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Full text of "American medicinal plants; an illustrated and descriptive guide to the American plants used as homopathic remedies: their history, preparation, chemistry and physiological effects"

(UllF S. '£. Bill Sitbrarg 




Norttj (Earalina &talf Imopraitg 

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THIS BOOK MUST NOT BE TAKEN 
FROM THE LIBRARY BUILDING. 



20M 5-79 



AMERICAN 



MEDICINAL PLANTS; 



Illustrated and Descriptive Guide 



m iEPiicAi mm iseb is mwmie reiipiies 



Thkik History, PRErAKAxioN, Chemistrn, anu 
Physiological Effects. 



liV 

CHARLES F. MILLSPAUGH, M.D. 



ILLUSTRATED BY THE AUTHOR 



BOERICKE & TAFEL. 

NEW YORK: I'llILADELl'HIA: 

145 GRAND STREET. 1011 ARCH STREET. 



Copyright, 1887, by Boericke & Tafel. 




CAXTON PRESS OF SHIiKMA 
PHlLAnEI.PHIA. 



TO 

John Hill Millspauch. Artist, 



Mv Kkluvi-.h Kaihkk, 



To Whom I am Inhkhikh i i_ik WnAitxEK 1 may Possess 

OF AkT ]N 1)KA\VIN<; ami Cnl.ORlNli. 



THL PLATHS 



Are CiRATEi ullv Dedicated. 



TO 

Timothy F. Allhn, A.M., M.D. 

Mv Honored Prdkessok and Preceptor, 

THE TEXT OI- THIS WORK 

Is KESI'ECTFn.I.Y iNSl RlliED. 



68S60 



PROSPECTUS. 



TiiK American plants now proven and incorporated in tlie Homn;opatIiic 
Materia Medica, have become not only numerous, but of great promise as 
therapeutic agents ; and the fact that the greater part of them are not officinal 
in the United States Pharmacopoeia, has led the author to place them before his 
profession, in such a manner that their distinguishing characteristics may become 
known to all who wish to thoroughly understand the agents they use in the cure of 
diseased conditions. 

Most of these plants grow within the daily ride of country practitioners 
and should be well known to them, in order that they may make fresh tinctures 
for their own use, when necessary to avoid delay. 

The author has in every case drawn and colored the plants represented in 
this work, by his iKl'ii Jiand, from the specimens as tliey stood in the soil ; making 
mathematically accurate drawings, and avoiding the misrepresentations of wilted 
individuals, or too highly colored fancy pictures. 

The work contains one hundred and eighty colored illustrations, and com- 
plete te.xt, of all the proven plants indigenous and naturalized in the United States; 
arranged qcnericaliy according to the numerical order of the plates. 

A glossary of botanical terms, and complete index, together with a carefully 
arranged bibliography, are given in the appendix. 



PREPACK 



In preparing for the use of students of our materia inedica, this s)steniatic 
account of American proven plants, I liave inckided only such as may he found in 
that district of North America in which most of the Homceopathic physicians reside. 

That many of the plants here described are not purely American is evident, 
yet all of them are true representatives of the tinctures used in the provings noted: 
such plants as the Chinese Ailantus : the Asiatic .Esculus Hippocastanutn : the 
European Euphorbia Lathyris and many others, have received much of their value 
from provings of individuals growing here. Of the plants represented, i 28 are 
truly indigenous; 23 are fully naturalized; 22 are escapes from gardens ; 6 are 
cultivated ; and one only is too rare to be of much value to the pharmacist. As 
regards their location, i i 7 are generally common throughout the northern portion 
of the L'nited States: 27 abound in the Eastern and Adantic .States only; 14 in 
the Northern States only ; 6 in the Southern States ; S in the central belt ; i only 
to be found west ot the Mississippi ; and 7 are local. 

The work has occupied over five years in its publication, and the order in 
which the plates are numbered gives no idea of time when the plant itself was 
gathered and its text written. This was determined by my ability to locate the plant. 
It will be necessary to remember this, as many plants have been proven, and much 
more discovered concerning those represented since the work began, and the indi- 
viduals were described. Each plant and its accompanying text should be looked 
upon as an article by itself, written in the light of the time; the author has, how- 
ever, as fully as was in his power, searched all important references at his com- 
mand, and hopes that he has left out nothing that wnukl increase the value of the 
work in the light in which it is written. 

The following explanation of the arrangement and objects of tlie work is 
deemed necessary to its completeness: First, the natural order under which the 
genus falls is given in prominent type, and, should the order be a large one, the 
tribe then follows to give a better idea of its place ; then the genus is mentioned 
in black-face type, together with the name of the scientist who formed it; to the 
genus, wherever possible, is appended a foot-note, showing the derivation of the 
name ; and, lastly, in this department, is given the old, or sexual, arrangement 
according to Linnaius. 

All of this is considered essential, as it is conceded that plants of like botanical, 
and therefore chemical, nature, have a similar action, giving a class of what we 
may term generic symptoms, though each has its special {specific) symptoms that 
characterize it. It is for this reason that the plants here treated of are arranged 
as above; for, if alphabetically arranged, the work would have lost at least one- 
half its value. 



yjji PREFACE. 

The most prominent type gives in display the name of the remedy, i. e., the 
name under which the plant was proven, and which characterizes it to us as 
Homceopathists ; this is followed by the most generally accepted vulgarism. 

The synonymy which follows has become necessary, as most species, unfor- 
tunately, have received more than one name, resulting mostly from two causes : 
first, that of different views held concerning the limits of the genera and species ; 
and, second, from an unavoidable ignorance in the discoverer, in a given locality, 
of the previous discovery of the plant in another. The descriptive binominal sys- 
tem, invented by Linnaeus in 1753, is the earliest date any such names can have, 
though many plants l>ad been quite fully described before that time. It becomes, 
therefore, quite a necessity in all botanical works that full mention of aliases 
should be made, to render reference to earlier writers satisfactory. 

I have made as full a department as was possible, in the limit of time allowed 
in writing the articles, of the common names, considering them very essential in a 
work of this kind, for many physicians, in their country practice, will meet hundreds 
of patients who will tell them of some plant they have been using in the case 
before his arrival, and it is sometimes necessary that he should know what species 
has been made use of. 

In describing the plants, I have condensed even at a great sacrifice of 
grammatical construction, using botanical terms freely, but not unreservedly; where 
several species of a genus occur in sequence, the genus is separately described to 
avoid repetition, and under the first genus of any order the natural order itself is 
described in brief. Under the description of each order I have taken pains to 
mention all the proven plants belonging to it, and then mentioning the prevailing 
qualities of all the important medicinal plants outside of our provings, that the 
student may become acquainted with the qualities prevailing in the class of drugs 
under which the species considered falls. Slight mention is then made of edible 
and economic species by way of a further understanding of the class. 

In the next rubric, the first paragraph is given to the origin of the plant, 
its geographical distribution here, its favorite locations and time of flowering ; 
this is followed by a concise history of the species, especially that much as may 
be of interest in the light of our use of it; this is completed by a mention of 
the various preparations in use in general Pharmacopoeias. 

In the preparation of the tinctures, I have innovated but little, and that only 
where considered absolutely essential, holding to the text of the American 
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia in nearly all cases. The description of the physical 
properties is, however, original, and I hope will prove of value, as, I am sorry to 
say, the preparations of all our pharmacies do not agree in strength ; any tinc- 
ture varying markedly from the appearances here given should be looked upon 
with suspicion. 

In compiling the rubric relating to the chemical nature of the plants, great 
pains have been taken to arrive at the solubility and frequency, as well as the 
nature and stability of the principles ; of course, to one man very litde time 
can be spared for work in organic analyses of any stated number of species. 



P R E F A C K. ix 

but little, therefore, that is original investigation will be found here ; much com- 
parative and differentiating study has, however, been spent upon this sui)ject, 
and all brought up to the date of the article. There is something, nevertheless, 
very much against conclusiveness regarding organic analyses, as it would seem 
that the more a given species is analyzed the greater is the number of con- 
stituents found, savoring much of artificial re-arrangement of atoms. 

Under the head of physiological action, only cases of actual toxic effects are, as 
a rule, noted, as the work should in no wise be looked upon as a symptoma- 
tology, its scope being pharmacological only. Observations upon the sphere of 
action and organs involved, are studiously omitted, except under such drugs as 
have caused death and yielded opportunities for post-mortem examinations. 

The original intention in regard to drawing the plates from the plants as 
they stood in the soil, has, in the majority of cases, been rigidly adhered to ; 
but so little spare time is allotted to the general practitioner, that many long 
trips into other States than his own cannot be taken, and thus the aid of expe- 
rienced botanists was called in. All the plates, however, have been executed 
from fresh, living individuals, gathered with especial reference to typical features, 
propitious soils, and natural locations. The drawings are all made to a 
mechanical scale, and, unless otherwise stated, are natural size ; the coloring I 
have bent every endeavor to have natural, without regard to artistic beauty 
or pleasing fancy ; some may be criticised as being too brilliant, others not brilliant 
enough. Suffice it to say, however, that natural color and texture cannot be exactly 
reproduced, nor is lithography a perfect art. 

In conclusion, I offer my thanks to many who have kindly contributed to 
whatever success this work may attain. To the many authors from whose books, 
pamphlets, and articles I have drawn, I must generalize my obligation, hoping 
that personal references in the text will in all cases be found satisfactory. To 
Professor Asa Gray, who, in disinterested kindness, allowed me the unreserved 
use of his many most valuable works on our American Flora, my special con- 
sideration is due. To the following botanists who willingly lent their aid in 
procuring many species not growing near my locations, I can but generally 
acknowledge : Mr. J. H. Sears, Salem, Mass. ; Dr. T. F. Lucy, Elmira, N. Y. : 
Mr. F. V. Coville, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Mr. C. H. Gross, Landisville, N. J. : Mr. J. A. 
Shafer, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Miss Mary C. Cuthbert, Augusta, Ga. ; Messrs. J. U. and 
C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, O. ; Mr. James Galen, Rawlinsville, Pa. ; Miss M. C. 
Reynolds, St. Augustine, Fla. ; Dr. Thos. M. Wood, Wilmington, N. C. : Rev. E. 
\. Campbell, St. Cloud, Minn. ; and Mr. A. B. Seymour, Champaign, 111. 

C. F. Mii.i,spau(;h. 

XLirch I. 1SS7. 



REMEDIES. 



Abies Canadensis, 164 

nigra, 163 
Absinthium, 88 
Actaea alba, 10 

racemosa, 1 1 
^sculus glabra, 44 

Hippocastanum, 43 
^thusa Cynapiiim, 65 
Agrostemma Githago, 31 
Ailantus, 35 
Aletris, 172 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, 82 
Ampelopsis, 40 
Anagallis, 108 
Angelica atropurpurea, 64 
Anthemis nobilis, 84 
Apocynum androsEemifolium, 132 

cannabinum, 133 
Aralia (piiniiiiefolia, 70 

racemosa, 69 
Argemone, 20 
Artemisia vulgaris, 87 
Arum dracontium, 168 

triphyllum, 167 
Asclepias cornuli, 134 
tuberosa, 135 
' Asimina triloba, 13 
Baptisia, 52 
Benzoin, 145 
Berberinum, 92 
Berberis, 15 
Bursa-Pastoris, 25 
Caltha, 7 
* Cannabis sativa, 154. 
Carya alba, 157 
Castanea vcsca, 158 
Catalpa, 109 
Caulophyllum, 16 
Celt is, 152 
Ccphalanthus, 76 
Clielidonium, 21 
Clielone glabra, 113 
Chenopodium anthelniinticum, 

140 
Chimaphila, 104 



Chionantbiis, 136 

Cichorium, 93 

Cicuta maculata, 67 
*Cimicifuga, 1 1 

Cistus, 28 

Collinsonia, 1 19 

Conium, 68 

Convolvulus, 1 23 

Cornus circinata, 72 
florida, 71 
sericea, 73 

Cypripedium pubescens, 1 70 

Dioscorea, 174 

Dirca palustris, 146 

Drosera, 29 

Dulcamara, 124 

EpigEea, loi 

Epilobium, 59 

Equisetum, 179 

Erechthites, 90 

Erigeron, 80 
'Eryngium, 62 

Euonymus atropurpureus, 42 

Eupatorium perfoliatum, 79 
purpureum, 78 

Euphorbia corollata, 148 

hypericifolia, 147 
Ipecacuanha, 149 
Lathyris, 150 

Euphrasia, 1 15 

Fagopyrum, 142 

Fragaria, 55 

Fraxinus, 137 

Gaultheria, 102 

Gelsemium, 130 

Genista, 46 

Geranium maculatum, 32 

Geum rivale, 54 

Ginseng, 70 

Gnaphalium, 89 

Gymnocladus, 53 

Hamamelis, 58 

Hedeoma, 1 1 8 

Helianthemum Canadense, 28 
*Helianthus, 83 



Helleborus viridis, 8 

Helonia-s, 177 

Hepatica, 2 
' Hydrastis, 9 
I Hydrophylluni, 122 

Hyoscyamus, 126 

Hypericum, 30 
I Inula, 81 
I Iris versicolor, 173 

Jacea, 27 

Juglans cinerea, 15C 

Juniperus Virginiana, 166 

Kalmia, 103 

Lachnanthes, 171 

Lactuca, 96 

Lamium, 121 

Lapatluim, 144 

Lappa, 92 

Leptandra, 114 

Lilium superbum, i 78 

Linaria, in 

Lobelia cardinalis, 97 
inflata, 99 
syphilitica,^ 98 

Lupulus, 155 

Lycopodium, 180 

Lycopus, 1 1 7 

Magnolia glauca, i 2 

Melilotus, 49 

Menispermum, 14 

Mentha jjiperita, 1 16' 

Menyanthes, 129 

Millefolium, 85 
' Mitchella, 77 
■ Monotropa, 105 

Myrica, 160 

Nabalus, 94 

Nymphiea, 18 
CEnothera, 60 
* Opuntia, 61 
Ostrya, 159 
Pastinaca, 63 
Penthorum, 57 
Piiaseolus, 51 
Phytolacca, 139 



REMEDIES. 



Plantago, 107 
Podophyllum, i 7 
Polygonum, 141 
Populus, 162 
Pothos, 169 
Prinos, 106 
Ptelea, 34 

Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, 1 
Pyrus, 56 
Ranunculus acris, 6 

bulbosus, 5 
repens, 4 
sceleratus, 3 
Raphanus, 26 
Rhamnus catharticus, 41 
Rhus aromatica, 39 

glabra, 36 

radicans, 38 

Toxicodendron, 38 



Rhus venenata, 37 
Robinia, 50 
Rnmex, 143 
Salix purpurea, 161 
Sambucus Canadensis, 75 
Sanguinaria, 22 
Sarracenia, 19 
Scrophularia, 112 
Scutellaria, 120 
Senecio, 91 
Senega, 45 
Serpentaria, 138 
Sinapis alba, 23 

nigra, 24 
Solanum nigrum, 125 
Spigelia Marilandica, 131 
Stillingia, 151 
Stramonium, 129 
Symplocarpus, i6g 



Tabacuni, 128 
Tanacetum, 86 
Taraxacum, 95 
Thaspium aureum, 66 
Thlaspi Bursa- Pastoris, 25 
Thuja, 165 
Trifolium, 47 

repens, 48 
Trillium, 175 

pendulum, i 75 
Triosteum, 74 
Urtica Urens, 153 
Uva-ursi, 100 
Veratrum viride, 176 
Verbascum, no 
Viola tricolor, 27 
Xanthoxylum, ^^ 
Zizia, 66 



NATURAL ARRANGEMENT 
OF THE PLANTS INCLUDED IN THIS WORK. 

DiCOTVLKDOXOUS Ph/KNOGAMS. 



RANUNCULACE/E. 

Anemoiiea. 

Anemone patens, var Nuttal- 

liana, i 
Anemone triloba, 2 
Ranuitculcie. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, 3 
repens, 4 
bulbosus, 5 
acris, 6 
Helleborineip. 

Caltha palustris, 7 
Helleborus viridis, 8 
Cimicifiigea\ 

Hydrastis Canadensis, 9 
Actjea alba, 10 
Cimicifuga racemosa, 11 

MAGNOLIACEiE. 

Magnolia glauca, 12 

ANONACEiE. 

Asimina triloba, 13 

MENISPERMACE^. 

Menispcrmum Canadense, 14 

BERBERIDACE^. 

Berberis vulgaris, 15 
Caulophyllum thalictroides, 16 
Podophyllinii peltatum, 17 

NYMPHACE^. 

Nymphxa odorata, 18 

SARRACENIACEiE. 

Sarracenia purpurea, 19 



PAPAVERACEiE. 

Argemone Mexicana, 20 
Clielidonium majus, 21 
Sanguinaria Canadensis, 22 

CRUCIFER^. 

Brassiccce. 

Brassica alba, 23 
nigra, 24 
Lepidinea. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, 25 
Raphanece. 
I Raphanus Raphanistrum, 26 

I VIOLACE^. 

Viola tricolor, 27 

CISTACE^. 

Helianthemum Canadense, 28 

DROSERACEyE. 

Drosera rot undi folia, 29 

HYPERICACEiE. 

Hypericum jjerforatum, 30 

CARYOPHYLLACE^. 

Lychnis (iithago, 31 

GERANIACEiE. 

Geranium maculaium, 32 

RUTACEiE. 

Xanthoxylum Americanum, 2,7, 
I'tclea trifoliata, 34 



SIMARUBACE^E. 

Ailantus glandulosus, 35 

ANACARDIACE.E. 

Rhus glabra, 36 
venenata, 37 
Toxicodendron, 3S 
aromatica, 39 

VITACE2E. 

Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 40 

RHAMNACE^. 

Rhamnus catharticus, 41 

CELASTRACE^. 

Euonymus atropurpureus, 42 

SAPINDACEyE. 

.^isculus Hippocastanum, 43 
glabra, 44 

POLYGALACEiE. 

Polygala Senega, 45 

LEGUMINOS^. 

GcnistciT. 

Genista tinctoria, 46 
Trifoliea. 
Tri folium pratense, 47 

repens, 48 
Melilotus officinalis, 49 
alba, 49 
Galegeit. 
Robinia I'seudacacia, 50 



NATURAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE PLANTS. 



Phaseolea. 

Phaseolus vulgaris, 5 i 
Sophorea. 

Baptisia tinctoria, 52 
CiTsalpinciT. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis, 53 

ROSACE.<E. 

Dryadea. 

Geum rivale, 54 

Fragaria vesca, 55 
Pomea. 

Pirus Amerfcana, 56 

CRASSULACE^. 

Penthorum sedoides, 57 

HAMAMELACEiE. 

Hamamelis Virginica, 58 

ONAGRACEyE. 

Epilobium palustre, var. lineare, 

59 

(Enothera biennis, 60 

CACTACE^ 

Opuntia vulgaris, 61 

UMBELLIFERiE. 

Eryngium yuccfefolium, 62 
Pastinaca sativa, 63 
Archangelica atropurpurea, 64 
j^thnsa cynapium, 65 
Tliaspium aureum, 66 
Cicuta maculata, 67 
Conium maculatum, 68 

ARALIACE-ffi. 

Aralia racemosa, 69 

quinquefolia, 70 

CORNACE^. 

Cornus florida, 71 

circinata, 72 
sericea, 73 

CAPRIFOLIACEyE. 

Lonicerecc. 

Triosteum perfuliatum, 74 
Sambiicea. 

Sainbucus Canadensis, 75 



RUBIACEyE. 

Cinclionccv. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, 76 
Mitchella repens, 77 

COMPOSITvE. 

TUnULIFLOR-E. 

Eupatoriacece. 

Eupatoriurn purpureum, 78 
perfoliatuni, 79 
Astcroidece. 

Erigeron Canadense, 80 

Inula Helenium, 81 
Senecionidece. 

Ambrosia artemisiajfolia, S2 

Helianthus annuus, 83 

Anthemis nobilis, 84 

Achillea Millefolium, 85 

Tanacetum vulgare, 86 

Artemisia vulgaris, 87 

absinthium, 88 

Gnaphalium polycephalum, Sg 

Erechthites hieracifolia, go 

Senecio aureus, 91 
Cyna?'Ci:e. 

Lappa officinalis, 92 

LIGULIFLOR.T,. 

Cichorium Intrbus, 93 
Prenanthes serpentaria, 94 
Taraxacum Dens-leonis, 95 
Lactuca Canadensis, 96 

LOBELIACEiE. 

Lobelia cardinalis, 97 
syphilitica, 98 
inflata, 99 

ERICACE^. 

Ericinae. 

Arctostaphylos Uva ursi, 100 

Epigsea repens, loi 

Gaultheria procumbens, 102 

Kalmia latifolia, 103 
Pyrokie. 

Chimaphila umbcllata, 104 
Monotropecc. 

Monotropa uniflora, 105 

AQUIFOLIACE^ffi. 

Ilex verticillata, 106 



PLANTAGINACE-ffi. 

Plantago major, 107 

PRIMULACEiE. 

Anagallis arvensis, 108 

BIGNONIACE^. 

Catalpa bignonioides, 109 

SCROPHULARIACE^. 

Verba scecc. 

Verbascuin Thapsus, no 
Aniirrhineic. 

Linaria vulgaris, 1 1 1 
Cheionea. 

Scrophularia nodosa, 112 

Chelone glabra, 113 
Veroniccce. 

Veronica Virginica, 114 
. Eiiphrasieir. 

Eu])hrasia officinalis, 115 

LABIATE. 

Sataiii'ic. 

Mentha piperita, 116 
Lycopus Virginicus, 117 
Hedeoma pulegioides, 118 
Collinsonia Canadensis, iig 

Stachydciv. 

Scutellaria lateriflora, 120 
Lnmium album, i 21 

HYDROPHYLLACE^. 

Hydrophyllum Virgin icum. 



CONVOLVULACE^. 

Convolvulus arvensis, 123 

SOLANACE^. 

Solanum Dulcamara, 124 

nigrum, 125 
Hyoscyamus niger, 126 
D.itura Stramonium, 127 
Nicotiana Tabacum, 128 

GENTIANACE^. 

Menyanthes trifoliata, 129 



NATURAL ARRANT. EM KNT OF THK PLANTS. 



LOGANIACEiE. 

Gelsemium sempervirens, 130 
Spigelia Marilandica, 131 

APOCYNACEiE. 

Apocymim andros;vtnifoliuni, 

132 
Apocynum cannahinum, 133 

ASCLEPIADACE^. 

Asclcpias (omuti, 134 
tubcrosa, 135 

OLEACEiE. 

Chionanlhus \'irginica, 136 
Fraxinus Americana, 137 

ARISTOLOCHIACE^. 

Aristolochia Serpentaria, i3<S 

PHYTOLACCACE^. 

Phytolacca decandra, 139 

CHENOPODIACEiE. 

Chenopodium album, 

var. anthelminticiim, 140 



POLYGONACEiE. 

Polygonum acre, 141 
Fagopyrum esculentum. 142 
Rumcx rrispus, 143 

obtusifolius, 144 

LAURACEiE. 

Lindera Benzoin. 145 

THYMELEACEiE. 

Dirca palustris, 146 

EUPHORBIACEiE. 

Appendiciilala. 

Euphorbia hypericifolia, 147 
coroUata, 148 
E.xappeiidiciilatce. 

Ipecacuanhae, 149 

Lathyris, 150 

Stillingia sylvatica, 151 

URTICACE^. 

I linacciC. 

Celtis occidentalis, 152 
Urlicece. 

Urtica urens, 153 



Cannahinae. 
Cannabis sativa, 154 
Humulus Lupulus, 155 

JUGLANDACEiE. 

Jnglans cincrea, 156 
Carya alba, 157 

CUPULIFERiE. 

Castanea vesca, 

var. Americana, 158 

Ostrya Virginica, 159 

MYRICACEiE. 

Myrica cerifera, 160 

SALICACEiE. 

Salix ])iirpurca, i6i 
Populus tremuloidt's, 162 

CONIFERiE. 

AI>ictiiu-iC. 

Abies nigra, 163 

Canadensis, 164 

Ctipressittea:. 
Thuja occidentalis, 165 
Juniperus Virginiana, 166 



MoNOCOTVLEDONOUS Ph.-ENOGAMS. 



ARACE-iE. 

Arissema triphyllum, 167 
dracontium, 168 
Symplocarpus foetidus, 169 



ORCHIDACE^. 

Cypripedium pubescens, 170 



HiEMORODACE^. 

Lachnanthes tinctoria, 171 
Aletris farinosa, 172 

IRIDACE^. 

Iris versicolor, i 73 

DIOSCOREACEiE. 

Dioscorea villosa, 174 



LILIACE^. 

TrillideiC. 

Trillium erectum, 175 

var. alinim, 175 
MelaiithiccF. 

Veratrum viridc, i7''i 

Chamailiriuni luteum, 177 
Lilicce. 

Lilium superbum, 178 



AcROGENOUS Cryptogams. 



EQUISETACE/E. 
Equisetum hyemaie, 1 79 



LYCOPODIACEiE. 

Lycojiodiuni clavatum, iSo 



PLATES I TO i66. 



SERIES 



PH^NOGAMIA. 



Plants producing true flowers and seeds. 



CLASS 



DICOTYLEDONS 



Plants with stems composed of l^ark, wood, and pith 
netted veined leaves; and a pair or more of 
opposite or whorled seed-lea\^es 
(cotvledons). 



[To precede plale I.] 



^ 




(pTH.adnatMetpinxt AnEMOnE PaTENS, var. NuTTALLIANA. Gray. 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^. 

GENUS. — ANEMONE,* LINN. 
SEX. SY.ST.— rOLVAM.)KI.\ I'DI.YGNIA. 



PULSATILLA 
NUTTALLIANA. 

PASQUE FLOWER. 



SYN. — ANEMONE PATENS, VAR. NUTTALLIANA, GRAY; ANEMONE 
NUTTALLIANA, D. C. ; ANEMONE LUDOVICIANA, NUTT. ; ANE- 
MONE FLAVESCENS, ZUCC. ; CLEMATIS HIRSUTISSIMA, POIR; 
PULSATILLA PATENS, GRAY ; PULSATILLA PATENS VAR. ; WOLP- 
GANGIANA, TRAUVT ; PULSATILLA NUTTALLIANA, GRAY. 

COM. NAMES. — PASQUE FLOWER (CROCUS, MAY FLOWER, PRAIRIE 
FLOWER, AMERICAN PULSATILLA, HARTSHORN PLANT, GOSLIN- 
WEED). 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, ANEMONE PATENS, VAR. 
NUTTAI,LIANA, GRAY. 



Description. — This beautiful prairie flower grows to a height of from 4 to lo 
inches, from a branched perennial root. Stc7n erect and hairy, encircled near the 
flower by a many-cleft, silky-haired involiicre, composed of numerous linnear, acute 
lobes, which form the true stem-leaves. Leaves upon long hairy petioles, rising 
more or less erect from the rootstock ; they are ternately divided, the lateral 
divisions sessile and deeply 2-cleft, the central stalked and 3-cleft ; all the seg- 
ments deeply incised into narrow, linnear, acute lobes, smooth above and hairy 
beneath. Inflorescence a conspicuous, terminal, villous, light purplish-blue flower, 
fully developed and fertilized before the appearance of the true leaves. Sepals 
generally 5, at first incumbent, then spreading, answering to petals in appearance ; 
villous upon their outer surface. Petals wanting, or replaced by minute glandu- 
lar bodies, resembling abortive stamens. Stamens innumerable, in a dense cir- 
clet surrounding the pistils; fllanients slender; antJters extrose, 2-celled ; pollen 
with three longitudinal, deep sulci. Pistils numerous, in a dense cluster, separate, 
hairy ; style long and slender, with a somewhat recurved summit ; stigvia indcfinate. 
Fruit a plumose head, similar to that of Clematis ; carpels i -seeded, with long 
feathery tails, composed of the lengthened, persistent, hairy styles. Seeds sus- 
pended. 

RanunculacesB.— This natural order is composed of herbs and woody climbers. 

* AMfioj. anemos, ihe wind. So named upon the supposition that the flowers of this genus only opened when the 
wind was blowing. 

D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
North Carolina State College 



1-2 

Its genera are various, but easily distinguishable by the acrid juice prevailing to a 
greater or lesser extent in all species, and by the disconnection of the parts of its 
flowers. The tribes vary greatly in regard to the sepals ; in some they are want- 
ing, and replaced by petal-like organs ; in others, very fugacious ; while in one 
only, in this country, are they present in the mature flower. The stamens are 
numerous, furnished with short anthers. The fruit varies from a dry pod to a 
fleshy berry ; the ovules are anatropous, so distinguished by the dorsal rhaphe 
when suspended ; the seeds have a minute embryo, invested with fleshy albumen- 
The leaves are usually palmately, and generally ternately, divided, and are desti- 
tute of stipules. This family of plants, many of which are poisonous, contains, 
beside those treated of in this work, the following species of special interest to 
us : Clematis erccta, Helleboriis 7iiger, Delpliinuan Staphisagria, Aconiiutn napel- 
his, cavimariun, Jcrox, and lycoclomun, and Paonia officinalis. 

History and Habitat.— The American pasque flower is found in abundance 
upon the prairies from Wisconsin northward, and westward to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, flowering from March to April. Lieberg says* that in Eastern Dakota this 
plant attains a luxuriance of growth never met with farther east, and that it wholly 
disappears west of the Missouri, Its habit of being in flower about Easter- 
tide gave it the principal distinguishing name, "Pasque flower;" its peculiar effect 
upon the nose and eyes when crushed between the fingers gave it another, but 
local, appellation, " Hartshorn plant;"-!- ^"^ '^he silky-hariness of the involucre and 
newly-appearing leaves caused the children in locahties to term it " Goslin weed." 

The U. S. Ph. allows the use of this species under the drug Pulsatilla, with or 
in place of Herba Pulsatilla; nigricantis, 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole, fresh, flowering plant is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weicrht of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the 
rest of the alcohol added. After thorough mixture the whole is allowed to stand 
eight days in a well-stoppered bottle. The tincture thus prepared, after strainino- 
and filtering, should have a light seal-brown color by transmitted light, an acrid 
astringent taste, and a decidedly acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-I am unable to find any data upon this spe- 
cies. It is said to have been found similar to its European relative, Aiiemoiie 
Pulsatilla, which, together with Anemone nemorosa and pratensis (Eu.), contains: 

Anemonin, Cj.Hj^O,,. — This body forms in colorless, klinorhombic prisms, from 
an aqueous distillate of the herb when the volatile oil is present. When dry it has 
a sharp and burning taste and neutral reaction. It softens at 150° (302.0° F.), 
and soon decomposes ; it dissolves in hot water and alcohol, slighdy also in cold. 

Anemonic Acid, Cj^Hj^O,. — This amorphous, white powder separates from 
the aqueous distillate together with the above and under the same circumstances. 

* Bot. Gaz., 1884, p. 104. f /bid, 1884, p. 77. 



1-3 

It is a tasteless acid, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, oils, and dilute acids, but 
enters into combination with alkalies. (Wittstein.) 

Oil of Anemone.— This acrid yellow oil separates from the aqueous infusion 
of the plant, and, owing to the presence of the water, soon breaks down into the 
bodies mentioned above. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The following represents the general action of 
the tincture when taken in moderate doses, as reported by Drs. Burk, Duncan, 
and Wesselhoeft : Profuse lacrymation, with smarting and burning of the eyes, 
mouth, and throat, followed by mucoid discharges; sharp pains about the stomach 
and bowels, with rumbling of flatus ; pressure in the region of the stomach as from 
a weight; frequent urging to urinate, with an increased secretion; a tickling in 
the throat and constant inclination to cough ; rheumatic pains, especially in the 
thighs, with erysipeloid eruptions, especially about the limbs ; heat and feverish- 
ness, with great debility. 

The action of this drug will be seen to be very like that of Herba PulsatilUc 
nigricantis, differing mostly in a less intense action. 

Description of Plate i. 

I. Whole plant, from St. Cloud, Minn.,* April 24th, iS84. 

2. Full-grown leaf in outline. 

3. Sexual organs. 

4. Receptacle. 

5. Pistil (enlarged). 

6. Stamen (enlarged). 

7. Pollen X 380. 

8. Ripe carpel. 

9. Fruit. 



* One of a number of typical living plants, sent me, with their natural soil intact, by Rev. E. V. Campbell, through 
who^c kindness 1 also procured the full-grown leaf and ripe fruit. 




^m.ad 



natdei.etpinxt 



Anemone Hepatica , Linn. 



N. ORD. RANUNCIJLACE/E. 
Tribe.-ANEMONE/E. 

GENUS— ANEMONE, LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— rOLVANDKIA roLVGVNIA. 



HEPATICA. 



LIVER-LEAF. 



SYN.— ANEMONE HEPATICA, LINN.; HEPATICA TRILOBA, CHAIX. ; 
HEPATICA TRILOBA, VAR. AMERICANA, D. C. ; HEPATICA TRI- 
LOBA, VAR. OBTUSA, PURSH. ; HEPATICA AMERICANA, KER. 

COM. NAMES. — LIVER -LEAF, HEPATICA,* ROUND -LOBED HEPATICA, 
LIVER-WORT,t LIVER-WEED, TREFOIL, HERB TRINITY, KIDNEY- 
WORT ; (FR.) HEPATIQUE; (GER.), EDELLEBERE. 



A TLNCTURE OF THE FRESH LEAVES OF ANEMONE HEPATICA, LINN. 

Description.— This dwarf herb, so eagerly sought after as one of our earhest 
spring flowers, grows from radical scaly buds amid the thick, leathery leaves of 
the previous year's growth. Root fibrous, perennial. S/c7ii none. Leaves ever- 
green, all radical on long, slender petioles; light green and hairy when young; 
dark olive-green above and purplish beneath, when old, and while the plant is 
in blossom ; they are cordate in general outline, 3-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse. 
Inflorescence solitary, terminal, on long, hairy scapes, circinate, then erect. Invo- 
lucre simple, composed of three entire, obtuse, hairy, persistent leaves, somewhat 
resembling a calyx, from its close proximity to the flower. Calyx composed of 
from 6 to 9 ovate, obtuse, petaloid sepals, varying in color from pure white to a 
deep purplish-blue with white borders ; these latter, I have noticed, are always 
destitute of stamens. \ Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; filaments long, slender, 
and smooth; anthers short, 2-celled. Pistils 12 to 20, hairy; ovary i-celled ; oviilcs 
one in each cell, suspended, anatropous ; style single, short, pointed ; stigma a stig- 
matose marginal line, extending down the inner side of the style. Achenia loosely 
aggregated in a globose head, ovate-oblong, hairy, tipped with the short persistent 
style ; seed filling the whole cell to which it conforms. 

History and Habitat. — Hcpatica is a native of the colder portions of the 
North Temperate Zone, growing in rich, open woods as far as the limit of trees. 
In North America it grows from Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri, east and north- 
east to the Atlantic ; flowering, in some seasons, as early as March, and continu- 
ing in flower until May. This plant was placed in the genus Anemone by 

* Erariirdf, f^rt///t«, affecting the liver; or, "ijirop, <y»<7/-, the liver, from a fancied rescmlilance of the leaves to that 
organ, or their action upon it. 

f The proper liverwort is Marchantia polymorpha, a cryptogamous plant (Afiiscales) of the order IlepalUac. 
% Author in Bull. Torr. Club, 1884, p. 55. 



2-2 

Linnseus, from whence it has received several removals, until finally it has been 
returned to its original place among its congeners. The Liver-leaf has held a place 
among medicinal plants from ancient times until the present. It is now falling into 
disuse on account of its mild properties, forming as it does simply a slightly astrin- 
gent, mucilaginous infusion. It was used in haemoptysis, coughs, and other lung 
affections, as well as in all diseases of the liver, and in hemorrhoids ; in the latter 
troubles its exhibition must have met with no very flattering success. As a pectoral 
it may be taken in the form of an infusion, hot or cold, in almost any amount, as 
its virtues are not of a powerful or disturbing nature. 

Hepadca has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph., and is simply mentioned in 
the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.-The full-grown leaves of the year are 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well it is poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a very light greenish- 
orange color by transmitted light, a slighdy astringent taste, and an acid reaedon. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-The only bodies found in this plant are tan- 
nin, in small amount, sugar, and mucilage. No special analysis has been made to 
determine an active principle. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL AOTION.-As far as known, Hepadca has very litde action 
upon the system. A farther proving may develop some symptoms in the direc- 
tion of a slight irritative cough with expectoration. 

Description of Plate 2. 

I. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., April 27th, 1884. 

2. Stamen (enlarged). 

3. Pistil (enlarged). 




^■- 



.Tll.adnatdeI.etpinxl'. 



Ranunculus Sceleratus, unn. 



N. ORD-RANUNCULACE/E. 
Tribe.-RANUNCULE/E. 

GENUS.— RANUNCULUS,* LINN. 
SEX. .SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



RANUNCULUS 
S C E L E R A T U S. 

C URSED Cli O WFO T. 

SYN.— RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES. — CURSED CROWFOOT, CELERY -LEAVED CROWFOOT, 

MARSH CROWFOOT; (FR.) RANONCULB ; (GER.) SCHARF HAHNEN- 

FUSS. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS, LINN. 

Description. — This smooth perennial herb grows to a height of al)Out i foot. 
Stem erect, glabrous, thick, succulent, hollow, and branching ; Juice acrid and blis- 
tering. Leaves thickish, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lobes oblong-linear 
and nearly entire ; stem-leaves 3-lobed, rounded ; root-leaves 3-parted, but not to 
the base, the lobes obtusely cut and toothed ; petioles of the lower leaves long, and 
sheathing at their dilated bases. Flowers small, pale-yellow; sepals reflexed ; petals 
scarcely exceeding the sepals. Fruit an oblong, cylindrical head ; carpels numer- 
ous, barely mucronate. 

Ranunculus. — This large genus contains, in North America, 53 species and 
12, varieties, characterized as follows: Root annual or perennial. Leaves mostly 
radical, those of the stems alternate and situated at the base of the branches, 
variously lobed, cut, or dissected, seldom entire. Inflorescence solitary or some- 
times corymbed ; flozcers yellow, rarely white. Sepals 5, rarely only 3, not append - 
aged, deciduous, and imbricated in the bud. Petals 5, or often more, flat, with a 
little pit, pore, gland, or nectariferous scale at the base inside. Stamens numer- 
ous ; filaments filiform. Style short, subulate. /;7«V a cylindrical or rounded head, 
composed of numerous carpels; achenia mosdy flattened and pointed by the remains 
of the style ; seeds solitary, erect, rarely suspended. 

History and Habitat. — The Cursed Crowfoot is indigenous to Europe and 
North America ; with us it appears as if introduced. It grows in marshy tracts 
and wet ditches, and blossoms from June to August. 

The general and medical history of the species is generic, they having been 
used indiscriminately, R. sceleratus, however, being considered the most poisonous, 
its juice possessing remarkable caustic power, quickly raising a blister wherever 

* Lntin for a little frog, referring to its habitat. 



3-2 

applied, and a dose of two drops sometimes exciting fatal inflammation along the 

whole alimentary tract. 

This genus was known to the ancient physicians as BpaT^a^tov {BralrachioJi). 
Hippocrates, Paulus ^Egineta, and Dioscorides spoke of various species, the latter 
using them as external applications for the removal of psora, leprous nails, steoto- 
matous and other tumors, as well as fomentations to chilblains, and in toothache. 
Galen, Paulus, and the physicians of Arabia, all speak highly of the plants as 
powerful escharotics ; and the Bedouins use them as rubefacients. 

Gerarde says : " There be divers sorts or kinds of these pernitious herbes 
comprehended under the name of Ranunculus or Crowfoote, whereof most are 
very dangerous to be taken into the body, and therefore they require a very 
exquisite moderation, with a most exact and due manner of tempering; not any 
of them are to be taken alone by themselves, because they are of a most violent 
force, and therefore have the great nede of correction. The knowledge of these 
plants is as necessarie to the phisition as of other herbes, to the end they may 
shun the same, as Scribonius Largus saith, and not take them ignorantly, or also 
if necessitie at any time require that they may use them, and that with some 
deliberation and special choice and with their proper correctives. For these dan- 
gerous simples are likewise many times of themselves beneficial and oftentimes 
profitable ; for some of them are not so dangerous but that they may in some sort 
and oftentimes in fit and due season profit and do good." In regard to the acrid 
properties of the plants, he further says : " Cunning beggars do use to stampe the 
leaves and lay it unto their legs and armes, which causeth such filthy ulcers as we 
daily see (among such wicked vagabondes), to moove the people the more to pittie." 

Van Swieten, Tissot, and others mention a curious practice, formerly prevail- 
ing in several countries of Europe, of applying Ranunculus to the wrists and fingers 
for the cure of intermittent fevers. This practice we noted only a few days since, 
when called to see a child of a new-settled German family in our city ; the little 
one's wrists were bound up in the leaves and branches of R. acris ; it was suffering 
with an attack of lobar pneumonia. 

In former practice the plants were used, in view of external stimulation, in 
rheumatism (especially sciatic), hip disease, hemicrania, and in local spasmodic 
and fixed pains; in asthma, icterus, dysuria, and pneumonia. Withering, in speak- 
ing of R. flammula, says : " It is an instantaneous emetic, as if Nature had furnished 
an antidote to poisons from among poisons of its own tribe ; and it is to be pre- 
ferred to almost any other vomit in promoting the instantaneous expulsion of 
deleterious substances from the stomach." 

Many species of this genus are used as pot-herbs, as the process of boiling 
throws off the volatile acrid principle and renders them inert, though some cases 
are reported where this happy result failed, and serious symptoms supervened. 
In Northern Persia the young tubers, leaves, stems, and blossoms of R. cdults, 
Boiss, are brought into market and sold as a pot-herb; the Swedish peasantry use 
R.ficar-ia, Linn. ; and the shepherds of Wallachia, R. sceleratus, Linn.'-' 

* Lewis Sturtevtint, M.D., in Bol. Ca~., vii, 316. 



3-3 

Ranunculus is among the articles dropped from the U. S. Ph. at the last 
revision. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh herb, gathered when in fruit, 
but still green and untouched by frost, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and 
weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly 
mixed with one-si.xth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having 
stirred the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to 
stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by straining 
and filtering. Thus prepared it has a clear reddish-orange color by transmitted 
light; an acrid odor and taste; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— We consider here the genus as a whole, 
taking this species as a chemical type. 

Anemonol, or Oil of Ranuncuhts. — Mr. O. L. Erdmann* found this to be the 
acrid principle of this species, and extracted it as a golden-yellow volatile body, 
decomposing by age into aiicinonin and aucmonic acid, both of which are as 
described on pages 1-2 and 1-3, and 

Anemoninic Acid. — When boiled with an excess of baryta water, anemonin 
decomposes, forming, among other bodies, red flakes of anemoninate oi barium 
(Lowig and Weidman). Prof. Frehling, who afterward examined into the subject, 
says, "this acid cannot be formed from anemonin by simply assumption with 
water." f 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to Basiner,+ the oil of Ranunculus 
acts, in warm-blooded animals, as an acrid narcotic, producing, in small doses, 
stupor and slow respiration ; in larger doses, also, paralysis of the posterior and 
anterior extremities, and, before death, convulsions of the whole body. The acrid 
action is shown by a corrosive gastritis and by hyperaemia of the kidneys, more 
particularly their cortical substance. Anemonin causes similar symptoms, but is 
followed by no convulsions, nor does it irritate sufficiently to corrode the organs, 
as in the oil. 

Krapf states § that a small portion of a leaf or flower of R. scelcnitus, or two 
drops of the juice, excited acute pain in the stomach, and a sense of inflammation 
of the throat; when he chewed the most succulent leaves, the salivary glands were 
strongly stimulated ; his tongue was excoriated and cracked; his teeth smarted, 
and his cornea became tender and bloody. || 

A man, at Bevay, France, swallowed a glassful of the juice, which had been 
kept for some time; he was seized in four hours with violent colic and vomiting, 
and died the second day.^ 



* Am. Jour. Pliar., 1859, p. 440. 

t Drugs and Med. of N. A., i, 68. 

X Di^ I'ergifl mil Ranunkelol, .Uumonin, etc., in Am. Jour. P/iar., 1SS2, 130. 

J Exp. de Nonnull. Ranuii. J'fii. Qua/. 

II Or//a, Tor. Gtn., i, 754. 

II Jour, de Chim. Med., 1836, 27J. 



3-4 

Krapf [op. cit.) relates a case in which the plant was used internally, giving 
the following serious symptoms and result: Contortion of the eyes; convulsions 
of the facial muscles, outer parts of the abdomen, and the limbs ; pain, swelling, 
redness, and bleeding of the gums ; peeling off of the cuticle and cracking of the 
tongue ; ptyalism ; hiccough ; complete inactivity of the stomach, with horrid pains 
and fits of anxiety ; slight fainting turns ; all followed by cold sweat and death. 

The symptoms caused by this drug, as detailed in Alleiis Eyicyclopedia of Pure 
Materia Mcdica^'' as well as the cases reported above, show this drug to be an 
acrid irritant poison, both to the mucous membranes with which it comes in con- 
tact, and to the nerves themselves. 



Description of Plate 3. 

I. Whole plant (a small specimen), Salem, Mass., July 20th, 1S85. 

2. Sepal. 

3. Petal. 
A. Carpel. 

5. Section of same. 
(2-5 enlarged. ) 

* Vol. viii, 270-77. 




(ElU.adnat.del.et pinxt 



Ranunculus Repens, unn. 



4-2 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The provings of this species are not yet suffi- 
ciently developed to distinguish its action from that of the preceding. 



Description of Plate 4. 

I. End of a flowering stem, Ithaca, N. Y., June 24th, 1885. 
2, 3 and 4. Leaf forms. 

5. Carpel. 

6. Section of a carpel. 
(5 and 6 enlarged.) 




.ad nal.dei.et pinxt. 



Ranunculus BuLB6sus,Linn 



N. ORD-RANUNCULACE/E. 
Tribe.-RANUNCULE/E. 

GENUS.— RANUNCULUS, LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— rOLVANURIA I'ULVGYA.MIA. 



RANUNCULUS BULBOSUS. 

BULBOUS BUTTERCUPS. 

SYN.— RANUNCULUS BULBOSUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— BULBOUS CROWFOOT OR BUTTERCUPS, BUTTER-FLOW- 
ER, KING'S CUPS, GOLD CUPS, ST. ANTHONY'S TURNIP OR RAPE; 
(GER.) KNOLLINGER HAHNENFUSS. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRE.SH PLANT RANUNCULUS BULBOSUS, LINN. 

Description. — This erect, hairy herb grows to a height of about i foot. Stcjus 
many, volute, villous, from a bulbous, onion-like base. Leaves all ternately divided 
to the very base, especially noticeable in the radical ones, all appearing more or 
less pinnate ; leaflets short, cuneate, cleft and toothed, the lateral sessile, tlie termi- 
nal stalked, all 3-parted. Peduncles furrowed. Petals 5 or more, round, cuneate 
at the base, bright glossy yellow, much longer than the calyx. Calyx reflexed. 
Fruit in a globular head ; achenia ovoid, Battish, and tipped with a very short 
beak. Read description of Ranunculus, under R. sccleratus, 3. 

History and Habitat. — Bulbous Crowfoot is an immigrant from Europe, now 
pretty thoroughly established along the Atlantic coast, in some places being an 
actual pest in meadows and pastures ; it has not extended far inward, but seems 
decidedly prone so to do. It blossoms northward from May to July. 

This species, being one of the more acrid of the genus, and of frequent occur- 
rence in the East, has been used, like R. scclcratiis, as a local irritant where vesica- 
tion seemed necessary ; its use was often prolonged to ulceration, from which 
severe cases of gangrene sometimes resulted.* 

This was the officinal species of the U. S. Ph., now dismissed. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant while in flower 
in the month of June, is treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tincture 
has a clear, light yellow color by transmitted light, a slightly sweetish then acrid 
taste, and a strongly acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — So far no analysis has been made of this 
species to determine (should such exist) a specific principle that might differ from 
the general constituents of the acrid Ranunculi as given under R. sceleratus, 3. 

* The general uses of the Ranunculi will be found under R. sceleratus, 3, where special mention is made of the 
various species. 



5-2 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — R. bulbosus has a peculiarly powerful irritant 
action upon the skin, whether applied locally or internally. Murray states* that 
a slice of the fresh root (bulb?) placed in contact with the palmar surface of a 
finger brought on pain in two minutes ; when taken off, the skin was found with- 
out signs of extra circulation or irritation, and the itching and heat passed away ; 
in two hours it nevertheless returned again, and in ten hours a serous blister had 
formed, followed by a bad ulcer, which proved very difficult to heal. 

Early English practitioners used the bulb to produce vesication when a "last- 
ing blister" was judged necessary, but were very chary of prescribing the drug 
internally, so great was their dread of its properties. 

Four persons who partook of the bulbs, boiled in a chicken-broth, suffered 
from violent burning in the hypogastric region, great anxiety about the region 
of the heart, pressure at the pit of the stomach, with painful soreness of that 
organ when pressed. 

A lady who applied the bruised plant to the chest as a counter-irritant, became 
ill-humored, fretful, cross and disposed to quarrel, and suffered from soreness and 
smarting of the eyelashes some time before its action was felt at the region nearest 
the application. 

Violent attacks of epilepsy are recorded as having been induced by this 
plant ; a sailor who inhaled the fumes of the burning plant was attacked with this 
disease for the first time in his life ; it returned again in two weeks, passed into 
cachexia, nodous gout, headache, and terminated in death.-j- 

The specific symptoms caused by this drug, so carefully collated by Prof. 
Allen,| show a decided irritant action upon the brain and spinal cord, as well as 
the mucous membranes generally. 

Description of Plate 5. 

I. Whole plant, Salem, Mass., June 2Sth, 1885. 

2. Petal. 

3. Anther. 

4. Fruit. 

5. Achenium. . 

6. Longitudinal section of achenium. 

(3, 5 and 6 enlarged.) 

* App. Med., iii, 87. 

t Stapf, Add. to Mai. Med. Piira, I. c. 

X Encyc. Pure Mai. Med., viii, 257-269. 




.ad nat.del.et pinxt. 



Ranunculus Acris Unn. 



O. H. HILL LIBRARY 

North Carolina State College 



N. ORD -RANUNCULACE^. 

GENUS— RANUNCULUS, LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— POl.YANDRIA I'ULYGVNIA. 



RANUNCULUS ACRIS. 



TALL BUTTERCUPS. 



SYN.— RANUNCULUS ACRIS, LINN.; RANUNCULUS PRATBNSIS BRECTUS 
ACRIS, GERARDE. 

COM. NAMES.— TALL BUTTERCUPS OR CROWF'OOT, UPRIGHT BUTTER- 
CUPS OR CROWFOOT, ACRID BUTTERCUPS, BLISTERWESD, YEL- 
LOW PILE-WEED, BUR- WORT, MBADOWBLOOM; (FR.) RENONCULB 
ACRE; (GER.) SCHARFHAHENFUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, RANUNCULUS ACRIS, LINN. 

Description. — This erect, perennial herb attains a height of from 2 to 3 feet. 
Root fibrous, from a slightly tuber-like crown. S/ent subcylindrical, hollow, hairy, 
and branching above. Leaves 3-divided, the divisions all sessile, 3-parted, and 
clothed with more or less rigid hairs ; segments of the lower leaves cut into lan- 
ceolate, closely-crowded lobes ; of the upper linear, and sometimes entire ; petioles 
of the radicle and lower stem leaves long and hairy, upper cauline leaves some- 
times sessile. Inflorescence axillary and terminal ; flowers nearly as large as those 
of R. bulbosus (5), but not so deep a yellow. Calyx spreading, villous, much 
shorter than the corolla. Petals obovate, bright yellow. Filaments short ; anthers 
incurved. Fruit a globular head ; carpels numerous, lenticular and smooth ; beak 
short and recurved. Read description of the genus, under Ranunculus scelera- 
tus, 3 ; and the natural order, under Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, i. 

History and Habitat. — This species of the genus has become quite widely 
distributed in this country since its introduction from Europe. It flowers from 
June until August. This plant, when past its flowering season, is often mistaken 
for Geranium maculatum, 32,''' both on account of its vulgar name, crowfoot, and 
from a similarity in the foliage. 

The medical and general history, and the chemistry and action, of the differ- 
ent species of Ranunculus are generic rather than specific. I give a digest under 
R. sceleratus, 3. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh herb, gathered in 
October, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and pressed out in a piece 

* Williams and I'artridgc, liosl. Med. and Surg. "Jour., March, 1838. 



6-2 

of new linen. The juice is then, by rapid succussion, mixed with an equal part 
by weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days, in a well-stoppered bottle, 
in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated by filtration, has a brownish-orange color by trans- 
mitted light, a biting, then astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 



Description of Plate 6. 
I. a, b, and c. Whole plant, Ithaca, N. Y., June 2d, 1880. 




(^m. 



ad nat.dei.et pinxt. 



CaLTHA PaLUSTRIS, Linn. 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^. 

GENUS.— C ALT HA," LINN. 



-r01.V.\.\DRI.\ roi.VGVM.\. 



CALTHA. 



MAliSH MARIGOLD. 

SYN.-CALTHA PALUSTRIS,t LINN. ; CALTHA ARTICA, R. BR. 

COM. NAMES— MARSH MARIGOLD,: COWSLIPS,? COW'S LIPS, MEADOW- 
BOUTS, WATERBOUTS, COLT'S FOOT.il MARE-BLEBS OR -BLOBS.H 
AMERICAN COWSLIPS,** PALSY-WORT, WATER DRAGON; (GER.) 
SUMPP RINGELBLUME. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FIX)\VERING PLANT CALTH.A PALUSTRIS, LINN. 

Description. — This glabrous, perennial herb, grows to a height of from 6 to 
12 inches. Roof a bundle of coarse and closely fasciculated fibers. Sicm erect, 
somewhat quadrilateral, furrowed, hollow, thick, and juicy, branched above. Leaves 
alternate, large, orbicular, cordate, or reniform, finely crenate or entire ; petioles of 
the radical leaves long, those of the cauline about equal in length to the width of 
the leaf; stipules quite large, withering after the expansion of the leaf, which they 
cover in the bud. Inflorescence corymbose ; flowers large and regular. Sepals 56, 
petaloid, broadly ovate, imbricate in aestivation. Petals wanting. Stamens numerous ; 
filaments about the length of the anthers; anthers large, innate, and extrorse. 
Pistils 5-10 ; styles nearly or quite absent ; stigmas forming blunt, recurved, mucro- 
nations to the ovaries. Pruit a spreading whorl ; follicles latterly compressed ; 
seeds nimierous, oblong, purplish, furnished with a prominent raphe, and arranged 
in a double series. Read description of the Order under Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, i. 

History and Habitat. — The marsh-marigold is indigenous to the northern 
portions of Europe, Asia, and America; growing on low, wet meadows, bogs, and 
the banks of spring-fed rivulets ; flowering in tiie United States from April to May. 



* KdXaSa;, kalathos, a chalice, the golden calyx resembling that utensil. 

f Care should be taken not to confound this plant with Calla pniuslris, I.inn , on account of the similarity in the 
names; it bears no resemblance whatever to Calla; the haliitats arc the same. 

J I have known .American physicians who claimed that they made their tincture of Calendula from flowers gathered in 
their own neighborhoods (Caltha); this error arose from the common name of calendula being marigold. CnUiiJula 
officinalis, Linn., belongs to the Compositoe, and does not grow wild in this country. The corn-marigold belongs to the 
genus Chtysanthenium (Compjsiloe) ; t"ve fi^-mirigold to Af:sembryanlheinttm {^^i'^nmhx-ja.Mhtvazx); the Krcnch and 
African marigolds to Tagetes (Composila;), and the bur-marigold to Bidens (Com|K)sita'). 

J Cowslips are properly species of the primrose family (Primulaceoe). 

II Colt's foot is only applical)le to Tussi.'a^o /•'ar/ura, Linn. (Compositae). 

If Mare, marsh ; hlelis, bladders, more properly blisters. 

** The true American cowslip is Dodeeathron Meadia, I^inn. (Primulacese). 



7-2 

The plant is extensively gathered in early spring, and cooked for " greens," 
making one of our most excellent pot-herbs ; the pickled flower-buds are mentioned 
as a fine substitute for capers. The fresh plant is very acrid, so much so that cattle 
will not eat of it. Rafinesque asserts that cattle browsing upon it die in conse- 
quence of an inflammation of the stomach. 

The medical history of this herb is very sparse, and of no consequence ; it 
has been used in cough syrups, which would, without doubt, have been fully as 
efficacious without it. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh herb, gathered when flower- 
ing, is chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of new linen, and 
pressed. The expressed juice is then, by brisk succussion, mingled with an equal 
part by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, 
cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, has a clear, orange- 
brown color by transmitted light, a sweet, then somewhat acrid taste, and a neutral 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The acridity so noticeable in the fresh herb 
entirely disappears on the application of heat ; this property is considered by 
Lloyd to resemble, or be identical with, acrid oil of ranunculus,* though his attempt 
to extract this oil and anemonin, from a distillate of the fresh plant, was unsuccessful. 

Tannin is present in appreciable quantity, the tincture responding quickly to 
the tests with acetate of lead and chloride of iron. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — We have a scanty proving of this drug detailed 
in the Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica ; insufficient, however, to aflbrd an 
insight to its real action. 



Description of Plate 7. 

I. End of branch, from Binghamton, N. Y., May nth, 1884. 

2. Section of flower. 

3. Stamen (enlarged). 

4. Achenium (enlarged). 

5. Section of ovary (enlarged). 

6. Section of stem. 

* See under Ranunculus sceleralus, 3. 




^m.sdnatdel.ttpinxt. 



HELLCfi'ORUS Vi RID IS, Linn. 



N. ORD-RANUNCULACEyE, 
Tribe.-HELLEBORINE/E. 

GKNL .S— H E L L E B O R US,* LINX. 
SEX. SVST.— I'dl.VGAMIA rol.VGMA. 



HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS. 



GREEA' HELLEBORE. 



SYN.— HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES. -GREEN HELLEBORE; (FR.) ELLBBORE VERT- (GER 
GRUNE NIESSWURZ. 



A TINCTURE OF THP: ROOI' OF HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS, LINN. 

Description. — This ijerennial herb usually attains a growth of from i to 2 
feet. Rhi-zornc thick ami wood)'. Stan smooth, usually a little inclined to 
branch above. Leaves alternate, compound, the leaflets sharply serrate ; those 
of the stem nearly sessile and palmately parted ; those of the root glabrous, 
long petioled and pedately divided into from 7 to 15 lanceolate, acute lobes. 
Inflorescence on axillary, solitary, nodding, sometimes geminate peduncles; flozuers 
regular, an inch or more in diameter. Calyx persistent; sepals 5, roundish- 
ovate, veiny, petaloid, imbricated in the bud. Petals 8 to 10, very small, cyathi- 
form, irregularly 2-lipped, all shorter than the stamens. Stamens indefinite. 
Pistils 3 to 10, sessile; stigmas orbicular. Friiit a cluster of sessile, coriaceous 
pods, all cohering at their bases; seeds numerous. 

History and Habitat. — This European immigrant is now pretty thoroughly 
naturalized on Long Island and in a few counties of Eastern Pennsylvania, 
where it grows in the opens, and flowers in April. 

On account of its general rarity, this species has had but litde use in 
medicine, its place being supplied by either H.ttiger or H. fetidus ; it is, how- 
ever, much more active than cither of these species, and ranks next in energy 
to //. orientalis, which is considered the most highly poisonous species of the 
genus. Green Hellebore has, however, been somewhat used as a drastic and 
hydragogue cathartic in dropsies; an emmenagogue in amenorrhoea ; a vermi- 
fuge in children afflicted with lumbricoids; as a nervine in mania and melan- 
cholia; and an anti-spasmodic in epilepsy. Its principal field, however, has been 
in veterinary medication, for animals afiflicted with lice or lumbrici For the rea- 
son given above, the root is no longer officinal in the pharmacopctias. 

'EXtfi'. helein. to injure ; PIP'S, boia, food. 



8-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered when the 
leaves are about to fall, but before the first frost, is treated as directed under 
Hydrastis/'' The resulting tincture has a deep brownish-orange color by trans- 
mitted light; an odor somewhat resembling that of Bourbon whisky; an acrid, 
bitter taste, prickling the tongue and causing salivation ; and an acid reaction. 

•CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The chemistry of the Hellebores is generic 
rather than specific, the species differing, so far as known, only in the quantity 
of the principles contained. 

Helleborin,t CjuHj^Og. — This glucoside was isolated by Marme and A. 
Husemann (1864) from the green, fatty matter extracted by boiling alcohol 
from an aqueous extract of the root. It resulted as shining, colorless, concen- 
tric needles, tasteless when dry, but acrid and burning in alcoholic solution. 
Helleborin proves a highly narcotic, powerful poison, more abundant in viridis 
than in nioer ; it is insoluble in water, soluble in hot alcohol, and fuses and 
carbonizes above 250° (482° F.). When boiled with zinc chloride, Helleborin 
breaks down into sugar and Helleboresin as follows: 

Helleboiin. Water. Glucose. Helleboresin. 

C„H,,0, + (H,0), = QH,p„ + Q„H3A. 

Hellebor'ein, C,„H^^Oj-. — This slightly acid glucoside was also isolated by 
Marme and Husemann, as translucent, warty masses of microscopic needles, 
which quickly defloresce and are very hygroscopic ; they are of a sweetish 
taste, and are readily soluble in water, less so in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. 
Helleborein is a narcotic poison, more abundant in niger than viridis; its 
aqueous solution dries to a yellowish resin, which becomes straw-color at 160° 
(320° F.),and conglutinates ; at 220°-23o° (428°-446° F.) it becomes brown and 
pasty; and at 280° (536° F.) it chars. 

When boiled with a dilute mineral acid, it breaks down into sugar and Hclle- 
boretin, as follows : 

Helleborein. Glucose. Helleboretin. 

c,.H,A5 = (QH,A). ^ c„H,A- 

Helicboi'ctiti, Cj^H,„03, is strangely wanting in physiological effect, consider- 
ing its source; it has a violet color and no crystalline form. 

Helleboric Acid. — This body is so far considered, if not identical, at least 
isomeric with aconilic and equisctic acids. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to the experiments of Von Schroff, 
with from 2 to 4 grains of the alcoholic extract of the root, this species causes : 
roaring in the ears ; violent sneezing ; burning in the mouth, and profuse sali- 
vation ; gurgling in the abdomen; profuse liquid stools, accompanied by violent 

* Page 9-2. 

f Bastic (1S52) discov^reJ a bitter, crystalline body in the roots of Hellebore, to which he gave this name. It 
proved, however, to be chemically indif'fi rent. 



8-3 

colic, great tenesmus, nausea, and inclination to vomit ; frequent passages of pale 
urine ; decreased heart's action : soporific condition : and a sensation of heat over 
the whole body. 

The action of tht; Hellebores in general should be consulted in connection 
with this species. 



Df.sc Rii'iiON oi' Plate S. 

I. Top of plant, from .Sellersville, Pa., April 20th, 

2. A mature lower leaf 

3. Petal. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Fruiting carpel. 

(4-6 enlarged.) 




'V 



^.TU.sdnatdel.etpinxt. 



Hydrastis Canadensis, Um 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACEyE. 
Tribe-CIMICIFUGE/E. 

(;KNUS.— HYDRASTIS,* IINN. 

SEX. SVST.— POLVANDRIA POLYCJVNIA. 



HYDRASTIS. 



GOLDEJf-SEAL. 



SYN.— HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS, LINN.; WARNBRIA CANADENSIS. 
MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— GOLDEN-SEAL, ORANGE-ROOT, YELLOW-ROOT, YELLOW- 
PUCCOON, GROUND-RASPBERRY, WILD CURCUMA, TURMERIC- 
ROOT, INDIAN DYE, INDIAN TURMERIC; (FR.i HYDRASTIS; (GER.) 
CANADISCHE, GBLBWURZEL. 



A TLVCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS, LINN. 



Description. — This low perennial herb, now becoming^ quite rare in this State 
(N. Y.), grows from 6 to lo inches high, its leaves and fruit much resembling those 
of the raspberry. Rhizome thick, sarcous, oblong, irregular, and knotted, having 
a yellowish-brown, thin bark, and a bright-yellow interior; rootlets numerous, 
scattered, coriaceous fibres. Stem simple, subcylindrical, thick, erect, and very 
hairy, surrounded, at its point of issuance from the rootstalk, by several oblong, 
sheathing, scaphoid, greenish yellow, leafy bracts. Leaves 2, alternate, near the 
summit of the plant, orbicular-cordate at the base, palmately five- to seven-lobed, 
the lobes doubly serrate, acute, veiny; attaining, when full grown during the fruit- 
ing season, a width of from 4 to 10 inches. The root sometimes puts off an acces- 
sory or root-leaf which answers to the characteristics of the stem-leaves, with the 
one exception, that it is petiolate while they are sessile. Peduncle about i inch 
long; inflorescence — when fully expanded — a single, greenish-white, apetalous, ase- 
palous flower. Sepals 3, pale-rose color, caducous. Petals none. Stamens num- 
erous; Jilametits linear or linear-spatulate; anthers oval, innate. Pistils numerous, 
twelve or more in a dense head; ovary i -celled, one- to two-ovuled; styles short; 
stig7)ia flattened and dilated, one- to two-lipped. Fruit a succulent, globose berry, 
compounded of many miniature one- to two-seeded drupes; appearing like an 
enlarged red-raspberry. Seeds inversely egg-shaped, nearly black and glossy; 
embryo basal, very small; albumen sarcoid and oily. A description of the natural 
order may be found under Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, i. 

* Derivation not positive, (?) iSup, water; ipAu, to act: its juice being very active. 



9-2 

History and Habitat. — Hydrastis is indigenous to Canada and the United 
States, east of the Mississippi, and but quite rare east of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains; in the southeastern portion of the country it grows only upon the mountains. 
It seeks the rich soil of shady woods, and moist places at the edge of wooded 
lands, flowering from April to May, and fruiting in July. The American aborigines 
valued the root highly as a tonic, stomachic, and application to sore eyes and 
general ulcerations, as well as a yellow dye for their clothing and implements 
of warfare. 

The officinal preparations in the U.S. Ph. are: Extractimi Hydrastis Fliiidtim, 
and Tinctura Hydrastis. The Eclectic ; Decocttim Hydrastis, Extractnni Hydrastis 
Hydro-alcoJioliciim, Tinctura Hydrastis Cotnposita, Lotio Hydrastis Cotnposita, 
Tinctura Hydrastis^ and Vinum Hydrastis Compositiint. 

PARTS USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered as the plant 
is budding to blossom, or in the fall, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and 
weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly 
mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring 
the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to remain 
eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then poured off, strained and 
filtered, and presents the following physical properties: a reddish-orange color, by 
transmitted light, staining everything with which it comes in contact, a deep yellow 
color; a persistent bitter, then burning taste; no distinguishing odor, and a slightly 
acid reaction. 

Berberinum. — The pure alkaloid Berberina, one part to ten, or ninety-nine 
sugar of milk, and triturated. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Berberina {vide Berberis, 15). Dr. Mahla of 
Chicago proved this alkaloid identical with that obtained from Berberis (Am. jour. 
Phan, Vol. xxxv., p. 433). 

Hydrastia, C^^ H^j NO^, an alkaloid discovered by A. B. Durand (Am. Jour. 
Phar., Vol. xxiii., p. 13), has been referred to by many writers upon Phyto-chem- 
istry, as pure-white crystals, but J. U. Lloyd (Am. Jour. Phar., Vol. li., p. 16) 
determines that it cannot be extracted pure, but is always so intimately associated 
with a yellow substance that when viewed in quantity it shows easily the impurity. 
He decides that this yellowishness is not due to berberina. The crystals when 
viewed separately are in the form of brilliant, yellowish-white, glossy, quadran- 
gular prisms, becoming opaque when dry. Hydrastia fuses at 135° (275° F.), and 
decomposes at higher temperatures; it is slightly soluble in cold alcohol, readily 
in hot, from which it is deposited on cooling in the crystalline form above des- 
cribed ; the taste is not bitter, but somewhat nauseous and acrid. 

Xanthopuccina, a third alkaloid, was determined by Herm. Lerchen (Am. 
Jour. Phar., Vol. 1., p. 470) in the menstruum, after the extraction of berberina 
and hydrastia ; a yellow color is the only property given. 

Hydrastis contains, beside the above-mentioned bodies, a green fixed oil of a 
disagreeable odor and taste ; a litde volatile oil, to which the odor of the root is 



9-3 

due; a black, resinous substance (Lloyd); albumen, sugar, starch, a fatty resin 
and lo per cent, of mineral matters (Herm. Lerchen). 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— WIkmi taken in large doses Hydrastis causes a 
train of symptoms clue to a hyper-secretion of the mucous membranes If per- 
sisted in, it causes severe ulceration of any surface it may touch; and a catarrhal 
intlammation oi mucous surfaces, followed by extreme dryness and fission. It 
causes also a catarrhal intlammation of the mucous linings of the hepatic ducts 
and gall-bladder — showing in an icteric hue of the skin — and a similar condition 
of the bladder catarrhal cystitis. 



Description of Platf. 9. 

1. Sepal (somewhat enlarged). 

2. Stamen " " 

3. Fruit. 

4. Pistil (somewhat enlarged). 
5-6. Seed. 

7. Whole plant from Newfield, N. Y., May 20, 1880. 



10. 



^f:^^ 



, 
I ■ f\ 






9C 

Q IS 










^ 



lU.adnat.del.et pinxt 



7i 




ACT/tA SPICATA Linn. 



N. ORD -RANUNCULACE.^. 10 

Tribe-CIMICIFUGE/E. 

GENUS.— ACT/EA,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— I'OLYANDRI.\ MON0(iV.\l.\. 



ACT^A ALBA. 

WHITE BAJVEBERRY. 

SYN.— ACT^A ALBA, BIGEL ; ACT^A SPICATA. VAR. ALBA, MICHX. ; 

ACT^A PACHYPODA, ELL. ; ACT^A AMERICANA, VAR. a, PURSH. • 

ACT^A BRACHYPETALA, VAR. a, DC. 
COM. NAMES.— WHITE BANEBBRRY, WHITE COHOSH, AMERICAN HERB 

CHRISTOPHER, TOAD ROOT; (PR.) HERBB DE STE. CHRISTOPHE 

BLANC ; (GER.) WBISSES CHRISTOPHSKRAUT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ACT^A ALBA, BIGEL. 

Description. — This delicate-flowered perennial grows to a height of 2 feet 
and sometimes slightly over. Root somewhat similar to that of cimicifuga, but 
neither as odorous, dark in color, nor as large. Stem erect, nearly smooth. Leaves 
large, 2-3-ternately decompound ; leaflets ovate, acutely cleft, and dentate or in- 
cisely serrate. Inflorescence a short, terminal ovate-oblong, simple raceme ; flowers 
creamy-white, sometimes by abortion declinous ; pedicles becoming pink, and thick- 
ened in fruit, until they are equal in size to the common peduncle. Sepals 4 to 5 
petaloid, early deciduous. Petals 3 to 9, small, slender and spatulate, their tips either 
truncate or emarginate, their bases converted into short claws. The petals of this 
species appear like metamorphosed stamens [staniinidia). Stamens numerous; 
filaments white, slender; anthers innate, introrse. Pistil simple, solitary, with a 
sulcus at the insertion of the parietal placenta ; stigma sessile, 2-lobed. Fricit a 
cluster of bluish-white, many-seeded berries or carpels ; seeds smooth, compressed, 
and horizontal. 

History and Habitat. — The white cohosh is a common herb in our rocky 
woods, especially southward and westward. It flowers in May and ripens its 
pretty china-like fruit in October. This species, together with Actcea rubra (red 
cohosh), has received the attention of many writers upon medical botany. The 
two species vary principally in the color of the berries and thickness of the 
pedicles ; probably slightly only in their properties and action. They are, how- 
ever, widely different from Actcsa racemosa, our Cimicifuga, and should under no 
circumstances be confounded with that drug. Just how much our species of Actsa 
differ from the European Actcea spicata, Linn., still remains to be proven. This 
much we know, that the American species are much milder in their properties. 

* A<ri}, aite, eliler, from a resemblance in the folLigc. 



10-2 

The white cohosh hardly deserves a place here, as the European baneberry 
will without doubt cover its entire action and more beside ; it will, however, often 
be found useful in many forms of reflex uterine headache, some types of chronic 
fleeting rheumatism, congestion, in the female especially, and reflex uterine gas- 
tralgia. Rafinesque says the roots are repellant, nervine, and used for debility 
in Canada. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, while the fruit 
is ripening, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are to be taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one- 
sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After mixing well, pour the 
whole into a well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, 
cool place. 

The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering. 



Description of Plate io. 

ACT/EA SPICATA. var. ALBA.* 

1. Flower, showing calyx. 

2. Expanded flower of Actaa rubra. 

3. Stamen (enlarged). 

4. Pistil (enlarged). 

5. Horizontal section of ovary (enlarged). 

6. Top of plant, Ithaca, N. Y., May loth, 1880. 

* The Plate is wrongly titled Acttca spicata. 



. ■■ > -; 11. , 




.ad nal.dei.et pinxt 



ClIVIl'CIFUCA RaCEMOSA, Ell. 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^. li 

Tribe.-CIMICIFUGE^. 

GKNL'S.- C I M I C I F U G A ,* LINN. 
SKX. SVST.— rol.VANDRIA MOXOCVMA. 



CIMICIFUGA. 



BLACK COHOSH. 



SYN.— CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA, ELL.; C. SERPENTARIA, PURSH. ; AC- 
T^A RACEMOSA, LINN. ; A. ORTHOSTACHYA, AND GYROSTACHYA, 
WEND. ; A. MONOGYNIA, WALT. ; MACROTRYS ACT^OIDES, RAF. ; 
M. SERPENTARIA, AND RACEMOSA, EATON; BOTROPHIS SERPEN- 
TARIA, RAF.; B. ACT^OIDES, FISCH AND MEY. ; CHRYSTOPHOR- 
lANA CAN A DENSE RACEMOSA, PLUCK. 

COM. NAMES.— BLACK COHOSH, BLACK SNAKE-ROOT,t RICH WEED.t 
SQUAW-ROOT,? RATTLE-^^EED, RATTLE-ROOT, RATTLESNAKE 
ROOT,iiBUGBANE; IFR.) ACTEE AGRAPPE; (GER.) SWARZB COHOSCH, 
TRAUBENFORMIGES CHRISTOPHSKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF CIMICIFUG.\ R.\CEMOS.\, LINN. 

Description. — This tall, graceful, and showy perennial grows to a height ot 
from 3 to 8 feet. Rootstock thick, blackish, successively knotted and fringe-ringed, 
whitish-yellow internally, with a ring of cuneiform wood-bundles pointing inward ; 
rootlets long, simple, and uniform, a section under a lens shows the cuneiform- 
bundles arranged like a cross. Stem smooth, angular, or furrowed. Leaves alter- 
nate, tri-ternately divided, the lowermost almost radical, very large and ample, the 
petiole at its base almost as large as the stem ; leaflets various on the same petiole, 
simple, bifid, and trifid, all ovate-oblong, cut serrate. Inflorescence of very long, 
simple, or compound, virgate, inclined, upper-axillary or terminal racemes ; flowers 
scattered, foetid, creamy-white. Sepals 4-5, petal-like, scaphoid, early deciduous. 
Petals [Staminodia) 1-8, very small, long clawed, and 2-horned or forked ; apices 
ahtherose. Stamens numerous; filaments slender, club-shaped, creamy-white; 
anthers innate, introrse, yellow. Pistil solitary, simple ; ovary ovoid, sessile ; style 
short ; stigma simple, inclined to be lateral, the centre somewhat cylindrically de- 
pressed. Priiit numerous, dry, ovoid or globose, dehiscent carpels, arranged upon 
a raceme from i to 3 feet in length, and retaining each its stigma in the form of 
an oblique beak ; seeds semi-discoid, smooth, horizontal, and compressed. 

History and Habitat. — This indigenous plant is comparatively common all 

* Cimex, a bug, yV/^o, I drive away. A Sil>erian species being used as a vermifuge. 

f The black snake-root is Sanicula Canadensis (Umbelliferoe). If written black-snake root the n,Tme might be 
applied, but does not apply. 

J Two other plants are known by this name, viz. : Collinsonia Canadensis ( I.abialar), and Pi/ea piimila ( Lrticaceae), 
^ The true squaw root is Conopholis (Oroianehe) Americana (Orobanchacea:). 
II This name properly belongs to many species of Nabalus (Compositcc). 



11-2 

over the eastern halt of the United States and in Canada, growing in rich, open 
woods, and along the edges of fields, but especially noticeable on newly cleared 
hill-sides. When woods in its favorite localities are at all dense, the plant will 
be found only in the borders. Black cohosh was a favorite remedy among all 
tribes of the aborigines, being largely used by them in rheumatism, disorders of 
menstruation, and slow parturition. It was also used as a remedy against the bites 
of venomous snakes, with what success history does not relate, but we can easily 
judge. 

The plant was first made known by Pluckenet in 1696 ; Colden recommended 
its use in 174J, and Dr. S. Garden in 1823. In England its use began in i860.* 
Its uses at this time were confined to chorea, rheumatism, dropsy, hysteria, and 
affections of the lungs. In regard to chorea. Dr. G. B. Wood statesf that he ad- 
ministered the drug in a case, which rapidly recovered under its use after the 
failure of purgatives and metallic tonics. In convulsions occurring periodically, 
connected with uterine disorder, Dr. Wood also derived the happiest effects from 
its use. In inflammatory rheumatism Dr. N. F. Johnson used the remedy with 
"the best results, the disease disappearing in from 2 to 10 days"; he says, "the 
more acute the disease the more prompt and decided will be the action of the 
drug."J Dr. A. Clapp§ used the drug in " chronic facial erysipelas, with satisfac- 
tory results." Dr. Williams says :|| " Indians and quacks recommend its use in 
rheumatism," etc. ; he then recommends it himself! The statement of Dr. Whee- 
ler^l that some eminent physicians thought it to be a good substitute for Secale 
cornutum in parturition, relaxing the parts and thereby rendering labor short and 
easy, is one that should have received much attention. 

In all the above uses except mayhap those concerning the lungs, we have 
proven its application trustworthy. Its usefulness in phthisis when given in proper 
dosage is simply to palliate the cough through its action upon the nerve centres. 
It will be found in most cases to act with far more constant success In females than 
In males, as its action upon the female economy Is marked and distinctive. 

The ofificlnal preparations in the U. S. Ph. are : Extractum Cimicifug<e Flii- 
idtini, and Tinctiira CimicifugcE. In the Eclectic Materia Medica: Dccoctum Cimi- 
cifugiE ; Extractum Cnnicifiiga: AlcoJiolicuin and Fliudwn ; Rcsina Cimicifugce ; 
Tinctura Cimicifitgce ; Tinctiira Ciinicifiigce Composita /'''* Tiiictura Colchici Ctnn- 
posita;\-'\- and Enema Cimiciftigcs Composita:]^, 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root should be treated as in 
the preceding species. The resulting tincture Is almost opaque ; in thin layers it 
has a deep olive-green color by transmitted light ; it retains the peculiar odor of 
the root; its taste is at first peculiar, soon becoming very acrid and bitter, and Its 
reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— G"ot2V?>!j-/« or Macrotin, the so-called resinoid, 

* Fluck. & Hail., Pharmacosrapliia, p. 1 6. f Dunglison's Nnu Rem., p. 145. 

X Clapp, Cat., Am. Met!. Ass'n, 1852, p. 725. I Op. et he. cit. 

II Kept. Imlig. Med Bot. Mass., Am. Med. Ass' 11, £849, p. 914. \ Bost. Med. and Suig. Jour., Sept., 1S39, p. 65 
*«• Ciniicifuga, Sanguinaria, and Phytolacca. ff Culchicuni and CimiciTuga. 

\X Cimicifuga and Geranium maculatum. 



il-3 

is not strictly spcakiiii^ a chemical derivative, beiny; sim[)Iy a precipitate of what- 
ever principles in the root are not soluble in water. An alkaloid has, however, 
been determined by T. E. Conard,* and corroboratetl l)y M. S. Falck,i- to which 
the above name might be, but has not been, applied. This alkaloid is a neutral 
crystalline body, having an intensely acrid taste, and is soluble in alcohol, chloro- 
form, and ether, slightly also in water. It has been determinetl also in the 
" resinoid." 

A resin soluble in alcohol and ether, another soluble in alcohol only ; fatty 
and waxy matters, volatile oil having the odor of the root, green and brown color- 
ing matters, gum, uncrystallizable sugar, tannic acid, extractive, and other plant 
constituents have also been determined.J 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Cimicifuga acts as a severe irritant to die nerve 
centres in general, and causes through its action upon the vaso-motor system cere- 
bral, cerebro-spinal and pelvic congestion, followed by inflammatory action, espe- 
cially upon the nerves themselves. The cho^a-like spasmodic action following 
the exhibition of the drug is of two types, one having apparently a rheumatic 
basis, the other uterine ; the latter is most common, as the choreas curable by this 
drug will be found aggravated or originating at the age of puberty or during men- 
struation. It causes rheumatic pains resembling those of torticollis, lumbago, and 
especially pleurodynia, sympathetic angina pectoris, and rheumatoid gout. The 
drug seems also to cause irritation of the uterus directly, especially when this irri- 
tation is rheumatoid in its character, and in consequence the individual under the 
effects of the drug will present symptoms of epileptiform or hysterical spasms, 
restlessness and jactitation of muscles, dysmenorrhoea or amenorrhoea, cephalalgia, 
infra-mammary pain, etc., as the case may be. In pregnancy it often causes abor- 
tion, and in labor will stimulate the uterus and cause rapid, painless expansion of 
the parts. According to Dr. Chapman it produces free nausea, with abundant 
expectoration, followed by nervous trembling, vertigo, and remarkable slowness of 
the pulse. 

Description of Pi,.\te ii. 

1. Part of the summit of a plant showing one of the smaller racemes, Binghamton, N.Y., July 19th, 1884. 

2. Luwer portion of stem, with a part of the root showing the remains of the growth of the two pre- 

vious seasons. 

3. Portion of one of the smaller leaves. 

4. Section of the root. 

5. \ sepal (somewhat enlarged). 

6. A staminodium (enlarged). 

7. Stamen (enlarged). 

8. Pollen X 300. 

9. Pistil (enlarged). 

10. Section of pistil (enlarged). 

11. Fruit. 

12. Section of capsule showing seeds. 



* ^m. your. Phar., 1871, p. 151. t P'riod. cU., 1884, p. 459. 

t Tilghman, Jour. PAH. Coll. Phar., 1834, p. 20; J. .S. Jones, Am. Jour. Phar., 1843, P- > ; G. H. Davis, 
period, cit., 1861, p. 391 ; E. C. Jones, Proc. Am. Phar. Ass'n, 1865, p. 186; T. E. Conard, art. cil. sup. ; M. S. Kalck. 
vrt. cil. sup. 




.TU.adnstdel.etfiinxt 



Magnolia GiAOcA^unn. 



N. ORD. MAGNOLIACE/E. 12 

GENUS.— MAGNOLIA,* LINN. 



SEX. SYST.— POLY.\KDRI.\ I'OI.VGV.N'I.V. 



MAGNOLIA GLAUCA 



SWEET BAY. 

SYN.— MAGNOLIA GLAUCA, LINN; M. VIRGINICA, a GLAUCA, LINN • M 

FRAGRANS, SALISB. ; M. LONGIPOLIA, SWEET. 
COM. NAMES. — SMALL, LAUREL, OR SWEET MAGNOLIA; SWEET, OR 

WHITE BAY; CASTOR, OR BEAVER WOOD; ELK OR INDIAN BARK; 

SWAMP SASSAFRAS, OR LAUREL; BEAVER TREE, BREWSTER- iFR j 

LE MAGNOLIER GLAUQUE; (GER.) MAGNOLIE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FLOWERS OF MAGNOLIA GLAUCA, LINN. 

Description. — This beautiful swamp shrub usually <rro\vs to a height of from 
4 to 20 feet.f Bark smooth, whitish. Buds conical, silky; leaves all scattered, 
oblong, oval, or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, thickish, shining green above and bluish- 
white beneath, evergreen southward, deciduous northward. Inflorescence solitary 
and terminal ; flowers globular, white, very fragrant. Sepals 3, oblong, scaphoid. 
Petals 6 to 9, erect, broadly ovate, and narrowed at the base. Stamens numerous, 
imbricated; filaments short; anthers long, adnate, introrse. Pistils coherent in a 
mass aggregated upon the elongated torus. Fruit oblong, conical, small, and 
rather ligneous ; carpels many, dehiscing by a longitudinal dorsal suture ; seeds 
I to 2 in each carpel, baccate, vermilion, hanging from the bursted carpels by an 
extenuate thread composed of spiral vessels ; endocarp bony. 

Magnoliaceae. — This small but magnificent family of trees and shrubs, repre- 
sented in North America by 4 genera and i i species, is characterized by having: 
the biids covered by membranous stipules ; leaves alternate, coriaceous, pinnately 
veined, entire, and punctate with minute pellucid dots. Floivcrs single, laro-e, 
polypetalous, the calyx and corolla colored alike, in aestivation generally imbricate 
in 3 or more rows of 3, all deciduous. Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; filaments 
short ; aiithers long, adnate, introrse. Pistils many, coherent, generally closely 
packed together over the prolonged receptacle ; styles short or none ; stigmas 
simple. Fruit a fleshy, or dry cone, composed of many coherent carpels. Seeds 
I to 2 in each carpel, anatropous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo minute, basal. 

* In honor of Professor Magnol, a botanist of the 17th century, at Montpellier. 

f Mr. Brilton observed, in Manahawken Swamp, Ocean Co., N. J., an individual with a diameter of trunk of 32.25 inches, 
whose rings showed a growth of 150 years. 



^2-2 

The only other proven drug of this order is the Asiatic Star-anise {^Illicmm 
anisatum, Linn.), an aromatic and carminative, often substituted in general practice 
for the true Aniseed, the fruit of an umbelliferous plant. The South American 
Winter's Bark, from Wintera arornatica, Murr., is used in Brazil as an aromatic 
tonic, especially though in colic. The North American Illiciiim floridanuiti, Ellis, 
is reputed to have an action similar to that of aromatic tonics in general ; and the 
Tulip Tree [Lmodendron Tulipifera, Linn.) yields a bark that is at once bitter and 
aromatic, much valued as a stimulating tonic and diaphoretic in intermittents and 
chronic rheumatism ; it should be proven. The Javanese Aromadendron elegans 
has a native reputation as a carminative, stomachic, and antihysteric ; and the 
wood oi Manglietia glatica is supposed to be antiputrefactive, therefore it is used 
by the inhabitants of the island for the manufacture of coffins. Several other 
genera furnish aromatic and bitter tonic barks, many of which are used by the 
natives of the countries in which they grow. 

History and Habitat. — The Sweet Magnolia is indigenous to North America, 
from Cape Ann and Long Island southward. At first it keeps to the seaboard, 
but gradually extends inland the farther south it is found. It grows in swamps, 
and expands its fragrant flowers from May (southward) to June and August. 

The use of the fresh bark, cones, and seeds of this species, together with 
those of M. grandiflora, acuminata, tripetala, and macrophylla, has descended to 
the laity and general practitioner from the Aborigines, who employed a warm 
decoction of the bark and cones extensively against rheumatism, and a cold infu- 
sion as an antiperiodic. The fresh bark has long been considered as a bitter, 
aromatic tonic, febrifuge, diaphoretic, antiperiodic and gentle laxative, in acute 
coryzas, bronchial catarrhs, chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia, remittent and inter- 
mittent fevers and typhoid states, being deemed contraindicated, however, if 
inflammation be present. The odor of the cut flowers, especially at night in a 
close room, is very penetrating, unpleasant, and to some insupportable, causing, 
in susceptible persons, a great oppression of the chest and vertigo. Dr. Wm. 
Barton " imputed to the odor the power of increasing the pain of inflammatory 
gout, and occasioning an exacerbation of a diurnal fever."* It is thoroughly 
believed in the South that a growth of magnolias in stagnant waters renders them 
pure and prevents the generation of malarial poisons. 

The bark is still officinal in the U. S. Ph. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh flowers are chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol 
added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered vial and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture thus prepared 
should, after filtration, have a deep brownish-red color by transmitted light, a per- 
fume much like the wilted flowers, an acrid and bitter taste, and an acid reaction. 

* W. p. C. Barton, Med. Bot. loc. cit. 



12-3 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The flowers have not been examined ; they 
probably, however, contain a volatile oil at least. The b^^rk of AL g7'andiflora was 
examined by Dr. Procter,* who found a volatile oil, resin, and a crystalline principle 
resembling liriodendnne. 

Magnolin. — This bitter principle was extracted from the fruit of M. umbrella 
by W'allace Procter, 1S72, as acicular crystals, having a bitter taste. They are 
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and chloroform, melt at 8o°-82° (176°- 
179.6° F.), and emit white vapors at 125° (257° F.), which condense in oily drops, 
consisting partly of the original principle and of resin. (Wittstein.) 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The effects of the odor of the flowers, as 
reported by Drs. Barton. S. A. Jones,t and T. F. Allen,J are: Great uneasiness 
and oppression of the chest, with an inability to expand the lungs, a feeling as 
if having swallowed a large bolus of unmasticated food which distressed the 
stomach, and a tendency to fainting. Showing thus a dilation of the vascular 
system so commonly following the insufflation of strongly odorous flowers in 
susceptible persons. Magnolia certainly deserves a careful proving of the fresh 
bark and flowers ; the flotcers alone can hardly add to our medicamentse while we 
have Cactus erandiflorus. 



Description of Plate 12. 

I. End of a flowering branch, Landisville, N. J., July 3(1, 1885. 

2. Stamen. 

3. Section of a carpel. 

4. Fruit. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



* Am. your. Phar., 1842, p. 89. \ Am. Horn. Obs., June, 1875. \ Encyc. Pure Mat. Med., vi., 142. 



15. 




4 3 



/.TU.iilnaiileletpinxt. 



AsiMiNA Triloba, Dunai 



N. ORD -ANONACE^. 13 

GENUS.— AS I M I N A ,* ADANS. 
SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA I'ULYGYNIA. 



ASIMINA TRILOBA. 



PA WPA W. 



SYN.- ASIMINA TRILOBA, DUNAL. ; ASIMINA CAMPANIFLOBA, SPACH. ; 

ANNONA TRILOBA, LINN. ; ORCHIDOCARPUM ARIETINUM, MICHX. ; 

PORCELIA TRILOBA, PERS. ; UVABIA TRILOBA, TORR. AND GRAY. 
COM. NAMES.— PAWPAW, PAPAW,+ AMERICAN CUSTARD-APPLE; (FR.) 

ASIMINIER ; (GER.) DREILAPPIGE ASIMINE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF ASIMINA TRILOBA, DUNAL. 

Description. — This curious-fruited tree attains a height of from lo to 30 feet, 
with about the same diameter of foHage. Bark smooth, grayish. Leaves long, 
thin, and membraneous, entire, oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, and are 
covered with a rusty-hairiness upon the nether surface when first expanding, but 
soon become entirely glabrous. Inflorescence solitary in the a.xils of the previous 
year's leaves ; flowers dull purple, appearing with, or just before, the leaves. Sepals 
3, ovate, much shorter than the petals. Petals 6, spreading, veiny, rounded-ovate, 
their upper third more or less recurved ; they are arranged in two rows, the outer 
larger, all enlarging after anthesis. Stamens indefinite, arranged in a globular 
head, thus concealing the ovaries and styles. Pistils few, their stigmas projecting 
beyond the stamens than which they are longer. Fruits 1-4, developed from each 
flower, they are oblong, rounded, pulpy, several-seeded, and resemble in shape 
the shorter red bananas. Seeds oval, horizontal, flattish-compressed, and sur- 
rounded by a fleshy aril. 

AnonaceaB. — This chiefly tropical order consists of trees or s/inibs having 
naked buds and aromatic or fetid bark. Leaves alternate, entire, pinnate-veined, 
and usually punctate ; stipules wanting. ^-Estivation V2i\vu\3ir \ floivers \3ir^(t, duW 
colored. Sepals 3, often connected at the base. Petals 6, thick, arranged in two 
rows. Torus rounded, hypogynous ; stamens numerous or indefinite ; filaments 
very short, sometimes just perceptible ; anthers adnate, extrorse ; connectivum 
fleshy, somewhat quadrangular, often nectariferous. Pistils numerous, crowded, 
and sometimes coherent, especially in fruit; styles short or wanting ; stiginas sim- 
ple, capitellate. Fruit fleshy or pulpy ; seeds anatropous, one or more in each 
ovary; testa brittle; embryo basal, minute; albumen hard, ruminated. 

* Asiminier, the name applied by the French Colonists. 

f This name more properly applies to the West Indian Carica Papaya (Papay-iceKr). 



i3-2 

The plants of this family are not generally considered medicinal, but Blume 
states that many species of the genera Uvaria, Unona, and Zylopia are employed 
in Java, but require caution, as they often cause vertigo, hemorrhage, and some- 
times abortion in pregnant states.* The South American Frtitta de Burro {Xylopia 
longifolia) is termed by Humboldt a valuable fruit, for use as a febrifuge, along the 
river Orinoco. Piper A^tJiiopicurn is the seed of HabzeliaAithiopica; another 
species of the same genus (//. aroniaticd) being used by the natives of Guiana as 
a spice. The Jamaica nutmeg {Monodora myristica) is said to be similar to, but 
not so pungent as, the nutmeg of commerce {Myiistica moscJiatd). Jamaica bit- 
terwood (^Xylopia glabra) is considered tonic and stimulant.-j- To the arts this 
order furnishes Jamaica Lancewood [Guatieria virgaia), useful on account of its 
lightness and elasticity, in the manufacture of coaches, fishing-rods, and bows. 
Succulent fruits are yielded by Anncna Cherimolia (Cherimoyer), and Anona squa- 
mosa (Custard-apple). 

History and Habitat. — The common pawpaw is indigenous to the central 
belt of the United States from Western New York to the Mississippi and south- 
ward. It locates along streams where the soil is rich and frosts late. This small 
tree is a native, especially of the Ohio valley, where it flowers from March to May, 
according to the season. It is grown in a protected place in Central Park, New 
York City, but is not hardy north of Cincinnati. The fruit, when ripe, is soft, 
sweet, and insipid, having a taste somev/hat between that of the May-apple and 
the banana, tending to the former. It was greatly prized by the aborigines, — who 
eagerly sought anything edible in the vegetable world — and now is occasionally 
exposed for sale in city markets. When green they have a very unpleasant odor, 
and are only fit to eat after having been touched by frost, when they turn from 
yellowish-green to black, and become internally of the color and consistence of 
custard.J It is claimed that they improve greatly in size, taste, and succulency 
upon cultivation. Three other species : A. grandiflora, A. parinflora, and A. 
pygmcea complete the genus north of Mexico. 

The former uses of this plant in medicine are of litde or no importance. A 
tincture of the seed proves emetic ; the bark being bitter has been considered 
tonic and stimulant. The chemical properties and physiological action have never 
been — to my knowledge — determined. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The coarsely powdered, fresh, ripe 
seeds are covered with five parts by weight of alcohol, and allowed to remain 
eight days in a well-stoppered bottle in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture thus prepared is filtered off It has a clear, pale, canary color 
by transmitted light ; an astringent straw-like taste ; an odor somewhat like that 
of the red raspberry, and a slight acidity. 

All that is known of the medicinal power of this drug is a proving by Dr. 

* Lindley, Floy. Med., p. 29. f Idem, pp. 27-S. % Whence the name "American Custard-apple." 



i3-3 

Eisenboeg.* A preparation from the seeds, bark, and green fruit might prove of 
more utihty, and possess greater power of action. 

Description ok Plate 13. 

I. End of a flowering branch (several blossoms missing) from North Bend, Ohio, May 15th, 1884. 

2. Calyx and torus, after removal of the stamens. 

3. A stamen (enlarged). 

4. Pollen X 250. 

5. Fruit and full-grown leaf. 

6. Seed and opened aril. 

Drawn from living specimens received from Ohio through the kindness of Mr. R. PI. Warder, son of the late Dr. 
John A. Warder, President of the American Forestry Association, 1881. 



* Allen, Ency Pure Mai. Med., Vol. I, p. 498-9. 




(S^m.adnatdeletpinxt MENISP^RMUM CANAD^NSE, Linn 



jii^tmtsim 



N. ORD.-MENISPERMACE/E. 14 

GENUS.— M E N I S P E R M U M ,* LIXX. 
SEX. SVST.— DI(KCI.\ POI.V.\M)RI.\. 



MENISPERMUM. 

YELLOIJ' PA RILL J. 



SYN.— MENISPERMUM CANADENSE, LINN.; M. ANGULATUM, MCEN. ; M. 

SMILACINUM, D. C. ; CISSAMPELOS SMILACINA, LINN. 
COM. NAMES.— YELLOW PARILLA, CANADIAN MOONSEED, TEXAS OR 

YELLOW SARSAPARILLA, MAPLE VINE. 



A -J-INCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF MENISPERMUM CANADENSE, L. 

Description. — This perennial climber reaches a length of from 8 to 15 feet. 
J^oo/ cylindrical, long, yellow ; s/e?u slender. Leaves ample, peltate, with the inser- 
tion of the petiole near the base, 3 to 7 lobed or angled ; [ohcs obtuse or more or 
less acute; ve)iation palmate, the veins pubescent below; pdioles about the length 
of the leaves. Inflorescence in long, supra-axillary compound racemes or panicles. 
Sepals 4 to 8, obovate-oblong, arranged in a double series. Petals 6 to 8, small, 
somewhat cuneate, fleshy, with a thickened free margin. Stamens 12 to 20 (in the 
sterile flowers), as long as the petals ; filaments hardly thickened at the summit; 
anthers innate, 4-celled. Pistils 2 to 4 (in the fertile flowers), raised upon a 
short, common torus, usually perfecting but two drupes ; stio7nas flattened. Fruit 
a globose- reniform, black, and stipitate drupe, furnished with a bloom, and retain- 
ing the mark of the stigma ; nutlet more or less lunate, wrinkled and grooved, 
laterally flattened ; embryo slender, horseshoe-shaped ; cotyledons filiform. 

Menispermaceae. — This goodly-sized family of tropical or sub-tropical, woody 
climbers, is represented in North America by but 3 genera and 6 species. Leaves 
alternate, palmate or peltate ; stipules none. Inflorescence in axillary racemes or 
panicles ; floivers small, monoecious, dioecious or polygamous ; (estivation imbricate. 
Sepals arranged in two or more rows, deciduous. Petals usually equal in number 
to the sepals, hypogynous. Stamens monadelphous or separate, equal in number to 
the petals and opposite them, or from 2 to 4 times as many, adnate or innate, com- 
posed of 4 horizontal ovoid lobes arranged tip to base, and opening longitudinally 
(apparently horizontal. See Fig. 6). Pistils 3 to 6; ovaries several, united or 
separate, nearly straight; stigmas apical, but looking downward in fruit on account 
of the incurving of the ripening ovaries. Fniit 2^ i -celled drupe; seeds i in each 
cell ; embryo large, long and curved, surrounded by the albumen ; albumen scanty. 

Our only proven plant of this order, beside Menispermum, is the Indian 
Cocculus Indicus {Anamirta paniculata. Cole), a narcotico-poison, used by the 

* Mqi'i), mene, moon ; mlpfta, sperma, seed ; the seed being lunate in shape. 



14-2 

natives to stupefy fish, and supposedly in this country and Europe to give bitter- 
ness to malt liquors. 

Many other species are used in medicine, of which the following hold a more 
or less permanent place: The Brazilian Pareira brava, the roots of Clionodi-odciidron 
to7ucntos2iiu, R. et P., a tonic and diuretic, considered almost specific in its action 
upon the mucous membranes of the genito-urinary tract; the Indian Gulancha 
{Tinospora cordifolia, Miers.), a valuable tonic, antiperiodic and diuretic; the 
African Columbo [yateorhiza Cohimba, Miers.), a bitter stomachic and mild tonic, 
often used with good effect In vomiting of pregnancy and atonic dyspepsia; the 
West-Indian False Pareira brava [Cissn?>ipclos Fareira, Linn.), more often used 
than the true article for the purposes mentioned. The root of the Crayor and 
Senegal Coccidiis Bakis, GuilL, is used by the natives in the treatment of their 
intermittents and m urethral discharges; the root of the Cochin-China C. Jibraiirea, 
I ). C, is used like the former, and also in various liver aft'ections ; C. cincrasccns 
and A. platyphyllus, St. Hil., command the same attention by the Brazilians ; 
while the Javanese use C. ci'ispus, D. C , which is powerfully bitter, in like troubles. 
Coccu'ais acumiiiatus, D. C, is considered ale.xiteric in Brazil. The Malabar and 
Ceylon Clypea Bm-manni, W. and A., is employed, according to Lindley, in inter- 
mittents and hepatic disturbances, as well as a remedy against dysentery and 
hemorrhoids. Cissavipelos ova/ifolia, D. C, in Brazil, and AbiUa rufcsccns, Aubl, 
in Guayana are used, like most of the members of this order, as a remedy in 
intermittents and obstruction of the liver. 

History and Habitat. — The Canadian Moonseed is indigenous to North 
America, where it is quite common on the banks of streams from Canada south- 
ward to the Carolinas and westward to the Mississippi. 

Our first knowledge of this plant as a remedy was undoubtedly handed down 
from the Aborigines, who are said by Rafinesque to have used the root in scrofu- 
losis ; the early settlers also found it useful as a diuretic in strangury in horses. 
Its employment generall)' by early practidoners has been very similar to that 
of Sarsaparilla, /'. <?., in mercurial, syphilitic, scrofulous and rheumatic diatheses ; 
also as a laxative and tonic In general debility, atonic dyspepsia and kindred dis- 
orders ; and as a remedy in pleural adhesions and inflammation of the alimentative 
mucous membranes. 

Menlspermum was admitted to the U. S. Ph. at the last revision, the rhizome 
and roodets being now officinal. In the Eclectic Materia Medica its preparations 
are : Decoctwn Meiiispermi, Menispermin, and as a component of Syrupiis Rnmecis 
Covipositus* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root Is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one sixth part of It and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After stirring the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered botde and let It stand 
eight days in a dark, cool place. 



* Yellowdock root ; False-bittersweet, root bark ; American ivy bark; Figwort; and Moonseed root. 



14-3 
The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, is opaque ; in thin layers 
it has a deep madder-lake color by transmitted light; a bitterish odor; an acid, 
bitter and astrint^ent taste ; and acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Berberina. Prof J. M. Maisch, who first 
investigated this root,=^ found a small quantity of this alkaloid, the nature of which 
is detailed in the next drug, page 15-2. He also found a second alkaloid, which 
was afterward named 

Menispermine.t — A white, amorphous, tasteless alkaloid, insoluble in water, 
slighdy soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform. 

Menispine.t — This second specific alkaloid, determined by Barber in his 
analysis, differs in solubility and tests from both oxyca}ithine\ and mcnispcnnine. 
It resulted as a whitish, amorphous, very bitter powder, slighdy soluble in water, 
ether and chloroform, and very soluble in absolute alcohol. Tincture of iodine 
gives a dark-red precipitate with this body, and with mcuisperminc, a yellow 
precipitate. 

Menispermo-tannic Acid.|| — This specific tannin gives a dark-green color 
with ferric chloride. 

Two yellowish resins, one soluble in ether, and the general constituents of 
plants, were also determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Prof. E. M. Hale's e.xperiments with from 35 
drops upward of a tincture of the root, and various doses of the "resinoid" meiiis- 
pci'iniiic, resulted as follows : Temporal and occipital headache, with stretching and 
yawning, and fullness of the head; swollen tongue; salivation; dryness of the 
buccal mucous membranes and of the throat ; nausea ; thirst ; colic ; rectal tenes- 
mus ; scanty, high-colored urine; aching of the extremities; itching of the skin; 
restlessness and troubled sleep. 

Excessive doses cause an increase in the rate and volume of the pulse, and 
excessive vomiting and purging. The action of the drug is that of an irritant to 
the nerves governing the alimentary tract, resulting in increased secretions from 
the mucous membranes. 

Description of Plate 14. 

I. Part of male flowering stem, Ithaca, N. Y., June 24th, 1885. 
2. End of stem. 
<,. Staminate flower. 

4. Sepal. 

5. Petal. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Female flower. 

8. Carpel. 

9. Outline of a leaf. 
(3-8 enlarged.) 



* Am. your. Pilar., 1863, 303. t H- ^- Barber, Am. Jour. Phar., 1884, 401. 

% Name proposed by Prof. Maisch, Ibui. J See page 15-2. || Barber, tbU. 




uJTR.adnal.del.et pinxt 



Berberis Vulgaris, Linn. 



N. ORD-BERBERIDACE/E. 15 

GEMS — B E R B E R I S,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— HEXANDRIA .NKi.NuL.V.MA. 



BERBER IS. 



BARBERRY. 



SYN.-BERBERIS VULGARIS, LINN.; BERBERIS VULGARIS, VAR. CAN- 
ADENSIS, TORR., SPINA ACIDA; BERBERIS DUMETORUM, RAIL 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON BARBERRY, BERBERRY; (FR.) EPINE VINETTE ; 
(GER.) SAURDORN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT B.\RK OF BERBERIS VULGARIS, LINN. 

Description. — This attractive, bushy shrub grows to a height of from 3 to 8 
feet ; the stem-wood, inner-bark and pith are yellow. Leaves inversely efo-- 
shaped, short-petioled, closely serrate, and bristly-toothed. Occurrincr either 
singly or in a dense fascicle above the spines, they are of a cold-green color and 
very acid ; spines triple, branched or sometimes simple, minutely maculate and 
surrounded by the rosette of leaves. Inflorescence long, drooping, many-flowered 
racemes, of pale yellow flowers. Bractlcts 2 to 6, situate about the base of the 
calyx. Sepals 6, deciduous, rounded, the outer three smaller. Petals 6, entire, 
obovate, concave, with two minute, oblong, deeper-colored glandular spots at the 
base, inside and above the short claw. Stamens 6, \h€\T filajitents ligulate, blunt, 
opposite the petals, but shorter and attached to their bases; anthers adnate. 
Pistil about the length of the stamens ; ovary more or less inflated-cylindrical ; 
style rarely present, very short ; stig7na short, flattened, sessile or nearly so. 
Fruit a one- to nine-seeded, oblong, scarlet, sour berry, evenly depressed in the 
median diameter ; seeds erect on a short stalk rising from the base of the cell, 
oblong, with a crust-like integument. 

BerberidacesB. — Shrubs or herbs with alternate leaves and perfect flowers. 
Sepals 3 to 9, deciduous, often colored and furnished with a calyculus of petal-like 
scales, all together with the petals imbricate in two or more rows in eestivation 
(Jeffersonia with a single row). Petals as many as the sepals. Stamens hypogy- 
nous, equal in number to the petals and opposite them (Podophyllum) twice as 
many) ; yf/rt;;/^«/i' short ; anther sextrorse, opening (except Podophyllum) by two 
valves or hinged lids at the top. Pistil only one, ovary simple, solitary; style 
short or wanting ; stigma flattened. Fruit a capsule or berry with either a few 
seeds at the top or bottom of the cell, or many, situated along the whole extent of 
the ventral ridge; all anatropous, and furnished with albumen; embryo small 
(Berberis excepted). 

♦ From Amyrberis, Arabic for the fruit. 



15-2 

History and Habitat. — Berberis was well known to the ancients as a medicine, 
a dietetic for the sick, and a dye. As a drug it was steeped in beer and given 
to patients suffering from jaundice, as well as to check hemorrhages; as a food 
preparation for the sick, the berries were made into a confection, and used as a 
refrigerant in fevers and burning gastric ailments ; those not sick used the bruised 
leaves in a manner similar to sorrel as a sauce for meats ; as a dye, the roots were 
steeped with strong ash-lye, and used to give the hair a yellow color. The 
same preparation is now sometimes used to dye wool, while by using alum, in place 
of the ash-lye, it makes a good as well as a beautiful dye ior linen fabrics. A 
jelly made of the berries is still used in lieu of tamarinds as a pleasant refrigerant^ 
as so also is a confection. Its popular use as a remedy — barberry bark and cider 
— was held in all forms of abdominal inflammation, but especially those accom- 
panied with hepatic derangement and jaundice. 

Berberis vulgaris is indigenous to Great Britain and other parts of Europe, 
and is becoming quite thoroughly naturalized here, especially in the Eastern 
States, blossoming from May to June. It is cultivated in many parts of the coun- 
try as an ornamental bush, on account of its beautiful berries. Our own species, 
B. Canadensis, Pursk., is a shrub about three feet high, with /ess bristly teeth to the 
leaves, a few-flowered raceme, petals notched at the ape.x, and oval berries. In 
Berberis proper, upon the summer shoots may be seen a perfect instance of 
gradation, in all forms, from the leaf as described above, to a fully-developed 
spine, a fine instance of vegetable morphology. The leaves of the barberry 
are at times, especially in Europe, infested with a peculiar blight; ^cidium Ber- 
beridis (Microspheria Berberidis ; Lysiphe Berberides) a member of the coniomy- 
cetous fungi; order, uredinei. It consists in its full-grown condition of little cups 
filled with a reddish or brownish powder (spores), formed by a bulging upward 
and bursting of the epidermis of the leaf, by the parasite developed within. This 
blight caused much fear at one time in Europe, upon the supposition that it was 
communicated to grain, which however was very probably false. 

Berberis, like many other excellent remedies, has been dismissed this year 
(1882) from the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia Medica it is still retained, 
though not in an officinal preparation. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the root. This is 
coarstly powdered and weighed. Then after adding two parts by weight .of 
alcohol the whole is put into a well-stoppered botde and allowed to stand eight 
days in a dark, cool place, shaking the contents twice a day; the tincture is then 
strained and filtered. Thus prepared, it has a deep orange-brown color by trans- 
mitted light ; and stains the neck of the botde yellow. It has an extremely bitter 
taste, and a slight acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Berberin, C,, H,, NO,. This alkaloid was 
first discovered in 1824, in the bark of Geoffroya inermis,* two years afterward in 
the bark of Xanthoxylum lava Herculis,f in 1851 in the root of Hydrastis 
Canadensis,! and in 1835 in the bark of Berberis vulgaris ;§ yet, it is only lately 

* Jamaicin. | Xanthropicrit. % Hydrastin. g Berberin. 



15-3 

that its true properties were recogriized. It exists in a number of other plants, 
among which of particular interest to us are Coplis trifoliata, Caulophyllum, and 
Xanthorrhiza. Berberin crystallizes in fine yellow needles of a strong and per- 
sistent bitter taste, losing water at ioo° (212° F.), and fusing at 120° (248° F.) to 
a reddish-brown resinoid, decomposing at higher heat. Berberin is soluble in 
water and alcohol. 

Oxyacanthin,-^^ C,, H^„ N, O,, (Berbina \'inetina). This bitter alkaloid exists 
together with the berberin in the root. It is a non-crystallizable, white, electric 
powder, but will form in needles upon the addition of ether or alcohol ; it turns 
yellow by exposure in sunlight, has an alkaline reaction, loses 3.13 per cent, weight 
upon exposure to 100° (212° F.), fuses at 139° (282°. 2 F.), and like berberin de- 
composes upon subjection to higher temperatures. It is soluble in both water and 
alcohol, though not freely. (Et supra W'ittstein.) 

The acidity of the leaves and fruit is due to the presence of oxalic acid. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Berberis in moderate doses produces fever- 
ishness, inflammation of the mucous membranes from the throat to the intes- 
tines, and dysentery. It causes also a high degree of inflammation of the 
kidneys with hematuria. It seems to act with much force upon the venous 
system, causing pelvic engorgements and hemorrhoids. Its use in early medicine 
was purely symptomatic. The action as above given refers to man ; upon animals 
no such effects appear to follow, even though experiments were made with the 
alkaloid Berberin. 

Description of Plate 15. 

I. End of branch in flower, with old leaves, Salem, Mass., June 4, 1S80. 

2. Flower (enlarged). 

3. Fruit. 

4. Stamen ("enlarged). 

5. Petal (enlarged, showing glands). 



Cralegus oxyacantha conl.iins m\ .Tlk.Tloiil by this name. 



16. 




^m.adnafdeletpiittt CAULOPHV'LLUM THALICTROiOES, Micb 



N. ORD -BERBERIDACE^. 16 

GKNUS.— C AULOPHYLLUM,* MICHX. 



-IIEXANDKIA MONDGVMA. 



CAULOPHYLLUM. 



BLUE COHOSH. 



SYN.— CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES, MICHX. ; LEONTICB THALICT- 
ROIDBS, LINN. ; LEONTOPETALON THALICTROIDES, HILL. 

COM. NAMES.— BLUE COHOSH, PAPPOOSE-ROOT, SQUAW-ROOT,t BLUB 
BERRY.t BLUE GINSENG, YELLOW GINSENG; (FR.) COHOCHE BLEU; 
(GER.) BLAU COHOSCH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES, 

MICHX. 

Description. — This erect, perennial herb, attains a growth of from i to 2]/i 
feet. Root horizontal or contorted, wrinkled and branched, showing many up- 
right nodules, bearing at their summits the scars of previous stems, and giving 
off numerous cylindrical, branching rootlets from the older portions. Siem sim- 
ple, glaucous when young, smooth when old, arising from several imbricate, 
membraneous scales. Leaves large, triternately decompound, the upper much 
smaller and biternate (pi. 1 6, fig. i ) ; leaflets 2 to 3 lobed, obtusely wedge-shape at 
the base ; petioles blending with the stem in such a manner as to render their 
junction almost obscure. Inflorescence a loose raceme or panicle ; peduncle aris- 
ing from the base of the upper leaf; floiuers purplish or yellowish-green. Sepals 
6, oval-oblong, with 3 small bracdets at the base. Petals 6, gland-like, with a 
short claw and a somewhat reniform or hooded body, the whole much smaller 
than the sepals, at the base of which they are inserted. Stamens 6, overlaying, 
and about the same length as the petals; anthers oblong, 2-celled, the cells open- 
ing by uplifting valves. Pistils gibbous; ^:'(z;^ resembling the anthers in form, 
2-celled; style short, apical; stigma minute, unilateral. Fruit a 2-seeded pod; 
epicarp thin, papyraceous, bursting and withering before fertilization is complete, 
leaving the naked seeds to farther develop upon their erect, thick funiculi ; peri- 
carp fleshy, deep blue; albumen corneous; embryo minute, apical. Read descrip- 
tion of the natural order, under Berberis, 15. 

History and Habitat. — The Blue Cohosh is indigenous to the United States, 
growing abundantly in moist, rich woods, from Canada southward to Kentucky 

» Ka'>X4;, kaulos, a stem; and ^iWtv, phyllon, a leaf, the stem resembling the petiole of a large leaf. 

t The true squaw-root is Conopholis Amtritana, Wall. (Orobanchaceac). 

\ This vulgarism properly belongs to several species of Vaccinium (EricacesE). 



16-2 

and the Carolinas. It blossoms from April to May, before the full development 
of the leaves. The berries are mawkish, insipid, and without special flavor. The 
seeds are said to resemble coffee when roasted. 

The aborigines found in Caulophyllum their most valuable parturient; an 
infusion of the root, drank as tea, for a week or two preceding confinement, ren- 
dering delivery rapid and comparatively painless. They also used the root as a 
remedy for rheumatism, dropsy, uterine inflammation, and colic (Raf). These 
uses have been proven reliable by all methods of practice since. 

The root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. The preparations in the Eclectic Ma- 
teria Medica are : Exlractiun Caidophylli Alcoholiciim, Resina Caulophylli, and 
Tinctura Caulophylli Composiia* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered in early spring, 
should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight 
of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the 
rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, and pouring it into a 
well-stoppered botde, allow it to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, obtained from the above mass by filtration, should have a deep 
orange-red color, by transmitted light, a taste at first sharp and penetrating, then 
sweetish, an acid reaction, and should foam largely on succussion. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— 5^/^«/;?. This body was discovered in the 
roots of Caulophyllum by Prof Mayer. A. E. Ebertf corroborates the discovery, 
and adds the presence of two resins, one soluble in alcohol and ether, the other 
not soluble in ether. 

Caulophyllin. — The mass sold under this name is a mixture of the resins, 
extracted by simply pouring the partly-evaporated alcoholic tincture into water. 

Ebert determined also gum, starch, and a greenish-yellow coloring-matter, 
beside the general plant constituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The dust of the powdered root is extremely 
irritating to the mucous membranes with which it comes in contact, so much so 
that the Lloyds say,J " workmen dislike to handle it, some even preferring capsi- 
cum." This irritation follows the administration of the drug throughout the body, 
but especially upon the female generative organs. It also exhibits the power of 
causing contractions of both voluntary and involuntary muscular fibres, the latter 
showmg in the gravid uterus especially ; here it does not cause the long-lasting 
contractions of ergot, but intermittent and more successful ones. Its spasmodic 
action on general muscles is somewhat chorea-like. Caulophyllum also causes 
many forms of constant pains in the small joints, as well as fleeting rheumatic 
pains in the extremities. There is hardly an American remedy in our Materia 

* Caulophyllum, Secale, Polygonum, and Oil of Sabina. 

t Am. your. Phar., 1S64, p. 203. 

X " Berberidacea:;' C. G. and J. U. Lloyd, 1S7S. 



16-3 

Medica that needs, and probably merits, a more thoroii;^h proving, upon females 
especially, than Caulophylkim ; and the sooner it is done, the better able will we 
be to cope with many of our most obstinate uterine cases. 



Description of Plaie i6. 

1. Summit of flowering plant, Ithaca, N. Y., April iSth, iS8o. 

2. Root, rootlet, sheathing scales, and stem. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. .\n enlarged sepal, showing the gland-like petal (enlarged). 

5. Under surface of sepal, showing bract (enlarged). 

6. Pistil (enlarged). 

7. Stamen (enlarged), showing open anther-cell. 

8. Pollen X 200 (3 views). 

9. Section of the root. 




/.Tll.iilnatdel.etpinxt 



Podophyllum Peltatum, Linn 



<^. 



N. ORD.-BERBERIDACE^. 17 

G1:NT S — P O D O P H Y L L U M ,* LINNT. 

SEX. SVST.— POI.VANDRIA MONOGVNIA. 



PODOPHYLLUM. 



MA Y- APPLE. 



SYN.— PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM, LINN.; ANAPODOPHYLLUM CANA- 
DBNSE, CATESBY; ACONITIFOLIUS HUMILIS, Etc., MENTZ. 

COM. NAMES.— MAY-APPLE, INDIAN-APPLE, HOG- APPLE, WILD LEMON, 
DUCK'S FOOT, WILD JALAP, PEC A, RACCOON -BERRY, MAN- 
DRAKE ; t (FR.) PODOPHYLLE; (GER.) FUSSBLATT, SCHILDBLATT- 
IGER ENTENFUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM, LINN. 

Description.— This well-known plant grows to a height of from 8 to i8 inches. 
Root perennial, horizontal, extending several feet ; the annual growths are from 
I to 3 inches in length, distinguishable by the scars of previous stems ; they are 
cylindrical, from J/^ to i^ inches in diameter, and give off a few, nearly simple, 
fibrous rootlets. Steffis single, simple, erect, and rounded, the flowerless ones 
surmounted by a single 7 to 9 lobed leaf, round in its general outline, peltate in 
the centre, and somewhat resembling an umbrella ; the flowering stems generally 
bifurcated at the summit, thus bearing two leaves, with a flower, at the bifurcation. 
Leaves of the flowering stems 2, somewhat one-sided and deeply lobed, the lobes 
variously incised and toothed ; drooping at the edges, and strongly marked by the 
prominent roundish ribs below. Lujloresccnce a single, drooping, pedunculated 
flower, generally in the fork of the stem, but sometimes varying gready in its 
location. J Calyx during the prefloral stage, with three fugacious green bractlets 
at its base; sepals 6, breaking off from the peduncle as the bud expands, never 
appearing upon the flower except when, by accident, one of them clings to and 
deforms a petal. Petals either 6 or 9, obovate, creamy-white, and fleshy. Stamens 
generally 12 to 18, twice as many as the ^(ttaXs \ Jilaments short; anthers large, 
flattened, opening extrorsely by a single longitudinal line, thus forming what 
might be termed two lateral valves, hinged upon the inner surface ; pollen shaped 
like grains of rice, and furnished with three comparatively deep sulci. Pistil sim- 
ple ; ovary more or less ovoid, i -celled; ovules many, situated in many rows upon 
a broad, lateral placenta, extending the whole length of the cell ; style not mani- 
fest ; stigma more or less peltate-globose, composed of a number of fleshy lobes 

* noS,-, /o«i, a foot; •piyyi'^, fhyllon, a leaf. Probably from a supposed likeness of the leaf to the webbed foot o( 
some aquatic bird. 

t The true mandrake is Atropa mandragora ; habitat, south of Europe. 
X See article by Foerste, Bull. Ton: Club, 1884. p. 63. 



17-2 

closely set, each resembling a half meat of the hickory-nut. Fruit an egg-shaped, 
yellow edible berry, i to 2 inches long, irregularly blotched, and retaining the 
withered stigma, or is marked by its scar ; seeds enclosed within a copious, pulpy 
arillus ; embryo minute, situated at the base of the fleshy albumen. 

History and Habitat.— The May-apple is indigenous throughout the United 
States, growing profusely upon wet meadows and in damp, open woods ; it flowers 
in May, and fruits in August. The apples, when fully ripe, are gathered, especially 
by children, who seem to relish their sweet, mawkish taste. I have also seen them 
exposed for sale in markets, though catharsis often follows indulgence in them, 
and, to susceptible persons, it is often quite severe. The fruit tastes somewhat 
like that of the paw-paw [Asiviina triloba), and is much esteemed by the abo- 
rigines. The odor of the flowers is nauseous; I am always forcibly reminded 
of a bad case of ozasna when inhaling their perfume (?). The foliage and stems, 
when appearing in spring, have been used for a potherb, and in some cases with 
fatal results. Only one species of Podophyllum is recognized in this country, 
although Rafinesque has mentioned two others, together with ten named varieties. 
There is, however, one other species of this genus growing in the mountains of 
Nepaul, the Podophylliim hexandnun. 

This plant constitutes one of the principal remedies used by the American 
aborigines, by whom it is especially valued on account of its cathartic action. 
Their use of the drug as an anthelmintic seems to be successful only as far as 
purging is concerned ; specifically, it has no anthelmintic power. Tlie use of podo- 
phyllum as a component of cathartic pills is very general. 

The officinal preparations of the U. S. Ph. are : Abstractztm Bodophylli, Ex- 
tractum Podop/iylli, Exli-actjim Podophylli Fhiidiim, and Rcsina Podophylli ; the 
Eclectic: Decoctum Podophylli, Tinelura Podophylli and Podophyllin, and as a 
component of Emplastrum Picis Compositum, Pilulcp Aloes Compositte, Tinetura 
Corydalis Coinp., Pihdce Baptisics Composita, Pilulce Copaiba Composites, Pilules 
Ferri Composites, Pilulee Leptandrini Composites, Pihdcs Podop:hyllini Covipositee, 
Piilvis Lcptandidiii Composilus, and Ptilvis Podophyllini Compositits. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root should be procured 
after the fruiting season, and chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then take two parts by weight of alcohol, mix the pulp thoroughly with one- 
sixth part of it, and add the rest. After stirring the whole well pour it into a 
well-stoppered botde, and allow it to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool 
place. The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a brownish- 
orange color by transmitted light, a bitter, acrid taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— From many careful examinations and assays 
of the root of this plant, F. B. Power ='= and Prof Maischf claim the absence of any 
alkaloid, their observations in this respect being corroborated by Podvvissotzki, 
whose exhaustive analyses of the resin % are largely drawn from here. 

* 'S??- 

t Am. Jour. P/uir., 1S79, p. 5S0. 

X Archiv. fiir experimenlflle Palhologie iind Pharmacognosie, v. xiii, 1 and 2, 18S0; and PJiarm. Zeitschrift fiir 
Russland, Nos. 44-50. 1881. F. B. Tower, in Am. Jour. Pilar., 18S2, p. I02. 



17-3 

Podophyllin.— A resin mass, first observed and usctl by Prof. John King 
(1835). This resin is prepared substantially as follows : The root is exhausted 
with alcohol by percolation, and the alcohol evaporated from the percolate until 
it is of a syrupy consistence; this is warmed, and poured into many times its bulk 
of cold water constantly agitated, and allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, when 
the resin will be precipitated ; this precipitate should be washed by decantation, 
straining and pressing, and dried at a temperature of about 80° F. ; greater heat 
renders it darker, and the addition of alum to the water gives it a deep yellow 
color. Podophyllin prepared as above is of a blanched yellowish-gray color, 
slightly soluble in water, partly in ether, and boils at 124° (255° F.). The yield 
of the resin is about eighty-four pounds to the ton ; highest in the month of April, 
lowest in July.''' 

