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*' Already the butterfly was wooittg the lily, and the busy bee had taken 
the rose for a bride" — Pag© 188. 


A^^ ]COar /^^ (^,% 



-n. ■. <- 


To My Friend 

The companion of a himdred travels, the associate of nigh forty 
years, one whom I have known intimately from budding manhood 
until the frosts of many winters have turned raven locks to shining 
silver, over whose friendsliip misunderstanding has never cast a 
shadow, and who more than all else contributed to make agreeable 
my first trip ticross the Atlantic, and my journey in the States both 
pleasant and memorabh^ — An old friend with whom it has been my 
happiness to stand in the full light of nocmtide, and for whom I 
cherish the hoi)e that as the sun goes down, we may still sometimes 
sit together in the garden and listcm in (juiet contemplation to the 
whispering of the evening — A friend trusted and beloved, for whom 
I wish a jileasant joui'n«»y over the tide of time, and, when the 
dark boundary' line is passed, and th(^ unseen Pilot steei*s th(» vessel 
along the undiscovered track, a pt»aceful journey to th(» stai-s — I 
dedicate this volume of **Amp:iucan Memories.*' 

John Kendall. 



Christmas f 1896. 



















„ XIX. 




(Part II) 
I^HlLADELnilA (Pakt I) 


(Part II) 



(Part II) 

CIIICACK) (Part I) . . 

1 1 

(Part in.. 




\M )ST( )N 



POSTSCRirr (in Liku of Preface) 





















merican fl2en|ories^ 



\()U have bocni ' below par ' for the last throe months, eomo with 
'^\(^^ me to the States, I am going by the Campania next Saturday, 
tlie fresh breezes that sweep unchecked over the broad Atlantic \yi\\ clear 
your brain from dull headaches and accumulated cobwebs and put renewed 
strength and vigour into your fei^ble knees."' So spoke an old friend, 
my companiim in a hundrcHl pn^vious travels, as I lay, Avorn out and 
listless, on th(» comfortable settee of a private billiard ro(mi. 

The "•' par "' standard in my friencrs mind had n^fercmce in this 
instance, fortunately, to physi(*al ccmditions only. Had he included the 
'' financial par,'' truth would have compelled him to avoid time limitations, 
and to remember the many, if n(*v(»r violent, fluctuations of th(» commercial 

Advantages and responsibilities are cvit inseparable^ ; there Avas the 
invaluable advantage^ of my friend's intimacy Avith many leading men in 
the principal cities and his general knoAvledgc^ of tlu^ country, gained 
in previous visits, making his proposal so alluring as to outAveigh the 
responsibilities of office and home, Avhich I knew could be left, AA^th a 
light heart, to those Avho are ev(*r ready to lighten th(^ burden of my 
latest A'ears. 

And so, as usual, the unexpected happens : — '' We meet on Saturday 
next at the Central Station, Ijiverpool, at half-past one," Avere the last 
words preceding a short interval of separation. Leaving the '' Central," 
Manchester, at half- past tAvelve by the route advertised as " the direct 
and punctual line," Ave arrived in ample time to fulfil our appointment ; 


siirroundwl by ;i tntop of relatives and friends {<nir venerable and venenite<l 
hnend and ehaplain, the Itev. Jonas \\. Jonas, had aceonipanied ns to say 
gnice before onr last meal on laud, and breathe over us his parting 
benediction) we soon found ourselves at the barrier tliat bai-s the ei-owd 
from that portion of the landiiii; wtape where we found tlie niii<iiiifi<<*nt 
Cunanler ; tlie time for parting eame sooii and jmssed (piickly, our adieux 
were pitelied in a joyons k<'y, and our share in tlie waving of the 
inevitable <-andm<'. that fluttered gaily oyer the taffrail of tlie Campania, 
was liotli euergefie and eheerful. 

There was an entire absence nf bu<lh' or enniusion on board the 
noble sliiji; order and diseipliiie ri'igneil ; seats in the sjihmn, an important 
pnint as regards comfort in an ocean voyage, as idl old tmvellers know, 
were promptly selected and seenred ; our baggage safely stoMcd in our 
state ix)oms, a tour of inspection of this grand floating palace, a veritable 
\'oyage witlan a voyage was begun. 

The Campania and her twin sister ship, the Liirania, are the 
latest additions to the Cunard tleet, ami undnnbtedlv the greatest triumphs 


of modem shipbuilding and engineering science. Some idea of these 
magnificent steamships, both of whicli have incontestiibly proved their 
superiority by breaking all previous records, and the vast changes that 
have taken place since the Cunard Company came into existence oO years 
ago, can be best grasped by a comparison betAveen the earliest and latest 
of their fleet. 

Britannki . Ca mpa n ia . 

Length ... 207 feet. ... 620 feet. 

lireadth ... 34 feet 4 inches. 65 feet 3 inches. 

Depth ... 22- feet 6 inches. 43 feet. 

Tonnage ... 1,1^)4. ... 12,!)5(). 

IIorse-poAver 740. ... 30,000. 

Speed ... 8^ knots. ... 21 knots. 

Accommodation 115 passeng(Ts. ... 1,400 passengers. 

First class passengers are accommodated in Ww centre of X\w ship 
— the state rooms being on the promenad(% upper and main decks ; the 
second class are located on the samc^ decks aft of tlu^ engines, whilst 
the third are a(*commo(lat(Hl on th(» lowcn* decks. Therc^ is a grand stretch 
of clear deck on eitluT side for promenading, so that by a circuit of the 
ship four times you traverse* fully a mile and yet scarcely, if (ner, 
appreciate the fact. 

The grand stairway, wide enough for four or t^veu six passengers 
to ascend abreast, opens from tlu* promenade^ (l(M'k, is covetvd with a 
beautifully curved roof light, and is paucdled in tcnik and c^nriched in gold, 
and leads to the principal public rooms, and many of the best state* rooms; 
a central hand rail, in addition to the usual side rails, gives a b(*tt(T 
opportunity of obt^iining greater support. 

The dining saloon is of innnense size, being about 100 feet long 
by 62 feet Avide. The general styh* is Italian. Th(* walls are old 
Spanish mahogany, chaste and effectiv(\ The uphcdstering is in dark red 
figured frieze velvet. An important featiu*e is the height of this room, 
which is 10 feet throughout. Another feature is the want of uniformity 
in the saloon, as ventilating shafts, stairways, etc., break Tip the area ; 
by judicious planning a large* munber of nooks and corners have been 
secured, where small parties may dine in almost (M)mplete seclusion amid 


immense bevelled mirrors, or richly carved panellings. Accommodation is 
provided for the whole of the first class passengers in this sidoon, (enabling 
all the passengers to dine at one hour. The* sideboard, instc^ad of liaA'ing 
the usual marble top with brass rail, is entirely of Spanish mahogany, in 
keeping with the general finish of the siiloon. For lighting as well as 
ventilating the saloon, a central well is earned up and through the 
upper and promenade decks, the covering above* the line of the shade 
deck being a cuned dome of stained glass. The extreme height from 
dining room floor is 33 feet. The well is decorated ivory white, relieved 
with gold lines. The outer side of the well, forming pai-t of the walls 
of the drawing room, is panelled with heavy clear bevelled glass, mounted 
in sashes, each swinging on a centre pivot. 

• The fireside is one of the most charming features of the beautiful 
drawing room, imusually large, well lighted and decorated in admirable 
taste. The ^' ingle-neuk '' is quite a feature of this room without any 
of those discomforts which Dickens has nan^ated in his inimitable stvle. 
The mantel and overmantel are both in satinwood, riclilv carved, Anth 
three arched mirrors. The general sch(*me of doconition is in the 
Renaissance style ; the grate is of brass, and the hearth is laid Avith 
Persian tiles. Electric lamps are arranged in alternate panels. In th(* 
saloon is a grand piano and in a recess an American organ ; like the 
other furnishings they are of Siitinwood, the polished top and panels of 
which are in fine contrast to the duller cedar. Both instnunents are 
specially protected from damp and moths, the stools in each case being 
made receptacles for music. The settees, ottomans, etc., upholstered in 
rich velvets and brocades, the rich Persian Avove carj)et, and the delightful 
variety and irregularity of the furniture, give the room a veiy attractive 

The smoking room has poAverful attractions. This appartment is 
situated on the promenade deck aft. There is a feeling of homeliness in 
the fire burning brightly in the bronze dog grate, the reflected flames 
dancing in the dark blue tiles of hearth and cheeks. The beautifully 
carved fireplace and overmantel are in excellent keeping, the woodwork 
being entirely of fumed oak, while the upholstering is in pigskin of 
the natural colour. The stvle is Jacobean with tables and chairs to suit. 


The tone is subdued and suggestive of ease and comfort. All round the 
smoking room arc arranged small alcoves each with little tables and 
chairs round the sides. 

The library is on the promenade deck, convenient to the grand 
staircase. The general effect suggests French Renaissance. The bookcase 
contains volumes suited to all classes of readers. Comfort is suggested 
by the two large ottomans in the centre of the room. Writing tables 
and chairs are arranged close to the walls. The room is finished in 
richly carved mahogany with Amboyna panels. The electric lamps take 
the form of rosettes in beaten copper. The floor is laid with oak 
parquetry, with a large richly coloured Turkey carpet in the centre. The 
tout ensemble of the library is very elegant and comfortable. 

By the time we reached the upper deck, oiu* " home on the ocean 
wave " for the ne^xt week had already glided — the motion was almost 
imperceptible — some distance down the Mersey ; the toAvers and tapering 
spires of Liverpool were fast fading ; the evening breeze softly skimming 
the glittering river gently curled the blue wavelets, as they danced an 
unceasing minuet, and far away over the bar the radiant waves told 
that the dying sun in majestic calm was again preparing his golden grave 
'neath the western skies. 

Before the last echoes of the trumpet summons to prepare for our 
fii'st meal had died away, the fading daylight had deepened into darkness, 
but the gloom of night was chased away by the bright shining of a 
thousand electric lamps leaping into life and shedding around the glory 
of their mystic beams. There are 1,350 lights throughout the ship; the 
electric current is distribiited by about 5U miles of wire ; the light 
given is equal to 22,000 candles making the illumination at once brilliant 
and effective, whilst the atmosphere is ke^ pure, and comparative freedom 
from accident secured. 

We tripped down the grand stairease into the grand saloon to a 
grand dinner, Avhilst the '' Roast Beef of Old England," with variations, 
not the composer's, was tinimpeted &em the companion way. We enjoyed 
the melody and the dinner, but not always; there were times when the 
melody was anything but melodious, and the thought of roast beef 
abhoiTent ; these seasons Avere spent in enforced seclusion, and our gratitude, 


if liny, was nut so imich for wlmt wi- had rcccivtHl as fi*r what we 
liud lost. 

The mccuse of thaiikfulucss still i-ost- fnnii oiii- Iicarts. and thi- 
tliivoiir (tf Chartreuse was on oui' Iii)s as we took our eveiiiiif; walk ou 

tlie promenade »h>ek — never 
was minster triffiriinn or 
eloisteretl iinibniatorv so worn 
by f.H.tfall. By this time 
we had jjot "'outside"; the 
level liver had eluni'ted t<i 
tlie swell i)f the Channel, 
hut our le«,'s remained 
"hedieiit and under eontrol ; 
the nifilit wjis elear and the 
wind iiesheniufi ; the water, 
nitHed by the kissing breeze, 
eaiifiht and retleeted the rays 
tiuuj: from tlie Ix-aeon lights 
on the Welsh eoast that 
jruide the mariner o'er the 
jiiithless deep ; the " tjneen 
<if Night," gleaiiiiiij; through 
tlie elear water, floated in 
iiiajestie shadow along the 
silvery sea. illuiiiinatiug the 
li(jnid i)ath she tniet>s, and 
burning her Ihwus into the 
ocean's faee ; Venus, queen of kisses, held an undisputed throne in the 
staiTV eonrts abo\"e, and as we gazed (ju that s]iaiigled sphere, every star 
seemed a beauteous eye, a loving friend. 

Most of us are the .-ilaves uf some ruling pas,siun. Boseo, niy 
guide, philosopher, and friend, on this and many journeys, is an infliieutial 
ineinber of the family of tmiiips. and his august presence at the whist 
table is marked by that inflexible jji-opriety usually reser\ed for i)riuccs 
of high degi'ee. When my friend is in good form, his homilies tu an 


ornvARn norxD. i 

indiwreet or inept partiRT arc ciitoi-taiiiiiig, thduyli, excepting to liiiiisolf, 
not always <-on^iiicinf». Those homilies contain u mixture of reproof and 
correeti<in ; somctiiues the advice is jicncnil, at othci-s specific, bnt nirely 
meets with apjirociation. l*erliai)s it is lietter to use worils than try and 
conceal thpuf^ht, for each man at tlic tabic is i)crfectly aware of the 
subject matter, aiul it is such a relief to turn stronp; thoujiht into language. 


Leaving Bosco with his cards and (■uiiipauions in the stilling 
atmosphere of the smoke room, I sought my couch, woued slce|), and 
found repose. 

Sunday muniing bi'oke bright and clear ; tlie sky was blue and 
cloudless; the " sunduwn had already slain the withoriug munn;" the sea 
was a vast blue meadow alive with little froth-people. 


About the time that good people on land were obeying the call 
to mass or matins, the Campania steamed into Queenstown bay to embark 
mails and passengers. Nothing ean be finer than the ap]>earanee of 
Cork harbour in the early morning of a bright spring day ; it has a 
ehann of its own, ranking with two of the other most beautiful stretehes 
of marine seenerA' in the world, the liav of Na])les and Sydney harbcmr. 

Lofty cliffs, superb ramparts of natui*e, descend to the water's 
ed":e, their base alternately layed by tlu» ":enth* swell, or nulely dashed 

by the giant wayes of the rolling Atlantic, lune for countless generations 
waged ceaseless war with the ocean, and resisted its encroachments. 

To the right the rock bastions are crowned by extensiye fortifieaticms, 
and on a lower ridge stands a beneficient lighthouse ; to the left houses, 
white and In-ight in the youthful sun, are dotted at long interyals oyer 
the gently sloj)ing upland, amid the bright emerald of pasture land, and 
dark patches of pine woods ; whilst cracks in the gi^anite cliffs trace 
the lines of sunless rayines, or follow the course of some gloomy gully 
through the brown banners of baiTen rock. 

The citA' of Cork lies some distance from the sea ; the riyer I^ee 
expands to a gi'eat Ayidth below the city, and forms a fine sheet of clejir 
water, — liquid emeralds flowing from the '' Emerald Isle '"* — a shading of 
bright gi'een, mingled with patches of dark sapphire, stirred into sunny 
ripples by the fan of the matutinal breeze. 

Busy craft in full sail, or dragged along by some toiling tug, 
passed in and out ; bumboat women, yendors of lace and lemons, oranges 
and blackthonis, Anth rayen hair and sparkling eyes, entliralled us by 
their fascinating mannei's and be\i4tching smiles ; seabirds unnimibered 
wheeled and Ayhirled oyerhead, or skimmed lightly oyer the Ayhite 
crested wayelets. 

Besides H.M. Royal Mail, we embarked a large number of 
steerage passengers, many with uneoyered heads and scantily clad limbs ; 
the hollow laugh and forced merriment of some were but a thin cloak 
wherewith to hide the sadness of the heart on ^* leaying for fortune 
their dear natiye land.'' 

Before eyening shadoAys fell, the gentle breeze had been displaced 
by scolding Arinds, the milk white froth of the encountering foam floAy 


up on the salt laden gale, warring winds joined battle with raging 
billows, and a tempest swept o'er all the main. 

A considerable period of enforced seclusion followed; 1 went below, 
down amongst the half-dead men, near the coral caves where mermaids 
sing, but I listened vainly for their siren songs, nought but the howling 
storm broke on my ears. IJosco paid visits at rather long inteiTals 
usually to inform me, with a reiined cruelty, how many courses he had 
tackled in his just finished meal, and to show Iioav thoroughly my friend 
is at home on the rolling deep, I may mention that the average number, 
I kept count, was five for breakfast, eight for lunch, and a dozen, more 
or less, for dinner, but, with liis Avell-known modesty, he alAvays added : 
'' You see I had onlv a moderate meal ! I " 

But even Atlantic storms cease. Mv first recollection of this 
'' happy ending " was a call at 7 o'clock one morning on the ship's 
barber to announce I was '^ next for shaving," and to find that we were 
ploughing our Avay meiTily over a furroAvless ocean at a speed of fully 
21 knots an hour. 

Seats in the saloon Avere no louger vacant ; the revolving chairs 
revolved at meal times with the Siime regularity as the screw ; deck 
chaii^s were drawn up in double line like battalions at drill, whilst young 
men and maidens, old men and children, made the most persevering 
efforts to break the record over the measured mile, Avithout the risk of 
breaking their necks. 

Passengers vary as much in character as faces; there is the vulgar 
man who perpetually intrudes when not Avanted, until slain by a despenite 
" cut " ; the talkative man who never kuoAvs Avlien he has said enough ; 
the funnv man with : " I'll tell vou a i;ood tale," and he tells vou a 
dozen ; the intelligent and intellectual man of Avhom you feel at parting 
you have seen too little ; and those charming ladies avIio you find, when 
alas ! too late, are not all ice bound, but melt into gracious condescension, 
when, with trembling lip, and falteriug tongue, you enquire who is their 
favourite composer or author, and the last song they have sung, or novel 
they have read ; the thought of my natural timidity, and the resultant 
loss, makes me sad. 

The funny man on the outward voyage Avas of a most excellent 


spirit. He told us of a settler from the Westeru States, who had ii(»ver 
been in a steamship before, eominji: on board the Campania in Xew York 
harbour, and falling down the hatchway, and who Avas gi-eatly aggrieved at 
not having been tokl that the '' darned ship was hollow,'' and another, 
an Irishman, who, seated on one* of the huge ten-ton anchoi-s, refused to 
go ashore until he had seen '* tlie fellow that used that pick." This 
brought up tlie pleasant A'irginian, who had stood by listening. He 
thought he could beat our fri(»nd Falstaff, so he told of two Yankees 
trying who couhl t(*ll the* greatest crams. Tlu» Arkansiis man said the 
rain f(41 so heavilv in his couutrv that he had seen it standin": solid 
three feet deep within ten minutes ! I ** That's nothing,'' said the* T(»xan, 
''in (mr state if vou knock the ends out of a baiTel, and lav it <m tlu» 
ground bung-hole up, the rain runs through the hole so fast that it 
can't get out at the ends III'" 

We had now passed beyond the storm track ; all aroimd in 
unclouded vision lay tin almost ev(»u plain of liquid siipphire, stiiTed but 
to dapple its placid bosom with the glint and gleam of the sparkling 
simbeams ; the sharp coulter of our sea plough was upturning the 
glistening water, and spimiing endless foam thrt^ads whiti' as driven snow, 
which were quickly woven into fantastically (Unsigned coverlets, no two 
alike, such as human shuttle never lacod or int<'rlac(»d, but they left no 
trace behind. 

The fourth or fifth day out we passed within fifteen mil(»s a 
number of icebergs, and a great (plant ity of floating ic(% niiUvs in exti^nt ; 
one of "' Greenland's icy mountains," a thousand lea«»:ues awav from home, 
an exceptionally large berg, lifted its head high in tin* centn* of the* 
pack. It was in the afternocm, the streaming lights wen* still at play ; 
from " the deep sea's verge to the zenith high " we could easily 
distinguish the pinnacled ice* mountains, ranged in majestic grandeur, and 
robed in a shroud of matchless white ; the glistening and sparkling gold 
and silver of the sunshine was reflc^cted in the pure crystals of ice and 
snow ; the sky of clear blue, and sundown of deepest gold, whilst the 
frolicsome waves danced merrily around the glittering ice-belt, a combined 
scene, to me, novel and most impressive. 

In the Cimard liners the supply of food is ample, in fact the 


menu is far too large to inisurc all round good cooking and hot food. 
One night I tried a sandwich of "Epicurean" tongue; it sounded dainty, 
it tasted like the half worn sole of a ladies' slipper ; violent indigestion 
ensued. You are largely indebted to your stewards for the degree of 
comfort you attain, our experience was favourable, one of our companions 
told us he had asked for. an additional clean towel, but Avas told — ''This 
is the Cunard line, we never lost a life, I am verv sorrv but you cannot 
have a clean towel." 

liosco is a man who in life has played many parts, cm the whole, 
well ; he shines equally at the card table, or in the chair, fulfilling some 
public duty. liosco has played many " rubbers ; " his caustic homilies 
addressed to an ending partner after the " last round " are usually 
listened to with something likc^ awe, but it is when he has '' kindly 
consented" to preside at some* function in the cause of charity that my 
friend rises to those higher levels that some of us envy. Little Avonder 
then, that when ''liosco, J. P." was announced to take the chair "at a 
Concert in aid of the Seamen's Charities," on the evening of Thursday, 
April 16th, 1896, the progranunes were sold in advance by the "lady 
suppliants" from half-a-crown to a sovereign each. 

Bosco was in rare form and if possible excelled himself ; amidst a 
gratifying Avelcome signified in "the usual manner" the J. P. cleared his 
throat, an inevitable and considerable preliminary, and commenced "Ladies 
and Gentlemen, I feel great pleasure in presiding on the present occasion 
because I feel that the time has come and is rapidly arriving (Bosco 
has been in Ireland) when this pleasant and I may say (glancing sweetly 
at the suiTounding ladies) most agreeable voyage must come to an end, 
but before Ave part, nc^ver all to meet again on land or sea (we thought 
this idea not quite new), we are to be favoured by some of our talented 
fellow voyagers with a s(>lection of vocal and instrumental nmsic. 

" Ladies and gentlemen, ' Music hath charms to soothe the savage 
breast ' (not original my dear boy), it dates back to the time when Jubal 
struck the chorded shell and awoke from its hoUoAV the sweet sounds that 
have sung on so long and so well. Apollo's lute, strung with his hair, 
more bright and musical than a sii-en's voice ; David's haq) whose soul 
entrancing song, wafted down the ages, still awakens magic notes with 


sacred memories." All these were passed in rapid review ; then the 
developmt^nts of the harpsichord in its many stages to the perfect grand 
piano, to Avhich we were about to listen, were touched upon. 

Bosco is great in perorations, always carefully prepared, they are 
€»loquent and effective, if remembered. It was an easy transition for him 
to take us in mind from the nnisic that appeals to the ear to the higher 
music of the soul ; reminding us of the financial object of the concert, 
he said that during the early part of that trip we hiul all heard the 
scolding winds howl and roar like thumh^r and seen the ambitious ocean, 
clothed with a rainu^nt of white waves, swell and rage* and foam, but 
had we thought of the noble men who all life long '' go down to the 
sea in ships and occupy their business in gn^at waters," whost* devotion 
to duty in the hour of peril and danger was so well known, and had 
we thought of the widows and orphans of thos(» brave felloAVS whose 
lives had been so jeopardized and lost, who had no requiem sung at 
their burial, save the deep nu^low voice of the ocean's surfy moan, whose 
last resting place is found auiid pale glittering pearls and rainbow coloured 
shells in the chambers of the vasty deep / 

In urging a liberal response to his appeal on behalf of the fimds 
of the Seamen's Charities, the chaii-man said he appealed with confidence, 
for he Avas quite certain that his hearers recognised that Charity was one 
of the primal duties of life, a duty that shone aloft like the stai-s, those 
soft lamps that hang above like burning flowers ; that the opportunities 
to soothe and bless mankind abounded, and in fact '' thev lie scattered 
at the feet of men like flowers," and concluded, amidst loud applause, 
by asking us to water plentifully the special flowers of Charity for 
which he had bet^n pleading. 

1 cannot do my friend justice by a verbatim report, memory fails; 
the result of his impassioned eloquence was a collection of about £30, 
not bad for the small number of cabin passengers. 

There was of course the usual mild criticism when the concert 
ended. I enquired from the chairman, who had sat in the midst of the 
sirens, why Miss Highnote sang in such a falsetto voice, her screeching 
being quite painful. " I really can't imagine," replied Boscus Sarcasticus, 
" unless it is that she has falsetto teeth I " Xaughty Bosco I 


The voyage generally ends in you getting " thick " or even 
" confidential " with some of your fellow passengers ;■ one infonned me 
that it was said that married people lived longer than single, " but," 
said he, " I don't believe it ; " he admitted, however, judging from his 
own experience that they seemed to do so, for before marriage he was 
miserable, but since then he wished he was dead. I thought he had 
reached the *' confidential " stage. 

The murmuring billows had languished into well-nigh silence, and 
the mimic waves were sinking to a restful sleep, as we anchored for the 
night outside Xew York habour ; the air was still and overhead scarce 
tloated a cloud to dim the 

" Star lit and plimetary vales," 
whilst a thousand clustering buds of light shone from the bright floor 
of the azure skies. 

riiiiiiiiiiiiiM i-tfflng%li^MlB 






HE morning broke hazy ; a grey eonfusiou hung around, making 
objects on the river dimly seen ; the turbid air at first veiled 
the land, but ere long the glorious sun bm^st from its misty prison, and 
nature's great eternal painter limned the heavc^ns with pencil dipped in 
roseate colours of the mom, chasin«r awav the last star that feeblv 
twinkled in the west. 

The smile on the ocean's face had its counteqiart and Avas reflected 
in the smile on many a liuman clu^ek on the deck of tlu» Campania 
that bright April mom. Few cities in the world an* so grandly situated 
with reference to the sea and navigable rivei^s as New York, and tlu^sc* 
advantages are combined under a beautiful landscapi*, whicli cannot escape* 
the admiration of th(» obs(Tvant. 

The harbcmr is pleasingly iiTcgular in its outline, is brok(»n up 
bv small islands, \ryvX alxmt with low hills, and surroundcnl bv cities and 
villages gleaming in the sunshint*, and nightly fonuing a giilaxy of 
brilliants. Approaching the '' Battery," the mune given to a triangular 
park standing at th(* southem or seaward extrc^mity of ^lanhattan Island, 
on which New York is built, th(* scene becomes vctv charming ; the 
lawns and trees luminous with fresh and tc^nder foliage ; the curving sea 
wall where tides '' green as grass,'' twice in the natural day, break into 
gentle foam borders of everlasting flowers. T(^) the left stretches the 
broad level of the HtuIsou River, relieved by the backgroimd of Jei-sey 
City, and to the right the full breadth of East River, and the looming 
heights of Brooklvn with its gracefid suspension bridge, the marvel of 
the world. Far down the harbour the lower bay, a broad indentation, 
is bounded by the horizon of the blue Atlantic. 

We were told — I suppose it is true— that it is possible to embark 
in a canoe at the " Batterv " and float, save for an occasional short 

N£IV YORK (Part I). 

cam', to the borders of Alaska, as the Hudson river, in connection with 
the Erie canal, forms a water highway as extensive as the Jlissisippi or 
the Volga. 

One of the most striking objects on entering New York harbour 
is nndoubtedly Bartholdi's 8tatne of Liberty. This enlossiil figure, 

symbolizing Ijiberty 

enlightening the 
world, the largest 
statue of modem 
times, made of ham- 
mered plates of 
copper, is lol feet 
in height, and stauds 
upon a pedestal 10 -5 
feet high, and was 
given ten years since 
by Frenchmen to the 
American Kepuhlic. 
The statue cost 
$2()0,0(l{), the found- 
ation au<l pedestal 
$2-JO,000 more, the 
latter being provided 
in the States. lied- 
loes Ishmd. on whicli 
it stands, was select- 
ed by the sculptor 
himself as " there 
2,000,000 people 
could plainly see the 
great bronze figure 
from their hoiues, 
aud another million 

in country homes could see her lamp by night, whilst men and wonmi of 
e^'cry nation would pass in shijis beneath her mighty arm," an ideal, 



methinks, mort^ lofty than the statue, eompounded of French and American 
gush and sentiment. The image of gold that Xebuohadnezzar the King 
set up in the plain of Dura must have been a pigmy compared with this 

rarities differ as to its g(K)d taste* and merit as a work of art; I 
am neither an art critic nor censor of the canons of good taste, so refrain 
from passing an opinion, though I think my judgment would be 
benevolent, only recording one or two facts. Internal staircases in the 
pedestal lead to the base of the statue, and thence up the statue itself, 
finishing in the hollow at the top of the head, Avhere it is said forty 
persons may stand at once ; a row of windows in the half circle of the 
coronet overlook tlu* whole harbour, Xew York City, the Brooklyn shore, 
far back among the Long Island hills, and out past the narrows to the 
ocean horizon. The torch, held up aloft 30 or 40 feet above the head 
of the figure, is lighted by a cliLster of electric lamps intended as a 
beacon for mariners, but in reality proving a source of trouble and 
anxiety owing to the (^xtreme brightnt^ss and glare of the rays it emits. 

The ''vulgar man'' had not been much in evidence amcmgst our set 
since we floated down chann(4. He* foniu»d, with mv friend, one of the 
whist parties on that first evening, addressing himself indiscriminately to 
the company g-athered in that snug alcove, but with a very familiar 
glance at liosco, he informed them that he was always happy in the 
company of thieves and liai-s ; no doubt his imagination Avas under some 
stimulating influence, for n(»xt day he declared he had a wheel in his 
head. Bosco usuallv views thieves and liars from the elevation of the 
'' Bench," not across the card table, so for the rest of the voyage 
Major O'Hooligan had a wide berth ; but on the eve of parting, no less 
than at the joy of meeting, the Major forced himself to the front, and 
addressing my friend (the magistrate confided to me his intense desire to 
give him '' six months hard ") he said the docks of Xew York were the 
finest in the world, 50 miles in extent, we had nothing like them in 
all England (Mr. O'Hooligan scented his native air, and his foot was about 
to touch his native heath), but Bosco, drawing himself up to a patriotic 
elevation on a pedestal of truth, told the Irish American he was talking 
rubbish, and wanted none of his Yankee brag, that the London 

NEW FORK (Part I). 

and Liverpool docks were far superior to the tottering timber structures, 
and miserable wooden shanties he called docks, for whilst nature had 

done everj'thing for them, they had done little for themselves. 

Gentle reader, excuse my printing the adjectives. 

Nothing can exceed the discomfort on landing ; utter confusion in 
dealing with luggage reigns ; an entire absence of any well regulated 
system ; porters cmAvl about at snail's pace, and in each other's way, 
with half empty trucks made expressly for creating the greatest noise 
on earth, all conspiring to u waste of time and temper that might 
easily be avoided ; finally our solid leather portmanteaux, gratuituous 
titi veiling advertisements for many hotels, were taken in charge by one 
of the baggage expresses, and safely caiTied to the lirunswick, the hotel 
at Avhich my friend had engaged rooms. If less modem and showy than 
some of the newer ones, it i)r()vides excellent food, a certain channel 
wherebv to reach Uosco's heart. 

I ventured to suggest we should have been more up to date at 
the Plaza, Savoy, or Waldorf, but the ic(» water was warm in comparison 
to the J.P.'s frigid retort, that if his friend Sir Rivers Wilson was 
content with it, and Her liritannic Majc^sty's representative made it his 
home when in New York, as well as other of his intimates who figure 
in Dod or Burke, whose names I would fain forget, it was surely good 
en7)ugh for me, whose name was most likely to be found, if anywhere, 
amongst my tailor's overdues ; so we remained at the Brunswick and 
were satisfied. 

An incident occuiTcd early during our stay at the Bnmswick 
which reminds me that I have been negligent in not introducing Bosco 
to my readei's. In American hotels boots are not foimd at morning- 
dawn polished ready for wearing, but you go to a special department, 
usually in the basement, and there they are *' shined like mirrors " on 
your feet at any time of the day for ten cents a pair. My friend generally 
managed to get seated in the luxurious chair first, and usually stalked away 
without paying, assuring the black that his father, pointing to me, would 
pay for both. One morning before our connection was known I heard an 
amusing com-ersation between the two shoe blacks and one or two 
gentlemen waiting their turn: — "I say Dick, isn't the 'Judge' like the 

.1. }/£:/?/€ AX MEMORIES. 

"Hoscn, .1.1'." 




A'^'JT YORK (Part I), 19 

Prince of Wales?" (The J.P. perpetually eames about his magisterial 
dignity). " I wonder if it is him," replied Diek, '' I never see'd two peas 
so much alike," and this opinicm the customers endorsed, much to my 
amusement and liosco's gratification when the tale was told, and this 
resemblance was connnented on, not twice but thrice and more during 
our trip. My readei*s will form their own opinion as I introduce to 
tliem, by a photo, my friend '' Jlosco, J.P.," at the same time that I 
repudiate him as being my son. 

New York has always been i)rou(l of its liotels ; they are almost 
numberless, yearly increasing in magnitude, excellence of service, and 
splendour of apartments. AVc* visited several ; enjoying an excellent lunch 
at the Savoy, equally good dinncTs at the Phiza and Delmimico's, and 
smiled sweetly whilst raising our glasses at many others — the T'ifth 
Avenue, the Hoffman, and IloUand House, amongst the number. But 
perhaps the finest of all is the Waldorf, one of the newest and most 
fashionable, a magnificent building in th(» Fifth Avenue on the sit(^ of a 
fonuer house of John Jacob Astor ; it is c^leven stories high, built in a very 
oruatci style of brown stone, brick and terra cotta. 1 remember that there 
(mr '' smiles," consisting of a split soda and a little, vctv little, rye whiskey, 
cost half-a-doUar (^ach ; but then it is onlv truthfid to sav it was not 
the " demi-tasse smil(\s '' w(* went tlieri^ to see, but the living smiles 
from liquid eyes, set in always pleasant and somc^times beautiful faces, 
that made us take that Sabbath evening journey. 

The corridors of tli(» A\'aldorf conqiete successfully in their display 
of dress and beauty with any of its many rivals. Tlu^se spacious halls 
and corridors, walled with rich marbles, panc^lled with onyx and garnished 
with porphyry, are superbly decorated ; the floors are hidden 'neath rich 
cai-pets, the choicest prod\u*ts of Turkish and Persian looms, on which 
footfall finds no echo ; luxurious couches and daintv chairs woo the 
weary and pamper the indolent ; artistic chandeliers depc^nd from the 
ceiling, and beautifully designed brackets with fiower-formed (»lusters of 
softly shaded electric lights shed brightness around. These ^' marble halls," 
furnished in the most sumptuous style known t^) (civilization at the close 
of the nineteenth century, are nightly thronged by the sons and daughters 
of Eve, mostly those wearing the "goodly apparel," the "gay clothing," 


and the '* gold rings," of which St. James wTotc, and without an 
exception having a desire to " sit in ii good jilate ; " silken robes of 
purest white fonn a relief to the iniinv djizzliug costumes in eohmrs, 
vivid beyond descrip- 
tion ; orient pearls, from 
the caves of the Indian 
seas, nestled on bare 
and stately necks ; 
golden bracelets, set 
mth emenilds, sap- 
phires and opals of uu- 
told price, and with 
rubies dug from out the 
depths i>f Burmese 
mines, encircled sha|)ely 
arms; Goh-nnda's rich- 
est tn'asures out\ieil in 
brilliancy the uiomiug 
dews, and gems "rich 
and rare" blazed 
from <'onntless tapering 
fingers, shone from 
many a shapely ear, 
and gleanieil and trem- 
bled amidst the folds of 
dyetl and undyed silken 


Hotels in the United States are conducted on two distinct systems, 
and a few are composite, combining both ; the " Kuropcan plan," ^vith 
which most liritons are familiar, is to take rooms for which rent and 
service is charged so much per day, tlie visitor being at liberty to take 
his meals in the salon of the hotel, in the restaurant usually attached thereto, 
or at any other more convenient place ; the " Amencan plan " includes 
lodging and attendance and meals throughout the day, aud as there is 
scarcely a break between these meals from daylight to midnight, proprietors 

\i:iV rORK (Part T). 21 

frequently charge travellers for two meals more than they eat — those on 
the table at the time of arrival and departure. The traveller should in 
all cases make a stipulation when registering his name at the clerk's 
desk that the account shall commence with the first meal. This plan 
besides tying you to be in at all meals (often inconvenient) struck me 
as being productive of great waste ; the menu is far too extensive to 
ensure good cooking, and the food is often semi-cold. It is no unusual 
thing to see Americans with half-a-dozen or more dishes roimd them ; 
they may order, and sometimes do, twenty different varieties and never 
touch half ; some of our cousins are great eaters ; I heard of a young 
man, a boarder, the owner of a voracious appetite, who, when his landlord 
told him he should be compelled to raise his tc^nns, exclaimed " For 
God's sake don't I I can scarcely work my monc^v out as it is." Our 
experience was all in favour of the European plan. 

