevent any efflux of their contents. 
Consti/iatus^ costive. A person 
is said to be costive, not only when 
the alvine fxccs do not daily pass 
from him, but also when what is 
discharged by the anus is too hard 
to receive its form from the im- 
press of the rectum upon it. 
Constrictiva, styptics. 
Const7'ictores, horn the same de- 
rivation are muscles of the nose, 
called also De^iressores Labii su- 
jierioris^ depressors of the upper 
lip, which arise from the fourth 
bone of the upper jaw, immedi- 
ately above the gums of the den- 
ies incisores, and ascending are 
inserted into the roots of the alae 
nasi, and superior parts of the up- 
per lip ; they draw the upper lip 
and aloe nasi downwards. There 
are also the 

Constrictorcs Ala JVasi. They 
rise fleshy below the root of the 
nares, immediately above the gums 
of the dentes incisorii,and ascend- 
ing transversely are inserted into 
the coats of the alae nasi, and the 
superior part of the upper lip. 

Constrictor Ani, i. e. Sjililiictcr 

Constrictor Istlnni Fauciinn. 
From the uvula two arches run 
down, and there is a cavity be- 
tween them, where the tonsils are 
lodged. The anterior arch goes 
down to the basis of the tongue, 
and is thus called ; the other pas- 
ses down the palatum moi!e,and 
goes to the pharynx, whence it is 
distinguished by tiic name o{ Ta- 
la to- Ph a rij ngce us. 

Constrictor JMbioriim^ i. e. 
Sji/iinctcr Labiorum. 

Constrictor Musculus^ i. c. Buc- 

Constrictor Oris^ i. e. Orbicula- 
ris Oris. 

Constrictor Pal/iebrarum, i. e. 
Orbicularis Palprbrarum. 

Constrictor Pliaryngis Mediu.ry 
i. e. HyO'Pliaryjigceus. . 

Constrictor Pharyngis Superior, 
i. e. Cephalo-P/iaryngaus. 

Constrictor Vesica Urinaria. 
See Detrusor Urina. 

Constrictorcs Pharyngxi. See 

Constrictorcs Pharyngis Infe- 
rior, i. e. Crico-Pharyngai. 

Constrictorii, diseases attended 
with constriction. 

Constringentia, astringents. 
Consumption, from consumo, to 
waste. In general it signifies a 
defect of nourishment, or the de- 
caying of the body, and particu- 
larly by a waste of muscular flesh : 
it is frequently attended with a 
hectic fever, and is divided by phy- 
sicians into several kinds, accord- 
ing to the variety of its causes, 
Avhich must carefully be regarded 
in order to a cure. See ^lorton 
De Phthisi, and the Theatrwn Ta- 

Contabescentia, i. c. Atrophia. 
Contagion, Contagio, or Co?ifa- 
giiun, from Contingo and Contac- 
tus, contact, is a secreted humour 
from a living vascular surface, of 
a poisonous quality, and capable 
of exciting a disease like to that 
by which itself was produced, when 
applied to the living system of a 
healthy animal of the same spe- 
cies. Thus the nratter of small- 
pox is a contagion, being produc- 
ed in the incision of an inoculat- 
ed spot, and in the pustules which 
make their appearance after the 
eruptive fever. The pus or sordcs 
of lues venerea is also a contagion, 
formed by artcrious action on a 
diseased secreting surface. Me;^- 



sles is another example of a con- 
tag-ioiis disease, it being propa- 
gated by a peculiar morbid stimu- 
lus inherent in matter secreted 
during the febrile state of the 
body. So the matter of vaccinia 
or cow-pox is a contagion formed 
by a morbid vascular action on the 
teats of kine, and communicated 
thence first to human beings, and 
afterwards from a human being to 

In has been supposed that the 
number of contagious diseases was 
very great. But this seems to be 
a mistake : for yellow fever, ship, 
jail and hospital fevers, and pesti- 
lential fevers, as well as the plague 
itself, seem to be entirely desti- 
tute of that peculiar morbid se- 
cretion, which we denominate 
Contagion. Neither of the febrile 
diseases just enumerated produ- 
ces, in any of its stages, a secret- 
ed fluid, or humour of any kind, 
that can, with any propriety, be cal- 
led contagious. On the other hand, 
it is sufficiently understood that in 
the cities of America yellow fever 
is excited by the septic exhala- 
tions from putrefying beef, hides 
and fish ; from feculency, offal and 
excrements acted upon by the in- 
tense rays of their summer sun. 
In sea vessels it is equally evident 
that fevers of the most destructive 
kind have arisen, as m several of 
the armed ships of the American 
States, from putrefying animal 
provisions; in other instances fe- 
vers have arisen during long voy- 
ages from septic gases exhaling 
from excrementitious substances, 
such as matter discharged by vo- 
miting, stool, urine and perspi- 
ration undergoing a pestilential 
change in the cloathing and bed- 
ding which receive them. In pri- 
sons and hospitals, where, from 
collected fseces, from foul wounds 
and ulcers, and from perspiratory 
pores, much offensive matter is 
effused, and, by intestine action 

worked to a noxious or pestilential 
quality, a febrile poisoning is in- 
duced, by which health is under- 
mined or destroyed. So, from the 
most correct estimate that can be 
formed, the plague, as it is em- 
phatically called, of Barbary, E- 
gypt and Syria, is caused by sep- 
tic exhalations proceeding from 
the accumulated nastiness inci- 
dental to the disgusting way of 
living in countries where the mas- 
ter of an house never invites his 
friend within his doors, where the 
decencies and elegances arising 
from the liberal and polite inter- 
course of the sexes are unknown, 
where oppression and poverty de- 
base the human species to the 
lowest point of degradation, and 
where the construction both of 
their private dwellings and of ci- 
ties favour remarkably the accu- 
mulation of noxious and plague - 
begetting materials. Notwith- 
standing the fashionable notion of 
the highly contagious nature of 
the plague of Asia and Africa, 
there seems to be n© foundation 
whatever for it. All these dis- 
eases last enumerated are propa- 
gated by infection, or septic acid 
gas. See Infection. 

Contagions are secreted poi- 
sons ; and of these poisons pro- 
duced by living animals there are 
two kinds : 1 . Poisons produced by 
healthij action of the vessels, as 
those of the rattle-snake, viper and 
spider; and, 2. Those which are 
formed in consequence of a mor- 
bid condition of the secreting ar- 
teries, as those of lues, variola and 
vaccinia. Their chemical consti- 
tution labours under the same dif- 
ficulty which attends our know- 
ledge of the greater part of other 
secreted fluids, and they have not 
been well analized. It is presum- 
able, however, from the analogy 
the contagions bear to infection, 
that there is a great similarity in 
their composition. But wherein 



this paniculaiiy consists is not 
pciTcrtly uiulcrstood. They seem, 
however, lo be destructible by llic 
same aj^-cnts, and alkaline salts and 
ew'i/is are capable of overcoming 
both the one and the other class of 
these injurious compounds. 

Contagiosi-, disorders from con- 
tagion, or contagious diseases. 

Co7itentio^u tension, or stricture. 

Continens Fcbri?;^ a continual or 
continent fever, which proceeds 
regularly in the same tenor, with- 
out either intermission or remis- 
sion. This happens rarely if ever. 

Continua Febria^di continued fe- 
ver, attended with exacerbations 
and slight remissions, but no inter- 

Contorsio, from contorqneo^ to 
turn aside ^ contortion. In Mcdi- 
cinCf this word sigiafies, 1 . The 
iliac passion ; 2. An incomplete 
dislocation ; 3. A dislocation of 
the vertebrae of the back sideways, 
or crookedness of them ; 4. A dis- 
order of the head, in which it is 
drawn to one side. 

Contra- jJ/ierlura, a counter- 
opening ; as when a puncture is 
made into the bottom of a wound, 
so as to favour the discharge of 
what could not easily pass at the 
top, where an opening was alrea- 
dy made. 

CoJitraction^ from contraho^ to 
draw together^ expresses the 
shrinking up of a fibrcj whcnitis 
extended : and 

Contractile^ is such a body as, 
when extended, has a property of 
drawing itself up again to that di- 
mension it was in before extension. 
For the cause of this property, 
whichisof the utmost consequence 
to a right understanding of the 
animal economy, see Fibre. 

Contraction. Contracinra. A 
rigid contraction of the joints. It 
is 'c genus of disease in the class 
J-^ocales^ and order Dyacinmitr of 
Cullen. The species are, 1. Con- 
iractura ab injiammadonej when it 

arises from inflammation: 2. Con- 
tractura a afiaamo^ called also to- 
nic spasm and cramp, when it de- 
pends upon spasu) : 3. Contractura 
oh ainagoniHtas f^.araliticof.^ fi om 
the antagonist muscles losing their 
action : 4. Contractura ob acri7nC' 
nia irritaiite. which is induced by 
some irritatuig cause : 5. Contrac- 
tura arlicularis, originating from 
a disease of the joint. M. M. For 
the 2d and Sd species see the ar- 
ticles Tetanus and Paralysis. In 
the others oily frictions about the 
joints and the bellies of the flexor 

Con trajis sura, contrafissurc. It 
is a crack in the skull, opposite to 
where the blow was given, e. g. 
the blow is received on the right 
bregma, and thereby a fissure is 
occasioned in the left. 

Contra- hidi cation. A symptom 
attending a disease, which forbids 
the exhibition of a remedy that 
would otherwise be employed : for 
instance, bark and acids are usu- 
ally given in putrid fevers ; but if 
there be difficulty of breathing or 
pain of the side, they are contra- 
indications to their use. 

Contralitnarisj an epithet given 
by Dietericus to a woman who 
conceives during the menstrual 

Contraycrva. Contraycrva. This 
word is of Spanish origin, and sig- 
nifies an antcdotc to poison. The 
oflicinal part of this plant, Dorste- 
nia contraycrva of Linnaeus, is the 
root. It has a peculiar kind of 
aromatic smell, and a light, ad- 
stringent, warm, bitterish taste ; 
and on being long chewed it dis- 
covers somewhat of a sweetish 
sharpness. Putrid and nervous 
fevers are the diseases in v.hich 
this medicine was formerly used. 
Grs. V. to 9i. 

Contusion. Contusio, a bruise ; 
from Cnrjfundo, to knock together. 
M. M. Vinegar; brandy; sugar of 
lead; liniment of soap or ammo- 



Ilia. If pyrexia follow, venesec- 
tion, cathartics, and the antiphlo- 
gistic regimen. 

Convalescenceas that space from 
the departure of a disease, and the 
recovery of the strength which was 
lost by it. 

Converge^ or converghig JRays, 
are those which go from divers 
points of the object, and incline 
towards one another. 

Convex^ from conveho^ to carry 
out^ is the external round part of 
any body opposite to the hollow, 
and commonly in Anatomy called 

Convoliita Sufieriora (Ossa), 
i. e. Concha JVarium Sufierior. 

Convoluta Inferior a.^ the lower 
shelves of the nose. 

Convolvulus Syriacusji.e. scam- 

Convolvulus^ a name of the iliac 

Convulsion. Convulsio. Clonic 
spasm. Alternate relaxations, with 
violent and involuntary contrac- 
tions of the muscular fibres, with- 
out sleep. CuUen arranges con- 
vulsion in the class JSfeurosesy and 
order Sfiasmi. M. M. If it pro- 
ceed from teething, an incision on 
the suspected teeth ; if from cru- 
dities in the first passages, an eme- 
tic ; if from acidities, castor oil, 
volatile alkali and other antacids ; 
if from worms, anthelmintics ; if 
from repelled eruptions, a warm 
bath, blisters. In general antis- 
pasmodics and anodynes. 

Convulsio Clonica^ convulsion 
alternating with relaxation. 

Convulsio Indica, i. e. Tetanus. 

Convulsio a JVervi Punctura, 
i. e. Trismus. 

. Convulsio SoloniensiSf i. e. Ra- 

Convulsio Tonica, convulsion 
not alternating with relaxation. 

Convulsio Uteris i. e. Abortus. 

Coolers^ which produce an im- 
mediate sense of cold, as fruits, 

all acid liquors, and common wa- 
ters, cucumbers, &c. 

Copai/eruj balsam capivi tree. 
A ^enus in Linnasus's botany. 
There is but one species. 

Cofial. The natives of America 
call all transparent odoriferous 
gums by the name of Copal. That 
which is in our shops is a resinous 
gum, and is brought from New- 
Spain. It is in irregular masses ; 
some are transparent, others less 
so in different degrees. It differs 
from other resinous bodies in be- 
ing difficultly dissolved by rectifi- 
ed spirit of wine, 8cc. 

Cofihosis^ a difficulty of hearing ; 
from xa,'^©,-, dumb. See Dyseco'ia, 

Copfier. Cuprum. An imper- 
fect metal, of a red brilliant co- 
lour ; hard, elastic, sonorous, and 
very ductile. It is found in the 
earth in various states. The uses 
of this metal in the arts are nu- 
merous. All its preparations are 
very violent poisons, and ought 
never to be given internally, but 
with the greatest caution. The 
sulphate of copper is a powerful 
tonic and diuretic, and is given 
internally in dropsies and weak- 
nesses. — From Grs. ^ to 1 at a 
time. From 9ss to 9i. operates 
as an emetic. Externally it is 
employed by surgeons as an es- 

Copperas. A name given to the 
three vitriols, viz. the blue, green, 
and white. The English green 
vitriol is purely ferrugineous ; 
but almost all others have an ad- 
mixture of copper. It seems as 
if the metallic part of all vitriols 
had been formerly supposed to be 
copper only ; hence, in various 
countries, they have received 
names expressive of copper. The 
English call each of them coppe- 
ras ; the Germans kupfferivasser ; 
some Latin writers cuperosum^ i. 
e. cuprum erosum ; the Greeks 

Copula^ whence Copulatioriy 



slrictly sij^nityinp^ the conjunction 
of male and female in the act of 
generation, but used by some phy- 
sical writers for a peculiar mix- 
ture of some bodies with others. 

Cor. See Heart. 

Coracobrachialis.) ^ from acfo,^, a 

Coracobrachiaust ) crow, and /Spa- 
X^ttiv^ brachiuni') an arm. This mus- 
cle arises tendinous and fleshy 
from the fore part of the coracoid 
pjocessof the scapula, adhering 
in Its descent, to the short head of 
the biceps ; inserted, tendinous 
and- fleshy, about the middle of 
the internal part of the os humeri, 
near the orii^in of the third head 
of the triceps, called brachialis ex- 
ternus^ where it sends down a thin 
tendinous expansion to the inter- 
nal condyle of the os humeri. Its 
use is to raise the arm upwards 
and forwards. 

Coraco-liyoidaeus. It arises from 
the superior part of the upper costa 
of the scapula, and is ijiserted in- 
to the basis of the os hyoides, to 
pull it downwards and backwards. 

Coracoides Processus-^ the beak- 
like process. Us name is from its 
likeness to the beak of a crow. It 
projects from the anterior extre- 
miiy of the upper costa of the sca- 
pula. This process is a little 
crooked, with its point inclining 
forwards; a ligament goes out on 
its superior part, to connect it to 
the acromion and clavicle. At the 
birth of children it is cartilagi- 

Coracoidcusj i. e. Coracobrachi- 

Coralachatesi a species of the 
Achates^ which resembles coral 
with respect to its colour. 

Corallina^ coralline. The coral- 
lines, of which there are several 
kinds, were formerly reckoned 
amongst plants : but later in([ui- 
ries prove them to be the product 
of difl'erent animals whicli resem- 
ble polypes. Modern naturalists 
define them as being submarine 

plant-like bodies, that consist of 
many slender, finely divided, and 
jointed branches. They are dis- 
tinguished from plants by their 
texture and hardness. By distilla- 
tion they yield a considerable 
quantity of volatile salt ; and their 
smell, on burning, resembles that 
of burnt horns, and other animal 
substances. See on this subject 
Ellis's Natural History. 

Cor allium^ coral. Its produce 
is similar to that of coralline. It 
is also called Litliodendron^ or 

Corallium A''igru?n, black coral. 
What is usually shown for black 
coral, is a woody, and not a stony 

Corallium Album Ramosum, also 
called Madre/iora Vulgaris., white 
coral. The best is brought from 
the Mediterranean, and is not po- 
rous, but solid. 

Corallium Rubrum.^ red coral. 
This sort hath chiefly been used 
in medicine. It contains a small 
portion of iron ; its basis seems 
to be the same calcareous animal 
earth as that of coralline, and other 
animal earths ; it is possessed of 
the same properties with them, 
and no other. The college have 
retained this substance in their 
Pharmacopeia; it enters the Pul- 
vis e Clielis Cancrorum Composi- 
tus ; the PulvisContrayervjc Com- 
positus; and the Confcctio Aro- 
matica : it is the Isis Nobilis, Lin- 

Corcuiu7Kj a diminutive, from 
Cor, t/if heart. In Bohiny., it signi- 
fies the heart or essence of a seed, 
and the primordium of the future 
plant, attached to, anci involved in 
the cotyledon. 

Cordials. Medicines arc gene- 
ally so termed which possess 
warm and stimulating properties, 
and that are given to raise the 
spirits ; from cor., the heart. 

Coriaudrum. Coriander. Cori' 
andrtim sa'ivumoi' hmuizus. Eve- 



ry part of the plant has a very of- 
fensive odour ; but upon being 
dried, the seeds have a tolerably 
grateful smell, and their taste is 
moderately warm, and slightly 
pungent. They possess a sto- 
machic and carminative power, 
and are directed in the infusum 
umarum^ infusum sennce tartariza- 
tu77i, and some other compositions 
of the Pharmacopeias. — B'l. to ^'i. 

Coriariay tanner's sumach, a 
species of Rhus. 

Cork-tree, a species of oak. 

Cornea, a coat of the eye, which 
is also called Sclerotica. It is the 
first and outermost coat which is 
proper to the eye ; it is thick and 
tendinous: its anterior partis dis- 
tinguished by the name of cornea 
transparens, or cornea lucida, and 
the posterior part cornea ojiaca, and 
sclerotica, or sclerotis. The trans- 
parent part is elastic, the opake 
partis not. The fore part bearing 
a fancied resemblance to transpa- 
rent horn, takes the name of cor- 
nea. The natural transparency of 
the cornea is liable to be obscured 
by inflammation, or by humours 
affecting it, by abscesses and ul- 
cers. It is more proper to consi- 
der this coat of the eye as the scle- 
rotica, and the cornea only as its 
transparent part. 

'- Corn. Clavus. A hardened por- 
tion of cuticle, produced by pres- 
sure ; so called because a piece 
can be picked out like a corn of 
barley. M. M. Soaking in warm 
water ; paring and securing them 
from pressure by a thick annulary 
plaister or other means. 

Cornelian, a species of Agate. 
The name coriielian is given to 
several species of agate, but is 
only properly applied to that of a 
red colour. 

Corniculares Processus, i.e. Co- 
racoides Processus. 

Cornu Cervi, the horn of the 
stag or hart. The horns of the 
hart or male deer are to be un- 

derstood, but those of the male 
or female of the common fallow 
deer are generally used. The 
college have retained it in their 
Pharmacopeia ; the burning of 
Hartshorn, Cornu Cervi Ustio, is 
directed among the more simfile 
preparations ; Spirit of Hartshorn, 
called Liquor Volatilis Cornu 
Cervi, and Oleum Cornu Cervi, 
are directed ; the latter thrice 
distilled, is called Oleum Ani- 
male ; a Decoction of Burnt 
Hartshorn, Decoctura Cornu Cer- 
vi, is directed. Hartshorn Shav- 
ings are employed in making the 
Pulvis Antimonialis. 

Cornua Uteri, in Comparative 
Anatomy, the horns of the womb. 
The womb is so divided in some 
quadrupeds, as to form corners 
resembling horns. 

Cornus, the cornel-tree, or 
dog-wood. A genus in Linnseus's 
botany. Of this species there 
are nine. 

Corolla, in Botany, the most con- 
spicuous part of a flower, sur- 
rounding the organs of generation, 
and composed of one or more 
flower-leaves, most commonly cal- 
led Petals, to distinguish them 
from the leaves of the plant. It 
is the termination of the liber, or 
inner bark, continued to, and ac- 
companying the fructification in 
this new form of painted leaves. 
Its use is the same as that of the 
calyx, serving as an inner work of 
defence to the parts it encloses ; 
as the calyx, which is usually of a 
stronger texture, does for an outer 
one, according as there are one 
or more petals. The corolla is 
said to be monopetalous,polypeta- 
lous. Sec. 

Corollary, is an useful conse- 
quence drawn from something 
which had been before advanced 
or demonstrated, often used in 

Corona Imper'ialis, crown impe- 
rial, a species of Fritillaria. 



Corona Soninis^ the little crown 
which adheres to many kinds of 
seeds, and which, serving them as 
\vinij;s, enables them to disperse. 

CoronaUs-, is the first suture 
of the skull. It reaches trans- 
versely from one temple to the 
other ; it joins the os fiontis with 
the ossa pai ietaria. This is open 
the breadth of a finger or two in 
the middle in young children, but 
grows closer -with age; though 
sometimes, by convulsion fits, or 
a bad conformation, it not only 
closes in children, but the edges 
shoot over one another, which is 
Avhat the good w^omen call Head- 
mould-shot ; after which they sel- 
dom live long. 

Coronaria Ligamenta. The co- 
ronary ligament of the radius is a 
sort of ligamentary hoop, sur- 
rounding the circular circumfe- 
rence of the head of that bone, 
reaching from one side of the 
small lateral sigmoid, or trans- 
verse cavity of the ulna, to the 
other in an arch, which is about 
three-fourths of a circle. It is 
nearly as solid as a cartilage. It 
connects the radius very close to 
the ulna, yet admits of the pro- 
nation and the supination of the 

Coronaria Fasa, coronary ves- 
sels, are the two branches which 
the great artery spreads over the 
outside of the heart, for its supply 
with blood and nourishment be- 
fore it pierces the pericardium. 
See Heart. The arteries and 
veins which surround the left ori- 
fice of the stomach are likewise 
by some anatomists so called. 

Coronariiis Stoniac/ir'cusj the ra- 
mification of the nerves from the 
eighth pair, near the upper orifice 
of the stomacii. 

Corojia^ is a sharp process of 
the lower jaw-bone. Sec Maxilla 

Coronoid. Processes of bones 
are so called that have anv resem- 

blance to a crow's beak ; from xo- 
pay*), a crow, and -doQ^^ likeness. 

Corjiora Cavernosa. Sec Gene- 
ration.) parts o/, proper to men ; 

Corpora J^crvoao Penis, called 
also Cor/iora Cavernosa : these 
are two spongy bodies arising dis- 
tinctly from the lower part of the 
OS pubis. A little from their root 
they come close together, being 
only divided by a membrane, 
which, at its beginning, is pretty 
thick, but as it approaches to the 
end of the yard, grows thinner 
and thinner, where the corpora 
cavernosa terminate in the mid- 
dle of the glans. The external 
substance of these spongy bodies 
is hard, thick, and white. The in- 
ternal is composed of small fibres 
and membranes, which form a sort 
of loose net-work, upon which the 
branches of the blood-vessels are 
curiously spread. When the blood 
is stopped in the great veins of 
the penis, it runs through several 
small holes in the sides of their 
capillary branches into the cavi- 
ties of the net-work, by which 
means the corpora cavernosa be- 
come distended, and by that means 
the penis erected. 

Corpora Fimbriata. A border 
on the edge of the fornix in the 
brain is thus named. 

Corpora Olivaria. Two eminen- 
ces on the medulla oblongata are 
thus named. Winslow calls those 
Corpora Olivaria which Willis 
calls Corpora Pyramiualia. 

Corpora Pyramidalia, are two 
protuberances of the under part 
of the cerebellum, about an inch 
long, Avhich, from their resem- 
blance to a pyramid in shape, are 
thus called ; and on each side oi 
them, towards the lower end, there 
are two more, which, from their 
figure resembling an olive, aro 
called Corpora Olivaria. Further, 
when the blood hiith discharged 
it-iclfofthc seed in tlic t:^<--^i' 'c-^, 



it returns by the veins, which, 
rising in several branches from the 
testes, tend towards the abdomen 
in the production of the pserito- 
neum, the same way the arteries 
come down ; in their progress the 
branches frequently inosculate, 
and divide again till they come 
near the abdomen, and then they 
all unite in one trunk, and there, 
because of their shape, are also 
called Corpora Pyramidalia. 

Corpora Striata. Two promi- 
nences in the lateral ventricles of 
the brain, are thus named. 

Corpulentia^ excess of fat. 

Corpus^ a body, strictly expres- 
ses the same as Matter^ which 

Corpus CaUosiiTi^ is the upper 
part or covering of the two lateral 
ventricles appearing imm.ediateiy 
under the process of the dura 
mater, below the depth of all the 
circumvolutions of the brain, and 
formed by the union of the medul- 
lary fibres of each side. ^ 

Corpus Glandulosuin, S>ee Pros' 

Corpus Luteum. The granulus 
papilla which is found in that part 
•^trf t heparin m pi^emales, from 
whence an ovum lia3 proceeded ; 
hence their presence determines 
that the female has been impreg- 
nated ; and the number of the cor- 
pora lutea corresponds with the 
number of impregnations. It is, 
however, asserted by a modern 
writer, that corpora lutea have been 
detected in young virgins, where 
no impregnations could possibly 
have taken place. 

Corpus Mucosum, i. e. Rete mu- 

Corpus Pampiniforme,'y the spermatic 
Corpus Pyramidale, 3 cord. 

Corpus Reticulare. See Rete 
mucosum. •' 

Corpus spongiosum. Urethrts, the 
spongy body of the urethra. It is 
of ihe same substance as the cor- 
pori cavernosa, and surrounds the. 

urethra, and at its extremity forms 
the glans. That end next the 
prostatse, because of its bigness, 
is called the Bulb of th-e Urethra, 

Corpus varicosU7n, the sperma- 
tic cord. 

Corpuscles^ a diminutive of cor- 
pus^ body, signify the minute par- 
ticles, or atoms, of which any body 
is constituted. And that way of 
reasoning which endeavours to ex- 
plain things by the motion, figure, 
and position of these minute in- 
gredients of mixed bodies, has of 
late^ and particularly from the au- 
thority of Mr. Boyle, been called 

Corpuscular Philosophy ; the 
chief principles of which are, 1. 
That there is but one catholic or 
universal matter, which is an ex- 
tended, impenetrable, and divisi- 
ble substance, common to all bo- 
dies, and capable of all forms: 2. 
That this matter, in order to form 
the vast variety of natural bodies, 
must have m^otion in some or all 
its designabie parts ; and that this 
motion was givfen to matter^ljyyGod 
the Creator of all things, and has 
all manner of direction and ten- 
dencies: 3. That matter must also 
be actually divided into parts, and 
each of these primitive particles, 
fragments, or atoms of matter, 
must have its proper magnitude, 
figure, and shape: 4. That these 
differently sized and shaped par- 
ticles have different orders, posi- 
tions, situations, andpostures, from 
whence all the vaia^tybf compound 
bodies arises. _.3ir^Raac N&wton, 
in his second bo'ol£ oi Optics, shows 
a way of guessing with great ac- 
curacy at the sizes of the compo- 
nent*- corpuscles or particles, *bf 
which bodies are constituted. 

Corrector,!^ such an ingredient 
in^arcomposition as guards against 
or abates the force of another; as 
the lixivial salts prevent the griev: 
ous vellications of resinous purges, 
by dividing their particles, and 



preventing* their adhesions to the 
intestinul membranes, whcicby 
they somctinies occasion inlolera- 
ble gripin^s ; and as spices and 
carminative seeds also assist in the 
easier operation of some cathar- 
tics, by dissipating collections of 
wind. In the making a medicine 
likewise, such a thing is called a 
corrector^ which destroys or dimi- 
nishes a quality in it that could not 
otherwise be dispensed with : thus 
turpenthies niay be called the cor- 
rectors of quicksilver, by destroy- 
ing its fluxility, and making it 
thereby capable of mixture ; and 
thus rectiiicd spirit of wine breaks 
off the points of some acids, so as 
to make them become safe and 
good remedies, which before were 

Corroborate^ signifies to streng- 
then. See Strength. 

Corroborating Medicines^f are 
such as increase the strength of 
the body by enlivening the vital 

Corrosives. Caustics. Substan- 
ces are so called which possess a 
power of destroying the texture 
of a solid part to which they are 
applied, independent of any me- 
chanical action ; from corrodo^ to 
eat away. See Caustics. 

Corrugate^ is to wrinkle or purse 
up, as the skin is drawn into wrin- 
kles by cold or any other cause. 

Corrugator Supercilii. Each 
eye-brow has one. It is a muscle 
arising frona the great canthus of 
the orbit, and terminating in the 
skin about the middle of the eye- 
brows. Some reckon this pair 
only a prolongation of the fron- 
.^les ; their name declares their 
use, from corrngo, to wrinkle u/i, 
or knit the brows. 

Corrugator Coitcrij i. c. .C]giT «- 
gator Sujiercilii. wKr- 

Corrufition^ is the destruction, 
or at least the cessation for a time, 
of the proper mode of existence 
of any natural bodv: for when- 

ever a body loses all, or any of 
those accidents which are essen- 
tially necessary to the constituting 
it of such a particular kind, it is 
then said to be corrupted or de- 
stroyed, and loses its former de- 
nomination, being not now a body 
of the kind it was before : but no- 
thing can be destroyed as to its 
substance or materiality ; for as 
in generation nothing of matter 
is produced that did not before 
exist, so in corrufition nothing 
more is lost than that particular 
modification which was its form, 
and made it be of such a species. 

Cortex, from corium, a hide, and 
tego, to cover ; properly the outer 
rind of vegetables, distinct from 
the liber : thus the corolla is a 
continuation of the liber, and the 
calyx of the cortex. The Peru- 
vian bark is so called by way of 

Cortex Cardinalis de Lugo. The 
Cort. Peruv. was thus called, be- 
cause the cardinal Lugo had tes- 
timonials of above a thousand 
cures performed by it in the year 

Cortex Magellanicus. Wintera^ 
nus Cortex. 

Cortex PeruvianuS) i. e. Ci?i- 

Cortex Winteranus S/mrius, i. e. 
Canella Alba. 

Corymbus, is a species of fruc- 
tification, having its flowers sup- 
ported on flower-stems of differ- 
ent lengths, but so disposed, that 
the flowers shall be nearly of an 
equal height, as occurs in the mi- 
lefolium, or common yarrow. 

Coryza^ xop^a, is a defluxion of 
serous sharp humours from the 
glands of the head, upon a dimi- 
nution of perspiration, or taking 
cold. Dr. Cullen uses this word 
as synonymous Avith Catarrh. 

Coryza Cutarrhalis, a catarrh 
from cold. 

Coryza Fcbricosa-^ a catarrh from 



Coryza Phlegmatorrkagla^a ca- 
tarrh from cold. 

CosmetiC'i from Jco(r,as&;, omo, to 
beautify ; such medicines as pre- 
serve the beauty and smoothness 
of the skin. 

Costa, the ribs. Of these there 
are 24 in number, viz. 12 on each 
side the 12 vertebrae of the back : 
they are crooked, and like to the 
-segments of a circle ; they grow 
flat and broad as they approach the 
sternum; but the nearer they are 
to the vertebrae, they are the roun- 
der and thicker; at which end they 
have a round head, which being 
covered with a cartilage, is receiv- 
ed into the sinus in the bodies of 
the vertebrae, and at the neck of 
each head (except the two last ribs) 
there is a small tubercle, which is 
also received into the sinus of the 
transverse processes of the same 
vertebrae. The ribs thus articu- 
lated make an acute angle with the 
lower vertebrae. The ribs have 
each a small canal or sinus, which 
runs along their under sides, in 
which lies a nerve, vein, and ar- 
tery. Their extremities, which 
are fastened to the sternum, are 
cartilaginous, and the cartilages 
make an obtuse angle with the 
bony part of the ribs : this angle 
respects the head. The cartilages 
are harder in women than in men, 
that they may the better bear the 
weight of their breasts. The ribs 
are of two sorts : the seven upper 
are called cost a x;er<e, because their 
cartilaginous ends are received in- 
to the sinus of the sternum. The 
five lower are calledya/*<E, because 
they are softer and shorter, of 
which only the first is joined to the 
extremity of the sternum; the car- 
tilaginous extremities of the rest 
being tied to one another, and 
thereby leaving a greater space for 
the dilatation of the stomach and 
entrails. The last of these false 
ribs is shorter than all the rest : it 
is not tied to them, but sometimes 

to the musculus obliquus desceh- 
dens. If the ribs had been arti- 
culated with the bodies of the ver- 
tebrae at right angles, the cavity 
of the thorax could never have 
been enlarged in breathing. If 
each rib had been a rigid bone ar- 
ticulated to the transverse proces- 
ses of the vertebrae, the sternum 
could not have been thrust out to 
that degree as it is now, or the 
cavity of the thorax could not have 
increased so much as is requisite 
in inspiration: for when the ribs 
are pulled up by the intercostal 
muscles, the angle which the car- 
tilages at the sternum make with 
the bony part of the rib must be 
increased, and consequently its 
subtense, or the distance between 
the sternum and the transverse 
processes, lengthened. Now, be- 
cause the rib cannot move beyond 
the traubverse process upon the 
account of its articulation with it, 
therefore the sternum must be ei- 
ther thrust to the other side, or 
else outwards ; it cannot move to 
the other side, because of an equal 
pressure upon the same account 
there ; and therefore it is thrust 
outward, or the distance between 
the sternum and the vertebrae is 
increased. The last ribs, which 
do not reach the sternum, and con- 
sequently conduce nothing in this 
action, are not articulated with the 
transverse processes. 

Costales J^ervcSy i. e. Dorsales 

Costo-hyoidteus, i. e. Coraco-hy- 
eidaus Musculus. 

Cotyledon, in botany, signifies 
a side lobe of the seed in vegeta- 
bles, of a porous substance and 
perishable, answering the purpose 
of the placenta in the animal eco- 
nomy ; and hence the disposition 
of the cotyledons is called Placen^ 
tation, which see. 

Cotyledones, are little glands 
dispersed up and down the outer- 
most membrane of the foetus, said 



to separate ;i nutritious juice, and 
thus called from tiieir rcscniblancc 
to the herl) pennywort, called in 
Latin Cotyledo7t. Sec Chorion. 

Cotyloid Cavity, The acetabu- 
lum is so termed by some ; from 
KOTuXviy the name of an old measure, 
and £*^o,-, resemblance. 
Cough. See Tus.n/}. 
Cough (ivhoojiing)^ i. e. Per- 

Couhage^ i. e. Cow- Itch, or the 
Dolichos firuricns. 

Courafi, the modern name for a 
distemper very common in Java, 
and other parts of tlie East-In- 
dies. It is a sort of herpes on 
the breasts, face, arm-pits, and 
p^roins. The itchins: is almost 
perpetual, and the scratching is 
followed by great pain, and a dis- 
charge of matter. Couraji is a 
general name for any sort of itch. 
Coufi de Soldi. See Sujistrokes. 
Cow/ier's Glands. Before the 
hymen we observe an orifice on 
each side, from Cow/ier's Glands, 
which lie upon each side of the 
perinaeum, and serve the same use 
as in the male. 

Coxa, i. e. Femur. 
Coxes Dolores, i. e. Sciatica. 
Cox<R Ossa, i. e. Ossa Innonii' 
nata. Some call the ischium thus; 
also the Coccygis Os, which see. 

Cral) Yaws, a name in Jamaica 
for a kind of ulcer on the soles 
of the feet, with hard callous lips, 
so hard that it is difiicult t6 cut 
them. The unguent, coerul. f. is 
their cure. 

Crafn/ius. So llclmont calls the 
cramp. It is a sort of convulsion, 
occasioning a sudden and painful 
rigidity of the muscles, which 
soon goes off: it principally affects 
the fingers, hands, feet, or legs. 
Cranesbill^ a sort of forceps used 
by surgeons ; so called from its 
resemblance in shape to the bill 
of a crane. 

Cranum, or skull, is made up 
of several pieces, which being 

joined together, form a consider- 
able cavity, which contains the 
brain as in a box ; and it is pro- 
portionate to the bigness of the 
brain. Its figure is round, a little 
depressed on its sides : such a 
figure being the most capacious, 
whilst the flatness of its side helps 
to enlarge the sight and hearing. 
The several pieces of which the 
craniuni is composed, are joined 
together by sutures, which makes 
it less apt to break, and gives 
room to several membranes which 
suspend the duramatcr, and which 
go to the pericranium, to pass 
through, and that the matter also 
of transpiration might have vent. 
These pieces of bones are six pro- 
per, and two common, and each is 
made up of two tables, or laminae, 
between which there is a thin and 
spongy substance, made of some 
bony fibres, which come from each 
lamina, called in Greek Dijiloc^ 
and in Latin Meditullium. In it 
there are a great many veins and 
arteries, which bring blood for the 
nourishment of the bones. The 
tables are hard and solid, because 
in them the fibres of the bones arc 
cFose to one another. The diploe 
is soft, because the bony fibres are 
at a greater distance from one an- 
other; by which contrivance the 
skull is not only made lighter, but 
also less subject to be broken. 
The external lamina is smooth, 
and covered with the pericranium; 
the internal is likewise smooth, but 
on it there are several furrows 
made by the pulse of the arteries 
of the dura mater, whilst the cra- 
nium was soft and yielding. 

The cranium, as was before said, 
is made of several pieces joined 
together by sutures, that it might 
be the sU'onger and less apt to 
break, that several mcm!)ranes and 
vessels which suspend the dura 
mater, and which go to the peri- 
cranium, may pass tlirough the • 
sutures, and tliat the matter ef 



transpiration may pass through 

And the bones of the cranium 
are six proper, and two common 
to it ; and these have several in- 
equalities made by the vessels of 
the dura mater. It has two lavge 
dimples made by the anterior lobes 
of the brain. Above the crista 
galii it has a small blind hole, into 
which the end of the sinus longi- 
tudinalis is inserted : from this 
hole it has a pretty large spine, 
which runs up along its middle ; 
instead of this spine there is some- 
times a sinus, in which lies the 
sinus longitudinalis, which ought 
carefully to be observed by chi- 
rurgeons in wounds of this place. 
This bone is thicker than those of 
the sinciput, liut thinner than the 
OS occipiiis. In children it is al- 
ways divided in the middle by a 
true suture. 

The second and third are the 
bones of the sinciput, called Pa- 
rieta/ia ; they are the thinnest 
bones of the cranium ; they are al- 
most square, somewhat long, and 
are joined to the os frontis by the 
sutura coronalis, to one another in 
the crown of the head by the su- 
tura sagittalis, to the os occipitis 
by the iambdoidalis, and to the ossa 
temporum by the suturse squamo- 
sae. They are smooth and equal 
on their outside, but on their in- 
side they have several furrows, 
made by the pulse of the artery of 
the dura mater. They have each 
a small hole near the sutura sa- 
gittalis, through which there pass 
some veins which carry the blood 
from the teguments to the sinus 

The fifth and sixth are the ossa 
temporum, situated on the lower 
part of the sides of the cranium; 
their upper part, which is thin, 
consisting only of one table, is of 
a circular figure, and is joined to 
the ossa parietalia by the suturae 
squamosa J their lower part, which 

is thick, hard, and unequal, is join- 
ed tO the OS occipitis, and to the 
OS sphenoides. This part is cal- 
led Os Petrosuih. They have each 
three external apophyses, or pro- 
cesses, and one internal. The first 
of the external is the processus 
zygomaticus, which runs forvvard, 
and unites with the process of the 
OS malae, making that bridge cal- 
led the Zygoma^ under v/hich lies 
the tendon of the temporal mus- 
cles. The second is the mammil- 
laris or mastoidaeus ; it is short 
and thick, situated behind the mea- 
tus auditorius. The third is the 
processus styliformis, which is 
long and small ; to it the horns of 
the 03 hyoides are tied. The in- 
ternal process is pretty long and 
big in the basis of the skull ; it con- 
tains all the cavities and little bones 
of the ear. The holes in the tem- 
poral bones are two internal, and 
four external ; the first of the ex- 
ternal is the hole through which 
the auditory nerve passes ; the se- 
cond is common to it, and the os 
occipitis ; the eighth pair of ne'rves, 
and the lateral sinuses pass through 
it. The first of the external holes 
is the meatus auditorius externus : 
the second opens behind the pa- 
late ; it is the end of that passage 
which comes from the barrel of 
the ear to the mouth: the third is 
the orifice of the conduit by which 
the carotid arteries enter the cra- 
nium: and the fourth is behind 
the processus mastoidaeus ; by it 
passes a vein which carries the 
blood from the external teguments 
to the lateral sinuses. Sometimes 
this hole is wanting ; there is an- 
other which is between the pro- 
cessus mastoidaeus and stylifor- 
mis, through w^hich the portio 
dura of the auditory nerve pas- 
ses; they have each a sinus lined 
with a cartilage under the meatus 
auditorius, which receives the con- 
dyle of the lower jaw. 

The sixth bone of the cranium 



is the OS occipitis : it lies on the 
hinder part of the head ; it is al- 
most like a lozenge, with its lower 
ant^lc turned inwards : it joins the 
ossa parietalia and petrosa by the 
himbdoidal suture, and the os sphe- 
. noides by the sphenoidalis ; it is 
thicker than any other bones of the 
cranium^ yet it is very thin where 
the splenius, complexus, and tra- 
pezius muscles are inserted. Ex- 
ternally it is rough : internally it 
has two sinuses, in which lie the 
two protuberances of the cerebel- 
lum ; and two large furrows, in 
Which lie the sinus laterales : it 
has seven- holes; the first are two, 
common to it and the ossa petrosa; 
the lateral sinuses and the par va- 
gum . pass through them. The 
third is the great hole through 
which passes the medulla spinalis. 
The fourth and fifth are the holes 
through which there pass two 
veins, which bring the blood from 
the external teguments to the si- 
nus lateralis : sometimes there is 
but one, and sometimes none of 
these two : and sometimes there 
are two more, through which the 
vertebral veins pass. Tbis bone 
has also two apophyses, one on 
each side of the great hole : they 
are lined with a cartilage, and ar- 
ticulated with the first vertebra of 
the neck. It has also a protube- 
rance in its middle, from which 
there gocsasmall ligament, wliicii 
is inserted into the first vertebra 
of the neck. It is longer in beasts 
than in men. 