Podophyllin contains, according to Podwissotzki : 

Picropodophyllin, C„H^O^ + H.^O. — This body purifies into colorless, silky, 
delicate crystals, soluble in strong alcohol, choloroform, and ether, insoluble in 
water, and lovv-per cent, alcohol, and melts at from 200 to 210° (392 to 410° F.). 
Picropodophyllin, when in solution, possesses a very bitter taste, and the action 
of podophyllin intensified. 

Podophyllotoxin, Cj^Hj^O.^. — A bitter amorphous substance, soluble in dilute 
alcohol and hot water, precipitating from the latter, on cooling, in fine flakes. Its 
medical properties are very similar to picropodophyllin, and its availability greater, 
as it is more soluble. 

Picropodophyllinic Acid.— This resinous acid is notable from the fact that it 
holds in solution the active principle of podophyllin, crystalline picropodophyllin. 
In its pure form, or as nearly pure as traces of picropodophyllin will allow, it is in 
the form of hornlike granules, readily soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether. 

Podophylloquercetin, Cj^H^O^. — This bod)-, having none of the emetic or 
cathartic properties of podophyllin, is soluble in alcohol and ether ; from the lat- 
ter it crystallizes in short yellowish needles, having a metallic lustre. By e.xposure 
to air it takes on a greenish color. It melts at 247 to 250° (476.6 to 482° F.). It 
is to this body that the investigator claims is due the griping pains produced by 
podophyllin. 

Podophyllinic Acid.— This principle results as a brown amorphous resinous 
body, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water, and having no action upon 
the animal organism. 

Fatty oils ami extractive matters were also determined. The claims as to 
the presence of hcrbcrin and saponin have been entirely refuted, as before men- 
tioned. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The force of podophyllum seems to he almost 
entirely expended upon the lining membrane of the almentary canal. Whatever 

* Biddle, Am. Jour. I'har., 1879, p. 544. 



17-4 

action noted upon those organs, and the glands in connection with this tract, is, so 

far as known, reflex and sympathetic. 

On Animals.— Among other experiments with this drug upon animals, those 
of Dr. Anstie seem to be the most characteristic. He found, resulting from his 
many applications of an alcoholic solution to the peritoneal cavity direct, that no 
local inflammation arose, although an intense hypersemia occurred in the duo- 
denum especially, and the whole of the small intestine, even going so far as to 
cause a breaking down of the tissues and resulting ulceration, causing discharges 
of glairy mucus streaked with blood ; this hypersemia ceased usually at the ileo- 
caecal valve. Post niortetn the mucous-membranes were found inflamed and cov- 
ered with bloody mucus. Other observers noted that retching, salivation, and 
emesis, followed by purging, colic, and intense tenesmus, with low pulse, and rapid 
exhaustion followed the administration of the drug. 

On Man. — Here the same action takes place, but extends to the rectum with 
sufficient intensity to cause prolapsus and hemhorrhoids. The first effect of the 
drug is an excitation of salivary and biliary secretions, followed by torpor and 
icterus. The symptoms of disturbance caused by the drug in doses varying from 
% to y^ grains of " podophyllin," and in persons working in the dust of the dried 
root, are substantially as follows : Inflammation of the eyes, soreness and pustula- 
tion of the nose ; salivation and white-coated tongue ; extreme nausea, followed 
by vomiting ; severe pains in the transverse colon and abdomen, followed by an 
urgent call to stool ; thin, offensive, copious stools ; weak pulse, prostration, drowsi- 
ness, and cold extremities. 

Description of Plate 17. 

1. Whole plant, once reduced, Newfield, N. Y., May 20th, iSSo. 

2. Flower. 

3. Bud, showing sepals. 

4. Pistil. 

5. Pistil in section (enlarged). 

6. Pistil in horizontal section (enlarged). 

7. One of the lobes of the stigma (enlarged). 

8. Anther (enlarged). 

9. Pollen ; side and end views x 200. 
10. Fruit. 



18 




^m.a(i 



DK" 



nat.dei.et pinxt. 



NyMPHAA OoORATA.Ait. 



N. ORD -NYMPHACE^. 18 

Tribe. -NYMPHE/E. 

GENUS.-NYM PH/E A,* TOURN. 

SEX. SYST.— POLVAXDKIA .M()N( n;V.\l.\. 

NYMPH^A. 

SW'EET WATEB. LILY. 



SYN.— NYMPH^A ODORATA, AIT ■ NYMPH^A ALBA, MICHX.; CAS- 
TALIA PUDICA, SALISB. 

COM. NAMES.— SWEET-SCENTED WATER LILY, WATER NYMPH, WATER 
LILY, LARGE WHITE WATER LILY, WHITE POND LILY. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF NYMPH^A ODORATA, AIT. 

Description. — This beautiful perennial aquatic herb, grows to the surface 
of the water from a thick submerged horizontal rootstock. The stevi is absent, 
the liowers growing on long peduncles, and the leaves on separate petioles, all 
round, smooth, and furnished with four equal, central canals. StipuicH deltoid or 
nearly renniform, emarginate, closely appressed to the rootstalk at the base of 
the petiole ; leaves always floating, orbicular, with one deep cuneiform fissure 
passing from the circumference to the centre at the juncture of the leaf with its 
petiole, thus making it more or less heart-shaped ; smooth and shining dark green 
above, wine color beneath, plainly marked with the interlacing veins ; margin 
entire. Inflorescence solitary, axillary ; flowers large, white, showy and fragrant, 
often being nearly six inches in diameter when fully expanded. Sepals iour, ellip- 
tical, scaphoid, nearly free, persistent, bright green on the outer surface, greenish- 
white internally. Petals numerous, arranged imbricately upon the fleshy ovary, 
the outer rows large, the inner smaller, all obtuse. Stamens indefinite, arranged 
like the petals upon the surface of the ovary about the centre of the flower; Jila- 
tnents of the outer rows petaloid, the inner more or less ligulate ; anthers with 
adnate, introrse cells. Ovary large, globular, depressed, eighteen to twenty-four- 
celled ; ovules anatropous, borne upon the sides of the ovary, none being upon the 
ventral suture; style none; stigma compound, peltate, marked by as many rays as 
there are cells to the ovary, these rays projecting beyond the general surface, thus 
forming a fringe of recurved, sterile, stigmatose appendages. Fruit a depressed, 
globular, fleshy body, retaining the stigma and marked plainly by the scars of the 
fallen petals and stamens, decaying ; dehiscence none ; seeds oblong, stipitate, 
shorter than the enveloping sac-like false coat ; embryo situated in the albumen, 
close to the hilum ; radicle very minute ; cotyledons large and thick, enveloping a 
well-formed plumule. 

*The name is given on account of its situation being similar to the supposed habit of fabled water nymphs. 



18-2 

Nymphaceee. — This beautiful family of aquatic plants, whose species have 
been themes for poets, and designs for ancient sculptors, is tropical or sub- 
tropical in its most general habitat. Its prominent species are : Victoria regia, a 
native of tropical South America, named in honor of Queen Victoria. Its mag- 
nificent flowers are rose-white, and often measure nearly two feet in diameter, 
while that of its leaves often reaches five feet. Nymphcra lotus, a native of 
Egypt and Nubia, with white flowers. The seeds of this plant are eaten by the 
natives, but do not form the lotus of the lotus-eaters^^ A^ymphcra alba. This 
European species differs but slightly from our N. odorata. This order contains 
in the United States the following genera : Brasenia, Cabomba, Neliumbium, Nuphar 
and Nymphcea. 

History and Habitat. — This, our most beautiful northern flower, frequents 
ponds and still-flowing streams in the Eastern United States, especially near the 
coast, flowering from June to August. There are many varieties, due mostly to 
color and mode of growth, some being blue, others pink or rose-color; but the 
true N. odorata is pure white or creamy. The stems of the flowers and leaves 
vary in length according to the depth of the water. The flowers form one of the 
most typical illustrations of plant metamorphosis; the petals are but colored 
sepals, the stamens but anther-tipped petals, the stigmas but changed stamens, 
and all gradually merging into each other in easily distinguishable stages. After 
ripening, the fruits, now becoming spongy and water- soaked, sink to the mud, 
where they decay and allow the escape of the seeds. 

The flowers open as the sun rises, and are usually fully expanded at about 
eight o'clock ; after that time they again gradually close, being entirely shut during 
the heat of the afternoon and at night. 

In the very centre of the disk-like compound stigma, is a small, glutinous 
protuberance, called by many botanists a nectary or honey-gland. I am inclined 
to term this the true stigma, on account of the well-known fact that pollen grains 
need moisture to enable them to burst their outer coat and allow the escape of 
the fertilizing tubes. This glandular body is always moist, while the stigmatose 
disk is dry, and rejects water as freely as does the upper surface of the leaves. 

Our species are often said to be much inferior to the European in beauty; 
but, as their purity of color and exquisite fragrance far excel that of Nymphcea 
alba, it fully deserves to rank as superior in all respects. 

Rafinesque states that in Canada the fresh leaves are boiled and eaten as 
"greens," that the fresh roots are used as a part substitute for soap, and that the 
juice of the roots, mingled with that of lemons, is used to remove freckles and 
pimples from the face. 

The roots, in decoction, were much esteemed by Indian squaws as an inter- 
nal remedy, and injection or wash for the worst forms of leucorrhoea, its properties 
in this direction- being due to its great astringency. The macerated root was also 
used as an application in the form of a poultice to suppurating glands ; its styptic 
properties were also fullv known and utilized. 



*This plant is mentioned under Genista tinctoria, A,i>. 



18-3 
The roots have been used for dyeing- fabrics deep brown, the goods thus 

dyed retaining their color admirably. 

Nymphaia has no place in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Medica it is 

officinal as Caiap/asina Ayiiipluc and /ii/nsiiii/ Nyiitpha-. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— I'he fresh root, gathered in the fall, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mi.xed with one-sixth part of it, and ihe 
rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand for eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture, separated by straining and filtering, presents the following physical 
properties : A deep wine-red color by transmitted light, a sherry-like odor, a 
slightly bitter, astringent taste, and a very strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The bitter acrid principle of Nympha?a odor- 
ata has not been isolated. According to Bigelow, the roots contain tannin, gallic 
acid, and mucilage. It is quite likely that the constituents are similar, if not the 
same, as those of the European species, N. alba, the roots of which, according to 
Griining,'-' contain: Taiino-nytnp/uein, Cj^H.^Oje; NympJuro-pIt'obaphcne^Q.^^^^O^f,; 
and Nymplicca-tannic acid, C.5 H53 Ojg, a brown, red, transparent mass, yielding 
easily a pale yellow powder. This is the true special tannin, to which the great 
astringency of the root is due. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — I can find no accounts of poisonings with this 
plant, nor experiments in this direction. In the provers who took large doses of 
the tincture, a marked dryness of the fauces was experienced, followed by painful 
deglutition ; pain in the hypogastric region, with loose evacuations ; venereal 
excitement, and involuntary ])assage of the urine. ' 

Description 01 Plate 18. 

I. A small flower, from a pond near New Milfonl, Pa., July 17th, 18.S3. 

2. A medium-size leaf. 

3. Section of a peduncle, showing air cavities or canals. 

4. Root. 



'Arch. ,/. 1 har.. 3, xvii , p. 73C.; Am. Jour. Ph„r., 1883, p. 96. 




(pTU.adnat.del.etpinxt. 



Sarracenia Purpurea, Linn. 



N. ORD.-SARRACENIACE/E. 19 

GENUS.— S ARRACENIA,* TOURN. 
SEX. svsT.— pi:nt.\ndria monogv.nia. 



SARRACENIA. 

PITCH ER-PLAJ\rT. 

SYN.— SARRACENIA PURPUREA, LINN.; SARAZINA GIBBOSA, RAP. 

COM. NAMES.— PITCBER-PLANT, HUNTSMAN'S CUP, WATER-CUP, EVE'S 
CUPS, SIDE-SADDLE FLOWER, FLY-CATCHER. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF SARRACENIA PURPUREA, LINN. 

Description. — This peculiar bog perennial is characterized as follows : Root 
somewhat ligneous, yellowish, furnished with numerous yellowish-brown fibrous 
rootlets; stem none; leaves {ascidia) all radical, pitcher-shaped, and composed of four 
parts: ):he petiole about one-third the whole length, slender, dilated at the base and 
somewhat equitant ; tiide ovate, narrowing to the petiole, and longitudinally marked 
with reddish veins; /iood auriculate-cordate, wavy, covered in the throat with nu- 
merous stiff, sharp, curved bristles pointing downward ; zcu'ho- broad, laterally undu- 
late, passing along the median line of the upper surface of the tube, from the base 
of the hood to the petiole. These ascidia, usually six in number, lie dorsally pros- 
trate upon the sphagnum in which the plant usually grows, the open mouths of 
the tubes looking upward toward the nodding flower and forming about the scape a 
rosette of gaping wells half filled with water, and having a path represented by 
the free margin of the wings leading to each.f Inflorescence a single large reddish 
purple flower, terminal and nodding upon a long smooth and naked scape. Sepals 
5, colored, persistent, 3-bracted at their base. Petals 5, obovate or somewhat 
fiddle-shaped, caducous, incurved over the style. Statnens numerous, hypogynous. 
Ovary globose, 5-celled ; style greenish-yellow, composed of a short erect shaft, and 
an umbrella-like expanded extremity consisting of 5 petaloid segments rayed at 
their approximations, each ray ending in a short nipple-like projection,, which con- 
stitutes the stigma. Frtdt a granular 5-celled and valved capsule ; placentce axial, 
many seeded ; seeds anatropous ; einbryo small, basal ; albumen flesh}-. 

SarraceniacesB. — This family of bog plants is characterized as follows : Root 
perennial; leaves all radical, purplish or yellowish-green, more or less inflated 
tubular, the true blade represented by a hood or lamina surrounding the throat of 
the tube. Flowers single [Exc. Heliamphora) nodding at the summit of a long, 



* In honor of Dr. Sarrazin of Quebec, who sent the plant to Tournefort. 

t In the plate most of the leaves have been cut off, and those reni.-iining have been constrained to ta'<e such posi- 
tions as would best show their various characters within the small scope of the paper. 



19-2 

naked, (Exc. same) cylindrical scape; floral envelope consisting of from 4 to lo 
leaflets, the external more or less sepaloid and bracted at the base. Stamens nu- 
merous hypogynous; «;;//z£?;'^ versatile, introse, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal 
fissures. Style single, truncate, with a minute stigma (or as above described), per- 
sistent. Fruit a 3 to 5-celled capsule, opening loculicidally ; placentcs projecting 
from the axis into the cells. Seeds obovoid, numerous; embryo cylindrical ; albumen 
copious. This limited family is represented by three genera, viz. : Darlingtonia, 
with one species, having two free honeyed wings projecting laterally from the 
inner edge of the small mouth of the tube ; Sarracenia, with eight species and 
two varieties ; and Heliamphora, of Guiana and Venezuela. The leaves of this 
family are all apparently formed with the intent of capturing insects and digesting 
their remains through the agency of the water they hold, which becomes acid and 
causes decomposition of the captured insects. It certainly seems intentional adap- 
tation to the necessities of the plant that insects are caught and macerated, from 
the structure, for which no other reason would account. Mr. W. K. Higley, in his 
interesting paper on " The Northern Pitcher-Plant," * says : " Inside these pitchers 
are found hairs, which cover more or less of the inner surface. Those which cover 
the hood continue to or a little beyond the junction with the tube. Following this 
area is a smooth surface which extends to near the point where the leaf begins to 
contract, when a patch of less stiff hairs, are met with. This time they extend into 
the narrow portion of the tube. All the hairs point downward. 

" The position and form of these hairs, especially those on the hood and upper 
part of the tube, and in fact, any that may be above the fluid, in the lower part of 
the leaf would show that their function, in part, at least, is to prevent the escape 
of any insect that may have entered the tube. The hairs in the lower part of the 
tube probably act, to some extent, as absorbents of the nitrogenous matter decay- 
ing within the leaf. Some acute observers claim that at the end of each hair there 
is a minute opening, thus allowing the nitrogenous fluid to pass directly into the 
apical cell of the hair. This does not seem to be the case, but instead, the wall 
surrounding the entire cell is very thin. These hairs are simple trichomes, that is, 
they are rather cells than organs. Unlike the tentacles of the sundew, in no case 
do the spiral bundles enter their tissue. I am inclined to believe that these cellu- 
lar hairs serve more than one purpose in the economy of the plant. 

"A study of the structure and physiology of the whole family shows that all 
the forms need a great deal of absorbing surface, for there seems to be a lack of 
stomata. The tissue of the leaf is almost constantly gorged with a large supply 
of nourishment, consisting, evidently, of absorbed nitrogenous matter, and needs 
a great extent of surface exposed to the air for the purpose of absorption in car- 
rying on the functions of assimilation and metastasis. In support of this there is 
considerable evidence, the most important of which is the fact that many of these 
hairs, especially those on the hood, contain chlorophyl. From a study of marked 
leaves through the whole season I am led to believe that some of these hairs are 



Bulletin Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. I, No. 5, p. 41. 



19-3 

absorbed as the leaves grow old. This would indicate that as the functions of the 
leaf are lessened the extent of absorbing surface is reduced. 

"When the leaf has apparently nearly stopped absorbing the moisture from 
the tube, it may still be an active insect trap. At this time an especially strong 
odor is given off from the decaying mass of insects. It would seem that the insects 
caught now could be of no use except as a fertilizer, when by the decay of the 
leaves, all this mass of decomposing nitrogenous matter is deposited around the 
roots of the plant, the decaying material, moreover, seems to hasten the decay of 
the leaf, as its vitality is lessened by the advance of the season." 

The acidity of the water, after it has stood a time in the leaf, is found to be 
due to malic and citric acids. 

History and Habitat. — The Northern Pitcher-plant grows in sphagnum 
swamps from Pennsylvania northward and westward, and southward east of the 
Alleghanles. It flowers northward in June, and ripens its fruit in August. The 
previous use of this plant by the Indians in small-pox, for which it has been held 
by them as specific, is corroborated by homoeopathic practice, but has in almost all 
instances been an absolute failure in the hands of the "old school." They judged that 
the use of the root not only greatly shortened the run of the disease and checked 
maturation, but prevented deep pitting in convalescence. At the last meeting of 
the Epidemiological Society,* a communication was read from Mr. Herbert Miles, 
Assistant Surgeon to the Royal Artillery, respecting a plant that was stated to be 
a specific for small-pox. The remedy is given in the form of a strong infusion of 
the rhizome, and Mr. Miles had, after very considerable difficulty, succeeded in 
obtaining a small supply of the plant, which *he forwarded to the Society. Mr. 
Miles is quartered in Canada, where an epidemic of small-pox having broken out 
among the Indians, the disease had proved virulent in the extreme among the 
unprotected, because unvaccinated, natives. However, the alarm had greatly 
diminished on an old squaw going amongst them, and treating the cases with the 
infusion. This treatment, it is said, was so successful as to cure every case. Dr. 
Hooker pronounced the specimens received to be Sarracenia purpurea. At a meet- 
ing of the Medical Society of Nova Scotia, held at Halifax, a resolution was passed — 
concerning the use of Sarracenia in Variola — that there was not "any reliable 
data upon which to ground any opinion in favor of its value as a remedial agent." | 

Across the face of an article on the use of this drug in small-pox, appearing 
in the volume I have cited above, a former owner of the book has written : "This 
medicine was thoroughly tested by Mr. John Thomas Lane in the spring of 1864 
at the Small-pox Hospital at Claremont, in Alexandria, Va., for the period of 
several weeks, in the presence of the medical officers of the Third Division Hos- 
pital ; and proved to be without any curative powers in this disease, and Mr. Lane 
a humbug. He lost more than fifty per cent, of the cases of variola committed 
to him, more than were lost by any other treatment." Mr. F. H. Bignell says,J 



* Land. Pharm. Journ., Dec, 1861 ; Jour. Mat. Med., IV, N. S., 37. f ■^"'- "«'' ^'"'S- R'po'ttr, ibid., 507. 

J A paper read before the Quebec Geog. Soc'y. 



19-4 

in regard to the use of the drug in this disease : " On the Mistassini side my atten- 
tion was particularly attracted to the Sarracenia purpurea, of which the root fur- 
nishes the greatest remedy known for that dreadful scourge, small-pox. I may 
mention that, to my personal knowledge, this precious root not only saved my 
brother's life, but its use also appears to wholly obviate the unsightly pitting com- 
mon to the disease ; if it is extracted and dried at the proper season. Indeed, I 
have known many cases which were considered hopeless by medical men, but were 
cured by the Sarracenia purpurea; even Indians, with whom the dread malady so 
often proves fatal, finding it an absolute specific." 

The root is also recommended in cases where there is a torpidity of the organs 
of the alimentary tract, and of the kidneys. 

There are no officinal preparations outside of the Homoeopathic tincture. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root gathered after the fruit- 
ino- season, or the whole fresh plant when budding to blossom and before the 
leaves are fully expanded, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then two parts by weight of alcohol taken, the mass mixed thoroughly with one- 
sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. After thorough stirring, the 
whole should be poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight 
days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from the above by filtration, has a deep reddish-brown 
color by transmitted light; its taste is at first somewhat sourish, then bitter and 
slightly astringent, and its reaction strongly acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Sarracenin. This bitter alkaloidal body was 
discovered by Martin. Hetet* isolated it as white handsome prisms and octahe- 
dra, soluble in water and alcohol. Its salts with acids are soluble, and that with 
sulphuric forms beautiful bitter needles. Hetet claims that this alkaloid is identi- 
cal with veratria, both in its properties and reactions. 

Acrylic Acid. — C^H^O.,. This volatile body was discovered in the plant by 
Bjbrklund and Dragendorf. It is a limpid liquid, possessing a sour pungent 
smell and boiling at 142° (287°. 6 F.). Its vapor is irritating, attacking the mucous 
membranes of the nose and eyes violently, and causing severe inflammation. 

Sarracenic Acid. — This body constitutes the yellow coloring matter predomi- 
nant in the older plants. Its characteristics are uninvestigated. 

Besides these, the plant contains a pulverizable tanno resin, and a bitter, aro- 
matic extractive, soluble in water and alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Dr. Porcher found in his experiments with 180 
grains of the root, that it caused diuresis, moderate catharsis, and gastric excita- 
tion, as well as an increased and irregular heart's action, and congestion of the 
head; and remarks as follows: "These symptoms distinctly point to the parts of 



* Rep. tie Phar., 879, p. 109. 



19-5 

the system inHuenced by the drug — the gastric filaments of the ganghonic or 
organic system of nerves. This produced an increased action of the circulating 
system, and drove the blood to the head ; it also increased the peristaltic action of 
the whole alimentary canal, and promoted the renal and other glandular secretions, 
without any apparent effect upon the nerves of animal life." Dr. Cigliano,=^= in his 
experiments, says the drug produces "eruptions similar to crusta lactea; on the 
forehead and hands papular eruptions, changing to vesicular with the depression, 
as in small-pox, lasting from seven to eight days." This last again corroborates 
the aborigine's use of the drug, and adds one more proof to the many that are 
tending to reveal the fact that our American native practice was essentially correct. 

Description of Plate 19. 

I and 2. Whole plant, with a number of the leaves removed, and those remaining brought into 
constrained positions to better show their characters within the limit of the sheet. From Spruce 
Pond, Smithsfields, N. Y., June i8th, 1884. 

2. Scape and flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stigma. 

5. Stamens. 

6. A portion of the hood, showing hairs. 

7. Section of the root. 

(4-6 enlarged.) 

* II Dinamico, 1S71 ; translated in Am. Observer, 1S71, p. 467, Dr. Lilienthal. 



20. 







.lU.adnaldel.etpinxl. 



ARGEMONE MEXICANA,Linn. 



N. ORD -PAPAVERACE^. 20 

GENUS.— ARGEMONE,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— l'i>LVAXl)kI.\ Mo.M i( .\M.\. 



ARGEMONE. 

PRICKLY POPPY. 



SYN.— ARGEMONE MEXICANA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— PRICKLY POPPY, DEVIL'S FIG, MEXICAN POPPY, THORN 

APPLE, t YELLOW THISTLE,! THORN POPPY; (MEX. i CHICALOTE • fFR ) 

ARGE'MONE; (GER.) STACHELMOHN. 

.\ TLXCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT .ARGEMONE MEXICANA, L. 

Description. — This annual weedy herb, grows to a height of from i to 3 feet. 
Root long, subcylindrical ; sie?n erect, branching, prickly-bristled, and furnished, as 
the rest of the plant, with a gamboge-yellow milky juice. Leaves sessile, broadly 
lanceolate in general outline, sinuate lobed, spiny toothed, and blotched or striped 
with white along the principal veins. Injioresecnee solitary in the axils of the upper 
leaves, and terminal ; buds erect, pedunculate \ floiL^ers large, yellow, or rarely white. 
Sepals 2 to 3, roundish, acuminate, often prickly, very fugacious. Petals 4 to 6, 
i. €., twice as many as the sepals, roundish, more or less crumpled in the bud. 
Stamens indefinitely numerous ; filaments filiform, greatly attenuated at the apex ; 
anthers large, innate. Ovai'y stricdy i -celled; style almost none; stigmas 3 to 6, 
stellate-radiate, purple, velvety on the receptive surface; lobes reflexed. Fruit an 
oblong-ovate, prickly pod, opening by 3 to 6 valves at the apex, leaving a skele- 
ton of from 3 to 6 filiform placentce in the shape of the original pod ; seeds globular, 
crested, and pitted. 

Papaveraceae. — This principally European family of herbs, noted for their 
milky, and generally colored, narcotic or acrid juice, is represented in North 
America by 15 genera, 23 species, and 7 recognized varieties. The order is fur- 
ther characterized as follows: Leaves alternate, exstipulate. Peduncles i -flowered ; 
floiueis regular, the parts in twos or muliples of two. Sepals 2, very rarely 3, 
fugacious Petals 4 to 12, early deciduous, rarely absent, imbricated in the bud. 
Stamens numerous, rarely as few as 16, distinct, hypogynous ; anthers 2-celled, 
innate, introrse. Ovary i -celled, with two or more parietal placentce. Fruit a 
dry, I- rarely few or many-celled pod. Seeds numerous, anatropous ; embryo 
minute, basal ; albumen fleshy or oily. 



* 'Apyifia, argema, cataract; as the juice was supposed to cure that disease. 

■)■ Applicable only to Datura Stranionium (Solanacea;.) 

X The true Yellow Thistle is Cirsiiim horridultim (Compositre.) 



20-2 

The only remedy in our Materia Medica derived from this order, beside the 
three here represented, is Opium, the inspissated juice obtained by incising the 
unripe capsules of the South European and Asiatic White Poppy {Papaver somni- 
fcrum, Linn.) ; our other remedies, Papaverinum and Morphinum, being also 
derived from the same substance ; the only other remedy used in general med- 
icine being the petals of the Red Poppy [Papaver Rhceas, Linn.) ; they have a 
slightly narcotic action, but are as yet principally used as a coloring-matter for 
pharmaceutical preparations. 

History and Habitat. — The Prickly Poppy is indigenous to tropical and sub- 
tropical America, from whence it has become scattered even as far north as \'ir- 
ginia, and escaped from cultivation in many places still further north. It grows 
with us in waste places and blossoms from April to July. 

The use of the oil of the seeds, the leaves, and the petals of this species has 
been quite prominent among the natives of all tropical countries in which the 
plant grows. Among the ancient Greeks the juice was supposed curative of 
cataract and of opacities of the cornea. The oil of the seeds is spoken of as 
being as active as that of Croton tiglium.* Lindley says that in India the juice 
is employed in chronic ophthalmia and in primary syphilis ; and the infusion in 
strangury from blisters (of cantharis?); he also states that the seeds are narcotic, 
and are smoked with tobacco. In Mexico the plant is still held In the pharma- 
copoeia, the juice being recommended, mixed with water, for skin diseases, and for 
incipient opacities, the flowers as a pectoral and narcotic.f In Java the juice is 
said to be employed as a caustic in chancres. In the West Indies the plant 
is administered as a substitute for Ipecacuanha. The juice when inspissated 
resembles, in its physical properties, gamboge. As a whole the plant has gen- 
erally been conceded to be anodyne, detersive, resolutive, hypnotic, diuretic, 
diaphoretic, ophthalmic, anti-icteric, and a hydragogue cathartic ; and, according to 
Rafinesque, appearing to unite the properties of Opium, Gamboge, and Celandine. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered while 
in blossom, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into 
a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by pressure and filtration, has a 
brownish yellow color by transmitted light, no distinguishing odor or taste, and an 
acid reaction. 

The plant, from its history, deserves at our hands a most thorough proving, 
and should by all means receive it; for a new proving the tincture should be made 
while the plant is in fruit, and just before the capsules are ripe. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. -Morphia, Cj-H^NO^.— There is considerable 
doubt that this alkaloid exists in this species, although CharbonnierJ reports its 
presence from his analysis of the carpels and leaves. 

* Jour. Je P/iarm., xiv, 73. f Maisch, in Am. Jour. Pliarni., 18S5, 506. % Jour, de Pharm., 1S68. 



20-3 

Oil of Argemone. — This fat oil, obtained by pressure from the seeds, is 
reported by Wittstein, but upon whose authority we are unable to ascertain. He 
describes it as, light yellow, still liquid at 5° (41° F.), of a slighdy nauseous odor 
and raw taste, drying, dissolves in 5 to 6 times its volume of alcohol, and is easily 
saponified. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— This is as yet unknown, but certainly deserves 
prolonged experimentation. 

Description of Plate 20. 

I. Upper part of plant, Salem. Mass., July 31, 1885. 
2. Root. 
3 Stamens. 

4. Pistil. 

5. Horizontal section of ovary. 

6. Fruit. 

(3-5 enlarged.) 




<^' 



^ni.jiinaiiial.ttpinxi 



CHELI06NIUM MAJUS,Linr 



N. ORD.-PAPAVERACEyE. 21 

(;KNUS.— CHELIDON I U M ,* l.INN. 
SEX. SVST.— Pt)LVAN'DRIA MON()G\NIA. 

CHELIDONIUM. 

CELAJ^DIME. 

SYN.— CHELIDONIUM MAJUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMBS.—COMMON CELANDINE, TETTER"WORT; (PR.) HERBE A 
L'HIRONDELLE ; (GER.) SCHOLLKRAUT. 

A TINCTURK OF THE FRESH PLANT CHELIDONIUM MAJUS, LLNN. 

Description. — This upright, widely branching, perennial herb, grows to a 
height of from i to 2 ieet from a fusiform root. Stem upright, cylindrical and 
branching, somewhat hairy and \ery brittle. Leaves alternate, petiolate, large, 
pale-green and glaucous, Urate, pinnatifid, with a crenately cut or lobed border, 
the terminal lobe obovate-cuneate. Inflorescence, pedunculated, somewhat umbel- 
late, axillary clusters, with nodding buds and medium-sized flowers, the sepals, 
petals and stamens of which are early deciduous. Peduncles 2 to 4 inches long, 
bearing from 3 to ^pedicels i inch in length, and involucrate at their base. Sepals 
2. Corolla cruciform ; petals 4. Stamens 1 6 to 24. Style merely present ; stigma 
2-lobed. Fruit a linear, slender pod, about i inch in length, somewhat swelled at 
intervals, the two valves opening upward from the base to the apex ; seeds rounded 
reniform, with a glandular ridge at the hilum, and a crustaceous, blackish-brown 
testa, marked with more or less regular, hexagonal reticulations. A description 
of the Papaverace:e will be found under Argemone Mexicana, 20. 

History and Habitat. — Celandine grows all over Germany and France, in 
waste places, on old walls, along roadways, and about dwellings ; it is pretty well 
naturalized in the United States, but so far it is not found at any great distance 
from dwellings, Howering from early in May until October. A fine gamboge yel- 
low, acrid juice, pervades the plant, root, stem and leaves; this fact led those who 
practised upon the doctrine of signatures, to employ the drug in hepatic disorders, 
from its resemblance to bile in color. It proved one of the hits of that practice. 
The U. S. Ph. still mentions Chelidonium, but not officinally ; it will probably be 
thrown aside at the next revision as worthless, totidem verbis. In the Eclectic 
Materia Medica it is officinal as Decoctnm Chclidonii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh plant, gathered in Spring, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of new linen and subjected 

* ,1-f''."'""', swnllo-aK lu flowers appearing with the arrival of that bird ; or, it was said that when the eyes of young 
swallows became, through injury or otherwise, affected with a white film, the parents gathered and applied the juice of 
this plant, rapidly curing the trouble. 



21-2 

to pressure, the fresh juice is then by brisk succussion mingled with an equal part 
by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool 
place, then filtered. The tincture thus formed is of a brownish orange color by 
transmitted light, having an odor quite like that of tincture of apis mellifica, an 
acrid, bitter taste, and strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— O^Z-^/j////-^;/, C,^ H,, NO,. This alkaloid is 
identical with Sanguinarina, vide 22. 

Chelidonin, C.^ H,^ N3 O3 + Aq. This alkaloid exists particularly in the root. 
When pure it has the following properties : colorless, glassy, tabular, bitter crys- 
tals, losing water at 100° (212° F.), fusing at 130° (266° F.), and decomposing at 
higher heats ; it is insoluble in water, slowly soluble in alcohol, and forms color- 
less salts. 

Chelidoxanthin. — A bitter principle existing in all parts of the plant, crystal- 
lizing in short, friable, yellow needles, which are very slowly soluble in both water 
and alcohol. 

Chelidonic Acid. — C, H (CO, OH)3. A tribasic acid occurring together with 
the other acids in all parts of the plant. It crystallizes in small colorless needles, 
which carbonize by heat, and are soluble both in water and alcohol. 

Malic Acid. — Is also present in the plant, vide Pyrus Americana, 56. 

Citric Acid. — Herr Haitinger determines (Monatsch., Ch. ii,, p. 485) that 
notable quantities are contained in this plant. Mdc iif supra. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The principal action of Chelidonium seems to 
be that of causing congestion of the lungs and liver, especially the latter; it is also 
an excessive irritant, and has a narcotic action upon the nervous system. The 
lungs of animals poisoned by this drug have been found, post-mortem, to be highly 
engorged, and in some cases hepatized. The liver under its action becomes the 
seat of much pain, soreness and tenderness ; the bowels move rapidly and freely, 
with thin, bright-yellow, pasty evacuations ; the urine becomes bright-yellow, and 
even stains the linen dark-yellow. It irritates the respiratory nerves, causing a 
tickling, like dust, in the trachea and bronchi, with violent spasmodic coughing, 
followed by dyspnoea and oppression of the chest. Sensations of indolence, sleep- 
iness and languor are persistent. Its action upon the skin is that of vesication. 

Description of Plate 21. 

I. A portion of the upper part of a blossoming plant, from Ithaca, N. Y. , May loth, 1880. 

2. Pistil (enlarged). 

3. Section of the ovary (enlarged). 

4. Fruit. 

5. Pollen X 380. 



22. 



'W 




Gjin.adnat.del.etpinxt. 



Sanguinaria Canadensis, Linn. 



N. ORD -PAPAVERACE^. 22 

(lENUS— S ANGUINARIA,* IMI.L. 
SEX. SVST.— rULYANURIA MONOGVXIA. 

SANGUINARIA. 

BLOODROOT. 



SYN.-SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS, L. SANGUINARIA MINOR, DILL. 

COM. NAMES.— BLOODROOT, RED PUCCOON, PUCCOON, TETTERWORT, 
REDROOT, PAUSON, TURMERIC, INDIAN PAINT, (PR.) SANGUIN- 
AIRB, (GER.) BLUTWURZEL. 

TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF S.\NGUINARIA CANADENSIS, L. 

Description. — This low, erect, perennial plant, dots with its creamy white 
flowers our open woods and bottom lands in early spring, the most beautiful 
harbinger of Its season. It arises by a naked scape enveloped by its leaf to a 
height of from 3 to 6 inches. Root horizontal, extending from 2 to 4 inches, with 
a diameter of from one-quarter to three-quarters of an inch, slightly branched, 
cylindrical, giving off, especially from the under side, numerous tender rootlets, 
and somewhat annulate by the scars of previous membraneous sheathing scales 
which enveloped the scape and petiole. When fresh it is brownish-red externally, 
and, upon breaking or cutting, it shows minute points of bright red juice, which 
rapidly coalesce and cover the entire wounded surface. When dry similar 
red dots appear upon the fracture, the root becomes longitudinally wrinkled, the 
section showing a bark of about one-twelfth the whole diameter, a very slight 
cambium line and a granular white centre. The sfetu is a simple, smooth, naked 
scape, terminated by a single flower, from one to one and a half inches in diameter. 
The leaf, which does not reach its full expansion until the flower has fallen, is pal- 
mately seven- to nine-lobed, with an equal number of reddish ribs, from which 
(especially noticeable upon the under surface) extend a perfect network of veins; 
it has a heart-shaped base, and obtuse lobes ; the upper surface is light green, the 
under whitish, glaucous. Sepals 2, caducous, forming the ephemeral calyx. 
Petals 8-12, spatulate, not crumpled. The stamens, generally 24, unequal and 
about one-half the length of the petals, arranged more or less distinctly in two 
rows, jlnthers innate, introrse, dehiscent. Pollen grains globular, more or less 
six-sided by compression, of a beautiful golden-yellow color. Oz'ary i-celled, 
with 2 parietal placentae. Style short, thick, rounded. Stigma thick, glandularly 
pubescent, 2-grooved. Pod oh\ong, sharp-pointed, turgid, opening by two uplifting 
valves, allowing the escape of the numerous anatropous, sometimes crested seeds. 
Embryo minute, situated at the base of the sarcous, oily albumen, 

* Sanguis, blood. From the color of llie juice. 



22-2 

History and Habitat.— This is the only species of the genus, although Rafi- 
nesque has described six varieties. It is found, as the specific name denotes, 
in Canada, and in all parts of the United States except southward to Florida, 
and westward to Mexico and Oregon, the sea-coasts, and high mountains. It 
o-rows in rich open woods, or on bottom lands along shaded streams, flowering 
from March, in eariy springs, until May, fruiting in June. 

For many years it has been used by the aborigines of this country for paint- 
incr their faces, clothing and implements of warfare, and by the laity as a domestic 
remedy in gastric troubles, compounded with podophyllum and kali tartaricum. 
Applied to a denuded surface it is quite a powerful escharotic. 

The root is still officinal in the U. S. Ph. as Acchim Sanguinarice , Tinctura 
Saiigidnaricr, Radix Sanguinarice, and Exh'actwn Sangtiinarice. In the Eclectic 
Materia Medica this drug and its derivatives have a prominent place, especially in 
compounds with Lobelia; sanguinaria not having emetic properties. It takes a 
part in the following preparations: Pilula Taraxaci Composite?; Pulvis Ipeca- 
C2ianhcs Compositus ; Pulvis Lobelia; Compositns; Pilvis Myricce Composilus ; 
Tinctura Lobelice Composita; Tinctura Vibw-nii Composita ; and Sanguinarin, a 
so-called alka-resinoid principle, which is often confused by both prescriber and 
pharmacist with the true alkaloid sanguinarina. 

PART USED, AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered when the 
seeds are ripe, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts 
by weight of alcohol are taken, and after thoroughly mixing the pulp with one- 
sixth part of it the rest of the alcohol is added. After having stirred the whole, 
pour it into a well-stoppered botde and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool 
place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining, and filtering. 

Thus prepared it is, by transmitted light, of a deep orange-red color, slightly 
bitter and acid, and has a strong acid reaction to litmus. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Sanguinarina,='= C.^ H,^ NO,. This alkaloid 
crystallizes from alcohol in warty or needle-like masses, very acrid to the taste, 
toxic, and when pulverized and insufflated causes violent sneezing ; these masses 
are soluble in ether or alcohol, insoluble or nearly so in water. The various 
salts of this body are of a red color, and give orange-colored aqueous solutions. 

Puccina has been claimed to be another alkaloid principle of this plant, 
remaining in the menstruum after the precipitation of sanguinarina by sulphuric 
acid ; but Hopp determined this body to be a sulphatic salt of sanguinarina. 

Porphyroxin has been determined as a third alkaloid, so named from its 
supposed identity with Merck's opium principle porphyroxin, a mixture which 
owes its color reaction to Hesse's rhoeadine. (Maisch.) It exists as tabular or 
linear, white and tasteless crystals. 

Acid. — The acid of sanguinaria is not fully determined, though it would prove 
doubtless to be chelidonic acid {vide Chelidonium). 

* This alkaloid is identical with C/ieleiyt/irine, hom Chelidonium raajus, r'zVe', 21. 



22-3 

Gum, Lignin, an Orange-colored Resin, Albumen, and a Saccharine matter 
have also been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Sanouinaria in toxic doses causes a train of 
symptoms showing it to be an irritant; it causes nausea, vomiting, sensations of 
burning in the mucous membranes whenever it comes in contact with them, faint- 
ness, vertigo, and insensibility. It reduces the heart's action and muscular 
strength, and depresses the nerve force, central and peripheral. Death has 
occurred from overdoses, after the following sequence of symptoms ; violent vom- 
iting, followed by terrible thirst and great burning in the stomach and intestines, 
accompanied by soreness over the region of those organs ; heaviness of the 
upper chest with difficult breathing ; dilation of the pupils ; great muscular 
prostration ; faintness and coldness of the surface, showing that death follows 
from cardiac paralysis. (Allen, Ency. Pure Mat. Med., viii., p. 481, et seq.) 

Description of 1'late 22. 

I. NVhoIe plant, Chemung, N. V., May 3d, 1S80. 

2. Expanded leaf. 

3. Expanded flower. 

4. Pistil (enlarged). 

5. Bud, showing se|)als. 

6. Seed (enlarged). 

7. Pod. 

8. Stamen (enlarged). 

9. Pollen grains x 380. 



23. 




^lU.adnat.ilel.et piiut. 




SINAPIS Alba, Linn. 



N. ORD-CRUCIFER^. 23 

Tribe.-BRASSICE/E. 

GENUS.— SIN A PIS, TOURN. 



SEX. SYST.— TETRADYN.\MI.\ SII.IOLOSA. 



SINAPIS ALBA. 

WHITE MUSTARD. 

SYN.— BRASSICA ALBA, HOOK, f. ; SINAPIS ALBA, LINN. ; LEUCOSINAPIS 

ALBA, SPACH. 
COM. NAMES.— WHITE OR YELLOW MUSTARD ;* (FR.i MOUTARDE BLANC ; 

(GER.) WEISSBR SENF. 

A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF SINAPIS ALBA, LINN. 

Description. — This coarse, hairy annual, usually grows to a height of about 
2 feet. S/em erect ; branches few, ascending, all parts covered with bristling re- 
flexed hairs. Leaves all petioled and pinnatifid, the lowest having a large termi- 
nal lobe and the divisions cutting down to the midrib. Flozvers about twice as 
large as those of .S. nigra; sepals 4, narrowly oblong, spreading; petals 4, spread- 
ing, alternate with the sepals, and consisting of a narrow claw and an orbiculate 
blade. Stamens 6, hypogynous, tetradynamous, the two having shorter filaments 
being lateral and inserted lower down than the others, the four with longer fila- 
ments situated in pairs from before backward and accompanied by a quite large 
gland to each pair. Pistil slightly exceeding the stamens ; ovary hairy ; style 
nearly terete, persistent ; stigma bi-labiate. Fruit a linear, bristly, ascending 
silique ; valves short, furnished with 3 prominent veins ; pedicels spreading ; beak 
sword-shaped, i -seeded, about half the length of the pod. Seeds globular, pale- 
yellowish, 1 to 6 in each pod; cotyledons incumbent, conduplicatc, narrow, and 
plane. 

Cruciferse. — This large family of pungent and often acrid herbs is represented 
in North America by 42 genera, containing in all 275 species and 50 recognized 
varieties. The order is characterized as follows : Leaves alternate ; stipules none. 
Inflorescence in terminal racemes or corymbs ; floioers cruciform, tetradynamous. 
Sepals 4, deciduous ; petals 4, hypogynous, regular, placed opposite each other in 
pairs. Stamens 6, rarely 4 or 2, when 6, then two are inserted lower down than 
the rest and furnished with shorter filaments. Fruit a 2-celled silicle, loment, 
silique or necument. Seeds campylotropous; embryo \airg&; albumen none; coiy- 
ledons incumbent o ||, acumbent o=, or conduplicate o)), being straight in one 
genus only. 

* The name mustard is modernized from musliim aniens, hot must; as wine-must is often mixed with the seed- 
meal in the manufacture of table mustard. 



23-2 

Only three other plants of this order are proven and find place in our Materia 
Medica, viz.: The seeds of the European bitter Candytuft {Iberis aniara, Linn.), 
extolled as a remedy for cardiac hypertrophy, but needing further corroborative 
proving; the Buenos Ayres Pepperwort {Lepidium Bonariensc, D. C), used in 
Brazil much as arnica is among the laity here ; and the British Rape or Cole Seed 
[Brassica napus, Linn.). 

Many species, however, find a place in domestic practice, principal among 
which are: The South European Scurvy Grass [Cochlcaria officinalis, Linn.), long 
known and used as an anti-scorbutic ; C. armoracia, Linn., our common horse- 
radish, is much used as a counter-irritant, diuretic, diaphoretic, and stimulant ; the 
dried flowers of the Cuckoo Flower {Cardamiiic pratensis, Linn.) have been recom- 
mended for the cure of epilepsy in children ; and the seeds of the Oriental Arabis 
Chi)iensis are considered by the natives stomachic, and are said to cause abortion 
in pregnant women. 

Many species afford vegetables of value as foods, or, more properly, relishes, 
notably the Cresses, of which the following European species are most used: The 
Common Water Cress [Nasiurtiiim officijiale, R. Br.) ; Winter Cress {Barbai'ea 
vidgaris, R. Br.) ; Belleisle Cress [B. prcecox, R. Br.) ; and the Common Cress" 
i^Lepidium sativwn, Linn.). The edible Pepperwort of New Zealand (Z. olera- 
ceuni) is greatly valued, as also are the Chinese Mustard [Sinapis Chiiiensis, Linn.), 
and the British Sea Kale {Crambc viaritiima, Linn.). The most useful species, 
however, for relishes, and nourishment as well, are the Turnip [Brassica Rapa, 
Linn.), and the Cabbage [B. oleracca, Linn.), with its numerous varieties by culti- 
vation, prominent among which stands the Cauliflower as var. Botiyfis, Dec. 

History and Habitat. — White Mustard has as yet hardly become naturalized 
in this country from its European and Oriental haunts, but has escaped from cul- 
tivation here in many places, and grows the life of what is commonly known as a 
roadside weed. 

The previous uses of the seeds of this plant are intimately connected with those 
of 5. nigra, as they are usually mixed in the preparation of Sinapis or mustard 
flour, which is used as an emetic, diuretic, stomachic, and gastro-intestinal stimu- 
lant ; and externally applied, wet with vinegar, as a rubefacient and vesicant. The 
power of vesication resides in the oil to a high degree. The unground seeds of 
this species have held a high place in former practice as a remedy in atonic dys- 
pepsia, and various kindred complaints where there appeared to be a torpid state 
of the alimentary tract, as they were known to increase peristaltic activity ; but 
the e.xhibition of the seeds proved dangerous, as they are liable to become im- 
pacted in the bowel and set up a fatal inflammation. 

The seeds, though mentioned, have no ofificinal preparation in the U. S. Ph. ; 
in the Eclectic Materia Medica their use is as Cataplasma Sinapis. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The ripe seeds, prepared as noted 
under the next (Sinapis Nigra, p. 24-2), yield a tincture having a light, clear orange 
color by transmitted light; a sinapic odor and taste, biting and burning the tongue; 
and an acid reaction. 



23-3 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— 5/;/^?/^/;/. C.,„H^N,S,0„, or Sidpho-sinapisin. 
This peculiar compound body, determined by Hill, may be obtained from the seed- 
cake, after removal of the fat oil, by boiling the cake in alcohol. Sinalbin results 
as clear, colorless, united, acicular crystals, fusing at 130° (266° F.), soluble in 
water and slightly in alcohol. In the presence of water and myrosin, this body 
breaks down into its components as follows : 

Sinalbin .= Sulphocyanatc .\crinol -|- Siilpliate of Sinapine -- Sugar. 

Q„H^N,S,0,„ = C3H,NS0 + C,„H.,NSO„ + C„H,,,0,, 

The first of these resultants is proven to be the vesicating principle of the 
seed, though it does not pre-exist in them while dry. 

Sinapine, Cjj.H.,.,NO-. — This volatile alkaloid too readily decomposes to be 
isolated except as a sulpho-cyanide ; when heated with baryta water it breaks 
down as follows : 

Sinapine. Water. Sinapic Acid Choline.* 

Q„H.,3N0, + (H.p).-, = QjHj.X), + QH,.NO,. 

Oil of Mustard (mixed). — This yellow, fixed, fat oil, obtainable by pressure 
from the seed-meal, has a sp. gr. of .917-.920, thickens at -12° (10.4° F.), is not 
drying, and contains glyceroles of Erucic,f Sinapoleic,J and Behenic Acids.§ 
This oil is used largely to adulterate olive oil, as it has a great power of resisting 
rancidity. 

Myrosin. — This emulsion-like body is obtained from the seeds of this species 
by treating them with water, evaporating the menstruum at 40° (104° F.) to a 
syrup, and precipitating with alcohol. The precipitate, dried by gentle heat, results 
as impure myrosin, which has not yet been isolated from the albumen that is inti- 
mately mixed with it. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The essential oil of mustard (Sinalbin ?) is a 
virulent, irritant poison, causing, when ingested, severe burning, followed by in- 
creased heart's action, and, if pushed to extremes, loss of sensibility, paralysis, 
stupor, rigors, and death. When applied to the skin it causes almost immediate 
vesication, followed by deep ulceration hard to heal. The symptoms caused by 
small repeated doses of the ground seeds are, in abstract: Salivation, with yellow- 
coated tongue ; burning and scraping in the throat, followed by a sense of con- 
striction ; thirst; nausea and vomiting ; painful flatulence; burning and crawling 
in the rectum ; copious pasty stools ; dark-colored urine ; creeping chills, and 
inclination to sweat. 

Description of Pl.\te 23. 
I. End of flowering branch, Salem, Mass., July 28th, 18S5. 

2. Essential organs. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Anthers. 

5. Silique. 

6. Seed. 

7. Longitudinal section of seed. 

(2-7 enlarged. ) 

*^w. 7o«7-. /'//<7r., 1883, 551. t Or Brassic (Cj,H„Oj). • J Ca,H„Oj. g C„H„0,. 



24. 




Gltt.adnat.del.et pinxt. 



SiNAPIS NiGRA,Li 



N. OKD-CRUCIFER^. • 24 

Tribe.-BRASSICE/E. 

GENUS.— S I N A P I S ,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— TETR.\DYNAM1.\ SILIQUOSA. 

SINAPIS NIGRA. 

BLACK MUSTARD. 



SYN.-SINAPIS NIGRA, LINN.; BRASSICA NIGRA, BOISS. ; BRASSICA 
SINAPIOIDES, ROTH. 

COM. NAMES.— BLACK MUSTARD, BROWN OR RED MUSTARD; (FR.) 
MOUTARDE NOIRE; (GER.) SCHWARZ SENP. 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF SINAPIS NIGRA, LINN. 



Description. — This useful plant has become a troublesome weed in many 
parts of North America, (growing from 3 to 6 feet high. The rool is fusiform, 
thin and branching. The stem generally erect, smooth and numerously branched ; 
the lower leaves are either lyrate or lobed, the terminal lobe large, rough, and 
harsh to the touch, with two or more small lateral divisions or lobes at its base, 
the stem leaves are entire, lanceolate and smooth. The inflorescence is a dense 
head at first, extending as the fruits form into an elongated raceme, which con- 
tinues flowering at its top until frost checks the growth. The pods are smooth, 
about one-quarter inch long, upon appressed pedicels, and closely set to the 
elongated axis of the inflorescence, they are 4-angled, erect, and surmounted by 
the 4-angled, stout, persistent style. Valves 2, each i -nerved. Seeds 4 to 6 in 
each cell, they are spherical, or somewhat oval, of a dark, reddish-brown color, 25 
of them in line would about equal an inch, and 50 would generally weigh i grain. 
The pitted reticulation of the outer coat is coarser, while the seeds themselves 
are smaller and more pungent than S. alba. 

A description of the order and genus is incorjjorated in the description of 
Sinapis alba, 23. 

History and Habitat. — Black Mustard is found wild over the whole extent 
of Europe, excepting its most northern latitudes, as well as the central part of 
Asia and in Northern Africa. It is quite extensively cultivated in Italy, Germany, 
and England, and fully naturalized in both North and South America, flowering 
in temperate regions from June to September. It was well known to the ancients 
as a medicinal agent, but not as a condiment until somewhat more modern times. 
The seeds, when ground, form a greenish-yellow powder, inodorous when dry, 



"Zn-aTTi, siiiapi, turnip. Biasska or Sinnpis campeslris. 



24-2 

penetrating when moist, with at first a bitter, then extremely pungent taste, blis- 
tering the tongue. The seeds should be of a bright reddish-brown color, free 
from gray coating, this ashy film being the effect of dampness, during the ripen- 
ing, and a great detriment to the value and properties of the seed. 

The fresh plants, soon after their appearance, while the leaves are yet young 
and tender, are used by the laity in many jjarts of this country as a pot-herb 
(" greens "). This relish is termed at that stage of its growth, sciu^y-grass, 
though the true Scurvy-grass is Sinapis ati^ensis {Brassica Sinapistrum) . The 
use of Sinapis nigra in the U. S. Ph. is simply as Charta Sinapis. In the 
Eclectic Materia Medica the use is the same, and both employ the volatile oil 
in Linini'nihofi Sinapis Compositum. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The ripe seeds are coarsely powdered 
and covered with five parts by weight of alcohol, poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, being shaken twice a 
day. The tincture is separated by decanting, straining and filtering. 

Thus prepared, it has a clear, greenish-yellow color by transmitted or 
reflected light, a sweetish, biting taste, afterward somewhat burning, and is 
neutral to litmus paper. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Sinapisin ; this body exists (Simon) as an 
unsaponifiable fat, in the seeds of black mustard, from which it may be obtained 
by percolating the powdered seeds with alcohol of 94 per cent., evaporating the 
percolate, treating the residue with ether, again evaporating, treating with alcohol 
of 90 per cent, and filtering through animal charcoal. The impure crystals thus 
gained are to be dissolved in ether, from which they deposit on evaporation as 
snowy scales, soluble in alcohol, ether and oils. (Wittstein). 

Sinigrin, — Q^^W^^Y^^'^^O^^, or potasso-niyronic acid, xs the principle peculiar 
to this species, from which it may be obtained as silky, needle-like crystals, 
soluble in alcohol and water. When acted upon by myrosin it breaks down, 
forming mustard oil, glucose, and KHSO^. 

An analysis of three samples of black mustard farina, made by A. R. Leeds 
and E. Everhart, reported in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 
1881, p. 130, gave the following averages, each sample differing but very slightly 
from the others : 



Moisture, . . 


6.833 


Myronate of potash (sinigrin). 


.646 


Sulphocyanide of sinapine (sinalbin), 


11.123 


Myrosin, 


28.483 


Mustard oil 


29.208 


Ash, 


3-757 


Cellulose (by difference), . . . 


19.950 



For a full description of erucic acid, sinapoleic acid, my7-osin, and fat-oil, which 
exist alike in both S. alba and .S. nigra, see 23. 



24-3 
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — So far as I can determine, no specific toxic 
symptoms have been noted ; under S. alba I have given the general action of 
mustard without differentiation. 



Description of Pi.atf. 24. 

I. End of a branch in fruit and flower, Binghamton, N. Y., July 5, li 

2. Outline of one of the lower leaves. 

3. Fruit (enlarged)i 

4. Pollen grains x 380. 



25. 




^m. 




ailnatdei.etpinxl. 



CaPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS , Moench: 



N. ORD.-CRUCIFER/E. 25 

Thbe.-LEPIDINE/E AND THLASPIDE/E. 

GENUS.— CAPSELLA,* VENT. 



SEX. SYST.— TETRADYNAMIA. 



BURSA-PASTORIS. 



SHEPlfERD'S PURSE. 

SYN.— CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS, MCBN. ; THLASPI BURSA-PASTORIS, 

LINN. 
COM. NAMES.— SHEPHERD'S PURSE; (FR.) BOURSE DE PASTEUR; (GER.) 

HIRTENTASCHLEIN. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.ANT CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS, MCEN. 

Description. — This intrusive little annual grows to a height of from 6 to 18 
inches. Root tap-shaped. Stem erect, simple, or branching at the summit, smooth 
or sometimes pubescent. Leaves mostly rosulate at the root, pinnatifid or pinna- 
tifidly toothed; stem leaves sessile and partly clasping, more or less sagittate, 
toothed or in some cases entire, especially those at the base of the racemes. 
Inflorcsce7ice apparently a dense cluster at the summit of the stem, but as fruiting 
advances showing a racemose arrangement ; floivers minute, white ; pedicels long, 
especially in fruit. Sepals ovate, long-pointed, and having inserted about their 
middle a filamentous appendage. Petals spatulate. Anthers sagittate. Style short ; 
stigma capitate. Silicle obcordate triangular, flattened contrary to the septum ; 
valves 2, scaphoid, wingless. Seeds numerous ; cotyledons plane, incumbent. Read 
description of Crucifers under Sinapis alba, 23. 

History and Habitat. — This European immigrant has become too thoroughly 
a nuisance as a weed about the cultivated lands of this country from Florida north- 
ward and westward, where it flowers from earliest spring to September. 

This plant was formerly classed with the genus Thlaspi, from which it was 
removed on account of its wingless valves. 

The Shepherd's Purse has been used in English domestic practice from early 
times, as an astringent in diarrhoea ; it was much used in decoction with milk to 
check active purgings in calves. Later its value here was much doubted, and 
other properties accorded it, especially those of a stimulating astringent and 
diuretic. It has been employed in fresh decoction in hematuria, hemorrhoids, 
diarrhoea and dysentery, and locally as a vulnerary in ecchymosis and as an appli- 
cation in rheumatic affections. The juice on cotton, inserted in the nostrils, was 
often used to check hemorrhage in epistaxis. 

* Fro-n capsula, a pod. 

t I use the specific name, which should always distinguish tliis plant in medicine, to avoid confusion in synonyms. 



25-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh plant, gathered when the 
flowering season is about half completed and the fruits rapidly forming, is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two-thirds by weight of alcohol is 
taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with the spirit and the whole pressed out in a 
piece of new linen. The tincture thus prepared has, after filtration, an orange- 
brown color by transmitted light, a peculiar odor, resembling decayed vegetation, 
a pungent taste, too like its odor, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Several partial analyses have been made of 
this plant, but none have resulted in the separation and determination of a pecu- 
liar principle. The general constituents of plants, and a volatile oil said to be 
identical with oil of mustard, as well as a fixed oil, have been determined. 

Clinical Uses. — In the absence of provings of this drug, it has been found 
curative in various uterine hemorrhages, especially those with which uterine cramp 
and colic are associated; also in various passive hemorrhages from mucous sur- 
faces.* A thorough proving is greatly to be desired. 



Description of Plate 25. 

I. Whole of young plant above the radicle leaves, Binghamton, N. Y., May 24th, 1S85. 
2, 3, 4. Forms of radicle leaves. 

5. Flower. 

6. Petal. 

7. Pistil. 

8. Stamen. 

9. Silicle. 

10. Open silicle, showing seeds. 

* See Hale, New Kern., p. 625. 




(^m.adnaf.deletpinxt RaPHANUS RaPHANI'STRUM, Linn. 



N. ORD.-CRUCIFER^. 26 

Tribe.-RAPHANE^. 

GENUS. — RAPH ANUS,- LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— TKTKA1)VNAMI.\ SlI.IoU ).SA. 



RAPHANUS. 



RADISH. 



SYN.— RAPHANUS RAPHANISTRUM, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.-WILD RADISH, JOINTED CHARLOCK, CHARLOCK- (FR ) 
RAIFOOT, COMMUNE; (GER.) WILDE RETTIG. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF RAPHANUS RHAPHANISTRU.M, LINN. 

Description. — This rapid-growing annual or biennial herb usually attains a 
height of from i to 2 feet. Root tap-shaped ; skin erect, glaucous, sparino-ly 
brisdy, and much branched below. Leaves lyrate, petiolate or sessile, dentate, and 
rough, the terminal lobe oval or obovate. Ca/yx erect, somewhat 2-saccate at the 
base. Petals at first yellow and veiny, becoming purplish or whitish with age, 
obovate and unguiculate. 5/c?;//£';/.s- distinct toothless. Style \ov\g\ .y/'/Vw^ capitate. 
Pod linear-oblong, terete upward, longer than the style, 2-jointed, indehiscent, and 
valveless ; the upper joint markedly necklace-form by strong contractions between 
the seeds ; the lower joint often seedless and stalk-like. Seeds 3 to 8, lan-'e and 
spherical ; cotyledons conduplicate and incumbent. 

History and Habitat. — The Wild Radish grows profusely over the fields of 
Great Britain and Europe, and has become a troublesome weed in New Eno-land, 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, from whence it is spreading westward. 
It blossoms in July and fruits in September. 

The cultivated forms, R. sativjis, Linn., and its varieties, niger (Black Spanish), 
oblongus (Long Radish), and rotiindus (Globose Radish), supposed to be of Chi- 
nese origin, are well-known salad roots ; all of them have contributed more or less 
to our provings. Very litde and unpronounced use has been made in medicine of 
these forms, or of the wild plant. The seeds have proved emetic, and the root 
diuretic and laxative. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh, perfect roots, gathered 
when full formed, at about the time of llowering, are chopped and pounded to a 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 

* 'Pn, ra, quickly ; ^aiVw, phaino, to appear; from its rapid germination. 



26-2 

After thoroughly stirring the whole, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, shaking twice a day. The tinc- 
ture, after straining and filtering, has a clear yellow color by transmitted light ; an 
offensive odor, something like that of boiling cabbage ; a similar miserable taste ; 
and an acid reaction. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The effects noted in people who have eaten 
too freely of radishes, and in others who took large quantities of the tincture, were 
substantially as follows : Mental excitement, followed by depression and anxiety ; 
confusion and vertigo with cephallagia ; stuffiness of the nostrils ; paleness of the 
face ; bitter taste in the mouth ; constriction of the oesophagus ; violent thirst ; 
nausea with violent pressure in the stomach; great distention of the abdomen, 
which became hard and tense, though painless, and no flatulence escaped ; numer- 
ous liquid diarrhoeic stools ; great desire to urinate, with greatly augmented quan- 
tity; great sexual excitement in women, coming on in paroxysms of great violence ; 
lancinating pains in the chest ; violent palpitation of the heart ; attacks of hysteria ; 
emaciation ; itching of the skin ; restlessness ; and chilliness followed by inclination 
to sweat. 



Description of Plate 26. 

Whole plant, Jamaica, L. I., July 29th, i< 

2. A sepal and stamen. 

3. Petal. 

4. Pistil. 

5. A ripe pod. 

6. A section of a pod. 
(2-4 and 6 enlarged.) 



27. 




F I 




.lU.ailnat.iJei.etpinxf. 



Viola Tricolor , Linn. 



N. ORD -VrOLACE^. 27 

GENUS.— V I O L A,* LINN. 
SEX. SY.ST.— PEXT.WURI.'V MONOGYNIA. 



VIOLA TRICOLOR (JACEA). 

WILD PA^'SY. 

SYN.— VIOLA TRICOLOR, LINN. ; VIOLA BICOLOR, PUBSH ; VIOLA TEN- 
ELLA, MUHL. ; VIOLA ARVENSIS, ELL. ; JACEA TRICOLOR, SIVE 
TRINITATIS, ETC., J. BAUH. 

COM. NAMES.-PANSY, PANSIE, PANSEY, HEART'S-BASE, THREE COL- 
ORED VIOLET, TRINITY VIOLET, FIELD PANSY. WILD PANSY; 
(FR.) PENSEE; (GER.) STIEFMUTTERCHBN-KRAUT, FRBISAMKRAUT.' 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT VIOLA TRICOLOR, LIXN. 

Description. — This beautiful little plant, belonging to the leafy-stemmed violets, 
springs from an annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial, fusiform root. Slcm 3 to 8 
inches high, angled, at first creeping, then erect, simple or branched, and leafy 
throughout; stipules w&ry IdLVge, herbaceous, lyrate-pinnatifid. Jnftoi'cscouc sewGraA 
smallish flowers on a terminal and axillary peduncle. Ca/yx with short auricles. 
Corolla with an obtuse, thick spur ; petals short clawed. Ovary partly concealed 
in the concave receptacle ; style somewhat conical, narrowing toward the o\ary ; 
stigma cup-shaped. Capsule smooth ; seeds oblong. 

Description. — Violaceae and Viola. — The plants under this natural order and 
genus are low, caulescent or acaulescent, those with stems springing from annual or 
perennial roots, those without stems from scaly root-stocks. The leaves are alter- 
nate and petiolate, with leaf-like persistent stipules. In the stemless violets the 
scapes are axillary, solitary, and furnished with two bracts at the base. Inflorescejice 
a single, more or less irregular flower upon the incurved summit of the scape or 
peduncle ; many species having also radical apetalous or cryptopetalous, fertile 
summer flowers. Calyx herbaceous, persistent; sepals 5, often auriculate at the 
base, the odd one superior. Corolla irregular ; petals 5, somewhat unequal, 
hypogynous, alternate with the sepals, the superior one — which becomes inferior 
by the inversion of the scape — is saccate or spurred at the base, the two lower 
petals with an appendage at the base concealed in the spur. Stamens 5, hypogy- 
nous upon a ring-like or concave torus, alternate with the petals, closely surround- 
ing the ovary, and are sometimes slightly coherent into a ring or tube ; filamcnis 
very short and broad, projecting beyond the anther into a little persistent wing or 
tip, or sometimes obsolete. The two lower filaments, when present, are furnished 

* Derivation Latin, obscure. t Herring's Condensed Materia Medica. 



27-2 

each with a little projection, concealed in the sac or spur of the lower petal ; ajithers 
adnata, 2-celled. the cells somewhat separated at the base, opening by a longitu- 
dinal introrse slit. Ovary sessile, ovoid, one-celled, with three parietal placenta: ; 
jA'/^ terminal, various, usually declined; stigma vd.now'i. Fruit an ovoid, crusta- 
ceous or papyraceous, t, valved, loculicidal capsule; seeds many, horizontal, and 
furnished with a distinct wart-like excrescence at the hilum, raphe apparent; albu- 
men fleshy ; embryo straight, situated in the axis. 

This description essentially includes the two genera lonidiim {solea) and Viola 
of the northern United States ; in the tropics many plants of this order are shrubby. 
The genus lonidum contains the Brazilian Poaya da Praja [lonidum IpecacuaJiha, 
A. de St. H. ; /. Itubu, H B K. ; Iwla Jtubu, Aubl. ; Pombalia Jtubu, D C.) ; the 
Poaya do campo [lonidniii Poaya.) ; the Chimborazian CuichunchuUi {lonidum 
microphylhnii, H B K.) noted as a supposed specific for the " mal de San Lazaro " 
or Elephantiasis tuberculata; and the Chilian purgative Maytensillo {lonidum 
parviflormn, Linn.), the roots of which arc stated by Lindley to bear in appearance 
and properties a great similarity to Ipecacuanha. 

History and Habitat. — The wild pansy has become naturalized in this country 
from Europe, growing here in dry, sandy soils, from New York westward to Illi- 
nois and southward, blossoming northward from April until the summer months. 
The varieties of this plant in cultivation are innumerable, affording some of the 
most beautiful of our garden-plants ; the principal changes in cultivation are in the 
size and colors of the flowers, varying, as they now do, from pure white to silver, 
gold, bronze, and jet-black, with admixtures in immense variety. The use of the 
pansy in medicine dates far back in ancient medication, the first real experimenta- 
tion with the plant is that of Starck in i 776, who wrote '■■ De a^usta lactea infantum 
ejusdemqiie rcniedis disscrtatio, etc." in that year; the provings substantiate this 
use of the plant and show it to be useful in other forms of impetigo. Its use in 
some forms of burrowing ulcers, tinea capitis and scabies is also sanctioned by 
the provings. 

The plant is mentioned in the U. S. Ph. and the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

Part Used and PreparatioTi. — The whole plant, gathered while in flower, should 
be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed ; then two parts by weight of 
alcohol taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added. The whole should be well mixed, poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated by filtering, should have an orange-brown color by 
transmitted light, a cucumber-like odor, rich, sweet taste, and strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Violin;'^ this acrid, bitter principle, bearing 
in its properties a close resemblance to emctia:\ was extracted by Boullay from 
Viola adorata ; it is found also in Viola tricolor and var. arvensis as well as in 

* Violia, Vhline. -j- Alkaloid of Ctphalis Ipecacuanha. 



27-3 

Viola pcdata. According to Wittstein it is a pale yellow, bitter powder, fusible, 

and inflammable at greater heat ; it dissolves slightly in water and alcohol, and is 

insoluble in ether. 

Violaqueritrin, Q.H^^Oo^. This coloring-matter was discovered by Karl 

Mandelin* in viola tricolor var. arvensis ; it forms a yellow crystalline mass, easily 

soluble in alkalies, and hot water, crystallizing from the latter on cooling. 

f OH 
Salicylic Acid, QH^ < p^ tt This acid, so far in its history, has been but 

rarely extracted under its own form from plants ; the flowers of Spij'ca ti/iiiaria 
alone yielding itf Karl Mandelin, however, who has made careful analyses of 
viola tricolor, extracts the acid pure. He reports in his " Inaugural Dissertation" 
(Dorpat, 1881) a proportion of from .043 per cent, in cultivated plants, to .107 per 
cent, in var. arvetisis. He finds it in all parts of the fresh plant, and principally in 
tiie roots, stems and leaves. 

Pectin, or vegetable jelly, Q.y^^f}.,^ (H^O)^. From the fact that a mixture of 
one part of the juice of this plant with ten parts water, will form a jelly-like mass, 
the presence of the above body or a very strong mucilage seems proven. This 
property has given various uses to llola as an expectorant, emollient, and infusion 
for coughs and bronchial affections. 

Sugar, both crystallizable and uncrystallizable, shiIs of potassium, tartrate of 
magnesium, and other general constituents of plants have been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The emetic effect of some of the violets, due 
to the presence of violin, has been noted to some extent in this species. The most 
characteristic symptom of its action is an offensive odor of the urine, like that of 
the cat. The pains caused by this drug are of a stitching character, while its action 
seems spent almost entirely upon the skin, and the male sexual organs. On the 
skin it causes burning, stinging, and itching, followed by breaking down of the 
tissues into either squamous spots, or any grade of incrusted eruptions; the erup- 
tion pours out a thin yellow fluid. Boils, impetigo, especially crustea lactea, 
ichorous and burrowing ulcers, and zoster followed the exhibition of generous doses 
of this drug. On the genital organs of the male the prepuce becomes swollen, 
with stitching and burning pains in the glans and scrotum, the testicle becomes 
indurated, and venereal ulcers form ; stitchings are frequent in the urethra, followed 
by urging to urinate with profuse discharge. 

Description of Plate 27. 

I. Whole plant from Binghamton, N. Y., May 13, 1884. 

2. Bud showing sepals. 

3. Pistil (enlarged). 

4. Discharged anther (enlarged). 

5. Pollen X 380. 



» Phar. Zeit.fiir Russland, 1883, pp. 329-334- ^m- Jour. Phar., 1883, p. 47°- t Low'g- 




28. 



nat.dei.et pjnxt. 



HeLIANTHEMUM CANADENSE,Michx. 



N. ORD -CISTACE^. 28 

GENUS.— HE LI A NTH EMU M,* TOURN. 
SEX. SVST.— P01.VA\I)RI.\ MUXOGVNIA. 



C I S T U S. 



ROCK ROSE. 



SYN. — HELIANTHEMUM CANADENSB, MICHX. ; H. RAMULIFLORUM, 
MICHX. ; H. ROSMARINIFOLIUM, PURSH. ; H. CORYMBOSUM, PURSH.; 
CISTUS CANADENSIS, LINN.; C. RAMULIFLORUM, POIR. ; LECHEA 
MAJOR, LINN; HETERAMBRIS CANADENSIS, SPACH. ; H. MICHAUXII, 
SPACH. 

COM. NAMES. — ROCK ROSE.t FROST -WORT, FROST -PLANT. FROST- 
WEED, HOLLY ROSE; iFR.) HELIANTHEME DU CANADA; (GER.) 
CANADISCHES SONNENROSCHEN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.VNT HELIANTHEMUM CANADENSE, MICHX. 

Description. — This peculiar plant grows to a height of from 6 to i 2 inches. 
Slem at first simple, erect or ascending, somewhat hairy ; pjibescence stellate and 
fasciculate. Leaves sessile or nearly so, oblong lanceolate. Flowers of two sorts, 
both diurnal; Primary foj-ni : few or solitary, large, pedunculate; calyx hairy 
pubescent ; petals 5, obovate, fugacious, crumpled in the bud, erosely marginate ; 
staineiis indefinitely numerous; pod ova.te, shining, many-seeded ; Secondary /or/u: 
numerous, small, sessile, axillary, solitary or few-clustered upon short leafy branches ; 
sepals 5, the outer pair sometimes wanting ; petals very small or absent ; staviens 
3 to 10; pod minute, hoary, 3- few-seeded. Style columnar or absent; stigma 
capitate, 3-lobed, fimbriolate. Fruit -a. i -celled, 3-valved capsule. 6'^i'rt' somewhat 
triangular ; testa rough ; embryo incurved in the form of a hook or ring. 

There are two very distinct forms of this species, difterentiable as follows : 

Early Flowering Form (Fig. ij. ', Later Flowering Form (Fig. 2). 

Stems upright, branching, bright crimson, nearly Stem upright, less branched, purplish, covered 



glaucous. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, light green. 
Primary flowers axillary solitary. 
Secondary flower-buds minute. 
Capsule of primary flowers nearly twite as large Capsule of primary flowers smaller. 

as the later form. 



with a downy pubescence. 
Leaves dark green. 
Primary flowers terminal clustered. 
Secondary flowers numerous, larger. 



Cistaceae. — This small family of low shrubs or herbs is represented in North 
America by 3 genera and 1 7 species ; its members are characterized as follows : 

* HXioj, helios, the sun; a.v9tnov, anthftnon, a flower. 

t The true Rock Rose is C. Creticus, Linn., a native of Syria. 



28-2 

Leaves simple, mostly entire, the lower often opposite, the upper alternate ; stipules 
absent. Flowers regular. Calyx persistent ; sepals 5, the two outer often smaller, 
bract-like, or absent, the three inner twisted in the bud. Petals 3 to 5, twisted in 
an opposite direction to the sepals, fugacious. Stamens distinct, mostly indefinite, 
hypogynous ; filainents slender ; anthers short, innate. Ovtdcs few or many, stipi- 
tate, and furnished with an apical orifice ; style small or wanting. Fruit a i -celled 
capsule ; valves 3 to 5, each with a dissepiment attached to its median line and pla- 
cental at the axis. Seeds mostly orthotropous ; embryo long and slender, straightish 
or curved ; albumen mealy. 

The only other plant of this order used in medicine is the European Rock 
Rose [Gstus Creticus, Linn.), from which the natural exudation, a gum resin called 
Ladanum, has been much esteemed as a stimulant, especially to mucous mem- 
branes, and as an emmenagogue. C. Ladanijcrous, Linn., C. Ledon, Lam., and 
C. Laurifolius, Linn., are said to yield the same substance. 

History and Habitat. — Frost-wort is indigenous to North America, where it 
ranges from Maine to Wisconsin and thence southward ; it habits sandy soils, and 
flowers from April to August. In early winter the bark near the root fissures, 
and spicules of ice project from the rents ; this fact gave the plant its vulgarisms. 
Frost-wort, etc. 

This plant has been long held in repute as a remedy for scrofula and tor 
many disorders arising in persons of strumous diatheses, especially, however, 
those diseases in such persons which have seemed to need an astringent, tonic, 
or alterative, such as diarrhoea, aphthous ulcerations, ulcers, ophthalmia, syphilis, 
and the like. 

The preparation of the Eclectic Materia Medica is DccoctJiiii Hclianthciiu. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh flowering plant is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the mass by pressing and filtering, has a beauti- 
ful crimson color by transmitted light ; an odor resembling that of damp clover hay; 
a sourish, bitterish, and astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis of this species has, to our knowl- 
edge, been made; the tincture, however, would indicate a bitter principle, and 
probably tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — When taken in large doses the decoction 
causes nausea and vomiting. Small doses persisted in cause the following train 
of symptoms: Headache; pressure and stitches in the eyes; swelling and dis- 
charge in the internal ear, and of the salivary and cervical glands ; swelling of the 
inner nose, and sneezing; soreness, dryness, and rawness of the tongue, mouth. 



28-3 
and throat ; abdominal tlatulcncc ; diarrhoea ; swelling and hardness of the mam- 
mae ; pains in the chest; articular drawing and tearing pains; itching vesicular 
eruption ; chilliness, heat and resdessness, with thirst and trembling during the 
fever. 



Description ok Plate 28. 

1. Early flowering form, with primary flower, June 15th, 1885. 

2. Late flowering form, August ist, 1885, •'^alem, Mass. 

3. Primary flower-bud. 

4. Pistil and stamen. 

5. Horizontal section of ovary. 

6. Ovule. 

7. Open fruit. 

8. Seeds. 

9. Section of seed. 
10. Secondary bud. 

(3-6 and 8-10 enlarged.) 



r 




f j^» 



1 ' 



.TQ..iiinatiJel.et|tinxt 



DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA.Linn. 



N. ORD -DROSERACE^. 29 

GENUS.— DROSERA,* LINN. 



SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA I'ENTAGVNIA. 



DROSERA. 



SUJ^DEW. 

SYN.— DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA, L. ; RORELLA ROTUNDIFOLIA, AND 
ROS SOLIS FOL. ROTUND. RAIL 

COM. NAMES.— ROUND -LEAVED SUNDEW, RED-ROT, MOOR GRASS, 
YOUTH ROOT; (FR.) DROSE'RE A FEUILLES RONDES, ROSEE DU 
SOLEIL; tGER.) RUNDBLATTRIGBR SONNBNTHAU. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA, L. 

Description. — This low, stemless, perennial herb is characterized as follows : 
Leaves orbicular, tufted, the upper surface covered with red, glandular, setose 
hairs, each bearing a pellucid globule of glutinous fluid at its apex ; petioles long, 
hairy, and spreading ; stipules replaced by a fringy tuft of hairs. Scapes naked, i to 
3 from each root; mflorescence a terminal, unilateral, at first circinate then nodding 
raceme which becomes gradually erect as the buds expand and fruits ripen ; thus 
each flower as it opens appears terminal. Flowers 5 to lo, white, diurnal, opening 
only in sunshine, the parts sometimes in sixes. Petals oblong, styles gene-rally 3, 
deeply forked ; stigmas 6, situated upon the inner face of the club shaped apex of 
each fork. Pod globular, 3— valved ; seeds numerous, fusiform, arranged in 2 to 5 
rows along the placentiferous median line of each valve, testa loose, arllliform 
and chaffy. 

Droseraceae. — The members of this small family of bog plants are known 
mainly by their being mostly clothed with gland-bearing hairs. Leaves clustered 
at the base of the scape, or alternate, petiolate, circinate in the bud. Flowers 
hypogynous ; calyx composed of 5 equal and persistent sepals; corolla of 5 equal 
and regular, marcescent petals, convolute in the bud. Stamefis equaling in num- 
ber the petals and alternate with them ; anthers innate, extrorse. Styles 3 to 5 gen- 
erally distinct, undivided, bifurcated or two-lobed, at the apex. Fruit 3. i -celled 
3 to 5-valved, loculicidal capsule ; placenta thick at the base of the pod, or merely a 
line on each valve ; seeds numerous, anatropous ; albumen sarcous or cartilagi- 
nous; embryo basal, minute. 

The species under consideration is the only one used in medicine. The North 
Carolinian fly-trap {Dionea muscipula, Ellis) has furnished material for the study 
of carnivority in plants ; the sundew has also been experimented upon in this 

* Jponcpis, droseros, dewy ; in allusion to the appearance of the leaves. 



29-2 

reo-ard, but as yet the results are far from . proving it carnivorous per se, though 
the plants allowed insects as " food " appear to flourish better and ripen more 
seeds than those deprived of that nourishment.* 

History and Habitat. — The sundew grows in dense sphagnum or sandy 
swamps in England and America. Its range here extends from Florida northward, 
most common north, where it blossoms in June and July. 

The previous uses of this plant in medicine have been but slight; it was sup- 
posed in the sixteenth century to be curative of consumption ; of this quality, how- 
ever, Gerarde says : " The later physitians have thought this herbe to be a rare 
and singular remedie for all those that be in a consumption of the lungs, and 
especially the distilled water thereof ; for, as the best doth keep and hold fast the 
moisture and the dew, and so fast that the extreme heate of the sun cannot con- 
sume and waste away the same ; so, likewise, men thought that herewith the 
naturale and heate in men's bodies is preserved and cherished. But the use 
thereof doth otherwise teach, and reason showeth the contrarie ; for, seeing it is 
an extreme biting herbe, and that the distilled water is not altogether without this 
biting qualitie, it cannot be taken with safetie : for it hath also been observed that 
they have sooner perished that used the distilled water hereof, than those that 
abstained from it and have followed the right and ordinary course of diet." 
Geoffroi assertsf that its infusion is a valuable pectoral, useful in pulmonary 
ulceration and in asthma. Rafinesque saysj the juice is used " to destroy warts 
and corns ; with milk, for freckles and sunburns. It makes milk solid, but sour 
like bonyclabber, liked in Sweden. Deemed pectoral in South America, a sirup 
used in asthma." Many medical writers, among them Schenck and Valentin, 
recommend its use in "different kinds" of coughs, arising from bronchial attacks, 
phthisis, and other diseases of the lungs. A fit summary of all this practice may 
be found in Hahnemann's observations. " Drosera is one of the most powerful 
medicinal agents in our country. It was formerly used externally, but without 
success, in cutaneous affections, and it seems to have been taken with greater 
advantage internally. Modern practitioners who, according to custom, have tried 
only large doses, have not ventured upon giving it internally, fearing to kill their 
patients, and have therefore rejected it." 

No preparations of Drosera are officinal either in the U. S. Ph. or Eclectic 
Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The entire fresh plant gathered in 
July should be chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of new linen 
and pressed out. The juice should then be added to an equal part by weight of 
alcohol, thoroughly mixed and allowed to stand eight days in a well-stoppered 
bottle in a dark, cool place. The tincture separated from the above mass by 

* Busgen, your. Chem. Soc, 1884, p. 917. A more extended discussion of this subject will be found under Sar- 
racenia, 19. 

t Mtr. et de L. Diet, de M. Med., II., p. 699. 
X Med. Flora, II., p. 217. 



29-3 

filtration should be opaque, and present in thin layers a reddish-brown color, have 
an acrid, astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— ^/z>aW«, C,,H,0/= (C,„HP3 + H,0 or 
Cj^HjgOJ.f This dioxyanthroquinone coloring matter was first discovered in 
Madder root {Rubia titu/oria), as a glucoside J It crystallizes from its solution 
in alcohol in long, lustrous, translucent, yellowish-red, neutral and bitter prisms, 
containing three molecules of water, which it loses at ioo°-i20° (2i2°-248° F.). 
It sublimates at 215° (419° F.), in brilliant red needles that are only slighdy 
soluble in water, but fully in alcohol and ether. (Wittstein.) 

The plant is acrid and corrosive, but the principle to which this property is 
due has not, as far as I can determine, been investigated. Rafinesque states that 
the glutinous secretion of the leaf hairs is acid ; this may be a similar body to that 
which renders the water in the leaves of the pitcher-plant acid.§ 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Drosera has long been deemed poisonous to 
animals, especially sheep ; in the latter its action was mostly supposed to be upon 
the mucous membrane of the intestinal tract. Dr. Curie slowly poisoned three 
cats with daily doses of the drug;|| the post-mortem examination with the micro- 
scope revealed the pleural surface of both lungs studded with true tubercle. In 
one cat the mesenteric glands were much enlarged; in another the submaxillary 
glands, with the solitary glands of the colon and Peyer's patches. Burdach states 
that in man the juice produces shuddering, sense of constriction at the chest, raw- 
ness in the throat, cough, haemoptysis, pain in the bowels, diarrhoea, sweat, and 
diminished secretion of urine. The cough caused by this drug arises from a tick- 
ling in the larynx ; it is spasmodic in its nature and causes vomiting if the stomach 
contains food. 

Drosera asserts altogether a peculiar action upon the lungs and, in fact, the 
whole respiratory tract, thus leading us to value it deservingly in pertussis, bron- 
chial irritation and even phthisis, where in fact it gives many a patient a restful 
night and more peaceful day when the disease is too far advanced for still greater 
benefit. 

Description of Plate 29. 

I. Whole plant from Spruce Pond, N. Y., July 21st, 1884. 

2. Stamen. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Leaf hair. 

(2-4 enlarged.) 

* Grieb et Lieb. f Schunck. % Rubianic acid. g Sarracenia purpurea, 19. 

II French Acad. Sci., British your. Horn., xx., 39. 



30. 




]'<A^ 



(p'm. 



ad naf.dei.et pinxt. 



Hypericum Perforatum, unn. 



N. ORD-HYPERICACE^. 30 

GKNLS.— H YPERICUM,' LINN. 
SEX. SVST. — roLV.\l>KI.I'III.\ r(»LV.\\[)KI.\. 



HYPERICUM. 

.ST. JOIf.¥'S WORT. 

SYN. — HYPERICUM PERFORATUM, LINN.; H. VULGARB, BAUH. ; H. 

PSBUDOPERFORATUM, BERTOL. 
COM. NAMES. -ST. JOHN'S WORT, GOD'S WONDER PLANT, DEVIL'S 

SCOURGE, WITCHES' HERB; (FR.) HERBE ST. JEAN, CHASSE DIABLE, 

MILLS -PERTUIS; ^GBR.) JOHANNISKRAUT, HARTHEU, HEXEN- 

KRAUT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT HYPERICUM PERFOR.\TUM, LINN. 

Description. — This rapidly-spreading perennial grows to a height of a foot or 
more. S^cm erect, somewhat two-edged, much branched at the summit and pro- 
ducing many long runners from its base. Z^^r'^.y elliptical to linear oblong, obtuse, 
and punctate with numerous scattered pellucid dots. Inflorescence in a dense, ter- 
minal, leafy cyme ; floi^'ers numerous, deep yellow. Calyx erect ; sepals lanceolate, 
acute. Petals twice as long as the sepals, black-dotted along the edges, margins 
unequal. Stamens numerous, in 3 to 5 clusters ; filainents filiform ; anthers black- 
dotted. Styles 3-divergent. Fruit a globose-ovoid capsule, 3-celled by the meeting 
of the placentae in the axis ; seeds pitted. 

Hypericaceae. — This family of herbs or shrubs is represented in North America 
by 3 genera, containing in all 39 species and 6 varieties. Leaves opposite, entire, 
dotted ; stipules none. Inflorescoice cymose ; flowers regular, hypogynous. Sepals 
5, nearly equal, sometimes united at the base, persistent, and imbricated in the bud. 
Petals 5, alternate with the sepals, deciduous, oblique, convolute or imbricated in the 
bud. Stamens mostly numerous, united or clustered, and not furnished with inter- 
posed glands ; anthers introrse, fi.xed by the middle. Ovules anatropous ; styles 
2 to 5, persistent; stigmas hardly evident, capitate. Fruit a i - to 5-celled pod; 
dehiscence septicidal ; valves 2 to 5. Seeds numerous, usually c)'lindrical ; embryo 
straight ; albumen none ; tegmen fleshy. 

The only plants of this order used in general medicine are: The Isle of France 
Hypericum lanceolatum, which is considered specific for syphilis by the natives ; 
the Brazilian H. connatum, used as an astringent in sore throat; //. laxiuscidum, 
considered ale.xiteric ; and some Russian species, which are vaunted as cures 
for hydrophobia. The European Androscstnmn ^j/^m/rt/^, All., is vulnerary ; and 
the Guiana P'isnia Guiancjisis, Pers., yields a purgative juice, greatly resembling 
gamboge. 

* The ancient name, of unknown derivation. 



30-2 

History and Habitat. — This European immigrant has become so thoroughly 
naturaHzecl with us as to become a very troublesome weed upon our farm-lands, 
where its rapid and rank growth render it difficult to exterminate and very ex- 
hausting to the soil. It flowers in July and August, and fruits a little later. 

Hypericum is mentioned by some of the earliest writers upon Materia Medica 
as a febrifuge and anthelmintic. Paul of ^gina speaks of it as an emmenagogue, 
and as being desiccative_ and diuretic ; also as a vulnerary. Galen, Dioscorides 
and others recommend its use as above. Gerarde says, in his Ha-ball : " S. John's 
Wort, with his flowers and seed boyled and drunken, provoketh urine, and is right 
good against stone in the bladder, and stoppeth the laske. The leaves, flowers, 
and seeds stamped, and put into a glass with oyle olive, and set in the hot sunne 
for certain weeks together, and then strained from these herbes, and the like quan- 
tity of new put In, and sunned in like manner, doth make an oyle of the colour of 
blood, which is a most precious remedy for deep wounds and those that are thorow 
the body, for sinews that are pricked, or any wound with a venomed weapon." 
The popular and empirical uses of this plant were various, depending in great 
part upon its balsamic odor and property. Among the more superstitious peas- 
antry of Middle Europe the most astonishing virtues were assigned to the herb; 
it became in fact with them a /}/£n danwn7un, and was gathered under this idea, 
especially on St. John's Day. It was also supposed to be useful in mania, hys- 
teria, and hypochondriasis. Later on, especially in Eclectic practice, it became 
noted as a diuretic, astringent, nervine, and anti-hemorrhagic, but is thrown aside 
by the so-called " regulars," whose latest author (our contemporary. Dr. Johnson) 
says:* "In scientific medicine it has become obsolete long ago. One author of 
comparatively recent date considers 'the saturated tincture nearly as valuable as 
that of arnica for bruises, etc' As tincture of arnica, however, apart from the alco- 
hol which it contains, is of doubtful efficacy in these cases, the above statement 
does not tend to inspire faith in St. John's Wort." This, my reader, is one of the 
deductions ot " scientific medicine." 

The great use of Hypericum in wounds where the nerves are involved to any 
extent is the rightful discovery of the true science of medicine. Dr. Franklin, who 
had ample field to test it during the war, says : " Lacerated wounds of parts rich 
in nerves yield nicely to this drug." Many cases of injury to the cranium and 
spinal column are reported benefited by its use ; and every homoeopathic phy- 
sician of at least three months' practice can attest to its merits. It is to the ner- 
vous system what arnica is to the muscular. 

Hypericum is no longer officinal in the pharmacopoeias. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica its preparation is Infnsinu Hypcrici. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh blossoming plant is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it into a closely-stop- 
pered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

* Med. Bet. of North America, Wood's Library, Dec, 1884. 



30-3 
The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, should have a deep crim- 
son color, almost opaque ; an odor resembling that of port wine ; a slightly astrin- 
gent vinous taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL OONSITUENTS.— (9A7/W Hypcria. This body is a product of 
the apparently black dots upon the petals and fruits. It gives a beautiful red 
color to alcohol and essential oils. This oil is doubdess one of the active prin- 
ciples of the plant. A resin, acrid and slighdy bitter, however, is one of the most 
active, if not the active, principle. The Tilden analysis''' yields a " Bitter jjrinciple," 
which does not appear as a result in the analyses of Blairf or Buchner. 

Tannin, and the usual plant constituents, have also been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The compiled results of the ingestion of this 
drug are in substance as follows : Mental depression and exhaustion ; vertigo and 
confusion of the head with pain, heat, and throbbing ; dilation of the pupils ; nau- 
sea ; profuse urination ; dry, hacking cough ; increased heart's action ; numbness, 
weakness, and trembling of the legs ; tearing pains in the upper extremities ; great 
weakness and prostration ; fuzzy feeling of the hands ; restless sleep ; shiverings 
and coldness of the body followed by dry heat. 



Description of Plate 30. 

I and 2. Whole plant, Bingliamton. N. Y.. July 7th, 18S5. 
3 and 4. Stamens. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Section of ovary. 

7. Leaf. 
S. Petal. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 



Jour. Mat. Med., N. S., i, 232. t ■^'■"- Jour. P/inr., xi, 23. 






natdei.etpinxt. 



AGROSTEMMA GiTHAGO.Linn 




N. ORD -CARYOPHYLLACE^. 31 

Tribe.-SILENE^. 

GENUS— LYCHNIS,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— DECANDRIA I'ENTAGVNIA. 



AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO. 

CORM COCKLE. 

SYN.— LYCHNIS GITHAGO, LAM. ; AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO.t LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— CORN COCKLE, COCKLE OR COCKEL, ROSE CAMPION; 
(FR.) LA NIELLE DES BLE'S, L'IVRAIE ; (GBR.) GEMEINE RADE, 
KORN RADE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF LYCHNIS GITHAGO, L.'^M. 

Description. — This softly pubescent annual, a pernicious emigrant, grows to a 
heig-ht of from i to ^ feet. Stem erect, dichotomous; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, 
covered with a whitish cottony down ; stipules none ; pubescence consisting of long 
appressed cilia. Injloi'escence solitary, axillary and terminal, long-peduncled flowers. 
Calyx cylindrical-campanulate, pubescent; and naked as regards bracts ; lobes 5, 
linear-lanceolate, foliaceous, deciduous. Petals obovate, emarginate, crownless, 
slender-clawed, shorter than the lobes of the calyx. Stamens 10. Ovary stipe- 
less ; styles 5, or rarely 4. Fruit a i-celled coriacious capsule, opening by 8 or 10 
teeth; seeds numerous, velvety black, reniform, muricately roughened in longitu- 
dinal concentric curved lines from the hilum. 

CaryophyllacesB. — Stems usually enlarged at the nodes ; leaves opposite, 
entire, often united at the base, the upper sometimes alternate. Flowers sym- 
metrical, 4- to 5-merous ; sepals 4 to 5, distinct or cohering, persistent, continuous 
with the peduncle ; petals 4 to 5 or none, hypogynous or perigynous, the latter 
clawless, the former unguiculate, inserted upon the peduncle of the ovary, they are 
sometimes deeply notched, sometimes simply emarginate, and in a few species 
split through their whole length. Stamens not more than twice the number of the 
petals, in many species equal in number with the sepals and opposite them; fila- 
ments subulate, sometimes monadelphous at the base, inserted witli the petals upon 
the peduncle of the ovary; anthers versatile or innate, introrse, 2-celled, opening 
longitudinally. Ovary generally gynophorous, composed of from 2 to 5 confluent 
carpels; styles 2 to 5, rarely one by cohesion, filiform, stigmatic down the inner 

* hixnoi, lychnos, a lamp; from the use of the cottony substance on the leaves of some spices in lieu of wicks. 

f Git or gith, the name of certain black aromatic grains, \vhich were employed by the Romans in cookery. These 
grains are the seeds of the European fennel flower (A'4r//« sativa, Linn.); and bear little resemblance to those of the 
cockle except in size and color. 



31-2 

face. Fruit a coriaceous capsule, 2- to 5-valved and -celled, or more commonly 
I -celled by the wasting away of the dissepiments; placenta central and generally 
free ; dehiscence loculicidal, or more commonly terminal by the splitting of the apex 
into twice as many teeth as there are styles. Seeds generally indefinite, inserted 
upon, and clustered about, the base of the central placenta, amphitropous or cam- 
pylotropous ; embryo external to the albumen and generally coiled around it, or in 
Dianthus nearly straight ; albumen farinaceous. 

The usefulness of this family of more or less mild plants lies mostly in the 
principle saponin found in many of its species, but especially prominent in two, 
viz.: the European soapwort [Saponaria officinalis, Linn.), and the Spanish fleshy- 
leaved Gypsophila [Gypsophila Struthiiim, Linn.). This substance is detergent and 
often used alone and in the composition of soap. The plants in which this prin- 
ciple exists are deemed nearly equal to Sarsaparilla as cleansers of the blood in 
syphilis and similar affections when the skin is involved ; pai'illin, the active prin- 
ciple of sarsaparilla, being similar in its properties to saponin. Several species of 
the genus Silene are considered to be anthelmintics, some measure of success 
having followed the use of the Fire pink (Silene Virginiaca, Linn.).* Many species 
of pinks (Dianthus) were formerly used and esteemed as astringents and sudorifics, 
and one species, Dianthus pluniarius, us(;ful in epilepsy, but all have fallen into 
disuse, their petals now only being utilized as a coloring matter for ointments and 
perfumes. 

History and Habitat. — The cockle was introduced into this country with 
grain from Europe, and is very seldom to be found growing elsewhere than in a 
field of wheat. It blossoms and ripens its seed in good season for the harvest, 
thus mixing well with the grain. The seeds are so small that they are only with 
difficulty separated, and when left and ground with the wheat render the resulting 
flour dark-colored, unwholesome, bitter, and in some cases poisonous, as will be 
noted hereafter. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The ripe, dried seeds are broken into a 
coarse powder and weighed. Then five parts by weight of alcohol are poured upon 
the powder, and the whole allowed to stand eight days in a well-stoppered bottle, 
in a dark, cool place, shaking thoroughly twice a day. The tincture separated from 
this mass by filtration should be of a clear, light bistre color by transmitted light ; 
its odor is strangely similar to the taste of the sweet acorn ; its taste like its odor, 
and also somewhat acrid ; and its reaction strongly acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — ^^ro^/^;«;«/«. — I am unable to find the 
authority for this body, which Wittstein says is an "alkaloid alleged to exist in the 
seeds of Lychnis Githago. It is obtained by extracting with alcohol of 40 per cent, 
containing acetic acid, and by precipitating with calcined magnesia. The precipi- 
tate to be treated with alcohol and left to crystallize. It results as yellowish-white, 



* Barton Collections, vol. i, p. 39. 



31-3 

minute scales, fusible by heat and slowly soluble in water. It has a perceptibly 
alkaline reaction and yields crystallizable salts with acids." 

Githagin. — Specific saponin, described under Aesculus Hippocastanum, 
page 43-4. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION — The seeds of the cockle are said to be fre- 
quendy allowed to adulterate the cheaper grades of flour in France, being inten- 
tionally ground with the wheat. Two 500 gram. (14^ oz.) lots of wheat flour, 
containing respectively 30 and 45 per cent, of these seeds, administered to two 
calves, caused severe cramps in the stomach within an hour, followed by diarrhoea, 
and finally death. Ducks and geese will eat of the seeds, but suffer death as above, 
and show post-mortem severe inflammation of the bowels.* In feeding my chickens 
" wheat screenings " I have often noted that they always carefully avoid the cockle 
seeds; not even the young chicks will pick up a single seed. 

The following symptoms are noted by Dr. Allen ;f they were observed from 
eating bread made of flour contaminated by cockle seed : Coma, in some cases ; 
vertigo ; headache with a sensation of heat and burning rising into the vertex ; 
mouth hot and dry ; nausea, sour and bitter vomiting ; burning, extending along the 
oesophagus, from the stomach into the throat ; cutting pains in the stomach ; diar- 
rhoea, with tenesmus and burning in the bowels and rectum ; pulse at first small 
and rapid, then tense, hard, and slower ; hot skin ; tearing along the spine with 
impaired locomotion, and difficulty in maintaining an erect position. These symp- 
toms class the seeds among the cerebro-spinal irritants. 

Description of Plate 31. 

1. End of a flowering branch, Ithaca, N. Y., June 13th, 18S0. 

2. Pistil. 

3. Flower. 

4. Seed, X 25. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



* Ant. Jour. Phar., 1879, p. 129; from Arch. d. Phanii., 1S79, p. 
t Ency. Pure Mat. Med., vol. i, p. 132. 




32. 



1/ 
4 



^m. 



41^1 / 



r 








iilnatdei.etpinxt. 



Geranium Maculatum Unn. 



N. ORD.-GERANIACE^. 32 

GENUS.— G E R A N I U M,* LINN. 
SEX. .SYST.— MONADKI,riII.\ UL:CANDRI.\. 



GERANIUM MACULATUM. 

WILD GERAJsriUM. 

SYN.— GERANIUM MACULATUM, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD GERANIUM OR CRANESBILL, SPOTTED GERANIUM 
OR CRANESBILL, CROWFOOT.t ALUM-ROOT, TORMENTIL, STORK- 
BILL; (FR.) BEC DE GRUB; (GER.) GEFLECKTBR STORCHSNABEL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH AUTUMNAL ROOT OF GERANIUM MACULATUM 

LINN. 

Description. — This erect perennial, hairy herb, grows to a height of from one 
to one and a half feet. Root somewhat woody. Stem erect, hair)', forking. Leaves: 
of two kinds ; those from the root, long petioled, those of the stem, opposite ; all 
generally 5-parted, the cuneate divisions lobed and cut at. the end, hairy. The 
leaves when old become somewhat blotched with whitish-green, whence the specific 
name. Stipules lanceolate. Inflorescence a terminal open panicle; pedicels ?Lho\\X. 
one inch long, from one to two sometimes three flowered ; flowers large and 
showy. Sepals equal, cuspidate, persistent, villous. Petals equal, entire, bearded 
upon the claw. Stamens 10, unequal, the longer 5 alternate with the petals, and 
furnished each with a basal gland \ filaments slightly hairy at the base ; anthers per- 
fect on all the filaments. Style terminal, persistent, smooth inside. (This is notice- 
able in the fruit after their cleavage from the axis.) S:ecls minutely reticulate. 

GERANIACE.^. — This order, having a position between Zygophyllaccce and 
Rutacecv, is characterized by generally strong-scented herbs or shrubs, having as- 
tringent roots ; leaves palmately veined and usually lobed ; flowers symmetrical. 
(Exc. Impaticns and Tropceohim.) Calyx of 5 persistent sepals, imbricated in the 
bud; corolla of 5 petals, furnished with claws, mostly convolute in the bud; sta- 
mens 10, in two rows, the outer often sterile; filaments broad and united at the 
base; styles 5, connected about an axis; stigmas 5, separate; ^:'«;j 5-carpelcd, 
each carpel containing from i to 2 seeds, the carpels opening by the curling back 
of the drying persistent styles ; seeds destitute of albumen. (Exc. Oxalis.) Coty- 
ledons convolute, and plicate with each other. 

This is one of those orders that are often broken up into smaller ones then 
recombined, in botanical history. It contains in the more northern United States 
the following genera : Erodiuni, Flwrkca, Geranium, Impatiens, Limnanthcs, and 
Oxalis. There are two particularly interesting genera besides the above, viz., 
Pelargonitmi, to which belong our cultivated geraniums, introduced from the Cape 

* Tifa ot,geranos, a crane; the styles bearing resemblance to a crane's bill. 
I More applicable froin usage to the Raniiniula!. 



32-2 

of Good Hope, and Tropceo'.um, containing the garden nasturtium. Of this order 

our only proven plants are the one under consideration and Oxalis stricta, Linn.* 

History and Habitat. — The wild geranium grows lu.xuriantly in our open 
woods and new clearings, flowering from April to July. 

The American Aborigines value the root of this plant as an astringent in 
looseness of the bowels, and exhaustive discharges of all kinds; it was thus 
brought forward by Colden, Coellen, and Shoepf, and recommended as a remedy 
in the second stages of dysentery and cholera infantum, cynanche tonsillaris, oral 
aphthae, passive hemorrhage, leucorrhoea, etc., in fact the uses of a decoction of 
the root have been great wherever an astringent or styptic seemed to be required. 

Geranium root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. as Exlractum Geranii Fluidnm, 
and in the Eclectic Materia Medica as Extracliini Gcraiiii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered in autumn, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, it should be poured into 
a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days In a dark, cool place. 

The tincture prepared from this mass by filtration, shoukl have a deep reddish- 
brown color by transrtiitted light, a bweet and astringent taste, and a strong acid 
reaction. This tincture becomes muddy on long standing, but does not deposit ; 
at least mine has not yet done so, although it has been made over three years.-j- 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis by Dr. Bigelow in 1833 corrobo- 
rated Staples' determination of tannin In quite large percentage, and oallic acid. 
The gallic acid in his hands differed somewhat Irom that body as extracted from galls. 

Messrs. Tilden (1863) J determined beside the above : tivo resins, one soluble 
in alcohol, the other in ether; an oleo-resin soluble in ether; gum, pectin, starch, 
sugar, and the usual plant constituents. 

Dr. Staples (i8:29)§ detected, beside the above, a "peculiar crystalline prin- 
ciple," which does not seem, so far, to have been analysed or even corroborated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — In moderate doses Geranium causes constipa- 
tion, attended with but fruitless attempts at evacuation ; some pain in the stomach 
and bowels, and tenesmus when a stool is gained ; stool odorless. Its action will 
be seen to so far differ but slightly. If at all, from that of Acidiun Tannicum, which 
should be studied in this connection. 

Description of Plate 32. 

I. Whole plant (once reduced), with a portion of the stem removed ; I'amrapo, N. J., May 21st, 1S79. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil and calyx. 

4. Ovary. 

5. Fruit (once reduced). 

* Author's proving. See Trans. Horn. Med. Sac. Staff N. K, Vol. XIX, 1S84, p. 136. 

t .^ better method of preparing the tincture, should Iw l)y usinij dilute alcohol. 

X .Am. Jour. Pilar., 1863, p. 22. I Jaitr. Phil. Col. Pilar., i, p. 171. 




^Xa.adnatdeletpinxt XaNTHOXYLUM AmERICANUM, Mill. 



N. ORD.-RUTACE^. 33 

(; KNUS.— X A N T H O X Y L U M ,* GOLDEN. 

SEX. SVST.— DI()i:CI.\ TENTANDKIA. 



XANTHOXYLUM. 

PRICKLY ASH. 

SYN. — XANTHOXYLUM AMERICANUM. MILL.; X. CLAVA-HERCULIS, 
LAM. (Not LINN.); X. FRAXINBUM, AND MITE, WILLD. ; X. FRAX- 
INIFOLIUM, MARSH. (Not WALT.l; X. RAMIFLORUM, MICHX. ; X. 
TRICARPUM, HOOK. (Not MICHX. ) ; THYLAX FRAXINEUM. RAP. 

COM. NAMES.— NORTHERN PRICKLY ASH.t TOOTHACHE TREE, PELLI- 
TORY.t YELLOW WOOD,? SUTERBERRY, ANGELICA TREE ; 1| (FR.) 
PRBNE E'PINEAUX; (GER.) ZAHNWEHOLZ. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH B.\RK OF XANTHOXYLUM AMERICANUM, MILL. 

Description. — This well-known shrub grows to a height of from 3 to 8 feet, 
with a like spread of banches. Baj-k grayish, smooth, white maculate, and slighdy 
warty; branches alternate, beset with short, triangular, sharp prickles, similar to 
those of the rose bush, and generally arranged in pairs beneath the axils of the 
younger branches ; leaves alternate, pinnately compound ; leaflets 4 to 5 pairs and 
an odd one, ovate-oblong, acute, entire or glandularly serrate, nearly sessile, the 
under surface downy when young; petiole often prickly on the upper side. Inflor- 
escence sessile umbellate clusters axillary to the yet undeveloped branchlets ; 
floivers yellowish-green, polygamo-dioecious, appearing before the leaves ; pei-fect 
floivers with 3 pistils, sterile flowers with rudimentary, abortive, gland-like ova- 
ries, fertile floiuers with 5 fruiting pistils. Calyx none. Petals 5, oblong, blunt, with 
a glandularly fibrillate border and somewhat inflated base. Stamens 5, exserted, 
alternate with the petals and inserted upon the torus; anthers innate, sagittate, 4- 
celled. Pistils 3 or 5 ; styles exserted, slender, somewhat intertwined, connivant, 
or sometimes united at the apex ; stigfnas capitate or obtuse. Ovaries distinct i- 
celled. Fruit reddish-green, short-stalked, fleshy, pitted, 2-valved pods ; seeds oval, 
blackish, one to each pod, suspended. 

Rutaceae. — A large family of herbs, shrubs and trees inhabiting chiefly the 
Southern hemisphere. Leaves simple or compund, pellucid-dotted and rich in a 
pungent or bitter and aromatic oil ; stipules none. Flowers by abortion dioecious 



* Sa^fliS,-, xanthos, yellow ; \i\ov, xylon, wood. 

f The Southern Prickly Ash is X Caroliiiianum, Lam. 

% The true Pellilories are the African Anacycltis pyrtlhrum, D. C. (Composit.-v), and various European and the 
American species of the genus Parietaria (Urticacecv). 

J The true yellow-wood with us is Cladrastris tinctoria, Raf. (Leguminosx). 

II The true Angelica tree, so often confounded with the prickly ash from its slightly similar effects, is Aralia spi- 
ttosa, Linn. (AraliaceDe). 



33-2 

or polygamous, usually regular and hypogynous; calyx of 3 to 5 sepals, or wanting ; 
petals 3 to 5, convolutely inbricated in the bud. Stamens as many as the sepals 
and alternate with them, twice as many, or rarely numerous ; filaments arising 
from the base of the gynophore. Pistils 2 to 5, separate or combined into a com- 
pound ovary of as many cells, gynophorus or raised on a glandular torus ; styles 
generally united or cohering, even when the ovaries are separate. Fruit mostly 
capsular, sometimes drupaceous, and baccate ; seeds few, anatropous and pendulus ; 
testa smooth, shiny, or crustaceous ; embryo large, curved or straight ; albumen sar- 
cous, generally enclosing the embryo ; cotyledons oval, flat. 

This large order now contains, beside the typical Rutacese, the formerly sepa- 
rate families Xanthoxylacese and Aurantiaceae, including thus many valuable med- 
icinal plants and pleasant fruits, among them are the following more or less 
prominent: The Central American Carony or Angustura bark {Galipea Cusparea, 
St. Hil., Angustura vera), of which we have an excellent proving ; the European 
Rue {Ruta graveolens, Linn.), also prominent in our Materia Medica; the famed 
Buchu of the Cape of Good Hope {Barosma crenulata. Hook.), and the lesser 
species B. betulina, B. & W., and B. serratifolia, Willd., of the same country ; the 
powerful diaphoretic Jaborandi {Pilocarpus pennatif alius. Lam. ; the following febri- 
fuges : the ^rdizWidin Evodia febrifuga, Ticorea jasminifolia,z.x\d. T./ebriftiga,2i\\ of 
St. Hil. ; and the European Bastard Dittany {Dictamnus /raxinella, Linn.). Next 
our attention is brought to the Auraiiticccs, the latest addition to the order, where 
we find the following well-known fruits: the Bitter or Saville Orange {Citrus Vul- 
garis, Risso.), supposed to be the original of the Sweet or China Orange {Citrus 
Aurantium, Linn.), which cannot be said to be ever found in a really wild state; 
the source of the Oil of Bergamot {Citrus Bergamina, Risso.), supposed to be 
either a variety of the orange, or lemon, or a hybrid ; the Citron {Citrus Medica, 
Risso.), its wild state growing in the mountainous northern district of India ; the 
Limes {Citrus acida, Roxb., C. Ltmiina, and C. Limetta, Risso.) ; and finally the 
Indian astringent Bael {Aegle Marmelos, Correa, Cra'.cEva Marmelos, Linn.) the 
ripe fruit of which is known as the Bengal Quince, and said to be made into 
a laxative preserve, or a pleasant refrigerant drink. Lastly, the former Xan- 
thoxylacece yield us beside Ptelea and Xanthoxylum treated of here, the following 
stimulants : the Chinese Xanthoxylum Avicenne, D. C, supposed to be a general 
antidote for all poisons by the natives ; the West Indian X. Clava-Herculis, Linn. ; 
the Bengalese A'. Alatum, Roxb. ; and the Japanese X. piperita, D. C. ; the 
astringent tonics Brucea Sumatrana, Roxb., and the Abyssinian B. antidysenterica. 
Mill., the Indian Toddalia aculeata, Pers., and the African sub-astringent Lopez- 
root T. lanceolata. Lam.). 

History and Habitat. — The northern prickly ash is common in localities only, 
throughout the northern portion of the Eastern United States, where it flowers 
in April and May, before the appearance of the leaves. Three other species are 
found in the South United States, viz. : X. Clava-Herculis, Linn. {X. Carolinianum, 
Lam.) ; X. Caribceum, Lam. {X. Floridanum, Nutt.) ; and X. Pterota, H.B.K. 

Xanthoxylum was an article of American aboriginal medicine called Hantola ; 



33-3 

the Western tribes used principally the bark of the root in decoction, for colics, 
gonorrhoea, and rheumatism ; chewed for aching teeth ; and made into a poultice with 
bears grease and applied to ulcers and sores.* From personal experience one day 
in the woods while botanizing, I found that, upon chewing the bark for relief of 
toothache, speedy mitigation of the pain followed, though the sensation of the 
acrid bark was nearly or fully as unpleasant as the ache, and so painful finally in 
itself that I abandoned its use, only to have the toothache return when the irrita- 
tion of the bark had left the mucous membranes. A decoction of the bark is dia-. 
phoretic and excites secretion generally. Its action upon the salivary glands 
causes in time almost as full ptyalism as mercury. Its speedy relief of rheumatism 
is said to occur only when it causes free perspiration; for this disease a pint a day 
is taken of a decoction of one ounce of the bark boiled in a quart of water. It is 
a powerful stimulant to healing wounds or indolent ulcerations. Dr. King, who 
introduced the use of this drug in Cincinnati in 1849, both in the treatment of 
tympanitis, distention of the bowels during peritonitis, and in Asiatic cholera, 
says :f "In tympanitis one half to one drachm of the tincture may be given per 
ons, in a little sweetened water, and repeated hourly, and the same amount used 
as an enema. The action is usually prompt and permanent. In Asiatic cholera, 
during 1S49 and 1850, it was much employed by our (Eclectic) physicians in Cin- 
cinnati, and with great success ;• it acted like electricity, so sudden and diffusive 
was its influence over the system. In typhus fever, typhoid pneumonia, and 
typhoid conditions generally, I am compelled to say that I consider the tincture of 
prickly-ash berries superior to any other form of medication. I have known cases 
of typhoid pneumonia in which the patients were so low that all prospect of re- 
covery was despaired of, to be so immediately benefited that the patients who, a 
few minutes before, were unable to notice anything around them, would reply to 
questions, and manifest considerable attention, and ultimately recover." 

Prickly ash is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as Extractuin Xanthoxyli Fhiidum ; 
and in the Eclectic Materia Medica its preparations are: Enema Xanthoxyli; 
ExtracUun Xanthoxyli Fluidimi ; Oleoresina Xanthoxyli ; Tinciura Xanthoxyli ; 
Tinctura Laricis Composita.\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark, together with that of the 
root, is ground to a pulp, covered in a well-stoppered bottle with two parts by 
weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, being 
shaken twice a day. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration has a clear, yellowish- 
green color by transmitted light ; it retains the peculiar odor and taste of the bark, 
and exhibits an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— .Yrt«/'//fl-t:j'//«. This body, extracted by Dr. 
Staples from the bark, and so named, has been determined to be berberin.\ 

* Rafinesque, Med. Flora. 2, p. 115. 

t Co//f^e Jour., March, 1856; quoted l.y Miller in The Jour, of Mat. Med., Vol. Ill, N. S., 1861. 9. 
X Tamarac bark, Juniper berries, Prickly Ash bark, Wild Cherry bark, Seneca Snake-root, Tansy, Whiskey, 
Molasses, and Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Podophyllum. \ See under Berberis, p. 16-2. 



33-4 

Oil of Xanlhoxyhim — probably also containing resin and extractive — is a dark 
brown, aromatic, warm, pungent, turbid body, found in about 25 per cent, in the 
berries by W. S. Merrell. An etherial oil of the bark is obtainable, answering 
to the above ; it is, though, simply an extract containing all the principles in the 
bark. Volatile oil and resin have also been determined. 

This plant has not been carefully analyzed. Some idea of its probable con- 
stituents other than the above might be gained from those of Xanthoxylum piperi- 
tum, which contains : 

Xanthoxylen or Xantlwxylene, Cj„ Hj,., is the colorless watery liquid part of the 
volatile oil. It has a pleasant aromatic odor, and great refracting power ; it boils 
at t62° (324° F.). 

Xanthoxylin, Q^ H,,^ Og. This crystallizable product of the volatile oil which 
may be extracted after the oil is freed from Xanthoxylene by distillation at 1 30° 
(266° F.). It crystallizes in large, colorless, silky, neutral, aromatic, klinorhombic 
forms, soluble in alcohol and ether. The crystals fuse at 80° (176° F.), and vola- 
tilize at higher temperatures undecomposed {et supra, IViifsfein.) 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Although we have a quite full proving of this 
drug by Dr. C. Cullis,* it is hardly sufficient to determine its physiological sphere 
of action. The drug proves, however, at least a stimulant of mucous surfaces and 
attendant secretory glands by an irritant action upon the nerves. Its action, taken 
all in all, appears quite like that of Mezereum.- 

Description of Plate 33. 

I. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., May Sth, 1S84. 

2. End of fruiting brancli. 

3. Sterile flower. 
4-5. Fertile flowers. 

5. Longitudinal section of a tri-pistillate flower. 
(2-5 enlarged.) 

* Allen, Emj. Pure. Mat. Med., X, p. 169. 




^Tll.adnaf.del.etpinxt. 



Ptelea Trifoliata,Li 



N. ORD -RUTACE^. 34 

GENUS— PTELEA,* LINN. 

SEX. SVST.— TETKAXDRIA MUNDGVNIA. 



PTELEA. 

WAFER ASH. 



SYN.— PTELEA TRIFOLIATA, LINN.; P. VITICIFOLIA, SALISB.; AMYRIS 

ELEMIFOLIA, LINN. 
COM. NAMES.— WAFER ASH, SHRUBBY TREFOIL, TREE TREFOIL, HOP 

TREE, STINKING ASH, WINGSEED, SWAMP DOGWOOD, PICKAWAY- 

(FR.i ORME DE SAMAIRE A TROIS FEUILLES; iGER.) DRIBLATTRIGE 

LEDERBAUM. 



.\ TINCTURE OF THE BARK OF PTELE.\ TRIFOLIATA, LINN. 

Description. — This peculiar shrub attains a growth of from 6 to 8 feet. Leaves 
trifoliate, long petioled; /ca/fe^s sessile or very slightly petiolulate, ovate, pointed, dark 
shining green above, pale and somewhat downy beneath, the terminal more or less 
wedge-shaped and contracted at the base, all more or less crenulate. hiflorescence 
in compound lateral and terminal cymes; floivers numerous, greenish-white, polyga- 
mous, their odor disagreeable. Sepals 3 to 5, usually 4, somewhat deltoid, much 
shorter than the petals. Petals 3 to 5, usually 4, spreading, imbricated in the bud. 
Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them ; filaments in the sterile 
flowers long, dilated, and hairy at the base ; shorter than the ovary in the fertile ; 
anthers larger, present in both kinds of flowers, but sterile in the female. Ovary 
2-celled ; style short or wanting; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Fruit a large, dense, 
globular cluster of nearly orbicular, 2-seeded, membranaceous, reticulate-veined 
samaras ; seed somewhat triangularly compressed. 

History and Habitat. — The Wafer Ash is indigenous to North America, rang- 
ing from Pennsylvania westward to Wisconsin and southward to Florida and Texas, 
It grows in moist, shady places, on the borders of woods, and among rocks, flower- 
ing in June at the northern range. The plant was sent to England for cultivation 
in 1704 by Bannister, but, being lost there, Catesby reinforced their gardens from 
Carolina twenty years later. 

Rafinesque first introduced the plant in American medical literature in his 
work on Medical Botany, 1830, speaking of the leaves as vulnerary and vermifuge. 
Schoepf gives the same in substance ; and Merat and De Lens speak of the fruit 
as aromatic and bitter, and an affirmed substitute for hops. Howard speaks of 
the bark of the root as an excellent stimulant, expectorant tonic ; especially useful 



* Ilrau, ptao, to fly: the Greek name of the elm, alluding to the winged fruits. 



34-2 

in ao^ues. Jones* speaks of the plant as "a pure unirritating tonic" in cold infu- 
sion, especially adapted to convalescence after debilitating fevers. Following these, 
its use became general, especially in Eclectic practice, for a variety of troubles, 
especially asthma, phthisis, glandular degeneration in general, syphilis, scrofula, 
chronic diarrhoea, epilepsy, dyspepsia, intermittent fever, and chronic rheumatism. 
The Eclectic preparations are : Exti-actum PtelecB Hydro-alcoholicum ; Infu- 
siim Ptclece ; and PtelccB Oleo-resmece. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark, gathered after the 
fruit is ripe, but before the leaves begin to fade, is treated as in the preceding 
drug. The tincture, separated by pressure and filtration, has a brownish orange 
color by transmitted light; a bitter odor; an extremely bitter taste ; and an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The analysis of G. M. Smyserf resulted in 
the determination of albumen, bitter extractive, tannic and gallic acids, a brittle, 
tasteless resin, and a soft acrid resin. According to Justin Speer,| the root-bark 
contains a crystalline yellow coloring-matter, oleo-resin, and berberina,% but no 
tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — In Dr. E. M. Hale's provings of this drug upon 
a number of observers, who took from 30 to 500 drops of the tincture, and from 
I grain to a scruple of " Ptelein." the following disturbances occurred : Mental 
depression and confusion ; frontal headache , vertigo ; contraction of the pupil ; 
aural pains with swelling of the lymphatics; tongue sore, yellow-coated; ptyalism ; 
voracious appetite ; nausea, with pressure in the stomach as of a stone ; griping 
colic; great urging followed by copious diarrhoeic stools; urine increased; heart's 
action increased ; general restlessness and prostration, followed by chilliness and 
fever. 



Description of Plate 34. 

1. Female flower. 

2. Male flower. 

3. Stamen. 

4. Anther. 

5. Fruiting branch. 

6. Samara. 

7. Section of fruit. 

8. Seed. 

(1-4 and 7-8 enlarged.) 

* Eclectic Practice. f Am. Jour. Phar., 1862. % Ibid., 1867. I See p. 15-2. 




InatdeI.etpinxt 



'3 ■ 7 

AlLANTHUS GlANDULOSUS, Desf. 



^d 



N. ORD-SIMARUBACE/E. 35 

Tribe.-SIMARUBE/E. 

GENUS. — A I LA NTH US,* DKSF. 
SEX. SY.ST.— MONtP:CI.\ I'OLVGAMIA. 



AILANTUS. 



TREE OF HEA VEjY. 

SYN.^AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS, DESP. 

COM. NAMES.— TREE OF HEAVEN, CHINESE AILANTHUS, TILLOW TREE, 

CHINESE SUMACH; (FR.i AILANTE, VERNIS DES JAPON;t (GER.) 

GOTTERBAUM. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK AND FLOWERS OF AILANTHUS 
GLANDULOSUS, DESF. 



Description. — This beautiful tree, which so much resembles an overo-rovvn 
staghorn sumach, grows in this country to a height of from 30 to 60 feet Sfem 
erect, columnar, much branched ; zoood hard, heavy and glossy, like satin. Leaves 
long, odd pinnately compound; petioles i to 2 feet long; leaflets oblong, pointed, 
with two blunt teeth at the base, rendering them somewhat hastate; tectJi glandu- 
lar upon the under surface. Inflorescence in large terminal thyrsoid panicles; 
floiL'srs greenish, dioeciously-polygamous. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals 5, inserted 
under an hypogynous disk. Stamens 10; filaments inflated and hairy at the base; 
anthers 2-celled. Ovary 5-lobed ; style columnar; stigma capitate, radiately 5-lobed. 
Fruit composed of from 2 to 5 long, thin, somewhat twisted, linear-oblong, veiny, 
I -celled, I -seeded samaras. 

Simarubaceae. — This small family of mostly tropical trees and shrubs, is rep- 
resented in North America by 7 genera of i species each. The characteristics 
of the order are as follows : Bark bitter. Leaves alternate, pinnately-compound ; 
stipules none. Flozvers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Calyx persistent; sepals^ 
to 5. Corolla deciduous, twisted in aestivation ; petals 4 to 5, hypogynous. Stamens 
as many or twice as many as the petals ; filaments inserted upon an hypogynous 
disk. Ovary composed of 4 to 5 lobes ; ovules suspended, i in each cell ; style 
various. Carpels 2-valved, as many as the petals, capsular or keyed ; se:ds pendu- 
lous; albumen none; cotylcdoiis thick; radicle short, superior. 

The only proven plants of this order, excepting the one under consideration, 
are : the tropical-American Cedron [Sitttaba Cedron, Planch), and the South- 
American Quassia or Dysentery-bark [Simarouba amara, Aubl.), the bark of 
which was once a noted remedy in dysentery. 