Xo city in the world is better supplied with restaurants than 
New York ; they are found in every quarter of the city, and in every 
degree of excellence and expensivenc^ss. Our experience was satisfactory ; 
it is as well that strangers should know that at all first-class, or even 
moderate priced restaurants, what is enough for (me is usually enough for 
two ; if the waiter on taking an order for two persons enquires if you 
wish one portion or two, it is certain (me is sufficient ; if he does not, 
you should ask. 

Besides restaurants, there are luncheon bars largely frequented at 
mid-day by busim^ss nu^n, who content tln^mselvc^s witli a liurried snack ; 
the Eotunda, attached to the Astor House hotel, is amongst the most 
frequented. The Britisher visiting New York foi* the* first time* will 
probably be taken by (me of his cousins to Stc^wart's for (me or more 
'' smiles," and to see a fine collection of pictun^s, one being a really 
marvellous work of art representing a bam door on which is hung game, 
fowling pieces, horns, and other impU^ments of the sportsman ; the bronze 
key hole and iron fi'etwork ornaments are most realistic. 

A most satisfactory feature connected with American bars is the 
entire absence of fenuile labour. I did not see a single barmaid, in fact 
not a single woman in any bar either behind or in fi*ont of the counter. 
In this they certainly teach us a lesson. 


Bosco requires no inh'oduetion in Xew York ; he is a prince 
amongst eoniniercial magnates ; little wonder then, that, Anthin a few 
hours, long before the '' Twin seasons of the day and night '' had come 
and gone, we had enough invitations to hmeh and to dine ti» last for a 
month, besides an untold number to innnediately join in a *' smile " 
(Anglice, a drink), and ere night fell our names were inscribed as 
honorary members of several leading clubs, the names of which I forget. 
Tlie president of one, I renuMuber, wi(s Mr. Strong, Mayor of Xew York. 
All these we found ample and complete*, in the variety and extent <»f 
their acconniiodation, the elegance and comfort of the appointments, the 
iiTcproachable taste of the decoratiims, and in the excellence of the cuisine. 
The unbimnded hospitality of those members, whom it was our good 
fortune to meet, we can never forget — our wannest thanks to them all. 

The atmosphere of a club house smoke room is usually genial, 
conducive to mirth and merriment, and })ro(luctive of an inevitable crop 
of stories, some fn^^li, otluTs decidedlv tainted, and a <::oodlv number of 
veterans, musty with age. 1 hope those 1 venturi' to record here are 
fresh, at auv nite the first is '' breezv." Durin*^ a recent windv dav 
in Xew York a discussion arose between some gentlemen at one of the 
clubs about the V(4ocitv of wind. Kacli related a storv of his own 
experience. One of the i)arty said he was once riding in a train 
through Kansas. *' There was what is called out there ' a light breeze ' 
blowing. 1 had occasion to look out of the window, and the moment I 
put my head out off went my hat." *' What did you do?'' asked one 
of his friends. '' Well,"' said he, '' several people told mi' not to woiTV, 
that the breeze was strong enough to take it there. I wondered what 
they nu»ant, but that hat was handed to me by the station agent at our 
next stop, about forty miles from where it blew out of the ^v^ndow. 
We came along pretty fast — I guess about fifty miles an hour. But then 
eighty miles an hour for wind is called ' a light breeze ' in that country, 

and the hat went bv the eiffhtv mile route."' 

Bosco told about seeing the laziest man he ever met whilst on a recent 
visit to Brighton ; enquiring from a boatman, lolling over the rails and 
gazing idly into the sea, tin* way to Kemptown, the man Avithout moving 
his body fi'om the rail or opening his mouth, lifted his left foot and 

NEW rORK (Pari I). 23 

pointed with it leftward. My fri(nid who has an insatiabh^ thirst for 
knowledge, asked where Hove lay, whereupon, again withont moving his 
body or speaking, the right leg was kicked in the opposite direction. 
'^ Well," said the J. P., " if von can find iiie a lazier fellow than von 
are I'll give yon a shilling." This nnloosed his tongne, '' Then put it 
in my pocket " was the reply. 

This brought up one of our friends who said h(* had just heard 
of one who, he thought, uiust be the meanest man on earth. The agent 
for a new and handsonu'ly illustrated book, who had lately calhul on him, 
was evidently suffering from considerable c^xciteuient. ''What's th<^ matter?" 
asked the gentleman. '' I've just met the meanest man," he answered, 
'' I've heard of him, and I've read about him in the })apers, but I 
never expected to nu^et him face to face." "Where is he?" "Up in 
that office building." "How do you know he's th(^ uuninest man?" 
" ]iy the way he acted. I showed him this work of art, lectured on 
it for half an lumr, showed the engravings, and when I hinted that it 
would be a good thing to orihu', what do you think he said ? He said 
he never bought books. He didn't have to. He just waited for souie 
fool a":ent to coinc* aloniz; and tell him all that was in 'em and tuni 
over the leaves while h(^ looked at tlu^ pictures.'' 

I must not forg(4 to mention th(^ " Down Town (lub " at which 
we lunched witli one of l?osco's friends. Everything there is done in 
A 1 stvle. The meuibc^rs are cliietiv bankers, financiers, law vers, and 
other professional uu*n. I did not know until we nniduMl thc^ genial 
atmosphere^ of the smoke i*oom that our host was — if (^vervonc had their 
rights — Duke of liCnnox, but if he had not the tith^ and propiTty, his 
distinguished bearing, no less than his court(M)us, almost courtly, numnei's, 
stamped him at oncc^ as one of Nature's XobleuuMi. Wc* thank Your 
Grace for a pleasant hour. 

Time and inclinaticm alike prevented our visiting many places of 
amusement. lianium's " Greatest Show on Earth," Koster and liial's 
C'clebrated Music Hall, and the Lyceum Theatre, exhaust the list. 

Barnum's Show, at the ^ladison Square Gardens, is still conducted 
on the same first-class lines with which some of us became* familiar 
during his visit to Olympia. Equestrian displays ; acrobatic, gymnastic 


and athletic exhibitions of first-rate cxeellence ; exciting Konian chariot 

racing, with two and four horses abreast, driven by hidies and gentlemen 

at a furious speed ; a large and well kept variety — exceptionally good 

specimens — of wild beasts ; a large herd of elephants, 24 in number ; and 

endless other attractions combine to make «rood the claim, which I think 

is indisputable, that liarnunrs is the *' Greatest Show on J^^irth.'" 

The Music Ilall is really a Palace of Varieties. The prices are 

fairly high, keeping it select. Tlu» night of our visit Albert Chevalier, 

with his inimitable coster songs, Avas the* chief attraction. Our visit was 

a little '* previous ; '" had Ave known that on the following evening 

Mr. Edison was to be there, exhibiting for the tii*st time* his wonderful 

'' Yitascope," Ave should have deferred going. The Seir York Herald 

of the n(*xt day contained the folIoAving: — 


** Tht' Vita.sco|M* repnMliut's all tin* coloi's of a iiutuiv. The Imuse wa.s 
packiHl : tlu* applause wa.s tiviiieiiiloiis. Tin* tii*«t pictur«» sliewii was tliat of two 
daiieei's. It seemed as though they were actually uii the staj^i^e, so natuitil was 
the dauee, with its many aud jjraceful motions. Next came a iiictuiv of a 
tumbling surf on the Jei-sey shore. The waves were \i\^\\ and hoi8ten)Us as they 
dashed after one another in their rush for the sandv lieach, over which thev ebbed 
and flowed. Tlie white crests of the waves an<l the huge volume of water were 
true to life. Only the ixmr of the surf was needfnl to make the illusion perfect. 

"A boxing bout, between a long, thin Uiau, and a short, stout one, was 
the next pictui*e. Kveri' move, and step, and blow of the boxei's was faithfully 
i-eproduced on the screen last night. A scene from ' The Milk White Flag ' 
was next shewn. 

*• ^ The Monroe Doctrine ' was the title of a picture. At first John Bull 
was shewn bombarding a South Amencan shore, sui)iM»se<l to represent Venezuela. 
John was getting the })etter of the argument when the tall lank figure of Uncle 
Sam emerged from the }»ack of the pictuiv. He gi'asi>e<l John Bull by the 
neck, forced him to his knees, and made him take off his hat to Venezuela. 
ITiis delighted the audience, and applause and cheei*s rang tlin)ugh the house, 
while somebody cried * Hun-ah for Kdison ! ' 


'* The * skirt dance ' was the last picture shewn, and its succc*ss equalled 
that of the othei-s. When the dancer disappeared fi-om Anew, there was a 
long burst of applause, and (»ver%body agi*eed that the Vitascope was wonderful." 

I felt Sony my friend Avas not present at the conclusion of the 
skirt dance to strengthen and lengthen that long burst of applause, 
although the certainty of an angiy Venezuelan denionsti^ation from him, 

NEW FORK (Part I), 25 

mingling with the ringing cheei's, might not liave delighted the audience. 
Bosco is a patriot. 

On our way home we called to inspect the smoke room of the 
" Imperial," and to have oiu- last evening " smile " suffused in " Scotch 
and Lithia." Leaving the hotel we were soon abreast of a " gintleman " 
practising elocution in the open ; he was unburdening his mind freely. 
Addi'essing an imaginar}^ audience with great vehemence he said : — " You 
are a blackguard lot ! You've plenty of money, plenty to eat and drink, 
but no gintility. Oh, why did I ever come to this country. Me father 
was an Oirish gintleman, and I am a gintleman. Oh, for the wings of 
a dove to fly away I " As we were steering a straight cimrse, and the 
orator a decidedly zig-zagging one, we soon got too far ahead to see if 
the appeal for the ^' wings of a dove" was as well satisfied as his thirst 
for " encore " whisky evidently had been. It Avas an annising incident 
as shewing an ^' Oirishman's " opinicm of America. 

Our visit to the Lyceum to see the '' Prisoner of Zenda " was 
disappointing. Any comparison of the performance with the original 
production at the St. James' by Mr. George Alexander would not be a 
happy one, and therefore need not be made. Forgetting the actors is 
easier than forgetting the audience, or at any rate the hats that some of 
them wore. Is it not most inconsiderate for tall ladies, and most ladies 
tr)^ and sit tall, which comes to the same thing, to wear those high 
head-dresses in a theatre, compelling a perpetual dodging this way and 
that, to the right and to the left, producing so painful a straining 
of the neck, and general discomfort, that the victim in sheer despair, 
and Anth a groan of anguish, gives up the unequal contest with the fair, 
or unfair, obstructionists ? I remember these erections well ; the roses that 
bloomed on these towers of fashion were not ordinary modest roses, but 
prize roses, with an assertive, nodding, generally familiar style as became 
the ^' greatest on earth " sorts. Sweet sisters, do be more thoughtful. 

This reminds me of a convei'sation in the theatre : — " There's a 
lot of twaddle talked about elevating the stage, isn't there, what on 
earth do they mean by it ? " said a gentleman. '' Mean by it," said 
his friend, '' I don't know, but I should think it is to get it above the 
level of the ladies' hats." 


1 first s;nv rcvolviug ainl fuldiiig chiiirs iu use tit this theatre; 
'y arc a j^ri'at coineiiioiiLi'. 

The "Wasliiiif^oii An-li. witli its imblr curve, of wliich an ilhistnitiuu 
given, stands iu Washiiigtou Sinuire. It is aduiiraldy iinipurtiontil, 

and exynisitt'ly 
ni<idelk><l in mar- 
ble; eoniplettHl in 
1S!»3 lit a t-t»st of 
ovei- ^2o(l,0((0. 
The locality 
of M'ashingtou 
S(jnarc is inter- 
esting from its 
historical assiK-ia- 
tions ; and from 
the quaint stylo 
of the residences, 
many still in- 
lial.ited l.y ..Id 
faijiilics, too eiHi- 
scivative to fol- 
low the holiest 
of fashion, and 
move iqi to^m, 
^Vell known 
literary men 
and artists are 
amongst the 
(Uvelk'i-s in this 
X.-ar hen- we 
MASiiiXfJTOx Alien, passed t h c 

" Hrevixa-f {'House," iinich fretiueiited by the upper circle (tf foreign tourists. 

I think my friend Itoseo remarked tliitt liis friend, the rrineo 

of Wales, stayed here during his visit to the States. 

NEW YORK {Pari 1). 

Wall Street, 
ftill in view : — 

with Triuity Church, dii the other si(U; ef Broiulway, 

" WiiPi-c Jews HIiJ (jpiitilcs must iiif wont 

To thi-(Hi(t for tradf nn<l liist (luotations — 
Wlicrp, hour by liour, thi; rat*« of (fold 

Outrival, in tlio eara of peoi>lp, 
Th(" quart ei'-i'hiiiies Bei-enely told 
Ii'roni Triuit;''s unilauiit<il Htoi'iili'." 

has always been a choice thoroufjhfait' ; befoif the l{<'vohitioii, ai-istueratic 

fainiliesj leaders of 

society and fashion, dwelt 

there ; little husiness in- 
truded, although tlie 

t-lave market stood ut 

the foot. Gi-adually the 

fiiuuicial institutions of 

the city became coneeu- 

trated aroiuid, and now 

the iiaiiic stands fur an 

asseiiiblafje of j;rcat 

institutions, which not 

(inly line its (|uarter 

mile, but stretch blocks 

away from that short 

avenue, whose paving 

stones might he replaced 

hy bricks of gold and not 

exhaust the vaults of 

initold wealth the street 


Clustered roimd 

"Wall Street are found : 

—The Assay (Mee, a 

haodsoiue style of marbU' 

building almost a century old ; sometimes as much as a huiidretl millions 

worth of enide bullion is assiiyed heif in one year, and close at hand is 

the yub-Treasnry, a large Doric building of gi-anite ; its broad flight of 



steps broken by a pedestal beariiif^: a eolossiil statiu* of Washinjj:tun taking 
the oath. More money is stonnl in tliis buihling than anywhere else 
in the eoinitrv, c^xeept tlu* Treasury vaults at Washington ; a well-anneil 
guard proteets the treasure, and upon the gi-anite roof are faeilities for 
mounting a battery of Gatling guns, and oth(»nvis(» prote<*ting the building 
from assault. 

Trust companies occupy conspicuous and costly palaces ; bankers 
and financiers are foiuid in beautiful brown stone buildings, or still 
grander rose gi-anite pik»s. Atlantic t'ables and Marine Insurance Companies 
are located in massive structures of gr(\v granite*. Stock broki^i's share 
with the learned profession luxurious officers in magniiicent marble halls, 
whilst Fire and Life Insurance Associations till stately sti*uctures ten to 
twenty stories hi<»:h, rivallui*^ Habc^rs tower. Probably in no other city in 
the world is to be* found, in so limited an area, so many splendid 
temples of commerce of great artistic value*, grand in the dignity and 
richness of tluar architectun*, and so complete, and often magnifient, in 
the wealth of their interior appointments. 

In my simplicity, I observed that many of these companies must 
be of considerabh* ag(* to attain such wealth and importance, to which 
liosco replied he had no doubt I was right, as Ik* had been told they 
traced their origin back to the time of Noah's Ark, when he undei^stood 
the original limited joint stock company was floated. 

Let us note a few of the signboards; we were much stiiick with 
the large proportion of occupants with foreign names, of which no 
inconsiderable quantity bon* unmistakeablc tracers of Hebraic origin ; this 
is the case, not only in the '^ El Dorado " of Wall Street and its 
vicinity, but throughout New York, which might with equal appropriateness 
be styled ''Xew Jerusalem.'' Hi*re many rich monc^y lenders, ''Shylocks" 
who (*xact the pound of flesh, the utmost i)enalty in the bond, mingle 
in daily commercial strife Avitli Israelites, in whom, like Nathaniel, is 
found no guile. It was my good fortune to meet some of these, to 
whom honour is as dear as to tlu* ancient Eoman. 

The palatial home of the Equitable Life Assurance Society is a 
typical building ; the broad ground floor coiridor nms from Broadway to 
Xassiiu Sti'eet, and forms a brilliant arcade, paved, walled, and adonied 

NEIV FORK (Fail J). 

with viiri-coloiired marblpw, ami illuininiited by olectricity, alon;^ which 

shops and restaurants aro antiypd. An extensive ^icw (if the eity is 

obtained from the top storey — ascent is easy, the buiUHng contains several 

speedy elevators. The 

City Hall Park is just 

across Broiidn'ay ; it is 

it little spot of (^een — 

an oasis amid a desert 

of granite ; the trees 

mantle the space with 

their gi-ateful shade in 

summer, and in the 

^vinter the shadows of 

the twifis tesselate the 

asphalt walks as tlie 

rays of the ele(-tii<' 

lamps strike t]irou;;h 

the leaflejis Iminches. 

A statue to Nafhnn Hale 

— consideit'd one of the 

most spirite<l and stitis- 

faetory in the eity — 

stands at the south-west 

corner of the Park, 

facing limadway, calmly 

surveying the unceasing 

turmoil (»f traffic as it 

rolls by. 

Near the City Hall Park 
in the centre of which stands 


is Printing House Scpiare, an i)i)cn si)aee 
statue of Itenjamin Fninklin, unmoved 
by presidential combats or municipal strife, heedless of the oi)eniti(ms of 
" beiii-s " and " bulls," and deaf to the appeals of the pnifcssional 
inter\-iewer. Around this limited space, within easy hail of each other, 
are published the Times, Ti ibnne. Sun, Jottniul, and JFoi-ld, whilst 
within a qiiarter of a mile several daily and weekly papers in foreign 



is (I|M'I1 


re lAsucd. The cujmla of the Wi 

visitors, XcwsjiiipiTs iirc iiliiiost us 

ly poss, 



I licanl of 

to bo 

rhl. a Huo lofty building, 
immorons as iii Paris, and 
lie M'hirh, oil the first <lay 
of piibH<-utif>n, 
loiitained a let- 
ter signed " An 
old subseriWr," 
I must eon- 
fess t<i 11 fireat 
with the daily 
iiewspn])er jiress 
of the Tiiitod 
States. I found 
ill iimeh of it 
little til interest, 
to instriiet 
and edify, and 
iiuK-li to thor- 
oiifjhly disgust ; 
there seems to 
In' an iiisjitiable 
<raviiig for the 
teirible ; many 
issues are little 
better than lit- 
erary ehanilK'rs 
of hoiToiv ; ae- 
couiits of mur- 
deis, nibberies, 

•■\V(iKi.i>" ANt) "tkiiunk" okfhks. and eriminal 

; fill eolumns ; the more desperate and revolting, the greater the 

of sensational head lines ; private dnmestie affairs, whieh ought 

deempil sjiered, are nithlessly dnigged into light, in parallel 

and witli the suiiu- detailed deseription. as the minute aeeoimts 

A'Fiv yonK fp.iri ij. 

of the most abominable enmes, the most rovoltiug being sure of the 
largest type available. I hrcmght a number of speeimeus home, but 
refleeti(m deeidetl me to consign them to the flames. It is, however, 
(mly fair to say that almost every edueatcd American, to M'hom I lunned 
the uowspapoi-s, is h("artily ashamed of a hirge iioi-tion of the daily press, 
the shameless and offensive character of wliiih ought to ciisiirc its 
exclusion from the the homes of all sclf-n'spccting citizens. 

Sonic, of coui-sc, arc much \vor.-<(' tlian others, hut, with few excep- 
tions, they all more or less feed a morbid appetite with iin\vhole,><nme food. 

And the .-'ize of tlie neA^'spapei-s is i-emarkable ; how can so nineh 
litcratnri' \w brought forth at siu'h lr)\v prices ? I suppose only by the 
gi-eat extent of the advertising columns. The protit <m the Hundiiy 


editions, which in many oases are at least double the size of the 
week-day publications, can only come fi'oni the advertisements. I was 
told that some of the largest issues, such as the Easter Herald, sell for 
less than the cost of the unprinted paper. What the advertiser wants is 
circulation, ** the gi-eatest circulation in tin* world ; '' the only thing he 
cares about is the number of Headers ; it is the publicity he buys, and 
so long as ^* tli(» p(»ople love to have it so," Anil thcTC be f(mnd journals 
of th(» baser smt, full not <mlv of what is trivial and doubtful, but 
pandering to dangerous and (»vil passions, in order to expand the 
circulation, by which means alon<» can many of them hope to live. 

Not far oif, at th(^ parting of th(» ways, the* motley pile of the 
Post Otticv real's its hugi* bulk; liroadway stiu^ches northward, on its 
west sid(N and to the* right. Park Row leads at an angle to (liatham 
Square*. Tlu* huiTyiug and nisliing of jjedc^strians and the turmoil of 
traffic licrc is almost in(l(\<cribablc. .Vbout 2,')0() men are employtnl in 
till* New York Post OfHcc, in tlic collection of the !)00,()(M),()0() letters, 
ii(»wsj)ai)ei's, &('., liau<ll(Ml at this office aninially. The avi^rage receipts |Kn' 
year are about :jn,00(),()()(), and the* i^xiM^ndituri* §2,000,000, leaving a nett 
profit of §4,000,000. 

Close by is the Tiinpft building, gnnully beautiful in architwture, 
and notabh* in construction, sinc(* th(» ohl building, which it replaced, was 
not taken down nor the work of its (M-cupants intiTruptcMl, while the new 
walls rose ar(mn<l and far above th(^m. 

Till* Tombs is th<^ nicknanu* of the city prison ; its Egyptian 
architecture suggestinl tin* significant name. A police court is held daily 
in the front pait of tin* building ; sometimes as many as a hundred 
cas(»s come before the magistrates in one day. One magistrate, Recorder 
Goff, I noticed from the reports, seemed to havc^ the faculty of almost 
always giving unsiitisfactory decisions. Some* castas are of coui*se serious, 
othei-s uninteresting, a few humorous, as for example the following 
reported in one of the papers : — 

Irish Wit. — An Irisli witnoss was being: exainine<l as to his knowledge of 
a shooting affair. *' Did you see the shot fired?" the magistrate asked. ** No, 
sorr. I only heard it.'' was the evasive reply. '*Tliat evidence is not satisfactory'," 
replied the magistrate sternly — *• stand down ! ■' The witness turned round to 
leave the box. and directly his back was turned he laughed derisively. The 

XJiW rORK fPail I J. 

magistrate, mdignnnt at thiB contempt nf court, called hitu bock, and attked hint 
hon- ho dni-pd to laugh in court. "Did yo see mc laugh, your honour?" queried 
the offender. "No, eii-, but I hrarJ you," whs the irate replj-. "That e\-idencR 
is not satisfactoiy," said I'nt quietly, but with n twinklo in his eve. And this 
lime even-body laughed except the ningistratc. 
Bosco's iim-emitfing response to the tniinpct call of duty left me 

leisure to peregrinate some of the more notable and interesting parts of 

the city. Madison Square, at one angle of which our hostel, the 

Bruns^vick, is 

situated, is in 

the centre of the 

hotel district. 

Here Broadfl^ay 

slants across 

Fifth Avenue, 

making an open 

paved plaza; 

one of the most 

animated points 

of New York, 

especially is it 

crowded in the 

afternoon, when 

the shopping 

and pleitsuro 

seeking people 

fi-om np town 

meet the busi- 
ness population 

fi-oni down town 

at these cross 

i-oads. In the 

centre of the 

square is a small 

park about six 

acres in extent. 



Its trees have jn'own until their thick foliage* makes a welcome shade in 
summer for nui'ses and children and idlers of cv(»r\' class who seek its 
shelter from th<^ hurning rays of X\\v scorchin*: sun. A nohle fountain 
occupies the middle of the square ; at one* comer is a sitting statue of 
William TI. Seward, a once famous Secretary of State, calmly watching 
the ehl) and flow of the river of life ; at another corner of the park is 
Gauden's statue of FaiTagut, a popular naval hero, mnsidcnul the most 
artistic piece of sculpture in the city. 

Continuing, tlu* pedestrian crosses in front of the famous Fifth 
Avenue Hotel. Half a centurv a<xo it was the site of a diminutive* vellow 
tavern, and (mce a fanner's cottage ; 00 yc^ai^s since it was the objective 
point for what was then a long walk into tlu* fields ; now there stands 
a dignified edifice of white marhU', capahle of housing 1000 guests. Its 
spacious comdors are filled in the evening with politicians, <hiefly of the 
Bepublican party, and it is a favourite stopping place for officials and 
public men. TrocccHling, we enter that portion f>f Fifth Avenui* given 
up to trade. Picture and book stores arn^st our attention, and especially 
Scribner's, a name well known in ]*]ngland to all readers of American 
literature. In the treasurv of this literarv store an* to b(» found oriffinal 
editions of priceless value ; the price of the wisdom tluTcof is above 
rubies. Then the windows of several shops devoted to ])ott(*ries, bric-a-brac 
and Japanese goods attract our eyes ; here is tlu* stately and well 
appointed store of Messrs. Arnold Constable & Co. with its vast wealth 
of textile and otluT treasures, which, on the invitation of one of the 
principal partners, we had the pleasure of inspc^cting ; many pianoforte 
dealers and organ builders find a home* in this locality. 

Entering Union Square we find a broad paved space, called the 
Plaza, bordering the northern, the (pik^test, side ; at times illuminated at 
night by picturesque rows of lamps along the curbing. Here military 
parades and outdoor meetings, especially those called by labour agitators, 
often occur, and in summer a flower market is held evcTv morning from 
5 to 8 o'clock. Overlooking this plaza are the windows of the Century 
and St. Xicholas editorial rooms. 

South of Union Square runs the busy line of 14 th Street, where 
several fine shops are conspicuous, in front of which stands a grand 

NEW FORK (Part I), .35 

equestrian statue of George Washington. Against this end of the square 
breaks the whole traffic current of Broadway, to swerve to the west of 
it, and sweep in an augmented well-nigh resistless tide along its further 
side, where 14th Street adds largely to the living stream. Here, Avhere 
the crowd is densest, is placed Browne's bronze statue of Abraham 
Lincoln, seated in the chair of state, with the* emancipation proclamation 
in his hand — erected by popular subscription soon after his assassination. 

In Union Square is Tiffany's, the world-famed storehouse for jewels, 
sih^r-work, and articles of veitu ; I was sorely tempted, and have seldom 
felt more the inconvenience of being poor. At this point we enter upon 
what is known as the '' ladies' half mile," within whose limits are found 
the great Oriental bazaar of Vantine & t-o., and Sloane's carpet warehouse 
which interested me greatly. I fonned the opinion that American made 
carpets are superior in design and beauty of colouring to ours, whatever 
they may be in quality. In the Gorham Silver Company's windows were 
exhibited many beautiful works (^f art, notably a number of exquisitely 
designed cups, the victors' trophies in many a yachting and other contest. 
Art furniture and upholstery are displayed in the immense establishments 
of Hertz Brothers and Lord & Taylor; and groceries, made up in their 
most attractive form, make a brave show in the big store of Park & 
Tilford ; and last, but far from least, show rooms for fashionable costumes 
and marvellous millinerv abound. 

At night the " ladies' half mile '' is fairly ablaze with gas and 
electricity — massed in parterres of light at the square, and stretching 
away into a sparkling perspective, making 14th Street as light as the 
day. The shop windows an^ brilliant with jewels, fniit, flowers, cut 
glass, paintings, potteries, and gay merchandise of every sort, into which 
knots of people gaze, and then give plac<» to others as they on to the 
next, whilst himdreds, nay, thousands of gleaming lamps throw their 
bright rays on a dense throng of lively people. 

The up town portion of Fifth Avenue is the Belgravia of the 
American metropolis, the centre of its fashion and splendour, the home 
of its merchant princes. I saw New York's grandest Avenue from the 
modest elevation of the roof of one of the '^ stages." This magnificent 
thoroughfare is lined with costly domiciles, the homes of unknown wealth 


and splendour, possessing marked beauty of arehiteetural design, gorgeous 
club houses, churches noted for their bt^iiitv, comfort, and the rich variety 
of their rare architecture. 

The peculiar shape and conditions of Manhattan Island; the desire 
of the people in or near '' society " to dwell close together ; the fact 
that the majority of New Yorkei's an* men of business and must live 
near it ; and the extreme costliness of desirable land, have combined to 
make Xew York a compact city, several stories high, rather than a wide 
spreading accumulation of single houses as are Cleveland and Philadelphia. 
In those parts of the city where the poor congregate, because they can 
go nowhere else, blocks of '' tenement '' houses, as high as the law will 
permit, cover many square miles of the surface. At the other extreme, 
men, whose large incomes equable th(*m to choose* which way they will 
live, elect to do the same thing, only they make their tenement houses 
convenient and luxurious, and call them ** apartments."' It is not so 
much a matter of taste as it is one of room, and, to sonu» degree, the 
saving of expense, though this is not considerable, since in the most 
expensive apartment houses as high as ^600 a month may be j)aid for 
a single suite, while from ,^^200 to §oO() a mimtli is common. 

The t(*niis '* apartment house '' and '* flat '' must, however, be 
distinguished. The former means a suite of rooms without a kitchen or 
any means of regular cof)kiiig, the occupants taking their meals in 
restaumnts, hotels, or elsewhere*. In a flat a kitchen and every convenience 
for housekeeping are included. lii a flat your Avhoh* home is on one 
l^»yel — which is a decidinl advanta<^e — and the noises made bv vour 
neighbours reach you from above and l)elow, instead of through the 
partition walls, which may or may not be an advantage, according as 
you look at it. 

Some of these apartments are vast and magnificent ; grand stone 
portals, massive oaken dooi's, stately vestibules, panelled with rare marbles, 
foretell of the luxury within. These buildings are usually fireproof, and 
generally include a reception I'oom, or at any rate a little oflScc* at the 
entrance, and a manservant to annemnce visitors, and attend to the door ; 
elevators are provided, and each suite (»f rooms has a hallway of its 
own, opening upon the stairway and elevator, so that quite as much 

NEW FORK (Pari Ij. 

privacy is maintained as in a separate house. Oiu" letters of introduction 
gave us the entree to homes located in these " apartment*) " or " flats," 
and we found the system universally praised. 

An invitation to dinner in Brookhii gavt^ us oiu- only opportunity 
of viewing and ei-ossiug the East River Bridge. This marvellous highway 
connects New York and Brooklj-u, and is one of the very finest 
engineering achievements in the world. The walk across is delightful, 
seats arc scattered along the broad promenade, on which one may rest 


whilst enjoying the view ; a double track cable raili-oad canies the largest 
number of persons wh<i cross the bridge, computed at not less thau 
100,(KIO daily ; there is also a drive for vehicles going to Brooklj-n on 
the south side, and a conx'sponding one on the north for those coming 
into Xew York. Tlu^ lower part of the towers is solid, then they are 
hollow up to the base of the great arches, 119 feet high; the arches 
rise 117 feet higher, and the capstones are 271 feet above the water. 


The massive masijiirv aiiehoraj^es, 127 feet high, and 111) feet \ride, 
containing the aiTangenient of iron bars to which tlie ends of the cables 
are fastened, are USO feet behind each tower. It is the weight and 
holding power of these anchorages that sustain the bridge, the towers 
really doing little more service than to elevate it at a sufficient height. 

Tlie cables are not twisted like ropes, but consist of 0,434 separate 
galvanized stec^ wires, (12 feet to the pound) whicli were drawn over, 
two at a time, and laid sid(» by side as tnie to thr [jroper curve of 
tlu» intended cable as possible. Then, by a careful and ing(»ni(ms method, 
these wir(»s were forced into a close and even round bundle, and doselv 
wound with other wire like the thread on a spool. Each finished cable 
is 3,578 feet long, loj inches in diameter, and able to bear 12,200 tons 
in the middle of the sag. 

The apjn'oaches to the bridge are massivi* arches of masonry, with 
here and there steel truss-bridges si)anning the strei^ts. The total length 
is 1^ miles; the length b(»tweeu the towers KoUo feet; the ^vidth 
8o feet; the height above tin* water, in the c(»ntr(\ loo fin^t. It took 
thiitec^n years to comph^ti*, and 1 have seen stati*ments of the cost varying 
from ^in,(MIO,()()0 to ^20,(MM),()0(). 

We may forget the sight (►f lirooklyu Bridge by night, with its 
noble span set with a Hashing line of electric brilliants, studded here and 

there with enuTalds of siifety or bright rubies (►f warning. We may 
forget the harbcmr with its moving and many coloured lantiTus of the 
feny boats and shipjiing ; the thousands of street lamps glistening, and 
the tall buildings illuminated from basement to attic, but we cannot 
forget our charming host(»ss, nor will the recollection of one of our 
pleasantest evenings in the States fade away while memory lasts. 

l^TEW FORK (Pari II). 39 


HE long narrow shape of Manhattan Island, on Avhich New York 
stands, with its crowded and rapidly increasing population, and 
the constant enlargement of the purely connnercial area, compels the great 
mass of travel to be back and forth over the same thoroughfares ; all 
day long the public conveyances are crowded, and in the morning and 
at night they are frightfully overcrowded. The two principal methods of 
tmnsit are the elevated railways and the surface cars. 

The system of elevated railways, which carry trains of cars di'awn 
by steam locomotives, consists of four main double-track lines, and a few 
short branches ; th(*se trains run at intervals of one or two minutes, or 
even less during the busi(»st hours of moniing and evening. Care should 
be taken to noti* the sign at the foot of the station stairs which informs 
passengers whether th(» station is for uj) or down trains ; but if they 
forget, and find themselves on the wrcmg side, they will be passed in 
free at the opposite station if they explain the case to the gate man 
where the mistake is made. The fare on all these elevated railroads, and 
for all distances, is five cents. A ticket must be bought at the booking 
office, and thrown into the gate man's glass '' cho])per '' box at the 
entrance to the platform, this siives all examination and collection of tickets. 