The first of the bones common 
to the skull and upper jaw, is the 
sphenoidcs',: it is a bone of a very 
irregular figure, and situated in 
the middle of the basis of the 
skull ; it is joined to all bones of 
the craniiun by the sutura sphenoi- 
dalis, except in the middle of its 
sides, where it is continued to the 
ossa petrosa, as if they were one 
bone. On its outside it has five 
apophyses ; the first two arc broad 

and thin like a bat's wings ; they 
are called Ptcryyoidcs ; they have 
each a pretty long sinus, from 
which the muscles called Ptcry- 
goidcei arise ; and at their lower 
end they have each a small hook 
like a process, upon which the 
pteristaphilinusexternus turns its 
tendon. The third and fourth 
mal;c the internal and lower part 
of the orbit ; and the fifth is a little 
apophysis, like the crista galli in 
its fore-part, which is received in 
a cavity at the farther end of the 
vomer. There is also a little small 
protuberance in the middle of this 
bone, from which the muscles of 
the uvula arise ; on its inside it has 
four processes called Clinoidcs ; 
they form a cavity in the middle of 
this bone called Cella Turcica^ in 
which lies the glandula pituitaria. 
Betwixt the two tables of this bone, 
under the cella turcica, there is a 
sinus divided into two in its mid- 
dle, which opens by two holes in- 
to the cavity of the nostrils. In 
the OS sphenoides there are twelve 
holes: by the first and second pass 
the optic nerve ; by the third and 
fourth, which are called Foramina 
Zrtcera, pass the third pair, fourth 
pair, first branch of the fifth pair, 
and the sixth pair ; by the fifth and 
sixth pass the second branch of the 
fifth pair; by the seventh and eighth 
pass the third branch of the same 
pair ; by the ninth and tenth enter 
the arteries of tlie dura mater; 
and by the eleventh and twelfth 
enter the internal carotid, and the 
intercostal nerves go out. The 
canals by which the carotids enter 
arc oblique ; the beginning of them 
is made in the ossa petrosa, and 
they open within the skull in the 
sphenoides. The second and last 
of the common bones is the Rth- 
moidcs^ to be described under that 
word, which see. 

Crafiula^ >c^at7ra\>5, svrfeit ; whe- 
ther from eating or drinking. It 
is a species of Cholera, \ pie- 



thoric habit, manifesting itself by 
eruptions on the skin, is often, but 
improperly, termed a surfeit. 

Crasis, x^ao-ic, mixiura, a mix- 
ture^ is such a due mixture of 
qualities in a human body, as con- 
stitutes a state of health. 

Crassa Arteria^ i. e. Aorta. 

Crassa Intestina^ the large in- 

Crassamentum. See Cruor. 

Cream of Lime. According to 
Dr. Black this is formed by the 
dissolved particles of the quick- 
lime near the surface recovering 
their fixed air from the atmos- 
phere, whereby they are render- 
ed insoluble in water, and thus ap- 
pear in their original form of cal- 
careous earth. Experiments prove, 
that steams of fixed air introduced 
into lime-water precipitate all its 
dissolved quick-lime in the state of 
a mild calcareous earth. 

Cremaster^ ^ifz^j^mYi^^ from k(i:[x<x,u}, 
to susp.end. These muscles are 
called Susfiensorii. They arise 
from the inside of Pou part's liga- 
ment on each side, run dov/n to 
the perforation where the seminal 
cord comes out, and being expand- 
ed over it, make part of the tunica 
vaginalis communis. They draw 
up and suspend the testicles. 

Cremor, the name of a distem- 
per endemial in Hungary, which 
seems to be a sort of Cra/iula. 

Cremor. It is the expressed 
juice, also the strained juice of 
any grain, particularly of barley, 
boiled until it be so soft as to pass 
through a strainer. It is also the 
cream of milk. 

Crefiatio^ in Pharmacy^ it is the 
cracking or bursting of any seed 
in boiling, and this is to be under- 
stood when seeds are directed to 
be boiled ad crefiaturam. 

Crefdtus, a crackling of the 
joints, from a defect of synovia, 
or other causes. Also a noisy dis- 
charfve of air from the anus. 

Creta, chalk- Kentman mentions 

fifteen sorts ; the only one now 
used in medicJhe is the cretaalba, 
which is a sort of calcareous earth. 
The college have retained it in 
their Pharmacopeia ; its prepara- 
tion is directed among the mere 
simple pre fiarations ; it is employ- 
ed in the preparation of the Am- 
monia, or Volatile Alkali, and of 
Alum : it is rubbed into a fine, 
powder with Mercury, Hydrargy- 
rus cum Creta, formerly called 
Merc. Alkalisat. it enters the Mis- 
tura Cretacea, formerly called Ju- 
lepum e Creta : the Pulvis e Che- 
lis Cancrorum Compositus : the 
Pulvis e Contrayervae Compositus : 
the Pulvis e Creta Compositus, in- 
stead of the Pul. e Bolo Comp. the 
Pulvis e Creta Comp. cum Opio. 
instead of the Pulv. e Bol. Comp. 
cum Opio. the Trochisci e Cretaj 
instead of the Tabellae Cardialg. 

Cribriforme (OsJ-^ i. e. Os Eth- 

Crihrosuin fOsJ^ i. e. Os JStk- 
moides ; from cribrum, a sieve. 

KfiK'^j a ring" J apuraiva, an ewer, and 
Ei^oj, shape ; arises fleshy from the 
cricoid cartilage laterally, where 
it is covered by part of the thyroid, 
and is inserted into the side of the 
base of the arytaenoid cartilage, 
near the former. Its use is to open 
the rima glottidis, by pulling the 
ligaments from each other. 

ses fleshy from the back part of 
the cricoid cartilage, and is insert- 
ed into the posterior part of the 
base of the arytaenoid cartilage. 
Its use is to open the rim.a glotti- 
dis a little, and by pulling back the 
arytaenoid cartilage, to stretch the 
ligament so as to make it tense. 

Cricoidesy K^^y-a;^ a ringy and uhc^ 
a form. The name of the annular 
cartilage belonging to the larynx. 

Crico-pharyngaus-i from jcptxoc, 
annulus^ and (^a^yyl, gutter. It 
arises from the side of the thyroid 
cartilage, near the attachment of 



the stenio-hyoklxus, and thyreo- 
hyoidseus muscles ; and from the 
cricoid cartilage, near the crico- 
thyroidaeus ; it is inserted into the 
white line, where it joins with its 
fellow, the superior fibres running 
obliquely upwards, covering nearly- 
one half of the middle constrictor, 
and terminating in a point : the in- 
ferior fibres run more transversely, 
and cover the beginning of the oeso- 
phagus. Its use is to compress 
that part of the pharynx which it 
covers, and to raise it with the la- 
rynx a little upwards. 

CricoSf K^i-Ko;^ a rifig', or circle. 
Hippocrates calls the annular car- 
tilages, which form the aspera ar- 
teria, thus. 

Cricot/iyroidaif from K^uog, a 
ringy'^v^ioq^a helmet ^ and Et^oc, shape. 
These arise from the sides and 
fore part of the cricoid cartilage, 
running obliquely upwards ; are 
inserted each by two portions, the 
first into the lower part of the thy- 
roid cartilage ; the second into its 
inferior cornu. Their uses are to 
pull forwards and depress the thy- 
roid, or to elevate and drawback- 
wards the crycoid cartilage. 

Crino7ieSf from crinibiis^ hairs ; 
the name of a disorder that chiefly 
troubles children, pricking their 
backs as if with thorns ; it makes 
the patient very restless ; and is 
said to arise from hairs, which are 
scarce a pin's length, but thick 
and strong. See an account of it 
in the London Medical Journal^ 
vol. ii. p. 280, &:c. 

Crisis., KpKTiif from Kptvw, to judge. 
It is some change in the patient, 
which discovers the state of ii dis- 
ease, whether for the better or the 
worse. And 

Critical Days^ are those days 
wherein such change happens. 
The writers of Insiiliitions have 
strangely perplexed this part of a 
physician's province : it may there- 
fore be of consequence to clear it 
up as much as i"? consistent witli 

our allotted room here. The con- 
coction then of any morbific mat- 
ter, and the humour to be secern- 
ed, is nothing else but a change 
of it into such a due magnitude 
or smallncss, as it may be -carried 
by the circulating blood along the 
canals, and exccrned by vessels 
destined for that purpose. But if 
the morbific matter cannot be re- 
duced to such a smallness that 
may correspond to the orifice of 
the secretory vessels, then either 
an abscess or haemorrhage will 
follow, if a crisis is begun ; for 
which reason abscesses, &c. are 
accountedless perfect crises. But 
that the morbific matter may be 
reduced to a due smallness, and 
its wished-for discharge be effect- 
ed, there is required a considera- 
ble time, if the quantity of matter 
is large ; that is, if the distemper 
be great and severe. And since 
there are a great many causes, 
and those very constant, that may 
occasion the blood and ofiending 
humours therein to be of a differ- 
ent fluidity in the inhabitants of 
different climates, it is impossible 
but that different spaces of time 
should be required for the finish- 
ing concoction ; which make it 
impossible to determine the criii- 
cat days in one climate from what 
they are found to be in another. 
The causes of real critical days ; 
that is, such on which happens 
tlie last concoction of the morbific 
matter, which is always attended 
witii its expulsion, are all tliose 
things which occasion the humours 
to become of such a certain mag- 
nitude or Tnlntiteness, and of a 
greater or lesser cohesion ; bat 
with any given power, bodies, un- 
equally large, or unequally co- 
hering, cannot be concocted in an 
equal time ; wherefore it is to be 
found from the observations made 
by all nations among themselves, 
what are the usual causes and con- 
ditions of those diseases which 



require a certain number of days 
to finish such a concoction in. And 
when there is a sufficient number 
of such observations made, the 
distemper and circumstances ap- 
pearing the same, we may be able 
to foretel a critical day with much 
more exactness than it is now in 
our powe r to do. 

Crista^ the name of a turbercle 
about the anus and pudenda ; they 
are so called on account of their 

Crista. Gallic cock's comb. A 
species of Rhinanthus. Also, an 
eminence on the upper part of the 
OS ethmoides. 

Crista Clitoridis^ i. e. JVymfihcs. 

Crithe.) xpi-.^, i. e. Graiido, or stye 
on the eye-iid. 

Critica Signal ihose signs which 
are taken from the crisis of a dis- 
ease, as to recovery or death. 

Critici, critical fevers, those fe- 
vers which terminate with the ap- 
pearance of alateritious sediment 
in the urine. 

Crocusy saffron. A genus in 
Linnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates one species, and two varie- 
ties : the officinal saffron is the 
autumnalis. The stigma or the 
female part of the flower is the 
saffron used in medicine. 

Crocus* is a term given to ma- 
ny preparations made by the che- 
mists after the manner of rust, by- 
corroding metallic substances. 
The college have retained Saffron 
in their Pharmacopeia ; it enters 
the Vinum Rhabarbari, formerly 
called Tinct. Rhab. Vinos, the 
Tinct. Aloes Composita, formerly- 
called Elix. Aloes : the Tinctura 
Corticis Peruvian! : the Tinctura 
Rhabarbari ; the Tinctura Rha- 
barbari Composita : the Syrups 
Croci : the Pilulae ex Aloe cum 
Myrrha, formerly called Pilulae 
Kufi : the Conf. Aromatica instead 
©f the Conf. Cardiac. 

Crocus Metallorum^ i. e. Crocus 

Cross-Stitch. See Suture (Cru^ 

Crotaphite^ Kporx^ircn, the same 
as Teinp-oral J^Juscle^ which see ; 
from KooTu^o', tijne^ or else x^oIew, to 
beat, as the pulse. 

Croton, bastard ricinus, or phy- 
sic nut. A genus in Linnaeus's 
botany. He enumerates twenty- 
three species. 

Croup.^ i. e. Cynanche Trachealis. 

CroTjfoot. Ranunculus. 

Croivn Imperial. See Corona 

Crucialia (Ligamenta). They 
rise from the inside of each con- 
dyle, and are attached to the fe- 
mur. They give strength to the 
joint, and limit its motion. 

Crucialisy i. e. Herba Cruciata 

Crucible. It is an earthen vessel 
used by chemists and refiners ; 
it is made on purpose to bear such 
a heat as is necessary for fusing 

Cruciform Flower^ in Botany. 
It consists of four petala regularly 
disposed in form of a cross : they 
constitute the fifth class in Tour- 
nefort, and the tetradynamia of 

Crudity, signifies properly raw- 
ness, or any thing not duly digest- 
ed and m.ixed, whether in animal 
or other substances. 

Cruor. Sometimes it means 
the blood in general, and some- 
times the venal only ; but is the 
proper, term for the thick, red 
part of the blood, called also eras- 
samentumj in distinction to the 
serous or aqueous part. 

Crura. The ,two largest legs, 
or roots of the medullary substance 
of the brain, called Medulla Ob- 
longata, are thus named. 

Crura- Clitoridis. The two spongy 
bodies that form the clitoris, be- 
fore their union, are thus called. 

Cruraus, vel Cruralis, arises 
fleshy, from between the two tro- 
chanters of the OS femoris, but 



nearer the minor, firmly adhering 
to most of tlie fore part of the os 
femoris, iscoimccted to both vasti 
muscles. It is inserted tendinous 
into the upper part of the patella, 
behind the rectus. The use is to 
assist in the extension of the leg. 

Cruraus, from Crus^ i. e. Femur. 

Cruralea Arteria^ the crural ar- 
teries ; the external iliac arteries 
pass out of the belly under the in- 
guinal glands, and there take the 
name of Crural ; each runs under 
the fartorius, vastus internus, iind 
triceps muscles, and is covered by 
thera to the lower part of the 
thigh; a little above the internal 
condyle of the os femoris it runs 
to the ham, and there takes the 
name of Pofilitaus. 

Crural Hernia. Femoral Her- 
nia. A tumour under the groin, 
and in the uppermost part of the 
thigh, arising from a protrusion 
of part of an abdominal viscus un- 
der Poupart's ligament. M. M. 
as in bubonocele. 

Cruralis. The nerve which 
passes from the loins into the 
thigh, is thus called. It is pro- 
duced by the conjunction of the 
second, third, and fourth lumbar 
branches. It passes under Pou- 
part's ligament, runs on the fore 
part of the thigh, upon the iliacus 
internus muscle, and one of its 
principal branches accompanies 
the vena saphcna to the ankle. 

Crus^ the leg. It includes the 
whole of the lower extremity, from 
the OS innominatum to tlie toes ; 
viz. the thigh, leg, and foot. It 
sometimes signifies only the thigh ; 
by some it is confined to that part 
between the knee and the ankle. 

Crust a Lac tea. When the Ti- 
7ica aficcts the face it is thus nam- 
ed. In the hairy scalp only it is 
called Tinea, or scald head. 

Crypt a^ xpuTxaj, from k^'i^ttw, to 
hide; hollow places like cavities, 
containing some fluid. It is a term 
used in anatomy to cxpr;---"^ n re- 

ceptacle of any particiilar humour 
or matter, in distinction from a 
gland, which is not supposed to 
receive, but only to transmit. 

Crijfitoi^amia^ from jccvtIo,-, occul- 
tusj concealed^ and yocjAo^^ nufitiay 
nufitiaU^ in the Linna;un system of 
botany, a class of plants, the twenty- 
fourth or last in order. This class 
consists of such plants as either 
bear their flowers concealed with- 
in the fruit, or have them so small 
as to be imperceptible ; it compre- 
hends four orders, viz. Filicesy fer- 
nes, Musci, mosses, Alga^ flags, 
and Fungi, mushrooms, consisting 
each of a variety of genera. 

Cryptofiyica (Ischuria,) a sup- 
pression of urine from a retraction 
of the penis within the body. 

Crysorchisj x-pva-ofx^i^y a retraction, 
or retrocession of one of the tes- 

Crystalliy eruptions about the 
size of a lupine, white and trans- 
parent, which sometimes break 
out all over the body. They are 
also called Crystallinaj and by the 
Italians Taroli. Dr. Cockbura 
speaks of them as attendant on a 

Crystalline Manus, in Hippo- 
crates, are hands so cold as to 
seem frozen. 

Crystalline Humour, is the se- 
cond humour of the eye, that lies 
immediately next to the aqtieous, 
behind the uvea, opposite to the 
pupilla, nearer to the fore part 
than the back part of the globe ; 
it is the least of the humours, but 
much more solid than any of them. 
Its figure, which is convex on both 
sides, resembles two unequal scp- 
ments of spheres, of Mhich the 
most convex is on its back side, 
which makes a small cavity in the 
glassy humour in which it lies. It 
is covered with a fine coat called 

Crystallization, is such a combi- 
nation of saline particles as resem- 
bles the ff^rm of a crystal, v*ri- 



oiisly modified according to the 
nature and texture of the salts. 
The method is by dissolving any 
saline body in water, and filtering 
it, to evaporate till a film a])pears 
at the top, and then let it stand to 
shoot ; this it does by that attrac- 
tive force which is in all bodies, 
and particularly in salt, by reason 
of its solidity ; whereby, when the 
menstruum, or fluid, in which such 
particles float, is sufficiently im- 
pregnated, or evaporated, so that 
the saline particles are within each 
other's attractive powers, they 
draw one another more than they 
are drawn by the fluid, then will 
they run into crystals. And this 
is peculiar to those salts, that if 
ever so much divided and reduced 
into minute particles, yet, when 
they are formed into crystals, they 
each of them reassume their pro- 
per shapes ; so that one might as 
easily divest and deprive them of 
their saltness, as of their figure. 
This being an immutable and per- 
petual law, by knowing the figures 
of the crystals, we may understand 
what the texture of the particles 
ought to be, which can form those 
crystals. And on the other hand, 
by knowing the texture of the 
particles, may be determined the 
figures of the crystals ; for, since 
the figures of the most simple 
parts remain always the sanie, it 
is evident the figures which they 
run into, when compounded and 
united, must be uniform and con- 
stant. And since the force of at- 
traction may be stronger on one 
side of a particle than on another, 
there will constantly be a greater 
accretion of salts upon those sides 
which attract more stixingly. From 
which it may easily be demonstrat- 
ed, that the figure of the least par- 
ticles is entirely different from that 
which appears in the crystal. 

Crystalloides Tunica, i. cAra- 
■ Cube, is a solid body of six equal 

sides, which are all squares. It i^ 
one of the five regular bodies, and 
its contents are found by multiply- 
ing any one side or surface by the 

Cubeba, Ciibebs, a species of Pi- 
per. The college have retained 
Cubebs in their Pharmacopeia. 

Cubiforme fOsJ^i.e.CuboidesOs. 

Cubit, is the middle part be- 
tween the shoulder-bone and the 
wrist. It is also the ninth degree 
in the Linnsean scale for measuring 
plants ; from the elbow to the ex- 
tremity of the middle finger j or 
seventeen Parisian inches. 

Cubit aus, from Cubitus, i.e. Ulna. 

Cubitalifi, i. e. Cubitaus. 

Cubitalis Arteria, the cubital or 
ulnar artery. It parts from the 
radial artery about a finger's 
breadth below the bend of the 
arm. Near the carpus it lies just 
underthe integuments, runs across 
the palm of the hand, and forms 
an arch which anastomoses with 
that of the radial ; whence these 
arteries go to each finger and the 

Cubitalis Externus, i. e. Mxten- 
sor Carpi Ulnaris. 

Cubitalis Riolani, i. e. Anconeus. 

Cubitalis, a name of the ulnar 
nerve. Cheselden describes the 
cubital nerves as being two in each 
arm, the upper passing over the 
upper extuberance of the os hu- 
meri, and runs on to the thumb 
and the three next fingers by its 
branches, which spread when it 
approaches the thumb ; the infe- 
rior, which passes under the in- 
ner extuberance of the os humeri, 
and runs on to the ring and little 

Cubitalis Ext. Uf Int. (Vena.) 
See Basilica Ve77a. 

Cubiti Profunda (Vena). Some- 
times from one, and sometimes 
from another of the branches, cal- 
led Mediana, a branch goes out on 
the inside of the fore arm, which 
is thus named. 



Cubitusy from Cubando<t because 
t^ic ancients used to lie clown on 
that part at their meals, i. c. Ulna^ 
which see ; or the elbow, or the 
fore arm from the elbow to tiie 

Cubifusy a cubit measure. In 
Botany^ it is eighteen inches ; so 
the stalks of plants are named cu- 
bitalisy bicubitalisy &c. according 
to their height. 

Cuboidesy fOs'Jy from kvC^, a 
cube, and n^ocyform. It is situated 
immediately before the os calcis ; 
on its fore side it sustains the os 
metatarsi of the little toe, and the 
toe next to it. 

Cucullarisy a muscle serving to 
move the scapula, so called from 
its figure resembling that of monk's 
hood. It is also called Trajiezius. 

Cucullate-Jloiuery from cuculla^ a 
hood; so called from its resem- 
blance in shape to a hood. 

Cucumisy cucumber. A genus 
in Linn?cus's botany. To this ge- 
nus he adds the Anguria^ Melo^ 
and Coloc-ynthis. There are thir- 
teen species. 

Cucufihay is an ancient form of 
quilting spices into a cap to be 
worn upon the head in many ner- 
vous distempers, and such as more 
particularly affect the head ; but 
they arc now almost out of prac- 

Cucurbita^ the gourd. A genus 
in Linnseus's botany. To this ge- 
nus he adds the Pefio and Melofiepo. 
He enumerates seven species. 

Cucurbita, a cucurbit. A che- 
mical vessel, conuuonly called a 
body, made of earth or glass, in 
the shape of a gourd, and there- 
fore thus called. 

CucurJbitay ~ocl ^ A cupping- 

Cucurbitula 5 glass. 

Cucurbitini Lumbriciy a sort of 
worms in h\iman bodies, which re- 
semble gourd-seeds in shape, and 
therefore are thus named. The 
separate joints of the tape-worm 
*ire thus named. 

Culinary salt. It is the salt 
which is used at our tables, to be 
taken with our food ; muriale of 

CufjiifiuJUy Cu7nin. A genus iu 
Linn3cus's botany. There is but 
one species, viz. Cyminum. The 
college have retained this seed in 
tiieir Pharmacopeia; it enters the 
Emplastrum Cumini, formerly cal- 
led Empl. e Cymino. 

Cunea/is Saiura^ the suture by 
which the os sphenoidcs is joined 
to the os frontis. 

Cuneiforme Osy from Cuneiitiy a 
wedge. A name of the os sphe- 
noides, from its being wedged be- 
tween the other bones. It is also 
a name of the third bone of the 
first row in the wrist ; it is so c bil- 
led from its appearing like a wedge 
sticking between the two rows. 

Cuneiformla Ossa^ are the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth bones of the foot, 
thus called from their wedge-like 
shape, from Cimeiis, a nvedge^ and 
Formay shafie : for they are large 
above, and narrow below. They 
lie all three at the side of one ano- 
ther. The upper side is convex, 
and their under hollow, by which 
means the muscles and tendons in 
the bottom of the foot are not hurt 
when we go. At one end they 
have each a sinus, which receives 
the OS naviculare, and at the other 
end they are joined to the three 
inner bones of the metatarsus ; the 
inmost of these bones is the big- 
gest, and that in the middle the 

Cunrus^ the JVcdgc^ which is a 
triangular prism, whose si<les arc 
acute angled isosceles triangles. 

Cutmusj expresses so much of a 
woman's privy parts as consist of 
the clitoris, nymphx, and labia. 

Cii/i'^ly or Co/ul. It is a vessel 
made of ashes and burnt bones, 
for separating the dross from me- 
tals, cliiefly used by the refiners. 

Cujicllation. The purifying of 
perfect metals by meaus of an ad- 



dition of lead, which at a due 
heat becomes vitrified, and pro- 
motes the vitrification and calci- 
nation of such imperfect metals 
as may be in the mixture, so that 
these last are carried off in the 
fusible glass that is formed, and 
the perfect metals are left nearly- 
pure. The name of this opera- 
tion is taken from the vessels made 
use of, which are called cupels. 

Cupri Ritbigo^ verdigrise. 

Cuprum. See Copper. 

Cur a A-oenacea. A decoction of 
oats and succory roots, in which a 
little nitre and sugar were dissolv- 
ed, was formerly used in fevers, 
and was thus named. 

Curcuma. Turmeric. Curcuma 
longa of Linnseus. — The root of 
this plant is imported here in its 
dried state from the East-Indies, 
in various forms. Externally it is 
of a pale yellow colour, wrinkled, 
solid, ponderous, and the inner 
substance of a deep saffron or gold 
colour : its odour is somewhat 
fragrant ; to the taste it is bitter- 
ish, slightly acrid, exciting a mo- 
derate degree of warmth in the 
mouth, and on being chewed it 
tinges the saliva yellow. It is now 
very seldom used medicinally, but 
retains a place in our Pharmaco- 
peias. 9i. to 5i- 

Currant-tree. Sec Ribes. 

Custos Oculi, an instrument to 
preserve the eye in an operation. 

Cutambuli, the name of a sort 
of worms either under the skin or 
upon it, which by their creeping 
cause uneasiness and pain. 

Cutaneus Musculus^ i. e. Pla- 
tysma Myoides. 

Cutaneous^ is any thing concern- 
ing the skin, either of a distem- 
per, or remedy ; from Cutis^ the 

Cutaneous Diseases, are gene- 
rally supposed to proceed from 
that curdy matter, like paste, 
which being thrust out and lodg- 
ed between the cuticular pores, 

causes a stagnation of the juices, 
and dryness of the skin, &c. 

Cutaneum Ossis Coccygis (Li' 
gamentum ) ; it goes out anteriorly 
from the extremity of the Os Coc 
cygis ; it is slender, and divides 
into two portions at the orifice of 
the anus, which run into the mem- 
brana adiposa, and are inserted in 
the skin on each side of the anus 
by a kind of expansion, and con- 
tinuing to divaricate, they are lost 
on the two sides of the perinaeum. 

Cutaneus i. e. Sphincter Ani ; 
also the name of a nerve that pas- 
ses from the union of the seventh 
cervicle and first dorsal pairs to 
the inside of the arm. 

Cuticula, the cuticle or scarf- 
skin ; also called Epidermis-) from 
ETTi, supra, above, and ^sf/xa, cutis ^ 
the skin; is the first and outermost 
covering of the body, commonly 
called the scarf-skin. This is that 
soft skin which rises in a blister 
upon any burning, or the applica- 
tion of a blistering plaster. It 
sticks close to the surface of the 
true skin, by which it is also tied 
by the vessels which nourish it, 
though they are so small as not to 
be seen. When the scarf-skin is 
examined with a microscope, it 
appears to be made up of several 
layers of exceeding small scales, 
which cover one another, more or 
less, according to the different 
thickness of the scarf-skin in the 
several parts of the body. In the 
lips, where the scales appear 
plainest, because the skin is thin- 
nest, they only in a manner touch 
one another. Now these scales 
arc either the excretory ducts of 
the glands of the true skin, as is 
apparent in fishes, or else the 
glands have their pipes opening 
between the scales. Lewenhoeck 
reckons, that in one circular scale 
there may be 500 excretory chan- 
nels, and that a grain of sand will 
cover 250 scales ; so that one grain 
of sand v/ill cover 102500 ori* 

. cu 


fices through which we daily per- 

The scales are often glewed to 
one another by the grosser parts 
of our insensible transpiration har- 
dening upon them by the heat of 
the body, which carries off the 
more volatile particles. The hu- 
mour, which is afterwards sepa- 
rated by the glands of the skin 
Ijeing pent in between the scales, 
causes frequent itching; and where 
the matter has been long pent up, 
small pimples ; for the removing 
of which, nature directs to those 
wholesome remedies of frequent 
rubbing, or washing, or bathing. 
The use of the scarf-skiii is to 
defend the nerves of the skin, 
which are the origin of the sense 
of feeling, from the injuries of 
rough and hard bodies, as well as 
the air ; for either those would 
make too exquisite and painful 
an impression on the naked nerves; 
or the air would dry them, so that 
they would be less susceptible of 
the nicer touches of pleasure. 

Cuticularis Membrana.^ the dura 

Cuticulosus^ I, e. Sfihincter Am. 

Cutis,, the skin. In this there 
are three parts remarkable : the 
first is an infinite number of the 
papillae pyramidales ; these are 
the ends of all the nerves of the 
tkiuy each of which is enclosed in 
two or three covers of a pyrami- 
dal figure, and those Covers each 
above another. They may be easily 
seen and separated in the xkin of 
an elephant, and in the skin of the 
feet of several other animals. Be- 
tween these papill'jc arc an infi- 
nite number of holes, which are 
the orifices of the excretory ves- 
sels of the miliary glands under- 
neath. About the papilla: is spread 
a mucous substance, which, be- 
cause it is pierced by them, and 
consequently full of little holes, 
is called by Malpighi, the Cor/ius 
reticulare ; its u|e is to keep the 

extremities of the nerves sofl and 
moist, and sensible of the slight- 
est touches. The second part is 
a web of nervous fibres, and other 
vessels differently interwoven, 
and it is the parenchyma, or that 
part of the skin that the parch- 
ment is made of. The third part 
is an infinite number of miliary 
glands, about which there is much 
fat; they lie under the other two 
parts, and they separate the mat- 
ter of sweat and insensible trans- 
piration. Each gland receives a 
nerve and artery, and sends out a 
vein and excretory vessel, which 
last passes through the other two 
parts of the cuticula, for discharg- 
ing the body of this matter, and 
for moistening the cuticula, and 
the papillae pyramidales, that they 
may not dry, which would very 
much hurt the sense of feelimr. 
Upon the surface of the sA-m there 
are many parallel lines which are 
cut by as many parallel ones. 
These intersections make spaces 
of a rhomboidal figure ; and out 
of each angle, for the greatest 
part, grows a hair, shorter or lon- 
ger, as nature requires in the se- 
veral parts of the body ; but in 
the palms of the hand, where there 
are no hairs, these lines do not 
intersect one another ; and on the 
ends of the fingers they are spiral. 
The skiyi is six times thicker than 
the scarf-skin; and in the sole of 
the foot it is much thiclccr than in 
the face, hands, and other parts. 
In the summer it is softer, because 
the pores are wider. In the win- 
ter it is more compact and hard, 
because the pores aro closer ; 
therefore tiie hairs of beasts stick 
faster, and furs made of them arc 
better in that season. In some 
this skin is M-hite, in otlicrs black 
and tawny, wliich probably comes 
from the different colours of the 
mucus, which covers the paren- 
chyma of \.\\(i skin ; for the fibres 
of the skiti in all arc white, and 



there is little or no difference in 
thecolour of different bloods. The 
6kin is not only a covering in 
which all the parts of the body- 
are wrapped up, but in it also na- 
ture has placed the organ§ of the 
sen^e of feeling, so that not the 
least thing hurtful can assault us 
without our knowledge ; and as it 
preserves us from external offen- 
ces, so it relieves us of noxious 
and superfluous internal humours; 
its glands being the emunctories 
of the whole body, through which 
not only the peccant humours 
pass, but likewise the greatest 
part of the liquors which we 
drink, which having part of their 
office in conveying the aliments 
into the blood, are in the next 
place to dissolve the saline and 
terrestrial particles to be carried 
off through the glands of the skin 
and kidneys. — Now the sum of 
all these particles strained through 
the cuticular glands, is, by Sancto- 
rius, reckoned to amount to about 
50 ounces in Italy; so that sup- 
pose a man's body to weigh 1 60 
pounds, then in 51 days we per- 
spire a quantity equal to the weight 
of the whole body. And from the 
consideration of this and other 
evacuations, our bodies are said to 
be renev/ed and changed in some 
stated times : but that the vessels 
or solid parts of the body do con- 
stantly decay, waste, and evapo- 
rate, does not at all seem proba- 
ble ; nor if they do, is it possible 
to determine in what time there is 
a total change ; and I am more apt 
to think, that the fluids only con- 
sume, of which though several 
pounds are daily lost, yet it is not 
from thence certain when the old 
stock is spent, and the vessels fil- 
led with new juices : for, besides 
that the true quantity of blood in 
the body is not certainly known, 
we can never be sure whether they 
are new or old juices, or a mix- 
ture of both, which are constantly 

flying off; and if a mixture, which 
is most probable, in what propor- 
tion they are mixed, which must 
necessarily be known in order to 
determine when the old mass is 
entirely evacuated. But that part 
of our native blood does remain 
in the body, even to the last stages 
of life, some think credible from 
hence, that the small-pox comes 
upon many at 80 or 90 years of 
age ; but whether that is conclu- 
sive, we have not leisure here to 

Cycas^ the sago-tree. A genus 
in Linnseus's botany.' There are 
two species. 

Cyc lotion* KVKXwrtoVi from. xvxXouy 
to surround^ and wvj', the eye, the 
white of the eye. 

Cyclos, a circle. Hippocrates 
uses this word to signify the 
cheeks, and the orbits of the eyes. 

Cycius Metasyncriticus. It is a 
long protracted course of reme- 
dies, persisted in with a view of 
restoring the particles of the body 
to such a state as is necessary to 

Cydo?iia, the quince-tree. A 
species of Pyrus. It is the jPz/- 
rus Cydonia of Linnaeus. The 
college have retained its fruit, and 
its seed, in their Pharmacopeia; a 
mucilage of the seeds, Mucilago 
Seminis Cydonii Mali, is directed. 

Cynanche^ Kvmyx'^j from xuwv, a 
dog^ and oi,yx'^t to suffocate. It is 
that species of Angina^ or Quinsey, 
in which the tongue is inflamed 
and swelled, so that it hangs out 
between the teeth. Aretaeus says 
it is thus named from dogs either 
being subject to it, or else when in 
health they hang out their tongues 
at times. Coelius Aurelianus says, 
that the voice of a patient in a 
quinsey resembles that of a dog or 
of a wolf. Cynanche is the gene- 
ric name for a Quinsey in Dr. C al- 
ien's JVosohgy. 

Cynanche Efiidemica. It is the 
Febris Anginosa of Huxham. 



Cynanche Exanthematicai i. c. 
Cynanche Efiidemica. 

Cynanche Gangranosa^Xhc putrid 
quinsey. The same as the Cynan- 
che Maligna. 

Cynanche Maligria^ the putrid 
quinsey, or ulcerated sore throat. 

Cynanche Parotidxa, i. e. the 
quinsey of the parotid glands, 
commonly called the Mumps. 

Cynanche Fharyngce,ihe quinsey 
of the pharynx and oesophagus. 

Cynanche Stridula^ the quinsey 
commonly called the Crouji. 

Cynanche Trachealis., the tra- 
cheal quinsey, known by the name 
of the Croufi. 

Cynanche Tonsillaris'^ the quin- 
sey of the tonsils. It is an inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane 
of the fauces, particularly affect- 
ing the tonsils, the velum, and the 

Cynanche Ulcerosa^ i. e. Cynan- 
che Maligna. 

Cynara^ artichoke. A genus in 
Linnaeus's botany. He enumerates 
four species. 

Cynicusy KwiKog, canine. Certain 
convulsions, called Cynic Spasms. 

Cynodo7itesy •avvq^ovxz;^ from kvuj-j^ a 
dogi and o^a^j, a tooth. The canine 

Cynolissa^ or Cyjiolissus. It is 
used by Leister, in his Exercit. 
Tert. Dc Morb. Chron. in the same 
sense as Rabies Canina. 

Cynorexia-, the same as Bulimia^ 
i. e. a greedy appetite that is not 
easily satisfied. 

Cynorrhodon-f from xuwv, a dog., 
and ^o^ov.) a rose, i. e. Cynosbatos. 

Cynosbatos, the dog-rose, or hip- 
tree. It is one of the largest 
plants of the rose-kind. The col- 
lege have retained the fruit of tliis 
shrub in their Pharmacopeia. It 
is the Rosa Canina, Linn, with the 
pulp of the fruit a Conserve, Con- 
serva Cynosbati, is directed to be 

Cyjisele^ov Cyjisclis, the oar- wax. 
Cysteolithosj kv(7T£oA*9o;, from wo-- 

Tt?, the bladder^ and ?a9o,-, a stone. 
The stone in the bladder. 

Cystica Jrtcria, the cystic arte- 
ries. The hepatic artery having 
advanced behind the ductus hcpa- 
ticus towards the vesiculae fellis, 
it gives two piincipal branches, 
called Arterice Cys-ticce. 

Cystica Vena, a branch from the 
vena portx vcntralis ; they run 
along the vcsicula fellis, from its 
neck to the bottom, and as they 
are often only two in number, they 
are called Cystica Gemella. 

Cystics, medicines prescribed 
in any disorder of the bladder ; 
because c2/s?icw5, from xi/,-»?, ablad' 
der, signifies any part of the body 
so called, as the urinary bladder 
or gall-bladder. 

Cysticus Ductus, is a pipe that 
goes from the neck of th^ gall- 
bladder, not in a straight line with 
the bladder, but as it were, more 
depressed in the liver ; into which 
some bilious Aucts likewise open, 
and its inner membrane has seve- 
ral rug as, to retard the motion of 
the bile. 

Cystic, is also applied to the ar- 
teries and veins communicating 
between the vena portae and liver. 

Cystides, encysted tumours, and 
those whose substance is included 
in a membrane. 

Cystis, xfSTi;, a bag. It is ap- 
plied to any receptacle of morbid 

Cystitis. Inflammation of the 
bladder; from y.v:i:, the bladder. 
A genus of disease arranged by 
Cullen in the class pyrcxiiv, and ov- 
Cn^Y Jihlcgmaaia. It is known by 
great pain in the region of the 
bladder, attended with fever, ii 
hard pulse, a painful discharge oi" 
urine, and a frequent desire to 
urine. M. M. As in nephritis. 

Cystocelr,ii hernia formed by the 
protrusion of the urinary bladtlcr. 

CystoUthica (Ischuria), a re- 
tention of urixc from a stwnc in 
the blif».ldcr. 



Crystojihlegica (Ischuria)^ a 
suppression of urine from a palsy 
in the bladder. 

Cystofitosis^ the inner membrane 
of the bladder protruding throug^h 
the urethra. 

Cystophkgmatica (Ischuria)^ 
a suppression of urine from 
abundance of mucus in the blad- 

Cystofiroctica (Ischuria)^ gi. sup- 
pression of urine from pain in the 
bladder, caused by indurated £se- 

ttif wind, inflammation, abscess, 
he in the rectum. 

Cystopyica (Ischuria)^ a sup- 
pression of urine from purulent 
matter in the bladder. 

Cystospastica (Ischuria)^ a sup- 
pression of urine from a spasm in- 
the sphincter of the bladder. 

Cyststhromboides (Ischuria)^ a 
suppression of urine from gru- 
mous blood in the bladder. 

Cystotomia, a cutting of the blad- 
der in the operation for the stone. 


D^MONIA, or Damonomania, 
^xijxovoixccnx, SL kind of melan- 
choly supposed to arise from the 
possession of a daemon ; it is oc- 
casionally feigned by impostors. 
See Sauvag. JVosologia. 

Daphne^ spurge-laurel, or Meze- 
reon. A genus in Linnseus's bota- 
ny. He enumerates seventeen 

Dartos. The part so called, un- 
der the skin of the scrotum, is by 
some anatomists considered as a 
muscle, although it appears to be 
no more than a condensation of 
the cellular membrane lining the 
scrotum. It is by means of the 
dartos that the skin of the scro- 
tum is corrugated and relaxed. 

Data^ from the participle of c?o, 
to give^ is a term used for such 
things or quantities as are suppos- 
ed to be given or known, in order 
to find out thereby other things or 
quantities, which are unknown or 
sought for. This, which was first 
transplanted from the mathema- 
tics into medicine, expresses any 
quantity, which, for the sake of a 
present calculation, is taken for 
granted to be such, without re- 
quiring an immediate proof for 
its certainty : and this is called 
the given quantity, number, or 
power : and such things as are 
kpown, from whence, either in the 
animal mechanism^ or the opera- 

tion of medicines, we come to the 
knowledge of things before un- 
known, are now frequently in phy- 
sical writers called (/arc. 

Datura^ thorny-apple. A genus 
in Linnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates seven species. 

Daucus. The carrot. The culti- 
vated root of the Daucus carota of 
Linnaeus. Scraped, and applied in 
the form of a poultice, it is an use- 
ful application to phagedenic ul- 
ceus, and to cancers, and putrid 
sores. The seeds, v/hich obtain a 
place in the materia medica, have 
a light aromatic smell, and a warm 
acrid taste, and are esteemed for 
their diuretic qualities, and for 
their utility in calculous and ne- 
phritic complaints. 

Decagynia^ from ^sjca, (decern, and 
ywA^ Ynulier^ a 'woman ; the fifth or- 
der in the tenth class in the Lin- 
naean system ; comprehending 
those plants whose fructification 
discovers ten styli, which are con- 
sidered as the female organs of 

Decandria^ from S'sKa, deceiriy ten, 
and av>9?, 7naritus, a husband; in the 
Linnsean system of botany, a class 
of plants, the tenth in order, which 
has hermaphrodite flowers, with 
ten stamina in each, and includes 
five orders. 

Decantation, is the pouring off 
any liquor clear from its faeces. 