* The nanae should be spelled, Ailantiis, being derived from a Moluccian species called Ailanlo. 
t Also used to designate Rhus vernix. 



35-2 

The otiier more or less prominent medical plants are: the West-Indian 
Jamaica Quassia or Bitter Ash {Picrana excclsa, Lindl.), noted for its extreme 
and lasting bitter wood, so largely used in commerce for the manufacture of 
Quassia-cups, the water from which is useful as a stomachic tonic, anthelmintic, 
and antiperiodic ; the Brazilian Simarouha versicolor, St. Hil., noted as being so 
bitter that insects will not attack the wood ; and the Indian Nima qiiassioides, 
Hamilt., employed as a bitter tonic in the North of India. 

History and Habitat. — This large tree, that has caused more newspaper 
comment than any other now planted in this country, is a native of China, and is 
included in this work as an American remedy because it is from the naturalized 
tree that our provings were made. 

The Ailanthus tree was introduced into England in the year 1751, and 
tlirived well ; about the year 1800 it was brought to this country, and soon grew 
in public favor as an ornamental tree for lawns, walks and streets ; later on it 
became in greater demand on account of its supposed property of absorbing from 
the atmosphere malarial poisons; under this new idea the tree became a great 
favorite in cities and large towns, especially as its growth was rapid and its 
beautiful foliage pleasing. The occurrence, however, of several severe epidemics, 
especially in the larger cities, set people thinking — might not this tree, which so 
fully absorbs poison, also throw off toxic effluvia ? may it not store up the 
noxious gases and again set them forth in the flowering season? Certainly the 
staminate flowers smell bad enough to lay any disease to their emanations. A 
war upon the trees followed, both wordy and actual, which almost banished them 
from the country. The feeling, however, died a natural death, and to-day many 
fine trees abound, especially in the larger eastern cities. 

Another vote for its preservation lay in the fact that the tree afforded material 
for a silkworm [Attaciis Cynthia, Drury), which has been successfully acclimated 
in this country by Dr. Stewardson and Mr. Morris. The cost of production of 
silk from their culture is said to be about one-fourth that of mulberry silk, beside, 
the product is tough and stronger than any other fabric made ; it is said that tne 
Chinese wear garments of this material through several generations of constant use. 

The bark of the tree was experimented with in France about the year 1859, 
and found to be emetic, cathartic and anthelmintic. The bark has been employed 
by Roberts and others, both dried and fresh, as a remedy for dysentery and 
diarrhoea, and as an injection in gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea ; an alcoholic extract 
was found by Prof. Hetet* efficacious in the removal of tapeworm, though the 
prostrating nausea caused by the draught renders it disagreeable. The tincture 
has been used in doses of from five to sixty drops in palpitation of the heart, 
asthma and epilepsy. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— Equal parts of the fresh shoots, leaves 
and blossoms, and the young bark, are chopped and pounded to a pulp and 
weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thor- 

* your. ,i'e Chine Med., D>.-c., 1S59. 



35-3 

oiighly with oiiL'-sixth part of it, ami the rest of the alcohol addetl. After stirring 
the whole well, and pouring it into a well-stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand 
eight da)s in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, 
straining and filtering ; it has a deep orange-brown color by transmitted light ; a 
strongly vinous odor; a mawkish taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Several analyses of the bark have been made, 
all of which agree with the latest one by Mr. F. H. Davis.* He determined the 
presence of fixed and volatile oil, resin, wax, sugar, tannin, gum, starch, and 
oxalic acid ; but failed, as had the others, to detect the presence of alkaloids or 

glucosides. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Ailanthus causes nausea, vomiting, great relax- 
ation of the muscles, and death-like sickness, very similar to that produced by 
tobacco-smoking in beginners. According to M. Hetet, the purgative property 
resides in the resin, while the volatile oil gives rise to the prostrating and other 
ill effects produced in some persons by the emanations from the Howers. The 
characteristic symptoms produced by Ailanthus are : vertigo and dizziness, severe 
headache, purulent discharges from the mucous membranes of the nose and eyes, 
dilated pupils with photophobia, pale, sickly, bilious countenance, irritation of the 
throat, loss of appetite, tenderness in the stomach and abdomen, looseness of the 
bowels, suppressed urine, oppression of breathing, languor and lassitude. 



Description of Pl.\te 35. 

I. End of a flowering branch, several leaves and thyrsi removed, Binghamton, N. Y., June 30th, 1885. 

2. Flower. 

3. Calyx and pistil. 

4. Petal and stamen. 

5. Stigma. 

6. Stamens. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. A leaflet. 

9. Fruit. 

10. Full leaf in outline. 
(2-7 enlarged.) 

* Am. Jour. Phar., 1885, 600. 



36 




3 4 5 



^.TU.adnatdel.efpinxt 



Rhus Glabra, Linn. 



N. ORD -ANACARDIACE^. 36 

Seciion.-SUMAC* D. C. 

GENUS.— RHUS, LINN. 
SEX. SV.ST.— PENT.VNDRI.V TRI(;VNI.\. 



RHUS GLABRA. 

SMOOTH SUMACH. 

SYN.— RHUS GLABRA, LINN. ; R. ELEGANS, AIT. ; R. VIRGINIGUM, CATESB. ; 
R. CAROLINIANUM, MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— SMOOTH SUMACH OR SUMAC ; SHUMAKE ; (FR.) SUMAC ; 
(GER.) SUMACH. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF RHUS GLABRA, LINN. 

Description. — This smooth shrub usually attains a growth of from 5 to 15 
feet in height. Branches somewhat straggling. Leaves odd-pinnate ; petioles 
crimson, 12 to 18 inches long; leaflets 12 to 30, lanceolate-oblong, acutely serrate, 
pointed, and whitened beneath. Itiflorescetice dense, terminal, thyrsoid panicles ; 
flowers perfect, polygamous. Sepals lanceolate, or more or less triangular, very 
acute, nearly as long as the petals. Petals incurved at the apex. Hypogynotis 
disk almost entire, its lobes, however, separating when a sepal is detached from 
the calyx, bringing away with it a stamen and petal ; lobe somewhat reniform. 
Fruit globular, clothed with acid, velvety, crimson hairs ; stone smooth. 

Rhus. — This genus is widely distributed, and contains numerous species 
characterized in general as follows : Leaves usually compound. Flowers polyga- 
mous or dioecious, greenish-white or yellowish-green ; sepals 5, small, united at the 
base, generally persistent; petals 5, ovate, spreading, slighdy hairy within. Stamens 
5, alternate with the petals ; filaments inserted with the petals underneath the lobes 
of a chrome-yellow hypogynous disk, situated at the base of the sepals. Styles 3, 
short, generally united into one, sometimes distinct; stigmas 3, capitate. Fniit 
consisting of many small, indehiscent, dry, drupes ; stone or nutlet osseous ; seed 
suspended from the apex of a funiculus that arises from the base, and extends to 
the apex of the cell ; cotyledons foliaceous. 

Many other species of Rhus are used beside those embodied in this work ; 
among which are the following: The Japanese R. vernix affords the finest of the 
black lacquers, so extensively used in China and Japan for coating household 
articles, etc. This species in its toxic action is said to greatly simulate R. venenata, 
of this country. The South European R. coriaria, and R. cotinus, are extensively 
used in tanning the finer grades of morocco leather ; the seeds of the former 



* An .nlleration of the Arabic simaq (Forsk.). 

f The ancient Greek and Latin name (Celtic Rhtidd., red). 



36-2 

species are said to be used at Aleppo to provoke an appetite, and in Turkey 
o-enerally, in tlie manufacture of vinegar. Inferior grades of the inimitable black 
lacquer, made from H. venii.w are furnished by R. Javanica, R. Sinense, and R. 
siiccedaneum. Our southern R. pumila, Michx., has been variously considered; 
some writers claiming it to be entirely innocuous, others judge it to be the most 
poisonous of the North American species, claiming that it will show its effects upon 
those who are not susceptible to the influences of R. toxicodendron. The Floridian 
and West Indian R. mctopium produces a substance called Doctor's Gum, which 
is said to be emetis and purgative ; and the Chinese R. Buchi-amela, Roxb., certain 
CTalls used in Germany for the manufacture of tannic and gallic acids, and pyrogallol. 

Anacardiaceae. — This large, chiefly tropical family, consists of mostly poison- 
ous trees or shrubs, having a resinous or milky, acrid juice, which turns black or 
blackish in drying. Leaves alternate, usually compound, and devoid of dots ; 
stipules none. Inflorescence usually in axillary or terminal, erect panicles ; flowers 
small, regular, often polygamous ; ccstivation imbricate, rarely valvate. Sepals 3, 
or 5, usually distinct, but sometimes more or less united at the base, and persistent. 
Petals as many as the sepals, and inserted beneath an hypogynous disk, lining the 
base of the calyx. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them ; fila- 
ments distinct. Ovaiy ovoid ; styles 3, distinct or combined ; stigmas 3, decidedly 
distinct. /v'?«V drupaceous, indehiscent, i -celled; seed borne upon a curved stalk 
arising from the base of the cell ; testa membranaceous ; embryo more or less 
curved ; albumen none. 

The following plants of this family figure more or less prominently in our 
Materia Medica : The Indian Cashew-nut {Anacardium orientale, Semecarpus 
Anacarditim, Linn.) ; the fruit of this tree is also called the marking-nut, and is 
almost universally used for stamping linen. The Cuban o-Jiao {Comocladia dentata, 
Jacq.), which is said by the natives (and corroborated by others) to cause the death of 
any who sleep beneath its shades ; this is especially true of individuals of plethoric 
habit. The New Zealand Karaka or Kopi-tree [Coryno-carpus Icevigatus, Foster) ; 
and the Mexican and Peruvian Schinus, a product of Schiims molle, Linn., used 
by the natives for healing tumors and reducing inflammation, especially of the eye. 

Other members used in medicine and the arts are : The Brazilian Schinus 
arcsira, Linn., which is said to exude an effluvia that causes swellings to appear 
in those who remain for a few hours beneath it. (Note S. molle above.) The Tropic 
American Anacardium occidentale, Linn., is used as a vermifuge, and the juice is 
said to be efficient in the removal of warts, corns, and vegetative growths ; the nuts, 
however, are edible, either raw or boiled. The Mediterranean Lentisk or Mastic 
Tree [Pistacia Lentiscus, h'lnn.) yields Gum Mastich, a concretion highly valued by 
the Turks as a masticatory for sweetening the breath and hardening the gums. 
This product is useful also, for a temporary filling in carious teeth, easing the pain 
therein. Pistacia terebinthus, Linn., yields the famous Chian Turpentine ; while the 
European P. vera furnishes the Pistachio nuts of the confectioner; the Cochin China 
P. oleosa, a valuable oil ; and the African P. Atlantica, an Arabian article of food. 



36-3 

The Indian Mango {Mangifera Indica, Linn.) fields a luscious fruit which 
holds the place in that country, that the peach does in this. The Malabar Holi- 
garna longifolia, Ro.xb., and Stagmai-ia veniicifliia. Jack., of the Indian archipelago, 
furnish to the Chinese two of their famous black lacquers. It is said that the 
resin of the last named species is noxious and acrid, and that it is unsafe to 
remain long under the branches of the tree. 

History and Habitat. — Rhus glabra is one of our least nocuous species. It 
grows in rocky or barren soil, common throughout North America, flowering 
northward in June and July. 

An infusion of the berries of this species is said to furnish an unequalled 
black dye for wool. The berries, when dried, form an article of trade in Canada, 
known as sacacomi, this, when smoked as a substitute for tobacco, is said to anti- 
dote the habit ; the Western Indians make a preparation of equal parts of the 
roots, leaves, and of tobacco, which they smoke under the name of KiitikahJ^'' 

A cold infusion of the berries is often used as a cooling drink in fevers ; it is 
also claimed to be of benefit in diabetes and strangury. The bark of the root is 
claimed to form an antiseptic dressing for ulcers and open wounds ; while an 
infusion of the same is considered an excellent astringent for use in aphthous and 
mercurial sore mouths, diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrhoea, and leucorrhoea, and to 
be anti-syphilitic. I have known the juice of the root to remove warts, I have also 
known these strange growths to disappear from the use of various innocuous 
" charms," such as a neighbor's potato surreptitiously obtained, rubbed upon the 
growths and cast over the left shoulder without noting its fall, etc.,- etc. 

Smooth Sumac is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as : Exlractum Rhois Glabra. In 
the Eclectic Materia Medica the preparations are : Dccoctum Rhus (jlabri, and 
Extractuni R/uis FluidiDii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark, including that of the 
root, gathered when the plant is mature, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp 
and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp well mixed 
with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the 
whole well, it should be poured into a well-stoppered botde, and allowed to stand 
for eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the mass by filtration, should exhibit a beautiful, 
very deep crimson color by transmitted light. Its taste should be at first sour, 
then astringent, leaving a sensation upon the tongue very like that of alum ; its 
odor sour-vinous ; and its reaction strongly acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Ciallotaimic acid, C„H,„0,,. This pure tan- 
nin of nut-galls also exists in the leaves and bark of the plant. It is an amorphous, 
porous, resinous, friable mass, freely soluble in water, less so in alcohol, and insolu- 
ble in pure ether. 



Rafincsque, MeJ. Flor., ii., 257. 



36-4 

Calcium Bimalate. — This salt is found clinging to the hairs of the fruit as a 
concretion exuded from them ; when soaked off the fruits are no longer sour. 

Oil of Rhus. — This waxy oil may be extracted from the seeds of this and other 
species of the genus. It will acquire a tallow-like consistence on standing, and can 
be made into candles, which burn brilliandy, but emit a very annoying pungent 
smoke. 

Resin, oleo-resin, sugar, starch, coloring matter, and gum, have also been 

determined.* 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Rhus glabra caused in one individual, in doses 
of from 30 to 120 drops of the tincture, headache, dryness and heat of the nostrils, 
with hemorrhage, ulceration of the mouth, loss of appetite, with painful distress in 
the stomach and bowels, followed by diarrhoea, scanty secredon of urine, great 
weariness and fatigue, loss of flesh, heat and dryness of the skin, followed by 
copious sweat during sleep.f One symptom was also developed in this case that 
I desire to comment upon, viz. : " Dreams of flying through the air." During the 
summer of 1879, while botanizing near Bergen Point, N. J., I came into a swarm 
of furious mosquitoes ; quickly cutting a large branch from a sumach bush at 
hand, I used it vigorously to fight off the pests. Several fine specimens of Baptisia 
tinctoria grew at hand, and while studying them I kept the sumach branch in con- 
stant motion, perspiring freely during the time. On leaving the spot I cut a cane from 
the same shrub, and also ate of the refreshing berries. For three successive nights 
following this occurrence I flew (!) over the city of New York with a graceful and 
delicious motion that I would give several years of my life to experience in reality. 
Ouery: Did I absorb from my perspiring hands sufficient juice of the bark to 
produce the effect of the drug, or was it from the berries I held in my mouth ? 
I noticed no other symptoms, and never before or since enjoyed a like dream. 

Description of Plate 36. 

I. End of flowering branch, Waverly, N. Y., July 4th, 1884. 

2. Flower. 

3. Petal. 

4. Pistil. 

5. Stamen, lobe of disk, and sepal. 

(2-5 enlarged.) 

* AiN. Jour. Phar., N. S., i., 56 ; ibid., XXV., 193 ; Tilden, Jour. Mat. Med., N. S., i., 195 ; Proc. Royal Society, 
1862 402. t I^'"- Marshall in Hale's Neiv Rem., 2d ed., 872. 




^Ill.adnat.del.et pinxt 



Rhus Venenata, dc 



N. ORD.-ANACARDIACE^. 37 

GENUS— RHUS, LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— PENTANDRI.'V TUIGVM.V. 



RHUS VENENATA. 

POISOM SUMACH. 

SYN.— RHUS VENENATA, D. C. 

COM. NAMES.— POISON OR SWAMP SUMACH, POISON ELDER, POISON OR 
SWAMP DOGWOOD, POISON ASH, POISON TREE, POISON WOOD. 

A TINCTURE OF THE B.\RK OF RHUS VENENATA, D. C. 

Description. — This too common swamp shrub grows to a height of from 6 to 
30 feet. Stem erect, brandling at the top ; branches smooth or nearly so, some- 
times verrucose. Leaves odd pinnately compound ; petiole brilHant red or purpHsh ; 
leaflets 7 to 13, smooth, ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire. Inflorescence loose, slender, 
erect panicles, in the axils of the uppermost leaves; flozocrs polygamous, greenish- 
white; pedicels pubescent. Calyx persistent. Fruit a persistent, drooping, thyrs- 
oid receme of globular, smooth, grayish-white berries, about the size of a small 
pea; testa thin, papyraceous, loose and shining; millet oblong, flattened, longitu- 
dinally striate by deep sulci ; inner coat soft, membranaceous, incised ; cotyledons 
somewhat thick and fleshy. 

History and Habitat. — The Poison Sumach is indigenous to North America, 
ranging from Florida to Mississippi and northward to Canada. It habits swampy 
ground, and blossoms in June at the north. 

This most poisonous of our northern species has at times been confounded 
and considered identical with the Japanese R. vernix, L. ; how near the resem- 
blance may be I have had no opportunity to judge ; however, we, as Homce- 
opathists, should not confound them, as climatic difference may cause varying 
properties, and R. veniix may yet be proven. 

The poisonous nature of this species has precluded its use in domestic and pre- 
vious practices; the principal effort concerning it has been attempts by farmers and 
others toward its extermination ; very few persons, however, who understand the 
plant will even approach its vicinity unless compelled by circumstances to do so. 

Like the R. vernix of Japan, the wounded bark in spring and autumn exudes 
a thick, whitish, opaque and viscid fluid, having a penetrating smell, which on 
exposure soon changes to a deep black. On boiling the juice in water long 
enough to evaporate the volatile oil, and applying the resulting fluid to any sub- 
stance, it forms a glossy-black permanent coating ; thus making a varnish of value 
which might be used in lieu of the famous Japanese varnish which they utilize so 
extensively upon their fans, boxes, and household utensils and furniture. 



37-2 

It is a well-known fact that this species will prove poisonous to many persons 
who are unaffected by /t'. toxicodendron, and, like it, even the emanations of the 
shrub are virulent to many, while others may handle, and even chew it, with 
impunity. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark, stemlets and leaves are 
treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tincture is opaque in even 
small quantity ; in thin layers it has a deep red color ; its taste is bitter and 
astringent ; and its reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An examination of the juice by Dr. Bigelow* 
is the only analysis so far made ; this shows no active principle. An examination 
of the chemistry of R. toxicodendron, page 38-3, would not be out of place here. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Many opportunities are offered for study under 
this rubric, on account ol the numerous cases of poisoning, both on record and 
often occurring in country practice. The general effects are usually ushered in 
within a day ot the exposure, commencing with a general flush of the skin, accom- 
panied by intolerable itching and more or less tumefaction, especially at first of the 
hands and face ; this continues until an erysipelatous condition apparently ensues. 
A more livid appearance follows, with great burning, followed by groupings of 
watery vesicles, which soon coalesce ; this is followed by pustules forming of the 
watery vesicles, which finally discharge and form yellow crusts, which later on 
become brown and disgusting in appearance. Great heat and swelling have mean- 
time progressed until the face is often unrecognizable; this condition is about four 
or five days at its height before resolution commences. Marks are often left, and 
sometimes the crusts remain chronic on some portion of the exposed parts for 
long periods. One case in my practice had resisted all the efforts of physicians 
for over thirty years; then yielded in about thirty days to a high potency of the 
drug itself at my hands. 

Several cases of poisoning came under my observation here some four years 
ago in several young men employed in a boot factory as finishers. Their duty was 
to dress the new boots with a black varnish applied with a sponge by the right 
hand, while the left hand and arm was thrust into the boot. All suffered from a 
scabby eruption about the left biceps and right hand and wrist, while the fingers 
of the right were cracked, sore, inflamed and painful. Upon first observing the 
cases I judged some poison must be used in the varnish, and so informed them ; 
to me Rhus seemed to be that substance. While on a train, a month or so later, I 
overheard two manufacturers of boots, who sat before me, talking of their trade ; 
when, on passing a swampy spot, one pointed out of the car window at some 
R. venenata, and e.xclaimed, " That is the stuff we use." These cases all yielded 
finely to idem high. 

The specific action of the drug, collated from various cases, is as follows: 
Sadness and gloomy forebodings ; vertigo ; dull, heavy headache ; smarting and 
burning of the eyes, with dimness of vision; redness and swelling of the face; 



* Am. Med. Bot., I, 4C2. 



37-3 

tongue red, especially at tlie tip, swollen and cracked ; difficult dei^dutition ; profuse 
watery stools; burning- of the urethra; hoarseness and dryness of the larnyx ; 
increased heart's action ; trembling of the limbs ; bruised and paralyzed feeling 
in the legs, wMth aching and weakness ; tired, weak, and prostrated generally ; 
almost all forms of skin trouble, from simple redness and inirning to vesicles, 
cracks, pustules and complete destruction ; restlessness, chilliness and heat, with 
great dryness but no subsequent sweat; — all of which show the poison to be of a 
highly irritative nature. 

DesCRIPTIDN ok I'LATli 37. 

I. End of flowering branch, Ithaca, N. Y., June 24th, 1S85. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Fruiting thyrsus. 

6. Fruit. 

7. Fruit, with outer coat removed. 

8. Nutlet. 

(2-4 and 6-S enlarged.) 




^m. 



ad nat.dei.et pinxt 



Rhus Toxicodendron, unn. 



N. ORD.-ANACARDIACE^. 38 

Sect. - WXICODENDRON, 'n ) U R N. 
GENUS.— RHUS, 
SEX. SVST.— rENT.\NI)RI.\ TKK;VXI.\. 



RHUS TOXICODENDRON. 

FOISOJV IVY. 

SYN.-RHUS TOXICODENDRON, LINN. ; R. TOXICODENDRON, VAR. QUER- 
CIPOLIUM, MICHX. ; R. VERRUCOSA, SCHEELE ; R. TOXICARIUM, AND 
HUMILE. SALISB.; R. RADICANS, VAR. TOXICODENDRON, PERS. ; 
TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS, MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— POISON IVY, THREE-LEAVED IVY, POISON OAK, POISON 
VINE, MERCURY; (FR.) SUMAC VBNENEUX,ARBRE A POISON ; (GER.) 
GIPTSUMACH. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH LE.WES OF RHUS TOXICODENDRON, LINN. 

Description. — This decumbent or more or less erect shrub, grows to a height 
of from 2 to 4 feet, or more, according to whether /?/ius 7'adica7is is distinct from 
this species or not. Root reddish, branching. Leaves 3-foliate, thin ; leaflets rhom- 
bic-ovate, acute, rather downy beneath; they are entire when young (see plate), 
but when full grown become variously dentate, crenate, sinuate, or cut-lobed. 
The lateral leaflets are unequal at the base, and sessile, the terminal one larger 
and situated at the end of a prolongation of the common petiole. Iitflo7-esceiice 
loose, slender, axillary, racemose panicles. Flowers polygamous. Fruit glabrous, 
globose, pale brown ; tiutlct somewhat gibbous, striate, and tuberculate. 

History and Habitat. — The Poison Ivy grows in thickets and low grounds, 
quite common in North America, flowering in June. 

Rhus toxicodendron was introduced into England as a plant in 1640 ; but was 
not used as a medicine until 1798, when Du Fresnoy, a physician at Valenciennes, 
had brought to his notice a young man who had been cured of an herpetic erup- 
tion [dartre^ on his wrist, of six years' standing, on being accidentally poisoned 
by this plant. He thereupon commenced the use of this plant in the treatment of 
obstinate herpetic eruptions, and in palsy; many cases of eacn yielding nicely to 
the drug.* Since Du Fresnoy's success, the plant has rapidly gained a place in 
general practice, meeting some success in the treatment of paralysis, rheumatism, 
amaurosis, and various forms of chronic and obstinate eruptive diseases. 

The milky juice of this species is used as an indelible ink for marking linen, 
and as an ingredient of liquid dressings or varnishes for finishing boots and shoes. 



* Des caractires, du trailemtnt, el de la cure des dalres, etc., par F usage du Rhus radicans. 



38-2 

I an certain, however, that Rhus venenata is more extensively used for the latter 

purpose, as will be seen from my experiences detailed under that drug. 

The fresh leaves are officinal in the U. S. Ph.; in the Eclectic Materia Medicas 
the preparation advised is Tinctnra Rhus Toxicodendron. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — On account of the care necessary in 
the preparation of our medicamentae, it is an absolute necessity that we should 
know, without a chance for doubt, the exact plant that we use, after proving. I 
have therefore, especially in this case, carefully examined into the relationship 
existing between R. Toxicodendron and its so-called variety radicans. The only 
differences acknowledged by authors are as follows : 



Ji. toxicodendron, L. 

Stem erect. 

Height of growth 2 to 4 feet. 

Stem devoid of rootlets. 

Leaves trifoliate. 

Leaflets variously toothed or crenate, smooth 



R. mdiians, L.* 

Stem more or less tortuous. 

Height 4 to 30 feet or more. 

Stem profusely studded with dark-colored rootlets, 

by which it clings to its chosen support. 
Same. 
Leaflets entire, or slightly dentate, smooth both 



above and slightly pubescent underneath. | sides. 

During the present season I have carefully examined a great number of indi- 
viduals in this and adjoining counties, and conclude, as the result of my observa- 
tions, that an individual commencing its growth as toxicodendron may become 
radicans if proper support is reached. I found in several places along the Chenango 
River, both forms growing from the same root. At the entrance of a ravine near 
Glenwood Cemetery, upon the outskirts of this city, is the plant from which the 
accompanying plate was made; this individual is radicans in its mode of growth 
(climbing about 9 feet into a young elm tree), but it bore no rootlets, being 
supported merely by the shoots of the elm ; its foliage answers exactly to toxi- 
codendron. One large plant, on the bank of the Susquehanna River, below the 
usual high-water mark, has all the characters of radicans except the rootlets, 
and grows in a trailing manner along the bank ; passing in its growth four excel- 
lent supports : /. e., two sturdy elms, one sycamore, and a large stump surrounded 
by bushes. It is said that the two forms differ in their place of growth, toxicoden- 
dron choosing open places and radicans shady spots ; it however follows as a 
necessity that if toxicodendron is radicans when it climbs, radicans is in the shade 
because of its support. 

Many other far more competent observers than myself, have doubted the 
verity of the distinctions in these forms : among them are Michaux and Pursh, 
who considered them merely localisms, and Bigelow states : " among the plants 
which grow around Boston, I have frequently observed individual shoots from the 
same stock, having the characters of both varieties. I have also observed that 
young plants of R. radicatis iT&(\u&nl\y do not put out rooting fibers until they are 

* Rhus Toxicodendron, vay. radicans, Tortey; Toxicodendron vulgare,'lA\\\.; Rhus Toxicodendron, var. a 7'ulgare, 
Michx. ; Rhus scandens, Salisbury. 



38-3 

several years old, and that they seem, in this respect, to be considerably influenced 
by the contiguity of supporting objects." 

My tinctures of both forms are exactly alike in physical properties ; portions 
of each yielded the same amount of solid extract per ounce, after evaporation ; 
and as far as I can determine, they are identical. 

The bulk of our guiding symptoms are compiled from cases of poisoning, 
where the form causing the effect is not identified. I then, in the light of all this, 
would suggest that our tincture be made as follows : 

Take equal parts by weight of fresh leaves of each form, gathered on a cloudy, 
sultry day, just before the flowers are developed, chop and pound them to a pulp, 
and weigh, treating the resulting mass as in the preceding species. The resulting 
tincture should have a dark brown color by transmitted light, and will give off no 
characteristic odor; it will have a biting and astringent taste, and a strong acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— 7?/^(7/A?«;//f Acid Cj,H.,,0,,. This specific 
tannin of Rhus is a yellowish-green, gummy mass, having a slightly bitter and 
astringent taste and an acid reaction (Wittstein). 

Toxicodendric Acid. — This peculiar, poisonous, volatile principle, was isolated 
from this plant by Prof. Maisch.* He describes it as resembling both formic 
and acetic acids in some of its reactions, but distinguishable in its failure to pro- 
duce a red color with neutral ferric salts. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The toxic action of this species is one difficult 
to explain. The first noticeable peculiarity is its choice of victims, many persons 
being entirely devoid of response to its influences, many others peculiarly suscep- 
tible. Out of ten men employed to " clear out a twelve-acre lot that was completely 
filled with poison vine, cat briers, and brambles, the poison vine greatly predomi- 
nating," four only escaped poisoning. "At first there was a lively fight between 
the poison vine and the men, and it looked as if the former would get the better 
of it ; for most of the men soon began to show signs of being tired, and at the 
end of the fourth day six of the men were flat on their backs, too sick for any- 
thing." f I remember one illustration. When a lad, while in bathing with five 
others, we all ran a race, stark naked, through the underbrush near by, passing in 
and out through a clump of what was afterward found to be poison ivy ; two of 
the party were taken ill the next day and soon developed quite serious symptoms 
of poisoning ; all the others, including myself, escaped. 

Another peculiarity is that in many cases it is not necessary to even touch the 
plant to be severely poisoned. While playing croquet one sultry day in June, with 
a young lady cousin, she struck her ball with sufficient force to cause it to roll 
underneath a clump of poison ivy that grew at a short distance from the edge of 
the lawn. She, knowing her susceptibility to the poison, carefully reached under 
the vine and extracted the ball without touching even a leaf. During the evening 



* Prot:. Am. Phar. Assoc, 1865, 166. f ^«"»' ^'M' Yorker, quoted in daily press, original not accessible. 



38-4 

of the same day, her face began to itch and burn, and in the night it swelled to 
such extent that the eyes were not only closed, but the lashes even were lost to 
view in the swollen countenance. Nearly two weeks elapsed before the symptoms 
caused by this exposure entirely subsided. 

A third peculiarity is that the plant is more poisonous during the night, or at 
any time in June and July when the sun is not shining upon it. Absence of sun- 
light, together with dampness, seems to favor the exhalation of the volatile prin- 
ciple (Toxicodendric Acid) contained in the leaves. Of this Porcher says:''' "An 
acrimonious vapor, combined with carburetted hydrogen, exhales from a growing 
plant of the poison oak during the night. It can be collected in a jar, and is capable 
of inflaming and blistering the skin of persons of excitable constitution, who plunge 
their arms into it." 

The symptoms caused by this plant are: First, redness and swelling of the 
affected part, with intolerable itching and burning, followed by vertigo, weariness, 
and a sort of intoxication. Infiltration of the face and eyes, and agglutination of 
the lids after sleep ; great restlessness, pain, thirst, and fever. The surface of the 
skin, after a time, becomes studded with confluent bullae where the cellular tissue 
is loose, then a dermatitis follows resembling erysipelas ; this may spread rapidly 
and finally communicate to the mucous membranes. This is followed by swelling 
of the mouth and throat, cough, nausea, and vomiting. Rheumatoid pains develop 
about the joints, and a painful stiffness asserts itself in the lumbar region, while 
the legs and arms become numb. Confusion of mind and delirium may then set 
in, during which the patient may become so ill-humored, restless, and anxious, 
that he will jump out of bed. The concomitant symptoms are inflammation of the 
eyes, dilation of the pupil, weakness of vision, and sometimes dilopia ; frequent 
epistaxis ; brown coated tongue, with a triangular red tip ; swelling of the parotid 
glands, with difficult deglutition ; griping in the abdomen ; diarrhoea ; profuse 
urination; oppression of the chest ; rapid pulse ; great weakness, weariness, and 
prostration ; soreness of the muscles, worse while at rest, and passing off when 
exercising; sleepiness; and chilliness, followed by fever and copious sweat. 

There are almost as many antidotes recommended for Rhus tox. poisoning 
as for the bite of the rattlesnake. Prominent, however, among the applications 
are : alkaline lotions, especially carbolate of soda, alum-curd, and hyposulphite of 
soda, keeping the skin constantly moist with the agent in solution ; meanwhile 
administering Bryonia, Belladonna, Apis, Grindelia robusta, or Verbena urticifolia. 

Description of Plate 38. 

I. End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June 27th, 1884. 

2. Outline of leaf. 

3. Flower. 

4. Calyx and pistil. 
(3 and 4 enlarged.) 

* Resorc. South. Fields and Forests, 202. 



39. 




I naidel.et pinxt. 



7 8 

Rhus Aromatica, Ait. 



N. ORD -ANACARDIACE^. 39 

Series.-LOBADIUM. RAF. 

GENUS.— RHUS. 
SEX. SVST.— PENTANDRI.\ TKIGVMA. 



RHUS AROMATICA. 

FRAGRAJ^T SUMACH. 

SYN.— RHUS AROMATICA, AIT.; RHUS CANADENSIS, MARSH.; RHUS 
SUAVEOLENS, AIT.; BETULA TRIPHYLLA, THUN.; TURPINIA PU- 
BESCENS, AND GLABRA, AND LOBADIUM AROMATICUM, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.— FRAGRANT, OR SWEET-SCENTED SUMACH, STINK BUSH, 
SKUNK BUSH. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT BARK OF RHUS AROMATICA, AIT. 

Description. — This strag^gling but very pretty bush usually grows to a height 
of about 4 feet. Leaves 3-foliate, slightly sweet-scented ; leaflets rhombic-ovate, 
prominently ribbed, crenate or cut-toothed; the middle leaflet broadly cuneate at 
the base, and narrowing gradually to its insertion at the end of the common 
petiole ; all sessile, and coriaceous when old. hiflorescence single or clustered, 
scaly bracted, catkin-like spikes; scales reddish, and furnished with copious hairs 
upon the border ; flowers polygamo-dioecious, prefolial. Hypogynous disk 5-parted, 
large; lodes strongly reniform, the hilum of each almost entirely surrounding the 
base of the filament inserted under it. Fruit similar to that of R/ms glabra, but 
somewhat flattened ; nutlet smooth, depressed. 

History and Habitat. — This least poisonous of all our indigenous species of 
Rhus, is common in dry, rocky soils, where it flowers in April or May, before the 
appearance of the leaves. It is the finest species to cultivate, its dense foliage 
becoming still more so, and the leaves enlarging and varying beautifully. It was 
introduced into England as an ornamental shrub in 1759. 

The previous medical uses of the berries were the same as those of R. glabra. 

This fruit is termed the squaw-berry, because the Indian women gather large 
quantities, which are dried and used for food. The berries are excessively sour, 
but very much used while fresh during the summer months; when macerated they 
make a pleasant drink. The wood is very tough, far more so than the willow, and 
is used by the Indians in Utah, Arizona, Southern California, and New Mexico for 
making into baskets. This wood exhales a peculiar odor, which is always recog- 
nizable about the camps of these Indians, and never leaves articles made from it.* 



* Dr. Edward Palmer in Am. Nat., 1878, 597. 



39-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the root is treated 
as in the preceding species. The tincture obtained is the most transparent and 
lightest in color of all the species of Rhus here mentioned. It has a beautiful, 
clear, crimson color by transmitted light ; a decidedly terebinthic odor ; very astrin- 
gent taste, and strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Volatile Oil. This body has, when first dis- 
tilled, the disgusting odor of bed-bugs ; but when treated with ether and evapo- 
rated, it acquires a pleasant aroma after having been exposed to the air for 
twenty- four hours. 

Beside the above, Mr. H. W. Harper* determined the presence of gallo- 
tannin, resin, acid resin, fixed oil, and a red coloring matter. 

Description of Plate 39. 

1. A flowering branch, from Lowmansville, N. Y., May 14th, 1884. 

2. End of late summer branch, showing the inflorescence preparing for the next season. 

3. Flower. 

4. Petal. 

5. Stamen and lobe of disk. 

6. Pistil and hypogynous disk. 

7. Dormant inflorescence. 

8. Scale of same, outer face. 

9. Scale of same, inner face. 

(3-9 enlarged.) 



* Am. Jour. Phar., 1881, 212. 




40 



w^ 



^ta.ailialiiel.elpi.<l AmPE ' LOPSIS ■''•; QuINQUEFOLIA, Michx. Q 



N. ORD -VITACE^. 40 

GENUS— A MPELOPSIS,* MRHX. 
SEX. SV.ST.-I'KNTANnKlA MOXOGVNIA. 



AMPELOPSIS. 

MRGINIAN CREEPER. 



SYN.-AMPELOPSIS QUINQUEPOLIA. MICHX., AMPELOPSIS HEDEEA- 
CEA, DC, VITIS QUINQUEPOLIA, LAM., VITIS HEDBRACEA, WILLD., 
HEDERA QUINQUEPOLIA, LINN., CISSUS HEDERACEA, PERS. 

COM. NAMES.-VIRGINIAN CREEPER, AMERICAN IVY, WOODBINE, 
PIVE-LEAVES, PALSE GRAPE, WILD WOOD-VINE. 



A TIXCTURE OF THE FRESH SHOOTS AND B.\RK OF AMPELOPSIS QUINQUE- 
POLIA, MICHX. 

Description.— This common vine is familiar to all residents of the Northern 
United States, being often planted as a porch screen on account of its rapid 
growth, its beautiful shade and the magnificence of its autumnal coloring. The 
stem is extensively climbing, reaching out in all directions, and fastening itself 
by the disk-like appendages of the tendrils to anything that will give it support, 
thus sometimes reaching a great height. Leaves long petioled, digitate, smooth, 
with five oblong-lanceolate coarsely serrate leaflets. Flower clusters cyme-like, 
the pedicels angularly jointed and somewhat umbellate. Flowers small, and 
perfect. Calyx entire, crenate, or slightly 5-toothed. Petals 5, at first seemingly 
united, then becoming distinct, concave and thick, expanding and reflexing before 
they fall. Disk none. Stamens 5 ; Jila?iients slender ; anthers large, oblong 
introrse. Ovary somewhat lobed at the base, conical, 5-angled, 2-celled ; style 
short or wanting ; stigma small and simple, or slightly 2-lobed. Ovules 2 in each 
cell of the ovary and erect, anatropous from its base. Fruit a dark purplish blue 
berry Avhen ripe, about the size of a pea. Seeds bony, with a minute embryo at 
the base. 

History and Habitat. — This woody climber haunts low moist grounds, well 
supplied with trees or bushes, often making the bodies of elm trees grandly 
picturesque by its dense green covering of their trunks, or hanging in festoons 
from blasted trees, and covering rocks and stumps with its dense verdure, it 
renders beautiful everything it clings to, while after the first frosts its vividly 
brilliant coloring makes one of the mos^ striking points in an autumn landscape. 
It opens its yellowish green flowers, few at a time, in July ; the berries being ripe 
in October. The Virginian Creeper is dreaded by many, in its wild state, when 

* u,ij;,\o;^ a vine, .mil oii;, appfaiatne. 



40-2 

without support, from its often being taken for poison ivy, to which, however, 
it bears no resemblance, except perhaps in this mode of growth. This indigenous 
vine is being cultivated in Europe much as the European ivy is here, for adorning 
walls. Ampelopsis is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia 
Medica its preparations are Dccoctum ampelopsis, and Infusiini ampelopsis. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh young shoots and bark are 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, and having mixed the pulp well with one-sixth part of it, the 
rest of the alcohol is added. The whole is then stirred, poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

Having separated the tincture by decanting, straining, and filtering, it 
presents by transmitted light a slightly brownish-red color; is of a decided sour, 
astringent taste and has a strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— P)'rt7f«/tr////^* C„ H„ O,,, determined by 
Gorup-Besanez in small quantity in the green leaves. This body crystallizes in 
square prisms readily soluble in water and alcohol. 

Cisso-Tannic Acid, Cj„ Hj., O,, determined by Wittstein in the autumnal 
colored leaves as the pigment of the red coloration ; it is liquid at ordinary tem- 
peratures, and has an astringent, bitter taste. In this acid as a sediment is 
another body termed by this author insoluble or ehanged cisso-taimic acid 
(CjpH^gOjj), insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol. It exists when dry as a dense 
dark-brown, brittle, shining mass, having a bitter, acrid taste. 

The leaves when green contain also free tartaric acid and its salts, with 
sodium and potassium. 

GlycoUic Acid, Q H^ O ,, and Calcium glycollate (QH^Og)^ Ca, exist in the 
ripe berries. (Schorlemmer.) 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Little or nothing is known of the action of this 
drug upon man. Mr. Bernay, however, in Pharm. Jour, and Trans., vol. vii. 1S76, p. 
So, reports that two children, aged respectively two and a half and five years, after 
chewing the leaves and swallowing the juice were quickly seized with vomiting 
and purging, with tenesmus ; then collapse, sweating, and faint pulse ; followed 
by deep sleep for two hours, from which a return of the vomiting and purging 
aroused them. The pupils were dilated and remained somewhat so four hours 
after the commencement of the attack. 

Description of Plate 40. 

I. Flowering spray, from Ithaca, N. Y., June 17, 18S0. 

2. Branch showing tendrils. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. Berries. 



* Oxypbenic .'Vcid, 



41. 




(plU.adnaf.del.et pinxt 



RhAMNUS CATHARTICUS.Linn. 



■Sfi^ *■ 



N. ORD -RHAMNACE^. 41 

GF:NUS.— RH AMNUS,* TOURN. 
SKX. SVST.— PENTANDKIA MONOCVNIA. 



RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS. 



BUCKTEORJf. 



SYN.— RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS, LINN.; R. SOLUTIVUS, GER. ; CBRVIS- 

PINA CATHARTICA, MCBNCH. 
COM. NAMES.— PURGING BUCKTHORN ; (FR.) NERPRUN, BOURQUEPINE ; 

(GER.) WEGDORN, KREUZDORN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE BERRIES OF RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS, LINN. 



Description. — This dense-spreading- shrub or small tree attains a growth of 
from 6 to 12 feet. Stem erect; bark grayish; braiicJdcts numerous, tipped with a 
sharp spine. Leaves somewhat opposite or sometimes more or less tufted, oval, 
acuminate, and minutely denticulate-serrate ; veins prominent beneath, and arched 
in a direction parallel to the margin. Inflorescaice in axillary clusters ; y?<?zt:'^;'.f 
minute, greenish-yellow, polygamous or dioecious, the sterile ones with ovate 
sepals and petals and an abortive ovary. Calyx urceolate, 4 to 5 cleft, persistent; 
lobes lanceolate; torus thin, lining the tube. Petals 4 to 5 small, linear-oblong ; 
elates short. Stamens short, mostly 4, rudimentary in the fertile flowers ; filaments 
surrounded by the corolla. Ovary free, 2 to 4 celled, not enclosed in the torus; 
styles 2 to 4 distinct or more or less united; stigmas 4, somewhat club-shaped or 
ligulate. Fruit an ovoid, berry-like drupe ; nutlets 3 to 4, seed-like, cartilaginous ; 
seeds grooved on the back and rounded at the sides, a horizontal section resem- 
bling the face of a horse's hoof; cotyledons leaf-like, the edges revolute. 

Rhamnaceae. — A small family of shrubs or small trees, often with thorny 
branchlets. Leaves mostly alternate, simple ; stipules small or obsolete. Inflor- 
escence various ; fiozuers small and regular (sometimes apetalous, or, by abortion, 
dioecious or polygamous) ; in aestivation the sepals are valvate and the petals con- 
volute. Petals clawed, concave, inserted into the edge of a fleshy disk lining the 
short tube of the calyx. Stamens 4 or 5, perigynous, as many as the sepals and 
alternate with them. Ovary 2 to 5 celled ; ovules solitary, anatropous ; styles more 

* From the Celtic ram, branching. 



41-2 

or less united ; stigmas 2 to 5, simple, and usually distinct. Frjiit a capsule, drupe, 
or berry ; seeds erect, one in each cell ; axil none ; embryo large ; cotyledons broad ; 
albumen sparing and fleshy. 

This family furnishes us with only one other proven plant, viz. : the European 
Black Alder {Rhanimis frangiila, Linn.), the bark of which is a mild but certain 
purgative, useful in habitual constipation. 

Among the other plants of the order useful to medicine, we find the French 
Berry, a purgative fruit yielded by Rhamnns ir.fectorius, Linn. The fruit of the 
Indian Zizyphus osnophila, Mill., is eaten by the natives, who consider the bark a 
fine vulnerary. The East Indian Z. Jtijuba, Lam., and the Persian Z. vulgaris 
yield a mucilaginous juice from which is made the famous Jujube Paste, esteemed 
for the manufacture of a pleasant pectoral lozenge, called by the Erench Pate'de 
Jujube ; the Arabian Z. lotus yields a berry known as the Lote ; this is supposed 
to be the true Lotus of the Lotophagi. It is found on the eastern as well as the 
western extremity of the African desert, and is described by Mr. Park as small 
farinaceous berries, of a yellow color and delicious taste. The natives, he says, 
convert them into a sort of bread, by exposing them some days to the sun, and 
afterwards pounding them gently in a wooden mortar until the farinaceous part 
is separated from the stone. The meal is then mixed with a little water, and 
formed into cakes, which, when dried in the sun, resemble in color and taste the 
sweetest gingerbread. The roots of the North American Berchemia volubilis, 
De C, are claimed to be a useful remedy in cachexias and an antisyphilitic. The 
twigs of the New Jersey Tea {Ceanothus Americanus, Linn.) are very useful on 
account of their mild astringency as an injection in gonorrhoea, gleet, and leu- 
corrhoea; this plant is now being proven for a place in our Materia Medica. The 
Mexican Ceanothus azurea, Desf., is considered a powerful febrifuge ; while the 
Senegal C. discolor is a useful astringent in dysentery. Hovenia dulcis, Don., 
enlarges its peduncles in fruit to such extent, and they become so sweet and 
succulent, that the Japanese consider them a rare delicacy ; they are said to 
greatly resemble in taste a Bergamot pear. 

History and Habitat. — The Purging Buckthorn is indigenous to Europe and 
Northern Asia, from whence it was introduced into this country as a hedge-plant ; 
it has escaped in many places in New York and New England, where it flowers 
from April to May, according to the season. 

The medical history of this plant extends back to a period dating from before 
the Norman Conquest; it was then called Waythorn or Hartsthorn. In the 13th 
century Welsh physicians prescribed the juice in honey as a mild aperient drink. 
In Spain it is referred to as early as 1305 ; and it is then noted by all writers on 
medical plants during the i6th century. Buckthorn first appeared in the London 
Pharmacopoeia in 1650 ; it has also held a place in the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States, but its space is now held by R. frangida. The Purging Buckthorn has now 
fallen into disuse on account of the violence of its action and the resulting severe 
irritation of the bowels. 



41-3 
The principal uses now are tiiose of economy, the juice of the fresh berries 
giving a saffron-colored dye, and that of the bark a beautiful yellow. A fine green 
pigment for water-coloring is made by the French from the ripe berries mixed with 
alum ; this color, called Vert de Vcssie, or sap-green, has been used as the principle 
for most of the foliage of the plates in this work. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, ripe berries are pounded to 
a pulp, sufficient to separate them from the nutlets, and weighed. Then two parts 
by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of 
it, and the rest of the alcohol added. The whole is then poured into a well-stop- 
pered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, being shaken 
twice a day. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by pressing and filtering, is opaque : 
in thin layers it exhibits an orange-red color by transmitted light ; and a taste at 
once acid and astringent. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— /?/'«w;^(;r^?/'//«;-/'/;/.=^= A bitter, brittle, yellow- 
ish, amorphous substance, soluble in water and alcohol, not soluble in ether; when 
fused it passes into a thick, yellow oil. 

Rhamnin.f C,.,Hj.,05 + (n^O).,.^ — This glucoside, discovered in the berries 
by a Pontoise pharmacist named Fleury, in 1840, was isolated, named, and further 
studied by Lefort.§ Rhamnin, when pure, forms minute, yellow, translucent tables, 
scarcely soluble in cold water, soluble in hot alcohol, and breaks down as in the 
next body. 

Rhamnegine, Cg^Hg^O,^. — This second glucoside of Lefort is in all respects, 
except solubility, identical in its physical and chemical properties with the preced- 
ing. When decomposed by heating with a dilute mineral acid, it breaks down into 
a crystallizable sugar, isomeric with mannite and rliavnictin, Cj^Hj^Oj. 

Rhamnotannic Acid. — This tannin-like body, obta'ned in the separation of 
rhamnin, results as a greenish-yellowish, amorphous, friable, bitter mass, soluble 
in alcohol and insoluble in water. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The purgation following the ingestion of the 
ripe fruit of Rhamnus calharticus is, in almost every instance, accompanied by con- 
siderable thirst, dryness of the mouth and throat, and severe griping pains in the 
abdomen. A case is reported]] of the effects of eating the berries by a lad; the 
symptoms were as follows : Eyes glistening and injected ; lips trembling ; a simu- 
lation of trismus; the abdomen became hard and distended; colic; diarrhoea; 
respiration short and anxious ; pulse variable ; the skin was at one time warm, 
at another cold ; the boy was unable to rise, could not walk, and seemed to 



* Oithartin. f Rhamneitne (Gallatly, 1858); Chrysorhamnine (Scluitzeberger and Bertiche, 1865). 

X C,|,HjjO,„ (Schutzenberger). \ Jour, de Phar., i836, p. 420. || Leopold, Casp. Woch., 1850. 



41-4 

endeavor to press the head against the wall. The symptoms all showed a high 

state of irritation of the alimentary tract. 

Description of Plate 41. 

I. End of a fruiting branch, Ithaca, N. Y., July 17th, 1885. 

2. Female flower. 

3. Section of ovary. 

4. Male flower. 

5. Petal. 

6. Stamen. 

7. The persistent caly.x-tube. 

8. Nutlet. 

g. Horizontal section of the nutlet. 
(2-9 enlarged.) 




Y^'-TO.-Jilnatdel.etpinxt 



EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS.Jacq 



N. ORD.-CELASTRACE^. 42 

Tribe.-EUONYME/E. 

GENUS.— EUONYM US,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGVMA. 



EUONYMUS 
ATROPURPUREUS. 

WA-j-noo. 



SYN.— EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS, JACQ. ; E. CAROLINIENSIS, AND LATI- 

FOLIUS, MARSH. 
COM. NAMES.— WAHOO, WAHOON, BURNING BUSH, SPINDLE-TRBB, INDIAN 

ARRO"W"-WOOD; (FR.) FUSAIN, OU BONNET DE PRETRE; (GER.) SPINDEL- 

BAUM. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS, JACQ. 

Description. — This low shrub seldom attains, out of cultivation, a height of over 
lo feet, varying- usually from 6 to lo. Stem erect; branches straight, appearing 
more or less terete by having 4 double, white, linear ridges upon its surface, bark 
blotched with white verrucose spots between the ridges. Leaves opposite, thin, 
petioled ; oval-oblong, acute at the base, and pointed; w^r^v'w finely serrate ; midrib 
prominent. Inflorescence loose, few-flowered, divaricate cymes, terminating long, 
lateral and axillary, drooping peduncles, ranged along the young shoots of the 
season ; flozvers perfect, their parts in fours. Calyx short and flat ; sepals orbicular, 
spreading, united at the base. Petals broadly ovate, somewhat acute, spreading. 
Stamens mounted upon the angles of a flat, somewhat quadrilateral disk, which Is 
more or less united with the ovary and covers its superior surface ; filaments merely 
mamma-like processes of the disk ; anthers appearing sessile, 2-celled, opening by 
a broad transverse chink upon their upper faces, and furnished with a broad dorsal 
connective. Style simply a central projection of the disk ; stigma hardly evident. 
Frjiit-A. smooth deeply four lobed and celled, locullcldal capsule ; cells 2 to 3 seeded; 
seeds elliptical, ashy, enveloped by a red aril. 

Celastraceae. — Shrubs with simple, opposite or alternate leaves; stipu'es 
minute caducous. Flowers small and regular ; (estivation Imbricate. Calyx 4 to 5 
lobed, persistent. Petals plane, as many as the sepals, and inserted by a broad 
base underneath the disk. Statnens as many as the petals and alternate with 
them, inserted upon a disk which fills the calyx cup and Is sometimes more or less 



* Et,o..i,,i.j, Euonyme, the mother of the Furies; or iJ, <•«, well; J""/"", onoma, named; alluding to the poisonous 
effects of the plant upon cattle. 



42-2 

vinited with the ovary. Ovary free from the calyx ; ovules anatropous, erect or 
pendulous ; styles united into one. Fruit a 2 to 5 celled capsule ; seeds arilled, one 
or few to each cell, enibyro large, cotyledons faliaceous ; albumen sarcous, thin, or 
sometimes absent. 

The only proven plant of this order is the European Spindle Tree [Euouytnus 
Europo'us, Linn. ), the properties of which are very similar to, if not identical with, 
the species under consideration. The following plants of the family are more or 
less useful, viz.: The common Bittersweet, or, better, Staff Vine {Cclastrus scan- 
dens), so often confounded, by the laity, with Dulcamara, has orange-colored fruit ; 
has been largely used in domestic practice, as an alterative, diuretic and cholagogue 
in various diseases where it seemed necessary to "cleanse the blood." It was 
considered without equal for the removal of hepatic obstruction. The Indian C. 
paniculatus is considered stimulant. The branches of the Chilian Ilfaytcnus C/iil- 
ensis are used in decoction by the natives as a wash for the swellings produced in 
those who have rested in the shade of the Lithri Tree.* The root-bark of the 
Indian ElcBodendron Roxbiirghii is used by the natives, in decoction, for the 
reduction of almost any kind of swelling ; and the African Catha edttlis is claimed 
to be used by the Arabs as an anti-somnolent and intoxicant. Almost all the 
species of this small order are used in their native countries to subdue inflamma- 
tion. 

History and Habitat. — The Wahoo grows in moist, open woods, or along 
rivers from Western New York to Wisconsin, and southward. It flowers at the 
north in June and ripens its beautiful fruit in October. It is the fiery appearence 
of the fruiting bush after the leaves have fallen, and the capsules bursted, and 
especially when contrasted with a snow background, that gives it an appearance 
eminently fitting the name often applied, the Burning Bush. 

Especially of late Wahoo has attracted much attention in medical circles as a 
laxative tonic, alterative, and depurant in torpidity of the liver; also as a remedy 
for derangement of the stomach and in secondary syphilis, and an expectorant 
in colds, coughs and asthma. It needs, however, more thorough proving to deter- 
mine its sphere of usefulness. Mr. Hardyman, of Cardiff, statesf that he has used 
Euonymin in 2 grain doses at bedtime, and finds it of much value in hepatic 
obstruction, needing, however, a saline purge to complete its usefulness. When 
used in this way I should much prefer the seeds of the plant to salts to procure 
the cathartic action. The oil of the seeds has been used both in this country and 
Europe to destroy lice {Pedictilus Capitis, Vesti)nenti, and Pubis). 

The officinal preparation in the U. S. Ph. is Extractuni Euonyini. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark of the twigs and root, 
of the wild plant, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, and after thoroughly mixing the pulp with 
one-sixth part of it, the rest of the alcohol is added. After having stirred the whole 
well, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool 
place. 

* Lithrea causlicn (Laurus caustica), Lauiacese. f The practitioner in New Rem., 1880, 80. 



42-3 
The tincture separated from the mass by pressing and filtering, has a clear 
lemon-yellow color by transmitted light. It has an acrid and bitter taste, no specific 
odor, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Bnofij'wm. On treating the tincture with 
chloroform, a dark substance is obtained which partly dissolves in ether as a 
beautiful yellow resin. The insoluble portion dissolved in alcohol, and the resin 
precipitated by plumbic acetate, the menstruum after filtration and evaporation 
yields a neutral, amorphous, bitter body soluble in alcohol and sparingly in water.* 

Euonic Acid. — This acid crystallizes in acicular forms, and is precipitablc from 
its solutions by plumbic subacetate (Wenzel). 

Resins, gum, sugar, a crystallizable bitter principle, asparagin, tartaric, citric, 
and malic acids were also extracted. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— In large doses the Wahoo acts as a drastic 
purge attended by griping and followed by prostration ; the discharges being sero- 
mucoid with an admixture of bile. It promotes the biliary functions and intestinal 
secretions, increasing capillary circulation generally. 

The symptoms noted are : deathly nausea ; vertigo ; e.xcessive tormina ; 
prostration and cold sweat. Profuse and violent evacuation of the bowels, 
accompanied by much flatulence and colic.f 

Description of Plate 42. 

I. Portion of a flowering branch, Cincinnati, O., June 17th, 1885. 

2. End of branch. 

3. Flower showing calyx. 

4. Face of flower. 

5. Section of flower. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Fruit. 

8 Horizontal section of ovary. 
(3-8 enlarged.) 

* Wenzel in Am. jfour. P/iar., 1862, 312. f Hale, Nnu Remtdies, 293. 




^m.iii 



natdei.etpinxt 



/tSCULUS HiPPOCACTANUM.Linn. 



N. ORD -SAPINDACE^. - 43 

Jribe.-HIPPOCASTAN£/E. 

GENUS— AESCULUS,* LINN. 
SKX. SV.ST.-IIK1'TANDRIA MONOGVNIA. 



AESCULUS HIPPO- 
CASTANUM. 

HORSE CffESTJVUT. 



SYN.— AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM, LINN. ; CASTANEA FOLIO MULTI- 
FIDO, BAUH. ; CASTANEA EQUINA, GER. ; CASTANEA PA VINA. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON HORSE CHESTNUT,! ASIATIC HORSE CHEST- 
NUT, BUCKEYE;! (FR.) MARRONNIER D'INDE ; (GER.) ROSSKAS- 
TANIB. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH, RIPE, HULLED NUT OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTA- 
NUM, LINN. 



Description. — This stately, umbrageous tree usually attains a growth of 
about 60 feet in height, and 50 feet in diameter of foliage. Trunk erect ; ovate, 
and smooth-barked when young; oval, tending to quadrilateral, when old; bark 
of the full grown tree greyish, rough, and fissured ; inner bark smooth, greenish- 
white, tough, fibrous, astringent, and bitter; ivood light, not durable. Leaves op- 
posite, digitately 7-lobed ; leaflets 7, obovate, with a cuneate base, acute tip, and 
doubly-serrate margin ; straight-feather-veined, early deciduous. Inflorescence 
dense, pyramidal, upright, hyacinthine thyrsi, terminal upon the shoots of the 
season ; flowers many, often polygamous, the greater proportion of them sterile ; 
pedicels articulated. Calyx tubular or bell-shaped, oblique or inflated at the base ; 
limb 5-lobed. Corolla spreading, white, spotted with purple and yellow ; petals 
4-5, usually 5, more or less unequal, nearly hypogynous, clawed and undulate 
margined. Stamens 6-8, usually 7, declined ; filaments unequal, awl-shaped, long 
and slender; anthers oval, 2-celled. Ovary owaite, stipitate, 3- celled ; style i, fili- 
form ; stigma acute ; ovules 2 in each cell. Fruit a roundish, echinate, 3-celled, 
3-valved capsule, splitting into 3 dissepiments, disclosing 1-2 full formed, some- 
what hemispherical nuts, and sometimes an aborted third ; seed a large amyla- 
ceous nut, having a dense shining testa marked with a large roundish hilum ; coty- 
ledons thick, sarcous, cohering; radicle conical, curved. 

SapindaceaB. — This large and variable order is chiefly tropical, especially the 



♦ An ancient Latin name. The Aesculus of the Romans was a kind of oak. 

t Horses are said to eat greedily of the fruit, and the Arabs to use the powdered nuts in the food of their horses 
when affected with puhnonary disorders; hence the vulgarism. 

X From a resemblance of the nut to the eye of that animal. This name is more applicable to the American species. 



43-2 

typical suborder, of which the genus under consideration is the only North Ameri- 
can representative. The family is composed of trees, shrubs, or tendril-bearing 
climbers, showing widely different characters of leaf, flower, and fruit ; and in- 
cludes the soap-berries, bladder-nuts, and maples. The leaves are usually alter- 
nate (Exc. Aesculus), simple or compound. Flowers mostly irregular and un- 
symmetrical ; sepals 4-5, imbricate in aestivation ; petals 4-5, alternate with the 
sepals, and sometimes wanting. Disk sarcous, regular, expanded, or glandular, 
protruding between the petals and stamens. Stamens 5-10, perigynous or hypo- 
gynous ; filaments free or cohering at their bases ; anthei^s introrse. Ovary 2-3 
celled and lobed ; ovules 1-2 in each cell ; style simple, or 2-3 cleft. Fridt a cap- 
sule, samara, or fleshy indehiscent drupe; embryo curved or convolute (Exc. Sta- 
phylea) ; albumen wanting. 

The plants that are of particular interest to us in this family, beside the two 
under consideration here, are ; Guarana or Brazilian Cocoa [Patcllinja sorbilis, 
Mart.), and the Brazilian timbo-szpo [Panllinm pinnata, D. C ). Economically the 
berries of Sapindus saponaria and the bark and roots of other species are used in 
lieu of soap in cleansing woollens. The genus Paullinia contains many species 
in which a deleterious narcotic constituent is developed in the juice or seeds ; the 
native Brazilians prepare a slow but potent and certain poison from Patdlinia 
pinnata ; P. australis is supposed to be the origin of a venomous honey found in the 
Brazilian woods ; and P. curriiru yields an arrow poison to the natives of Guiana, 
who also prepare a narcotic intoxicating drink from P. cu'^ana. The products of 
most species of this order are to be regarded with suspicion, yet the Chinese 
Lee-chee i^Nephelium Lichti) and Longaii. [Nephelium Longan") are delicious fruits ; 
the Brazilian Fruta de Pavao {Schmidelia ediilis) is sweet and palatable ; and the 
Jamaica wing-leaved honey-berry [Melicocca bijiigis) edible, sub-acid, and pleas- 
ant. The berries of many species of the genus Sapindus are edible, though the 
seeds, used by the natives of the country of their growth to poison fish, are active 
narcotic toxicants. 

History and Habitat. — The horse chestnut is a native of Asia ; it was intro- 
duced into Europe about the middle of the sixteenth century by seed, and first 
cultivated in England by Tradescant in 1633 ;* after this its growth became quite 
general, as the tree accommodates itself quickly to all temperate regions. It is 
one of our first trees to bud in the spring, and flowers in April and May, its fruit 
being fully ripe at the first autumn frost. Being one of our most dense shade 
trees, dark, cool, and clean, it is extensively planted in the yards and along the 
streets of almost every American city and village. The nuts are eaten greedily 
by horses, sheep, goats, cows, and pigs, and form an excellent fattening food for 
those animals when prepared in such a manner as to drive off the acrimony. This 
is best accomplished by boiling them in potash and washing them with water. 
Germination, however, renders them pleasant food through change of the bitter 
principles to saccharine, a result similar to that produced in malting barley. The 



43-3 

nuts are said to yield a starch of finer quality than that of any cereal (Parmen- 
tier) ; paste made of the powdered nuts is claimed to be very tenacious and not 
attacked by moths and vermin ; the saponaceous property of the seeds, when 
used in lieu of soap, is highly esteemed in cleaning and fulling woollens, espe- 
cially in France and Switzerland (Marcandier). The nuts of Aesctdus Californica 
are largely used by the natives of that State for making into bread, after remov- 
ing the bitterness by freely washing the powdered cotyledons. The fruit of Ae. 
pavia is used by the Aborigines for stupefying fish ; this species is so common in 
Ohio that it has become an emblem, and given rise to the sobriquet " Buckeye 
State." 

The use of Cortex hippocastani dates from the writings of Matthiolus.'" In 
Europe it was put forward, especially by Zannichelli, as an efficient remedy for in- 
termittent fevers of various types ; this use has been upheld by many able medi- 
cal writers, from whose works it would appear equal if not superior at that time to 
Peruvian bark. The usual dose given was from one to four scruples of the 
powder, repeated from two to six times in twenty-four hours ; this use seems never 
to have extended to England or America. The bark and nuts were introduced 
into the Edinburgh College with a view to their errhine power ; it being known 
that insufflation of the powder caused violent sneezing, it was recommended for 
the purpose of producing or promoting nasal discharge. 

In this country, especially among the laity, the nuts have been greatly es- 
teemed as a remedy for hemorrhoids and rheumatism, used either as a decoction 
or as a salve prepared with lard. So great is the faith of many people afflicted 
with either of these diseased conditions, that they carry a few nuts in their 
pockets from season to season, fully confident that the disorder is warded off by 
this means.f In Europe the oil procured by means of ether is used largely in 
neuralgia and rheumatism. An infusion of the bark or nuts is said to act favor- 
ably in the healing of indolent and gangrenous ulcers. The testa of the nuts is 
narcotic ; according to Dr. McDowell lo grains are equal to 3 grains of opium. 

Aesculus is not officinal in the U. S. Ph., nor has it an officinal preparation in 
the Eclectic Materia Medica, though used — especially as an extract — under the 
name Aesculin. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh, ripe, hulled nut is pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After stirring the whole well, and pouring it into a well-stoppered bottle, it is al- 
lowed to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the mass by filtration, has a clear brownish- 
orange color by transmitted light; no characteristic odor; an extremely bitter, 
acrid, and astringent taste, and an acid reaction. An amylaceous deposit takes 
place on standing, which, being of no value to the preparation, may be filtered off. 

* Epist. Medicinal, op. omn. p. lOl, 125. 

t I know at present many who indulge in this practice who ha\-e been suflTercrs, and they are really free from 
the disease while carrying the nuts. This should not seem a fallacy, lo us as homcvopathists, in cases where Aesculus 
is indicated. 



43-4 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Aescu/m, C.,^ H^, O^^ + H,0. This aromatic 
crlucoside exists in the bark of many trees of the genera Pavia and Aesculiis. It 
crystallizes in fine, snowy needles and globules, which lose their water of crystalli- 
zation and fuse at 160° (320° F.), decomposing at higher temperatures. They 
are soluble in both hot and cold water and in alcohol, their solutions exhibiting a 
fine light-blue fluorescence. Boiling with dilute mineral acids decomposes this 
body into glucose and 

Aesculetin, Q H^ O^, another glucoside, which also exists in a free state in the 
bark. This body is only sparingly soluble in water, and crystallizes in bitter 
needles, which break down under the action of boiling potash into formic, oxalic, 
and protocatechinic acids. 

Faviin, Q^ H^ O.^^. This glucoside is considered identical with fraxin, and 
will be found described under Fraxinus Americana, 137. 

Oil of Aesculus. This oil is readily obtained from the nuts of this species by 
etherial extraction. It resultsas a beautiful yellow liquid, congealing at 1° (33.8° F.), 
and becoming solid at— 5° (23° F.). 

Quercitriii, C^ Hg^ O.. This coloring matter of quercitron, occurs in the testa 
of the nut,* and in the flowers. 

Aesculetinic acid is one of the resultants of a still farther decomposition taking 
place in glucose and aesculetin when they are decomposition products of the ac- 
tion of baryta water upon aesculin. 

Aescinic acid* This amorphous body is a decomposition product of aphro- 
daescin when boiled with liquor potassa. 

Argyraescin. This acrid, amorphous glucoside was discovered by Rochelder 
in 1862 as a constituent of the seed. It is soluble in alcohol and water ; a watery 
solution forming a soapy foam on agitation. This body together with 

Aphrodaescin* another acrid, amorphous principle, having the same proper- 
ties of solubility and saponification, and breaking down under the action of a con- 
centrated mineral acid into sugar and aescigenin* so markedly resemble saponin 
that a question arises as to whether they are specific principles, or are to be con- 
sidered together as 

Saponin, Cg^ H^^ Oj^. This peculiar glucoside, existing in the roots of Sapo- 
naria officinalis, many species of Lych7iis,-\ Polygala Senega,\ Gypsophila Stru- 
thiuni\ Lucuma glycyphleza,\\ Monninia polystachya^ Quillaja SapoJiaria** and 
many other plants, including ferns ; has, before the observation of Rochelder, been 
accounted a principle of the nuts of this plant. It is a white, amorphous, sternu- 
tatory powder, having at first a sweetish, then a pungent and lastingly acrid taste. 
It is readily soluble in water, the solution frothing like that of soap on agitation, 
and is resolved under the action of concentrated hydrochloric acid into an amor- 
phous sugar and sapogenin. 

Although our tincture is made of the nuclei of the nuts only, still it would 
seem as if the bitterness, astringency, and acrimony present, were due to all or 
nearly all of the above constituents found in the bark. 

* Rochelder. f Gilhagin. \ Senegin, Polygalin. \ Strulliiin. I| Monesin. \ Monninin. ** Quillajin 



43-5 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Wc have no accessible accounts of poisonings 
by this drui^, still the provings, being made with goodly sized doses of the tinc- 
ture, are sutificient to give us an insight into the physiological action. Aesculus 
hippocastanum causes inflamniation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory 
and digestive tracts, and especially of the rectum ; this is shown in the following 
list of symptoms: Dryness, heat, burning and swelling of the mucous membranes 
of the nose, larynx, and trachea, with a subsequent copious catarrhal discharge; 
the same symptoms prevail in the mouth and oesophagus, followed by profuse 
ptyalism and mucous tlischarge : the tongue becomes coated with a thick white or 
yellow fur, and feels as if scalded ; the throat becomes congested, raw, and burn- 
ing, followed by a sense of constriction, and renders deglutition painful and diffi- 
cult. Constant burning in the stomach and epigastrium, followed by nausea, retch- 
ing, and violent vomiting, with great tenderness and colic throughout the abdomen, 
are markedly present. Severe dryness, burning, and soreness of th(; rectum, with 
prolapse, and sufficient inflammation of the hemorrhoidal veins to result in purple 
tumors, indicate the severity of the action of the drug in this locality. Ineffectual 
efforts at stool, with great urging, and constant severe pain in the lumbar region, 
extending to the hips and sacrum, are constant syniptoms of the drug. Its action 
upon the liver and portal system is marked by severe congestion, and attendant 
burning, constrictive pains and deep soreness. The provings, however, fail to 
substantiate its previous use in intermittent fever and neuralgia ; its lebrile symp- 
toms being only slight, and its pains, other than those referable to the alimentary 
tract, slight and not characteristic of nerve irritation. 

Deslripiion ok Plate 43. 

I. Eiul of flowering branch from Ithaca, N. Y., June 4, 1880. 
2. A medium-size leaf. 
J. Flower. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Nut. 

(3 and 4 slightly enlarged.) 



44. 







/ 



■"}^\t 



\ 



Ae. Hippo< cistaauni.. 



it? 



r4^ 






'^' ^ -^ 






k 






V" ■•' •'"'•« 



Ae. i'lav'i 



^m.ad 



naldel.elpinxt 



A'esculus Glabra, wiiid. 



N. ORD-SAPINDACE^. 44 

Tribe.-HIPPOCASTANE/E. 

GENUS.— /ESC ULUS. 

SEX. SVST.— HEPTANDRIA MONOGVNIA. 



^SCULUS GLABRA 

BUCKEYE. 



SYN.— ^SCULUS GLABRA AND PALLIDA, WILLD. ; ^. ECHINATA, MUHL. ; 
M. OHIOBNSIS AND MACROSTACHYA, MICHX. ; PA VIA GLABRA AND 
PALLIDA, SPACH. ; P. ALBA, POIR. ; P. MACROSTACHYA, LOIS.; MAC- 
ROTHYRSUS DISCOLOR, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES. — OHIO BUCKEYE, FETID BUCKEYE, SMOOTH HORSE- 
CHESTNUT. 



A TINCTURE UF THE FRESH NUT OF .•ESCULUS GLABRA, WILLD. 

Description. — This species differs from the preceding in the following par- 
ticulars ; Bark exhaling a very unpleasant odor, similar to that of the flowers of 
the preceding. Leaf small, smooth ; leaflets 5, ovate-lanceolate, acute, and finely 
serrate. Inflorescence smaller and more cymose ; floioers small, pale yellow, nar- 
rowly tubular-campanulate, polygamous. Petals only 4, upright, not reflexed. 
Stamens curved, not declined ; filaments filiform, long-hairy. Fniit echinulate 
with very short pyramidal points. 

History and Habitat. — The Buckeye is indigenous to the United States, where 
it ranges from Western Pennsylvania and \'irginia to Michigan, Indiana, and Ken- 
tucky ; it habits the rich alluvial soil along the bottom-lands of the Ohio River and 
the streams feeding it, and blossoms in June. 

The previous uses of this species are almost identical with those of /E. Hip- 
pocastanum, though not so extensive, as its qualities are more toxic, and were, on 
that account, dreaded. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh-hulled nut is treated as in 
the preceding species. The resulting tincture has a clear amber color by trans- 
mitted light; a honey-like odor; a slightly bitter and pungent taste; and an acid 
reaction. 

.•lisculus glabra should be more thoroughly proven, as its symptoms cover a 
larger therapeutic field than its congener. The tincture for this further proving 
should include the nut-shells and bark as well as the kernels : a larger scope 
would undoubtedly be covered by such a preparation. 



44-2 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — So far as we are able to ascertain, no special 
analysis of this species has been made that determines its individuality ; we can 
therefore do no better than refer to the preceding species. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The principal proving of this remedy is that 
recorded by Prof. E. M. Hale,* who claims its sphere of action to be an irritant 
of the cerebro-spinal system and the alimentary tract. The symptoms prominent in 
his record are : Confusion of mind, vertigo, stupefaction and coma ; dimness of 
vision ; thickness of speech ; nausea and vomiting ; eyes fixed and expressionless ; 
paresis of the tongue ; tympanitic distension of the stomach with cramp-like pains ; 
constipation, with hard knotty stools ; lameness and weakness of the lumbar 
region ; and spasms and convulsions, followed by wryneck, episthotonos and 
paralysis. 

Description of Pl.^te 44.7 

1. A leaf. 

2. Flower. 

3. Stamen. 

4. Anther. 

5. Fruit. 
(2-4 enlarged.) 



* New Remedies, 1877, p. 19 (Symptomatology). 

f The fruits of .^. Hippocastanum and flava are added for comparison. 



45. 




(^in.adnat.del.etpinxt 



POLYGALA Senega, Linn. 



N. ORD-POLYGALACE^. 45 

GENUS.— POL VGA LA,* TOURN. 

SEX. SV.ST.— DI.Vnr.l.l'llIA DCTANDRI.V. 



SENEGA. 

SEJ^ECA SJVAKEROOT. 

SYN.-POLYGALA SENEGA, LINN.; P. VIRGINIAN A, LEM.; PLANTULA 
MARILANDICA, RAIL; SENEGA OFFICINALIS, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES. — SENECA, SENEKA, OR SENEGA SNAKEROOT, MILK- 
WORT, MOUNTAIN FLAX; (FR.) POLYGALE DE VIRGINIE; (GER.) 
SENEGAWURZEL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE DRIED ROOT OF POLYGALA SENEGA, LINN. 

Description. — Roolstock thick, hard, knotty, and sometimes slightly branched. 
Stems several, simple, tough and wiry, from 6 to 1 2 inches high. Leaves alternate, 
sessile, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute at both ends; margins rough; stipuics 
none. Inflorescence a solitary, loose, terminal spike ; flowers small, greenish-white, 
almost sessile, and very irregular. Calyx persistent; sepals 5, arranged in two sets 
as to form ; the outer set, composed of 3, are small, acute, lanceolate, and green- 
ish ; the inner set, of 2, are large, broad, orbicular, concave, slightly veiny bodies, 
called ales, enclosing the petals. Petals 3, hypogynous, connected and united with 
the stamen-tube ; the middle or lower one keel-shaped, and short-crested along the 
back ; the two lateral oblong, blunt, and veiny. Stamens 8, enclosed by the lower 
petal; filaments united below into two bundles of 4 each; anthers small, i-celled, 
and opening by a pore at the apex. Ovary laterally compressed, 2-celled by a 
transverse partition ; ovules anatropous, pendulous, one in each cell. Style large, 
inflated, and curved above, greatly resembling in form a pipe thrust into the sum- 
mit of the ovary ; stigma a fringe-like appendage to the upper margin of the 
bowl-like enlargement of the style. Fruit a small, 2-celled capsule, flattened 
contrary to the partition, and partly enclosed by the persistent calyx ; deliiscence 
loculicidal. Seeds black, hairy, with a white caruncle extending the length of the 
seed ; etnhryo straight, axial ; albumen scanty. 

PolygalacesB. — This small family is represented in North America by 3 genera, 
comprising 45 species, of which 40 belong to the typical genus Polygala. This 
natural order is characterized as follows : Herbs or shrubby plants having roots 
furnished with a bitter, milky juice. Leaves mosdy alternate and entire; stipules 
absent. Flotoers very irregular, hypogynous, and pseudopapilionaceous ; calyx 
consisting of 5 very irregular sepals, the odd one superior (Exc. Krameria). 

* UoXi;, polus, much; yaXa,gala, milk; as some species were supposed to increase this secretion. 



45-2 

Stamens 4 to 8, monadelphous or diadelphous ; anthers innate, i -celled, opening 
at the top by a pore or chink. Style curved and hooded. Friiit a 2-celled and 
2-seeded capsule. 

The only remedy furnished to our Materia Medica by this order, beside Senega, 
is the Peruvian or Red Ratanhia {Krameria triandra, R. et Pav.), for which many 
other species are often substituted in general medicine, viz. : the Mexican and 
Brazilian Savanilla or Violet Ratanhia (A'. Ixina, Linn.) ; the Para or Brown 
Rhatany [K. argentca. Mart.) ; the North American K. lanccolata, Torr. ; the 
Texan K. secuiidiflora, D. C ; and the Chilian K. cistoidea, Hook. The genus 
Polygala furnishes many plants noted as tonics, alexiterics, cathartics, and dia- 
phoretics, notable amongst them being the North American P. sanquinea, L. ; the 
E^uropean P. amara, L., and rubella, Muhl. ; the Austrian P. chamcebtixus, L. ; 
the British P. vulgaris, L. ; and the Nepaul P. crotalarioidcs, D. C. The Brazilian 
P. Poaya, L., is strongly emetic when fresh, and is considered scarcely inferior in 
its action to Ipecacuanha ; while the Javanese P. venenosa, Juss., is so dreaded as 
a virulent poison that the natives refuse to touch it. The East Indian Soulamea 
amara, D. C, is a valuable febrifuge, used with marked success in pleurisy and 
Asiatic cholera ; and Bardiera diversifolia is considered an energetic diuretic and 
sudorific. The Peruvian astringents, termed by the natives Zallhoy, derived from 
Monninia polystachia, petrocarpa, and salicifolia, R. et Pav., are excellent anti- 
dysenteries, and, on account of the saponin-like body, monfiinin, contained in them, 
are also used as detergents and dentifrices. 

History and Habitat. — Senega Snakeroot is indigenous to North America, 
growing in rocky soils, from New England northwest to the Saskatchewan River 
and thence southward. It flowers in May and June. 

About the year i 735, John Tennent, a Scotch physician, noted that the Seneca 
Indians obtained excellent effects from a certain plant, as a remedy for the bite of 
the rattlesnake ; after considerable painstaking and much bribing, he was shown 
the roots and given to understand that what is now known to be Seneca Snake- 
root was the agent used. Noting, then, that the symptoms ot the bite were similar 
in some respects to those of pleurisy and the latter stages of peripneumonia, he 
conceived the idea of using this root also in those diseases. His success was such 
that he wrote to Dr. Mead, of London, the results of his experiments.* His epistle 
was printed at Edinburgh in 1738, and the new drug favorably received through- 
out Europe, and cultivated in England in 1 739. The action of Seneka was claimed 
to be that of a stimulating expectorant, thus claiming usage in the latter stages of 
croup, pneumonia, humid asthma in the aged, etc. ; also, when pushed to diuresis 
and diaphoresis, it was found valuable in rheumatism, anasarca from rehal troubles, 
amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, and kindred complaints. Among the German physi- 
cians Seneka received praise in the treatment of ophthalmia after the inflammatory 
period had passed ; and was claimed by Dr. Ammon to prevent the formation of 
cataract, and promote the formation of pus in hypopyon. The use of Seneka against 

* Tennent, Epist. to Dr. Richard Mead concerning the Epidemical Diseases of Virginia, etc. 



45-3 

the poisonous effects of rattlesnake bit<,'s, and those of rabid animals (Barton), is 
not warranted by the results so far gained, at least in civilized practice. 

Seneka is officinal in the U. S. Phar. as : Abstracium Senegce, Extracliim 
Senega Fluidtim, Syrupiis SenegcB, and Syrupics Scillcs Composilus'^' In the 
Eclectic Materia Medica the preparations are : Infusorum Senegcs and Tinclura 
Lands Compost (a. ^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The dried root, gathered when the 
leaves are dead, and before the first frost, is coarsely powdered and covered with 
five parts by weight of alcohol, poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed 
to stand eight days in a dark, moderately warm place, being shaken twice a day. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by decanting and filtering, has a clear, 
slightly brownish, orange color by transmitted light, an odor greatly resembling 
sweet cider, at first an aromatic then bitterish and chokingly acrid taste, and an 
acid reaction. After tasting the tincture or chewing the rootlets, a very peculiar 
sensation of acridity and enlargement is felt at the root of the tongue, which, once 
recognized, will always mentally associate itself with this plant. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— /'tf/j'^'^/zV AcidX C,„H,,0„. This peculiar 
body, existing principally in the rootlets, was discovered by M. Peschier, and more 
thoroughly studied, fifteen years later, by Ouevenne,§ who isolated it as a white, 
odorless, acrid, amorphous powder. This acid has not yet been proven to be 
characteristically different from the general characters of various specific forms of 
saponin, though it has been carefully studied by many organic chemists, among whom 
are Gehlin, Procter, Dulong, Bucholz, Bolley, Christophsohn, Schneider, Fentulle, 
Folchi and others. The stubbornness of this body in resisting the action of sol- 
vents and reagents without changing form completely renders it, like trilliiic, very 
difficult to comprehend. Polygalic acid, when superheated upon platinum foil, 
bursts into a bright flame and leaves no residue; it dissolves thoroughly in hot 
water, and remains in solution ; it dissolves also in boiling absolute alcohol, but 
deposits again on cooling; on evaporating its watery solution without stirring, it 
is deposited in greenish scales. This acid forms a frothing, saponaceous solution 
in boiling water; breaks down under the action of dilute mineral acids into sapo- 
gcnin and amorphous sugar; and has prominent acridity and sternutatory power; 
— all of which prompted Gehlin to give it the name of ScnLgin}^ Christophsohn, 
Bolley, Schneider, and Bucholz regard the acid as identical with Saponin. The 
physiological action of Senega would also tend to prove at least a similarity 
between this acid and Saponin. 

Virgineic Acid. — This still doubtful body exists, according to Quevenne, in 
the fixed oil of the root. 

* Squills, .Seneka, Tartar Emetic, and Calcium Phosphate. 

■f- Tamarac bark, Juniper berries, Prickly Ash bark. Wild Cherry bark, Seneca Snakeroot, Tansy, and Podophyllum. 

\ Senegin ; Polygalin. 

\ Jour, de Phar., 1836, 449. 

II Berlin Jahrsbuch, 1804, 112. 



45-4 

Polygalin. — The body termed thus by Peschier is now deemed to be simply 
the volatile oil of Dulong* and other analysts. 

Isolusin. — A doubtful bitter principle isolated by Peschier; and 

Oil of Senega.t — A bitter, rancid, disagreeable, reddish-brown body, having 
the consistency of syrup, and an acid reaction. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — In doses of from lo minims of the tincture to a 
scruple of the powdered root, Seneka causes : anxiousness, with heaviness and 
dullness of the head and vertigo ; aching and weakness of the eyes, with lachry- 
mation, pressure in the ball, flickerings, dazzling vision, and contracted pupils; 
sneezing ; pytalism ; inflammation of the fauces and oesophagus, with constric- 
tion ; thirst and anorexia ; nausea ; mucous vomiting ; burning in the stomach ; 
cutting colic; copious, thin, watery stools; profuse urination, with burning, scald- 
ing, and sticking pains along the urethra, and frothing urine; roughness and irri- 
tation of the larynx, with orgasm of blood to the chest, accompanied by constriction, 
aching, soreness, and oppression; general debility; restless sleep; and profuse 
diaphoresis. 

From these symptoms, it will be noted that Seneka acts quite similarly to 
Saponin, causing, like it, a paresis of the muscles of the respiratory tract, the termi- 
nal filaments of the vagus, inhibitory centres, accelerator nerves, and the vaso- 
motor system in general, resulting in capillary congestions, followed by rapid 
exosmosis. 

Description of Plate 45. 

1. Whole plant, Ithaca, N. Y., June 7th, 1S85. 

2. The calyx from below. 

3. The face of a flower. 

4. Middle petal, showing the crest, hood, and stamens. 

5. Petal and stamen. 

6. Pistil. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. Capsule. 

9. Section of same. 

lo. Seed, showing caruncle. 
II and 12. Sections of same. 
13. Plan of flower. 

(2-13 enlarged.) 

* Jour, de Phar., 1S37, 567. f Not Seneca Oil. 



46. 



a 




(i/.Ifl..adnat(lel.etpinxt. 



GENISTA TlNCT6RIA,Linr 



N. ORD-LEGUMINOS^. 46 

Thbe.-GENISTE/E. 

GENUS.— GENISTA,* I.INN. 
SEX. SYST.— MONADEI.l'HIA DECANDRI.V. 



GENISTA. 



DYER'S BROOM. 



SYN.— GENISTA TINCTORIA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— DYER'S BROOM, GREENWOOD, DYER'S GRBBN-WEBD, 

WOAD- OR WOOD-WAXEN, WHIN; (PR.) GENET DES TEINTUIERsi 

(QER.) PARBEGINSTBR. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT GENISTA TINCTORIA, LINN. 



Description. — This thornless, perennial, shrubby plant grows to a height of a 
foot or more. Stc?}i erect; brancJics numerous, terete-angled, the younger ones 
erect. Leaves alternate, simple, lanceolate, nearly smooth, and sessile. Inflores- 
cence a terminal spiked raceme ; floxuers yellow, nearly sessile, bracted. Calyx 
2-lipped, the upper 2-parted, the lower 3-toothed ; lobes 5, acute, pointed. Corolla 
perigynous, papilionaceous ; petals 5, as follows : vexilhim or standard straight, 
oblong-oval, spreading, superior to and partly enclosing the other petals ; alee or 
wings 1, oblique, spatulate with a straight claw, and exterior to the two lower 
petals ; carina or keel oblong, straight, deflexed, claws curved, composed of two 
connivant petals coherent by their anterior edges and enclosing the essential 
organs; cestivation imbricate. Stamejis 10, monadelphous ; Ji laments inserted with 
the petals upon the base of the calyx ; sheath entire ; anthers of two forms, the 
alternate ones shorter. Ovary i -celled. Pod flat, continuous, smooth. Seeds 
several ; cotyledons large, sarcous ; radicle incurved. 

Leguminosae. — This immense family of herbs, shrubs, and trees, growing in 
every part of the world, from the equator to the frigid zones, is represented in 
North America alone by 78 genera, having, in all, 791 species and 122 recognized 
varieties. The general features of this order are: Leaves alternate, usually com- 
pound, mostly entire ; stipules present. Flowers papilionaceous or regular, hypo- 
gynous. Sepals 5, more or less combined, with the odd sepal inferior in its relation 
to the bract. Petals 5, the odd one superior, i. e., next the axis of inflorescence. 
Stametts 5, 10, or many ; fllaments monadelphous, diadelphous, or in rare instances 
distinct. Pistil single, simple, and free ; o-vary solitary and simple, free from the 
calyx. Fruit a legume ; seeds various ; albumen mostly wanting. 

To give the materia-medicist a better idea of phyto-grouping, I shall mention 

* Celtic ^.f», a small bush. 



46-2 

somewhat extensively the numerous medical and oeconomical products furnished 
by this magnificent family, though to specify all would fill a volume, extending as 
they do from some of our most esculent vegetables through almost all the neces- 
sities of man to many narcotico-acrid poisons. The species proven and established 
as curative agents in the Homoeopathic Materia Medica, are, beside the eight 
represented in this work : Copiava, the oleoresin of Copaifera multijuga, Hayne, 
and many other South American species of the genus, prominent among which 
are : C. officinalis, Linn. ; C. bijuga^ Hayne ; C. Langsdorfii, Desf. ; C. coriacea, 
Mart. ; and C. Guianensis, Desf. ; the Cochin-China Derris pinnata, Linn. ; the 
irritating Cowitch gathered from the pods of Dolichos {Mticuna) purietis, Linn., 
which grows in both the Elast and West Indies ; the Central American Logwood, 
the heart of Hcematoxyloti Campechianum, Linn. ; the Brazilian Barba de boi, 
called by Mure Hedysariim ildefonsianum, but more probably, from his descrip- 
tion, the H. lagocephalum of Link. ; Indigo or Indigotin, a blue coloring-matter 
extracted from different species of the genus Indigofcra, growing in India, Africa, 
and South America, principally, however, from Indigo/era tinctoria, Linn., /. 
ani/, Linn., and /. argentea, Linn. ; an inferior quality of this substance is also 
obtainable from Isa/is tinctoria (Cruciferse) ; Polygonum ti^ictorium (Polygonaceae) ; 
Ncrinm tinctoriini (Apocynaceae) ; Baptisia tinctoria ; Tephrosia apollinea ; and 
several minor plants ; Laburnum, a South European poisonous tree, Cyticus La- 
burnum, Linn. ; Lathyrus, the European Chickling vetch, Lathyrus sativus, Linn. ; 
Mim. ; the Brazilian Mimosa humilis, Willd. ; the powerful Calabar Bean, the state 
poison of Old Calabar, in Western Africa, P hysostigma venetiosum, Balf. ; Jamaica 
Dogwood [Piscidia crythrina, Linn.), which produced in Mr. Hamilton such sud- 
den and powerful sleep that the glass from which a drachm of the tincture had 
been taken remained for twelve hours in his hand;* the Alexandrian Senna, the 
well-known anthelmintic, consisting of the dried leaves of Cassia obovata. Coll., 
C. aculifolia, Del., and C. lanceolata. Lam. ; Tongo, the Tonka Bean, the odorous 
fruit of the Guianlan Dipteryx (Coumarouna) odorata, Willd. ; the Californian 
Astragalus Menziesii, Gray; the Guianian Erythrophlcsum Guinense, G. Don; and 
the Brazilian Cabbage Tree Geoffroya [Andira) verttiifuga, Mart. 

In the pharmacopoeias of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, India, 
etc., and in general secondary lists we find more or less prominent the following 
members of this order: The European Broom {Cytisus, Genista, scoparius, Link), 
a renovvTied diuretic, emetic, and purgative, which has long enjoyed a popular 
reputation in dropsical affections, though contraindicated in all acute renal troubles; 
it contains a body of the tannic-acid group, termed scoparin (C^^H^aOjJ to which 
its diuretic qualities are due, and an oily, narcotico-poisonous, volatile alkaloid, 
sparteine (Cj^H^jN), which resembles, chemically, nicotia and conia in having no 
oxygen. The Oriental Fenugreek {Trigonella Fcetmm-grcecum, Linn.), whose 
fatty seeds are largely used in veterinary practice, mostly as a vehicle for drugs. 
The common Liquorice, a product of several varieties of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linn., 
growing along both shores of the Mediterranean and in Asia, can hardly be classed 
as a medicine, but rather as an adjunct to prescriptions. The Bengal Kino or Dhak, 

* Pharm. Jour., 1 845, p. 76. 



46-3 

the inspissated juice of tlie Iinlian Bulca /nvidosa, KcL-nig, is considered to be a 
good substitute for the officinal Kino; the seeds form a Mohammedan vermifuge 
of consiilerable repute. Kino, noted as an astringent application to indolent ulcers, 
and internally as a remedy in diarrhiea and pyrosis, is the inspissated juice of two 
species of the genus Ph-rocarpus, as follows : Malabar Kino, from /'. 7}iarstipi2im, 
D.C, African Kino, from P. crinaccus, Poir. ; other kinos are used, produced by 
plants outside of this family. Balsam of Peru, a well-known astringent, used to 
check excessive discharges from mucous surfaces, as in leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, 
and gleet, and internally in asthma and bronchitis as an expectorant, is the resinous 
exudation of the Central American Toiui/cra Pereira, Baill. Balsam of Tolu is 
the resinous exudation of the South American Toliiifcra balsannim, Linn.; it forms 
one of the most useful stimulant expectorants, and components of cough-candies, 
of the day; the tropical Bonduc Seeds, the fruit of Ccesalpuiia Bonducella, Roxb., 
are used in India as a tonic and antiperiodic in general debility and intermittent 
fevers. The Cassias used, other than those previously mentioned, are : the Asiatic 
Indian Laburnum {Cassia Fisiii/a, Linn.), a noted purgative or mild laxative, accord- 
ing as the dose is large or small ; the American Wild Senna {Cassia Marila)idica, 
Linn.), a cathartic, whose action often causes severe griping; and Tinnivelly Senna 
{Cassia augustifolia, Vahl.), which is considered a safe and brisk purgative. The 
active principle of the sennas (cathartic acid) seems to be eliminated by digestion, 
and to pass into mother's milk in an active state, as babes are often purposely or 
accidentally purged by the nurse's use of senna leaves. The well-known laxative 
refrigerants. East and West Indian and Egyptian Tamarinds, are the fruits of 
Tamarindits Iiidica, Linn. Cutch or Catechu, a product of the Indian Acacia 
Catechu, \^\}\6.., is used, like "pale catechu," as an astringent, useful in chronic 
dysentery and diarrhoea, as well as in speaker's aphonia and passive hemorrhages. 
The root of the Mediterranean Antliyilis Hcrviannice, Linn., is a powerful diuretic; 
and A. viilneraria, Linn., is an excellent styptic. The seeds of the Indian Psoralia 
corylifolia, Linn., are considered stomachic and deobstruent. The root of the East 
and West Indian Clitoria tcrnatea, Linn., is emetic ; while that of the Circassian 
Pueraria tube7'0sa, D.C , is employed by the natives to reduce swellings of joints ; 
and that of the New Zealand Tephrosia purpurea, Pers., is tonic and antidyspeptic. 
The bark of the Indian Agati grandiflora, Desv., is a powerfully bitter tonic. The 
leaves of the South European Bladder Senna {Colntea arborcscens, Linn ), are pur- 
gative, and used as an adulteration of senna; while those of Corouilla Evicrus, 
Linn., and C. varia, Linn., have a similar property, the latter being considered also 
diuretic and even poisonous. The leaves of the European Ar/hrolobium scorpioides, 
D.C, are vesicant ; and the roots of the Indian Ormocarpiim sentioides, D.C, 
tonic and stimulant. The leaves of the East Indian Phaseolus trilobus, Willd., are 
considered by Hindoo practitioners to be sedative, antibilious, and tonic. The 
Guadeloupe Dragon's Blood, an exudation of Pterocarpiis Draco, Linn., was once 
used as a substitute for the true commercial article,* as an astringent in dysentery. 
Rumph states that the roots of the Molucca Ccesalpinia Nuga, Ait., are useful in 



* Resir.a Draconis, from Calamus Draco, Willd. (Palmae) ; another siil>stilute for which was claimed in the exuda- 
tion of the Canary Island Drcatena Draco, Linn. (Liliaceae). 



46-4 

calculous and kidney complaints. The root of the East Indian Flower Fence 
[Poinciaiia pulclicrrinia, Linn.), is claimed by Schomburgh to be an acrid poison, 
and the leaves and flowers as having been used in decoction as a successful 
remedy against the fevers of Tortcola ; while Macfadyen claims them to be a 
powerful emmenagogue, even to abortion. Jatahy, the resin of the Jamaica Hy- 
nieiiacs Courbaril, Linn., is employed, according to Martius, as a remedy for obsti- 
nate coughs and incipient phthisis with hematic sputa; while Gum Animi, from the 
same species, is employed like a pastile for fumigation in asthma. Lignaloes, a 
fragrant product of disease in the Cochin-China Eaglewood, Alcexyloii Agallo- 
chum, Lour., is said by Loureiro to be an astringent useful in preventing vomiting 
and easing diarrhoea ; its perfume is also claimed to be useful against paralysis 
and vertigo. Two astringents — the first acrid and the second diuretic — are found 
in the West Indian Mimosa fragi folia, Linn., and M. Unguis, Linn. The Javanese 
Ejicliresta Horsficldii is esteemed by the natives as an antidote to poisons of any 
description. The roots of the North American Turkey pea {Tcphrosia Vii-giniatia, 
Pers.) are purgative, and were greatly esteemed by the Aborigines as an anthel- 
mintic; and the roots of the Chinese Robinia antara are powerfully bitter and 
astringent; while R. Jiava, of the same country, is used as a febrifuge. This glance 
at a few of the medicinal plants of the order shows a general stimulant, tonic, and 
astringent line of action to prevail. 

Many virulent poisons are lound in this order, principal among which are: 
The seeds of the European Bitter Vetch ( Vicia crvilia, Willd.) are said by M. 
Virey to be poisonous, and cause a weakness of the limbs when eaten mixed with 
flour, in bread, and to cause horses to become almost paralytic ; Christison claims 
that flour containing the ground seeds of Lathyrus Cicera, Linn., is also poisonous. 
The roots of the East Indian Pliaseohis radiahis, Linn., are said by Royle to be a 
narcotic-poison. The powdered bark of Robinia viaciilala is used in Campeachy 
as a poison for rodents. The violet seeds of the European Anagyris fa'tida, Linn., 
are said- to have poisonous properties similar to those of laburnum. The branch- 
lets of the Jamaica TepJirosia toxicaria, Pers., are used by the natives to stupefy 
fish ; this poison is said to act immediately, and to somewhat resemble digitalis in 
its effects. The blue flowers of the West Indian Sabinca Jiorida, D.C., are con- 
sidered poisonous — a property probably due to their indigo. 

Many valuable gums are produced either as natural exudations, as a result 
of insect depredations, or are intimately held in the wood-cells of many species. 
Principal among them are: the Gum Arabics, derived as follows: Kordofan or 
White Sennaar Gum, as well as Senegal Gum, are produced by Acacia Senegal^ 
Willd. ; Suakin or Talha Gum, hy A. stcnocarpa, Hoch., and A. Seyal, van Fislida ; 
Morocco or Brown Barbary Gum, supposedly by A. Arabica, Willd. ; Cape Gum, 
by A. horrida, Willd. ; East India Gum, by A. Arabica and other species ; Austra- 
lian Gum, by various species, principally A. pycantha, Benth. ; and Red Gum, by 
the Senegal A. Adansonii, Guill. Gum Sassa is a product of the Abyssinian Aca- 
cia Sassa, Willd. The Oriental Tragacanth, of varied utility, is produced by 
Astragalus gnmmifer, Labi. 

Among the many food-products, our attention is first called to the beans and 
pease — the first of which will be found described under Phaseolus vulgaris, page 



46-5 

51, et scq.; our common garden pea is derived from Pisnvi sativum, Linn., whose 
native country is extremely doubtful. The Asiatic Lentil, the seed of Lens escu- 
lenta, Moen., is well known as a food ; and it was for an indigestible mess of these 
that Esau is said to have sold his birthright to his brother Jacob. It is the opinion 
of many writers on Egyptology that tiie Camel's Thorn {Alhagi 3fanronim,Tourn ), 
which e.xudes a sweet substance that may be gathered by merely shaking the 
branches, was the manna that is said to have nourished the children of Israel while 
in the wilderness. The unripe seeds of the common European Laihyriis Apliaca, 
while still young and tender, are claimed to be a useful substitute for our garden 
pease ; yet, according to Lindley, they are narcotic when ripe, and if eaten then 
produce excessive headache; Dutch Mice, the tuberous roots of the same species, 
are amylaceous, and eaten in Holland. The fruit of the Caspian Vicia Faba, Linn., 
is eaten young, as in the last-mentioned species, but the roots are a narcotic 
poison. Johannisbrod, so greatly esteemed in Germany, is the pulp of the fruit 
of the Syrian Ceratonia Siliqria, Linn.* The tropical oil, ground, or peanut, the 
fruit o{ Arachis hypoo(ea, Linn. — which so strangely ripens under the ground after 
flowering at some distance above it — furnishes an oil not inferior to that from 
the olive, which is used largely to adulterate table oils. The fruits are too well 
known as an article of commerce to need description. The "cake," formed after 
pressing out the oil from the nuts, is very digestible, and should be more exten- 
sively used as a flesh-forming food for cattle. 

Among the many food-products of the North American Indians derived from 
this order we find : the Prairie Potato or Bread-root {Psora/ca esculcnta), greatly 
esteemed by the Sioux, who use this root extensively under the name of tip-sin- 
nah. It is of a sweetish, turnip-like taste, is often cut in thin slices and dried for 
winter use, and when pulverized forms a light, starchy flour; it is very palatable, 
however prepared. 

Another so-called wild potato, or ground-nut of the .Siou.x — the true pommc- 
de-tcrrc of the French — is afforded by Apios tubcrosa, and is largely used as an 
article of diet. 

Bur Clover {Mcdicago lupulina) produces an abundance of seed, much 
relished by the Indians. The Indian pop-pea, the fruit of several species of the 
genus Astragalus, is highly valued, when boiled, by the Indians of the Western 
Territories. The Screw bean [Strombocarpus pubcscens), although insipid until 
quite dry, is no sooner ripe than it becomes very sweet and palatable, and is con- 
sidered a superb article of diet by the Indians along the Colorado River, who 
collect with assiduity all they can store for winter use. When ground it is made 
into sun-baked bread, like the next. The fruit of the Mesquite {Prosopsis juliflora) 
is an important article of food for many Indian tribes; the pods, with their seeds, 
are pounded into a coarse meal, mixed into doughy cakes with water, and baked 
in the sun, after which they keep for long periods. This bread-cake is very sweet 
and nutritious.-j- 

Many leguminose plants afford e.xcellent dyes, principal among which are 
indigo and logwood, both of which have been mentioned; further than these we 

* Johanniskraut is Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae), and Johanniswurzel, filix Mas (Filices). 

t J. A. Dodge, in U. S. Agric. Kept., 1870, pp. 404-428. 



46-6 

have: The Indian Red Saunders in the wood of Pterocarpiis santalhnis, Linn., 
valued in India as a red dye for silks and other fabrics; Brazil Wood {Ccrs- 
alpina echinata, Lam.) affords a red dye; Braziletto Wood, from C. Braziliensis ; 
Sappan Wood, from C. Sappan, and Camwood, from Bapliia nilida, are all well- 
known dyes. 

The fibres of the Spanish Broom {Spat^tiicm Jnncemn), whose seeds are emetic 
and purgative, are used in Southern Europe for cordage, and also for the manu- 
facture of gunny-bags. The Prayer Bead, the seed of the Indian Liquorice {Abrus 
precatorius, Linn.) is a beautiful little scarlet oval with a black spot. These seeds 
are used by the Hindoos as a standard of weight called Rafi, and are celebrated 
as having been used to determine the value of the great Koh-i-noor diamond ; 
they are also used in the manufacture of rosaries. Valuable timbers, elegant 
perfumes, fine balsams, brilliant varnishes, and numerous articles of commerce, 
difficult to classify, are products of this most varied order. 

History and Habitat. — Genista is indigenous to Northern Asia and Europe, 
but has become thoroughly naturalized in eastern New York and lower New 
England, especially, however, in Essex County, Massachusetts, where it has 
become an actual pest on dry, sandy hillsides, which it renders positively yellow, 
in June and July, with its profusion of flowers. 

Though once vaunted in Russia as a prophylactic in hydrophobia, this plant 
has nearly dropped out of medical thought. Its leaves and seeds are mildly pur- 
gative, its seeds alone often emetic, and the whole plant sometimes diuretic. Ray 
says that after cows have browsed upon this plant their milk becomes bitter — a 
property communicated also to butter and cheese if made from such milk. 

As its common names denote, Genista is one of the many leguminose plants 
yielding dyes. The flowers, and indeed the whole plant, yield a clear, greenish- 
yellow coloring-matter, that, in conjunction with Woad [Isatis tinctoria — Cruci- 
ferse), gave fine results in the dyeing of wool green. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole plant, while in flower, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. The whole is then placed in a bottle, tightly corked, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a deep reddish- 
orange color by transmitted light ; a strong herbaceous odor ; an astringent 
taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this species has, so far. resulted 
in the isolation of its active principle, the general constituents of plants and a vola- 
tile oil only being separated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Our provings of Genista by Dr. E. B. Gushing 
are the only data obtainable, so far, for the determination of its action. These 



46-7 

experiments failed to prove the plant capable of acting as an emetic, purgative, 
or diuretic; still, they cannot be pronounced as conclusive. 



Description of Plate 46. 

1. A branch, with two flowering branchlets, Salem, Mass., June 25th, 1885. 

2. Flower. 

3. Elements of the corolla — a, standard ; /', wings ; c, keel, Liid open. 

4. Stamens.* 

5. Anthers. 

6. Calyx, opened. 

7. Pistil. 

8. Fruit. 

9. Seed. 

10. Longitudinal section of seed. 

11. Horizontal section of same. 

(2-7 and 9-1 1 enlarged.) 



By some inexplicible error, this figure cont-iins 11 stamens, instead of 10, .ts shoiiUl be. 




47. 




•-f •-'«-«?^ 










^lU.adnat.del.efpinxt. 



TrIFOLIUM PRATENSE.Lmn, 



N. ORD-LEGUMINOS^. 47 

Tribe.-TRIFOUEJE. 

CKNrs.—TR I FOLIUM ,* IJNN. 
SEX. SVST.— DIADEI.I'IIIA 1 iK( ANURIA. 

TRIFOLIUM. 

BED CLOVER. 

SYN.— TRIFOLIUM PRATBNSE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON RED CLOVER; (PR.) TRBFLE ; (GER.) ACKER- 
KLEE. 

A TLXCTURK OF THE FI.OWER-HEADS OF TRIFOLIUM I'RATENSE, L. 



Description. — This largely-cultivated biennial, or short-lived perennial plant, 
attains a height of from i to 3 feet. The root is large, diffusely branched, and 
gives rise to many stems. Stews ascending, stout and slightly hairy. Stipules 
broadly lanceolate, clasping at the base and surmounted by an awl-shaped tip ; 
leaves three-foliate, on long petioles ; leaflets oval or obovate, sometimes retuse 
or even emarginate, with a nearly entire edge, and marked with a whitish-green 
^-shaped spot on the central portion of the upper surface. Injlorescence a dense, 
ovoid head of bracted, sessile flowers. Calyx not distinctly hairy, but having a 
bearded zone in the throat ; teeth setiform, the lowermost longer than the others, 
which are equal. Corolla extended-tubular, about twice the length of the caly.x, 
withering soon after expansion ; petals more or less coherent with one another. 
Legumes dry. scarious, containing each a single seed; seed somewhat kidney- 
shaped. 

TRIFOLIUM. — This genus comprises leguminose herbs growing in tufts or 
diffusely spreading, and characterized as follows : Leaves palmately or sometimes 
pinnately three-foliate, rarely more ; leaflets usually minutely toothed, rarely entire; 
stipules scarious, coherent with the petioles. Infiorescence dense heads or spikes, 
or sometimes, when the flowers are few, umbellike. Calyx persistent, tubular or 
somewhat bell-shaped, five-cleft or toothed ; teeth awl shaped. Corolla five-cleft, 
withering or persistent, monopetalous at the base ; vexillum longer than the eIje, 
and generally than the keel. Stamens rendered more or less diadelphous by the 
tenth filament, the tube usually free from the corolla ; when united with it, it is 
through the mediumship of the claws of the aKt and keel. Ovary two- to six- 
seeded ; style filiform. Fruit a small, scarious legume, containing from one to 
two or sometimes three to six seeds; dehiscence none, or, if present, it takes 



* Tics, three : folium, .i leaf. 



47-2 

place at the suture and extends through the calyx. A description of the natural 

order may be found under Genista tinctoria, 46. 

History and Habitat. — Red clover has become extensively naturalized here 
since its introduction from Europe, escaping to unused fields, along roadsides, 
and even to open woods, beautifying all with its close, red, sweet-scented heads, 
which appear from May to August. As hay, clover is highly valuable, either 
alone or mixed with succulent grasses. Its nutritive ratio is lower by nearly one- 
half than that of timothy [Phlcum pratcnse\ yet ruminants seem to eat of it more 
cvreedily and with a fuller sign of satisfaction. Porcher says that, in Ireland, 
when food is scarce, the powdered flowers are mixed with bread, and esteemed 
wholesome and nutritious. As a green manure for field fertilization, and an ele- 
ment of importance in rotation of crops it is also greatly prized, on account of 
its large percentage of potash, lime, and phosphoric acid. 

Its former use in medicine has been as a component of a salve, or extract, for 
all kinds of indolent sores and ulcers, to which it proves peculiarly soothing. A 
strong infusion is often used in half-ounce doses, to suspend the spasm ot whoop- 
ing-cough. 

Trifolium is not officinal either in the U. S. Ph. or Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh blossoms are pounded to a 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After. having stirred the whole well, allow it to stand at least eight days in a 
dark, cool place. 

The tincture thus formed, after decanting, straining and filtering, should have 
a light, clear, orange-brown color by transmitted light, a slighdy astringent, hay- 
like taste, and a decided acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The only assay of the flower-heads that I 
have been able to find is one by Grazel, reported in the Proceedings of the Cal. 
Phar. Soc, 1883, p, 49. He found, beside the usual constituents of vegetable 
matter, an acid, an extractive, tannin, and a resinoid principle soluble in ether, 
giving a green color when dissolved in liquor ammonia, and a yellow color in 
liquor potassa. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— With the exception of the following effects, 
noted by Dr. T. C. Duncan, litde or nothing is known of the action of this plant : 
Excessive dryness of the throat and fauces, causing a severe, hacking, irritative 
cough, a feeling of congestion of the lungs, dry, costive passages from the bowels, 
and a copious flow of pale yellow urine. 

Description of Plate 47. 

I. Upper part of stem, Bergen, N J., June 13th, 1879. 

2. Outline of root. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. Friiiting-head. 

5. Pollen, X 380. 



(p'm.ad 




nat.dei.et pinxt. 



TRIF6LIUM REPENS.Linn 



N. ORD-LEGUMINOS/E, 48 

Tribe-TRIFOUE^. 

GENUS— TR I FOLIUM, LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— DIADELPHIA DEl ANURIA. 



TRIFOLIUM REPENS, 



WHITE CLOVER. 



SYN.— TRIFOLIUM REPENS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— WHITE CLOVER ; (FR.) TREFLE BLANC ; i GER.) WIESEN 
KLEE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BLOSSOMS OF TRIFOLIUM REPENS, LINN. 



Description. — This prostrate perennial herl) has no positive size, the stem 
is slender, spreading and creeping, pale and glabrous throughout. Petioles very 
long and slender ; leaflets obovate, obovate-emarginate or obcordate, the edges 
very minutely toothed, the caret-shaped grayish spot upon the upper surface pale 
and indistinct ; stipules nearly linear-lanceolate, scarious and pointed. Peduncles 
glabrous, longer than the petioles. IiiJloresce?ice axillary, consisting of small, open, 
more or less flattened globose heads. Calyx much shorter than the corolla ; teeth 
shorter than the tube, awl-shaped and of unequal sizes. Corolla white, larger in 
proportion to the size of the head than the preceding. Fi-uit a 4-seeded legume. 
(Read also the generic description under T. pratense, 47.) 

History and Habitat. — This species is doubtless indigenous, at least to the 
northern portion of America, from which it has spread southward and westward, 
over fields, roadsides and open woods, blossoming earlier than the preceding^ 
and changing from a creamy-white to a dull-rose and finally a rusty-brown color. 
As hay the white clover is far inferior to the red, especially in the warmer climates 
where the catde refuse to eat of it altogether, probably on account of its action 
upon the salivary glands. 

This species is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph., nor is it spoken of in the 
Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh flower-heads prepared as in 
T. pratense, afford a tincture of a clear chestnut-brown color by transmitted 
light, of less astringency, greater acidity, and a more penetrating taste. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Although without doubt this species will 
prove of greater use in medicine than tiie preceding, I can find no data upon its 
specific chemistry. 



48-2 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Dr. T. C. Duncan notes the following symp- 
toms in seven persons who partook of the pounded fresh flower-heads : A sensa- 
tion of fulness and congestion of the salivary glands, with pain, which in one 
individual amounted to mump-like pains in the parotids; this was quickly followed 
in all by a copious flow of saliva. A similar effect has been noted in the south 
upon all stock that ate of the plant. A further and critical examination into the 
chemistry and action of this species is gready to be desired. 

Description of Plate 48. 

I. Flower (enlarged). 
2. Whole plant from a stony pasture, Ithaca, N. Y., June 3d, 1880. 
3. Pollen -x 380. 




49, 



Inatdel.etjiinxt 



Melilotus Officinalis, wiiid. 



N. ORD.-LEGUMINOS^. 49 

Tribe.-TRIFOLIE/E. 

GENUS. — ME LI LOTUS,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— DIAUELPHIA DECANURIA. 

MELILOTUS. 

SWEET CLOVER. 



MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, WILLD. 

SYN.-MELILOTUS VULGARIS, EATON. TRIPOLIUM OFFICINALE. LINN. 
COM. NAMES.— SWEET CLOVER. YELLOW MELILOT, YELLOW SWEET 

CLOVER, MELILOT; (FR.) MELILOT; (GER.) STEINEILEE, MELILO- 

TENKLEE. 

MELILOTUS ALBA, LAM. 

SYN.-MELILOTUS LEUCANTBA, KOCH, MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, 

PURSH, MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, VAR. ALBA., NDTT. 
COM. NAMES.— SWEET CLOVER, WHITE MELILOT, MELILOT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FLOWERS OF M. OFFICINALIS, AND M. ALBA.f 



Description. — Melilotus ofiBcinalis. — This sweet-scented European plant has 
now become quite thoroughly naturalized here, growing either as an annual or 
perennial herb. Stem with its spreading branches 2 to 4 feet high. Leaves alter- 
nate, pinnately 3-divided. Leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse, sharply and widely 
serrate, from one-half to one inch long. Racemes axillary, spiked, from 2 to 3 
inches long while flowering. Floiuers small, yellow, about one-quarter of an inch 
long when fully expanded. Calyx persistent, with 5 unequal pointed teeth. 
Corolla more than twice the length of the calyx, deciduous. Petals: vexillum 
ovate, acute, slighdy longer than the wings: alee induplicate ; carina completely 
united, cohering to, and looking backward between, the alse, entirely free from the 
stamen tube. Stamens 10, diadelphous, inserted with the corolla ; anthers uniform ; 
pollen grains more or less abruptly cylindrical, resembling Trifolium, but much 
smaller and more uniform. Ovary free, i -celled, containing i or 2 amphitropous 
ovules ; style filiform, terminal. Pod (legume) about one-sixth of an inch in 
length, pyriform in the cup of the withered calyx, inflated or gibbous, coriaceous, 
transversely wrinkled, scarcely dehiscent and tipped with the persistent style. 



* pf/, honey, ?.o>tAc, a leguminose plant , so called. 

t The " Amer. Horn. Phar." orders separate tinctures to be made. The provings were made of a tincture of both 
M. officinalis and M. alba combined. The German I'harniacopuia recognizes only M. officinalis (Yellow Melilot). 



49-2 

Melilotus alba. — This biennial species is taller and more widely branched 
than the preceding, the flowers are smaller, white, and more densely crowded, 
the vexillum is comparatively longer and the leaflets mucronate-truncate. For 
a full description of the Leguminosae, vide Genista tinctoria, 46. 

History and Habitat. — Melilot, especially the white species, is found in 
many places in the Eastern States and New York, flowering from June to August, 
and oTOwino- in stony, waste places, generally along river-banks, though some- 
times in cultivated ground, where it has become naturalized from Europe. Its 
sweet-scented flowers have been variously used as flavoring for many products, 
notably Gruyere cheese, snuff and smoking tobacco. In Europe it has been often 
used in the food of cattle to whet their appetites ; it is also claimed that when 
packed with furs and clothing it protects the articles from moths, besides giving 
them a pleasant odor before wearing. The odor of Melilot is due to an aromatic 
compound cumaric anhydride, which when first observed was supposed to be 
benzoic acid ; its identity was proven some years after by Guillemette ; it also 
occurs in faham-Ieaves, sweet bed-straw {Gallium trijiorwii), tonka-beans [Dip- 
terix odoratd), sweet woodruff {Asperula odorata), and sweet-scented vernal grass 
{Anthoxanthum odoratum). 

The flowers of the Melilots have been extensively used by the laity, boiled 
with lard, as a salve for ulcers, open indolent sores and broken breasts with 
much success. 

Melilotus is neither officinal in the U. S. Ph., nor the Eclectic Materia 
Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh flowers are pounded to a 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After having stirred the whole well and poured it into a well-stoppered bottle, 
it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture separated 
by decanting, straining, and filtering, is by transmitted light of a clear, red- 
dish brown color, it has a vanilla-like odor, a bitterish taste very similar to that 
imparted to the palate by chewing tea-leaves, and a decided acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Cumarin, or Cumaric Anhydride, Q Ho O.^, 
is found combined with either of the acids; it is sparingly soluble in cold water, 
more freely in alcohol and boiling water, and crystallizes in large transparent, 
fragrant prisms, melting at 67° (152.6° F.) and boiling at 291° (556.0° F.). 

MeliloticAcid, or Hydrocumaric Acid. — C, H,o O3, crystallizes from water in 
large, pointed prisms, melting at 82° (179.6° F.). On fusing with potash it 
yields acetic and salicylic acids. 



Hydrocumaric Acid. Pol.ish. Acetic Acid. Salicylic Acid. Potash. 

C, H.„ O3 + 5H K O = C, H, O, + C. He O3 -^ H K O Aq. 

Cumaric Acid. — Q Hg O;,, occurs together with the preceding ; it crystallizes 
from water in long needles, melting at 195° (383.0° F.). (Schorlemmer). 



49-3 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— What sliulu action Melilotiis has upon the 

system is without doubt due to the principle cumarin, which in quite large doses 

causes nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and great depression, with sleepiness, confusion, 

severe pain in the head, depression of the heart's action and cold extremities. 



Description oi' I'latk 49. 

I. A branch from BinghanUon, N. Y., July 25, 1882. 

2. Flower (enlarged). 

3. Tod (enlarged). 
4 Seed (enlargeil). 
5. I'oUen X 380. 



1 



' -^A / 



50 




/.Ill.ailnat(jel.etpi(ixt 



ROBINIA PSEUDACACIA, Linn 



N. ORD.-LEGUMINOS^. 50 

Thbe.~GALEGE/E. 

GENUS— ROBIN I A,* LINN. 



SEX. SVST.— UIAUhLPHlA DHC.\NUK1.\. 



ROBIN I A. 



FALSE ACAC LI. 



SYN. — ROBINIA PSEUD -ACACIA, LINN.; PSEUDACACIA ODORATA, 
MOENGH. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON LOCUST, YELLOW LOCUST, TREENAIL, BLACK 
LOCUST; (FR.) ROBINIBR; (GER.) FALSCHE ACACIBN. 



A IINCTURE OF THE FRESH b.ARK OF YOUNG TWIGS, ROBINIA PSEUD-ACACIA. 

Description.— This commonly cultivated, ornamental tree, grow.s to a height 
of from 50 to 80 feet, attaining its greatest height only in the southern parts of 
the United States. The stem is erect, straight, deliquescent, from i to 4 feet in 
diameter and covered with a dark, rough bark ; wood yellow, much valued for 
its lightness, hardness and durability. Branches naked, spinous when young, the 
spines taking the place of stipules. Leaves odd-pinnate, the base of the stalks 
forming sheaths about the developing buds of the next season; leaflets in from 
8 to I 2 pairs of ovate or oblong, stipellate, nearly sessile, smooth blades, hiflor- 
escence axillary; of showy, drooping, slender, loose racemes ; of white or creamy, 
fragrant flowers. Calyx short, more or less campanulate, five-toothed or cut and 
slightly two-lipped by the coherence of the two upper teeth. Corolla papilliona- 
ceous ; standard large, rounded and reflexed, slightly longer than the loings, and 
obtuse keel. Stamens diadelphous, nine-and-one. Style bearded along the inner 
side. Fruit a nearly sessile, smooth, linear, flat pod, from 2 to 3 inches long, one- 
celled and four- to eight-seeded, at length with two thin valves. Seeds small, dark 
brown, somewhat renniform, but the hilum is small and so near one end that their 
form is more like the body of a retort; testa smooth; radicle incurved; cotyledons 
leafy. For description .of the N. Ord. Leguminos:e, vide (ienista tinctoria, 46. 

History and Habitat. — This tree is indigenous to the central and southern 
belts of the United States, and so fully cultivated in the northern parts, that it 
now grows there spontaneously, blossoming in May and June. The inner bark 
of the roots, stem, and inner coating of the pods is sweet and mucilaginous. The 
seeds, upon pressure, yield a large quantity of oil. They are quite acrid, but lose 
this quality upon boiling; they then furnish a pleasant, nutritious article of food, 
much esteemed by the aborigines. The yellow locust should take first rank 
among ornamental trees to be planted by settlers in the West, not only on 

* John Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. 



50-2 

account of its beautiful foliage and fragrant flowers (points of great use for shade 
and honey), but also for its invaluable wood. Locust is well known for its great 
durability, even when thoroughly exposed, and is thus exceedingly valuable for 
fence-posts, railroad ties and supports for structures generally. 

Robinia is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. It has a place, but is not officinal, 
in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the young twigs is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it and the rest of 
the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well it is poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tinc- 
ture is then separated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a beautiful, 
clear reddish-orancre color by transmitted light, a dry, sweetish taste peculiar to 
the inner bark, and a decided acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Robinin, Q,H.,„0,,+Aq. This aromatic glu- 
coside bears ^rreat resemblance to quercctin, yielding as products of decomposition 
this body, and peculiar sugars. (Schorlemmer.) Robinin is found principally in the 
flowers ; it forms fine, sadny, yellow needles, neutral and tasteless, losing water 
at ioo° (212° F.), and fusing at 195° (383° F.). It is soluble in both water and 
alcohol. 

Robinic acid. This body was discovered in the roots by Reinsch, but after- 
wards doubted. Prof. Hlasiwetz {Chcut. Gaz., Aug. 15, 1855), in his examination 
of the root, decided that the above body was Asparagine : he obtained some two 
and a half ounces of this substance from thirty pounds of the root. The body 
answers to the following properties : Large, hard, refractive, octohedral crystals, 
colorless and constant upon recrystallization, and having a mawkish taste ; they 
fuse when heated, giving off an ammoniacal odor. Tannin, and the usual plant 
constituents, have also been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Robinia causes extreme nausea, profuse acid 
vomitino-s, fluid eructations and purging. These symptoms followed eating of the 
bark. tor. A. R. Ball.) 

Dr. Shaw [Med. Times and Gazette, vol. i., p. 570) gives the following effects 
noticed in a child who had eaten of the seeds : Inability to hold the head upright, 
nausea and attempts to vomit, with a tendency to syncope, when in an upright 
position ; voice, respiration and heart's action feeble, as from exhaustion ; a pain- 
ful, paralytic condition of the extremides, which became shrunken on the fifth day. 
All the symptoms seemed like those produced by a long-continued diarrhoea, 
though in this case purging was not present. 

Description of Plate 50. 

1. Flower (somewhat enlarged ). 

2. Stamens. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Fruit. 

5. End of young branch in flower, Ithaca, N. Y., May 24th, 1S80. 



■4 



51 




GXU.adnatilel.etpifixt 



Phaseolus Vulgaris. 



N. ORD -LEGUMINOS^. 5-^ 

Tribe.-PHASEOLE/E. 

GENUS.— PHASEOLUS,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— DIADELPHIA DECAXDRIA. 



PHASEOLUS. 

COMMOJV BEAA'. 



SYN.— PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— KIDNEY BEAN, WHITE BEAN, POLE BEAN, STRING BEAN ; 
(FR.) HARICOT; (GER.) SCHMINKBOHNE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE DRIED SEEDS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, LINN. 



Description. — This common cultivated annual herb grows to various heights, 
according to its form and the method of cultivation. Stem twining and twisted, or 
short and erect in the bushy forms. Leaves pinnately trifoliate ; leaflets laro-e, 
ovate, pointed, entire. Inflorescence in solitary axillary racemes, the peduncle 
stout and shorter than the leaves. Calyx campanulate ; teeth 5, unequal, the three 
lower ones larger, cuneate, acute, the two upper merely apparent. Corolla papilio- 
naceous ; keel circinate and somewhat spirally twisted ; vexillutn entire or nearly 
so, notched at the apex ; ales pear-shaped, each furnished with a long claw and 
short incurved appendage. Stamens diadelphous ; filaments circinate, dilated at 
the base. Ovary stipitate, hairy ; style long, circinate, with a hairy margin ; stigma 
pointed, hairy. Fruit a continuous, pendent, compressed, loculicidal, more or less 
falcate pod, polyspermous, and with cellular partitions between the seeds ; seeds 
more or less reniform, cylindrical, or compressed ; hiliim small, oval-oblong, naked ; 
cotyledons thick ; radicle incurved. 