My experience was exclusively confined to a part of the track 
running ahmg the Sixth Avenue, chiefly fi'om Franklin to about 116th 
Street. This is indeed a lively thoroughfare ; up above, the trains pass 
and re-pass at short intervals; engines snort and scream, and bells clang 
incessantly ; immediately below is a double tram line for the cable cars, 
which follow eacjh other with amazing rapidity, whilst between the outer 
pillars of the elevated road and the densely crowded side walks, there is 
a roadway for carriages and other vehicles dra\ra by hoi'ses. The roar 
of London is as the munnur of a shell compared with the thunder of 



New York, atid C'hcapsido and tlip Strand art* quiet lauos in contrast to 
Broadway and other main tlioruuglifarcs. Xow York suroly must be the 
noisiest city in the worhl. The line, us it tunis through Mnn-ay Street, 
makes, it is said, the sliaii>est railway curve in the world. At 1-tth 
Street you alight for JIacr's famous liazaar, where you are sure to get 
good value, if not liargains, for your money. Ijidies crowd the platform 
here, and also at the 18tli Strwt station, a little further on, which is 
near the busiest sUopiiing districts uj' Sixth Avenue and Broadway; Union 


Square is close at hand. Proceeding, we puss the new, beautiful, and 
unique building of the Ilerahl ue\vsi«q)er, s;iid to be the best ai)i»ointed 
of its khid in the country. Its press room is visible to the public, and 
everi" evening the gi'cat Hue machines may be seen at work by anyone, 
who chooses to look thi'ough the windows. 

As the Harlem trains turn westward, several magnificent hotels 
and apartment houses are passed at a short distance, and on the right 

NEW FORK (Pari II). 41 

glimpses are got of the Central Park. From 93rd to 104tli Street the 
stations are surrounded by costly and elegant houses built within the past 
few years. The track at this point is considerably above the pavement, 
and at 110th Street it turns eastward up Eighth Avenue upon an iron 
trestle bridge, said to have amazed Count de Lesseps as an example of 
audacious engineering. The ground is low here and the tmck is carried 
across it on a level with the fifth story windows of the houses. 

The surface cat's, which consist of horse cars and cable cars, are 
an old institution in New York, doing ([uite as large a business as they 
did before the overhead rails were built ; thc^ fare evervwherc is 5 cents. 
In a report recently issued by tlie New York Metropolitan Company it 
is stated that the Company possesses 104 miles of track. When the 
system was worked by horses the cost was seventy per cent, of the gross 
receipts. The substitution of the elei^tric cable has reduced it to fifty- 
four per cent., while luider the favourable levels of liroadway the cost 
has been reduced to thirty-eight per cent. 

These street cars, passing in close and endless procession, furnish 
a fine field for the study of human nature. The conductor is a man of 
many sorroAVS ; from the rising of the sun nnto the going down of the 
same, and not infrequinitly for hours later, he knows trouble, and some- 
times a good deal of it. lie is sworn at by men, nagged at by 
women, and Avatched by unknown ''spotters'' of the Company. The fares 
must all be collected. When ti'avel is light, or the car is comfortably 
full, to pass from one end to the other and collect from each passenger 
the customary nickel is a compamtively pleasant undertaking, and the 
conductor then perfonns his duty with an easy off-hand grace that excites 
the envy of men less fortunately situated in life. I Jut Avhen 110 human 
beings squeeze and are squeezed into a receptacle originally intended for 
eighty, the conductor's job is no sinecure, for, besides collecting diligently 
in order that no one may defraud the Company of its hard earned cash, 
he must shove through the crowd with cautious vigilance lest he step 
on some man's pet com or spoil some woman's best hat ; he must watch 
to see who gets on and who wants to get off ; he must keep an 
accurate tab on his register ; he must look out for the streets at 
which he has been told to stop, and he must, on suspicion of being 


considered and sometimes called a robber, give every one the correct 

It is a peculiarity of people who travel on street cars that they 
are always wanting to get off, and the unlucky conductor, while gathering 
the Company's hanest at the front end, is not infrequently dismayed by 
the spectacle* of thrive or four passeiij^ers tumbling off the rear platform, 
having gone as far as they desired and then jumped off without the 
formality of reporting thtar pn^senee or casli to tli(^ conductor. 

Of all his passengers, h(» has most trouble* with women and children. 
Men seuiii to ai>preciate something of tlu* value of time and hop on and 
off Avitli as much expeditiou as possibh*. But the ladies rarely appear 
to have tli(» slightest idea of tlu^ fact that the ear must arrive at its 
destination some time in the course* of the (hiy, and after it has stopped 
for their benefit will exchange* kiss(*s and good-byes with half-a-dozen of 
their acquaintances, while* the miserable conductor with his hand em the 
bell rope, and mindful e)f the overhauling he will have at the office if 
behinel time, waits for the^m to ge^t through. If he venturers modestly to 
insinuate that time is tle*eting he is scowlenl upon by the angry fe»minines, 
who inelignantly, anel with wrath eh'picte^l on the*ir eounte*nance^s, tell e»ach 
other what brutes the^ e-oiuluctors all are on this line, anel how this 
partie*ular e*onducte)r ought to be re*porteel for his insolemce. 

The^'e is one class of men who give* the* condue'ten* alme)st as nuich 
trouble as his women passengers, anel those are* the* me*n who cherish the 
idea that thev e)wn the* road. Thev are* known afar off, to be^th e-oneluctor 
and motorman, by their haughty manner of signalling the car te> stop. 
Thev enter with an air e>f authoritv and lueik about te> see he>w best they 
can elemonstrate tlie*ir e>wnership e)f the e*ntire pro})erty. If the* windows 
are all cle)sed, e»ne* of the'se te*rrors makes the* remark that the conductor 
never knows how to ventilate a e*ar properly ; if they are all open, he closes 
the one by which he is seated, meantime e)bserving that if the conductor 
had any sense he would know that windows e)ught not to be left open 
on such a dav as this. (Tcnerallv, however, he de)es not e*nter the car 
at all, but stands on the back platform, and tells the ce^iiducte)r and other 
interested pei*sons how the road ought to be run, and how he would 
run it, if he had it. The fact that he knows nothing about the subject 

NEW YORK (Part II), 43 

on which he dilates cuts no figure at all (it seldom does with men who 
can tell how to manage other business than their own), but the flow 
of his eloquence is not in the least dammed by his ignorance, but 
continues unintenoipted from the time he gets on until the time when 
he gets ofE. 

The entire system of trams carries over six hundred thousand 
passengers a day. Intolerable OA'crcrowding is the rule rather than the 
exception. Passengers are compelled to squeezi^ into cars and hang by 
sti*aps and be jammed together on front and rc^ar platfonns, or else make 
their journey afoot. Men and woiiu*n are jostled and thrown by sudden 
stops and starts of the car, at the inuninent risk of a(;cident or injury 
to health, while life itself is endangered by such rapid curve swinging 
through a crowded thoroughfare as is sei^n at Union S([uan\ 

I was much struck by the contrast of treatment and fre([uent 
want of courtesy sIicami to ladies in these cars and in an elevator. For 
example : — all men, unless ill-mannered, remove their hats in the presence 
of the dear creatiu'es in an elevator ; in a crowd(Ml tram car, it is (juite 
a common thing to see numbers of women, young, middle-aged and old 
(some very unable to stand), grasping a strap and swaying bactkwards 
and forwards with every motion of the car, for the greater part of the 
journey ; and it is the exception for a male passenger to olt'er his seat. 
I thought this an anomaly. '' Circe,'' said the lecturer, as you no doubt 
remember, '^ turned men into hogs.'' '* I m onder if she did it by 
starting a street car line?" nnised the woman who had hung to a strap 
all the way to the hall. 

The number of deaths resulting from accidents in connection with 
surface cars is woful ; I was told at a low computation two per day. 
I have before me a coi^y of the Herald of April 28rd, from which I 
make the following abbreviated extracts : — 



THE " S 



Cable Car ('rashes Into a Horse ( ar 
cm the Deadly Union 8([uare Tracks. 


Grijnnan Says the Lookout Signalh^d 
to Go Ahead Whieli the Latter Denies 


A siiiasliu]> <K-<iiiTe<l on tli»^ ** S '' turvr of 
tliH Broadway <a)>l«» liue at I'niou s<juaiM» eveuiufc. The cahh* car kiHH-ktMl a cross 
town line car ovf»r. Passeujj^ei-s on tht* ca]>l<* 
car were badly iiiixfMl u]). Th»* driver was 
hurt ahout the* spin*^. 

Cable car No. Sol was goiuj^ \i\t town at 
ten minutes to seven o'chn-k. It was lille^l 
with i)assenjrci-s, some of whom wen* lump- 
ing on to the sti*a]>s. Th(» rear jdatfonn was 
also crowded. 

The gripman of tlie car was Tliomas A. 
( ook. 

('o<jk h't liis car shoot aheatl wlien he re- 
ceiv<*d the signal from the ** hjokout." It 
went s])inning ai*ound tlie tii*st < im'e of tlie 
*'»S.'' As it nmnded going west he notice<l 
a ei'osstown car going east across the tracks. 

It was too late to avoid a collision. Before 
the gni>mau could rel^-ase the grij) and 
throw on the bmke tlie cable car craslu*<l 
into the forward end of the hoi*se car. Tlie 
driver of the car, Janu»s Kennedv, was 
hurled several feet to the west side of tlie 
track and stnick on his back. The horse 
car was turned over on its si<le. Th<» releast^l 
horses dashed up Broadway, (ieorge I^im- 
l)hit*r, the c<mductor of the hoi*se car, jumjunl 
before the collision came. 

ITie dashboard of the cable car bent up 
like so much i)aper, pinning Cook against 
the frtmt of the car. The men and women 
l>a8seugei*s were hurh*d against one another 
with gn*at forte. The windows of both cars 
were shattei-ed. The women on the cable 
car screamed and a coujile of them became 
hystencal. The cable line was bbx-ked for 
half an hour. 



Xanu^s of Peter Falkm and Joseph 

Dorsey Added to Brooklyn's 

liong List. 


Young Doi-siT, Phiying in the Street, 

Jumped Before a Fast 

Moving Car. 


Two more names were added yesterday to 
the list of victims killed by the Brooklyn 
trolley. Joseph Dorsev, twelve years old, 
was hori-ibly mangled in Hamilton avenue 
by a car of the Prosin^-t l*ark and (.'onev 
Ishuul roa<l. and Peter Fallon, a switchman 
employee] by the Que(»n's (/ountv and Sub- 
urban road, was crusheil to death at his jKwt 
by a Fulton street car. 

Young l)oi-sey is the 143d victim of the 

The car was moving at a rajnd rate, and 
the motonnan did not have time to even 
ch^K^-k its spenl before it crushed the boy. 
The little victim rolled under the car and 
was draggt^l for nearly half a }»lock before 
the car was stop])e<l. The boy's body wa« 
crush iMl by a forwanl wheel. 

peter Fallon, a switchman in the employ 
of the Hi-ookK-n, Queens County and Subur- 
ban Eailroad ('ompany, while at work at 
Fulton str(»et and Shepherd avenue, at one 
o'cliM-k yesterday morning, was struck by a 
car of th(* Fulton street line and received 
injuries that resultcnl in his death a few 
hours later in St. John's Hospital. 

Agnes Kay, six years <dd, of No. 537 
Baltic sti*eet, was run into by car No. 3,223 
of the Third avenue line, at Thinl avenue 
and Baltic street, at about six o'cl<K*k laftt 
evening. She fell under the car fender. She 
suffered no more injure- than severe bruises, 
however, and was taken home. 

NEW FORK (Part II). 45 

These are simply specimens, and remembering that these accidents 
are of almost daily occurence, one can understand the uncertainty 
underlying the query : — '' You have friends in Brooklyn, have'nt you ? '' 
and the doubt involved in the answer : — '^ I don't know, the trolley is 
still in working order, you knoAV." These surface cars and trolleys are 
indeed sadly too often veritable '' Cars of Juggernaut." 

Our only Sunday in Xew York found us twice attending the 
*' means of grace." St. Thomas', probably the most fashionable up-town 
Episcopal C!hurch, in the Fifth Avenue and 53rd Street, attracted us to 
Matins. The building is stately, well proportioned, and well built, and, 
architecturally, contains, to me, novel features ; a broad nave separated 
from the side aisles by the usual arcades is continued by an irregular 
sided octagon, terminating in a deep apse fonning the sanctuary ; the 
altar, considerably elevated, and adorned with the largest bouquets of 
flowers I ever saw — fullv three feet diamet(T — can b(» sc^en from anv 
point ; the reredos is a special feature ; — a bold Latin cross, in strong 
relief, 10 to 12 feet high, carved out of solid stone, occupies the 
centre ; angels cluster round the shaft and hover around the cross bar ; 
paintings by La Farge fill the suiTounding panels — these* appeariMl to b(\ 
and I believe are, A^erv beautiful. Manv, if not all, of the Avindows are 
enriched with excellent modern stained glass. 

A broad, lofty, and imposing flight of st(*ps leads up to the 
sacrarium ; a twin organ of large size, admirable alike in the qualitv 
and variety of its tones, is placed at tlu* north -i^ast and south-cnist sides 
of the octagon ; in the angh^s in frcmt an* the singers, but suiTounding 
curtiiins prevent anything more than their In^ids being seen ; the* music 
we thought beautiful, solemn and impressive ; the hymn, a kind of 
paraphrase on the 23rd Psalm, written by Addison, if I remember 
rightly, beginning — 

" Tlip liOrfl my pasturo shall prepare, '' 

a great favourite in my boyhood, but strangely omitted from most modem 
collections, was appropriately sung, it being the 2nd Sunday after Easter, 
or " Good Shepherd Sunday. " Other musical features of the service were 
the repetition on the organ alone* of the final '' Alleluia " in '' Sing 
Alleluia," after the vocal chords had ceased, and also a short organ 


interlude bc^foro the singing of tho last vors(* in eavh of tho hymns — ^a 
ven' general jmietiee in my yontli. 

Th(^ sennon, from the Rector, Dr. Morgjin, was an excellent one, 
being based upon the introdnctoiy words of the Epistle for the day : — 
'' Jesns sai<l, 1 am tlie Oood Shepherd/' The priMielier made an eloquent 
and persuasive* ai)i)eal for ^2,oO(L to hv used for sending i)oor children 
from the unwholesome atmosphi^e of the slums to th(» fresh breezes 
blowing on the XeAv Jc^rsey coast, there to gather rainbow coloured 
shells that gleam in the* sunshine, whilst th(\v cool their tired young 
f(»et amid the* gentle ripph* of mimic waves, listening awhile to the faint 
munnur <»f the AvatcT that conies 'twixt ebb and flow, whilst all is 
tranquil, as on Elysiau shores, or r(»p(»ating the still unanswered cpiestion 
of dear little Paul — ** What are the wild wav(»s saying?'' — as they 
hearken to the* Avild, profound, eternal bass of Nature's Anthem as it is 
borne shoreward by th(* tiiTce, foaming, bursting tide. 

1 was much imi)ressed with the* advantage of paper money dnring 
the offertorv — a dollar is the least that can be given or von are at 
fince spotted ; few people think of giving silver. I should say from my, 
of course limited, observation, that American congregations do not offer 
to the Lord of that which has cost them nothing, but they give M^illingly 
and of their b(\st ; they plank down their notes fairly and s(juarely, and 
never seek to hide by sl(»ight of hand the poverty of the gift. 

A considerable and interesting newspaper correspondence in connection 
with this church was going on whilst we were in the States, from which 
I gathered that Dr. ^lorgan, pressed by the extra duties of Lent, had 
not time to prepare* a sermon for luistcr-day, and prcaclu^d (me composed 
by a Eev. Mr. Lee. This irate divine, instead of feeling honoured that 
Dr. Morgan used his earthen vessel Avherein to caiTV external treasure to 
his flock, proceeded to publicly expose the plagiarism of his *' dear 
brother.'" But he had not long to wait for punishment, which in this 
case seemed exactly to flt the crime. He was soon accused of precisely 
the same sin, a Rev. Mr. Phelps in turn charging ^Ir. Lee with having 
stolen the first stanza of the Class Ode of Yale Class of 'To from a poem 
of his father's, and comparison justified the charge. It seems amazing that 
a man whose hands were not clean should make an accusation of this kind 

NEW YORK fPnrt IfJ. 47 

against a brother clergyman. If I remember right Scripture^ recommends 
that when one Christian l)rother detects another in a fault, h(^ shall go 
to him privately ; no suggestion of xmting to newspapers. 

Amongst the many contending letters I saw, I quote from one, 
because with this extract I entirely concur : — 

IN defp:noe of dr. morgan. 

Criticism of the ('ourse Takex by the Rev. Mr. Lee. 

To THE Editor of the Herald : — 

The controversy over the propriety of the Rev. Dr. Morgan preaching a 
sermon composed by another prompts the following suggestion : — The sermon was 
written by a servant of the Lord as a message containing God's Word to sinners 
for their eternal welfare. The ideas are not the property of any man. 

Dr. Morgan, in the discharge of his sacred duties, preached to his flock, 
clothing his ideas in words formerly used by another for similar purposes. A\Tiy 
should a brother, or any well disposed person, object to the use of that semion 
without acknowledging th(» author? It was written and sold for just such use 
as Dr. Morgan made of it, and in preaching and publishing it at Easter time 
he spoke thp Woi-d of (xod to the (Christian world. 

A good act. Why blame him for that ? A brother minister should exercise 
Christian charity. His office requires him to preach to all men. The complaint 
against Dr. Morgan manifests the envy and weakness of human nature, even in 
men ordained to admonish by precept and example. 

WTiat good can r(»sult from tlip Rev. Mr. Tree's course? N()Uf». What 
harm ? Great scandal, by holding a minister of the gospel up to public ridicule. 
Such complaints injure tlie faith of mnny. Can any man undo the wrong and 
injury occasioned by such scandal in a long lifdinie nf laborious ctt'ort ? 

These opinioDS, I should judge, an* the expressions of a layman, 
but whether hiy or ek^rie, they appear to me the opinicms of a 
thoughtful and sensible man. 

Several other fashionable plaees of worship are in the immediate 
neighbourhood of St. Thomas', so that a grand ehureh parade after service 
constitutes an inevitable, and, to some portion of the congregations, the 
more attractive fimction. There is no doubt that here is to be sch^u the 
best that the wealth and beauty of Xew York can shew — the costumes 
and dress of the ladies (some divinely tall, almost all good figures, with 
that piquant charm of manner and varied fascination inseparable from 
the educated American woman) which, whilst they baffle any description 


I can give, still leave ine eoiiscious that '' Sheba's Quch^u '' and '" Solomon 
in all his glory was not aiTayed lik(» on<* of these/' 

The Dutch Eefonned Church possesses the oldc^st I'rotestant religious 
organization not only in Xcav York but in the Western Hemisphere. Its 
finest building, architecturally, is the Marble Collegiate Church, which, 
during our stay in Xew York, celebrated the 200th anniversary of the 
granting of its charter; it exhibits a wealth of study in its constructive 
and interior decorations. This church is rich in rare old relics, the 
most important being th(* charter, Avhich is carefully guarded. It is the 
first charter granted t(» any church in tliis city. On the sheets of yellow 
parchment are signatures of prominent nu»n of olden times, and the seal 
of King William 111. On one sidi^ of th<* s(»al is the coat of anns of 
the English King, and th(» other shows tAvo Indians kneeling at the feet 
of William and ^larv. The cliurch is possessed of verv Avealthv 

Being conveniently near our hotel, and tin* service not beginning 
imtil eiglit o'clock, liosco suggested \\\\ (»arly dinner, and having 
considerat(»ly sacrific(»d his usual cigiir nnd glass of ** fine old crusted,'' 
we found oui*s(»lv(»s at tlu* ^farblc Coll(*giat(* in good Xmw. We were 
met at the entrance by one of the junior ministers, who, after enquiring 
(mr nanu^s and addr(»ss(»s, made us at onc(» f(»el W(* were not strangers, 
if pilgrims, but W(»lc(nn(* and at home, by c(»urt(»ously conducting us to 
seats, Withcmt (encouraging anything like conversation insifh our churches, 
could not som(»tliing more be done to let strang(»rs f(H»l that they are 
welconu' to our services ? I know XYa^rv are dangers ; nothing (*an be 
more reprehensible* than th(» conv(»rsion of (Tod's into a place for 
mothiVs meetings. 

The preacher was the principal minist(T, Dr. liurrell ; the address, 
more a le(*ture than a sennon, was interesting, subj(H*t : — ''A Singing 
Pilgrim, Charles Wesley, the SingcT of Epworth." 1I(» placed '* Wrestling 
Jacob,'' '* The hamnuT of His word,'' and '' Ji^su Iovct of my scml,'' as 
the highest levels of his hynniody, placing the crown immortal on the 
last — with this I think most people will agive. 

The aiTangeuKmts for ccmducting ser\ic(* W(*r(» unlike in ever}* 
particular those to which an Anglican Churchman is accustomed. Com- 

NEW YORK (Part II). 49 

fortable seats — too luxurious, perhaps — are ranged on a floor sloping 
downwards until it ends at a raised platform, on which, each behind a 
desk, three ministers stand or sit; behind them is the organist, who 
from a console plays by electric action the magnificent organ standing 
in the opposite or end gallerj\ He is supported by a single quartette 
of vocalists, two ladies and two gentlemen, all thoroughly efficient ; the 
contralto charmed me no less Anth hor splendid voice than with her 
dignified beauty — but it must not be supposed that the singing was 
professional, it was congregational and hearty. 

During the ofFertorj' the following hymn was sung by the choir 
as an anthem ; I know of no collection in which it can be foimd ; its 
inherent beauty, I think, justifies its printing here : — 

*'TnE Mellow Eve." 

The mollow eve is gliding 

Serenely down the West ; 
80, even' care subsiding, 

Mv soul would sink to rest. 

The woodland hum is ringing 

The daylight's gentle close ; 
May angels 'round mo singing 

Thus h>Tnn my last repose. 

The evening star has lighted 

Her crj'stal lamp on high ; 
So, when in death benighted. 

May hope illume the sky. 

In golden splendour dawning 

The morrow's light shall break, 
0, on that last bright morning 

May T in glors' wake ! — Holdfu, 

After service the junior minister brought Dr. Bun-ell to speak to 
us. We retain pleasant memories of a profitable evening. 

The Church of the Holy Trinity, on the Broadway, rebuilt about 
60 years ago, is regarded as the Mother Church of New York ; it stands 
at the head of Wall Street, which, with its immediate surroundings, is 
the home of the great commercial wealth of the city. Within its walls 
millionaires have been taught that '^A good name is rather to be chosen 
than great riches," and thousands have heard that '^ Eighteousness exalteth 
a nation." The church is large and imposing ; the present rector. 
Dr. Morgan Dix, is able and popular, and the services, I heard, are 
bright and reverent. 


The land on which Trinity Church stands, was the old West 
India Company's Farm, before the conquest of Manhattan Island by the 
English; it then became the ''King's Farm," and in 1705 was granted 
to this, the Colonial CTiurch. Much of it was subsequently given away 
to institutions of various sorts, but enough remains to produce an income 
of ^500,000 annually ; this income is spent in maintaining '' Trinity " and 
six " Chapels of Ease," besides aiding many subsidiarj' missions and 
charities in various squalid paits of the city. Trinity churchyard is not 
only beautifid, but it is full of historic interest ; many of the graves 
go back to the 17th century. Of the monuments the most conspicuous 
is the Maityrs', erected by the Trinity Coii^oration in memor}' of the 
American patriots who died during the Eevolutionaiy war. Another 
prominent monument is to th(» mcmoiy of Captain Lawrence of the 
Chesapeake, whose dying cry, *' Don't give up the ship," is canned 
upon its pictured sides. 

Grace Church is erne of th(» most beautiful in tli(» citv ; it stands 
on Broadway, just whore the great thoroughfare* bends slightly westward ; 
it can be seen for a considerable distance* in both directions. Built of 
white limestone, it has all the effc^ot of marble : the* spire is of pure 
marble. The stvle is decorated Gothic, vcrv claboratclv earned cmt ; the 

• • • 7 

rector}' and adjoining buildings are harmoniously adaptcnl to it, whilst a 
prettv space of lawn and gardens, beautifully kept, makes a pleasing 
foregroimd to one* of the most gratifying architectiu-cil pictures in New 
York. The spire is particularly graceful, an<l contains a melodious chime 
of bells. The internal decorations and the windows are verv rich. A 


chantrv on the south side is used for dailv service. Grace Church shares 
with St. Thomas' the most fashionable* weddings in the city. 

But there is no church in Xew York at all comparable to the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Patiick, a glorious modem example of 
the decorated and geometric style of Gothic architecture which prevailed 
in Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries, and of which the cathedral 
of Cologne and the nave of Westminster are advanced exponents. Europe 
can boast of larger ones, but for purity of style, originality of design, 
harmony of proportions, beauty of material, and finish of workmanship, 
Xew York Cathedral stands unsurpassed. The plan is a Latin cross; 


NEW YORK (Part II}. 

above the granite baseeourse the whole exterior is of white marble. The 
principal front consists of a central gable, 156 feet in height, flanked by 
t\rin towers and spires. The towers rise square to 136 feet, where they 
change into oc- 
tagonal lanterns 
54 feet high, 
over which arc 
the spires, 140 
feet in height, 
making the total 
height of each 
tower and spiiv 
330 feet, termi- 
nating in a mag- 
nificent foliage 
finial carrj-ing 
i'i*osscs made of 
copper. The 
grand portal in 
the lower division 
of the eentitil 
gable has its 
jambs richly de- 
corated witli col- 
umns with foliage 
capitals, and ha,s 
clustered mould- 
ings with rich 
ornaments in the 
arch. The door 
is flanked on 
either side by 

buttresses terminating in panelled pinnacles. Above, a richly moulded 
Gothic jamb incloses a magnificent rose window, 26 feet in diameter, 
equalling those of the greatest cathedrals abroad. The main gable is carried 



up to the roof lines, and is veiled by a pierced screen of rich tracery, 
terminated by a cornice Avhich is crocketed. The interior is cruciform. 
The columns dividing the central aisle from the side aisles are of white 
marble, clustered to the height of 35 feet, where they are ornamented 
with foliated capitals. The arches between these columns rise to 54 feet. 
The ceiling, 77 feet from the floor, is groined vnth richly moulded ribs. 
The floor is largely occupied by pews which will seat about 2,500 
people, but broad aisles and spaces remain clear in which visitors may 
walk about freelv. 

The high altar was made in Italy aDd is of C'aiTara marble, inlaid 
with alabastei's and precious marbles. The front of the bottom part is 
divided into niches and ])anels ; the niches containing statues of the four 
Evangelists, the panels n^presenting in bas-reliefs the Last Supper, the 
CaiTving of the Cross, and the Agony in the Garden. The tabernacle 
is of marble, decorated with Koman mosiiics and has a door of gilt bronze 
set with emeralds and ganiets. The centre tower of the reredos has a niche 
containing a statue of our Lord, and the two flanking towers bear statues 
of St. Peter and St. Paul. 

Besides the high altar there is th(» altar of the Blessed Virgin, 
of Fn^nch stone*, standing at the* eastern end of the* north side-aisle of 
the sinictuarv. The altar of the Sacred Heart, of bnmze, presc^nted by 
the late Cardinal ^Ic'Closkey, who is buried in the Cathedral, is in the 
south transept, and the altar of the Iloly Family, of richly carved Caen 
stone, is in the north transept. There are also some smaller altars ; the 
foiu' nanu'd are the principal ones, and cost over ^100,000. 

The Archbishop's throne is notable for its elaborately carved Gothic 
canopy. The pulpit is of the siinie style of (jothic architecture (Xonnan) 
as the building itself. It is octagonal in form, and carried by eight 
columns of beautiful Sienna marble, with their bases and caps moulded 
and enriched with carvings, and resting on a finely moulded pedestal of 
Carrara marble, each side representing the perfect Gothic arch, sustained 
by columns of Mexican onyx, and moulded, panelled, and highly 
ornamented. The marble in which this work is executed is from the 
quarry, from which were extracted the marble columns of the portico of 
the Pantheon at Rome. 

NEW YORK (Part II). 53 

The windows of St. Patrick's Cathedral are claimed to be the 
finest collection of examples of painted glass in the world. All are the 
product of French art workers, and most of them were made under the 
very shadow of the Cathedi-al of Charti'es, where the most beautiful 
specimens of the 13th century stained glass are preserved. 

Of the many parks in New York, the famous Central Park is 
the only one we had time to visit. Sunday's lunch at the " Savoy," 
close to the principal gates, furnished a convenient time and suitable 
place from which to commence a drive ; this was accomplished in one 
of the public carriages. These phaetons are roomy and easy going, but 
on fine Siuiday afternoons are laden to their fullest capacity, and you 
have to be quick witted to secure a seat. There were four of us; Bosco, 
in his eagerness, thrust me headlong into the front seat, but before he, 
or our compauitms, could follow, a torrent of girlhood had swept them 
aside, and on the seven remaining seats were fixed seven American giils 
whose faces bore no trace of that repose that stamps the caste of 
'' Yere de Yere." Six were of one party, the seventh, the one next | 
me, was an ''odd one," so Bosco said when he reproved me for not 
speaking to her; poor child, I remember she never opened her mouth all 
through the drive — I fear I am icy and froze her. But the incessant 
chatter of the half dozen was appalling, it was not talking, it was i 
positively barking, and though they had secured seats, they would not : 
sit, at any rate, still, but kept on a pei-petual wriggle, beating time with ' 
feet and hands, if they were not restlessly engaged in arranging some 
portion of the dress, or frantically feeling if the back hair was still on. 
It has been suggested that this nervousness and lack of repose in some, 
not all, American girls, is owing to their having been so incessantly 
rocked in a cradle during infancy, and their having used a rocking 
chair ever since. 

New York glories in her parks, and has reason to congratulate 
herself that the city fathei-s were wise enough to reserve so many small 
breathing places, even in the most crowded parts, as her " squares " 
represent. There are fully 40 such spaces devoted to sunlight and 
recreation, some of wide acreage, like the "Central," othei-s mere breadths 
of paving surrounding tiny patches of green. All the parks of the city 


are under the control of a Cominission, appointed by the mayor, which 
also has charge of the laying out and improvements of the streets and 
drives in the district. The policemen, clothed in grey, who are on duty 
in all the parks and public squares, are subordinates of this Commission, 
and quite separate from the bluo-coatcd city force, which affects to despise 
them intensely, and calls them " sparrow chasers." 

But I am forgetting we are in tlic Ccnti-al Park and just passing 
on the I'last Drive, not a huly's hair-pin. but a huge needle, Cleopatra's 


Needle. This, as did most of the other monster monoliths that are now 
scattered abroad, came originally from the qnames of Assouan, and from 
thence was floated hundi-eds of miles down the Xile, finding a resting 
place in Ileliopolis, the city of the sun, not far from Caii'o. This obelisk 
is of rose-red gi-anite, 70 feet high ; has hciroglyphie inscriptions to the 
honour aud glory of various Egyptian monarchs — Thof mes I II, Eameses 
II, the " Pharaoh " of Mosaic story, and Siti II ; and thus the stone 

NEW YORK (Part II). bb 

commemorates three of Egypt's gi^eatest rulers. It was set up in the 
Central Park about 30 years ago, the entire expense of removal and 
erection being borne by the late W. H. Vanderbilt. 

Passing the end of the Mall with its green parterres, which we 
see more leisurely on our return, the drive is flanked by many fine 
bronzes, amongst others, Simond's ^' Falconer," Caine's " Tigress and 
young," and an heroic bronze statue by Ball of ^' Daniel Webster." 
The lake remains in view for some time, with the woods of the Eamble 
and the tower of the Belvidere in the background. A soft ethereal 
radiance was playing upon the silvery bosom of the lake, striking as it 
were sparks of fire, as we left its shores and stiiick into an almost 
continuous line of trees ; the drive is along an undulating, curving, but 
perfectly kept road ; the varied features of the landscape came out in 
the clear light, and the air was fragrant as with '^ the smell of the 
field which the Lord hath blessed ; " glons and glades, slopes and steeps, 
carpeted with many a wild flower hidden beneath the shadow of the 
undershrubs, with ever and anon some crystal rill running 'neath the leafy 
shades, spoke of Eden's bowers and the clear waters of Paradise. 

Amongst thickening and beautiful woods, opening here and there 
to glimpses of sylvan slopes or rocky exposures, our carriage rolled 
smoothly along through the upper and wilder part of the park, until we 
reached a hill-top called Mount St. Vincent. We were much struck, at 
least I was, \nth the large number of trotting horses we met ; they are 
not attractive looking animals, the action is very different from English 
horses, being from the shoulder, and with little, if any, curve of the 
knee. The American carnages in which these trotting horses are driven 
are very light, the wheels being usually enlarged examples of the bicycle, 
with indiaiiibber tyres ; while the large use of the bearing rein appeared 
to us unnecessary and cruel. 

We found the upper end of the Park much wilder and more 
solitary than the lower ; pointed rocks, naiTow gorges thick with foliage, 
down which tiny streams babble and splash and fall, tell of native beauty 
untouched by the hand of man. 

The Mall is the great promenade of the Park. The countless drives 
and walks were well filled at the time of our visit; here is to be seen 


a statue of Shakespeare by Ward, erected in 1872 on the 300th 
anniversary of the poet's birth ; there statues of Bums and Scott facing 
each other, both in sitting postures, are borne upon pedestals of Aberdeen 
granite ; at the upper end is the Kiosk, and near this musical spot is 
placed a bust of the immortal Beethoven. 

We descend from our phaeton to cast a last long lingering 
loving look at the tentice and lake. Here is a natural valley of which 
accomplished landscape gardenei's have taken advantage to make a lake, 
winding about amid rocky ridges in an almost be^vildering way. The 
highest bank, the one nearest us, is bordered by a curving balustrade of 
elaborately caned masonry, a broad stairway with richly carved panellings 
at the side leads do^vn to the lower teniice, which suiTounds the noble 
Bethesda fountain. This fountain, made in Munich, from the design of 
Miss Emma Stebbius, represents an angel poised gracefully over, and 
blessing, the watei's as they gush from the rocks beneath her feet. As 
we passed from out the park, the tii'st evenmg sunbeams were streaming 
upon, and burnishing with glittering gold, thousands of glo^^lng window 
panes ; but although the glow of that sweet spring eve has vanished, 
yet the memory of Xew York's Central Park — nut long ago a desert, 
but now "rejoicing and blossoming as the rose;" once a parched gi'oimd, 
now fed by springs of water, the once crooked places nuide straight, and 
the rough places plain. The "excellency of Carmel and Sharon is there" 
in its abundant blossoms and flowers. The fir tree, the pine tree, and 
the box together tell of the " glorj' of Lebanon,'- — painting a picture on 
memoiy's tablets, that can only fade when the drama of life is ended, 
the curtain ining down, and the actors have finally left the stage. 