Decidua, Dr. Hunter first dis- 
covered this very thin ^nd deli- 
cate membrane or tunic, which 
adheres to tlie gravid uterus, and 
is said to be the reflexion of the 
chorion, which, on that account, is 
called decidua rcjlexa. The tunica 
decidua comes away after delivery 
in small pieces mixed with the 

Decoction. Any medicine boil- 
ed in a watery fluid ; from decoqao^ 
to boil. In a chemical point of 
view it is a continued ebullitioM 
with water, to separate such parts 
of bodies as arc only soluble at 
that degree of heat. 

Decrepitation., is a term much 
used by Ludovicus and Wedelius 
for the crackling noise which salt 
makes when put over the fire in a 

Decussation, is when lines cross 
one another ; and is the case of 
many muscles and membranes, 
where the fibres run over one an- 
other in greater or lesser angles, 
and give both strength and con- 
veniency of motion of different 
ways, much in the same manner 
as threads are disposed in a net. 

Dcfectio j^nimij a fainting or 

Defensitivc, is said of a plaster 
or bandage whereby surgeons 
keep on their dressings, and se- 
cure wounds from the air. 

D([/lagraiiony signifies burning 
away any thing, and is a term fre- 
quently made use of in chemistry 
for setting fire to several things 
in their preparation : as in mak- 
ing the iEthiops with fire, the sal 
prunellce, and many others of the 
like nature. 

Defluxion. A discharge of a 
fluid from any part ; from Jf, and 
,/luo, to run off'. 

Deglutition. A natural action, 
ny which the masticated bole or a 
fluid is conveyed from the mouth 
into the fauces, and from thence 
through the zesophagus into the 




DcjectiOy dejection, ^rom drjicio, 
to cast off. Going to stool is so 

Deleterious. Those substances 
are so called, which are of a 
poisonous nature ; from hxvM^ to 
hurt or injure. **, 

Dcliguium jininii. Fainting. See 

Deliriufn, from deliroy to rave 
or talk idly. It is an incapacity in 
tiie organs of sensation to perform 
their function in due manner, so 
that the mind docs not reflect 
upon, and judge of, external ob- 
jects as usual : as is the case fre- 
quently in fevers, from too im- 
petuous a hurry of the blood, 
which alters so far the secretion 
in the brain, as to disorder the 
whole nervous system. 

Deltoides. A muscle of the 
superior extremity, situated on 
the shoulder. It is so called from 
its resemblance to the Greek A. It 
pulls the arm directly outwards 
and upwards, and forwards and 
backwards, according to the dif- 
ferent directions of its fibres. 

Demulcents. IVIedicines are thus 
called, which possess a power of 
diminishing the efi'ects of stimuli 
on the sensible solids of the body ; 
such are aviylum, gummi arabicuniy 
oleum olivarum, aqua hordeata, Sec. 

Dentagra. The tooth-ach. See 

Dentata. So the second verte- 
bra of the neck is called. It is 
remarkable for its process, which 
is called processus dentatus, which 
plays in the hollow of the anterior 
arch of the vertebra above it. 

DcTitifricium, from denies fricare^ 
to rub the teeth., dentifrices, medi- 
cines for cleaning the teeth. 

Dentition., the breeding or cut- 
ting of the teeth. The first den- 
tition takes place about the sixtli 
or seventh month, and the teeili 
are termed the primary or milk 
teeth. About the seventh year 
these fall out, and are succeeded by 



others, which remain during life, 
and are called the secondary or 
perennialteeth. The last dentition 
takes place between the ages of 
twenty and five and twenty, when 
the four last grinders appear ; 
they ara called denies safiientia. 

heob&truent^ from de priv. and 
ebstruo^ to obstruct. They are such 
medicines as open obstructions. 

JDepascens f Ulcus, J despacent 
ulcer, i. e. Phagedcena^ and Herfies 
miliar is. 

De^ihlegmation^ Vinous spirits 
are said to be dephlegmated or 
rectified, when well freed from 
their watery parts. 

Defi'ilatory^ from c?^, o/", ovffom^ 
and /2z7<f, hairs^ such a medicine as 
takes the hairs off from any place 
■where they are a deformity, which 
may be commodiously done with 
quick-lime, orpiment, &c. 

Defiressio-i a depression. In 
Surgery it generally signifies a 
sinking inwards of some part of 
the skull, which happens from an 
external violence by which the 
bone is fractured. 

Defiressor. Several muscles are 
so termed, because they depress 
the parts into which they are in- 
serted; from defirimo, to press 

Defiressor jlnguli Oris. A mus- 
cle of the mouth and lip, situated 
below the under lip, that pulls 
down the corner of the mouth. 

Defiressor Labii Sufierioris Ma- 
que JVasi. A muscle of the mouth 
and lip, situated above the mouth, 
that draws the upper lip and ala 
jiasi downwards and backwards. 

Defiressor Labii Inferioris. A 
muscle of the mouth and lip, that 
pulls the under lip and skin of the 
side of the chin downwards, and 
a little outwards. 

Defiuration^ is the freeing any 
liquor or solid body from its foul- 
ness, which may be effected vari- 
ous ways. 1st. By Decantation, by 
"which, when the grosser parts 
are settled at the bottom of the 

vessel, the clear liquor above is 
poured off. 2dly. Desfiumatiotij 
see Clarijication ; in which eggs 
or other viscid matters are used. 
Sdly. Filtration, which is by pas- 
sing, without pressure, the fluid 
to be purified through strainers 
of linen, flannel, or paper, which, 
retaining the feculence, permits 
only the clear liquor to pass. 

Detergents. Those applications 
are so termed by surgeons, which 
possess the property of cleansing 
foul ulcers; ivovadetergOylo wipe off. 

Detonation. The noise pro- 
duced by the explosion of nitre, 
or substances containing nitre, 
when heated, which is greater or 
less, according to the manner and 
quantity of the composition, the 
sudden or gradual application of 
the heat, the coolness of the ves- 
sels. Sec. from detono, to thundef. 

Detrusor Urina^ the muscular 
coat of the bladdep which expels 
the urine. 

Diabites. An immoderate flow 
of urine ; from ^ia, through, and 
/Jatva;, to fiass. It is a genus of 
disease in the class neuroses and 
order sfiasmi of Cullen. Thei;p 
are two species of this complaint: 
1. Diabetes serosus, in which there 
is a superabundant discharge of 
limpid urine, of its usual urinary 
taste : 2. Diabetes mellitus, in 
which the urine is very sweet, 
and contains a great quantity of 
sugar. M. M. Emetics; diaphore- 
tics ; warm cloathing ; warm bath ; 
cantharides ; sulphuric and nitric 
acids ; opium ; astringents. Dr. 
Rollo's method is a diet entirely 
of animal food; three or four 
drops of hepatized ammonia four 
times a day, gradually increasing 
the dose till it produces slight 
vertigo ; the skin to be anointed 
with lard ; abstinence from exer- 
cise ; antimonial wine with opium 
at night ; an issue over each kid- 
ney ; the bowels to be kept open 
with aloes and soap. 

Diagnostic^ ^ixyvujic^ from ^ar. 



fiery throuffhy and y*v«wxw, cognosco^ 
to knowt is that judgment of a 
disease that is taken from the pre- 
sent symptoms and condition of 
the patient. 

Dialyses. A solution of conti- 
nuity, or a destruction of parts ; 
from hxXvu^ to dissolve. It is an 
order in the class locales of Cul- 
len*s nosology. 

Diafiedesis^ ^ta-TrnJvjcrt;, is such a 
rupture of the sides of a vessel of 
the body, from an internal cause, 
as leaves considerable interstices 
between the fibres through which 
the contents escape; from ^la, /zer, 
through^ and 'cnj^cta;, salio^ to leafi. 
It is also expressive of a transuda- 
tion of blood through the coats of 
an artery. 

Diaphanous^ ^ta^otvjij, from ^ta, 
through^ and (^atvo;, to shine^ is any 
transparent body that may be seen 
through, as the humours of the 
eye, the Cornea Tunica^ Sec. 

Diaphoresis t ^icc^ofrKn^, from ^ia- 
^o^Ew, of ^ia, through^ and <?>£^a;, to 
carry. It is an elimination of the 
humours through the pores of the 

Diaphoretics. Medicines which, 
from being taken internally, in- 
crease the discharge by the skin ; 
such are antimonial and campho- 
rated preparations, whey, nitre, Sec. 

Diaphragjji. Septum ti-ansver- 
sum, A muscle that divides the 
cavity of the thorax from that of 
the abdomen ; from ^*a, and (Pfuriuy 
to divide. The use of this muscle 
is very considerable ; it \% the 
principal agent in respiration, 
particularly in inspiration ; for 
when it is in action, the cavity of 
the thorax is enlarged, particu- 
larly at the sides where the lungs 
are chiefly situated ; and as the 
lungs must always be contiguous 
to the inside of the thorax and 
upper side of the diaphragm, the 
air rushes into them, in order to 
fill up the increased space. In 
expiration it is relaxed and push- 

ed up by the pressure of the abdo- 
minal muscles upon the viscera 
of the abdomen ; and at the same 
time that they press it upwards, 
they pull down the ribs, by which 
the cavity of the thorax is dimi- 
nished, and the air suddenly push- 
ed out of the lungs. 

Diaphragmitisy inflammation of 
the diaphragm. 

Diarrhoea. A purging ; from 
^iappfw, tojioiv through. It is dis- 
tinguished by frequent stools with 
the natural excrement, not con- 
tagious, and seldom attended with 
pyrexia. It is a genus of disease 
in the class neuroses and order 
spasmi of Cullen, containing the 
following species: I. Diarrhoea 
crapulosa. The feculent diarrhoea, 
from crapulusy one who overloads 
his stomach. 2. Diarrhoea biliosa. 
The bilious, from an increased 
secretion of bile. 3. Diarrhoea inu' 
cosa. The mucous, from a quan- 
tity of slime being voided. 4. 
Diarrhoea hepatirrh(£a. The hepa- 
tic, in which there is a quantity 
of serous matter, somewhat re- 
sembling flesh, voided ; the liver 
being primarily aff'ected ; from 
YiTvoc^-, the liver, and pEw, to Jloiv. 
5. Diarrhoea lienteria. The lien- 
tery ; when the food passes un- 
changed. 6. Diarrhoea cceliaca. The 
cceliac passion ; food passes off in 
this affection in a white liquid state 
like chyle. 7. Diarrhoea verminosa. 
Arising from worms. M. i\I. In 
the three first species, ipecacu- 
anha, rhubarb, or some other pur- 
gative. In the last, anthelmintics. 
In all, opium ; mucilages ; then 
tonics, sometimes astriu'^cnts, and 
if acidities prevail, prepared chalk. 

Diurthrosis. A moveable con- 
nection of bones ; IVom ^ia;0^oi), to 
ariiculate. This genus has five 
species, viz. enarthrosis, arthro- 
dia, gingymus, trochoidcs, and 

Diastole, ^.ex/rraXi), from ^at, and 
o-TsAAw, to contracty to stretchy sig- 



nifies the dilatation of the heart, 
auricles, and arteries; and stands 
opposed to the Systole, or con- 
traction of the same parts. 

Diathesis. Any particular state 
of the body : hocQea-i? ; from ^ia9)5/iti, 
to disfiose : thus, in inflammatory 
fever, there is an inflammatory 
diathesis, and during putrid fevej', 
a putrid diathesis. 

Dlcrotusy ^iJcpoTo,-, from ^t?, tivice^ 
and Kpauj to strike, an appellation 
of a pulse, in which the artery 
seems to strike double. Dr. Sola- 
no first observed it, and it is con- 
sidered as a certain sign of an ap- 
proaching critical haemorrhage 
I from the nose. It is also called 
a rebounding pulse. 

Dictamnus Albiis. White fraxi- 
nella, or bastard dittany. Dictam- 
nus albus of Linnaeus. The root 
of this plant is the part directed 
for medicinal use ; when fresh, it 
has a moderately strong, not dis- 
agreeable, smell. Formerly it 
was much used as a stomachic, 
tonic, &:c. but is now fallen into 

Diet, Dieta, ^nxira,. The diete- 
tic part of medicine is no incon- 
siderable branch of medicine, and 
seems to require a much greater 
share of regard than it commonly 
meets with. A great variety of 
distempers might be removed by 
the observance of a proper diet 
and regimen, without the assist- 
. ance of medicine, were it not for 
the impatience of the sufferers. 
However, it may-on all occasions 
come in as a proper assistant to 
the cure, which sometimes can- 
not be performed without a due 
observance of the non-naturals. 
That food is in general thought 
the best and most conducive to 
long life, which is most simple, 
pure, and free from acrimony ; 
not too volatile, but such as ap- 
proaches nearest to the nature of 
our own bodies in a healthy state, 
or capable of being easiest con- 

verted into their substance by thft 
vis vitae hujnana, after it has been 
duly prepared by the art of cook- 
ery : but the nature, composition, 
virtues, and uses ofj)articular ali- 
ments, can never be learnt to satis- 
faction, without the a^istance of 
practical chemistry. ^v 

Dietetics, is that part of^physic 
which considers the wayoKliving 
with relaiion to food, or dieifeuit- 
able to any particular case. 

Digastricus. A muscle so cM- 

led from its having two belll^ , 

from ^i?, twice, and yuTi^, a belly^^\ 
situated externally between the 
lower jaw and os hyoides. Its use 
is to open the mouth by pulling 
the lower jaw downwards and 
backwards ; and when the jaws 
are shut) to raise the larynx, and 
consequently the pharynx, up- 
wards, as in deglutition. 

Digester, a strong vessel or en- 
gine, contrived by M. Papin, to 
boil, with a very strong heat, any 
bony substances so as to reduce 
them into a fluid state. 

Digestion. The change that 
the food undergoes in the stomach, 
by which it is converted into 
chyme. In chemistry it is an 
operation in which such matters 
as are intended to act slowly on 
each other, are exposed to a 
slow heat, continued for some 

Digestives. A term applied by 
surgeons to those substances 
which, when applied to an ulcer 
or wound, promote suppuration : 
such are the unguentum resinx 
Jiavx, unguentum elemi, &c. 

Digitalis. Common fox-glove. 
Digitalis fiurfiurea of Linnaeus. 
The leaves of this plant have a 
bitter, nauseous taste, but no re- 
markable smell ; they have been 
long used externally to ulcers and 
scrophulous tumours with con- 
siderable advantage. Respecting 
the internal use of this plant, we 
are told of its good effects in epi- 



lepsy, scroplnila, and phthisis; 
and Dr. Withering and others 
have established its reputation as 
a diuretic in dropsies. It is, how- 
ever, necessary to observe, that 
this remedy must be cautiously 
administered, for the plant is of 
so deleterious a nature, that three 
grains of the dried leaf have been 
known to produce the most dread- 
ful tormina. — Grs. J cautiously 
increased to 3 "or more. 

Diififusy a finger. The ^nffeis 
and thumb in each hand consist of 
fifteen bones, there being three 
to each finger ; they are a little 
convex and round towards the 
back of the hand, but hollow and 
plain towards the palm, except 
the last, where the nails are. The 
order of their dispositions is cal- 
led first, second, and third P/za- 
lanx. The first is longer than 
the second, and the second longer 
than the third The upper ex- 
tremity of the first bone of each 
finger bus a little sinus which re- 
ceives the round head of the bones 
of the metacarpus. The upper 
extremity of the second and third 
bones of each finger hath two 
small sinuses parted by a little 
protuberance ; and the lower ex- 
tremity of the first and second 
bones of each finger has two pro- 
tuberances divided by a small 
sinus. The two protuberances 
are received into the two sinuses 
of the uppt-r extremity of the se- 
cond and third bones; and the 
small sinus receives the little pro- 
tuberance of the same end of the 
same bones. The first bone of 
the thumb is like to the bones of 
the metacarpus, and it is joined 
to the wrist, and second of the 
thumb, as they are to the wrist 
and first of the fingers. The se- 
cond bone of the thumb is like the 
first bones of the fingers., and it is 
joined to the first and third, as 
they are to the bones of the meta- 
carpus, and second of i\ic fingers. 

The fingers are moved side-ways 
only upon their first joint. Be- 
sides these bones there arc some 
small ODCS, called Osaa Scsamoi' 
(Ua, because they resemble sesa- 
mum grains : they are reckoned 
about twelve in each hand : they 
are placed at the joint of the fin- 
gers under the tendons of the flex- 
ores digitonwi, to which they serve 
as so many pullics. 

Diluents^ or Dilutors ; such as 
common whey, ptisans, and juleps, 
which, in respect of the blood in 
a state of viscidity, arc thinner 
than it, and therefore said to thin 

Diofifrics^ concern the differ- 
ent refractions of light passing 
througii diftcrent mediums, as the 
air, water, glasses, Sec. 

Difiloe. Mcdltullium. The spon- 
gy substance between the two ta- 
bles of the skull ; from ^ixXott/j oj 

Diplopia. Visus duplicatus. A 
disease of the eye, in which the 
person sees an object double or 
triple ; from ^i^Xow, Co double , 

Director. A chirurgical instru- 
ment, in which theie is a groove 
for the cutting instrument to 

Discrimen. It is a small roller, 
about twelve feet long, and two 
fingers breadth broad, rolled up 
with one head, and used after 
bleeding in the forehead, as fal- 
lows: the bandage is held with 
the left thumb upon a compress, 
so that about a foot hangs below 
the forehead; then the roller is 
carried round the temples and oc- 
ciput in the circular direction ; 
after this the part which hangs 
down is to be Ciyricd over the 
head to the occiput, and there 
having rolled it several times 
about the head, it is to be secured. 

Discuiients. A term in surgery 
applied to those substances which 
possess a power of repelling or 
resolving tumours. 



Disease, It is such an altera- 
tion of the chemical properties 
of the fluids or solids, or of their 
organization, or of the action of 
the moving power, as produces 
an inability or difficulty of per- 
forming the functions of the whole 
or any part of the system, or pain, 
or a preternatural evacuation. A 
disease is variously termed, when 
it pervades the whole system, and 
does not depend on any other dis- 
ease ; as an inflammatory fever, 
for instance : it is called 2l general 
disease, to distinguish it from in- 
flammation of the eye, or any 
other viscus, which is a fiartial or 
local one : and when it does not 
depend on another disease, it is 
termed an idiop-dthic disease., which 
maybe either general or partial, to 
distinguish it from a aymfitomatic 
offection, which depends upon an- 
other disease, and is produced by 
consent of parts. See also Ende- 
Tjuc, Efiidemic-i Sfioradic^ Sec. 

The following arc the classes 
and orders under which diseases 
are arranged, by that great master 
of the healing art, Dr. Cullen. 

Classis I. Pyrexiae. 
Ordo I. Febres. 

II. Phlegmasiae. 

III. Exanthemata. 

IV. Hsemorrhagiae. 

V. Profluvia. 

Classis II. Neuroses. 
Ordo I. Comata. 

II. Adynamia^. 

III. Spasmi. 

IV. Vesaniae. 

Classis III. Cachexiae. 
Ordo I. Marcores. 

IL Intumescentiae. 
III. Impetigines. 

Classis IV. Locales. 

Ordo I. Dysaesthesias. 

II. Dysorexiae. 

III. Dyscinesiae. 

IV. Apocenoses. 

V. Epischesis. 

VI. Tumores. 

VII. Ectopiae. 

VIII. Dialyses. 

Dislocation from dis, and locus^ 
a place., to put out of its place : the 
same as luxation. 

Dissectioy from disseco, to cut^ 
dissection, the cutting up a body 
with a view of examining the 
structure of the parts. 

Distention, distention. It is when 
parts are stretched beyond their 
natural size. It sometimes signi- 
fies simply dilatation, pandicula- 
tion, or a convulsion, as nervous 
distention almost always implies. 

Distichiasis. A disease of the 
eye-lash, in which there is a dou- 
ble row of hairs, the one row grow- 
ing outwards, the other inwards 
towards the bulb of the eye ; from 
^ia-TOi;j^ia, a double roiu. M. M. 
Extraction of the hairs, and con- 
fining the new ones by adhesive 
plaisters as they grow. 

Distillation. A chemical pro- 
cess, very like unto evaporation, 
instituted to separate the volatile 
from the fixed principles by means 
of heat. Distillatory vessels are 
either alembics or retorts ; the 
former consist of an inferior ves- 
sel, called a cucurbit, designed to 
contain the matter to be examin- 
ed, and having an upper part fix- 
ed to it, called the capital or head. 
In this last the vapours are con- 
densed by the contact of the sur- 
rounding air, or in other cases by 
the assistance of cold water sur- 
rounding the head, and contained 
in a vessel called a refrigeratory. 
From the lower part ti the capital 
proceeds a tube, called the nose, 
beak, or spout, through which the 
vapours, after condension, are, by 
a proper figure of the capital, made 
to flow into a vessel called the re- 
ceiver, which is usually spherical. 
These receivers have diff*erent 
names, according to their figure, 



being called mattrasses, I^alloons, 
&c. Retorts are a kind o( bottle, 
of glass, pottery, or metal, the 
bottom being spherical, and the 
upper part gradually diminishing 
into a neck, which is turned on 
one side. 

Diuresis. An increased secre- 
tion of urine ; from ^ia, throutfh', 
and pew, tojioiv. See Diabetes. 

Diuretics. Those medicines or 
substances are so called, which, 
when taken internally, augment 
the flow of urine from the kidneys ; 
from ^ta, and sfov-, urine. 

Docimastica, the docimastic art. 
It is the art of examining fossils, 
in order to discover what metals, 
t:c. they contain. 

Dogma^ ^oy/xa, from ^ojcew, to be of 
ofiinion. In Medicine it is a senti- 
ment founded on reason and expe- 
rience, which are the professed 
rules of the dogmatist, as distin- 
guished from one of the metho- 
dic, or of the empiric sects. 

Dogmatica Medicina^ is under- 
stood of that state of medicine 
which adds reason to experience : 
from ^KEw, censeoy to judge ; and 
the divine Hippocrates was the 
first of this distinction, called 

Dogmaticif ^oyfj.otriKoi, physicians 
who reasoned upon experience, 
in opposition to those sects who 
were called Methodists and Empi- 
rics., and conducted their practico 
only by observation and example, 
without examining into the rea- 
sons for such particular proceed- 

Dolichos. Cowhagc. Dolichos 
jiruricns of Linnaeus. The pods 
of this plant are covered with 
sharp hairs, which are the parts 
employed medicinally as anthcl- 
niintir.s, on which account they 
are admitted into the Edinl)urgh 
Pharmacopeia. The hairs of one 

D^se. It is so much of any 
medicine as is taken at one time. 

Dracimculi.^ from ^paxav, a ser- 

fient, Guinea worms. In hot coun- 
tries these worms get into the feet 
and legs of tl^e inhabitants. 

Drastic. A term generally ap- 
plied to those medicines which 
are very violent in their action ; 
thus drastic purges, emetics, Sec. 
from (Jpac-rixoi, active^ brisk. 

Drofisy. See j^scites^ .'Anasarca) 
Hydrocephalus^ Hydrocele^ Sec. 

Drufia., in Botany is a fleshy or 
pulpy pericarpium Avithout valve, 
contuining a stone, as the plum, 
peach, Sec. 

Ductus., from cluco^ to lead., a 
duct or canal. This word is fre- 
quently applied to parts of the 
body through which particular 
fluids are conveyed. 

Ductus Arteriosus. It is found % 
only in the foetus, and very young 
children. It arises from the aorta 
descendens, immediately below 
the left subclavian artery. In adults 
it is closed up, and appears like a 
short ligament, adhering by one 
end to the aorta, and by the other 
to the pulmonary artery, so that 
in reality it deserves no other 
name than that of Ligamentum At" 

Ductus Venosus. In a foetus, as 
the vena cava passes the liver, it 
gives off" the ductus venosus^ which 
communicates with the sinus of 
the vena portal, and in adults be- 
comes a flat ligament. 

Dulcamara. Woody nightshade, 
or bitter-sweet. Solanum Dulca- 
viara of Linnceus. The stipites 
or younger branches are directed 
for use in the Edinburgh Phar- 
macopeia. Dulcamara docs not 
manifest those narcotic qualities, 
which are comnion to many of the 
nightshades, but, when properly 
managed, is a very powerful and 
cHicacious remedy. It is recom- 
mended in rheumatism, cutaneous 
affections, Sec. and is said to act 
powerfully as a diuretic. 

Duodcnalis Arteria^ also called 
Intestinalis. Assoonas the gastric'a 



dextra hath passed behind the 
stomach, it sends out the duodenal 
artery (which sometimes comes 
from the trunk of the hepatica ;) 
it runs along the duodenum, on 
the side next the pancreas, to both 
which it furnishes branches, and 
also the neighbouring part of the 

Dnodenalis Vena, a branch from 
the vena port.E ventralis ; it is dis- 
tributed chiefly in the duodenum, 
but sends some branches to the 
pancreas. A branch of the gas- 
trica is also thus called. The 
hsemorrhoidalis interna gives a 
branch of this name to the duode- 

Duodenum, fvoniduodeni, twelve. 
^ This intestine is thus named from 
a supposition that its length does 
not exceed the breadth of twelve 
fingers, and if measured with the 
ends of the fingers, is about the 
matter. It is continued to the 
pylorus, from which turning down- 
wards, it runs under the stomach 
immediately above the vertebrae, 
towards the left side, and ends at 
the first of the windings under 
the colon. At its lower end there 
are two canals, which open into 
its cavity ; one comes from the 
liver and gall-bladder, called the 
Ductus Communis Choledochus ; 
and the other from the Pancreas, 
called Pancreaticus. Its passage 
is straighter, and its coats thicker 
than any of the three upper di- 
visions of the intestines. 

Duplicana, i.e. Tertiana Duplex, 

Dura Mater. Dura meninx. A 
thick membrane, formed of two 
layers, that surrounds and defends 
the brain, and adheres strongly 
to the internal surface of the cra- 
nium. It has three considerable 
processes, the falciform, the tento- 
rium, and the septum cerebelli; 
and several sinusses, of which the 
longitudinal, lateral, and inferior 
longitudinal, are the principal. 

jjysxsthhicd. The senses in- 

jured or destroyed by the im« 
perfections of the organs ; from 
^4crai4cr^>3o-ta, loss of sensation. It 
is an order in the class locales of 
Cullen's nosological arrangement. 

Dyacinesix. Motion impeded, 
or depraved, from an imperfec- 
tion of the organ ; from ^tc, bad, 
and ;civ£4;, to move. An order in 
the class locales of CuUen's noso- 

Dysecoea. Hearing diminished 
or destroyed ; from ^vg, difficult, 
and a;coJi, hearing. A genus of dis- 
ease in the class locales and order 
dysissthesicc of Cullen, containing 
two species : Dysecoea organica^ 
which arises from wax in the 
meatus, injuries of the membrane, 
or inflammation and obstruction 
of the tube : Dysecoea atonica^ 
when without any discernible in- 
jury of the organ. 

Dysentery. Flux. A genus of 
disease in the class pyrexia and 
order firojiuvia of Cullen*s noso- 
logy. It is known by contagious 
pyrexia ; frequent griping stools ; 
tenesmus ; stools chiefly mucous, 
sometimes mixed with blood, the 
natural faeces being retained or 
voided in a hardened state ; loss 
of appetite, and nausea : from 
^va-ivlifia,, pain in the bowels. — M. 
M. Venesection, if the pulse be 
full and strong ; an emetic j mild 
purgatives; cerated glass of anti- 
nionvj ipecacuanha, or some other 
diaphoretic, every third or fourth 
hour ; mucilages and opiates /zer 
ore et ano ; a blister on the abdo- 
men ; prepared chalk ; tonics and 

Dys§/iia. Sight depraved, re- 
quiring one certain quantity of 
light, one particular distance, or 
one position ; from ^v;, bad, and 
u)^, an eye. A genus of disease 
in the class locales and order dysas- 
thesix of Cullen, containing the 
five following species : 1 . Dysopia 
tenebrarum, requiring objects to be 
placed in a strong light : 2. Dysc- 



fiia luminis, objects only discerni- 
ble in a weak light ; 3. Byso/iia 
diasitorum, in which distant ob- 
jects arc not perceived : 4. Dyso- 
jiia firoximorunif in which objects 
too near are not perceived : 5. Dy- 
sofiia lateralis^ in which objects 
are not seen, unless placed in an 
oblique position. 

Dysorexia. The appetite de- 
praved, or deficient; from V'l bad^ 
and o^i%i<i^ Qpjictiie. An order in 
the class locales of Cullen*s no- 

Dysfiejisia. Want of appetite, 
accompanied by nausea, vomiting, 
flatulence, heartburn, costiveness, 
and pain in the stomach, with 
other symptoms of debility in the 
organ of digestion ; from ^j, bad^ 
tcttIu, to concoct. It is sympto- 
juatic of schirrhus, ulcer, poison, 
worms, chlorosis, pregnancy, gout, 
nephritis, Sec. — M. M. Emetics; 
occasional laxatives ; antacids ; 
demulcents ; carminatives ; antis- 
pasmodics ; opium ; bitters ; cin- 
chona ; iron ; cold bath ; exercise ; 
light, nutritive diet. 

Dys/ker7natismu.^. Slow or im- 
peded emission of semen during 
coition ; from ^^i-, difficult, and 
j-fffp/xa, seed. A genus of disease 
in the class locales and order e/iis- 
shcses of Cullen. — M. M- In de- 

bilitated habits, tonics, astringents 
and antispasmodics. In robust 
habits, cvacuants and a vegetable 
diet chiefly acid or acescent. 

DysfihoJiia. A difficulty of speak- 
ing ; from h;, badj and ?»i;y»j, the 

Dysfmoea. Continual difficult 
respiration, without sense of siric- 
turc, and accompanied with cougli 
through the whole course of ihe 
disease ; from ^u^-, difficult, and 
TTvEw, to breathe. A genus of dis- 
ease in the class neuroses and or- 
der sfiaami of Cullen. 

Dysuria. Difficulty and pain 
in discharging the urine ; from 
^u?, difficult, and j:?()ov, urine. A ge- 
nus of disease in the class locales 
and order efiischeses of Cullen, 
containing six species: \. Dysu- , 
ria ardensy a sense of heat, with- 
out any manifest disorder of the 
bladder : 2. Dysuria sfiasmodicUy 
from spasm : 3, Dysuria comjires' 
sioni^, from a compression of ihc 
neighbouring parts : 4. Dysuria 
,/ihlogistica,h'oni violent inflamma- 
tion : 5. Dysuria calculosa, from 
stone in the bladder : 6. Dysuria 
mucosa, an abundant secretion of 
mucus. — M. M. In the first spe- 
cies, mucilages ; cream of tartar. 
In the last, cascarilla ; essence of 

EAR. The organ of hearing 
is situated at the side of the 
Jiead, and is divided into external 
and internal car. The auricula, 
commonly called the ear, consti- 
tutes the external, and contains 
several eminences and depres- 
sions, as the helix, antihelix, tra- 
^usy antitragus, concha auricula, 
scafiha, and lobulus. The exter- 
nal auditory passage, containing 
ihe wax, proceeds from its mid- 
dle down to the membrane of the 
tympanum, which divides the ex- 
ternal from the internal parts of 

this organ. Behind the membra- 
na tympani is an irregular cavity, 
the cavity of the tympanum, in 
which are four little bones, the 
nialleus, incus ^ stapes* and os orbi- 
cularc ; and four openings, one of 
the Eustachian tube, mastoid si- 
nus, fenestra ovalis, and fenestra 
rotunda. The tympanum is ter- 
minated by the labyrinth. The 
labyrinth is the remaining part of 
tiie internal ear, consisting of the 
cochlea^ vcstibulum, and semicircu- 
lar canals. The arteries of the 
ear are the external and interni'.I 



auditory. The veins empty them- 
selves into the external jugulars. 
The muscles of the ear are divid- 
ed into three classes : the com- 
mon, proper, and internal. The 
common muscles are, the attollens 
aurem, anterior aurisj and retra* 
hentes auris^ which move the whole 
car. The proper are, helicis ma- 
jor^ helicis minor, tragicus, anti- 
tragicus, and transveraus auris ; 
these affect the parts only to which 
they are connected. The mus- 
cles of the internal ear are, laxa- 
tor tympanif tefisor tymfianiy and 
stafiediiis, which belong to the os- 
sicula auditus. The nerves of the 
external ear are branches of the 
nervus auditorius mollis, and those 
of the internal ear are branches 
of the nervus auditorius durus. 

Earth. Modern chemists are 
of opinion, that no bodies should 
be admitted as true earths, but 
such as are perfectly insipid, in- 
soluble, and infusible ; and there- 
fore they admit but of two earths, 
which are equally simple and ele- 
mentary. The one is that which 
constitutes rock crystal, quartz, 
grit-stone, flints, and all hard 
stones which strike fire with steel, 
and is called vitrijiable earth, be- 
cause it is the only earth that forms 
a transparent glass by combination 
with alkalis. The other is term- 
ed argillaceous earth, which in a 
State of purity is almost opake, 
and disposed in thin plates or la- 
minae. It is tasteless, like vitrifi- 
able earth, but adheres to the 

Ebrietas, (from ebrio, to be drunk.") 
Drunkenness. Spirituous liquors 
animate, and for a time, our na- 
tural vigour is more active ; but 
this effect is fleeting. If they are 
often repeated, or too freely used, 
their excess of action enervates 
the constitution ; the appetite and 
the digestion are impaired ; the 
spirits fail ; and a general feeble- 
ness ensues. 

The effects of spirits on the 
human body have not been dis- 
cussed with philosophical preci- 
sion, nor is this the place for the 
enquiry. It has been generally 
supposed that alcohol is a stimu- 
lant, and that the repeated stimu- 
lus exhausts the excitability. From 
every experiment, however, on 
the nerves, it has been found a 
sedative ; and those who trust in 
such conclusions have supposed, 
as usual, that it combines a stimu- 
lant power. Were v^^e inclined to 
form systems, we should endea- 
vour to show that it is really a se- 
dative, and that its apparent sti- 
mulus is only an instance of irre- 
gular, rather than increased, ac- 
tion. Whatever be the source, 
its secondary effects are allowed 
to be highly sedative ; and from 
the diminution of irritability, the 
most fatal effects are derived, par- 
ticularly indurations of the liver, 
which have been ridiculously at- 
tributed to its coagulating the 

To relieve the effects of ebriety, 
we must employ moderate stimu- 
lants and tonics, particularly those 
which contain no portion of ardent 
spirits. The most effectual are 
the Bath-waters, carbonated am- 
monia, or eyen the pure alkali; 
light bitters with aromatics. The 
most difficult, but the most es- 
sential part of the cure, is to pre- 
vent the continuance of the prac- 
tice. This can be seldom attain- 
ed ; never, it is said, with females ; 
but men will sometimes " turn 
from the error of their ways." As 
the want of irritability is chiefly felt 
in the liver, its circulation should 
be assisted by a gentle, steady 
stimulus to its ducts, by those 
laxatives which assist the secre- 
tion of bile. 

When the over-night's potation 
has been too liberal, a wet napkin 
should be bound round the head ; 
a cjuantity of cold water should be 



placed at the bed-side ; and if a 
restlessness comes on with heat, 
a dryness of the tongue, &c. this 
water should be drunk as freely 
as the tliirst requires : thus, by 
degrees, a perspiration is produc- 
ed, and the most effectual relief 
obtained. On the succeeding day, 
abstemiousness is requisite ; and 
such a regimen should be pursued 
as is consistent with the nature of 
the constitution. A man of a 
strong, healthy, plethoric habit, 
should drink plentifully of thin, 
warm, diluting liquids, mixed with 
vegetable acids ; keep in bed, and 
promote perspiration. The weak, 
delicate, and relaxed, besides ab- 
stinence from solid diet, should 
ride on horseback, or take some 
other gentle exercise in the pure 
air; a glass or two of generous 
wine, as a cordial, may be allowed, 
or such other means pursued as 
are calculated to invigorate the 
system, and keep up an increased 
state of insensible perspiration. 

To the most violent effects of 
fermented spirits vinegar is an 
antidote. A sponge dipped in 
vinegar should be frequently ap- 
plied to the mouth and nose ; 
an emetic that operates quickly 
should be given ; a clyster, and, 
after it, a purging draught, may 
be administered ; and a gentle 
sweat promoted. 

EbuUitio7i^ is strictly any boil- 
ing up, like that of water over the 
fire, but is generally used to sig- 
nify that struggling or efferves- 
cence which arises from the ming- 
ling together of any alkalizate 
and acid liquor ; and hence any 
intestine violent motion of the 
parts of a lluid, occasioned by the 
struggling of particles of different 
properties, is called by this name. 

F.bulus^ dwarf elder, a species 
of Sambucus. 

EcboUca^ from tx^a'.Xw, to cast, 
outf medicines which cause abor- 

£cbrasmatay tK^pouriJiccTcc^ from ?<- 
Cpao-cra', io cast out violently, fiery 
pustules on the surface of the 

Ecbyrsomata^ iK^vfo-uixotrocy from 
^v^<TXi a */tm, protuberances of the 
bones at the joints, which appear 
through the skin. 

Eccat/iar(ica,ix.K0i9a,fTH(.(Zi from y.a- 
9oci^u}, to fiur^e. According to Gor- 
raeus, eccatliartics are remedies 
which, applied to the skin, open 
the pores ; but in general they are 
understood to be deobstrucnts : 
sometimes expectorants are thus 
called, and so are purgatives also. 

JLcchymomUf iKX'-J^'-^i*-'^^ ^' ^* ^^' 

Ecchymoma Jrteriosumyihc spu- 
rious aneurism. 

Ecchymosisf v/.x^H-'-^^^^i from f;t- 
XVi^i to pojcr out, and aty.a, blood ; 
a disorder of the superficial parts 
of the body, which happens when 
by a contusion the capillary ves- 
sels are broken, and their con- 
tained fluids extravasated, which, 
stagnating, change the natural 
colour of the part to brown, livid, 
or black. Bell, in his Surgery, 
says, that when, in the operation 
of blood-letting, a small tumour is 
raised immediately above the ori- 
fice in the vein, by the blood in- 
sinuating itself into the cellular 
substance of the neighbouring 
parts ; such a tumour, when round 
and small, is termed a Thrombus, 
and when more diftused, an £c' 

Ecco/irotica, £xxorpwrtxa,eccopro- 
tics, from xorpo,-,rfz/w^, mild cathar- 
tics, whose operation extends no 
farther than to evacuate the in- 

Eclaiti/isia, iKXau^iCy} from ^a,u- 
Eclam/isis, S -^> '° '^f'^^c- 

It signifies a splendour, bright- 
ness, effulgence, iLishing of light, 
scintillation. It is a flashing light, 
or those sparklin^s which strike 
the eyes of epileptic patients. 



C'oelius Aurelianus calls them c?>- 
culi ignei^ scintiHations-, or fiery 
circles. Though only a symptom 
of the epilepsy, Hippocrates puts 
it for epilepsy itself. 

Eclectica^ sKXeKriKVi^ JMedicln€i) 
from EJtXEyw, to elect. Archigenus 
and some others selected from all 
other sects what appeared to 
them to be the best and most ra- 
tional ; hence they were called 
Ecleccics^ and their medicine Ec' 
lee tic Medicine. 

Ecle^ma^ eJcXsiy/iaj frofn vxXi^x'^i 
lingo, to lickf is a form ot" medi- 
cine made by the incorporation of 
oils with syrups^ and whit^i is to 
be taken upon a liquorice ^tick ; 
the same also as Lamdative, from 
lambo, which signifies the same, 
and Linctus. 

Ecjihracticy EK^paxTtx^, from fJt- 
^pTTiw, are such medicines as in- 
cide and render more thin tough 
humours, so as to promote their 

Ecfihraxis, £jtcppa|i?, from E?t= 
(p^otTTw, to remove obstruction^ an 
opening of the pores. 

Ectopia, protrusions, as in cases 
ofherniae, luxations, Sec'. In Dr. 
CuUen's nosology it is the name 
of an order in the class Locales. 

E-c t op Q cystica (Ischuria.) In 
Sauvages's nosology it is a sup- 
pression of urine from a rupture 
of the bladder. 

Ectrofiium, sxTpoTTiO?, from EJcJ-ETa;, 
toin-uert, an inversion or eversion 
of the eye-lids. The eye-lids are 
so retracted, that their inner red 
sidn is rendered prominent, and 
the eye cannot be sufficiently 
covered by them. When this ac- 
cident happens to the upper eye- 
lid, it, then resembling the hare's 
eye, is called Lagophthalmus^ or 
hare's eye. The word Ectropium 
is often applied to the under eye- 
lid only. 

JS^(?ri;e5cewce,expresses a greater 
degree of motion or struggling of 
the small parts of a liquor than is 

commtmly understood by fermen- 
tation or ebullition ; and such as 
occasions great heat ; or rather, 
it is the extrication of air from the 
fluido that contain it as a constitu- 

Effloratio, or Efflorescence, ex- 
presses the breaking out of some 
humours in the skin, as in the 
measles and the like. 

Effluvia, from effluo, tojlonv out, 
are those small particles which 
are continually flying off from bo- 
dies ; the subtilty and fineness of 
which appear from their being 
able, a long time together, to pro- 
duce very sensible effects without 
any sensible diminution of the 
body from whence they arise ; and 
the considerable effects they may 
have upon other bodies within the 
sphere of their activity, may be 
learned from the writings of Mr. 
Boyle and ethers on that subject- 

Eggs. The eggs of poultry are 
chiefly used as food : the different 
parts are likewise employed in 
pharmacy and in medicine ; the 
calcined shell is esteemed as an 
absorbent : the oil of the e^^ is 
softening, and is used externally 
to burns and chaps. The yolk of 
the egg renders oil miscibie wdth 
water, and is triturated with re- 
sinous and other substances. 