History and Habitat. — The Common Bean, so extensively cultivated as an 
esculent, was formerly supposed to have been introduced here from India, but 
Prof Gray claims it a native plant, as the fruit and seeds were found in the tombs 
of ancient Peruvians at AnQon, along with other purely native vegetables ; it is, 
however, probable that the plant is not indigenous north of Mexico. The Bean has 
been cultivated by the natives from remote aboriginal times, many varieties having 
become valuable to them then (as they are to us now) as a potage, both while 
green, legume and all, and the seeds alone when ripe and dried. No previous 
medical use is discoverable. 

* From the Latin //;a«/«j, a little boat, the pod beinj somewhat scaphoid. 



51-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The ripe dried seeds are pounded to 
a pulp and macerated for eight days in twice their weight of strong alcohol, being 
shaken twice a day, and kept in closely-stoppered bottles in a dark, cool place. 
The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a disgusting fecal odor, a 
clear but slighdy yellowish color, and a neutral reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Legumin, or Vegetable Casein. This albu- 
minoid, or proteid body, containing both N and S, is found in many seeds of the 
Leguminosse, from which it may be separated by triturating them, after soaking 
in warm water and pressing the pulp through a sieve. The liquid deposits starch 
on standing, and the casein-like body may be precipitated from the liquor by ace- 
tic acid. 

Phaseolin. — This peculiar amorphous body is obtained by extracting the seeds 
with alcohol, and treating the extract with ether to remove the sugar. Phaseolin 
produces a volatile oil, of very disgusting fecal odor, by decomposition. 

Inosite,* or animal galactose, existing in the muscles of the heart and lungs, 
as well as in the parenchyma of the liver and kidneys, is also found in the seeds of 
this and other Leguminoss. 

The following analyses of Beans by Einhoff and Braconnot J show the general 
constituents : 

Einhof. Braconnot. 

Skins 288 7. 

Starchy fibrous matter, 425 

Starch, 1380 42-34 

Animo-veg. matter and starch, 799 5.36 

Extractive, 131 

Albumen and animo-veg. matter, 52 

Mucilage, 744 

Loss and water, 21 23. 

Legumin, 18.20 

Pectic acid, legumin and starch, 1.50 

Fatty matter, .70 

Pulp skeleton, .70 

Uncrystallizable sugar, .20 

Earthy salts, i.oo 

3S40 100.00 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The only accounts of the ill effects produced 
by eating raw beans are those of Dr. Demeures§ and William Dale, Esq. ;|| the 
latter I exclude here, as the beans were mildewed, and the severity of the symp- 
toms, together with their character, appear to me to be due to the fungus. The 
symptoms produced in the first case were: Severe frontal headache accompanied 
by pain, soreness, and itching of the eyeball ; eyeball painful to touch ; pain in the 
epigastrium when touched, and hernia-like pain at right inguinal ring. Beans, 

* See p. 95-3. I Jour, de la SocUti Gall., i Ser., 4, 112. 

t GehUn's Jour., vi, 545. || Brit. Med. Jour., 1864, 471. 

X Ann. de Chini. ct Phys., xxxiv, 85. 



51-3 

when cooked, produce a well-known riatulency, which symptom I have also noted 
from a dose of about five drops of the tincture. The seeds certainly deserve a 
thorough proving, especially so if the symptoms recorded by Dale could be 
verified. 



Desckhmion ok Plate 51. 

1. Summit of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 27tli, 1886. 

2. Flower. 

3. Calyx and standard. 

4. Ala. 

5. Keel and calyx. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Pistil, 

8. Stigma. 

(3-8 enlarged.) 




(Elfl..adnat.(iel.et pinxt. 



BAPTISIA TINCTORIA, R.Br. 



N. ORD -LEGUMINOS^. 52 

Tribe.-SOFHORE/E ET PODALYRIE^. 

GENUS.— BAPTISIA,* VENT. 
SEX. .SVST.— DECANDRI.V MONOGYNIA. 



BAPTISIA. 



WILD IJ^BICrO. 



SYN.— BAPTISIA TINCTORIA, R. BR. ; SOPHORA TINCTORIA, LINN. ; POD- 
ALYRIA TINCTORIA, MICHX. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD INDIGO, FALSE INDIGO, INDIGO WEED, YELLOW 
WILD INDIGO. DYER'S BAPTISIA, HORSEFLY WEED, RATTLE BUSH, 
YELLOW BROOM, CLOVER BROOM; (FR.) INDIGO SAUVAGE, INDIGO 
TREFLE ; (GER.) BAPTISIB. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF BAPTISIA TINCTORIA, R.BR. 

Description. — This slender, glaucous, perennial, bushy-branching herb, grows 
to a height of from 2 to 3 feet. Root large, irregular, ligneous, light yellowish- 
brown internally, blackish externally; rootlets numerous and lighter in color. 
Leaves palmately 3-foliate, sessile or nearly so, becoming like all other portions of 
the plant — even the yellow flowers — black, when dry ; leaflets j4 to }^ inch long, 
rounded or cuneate-obovate, dark bluish-green with a light green stripe on the 
midrib ; stipules and bracts minute, caducous. Inflo7'csccnce short, loose, few- 
flowered racemes, terminal upon the branches; flo^oers canary-yellow, about as 
long as the leaflets. Calyx cup-shaped ; limb 4-toothed, the upper tooth double, 
therefore broader than the rest. Corolla : standard about the length of the wings, 
or slighdy shorter, emarginate, and reflexed laterally ; ^eel somewhat incurved, 
the two petals composing it nearly separate, straight ; wings oblong, straight. 
Stamens 10, distinct; anthers alike and uniform. Ovary stipitate ; style curved, 
dilated below ; stigma minute. Fniitd^n oval, centrally inflated, mucronate legume, 
stalked in the persistent cup of the calyx ; stipe nearly twice the length of the 
calyx-cup. Seeds many, ovoid, cinnamon-brown ; hilum small, rounded ; embryo 
straight or incurved. Read description of Leguminosae under Genista tinctoria, 
46. 

History and Habitat. — Wild Indigo is indigenous to the Canadas and the 
United States. It grows as far south as F"lorida and west to the Mississippi, 
plentifully however only near the coast, where it delights in the dry, sandy soils, 

* pojrri'?M, Baplho, I dye. Some species yielding an inferior indigo dye. 



52-2 

As regards New York State : I have noted in traveling upon the N. Y. & Erie 
R. R., that it ceased entirely at Narrowsburg, 122 miles from New York City.* 
I have not met with the plant in Chenango, Broome, Tioga nor Tompkins Counties, 
and Dr. Lucy fails to find it in Chemung ; this is probably due to the rich loam of 
these localities. Dr. Barton says;-j- "It promiscuously inhabits a variety of situa- 
tions, though almost always in a dry soil, in every State of the Union." It flowers 
in the Northern States from June to August. 

The young shoots of this plant resemble, in form and general appearance, 
those of asparagus, and are used, especially in New England, in lieu of that herb 
for a pottage. As a dye, it is no longer used, being far inferior to Indigofera and- 
its employment unnecessary. 

The most important previous use of the plant as a drug, was as an "anti- 
septic " dressing for gangrenous wounds, especially in such cases as were accom- 
panied by a low torm of fever ; and in decoction in putrid fevers generally. Dr. 
Thatcher says: J "its employment has been extended in a few instances to Typhus 
or putrid fever, with such good effect as to encourage further trials. In the form 
of fomentation or cataplasm it has proved eminently beneficial when applied to 
phagedenic and gangrenous ulcers ; especially if the decoction be adiiiviistered 
internally at the same time" (italics ours). Dr. Comstock says :§ "I would observe 
that it is used in cases of mortification, in fevers supposed to be putrid, and 
inclining to putrescency, and in general where antiseptics are indicated." Our 
provings thoroughly corroborate, and our practice substantiates the above use of 
the drug. Any physician, of whatever school of practice, who fails to use this 
remedy in Typhoid alone where it is so often indicated, allows many an opportunity 
to save a life to escape him. The National DIspensatory|| contains under this 
drug the following, written, we feel compelled to say, in willful ignorance : 
" Nothing has recently been added to the knowledge possessed many years ago 
respecting this medicinal plant." The U. S. Pharmacopoeia gives no officinal 
preparation ; this in the full light of our excellent success with the drug, and our 
vastly lower percentage of death in Typhoid. 

The preparations of the Eclectic Materia Medica are : Extractnui Baptisice 
Alcoholicuni ; Unouentiim Baptisice, and Pilulce Baptisice Compositce^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root with its bark is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration is opaque, in thin layers it 
presents a deep brownish-red color by transmitted light ; it has no distinguishing 



* Author ill Bull. Torrey Club, vol. xi, 18S4, p. 133. 

t Veg. Mat. Med., vol. ii, p. 56. 

% Thalclier's Dispensatory, \>. 361, c|uoloci in B.iiton's I'eg. Mai. Med., pp. 5S-59, vol. ii. 

\ " Letter to Mr. Weems," in /V». Mai. Med. B.irton, vol. ii, p. 58. 

II >879. P- 267- 

]] Leptandria, Podophyllin, Sanguinaria and Baptisia. 



52-3 

odor, a peculiar bitter ami astringent taste, imparts to the tongue on first applica- 
tion a cold sensation (juite similar to that of sulpiiate of soda ((ilauber's Salt). 
and has an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of the root was made by Dr. 
Greene,* U. S. N., for the express purpose of obtaining the alkaloid, the previous 
analyses by Smedley.f and Warner.J resulting in alkaloidal .salts only. Dr. Greene 
succeeded in obtaining pale yellow crystals of various forms, .some being perfect 
octahedra. This purified alkaloid was found to be .soluble in water, alcohol, and 
•ether, other physical and chemical properties are as yet unknown. A whitish 
yellow resin was also determined in his analysis, whether or not it is the same as 
one isolated by Smedley is not stated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms of disturbance in the s)stem 
following the ingestion of doses varying from i to 200 drops of the tincture of the 
root, 30 grs. of the powder, and 4 to 14 grs. of " Baptisin" in different individuals 
are marked, and correspond to those of Typhoid or disintegrating forms of fever. 
They are substantially as follows :§ mentally gloomy, low-spirited, indisposed to 
think followed by inability, dullness, and stupidity. Vertigo. Dull, heavy headache 
with weakness and weariness of body, and tendency to tlelirium. Soreness and 
lameness of the eyeballs, with hot, flushed face. Tongue coated white, yellow or 
yellowish-brown. Loss of appetite, nausea, and burning in the stomach. Dull 
pains in the region of the liver, especially at the site of the gall-bladder. Face 
sallow, with burning cheeks. Constant pain and aching in the abdomen, followed 
by marked distention, and soreness on pressure. Soft, dark, mucous stools, 
followed by constipation. Urine dark red. Difficult breathing with oppression of 
the chest. Pulse at first accelerated antl full, then low and faint. Aching, stiffness, 
and soreness of back and e.Ktremitic-s. Chills general, followed by fever, restless- 
ness, weakness and great prostration. No sweat. 

Dr. Hughes says:|| " Baptisia is capable of e.xciting true primary />j';r.v/a in 
the human subject. This is no slight thing, for there are very few other drugs to 
which we can ascribe such power. Antl this pyrexia is exceedingly like that of 
the early stages of Typhoid. We have no evidence that Baptisia affects Peyer's 
patches as they are affected in Typhoid, nor even that it acts upon them at all as 
Arsenic and Iodine, and perhaps Mercury and Turpentine do. But it is certain 
that it produces congestion and catarrh of the intestinal mucous membrane with 
abdominal tenderness, distention, and diarrhrea." Still, as the specific condition 
of inflammation of the patches of Peyer does not appear until the second or 
perhaps third stage, our remedy properly used has done its work ere this and is 
not then required, nor will any other be, such condition not following, liaving 
been thwarted. 



* /*»/. your. Phar., 1879, p. 577. 

t Idem, 1862, |). 310. 

J Idem, 1 87 1, p. 251. 

I Allen, Ency. Pure Mat. Med., v.jI, ii, pp. 31-39- 

II Pharmneodynamics, p. 162. 



52-4 

The only post-mortem examination that has come to my notice is that of a 
cat under Dr. Burt's experiments. In this animal the large and small intestines 
were found greatly congested, and filled with mucus and blood. 



Description of Plate 52. 

I. End of flowering branch, Pamrapo, N. J., July 6th, 1879. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pollen, X 250. 

6. Pod. 

(3 and 4 enlarged.) 




^m.adnatdeletpinxt GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS. Lam 



N. ORD-LEGUMINOS^. 53 

S. ORD.-C/ESALPINIE/E. 

GENUS.— GYMNOCLADUS,* LAM. 
SEX. SYST.-DICECIA DEC.^NlM^l.V. 



GYMNOCLADUS. 

COFFEE TREE. 

SYN.— GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS, LAM. ; GUILANDICA DIOICA, LINN. 
COM. NAMES.— KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE, AMERICAN COFFEE BEAN, 
KENTUCKY MAHOGANY, NICKAR TREE, BONDUE, CHICOT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FRUIT PULP OF GYMNOCLADUS 
CANADENSIS, LAM. 

Description. — This peculiar tree, wiien mature, reaches a height of from 50 
to 60 feet. Trunk erect; bark extremely rough, and curiously broken trans- 
versely ; branches few, thornlcss, when young- cane-like, and in winter so destitute 
of anything looking like a bud tliat the whole tree appears as if dead. Leaves 
bi-pinnate, 2 to 3 feet long, bearing a pair of opposite leaflets near the base, and 
from 4 to 7 larger, odd-pinnate accessory leaf-stalks, each of which (upon the 
younger branches) is composed of from 6 to 8 pairs of leaflets, so that each leaf 
may bear from forty-eight to one hundred and seventy-four leaflets. These leaves 
develop late and fall early. Leaflets alternate, vertical, ovate-lanceolate, taper- 
pointed and entire, the lower pair upon the base of the petiole almost cordate, 
larger and more pointed ; stipules none. Lnfloresce7ice terminal compound racemes 
or thyrsi ; flowers dioecious, pedicillate ; (estivation imbricate. Calyx elongated- 
tubular below ; limb 5-cleft ; lobes lanceolate, equal. Corolla not papilionaceous ; 
petals oblong, equal, inserted upon the summit of the calyx-tube. Stamens 10, 
included, inserted with the petals; filaments distinct, short, and bearded; anthers 
sagittate, versatile, introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Style single. Ovules 
anatropous. Fruit an oblong, flattened pod, 6 to 10 inches long and about i inch 
broad, pulpy inside; seeds 2 to 4, flattish, hard, somewhat ovoid, about one-half an 
inch broad, and of a dark olive color ; embryo straight. 

History and Habitat. — The Kentucky Coffee Tree grows in rich woods, along 
rivers and lakes, from Western New York and Pennsylvania, to Illinois and south- 
westward, where it flowers in June. 

The previous uses of this plant in medicine are grounded upon its peculiar 
action on nerve-centres. A decoction of the leaves and fruit pulp has been found 
useful in locomotor ataxia, reflex troubles incident upon masturbation, laryngeal 

* rnjifd;, gyinnos, n.iked ; iXiido;, klailos, branch, from the l)arren and de.ad appearance of the tree in winter. 



53-2 

couohs dependent upon a chronic irritation of the mucous membranes of the 
air-passages, puerperal peritonitis, erysipelas, and typhoid forms of fever. To 
the arts it furnishes a hard wood, something like mahogany, with a fine grain, 
suitable for cabinet-work ; it weighs 40 lbs. 7 oz. per cubic foot, and has a sp. 
gr. of 647. The seeds are said to have been used by the early setders of 
Central United States as a substitute for coffee, and the leaves as a purgative 
and insecticide. Concerning the use of Gymnocladus as a fly-poison, a Virginia 
correspondent of The American Agriculturist says: "Back of our house here, 
and overhanging the piazza, is a very large coffee-tree. Though this locality is 
infested, like Egypt, with a plague of flies, we have never suffered any serious 
annoyance from them. One year this tree was nearly stripped of its leaves by a 
cloud of potato-flies (the blistering fly), and we feared that the tree would die from 
the complete defoliation. In three days the ground beneath was black with a 
carpet of corpses, and the tree put out new leaves, and still flourishes. For ten 
years we have used the bruised leaves, sprinkled with molasses water, as a fly- 
poison. It attracts swarms of the noisome insects, and is sure death to them." 
Gymnocladus is officinal in none of the Pharmacopoeias. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, green pulp of the unripe 
seed-pods is to be crushed and prepared as in the preceding drug. The tincture, 
after filtering from the mass, has a clear orange color by transmitted light ; is 
gummy upon the fingers ; and of a familiarly characteristic odor, resembling that 
of the pulp. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Cj)/^V/«^, C^^H^jN^O. This alkaloid, found in 
the seeds of Cytisus Labitrnuiu, is said to exist also in the leaves and fruit pulp 
of this tree. Extracted from Laburnum, it crystallizes in radiate, colorless, 
deliquescent forms, having a caustic and bitter taste, and an alkaline reaction, 
neutralizing acids completely. It sublimes without decomposition by the careful 
application of heat. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Gymnocladus causes vertigo with a sensation 
of fullness of the head; burning of the eyes; sneezing; salivation; nausea with 
burning of the stomach; desire to urinate; increased se.xual desire; pains in the 
limbs, numbness of the body, sleepiness, and coldness. 



Description of Plate 53. 

End of a sterile branch, Ithaca, N. Y., June 17th, 1SS5. 
2. A small leaf, four times reduced. 
3 and 4. Sterile flowers. 
5. Sterile flower in section. 
6 and 7. Stamens, posterior and lateral views. 
(5, 6 and 7 enlarged.) 



54 




.ad naf.dei.et pinxt 



GEUM RIVALE, Linn. 



N. ORD.-ROSACE^. 54 

GENUS.— G E U M ,* I.INN. 
SEX. svsr.— iro.s.\xi)Ki.\ I'di.vovn'i.v. 



GEUM RIVALE. 



WATER AVEJYS. 



SYN.— GEUM RIVALE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— PURPLE OR WATER AVENS, CHOCOLATE-ROOT; (FR.) 
BBNOITB AQUATIQUB; (GER.) SUMPFNELKENWURZEL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.VNT, GEUM RIV.^LE, LINN. 



Description. — This beautiful perennial plant, disting-uished on account of its 
hibiscus-like petals, grows to a height of from one to two feet. Root creeping, lig- 
neous, giving off numerous fibrous rootlets. Sicni simple or nearly so, hairy. Leaves 
of two kinds ; those from the root on long deeply grooved petioles, lyrate and ir- 
regularly pinnate ; those of the stem few, nearly sessile, more or less lyrate below 
and 3-lobed above, serrate, pointed ; stipules ovate, incised. Inflorescence terminal on 
long, sometimes branched, peduncles i^fzivr.? few, large and handsome, nodding on 
bracted pedicels. Calyx erect, concave below, 5-lobed, with 5 alternating bractlets in 
the sinuses. Petals 5, erect, retuse, dilated obovate, contracted into a claw at the base. 
Stamens numerous, inserted into a stipitate disk in the cup of the calyx ; anthers in- 
trorse, opening by a longitudinal slit or pore. Pistils many; ovary hairy; styles 
long, with fle.xed tips. Fruit a dense, hairy, conical head, situated upon an erect 
stalk arising from the cup of the caly.x; seeds oval, bearded, the epicarp retaining 
the persistent style, which is now hispid below and plumose above the angular 
tle.xion ©f the style. 

Rosaceae. — This grand natural order is represented in North America by 35 
genera, 213 species, and 92 varieties, aside from innumerable cultivated specimens. 
The general characters of the order are : Plants consisting of trees, shrubs and 
herbs, and furnishing our most valuable fruits. Leaves alternate ; stipules gener- 
ally present though sometimes early deciduous. Flowers regular, handsome. 
Calyx of 5 to 8 sepals united to form the calyx-tube ; in some species with a sec- 
ond set as bractlets, outside of, and alternate with, the sepals. Petals as many as 
the sepals, and inserted with the stamens upon a thin disk that lines the calyx-tube. 
StameJis very numerous, perigynous ; fllaments slender. Pistils one or many. 



*Tmoi,g<!uo ; a pleas.int flavor, one of the .species having aromatic roots. 



54-2 

either distinct in or upon a receptacle, or combined in the calyx-tube. Fndt either 
an achenium, a follicle, a drupe, or a pome. Seeds single, or a few in each ovary ; 
albumen wanting ; eotyledons large and thick ; embryo straight. Beside the useful 
and edible fruits — almonds, peaches, prunes, plums, and cherries {Ainygdalccs) ; 
crab-apples, apples, quinces, pears, etc. [Pomees) ; and strawberries, raspberries, 
thimble-berries, and blackberries {Rosaceee) ; — we have many useful medicinal 
plants among the species in this order. Bitter almonds (Amygdahis covnmmis, L., 
I var. ainara, DC); sweetalmonds {Amygdalus eommunis, L., 2 var. dtdeis, DC); 
wild cherry bark {Primus Virginiana, Miller) ; cherry-laurel [Pimtms Lauro- 
cerasus, L.) ; kousso [Brayei-a antJielmintica, Kuni/i.) ; peaches [Amygdalus Per- 
sica, Prtimis Persied) ; and the three mentioned in this work. The genera Poten- 
tilla, Spirea, and GiUenia, will in time also be proven to be of benefit in the treat- 
ment of disease. 

History and Habitat. — This Indigenous Inhabitant of bogs and springy mead- 
ows, grows from the New England States and Pennsylvania westward to Wisconsin 
and northward, flowering in May. Geum at one time gained great renown as 
" Indian Chocolate ;" it was given in decoction prepared with sugar and milk, for 
dysentery, chronic dlarrhcea, colics, debility, dyspepsia, and most ailments of the 
digestive tract ; it was also used as a styptic in uterine hemorrhage, leucorrhcea, 
and hemoptysis, and as a febrifuge. (Rafinesque.) 

Though Geum has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph., it still retains a place in 
the Eclectic Materia Medlca. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole plant, gathered before blos- 
soming in the spring, Is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mi.xed thoroughly with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, 
pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, and let It stand eight days In a dark, cool 
place. The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a deep 
orange-brown color by transmitted light, a slightly astringent taste, and an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of Avens by Buchner, proves It 
to be very similar to the European Geum nrbamtm ; which, botanically, differs but 
slighdy from the species under consideration. All the qualities of both species 
are given up freely to both water and alcohol. 

Volatile Oil of Geum. — A greenish-yellow, acid, butyraceous oil, having an 
odor like cloves. This body may be readily obtained by distillation of the roots 
In water. (VVIttsteln.) 

The Water Avens contains also a resin, an acid, bitter extractive, tannin, gum, 
and other general plant constituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The action of this species has not yet been 



54-3 

determined. A short proving by the late Dr. Herring gave as symptoms: severe 
jerking, tearing pains, Hke electric shocks, shooting from deep within the abdomen 
to the end of the urethra, coming on after eating. 

Description of Plate 54. 

I. Part of flowering and fruiting plant, from Lowmansville, N. Y., May 30th, 18S4. 

2. Root leaf. 

3. Sepal, showing bracts. 

4. Petal. 

5. Stamen (enlarged), outer view. 

6. Stamen (enlarged), inner view, with open cell. 

7. Achenium (enlarged). 




GTU.adnat.del.et pinxt 



FRAGARIA VESCA.Linn. 



N. ORD.-ROSACE^. 55 

Tribe-DRYADE/E. 

GENUS.— FRAG ARIA,* TOURN. 
SEX. .SY.ST.— ICOSANURIA POLVGVNIA. 



FRAGARIA. 

Tf 'ILD S TF. 4 WBERR I ". 

SYN.— FRAGARIA VESCA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— "WILD, PIELD.f OR WOOD STRAWBERRY; (PR.) LE FRAI- 
SIER; (GER.) ERDBEERE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH RIPE FRUIT OF FRAGARI.\ VESC.\, LINN. 

Description. — Root perennial, horizontal, knotty ; stolons creeping along the 
ground and rooting at the end, sending therefrom young plants, following in due 
time the same process ; stem none. Leaves mostly radical, ternately compound, 
hairy ; stipules adherent to the base of the petioles of the radical leaves ; leaflets 
sessile or nearly so, cuneate-obovate, coarsely serrate, and so strongly veined as 
to appear plicate ; petioles much longer than the leaves. Inflorescence loose leafy 
cymes, upon long naked scapes; leaves of the cymes small; stipules Xdinz&oXzX^- 
oblong, acute; pedicels erect or drooping ; y?^jtw.s- white. Calyx concave at the 
base and furnished with 5 intermediate bracteoles alternate with its lobes; the 
whole remaining spread or reflexed in fruit ; lobes acute. Petals 5, obtuse, some- 
what crenate edged. Stamens small, indefinite. Styles deeply lateral. Fniit con- 
sisting of the greatly enlarged and now pulpy and scarlet globular receptacle ; 
achenia dry, scattered upon the surface of the fruit, not sunk in pits. 

History and Habitat. — The Wild Strawberry grows on dry and rocky banks, 
where it is common throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe, Asia, and 
America. With us it is thoroughly indigenous North, flowering in May and June 
and fruiting in July and August. This species, together with F. Virginica — which 
is more common, grows in richer soil, and has the achenia sunk in pits upon the 
surface of the receptacle — form our delicious wild strawberries. The other North 
American species of Fragaria are F. Virginica var. Illince7isis, Gray, supposed to 
be the original of the " Boston Pine " and " Hovey's Seedling ; " and var. glauca, 
Watson ; F. Cali/ornica, C.&S. ; F. Chilensis, Duch. ; and var. Sconleri, Hook ; 
and F. Indica, Andr., an adventive form. The F. Virginica, Ehr., is supposed to 



* From the Latin fragrans, odorous, on account of the aroma of the fruit, 
f More properly applicable to the F. Virginiea. 



55-2 

be the original of the beautiful scarlet Virginia strawberry. Rafinesque judged 
that about one hundred varieties existed, "but contented himself with naming only 
seven of F. vesca, of which, however, none are recognized by botanists to-day. 

The previous medical uses of Fragaria were few ; the berries were ordered 
to be freely eaten of in various calcareous disorders. Many early writers consid- 
ered the fruit as beneficial in gouty affections ; Linnaeus extols their efficacy in 
preventing paroxysms of gout in his own case ; and Rosseau claims that he was 
always relieved of a calcareous affliction by eating freely of them. The root in 
infusion has been used in England for dysuria and gonorrhoea. The dried leaves 
(Strawberry Tea) yield a slightly astringent infusion used in domestic practice as 
an excitant, and as an astringent in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh, ripe berries, dealt with as 
in the preceding drug, yield an opaque tincture, having, when in thin layers, a 
deep brownish-carmine color by transmitted light. This tincture has a very 
astrineent, somewhat vinous taste, the odor of the berries, and a strono- acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The fruit contains cisso-tanic,* malic, and 
citric acids ; sugar, mucilage, and a peculiar volatile aromatic body uninvestigated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — It is a patent fact that many people with deli- 
cate stomach find it almost impossible to eat strawberries and cream — especially 
early in the season — without suffering from symptoms of disordered digestion ; 
the symptoms often culminating in quite severe attacks. A case in my practice 
several years ago, while a small-pdx scare was prevalent in this city, gave nearly 
all the symptoms of the toxic effect of the fruit. A young lady, closely veiled, 
called hastily upon me early one morning, and when seated, withdrew her veil, and 
in a frightened manner desired to know if she had small-pox. Her face was 
swollen, bluish-red, and covered with a fine petechial eruption, which she said cov- 
ered her whole body, but especially her face and trunk. She complained of feeling 
at times somewhat faint, slightly nauseated, and generally swollen, but especially 
in the epigastric region and abdomen ; her speech was somewhat difiicult, and 
examination showed a swollen tongue. I laughingly ventured asking her — although 
it was winter — where she had found strawberries, whereupon she asked me, in 
astonishment, how I knew she had been eating the fruit, adding that a friend in 
Florida sent her about two quarts, among other fruit, and that she and a lady friend 
had eaten them all the night before, on retiring. As the symptoms had apparently 
reached their height, I told her the cause, and advised that she eat nothing for 
twenty-four hours, giving no remedy, that I might watch the pure symptoms. In 
the afternoon of the same day the skin was hot and swollen, the patient thirsty and 
restless, and little sleep was gained that night; the next day the eruption began to 
fade, the appetite returned, and restlessness ceased. On the third day exfoliation 

* See under Ampelopsis quinquefolia, p. 40-2. 



55-3 
began and was very profuse, the skin appearing quite similar to tlie condition 
existing after a severe attack of scarlatina. The young lady who shared her fruit 
exhibited no symptoms whatever. 

Description of Plate 55. 

I. Whole plant, from Ithaca, N. Y., May 8th, 1880. 

2. A flower. 

3. Stamen. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



56. 






% 













fm. 



ad nat.dei.et pinxt. 



PiRus Americana, DC. 



N. ORD-ROSACEyE-. . 56 

S. Ord.-POME/E. 

GENUS.— PI RUS,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— POI.YANDRIA TRIGVNI.-V. 



PIRUS. 



AMERICA JV MO UJVTAIJ^ ASH. 



SYN.-PIRUS (PYRUS) AMERICANA, D. C; P. ACUPARIA, MEYER; SORBUS 
AMERICANA, WILLD. ; S. ACUPARIA, VAR. AMERICANA, MICHX. ; S. 
HUMIFUSA, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.— AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH, AMERICAN SERVICE TREE; 
(FR.) SORBIS; (GER.) VOGELBEEREN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF PIRUS AMERICANA, D. C. 



Description. — This nearly smooth tree grows to a height of from lo to 35 
feet. Bark somewhat resembHng the cherr)\ Leaf-buds pointed, glabrous and 
glutinous; leaves compound, odd-pinnate; leaflets 13 to 15, lanceolate, taper- 
pointed, sharply serrate with pointed teeth, bright and shining green above, not 
pale below; teeth mucronate. Inflorescence in large, flattish, compound, terminal 
cymes. Calyx with an urn-shaped tube ; limb 5-cleft. Petals roundish obovate. 
Stamens numerous. Styles 3, separate. Fruit a bright-scarlet, globose, baccate 
pome about the size of a pea ; seeds two in each cell ; testa cartilaginous. 

History and Habitat. — This beautiful mountain tree is indigenous from Maine 
to Pennsylvania, westward to Michigan, and southward along the Alleghany 
Mountains. In the north it also habits swampy spots, and flowers in June. The 
large clusters of brilliant red berries of this species and the P. acuparia of Europe, 
which hang long after the leaves have fallen, make the trees fine lawn ornaments. 

The close botanical and chemical relation of the American and European 
species render them so closely allied that many botanists consider them identical, 
and the chemistry of the bark, so far as distinguished, is so much like that of the 
wild cherry {Cerasus serotina, D. C.) that its medical uses have been substitutive. 

The previous use of the bark in medicine has been as a tonic in fevers of 

* The classical name of the Pear tree. 



56-2 

supposed malarial types, where it was often substituted for cinchona. The berries 
were used as an antiscorbutic. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle and allowed 
to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, has a reddish- 
brown color by transmitted light, a bitter taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITOENTS.— So far as I am able to ascertain, no analysis 
of the bark of this species has been made to determine its specific principles ; a 
glance, however, at the chemistry of the European species may be of benefit. 

Sorbus (Pirus) acuparia. 

Amygdalin, QoH^^NOjj. — This glucoside occurs in the bark, buds, flowers 
and kernels of many rosaceous plants ; it separates as pearly scales, which crys- 
tallize from water as transparent prisms, having the formula C,r,H.,_NOjj(H20)3. 
Amygdalin loses its water of crystallization at 120° (248° F.), liquefies at 200° 
(392° F.), and caramelizes and decomposes at higher temperatures; it is soluble 
in water and alcohol, but not in ether. Under the action of dilute acids it splits 
up as follows : 

„ , . Benzalclehyde 

Amygdalin. Water. "ylrocyanic q, Qil of Glucose. 

• Bitter Almonds. 

Q„H,,NO,, + (HP).,= CNH + CH„0 + (QH^pjr 

Sorbin, QHj„0^, is the glucose found in the berries ; it forms in large, sweet 
crystals, which melt at 110° (230° F.). 

Sorbic and Parasorbic Acid, C^HgOj, two isomeric acids of the acrylic group, 
are also found in the berries of this species. 

Citric Acid, C^.H^O,. — This widely-distributed body occurs, together with malic 
acid, in the fruits of both species. Citric acid crystallizes in rectorhombic, glassy 
forms, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and having a pure and pleasant 
acid taste. These crystals become white when exposed to the air, lose two mole- 
cules of water at 100° (212° F.), fuse at 150° (302° F.), and decompose with a 
specific empyreumatic odor at higher temperatures. 

Malic Acid, QH^O-. — This acid is found in the berries as they begin to ripen. 
It is obtained from its aqueous solution in small, colorless, deliquescent prisms, 
having a strong but pleasant acid taste. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The tincture produced, in Dr. Gatchell and 
others under his observation,* a set of symptoms showing an irritation of the 



• Am. Horn. Obs., 1S78, p. 520. 



56-3 
alimentary mucous membranes, and reflex nervous irritati<.n. It also caused 
arthritic disturbances and symptoms of chill, heat, and perspiration. 



Description of Plate 56. 

I. A portion of a cyme, Binghamton, May 28th, 1885. 

2. A flower, showing perianth. 

3. A pistil. 

4. Stamens. 

5. Two leaflets. 

(). A branch in fruit. 
7. Section of fruit. 

(3, 4 and 7 enlarged.) 



N. ORD -CRASSULACE/E. 57 

GENUS— PENTHO RUM,* GRONOV. 

SEX. SVST.— llECANDRIA I'KNTAfiVNFA. 



PENTHORUM 



DITCH STOJYE CROP. 



SYN.— PENTHORUM SEDOIDES, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— DITCH OR VIRGINIA STONE CROP. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.-VNT PENTHORUM SEDOIDES. LINN. 

Description. — This homely perennial grows to a height of from 8 to i 2 inches. 
Sfeni erect, somewhat angled, simple or somewhat branched ; /eaves scattered, 
nearly sessile, lanceolate, acute at both ends, and sharply serrate. Inflorescence 
a loose terminal cyme of revolute spikes ; Jlowcrs yellowish-green, arranged along 
the upper surface of the branches of the cyme ; pedicels glandularly pubescent. 
Calyx pubescent below ; sepals 5, cuneate, acute. Petals rarely present. Stamens 
\o\ filaments smooth; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally, /'/j'/z/.s' 5, united 
below; styles short, forming beaks in fruit; stigmas small, capitate. Fruit a 5- 
angled, -horned, and -celled capsule, opening by the falling off of the beaks ; car- 
pels many seeded; seeds ellipitical, pointed. 

Crassulaceee. — This family of mostly succulent herbs is represented in North 
America by 6 genera, 47 species, and 2 varieties. Leaves mostly sessile ; stipules 
none. Inflorescence cjmose or racemose ; flowers perfectly symmetrical. Calyx 
mostly monosepalous and free from the ovaries ; sepals 3 to 20, persistent, and 
united at the base. Corolla sometimes monopetalous, sometimes wanting; petals 
if present imbricated in the bud and inserted with the stamens. Stamens distinct, 
equal to, or twice as many as, the sepals, inserted upon the base of the calyx. Pistils 
distinct (exc. Penthorum), minutely scaled at the base. Fruit a cluster of follicles 
opening along the inner suture (exc. Penthorum). Seeds numerous, anatropous; 
embryo straight; albumen thin. 

This order yields but few medicinal plants, and those of little prominence. 
The common European Houseleek {Sempervivum tectorum, Linn.), whose leaves 
are cooling and astringent; the Orpine [Sedutn Telepliium, Linn.), whose leaves, 
boiled with milk, have been used by the laity as a remedy in diarrhoea ; and the 
Stone Crop {S. acre, Linn.) — whose apparently dcchlorophylled leaves make a 
fitting cover for the old ruins which afford the plant a habitat throughout Europe — 
is acrid, and has been recommended in cancerous troubles and epilepsy. — {Doc- 
trine of Signatures ?) 

* nivTi, penle, five ; off, oros, a rule ; from the floral symmetry. 



57-2 

History and Habitat. — Penthorum is an indigenous ditch-weed, common in 
all localities in the United States, where it flowers from June to September. 

It has always held a place in domestic practice as an astringent in diarrhoea 
and dysentery. Drs. Briggs* and Scudder brought it to the notice of practitioners 
as a remedy, both topic and internal, for irritation of the mucous membranes and 
various forms of subacute inflammation of the same, as in pharyngitis, vaginitis, 
tonsillitis, etc. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant is to be chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, 
and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, shaking often. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a brilliant reddish- 
orange color by transmitted light ; no special odor ; an astringent taste ; and an 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis by the Lloyd brothers failed to 
yield a peculiar principle, or even a volatile oil. A peculiar tannin was, however, 
determined, which first turns blue then precipitates black from its alcoholic solu- 
tion with ferrous, and deep green with ferric sulphate. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Penthorum, according to Dr. Morrow's experi- 
ments, causes many symptoms simulating a coryza: rawness of throat and 
tongue ; increased appetite followed by nausea ; burning in the rectum ; loose 
stools followed by constipation ; increased urine ; cough, and constriction of the 
chest. 



Description of Plate 57. 

I. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., Jul)' 30th, 1885. 

2. Flower. 

3. View of calyx. 

4. Anther. 

5. Carpel. 

6. Fruit. 

(2-6 enlarged.) 



Ec. Med. Jour., 1875, 479. 




^m«ii 



natdei.efpinxt 



HaMAMELIS VlRGiNICA,Linn. 



N. ORD -HAMAMELACE^. 58 

Tribe.-HAMAMELE^. 

GKNL'S — H AM AM ELIS ,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— TICTRAiNDUIA DIC.VMA. 



HAMAMELIS 



WITCH HAZEL. 

SYN.-HAMAMELIS VIRGINICA, LINN., HAMAMELIS MACROPHYLLA, 
PURSH, HA.MAMELIS DIOICA, WALT., HAMAMELIS CORYLIFOLIA, 
MCENCH. 

COM. NAMES.-"WITCH HAZEL, SNAPPING-HAZELNUT, WATER SEEKER 
"WINTER-BLOOM, SPOTTED ALDER. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH TWIGS AND BARK OF H.AMAMELIS VIRGINICA, ],INN. 

Description. — This strange shrub, whose flowers do not open until its leaves 
fall, grows to a height of from 5 to 1 5 feet. The stem is usually single, some- 
times as large as 4 inches in diameter at the base. Bark smooth, brown. 
Branches numerous, long, flexuous and forking. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, cor- 
date-ovate or oval, with sinuate edges and straight veins, downy stellate-pubescent 
when young, but becoming smooth with age. Petioles about one-half an inch 
long. Involuo-e 3-leaved, scale-like, pubescent, on a short peduncle. Flcnvers 
many, axillary, several in a cluster or head. Calyx persistent, of 4 broadly-ovate, 
hairy, recurved divisions, with 2 or 3 little bracts at the base. Corolla of 4 long, 
strap-shaped, yellow petals, which soon wither and curl. Stamens 8, four are 
fertile, four sterile ; sterile stamens scale-like, truncate, opposite the petals; fertile 
stajncns shorter, curving inward toward the pistil ; Jilainents short ; anther adnate, 
introrse, 2-celled, the cells rather widely separated, opening laterally by uplifted 
valves. Pollen, grains ellipsoid, with 3 evenly separated deep sulci. Ovaries 2, 
united below. Styles 2, short. Capsule roundish ovoid, hard and leathery, tlie 
lower half with the persistent caly.x and bracts, the upper smooth. Dehiscence 
loculicidal from the apex, during which the exocarp cleaves from the cndocarp, 
which contains the seeds, and .soon bursts, disclosing 2 cells, black and shining 
within, each with a single seed. Nutlets stony, oblong, narrow, deep glossy black, 
except the dull white tip. Embryo long, straight. Albumen litde or none. 

History and Habitat. — This plant, about which was formerly draped, by 
those versed in the occult arts, a veil of deep mystery, and whose forked branches 
were used as a divining-rod while searching for water and ores, grows profusely 
in the damp woods of Canada and the United States, flowering in October and 
ripening its fruit in the following summer. 

*aiia, like to, itJiV.^, an apple tree. Some plants bear a slight resemblance to small wild apple trees. 



58-2 

The many varied uses of a watery infusion of Witcli-hazel barl-c were fully 
known to the aborigines, whose knowledge of our medicinal llora has been 
stran"-ely correct as since proven. Its use in haemorrhages, congestions, inflam- 
mations and haemorrhoids is now generally known through the medium of an 
aqueous distillate of the bark. 

The U. S. Ph. (1882) has wisely added Hamamelis to their medicaments, 
officinal as E.xti-acluin Hamamelidis Fluiduni. In the Eclectic Materia Medica 
the officinal preparation is Decoctmn Hatnaiiie/is. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The bark of the young twigs and roots 
is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed, then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed with one-si.xth part of it, and the rest ot 
the alcohol added ; after having stirred the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated 
by decanting, straining and filtering is by transmitted light of a deep yellowish- 
brown color. It has a sweetish, slightly astringent taste, an acid reaction, and a 
peculiar odor, which, once noticed, will always distinguish it. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis of this plant has been made to 
determine its principles except as far as tannin is concerned ; this body was found 
in small percentage. Water seems, nevertheless, to extract all or nearly all of 
its virtues. The active body, however, must be more or less volatile, as prepara- 
tions of the plant, made without using proper care in regard to this feature, have 
not the action usually sought for. It is also a fact that the bark of the root alone 
is not sufficiently medicinal, and that the curative property of the tincture does 
not lie entirely in the tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Hamamelis, according to Dr. H. C. Preston, 
who first attempted the study of its action, causes a determination of venous 
blood to the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. Its action would seem to be, not 
upon the circulation itself but upon the coats of the veins, causing a relaxation, 
with consequent engorgement and exosmosis, this action in many cases proceed- 
ing to actual rupture of the vessels. The symptoms pointing to the above con- 
clusion are produced as follows: Vertigo, venous epistaxis, preceded by severe 
pressure both in the os frontis and superior nares, relieved by the haemorrhage; 
nausea and vomiting, pain and tenderness of the abdomen, with flatulence and 
diarrhoeic passages from the bowels ; pulsations in the rectum synchronous with 
the pulse ; much lumbar pain, with weakness of the lower limbs and general lassi- 
tude. The action of hamamelis upon the heart and circulation in general is not 
marked in these experiments. 

Description of Plate 58. 

I. End of flowering branch, BinghanUon, N. Y., October 23d, 1881. 

2. Leaves added in June. 

3. Flower (enlarged), the petals broken off. 

4. Fruit. 

5. Pollen grains, side and end view, x 380. 

6. Nutlet. 




59. 



^m.a(l nat.delet pinxt EPILOBIUM PALUSTRE, var. LiNEARE , Gray. 




''^'- f-"^"^- 



N. ORD-ONAGRACE^. 59 

GENUS.— EPI LOB lUM,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— ()(.T.\NI)R1.\ MnNocVMA. 



EPILOBIUM. 



WILLO}]'-HEliB. 



SYN.— EPILOBIUM PALUSTRE, VAR. LINEARB, GRAY; E. PALUSTRE, 
GRAY; E.ROSMARINIFOLIUM, PURSH.; B. LINBARE, MUHL. ; E. PALUS- 
TRE, VAR. ALBESCENS, RICH.; B. PALUSTRE, VAR. ALBIFLORUM, 
LBHM. ; E. OLIGANTHUM, MICHX., F. ; E. TENELLUM DENSUM, LEPTO- 
PHYLLUM, AND CILIATUM, RAF.; E. ANGUSTISSIMUM, WILLD. 
(GREENLAND); E. PUBESCBNS, PRBSL. ; E. SQUAMATUM, NUTT. 

COM. NAMES.— SWAMP WILLOW-HERB, NARROW-LEAVED WILLOW- 
HERB, MARSH EPILOBIUM, S"WAMP WILLOW, WICKOP; (FR.i HERBE 
DE ST. ANTOINE; (GBR.i ANTONSKRAUT. 



A TLVCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.\XT EPILOBIUM PALUSTRE, VAR. LIXEARE, GR.W. 

Description. — This slender, perennial herb usually attains a growth ot trom 
6 inches to 2 feet. Stem erect, roundish, terete, minutely hoary, pubescent, and 
branchy above. Leaves nearly sessile, narrowly lanceolate or linear, acute, attenu- 
ate at the base, and with more or less revolute margins ; the upper alternate ; the 
lower opposite, entire, or denticulate. Inflorescence in a terminal corymb ; floi^<cr- 
bucis nodding ; flowers minute, rose-colored. Calyx-tube not prolonged beyond the 
ovary ; limb 4-clefc, deciduous. Petals 4, erect, mosdy notched at the end, and 
about twice the length of the calyx. Stamens 8, erect; anthers short. Style erect, 
included ; stigma clavate, nearly entire. Fr2tit an elongated, linear, hoary, some- 
what quadrangular, loculicidal pod ; seeds numerous, bearing a tuft of long hairs 
upon the ape.x. 

Onagraceae. — This innocent order of mostly perennial herbs, represented in 
North America by 15 genera, 155 species, and numerous varieties, is characterized 
as follows: Floi,.'ers 4-merous (sometimes 2, 3, 5, or 6-merous), perfect, and sym- 
metrical. Calyx with its tube adhering to the ovary; lobes valvate in the bud or 
obsolete. Petals convolute in the bud, sometimes absent. Stamens as many, or 
twice as many, as the petals or calyx-lobes : filaments inserted at the summit of 
the calyx-tube : pollen with its grains often connected by cobwebby threads. Style 
single, slender; stigma 2- to 4-lobed or capitate. Fruit capsular or baccate; seeds 
small, anatropous ; albumen wanting. 



'K.Ti. <•//, upnn; \6go;, lol'OS, a (Xxl ; .is the flowers seem lo be. 



59-2 

History and Habitat. — The Swamp Willow-Herb is indigenous to North 
America, where it extends from the mountains of North Carolina, and from 
Southern Illinois, northward to the Arctic Circle. It habits high sphagnum swamps, 
and flowers in July and August. 

Epilobium has proven itself a mild tonic and astringent, quite useful in slight 
types of diarrhcea and dysentery attended with colic, cramps in the stomach, and 
light typhoid abdominal symptoms. In irritation of the intestinal canal, followed 
by diarrhoea and some tympanitis, it has often proved quite beneficial in the hands 
of our Eclectic physicians. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, while in flower, 
should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed ; then two parts by 
weight of alcohol taken, the pulp thoroughly mi.xed with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. Pour the whole into a well- stoppered bottle, 
and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, shaking twice a day. The 
tincture, prepared from this mass by decanting, pressing, and filtering, should have 
a light yellowish-brown color by transmitted light ; a smooth, then astringent taste, 
and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this plant has so far been 
made. It contains, however, tannin and gallic acid, beside the usual plant con- 
stituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The experiments of Dr. Wright, who took iVom 
one-half to one ounce of the tincture, caused some symptoms that must have been 
due to so large a "drink." Outside of the symptoms that we are prone to lay to 
the alcohol, the following also occurred : Salivation ; loose stools ; red urine ; and 
chills, followed by feverishness and general aching throughout the body. 

A proving with the tincture prepared as here directed, should be made. 



Description ok Plate 59. 

I. A small plant from Ai)palachin, N. Y., July 26th. 18S6. 

2. A flower. 

3. Petal. 

4. Stamens. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Pod. 

7. Seed. 

( 2-5 and 7 enlarged.) 



60. 



|.H ,» ;. 




(p.TU.aiinatdel.etpinxt. 



CEnothera Biennis Linn 



N. ORD -ONAGRACE^. 60 

GENUS.— CENOTH ERA,* LINN. 



Si:X. SVST.— OCTAXORIA Ml ).\'( )GVNI.\. 



OENOTHERA 



E VEJ^IJ^G PRIME OSE. 



SYN.-CENOTHERA BIENNIS, LINN.; CENOTHERA PARVIFLORA, LINN.; 

CENOTHERA GAUROIDES, HORNEM ; ONAGRA BIENNIS, SCOP.; 

ONAGRA VULGARIS, AND CHRYSANTHA, SPACH. 
COM. NAMES.— COMMON EVENING PRIMROSE. NIGHT WILLOW-HERB, 

SCABBISH, TREE PRIMROSE, CURE-ALL ; (FR.) ONAGRE ; (GER.) 

NACHTKERZ. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE, FRESH, NEWLY BLOSSOMING PLANT, CENOTHERA 

BIENNIS, LINN. 



Description. — This nocturnal annual, or biennial plant, attains a growth of 
from 2 to 4 feet. Rool conical ; bark thin, yellowish, or brownish. The roots of 
the first year are fleshy and succulent, in the second they become fibrous and 
woody. Leaves alternate, 2-6 inches long, ovate-lanceolate, acute, very minutely 
toothed, and pubescent; the cauline sessile, those near the root contracted into a 
petiole. Inflorescence a terminal, foliaceous spike, lengthening greatly as the 
flowers develop and the fruit matures ; flozvers odorous, light-yellow, ephemeral. 
Calyx-tube cylindrical, caducous, prolonged quite a distance beyond the ovary, be- 
ing more than twice as long as its lobes ; limb of 4 long, refle.\ed lobes. Petals 4, 
obcordate, not clawed, withering and becoming orange-brown after a night's 
expansion. Stamens 8, nearly equal, shorter than, and both opposite and alter- 
nate with, the petals; filaments slender, sometimes curved; anthers linear, versa- 
tile. Ovary ovate ; style terminal, long, cylindrical, exserted ; slig7nas a group of 4 
linear, diverging lobes. Fruit a 4-valved, many-seeded follicle ; follicle oblong, 
sessile, tapering above ; seeds naked. Read description of the order under Kpilo- 
bium palustre, 59'. 

History and Habitat. — The Evening Primrose is common in the United States, 
growing in fields and waste places generally, and flowering from July to Septem- 
ber. It varies gready in its growth, affording at least 5 distinct varieties, viz., 
var. a grandiflora, a large-flowered form ; var. ^ muricata, with rough, bristly 
stem and pods ; var. y canescens ; var. h hirsutissima, a particularly hairy form ; 

* Theophrastus describes a plant whose dried root caught the odor of wine. Hence he called it ofva,-, oinos, wine; 
»i(pa, thera, catch. (Barton.) Or taking Siijia to mean a hunt or chase, it is alleged that the meaning is applicable to the 
belief that it was the root of this plant, or one of its botanical relatives, that was eaten to provoke an appetite for wine. 

This genus is a large and varied one, containing 57 species, and ^ varieties, in North America alone. 



60-2 

and var. s cruciata, having small, linear petals, shorter than the stamens. The 
flowers open fully, after sundown, and remain so until the sun is well up in the 
morning, then wither and fall. Much has been written concerning the property 
inherent in the petals of many species of this genus, of emitting a " phosphor- 
escence" at night, the flowers being distinguishable at a goodly distance beyond 
non-refractory objects by their whitish luminosity. In regard to this phosphor- 
escence a word or two is in place. That the petals do emit light on a dark night 
is not fanciful ; still it is not due to a property of giving out spontaneous light 
(phosphorescence), but to a process of storing up sunlight during the day, and 
retaining it at night — a property identical with that exhibited by hepar sulphuns 
calcarea, and the sulphides of barium and strontium.^'' 

The young roots of the evening primrose are said to be edible and pleasant, 
either pickled or boiled, having " a nutty taste, quite similar to that of rampion 
{Campanula rapuncuhis), and are used in Germany and some parts of France, 
either stewed or raw, in salads, like celery." (Porcher.) Lindley states, that the 
young mucilaginous twigs are used in the same way. 

About the only previous use of this plant in medicine was a strong decoction 
of the dried herb as an e.xternal application in infantile eruptions, and as a general 
vulnerary. Dr. Winterburnf states it to be a curative in spasmodic asthma, per- 
tussis, gastric irritation, irritable bladder, and chronic exhaustive diarrhoeas. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, as it is coming 
into bloom, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole, it is poured 
into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, obtained from this mass by filtration, should have a clear red- 
dish-orange color by transmitted light, an odor similar to that of wet hay, a taste 
at first mucilaginous, then astringent and bitter, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — ffi^wr^/Z/crw. This body, claimed as a prin- 
ciple by Chicoisneau, is evidently an extract, which probably contains all of the 
principles of the plant except the acrid body, which is dissipated by heat. It has 
not yet been analyzed, but would doubtless show a resin, a bitter principle, and a 
special acid. Mucilage is present in large percentage. 

Potassium nitrate, K N O3. — Crystals of this salt are readily extracted from 
an alcoholic tincture of the root. J 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The brain symptoms following a dose of 60 
drops of the fluid extract of CEnothera in a woman of 40, as chronicled by Dr. 
Nute,§ are very interesting, and should stimulate a desire for a fuller proving. 

* Calcined oyster shells emit stored sunlight, on account of the sulphide of calcium in their composition. This fact 
is largely utilized in the manufacture of luminous clock-faces, match-safes, door-plates, and the like. These objects, when 
placed in the sunlight during the day, are visible at night. 

t "The Evening I'rinirose," a paper read before the Ills. State Horn. Soc'y. Am. Homoaopath, 1883, p. 317. 

X Claussen, Am. Jour. Phar., 1884, p. 365. \ U. S. Med. and Surg. Jotirn., vol. ix, p. 395. 



60-3 

This individual experienced extreme vertigo, inability to sit or stand erect, semi- 
unconsciousness, loss of muscular power, numbness and peripheral prickling, 
rigors, occasional muscular cramps in the abdomen and extremities, and great 
exhaustion. These symptoms were followed by a free movement of the bowels, 
and a copious discharge of urine. Dr. Winterburn* judges that the drug has a 
special action upon the pneumogastric nerve, and, reflexly, an irritative action 
upon its pulmonary and laryngeal branches. 



Description of Plate 6o. 

I. Top of flowering plant; Chemung, N. Y., Sept. 4th, 1879. 

2. Pistil. 

3. Fruit. 

* [/. S. Med. and Surg, youm., vol. ix, p. 395. 



61. 




.TU.adnatdeI.etpinxt. 



Opuntia Vulgaris, miii. 



N. ORD -CACTACL^. 61 

GENUS.— OPUNTIA,* TOURN. 



SEX. SYST.— ICUS.\NDRIA MONOGV.M.V. 



OPUNTIA. 



PRICKLY PEAR. 



SYN.— OPUNTIA VULGARIS, MILL. ; O. ITALICA, TEN. ; O. HUMIPUSUS, 
AND O. MARITIMA AND HUMIPUSA, RAP.; O. INTERMEDIA, SALM. ; 
CACTUS OPUNTIA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— PRICKLY PEAR, INDIAN FIG. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FLOWERS AND GREEN OVARIES OF OPUNTIA 

VULGARIS, LINN. 



Description. — This curious, low, pale, prostrate, spreading plant is character- 
ized as follows: Branches (?) more or less assurgent ; yi9/«/.f fiat, broadly ovate, 
the younger ones leafy, the older prickly; leaves minute ovate-subulate, appressed, 
deciduous, arranged spirally about the joints; axils more or less bristly with numer- 
ous short, barbed prickles ; spines rarely present, when found they are whitish in 
the north and yellowish southward, and vary from two-thirds to one and one- 
quarter inches long. Inflorescence consisting of a few sessile, solitary flowers 
along the apical ridge of the joints ; floniers large, sulphur-yellow, not ephemeral ; 
perianth not united into a prolonged tube, but regular and spreading. Sepals ovate- 
lanceolate, tapering to a point. Petals ample, the inner roundish. Stamens numer- 
ous, shorter than the larger petal ; filaments glabrous ; anthers linear, versatile. 
Ovary i -celled, obovate ;_ j/y/^ cylindrical, narrowed at the base; stigmas about 6, 
in two sets, clavate. Fruit an obovoid, nearly smooth, crimson, pulpy and edible 
berry, having a deep depression at the apex showing the scars of the perianth. 
Seeds numerous, flattish-reniform, with a rounded ridge extending over the arch 
opposite the hilum ; embryo curved around the thin albumen ; cotyledons large, 
becoming foliaceous. 

CactacesB. — This large and peculiar family of thick and fleshy plants is repre- 
sented in North America by 5 genera, containing in all 142 species and 39 recog- 
nized varieties. Its characteristics are as follows : Stems globular or columnar and 
angled, composed of numerous compressed joints. Leaves usually absent or rep- 
resented by spines, thorns or bristles. Flowers solitary, sessile. Sepals and petals 
similar and evolute, numerous and imbricated in several rows, all adherent to the 
ovary. Stamens numerous ; filaments long and slender, inserted into a ring formed 
by the union of the sepals and petals. Styles united into one ; stigmas numerous. 
F7'uit a berry ; seeds numerous, campylotropous, finally becoming separate from 
the placentae and loose in the pulp ; placentce several, parietal ; albumen scanty. 

• A Theophrastian name for some species growing in the country of the Opuntiani, whose chief city was Opus, near Phocis. 



61-2 

The proven plants of this order are : the Jamaican Cactus grandiflorus, Linn. ; 
the beautiful Night-blooming Cereus, whose ephemeral flowers are remarkable for 
their exceeding size and fragrance ; Cereus Bonplandii, Parm. ; and C serpentinus, 
Haw. No other species are used in medicine, though many furnish both food and 
drink to those compelled to pass over the barren wastes which this order mostly 
habits, the pulpy fruits and succulent joints, deprived of their coat of mail, being 
acid and aqueous to a high degree. Mr. J. R. Dodge* speaks as follows of the 
species used by the American Aborigines : 

" EcJiinocactiis ll'islizeni. — A section of the stem is often employed as a cook- 
ing vessel. The seeds are small and black, but, when parched and pulverized, 
make good gruel and even bread. The pulp of the fruit is rather sour, and not 
much eaten. Travellers in passing through the cactus wastes often resort to this 
plant to quench their thirst, its interior containing a soft, white, watery substance, 
of slightly acid taste, which is rather pleasant when chewed. It is a common sight 
to see on each side of the road these plants with a large perforation made by the 
thirsty traveller. An Indian, when travelling, and wishing to make a meal, selects 
a large plant, three feet or more long and two in diameter, cuts it down and hol- 
lows it out so as to form a trough ; into this he throws the soft portions of the 
pulpy substance which surrounds the central woody axis, and adds meat, roots, 
seeds, meal, fruits, or any edible thing on hand ; water is added, and the whole 
mixed together ; stones are then highly heated and dropped into the mixture, and, 
as they cool, are taken out, licked clean, reheated, and returned to the cooking ves- 
sel, until the mixture is thoroughly boiled. This is a favorite dish with the Yabapais 
and Apaches of Arizona. The Papajo Indians pare off the rind and thorns of 
large plants of this species of cactus, letting it remain several days to bleed, when 
the pulp is pared down to the woody axis, cut up into suitable pieces, and boiled 
in syrup of the Cereus gigantais or Cereus Tluirbtri. If a kind of sugar which is 
made by the Mexicans is attainable, it is employed instead of the syrup, thus form- 
ing a good preserve. These pieces, when taken out of the liquid and dried, are as 
good as candied citron, which they much resemble in taste and substance. 

"' Prickly pear [Opuiitia Etigeliiiani, O. vulgaris, O. Camaiicliica, O. Rafines- 
qtm, O. occidcntalis). — The fruit of these species of cactus is much eaten by all the 
Indians of New Mexico, Arizona, California and Utah, under the common Spanish 
name of tiinas, great quantities being dried for use in the winter. These plants 
grow in arid desert localities which produce nothing better ; they are large and 
of a bright red to purple color; of a rather pleasant, sweet, somewhat acid taste, 
and have thin skins and rather large seeds, which are discarded. The skin is 
studded with bunches of very fine downy spines, which the Indians brush off with 
a bunch of grass. The Apaches use wooden tongs to gather the fruit, to prevent 
being scratched by these spines or the thorns of the plant. The Pawnees and 
Papajoes dry the unripe fruit of the Opuntia for future use, to be cooked with 
meat and other substances. The fresh unripe fruit is often boiled in water from 
ten to twelve hours, until soft, when it becomes like apple-sauce; then, being 
allowed to ferment a little, it becomes stimulating and nutritious. Some Indians 
roast the leaves of the Opuntia in hot ashes, and, when cooked, the outer skin, 

* U. S. Agric. Repts., 1S70, 417-418. 



61-3 

with the thorns, is easily removed, leaving a slimy, sweet, succulent substance, 
which is eaten. Hunger and destitution frequently compel Indians and white men 
to live for many days on this food. A yellowish white gum often oozes out of the 
leaves of the Opuntia, which is also eaten." 

History and Habitat. — This species is indigenous to the sandy fields of the 
Adantic and Pacific seaboards, as well as the arid lands of the southwestern por- 
tion of North America ; it is also found in Europe. It habits rocky places and dry 
sands, where it flowers in June and July at the north. 

The fruit is edible and at the same time a pleasant diuretic, though it renders 
the urine a bloody tinge ; the taste is acid and cool, much resembling the Pome- 
granate. Rafinesque states* that the split joints make a good emollient applica- 
tion for acute rheumatism, and, when baked, for chronic ulcers, gout, and recent 
wounds ; the juice and gummy exudation, he says, is used in gravel. Dr. Porcher 
saysf he is informed that a decoction of the joints is mucilaginous, and much used 
in Alabama as a demulcent drink in pulmonic and pleuritic affections. Merat j 
claims that the cut joints are discutient. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh flowers and green ovaries 
are chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight 
of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it and the 
rest of the alcohol added. The whole is then poured into a well-stoppered vial, 
and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated 
from this mass by filtration, should have a slightly opaque straw-color by trans- 
mitted light ; a slight odor of the flowers ; a bitterish and astringent taste ; and an 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — An analysis of the fruit was made by Mr. 
W. \V. Light,§ and resulted in the determination of: Tartaric acid, QHyOg; citric 
acid mucilage, and coloring-matter. In the seeds a fixed oil, a fat acid, albumen, 
starch and glucose were found, but no glucoside nor alkaloid. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to the experiments made by Drs. 
Burdick,|| Kunze and Fitch,T[ with doses varying from a small portion to a drachm 
of the tincture, the effects are as follows: Mental disturbances; acute pain in the 
globe of the eye ; epistaxis ; nausea in both stomach and bowels as if diarrhoea 
would set in; urging to stool; urine red, increased; coldness; and various pains, 
principally about the joints. 

Description of Plate 6i. 

1. Two joints in flower and leaf, Salem, Mass., July 3cl, 1885. 

2. Section of flower, stamens and floral envelope removed. 

3. Stamen. 

4. Stigma. 

5. Fruit. 

6. Seeds. 

(3, 4 and 6 enlarged.) 



* Med. Flora, 2, 243. t Hesourc. South. Fidds and Forests, 66. J Diet. Univ. de A/at. Afed., vi, 11. 

2 Am. your. Phar., 1884, 3. || N. A. Jour, of Horn., 1874 48. \ Trans. Ec. Med. Soc, 1875. 



,9 




I 



(f.m.adnatdei.etpinxt. ERYNGIUM YuCCALFOLIUM , Michx. 



N. ORD-UMBELLIFER^. 62 

GENUS— ERYNGIUM* TOURN. 



SEX. SVST.— TEN'TAXriRIA DIGVNIA. 



ERYNGIUM. 



BUTTOJV SJfAKEROOT. 



SYN.— ERYNGIUM YUCC^FOLIUM, MICHX. ; E. AQUATICUM, LINN. (IN 

PART). 
COM. NAMES.— BUTTON SNAKEROOT, RATTLESNAKE MASTER, ERYNGO, 

CORN SNAKEROOT; (FR.) PANICANT D'EAU; (GER.) WASSERMANNS- 

TRBU. 



A TINCTURE OF THE ROOT OF ERYNGIUM YUCC-1-:F0LIUM, MICHX.f 

Description. — This peculiar, sedge-like perennial grows to a height of from 
I to 6 feet. Stcvi smooth, erect, and grooved. Leaves linear, six inches to two 
feet long, and one-half to one inch wide, taper-pointed, coriaceous, rigid, parallel- 
veined, gramineous, and remotely bristly-fringed upon the margins. Inflorescence 
in a terminal compound umbel, each peduncle bearing a compact head ; heads 
broadly ovate ; bracts entire, paleaceous, not spinous ; flozoers inconspicuous, white, 
all fertile, closely sessile ; leaves of the itivoluccls mostly entire, and shorter than 
the heads. Calyx 5-toothed ; teeth persistent. Petals connivent, oblong, emargi- 
nate. Styles filiform. Fruit top-shaped, covered with little scales or tubercles, 
having no ribs and scarcely any vittae, the inner face of each mericarp flat or 
nearly so. 

Umbelliferae. — This large and very natural order, of herbs, represented in 
North America by 50 genera and 187 species, is characterized as follows: Stems 
usually hollow and striate. Leaves alternate, mostly compound ; petioles sheath- 
ing or e.\panding at the base. Inflorescence in terminal, compound umbels, often 
subtended by a whorl of bracts (involucre), usually also subtending the umbellets 
{invohicel) ; floivcrs small, in many genera dichogamous. Calyx adherent to the 
whole face of the ovary: limb minute, entire or 5-toothed. Petals 5, usually 
inflexed at the point, imbricate or valvate in aestivation. Stamens 5, alternate with 
the petals, and inserted with them upon the disk. Ovary 2-carpelled, surmounted 
by the fleshy disk that bears the petals and stamens ; ovules 2, anatropous ; styles 
2, distinct, or united at their thickened bases ; stigmas simple. Fruit a cremocarp, 
consisting of 2 coherent achenia {ntericarps) which separate along the middle 
interval {commissure), and are usually suspended from the summit of a slender 

• '£^}ytXy, erygtifi, to belch, from carminative properties. 

t A much better name than E. aquatictim, Linn., as the plant never is truly aquatic with us. 



62-2 

prolongation of the axis {carpop/iore) ; mericarps marked lengthwise by 5 primary 
ribs, and often with 5 secondary intermediate, in the interstices or intervals be- 
tween these ribs are commonly lodged few or many oil-tubes {vittce), which are 
longitudinal canals in the substance of the fruit, containing aromatic oil. Seeds 
suspended from the summit of the mericarp ; embryo minute; albwiicn hard. The 
flowers in this order are so minute, and so nearly alike in all genera, that the dif- 
ferentiation is usually, in great part, based upon the cremocarps. 

Besides the seven species treated of in this work, we have provings of the 
following plants: The Persian Ammoniacum {Dorema Ammoniactcm, Don.), a fetid, 
stimulating, discutient gum-rgsin ; the European Celery {Apiiim gj'aveolens, Linn.), 
which, though an acrid poison when growing in w^et places, is a delightful salad 
when cultivated; the Thibetan Asafoetida {^Narthex Asafoelida, Falc), a fetid, 
stimulant, and antispasmodic gum-resin; the Central European Athamantha 
{^Peuccdmium Oreoseliimm, Moench), an aromatic and powerful stimulant; the 
North European and Asiatic Water Hemlock [Cietita virosa, Linn.), a dangerous, 
acrid, narcotic poison; the European Sea Holly [Eiyngiiun niaritiimim, Linn.), a 
sweet, aromatic, tonic and diuretic ; the Italian Giant Fennel [Fej-tila glanca, Linn.), 
a stimulating antihysteric ; the Mediterranean Fennel Seed {Fa'nicitbwi officinale, 
Allioni.), an aromatic stimulant and carminative ; the European and North Asiatic 
Cow-Parsnip, Branca Ursina {Heracleum Spho7idylinm, Linn.), an acrid vesicant; 
the subtropical Indian Pennywort {Hydrocotyle Asiafica, Linn.), noted as a remedy 
for leprosy, ichthyosis, and rheumatism ; the European Masterwort [Impcraioria 
ostnitJdrini, Linn.), a febrifuge, antiperiodic, and masticatory in toothache; the 
European Hemlock Dropwort [CEnant/ie crocata, Linn.), a narcotico-acrid poison 
of great virulence; the Sardinian Parsley {Petroseliiuim satiinun, Hoff.), a noted 
diuretic pot-herb; the European Water Dropwort {F/ieUandriuni aquatic^un, Linn.), 
which partakes of the poisonous nature of CEnanthe, but is less dangerous ; the 
Levantine Bibernell or Burnet Saxifrage {Pimpinella Saxifraga, Linn.), an astrin- 
gent, masticatory, also used to remove freckles; the Central Asiatic Sumbul 
{Fei-nla Swiibul, Hook., f.), a Russian " specific " for cholera, that failed and was 
afterward used as an antihysteric, and remedy for hypersecretive mucous mem- 
branes ; the Northern Europe and Asiatic Caraway {Cariim Cariii, Linn.), a well- 
known aromatic stimulant and condiment ; and lastly, the European Water Pars- 
nip [Slum /atifoliwn, Linn.), an acrid, narcotic poison. 

Many other species are used in general medicine.* The European Tur- 
bith [Laserpifium latifoliu77i, Jacq.), yields an acrid, bitter, caustic, and violently 
purgative gum-resin. The European genus Anthriscus, yields two species, A. 
sylvestris, Hoff., and A. vulgaris, Pers., that are acrid, narcotic poisons ; while A, 
Cerefolium, Hoff, is an agreeable pot-herb, called Chervil. The South Russian 
CacJirys odoiitalgica, Pall., is, as its name denotes, a remedy for aching carious 
teeth. The Indian and Levantine Fructus Ptychotis {Carum Ajoivan, Bend.), is 
carminative, and the oil antiseptic. The European and Levantine genus Pim- 

* Concerning this order it is noteworlhv, that those which grow near water are generally acrid, narcotic poisons, 
while those seeking dry soils are little else than carminative. 



62-3 

pinclla yields the well known Anise (/*. Anisiini), an aromatic stimulant and car- 
minative, as well as P. c/issec/a, Retz., and /'. 7iiao)ia, Linn., which have properties 
similar to those of P. Saxifraga, mentioned above. The genus Ferula, which 
includes Na7-llicx, yields the following substances, beside Sumbul and Asafoetida 
mentioned above: African Gum Ammoniacum from F. tingitana,\^\x\x\.\ Persian 
Galbanum is produced by F. Galbatiijlua, and F. rubricaulis, Boiss. ; it saction is 
considered to be intermediate between asafoetida and ammoniacum. Asafoetida is 
also produced by F. Scorodosma, Bentl., and F. alliacca, Bois. {^F. AsafaHida, Linn., 
cannot be decided upon. It was founded upon Keempfer's descriptions and frag- 
mentary specimens, neither of which are conclusive. — Bentley). The European 
genus, Peiicedanum, contains, beside Athamantha, the following medicinal species : 
Sulphur-wort {P. officinale, Linn.), reputed diuretic and antispasmodic; Marsh 
Parsley [P. palicstre, Moen.), a famous Courland remedy for epilepsy; and Dill 
[P. gravcolens, Hiern.), a stimulant and carminative. The European and Asiatic 
Coriander {Coriandiiun sativum, Linn.), is an aromatic stimulant and carminative; 
the Levantine Cumin [Cuniiiuau Cymiiutm, Linn.), a stimulant, carminative, and 
discutient. The European genus, Daiicus, yields the common Carrot (/?. Carrota, 
Linn.), whose seeds are diuretic, and root a well known esculent ; while the Sici- 
lian D. gninniifcr. Lam., and Corsican D. Ginoiduni, Linn., are supposed to yield 
the Bdellium of the old Pharmacopoeias.'^' Opoponax is a fetid deobstruent, and 
antispasmodic gum-resin, produced by the juice of Paslinaca Opoponax, Linn. 
The Alpine Lovage {Ligiisticuni Icvistiami, Linn.), is carminative, stimulant, diuretic, 
and emmenagogue. The root of the European Aslrantia major, Linn., is acrid 
and purgative. The European Eringo {^Eryngium campestre, Linn.), is considered 
by Boerhaave, the first of aperient, diuretic roots. It has been also recommended 
in gonorrhcEa, hepatic and intestinal obstructions, and suppression of the menses, 
and considered aphrodisiac; its scope is considered larger than that of the Sea 
Holly mentioned above. The Italian Bracala {Angelica nemorosa. Ten.), furnishes 
the Neapolitans with a remedy for the itch. Samphire, a saline aromatic, is the 
product of Crilhum marilimiim, Linn. Alexanders are the aromatic fruits of the 
European Smyrnium Ohisatrum, Linn., formerly used instead of celery. 

Asa Dulcis — in contradistinction to Asa Fetida — which enjoyed the highest 
reputation ainong the ancients, as an antispasmodic, emetic, deobstruent, and 
diuretic,f is yielded by Thapsia garganica, Linn., or the nearly allied T. sylphmm ; 
the resin of the root is said to be fully as active and thorough a vesicant as croton 
oil ; it deserves a careful proving. Numerous other species have held a place in 
medicine, and deserve mention, but the above list covers their action. 

Beside the edible species already mentioned, carrots, parsnips, celery, and 
chervil, many other plants of this order are eaten. Prangos fabularia, Lindl., is 
suggested by Royle to be the ^vk^iov of the Greeks, mentioned by Alexander's 

* India Bdellium is referred to BaUaniodcndron mukul, and African Bdellium to B. Africaniim, Arn. (Burscraceae). 

f This was the Laser cyrenaicum of Cyrene, a drug in high reputation among the ancient-; for its medical uses; 
it had miraculous powers assigned to it, such as neutralizing the effects of poison, curing envenomed wounds, restoring 
sight to the blind, and youth to the aged. .So great was its reputation that the princes of Cyrene caused it to be struck on 
the reverse of their coins; and the Cyrenian doctors were reckoned among the most eminent in the world. Its value was 
estimated by its weight in gold. — Lindley. 



62-4 

historians as a highly nutritious food for cattle, and even man, of heating and 
fattening qualities. The American Aborigines use several species, prominent 
among which Mr. Dodge* mentions the following: 

"Dill iyPeitcedanuni graveolens, Wats.), called by the Snakes and Shoshone 
Indians Yanipah. — This spindle-shaped root grows in low, timbered bottoms, and 
is esteemed as the best of its kind when used tor food. It is analogous to the 
parsnip, and is an article of commerce among the Indians. The seeds are used 
to flavor soup." 

" PodosciadiiDii Californiciuu, Gray. — The tubers of this species form one of 
the dainty dishes of the Oregon Indians. They are black, but when boiled like 
potatoes they burst open lengthwise, showing a snowy-white farinaceous substance, 
which has a sweet, cream-like taste, with a slight parsley flavor. It is an excellent 
root, the cultivation of which might prove useful among the whites." 

" Koiise root {Peucedanum ambigintui, Nutt). — The root of this plant is dug in 
April or May when in bloom. It grows on hills and mountains which are so poor 
that grass will not grow upon them. When fresh it is like the parsnip in taste, and 
as it dies becomes brittle and very white, with an agreeable taste of mild celery. It is 
easily reduced to flour. When its brown epidermis is removed, innumerable small 
dots are revealed. Both the roots and the flour will keep several months. It is some- 
times called bread or biscuit root by travelers, and Kouse root by the Indians of 
Oregon and Idaho. The Canadians know it by the name of Racine blanc. After 
the bread has been made a short time, its taste is not unlike that of stale biscuits. 
When the roots have been pounded fine, the flour is pressed into flat cakes, one 
foot wide, three feet long, and from a quarter to half an inch thick, of an oblong 
rectangular form, with a hole in the middle by which they are fastened on the 
saddles when traveling. The cakes have a ribbed appearance, caused by being- 
laid on sticks stretched over the tent fires, for the purpose of smoke-drying or 
baking the bread. When broken up the bread has a coarse, granulated appear- 
ance, especially when not ground very fine, and is very insipid." 

History and Habitat. — Eryngium Yuccsfolium is indigenous to North America, 
where it ranges from New Jersey to Wisconsin and southward. It habits damp or 
dry prairies and pine barrens, and blossoms in July and August. 

This species was valued highly by the Aborigines as an alexiteric, and, com- 
bined with Iris versicolor, as a febrifuge and diuretic ; since their time it has come 
into use by first the laity, then the physician, as a stimulant, diaphoretic, sialo- 
gogue, expectorant, diuretic, and alterative. A decoction of the root has been 
found useful in dropsy, nephritic and calculous disorders ; chronic laryngitis and 
bronchitis; irritation of the urethra, vaginal, uterine, and cystic mucous mem- 
branes ; gonorrha;a, gleet, and leucorrhoea ; mucoid diarrhoea ; local inflammations 
of the mucous membranes ; exhaustion from sexual depletion with loss of erectile 
power, seminal emissions, and orchitis. By some physicians it has been preferred 
to Seneka snakeroot for its sphere, and by others it has been considered fully 
equal to Contrayerva. The powdered root is said to make a fine escharotic 

* U. S. Agric. Rep., 1S70, pp. 405-7. 



62-5 

application to fungoid growths and indolent ulcerations, preventing gangrene, and 
stimulating them to resolution. 

The plant is not officinal in the U, S. Ph.; in the Eclectic Dispensatory the 
preparation recommended is Dccoctuni Eryiigii, 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered after the 
fruits are fully ripe, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, 
pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand for eight days in a dark, 
cool place. The tincture, separated by decanting, straining, and filtering, has a 
clear reddish-orange color by transmitted light ; an odor much like that of an old 
chest that has been shut up with oil-cloth for some time ; a bitterish, acrid, and 
terebinthic taste; and an acid reaction. It leaves a sensation deep in the throat, 
much like that following Senega. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — This root yields its properties to both water 
and alcohol, and probably contains an acrid, volatile oil, a bitter principle, and 
sugar. No analysis has been made of the root; the tincture, however, shows the 
presence of a small amount of resin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to the experiments of Drs. C. H. 
McClelland, C. H. Coggswells, and W. G. Jones, Eryngium causes, in doses of 
from 5 to 150 drops of the tincture : Depression of spirits ; vertigo and headache ; 
irritation of the palpebral mucous membrane, followed by purulent discharges; 
inflammation of the eustachian tube, followed by a discharge of fetid pus ; a 
similar condition of the nasal and pharyngeal mucous membranes ; nausea and 
burning in the stomach; colic; constipation, with tenesmus; frequent desire to 
urinate, with a decrease in quantity daily passed; stinging, burning sensation in 
the urethra, severe pain in left testiclg. depression of sexual desire, followed by 
excitation, lewd dreams, pollutions, and discharges of prostatic fluid ; a sensa- 
tion of dyspnoea, and constriction of the throat;* and slight increase in the heart's 
action. 



Description of Plate 62. 

I and 2. Whole plant, from St. Augustine. Fla.. .\ug. 2d. 1886. 

3. Flower. 

4. Calyx and styles. 
5 and 6. Petals. 

7 and 8. Stamens. 

9. Fruit. 

(3-9 enlarged.) 



♦ This symptom followed my tasting the tincture for tlic ahovc description, .nnd became, in half an hour, so strong 
as to be decidedly uncomfortable. — C. F. M. 




^.TR.adnatdel.etpinxt. 



PASTINACA SATIVA,Linn. 



N. ORD.-UMBELLIFER^. 63 

GENUS.— PASTINACA,* TOURN. 
SEX. SVST.— PENTAXDKIA DIGVNIA. 



PASTINACA. 



PAESJVIF. 



SYN.-PASTINACA SATIVA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— GARDEN PARSNIP OR PARSNEP; (PR.) PANAIS POTAQER; 
(GER.) PASTINAKE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF PASTIN.\CA SATIVA, LINN. 

Description. — This usually cultivated biennial herb grows to a height of from 
3 to 6 feet. /?oo/ conical, long and slender, fleshy and succulent. S^em smooth, 
deeply and plentifully grooved. Leaves pinnately compounded of 3 to 8 pairs of 
shining leaflets; leaflets ovate or oblong, obtuse cut-toothed or coarsely serrate, the 
terminal 3-lobed, all somewhat pubescent beneath; ^r/'/^/^j- sheathed. Umbels \a.Tge. 
and flat ; involucre and involucels small or absent ; flowers all perfect, none radiant. 
Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals yellow, roundish, entire, involute; point broad and 
retuse. Fruit oval, flat, with a thin, single-winged margin ; carpels minutely 
5-ribbed, 3 of which are dorsal and equidistant, 2 lateral and at or near the mar- 
gin ; vittce as long as the carpel, i in each sulcus, 2 in the commissure; albumen 
flat. 

History and Habitat. — The Parsnip is a well-known culinary root, introduced 
into this country from Europe. It has now run wild in fields and waysides through- 
out the central and eastern parts of the United States, where it flowers from July to 
October. 

The root is succulent, nutritious, sweet and in its cultivated state very pleas- 
ant to many, but when wild or in its second year's growth, it is rank and acrid 
poisonous, causing emesis and inflammation of the alimentary tract, followed by 
flatulent colic and diuresis. The seeds have been used in agues, with what cura- 
tive action I cannot state. 

In the north of Ireland a kind of beer is made by brewing the roots with hops : 
a good wine is also made in some places from them ; and by distillation a sort of 
rum is produced similar to that of the sorghum product. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The roots of the second year's growth, 
or those of wild individuals, are prepared and macerated as in the previous plant. 
The resulting tincture is almost colorless, being but slightly tinged with yellow ; 
is very gummy, has a peculiar honey-like odor, a sweet taste, and an acid reaction. 

* Pastus, nourishment. 



63-2 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis has yet been made to determine 
an active principle. Sugar abounds in the root, also starch and a gummy 
extractive. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Several cases of poisoning are recorded from 
the use of the wild or old roots. The symptoms following their ingestion are : 
Illusions of sight, dilated pupils, vertigo, difficult breathing, weak, slow pulse, and 
quiet delirium dependent upon the visions. In Dr. Pupcke's cases, where seven 
children ate of the cooked wild roots,* "all labored under 'delirium tremens,' they 
were in constant motion, talked incessantly, without knowing what they said, and 
fancied they saw objects which had no existence ; they fought with each other, 
and occasionally had attacks of convulsive laughter; they rejected everything that 
was offered them, and were obliged to be restrained by force." 

All the symptoms of the drug point to severe gastric irritation, with reflex 
action upon the brain and spinal cord. 

Description of Plate 63. 

1. Summit of a wild individual in young fruit, Binghamton, N. Y., June 26th, 1885. 

2. Part of stem. 

3. Face of flower. 

4. Petal. 

5. Stamen. 

6. Ripe pistil. 

7. Root. 

8. Seed. 

9. Section of a carpel. 
(3-6 and 8-9 enlarged.) 

* Pharm. Jour., 1S4S, 184. 




.ad nal.dei.el 



ArCHANGEUCA AtROPURPUREA , Hoffm. 



N. ORD. UMBELLIFER^. 64 

GENUS.— ARCH ANGELIC A,* HOFFM. 
SEX. .SVST.— l'ENT.\NDRI.\ I)IGVNI.\. 



ANGELICA 
ATROPURPUREA. 

GREAT jlJVaELICA. 

SYN.— ARCHANGBLICA ATROPURPUREA, HOPF.; ANGELICA ATROPUR- 
PUREA, LINN. ; A. TRIQUINATA, MX. ; IMPBRATORIA LUCIDA, NUTT. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON ANGELICA,! HIGH ANGELICA, MASTBRWORT.t 
(GBR.) PURPURFARBIGB ANGELICA. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ARCH.\NGELIC.\ ATROPURPUREA, HOFF. 

Description. — This strong-scented, perennial herb grows to a height of from 
4 to 6 feet. Rool somewhat conical. Sicm very stout, smooth, dark-purple, and 
hollow. Leaves 2 to 3 ternately-compound ; leaflets 5 to 7 pinnate, ovate, sharply 
cut-serrate, acute, and pale beneath, the three terminal ones often confluent and 
somewhat decurrent at the base. Infl-orescence a globular compound umbel, hi- 
voliicre little or none ; iin'oiuccls of very short, subulate leaflets. Calyx with very 
short teeth. Petals ovate, entire, with the sharp tips infle.xed. Fruit smooth ; 
caj-pels somewhat compressed, furnished with 3 rather prominent dorsal ribs, and 
the two lateral ones prolonged into marginal wings ; vittce not on the pericarp, 
but surrounding the seed and adherent to its surface; seed convex upon the back 
and flattish upon the face, very loose in the pericarp. Read description of the 
order under 62. 

History and Habitat. — The Great Angelica is indigenous to North America, 
from Pennsylvania and Wisconsin northward, where it habits low grounds along 
streams, and flowers in June. 

When fresh the roots are poisonous, and are said to have been used for 
suicidal purposes by the Canadian Indians ; when dried, however, they lose this 
quality, and are then considered carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue and stimu- 
lant. The dried root was often used, especially in combination with other and 
better-known diuretics, in anasarca and various diseases of the urinary organs; 
and alone in flatulent colic and suppressed menstruation. Dr. Schell claims § that 

* This name alluded to its supposed high angelic properiies. 
t The common Garden Angelica is A. archnngelica. 

X The true Masterwort is the European Impciatoria oslruthiiim, Linn. ; the Cow Parsnip, [{eracleum liinatum, I.inn., 
is often wrongly called by this name. 

\ fam. Guide to Health, 1856, corroborated in Am. Jour. /fom. Mat. Med., i. 272. 



64-2 

doses of 15 to 20 grains of the dried root will cause a disgust for all spirituous 
liquors. The stems were often made into a candied preserve in some sections 
of the country — a practice now nearly extinct. Its uses, all in all, have been 
greatly similar to those of the Garden Angelica {Angelica officinalis, Hoff. ; A. 
archangelica, Linn.). 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole plant, when in seed, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp, and treated as in the preceding species. The 
tincture, after filtration, has a clear greenish-orange color, a somewhat terebinthic 
odor, a sweetish taste, and neutral reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENrS— This plant has not been specifically examined 
for the determination of its principles. Its oils, however, may be, in all probability, 
compared with those of Angelica archangelica. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Unlnvestieated. 



Description of Plate 64. 

I. Whole plant 9 times reduced, Binghamton, N. Y., July 6th, 1885. 

2. Portion of upper stalk, showing petiole. 

3. Flower (petals removed). 

4. Pistil. 

5. Horizontal section of fruit. 

(3-5 enlarged.) 




S'ni.adnat.del.etpinxt. 



JLlWiiSA CYNAPIUM , Unn. 



N. ORD-UMBELLIFER^. 65 

GENUS.— /E THUS A,* LINN. 
SEX. .SYST.— PEN'TANDRIA DIGVNI.V. 



^THUSA 

FOOL'S PARSLEY. 



SYN.— ^THUSA CYNAPIUM, LINN.; CICUTARIA TENUIFOLIA, RAIL; C. 
FATUA, LOB. ; CORIANDRUM CYNAPIUM, CRANTZ. 

COM. NAMES.— FOOL'S PARSLEY, DOG'S PARSLEY, DOG POISON, GARDEN 
HEMLOCK, LESSER HEMLOCK, SMALL HEMLOCK; (PR.) LA PETITE 
CIQUii; I GBR.) KLEINER SCHEILING, HUNDSPETBRSILIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.ANT .-ETHUSA CYNAPIUM, LINN. 

Description. — This fetid annual herb attains a growth of from 8 inches to 2 
feet. Stt:m erect, unspotted, striate, and fistulous. Leaves dark green. 2-3-ter- 
nately compound, many cleft ; divisions pinnate, wedge-lanceolate, obtuse. Umbels 
terminal and opposite the petioles ; 7^ays very unequal ; involucre none ; involucels 
one-sided, 3-leaved, the leaves erect while the buds are immature, but become long, 
narrow, and pendent when in full flower and fruit. Floivers white ; calyx teeth 
obsolete ; petals obovate, appearing emarginate, or even obcordate, by the inflexion 
of the tip. Fruit ovate- globose, not much if at all flattened either way; carpo- 
phore 2-parted ; mericarps, each with 5 thick, sharply-keeled ridges ; vittcr, single 
in the deep intervals, and 2 in the commissure at its base. 

History and Habitat. — The Fool's Parsley is indigenous to Europe and Siberia, 
from whence it has been introduced into this country where it now grows, still 
sparingly, along roadsides and waste places about cultivated grounds, in New 
England, and from there to Pennsylvania, flowering in July and August. 

On account of the many cases of poisoning by the inadvertent use of this 
herb for parsley, from which it is easily distinguishable,-}- very little use has been 
made of it by physicians. By the early writers it is so often confounded with 
Conium, that it is very difficult to trace its history. The first author to charac- 
terize it was Hermolaus Barbarus, who called it Cicuia terrestris minore ; it is also 
mentioned by Matthiolus, Jonston, Jungius, Miiller, and others, all speaking of its 
peculiar effects when eaten. Its action has been generally considered like that of 
Conium, but milder, and its principal, if not its only use, was in some forms of 
obstinate cutaneous disorders. It is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph., nor is it found 
in the Eclectic Dispensatory. 

* h'Maita, aithusso, to set on fire; in reference to the acrid taste of the plant. 

t .Ethusa has much darker-green foliage than Parsley, a nauseous smell, white flowers, and the leaf-sections art- 
much more acute. 



65-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, when in flower 
and fruit, is treated as directed under Eryngium (62), The resulting tincture has 
a clear, orange-brown color by transmitted light ; a fetid, disagreeable odor ; an 
acrid taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Cynapiii. This alkaloid was discovered by 
Ficinus, who describes it as crystallizing in prisms that are soluble both in alcohol 
and water, but not in ether, and as having an alkaline reaction, and forming a 
crystallizable salt with sulphuric acid.* Walz describes an alkaloid, resulting as 
a volatile oily liquid, in which he is upheld by the experiments of Bernhart,f who 
succeeded in isolating a like substance, which he describes as having a strong 
alkaline reaction, an exceedingly penetrating, offensive odor, and as being soluble 
in alcohol. The body seems, as yet, to have received no further investigation. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The following excerpt, from one of the promi- 
nent botanical journals,| being of late date, serves to introduce this rubric: 

"'Fool's Parsley' not Poisonous. — For several centuries the plant ^PLtJiusa 
Cynaphun, L., has been the object of suspicion, and classed among poisons by 
botanists and toxicological writers. But now Dr. John Harley, of England, comes 
forward and presents a vindication of what he calls ' an innocent and harmless 
plant.' In the St. Thomas' Hospital Reports, he relates a number of facts to prove 
the correctness of his conclusions. The juices of the plant, from the root as well 
as from the leaves, were obtained by expression just before flowering, and also 
after the plants had reached maturity and set fruit. Being thus provided with a 
supply of material, representing the active properties of the plant, he exhausted 
it upon four patients, — one a little girl, four years old, who took the extract in quan- 
tities ranging from 2 drachms to 2 ounces ; himself, who took it in quantities 
ranging from 2 to 4 fluid ounces; and two other adults, who were the subjects of 
spasmodic wry-neck. These two took one or other of the juices, in doses ranging 
from I to 8 fluid ounces. Effects were an.xiously looked for, but absolutely none 
followed in any of the cases. Dr. Harley therefore feels compelled to assert that 
^Etlmsa Cynapiiim of Sussex, Essex, Kent, Surrey, and Hertfordshire, is not only 
absolutely free from the noxious properties attributed to it, but that it is pleasant 
to sight, smell, and taste, and, in the absence of the more fragrant and succulent 
plants, might well be used as a pot-herb or salad. He is satisfied, further, that 
his conclusions are independent both of locality and season, and that the only 
influence which these conditions have on Fool's Parsley, as on hemlock [Coninm 
maculahini), is to increase or diminish its succulency. Dr. Harley, some years 
ago, made some observations on the last-mentioned plant, and came to the same 
conclusion in regard to its innocuous nature that he has concerning that of the 
.Pthusa. In connection with this, it may be stated that Coniuni niaculatuni, in 
northern latitudes — Russia for example — is eaten with impunity, although precau- 
tion is taken to first boil it in several waters. This subject of the harmlessness, 
under certain conditions, of plants reputed to be poisonous, recalls to mind the 

* Wittstein. f Arch, de Phar., 1880, 117 (Am.Jotir. Pilar., 1880, 204^ % Bull. Torr. Club, 1881, 9. 



65-3 

statement of Linna-us, in his Flora Lapponica, that the Norlanders prepare from 
the leaves of Acoiiituni Xapc/Zics a broth, which tliey cat witliout any injurious 
effects resulting therefrom." 

The following cases of poisoning by the drug, serve, however, to show its 
action upon the system : 

" A boy, six years of age, having eaten some of this herb, by mistake for 
Parsley, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, commenced immediately to cry out in great 
pain, and complained of great cramps in the stomach. Whilst taking him home 
the whole body became excessively swollen, and of a livid hue; the respiration 
became difificult and short, and he died toward midnight. Another child was 
poisoned in the same manner, but he was fortunate enough to vomit up the herb. 
This, however, did not prevent many symptoms manifesting themselves ; he talked 
wildly, and in his delirium he thought he saw numbers of dogs and cats." — {^Orfila, 
vol. ii, p. 324.) 

" Gmelin has related the case of a child who died in eight hours, in conse- 
quence of having eaten the .^^thusa. The symptoms were spasmodic pains in the 
stomach; swelling of the belly ; lividity of the skin; and difficult breathing." 
—{Chris., p. 365.) 

"A woman gave two of her children soup, in which some of this was boiled. 
They were both seized with severe pain in the abdomen, and next morning there 
was perfect unconsciousness ; the lower jaw was spasmodically fixed ; abdomen 
tumid; vomiting of a bloody mucus, and constant diarrhoea; cold extremities; 
convulsions; and death in twenty-four hours. Post-mortem appearance: redness 
of the lining-membrane of the oesophagus, and slight v^ascular congestion of 
stomach and duodenum." — {Medic. yahrbiicJi.) 

"Another child, who had eaten the bulbs by mistake for young turnips, was 
suddenly seized with pain in the abdomen, followed by nausea, without vomiting ; 
could not swallow ; vacuity; inability to answer questions ; lower jaw fixed ; insen- 
sibility and death an hour after the commencement of the symptoms." — {Med. 
Times, August 23, 1S45.) 

"A healthy, strong man, about thirty-five years of age, a publican, ate a 
handful of Fool's Parsley, with nearly the same quantity of young lettuce, about 
I o'clock p. M. ; in about ten minutes he was affected with a pain in the stomach 
and bowels, attended with a rumbling. He walked out in the fields, but was 
seized with such languor, weariness, and weakness, that he supported himself with 
difficulty. He was much troubled with giddiness in the head ; his vision was con- 
fused, and sometimes objects appeared double. At 7 o'clock he got an emetic, 
which brought up, he supposes, all the Fool's Parsley, but none of the lettuce ; 
this relieved him of the unpleasant symptoms in the stomach, but the other sen- 
sations continued, and he passed a restless night. Next day he had much pain in 
his head and ejes, which last were inllamed and bloodshot. He had different cir- 
cumscribed swellings in his face, which were painful and inflamed, but they were 
transient, and flew from place to place. On the Saturday his eyes were highly 
inflamed, painful, and entirely closed by the surrounding inflammation. He was 



65-4 

bled, which gave him much relief in his face and eyes. From this time until the 
Monday, he continued to get better, but had, even then, pain, heat, and inflamma- 
tion of the eyes, with oedematous swelling of the cheeks ; his remaining symptoms 
went off gradually." — {Lozae.) 

Riviere relates that a person died after taking this plant. " His tongue was 
black ; a brownish serosity was found in the stomach ; the liver was hard, of a yel- 
low color ; the spleen livid ; but the body was not at all emphysematous." 

The symptoms of poisoning by this drug show, according to Schulze, that its 
chief action is upon the medulla spinalis. 

On Animals. — Seven ounces of the juice of the leaves were given to a strong 
dog, and the oesophagus tied. Twenty minutes thereafter the dog became sick ; 
in half an hour it did not seem to affect him much, when suddenly he stretched 
out his limbs and lay upon his stomach ; in a few minutes he tried to arouse him- 
self, but his efforts were in vain. The muscles of the limbs, particularly of the 
posterior, refused to obey the will, but the organs of sense exercised their func- 
tions ; the pupils were scarcely dilated ; the pulsations of the heart were slow and 
strong. This state lasted a quarter of an hour, and then the extremities were 
agitated by convulsive movements ; the animal threw himself from one side to the 
other, his senses began to be enfeebled, and the oesophagus and fauces were 
spasmodically contracted. This state of stupor increased, and the animal died an 
hour after taking the poison. On opening the body the heart was found to be 
contracted, and the left ventricle contained fluid and black blood ; the lungs were 
a little less crepitant than natural. The stomach was found full of the poison, but 
there was no alteration of the digestive canal.* 



Description of Plate 65. 

1. End of flowering plant. 

2. Bract of the involucel. 

3. Flower. 

4. Stigmas. 

5. Fruit. 

6. Dorsal view of a mericarp. 

7. Commissural view of same. 

8. Section of same. 

(2, 4, and 6 enlarged.) 

* Orfila, vol. ii, 323. 




f 



?m\ ThASPIUM AUREUM Var APTERUM, G 



ray. 



N. ORD-UMBELLIFER^. 66 

(;i;nus.— TH ASPiuM,* Nurr. 

SKX. SV.ST.— PKNIANDRIA DICVNIA. 



Z I Z I A- 



MEADOW PARSJ^IPS. 



SYN.— THASPIUM AUREUM, NUTT.; ZIZIA AUREA, KOCH.; SMYRNIUM 
AUREUM, LINN. ; SMYRNIUM LUTEUM, MUHL. ; SMYRNIUM ACU- 
MINATUM, SMITH; SISSON TRIFOLATUM, MICHX. ; SISSON AU- 
REUS, SPRENG. 

COM. NAMES.— MEADOW PARSNIP, GOLDEN MEADOW PARSNEP, GOL- 
DEN ALEXANDERS, ROUNDHEART ; (GER.) GOLDEN PASTINAKE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT THASPIUM AUREUM, NUTT. 

Description. — This erect, perent>ial herb attains a height of from i to 3 feet. 
Root tap-shaped, 2 to 4 inches long by ^ to ^ of an inclr in diameter, yellow 
internally. Leaves i- to 2-ternately parted or divided; lower leaves on long 
petioles, sometimes simple or more or less cordate ; upper leaves sessile or nearly 
so; leaflets i to 2 inches long, oblong-lanceolate, cut serrate, the bases elongated 
cuneate. Inflorescence axial or terminal compound umbels, on long, naked pedun- 
cles ; involucre inconspicuous or absent; pedicels 10 to 20 elongating in fruit; in- 
volucels minute, few-leaved ; floivers deep, orange-yellow. Calyx teeth obscure. 
Petals oblong, terminated by an inflexed tip. Fruit oval-oblong, somewhat flat- 
tened or laterally contracted ; ridges lo-winged ; transverse section orbicular ; vittcz 
solitary in each sulcus, and 2 in the commissure. Read description of the natural 
order, under Eryngium, 62. 

History and Habitat. — The Meadow Parsnip is quite a common indigenous 
plant on the moist banks of streams, and in open, wet woods, where it flowers in 
June and July. I find no mention of this plant in medical literature. The genus 
is spoken of by RafinesqueJ as vulnerary, antisyphilitic, and sudorific. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant (the prover 
used only the root) is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, 
pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, 
cool place. 

* A play upon the genus TItapsia, named from the Isle of Thapsiis. 

f I have retained the name under which the plant was proven. See second synonym. 

X Med. Bot., vol. ii, p. 267. 



66-2 

The tincture, separated from this mass by straining and filtering, should have 
a deep brownish-orange color by transmitted light, no distinguishing odor, a slightly 
bitter taste, and strong acid reaction. It leaves a numb, furry sensation upon the 
tongue, something like the impression left by tincture of aconite. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The Meadow Parsnip appears to uphold the 
general action of the Umbelliferse, and act specifically in a similar manner to 
yEthusa. The symptoms of those proving the drug under the direction of Dr. 
E. E. Marcy are those of a nerve irritant. The only report of a toxic quantity 
being taken is that by Judge Gray of a young lady who ate a large root. In this 
case violent vomiting followed immediately, ejecting the root in time to ward off 
any farther action.* 



Description of Plate 66. f 

i. la to ifi, upper part of plant, Ithaca, N. Y., June 3d, 1880. 
2. Flower (enlarged). 

* Marcy, in Ency. Pun Mat. Med., vol. x, p. 634. 

f This Plarte has been titled Thaspium atireum, var. nperlum ; liut the seed, the only characteristic of var. aperlum, 
having been omitted, it reverts to its proper title — i. e., Thaspium aureiim, Nutt. 



Shortly after taking note of the physical properties of the tidicture here recorded, — during which I made many futile 
attempts to detect a characteristic odor and taste, and took probably about 10 minims, — the tongue felt fuzzy and numb. 
This sensation was followed by a feeling as if the tongue had been scalded with hot tea ; my eyes began to water and 
smart; I ceased writing, and threw myself upon my lounge (12 M.) ; my face then began to feel suffused with blood and 
soon became hot, especially the cheeks and forehead; drowsiness followed, and I fell into a distressingly dreamy sleep, 
lasting an hour. When I awoke (J. 30 P. M.) all symptoms had passed awiy except the scalded sensation of the tongue, 
which lasted fully an hour longer. 



67- 




^.m.ad 



nat dei.et pinxt. 



CiCUTA MACULATA.Linn 



N. ORD-UMBELLIFER^. 67 

(;ENUS.— CICUTA,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— PKNTANDKIA DKIVNIA. 



CICUTA MACULATA. 

WATER HEMLOCK. 

SYN.-CICUTA MACULATA, LINN. ; CICUTARIA MACULATA, LAM. ; SIUM 

DOUGLASII, (?) D. C. 
COM. NAMES.— AMERICAN WATER HEMLOCK, SNAKEWEED, BEAVER 

POISON, MUSQUASH ROOT, SPOTTED COWBANE, DEATH OF MAN, 

CHILDREN'S BANE; (PR.) CIQUE D'AMBRIQUE; (GBR.) AMERIKA- 

NISCHER WASSERSCHIERLING. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOTS OF CICUTA MACULATA, LINN. 

Description. — This poisonous marsli perennial attains a growth of from 3 to 
6 feet. Rooi a fascicle of several oblong, thick and fleshy tubers. Stem stout and 
smooth, fistulate, streaked with purple {not maculate), or when growing in open 
places deep purple, and in shady situations wholly green. Leaves bi-ternately 
compound, the lower on long petioles ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, pointed, and 
sometimes lobed ; mai'gins mucronately coarse-serrate, the veins ending in the 
notches, hifloresceiice in long peduncled, axillary umbels; involucre few leaved 
or wanting ; involucels 5 to 6 leaved ; leaflets linear ; Jioiuers white. Calyx minutely 
5-toothed ; teeth acute. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed, pointed tip. Fruit 
aromatic, almost globular, geminate, and a little contracted at the sides. Carpels 
with 5 strong, flattish ribs, the lateral ones marginal ; vittce large, single in the 
intervals, double in the commissure ; seeds terete. Read description of the order 
under Eryngium, 62. 

History and Habitat. — The Water Hemlock is indigenous to the United 
States from F"Iorida and Mississippi northward, where it grows in wet places, and 
flowers in June and July. 

Cicuta had, until the publication of Dr. Bigelow's work,-j- been considered 
more as a poison than a drug, a few practitioners only using very small doses 
as a substitute for conium, and some of the laity, little knowing its toxic proper- 
ties, as a gargle in sore throat. Rafinesque claims that its roots were eaten by 
such Indians as were tired of life and desired a speedy demise. Later the pow- 
dered leaves were employed to a limited extent to alleviate the pain of scirrhus 
cancers. Cicuta plays no part in any system of medicine except the homoeopathic. 

* The ancient Latin name, in reference to the hollow stems of this genus, the name Cicuta designating the hollo-.v 
joints of reeds from which pipes were made, 
t jini. Med. Bo/., Boston, 1817. 



67-2 

The specific name maailata is badly chosen, as the stems, as far as I have 
observed, are never spotted, nor do I find any record of such a marking having 
been noticed ; Dr. Bigelow modestly offers the name fasciculata, which is true of 
the roots, and should be adopted, being much less like that of conium. Great 
similarity is said to exist between this species and the European C. virosa. Not 
having had an opportunity to examine the latter, I am at present unable to differ- 
entiate between them. According to descriptions, C. virosa has not a fasciculate 
root, and its umbels are larger in every way and much denser. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh roots, chopped and pounded 
to a pulp, are treated as in the preceding drug. The resulting tincture has a clear 
yellowish-amber color by transmitted light, the peculiar odor of the fresh root, a 
sweetish taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Dr. Bigelow's examination of the root is the 
only attempt so far made toward an analysis; he procured a volatile oil and a 
yellow, inflammable resin. Mr. J. E. Young succeeded in obtaining a volatile alka- 
loid from the fruits, which he regarded as identical with conia. A glance, however, 
at the chemistry of C. virosa will not be out of place here : 

Cicutina. — This volatile alkaloid found in all parts of the plant by Wittstein, 
Polex, and others, remains as yet very imperfectly investigated ; it is simply men- 
tioned by Wittstein as having been obtained in an aqueous solution. 

Oil of Cumin. — This compound of several hydrocarbons, first obtained from 
the fruit of Ctmiimini cyminum, Linn., is proven by Trapp to be identical with the 
oil of this species. Two of the hydrocarbons are identified as follows : Cicutcn, 
C,(,H,„ (Van Ankum), boils at \t&^ (330.8° P.), is dextrogyrate, sp. gr. at 18° 
(64.4° F.), 0.87038, and is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform ; Cymol, 
Cj„H,^, a colorless oil of great refractory power and the odor of lemons, having a 
sp. gr. at 15° (59° F.) of 0.86, and a boiling point at 172° (341.6° F.). 

Cicutoxin. — This amorphous, resinous body, in all probability identical with 
that found by Bigelow in the root-juice of C. maailata, was isolated and named by 
Trojanowski. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Many cases of poisoning from the root of this 
species have been reported, all showing, by the symptoms, that cicuta produces 
great hypersemia of the brain and spinal cord. 

The following case, reported by letter to Dr. Bigelow by Dr. R. Hazeltine 
(1818),* gives all the symptoms noted by observers in other cases: A boy had 
eaten of certain tuberous roots, gathered in a recently-ploughed field, supposing 
them to be artichokes, but which were identified as the roots of Cicuta maculata. 
His first symptom was a pain in the bowels urging him to an ineffectual attempt 
at stool, after which he vomited about a teacupful of what appeared to be the 

* Bigelow, Am. Med. Bot., vul. iii., iSi. 



67-3 
recently-masticated root, and immediately fell back into convulsions which lasted 
off and on continuously until his death. The doctor found him in a profuse sweat 
and "convulsive agitations, consisting- of tremors, violent contractions and distor- 
tions, with alternate and imperfect relaxations of the whole muscular system, 
astonishing mobility of the eyeballs and eyelids, with widely-dilated pupils, stridor 
dentium, trismus, frothing at the mouth and nose, mixed with blood, and occasion- 
ally violent and genuine epilepsy." The convulsive agitations were so powerful 
and incessant, that the doctor " could not examine the pulse with sufficient con- 
stancy to ascertain its character." At the post-mortem no inflammation was 
observed, the stomach was fully distended with flatus, and contained "about 
three gills of a muciform and greenish fluid, such as had flowed from the mouth ; 
this mass assumed a dark ereen color on standinsr." 

Description of Plate 67. 

I. Part of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., July 2d, 1885, 

2. Leaf. 

3. Flower, showing calyx. 

4. Face of flower. 

5. Petal. 

6. Pistil and calyx. 

7. Stamens. 

(3-7 enlarged.) 



=-*-= 







^'Tn..a(lnat.iJel.etpinxt. 



CONiUM MACU LATUM, Linn. 



N. ORD -UMBELLIFER^. 68 

GENUS.— C O N I U M ,* LINN. 
SE.K. SYST.— PKNT.ANDRIA DIGVNI.V. 



CONIUM. 

POISOA' HEMLOCK. 

SYN.— CONIUM MACULATUM, LINN. ; C. MAJOR, BAUH. ; CORIANDRUM 
CICUTA, CRANTZ.; C. MACULATUM. ROTH.; CICUTA MACULATA, 
LAM. (not Linn.); C. VULGARIS MAJOR, PARK.; CICUTARIA VULGA- 
RIS, CLUS. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD OR POISON HEMLOCK, STINK-WEED, t SPOTTED 
POISON PARSLEY, HERB-BENNET; (FR.) GRAND CIQUB, CIQUE OR- 
DINAIRE; (GER.) SCHIERLING. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH PLANT, EXCLUDING THE ROOT, OF CONIUM 

MACULATUM, L. 

Description. — This large, unsavory, biennial herb, grows to a height varying 
from 2 to 6 feet. Root fusiform, sometimes forked. Stet)i erect, hollow, smooth, 
and striate, stout below, corymbosely branching above, the whole dotted and 
splashed with crimson beneath the white, pulverent, easily detached coating that 
pervades the whole plant except the leaves and flowers. Leaves generally large, 
decompound, somewhat deltoid in outline ; common petioles with broad striate 
sheathing bases ; segments lanceolate pinnatifid ; lobes bright green, acute and 
regularly serrate. Injiorescejice terminal, flat-topped, compound umbels ; involucre 
about 3-leaved ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, deflexed ; involucels about 5-leaved, 
shorter than the umbellets, and situated to the outside of them ; leaves lanceolate ; 
rays numerous, straight ; flowers small, white. Petals obtuse or somewhat obcor- 
date, the apices incurved. Calyx teeth obsolete, the limb forming a thickened 
crowning ring in fruit. Stamens but slightly longer than the petals ; anthers white. 
Fruit orate, turgid, laterally flattened, the crown retaining the divergent styles, 
each of which, together with its dilated base, greatly resembles the depicted head- 
gear of the mediaeval court jester. Carpels with 5 prominent, nearly equal, papil- 
lose ribs, the lateral ones marginal ; vittce none ; seed with its inner face marked 
by a deep and narrow longitudinal sulcus. 

History and Habitat. — Conium is indigenous to Europe and Asia. It, how- 
ever, has become thoroughly naturalized in this country, where it grows in waste 
places, usually by river-sides. It blossoms during July and August. 



* KJwioK, koneion; from kmoj, konos, a top, judged by Hooker to be so named on account of the whirling vertigo 
caused by the poison. 

f \ name more commonly applied to Datura Stramonium. 



68-2 

The history of this fetid, poisonous plant, dates back to about the fifth cen- 
tury before Christ. From the careful observations of many pharmacographists 
and historians, there seems little doubt that the Grecian State potion used at 
Athens as a mode of execution of those condemned to death by the tribunal of 
Areopagus, was principally, if not wholly, composed of the fresh juice of the leaves 
and green seeds of this plant. It is the xuvetov which destroyed Thermanes, one of 
the thirty, Phocion, and Socrates, whose disciple he had been. Plato, in describing 
the potion, does not give it a specific name, nor mention its source, but terms the 
potion <papaaxo7', which means any strong drug, and not necessarily a poisonous 
one. In the writings of Eratosthenes also, it appears that the words xivsiv xovfiov 
mean to drink poison, and xuvsiov nsTtcoxoTa, having drunk poison. yElian states 
that Cean old men, who, when they had become useless to the State, and tired of 
the infirmities of life, invited each other to a banquet, after which they drank 
x(0T£iov and died together. Although none of these accounts give the derivation of 
the potion, and notwithstanding the fact that Dioscorides' description of the plant 
is too general to distinguish the umbelliferous species he refers to, yet there are 
important reasons why we should feel perfectly satisfied that the Grecian xcdveiov 
was the Conium of our materia medica : first, Sibthorp says* that Conium grows 
plentifully between Athens and Magara, and that no other plant of near so violent 
qualities grows in Greece; secondly, Cicuta virosa — supposed, by those who doubt 
Conium being the origin of the potion, to be the xuretov — does not grow in Greece. 
The cicuta of later writers, is a Latin name, applied by the Romans to any and 
all poisonous umbelliferae, and even to other widely separate toxic plants ; this 
term was unknown to the Greeks; thirdly, Dr, J. H. Bennett's case of poisoning 
by Conium gave symptoms almost identical with those given in the description of 
the death of Socrates ; fourthly, later provings of Conium on man and animals, 
all point to it as being answerable to the symptoms mentioned. Cicuta causes 
convulsions even to opisthotonos, and sudden stiffness and immobility of the limbs ; 
while Conium causes creeping muscular paralysis, with mayhap slight trembling, 
but no spasm ; lastly, the words of the man who prepared the potion : " We only 
bruise as much as is barely sufficient for the purpose," would seem to indicate a 
simple; a man who spoke so clearly and definitely would hardly have used the 
word " bruise " had opium been added to the preparation, as some of the upholders 
of Cicuta claim, in trying to explain why spasms did not occur in this case. 

The first use of Conium in medicine is that of Dioscorides, who used it as a 
collyrium mixed with wine, and as a cataplasm in herpes and erysipelas. Pliny 
states f that the leaves keep down all tumors; and Anaxilaus claims that by 
anointing the mammae they ceased to grow. Avicenna| praised it as an agent 
for the cure of tumors of the breasts. It remained, however, for Baron Stiirck 
(1760) to introduce Conium into more general use; he found it effectual in curing 
scirrhus, ulcers, cancer, and many other chronic forms of disease. Bayle§ collected 
from various sources 46 cases of cancerous disease cured, and 26 ameliorated by 
the use of this drug. Conium has been recommended in jaundice, tic-douloureux, 

» Prod. Flor. Gr., i, 1S7. f A'at. Hist., b. xxvi, c. 16. + Lil>. ii, 662. ? Bii. Therap., iii, 618. 



68-3 

syphilitic affections, enlargement of glands, especially those of a scrofulous nature, 
as a sedative in mania, chorea, epilepsy, laryngismus stridulus, pertussis, and various 
forms of nervous diseases. 

Like all other drugs used by the dominant school of medicine then and now, 
many physicians failed to get any effect whatsoever from this drug in the diseases 
specified by Siorck and others; so frequent were the failures that most careful 
and protracted experiments in gathering, curing, preserving, and preparing thei 
drug were resorted to, analyses were made, essays written, and finally serious 
doubts expressed as to Baron Storck's cases ; * widiout once a thought that it 
might be adaptability to his cases, and not pharmaceutical preparation that caused 
the drug to cure. It is well known to us as homoeopathists that Baron Storck had 
a " peculiar notion " as to the adaptability of drugs to diseased conditions, a notion 
very like the law that guides us to-day.f I can personally testify to the cure of 
one well-marked case of mammary scirrhus, by Conium. The case is as follows : 

Mrs. B complained to me of having experienced, for some months past, sharp 

stitching pains in the left mamma, extending thence in all directions, but especially 
through to the shoulder-blade, and upward and outward into the axilla; these 
stitches would awaken her at night, causing her sleep to be interfered with seri- 
ously. On examining the breast I found the nipple retracted and surrounded by 
a hard nodular lump, just movable, and about the area of a silver dollar. Her 
mother died of " a cancer of the breast " several years before. I prescribed 
Conium in a potency, one dose per diem. Within six weeks the subjective symp- 
toms entirely passed away, four months after, the " tumor" was much softer and 
the nipple less cupped. The remedy was then stopped, and upon examining her 
to-day (nearly four years after the first dose), I find no vestige of the growth 
whatever, the mamma appearing entirely normal. 

Concerning the root of this virulent plant, Lepage J corroborates the asser- 
tion of Orfila, that the amount of alkaloid therein is very small; this accounts for 
the following experiences: Ray relates § that Mr. Petiver ate half an ounce, and 
Mr. Healy four ounces without experiencing any remarkable effect. Curtis says: || 
"Mr. Alicorn assures me that he has tried this (eating the roots) in every season 
of the year, and in most parts of our island, without feeling any material difference ; 
and Mr. T. Lane informs me that he also, cautiously, made some experiments of 
the like kind, without any inconvenience; after many successive trials, he had some 
of the larger roots boiled, and found them as agreeable eating at dinner with meat 
as carrots, which they somewhat resembled;" Mr. Steven, a Russian botanist, 
states that the Russian peasants eat it with impunity, and concludes that the colder 
the climate the less poisonous is the root. Pliny says:T[ "as for the stems and 



* Woodville says {Mtd. Sot., i, io8) :".... Nay, it never succeeded so well as when under his own direction 
or confined to the neighborhood in which he resided, and to the practice of those physicians with whom he lived in habits 
of intimacy and friendship. [A base imputation, unworthy of the author.— c. F. M.] The general inefficiency of Hem- 
lock experienced in this counlrj', induced physicians at first to suppose that this plant, in the environs of Vienna and 
Berlin, differed widely from ours, and this being so stated to Dr. Siorck he sent a quantity of the extract, prepared by 
himself, to London, but this proved equally unsuccessful, and to differ in no respect from the English extract.'' 

t Note also Baron Storck's use of .Stramonium, as cited under (hat drug. % your. Phor. tt Chim., 1885, 10. 

I PAH. Trans., xix, 634. || Plor. Londinensis. ^ Nat. Hisl., b. 26, c. xii. 



68-4 

stalks, many there be who do eat it, both green and also boiled or stewed between 
two platters." Notwithstanding all this, many children have been poisoned from 
eating the roots. 

Conium is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as Abstractum Conii ; Extractimi Conii 
Alcoholicum ; Extractimi Conii Fhiidum, and Tinctura Conii. In the Eclectic 
Materia Medica the preparations are : Extracinm Conii Alcoholicuvi ; Unguentiim 
Conii and Emplastnmt BelladonncE Coinposituiu* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The entire fresh plant, with the excep- 
tion of the root, should be gathered while the fruits are yet green, and prepared 
as in the preceding drug. The resulting tincture should have a clear madder 
color by transmitted light, and give an odor somewhat similar to that of the 
bruised leaves, a taste at first sweetish, then similar to the odor, and an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— G;«/^,t C,H,.N. This volatile alkaloid was 
discovered by Giseke in the leaves and fruit of this plant; Geiger, however, was 
first to purify it. Conia is a limpid, colorless, oily liquid, having the specific 
gravity of .89, and boiling at i63.°5 (.328.°3 F.). It possesses a nauseous and 
sharp taste, and a disagreeable odor. It is soluble in cold water, in which solution 
it becomes turbid on the application of heat. 

Methylconine, CgHj^NCHj. This alkaloid is also sometimes present in 
conium. It bears great resemblance to conia. 

Conydrine.t CgHj^ON. A crystalline alkaloid melting at I20.°6 (249° F.), 
and boiling at 225° (437° F.). 

Paraconine, CgHj^N. This fourth alkaloid, isomeric with conia, differs from 
it only in being atertiary base devoid of rotary power. Paraconine is liquid, and 
boils at i6o°-i7o° (320°-338° F.). (Ul stip)'a, Schorlemmer.) 

Oil of Conium, C^Hj^N^O. A pale, yellow oil extracted from the seeds. This 
oil is also formed when nitrogen trio.xide is passed into conia and the resulting 
liquid decomposed by water. 

Conic Acid. — This body, yet uninvestigated, exists in all parts of the plant 
and holds in solution the alkaloids present. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— No more fitting introduction to the action of this 
virulent spinal irritant could be written than the description, in Plato's "Phaedo," 
of the death of Socrates: "And Crito, hearing this, gave the sign to the boy who 
stood near; and the boy departing, after some time returned, bringing with him 
the man who was ta administer the poison, who brought it ready bruised in a cup. 
And Socrates, beholding the man, said : ' Good friend, come hither ; you are expe- 
rienced in these affairs — what is to be done?' ' Nothing,' replied the man, 'only 
when you have drank the poison you are to walk about until a heaviness takes 



Rosin, Belladonna, Conium, and Iodine. f Conine, Conicina, Conein, Coniin, Conicin. 

X Conydrina, Conhydria, Conliydrin. 



68-5 
place in your legs ; then lie down — this is all you have to do.' At the same time 
he presented the cup. Socrates received it from him with great calmness, without 
fear or change of countenance, and regarding the man with his usual stern aspect 
he asked : ' What say you of this potion ? Is it lawful to sprinkle any portion of 
it on the earth, as a libation, or not ?' ' We only bruise," said the man, ' as much as 
is barely sufficient for the purpose.' ' I understand you,' said Socrates ; 'but it is 
certainly lawful and proper to pray the gods that my departure from hence may be 
prosperous and happy, which I indeed beseech them to grant.' So saying, he 
carried the cup to his mouth, and drank it with great promptness and facility. 

"Thus far most of us had been able to refrain from weeping. But when we 
saw that he was drinking, and actually had drank the poison, we could no longer 
restrain our tears. And from me they broke forth with such violence that I cov- 
ered my face and deplored my wretchedness. I did not weep for his fate so much 
as for the loss of a friend and benefactor, which I was about to sustain. But Crito, 
unable to restrain his tears, now broke forth in loud lamentations, which infected 
all who were present, except Socrates. But he observing us, exclaimed, 'What is 
it you do, my excellent friends ? I have sent away the women that they might not 
betray such weakness. I have heard that it is our duty to die cheerfully, and with 
expressions of joy and praise. Be silent, therefore, and let your fortitude be seen.' 
At this address we blushed, and suppressed our tears. But Socrates, after walking 
about, now told us that his legs were beginning to grow heavy, and immediately 
lay down, for so he had been ordered. At the same time the man who had given 
him the poison examined his feet and legs, touching them at intervals. At len<Tth 
he pressed violently upon his foot, and asked if he felt it. To which Socrates 
replied that he did not. The man then pressed his legs and so on, showing us 
that he was becoming cold and stiff. And Socrates, feeling it himself, assured us 
that when the effects had ascended to his heart, he should be gone. And now the 
middle of his body growing cold, he threw aside his clothes, and spoke for the 
last time : ' Crito, we owe the sacrifice of a cock to ^sculapius. Discharge this, 
and neglect it not.' ' It shall be done,' said Crito ; ' have you anything else to 
say?' He made no reply, but a moment after moved, and his eyes became fixed. 
And Crito, seeing this, closed his eyelids and mouth," 

Another case very similar to this was met with by Dr. J. H. Bennett.* A man 
ate a large quantity of Hemlock plant by mistake for parsley ; soon afterwards 
there was a loss of power in the lower extremities, but he apparently suffered no 
pain. In walking he staggered as if he was drunk; at length his limbs refused to 
support him, and he fell. On being raised, his legs dragged after him, or when 
his arms were lifted they fell like inert masses, and remained immovable ; there 
was perfect paralysis of the upper and lower extremities within two hours after he 
had taken the poison. There was a loss of power of deglutition, and a partial 
paralysis of sensation, but no convulsions, only slight occasional motions of the left 
leg; the pupils were fixed. Three hours after eating the hemlock the respiratory 
movements had ceased. Death took place in three and one-quarter hours. It 



* Med. and Surg. Jour. Edin., 1845, 169. 



68-6 

was evidently caused by gradual asphyxia from paralysis of the muscles of respi- 
ration, but the intellect was perfectly clear until shortly before death. 

The sequence of symptoms would seem to show in all of the many cases of 
poisoning by this plant that the drug acts primarily upon the spinal cord, causing 
a paralysis first of the anterior then posterior branches, and that from below 
upward until the medulla is reached. 

On Animals. — Linnceus states that sheep will eat of the leaves, but horses 
and goats refuse them. Ray says that the thrush will feed upon the seeds, even 
when grain is plenty. Orfila* found that the powder and extract were generally 
harmless when given to animals, but that the juice or leaves of the fresh plant 
produced the most violent symptoms and death. Moiroudf gave a decoction of 
four ounces of the dried plant to a horse which had eaten three and a half pounds 
of the plant without effect. It caused dejection, stupor, dilation of the pupils, 
trembling, spasmodic trembling of muscles, grinding of teeth and copious sweats. 
It would seem, from experiments upon animals, that Conium is more poisonous 
to carnlvora than to graminlvora. 

Post-mortem. — In Dr. Bennett's case, there was slight serous effusion beneath 
the arachnoid membrane. The substance of the brain was soft on section ; there 
were numerous bloody points, but the organ was otherwise healthy. The lungs 
were engorged with dark-red fluid blood ; the heart was soft and flabby. The 
mucous coat of the stomach, that contained a green, pultaceous mass of the herb, 
was much congested, especially at the cardiac extremity ; here there were numer- 
ous extravasations of dark blood below the epithelium, over a space about the 
size of the hand. The intestines presented patches of congestion on the mucous 
coat. The blood throughout the body was fluid and of a dark color. 

Description of Plate 68. 

1. Top of a flowering branch divested of three of its umbels, Binghamton, N. Y., June 29th, 1884. 

2. Stalk at the root. 

3. Flower. 

4 and 5. Stamens. 

6. Young fruit. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. Pollen, X 250. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 

* Tox. Gen., ii, 309. f Pharm. Vit., 359. 




u/.TU.adnatdel.etpinxl 



ARALIA RACEMOSA Linn. 



N. ORD -ARALIACE.^. 69 

GENUS.— ARAL I A,* TOURN. 

SEX. SVST. -PENTANURI.\ I'KNIAGY.NIA. 

ARALIA RACEMOSA. 

SPIKEJfARD. 

SYN.— ARALIA RACEMOSA, LINN. 

COM. NAMBS.-SPIKBNARD, AMERICAN SPIKENARD, PETTYMORREL, 
LIFE-OP-MAN, PIGEON-WEED; (PR.) NARD D'AMERIQUE; (GER ) 
AMERIKANISCHER ARALIE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF AR.ALI.\ R.\CEMOSA, LINN. 