C HREE gi-eat railways have direct entrance into rhiladeli)hia ; the 

aylvania, the 
Philadelphia and 
Heading, and the 
Baltimore and 
Ohio, all of which 
have temiinals mi- 
surpassed in the 
country. The 
P e n n 9 y 1 V a n i a 
depot is a splen- 
did example of 
modern Gothic 
and adds mater- 
ially to the wealth 
of Philadelphia's 
public buildings. 
The Philadelphia 
and Reading ter- 
minus ie compos- 
ite Kenaissance ; 
its chaste and 
impressive style 
excites universal 
admiration. The 
waiting rooms are 
fitted up in a 
sumptuous style, 



-'Hi'Wp ^t^^^^ W* 'yB'Trr"* ^ -;__ —91 



and a fine rosfanrant provides every convenience and comfort ; the great 
span of the roof coders sixteen tracks, besides wide and ample platfonos. 
PliiladelphiJt has the rcptitatinn. and is freqnently sneered at in the 

States, as being 
old fashioned, 
quiet, slow, but 
I don't think 
this reputation 
warranted. We 
had to wait at 
one of the rail- 
way stations for 
sonic little time, 
and the hurrying 
in and out, the 
crowded state of 
the waiting 
rooms, the con- 
stant bustle and 
movement on the 
vast platforms, 
point to a live- 
liness and activ- 
ity that tends 
to djj-pel any 
notion that the 
city is not up 
to date, at any 
rate in matters 
mil way. 

Our experience 
(»f Philadelphia 

hotels was limited but entirely satisfactory. AVe chose one of the 
newest, the Walton, a large and beautiful structure, and found everything 
of the best. If Arline went that way she would have an unfadinff 



day-dream of ^^ marble halls;" the portal, vestibule, grand hall, eon-idors, 
passages, walled with white and black, and decorated with large 
multi-coloured panels of exquisite Mexican onyx, most lovely combinations, 
are equal to any we saw ; large suspended " torcheres " and elaborately 
designed fixtures for electric lights, whose soft tints when lighted suggest 
moonlight and poetry ; luxurious settees fill cosy recesses ; rich carpets 
are spread on mosaic floors and marble stairways, and the buffet, large 
and well appointed, we found on several occasions an extremely interesting 
and pleasant apartment. 

In the Walton 1 saw tor the first time (me of the latc^st and 
most ingenious inventions — the Ilerzog Teleseme, by which 140 different 
wants may be commimicated from the bedroom or any other room direct 
to the office, thus saving time, labour, and rendering sel^ice rapid and 
reliable. These most useful api)liances are becoming general in the best 
hotels. The banqueting hall cm the tenth story has seating aeeommodatiim 
for 700 guests, and a grand arrangement of kitchens in convenient 
proximity. A large whist party of nearly oOO had occupied the room 
a few days previously, and amongst the ''fragments that remained" were 
eight barrels full of playing cards, gathered from the splendidly laid 
and highly polished floor, on which the TcTpsiehorean god(l(»ss is often 
the "court card" dividing ''honours'' with the '^ (iueen of hearts." 

This magnificent building, claimed to bo th(» most palatial and 
modern fireproof hotel in the world, with all the latest appliances in 
plumbing, lighting and heating, was entirely I'rected, and fiuishod at the 
commencement of this year, in elovc^n months from the time the last 
performance was given in the Empire Theatre formerly on this spot. 

It was Satui-day, and, like Pat, we had been "off to Philadelphia 
in the morning," having manfully put aside the temptation to a " little 
more sleep and a little more slumber." Wi^ had our reward in the 
enjoyment, in brilliant weather, of a grand (exposition of base-ball, 
America's national athletic game, between the rival clubs of IMiiladelphia 
and Brooklyn. Nine players championed each side, the pitcher, striker, 
and catcher being the principal perfonners; the latter is usually protected 
by a helmet and breast- plate of stout wire. The excitement was intense 
and continuous; no blocking for an hour for 10 runs like some of our 


modem crirkot, but a brisk, smari, lively, soiil-stimng game. We liked 
it well. 

Plul;Hlcli)biii is knowni all over the worbl as the " (Juaker City," 
auil ■within a more limited eirele a.< the '"City <if Homes." This is due 
ill a gi-eat measure to the fact tluit a large proportion of the families, 
eonstitutiug the popnlafiou, instead uf livinfj in tlats or hotel?, each occupy 
dwellnifrs owned in- rented solely l»y them. Philadelphia is twenty-two 

Tin: [lASK-llAI.I, liltot .\1>. 

miles lonfT, and nearly six miles wide, but owing to the simple plan in 

which the streets are laid (Hit and the houses numbered, it is a 

cduipamtively easy matter for stningei-s to get about from point to point, 

without any danger of being lost. The street ear lines are vast in 

extent, yet simple in plan ; by a sy.stem of passes a passenger can ride 
to almost any part of the city for five cents. 


There are many splendid social clubs in Philadelphia, some of 
which have a national fame, not only because of the features of the 
organizations themselves, but for the elegance of the buildings they 
occupy. The club having the widest fame is probably the Union League, 
which owns a fine building at the corner of Broad and Locust Streets; 
the peculiar style of the architecture of this brick and brown stone 
structure makes it a veiy striking building. It is a semi-political 


institutioD ; since the beginning of its existence, in 1 862, its members 
have entertained most of the Presidents, and many notable and distinguisheil 
men. The rooms are handsomely frescoed and furnished ; numerous costly 
paintings adorn the walls, and fine examples of statuary gi^'c an 
additional charm. Strangers may gain entrance to the Union League 
House on presenting an introduction from a member. 


The Arts Club occupies a boauliful building in South Broad Street, 
constructed of Pompcian brick, ornamented with carved Indiana limestone. 
Its beauty and strikin;^ appearaiiee cannot fail to at once attract visitors. 
It contains a fine picture galler}-, and the reception rooms are commodious 
and handsomely furnished. 

I'hiladclpliia can boast nf many stately buildinfrs, although, on 
areount of its viist iina and the uiori' cimsei'vative chani'-ter of its 

citizens, they are much more widely scattered tlian in Xow York ; whilst 
there is a marked, although not entire, absence of the " skv scraping " 
t\-pc, yet the streets exhibit some really splendid specimens of architectural 
skill. I'ndoubtedly the most niagnificient building in Philadelphia is 
City Ilall, a structure begun in 1871 and not yet completed. It has 
already cost, including the furnishing, some §18,000,000, and several 


more million dollars *ill be expended before it leaves the hands of the 
building cominissioners. The tower is 550 feet high, and excepting the 
AVashington Monument, is the highest building in the world, overtopping 
the tallest spire of Cologne Cathedral by 37 feet. The City Hall 
occupies Penn Square, and covers 4^ acres, a larger space than any 
other building in the States. This gi-eat pile of marble and granite. 


with its lofty tower, and statue of "William Penn for a finish, is a 
central and most striking object. There are nearly 800 rooms in the 
building, many of them of more than ordinary loftiness. The staircases 
are of polished granite, popularly known as " hanging staircases," that 
is, projecting from the side walls, and having no outside support. 
Notwithstanding that there are so many rooms, and the building is so 


immense, it is comparatively an easy matter to find a designated number, 
from the fact tliat to each floor an even one hundred numbers have 
been assigned. KUvators arc niiniiu^ consfantly during the week from 

the ground to the 
top floor, and un- 
til nightfall vis- 
itors have the 
free run of the 
roof, from which 
is a magnificent 
view of the cilpp'. 
Probably no 
city in the Union 
jKisscsses so many 
buildings of 
historic interest 
iis Philadotphia. 
One of the oldest 
municipalities in 
America, it was 
for ycai-s the seat 
of the National 
(iovoi-nment, and 
many of the old 
edifices in use 
by it, and by 
famous patriots of 
Colonial times, 
arc still carefully 
preserved. No 
building in the 
I'nited States is 

better kiioMn, or more venerated, than Independence Hall ■with its 

[sitcred memories. It stands in the centre of the Chestnut Sti'eet front 

of Indcjiendencp Square. The hallowed structure is surmounted by a 



wooden cupola ecmtaining a flock, and from the taleony beneath the 
dials a splendid view of the fity is obtainable. The east room on the 
first flctov was oecupied by the Second Continental Congi-ess, by whose 
act the Declaration of Independence became a reality, and here many 
other stilling events leading to the freedom of the nation had their 
being. In this room, whicli is kept as nearly as possible in its original 
appeai-anee, are the tiibles iind chaii-s use<l at the time of the signing of 


the Declaration of Independence. Original, or faithful copies of, pictures 
of the signers hang upon the avails, and in the .'(ame room, in front of 
the spot where Congress sat, that sacred emblem of liberty, the Iiibert\' 
Bell, is displayed in a case of glass and pmelled oak. 

The bell was cast in London, and re-cast in Thiladelphia in April, 
1753. The work was unsatisfactory, and it ag;iin went into the melting 


pot, from wliich it emorged a satisfactory bell, and was placed in the 
steeple in June, 1753. It bori* the same inscriptions wliich were cast in 
the original, and on the 8th July, 17 70, it did indeed ''proclaim liberty 
throughout the land/' After sounding its joyous notes in proclaiming 
liberty, the old bell was only ust^d on very particular occasions. While 
being tolled on the moniing of July 8, 1835, in memory of (Jhief 
Justice Marshall, who had died two days before, the old relic suddenly 
cracked, and its tongue became for ever silent (m Washington's birthday, 
1843, after a few noti^s had been struck. 

Philadelphia is quite ** up to date'' in the nunibiT and in the 
magnitude of somi* of the Stor(\s dc^voted to goods attractive to our fair 
sisters; in the centre^ of the city, in Chestnut Market, and Eighth 
Street, they an^ particularly so ; some of them are unsurpassed in the 
States in sizi* and in the vari(*ty and cpiality of the goods displayed. 
Wanamaker's is a ston* of almost national reputation ; it is a huge 
establishment; millions of pc^oplo visit it aimually, and scarcely at any 
time of the day, despite its many acres of area, can visitors pass along 
its miles of counters without ('(mstantly elbowing other shoppers or 
sightseers. Here arc^ gathered some (»f the finc^st fabrics and textile 
manufactures of the world. The* display oi lace fascinati^d mi^ there was 
an exhibit of this dainty creature of fashion, (»nougli to envelop in light 
billows of beautv half tlu* maidens and dami^s (►f the citv ; and crinkled 
chiffon, which had been transplanted from Paris, witlumt destroying a 
vestige of the charm of the various flowers, that bloonuHl in undiminished 
loveliness on equally lovely tinted grounds, driving away all suggestion of 
heavim^ss by the* delightful airiness of the excpiisite fabrics. Titania would 
have been wild to poss(»ss such gauzy aerial clothing for a royal robe. 
The convenience and comfort of the* clientele are (*(|ually studied : waiting, 
reading, and toiU^t rooms an* provided and a large restaurant is attached. 

This was the only store our limited time permitted us to visit. 
At the time of our visit it was overflowing with fashion's fairest fancies, 
and crowded with the most dainty damsels and dignified duchess-like 
dames. Bv the courtesv of one of Bosco's friends, one of the chiefs, 
we saw it thoroughly ; this gentleman told me that the departments for 
which he alone was responsible made a '' turn over " of ^2,000,000 


annually ; the total annual trade must be prodigious. John Wanamakrr, 
the head of the business, was Postmaster Ueneral of the United States 
during the Harrison administration. 

The Mint, on Chestnut Street, is a marble building, with a 
Grecian portico, standing a little back from the pavement. This is the 
United States Mint, one of the city's gi-eat attractions to visitors. The 
first Government Mint in this country was established in Philadelphia in 

uiK, waxamakeh's store. 

1792. For many years it was the only mint in the country. Visitors 
are admitted daily, except Sundays, and are escorted from the door 
throughout the building free, by ccmductors who show : — the deposit 
room, where the gold and bullion are received ; the copper melting room, 
in which ingots for minor coinage are cast ; the gold and silver melting 
room ; the rolling and cutting room ; the coining room, where the coins 


are stamped ; and the cabinet, in which is the finest collection of 
coins in the United States. I bought some 10 dollar gold pieces, very 
artistic coins, and saw the press in which they had been stamped with 
a pressure equal to 185 tons. 

AVe found the manufactxu'e of silver and silver-plated goods a 
considerable industry in Philadelphia, and, remembering our friends and 
relatives, '' keepers at home," we made a few purchases at one of the 
principal stores. Both here and at ^' Tiffany's " Ave found forks in every 
conceivable size and shape. Forks in Amc^rica are put to uses quite 
unknown on the eastern shun^ of th(» Athuitic ; this excessive use of 
forks is occasionally the caus(^ of embamissmeut — th(» follo^Wng is an 
example : '' Hannah,'' said the mistress to the m^w girl, " everything is 
eaten now with forks. Here are the strawberrv forks, the ice cream 
forks, the orange forks and the bread forks.'' '' Yes'm,'' said the girl 
attentively. A few days later, wluai a company dinner was in progress, 
the first coui'si* came near being a failure. Hannah explained : " I 
hu^ted everywhen*, ma'am, but 1 couldn't find the soup forks." 

In a city of such, as it struck me, excepti(mal artistic taste, mental 
culture, and obvious rc^finement, it is not surprising to learn that the 
love, and therefore the cultivation, of fiowers is gn^at, and the munber 
of fiorists is considerable. Then^ is a small bc^t of fertili* land in the 
old State of Pennsylvania, which shows a happy combination of beauty 
and utility, called the ^* Carnation Belt.'' Here is invested over half a 
million dollars in the culture^ of carnations for sale in the cities of 
Xew York and Philadelphia. It is estimated that nearly one million 
carnations are shipped each year from the '' Belt." The fanners who 
make this '' flowery land " are nearly all young men — many university 
graduates. And their work is in one sense at least '' a labour of love." 
These men and their wives meet once each month at what is called d 
'' Carnation Social Club," where methods of floriculture are talked over, 
and papei-s on various subjects read and discussed. 

Philadelphia has always been regarded as one of the great seats 
of education in the States ; the number and general high character of 
her educational institutions, public, private and semi-public, almost surpass 
belief. Besides the great colleges and other places of learning, there is 


a large number of public schools, controlled by a Board of Education 
appointed by Judges of the Courts, and by Ward School Boards popularly 
elected. These schools are graded; in the Central High School for boys 
the course of education embraces those branches best calculated to fit the 
scholars for the practical duties of life, and in the High School for 
girls the education is largely directed to fitting the pupils to become 
teachers, or to enter upon some useful business career. 

It was only natural whilst in the '' Quaker City," and In^aring 
about its schools, for my fancy to " revert to the scones of my 
childhood," and to the first school of my youth— a ''Friend's School" 
in the county town — where in my early 'teens 1 imbibed an undying 
love of poetry. The master, Richard Batt, lovingly known as '' old 
Dicky," had a taste for verses, and published in 18o() ''Gleanings in 
Poetry;" amongst its leaves I remember well ''The Old Oaken Bucket." 
The following little anecdote told me the " bucket " was still at work, 
drawing the emblem of tnith dripping with eooln(\ss from the well of 
knowledge. A teacher in a primary school recently read to her pupils 
'' The Old Oaken Bucket. After explaining it earefnlly, she asked them 
to copy the first stanza from the blackboard and try to illustrate it by 
drawings, as the artist illustrates a story. Tretty soon one little girl 
handed in her book with several little dots between two lines, a circle, 
half a dozen dots and three buckets. '' I do not understand this, Bessie," 
said the teacher. "What is that circle?" "Oh, that's the Avell," Avas 
the reply. "And why do you have three buckets?" "Oh, one is the 
old oaken bucket, one is the iron-bound bucket, and the other is the moss- 
covered bucket that hung in the well." "But what are the little dots?" 
" Why, those are the loved spots which my infancy knew." 

Whilst I was in the city The Philadelphia Recoixl told of a school 
teacher who was instructing a class of boys in geography. In order to 
make the matter plainer, she took an ordinary globe, and, pointing to the 
portion containing the United States, asked where she would come out 
if she should start from Philadelphia and go straight through the earth. 
She knew they would all say China, but she wanted to see which of 
her scholars would answer fli-st. She waited fully a minute, and no 
answer came. Away back in the room a grimy hand was finally held 



up. " Well, Darid." she asked, " where would I come out, if I should 
go straight through the earth from here':'" The sik'nee was growing 
thicker every second. '* Pleiisi-, iliss Maude, yoii woiihl come out of 
the hole." was the reply, and the cbsn in geography was dismissed 
for the day. 

Another sehuol story is from the PhUaiMjihia Post : — Teacher with 

reading class. Buy. reading — • And she saih-d down the river " 

Teacher — ''Why are ships ealhi! 'she';'*" Hoy. precociously alive to the 
re-sponsihilities of liis sex — •■ Iteeanse they nee»l men to manage them." 

Sometimes rlie subjects get a litrle mixed ; music and natural 
history for example :^A litth- boy having his music lesson was asked 
by his teacher -What are iiaiises y" - Things that grow on pu.<sy cati<," 
was the {iui<k respousi-. I don't know whetlier it was the same boy 
who. thinking it would l>c nice to write home, ciiiiniienced his letter: — 
" My dear papa, wlicni-ver 1 am tempted t'l d'l wrong, 1 think of you 
and sav. get thee behind me Satan." 



Cwas desirable on the Sabbath mora to try and unbiuxlen ourselves 
of thp week's accumidated sin, so we betook ourselves to St. Mark's 
t'hureh, to lay down the " burden and the care." We were 
however not veiy suceessful; the ninsieal portion of the service was 
admirable ; the ritual was liigh but on that account by no means 
objectionable ; the accessories were elaborate and as a spectacle extremely 
effective; tho choristers' small white surplices gave the opportunity for a 

% . 

P^I^F .^^^H 

— *''"^'*^^ 



large display of liright si'arlet eassucks. aud these eontrnsts of purity and 
sin (I remember the " starlet lady " rejux'seuts sin) were still more 
emphasised, I hope not iti)pi'oi)riately, in the elerjjy whose large and 
riehly embroidered stoles and n<»t very minute siarh-l tippets hid a still 

hirger proportion of 
the ■■ pure white" 
supposed to typifv 
thc righteousnciss 
of saints. All this 
to UK' was jjlt-asant 
aud ai)pealtHl to the 
iniagiuation, but 
Hir penalty had t<» 
lie paid; the ser- 
mon had to be 
I'lidunHl ; no iijipeal 
there to the imag- 
ination ; it was 
Very high, in stock 
much too long, 
and so dry that it 
>-ul)s('i|uently took 
uiure than one 
bottle of good 
lihiue wiue to wash 
it down. Xeverwas 
su<Ii a string of 
jmerile platitudes, 
jilaintively, per- 
funetorily, persist- 
ently paraded — 
vain repetitions 
that profit nothing. 
Inu-ch preeinets sivonred of an intnision. 
bdb, with infinite pains 


Om- very entninre into the 

The verger, with the super<'iIious 

■- ciUKin. 


bade us sit down in the lowest room, where hearing was difficult and 
seeing well nigh impossible ; notwithstanding that the church was only 
half filled, such was the priggish exclusiveness. Whether the latest 
millinery fashions make their debut at church or theatre I can't say, 
but T Avell remember the Babel built towers of broad ribbons, whose 
ombra shadings range fi'om sunrise to shadow; the jaunty quills, from 
the wings of some bright mountain bird ruthlessly slain, in size like 
unto the sails of a windmill ; the vari-coloured aigi*ettes, those sheaves 
of lieaven streaming rockets that never fall earthward ; fans of spangled 
lace glittering in the sunshine ; fiower shows innumerable, flowers in 
bouquets and flowei*s that trail and liaug, beds of scentless roses, independent 
of sunshine, that bloom on regardless of summer, pragmatical roses, 
standard roses giant high, that swayed and shook with each movement 
of the fair impenitent. This much I remember, but little more. I don't 
think that Sunday was productive of much ''growth in grace;" let us 
forget it. 

I am told there are more than 700 places of worship in Philadelphia, 
couiprising over forty independent or semi-indepc^udent denominations ; 
scarcely any denomination being uni-epresented in the city. Religion 
ought to flourish here. 

Philadelphia possesses a vast area devot(*d to public parks ; ou(^ 
alone, Fairmount Park, said to be the largest city park in the world, 
encloses nearly 3,000 acres. This grand pleasure ground extends in 
varying width, on both sides the Schuylkill river, to the Wissahickon 
Creek, and is a veritable Mecca on Sundavs to maiiv thousands of work- 
a-day toilers, eager to enjoy the fresh invigorating air. It is difficult to 
imagine a more animated scene, suiTounded by verdant shrubbery rich in 
spring's brightest dress. In the portion known as the old park a vast 
amount of skill in landscape gardening is displayed, and in this part are 
the handsome quarters of many of the best known boat clubs. There 
are also large gi*ass plats set aside for croquet, la\^Ti tennis, and base- 
ball. We continued oui* drive along the famous Lansdowne Bavine, 
obtaining a magnificent view up the river ; a good road runs for miles 
by the side of a pure and pleasant stream on which canoes skim, skiffs 
race, and launches glide, upon whose smooth um-uffled surface here and 



there the afternoon sun reflected a "ramage'' of delicate leafy tracery, or 
cast in heavier sliiidtnv the thiek foliajje of sonic o\-erhaiigi«j» laurel wood. 
(,'ontiniuu^, the [mrk beeoiiies iiioif enntKicti'd. hut what it h>ses in 
breiultli it stains in li(".iuty ; the nnul undulates iind winds, biinks ris« 
on each side with -renth' slnpc. moss euveifd ineks, whence enstal rills 
triekh'. lie arnnnd ; it netwurk nf underj,'ni\vth covers the f^'ouud out of 



which wikl tiow-ers jicep and i>erluine rises ; lifeless tnmks. moss-wrapt 
and i^y covorcxl, n-call lonji; past years. ^Iiilst tall and erect trees whoee 
bright young leaves tell of gvowtli and viguur. tower overhead; sycamores 
flourish and chestnuts bloom ; the dark tints of the pines and conifers 
give variety in form and colour, whilst acacias and tulip tives lend 
beauty and add fnigrance to the sc(?ne. Picturesque nooks warmed by 


sunshine, in which fairies hold nightly revels, and sequestered gnllies 
more loved of shade than sunglare — 

" Wheif, flpckwl with foam, 
Past trnnquil holps. 
The brooklet brawls, in babbling falls, 
And babbles in the shoalH." 

gi^e a charming and romantic 

the States. 

speet to one of the most lovely parks in 


By this tilne we liad readied the Wissahiekoii Creek, the scenciy 
still presenting the same character, but, gaining iu strength, it is ever 
more charming. The creek winds in short curves for miles l)(?tweeu 
high and thickly wooded hills, from out which the sweet note of some 
feathered songster rings ; romantic gorges, down which little streams dash 
and mimic cascades fall, abound. Wc were very much struck with the 



hundreds, almost thousands, it being Sunday, of vehicles passing and 
repassing ; the American buggy, simpk* and fantastic, the smart Victoria, 
and the well aj^pointed landau, and many a lineal desc-endant of — 

•• Tho W(ni(lf*rful oiu* hoss sliav. 

That wa-* l)iiilt in such a lojrical wav. 
It rail a huinlr*'<l v«*ai*s to a <biv/' 

Carriages, l)i(*ycles galon* witli myriads i)\ people afoot, make up a 
moving jianorama seldom seen. 

As the road Avinds about, many streams are crossed and picturesque 
bridges traversed, from which glimi)ses of ravini^s are caught ; over head 
the skv is without a shad(»w ; boulders ^h'am boldlv with their ceaseless 
water polisli, (a\ hoary with the moss covering of generations, slumber 
l»eacefully in the sliade ; below, the glittering rays of the bright sun 
tind ambush amid the leaf-clad bcnighs (»f trees that climb skyward, 
whilst overhead branch and twig, leaf and Hower, w(*ave into one 
hannonious coverlet th(» fresh products of Nature's verdant loom. 

Geniiant(»wn is the most famous and principal residential suburb 
of Philadelphia ; from the centre of (iermantown to the centre of the 
citv is fuUv six miles. In thc^ older ])art (►f th(» town are numerous 
historic houses, well known to the inhabitants, and at Chestnut Ilill we 
siiw very many handsome and e\en palatial residences. There miles upon 
miles of homes attract us by the novelty and beauty of their design; 
almost all are surrounded by verandahs i>f light and elegant consti'uction, 
under Avhich the household speiul much time in the hot weather, reclining 
in deck chairs (»r swaying to and fro on seats built on rockei^s ; I think 
I never saw such a collecti(ni (»f rocking chairs. Soft balmy scent-laden 
breezes gently fan Hushed cheeks, and gaily striped shades protect them 
from scorching sun-ravs ; ov(*r the delicate* tracerv of the verandahs 
creepers trail and westeria hangs, whilst the flowering jasmine embroiders 
and perfumes. Lawns of fri^sh young grass still unshoiii, green as the 
purest emerald, sprc^ad out level as bowling greens, or fall away in gentle 
slopes and undulating curves ; tasteful vases and shapely flower beds, 
radiant with masses of richly blended coloim>, beautify the earth ; the 
flowering maple and sweet scented lilacs unfold their blossom, and all 
around beech and birch guard the border lines — Nature's stalwart sentinels 
clad in panoply of verdant armoiu*. 


During our drive we passed the famous Mannheim Cricket Ground 
on ivhieh is erected several club houses of pleasing architecture. The 
grounds are very extensive and portions are shaded with rare old trees. 
Philadelphia is the home of American cricket ; its clubs are the strongest 
in the land. Several famous English teams, notably Lord Hawke's, have 
met with crushing defeat at the liands of Philadelpliia amateur elevens. 


Nothing can he more beautiful than a day when the sky is 
*' tassel'd with clouds light woven by the sun," when Spring is being 
wanned into blushing loveliness by the approach of Summer ; such a day 
it was when we drove through the city of William Penn. 

Bicycles by the thousand flitted past us during our 20 mile drive, 
and we could not help blessing the man who invented this easy and 
cheap means of bringing the refreshing breeze, the charming freshness of 


the viTdure, and th(» sweet and pure suiToundiiigs of eountrv life within 
reach of the tens of thousands of toilei-s in toA^ii and eitv. 

To-day in reckoning the achit»venients of the nineteenth centiiry, 
we must, I think, add the marvellous development of the wheel. The 
f^'owth of wheeling has been so rapid as to \w almost sensational, in 
England and in the* States alike. Old and young, rich and poor, men 
and boys, dames and girls, onc^ with another have all ''caught on'' the 
bicycle f(*ver. Thi* popularity, which shows no sign of diminution, has 
made the manufacture of machines a colossal industrv. The cvcle 
manufactories in the* States an* wid(» spread — in Chicago alone I believe 
there an* over 200 maki^rs ; and it is common knowledge that at home, 
Nottingham, and (^specially Coventry, a once* comnuTcially decaying city, 
now teem with thousiuids of artisans whose toil and skill bring wealth 
and comfort to their homes. An inmienst* amoimt of capital is employed 
in the manufacture of these slender steel machines ; the flotation of the 
Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company with a capital of £0, 000,000 sterling 
is a recent example. The devotees of the wheel are found in royal 
palaces and the thatched cottage* of the* labourer, and to-day the bicycle 
is not only a triiunph of mechanical skill, but an important factor in 
nineteenth centurv civilisation. 

1 am not a wheelman, and shall probably neviT mount one, imless 
s(mie day, in the ''dim and distant,'' I induce a lady friend to join me 
in riding " on a bicycb* built for two," still 1 cannot fail to see that 
the coming amongst us — apparently with a fixed determination to remain — 
of whirling whec^ls, and whei^ls that at times won't whirl, with their 
lamps and bells and whistles, is a solid fact to be reckoned with, has 
caused a considerable amount of dislocation in oiu* social habits, and is 
said to have be(*n injurious and even disastnms to certain trades. How 
much of the wail that comes up from booksellers is attributable to the 
cycle mania ? In the United States I foimd the great depression from 
which the book trade is suffering, and the same is tnu^ at home also, is 
thought to be largely due to the fact that men and women cannot find 
time to indulge in this favourite pastime, and also in literary pm^uits ; 
piano manufacturers complain that the popularity of the wheel seriously 
affects their sales ; and a certain slackness in other branches of business 


is also attributed to the fact that large sums of money have been 
diverted from old chamiels into the bi-oad uud sweepiug i-iver (in which 
nishes the cycling boom. 

I have no interest in " reeord breaking," nor special admiration 
for the average man cyclist. I cannot detect beauty in the open mouth 
and round shoulders of 
the " scorcher," and 
have more than once 
been greatly alanned 
by tlie sight of half 
a dozen cycle jockeys 
colliding at the "Tatten- 
ham Comer " of some 
racing track ; ut the 
same time, within prop- 
er limits, cycling is a 
healthy recreation. 
Women almost univers- 
ally sit the wheel 
gracefully and erect, 
whilst men too fre- 
quently pervert or 
distort the " human 
form divine." The 
ladies decline to become 
mere machine prnpenei-s, 
but continue, what they 
will ever remain, 
" things of beauty, joys 
for ever." -^ iucy.if. uvilt 

An American wit, asked to define the word 
" a fellow who makes a row when he is nm over 
I fear my readers may be inclined to make 
my brain (if any) with having gone 
like to add my conviction that, 

■' pedestrian," replied 
by a cyclist ; " and 
a mental row, and charge 
wheels, but I should just 
within proper time and limits, I think 


Sunday cycling perfectly permissible and justifiable. Attempts have been 
made to find reasons for an '' asserted decline in church going ; " the 
fii-st is the poorness of the sermons, and the second the ladies' big hats, 
bigger plumes and trimmings, and the big sleeves one has to face. The 
first objecticm is one of which, happily, 1 have* little experience ; the 
threadbare garb that clothes poverty of speech and thought rarely finds 
entrance into that part of Brookland's Church which is elevated six feet 
above contradiction ; and the second is simply a matter of taste — I 
would not b(^ without tliom, or rathiT th(»ir wcniri^-s, no matter how vast 
the hats, tlio plumes, or the s1<m^v(*s. ( 'oimtry churches must provide 
cvcle stables ; sermons may fail, but hats and ])lumes and sleeves will 
remain, and never cease to attract, and th(»n how appropriate and forceful 
will become* the* injunction, especially at (^vensong, beloved of the 
impecunious churchwarden, as its music comes floating down the long 
drawn aisle, '' Let your liglit so shine before men." And it does not 
require any gri^at stretch of imagination to picture* some enthusiastic 
cycling parson, in a post nuptial (exhortation, addri^ssing the newly 
married couple. *' May you young couple spin along the road of life 
in happy luiison, your tyrc^s ar<' \\i)\\ perfc^ction, may you never tire one 
of another, but in joy or sorrow pedal along life's road in perfect and 
sweet concord, remembering you have tak(*n one another for wheel or 
whoa I " 

A sti*ang(T to the '* (Quaker City" cannot fail to b(» impressed 
with tli(* refined manners, the charming expn^ssion, the beautiful features 
of manv of th(^ ladies, and th<' '* MazaAvattee " or old world flavour 
that lingers — and may it long remain — about many of its inhabitants ; 
no wonder then that Philadelphia is (exceptionally rich in "good works;" 
its Benevolent, Charitable, and Humane Institutions are exceptional, 
numerous, and flourishing. I can imly refer to one out of a large 
number, of which an illustration is given. The Mar}' J. Drexel Home 
is the handsomest institution of the kind in Philadelphia. Architecturally 
it is without a superior, and its interior is fully as beautiful as its 
exterior. The Home is the charitable act of Mr. John D. Lankenan as 
as a memorial to his AWfe, Mary J. Drexel, his son and his daughter. 
It comprises four distinct departments, namely : — 



The ifothcrhousr, or institute for thr maintenance, rcli{»ions 
instruction, and ecUioation of deaconesses who are members of the 
Tjiitheran Church. 

The Old People's Home, for the reception and support of well 
recommended, well hehaved, perfectly -sober and respectable aged couples, 
and aged single men and Momen of German birth or descent, of sixty 


years of age and tipwards, able to speak the German language, and 
members of th(! liiitlieran Church. 

The C'hildren's Hospital, open for the admission of children up to 
the age of thirteen yeai-s, iiTcspeetive of colour, creed, or nationality. 

The Girls' Boarding School, where pupils, boarders and day scholars, 
are admitted at the age of ten years, and a thorough education given 

x-2 A.UE/l/CA,V ^fEAfORlES. 

m German. English, aud Freuch languages, togothor with music and 
flrawing. Scholars are t-harged for tuition. 

Half tho pages at my disposal might be tilled by reeoimting the 
charitable institutions that adoi-u this fair eity, and jewel her streets ; 
hospitals anil asylums for the sick and poor and weak in mind ; 
penitentiaries fur the fallen give scope for the " charity that suffereth 
long and is kind ; " and numerous homes for tlie " fatherless and widows 
in their afHiction '' give practical evidence of *■ religicm pure and uudefilcd.'' 
"WTien the Kecording Angel writes the ehmnieles fif this " City of 
Friends," perchance he may ifpeat at least somi- nf the praise allotted 
to the old world Philadelphia of wliom the Angel of the fhurehes 
wrote :—" I know thy works " - " Tliou hast kejit my wonls '" — " I have 
loved thee." 



E left Philadelphia with regret, feeling our stay had been all 
too short, and soon passed into an open ooiintry ; fertile 
pasture lands spread far and wide. On each side of the railroad lay 
broad acres of farming land, fairly level, but here and there disturbed 
by some rugged knob, like some hieoough of nature. The broad silvery 
ribbon of the Delaware embroiders with its glistening sheen the rich 
emerald of the meadows, through which it flows tranquilly to the sea, 
bearing on its bosom much of Philadelphian commerce with the world. 
The river Avinds along between low and pleasant banks until w(» come 
in sight of the grcnit Delaware liridge, ovi^r which our train swiftly 
passes amongst its light inti^lacing bands and trusses. 

Pastoral scenerv continu(»s to charm. (kittle — horses and cows 
chiefly — feed leisurelv on the t(*nder young grass, or lazily make it a 
bed. Old fashioned houu^steads, timber' framed and timber sheathed, are 
dotted freely over the landscape. Curling wreaths of almost transparent 
pale blue-grc}' smoke ascended lightly from the cottar's fir(\^, and lingered 
pendant, like phantom plumes, in the still air ; but eri^ w(^ reached our 
journey's end, the sun had retired ; the splendour of that bright day 
had departed ; evening shadows were falling, and the stars : — 

•' The self same stars, that o'er man's troubled years 
So long have shone from their eternal spheres." 

Those bright eyed angel stars, sleepless sentinels of the night, were 
again in radiant rank, keeping guard above when we reached the city 
of Baltimore. 