Elaosaccharum, from tkcctov, oleum, 
and (rax%ap, sacckarum, sugar, de- 
notes the mixture of oil and sugar 
together, which is frequently done 
with the distilled oils, to make 
them mix with aqueous fluids for 
present use. It is an admirable 
form of medicine, and highly de- 
serves to be better esteemed, and 
more frequently used than we 
find it. All the virtues of vegeta- 
bles are with great advantage re- 
ducible into it. It is very ready 
and commodious for taking, and 
capable of continuing for a long 
time unaltered, and of being trans- 
ported to distant regions, without 
any diminution of its virtue. 


JElaterium^ tXctrnptoy. A gcmis 
in Linnaeus's botany There are 
two species. It is the name also 
of a species of Momordica. This 
word is often used by Hippocrates 
to signify an external application of 
a digestive or a detergent nature. 

£/cosisy numerous, or large 
chronic ulcers, carious, fcetid, and 
attended with a slow fever. 

jElder. .See Sambucus. 

Jiiecafn/iane. See Inula^ and He- 

Electricitasy electricity, (from 
nAE)trpo», amber.) We must not de- 
tail the principles of this science, 
or enlarge on contending systems. 
It will simplify our language if we 
consider /zostVii^c electricity as the 
excess, and ne^crn^'eas a deficiency, 
©f this fluid : the fomier as the 
excess of uncombined electricity, 
the latter as a deprivation of the 
irtue or necessary quantity. A 
theory of this kind we could ren- 
der equally probable with any 
other; butit is unnecessary, since 
the facts may be readily translated 
into a more fashionable language, 
if such a translation be required. 

In the view we have just offer- 
ed, each body has its proportion- 
ate share of this fluid, which may 
be increased or diminished ; but, 
In either case, the equilibrium is 
only restored with some violewce, 
called a shock; though it may 
more silently take place by appro- 
priate means, to be afterwards de- 
scribed. This share is determin- 
ed by the nature of the body ; but 
is, in general, greater or less as 
the body is a conductor, or a non- 
conductor ; i. e. that it has a power 
of conducting any excess of elec- 
tricity to its common reservoir, 
the earth, or of confining it to its 
own substance. Thus metals and 
fluids arc powerful cviuhictorn ; 
any dry bodies, particularly vitre- 
ous ones, non-conductors. The 
human body is, in general, a con- 
ductor, as consisting of fluith; ftnd 


communicating with the earth by 
its surface, commonly moistened 
by the perspiration. 

It has been rendered highly 
probable, by an anonymous author, 
in a collection of essays (Exeter 
Essays,) that, on the eonversioa 
of any fluid to an aerial form, the 
elecirical escapes ; and, on the 
contrary, that when air is convert- 
ed to a fluid, that it disappears; 
probably, in the first instance, 
separated from, and in the last 
combined with, the fluid. If this 
be true, in meteorological pheno- 
mena, as it seems to be, from a 
veiy careful induction from facts, 
it probably is so in physiology ; 
and it is supported by some strik- 
ing appearances. Thus the elec- 
tricity of the human body, in its 
healthy state, is, like that of the 
generality of bodies, positive : 
such also is the electricity of th« 
blood ; but, in the animal econo- 
my, various functions continually 
go on, in which air is separated 
and carried off. The electricity, 
therefore, of the body must be 
constantly changing ; and we, of 
course, find, as may be expected, 
that of some of the fluids negative. 
Such is the electricity of all the 
excrementilious fluids. 

Again : We know that in con- 
fined air, in heated and crowded 
rooms, these serial changes are 
more considerable ; and it is con- 
sequently not uncommon, in such 
circumstances, to find the elec- 
tricity of the whole body negative. 
Such observations have, unfortu- 
nately, not been duly examined, 
and we must take advantage of 
incidental facts. The ic:nis fatuus 
is, we know, inflammable air ig- 
nited by electricity. It flies from 
a person who pursues it, because 
the electricity of each is positive ; 
hut Dr. Priestley has recorded an 
observation, where it seemed to fo! - 
low the person, who had been long 
in a crov, ded roonri ; and we Icara 



from Mr. Read, (Phil. Transac- 
tions for 1794,) that the electricity 
©f the air, in such an apartment, 
probably from the perspirations 
«f a numerous assembly, is nega- 
tive. We may conclude, then, 
that the positive electricity of the 
body disappears in the animal pro- 
cess ; but nothing is lost. It, per- 
haps, performs a most important 
office, which we can only at pre- 
sent guess at; but this is scarcely 
a place for conjecture. Let us, 
however, at once hazard it. The 
electrical fluid, by its union, elicits 
heat (Pictet sur le feu, 108 ;) and 
this fluid is nearly and intimately 
connected with the nervous power. 
The one is probably occasioned, 
and the other supported, by the 
electricity that disappears. 

If a resinous, as well as a vitre- 
ous, electricity exist, in other 
words, two fluids of different and 
opposite properties, the distinc- 
tion appears to be immaterial in a 
medical view. Each produces 
similar effects when used as a re- 
medy, and this consideration led 
us to adopt the simple language 
with which we introduced the sub- 

Electricity is employed in medi- 
cine chiefly vvhen accumulated. 
If the communication with the 
earth is cut off", and the fluid ac- 
cumulated in the body by the ac- 
tion of a proper machine, it is cal- 
led simfile electricity. If then the 
fiuid is drav/n off, silently, by 
points, or more actively by round- 
ed conductors, the electric aura^ or 
electric s/iarksjdiYe said to be drawn. 
If the accumulated electricity be 
at once discharged, or, in other 
language, if the communication 
between the different sides of the 
electrical jar be suddenly restored, 
the shock is said to be produced. 
Electricity, in each instance, acts 
as a stimulus only. Simple elec- 
tricity increases the circulation, 
accelerates the jet of blood in 

bleeding, increases perspiration, 
as well as the other secretions, 
and the appetite. When the aura 
is gently drawn off, a slight stimu- 
lus augments the action of the 
vessels, from which it is taken ; 
when by rounded conductors, in 
the form of sparks, the stimulus, 
is more considerable. When the 
equilibrium is suddenly restored, 
every fibre seems agitated. When 
slight, it is felt in the fingers and 
wrists only; when gradually more 
violent, the shock affects the el- 
bows, the arms, and the chest. 
This happens when the equili- 
brium is restored, by touching the 
conductor with each hand; and, 
in this case, the fluid tak^s the 
shortest circuit, through the arms 
and breast, apparently passing 
through the nerves ; for its effects 
are chiefly felt where they are 
more strictly tied down by their 
sheaths. When the stimulus 
is wanted in any particular part, 
the conductors are so placed 
as to convey the fluid necessary 
to restore the equilibrium through 
that part. The effects of the 
shock are said to be stimulant; 
but it is rather a violent concus- 
sion, without any discriminated or 
permanent change. It may be 
made so strong as to kill smaller 
animals ; and, for a time, to de- 
prive even a human being of his 
senses. When animals are killed 
by it, the irritability of the mus- 
cles is destroyed, an effect also 
occasioned by hydrogen : some- 
times an important blood-vessel is 
ruptured. If the shock be a sti- 
mulus, and destroy by excess of 
excitement, we might expect, 
that, in a less degree, it would 
prove useful as such. It undoubt- 
edly excites the action of a para- 
lysed muscle, but produces no 
permanent good effect; so that 
this mode of employing electri- 
city is now almost wholly disused. 
In general, then, electricity 



must be considered as a simple 
stimulant; and it increases all the 
actions going on in the system, 
whether salutary or morbid. It 
promotes suppuration, and more 
firmly impacts the fluids in in- 
farcted glands. But it also dis- 
cusses tumours not too fiimly fix- 
ed, and assists the recovery of the 
nervous power of a debilitated or- 

From this view of the subject, 
it will be obvious that electricity 
is chiefly useful in asthenic dis- 
eases, and in obstructions not yet 
insurmountable. It T.ust be hurt- 
ful in inflammatory disorders ; 
where, with an inflammatory dia- 
thesis, there is a strong determi- 
nation to any part ; when the irri- 
tability is considerable, or the ob- 
struction firm, and of long stand- 

h) febrile disease sit has been sel- 
dom employed, except to terrify 
on the approach of intermittents ; 
when, by the unexpected shock, it 
often succeeds. 

In inflammations <i it has been 
sometimes employed to discuss 
phlegmons; occasionally to re- 
lieve opthalmiae. In both cases 
the shocks are inadmissible. In 
the former sparks may be drawn; 
but, in the latter, the points must 
be used to solicit the aura. In 
the tooth-uch it has been also 
sometimes employed, as well as 
in the gout, and in inflammatory 
cynanchc, but with very little ef- 
fectual relief; and it is now, in 
general, disused. 

The chief complaints in which 
advantage from electricity has 
been expected are the palsies. It 
was first used at Geneva ; and 
was said to have cured a lock- 
smith and one other person of 
haemiphlcgiae. It is now well 
known, that the relief obtained by 
each was temporary only ; and 
though it continues to be employ- 
ed, generally in the form of shocks, 

its utility is inconfjderable and 
temporary. In niany instances it 
has certainly been injurious. 

In the more partial palsies, draw- 
ing sparks has been occasionally 
beneficial, though in no consider- 
able degree : and the power of 
debilitated organs, as of the eye in 
gutta serena, of the ear in deaf- 
ness, or of a palsied muscle, has 
been sometimes, in part, restored. 
Electricity has been also tried in 
chronic rheumatism, a species of 
palsy, and in amaenorrhoea. Slight 
shocks, in each, have been some- 
times useful. In the last com- 
plaint, the fluid must be directed 
through the pelvis. We have 
sometimes succeeded in procur- 
ing a return of the menses by 
these means ; but we have more 
often produced leucorrhoea. Elec- 
tricity has been also often employ- 
ed to restore suspended animation 
from apparent drowning, and is 
supposed to be a powerful and 
efl'ectual remedy; but we have 
never found it of the slightest use. 
A physician at Brunswick, M. 
Friske, has directed the shocks, 
through the abdomen, to kill the 
tape-worm ; in which he thinks 
he has succeeded. On recurring 
to the authors on medical elec- 
tricity, in almost all we observe a 
very prudent remark, that during 
its course the proper medicines 
are by no means to be omitted. 

Electricity^ that property of 
certain bodies, whereby, after be- 
ing rubbed, excited, or heated in 
some particular degree, they ac- 
quire a power of attracting and 
repelling other remote bodies, and 
frequently of emitting sparks and 
streams of light. The ancients 
having observed that amber, which 
they called elcctrum^ nXf^cTp/, upon 
being rubbed, attracted bits of 
straw, down, and other light bo- 
dies, first gave' this property the 
name of electricity^ which they 
thought peculiar to amber, and 



a few stones mentioned by Theo- 
phrastus, Pliny, and some others. 
But the philosophers of the last, 
and more particularly of the pre- 
sent age, have found that numbers 
of other bodies possess this qua- 
lity, and made so many discoveries 
in electricity, that there is scarce 
any other subject in natural philo- 
sophy that has given occasion to 
more experiments. Among the 
first, as well as most ingenious 
writers upon the subject, is Dr. 
Franklin, to whose book we refer 
the reader : after him Dr. Priest- 
ley, &c. on this subject should be 
read. It has been pretended by 
some that great benefit may be 
derived to the healing art from 
these discoveries. These hopes 
in many instances may be too 
sanguine ; it does not, however, 
follow that medicinal advantages 
are not to be gained from electri- 
city : so subtile and so elastic a 
fluid admitted in a large quantity 
into our bodies, as from undoubt- 
ed experience, it greatly heats 
the flesh and quickens the pulse, 
antiay in particular cases be attend- 
ed with advantages. In effect we 
meet with several cures perform- 
ed in paralytic cases, by the force 
of electricity. 

Electrum^ »5^£x7fov, amber. It is 
also a mixture of gold with a fifth 
part of silver. 

Electuary^ is a form of medicine 
laade of conserves, powders, spi- 
ces, &c. into the consistence of 
honey, or the pulp of a roasted 
apple, to be divided into doses, 
■when talien, like a bole. The 
form is attended with considera- 
ble inconveniences ; for electua' 
riesj generally made up with ho- 
ney, or syrup, when the consist- 
ence is too thin, are apt to fer- 
ment, and when too thick, to candy. 
By both which, though it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to avoid the 
one or the other of them, the in- 
gredients will either be entirely 

altered in their nature, or impair-? 
ed in their virtues. It is there- 
fore a pity that this form should 
be so much in use, whilst others 
infinitely superior to it in all re-^ 
spects lie neglected or unthought 

Elements. The minutest parti-? 
cles of any substance, which can 
no farther be divided by chemical 
analysis : such are oxygene, hy- 
drogene, azote, caloric, matter of 
light, carbone, Sec. 

Elemi. Gum elemi. The parent 
plant of this resin is not ascertain- 
ed, Elemi is brought here from 
the Spanish West-Indies ; it is 
most e steemed when softish , some - 
what transparent, of a pale whitish 
colour, inclining a little to green, 
and of a strong, though not "un^ 
pleasant smell. It is only used in 
ointments and plasters, and is a 
powerful digestive. 

Elefihantiasis. Eleplma. A disf 
ease that mostly affects the feet> 
which appear somewhat like those 
of the elephant; from sXe^as, an 
elefihant. It is known by the skin 
being thick, rough, wrinkly, unc- 
tuous, and void of hair, and mostly 
without the sense of feeling. It 
is said to be contagious. Cullen 
makes it a genus of disease in the 
class cachexia and order imfieti- 

Elevator. A chirurgical in- 
strument with which surgeons 
raise any depressed portion of 
bone, but chiefly those of the cra- 

Elevator, i. e. J^evator Scafiulte. 
Also the Rectus Superior Oculi. 

Elevator es Ani^ i. e. Levator es 

Elevator AuricuU. This mus- 
cle arises from the external ter- 
mination of the frontal muscle, it 
being formed of diverse fleshy- 
fibres covering the temporal mus- 
cle ; and being thin and membra- 
nous, is carried over it; then grow- 
ing narrower, is inserted into the 



upper part of the ear, bringing it 
upward and forward. 

Elevator Labii Inferioris^ i. e. 
Levator Labii Jnfcrioris. 

Elevator Labii Su/ierioris, i. e. 
Levator Labii Sufierioria. 

Elevator J^asi Alarum. This 
muscle arises from the top of the 
bone of the nose, near the lachry- 
mal cavity, with a sharp and fleshy 
beginning, and falling down to- 
wards its sides, in a trianeijular 
figure, not much unlike the Greek 
letter A, it marcheth downwards 
the length of the bone, and is in- 
serted broad and fleshy into the 
nasi alse. 

Elevator Oculi. It arises from 
the bottom of the socket, near the 
hole which gives a passage to the 
optic nerve ; then passing over 
the upper part of the globe of the 
eye, is inserted into the superior 
^nd anterior part of the sclerotica. 

Elevator Palfiebra Sufierioris^i.Q, 
Levator Palfiebra Sufierioris. 

Elevator Labiorum. ^qq Levator 

Elutriatio, nvashing over. It is 
the pouring a liquor out of one 
vessel into another, in order to 
separate the subsiding matter 
from the clear and fluid part. 

Elythroides, EXurposi^n?, from eXeu- 
rpv, a shcathy and n^^^f form. So 
the tunica vaginalis of the testes 
is called, because it includes them 
as in a sheath. 

Emansio Alensium. Thus some 
Latin writers term the restraint, 
loitering, tarrying, or retention of 
the menses, that is, when they do 
not begin to flow at the period of 
life at which they may be ex- 

Embrocation^ from £/xC^f;i^w, to 
incisten, or f:oak- in. It is an appli- 
cation in a fluid form, usually pre- 
pared of volatile and spirituous in- 
gredients, and mostly used to re- 
lieve pains, numbness and palsies. 

Embryo. 'Vhe. foetus in uiero is 
socal led before the fifth month of 

pregnancy ; from ev, m, and ^fvxj 
to bud forthy because its growth 
resembles that of the budding of 
a plant. 

Embryotomy y from i^jJ^^wj^ cy*- 
tusy and te/xvw, to cut. It is a cut- 
ting of the child whilst in the 
womb, in order to its easier deli- 

Embryulcu8y from ^jJ^^vov^ a fot' 
tusf and eAkw, to draw., an hook for 
the extraction of a child when la- 
bour is diflicult. 

Emetics. Under this name are 
to be considered those medicines 
which, taken into the stomach in 
a sound state, are capable of ex- 
citing vomiting ; from E/otoi;, to vo- 
mit : such are antimonium. tartari- 
zatum^ ziuncum vitriolatum^ ifieca- 
cuanha., nicotiana^ &:c. 

The use of these medicines is 
so extensive, and their efl'ccts of- 
ten so important, that they will 
justify our considering them at 
some length. The most simple 
view we can take of emetics is, 
that they evacuate the stomach 
by the inverted action of its own 
motions with those of the oesopha- 
gus, assisted by the contraction of 
the diaphragm and abdominal 
muscles. This alone is an object 
of no little importance when we 
consider the extensive influence 
of this organ, and the very dan- 
gerous consequences which arise 
from its acrimonious or vitiated 
contents. But the advantages do 
not rest here. The same invert- 
ed motion is communicated to the 
duodenum, and, in some degree, 
to the inferior parts of the canal. 
Into this second stomach, the bile 
and pancreatic juice arc poured; 
and, while the joint action of the 
diaphragm and the abdominal mus- 
cles compress the gall-blailder to 
evacuate its contents, the inverted 
motion of the duodenum and sto- 
mach evacuate it. Emetics, in 
this way, unite with cathartics in 
assisting the secretion and dis- 



charge of bile; in relieving or 
preventing infarctions of the liver: 
for, while the latter promote the 
secretion by stimulating the ducts, 
the former contribute to the same 
purpose by an action more strictly 

We have often had occasion to 
remark the extensive influence of 
the stomach in the animal econo- 
my, i)articularly its connection 
with the state of the brain and 
the extreme vessels. The first 
effect of emetics, in consequence 
of this connection, is to produce a 
general relaxation, approaching 
sometimes to faintness. In this 
state the extreme vessels sympa- 
thise and yield, with little resist- 
ance, to the force of the circula- 
tion. Perspiration follows, which 
by the action of vomiting is still 
further increased ; and, if this is 
kept up by other means, the most 
salutary changes are often pro- 
duced. We perceive the con- 
nection of the stomach with the 
}iead, rather in the morbid than 
the salutary effects. During the 
action of vomiting, the return of 
the blood from the head is imped- 
ed, and all its vessels are distend- 
ed; which has occasioned some 
hesitation in the use of emetics, 
when these vessels were previ- 
ously distended, as in apoplexy 
and palsy. In such circumstances, 
however, we find the irritation on 
the brain communicated to the 
stomach, and vomiting excited. 

The agitation of vomiting has 
been considered as useful; but 
this is a vague, indistinct indica- 
tion. Medicines of this kind have, 
however, been employed where 
obstructions have been suspected ; 
and, in the brain, the alternate 
filling and emptying their vessels 
may contribute to excite and sup- 
port their action. We see some 
traces of such an influence from 
their utility in nervous diseases, 
particularly in those attended with 

general languor, as hypochondri- 
asis, and in obstructed menses ; 
but more strikingly in the good 
effects of very active emetics, 
particularly of vitriolated mercury 
in the cure of gutta serena. An- 
other distant effect of emetics is 
more certain : their increasing^ 
the action of the absorbent system. 
Their operation, in this way, is 
not easily explained, but such ef- 
fects are well established; and, on 
this account, we shall find them 
extremely serviceable, when we 
wish to promote the absorption of 
purulent matter that Ave cannot 
with ease or safety evacuate. They 
cannot be employed to relieve the 
more extensive accumulations of 

A very important effect of eme- 
tics, referrible in part to their 
action, and sometimes, perhaps, to 
the nature of the medicine, is their 
power of emulging the bronchial 
glands. On the first access of 
nausea, we find a flow of saliva, 
and a little discharge from the 
bronchiae ; but, when the emetic 
begins to act with some violence, 
this discharge is considerable ; 
and no remedy is more powerful 
in producing a complete evacua- 
tion of those glands, or relieving 
them from the infarctions of viscid 
mucus. In part, this effect may 
be owing to the medicine ; for wc 
shall find some of the most active 
emetics to be expectorants also. 
Emetics are of very different 
kinds. Some are purely stimu- 
lant, as mustard, volatile alkali, 
and horse-radishroot. Others arc 
sedative or relaxant. Opium, in 
large doses, acts as an emetic. 
Foxglove, tobacco, putrid sub- 
stances, oil, and warm water, are 
emetics of different strength, 
nearly in their order. The greater 
number, however, act apparently 
by a peculiar stimulus. In some 
of these the stimulus is obvious ; 
and, v/^hen the stomach is not af- 



f«ctcd, acts oil other secretory 
ort^ans. The principal emetics of 
this kind are the antimonial pre- 
parations, which aiTect the bowels, 
the skin, and sonnetimes the bron- 
chial glands. The mercurials are 
similar in this respect; but the 
copper, zinc, and platina, which, 
in all their forms, are emetic, 
seem not to affect any other glands. 
The acrimony of the squill and 
the seneka root is very general : 
they are not only emetics, but ca- 
thartics and expectorants. The 
asarabacca and the groundsel juice 
are more limited in their stimu- 
lant powers. The former, besides 
its emetic property, acts chiefly as 
an errhine, and the latter only on 
the intestines. The ipecacuanha 
is the connecting link between 
these more general stimulants and 
medicines, which seem to act from 
a specific influence on the sto- 
mach. There are certain emetic s 
which may be referred to tl/is 
head. The vitriols of zinc, al- 
ready mentioned, not to sepi/iratc 
the metallic substances, have little 
general stimulus ; and the air of 
the lungs which, when swallowed, 
proves certainly emetic, is wholly 
"without any other power. Every 
nauseous taste tends to excite the 
action of the stomach ; and to this 
head may be referred the bitters, 
as wormwood, camo'mile-flowers, 
the seeds of the ctvrduus benedic- 
tus and broom. Putrid substances, 
and the liver of sulphur, act ap- 
parently in the same way. 

Other causes of vomiting are 
more obscure in their action. As- 
sociation of ideas is a mental ope- 
ration ; yet a very frequent and 
certain cause of vomiting is, the 
recollection of objects connected 
■with the evacuation of the stomach 
at a former period. Motion in a 
circle, in a ship, or in an unaccus- 
tomed direction, has the same ef- 
fect. The motion of a wheel car- 
riage, especially if the windows 

are closed, or the person sits in 
the back seat of a coach, will of- 
ten produce vomiting. This ef- 
fect, as connected with the changes 
in the common sensorium, must 
remain in obscurity. 

The principle on which emetics 
act is not readily explained. It 
has been said that they are con- 
stantly sedatives; and, as plausi- 
bly, that they are always stimu- 
lant. Very powerful emetics be- 
long to each class, yet, perhaps, a 
different principle influences their 
operation. The affection of the 
stomach is apparently increased 
action ; but, in medicine, increas- 
ed action is sometimes owing to a 
defect. It is, more obviously, ir- 
regular action; and we might 
thus attribute vomiting to the 
principle we have already endea- 
voured to establish, that irregular 
action is connected with a diminu- 
tion of tone. We certainly, in this 
way, approach, at least, very near 
the truth ; and the facts will, in 
general, support it. In every in- 
stance, however, except where 
vomiting is owing to an affection 
of the brain, there appears to be 
a substance inimical to the con- 
stitution, which the stomach, in- 
fluenced by the vires medicatrices, 
attempts to discharge ; and the 
necessary motions are conse- 
quently excited. Yet we must 
keep in our view, thatlanguor and 
faintness, from any cause, will 
produce the same effect ; and we 
thus sec why causes of extreme 
del)ility will equally excite this or- 
gan, independent even of the pre- 
sence of any medicine, certainly 
by the intervention of any violent 
commotion. In tliis way may, 
probably, be explained the experi- 
ments of those who have excited 
vomiting by injections of emetic 
medicines into the veins. In fact, 
every foreign substance in the 
blood-vessels excites such com- 
motions, v, ith faintings and con- 



vulsions ; nor is it surprising that 
the stomach should equally suffer. 
In general, then, the most active 
emetics are the most powerful se- 
datives; and the whole class of 
poisons, particularly the narcotic 
cathartics, are violently emetic. 

The motions of ,the stomach 
during the operation of emetics are, 
as we have said, inverted. This 
has been proved by occular obser- 
vation ; and it is equally certain, 
that the action of the muscular 
fibres of the oesophagus are equally 
inverted. A nauseous draught, the 
repetition of an emetic, will some- 
times excite the action of the oeso- 
phagus only ; and we once saw it 
so permanently excited by a crystal 
of emetic tartar sticking in it, that 
the mildest fluids could not, for a 
long time, pass into the stomach. 
The action of the fibres of the sto- 
mach surrounding the cardia is, in 
some instances, exclusively excit- 
ed ; as in those who discharge wind, 
a small portion of acid, of oil, or 
any substance swimming on the 
surface of the contents of the sto- 
mach, and producing cardialgia. 
The more violent exertions of this 
organ alone discharge its whole 
contents ; and such exertions must 
be strong and long continued be- 
fore they are communicated to the 
duodenum. These are not facts 
merely of curiosity, but of great 
importance in the exhibition of vo- 
mits. It is in vain to expect benefit 
from them, if only the slight inef- 
fectual discharge of a little of the 
tea, which has been drank, takes 
place. The strain, such as arises 
from the action of the greater curva- 
ture, is necessary, if any viscid mu- 
cus is to be evacuated ; if any ef- 
fect on the liver can be expected. 
The evacuation of bile appears to- 
wards the end of the operation, 
sometimes after the interval of two 
or three hours ; frequently on tak- 
ing in the first draught of negus, 
or a similar cordial. The expedi- 
ency of the remedy is then trium- 

phantly pointed out ; but, in reality, 
the bile was the effect, and was not 
previously in the stomach. The 
assisting actions of the diaphragm 
and abdominal viscera are sufficient- 
ly felt during the operation, if the 
facts were not ascertained by the 
experiments of Mr. Haighton. 

These observations are of some 
importance in the administration 
of emetics. If the medicine is not 
for some time in the stomach pre- 
vious; io the vomiting, the whole 
organ is seldom excited. It has 
been usual to direct that the emetic 
shall be first discharged, probably 
from its apprehension of doing 
some injury. The practice is, 
however, proper, from its thus ex- 
citing every portion ; but, as the 
vomiting, without some contents, 
is painful, on the first appearance 
of sickness a little camomile tea 
may be allowed. In the whole ope- 
ration, however, if more than a half 
pint of any fluid is contained in the 
stomach at one time, the greater is 
the probability of its acting incom- 
pletely. In cases of poisons the 
vomiting is extremely violent, and 
we then only want to dilute, and to 
render the action as easy as is con- 
sistent with the discharge. The 
dry vomits, as they are called, where 
all drinking is precluded, are pain- 
ful remedies, but of great impor- 
tance in assisting the bronchial dis- 
charges, or in relieving visceral ob- 

Opposed to the severity of dry 
vomits, are the milder nauseating 
doses of antimonials or squills. 
These assist, in some degree, the 
discharge from the bronchiae, but 
not so effectually as full vomiting. 
Their chief advantages are in the 
earlier state of fevers ; in which 
they, in some degree, contribute 
to relieve the dryness of the skin, 
and to mitigate, by this effect, the 
great heat. 

The use of emetics is very ex- 
tensive. In fevers of every kind 
they are most powerful remedies. 



In intermiitcnffi^ihc vomiting, some - 
tiW^d excited 6n the uCcession by 
nature, has taiu'^ht us to lessen the 
violence of the paroxysm by eme- 
tics ; and bcdasrionaily to prevent 
it, by their previous exhibition, and 
continuing to support the perspira- 
titoh they ejiclte. In every inter- 
mittent, and remittcints also, we 
find bilious congestions, which ac- 
tive vomiting conti'ibutesto relieve. 
By thismcans the paroxysmsof each 
gradually become milder; and there 
have been many instances where no 
other renledy was required. 

In continued fevers emetics are 
highly useful, but their effects are 
not equally striking. The debili- 
tating power of every febrile attack 
affects the stomach, and produces 
those irregularities of the digestive 
process which we have already de- 
scribed. The wholesome aliment 
is, in this way, converted into an 
injurious load ; and emetics are not 
more useful in determining to the 
skin, than in removing the acrimo- 
nious or putrid saburrje. When 
contagion also has been received, 
though breathed with the air, it im- 
fhediately affects the stomach, pro- 
ducing a bad taste in the mouth. 
This, with all the subsequent bad 
consequences, an emetic, followed 
by a brisk cathartic, will often re- 
move. The particular kinds of 
fever offer few remarks of impor- 
tance. In the synocha, bleeding, if 
it be at all admissible, should be 
premised ; blit the young practi- 
tioner, eager with his lancet, should 
reflect, that every throbbing pulse 
is not a strong one ; nor does every 
headach portend approaching de- 
lirium. Emetics have often been 
of service even in the most inflam- 
matory fevers, when bleeding ha^ 
hot preceded ; and we should al- 
ways consider, that the woi'st putrid 
fevers are sometimes ushered in by 
symptoms seemingly inflammatory. 
In the lower putrid fevers, emetics 
are useful ; but tb.c nauseating 
'doses, which m?.v be continued in 

inflammatory fever, should soon be 
omitted in the latter, as they debili- 
tate in a considerable degree. 

In the next order, the// /i/r§-wa«<r, 
emetics are less essentially neces- 
sary ; and, in these, bleeding must 
be frequently premised. After vo- 
miting, the nauseating doses may 
be continued with the best effects. 
In the fmcuvwnia they arc often 
important remedies, from their 
power of emulging the bronchial 
glands. In fihreiiitin^ thout^h dan- 
gerous from increasing the accu- 
mulation in the head, we are some- 
times obliged to employ them. In 
cynanche they are inconvenient, 
though useful, remedies. When 
the inflammation terminates in sup- 
puration, suffocation often impends, 
and then vomiting, a precarious re- 
medy, which may even bring on the 
fate it is intended to avert, may at 
once rescue the victim from the 
grave. Firm and steady must be 
the physician who prescribes it ; 
but he who would for a moment 
hesitate when his patient's life is 
at stake, whatever risk he may per- 
sonally run, merits not the name of' 
man, or the character of a physician. 
In the other pyrexiae we find little 
room for the use of this remedy. 
In hefiatitisn, for obvious reasons, it 
is doubtful, though sometimes use- 
ful ; in enteritis the natural vomit- 
ing is often the most troublesome 
symptom ; but in the /leritonifis 
puer/urarnnu emetics, given early, 
have been considered as a most cer- 
tain remedy. In gotd,, emetics 
have been employed to obviate the 
return of paroxysms; and in rheu- 
matism^ if bark be useful in this 
view, vomits must be equally so. 

Emetics are remedies of peculiar 
value and importance in the order 
exayit/iemata. We need not enlarge 
on the different kinds, for in each 
these remedies are useful on the 
first appearance of fever. In those. 
however, attended with nervous or 
putrid fever, the repetition must 
be citteniDtod v.ith caution. 



In haemorrhages^ emetics are sup- 
posed of doubtful efficacy ; but they 
are more generally useful than has 
been supposed. With respect to 
the hdimorrhagia cerebri we shall 
reserve our observations for the 
present; and in efiistaxis we need 
not have recourse to an active, un- 
certain remedy, when we have 
more safe ones within our reach. 
In hamofitysis^ emetics have been 
forbidden ; but with little reason. 
Dr. Robinson, near sixty years since, 
recommended them as safe and ef- 
fectual remedies ; and we know 
that there are none which more 
certjlnly deserve this character: 
yet the general opinion is so decid- 
edly in opposition to their employ- 
ment, that, unless in emercency, 
we think they should not be exhi- 
bited ; or even in einergency^ not 
professedly as emetics. One of 
the most oistinate hsemoptyses the 
author of this article ever saw yield- 
ed only to the digitalis, which acted 
as a violent emetic ; and its action 
was continued for several days. 
The bleeding only ceased during 
the operation of vomiting, and was 
finally stopped. Vomiting has been 
employed with success in jncenorr- 
hagia ; but a physician may brave 
popular prejudice more safely in 
any disease than in female ones : 
nor is their utility in this complaint 
■ very clearly established. We speak, 
however, only at present of febrile 
msenorrhagia. In every other kind, 
emetics are decidedly injurious. 

Of the firofluvia^ the only genera, 
catarrh^ and dysentery^ are greatly 
benefited by these remedies. 

In the adynamia^ emetics are of 
very extensive utility. They are 
of doubtful efficacy in syncofie, when 
the disease arises from a topical 
affection of the heart and larger 
arteries, or when owing to debility, 
or an exhausted constitution. In 
many, perhaps the greater number 
of instances, fainting proceeds from 
accumulations in the stomach, and 
emetics are then absolutely neces- 

sary. In dysficfisia-fhyfiochondriasisy 
and chlorosis, they are remedies of 
the greatest importance. 

The order styled sfiasmi is a 
group of diseases scarcely connect- 
ed. Palfiitatio, however, like syn- 
cope, more commonly depends on 
accumulations in the stomach and 
bowels than on any other cause ; 
and as.'/ima, with dysfincea^is greatly 
relieved by the operation of eme- 
tics, when not owing to any topical 
affection of the heart and arteries. 
If any medicine be useful m/iertus- 
siSi it is occasional vomiting ; but 
the pyrosis is a spasmodic com- 
plaint, and ultimately cured by a 
very different plan. 

In the vesanite, emetics are the 
most important remedies. When 
the disease is not connected with 
the stomach, which generally hap- 
pens, they are probably useful by 
the agitation formerly mentioned 
among their effects. 

In the first order of the cachexia, 
the 77iarcoresy we find little founda- 
tion for their em.ployment ; yet, as 
in tabes the hectic fever is mention- 
ed, they may appear to be indicated. 
But the fever, in this case, is from 
debility only, the exacerbation of 
the common evening paroxysm. It 
reminds us, however, of an omis- 
sion, which we must supply, the 
utility of emetics in phthisis ; a. 
disease that has no appropriate place 
in the system of Dr. Cullen, which 
we have chiefly followed. Whether 
we consider the fever as a remit- 
tent, the bronchial glands as infarct- 
ed, or the existence of purulent 
matter in a concealed abscess, eme- 
tics appear to be medicines of the 
greatest utility. In fact, they are 
so ; and could phthisis be ever 
cured, it would be by the joint ac- 
tion of emetics and blisters. No 
remedy is so generally useful as a 
slight emetic, frequently repeated ; 
it checks the fever, relieves the 
burning heat, renders the respira- 
tion more free, and the cough more 
loose. Yet haeret, lateri lethalis 



krundo, emetics will not cure. In 
drofiniea uutuial . omiting is of oc- 
caaioma utility; hMi'm h'^drocrphu' 
lu8 and hydroUi>rax vomiting is in- 
admissible. Wc find a lew solitary 
cases where the water in hydrocele^ 
a partial dropsy, has been evacuat- 
ed in this way. 

For tiie various genera of the 
order imfietigines we find little 
room for the use of this remedy, [f 
frambofisiay as Dr. Adams thinks, 
(Memoirs of the Medical Society, 
vol. vi.) be an exanthema, emetics 
may be of service, as they very cer- 
tainly are in icterus. Even where 
the pain at the pit of the stomach 
is violent, and the existence of a 
caiculus unequivocal, though eme- 
tics may foi- a time increase the 
pain, the relaxation which they pro- 
duce assists its passage. Neither 
in accidental nor in artificial vomit- 
ing have we ever found, in this 
case, any inflammation (the great 
source of a.larm) follow. Emetics 
are of more importance in the last 
class of diseases, than from their 
local nature might be expected. 
In every case of obstructed sense, 
where the cause is not so firmly 
fixed as to resist every power, these 
remedies are useful ; in the caligo 
for instance, amaurosis^ dysacia^ 
and ageustia ; in the greater num- 
ber of depraved and deficient ap- 
petites ; and in some of the deprav- 
ed or irregular motions. In the 
a/iocenosesy the passive haemorr- 
hages, or mucous discharges, they 
are certainly injurious. In the 
e/iifichcsest if we except the avisnorr' 
hcea^ and in the i/^;;jorc^, except the 
purulent ones, they are hurtful. 

The choice of emetics is a sub- 
ject of some importance ; but it is 
chiefly reij^uluted by the quicl.ncss 
or the violence of their action. 
The most quickly operating eme- 
tic, in cases of emergency, is the 
white vitriol ; the most violent is 
the turbith mineral. It is common 
to select the mercurial emetics in 
^t'nereal cases j but this plan is not 

attended with peculiar advantages. 
We have often thought it singular 
that the squills arc not more fre- 
quently employed ioi this purpose 
in asthma or pneumonia. They 
indeed produce a very permarent 
and distressing nausea, t.nd arc of- 
ten employed as nauseating reme- 
dies ; but we suspect that they 
might be particularly useful if 
given in these cases so as to pro- 
duce full vomiting. In such m- 
stances physicians seem to prefer 
the antinionial emetics, and it must 
be allowed that the squills are verjr 
uncertain in their operation. 

Emetics are injurious when there 
is any original defect in the head, 
in the heart and larger arteries, or, 
perhaps, in the abdominal viscera, 
if we except the liver; in the aneu- 
risms of the larger vessels, in the 
delicate and the weak, if particu- 
larly plethoric. If no plethora ex- 
ists, debility is seldom so considera- 
ble as to contraindicate vomiting, 
should there be any foundation for 
thinking it may produce real good 

Witli respect to the administra- 
tion, we have little to add to what 
we have already remarked. In 
cases of fever we prefer the even- 
ing ; in asthmatic cases, the morn- 
ing; in hectics, the period when the 
febrile accession is most strongly 
marked. In the other disorders 
there is little choice of time. The 
preferable for!n is a liquid ; and 
were the preparation of the ipeca- 
cuanha wine to be always depended 
on, this would be the best form of 
a medicine almost imivcrsally em- 
ployed lis an emetic, since the pow- 
der, apparently entangled in the 
coats of the stomach, sometimes 
occasions a continuance of painful 
retchings. Those who have re- 
peatedly taken this medicine often 
find even the smell or taste suffici- 
ent to excite vomiting ; and, from 
what has been said, it will be obvi- 
ous that such vomiting will be in- 
effectual. To patients of this class 



it, may be given in pills, or the tar- 
tarised antimony may be substi- 
tuted. •• 

Vomits, taken in the morning, 
should be allowed to produce their 
operation in bed. In the evening, 
if not taken in bed, the patient 
should immediately retire to it, 
without exposing himself to any 
chill At any other period of the 
day, cold, after the vomiting, should 
be carefully avoided. 

Any warm liquid may be em- 
ployed to facilitate the action of 
the emetic ; but the camomile, 
the carduus tea, mustard infusion, 
or whey, or the volatile alkali 
added to the bitter infusions, 
greatly facilitate it. 

Emetocatharticwriif a medicine 
which operates by vomit and by 

Emmenagogues. Those medi- 
cines that possess a power of pro- 
moting that monthly discharge of 
blood by the uterus, which, from 
the laws of economy, should take 
place in certain conditions of the 
female system ; from ?v, z«, ^j-m^ a 
month, and ayi), to draw : sabina, 
tanacetuTn, aloes, ferrum, &c., pos- 
sess more or less this property. 

JEmollients. Those substances 
which possessapower of relaxing 
the living animal fibre, without 
producing that effect from any 
mechanical action: such are c^'wa 
tejiida, olea blanda, adefis sidll<z, 
Qjiium, 8cc. 

Emfihractica, $[jL(Ppocicri,KO!., from 
?lx\PfX(7(rx', to obstruct, such topics as 
stop the pores when applied to the 

Mmfihysema, z^<pv<rr,i/.(x., from.f,u- 
'^va-sc^', to inflate, a windy tumour, 
formed by the air insinuating it- 
self, by a small wound, between 
the skin and muscles, into the 
substance of the cellular or adi- 
pose membrane, spreading itself 
afterwards up to the neck, head, 
belly, and other parts, much after 
the manner in which butchers 

blow up their .veal. It is generally 
occasioned by a fracture of the 
ribs, or some extraneous body 
puncturing the lungs. 

£,infiiric, sy^'TreifiKo^, from ifxTupiU!, 
calleo, is strictly a trier or experi- 
menter, and vulgarly signifies 
those persons who have no true 
education in, or knowledge of the 
grounds of physical practice, but 
venture upon hearsay and observa- 
tion only. Medicine was almost 
altogether in the hands of such 
before Hippocrates ; and many 
pretended only to one disease, 
which they had accustomed them- 
selves to ; but the prince of phy- 
sic added reason thereunto, and 
taught the advantages of- theory. 
Notwithstanding which, latter 
ages are again much degenerated 
into empiricism ; and to one re- 
gular knowing physician, such is 
the defect of our laws at present 
in this respect, there are fifty that 
practise who are mere emfiirics. 

EjutwvEw, to blow into, or inflate, an in- 
flation of the stomach, the womb, 
or other parts. 

Emprosthotonos. Adonic spasm 
of several muscles, so as to keep 
the body in a fixed position and 
bent forward ; from i^ir^oa-^-ii, be- 
fore, forwards, and thvu, to draw, 
CuUen considers it as a species of 
tetanus. See Tetanus. 

Emfiyema, sjj.',, from sv, intus, 
ivithin^ and -ro-i^ov, fius, matter, is a 
collection of purulent matter in 
any part whatsoever,strictly taken ; 
but it is generally used to signify 
that in the cavity of the breast 
only ; and which sometimes 
happens upon the opening of 
abscesses, or ulcerations of the 
lungs, or membranes enclosing 
the breast. Its cure is difficulty 
frpm the difficulty of absorbing by 
any vessels such extravasated 
matter; and therefore often calls 
for the help of a surgeon, to dis- 
charge it by aperture externally. 