Description. — This aromatic perennial attains a growth of from 2 to 5 feet.f 
Rooi large, thick, spicy-aromatic ; bark thick, whitish internally. Stem ligneously 
herbaceous, smooth, bifurcating, much branched, and devoid of prickles. Leaves 
very large, odd-pinnately compound ; leaflets ovate-cordate, doubly-serrate, 
acuminate, slightly downy; stipules wanting, or represented by a serrate stipular 
membrane at the bifurcation of the branches and sometimes at the bases of the 
petioles. Inflorescence numerous axillary, compound, racemose panicles, or thyrsi. 
Flowers monoeciously polygamous or perfect. Calyx coherent with the ovary ; 
teeth 5, short, projecting upward between the petals. Petals 5, epigynous, obovate 
acute, reflexed-spreading, caducous. Stamens 5, epigynous, situated opposite the 
calyx teeth ; fllaments slender ; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary 
globular, 5-celled, somewhat lo-ridged ; ovules anatropous, suspended, i in each 
cell ; styles 5, closely clustered, sometimes united at the base, or in the sterile 
flowers entirely united ; stigmas capitellate, or simply a stigmatic surface to the 
apex of each style. Fruit globular, aromatic, baccate drupes, retaining the per- 
sistent and now divaricate styles ; etnbryo minute. 

Araliaceae. — Many characters of this natural order are identical with the 
preceding (Umbellifera;), its distinguishing points are: Herbs, shrubs, or trees. 
Leaves sometimes simple but mostly compound or decompound. Inflorescence 
panicled or racemose umbels ; flowers in our species more or less polygamous. 
Calyx: limb very short or wanting. Petals 5, not inflexed. Stamens 5. Fruit 7i 
berry or drupe with usually more than two cells ; carpels not separating ; albumen 
generally sarcous. 

This family affords, beside the two species represented here, the following 
plants used in medicine and the arts: The common Ivy {Hedera Helix), at one 
time held in great repute as a preventive of drunkenness and antidote to the 

* Derivation unknown. 

f J. F. James meniions a plant 7 to 8 feet high, with leaves 3 feet long, and fruit 15 to 18 inches, in Bol. Gaz., 
1882, p. 122. 



69-2 

effects of "heady" wines; its blackish, gummy resin is used as a constituent of 
some varnishes (Griffith) ; the Amboyian Hedera umbcllifcra {Aralia lunbcllifera. 
Lam.) yields a powerfully aromatic camphoraceous resin ; and the Ceylon H. 
krebinthacca one resembling turpentine. The American aromatic tonics False 
Sarsaparilla {Aralia nudicaulis) and the Angelica tree (^A. spinosa) have just been 
dismissed from the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Among the edible plants 
of this family are the Chinese Diajnorphantiis edulis, Gimnera scabra, and G. macro- 
cepliala. The useful species of Panax are noted under the ne.xt drug. 

History and Habitat. — Spikenard is indigenous to Canada, and the United 
States southward to the mountains of South Carolina and westward to the Rockies. 
It o-rows along the rocky but rich banks of well shaded streams, and flowers 
in July. 

Concerning the previous use of this species, which was not so extensive as 
that o{ A. spinosa, nudicaulis, and hispida, Rafinesque says:''' ''A. racemosa is used 
by the Indians as carminative, pectoral and antiseptic, in coughs, pains in the breast 
(chest), and mortification ; the root with horse-radish is made in poultice for the feet 
in general dropsy. The juice of the berries and oil of the seeds is said to cure ear- 
ache and deafness, poured in the ears." Culpepper says rj- "It is good to provoke 
urine, and cureth the pains of the stone in the reins and kidneys." In domestic 
practice it has been made into a composite syrup with the root of Inula helenium, 
and used as a remedy in chronic coughs, asthma, and rheumatism ; a tincture of 
the root and fruit has also been used as a stomachic. 

No preparation of this plant is now officinal in the U. S. Ph. or Eclectic 
Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, the part used is large 
and thick, the bark is about /g inch in thickness, white internally and shows on 
section, many yellow resin cells, it readily peels off the ligneous layer surround- 
ing the main bulk of the root. The central portion is somewhat dense, dotted 
with scattered bundles of woody fibre and surrounded by a ligneous sheath j'g 
inch thick. 

The tincture is prepared by chopping and pounding the root to a pulp, 
macerating it for eight days in two parts by weight of alcohol and filtering. It 
results as a clear, slightly brownish-orange liquid by transmitted light, having the 
peculiar, somewhat terebinthic odor of the root, a bitter astringent taste, and an 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis of this plant has been published 
as far as I can determine. The analysis of A. spinosa, by Holden,| Elkins,§ and 
Lilly,|| will give us some idea of the probable nature of the phytochemistry of this 
species. 

* Med. Flor , vol. 2, p. 175. t Complete Herbal, London, 1S19. 

X Am. Jour. Pliar., 1880, p. 390. § Idem, p. 402. 

II Period, cit., 1882, p. 433. 



69-3 
Araliin. — Tliis sa/>(>n/u-\\kc i^Iiicosidc was discovered by HokUn and puri- 
fied by Lilly. It results as a slightly acrid, inodorous, whitish powder; soluble in 
water, insoluble in cold, strong alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Its watery solution 
yields a dense, persistent froth on agitation. It precipitates whiter from its 
solution in boiling alcohol when cold. Boiled with very dilute hydrochloric acid, 
it breaks down into glucose and Araliretin (Holden), a white, insoluble, tasteless 
and odorless, amorphous product. 

Alkaloid. — Elkin announced an alkaloid principle separable as a yellowish, 
amorphous, semi-transparent, bitter mass, soluble in water and ether, and answer- 
ing to Mayer's test. Lilly failed to procure this precipitable body, but isolated 
a '' bitter principle " having all its characteristics except that it was crystalline. 

Oil of Aralia (Elkins, Lilly). — An aromatic, somewhatc amphoraceous, acid 
body, having the characteristic odor of the root. 

An acrid resin, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water ;"*f tannin ;* 
glucose rj-J pictin \-\\ gum ;-j- fat ;* and starch,tj were also determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The only account of the action of this drug 
that we have, is a proving by Dr. Sam'l A. Jones, of Ann Arbor, § in whom a dose 
of lo drops of the tincture caused a severe asthmatic fit, characterized by dry, 
wheezing respiration ; obstructed inspiration ; a sense of impending suffocation 
and inability to lie down during the attack; profuse night sweat during sleep; 
nausea ; prostration ; and difficult expulsion of small, soft stool, accompanied by 
the abdominal sense of oncoming diarrhoea. I have had the pleasure of seeing 
drop doses of the tincture promptly relieve a similar case, in my own practice, in 
a half hour, and exert a beneficial effect in warding off recurring attacks. 

Descriptidn of Plate 69. 

I. Portion of a fruiting stem, Binghamton, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1S82. 

2. K leaf, half natural size. 

3. A flower. 

4. Bird's-eye view of flower after removal of trie anthers. 

5. Styles. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Pollen X 300. 

8. Section of the root. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 



Holden, loc. cil. f Klkins, he. cil. J Lilly, loc. cit. \ Male's .Vc;t< Reme.liis, |>. 53. 




(ElXl.adnal.ilel.et pifut. 



ARALIA QuINQUEFOLIA, Gray. 



N. ORD -ARALIACE^. 

GKxNUS. — ARALIA. 
SEX. SYST— PENTANDRI.V DUiVNIA. 



GINSENG. 



JIJV-CHEJf. 



SYN.— ARALIA QUINQUEFOLIA, GRAY; A. CANADEN"SIS, TOURN. ; PA- 
NAX QUINQUBPOLIUM, LINN. ; P. AMERICANUM, RAP. ; AURBLIANA 
CANADENSIS, LAFIT; GINSENG QUINQUEFOLIUM, WOOD ; GIN-SENG 
CHINENSIBUS, JARTOUX. 

COM. NAMES.-GINSENG, TARTAR-ROOT, FIVE-FINGER, RED BERRY, 
MAN'S HEALTH; (FR.) GINSENG D'AMERIQUB; (GER.) KRAFTWUR- 
ZEL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE DRY ROOT OF ARALIA QUINQUEFOLIA, GRAY. 

Description. — This herbaceous perennial grows to a height of about i foot. 
Root large, sometimes forked, but generally consisting of a fleshy, somewhat fusi- 
form body, from the larger end of which is given off an irregular, cylindrical, knotty 
portion, narrower at its abrupt juncture with the main root, and showing the scars 
of previous stem-growths. Both parts are transversely wrinkled, closely above 
and sparsely below. Stem simple, erect ; leaves 3, palmately 5-divided ; leaflets 
obovate, thin, serrate, and pointed, in two sets, 3 large and 2 small, all long 
petioled. hiflorescciice a single terminal, naked, peduncled umbel ; floivers few, 
dioeciously-polygamous. Gz/j'A'-//;;/(5 very short, obscurely 5-toothed ; teeth trian- 
gular acute. Petals 5, spreading, ovate-oblong. Styles 2 to 3, erect or spreading. 
Stamc7is 5, Friut a cluster of bright-red, 2-celled, more or less reniform, fleshy 
berries, each retaining its calyx-limb and styles ; endocarp thin. 

This portion of the genus Aralia is the genus Pafiax* of Linneeus. It has 
many characters, which have given rise to opportunities for forming distinct genera 
from its species, though its close resemblance to the Aralias serves to hold it there. 

History and Habitat. — The American Ginseng grows in the rich, cool woods 
of central and northern North America, where it flowers in July. 

There is great similarity in the American and Chinese individuals of this 
species, but the place of growth or mode of drying seems to more or less affect 
the properties of the roots, especially if the accounts of the usefulness of the 
Oriental product can be credited. Father Jartoux, who spent much time, and had 
special privileges accorded him in the study of this plant, remarks, that so high is 
it held in esteem by the natives of China that the physicians have written volumes 
upon its virtues, and deem it a necessity in all their best prescriptions, ascribing 

* Hat, pan, all; a/n>;, akos, a remedy; as the Chinese and Tartar species were considered panaceas. 



70-2 

to it medicinal properties of inestimable value, and a remedial agency in fatigue 
and the infirmities of old age. So great is the plant esteemed in China that the 
Emperor monopolizes the right of gathering its roots. The preparation of the best 
roots for the Chinese market is a process which renders them yellow, semi-trans- 
parent, and of a horny appearance ; this condition is gained by first plunging them 
in hot water, brushing until thoroughly scoured, and steaming over boiling millet 
seed. The root thus prepared is chewed by the sick to recover health, and by the 
healthy to increase their vitality ; it is said that it removes both mental and bodily 
fatigue, cures pulmonary complaints, dissolves humors, and prolongs life to a ripe 
old age, — for all of which the root has often brought in the markets ten times its 
weight in silver. Father Jartoux * finally became so satisfied that the use of the 
root verified all that was said of its virtues, that he, in his own case, adds testimony 
as to its relief of fatigue and increase of vitality. Those roots that are bifurcated 
are held by the natives to be the most powerful ; it was to this kind — which they 
considered to resemble the human form — that they gave the name Jin-cheji, like a 
man. Strange as it may seem, the American Indian name of the plant, garant- 
oquen, means the same. 

The plant is becoming rare in this country, and in fact wherever it is found, 
on account of the value it brings in the markets. In 1718 the Jesuits of Canada 
began shipping the roots to China; in 1748 they sold at a dollar a pound here 
and nearly five in China; afterward the price fluctuated greatly on account of a 
dislike in China of our product ; and finally its gathering has nearly ceased, though 
fine sun-dried roots will now bring nearly a dollar per pound at New York. 

Panax was dismissed from the U. S. Pli. at the last revision, and is simply 
menUoned in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The genuine Chinese or the American 
root, dried and coarsely powdered, is covered with five times its weight of alcohol, 
and allowed to stand eight days, in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place, 
being shaken twice a day. The tincture, poured off and filtered, has a clear, light- 
lemon color by transmitted light, an odor like the root, a taste at first bitter then 
dulcamarous, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Panaquilon, Cj.H^p,,.— This peculiar body, 
having a taste much like glycyn-Jiiziii but more amarous, may be extracted from 
the root. It results as an amorphous, yellowish powder, soluble in water and 
alcohol, but not in ether, and precipitable by tannin. It breaks down under the 
action of sulphuric acid, which, in extracting three molecules of water, causes it to 
give off carbonic dioxide and yield a new body as follows : 

ranaquilon. Panacon. 

Q,H,A = CO, + (HP)3 + C,H,,0, 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Ginseng causes vertigo, dryness of the mucous 
membranes of the mouth and throat, increased appetite, accumulation of flatus 

* Phil. Tram., 28, 239. 



70-3 

with tension of the abdomen, diarrhcea, decreased secretion of urine, sexual excite- 
ment, oppression of the chest and a dry cough, increased heart's action and irregu- 
lar pulse, weakness and weariness of the limbs, increased general strength, followed 
by weakness and prostration, somnolence, and much chilliness. 

Description ov Plate 70. 

I and 2. Whole plant, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 2Sth, 1885 

3. Section of flower. 

4. Part of calyx, a petal and stamen. 
5 and 6. Fruit. 

7. Section of rhizome. 

(3, 4, and 6 enlarged.) 




f 



TQ..aiJ nat.dei.et pinxt 



3 

CoRNus Florida, Linn. 



N. ORD -CORNACE.^. 71 

GENUS— CORN us.* TOURN. 

SEX. SVST,— TETRANDKIA MONOGVXIA. 



CORNUS FLORIDA. 

FLOlJ'inUjYG DOG WOO I). 

SYN.— CORNUS FLORIDA, LINN. ; BENTHAMIDIA FLORIDA, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES.— FLO"WERING DOGWOOD, DOG TREE, BOX TREE, NEW 
ENGLAND BOXWOOD, CORNEL, BITTER REDBERRY; (PR.) CORNUIL- 
LIER A GRANDES FLEURS; (GER.) GROSSBLUTHIGE CORNEL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK. OF CORNUS FLORIDA, LINN. 

Description. — This small but beautiful forest tree, grows to a height of from 
lo to 30 feet; its form is usually somewhat bent, scraggy, and loosely branched; 
but if transplanted when young to open places, it grows into a beautiful full, 
umbrella-like tree, with an immense spread of branches. Bark greyish, cracked 
into small, more or less rectangular pieces ; that of the branches is smooth, 
red, and shows strongly the scars of previous leaves. Inflorescence terminal, 
peduncled, involucrate, greenish heads; involucre white and showy; lobes 4, peta- 
loid, obcordate or furnished with deep notches, having a discolored and thickened 
margin. Flozvers perfect, appearing with the leaves ; calyx tubular ; lobes 4, minute, 
triangular and somewhat obtuse ; petals 4, oblong, obtuse, spreading, but at length 
recurved in such a manner as to cause each flower, when magnified, to bear great 
resemblance to a plain Ionic capital. Stamens 4, erect; filatnents slender and 
filiform ; anthers oval, versatile, 2-celled. Style erect, slender, clavate, shorter 
than the stamens ; stigma terminal, obtuse. Fruit a few oval, red drupes, contain- 
ing each a 2-celled and 2-seeded nutlet. 

Cornaceae. — This small order is composed of shrubs or trees (rarely herbs) 
having the following characters : Leaves mostly opposite, rarely alternate ; stipules 
none. Inflorescence cymose, or (in two species of Cornus) capitate and subtended 
by a showy, white involucre ; flozvers perfect or polygamous. Calyx tubular and 
coherent with the ovary ; li^nb minute, 4-toothed. Petals valvate in the bud, equal 
in number to the calyx teeth or sometimes wanting. Stamens as many as the petals 
and alternate with them ; in the perfect flowers they are borne on the margin of 
an epigynous disk ; filaments usually ascending, sometimes erect. Ovary i to 
2-celled ; ovules one in each cell, anatropous, hanging from the apex of its cell ; 
styles united into one. Fruit a i to 2-seeded drupe ; seeds oval ; testa coriaceous ; 
albumen sarcous ; embryo axial, nearly the length of the albumen ; cotyledons 
foliaceous. 

* Cornu, a horn, alluding to the density of the wood. 



71-2 

This family is represented by only two genera, Conius and Nyssa, the latter 
having dioecious and pardy apetalous flowers. 

Beside the three species treated of in this work, the following are useful : The 
European and Asiatic Cornellian Cherry [Cortius mas, Linn.), the fruits of which 
were formerly fermented as a beverage, and are now used in Turkey in the concoc- 
tion of a kind of sherbet; and the North European Ltis-n-chrasis {C. sjiccica, Linn.), 
the berries of which are claimed by the Highlanders to have the power of enor- 
mously increasing the appetite. The berries of the Red Osier Dogwood (C 
stolonifera, Michx. ; C. sanguinea, Linn.), are claimed by Murion* to yield about 
one-third their weight of a pure, limpid oil, resembling olive, and fit for table use 
or for burning. 

History and Habitat. — The flowering dogwood is common in the deep woods 
of North America from the 43° north latitude southward, eastward, and westward ; 
it is especially common in the South, where it extends from Florida westward to 
the Mississippi. Its principal central localities are the States of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, where it flowers in May, generally from the 
15th to the 22d, and fruits in September. A peculiar feature in the blossoming of 
this species is the great regularity in time of appearance of its short-lived blossoms ; 
so characteristic is this that the Indians always planted their corn when the 
blossoms appeared. 

Notwithstanding the small diameter of the trunk of the dogwood, its wood is 
nevertheless quite valuable, on account of its great density and susceptibility of 
polish. It has been used for every purpose generally filled by the European Box- 
wood, such as engravers' blocks, cog-wheels, forks, spoons, rules, etc., etc. The 
twigs have long been used as a dentifrice ; of this use Barton says : f "The young 
branches stripped of their bark, and rubbed with their ends against the teeth, 
render them extremely white. The Creole negroes, who inhabit Norfolk, in 
Virginia, in great numbers, are in constant practice of using dogwood twigs in 
cleansing their teeth ; the striking whiteness of these, which I have frequently 
observed, is a proof of the efficacy of this practice. The application of the juice 
of these twigs to the gums, is also useful in preserving them hard and sound." 
The bark of the root afforded the aborigines a scarlet pigment. 

The previous medicinal use of dogwood bark dates from the discovery of this 
country, as it was then used by the Indians, who called the tree Mon-Jia-can-ni-min- 
schi, or Hat-ta-iva-no-min-schi by the Delawares. The bark has proven tonic, 
astringent, and slightly stimulating; being a stomachic tonic and anti-periodic, said 
to possess an action very like that of Peruvian bark, and differing from the latter 
only in quantity of action. Eberle states J that 35 grains equal 30 grains of 
cinchona bark, and Barton says,§ " It may be asserted with entire safety, that as 
yet there has not been discovered within the limits of the United States any 
vegetable so effectually to answer the purpose of Peruvian bark in the management 
of intermittent fever as Corims floj-ida." The dose of the dried and powdered 

* jfour. de Pharm., lo. f Med. Bot., i., 55. J Therapeutics, i., 304. \ Collections. 



71-3 
bark is placed at from 20 to 30 grains, and caution is necessary against its bein^ 
too fresh, as it then disagrees seriously with the stomach and bowels. The bark 
is also considered a tonic, stimulant, and antiseptic poultice for indolent ulcers, 
phlegmonous erysipelas, and anthrax. 

The officinal preparation of the U. S. Ph. is Extractum Conms Fhddiim ; in 
the Eclectic Materia Medica the preparations are: Dccochun Co?'?nis Floridcr, 
Extractum Conius Florida;, Exlracliim Conms Floridcv Fhiiduvi, and Pilulce 
Quiniee Compositce^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark, especially that of the 
root, is to be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it into 
a well-stoppered bottle and allow it to remain eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration, presents a magnificent, 
clear, crimson color by transmitted light. It has a vinous odor, a sharply astringent 
cinnamon like taste, and a strongly acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— G7;7^/r Acid. This acid was discovered by 
Carpenter (1830), who judged it alkaloidal and gave it the name Cornin. Geigerf 
(1836) investigated the principle and determined it to be a crystalline acid; his 
observations were corroborated by FreyJ (1879). It crystallizes in nearly white, 
silky forms, very bitter and soluble in alcohol and water. The crystals deliquesce 
when exposed to the air, and when subjected to heat upon platinum foil they melt 
readily, become black, and finally burst into a fiame and burn without residue. 

Oil of Cornus. — The ripe berries, when boiled and pressed, are said to yield 
a limpid oil ; this body is uninvestigated. 

Tannic,^''^' and gallic acid,'-' a neutral resin crystallizing in shining needles, ^"^^ 
gum,'*^ extractive,'-^' fatty matter," oil,'-^ wax,- red coloring matter,-'*' cornic 
acid,"**' and a bitter principle,'' have been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The fresh bark in doses of from 20 to 40 grains 
causes increased action of the heart, heat of the skin, and severe pain in the bowels. 
The American Indian, true to the principle that seems to have guided him in the use 
of all medicines, used the bark for fever and colic. The symptoms so far devel- 
oped in proving are : sensations of fullness of the head with headache; nausea and 
vomiting; violent pain in the bowels with purging; and increased bodily tempera- 
ture, followed by hot sweat." Dr. Chas. A. Lee sums up the action of the drug 
as follows : " " The physiological effects of Cornus bark are : increased frequency 
of pulse, exalted temperature, diaphoresis, sensation of fullness or pains in the 



* Sulphate of Quinia, extract of Cornus florida, Tartaric acid, and alcoholic extract of Cimicifuga. 
i" M. Geiger, Ann. der Pharm., XIV., 206. 

X Am. Jour. Phar., 1 879, 390. 

1 Walker, Inaiig. Diss. '' Cockburn, Am. Jour. PImr., 1835, 1 14. ' Tilden, Jour. .Mat. Med., i., N. S., 294. 

* Geiger, 1. c. 5 Frey, 1. c. " Hale, A'l-.v AVm., 242. ' The Jour, of Mat. .!/«•</., I. c. 



71-4 

head, and, if the dose be too large, gastric derangement. Of these the most 
strongly marked are the increased temperature of the skin, and the general per- 
spiration. Some experimenters have observed a constant tendency to sleep, 
which has continued for several hours. This does not indicate any specific narcotic 
properties, but is the result of the cerebral fullness. Whether the remote effects 
are owing to sympathy, propagated from the gastic centre, or are the direct effects 
of the introduction of the active principles into the blood, is not certainly known ; 
although the latter is most probable, since the cold infusion or the alcoholic extract 
produces the same effects. But whatever doubt there may be in regard to its true 
mode of operation, it is very evident that the bark has properties calculated to 
invigorate the vital forces, and the organic nervous energy, without unduly stimu- 
lating the circulating system." 

Description of Plate 71. 

1. End of a flowering branch, Newfield, N. Y., May 15th, 1880. 

2. Flower. 

3. Section of calyx and ovary. 

4. Fruiting branch. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



1 




."^A^ "^v^^ 'r?/^" ^ - X 












... ^-.•tr- -.'/-^ — j'-s: I. 





.lU.idnatdel.etpinxl 



C6RNUS CiRCINATA, L Her. 



N. ORD.-CORNACE^. 72 

GENUS.— CORNUS. 

SEX. SVST.— TETRAN'DRIA MON'OGVNIA. 



CORNUS CIRCINATA. 



JiOlWD LEA run DOGWVOD. 



SYN.— CORNUS CIRCINATA, L'HER. ; C. RUGOSA, LAM.; C. TOMENTULOSA, 
MICHX. 

COM. NAMES.— ROUND LEAVED CORNEL OR DOGWOOD, ALDER DOGWOOD, 
PENNSYLVANIA DOGWOOD, GREEN OSIER, SWAMP SASSAFRAS; (FR.) 
CORNOUILE A FEUILLES RONDIB ; (GBR.) RUNDBLATTERIGE CORNEL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH B.VRK OF CORNUS CIRCINATA, L'HER. 

Description. — This shrubby species grows from 6 to lo feet high. Stem 
erect; ba)-k greyish, verrucosa; branches green, opposite, straight, and slender — 
the younger ones bright green splashed with red, those of the previous year 
somewhat crimson and more or less warty. Leaves all opposite, round-oval, 
acuminate, woolly beneath, larger than those of any other species ; ribs and veins 
prominent below and correspondingly indented above. Inflorescence terminal, in 
open, more or less flat, spreading cymes; Jioioers white. Calyx teelh very short. 
Petals ovate-lanceolate, at length spreading. Stamens longer than the petals. 
Style about two-thirds the length of the stamens ; stigma capitate. Fruit an 
incomplete cyme of spherical, light blue drupes, each hollowed at the insertion of 
the pedicel and where it retains the remains of the persistent style. 

History and Habitat. — The Round Leaved Dogwood grows in copses where 
the soil is rich, being indigenous from Canada to the Carolinas, and west to the 
Mississippi ; flowering in the north in June. 

The medicinal use of this species is far less e.xtensive than the last, preceding. 
The Drs. Ives claim * that the bark is tonic, and astringent to a far greater 
degree than any other species of the genus, and that it resembles Cinchona lance- 
folia (Pale Bark) in its action. It has proven, in their hands, an excellent remedy 
for chronic dyspepsia [sic'] and diarrhoea. An ounce of the bark will yield in the 
neighborhood of 150 grains of a very strongly-bitter extract; far greater in quan- 
tity, and more bitter than that of C.Jlorida. 

Cornus circinata was dismissed from the U. S. Ph. at the last revision. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark is gathered and treated 
as in the preceding species. 

* Dr. A. W. Ives, N. Y. Kep., 1822 ; Dr. E. Ives, Tram. Am. Med. Assoc n, iii, JI2. 



72-2 

The tincture resulting is clear, and of a slightly brownish-orange color. Its 
odor is very like that of Rhubarb ; its taste sharply astringent and bitter, and its 
reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Cornin. This acid differs from that of C. 
florida only in the fact that it remains associated with tannin in spite of most care- 
ful re-crystallization, and other means of purification.* 

The other constituents mentioned in the preceding species are all, without 
doubt, duplicated in this. Gibson isolated sugar, coloring-matter, cornin and 
tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Here again great similarity exists between the 
species. C. circinata causes drowsiness and depression of spirits ; congestion of 
the head ; nausea and faintness ; flatulency ; copious bilious stools and urine, with 
yellowness of the sclera, face and hands ; coldness of the extremties ; itching, red 
rash, upon the whole surface, especially the trunk, with flashes of heat and chill, 
followed by perspiration. 

Description of Plate 72. 

1. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June i6th, 1885. 
2. Flower. 
3 and 4. Stamens. 

5. Stigma. 

6. Portion of the stem, showing mode of branching. 

7. Part of a fruiting cyme. 

8. Seed. 

(2-5, and 8 enlarged.) 

* Robert Gibson, Jr., Am. Jour. Phar., 1S80, 433. 



73. 




(^m. 



ad nal.del.et pinxt. 



C6RNUS SERfCEA.Linn 



N. ORD. CORNACE/E. 73 

GENUS.— CORN us, TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGVNIA. 



CORNUS SERICEA. 



SILKY DOGWOOD. 

SYN. — CORNUS SERICEA, LINN.; C. AMOMUM, DU ROI; C. CYANOCAR- 
PUS, MOEN.; C. LANUGINOSA, MICHX. ; C. OBLIQUA, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.*— SWAMP OR FEMALE DOGWOOD, SILKY OR BLUEBERRY 
CORNEL, KINNIKINNIK; (FR.) CORNOUILLE SOYEUX; (GER.) SUMPF- 
CORNEL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF CORNUS SERICEA, LINN. 



Description. — This water-loving shrub grows to a height of from 6 to 1 2 feet. 
Branches spreading, dark-purpHsh (not brilliant red) ; branclilets silky-downy. 
Leaves narrowly ovate or elliptical, pointed, smooth above, silky-downy below 
and often rusty-hairy upon the ribs. Inflorescence a flat, close, woolly-pubescent, 
long-peduncled cyme ; floiL<crs creamy-white. Calyx teeth lanceolate, conspicuous. 
Petals lanceolate-oblong, obtuse. Stignm thick, capitate. Fruit pale blue, globose. 
Read description of Cornacese, p. 71. 

History and Habitat. — The Swamp Dogwood is indigenous to North America, 
from Florida to Mississippi and thence northward, where it grows in wet places, 
generally in company with Cephalanthus and Viburnum dentatum. It flowers 
northward in June, and ripens its azure fruit in September. 

The use of this species in general medicine has mostly been as a substitute 
for C.florida, than which it is less bitter, while being more astringent. The Cree 
Indians of Hudson's Bay call the plant Milazuapainule, and use the bark in decoc- 
tion as an emetic in coughs and fevers. They also smoke the scrapings of the 
wood, and make a black dye from the bark by boiling it with iron rust.f A 
favorite tobacco mixture of the North American Indians, called Kinnikinnik, is 
composed of scrapings of the wood of this species, mi.xed with tobacco in the pro- 
portion of about one to four. A good scarlet dye is made by boiling the rootlets 
with water. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark, including that of the 
root, is treated like that of the first-mentioned species; the resulting tincture has 

* The names Red Willow, Red Osier, Red Rod, and Rose Willow, are often given to this ificcies, but they should 
only designate C. stolonifera, Michx. 

t E. M. Holmes in Am. Jour. Phar., 1884, 617. 



73-2 

a beautiful madder color by transmitted light, an odor greatly like that of sugar- 
cane when the juices are slightly soured, an extremely astringent and bitterish 
taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL, CONSTITUENTS. — At present we can only call attention again 
to this rubric under C. jiorida. The bitterness, however, of this species is less 
than its congener, while its astringency is greater. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — This species seems to act stronger upon the 
heart than C. florida, and to cause more cerebral congestion. 



Description of Plate 73. 

I. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June 20th, li 

2. Flower. 

3. Stigma. 

4. Fruit. % 
(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



Tt. 




(p'la.ad 



nal.del.et.pinxt 



fs 6 

TRIOSTEUIVI PERFOUATUIVI, Linn. 






N. ORD -CAPRIFOLIACE^. 74 

Tribe.-LONICERE/E. 

GENUS.— TRIOSTEUM,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



TRIOSTEUM. 



FEVER-WORT. 

» 

SYN.— TRIOSTEUM PERPOLIATUM, LINN.; TRIOSTEUM MAJUS, MICHX. 

COM. NAMES.— FEVER-WORT, OR ROOT; HORSE-GENTIAN, OR GINSENG; 
"WHITE GINSENG; TINKER "WEED, OR DR. TINKER'S "WEED; BAS- 
TARD, FALSE, OR, "WILD IPECAC ; t "WILD COFFEE; S"WEET-BITTER ; 
CINQUE; (FR.) TRIOSTE ; (GER.) DREISTEIN. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF TRIOSTEUM PERPOLIATUM, LINN. 

Description. — This coarse, leafy, perennial herb, grows to a height of from i 
to 4 feet. Root thick and sarcous, sub-divided into several horizontal sections ; stem 
simple, hollow, glandularly pubescent ; leaves opposite, ample, ovate-spatulate, 
sinuate, acuminate, abruptly narrowed and connate or almost perfoliate at the 
base, prominently reticulate veined and downy pubescent upon the under surface, 
and hairy above. Inflorescence, axillary whorls at the middle of the stem ; flow- 
ers I to 6, dull or reddish purple, sessile. Bracts linear; calyx persistent; lobes 
linear-lanceolate, foliaceous. Corolla elongated cylindro-tubular, curved, gibbous 
at the base, scarcely longer than the calyx lobes, viscidly pubescent ; limb more or 
less equally 5-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted upon the tube of the corolla ; filaments 
hairy ; anthers sagittate. Ovary generally 5-celled, each cell i -ovuled ; ovules 
suspended ; style filiform, hairy ; stigma 3 to 5-lobed. Fruit drupaceous, dry, 
orange-colored; mitlets 3-angled and 3-ribbed, i -seeded; endocarp o^s^ous, testa 
membranaceous. 

Caprifoliaceae. — A large family of shrubs and a few perennial herbs. 
Leaves opposite and destitute of stipules when normal. Flowers generally 
5-merous, regular, or sometimes in the corolla irregular, hermaphrodite ; calyx 
adnate to the ovary ; corolla with its lobes imbricate in aestivation. Stamens as 
many as the lobes of the corolla, alternate with them, and inserted upon its tube. 
(Exc. Adoxa and Littnaea.) Ovary 2 to 5- or, by abortion, i -celled ; ovules anatro- 
pous, when only one then suspended and inverted ; raphe dorsal. Embryo small 
in the axis of the fleshy albumen. 

The following remedies belonging to this family are of special interest to us 

* Tptft, treis, three ; iuriov, osteon, a bone ; the fruit having three nutlets, shortened from Triosttospermum, Dill. 
f Applied also to many species of Euphorbia, and to GilUntiia trifoliata, Moench. (Rosaceoe.) 



74-2 

beside the two under consideration : the European Moschatel [Adoxa Moschatcl- 
lina, Linn.), also found in Arctic America and sparsely in the Rocky Mountains; 
the European Elder {Sambucus tiigra, Linn.), a native also of Asia and Northern 
Africa; and the European Fly Woodbine {Lonicera Xylostciim, Linn.). Two 
American species were proven too late for representation in this work, they are 
the Snowberry {Symphoricaypiis racemostis, Michx.), a valuable remedy in vomiting 
pregnancy, as many suffering ladies have testified in my practice ; and the High 
Cranberry {Viburnum opulus, Linn.), now proving valuable in many forms of 
uterine affections and puerperal diseases. 

Outside of our Materia Medica the order contains : The Dwarf Elder {Sam- 
bucus ebu/us, Linn.), probably the most active of that genus ; and the Bush Honey- 
suckle (Dicrvilla irijida, Moench.). 

History and Habitat. — The feverwort is indigenous to North America from 
Canada southward and westward to Alabama, growing on open woodlands in lime- 
stone soils ; not really plentiful in any locality. It blossoms in June, and ripens its 
characteristically arranged fruit in September. 

It was in all probability the Southern species T. augustifo'ium, Linn., that was 
principally used as an emetic in earlier days, and this is doubtless the plant sent to 
Pluckenet as Dr. Tinker s Weed, and gravely commented on by Poiret as follows :* 
"Ses racines et celles de I'espece prec^dente passent pour em^tiques ; le docteur 
Tinker est le premier qui les a mises en usage, et qui a fait donner a, cette plante 
par plusieurs habitans de I'Amerique septentrional le d' herbe sauvage die doc- 
teur Tinker!' Triosteum is stated by Rafinesque to have been one of the abo- 
rio-inal medicamentJe, called Sincky. A decoction is said to have been used by 
the Cherokee Indians in the cure of fevers (Porcher). The bark of the root has 
long been esteemed as an emetic and smoothly-acting cathartic, the former in doses 
of from 40 to 60 grains, the latter in half that amount; its cathartic action was 
claimed to be fully as sure as jalap. Dr. J. Kneeland calls attention to this plant 
as an application to painful swellings, regarding which he says •:\ " My attention was 
first called to it by a gentleman of observation and intelligence, who derived his 
knowledge of its value indirectly from the Onondaga Indians. So strongly did he 
back his claims with facts on cases of whitlow or felon, successfully treated, that I 
applied the bruised root, moistened, to the first well-marked case of onychia or 
felon which came to me for treatment. The young man upon whose hand it was, 
had not slept much for two nights. The whole hand was much swollen ; the middle 
finger, tense and throbbing, was the centre from which the pain and swelling 
extended. It had been poulticed and thoroughly soaked in weak lye for three 
days, and still grew worse. We applied the Triosteum, and nothing else. After 
six hours' application he slept ; the throbbing and tensive pain gradually dimin- 
ished after the first application ; in two days' time the swelling disappeared from 
the forearm and hand ; in four days the finger affected, the whole palm, and the 
centre of the dorsum of the hand peeled, and complete resolution took place, no 

* Bigelow, Am. Med. Bot., I, p. 90. f Loc. cit., The Jour, of Mat. Med., Vol. I.,N. S., 1859, 240. 



74-3 
pus having formed. In another case, wherein it was tried, only two appHcations 
were required to reHeve the pain and throbbing, and complete resolution fol- 
lowed." Dr. Mulenberg says* that the dried and toasted berries of this plant 
were considered by some of the Germans of Lancaster County, Pa., an excellent 
substitute for coffee when prepared in the same way ; having great respect for 
German taste I tried an infusion, but came to the conclusion that it was not the 
Lancaster County Germans' taste that I held in regard. 

Triosteum is one of the drugs dismissed from the U. S. Ph., at the last 
revision. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered in Autumn, 
is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed well with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After first stirring, the whole is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, 
and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture thus formed after filtration has a beautiful, clear, reddish-orano-e 
color by transmitted light, a bitterish odor and taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The only analysis thus far made of the root 
is that by Dr. John Randall, communicated to the Linnaean Society of New Eng- 
land. His conclusions were that no pure resin exists in the plant, nor did he deter- 
mine a volatile oil or free acid. The leaves under his manipulation yielded the 
most extract, and the root more than the stems. The sensible qualities of the root, 
however, he found to be essentially different from those of the herb. Water yields 
a greater quantity of extract than alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— In Dr. Williamson's proving of the drug the 
prominent effects were : Nausea ; vomiting ; copious watery stools apparently pro- 
ceeding from the small intestines, accompanied by stiffness of the lower extrem- 
ities and cramps in the calves ; aching in the bones ; coldness and stiffness of the 
feet, and general perspiration.f 

Description of Plate 74. 

1. Top of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., June 15th, 1884. 

2. A portion of the middle of the flowering plant. 

3. A flower. 

4. Opened corolla. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Pollen, X 200. 

8. Fruit. 

9. Seeds. 

(3-6, 8 and 9, enlarged.) 

* Barton, Med. Bot., i, p. 63. t Allen, Ent\y. Pun Mat. Med., 10, p. 25. 




(p'm.ailnat.del.efpiittt. SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS, Linn. 



N. ORD-CAPRIFOLIACE^. 75 

Tribe-SAMBUCE/E. 

GENUS.— SAM BUCUS,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— rEXTANl)RI.\ TRIGVNIA. 



SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS. 



ELDER. 



SYN.— SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS, LINN.; S. NIGRA, MARSH (NOT LINN.); 

S. HUMILIS, RAF.; S. GLAUCA, GRAY (NOT NUTT.). 
COM. NAMES.-ELDER BUSH, ELDER BERRY; (FR.) SUREAU DU CANADA; 

(GR.) CANADISCHB HOLLUNDER. 



A TINCTURE OF THE BUDS, FLOWERS, SHOOTS, AND LEAVES OF SAMBUCUS 

CANADENSIS, LINN. 

Description. — This common, glabrous, suffrutescent perennial, usually attains 
a growth of from 6 to lo feet. Stems somewhat ligneous, hollow, pithy, generally 
dying down to the ground, or persistent for a few years ; bark verrucose ; pith 
dense and bright white after the first year. Leaves compound, imparipinnate ; 
stipules rare; leaflets 5 to 11, mostly 7, petiolulate, from ovate-oval to oblong- 
lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, the lower sometimes with a lateral lobe ; stipels not 
uncommonly present, narrowly linear, and tipped with a callous gland, hifloy- 
escencc terminal, broad, flat, or depressed, 5-rayed, compound cymes ; flozvers 
small, creamy-white, and sickishly odorous. Calyx minute, 5-lobed ; lobes some- 
what deltoid, acute. Corolla rotate, or somewhat urceolate ; limb broadly spread- 
ing; lobes 5, obtuse. Stamens 5, alternate with the lobes of the corolla, and 
attached to the base of its tube. Stiomas 3 ; styles capitate. Fn/it a baccate, 
sweet and juicy, dark-purple drupe, never red, but later becoming black ; bloom 
slight. Nutlets 3, small, i -seeded, punctate-rugulose ; .y^rrt' suspended ; testa mem- 
branaceous. 

History and Habitat. — This species is indigenous to North America, where it 
extends from New Brunswick westward to Saskatchewan, southward to Florida 
and Texas, and to the mountains of Colorado, Utah, and Arizona. It grows in 
rich alluvial soils, blossoming in July and fruiting in September. 

Our species is not sufficiently distinct from the European S. nigra, Linn., from 
which it differs only in being less woody, and having more loose cymes, larger 
flowers and more compound leaves. The bracteate inflorescence, considered spe- 
cific, does not seem to be a constant feature. The American species was intro- 
duced into England in 1761. 

* Sa/ijSSif/i, sambuke, an ancient musical instrument, said to have been made of the wood. 



75-2 

The pith of the Elder has many offices to fill in the arts and manufactures; 
the berries make a really pleasant wine ; and, among the poorer class of people 
(it must be more from necessity than choice), they are made into pies, like the 
huckleberry. 

In domestic medicine this plant forms almost a pharmacy in itself, and has 
been used substantially as follows: A decoction of the flowers and leaves, or an 
ointment containing them, was used as an application to large wounds to prevent 
deleterious consequences from flies ; the leaf-buds proved themselves a violent 
and unsafe cathartic ; the flowers, in a warm infusion are stimulant, excitant, and 
sudorific ; in cold, diuretic, alterative, and laxative (Elderblow Tea) ; they were 
also employed, in ointment, as a discutient ; the inner bark is a severe hydrogogue 
cathartic, emetic, deobstruent, and alterative, valuable in intestinal obstruction and 
anasarca ; the berries proved aperient, diuretic, diaphoretic, and cathartic, valuable 
in rheumatic gout, scrofula, and syphilis — the juice making a cooling, laxative 
drink. 

In pharmacy the leaves have been used to impart a clear green tint to oils, 
etc. [Oletim Viride, Ungiientntn Samhici folioruni), and the flowers for perfumes. 

Sambucus Canadensis {fiores) are officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic 
Materia Medica the preparations are: Aqna Sambtici, Syrnpus Sarsaparillce Com- 
positns*' Ung:ientnm Sambiici, and Vinuni Sambiici:\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — Equal parts of the fresh flower-buds, 
flowers, young twigs, and leaves are taken, and treated as in the preceding drug 
(p. 74-3). The resulting tincture has a clear orange-brown color by transmitted 
light ; it retains the sweetish odor and taste of the flowers ; and has an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Mbiirnic Acid. This body, identical with 
valerianic acid, J was proven to exist in the bark of this species by C. G. Traub,§ 
who succeeded in obtaining its characteristic odor, and valerianate of zinc after the 
addition of the sulphate of that metal. 

Oil 0/ Savibuaes.— This volatile body, found in the flowers of S. nigra, was 
proven by Traub to also exist in the bark of this species. It is described as a thin, 
light-yellow body, having the odor of the flowers, a bitter, burning, afterward cool- 
ing taste ; becoming of a butter-like consistence, and solidifying at 0° (32° F.) to 
a crystalline mass. 

Tannin, sugar, fat, resin, and a coloring-matter were also determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Dr. Ubelacker's experiments with from 20 to 
50 drops of the tincture gave the following symptoms of physical disturbance : 
Drawing in the head, with anxious dread; flushed and blotched face; dryness 



* See p. 92-2, foot-note to Syrupus Aralitc Compositus, as the syrup is now called. 
t This so-called Hydragogue Tincture contains Elder-bark, Parsley-root, and Sherry, 
t Seep. 155-3. 
\ Am. Jour. Pilar., l8Sl, 392. 



75-3 

and sensation ot swelling ot the mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, 
and trachea ; frequent and profuse llow of clear urine ; heaviness and constriction 
of the chest; palpitation of the heart; pulse rose to loo, and remained until p(T- 
spiration ensued ; sharp, darting rheumatic pains in the hands and feet ; exhaustion 
and profuse perspiration, which relieved all the symptoms. 



Description of Plate 75. 

End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., July 2otli, 18S5. 

2. Flower, showing calyx. 

3. Face of flower. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pistil. 

6. A portion of fruiting cyme. 

7. Seed. 

(2-5 and 7 enlarged.) 




^m.ad nat.del.et pinxt GEPHALANTHUS OCCIDENTALIS, Linn. 



N. ORD -RUBIACE^. 76 

GENUS.— CEPHALANTHUS,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— TETR.-WDKI.V MON(MJV.NI.\. 



CEPHALANTHUS. 

BUTTOJ^ BUSH. 

SYN.— CEPHALANTHUS OCCIDBNTALIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— BUTTON BUSH, BUTTON-WOOD,t CRANE WILLOW, POND- 
DOGWOOD, SNOWBALL,: GLOBE FLOWER;? (FR.) BOIS DE PLOMB, 
CEPHALANTHE D'AMERIQUE; (GBR.i KNOPFBUSCH, AMERIKAN- 
ISCHE WEISS BALL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH B.\RK OF CEPHAL.\NTHUS OCCIDKN TALIS, LINN. 

Description. — This smooth or pubescent|| shrub attains a growth of from 5 to 
15 feet. Stctn diffusely branching ; ba?-/; smooth and reddish on the branchlets, 
rough and yellowish on the stems ; braiuhes opposite. Leaves large, opposite, and 
ternate, both arrangements often appearing upon the same branch, petiolate, 
ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, pointed, dark-green, and smooth ; stipules interme- 
diate, ovate, sometimes toothed, hijiorescence dense, axillary and terminal, globu- 
lar heads ; pedimclcs longer than the diameter of the heads ; flowers creamy-white, 
sessile upon a globose, hirsute receptacle. Calyx tube inversely pyramidal ; limb 
4-toothed. Corolla slender, tubular, or funnel-form ; margin 4-toothed ; teeth erect, 
imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 4, hardly exserted. Style filiform, greatly exserted ; 
stigma capitate, globose. Fruit small, dry, pyriform, 2 to 4 celled, cleaving from the 
base to form 2 to 4 i -seeded divisions; seeds pendulous, crowned with acork-like 
arillus ; embryo straight in the axis ; albumen somewhat cartilaginous ; eotyledons 
leaf-like. 

Rubiaceae. — This large and important order has but few representatives in 
North America, but yields many valuable drugs in the hotter climates. It is char- 
acterized as follows : Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite, entire, or sometimes 
whorled and astipulate ; stipules intermediate and connective. Calyx coherent 
with the ovary. Corolla regular, tubular. Slamcns as many as the lobes of the 
corolla, and inserted upon its tube. Ovary 2 to 4 celled. Seeds anatropous or am- 
phitropous. 

The important medicinal plants of this family are : The cinchonas or Peru- 
vian barks, i.e., pale bark {^Cinchona officinalis, Lt?in.), Calisaja bark [Cinchona 
Calisaya, IVedd.), red bark {Cinchona succirtiba, Pav.), Columbian bark [Cinchotia 

* KtfoXii, kephale, a head; uvflo,-, anthos, a flower. 

f The true button-wood is the sycamore, a large tree growing along rivers {Platantti occiJenlalis, Linn.). 

X The true snowball is Symphoricarpus raitmosiis, Mich. (Caprifoliacc.T;). 

I The true globe flower is Trollius laxus, Saliib. (Ranunculacese). 

II Var. piibescens, Raf. 



76-2 

cordifolia, Mut), lancifolia bark {Cinchona lancifolia, I\fut.), crown bark [Cinchona 
condaminca, D. C. var. crispa and var. Chahiaroueia), gray bark [Cinchona mi- 
craiitha, Ru. et Pav.), and many minor species; Gambier, or pallid catechu [Un- 
cat-ia Gambier, Ro x. ), co^ee [Coffea Arabica, Linn), ipecacuanha [Ccphcelis Ipe- 
cacuanha, A. Rich.), Cainca [Chiococca raccniosa, Linn), madder [Rtibia tinctoria, 
Linn), bitter bark [Pinckncya pubens, Mich), cleavers [Gallium aparinc, Linn) 
and others of minor import. 

History and Habitat. — The button bush is indigenous to the United States 
and Canadas, growing as far south as Florida and Louisiana, and west to Missouri. 
It habits the borders af wet places, and flowers from July to August. The flowers 
of cephalanthus, especially those of the more southern individuals, are pleasantly 
odorous, the perfume being likened to that of jessamine. Rafinesque mentions 
several varieties of this species, the only one apparently deserving special desig- 
nation being var. niacrophylla, Raf., distinguishable by having larger leaves, and 
an hirsute corolla ; he stations this plant in Louisiana. 

The medical history of Cephalanthus is not important; it has been used with 
accredited success in intermittent and remittent fevers, obstinate coughs (Elliott), 
palsy, various venereal disorders (Merat), and in general as a tonic, laxative, and 
diuretic. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the stem, branch.es, 
and root* is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it 
into a well-stoppered botde, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, has a light, clear, 
orange-brown color, by transmitted light, a bitter, astringent taste, and an acid re- 
action. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of the bark by E. M. Hattanf 
yielded : 

An uncrystallizable bitter principle, soluble in both water and alcohol. 

A fluorescent body, forming apicular crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. 

Two resins (uninvestigated), and tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have a proving of this drug by Dr. E. D. 
Wright,;]; but it is not complete enough to give us an idea of the action. It would 
seem, from the close resemblance and botanical relation of this plant to the cin- 
chonas, that a more thorough proving might develop in it a very useful addition 
to our remedies. 

Description of Pl.\te 76. 

I. End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June iSth, 18S3. 
2. Flower (enlarged). 

* The bark of the root apparently contains the greatest proportion of the bitter i^rinciple of the plant. 

t Am. Jour. Phar., 1874, p. 357. J .-im. Horn. Obs., 1875, p. 177. 




a. 

'IxJ 

CC 



3: 




4- 



N. ORD.--RUBIACE^. 77 

GENUS. — MITCH ELLA,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— TErR.\NDRIA .MO.\OGVM.\. 



MITCHELLA. 

PAR TRIDGE-BERR Y. 



SYN. — MITCHELLA REPENS, LINN.; MITCHELLA UNDULATA, S. & Z. ; 
SYRINGA BACCIFERA, ETC., PLUK. 

COM. NAMES.— PARTRIDGE BERRY, SQUAW-BERRY, SQUAW- VINE, TWO- 
EYED CHEQUER-BERRY, REEPING CHECKER-BERRY, WINTER- 
CLOVER, DEER-BERRY. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PL.\NT, MITCHELLA REPENS, LINN. 

Description. — This pretty little plant, creeping about in the moss at the foot of 
our forest trees and decayed stumps, attains a growth of from 6 to 14 inches. Root 
cylindrical, branched, horizontal, and noduled at the insertion of the tufted, oppo- 
site rootlets. Sloit glabrous, branching widely, and rooting at each axilla. Leaves 
orbicular-cordate or oval and subcordate, sometimes having a whitish line over the 
midrib; dark, evergreen, slender, petioled ; stipules minute, somewhat triangular 
awl-shaped. Inflorescence terminal ; floivers in pairs with united ovaries, some- 
times solitary and double (fig. 3) ; the flowens on one plant may have included 
stamens and an exserted style, while another show an included style and exserted 
stamens. This fact has led Mr. Thos. Meehanf to consider the species dioecious. 
The first form, he alleges, to be that of the female; the last, the male plant. As 
far as my observation extends, I have as yet been unable to discover a plant that 
bore no fruit, and all parts examined appear to be fully developed internally as 
well as externally. Pediuicle short, or, in the double form, almost wanting. Calyx 
4-toothed. Corolla slender, funnel-form ; limb 4-lobed ; lobes spreading or reflexcd. 
densely clothed with white hairs upon the upper face and in the throat and tube 
of the corolla. Stamens 4 ; filaments inserted upon the corolla ; anthers oblong. 
Style single filiform ; stigmas 4, linear. Fruit a fleshy, edible, globose, baccate, 
double drupe, retaining the persistent teeth of both calices, and remaining fresh 
on the plant all winter; nutlets 8 (4 to each ovary), small, seedlike, and bony. 
Read de.scription of the order, under Cephalanthus, 76. 

History and Habitat. — The Partridge-berry is indigenous to North America, 
from the Canadas to the extreme .southern limits of the United States, and has 
been found in Mexico and Japan. It grows in moist woods, especially those 
abounding in evergreens. It flowers in July. 

* In commemoration of Dr. John Mitchell, an early and excellent American botanist, 
t Am. Jour. Phar., 1868, p. 554. 



77-2 

Mitchella is one of the many plants used by the American Aborigines as a 
parturient, frequent doses of a decocdon being taken during the few weeks just 
preceding confinement. It has also been found to be a valuable diuredc and 
astringent, and to have an especial affinity to various forms of uterine difficulties. 

The plant is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia Medica 
its preparations are : Extractiwi Mitchella and Syrupiis Mitchella: Compositus.'^' 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant is chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp well mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After a thorough mixture, the whole is poured into a well-stoppered botde, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated by filtering the mass, should have a deep orange-red 
color by transmitted light, an odor between that of Scotch snuff and oil of winter- 
green, an astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis has been made, as far as I can 
determine, of this plant. The tincture, made as above, contains a large percent- 
age of tannin, and a resin precipitable by water. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms, as recorded by Drs. F. C. 
Duncan and P. H. Hale,f show that Mitchella causes a general congestion, with 
dryness and burning of the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract. The 
clinical results would seem to show a tonic action upon involuntary muscular 
fibres. The drug merits more extended proving. 



Description of Plate 77. 

Whole plant (somewhat reduced) ; Pamrapo, N. J., June 8th, 1879. 

2. A pair of flowers (somewhat enlarged). 

3. A double flower (somewhat enlarged). 



* Mitchella, Hdonias, Viburnum op., and Caulophylhim. 
f Allen, Eiiiy. Pure Mat. Med., vol. vi, \^. 373. 



78. 






¥ 




Ta.adnafMetpinxt EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM, Linn 



N. ORD-COMPOSIT^. 78 

Tribe.-EUPATORIACE/E. 

GENUS.— EUPATORIUM,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— SYNGENESI.\ .KQUAI,I.S. 



EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM. 

PURPLE BOjXESET. 

SYN.— EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM, TRIPOLIATUM, AND MACULATUM, 
LINN. ; E. VERTICILLATUM, MUHL. ; E. TERNIFOLIUM, ELL. 

COM. NAMES.— PURPLE BONESET, THOROUGH-WORT, OR HEMP-WEED ; 
JOE-PYB,t OR JOPI-WEBD; TRUMPET- WEED ; QUEEN OP THE 
MEADOW;! GRAVEL-ROOT; (GER.) PURPURFARBENER WASSER- 
HANF. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM, L. 

Description. — This common herb varies greatly in form and foliage, the type 
being very tall and graceful. Ste)n rigidly erect, 6 to i 2 feet high,§ stout, simple, 
and either hollow or furnished with an incomplete pith; it is punctate in lines and 
purple above the nodes, or often covered with elongated spots {E. viaculata, Linn.). 
Leaves verticillate, mostly in fives, nearly destitute of resinous punctse, oblong- 
lanceolate, acutish or acuminate, coarsely serrate, roughish and reticulate-veiny ; 
petioles distinct or merely represented by the contracted bases of the leaves. 
Lnjlorescence a terminal, dense, compound corymb; heads very numerous, 5 to 
lo-flowered. Involucre flesh-colored, cylindrical; bracts thin, membranaceous, 
somewhat scarious when dry, and faintly 3-striate, obtuse ; they are closely imbri- 
cated in three rows, the exterior successively shorter. Receptacle flat, not hirsute. 
Style bulbous at the base, much exserted. Achenia smooth, glandular. 

Eupatorium. — This vast genus contains in North America alone 39 species 
and 16 distinct varieties ; other species are found in South America, Asia, Africa, 
and Europe. It is composed mostly of perennial herbs, but contains a few annuals, 
and shrubs in warmer regions. Leaves mostly opposite and simple, resinous and 
bitter, rarely alternate, whorled, or divided. Heads small, homogamous, discoid, 
and corymbosely-cymose or paniculate, rarely solitary ; involucre cylindrical or 
somewhat campanulate ; scales numerous, purple, blue, or white, never really 
yellow, though sometimes ochroleucous. Elozucrs hermaphrodite and homochro- 
mous ; corolla tubular and regular, 5-toothed ; anthers included, not caudate; 
receptacle naked and flat. Style cylindraceous, branched, the branches exserted, 
more or less thickened upward and very minutely pubescent. Pappus a single 

* Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus, who was first to use the plant as a remedy. 

t .\r\ Indian by this name cured typhus in New EngLmd, with this plant, by powerful sweating. 

X The Queen of the Meadow is more jiroperly Spiraa salicifolia, Linn. (Rosaceje). 

\ The individual represented in the jilate was nearly lo feet high, growing in an open, rich field. 



78-2 

series of slender but somewhat stiff and rough capillary bristles. Achenia 5-angled, 
not striate. 

The species of this genus used in medicine are, beside the two under consid- 
eration, the American E. aromaticiini, Linn., scssiiifoiium, Linn., teticrifolium, Willd., 
and ageratoides, Linn., all considered tonic, diaphoretic, and antiperiodic, the latter 
being the supposed cause of the " trembles " in cattle ; E. rotiindifolhmi, Linn., a 
palliative in consumption ; the Texan mata [E. mcarnatum, Walt.) is said to be 
diuretic, and is used for flavoring tobacco ; while E. fceniculceum, Willd., leucolepsis, 
T. & G., and hyssopi/o/iuin, Linn., are considered to be antidotes to the poisonous 
bites of reptiles and stings of insects. The European E. cannabiniim, Linn., is 
diuretic, emetic, and purgative; the South American E. glutinosimi is one of 
the sources of the substance known as Madco;* the Jamaican E. nervosum is 
regarded as an almost certain cure for cholera, typhus, typhoid, and small-pox ; 
while the Brazilian aya-pana [E. ayapana, Vent.) is an aromatic tonic and febrifuge, 
and is considered a sure remedy — if timely used — for antidoting the effects of the 
bites of poisonous reptiles and insects ; this last is said to be the most powerful 
species of the genus, and as such, it should be carefully proven. 

CompositaB. — This immense and purely natural order, consists of herbs, and 
raVely shrubs and trees ; it comprises one- tenth of all known phsenogamous plants, 
and one-eighth of those of North America, where it has 237 genera and 1610 
species, ot which 1551 are indigenous. Its members are easily distinguished as 
such, even by general observation ; but many of the genera and species require 
close and careful study for their identification. 

Since this work was begun, and too late for revision. Prof. Asa Gray's almost 
phenomenal volume,-|- including this order, appeared. In his careful and laborious 
revision of the order many changes were instituted in the arrangement and names 
oi the tribes and genera, making the following table necessary to an understanding 
of the order as it stands at present : 



New Arrangement. 


This Work. 


Old .Arrangement. 


New ARRANGEMENT. 


This Work. 


Old Arrangement. 


Tribe. 


Genus. . 


Tribe. 


Tribe. 


Genus 


Tribe. 


Eupatoriacece. 


78, 


79. Eupatorium. 


(.Same.) 


AnthemideiE. 


87, 


88. Artemisia. 


Senecionideaf. 


Asteroide?e. 


80. 


Erigeron. 


" 


Seiiecionideie. 


90. 


Erechthites. 


(Same.) 


Inuloidete. 


89. 


Graplialium. 


Senecionidere. 


" 


91- 


Seiiecio. 


" 


" 


81. 


Inula. 


Asteroideoe. 


Cynaroideae. 


92. 


Arctium. 


Cynarefe (Lappa). 


Helianthoidese. 


82. 


Ambrosia. 


Senecionidece. 


Cichoriacse. 


93. 


Cichorium. 


(S.ime.) 


" 


83- 


Helianthus. 


" 


" 


94. 


Prenanthes. 


" (NaK-xlus). 


Anthemidese. 


84. 


Antliemis. 


" 


" 


95- 


Taraxacum. 


" 




85. 


Achillea. 


" 


" 


96. 


Lactucca. 


" 




86. 


Tancetum. 













* The officinal matico, however, is derived from Piper angtistifotium, R. & P. (Pii.eracea;). 
t Synop. Flora of N. A. 



78-3 

Description.* — " F/oxocrs in an invoUicrate head on a simple receptacle, 
5-merous, or sometimes 4-nieroLis ; with /obcs of the epigynoiis corolla valvate in 
the bud ; sfaiiiciis a.^ many as corolla lobes and alternate with them, inserted on the 
tube ; anthers connate into a tube (syngenesious); style in all fertile flowers 2-cieft 
or lobed at the summit and bearing introrse-marginal stigmas; ovary i -celled, a 
single anatropous ovule erect from the base, becoming an exalbuminous seed with 
a straight ^;«(5rw, the inferior radicle shorter and narrower than ih& cotyledons ; 
the fruit an akene. Tube of the calyx wholly adnate to the ovary ; its limb none, 
or absolute, or developed into a cup or teeth, scales, awns, or capillary bristles. 
Corolla with nerves running to the sinuses, then forking and bordering the lobes, 
rarely as many intermediate nerves. Anthers commonly with sterile tip or append- 
age; the cells introrse, discharging the pollen within the tube ; this forced out by 
the lengthening of the style, which in hermaphrodite and male flowers is commonly 
hairy-tipped or appcndaged. Pollen-grains globose, echinulate, sometimes smooth, 
in CiCHORiACE.E 12-sided. Leaves various ; no true stipules. Development of the 
flowers in the head centripetal ; of the heads when clustered or associated, more 
or less centrifugal, /. c., heads disposed to be cymose. Juice waterj^ in some 
resinous, in the last tribe milky. 

" Heads homogam ms\\\\<t\\ all its flowers are alike in se.x ; heterogatnous when 
unlike (generally marginal flowers female or neutral, and central hermaphrodite or 
by abortion male); androgynous when of male and female flowers; mona'cious or 
dio'cious when the flowers of separate sexes are in different heads, either on same 
or different plants ; radiate when there are enlarged ligulate flowers in the margin ; 
wholly ligulate when all the flowers have ligulate corollas, discoid when there are 
no enlarged marginal corollas. When these exist they are sometimes called the 
ray ; the other flowers collectively occupy the disk. The head (compound flower 
of early botanists), in Latin capitidum, is also named anthodium. Its involucre 
(periclinium of authors) is formed of separate or sometimes connate reduced leaves, 
/. e., bracts [squanKC or scales); the innermost of these bracts subtend the outer- 
most or lowest flowers. The axis within or above these is the receptacle (clinan- 
thiicm), which varies from plane to conical or oblong, or even cylindrical or subu- 
late. When the receptacle bears flowers only it is naked, although the surface 
may be alveolate, foveolatc or merely areolate, according as the insertion of the 
ovaries or akenes is surrounded or circumscribed by honeycomb-like or lesser 
elevations, or, when these project into bristles, slender teeth or shreds, it \s Jimbril- 
late ; it 'vs, paleaceous when the disk flowers are subtended by bracts ; these usually 
chaff-like, therefore called palece, chaff, or simply bracts of the receptacle. In place 
of calyx-limb there is more commonly a circle of epigynous bristles, hairs or awns ; 
the pappus, a name extended to the calyx-limb of whatever form or texture; its 
parts are brisdes, awns, palae, teeth, etc., according to shape and texture. Corollas 
either all tubular (usually enlarging above the insertion of the stamens into the 
throat, and 4 to 5-lobcd at summit, mosdy regular), or the marginal ones strap- 
shaped, i.e.,ligiclate, the elongated limb {ligule) being explanate, and 3 to 5-toothed 

* I use Prof. Gray's full description of the order from the volume aljuvc referred to, Vol. I., pt. 2, 4S. 



78-4 

at the apex. Such are always female or neutral, or, when all the flowers of the head 
have ligulate corollas, then hermaphrodite. Anthers with basal auricles either 
rounded or acute, or sometimes produced into tails [caudate). Branches of the style 
in female flowers and in some hermaphrodite ones margined with stigma, i.e., stig- 
matic lines, quite to the tip ; in most hermaphrodite flowers these lines shorter, 
occupying the lower portion, or ending at the appendage or hairy tip." The 
largest subdivision or series of this order is the Tubuliflor/E, wherein the her- 
maphrodite flowers have tubular and regular flowers. The Labiatiflgr.'E have 
corollas of all, or only of the hermaphrodite flowers, bilabiate. The Liguliflor.« 
have all flowers hermaphrodite and all corollas ligulate. 

Beside the 19 medicinal species treated of in this work, and those spoken of 
under the description of the genus Kupatorium, we have provings of the follow- 
ing : Wyethia ( Wyeihia, Helenoides, Nutt.) ; the New Zeyland Puka-puka {Brachy- 
giottis 7-epens, Forsk.) ; the Arctic American Grindelia [Grmdelia squarrosa, 
Dunal.); the European Mountain Arnica [Arnica montana, Linn.); the Spanish 
Pellitory [Pyrethrum Paniethium, Linn.); the European Coltsfoot [Tussilago Far- 
fara, Linn.); and the Italian Sweet-scented Coltsfoot [T. fragrans, Linn.); the 
European Daisy [Bcllis peremiis, Linn.); the South European Marigold [Calen- 
dula officinalis, Linn.); the Blessed Thistle [Cardiius Benediclus, Linn. ; Centaurea 
Tagana, Willd.); Chamomilla, the German Chamomile [Matricaria CJiamomilla, 
Linn.); and Cina, the European Wormseed [Artemisia Ci}ia, Berg.; A. santonica, 
Linn., Artemisia Contra.).* 

Outside of our materia medica many valuable, and secondary, drugs are used ; 
prominent among them we fmd : the American Daisy-fleabane [Erigeron hetero- 
p/iylhiin, Muhl.), a reputed remedy for gravel, hydrothorax, and gout ; and E. 
P/iiladelphicum, Linn., a powerful emmenagogue. The German VQWitory [Anacyclus 
officinarum, H.D.B.), a powerful irritant, sialagogue and stimulant. The East 
Indian Veronia anihehnintica, Willd., is considered a most powerful vermifuge ; the 
Indian Elephantopus scaber, Linn., is used on the coast of Malabar in dysuria ; the 
Mexican Xoxonitztal or Yoloxiltic [Piqneria trinervia, Cav.) is said to be a valuable 
antiperiodic. Many species ol Liatris are considered powerful diuretics, especially 
L. sqiiarrosa, Willd., and L. odoratissima, Willd. The Brazilian Coracoa de yesu 
[Mikania officinalis, Mart.) is claimed to be an excellent stomachic-tonic; and the 
South American M. Guaco, H. & B., and the Brazilian Erva da Cobra [M. opifera, 
Mart.), are considered efficacious antidotes to the bites of the cobra de capello, and 
those of malignant insects. The common European Fleabane [Pulicaria dysen- 
terica, Gaertn.) is said to have once cured the Russian army of dysentery. Two 
species of Bidens, viz. : the European B. tripartita, Linn., and the Carolinian B, 
Chrytsantlicnioides, Michx., together with the South American Spilanthes oleracea, 
Jacq. [Btdens fervida. Lam.), produce acrid and copious salivation. The May- 
weed, Maruta cotnla, D.C.), so common almost generally throughout the North 
Temperate Zone, is fetid and blistering, and causes copious vomiting and 

* Benlley and Trimen, in their work on " Medicinal Plants," consider that the true source of Santoiiine is from 
the Russian and Asiatic Artemisia paucijlora, Weber i^A. Cina, Willk., not Berg.). 



78-5 

diaphoresis; it should be proven. The Egyptian and Palestine Bahonny or Zeysouvi 
iySantolina fragrantissima, Forsk.) is substituted in Cairo for chamomile, and used 
in eye affections. The Chinese and Japanese Artemisia Indica, Wiild., is said to 
be a powerful deobstruent and antispasmodic. The East Indian Emila soiichifera, 
D.C., is used in India as a febrifuge. Thus throughout the order almost every 
genus has its useful species, especially in their native localities. 

Among the edible vegetables afforded by the order, we find the Jerusalem 
Artichoke {Helianthus tubcrosuni, Linn.);* the European salsify {Tragopogoi 
porrifolins, Linn.) ; Endive and Chiccory, mentioned under Cichorium Intybus, 
93 ; and Lettuce [Lactiica saliva, Linn.). 

History and Habitat. — Eupatorium purpureum is indigenous to North 
America. Its northern range extends from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan ; 
thence it grows southward to Florida and westward to New Mexico, Utah, 
and British Columbia. It grows in rich, low grounds, where it blossoms throughout 
the summer months. 

The previous use of the purple flowered boneset was very similar to that of 
its congener, E. perfoliatum. It, however, has proven especially valuable as 
a diuretic and stimulant, as well as an astringent tonic. It proves useful in 
dropsy, strangury, gravel, hematuria, gout and rheumatism; seeming to exert a 
special influence upon chronic renal and cystic trouble, especially when there is an 
excess of uric acid present (King). 

The preparations of the Eclectic Materia Medica are : Decoctum Eupatorii 
Purpiirci ; Iiiftisum Eupalorii Piirpurei, and Infusum Epigece Composi/a.-^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root should be chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol 
added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, 
and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration has a clear, orange color 
by transmitted light. It is slightly bitter and astringent, has a somewhat tere- 
binthic odor, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No specific analysis to determine a special 
principle has been made of this plant. The chemistry of E. perfoliatum is probably 
applicable more or less to this species. 

Eupurpurin. — This so called oleoresin was precipitated from a tincture of the 
root by Merrell. The body is thrown down when the alcoholic tincture is poured 
into twice its volume of water and the alcohol is filtered off. It results as a thick, 

* The true artichokes, however, are, the succulent receptacle of the South Europc.in Cynnria Scolymus, Linn., .nnd 
Cardoons, i. f., the leafstalks of C. carunculus. 

t Epigsea, Eupatorium purpureum, .\ralia hispiJa, and Althea officinalis. 



7b-6 

dark greenish-brown mass, having a nauseous taste, and exhibiting, as far as 
known, the full action of the root. It contains all those principles of the root not 
soluble in water. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Eupatorium purpureum — in doses of from lo 
to 60 drops of the tincture — causes increased secretion of the glands of the mouth ; 
nausea ; crampy pains in the stomach and bowels ; aching or cutting pains in the 
bladder with a sensation of fullness and soreness, and a constant desire to void 
urine, with scanty discharge ; increased heart's action ; and a general feeling all 
through the system of languor, soreness, faintness, and weakness, with yawning 
and intense desire to sleep.* 

Description of Plate 78. 

1. Whole plant, 15 times reduced, Chemung, N. Y., September loth, 1879. 

2. One of the smaller branches of the corymb. 

* Mrs. Dresser's experience with the drug. Hale, New Rem., 1. c. 



79. 




^m.adnatdel.etpinxt EUPATORIUM PeRFOLIATUM , Linn 



N. ORD -COMPOSIT/E. 79 

Tnbe.-EUPATORIACE/E. 

GKNUS.— EUPATORIUM.* 
SEX. SVST.— SVXGENESIA .EQUAI.IS. 



EUPATORIUM 
PERFOLIATUM. 

BOjYESET. 

SYN.— EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM, LINN.; E. CONNATUM, MICHX.; E. 
SALVI^FOLIUM, SIMS ; E. VIRGINIANUM, PLUK. 

COM. NAMES.— BONESET. THOROUHWORT, AGUE-WEED, VEGETABLE' 
ANTIMONY, INDIAN SAGE, FBVERWORT,* CROSSWORT, SWEATING 
WEED, THOROUGH- W AX ; t (PR.) EUPATORIE PERFOLIEE, HERBS 
PARPAITE, HERBE A FIEVRE ; (GER.) DURCH WAGHSENER WASSER- 
HANP. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PL.\NT, EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM, L. 

Description. — This familiar plant grows to a height of from 2 to 4 feet. • Stem 
stout, cylindrical, or somewhat terete, fastigiately branched above, and villous- 
pubescent throughout ; leaves connate perfoliate, divaricate, narrowly lanceolate 
and acuminate ; they are prominently one-ribbed, rugose, copiously studded with 
resinous dots, finely and closely crenulate-serrate, dark and shining green above 
and soft-pubescent or almost cottony beneath. Itijlorescence a dense, somewhat 
convex, compound, capitate, corymbose cyme; heads small, very numerous; 
bracts narrowly-lanceolate, hairy, and furnished with slightly scarious, acutish 
tips; flowers mostly 10; corolla tubular-campanulate ; teeth broadly triangular. 
Akencs small glandular, oblong-linear, smooth, and bluntly 5-angled ; pappus 
shorter than the corolla. The description of Eupatonwn as given under the 
preceding drug should be read in connection with this. 

History and Habitat. — Boneset is a common plant, indigenous to North 
America, where it ranges from New Brunswick to Dakota in the North, to Florida 
and Louisiana in the South. It grows in marshy places on the borders of lakes, 
ponds, and streams, where it blossoms from July to September. 

There is probably no plant in American domestic practice that has more 
extensive or frequent use than this. The attic, or woodshed, of almost every 
country farm-house, has its bunches of the dried herb hanging tops downward from 
the rafters during the whole year, ready for immediate use should some member 

* The true Feverwort with us is Triosteum perfoliatum (Caprifoliacea;). 

■f- The Iruc Thoroughwax is BupUuriim rolundifolium, Linn. (Unibellifcne). 



79-2 

of the family, or that of a neighbor, be taken with a cold. How many children 
have winced when the maternal edict: "drink this boneset ; it'll do you good," has 
been issued ; and how many old men have craned their necks to allow the nause- 
ous draught to the quicker pass the palate ! The use of a hot infusion of the tops 
and leaves to produce diaphoresis, was handed down to the early settlers of this 
country by the Aborigines, who called it by a name that is equivalent to ague-weed. 
It was first introduced, as a plant, into England in 1699; but was not used in 
medical practice, even in this country, until about the year 1800, but it now has a 
place in every work on Medical Botany which treats of North American plants. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum is diaphoretic only when given in generous doses of 
the hot infusion ; a cold decoction is claimed to be tonic and stimulant in moderately 
small, laxative in medium, and emetic in large doses. It is also said to be anti- 
dyspeptic and anti-rheumatic. It is prominently adapted to cure a disease peculiar 
to the South, known as break-bone fever (Dengue), and it is without doubt from 
this property that the name boneset was derived. This herb has also been found 
to be curative in intermittent fever, bilious fever, bilious colic, typhus, and typhoid 
conditions, influenza, catarrhal fever, rheumatism, lake fever, yellow fever, and 
remittent types of fevers in general. Many of the earlier works allude to this 
species as being diuretic, and therefore of great use in dropsy ; this is evidently 
an error of substitution, the previously described drug being the species used. 

Dr. Barton, who had made this species one in general use in his practice, 
observes as follows : " The late Samuel C. Hopkins, M.D., who resided in the 
village of Woodbury, N. J., and had an extensive practice in a range of fifteen or 
twenty miles of a populous tract of country, in which, from the low and marshy 
nature of the soil — exposure of many of the inhabitants holding fisheries, to the 
water and other pernicious causes — intermittent and typhus fevers were very 
prevalent, and the latter particularly malignant. The Doctor was among those 
partial to the sweating plan of treating this fever, and his unusual success in a 
multitude of cases for five or six years in succession, is strongly in favor of that 
mode of practice. The boneset was the medicine used in producing this effect. 
He prescribed it freely in warm and cold decoction, but preferred the warm. He 
assured me that in many instances his sole reliance was upon this plant, which was 
occasionally so varied in its manner of exhibition as to produce emesis, and fre- 
quently was intentionally pushed to such extent as to excite free purging. Its 
diaphoretic efiect, however, he deemed it indispensable to ensure, and therefore 
preferred in general giving it warm." * 

My friend. Dr. Henry S. Sloan, of this city, relates his personal experience 
with this drug as follows: When a young man, living in the central part of this 
State, he was attacked with intermittent fever, which lasted off and on for three 
years. Being of a bilious temperament, he grew at length sallow, emaciated, and 
hardly able to get about. As he sat one day, resting by the side of the road, an 
old lady of his acquaintance told him to go home and have some thoroughwort 



* Barton, M,;t Bot., ii, 136. 



79-3 

"fixed," and it would certainly cure him. (He had been given, during the years he 
suffered, quinine, cinchonine, bark and all its known derivatives, as well as chola- 
gogues, and every other substance then known to the regular practitioner, without 
effect; the attacks coming on latterly twice a day.) On reaching home, with the 
aid of the fences and buildings along the way, he received a tablespoonful of a 
decoction of boneset evaporated until it was about the consistency of syrup, and 
immediately went to bed. He had hardly lain down when insensibility and stupor 
came on, passing into deep sleep. On awaking in the morning, he felt decidedly 
better, and from that moment improved rapidly without farther medication, gaining 
flesh and strength daily. No attack returned for twenty years, when a short one 
was brought on by lying down in a marsh while hunting. 

From my own experience, as well as what I have learned from others, I feel 
confident that as an "antiperiodic " this drug will be indicated much more fre- 
quently in the United States than quinine, and exhibit its peculiar action in a 
curative manner, not palliative as is most common in the latter substance when 
exhibited ex patria. I have observed that boneset acts more surely in intermittent 
fever, when the disease was contracted near its habitat, /. c, by streams, ponds, and 
lakes in the United States east of the 85° west longitude, and north of the 32° 
north latitude. It may be stated that this is true of most plants used in medicine, 
and probably accounts for many failures of foreign drugs in domestic diseases : 
witness Conium, Cinchona, etc., etc.* 

The officinal preparation in the U. S. Ph., is Extrachun Eiipatoi'ii Fluidum. 
In the Eclectic Materia Medica the following preparations are recommended : 
Extractnvt Eupatorii, Inftiswn Eiipatorii, and Pilulce Aloes Compositcc. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered just 
as it is coming into flower, is prepared as in the preceding drug. The resulting 
tincture is opaque; in thin layers it exhibits a deep, slightly orange-brown color 
by transmitted light. It has a nauseous, penetrating, bitter, and astringent taste, 
and imparts a sensation to the tongue very similar to that of ginger ; it retains the 
peculiar odor of the plant, and has an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Eiipatorine. — This glucoside was extracted 
from a percolate of the dried tops and leaves of this plant by G. Latin ;^ it was also 
appreciated in most of the analyses referred to below, but was not isolated, being 
spoken of as a bitter principle only. Eupatorine is described as a slightly acid, 
amorphous body, soluble in alcohol and boiling water, yielding a red precipitate 
when boiled with sulphuric acid, and a white precipitate with the cold acid. Its 
farther physical and chemical properties are as yet undetermined. 

Bitter extractive;* -"' Tannin ;'- ^ ^ "■ '' Volatile oil ;* *^ " Free acid;- Gallic 
acid ; - Resin ; ^ "^ ' Gum ; ^ s 5 « t Sugar ; * ^ ' and a bitter principle, •'^^'-^' have also been 

* This refers only to drugs exhibited for their physiological or toxic action. 
1 Bigelow, Am. Med. Bol., i, 35. ^ Anderson, /iiaui,'. Tlusis. ' Peterson, Am. Jour. Phar., 1851, 206. 

* Bickley, ibid., 1854, 459. ' \.3.Xm,ibid., 1880, 392. « Parsons, 1859, Rep. lo U. S. Com. 0/ Agii,. 

" Tildcn's Analysis, Jour, of Mat. Med., ii, N. S. 243. 



79-4 

determined. The last-named substance Is spoken of by some observers as being 
resinous, others as resinoid, and again as crystalHzable. I judge it to have been 
in all the Eupatorine of Latin, either mixed with some part of the other constitu- 
ents, or more or less pure. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms shown by those who have par- 
taken of large doses of an infusion of the tops and leaves, show that this drug 
causes at first an irritation of the vaso-motor system, followed by a relaxed condition 
of the capillaries, and an Increase of the heart's action, again followed by severe 
contrestion and higher temperature. The symptoms are : Falntness, with loss of 
consciousness, ending in lethargic sleep ; pain, soreness, and throbbing in head ; 
soreness of eyeballs, with sharp pains and photophobia; buzzing in the ears; 
catarrhal influenza ; face red or sallow, and sickly in appearance ; tongue white 
cottony coated ; thirst especially preceding the stage of chill ; vomiting, especially 
as the chill passes off; violent colic pains In the upper abdomen; urine dark- 
colored and scanty, with frequent micturition; oppression of the chest with difficult 
breathing; stiffness, soreness and deep aching in the limbs, the long bones espe- 
cially, feel as If pounded or broken ; sleepiness, with yawning and stretching, from 
which the patient awakes with a severe headache ; skin bathed In copious sweat. 
The soreness and deep pains of Eupatorium are most general, and the skin feels 
numb and as If it would cleave from the bones. 

The adaptability of this drug to various forms of disease of paludal origin 
can readily be understood. 

Description of Plate 79. 

I. Summit of stem, from Greenville, N. J., July 26th, 1879. 

2. Flower-head. 

3. Floweret. 

4. Anther. 

5. Fruit. 

(2-4 enlarged.) 





'.m.adnstdel.efpinxt. 



ErIgERON CANAOENSE, Linn. 



N. ORD.-COMPOSIT/E. 80 

Tribe.-ASTEROIDE/E. 

GENUS. — E RIG E RON,* LINN. 
SEX. .SVST.— SYNGENESIA SLPERI-LL A. 



ERIGERON 

CAJVADA FLEABAJ^E. 



SYN.-ERIGERON CANADENSE, LINN.; B. PANICULATUS, LAM.; E. PUSIL- 
LUS, NUTT. ; E. STRICTUM, D. C; SBNECIO CILIATUS, WALT. 

COM. NAMES. — CANADA FLEABANE, HORSE-WEED, BUTTER- WEED, 
COLT'S TAIL, PRIDE-WEED, SCABIOUS; (FR.) ERIGERON DE CANADA- 
iGBR.) CANADISCHES BERUFKRAUT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT, ERIGERON CANADENSE, LINN. 

Description. — This common annual herb grows to a height of from i 
to 4 feet, according to the soil. Stem strict, striate, varying from sparsely 
hispid to almost glabrous; branches mostly superior, short, slender, ascendino-. 
Leaves all sessile, alternate, and more or less ciliate-hispid ; the lower often some- 
what spatulate, 3-nerved, and sparingly incised; upper leaves linear-lanceolate 
acute at each end. Inflorescence in a more or less dense terminal panicle ; heads 
very small, cylindrical, many flowered, and radiate; xht/acc flat or hemispherical; 
peduncles and pedicels short ; involucre almost glabrous ; scales linear-lanceolate, 
nearly equal, little imbricated, all reflexed in fruit ; receptacle flat or convex, naked, 
and pitted. Ray florets white, fertile, crowded in a single row, a little exserted 
and surpassing the branches of the style ; tube, elongated-cylindrical ; ligule very 
short, ascending, 2-toothed. Disk florets bisexual ; corolla tubular, mostly 4- 
toothed ; filameiits very short, filiform ; anthers cylindrical, half exserted, not 
tailed, the connective prolonged at the apex; style short, branched; stignias spread- 
ing. Achenia oblong, flattened, usually pubescent, 2-nerved ; pappus simple, a 
single row of capillary bristles. 

History and Habitat. — Erigeron is indigenous to the eastern and central belt 
of North America, where it is common in dry soils, from Canada to Texas ; from 
thence southward, through South America, as far as Argentine Republic. 
In part to recompense Europe for the miserable dock weeds she has sent us, we 
have returned her this species, which has now spread through Asia to the sea. 
It is also introduced in South Africa, Australia, and many of the Pacific islands. 
It flowers, with us, in July and August, maturing its profusion of parachute-like 
seeds in autumn. 

* Hf/, Er, spring; yifuiv, geron, an old man ; on acco.in'. of the ho.iry apjiearance of some vernal species. 



80-2 

The applicability of a decoction of this herb to many forms of diarrhoea was 
well known to the Aborigines, and is now used in that disease by the Cree In- 
dians of Hudson Bay. It was introduced in the practice at the New York Alms- 
house, in 1872, by Dr. Gilbert Smith, for a type of diarrhoea that often prevailed 
there, and met with very great success. 

The decoction has proven tonic, stimulant, astringent and diuretic, and been 
found useful in dropsies and many forms of urinary disorders, both renal and 
cystic, — such as gravel, diabetes, dysury, strangury, and urethritis; E. heterophyl- 
lutn, and Philadelpliicwii have, however, greater power than Canadcnsc in this 
direction. The oil of the plant is acrid, and, though not astringent, is, nevertheless, 
an extraordinary styptic : it was introduced by Eclectic practice, and is an effi- 
cient agent in the treatment of hemorrhoids, passive hemorrhage, diarrhoea, dys- 
entery, hemoptysis,* hematemesis, hematuria, and menorrhagia ; as well as an 
excellent palliative in the treatment of sore throat, with swelling of the glands, 
boils, tumors, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The dose of the oil is from four to 
six drops in water, repeated not oftener than every hour, if much is to be required. 

The officinal preparation of the U. S. Ph., is Oleum Erigerontis ; in the 
Eclectic Dispensatory, Oleum Erigerontis and Infnsum Erigerontis. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered during 
its flowering season, is treated as in the two preceding species. The resulting 
tincture has a clear, brownish-orange color by transmitted light; a somewhat 
aromatic odor ; a slightly bitter and astringent taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis of the plant has yet been made 
that individualizes the bitter principle first separated by De Puy,t who also de- 
termined, in this species, gallic and tannic acids, and an essential oil, and proved 
that all the qualities of the herb were extracted by cold water or alcohol. 

Oil of Erigeron Canadense. — This body may be extracted by distilling the 
fresh herb with water. It results as a colorless or pale yellow liquid, gradually 
becoming darker and thicker by age or exposure, and having an aromatic, persis- 
tent odor, an acrid taste, and a neutral reaction. It boils at 178° (352.4° F.); has 
a .sp. gr. of from .845 to .850, and is readily soluble in water or alcohol. This oil 

* In tlie autumn of 1SS3, I was called hastily to attend Miss X. I found her sitting upon the floor, her arm 
resting upon a chair and her head bending over a common-size foot bath-tub, and every few moments a large 
quantity of bright red blood would gurglingly issue from her mouth. She had been spitting such <|uantities for over 
three-quarters of an hour, and the tub was over half-filled with foamy blood, and, I judge, a large (juantity of saliva. 
I immediately mixed about a drachm of tincture of Erigeron in half a goblet of water, and gave her two teaspoon- 
fuls of the mixture every five minutes, while getting the history of the case. She had been subject to these hemor- 
rhages, which did not occur at the menstrual epoch, for some months past, though they were much less in quantity 
than the present one. Her family history was consumptive and hemorrhagic, and her physical strength always below 
medium. The hemorrhage now being arrested (after the second dose) leaving her terribly exsanguinated, I had her 
removed to her bed, and put her on light liquid food in large t|uantities. This treatment was followed by Erigeron in a 
potency for a month, one dose nightly, upon which her strength improved ; and, up to the last time I saw her, three years 
after, no subsequent hemorrhage occurred Her menstrual flux, which had been much too copious and early, was also 
corrected ; and her general health, as she expresses, a thousand times better than at any time since her monthlies com- 
menced. 

t //'//. into Bot. His'., ai,'m. Prof., and M,d. Qtial. Erig. Can., 1S15. 



80-3 
contains less oxyofii than that obtainable from /:'. hclcropkylluiii, antl consists 
mainly of a terpene (C,oH,,), which, after distillation over sodium, boils at 176° 
(348.8° F.), and has a sp. gr. of .S464 at 18= (64.4° F.).* 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms arising- during the experiments 
of Dr. W. H. Burt,-j- were mainly as follows: Cephallagia ; smarting of the eyes; 
roughness of the pharynx ; soreness of the throat ; abdominal distress, and colic ; 
increased urine; aching of back and extremities; and prostration. 



Description of Plate 80. 

Inflorescence, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. iStli, 1886. 

2. .\ portion of the mid-stem. 

3. Lower leaf. 

4. Flower-bead. 

5. Ray-floret. 

6. Disk-floret. 

7. Scale of the involucre. 

8. Stamen. 

9. Fruit. 

(4-9 enlarged.) 

* Am. Jour. Phar., 1883, 372 (BerichU, 1882, 2854). 

t Am. Horn. Oh., 1866, i>. 357. 




(|m. ad nat.delet 



NULA HELENIUfVI. Linn. 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 81 

Tribe.-ASTEROIDE/E. 

C'.ENUS.— I N U LA,* I.INN. 
SEX. SV.sr.— SVNGENESIA, POLYGAMIA SUI'EKILUA. 



INULA. 



ELECAMPAKEA 



SYTSr.-INULA HELENIUM, L. CORVISARTIA HELENIUM, MERAT. 

COM. NAMES.— ELECAMPANE, SCABWORT, (GBR.) ALANT, (FR.) AUNEB. 



TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF INULA HELENIUM, L. 



Description. — This strikingly beautiful perennial attains a height of from 3 to 
6 feet. Root thick, mucilaginous, more or less tap-shaped, about 6 inches long, 
and I to 2 inches thick in the largest part, having a curled furrow commencing 
about an inch from the stem end, and running nearly to the tip ; somewhat branch- 
ing, the branches generally longer than the main root, but not so thick. The 
bark is rough, laminated or flakey, showing upon section a thickness of from one- 
sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch. The inner portion is radiate with numerous 
bundles of fibres, and dotted generally with yellowish resin-cells. Stem erect, 
stout, rounded, downy above, branching? near the top. Leaven alternate, large, 
sometimes reaching a length of 18 inches and a breadth of from 4 to 6 inches; 
those near the root are ovate, petioled, the others sessile partly clasping ; all green 
above, and whitish downy beneath. Peduncles of the flower-heads are given off 
from the axils of the upper leaves, they are long, thick, sometimes furnished with 
a pair of small leaves midway in their length ; such are the so-called branches, and 
bear usually more than one flower-head on separate pedicles. Involucre dense, 
woolly, the outer scales broadly ovate, sometimes leaf-like, the inner becoming at 
length linear. Flaiver-hcads large, solitary or corymbose, all at or near the sum- 
mit of the plant ; the somewhat convex, naked, flat receptacles measuring about i 
inch in diameter. The heads are many-flowered, the ray-florets numerous and 
arranged generally in a single series, pistillate, but often infertile; the rays ligu- 
late, unequally three-notched at the tip, and generally clasping the pistil forming 
a tube. Disk-florets many, tubular, perfect, the tube 5 toothed or lobed. Stamens 
five, inserted on the corolla, their Anthers syngenesious, with two serrate tails at 
the base. Ovary oblong ; Style 2-cleft at the apex. Achenia terete or 4-sided, 
the sides smooth ; pappus simple, composed of bristly hairs. A general descrip- 
tion of the Compositae will be found under Eupatorium purpureum. 

* Inula, a Latin classical name for this plant, probably a contraction of the word Helenii'M, fJ.^ci'O", which was ap- 
plied to the same species. Medieval, Enui A. 

f Ante-Linnaean name Enula Campana, from which Elecampane. 



81-2 

History and Habitat. — Inula was one of the most famous of ancient medi- 
cines, and continued in vogue in tiie old school until very recent times. It owed 
the reputation it gained to its sdmulant qualities. As far back as the Hippocratic 
writino-s, it is stated to be a stimulant to the brain, the stomach, the kidneys, and 
the uterus. 

This plant is a native of Southern England, now thoroughly naturalized in 
Europe and our country. It grows here spontaneously in the Northern States, in 
damp places along road-sides, the borders of gardens and about the ruins of old 
buildino-s. It flowers in July and August, and is a strikingly beautiful plant, 
reminding one forcibly of its near relative, the sunflower. 

Inula is simply mentioned in the U. S. Ph. The Eclectic officinal preparations 
are : Dccoctiim Helctiii, and Extractum Helejiii Alcoholicuni. Inula is also one 
of the components of Synipus Aralice Conipositus. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh roots gathered in autumn 
(those of the second year's growth in preference, as the older ones are too woody) 
are chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, and having mixed the pulp thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, 
the rest of the alcohol is added ; after having stirred the whole well, and 
poured it into a well-stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, 
cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering. 

Thus prepared it is, by transmitted light, of a clear amber color, has a 
decided bitter and astringent taste, and an acid reaction to litmus. 

CHEMIOAL CONSTITUENTS. — Inulin,* Q H,o O,,. This amylose principle 
is found in the plants of many genera of the order Compositse ; but as it occurs 
in greater percentage in this genus, I describe it here. It will be noticed that 
this substance has the same composition as starch, still, though it takes the 
place of that body in the roots of this order of plants, it acts in many ways 
entirely different ; for instance, it dissolves readily in hot water, but forms a clear 
solution, not an opaline pasty mass, its reaction with a solution of iodine gives a 
brown, not a blue color. It does not form in the plant as granular shell-like 
bodies as does starch, but is in solution in the plant juice. Inulin may be thrown 
down from its watery solution by alcohol, forming thus globular masses of white 
needle-like crystals, called in the dried plant " Sphsero-crystals." Upon boiling 
this substance with a dilute acid, it is rapidly converted into levulose, but not at 
lower temperature. It is considered by Kiliani to be an anhydride of levulose. 

Elecampane Camphor, formerly called Helinin, was given the composition 
C,6 H,a 0,0. Kallen succeeded in resolving it into two crystallizable bodies which 
he describes as follows : 

Helinin, Q H3 O, a principle devoid of odor or taste, crystallizing in needles 
and fusing at 230°F., and 

Alant-Camphor, (Inulol, Inuloid, Elecampane-camphor), C,<,H,f,0, not sup- 
posed to be a pure substance ; it has an odor and taste resembling peppermint, 
and fuses at 147.2° F. iyEt supra, Wittstein.) 

*Alantin, Menyanthin, Klecampin, Dahlin, Datiscin. 



81-3 
Synanthrose, C,, H,, O,,. — This saccharose body occurs accordinj^ to Schor- 
Icmnier in tlie tubers of Inula and other Composita-. It is a non-crystaHine 
powder, liyht, deliquescent, anil liaviny no sweet taste. 

Inulic Acid. — Exists in larger quantities than inulol ; it is probably the an- 
hydride of some acid peculiar to this plant. 

Resin. — A brown, bitter, nauseous acrid body, aromatic when warm, soluble 
in alcohol and ether; wa.x, gum, salts of K, Ca, and Mg', and a trace of volatile 
oil have also been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Inula has been held to be a stimulant to the 
secretory organs, but the efl'ects produced — according to Fischer-' — in those who 
partook of the juice of the root, show the opposite effect! His scheme of promi- 
nent symptoms is as follows : Confusion of the head, with nausea and vertigo on 
stooping; burning of the eyeballs; dryness of the mouth and throat; increased 
peristaltic action of the intestines, with griping or tensive pain ; dragging in the 
rectum and female genitalia; much urging to urinate, with scanty results ; severe 
pain in the lumbar region, with sleeplessness and coldness. The more minute 
action of the drug seems to fully carry out the above, which shows Inula to be 
anything but diaphoretic, diuretic, or expectorant in a physiological sense. 

Description of Plate 8i. 

I. Wliole iiUmt five times reduced, from Waverly, N. Y., August nth, 1880. 

2. Flower-head. 

3. Disk flower (enlarged). 

4. Stamen (enlarged). 

5. Ray-floret (enlarged). 

6. Section of the root. 

7. Seed. 



* Vide Allen, " Encyc. Mat. Med.," Vol. V, p. 113. 



82, 



M 




^m.adnatdel.etpinxt AMBROSIA ARTEMISIAEFOLIA , Linn. 



N. ORD.-COMPOSIT/E. 82 

Tribe.-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS— AMBROSIA,* lOURN. 
SEX. SVST.— MOXdXIA I'ENTAN'DKIA. 



AMBROSIA 
ARTEMISI^FOLIA 

RAG-Vi^EED. 



SYN.— AMBROSIA ARTIMISI^FOLIA, LINN.; A. BLATIOR, LINN.; A. 
ABSYNTHIFOLIA AND PANICULATA, MICHX.; A. HETEROPHYLLA, 
MUHL.; IVA MONOPHYLLA, WALT. 

COM. NAMES.— RAG-'WBED, ROMAN WORMWOOD, CARROT- WEED, WILD 
OR BASTARD WORMWOOD, HOG -WEED, CONOT-WBED, BITTER- 
WEED; (PR.) AMBROSIB; (GER.l TRAUBBNKRAUT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE HERB AMBROSIA AR TEMISI.^FOLIA, LINN. 

Description. — This annual, pubescent or hirsute weedy-herb, attains a growth 
of from I to 3 feet. Stem erect, at first simple, then paniculately branched. Leaves 
opposite and alternate, thinnish, bipinnatifid, or pinnatifidly parted, those of the 
inflorescence often entire, all smooth above and pale or hoary beneath ; divisions 
irregularly pinnatifid or entire. Floivers unisexual on the same plant. Stenlc 
heads numerous, gamophyllous, arranged in centripetal, racemose spikes, all more 
or less recurved-pedicelled and not subtended by bracts; invohca-e truncate, sau- 
cer-shape or campanulate, not costate but indistinctly radiate veined ; border irreg- 
ularly 4 to 6 toothed ; corolla obconical, the border 5-toothed ; stame/is 5 \ filajnents 
short; anthers deltoid, slightly united, their short appendages inflexed ; abortive 
style columnar, the apex dilated and penicillate, strongly exserted. Fertile heads 
I to 3, apetalous, glomerate in the axils of the upper leaves and below the male 
spikes; involucre oi^&n, nudet-like; corolla reduced to a ring around the base of 
the style ; style bilamellar, exserted. Aketies turgid-ovoid, triangularly compressed, 
short-beaked, and crowned with from 4 to 6 short teeth or spines ; pappus wanting. 

History and Habitat. — This too-common, truly American weed, is indigenous 
from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, Washington Territory, and southward to Bra- 
zil. It habits waste fields, roadsides, and dry places, and blossoms from the latter 
part of July to October. 

The former uses of this plant were but slight, its principal use being as an 
antiseptic emollient fomentation ; its bitterness caused its use in Maryland as 
a substitute for quinine, but not successfully. J A. Zabriskie, of Closter, N. J., 

* 'Ajipporrm, aiiil/rosia, ihe fooil of the goils ; tlie {jods know why I 



82-2 

claims it to be a successful application to the poisonous effects of Rhus if rubbed 
upon the inflamed parts until they are discolored by its juice.* Being- very astrin- 
gent, it has also been used to check discharges from mucous surfaces, such as 
mercurial ptyalism, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, and especially in septic forms of diar- 
rhoea, dysentery, and enteritis. It lays some claim also to being stimulant and 
tonic, and is recognized in the Mexican Pharmacopoeia as an emmenagogue, feb- 
rifuge, and anthelmintic. Of late years much attention has been called to the 
species of this genus, especially this and A. trijida, as being, through their pollen, 
the cause of hay fever, many people affected with this troublesome disorder laying 
the charge direct ; certain it is that when the pollenation of the plant is begun 
the disorder generally commences in those subject to it, and only ceases when the 
plants are out of flower, unless the patient is able to sojourn to mountain heights 
out of the limit of their growth. We have had the pleasure of curing two patients 
of this disease, both of whom had asthmatic symptoms at the height of the trouble, 
with drop doses of the tincture ires in dies. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, when in the 
height of its sexual season, should be carefully gathered to retain all the pollen 
possible, and macerated for fourteen days in twice its weight of absolute alcohol, 
being kept in a dark, cool place, well corked, and shaken twice a day. The tinc- 
ture thus prepared should, after pressing, straining, and filtering, have a clear 
orange-red color by transmitted light; an odor like chocolate; a similar taste, 
followed by bitterness ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — This plant has not yet been investigated as 
to its specific chemical nature ; Tannin, and an essential oil, itself uninvestigated, 
being all we possess of knowledge in this direction. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Ambrosia appears to have a decided irritant 
action upon mucous membranes, not only by its pollen directly applied, but also 
upon its ingestion in infusion and tincture. The plant certainly deserves thorough 
and extended experimentation. 

Description of Plate 82. 

I. Whole young plant, Binghaniton, N. Y., Aug. 15th, 1886. 

2. A leaf. 

3. Male involucre. 

4. Face of same, showing sterile flowers. 

5. Sterile flower. 

6. Sterile style. 

7. Stamen. 

8. Anther. 

9. Female flower. 
TO. Fruit. 

II. Horizontal section of akene. 
(3-1 1 enlarged.) 

* New Rem., 1879, 239. 



83. 







\i^ i^^ 



(itll. ad nat.dei.et.pinxt. 



HELIANTHUS ANNUUS. Linn. 



N. ORD.-COMPOSIT^. 83 

Tribe.-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.— H ELIANTHUS," LINN. 
SKX SVST.— SVNCK.XKSl.V rkUS IR.VN'K.V. 

HELIANTHUS. 

SUNFLOWER. 



SYN.— HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— SUNFLOWER; (GER.) SONNENBLUME ; (PR.) LE TOURNE- 
SOL. 



TL\C rURE OF THE RIPE ACHENL\ OF HELL\NTHUS ANNUUS, LINN. 

Description. — This commonly cultivated plant, springing- from an annual 
root, attains a height of from 3 to 18 or more feet, and bears numerous large flower- 
heads on long peduncles. Stem erect, rounded and rough, bearing opposite 
leaves below and alternate ones above Z^^rr'^'.? petioled, broadly ovate or heart- 
shaped, from 5 to 10 inches long, and 4 to 8 inches broad, rough and conspicuously 
3-ribbed. Pcdimcles long, gradually thickening into a funnel-form base at the 
involucre. Involucre composed of ovate aristate, hirsute scales, imbricated in 
several rows. Flozver-lieads many, nodding, bearing innumerable ray and many 
disk florets; they range from 6 to 12 inches in diameter with a flat or convex disk. 
Ray-florels numerous, ligulate and neutral. Disk-Jiorets, all perfect and fertile, 
with short 5-lobed tubes, decemneurate. Pollen grains ovate, beset with nume- 
rous rows of spines. Ovary i -celled ; style invested with stiff hairs ; stigma 2- 
branched, with subulate appendages. Achenia ovate-oblong or cuneiform, some- 
what quadrangularly compressed, without margins, each achenium bearing 2 ear- 
like chaffy scales, sometimes accompanied by an accessory pair, all of which fall 
away when the seed is ripe. A description of the natural order will be found 
under Eupatorium purpureum. 

History and Habital;. — The sunflower is one of the natives of trojjical 
America, that has become popular in cultivation in many countries, both on ac- 
count of its beautiful flowers, whose bright chrome rays, in their many modes of 
curling and refle.\ing in a circle about the handsome seal-brown disk, render it 
attractive as a garden ornament, as well as the many uses to which the seeds 
are put. From points where it is cultivated it often spreads about in many places 
by spontaneous growth, blossoming from July until August. The white central 
pith of the stalk contains nitre; this fact has led to its use as a diuretic, and recom- 
mended it also as a form of moxa. The leaves, when carefully cared for and 

* FJXio;, Ihe sun, o-'*j;, a flower. 



83-2 

successful!}' dried, have been used as a substitute for tobacco in cigars, the flavor 
of which is said to gready resemble that of mild Spanish tobacco. The seeds have 
been extensively used for fattening poultry; fowls eat of these greedily on account 
of their oily nature. How much a fact it may be that a growth of this plant about 
a dwelling protects the inhabitants against malarial influences is not yet proven, 
though strongly asserted by many. An infusion of the stems is claimed to be 
anti-malarial, and with some forms will probably prove such. A further proving of 
the tincture is greatly needed, as it would doubdess show an adaptability in this 
direction. Helianthus has no place in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica the infusion of the seeds is used as a mild expectorant, and the expressed 
oil as a diuretic. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The ripe seeds. The seeds when 
ripe are of a dark purplish color, more or less 4-sided and 4-angled by com- 
pression; they are about half an inch in length by one-eighth in breadth. The 
husk is whitish internally and the kernel sweet, oily and edible. The tincture 
is made by coarsely powdering the ripe seeds, covering the mass with five parts 
by weight of dilute alcohol, and allowing it to remain at least eight days in a well- 
corked bottle, in a dark, cool place, being shaken twice a day. The tincture is 
then decanted, strained and filtered. 

Thus prepared it is by transmitted light a very pale straw-color, has no char- 
acteristic taste, and has an acid reaction to litmus-paper. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The analysis of this plant by Wittstein, in 
1879, was made exclusive of the seeds, and has therefore no interest to us. The 
fruit contains by his analysis from twelve to twenty-four per cent, of fixed oil, hav- 
ing a light straw-color, mild taste, and watery consistence, its specific gravity 
being .926°. It becomes turbid at ordinary temperatures and solidifies at — 16°. 

Helianthic Acid. — C. H,, O^, in the form of a slighdy colored powder, has 
been extracted from the kernels; it is soluble both in water and alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Very litde or nothing is known of the physio- 
logical action of this plant, which would necessarily be slight. It causes dryness 
of the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, and fauces, excites vomit- 
ing, heat and redness of the skin, and some slight inflammation of the cuticle. 
A thorough proving of the iv hole plant is gready to be desired, as without doubt 
another remedy would be found in it to add to our excellent list for intermittents. 

Description of Plate 83. 

I. Whole plant, seven times reduced, from a cultivated specimen. Binghamton, N. Y., Sept 8, 18S2. 

2. Flower head. 

3. Floweret (enlarged;. 

4. Young seed. 

5. Mature seed. 

6. Scale of involucre. 

7. Ray. 

8. Pollen grain .\ 200. 



84. 



If 



'%' 



^m.ad 










% 



natdei.etpinxt. 



AnTHEMIS NOBILIS . Linn. 



V7 '\/J 



8 P, 



N. ORD-COMPOSITyE. 84 

Tribe.-SENECIONIDE/^. 

GENLS— ANTH EMIS,* LINN. 



SEX. SV.ST.— SVNGKNliSI.X SUPERKIA A. 



ANTHEMIS NOBILIS. 

homajX chamomile. 

SYN.— ANTHEMIS NOBILIS, LINN.; A. AUREA, D. C; CHAMOMILLA NO- 
BILIS, GODR.; CHAM^MELUM NOBILE, ALL.; ORMENIS NOBILIS, 
GAY. 

COM. NAMES.— TRUE CHAMOMILE, GARDEN CHAMOMILE,! CORN FEVER- 
FEW:; (FR.) CHAMOMILE ROMAINE ; (GBR.) ROMISCHE KAMILLBN. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ANTHEMIS NOBILLS, LINN. 

Description — This low, aromatic perennial, seldom rises to any great heio-ht 
above the ground. Stems smooth or slightly pubescent, the sterile creeping, the 
fertile somewhat ascending ; branches numerous, hairy. Leaves alternate, sessile, 
pinnately bi- or tri-ternately compound, and dissected into filiform segments. Heads 
heterogamous, many-flowered, and rather large, terminal and solitary upon the 
branches ; peduncles long, pubescent ; hivolucre hemispherical, consisting of 2 or 
3 rows of comparatively small, imbricated bracts, the outer successively shorter ; 
receptacle oblong, with blunt, chaffy bracts subtending most of the florets. Disk- 
florets numerous, yellow, bi-sexual; corolla tubular, slightly gibbous below, enlarged 
above to bell-shaped, and having a few oil glands upon its surface; limb 5-lobed; 
stamens 5: anthers tailless at the base; style slender, bifurcated. Ray-florets 15 
to 20, white, fertile ; ligules 3-toothed at the apex ; style-branches stigmatic at 
their truncate, penicillate extremities. Akenes terete, glabrous, marked by 3 
indistinct ridges upon their inner faces, the truncate summit naked ; pappus none, 
the persistent base of the corolla, however, appearing like a coronal body of that 
nature. 

History and Habitat. — This European immigrant has, as yet, spread but 
little in this country, it being only occasionally iound spontaneous near gardens, 
where it blossoms in July and August. 

On account of many species being nearly related to this one, and the ancient 
descriptions of so meagre a type, the history of this plant, which has, without 
doubt, been used as long as any other, is not traceable with an)- chance of correct- 
ness. In later times, however, it has been regarded important, by both physicians 
and the laity, and judged more active than Chamomilla, which it gready resembles 

* 'Av»,')ii$, anthemis, a Greek name for some allied plant, 
f Our Chamomilla i^ Matricaria Chamomilla, Linn. 
\ Ciarden Feverfew is Malricaria Parlhenium. 



84-2 

in its action. As a stomachic tonic and carminative, it has been found useful in 
atonic dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal irritation, intermittent and typhoid fevers, and 
colic, and is claimed to be an effectual preventive of incubus. A warm infusion 
acts as a prompt emetic, emptying the stomach without enervating the system. 
Fomentations of the steamed leaves make a kindly application in local pains, 
neuralgic, podagric, uterine, or abdominal. Hot infusions are sudorific and 
emmenagogue, but are very apt to cause profuse diarrhoea. The oil of the plant 
is considered anti-spasmodic, useful in hysteric complaints ; stimulant, and anti- 
flatulent ; and is often combined with purgative pills, to prevent griping. 

The flower-heads are official in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Dispensatory 
the preparations are : Extractum AntJicmidis, Extractuni Anthcniidis Fliiidiint, 
Infjisuvi AntJicmidis, and Olctim Antliemidis ; it is also a component of I'inniu 
Synipliytii Com post in in . * 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh-flowering plant is treated 
as directed for the root of Inula. f The tincture resulting has a light, brownish- 
orange color by transmitted light ; the pleasant, aromatic odor of the bruised 
plant ; a taste at first sourish and pine-apple-like, then bitter; and acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — From various analyses, this herb has been 
found to contain a volatile and fixed oil, a resin, tannin, and a bitter principle 
judged by Fliickiger to be a glucoside. 

Oil of Anthemis. — This volatile body has a bluish or greenish tint, becom- 
ing brownish or yellowish by age. It has a specific gravity of about 0.91, is com- 
posed principally of the angelates and valerates of butyl and amyl, and yields 
the following bodies : 

Angelicaldehydc, Q.\\f), and a hydrocarbon, Cj„Hj|,, having a lemonaceous 
odor, and boiling at 175° (347° F.). 

Angelic Acid, C.HgO.^. — According to the analysis of Fittig, this body, first 
discovered in Angelica Ai'changelica, exists in the oil of Anthemis, of which it 
constitutes nearly 30 per cent. It crystalizes in large, colorless prisms, having a 
peculiar aromatic odor, and an acid and burning taste. The crystals melt at 45° 
(113° F.), boil at 191° (375.8° F.), and are soluble in both water and alcohol. By 
heating this body, with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, to 200° (392° F.), it is con- 
verted into valerianic acid. 

Tighc Acid, C.HgO,. — This isomer of the above, and of Methylcrotonic Acid, 
was discovered in Croton Oil. It exists, according to E. Schmidt, in company 
with the above ; and it is more than possible that it is identical with it, its boiling 
point and that of its ethyl-ether being the same. (Fliick. and Han., Schorlemmer 
and Wittstein.) 

*Comfrey Root, Solomon's Seal, Helonias Root, Chamomile Flowers, Colombo Root, Gentian Root, Cardamom 
Seeds, Sassafras Bark, and Sherry Wine, 
t Page 81-2. 



84-3 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to the experiments made with the 
tincture by Dr. Berridge, Anthemis causes the following symptoms of disturbance : 
Pain and fullness in the head, lachrymation, rawness of the throat, a feeling of 
warmth in the stomach and desire for food, followed by qualmishness and nausea ; 
some abdominal pain, freeness of the bowels, increased urine ; higher heart's 
action, lassitude, and a general feeliny- of chilliness. 



Deslkiption of Plate 84. 

I. End of a fertile braiiLh, from an esca])ecl garden plant. 

2. Ray-floret. 

3. Disk-floret. 

4. .Stamen. 

5. Scales of receptacle. 

6. Stigmas. 

7. Acheniurn. 

8 and 9. Longitudinal section of akene. 
(3-9 enlarged.) 



8.") 



^M5^ 



^m. 




ad naldei.et pinxt. 



Achillea Millefolium, Linn. 



N. OKD -COMPOSIT/E. 85 

Tribe.-SEHECIONIDE/E. 

GLNLS— ACH ILLEA,* IINN 

SEX. SVST.— SVNCENKSIA SUl'ERIl.UA. 

MILLEFOLIUM. 

YARRO W. 

SYN.— ACHILLEA, MILLEFOLIUM, LINN. ACHILLEA SETACEA, W. & KIT. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON YARROW, MILFOIL, NOSEBLEED ; (FR.) MIL- 
LEFEUILLE; iGER.) SCHAFGARBE, SCHAFRIPPE. 

A TINC'TrRE OF THE FRESH PLANT ACHILLEA MUXEFOLIUM, LINN. 

Description. — This very common roadside herb rises to a height of from 
6 to 20 inches, from a slender, creeping, perennial root, which, beside a multitude 
of filiform rootlets, gives off several long, reddish stolons. The stem is simple or 
nearly so, erect, slightly grooved and roughly hairy. Leaves alternate ; those 
from near the root wide-petioled, 2 to 6 inches long ; those of the stem proper, 
shorter, sessile or nearly so, and all in their general outline more or less lanceo- 
late oblong, twice pinnately parted, the divisions linear, crowded and 3 to 5 cleft. 
Peduncles 3 or more ; pedicels man)', forming small, crowded, flat-topped corymbs 
at the summit of the plant. Heads many-flowered, radiate. Involucre, of 2 to 3 
imbricated rows of ovoid-oblong scales, with a prominent midrib and brownish, 
scarious edges. Rays 4 or 5, pistillate, with a short, obovate, refle.xed limb, 
more or less 3-lobed. Disk-Jiorets 8 to 12, bisexual. Calyx limb obsolete. 
Corolla tubular, the summit slightly inflated, 5-lobed, the lobes revolute, acute. 
Stamens 5, inserted upon the tube, and rising slightly above the face of the 
corolla. Anthers adnate, without tails at the base. Style long, upright, slender, 
rising above the anthers. Stig))ia 2-cleft, the divisions recurved and fringed at 
their tips. Receptacle small, usually flat and chaffy. Achenia oblong, flatten<Hi 
by compression, shining and slightly margined. Pappus none. For a description 
of the natural order see Eupatorium purpureum, 78. 

History and Habitat. — Yarrow is an abundant weed in old, dry pastures, 
along roadsides and in fields in the northern parts of America, extending in this 
country, as well as in Western Asia and Europe, high in the colder latitudes. It 
came to us from Europe, being now fully naturalized. The white or sometimes 
pink flower-heads blossom all summer. Among the Pah-Ute Indians, according 
to Dr. Edward Palmer, this plant is much used in decoction for weak and dis- 
ordered stomachs. Linnreus says, that for a time the Swedes used Yarrow in 
lieu of hops in the manufacture of beer, and claimed the beer thus brewed to be 
a greater intoxicant. Millefolium has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph. In the 
Eclectic practice it is used in an infusion, tincture, or the essential oil. 

*The virtues of this genus are said to have been discovered by .\chilles. 



85-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant should be 
gathered when flowering begins, excluding all old and woody stems, and chopped 
and pounded to a pulp ; then in a new piece of linen press out thoroughly all the 
juice and mix it by brisk succussion with an equal part by weight of alcohol. 
Allow the mixture to stand eight clays in a dark, cool place, then filter. The 
tincture thus prepared .should be by transmitted light of a clear reddish-orange 
color ; its odor peculiar, resembling that of malt yeast, pungent and agreeable, 
like the fresh plant ; to the taste acrid and slightly bitter, and shows an acid 
reaction to test paj^ers. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— ^r/////t'/« C,, H^, N.O,^. The body formerly 
designated by this name was a mixed alcoholic extract of no definite character, 
containing all of the unvolatilized principles of the plant; from this mass the true 
alkaloid was isolated by Von Planta and its composition, as above, determined. 
Achillein has no definite crystalline form ; it is soluble in water, alcohol and 
ether, and has a bitter taste. 

Oil of Achillea. — This oil is readily obtained by aqueous distillation of the 
plant ; that from the flowers and green parts of the herb has a beautiful dark 
blue color and a specific gravity 0.92 ; that from the achenia is greenish-white, 
while from the root it is either colorless or slightly yellow. The oil from the 
green parts, if cold, is ot a butter-like consistence, strongly odorous, and with a 
taste similar to that of the herb itself 

Achilleic Acid. — A strongly acid, odorless, liquid body, with a density of 
1.0148 when fully concentrated, crystallizing in colorless quadrilateral prisms, 
soluble in water. i^Etsupra, Wittstein.) 

The plant contains besides the above principles tannin and a resinoid body unin- 
vestigated. It is considered by Griffith that the plant as naturalized in the North- 
ern United States is more active in its properties than its European progenitors. 

PHYSIOLOGrlCAL ACTION. — Yarrow seems to have a decided action upon 
the bloodvessels, especially in the pelvis. It has been proven to be of great 
utility in controlling ha-morrhages, especially of the pelvic viscera, where ha;mor- 
rhage is caused by it. Its common European name, Nosebleed, was given from 
the fact that the early writers claimed hsemorrhage of the nose followed placing its 
leaves in the nostrils ; this may have been either due to its direct irritation, or the 
use of Achillea ptarmica, its leaves being very sharply serrate and appressed- 
toothed. Millefolium causes burning and raw sensations of the membranes 
with which it comes in contact, considerable pain in the gastric and abdominal 
regions, with diarrhoea and enuresis. 

Description of Plate 85. 

1. Leaf from near the root. 

2. Flower-head (enlarged). 

3. Ray-floret (enlarged). 

4. Toi) of plant from South Waverly, N. Y., June 8th. iSSo. 

5. Disk-floret and bract (enlarged). 

6. Stamens (enlarged). 



86. 



1 




^m.adnatdeletpinxt TANACETUM VULGARE. 



N. ORD-COMPOSIT^. 86 

Tribe.-SENECIOMIDE/E. 

GENUS.— TANACETUM,* 1. INN. 
si:\. svsT.— i'(ii.V(;.\Mi.\ .slpkrki.i a. 



TANACETUM. 

TA^''SY. 



SYN.— TANACETUM VULGARE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— TANSY OR TANSEY; (PR.) TANAISIE; (GER.) RAINPARN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE LE.WES AND FLOWERS OF TANACETUM VULGARE, LINN. 

Description.— This robust, acrid-aromatic perennial, grows to a height of from 
2 to 3 teet. S/c))i erect, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, leafy to the summit. 
Leaves alternate, 2 to 3 pinnately dissected, glandularly dotted ; divisions very 
numerous, confluent, decurrent, incisely-serrate, with many small lobes interposed 
along the common petiole; ieeth cuspidate, acuminate. Inflorescence capitate, in 
dense, terminal, corymbiform cymes; heads numerous, depressed-hemispherical, 
heterogamous ; involucre composed of several imbricated rows of dry, minute 
scales ; Jlozccrs all fertile, the corollas sprinkled with resinous dots. Marginal 
florets terete, pistillate ; rays inconspicuous, oblique, 3 - toothed. Disk florets 
densely crowded, perfect; corolla tubular; border 5-toothed; anthers tailless, with 
broad, obtuse tips. Style deciduous, the branches truncate with obscure, conical 
tips. Pappus a coroniform, dentately 5-lobed border. .Ikencs 5-ribbed, with a 
large epigynous disk. 

History and Habitat. — This common European plant has escaped from gar- 
dens in many places in this country, especially, however, in the more eastern 
States, where it flowers from July to October. 

Tansy has been used in medicine, especially as a carminative tonic, since the 
middle ages, its use at the present time being almost entirely laic and among 
country folk. Bergiusf recommended a cold infusion of the tops as a tonic in 
convalescence from exhausting diseases, dyspepsia, jaundice and periodic fevers. 
A warm infusion has been found to be antihysteric, antiflatulent, carminative and 
stimulant, and largely used in amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and abdominal cramps. 
Dr. Clark spoke highly of Its relief of gout.;]: Hoffman recommended the seeds 
in 10 to 40 grain doses as an anthelmintic not inferior to cina, for which action the 
leaves are often applied to the abdomen as a fomentation. Dr. Clapp speaks of 

* Altered from i^avania, nthaiiasia, not dying ; the n.ime of a genus of Composit^e having the nature of an " everlast- 
ing " plant. 

t Afat. Med., 664. + Essays Phys. el I.il., j, ;^S. 



86-2 

the infusion as being almost narcotic, soothing nervous restlessness and often 
producing quiet sleep.* The hot infusion has also been considered diuretic and 
diaphoretic, and found useful in dropsy. A fomentation of the leaves is often 
used with salutary effect in swellings, tumors, local inflammations and dysmenor- 
rhcea. The oil, in doses ot from lo drops to a drachm or more, is one of the 
most frequently-used abortives by ignorant people — a practice at all times serious 
and often dangerous; even if desisted in, after one or more attempts, the develop- 
ment of the foetus is very liable to be interefered with ; hemorrhage also often 
occurs — not so dangerous generally as that following the use of nutmegs, but 
very often serious. 

The leaves and tops are officinal in the U. S. Ph., — in the Eclectic Materia 
Medica the preparation relied upon is Infnsum Tanaccti: it is also a component 
of Tinclura Lands Co?nposita.-\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— Equal parts of the fresh leaves and 
blossoms are to be treated as directed under Inula (page 81-2). The resulting 
tincture, after filtration, should have a clear greenish-orange color by transmitted 
light ; it should retain the peculiar odor and taste of the plant to a high degree; 
and show an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Oil of Tansy. This peculiar yellow, or 
greenish-yellow volatile oil, possesses fully the odor and taste of the plant ; it 
is lighter than water, its sp. gr. being 0.952 ; it is soluble in alcohol, and will de- 
posit a camphor on standing. 

Tauacctin, CjjH„.O^.J — This bitter, amorphous principle is found principally 
in the flowers ; it is soluble both in alcohol and water — most readily, however, in 
the latter. 

TanacchiDitannic Acid, Q-jH^^Ogj. — This specific tannin has also been iso- 
lated by Leppig ; § of its characteristics I am unacquainted. 

Leppig § also found in this species: a resin and gallic, citric, malic, o.xalic and 
meta-arabinic acids. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Many serious, and not a few fatal, cases of 
poisoning, by oil of tansy, are reported, among which the following will show the 
sphere of toxic action held by this drug: A young woman had been in the 
habit of using tansy tea, made from the herb, at nearly every menstrual period, 
for difficult menstruation. . . On this occasion about two and a half drachms 
of the oil was poured into half an ordinary tin cupful of water; this, with the ex- 
ception of a small portion of the water containing about one-half drachm of the 
oil, was taken at one dose. Convulsions were almost at once produced, and when 
Dr. Bailey was sent for the patient was unconscious, foaming at the mouth, and in 

* Catalogue, 800. 

t .See foot-note, p. 33-3. 

X O. Leppig, C/iem. Zeiltmg, 1862, 328 yAm. Jour. Phar., 1885, 28S). 

I n>id. 



86-3 

violent tonic spasms, with dilated inipils, frequent and feeble pulse. Constant 
kneading on the stomach had produced partial emesis, and then ipecac, mustard, 
and large draughts of hot water, emptied the stomach. Two drachms of magne- 
sia were then given, and a full dose of acetate of morphine; consciousness then 
returned, no unfavorable symptoms iollowed, and, alter thirt)-six hours, with- 
out additional medication she was entirely restored. '•' 

A married woman aged 2S, accustomed to taking 5-drop doses without incon- 
venience, took from 15 to 20 drops. Shortly after, she complained of dizziness, 
agonizing pain in the head and burning in the stomach ; a sense of cold numbness 
crept over her limbs, increasing until it amounted almost to paralysis ; convulsions 
followed, during which she vomited twice, freely, and finally uttered a shriek and 
fell senseless to the floor. She continued in this comatose condition for over an 
hour, when, on again vomiting, she recovered consciousness.f 

A woman took half an ounce of the oil ; the most violent, rigid kind of clonic 
spasms occurred once in about twelve minutes, coming on generally and instantly, 
and continuing about one minute. They were attended with slight, if any mo- 
tion of the arms ; it might be called a trembling. The arms were peculiarly af- 
fected, and invariably in the same way; they were thrown out forward of, and at 
right angles with, the body ; the hands at the wrists bent at right angles, with 
the fore-arm supinated, the points of the fingers nearly in contact, the fingers 
straight and slightly bent at the metatarsophalangeal joints. The muscles of 
respiration were strongly affected during each paroxysm ; air was forced from the 
chest slowly but steadily, and made a slight hissing noise as it escaped from be- 
tween the patient's lips. During the intermission of spasm, the muscles were 
perfectly flexible, and the transition seemed very sudden. The jaws were the 
only exception to this rule ; they were, for the first hour and a quarter, rigidly 
closed, and were with difficulty opened, but after that were subjected to the same 
action as the rest of the body — when the spasms were on they were rigid ; when 
off, they were relaxed. After the patient grew weaker, the spasms were more 
frequent, but had about the same severity and length. Death ensued in two hours. J 

A young woman took two tablespoonfuls of the oil to procure abortion, after 
which, those who saw her related, that she suffered from symptoms much resem- 
bling apoplexy. Two weeks afterward, the vaginal walls of the labia were found 
inflamed to such extent that one of them resulted in an enormous abscess ; the 
sclerotic coat of the eye was also so congested that it had a dark purple, glassy 
appearance, and was so badly swollen that the cornea seemed to be depressed. § 

A girl aged 21 years, took 11 drachms of the oil to produce an abortion. 
Total unconsciousness soon followed ; at Intervals of 5 or 10 minutes the body 
was convulsed by strong spasms, in which the head was thrown back, the respira- 
tion suspended, the arms raised and kept rigidly extended, and the fingers con- 
tracted. After this state of rigidity had continued for about half a minute, it was 



* Dr. W. W. Bailey, in the S/. Lotiis Courier of Medicine, April, 1885. 

t A. D. Binkerd, M.D., AM. and Surg. Rep., 1870, 588. 

I C. T. Hildr.-dth, M.D., Med. Mag., 1834 (Am. J. of Med. Sci., 1S35, 256). 