Our stay in Baltimore was very short, but we made the best of 
our time and opportunities. Unfortunately our rapid movements have 
left correspondingly vague recollections, but my notes help me a little. 
The metropolis of Maryland is the seventh city, in point of population, 
in the United States ; its inhabitants number rather less than half a 


million. A small stream, Jonc^s' Falls, niiis through the fontre of the 
city. At the northern limit of the harbour an* loeated the massive 
warehouses, in and aroimd which is eoneentrated th(» wholc^side section of 
th(* mercantile life. A little to tin* W(»st are situat(»d the gi'cat retail 
establishments, and the various shoi)j)in}x thorcmghfari^s, and away 
northwards the principal j»romenad(^s and fashionable* dwc^llings of the city 
are found. 

lialtimon* has a fine harbour, and its splendid f;:(*ographical position 
and railroad c<»nn(*cti<»ns ^iv(» it special advantage's as an outlet for 
southern and w<'st<'rn i)rodu(ts. Wc were told that her<» living is cheap, 
rents low, skill<Ml labour abundant, and the <'xeini)tion of manufacturing 
plants from taxation invitos and induces the establishnu^nt of industries 
of varied kinds, whilst the adjacent coal tields, iron beds, and marble 
(piarries of the Stat<' open up an illimitable vista of W(*alth and prosperity. 

The city is as h<'althy as it is j)ictures(|ue ; tin* p(*culiar 
topographical arrangement of the >urrounding country greatly facilitates 
natural drainage*. Its climate is temperate, yet invigorating. 

•• In tlinxj. ]><.(1 IhhiihK nf r»altiiiiMr«\ 

II«']'«'. win'lM' tin* rliiii;it«'^ lii«'<i. 
it a- % % it % 

Whrn- FluriJa's ^nt't Kavniiiaii \\\v> lM*o:iiilr 

Tlu' iiij»j»in;; north — \vh»*n' natun-'s jmjw^'I-s sniil**." 

Baltimore was the tirst citv in the United States to be illuminated 
by gas; the tirst to aid the construetion of a railroad; and the first to 
be connectc^l Avith the outside world by electric telegraph. The wannth 
of social life in Baltimore* is proverlual, which time alone prevented our 
enjoying and appreciating, but we can add the* tribute of our respectful 
admiration to th(^ muh^niable bi^autv of the^ Baltimore ladies. 

We had only time* to visit a few of the principal buildings, the 
fii-st being the City Kail, wherein arc* gatli(T(*d the Aarious departments 
and officios of the nuuiicipal governnu^nt. It is a beautiful and imposing 
structure of white* marble, a striking c^xample of Renaissance architecture. 
The different fnmts are well broken and relieved, the general character 
strong and well defined. The centre* of the structure is sunnounted by a 
lofty iron dome, resting upon a graceful marbh* base ; I renu^mber that 
the interior aspect of this dome is very fine ; the height from the floor 


is 227 feet. Above a projecting balcony, from which an extensive view 
is obtained, hangs the city bell, " IJig Sam," weighing 5000 pounds, 
striking the houi", and sounding fire alarms by electricity. 

Baltimore is justly proud of two famous citizens, great benefactors 
who take foremost rank amongst the noble army of philanthropists of 
this grand nineteenth century — Johns Ilojjkins and (lefirge Pcabody. 

Johns Uopkius, a merchant of the city, died at the close of 187o, full 
of years and honour, leaving a princely fortune, se^■<'n million dollai-s, 
which he gave in equal amounts for the endowment of a University and 
a Hospital. The organization and methods of the University have been 
described by President Gillmaii, the first President, who is still in office, 
as follows : — " ITie University is organised upon the principle that it ia 


a body of teachers aud scholai's, a eoii)oratiou maintained for the 
conservation and advancement of knowUnlge, in which those who have 
been thoronghly prepared for higher studies are encouraged to continue, 
under competent professors, their intellectual a<lvancement in many branches 
of science and literature. " 

The UnivcTsitv Buil(lin":s are in the heart of the citv, within 
sight of tlu» Washington Monuuic^nt. In the central building are the 
offices of administration and <lass rooms for an<*i(»nt languages; another 
contains the general library, rontaiuing r)0,()0() volumes, and a large 
lecture mom for cluunistrv beyond ; ea<li in its separate building are the 
chemical laboratory and the biological laboratory; near the main group of 
buildings is the gymnasium, with all necessary adjumts, an<l a separate 
hall erected specially for the Young Men's (.'hristian Association of the 
University. In the i)liysi(al laboratory are housed the departments of 
physics, (4ectrical engine(Ting, mathematics, and astronomy; besides these, 
several houses in the neighbourhood are used for class rooms, and new 
and ext(»nsive buildings are now in course of erecticm. 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital was oj)ened in 1S81), and it is 
claimed for this institution that, although not the largest, it is the most 
perfect in construction and equipmcnit in the woild, the* trustees having 
spent twelve years in gaining the widest information and procuring plans 
from the best experts in hospital construction. The beautiful grounds 
that suiTound it extend to some 14 acres. This institution not only 
provides for the treatment and comfort of patients, but has a special 
relation to medical education. A remarkable featun^ of the buildings is 
the method of heating and ventilation ; the system is siiid to have solved 
a difficult problem, producing an i^quabh' and agreeabh* tempemture in 
all the rooms and wards to which it is distributed, under all cimditions 
of cold weather, coupled with the fullest and most perfect ventilation. 

The name of George IVabody will \)v had in everlasting 
remembrance, not only in Baltimore, but in our o\ni metropolis, for in 
both cities he has left an imperishable monunu^nt of his benevolence and 
goodness, in the erection of institutions having for their object the 
amelioration of the social condition of the toiling artizan, and the 
advancement of the intellectual and moral culture of the communitv in 


which he lived. Generations yet unborn will bless his name, and the 
fragrance of his memory will remain and linger evermore in and about 
his noble lifo work that still follows him. With a sum of $1,250,000 
placed in the hands of trustees, he, in consultation with friends, matured 
a plan for erecting and maintaining an educational establishment of the 
highest oi-der, including a library, a school of lectures, an academy of 
music, and a gallery of art — Mr. Peabody placing the library first in his 

TUT, -loiixs HonciNs iinsi'iT. 

scheme of oryaniziitioii. During tlie first few years the collection of 
books was slow, about l'),On(l volumes being gathered together in the 
first five veai-s, all liowi'ver of scholarly value. The muuber steadily 
and rapidly increased until, at the time of his death in 1S!)0, the 
library contained 100,000, since increased to 120,000 volumes. 


Jnhns Hopkins jtud (u-nr'.'c Pralxxly. two nf America's noblest 
citizous. Imvf left ln'liiiid tln'ni iiujK'risIiablc corniicts. a lepK-y whose 
lustre time cinniut tarnish, ami wUnsc f;Ii>rv aj,'e will \\\A dim. 

The Washinj^on >[oiinniciit is a worthy tribute to the memurv of 
the ftrst Tresident of the Tuited States, and is ereeted in Mmmt Vernon 
riaec'. A irraeefnl Dorie eoluiini of wjiite marble, surmounted bv a 

niX MiPMMKxr. 

strikinj; ti<;ure of (M-oi--:e Masliin-^lou. representiufr him in tlie ac-t of 
resijjmiiij; his eonnnission at Annapolis. The .statue itself is sixtwn feet 
hi^h, and weighs sixteen and a half tons ; n wiiulinfr stairease leads to 
a parapet at the top. from whieh a ma<niitieent view is affiuth-d of the 
city harbour and suiToiuKHn^' eountiT. 

Xear this jmint "Washingtcm and Mount Venioii S<nmres meet; all 


around are fouud the most conservative residences, witli a chiiracteristic 
air of refinement and wealth ; the gi-ass phits dotted about are adorned 
with lovely flowers, the smiles of the Creator's goodness ; fountains fling 
high the silver dew ; mimic cascades fall over moss covered rockeries in 
shady nooks ; and restful seat-^, o'ercanopied with leafy boughs, tempt us 
to linger awhile, whilst we listen to the young birds — moved to minstrelsy 
by the bright sunshine — recite their lessons in the boughs overhead. 


Mount Vernon Place Church, belonging to the ilethodist Episcujwl 
denomination, which occupies in the United States, botli as regards 
numbers and influence, a position of importaucc, is in the heart of the 
most aristocratic section of the city. Its architectural beauty and dignity 
admirably accord with its environments. The interior we foimd a model 


of perfect aniingement.s. This was the only place of worship our short 
stay peniiitted our seeing. SeviTal fine piec(»s of bronze statuar}' are to 
be seen in this locality. 

lialtiniore has made adequate jjrovision for the health and recreation 
of its large and increasing i>opulation by a judiciously aiTanged system 
of public parks and scjuan^s, scattenul on opposite sides of the eitj'. 
Time only permitt(»d nur seeding one, but that one the most important 
of all. AV(* shall not soon forget our drivi* to and around Druid Hill 
Park ; the day was glorious ; the sky ovrrhead was like tin* deep blue 
of a Delft ])late. Tliis park is uni(|Uo amongst the many parks it was 
our good fortunr to sec ; in acreage it is excelled by several, nor is 
th(» hand of the landscaix* irardener so easily traced as in the Central 
Park, New York, or in Fainuount l*ark. riiiladeli)hia ; but its natural 
beauties give it a special cliarui and attractiveness ; it covers some* 700 
acres of wood and water. There are resei-voirs and a tine lake in whose 
<-lear mirror was reflected the uucloudetl image of the imperial lord of 
light. Several natural springs from out which ciystal streams bubble are 
scattered about the park. ^liles of cari'iaire I'oads, some of great width, 
are carefully kei)t. Shady ])atllway^, leafy «;:roves — Nature's first temples 
— accessible only on foot are used as ]>ic-nic grounds, and broad elevated 
l^lateaus skirted by a belt of woods aud stretch of forest, in which live 
oaks that reckon their age by centuries. We learned that this park, 
the most naturally beautiful we saw, is under the control of a small 
board of Commissioners, aud is entirely supi)orted by a tax of nine per 
cent. ujHm the ^xross receii>ts of the Street Car Comi)anies. 

Jialtiuiore ranks as one of the foreiuost educational centres of the 
coiuitry, and this exercises a wide infiuence on its inti*llectual life. I 
think there <an be no doubt the American system of education is superior 
to ours ; this opinicm 1 gathered froiu jxTsonal obs(»rvation and enquir\' 
as well as reading. AnuTicans regard their pid)lic schools in the first 
place as citizen -making luachines, and in the second as democratic 
instruments, affording to rich and poor alike the* b(\st of this world's 
treasures. In schools on this side of the Atlantic, except those for 
infants, boys and girls are generally separatid ; in the States they are 
present in the same class, and not infrequently sit side by side on the 


same benches ; they do the same lessons, now a girl, now a boy is 
called upon to answer, just as it happens. 

This mixed system appears to have grown up quite naturally ; its 
advocates plead that the separation of the sexes is artificial and contrarj^ 
to the spirit of the home ; that two schools, two sets of teachers, is 
not only needlessly extravagant, but lessens efiiciency ; and then there 
is no such feeling as existed amongst us — I think it is quickly 
disappearing — that " second best " in buildings, teaching, and salaries, is 
good enough for girls. The best that can be obtained is the rightful 
due of girls as well as boys, of poor as well as rich, this is the keynote 
of the doctrine of American democracv. Next to arithmetic the favourite 
study is probably history — United States history especially, from the time 
of the Pilgrim Fathers onward. The spirit of patriotism is fostered and 
encouraged by the public holidays, which are always preceded or followed 
by some instruction about the meaning of the day. Decoration Day, 
April 30th, for example, commemorates the soldiers who fell in the war 
of 1860-61, and on that day it is the custom to deck the graves of 
the fallen with flowers and small flags. One of the sougs suitable 
for these occasions begins : — 

*'Wo clefk their yrraves alike to-dav 

With blossoms fresli and fair, 
And on the grassy inouuds of clay 

We lav the tiowoi-s with care. 
As o'er each sleeping hero's head 

Our offcndngs we placed, 
The braverv of our honoured d«^ad 

Shall n(^ver he effaced. '^ 

There was no place that gave us more genuine pleasure than 
our all too short visit to the Woman's College. We were uncertain as 
to admission, but as we stood hesitating beneath the portal a student, 
whose bright eyes had still to watch the rise of more than one new 
harvest moon ere she reached womanhood, came blithely tripping up the 
broad flight of steps, and in answer to our enquiries, in the kindest 
and most winsome manner led us to the office of one of the officials, 
who very courteously conducted us over the building. We are in no 
danger of forgetting (personally I should not like to forget) the charm 
of that fair daughter of Columbia. The training she received in that 

^.. ^ s> . ,. ^^ ..Aa.^Mi.-^iA^fc -^ ^ 



seat of leaniiiig had not i-esiilti-d in the loss of her figure, or giving 
over bi-urihing her hair and iiiiikiiiji herself Io{»k nice ; education had not 
diminished hor attractiveness — Why shoidd it ? but, eombinetl with it 
was a sweetness and genth-iiess that made me long to hark back to 
youth and attend sehoot once again, this time, without doubt, on the 
" mixed i»Ian." I should never dream of i)laying truant again with 
smh a lovalde companion. In my recollections of IJaltimore I shall 
ever desire to retain as the central figure on memoiT's tablet that 
chariiiing young ^tud.-ut ..f tlir \V(ini:in"s College. 


WASHINGTON (Part I). 93 


c|i||:if^^ star-spaugled banner that floated above the Capitol was 

^^^^^^^ stirred into life by the rippling of the evening breeze, and 
the chariot of the moon — night's fair (jueen — Avas sweeping majestically 
over the ridge of the distant horizon beneath the star spangled vault of 
heaven, when we reached Washington and drove quietly to the Arlington, 
the hotel selected for our stav. 

Here my friend n^ceived important (lesi)atehos which occupied a 
considerable portion of his time after we had jointly d(\'^patched an 
excellent dinner. Left to mvself I strolled into tlie hall and settled 
down within easy ear shot of a knot of politicians, who we^v discussing 
in loud tones the all absorbing topic of '* somid money." I could not 
follow them ; speech was too rapid and confuscnl, and declamation and 
denunciation stood for argiunent. At first they laughed and chaffed, 
debated and bantered, but it ended in the kind of wrangling which 1 
suppose usually precedes the production of six-shooters, or tlu^ more 
modem and less dangerous flinging of inkstands. All the time these 
political gladiators were engaged in wordy warfare, their surrounding 
fellows chuckled and puffed and spat incessantly ; one of them reminded 
me of nothing so much as an old goat ; his scanty whiskers streaked with 
grey, he seemed to have entered into a contract to perpetually chew 
tobacco. Working his jaws goat fashion, whenever he wanted to say 
anything he would grasp his beard with one hand, duck his head about 
and then squirt with a bad aim a dirty yellow streak at th(^ spittoon, 
regardless of distance. The floors of American hotels are usually of 
white marble, but their beauty and cleanliness is often sadly defaced by 
the beastly addition of these liquid lines. Cannot the culture and 
refinement of American womanhood be enlisted to abolish this filthy 
and degrading practice as completely as slavery is abolished ? 


The sun had more than half finished his morning climb, and was 
shooting showers of flashing an'ows dij^ped in gold through the topmost 
boughs and interlacing branches of chestnut and acacia trees, as "ure 
passed underneath their shade and along the pretty park lying between 
the Arlington and the White* H(ms(\ Tlie air was balmy and scented 
with the sw(h4 inc(Misi» of flowei*s. Bosco was at his best, faultless in 
his attin*, witli elastic ste^j) and erect carnage, h<* strode along all the 
way, fully a step in advance — was lic^ n(»t an accredited ambassador with 
open credentials in his ])<»ck(*t, knowing theii* contents ? I felt there 
was n(» chance fnr me, for that day at any i-at(\ but to take a place 
at l(»ast one step in tin* rear. 

Hosco's letter nf introduction to the President's Private Secretarv, 
was sent to liini, unsolicited, bv tin* United States Consul in his native 
town, and for its undoubtiMl advantagi* and value to us, I desire to 
express my gnititude. It served as a golden key during our stay in 
Washington. an<l was in truth a very solid advantage^ ; here it is : — 

To Thr 1 1 OH. Hi* my T. Thvrbei\ 

Exec nil re MoNsioH . 

IJ 'ash luyton , T7.S.JL. 
My dear Thurhei\ 

Th'hs irjll he [jrese tiled lu yon hy my friend, F. Career^ Esq. 
(lioseoj, one (tf the leading nuiinifnetiirerH and solid men of England. 

Mr. Correr may desire to risit the House and Senate. May I 
ask thfd yon irill faeditate him shoidd he require it. Any further 
attention or courtesy yon may 1)e pleased to extend to my friend trill be 
thoroughly appreciated and regarded as a personal application by 

Yours rery truly, 

A D B , 


Little wonder then with such a passport in his breast pocket my 
friend's step was buoyant and his tread distinctly '^ solid." We found 
Mr. Thurber a modcd of courtesy and kindness ; after a pleasant chat, he 
said, ''you would like to see the President, wouldn't you?" Of course we 
expressed our extreme gratification at the prospect, and a private interview 


was arranged for us about three hours later in the day. " In the 
meantime," said Mr. Thurber, "you would like to look over the Uuited 
States Treasiirj', which is close at hand. I will give you a letter of 
introduction to my friend Mr. Morgan, the Chief of the Treasury, and 
send a messenger across with you, to put you in the right direction, 
and now, until one o'clock, good morning." 


Mr. Morgan we found not less eourteou« and kind than 
Mr. Thurber, and most anxious to make oiu- visit pleasant and instructive, 
deputing one of his chief clerks to show all the principal features, we 
spent two hours in a most interesting and agreeable way. 

The Cash Eoom is walled with choice American and Italian 
marbles and is one of the costliest in the world. Here the Treasury 


eash(*s the various wan-ants dra^Mi upon it. Tlu^ daily transactions run 
into many millions, from behind stoel screened windows Government 
wan*ants are exclianged for coin. Having issued originally from this 
very building as new cuiTcncv, and having passed through innumerable 
hands, the notes at last come* hack to bc^ redeeuKHl, and b(*ing money 
no longer, th<\v an* destroycHl. 

The system of making wvw mouc»v, (exchanging new for old and 
destroviuu th(» old is what chk* scm^s at the* Treasury, and it is all 
deeply interesting. J^et us try as briefly as jjossible to follow it. The 
Bureau of Enjrravin^ and Printinii: is a branch of the Treasury. 
Here (Tovernment bonds, postage and revenue stamps, &c., an* printed. 
We were shewn many si)ecimcns in various stages of completion ; 
amongst others, I remember, a sli),i)()() silver (M^ititieate, the largest 
not(* issued. 

From the IJureau of Kngraving and Printing the cuiTcncy is 
brou«::ht over at nine o'clock every morninii: — a million dollars a day — in 
a large waggon built of steel, and attended by a force* of guards, to 
the Treasury, and delivered to the Division of Issue; it is ccmnted and 
veritied by ex])erts ; then the sheets ai'c smt to the S(»aling lioom, 
and the Ked Seal of the Uegisti'ar of the Treasury stamju'd upon them. 
The cutting machine now comes into opc^ration, and tin* notes are put up 
into j)ackages for final counting ; each package going through the hands 
of five counters. The* marvellous skill, rapidity and accuracy of the 
count(*rs — all femah^s, whose* salari(»s, we* weTc tolel, e'onmience at ^JMM) 
anel go up to ,^l(i()() peT annum — is a n*ve»lation e)f what the trained 
hand and eye* anel minel can do. Each i)ackage* enrntains 40(10 ne)tes, and 
ne)t only de)e's she ce)unt the ne)t(»s, but her watchful eye scans the red 
seal and detee*ts any imperfection in its printing. During our stay in 
the States, I was frequently struck with the extrenu* beauty of much of 
this note printing ; the beautifully execute^d portraits . of past Presidents, 
Secretaries of State, Senatoi^s, and e>tli(T famous American citizens, which 
however are never used until after their death, are unexcelled as works 
of the highest art. 

The average daily volume of new money passing through the 
hands of the counters in the Division of Issue is a million dollars, 

WASHINGTON^ (Part I). 97 

made up of 320,000 separate uotes from one dollar to one thousand 
dollars in value. An elabomte system of receipting and checking prevails, 
and although errors are . not absolutely unknown they are extremely 

In the Redemption Division old currency is received back to be 
exchanged for new. It comes from banks throughout the country and 
from the Sub-Treasui'ies. Here also the most elaborate precautions are 
taken to guard against error and loss ; the coimters in this department 
are women, Avhose skill excites our wonder and whose* beauty compels 
our admiration. The notes to b(* cancelled are first made up in packets, 
then taken to a machine Avhi(^h pun(.*tures four holes through each, two 
in the uppcM* and two in th(^ lower half, and finally to the cutting 
knife which cuts the package^ in two, lengthways, each half having still 
the initials of the counter and the amount the i)ackage contains ; (me 
half goes to the Registrar's office and the other to that of tlie Secretary 
of the Treasury. There* is received in the Red(Miii)tion Division an average 
of a million dollars a dav. or more than three hundred millions a vear. 

The task of the eount(Ts in the R(Mlemption Division is much 
more difficult than in the \w\\ money Issue D(*partment. There is no 
order of enumeration to <^ui(l(^ the counter and mucli of the currencv is 
woni and difficult to handh^ We saw a <rreat deal not usuallv shewn : 
in a secluded cohkm*, not aceessibh* to ordinary visitors, we were 
introdu(HMl to a lady, Mrs. Brown, an expert in burned money, in shreds 
and patches of currency. Her task is to unravel mysteries, to solve 
problems — often exceedingly difficult of solution. We were shown many 
curious examples of this particular work ; puli)y bits of money that had 
been chewed by swine, in which traces had been made out of a ^10 
and two ^5 notes ; fragments of two ^500 notes supposed to have been 
torn up and thrown away by a Chicago man before committing suicide ; 
the ashes of one $10 and two $o notes which a woman had hidden in 
a grate and afterwards set lire to ; notes that had been buried in the 
earth for safety, discoloured and partly destroyed by rot. There are 
however restrictions upon the redemption of fragments of money ; the 
amount allowed being in proportion to the pieces identified, in such a 
way as to make over payment impossible. 


Formerly the cancelled currency was burned. This method has 
been abandoned on account of the difficulty of ensuring every note's 
complete destiniction ; now they are destroyed completely in the 
'' Macerator," a huge spherical receptacle of steel, containing water and 
fitted internally with closely set knives, which as they revolve grind the 
contents exceedingly fine. The massive lid is secured by three special 
locks, each with a separate key ; one key is held by the Treasurer, 
another by the Secretary, and a third by the Comptroller of the Currency. 
Each day at (me oYlock, these officials or their deputies, with a fourth 
who represents the ]iauks and the people, assemble at tlie ," Macerator," 
and deposit therein the money to be destroyed. 

Mr. Morgan, who signs all the Treasury bills and certificates, gave 
me a mmiber of statistics bearing upon the United States cun-ency, but 
as I lack the magician's pen of a Gladstone to marshal figures in an 
attractive form, I will simply record that the total paper currency 
outstanding on March olst, 181K!, was ^l,0i>'3,82'j,9S7 made up of five 
different denominations, viz. : — Vnited States Xotes, Treasury Xotes of 
1890, Xational Bank Xotes, Gold Certificates and Silver Certificates. 
I notice the Silver Certificates, $o48,o20,'j()4, are more than eight 
times the amoimt of the Gold, viz. : — $4o,822,409. 

The Bond Vault contains the bonds deposited by the Xational 
Banks, of which there are OOOO, as security for their own notes in 
circidation. The law requires that a Xational Bank have a fixed 
minimum capital, and that with 2o per cent, of this capital, it must 
purchase United States bonds and deposit them with the Treasury ; if 
the Bank fails the Government sells the bonds, and redeems the bank's 
notes. The Vaults on March 31 st, 1896, contained Xational Bank bonds 
to the value of $220,915,718. One of the Clerks in Charge of the 
Bond Vaults shewed us a package containing bonds of the value of 

A visit to the Bullion Vaults leaves a solid and lasting impression. 
We saw two — the most important ; by the courtesy of Mr. Morgan, the 
United States Treasurer, I am enabled to give (they are interesting) 
the contents of these vaults on the day of our visit. 



CoNTKXTS OF Vaults IX TJ. S. Treasuker's Office. 











Total . 




4 8, 000, coo 









Standard silver dollars — halves, $355,100. 
Standard silver dollan?. 
Gold coin. 

Fractional silver, $585,000 ; minor coin, $79,600. 
National bank notes received for redemption. 
Mixed moneys received daily for redemption. 
Mixed moneys for daily use. 

Bonds held n.s secunty for X. 15. cii-culation, &c. 
Held as reserve to replace worn and mutilated 
untit for circulation. 


Total weiji^ht of coin ahout 5,000 tons. 

Dimensions of Silver Vault: 89 feet Ioujj:, 51 feet wide, and 12 feet high. 

The Rilvor Vault, Xo. 1, in tlic above statoment, contained when 
we saw it ,$102,800,000 standard silver dollars, including $3oo,000 in 
half dollars. The coin is kept in sacks of ,$1,000 each, and in wooden 
boxes of $2,000 each ; the boxes are built up in tiers to form retaining 
walls for the tons of sacks. In a passage-way between the wall of 
silver and the stone wall of the vault stands a table on which is 
exposed a thousand dollars, the contents of one sack. Each dollar in 
the vault is represented by one of t]i(» silver certificate's, whicli is 
in circulation as currencv. 

The second Vault we saw contained, according to the daily 
statement, $48,000,000 in dollars, $2,(180,000 in gold coin, and $004,000 
in fractional silver and minor coins. It appears that the gold held at 
Washington is only to supply the demand of tlie district of (Vdumbia. 
The gold reserve is distributed in tlu^ Sub-Treasuries, from whence the 
local demand for gold is met. The law requires the Treasury to hold 
a reseiwe of at least $100,000,000 in gold to sustain the credit of the 
United States. 

It may be asked, how is this storehoiLse of gigantic treasure 
protected ? It seemed to me that every precaution that forethought and 
skill could devise had been provided. Massive steel doors protect the 
entrances — one, a solid sliding door, we were told, weighs six tons ; 
another, known as the combination door, has a time lock which is wound 
up every afternoon at two o'clock, and does not run out until eleven 


o'clock the next day, before which time the door caimot he unlocked. 
A strong foifo of A^atchmcn, all old aniiy or navy men, pati'ol the 
huilding day and night ; elcetiic bells, coinnmiii eating with the office of 
the Captain of the "W'atch, are mug every half liour day and night. 
This office is also in commmiication with the Chief of Police, the Fort, and 
the Arsenal, whence Police. Cavalry and Artillery can he promptly sent. 

WHITK inn 

By tlie time we had thanked the Treasurer and his deputy for 
their kindness and attention, the hour had almost arrived for our 
interview with the President. Turning our backs upon the Trcasuiy, 
with its stately colonnade of Doric columns after those of the Temple 
of Minerva, a building seccmd only in importance to the Capitol itself ; 
we found the full gromi leaves of the noble trees, lining the semi- 

WASm.WTOX (P„rl Ij. 


(•irciiliir avcmtc Ii'adiiifi to the White 
ll(ms<-, a fjiiitcCiiI sliadc fi-oiii tlic 
huniiiifj; licaiiis (jf the noontide sun. 
\Vc liad lint lonj,' to wait. Our 
interview was fixed for one o'clock, 
Iiaif an hour in advane<' fit' liis usual 
reee]iliou. Mr. (levelaiid rose to meet 
us and ri'iuained sfandinj^ <Uii-in^' our 
intnWuetion l>y Mr. 'I'liurlier. 1 liave 
Iieen asked dozens (jt times what 1 
llioufj;Iit .>|- tlic President y wliat i< hi- 
ke ? and whal w<- lalked ahout ? 
Well. I tllou^'ht him open. tVank. 
ios>(>s>ed nt thai -genial coui-tesy which 

las the in.lVahh- char f i.iaeiuj; a 

■trau-rer al .me., at his ea-r. I >h..idd 

I'lMlslUKXr ei.l.VLl.AMl. 

siiy that in any splicn' tli-' I'l-.-idi'iil 
would leave his mark; «h.lli.4' a^ 
the head of a iar;.n' u>rre:niiil" <'nie'r|-|i. 
or <;i;{antie and tar rearhiriu I'l'i^aiii/- 
ation, there the iiii|)Ci'.-.- .if a cim- 
niandin<; pei-soualily won Id lie |V||. 
anil, ju<lKiti<; fmm the many ii[iiiiinii<; 
I heard cx|m'ssed. I sh.add' siy that 
cm tlie completion of his sei-ond lennvf 
of otHce. he will leave a name I.eliind 
him at the Whit.. Il.m-e. whirl, will 
take rank as one of the iiin,-.t ahle, 
painstaking, and hard working; of the 
many famous men of that jrreat ei>un- 
try, whose sh.nvs are laved l.y eartli's 
two might il■^l nceau^, and \vlii<di lie-i 


between ''the icy capes of Labrador and the Spaniard's land of flowers." 

Then what is he like ? Eather tall, moderately stout, Anth a 

pleasant but at the same time, dignified face ; very like his photograph, 

which I have the honour to reprint, and also that of Mrs. Cleveland, 

. who enjoys the reputation of being, not only one of the most beautiful, 

but most amiable women of her dav. 


\NTiat did we talk about y Well, anything but politics — the ink 
of the Venezuela message had not long been dry. Our impressions of 
the comitry, the peojile, American customs and institutions, the weather 
and scenery, made iij) a pleasant half hour's chat. One little incident 
in oui' conversation slic^wed me j^lainly how great a grasj) the President 
had of things small as well as great, and how little he misses. I 
remarked that I had the pleasure of being introduced to his ambassador, 
the Hon. T, F. Bayard, and hearing him speak at the Metropole, London, 
after a dimier given in aid of St. John's Foundation Schools, Leatherhead. 
" Ah,"" he siiid, '' was'nt it a beautiful speech,"" and proceeded to tell 
me much about it that at the time, I am aslunned to write it, I had 
forgotten ; how Mr. liayard had pointed out the large number of men 
who had risen to cmineuco and greatness in various spheres in life, bom 
in the parsonage houses of the poorer clergy of the Established Church, 
mentioning Xelson amongst others. Mr. Bayard also in the most tender 
manner spoke of the relations that bound, and must ever bind. 
Englishmen and Americans in one indissoluble* bond, and the President 
said again he thought it a beautiful and admirable speech. I must 
not do Mr. Cleveland an injustice because I find, on looking at my 
notes again, that he did refer to the pleasiint relations existing between 
England and his coimtry, so that the Venezuelan despatch must have 
been written in ink not fast colour, for the memory of that unfortunate 
message seemed to be fast fading, and it was chiefly remembered as 
'^ that despatch " which Mr. Olney wrote one evening after a dinner 
that had made him bilious. 

We had a second and lengthy chat with ^Ir. Thiu'ber, who seemed, 
so it appeared to me, to impress upon us the undoubted good feeling 
that existed towards oiu- country in the States amongst Americans. All 
who lived in the States were not Americans ; threats of the dissolution 

WASHINGTON (Part I). 103 

of the ties binding tlie two countries togctlier emanated in 99 cases out 
of 100 from persons who liad drifted to America, and either spoke 
English with a broken accent, or did not speak it at all. 

The Monroe doctrine was touched upon, and ^Ir. Thurber suggested 
that they on their side of the water might be expected to know what 
thev want and think desirable on the American continent, much as we 
do, say, in Africa, Eg>^t, or India. liosco replied that h(> did not 
contest that proposition, but feeling that for the moment, in the absence 
of Sir Jidian, he represented not only Her liritannic ^lajesty, but the 
entire Empire, he added, with dignity, " You know, my dear sir, when 
two fi-iends have a difference of opinion, they usually exju'css that opinion 
in w^ords least likely to give offence/' ^\x, Thurber most cordially 
assured the deputy ambassador that nothing but the kindliest feelings 
were entertained, and we left with the feeling that our interview with 
America's President had been moro gratifying than a reception in all 
the courts of Europe. After this, the Foreign Office will probably make 
Bosco a K.t'.B. 

The prevailing (rharacteristie of th(* White House is stately 
simplicity. From Pcmnsylvania Avenu(^ tlu^ columns of the j^ortico are 
partially revealed through tlu* foliage of noble trees. Th(^ situation, the 
character of the building, the surroundings of trim, AV(^ll-kept lawns, and 
lofty leaf thatched roofs of vc^rdure, in whos(^ cool and grat(»ful shade 
we found a welconu* shelter from th(^ sparkling rays of the sun on high, 
" set as a Koh-i-noor abovc^ the blue velvet cushion of day's coron(»t," 
all spoke of quiet dignity and repose, Ixnioming the home of the President. 

Passing within the lin(^ Colonial doorway, and into the central 
vestibule, a striking filature is the screen of wrinkled stained glass mosaic 
(by TifPany) which separates the vestibule from the central comdor. In 
the walls are decorative i)an(4s, Avith medallions of Washington and 
Lincoln. The flags of the Washington panel show the thirteen stars of 
1792, when President Washington laid the corner stone of the building; 
while in the flags of the Lincoln panel are the thirty-six stars bonio 
by the banner in 18Go, when President Lincoln went out from the 
White House to his martyrdom. 

From the vestibule one passes through a coiTidor to the magnificent 


State Parlour, famed as the East Eooni, and used for receptions; in the 
wall panels are hung full-length portraits of AVashington, Martha 
Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln. 

From the East lioom a central comdor t»xtends clear through to 
the conservatory, and gives access to the other State rooms of the first 
floor. The conidor, lighted by the glow of the jewelled glass screen, 
is richly decorated, and is adorned with pabns and i)ictur(^s, and mirrors 
and marbles. 

The jK^rtrait.s iiiv of l*i-»>i<l»'Uts \\'asliiii«i:tuii. JatlvMiu, Pulk. Tvler, Filliuun', 
Pierce. lUuhaiiaii. (ji-ant. Have^^. ami iiai-lield: and the Imsts are of < 'olumbus, 
Amencus V»"*i]iu(iiis. Jolm .lav. FiUinoir. ami John l^ri^rht |H'esHnt«Hl ]>y Bright 
to Lincoln. 

Of the rooms ojH'ning off from tlu' corridor, all sumptuously 
furnished, several have taken iheir name from the jjredominaut coloiu' 
scheme of the decoration. In the (ireen liooin, used for a music room, 
are portraits c)f Angelica Siugh't<ai Van liuren, wh<> Avas mistress of the 
AVhite Ilouse during Tresident Van lUnen's tiTin, Mrs. TybT, ^Irs. Polk, 
Mrs. Haves, and Mrs. Ifarrison. 

The Hlue Itoom, oval in sliajie, and fui'nished in liglit blue and 
gold, is used by the TresicU'iit as a reception room. The mantel clock 
was presented by Napoleon I to Lafayette, and by liim t(» the United 
States. The Cleveland marriage* took place in the Blue Koom, June, 1886. 

The Itcd lioom, with walls and hangings of l^ompeian red, is the 
family sitting room, and is used for receptions by the ladies of the 
President's household. There are portraits here of Presidents John Uuincy 
Adams, Van liuren, Taylor, liuchanan, Arthur, and Cleveland. 

Bevond the Red lioom is the State Dining Pooni, which is 
decorated in the Colonial stvle in tones of vellow. Here the State 
dinnei>> are given to the Cabinet, the Justices of the Supeme Court, and 
the Diplomatic Corj^s. The table servi(*es, of silver, china, and cut 
glass, were specially designed for the AVhite House. The china, 
numbering 1500 pieces, was selected by Mi*s. Hayes, decorated with 
exquisite paintings of American flowei^s, fruits, game, birds, and fish. 