Rmfxyrcuma^ ifj.mjptvij.eii from f//.- 
Vv^ou, to kindle^ of -nru^j T^re*. In 
Chemiatry^ it is the offensive smell 
and taste which distilled waters, 
or other substances receive from 
being too much exposed to the 

Emfiyreumatica Olea^ empyreu- 
matic oils. These are oils both of 
the animal and vegetable kind, 
which are distilled with a heat 
greater than that of boiling water; 
for thus they receive a burnt smell. 

EmpyroSf mTri^po?, one labouring 
under a fever. 

Emrods. See Hccmorrhoides. 

Rmulgent Vessels. Renal ves- 
sels. The vessels of the kidneys 
are so termed; from emulgeo^ to 
milk out^ because the ancients sup- 
posed they milked the serum from 
the blood. The emulgent artery 
is a branch of the aorta. The 
emulgent vein evacuates its blood 
into the ascending cava. The ab- 
sorbents of the kidneys proceed 
to little glands in the neighbour- 
hood, and from thence to the tho- 
racic duct. 

Emulsion,, from emulgeo^ to milk 
out. Medicinesdf any kind, made 
in a form resembling milk, are cal- 
led emidsions ; but generally they 
are made from farinaceous seeds, 
which are beat up with some 
fluid, by which their oily parts 
are intimately blended with it. 

Emunctory. The excretory ducts 
of the body are so termed ; from 
cmungo^ to drain away : thus the 
exhaling arteries of the skin con- 
stitute the great emunctory of the 

Enarthrosis. The ball and socket 
joint. A species of diarthrosis, 
or moveable connection, in which 
the round head of one bone is re- 
reived into the deep cavity of an- 
other, so as to admit of motion in 
every direction ; as the head of 
the OS femoris with the acetabu- 
lum of the OS innominatum j froni 
^yj in J and a^-Opovj a joiiit. 

Encanthla. An excrescence or 
intumescence of the lachrymal 
caruncle, which is situated in the 
inner angle or canthus of the eye; 
from Ev, zn, and xavQo?, the angle of 
the eye. 

Encausis^ iyy^vricy a burn or scald, 
or rather, the inflammation of a 
pustule caused by a burn or scald. 
It is synonymous with Dr. Cullen*s 
Erythema ab jimbustione. 

Encefihabn^ ly/.i'PocXov^ from £y, fw, 
and K=y«A»?, the head. The encc- 
/j/ia/on includes the dura mater, the 
pia mater, the cerebrum, the cere- 
bellum, and the medulla oblon- 

Endemic. A disease is so term- 
ed that is peculiar to a certain 
class of persons, or to a nation ; 
from EV, in^ and ^ri^oq^ people : thus 
struma is indemial to the inhabit- 
ants of Derbyshire and the Alps ; 
scurvy to sea-faring people ; and 
the plica polonica is only to be 
met with in Poland. 

Enema^ svE/xa, a clyster^ from 
mE/xi, to inject, or throtv in. The 
words enema, clyster, and lotion, 
are equivalent to each other, and 
signify any liquid medicine in- 
jected into the anus. 

Clysters are usually injected by 
means of a bladder and pipe, cal- 
led elus7na, fistula, auliscos ; from, 
whence fistula armata, pipe, and 
bladder : but in many other coun- 
tries a syringe is always used, by 
which the liquor is Llirown up 
further into the bowels. 

The quantity of liquor used in 
each clyster will Vtiry according 
to the age of the patient and in- 
tention proposed. For infants, 
two ounces are sufficient; a cliild 
of six years old, from six to eis>ht 
ounces; a youth of fourteen years, 
from eight ounces to a pint ; and 
to an adult, from a pint to a pint 
and half In general, the bulk 
should be considerable ; for they 
stimulate from tlieir bulk alone, 
and a quart of milk and Vrater will 



often produce the appropriate ef- 
fect ; a circumstance of some uti- 
lity, when the too anxious friends 
dread every evacuant. When the 
tnore active purgatives are thus 
combined with increased bulk, 
they seldom fail. 

Clysters seldom reach beyond 
the sigmoid flexure, or that turn 
of the colon, on the left side, be- 
fore its strait direction obtains for 
it the name of the rectum. They 
thus operate chiefly by stimulating 
the lower part of the gut, and eva- 
cuate only to the extent which that 
stimulus reaches. They are of 
little use, therefore, as evacuants, 
unless a purgative has been taken, 
whose effects we wish to hasten. 
This is often of considerable ser- 
^'ice where only small doses of 
cathartics can be retained ; for by 
these means they prove effectual; 
and frequent solicitations by clys- 
ters produce, in such circumstan- 
ces, the best effects. 

In diarrhceas, and all disorders 
where the intestines are weak, or 
•whenever the clyster is to be re- 
tained, the quantity for an adult 
should not exceed five or six 

In ardent fevers, and inflamma- 
tions of the bowels, they answer 
Jthe end of a fomentation, and 
■should be administered from a 
pint to a quart. In putrid fevers, 
this mode of introducing the bark 
and fixed air into the constitution 
has been adopted, it has been said, 
with success. Nourishment may 
-be conveyed by clysters, when, 
from some complaint of the mouth, 
^hroat, or stomach, nothing can be 
sivalloWed or retained: many have 
been thus supported during seve- 
ral weeks. In such cases a quar- 
ter of a pint of rich broth is inject- 
ed, with thirty or forty drops of 
tinctura opii, every five or six 
hours, and bark with port wine 
has been injected in the same 
way. The effeets are not, how- 

ever, so decidedly beneficial as- 
they have been represented. 

Clysters should never be either 
hot or cold when used; but so 
warm, that, when inclosed in a 
bladder, the heat gives only iiix 
agreeable sensation to the closed 

When a clyster is intended only 
to evacuate, three or four ounces 
of common salt, or as much soap 
in a pint and half of water, are 
sometimes equally effectual with 
any quantity of the other purgin^- 

When a very powerful stimulus 
is required in purging clysters, it 
is usual to mix emetics with then\, 
and of these the vinum antimonii 
merits, it is said, the preference. 
But any of the more active purga- 
tives will equally succeed ; anil 
there is not a more effectual pur- 
gative clyster than three drams of 
the pulp of colocynth, boiled for 
a quarter of an hour in a sufficient 
quantity of water, to strain off a 
little more than a pint. To this 
should be added two ounces of 
oil, and as much vitriolated mag- 

The usual method of injecting 
clysters is very inadequate, and 
often ineffectual. An injecting 
syringe, which holds a pint and 
half, is the proper instrument; 
and it is sometimes of advantage 
to have a lateral pipe, by which it 
may be supplied without with- 
drawing. We might thus even 
fill the colon, and produce many 
beneficial effects ; since a fomen- 
tation could be in this way effectu- 
ally applied to many important 
parts, when in a state of inflam- 
mation, or otherwise diseasedo 
De Haen, by sueh an instrument, 
filled the colon of a dog, and in 
some experiments even conquer- 
ed the obstruction which its valve 

Energy. Action. The degree 
of force exercised by any power -. 



thus nervous cncrj^y, rauscular 
Qlicrgy, Sec. from tvefysu, to act. 

Enneandriai from «vv£a, noveniy 
uine^ and aj»i^, maritus, a husband ; 
in iheLinnapan system of botany, a 
class of plants, the ninth in order, 
>vith hermaphrodite flowers, and 
nine stamina or male parts in each. 

^nsiform Cartilage. Ziphoid 
cartilage. A small sword-like, 
and sometimes bifurcated carti- 
lage, attached to the end of the 
sternum ; from ensis^ a sword, and 
forma, resemblance. 

JEnteritis, Inflammation of the 
intestines ; from vflsfovy an intestine. 
It is a genus of disease in the class 
fiijrexitc and order fihlegrnasicc of 
Cullen, and is known by the pre- 
sence of pyrexia, fixed pain in the 
abdomen, costiveness, and vomit- 
ing. M. M. Venesection very 
copiously; castor oil; manna; calo- 
jnel qr aloes one grain every hour 
till it operates; warm bath; emol- 
lient fomentations; glysters ; a 
blister ; mucilages ; small doses 
of opium. 

Enterocele. Hernia intestinalis. 
Every hernia may be so called, 
that is produced by the protrusion 
of an intestine ; from Evlfpov, an in- 
:estine, and xjjXtj, a tumour, 

Entero'Ejiifilocele. A rupture 
formed by the protrusion of part of 
an intestine ; with a portion of the 
epiploon ; from evlspov, an intestine, 
i-xkirXoo)!, the ejii/iioon, and KyiXr), a 

Entero- Hydroc clc . An intesti- 
nal hernia with water in the scro- 
tum; from evIejjov, anintestinej v^ou^, 
'il}ater, and )c»;X>i, a tumour. 

Enterology, from Evlfpov, inicsti- 
num, a gut, aqd Xoyo,-, scrmo, a dis- 
course, is a treatise of the Ijowcis, 
and is generally understood to in- 
clude the contents of the three 
cavities, head, breast, and belly. 

Enter omji/ialus, in^ofx'PaXo;., from 
tvlspov, an intestine, and o^'Pxk^, the 
navel, a rupture of the intestine at 
the travel. 

Eiitcrorafihia, suture of a giiL 
v/hen wounded. It is generally 
performed by tlie glover's stitch, 
and a portion of the thread is left 
at each end of the seam, to con- 
nect it to the necessarily pre-ex- 
isting wound of the muscles, Sec. 
of the belly, till the wounded gut 
adheres to the wound of the belly. 

F.ntcroscheocele, from sv/fpov, an 
intestine, oT-xio-i, the scrotum, and 
Kn\y>, an hernia. It is when the 
intestine descends into the scro- 

Entrichoma, ivrfixj^aa, from ev and 
Tfix^fAot, the hair, the edge of the 
eye-lid on which the hairs grow. 

Entro/iium. A disease of the 
eye-lids, occasioned by the eye- 
lashes and eye-lid being inverted 
towards the bulb of the eye. M. 
M. Adhesive plasters; glue; ex- 
traction of the cilia. 

Enula Camjiana. Common inula, 
or Elecampane. Inula helenium 
of Linnaeus. This plant, though 
a native of Britain, is seldom met 
with in its wild state, but mostly 
cultivated. The root, which is 
the part employed medicinally, in 
its recent state, has a weaker and 
less grateful smell than when 
thoroughly dried, and kept for a 
length of time, by which it is 
greatly improved, its odour then 
approaching to that of Florentine 
orris. It was formerly in high 
estimation, but is now fallen into 
disuse. 5i to Sij* 

Enuresis. An involuntary flow 
of urine ; from evypsi?, to make 'water. 
A genus of disease in the class lo- 
cales and order ajiocenoscs of Cul- 
len, containing two species. 1. 
Enuresis atonica, the sphincter of 
the bladder having lost its tone 
from some previous disease : 2. 
Enuresis ah irratio7ie, vel com/ircS' 
sio7ic resicit, from an irritation or 
compression of the bladder. M. 
M. 1st. Tonics; cold aspersion; 
a blister over the sacrum or peri- 
nocum. 2d. Removal of the prcs^ 

EP . 


sure or irritation ; a cathartic ; 
mucilage; opium. 

Efihelis. Broad, solitary, or ag- 
gregated spots, attacking most 
commonly the face, back of the 
hand, and breast, from exposure 
to the sun ; from «7rt and >?X*oj, the 

Efihemera^ sJ^j^/xEpo?, from ivi^ 
sufier^ tifion, and «/A£^a, dies^ a day, 
is a fever that terminates in the 
compass of one day. 

Efihidrosis. Sudatio. Mador, 
A violent and morbid perspira- 
tion ; from !(?t^poa;, to fiersfiire. A 
genus of disease in the class /o- 
cales and order apocenoces of Cul- 

Ejnala, a kind of tertian fever. 

Ejiialos, miaXog, an ardent fever, 
in vi^hich both heat and cold are 
felt in the same part at the same 
time. Galen defines it to be a 
fever in which the patient labours 
under a preternatural heat and a 
coldness at the same time. The 
ancient Latins call it Quercera. 

Epidemical Catarrhou^ Disease. 
So some have called the influ- 

Epidemical Catarrhous Semipes- 
tilential Fever , a name of the influ- 

Epidemiusy (from et*, upon, and 
^rijxoc, the people.'^ Epichorios ; 
pandemius, popularis-i regionalis 
morbus. An epithet of diseases 
which at certain times are popu- 
lar, and frequently attack ; then 
for a time disappear, and again 

The extensive influence of epi- 
demic diseases has excited the 
greatest attention to their causes. 
In almost every ruder age they 
have been referred to the anger 
of their peculiar divinities, and 
sacrifices were instituted to re- 
concile them. More lately Mr. 
Webster has attempted to connect 
them with the eruptions of vol- 
canos, or the devastation of earth- 
quakes. A more sound philoso- 

phy and more attentive observa- 
tion have shown, that they are 
owing very often to the effluvia of 
neighbouring marshes ; and their 
occasional appearance is connect- 
ed with the prevailing wind which 
passes from the marsh to the ha- 
bitations. Another cause of their 
prevalence is, the wind from the 
marsh coinciding with the time 
when the moist ground begins to 
appear, from the water subsiding. 
This is the period of sickness ; 
for the marsh, while covered with 
water, is innocuous. Another 
cause of epidemics is the weather. 
A long continued warm season, 
suddenly interrupted by a cold 
piercing wind, will produce a vio- 
lent and extensive epidemic, which 
particularly attacks in the highest, 
and apparently the most healthy 
situations ; for this reason, that 
the inhabitants are there most ex- 
posed to cold. But if this inter- 
change of weather occurs to the_ 
inhabitants of a crowded city, the 
epidemic will be highly putrid, 
and often fatal. Should contagion 
of a malignant kind concur, the 
devastation of the epidemic will 
increase in proportion. These 
are the concurring causes of the 
American yellow fever, and the 
late fatal epidemics in Spain. 

There are, however, causes 
which we cannot investigate. Ex* 
tensive epidemics appear, and tra- 
vel in succession, with diff*erent 
severity, through every part of the 
globe that we are acquainted with. 
The destroying angel seems to 
move with a studied regularity, 
without our being able to arrest 
his steps or alter his course. We 
often find these inexplicable epi- 
demics without much danger, in- 
fluencing the appearance of dis- 
eases and their treatment. Thus, 
while some epidemics prevail, 
evacuations from the bowels are 
necessary in almost every com- 
plaint } even where, in appeai'- 



ance, unnecessary or contraincU- 
cated. In oUicrs they arc, with 
difliculty, borne in any disorder. 
This necessary attention to the 
prevalence of the constitution me- 
rits very particular attention ; and 
the more extensive a physician's 
experience is, by so much Avill he 
be better able to treat the com- 
monest disease. 

Epidemics connected with the 
seasons or prevailing temperature 
may be easily traced, and we shall 
find them occasionally mitigated 
or severe : sometimes apparently 
stopped ; at others exerting their 
power with increased virulence. 
The peculiar treatment, however, 
suggested by a general epidemic, 
should not at once be discontinu- 
ed. The human constitution does 
Hot soon change ; the alteration 
is gradual, and almost impercepti- 
ble : nor should the medical plans 
be altered till they are decidedly 

When an epidemic has continu- 
ed for some time, the body is ha- 
bituated to the influence of the 
morbid cause ; suffers less from 
it; and the health is more readily 
restored. At this time, remedies 
before useless are found to pro- 
duce some salutary effects ; and, 
at the end of an epidemic, we 
usually are told of a plan which 
never fails. On its return, these 
boasted plans arc as ineffectual as 
before. In fact, they only com- 
bated, with success, a disease of 
reduced power. 

We greatly want a judicious 
and well connected account of 
epidemics. Mr. Webster has 
lately brought together a very ex- 
tensive collection of facts of this 
kind, with the views formerly 
mentioned ; but the chaff is so in- 
timately mixed with the grain, 
that the salutary information is 
with difficulty selected. 

We cannot give a better view 
of the epidemixs of the two last 

centuries than in the comprehen- 
sive abstract of Dr. Sims. 

" I. The first epidemic consti- 
tution was as follows : The years 
1590, 1591, 1592, were all exceed- 
ingly dry; as was part of 1593; 
afterwards very rainy weather un- 
til the end of 1597. In 1593 the 
plague killed eleven thousand five 
hundred and three in London ; 
the same year it was prevalent in 
Aicmaar. A catarrh prevailed in 
1597. The rainy weather began 
in Florence in 1592, during which 
a pestilential fever raged there, 
attended with a whitish tongue, 
and an inflammation, with ulcers 
about the throat end mouth. 

" 2. There was, in 1598, an ex- 
cessive heat and drought, which 
continued next year; 1600, a se- 
vere winter; 1601,a drought of five 
months' continuance ; 1 602, a cold 
spring and summer, cold dry har- 
vest and winter ; the rest of this 
constitution very rainy, until the 
end of 1608, except seven weeks 
frost in 1607. In 1603, the plague 
was imported from Ostend,w^here, 
and in the Low-countries, it raged 
much, and killed thirty-six thou- 
sand two hundred and sixty-nine 
in London. 

" 3. In 1609, three months' 
most rigorous frost, wherein the 
Thames became like a solid high- 
w^ay ; 1610, an excessive hot dry 
summer,as were those of 1611 and 
1612; 1616, 1617, and 1619. The 
winters of 1614 and 1615, great 
frost and snow ; the rest of this 
constitution wet until the end of 
1624. In 1609 the plague broke 
out in Aicmaar, as also in Den- 
mark. In 16-10 the Hungarian 
fever commenced in many places, 
and made great havock for several 
years, so as often to be denomi- 
nated a plague. About the same 
time the malignant sore throat is 
supposed to have commenced in 
Spain, where it killed incredible 
numbers. In 1611 the plague is 



jiiid to have destroyed two hun- 
dred thousand at Constantinople. 
In 1614 the most fatal small-pox 
spread all over Europe. In 1618 
the sore throat broke out at Na- 
ples, where it continued its rava- 
ges for twenty years ; it was pre- 
ceded by a similar disorder among; 
cattle. In 1618 the plague exist- 
ed in Bergen. In 1619 it broke 
out in Denmark and in Grand 

" 4. In 1625, a hard frosty win- 
ter, summer wet and hot; 1626 
and 1627 excessively hot sum- 
mers; 1630 and 1631, a great 
drought; the other years wet un- 
til 1634. In 1625 the plague kil- 
led thirty-five thousand four hun- 
dred and seventeen in London ; it 
raged in Denmark both in 1625 
and 1629 ; as cdso in 1625 in Ley- 
den. In 1632 inflammations of the 
jaws prevailed, with an erysipelas 
in one or more parts of the body. 

"5. In 1634, an excessively fros- 
ty winter; 1635, 1636, 1637, and 
1638, very hot and dry summers ; 
then very rainy years until 1643. 
■In 1635 the plague in Leyden and 
the camp fever spread all over 
Germany. In 1636 the plague 
was in London, whereof died thir- 
teen thousand four hundred and 
eighty; in 1637, the plague in 

«6. The years 1643 and 1645 
•\v'cre remarkable for hot summers, 
followed by inconstant rainy sea- 
sons until 1650. In 1643 a fatal 
malignant fever was spread by the 
armies all over England; 1644, 
a malignant epidemic fever in 
Denmark ; a similar fever in Eng- 
iand, in which there was a rough- 
ness and sliminess of the throat 
and jaws, with pain, but scarcely 
any swelling or inflammation: it 
seemed only a mere defluction, by 
which the sick seemed choaked, 
and for which astringent gargles 
were useful. In 1650 a general 
catarrh prevailed. 

*' r. The years 1651 and 1653 
had both very hot summers, an^ 
proved mostly dry ; thence to 1 66^ 
very v/et. The winters of 1651 
and 1658 remarkably cold. In 
1651, in the country about Rome, a 
contagious epidemic quinsey pre- 
vailed, and made terrible slaugh- 
ter among children. A small ul- 
cer arose in the mouth, for which 
juice of wood-sorrel, syrup of 
pomegranates, with the bark, and 
chiefly the acid of vitriol, were 
useful. All that took these medi- 
cines recovered ; but those who 
were not tractable, and refused 
medicines, died : it did not seize 
adults, nor the aged. In 1654 the 
plague was in Denmark ; and in 
1655, and the two following years, 
it prevailed exceedingly* in the 
south of Europe ; the agues like- 
wise of these hot years were ma- 
lignant, and spotted fevers were 
very common. In 1664, after a. 
mild rainy winter, a malignant 
purple fever raged in Prussia, and 
killed great numbers under twelve 
years of age, those only escaping; 
w^ho had no inflammation or oede- 
matous tumour in the throat. 
Such as recovered, after sweating, 
had scales pealing off the skin ; 
then adults had a swelling over 
their body and of their belly, which 
continued several weeks like leu- 
cophlegmatia, and then went off 
by sweat and urine. This epide- 
mic seems a considerable devia- 
tion from their general progress 
laid down in the scheme of them 
already mentioned, and is, there- 
fore, particularly noticed in this 

"8. In 1665, an CKcessively se- 
vere frost, which continued to the 
end of March ; summer tempe- 
rate ; 1666, a very hot dry year, 
followed by two as wet and cold. 
In 1665, immediately after the 
frost, began the plague in London, 
whichkilled, according to the least 
computation, sixty-eight thousand 



fkve hundred and ninety-six. Since 
chat time the plag^ue has vanished 
from London, and ail other epide- 
mics seem to have become less 
malignant, owing to many causes ; 
among vviiich may, perhaps, be a 
greater use of fresh vegetable 
food, a less use of fish, an univer- 
sal use of tea, superior cleanliness 
in our persons, a greater attention 
to the poor in times of scarcity, 
■Which are now scarcely felt in any 
extreme degree, and, lastly, the 
"tremendous fire in 1666; since 
which the streets have been very 
much M'idened, and the houses so 
'enlarged, that the same number 
of inhabitants now occupy above 
double the space. In 1667 an 
•epidemic fever, with aphtha, pre- 
vailed in Holland, in which acids 
%vere useful, but neither bleeding 
nor purging. 

" 9. In 1669, the summer in- 
tolerably hot, after which the win- 
ter was as severely cold and frosty ; 
1670, a severe frosty winter; the 
rest of this constitution bad and 
wet. In 1669 a most fatal fever 
prevailed, with slimy tongue, sore 
mouth. Sec. in which bleeding was 
hurtful, but acids and laxatives 
very beneficial. Sydenham does 
not mention this fever, nor its re- 
turn in 1678, although, next to the 
plague, they were the greatest 
epidemics in his time ; which, to- 
gether with his little knowledge 
of putrid fevers, can only be at- 
tributed to his practice lyiiis; about 
the court ; whilst Morton, who 
practised in the city, j^ivcs abun- 
dant proofs that putrid complaints 
were as prevalent then as at this 
time. The same year, in Norway, 
malignant measles are said to have 
prevailed, with thrush, which, if 
mismanaged or neglected, ended 
in a fatal mortification. In 1675 
a coryza, or cough, was preva- 

" 10. In 1678, summer and har- 
vest droug-htv, hot, and cIpbt ; 

1679, winter long, severe frosty 
and intensely cold; 1680 and 1681, 
summer extremely dry and hot; 
the next two years rainy. In 167B 
the same fever and sore throat 
prevailed as in 1669. In 1679, 
after a most deluging October, a 
catarrh was universal. In 1682, 
sphacelated tongues and angina 
maligna prevailed among cattle ; 
in the same year, in Dublin, a fatal 
petechial fever. 

" 11. The year 1684 was re- 
markable for the severest frost 
remembered at that time, succeed- 
ed by a very dry and hot summer, 
to which 1686 bore a near resem- 
blance : the other years were 
rainy till 1691. In 1684, spotted 
fevers, particularly of the miliary 
kind, were common. This and 
the following year of 1685 are re- 
markable for the greatest number 
of burials. In 1688 an epide- 
mic catarrh prevailed all over Eu- 

" 12. A frosty winter in 1691, 
and excessively hot and dry sum- 
mer. The same in 1694; the other 
years rainy and variable. In 1691 
a fatal spotted fever prevailed ; in 
1693 an universal catarrh ; and in 
1695 the hooping-cough. 

« 13. Of 1698, an exceedingly 
hard frost in the winter ; the rest 
of this constitution rather rainy. 
In October, 1698, began a fatal 
contagious spotted fever, which 
spread :ill over England. Coughs 
attended most of the diseases in 

" 14. The year 1704 was ex- 
cessively dry, so that the grass 
was burnt up ; this continued un- 
til August 15, 1705 ; the rest of 
this constitution cold and wet. In 
1704 malignant spotted fevers 
were common. In 1708 coughs 
and coryzas prevailed every where, 
so that few escaped. 

*' 15. In 1709, great frost all 
over Europe, even in Portugal ; 
1712, a very frosty vintor ; thi^ 



rest of this constitution varia- 
ble. In 1709 the plague broke 
out in Dantzick, immediately after 
the thaw, and killed twenty-four 
thousand five hundred and fitty- 
three. In 1710 the plague in Co- 
penhagen killed twenty-five thou- 
sand. In 1712, sore throats uni- 
versal in July and August, with 
dizziness and pains of the limbs, 
in London. 

" 16. The year 1714, and the 
six succeeding years, were all 
dry, with hot summers. In the 
V winter of 1716 so severe a frost 
that the Thames was covered with 
booths: that of 1718 likewise very 
frosty; the rest to 1731, cold, wet, 
and variable, except 1723, which 
was cold and dry; and 1729, which 
was a cold dry winter, followed by 
a hot dry summer. In 1720 the 
plague killed sixty thousand in 
Marseilles. In 1729 an universal 
epidemic catarrh prevailed in No- 

. " 17. The year 1731 was a very 
dry one, which continued until 
harvest 1732; summer of 1733 
rather dry and pleasant, as was 
most of 1738 ; the remainder of 
this constitution extremely wet. 
In the beginning of 1733 was an 
epidemic catarrh ; 1737, 1738, and 
1739, were all much infested with 
catarrhal fevers, especially among 

"18. In 1740 was the severest 
frosty winter and spring that had 
happened for three hundred years ; 

1741, extremely dry hot summer; 

1742, a variable, but dry year ; the 
rest of this constitution wet or 
variable. In 1740 a malignant 
petechial fever made great havock 
in Bristol, and in Galway in Ire- 
land. In 1741 it reached London, 
where this and the last year were 
the most mortal ever known, ex- 
cept when the "plague reigned, 
the burials amounting to sixty-two 
thousand nine hundred and eighty. 
In 1742 the putrid sore throat 

broke out. In March, 1744, an 
epidemic catarrh was universal, 
and was more fatal than usual. 

" 19. In 1747, there was an ex- 
cessively hot dry summer; 1750, 
a dry year throughout and in- 
tensely hot summer ; the rest of 
this constitution moderate, varia- 
ble, or wet. In 1747, and the suc- 
ceeding years, the sore throat 
seemed to acquire new vigour, 
alarming the inhabitants of these 
kingdoms very much. In No- 
vember, 1758, there was an uni- . 
versal epidemic catarrh. 

"20. The year 1760 was droughty 
from June 26 to September 16; 
the end of that and the following 
year severely wet, as was the end 
of 1763 and beginning of 1764^ 
the rest of this constitution mode- 
rate. In April and May, 1762, a 
most epidemic catarrh. 

" 2 1 . A very dry year, and rather 
hot summer in 1765, as-was ths 
next year, though not quite so 
much so ; the remainder of this 
constitution moderate years,rather 
inclining to wet. During this con- 
stitution no very remarkable epi- 
demic till the universal catarrh in 
November, 1775, unless we reckon 
such, the small-pox of the year 
1772, which, succeeding a hard 
winter, were more fatal than they 
had ever been before in London. 

" 22. The year 1776 was dry, 
and 1778 still more so. The win- 
ter of 1780 was the most frosty 
since 1740: yet these deviations 
from what might be accounted 
moderate weather were so small 
as scarcely to deserve notice. In 
May, 1782, there was a very gene- 
ral epidemic catarrh; and early 
in 1783 began the constitution 
which produced the epidemic 
scarlatina anginosa, which spread 
very considerably." 

ILpidermis^ ETi^spp?, from etti, ufion^ 
^ep/^ct, the skirif the scarf-skin. See 

Epididymis, A hard, vascular, 



oblong substance, that lies upon 
the testicle, formed of a convolu- 
tion of the vas deferens ; from st«, 
uporiy and ^^^vfxoc^ a testicle. 

Epigastric^ Art'cri<e^ epigastric 
arteries. The external iliac ar- 
tery divides into two brandies at 
the ligamcntum Poupartii : one of 
them is the e/iigastric^ which runs 
to the inside of the rectus abdo- 
minis, at whose upper part it com- 
municates with the internal mam- 

Efdgastrica Fe7i(Cy the epigas- 
tric veins. The internal iliac 
veins, a little before their going 
out of the belly, send off from the 
inside the epigastric veins^ which 
send branches to the neighbouring 
glands, and run up the musculi 
recti abdominis, and then advanc- 
ing, join the mammary. 

Ejiigastriunij sTTiyao-rpiov, from ett*, 
super, upon, and yaj*?^, venter, the 
belly, is the upper part of the ab- 
domen, reaching from the cartila- 
go ensiformis till within two fin- 
gers' breadth of the navel. Its 
two sides are hypochondria ; the 
right of which covers the greatest 
part of the liver ; the left the 
spleen, part of the stomach, and 

Epiglottis. The cartilage at the 
root of the tongue that falls upon 
the -glottis ; from ett;, zcpon, and 
yXwrlK, the glottis, or superior 
opening of the larynx. 

Epilepsia. Convulsions with 
sleep, and usually froth issuing 
from the mouth ; from friXsj^^ti, a 
9Woon. It is a genus of disease in 
the class neuroses and order spasmi 
of Cullen, and contains nine spe- 
cies : 1. Epilepsia traumatica, aris- 
ing from an injury of the head : 
2. Epilepsia a do lore, from pain : 

5. Epilcjisia verminosa, from the 
irritation of worms : 4. Epilrp- 
iia a vcncno, from poisons : 5. Epi- 
lepsia €xa7ithematica, from the re- 
pulsion of cutaneous eruptions : 

6. Epilepsia a cvuditatc vcntriciili, 

from crudities of the stomacli : 
7. Epilepsia ab inanitionc^ from de- 
bility : 8. Epilepsia uicrina, from 
hysterical affections : 9. Epilepsia 
ex onanismo, from onanism. M. M. 
Avoiding the exciting and remov- 
ing the predisponent causes ; ve- 
nesection when the vessels arc 
too full; emetics; purgatives; an- 
tispasmodics ; blisters ; issues ; 
cinchona ; iron ; flowers of zinc ; 
cuprum ammoniacum ; arsenic ; 
digitalis ; nitrate of silver grs. ^ to 
1. three or four times a day; ace- 
tite of lead. Dr. Currie has re- 
commended the cold bath in the 
height of the paroxysm ; Dr. Ha- 
milton the daily use of purgatives; 

Epinyctis, BTrivvKrt^, from etj, ow, 
^ndvv^, night. It is a kind of pustule, 
which rises in the night, whence 
its name. It is an angry tumour 
affecting the skin in the arms, 
hands, and thighs ; the ancients 
rank with it the T'erjninthus, which 
is somewhat less. It is of the 
bigness of a lupine, of a dusky 
red, and sometimes of a livid and 
pale colour, with great inflamma- 
tion and pain. In a few days it 
breaks and gleets, and separates 
away in a slough. 

Epios, ETTto;, mild, gentle, an epi- 
thet which Hippocrates bestows 
on mild epidemic fevers. 

Epiparoxy sinus. It is when the 
patient suffers more exacerba- 
tions than are usual in a fever. 

Epiphxnomenos, i-rt^xtvoy.iyo^, from 
£Ti, importing addition, and ^atvojLcs- 
voy, a phecuovicjion, or sym/itom^ an 
adventitious symptom which does 
not appear till the disease is found, 
and seems to be the same as EjiL- 

Epiphlehos, E7r»?)X'/So;, from etj, and 
(J)Xf4^, a vein, one wliose veins are 

E/iiphlogisma, ^'rri'pXoyixTjxa, from 
f-rri, and (jAoyi^v, to inflame, o' ;pxo^, a 
flame, a violent i' fl niniation, at- 
tended with pain, tumour, and red- 



E/iifihlogUfna, a name which Hip- 
pocrates gives to the shintijles ; 
also a burning heat in any part. 

Epi/ihora. The watery eye. An 
involuntary flow of tears; from 
t7r*!?)opa, a Jiood. A genus of dis- 
ease in the class locales and order 
afioceno&es of Cullen. 

Efiifihysis. Any portion of bone 
growing upon another, but sepa- 
rated from it by a cartilage ; from 
£7ri, ufion, and <?>uw. to grow. 

£piplocele, ft^ivyXonriXr,^ from s9n- 
ttXoov, o?nentu??i, the caul, and x»}X>5, 
tumour, a sivelling, is a rupture of 
the caul, which falls down into the 

Epiploic^ (Appendicula.) The 
peritonaeal coat of the intestines 
sends out some processes like lit- 
tle epiploons, to which Winslow 
gives this name. 

Epiploic a Arteria. Before the 
splenic artery arrives at the spleen, 
it sends a branch to the omentum, 
which is thus called. 

Epiploica Dextra (Vena.) It 
is a branch from the trunk of the 
mesaraica major, which goes to 
the omentum. 

Epiploica Sinistra (Vena.) It 
arises from the splenica at the 
small extremity of the pancreas, 
and is ramified on the omentum, 
all the way to the colon, where it 
communicates with the haemorr- 
hoidalis interna. 

Epiplois Dextra, is a branch of 
the coeliac artery which runs 
through the right side of the in- 
ner or hinder leaf of the caul. 

Epiplois Fostica, is a branch of 
the cceliac artery springing out of 
the lower end of the splenica, and 
running to the hinder leaf of the 

Epiplois Sinistra, is a branch of 
the coeliac artery that is bestowed 
on the lower and left side of the caul. 

Epiploicis. It is that species of 
inflammation which Dr. Cullen 
calls Peritoni is Omentalis. it is 
the same as Fuerpcralis E'ebrls. 

Epiploomphalon, sirri'CTXoo/xtpaAoy, 
from E-cTi-ErXoov, the omentum, and 
ojA^aXo?, the navel, an hernia umbili- 

Epiploon. The omentum; from 
ETTiTrXoi), to sail over ; because it is 
mostly found floating, as it were, 
upon the intestines. See Omentum, 

Epiploscheocele, an hernia, in 
which the omentum descends into 
the scrotum. 

EpipQroma, smt'STufojfjt.oc. It is any 
indurated tumour in the joints, 
from EWiTO-wpoii, to harden; a callous 
concretion, a tophus, a tophaceous 
callus, molesting the joints. 

Epischesis, £7ntr;(;s(7i?, suppression 
of usual evacuations. InDr. Cul- 
len's nosology it is the name of 
an order in the class locales. 

Episcopales Valvula,i.Q. Falvula 
Mi t rales. 

Epispastics. Those substances 
which increase the action of the 
vessels, in those parts of the sur- 
face of the body to which they are 
applied, in such a manner as to 
produce an efflux of fluids there ; 
from 67rt, and a-irau, to draw : of this 
nature are cantharides, seminay 
sinapi, ammonia, &c. 

Epistaxis. Bleeding at the nose, 
with pain or fulness of the head. 
A genus of disease arranged by 
Cullen in the class pyrexia and 
ovder hamorrhagite. M. M. Rest; 
cold; compression; saline purga- 
tives ; sulphuric acid. 

Episthotonos, the same as Em- 
prosthotonos, i. e. when the tetany 
bends the body forward. 

Epistrophalus, from sto-*, upan, 
and r^B^M, to turna bout. It is ap- 
plied to the first vertebra of the 
neck, because it turns about upon 
the second as upon an axis, which 
therefore was so called by the 
ancients. Some, though impro- 
perly, call the second thus. It 
is also written Epistrophea, and 

Epithema^ £«ri9>jjw.a, or Epithem^ 
iTC-iSs/Aa, from tTTi, iipon^ and riOtjpj, 



if) laij ufion^ or afifily. It is any 
outward application, but gene- 
rally signifies those of a liquid 
form, like a fomentation. 

K/ii'/ieliiim. So the cuticle on 
the red part of the lip is cal- 

EJnthesis^ iin^t(TK;. In Surgery /it 
is the rectification of crooked 
limbs by means ot instruments. 

Epsom Saltj i. e. Purging" Salt 

Efisom Water. Its medical 
povvers arc contained in the salt 
which bears its name, and which is 
also called Sal Cath. Amar. 

Fsfiulis^ svryXig, from itti, u/ion, and 
yXa, the gums', excrescences on the 
gums, of which there are two spe- 
cies, one without pain, the other 
is troublesome, and often dege- 
nerates into a cancer. 

Efiuloiica^ swaXaJTiJca, Efiulotic^ 
from EwaXow, to cicatrize., topical 
medicines which dry up humidity, 
repress fungous flesh, and dispose 
"wounds or ulcers to be covered 
with skin. Dry lint, gentle com- 
press, and the cerate with lapis 
calaminaris, are the general ap- 

Equilibrium. It is when two or 
more forces acting against one an- 
other, none of them overcome the 
others, but destroy one another's 
effects, and remain at rest. 

EAjuisetum.) horse-tail. A genus 
in Linnaeus's botany, of the order 
of E'ilicea^ or ferns. He enume- 
rates seven species. 

Equita(io.)V\(\\v\^. During this ex- 
ercise, all the viscera are shaken, 
and pressed against each other ; 
at the same time the pure air acts 
with a greater force on the lungs. 
Weakly persons, or those whose 
stomachs arc infirm, should be 
cautious of ridiwg before their 
meals are somewhat digested. 

Equivocal Gciicra(io7i/\s the pro- 

--duction of plants without seed ; 

or of insects or animals without 

parents, in the natural way of 

coition between male and female ; 
wliich is now believed never to 
happen, but that all bodies are 
unequivocally produced. 

Erector Clitoridis. A muscle 
of the clitoris that draws it down- 
wards and backwards, and serves 
to make the body of the clitoris 
more tense, by squeezing the 
blood into it from its crus. 

Erector Penis. A muscle of 
the penis that drives the urine or 
semen forwards, and by grasping 
the bulb of the urethra, pushes 
the blood towards the corpus ca- 
ve rnosum and the glans, and thus 
distends them. 

Eret/iismoa., i^eOtcr/uiOi, from i^s0t^<y, 
to excite, irritate. In general, 
whatever is an obstacle to nature 
is an Erethismos In particular it 
signifies an irritation of the belly, 
from thin acrimonious humours, 
and their discharge in liquid stools. 

Ergot. So the French call the 
rye which is diseased in a parti- 
cular manner, from its grains as- 
suming somewhat of the form of 
a cock's spur. 

Erode^ and Erosion, the same as 
Corrosion, which see. 

Erotomania, EpatTojuavia, that sort 
of melancholy to which lovers are 

Erjies, i. e. 

Err^na., or Erratica, is used by 
physicians in various senses, but 
chiefly for wandering pains, and 
sometimes for fevers of uncertain 
periods, as irregular tertians or 

Err/line. By errhines are to be 
understood those medicines which, 
when topically applied to the in- 
ternal membrane of the nose, ex- 
cite sneezing, and increase the 
secretion, independent of any me- 
chanical irritation ; from iv, in, and 
fjc, t/ie nose. To this class belong 
nicotiana, hellcborus, eu/i/icrbinm, 
asarum, &c. 

Error Lad. Boerhaave is said 
to have introduced this ;erui. from 



the opinion that the vessels w€re 
of different sizes, for the circula- 
tion of blood, lynnph, and serum ; 
and that when the larger sized 
globules were forced into the les- 
ser vessels by an error of place^ 
they were obstructed. But this 
opinion does not appear to be well 
grounded. In Aitken*s Elements 
it signifies dislocation. 

Eructation,^ belching, from f^syyo;, 
to belch ujij or to break wind ufi- 

Erufition, from erumfio^ to break 
out. It is any erufition in the skin. 

Eryng-iiim, eryngo, or sea-holly. 
Eringium maritimum of Linnaeus. 
The root of this plant is directed 
for medicinal use. It has no par- 
ticular smell, but to the taste it 
manifests a grateful sweetness ; 
and, on being chewed for some 
time, it discovers a light aroma- 
tic warmth or pungency. It was 
formerly celebrated for its sup- 
posed aphrodisiac powers, but it 
is now very rarely employed. 

Erysi/ielasj t^v(Tk'mX<x,q. This word 
is variously derived. Constantino 
and Martinius derive it from ^vu}^ 
to draiv, to tusXcccy the neighbouring- 
parts. The Latins call it Jgnis 
Sacer, when it is of the ulcerated 
kind. In Switzerland it is called 
XhQ Violet ; some name it the Rose^ 
from its red colour. St. Anthony's 
fire. A genus of disease in the 
class pyrexia and order exanthe- 
mata of Cullen. It is known by 
synocha of two or three days con- 
tinuance, with drowsiness, and 
sometimes with delirium; pulse 
commonly full and hard ; then 
erythema of the face, with con- 
tinuance of synocha, tending to 
either apoplexy or to abscess. 
There are two species of this dis- 
ease, according to Cullen : 1 . Ery- 
&i/ielas vesictdo&umy with large blis- 
ters : 2. Erysipelas phlyct anodes, 
with phlyctenae, or small blisters. 
It has however been more pro- 
perly divided into erysipelas with 

synocha, or sthenic diathesis, and 
erysipelas with typhus, or asthenic 
diathesis. M. M. 1st. Venesec- 
tion ; cathartics ; refrigerants ; dia- 
phoretics; blisters and the antiphlo- 
gistic regimen. 2nd. Cinchona; 
Virginian snake-root ; camphor 
and sulphuric acid. In both the 
semicupium and sinapisms, and 
mild dry powders externally. 

Erysipelatoides, from s^uo-t'crsXa?, 
an erysipelas, and si^o^, likeness. It 
is a tumour resembling the erysi- 
pelas, or a spurious erysipelas. 