\ E. M. Hale, M.D., West. Horn. Obs., 1S69, 345. 



86-4 

usually succeeded by tremulous motion often sufficient to shake the room, to- 
gether with very faint and very imperfect attempts at inspiration. The whole 
interval, from the commencement of the convulsion to the first full inspiration, 
varied from a minute to a minute and a half Respiration was hurried, labored, 
stertorous, and obstructed by an abundance of frothy mucus, which filled the 
air passages and was blown from between the lips in expiration ; the breath had 
a strong odor of Tansy. Occasionally the tongue was wounded by the teeth, and 
the saliva slightly tinged with blood. Immediately after a convulsion the counte- 
nance was very pallid and livid, from the suspension of respiration, and the pulse, 
which, during the spasm, was quite forcible, full and rapid, was now exceedingly 
reduced in strength and frequency. The pulse and color then gradually returned, 
until the next spasm came on. It was very common, a kw seconds after the ter- 
mination of a convulsion, for the head to be drawn slowly backward, and the eye- 
lids at the same time stretched wide open, at which times the eyes were very bril- 
liant; pupils of equal size, widely dilated, anci immovable; and the sclerotics injected. 
A little inward strabismus was noticeable, of the right eye, as was, also, occasionally 
slow, lateral, rolling motion of the eye-balls. The mouth and nose were at times 
drawn a little to the right side. In the intervals of the convulsions, the limbs 
were mostly relaxed, but the jaws remained clenched. The skin was warm, but not 
remarkable as to moisture. The victim died in three hours and a half* 

On Animals. — Dr. Ely Van DeVVarker records cases of the action of the 
oil upon dogs. In one case two drachms were given, causing salivation, vomiting, 
dilation of the pupils, muscular twitchings, followed by clonic spasms, and a cata- 
leptic condition from which the animal recovered. Recovery also followed a half 
ounce after the same class of symptoms, but, however, on repeating the dose, the 
already poisoned animal was plunged into a long and fatal convulsion Post- 
mortem examination disclosed the cerebral veins and spinal cord itself highly 
congested, and serous effusions had taken place in the pia mater. The lungs 
were found to be engorged, the left heart empty, and the right distended with 
dark, liquid blood. Congestion of the kidneys had also taken place, and the 
bladder was found contracted.f 

The safe maximum dose of the oil is indeterminable, a few drops only 
sometimes proving serious. 

The symptoms occurring in a number of cases of poisoning and experiments, 
were substantially as follows : Mental confusion, loss of consciousness ; vertigo, 
with cephalalgia ; at first contraction, then wide dilation, of the pupils, staring, 
immovable eye-balls ; ringing in the ears ; face congested ; roughness of the 
mouth and throat, difficult deglutition ; eructations, nausea, free vomiting, and 
burning of the stomach ; sharp colic pains in the abdomen ; diarrhoea ; constant 
desire to urinate — urine at first suppressed, then profuse ; respiration hurried 
and laborious ; pulse at first high, then very low and irregular ; numbness of 



* J. C. Dalton, Jr., M.D., Am. Jour. Med. .SV/., 1S52, p. ij6. 
t T/ie Detection of Criiiiinal .Abortion. 



86-5 
the extremities ; tonic and clonic spasms, and nervous tremblings ; drowsiness 
and cold sweat. Death appears to ensue from paralysis of the heart and luncs. 



Descrii'tion oi' Plate 86. 

I. Summit of an escaped [jlant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 21st, 1886. 

2. A flower-head. 

3. A flower-head, longitudinal section. 

4. A floret. 

5. Anther. 

(4 and 5 enlarged.) 



87. 




.Ul.adnatdel.etpinxf. 



.j^ 



Artemisia Vulgaris, Linr 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 87 

Thbe.-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS. — A RT E M I S I A . 

SEX. SYST.— SV.\UEM:SI.\ SLI'KRILUA. 



ARTEMISIA VULGARIS 



MUGWORT. 



SYN.— ARTEMISIA VULGARIS, LINN.; A. HETBROPHYLLUS, NUTT. ; A. 

INDICA CANADENSIS. BESS. 
COM. NAMES.— MUGWORT; (FR.) COURONNE DB ST. JEAN; (GBR.) BI- 

FUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE ROOT OF ARTEMISIA VULGARIS, LINN. 



Description. — This perennial herb grows to a height of from 2 to 3 feet. 
Stem erect, furrowed, paniculately branched. Leaves mostly glabrous and green 
above, white-woolly beneath and on the branches, the lower laciniate, the median 
pinnatifid, the upper lanceolate to linear; diz'isions often cut-lobed or linear- 
lanceolate. Inflorescence glomerate, in open, leafy jjanicles ; heads numerous, 
small, ovoid, heterogamous ; floivers all fertile ; involucre mostly oblong, cam- 
panulate ; brads scarious, sparingly arachnoid, but mostly glabrate. Corolla 
smooth. Receptacle naked. Otherwise agreeing in minutiae of florets and sexual 
organs with the following species, p. 88. 

History and Habitat. — The Common Mugvvort is an immigrant from Europe 
in most of its situations here, but is considered apparently indigenous at Hudson's 
Bay by Prof. Gray. It is naturalized in Canada and the Atlantic States, where it 
frequents old fields and gardens, roadsides, and waste places, and flowers from 
September till October. 

Hippocrates very frequently mentions Artemisia as of use in promoting uter- 
ine evacuations. Dioscorides and Galen used it as a fomentation for amenorrh(x-a 
and hysteria — a practice then in vogue among the women of China. German 
physicians have urged the drug in epilepsy, but it has nevertheless fallen entirely 
into disrepute, being now very seldom, if ever, used in any disease. 

That torturous, barbaric practice, the use of the Moxa, is closely related to 
this plant, as it was one of the substances, in connection with ./. Cl/lnensis, used 
in the manufacture of that pastile. 

The Mexican Pharmacopceia is now, we believe, the only one recognizing this 
druor. 



87-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After thorough succussion, the whole is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture thus prepared 
should, after straining and filtering, have a deep yellowish-brown color by trans- 
mitted light; a characteristic, uncomparable odor — that of the bruised leaves; an 
aromatic, slightly bitter taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis has, as far as we are able to 
ascertain, been made of this plant since Baierus found that by fermentation, dis- 
tillation, and mixture with water, a fragrant sapid liquor was obtained, with a thin 
fragrant oil upon the surface. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Mugwort is said to cause increase of epileptic 
spasms ; irritation of the nervous system ; profuse sweat, having a fetid, cadaver- 
ous odor, resembling garlic ; violent contractions of the uterus ; labor-like pains ; 
prolapsus and rupture of the uterus; miscarriage; metrorrhagia; and increase of 
lochial discharges.'^' 



Description of Plate 87. 
I. A portion of a panicle, from Salem, Mass., August loth, 1885. 



* Noak and Tvinks. 



F 




^m. 



#1 %^ # 







ad naldei.et pinxt 



Artemi'sia Absinthium, Linn. 



m 



N. ORD-COMPOSIT^. 88 

Tribe-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.— ARTEMISIA,* l.INN. 
SKX. SVST.— 1'OLVc;AMIA SUl'ERl'LUA. 



absinthium; 

]] 'OEM WOOD. 

SYN.— ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM, LINN. ; ABSINTHIUM VULGARB, PARK.; 

A. OFFICINALE, LAM. 
COM. NAMES.— WORMWOOD ; (FR.) ABSINTHE; (GER. i WERMUTH. 

A TINCTURE OF THE LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM, LINN. 

Description. — This bitter, aromatic, frutescent perennial, attains a growtli of 
2 to 4 feet. Stem stiff, almost ligneous at the base and paniculately branched ; 
branches of two kinds, some fertile, others barren. Leaves alternate, 2 to 3 pin- 
nately parted, finely pubescent with close silky hairs, the uppermost lanceolate, 
entire ; leaflets oblong or lanceolate, obtuse and entire, sparingly toothed or 
incised. Inflorescence in long, leafy panicles ; heads numerous, small, heteroga- 
mous, on slender nodding pedicles ; invohicre canescent ; bracts of two kinds, i to 
2 loose, narrow, herbaceous ones, and several that are roundish and scarious ; 
florets many, all discoid, the central hermaphrodite, the marginal pistillate. Corol- 
las tubular glabrous; Ihnb nearly entire in the marginal florets, 5-toothed, and 
spreading in the central. Style 2-cleft, in the marginal florets bilamellar, with the 
inner surfaces stigmatic, in the central bifurcated with only the tips stigmatose, 
fringed or fimbriate. Antheis tipped with an acuminate appendage, not inflexed. 
Receptacle flattish, beset with long woolly hairs; akenes obovoid or oblong; pappus 
none. 

History and Habitat. — This European synonym of bitterness has escaped 
from gardens in many places in North America, especially, however, in Nova 
Scotia, New England, and at Moose Factory, Hudson's Bay. It blossoms with us 
from the latter part of July to October. 

Wormwood has been used in medicine from ancient times. Dioscorides and 
Pliny considered it to be a stomachic tonic, and anthelmintic. Boerhaave, Linnjeus, 
Haller, and all of the earlier writers speak of its good effects in many disorders, 
such as, intermittents, hypochondriasis, gout, scurvy, calculus, and hepatic and 
splenic obstructions. Bergius, in recounting its virtues, says it is " antiputredi- 
nosa, antacida, anthelmintica, resolens, tonica, et stomachia." The famous " Port- 



* Artemisia, the Greek Diana, goddess of chastity, as the plant was thought to bring on early puberty. Pliny says 
the name is in honor of Artemisia, queen of Mausolus, king of Caria. 

t "Ai^ii'Sioi', apsinlhion, the classical name of many species of the genus. 



88-2 

land powder," once noted for its efficacy in gout, had this drug as its principal 
ingredient. A decoction has ever been found a most excellent application for 
wounds, bruises, and sprains, relieving the pain nicely in most cases ; every reader 
will recall "wormwood and vinegar" in this connection. Latterly it has been 
found diuretic, discutient, and antispasmodic in epilepsy. 

The bitterness of the herb is communicated to the milk of cows who may 
browse upon it, and also to mothers' milk if the drug be taken. 

Brewers are said to add the fruits to their hops to make the beer more heady ; 
and rectifiers also to their spirits. Absinthe forms one of the favorite drinks for 
those who love stimulating beverages ; it is compounded of various aromatics as 
follows: Green anise (Pimpinella anisi). Star anise (Illicum anisatum), Large 
absinth (Artemisia absinthium). Small absinth (Artemisia pontica), Coriander 
(Coriandum sativum), and Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis); these are distilled to- 
gether until the distillate comes over reddish, then the following herbs and products 
are steeped in the distillate to color and flavor it: Peppermint (Mentha piperita). 
Balm (Melissa officinalis). Citron peel (Citrus medicus), and Liquorice root (Gly- 
cyrrhiza glabra). 

The leaves and tops of the plant are recognized in the U. S. Ph., and the 
officinal preparation is Vinum Aromalicwn:^ It is officinal in the Eclectic Materia 
Medica as Absinthiiic and Infusum Absynthii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh young leaves and the blos- 
soms are treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tincture is opaque ; 
in thin layers it has a beautiful crimson color; its odor is terebinthic and pleasant ; 
its taste extremely and penetratingly bitter ; and its reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— ?Va^//^ Oil of Wormwood. This oil, isomeric 
with camphor, consists principally of absinthol, Cj^Hj^O. It is dark green, acrid, 
and bitter, retains the odor of the plant, boils at 205° (401° F.), has a sp. gr. of 
0.973, 3-nd is soluble to almost any extent in alcohol. 

Absinthin, C^^H^gO^. — This bitter principle when first extracted forms in yel- 
low globules, which soon crystallize and become a bitter, neutral, inodorous, friable 
powder, fusing at 120° (248° F.) to 125° (257° F.). It is soluble in alcohol, slighdy 
also in water, and forms no sugar on decomposing with a mineral acid. 

Succinic Acid.f C^H^Oj. — This acid, together with citric and malic acids, exists 
in the leaves and fruit of the plant, from which it may be isolated in inodorous, 
moderately acid, klinorhombic prisms, that fuse at 180° (356° F.), boil at 235° 
(455° F.), and are soluble in alcohol and twenty-five parts water. 

Potassium Chloride, KCl. — This salt has been determined in the plant,J from 
which it may be isolated in yellowish cubes and octahedrons. 

* One part each of Lavender, Origanum, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, and Wormwood. 

t .A.bsynthic Acid of Braconnot. 

X Kunsmuller, Ann. de C/iim., vi, 35, from the ash; Claassen, Am. Jour. Sci., 1882, 323, from the extract. 



88-3 

Braconnot also determined a green and a bitter resin, albumen, starch, a 
tasteless nitrogenized body, a bitter nitrogenized body, and nitre.* 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— A druggist's clerk took about half an ounce of 
the oil ; he was found on the floor perfecdy insensible, convulsed, and foamino- at 
the mouth; shortly afterward the convulsions ceased, the patient remained insen- 
sible with the jaws locked, pupils dilated, pulse weak, and stomach retching. After 
causing free emesis and applying stimulants the man recovered, but could not 
remember how or when he had taken the drug. According to Dr. Legrand, the 
effects prominent in absinthe drinkers are : Derangement of the digestive organs, 
intense thirst, restlessness, vertigo, tingling in the ears, and illusions of sight and 
hearing. These are followed by tremblings in the arms, hands, and legs, numbness 
of the extremities, loss of muscular power, delirium, loss of intellect, general paral- 
ysis, and death. Dr. Magnan, who had a great number of absinthe drinkers under 
his care, and who performed many experiments with the liquor upon animals, states 
that peculiar epileptic attacks result, which he has called "absinthe epilepsy." f 

Post-Mortcni. — Great congestion of the cerbro-spinal vessels, of the meninges 
of the brain, extreme hyper^emia of the medulla oblongata, injection of the vessels 
of the cord, with suffusion of the cord itself The stomach, endocardium, and 
pericardium show small ecchymoses.J 



Description of Plate 88. 

I. End of a flowering branch, escaped at Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. loth, 1885. 

2. A lower leaf. 

3. Flower head. 

4. Marginal floret. 

5. Central floret. 

6. Anther. 

7. Style of central floret. 
C3-7 enlarged.) 

* Thomson, Organic Chem., 1838, 864. 

f Et supra, Taylor On Poisons, 1885, 652. 

X Jour, of Physiological Med., 9, 525; in Allen, Ency. Mat. Meii., loc. cit. 



89. 



^m. 




ad nat.dei.et pinxt. 



GnAPHAUUM POLYCEPHALUM, Michx. 



N. ORD-COMPOSIT^. 89 

Tnbe.-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS— GN APHALIUM,* LINN. 



SEX. SV.ST.— .SVNGENKSl.V .SI TKKl- l.l A. 



GNAPHALIUM. 



em^:blastta'G. 



SYN. — GNAPHALIUM POL YCEPH ALUM, MICHX. ; G. OBTUSIFOLIUM. 

LINN.; G. CONOIDEUM. LAM. 
COM. NAMES. — FRAGRANT EVERLASTING, LIFE EVERLASTING, OLD 

FIELD BALSAM, V^HITE BALSAM, INDIAN POSEY, CAT FOOT, SILVER 

LEAF, NONE-SO-PRETTY; (FR. i IMMORTELLE, LB COTONNIERE ; (GER.) 

IMMERSCHON RUHKRAUT. 



A riNCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.'\NT GNAPHALIUM POLVCEPHALUM, MICHX. 

Description. — This persistent, annual herb, usually grows to a height of from 
I to 3 feet. Stem erect, terete, and floccose-woolly ; branches numerous at the 
summit, either glabrous or minutely viscid-pubescent when the wool is off. Leaves 
alternate, closely serrate or slightly amplexicaul, but never decurrent, somewhat 
aromatic, thinnish, all lanceolate or linear, narrowed at the base, and mucronately 
acute or acuminate at the tip, soon bare and green, or viscid-puberulent above ; 
mar otitis entire, often finely undulate. Inflorescoice in terminal -paniculate, or 
cymose, glomerules ; heads numerous, ovate-conoidal before expansion, then obo- 
vate, all discoid and heterogamous ; involucre woolly only at the base ; brads 
oblong, obtuse, thin, dull white, becoming somewhat rusty-colored, pluriserially- 
imbricate, without tips or appendages ; receptacle flat, chafifless, and bractless. 
Floiuers fertile throughout, arranged in several rows; corona filitorm-tubular, 
shorter than the style ; anthers with slender tails. Hermaphrodite flozoers, very 
few; styles two-cleft, the branches mostly truncate. Akcncs terete, lightly 3- to 4- 
nerved, smooth and glabrous ; pappus a single row of scabrous, capillary bristles, 
each free at the base and falling separately. 

History and Habitat. — This species is indigenous to North America, where 
it ranges from Florida and Texas northward to Canada and Wisconsin. It grows 
upon old fields and in quite open, dry woods, and blossoms from July to October. 

The Everlastings formed a part of aboriginal medication, and from there they 
descended to the white settlers, who, in conjunction with the more or less botanic 
physicians, used them about as follows : The herb, as a masticatory, has always 
been a popular remedy, on account of its astringent properties, in ulceration of the 

* Vii^aKov, gnaphalon, a lock of wool ; from the floccose appearance of any torn or broken end. 



89-2 

mouth and fauces, and for quinsy. A hot decoction proves pectoral and some- 
what anodyne, as well as sudorific in early stages of fevers. A cold infusion has 
been much used in diarrhoea, dysentery, and hemorrhage of the bowels, and is 
somewhat vermifugal ; it is also recommended in leucorrhoea. The fresh juice is 
considered anti-venereal. Hot fomentations of the herb have been used like Arnica, 
fur sprains and bruises, and form a good vulnerary for painful tumors and un- 
healthy ulcers. The dried flowers are recommended as a quieting filling for the 
pillows of consumptives. 

Of Antctmaria plantaginifolia. Hook. (Gnaphalium plantaginifolium, Linn.), 
Rafinesque says: "For a small fee, the Indians, who call this plant SiiijacJni,^''^ 
allow themselves to be bitten by a rattlesnake, and immediately cure themselves 
with this herb." 

Gnaphalium is not officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Dispensatory, the 
preparation recommended is : Infus^im Gitapkalii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered when 
the flowers are still young, should be treated as directed for the root of Inula.* 
The resulting tincture should have a brownish-orange color by transmitted light; 
a pleasant, slightly balsamic odor ; a taste at first aromatic, then bitter ; and an 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis to determine the character of 
the bitter principle has been made. The herb contains a little resin, a volatile 
oil, a bitter principle, and tannin; and yields all its sensible qualities to both water 
and alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms following the ingestion of from 
15 drops to a half ounce of the tincture, at the hands of Dr. Woodbury,-)- were 
essentially as follows : Slight abdominal griping, vomiting and purging; profuse 
diarrhoea, dark-colored offensive passages. Experiments with small doses of the 
triturated dry flowers and leaves, at the hands of Dr. Banks,J corroborated the 
above symptoms, though the result was less severe, and gave the following symp- 
toms beside : Giddiness, especially on rising ; dull, heavy expression of counte- 
nance ; diminished appetite; rumbling of flatus, increased urine; sexual excite- 
ment ; intense sciatic pain ; weakness, and languor. 



Description of Pl.^te 89. 

Summit of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. loth, 1886. 

2. A leaf (from a plant gathered liy Chapman in Florida). 

•5. Outer ) , r ■ 

- \ scale of involucre. 

4. inner ) 

5. Floret. 

6. Stigmas. 

7. Seed. 

(3-7 enlarged.) 



Page 81-2. t Trans. Mass. Bom. So,: J TV. A. Jotii: Horn., 7, 3S3. 



90. 




^m.Bd 



nstdel.etpjnxt. 



ERECHTHItES HiERACIFOLIA.Rat. 



N. ORD. -COMPOSITE. 90 

Tribe.-SENEGIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.— ERECHTHITES,* RAF. 
SE.\. SVST.— SVNCIENliSI.^ SLl'KKKI.l \ 



ERECHTHITES. 



FIRE WEED. 

SYN.— ERECHTHITES HIBRACIPOLIA, PREALTA, AND ELONGATA, RAF. ; 

SENECIO HIERACIFOLIUS, LINN.; CINERARIA CANADENSIS, WALT. 

COM. NAMES.— FIREWEED ; (FR.i HERBE DE FEU; (GBR.) FEUERKRAUT. 

A TINCTURK OF THE WHOLE PLANT ERFCHTHLrES HIKRACIFOLLA, RAF. 

Description. — This rank, glabrous, or slightly hairy annual, usually grows 
from I to 7 feet high. Skin stout, erect, virgate, sulcate, and leafy to the top. 
Leaves alternate, sessile, tender, and thin, all narrowly or broadly lanceolate 
and acute; margins sharply denticulate or somewhat pinnately incised ; bases oi 
the upper leaves somewhat auriculate and partly clasping. Inflorescence in a loose, 
terminal, corymbose panicle ; heads about one half inch long, cylindraceous, hetero- 
gamous, and discoid ; involucre a single row of erect, linear, acute scales ; bracteoles 
few, setaceous ; flowers numerous, white, or ochroleucous, the outer female, the 
inner hermaphrodite. Corollas 2\\ slender and tubular. Female florets : corolla- 
tube filiform, the limb slightly dilated, and 2- 4-toothed. Hermaplirodite flowers : 
corolla-tube filiform, the limb short, cyathiform, 4- 5-lobed. Anthers tailless. Style- 
branches narrow, tipped with a conical pubescence. Receptacle flat and naked. 
Pappus white and copious ; bristles soft, fine, and elongated. Akcnes oblong, 
somewhat striate, tapering at the end. 

History and Habitat. — This coarse, homely, indigenous weed ranges from 
Newfoundland and Canada southward to South America ; it grows in moist, open 
woods, upon enriched soil, and blossoms in July and September. Its vulgarism, 
Fireweed, is given it on account of its seeking newly-burned fallows, there growing 
in its greatest luxuriance. 

The whole plant is succulent, bitter, and somewhat acrid, and has been used 
by the laity principally as an emetic, alterative, cathartic, acrid tonic, and astringent, 
in various forms of eczema, muco-sanguineous diarrhoea, and hemorrhages. The 
oil, as well as the herb itself, has been found highly serviceable in piles and dys- 
entery. 

In the Eclectic Dispensatory, the preparations recommended for use are : 
Oleum Frechthiti and Infusum Freeh thiti. 

* Derived from the ancient name of some troublesome groundsel. 



90-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh, flowering plant is 
treated as recommended for the next drug.* 

The resulting tincture has a clear, beautiful, reddish-orange color by trans- 
mitted light ; a sourish odor, resembling that of claret wine ; a taste at first sourish, 
then astringent and bitter; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — In all probability, the principal virtues of the 
plant reside in its peculiar volatile oil, though no analysis to determine other bodies 
has been made. 

Oil of Ercchthites. — This fluid, transparent, yellowish oil, is obtained by dis- 
tilling the plant with water. It has a strong, fetid, peculiar, slighdy aromatic odor, 
and a bitterish, burning taste. Its sp. gr. is 0.927. It is soluble in both alcohol 
and ether. According to Beilstein, and Wiegand,t it consists, almost exclusively, 
of terpenes, boiling between 175° and 310° F. (79.5°-! 54.4°). 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms of disturbance caused by doses 
of from 12 to 200 drops of the tincture, at the hands of T. J. Merryman,| were in 
substance as follows: Uneasiness approaching nausea; griping in the bowels, fol- 
lowed by three copious, yellow, mushy, fecal stools, followed again by constipation ; 
increased flow of urine, containing a large amount of mucus ; stimulation of the 
genital organs, followed by erections ; and pains in the extremities. 



Description of Plate 90. 

I. Summit of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. 27th, 1S86. 

2. A middle leaf. 

3. A floret. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Stigmas. 

6. Fruit. 

7. Akene. 
(3-7 enlarged.) 



* Senecio, page 91-2. 

\ Berichte, 1SS2, 2S54 ; Am. Jour. Phar., 18 S3, 372. 

+ E. M. Hale, Trans. Horn. Med. Soc, N. )"., 1S68, 78. 



91. 




^.TU.adnatdeletpifixt^ " SeNECIO AUREUS Linn. 



N. ORD. COMPOSITE. 
Tribe.-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GKNUS.— SENECIO,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— SVNGENESIA SUl'KRl- I.L A. 



SENECIO. 



goldejy ragwort. 



SYN.— SENECIO AUREUS, LINN. ; SENECIO GRACILIS, PURSH. ; SENECIO 
FASTIGIATUS, ELL. 

COM. NAMES.— GOLDEN RAGWORT, GROUNDSEL, SQUAW-WEED, LIFE- 
ROOT, FALSE VALERIAN, GOLDEN SENECIO, FEMALE REGULA- 
TOR, FIREWEED,t UNKUM; (FR.) SENE9ON; (GER.) GOLDBNES 
KREUZKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE GF THE ENTIRE, FRESH, FLOWERING PLANT, SENECIO AUREUS, LLNN. 

Description. — This early spring perennial, usually attains a growth of about 
I or 2 feet. Root small, thin, horizontal ; rootlets numerous, slender. Stem usually 
free of woolliness at the flowering season, fJoccose woolly when young. Leaves 
alternate; radical leaves on long, slender petioles, blade mostly rounded and un- 
divided, base somewhat truncate or almost cordate, margin crenate, under surface 
pinkish-purple ; cauline leaves, lowermost similar to the root-leaves with the addi- 
tion of 2 or 3 lobelets opposite along the petiole, blade subcordate, crenate, pink- 
ish beneath ; middle leaves lyrately divided and passing gradually to laciniate- 
pinnatifid, bases semi-auriculate, clasping; superior leaves linear-lanceolate, lin- 
ear, sessile, and lastly bracteolate. Inflorescence numerous superior-axillary and 
finally corymbose, long-peduncled, ray-bearing heads ; heads radiate, many-flow- 
ered ; receptacle flat and naked. Ray florets 8—12, conspicuous, ovoid, pistillate. 
Disk florets numerous, perfect, tubular; corolla 5-lobed ; lobes revolute, obtuse. 
Involucre of a few lanceolate scales arranged m a single row ; pappus of man)-, 
soft, capillary bristles. 'Anthers tailless. Style bifurcated ; stigmas recurved. Akenes 
quite glabrous or only microscopically hairy on the angles, neither rostrate nor 
winged. Read description of the order, under Eupatorium purpureum, 78. 

History and Habitat. — The Golden Ragwort is common every.where, the 
primary form mostly in swampy spots and on the wet borders of streams. It 
flowers from May until June. 

Like many another of our partially-proven plants, the medical history is very 
superficial. Senecio has been found useful in Aboriginal medicine as an anti- 

* The old Latin name for the plant, from senex, an old man, on account of the hoary pappus. This large ami 
widely-distributed genus contains in North America 57 species and 15 varieties, all but 3 of which are indigenous; of the 
varieties, 6 belong to 5. aureus. 

t The true firewecd is Erechthiles hieiacifolia, Raf. (90). 



91-2 

hemorrhagic, abortivant and vulnerary. Later it has been recommended as a 
substitute for ergot, as an excellent drug to control pulmonary hemorrhage, gene- 
rally as a diuretic, pectoral, diaphoretic, tonic, and a substance to be thought of in 
various forms of uterine trouble. 

The plant has no place in the U. S. Ph. The officinal preparations in the 
Eclectic Materia Medica are ; Dccoctiini Senecii, Exti-actiiin Scnecii Fluidrtni, and 
Senecii Olco-resince. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The entire, fresh, flowering plant, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole, pour it into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a brownish-orange 
color by transmitted light, the peculiar odor of the bruised herb, a sweetish then 
slightly bitter taste, and a strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Senecin, an arbitrary oleo-resin, of unknown 
constitution. No analysis of the plant has been made, as far as I can determine. 

Upon adding the tincture to water a decided deposit of resin takes place, and 
tincture of iron shows the presence of tannin, even in a mixture of four drops of 
the drug-tincture in a drachm of alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — We have several provings of this drug, but its 
action is not determinable from them. 

Description of Plate 91. 

I. Whole plant, Ithaca, N. Y., May 24th, 1880. 

2. Disk floret (enlarged). 

3. Ray floret (enlarged). 







^la.adnat.del.etpinxt LaPPA OFFICINALIS ,var. MaJOR, Gray. 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. " 92 

Tribe.-CYNARODE/E. 

GENUS.— ARCTIUM,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— SVNGIiNliSIA I'oLVG.VMlA vEQUALIS. 



LAPPA. 



BURDOCK. 

SYN.— ARCTIUM LAPPA, LINN.; A. MAJUS, SCHK. ; LAPPA OFFICINALIS, 
ALLIONI; L. MAJOR, G^RTN. ; L. OFFICINALIS, VAR. MAJOR, GRAY; 
BARDANA MAJOR, GBR. 

COM. NAMES.-COMMON BURDOCK, CLOTBUR; t BAT WEED ; (FR.) GLOU- 
TERON, BARDANE; (GER.) KLETTE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ARCTIUM LAPPA, LINN. 

Description. — This coarse, rank, biennial emigrant, grows to a height of 
about 3 or 5 feet. Roo/ deep, sub-cylindrical, almost black externally and white 
widiin. Siciii stout; branches numerous, widely spreading. Leaves alternate, 
ample, orbicular-cordate, unarmed ; green and smooth above, whitish cottony 
beneath, all marked with prominent, crimson veins ; petioles stout, those of the 
lower leaves deeply channelled upon the upper side. Inflorescence somewhat 
cymose or clustered ; heads many flowered, homogamous, tubulifloral, herma- 
phrodite ; invohccre globular, strongly imbricate ; bracts all spreading, coriaceous, 
and nearly smooth, divided into three portions from below upward, viz. : base 
dilated appressed, with a ridge marking its outer median line, the edges some- 
what serrated ; ansta long, slender and smooth, the apex coverted into a strongly 
incurved hook of a horny consistence, sharp and transparent. Corolla pink, equally 
or somewhat unequally five-cleft; lobes long, narrow, and acute. Stamens exserted, 
united by their anthers (except the tips) into a purple tube enclosing the style; 
filaments smooth, distinct; anthers tailed at the base and furnished with an elon- 
gated, connate, cartilaginous apex. Style long, filiform, thickened at the apex 
where it bifurcates into partly distinct, slender, smooth branches without appen- 
dages, and stigmatic to the apex on the inner side. Receptacle flat or convex, 
densely setose. Akenes somewhat bony, inversely pyramidal, transversely wrin- 
kled, and attached by the very end of the pointed base ; pappus composed of 
numerous, short, rigid, barbellate bristles, which are finally separately deciduous. 

* ' \fKTOi, nrktos (Celtic arth), a bear, from a fancied resemblance in the rough, shaggy, fruiting heads, 
t Kaf^tXii, tabein, to lay hold of, Celtic llap, a hand, signifying the tenacious hold the burr takes upon fabrics an 1 
the coats of animals. Ray says (//»/., 232; Syn., 196), Lappa dici potest vel qto r» \a^:iv prehendere vel Aajrrtii' lambere. 
X The clotburs are properly species of XaiUhium. 



92-2 

History and Habitat. — This common weed is indigenous to Europe and Asia, 
growing there as here — about roadsides and dwelhngs. Since its introduction into 
this country it has spread rapidly westward, its seeds being numerous and readily 
carried about by both man and animals. It flowers from June to October. The 
herb is so rank that man, the jackass, and caterpillar are the only animals that 
will eat of it. The young stems, stripped of their rind, may be eaten raw or boiled, 
as a salad with oil, or a potage with vinegar. (Withering.) 

The previous uses of this plant have been a decoction of the root in pulmo- 
nary catarrh, rheumatism, gout; and a depurant in scrofula, scurvy, venereal erup- 
tions, lepra, and kindred affections, in which it is even now considered better in many 
cases than sarsaparilla. It is also diuretic. The powdered seeds have been used 
as a diuretic, and application for the cure of styes. Woodville says* that he 
" never had an opportunity of observing the effects of the root, except as a 
diuretic, and in this way we have known it succeed in two dropsical cases, where 
other powerful medicines had been ineffectually used ; and as it neither excites 
nausea or increases irritation, it may occasionally deserve a trial where more 
active remedies are improper." 

The root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Medica the 
following preparations are given : Infusum Arctii; Extractum Arctii; and Synipus 
Aralice Compositus:\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root gathered in Autumn, 
before the frost has touched the plant deeply, should be chopped and pounded to 
a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp well 
mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After the 
whole has been thoroughly stirred, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and allow 
it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, should be clear and trans- 
parent. It should have a slighly brownish-orange color by transmitted light, and an 
acid reaction. This tincture gives no odor or taste by which it may be identified. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Z^Z-Z/^r.— This peculiar bitter principle was 
discovered by Messrs. Trimble and Macfarland.J and judged by them an alkaloid, 
as it answered to several of the alkaloid tests. It is described as an amorphous, 
intensely bitter body, with a faintly alkaline reaction. Its solubility and peculiar 
physical properties are as yet uninvestigated ; it cannot, however, be soluble in 
cold alcohol to any great extent, as our tincture does not show its presence, at 
least to the taste. 

Oil of Lappa. § — This fixed oil exists in the seeds in the proportion of 15.4 
per cent. It is yellow, bland, not soluble in cold alcohol, and has a sp. gr. of .930. 

* Med. Bot., i, 34. 

t Containing Aralia Spinosa and nud'icaiilis (loot), Sassafras (root bark), Runiex crispus (root), Burdock (root), 
Sambucus (flowers), Guaiacum (wood), and Iris (root). 

% Am. Jour. Phar., 1885, p. 127. \ Ibid. 



92-3 
Inu/in* tannin, a gummy extractive, nitrate of potash,-}- a resin soluble in 
water, and another in alcohol, have been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The only symptom of importance so far 
recorded from the action of this drug, is an increased secretion of milky urine, 
with frequent desire and copious discharges. 

Description of Plate 92. 

I. A flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., August ist, 1884. 
2. Floweret. 
3 and 4. Bract 

5. Seed 

6. Bristle of Pappus. 

7. A thoroughly dried horn, 
(2-7 enlarged.) 



* See under Inula Helenium, Si. 

f Loudon says that the mature green herb, when burnt, wiBl yield fully oce-thi-rd hs quantity of a pure, white, all 
line salt equal to the best potash. 




93. 



f 



TU.adnat.deI.et pinxt. 



CiCHORIUM lNTYBUS,Linn. 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 93 

S. ORD.-LIGULIFLORA. 

GENUS.— CICHORIUM,* TOURX. 
SEX. SVST.-SYNGENESIA rOLYGA.MI.\ .EQU.VLIS. 



CICHORIUM. 

CHICCOR Y. 

SYN.— CICHORIUM INTYBUS, LINN.; CICHORIUM SYLVESTRE GIVE 
OFFIC. BAUH. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD OR BLUB SUCCORY OR CHICCORY, WILD EN- 
DIVE; (FR.) CHICOREE SAUVAGE; (GER.) CICHORIE, WEGEWART. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS, L. 

Description. — This partially naturalized, branching, perennial herb, grows to 
a height of from 2 to 4 feet. Roof deep, more or less fusiform, woody, branching, 
and surcharged with milky juice. Stem bristly, hairy ; branches rigid and stout ; 
leaves alternate, those from the root runcinate, the lower stem leaves oblong-lan- 
ceolate, dentate, and partly clasping, those on the branches varying from auricu- 
late-lanceolate to mere bracts, hiflorescence axillary and terminal heads ; hearts 
2 or 3 sessile, several-flowered, homogamous, or single and raised upon a hollow 
peduncle. Involucre double, the outer row composed of 5 short, spreading scales ; 
the inner of 8 or 10. Floivercts all ligulate and perfect; ligulcs 5-toothed, bright 
blue, becoming pinkish, then whitish, as the day advances. Slamens : filaments 
white, slender, and unconnected ; anthers deep blue. Stigmas 2, circinate, dark 
blue. Akenes turbinate, striate, angular, and glabrous ; p.ippiis composed of 
numerous short, chaffy scales, forming a sort of crown. 

History and Habitat. — This European emigrant grows cliiefly near the 
eastern coast, from whence it is spreading somewhat inland. It flowers through- 
out the months of July, August, and September. Its blossoms present a beau- 
tiful sight in early morning or on cloudy days, but fade and wither during bright 
sunshine. The principal previous use of this plant has been that of the root 
as an adulteration of, or substitute for, coffee. This use, it appears, originated 
with the Egyptians and Arabians, who also used the bleached leaves as a salad, 
the boiled or baked roots as pottage, and made a flour for bread from them when 
dried. Endive [Cichoriiwz Endkna), so much used in many countries as salad, 
was at one time thought to be merely a cultivated state of this species. The 
specific names Endivia and Intybus both appear to spring from the same Arabic 
word designating the herb, hcndibch. As regards the use of chiccory, Dickens says 
in his " Household Words : " " The great demand for chiccory has led to its very 
extensive cultivation in this country; considerable sums of money have been 

* The Latinized Arabian name Chickouryeh. 



93-2 

expended on the kilns and machinery required to prepare it for the markets, and a 
large amount of capital is profitably employed upon this branch of English agricul- 
ture. . . . The bleached leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for endive, and 
are commonly sold as an. early salad in the Netherlands. If the roots, after being 
taken up, be packed in sand in a dark cellar, with their crowns exposed, they will 
push out shoots, and provide through the winter a very delicate blanched salad, 
known in France as Barbe de Capucin. When chiccory is to be used for coffee 
the roots are partly dried, cut into thin slices, roasted and ground. The ground 
chiccory thus made is used by many poor upon the continent as a substitute for 
coffee by itself It has not, of course, the true coffee flavor, but it makes a rich and 
wholesome vegetable infusion of a dark color, with a bitterish, sweet taste, which 
would probably be preferred by a rude palate to the comparatively thin and weak, 
and at the same time not very palatable infusion of pure coffee of the second and 
third quality. By the combination of a little chiccory with coffee the flavor of the 
coffee is not destroyed, but there is added to the infusion a richness of flavor and a 
depth of color — a body — which renders it to many people much more welcome as a 
beverage than pure coffee purchased at the same price." In times of scarcity chic- 
cory certainly would make a better substitute than many other substances used, as, 
for instance, during- the war of the Rebellion, when — especially in the South — beans, 
peas, rye, sweet potatoes, corn, cotton seed, pea-nuts, etc., were utilized. 

The medical history of chiccory is of little value to us. A free use of the root 
and leaves produces, according to Lewis, a mild catharsis, rendering aid in jaundice 
and obstruction of the bowels. It has also been used as a diuretic and detergent 
in gravel, and a refrigerant in hectic fevers and agues.* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION._The fresh root, gathered while the 
plant is budding to blossom, is to be treated as in preceding drug. The resulting 
tincture has a clear orange color by transmitted light, an acid bitter taste, and acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The activity of the plant, without doubt, lies 
wholly in its milk-juice, which has not yet been investigated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have no record of toxical effects of Cicho- 
rium ; its disturbance of the system is very slight, and that appears to be wholly 
confined to a slight increase of glandular secretions. 

Description of Plate 93. 

1. Part of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y.,t Sept. loth, 1SS4. 

2. A portion of the main stem. 

3. Floweret. 

4. Akene. 

5. Stigma. 

6. Section of the root. 

7. Pollen grain, x 150. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 

* Rafinesque, Med. Bof., II, p. 206. f Where it has escaped to the streets in many localities. 




^la.adnat.del.etpinxt PrENANTHES SeRPENTARIA , Pupsh. 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 94 

Tribe.-CICHORIACE/E. 

(iKNUS.— PREN ANTH ES,- \ AIl.l,. 
SEX. SVST.-SVNdKNKSI A Kf HAIIS. 



NAB ALUS. 



RATTLESNAKE ROOT. 

SYN.— PRENANTHES SERPENTARIA, PURSH. ; P. ALBA, VAR. SERPEN- 
TARIA, TORR.; P. GLAUCA, RAF. ; NABALUS ALBUS, VAR. SERPENTA- 
RIUS, GRAY; NABALUS SBRPBNTARIUS, HOOK.; N. TRILOBATUS, 
CASS, AND D. 0. ; N. KRAZERI, D. C. ; N. GLAUCUS, RAF. ; HARPALYCE 
SERPENTARIA, DON.; ESOPON GLAUCUM, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.— RATTLESNAKE ROOT, WHITE LETTUCE, LION'S FOOT, 
GALL-OF-THE-EARTH, DEWITT SNAKEROOT, DROP FLOWER, CAN- 
CER WEED; iFR.) LAITUE BLANC, PIED D'LEON; iGER.i WEISSER 
LATTICH. 

A TIXCIURE OF I'HK WHOLE PLANT PRENANTHES SERPENTARL\, PURSH. 

Description. — This variable perennial herb, grows to a height ot from i to 3 
feet. Root very bitter, fusiform, thickened or more or less tuberous; stem stout, 
upright, glabrous or a little hirsute, sometimes purple-spotted or splashed. Leaves 
alternate, diversely variable, dilated, often decurrent upon the petiole, rather thin 
and pale beneath ; deeply sinuate-pinnitihed, or 3-parted, and the terminal lobe 
3-cleft ; the margin a little rough-ciliate ; the caullne nearly all long, slender, 
petioled ; the upper more or less lanceolate ; the lower and radical truncate, cor- 
date, or hastate at the base. Inflorescence corymbosely thyrsoid-paniculate ; heads 
drooping, mostly glomerate at the summit of ascending or spreading Horal-branch- 
lets or peduncles, 8 to i 2 flowered; involucre cylindrical, green, rarely purplish- 
tinged ; scales 5 to 14, in a single row, with a few small bracdets at their base; 
receptacle naked. Floivcrs all perfect, pendulous, purplish, greenish-white or 
ochroleucous ; corolla ligulate ; style long and slender; stigmas much exserted. 
Akenes linear-oblong or terete, truncated, and finely serrate ; pappns sordid, straw- 
color, or whitish.f composed of rough capillary bristles. 

History and Habitat. — This botanically difficult species, assumes, in its mode 
of growth and shape of leaf, all the forms from P. alba to P. altissima, including 
two varieties {nana and barbata) ; hardly two plants in any one district being 
found with constant characters except, mayhap, those of the glomerules and 
pappus. Thus, now, /^. serpentaria includes in itself what were once considered 

* Vlfi\v<\i, prenes, drooping; o-vBt, anthe, flower. 

t As a shade of color cannot be absolutely kept through sever.il thousand copies in lithography, some of the plates 
may not represent the pappus correctly. 



94-2 

to be 17 distinct species and varieties; and affords an interminable field of work 
for a botanist of Rafinesquian tendencies. The Rattlesnake Root is indigenous to 
North America, where it ranges from New Brunswick and Canada, to Florida, 
being especially abundant northward. It habits the sterile soil of open grounds 
and hilly wood-borders, and blossoms in August and September. 

As Gall-of-the-Earth, it has been known in domestic practice irom an early 
date, and is said to be an excellent antidote to the bite of the rattlesnake and other 
poisonous serpents, — one who searches through the domestic literature of medi- 
cinal plants, wonders why the bite of snakes ever has a chance to prove fatal. — 
As an alexlteric, the milky juice of the plant is recommended to be taken inter- 
nally, while the leaves, steeped in water, are to be frequently applied to the wound ; 
or a decoction of the root is taken. A decoction of the root has been found useful 
in dysentery, anemic diarrhoea, and as a stomachic tonic. 

Prenanthes is officinal in none of the pharmacopoeias. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole plant, gathered during the 
flowering season, is treated as directed under Lappa.* The resulting tincture has 
a beautiful deep-orange color by transmitted light ; an odor similar to that of the 
root; a bitter, astringent taste; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this species has been made 
to determine a specific principle. An analysis of the root of P. alba — too nearly 
allied to this species — by Neri. B. \\' illiams.f showed the presence of resins, tannin, 
extractive, gum, and waxy matters. 



Description of Plate 94. 

Inflorescence, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. 25th, icS86. 

2. A lower leaf. 

3. A portion of leaf-margin. 

4. Flower. 

5. Involucral scales. 
6 and 7. Floret. 

(3-7 enlarged.) 



* I'age 92-2. t Thesis, Am. Jour. Phar., 1886, 117. 



95. 







f 



Tn.a(lnat,iiel.etpinxt TARAXACUM DeNS - LeCNIS, Desf 



N. ORD. COMPOSITE. 95 

Tribe.-CICHORACE/E. 

GENUS.— TARAXACUM,* HALLER. 
SEX. SVST.— SYNGENESI.V l'ULVc;.\.\II.\ .Kc^UALIS. 



TARAXACUM. 



DAJVDELIOJY. 



SYN.-TARAXACUM DBNS-LBONIS, DESF. ; TARAXACUM OFFICINALIS, 
WEBER; TARAXACUM VULGARE, SCHR. ; LEONTODON t TARAXA- 
CUM, LINN.; LEONTODON DENS-LEONIS, LAM.; LEONTODON VUL- 
GARE, LAM.; LEONTODON OFFICINALIS, WITH.; DENS-LEONIS, 
RAIL; HEDYPNOIS TARAXACUM, SCOP. 

COM. NAMES.— DANDELION,: PUFF-BALL ;>^ (ENG.) PISSABED; (FR.) DENT 
DE LION, PISSENLIT COMMUNE; (GER.) LOWENZAHN, PFAFFEN- 
ROHRLBIN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF TAR.\X.\CUM DENS-LEONIS, DESF. 



Description. — This vernal, tufted, perennial herb, springs from a vertical tap- 
shaped root, furnished with numerous short, thickened rootlets. Leaves radical, 
varying from spatulate to lanceolate, pinnatifid, runcinate, or irregularly dentate. 
Inflorescence several many-flowered heads, each raised upon a scape that elongates 
during and after anthesis ; scape slender, naked, cylindrical, fistulous, 6 to i8 inches 
long in fruit. Involucre double, the outer portion composed of numerous short 
scales ; the inner of a single row of linear, erect scales. Receptacle naked. Akenes 
terete, oblong, ribbed ; ribs roughened by numerous, ascending tubercles ; apex 
abruptly conical or pyramidal, prolonged into a slender, filiform beak ; pappus 
borne upon the summit of the beak, and composed of copious, soft, white, capillary 
bristles. Read description of the order, under Eupatorium purpureum, 78. 

BUstory and Habitat. — The Dandelion is a native of Greece, or, at least, of 
Europe and Asia Minor, and has become by introduction a common herb in fields, 
pastures, lawns and open grounds everywhere in this country, where it blossoms 
in early spring and fruits in the summer. The growth of this plant furnishes an 
instance of a beautifully provisional Nature. During the expansion of the flower,, 
the outer scales of the involucre reflex, after anthesis the inner row contracts 
until it covers the forming pappus ; then while the fruit is maturing the beaks 
gradually extend by growth and raise the pappus, until finally the inner involucre 



* Topii(7ff<ii, tarasso, to disorder, in allusion to its action upon the system. 

f Atoi', iton, lion; (x'0115, odous, a tooth; from a supposed likeness of the leaf incisions to a lion's tooth. 

J Americanized from (Fr.) Dent de lion. 

\ On account of the separability of the akenes from the receptacle. The true pufr-l)all is Lycoperdon Bavisla. 



95-2 

in turn reflexes, disclosing the fruit as a beautiful, white, globular, feathery head, 
exposing upon its coronate receptacle the ripe seeds ready to be dissipated and 
wafted to new fields by the first summer zephyr that passes by. 

Tufts of this plant are eagerly gathered by the poor, in early spring, and 
cooked, furnishing thus an excellent and palatable pot-herb; they are also in many 
localities bleached like, and used in lieu of endive,* as a salad. The leaves are 
eaten raw or cooked by the Digger and Apache Indians, who value them so highly 
that they scour the country for many days' journeys in search of sufficient to appease 
their appetites. So great is their love for the plant, that the quantity consumed 
by a single individual exceeds belief.-]" In many parts of Europe, especially in 
Germany, the dried roots "are roasted and substituted for coffee by the poorer 
inhabitants, who find that an infusion prepared in this way can hardly be dis- 
tinguished from that of the coffee berry." J 

Tara.xacum has been used in medicine from ancient times ; it is one of those 
drugs, overrated, derogated, extirpated, and reinstated time and again by writers 
upon pharmacology, from Theophrastus' a<pdxyi and xiy^^opiov to the present day. 
It has been considered as a mild detergent, aperient, and diuretic ; Bergius recom- 
mends it in hepatic obstruction, hypochondriasis, and icterus ; and many authors 
give it repute in dropsy, pulmonic tuberculosis, various skin disorders, gastric 
derangements, biliary calculi, incipient visceral scirrhus, etc., etc. Children often 
play with the scapes at making chains, bracelets and " curls." The curls are formed 
as follows: A split is started in four directions at the smaller end of a scape, into 
which the tongue is deftly and gradually inserted, causing a slow separation 
into sections that curl backward, revolutely, being kept up to their form by the 
tongue, when the scape is curled to the end it is drawn several times through 
the operator's mouth and partially uncurled into graceful ringlets. In its manu- 
facture a child usually gets full benefit of the milky, bitter juice, and, if susceptible, 
verifies the common name of the plant as applied in England : . . . ^uasi lectiminga 
et urinana hcrba dici/ur — plus lotii derivai in vesicant qitdm pueruli retitiendo sunt, 
prcesei'tun inter dormicnduni, edque tunc imprudentes et inviti stragula permingunt.\ 
Taraxacum is officinal in the U. S. Ph., its preparations being: Extractum 

Taraxaci and Extractum Taraxaci Fluidum. The same preparations are offici- 
nal in Eclectic pharmacopoeias, also Decoctujn Taraxaci, and Pilules Taraxaci 

Co7npositcs.\\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered in March, 
July or November, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and pressed out in a piece 
of new linen. The expressed juice is then, by brisk agitation, mingled with an 
equal part by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days 
in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, should have a light 
orange color by transmitted light, a bitter, somewhat acrid taste, and an acid 
reaction. 

* Cichorium etuiiva. \ Murray, App. Med., p. lo;. 

t Dodge, U. S. Agric. Rep., 1870, p. 423. I Raii Hist. PL, p. 244. 

II Sanguinaria, Podophyllin, Taraxacum, and Mentha viridis. 



95-3 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Taraxacin. This body, when extracted from 
the roots or milky juice, forms in a bitter amorphous mass, sohible in alcohol, 
ether, and water. It was discovered by Polex in 1839, and named by Kromayer, 
who corroborated the discovery in 1861. 

Taraxacerin, C^ H,^ O. — (Kromayer, 1861). This crystalline principle is said 
to resemble lactucerin''^ It is soluble in alcohol, but not in water. 

Levulin, Cg H^^ O^. — (Dragendorf). This amylose principle has the same 
composition as inulin,-\ but differs in that it is soluble in water and devoid of 
rotary power. 

Inosite, Cg Hj2 O5 (H^ 0)2. — (Marme, 1864). This hydride of glucose was 
determined in the leaves and scapes, but not in the root. It forms transparent 
rhombic crystals, losing their water of crystallization when exposed to the air. It 
is soluble in water, the solution having a sweet taste. 

Leontodoniuin\ is simply, or in great part, the inspissated juice of the plant, 
and in a measure the principles en masse. Mannite, C,, Hg (O H)g, has been proven 
by Messrs. T. and H. Smith (1849) to be present only after a sort of fermentation 
had taken place in the juice. § This is probably the change that takes place to a 
greater or less extent, when the roots are undergoing the winter changes. 

Taraxacum also contains, according to many assayists,|| caoutchouc, resin, 
gum, mucilage, free acid, sugar, wax, and the usual plant constituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Although this plant has received the attention 
of scientists of all nations from remote times, still I know of no attempt having 
been made to determine its toxic action. 

The symptoms caused by repeated doses are, in general : mental excitement, 
vertigo and headache, blotchy white coated tongue, nausea and colic ; frequent 
urination; general sticking or stitching pains; sleepiness, chilliness and sweating. 
These symptoms point to a peculiar action upon the liver, causing inaction of that 
organ. Its action upon the skin in causing an exanthem seems to be dependent 
greatly upon the amount of gastric irritation. 

Description of Plate 95. 

I. Whole plant, Bergen, N. J., May 14th, 1879. 

2. Root. 

3. Ray floret (enlarged). 

4. Disk floret (enlarged). 

5. Fruit. 

6. Seed (enlarged). 

7. Section of root (enlarged). 

* See Lactuca, 96. 
t See Inula, 81. 
\ Kromayer, 1861. 

\ El supra, Fliick. & Han., Pharmacographia, in part. 

II Sprengel, Frickhinger, Squire, Polex, John, Overbrook, T. and II. Smith, Dragendorf, Kromayer, Marmi, and 
Widemann. 




J.Tll.Klnstdel.etpinxt 



Lactuca Canadensis, unn 



N. ORD -COMPOSIT/E. 96 

Tribe.-CIGHORIACE/E. 

GENUS. — LACTUCA,=i= TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— .SVNC.KXESIA .UOL'ALI.S. 



LACTUCA. 



LETTUCE. 

SYN.-LACTUCA CANADENSIS, LINN.; L. ELONGATA, MUHL. (TYPEi; L. 

ELONGATA, VAR. LONGIFOLIA. T. & G. ; L. CAROLINIANA, WALT. ; 

L. LONGIFOLIA. MICHX. ; GALATHBNIUM ELONGATUM, NUTT. ; SON- 

CHUS PALLIDUS, WILLD. 
COM. NAMES.— WILD LETTUCE, FIRE-WEED,t TRUMPET- WEED,:; (FR.) 

LAITUE DU CANADA; (GER.) CANADISCHE LATTICH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT, OF VARIOUS SPECIES, INCLUDING THIS. 

Description. — This glabrous, glaucesccnt biennial, grows to a height of from 
4 to 9 feet. Stem erect, very leafy to the top, and copiously supplied with milky 
juice. Leaves alternate, mostly sinuate, pinnatifid below, lanceolate and entire 
above, all partly clasping by a sagittate base, and pale beneath ; midrib naked, 
or rarely with a few sparse bristles ; margins entire or sparingly dentate, especially 
near the base ; tertninal lobe elongated. Lifloreseence in a terminal, narrow, elon- 
gated, leafless panicle; heads 12- to 20-flowered ; floi'.'ers pale yellow, all perfect: 
involucre a half-inch or less high, cylindraceous, irregularly calyculate, and slightly 
imbricated in two rows. Corolla ligulate in all the flowers of the head ; tube hairy ; 
ligules obscurely, it at all, notched at the apex. Receptacle naked. ^Ikenes blackish, 
broadly oval, flat, wingless, rather longer than the beak, obscurely scabrous-rugu- 
lose, and lightly i -nerved in the middle of each face; beak filiform, abrupt at the 
base, and expanded at the apex ; pappus of soft, silvery-white hairs, on the dilated 
apex of the beak. 

History and Habitat. — Wild Lettuce is indigenous to North America, where 
it extends from Nova Scotia and Canada to Saskatchewan, and southward to 
Upper Georgia. It habits rich moist grounds along the borders of fields, thickets, 
and roads, where it blossoms in July and August. 

This species has been used in early practice as an anodyne, diaphoretic, laxa- 
tive, and diuretic, in many diseases, principally, however, in hypochondria, satyria- 
sis, nymphomania, phthisis pulmonalis, ascites, anasarca, and nervous complaints in 
general. 

* I,.itin, lac, milk; on account of the milky juice. 

t Many plants have been given this name in diflerent localities, on account of their growing particularly on newly- 
burned fallows, Enechlhites hieracifolius, Senecio aureus, Nieraiiiim Canadftue, ,ind this. 
X This name also designates Eupatoriuin purptireum. 



96-2 

Lactucariiini, or Lettuce Opium, being of the same nature, no matter from 
what species it is obtained, consists of tlie inspissated milky juice of various spe- 
cies of Lactuca. The yield varies greatly with the species ; greatest in L. virosa, 
and diminishing as follows : L. scariola, L. altissima, L. Canadensis, L. saliva. Dr. 
Coxe, of Philadelphia, was the first to call the attention of the profession to this 
substance as a substitute for commercial opium;* his reasoning and experiments 
were based upon the product of L. saliva. Although Lettuce has been considered 
narcotic from ancient times, still it is but slightly soporific, and hardly deserves a 
tithe of the rejsutation writers have made for it. 

Lactucarium from L. virosa is still officinal in the U. S. Phar., but will, without 
doubt, be dropped at the next revision. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, just as the blos- 
soms open, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight ot alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a 
well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture formed thus, after straining and filtering, has a deep orange-red color by 
transmitted light; the odor of canned tomatoes; a slightly bitter and astringent 
taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Laclucarium, or Thridace, as noted above, 
represents in itself all the active principles of the plant, being a mixture of differ- 
ent organic and about ten per cent, inorganic bodies. It is not fully soluble in 
any vehicle, and merely softens on the application of heat. Subjected to analysis, 
it yields : 

Lactucerin.t Cjo^so^.t — This compound body composes nearly half the whole 
weight of Lactucarium. It forms in slender, colorless, microscopic, odorless and 
tasteless acicular crystals, insoluble in water, soluble in boiling alcohol and cold 
ether, and melting at 232° (449.6° F.). 

Lactucin, CjjHj.,0.j(H20). — This body, which proves not to be a glucoside, 
gives to Lactucarium its intensely bitter taste. It forms, when purified, white, bit- 
ter, pearly scales, insoluble in ether, soluble in alcohol and in hot water. 

Lactucic Acid. — This very acid body, isolated by Pfaf and Ludwig, results as 
an amorphous light yellow or brownish mass, only crystallizing after long standing. 

Lactucopicrin, Cj^H^.^O.^j. — This bitter amorphous substance seems to be 
formed by the oxidation of Laclucin. It is soluble in alcohol and water. 

Beside the above, Lactucarium also contains a yellowish-red tasteless resin ; 
a greenish-red acrid resin; caoutchouc; gum; oxalic, citric, malic, and succinic 
acids ; sugar ; mannite ; asparagin ; and a volatile oil. 

* Trans. Am. Phiiosoph. Socj'., 1799,387. 

t Lactucon. 

t Fluckiger, C„H5,0 : Fianchimoiit, Ci^H^eO. 



96-3 
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— l.artucarium, in large doses, causes: Delirium ; 
contusion of the brain, vertigo, and headache; dimness of vision; salivation; difficult 
deglutition ; nausea and vomiting, and retraction of the epigastric region, with a 
sensation of tightness ; distension of the abdomen, with flatulence; urging to stool 
followed by diarrhoea; increased secretion of urine; spasmodic cough, oppressed 
respiration, and tightness of the chest; reduction of the pulse ten to twelve or 
more beats; unsteady gait: great sleepiness; and chills and heat, followed by 
profuse perspiration. 



Description of Plate 96. 

I. Whole plant, eighteen times reduced, Binghamton, N. Y., July 26th, 1885. 

2. A portion of the panicle. 

3. An upper leaf. 

4. Outline of a lower leaf. 

5. Flower-head. 

6. A floret. 

7. Anther. 

8. Fruit. 

(6 and 7 enlarged.) 



97. 









^Hl.ad naf.dei.et pinxt 



Lobelia Cardinalis, Linn. 



N. ORD-LOBELIACE^. 97 

Tribe. -LOBEUE/E. 

GENUS.— LOBELIA,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MO.N'OGYNIA. 



LOBELIA CARDINALIS 

CARDIA'AL FLOWER. 



SYN.— LOBELIA CARDINALIS, LINN.; L. COCCINBA, STOKES; TRACHE- 

LIUM AMERICANUM, PARK. 
COM. NAMES.-CARDINAL FLOWER, SCARLET OR RED LOBELIA, HIGH- 

BBLIA; (FR.) LOBELIE CARDINALS; (GBR.) ROTHE KARDINALS 

BLUME. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT LOBELIA CARDINALIS, LINN. 

Description. — This showy perennial grows to a height of from 2 to 4 feet. 
Sicm minutely pubescent or glabrous, commonly simple. Leaves oblong-ovate, to 
oblong-lanceolate, tapering at both ends, sessile, and irregularly serrate or serru- 
late. LiJIorescence a dense, terminal, more or less one-sided virgate raceme ; 
flowers large and showy, intense red, or rose-color, sometimes pure white; pedicels 
erect or ascending ; bracts of the upper portion linear-lanceolate, of the lower, 
leafy. Calyx smooth ; ti(be short, hemispherical, much shorter than the lobes ; 
lobes linear-subulate. Corolla-\ gamopetalous, tubular; lube about i inch long,, 
straight; limb bilabiate; upper lip 2-parted to the base, the cleft extending down 
to the calyx, the lobes erect, linear-lanceolate ; loiver lip j-cleft, spreading plane or 
slightly recurved, the segments oblong-lanceolate. Stamens free from the tube of 
the corolla, monadelphous almost to the base, exserted through the cleft in the 
corolla tube, which they again enter between the two upper lobes ; filaments red ;. 
anthers syngenesious, curved, blue, the two larger ones naked at the tip, the other 
three ciliate. Capsule hemispherical, thin-walled, 2-celled, and loculicidally 2-valved 
at the summit. Seeds numerous, oblong, rugulose-tuberculate, similar to those of 
L. inflatn. 

Lobeliaceae. — This large family, closely related to Campanulacec€, is represented 
in North America, by 7 genera and 31 species, characterized in general as follows: 
Herbs (when not Tropical) with acrid, milky juice. Leaves alternate, simple ; 
stipules none. Liflorescence racemose ; flowers 5-merous, perfect. Calyx adnate 
to the ovary; limb divided down to the ovary, or entire; lobes persistent when 
present. Corolla regular and perigynous, inserted with the stamens just where 
the calyx leaves the ovary ; limb disposed to become bilabiate ; lobes 5, valvate in 

* Dedicated to M.ithias de L'Obel, a Flemish herbalist. Botanist to James I. 

f In describing this organ, I adopt the position it stands in while flowering. See Lobeliacea. 



97-2 

the bud, or in some cases induplicate, commonly deeper cleft or completely split 
down between two of the lobes (this cleft is generally upon the lower face of the 
corolla when the bud is young, but becomes superior, by a twisting of the pedicel, 
during its maturation). S/mnens 5, epigynous, as many as the lobes of the corolla 
and alternate with them, usually both monadelphous and syngenesious ; filaments 
generally free from the corolla, but not invariably so ; anthers 2-celled, introrsely 
dehiscent, firmly united around the top of the style. Ovary wholly inferior, or 
sometimes half free, 2-celled, with the placentae projecting from the axis (some- 
times r -celled with 2 parietal placentae) ; ovules anatropous ; style filiform, entire; 
stigma commonly 2-lobed, and girt with a ring of more or less rigid hairs, at first 
included, then exserted.* Fruit capsular and loculicidal, or baccate and indehiscent; 
seeds indefinitely numerous; embryo small or narrow, straight and axial; albumen 
copious, fleshy. 

Many species of this order are acrid, narcotic poisons, only a few being, so 
far, used in medicine, among which the West Indian Rebenta Cavallos {Hippobro- 
ma longifolia, Don.) is noted for its poisonous properties. If taken internally it 
speedily brings on hypercatharsis, while the juice, if touching the mucous mem- 
brane, quickly causes acute inflammation ; and Tupa Fenillaei, Don., is said to 
bring on nausea in one simply smelling of its flowers. The three species described 
in this work are, however, all that are much used. 

History and Habitat. — The Cardinal Flower is indigenous to North America, 
from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan, southward east of the Mississippi to 
Florida, and southwest to the borders of Texas. It rears its magnificent spike of 
gorgeous flowers along the muddy banks of streams, during the early autumn 
months. It was introduced into Great Britain from Virginia, on account of its 
beauty, in 1629. 

Shcepf mentions the use of the root of this species, by the Cherokee Indians, 
for syphilis ; and Dr. Barton speaks of their successful use of it as an anthelmin- 
tic By some early physicians it was considered fully equal to Spigelia Marilandica, 
in this direction. This species is, however, seldom used now, L. iiijlata taking its 
place entirely. It is considered, however, to possess marked anthelmintic, nervine, 
and antispasmodic properties. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, gathered when 
coming into blossom, is treated as in the next species. The resulting tincture has 
a clear yellowish-brown color by transmitted light ; a sweetish, herbaceous odor 
and taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No special examination of this plant having 
been made, we can do no better at present than to refer to the chemistry of L. 
ijiflata, page 99-3. 

* See pp. 98-98-2. 



97-3 



Description of Platk 97. 



I. I'dp of a flowering plant, Hinghamton, N. Y., Aug. lotli, iSS6. 

2. A middle leaf. 

3. Flower. 

4. Stamens. 

5. Section of the stamen-tvibe. 

6. Stigma. 

7. Open stigma. 

8. Fruit. 

9. Section of the ovary. 

(4-9 enlarged.) 







^ 



'.TU.ail natdel.etpinxt. 



Lobelia Syphilitica, unn 




98. 



N. ORD -LOBELIACE^. .98 

(;1;MS -LOBELIA, LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— PENT.\NDRI.\ MU.WJGV.MA. 

LOBELIA syphilitica; 

GREAT BLUE LOBELIA. 



SYN.— LOBELIA SYPHILITICA, LINN.; LOBELIA CCERULEA ? LOBELIA 
GLANDULOSA, L7NDL. ; LOBELIA RBFLEXA, STOKES. 

COM. NAMES.— GREAT LOBELIA, BLUE LOBELIA, BLUE CARDINAL 
FLOWER; (PR.) LOBELIE SYPHILITIQUB ; (GR.) GEMBINE LOBBLIB. 



A TLNCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH I'L.VNT, LOBELL\ SYPHILITICA, LINN. 

Description. — This erect, perennial herb attains a growth of from i to 3 feet, 
its conspicuous racemes being generally Irom one-third to one-ijuarter the length 
of the whole plant. Sfan simple, leafy to the base of the raceme, and somewhat 
hairy, especially upon its angles. Lcaixs sessile, ovate-lanceolate, irregularly 
denticulate-serrate, acute at the base, from 2 to 6 inches long, and about i inch 
wide ; thin, and more or 'less appressed hairy. Injioi-csccnce supra-axillar)-, com- 
posed of a long, at first leafy, then morphologically bracted, dense spike or 
raceme ; pedicels shorter than the bracts ; floivers light blue, nearly i inch long, 
extending beyond the leafy bracts. Calyx five-cleft, hirsute, shorter than the lube 
of the corolla, with reflexed, conspicuous, two-cleft auricles at the sinuses ; tube 
hemispherical, short ; lobes one-half the length of the corolla. Corolla with a 
straight, sub-cylindrical tube, more or less two-lipped, having a deep fissure at the 
superior margin ; 2ippcr lip of two erect, slightly diverging lobes ; lower lip spread- 
ing and three-lobed by incision. Fruit a globose pod, free above, but enclosed by 
the loose, persistent calyx ; two-celled, opening at the apex ; seeds many. For a 
description of the Natural Order, see Lobelia cardinalis, 97. 

History and Habitat. — The great blue lobelia habits the borders of marshy 
places and wet spots in pasture lands and meadows, pretty generally throughout 
the United States, to which it is indigenous ; flowering from July to September. 
In some localities it is called high belia, in unconscious pun upon its lowlier but 
more frequently-used companion, L. infiata, or low belia, as they term it. The 
lobelias furnish one of the best examples of the system of cros.s-fertilization in 
plants. The stamens, especially their anthers, grow into a tube, enclosing the 
stigma, and apparently making self-fertilization positive. A closer study, how- 
ever, reveals the following conclusive points : Tlie stigma is two-lobed, the recep- 



* Dr. Hale, in his " New Remedies," treats of this drug as Lobelia coerulea. Dr. Allen remarks that — as there are 
a number of blue lobelias, and beside this the true carulea grows at the Cape of Good Hope, and may yet be proven — 
syphilitica should always designate this drug. 



98-2 

tion surfaces in the earlier stages of growth and while enclosed in the anther 

tube are tio-htly pressed together and fringed with close, bristly hairs, all together 

resemblino- the mouth of a full-bearded man, with lips compressed. The tube of 
anthers opens by a pore at the tip and discharges the ripened pollen direcdy 
throuo-h this pore when it is irritated by the back of any insect that may creep 
into the throat of the c'orolla after nectar. As the pollen is discharged, the stigma, 
by elongation of the style, presses forward, keeping up the discharge by acting as 
a swab, until the cell is completely empty; then, as it projects beyond the pore, 
the compressed lips open and roll back, standing ready to collect the pollen from 
the back of some insect that has been on a visit to a neighboring plant. 

The former uses of this plant were the same as those of L. inBata, than which 
it is less active. The natives of North America are said to have held this plant 
a secret in the cure of syphilis, until it was purchased from them by Sir William 
Johnson, who took a quantity to Europe, and introduced it as a drug of great 
repute in that disease. European physicians, however, failed to cure with it, and 
finally cast it aside, though Linnseus, thinking it justified its Indian reputation^ 
crave the species its distinctive name, syphilitica. The cause of failure may be 
the fact that the aborigines did not trust to the plant alone, but always used 
it in combination with may-apple roots {Podophyllum pelfatitm), the bark of the 
wild cherry [Prumis Virginica), and dusted the ulcers with the powdered bark 
of New Jersey tea [Cenothus Arnericanus). Another chance of failure lay in the 
voladlity of its active principle, as the dried herb was used. It is not officinal in 
the U. S. Ph., nor in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant is chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol 
added. The whole, after thorough mixture, is poured into a well-stoppered botde 
and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then sepa- 
rated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a beautiful, clear, light- 
brown color by transmitted light, a slighdy bitter taste and tingling sensation 
upon the tongue, and a strong acid reacdon. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The chemical properties of this plant will 
probably be found to differ from those of L. inflata only in quantity. An analysis 
by M. Boissel resulted in the separation of fatty and butyraceous matters, muci- 
lage, sugar, earthy salts, and a volatile bitter principle. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — No data upon this is obtainable. We will do 
well, perhaps, to again consult L. intlata, which, in virulence of action, is the type 
of the genus in the Northern .States. 

. Description of Plate 98. 

1. Whole plant, once reduced; from Chemung, N. Y., September 9, 1879. 

2. Apex of receme. 

3. Flower (somewhat enlarged). 

4. Fruit. 

15 Pollen, with end view .x 380. 




99 



(r.in.jd natdel.etpinxi 



Lobelia Inflata, Linn. 



N. ORD.-LOBELIACE.^. 99 

Tribe.-LOBELIE^. 

GEMS —LOBELIA, LINX. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDKIA MONOGVNIA. 



LOBELIA INFLATA. 

IJVniAJV TOBACCO. 

SYN.— LOBELIA INFLATA, LINN.; RAPUNTIUM INPLATUM, MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD OR INDIAN TOBACCO, EYE-BRIGHT,* BLADDER 
POD,t EMETIC ROOT OR WEED, PUKE WEED, ASTHMA WEED; (FR.) 
LOBELIB BNFLBE ; (GBR.) LOBELIE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH HERB LOBELIA INFLATA, L. 

Description. — This well-known milky, acrid, biennial or annual herb, varies 
greatly in its growth, generally, however, its height is from 8 inches to 2 feet.J 
Root slender, yellowish-white ; ste?n erect, somewhat angled, lined or winged, 
leafy, paniculately branched, especially above, and divergently hirsute, principally 
below; leaves sessile, veiny, acute, and irregularly or obtusely toothed ; they vary 
from ovate or oblong below to foliaceous or even subulate bracts above, longer 
than the pedicels, hifiorescetice loose, terminal, spike-like racemes; flowers small, 
inconspicuous, irregular. Calyx persistent lo-veined, not auriculate nor append- 
aged in the sinuses ; lobes linear-subulate, nearly as long as the corolla, and spring- 
ing from a decided ring involving the throat of the tube. Corolla marcescent, 
about two lines long, pale blue externally, somewhat violet within ; lobes 5, the two 
upper lanceolate, erect, the three lower ovate, acute, and projecting. Slainens 5, 
epigynous, projecting with the style (which they enclose) through the complete 
slit in the upper median line of the corolla tube. Capsule 2-celled, oval, glabrous, 
much inflated, longitudinally lo-nerved and roughened between the nerves by 
transverse rugae, they greatly exceed their pedicels in length ; seeds numerous, 
oblong, rough, of a brilliant brown color and reticulated with honey-yellow inter- 
mixed lines ; placeiitcc central. A description of the genus is incorporated in that 
of Lobelia Cardinalis, 97. 

History and Habitat. — Indian Tobacco is common in dry open fields from 
Hudson's Bay westward to Saskatchewan and southward to Georgia and the 
Mississippi, where it flowers from July to October, Linnaeus first noticed this 

* The true eye-bright is Euphrasia officinalis, L. (Scrophulariacee). 
t The true bladder-pod is Vesicaria Shortii, T. &• G. (Cruci/erea). 

J I met many individuals this season (1885), scarcely 3 inches high, simple stemmed, and in full flower and fruit. 
I judge this depauperate form to be the var. simplex of Rafinesque. 



99-2 

species in the Transactions of the Upsal Academy in 1741.^ It was introduced 
into England in 1859, and noticed medically by Schoepf in 1787, his observations 
being mostly fonnded upon the use of the plant by the American aborigines as an 
emetic, and application for " sore eyes." It afterward became in frequent use by 
Botanic physicians, and in 18 13 was more or less prominently brought before 
the medical profession by the Rev. D. Cutler, as a valuable remedy in asthma. Its 
use was not carried into England until 1829. 

The name Indian Tobacco might have arisen either from the peculiar tobacco- 
like sensation imparted to the tongue and stomach on chewing the leaves, or from 
the fact that the American Indians often smoked the dried leaves to produce the 
effect of the drug. 

Lobelia has been recommended and used in the Botanic practice particularly, 
either alone or compounded with other drugs, for almost every disease known, and 
has proven curative in some cases, palliative in more, useless in many, and a deadly 
poison in more cases than one. Its action, as will be seen farther on, is, as in all 
narcotics, principally upon the brain, thus making it anything but a desirable 
emetic, as which it is most frequently used. From the power it exhibits to relax 
the whole system, it has been found very valuable in spasms, tetanus, croup, 
strangulated hernia, whooping cough, and even hydrophobia. Samuel Thomson 
claims to have discovered the virtues of the plant, though without doubt his first 
ideas of its emetic property were gathered from the Indians. He went so far as 
to claim it curative in all disorders, giving it with such a reckless hand that he 
fatally poisoned one of his patients, a certain Ezra Lovett, for which he was 
arrested on the charge of murder, escaping punishment because said Lovett 
was foolish enough to take the prescription of a man who claimed to carry such 
potent (?) drugs as ^' zvell-niy-gristle" and "ram-cats." 

Lobelia Inflata is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as: Acetutn Lobeiics ; Extractum 
Lobelice Fluidtivi ; and Tinchira Lobelice ; and in the Eclectic Materia Medica as 
above, and as : Cataplasma Lobelice et Ulmus ;^ Enema Lobelies Composita ;^ Ex- 
tractum Lobelice Ehiidum Compositum ;* Linimentum Stillingice Compositiim /' 
Lotio Lobelice Composita /"^ Oleum Lobelice ; Pilules Aloes Composite^ ■' Pulvis 
Lobelice Compositus ;* Tinctura Hydrastis Composites ;^ Tinctura Lobeiics Com- 
posita ,-^" Tincttira Lobeiics et Capsici ;^^ Tinctura SangtiinaricB Acetata Composita ;'- 
Tinctura Sanguinarice Composita, and Tinctura Viburni Composita}^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole plant gathered in Septem- 
ber, or when the last flowers are developing and the lower capsules are ripe, 

' Trims. Upsal, 1741, t. I, p. 43. ^ Lobelia, Elm, and Lye. 

3 Tinctura Lobelia et Capsici gss, water gss. * Lobelia, Skunk-cabb.ige, and Sanguinaria. 

^ Oils of Stillingia, Cajepul, and Lobelia. * Bayberry bark. Lobelia leaves and seeds, and Yellow Dockroot. 

' Eoneset, Mandrake, Ginseng, Aloes, Soap, Gamboge, and Capsicum and Lobelia seeds. 
8 Lobelia, Blood-root, Skunk-cabbage, Ipecac, and Capsicum. 
' Hydra.stis and Lobelia. 

'0 Lobelia, Wild Ginger (Asarum Canadense ?), Blood-root, Skunk-cabbage, and Pleurisy-root. 
" Lobelia, Capsicum, and Skunk-cabbage root. 
12 Blood-root, Lobelia, Skunk-cabbage root, and Vinegar. 

High Cranberry bark, Loljelia seed. Blood-root, Skunk-cabbage seed, Capsicum, and Stramonium seed. 



99-3 

should be treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tincture shguld be 
of a clear reddish-orange color by transmitted light, and have a very acrid pene- 
trating tobacco-like taste, a peculiar characteristic odor, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— i><Jt-//;m.' This alkaloidal body was discov- 
ered by Calhoun,'- though Procter was first to isolate it.^ Bastic,* working with- 
out a previous knowledge of its discovery, also isolated the principle. Lobelina 
exists after separation, especially when carefully sealed, as an oily, yellowish fluid 
having a decided alkaline reaction, this is especially noticeable in its watery solution. 
Its taste is acro-pungent, very like that of nicotia. It exhibits, even in very small 
doses, the poisonous action of the herb. It is somewhat volatile, decomposing 
and losing its acridity at a temperature above ioo° (212° F.) either alone or in 
the presence of dilute acids or caustic alkalies. It is soluble in water, alcohol, 
and ether. Lobelina neutralizes acids, and except with acetic, forms crystallizable 
salts, more soluble in water than the alkaloid itself. 

Lobelacrin. — This glucoside (?) was discovered by Pereira '' and corroborated 
by Enders." Lewes (187S), who made a thorough analysis of this drug, suggests 
that this body may be Lobeliate of Lobelina, a salt of lobelina formed by the free 
acid in the plant itself. Lobelacrin, according to Enders, exists as acrid, brownish, 
verrucose tufts, decomposing rapidly in water at 100° (212° P.), and resolving 
under the action of acids or alkalies into sugar and 

Lobelic Acid. — This acid is crystallizable, non-volatile, soluble in water, alco- 
hol, and ether, and yields an Insoluble plumbic and soluble baric salt. 

Lobelianin. — This body, so named by Its discoverer, Pereira, Is now considered 
to be the volatile oil, Lobeiiin, a compound body isolated by Reinsch, and now 
considered Indefinite. 

Oil of Lobelia. — This oil may be' extracted from the seeds, which, when 
bruised between heated rollers, generally yield about 30 per cent. According 
to Procter its specific gravity is 0.940, and its drying quality and consistence quite 
similar to that of linseed oil. Dr. John King states'' that the oil possesses all the 
medicinal qualities of the seed. 

Beside the foregoing, caoutchouc,*"^" extractive,*"" resin,"'"" and fat," have 
been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Thanks to much reckless prescribing by many 
so-called Botanic physicians, and to murderous intent; as well as to experimentation 
and careful provings, the action of this drug is pretty thoroughly known. Lobelia 



' Lohelin, Loheline. ' Jottrn. Phil. Coll. Pharm., 300. 

' Am. Jour. Phar., 1838, p. 98; and farther ibid., 1S71, p. I ; and 1851, p. 456. 

* 1850. Ibid., 1851, p. 270. 5 Mill. Med., Vol. 2, part 2, p. 12. 

• 1871, in an analysis made for the authors of the Pharmacographia, 1. c, p. 400. 

' Am. Disp., 1880, p. 492. 8 Bigelow, Am. Med. Bot., 1817, Vol. i, p. 179. 

" Reinsch. "> Pereira, /. c. " Procter, /. e. 



99-4 

in large doses is a decided narcotic poison, producing effects on animals generally, 
bearincr creat similitude to somewhat smaller doses of tobacco; and lobeli7ia in 
like manner to nicoiia. Its principal sphere of action seems to be upon the 
pneumogastric nerve, and it is to the organs supplied by this nerve that its toxic 
symptoms are mainly due, and its " physiological " cures of pertussis, spasmodic 
asthma, croup and gastralgia gained. Its second action in importance is that of 
causing general muscular relaxation, and under this it records its cures of stran- 
gulated hernia (by enemata), tetanic spasms, convulsions, hysteria, and, mayhap, 
hydrophobia. Its third action is upon mucous surfaces and secretory glands, 
increasing their secretions. 

The prominent symptoms of its action are : great dejection, exhaustion, and 
mental depression, even to insensibility and loss of consciousness ; nausea and 
vertigo ; contraction of the pupil ; profuse clammy salivation ; dryness and prick- 
ling in the throat ; pressure in the oesophagus with a sensation of vermicular 
motion, most strongly, however, in the larynx and epigastrium ; sensation as of a 
lump in the throat ; incessant and violent nausea, with pain, heat, and oppression 
of the respiratory tract ; vomiting, followed by great prostratiort ; violent and 
painful cardiac constriction ; griping and drawing abdominal pains ; increased 
urine, easily decomposing and depositing much uric acid ; violent racking parox- 
ysmal cough with ropy expectoration ; small, irregular, slow pulse ; general weak- 
ness and oppression, more marked in the thorax ; violent spasmodic pains, with 
paralytic feeling, especially in the left arm ; weariness of the limbs, with cramps in 
the gastrocnemii ; and sensation of chill and fever. Death is usually preceded 
by insensibility and convulsions. 

Post-mortein. — The stomach is found congested and filled with fluid, and the 
brain engorged with blood. 

Description of Plate 99. 

1. Whole plant, Chemung, N. Y., September 9th, 1879. 

2. Flower. 

3. Fruit. 

4. Seed natural size and magnified 100 diam. 

(2-3 enlarged.) 



100 





.TU.adnatdel.etiiinxt 



ArCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI,Spreng. 



N. ORD.-ERICACE^. 100 

Tribe- ERICINt/E. 

GENUS— ARC TO STAPH Y LOS,* A DANS. 
SEX. .SVST.— LiECANDKI.V MOXOC;VM.\. 



UVA-URSI. 



BEARBEliRY 



SYN.— ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI, SPRENG. ; A. OFFICINALIS, WILLD. ; 

ARBUTUS UVA-URSI, LINN.; DAPHNIDOSTAPHYLIS FENDLERIANA, 

KLOT. 
COM. NAMES. — BEARBBRRY, MOUNTAIN BOX, RED BERRY, UPLAND 

CRANBERRY, BEAR'S GRAPE, RED-BERRIED TRAILING ARBUTUS, 

"WHORTLEBERRY, T HETH, UNIVERSE; (FR.) BUSSEROLLE, RAISIN 

D'OURS; (GER. I BARENTRAUBE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE LEAVES OF ARC TOSTAPHVLOS UVA-URSI. 

Description. — This peculiar boreal shrub i.s seldom erect except that it throws 
its young shoots upward for from 3 to 8 inches. Stems numerous, depressed or 
trailing; branches various, the sterile from 2 to 3 feet long and compactly leafy, 
the fertile shorter ; bark mahogany color, scaling off in irregular patches ; roots 
thick, ligneous, and creeping. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, thick, shining, and 
evergreen, turning mahogany color when aged, those of the erect branchlets more 
or less vertical, all oblong spatulate, entire, retuse, and tapering to a short-petioled 
base. Inflorescence in few-flowered, terminal clusters or racemes ; bracts and bract- 
eoles persistent, finally becoming rigid; floioers pale, rose-colored, drooping. Calyx 
reddish, persistent, free from the ovary; lobes 5, roundish. Corolla urceolate, pellu- 
cid at the base, deciduous; tiibe inflated, hairy inside, hypogynous ; lobes 5, short 
acute, recurved. Stamens 10, included; antJicrs large, upright, introrse, the cells 
opening by terminal pores and appendaged upon the dorsal surface by 2 reflexed 
awns. Ovary 4 to 10 celled; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit a glabrous, de- 
pressed-globose berry or drupe, about the size of a pea ; pulp mealy and insipid ; 
nutlets 5, when the fruit is baccate, or united firmly into a 5-several celled stone 
when drupaceous; whether distinct or coherent, the nutlets are bony and i -nerved 
upon the dorsal surface. 

Ericaceae. — This chiefly boreal family is represented in North America by 34 
genera, 135 species, and 32 recognized varieties, thus producing half the erica- 
ceous genera of the globe, but only one-eighth of the total number of species. 
The order is characterized as follows: The growth comprises trees, shrubs, and 



» 'Aprro,-, arktos, a bear; <rraiji.Xii, staphyle, a grape or berry. 

t Generally applied to species of Vacdiiiiim, especially V. I'itis Idira, Linn. 



100-2 

some perennial herbs, all having alternate, simple, and undivided leaves, and no 
stipules. Flo-a'ers symmetrical, 4- to 5-merous, perfect ; cniyx imbricated or valvate 
in the bud. Corolla gamopetalous, or not rarely 4- to 5-petalous, regular or irregu- 
lar, hypooynous e.xcept in I 'accinccc, imbricated or convolute in the bud. Stamens 
free from the corolla or nearly so, as many or twice as many as its lobes ; filaments 
distinct ; anthers introrse or becoming introrsely inverted, 2-celled, usually opening 
by pores or chinks, and generally awned or somehow appendaged ; pollen usually 
composed of 4 united grains. Ovary \- to lo-celled; placentce a.xial, except in 
Monotropece ; ovules solitary or numerous, anatropous ; style single; stigma entire 
or merely lobed, except in Clethra, where it is 3-cleft. Fi-ti.it capsular, baccate, or 
drupaceous; embryo small or minute; albumen fleshy; cotyledons small or unde- 
veloped. 

Our only proven species of this order, except the six represented in this 
work, are : The European, Asiatic, and British-American Labrador Tea iyLcdnm 
Paliistre, Linn.); and the Russian intoxicant and anti-rheumatic Yellow Rosebay 
{RJiododendron chrysanthemum, Linn.). 

Other medicinal species are : The American Rosebay {Rhododendron maxi- 
mum, Willd.), an astringent, and by some accounted narcotic and poisonous; the 
Swiss R.ferrugineum, Linn., an antiarthridc ; and the Persian R. ponticnm, Linn., 
supposed to be one of the plants whose nectar renders the honey of Trebisond 
poisonous — an influence also said to be contributed to by Azalea pontica, Linn., 
of this order. The North American Alpine Azalea {Loiseleuria procumbens, Desv.) 
is, like all of the order, astringent; and Marsh Tea {Ledum lalifolium, Ait.), used 
in dysentery, diarrhoea, tertian ague, and in some places to render beer heady, 
thoup-h it is said to bring on delirium. The fruit of the Strawberry Tree of the 
Levant [Arbutus Unedo, Linn.), when made into wine, is said to be narcotic — a 
property also ascribed to the wine of Whortleberries [J'accinium ulignosum, Linn.), 
which is very intoxicating. The leaves of the European and North American An- 
dromeda polifolia, Linn., are an acrid and dangerous narcotic, and are said to 
kill sheep if browsed upon. 

Many species of the order furnish our tables with fine refreshing berries, viz.: 
The Blue Berry {Gaylussacia frondosa,T. & G.); the Huckleberry {G. resinosa, 
T. & G.); the Blue Huckleberries {Vaccinium Fennsylvanicum, Lam., vacillans, 
Solander, and corymbosum,\^\'c^n.): and the Cranberries {I'acciniujn macrocarpon,- 
Ait, and V. Oxycoccus, Linn.); the latter are also refrigerant, and a fine palliative 
dressing for acute erysipelas. 

Among the Western Aborigines the Manzanita, the fruit of Arctostaphylos 
tomcutosa, Dougl., is extensively eaten in a fresh or dried state. When dried it 
is husky but sweet, and is often ground and made into sun-baked bread, or, mixed 
with corn-meal and cactus syrup, fermented and drank ; the cranberry and blue 
huckleberry are also prized ; while the smoke-dried fruits of 1 'accinium myrtillus, 
and V. stamineum, Linn., are largely stored for winter food. 

History and Habitat. — The Bearberry is indigenous to North America, where 
it extends from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Northern California, 



iOO-3 

northward to the Arctic Circle. In Kurope it extends northwartl from North- 
western Ireland, Yorkshire, and Central Russia ; in Asia also northward from 
Lower Siberia and Kamtschatka, its northerly range includes Iceland and Green- 
lantl. Its choice of growth is barren, but healthy ground, among rocks, where it 
flowers in May. 

The principal substitutive leaves for the Uva-Ursi of commerce are those of 
I'acciiiitcm J'itis Idcea, Linn., of which Mr. J. H. Sears says r'' "This is the plant 
that the Shakers gather instead of the Uva-Ursi ; they go 40 or 50 miles for it 
when lU'a-Ursi is abundant in their own ground. Uva-Ursi is common at Groton, 
Mass.; still the Shakers of that vicinity go to Danvers, where there is a small patch 
of \'itis Idcea, which they gather instead." Comparing the leaves of specimens 
sent by Mr. Sears, I find the following distinction : 

U\a-Uksi. \'ii:s Id.ka. 

Bearberry. Cowberry. 

Zf/rti/^", oblanccolate to ol)long, never spatiilatcly BlaJe. narrowly oblanceolate, seldom, if ever, 

narrowed, as in Vitis Ida;a; reticulately broad- tending toward oblong; very distinctly black- 
veined beneath, not dotted. dotted and narrow-veined beneath. 

The character of the leaves being toward the 
apex crenate and distinctly revolute,t is not at 
all constant, nor is it distinctive. 

Uva Ursi is an ancient astringent, though used but little until the 13th century 
by the "physicians ot Myddfai." Clusius described the plant, in 1601, as the 
"ApxTor ffra^iv./: of Galen, useful as an hemostatic; it was not much used, how- 
ever, until about the middle of the eighteenth century, when it began to prove, in 
the hands of De Haen and Gerhard, an excellent remedy in nephritic disorders. 
It was admitted to the London Pharmacopoeia in 1 763. From this time it came into 
more or less general use as an astringent tonic and diuretic in various diseases, 
particularly, however, in dysuria, chronic vesical catarrh, cystitis with or without 
ulceration, calculous disorders, and kindred affections, as well as in irritations of 
the genital tracts, such as gleet, gonorrhcea, leucorrhoea, blenorrh(xa, etc. In all 
these disorders, however, it proved itself simply palliative in most cases, and many 
times fell into disuse. Dr. Bourin, of Oxford, recommended it highly in phthisis, 
but it only abated the hectic fever from reduction of the heart's action. In late 
years it has been called attention to as a uterine excitant, very useful in prolonged 
parturition from atony; it is claimed that it is fully as sure as Secale, while the 
contractions resulting are more prolonged, while less painiul, and dangerous to the 
child. The general close in nephritic complaints has been: of the pow^dered leaves, 
3ij to oj, and of the decoction, cock. mag. ij to iv, quater in die ; and in parturition, 
grs. XV, in infusion, a cupful every hour, one, or at most two doses, being fully 
sufficient. 

The American Aborigines smoke the dried leaves with tobacco, making a 
mixture called Sagack-hovti in Canada, and Kinikiiiik among the Western tribes; 
this is the Larb of the Western hunters. 

* In .1 letter from IVahocly .Vcademy of Science to tlic nvuliiT. 
t Ucntley and Trimcn, Med. PI., 163. 



iOO-4 

The leaves of Uva-Ursi are officinal in the U. S. Ph., as well as Extractuvi 
Uva-Ursi Fliudiiin : in Eclectic practice the preparation is Decoctinn Uva-Ursi. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh leaves, particularly those of 
the sterile branches, gathered in September or October, are to be chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then take two-thirds' part by weight of 
dilute alcohol, add to it the pulp with constant agitation, and strain the whole 
through a piece of new linen. The grainy menstruum thus obtained should be 
allowed to stand eight days, in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place, 
before filtering. 

The tincture obtained by filtration should be opaque, and have, in thin layers, 
a deep blackish-brown color by transmitted light ; its odor should be heavily herb- 
aceous and slightly terebinthic ; its taste extremely astringent and slightly bitter; 
and its reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — According to many observers, especially 
Prof. Murray and Dr. J. S. Mitchell, water is the best menstruum with which to 
extract the principles of this plant. The large amount of tannin contained in the 
leaves causes them to be extensively gathered in Iceland, .Sweden, and Russia for 
tanning fine grades of leather. 

\_Ai'bntose''' — Treat the mixture of several successive decoctions of the 
coarsely-powdered leaves of Uva-Ursi with subacetate of lead, thereby precipi- 
tating the tannin and extractive matters. Decolorize the liquid with sulphydric 
acid, and evaporate quickly. This process decomposes a certain quantity of arbu- 
tin and a sticky crystalline mass is produced (Arbutose), containing 55 per cent. 
nrbitljn, 35 per cent, glucose, and 10 per cent, water. After drying this body in 
air as far as possible, and treating it with charcoal, followed by successive quan- 
tities of alcohol and distilled water, crystallized arbutin may be obtained.] 

Arbutin,f C„.H,^Oj^.J — This glucoside, in an impure state, was first deter- 
mined by Hughes, § and called by him Ursin ; Kawalier, however, in 1853, isolated 
the body in a pure state, and gave it the name it now bears. Arbutin crystallizes 
in handsome, white, shining, radiate forms, odorless, bitter, and neutral ; they lose 
water at 100° (212° F.), fuse at 160° (338° F.), are soluble in water, slighdy sol- 
uble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. By heating the crystals with peroxide of 
manganese they are resolved as follows : 

.•\rbuUn. Kinonc. Foiiiiic Aciil. Water. 

Q-H^^P,., = 4QHp, + CH.O, + 4H,0. 

Kinoue\\ C|.H^O,. — This very volatile body readily sublimes in brilliant golden- 
yellow acicular crystals, possessing a suffocating smell. They are slightly soluble 
in cold, freely soluble in hot, water, in alcohol, and in ether. 



* Lewiii, I'hiirm. Jour., 3, xiv, 490. jl j. C. C. Hughes, in Am. Jour. P/iar., 1S47, 90. 

t Kawaher, CjjH^O,,. StrecUer, C,jU,„0.. || Qiiiiioiie. 

\ Hlasiwetz and Habermann. 



100-5 

Arbutin, during its passage through the body, undergoes the following change,* 
which is also brought about outside the body by the action of emulsin, or by boil- 
ing with dilute sulphuric acid : 

Arbutin. Water. Glucose. IlydroUinone. Metliyl-livdrukiuone. 

Q-H^A, - 2H.,0 = C,,H,p,, f C„'h,(OH), -(- QH,(OH.OCHJ. 

//y(/ro/cifione,f C^H^O.,. — This dioxybenzene forms in colorless rhombic prisms, 
melting at 169°-! 72° (336.2°-34i.6° F.), and subliming, partly decomposed, at 
higher temperatures. 

In the mother-liquor, after the crystallization of Arbutin, the following sub- 
stances are found : 

Ericolin, C.^H-gCj. — This amorphous, very bitter glucoside results as a yellow- 
ish-brown mass, softening at 100° (212° F.), and resolving, under the action of 
dilute sulphuric acid, as follows : 

Ericolin. Water. Glucose. Ericinol. 

C.3,H,A, + 4H,0 = 4CoH„0,3 + Q„H„,p. 

Ericinol, CjuH^gO, is a yellowish, or nearly colorless resinifying oil, having a 
peculiar odor.J It also exists free in the volatile oils of many Ericaceae ; that from 
Ledum having a blue-green color, a disagreeable odor, a burning and bitter taste, 
and boils at 240^-250° (464°-482° F.). On boiling it with hydrated lime it yields 
a hydrocarbon of the composition C.,yHj,,.§ 

Urson, C.,„H.,,,0.,.|| — This colorless, tasteless, crystalline body melts at 198°- 
200° (388.4°-392° F.), sublimes at higher temperatures without visible change, is 
insoluble in water, and slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.§ 

Gallic, or Trioxybcnzoic, Acid, C_H.,0^(OH).,, — This acid occurs in a free state 
in this and many other plants, and, in combination with tannic acid, in numberless 
others; it dissolves in 100 parts of cold water, from which it crystallizes in fine, 
silky needles, slightly acid and astringent. Gallic acid gives a deep blue color 
with ferric salts, melts at 200° (392° F.), and resolves at 210° (410° F.), as follows : 

Gillir Aci.l Carbonic Pyrogallic 

Gallic AciU. Dioxide. Acid. 

C.Hp.,(OH), = CO, + QH,/>, 

Tannin. — This glucoside is generally considered to have the composition 
Cj^HjA, which proves it an anhydride of gallic acid, and its true name Digallic 
Acid.^ The difficulty of obtaining tannin pure renders its composition, however, 
somewhat doubtful ; when as pure as possible it results as a porous, greenish- 
yellow, friable mass, freely soluble in water, less so in alcohol, and insoluble in 
ether. The tannic acids, so called, are a group of bodies widely diffused through 
the vegetable kingdom, the species containing them usually lending a portion of 

* M. von Mering, Arch.f. d.gesam. Physiol. 1877, 276. \ Wittsteiii. || Trommsdorf. 

t Arctuvin, Quinhydrone, Hydroquinone, Hydrochinone. Gallic Acid. Water. Tannin. 

X Gmelin, Chem., xvi, 28. 1 (CjH.OJ, — H._,0 = C„H,„Oj. 



100-6 

their name to specify the body as found in them — (Gi^cc- tannic Acid, Oiiino- 
tannic Acid, Catec/in-tdLnmc Acid, AvV/i^-tannic Acid, etc.). With gelatine, these 
tannins form an insoluble compound ; and with ferric chloride they yield bluish- 
black or green precipitates. They combine readily with animal skin, giving it the 
property of resisting putrefaction, which forms part of the process called tanning. 

Resin, gum, pyrocatechin,''' extractive matters, and the usual plant constituents, 
are also found.-j- 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — .Should we prescribe on the palliative principle, 
and at the same time believe in disinfection by killing germs, I could hardly 
point to a drug more adapted to diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra 
than arbutin, which is changed in the renal tract to hydrokinone, a sort of phenol, 
which is in itself a germicide, the arbutin being more or less innocuous and at the 
same time a diuretic ; it has, however, caused an eruption of the skin. J 

Uva-Ursi itself causes vomiting and purging, involuntary passage, bloody and 
green urine, and reduces the heart's action ; further than this little is known of its 
direct effects. 



Description of Plate ioo. 

1. End of a flowering branch. 

2. Fruiting branch, Salem, Mass., Nov. 22, 1886. 

3. Leaf, under surface. 

4. Flower. 

5. Longij'i.linal section of flower. 

6. Pistil. 

7. Stamen, front and side view. 

8. Drupe. 

9. Pyrenas consolidated into a stone. 
10. Transverse section of a pyrena. 

12. Longitudinal section of a seed. 

13. Horizontal section of a seed. 

14. Section of ovary. 

15. Se^-iarate p}rena. 

(4-15 enlarged.) 

* See page 40-2. 

f Further bibliography in this departmeiU: G:'ays Elei.ients ; Gmelin, Chein., xv, 419, xvi, 2S; Phar. your., 3, 
V, 401 ; Am. Jour. Pkar., xxvii, 334; 1S73, 197; 1886, 385; 1885, I .q ; Chem. Gaz., 1S53, 61 ; Wiltstein, Org. Cottslit. 
Plants ; .Scliorlemmev, Chem. Carb. Comp. 

% Lcwin, ibid. 



101. 




Gm.ad 



nat.iiel.et pinxt 



EPIGAA REPENS,Linn. 



N. ORD-ERICACE/E. 101 

Tnbe.-ANDROMEDE£. 

(lEXUS.— EPIG/E A,* LINN. 

SEX. SVST.— DECANURI.A. MtUNC" .\ NI.V. 



EPIGtEA. 



TRAIL IMG ARBUTUS. 



SYN.— EPIG^A REPENS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— TRAILING ARBUTUS, MAY FLOWER, GRAVEL PLANT, 
GRAVEL WEED, GROUND LAUREL, MOUNTAIN PINK, WINTER 
PINK. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH PL.\NT EPIG.^A REPENS, LINN. 

Description. — This fragrant spring flower, blossoming amid the verdure of 
its previous year's growth is prostrate or trailing''' from a mass of perennial 
red-brown, fibrous 7^oots thickly beset with a tangle of rootlets ; the stem is 
rounded and conspicuously hairy, the bark and hairs having a rusty color. 
Leaves alternate, evergreen, reticulate, ovate-cordate and entire, from i to 2 inches 
long, and relatively one-half as wide, the edges and under surface rusty hairy. 
Inflorescence apical or axillary; \.\\q floToers spring from dry, scaly bracts, and have 
a delicate pink, a deep rose-color, or are in some cases white, and emit a fragrant, 
spicy aroma. Sepals 5, dr)-, nearly separate, ovate-lanceolate, acute. Coj-olla 
monopetalous, salver-form, with 5 ovate, spreading lobes, the tube hairy inside. 
Stamens 10, shorter than the corolla; filaments hairy at the base; anthers linear, 
opening longitudinally ; pollen of compound grains as in the preceding, but 
smaller. Ovary globular, depressed, 5-celled, many-seeded ; style slender, form- 
ing a zone about the minutely 5-lobed stigma. Capsule 5-lobed, 5-celled, 
5-angled, many-seeded, inclosed in the persistent caly.x ; placentce large, 2-celled ; 
seeds ovate. 

History and Habitat. — Upon rich, damp, mossy banks throughout the central 
part of North America east of the Mississippi, under the shade and protection of 
low pines and hemlocks, in the early sunny days of spring, sometimes even peep- 
ing from under a snow-bank, appear the sweet-scented flowers of this much- 
sought-after little plant ; so closely do the prostrate spreading stems cling to and 
mingle with the mosses, to which they in their rusty hairiness bear great simili- 
tude, that one of its common names in some localities is Moss Beaicty. Epigsea 
flowers until ^^ay, and ripens its fruit in July. 

It is stated that in lithic acid gravel, and some forms of nephritis, cystitis and 
vesical catarrh, its use has often been of greater benefit than uva-ursi or buchu. 

* f ri, upon, yi'i, the earth. 



101-2 

Epigsea has no place in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia Medica its officinal 
preparations are Extracium Epigecc Fluiduni, and Infiisiun Epigecr : it is also 
the principal component of Iiifusiim Epigecr Covipositiini, together with Eupatorium 
purpureum, Aralia hispida, and Radix althaea officinalis, this being one of their 
much used diuretics. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh leaves, or the whole plant 
gathered when budding to blossom, being chopped and pounded to a pulp and 
weighed, two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After thorough succussion the 
whole is poured into a well-stoppered bottle and allowed to stand for eight days 
in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then decanted, strained and filtered. 

Thus prepared it is opaque, showing in thin layers a deep brown color ; it 
has a pleasant woody taste, is slightly astringent, and of a decided acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The three glucosides, 7irson, cricolin, and 
arbutin {vide Uva-ursi, loo). Formic acid and a body having properties similar 
to gallic acid have been determined in this plant. 

Tannic Acid. — The amount of this body existing in epigsea is given by 
Bowman as 3.5 per cent. 

Ericinol. — C,n H.^^O, a pale-yellow, aromatic oil, is also present. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Epigjea, so far as is determined at present, 
shows no important symptoms of physiological disturbance of the system. The 
provings are scanty ; the only one so far published was made upon myself and 
may be found in the "Horn. Physician," Oct., 1881, vol. i, No. 10, pp. 486-9. 

Description of Plate ioi. 

I. Flowering branch, from Waverly, N. Y. , Ajiril 3, 1880. 

2. Flower showing calyx (enlarged). 

3. Section of flower (enlarged). 

4. Stamen (enlarged). 

5. Pollen grains x 380. 



102. 



J0/ 




(x lU.adnat.iJeletpinxt. 



GaULTHERIA PrOCUMBENS, Linn. 



N. ORD-ERICACE/E. 102 

Tribe.-ANDROMEDE/E. 

GENUS.— G A U LT H E R I A ,' LINN. 
.^EX. SV.ST— DECANDRIA MONOGYNl.\. 

GAULTHERIA. 

WIJ^TERGREEJ^. 



SYN. — GAULTHERIA PROCUMBENS, LINN.; GAULTHERIA HUMILIS, 
SALISB.; GAULTIERA REPENS, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.— CREEPING WINTERGREEN, CHECKER BERRY, PAR- 
TRIDGE BERRY, BOX BERRY, SPICE BERRY, TEA BERRY, MOUN- 
TAIN TEA,t JERSEY TEA. GROUND HOLLY, AROMATIC WINTER- 
GREEN, GROUSE BERRY, DEW BERRY, RED BERRY. HILL BERRY, 
(FR.) THE du CANADA; (GER.) BERGTHEE. 



\ TINCTURE OF THE FRESH LEAVES OF GAULTHERL\ PROCUMBENS, LINN. 



Description. — This well-known perennial, spicy-aromatic evergreen grows, in 
its upright height, from 3 to 5 inches, the true sfon creeping, generally below the 
surface, and resembling a root. The flowering branches upright, stem-like, naked 
below and leaf)- at the top. Leaves alternate, upon very short petioles, obovate 
or oval, with a wedge-shaped base and very finely serrate edges ; thick, smooth 
and shining. Inflorescence axillary ; ftozcers usually single, sometimes more, upon 
nodding, two-bracted pedicels from the base of the upper petioles. Calyx five- 
lobed. Corolla inflated-cylindrical or pear-shaped, hairy within, with five small 
revolute teeth. Statneus ten, included within the tube of the corolla ; filaments 
flat, hairy, curving toward the style ; aiithers large, introrse, two-celled with two 
awns at the apex of each cell, opening by a terminal pore. Ovary smooth, five- 
lobed, five-celled, depressed, situated upon an hypogenous disk ; placenta axillary ; 
style simple, cylindrical, thick, longer than the stamens ; stigma blunt, apparendy 
endre, but in reality faintly marked into five lobes. Fruit a depressed, five-lobed, 
-celled and -valved, many-seeded pod, invested, when ripe, by the now thickened 
and fleshy calyx, thus forming a globose, bright red, edible berry, having a depres- 
sion at its apex, surrounded by crenations formed of the thickened calyx teeth. 
Seeds situated upon the axis, minute, very irregularly shaped, the average being 
rounded-triangular, with concave or convex surfaces ; testa light-yellow, with fine 
he.xagonal reticulations. A description of the Ericacece will be found under Uva- 
Ursi, 100. 



* Dedicated to Dr. Gaultier of Quebec. The orthography of whose name, after passing througli botanical works 
as "Gaulthier" and "Gautier." was finally settled by the records of Quebec, searched by I'rof. Brunct, as "Gaultier." 
(Gray \ 

t The leaves of this plant formed one of the subsliiutes for Thea Ckinemis during the Revolutionary War. 



102-2 

History and Habitat. — The wintergreen is indigenous to tlie eastern portion 
of the United States, growing from Maine to South Carolina, and westward to 
Central Kentucky, especially among the mountains in the shade of pines, flower- 
ing in July. The strange fruit hangs, and retains its bright color, until the next 
spring, then rots upon the pedicels or drops to the ground, thus allowing the 
escape of the seeds. The common names given to Gaultheria procimibens, C Jiiiiia- 
phila umbellata, and Mitchclla repens are very confusing, being interchanged in 
different sections of the country. The berries when fresh, and the young leaves, 
are very pleasant to the palate, being esteemed highly by many, and forming an 
article for sale by hucksters in some localities. They form, especially among the 
mountains of Pennsylvania, together with those of MitcJiella, the principal food 
of partridges, grouse and deer, in the late autumn months. 

Distillation of the oil of wintergreen, for use as a flavoring extract — to which 
its principal commercial value is due — is confined to men of limited means, in 
those districts where its growth is most abundant. The apparatus used is simple 
and movable, being shifted as the supply of leaves gives out. It consists usually 
of a copper whiskey-still. This is placed near some rivulet with a sufficient fall to 
keep the cooler filled. It is entirely invested by brick, with the exception of the 
cap, filled with leaves covered with water, and heated by an open fire beneath. 
The volatile oil, together with the steam, passes through the condensing" worm into 
the receiver, which is kept filled with water. The oil is collected by a separating 
funnel, placed in the bottom of the receiver, and the water used over and again to 
economize the product. The average yield is ten pounds from a ton of the leaves; 
greater in dry seasons. 

Most of the so-called oil of wintergreen is made from young birch trees 
{Betu/a lcnt(c), in a similar manner to the process described above. Mr. G. W. 
Kennedy decides'-' that there is but little variance between the oil of wintergreen 
and that of birch. This, as far as he determined after many tests, consists only in 
a slight difference in the boiling point. 

Gaultheria is only mentioned in the U. S. Ph., no officinal preparation being 
given. In the Eclectic Materia Medica it meets with the same lack of popularity. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh leaves, gathered in summer, 
are chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it and the rest 
of the alcohol added. The whole is then poured into a well-stoppered bottle and 
allowed to remain for eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then sepa- 
rated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it is of a deep brownish red color 
by transmitting light through thin layers, or black and opaque when in quantity. 
It retains the pleasant odor of the plant. The taste peculiar to the plant is covered 
at first by its great astringency, but gradually becomes apparent as the natural 
condition of the tongue returns. Its acidity is marked. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The general constituents of this plant are the 
same as those described under Uva-Ursi, loo, viz., arbutin, urson, ericolin and tannin. 

* Am. Jo„r. r/mr., 18S2, p. 49. 



102-3 

Oil of Gaultheria. This body is a mixture of the volatile oil of the plant, 
salic)late of methyl, gaiiltherilene and uaulthc-ric acid, forminj^^ the heaviest of the 
known essential oils, its sp. gr. being i.i7,v Unless purified by macerating in 
animal charcoal, it has a reddish color, and boils at 200° (,^92° F. ). 

Gaultherilene, C.^H,;,. This hydrocarbon is one of the constituents ot the 
mixed oil. 

Gaultheric acid. Methyl-salicylic acitl, C^H^ ' ..' This methyl-ether of 

salicylic acid, is obtained from the oil of wintergreen through the agency of an 
alkali. It crystallizes in plates, melting at 98.5° (209.3° P.). It is isomeric with 
the next, from which it differs by being a strong acid.. 

Salicylate of methyl, QH^ ■! ^ COH ^'^'^ '^°*^'^ constitutes the principal 

part of the compound oil distilling over after the passage of the volatile body 
when the temperature is raised to 222° (431.6° F.). It exists as an oily liquid, 
possessing a very pleasant penetrating odor and a sweet, aromatic, refreshing 
laste. (Schorlemmer, Wittstein.) All of the above constituents are soluble in 
alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The following digest of the action of Gaulthe- 
ria is from Dr. T. J. Gallaher {A/e(/. Ex., 8, 347) and Drs. W. E. Townsend and 
Hooker [Rec. Boston Soc. Med. Imp.], the first from an -overdose of the oil, the 
last from large amounts of the essence : Stupidity, swelling of the tongue and very 
active inflammation of the stomach, attended with a highly morbid'desire for tood, 
with a painful tenderness in the epigastric region and violent retching and vomit- 
ing whenever anything entered the stomach ; slow, laborious breathing, with loud 
respiration, but no stertor; hot .skin, high pulse and restlessness. 



Description of Pl.^te 102. 

I. A branch in flower, Binghamton, N. Y., July 2i.st, 1883. 

2. .\ fruiting branch in October. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. Flower (section enlarged). 




ATU.adnaldel.etpinxt. 



KALMIA LaTIFOLIA, Linn 



f 



N. ORD. ERICACE^. 103 

Thbe.-RHODORE/E. 

GENUS.— KALMIA,*LINX. 
SEX. SYST.— DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



KALMIA. 



MOV Jf TALK LAUREL. 



SYN.— KALMIA LATIFOLIA, LINN.; CISTUS CHAM^RHODODENDROS, 
ETC., PLUK.; LEDUM FLORIBUS BULLATIS, ETC., TREW. 

COM. NAMES.— MOUNTAIN LAUREL, AMERICAN LAUREL, CALICO-BUSH, 
SPOONWOOD, BIG IVY, ROSE LAUREL, ROUND-LEAVED LAUREL, 
SHEEP-LAUREL,t LAMB-KILL,t WICKE ; (PR.) GRANDE KALMIE ; 
(GER.) GROSS KALMIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH LEAVES OF KALMIA L.\TIFOLIA, LINN. 

Description. — This beautiful evergreen shrub attains a height of from 4 to 
10 or more feet. Stem smooth; branches more or less terete, irregular, and tor- 
tuous. Leaves more or less scattered but tending to alternation, they are thick, 
coriaceous, glabrous, dark and shining green both sides ; in form they are elliptical 
or ovate-lanceolate, acute at both ends and entire, hifloresccnce simple or clus- 
tered, naked, umbel-like corymbs, terminal upon the branchlets ; pedicels long, 
arising from leaf-like bracts ; floivers clammy-pubescent. Calyx rotate, persistent, 
somewhat smaller than the fruit ; limb 5-parted ; teeth deltoid. Corolla somewhat 
hypocrateriform, infundibular, or campanulate ; furnished with 10 mamm:e, into 
the internal depressions of which the anthers are held until irritated; tube short; 
liTnb 5-lobed ; lobes semi-ovate, acute. Stamens 10; filaments smooth, filiform; 
anthers 2-celled, each opening by a large apical pore or chink. Ovary globose ; 
style terminal, filiform; stigma capitate. Fruit a globose, 5-celled, pubescent, 
coriaceous capsule ; seeds many, oblong ; testa thin and somewhat loose. 

History and Habitat.— The laurel bush is indigenous to North America, grow- 
ing from Canada and Maine southward and westward to Ohio, and on the moun- 
tains as far as Florida. Its large clusters of beautiful flowers, embosomed in the 
rich, dark green foliage so characteristic of the plant, is one of the most attractive 
points of beauty of our mountain woods in May and June. In southern Pennsyl- 
vania, on the Alleghanies, this shrub often attains the dimensions of a small tree, 
sometimes reaching as high as 30 feet. The wood when dry is hard and dense, 
somewhat like that of the box {Buxus), and is used for the manufacture of 
household implements, such as ladles, spoons, forks, etc.; for the handles of small 
tools, and for cog-wheels and the like. 

* Peter Kalm, a Swedish botanist and a pupil of Linna;us. f More properly names applied to IC. angustifolia. 



•103-2 

The previous uses of this plant in medicine were of a very limited character. 
A decoction was used in domestic practice for various forms of tinea capitis, psora 
and herpes; also in secondary syphilis. It has been recommended in inflammatory 
fevers as a cardiac depressor ; its astringency was utilized also by the application 
of the drug in diarrhoeas and hemorrhages of the bowels. 

Kalmia is not officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Medica its 
preparations are: Decoctum Kalmice ; Tinctiwa Kahnics ; and Syrupus Phytolacca 
Coviposiins'^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh leaves, gathered while the 
plant is in blossom, are treated as in the preceding species. The tincture thus 
prepared is opaque ; in thin layers it has a deep brownish-orange color; it retains 
the peculiar odor of the bruised leaves, has an extremely astringent and somewhat 
bitter taste, leaves a slightly scalded sensation upon the tongue, and has a strong 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— A special active principle has not as yet been 
determined in this plant. The analyses of Bigelow.f Bullock, J and Kennedy,§ 
resulted in the determination oi Arl>utiti,\\ tannic acid.fj resin.fj fat.J gum,fj wax,| 
an acid body uninvestigated,^ extractive,! yellow coloring matter.J a mannite,J and 
the usual plant constituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Laurel leaves have always been deemed poi- 
sonous, especially by the Indians and the laity. Their action upon sheep, 
especially lambs, has given two of its vernacular names, Sheep-laurel and lamb-kill. 
Catesby says :^ " deer feed upon its green leaves with impunity ; yet when cattle 
and sheep, by severe winters deprived of better food, feed on the leaves of this 
plant, a great many of them die annually." And Kalm gives the following:** 
" The leaves are poison to some animals, and food lor others ; experience has 
taught the people, that when sheep eat of these leaves, they either die immediately, 
or fall very sick, and recover with great difficulty. The young and more tender 
sheep are killed by a small portion, but the older ones can bear a stronger dose. 
Yet this food will also prove mortal to them if they eat too much of it. The same 
noxious effect it shows in regard to calves, . . . they fall very sick, swell, 
foam at the mouth and can hardly stand. The sheep are most exposed to be 
tempted with these leaves in winter, . . . being greedy of all greens ; 
especially if snow still lies upon the ground. Horses, oxen, and cows, which have 
eaten them, have likewise been very ill after the meal." He farther adds that 
these leaves form a winter food for stags, and if killed during the time of feeding 
and the entrails given to dogs to eat, they " become quite stupid, and, as it were, 
intoxicated, and often fall so sick that they seem to be at the point of death ; but 
the people who have eaten the venison have not felt the least inconvenience." 
Dr. Bigelow states, as do other observers, that it is a common belief that the flesh 

* Phytolacca, Ampelopsis, Cimicifuga, and Kalmia. f Am. Med. Bot, ,vol. i, p. 136. 

+ Am. Jour. P/iar., 1848, p. 264. § Am. your. Phar., 1S75. 

II Kennedy (see Uva Ur>i, loo). <[ Op. cit., p. 137. 
** Travels in North Aineriea, vol. I, p. 335. 



103-3 

of the Partridg-e, after feeding upon the leaves and fruits, becomes of itself poi- 
sonous ; this Wilson the ornithologist denies on trial, though other observers 
declare it a fact. Dr. Bigelow judges that the illness caused in animals is due to 
the indigestibility of the plant ; other authors think that those persons made ill by 
eating the flesh of the partridge under the circumstances mentioned, are made so 
from a decomposed state of the meat. Beck* appears to deem the flesh poisonous 
from eating the berries as above. 

From the experience of nearly all persons who have experimented upon 
themselves with a tincture or decoction of the leaves, it is obvious that the effects 
produced on cattle after grazing on the leaves, and on persons eating of " poisoned " 
partridges, are due to the plant itself, not to indigestion or putrefaction. Dr. 
Bigelow's later observations,t agree in toto with our provings. He gives the 
following as its action : "The flesh of the bird impairs the functions of the brain 
and acts directly as a sedative poison, secondarily affecting the digestive and 
circulatory organs." The symptoms arising in those proving the drug are : 
Vertigo and headache ; almost complete loss of sight ; pale, somewhat livid coun- 
tenance ; salivation and difficult deglutition ; thirst, nausea and vomiting, with 
oppression and pressure in the region of the stomach; difficult respiration with 
great palpitation and fluttering of the heart, followed by an irregular, feeble, 
and slow pulse; weakness, weariness and pains in the limbs; coldness of the 
surface and great prostration. 

Description of Plate 103. 
I. End of flowering branch, Waverly, N. Y., June isth, 1880. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pollen X 200. 
(3 and 4 enlarged). 

Kalmia Angustifolia, Linn., seems from the experience of others to be the 
most poisonous species, its habitat is the same as that of K. latifolia. It may be 
the confusion of species that causes so much doubt upon the questions of toxi- 
cology. It is stated^ that a few drops of a saturated tincture of the plant caused 
the death of a rattlesnake when poured upon it. We cannot be certain that our 
preparations and those of the provers were made from K. latifolia alone ; therefore I 
append a differentiation for future reference in experimentation, judging that a 
thorough revision and re-proving of the two species separately, would be vastly 
important to us. 

KALMIA. 

K. I.ATIFDI.IA. K. ANGUSTIFOLIA. 

(Calico-bush, Mountain I.aurcl.) j (Shcep-laurel, I.anibkill.) 

Height 4 to 30 feet. | Height 2 to 4 feet. 

Leaves alternate or scattered, ov.itc-lanceolate or elliptical. Leaves opposite or in whorls of three, narrowly oblong, 

acute, bright, rich green both sides. obtuse, light green above, pale to whitish beneath. 

/«/?<)/«c^»<-^ terminal, clammy, pubescent; /?ojw« pink to Lnjlorescence lateral, slightly glandular; Jiotvers red, and 

nearly white. nearly two-thirds smaller. 

Fruit a depressed glandular capsule. Fruit a depressed smooth capsule, upon a recurved pedicel. 

* Medical Jurisprudence, p. 864. f Nearly 40 years after the publication of his Am. Med. Bol., quoted above. 

X Hy Dr. Barton. 



fm. 




104.. 



ad nat.dei.et pinxt. 



ChIMAPHILA UMBElLATA.Nutt. 



N. ORD-ERICACE/E. 104 

S. ORD.-PYROLE/E. 

GI:NL S— c H I M A PH I L A, I'URSH. 

SKX. SVST.— DElANDRIA MDNOCIVNIA. 



CHIMAPHILA. 



PIPSISSEWA. 



SYN.- -CHIMAPHILA UMBELLATA, NUTT., CHIMAPHILA CORYMBOSA, 

PURSH., PYROLA UMBELLATA, LINN., PYROLA FRUCTICANS, 

PARKINSON. 
COM. NAMES.-PIPSISSEWA, WINTERGREEN, PRINCE'S PINE, BITTER 

WINTERGREEN, GROUND HOLLY; (FR.) PYROLE OMBELLEE ; 

(GER.) DOLDENBLUTHIGES HARNKRAUT, ODER WINTBRGRUN. 

A TINCTURE OF THK FRESH PLANT CHIMAPHILA, Kri'HKR UMBELLATA OR 

MACULA TA, OR BOTH, AS THE PROVINGS HAVE BEEN MADE 

WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION. 



Description. — This small, sliohtly woody, nearly herbaceous evergreen pe- 
rennial, springs from a long, cylindrical, creeping, yellowish root, about one-eighth 
to one-quarter of an inch in diameter, giving off numerous fine rootlets, and 
sending up many branches, which terminate in leafy and flowering stems alter- 
nately. Stem simple, or sometimes branched at the base, 3 to 6 inches higji beiore 
the flowering season. Leaves mosdy in several imperfect whorls, or sometimes 
scattered about the upper portion of the stem ; they are dark green above, paler 
below, thick, shining, wedge-lanceolate, acute at the base, sharply saw-toothed, 
amaculate, short-petioled, and from one and a half to two inches long, by one- 
quarter to one-half an inch broad. Peduncle from 3 to 6 inches long, erect, 
smooth, terminating in from 4 to 7 pedicels covered with a very fine down, 
nodding in flower, erect in fruit, and forming a loose umbel or corymb. Calyx 
much smaller than the corolla ; sepals five, blunt, persistent, slighdy hairy. Corolla 
of ^v it petals rounded, concave and spreading. Stamens ten, free, inserted under 
the pistil ; filaments at first convex, obovate, fleshy, then concave, filiform and 
hairy; anthers large, extrorse in the bud but becoming inverted in flower, more or 
less conspicuously 2-horned, 4-celled, and opening by two pores ; pollen grains 
white, compounded of four more or less globose granules. Ovaries 5, connected 
about a fleshy receptacle in such a manner as to form a depressed globose mass, 
surrounded at its base by a glandular zone; ovules many, small, anatropous; style 
very short, rounded and wedge-shaped, the apex entering into the summit of the 
substance between the ovaries; stigma broad, convex, discoid, faintly marked by 



^ X^i/ia, winter, ipiXiu, to love. 



-104-2 

5 crenations. Pod depressed-globose, 5-lobed, 5-ce!led and 5-valved, loculicidal 

from the apex downward ; seeds innumerable, minute. 

Chimaphila Maculata, Pursh. — This species differs from the foregoing as 
follows; Peduncles from i to 5 flowered. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, obtuse at the 
base, the edges widely toothed, their upper surface white-maculate. A description 
of the natural order will be found under Arctostaphylos Uvaursi. 

History and Habitat. — This hardy little plant seeks the deep shaded portion 
of woodlands, where it flourishes best in the loamy formations of rotted leaves. 
It abounds throughout the central pordon of North America, the forests of 
Siberia and the Northern countries of Europe. It blossoms here in June and 
July, fruiting in September. It is used among the aborigines of this country as. a 
tonic and diuretic, as well as for rheumatic and scrofulous disorders, and latterly 
as an application to scrofulous and other open sores. Chimaphila is still retained 
in the U. S. Ph. as Extractum CJiiinaphilff Fliiidiiin. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica its officinal preparation is Deeoetuni Cliimaphilce ; it is also a component 
of Syrupus Stillingier Compositus. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh plants while in flower are 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well it is poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture is then decanted, strained and filtered. 

Thus formed it is opaque ; thin layers have a deep, rich, reddish-brown 
color ; it is decidedly bitter, slightly astringent, and has an acid reaction to litmus. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The chemistry of this plant corresponds 
with that of Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi (vide Uva-ursi, plate 100), differing probably 
little except in also containing the following principle, determined by Fairbank : 

Chimaphilin. — On the aqueous distillation of the stems in a retort, a deposit 
of golden-yellow, odorless, tasteless crystals takes place upon the neck, the 
chemical nature of which has not yet been determined; their physical features 
are; a slight solubility in water, and a free solution in alcohol. The percentage 
of tannin in this plant is somewhat less than in Uva-ursi. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Here again Uva-ursi should be consulted. 
Chimaphila does not cause nausea and vomidng to the extent of Uva-ursi, while 
its diuretic action is greater. Its physiological action as such is undetermined. 

Description of Pl.i^te 104. 

1. Whole plant in fruit. 

2. Flowering stem, Binghamton, N. Y., June 26, 1S83. 

3. Stamen (enlarged). 

4. Fruit (enlarged). 

5. Seed (enlarged). 



N. ORD -ERICACE^. 105 

5. ORD.-MONOTROPE/E. 

GENUS.— MO NOT RO PA,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— DEC.A.NDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



MONOTROPA. 