A massive oaken table in the President's room, made from the 
tiuibei-s of H.M.S. Resolute, has an interesting historj. 

WASHINGTON (Part I). 105 

Sir John Franklin's oxpodition was cast away in tin* Arctic^ in 1816, and 
the long continnrnl Franklin K(»ai*C'li which followed ongagod tho sympathy of thn 
entire civilized world. Among the nnmerous vessels disi)atch(>d to the north was 
the Resolute of the ]iritish Navy, which, with the rest of th(» ileet, was a))andon(Ml 
in the ice in May of 1854. In September of the following year she was sighted 
by an American wlialer, was brought into an American Jiort, and eventually was 
presented by tin* United States to tlie Ih'itish (jov(»nnuent. This table, made 
from the timbei's of the rescued ship, was in 1881 s(»nt liy (iueen Victoria to 
the President for the White ITousc. 

The Cabinet Eooiii, wlien^ tli(^ (^abiiu^t meetings arc lu^ld, ojx^ns 
oft' from the President's Koom. Its walls arc hnng with })()rtraits of 
former Presidents. It is resei'vcd for the Presich'nt's hoiisohohl, as an* 
the other rooms on this floor. In (ahinet meetings the PrcsidiMit sits 
at the head of the talde, witli tho Socn^tarv of Stato on tli(» riglit liand, 
and the Secretary of tlic Trcasnry (Hi tlic left. 



HE War and Admiralty Oltiec*, or as it is called, tho State, 
War, and XaAy Building, like the Treasury in Pennsylvania 
Avenue, ranks as one of the largest and most magnificent office buildings 
in the world. It has -300 rooms and two miles of niaiWe halls. The 
stairways are of granite with balustei^s of bronze and the entire construction 
is fireproof ; for the records and archives deposited within its walls are 
priceless and beyond restoration. 

The War Department occupies the west wing, the Xavy Department 
the east wing, and tin* State Department tlu* south. 

The walls of the corridor of the Secretarv of War's offices and 
the ante-room show a series of })ortraits of Secretaries, beginning with 
Henry Knox (ITSU, Washington's first adininistratiim) and including many 
men whose names are household words in American homes. Of chief 
and peculiar interest are Iluntingdon's portraits of (irant, Shennan, and 
Sheridan, the three frames grouped with a drapery of the Stai's and Stripes 
and a silken standard of the Arms of the United Staters. The Washington 
portrait is a copy of an original by Gilbert Stuart. 

On the opposite side of the hall are the Ileadquartei's of the 

Armv and the office of the Commander-in-Chief. In the hall above arc 


shewni models of the uniform of the Army at various periods of the 
service. Among the gi'oups is one which represents the dress of 
Washington's Life Guard. The motto of this Guard was, '' Conquer 
or die.-' 

The State Librar}' is a most interesting room, not alone for its 
•30,000 volumes, rare and valuable as many of them are, but for the 
Xational heirlooms treasm-ed here. Foremost among these is a facsimile 
of the Declaration of Independence. The original of the Constitution 
and of Washington's Commission as Commander-in-Chief are p^eser^'ed in 
the safe. Amongst other objects of interest displayed are : — The Sword 


of "Washington, cucasotl iu a sheath of black leather, with sihcr 
maiuitings. The handle is of ivor}', pale gi'eou, wound with silver wiiv. 
The belt of white leather has silver moiintings. The swoid was tnnoug 
the four baiuoathed by "Washington to his four nephews. 

The Staff of Franklin. Franklin bequeathed it to "Washington, 
his will providing—"' My fine crab-tree walking stick, with a gold head 
curiously wrought in the form of the cap of liberty, I give to my 

friend, and the friend of uiankind, General "Washington. If it were a 
sceptre he has merited it and M'ould become it." There an; also buttons 
from Franklin's dress coiit, 

Thomas Jefferson's desk, on which lu; wrote the Deelaratiou of 

The Great Seal of the United States is shown in wax replica ; 
it was adopted by Congress in 1782. 


The Xaval Mouunieiit or Mintuinout of IVai-c; liy Fnniklin Siimuons; 
erected froiii fiiiuls i-oiitributcd bv inoiiibrrs nf the Xuvv, ■" ]u iiieinory 
of the Oftioei's. Scaiiieii aint Marines of tin- I'liittHl States Xavv. who 
fell in defence of tlie liiion and I,ib.i1v of their ( ountrv. ISiil-lSll-V* 
The fi;iures are nf 
Anierieu Wfeiiiii-;: 
History with reeord 
tablet:— "They died 
that Ihfiv eninitry 
nii'iht live;" \ii-tniy 
with laurel wnath. 
and IVaer with olivr 

The Capilnl i> 
distinjinished f.>i- il> 
(■oniiiianilin>: -itualii-ii 
and it- iiiajf-iii- 




dijrnity. yrraci' and 
l>.-auty .if its de>i,-rii: 
and thr adi-rnnn nl- 
aml deeoraliiiu- \\\\\A\ 
hoaiitify it witlmul 
and within. All th-r 
unite to '^\\v it rank 

object anioiij,' tlie 
noblest in the world. 
From un idevated >ite 
on Capitol Tlilh '.)(» 
feet nbovc rbe Iivcl 
of the river, it over- 
looks the Ainphi- 
thoiitiT of the Putoniae 
aud is ii coui-picuuus feature uf the landscape for miles uu every side. 


WASMIXG-rOX (I>.<rl 11). 


It is sot amid ;;riiiniils wliosc extent jiiiit inTiiii^riiii'iil iitlil iiiucli to the 
ai-chitoftiiral effect. 

Fnun till' iiiiiiii wcslcni ('iitnim'<' nf tin- <,'nitiinls, iirar tlir Peace 
Moimmi'iit, tile aiiprniicli lends up tin- jp'iitly risiiif; lawns to flij^lits of 
stops, wliicll flivo ascent tu the ini|)er terrace, extemliiif; tlio entire le!i«;th 
of the west front and amtiiid the north and south <'iids. Here a heautiful 
view is afforded of the city and encircling hills. 

On the eiisl frnnt are lliroe y:r.ind porticoes «'itli Corinthian 
cohmiTis. and there is ii iini'ljin >\\ siinilar cnlinnns on the end and west 

frout of e-aeh extension. tli-rhts of nuirhle >te|>s lead iip 1o th<- 

The crownini; ;:lorv of tlie Capitol i> the imposiiij; dnnie. sjirin-tinj; 
from a i>eristylc of tinted Corinthian ctdnnms idiove the eentnil Imihtin;;. 
and tenninatinfi in a lantern which is -unnounted hy the Siniue of 
Freedom, towerin;; nearly .JMU feet ahove the e-j.Ianade. The hei;:ht of 
the domr- nhove the l.ase line of liie ea^t front is 2s7 fe<'l ; from tlie 
rf>of bahistnide 217 feet: diaiiietrr at the hase I:;', feet. It i« of iron. 


and weighs 8,909,200 lbs. It is so coustnicted that with the variations 
of temperatiiro the iron plates expand and contract, "like the folding 
and unfolding of a lily.'' 

The bronze Statue of Frcedoni, designcnl by Cniwfonl, is 19 feet 
6 inches high, and weighs 14,985 lbs. It was set in jdace on December 
2nd, 1802, when Washington was sun-ouiidcd on all sides by Federal 
fortifications ; and the ex'cut was celebrated with cheers by thousands of 
the ''boys in blue." the dipping of flags and tlie booming of artillery. 

Of the two colossal gronps in 
marble on the portico, one is Pcrsico's 
Discovery of America (Columbus and 
an Indian girl), tlie armour of which 
is siiid to liave been copied from a 
suit worn by Columbus and preserved in 
(ienoa. The other group is (ireenongh's 
First Settlement of America — a piuueer 
in despenite conflict with a savage. 

The Rotunda is a convenient 
point from which to visit the various 
parts of the Capitol . 

The fortnnes of the American 
Indian funii.-ih a theme which we find 
constantly rcciirrlug throughont tlu' 
decorations of the Capitol. The uiar- 
bles and bronzes of the liotunda portico 
are suggestive of the first contact 
the two i-accs ; the marble gronp in 
the tympanum of the Senate portico 
is significant of what the coming of the new nice was to mean for the 
old. The subject, by Crawford, is American Development and the 
Deciidence of the Indian Koce. 

The visitor is sure to be greatly impressed with the magnificence 
of the marble corridors and stairways of the extensions ; the exceeding 
beauty of the pilasters, columns and capitals, sculpture and frescoing ; 
the tessellated floors ; and the vistas through the windows, giving glimpses 



of the city and the Washington Monument, the Xew Library, and the 
Capitol itself. 

The Rotunda is an immense circular hall 95 feet in diameter, 
and rising clear from floor to inner shell of dome and canopy 180 feet 
above. Light is admitted through tlie 06 windows of the peristyle. 
The walls are adorned with paintings, sculptures, and frescoes, and the 
vaulted canopy toj) above the eye of the dome glows with cohnir. The 
eight oil paintings in the panels of the hall have for tlioir subjects 
memorable scenes in the history of the continent and of the T"nit(Hl 
States. The key to eacli picture lianj^s beneath it : — 

Tho Landing of Colunihuft on 8an Salvador, October 12, 1492. (Hv A^uiderlvn). 

Tho Discovoiy of tho ^Mississii)])! hy Do Soto, 1541. (By Powoll). 

Tho Baptism of Pocahontas, Jaiuostown, Va., 1613. (Hv Cliapnian). 

The Embarkation of tlio nigi-ims from Dolft Havon, July 21, 1620. {\\\ Wow). 

The Declaration of Indojiondonco, Philadelphia, July 4, 1776. (Hv John Trumhull). 

The 8un*ender of Hurgoyno, Saratoga, October 17, 1777. (Hv Trumbull). 

The Surrender of Oornwallis, Yorktown, October 19, 1781. {\\\ Trumbull). 

The Hesigiiation of General AVashington, Annapolis, December 23, 1783. (Hy 

The last four paintings by Trumbull have ])eculiar interest and value, ])(Maus(» the 
figures in them are authentic portraits ; works which an- held priceless for their ])ortraits 
of the Fathei's of the Pejaiblic, and are a realization of tlie artist's high ambiti(m. 
Trumbull was a son of Joiuithan Trumbull, a statue of whom is in the noighbounng 
Hall of Statuarv. 

In tlie arabesques abovc^ the paiiitiiijirs an* s(*uli)tur(Ml portraits of 
Columbus, Raleifi^h, Cabot, and La Salb^ ; and above tlu^ doors an* 
sculptures of the Laudiufi: of tlu^ rilj»:riins, rocaliontas rescuing Captain 
John Smith, AVilliam Penifs Coufen^nce Avith X\\v Indians, and J)aniel 
Boone in Conflict with Indians. At a liei<z:ht of SO fcM^t abov(* the 
floor, and encircling the wall, here ')()() feet in circumference, rnns a 
fresco in imitation of high ndief, illustrating periods of the history of 
the continent. 

The east door of the Rotunda is the Rogers Bronze Door, designed 
and modelled by the American artist, Randolph Rogers, at Rome in 
1858, and cast by Ycm Muller at Munich. The double door has eight 
panels on each side, with one across the transom ; and these are filled 
with high reliefs illustrating scenes in the career of Columbus. 


Tlic Huhjects arf : OiliimhiiB before the Council of Snlamanca : his Departure 
from the ("'nnvent nf Iji ItnbMn : tli<' Audience before Feniinnud and Isabella 
the Snilinp fi-oni PhW on ihe First Voyapi- : the Ijiuiliug at Sail Salvador 
the First Enciumter with the Tniliiins : the Trininphnl Kntri- into Knrr'eloiifl 
r-olunibus in nuiin-i : his IVnth. 

Nu till' tniiisom iii-i'h i* a [milni 
lionlers. iu jiHjiiil rnVn- jind n)_vnl itoh 
wIk. i.laye.1 ihfii- ]«n-t^ in the nieiiionil.l 

The Xiitioiiiil Stattiiiry inill. semi- 
circular ill slia|)»' !iii(l licsitiiK'il hy l,;itrid>c, 
after a (iivck theatre is on.- ..f tli<- iiio^^t 
Iteimtiful nxtms ..f the <':ii>it.-]. Ahove the 
il-...r leadiii,:: IV-mi tlic Itutiimla is Ki-jiiizmii's 
Historical Clock. The (le>i!.ni is ..f History, 
with recordiiij: tahlet. lioriie in tlic wiiifred 

ear ot 'I'illle, whose wheel is Mijipiirted nil a 

jrh.l.e circh'.l hy the VM'vm: In thi> liall 
ai'c tniiinl statues nf iiiaiiy "\ Aniei-ica's nmsl 
faimms sniis ; space aUows I lie nientinii uf 
hut a few:- 

l;,.).-i-t r,ill..;i ..i ^.M:^-^,^,,.,i:,, 1 7<i;..| si .', 

I.-); N-v. Vnvk f..] 

T : and on tlu' jtanel 

i.f tb.. I)i«coi 

inii siiil of mail, hit the [lernoiiageK 

lOild dniTiLii of Ih'- fifteenth century-. 


IlIsTonie.iI. CLOCK. 

Jaiiir^ AliiMiu tiiirtiiil nf ii|ii,,. In:}1-1nM I.v N.-ihmi-;. ^[^ljl.l■ General, 
Army of th.- rmiib..ili,ii.i : M.'.iil"-i- uf ( ■..upv^- : .-le<' to Seiinti. ; Pit*id.>nt. 
Iu the hiilies' Hiiitintr nioiii of tlit- Itnliiinore and Totomac Railway Station, a 
star in the floor marks the spot where (Jarlield fell. .Tilly 2. 1 881 : and a memorial 
tablet in the wall commemorates the trajric event. 

Thomas Jefferson, jiuibor .>f th.' 1 (iMdaniiion nf Iiide|H.nden<'e and one of 
its signers ; f-ecretarj- of ."^Inte, AViishinpton's first lenn : Vice-President with 
John Adams: President 1801, i-e-el.-cteil 1804. 

Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, 1809-1865; President. 1861-1865. 
Jonathan Trumbull of Connecticut, 1710-1785; a cii)se friend of 'Washington, 
who " reUeil on him as one of his main pillars of support,'' and because of 
his skill in proi-iding the einfi^s of war gave him the name of "Brother 

WASfflNGTO^f (Part 11 j. 

Jon&thRD," Tised ever since as a nii-kname of the T'nitPfl Stntps. John Tniniliull, 

the artist of the Botunila {minting, wna his aim. 

(Iwifie Washingiou of Virfpnia, 1732-1799. This i« a planter cant. The 

ori^oal white marble is in the Capitol nt Eichnioiid. It is life size ; the dross 

is the military costume of tlio Bevohitiou. Tin' iiiscriptiini on tin- pivlestal was 

nritteii hv James Muilison, nfterwanl PwRiilent : — 
"The General Assembly of the Coiiimon- 
weuth of Virffinia have causfHl this Ntatiio to 
be Pi-pcteil aK a lunmiment of affection nu<l 
pmtitudp to (ieorge Washing on, who, uniting 
to the eiwiowiui'ntH of a hevo the virtues of ii 
patriot, null oxerting lioth iu ('stal'li»hiiig tin- 
libertir* of hiR crHintr*-. luis reiiilerrti his iiiinii' 
ilenr to his fi'llow-<'iti/i'iis ami givi^n the worlil 
an iiiniiortal extiniple of true glory. iJonf in 
tho year of ChHst. one rlioiisaml si'veu hiindrril 

nml eighty, .igbt. ami i; 

II the y.>ar of tin- Co 

UJonwealtli Ih.' twelftli.' 

Ilanii^l Wv 

b,-I..r of N..W ll„ii,i,sl,i 

l-«-MH.):2. This 

lh.Il of li.-i.vs,.ntati> 

lias rung uitli li 

is m!.K|H.>iic.-. ami in t 

ol.l Si'iiatM C'liu, 

inlHT now the Su|nvi 

C.iurt Itonm w, 

(s li..aitl riiat <i-leJ.ni1 

p,.n>ratio„ of tl„. 

S,i-..u.l Ifojily lo Ilim 

- Whi^n my lyi.s 

shall turn to Ix'ho 

for the last timi', \\\<- 

sun ill li.'aveii. m.iy 


t their li» 
behol.l 111 

mit see him shining on tli<' biiiken , 

honoured fragmi'iits of a ouii> glorious 

on States dissevi-i-.-<i, disfonlant. l-^llip^ 

u land mit with rivil feuds. .,r dr.-i 

nmy bi', in Initemal b 

feeble and liugeiiug glai 

got^^ms enBigu of the Kejniblic, now known 

and honoured thnmghout the cnilli, still full 

high ndvancwi, its anns and tii)phies sti-eamiug 

in their original lusti'i', not a stripe erased or 

polluted, not a single star ()b»<:ure<l, bearing 

for its motto no siieli niisemble iuterrofpitoiy 

as: — MVTiat is all this worth?' nor those 

other ■ wonls of delusion and folly : — ' I-iberty 

first and t'uiou afterward ; ' but cverywhei-e spread all over in character of livinp 

light, blazing in all its ample folds as they float over the sea and over tlie land, and 



in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true 
American heart — ' Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.' " 

The Hall has some extraordinary acoustic properties, by which 
whispers become shouts, and persons may converse with their faces buried 
in opposite comers. The variegated marble of the columns contains some 
astonishing natural pictures, perfect forms of birds and animals ; and 
human faces, among which even grave Senators are wont to find likenesses 
of their associates. 

The Hall of Representatives is a legislative chamber unsurpassed 
in the world. The dimensions are: length, 139 feet; width, 93 feet; 
height, 30 feet. It is lighted by a ceiling of glass panels, set in a 
framework of iron. 

The Speaker's desk of white marble occupies an elevated position 
in the centre of the south side, and the desks of the Representatives 
are arranged in concentric semi-circles, with radiating aisles. A silver 
plate on each mahogany desk (in the House and in the Senate) has 
engraved on it the occupant's name. The speaker's mace is set on its 
pedestal of Vermont marble at the right of the desk. The mace is a 
bundle of ebony rods, bound together with ligaments of silver, and 
and having on top a silver globe surmounted by a silver eagle. It 
resembles the fasces borne by the lietors before the Roman magistrates. 

In the panels of the wall on either side of the Speaker's desk 
and facing the House are full-length portraits of Washington and 
Lafayette (by Ary Scheffer), presented to Congress by Lafayette on his 
last visit to the country. 

Over the main entrance is the famous clock, whose hands are 
turned back on the last day of the session, that the hour of adjournment 
may not be marked by it before the business of the house is finished. 
The clock is of bronze, with figures of a pioneer and an Indian, and 
surmounting it an American eagle. 

The Senate Chamber is a spacious hall 113 feet in length, 82 
feet wide, and lighted by a ceiling 36 feet above the floor. The seats 
of the Senators are arranged in concentric rows, with the aisles radiating 
from the dais of the President's desk on the north side. The room is 
surrounded by galleries with a seating capacity of 1000 persons. The 

WASHINGTON (Part 11). 

walls are richly decorated in gold arabesques on delicate tints, with buff 
panels ; and the glass of the ceiling is fiUetl with sjTnboUsm of "War, 
Peace, Union, Progress, the Arts, Sciences, and Industries. 

The Senators' Reception Eoom, known as the Marble Boom because 
constructed wholly of that material, has stately Corinthian columns of 
Italian marble, panelled walls of Tennessee marble, and ceiling of marble 
from Vermont. The walls are set with mirrors. 

The Senate Bronze Door is worthy of 
special admiration, the eight panels in high 
relief commemorate events in tlic history of 
the Republic : — The Death of Warren at 
liunkor Hill, 177") ; "Washington's Rebuke 
of Gon. Charles Lee at Monmouth, 1778 ; 
Hamilton's rTalliintri- at Yorktown, 17S1 ; 
Washington's Reception at Trenton, when on 
the way to his Inauguration as First Presi- 
dent, 178It ; Wastiingtou's First Inauguration, 
1789 ; Laying the (.'omer Stone of the Capitol, 
September 18, 1793. The panels below contain 
Allegories of War (struggle botwoen a Hessian 
and a settlor) and Peace. 

At the base of the white marble west 
stairway is Story's marble statue of John 
Hancock, whose name is first in the list of 
signatures of the Declaration. Tlie pedestal is inscribed : — " He ■wrote 
hia name where all nations should behold it and all time should not 
efface it." 

It is impossible within the limits of the space at my disposal to 
do more than refer in the briefest manner to the very many objects of 
the greatest interest and beauty within the precincts of the Capitol. The 
grand staircases ; the noble corridors whose walla and ceilings are 
covered with frescoes ; committee and reception rooms decorated with 
paintings depicting civil, military and naval incidents in American annals; 
portraits of men foremost in various spheres of life who have left 
imperishable names that will ever illumine the roll of fame; the Supreme 



Court House, once the Senate Chamber ; the Library of Congress, erowded 
and littered with an overwhehning eolleetion of books. Statues and 
statuary claiming attention had to be hurriedly passed by, o\nng to the 
flight of time, and I must end my memories of the Capitol by a last 
reference to the memorial tablet deposited beneath the corner-stone of the 
extensions, laid July 4, I80I, concluding with these rounded periods of 
Daniel AVebster, Secretary of State, and the orator of the day : — 

'* If, thorfforo, it shall bo hereafter the will of (xod that this structure 
shall fall from its base, that its foundations be u})-turne<l, and this deposit 
brought to the «*y(>s of men, be it known that <m this day the Union of the 
Unite<l States of Anienca stands firm; that their ( 'onstituti<m still exists unim- 
pairf^I, and with all its onpnal usefulness and j^hny, Ji'rowing everv day stronger 
and stronger in the affections of the gr»»at body of the AuKnican p(»ople, aud 
attracting more and more th«» admiration of th«^ world. And all here assembled, 
whether belonging to public lif«« or to privat(* life, with heai*ts devoutly thankful 
to Almighty (rod for the pn-scrvation of the lilx-rty and happin<\ss of the 
country, unite iu siiic(M-e and frrvrnt ]>rayei-s that this dcjM)sit, ami the walls 
and arches, the domes and towei-s. the columns and entablatur(\s. m)W to be 
erected over it. mav eudure for ever! <t()I) SAVE TIIK UNITED STATES 

We wore v(^rv fortunate in our visit to the ('ai)itol. ]5y the 
conrtesy of the Hon II. T. Tlmrber \\(» liad tlu^ entrue to tli(^ Presidc^nt's 
priyate box, both in tlie House of Kepreseutatives and in tlie S(»nat(». In 
the House of liei)n»seutativ(\s a (lel)ate on the bankruptcy hnvs Avas 
proceeding; it was not liowever ])articularly lively or interesting; a short 
stay suflfic(Ml. In the Senate we were uiueli uiore fortunate ; a full dress 
debate on the ('urr(»n(*y Bill was in progress. Senator Teller, of t'olorado, 
was on his fcn^t — just where he stood there werc^ about five yacant chairs, 
and in front of these the Senator walked to and fro incessimtly, exactly 
as a wild beast moves about in his den. His speech was marked by 
great vehemence, and was evidently a bitter attack on one of his 
colleagues, who Mr. Teller kept refen-ing to every minute at least as the 
" Senator from 0-hi-o III'' This turned (mt to be Senator Sherman, who 
rose to reply before we left ; it was a battle royal between the Silyerites 
and the Sound Money Party. I copy from the Washington Post of the 
following day a few of the leading points of the speech. 

WASHfiXGTO.V (Pnrt If), 117 


Will Repudiate Republicauisiu If It Stuiicls for Gold. 


Th« Colorado Senator Takes l)ire<'t lssu(» with His (.'olloajj^uc* aud iu a Spewli of 
(Ireat Vehomoiico Auiiouiifos His Position — A Warning to tho Country 
tliat McKinlevisni Will Not luring Prosperity. 

** As I speak so will I vote." 

With this declaration Senator Telhn* vi^stoinlav afternoon fonuallv announced 
his intention of severing his eonneetion with tht» Republican Pai-ty if it should 
roniniit itself at the approaching National Convention to the* single gohl standaixl. 

Mr. Teller, under the spur of a statement from Mr. Sherman that tlie 
silv(*r purchasing law was a makeshift which had heen ad<>]>ted to save tlio 
<'<)untry from a fri*e coiuag** law, told some ])arty sin-rrts which revc^ahxl some 
of the inside op(M*ations coun«H"ted witli tlie passage of the McKinley hill. Mr. 
Teller directly stated that tlie Sherman silver punrhasing law was given to the 
silver m(»n in return for their support for th(» McKiidey bill. The Kepublicans, 
in order to g<'t as high protection and taxation as was possilde, paid to tho 
silver ni«ai the* price of tin' purchast* of 4,000,000 ounces of silver a month for 
nearlv thirtv months. liut for this deal, the McKinlev bill would have been 
loade<l down with a silver ameudiuHut, which Presidj'ut Harrison would have 
vetoed, and, knowing this, the silver men accepti'd th«' compromise which Senator 
Shennan offered th(»m. This statement, nuuh? in the open Senate, cn^ated a 
genuine sensation and was not answered by Mr. Sherman. 

The speech itself was provokt^l by the letter of his colleague. Senator 
Wohrott, which aj^peareil in the Post yesterday moniing. In his letter Mr. 
Wolcott took the positicm that neither (^f the two old parties would adopt a free 
coinage platfoiin, and, in this contingency, he announced that he would remain 
with the Republican Party, believing that even gold monometallism was preferable 
to Populism. 

There is one sent(»nce, not reported, in the Senator from Colorado's 
speech, which he delivered with unusual vehemence* and fervour; he said, 
" Mr. President, we have th(^ greatest country in the world, the <i:reatest 
wealth in the world, and the greatest intellig(»noe to be found in any 
country in the world, but if we refuse to recognise silvcT as a part of 
the basis of our cuiTcncy, and d(j not n^cognise tho concuiTent and 
impartial use of gold and silver for currency purposes at a fixed ratio, 
then I siiy our doom is pronounced, our glory will vanish, and 


" Idiabod " will be written large on our portals." I remember this 
passage so well because Bosco's solid foot came down on my poor 
corns like a sledge-hammer, by way of protest, when Mr. Teller claimed 
for his country a preponderance of intelligence. 

It may interest my ireaders to see the protrait of Senator Teller. 
He is the chosen leader of the Silverite party. Mr. Teller claims to be 
a good judge of mines, and says that he has examined more of them than 

most minin g experts. He 
sweai-s by Colorado as the 
richest mineral State in 
the L'nion. He is known 
as the forcmust advocate 
of the free coinage of 
silver. As a speaker he is 
forceful ami vuluniiuous 
nitlier tliaii grafefiil ; his 
ciiruest eloquence has 
lu'cn cunijjared by irrev- 
ci'fiit critics to tlic music 
ijf ii buzz saw. 

The Senator ivom 
()-lii-o junii)ed to his feet 
din-ctly tlu- Senator from 
Colorado sat down, and 
iiumcdiiitcly proceeded in 
1 'arl i 111 lieu tary lauguage to 
speak of the hou. gcntle- 
iiiau in much the same 
May as Dan O'Counell 
spoke of Mr. Disraeli, when 
he said the hon. member reminded him of nothing so much as a "harp 
struck by lightning ; " this made Mr. Teller uncommonly uneasy, and he 
began in the most energetic manner to turn over the pages of some 
United States Hansard, a bulky tome bound in bright scarlet, which, 
when we left, Mr. Teller's face was bidding fair to match. 


WASHINGTON (Part II). 119 

We felt that, as Englishmen, we should not like to leave the 
Senate without paying our respects and expressing our gratitude to Senator 
Wolcott for the magnificent speech he delivered in defence of Great 
Britain in the debate on the Monroe Doctrine and the Venezuelan 
boundary dispute. 

This speech was delivered on Jan. 22nd last, but only partially 
reported in some of the papers on this side. Mr. Wolcott kindly gave 
me a verbatim copy, which I have carefully read; it was delivered in 
support of a resolution submitted by Senator Sewell (of New Jersey), 
condemning ^^Tho extroardinary message of the President of the United 
States, having reference to a dispute exclusively between Great Britain 
and Venezuela, both friendly powers." It ought to be read fully by all 
my countrymen. I must however only give a few extracts and the 
peroration which I think will take rank as a Parliamentaiy classic. 

I take the salient points in a speech which extends over 14 or 15 
pages of closely printed and closely reasoned matter ; Mr. Wolcott said : — 

" The f(nv remarks I shall make will bo chiellv to the effect that the 
so-called Monroe doctrine has been misapplied in the pending controvei*sy ; that 
so much of President Monroe's message as referred to the colonization of portions 
of America by European powens could have no applicability to any boundary 
dispute now existing in South America. 

** It is not an easy or a gracious task to take, in this high forum, a 
position which a^jparently involves in the slight(jst degree the abandonment of 
that patriotic fervor which animates the breast of every citizen where our 
national piide or our country's honor is in question. There ha.s been much 
tensicm for the past few weeks. The letter of the Secretary of State to Mr. 
Hayard wa.s, from a diplomatic ]>oint of view, almost imjendiary. The President's 
message glowed with the possibilities of war. 

** It is easier to drift with such a c(mdition than to antagonize it, but 
with the convictions on this subject which I hold, Mr. President, that sense of 
duty which accompanies us in public station as in private life prohibits a silence 
which would be cowardly, and impels me to the presentation of the right as 
light is given me to see it. 

** There has never been a doctrine more misunderstood or misapplied than 
the so-called Monroe doctrine. It is, and has ever been, without recognition by 
other countnes, and has always been refused the approval of Congress. 

'* In all the ^ars for independence fought in the swam2)s and jungles and 
in the fever-infested districts of these trojucal provinces of South America, and 


ill th** long strugg'lt*s for liberty which dronchtHl th<* Spanish cohmies in America 
with thf* hhMul of patnots, Hntish vohint«M»i-s foug^ht <*v«t in the front of battle. 
At tlip ^-eat and decisive hatth* of Cai-ahoho in 1821, on Venezuelan W)il, after 
the Venezuelan troops had been agiiin an<l again repulsed, and were in full 
rc*treat, tlit^ lintish legion, with re<kh*ss and h«»n»ie braverv, and against 
overwlu4niing <Klds. can-ii'd the Pass of ( 'ai-jil)o]»o in a bayonet charge and with 
it carritMl th<» fortunes of th«' dav and of the war. At the close of the battle, 
of tliH 900 English troops. (100 lay d«»ad or wounded on the tiehl, their colore 
sHV(m times changf^l lumcls and w«*re dycnl with the bloo<l of the dauntless 
hen)C^ who carried tlieni. and as the f<nv surA'ivors, with ti*ailing amis, tiled jmst 
Holivar when tin* dav was won. he salut«*d them as the savioi-s of his countr\'. 
Sucli was tli»' cxaiiiph- wliirli (nt^at liritain set and th«* encouragement she 
aft'orditl during tin* long struggle for frenlom in South America. Without her 
aid Venezuela might not to-day be free, an<l those who now denounce her as 
if slu^ were the oj>pressor of Venezu«*lan liberties nuiy, with pi*otit, study the 
historv of those earlv and blocnlv times. 

*• Not only, Mr. President, was the Monroe doctnn** intended simply as a 
dei-laration of limitinl scope and pur^K^se. as I think 1 have shown, but the 
ciiTumstances under which it was given to the world were far different from 
those which now exist : and under present c<mditions its assertion and maintenance 
to the I'xteiit claimed by the ]>reseiit Kx<*<utive have ceas^Ml to b(» of imramoiint 

** Mr. l*resi<lent, it is idb- to talk s.Tiously of our integiity or i>ei*i>etuity 
being threatem-d by an adjustment of boumlaiy ' between Great Britain and 
Venezuela. That which once seeme<l a danger and evoked the utterance of the 
Mcmroe d<Ktrine has jiassetl forever away, and has left nothing to vex us but 
the pride of expression to which we still cling. 

*• We are told that we should not consider the jx>ssiljilities of war; but 
we must look to the rational result of our interference along present lines. In 
my opinion, Mr. President, there will be no war. It will be avoided, not 
liK-ause our ]>osition towai*d Great Britain in her <lispute with Venezuela is 
tenable, for I think I have shown its unsoundness, and it has been rejected by 
the prt^ss and public opinion of every first -class i>ow€*r in the world; not because 
l»y our mo<leration an<l wisdom we avert the j>ossibilities of war, but because 
Great Britain will vield the whole controvei*sv rather than face the horrors of 

ft. ft 

such a war over such a (question, a war out of which no victor could emerge 
whatever the result ; a war which would put back civilization and progress for 
a centurv- and which could onlv mean disaster to the human race. If such a 
contest shall be thus avoided, as I pray it may, it will bring to us no added 
honor and to Great Britain no disgrace ; nor will the cause of libertj* in South 
America be furthered or our own foundations be laid the stronger. 

WASHING70X (Pari II J. 121 

*' If the S«»n«to, Air. Pi'osi(l**nt, was not rP!^])oiisi})lp ftn* tlie original 
(liiferHne«*.s wliicli have arison ])otwtM?n (iroat I^ritain and tliis oountrv rnlative to 
the Vonpzuolan boundan', it must hi» adniittcil that w(» liavo dom* much toward 
Icppping tlio (juowtion active and the diifor<^n(cs acute. For instance, tlio otlier 
day, after all tlie Venozu(dan <lispat<hes had IxM^n published to the world, the 
Senator from Alalmma [Mr. Moh<;anJ saw lit to introduce a rosoluticm having 
reference to the abortive revolution in tlie Transvaal. 

** 1 know but little of the Transvaal llepublic, but 1 am advis<Ml that a 
large ]>eit'entagt* of its white iritizens an^ English -speaking people, and an* deuied 
iM'jn'esentatiim, while ])a^^ng their full ([uota of taxation ; and that situation is 
<me whicli oitliimrily cb'mands and receives American syni])athy for peoph' so 
depiived of what we ch<'rish as an unalienable right. Hut whatev<»r tlie cause 
of the ujirising, or tin* nuM'its of the dispute. Mr. President, my attention at 
that crisis was divert(Ml to anotlu'r chaunel. France is a sister Republic, and 
although luost of her colonies. <-ouinn*nded in tin* resolution of the Si'uator from 
Alabanm, have fewer rights than Cuba, sin* is y<»t (»ntitl<»d to our consideration 
and sympathy because of lu»r form of govei'umeut. (lermany has furnislu'd us 
hundnnls of thousands of worthy citizens, who are a cr«'dit to the J{«*j)ublic. 
Kussia was our friendlv allv in the late war. Ami vet, Mr. Presiib'ut, when 1 

ft • • 

read that all tin's** pow«*rful (lovernments — Franei*. (lermany, and IJussia — had 
allied themselves togetluM* against (Ireat iJritain. and that the jx'oplc of those 
little islands, * compassi'd by the inviolate sea,' in defense of what they (l»«emed 
their lights, were marshaling their armies and assembling theii- navies, ready, 
undaunted, to face a world in arms, unyielding and unafraid. I thanked (iod T 
was of the race! There is no drop of blood in un*, Mr. Presid«*nt, that is iu>t 
of English origin, and 1 have no ancestor on either side since KioO who was 
not bom on the soil of Now England ; but my heart beats faster when I recall 
the glorious deeds of (/live, and Lawrence, and Xai)ier, and Wellington — 

England's groutest M)n ; 

lie that gam'il a liundrcd tights. 