Erythema. A morbid redness 
of the skin, as is observed upon 
the cheeks of hectic patients after 
eating, and the skin covering bu- 
bo, phlegmon, 8cc. 

Erythema a Frigore. The same 
as Pernio, 

Erythema Ambustio, the inflam- 
mation caused by burns or scalds. 

Erythema Gangrenosum, the tu- 
mour called a carbuncle. 

Erythroeides, £pu9poEi^»?, or Ery- 
throides, from s^ySfoy, rubrum, red, 
and zi^o;, forma, appearance, is a. 
red membrane, called also Tunica 
Vaginalis, embracing loosely the 
whole body of the testicles, and 
adhering to one end of the epidi- 

Esaphe, s(70(>'pv),froTn. icraCpau, to feel 
ivith the fingers, the touch or feel- 
ing the mouth of the womb, to 
know its state. 

Escalot, a kind of onion. 

Eschara, the name of a subma- 
rine plant, which resembles a net 
or cobweb. Its virtues are simi- 
lar to those of coral. 

Eschara, io^xxfoc, an eschar 
crust. In Surgery, it is a hard 
crust, or a scab upon the flesh, 
formed by the application of a red 
hot iron, a caustic, or some sharp 
humourof the body. Also a slough 
formed on a v/ound or ulcer, and 
is an instance of mortification. 

Escharotics. See Caustics. 

Esculent^ an appellation given 
to such plants, or the roots of them^^ 



as maybfc eaten; such are beets, 
carrots, artichokes, &c. 

Essence, is strictly that which 
constitutes the nature of any thin^i;, 
and makes it be what it is ; but in 
Medicine it is used to sii^nify the 
chief properties or virtues of any 
simple or composition collected 

Msscjitial Oils, are such as were 
really in a plant, and drawn from 
it by distillation, in distinction 
from those made by insolation. 

JEssential Saits, are such as will 
crystallize in the juice, or an in- 
fusion of plants, in distinction from 
those made by incineration, and 
appear to be actually contained in 
the plant. 

Essera. A species of cutaneous 
eruption, distinguished by broad, 
shining, smooth, red spots, mostly 
without fever, and differing from 
the nettle rash in not being ele- 
vated. It generally attacks the 
face and hands. 

Esthiomenos, ia-Qiofxivo;^ from ectOio- 
juai, to eat, eating, corroding, an 
inflammation in the skin, attended 
with a sharp humour, more pro- 
perly the Hvrjies Exec dens. It is 
indeed any inveterate ulcer. 

Ether Acetic, Acetous Ether. 

Ether Muriatic, Marine Either. 

EAher Nitric, Nitrous Ether. 

Ether Sulphuric, Vitriolic Ether. 

EtherialOil. The chemists thus 
call a highly rectified oil, that dif- 
fers little from an inflammable 
spirit, as the oil of turpentine, and 
the like. 

Ethica, i. c. Hectica. 

EthinoidDonc. Cribriform bone. 
A bone of the head ; from »55//o;, a 
sieve, and H^oq^forjn ; because it is 
perforated like a sieve. It is situ- 
ated anteriorly in the basis of the 
cranium, at the upper part of the 
nose. The principal eminences 
and depressions of this bone arc 
the crista galli, the perpendicular 
septum, the sponii:y lamin.?e and 
the cribrose foramina. 

Eudiometry. The measurement 
of the quantity of oxygen contain- 
ed in atmospheric air, or indeed in 
any gas in which it is not intimate- 
ly combined, is named eudiome" 
try, and the instrument by which 
it is performed, the eudiometer. 
To attain such a measurement, 
it is merely necessary to present 
to atmospheric air, some sub- 
stance which combines with its 
oxygen, and which either does 
not afford any gaseous product, or 
affords one that is easily abstract- 
ed and measured. Different sub- 
stances have been applied to this 

The fluid originally employed 
by Scheele, in the analysis of the 
air, the solution of sulphuret of 
potash, or what is rather more 
convenient, the sulphuret of lime, 
is perhaps superior in accuracy to 
any, at least if the air be not too 
long exposed to it, and be not in 
too small quantity proportioned to 
the quantity of fluid. Phosphorus 
is applied by a very simple apara- 
tus, but by its solubility in nitrogen 
gas, it adds to the bulk of the re- 
sidual air, for which a correction 
must be made. Nitrous gas was 
employed by Priestley; it exhibits 
the result immediately, but is lia- 
ble to several sources of fallacy. 
Hydrogen gas was employed by 
Volta: a given measure of it be- 
ing put along with a quantity of 
the air, designed to be submitted 
to trial, into a graduated tube, and 
inflamed by the electric spark, the 
diminution of volume indicating 
the quantity of oxygen ; 100 mea- 
sures of oxygen require 
less than 2U0 measures of hydro- 
gen for saturation; about 10 mea- 
sures of hydrogen are therefore 
sufficient to saturate the oxygen 
contained in 100 measures of at- 
mospheric air, but it is proper to 
use an excess of hydrogen, as 
otherwise part of the oxygen is 
liable to escape combination. 



From 60 of hydrogen, with 100 of 
atmospheric air, Mr.Dakon states, 
that the residuum after explosion 
is 100, 21 of oxygen combming 
with 39 of hydrogen. The method 
is simple and expeditious, and as 
Humboldt and Gay Lussac have 
remarked, has the great advant- 
age, from the bulk of the mix- 
ture, and the great diminution of 
volume, from the consumption of 
a given quantity of oxygen, of be- 
ing more delicate than any other. 
It also requires no corrections for 
variations of temperature or atmo- 
spheric pressure ; and any impu- 
rity in the hydrogen gas, which it 
has been supposed might be a 
source of error, may be avoided 
by care. It affordb also the best 
method of determining the purity 
of oxygen gas, or the proportion 
of oxygen in any mixed gas con- 
taining it. Humboldt and Gay 
Lussac, in an elaborate memoir, 
have pointed out all the circum- 
stances to be attended to in em- 
ploying it as an eudiometer. 
(Journal de Physique, torn. Ix. p. 

From the practice of eudiome- 
try, it was at one time expected, 
as the name implies, that we 
should be able to ascertain the 
purity of the air, with regard to 
its salutary or noxious power on 
life. It was soon found, however, 
particularly by Priestley, (and the 
fact has also since been establish- 
ed by De Marti,) that the air of 
places the most offensive and un- 
healthy, afforded as much oxygen 
as that of others of an opposite 
description ; the air, for example, 
of crowded cities, of low, damp 
situations, or of crowded manufac- 
tories, has not been found less 
pure than that of the country; the 
noxious quality of the air depend- 
ing not so much on any deficiency 
of oxygen, as on the presence of 
effluvia not discoverable by this 

It was at one time imagined, 
that the composition of atmosphe- 
ric air is not uniform, but that it 
varies both at different parts of 
the earth's surface, and still more 
at different heights. Ingenhouz 
made a number of experiments to 
prove the former fact, from which 
he concluded, that the air is purer, 
or contains more oxygen at sea 
than on land, and that in the neigh- 
bourhood of marshy situations it 
contains less oxygen than the 
standard. (Philosophical Trans- 
actions, vol. Ixx. p. 354.) 

Saussure made some experi- 
ments on the air at some of the 
elevated parts of the Alps, the 
summit of the great St. Bernard, 
the Buet, &c. In this air the pro- 
portion of oxygen was less than 
in the air on the plains. (Voyages, 
tom. ii. p. 357 ; tom. iv. p. 451.) 

Von Humboldt relates also, that 
air brought from a great height 
in the atmosphere, by a person 
who had ascended in a balloon, 
contained in 100 parts 25.9 of oxy- 
gen, while air at the surface con- 
tained 27.6; and that at the sum- 
mit of the Peak of Teneriffe, the 
proportion of oxygen amounted 
only to 19, while at the foot of the 
mountain it was 27. The propor- 
tions which he states prove suffi- 
ciently the error of the eudiome- 
trical method he employed ; and 
the eudiometer he did use, that 
with nitrous gas, corrected by try- 
ing its purity with sulphate of 
iron, is indeed the one which is 
most liable to fallacy. The ana- 
lysis of the air in the upper regions 
of the atmosphere, has since been 
executed with accuracy by Gay 
Lussac, assisted by Thenard. A 
glass balloon was filled with air, 
at the height of 21,735 feet from 
the surface, the greatest which 
has yet been reached, and when 
opened under water by Gay Lus- 
sac after his descent, one half of 
its capacity was filled by the water, 



a sufficient proof that it had been 
accurately closed. The air \vas 
subjected to trial, both by Volta's 
eudiometer, and by the solution of 
surphuret of potash ; it aflbrded 
by the former method 21.49 of 
oxyi^en, in 100 ; by the latter 
21.6J. Atmospheric air at the 
surface, analysed at the same time 
in the eudiometer of Voka, gave 
precisely the same result, i^l.49. 
(Nicholson's Journal^ vol. x. p. 

Saussure, junior, also fo?md, 
that the air on the summit of the 
Col-du-Geant contained within 
one-hundredth part as much oxy- 
gen as that on the plain, and even 
this difference may be ascribed to 
the difficulty of making the ex- 
periment with perfect accuracy. 
The uniformity of the composition 
of the atmosphere at different 
parts of the earth's surface, ap- 
pears also to be established. 

Mr. Cavendish originally ob- 
served, that air subjected to ex- 
amination at different times, and 
air likewise from different places, 
was of perfectly similar composi- 
tion ; (Philosophical Transactions, 
vol. Ixxiii. p. 129,) and the same 
observation had been made by 
Fontana, from his own experi- 
ments. (Philosophical Transac- 
tions, vol. Ixix.) 

Mr. Davy states, that no sensi- 
ble difference was found in the 
air sent from the coast ol Guinea, 
and the air in England. (Journal 
of the Royal Instilulion, vol. i. 
p. 48.) 

lierthoUet found, that the air in 
Egypt and in France was similar, 
affording 22 of oxygen in the lUO, 
any diffeience observed not a- 
mouniing to a two-liundrcdih part 
of the air subnuttcd to trial. (Me- 
moirs relative to Egypt, p. 326.) 

De Marti, by experiments in 
Spain, obtained the same unifor- 
mity of composition (between 21 
and 20 of oxytjcu in the hundred 

parts) in the air at places at a dis- 
tance from each other ; and he 
adds also, as established by his ex- 
periments, that in every state of 
the atmosphere, whether with re- 
gard to temperature, to pressure, 
as indicated by the barometer, to 
winds, to humidity, to the season 
of the year, or the hour of the day 
or night, the results were pre- 
cisely the same. (Journal dc Phy- 
sique, tom. iii. p. 173.) And more 
lately the researches of Humboldt 
antl Gay Lussac, made with the 
view of determining this question, 
have established the same conclu- 
sion. (Journal de Physique, tom. 
Ix.p. 152.) 

The instruments for subjecting 
atmospheric air to such changes 
as may indicate its proportion of 
oxygen, have been called eudia- 
mtters. When a mixture of ni- 
trous gas is to be made with at- 
mospheric air, the most conve- 
nient apparatus consists in a glass 
tube closed at top, and graduated 
by a diamond into cubic inches 
and parts. The lower aperture 
may be widened, in order that the 
gases may more easily be passed 
up, and likewise to afford the faci- 
lity of its standing alone upon the 
pneumatic shelf. It is likewise 
usual and advantageous to fit a 
stopper in the mouth by grinding ; 
a cubic inch measure will bo re- 
quired for determining the quan- 
tities poured up. A bottle will 
do for this purpose, and the in- 
strument may be made very well 
by a chemist who is obliged to 
work for himself; by taking any- 
small bottle whatever, and pour- 
ing its contents of water, by suc- 
cessive times, into the tube placed 
moutli u[)wards. L>y this means 
he will obtain a graduation, which, 
whether of the cubic inch or not, 
will answer the purposes ofeudio- 

When air is to be exposed to a 
liquid sulphuret, which absorbs 



the oxygen, the eudiometric tube 
may be immmersed in the liquid. 
Professor Hope, of Edinburgh, 
has contrived a very simple, ele- 
gant, and accurate apparatus for 
this purpose, announced in " Ni- 
cholson's Journal," iv. 210. It 
consists of a small bottle, of the 
contents of about three ounces, 
intended to contain the eudiome- 
tric liquid ; into the neck a tube 
is accurately fitted by grinding, 
which holds precisely a cubic inch, 
and is divided into a hundred 
equal parts, and on one side the 
bottle, near its bottom, there is a 
neck into which a stopper is 
ground in the usual manner. In 
the use of this apparatus, the bot- 
tle is first filled with the liquid 
employed, which is best prepared 
by boiling a mixture of quick 
lime and sulphur with water, fil- 
tering the solution, and agitating 
it for some time in a bottle half 
filled with common air. The tube, 
filled with the gas under examina- 
tion, or with common air, if that 
be the subject of the experiment, 
is next put into its place, and, on 
inverting the instrument, the gas 
ascends into the bottle, where it 
is brought extensively into con- 
tact with the liquid, by brisk agita- 
tion. An absorption of oxygen, 
if present, ensues, and to supply 
its place, the stopper in the side 
of the bottle is opened under wa- 
ter, a quantity of which rushes in- 
to the bottle ; the stopper is then 
replaced under water, the agita- 
tion renewed, and these opera- 
tions are alternately performed, 
till no farther diminution takes 
place ; the tube is then withdrawn, 
while the neck of the bottle is un- 
der water, and after the tube has 
been kept in this situation for a 
few minutes, the quantity of the 
diminution will be seen by the 
graduated scale upon the tube. 

Tubes fitted up for exploding a 
mixture of hydrogen, or other in- 

flammable gases, with oxygen gas, 
have been called the eudiometers 
ofVolta; they are usually made 
very strong, and are provided with 
two wires, which pass through 
sockets cemented in holes drilled 
through the glass, near the top, 
which is not perforated. The 
electric spark being passed be- 
tween these wires, gives fire to 
the gases, not without some risk 
of blowing out the confining li- 
quid, or breaking the glass. 

ETie?neti.,EvsixsToi, from ew, import- 
ing yaaVzVi/, and e/AEct,-, to vomity those 
who vomit with ease. 

Ii.uexia<f Ei«|ia, from su, bencyivelly 
and £|tc-, habitus^ habit^ a sound and 
healthy constitution, in opposition 
to cachexy, or a bad habit. 

Eule^ EyA»?, a ivorm^ properly that 
is bred in ulcers. 

Eufiatoria^ common acrimony. 

Eupepsia^ from sv,good, and weto-Iw, 
to digest^ good digestion. 

Eup.horbimn. An inodorous gum- 
resin in yellow tears, which have 
the appearance of being worm- 
eaten : it is imported from Ethio- 
pia, Lybia, and Mauritania. It 
contains an active resin, and is 
very seldom employed but as an 

Euphrasia^ eyebright. A genus 
in Einnaeus's botany. He enume- 
rates seven species. 

Euphrosyne^ i. e. Euphrasia. 

Eurythmia^ EvpS/xia, from eu, ivell, 
and pu5/Ao:, order and harmony^ pro- 
perly in music. It imports the 
proper order of the pulse. 

Eusarcos^ evc-ct^Kog^ is used by 
Galen, and others since, for such 
a proportion of flesh as is not too 
lean or too corpulent, but gives 
due symmetry and strength to all 
the parts. As, 

Eusplanc/inos, Eucr-sTXayx*"*?, is ap- 
plied by Hippocrates to those who 
are supposed to have sound vis- 
cera. Thus the adverb ev is put 
to several things to express the 
goodness of their condition ; as 


Kutaxia^ for an healthful state; 
Euthanaaia^ for an easy or happy 
death, 8cc. 

Evacuation^ sitjnifies any dimi- 
niuion of the animal fluids, whether 
it be by cathartics, blood-letting, 
or any otiier means. 

Kvacuatorii^ diseases attended 
with increased discharges. 

Evafioration. The volatilization 
of a fluid by means of heat, with 
access of air, in order to diminish 
its fluidity, or to obtain any fixed 
salts it ir»ay hold in solution, or di- 
minish the quantity of a residuum. 
In this manner the Avater of the 
sea is evaporated, and the salt ob- 
tained, and decoctions made into 

Evil^ the same as Scrofihula. 

Exacerbantes^ remitting fevers. 

Exacerbatio, i. e. Paroxysmus. 

Exacinata^ stoned. The word 
Acinus^ besides other meanings, 
is also used for the stone of the 
grape ; hence Uva Exacinate:^ for 
grapes that have their stones ta- 
ken out. 

Exxresis^{xovs\ £|, out of^ov aivay^ 
and atpw, to remove. It is that part 
of surgery which consists of re- 
moving superfluities; as remov- 
ing parts by amputation, extract- 
ing foreign bodies, &c. 

J[.xanguis^ without blood. So 
Galen and the ancients called the 
nerves, cartilages, bones, and other 
parts which appeared white. 

Exania, the same as Prociden- 
tia ; also, in particular, the bear- 
ing down of the anus. 

Exanimatioyiy is used by Scribo- 
nius Largus for real death ; but is 
in general applied to swoonings or 
such sinking of the spirits as is at- 
tended with the loss of sense for 
some time. 

Exant/iema^ EfavOnjua, from t^eiv 
6y!jLi(u, cfflorcsco^ to /lower out, is 
such an eruption of the skin as the 
measles, and is generally attended 
with a fever, and terminates in a 
rash. Exanthema Febrile is an or- 



der in Dr. Cullcn*s nosoloj^yf in 
his class Pyrexia. 

Exarthrema.,* i^oip^fYifjiXj from t^, 
out oJ\ and a^^^w^t a joint, a luxa- 

Exarthros, £f«p9|jo?,an epithet for 
a person whose joints are large 
and prominent. 

Exarticulatiouj the same as luxa- 

Exas/ieratio, exasperation. Be- 
sides its signifying the increase of 
a disorder, it is also a rendering 
the skin rough. 

Exci/iiens. In prescriptions, that 
is called the excipient which re- 
ceives the other ingredients, and 
gives them a proper form, asofii- 
cinal electaries, conserves, robs, 

E.xcit ability, and Excitement. 
Theformer of these is the capacity 
of the body to admit of increased 
action ; and the latter the state of 
increased action. In Brown's sys- 
tem, excitability is the distinction 
of life, and the excitement of heat 
and other stimuli alone necessary 
(if we understand him) to produce 
life. When these are present, the 
body lives ; when absent, it dies; 
and life is thus a flame kept up by 
constantly blowing. 

Exclusorium, a medicine which 
causes abortion. 

Excoriatioy 1 excoriation, abra- 

Excoriatiira^^ sion of the skin; 
also pulling tiie bark from off' a 
tree or i)lant, Sec 

Excrementunu an excrement. It 
is whatever requires to be dis- 
charged out of the body ; from. 
excerno, to divide, fiart, or se/iarate. 

Excrcscentia, from ex and crcs- 
co^ an excrescence. It is anv thins: 
which grows preternaturally up- 
on any part of the body ; as wens, 
warts, Sec. 

Excretion, is that separation of 
an animal substance, as ejects 
somewhat quite out of the body, 
as of no further use, "Which is cal- 
led Excrement. 



' Bxereitatio^ (from exercito^ to ex- 
ercise.) Exercise. The exercise 
of the body for the benefit of health 
is called gymnastic. The military 
exercises, gardening, husbandry, 
or other employments in the open 
air, conduce greatly to health ; 
and moderate exercise in the open 
air, an hour or two before break- 
fast, improves the appetite and 
cheers the spirits : glandular ob- 
structions are best prevented and 
cured by moderate exercise. 

On the other hand, when exercise 
is too freely used, it occasions loss 
of appetite, loathing of food, cos- 
tiveness, rigors, and fainting. ^ In 
this case a moderate use of wine, 
warm bathing, quiet sleep, and a 
moist nourishing diet, afford the 
best relief. 

Exocystisy a prolapsus of the 
internal membrane of the bladder. 

Exomfihalos, j^QiJt(pcitXoc, from s| 
and of.<.(psiXoc^ a navels any protuber- 
ance of the navel, but particularly 
the hernia umbilicalis ; also a 
dropsy of the navel. 

Mxoneirosis, s^av^fuia-i-^-, is by Lm- 
den explained a species of gonorr- 
hoea, commonly called Pollutio 
Kocturna^ when the semen invo- 
luntarily flows in sleep ; from sf, 
out') and ovEipo^j, a dream. 

Exophthaimia^ from e|, out, and 
o^a^juoj, the eye, is an uncommon 
prominence of the eye out of its 
socket, of which Bonetus gives a 
very remarkable case, Med. Sefit. 
lib. i. cap. 64. 

Exorcism, i^opKicry.og, hath been 
introduced into the practice of 
physic by enthusiasts, who pre- 
tended by some religious ceremo- 
nies to expel an evil spirit out of 
the body, which was supposed the 
cause of diseases. 

Exostosis, i^ocrruarkc, from sf, and 
oa-nov, OS, a bone, is any protuber- 
ance of a bone that is not natural, 
as often happens in venereal cases. 

Exotic, is applied to those 
things which are the natural pro- 

duce of other countries, and not 
of our own. 

Expansion, spreading out ; in a 
physical sense, is the stretching 
out, opening, or spreading of any 
body, but generally signifies such 
an alteration as is made by Rare- 
faction, which see. 

Expectoration, is promoting* 
those discharges which are made 
by coughing, as bringing up 
phlegm, or any thing that ob- 
structs the vessels of the lungs^ 
and strengthens the breath. 

Exfdradon, from expiro, t9 
breathe out, is that part of respira- 
tion which thrusts the air out of 
the lungs, and contracts the cavitjr 
of the breast. See Respiration. 

Expressed Oils, are such as are 
procured from any bodies only by 
pressing, as the oils of olives, al- 
monds, and the like. And the do- 
ing this is called Expression. 

Expulsion, the same as excre- 
tion ; and the power of expelling; 
any thing is by some writers cal- 
led Facultas Expultrix. 

Exsiccation, drying. This phar- 
maceutic operation is effected by 
exhaling the moisture from the 
body, to be dried over a gentle 
fire, or by absorbing it, as when 
such subjects are laid on chalk- 
stones for this end. As instances 
vary, coetion, insolation, torrefac- 
tion, decantation, or filtration, 
assist the process of drying. 

Exr-puition, signifies a discharge 
of saliva by spitting. 

Mxstasis, or Ecstasis, an ecstacy. 
It is a species of Catalepsy, parti- 
cularly when the patient recollects 
the ideas which he conceived dur- 
ing the paroxysm. Also, a deliri- 
um ; an apoplexy of the mind. 

Extension^ stretching out ; the 
same as expansion. 

Extensors. Many muscles are 
so called, which serve to extend 
any part ; as 

Extensor Carpi, which is also 
called JBicornisy is two distinct 



muscles. The first arises from 
above the cxlernul protuberance 
of the humerus, and the second 
from the lowermost part of the 
external protuberance. They both 
lie along the external part of the 
radius; and passing under the an- 
nular ligament, one is inserted in- 
to the bone of the metacarpus that 
sustains the fore-finger, and .the 
other to that which sustains the 
middle-finger. • These two ex- 
tend the w ist. 

Exfcnso) Carfii Ulnaris. Some 
call it Extensor Carpi interior. It 
rises from the outer condyle of 
the OS humeri, and then receives 
an origin from the edge of the ul- 
na : its tendon passes in a groove 
behind the styloid process of the 
ulna: it passes and is inserted in- 
to the inside of the basis of the 
metacarpal bone of the little- 

Extensor Digitorum communis^ 
arises from the external protuber- 
ance of the humerus ; and at the 
wrist it divides into three flat ten- 
dons, which pass under the annu- 
lar ligament, to be inserted into all 
the bones of the fore, middle, and 
ring fingers. 

Extensor Digit onpn longus. Dr. 
Hunter calls this Extensor longusi 
Digitorum Pedis. It rises from 
the upper part of the tibia and 
fibula, and the interosseus liga- 
ment; its tendon passes under 
the annular ligament, and then di- 
vid'.s into five, four of which are 
inserted into the second and third 
phalanges of the toes, and the fifth 
goes to the basis of the mclatarsal 
bone. This last VVinslow reckons 
a distinct muscle, and calls it Pi- 
ronorna brevis. 

Extensor Digitorum brcvin. It is 
also called Pcdicus. It rises from 
the anterior part of the os calois, 
runs across the instep, and divides 
commonly into four tendons, but 
sometimes only into throe, which 
are inserted into the three toes 

next to the great one, or into all 
the four. 

Extensor Indicia^ comes from 
the middle and external pjiri of 
the ulna, and passing under th« 
annular ligament, is inserted into 
the third bone of the fore-fiiiger, 
where it join* the extensor com- 

Extensor minimi Digiti., arises 
from the external protuberance of 
the humerus, and from the upper 
part of the ulna, and passing un- 
der the annular ligameni, is in- 
serted into the third bone of the 

Extensor Pollzcisy arises from 
near the upper half of the fibula 
foi'wards, and passing under th^ 
annular ligament, is inserted into 
the last bone of the great toe. It 
is called Extensor Pollicis iongus. 

Extensor Pollicis brevis. It is 
only a slip from the extensors of 
the toes, and is inserted into the 
first bone. 

Extensor primi intermodii Pol* 
licis, arises from the upper and ex- 
ternal part of the ulna, and jiasses 
obliquely over the tendon of the 
radius externus, and is inserted 
near the second joint of the thumb. 

Extensor sccundi internodii Pol" 
licis, arises from the upper and 
internal part of the radius, and is 
inserted into the upper part of the 
second bone of the thumb. 

Extensor tcriii infvrriodii Pol- 
licisy arises from the ulna, a littlq 
below the first extensor^ and is in- 
serted into the third bone of the 

Extentiatioy (from extenuo^ to 
diminish.) Leanness. This may 
arise in two ways : one from the 
increased evacuation of the nu- 
tritious particles; the other iVoni 
cacochyniia, or a depravation of 
the fluids. Prosi>er Al[)iiius ob- 
serves, in his Presages of Life 
and Death, that if, after being ex- 
tenuated by a tlisease, the body 
conlinues lean, though tiie nut»i 



ment be duly received, it denotes 
a relapse. Again, leanness from 
a spitting of blood, attended with 
a slow fever, is highly dangerous ; 
and it is equally a bad sign in an 
ardent fever for the body not to 
become speedily lean, or to waste 
rapidly : the first prognosticates 
a tedious disease j the latter, 

In general, leanness is not a 
disease ; and, whatever are the 
evacuations, or the degree of ex- 
tenuation, if without fever, and 
the appetite keeps up, there is 
little danger. Extenuation alone 
is not a disease, nor a predispo- 
nent cause : the same cannot be 
said of its opposite, obesity. An 
acrimony in the fluids rather than 
increased discharges occasions it; 
but the source of the greatest 
emaciation is the effusions of 
dropsy. The body is never so 
thoroughly extenuated as in drop- 
sy, though greatly so in hectics, 
from absorbed purulent matter, 
and cancer, Some recent re- 
marks, by Dr. Pemberton, in his 
Practical Treatise on various Dis- 
eases of the Abdominal Viscera, 
are so truly ingenious and com- 
prehensive, that we shall select 
them in his own words. We can- 
not compress or give them in lan- 
guage more scientific and elegant. 
" A proneness in the body to 
waste or not, as the same disease 
shall happen to be situated in this 
or that part, is in itself a circum- 
stance very remarkable ; and as 
an attention to this proneness may 
help to lead us through the ob- 
scurities which too often attend 
internal complaints, it is a sub- 
ject well w^orthy of further con- 

" To assist us in this inquiry it 
may be right to specify a few ex- 
amples, where the difference of 
the effect of disease on the bulk 
is most striking. Let us take the 
two cases, of a diseased state of 

the mesenteric glands, and a dis- 
eased or scrophulous affection of 
the breast. In the former we 
shall find there is a great emacia- 
tion ; in the latter, none at all.— . 
In an ulceration of the small in- 
testines, great emaciation takes 
place ; in schirrus of the rectum, 
none. — In a disease of the gall 
bladder, which is subservient to 
the liver, the bulk of the body is 
rapidly diminished ; but in a dis- 
ease of the urinary bladder, which 
is subservient to the kidneys, 
scarcely any diminution of bulk is 
to be perceived. — In an abscess of 
the liver the body becomes much 
emaciated; but in an abscess of 
the kidneys the bulk is not di- 

" If we examine into the func- 
tions of those parts, the diseases 
of which do or do not occasion 
emaciation, we may perhaps be 
led to the true cause of this dif- 
ference of their effect on the bulk. 
In order, however, to understand 
more clearly how the functions of 
these parts bear relation to each 
other, it may be necessary to pre- 
mise, that the glands of the body 
are divided into those which se- 
crete a fluid from the blood for 
the use of the system, and those 
which secrete a fluid to be dis^ 
charged from it. The former 
may be termed glands of supply ; 
the latter, glands of waste. 

" The small intestines, in con- 
sideration of the great number of 
absorbents with which they are 
provided for the repair of the sys- 
tem, may be considered as per- 
forming the ofiice of glands of 

" The large intestines, on the 
contrary, may be considered as 
performing the office of glands of 
waste; inasmuch as they are fur- 
nished very scantily with absor- 
bents, and abundantly with a set of 
glands which secrete or withdraw 
from the system a fluid, which 



serves to lubricate the canal for 
the passai2;cs of the faeces, and 
which itself, tot^cther with these 
fseces, is destined to be discharg- 
ed from the system. 

*' I have often imagined that 
this mode of considerini^- the sub- 
ject might, in many cases, assist 
us in approaching to the seat of 
a chronic disorder, by deciding 
where the disorder is not situat- 
ed, and consequently by contract- 
ing within narrower limits the 
difficulties of our researches. 

" Thus the symptom exhibited 
by the patient, either in retaining 
his bulk, or in being emaciated, 
might serve as a diagnostic, ac- 
cording to my conception, for the 
purpose of deciding whether the 
disorder is seated in the glands of 
supply, or in the glands of waste. 

*' The glands which secrete a 
fluid to be employed in the sys- 
tem, as well as the glands of di- 
rect supply, may be considered 
the liver, the pancreas, the mesen- 
teric glands, perhaps the stomach, 
and the small intestines : and the 
glands of waste are the kidneys, 
breasts, exhalent arteries, and the 
large intestines. 

" In an abscess of the liver, and 
an abscess of the kidneys, both of 
which glands frequently run into 
suppuration, without exhibiting 
any pain in the part affected, it 
seems impossible to decide in 
what part of the system the de- 
rangement manifested in both 
these cases by the hectic fever is 

" According to the foregoing 
idea, if emaciation takes place, 
we might then determine that the 
disorder must be situated in a 
gland of supply ; and thus we 
should be led to decide, that the 
disorder was certainly not in the 
kidneys; consccpienlly wc should 
be secured from the danger of 
misapplying our remedies upon a 
part which was not aficctcd. 

" The same hectic attends a 
chronic disease of the mesenteric 
glands, and of the small intes- 
tines : and here likewise, if ema- 
ciation does not take place, we 
should decide that the disorder 
was not situated in these parts, 
or in the liver. 

" Now it is surely of consider- 
able importance to determine 
where the disorder is not found, 
that our inquiries may be solely- 
directed to those parts in which it 
is to be found. 

" If this position respecting the 
bulk of the body, under disease, 
should be admitted as true, will it 
not afford a probability that the 
spleen, whose diseases produce 
great emaciation, is a gland of 
supply ? 

" What has been here advanc- 
ed must be considered as applying 
to local diseases unattended by 
pain, as pain will itself sometimes 
waste the body, though sometimes 
it will not. Here too the wasting; 
from pain seems to vary according 
to the part from which it pro- 
ceeds. A stone in the bladder of 
urine, or in the kidneys, nearly- 
stopping the discharge of urine, 
and occasioning the greatest pain, 
will not in the least affect the 
bulk ; but a biliary stone, under 
similar circumstances, will occa- 
sion great and rapid emaciation.'* 

Kxlei'7ius^ vcl stifierior iMiinculus 
Mallei^ i. e. Tensor Ale mb ran a 

Jixtcrnus Tymfiani jiuria^ i. c. 
Laxator Externw^. 

Kxiraction^ in the largest sense, 
signilics any solution made by 
menstruums, unless there be al- 
lowed this difference between 
them, that in solution the men- 
struums absorb the whole sub- 
stance of the body, but in this 
they carry off only certain parti- 
cles of it. Camphor is dissolved 
in spirit of wine, but jalap is more 
properly said to be extracted j for 



the resin only is taken out by the 
menstruum, the other particles 
beinj^ left untouched. But ex- 
traction most commonly signifies 
such an inspissation, or thicken- 
ing of a solution, as, when there is 
drawn off a certain quantity of the 
menstruum, reduces the remain- 
ing mixture to the consistence of 
honey ; as in the extracts of saf- 
fron, gentian, and the like. Ex- 
tracts are chiefly made out of ve- 
getables, and require different 
menstruums according to the dif- 
ferent nature of the plants, especi- 
ally in gums ; for such as are 
mucilaginous, as gum arabic, and 
tragacanth. Sec. are not easily to 
be dissolved but in aqueous li- 
quors ; whereas, on the other 
hand, resinous gums, as galba- 
num, scammony, &:c. must have 
ardent spirits to dissolve them. 
There are others again of a mid- 
dle nature, which may be dissolv- 
ed in either sort of menstruums, 
though not so easily in one as in 
the other. Thus aloes and rhu- 
barb, which are sometimes resin- 
ous, are better made into extracts 
with spirit of wine than water. 
But plants which abound less with 
resin, such as hellebore, 8cc. are 
more commodiously extracted 
■with water. To perform, there- 
fore, extraction aright, a proper 
menstruum is necessary, and one 
which is as near akin as possible 
to the body to be extracted. Thus 
extraction is usually performed ; 
but its use does not seem to be 
of so great service in physic as is 
generally imagined ; for much of 
the more subtile parts fly away, 
either when the menstruum is 
drawn off by distillation, or when 
it evaporates in the open air. So 
that if those particles are any 
ways useful in medicine, it is to 
no purpose to seek for them in 
extracts. It is also of service to 
clear some gums and resins from 
dross ; for, as the taking up the 

genuine substance by a ^ro^ep 
menstruum leaves all that is not 
so behind ; so, by evaporating the 
menstruum again, the resin, or 
whatsoever of that nature it is, 
will be recovered in its utmost 

Extraction. In Surgery^ it is 
the drawing from or out of the 
body, any thing that is offen- 

Extractum^2iX\ extract. In Phar- 
macy, it is a solution of the purer 
parts of a mixed body inspissated 
by evaporation nearly to the con- 
sistence of stiff honey. See Ex- 

Extraneous^ any thing foreign. 
It is also used to express the sam.e 
as external, and frequently signi- 
fies the same as excrescence, 
something that is not natural to 
the substance it grows out of, or 
properly belongs to a part to 
which it adheres. 

Extravasatedy is any thing that 
is got out of its proper vessel ; 
from extraj out oj] and vas^ e^ 

Extravasation, is applied to any 
of the fluids in the body, which 
are out of their proper vessels ; 
thus an ecchymosis, sugillation, 
or aneurism, may be called ext 

Exulce7'ation, the same as ulcer; 
but generally used to express 
those beginning erosions which 
wear away the substance, and form 
an ulcer ; or when an excoriation 
begins to suppurate. 

Exumbilicatio, a protuberance 
of the navel. 

Exuvix, the sloughs or skins 
of serpents that are cast in spring. 

Eye. Oculus. The eye, or or- 
gan of vision, is situated in a 
socket called the orbit, at the side 
of the root of the nose, that is com- 
posed of seven bones, viz. the 
frontal, superior maxillary, jugal, 
lachrymal, palatine, ethmoid, and 
sphaenoid, which almost surround 



and defend it. Anatomists have 
divided tlie soft parts which form 
the eye into external and internal. 
The external parts are the aupcr^ 
cilia or eye-brows, fialfiebrx or 
cyc-lids,«V/<2 or eyc-lashes, lachry- 
mal jj;land, lachrymal caruncle, na- 
sal duct, muscles of the bulb of 
the eye, and the fat of the orbit. 
The internal parts are those which 
form the bulb, or eye, properly so 
called : they consist of five mem- 
branes, viz. the sclerotic, choroid, 
retina, hyaloid, and capsule of the 
crystalline lens ; two cham'jers, 
one anterior, the other posterior; 
and three humours, the aqueous, 
crystalline lens, and vitreous hu- 
mour. The arteries of this vis- 
cus are the internal orbital, the 
central, and optic artery. The 
veins empty themselves into the 
external jui^ulars. The nerves 
arc the optic, and branches from 
the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth 

All the rays which come from 
one point of an object are, by the 
cornea and humourb of the et/e, 
united in a point of the retina, 
which is in a straiglit line drawn 
from the same point of the object, 
through the centre of the eyes; 
and consequently all the rays 
"which come from all the points 
of an object are united on the 
retina, in the same order and pro- 
portion as the points of the ob- 
jects are from whence tlu)se rays 
come. Therefore the interposi- 
tion which these rays make upon 
the retina, must be the image of 
the object. And thus vision in 
general is perfornied ; but to know 
what the several parts of the 
globe contribute hereunto, it is 
needful to observe, that tiie cor- 
nea is more convex than any 
other part of it ; by which means 
all the rays are gatliered to pass 
through the pupilla, and none of 
them arc lost upon the uvea. 
The aqueous humour being thin- 

nest, and most liquid, easily 
changes its figure, when cither 
the ligamentum ciliare contracts, 
or both the oblique muscles 
squeeze the middle of the bulb of 
the eye^ to render it oblong, when 
objects are too near us. The 
straightfibresof the uvea dilate the 
pupilla, when there are but few 
rays of ligiit ; and the circular 
fibres contract it, when there are 
too many. When the pupilla is 
contracted, we see most distinct- 
ly ; when it is dilated, we see 
most clearly. 1 he glassy humour 
keeps the crystalline at such a dis- 
tance from the retina, as is neces- 
sary for uniting the rays which 
come from one point of the ob- 
ject, exactly in one point of the 
retina. The impression of the 
object is made upon the retina. 
The choroides is tinctured black, 
that the rays of light which pass 
through the retina may not be re- 
flected back again, to confuse the 
image of the object. Being dis- 
tinct, vision consists in the union 
of all the rays which come from 
one point of an object, exactly in 
the point of the retina ; and the 
rays which come from objects at 
diflerent distances are united at 
diflerent distances, behind the 
crystalline iiumour. They can- 
not both be exactly united upon 
the retina, therefore the e-ye can- 
not sec equally distinctly, at the 
same time, objects at different 
distances. It is for this reason 
that the globe of the eye moves so 
quickly, anci almost continually, 
and that the muscles of the cues 
have such a great quantity of 
nerves to perform their motions. 
When the globe of the eye is so 
flat, as happens sometimes in old 
age, that tne rays pass the retina 
before they unite, in such a case 
there is no distinct vision; and 
such as have this defect are called 
Prtsbyta ; and if, on the contrary, 
the globe of the nje be so convex 



as to unite the rays before they 
come to the retina, neither is 
there then any distinct vision ; 

and such as have this defect are 

called Myotics. 

Eyebright. See Euphrasia. 

Ff, or ft. In a prescription 
• they are abbreviations of^a^ 
ovjiant^ iet it or them be made ; 
thus,y. bolus^ let the substance or 
substances prescribed be made in- 
to a bolus. 

Eabafebrifuga. See A'ua: vomica. 

Faba Graca latifolia^ i, e. Guaja- 

Faba Indlca. See JViix vomica. 

Faba Purgatrix^ the Barbadoes 

FabagOj a species of ZygofihyU 

Fabasuilla^ common black hen- 

Fabrorum Aqua^ water in which 
hot iron is quenched. 

Face. The bones of the face 
are divided into those of the upper 
and under jaw. The upper jaw 
consists of thirteen bones, viz. two 
superior maxillary, two jugal, two 
nasal, two lachrymal, two inferior 
spongy, two palatine, and the vo- 
mer. The under jaw is formed 
of one bone, the inferior maxillary 
bone. — The muscles of the face 
are those of the eye-lids, eye-ball, 
nose, mouth, and lips. 

Fades Hip^iocratica, is when the 
nostrils are sharp, the eyes hol- 
low, the temples low, the tips of 
the ears contracted, the forehead 
dry and wrinkled, and the com- 
plexion pale or livid. 

Fades rubra., i. e. Gutta rosacea. 

Factitious^ signifies any thing 
made by art, in opposition to what 
is the produce of nature. 

Faculty., is a power or ability to 
periorm any action. Institution- 
writeis mention three, viz. na- 
tural, vital, and animal. By the 
first they understand that by which 
the body is nourished and aug- 
mented, or another like it gene- 

rated ; which some farther divide 
into three, nutrition, growth, and 
generation ; and the first of these 
has also by some been divided in- 
to attractive, retentive, concoc- 
tive, and expulsive : but these are 
terms that puzzle rather than in- 
struct, as they convey no distinct 
signification. The \\\:d\ faculty is 
that by which life is preserved, 
and the ordinary functions of the 
body performed. And the ani- 
mal faculty is what conducts the 
operations of the mind; as the 
imagination, memory, &c. 

F(Rces^ are excrements ; but of- 
ten made use of to express the 
ingredients and settlings after dis- 
tillation and infusion. 

FaculcE., are the dregs which 
subside in vegetable juices, as in. 
that of the roots of briony ; but 
these are not used so much in 
medicine as formerly. 

Fcex. It is properly the sedi- 
ment of lees, or grounds of any 
fermented liquor ; but in Medicine 
it is generally understood of wine. 
It is the same as faeces. The al- 
vine excretions are thus called. 

i'a a-o/2 ?/rw7>2, buckwheat, or brank, 
a species of Polygonum. 