IJVDIAJy PIPE. 

SYN.— MONOTROPA UNIFLORA, LINN.; MONOTROPA MORISONIANA, 
MICHX. ; MONOTROPA MORISONI, PERS. 

COM. NAMES. — INDIAN PIPE, TOBACCO PIPE, PIPE PLANT, CORPSE 
PLANT, ICE PLANT, BIRD'S NEST,t NEST PLANT, PIT-ROOT, CON- 
VULSION-ROOT, OVA-OVA; (GER.) EINBLUTHIGE MONOTROPA. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT MONOTROPA UNIFLORA, L. 

Description. — This strange waxy or bluish-white, fleshy, inodorous, semi-para- 
sitic herb, grows from 2 to 8 inches high. Rootlets very numerous, forming a ball 
of densely-matted fibres. Stems several from each clump of rootlets, simple, sub- 
cylindrical and smooth. Leaves, none ; their place supplied below by numerous 
small triangular scales, which gradually enlarge and become ovate-spatulate folia- 
ceous bracts toward the summit of the stem, where they pass into the inflorescence, 
composed of a single, terminal, declined flower, which becomes horizontal, then 
inclined as it performs its life-work, and rigidly erect in fruit. Flower slightly 
pubescent, entirely devoid of color except where the yellow anthers and flesh- 
colored pistil are disclosed. Sepals replaced by 2 to 5 bracteolate, irregular, 
lanceolate, caducous bodies ; petals 5, erect, gouge-shaped, saccate at the base, 
marcescent. Stamens 10, shorter than the petals, each alternating at the base 
with a short, recurved, nipple-like process of the base of die ovary ; filatnents awl- 
shaped, pubescent ; anthei's horizontal, reniform, becoming one-celled and opening 
by transverse chinks ; pollen simple, showing i to 2 translucent depressed spots.J 
Style columnar, short and thick ; stigma naked, discoid, obtusely 5-angled, with a 
funnel-form depression in the centre. Fruit an erect, ovoid, 8- to lo-grooved, 4- to 
5-celled loculicidal pod ; place^itce large and sarcous ; seeds very numerous, minute, 
subulate ; testa loose, cellular, translucent. A description of the Ericaceee will be 
found under Uva Ursi 100. 

History and Habitat. — The Indian pipe grows in deep, rich, shady woods — 
especially those in which the beech abounds — from Florida to Mississippi, and 
thence northward, flowering in July in the North and from August to September in 
the South. This curious herb well deserves its name oi corpse plant, so like is it to 

* MoMij monos ; rpno^^ tropos ; one turn, from the facing of the flower. 

f More applical)le to Daucus carota, on account of the resemblance of the fruiting umbels to that structure. 

X The pollen of Monotropa uniflora bears a striking resemblance in this regard to that of PcndUularis Canadensis. 



105-2 

the general bluish waxy appearance of the dead ; then, too, it is cool and clammy 
to the touch, and rapidly decomposes and turns black even when carefully handled. 
The whole plant when wounded — especially, however, the floral envelope — emits 
a clear glutinous fluid. Attempts to preserve it in alcohol turn it a bluish-black, 
and tinge the preservative a deep reddish-violet hue, while the drying process 
turns it jet-black, leaving very little semblance to its natural appearance. The 
medical history of the plant begins with its use by the American Aborigines as an 
application in "sore eyes;" they valued a mixture of the juice with water highly 
as a soothing and often curative measure. Of this property Dr. Kunze* says in 
corroboration : " This is a drug very highly recommended^ for overcoming ner- 
vous irritability, epilepsy, chorea, etc., when used in large doses — inwardly, of 
course — and for ophthalmic as well as other inflammations of delicate mucous sur- 
faces outwardly applied, either in its fresh state or the preserved juice. I have 
myself used it very much in ordinary cases of inflamed eyes, both chronic and 
acute, and have never seen, or even before heard any evil effects following the 
most indiscriminate use.J Have applied it to the eyes of infants when only three 
days old, in Ophthalmia purulenta infantum, as well as in old age in every variety 
of so-called constitutions, and even where not successfully employed no ill effects 
have ever been observed thereafter." He farther on describes an incidental cure 
which is of interest botanically and medically : " Fourteen years ago — it was in the 
early part of July — I went woodcock-shooting with two friends, near Hackensack, 
N. J., and while taking some luncheon in a beech grove along the course of Saddle 
River, I found a large patch of ground literally covered with Monotropa uniflora 
in full bloom ; it covered a space some five feet wide by nine feet long, a beautiful 
sight of snow-white stems and nodding flowers. Being in need of some just then, 
I proceeded to fill my game-bag, and to the question, what it was used for, 
answered: 'Good for sore eyes;' little thinking that the party addressed was 
suffering from a chronic inflammation of the eye-lids, the edges of which had a 
very fiery-red appearance. No sooner said than he proceeded to take in his 
game-bag a supply also, and he made very good use of it, as I ascertained after- 
wards. His inflamed lids were entirely cured in four weeks' time, and he has had 
no further trouble since, by applying the fresh juice of the stems he obtained while 
it lasted." Dr. King mentions the drug§ as " tonic, nervine, sedative and antispas- 
modic." The former uses of the herb in spasms of children, epileptiform and 
chorea-like, gave it the popular names so characterizing it. Dr. Stewart claimed 
that the dried herb was an excellent substitute for opium, " easing pain, comfortino- 
the stomach, and causing sleep." In spasmodic affections the usual dose is a tea- 
spoonful of the dried root in powder; to this is often added the appropriate dose 
of valerian. 

No mention is made of this drug in the U. S. Ph., and no officinal preparation 
appears in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

* Bot. Gaz., 1878, -Vol. iii, No. 6, pp 53, 54. 

f In King's Am. Disp., and Howard's Botanic Medicine. 

\ This clause he uses in discussing Mr. A. H. Young's case of poisoning, which I shall quote under the proper rubric. 

\ American Dispensatory, 18S0, p. 530. 



105-3 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh flowering plant is 
treated as in the preceding drug. The resultant tincture has a brilliant orage-red 
color by transmitted light, a bitterish odor, a decidedly sweet taste, and a slightly 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this plant has, as far as I am 
able to determine, been made. The European species, also found here, Monotropa 
hypopitys, a tawny, many-flowered form, yields a volatile oil and Salicylate of 
Methyl.'' 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The only account of poisoning by this plant is 
that of Mr. A. H. Young.-j- This case was discussed by Dr. R. E. Kunze, as before 
mentioned, who was of the opinion that in the gathering the young lady handled 
RJms toxicodcndro7i ; Mr. Young then again consulted the patientj and found that 
she was not susceptible to Rhus poison, and farther, that she had not personally 
gathered the plant, but met with her ill-fortune while examining it at home. As Mr. 
Young had the identical plant in his herbarium, he searched for rootlets of Rhus 
tox. clinging to the plant, but found none, and states it as his conviction that the 
case, though standing alone, is veritable. He says : " During the month of Sep- 
tember a young lady brought me a plant which she said had poisoned her, and she 
desired its name. With some surprise, and perhaps I should have had none after 
considering its fostering food and close resemblance to the Fungi, I found the plant 
to be Monotropa uniflora. The circumstances of the case are as follows : The 
young lady while examining the plant, accidentally crushed the stem, and some of 
the juice was driven upon her lips. The mucous portions which were somewhat 
chapped became very much irritated, and began to inflame and swell consider- 
ably, while in two or three places upon the epidermal skin of the lip small ulcerous 
sores were formed. The effect remained some four or five days and then gradually 
healed. The whole effect was very much like a mild case of poisoning with Rhus 
toxicodendron!' As we have no proving of this drug, we cannot as yet corroborate 
this case ; there is, however, no plant in our country that promises so good results 
from provings. 

Description of Plate 105. 

(. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 21st, 1884. 

2. Flower with petals removed. 

3. Petal. 

4 and 5. Anthers. 

6. Pollen, X 300. 

7. Pistil. 

8. Bird's-eye view of stigma. 

9. Longitudinal section of pistil. 

(2-9 enlarged.) 

* See Gaultheria, p. 102-3. t ^°'- G"') 1878, Vol. iii, No. 1, p. 37. % Ibid., No. 9, \>. "9. 



106. 



4 







^' 



.TU.idnatdel.etpinxl. 



Ilex VeRTICILLAtA, Gray. 



N. ORD.-AQUIFOLIACE^. 106 

GENUS. — ILEX,* LINN. 
SEX. .'^VST.— HliX.WDKI.X MOX( H.VNI.V. 



PRINOS. 



BLACK ALDER. 



SYN.— ILEX VBRTICILLATA, GRAY; PRINOS VERTICILLATUS, LINN.; P. 

GRONOVII, MICHX. ; P. CONFERTUS, MCEN. 
COM. NAMES.— BLACK ALDER, FEVER BUSH, WINTERBERRY, VIRGINIAN 

WINTERBERRY ; (FR. i APALACHINE A FEUILLES DE PRUNIER ; f GBR. i 

VIRGINISCHE WINTERBEERE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE BARK AND FRUIT OF ILEX VERTICILLATA, GRAY. 

Description. — This upright or ascending, much-branched shrub, usually 
attains a growth of from 4 to 8 feet. Leaves thin and deciduous, not spiny, in 
form obovate, oval, or cuneate-lanceolate, acute at the apex and base, uncinately 
serrate, and downy upon the veins underneath; petioles about one-quarter the 
length of the blade. Inflorescetice dioecious; floicers all short peduncled, white, 
appearing with the leaves. Sterile floivers in small axillary umbels ; calyx-lobes 
ciliate ; petals mostly 4 to 6 ; stamens 6 to 7 ; ovary abortive. FeiHile flowers 
aggregated or solitary ; petals mostly 5 to 8 ; ovary conical, about 6-celled ; stigma 
4- to 6-lobed. Fruit a globose, bright vermilion berry, about the size of a large 
pea, crowded upon the branches so as to appear whorled ; nutlets about 6, smooth 
and even, or dorsally furrowed or ridged. Embryo minute, nearly globose. 

Aquifoliaceae. — This small order, to which Prinos is but lightly wedded, and 
represented in North America by but 2 genera and 14 species, is characterized as 
follows: Shrubs or trees with their leaves simple, mostly alternate, and generally 
coriaceous and evergreen. Flozoers small, axillary, 4- to 8-merous, white or green- 
ish, often polygamous by abortion. Calyx minute, free from the ovary, 4- to 
9-toothed. Stamens as many as the divisions of the corolla and alternate with 
them, the filaments attached to their very base ; anthers adnate, opening length- 
wise. Coi'olla hypogynous, rotate, or almost or quite 4- to 8-parted, imbricated in 
the bud. Ovary 4- to 8-celled ; ovules anatropous ; stin^mas 4 to 8 or united into i, 
nearly sessile. Fruit a baccate 4- to 8-seeded drupe ; seeds solitary in each cell, 
suspended ; embryo minute ; albumen fleshy. 

Our only other proven species in this order is the South American Mate, or 
Paraguay Tea {Ilex Paraguayensis, St. Hil.), the leaves of which are used like 
Chinese tea, and are considered slightly nervine, diaphoretic, and diuretic. In 

* The ancient nair.e of the holly oak. 



106-2 

general medicine the following species are more or less useful : The English Holly 
{Ilex aqui/oliiiiu, Linn.), and the American co-species, /. opaca. Ait., have been 
considered nearly equal to Peruvian Bark in intermittent fevers and jaundice. 
The Cassena of the American aborigines, /. Cassette, Linn., and /. Dahooti, Walt., 
are emetic, and enter into the ceremonies of the natives as holy plants, which 
the males only were allowed to use as purifiers of the body. The Carthaginian 
Myginda Uragoga, Swartz., is said to be a most powerful diuretic. The juice and 
leaves of the Indian Monetia Barleroides, Linn., are considered by Hindoo doctors 
to be anti-catarrhal and anti-asthmatic ; and the unripe fruit of the Brazilian Ilex 
macoucoua, Linn., are so rich in tannin as to be used as a substitute for galls. 

History and Habitat. — The Black Alder is common in thickets at the margins 
of pools and marshy places, from western Florida northward ; during its flower- 
ing season, in April and May, it is hardly distinguishable, to those who are not 
well acquainted with it, from the surrounding bush ; but when the autumnal frosts 
have deprived all vegetation of its leaves, then the fruiting plant stands out like a 
flaming spot in the dreary waste, striking, even to the most careless observer, in 
its beauty. 

This is another of the growing list of plants handed down to us by the 
aborigines, who used the bark both internally and e.xternally as a tonic, astrin- 
gent, and antiseptic, and is probably as well known to domestic practice as any 
indigenous shrub. In intermittent fever it has often proved as generally appli- 
cable as Peruvian Bark, and in such low typhoid forms associated with diarrhoea, 
and in later stages, where ulceration and hemorrhage are present, it is a very 
valuable agent. In general debilitated conditions of the system after long fevers, 
and where the body is depleted by exhausting discharges, it is also very useful, as 
well as in gangrenous affections and jaundice. Certain forms of chronic herpetic 
eruptions and ulcers are also benefited by its use as an external application. The 
berries are purgative and vermifuge, forming one of the pleasantest adjuvants in 
children's remedies, for the expulsion of lumbrici. Shoepf first noted the plant as 
having the above field of utility, and also mentioned its usefulness in anasarca. 

The bark is officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Dispensatory the prepa- 
ration recommended is DecoctiiDi Prinos. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark and fruit, gathered 
before the first autumnal frost, are chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with 
one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. The whole is then poured 
into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, 
being shaken thoroughly twice each day. After decanting, straining, and filtering, 
the resulting tincture has a greenish-brown color by transmitted light; an herba- 
ceous odor; a bitter taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Beside a bitter principle, the nature of which 
has not yet been determined, this species contains about 4.8 per cent, tannin ; a 



106-3 

resin soluble in alcohol, another insoluble in alcohol ; coloring-inatter ; albumen; 
gum, and sugar.* 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The berries caused nausea, vomiting, and 
purging, in two children who ate of them, but whom I had no further chance to 
watch. In a case reportedf of the effects attending the ingestion of about twenty- 
five berries, the following symptoms supervened: Sensation of nausea in the 
stomach not amounting to real sickness nor interfering with the appetite ; vomit- 
ing of bile without retching; profuse evacuation of the bowels, consisting of their 
natural contents, diluted with an immense quantity of greenish liquid, attended 
-with no pain or uneasiness; another similar but less profuse evacuation followed 
in about half an hour, after which the patient felt remarkably well, but as though 
he had lost ten or twelve pounds in weight. Following this, his appetite and 
dio'estion seemed much better than usual. 



Description of Plate io6. 

I. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., May 5th, 18S6. 

2. Under side of leaf-margin. 

3. Flower. 

4. Calyx. 

5. Stamen. 

6. Pistil. 

7. Fruiting branch. 

8. Nutlet. 

( 2-6 and S enlarged.) 



Til.len analysis, Jour. Mat. Med., vol. i, \. S., 329. f ^oi^l- '^^ed. and Surg. Jour., 1S33, 3S3. 





^f A 






.TQ..i(lnai(lel.etpinxt. 



Plantago Major, unn. 



N. ORD -PLANTAGINACE^. 107 

GENUS.— PLANTAGO,* LINN. 

SEX. SVST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGVNIA. 



PLANTAGO. 



SYN.— PLANTAGO MAJOR, LINN.; PLANTA GOVULGARIS, GER.; Ap'^6rlionaov, 
DIOSCOR. 

COM. NAMES.— PLANTAIN, BROAD-LEAVED PLANTAIN, RIB-GRASS, RIB- 
WORT, WAY-BREAD (WAY-BRED); (FR.) PLANTAIN ORDINAIRE; 
(GER.) GROSSER WEGETRITT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, PLANTAGO MAJOR, L. 

Description. — This cosmopolitan immigrant varies greatly in its growth, some 
individuals only attaining a height of 2 inches, others 18. Root perennial, fascicu- 
late. Leaves all radical, broad, ovate, ovate-cordate or oblong, sometimes slightly 
toothed, 5 to 7-ribbed; petioles deeply channelled, smooth or slightly hairy. Inflor- 
escence 1 to several long and slender, bracted, densely floral, sub-cylindrical spikes, 
each raised upon a naked scape ; flowers all alike and perfect. Sepals 4, imbri- 
cated, persistent, membranaceous, and margined. Corolla whitish, thin, mar- 
cescent ; lobes reflexed after flowering. Stamens 4, rarely 2, much exserted ; 
filaments long filiform, lengthening suddenly when the anther is ripe ; anthers 
2-celled, early deciduous. Pistil dichogamous, ije., protruding from the flower 
tube before the anthers are ripe ;f ovary 2-celled ; stigma more or less unilateral, 
fringed. Frtiit a 2 to i6-seeded pyxis, opening by a complete transverse fissure, 
the top falling off like a cap, and the thin partition escaping with the seeds ; seeds 
somewhat fusiform ; albtmien sarcous ; onbryo straight, enclosed. 

PLANTAGINAOEjE. — This small anomalous family of low acaulescent herbs 
is principally represented by the genus Plantago. Its members are characterized 
by having: Leaves 2}\ radical and ribbed. Floivers spiked upon a simple scape; 
calyx 4-cleft, persistent; corolla tubular or hypocrateriform, scarious and veinless. 
Stame?ts 4, inserted upon the tube of the corolla alternate with its lobes ; filaments 
persistent, long and weak. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules amphitropous ; style single, 
long, and stigmatose. Fruit a membranaceous pyxis ; dehiscence circumscissile ; 
seeds i to several in each cell ; embryo large, mostly straight ; albumen sarcous. 

The mucilaginous principle of the seeds of Plantago renders them somewhat 
valuable in medicine. The Indian plantain Plantago Isphagula {P. decumbens, 
Forsk) furnishes seeds from which a mucilaginous drink is prepared and used as an 
emollient ; this species is mentioned in the native Materia Medica. The seeds of 

* The ancient Latin name. \ A help in cross-fertilization. 



1107-2 

the European and Barbarian P. Psyllhmi, the Hungarian P. areiiaria, and the 
South European P. Cynops, are spoken of by Lindley as a good substitute for lin- 
seed and marsh-mallows. The leaves and roots of the common rib-grass P. lan- 
ceolata are considered expectorant and vulnerary; the Scottish Highlanders attach 
great value to this plant as a healing application to fresh wounds. 

History and Habitat. — The common plantain grows in rich, moist soils, in 
Europe, India, and America, where it is considered truly indigenous north of Lake 
Superior. It flowers throughout the summer months, fruiting as it flowers. It is 
said that the American Indians gave this plant the name of " White Man's Foot," 
in allusion to its method of introduction, and its trait of accompanying the civilizer 
and literally growing in his footsteps. This character also gave rise to the vul- 
garism " way-bred." 

The previous medical uses of plantain are chiefly those of a general vulnerary 
and demulcent; thus it became in great demand in the coughs attending various 
pulmonary and bronchial diseases as well as an application to recent wounds and 
chronic sores. The seeds were used in the former instance, the leaves in the latter. 
A decoction of the roots was recommended by Bergius in tertian intermittents, 
one ounce to four being taken when the chill came on. An infusion of the seeds 
in milk has been much used by the laity to check various hemorrhages from 
mucous surfaces, diarrhoea, dysentery, and leucorrhoea. The fibrous strings in the 
petioles have been extolled* as an almost certain cure for aching carious teeth, if 
placed in the ear on the affected side. It is said that these fibres turn black if the 
pain is relieved, but remain green if not. Boerhaave says that in his own experi- 
ence he has found that plantain leaves placed upon the feet will ease the pain and 
fatigue engendered by long walks. Plantain has also been highly praised as an 
antidote to the effects of bites of venomous reptiles and insects; it is stated by 
Duncan-j- to be one of the principal ingredients in the remedy of the negro Caesar, 
for the discovery of which he received a large reward from the Assembly of South 
Carolina. To complete this review of the uses of this herb no better expression 
could be used than that of M^rat :% " En fin, on a port^ la racine des plantains en 
amulet pour guerir on pr^venir une multitude des maladies." 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh plant, gathered when coming 
into flower, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-tenth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole, pour it into a 
well-stoppered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration is opaque, in thin layers it 
has a deep reddish-brown color by transmitted light. It retains the peculiar odor 
of the plant, has a sourish astringent taste and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— J/?<«7«^^-^.— This substance exists plentifully 
in the seeds of all species, from which it may be extracted by water, and pre- 

* Dr. Reutlinger to Dr. E. M. Hale, New Rem., p. 500. f New Edinburgh Dispensatory. 

X Diet, de M. Med., Supplement, 1846, p. 567. 



107-3 

cipitated from its watery solution (impure) by alcohol. Dry pure mucilag-e is a 
yellowish, tough, opaque body, swelling- upon the addition of water, and finally 
dissolving into a ropy mass. The vegetable mucilages vary in their behavior 
toward reagents according to the plant from which they are extracted ; they all, 
however, break down under the action of dilute sulphuric acid, first into gum, then 
sugar. 

The whole plant has not been analyzed. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The principal symptoms caused by this drug 
are, according to Dr. F. Humphreys: headache; excessive digging, boring pain in 
carious teeth ; severe dryness of the fauces and pharynx ; colic ; urging to urinate, 
with copious discharges ; looseness of the bowels; weakness and oppression of the 
chest ; restless sleep ; and a strong fever, with a high pulse which finally becomes 
weak and intermittent. 

Description of Plate 107. 

1. Whole plant once reduced, Bergen, N. J., July iSth, 1879. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pollen, X 250. 

(2-4 enlarged.) 



108. 








4 






2 / 



\ i 



K 



<F- 



HI .ad nat.dei.et pinxt 



Anagallis Arvensis, l 



inn. 



N. ORD -PRIMULACE^. 108 

Tribe.-PRIMULE/E. 

GENUS. — ANAGALLIS,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRI.A MONOGVMA. 



ANAGALLIS, 



PIMPERNEL. 



SYN.— ANAGALLIS ARVBNSIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON SCARLET OR RED PIMPERNEL, POOR MAN'S 

WEATHER-GLASS, RED CHICKWBED ; (GER.) HUHNERDARN; (FR.j 

MOURON. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ANAGALLIS ARVENSIS, LINN. 

Description. — This low, spreading or prostrate annual herb, grows from 6 to 20 
inches in length. Stejn square, glabrous, branching ; leaves opposite, entire, ovate, 
and sessile, dotted upon the under surface. Inflorescence axillary ; flo-i^'crs ranging 
on different plants from scarlet to white through the shades of blue and purple ; 
peduncles &i\{oxm., longer than the leaves, i -flowered, bractless. Calyx 5-parted ; 
lobes lanceolate-subulate ; margins rough. Corolla rotate, 5-parted, longer than 
the calyx ; tnbc little or none ; lobes broad, obovate, obtuse, fringed with stipitate 
glands. Stamens 5, inserted upon the base of the corolla; filaments purple, bearded; 
anthers broadly oblong. Ovary free from the calyx ; oviUcs amphitropous. Fruit a 
globular, membranaceous, circumcissile capsule or jDyxis ; seeds many, somewhat 
triangular; testa rough with minute verucca;. 

Primulacese. — This small family of herbs is represented in North America by 
1 2 genera, comprising 38 species and 1 5 varieties ; it is characterized as follows : 
Leaves simple, alternate, opposite, or whorled. Floi<.<ers regular, symmetrical, and 
perfect; perianth hypogynous. Calyx persistent. Corolla rotate, hypocrateriform, 
or campanulate. Stamens of the same number as the lobes of the corolla and 
opposite them ; filaments inserted upon the tube of the corolla ; anthers introrse. 
Ovary i -celled, free from the calyx; style columnar, undivided ; stigma undivided ; 
ovules sessile on a free central placenta. Seeds numerous; albumen copious, fleshy; 
embryo straight, small. 

The only other plant of this order in our Materia Medica is the European 
Sow-Bread {Cyclamen Europccum, Linn.). In general and household practice the 
flowers of the European Cowslip [Primula ofiUcinalis, Jacq.) have been used as a 
sedative, and placed in wine to render it soporific. 

* 'Avayt\aa, anagt'/iio, to laugh ; from its supposed quality of c.iusing hilariousness. 



108-2 

History and Habitat. — The Pimpernel is naturalized in this country from 
Europe, and has established itself along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in 
dry, sandy soil, where it blossoms from June to August. 

Anagallis formerly held a place in the pharmacopoeias of Great Britain as a 
detergent, vulnerary, and cephalic ; and was much prized by the ancients in gout, 
gravel, convulsions, and the plague. Gelin and many others considered it highly 
anti-hydrophobic, and reported many cures of this dire malady by its use, even 
alter dangerous symptoms supervened. The plant also enjoyed much reputation 
at one time as an anti-epileptic, sudorific, and diuretic in dropsy; it has, however, 
entirely passed out of the minds of general practitioners. Pliny and Dioscorides 
thought highly of the Pimpernel in the removal of intestinal and hepatic obstruc- 
tions ; and it was, most probably, from the happier condition of the mind following 
such action, that the latter called the plant drdyeXdu. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh, flowering plant (the 
scarlet-fiowered form) is chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of 
new linen, and subjected to pressure. The expressed juice is then briskly agitated 
with an equal weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool 
place. The tincture, prepared by filtering the above mass, has a slight olivaceous 
color by transmitted light; a sweetish somewhat nauseous herbaceous odor; a 
nutty and slightly astringent taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— 0''"'''"'"'«. C,gU,p^.,. This glucoside forms 
in small white crystals, or in an amorphous, lustreless, friable mass ; it is very 
acrid, has a rancid taste, and a neutral reaction. Cyclamin is not volatile, is sol- 
uble in water and alcohol, but not in ether. Its aqueous solution is quite sapona- 
ceous. This glucoside breaks down under the action of mineral acids as follows : 

Cyclamin. Glucose. Cyclamiretin. Water. 

C,,H,0,, = C„H,p, + Q,H,„0, + H,0. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The whole plant is acrid and poisonous, as the 
following experiment of Orfila shows : 

" At eight o'clock in the morning, three drachms of the extract of pimpernel, 
dissolved in an ounce and a half of water, were introduced into the stomach of a 
robust dog. At half-past twelve he had a motion. At six in the evening he was 
dejected. At eleven sensibility appeared diminished. The next morning at six 
he was lying upon the side, and appeared to be dead ; he might be displaced like 
an inert mass of matter. He expired half an hour later. The mucous membrane 
of the stomach was slightly inflamed; the interior of the rectum was of a bright 
color ; the ventricles of the heart were distended with black coagulated blood ; the 
lungs presented several livid spots, and their texture was preternaturally dense. 
Two drachms of the same extract, applied to the cellular texture of a dog's thigh, 
produced death in twelve hours ; and the heart and lungs presented the same 
appearances as in the other." The following symptoms, recorded by Schreter, 
show the character of its action upon man : Lively mood with extra mental vigor ; 



108-3 

stitching headache with sticking pains in the eyeballs; dryness of the throat; tick- 
ling, prickling along the urethra, causing desire for coition ; prickling in the chest; 
general drawing rheumatic pains; sleeplessness; trembling and shivering; and 
trembline of the heart. 



Description of Plate io8. 

I. Whole plant, Saltm, Mass., July 25th, 1875. 

2. Fruit. 

3. Same, showing dehiscence. 

4. .Seed. 

( 2-4 enlarged.) 



109. 




^^^vi^^fc:^' * 



f 






UVadnat.deletpinxl. 



CATALPA BIGNONIOI'DES, Walt. 



m 



N. ORD-BIGNONIACE/E. 109 

(II'.NI'S.— CATALPA/^^ MNN. 

SICX. SVSr.— liIANDRIA MONOCIVMA. 



CATALPA. 



ij^diajY beam. 



SYN.— CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES, WALT.; BIGNONIA CATALPA, LINN; 
CATALPA SYRINGJEFOLIA, SIMS ; CATALPA CORDIFOLTA, DUHAM- 

COM. NAMES.— CATALPA, INDIAN BEAN, BEANTREE. 



A TINC TURK OF EQUAL PARTS OF THE FRESH INNER BARK AND LEAVES OF 
CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES, WALT. 



Description. — This magnificent umbrageous tree, beautiful in blossom, pictur- 
esque in fruit, attains a height of from 20 to 40 feet, its short trunk and spreading 
branches making it one of our finest shade trees, noted for the persistence of its 
fruit, the pods often hanging until new ones are formed. The stem is deliquescent, 
and has a fine gray corrugated bark, more or less glossy and warty ; the ivood 
commercially has but little value, though it is light, fine-textured, and capable of 
taking a fine polish. The branches are large and very irregular in their mode of 
growth. Leaves large, opposite or in whorls of three, long-petioled, simple, entire, 
heart-shaped and pointed ; they are smooth above and downy beneath, especially 
upon the midrib. Inflorescetice open, compound, showy panicles, of large, striking 
flowers, upon the ends of the branches. Calyx deeply 2-lipped or 2-parted, the 
segments being ovate, scaphoid, and blunt-pointed. Corolla monopetalous, cam- 
panulate, inflated, deciduous ; the repand five-lobed, divergent border, irregu- 
lar and 2-lipped. Stamens sometimes didynamous with a rudimentary fifth, but 
more frequently with only one fertile pair; filaments incurved, as long as the tube 
of the corolla and inserted upon it ; anthers with two diverging cells ; /t^//^«-grains 
compounded of many globular bodies all united in the form of a globe. Pistil 
compound; ovary 2-celled, free, upon a fleshy discoid base; style single; stigma 
capitate, or consisting of two lips or plates. Fniit a woody, subcylindrical, 
slender pod, from 4 to 1 2 inches long, pendulous and persistent, 2-celled, the 
septum contrary to the valves ; seeds numerous, densely packed and superimposed, 
flattened by compression, membraneous, with fringe-tipped alse ; embryo flat, al- 
bunioi none. 

History and Habitat. — Catalpa, like all the other genera of this order of 
plants, is tropical ; its most northern range is Kentucky, where it grows in many 
places spontaneously, flowering in July, and fruiting in October. It is cultivated 
in many places in the Middle and Eastern States, attaining a full growth and ap- 

* The Indian name. 



109-2 

parently as healthy and perfect as in its own climate. Its uses as a drug have 
been but slight, its provings as yet show nothing of great importance, a mild 
cathartic action being the only result of large doses of a decoction of the inner 
bark. It has been used as an anthelmintic. Catalpa has no place in the U. S. Ph., 
nor Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh inner bark and leaves are 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, and pouring it into a well- 
stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tinc- 
ture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has 
a clear orange-brown color by transmitted light, a bitter astringent taste and an 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The bark of this plant contains an amor- 
phous bitter principle, the chemistry of which has not been determined ; it has a 
nauseous taste, and is soluble in alcohol. Beside this, sugar and tannin are 
present in small amount. The plant seems to impart all its properties to hot 
water and to alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Unknown. It has been said that it is danger- 
ous to long inhale the odor of the tree, which however is false, at least in this 
locality the emanations cause no symptoms whatever. 

Description of Plate 109. 



I. Panicle from a specimen in DeWitt Park, Ithaca, N. Y. 


June 12, 


1880 


2. Medium-sized leaf. 






3. Pistil (enlarged). 






4. Stamens (enlarged). 






5. Medium-sized fruit. 






6. Seed. 






7. Pollen X 3S0. 









.in. ad natdei.etpinxt. 



VERBASCUM ThAPSUS , Linn. 



N. ORD-SCROPHULARIACE^. 110 

Tribe.-VERBASCE/E. 

GENUS.— VERB ASCUM,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRI.V .MuN\)GVM.\. 



VERBASCUM. 



MULLEIjY. 

STN.— VERBASCUM THAPSUS, LINN. ; TAPSUS BARBATUS, GER. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON MULLEIN; HIGH TAPER; COW'S LUNG WORT; 
FLANNEL PLANT ; (PR.) MOLENB, BOUILLON-BLANC ; (GER.)KdNIGS- 
KBRZB, WOLLKRAUT. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH HERB, VERBASCUM THAPSUS, LINN. 

Description. — This densely woolly, pale green biennial weed, grows to a 
height of from 3 to 6 feet or more. Stem stout, simple, and very straight ; leaves 
alternate, crowded, oblong, acute, entire or nearly so, and so far decurrent at the 
base that the stem appears winged. Inflorescence a simple, dense, terminal, 
cylindrical spike, from i to 2 feet in length. Floivers ephemeral, closing during 
sunshine. Calyx 5-parted ; lobes lanceolate, acute. Corolla open or concave, 
somewhat rotate, the tube scarcely apparent ; lobes 5, broad, acute, nearly equal. 
Sf alliens 5 ; filaments curved, the lower two longest and naked, the lateral pair 
longer than the upper one, and the latter three bearded; anthers 5, i -celled by 
confluence. Style cylindrical, curved; stigma capitate, or merely a stigmatose 
dilation of the apex of the style. Pod globular, septicidally 2-valved; valves 
2-cleft; seeds numerous, wrinkled. 

Scrophulariaceae. — This large family of herbs, or rarely small shrubs and 
trees, is noted for its many narcotic-poisonous species. In its general character it 
bears some resemblance to the Labiateae, but is separated from that order by 
many intervening families. It is characterized as follows : Leaves either opposite 
or alternate, sometimes whorled ; stipules none. Inflorescence various ; primary 
centripetal ; secondary centrifugal when present ; flowers perfect, more or less irreg- 
ular and bilabiate ; calyx and corolla 5-merous, the former persistent, the latter 
personate ; sometimes, however, they are 4-merous, but all four stamens are not 
always present, and in one genus (Synthyris) the corolla is entirely wanting. 
Stamens didynamous or diandrous, rarely 5 and perfect {yerbasctmi),\i\i^n any are 
abortive it is usually the superior one ; filaments inserted upon the tube of the 
corolla. Ovary 2-celled ; placentce axial ; ovules several to numerous, rarely one, 



* Altered from Barbasctim, the old Latin name, signifying the bearded pubescence. 



liO-2 

anatropous or amphitropous ; s/j'/e single and undivided; stigma usually entire, 
sometimes 2-lobed or 2-lipped. Fruit generally capsular, 2-celled. Seeds small, 
rarely winged ; embryo usually small and straight ; albumen copious, sarcous. 

Beside the six genera represented in this work, we have provings of two im- 
portant members of this Order, viz. : the European Fox-glove {Digitalis purpurea, 
Linn.), remarkable for its accumulative power in the system, and its action upon 
the heart ; and the European Hedge Hyssop [Grafiola officinalis, \Jirm.), v^hose 
active principle so nearly resembles that of Veratrum. 

The following species are more or less noted in medical literature as secondary 
plants: the tropical Indian anti-rheumatic Herpestes Monniera, H.B.K. ; the 
Peruvian tonic and febrifuge Tumpu [Cilceolaria trifida, Vahl.), and emetic and 
purgative C. pifinata, Linn.; the Guayanian Bitter Blain [Vandellia diffii^sa, Linn.), 
highly valued by the natives as an emetic and purgative in malignant fever and 
dysentery; and the Malabar specific for gonorrhoea, Torenia Asiatica, Linn. 
Several other species of Digitalis are said to possess the full action of D. purpu- 
rea, d^mong which the following are prominent: The Swiss Digitalis avibigua, 
Murr. ; the Levantine D. oricntalis. Lam.; the German D. purpurascens. Roth.; and 
the Italian D. ferruginea, Linn. The European Water-Betony [Scroplndaria 
aquatica, Linn.) is noted in France as the Jierbe die siege, from its having been the 
sole support at one time of the garrison of Rochelle during the celebrated siege 
by Cardinal Richelieu in 162S. 

History and Habitat. — The common Mullein is a native of the Isle of 
Thapsos, now found in most parts of Europe. In North America it has become 
thoroughly naturalized, principally though, in the Eastern United States, where 
it frequents waste grounds and dry fields. It flowers throughout the summer 
months, its fruit being fully ripe in October. 

Verbascum has been known as a medical plant from ancient times. The 
$/l6^og of Hippocrates and other ancient writers is supposed to be this species, 
though Sibthorp states that it is the male Aevxyj ^"Xo^oq ; Sprengel judges that the 
emale is the mullein and the male the V. zindtclatum''\ 

The principal use of this herb in medicine has been as an anodyne-pectoral, 
and remedy for catarrhal coughs and diarrhoeas. Dr. Home^j- concludes upon 
trial that it " is useful in diminishing or stopping diarrhoea of an old standing, and 
often in easing the pains of the intestines." RafinesqueJ sums up its uses as fol- 
lows : " Leaves soft, like velvet ; equal to flannel in rheumatism for frictions ; for- 
merly thought to cure agues ; emollient in poultice ; good discutient to reduce 
swelled and contracted sinews. Tea sub-astringent, bitterish, used for diarrhoea; 
strong decoction in wash for piles, scalds, and wounds of cattle. Blossoms better 
than leaves, anodyne, antispasmodic, repellant, pectoral, make a perfumed tea 
useful for coughs, hemoptysis, hemorrhage and proctalgy." The flowers placed 
in a bottle and set in the sunshine are said to yield a fatty matter valuable as a 
cure for hemorrhoids. The plant is just now being introduced as a valuable 



* Hamilton, Flora Horn., II., 218. f WoodviUe, Med. Bol., II., 203. J Med. Flora, II., 273. 



110-3 

remedy in pulmonary phthisis, articles appearing from time to time in various med- 
ical and scientific periodicals upon this point. Dr. F. J. B. Ouinlan regards the plant 
as having a distinct weight-increasing power in early cases of pulmonary consump- 
tion. The hot decoction, he claims, causes a comfortable sensation, which, patients 
who have taken it, experience a decided physiological need of. " It eases phthisical 
cough, some patients scarcely requiring cough medicines at all " who use this 
remedy. " Its power of checking phthisical looseness is very marked, and it also 
gives great relief to the dyspnoea. It is, however, useless in advanced cases, and 
has no effect in checking night sweats."* The leaves are considered to be diuretic, 
demulcent, anti-spasmodic, and anodyne ; and the seeds are said to pass readily 
and rapidly through the intestinal canal, thus proving useful for the removal of 
obstructions. 

X'erbascum plays no part in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Medica its 
preparation is Cataplasuia Vcrbasci. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION — The fresh plant, gathered in July, when 
coming into blossom, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with 
one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the 
whole well, pour it into a closely-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand eight days 
in a dark, cool place. The tincture separated by filtration should be opaque, in 
thin layers it has a deep reddish-brown color by transmitted light. It should have a 
sweetish, herbaceous odor, a smoothish astringent taste, and decided acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of the flowers by Morin yielded 
a yellow volatile oil, a fatty acid, free malic and phosphoric acids and their -ate 
salts of lime, a yellow resinous coloring matter, and the general plant constituents, 
including an uncrystallizable sugar. The leaves contain mucilage. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Many of the symptoms caused by from 30 to 
40 ounces of a tincture of the fresh leaves daily, are characteristic of the action of 
this drug. In Hahnemann's experiments the following prominent effects are 
noted ; Vertigo on pressing the left cheek with the hand ; dull pressure at the left 
infra-maxillary condyle, with painful tearing and drawing in the ear ; sensation as 
if the temporal eminences were crushed with pincers ;■}" numbness in the left ear, 
with a sensation as if the ear would be drawn inward; severe drawing, pressure, 
and numbness of the left malar bone, temple and zygoma ; root of tongue coated 
brown ; urging to urinate, with decreased secretion ; constrictive and pressive 
pains in the bones and muscles, and weakness of the lower limbs. The action of 



* Am. your. Phar., 1883, 268; from Bril. Med. Jour. 

f I judge from my own experiments with plants, that the pains similar to crushing ofljones with excruciating tearing 
sensation, is due to the Malic acid contained in them. I have never noted the symptom as arising from experiments wiih 
drugs not containing this body. The minor symptoms of disinclination to work, sleepiness after dinner, general shiftless- 
ness, etc., of Verbascum arose also in my experimentation with the .VZ/cc/ sorrel {O.xalis strieta, Linn.), which contains 
Malic among other vegetable acids. 



110-4 

Verbascum seems to be a somewhat peculiar irritation of the temporo-facial branch 
of the seventh pair of cranial nerves and a somewhat narcotic action upon the 
brain. 

Hahnemann observes that the narcotic effects of the drug wore off in about 
two hours in his experiments. The seeds of Verbascum Lychnitis and Thapsus 
have often been employed to stupefy fish. 

Description of Plate iio. 

X. Upper portion of a young plant, Pamrapo, N. J., June 29th, 1S79. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Anther of beardless stamen. 

5. Bearded stamen. 

6. Pollen, X 2 50. 

7. A ])ortion of the root. 

(3-5 enlarged.) 



111. 




^.m.ailnatdel.etpinxt 



LinAria Vulgaris, Mill. 



N. ORD-SCROPHULARIACE.t. 11 

Tribe.-ANTIRRHINE/E. 

(;ENUS.-LI N ARIA ,* TOURN. 

SEX. SVSr.— DIDVNAMIA AM.lDSl'KRMIA. 



LIN ARIA. 



TOAD FLAX. 

SYN.— LINARIA VULGARIS, MILL. ; ANTIRRHINUM LINARIA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— TOAD FLAX, FALSE FLAX, YELLOW FLAX, RANSTED, 
JACOB'S LADDER, CONTINENTAL WEED, BUTTER AND EGGS; 
(GER.) FRAUENFLACHS, LEINKRAUT, LOWENMAUL ; (FR.) LINAIRE 
COMMUNE. 

.\ I'lNCrURE OF THE FRESH PLANT LINARIA VUI.C.ARIS, MILL. 

Description. — This too-common roadside weed grows to a height of from i to 
3 feet, from a perennial root. Roof woody, creeping, white and fibrous. Sfcni 
erect and simple. Leaves pale green, glaucous, arranged alternately, or more or 
less scattered or whorled upon the stem ; sesile, linear-lanceolate, with an acute 
tip, and vary from i to 3 inches in length. LnJIorescejicc, a terminal, densely- 
riowered, spiked raceme ; fiowers i inch long, bright yellow, with a chrome- 
colored palate. Calyx five-parted, shorter than the spur of the corolla. Corolla 
tubular, masked with a projecting, bifid palate, that nearly closes the ringent 
throat. Upper lip two-cleft. Loiver lip trifid, the middle lobe smallest. Spur 
awl-shaped, situated upon the lower side of the base. Stamens four, didynamous. 
Anthers two-celled. Pollen grains oval, with a deep sulcus and induplicate edges. 
Fruit a thin, two-celled ovoid capsule, opening by two slits below the apex. Seeds 
numerous, flattened, with a nearly complete winged margin. For description of 
the natural order Scrophulariaceae, see Verbascum Thapsus, 1 10. 

History and Habitat. — This pernicious, widely-spreading weed, doubtless has 
its origin in Europe. It is now but too thoroughly naturalized here; its injurious- 
ness, However, being somewhat mitigated by its choice of ground, growing as it 
does only in waste places, dry sandy fields, and along the embankment of rail- 
roads and roadways. It blossoms through the summer months, fruiting as it fiowers. 
Linnceus states {Flor. Suec.) that a decoction of this plant in milk was used as a fiy 
poison. Its previous medical uses were internally for jaundice and anasarca, and 
externally for hemorrhoids, but it has dropped out of use entirely, except with us. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered when 
in full fiower, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts 
by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of 
it and the rest of the alcohol added. The whole is then poured into a well-sto]> 

* The leaves of some species reseiTil)Iing those of flax [Liniiiii). 



ill-2 

pered bottle and allowed to stand for eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture is then separated by straining- and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a very 
deep brownish-red color by transmitted light, a taste at first cooling and sour, 
then like weak tea, and a very acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — I am unable to find any chemical data regard- 
ing this plant, with the exception of the flowers; they have been analyzed, but 
show nothing of the active principle, which probably lies in its acid. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The true action, physiologically, of this plant is 
not known. The provings have been carefully made, and show symptoms of 
some importance, but are not sufficient to determine its sphere. 

Description of Plate hi. 

I. Upper part of a plant from W. Brighton, S. I., July 5th, 1879. 
2-4. Flowers. 
3. Section of flower. 

5. Root. 

6. Pollen X 380. 

7. Seed (enlarged). 



112. 




^Tn..aiinat.ilel.et pinxt. 



SCROPHULARIA NODOSA, Linn. 



N. ORD.-SCROPHULARIACE/E. 112 

GENUS. — SCROPHULARIA,* TOURN. 



SEX. .SVST.— niDVN'.AMI.V .\NGIOSrERMIA. 



SCROPHULARIA 



FIG- WORT. 



SYN.— SCROPHULARIA NODOSA, LINN.; SCROPHULARIA MARILAND- 
ICA, LINN.; SCROPHULARIA NODOSA, VAR. AMERICANA, MICHX.; 
SCROPHULARIA LANCEOLATA, PURSH. 

COM. NAMES.— FIG-WORT, SCROFULA-PLANT, HEAL-ALL, HOLMES- 
WEED, SQUARE-STALK, CARPENTER'S SQUARE ; (FR.) SCROPHU- 
LAIRE ; (GER.) KROPPWURZ, SCROPHELNPFLANZE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT SCROPHULARIA NODOSA, LINN., 
OR VAR. MARILANDICA, GRAY, OR BOTH. 

Description. — This rank perennial herb grows to a height of from 2 to 4 feet. 
Stoii clearly quadrilateral, with slight obtuse ridges at the angles, glabrous through- 
out. Leaves opposite, ranging from oval below to lanceolate above, doubly serrate, 
and cordate or nearly so at the base. Inflorescence a primarily nodding terminal 
panicle, of loose, 3 to 6-flowered cymes ; flowers small, lurid, brownish- or greenish- 
purple. Calyx deeply 5-cleft into ovate, equal lobss. Corolla globose, contracted 
at the throat, and furnished with a two-lipped border; petals 5, the upper lip of 
two erect, equal lobes, the lozoer lip composed of a lateral equal pair, shorter 
however than those of the upper, and a lower reflexed, spreading lobe, closely 
appressed to the tube. Stamens 4, curled inward with the anthers closely sur- 
rounding the ovary ; they become erect when ripening, and fmally decline. The 
rudiment of a fifth stamen forms a protuberance at the summit and in the throat 
of the corolla-tube. Filaments pubescent, broader above than below ; anthers 
with two confluent cells, opening transversely at the apex. Fruit a 2-celled, 
ovoid, septicldal, many-seeded pod; seeds black, rough, and dotted with minute 
pits. Read description of the N. Order under \'erbascum, iio. 

History and Habitat. — The Fig-wort grows along the borders of woods and 
dry roadsides, from Utah eastward throughout the United States and Canada, 
flowering from June to September. The European Scrop/iitlaria nodosa and our 
var. Marilandica seem to differ but slightly in their parts and properties from the 
species under consideration. This herb is said to serve as a soothing poultice to 
inflamed tumors, suppurating mammae, ulcers, burns, hemorrhoids, etc. ; it is also 
used alone and as a component of salves, for itch, various eruptions, and "scabs" 

* On account of its repute in scrofula. 



112-2 

in swine, as well as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and glandular disorders. All 
parts of the plant have a heavy, rank odor when bruised, resembling that of the elder 
[Sauibucus) . 

Scrophularia is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Med- 
ica it is officinal as Dccoctum Scrophularics, and as a component of Synipus Riune- 
cis Conipositus, and Tinctura Corydalis Coiiiposita. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered just 
before flowering, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then 
two parts by weight of alcohol should be taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one- 
sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole, 
pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 
The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a beautiful deep 
crimson color by transmitted sunlight, a rank, acrid odor and taste, and strong 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Scrophularin ; this principle, the chemistry 
of which has not yet been determined, was extracted from a decoction of the 
fresh plant by Walz.* It crystallizes in bitter scales, soluble in both alcohol and 
water. 

Scrophularosmin ; this stearoptene was also discovered by Walz in an aque- 
ous distillate of the plant. 

Walz's analysis also yielded acetic acid, C, H^O,; propionic acid, C3 H,, O., ; 
pectin, C3., H^j, O3., ; and a red coloring matter. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to Dr. Blakely,t this drug, in re- 
peated doses of from 20 drops to a teaspoonful of the tincture, causes : Fullness 
of the head, and vertigo ; free bleeding of the gums ; salivation ; increased appe- 
tite ; colic ; general weariness ; sleepiness ; and sallow skin. 

In this experimenter the drug seemed to expend its force upon the liver. 

Description of Plate 112. 

1. Panicle. 

2. Second pair of leaves from panicle. 

3. Flower, under side. 

4. Corolla opened to show sexual organs. 

5. Ripe stamen (enlarged). 

6. Pollen, X 250. 
Binghamton, N. Y., June Sth, 1884. 



* Mayer in Am. Jour. Phar., 1863, p. 295. + N. k. fouv. Horn., 1866, p. iS 









Y-nLadnatdeletpinxr. 



Chelone Glabra, Linn. 



N. ORD.-SCROPHULARIACE^. H3 

Tribe.-CHELONE/E. 

GENUS— C H E LO N E ,* LINN. 

SEX. SVST.— DIDVXAMIA ANGIOSPER.MIA. 

CHELONE GLABRA. 

TURTLE-HEAD. 

SYN.— CHELONE GLABRA, LINN.; CHELONE OBLIQUA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— TURTLE-HEAD, SNAKE-HEAD, SHELL-FLOWER, BAL- 

MONY, SALT-RHEUM WEED; (PR.) CHELONE; (GBR.) GLATTE, 

CHELONE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH PL.-\NT CHELONE GLABRA, LINN. 



Description. — This beautiful swamp herb grows to a height of from 2 to 6 feet, 
from a creeping perennial root. The slcm is smooth, upright, somewhat obtusely 
four angled, and branching laterally, particularly near the top. It is a question 
though, whether it is really a branching herb, or whether the .so-called branches 
are merely elongated peduncles of the lateral axillary flower spikes. The leaves 
are opposite, either sessile or very short petiolate, broadly lanceolate, serrate and 
pointed, ranging from 2 to 4 inches in length and of various breadths. The 
jiijloirseenee consists of a dense, bracted spike, terminal upon the stem and its 
branches?; the flowers are sessile, closely imbricated with concave, rounded-ovate, 
sharp-pointed bracts and bractlets. Calyx of five deeply parted or distinct 
imbricated sepals. Corolla tubular, with either equal or unequal lateral inflations, 
the mouth either a little open or widely gaping; upper lip broad-arching, keeled in 
the middle, and either entire or notched at the apex ; lotcer lip 3-lobed at the apex, 
the middle lobe narrow or sometimes smallest. Slainens consisting of four 
didynamous, included, fertile or complete ones and one sterile or rudimentary; 
filaments flat, woolly, the rudimentary fifth much smaller than the other four; 
anthers heart-shaped, acuminate, completely connected in pairs by the adhesive 
cottony wool ; pollen more or less cylindrically " hat-shaped," the sulcus being 
between the crown and the rim. Pistil as a whole, projecting beyond the stamens ; 
ova7'y 2-celled, ovoid ; style long, slender and cylindrical ; stigma small and blunt. 
Emit a 2-grooved, 2-celled ovoid capsule, opening by dehiscence through the 
partition, each half carrying a section with it bearing the placenta;. Seeds 
numerous, winged and margined. A description of the natural order may be 
found under Verbuscum thapsus, iio. 

* xtXi*;), toitoisc, from the resemblance of the corolla to the head of that reptile. 



113-2 

History and Habitat. — This strikingly erect plant, native of Canada and the 
United States, grows — though not in great abundance in any one locality — about 
the margins of swampy places and along the wet edges of open woods, flowering 
from August to September. The flowers are large and without odor, they vary 
from white to cream, rose or purplish ; varieties have been at different times 
named both on account of the color of the flowers and the mode of growth, but 
they are too indistinctly separate to afford a place and name. C. alba ; C. rosea ; 
C. purpurea ; C. lajiccolaia ; and C. obliqua. 

Balmony has for years been a favorite tonic, laxative and purgative, among 
the aborigines of North America and Thomsonian physicians ; without sufficient 
reason however as a tonic, in the doses usually employed. 

Chelone has no place in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia Medica it is 
officinal as Decochim Chelonis. 

PART USED, AND PREPARATION.— The fresh herb as a whole, is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol 
are taken, the pulp mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After thorough stirring, and pouring the whole into a well- 
stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture is then separated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a clear 
orange-brown color by transmitted light, a bitter taste and highly acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis has been made of this plant ; all 
parts of it are very bitter, and as it yields this property to alcohol and water, we 
may consider at least, that the active body is soluble in these liquids. 

Description of Plate 113. 

I. Whole plant five times reduced, from Binghamton, N. Y., August 15th, 1882. 

2. Apex of stem in flower. 

3. Pistil (enlarged). 

4. Fertile stamen (enlarged). 

5. Rudimentary stamen (enlarged). 

6. Pollen X 380. 




Q;lQ.aiinal.del.et pinxt 



8 ;v m ^9 ^ 

Veronica Virginica, Linn 



N. ORD -SCROPHULARIACE^. 114 

Thbe.-SIBTHORPIE/E. VERONICE/E, etc. 

GENUS. — VERONICA,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— DIAXDRIA M(i\(K_;VNIA, 



LEPTANDRA, 

CUL VER'S PHYSIC. 

SYN.- VERONICA VIRGINICA, LINN.; V. PURPUREA, STEUD.; V. SIBI- 
RICA, LINN. ; V. JAPONICA, STEUD. ; LEPTANDRA VIRGINICA, NUTT. ; 
P^DEROTA VIRGINICA, TORR. ; CALLISTACHYA VIRGINICA, AND 
EUSTACHYA ALBA. RAP. 

COM. NAMES.— CULVER'S ROOT OR PHYSIC, BLACK ROOT, TALL SPEED- 
WELL, HIGH VERONICA. WHORLY WORT, QUINTEL, HINI; (PR.) 
VERONIQUE DE VIRGINIE ; (GER.) VIRGINISCHBR EHRENPREIS. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF VERONICA VIRGINICA, LINN. 

Description. — This graceful perennial herb grows to a height of from i to 7 
feet. Root horizontal, blackish, sometimes branched, scarred upon its upper sur- 
face by the previous growths, and giving off from the nether numerous long and 
fibrous rootlets. Stem simple, strict, and glabrous. Leaves whorled in numerous 
clusters of from 3 to 9 ; short petioled, lanceolate, acute, tapering at both ends, 
finely serrate, and often downy beneath especially upon the veins. Inflorescence 
in from i to 9 terminal, panicled, spike-like, densely-flowered racemes ; floivers 
small, nearly sessile ; bracts very small, subulate. Calyx 4-parted, persistent ; 
sepals lanceolate, acute. Corolla salver-form, pubescent within, the tube much 
longer than the 4-parted limb, and gready exceeding the calyx ; lobes erect, acute, 
the upper broadest, the lower narrowest. Stamens 2, far exserted ; filaments hairy, 
inserted low down upon each side of the upper lobe of the corolla and about twice 
its length ; anthers rather large, 2-celled ; cells confluent at the apex. Ovary supe- 
rior, 2-celled ; style columnar, entire, exserted, persistent; stioma solitary, capitate. 
Fruit an oblong-ovate, 2-celled pod, not notched at the apex nor much flattened ; 
dehiscence by 4 apical teeth, at length becoming somewhat loculicidal; seeds numer- 
ous, black, oval, and terete ; testa minutely reticulated. 

History and Habitat. — This most graceful and attractive of all American 
Veronicas, habits moist wooded banks from Canada and the valley of Winnipeg, 
to Georgia, Alabama, and Missouri. It blossoms contemporaneously with Cimi- 
cifuga early in July, and, when viewed at a distance, the two plants appear to be the 
same, while either has a beauty and grace which would render it poetically suitable 
for a fairy's wand. The species also grows in Japan and Eastern India, and varies 

* Dedicated to St. Veronica ; or, perhaps, a play upon Betonica. 



somewhat in color of anther and perianth in different locaHtles. Culver's Physic 
was introduced into English gardens in 1714, and has been somewhat planted in 
this country. 

This is one of the many American Aboriginal remedies handed down by them 
to the botanies, and extensively, therefore, used in domestic practice from our 
earliest settlements. In a fresh state the root gained a great reputation as a 
drastic purge and abortivant, but its action was too uncertain and severe; in this 
state it was also frequently employed in intermittents, and was thought to be a 
prophylactic against future attacks. The use of the fresh drug has, however, 
almost ceased in general practice, giving place to the dried root, and an extrac- 
tive called Leptandriii. Doses of from 20 to 60 grains of the powdered root have 
been used as a stomachic tonic, laxative, and antiperiodic ; in dyspepsia, torpidity 
of the liver, debilitated conditions of the alimentary tract, typhoid and intermittent 
fever, and some forms of dysentery and diarrhoea. Speaking of the drug in the 
light of sixty years ago, Rafinesque says:* "The root alone is medical ; it is bitter 
and nauseous, and is commonly used in warm decoction as purgative and emetic, 
acting somewhat like the Eupalor-iuni and Verbena hastata ; some boil it in milk 
for a milder cathartic, or as a sudorific in pleurisy. A strong decoction of the fresh 
root is a violent and disagreeable, but effectual and popular remedy in the Western 
States, for the summer bilious fevers." 

The officinal preparations of the U. S. Phar. are : Exlractum Leptandrcs and 
Extractum Leptandrcs Fluidiun. In the Eclectic Materia Medica the same prepa- 
rations are recommended, and the following also advised : Extractimi Leptandr-a 
HydroalcohoUciwi and Tinctura Leptandrce. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root of the second year, 
gathered after fruition, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then two parts by weight of alcohol are to be taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed 
with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the 
whole well, transfer it to a well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to macerate eight 
days in a dark, cool place, shaking twice a day. 

The tincture, prepared from this mass by pressing and filtering, has a deep 
reddish-orange color by transmitted light ; a somewhat earthy odor ; no character- 
istic taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Z^//«;/rt';'/«6'.t This bitter principle, sepa- 
rated by Wayne,J retains the characteristic odor of the root. It is crystallizable 
when free from coloring-matter, and is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. 

Tannin, gum, resin, volatile oil, and mannite,§ a volatile alkaloid, citric acid, 
and a saponin-like body having a glucosidal nature,|| have also been determined. 

* Med. Flora, 2, 22. 

t This name is proposed, that the substance may not be confounded with ''Lep/anJrin," the extract of the tincture 
now on the market. 

J Froc. Am. Phar. Assoc, 1S56, 34. 
\ Wayne, Am. Jour. Phar., 1859, 557. 
II Mayer, Am. Jour. Phar., 1863, 298. 



114-3 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Full doses of the recent root of Leptandra 
cause dimness of vision, vertigo, vomiting, and purging of bloody or black, tarry, 
papescent feces. Dr. Burt's experiments with from i to 40 grains " Leptandrin " 
and 20 to 160 drops of the fluid extract gave the following symptoms: Headache, 
smarting of the eyes and lachrymation ; yellow-coated tongue ; nausea, burning 
and distress in the stomach ; severe abdominal pains with great desire for stool ; 
profuse black, fetid discharges from the bowels ; general lassitude ; hot, dry skin ; 
and sleepiness, 

Leptandra proves itself to be a severe irritant to the gastric and intestinal 
mucous surfaces, and a stimulant to the absorbent system. 



Description of Plate 114. 

I. Whole plant, 6 times reduced, Binghamton, N. Y., July 27th, 18S5. 

2. Summit of single-racemed plant. 

3. Third whorl of leaves from top of No. i. 

4. Limb of corolla. 

5. Flower. 

6. Calyx and pistil. 

7. Stamen. 

8. Anther. 

9. Bract and calyx. 

10. Fruit. 

11. Horizontal section of ovary. 

12. Seed. 

(4-12 enlarged.) 



115. 





(p.m.ii(inat(lel.etpinxt. EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS , Linn. 



N. ORD-SCROPHULARIACE^. 115 

Tiibe.-EUFHRASIE/E. 

GENUS. — EUPHRASIA,* TOURN. 
SEX. SVST.— DIUY\AMI.\ AXGIOSI'ERMr.V. 



EUPHRASIA.. 

EYEBlilGET. 

SYN.— EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS, LINN.; E. CANDIDA, SCHCEN. ; EUPHRA- 

GIA ALBA, BRUN. 
COM. NAMES.— EYEBRIGHT, EUPHRASY; (FR.) EUPHRAISB ; (GBR.iAUGBN- 

TROST. 

A TINCTURE OF THE HERB EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS, LINN. 

Description. — This low annual only grows to a height of a few inches. StcDi 
erect, hairy ; branches o]iTj)o?,\\.e. Z^^i'^j opposite, varying from roundish-ovate to 
oblong ; margin incisely dentate, that of the upper or floral leaves with strongly 
setaceous teeth ; in the lower leaves tending more to crenate. Inflorescence 
spicate ; bracteoles none ; flozvers small, whitish. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 
4-cleft; lobes acute, pointed. Corolla purple-striped, dilated at the throat, bilabiate, 
the lips subequal ; upper lip erect, barely concave, 2-lobed, the sides revolute ; 
lobes emarginate ; lower lip external in the bud, spreading, 3-lobed ; lobes emar- 
ginate, the middle one largest and yellow. Stamens 4, didynamous, rising under 
the upper lip of the corolla ; anthers 2-celled ; cells equal, distinct, each mucronate 
at its base. Style filiform ; stigma entire. Fruit an oblong, flattened, loculicidal 
capsule ; seeds numerous, pendulous, oblong, and longitudinally sulcate. 

History and Habitat. — Euphrasia is indigenous to Europe and North America- 
VVith us its growth is depauperate and its stations few. It ranges, here, from the 
north-eastern coast of Maine over the alpine summits of the White Mountains 
and Adirondacks ; thence northward and westward along the upper shore of Lake 
Superior to the Aleutian Islands. In many of these locations a dwarf form, with 
very small flowers, is found. It flowers in July and August. 

Though this herb has always been known under a name of Greek originl 
still no mention of the plant is made by Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, or even by the 
Arabian physicians. F. Bauhin says that it was known as a remedy for the eyes 
about the year i38o.t Arnoldus Villanovanus, who died in 131 3, was the author 
of " Vini Eiiphrasiati tantoperc celebrati." How long before him Euphrasia was 
in repute for eye diseases, is impossible to say; but in Gordon's '' Liticium Medt- 
cince," published in 1305, among the medicines for the eyes Euphragia is one, and 
is recommended both outwardly in a compound, distilled water, and inwardly as a 

* Eu^par/a, euphrasia, cheerfulness ; as to its effect upon the spirits through its benefit to the sight, 
t Phy'.op., 442 



115-2 

syrup.* Euphragia is not mentioned in the Scho/a Salernitana, compiled about 
I lOO. Tlie earliest notice of Euphrasia, as a medicine, is in the works of Tragus.f 
It was employed as a remedy in diseases of the eyes, by Fuschius, Dodonaeus, 
Haller, and others, and has been a vulgar remedy in these diseases from time 
immemorial, throughout the whole of Europe. Fuschius recommended it in suf- 
fusions and cataracts. The Highlanders, of Scotland, make an infusion of it in 
milk, and anoint the patient's eyes with a feather dipped in it. Hoffman employed 
it in jaundice ; Villanova and Velebt, in weakness of the eyes. In 1836, Krameh- 
feld| employed it, with success, in rheumatic and catarrhal inflammation of the 
eyes and their lids ; in cough, hoarseness, earache, and headache, which have suc- 
ceeded catarrhal affections; and glandulous, catarrhal, and scrofulous blephar- 
ophthalmia.§ 

Woodville says:|| " Euphrasia derives its name from its reputed efficacy in vari- 
ous disorders of the eyes, for which it was used both externally and internally, and 
has long been so much celebrated as to be considered almost in the character of a 
specific, the 'veriim oculorttm solamen! But as there cannot possibly be a general 
remedy for all diseases of the eyes, the absurd and indiscriminate recommendation 
of Euphrasia as such, must receive but little credit from those who practice medi- 
cine on rational principles. It must be acknowledged, however, that some authors 
have stated peculiar complaints of the eyes, in which the use of this plant was 
thought more remarkably evident ; and, judging by these, we should say that eyes, 
weakened by long-continued exertion, and those that are dim and watery, as in a 
senile state, are the cases in which Euphrasia promises most advantage; nor are 
old people to despair, for according to Hildanus and Lanzonus, several, at the age 
of seventy and eighty years, were recovered from almost entire blindness." He 
further remarks that the Icelanders are in the constant habit of using the juice of 
the plant in all affections of the eyes ; and adds that, "though the great reputation 
which Eyebright formerly supported for several ages, must have induced some 
practitioners to have used it ; yet we do not find a single instance of its efficacy 
recorded in modern times. How far this remark ought to invalidate the positive 
testimonies in its favor, we leave others to determine." 

Dr. John King remarks ^y that four fluid ounces of the infusion morning and 
night, upon an empty stomach, has cured epilepsy. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh flowering plant, 
above the root, gathered from barren, sunny spots, should be treated as directed 
for Verbascum, Scrophularia, and Chelone (ante, pp. 110-2, 112-2, 113-2). The 
resulting tincture has a deep brownish-red color by transmitted light ; a pleasant, 
vinous odor; a bitter, astringent taste; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— ^?^//w'«.y/«-7^a;/;//V Acid, C„Hj„Oj,. — This 
peculiar tannin gives a dark-green precipitate with ferric salts, and is only obtain- 
able by combination with lead. It is precipitable by glue, and tartrate of antimony 
(Wittstein). 

* Allsion, Mat. Med., 7, IJ9. J Ozann's Journal. || Med. Bot., 2, 369. 

f Spiengel, op. cit. \ Hamilton, Flor. Horn., I, 275. 1[ Am. Disp., loc. cit. 



115-3 

The volatile oil, and acrid and bitter principle, liave not as yet b(X'n chemically 
analyzed. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms caused by doses varying from 
I o to 60 drops of the tincture, observed by several German experimenters* were 
substantially as follows: Confusion of the mind and cephalalgia; violent pressure 
in the eyes with lachrymation and itching, redness and swelling of the margins 
of the lids, violent burning of the lids, dimness of vision, sensation as though the 
eye were covered with mucus; weakness, and photophobia r sneezing and fluent 
coryza ; odontalgia ; nausea ; constipation ; hoarseness, violent cough, with profuse 
expectoration, and difficult breathing ; yawning and sleeplessness ; profuse secre- 
tion of urine; and sweat. 



Description of Plate 115. 

I. Whole phint, once enlarged, Kearsarge, N. H., July 24tli, iSS^. 

2. Calyx. 

3. Flower. ' 

4. Stamen. 

5. Seed. 
(2-5 enlarged.) 

* See Alleti's Encyc, 4, 254. 



116. 





(Ein..ailnat.ilel.elpinxt. 



Mentha Piperita, Linn. 



N. ORD-LABIAT/E. 116 

Tribe.-SATUREI/E. 

GENUS.— MENTHA,* LINN. 
SEX. SVST.— DIDYNAMIA G VMNOSPERMIA. 



MENTHA PIPERITA. 



PEPPERMIJyT. 

SYN.— MENTHA PIPERITA, SMITH, VAR. OFFICINALIS, KOCH ; M. VIRIDI- 
AQUATICA, SHULTZ ; M. OFFICINALIS AND HIRCINA, HULL ; M. PALUS- 
TRIS, RAIL 

COM. NAMES.— PEPPERMINT; (FR.) MBNTHE POIVREE ; (GER.) PFEFFER- 
MtJNZE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT MENTHA PIPERITA. 

Description. — This glabrous or somewhat hairy, pungent, perennial herb, 
grows to a height of from i to 2 feet. Rootstock creeping, spreading, and multi- 
plying ; stent suberect. Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate, 
acute, and rounded at the base ; petioles distinct. Inflorescence in numerously 
glomeruled, terminal and superaxillary, leafless, and at last interrupted, ovate 
spikes; flowers small, distinctly pedicellate; bracts hispid, mostly longer than the 
verticillasters, the upper linear. Calyx campanulate, naked in the throat ; li7ub 
5-toothed ; teeth hispid. Corolla 4-lobed, hardly irregular, except that the upper 
lobe, though never galeate nor concave, is broader than the others and emarginate; 
liibe short, inclined. Stamens 4, included, similar and nearly equal, erect, straight, 
and distant ; anthers 2-cened ; cells parallel, without a thickened connective. Style 
long, exserted. 

Labiatae. — This large family of square -stalked aromatic herbs, and low 
shrubs, represented in North America by 50 genera, comprising 231 species and 
45 recognized varieties, is characterized as follows : Stems square ; leaves opposite, 
or sometimes verticillate, simple, and usually dotted with immersed glands filled 
with volatile oil ; stipules none. Inflorescence thyrsoidal ; the general evolution of 
the clusters in the axils of leaves or primary bracts centripetal ; that of the cymes 
or glomerules centrifugal ; the leaves being opposite and the clusters nearly or 
quite sessile, a whorl-like appearance is made (verticillaster) ; floiocrs perfect ; 
hypogynous disk usually present, or represented by i or 4 gland-like lobes. Calyx 
tubular, gamosepalous. Corolla irregular and more or less bilabiate; lobes imbri- 
cated in the bud, the posterior or upper exterior, the middle lower innermost. 
Stamens didynamous or diandrous, borne upon the tube of the corolla, distinct or 

* Mfrtf/?, Minthe, daughter of Cocytus, whom, through jealousy, Proserpine changed into one of these plants. 



116-2 

rarely monadelphous ; the fifih, or anterior, and in diandrous species the adjacent 
pair also, rudimentary or sterile ; rarely the four fertile stamens are equal. Pistil 
dimerous, each carpel deeply 2-parted or lobed ; ovary 4-parted or lobed ; lobes 
uniovulate; ovul s mostly amphitropous or anatropous and erect; style filiform, 
mostly 2-cleft and 2-stigmatose at the apex. Fruit 4 akene-like nutlets, surround- 
ing the base of the stigma, in the bottom of the persistent calyx ; nutlets smooth 
or barely roughish. Embryo straight except in Scutellarinecs ; cotyledons plane or 
plano-convex ; radicle inferior ; albumen slight or none. 

The proven plants of this order, besides the six treated of in this work, are : 
the Mediterranean Germander [Teiicriiun JMariun, Linn.), a noted feline aphro- 
disiac ; the European, West Asiatic, and North African Pennyroyal [Mentha 
pulegiziin, Linn.), which is deemed emmenagogue, and antispasmodic; the South 
American Alfavaca [Ocimiim canum, D. C), which is used, in Brazil, as a sudorific, 
especially in diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra; the East Indian 
Ocimum Basilicum, Linn., used by the natives as a palliative for the pains of par- 
turition ; Sweet Marjoram {Origanum Marjorana, Linn.), a cultivated form of O. 
vidgare ; the Cape Plectrantkus frnticoszis,]^. ]r{e.nt.; the Mediterranean Rose- 
mary (7?ci.yOT«/-7'«z^.f t^^^/wfl/Zi-, Linn.), an an tihysteric and emmenagogue; and the 
European and Siberian Betony [Stac/iys Betonica, Benth.), a sternutatory, emetic 
and purgative. 

A large number of species of this order have figured, more or less, in general 
and domestic practice, as stimulant, antispasmodic, carminatives, and jucunda for 
unpleasant drugs. A few of them only will be mentioned here, that the order 
may be well understood. The European, Asiatic, and African Lavender [Laven- 
dula vera, D. C), a carminative, antihysteric, and antiflatulent. The European 
Spearmint [Mentha viridis, Linn.), which is also considered stomachic; the Euro- 
pean, Asiatic, and African Marjoram {Origanum vulgare, Linn.), a mild tonic, 
diaphoretic, and emmenagogue; and the Mediterranean Thyme {Thymus vidgaris, 
Linn.), lauded as a local stimulant and rubefacient, in carious teeth, rheumatism, 
sprains, etc. The leaves of the Mediterranean Sage {Salvia officinalis, Linn.), are 
well known as a light, bitter tonic, anti-emetic, diaphoretic, and astringent. The 
American Horsemint {Monarda punctata, Linn.), is considered diaphoretic, em- 
menagogue, diuretic, and rubefacient. The European and West Asiatic Catmint, 
or Catnip {Nepeta Cataria, Linn.), so well known in all country households, has 
been used, from time without date, as a stimulant, antispasmodic, and emmena- 
gogue, in chlorosis, amenorrhoea, and various low type female disorders. Like 
Marum Verum it is a feline aphrodisiac. The European Horehound {Marubium 
vidgare, Linn.), is diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral, and emmenagogue, and much 
used in confections, for asthma, phthisis, tussis, night-sweats, as well as in uterine 
and visceral affections. The South European Hyssop {Hyssopus officinalis, Linn.) ; 
Balm {Melissa officinalis, Linn.) ; Summer and Winter Savories {Satureia hortcn- 
sis, and f?iontana, Linn.) ; and Dittany of Crete {Origanum Dictamnus, Linn.), are 
all considered antiflatulent, antihysteric, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, etc., and 
are used in chlorosis, amenorrhoea, hypochondriasis, and kindred affections. The 



iiG-3 

European and Asiatic Motherwort [Leo/mrus Cardiaca, Linn.), which has but 
lately been brought before us, as Homoeopaths, has been esteemed much, as the 
above species, beside being valued in Russia, as a remedy in rabies. The East 
Indian Anisomeles jMalabarica, R. Br., is an excellent diaphoretic. The American 
Dittany [Cuiii/a mariana, Linn.), was used, by the Aborigines, as an antiperiodic 
and ale.\iteric. The genus Ociinmn furnishes plants of various properties; the 
Sierra Leone viridc, Willd., and Indian sanctiini, Linn , are febrifugal ; the Japanese 
crispHS, Thunb., antirheumatic, and the Indian suave, Willd., useful in infantile 
catarrh. 

A number of the above species, and a multitude of others, are better known 
to the housewife and perfumer than to us as physicians. 

History and Habitat. — Peppermint is nowhere considered truly indigenous, 
though probably its native haunt is the basin of the Mediterranean. It grows as 
an escaped plant in all European countries, as it does with us, in ditches and 
along brooks ; there is nothing to prove that it is not a cultivated variety of ]\I. 
vi7'idis, into which it is said to revert if not properly reset. It was first said to be 
found in England about the year 1700, by Dr. Eales. The cultivation of the plant 
was begun in Great Britain about 1750, and on the Continent in 1770; it was 
afterward quite extensively planted in Surrey, Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and 
Hertfordshire, in England; Sens, in France; CoUeda, in Germany; and New York, 
Ohio, and Michigan, in the United States. The yield of oil, for which alone the 
plant is cultivated, is from .5 to 1.5 per cent, of the production (from 8 to 16 lbs. 
per acre) ; and the annual product of the world is estimated at about 90,000 lbs.* 

Peppermint began its usefulness, in medicine, at about the same period of its 
cultivation, and was then considered specific in renal and vesical calculus, dyspep- 
sia, and diarrhoea; being considered a stomachic, tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic, 
and carminative. It was found useful in bowel troubles, especially those associated 
with flatulency, colic, retching, vomiting, spasmodic actions, and hysteria. Its 
rubefacient action is intimately associated with what may be considered anodyne 
properties, when the trouble is neuralgic or rheumatoid, and the affected nerves 
or muscles are somewhat superficial. Facial and sciatic affections are greatly 
relieved by fomentations of the leaves, or rubbing the oil, or menthol, directly 
over the course of the nerve itself; the action is temporary, but decidedly happy. 

The principal use of the essence or oil is as a flavoring for confections, and a 
jucund ingredient of prescriptions containing nauseous, and especially griping 
drugs. 

The leaves and tops are officinal in the U. S. Ph., as well as Spiri/us McnlJia 
Piperitce, and Vinum Ai-oniaticiim:\ In Eclectic practice, the preparations are : 
Aqua MentJics Piperilce, Extractiim Rhei Flnidiim,\ Infusuin Mentha Piperita:, 
Mistura Camphors Composita,\ Mistura Cajeputi Composita,\\ Oleum Menthce 
Piperitce, Pulvis Rhei Compositus,^ Tinctura Olei Menthce Piperitce. 

* Todd, Proc. Am. Fharm. Assoc. 1876, 828. \ Camphor, Opiuin, Peppermint, and .Spearmint. 

t Lavender, Origanum, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, and Wormwood. || Cajeput, Cloves, Peppermint, and Anise. 

X Rhubarb and Peppermint. \ Rhubarb, Bicarbonate Potash, and Peppermint. 



116-4 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh, flowering plant is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, and pouring it into a well- 
stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by pressure and filtration, should have 
a clear orange-brown color by transmitted light; retain the odor of the plant; 
have an oily feel ; a bitterish, slightly astringent, mint-like taste ; and an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— (9// of Peppermint. This essential oil of the 
leaves is either colorless, pale yellow, or greenish, turning brown with age. It is 
liquid, has a sp. gr. of 0.84-0.92, boils at i88°-i93° (37o.4'^-379.4° F.), has a strong, 
agreeable odor, and a powerful aromatic taste, at first biting, then cold, especially 
upon strong inhalation of air over the tongue ; this effect is followed by a peculiar 
numbness characteristic of this product. The oil is soluble in water and in alcohol. 
It consists of a solid and liquid portion, and contains from 0.5 to 5 per cent, of 
a hydrocarbon (Cj^H^^ -|- or— O), which is said to prevent the crystallization of 
menthol. 

The oil of commerce is often adulterated with that of pennyroyal, with intent, 
or that of Mentha arvensis, Erigeron Canadense, or Erechthifes liicracifolia, by 
carelessness. The tests for the oil are given by the Oil and Drug News as fol- 
lows: On the addition to the oil of an equal part of a mixture of two parts chloral- 
hydrate, dissolved in one part of C. P. sulphuric acid and a drop or two of alcohol, 
a cherry-red coloration follows if the oil is pure; but, if pennyroyal is present, a 
dark olive-green color ensues ; and D. Reagan says* that the pure oil is but slowly 
absorbed by blotting paper, but when the three plants above mentioned are mixed 
with it the absorption is rapid. 

If the presence of the hydrocarbon above mentioned is very slight, the oil 
cooled to — 4 (+ 24. 8° F.) will deposit. 

Fipinent/iol,-\ C^^H.,^0, a stearopten of the exquisite odor of Peppermint, com- 
posed of fine hexagonal crystals, melting at 36° (96.8° F.), and boiling at 210° 

(410° v.).x 

\J\IenthoL — Under this name is understood the Chinese Oil of Peppermint, 
which is distilled from Mentha Javanica, Bl, which is so pure that it almost wholly 
yields this product. Chinese menthol is very like that of other countries, but differs 
essentially in melting at 42° (107.6° F.), and boiling at 212° (413.6° F.). The 
import of this substance in 1884 was 4000 lbs., since when it has gready increased.] 

Menthene, Cj^,Hjj. — On distilling menthol with phosphorous pentoxide, this 
body results as a levogyrate liquid, boiling at 163° (325.4° F.). 

An almost odorless resin, and tannin, have also been determined. 

* Am. Jour. Phar., 1885, 600. f Peppermint Camphor. % Henry Trimble, Am. Jour. Phar., 1883, 486. 



116-5 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms of disturbance caused in Dr. 
Demeures' experiments are substantially as follows : Headache, with confusion ; 
shooting pains in the region of fifth-nerve terminals ; throat dry and sensitive ; dry 
cough on inspiration ; and external muscular soreness of the neck. Dr. Demeures 
judges that this drug is to dry cough what arnica is to bruised and strained 
muscles. 



Description of Plate ii6. 

I. End of an early flowering plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 26th, 1SS5. 

2. Flower. 

3. Section of calyx. 

4. Section of corolla. 
(2-4 enlarged.) 




^ 14 f^ 

^8 TTg \ 10 

^Tn.adnat.del.etpinxt. LYCOPUS ViRGINICUS, Linn. 



N. ORD-LABIAT^. 117 

Tribe -SAW REIE/E. 

GENUS. — LYCO PUS,* LINN. 
.SEX. .SV.ST.— DI.VNDKI.V MdNoGVNIA. 



LYCOPUS. 



BUGLE -JVEUD. 



SYN.-LYCOPUS VIRGINICUS, LINN.; L. UNIPLORUS, MICHX. ; L. PUMI- 
LUS, VAHL. ; L. MACROPHYLLUS, BENTH. ; L. VIRGINICUS, VAR. PAU- 
CIFLORUS, BENTH. ; L. VIRGINICUS, VAR. MACROPHYLLUS, GRAY. 

COM. NAMES. — BUGLE -WEED, WATER HOREHOUND, GIPSY -WEED, 
GIPSY -WORT, PAUL'S BETONY, WATER BUGLE; (FR.) LYCOPE DE 
VIRGINIB; (GER.) VIRGINISHER WOLFSFUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE HERB LYCOPUS VIRGINICUS, L. 

Description. — This common perennial weed usually attains a growth of from 
6 to 24 inches. Sfem erect, obtusely angled, stoloniferous, and glabrous or very 
slightly pubescent ; stolons long, filiform, often tuberous at the apex, produced from 
the base of the summer stems. Leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, coarsely ser- 
rate especially in the middle, acute at both ends, and tapering at the base into a 
short petiole. Lnflorescence in sessile, axillary, capitate-verticillastrate glomerules ; 
bracts very short, resembling the calyx-teeth ; flmoers whitish or tending toward 
purple. Calyx campanulate, only slightly shorter than the corolla, and naked in 
the throat; teeth 4 to 5, ovate or lance-ovate, obtuse or slightly acutish, 3-nerved. 
Corolla bell-shaped, small, short, and hardly irregular; lobes 4, nearly equal, the 
upper entire and broader than the others, but neither galeate or concave. Sta- 
mens inserted, straight, erect, equidistant, only two furnished with anthers; anthers 
with two parallel cells. Style bulbous at the base, bifurcating at the apex, the inner 
surfaces of the lobes stigmatic. Fruit composed of 4 3-sided nutlets, truncate at 
the top and acute at the base, the lateral margins thickened, the superior 4-cre- 
nated ; areola basal, small. 

History and Habitat. — The V'irginian Bugle-weed is indigenous to North 
America, where it ranges from Labrador to Florida, Missouri, and northwestward 
to British Columbia and Oregon. It grows in low, damp, and shady grounds, and 
blossoms from July to September. This is one of the species that caused Rafin- 
esque to vagarize, he disported with it to such an extent that it was forced to 
yield him 5 new species and 16 varieties " some of which might even be deemed 
species." 

* A(i«o;, Lykos, wolf: ^ovi, pous, foot; from suppositional resemblance. 



117-2 

The medical history of this species seems to hang upon the laurels of L. vul- 
garis of Europe. It was first mentioned by Schoepf,* but Drs. Pendleton and 
Rogers t first presented it in tangible form as an agent in incipient phthisis with 
hemoptysis. RafinesqueJ thought exceeding well of its general properties, and as 
a means of producing diaphoresis without debility; he judged it a tonic sedative, and 
found it very useful in hemoptysis, and internal inflammation ; he further claims 
that it acts somewhat like Digatalis, lowering the pulse, without producing any 
bad effects, nor accumulating in the system. Dr. Williams speaks of the plant§ as 
being " one of the most valuable styptics (hemostatics ?) we possess in our vege- 
table Materia Medica. Most writers accept the idea that the plant is narcotic ; 
we, however, inter, both from our own experience and that of others, that it is 
only sedative in that it rem.oves, by checking hemorrhage, that nervous excita- 
bility and mental fear always accompanying such conditions. It is certainly an 
excellent hemostatic, very useful in generous doses, striving for its primary effect 
in epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, and menorrhagia. But two days have 
passed, at this writing, since we checked one of the most serious cases of epistaxis 
in our practice by the exhibition of teaspoonful doses of the tincture, one drachm 
to the ounce of water, ten minutes between doses ; three doses alone were suffi- 
cient, after two hours of hemorrhage and the patient (a healthy man) greatly 
reduced. Dr. King says,§ Lycopus is decidedly beneficial in the treatment of 
diabetes, having cured when other means were useless, and has been of service 
in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. 

This valuable remedy was dismissed from the U. S. Phar. at the last revision ; 
in the Eclectic Materia Medica the officinal preparation is Infusum Lycopus. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh flowering herb is 
treated as in the preceding drug. The resulting tincture has a clear brown color 
by transmitted light ; an herbaceous odor ; an astringent and slightly bitter taste ; 
and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The analysis of the Tildens|| determined the 
presence of a peculiar bitter principle, insoluble in ether, another soluble in ether, 
the two forming more than ten per cent, of the whole solid extract; tannin, and the 
usual plant constituents. The plant, according to the observations of myself and 
others, contains also a volatile oil. The properties of the plant are given up to 
water, and all seem to remain on drying except the last. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The symptoms caused in the human body by 
doses varying from ten drops to three drachms of the tincture, and of a wineglass- 
ful of the infusion •[ all point to the drug as increasing the tonicity of the capillaries 
and diminishing the vis-a-tergo in the larger vessels and the action of the heart 
itself. The symptoms, other than those of circulation, were : Nausea ; flatulence. 



* N. Y. Meti. and P/iys. Jour., I, lyy. \ Am. Disp., 1870, 494. 

t Med. J-lor., II, 20. II Jour. 0/ Mat. Med., vol. I, N. S. 1S59, 326. 

X Am. Med. Assoc, 1S49, 902. "J .\llen, Eiicyc. Mat. Med. VI, 69. 



117-3 

griping, and diarrhoea; decrease of sp. gr. of urine to as low as icx)4, with dimin- 
ished quantity, causes deposits of mucus, but no albumen ; fleeting rheumatic 
pains, and pleurodynia: sensations of cardiac constriction; slight fever; and 
sleeplessness. 

Description of Plate 117. 

I and 2. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 31, 18S5. 

3. Flower. 

4. Face of corolla. 

5. Stamen. 

6. Pistil. 

7. Fruit. 

8. ( outer view. 

9. Akene, J inner view. 
10. (^lateral view. 



=-H= 



118. 




^TQ..adnat.ilel.et pinxt 



HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES , Peps. 



N. ORD-LABIAT^. 118 

Tribe.~SATUREIE/E. 

GENUS. — HEDEOMA,=i= PKRS. 
SEX. SVST.— I)I.\XDRIA MONdGVNI.V. 



HEDEOMA. 



AMERICAJ^ PEJYjYYRO YAL. 

SYN.— HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES, PBRS. ; MELISSA PULEGIOIDES, LINN.; 
CUNILA PULEGIOIDES, LINN. ; ZIZIPHORA PULEGIOIDES, R. & S. 

COM. NAMES.— MOCK PENNYROYAL, TICK-WEED. SQUAW MINT, STINK- 
ING BALM; (FR.) POULIOT D'AMERIQUE; !GER.) AMERIKANISCHER 
POLEY. 

A TINCTURP: of THK WHOLK PL.'\NT HEDK0M.\ PULEGIOIDES, PERS. 

Description. — This common, annual herb, grows to a height of from 6 to 1 2 
inches. Sicrii erect, minutely pubescent, branching ; hairs retuse. Leaves oblong- 
ovate, obscurely serrate, the floral similar, all narrowed at the base into a slender 
petiole. Inflorescence in loose, few-flowered, axillary whorls, often having the 
appearance of terminal racemes ; flozvers very small, pedicillatc. Caly^-' ovoid or 
tubular, gibbous at the base, 13-nerved, bearded in the throat, and more or less 
two-lipped ; upper-lip 3-toothed, broad and spreading ; (ect/i triangular ; loivcr-lip 
2-cleft, divisions setaceous-subulate, and hispid-ciliate. Corolla bluish, pubescent, 
scarcely exceeding the calyx; tube naked within ; limb 2-lipped, the throat evenly 
open ; npper-lip erect, flat, and notched at the apex ; loiocr-lip spreading, 3-cleft. 
Stamens 4, the inferior (fertile) pair the longer; fertile filaments ascending parallel 
and under the upper-lip; sterile tipped with a litde head, destitute of cells or pollen. 
Anthers of fertile stamens, 2-celled. Fruiting calyx ovate-campanulate, strongly 
gibbous, the throat closed with a ring of villous hairs. Nutlets 4, ovoid, brown, 
slightly coni])ressed. 

History and Habitat. — This species is indigenous to North America, where it 
ranges from Canada to Iowa, and southward. It grows upon the most arid spots 
of open woods and fields, and blossoms from July to September. 

The American Pennyroyal differs largely from the European Moitha pulc- 
gium in its botanical characters, but its action, as a medicine, is very like it. Our 
species is extensively used, in domestic practice, as an aromatic stimulant and car- 
minative in colic of children ; a diaphoretic in the beginning of colds (Pennyroyal 
Tea); and in large doses of a hot infusion, together with the pediluvium, in amen- 
orrhoea. In the latter trouble, if of recent occurrence, it will often bring on the 
menses nicely; and, combined with a gill of brewer's yeast, it frequently acts w(;ll 

* *H(^'tf«T/ioi', heiivcsmon, from n<'»,-, heiiys^ sweet: »<Ji^n, oame^ smell. 



118-2 

as an abortivant, should the intender be not too late with her prescription. The oil 
is anti-emetic, anti-spasmodic, and rubefacient in rheumatism ; with raw linseed 
oil, it makes an excellent dressing for recent burns. The oil has been recom- 
mended as an ointment to keep off gnats, ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes ; many w'ho 
have camped in the northern woods, have anointed their hands, neck, and face 
with this body, to guard against the pests of that region, but with only partial 
success. 

The herb and Oleum Hedcomes are officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic 
Dispensatory, the oil and Decoctum Hedcomce are recommended. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, at the flower- 
ing period, is treated as described for the root of CoUinsonia.* The resulting 
tincture has a deep orange color by transmitted light ; retains the odor and taste 
of the plant to a high degree ; and has an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— (:W^///^-ft'tw«^.— This body is easily obtain- 
able by distilling the fresh herb with water. It results as an almost colorless, light- 
yellow liquid, becoming darker with age. It retains the odor and taste of the herb, 
is neutral, has a sp. gr. of 0.941, f and is readily soluble in alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— A case of poisoning by the oil is reported by 
Dr. Toothacker,;j: of a woman who took, at intervals, doses of a teaspoonful of the 
oil ; she presented the following symptoms : Severe headache ; difficult deglutition ; 
great nausea, severe retchings, but inability to vomit; intolerable bearing down, 
labor-like pains, with tenderness of the abdomen ; constipation ; dyspnoea ; semi- 
paralysis of the limbs ; nervous weakness, and prostration. 



Description of Plate iiS. 

I. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 21st. 1SS5. 

2. Flower. 

3. Calyx. 

4. Mouth of corolla. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Fruiting caly.x. 

7. Nutlet. 
(2-7 enlarged.) 



Page 119-2. f The sp. gr. of tlie oil of Mentha pulegium is 0.925. J Phil. your, of Horn., 2, 655. 




^m.adnat.del.etpinxt, COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS, Li 



nn. 



N. ORD.-LABIAT^. 119 

Tribe-SAJUREIE/E. 

GENUS.— COLLINSONIA,* LINN. 



SEX. SYST.— DIANDRIA MuNoGVNIA. 



COLLINSONIA. 

STOA'E-ROOT. 

SYN.-COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS, LINN.; C. DECUSSATA, MCEN.; C. 

OVALIS, PURSH. 
COM. NAMES.— STONE-ROOT, HORSE-WEED, HORSE-BALM, OX-BALM, 

KNOT-ROOT, KNOB-ROOT, GRAVEL-ROOT, RICH-WEED,t RICH-LEAF, 

HEAL-ALL,t HARDHACK;? (PR.) BAUME DB CHEVAL ; (GER.l CANA- 

DISCHE COLLINSONIE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE ROOT OF COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS, LINN. 

Description. — This glabrous perennial herb grows to a height of from 2 to 4 
feet. Root nodular, depressed, and very hard and stone like ; sfeni erect, some- 
what 4-angled. Leaves opposite, petioled, ample, thin, varying from broadly ovate 
to oblong, tapering at the base, pointed at the apex, very veiny, and coarsely, 
sharply, and irregularly serrate. Inflorescence a naked, terminal, racemose, gland- 
ular-puberulent panicle ; floioers lemon-yellow and lemon-scented. Calyx ovate, 
short, lo-nerved, lengthened in fruit, bearded midway in the throat, and containing 
a little honey-gland that partly surrounds, and is larger than, the two upper nut- 
lets ; lips 2, the upper flattened and 3-toothed, the lower 2-parted. Corolla elon- 
gated, somewhat infundibuliform, and having a bearded ring at the insertion of the 
filaments ; lips 2, the lower larger, pendent, irregularly fimbriate, and bearded down 
the inner median line. Stamens 2 (the posterior pair wanting), much exserted, not 
declined, and spirally coiled in the bud ; filaments long and straight, somewhat 
divergent ; ant/iers introrse, 2-celled, the cells divaricate and contiguous. Style 
long, filiform, protruding toward one or the other stamen, and bifurcated at the 
ape.x into unequal lobes. Seeds triticose, carunculate. 

History and Habitat. — The Stone-Root is indigenous to North America, where 
it ranges from Canada to Wisconsin, and southward to Florida, being particularly 
abundant in the North, and along the Allegheny Mountains. It habits rich woods, 
and flowers from July to September. The original specimen of this plant was sent 
to Peter Collinson, a promoter of science in England, by John Bartram, in 1735 ; 
he afterward forwarded it to Linnaeus, who named the species in his honor. 



* In honor of I'eter Collinson, F.L.S. (See " History and Habitat." 

f The true Rich-weed is PiUa pumila. Gray (Urtic.icea;). 

X Properly, Brunella vulgaris, Linn. 

\ This vulgarism denotes Spirea toinenlosa. Linn. (Koseacese). 



119-2 

Collinsonia was first introduced as a medicine by Schoepf, who praised its vir- 
tues in lochial colic, snake-bites, rheumatism, and dumb ague. Rafinesque states 
that the Aborigines used the plant as a vulnerary, and that Dr. Mease claimed to 
cure dropsy with an infusion of the root in cider;* he further states that, "in the 
mountains of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Carolina, this genus is considered 
as a panacea, and used outwardly and inwardly in many disorders ; it is applied 
in poultice and wash for bruises, sores, blows, falls, wounds, sprains, contusions, 
and taken like tea for headaches, colics, cramps, dropsy, indigestion, etc." Drs. 
A. French and Beers speak highly of it in pains of the bladder, ascites, and dropsy 
of the ovaries ; also as a powerful tonic in putrid and malignant fevers, and in 
leucorrhcea. Dr. Hooker judges the principle so volatile that all infusions should 
be made in a tight vessel. Dr. Scudder speaks highly of the plant in chronic 
diseases of the respiratory tract, and says that it relieves pulmonary irritation, and 
acts as a stimulant expectorant. " In irritation of the pneumogastric nerve," he 
says, " heart disease, and that peculiarly distressing asthma simulating, and some- 
times attending, phthisis, it has a superior influence in quieting irritation, giving 
increased strength to the patient. In hemorrhoids, where there is rectal irritation, 
with the feces in part scybalous and part semifluid, no constipation being present, 
it cures in doses of from one to two drops of the tincture in water, three or four 
times a day." 

The officinal preparations in the Eclectic Materia Medica are : Iiifusinn Col- 
linsoncE and Tinctura Collinsonce. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed 
to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture so prepared is, after strain- 
ing and filtering, of a brilliant reddish-orange color by transmitted light; has no 
characteristic odor ; a ligneous taste ; and an acid reaction. 

OHEMICA.L CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of the root and leaves of this 
species, by C. N. Lochman,-!' resulted in the separation of a resin soluble in ether 
and partly in alcohol, wax, tannin, mucilage, and starch. A volatile oil is also 
present. The collinsonin of the pharmacies is the solid matter of the root, com- 
bined with chloride of sodium — not a specific principle, as might be supposed. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Dr. Dowle's experiment,^ in which he took a 
teaspoonful and a half of the powder, gave the following symptoms : Numbness 
of the face and arms, with a sensation of enlargement of the parts ; nausea ; faint- 
ness and giddiness ; an exhilaration something like that of whiskey ; increased 
urine ; and scybalous stool. Dr. E. M. Hale's provings add to the above the fol- 
lowing effects : Headache with throbbing ; yellow-coated tongue; vomiting; colic 
with desire for stool ; and copious yellow bilious stools with tenesmus. 

* Dr. Mease's account of the drug is set forth in his Enclyclop<edia, vol. II, 177. 
t Am. Jow. Phar., 1885, 228. % U. S. Med. Investigator. 



119-3 

Collinsonia appears to act as an irritant to the pneumogastric and vaso-motor 
nerves, and to mucous membranes in ireneral, increasing the secretions of the latter, 
and causing inflammatory action to follow the congestion excited by its action. 



Description of Plate 119. 

I. Top of a flowering plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 2d, tf 

3. Under surface of a flower. 

4. Upper surface. 

5. Anther. 

6. Stigmas. 

7. Calyx in section. 

8. Seed. 

(-5-8 enlarged.) 



-4-= 




1? v_ 



l.m.adnatdeletpinxt. SCUTELLARIA LATERIFLORA , Linn. 



N. ORD-LABIAT/E. 120 

Tribe.-STACHYDE/E. 

GENUS.— SCUTELLARIA,* LINN. 

S1-:X. SVST.— niDVNAMI.V (;VMN(lSrERMI.\. 



SCUTELLARIA. 



SKULL CAP. 



SYN.— SCUTELLARIA LATERIFOLIA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— VIRGINIAN SKULL CAP, MAD-DOG SKULL CAP, HOOD- 
WORT, MAD-WEED, MAD-DOG WEED, BLUE PIMPERNEL; iFR.) SCU- 
TELLAIRB; (GR.) HELMKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT SCUTELLARLA LATERIFOLIA, LINN. 

Description. — This common perennial herb grows to a height of from i to 2 
feet. Root fibrous ; stem 4-sided, smooth, except upon the softly pubescent angles, 
upright, and much branched or simple. Leaves opposite, ovate -lanceolate or ovate- 
oblong, pointed, closely serrate, and rounded or somewhat cordate at the base ; 
petioles about one-fourth the length of the blade. Inflorescence in opposite, axil- 
lary, unilateral, leafy racemes ; leaves, first pair similar to those of the stem, the 
rest gradually reduced to bracts ; flowers small, blue, single, in the axils of the 
floral leaves. Calyx in anthesis campanulate, 2-lipped ; lips entire. Corolla bi- 
labiate, erect; tube elongated, curved upward, dilated at the throat, and naked 
within ; lips short, equal in length, the upper arched and having two lateral 
divisions connected with its basal sides, the lower spreading, convex, notched at 
the apex. Stamens 4, parallel, ascending under the upper lip, the superior pair 
shorter; anthers approximated in pairs, ciliate, those of the lower pair i -celled by 
abortion, the upper 2-celled and cordate. Style 2-forked, the upper arm wanting 
or very small. Frttiting calyx closed, the upper lip with a helmet-like, and at 
length concave and enlarged, appendage on the back, the whole splitting at matu- 
rity, the upper lip usually falling away. Nutlets 4, wingless, depressed, tubercular, 
and situated upon a slightly elevated and bent gyno-base, inclining the fruit to the 
upper sepal; seed transverse; embryo curved; radicle short, incumbent upon one 
of the cotyledons. 

History and Habitat. — Scutellaria is indigenous to North America, where it 
ranges from Canada to Florida and westward to British Columbia, Oregon, and 
New Mexico ; it habits the borders of wet places, and flowers during July and 
August. 



* Scutella, a saucer or shallow dish, alluding to the fruiting calyx. 



120-2 

About the first introduction of this plant into medicine was the experiments 
of Dr. Vandesveer, in 1772, who claimed to have found it curative and prophy- 
lactic in canine rabies, his reported cases being fourteen hundred ; this seems a 
large number to fall to the lot of one physician ; his son after him claimed the cure 
of forty cases more in three years. On account of the apparently slight properties 
inherent in this species by physical examination its worthiness was greatly doubted 
and the plant much railed against, even by many who never tried it. Following 
Vandesveer, many empirics and regulars used the remedy with success, while 
many others wrote essays against its being relied upon as an antihydrophobic. 
Dr. White, of Fishkill, assured Rafinesque that the plant preserved him from 
rabies after being bitten by a dog from whose bite others died. Rafinesque 
states his full belief in the prophylactic prowess of the plant, and adds that many 
laymen and physicians claim that the plant never fails to ward off or cure the 
disease. The dose given was a gill of the infusion four times a day, and the plant 
applied to the wound. Dr. S. W. Williams, whose cry of " charlatan" and " quack" 
was always raised upon the slightest pretext, lends his support to the probable 
virtue of the plant. Mr. Youatt, a distinguished veterinary surgeon, spoke highly 
of its virtues in this direction, but omitted it entirely from his treatise on canine 
rabies. The natural order Labiatse yields species of many of its genera that are 
valued by the aborigines of countries in which they grow as antihydrophobics. 
Some value should at least be considered under these circumstances, as native 
medication is always the result of long and more or less successful experiment. 

The plant has proved itself a useful antispasmodic, nervine, and tonic in 
chorea, convulsions, tetanus, tremors, delirium tremens, wakefulness in chronic 
disorders, and many other diseases when a tonic combining nervine powers might 
be deemed necessary ; it is also considered diaphoretic and diuretic. 

Scutellaria is officinal in the U. S. Ph. as Extracturn Scutellarice Fluidum ; 
in the Eclectic Materia Medica it is recommended in the same preparation as well 
as Extrachim Scutellarice Alcoholic7im, Infusiun Scutellarice, Extractuni Scutellarice 
Coniposita* and Filulcc I 'alcriauce Composites. ■\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh blossoming plant, 
gathered in August, when fruiting is well advanced, is treated as in the preceding 
species. J The resulting tincture is opaque. In thin layers it has a deep brown 
color by transmitted light : its taste is extremely bitter and very astringent ; and 
its reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — According to the analysis of Cadet, this 
species contains: a, a greenish-yellow fixed oil, soluble in ether; /i, an essential 
oil ; y, a bitter principle, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether ; h, a peculiar volatile 
matter ; e, a peculiar astringent principle ; £, albumen ; rj, a sweet mucoid body ; 
and the usual plant constituents. 

* Scutellaria, Cypripetliuni, Humulus, and Lactuca. 

t Scutellaria, Valeriana, Chamomilla, Eupatorium, Quinine, and Ca;isicum. 

X Page llg-2. 



120-3 

\_ScHtcllariiie:'^ — This unclassihable substance is a precipitate;, by alum, of the 
evaporated tincture made with 76 per cent, alcohol, alter dilution with several 
times its bulk of water. It results as a neutral non-resin, in the form of a green- 
ishf-brown, gritty, resinous powder, insoluble in water, and partly soluble in alco- 
hol and ether. It is said to retain the activity of the plant as far as known.] 

PHYSIOLOGrlOAL ACTION. — Gordon's experiments with from 10 to 60 drops 
of the tincture resulted substantially as follows: Mental confusion and stupor ; 
headache and vertigo; photophobia with dilated pupils; scanty urine, with diffi- 
cult micturition; variable pulse with final reduction of the heart's action from 
70-72 to 52 with intermission ; general languor and tremulousness ; followed by 
wakefulness and restlessness. 



Description of Plate 120. 

I. Upper portion of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 31st, 1S86. 
2. Flower. 



3. Lower "I 

4. Upper J 



5. Calyx. 

6. Fruiting cal}x. 

7. Fruiting calyx, showing fruit. 
8 and 9. Nutlets. 

(2-9 enlarged.) 



* Scutelline, so called, is valueless. \ Chlorophyll. 




5 6 

Lamium Album, Linn. 






'^f 




Z 2 



n 



m 



7 Vi 



T V'9 



N. ORD.-LABIATyE. 121 

Tribe-STACHYDE/E. 

GENUS. — LAM lUM,* TOURN. 
SEX. SXST.— DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMA. 



LAMIUM. 



DEAD Js'ETTLE. 



SYN.— LAMIUM ALBUM, LINN. 

COM. NAMES. — DEAD NETTLE, WHITE ARCHANGEL; (PR.) L'ORTIE 
BLANCHE; (GBR.i WEISSE TAUBNESSEL, WEISSBIENENSANG. 



A TINCTURE OF THE LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF LAMIUM ALBUM, LINN. 

Description^ This more or less erect, hairy, and very leafy perennial herb, 
grows to a height of i foot or more. Stem decumbent at the base. Leaves ovate, 
acuminate, coarsely and doubly serrate, with a cordate or truncate base ; petioles 
manifest upon the upper, and long, upon the lower part of the plant. Inflorescence 
in several axillary whorls ; floivers large. Calyx tubular-campanulate, about 5- 
nerved ; teeth 5, nearly equal, very slender, and awl-pointed, but not spinescent. 
Corolla white, about i inch long; tube curved upward from an obliquely-contracted 
base, having a ring of hairs inside ; throat rather narrow ; upper lip oblong, forni- 
cate, narrowed at the base ; lateral lips small, broadened down to the throat, and 
each bearing upon its upper margin a spur-like appendage that appears like a 
projection from the throat ; loivcr lip spreading, 3-lobed, the middle lobe notched 
at the apex, and contracted into an almost stipitate claw at the base. Stamens 4, 
ascending under the galeate upper lip of the corolla, and not deHexed after anthe- 
sis, the anterior (inferior) pair longer, both pairs parallel and fertile ; anthers hir- 
sute, approximate in pairs ; cells 2, divergent, opening lengthwise. Style filiform, 
forked at the apex into 2 divergent, stigmatose, pointed lobes. Ntitlets somewhat 
triquetrous, sharply 3-angled, truncate, and hollowed out at the apex. 

History and Habitat. — The Dead Nettle comes to us from Great Britain, 
France, and Germany, where it grows in waste places and along hedges; with us 
it is becoming naturalized in Eastern New England, where it takes up its usual 
habitat, and blossoms in July and August. 

The very unpleasant odor and bitter taste of diis species causes it to be 
exempt from use by grazing cattle ; yet Linnjeus says that in Sweden it is gath- 
ered by the peasants and cooked as a pot-herb, the process of boiling dissipating, 
in the most part, the principles of the plant. 

* Anf/io;, Inimos, the throat, .-illudiiij; to the ringent comlla; or lamia, a witch, hag, or demon, to which the flower 
is likened in appearance. 



121-2 

Although this plant has been used from ancient times, and is mentioned by 
Dioscorides and Pliny, yet it has received but little thought or experiment. The 
principal uses as a drug are all mentioned in a few words by Gerarde, who says r^' 
"Archangel, stamped with vinegar, and applied in manner of a pultis, taketh away 
Wens and hard swellings ; the King's Evill, inflammation of the kernels under the 
ears and jawes, and also hot fierie inflammation of the kernels of the necke, arm- 
holes, and flanks. It is good to bathe those parts with the decoction of it 

The later Phisitions thinke that the white flowers do staie the whites, and for the 
same purpose divers do make of them a conserve." 

PART USED AND PREPARATION— Two parts of the fresh leaves, and one 
part of the fresh blossoms are to be chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in 
a piece of new linen, and subjected to pressure. The expressed juice should then 
be thoroughly mixed with an equal part by weight of alcohol. After allowing the 
mass to macerate eight days in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place, the 
tincture may be separated by filtration. This tincture should be opaque. In thin 
layers, it has a reddish-brown color by transmitted light; its odor is sourish and 
herbaceous, reminding one of old buckweat honey-comb ; its taste very like its 
odor, and followed by a bitterishness ; and its reaction strongly acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Lamium contains a bitter principle and a 
volatile oil, but neither have as yet been isolated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Little is known of the action of this plant, the 
provings of Hahnemann and others giving few characteristic symptoms. Its action 
seems to be spent upon the mucous membranes in general, and upon the female 
generative organs in particular, where it causes a sort of inflammatory excitement. 



Description of Plate 121. 

1. Top of plant, from Salem, Mass., Aug. 6th, 1S85 

2. A leaf, under surface. 

3. Flower. 

4. A portion of the corolla, showing the appendage. 
5 and 6. Anthers. 

7. Stigma. 

8 and 9. Carpels. 

(3-9 enlarged.) 

* Herhall, p. 56S. 



K A 




^m.jdnatdeleipinxt. HYDROPHYLLUM ViRGIniCUM , Linn. 



N. ORD-HYDROPHYLLACE^. 122 

Tribe.-HYDROPHYLLE/E. 

OEMS.— HYDROPHYLLUM,* TOURN. 
SEX. SVST.— l'ENT.\.\"URI.\ MOM IGVM.-K., 



HYDROPHYLLUM. 



WATERLEAF. 



SYN.— HYDROPHYLLUM VIRGINICUM, LINN, 

COM. NAMES. —VIRGINIAN WATERLEAF, BURR FLOWER. 



A TLNCTLRE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT HYDROPHYLLUM VIRGL\ICUM, 

LINN. 



Description. — This smoothish perennial herb grows to a height of from i to 2 
feet. Rootstock creeping, scaly-toothed by the withered sheathes of previous stems. 
Stems generally simple, sometimes 2-forked ; leaves ample, pinnately divided, and 
conspicuously petioled ; leaflets 5 to 7, ovate-lanceolate or oblong in general out- 
line, sharply and irregularly cut-toothed, the lower pair mostly 2-parted, the upper 
three confluent, all acuminate or acute. Inflorescence in terminal and upper axil- 
lary cymose clusters : floicers pinkish-white ; peduncles forked, longer than the 
petioles of the leaves from whose axils they spring. Calyx deeply 5-parted, naked 
at the sinuses ; teeth narrowly linear, bristly ciliate. Corolla campanulate, 5-cIeft, 
the lobes convolute in the bud; tndc furnished with five adnate appendages fixed 
to the midrib of each petaloid lobe, the incurved free margins approximated by 
interlocked hairs, thus forming a sort of nectariferous tube. Stamens exserted ; 
fllatncnts long, filiform, bearded about the middle by a few long hairs ; anthers 
linear, versatile. Ovary bristly hairy, i -celled; ovules amphitropous, enveloped by 
the dilated fleshy placentae. Style exserted, bifurcated at the summit; stigmas 2, 
capitate, minute. Fruit a spherical, loculicidal capsule about the size of a pea. 
Seeds 4, or generally fewer by abortion ; testa pitted or reticulated ; albumen 
cartilaginous. 

Hydrophyllaceee. — This large and innocent family of commonly hairy herbs 
is represented in North America by 14 genera, comprising 115 species, and 17 
recognized varieties. Leaves mostly alternate ; stipules absent. Inflorcscoice in 
more or less unilateral, mostly bractless cymes or scorpioid racemes ; flozcers 
regular. 5-merous and 5-androus, blue or white. Calyx sometimes with nearly 
separate sepals, the sinuses often appendaged. Stametis borne on the base of the 
corolla and alternate with its lobjs. Ovary entire, i -celled, or sometimes 2-celIed 

* iVio/., hudor, water; -lifyUv, pliyUon, leaf; the application douhlfiil. 



122-2 

by union of the placentae in the axis ; placentce 2, parietal ; ovules amphitropous 
or anatropous, pendulous or nearly horizontal. Styles 2, or single and 2-cleft. 
Fruit a 2-valved, 2 to many-seeded capsule; ^^^rt'jr pitted or reticulated; embryo 
small ; albumen copious. 

History and Habitat. — The Waterleaf is indigenous to North America, where 
it ranges from Canada southward to the mountains of North Carolina and north- 
ward to Alaska, seeking moist, shady grounds, and flowering from June to August. 
The young leaves serve in some localities as a salad, called Shawanese Lettuce, 
and are eaten as a potage in other places, under the name of John's Cabbage. 
We have no previous medical history of this plant, or any other species of the 
order. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh flowering plant is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to macerate for eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture 
thus formed after filtration has a deep crimson-brown color by transmitted light, 
a peculiar bitterish odor, an astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The only account of the action of this plant is 
that furnished by Dr. P. B. Hoyt,'^' who records the following symptoms caused in 
himself: Dull headache; burning, smarting, and itching of the eyelids with pro- 
fuse lachrymation ; agglutination of the lids in the morning; injection of the 
sclera, and photophobia. 



Description of Plate 122. 

I. End of flowering plant, Binghamton, N. Y., June ist, i{ 

2. Flower. 

3. Petal and appendage. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Nectary. 

6. Pistil. 

7. Style and stigmas. 

8. Leaf. 

(3-7 enlarged.) 



* Am. Horn. 0/is., xi, loi. 



123. 




<P 



lU.adnat.del.et pinxt. 



C0NV6lVULUS ARVENSIS, Linr 



N. ORD -CONVOLVULACE^. 123 

Tribe-CONVOLVULE.^. 

CENUS— CON VOLVULUS,* LINN. 



SEX. SV.ST.— IT.NT.\M)KI.\ MoNi KiV.N l.\. 



CONVOLVULUS. 



SYN.— CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— BINDWEED ; (FR.) LE LISERON; (GER. i DIE WINDE. 

A TINCTURK OF THE WHOLE PLANT CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS, L. 

Description. — This low perennial attains a growth of from 2 to 5 feet. Root 
deeply and extensively creeping ; stem nearly glabrous, procumbent or twining 
over surroundings ; leaves ovate-oblong, sagittate tending to hastate, entire, the 
basal auriculate lobes acute. Inflorescence axillary; peduncles mostly i -flowered 
flmi.<ers matinal, white tinged with rose; bracts remote from the flower, subulate. 
Calyx naked at the base ; sepals equal, rounded. Corolla about three-quarters 
of an inch long, open infundibuliform, more or less plicate at the sinuses and 
obscurely 5-notched. Stamens yncXud&d; fl laments dilated at the base. Ovary 
entire: style single, persistent; stigmas 2, filiform, mostly spreading or revolute. 
Fruit a 2-celled globose capsule. Seeds 2 in each cell ; cotyledons broad, foliaceous. 

Convolvulaceae. — This large and well-distinguished family of mostly tropical 
or subtropical plants, is rej^resented in North America by 8 genera, containing in 
all "JT) species and i 7 recognized varieties. The order is composed of herbs or 
shrubs with stems that generally twine or trail. Leaves alternate, petioled (absent 
in Cuscuta): stipules none. Inflorescence truly axillary, the peduncles i -flowered 
or cymosely 3- many-flowered ; floiccrs regular and perfect, 5-merous or rarely 
4-merous. Calyx persistent ; sepals mostly distinct, imbricated. Corolla with an 
entire or lobed limb. Gynivciuin generally 2-carpelled. Stamens as many as the 
lobes of the corolla and inserted low upon its tube. Hypogytious disk evident, 
annular. Ovary 2- to 6-celled ; style single, sometimes divided ; stigma terminal 
or introrse. F7'uit capsular or fleshy ; seeds cornparatively large ; embryo filling 
the testa; albumen mucilaginous, surrounding, or surrounded by, the embryo. 

In this order our proven plants are: The Oriental Scammony [Conzvhulus 
Scammonia, Linn.), whose root yields an irritant but nearly tasteless purgative, 
often given to children as an anthelmint*ic on account of the smallness of the 
requisite dose for purging ; jalap, the dried tubercules of the Mexican Exogonium 
Purga, Benth., is a certain, powerful, and speedy drastic purgative used as above ; 

* From convolvuh, to twine. 



-123-2 

it has a griping effect, however, making it less pleasant than Scammony ; and 
Convolvulus Duartinus, the common Morning Glory {Ipoimea Bona-7io.\\ Linn,), 
a native of the tropics, so extensively planted north as an ornamental " vine." 

Many other genera furnish plants more or less used in general medicine, viz.: 
The North African Ipomcea Nil, Roth., whose seeds, in 50-grain doses, prove pur- 
o-ative, and in action greatly resemble Jalap ; the East Indian Ipomcra Tjirpctlnim, 
R. Br., the Jamaican /. (uberosa, Linn., and the St. Domingo /. cathartica, Poir., 
are all used in their countries as purgatives, though the latter is generally too 
strong in its action to be safely given. The leaves of the Madras Argyreia bract- 
caia, Wall, are used by the natives in decoction as fomentations for scrofulous 
enlargements. The root of the tropical Batatas paniculata, Chois., is cathartic ; 
while those of the East Indian B. ediilis are wholesome, and, as cultivated in the 
warmer climates, form an article of commerce known as Sweet Potatoes. Our 
common Bracted Bindweed {Calystegia sepium, R. Br.) has a purgative root, as 
has also the European C. Soldanella, Rom. & S. Oil of Rhodium, a bitter essential 
oil, used to attract rats and mice to traps, also to adulterate oil of roses, is distilled 
from the sternutatory wood of Convohnilns (Breweria, Rhodoriza) scopariiis, Linn. 

History and Habitat. — This too common European plant has become natural- 
ized in the North-eastern United States, where it flowers in June. It is said to be 
a sure indication that the soil is dry in all localities that it chooses as its habitat. 

This plant has been used much like Jalap and Scammony, in 40-grain doses 
of the jointed and vermiculate roots, as a diuretic and gentle laxative. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh flowering plant, in a 
slightly wilted condition, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then 
two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one- 
sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole 
well, it is poured into a well-stoppered botde, and allowed to stand eight days in 
a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by pressing and filtering, has a deep 
reddish-brown color by transmitted light ; a somewhat nauseous odor ; a slightly 
astringent, tea-like taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Couvohulin. This so-called resinoid, obtained 
from the roots of this species, is as yet of doubtful chemical nature. It remains 
to be determined whether it contains the principles found in Jalap, Scammony, etc. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The few symptoms so far determined in this 
drug, point to it as an irritant to the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract, 
and a stimulant to the neighboring secretory glands. Convolvulus causes eruc- 
tations, flatulent colic, and liquid stools very similar to those following Jalap. 

Description ok Pl.xte 123. 

]. End of flowtring plant, Salem, Mass., July 20th, iS?5. 

2. Anther. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Section of ovary. 
(2-4 enlarged. ) 




I24-. 



Of' Ul.adnat.deI.etpinxt. 



SoLANUM Dulcamara, Linn. 



N. ORD -SOLANACE^. 124 

GENUS. — SOLANUM,* TOURN. 

SKX. SVST.— I'ENTANDRIA MONOGVNIA. 



DULCAMARA. 



BITTERSWEET. 



SYN.— eOLANUM DULCAMARA, LINN. DULCAMAEA FLEXUOSA, 
MOENCH. RAMUS NOVELLUS, L. 

COM. NAMES.-BITTERSWEET, WOODY NIGHTSHADE, VIOLET BLOOM; 
(FR.) DOUCE-AMERE; (GER.) BITTERSUSS. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH GREEN BR.'\NCHES ABOVE THE WOODY STEM, OF 
SOLANUM DULCAMARA, LINN. 

Description. — This beautiful and falsely dreaded ^hrubbj- herb, seldom 
reaches a length of more than 5 feet, unless well supported in a hedge or by a 
wall; it then may extend to various lengths, in some cases reaching 18 feet or 
more. Root woody, irregularly creeping and branching, pale yellow. Stem 
herbaceous or shrubby, flexuous, pubescent, scarcely climbing. Branches many, 
weak, flexuous and somewhat angular, with a dull green bark, destitute of thorns 
or spines. Leaves alternate, petiolate, from 2 to 3 inches long, the upper surface 
smooth, the under usually pubescent ; the lower few leaves are either ovate or 
ovate-cordate, the upper vary from hastate to auriculate, all entire. E.'o7C'crs 
drooping, on lateral, branching, extra -axillary peduncles, forming a loose spreading 
corymb with bractless pedicels. Ca/j'.v small, 5-parted. Corolla plaited, and 
valvate or induplicate in the bud; when expanded it is wheel-shaped, 5-cleft, with 
the acute-lanceolate lobes reflexed, each with two green ovate spots at its base. 
Stamens exserted, mosdy equal, their filaments inserted upon the tube of the 
corolla. Filaments short, more or less triangular. Antliers large, erect, blunt, 
bright yellow, converging into a cone about the style, and opening by two pores or 
chinks at the apex. Pollen grains minute, ovoid and induplicate. (9z'a;-jj' rounded, 
2-celled, containing many ovules upon the axis. Ovules curved (campylotropous), 
sometimes merging into the amphitropic form. Style simple, filiform, protruding 
beyond the tube formed by the anthers. Stigma single. Fruit di 2-celled, bright 
scarlet, oval, translucent, thin-skinned, bitter and juicy berry. Seeds numerous, 
whitish, somewhat [)lano-convex, their surlaces minutely pitted. 

History and Habitat.— This very common plant prefers moist banks, old 
fences and hedges, the slightly higher ground on the margins of swampy spots, 
and disused ground about old dwellings ; blossoming in June and July. Its place 

* Derivation unknown. 

•f- Dulcis, sweet ; ainaius, bilier. 



124-2 

among American plants is doubtful ; by some authors it is considered indigenous, 
by others as advanced from Europe; judging from its locations here, I am 
inclined to favor the latter idea. It is found in the greater part of Europe, in 
North Africa, and Asia Minor, and the northern parts of India and China. The 
genus Solanum is very interesting, containing as it does some of our most useful 
table vegetables, noxious weeds, and excellent remedies. Notably among the 
edible vegetables are the potato, Solanum iuberostun, the tomato, Solanum lyco- 
persicon, and the e.gg plant, Solanum melongena, all extensively cultivated and 
having their origin doubdess in the tropical regions of South America. From 
the common names, Bittersweet and Nightshade, confusion has often arisen 
among the laity in mistaking it for Belladonna (Deadly Nightshade), and Cclastrus, 
the staff-vine, often called Bittersweet ; but Belladonna does not grow sponta- 
neously in this country, and Celastrus is too widely different to be confused with 
Dulcamara except in name. 

Dulcamara is still retained in the U. S. Ph., as Extraclnm Dulcamara 
Fluidum. In the Eclectic Materia Medica its preparations are Dccoctum Solani 
and Extractmn Dtilcamara. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, green branches that are 
still pliant, and their leaves, should be gathered just as the plant is budding to 
blossom, and chopped and pounded into a pulp, inclosed in a piece of new linen 
and pressed. The juice thus expressed should, by brisk succussion, be mingled 
with an equal part by weight of alcohol. This mixture should then be allowed to 
stand at least eight days in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place, and 
filtered before using. 

Thus prepared it is by transmitted light of a pale chestnut color, having at 
first a decidedly bitter, then sweet taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.- Solania, C,, H,^ NO,,,, fully described under 
Solanum nigrum, 125, is undoubtedly also a separate principle in this species. 
Wittstein claims it to be easUy obtainable from the young shoots of the plant. 

Dulcamarin.*— C22 W^^ 0,„. This glucoside, extracted from Wittstein's so- 
called alkaloid Dulcamarin, C^j H^^^ N^ Ojg, is in the form of a permanent, slightly 
yellow powder, odorless, with at first an exceeding bitter, then a lasting sweet 
taste. It melts with heat, decomposing at 205° (401° P.), and is soluble in water, 
alcohol and ether, insoluble in chloroform and benzol. Dulcamarin readily .sepa- 
rates in boiling with a mineral acid into dulcamaretin (C,,. H,,,.,©), and glucose. 

Pfaff's analysis of 100 parts of the dried stems resulted as follows: 

Dulcamarin 21.817 | Resin containing Benzoic Acid, 2.74 

Vegeto-animal matter, 3125 Gum, .Starch, and Salts of Lirtie, 200 

Gummy extractive, 12.029 Extractive and Lnne .Salts, 4.00 

Gluten and green wax, 1.4 i Woody Kibre 62.00 

(Excess, 911 ') 

* Picrogljcion, Dulcarin. 



^24-3 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-'riie tirst action of this druj,^ is somewhat 
narcotic, but of short duration in this sphere. Upon the circulation the action is 
quite marked, it causing venous contjestion, attendetl with great pain, heat, 
nausea and vomiting", and sudden prostration. The liead droops and oscillates 
forth and back, the patient is o-iddy, the heart palpitates, tlu; mouth and fauces 
become hot and dry, and the face and ears cyanotic. Post mortem : the medulla is 
found as to its substance healthy, though there is great injection of the blood- 
vessels above and below it. One clearly defined case of poisoning by the berries 
of this plant is reported in the Lancet of June 28th, 1856, p. 715, in which the 
identity ot the plant seems to have been certain, and that the berries of Solanum 
nigrum, which are much more poisonous, took no part, resulted jn the death of a 
boy aged 4. The following symptoms were noted: after eleven hours, during 
which no symptoms of importance were observed, he was attacked with vomiting, 
purging and convulsions, which continued throughout the day, the child being 
insensible during the intervals. He died convulsed in about 24 hours. The 
vomited matters were of a dark greenish color, and of a bilious character. 

Notwithstanding numerous cases reported of poisoning by this plant it can- 
not justly be considered as generally poisonous, as most animals and persons 
who have eaten of it or its fruit, show no serious symptoms. 

It is to be deplored that the berries were not incorporated in the tinctures 
proven, as they seem to be the most to.xic part of the plant. 



I. Flowering branch. 



Description of Plate 124. 

Ithaca, N. Y., May 31, 1880. 

2. Flower (enlarged ). 

3. Pistil (enlarged ). 

4. Stamens (enlarged). 

5. Section of Ovary. 

6. Pollen grains x 380. 



Fruit added later in the season. 




ujtn.adnat.dei.et pinxt. 



SOLANUM NIGRUM, Linn. 



N. ORD -SOLANACE^. 125 

GENUS.— so LA NUM. 

SEX. .SVST.— rEXTAXlJRI.N. .MONuGVNI.\. 