And nrvtr lost an English gun. 

of Drake and Hawkins, who fought the Sjjaniard and swept tlu» Spanish Main, 
and of the incomparable Nelson ; and my ]mlse (juickens when 1 realize that 
the splendour of their achievements is part of our glorious hei-itage, and that 
tlie language of l^urke and of ( 'hatham is our mother tongue ! 

** Mr. President, we will protect our country and our country's interests 
with our lives, but we wage no wai*s of compn-st or of hat»». This L*epublic 
stands facing the dawn, secun^ in its liberties, conscious of its high fle^tiny. 
Wherever in all the world the hand of the oppressinl or the downtrodden is 
reached out to us, we m(»et it in a friendly clasp. In the Ohl World, where 
unspeakable crimes even now darken the skies; in the Orif'ut, wln'iu* old (lyna.sties 
have been crumbling for a thousand years and still hang together strong in the 


accuiDulation of infamies ; ia South America, where as yet the forms of free 
institutions hold only the spirit of cruelty and opprcseion ; ererywhere upon the 
earth it ia our mission to ameliorate, to civilize, to Christianize, to loosea the 
bonds of captivity, aud to ]K)int the souls of men to nobler heights. 

" ^^Tiatever of advanceiuout and of progress the centuries shall bring ub 
must largely come through tho spread of the religion of Christ and the dominaDCO 
of the En -speaking peoples ; aud wherever j'ou find both you find commumties 
where fretniom esists and law is obfyed. Blood is thicker than water, and until 
some just iiuarrel divides us, which Heaven forbid, may these two great nations 
of the same speech and lineage and traditions stand as brothers, shoulder to 
should IT, in the iutereiit of humanity, by their union compelling peace and 

waiiiiitt ih" 

oiuiiig of the day ■ 
-liiiU lliov l.;an» wa 

■ Xatio 


lift up sword against 

It was a pri\'ilege and honour 
to roiivoi-sc witb and grasp the hand 
uf the auth(»r of those high and 
iiobk- soiitinieuts, whose photograph 
and autdgraph I liavo much satisfaction 
in {living to my readers. Senator 
AVoU'utt is not only a fii-st-class orator, 
but lif has the reputation of being 
the best billiardist iu Congress. He 
!> also a inhi -dextrous ; he can shave 
witli a razor in each hand, and write 
with two peii^ at the same time. 

The M'asliiugton Xational llon- 
uiiieut is au imposing shaft of white 
iiiarlde, rising from an elevation on 
tho ilall, near the Potomac : towering 
against the sky, its tremendous height 
eonfronts one at every turn, and has 
place in a thousand vistas. 

The monument is an obelisk. 
Its height from floor of entrance to 
tip is o55 feet. The shaft is 500 feet in height ; 55 feet square at base, 
34 feet at toj). The walls are 15 feet in thickness at the entrance, and 
taper to 18 inches at the top of the shaft. The facing is of pure white 


marble from Maryland. The foundation of rock and cement is 36 feet 
deep; 126 feet square. It is tlie highest work of masonry in the world, 
the next being the Philadelphia Municipal Buildings, 537 feet. 

Stretching away to the White House on the North, and the 
Capitol on the East, is the beautiful landscape gardening of the Mall 
and the parks, the city beyond, and then the hills rolling away to the 
horizon. On an emiuenoe in the north-oast is the Soldiers' Home ; on the 

Virginia Hills, to the 
west, i.s Arlington, 
where sleep 16,000 
soldiei-s, who died in 
the war f,.r the 
Union. It is «-(in- 
Heci-ati'd grtiuud, to 
which fouiL- tlniiisiinds 
e^ery yt'ju- t'loiii the 
north and the south, 
tlie rast and the west, 
to hiinoui- tiifisf " wild 
f,'ave tiicir lives tliat 
the toiintiy iiiifiht 
live." It is ;i wmthy 

liolo-vv fl.ixN-s tin- 
])la(-id ?.>tni]]iii-, iroiii 
whose I'lirllior shon^ 
rise Gectrgotowii jiiul 
"Wiisliiiigton; juid 
beyond these the 
eneireling hills roll 
away to the horizon's 
rim. The grounds of 
Arlington are noble in 
their contour and 
THE MONiriiEXT FROM THE lULL. adornment. The art 



Tlu- ^?l..l..■ 

of tlie laiKlscapi^ {pirdoiior 1ms lu'autificd the siirronrKlings ; there are 
fldBcr lu'ds ami lawns, ant] a profiisiciii of oruaiiiciital trees aud shrubs. But 
aln)ve what the skill of iiiim has done and bcyoTid It all, one i-oeognises 
the majestic beauty of the site itself, with its slojies aud ravines, and the 
hillsides erowiictl with imks. It is as if thniujrh lonji centimes Nature 
hei-self had lovinprly moulded the spot, making it ready for its final great 
purpose, the lesting place uf the Nation's heroic- dead : — 

f hi Kniiii'"-' I'ti'iTiiil ('iuii|iiit); "TItiiiiiI 

Tlivir <il..nt I.-uts ,nv >'\>r>w\. 
Aii.l lH..rv ^'lumls. with s..|.-iun roini.l. 

Till- l.ivnuui' "f tl..- .ii-a.l. 

of Arlington House has been set apait for the buiial 

of nfficci-s. In fmut of the liouse, near the 

tlagshilf, is the gi-.ive of (Jencnil Philip H. 
Shendau (IS;il-ISSS). Shevidan's resting place 
is marked by a dignified mouniiient of gruuite 
and linjuze, adonu-d with a nu-dalliou portrait 
with Hag aud wnath. 

The most im|)rcssive sight at Arliugton 

is lit the fields of the dead, on the level 

plateau, where the lieadstiines stretch aivay 

in lines endless to the vision. Ou each 

maible »v gi-anitc slab is inscribed the name 

of the soldier whose grave it marks, flith his 

State and the niimbor by which he has been 

SHKKID \>'s (iK vvK. i-niolled in the Roll of Honour. The roster, 

ke|)t by the War Department of those who 

died in the service <if the eonntiy. consists of thirty-one volumes, and 

contains the iveords of 2-"iO,00(l deceased Union soldiei-s, 

Tlie new buihling for the Library of Congress occupies a site 
adjacent to the Capitol, ami is a distinct addition to the noble architectural 
monuments of Washington. It will be completed in 11:597. The removal 
to it of books from the congested storage rooms of the Capitol is already 
in progivss. Connnuuication is had between Capitol and Libraiy by means 
of a subway. 

The Librarv' Uuilding 

eon-stmcted uf white granite, the whitest 


and purest kiiowni, fnim Now Hampshire, and the inner <'(iiirts of Jltirvlaiid 
fininite. Its diiiieiisidns iirc 470 by 340 feet, covering about thivc and 
<»ne-half acres of gnnmd, with four Uirj^e inner courts, 150 by 75 to 100 
feet. The out(>r Avails have a frontajje on foni- streets, and this, with tho 
spacions courts and the f^-eat uuudier of windows (nearly 2,000 in all), 
i-endei-s it the best lif,'hted library in tho world. The 'irder of architecture 
is the Italian llenaissanc:-. Over the arclies of the three <'ntnuice doors 

are carved thl-ee spandrels in relief, eaeli i-eprcsentinji ti'^'ures euibleuiatie of 
Art, Science, and Liteiiitnre. The doiu<', fjihh'd by a thick eoatiuf; of 
gold leaf, terminates In a {jildcd ftuial, represent inji the torch of Science, 
ever bumin;;, and rises 195 feet from tli«' t;niuud. 

It goes without saying tlint we luul many visits from the 
ineWtablc interviewer.s. We were in^ariabh" pleased by their courtesy, 
and astonished at tho rctentiveness of their memories — tliev never made 


a note — and on the whole gave, in their papers, the details of 

conversations with praiseworthy accuracy. I have been perplexed as to 

recording any of these " chats,-' my native modesty makes me shrink, 

but I am consoled in the recollection that my friend invariably played 

first, and usually solo violin, and remembering that Solomon said that 

'^ The words of the wise are as goads, and as the nails fastened by the 

masters of assemblies,-' I feel that Bosco's words were not for the 

reporter alone, but for the world, therefore I reprint extracts from the 

Washington Post : — 


Mr. F C . a loading niPiiihor of the Chamber of Commepce of 

Nottinghaiii. England, a .Tustico of tho Peace, and a jmrtner in one of the large 
manufacturing firms of tliat city, is at the Arlington. He is accompanied by a 
fi-icnd from Manchester, also a manufacturer and one of tlie foremost citizens of 

that busv Xowii. Mr. C is a pr^at tniveler, and there is scarcely a comer 

of the world that ho do^^u't know. He has a brother in the Transvaal, and 
was naturally greatlv int^restod in the news that four of the leaders of the 
Hefonu League, including John Hays Haimnond, the American engineer, had 
been sentenced to death bv the Boer court. 

•'Mark my word." said Mr. C , with emphasis, '* these men will 

never hang. < )ld Krugor is pla^-ing a deop game. He hasn't the least idea of 
inflicting the death pf^nalty, but h«* wautp<l it to })e imposed so as to g^t the 
reputation c)f having done a leni»*nt and magnanimous thing when he intervenes 
and panlons them. H^ is as sly as a fox, ignorant but crafty, and yet 
intelligent enough to know that were he to inflict hanging on the refoim 
committee it would raise a stonn about him that he and his Boers would be 
jK)werless to quell." 

** I was in Washington in 1888, and I find that during the interval of 
eight years your Capital has developed into a magnificent city. I thought 
Washington a very handsome place eight years ago ; to-day I do not believe it 
is exceeded in beautv by any city in the world, and I am familiar with all that 
make any pretensions in that line." 

" Everlasting praise be on the head of the young French engineer who 
planned the Capital of the embryo republic. It is the multitude of your parks 
and open spaces that constitute the peculiar if not the chief charm of Washington. 
In England our cities grew up after no definite plan and with but little respect 
to the beautifid ; now, after all these centuries, we see the good of the very 
system you have here, and there is a g^eat movement to set apart places in all 

WASHmOTOlf (Part ITJ. 

th« big toTms whei-erer the corporations caa acquire the land that will serve as 
breathing places and resting spots for the classes that have little chance to get the 
fresh air anil to whom a bit of green turf and a clump of trees is a norelty." 

The interviewer thought his copy so valuable that he brought it 
out like a serial story in parts on following days, but for convenience 
it is condensed and consolidated. I learnt from it, for the first time, 
two things, one that I am a " foremost citizen," which is unintentionally 
untrue, and the other that my friend is a " great traveller," that there 
" h scarcely a comer of the world he doos'nt know," but when it is 
explained that these " chats " usually 
take place after dinner, it will be 
understood that the imagination has 
free play. It is a matter of great 
regret that we had not the happiness 
of a call from a lady interviewer, 
who I understand is usually charm- 
ing; perhaps it is as well, perchanoc 
the " chat " might have been so 
alluring as to be still proceeding. 

During our drives about the 
city we passed various Government 
offices — in which there are over 
30,000 employees — and through the 
best residential parts, wlioro the 
various Embassies were pointed out ; 
I was proud to see that the British 
representative was housed in one of 
the beet "We passed the homes of leading Senators and men of mark, who 
still serve their country, and many more, once the abodes of Presidents, 
Senators, and Statesmen, Secretaries of State, and Generals of Armies, who 
now people the "Silent City," but whose names live for evermore. 

Washington is pre-eminently a city of monuments, a striking 
proportion being equestrian. They are memorials of statesmen and generals 
and admirals who fought in the Northern ranks during the Civil War. 
"We saw many worthy of note ; I can only name a very few : — 



nil.-. II. Mil'i. 

4^n^ ^H 





H ''i* . Y ■ 

S-. ''S^ 

> Tii-aii 

Wr ^tL_^W 

\^ r ■£ 

1 J '■ ■*^ 


!^- .4^ 



l.-ii.'v t.i Sill- 

. tlia 

: Sli,- 

In frout of the Courthouse is 
Klanii«'ri*'H statue of Lincohi, set on 
thi' tup of a marble <-o1uidii 27 if^X 
hi{;li. The Emancipation Jlouument. 
in Lincoln Parle, is by Thomas Ball. 
Th<' tipurtw are of IJncolu, a» author 
of till- Kmttn(-i]>atii)n I'rmlaiuation. 
iintl II slnvc. whose broken phackW 
si^,^^^fy lli^^ nfW found freedom. 

Rear- Admiral Samiiel Frani-is 
liiqKHit ;ia03-1865\ In Dui^int I ir- 
ih': h'-roir hrimz'-. with trninile jK-d- 
I'stiil. In 1861 iHiiwnt rommanded 
tli<- Atlimric hliK-kiidinf; :>i|iinilron. aud 
ill'nil>i-i- of that vi-ar captureil 
I'-.n Uoyal. 

Adminil I>avid OWpow Fartngnt 

1 8(H - 1 HTti; . Ill Fairatrnt Square. 

■I'll.- l.i-..n/..- ..f til.- fipii-e and of the 

lunitui-s was cjist from the iiieial of 

th.- Ilii-^hii. Harlfoul. hi 1862 

Fiirnnriit rniiimandiil an espedilioli 

ili-iiHiihiil 111 inii-n thi' MispisFippi. 

AftiT <i\ days- Imiuhnnhuent of FotIm 

■laiksoii mill Saiiit Phillip, below 

Niw Orli'ann, lie leil the fleet past 

till' flirts and laiitiinHl the city. 

of the war. 

1861 . KliUi'striun. bronze, cant from 

vas nuiti'il < (eiieral-iu-( 'hief. in 1864, 

iiaii and Ml'herson as the two men 

<^irt-le. Equestrian, 

ivho had ciuliihunil most to his sun-i-s-^, 

lieneral (i.-orfK- H. Thomas 1S16-1H79 . hi 
lironze. Virpinin granite pedestal, adorned with the badge of the Society of the 
Anny of the r'limberland. 

fieneral Winfield Stoit 1786-1866 . In f?cott Square; equentrian, bronze, 
east from cannon captureil by the American anny, under Scott, in Mexico, and 
ffiven by Ponpres*. The [H-di>stal block h of ('ape Ann granite are remarkable 
for size, the largest weighing 119 tons. 

George Washington. In Washington Pircde ; equestrian, bronze, from 
i-annon given by Congress: unvcileil in I860. Washington is represented as he 
appeared at the battle of Princeton, Jan. 3, 1777. 

WASffllVGTON (Part II). 129 

Though those men \nll never again appear on Life's pjiradc ground, 
moiuit the neighing eharger, or dniw the flashing blade ; though for them 
the braying honis and the bugle's blast, the furious charge, the dreadful 
cannonade, the din and shout of the battlefield are past, the nobility of 
their character lives ou, the lustre of their names and the gloiy of theu- 
deeds will gild the con-idol's of time, and be remembered in future ages 
unt'' Fame shall cease to keep i-eeoi-ds nn her golden scroll. 




(^^^0wIME did not permit our ^siting any of the battlefields that 
^^"4^^^ circle round Washington. Our next '' jump " to New Orleans 
was a long one — fully 33 hours continuous journey by the fastest train 
in the day. Crossing the Potomac by the Long Bridge, oyer irhich 
Lincoln ^yatched from the White House tens of thousands of his troops 
march to death and yictory in the early 'GO's, ^ye bid adieu to Maryland. 

The sun in mid-day splendour was shining on the topmost boughs 
of tall trees, and filtering its golden light through the foliage, whilst 
the roof of thick green leafage told of the deepening spring, as we 
entered beautiful Virginia. Here and thi^re young and thirsty roads, 
inches deep in lime dust, run leyel with the railway, forcing a contrast 
with the well kept high roads of the Old Country'. Vast stretches of 
pasture land, whose tender green herbage was restful to the eye, were 
dotted with flocks and herds, many of the cattle being so strongly 
marked as to resemble piebald horses in a circus, and young colts, 
startled from their afternoon slumber by the thunder of our iron horse, 
threw up their heads, kicked up their lieels, and scampered wildly oyer 
the turfy plain. 

Gentle slopes, studded with plantations of young trees, from out 
which feathered choristers carol their morning and eyening hymns; 
lowlands in which motionless pools serye as mirrors for the sunbeams' 
play and quiyer; or long stretches of woodland line each side of the track 
— the dark green of the pines forming a strong contrast to the abundant 
white blossoms of the dogwood trees, and the rich deep lilac spikes of 
a tree to which I am unable to giye a name — ^whilst in grateful shade 
is spread out a rich carpet of greenery, from which a wealth of 
undergrowth, profuse in its shading, perpetually peeps. 

We passed, all too quickly, beneath the shadows of hills clothed 


with cvergi'ceii foliago, until at last the topmost branch of tho nodding 
fir stood rovoalcd against tlic blue sky lino ; past the margin of clear 
streams purling over pebbly beds, though we were unable to catch the 
music of the rippling ri\'ulet racing along ; over bridges tliat span the 
banks of gloomy ravines, girt with moss encrastcd rocks, in whose dark 
recesses the water gurgles and foams amidst the vain embrace of the 
obstructing botilders. 


Once in " Old Virginio " you got fairly amongst the ■' darkies," 
as they are called, of ^^■hoIn there are some 8,000,000 in tlie United 
States. The nigger cabins soon beeome familiar objects in tlie landscape; 
they are dotted about without any system on tlie open land, and 
generally without any shade, so that these mean wood-biiilt shanties are 
bleached and bent out of form by the tierce i-ays of the blistering sun. 


By this time the eountiy has assumed another aspect ; patches of 
rich red-brown soil, newly cleaned, contrast with wnide stretches peopled 
with tender com plants — wheat, oats, and barley — fresh with the verdure 
and smile of youth, which stretch out for miles upon miles oyer the 
leyel plain, until climbing the distant rising gi'ound they are lost to 
sight beyond its summit. 

During the day I had a chat with an intelligent trayelling 
companion, Mr. Warner, a lawyer, from whom I learned that the United 
States Senators are paid ^S,50() a year, and the Congressmen ^6,500, 
and in addition ''mileage/- those coming fnmi the furthest States receiA'ing 
the largest pay. Mr. Warner considers the system of paid members 
produces professional politicians, and professional politicians produce too 
much legislation ; one set of laws being no so(mer passed than they are 
oyenddden by new ones, and vou can never tell the true state of the 
law. " Better," said he, '* that these politicians should stay at home ten 
years and draw their pay, and have no fresh laws, for the evil of paid 
membei-s is that they must constantly be making or unmaking something." 

I don't know whether it was during this day I enquired which 
of the United States was the largest and most popular, but I remember 
the reply, viz : — " The State of Matrimony.'' A very good State to live 
in, so I am told. 

Further South, after passing Charlottesville, the sceneiy rapidly 
changes ; ridges of hills, fir clad and fir crested, hem in the view ; 
streams of water, taking their colour fi'om the gi'ound through which 
they lazily plough their way, form bands of liquid bronze until at last 
they saunter into motionless pools. 

We little thought as we crossed the noble Tennessee river that 
far away at its source, like a bright lancet of crj^stal, it was cutting a 
fine channel in the lap of the purple hills, and for ever spinning silver 
threads that rill and flow in peaceful ripples over beds of polished 
pebbles, weaving as they come along an ever widening ribbon, whose 
untarnished sheen, glistening alike in sunshine and moonlight, perpetually 
adorns the fair bosom of nature. 

A stay of 20 minutes for dinner at Danville brings us to the 
border town of North Carolina, an important centre for the manufacture 


of tobacco. The erection during the last few yeai's of several large 
spinning mills, which border the railroad, suggests a great development 
of the cotton industiy. At this point the niggers seem to have the 
land in possession ; scarcely a white man in sight. Many of the darkies 
own pleasing faces with happy expressions; some quite intelligent, their 
eyes beam brightly, and the broad grin that never tires reveals teeth, 
oh, such t(H^th ! ! ! that gleam and glisten in their dusky settings. The 
beautiful regularity and colour of tliese human pearls must so often have 
caused feelings of envy, that one wonders they were not specifically 
included in the tenth or covetous clause of tlie decalogue, and not 
thrown in promiscuously with " anything that is his." 

When we resumed our jouniev the sun boliiud us in th(^ west 
was settling towards tlie horizon, and the evening light, busy with its 
broad brush, was painting in bands of blue and gold, and spreading its 
glorious colouring over the far reaches of tlie ethiTcal dome. Tin* last 
rays of the retiring monarch, like electric si)arks, lit up tlie lieavcnis as 
Sol sank to his bed 'neatli tlu^ western sky, and (piickly — there being 
littl(> twilight here — the (^v(*ning shadows drew tlu^ir curtains closer around, 
shutting out all trace of moon and stars, until at last, hushed in silence 
and shrouded in a maiitU^ of gloom, tln^ fair face of nature was wrapped 
in a siible pall. 

On drawing the blinds of our cubicles in the comfortable sleeping 
cai's the next morning, we found w(* had made good progress during the 
night, having passed through the important town or city of Atlanta, and 
nin loO miles into the interior of (Jeorgia. The railroad track was 
passing through cotton plantations ; the (Mirly morning liaz(^ obscured the 
far view, but for a distanci* of half a mile we could discern the bright 
foliage of tli(» cotton plant, many young, and some recc^ntly planted still 
in infancv, but latiT to stand lik(* whit(» robed bridles. As the dav 
grew the misty veil lifted, and tin* scenery (*lianged ; the land became 
strongly undulating and thickly wooded. The sombre hues of the 
towering pines tlu^ew into strong relief the bright foliage that encircled 
them, whilst the luximant undergrowth displayed its strength and varied 
colours all around. 

By this time April had fully come. The silver rain followed by 


the golden liunshiue liad brought new joy into tho land, and the eurth 
had once more unfurled lier glorious banners in the realm of Spi-ing. 
The counti-j- through whieh we were pas.*ing — occasionally rugged, but 
always more varied than laml that lies closer to towiis — was beautiful 
witli that sort of freshness that suggL-sts a night of perfect rest. Hei-e 
and there a lung rib from the hills, a nigged spike, shot out into the 
tillable laud ; these baekbimes <if uaturi' being for the most jiart clothed 
with seriibj and hill-side 'trees,"' Tlie turnpike roads, smooth and white, 

torrox picKixo. 
stretched out right and left in wa^i'iing lines as far as the eye coidd 
reach. We sped by the side of ploughlaiid. climbed ui)laud, and raced over 
lowland, catching siglit ever and anon of [leaceful and happy homesteads 
that M'amily nestle in vale and hollow. Sometimes a few cows are seen 
browsing in a clover field, and tlu' hens, m(»ved to minstrelsy by the 
warmth of the sunshine, compete with the iiiiiKitient neigh of the fleet 
and beautiful steeds that are startled iuto flight by the rattle of our train, 
further south agaiu the land becomes more highly cultivated j 


numbei's of fami labourers were busily engaged in ploughing, making 
long fuiTows, and othci'wise tilling the land ; wooden cabins are spread 
far and wide over pathless fields, around which young niggers swarm 
like flies upon a summer day, whilst the song of the ploughboy, and 
the sweet notes of some feathered, though unseen, chorister, floated 
towards us on the perfumed air. The mention of '' long fiuTows " 
reminds me of a thoroughly " Yankee tale " : — Two fanners from rival 
agricultural States were conversing, and in the course of the talk one 
stated that his fields were so wide and the fuiTows so long that his 
ploughmen had to take their dinners with them to eat at the far end. 
*' Oh, that's nothing," said the other, " in our State when we send a 
newly manied couple out to milk the cows, they arc so far away that 
they have to send the milk home by their children." 

Planters' homes, generally spacious wooden erections, often claiming 
attention on account of their (^laint architectural character, become more 
fi'equent ; some even rise to the level of dignity and beauty. They are 
usually enfmmed in a raised verandah over which roses creep and 
woodbine hangs, and surrounded by gardens, tastefully arranged, in which 
bright flowering shrubs flourish, guarde<l by rows of acacias of exquisite 
shape, and protected from the scorching rays of the noonday sun by the 
leafy shade of fine wide spreading chestnut trees. Beneath arcadian 
skies of blue, small herds of cattle graze over meadows rich and green, 
and di'ink in reedy streams, whilst hens with broods of chickens strut 
about or bask in some grateful shade. 

I was told by a travelling companion — of whom more anon — that 
the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia wer(> originally settled by Northern 
Englishmen, Southern Scotchmen, and Northern Irishmen ; numbers of 
Scots, driven from home by rentless persecutions, in the time of the 
Covenanters, settled here. A sturdy, high-minded mce, whose qualities are 
perpetuated to this day. 

After entering Alabama and passing through Montgomery, the 
character of the country undergoes another and complete change. We 
find saw mills converting trees into lumber; kilns for drying the sawn 
timber, and huge bonfires, that would delight a schoolboy's heart, are 
perpetually consuming the sawdust and waste wood. 


When fairly in the virgin forest the track follows a straight course: 
standing on the rear i)latfonn of the train, the eye can trace for miles 
behind, over the tops of the bordering trees, a vanishing trail of smoke; to 
the waiting trees comes every now and then the fitful rover breeze, to 
woo, like a faithless lover, and fl(*e agiiin. The variety of trees crowded 
together is untold; pine and fir, (4m and birch, sycamore and oak, scarlet 
flowering chestnuts, red flowca-ing maples, dogwood, acacias, and other sorts 
whose names I failed to ascertain, prescait such variety and beauty as 
bewilders the senses. In no temple designed by man can we find columns, 
arches, and roof, of such wc^alth of tracery : from pillar and span young 
tendrils shoot and drooj) ; again and again is the pillaring and arching 
repeated ; the pendant and interlacing branches weave an elaborate foliated 
roof, until in the far distance^ their untrod aisles biH-ome siU»nt and dim 
as cloister sliadi^s. 

W(» huiTied along *'far from the madding erowd," far from the 
roar of Uroadwav, far from the blare* and bustle, and the grinit city's 
glare and glow, with nothing to break the silence sive the rhyme of the 
forest's rustl(\ Tlu* day was bright and cloudless; the glittering rays of 
the sun sought ambush in the deej) shadows of the trees; there were 
more shady nooks than sunglan* ; here and there we crossed over land 
cleared and in cultivation, but (excepting when* sawmills were at work there 
was little human life visible; occasitmallv an old negro was seen slowlv 
driving a lumbering ox-waggon, whilst a few others were walking about 
idly or leaning against some fence, or sleeping beneath the shadow of 
overhanging branches. 

The railway tracks through these i)rinu'val forests run for scores of 
miles without bc»ing fenced in ; cattle frequently stray on the lines, and 
are tossed aside bv the liftei-s fixed to the front of all locomotives. 
Whilst standing on th(» rear platform 1 siiw within a dozen miles two 
poor beasts hurled aside as we sped along at the rate of 50 miles an 
hour; they were fiung a dozen to a score yards; one that fell into a 
ditch had evidently its forelegs broken ; it was making frantic eflEorts to 
scramble out by the aid of its hind legs. Presently the niggei-s will come 
along, secure the carcase, and, as a rule, the railway company pay s(mie 


Duiing the latter part of our joiimcy we liad ii most interesting 
and agi-eeablo tra\olling conii)anii)n, Mr. Stewart, of St. Lcmis, a civil 
engineer and large eoiitractor ; liis business engagements made him a gi-eat 
traveller; since lca^■ing home, 2'.t days before, he had tmvelled over 7,500 
miles, and his annual travelling averaged o\'('r 50,000 miles. lie sliowed 
us a telegi'am he received en rouie, iiifnriniiig him of the acceptance of a 
eonti-aet to build some works, the uatui-e of which I forget, amounting to 

about seven or eight million dollars. Mr. Stewart had a fund of anecdote, 
chiefly told to IJosco under the stiothing influence of the fragnmt weed, 
and which I understand my friend intends tn intrndure in his fortheeniing 
"Eecollections," so I must net forestall. One experience of his 1 thought 
must be iinique ; he told us he was once in a nigger cabin where there 

had been five bivtht- in one dav aud iu one room, the mother 



three and her daughter two children, all of whom he saw. We thought 
this extraordinaiT, but, Yankee-like, it was ''topped" by a still more 
extraordinary announcement in one of the newspapers, bought during our 
ti-iivels, which I reprint exactly as it lies before me. 


\. Kentucky Fanner's Wife Bears Five Sons. 

Maysville, Ky. 


Mav^ville, Api-il 30. — Tlu* wife of Oscar Joyous, a fannor, liviug cue mile 
\v<st of licif, gav«' ]»ii-th last night to tiYi' cliildn^n, all hoys. Tho children are 
all woll (levr*loi»**<l and hnaltliY. 

Four of them wri^rh four and oueMjuai-ter }M)unds farh. and the fifth iive 
pounds, making a total of twenty-two }H)unds for the tiYe children. 

Pine tripos, tai)ped for their tuiijentine, rear their bleachc^d poles on 
high like ghostly sentinals, standing guard amidst leaf-thatched roofs, in 
whose cool and grateful shade hai)py negro bands enjoy their midday meal 
or peacefully slumber. Some of these giant i)in(*s grow to a very large 
size ; at one of th(* stations in the forest at which we stayed awhile we 
saw soiiu' railway trucks laden with trunks of tine-grained yellow pine 
over 70 feet long, and squared up into baulks of timber fully two feet 
squar(^ Mr. Stewart told us that the green-oak, from which the lock-gates 
of the Manch(*ster Ship Canal an* made, come from these parts, and he 
said logs of wood weighing nine tons had been shipped from Xew Orleans 
for this puii^ose, so heavy that in some instances they had broken the 
lifting tackle of the stcanu^rs. 

As we near Mobile the coimtrv becomes more oi)en, rich apparently 
in everything; girt about with wood, water, and com, meadow and hill. 
Pretty rural homes wedged between trim gardens, in which bushes were 
weighted with roses, and lilacs bent beneath a load of pui'ple and white 
bloom ; or surrounded by fruitful orchards, laden with masses of pink and 
white bloom, whilst the grasses and young corn plants swayed before the 
whim of the breeze, made us feel that the spring had come quickly up 
that wav. 

We noticed many lumber mills in the neighbourhood of the Mobile 
Kiver; vast stores of timber stacked on the banks or floating in huge 


rafts on its surface. The timber ships seemed large and numerous, and 
cotton-laden steamei's leave the port of Mobile for many parts of the 
world. Leaving Mobile we soon strike the Gulf of Mexico; light, balmy 
breezes and the approacli of evening bring a welcome and delighful change 
from the stifling heat and clouds of dust through which we had been 

We glided along througli many pleasant small places, seaside resorts, 
and made short stays at some of the largcT ones. We passed cliarming 
villas, encased in trellis, over which roses and honeysuckle had woven a 
floral design that mounted to the topmost window sill ; small, well-kept 
gardens, in which we sight the many-speared cactus, and scent the 
fragrance of the magnolias and mangoes that perfume the air; and from 
not far away comes the soft music of the waves, that gently break on 
the foam-scalloped beach. 

Xearing New Orleans w(» pass woods and copses that we were told 
contain grouse, woodcock, quail, hare, rabbit, grc^y squirrel, and other 
giime; and skirt backwati^'s, broad and deep, over whose traucpiil surface 
the moonlight tides for (ncr ebb and flow. W(,» cross, on narrow wood- 
pile bridges, but a few tVet abovc^ water level, several bayous, from on(> 
to three miles wide, witli nuuigo fringed margins and strands that glisten 
with silverv sand, and feel devout thankfulness when tlic^ further shore is 
reacli(»d. These bridg(\s, which have openings in tin* centre* for large 
vessels to i)ass, are (^xtn^mely dangerous; many accidi^nts oc(*ur — one within 
a month before we i)assed resulted in the total loss of a h(»avily-laden 
freight tmin of flfteen waggons, some with cattle, all drowniHl, along with 
the enginemen and guards. 

The daylight was fast fading, and the shadows lying deep(*r on the 
ground. Iridescent beetles began to gleam on the stomas, and frogs from 
out reedy beds croaked forth in guttural monotone; the (»vening breeze, 
that played music with the leaves of the lofty trees, nu)V(Hl with a 
quickened cadence, and the lights of the Crescent C-ity were beginning to 
prick the dusk when our train steamed into New Orleans. 



?UR ride to the Hot(4 St. Charles was neither smooth nor cheap. 
The liotel is about half a luih* fi'oiii the railroad depot, and 
it cost us for each journey, arriving:: and departing, two dollars, 
or a total of Ids. 8d. sterling for about a mile of tmvel for two men 
and three portmanteaux. Tlu\^e excessive charges for conveyance between 
stations and hotels is the most annoying thing travellers in the States 
have to endure. The streets in the centre of Xew Orleans are completely 
inti*rsected 1)V an elaborate network of eh^ctric car lines, which cross and 
r(»-ci*oss with provoking frecpiency. Owing to the soft foimdation the streets 
are paved with large and irregular stcmes, presenting a rough and uneven 
surface, dangerous to drive ujion, because they always slope downwards 
towards large open chamiels two to three feet wide, that run by the 
side of the causewavs, absolutelv neci^ssarv to carrv off the storm-water 
which follows the sudden and heavy downpour of rains which, as we saw 
moi'e than once, (piickly convert dry, stony roads into rushing rivers. 

Xew Orleans, like all the American cities we visited, with the 
(»xcei)tion of Xew York, where the space is contracted and limited by 
surrounding water, is laid out with a wealth of width only possible in 
a new country. The distances b(4ween many of the most important 
placets are so great, and the conununication in the early days of railroads 
so slow, that one can understand the possibility of the joke, said to have 
been play(*d up(^n a ti(*k(»t-collector by a passenger producing a half fare 
ticket, which he declined to accept, and when remonstrated with, the 
passenger promptly replied, '* It's all right, boss; I was half fare when 
this Vre train started, but it's been such a darned time on the wav that 
I have grown into a man.'' 

The Hotel St. Charles we found admirable; quite new, with all 
the most modem improvements. It replaces a fonner hotel on the same 


site, dpstroyed by fire ; the present, known as the New Hotel St. 

Charles, and only eoinpleted last year, cost over 1,0(10,000 dollars. As you 

enter this charming building and gaze around the noble hall, and up 

and down the long drawn corridoi-s for nearly 300 feet, noting the walls 

of pure white marble from floor to ceiling, and the rich sienna panels, 

exquisite carving and grand staircase, all brightly illuminated by small 

electric lights, you feel under 

the spell of a beautiful dream 

in imagination you ha%"e wan 

dered into some magic cave, lit 

by hundreds of tiny lamps, and 

you panse awhile for Aladd 

to come. We were impt-essed 1 

here, as, indeed, in nio.'it of tin 

American hotels, with the ex 

cellence of all the sanitary and 

plumbing arrangements; as fai ""'^" "'" ' "^"^es. 

as practicable all pipes are of a supenor chaiactei, and in sight ; the 

fittings are artistic, and gencndh ( lectm-pUti d , bathrooms and lavatories 

are large, convenient, and numerous. In this branch of domestic science 

I feel that in this country wo have much to learu. 