FagiLs., the beach-tree. A ge- 
nus in Linnaeus's botany. He in- 
cludes in his genus the Castanea, 
or chesnut, and enumerates three 

Fainting, from kneeling. In 
kneeling, the ossa pubis are lower 
than when we stand ; and this not 
only increases the hollow of the 
loins, and throws the abdomen and 
its viscera more outward, or for- 
ward, but also, in some measure, 
strains the abdommal muscles, 
which is so uneasy to some per- 
sons as to cause them to faint 



away. The depression of the os 
pubis in kneelini? depends partly 
on the tension of the two niusculi 
recti anteriores, the lower tendons 
of which are, in this situation, 
drawn with violence under the 
condyloid pulley of the os fenaoris. 
Winslow's Anatomy, 

Falciform Process. The falx. A 
process of the dura mater, that 
arises from the crista galli, sepa- 
rates the hemispheres of the brain, 
and terminates in the tentorium ; 
ivoxwfaljc^ a scythe, andybrwa, re- 

Falling Sickness^ i. e. Efiilefisia. 

Falling'Siarj in meteorology, a 
phenomenon that is frequently 
seen, and which has been usually 
supposed to depend on the elec- 
tric fluid. Mr. Davy, in a lecture 
delivered at the Royal Institution, 
gave many reasons against this 
opinion : he conceives that they 
are rather to be attributed to fall- 
ing stones. It is observable that 
when their appearance is frequent 
they have all the same direction ; 
and it has been remarked that 
they are the forerunners of a 
westerly wind. 

Fallofiian Tube. See Generation^ 
Farts oJ\ belonging to Woiyicn. 

Fallojiii IJgamentiun ; also cal- 
led Ligajnenturn Poufiartii. It is 
only the lower border of the ten- 
don of the external oblique mus- 
cle of the belly, stretched from 
the fore part of the os ilium to the 
iS^ pubis. 

Fames. See Hunger. 

Fames canina., dog-appetite, is 
such an insatiable hunger, as is 
not to be satisfied with eating, but 
continues even when the stomach 
is full. This is a case much talk- 
ed of by the ancients, but rarely 
met. with amongst us. It seems 
to arise from fretting sharp juices 
in the stomach, which, by their 
continual vellications, excite a 
sense like that of hunger, and is 
to be conquered by medicines, 

and not ordinary food, such things 
as the testacca, all alkalies, and 

Farina^ meal or flour. 

Farina facundans^ impregnat- 
ing dust. It is placed on the 
apices of flowers, and falls from 
thence upon the head of the pistil, 
or female part of the flower, and 
is thence conveyed to the matrix, 
in order to impregnate the seed. 

Farinacea, a kind of J^'utrientia. 

Fascia. A bandage, fillet, or 
roller ; hence the aponeurotic ex- 
pansions of muscles, which bind 
parts together, are termed yasa'ce. 

Fascia seSc^ 'cfc. Capitum^ a six, 
Sec. headed roller. 

Fascia spiralis repens^ a spiral 

Fascia uniens, a roller applied 
to promote the union of divided 

Fascia Lata. A thick and strong 
tendinous expansion sentcfl* from 
the liack, and from the tendons of 
the glutei and adjacent muscles, 
to surround the muscles of the 
thigh. It is the thickest on the 
outside of the thigh and leg, but 
towards the inside of both becomes 
gradually thinner. A little below 
the trochanter major, it is firmly 
fixed to the linea aspera ; and far- 
ther down, to that part of the head 
of the tibia that is next the fibula, 
where it sends ofl* the tendinous 
expansion along the outside of the 
leg. It serves to strengthen the 
action of the muscles by keeping 
them firm in their proper places 
when in action, particularly the 
tendons that pass over the joints 
where this membrane is thickest. 

Fascial jVervcs. The eighth 
pair of nerves are so called. They 
arise from the fourth ventricle of 
the brain, pass through the petrous 
portion of the temporal bone to 
the temples, where they divide 
into several branches. 

Faacia Lwv.borum. It is a strong 
tendon fixed ♦'■• ih':" lu'.eiMl p:\it 



of the OS sacrum, from the spines 
of the sacrum, from the spine of 
the ilium and the spines of the 
lumbar vertebrae. 

Fat. Adefis. A concrete oily 
matter contained in the cellular 
membrane of animals, of a white 
or yellowish colour, with little or 
no smell or taste. It differs in all 
animals in solidity, colour, taste, 
&c. and likewise in the same ani- 
mal at different ages. In infancy 
it is white, insipid, and not very 
solid ; in the adult it is firm and 
yellowish; and in animals of an 
advanced age its colour is deeper, 
its consistence various, and its 
taste in general stronger. Fat 
meat is nourishing to those that 
have strong digestive powers. It 
is used externally as a softening 
remedy, and enters into the com- 
position of ointment and plasters. 

Fatuitas. Foolishness A syno- 
nim of Amentia 

Fauces. A cavity behind the 
tongue, palatine arch, uvula, and 
tonsils ; from which the pharynx 
and larynx proceed. 

FebHfuge. A medicine that 

possesses the property of abating 

the violence of any fever ; from 

febris^ a fever, and fugo, to drive 


Febris. An order in the class 
pijrexia of CuUen, characterized 
by the presence of pyrexia, with- 
out primary or local affection. 

Febfis Intermittens. An inter- 
mittent fever or ague. A genus 
of disease in the class fiyrexi(E and 
orderye^re*. It is known by cold, 
hot, and sweating stages in suc- 
cession, attending each paroxysm, 
and followed by an intermission 
or remission. There are three 
species of this disease, viz. 1. In- 
termittens quotidiana^ a quotidian 
ague. The paroxysms return in 
the morning at an interval of about 
twenty-four hours. 2. Intertnit- 
tens tertiana, a tertian ague. The 
paroxysms commonly come on at 

mid-day, at an interval of about 
forty-eight hours. 3. Intermittens 
quartana^ a quartan ague. The 
paroxysms come on in the after- 
noon, with an interval of about 
seventy-two hours. M. M. An 
emetic or cathartic if the stomach 
be foul or the bowels slow ; cin- 
chona 5i. every second hour dur- 
ing the remission ; opium ; sul- 
phate of copper ; arsenic. 

Febris Continua. A continued 
fever. A genus of disease in the 
class pyrexia and order p hlegmasix 
of Cullen. It has no intermission, 
but exacerbations come on twice 
in one day. The species of con- 
tinued fever are : 1. Synocha. In- 
flammatory fever, known by in- 
creased heat; pulse frequent, 
strong and hard ; urine high co- 
loured ; senses not much impair- 
ed. 2. Tyfihus^ which is contagi- 
ous, and is characterized by mo- 
derate heat; quick, weak and small 
pulse ; senses much impaired, and 
great prostration of strength. Ty* 
phus has four varieties, viz. 1 Ty- 
phxis petechialisf typhus with pete- 
chiae : 2. Typhus mitior^ the nerv- 
ous fever : 3. Typhus gravior^ the 
putrid fever : 4. Typhus ict erodes, 
the vellow fever. M. M. — 1st. 
Venesection ; cooling cathartics ; 
an emetic; refrigerants; diaphore- 
tics ; blisters ; camphor ; acids ; 
antiphlogistic regimen. 2. An 
emetic ; mild purgatives ; wine ; 
spirit of vitriolic sether ; refrige- 
rants ; opium ; cold air ; cold af- 
fusion ; acids ; blisters ; bark ; 
snakeroot. 3d. same as the 2d. 
4th. Active purgatives ; refrige- 
rants ; blisters ; cold affusion : 
about venesection, salivation and 
tonics, practitioners are divided in 

Febris Hectica. A genus of dis- 
ease in the cl^ss pyrexia and or- 
devfebres of Cullen. It is known 
by exacerbations at noon, but 
chiefly in the evening, with slight 
remissions in the morning, after 



nocturnal sweats ; the urine de- 
positing a furfuraceo-Iatcritious 
sediment ; appetite good ; thirst 
moderate. Hectic fever is symp- 
tomatic of chlorosis, scrophula, 
phthisis, diseased viscera, &:c. 

Fecula. A dry, pulverent, in- 
sipid, white, grey, or variously co- 
loured substance, insoluble in wa- 
ter, and of an earthy appearance, 
obtained by certain processes from 
vegetables ; such as starch, sago, 
salep, Sec. 

Felon. So the paronychia is 
called when its seat is in the peri- 
osteum at the beginning. 

Femur. Osfcmoris. The thigh 
bone. A long cylindrical bone, 
situated between the pelvis and 
tibia. Its upper and rounded emi- 
nence is called the head, below 
which are two rough eminences, 
the great and small trochanter. 
The two eminences on the in- 
ferior extremity are termed con- 

Fermentation. A spontaneous 
commotion in a vegetable sub- 
stance, by which its properties are 
totally changed. There are several 
circumstances required in order 
that fermentation may proceed ; 
such are, I. A certain degree of 
fluidity ; thus dry substances do 
not ferment at all: 2. A certain 
degree of heat : 3. The contact of 
air. Chemists, after Boerhaave, 
have distinguished three kinds 
of fermentation : the sfiirituous^ 
which afibrds ardent spirit ; the 
acetous^ which aflords vinegar, or 
acid; and the putrid fermentation, 
or putrefaction, which produces 
volatile alkali. The condiiions 
necessary for spirituous fermen- 
tation are, 1. A saccharine muci- 
lage : 2. A degree of fluidity 
slightly viscid : 3. A degree of 
heat between 55 and 65 of Fahren- 
heit : 4. A large mass, in which a 
rapid commotion may be excited. 
When these four conditions are 
unitedjthe spirituous fermentation 

takes place, and is known by the 
following characteristic pheno- 
mena: I. An intestine motion 
takes place : 2. The bulk of the 
mixture then becomes augment- 
ed : 3. The transparency of the 
fluid is diminished by opake fila- 
ments: 4 Heat is generated: 5. The 
solid parts mixed with the liquor 
rise and float in consequence of 
the disengap^ement of elastic fluid: 
6. A large quantity of cretaceous 
acid gas is disengaged in bubbles. 
All these phenomena gradually 
cease in proportion as the liquor 
loses its sweet and mild taste, and 
becomes brisk, penetrating, and 
capable of producing intoxication. 
In this manner, wine, beer, cider, 
&c. are made. 

Fermentum, ferment, barm, or 
yeast, leaven ; to which may be 
added, from late experiments, the 
carbonic acid, or fixed air ; sub- 
stances which enter into fermen- 
tation more readily than others. 
Pliny, in his Natural History, Lib. 
xviii. c. 7. speaks of the barm from 
malt liquor. 

Fern. See Filix. 

Ferrum, Iron. See Iron. 

Fersa, the measles. 

Fibre. A very fine simple fila- 
ment, composed of earthy parti- 
cles, connected together by an in- 
termediate gluten. It is owing 
to the diff'erent arrangements of 
the fibres that the cellular struc- 
ture, membranes, muscles, ves- 
sels, nerves, and in short, every 
part of the body, except the fluids, 
are formed. 

Fibrin. If a quantity of blood, 
newly drawn from an animal, be 
allowed to remain at rest for some 
time, a thick red clot gradually 
forms in it, and subsides. Sepa- 
rate this clot from the rest of the 
blood, put it into a linen cloth, and 
wash it repeatedly in water till it 
ceases to give out any colour or 
taste to the liquid ; the substance 
which remains after this process 



is clenominated/6m?. It has been 
long known to physicians under 
the name of the fibrous part of 
the blood ; but has not till lately 
been accurately described. It 
may be procured also from the 
muscles of animals. 

Fibula. A long bone of the leg, 
situated on the outer side of the 
tibia, and which forms, at its lower 
end, the outer ancle. 

Ficus. A fleshy excrescence 
about the anus, in figure resem- 
bling a fig. See Condyloma. 

FUices, ferns, one of the seven 
tribes or families of the vegetable 
kingdom, according to Linnaeus, 
by whom they are thus charac- 
terized, in having their fructifica- 
tion on the back side of the leaves. 
They constitute the first order in 
the class Cryfitogamia^ and consist 
of eighteen genera. This order 
comprehends the entire sixteenth 
class of Toumefort, in whose sys- 
tem the Filices make only a single 
genus in the section of the above- 
mentioned class. 

Filix. Male polypody or fern. 
Polyfiodium jilix mas of Linnseus. 
The root of this plant has lately 
been greatly celebrated for its ef- 
fects upon the t<ienia osculis sufier» 
Jicialibusj or broad tape-worm. 
Madam Noufer acquired great 
celebrity by employing it as a 
specific. In this country it is of 
little or no advantage. — 5i- } ss. 

Filtration^ is the method of ren- 
dering fluids clear by passing 
them through a porous solid, as 
the filtering gtone, compact close 
linen, woolen cloths, or porous 
paper, which is generally used for 
this purpose, as a lining to a fun- 
nel, or other such vessel. Filtra- 
tion is also performed on a princi- 
ple somewhat difi'erent, as by- 
immersing one end of a porous 
substance, as a piece of list, skein 
of cotton, or slip of thick paper, 
or other such substance, moisten- 
ed in its whole length in the fluid, 

and allowing the other end of it to 
hang down over the outside of the 
i^essel. The fluid in this depend- 
ing part drains out by its own 
gravity, and is supplied by capil- 
lary attraction from the portion 
next within the vessel, which is 
supplied in the same manner from 
the surface of the fluid, till the 
whole passes over, unless too 
deep, these appearing to act as a 

Filtrum. See Filtration. It is 
also a stone which is found in the 
bay of Mexico, which is used for 
filtering liquors through. 

Fimbri<e. The extremities of 
the Fallopian tubes. 

Fire. The word heat has been 
used with so much precision by 
Doctors Black, Irvine, Crawford? 
and others, that the word fire 
seems to have been rendered of 
little use, except to denote a mass 
of matter in a state of combustion, 
which is, indeed, its vulgar ac- 
ceptation. The term has, how- 
ever, been used by many eminent 
writers, to denote what these great 
philosophers call the matter of 
heat, now generally termed Calo-' 
ric, which see. 

Fire-Damfi. An inflammable 
gas, thus named by the English 
miners, is found in mines and 
other deep pits. It is lighter than 
air ; it floats near the roofs of 
mines, and is apt to catch fire and 

Fire (Potential,) the same as 

Fissure. That species of frac- 
ture in which the bone is slit, but 
not divided. 

Fistula. A term in surgery, ap- 
plied to a long and sinous ulcer 
that has a narrow openings and 
sometimes leads to a larger cavi- 
ty. — M. M. A seton or laying 
open the whole course of the fis- 
tula with a director and scalpel. 

Flammula Jovis. Upright vir- 
gin's bower. Clematis recta of Lin- 



n2eus. More praises have been 
bestowed upon the virtue which 
the leaves ot" this plant arc said to 
possess, wlien exhibited internally 
as an anti-venereal, by foreign 
physicians, than its trial in this 
country can justify. The powder- 
ed leaves are sometimes applied 
externally to ulcers as an escha- 

Flannel, a kind of woollen stuff, 
composed of a v/oof and wari>, and 
woven after the manner of baise. 
Various theories have been adopt- 
ed to prove the utility of flannel 
as an article of dress : it is un- 
questionably a bad conductor of 
heat, and on that account very 
useful in cold weather ; this is 
accounted for from the structure 
of the stuff; the fibres touch each 
other very slightly, so that the 
heat moves slowly through the 
interstices, which being already 
filled with air, give little assist- 
ance in carrying off the heat. On 
this subject Count Rumford has 
made many experiments, from 
which it should seem, that though 
linen, from the apparent ease with 
which it receives dampness from 
the atmosphere, appears to have a 
much greater attraction for water 
than any other, yet that those bo- 
dies which receive water in its 
unelaslic form with the greatest 
case, or arc most easily wet, are 
not those which in all cases at- 
tract the moisture of the atmos- 
phere with the greatest avidity. 
"Perhaps," says he, " tlic appa- 
rent dampness of linen to the 
touch arises more from the ease 
with which that substance parts 
with the water it contains, tlian 
from the (piantity of water it ac- 
tually holds ; in the same manner 
as a body appears hot to the touch 
in consequence of its partin*.; free- 
ly with its heat, while another bo- 
dy, which is really at the same 
temperature, but which withholds 
its heat with great obstinacy, af- 

fects the sense of feeling much 
less violently. It is well known 
that woollen cloths, such as flan- 
nels, kc. worn next the skin, 
greatly promote insensible per- 
spiration. May not this arise prin- 
cipally from the strong attraction 
v/hich subsists between wool and 
the watery vapour which is con- 
tinually issuing from the human 
body ? That it does not depend 
entirely on the warmth of that 
covering is clear ; for the same 
degree of warmth produced by 
wearing more clothing ol a dif- 
ferent kind does not produce the 
same effect. The perspiration of 
the human body being absorbed 
by a covering of fiannel, it is im- 
mediately distributed through the 
whole thickness of that substance, 
and by that means exposed by a 
very large surface to be carried 
off by the atmosphere ; and the 
loss of this watery vapour whicl\ 
the flannel sustains on the one 
side, by evaporation, being im- 
mediately restored from the other, 
in consequence of the strong at- 
traction between the flannel and 
this vapour, the pores of the skirj- 
are disencumbered, and they are 
continually surrounded by a dry 
and salubrious atmosphere." He. 
expresses his surprise, that the 
custom of wearing flannel next 
the skin should not have prevail- 
ed more universally. Ho is con- 
fident it would prevent a number 
of diseases; and he tliinks there 
is no greater luxury than the com- 
fortable sensation which arises 
from wearing it, especially after 
one is a little accustomed to it. 
** It is a mistaken notion," says he, 
" that it is too warm a clothing f<>' 
summer. I have worn it in the 
hottest climates, and at all seasons 
of the year ; and never found the 
least inconvenience from it. I', 
is the warm bath of perspiration 
confined by a linen shirt, wctx\it!. 
s\yent, which renders the summc.^ 



heats of southern climates so in- 
supportable ; but flannel promotes 
perspiration, and favours its eva- 
poration ; and evaporation, as is 
well known, produces positive 

Flatus^ is wind gathered in the 
bowels, or any cavities of the body, 
caused by indigestion. 

Flexor, a name applied to several 
muscles, from their office, which 
is to bend the parts to which they 

Flexor Accessorius Digitorujn Pe^ 
dis-) sen Massa Carnea Jacobi Sylvii. 
A muscle situated on the leg, that 
assists thejiexor. 

Flexor Brevis Di^it07'Ufn Pedis. 
A flexor muscle of the toes, situ- 
ated on the leg. 

Flexor Brevis Minimi Digiti 
Pedis. A muscle, situated on the 
foot, that bends the little toe. 

Flexor Brevis PolUcis Manus. 
A muscle, situated on the hand, 
that bends the first joint of the 

Flexor Brevis PolUcis Pedis. A 
muscle, situated on the foot, that 
bends the first joint of the great 

Flexor Carfii Radialis. A mus- 
cle, situated on the cubit or fore 
arm, that bends the hand and as- 
sists in its pronation. 

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. A mus- 
cle, situated on the cubit or fore 
arm, that assists the former. 

Flexor Longus Digitorum Pedis.} 
Pr&fundus, Perforans. A flexor 
muscle of the toes, situated on the 
leg, that bends their last joints. 

Flexor Longus PolUcis Manus. 
A muscle, situated on the hand, 
that bends the last joint of the 

Flexor Longus PolUcis Pedis. 
A muscle, situated on the foot, 
that bends the last joint of the 
great toe. 

Flexor Ossis Metacarpi PolUcis, 
aeu Ofijionens PolUcis. A muscle, 
situated on the hand, that brings 


the'thumb inwards, opposite to the 
other fingers. 

Flexor Parvus Minimi Digiti. 
A muscle, situated on the hand, 
that bends the little finger, and as- 
sists the adductor. 

Flexor Profundus Perforans. A 
muscle, situated on the fore arm, 
that bends the last joint of the 

Flexor Sublimis Perforatus. A 
muscle, situated on the fore arm, 
that bends the second joint of the 

Flints (Liquor of.) When two 
or three parts of alkaline salt arc 
added to one of vitrifiable earth, 
and the degree of heat is carried 
no further than to melt the mix- 
ture, without giving time for the 
alkali to evaporate, the product 
obtained is a vitriform mass, in 
which the earth is held in solu- 
tion : but as the mixture retains 
a great superabundance of alkali, 
it preserves almost all the pro- 
perties of alkaline salt ; it power- 
fully attracts moisture from the 
air, and deliquesces. In this state 
it is called Liquor of Flints. 

Flovoers of Zinc. They are to 
be considered as the calx of this 
semimetal. The calx is very re- 
fractory, and in the highest degree 

Fluats ( Fluas, tia, s. m.J Salts 
formed by the fluoric acid, com- 
bined with different bases ; thus, 
fuat of alumine,Jiuai ofammomac^ 

Fluctuation, a term in Surgery. 
When matter is formed in an ab- 
scess, and lightly pressed with 
the fingers, the motion o( fluctua- 
tion may be distinctly felt. 

Fhdd. A fluid is that substance, 
the constituent principles of which 
so little attract each other, that 
when poured out, it drops gutta- 
tim, and adapts itself, in every re- 
spect, to the form of the vessel 
containing it. 

Fluor Spar, Vitreous spar. 



Sparry, fluor. A species of salt 
•which abounds in n:itiire, fornncd 
by the combination of the spurry 
acid with lime. It is called spar, 
because it has the sparry form and 
fracture : fluor, because it melts 
very readily; and vitreous, be- 
cause it has the appearance of 
glass, and may be fused into glass 
of no contemptible appearance. 

Fluor ALbus^ is a distemper com- 
mon to the female sex, called by 
them the Whites, x^Q^Leucorrhoea. 

Fluoc. See Dysentery. 

Focus. From its signifying a 
hearth or Jire-j\lace<i some have 
made use of it to express the scat 
of a fever, or some other distem- 
pers. In Optics it is the point of 
convergence or concourse, where 
the rays meet and cross the axis 
after their refraction or reflection. 

Fceinciilum Dulce. Common fen- 
nel. Anethum F aniculum of Lin- 
naeus. The seeds and roots of 
this indigenous plant are directed 
by the colleges of London and 
Edinburgh. The seeds have an 
aromatic smell, and a warm sweet- 
ish taste, and contain a large pro- 
portion of essential oil. They 
are stomachic and carminative. 
The root has a sweet taste, but 
very little aromatic warmth, and 
is said to be pectoral and diuretic. 
9i. to 9ij. 

Foenum Gracum. Fenugreek. 
Trigone lla foenum gracum of Lin- 
naeus ; a native of Montpelicr. 
The seeds are brought to us from 
the southern parts of France and 
Germany; they have a strong dis- 
ageeable smell, and an unctious 
farinaceous taste, accompanied 
with a slight biucrness. They 
are esteemed as assisting the 
formation of pus, in inflammatory 
tumours ; and the meal, with that 
intention, is made into a poultice 
witk milk. 

Ffftus. The child, inclosed in 
the uterus of its mother, is called 
J- fcLHus from the iifth month after 

pregnancy until the time of its 
birlli. The internal parts pecu- 
liar to the foetus arc the tiivmus 
gland, canalis venosiis, canalis 
arteriosus, foramen ovale, valve of 
Eustachius, and the mcmbrana 
pupillaris. Besides these pecu- 
liarities, there are other circum- 
stances in which the foetus differs 
from tiie adult. The lungs are 
black and collapsed, and sink in 
water; the liver is very large; all 
the glands, especially the thymus 
and suprarenal, and the vermiform 
process of the caecum, are also 
considerably larger in proportion. 
The teeth of the foetus are hid 
within their sockets; the great in- 
testines contain a substance called 
meconium ; the membrana tym- 
pani is covered v.ith a kind of 
mucous membrane, and the bones 
in many places are cartilaginous. 

Follicle. A small membraneous 

Folliculose Gland. A gland 
which consists of a hollow vascu- 
lar membrane, and has an excre- 
tory duct ; as the muciparous and 
sebaceous glands. 

Foili cuius Fellis, the gall-bladder. 

Follis^ i, c. Folliculus, the name 
of a large leather bag filled with 
wind, and used as an exercise by 
the ancient Romans. 

Fo7ne7itation, is a sort of partial 
bathing, by applying hot flannels 
to any part, dipped in medicated 
decoctions, whereby steams are 
communicated to the diseased 
parts, their vessels arc relaxed, 
and their morbid action is there- 
by removed 

Fomesj fuel, from fovendo. 
When spoken of diseases, it is the 
internal or antecedent cause which 
foments and continues tiic dis- 

Fomites. Dr. Cullcn observes 
that clothes, Sec. receive contagi- 
ous matter from human bodies, 
and retain it in an active state for 
a long time. The substances thus 



imbibed, he says, are called by this 
name. Many think that contagion 
received from them is more pow- 
erful than that arising from human 

Fontanella. Thefontasul. It is 
the membranous part which is 
found in new-born infants at the 
coronal and sagittal commissures, 
and which, in length of time, har- 
dens into a bone. 

Fontandla^ or Fonticulus, signi- 
fies strictly a little spring, and is 
used to express issues, setons, or 
any such like artificial discharges. 

Foramen^ a hole. 

Foramen Cffcuni, A single open- 
ing in the basis of the cranium, 
between the ethmoid and the 
frontal bone, that gives exit to a 
small vein. 

Foramina Lacera. A pair of 
foramina in the basis of the cra- 
nium, through which the internal 
jugular veins, and the eighth pair 
of accessory nerves pass. 

Foramen Ovale. The opening 
between the two auricles of the 
heart of the f(Etus. See also 0& 

Forcefis^ properly signifies a pair 
of tongs ; but is used for an instru- 
ment in chirurgcry, to extract any 
thing out of wounds, and the like 

Fore'Skin. See Praputiuvi. 

For/ex^ an instrument to draw 
teeth with. 

Formiats ( Formias^ lis. s. m.) 
Salts produced by the union of the 
formic acid with different bases : 
ihMs^formiat of alumine^formiat of 
ammoniac^ &c. 

ForTnic Jcid, The acid of ants 
was known to Tragus, Bauhnie, 
Fisher, Etmuller, Hoffman, and 
many others. It is obtained chiefly 
from the red ant, Formica rufa of 
Linnaeus, by distilling them in a 
retort, and by washing them in 
boiling water. When rectified 
and rather concentrated, it has a 
penetratin;^ smellj and is cor- 

rosive ; and its taste is so agree- 
able when greatly diluted with 
water, that it has been propos- 
ed to be used instead of vine- 

Formula, a little form of pre- 
scription, such as physicians di- 
rect in extemporaneous practice, 
in distinction from the great forms, 
which are for tlie officinal medi- 

Fornix. The medullary body, 
composed of three crura, situated 
at the bottom of the ventricles, 
under the septum lucidum. 

Fortijication Agate. See Onyx. 

Fortis (Aqua^) a name of the 
nitrous acid, given because of its 
dissolving power. In the manu- 
facture of soap, the caustic alka- 
line lixivium is called also the 
strong luater. 

Fossa, a ditch. In Anatomy it 
is the same as Fossa JVavicuiaris. 

Fossil. This signifies any thing* 

that is dug out of the earth ; from 

fodio, to dig. For the several di^ 

visions of which, see the writings 

of natural historians. 

Fracture. A fracture is a solu- 
tion of a bone into two or more 
fragments. A simple fracture is 
when the bone only is divided. A 
compound fracture is a division of 
the bone, with a laceration of the 
integuments, the bone mostly pro- 
truding.— -A fracture is also term- 
ed transverse, oblique, &c. ac- 
cording to its direction. Treat- 
ment. Replace the pieces of bone 
in their natural situation. Retain 
them with splints and bandages. 
Bathe the limb with vinegar or 
spirits, and keep it still. — Bleed 
and use the antiphlogistic regi- 
men if necessary. 

Frenulum of the Tongue. The 
cutaneous fold, under the apex of 
the tongue, that connects the 
tongue to the infralingual caviiy. It 
is sometimes, in infancy, so short 
as to prevent the child from suck- 
ing, when it is necessary to cut it, 



in order to give more room for 
the motion of the tont^^ue. 

Frcenutn of the Penis. The 
membranous fold which connects 
the pracpuce to the inferior part 
of the glans penis. 

Frambcesia. The yaws ; from 
framboise^ Fr. a raspberry. A ge- 
nus of disease arranged by Culien 
in the class cachexia and order 
imp-etigines. It is somewhat simi- 
lar in its nature to the lues ve- 
nerea, and is endemial to the An- 
tilla islands. It appears with ex- 
crescences, like mulberries, grow- 
ing out of the skin in various parts 
of the body, which discharge an 
ichrous fluid. M. M. Generous 
diet and diaphoretics 21 days; 
then salivation for ten ; afterwards 

Fraximus^ the ash-tree. A ge- 
nus in Linnaeus's botany. He enu- 
merates three species. 

Friction^ is often used by phy- 
sicians for rubbing any part in 
order to dislodge any obstructed 
humours, or promote a due mo- 
tion of the included juices. This 
is of great service in medicine, 
and may contribute to the cure of 
several distempers, and especially 
such as proceed from a stoppage 
of insensible perspiration, or an 
obstruction of the cuticular pores. 

Frons^ the forehead. It is that 
part which is above the eye, des- 
titute of hair, and that reaches 
from one temple to the other. 

Frontal Bone. The cockleshell- 
like boae which forms the fore- 
head, and contains tlic two ante- 
rior lobes of the brain. Its priu- 
cipal processes are the two super- 
ciliary arches, and two external 
and internal orbital apophyses. lis 
cavities arc two orbital cavities, a 
niche for the trochlea of the supe- 
rior oblique muscle, two large 
ptuitary sinuses, one on each side 
above the root of the nose, called 
the frontal sinuses ; the ethmoid 
niche, and superciliary foramen. 

In the foetus it is composed of 
two bones. The union of the 
frontal bone with the paiieial 
bones, forms the coronal suture. 

Fructification y among boianistSj 
includes the flower and fruit, with 
their several coverings and attach- 

Fructifsta^ frttctiata^ that set of 
authors who have attempted the 
establishing the classes and dis- 
tinctions of plants upon the Ivwity 
seed, or receptacle of these in. 
plants, or this list is CaEsalpinus> 
Morrison, Ray, Herman Boer- 

Frnctus^ fruit. Properly it is 
the part of a plant wherein the 
seed is contained ; but in general 
it is any seed or grain coveied or 
uncovered, but with the coverings 
when there are any. 

FucuH^ hath been used for a co» 
lour or paint to beautify the face 
with, and belongs to the class of 

Fumaria Bulbosa^ great bulbous 
fumitory, and hollow-root. Com- 
mon fumitor. The leaves of this 
indigenous plant, Fumaria officina" 
lis of Linnaeus, are directed for 
medicinal use by the Edinburgh 
college : they are extremely suc- 
culent, and have no remarkable 
smell, but a bitter, somewhat sa- 
line taste. The infusion of the 
dried leaves, or the expressed 
juice of the fresh plant, is esteem- 
ed for its property of clearing the 
skin of many disorders of the 
leprous kind. 

Fumigation, is making one body- 
receive the steam of another, and 
is done various ways, and to dif- 
ferent purposes. The chemists 
use it for a species of calcination, 
when that process is performed 
upon any substance by the steams 
of another ; as lead is reducible 
into a calx by the steams of acids. 
Among physic i^pns, it means the 
application of faaies to particular 
parts «f th« b«dy, as those tf 



factitious cinnabar to venereal ul- 

Function. The power or faculty 
by which any action of an animat- 
ed body is performed. The func- 
tions of our body are divided into 
vital, by which life is immediately 
supported, as the action of the 
heart and arteries, respiration and 
animal heat; animal^ which are 
effected through the operation of 
the mind, as the external and in- 
ternal senses, the voluntary action 
of the muscles, voice, watching, 
and sleep ; natural^ by which the 

body is preserved, as hunger, 
thirst, mastication, deglutition, di- 
gestion, chylification, sanguifica- 
tion, nutrition of the body, and the 
various secretions and excretions; 
and, lastly, into sexual functions^ 
such as menstruation, conception, 
formation of the fcetus, and par- 

Functio^hom/ung-or, to fierfomu 
We shall add professor Riche- 
rand*s new classification of the 
functions. It is elegant, compre- 
hensive, and complete. 





*^ V. 

s > 




Genvs l.-^Di^estion 
Extracts the nutritive-^ 

Tleception of the food. 
Solution by the saliva. 
Digestion in the stomach. 

- - - - duodenum. 

- - - - intestines. 
Excretion of the faeces and of the 

^ urine, 
flnhalation of chyle. 
Genus II. — Absorption | - - - - lymph. 
Carries it into the mass-^ Action of vessels, 
of humours I ' " " g^^^s. 

(^ - - - the thoracic duct. 
Genus m.—Circula- faction of the heart. 

tion J - - - - arteries. 

! \ ... - capillary vessels. 

Order I. 
which assimi- 
late the ali- 
the body is I Propels it towards the J 


C Assimilat- 
ing, internal, or 
digestive funC' 


^ - . - - vems 

f Action of theparietesof the thorax, 

Genus rV—i2es/>/ra- j ... [^ngs 

'^"" . , , < Alteration of the air. 
Combines it with at-] 

mospheric oxygen 

in the blood. 
^Disengagement of animal heat. 
Genus V — Secretion CExhaktion. 
Causes it to pass thro' ^ siecretion by follicles, 
several modifications (_---- glands. 
Genus Yl —Mitntion f 

Applies it to organs, to Different in every part, accordmg 
which It is to supply-( to the peculiar composition ot 
growth, and restore j each. 
. their loss. L 





- i 

Order II. 

ivhich form con- 
nections - with 
suiiounding ob- 

f Externa! or 
relatve func- 
tions. J 

Genus T.—S'ffnjffl/ioyj* 

Inform the being- of 

tlieir presence. 

G E N u s 11 -—Motions 

"S Approaclj towards or<^ 

remove it from them 


Genus III— The Voice 

and Speech 
Cause it to communi- 
cate with similar be- 
ing-h, without change 
^ of place. 

The SIpht. 
11 L- a ring. 

"Organs ^ Smell. 

Action of nerves. 

the brain. 
Human understanding^. 
Sleep and watching. 
Dreaming and sleep-walkinjf. 

f Organs and muscular motion. 
The skeleton. 

Progressive ) Jumping, 
motions. \ Swimming. 
The C Articulated, or Speech. 
Voice \ Modulated, or Singing. 

11 w ^ 

O U . 


' Order I. 

Fimctions which 
req ire the concur- 
rence of both sexes, 

f foeneral differences of the 

j Conception and J sexes. 

) Generation. ] Hermaphrodism. 

I I S} stems relative to generation 

Order II. 

Functions which- 

exclusively belong 

to females, as 



rOf the uterus in a state of im- 
j pregnation. 

t History of the embryo. 
. . - - foetus and its 
On the uterus after delivery. 

^The lochix 

\ction of tlie breasts. 

C Actic 


r Infancy — Dentition. — Ossification. 
J Puberty. — MensUuation. 
1 Adolescence. 
L Youth. 


Yirility.< Idiosyncracy 



C Age of decrease. 
Decrease. < Old age. 

C Decrepitude, 

^European Arab. 
Human race^ ^j^;,^^^^j 

\.H} P<-*J^borcan. 



The splendid work of M. Vicq 
d*Azyr on the Brain furnishes us 
■with the following table of the 
functions^ or the firoptr characters 
of living bodies. These are, diges- 
tion^ nutrition^ circulation^ rtspira- 
tiony secretions, ossification, genera- 
tion, irri ability, and sensibility. 
Every body in which one or several 
of these functions are observed 
must be regarded as an organized 
or living body. 

I. Digestion. — Living Bodies, 
Which have one or many sto- 
machs distinct from the oesopha- 
gus and intestinal canal : man, 
guadrupeds-i cetacea-, birds, and 

Whose stomachs are distin- 
guished from the oesophagus and 
intestinal canal only by some en- 
largement : ovifiarous animals, ser- 
fients, cartilaginous a^wd firofierjish. 

Who have only an alimentary 
tube: insects ^nvorms, zoophytes. 

Who have neither stomach nor 
intestinal canal : plants. 

II. Nutrition. — Living Bodies, 
Whose nutritious juices are ab- 
sorbed by the vessels opening in- 
to the external cavities: animals 
of every kind. 

Whose nutritious juices are ab- 
Borbed by vessels opening exter- 
nally : plants. 

III. Circulai ion. ""Living Bodies, 
Having blood, blood-vessels, and 
a heart, with two ventricles and 
two auricles : man, guudrufieds, 
tetacea, and birds. 

A single ventricle, internally 
divided into several cavities and 
two auricles ; oviparous guadru- 
fieds and serpents. 

A single ventricle and auricle : 
tartilaginous and other fish. 

Whose heart is formed by a 
long convoluted contractile vessel 
containing a white fluid: crusta" 
tea, insects and %vorms. In some 
Crustacea there are traces of a 

Who have no heart, but ves- 

sels filled with fluids of different 
kinds : zoophytes and plants. 
IV Respiration.— -Living Bodies, 

Who breathe by free uncon- 
nected spongy lungs : man, quad- 
rupeds, cetacea. 

Who breathe by free cellular 
muscular lungs : oviparous guad- 
rupeds and serpents. 

By lungs adhering to the ribs 
provided with appendices : birds. 

By gills of different forms ifish 
and Crustacea. 

By holes placed on different 
rings : insects and earth-worms. 

By a trachea and external frin- 
ges : aquatic worms. 

By tracheae : plants. 

In which neither holes nor tra- 
cheae are discernible : polypi. 
V. Secretion. 

This takes place in different 
forms or degrees in every living 
V I . Ossification. — J Jving Bodies, 

Which have an internal bony 
skeleton : man, quadrupeds, ceta- 
cea, birds, oviparous quadrupeds, 

An internal cartilaginous one : 
cartilaginous fish. 

An external horny : perfect in* 
sects and lithophytes. 

Calcareous: crustacea, shell-fish, 
the greater number of madrepores^ 

Woody : plants. 

Which have no skeleton : in* 
sects in their lava state, worms, 
Vil. Generation.— Living Bodies, 

Viviparous : man, quadrupeds^ 

Oviparous, whether hatched in- 
ternally or without the body: birds, 
oviparous quadrup eds, cartilaginous 
and other fish, serpents, insects, 
Crustacea, worms, plants. 
VIII. Irritability. — Living Bodies, 

Wholly muscular or contrac- 
tile : the greater number of the 
larvae oi insects, worms, polypi. 

Whose muscles cover their 



skeleton: man^quadrufieds, birds, 
^eetacea, oviparous (juadrupeds^Jishy 

Wliose muscles are covered by 
their skeleton : perfect insects and 

Who have some contractile 
parts, but no spontaneous motions : 
IX. Sensibility . — Living Bodies, 
Who have nerves, and a brain 
distinct from their spinal marrow : 
all animals, except those in the 
following sections. 

Who have nerves and a brain 
scarcely distinct from their spinal 
marrow : insects, crustacean worms. 
Without discovered nerves, 
brain or spinal marrow : zoophytes^ 

Fungus. Proud flesh. A term 
in surgery to express any luxu- 
riant formation of flesh. 

Fungus h£matodes. This sin- 
gular complaint was first distinctly 
described by Mr. Hey, in his very 
excellent work, entitled " Practi- 
cal Observations in Surgery." It 
is a bloody tumour which forms 
in every part of the body, painful 
when seated in the muscles ; but 
producing little inconvenience 
when in the cellular substance. 
It distends the integuments ; but 
does not, like an abscess, render 
them thinner. When pressed 
with the hands, one part will give 
the sensation of a deep-seated 
fluid ; in another the tumour is 
hard and uneven. When the in- 
teguments burst, the appearances 
are sometimes those of an exco- 
riation only J sometimes a dark, 
bloody mass protrudes through 
the aperture. Where the fungus 
comes into contact with the n\us- 
cles, they lose their natural red- 
ness and their fibrous appearance, 
becoming brown, and like the 
adipose membrane. When the 
fungus appears through the skin, 
it bleeds copiously, and the hae- 
morrhage is frequently repeated 

till the patient sinks ; neither the 
hydrargyrus nitrutus rvil)er, the 
muriatum, or undiluted vitriolic 
acid, can repress its growth. Am- 
putation is the only remedy ; and 
if the tumour has begun at the 
lower part of a liml), and the 
slighest portion is left at the up- 
per, the disease returns. It ap- 
pears to be an organized, and is 
probably a living, parasitic animal, 
nourished by the vital fluid of th© 
patient, and capable of absorbing; 
from the subjacent vessels what is 
effused from its own. 

Funiculus Umbilicalis. Funis urn- 
bilicalis. The navel-string or um- 
bilical cord. A cord of an intes- 
tinal form, about half a yard in 
length, that proceeds from th© 
navel of the foetus to the centre of 
the placenta. It is composed of 
a crutaneous sheath, cellular sub- 
stance, one umbilical vein, and 
two umbilical arteries ; the former 
conveys the blood to the child 
from the placenta, and the latter 
return it from the child to the 

Furnaces. The furnaces em- 
ployed in chemical operations are 
of three kinds : 1. The evaporatory 
furnace, which has received its 
name from its use ; it is employ- 
ed to reduce substances into va- 
pour, by means of heat, in order 
to separate the more fixed prin- 
ciples from those which are more 
ponderous, and were mixed, sus- 
pended, compounded, or dissolv- 
ed in the fluid : 2. The rcvcrbera- 
tory furnace ; whicli name it has 
received from its construction be- 
ing appropriated to distillation : 
3. The forge fiLrnacc ii\ whicli the 
current of air is determined by 

Furor Uterinus. See .Vympho- 

Furuncle. An inflammation of 
a subcutaneous gland, known by 
an inflammatory tumour that docs 


Rot exceed the size of a pigeon's 
egg ; horajuro, to rage. M. M. 
Emollient poultices ; incision ; 
basilicon ; calamine cerate. 
Fusion. A chemical process. 


by which bodies are made to pass 
from the solid to the fluid state, 
in consequence of the application 
ol heat. 