SOLANUM NIGRUM 



BLACK NIGHTSHADE. 



SYN.— SOLANUM NIGRUM, LINN.; S. PTEROCAULON, DUNAL. ; S. CRE- 
NATO-DENTATUM, PTYCANTHUM, AND INOPS, D. C. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON OR GARDEN NIGHTSHADE, BLACK NIGHT- 
SHADE, DEADLY NIGHTSHADE; (PR.) MORELLE NOIR ; (GER.) 
SCHWARZER NACHSCHATTEN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE HERB SOLANUM NIGRUM, LINN. 

Description. — This low, weedy, annual herb grows to a height of from i to 2 
feet. Stem angular, glabrous, pubescent when young, diffusely spreading or 
branching, and more or less rough on the angles ; branches mostly twisted. 
Leaves ovate, cuneate, somewhat obtusely, acutely, or acuminately tipped, and 
usually much perforated by insects ; margin varying from coarsely, crenately, or 
irregularly toothed, to entire. Inflorescence in small, pedunculate, lateral, and 
extra-axillary, umbel-like, drooping cymes ; flowers quite small, white or whitish. 
Calyx much shorter than the corolla, merely spreading in fruit ; teeth ovate, acut- 
ish. Corolla wheel-shaped, 5-parted, valvate in the bud ; petals oblong-lanceolate, 
reflexed, closely studded with minute papilla; upon the upper surface. Stamens 
exserted ; filaments very short, more or less hairy inside ; anthers large, connivent 
around the style, blunt, opening by two terminal pores. Ovary globular, 2-celled ; 
style columnar, mostly included, hairy at its base ; stigma capitate. Fruit a small 
cluster of blue-black, globular berries, each about the size of a large pea. Seeds 
numerous, flattened ; embryo slender, curved ; cotyledons semiterete, not larger than 
the radicle. 

Solanaceae. — 1 his large, well-known order, whose representatives grow mosdy 
in tropical and subtropical regions, furnishes North American botany with 14 genera, 
loi species, and 24 recognized varieties. The order is characterized as follows: 
Herbs, shrubs, or even trees, commonly rank-scented, and having a watery juice. 
Leaves alternate, never truly opposite, though, being often unequally geminate 
they have the appearance of being opposite ; stipules none. Inflorescence properly 
terminal and cymose, but variously modified, sometimes scorpioid-racemiform ; 
pedicels not bracted, or, if bracted, then not in the axils. Flozuers perfect and 
mostly regular, 5- 4-merous. Corolla with its lobes induplicate-valvate, plicate, 

* Belladonna alone answers to this name : it does not grow wild in this country. 



125-2 

or very rarely imbricate in the bud. Ovary wholly free, normally 2 -celled ; p/a- 
centce axillary ; ovules indefinitely many, anatropous or amphitropous ; style un- 
divided ; stigma entire or sometimes bilamellar. Fi-iiit either capsular or baccate ; 
e^nbryo terete and incurved or coiled, or sometimes almost straight ; albumen fleshy; 
cotyledons rarely much broader than the radicle.* 

This order furnishes our Materia Medica with twenty drugs, which are, beside 
the five here described: The European Belladonna, or Deadly Nightshade {Atropa 
Belladonna, Linn.); the Tropical Cayenne Pepper {Capsicum Annuum, Linn.); the 
Pacific coast Tree Stramonium [Datura arborea, Linn.); the Chinese Datura [D. 
ferox. Linn.), probably the most poisonous species in the family; the Indian Datura 
(/?. nietel, Linn.) ; the Tropical American Tomato, or Love-apple [Lycopersicum 
esculenttcm, Mill.) ; the true Mandrake of Southern Europe [Atropa mandragora, 
Linn.) ; the South Brazilian Arrebcnta Cai'allos [Solatium Rebenta, Veil.) ; the 
Southern and West Indian Apple of Sodom, or Nipple Nightshade (.S". mammo- 
szim, Linn.) ; the Brazilian yuquerioba, or Gyqjiirioba [S. oleracezmi, Veil.) ; the 
European Jerusalem Cherry [S. psejcdo-capsicicm, Linn.) ; the common Potato [S. 
tuberosum, Linn.) and its diseased state [S. titberosum oegrotans\, due to the growth 
of a fungus known as Peronospora infestans ; the Peruvian Floripondio [Datura san- 
guinea, R. et Pa v.) ; the Australian Corkwood Tree [Duboisia viyoporoides, R. Br.), 
and Pituri [D. Hopiuoodi, Von M.). 

Numerous drugs, still unproven but used in general practice, belong to this 
order, notably, the Indian Guinea Pepper [Capsicum fastigiatum, Blume), which, 
with the Indian Goat Pepper [C. frutescens, Linn.), is a much more powerful stim- 
ulant than Cayenne, and often produces violent pain and purgation. The genus 
Solanum further furnishes to medicine the Indian expectorant, S. Jacquiri, Willd. ; 
the West Indian astringent, S. Bahamense, Linn. ; the Brazilian active cathartic 
and vulnerary, Juripcba [S. paniculatum, Linn.) ; the South American sudorific, 
S. ceruuum. Veil. ; and many other species used in their native countries as pur- 
gatives, diuretics, deobstruents, and vulneraries. The fruit of the West Indian 
Calabash Tree [Crescentia Cuj'eie, Linn.) yields a pulp that is considered at once 
vulnerary and pectoral. In the south of Europe the White Henbane [Helleborus 
albus, Linn.) is considered much more active than H. iiiger; and Arabia yields, 
according to Foreskal, a species, H. Datura, used by the natives to produce 
intoxication, and supposed to be the nepenthes of Homer. The genus Ccstnim 
contains many active species, those especially notable being, the South African 
C. vencnatinn, Thursb., used by the Hottentots as a poison for their spears, and 
to poison their bait for wild beasts ; C macrophylhim. Vent., and C. nocturnum, 
Lam., are also toxic, and have been used with some effect in chorea ; while C 
Hediimda, Lam., and C. auriculatutn, L. Her., are febrifugal. Many species of 
Physalis are valuable, especially the South European P . flexuosus, Linn., which 
is said to be narcotic, diuretic, and alexiteric ; and the Winter Cherry, P. Alke- 
kengi, Linn., which has been considered an excellent diuretic from the days of 
Dioscorides ; Ray considered it also anti-podagric. The bitter leaves of the Peru- 



* Description of Prof. Asa Gray, in Synop. Flora of N. A., vol. ii, pt. i, p. 22 ;. 



125-3 

vian Saracha iimhcUata, Jacq., are used as an anodyne emollient. In New Grenada 
the Matrimony Vine {Lyciiun umbrosnm) is adjudged an excellent remedy in ery- 
sipelas ; and, lastly, the South American HwierantJms tmcinahis is esteemed by 
the natives as an aphrodisiac, stimulating the ingester to venery. 

History and Habitat. — Black Nightshade is a cosmopolite; in this country it 
grows in damp and shady waste grounds, generally throughout the eastern sec- 
tion, where it Bowers from July to frosty weather. 

This species has been used in general practice, especially as a resolvent, from 
A. D. 54 (Dioscorides) to within a few years. The principal use of the plant has 
been in dropsy ; gastritis ; glandular enlargement ; nervous affections ; general 
inflammations of mucous membranes ; herpetic, scorbutic, and syphilitic eruptions ; 
and as a narcotic. The Arabs use the bruised leaves, with adeps, as an applica- 
tion to burns, bullae, and felons. In Dalmatia the root is used to cure hydrophobia, 
and is fried in butter and eaten to produce sleep ; while in Bohemia the blossom- 
ing plant is hung over the cradle of infants to act as an hypnotic. Orfila claims the 
extract equal in power and energy to lactucarium. In Spain patients are often 
said to be cured of phthisis by burying them up to the neck in garden loam, then, 
after removal, rubbing the body thoroughly with an ointment of the leaves of this 
species. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole plant, gathered when, in 
early autumn, it is in both flower and fruit, is treated as in the preceding species. 

The resulting tincture has a brownish-orange color by transmitted light, no 
distinguishing odor, a slightly astringent and woody taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-6'^A?;««,* QjH.iNO,^. This peculiar body, 
having, according to all observers up to date, both alkaloidal and glucosidal 
reactions, needs much careful investigation before either its chemical or physical 
nature can be fully understood. It is readily obtainable from all species of the 
genus Solanum, but is especially prevalent in this. According to Wittstein, it crys- 
tallizes in white, flat, quadrangular prisms of mother-of-pearl lustre, or results as an 
amorphous powder of like appearance ; it is inodorous, and has a bitter, disagree- 
able, long-lasting, rancid, and acrid taste. It is soluble to only a slight extent in 
water, its solution becoming frothy on agitation ; readily dissolves in alcohol ; and 
is insoluble in ether. It shows a decided glucosidal nature by breaking down under 
the action of heat and hydrochloric acid, as follows : 

Solanin. Water. Glucose. Solanidine.f 

C,,H,jNO,,+ (H,0)^ = (C;H,A)3 + Q5H41NO. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Numerous cases of poisoning have been 
reported, among which the following will serve to show the action of the plant : 

Three children who had eaten the berries complained of headache, vertigo, 
nausea, colic, and tenesmus. There was copious vomiting of a greenish-colored 

* Discovered in the plant in 1821 by M. Desfosses, Jour, de Pharmacie, vi, 374, anil vii, 414. 
f This body is a very strong b.ase, and crystallizes in long needles (Schorlemmer). 



125-4 

matter, thirst, dilated pupils, stertorous respiration, convulsions, and a tetanic stiff- 
ness of the limbs. Death followed in all cases but one only during the acute 
symptoms.* 

A boy, after eating the berries, suffered horrible symptoms, dilation of the 
pupil, burning in the stomach, delirium, agony, trembling of the limbs, cold sweat, 
and death.f 

GatakerJ commenced his experiments with the drug by giving a grain, which 
acted o-ently as an evacuant by sweat, urine, and stool ; on increasing the dose 
until it was quite large, it produced vomiting, profuse perspiration, or too copious 
urination or diarrhoea, and sometimes dimness of vision and vertigo. 

A family, having eaten of the leaves, were attacked with swelling of the face, 
accompanied by burning heat, and followed by gangrene.§ 

A boy, aged eight years, ate some of the black berries of this plant, which 
induced a state of stupor and coma, attended with fever. He complained of great 
pain in the pit of the stomach, and was harassed with nausea and retchings.|| 

A litde girl ate some of the berries. She was found entirely insensible, lying 
in a deep, apoplectic stupor, all the muscles relaxed, the face flushed and the pulse 
full and irregular. She continued in this state about six hours, then gradually 
recovered.iy 

Four of the ripe berries caused deep sleep in a child (age not given).** 

Two boys, aged two and three years, having eaten of the berries, had con- 
vulsions and spasms; they stretched their hands during the spasms, as if they 
would grasp something, carrying their hands to their mouths, chewing and swal- 
lowing, etc.f^t" 

Thus Solanum Nigrum acts as an irritant to the brain and spinal cord, and 
secondarily upon the circulation through the vaso-motor system; the irritation 
seems greatest upon the sensory nerves and less upon the motor. Its action upon 
the brain is quite parallel with that of Belladonna, but evidently greater than Stra- 
monium or Hyoscyamus. Its action upon the eye is more like that of Stramonium 
than Belladonna, and direcdy opposite to that of Gelsemium. 



Description of Plate 125. 

I. Part of a fruiting and flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., Sept. ist, if 

2. A petal. 

3. An effete stamen. 

4. Pistil. 

5. Horizontal section of the ovary. 

(2-5 enlarged.) 



* Orfila. Taylor on Poisons, p. 648. II Alibert, Nouveatix Elements de Therapeutique. 

t K. Ch. Grelin. Florce bedensk, p. 520. '^ Eberle, Therapetilics. 

X Versuch. u. Bemcrk. des Edin., pp. 95 and 98. ** Ibid. 

\ Rucker, De effect, Solani in Commerc, Morci., p. 372. ft Journal de Clinic Medical. 



126. 




HyOSCYAMUS NiGER, Linn. 



^s 



N. ORD-SOLANACE^. 126 

(lENUS.— H YOSC YAMUS,- TOURN. 
SEN. SVST.— I'KNl'ANDKIA Mi )N( )■ ;V.\1 \. 



HYOSCYAMUS. 

SYN.-HYOSCYAMUS NIGER, LINN. ; H. FLAVUS, FUCHS. ; H. PALLIDUS, 
KIT.; H. VULGARIS, RAIL; H. LBTHALIS, SALISB.; H. AGROSTIS. 

COM. NAMES.- BLACK HENBANE, HOGBEAN, STINKING NIGHTSHADE, 
POISON TOBACCO; iFR.) JUSQUIAME NOIR; iGER.) BILSENKRAUT. 

.■\ TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE HERB HVOSCY.AMUS NIGER, LINN. 

Description. — This annual, or biennial, heavy-scented, viscid-pubescent, or 
villous herb, usually attains a growth of from i to 2 feet. Root fusiform ; siem 
rigid. Leaves oblong, acute, the lower large, spreading upon the ground, sinuate- 
toothed and angled, the upper more or less amplexicaul and partly decurrent, the 
uppermost tending to be entire and bract-like, subtending the flowers. Injioj-es- 
ccncc in secund, scorpioid, leafy spikes; flozocrs numerous, sessile. Calyx large, 
tubular-campanulate or urceolate; border 5-cleft, spreading ; /^tV/^ equal, broadly 
triangular, acute. Corolla oblique, funnel-form, dull yellowish, strongly reticulated 
with anastomosing purple veins : limb spreading, inclined to be unequally 5-lobed 
and plaited ; lobes shallow, rounded, and more or less acute. Slarncns 5, declined, 
all perfect, and slightly exserted ; filaments inserted upon the cOrolla-tube near 
its base and continuing attached for about half their length, where they are also 
hairy ; anthers purple, turned upon their backs, and opening by a longitudinal 
chink. Style filiform ; stigma dilated-capitate. Capsule membranaceous, 2-celled, 
enclosed by the persistent calyx, which is now many-costate and reticulate-veiny; 
dehiseenee by an apical circumscissile line, the top falling away like a lid. Seeds 
very numerous, roundish-oval, slightly hollowed upon each side ; testa conspicu- 
ously reticulated; embryo much curved, axile ; albumen copious. 

History and Habitat. — Henbane is indigenous to Europe and Western Asia, 
from whence it was introduced into this country by the English settlers, in the 
seventeenth century. It grows, with us, near dwellings and settlements, from Nova 
.Scotia and Canada, southward to the environs of New York City and Brooklyn, 
where it blossoms from June to August. The seeds are notably tenacious of life; 
hence the plant is often found in localities after having disappeared years before.f 

* "Y,-, vii, //us, kyos, a hog; s'la/io;, iyamos, a bean ; because it does or docs not poison swine — an open question. 

t Dr. Bigelow says: "About ten years since (1807), a drain, which intersects the Common in Boston, was optned 
for the purpose of repairs. In the following season a distinct row of very luxuriant plants of Henbane covered the whole 
of this drain, allhough none of iheni had been observed to grow in the vicinity the preceding year. The seeds which 
produced these pl.ints had probably been buried for more than fifteen years." — Am. A/kI. RoI.. I, 161. 



126-2 

Hyoscyamus — principally H.albus, Linn. — was medicinal among the ancients, 
and the ToaxvaiKK (leWac, of Dioscorides, who rejected H. nigcr as being too highly 
poisonous for use. The white species is also, according to Sprengel, described by 
Hippocrates. Pliny speaks of Henbane, as follows ■^'■' " Moreover, unto Hercules 
is ascribed Henbane, which the Latins call Appollinaris ; the Arabians, Altercum 
or Altercangenon ; but the Greeks, Hyoscyamus. Many kinds there be of it, the 
one beareth black seed, flowers standing much upon purple, and this herbe is full 
of prickes ; and in very truth such is the Henbane that groweth in Galatia. The 
common Henbane is whiter, and brauncheth more than the other, taller also than 
the poppie. * * * All the sort of these alreadie named trouble the braine, and 
put men besides their right wits ; besi'des that, they breed dizziness of the head. 
As touching the fourth, it carieth leaves soft, full of down, fuller and fatter than 
the rest: the seed also is white, and it groweth by the seaside. Physicians are not 
afraid to use this in their compositions, no more than that which has red seed. 
Howbeit, otherwiles, this white kind especially, if it bee not thoroughly ripe, 
prooveth to be reddish, and then it is rejected by the physicians. For, otherwise, 
none of them all would be gathered, but when they bee fully drie. Henbane is 
of the nature ot wine, and therefore offensive to the understanding, and troubleth 
the head. Howbeit, good use there is, both of the seed it selfe as it is in sub- 
stance, and also of the oile or juice drawne out of it apart. And yet the stalk, leaves, 
and roots are employed in some purposes. For mine owne part, I hold it to be 
a dangerous medicine, and not to be used but with great heed and discretion. 
For this is certainly knowne, that, if one take in drinke more than four leaves 
thereof, it will put him beside himself. An oile (I say) is made of the seed thereof 
which, if it be but dropped into the eares, is ynough to trouble the braine. But, 
strange it is of this oile, that, if it be taken in drinke, it serveth as a counter poison. 
.See how industrious men have been to prove experiments, and made no end of 
trying all things, insomuch as they have found meanes, and forced very poysons to 
be remedies." The Arabian physicians also rejected //. iiigcr as a medicinal 
drug ; but in later years it gradually took the place of the white. 

In Europe, the history of Henbane is remote. It is spoken ot by Benedictus 
Crispus (A. D. 68i) ; Macer. Floridus (loth Cent.) ; in Anglo-Sa.xon works (i ith 
Cent.); "Physicians of Myddvai (13th Cent.): and Arbolayrc, a French herbal 
(15th Cent.) ; from which time it fell into disuse, until brought again to the notice 
of physicians, in 1762, by Baron Stcirck.-j- 

Hyoscyamus is now quite generally used by physicians of all schools, pre- 
scribing in the so-called physiological manner, as a sedative in various affections, 
such as epilepsy, hysteria, mania, febris nervosa, angina pectoris, etc. ; as an 
anodyne in rheumatism, arthritis, podagra, neuralgia, gastralgia, colica pictorum, 
cephalalgia, etc.; as an anti-spasmodic in asthma, croup, pertussis, phthisical coughs, 
and irritable conditions of such organs as are mostly supplied with involuntary 
muscular fibres, as the diaphragm, heart, lungs, uterus, bladder, and urethra ; and 
as an hypnotic in all cases where opium would be used, did it not disagree. It is 

* Hollaiiifs Trans., 1601.215. (H:imilt(in.) f Fliickiger and ILinliury, P/i<in)uuvi;rnp/iia, 463. 



^26-3 
also claimed, in this connection, that Hyoscyamus rather tends to keep the bowels 
open, than to constipate like opium. Hyoscyamus leaves are often used as fomen- 
tations or cataplasms for painful swellings, such as irritable ulc(;rs, indurated 
glands, and tumors, as well as in severe chordee, orchitis, etc. The doses given, 
are: lo grains of the powdered leaves; 5 to 10 grains of the extract; one-half 
to I drachm of the tincture; or very small doses of Hyoscyamine. 

The laity have often used the smoke of the smouldering leaves in odontalgia, 
by directing it into the caries by means of a paper funnel ; but as convulsions, 
delirium, and other frightening symptoms have followed in some cases, this practice 
is now seldom resorted to. 

The following preparations and Ilyoscyaini Folia, are officinal in the U. S. Ph. : 
Abslractum Hyoscyavii ; Extracta Hyoscyaini Alcoholiciun and Fluidum, and Tinc- 
Uira Hyoscyaini. Hyoscyamincp. Sulphas is also recommended. In the Eclectic 
Dispensatory, a tincture and the two extracts are mentioned. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh herb, gathered just before 
flowering, or after the seed pods are well formed and the summit of the plant is 
still flowering, is treated in the manner laid down for Dulcamara.'-' The resulting 
tincture has a clear brownish-orange color by transmitted light; the strong, heavy 
odor of the plant; an unpleasant, slightly bitter taste; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— //)wo'«w/;/t',tC,,H,,NO,,J This noted, my- 
driatic, highly poisonous alkaloid, was first detected by Brandes; Geiger and Hesse 
procured it in an impure state from the herb in 1833, but it was not isolated in a pure 
state until 1871, when Hohn extracted it from the seeds, which are richer in this 
principle than the herb. It is described as an oily liquid, concreting later into 
verrucose-tufted crystals, which Duquesnel has succeeded in crystallizing into 
stellately grouped, acicular prisms. The crystals fuse at 90° (194° F.), and are 
soluble in ether, chloroform, alcohol, and water. Hyoscyamine is decomposed by 
caustic alkalies; and in aqueous solution, when boiled with Baryta, it splits into the 
two following bodies: 

Hyoscine, C,.Hj,N.— This volatile, oily liquid, of an alkaline reaction, having 
a narcotic odor, is now claimed, by Ladenburg, to be identical with Trophic 
(Belladonna) ; and that Hyoscine proper is a second alkaloid of Hyoscyamus, 
yielding different salts than either Hyoscyamine or Tropinc : and 

Hyoscinic Acid, C,,HjfjO.. — This crystalline body, melting at 105° (221° F.), 
is isomeric with Tropic Acid (Belladonna) and may yet be found to be identical 
with it. 

Oil of Hyoscyamus. — This thin, inodorous, greenish-) ellow liquor, is obtain- 
able from the seeds by pressure. It has a sp. gr. of 0.913, and is soluble in 60 
parts of alcohol. 

* Page 124-2. f Hyoscyaitiia, Duboisin. J Hohn and Reichardt ; other authorities, C,jHjjNO,. 



126-4 

Potassium Nitrate, KNO... — Crystals of this salt were isolated from this plant 
by Attfielcl* 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — All parts of this plant are poisonous; the 
seeds, however, are the most active, the root next, and, lasdy, the leaves and 
flowers. The effluvium arising from the cut and bruised leaves has been known 
to cause of itself, vertigo, stupor, and syncope. 

On Animals. — Orfila states that the drug acts upon dogs much the same as 
upon man, producing dilation of the pupils, weakness of the posterior extremities, 
staggering, and insensibility. Moirond states that, given in large quantities to 
horses, it causes slight dilation of the pupils, spasmodic movements of the limbs, 
and increased heart's action. On cats it acts much the same as upon dogs. 
Upon gallinaceous birds it is supposed to have a baneful action ; while cows, sheep, 
goats, rabbits, and many other animals are said to be but slighdy affected. 

On Man. — The action of Hyoscyamus upon man, is that of a powerful nar- 
cotic poison, a severe, cardiac, and cerebral stimulant, and tends to produce general 
-paralysis of the nervous system. Of the delirium produced. Dr. Harley remarks 
— as Dioscorides had before him — that it greatly resembles that produced by 
alcoholic intoxication. 

The symptoms in general, resulting from taking the drug, are: Lively, wild, 
or busy delirium, tending more to the grotesque than to the harmful type ; the 
patient laughs, talks, gesticulates, dances, etc., and carphologia is often noticed ; 
vertigo and confusion ; eyes red, wild, and sparkling, with dilation of the pupils ; 
insensibility of the retina, and illusions of sight; redness of the face; dryness of 
the mucous membranes of the mouth and fauces ; paralysis of the tongue ; 
difificult degluddon ; nausea and vomiting ; tympanidc distention of the abdomen ; 
diarrhoea, and involuntary passages; paralysis of the bladder, and retention of 
urine ; dry cough ; rapid, irregular heart's action ; trembling of the upper limbs, 
weakness of the legs ; convulsions ; insomnia ; chill, fever, and sweat. 

The following cases of poisoning by this drug, will serve to show its method 
of action : Nine persons, having eaten the roots of Hyoscyamus, were seized with 
alarming symptoms : " Some were speechless, and showed no other signs of life 
than by convulsions, contortions of their limbs, and the risus sardoniciis ; all hav- 
ing their eyes starting out of their heads, and their mouths drawn backwards on 
both sides ; others had all the symptoms alike ; however, five of them did open 
their mouths, now and then, but it was to utter bowlings. The madness ot all ol 
these patients was so complete, and their agitations so violent, that, in order to 
give one of them an antidote, I was obliged to employ six strong men to hold him 
while I was getting his teeth asunder, to pour down the remedy. Upon their 
recovery, all objects appeared to them as scarlet, for two or three days." — (Dr. 
Patouillat, Phil. Trans., 40, 446.) 

* Phiirm. Jour., 1S62, 447. For authorilies upon the Chemistry of Hyoscyamus, ninl fuither study, see Bililio- 
graphical Imlex, in the Appemlix. 



126-5 

Seven persons ate broth, in which the leaves of Hyoscyamus had been boiled; 
symptoms of intoxication soon followed: "I saw them about three hours after 
having eat it ; and then three of the men were become quite insensible, did not 
know their comrades, talked incoherently, and were in as high a delirium as people 
in the rage of a fever; all of them had low, irregular pulses, slavered, and fre- 
quently changed color; their eyes looked fiery, and they catched at whatever lay 
next them, calling out that it was going to fall." — (Dr. Stednian, Phil. Trans., 1 750.) 

Wepfer relates that several monks made a repast on the roots of wild endive 
(Cichorium Intibus), among which were mixed, by mistake, two roots of Henbane. 
In a lew hours some experienced vertigo, others a burning of the tongue, lips, and 
throat ; severe pains were also felt in the iliac regions, and in all the joints. The 
intellectual faculties and the organs of vision were perverted, and they gave them- 
selves up to actions which were mad and ridiculous. In other cases, a haggard 
countenance, dilation of the pupils, difficulty of breathing, small and intermittent 
pulse, loss of speech, trismus, and temporary loss of intellect have been the prin- 
cipal symptoms ; while the extremities have been observed to be cold and nearly 
paralyzed. — (Orfila 2, 135.) 

A woman, a;t. 34, swallowed, in mistake for a black draught, an ounce and a 
half of the tincture of Hyoscyamus, made apparently from the biennial plant, and 
resembling the pharmacopoeial tincture. (The annual plant is said to make a 
weaker tincture.) In ten minutes she had a hot, burning, pricking sensation in 
the hands, feet, and legs ; became giddy and delirious, and complained of great 
dryness in the throat. Shordy after, in attempting to get out of bed, she found 
her legs were powerless. A purplish rash appeared over the body, particularly 
about the neck and face, which were much swollen. The draught was taken at 
5 .\. M. At 9 A. M. Dr. White found her almost insensible and unable to speak. 
The tongue was swollen, brown, and dry, and put out with difficulty; the face 
swollen and scarlet ; the pupils were so dilated that the iris was a mere thread- 
like ring ; the skin hot and dry. The poison had been taken on an empty stomach. 
There was no sickness. In three hours she passed a motion smelling strongly of 
this drug, but the odor was not perceived in the urine. She could not see distinctly. 
All motion in the extremities was lost, and their sensibility was diminished. At 
4 I'. M. she was delirious, and there was a sickness ; 1 1 i'. m., shivering and coldness 
of the skin. At 9 a. m. the next day she could see and articulate better. The iris 
was half a line in breadth. Brandy, opium, ammonia, and other remedies were 
used, and she gradually improved. It was si.x days before she acquired a partial 
use of her legs, and could not then stand without being supported on both sides. 
She had cjuite lost her memory, and talked in a rambling manner. She was 
unable to remember for a minute a single sentence or word she hatl uttered or 
read. — (Dr. White, Lancet, July 5, 1873, p. 8.) 

Two men ate the young shoots of the plant. The first effect was that the 
earth seemed to pass suddenly from under them ; the tongue became paralyzed, 
and their limbs were cold, torpid, paralyzed, and insensible ; the arms were in a 
state of spasmodic action ; the pupils were dilated, the look was fixed and vacant ; 



126-6 

breathing difficult; the pulse small and intermittent. Beside these symptoms, 
there was the spasmodic grin {risits sardonicus), with delirium ; and the jaws were 
spasmodically closed. Under treatment the men recovered in the course of two 
days. — (Orfila, 4eme ed., vol. 2, p. 264.) 

A woman collected in a field a quantity of the roots by mistake for parsnips. 
They were boiled in soup, of which nine persons in the family partook without 
remarking any particular taste. Very shortly afterward the whole of these per- 
sons felt uneasy, and complained of a bitter, acrid taste in the mouth, with nausea. 
The pupils of the eyes were dilated, and there was indistinctness of vision. These 
symptoms were followed by great resdessness, convulsions, and continued delirium. 
The patients successively lost the power of vision, hearing, and voice, and were 
affected with stupor and insurmountable somnolency. — [Ed. Med. and S. J., Oct., 
1844, p. 562.) 

Post-Mortem. — Orfila quotes a case of fatal poisoning by the roots, and Wib- 
mer one by the leaves. The appearances were those of general congestion of 
dark-colored liquid blood in the venous system, such condition being found in the 
luno-s and brain. There are commonly found no traces of irritation or infiammation 
in the stomach or bowels. 

"The differential diagnosis of the three mydriatics in the treatment of head 
affections is fairly stated by Dr. Phillips. In cases of cerebral hypera;mia, the 
severer forms are removed by Belladonna, while Hyoscyamus proves its value 
when there is litde or no congestion, but much excitement. So in the case of 
delirium ; the forms of this disorder, for which Hyoscyamus is adapted, are the 
milder and less inflammatory ones, whereas the severer cases are better dealt 
with by Belladonna and Stramonium. Hyoscyamus is specially useful again in 
those cases of delirium with hallucinations which are accompanied with little or no 
cerebral congestion, but where there is great excitability of the nervous system, 
and where there is reason to fear that the operation of opium would prove 
injurious." — (Hughes, Phannacodynamics, p. 414.) 



Description of Plate 126. 

I. A flowering and fruiting branch, from near lioston, July 27th, 1884. 

2. (Jpened corolla. 

3. Stamen. 

4. Opened calyx, showing pistil. 

5. Horizontal section of the ovary. 

6. Fruiting calyx. 

7. Fruit. 

8. Longitudinal section of fruit. 

9. Dehiscent fruit. 

10. Seed. ) _ ,. 

T •. J- 1 .■ c J ' ^ S° cnameters. 

11. Longitudinal section of seed J 

(2-9 enlarged.) 




natdel.et^inxt 



Datura Stramonium, Linn. 



N. ORD -SOLANACE^. 127 

Tribe.-HYOSCYAME/E. 

GENUS.— DATURA,* LINN. 



SEX. SVSr,-rENT.'\NORl.\ MONOGVNI.V. 



stramonium; 

THORJf-APPLE. 

SYN.— DATURA STRAMONIUM, LINN. ; STRAMONIUM SPINOSUM, GER. ; S. 
FCETIDUM, SCOP. ; S. VULGATUM, GABRT. 

COM. NAMES.— THORN-APPLE, DEVIL'S APPLE, MAD APPLE,' APPLE OP 
PERU. JAMESTOWN OR JIMSON WEED, STINK-WEED; (PR.) POMMB 
EPINEUSE OU L'ENDORMIB ; (GER.j STECKAPPEL. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH RIPE SEED OF D.\TURA STRAMONIUM, L. 

Description. — This rank, glabrous, annual, bushy berb, grows to a height of 
from 2 to 4 feet. Rooi tapering, somewhat branched. Stem very smooth, subcylin- 
drical, green and succulent, at first bifurcating, then dichotomously branching. 
Leaves alternate, and at times opposite, upon the same plant, in reality more or 
less scattered ; all more or less cordate at the base, but in many instances unequal, 
in this case one side of the base is prolonged decurrently along the upper side of 
the petiole. In outline the leaves are ovate, very irregularly sinuate, and laciniately 
toothed or angled ; they are smooth, deep green above, pale beneath, and all the 
older ones are plentifully perforated by the ravages of worms. InfloresceJice soli- 
tary in the forks of the branches ; flowers erect, 2 to 4 inches long, raised upon a 
short rigid peduncle. Calyx tubular, prismatic, half-persistent, circumscissile, /. e., 
separating transversely above the base, the upper portion falling away, the lower 
remaining persistent and forming in fruit a peltate border to the under side of the 
capsule ; limb 5-toothed. Corolla infundibuliform, delicate, creamy white, convo- 
lute-plicate in aestivation ; limb plaited, larger and spreading, 5-toothed ; sinuses 
long subulate-pointed. Slatnejis 5, included ; filaments long and filiform, inserted 
upon the tube of the corolla ; anthers adnate, oblong and pointed. Style slender, 
longer than the stamens, but not exserted ; stigma clavate, 2-lipped. Fruit an 
erect, globose-ovoid and more or less quadrilateral, divergently echinate, 2-celIed 
pod; pericarp coriaceous; valves 4; placentce 2, thick, projected from the axis into 
the middle of each cell, where each division becomes somewhat expanded into two 
placentiferous lines at the middle, thus rendering the pod in reality 4-celled, except 
at its apex. Seeds very numerous, rather large, laterally flattened horizontally, and 
somewhat reniform; /^.f/a crustaceous, scrobiculate-rugose ; embryo much curved. 

* The Arabic name Tatorah (Indian Daturo), given to D.fasluosa, Linn, 
t Srpiixw/ioi'iwK, sirychnomanikon, referring lo ils causing madness. 



127-2 

History and Habitat. — Stramonium is judged by De Candolle to be indige- 
nous to the Old World, probably to the borders of the Caspian Sea and the adja- 
f ent regions. It is one of the many Solanaceous plants whose origin is exceedingly 
doubtful. This species is now only found near the habitations of man, and then 
generally in garbage heaps where the soil is loose but rich, being in reality a true 
weed of civilization, scattered throughout almost all of the temperate and warmer 
regions of the globe. It was at one time seriously maintained that America was 
its birthplace, but in no locality here does it at all approach a situation that has the 
semblance of a natural site; so thoroughly does it cling to waste heaps that the 
American Aborigines named it The White Maiis Plant in allusion to its only 
place of growth, i. e., near the homes of the civilized. With us in the North, it 
blossoms from July to October, and ripens its capsules from September to November. 

The first notice of Stramonium is, in all probability, that of Fuchsius (1542), 
who states that it was introduced into Germany from Italy.* Gerarde (who 
received some of the seeds from Lord Zouch, who sent them from Constantinople, 
about the end of the i6th century), cultivated the plant in England. 

Baron Storck was first to introduce the plant into medicine, to any extent. 
He used it internally in mania and epilepsy. " If," he says, " Stramonium produces 
symptoms of madness in a healthy person, would it not be desirable to make 
experiments in order to discover whether this plant, by its effects on the brain in 
changing the ideas and the state of the sensorium (/. e., of the part, whatever it 
may be, which is the centre of action of the nerves upon the body) — should we 
not, I say, try whether this plant would not restore to a healthy state those who 
are suffering from alienation of mind ? and if by the change which Stramonium 
would cause in those who suffer from convulsions, by putting them into a contrary 
state to that in which they were, would it not cause their cure?" Bergius states -j- 
that he frequently saw maniacs restored to saneness of mind, which they never 
afterward lost, by the continued use of the extract of Stramonium ; and that by the 
same means he effectually cured the delirium so often attendant upon child-birth. 

In general practice Stramonium has been used as a narcotic, soothing drug, 
in chorea (Wedenberg) ; epilepsy (Odhelius) ; neuralgia ; and tic-douloureux ; 
and as an ointment, for the same purpose, in recent burns and scalds, nympho- 
mania and rheumatism. One of its principal uses, however, has been that of the 
dried leaves, smoked as cigarettes, during the spasm of asthma, a practice highly 
recommended by Dr. Bigelow. 

The officinal parts of this plant in the U. S. Ph., are : Strainoiiii Folia and 
Stravi07iii Semen; of the latter the preparations are: Extraction Strainonii ; 
Extractum Stramonii Fluidjcm, and Tinctnra Strainonii. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica the following preparations are recommended: Cataplasma Stramonii ; 
Extractum Stramonii Alcoholicum ; Tinctrira Stramonii ; Ungucntnm Stramonii. 
The drug also plays a part in their Tinctnra Viburnii Composita and Unguentum 
Stramonii Compositum .\ 

* Sprengel, Hist. Rei. Herb., ii, 326. f ^"l^- <f" Plantes Vl-n. et Siisp. de Fr., i, 38; and Mat. Mi;/., 1. c. 

X Dulcamara, Stramonium, Cicuta, Belladonna, Rumex, and Oleum Terebinthinse. 



127-3 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The ripe seeds are powdered and cov- 
ered in a well-stoppered bottle, with five parts by weight of alcohol, and allowed to 
stand for eight days in a dark, cool place ; vigorously shaking the vial twice a day. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration is clear, and has a beautiful 
brownish-orange color by transmitted light. The slight odor it exhales is not 
characteristic ; it has no peculiar taste, but leaves a numb feeling upon the tongue 
very similar to that caused by carbolic acid. Its reaction is acid. 

Should the bottle be left longer before filtration, the tincture will become 
stronger each day until it is opaque. Then in thin layers it exhibits a beautiful 
orange-red color by transmitted light, and when looked down upon presents a 
brilliant iridescent, crrass-oreen film, which does not chance durincj atritation, 
although it appears like a stratum separable from the rest of the preparation. 
This last preparation is, of course, unofficinal, but is mentioned simply to show 
that our tincture does not represent the full strength of the seed. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Da/nj-a-A/ro/y/^ic or £>a/nri/!c.— This body 
was discovered in Stramonium by Geiger and Hesse in 1833. A. von Planta in 
1850 proved it identical with Atropine* not only in solubility and fusibility, but 
also in its chemical composition (Cj-Hg^NO^), and many physical properties. It 
differs, however, sufficiently to suggest to Herr Schmidt that we should distinguish 
the two products by prefixing the name of the plant from which each is derived. 
Ledenburgf says, doubtless Daturine, Hyoscyamine, Atropine, and Duboisine are 
identical. 

The following points of difterence are, however, distinguishable between the 
two alkaloids: The crystals are said to differ somewhat in form ;J datura-atropine 
is levogyrate, while atropa-atropine is non-rotary ; § platinic chloride precipitates 
atropa-atropine salts, but not salts of datura-atropine, and picric acid precipitates 
datura-atropine, but not atropa-atropine ; || atropa-atropine is said to be twice as 
poisonous as datura-atropine;^ and it is claimed that datura-atropine is thrice as 
powerful a dilatant of the pupil as its isomer, and that the dilation lasts longer.** 

Atropa-atropine or atropine, Cj-H.^^O^ as purified after its extraction from the 
flowering Belladonna, forms prisms, having a nauseous, bitter and burning taste, 
and causing a dryness of the mouth and fauces, widi constriction of the throat. 
Even in very small doses it produces congestive headache and dilatation of the 
pupil. It is readily soluble in alcohol, less so in water; its solubility is increased 
in each by the addition of heat. It fuses at 90° (194° F.) ; and at 140'' (284° F.) 
it breaks down, the greater portion being destroyed ; by farther heating on plati- 
num-foil it bursts into a flame, and the slight residue soon vanishes. 

Stramonin. — This chemically uninvestigated body was separated from the tinc- 
ture of the seeds, by Trommsdorf.f-j- It is described as a white, tasteless powder ; 
sparingly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water and fusing at 150° (302° F.). 



* Am. Jour. Phar., XXIII., 38. t Berichie. dtr Ckim. ges., 1880, 380. J Erhard, l865. 

\ Poehl, I'etersb. Med. Wochrnsch., 1877, No. 20. || Poehl, 1. c. \ Schroff. 

** Jobert, Ann. de-Therap., 1863, 28. ft Wittstein, I. c. 



127-4 

Brandes, In his analysis of the seeds, extracted a fixed oil, fat oil, fatty matter, 
wax, resin insoluble in ether, red extractive matter, uncrystallizable sugar, gum, 
gummy extractive, malic acid, and various uncharacteristic bodies. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Datura Stramonium acts very powerfully upon 
the cerebro-spinal system, causing a line of symptoms showing it to be a narcoto- 
irritant of high degree. The symptoms collated from many cases of poisoning by 
this drug are : Vertigo, with staggering gait, and finally unconsciousness ; stupor 
and deep sleep, with stertorous breathing ; mania, with loquaciousness or melan- 
cholia ; hallucinations of terrifying aspect, the patient bites, strikes and screams, 
and throws the arms about, or picks and grasps at unattainable objects ; con- 
gestive headaches, with dull beating and throbbing in the vertex. The pupils 
are dilated, and the patient suffers from photophobia, diplopia and hemeralopia ; 
the eyes are wide open, staring, and set, or are contorted, rolling, and squinting. 
The face becomes red, bloated, and hot, the mouth spasmodically closed, and the 
tongue dry and swollen ; the patient suffers greatly from thirst, but the sight of 
water throws him into a spasm and causes great constriction of the throat, foaming 
at the mouth, and other symptoms similar to those of hydrophobia. There is often 
nausea, but seldom vomiting. The sexual functions are often excited, more espe- 
cially in women, in whom it causes nymphomania. Spasms of the muscles of the 
chest are of frequent occurrence ; inspiration is slow and expiration quick. 
Paralysis of the lower limbs and loss of speech, with twitchings and jerkings of 
muscles often mark a case. Its action will be seen to be similar to that of Bella- 
donna, yet differing in many respects. 

A few of the many cases of poisoning by this plant will serve to show its 
mode of action : 

Beverly states* that some of the soldiers sent to Jamestown to quell the 
rebellion of Bacon, gathered the young sprouts of Stramonium and ate them as a 
potage, " the effect of which was a very pleasant comedy, for they turned natural 
tools upon it for several days. One would blow up a feather in the air, another 
would dart straws at it with fury ; another, stark naked, was sitting up in a corner 
like a monkey, grinning and making maws at them ; a fourth would fondly kiss 
and paw his companions, and smile in their faces with a countenance more antic 
than any in a Dutch droll. A thousand simple tricks they played, and after eleven 
days returned to themselves again, not remembering anything" that had passed." 
J. R. Dodge statesf that " Datura mcteloides grows abundantly on the Colorado 
River, in Arizona, and that the Mohave Indians gather the leaves and roots, bruise 
and mix them with water, and after being allowed to stand several hours, the liquid 
is drawn off. It is a highly narcotic drink, producing a stupefying effect, which is 
not very easy to remove. The Mohaves will often drink this nauseous liquid, as 
they are very fond of any kind of intoxication." The California Indians use a 
decoction of this species to stimulate young females in dancing. The Pah-Utes 
call the plant Alain-oph-wcep ; they ferment in the sun a watery infusion of the 



Hist, of Virginia, 121. \ U. S. Agric. Rep., 1S70, 423. 



127-5 

bruised seeds, and drink die liquor for the purpose of intoxication.* Dr. Schlesier 
met a casef in which the subject, a boy, aet. 4, mistook the fruit of Stramonium for 
poppy heads, and ate a quantity of them. " Soon afterwards his face was flushed, 
his eyes were glistening and in constant motion, the pupils much dilated, and the 
countenance was that of an into.xicated person. He sat up in bed quite uncon- 
scious, but continually babbling and occasionally starting up suddenly, his hands 
apparently directed at imaginary objects in the air. His pulse was very slow ; 
there was no fever, but intense thirst and violent perspiration from incessant 
motion." Dr. Turner;}; describes the effects upon two children who had eaten the 
seeds: "In an hour and a half they were fully under the influence of the poison. 
They were lying on their backs, eyes bright, pupils widely dilated and insensible 
to light, conjunctiva injected, faces deeply suffused, and of a dark-crimson color; 
difficulty of breathing, inability to articulate, and in a state of complete insensi- 
bility, broken occasionally by a paroxysm, during which they would utter some 
indistinct sounds and throw their hands about, as if trying to ward off some threat- 
ening evil. They then fell into a comatose state, but were easily roused into a 
state of violent excitement; they grasped at imaginary objects; there was picking 
of the bedclothes, with paroxysms of excessive laughter." 

The Thugs, a society of stealthy fanatic murderers of India, often employ 
D. fastuosa and alba to render their intended victims unconscious. 

On Animals. — Orfila found that half an ounce killed a dog within twenty-four 
hours ; and a quarter of an ounce applied to an open wound in another, killed him 
in six hours. The symptoms in each case showed that the effects were produced 
upon the nervous system in general. 

Post-mortem. — The blood was found to be semi-fluid throughout the body, 
the few coagula that are met with in the auricles and large veins are very thor- 
oughly formed and easily broken down. A slight injection of the mucous mem- 
brane of the larynx, pharynx, and upper portion of the oesophagus was observed. 
The rima glottidis was thickened and very turgid. The alimentary tract, however, 
was found absolutely normal. § 

From the symptoms caused by this drug, its homoeopathic adaptability to 
hydrophobia will be at once evident. There is no drug so far proven that deserves 
as thorough and careful a trial in this dread disease as Stramonium. The following, 
from a letter written by the Catholic Bishop of Singapore to the Straits Tunes, has 
just come to my notice. This bishop says he thinks it his duty to publish the 
remedies used in the missions in Tonquin for the cure of hydrophobia. These, he 
says, consist first, in giving as much star-aniseed as may be contained on a cent 
piece ; and secondly, in making the patient take some water in which a handful of 
the leaves of stramony, or thorn-apple, or pear-apple, is infused. These will cause 
an access of the convulsions or delirium, during which the padent must be tied ; 
but on its abatement he will be cured. If the remedy act too violendy, either by 

* Dr. Edward Palmer in Am. Nat., 1878, 650. f Canstatt's Jahrbtieh, 1844, 297. 

J Am. Jour, of Med. Sci., 1864, 552. \ Mr. Duffin's case (his youngest daughter), Lancet, 1845, 195. 



127-6 

too much being administered, or on account of there being no virus of real hydro- 
phobia, the consequences may be ameliorated by making the patient drink an 
infusion of licorice root, a most precious antidote against poisoning by stramony. 
In 1869, the bishop relates, a very honorable member of the clergy of Paris was 
bitten by a pet dog, which died thirty hours afterwards with the most charac- 
terized convulsions of rabies. The following day he felt the first symptoms of the 
dreadful disease, and these augmented in intensity every day. The priest, how- 
ever, applied at once all sorts of known remedies, ancient and modern, and even 
employed a very small dose of stramony. Each time he used the latter the pro- 
gress of the disease ceased for some hours, even days, and then continued its 
ravages with greater intensity than before. When the fatal issue was at hand, 
just at the crisis of the disease, when the paroxysms had attained the greatest 
violence, the patient, with almost superhuman energy, began chewing a pinch of 
dried stramony leaves, swallowing the juice. The effect was not long in making 
itself felt. In half an hour the disease had attained its height, the patient being 
delirious during the convulsions ; but on the following clay he was perfectly cured. 
"The same remedy," concludes the bishop, "is used in India, and is always suc- 
cessful." 

Description of Plate 127. 

I. End of a flowering branch and portion of the main stem, Jersey City, N. J., July loth, 1884. 

2. Stamen. 

3. Ovary. 

4. Stigma. 

5. Pollen X 200. 
, (2-4 enlarged.) 



I-^l! 




V- s\ .(". •'' 1 - 



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m 



>^ 



^!i^ 







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Gm.adnai.del.ttpinxt. 



NiCOTIANA TABACUM,Linn 



N. ORD-SOLANACE^. 128 

Tribe.-NICOTIANE/E. 

GENUS— NICOTIAN A,* LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



TABACUM. 

TOBACCO A 



SYN.— NICOTIANA TABACUM, LINN., NICOTIANA MACROPHYLLA, 

SPRBNGBL, LEHM., HYOSCYAMUS PERUVIANUS, GERARD. 
COM. NAMES.— TOBACCO; (FR.) TABAC ; (GER.) TABAK. 



A TINCTURE OF THE LE.WES OF NICOTIANA TABACUM, L. A TINCTURE OF 
THE ALKALOID NICOTINUM. 



Description.— This largely cultivated, rank, acrid, annual herb, the base of the 
most wide-spread of all narcotic habits, grows to a height of from 4 to 6 feet at 
its flowering season. Root long, fibrous and tap-shaped. Stem erect, simple, 
cylindrical, solid and viscid-pubescent. Leaves alternate, bright-green upon the 
upper surface, paler beneath, those of the base more or less petioled, large and 
broad, ovate and from one and one-half to two feet long, by from 10 to 18 inches 
broad ; those of the upper part of the plant more or less amplectant, oval-oblong 
or oval-lanceolate, all entire acute and glandularly pubescent. Inflorescence a 
terminal spreading panicle of rose colored or white flowers ; bracts lanceolate, acute. 
Ca/yx inflated-tubular or campanulate, 5-cleft, viscid-hairy; teeth narrow-lanceolate, 
acute. Corolla ; lube funnel-form, clammy-pubescent, from one and one-half to 
two inches long; lh7ib salver-form, plaited, 5-cleft, the lobes acute and broadly 
triangular. Stamens 5, equal or nearly so ; filaments inserted upon the base of 
the corolla and nearly as long as the tube ; anthers small, opening longitudinally. 
Ovary ovate, 2-celled ; style slender, about equal in length to the filaments ; stigma 
capitate, 2-lobed. Fruit a 2-celled ovate capsule, situated in the cup of the per- 
sistent calyx; dehiscence ?,&'^\az\6.?\ from the apex; valves 2, becoming at length 
separated; pericarp papyraceous, thin. Seeds innumerable, minute, subcylindri- 
cal ; testa sinuously, raised-reticulate. 

History and. Habitat.— There seems to be little doubt that tobacco is a native 
of some i)ortion of South or Central America, where it appears to have been used 
by the natives as a narcotic from prehistoric times. The first intimation history 
gives of its use, is the account of the .Spaniards with Columbus, who, upon landing 
at St. Domingo, in 1492, discovered the natives smoking cylinders of the dried 
leaves, which they called cohiba. In 1498 its use was again noted by them upon 

*Jean Nicot, vide History and Habitat, p. 128-2. f Origin somewhat doubtful, vide idem. 



12S-2 

the British West Indian Island of Tobago. It was either from this island, or from 
the native word meaning pipe, lobcxco, that the specific name was derived. Tobacco 
was quite extensively used by the Spaniards in Yucatan as early as 1520, and 
from there its use was introduced into Spain by Hernandez de Toledo in 1559; 
about this time also, it was first grown in Europe, at Lisbon, and from there in 
1560, Jean Nicot, ambassador to France, sent seeds, mentioning them as the 
germs of a medicinal plant of great value. From this circumstance Linnaeus 
honored him with its generic name, Nicofinna. In 15S5 its use by the Canadian 
Indians was discovered, and in 1586 it was brought to England by Sir Francis 
Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh and his companions. About the year 1 6co the 
plant was introduced into Java, Turkey, India and China, though some historians 
feel confident that the Chinese had used the leaves long before this period, attempt- 
ing thus to more fully substantiate the theory often promulgated that the Chinese 
had visited the western shores of America long before the discovery of the eastern 
coasts by the Spaniards. The rapidity with which this plant has traveled from one 
extremity of the temperate and torrid zones to the other, notwithstanding the act 
of English Parliament, the Popish bull, the Russian knout and death, the com- 
mands of the priests and sultans of Turkey and Persia, and the edict of the 
hwang-ti of China, is almost incredible, the very opposition that attended its first 
introduction into all countries seemed only to urge its onward rush, until it has 
gained to-day a prominence greater than any other known plant. 

Besides the true Virginian tobacco [N'icoliana Tabaciini, L.) for which the 
genus was composed, the following species and varieties have been determined : 
A^. rtistica, L., a species with greenish-yellow flowers, cultivated in Mexico, India, 
Syria, and Turkey (Zrt;^^z/&/«), and found escaped in the northern United States; 
I\F. Tcibaciim, v:ir. undidata, Sendtmr, found in Brazil; N. quadrivahis, var. miilti- 
valvis, Gray, a relic of aboriginal cultivation in Oregon ; N. Paliucri, an Arizo- 
nian species (Palmer); N. Clevelandi, a Californian species (Cleveland); N. Plinn- 
baginifolia, I'iv., a Mexican species (Berlandier); N. fruciicosa, L., a beautiful 
species with sharply pointed capsules ; N.persica, Lindl., cultivated as the fragrant 
Shiraz or Persian tobacco ; N. rcpanc/a, IVilld., furnishing the fine Havana and 
Cuban leaves ; N'. quadrivalvis, Pursh., used by the Indians along the Missouri 
river, and called by them nonrhaxi'\ N. nana, Lindl., the plant of the Rocky Moun- 
tain tribes ; N'. cliincnsis, as cultivated in China and Japan ; N. trigonophylla, 
Duiial, N. Bigclovii, Watson, and ^V. attemiata, Torrcy, the leaves of all of which 
being used by the Indians of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Southern Califor- 
nia, and said to be stronger than^the cultivated plants (Palmer); N. lancifolia, 
Willd., and N. Vbarrensis, HBK., to which Prof. Asa Gray refers the Yaqui 
Tobacco, cultivated in Arizona (Palmer); and "H. pctiolata, a variety of cultivation 
in the United States. 

The tobacco plant flowers in temperate regions from June to August, varying 
with the locality and season. 

Tobacco can be raised in its proper soil at almost any point between the 
equator and the 50th degree N. or S. latitude, the better grades however not 
above the 35th degree, and the best between the 15th and 35th degrees, north. 



128-3 

The production of this narcotic for its specihc use as liefore intimated is enor- 
mous, and increasing- rapidly from year to year, the United States alone raising 
472,061.175 lbs. in 1880, or nearly double the product for 1870. The estimated 
annual production of the globe is placed at about 3,000,000 tons! which, taking 
the world's population at present (1882) to be 1,433,887,600, would furnish each 
individual, without regard to age, sex, or condition, with over 4^ lbs. 

As an habitual narcotic its modes of use are various. I place them here in the 
order of their harmfulness: Chewing without e.xpectorating, inhalation of the 
smoke, chewing and e.xpectorating, insufflation of snuff, and smoking without 
inhalation. The leaves are prepared for use, — after passing through processes 
which tend slightly to militate against the poisonous properties, — in the form of 
twists soaked in molasses or liquorice, for chewing, called plugs ; shredded leaves 
more or less pure, for chewing or smoking, called yf«^-«^^; finely-broken leaves, 
sometimes bleached, for smoking, tarmed gra?iu/aied tobacco ; rolled into cylindri- 
cal forms, either pure or saturated with nitre, as cigars and cheroots ; rolled into 
small cylinders and wrapped in paper, as cigarettes ; pulverized and kept dry or 
damp for insufflation or chewing, as sfitiff ; and many other minor forms. 

Its exhibition internally as a drug, must be conducted with the greatest care 
and watchfulness according to the susceptibility of the patient and the potence of 
the preparation. It was formerly quite esteemed as an anthelmintic, emetic, anti- 
spasmodic, cathartic, and sialagogue. Externally its forms of application were 
many in hemorrhoids, various skin diseases of man and beast, spasma glottidis, 
rheumatism, ulcers, tumors, and kindred affections. 

Its officinal form in the U. S. Ph. is now simply Folia Tabaci ; its former officinal 
preparations were dismissed at the 6th revision, 1S82. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica the preparations are Injustun Tabaci, Oleum Tabaci and Unguenttivi 
Tabaci. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The generic effects of Nicotiana being 
almost, if not quite identical in each species, and as the physiological effects have 
been gathered from all sources, varieties, and uses, the leaves of any fully-developed 
plant may be used. Place the dried and finely-cut leaves in a bottle, cover them 
with five parts by weight of alcohol, and allow them to stand at least eight days, 
well stoppered, in a dark, cool place. The tincture may then be pressed out and 
filtered. If prepared from Havana leaves, which contain the smallest percentage 
of nicotia, it presents a clear orange-brown color by transmitted light, the charac- 
teristic penetrating odor and taste of the plant, and only a slight acid reaction. 

Nicotinum.— A Solution of one part by weight of the volatile alkaloid nicotia 
in 99 parts of absolute alcohol. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Nicotia,=-= C,„ H,., O,. This volatile alkaloid 
exists in the leaves and seeds of all species of the genus nicotiana, from which 
it may be extracted by aqueous or alcoholic distillation. The process best calcu- 
lated to extract the full amount is Laiblin's modification of that of Schloesing.f 



*Nicotina, nicotin, nicotylia, nicotine, tabacine. ^ Annal. d. cAem., vnl. 196, p. 130. 



substantially as follows : The cut leaves and stems are placed in some convenient 
apparatus, covered to a good depth with water, and allowed to digest 24 hours or 
more, then heated by means of superheated steam for half an hour, filtered and 
pressed. The mass is again dealt with in the same way, and the resultant liquids 
united and evaporated to one-third. Ten per cent, of the original weight of the 
tobacco of slaked caustic lime is now added, and the whole subjected to distillation 
by steam, until the disgusting odor of nicotia is no longer perceptible from the 
still. The distillate is now neutralized by a known weight of oxalic acid and 
evaporated to a thin syrup, the requisite amount of potassa to neutralize the 
known quantity of acid is now added, which causes a separation of the crude 
nicotia ; this is collected and the menstruum treated with ether to extract the re- 
maining alkaloid. Boih resultants are now mixed, purified by distillation with 
hydrogen, solution in ether, shaking with powdered oxalic acid, solution again in 
ether, decomposing with potassa and redistillation in hydrogen. The distillate 
(Nicotia) is a colorless pure liquid, having a peculiar repulsive acrid odor not 
resembling tobacco, a burning taste, strong alkaline reaction, turning brown when 
exposed to light and air, and a specific gravity of 1.048 at 0° C. (32° F.). It boils 
at 250° C. (482° F.), is soluble to any quantity in water, alcohol or ether, and com- 
pletely saturates acids. 

The question as to the presence of nicotia in tobacco smoke, a point quite 
necessary to determine, seems still unsettled, many chemists of note having failed 
to detect its presence, while others find it in considerable quantity without appar- 
ent trouble. Vohl and Eulenberg (1871) conclude that nicotia is completely 
decomposed in the process of smoking, while Kissling (1882) in a comprehensive 
essay* criticises their process, and judges that their analysis was incorrect. He 
also criticises the analyses of Heubel, LeBon and Pease, who found nicotia, and 
reports its presence in his own analysis. The smoke contains, according to Vohl 
and Eulenberg, who have made careful analyses,-}- pyridine, Q H^ N ; piccoline, 
C„ H_ N ; lutidifte, C, H, N ; colli dine, C, Hj^ N ; parvoline, Cg H^^ N ; cori- 
dine, Cj,, H^,, N ; rubidinc, C,^ Hj„ N ; and viridine, Cj^ H^^ N ; all of which are 
bases occurring in coal-tar, and in Dippel's oil [Olctim Aninialc Dippelii), 
a product of the dry distillation of bones and other animal matter. Besides 
these another hydrocarbon, Q, H^^; carbonic anhydride; hydrocyanic acid; sul- 
phuretted hydrogen ; acetic anhydride ; formic, propionic, butyric, valeric and 
carbolic acids ; creosote ; several hydrocarbons of the acetylene group ; ammonia; 
methane and carbonic oxide were found present. 

Oleum Tabaci.— This empyreumatic, tarry liquid doubtless contains many of 
the hydrocarbons mentioned above, and mixed with nicotia is in great part that 
subsidence found in the smoker's pipes. 

Nicotianin.— Tobacco Camphor. — Q^ Hj^ N.^ O3. Hermbstadt (1823) ob- 
served floating separate upon the surface of an aqueous distillate of tobacco 
leaves, white laminae, to which he gave the above name. Nicotianin consists of 
white, scale-like crystals, having a bitter aromatic taste, soluble in water, alcohol 
and ether, and emitting a tobacco-like odor. 

♦Quoted in Jour. Chem. 5or., Augu.-t, 1882. 

t Vierleljahrssclir. f. gd-'uhll. und offc-nll. Metiicin, N. ed., Vul. 14, p. 249. 



1128-5 

Nicotinic Acid.— C, H^ N, CO.OH, was first discovered by Huber, who sub- 
sequently recognized it as carbopyridcnic acid. Weidel afterward separated this 
principle from nicotia by the use of nitric acid, and deemed his product identical 
with that of Huber; he gave it the formula Cj^H.N, O.,.* Laiblin, however, 
( 1 879)1 after successive tests favors the formula of Huber. This acid forms 
colorless, sublimable crystals, possessing a strongly acid taste. 

Oil of Nicotiana Tabacum.— The fixed oil of the seeds, according to Witt- 
stein, is golden-yellow, mild and inodorous, having a density of 0.917. A corre- 
sponding or identical oil, Cj^ H,„ 0,„ is found (Zeise) in. Oleum Tabaci. 

Tabacose.— The presence of this tobacco sugar has been determined by Prof. 
AttfieldJ in amounts varying in different samples, from about 5-10 per cent. 
The precise nature of this saccharose body is not yet known. 

Besides the above the plant contains gum, mucilage, tannin, and from 15 to 
30 per cent, of inorganic matters, salts of potassium, calcium and magnesium, as 
sulphates, phosphates, malates, nitrates and probably citrates, these latter differing 
in quantity according to the nature of the soil in which the individual grows, and 
showing it to be a very exhaustive crop. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The important question of whether the use of 
tobacco in moderation is harmful or not, has been decided in the negative by 
many of the highest authorities. It would seem that he who can use it at all, 
and who notes no symptoms from its moderate exhibition, is not particularly in- 
jured. In this as with all other drugs, it must be remembered, that what is 
moderation in one individual is often excess in another, and that, therefore, the 
dose, whether taken as a remedy or otherwise, must in all cases be suited to the 
particular individual under consideration. Concerning the many essays that are 
written upon this subject, the fact that all of them show to a careful reader 
whether the writer is a user or not, renders them very unsatisfactory and more or 
less faulty through partisanship. 

Chronic eflfects.— It is almost an impossibility to gain a systematic knowledge 
of the chronic effects of tobacco poisoning, though the sources of information 
upon this subject would seem at first to be excellent. The effects produced upon 
smokers are almost useless in the study of the drug itself, and it is only in that 
class of chewers who swallow the juice, that positive data could be looked for; still 
here, as well, we are at a loss to determine facts, for in manufacturing the narcotic 
processes are used which alter the product greatly ; nevertheless some few symp- 
toms seem to be more or less common to all who have been for protracted 
periods subjected to the drug. Mental anxiety and irritability, with at times con- 
fusion of ideas ; dilation of the pupils ; ringing in the ears ; increased secretion of 
saliva ; uncertainty of speech ; dryness of the throat ; at times weakness of the 
stomach and nausea ; increased secretion of urine ; dry cough especially at night ; 
prsecordial oppression with palpitation of the heart and at times an irregular 
pulse ; trembling of the extremities when held long in one position ; general 

* Laiblin, Jour. Client. Soc, October, 1879, quoted from Liebig's Annalen. 1 1'^'''- 

\ Ph.irm. your. Trans., Jan. 12, quote! in Am. your. Phar., 18S4, p. 147. 



i28-6 

anaemic condition of the blood ; spasmodic contractions or jactation of single 
muscles ; sensations of exhaustion and especially lassitude ; sleepiness ; profuse 
perspiration, and sensitiveness to cold. 

It would seem to be a fact, that in habitual users of this or any other toxic 
drug, the drug acts more or less as its own antidote, for immediately upon discon- 
tinuance of its use the preponderance of its symptoms arise. 

The effects of tobacco or its alkaloid nicotia in toxic quantities, when taken 
into the stomach, injected into the rectum, or applied to a denuded surface are : 

Ante-mortem. — Faintness, vertigo and trembling, with extreme nausea, torpor, 
stertorous breathing, weak irregular pulse, relaxation of the muscles, and vomiting ; 
followed by severe spasms or paralysis, advancing coldness of the extremities, 
collapse with cold sweat, and death. 

Post-mortem.— Excessive cadaveric rigidity, a general contraction and con- 
gestion of all hollow organs ; the heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys and bladder ; 
a congestion of the cerebellum, liver, portal and mesenteric veins, and mucous 
membranes either as a whole or only in patches. The blood is found everywhere 
very dark and liquid. 

On Animals.— Johnston states* that the Hottentots are said to kill snakes by 
placing a drop of the empyreumatic oil of tobacco upon their tongues. Death 
follows instandy as by an electric shock, or a dose of hydrocyanic acid. The 
action of nicotia upon small species seems to be in general almost as instantane- 
ous as above ; especially upon the carnivora, where its action seems more 
intense. 

Tobacco, then, from the foregoing facts, acts as a severe irritant to the gan- 
glionic centers, producing thence an action at first paralytic, then spasmodic, affect- 
ing the sympathetic, motor and vaso-motor systems. 

Description of Plate 128. 

I. Whole plant, eight times reduced, from a cultivated specimen. Chemung, N. Y., Sept. 11, 1879. 

2. Flower. 

3. Fruit. 

4. Seed (somewhat enlarged). 

5. Section of fruit. 

*Chem. of Com. Life, Vol. II., p. 28. 



129. 




% 

3 



^m.ad 



natdel.etpinxt. 



MENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA,Linn. 



N. ORD-GENTIANACE^. 129 

Tribe.-MENYANTHE/E. 

GENUS.— MEN Y A NTH ES,* TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOCIVNIA. 



MENYANTHES. 



BUCK BEAJV. 



SYN.— MENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA, LINN. ; MENYANTHES VERNA, RAF. ; 
TRIFOLIUM PALUDOSUM, GBR. ; TRIFOLIUM FIBRINUM, G. PH. 

COM. NAMES.— BUCK BEAN, BOG BEAN, MARSH TREFOIL, MARSH CLO- 
VER, WATER SHAMROCK, BITTER ROOT; (FR.) MENYANTHE TREFLE, 
TREFLE D'EAU; (GER.) BACHSBOHNE, BITTERKLEE, FIEBBRKLEE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT MENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA, LINN. 

Description. — This beautiful bog perennial is characterized as follow.s : Root- 
stalk horizontal, creeping, long, thick, sub-cylindrical, and conspicuously marked by 
the remains of the sheaths of previous petioles ; roots long, at first stout and sim- 
ple, then attenuated and greatly branched. Leaves alternate, trifoliate, midribs 
very prominent and conspicuously pale ; petioles long and thick at the base, where 
they are surrounded by large membranaceous sheathing bracts; leaflets oval or 
oblong, situated at the summit of the petiole; margins entire, or sometimes slightly 
crenate or obscurely serrate. Infloresceiiee a simple, terminal, pyramidal raceme ; 
scape naked, arising from the axils of the previous year's leaves ; bracts ovate, 
membraneous, obtuse, shorter than the pedicels ; flowers lo to 15, white or pinkish. 
Calyx persistent, much shorter than the corolla ; litnb 5-parted, the segments 
oblong-obtuse. Corolla deciduous, infundibuliform ; limb 5-parted, spreading, its 
whole upper surface densely bearded ; crstivation induplicate. Statueiis scarcely 
one-half the length of the corolla; antJiers oblong, sagittate. Style slender, per- 
sistent, somewhat exserted ; sti 0711a capitate, 2-lobed. Fniit a i -celled, ovoid cap- 
sule ; pericarp thin, pale brown ; dehiscence irregular, but more or less loculicidal ; 
placentce in the middle of the valves. Seeds numerous, minute ; testa hard, rough, 
and shiny. 

Gentianaceee. — A large order of smooth herbs, having a colorless, bitter juice, 
and scattered throughout all portions of the globe. Leaves generally opposite, 
sessile, and entire (Exc. Menyantheee) ; stiptdes wanting. Inflorescence solitary, 
cymose or racemose ; flozuers regular and showy. Calyx persistent ; corolla mar- 
cescent, funnel- or salver- form. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla, and 
inserted upon its, tube. Styles united or absent ; stigmas 2-lobed. Ovary i -celled 

* .M>|i'iiii'8>);, /iiji-f), nieiif, month; uk8o,-, anthos, flower; fioni its reputed power in promoting niensiruation. 



129-2 

or imperfectly 2-celled ; placenta 2, parietal, or sometimes the whole inner surface 
of the ovary placentiferous. Fruit a 2-valvecl capsule ; dehiscence septicidal. Seeds 
small, anatropous ; embryo minute, straight, and axial ; albumen sarcous. 

Besides Menyanthes, this order furnishes our Materia Medica three other 
proven species, viz.: The Chilian Centaury or Canchalagua [Erythrcea Ckiicnsis, 
Pers.) ; the Austrian Cross-wort [Gcntiajia cniciata, L.) ; and the European Yellow 
Gentian {Gentiana liiiea, L.). 

Many other species are used in medicine, principal among which are the 
following species of Gentiana, which often figure as substitutes for G. lutea : The 
North American G. Catesbaci, Walt. ; and the European G. amarclla, L. ; campes- 
tris, L. ; purpurea, L. ; pannonica, Murr. ; and punctata, L. The Indian Gentiana 
Kurroo, Royle, is used in its country in a similar manner to G. lutca in Europe. 
The Nordi American Columbo [Frazera Carolinensis, Walt.) has, when fresh, 
properties quite similar to G. lutca ; as have also the European Centuary {Ery- 
thrcsa Centaurium, Pers.), and Chlora perfoliata, L. The Indian Chiretta [Ophelia 
Chirayta, Don ) is bitter, tonic, and febrifuge, and is used by English physicians 
in India as a substitute for Cinchona. The East Indian Cicendia hyssopifo'ia, 
Wright & A., is tonic and stomachic. The American Centaury {Sabbatia ani^zi- 
laris, Pursh.) is a bitter tonic and febrifuge, often employed in remittent and inter- 
mittent fevers. The South American Lisianthus purpurasccns, Aubl., pendulus. 
Mart., grandijlorus, Aubl., and amplissimus. Mart., are claimed to be e.xtremely 
bitter tonics, esteemed as febrifuges and anthelmintics, as are also the European 
Villarsia nymphceoidcs, Vent., and the Cape of Good Hope V. ovata, D. C. The 
Guianian Coutoubea spicata, and C. ramosa, Aubl., are bitter tonics, much used 
as emmenagogues, anthelmintics, and for the removal of intestinal obstructions. 
Limnanthemum Indica is accounted a holy plant by the Chinese, in consideration 
of its many virtues ; L. nymphoides is febrifugal ; while the leaves of L. peltata are 
eaten in Japan as a potage. 

A peculiar property pervades the whole of this natural order — the species 
when fresh are all emetic and cathartic, and, when dry, tonic and stomachic in 
varying degrees. 

History and Habitat. — The Buck Bean is a native of the temperate regions 
of the Northern Hemisphere, from Alaska throughout the northern portions of 
North America, south of Greenland, Iceland, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, 
and eastward to the confines of Siberia. In the United States it extends south- 
ward as far as Wisconsin in the west and Pennsylvania in the east. It habits fresh- 
water bogs, marshes, and ditches which retain water throughout the summer season, 
and blossoms in May and June. 

The previous uses of the dried plant in medicine were all dependent more or 
less upon its so-called tonic action ; while in a fresh state it was used as an ener- 
getic cathartic. As early as 161 3 a Swedish writer, Johannes Franckenius, states 
that a decoction of the herb removes all visceral obstructions, acts as an emmena- 
gogue and diuretic, kills intestinal worms, and is an efficacious remedy in scrofula. 
Besides its use in amenorrhoea, Menyanthes was considered valuable in the treat- 



129-3 

ment of atonic dyspepsia, and derangements of the digestive tract, as well as a 
useful remedy in remittent and intermittent fevers. 

Cullen speaks of the root as efficacious in obstinate cutaneous affections of a 
seemingly cancerous nature ; Boerhaave claims to have relieved gout in his own 
case by drinking the juice of the plant in whey. Dr. Alston remarks "that this 
plant has remarkable effect in the gout in keeping off the paro.xysms, though not 
to the patient's advantage." The general use of Menyanthes has been mosdy as a 
substitute for gentian and columbo. 

In Sweden the leaves are often used in brewing ; two ounces of which are 
said to equal a pound of hops, for which they are substituted. Linnaeus notes that 
in Lapland, in times of scarcity, the dried and powdered roots have been used, 
mixed with meal, in bread-making; he, however, characterizes the result as "amarus 
et detestabilis," which one can readily imagine, as neither dryness nor heat removes 
the bitterness of the roots. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, gathered when 
budding to blossom, is to be chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece 
of new linen and subjected to pressure. The expressed juice is then, by brisk 
agitation, mingled with an equal part by weight of alcohol. This mixture should 
then be poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a 
dark, cool place. The tincture, separated from the mass by filtration, should be 
opaque, and in thin layers present a deep olive-green color by transmitted light. 
It should have a strong herbaceous odor, a lasting, extremely bitter taste, and a 
strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Menyanthin, QgHj^O,,.* This uncrystallizable 
glucoslde is derivable from the whole plant; when pure it exists as a white, bitter 
powder that is freely soluble in water and alcohol, but insoluble in ether. Meny- 
anthin softens at 6o°-65° (i40°~i49° F.), becomes liquid at 115° (239° F.), and 
carbonizes at higher temperatures. 

Menyanthol, CgH^O. — This body, together with a brown resin and glucose, 
is formed by the destruction of Menyanthin with dilute sulphuric or muriatic acid. 
It results as an oily liquid, possessing a burning taste and a penetrating odor, 
similar to that of oil of bitter almonds. 

Menyanthic Acid. — When Menyanthol is exposed to the air for some time it 
is oxidized to a white crystalline mass of unknown chemical composition, which is 
at present provisionally known by this name. 

The analysis of Trommsdorff resulted in the separation of albumen, resin, 
malic acid, "a peculiar matter precipitated by tannin," gum, inulin, and a bitter 
principle, which BrandesJ succeeded in gaining as an amorphous mass of mostly 
yellowish-white grains (impure Menyanthin). Tilden's analysis§ corresponds with 
that of Trommsdorf, but does not specify the amylose body found as inulin. 

* Kromayer and Froehde, P/iar. your., ser. 2, vol. iii., 579. 

t /Inn. de Chim., Ixxii., 191. 

I Phar. your., ser. I, vol. ii., 660. 

I your. Mat. Med., N. S., vol. ii., 90. • 



129-4 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Large doses of the root of this plant cause 
profuse vomituig and purging, together with exhausting diaphoresis. Smaller 
doses cause confusion and vertigo, pressive headache, dimness of vision, contrac- 
tion of the pupil, twitching of the facial muscles, a sensation of coldness in the 
stomach and oesophagus, followed by nausea, distension and fulness of the abdo- 
men, with griping, constipation, frequent desire to urinate with scanty discharge, 
oppression of the chest with increased respiration and accelerated pulse, cramps 
in the legs, sleeplessness, coldness of the extremities, followed by fever without 
thirst, and extreme weakness of the whole body. 



Description of Plate 129. 

I. Whole plant, Appalachin, N. Y., June 2d, li 

2. Flower. 

3. Petal and stamen. 

4. A hair of the corolla. 

5. Stamen, with open anther. 

6. Anther, showing under surface. 

7. Pistil. 

8. Stigma. 

9. Fruit. 

10. Seed, natural size and enlarged. 
(2-8 enlarged.) 




^.m.adnatdel.etpinxt GELSEMIUM SEMPERVI RENS, Alton. 



N. ORD -LOGANIACE^. _ 130 

GENUS— G E LS E M I U M ,* JUSS. 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANURIA DIUVNIA. 



GELSEMIUM. 



YELLOJJ' JESSAMIJVE. 

SYN.— GELSEMIUM SEMPERVIRENS, AIT. ; GELSEMIUM LUCIDUM, POIR. : 
GELSEMIUM NITIDUM, MICHX. ; GELSEMIUM SEU JASMINUM LUT. 
ODOR. ETC., CATESBY; BIGNONIA SEMPERVIRENS, LINN. ; ANONY- 
MOS SEMPERVIRENS, WALT; LISIANTHUS SEMPERVIRENS, MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— YELLOW JESSAMINE OR JASMINE, FALSE JASMINE, 
WILD JESSAMINE, WOODBINE;! (FR.) JASMIN JAUNE ; (GER.) GEL- 
BER JASMIN. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF GELSEMIUM SEMPERVIRENS, AIT. 

Description. — This beautiful, evergreen, woody, twining plant, often attains 
great heights, its growth depending somewhat upon its chosen support. Root 
long, ligneous, varying from nearly two inches in diameter to a few lines ; looi- 
bark of a cinnamon-brown color, and about two lines in thickness ; ivood light- 
yellow. Stems branching, at first with a more or less smooth, light slate-colored 
bark, then smooth and purplish. Leaves opposite, persistent, on short petioles ; 
shining, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, bright green above and pale beneath ; 
stipules inconspicuous. Inflorescence small a.\illary clusters ; Jlowers sweet scented, 
on scaly bracted pedicels. Calyx small ; lobes 5, imbricated, nearly distinct, ovate 
and acute. Corolla large, from 1 to i^ inches long, open funnel-form ; lobes 5, 
nearly equal, rounded and imbricated. Sta/uens 5, inserted on the base of the 
corolla-tube ; filaments equal ; anthers long, sagittate, adnate, and extrorse. 
Ovary elliptical, smooth, compressed, 2-celled ; ovtiles several in each cell, ascend- 
ing ; style long and slender ; stigjuas 2, each bifurcated, the lobes linear and equal. 
Fruit an ovoid oblong, beaked, pendent capsule ; pericarp papyraceous, splitting 
septicidally into two scaphoid valves. Seeds many, imbricated, light-brown, sur- 
rounded by a thin, flat, membranous border, which is prolonged at one extremity 
into a slightly wrinkled wing. 

Loganiacese. — This order is composed of herbs, shrubs, or trees, and forms 
a connective between the orders Geulianacecs, Apocytiacece, Scrophulai'iaccce, and 
Rtibiaccce. Its distinguishing characteristics are : Leaves opposite and entire ; 
stipules present or represented by a stipular line. Flowers regular and perfect, 4- 
5-merous and androus. Ovary free from the calyx. 

The Loganiaceae of our Materia Medica are : Ignatia {Strychnos Ignatii, 

* Gelsemino, the Italian for Jessamine. f Not GelsemiHum. 

t The only woodbine in this country is Lonicera grata. Ail. (Caprifoliaceoe). 



130-2 

Berg.) ; Nux {Strychnos Nux-Voniica, Liim.) ; Indian pink [Spigdia Marilandica, 

Linn.), and Spigelia [Spigdia anthdmia, Lifin.). 

History and Habitat. — The yellow jessamine of the southern United States 
grows from Virginia southward, extending into Mexico. It flowers in March and 
April, and some years a second time, at least I am given to understand that such 
is the case in the State of Georgia. Although its support somewhat regulates 
the extent of the growth of this climbing vine, still it extends beyond the limits of 
the support in such a manner as to form beautiful trails and fringes; this occurs 
even above trees that are over 50 feet high. The beautiful yellow flowers, the 
odor of which is said to be narcotic, yield a delightful perfume, which may be ex- 
tracted by a process similar to that used for procuring oil of rose (Porcher). 

The medical history of this plant is quite modern, having been brought into 
notice, according to Dr. King, by a Mississippi planter, for whom in his illness the 
root was gathered in mistake for that of another plant ; after partaking of an in- 
fusion serious symptoms arose, so alarming in their character that his friends ex- 
pected his death ; upon his revival, however, it was apparent that the attack of 
bilious fever from which he had been suffering had disappeared. This accidental 
cure came to the knowledge of a pretender, who prepared a proprietary nostrum 
from the plant, called the " Electric Febrifuge." Dr. Porcher, of South Carolina, 
noting the use of gelsemium in the works of Elliott and Frost, brought it again 
into notice through the mediumship of a report on the medical botany of his state, 
made to the Am. Med. Ass'n, in 1849. The first provings were made by Dr. 
Henry (1852), whose work was followed by many provers, the principal among 
them being Dr. E. M. Hale, whose " Monograph on Gelsemium" has been a most 
efficient help to the true knowledge of this valuble American addition to our 
medicamentae. 

Gelsemium is officinal in the U. S. Ph. as Extractnni Gdsemii and Tinchwa 
Gelsemii, and in the Eclectic Materia Medica as Tinchira Gdsemini. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — Under this rubric it should be borne 
in mind that " root-gatherers " often mingle with Gelsemium root that of a similar 
twiner growing in like manner and localities ; this plant is known as White Jessa- 
mine or White Poiso7i Vine. The following comparison will suffice to distinguish 
them : 



Yelloxv yessamine. 

Flowers yellow. 

Stern-bark Smooth and uniformly gray. 

Tendrils wanting. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute at both extremities. 

Petioles (leaf-stalks) short. 

Root fibrous, in section showing a yellowish wood. 

Taste pleasantly bittgr. 



While yessamine. 
Flowers dirty-white. 

Stem-bark maculate and striate with white. 
Tendrils present on the lower stem. 
Z^ae'Movate, taper-pointed, heart-shaped at the base. 
Petioles (leaf-stalks) long. 

Root not so fibrous, in section showing white wood. 
Taste bitter and nauseous. 



PREPARATION. — .Small sections of the fresh root, cut from where the whole 
diameter is not greater than that of a goose-quill,* are to be chopped and weighed. 

* The woody portion of the root contains none of the alkaloid; this fact was determined by Eberle (1869), and 
corroborated by Gerrard (1883). 



130-3 

Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the chopped root mixed thoroughly 
with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred 
the whole well, allow it to stand in a well-stoppered bottle for at least eight days 
in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, should have a clear, 
slightly brownish, orange color by transmitted light, an odor like that of an en- 
raged honey bee, a pleasantly bitter taste, and a slightly acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Gelsemine,* Q^ H^, NO^. This alkaloid, ex- 
tracted from an alcoholic percolate of the powdered root, was determined by 
Kollock (1855). t Sonnenschein (1876) gave it the formula Qj Hjg NO^, but Ger- 
rard (1883)^ judges that the alkaloid used by him must have been impure, as his 
careful determinations result in the formula given above. Gelsemine, according 
to Gerrard and others, is a colorless, bitter, odorless, amorphous, brittle, trans- 
parent body, without definite crystals, fusing into such mass at a little below 200° C. 
(392° F.). It is soluble in alcohol, slightly also in boiling water, forms crystalline 
soluble salts with acids, and gives no color reactions with sulphuric or nitric acids. 

Gelsemic Acid.§ — C^^ Hg^ Oj^,. Sonnenschein (1876) claimed that this body 
was identical with the glucoside (ssculiii\\ but Wormley (i882),^[ after careful 
chemical and physiological analyses, determines that it is similar to, but not iden- 
tical with, that body. According to the latter observer gelsemic acid is readily 
crystallizable into needles, but slightly soluble in Avater, and soluble in alcohol, 
ether, and chloroform. Kollock** determined, beside gelsemine, a dry and a fatty 
resin, volatile oil, and a yellow coloring matter. 

PHYSIOLOGrlCAL ACTION. — Many cases of poisoning by the inadvertent 
use of this drug are reported, from which, together with the experiments of Worm- 
ley.ff we glean the following rationale of its action : 

The following symptoms are entailed by doses of from one drachm to an 
ounce of the fluid extract : Nausea, with ineffectual attempts to vomit ; dimness 
of vision or diplopia, especially on turning the head to one side ; congestion of the 
face ; spasms of the larynx and pharynx ; restlessness ; great prostration ; feeble, 
irregular, and intermittent pulse ; irregular and slow respiration with gasping ; loss 
of muscular power, with incoordination ; extremities at first hot and dry, then cold 
and moist; dilated pupils insensible to light; eyes fixed and protruding; inability 
to raise the eyelids. Death follows without previous loss of consciousness or 
convulsions. 

Post-Mortem. — Venous congestion ; collapsed lungs that are otherwise 
natural ; the adipose tissue is found suff'used with bile ; blood dark, grumous, and 
enfibrinated ; the brain and spinal cord are found pale and anaemic. By this it 
will be seen that there are no characteristic post-mortem appearances. 

* Gelsemina, gelsemia, gtUeminia. t ^'>'- Jo»r. Phar., 1855, p. 203. 

J A. W. Gerrard, y4/«. yo«r. /"//«>-., 1883, p. 256. \ Gelstminic acid. || See /Esculus Hippocastanuni,43. 
If T. G. Wormley, Ant. Jour. Phar., 1882, p. 357. ** Ibid. ft ^'"- J""''- P^'"'-, J*"-. '870. 



130-4 

Gelsemium then lowers the rate of the action of the heart and lungs, thus 
reducing the bodily temperature ; dilates the pupil by paralyzing the motor oculi 
(differing here from Belladonna, which also dilates the pupil, but does so by irri- 
tating terminal filaments from the carotid and cavernous plexuses of the sympa- 
thetic system). Its action on the motor oculi causes also a loss of accommodation, 
and paralysis of the epicylia ; this paralysis is gradually followed by a general 
paralytic action until the animal becomes impassive, but remains conscious until 
death. Gelsemium seems to act exactly opposite to Conium, the former destroy- 
ing all reflex action from the centre to the periphery, the latter from the periphery 
to the centre. The natural antidote to this drug seems to be black coffee rather 
than opium ; alcoholic stimulants and heat should also be plied. 

Description of Plate 130. 

I. End of flowering stem, Augusta, Ga.,* May 23d, 1883. 

2. A portion of the stem. 

3. Calyx and bracts (enlarged). 

4. Stamens (enlarged). 

5. Pistil (enlarged). 

6. Section of the ovary (enlarged). 

7. Fruit. 

* From one of a number of living specimens, kindly sent mn together with the fruit, by Miss Mary C. Cuthbert 



=-4-= 




131. 



ATU.adnstiltl.ctpinxt. 



SPIGELIA MARILANOICA, Linn. 



N. ORD-LOGANIACE^. 131 

GENUS— SPIGELIA,* LINN. 

SEX SVST.— rENTANDKIA MdXoCVMA. 



SPIGELIA MARILANDICA. 



PIJ\'K ROOT. 



SYN.— SPIGELIA MARILANDICA, LINN.; S. OPPOSITIFOLIA, STOKES; S. 

AMERICANA, MONRO; LONICBRA MARILANDICA, LINN. 
COM. NAMES.— MARYLAND PINK ROOT, INDIAN PINK, WORM GRASS, 

PERENNIAL WORM GRASS, SNAKE ROOT. CAROLINA PINK ROOT, 

STAR BLOOM; (FR.) SPIGELIA DE MARYLAND; (GER.) NORDAMERI- 

KANISCHER SPIGELIE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF SPIGELIA MARILANDICA, LINN. 

Description. — This Southern perennial herb usually grows to a height of from 
I to 2 feet. Root fibrous, twisted ; stems several from the same root, simple, 
4-angled and glabrous. Leaves opposite, membranaceous, ovate to ovate-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, closely sessile by a rounded base, entire, one or two pairs of 
veins basal, the rest more or less pinnate ; stipules small, interpetiolar. Inflores- 
cence in a terminal, sometimes branched, unilateral, scorpioid spike ; flozoeis showy, 
erect ; pedicels single or geminate ; bracts minute and subulate, or wanting ; 
peduncle short and naked. Calyx 5-parted ; lobes very slender and narrow. 
Corolla scarlet without, yellow within, elongated-tubular, 15-nerved; tube some- 
what clavate ; lobes 5, ovate-lanceolate, about one-quarter the length of the tube. 
Sta7nens 5, inserted above the middle of the corolla-tube ; filaments short, slightly 
exserted ; anthers erect, linear-oblong, 2-celled at the base. Ovary superior, 
smooth, compressed ; ovules numerous ; placenta peltate, stipitate ; style long, the 
lower portion Battened, the upper cylindrical, the two parts articulated, and the 
lower persistent, farther exserted than the stamens ; stigma simply the somewhat 
inflated hairy end of the style. Capsnle didymous, compressed contrary to the 
partitions, circumcissile above the cupule-like base, the two carpels somewhat 
loculicidally 2-valved. Seeds few, peltate, closely packed, and angled by mutual 
pressure; embryo short and straight; albumen fleshy. 

History and Habitat. — This beautiful plant is indigenous to North America, 
where it extends trom Southern New Jersey to Wisconsin, and southward to 
Florida and the borders of Te.xas ; it is, however, rare north of central X'irginia. 
It grows in rich soil on the borders of woods, and blossoms from May to July, 
according to its station. 

* In honor of Adrian Spiegel, the probable originator of Herbaria. 



131-2 

Among the Aborigines, even before the discovery of America, this plant was 
valued as an anthelmintic ; the colonists of the South received their information 
concerning its properties from the Cherokees, who called it unstcctla, and from 
the Osages, who used it also as a sudorific and sedative, under the name of niikaa. 
It was first introduced to the notice of physicians by Dr. Garden, who wrote 
several letters concerning its properties in 1763-6 to Dr. Hope. Drs. Lining and 
Chalmers, about this period, also contributed largely to its introduction. These 
physicians, and many others, have lauded the effects of the root upon lumbricoids, 
but all agreed that its efificacy was only certain when sufificient fresh root was 
taken to cause purgation ; therefore, if such an effect did not take place, calomel 
or rhubarb were given to gain such action. This caused many others, who failed 
with the drug, to demean it, and search for its vaunted effects in the accessory 
drugs given ; Spigelia, however, rose above all protests as an eflficient vermifuge. 
Bergelius found it useful also in convulsions ; and Ives and Barton considered it 
a valuable drug in encephalic forms of fever in children. 

The root and Extractiini Spigclice Fluiduni are officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; and 
in the Eclectic Dispensatory, Extractnm Splgelice ei Sennce Fhiidu?n, and Infusum 
Spigelia. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered just before 
the flowers expand, is treated as directed under Gelsemium (page 130-2). The 
resulting tincture has a clear and beautiful reddish-orange color by transmitted 
light; no characteristic odor ; an astringent and slightly bitter taste, and an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Many analyses have been made of this 
species — none, however, that show the characteristics of the active principle. 
The following constituents of importance have been determined: An uncrystal- 
lizable, bitter substance, having alkaloidal characters, called by some Spigeline, an 
acrid resin, fi.\ed and volatile oils, extractive matter, and a peculiar tannin.'"' The 
properties of the root seem to be much greater than those of the herb, and also 
appear to be well extracted by either water or alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Dr. Barton saysf Pink Root induces, occa- 
sionally, violent narcotic effects, such as dimness of sight, giddiness, dilated pupils, 
spasmodic motions of the muscles of the eye, and even convulsions. Dr. Chalmers 
attributes the loss of two children by convulsions to this drug. Dr. Thompson 
found large doses to produce, in himself, acceleration of the pulse. Hushed face, 
drowsiness, and stiffness of the eyelids. 

Bureau J found that the drug acted as an acrid narcotic poison upon rabbits 
and other animals. 

Dr. Hedge Thompson, § above referred to, found the following symptoms to 
be produced upon man, after the ingestion of varying doses, all considered large : 

* See Proc. Am. Pkar. Assoc, 1857, 132; Jour, dt P/uii:, ix, 197; Am. Jour. P/mr., 1857, 51 1 ; P/iar. Join:, 
i, V, 354; .4m. Chem. Jour., i, 104; and Am. Jour. P/iar., 18S4, 570. 
t I'eg. Mai. Med., ii, 80. 
\ De la famillie des I.oganiacees, 130. 
\ Exp. diss, on the Spigelia Marilandiea, 1802. 



131-3 

Acceleration of the heart's action, followed soon by a notable reduction and 
irregularity : nausea ; inllammation of the palpebral, followed by a sensation of 
stiffness therein ; languor, and drowsiness. 

Dr. Spalsbury-'' records the effects of three doses of an infusion as follows: 
A peculiar, wild, staring expression of the eyes, giving the countenance a very 
singular, in fact, ludicrous, appearance; strabismus of the right eye; great dilation 
of the pupils; face, especially about the eyes, including the lids, much swollen; 
tongue pointed and tremulous; pulse no and irregular; on attempting to rise a 
general tremor came on, which passed off in a few seconds, leaving the patient 
apparendy quite exhausted; and the skin hot and dry. Lining states that the 
only muscles ot the eye affected, according to his experience, were the adductors 
and abductors. 

These symptoms point to the drug as an irritant to the inhibitory nerves, 
especially the thoracic plexus, and give no farther narcotic symptoms than the 
natural counter- effect of such irritation. 



Description of Plate 131. 

Top of ]jlant in flower, from near Charleston, S. C, June 7th, 18S6. 

2. t'alyx. 

3. Opened corolla. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Section of lower portion of corolla-tube. 

6. Style and stigma. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. Fruit. 

9. Seed. 

(2-9 enlarged.) 



Bost. Meil. and Sttrg. Jour., lii, 72. 




i 



^m.jdnatdel.etpinxt APOCYNUM ANDROS/tMIFOLIUM , Linn. 



N. ORD -APOCYNACE/E. 132 

CENLIS— APOCYNUM,* I, INN. 

S1-:X. SVST.— n^NTANDRIA DICYNIA. 

APOCYNUM 
ANDROS^MIFOLIUM. 

DOG'S BAA'E. 

SYN.— APOCYNUM ANDROS^MIFOLIUM, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— DOG'S BANE, BITTER ROOT, INDIAN HEMP, MILK WEED, 
FLY-TRAP, HONEY BLOOM, "WANDERING MILK WEED, CATCH- 
FLY, SPREADING DOG'S BANE, AMERICAN IPECAC, BLACK IN- 
DIAN HEMP. 

TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOl' OF APOCYNUM ANDR0.S^:MI FOLIUM, LINN. 



Description. — This upright perennial shrub-Hke herb, grows from 2 to 4 feet 
in lieight, branching profusely, and emitting when wounded in any part a milky 
juice. The 7-ooi is long, more or less cylindrical, with a diameter of from one- 
eighth to three-quarters of an inch, sparsely branched, and covered with a quan- 
tity of fine fibres. It is light-brown externallv, wrinkled throughout its length, 
and transversely fissured ; the bark is thin, amorphous, the wood somewhat 
porous, white and tasteless ; the milky juice permeates its whole substance. Stern 
smooth, at first simple, then divergently branched, and forked. Leaves opposite, 
smooth and green above, paler and more or less whitish pubescent beneath; 
tlie)- are ovate, acute, mucronate, from 2 to 3 inches long, and about 1 inch 
broad. Petioles about one-quarter of an inch in length. Inflorescence upright 
or nodding paniculate cymes at the ends of the branches, and in the axils of the 
terminal leaves. Pedicels from 2 to 3 lines long, with minute subulate bracts 
at their bases. Calyx entirely free from the ovaries, five-parted, with ovate- 
lanceolate, acute lobes, much shorter than the corolla, not glandular. Corolla con- 
volute, and sinistrally twisted in the bud, monopetalous, bell-shaped, white tinged 
with red, five cleft ; limb spreading ; lobes ovate, obtuse, reflexed, each bearing 
at its base a triangular nectariferous scale, free only at the tip. Stamens five, 
inserted at the base of the corolla, alternate with the glands ; filaments distinct, 
very short, ligulate, pubescent inside ; anthers sagittate, with an acute hyaline tip, 
sometimes slightly coherent, and adhering by their faces to a zone or ring at about 
the middle of the stigma, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Pollen granu- 
lar. Ovaries 2. oblong, generally distinct, rarely united ; stigma sessile or nearly 

* .An ancient name of the dog's haiie compo>ed of into, from, kvuv, a dog ; as it was thought to be poisonous to 
this animal. 



132-2 

so, ovoid, obtuse and obscurely 2-lobed. Follicles 2, from 2 to 4 inches long, cylin- 
drical, slender, and pendant ; generally remaining united by their apices until fully 
ripe. Seeds numerous, crowned with a long silky coma at their summit. The 
apocynaceae are chiefly tropical, acrid, poisonous plants, represented in the gar- 
dens by the Oleander and the Periwinkle, and wild in the northern United States 
by Amsonia, Forsteronia and Apocyvum. 

History and Habitat. — This rather common plant is found from Canada to 
Georgia, and Missouri. It grows along fences, and over old fields, flowering in 
June and July, the pods forming well before the blossoms have all fallen. 

The names catch-fly and fly-trap are derived from the fact that the flowers 
of both this and A. cannabinum have a power, without special utility, of imprison- 
ing insects. Dr. Darwin supposed this quality to be due to an irritability of the 
internal organs, but upon careful observation it is plainly seen that the capture is 
entirely accidental, the flower and plant remaining neutral. In consequence of 
the convergence of the anthers and their adherence to the zone of the stigma, a 
narrow fissure is formed, very contracted at the apex, the insect in search of honey 
from the nectaries at the base of the corolla, inserts its proboscis between the 
short filaments of the stamens, thus when about to leave its feast the proboscis 
is sometimes caught in this fissure ; once fast, the greater the insect struggles the 
more firmly is it wedged, until its self-deliverance becomes impossible. Thus 
mosquitoes, gnats and small flies may frequently be found dead in the flower- 
tubes. 

The only previous use of this herb is said to be that of the Indians, who em- 
ployed it in syphilis. Rafinesque says : " From its stem may be obtained a thread 
similar to hemp, which can be woven into cloth ; from its pods, cotton ; from its 
blossoms, sugar." The quantity of the last two articles is small, it is true, but 
might serve in an emergency. 

This drug has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph., on account of lack of 
knowledge of its action. With the Eclectics it is used as Decocliim Apocyni ; 
Extractum Apocyni Alcoholicum ; and Apocynin their so-called alka-resinoid. 

For obvious reasons, when desired as a tonic, diaphoretic or la.xative agent, 
a decoction prepared as follows is the most effectual : Take a suitably sized earthen 
or porcelain-lined vessel and place in it one oz. of the sliced plant, roots, stems 
and leaves, to which add one pint of pure cold water ; place the vessel in a pot of 
water and let it come to a boil, and remain so for at least an hour, replenishing as 
fast as it evaporates, with hot water, then strain the decoction from the inner 
vessel before it cools. It should be covered with a tight lid while heating, and 
after bottling should be always kept tightly corked ; even then it is worthless after 
standing a few days. Dose, a tablespoonful three times a day. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, and after 
thoroughly mixing the pulp with one -sixth part of it, the rest of the alcohol is 
added. After having stirred the whole, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and 



132-3 
let it stand eight clays in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by 
decanting', straining and filtering. 

Thus prepared, it has a light reddish-brown color by transmitted light, a very 
bitter taste, and a slight acid reaction to litmus. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Very litde is known of the constitution of 
this plant, it not having been very thoroughly analyzed. According to Bigelow it 
contains : 

Red coloring matter, soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol. 

A bitter principle, soluble in water and alcohol. 

Volatile oil, caoutchouc and fi.xed oil. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Here also investigation has been neglected. 
Apocynum A. is an emetic without causing nausea, a cathartic, and quite a power- 
ful diuretic and sudorific; it is also expectorant and considered antisyphilitic. 

Description of Plate 132. 

I. Part of plant, I'rom McLean, N. Y., June 15th, 1880, showing the mode of branching. 
2. End of branch in flower. 
3 Follicles. 

4. Seed. 

5. Flower (enlarged). 





(fia.adnafdeletpinxt APOCYNUM GANNABINUM Linn. 



N. ORD-APOCYNACE^. 133 

GENUS. — APOCYNUM, TOURN. 
SEX. SYST.— PENT.WDRI.V UIGYNI.V. 

APOCYNUM CANNABINUM. 

caj^adiajy hemp. 



SYN.— APOCYNUM CANNABINUM, LINN.; APOCYNUM HYPERICIFOL- 
lUM, AIT.; APOCYNUM SYBERICUM, JACQ. ; APOCYNUM PUBES- 
CENS, R. BR. 

COM. NAMES.— AMERICAN INDIAN HEMP,* DOG'S BANE,t OLD-AMY 
ROOT, GENERAL MARION'S "WEED, SNAKES' MILK, CANADIAN 
HEMP, AMERICAN HEMP; J (CANADIAN) HOUATTE ; (FR.) CHANVRE 
DU CANADA; (GER.) CANADISCHE HANP. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF APOCYNUM CANNABINUM, LINN. 

Description. — This species attains a height of from 2 to 4 feet. Stem erect, 
glabrous, or downy pubescent ; branches upright or ascending, leafy to the top. 
Leaves varying from nearly oval to oblong and sometimes even lanceolate ; base 
rounded, obscurely cordate, or acute; petioles usually present, short, but .some- 
times wanting. Inflorescence terminal, erect, many and densely flowered, cymes, 
shorter than the leaves ; flaivers smaller than those of the preceding species. 
Calyx: lobes lanceolate. Corolla greenish-white; tube not longer than the calyx 
lobes ; lobes nearly erect, not reflexed. Follicles from 3 to 5 inches long. 

In this description only the more distinctive and differential points are given ; 
the generic description is embodied in that of the preceding species. As these 
two plants are so often classed as one by collectors in general, and as their action 
is quite different, I append a differentiation : 

A. androsivmifolium. 

1. Stem divergently branching or bifurciting. 

2. Root : hark dark brown ; wood white, tenacious, 
fibrous ; pith of about the diameter of the thickness of 
the bark, sometimes greater.^ 

3. Leaves ovate, distinctly petioled ; those at the bases 
of the branches like those -upon them — ». e., an opposite, 
petioled pair.|| (Plate 132, Fig. I.) 

Inflorescence loose, spreading cynics; y?oa/^« greenish- 
white, with rose-colored macuKitions or strict, or full pale 
rose-color ; \ corolla : tube longer than the caly.x lobes ; 
lobes reflexed or spreading. 



A cannabinum. 

1. Stem assurgently branching, not bifurcating. 

2. Root: bark grayish-brown; wood yellowish, soft, 
porous; pith minute or not evident.^ 

3. Leaves ranging from ovate to nearly lanceolate, 
sometimes sessile or neatly so ; those at the bases of the 
branches single, sessile, and larger.|| (Plate 133, Fig. 2.) 

Inflorescence close, erect cyines ; flowers greenish- 
white, smaller ; corolla: tube nol longer than the calyx 
lobes ; lobes erect. 



* This plant is often termed Indian hemp, a name only applicable to Cannabis Indica, as it designates that plant 
alone. American Indian hemp might possibly apply, if we consider the first two words a compound word, and write it 
American-Indian hetnp. 

t Dog's-bane as properly belongs to A. androscemifolium, as Canadian hemp does to this species. 

J American hemp and American Indian hemp (so written) refer to Cannabis Indica as cultivated in America. 

\ Manheimer, in Am. Jour. Phar., 1881, p. 354. 

II A purely distinctive point, no mention of which appears in any of the works I have examined. 

\ The author regrets that a misinterpretation occurred, causing the lithographer to alter his originally rose-colored 
flowers to green in Fig. 2, Plate 132. 



^33-2 

Apocynaceas. — This family of chiefly tropical plants of poisonous nature, has 
the following characteristics : Trees, woody shrubs, or herbs, exuding when 
wounded, a milky, acrid juice. Leaves entire, feather-veined, arranged alter- 
nately, oppositely, or in whorls ; stipules wanting. Inflorescence terminal or axil- 
lary cymes, or panicles; flozuers 5-merous and 5-androus, perfect and regular. 
Calyx free from the ovary, persistent. Corolla gamopetalous ; lobes convolute 
or twisted in the bud. Stamens equal in number to the corolla lobes and alter- 
nate with them ; anthers distinct or nearly so, encircling the stigma and sometimes 
adhering to it, 2-celled, introrsely and longitudinally splitting ; filavients distinct, 
inserted upon the tube of the corolla; pollen of loose grains, sometimes glutinous. 
Ovaries 2, united or distinct, biplacentiferous ; ovules numerous or few, anatro- 
pous or amphitropous ; style single, common to both ovaries ; stigma single, capi- 
tate, the receptive surface consisting of a ring encircling the under surface of the 
stigma. G?;'/67.y 2, distinct or united ; i'^^rt'i- numerous, comose or acomose ; albu- 
men sparse ; embryo straight and comparatively large. 

This family contains in North America 9 genera, 21 species, and 2 varieties. 
Beside the two under consideration, the following species have a place in the 
Homoeopathic Materia Medica : Dita bark [Alstonia scholaris) ; Oleander [Nerium 
oleander); Tanghinia [Tanghinia Madagascariensis, Pet. Th. ; T.veneni/era, Poir; 
Cerbera tanghina. Hook.) ; the Antillesian Ahovai-baum [1 hevetia nercifolia, Juss. ; 
Cerbera thevetia, Linn.) ; Toxicophlcea [Toxicophlcea Thtinbergi) ; Upas {Stryc/mos 
tieute) ; Periwinkle [Vinca minor, Linn.) ; and Echites {Eclutes subcrccta,]a.c(\.). 

History and Habitat. — The habitat of both indigenous species is generally 
given as the same — i. e., sandy soils and the borders of old fields and open 
woods. I have noticed that A. androscsmijoliiim answers well to this habitat, but 
that A. cannabimim is found much more abundant in marshy places and on the 
banks of rivers, particularly where they are subjected to submergence during 
high water. Their geographical range is : from the Canadas southward to Geor- 
gia and Florida, and westward to California, A. cannabinum extending the farther 
south of the two. The two species blossom together in June and July, fruiting as 
they flower. 

This species yields the better and tougher " hemp " of the two, and is more 
utilized. Porcher quotes* the Rural Cyc. as follows: 

" This plant has been proved by Prof. Thouin, of Paris, to possess a stronger 
fibre than that of hemp ; and is used by the American Indians for making cordage, 
fishing-nets, and coarse cloth." He further states: "The decoction affords a per- 
manent dye, brown or black, according to the mordant used." 

In general and domestic practice this species has been used and lauded as 
an excellent diuretic.f also as an hydragogue cathartic, emetic, and diaphoretic, 
in proper relative dosage. 

The root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia Medica the 
preparation is : Tinctura Apocyni. 

* Resources of the Southern Fields attd Forests, p. 484. 
f See page IJ2-2, concerning decoction. 



133-3 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The preparation is made from the root 
in the same manner as that of the preceding species. The resulting tincture has 
a deep reddish-orange color by transmitted light, a rank odor, an extremely bitter 
and penetrating taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Apocynin. This pardy crystalline, bitter 
principle has been isolated by both Dr. Knapp and Dr. Griscom ; its chemical 
nature has not yet been determined. It is not a glucoside, but for the present 
is supposed to hold a place in close relation to that class of bodies. It is insol- 
uble, or only slightly soluble, in water. 

Apocynein. — This amorphous glucoside greatly resembles saponin in its 
physical properties.* It is fully soluble in water. Its chemical nature is only 
slightly known. 

Beside the two bitter principles. Dr. Griscom (1832) found in the root, tan- 
nic and gallic acids, gum, resin and wax. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Apocynum cannabinum has long been noted 
for its hydragogue properties, the results obtaining in this direction through its 
peculiar action upon the mucous membranes of the intestinal canal. What its 
action may be upon serous membranes is still to be determined. Its action in 
causing diuresis and diaphoresis (the latter only present when it causes emesis), 
is another point in the dark, concerning which more light is greatly to be desired. 
When nausea and vomiting occur, the action of the heart is greatly diminished, 
and a sense of mental depression and oppression of the chest almost naturally 
result. Apocynum apparently acts simply as an evacuant, and affects the organic 
trouble causing the dropsical condition for which it is usually given, little, or not 
at all. 



Description of Plate 133. 

End of fruiting and flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., July zzd, li 
2- Part of stem, showing mode of branching. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. Flower after removal of the perianth (enlarged). 

5. Flower after removal of the stamens (enlarged). 

6. Side view of stamen (enlarged). 

7. Seed. 

8. Section of the root. 

* Am. Jour. Phar. 1883, p. 368. 




134. 



Mm. 

4 ^^ 



(Bin.adnat.del.etpinxt. 



ASCLEPIAS CORNUTl, Decaisne. 



N. ORD-ASCLEPIADACE^. 134 

Tribe.-ASCLEPIADE/E. 

GENUS— ASCLEPIAS,* 1.. 

SEX. SYST.— rENTANDRIA DIC.VNIA. 

ASCLEPIAS CORNUTI. 

COMMOJ^ MILKWEED. 

SYN.— ASCLEPIAS SYRIACA.f LINN. A. CORNUTI, DEC. 

COM. NAMES.-COMMON MILKWEED, SILK"WEED, WILD COTTON, 
VIRGINIAN S'WALLOW-'WORT ; (FR.) ASCLEPIADE A LA SOIB, 
HERBE A LA OUATE ; (GER.) SCH"WALBENWURZEL, SEIDEN- 
PFLANZE. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ASCLEPIAS CORNUTI, DEC. 



Description. — This stout, upright, perennial herb, grows from 4-5 feet high, is 
leafy to the top, and bears superior lateral as well as terminal umbels of dusky 
red flowers. 

The ?'Oot extends horizontally to a length of from 1-2 feet, is externally of a 
grayish-brown color, somewhat branched, and from one-quarter to one inch thick, 
giving off a few scattered rootlets, or is marked by their scars ; it is often knotty 
from branches that have failed to develop. It has no specific odor, but is decidedly 
bitter to the taste. It breaks with a short fracture when dry, disclosing a soft, 
porous, yellow-tinged wood, with broad medullary rays and a thin white bark. The 
stem is simple, or nearly so, cylindrical, stout and smooth, emitting when wounded 
a copious, white, mucilaginous juice which soon congeals. The /eaves are about 
4-8 inches in length, oppositely arranged upon the stem, oval-oblong, entire, 
slightly pointed and short petioled ; they are ot a dark rich green color above, pale 
and minutely downy beneath. Inflorescence, many-flowered umbels, upon 
long, drooping, downy peduncles, from the base of the petioles of the upper 
leaves. The calyx and corolla are deeply 5-parted, reflexed, and spreading, 
the former persistent, the latter deciduous. The croivn consists of 5 hooded, 
fleshy bodies (termed nectaries by Linna;us), situated upon the stamen tube, each 
containing an incurved horn. .Specifically these hoods are ovate, obtuse, having 
a tooth or lobe upon each side of the horn, which is short and claw-like. 
Stamens 5, inserted upon the base of the corolla ; filaments united into a tube in- 
closing the pistil ; anthers adherent to the stigma (forming a distinguishing 
feature of this large order of plants, of which Asclepias is the type) ; they are 
composed of two vertical cells, tipped with a membrane-like appendage, each con- 
taining a flattened, pear-shaped, waxy, pollen-mass. Ovaries 2, tapering into two 

* The Greek name of .Esculapius, to whom it is dedicated. 

t Syria; but as this is a purely American species, we should use the name l)y Decaisne. 



134-2 

very short slyics. surmounted at their apices by a large, depressed, 5-angled, fleshy 
mass, which takes the place of a stigma common to the two, having five cloven 
glands upon its angles. Po//eu-masses of adjacent anther-cells, extricated by the 
agency of insects, form pairs, which hang by a fine prolongation of their summits 
from the glands of the stigmatose body, ejecting copious pollen-tubes into its junc- 
tion with the styles. Follicles 2, one of them often abortive, ovate, soft, woolly, 
and covered with weak spines. Seeds anatropous, margined, flat, furnished with 
long silky hairs at the hilum ; all imbricated downward over the large placenta, 
which separates from the raphe when mature. Einbryo large, the thin albumen 
containing broad leaf-like cotyledons. 

History and Habitat. — This very common herb grows in rich or sandy 
ground, along roadsides and in waste places everywhere in Canada and the United 
States, flowering during the summer months. Few genera are more beautiful or 
complex in their structure than this, still the plants of this order are so peculiar 
that even the youngest student of botany will recognize them at a glance. That 
they are so plentiful cannot appear strange after an examination of the seeds, 
whose silky coma when expanded forms them into veritable parachutes ; balanced 
by the pendant seeds, they mount gracefully to immense heights, whence they are 
wafted far and wide by the lightest zephyr until, dampened by dew or rain, they fall 
to the ground. The young sprouts, just as they appear above the ground in 
spring, are highly esteemed among housewives as a pot-herb, being cooked simi- 
larly to asparagus, for which they are an excellent substitute. The juice when 
appliecf to the skin forms a tough, adhesive pellicle ; this has led to its use by the 
laity as a covering for ulcers and recent wounds to promote cicatrization. In a 
memoir on the cultivation of this plant, by J. A. Moller, in Tilloch's Magazine, 
vol. viii, p. 149, may be found the following: "Its chief uses were for beds, cloth, 
" hats, and paper. It was found that from eight to nine pounds of the coma of the 
" seeds occupied a space of from five to six cubic feet, and were sufficent for a bed, 
"coverlet, and pillows. The shortness of the fibre prevented it from being spun 
"and woven alone, it however was mixed with flax, wool, etc., in certain stuffs to 
" advantage. Hats made with it were very light and soft. The stalks afforded 
" paper in every respect resembling that obtained from rags. The plant is easily 
"propagated by seeds or slips. A plantation containing thirty thousand plants 
"yielded from six to eight hundred pounds of coma." 

This plant, together with many other excellent drugs, has been dismissed sine 
acn'i from the U. S. Ph. The Eclectic Dispensatory recommends its use in a fluid 
extract, dose from 10 drops to a fluidrachm ; in amenorrhcca, dropsy, retention of 
urine, asthma, dyspepsia, cough, dyspncea, etc. 

The use of the Asclepiadeae in general in pleurisy is not well proven, though 
their action upon the nerves might lead to empirical use in pleurodynia. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, already described, is 
gathered when in full vigor, chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then 
two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, and after thoroughly mixing this pulp 
with one-sixth part of it, the rest of the alcohol is added. After having stirred the 



134-3 
whole, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and let it stand eight days in a dark 
cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering 

Thus prepared it has a light orange-yellow color by transmitted light, a bitter 
and slightly astringent taste, cjuite similar to half ripe butternuts, and a slightly 
acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Asclepione,^^= C,„ H^^ O,. This resinoid prin- 
ciple was determined by List in the juice of the plant; also by W. L. Hinchman 
(Am. Jour. Phar. 1881, p. 433) in the roots ; as white, verrucose, odorless, tasteless, 
iridescent crystals; decomposing at 194° (219.2° F.), and volatilizing at higher 
temperatures. They are soluble in chloroform, ether and alcohol ; insoluble in 
water. The roots, according to the latter authority, contain asclepmie, caoutchouc, 
fixed oil, tannin, glucose, a bitter principle not isolated, g2im, starch, and volatile 
oil. The milky juice of the whole plant contains the same bodies found in the 
root. The acid of the plant seems to be in close relation with the undetermined 
bitter principle. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — A. cornuti is diuretic (increasing the solid 
constituents as well as the watery portion of the urine) and diaphoretic, not by 
stimulating but by lowering the action of the heart. It is thought to act directly 
upon the vaso-motor system, often in this sphere lessening local congestions. Its 
minute action can best be studied in the published provings. Anodyne properties 
have been attributed to this drug, but this is totally unsupported at present. 

DEhCKU'iioN OF Plate 134. 

1. Upper part of plant, from Binghams, N. Y., June 21st, 1880. 

2. A cluster of follicles. 

3. .\ flower (enlarged). 

4. Seed (somewhat enlarged). 

* There seems to be a similarity between this body and L.ictiiceiin, viilt:, 96. 



135. 




^m.ad 



nat.dei.et pinxt. 



ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA, Linn. 



N. ORD. ASCLEPIADACE^. 135 

Tribe.-ASCLEPIADE/E. 

GENUS.— ASCLEPIAS, LINN. 
SEX. SYST.— rENT.\Nr)RI.\ DIGVNI.X. 



ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA. 



PLEURISY-ROOT. 



SYN.— ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA, LINN. ; ASCLEPIAS CAULE ERECT. DIVAR. 
VILLOS., ETC., HORT. CLIFF.; APOCYNUM NOV^ ANG. HIRSUT. 
ETC., HERM. LUGDR 

COM. NAMES.— PLEURISY-ROOT, BUTTERFLY WEED, ORANGE SWAL- 
LOW-WORT, ORANGE MILK-WEED, ORANGE APOCYNUM, WIND 
ROOT, WIND WEED, COLIC ROOT, WHITE ROOT; (FR.) ASCLEPIADB 
TUBEREUSE ; (GER.) KNOLLIGE SCHWALBENWURZ. 

A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ASCLEPI.A.S TUBEROSA, LINN. 

Description. — This attractive plant grows to a height of from i to 2 feet. 
Root large, sarcous, fusiform and branching. Stems numerous, erect or oblique, 
roughish hairy, branching superiorly, and leafy to the top ; they form an exception 
to Asclepiadeae in general by being almost or entirely devoid of milky juice. 
Leaves numerous, scattered, some falling opposite ; they may vary from linear to 
linear- or oblong-lanceolate, be sessile or very short petioled, hirsute, mosdy 
acute or subacute, and undulately wrinkled along the margin. Inflorescence 
terminal cymose or corymbose clusters of short peduncled umbels ; floivers showy, 
greenish- or orange-chrome. Calyx much smaller than the corolla ; sepals re- 
flexed, subulate, hidden under the lobes of the corolla. Petals or divisions of the 
corolla oblong, at first extended then reflexed. Crown elevated conspicuously 
above the base of the corolla; hoods or cncnlli erect, narrowly oblong, sessile, 
somewhat broadened at the base, and about twice the length of the column ; horns 
subulate, slender, nearly erect. Column short. Anthers shorter than the cuculli ; 
taings truncate, broadest at the base. Pods lanceolate, acuminate, hoary. 

Asclepiadacese. — This large family differs mainly from the preceding, and 
all Exogens, in the arrangement of the essential organs and fecundating element. 
It consists of shrubs and herbs having acrid, bitter, milky (exc. Asclepias tuberosd) 
juice, containing caoutchouc. It answers in general to the characters of leaf, flower, 
and fruit exhibited in the Apocynaceae {vide ante, p. ijj-2). 

Leaves destitute of stipules ; their place generally supplied by hairs. In- 
florescence terminal, axillary or somewhat racemose clusters of cymose or umbelli- 

* In executing this plate with the stem and leaves natural size, it became necessary to remove two flower clusters, 
which greatly diminishes its value to the botanist, though the representation is still characteristic of A. tubtrosa. 



135-2 

form flowers; bracts minute. Corona^'- consisting of 5 parts or lobes (lioods), 
usually present and situated between the corolla and the stamens, adnate to the 
one or the other. Disk (hypogynous) wanting ; stamens mostly monadelphous, 
their tube forming the column; anthers introrse, 2- or incompletely 4-celled, in 
Asclepias flattened, opening lengthwise (c. Fig. 6), and surmounted by a small 
membranous appendage (d. Fig. 6). Styles 2, generally distinct as far as the stig- 
matic body ; stignui or stigniatose disk fleshy, consisting of a central portion or 
body common to both styles, from which are produced 5 corpuscles or glands, 
alternate with the anthers (e. Fig. 6). Pollinia (Fig. 4) waxy masses of coherent, 
granular, compressed hexagonal, pollen cells. Each of the masses is furnished with 
a fine prolongation, these meet in pairs, the point of juncture being tipped with a 
minute, black, coriaceous appendage, sharply cleft at its inferior edge, the sides 
prolonging like the barbs of an arrowhead ; this appendage is situated between 
the apices of two contiguous anthers, and is connected with the stigmatic glands. 
Thus when the pollen is withdrawn two anthers yield a cell's contents each to the 
mass. Friiita pair of follicles except when aborted ; seeds few or many, compressed, 
imbricate, generally margined, and furnished with a soft coma ; embryo straight ; 
cotyledons foliaceous ; albtwien thin. A general description of Asclepias is incor- 
porated in that of A. cornutum, 134. 

A word in regard to cross-fertilization in Asclepias. While drawing figure 2, 
plate 135, holding the flower by its peduncle, a large blue-bottle fly alighted upon 
the crown, as he did so one of his legs slipped down between two hoods, — which 
neatly curve to such a shape that the foot of an insect is guided directly into the 
crevice between two adjacent anther cells — and upon attempting to withdraw it he 
was unable to do so. Noting this, I teased him into many strong tugs and pulls, 
but the more he struggled the tighter his foot became wedged, until finally after 
about ten minutes' hard work he flew off with a little yellow spot attached to the 
extremity. I caught him, plucked off the leg, and examined it under a lens ; the 
claws were firmly wedged into the little cleft, before mentioned as existing in the 
coriaceous appendage of the pollen-masses. I afterward examined numerous heads 
of Asclepias cornuti, nearly always finding many captive insects, especially Muscce, 
some dead and others struggling ; and watched many more fly off with the fecun- 
dating element trailing after them. Others, too, arrived with pollen-masses, and 
by the same interesting procedure as described, left their burdens in the crown, 
thus executing without design the will of Nature. 

The plants of this order that are of particular interest to us, beside the two 
under consideration, are: Cundurango {Gotiolobus Cnndnratioo), the Spanish Mata- 
perro (the plant that — being announced and lauded as a cure for cancer — caused 
such a furor in medical and general circles in 1871 ; now considered worthless in 
cancer or any other disorder by those who were foremost in its advancement and 
use); and the curled-flowered Calatropis [Calatropis giganted), a native of the 
East Indies. The other prominent medicines in this order are : The Indian emetic 
Secamone emetica, and purgative S. Thimbergii. The acrid juice of Syrian Peri- 

* Crown, nectary, lepanthium. 



135-3 

ploca {Periploca Gracca) has been used as a stimulating application for ulcers, and 
in Greece as a wolf poison. Lindley states* that the East Indian Tylophora asth- 
matica is either emetic or purgative in the proper dosage, and constitutes a valu- 
able Indian remedy. Many species of Gonolohus act as drastic purges, and some 
are used by the Aborigines as arrow poisons. The Ceylon Indian or Country 
Sarsaparilla, Hcviidcsnuis Inc/iciis, is spoken of by Lindleyf as being quite as effi- 
cient in its usage as the American root, and adds : " A great deal of it is consumed 
in London and considered a fine sort." The genus Cynajichum affords several 
purgatives, one of which, the Syrian Cynanchum erectiim {Marsdenia erectd), is 
stated to be very poisonous, and used by the natives as a means of murder or 
suicide; Arghel {^Cynanchum Argel) is often used to adulterate Alexandrian 
Senna, and to this Lindley ascribes the griping and other unpleasant effects of the 
commercial Senna; while the leaves of the East Indian Cyiianchuin cxtcnsnm 
{Daemia extensd) are employed as an anthelmintic, and the juice in asthma. Thus 
throughout the order almost all species are used in the practice of their native 
countries ; while to the arts some yield excellent fiber for the manufacture of rope, 
and others (especially Cynanchum ova/i/olium), caoutchouc in good quantity and 
of fine quality. 

History and Habitat. — Asclepias tuberosa is common from Canada south- 
ward ; growing at first near the coast on sandy fields, but spreading Inland as the 
soil o-rows drier and less rich. It flowers northward during the earlier months of 
summer, and fruits in September. The procumbent form, more common south- 
ward, formerly classed with this species, is now recognized as var. decumbens, Pursh. 
The Western Indians boil the tubers for food ; prepare a crude sugar from the 
flowers, and eat the young seed-pods after boiling them with buffalo meat. Some 
of the Canadian tribes use the young shoots as a pot-herb after the manner of 
asparagus.^ 

The pleurisy-root has received more attention as a medicine than any other 
species of this genus, having been regarded, almost since the discovery of this 
country, as subtonic, diaphoretic, alterative, expectorant, diuretic, laxative, eschar- 
otic, carminative, anti-spasmodic, anti-pleuritic, stomachic, astringent, anti-rheumatic, 
anti-syphilitic, and what not ? It has been recommended in low typhoid states, 
pneumonia, catarrh, bronchitis, pleurisy, dyspepsia, indigestion, dysentery, helmin- 
thiasis, and obstinate eczemas, in doses of from 20 to 40 grains of the powdered root. 

Schoepf first brought it before the medical profession, followed by Drs. Bar- 
ton, Chapman, Eberle, and Parker, each of whom found it often reliable, especially 
in cases where an expectorant or diaphoretic seemed requisite. In colic and rheu- 
matic pains its exhibition met with much success. Dr. Chapman states§ that it is 
distinguished by great certainty and permanency of operation, and is well suited 
to excite perspiration, etc. Prof Barton esteemed it as one of the most important 
of our indigenous remedies. Dr. Benj. Parker says:|| "The powdered root fre- 
quently acts as a mild purgative, but it is particularly valuable for its virtues as an 

* Flor. med., p. 542. t /</"«, P- 544- I ]■ R- Dodge in U. S. /I^ru: Rep., 1870, p. 405. 

J Elementary TherafeutUs, Vol. I. p. 351. || ThaUher Disf. in Barton's Veg. Mat. Med., Vol. I, p. 247. 



135-4 

expectorant, diaphoretic, and febrifuge." " From the successful employment of 
the pleurisy-root for twenty-five years, he has imbibed such confidence that he ex- 
tols it as possessing the peculiar and almost specific quality of acting on the organs 
of respiration, powerfully promoting suppressed expectoration, and thereby re- 
lieving the breathing of pleuritic patients in the most advanced stage of the dis- 
ease ; and in pneumonic fevers, recent colds, catarrhs, and diseases of the breast 
in general, this remedy has in his hands proved equally efficacious." Dr. Griffith 
concludes* that " from all that can be gathered on the subject, it may be deemed 
one of the most useful of our native articles, and deserves a full and unbiassed 
trial." Other and more recent writers as usual have looked with doubt upon all 
its given qualities, except mayhap its utility as an expectorant and diaphoretic. 
The provings, however, point to it as a valuable remedy in certain forms of dry 
coryza, indigestion, colic, diarrhoea, dry coughs, pleurisy, general rheumatic pains, 
and certain skin affections. In one case only in my own practice have I seen the 
indications for its use, that a case of chronic indigestion, accompanied by dry cough 
and intercostal rheumatic pains ; it acted promptly and efficaciously, bringing relief 
within a few hours, and immunity of the disorder within a month. 

The root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. Its preparati