The excretory ducts of the 
glands of the breasts of women, 
which terminate in the papilla or 
nipple ; from yccXx, milk^ and ^Epw, 
to carry^ because they bring the 
milk to the nipple. 

Galbanum. A gummi-resinous 
juice, obtained partly by its spon- 
taneous exudation from the joints 
of the stem of the Bubon galbanum 
of Linnaeus, but more generally, 
and in greater abundance, by mak- 
ing an incision in the stalk, a few 
inches above the root, from which 
it immediately issues, and soon 
becomes sufficiently concrete to 
be gathered. It is imported into 
England from Turkey and the 
East-Indies, in large, softish, duc- 
tile, pale-coloured masses, which 
by age acquire a brownish yellow 
appearance : these are intermix- 
ed with distinct whitish tears, 
that are the most pure part of the 
mass. Galbanum holds a middle 
rank between assafoeiida and am- 
moniacum, but its foetidness is 
veiy inconsiderable, especially 
when compared with the former ; 
itistherefore accounted less antis- 
pasmodic, nor are its expectorant 
qualities equal to those of the lat- 
ter ; it, however, is esteemed 
more efficacious than either in 
hysterical disorders. Externally 
it is often applied by surgeons to 
expedite the suppuration of in- 
flammatory and indolent tumours, 
and by physicians as a warm stimu- 
lating plaster. It is an ingredient 
in the pilule e gummi^ the emplas- 
trum lithargyH cum gummi of the 
London Pharmacopeia, and in the 

emfilastrum ad clavos fiedum of the 
Edinburgh. Grs. v. to 9i. 

Galena. The name of an ore 
formed by the combination of lead 
with sulphur. 

Galenic Medicine^ is that prac- 
tice of medicine which conforms 
to the rules of Galen, and runs 
much upon multiplying herbs and 
roots in the same composition, 
though seldom torturing them 
any otherwise than by decoction, 
in opposition to chemical medi- 
cine, which, by the force of fire 
and a great deal of art, fetches 
out the virtues of bodies, chiefly 
mineral, into a small compass. 

Gall. See Bile. 

Galla, gall. They are hard 
round excrescences, produced by 
the puncture of an insect. They 
are the Cynipidis Nidi. The in- 
sect makes a puncture in the leaf 
of an oak-tree, there lodges its 
egg, which remains until the 
young insect is able to eat its way 
out. The tear which issues from 
the wound, gradually increased 
by accessions of iresh matter, 
forms a covering to the eggs and 
succeeding insect. The ^a//*are 
a strong astringen*. They are 
retained in the Pharmacopeia of 
the college. 

Gall' Bladder. An oblong mem- 
branous receptacle, situated un- 
der the liver, to which it is attach- 
ed in the right hypochondrium. 
It is composed of three mem- 
branes : a common, fibrous, and 
villous. Its use is to retain the 
gall, which regurgitates through 
the hepatic duct, there to become 
thicker, more acrid and bitter, and 



to send it through the cystic 
duct, which proceeds from its 
neck into the common duct or 
ductus communis choledochus, to 
be sent on to the duodenum. 
Ga/vanism. This surprisin.u^ branch 
of philosophy has been denomi- 
nated galvanism, from Galvani, an 
Italian professor, whose experi- 
ments led to its discovery. In 
1789, some time before he made 
the most important discovery, he 
was by accident led to the fact, of 
electricity having the property of 
exciting contractions in the mus- 
cles of animals. Stimulated by 
the then prevailing idea of elec- 
tricity being a principle inherent 
in animals, which, acting upon the 
musclar susceptibility, was the 
immediate cause of musctilar mo- 
tion, he was induced to persevere 
in the inquiry, during the prose- 
cution of which, he brought to 
light other facts, which laid the 
foundation of this valuable scien- 
tific acquisition. After having 
observed that common electricity, 
even that of lightning, produced 
vivid convulsions in the limbs of 
recently killed animals, he ascer- 
tained that metallic substances, 
by mere contact, under particular 
circumstances, excited similar 
commotions. He found, that it 
was essential, that the forces of 
metals employed should be of dif- 
ferent kinds. He applied one 
piece of metal to the nerve of the 
part, and the other to the muscle, 
and afterwards connected the me- 
tals, cither by bringing them to- 
gether, or by connecting them by 
an arch of a metallic substance; 
every time this connection was 
formed the convulsions took place. 
The diversity in the metals cm- 
ployed in these experiments ap- 
peared, in the very early stages of 
this inquiry, to be connected with 
their respective degrees of oxy- 
dability, the one being possessed 
of t^at property in a great degree, 

and the other Uttle liable to the 
change. Hence zinc, and silver, 
or gold, was found to produce the 
greatest muscular contractions. 
The pile was found to unite the 
effects of as many pairs of plates 
as might be employed. Previ- 
ously to this no other effect had 
been produced than what result- 
ed from the cnGrgy of a single 
pair of plates. A pile of fifty pairs 
of plates, with as many corres- 
ponding pieces of wet cloth, was 
found to give a pretty smart shock, 
similar to an electric shock, every 
time that a communication was 
made between the top and bottom 
of the pile. It was found, how- 
ever, that little or no shock was 
perceived, when the hands, op 
other parts applied, were not pre- 
viously moistened. It was also 
observed, that the effect was in- 
creased when a larger surface 
was exposed to the action of the 
pile. If the communication was 
made by touching the pile with 
the tip of each finger merely, the 
effect was not perceived beyond 
the joint of the knuckle; but if a 
spoon, or other metallic sub- 
stance, were grasped in moisten- 
ed hands, the effect was felt up to 
the shoulder. If the communica- 
tion be formed between any part 
of the face, particularly near the 
eyes, and another part of the body, 
a vivid flash of light is perceived 
before the eyes, corresponding^ 
with the shock. This phenome- 
non may be more fainily observed, 
by placing a piece of silver, as a 
shilling, between the upper lip 
and the gum, and laying a piece 
of zinc at the same time upon the 
tongue : upon bringing the two 
metals in contact, a faint flash of 
light is perceived. It is singular, 
that this light is equally vivid iji 
the dark with the strongest light, 
and whether the eyes be shut or 
It is to Mr. Cruickshank that 



we are indebted for the inven- 
tion of the galvanic trough, a dis- 
covery which very soon super- 
seded the use of the pile, as be- 
in» more manai^eable, and attend- 
ed with less trouble to the opera- 
tor. It consists of a wooden box, 
or trough, the depth and breadth 
of which correspond with the 
size of the plates. The wood of 
which the trough is formed, should 
be the oldest and hardest maho- 
gany, being less liable to warp 
than other kinds of wood. The 
sides of the trough must be dove- 
tailed together, and the bottom 
ought to be grooved into the sides, 
and fitted-in with turpentine ; 
perpendicular grooves must be 
made in the sides of the trough, 
for the reception of the plates, 
correspondent to which there 
must be grooves in the bottom. 
When the length of a trough is 
m.ore than two feet, it becomes 
unwieldy ; it should not even be 
that length, when the size of the 
plates would render it too heavy 
to be handed about. The distance 
between the plates should be about 
three-eighths of an inch ; if they 
are nearer together, the acid em- 
ployed is too soon exhausted, and 
consequently, the power of the 
battery less lasting. The plates 
should be of copper and zinc. 
Though silver is stronger than 
copper, it is not so in proportion 
to the price. The zinc plates are 
best cut out of sheets of mallea- 
ble zinc, as being cheaper, less 
liable to break, and inay be used 
much thinner. The copper may 
be employed so thin as six ounces 
to the square foot. The plates of 
copper being made a little larger 
than the zinc, may 'be lapped over 
the edges of the latter, by which 
means they fit much closer to the 
zinc plate, without the labour of 
hammering the copper plates pre- 
viously flat. The copper plates 
•nly require to be soldered to the 

upper edge of the zinc plate," 
since the other three edges are 
so secured with cement in the 
grooves as to preclude the neces- 
sity of soldering. The lapping 
over of the copper is sufficient to 
keep it close to ihe zinc plate till 
the plate is fastened in the trough. 
Previously to inserting the plates 
in the trough, the inside must be 
lined with a cement, formed of 
resin and bees-wax, or what is 
cheaper, of six parts of resin and 
one of lime and oil. The plates, 
being previously warmed, are to 
be pressed down into the grooves 
before the cement becomes quite 
cold. After the plates have been 
inserted, in such order that all the 
zinc surfaces shall face one way 
and the copper the other, the ce- 
ment must be more evenly ad- 
justed with a hot iron which will 
reach to the bottom of the cells ; 
the trough being laid first on one 
side and then on the other for 
that purpose. When the cement- 
ing process is finished, and the 
whole sufficiently cold, the trough 
must be dressed off* and varnished 
with copal varnish where it can 
be had, but in lieu of that, with 
common spirit varnish. When 
the varnish is dry it must be 
polished with rotten-stone and 

In the above construction it is 
manifest that two of the surfaces 
are lost by being laid and soldered 
together. About two years ago 
the writer of this article had con- 
ceived the possibility of making 
use of both the surfaces of the 
copper and zinc plates at the same 
time. Accordingly he cemented 
into a trough, in the groove made 
for the plates of metal, plates of 
glass. The metal plates were 
formed by soldering together a 
plate of each, of copper and zinc, 
and then bending them till the 
plates became parallel to each 
other, leaving a space between the 


two surfaces a little wider than 
the thickness of the glass plates. 

The cells between the glass 
plates bcintj filled with the pro- 
per liquid, each of the above com- 
pouiul plates were iricide to be- 
stride one of the glass plates, in 
such order that a zinc and copper 
plate of two different compound 
plates, in succession to each other, 
may occupy each of the cells. All 
the surfaces are by this contriv- 
ance exposed to the action of the 
liquid, and might be considered 
double the power of a common 
trough, having the same number 
of plates. Little or no advant- 
age was gained by this method. 
Though there are two surfaces of 
each metal in each of the cells, it 
will be evident, from several mi- 
nor experiments already given, 
that two of the surfaces are so 
completely disconnected as to 
produce little or no effect. One 
of the zinc surfaces in this trough 
is facing the glass on one side the 
cell, and one of the copper sur- 
faces is similarly situated on the 
other side. The trough, there- 
fore, is, for general use, the most 
convenient, and in other re- 
spects, the best battery yet in- 

The next thing to be consider- 
ed, is the management of the gal- 
vanic battery. First, all of the 
cells of the trough must be filled, 
within about half an inch of the 
top, with a liquid, composed of 
water, with about one twenty-fifth 
part of the muriatic or the nitric 
acid. The plates of the trough 
are shorter than the depth of the 
trough, by about three-fourths of 
an inch ; so that tiie trough may 
be leaned on one side in the fil- 
ling, for the purpose of letting 
the liquid run equally into all tiie 
cells. If a number of troughs are to 
be connected together, the com- 
munication must be made by arcs 
©f metal, which are inserted into 


the liquid of one cell of each 
trough. In making the connec- 
tion, it is to be observed, iliai the 
zinc surface of one trough must 
correspond with the copper one 
of another, and the zinc ol the lat- 
ter with copper of a third, and 
so on. This arrangement may 
be better conceived by placing 
them in the same order, and to 
end in such a way, that all the zinc 
surfaces may face one way, and 
the copper ones the other. After 
all the troughs are connected to- 
gether, let the two unconnected 
ends, at which the experiments 
are to be made, be as near to- 
gether as possible. 

A connection being now form- 
ed between the two ends, one of 
which we shall term the zinc end, 
and the other the copper end, the 
united energy of the whole will 
be transmitted through the con- 
necting medium. 

The most striking and the most 
common experiments are those 
w^hich consist in the galvanic 
energy upon the organs of ani- 
mals. If two metallic rods, or, 
what is equally convenient, two 
silver spoons, be grasped, one in 
each hand, the skin of the part be- 
ing previously moistened with a 
solution of salt, and one of the 
spoons be brought in contact with 
one end of the battery, the mo- 
ment the other comes in contact 
with the other end of the battery, 
the shock is perceived. Fifty 
compound plates will give a shock, 
which will be fell in the elbows. 
One of a hundred will be felt in 
the shoulders. A greater num- 
ber of plates give so forcible a 
shock to the muscles, as to be 
dreaded a second time. The 
shock appears to depend upon the 
number of plates. The stun, or 
first impression, is much the same, 
whatever may be the size of the 
plates; at least, from the size of 
two inches square to that of ten ; 



the surfaces being as four to one 
hundred. The efPect upon the 
muscles, as well as upon the cuti- 
cle itself, is very different from 
large plates, when the series is 
the same. It appears, that the 
shock, or first impression, is as 
the series, which is also as the in- 
tensity of the electricity. If the 
shock be received from the same 
number of large plates, the same 
species of commotion is produced 
in the first instance, as with the 
small plates; but if the contact 
be still kept up, a continuation of 
the eff"ect is perceived, which is 
felt through the whole arms, pro- 
ducing a vast trem.or, attended 
with a sensation of warmth. If 
the plates be from eight to twelve 
inches squai e, this eff'ect may be 
perpetually kept, while the acid 
in the cells is expended. 

Though small plates have bfeen 
recommended for medical pur- 
poses, we think large ones will 
be found more likely to have a 
good effect. If the medical ad- 
vantage is to be derived from the 
stimulus of galvanism, the effect 
of a perpetual and regular cur- 
rent of that stimulus must cer- 
tainly be preferable to the rapid 
transmission of a small quantity. 

The galvanic shock may also be 
conveniently given, by immersing 
the hands or the feet into vessels 
containing a solution of salt, and 
bringing wires from each end of 
the battery into the liquid. If any 
other part of the body is intended 
to be operated upon, a sponge, 
moistened with salt water, fasten- 
ed to a metal plate connected with 
one end of the battery, may be ap- 
plied to the part, and the hand or 
foot put into a vessel of the same 
liquid, connected by a wire with 
the other end of the battery. Small 
bits of sponge or bits of leather 
may be fastened to the end of the 
connecting wires, and made more 
or less moist as the delicacy of 

the part may require. This con- 
trivance is very useful in operat- 
ing upon the eyes or ears. 

When galvanism is used medi- 
cally, it should first be applied 
very feebly, and the effect gradu- 
ally increased, as the suscepti- 
bility of the part will admit. If 
the part has, from disease, become 
so languid and insusceptible, as 
not to be sensible of the effect, it 
should be scarified, or by other 
means have the cuticle removed. 
This is sometimes the case with 
languid tumors, and some cases 
of paralysis. Though we had no 
great opinion of the medical 
agency of galvanism, we have 
lately heard of several very suc- 
cessful cases, one of which in par- 
ticular was the cure of perfect 
loss of speech. If the naked me- 
tal of the wire, from a powerful 
battery, be applied to the skin, it 
becomes cauterized and blistered. 

If the plate, covered with a 
moistened sponge, connected with 
one end of the battery, be applied 
to the back of the head, at the 
same time that the moistened 
fingers of one hand are slightly 
applied to the other end, a smart- 
ing sensation will be felt in the 
part, and a taste at the same time 
will be felt in the mouth, similar, 
but in a greater degree, to that 
occasioned by the piece of zinc, 
and the shilling when laid upon 
the tongue. This experiment 
succeeds the best with a small 
number of large plates, as much 
as ten inches square. 

The action of galvanism on the 
human body is nearly that of elec- 
tricity ; but as a stimulant, it is 
less intense, and more steady. 
The cuticle in animals, and the 
epidermis in plants and seeds, re- 
sist it more powerfully than the 
electrical influence; and it is ne- 
cessary often, for the purpose of 
increasing its power, to puncture 
the skin, so as to draw some blood. 



The coats of the nerves have ap- 
parently a similar effect ; for the 
influence is j^reater, the nearer 
the coatinij is placed to the part 
on which the nerves are dispers- 
ed, where the coats are thinner, 
or wholly lost. In general, how- 
ever, p^alvanism docs not seenn to 
resemble accunrmiated electrici- 
ty ; but a weaker charge diffused 
over a larger surface. In the ope- 
ration, the metals are oxidated, 
and the water between them is 
decomposed, the zinc apparently 
yielding the oxygen, and the cop- 
per the hydrogen. As the water 
is seemingly decomposed on each 
side, it has become a problem to 
account for the disappearance of 
the oxygen on the side of the cop- 
per, and the contrary. Philoso- 
phers have not yet dared to face 
this difficulty, as it so strongly 
militates against the modern che- 
mical doctrines. Tins decompo- 
sition of a watery fluid was, how- 
ever, introduced very early into 
its medical system ; and Galvani, 
resting on the hypothesis of Co- 
tunnio de Ischiade Nervosa that 
sciatica, and many other com- 
plaints, arose from the accumula- 
tion of a fluid within the nervous 
sheaths, supposed that it was of 
service from its influence on the 
morbid causes. We have no rea- 
son, however, to think, that it has 
any effect in this way, though it 
has been supposed also from this 
circumstance to change the posi- 
tive electricity of the healthy body 
to the negative state. 

GalvcUiism seems chitfly to af- 
fect the nervous system, includ- 
ing the muscular libres, and in- 
deed, in some degree, fibres of 
every kind, producing even some 
apparent coulraclion in the fibrin 
of the blood. The nerves and 
muscles, however, it penetrates 
more actively tlian the electrical 
fluid in its usual state ; for it pro- 
duces powerful contractions, and 

sensations of pricking and burn- 
ing in parts insensible, from dis- 
ease, to electrical sparks, and even 
shocks. The effects are increas- 
ed by moistening the skin, and 
wetting, it so much as even to 
penetrate the cuticle; still more, 
we have found, if the cuticle is 
divided : but it often happens that 
one person may be insensible to 
its ii^fluence, and occasionally the 
pile is a long time in~ pr^jducing 
its effects, seemingly from some 
obstacle, which is removed by an 
apparently inconsiderable change 
in the apparatus. It appears to 
penetrate the nervous system in 
every direction with equal facility, 
and probably passes through the 
minutest fibres, as^ after a nerve 
has been cut and re-united by 
what seems a condensed cellular 
or ligamentous substance, the gal- 
vanic influence is not transmitted. 
It apparently acts by exciting the 
nervous power; since, like all 
powerful exciters, it soon destroys 
irritability. Animals killed by the 
destruction of this principle soon 
become putrid ; and this is also 
the rapid consequence of death 
by putrid miasmata, electricity, 
and galvanism. 

Galvanism, in consequence of 
its readily permeating the iierves, 
has been employed, by Humboidt, 
to ascertain what parts are ner- 
ve ns, and the real use of some 
nerves whose oflicc was doubtful. 
The tendons, probably from the 
compactness of their structure, 
are insensible of the galvanic sti- 
mulus. By his experiments it 
also appears that the third branch 
of the lyiti pair of nerves supplies 
the org^s of taste, and the ninth 
pair gives activity to the muscles 
of the tongue, as Galen supposed. 

This active princinle has been 
employed with success in restor- 
ing persons apparently drowned; 
and by establishing a communica- 
tion between zinc and silver wires. 



introduced into the tnouth and 
anus of smnll birds, Humboldt has 
recovered them from asphixy. 
Except, however, in deaths from 
violence, galvanism is useless ; 
since, in the last struggles, irrita- 
bility is usually destroyed It has 
beer, recommended to distinguish 
a case of peculiar difficulty and 
importance, viz. the existence of 
amauj'osis in cases of cataract. If 
the two metallic exciters, in a 
proper position, do not produce 
the usual sensations in the retina, 
the operation will probably be 
useless, as the sentient power of 
the nerve is apparently lost. 

M. Grappcngeisser, the first 
author who seems to have applied 
galvanism to medical purposes, 
used it chiefly in palsies, and in 
various weaknesses of the sentient 
or moving nervous fibres; it has 
been certainly useful, though ob- 
viously .inefficacious in diseases 
arising from an organic defect. 
Yet, in a very considerable degree 
of what may be styled organic de- 
fect in the structure of the nerve 
itself, it seems to have been bene- 
ficial where this defect occasion- 
ed epileptic symptoms ; and from 
this we are led to expect some ad- 
vantages from the remedy, where 
epileptic paroxysms proceed from 
either extremity, and rise to the 
head in the form of an aura. In 
gutta serena, practitioners have 
not succeeded by means of gal- 
vanism ; and it ought to be re- 
membered, that the very sensible 
retina seldom recovers its powers 
after it has been, for even a short 
time, in a paralytic state. 

In cases of spasmodi^contrac- 
tion, as cramp, contracteWfingers, 
©r limbs, galvanism has often re- 
lieved ; and in lameness from 
gout it has been successful. In 
one instance, hydrophobia is said, 
by Vassalli Eundi, to have been 
cured by it ; but, in sciatica, the 
same author adds, that it has been 

occasionally injurious, though in 
some circumstances he supposes 
that it may be beneficial. Ner- 
vous headachs, and similar symp- 
toms, have been relieved by gal- 
vanism ; and Aldini thinks, that in 
two instances of mental derange- 
ment it has been highly useful. 
In the appjicaiion of galvanism 
to palsies, a remark of M. PfafF 
should be attended to, though we 
believe it has been confirmed by 
other practitioners, viz. that the 
zinc should be applied to the mus- 
cles, and the silver to the nerves ; 
for if the arrangement is altered, 
the irritability of the muscles is 
diminished rather than increased. 

This remedy has been employ- 
ed in some cases of vitiated secre- 
tion. Its eftects on the secretions, 
like those of electricity, are the 
increase of the discharge ; and it 
is not improbable that where the 
secreted fluids are diseased from 
a relaxation of the vessels, gal' 
vanism may be useful. It has 
been employed also, like electri- 
city, in discussing indolent tu- 
mours, and in cataracts, but with 
no very marked or decided suc- 
cess. A few boasted cures have 
raised our expectations, but the 
little permanency of the benefit 
received has again depressed our 
sanguine hopes. After repeated 
experiments about the head, in- 
flammations of the eyes, a catarr- 
hal inflammation of the Schneide- 
rian membrane, an insensibility of 
the organ of taste, headach, or 
vertigo, have followed; and gal- 
vanism has been undoubtedly in- 
jurious where there was consi- 
derable irritability. 

On the whole, then, we have 
not yet received very encourag- 
ing accounts of the success of 
galvanism in diseases ; and we 
fear that we must resign it, with 
electricity, as a remedy that pro- 
mises to be beneficial, but whose 
advantages have not yet answer- 



cd the flattering expectations first 

Wc have considered galvanism 
only as electricity, l)Ut it is proba- 
bly not exactly the same ; and we 
mav, with some advantai^c, add a 
few observations on this part of 
the subject, which, thoui^h not 
strictly medical, may pcihaps ad- 
mit of some application to medi- 
cine. Galvanism will indeed pro- 
duce all the phenomena of elec- 
tricity ; but it cannot be accumu- 
lated in non-conducting; bodies, or 
excited l)y any operation on them. 
The distinction seems to depend 
on this, thai in the electrical ma- 
chine, the fluid accumulated on 
the non-conductors is raised from 
the earth, or drawn from the at- 
mospliere around ; in the galvanic 
pile it is the fluid which formed a 
component part of the conductor, 
appearing in consequence of its 
change of capacity in this respect. 
In the doubler of electricity it is 
the same ; and the electricity of 
the air appears to be truly galva- 
nic, since it is owing to the de- 
composition of water, and conse- 
quei\tly a change in the capacity 
of air that before contained va- 
pour. Conductors of electricity 
are also conductors of galvanism, 
and in the same order. In the 
following series, viz. gold, silver, 
copper, iron, tin, lead, and zinc, 
each will become positive when 
connected with that which pre- 
cedes, and negative with that 
which follows. The metal oxi- 
dated gives out the galvanic fluid; 
and it may be produced by a sin- 
gle metal, if one part oidy is chang- 
ed in its state. The most and 
least oxidablc metals form the 
most active combinations; and af- 
ter the metals, charcoal, muscular 
flesh, spirits, and beer, arc con- 
ductors in their order. Charcoal 
is the most, and beer the least 
powerful. V^arious circumstances 
in common life were little under- 

stood previous to the discovery of 
the galvanic fluid. As it may be 
excited by two dissimilar fluids, 
and one metal, the improved taste 
of porter from a pewter pot, a 
fact generally acknowledged, may- 
be owing to this principle; nor ia 
it very absurd to suppose, that 
two persons in a difl'erent state of 
electricity may excite the galvanic 
fluid by the medium of a single 
metal, as in the management of 
the Perkinean tractors. 

We are not yet sufficiently in- 
formed of the influence of differ- 
ent animal substances as conduct- 
ors or exciters of galvanism. Gal- 
vanic effects probably arise from 
alternate strata of muscles and 
nerves ; but it is more certain that 
this fluid acts particularly through 
the medium of the nerves. This 
has been denied, because leeches 
are sensible of this action, and in 
these animals no nerves have been 
discovered ; but we shall shoW 
that they really have a nervous 
system. Mushrooms are also 
tolerably good conductors of gal- 

In the animal economy, the ca- 
pacity of the fluids for containing 
electricity is constantly changing. 
To the facts adduced under that 
r.rticle, of the different states of 
the electricity of the fluids of the 
body, may be added, from the ob- 
servations of Buvina, that in the 
shivering fit of fever the electri- 
city is negative. In shivering; 
from fear it is the same ; and dis- 
eased cats are no longer electri- 
cal. Vigour, spirit, and activity 
in the human body, and probably 
all anim^Jare therefore connect- 
ed witli^the positive, or, as we 
have been wtUing to style it, with 
the excess of electricity ; languor 
and disease with its defect. We 
find, too, in the electrical organs 
of the torpedo and gymnotus elec- 
tricus (for as the only organs in 
which they differ from other fish, 



we may presume that they are the 
seat and source of their peculiar 
powers,) that the surface is greatly 
increased by the numerous plates 
of which they consist, and that a 
very large proportion of nerves is 
sent to these plates. When we 
combine these facts, we shall find 
reason to conclude that the nerves 
are the probable sources of the 
animal, galvanic fluid ; and that 
these and the nervous fluids are 
the same, or nearly related. If 
in the animal process the excess 
of electricity disappears, we must 
look for some reservoir in which 
it is collected, some storehouse 
from which it may be issued ; and 
this appears to be the brain and 
nerves. Such, at least, are ap- 
parently the fair conclusions from 
the facts before us. 
Galvanism^ as a source of light and 
Batteries of great dimensions, 
such as contain from 5,000 to 
10,000 square inches each, of zinc 
and copper surface, are capable 
of furnishing abundance of sensi- 
ble heat and much light. If the 
connection between the two ends 
of the battery be made by a very 
small wire, such as the fine watch- 
spring wire, the wire becomes 
red-hot for a considerahle length, 
and if the power of the battery be 
great, it becomes white-hot and 
ultimately fused. Let the end of 
the wires of the battery be each 
provided with a pair of tweezers, 
one pair of which being insulated 
from the hand by covering the 
surface with dry cloth ; place be- 
tween each pair of tweezers a 
small bit of charcoal, Made in a 
close vessel, from boxwood, or 
lignum vit'ae. The moment the 
contact is formed between the bits 
of charcoal, a vivid light is pro- 
duced, much more brilliant than 
that occasioned by burning in 
oxygen. If the contact be fre- 
f^uently severed by a sort of tre- 

mulous motion, the light may be 
kept up for some time. The foils 
and small wires of metals are de- 
flagrated by placing them in the 
current. Let one of the conduct- 
ing wires be brought in contact 
with an iron dish, filled with mer- 
cury. Let the foil or small wires 
be attached to the other conduct- 
ing wire, and be brought in con- 
tact with the surface of the mer- 
cury, which constantly presenting 
a clear surface, is very convenient 
in th^se experii-ftents. A very 
brilliant effect may also be pro- 
duced, by presenting the foils to 
the surface of a sheet of tinsel. •* 

In inflaming oils, alcohol, &c. by 
galvanism, some thin metallic sub- 
stance, or a small piece of char- 
coal, should be covered with the 
substance to be infliimed. The 
moment the contact is made, as 
in deflagrating the metal, the oil 
takes fire. The galvanic spark, 
with great facility, fires a mixture 
of oxygen and hydrogen gases. 

A vei'y brilliant discovery has 
lately been made by Mr. Davy, 
Professor at the Royal Institution, 
and confirmed by others, which 
consists in the decomposition of 
the two fixed alkalies. It is per- 
formed by placing a bit of the al- 
kali in the solid state, and a little 
moistened, upon a plate of platina, 
connected with one end of the 
battery, and bringing into contact 
with it another piece of platina, 
from the other end of the battery. 
A portion of black matter is soon 
formed, in which is found imbed- 
ded, small metallic globules ; 
which substance is found to be 
the base of the alkali, and has been 
deprived of its oxygen by the gal- 
vanic agency. These globules 
are so inflammable, as to decom- 
pose water, with a brilliant flash 
and slight explosion. This dis- 
covery will be of great impor- 
tance to chemistry, and will pro- 
bably soon make a serious change 



in Its arrangement and nomen- 

Gamboffia. The tree from which 
tliis f^ummi-resinous juice is ob- 
tained, constitutes, accordinj:^ to 
Koeniji;, a physician who resided 
many years at Tranqucbar, a new 
g^enus, which is called Stalagmitis. 
Gumboge is brought from the 
East-Indies, and is generally em- 
ployed as a drastic purgative me- 
dicine in constipation of the bow- 
els, hydrophical affections, and 
against the taenia or tape-worm. 
Grs. ii. to viij. 

Gani^lion. TccyyXm. In anatomy 
it is applied to a knot in the course 
of a nerve. In surgery it is an 
encysted tumour, formed in the 
sheath of a tendon, and containing 
a fluid like the white of an egg. 
It most frequently occurs on the 
back of the hand or foot. 

Gangrene. A mortification of 
any part of the body, before en- 
dowed with vitality. It is known 
by the insensibility, coldness, livid- 
ness, and flaccidily of the part, and 
by the foetor it exhales. M. M. 
Scarifications; fermenting cata- 
plasm; sal-ammoniac or tincture 
of myrrh. Internally cinchona, 
aromatics and opium. 

Gargle. ( Gargarisinum., i. s. n.J 
A fluid medicine to wash the 
throat ; from yupyocfu^u, to wash the 

Gas, (from geist, in the Ger- 
man language fi/iirit.) Elastic 
Jiuid^ aeriform Jluid, elastic va/iour. 
The word gas was first employed 
by Van Helmont to express the 
spirit which rises from ferment- 
ing liquors. By this term we 
now mean a pernument aeriform 
fluid, incapable of becoming fluid 
by cold, and owing its aerial form 
to its intimate union with calo- 

Gas, nitrous oxide. This is the 
gaseous oxide of nitrogen, or of 
azote of some ; a compound of ni- 
trogen with a small proportion of 

oxygen. It is not to be obtained cer- 
tainly with any purity, but by the 
decomposition of nitrate of am- 
monia. For this purpose nitric 
acid diluted with five or six parts 
of water, may be saturated with 
carbonate of ammonia, and die 
solution be evaporated by a very 
gentle heat, adding occasionally a 
little of the caibonate, to supply 
what is carried off. The nitrate 
crystallizes in a fibrous mass, un- 
less the Evaporation has been car- 
ried so far as to leave it dry and 
compact. The latter at a heat 
between 275° and' 300° sublimes 
without being decomposed ; at 
320° it becomes fluid, and is partly 
decomposed, pai'tly sublimed ; be- 
tween 340° and 480° it is decom- 
posed rapidly. The fibrous is not 
decomposed below 400°, but a 
heat above 450° decomposes it ; 
at 600° a Ium.inous appearance is 
produced in the retort, and nitric 
oxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen, 
mixed in various proportions, are 
evolved ; at 700° or 800o an ex- 
plosion takes place. It is best to 
perform the operation over an 
Argand's lamp, as the heat may 
thus be brought to the requisite 
degree speedily, and kept from 
going too far. It should be re- 
ceived over water, and suffered to 
stand an hour in contact v. ith it, 
to free it from any nitrate of am- 
monia that may have been sub- 
limed, as well as from any acid 
suspended in it. Dr. Pfaff re- 
commends mixing very pure sand 
with the nitrate, to prevent the 
hazard of explosion; and observes, 
that it is particularly requisite it 
should not be contaminated with 
muriatic acid. One pound of the 
compact nitrate yields 4.25 cubic 
feet of gas, and a pound of the 
fibrous nearly five cubic feet. 

Tije most singular property of 
this gas is its aciion on the animal 
system. Dr. Priestley had found 
that it was fatal to animals con- 



fined in it. Mr. Davy first ven- 
tured to respire it, which he did 
to considerable extent. When 
breathed alone for a minute or 
two, and vsoine have gone as far 
as four or five minutes, it gene- 
rally produces a pleasant thrilling, 
particularly in the chest and ex- 
tremities, frequently with an in- 
clination to laugh, and sometimes 
an irresistible propensity to gesti- 
culation and muscular exertion. 
The mind meanwhile is often total- 
ly abstracted from all surrounding 
objects. Sometimes its eftects 
are not entirely dissipated for 
some hours ; and it is remarkable, 
that, however strong they may 
have been, no sense of debility or 
languor is induced after they have 
subsided. On a few individuals, 
however, its effects have been un- 
pleasant and depressing ; in some 
it has produced convulsions, and 
other nervous symptoms ; and on 
some it has had no sensible ef- 
fect. Indeed, not only different 
persons, but the same individual, 
will be variously affected by it, 
perhaps, at different times. Simi- 
lar effects have been produced on 
those who have tried it abroad. 

In debility arising from resi- 
dence in a hot climate, and in- 
tense application to business, this 
gas has proved a complete reme- 
dy. It has given voluntary power 
over palsied parts while inhaled, 
and the subsequent application of 
other remedies has effected a 
cure. Dr. Pfaflfhas suggested its 
vise in melancholia : but in some 
cas^s of this disease it has done 
no good, and in one harm. 

Gaster, yacrTrf, Venter, the belly. 
It is sometimes taken for the 
whole abdomen, at others only for 
the stomach, and sometimes for 
any other cavity, particularly the 

Gastric Juice, a fluid separated 
by the capillary exhaling arte- 
ries of the stomach, which open 

upon its internal tunic. The 
(Esophagus also affords a small 
quantity, especially in the inferior 
part. Modern philosophers have 
paid great attention to this fluid, 
and from their several experi- 
ments it is known to possess the 
following properties. It is the 
principal agent of digestion, and 
changes the aliments into a kind 
of uniform soft paste : it acts on 
the stomach after the death of the 
animal. Its effects show that it 
is a solvent, but of that peculiar 
nature that it dissolves animal and 
vegetable substances uniformly, 
and without exhibiting a stronger 
affinity for the one than for the 
other. It is far from being of the 
nature of a ferment, as many sup- 
pose, for it is one of the most 
powerful antiseptics we are ac- 
quainted with :• and from the ex- 
periments of Spalianzani, Scopoli, 
Carminati, and others, its nature 
appears to be essentially different 
in the several classes of animals, 
as they have proved by analysis. 
The gastric juice of the human 
subject, when healthy, is inodor- 
ous, of a saltish taste, and limpid, 
like water, unless it be a little 
tinged with the yellow colour of 
some bile, that has regurgitated 
into the stomach. In quantity it 
is very considerable, as must be 
evident from the extent of the 
surface of the stomach, and its 
continual secretion; but it is the 
most copious when solicited by 
the stimulus of food. Besides the 
properties of this fluid before 
mentioned, it has others which 
have induced physicians and sur- 
geons to exhibit it medicinally. 
It cures dyspepsia and intermit- 
tent fever. Applied externally, 
in form of fomentation or poul- 
tice, it cures putrid and scrophu- 
lous ulcers in a wonderful man- 
ner ; and it is to be regretted that 
its utility is not more generally 



. Gastric Jrtery. The rh^ht or 
greater i^aslric artery is a branch 
of the hepatic; the left or lesser, u 
branch of the splenic. 

Gafityiiia. Inflammation of the 
stomach ; from yarv-f, the fitowach. 
A genus of disease in the class 
pyrexia and order fildegmafiia of 
Cullen. It is known by pyrexia; 
anxiety ; heat and pain in the epi- 
gastrium, increased when any thing 
is taken into the stomach ; vomit- 
ing ; hiccup ; pulse small and hard; 
and prostration of strength. There 
are two species : 1. Gastritis /ihleg- 
monoidea, with an inflammatory tu- 
mour : 2. Gastritis erysi/ieiatosay 
when the inflammation is of a creep- 
ing or erysipelatous nature. M.M. 
Copious and repeated venesection; 
emollient fomentations and glys- 
ters ; a blister on the epigastrium. 

Gastrocele. A hernia of the sto- 
mach, occasioned by a protrusion 
of that viscus through the abdomi- 
nal parieties ; from yar*?^? the sto- 
machy and K>iX»7, a tumour. 

Gastrocnemius Externus seu Ge- 
mellus. An extensor muscle of 
the foot, which assists in forming 
the calf of the leg ; from yaj- )i=, the 
belly, and Kvnun, the leg. 

Gastrocnemius Intern us scu So- 
leus. An extensor muscle of the 
foot, situated in the calf of the leg. 
The tendons of both gastrocnemii 
unite, and form the tcndo .^chillis. 

Gastrodynia. Pain in the sto- 
mach ; from yar*if, the stomachy and 
e^yr)i, fiai7i. 

GastrO'Efiifiloica^ an epithet for 
the arteries and veins that go to the 
stomacl) and omentum. 

Gastrorafihy, yxa-Tfopx^nx,^ from 
yao-TJip, venter, the belly^ and fa?!»), 
sutura, suture ; in Surgery, the 
operation of sowing up wounds of 
the abdomen. 

Gastrotomy, the dissection of the 
bowels, from yoc--7rtf and rr/^va', seco, 
to cut. 

Gelatine, in chemistry, is one of 
the onstituent parts of animal .sub- 

stances. Glue, well known in many 
of the mechanical and other arts, 
is gelatine in a state of impurity, 
and may be olitained by repeatedly 
washing the fresh shin of an ani- 
mal in cold water, afterwards boil- 
ing it, and reducing it to a small 
quantity by slow evaporation, and 
allowing it to cool. It then as- 
sumes the form of jelly, and be- 
comes hard and semi-transparent. 
Gelatine has neither taste nor 
smell ; it is soluble in hot acids and 
alkalies ; but there is no action bc- 
twe'en any of the earths and this 
substance. Some of the metallic 
oxides and salts form precipitates 
with gelatine in its solution in 
water, and the compound thus fonn- 
ed is insoluble. Gelatine forms a 
copious white precipitate with tan, 
which is brittle and insoluble in 
water, and is not changed by ex- 
posure to the air. It is composed 
of carbon, hydrogen, azote, and 
oxygen, with small portions of 
phosphate of lime and of soda. It 
is a principal part both of the solid 
and fluid parts of animals, and is 
employed in the state of glue, size, 
and isinglass. 

Gclaiinous, any thing approach- 
ing to the consistence of a jelly. 
Thus a decoction of bread in water 
may be reduced into a jelly, for 
the use of the sick. 

Gclatio, freezing. Sometimes it 
expresses the rigidity of the body 
which happens in a catoche or cata- 

Gemellus. See /iice/is. Albinus 
calls the gastrocnemi muscles by 
this name. 

G(7n;ni. From its being com- 
posed of two portions. One of the 
third layer of muscles situated on 
the outside of the? pelvis. Its use 
is to roll the thigh outwards, and 
to preserve the tendon of the ob- 
turator in tern us from being hurt by 
the hardness of that part of the 
ischium over which it passes ; also, 
to hinder it from starting out of 



its place while the muscle is in 

Generation. See Fcetus, 
Generation. Many ingenious 
hypotheses have been instituted by 
physiolog-ists to explain the myste- 
ry of generation, but the whole of 
our knowledge concerning it ap- 
pears to be built upon the pheno- 
mena it affords ; as may be seen 
in the works of Haller^ Buffon^ 
Criiicks/ianks, and Haighton. It is 
a sexual action, performed in dif- 
ferent ways in most animals ; most 
of them have different sexes, and 
require conjunction : such are the 
human species, quadrupeds, and 
others. The females of quadru- 
peds have a matrix, separated into 
two cavities, uterizs bicornis^ and a 
considerable number of teats ; they 
have no menstrual flux ; most of 
them bear several young at a time, 
and the period of their gestation is 
generally short. The generation 
of birds is very different. The 
males have a very strong genital 
organ, which is often double. The 
vulva in females is placed behind 
the anus ; the ovaiies have no ma- 
trices, and there is a duct for the 
purpose of conveying the e^^ from 
the ovarium into the intestines ; 
this passage is called the oviduct. 
The eggs of pullets have exhibited 
unexpected facts to physiologists, 
who examined the phenomena of 
incubation. The most important 
discoveries are those of the immor- 
tal Haller, who found the chicken, 
perfectly formed, in eggs which 
were not fecundated. There is no 
determinate conjunction between 
fishes; the female deposits her 
eggs on the sand, over which the 
male passes, and emits its seminal 
fluid, doubtless for the purpose of 
fecundating them ; these eggs are 
hatched after a certain time. The 
males of several oviparous quad- 
rupeds have a double or forked or- 
gan Insects exhibit ail the varie- 
ties which are observed in other 

animals: there are some, indeed 
the greater number, which have 
the sexes in two separate indivi- 
duals ; among others, the repro- 
duction is made either with or 
without conjunction, as in the vine- 
fretter ; one of these insects, con- 
fined alone beneath a glass, pro- 
duces a great number of others. ' 
The organ of the male, in insects, 
is usually armed with two hooks to 
seize the female : the pk.ce of these 
organs is greatly varied ; with some 
it is at the upper part of the belly, 
near the chest, as in the female 
dragon fly; in others, it is at the 
extremity of the aiittnna^ as in the 
male spider. Most worms are 
hermaphrodite ; each individual has 
both sexes. Polypi, with respect 
to .generation, are singular ani- 
mals :