The barber's shop in the St. Charles Hotel is worthy of mention ; 
it is certainly the finest m'c saw, although there arc? othei-H in Chicago — 
of which more anon — that run it very close. The proprietor claims that 
it is the finest in the States. Spacious, with pure white marble floor, 
the entire sides are concealed behind walnut wood framing, the wliole of 
which is panelled with bevelled-edged minors of varying size and .shape; 
the same treatment is continued throughout the coved ceiling, so that 
reclining on your sumptuous easy chair you behold yoiirself duplicated 
above and around during the "oi)eration," which costs a dollar. Bosco 
thought it cheap; he had never seen the '■ Prince de Galles" croM'ding 
round him so closely before. 

The climate of New Orleans, although very warm, is much more 
equable than in the Northern States, the temperature not often rising 
higher than 95° to 98°, whereas in New York it often reaches 105°, and 



has boon known as high aa I10\ Snow is almost unknoim; our friend, 
Mr. Homy Charnock — whoso kindness, courtesy, and hospitality will ever 
remain amongst the brightest recollections of our pleasant visit to the 
Crescent City — told ns that for IT years snow had never been seen, and 
when a short time before a fall had ocouiTod, business was entirely 
suspended whilst it lasted, and the iiiggei-s ran about most excitedly, 


catchiug on their ai-ms the large flakes as they fell, in an ecstacy of 

The first of the olden-time edifices in New Orleans that attracts 
the visitor is the "French Market," on the old Levee, just below Jackson 
Square. There are three distinct and separate markets comprised in one. 
the Meat Market, the Vegetable Market, and the Bazaar Market. In tiie 


second, vegetables of all kinds, and fish, game, fruit, and fljwers have 
each their separate departments. New Orleans is, as regards its inhabitants, 
a specially composite city, and in this market it is made abundantly 
evident. Such a confusion of tongues: French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, 
German, and scores of others, extolling, each in his native patois, the 
quality and cheapness of his goods. To see the French Market in its 
glory one must go there on a Sunday morning, between five and ten 
o'clock, and accordingly on Sunday morning we went. An hour spent in 
this modern Babel will furnish the stranger witli odd sounds and scenes 
enough to supply him for many a day. 

The French population is veiy numerous, and the meat purvc^yors 
are mostly of French descent, a noticeable peculiarity being the classification 
of the various kinds of flesli : one will sell vou mutton and lamb onlv, 
nice hind quarters being valued at 00 cents, say 2s. 6d. ; on the adjoining 
stall you find nothing but pork in various forms, made attractive by 
dainty little quarters of sucking pigs : another has on hand nothing but 
milk-fed veal, yoiuig and tender; whilst a fourth displays the heavy lines, 
such as rounds, sirloins, and otlu^r beof joints, including rolled pique, 
inlaid with lard, prepared for the famous French dish •"• ba^uf-a-la-niode." 

Passing on to the Vegetable ScK'tion, we find in great abundance 
and freshness, peas, French beans, and cabbage^ of peculiarly tender light- 
green tint, WTapped hard and solid; capsicums, onions and garlick, b(H4 and 
artichokes, cucumbers and gherkins, asi)aragus and the egg-plant, delicious, 
but unknown in England. The Fruit Market was especially gay and 
attractive; bananas in huge rich clusters, pine-apples and melons in 
profusion, pyramids of choice apples, with skins lik(^ the rcnl, red rose; 
and juicy omnges, daintily packed in gold and silver foil, or wrapped in 
white tissue paper, dotted with vari-coloured spots. 

With the fish we found poultry of excellent quality, both alive and 
dead; and a curiosity in the '^snapper turtle," some of which were kicking 
about right merrily. The fish are distinctly ciu-ious, many varieties not 
known on British shores; the pompano and shad, the Spanish mackerel 
and red snapper are delicate and most esteemed ; hard shell crabs and 
soft crabs, and lake shrimps, whicli grow to a large size, are also 
considered delicacies; whilst spade-fisli, sheepliead, croakers, and many 


othei's are special to these latitudes. The shad, I fancy, is looked upon 
as the greatest delicacy. I tried it once as a special treat ; it was like 
eating boiled paper and needles ; I never tried it again. 

To dissipate the concord of smells, and to make Bosco's refined 
sense rejoice, we returned from this wondrous spot through the Flower 
Market ; th(^ early nu)rning air, fi'csh and balmy, was laden wnith the 
perfume exhaled fr<>m a rare combination of sw(H4-scented flowers, exquisite 
beyond thought and dithcult to describe : — begonias, primulas, Japanese 
pinks, beautifully striped carnations, pompons, chrysanthemums, and scarlet 
g(*raniums, sweet pea blossom, pansies, and drooping fuschias, hydrangeas, 
and cactus in bloom, orange blossoms, dear to the Louisiana brides; and 
roses, tlowor (lueens, some washed by a recent shower, were jewelled with 
sparkling drops of rain. Did tlu» oi'iginal (Tardener, at His first fiower 
show in Eden's bowers, exhil>it such a wealth of perfc^ct loveliness? 

On a fine moniing, especially Sunday, the market is crowded by 
French, Spanish, Italians, British, Americans, and the ubiquitous nigger. 
The coiTect thing to do is to drink a cup of excellent coffee ; we found 
no difficulty in conforming to the ^* coiTcct thing." 

One sight I unfoi-tunately missinl ; whilst engrossed with the 
gambols of tli(» snapper turtles 1 lost, for a few moments, the company 
of Bosco. Wlu'U we reiraned, howeviT, lie was full of fire. '' Did you see 
her?'' ''See who?" I enquired. ''Why, that divine Venus; it must be 
Deenah Dinah Do, the one they an* singing about in all the pantomimes; 
my word, she is a beauty;" and my friend is admittedly a judge. 
''She must be a lineal descendant of the ladv that Solomon described as 
' black, but comely ' — such eves, they flashed like midday sunbeams, and 
teeth whiter and brighter than any pearls from the Orient; there she 
goes in the pink blouse and the white sunbonnet."' But, alas and alack, 
for me the eyi^s nc^vc^r flashed and the t(M'th never gleamed ; but I can 
trust the J.P.'s description implicitly. To my shame, be it said, I am 
no judge; to nu^ Eve's daughters are all ''joys for eyer." This ebonised 
beauty evidently made a sudden, albeit a transitory, impression, for soon 
after I discovered the smitten Bosco pouring the ice water into his 
tumbler bottom up; the remembrance of those "liquid eyes" were 
evidently excluding all thought of the "liquid in the jug." It is only 


fair to say my friend travoi-scs this atatenu'iit, and says it is I who uaod 
tumblers npside down — perhaps ho is right. 

The interval occupied by breakfast siiffi(;ed to draw the curtain 
of forgetfulness over the 
Kthiopian Venns, and by 
the time wo reached 
Trinity Church we were 
clothed and in our right 
mind. The service— likn 
all the church services we 
heard — was excellent, tlie 
singing good, and the 
organ aided by strings — 
violins, 'cellos, and har|>s. 
The sermon thoughtful — 
subject, "The Fall "f 
Man;" object, to show 
that the theological <loc- 
trine of the fall and the 
rationalistic doctrine of de- 
velopment were quite C(nn- 
patiblc, evohitions uot 
being always in an up- 
ward direction, hut undul- 
ating—sometimes the clear 
light of the hill toji, and 
at others the swamp and 
morass of the valley. 
Judging from the number 
of communicants — a very 
hirge proportion of the TRixmjirrRcn.^XKW orlkans. 

congregation — and a glance over the Ifay copy of the THnity Church 
Record, I came to the conclusion that the parish is well worked, and that 
the motto in its management seems to be "To every !nan his work." 

Churches always attract me, why 1 don't know, except that from 



youth up until now tlie ckTgv I \\a\o always had with me. Although 
attached to the Church of Kiij;Iand as liy law cstablisliod. I clniin to he 
fah'ly oosiiioi>olitaii. and cnti'i-taiu iin doubt that at the ^roat j*atht'rinfi; in 
"one fold" of "the multitude, that nr) man can number," ,that shall one 
thiy assemlde within the "jasper M'alls of the city tliat iietli four square," 
there will l)e many slieep, who, amidst tlie doubts and perplexities and 
mists of earth's vale, have trodden devious jiaths, but wliich it will l>e 



mountain top and the elear bright 
t thou, <) man, that jndgest thy 

found at last all tended towards tin 
shining on the other si<le. Who 
brother ? 

My friend Boseo is an artist in conundninis ; at times they flash 
like meteor sparks aniiil his brilliant eonversjition. Was it at lunch that 
Sunday he asked nie if I kneiv why clergymen «»f the Rstablished Church 
always say: — "Dearly beloved hi'ethren," and do not refer to the sisters? 
"I've no idea, my dear hoy;" I said. " AVhy," he replied, "because 
the brethren embrace the sisters ; " and then, tickled by my hearty 
laughter, he went one better, and asked me: — "Why are two ladies 
kissing each other an emblem of Christianity?" again my ideas ran short. 


"lliH'iinRe tlioy arc doing unto i\u-\\ other as tlicy would that mm 
do niito thorn." "\Vo ciijctyod tliat iiioai ; hiuj^litor hroii;,dit difj;ostii 
Of the numerous [lublie SL[Uiiivs in Now Orloiins, Jiickson 
is the ohlost and most intorestinf;. In the rontrc of the s<|u;ire is 
giirden, oimtain- 
iiig a rich col- 
lection of trees, 
» li r n 1) s , a n d 
flowers. Almost 
hidden behind the 
wealth of foliajie 
stands an eques- 
tnan statue of 
(xeneral .raokscin. 
On one side of the 
square is erected 
the lioniiiii Catlio- 
lie Cathedral of 
St. Louis, the 
jiiitron siiint of 
France. The in-c- 
sent edifiee is just 
a ccnturv old. 
Don AiidnV Al- 
moiiaster, a h'ad- 
i n fi S ]ni 11 i sli 
offieiitl, coniidet<'d 
it in 1794 ut his 
OAVii expense, tlie 
jncms Spiuiianrs 
Hole condition [■ 
l>cing that a Mass 
should he siiid 

ii fine 


every Saturday eveninj; for the 

i^epose of liis soul. Miiy he rest 


The cathedral is not large, but noue the less interesting; I spent 
some time therein. The architectural features are distinctly French, the 
interior reminding one of the Church of St. Vincent de Paul, in Paris. 
Surmounting the high altar are life-sized figures of Faith in the centre, 
supported (m either side by IIopc^ and Charity, all having the traditional 
emblems; above is a fine semi-circular fresco, exquisitely painted in rich 
colours, portraying Louis Koi de France, " Annonce la Croisade ; " 
another fresco, in more delicate tones, the full length of the sacrarium 
ceiling, represents the Adoration of the Lamb. The church is galleried, 
t^'o tiers of circular columns carry the coved and pointed arches which 
support the roof; c^ich spandrel is embellished with medallion portraits of 
saints. The entire ceiling of the nave being covcTcd with frescoes in 
vivid tints, whilst life-size figure subjects, in the Munich School of 
Stained Glass, fill most of the windows. 

Soon after our arrival in New Orh^ans we had a visit from the 
irrepressible interviewer; he was a smart young man with well-cut 
features and ea":le c^ve, which iinniediat(4v detected that liosco was the 
solid man and leadcT of the small pilgrim band. Soliciting the favour of 
a chat, but, being late, and the leading violin sonu^what unstrung from the 
effects of a hard day's playing, we made an appointment for the following 
evening. Xext morning a pn^liminary paragraph appeared in the Daily 
Picayuna^ the leading paper and having the greatest circulation in New 
Orleans, commencing: '*Tw() of Uritain's foremost sons arrived in this 
city last night, and are located at the X(^w St. Charles Hotel, &c., &c." 
And, being carried away by the striking resemblance of my friend to 
the Prince of Wales, the elocjucMit pressman broke out into a rapturous 
eulogy about the grandeur and nobility of the English character in 
general and the two visitors in particular. I have two regrets; the first 
that T am unable to give the paragraph in extenso^ but I failed to 
secure a copy of that day's Daily Pwaynna^ my friend having promptly 
bought up the entire available edition, and mailed them by first post to 
admirers on this side the Atlantic ; the second regret is that, owing to 
other and more important engagements, the set interview never came off — 
although my friend, who is a leading politician at home, had carefully 
prepared a statesmanlike essay for circulation, an infallible demonstration 


of how to regenerate the United States ; but we had to leave them 
more or less upside down. 

It is said that there are always two people alike in the world. 
It is something to be tiiken for the alter ego of the first gentleman in 
the land, but it must be occasionally embaiTassing to my friend. I 
wonder if he heard the 
nigger waiter— a very 
good waiter too — who 
attended our table at 
the "St. Charles," 
whisper, with an excess 
of veneration, to <»ne of 
his confreres : " I say, 
Jimmy ; tell the hand , 
to strike up ' Ood Savi 
the Uiieen,' 'cos thi 
Prince of Wales is liore.' 

Sti'anger,s to thi 
Southern States often 
make a great mistake in 
supposing that the Creole 
population is a mixed 
race of whites and 
blacks. Judge GayaiTe, 
the eminent historian of 
Louisiana, says : — " The 
word ' Creole,' in French, 
or ' Criolle,' in Spanish, 
originally meant in these 
two languages, on the the uukkx of the caknival, 1896. 

authority of their respective dictionaries, a child bom of European parents 
in the colonial possessions uf those two nations in America or Africa. 
For this reason, the negroes, muhittues, and Indians never were, strictly 
speaking, entitled to the appellation of ' Creoles ' in Louisiana. The 
Canadians and Mexicans, on the other hand, wore evidently ' Creoles,* 


acconliiif^ to the acecptcd nu^aiiiiig of that word in French and Spanish, 
hut it never was ap[)li(*d to the eoh)nists of those countries. It is, 
tluTefore, sin^ijular tliat prohahly th(^ majority of the popuhition of th(» 
United States have adopted tlie stranj^e idea tliat 'Creek*' means a 
eohmn^d person. [)artially of African (h*scent, wlien in fact it is the 
rev(Tso, and sij^nities only one of pure and unmixiHl Kuropean bh)od." 

It is not surprising;, considering^: tlie hir<;e numbiT of Fri^nch, 
Spanisli, and Italians who make Xew Orh^ans their home, that the Mardi Gras 
celehration [>lays an important part in the holidays of tin* Crescent City. 

'* ^fardi (iras is, of cours(\ the Frencli expression for !Shrov<» 
Tuesdav, which, heiui' tlie dav preceediui:: Ash Wculnesdav, or tin* 
hei^-inniuir of Lent, makes it easv to follow tin* analo<»:v of its literal 
translati(ai— Mardi, Tueschiv, and (Iras, fat- when thi* further tact is 


considered that in its a[)[>li(ation it also stood for the last day of the 
"Carnival,' the latter siLrnifvint; in this same ronnectinn, 'farewell to tlesli 
nu'at,' and finding expression in t^ala days of rev<'lry." 

•'Thr historv of the Maidi (iras celehration in Xew Orleans is 
interestiuir in one form or an(>ther, it havinu* been observed, althouy-h at 
broken intervals, f(»r m^ai'lv tlmM'-iiuarters of a centui'v ; and continuouslv 
each yeai* since the close of the Civil War. It had its orij»:in in tin* 
custom ill the (►Iden times of Louisiana's [)lanters and merchants lookinj; 
to France, their mother country, for their fashions, amusements, and 
literature; (►ne (►f the results of which was the introduction, in 1827, of 
the first irrand street proc-ession (d* mas(juera(h'rs in Xew Orleans by a 
numbei* of y(>unir Cre(»le gentlemen, some (►f theui just returned from 
tinishini:: a Parisian education." 

''The carnival of to-day, notwithstandin;L!: its French origin, as far 
as the present population of Xew Orleans is concernc»d, has become 
tlioroughly cosmopolitan, and from its small beginnings of parades of 
masqueraders, it has developed into i)ageants far surpassing in extent 
and grandeur similar events occurring elsewhere in thc^ world." 

The feature's of the street i)ageants are tloats or cais, on which 

is illustrated in spi'ctacuhir gorgeousness some well chosen subject, which 

is changed ev(*rv year, and kept a profound secret until its actual 
appearance on the streets. 


"On tht' (liiy before Mai-di Grus comes Rex, King of the 
Cuniival, to bis ' niueb beloved Caiiitiil.' Ilia prockniation, long before 
posted throufiboiit tln^ country, and familiar to many, shows excellently 
the mock a»«nmption of ruj^al jMiwer, and the spirit iu which the 
festivities of 
Mardi Grus an; 
eaiTi(>d out and 
heartily receiveii 
by th<' pojiulat'e 
<»f New Orh'ans. 
Ucx nsnally, 
although not ne- 
cessarily, makes 
his jonniey to 
the city by way 
of the river on 
his 'royal yacht,' 
accompanied by 
his nobles and 
attendants in 
waiting, and by 
the 'Royal 
Flotilla'— which 
royal yacht and 
ro'vaf flotilla 
varies, according 
to his whims, 
from private 
ya<rhts to visit- 
ing war vesw^ls 
of foreign 
nations, with ac- 
c o m i> a n y i n g 

es(;orts (ff tugs and mercliant steanu' 
where he receives tiie keys of tht 


l)r(»cewls to the City Hall, 
From then on his nde is 



absolute, and his ■ ruyal .staudiinl of purple, green, and gold ' waves over 
the eity hi token of his sovereignty." 

Xeither is it suiiirisiuj; to find that in New Orleans there are 
many mouumunts to soldiers who fought in the ranks of the Confederate 
army; we saw a few of these, and of some I am able to reproduce 
phutogi-aphs. The monument of tlie Army of Northern Virginia, in the 


Metairie Cemetery, consists of ii column surmounted by a statue of 
Stonewall Jackson; behnv are large bui-ial vaults, in which numbers of 
soldiei's are interred. The Washington Artillery ilonument is in the centre 
of the .same ceiiietery. The biiltation of Wasliington Artillery was famous 
during the Civil War. and took part in all the gi-eiit hattlis of 
Virginia. The monument is of tasteful design, sui-mounted by a statue 


of a cannouccr, spongo staff iu hand, and iirouiid the sides are recorded 
the names of the many battles in wliich the battalion took part. 

In Greenwood C'einetery, on the Metauie Eidge, is the monument 
to the memory of the Confederate soldiei-s. Tlie inomim<?nt consists of a 
mound, beneath which are the i-aults where are buried the remains of 
many Confederate soldiers who died in prison during the war. The top 
of the mound is reached hy granite steps, and in the centre is a pedestal 
of elegant design, on whidi stands the white marble statue of a Confederate 
soldier resting ou his gun. Around the statue are the busts of Lee, 
Stonewall Jackson, Johnson, and Polk. 
On the C!onf(Mlerate Decoration Day ; 
this monument is always handsomely 
decorated with flowers. 

The Battle Mmiuuient is iu 
Chaliuette Cemetery. This lieautiful | 
resting-place of the dead is near the 
"bank of the Mississippi ; there are 
12,292 gi-aves; (>,'■"■'* ii''' classed a.s I 
known, and 5,37!) are marked iiuknowii. I 

The monument to Koberf E. 
Lee, the ( 'ommander-in-( 'bief of tlie 
Confederate Army, is, however, as it 
ought to be in one of the prin<'ip:il 
Southern cities, tlte ehi(>f attraction. 
This handsome uionument stands iu 
Lee Square, at the junction of St. 
Charles and Howard Aveniies ; un- 
veiled in 1883. It is a colos.sal 
figure in bronze, 1*') fetst in height, 
Burveying the field of battle. 

Tlie Lees are a famous Virginia family, wlioso soldiers and 
(ttatesmeu ha\c for ceutiirii's helped to make history. Launcelot de Jiec 
cauH' river witli William tiie Contpieror, and distinguished himself at 
Hastings. Lionel Lee fought with Kichard Coeur de Liou, and for his 
valour at Acre was made Earl of Lichticld. The armour worn by this 


■epreiienting liCe with folded arms 



gulluiit C'nisidor may still bo seen in the Towt-r of I>oii(lou. The 
bitimi'i-s <»f tw() Ltfs. wlio were Knights ('(»ni[>auioii u\ the Garter, are 
piv.serve(l in fSt. Ocurjte's Chapt-l, Windsor. In llUl Eichiird Lei', a 
di-scemhint of a lung lini', niaur of whom wen- luiighfs, hinded in the 
train of Sir AVilliam lierki'Icy, who went to jjoveni Virginia in the 
reign of (.'hurlcs I, and it was not lonj; before he made his mark in the 
colony ; and ever sinte, in army, navy, or Seimte. his deseendauts have 
eontinueti to leave behind them iiiavks i>f distinction. Tliomas Li-e was 
in IToO aitji'iinted fTiivenim' — the fii-st time a native Virginiiin had 
re<'eive<l sueli an lionmir — but ]iij;]i as was liis repute, he was eelipse<l by 
his six brilliant si»ns. of whom John Adams 
wriite •• that band of brothers, intrepid 
and uneliaii;,'eable." Fnineis Lightfmit Lee 
was a ^^i-jner of tlie Declaration of lo- 
dependeiiee. Kobeit K. Lee, the famous 
( of the tVmfedeiiite Aniiy, gnid- 
uat.d at West Folnt in 1821». The war 
with ilexieo g-ave him the opportunity 
tu distinguish liimself, and on his return 
the yoiiiij: otti<-er was the idol of the 
Imur. At a dinner given in his honour 
(ietieral S.elt pmi.nsed the toast. "Robert 
i;. ],ee, ( Hid bless him ! wonndi"*! by 
ii tliniistiul linnets on the field of 
(■ha|iulteiiee and iroiihJn'l die." Seott 
luiij-idered Let- the most brilliant wddier 
n the world. At the close of the Civil 
)f the Wasliingtou College at Lexington, 
th. Huried in the College (.'hapel, 
gnive is the simple 

TIIH IlK(l.Al!AT[nN n|- IXUKI'K.V flKN 

living, iml ciuly in AniiTie;[ 

War he aeieiitc-d the pi'oiil 

Virginia, whi.h he held until liis d 

whieli was built during bis presidency, iiver li 

inscription:— liOlSKKT KDWAlil) LKK, 

lioKX Janlaiiv 11'tji. IS) 17, 

l)iKi> OnoiiKi: l^jii. IS7I». 
"That is all." as Dr. Fiebl sjiys, "but it is enough, the rest may be 
left to the eternal judgment of histor}." 


In the cciitic of J,!ifiiy<^tti' S<|uiirc is the statue of Benjamin" 
Franklin, the statcsmaii, j)hilostii»Iier, and patiiot, in life size, and represents 
Franklin in a jiensive nieod, one arm restiuf; on the tnink of a tree. Near 
the centre nf this sipiare, there is a scuwre stone marking the oxaet latitude 
and lonj,'itndo, interestin*; as shi-whij; that the stone is about 81 miles 

nortii of the *Ti(.'af 

Pyraniid in hititud*- 
and at a distance 
of 7,27!l statute 
miles in longtitude. 

The ('(.tton 
J'j.\i'han^i', Avhieh 
has so many in- 
terests in eunnnon 
with Lancashire, is 
hnilt of a cream col- 
oin-ed stunc, Iiifj;hly 
sculptui-c(l with 
]>as-reliefs and other 
ornaments. This 
huihliufj; is com- 
plete in every 
detail ; tlie interior 
is one larjie ajiai-tmcnt. sii})|)or 
enstal ehinulcliers. Tin- c 
jmintilifis, set in panels, repr 



of l^iuisiana in the name of the Kinj; of Fmnee, JJe Soto diseoverin;; 
the Mississippi, a view of a cotton plantation, and a view of Kads' jetties. 
Comnu'iTC, at the time of imr visit, was eunsincuous hy its ahsenci- ; 
nothing doinj^ there in " spots or futvires." We found, however, an active 


m\<^ nil ill tlic liilliiinl runms of the diilis in whii-h 
wlicii tlif sun reaches tin- iiicri<lLan, iisuiillv feed and 

" spot " husinoss 

" ht'Jirs and bulls. 

lie down t< if^etlier, 

Wc iiiad<' n nisideniblr uw i»f the Huston Cinh in Xi'«' Orleaus, 

nf \v]iieli we liiid liecii electtnl hoii. nieinliei-s. We haiehed tht^re ou 

— i se\ei'al occasions, 

HJid enjoyed thor- 
ouf{:hly our only 
f,niin<' at billijmls 
whilst in the 
States ; it was a 
kind of nuHlificd 
sn«M)ker, in which 
th<' pluycr, in 
order to win, whs 
oblij^cd to score 
an exact niunWr, 
any excess mwuit 
<'(ituiiieneinfiC " lie 
ttaru." Her Brit- 
taiiie Majesty's 
rc])nscutativc in 
Xew Oi'lcans, Mr. 
St. John, was an 
cxi»ert at the 
<r<iine, ami man- 
aged to scoop np 
the "nickels," for 
which we played, 
w-itli amazing reg- 
^M ularity. Other 
^^- Knglish residents, 
along with onr 
lively evening — nut tho 


host, Mr. Ileiiry ( 'Iiariio.k, e..iitrilmt(?d to make 
least pleasant of those spent iu tke States. 


The name of Mr. St. Jolm rcininds me of u tali^ that is eiirrent 
in the States about a young Amr'i-i<!an lady, who, during hor lii-st visit 
to England, was engaged in convci-pation by the I'rince of A\^alps. 
H-Tt-H. enquired, amongst other things, which of the sights of TiOndou 
had struck thc^ fair Coluuibian most. The reply ('aiiie promptly, " Sinpul.'' 
" Sinpul, did you say," rejoined the Prince. "Yes, 'Sinpul,' 1 thought 
the grandest ehureh I have seen." " Saint Paul's, you mean," suggested 
H.II.H. "Yes, that I suppose is what I mean; but I thought as you 
called Saint John ' Sinjon,' so I thought 1 should be right in calling 
Saint Paul ' Sinpul.' " 

irKNi:, IlA\lil,lN(i 

From Canal Street lines radiate all over the city ; the streets being 
level, the ears attain a great speed. As you pass into Hoyal Street, 
the old main street of the town, yon iruuu'diately notice the change fnini 
the American t-o the Creole ((uartcr by seeing that the names of the 
streets and the shojis ai-e in French. I took a <ar to the ipuiint old 
town of Carrollton, with its wide a\'ennes shaded by great trees, and 
bordered by Cherokee rose hedges ; it is well worth a visit. Pretty 
gardens nestle amid grounds spicious as covuitry gardens, where fruit 


h'oes grow luxuriautly, and the old ganloiis, oiic<' tho ^^'cat rrsort of 
ploasurc -seekers, are still as attnicthc as of old. 

My inaiu object in going to t'an-oUton was to see for tlie first 
time the greatest rivei- in the world, -sne, perhaps, the Amazon. I had 
seen the Mississippi painted in imnomniie fonii by BanvanI, Avlm. if I 
remember rightly, Hiuited dinni the great stream for over ;I()(HI utiles. 


and painted the greatest i)ietnre of this eeiituiy. It was shewn in the 
old Free Trade Hall in Manchester <Uiring my 'teens, and 1 saw onh' a 
verj- short time ago that Hanvaitl hims<'lf had jnst <-rossed th<> iiaiTow 
sti*eam whieh is never i-e-ei-ossed. 

Soon after I reached New OrleaiLs, being told tliat in the ('n>s<'ent 
City they bmy their dead aboAc ground, I failetl to gnisp the meaning, 
but in driving about we passed the entrance to one of the places of 


s('iniltiiri', »f whic-li I jjivc an illustr.iticii ; we '^i\7,p{[ tlivuiifjh the eiitiiiiit'c 
but (lid iiiit ('liter, When 1 rejulx-d (iiiTolltoii, mid ununited the stceji 
river einbuiikiiu'iit, or lev(H', an it is eitlled, I was \\o\ loiif; in seeing 
the rcasiin for this siuf>;uliir eustoin. 'V\u- lex'd of tlie ri\-er is freipiently 
above the level of tlie city, mid these liijih and stniiig levees iii-e 
noi^essiiry for pnitection from Hoods, to which New Orleans has been, and 
fftill is, very liable, and it is scan-ely nice tn see cottiiis wasiied out of 
the p'omid and floating aliciut. 

It M-as a bite spring mi-niing wlicii I st I on the hanks nf the 

Mississippi ; the air was fragrant with the odour of roses, and the 
sky tassclled with a few ebnids, lightly woven by the sun, that ])assed 
slowly out of sight, like an unreturning shiji. and on "the gauzy wings 
of fimcy flying," 1 thought of the cnidh' of that giant force; of the 
shallow water chanmds, in-egidar tnu^ks scooiM-d nut with infiiiit(> ]iatic'iice, 
thousands of miles fi-oin where I stoixl, down which the sihcry i-alndrops, 
fresh fi-om the piu-e fountains of heaven, trickle and flow ; of the little 
woodbind notes, the stiiiin of tiny song, rills flowing for ever onward ; 
and the rn'ek bottoms, where the dark watei' gurgles and dances round 


projecting rocks to soft and rippling music, and onward and still onward 
it flows, forgetful of th(^ tiny pebbles that shapcnl its path in infancy, 
the bouldei-s f)ver which it brok(^ and glided in its early course, the 
rocks that vainly strove* to bar its progress in the past, and now as I 
see it, it does not cany a tnice, or harbour a memory of them as, 
sweeping along broad and d(*ep, the glorious river passes on for ever, 
with eddy and surge, in sunlight or shadow, in starshine or day with 
a mighty and iiTcsistiblc force. 

The old City Park, and th(^ famous old duelling grounds are sure 
to attract the visitor ; a grovi* of live oak trees, such as are rarely 
seen, ()cciii)y a portion of the* i)ark ; their branches are loaded down 
with tlie long grey Spanisli mos.^, which grows so luxuriantly in the 
soutli. This «:;rove, usuallv called '' tlie Oaks/' was for manv vears the 
favourite duelling ground of the city. ThcTC are romances, thrilling 
with interest, of old time love stories or political quarrels, when the 
aristocrats of the old r(*gimc» sought redress ; bmg forgotten tragedies, 
duc4s, and suicides were as plentiful as the giant oaks ; the old trees 
hav(* witnessed many desperate combats. T am sorrj' not to have secured 
a i)hotograpli of tliis interesting place. 

St. Cliarles Avenue, leading through tin* residential portion of the 
city to Audubon Park (named after the gn^at bird Inmter and tree lover), 
is lined with the most Ixnmtiful homers and gardens of the city, and is 
a most charming drive. It i)ass(»s tlirougli th(» heart of the " garden 
district.-' Handsome residences, and (piaint and pretty homes, mostly 
timber framed and timbcn* coven^d, with fancy shaped slate roofing, are 
set in the midst of grounds made as atti-active as nature, assisted by 
skill, can execute. The newer and larger villas are models of architectural 
beaut}' and good taste. Being of wood they afford ample room for the 
display of the painter's art ; shades of buff or drab, slate or green, are 
most frequent ; these coloiu's are often relieved by bands or lines of 
white, giving lightness and life ; the indispensable verandah, frequently 
double, whereon both lower and upper rooms open, are often of exquisite 
design, but almost hidden beneath a dense covering of climbing roses, 
sweet peas, and clustering woodbine, from out which the stars of the 
yellow jasmine peep abundantly. 


In the well kopt gimlcns, of which the owners are jnstly pnmd, 
are tastefully arrangod beds cariK'ted with polyanthus and j>ansy, lii-ininlan, 
begonias, and searlet geraniums ; hollyhocks and trumpet lilies i-uiso their 
stately heads above the yellow rose bushes, and gladioli shoot uj) spikes 
of flame. Grouped around the verdant trim kept la\vnR are shapely 
shrubs, pn>minent being the meyeiiia erecta, a bushy plant bearing 


luindsome purjile bell-shaped flowers of the gloxinia tribe. Feiitherj- 
palms and Califoniia palms, bearing regid plumes, suggest the tropics. 

I remember well the spreading hibiscus, i-elieved by its gi-and 
scjirlet flowei-s, with a backgixunid of i)ointsettia, the ininiciisc leaves of 
the sea-aide giiijM?, the variegiited nibber tree, «'ith its fine foliage, 
towering on high, and the dense mass nf the magiioliii, ini])eiietRd)le by 


the suuV rays, and dccdnitod by lingo buds* and flciwoix white and jmn' 
as driven snow, all oonibiniiig to niaki" tlu' ail- languorous with the weight 
of fnigrance that ri\'al.s and excels the choicest perfumes of Aniby, 

As thought reverts to the plt-asiint but all too short time spent 
in Xew Orleans, with its joyous sunshin<' that for ever gil(h< the leiives 
and paints the flowei-s, not the least pleasing light that \vill shine on 
whilst memory lasts will be the recollection of that mighty river, that 
living tide rolling on calm, inaj(>stic, irresistible, whose stream, tunntl 
by a pebble's edge at its source, had jilonghed its way through fun'itws 
by whose side the wild ferns wave, over rocks wliere in very weariness 
the floods murmur and wail, and then, slipping silently tlirougli long 
stretches of velvety mead.iw, tlu' uuisic of its silver song coming witii 
laughter through the reeds. an<l between banks " where willows stretch, in 
lithe festoons," their droo})ing anus down to the cooling stream, until at 
length the slender rills are for ever united in tine vast channel, broad and 
deep, and the rush of the mountain torrent is stilled in the jieaceful 
flowl of the giant river, as it mingles its waters witli the Mexican (iulf, 
and flows tranipiilly on to its ocean rest. 




^Kiirr liad (>iic(* inon* drawn a thickly woven cni'tain, nnn^licvod 
bv the calm silvery moon or iiattcnnMl l)v tlic diamond Hasli 
of tlu^ twinklini*: stars as we hade adien to Xew ()rl(»ans, 
a city the n^nunnhrance of which mnst ever recall a ])rofusi(ni of 
kindnc^ss and conrtesy that can nc^ver Ik* forgotten. Ihit if the plains 
of h(Niven were hidch'n for a tim<% wrapjxMl in *^loom, the ])lains of 
(S'lrth shone hriiifhtly with the s])arklini; ,i»:leam of myriads of i^litterin*^; 
tin»flies. On we spiMl ov(M' many a fen and across miles npon miles {\\ 
swam|) land in which IxmIs of rcM^ds and rnshes Honrish and snakes and 
s(»rj>ents find food and shelter*, and wher<' tin* meteor s])ark of the tirc^fiy's 
lamp plays ([nickly over tin* land. 

Moreover, and in vitv trnth, ''the land hroni^ht forth frofj;s/' 
Thes(» nudodions chihhvn (»f the (»arth croakfMl all aronnd snch a f;l(H> 
that the happiest of mortals mif::ht envy, and this (Midh»ss monotone, relieved 
occasionally hy the altissimo not(* of some jirima donna amoni^st tlie 
''Tree" species, ma(h* ns ])ity the tirecl little throats. IFnrryin**; aloni*; 
we r(»ached pastnre lands, and still the tiret1i(*s Hashed overhead or 
danced and <;lan(*ed amid the myrtle leaves of the cloven* plant. IJy and 
bye th(^ stars came ont, jewc^ls in the* crown of her maj(\sty the ni<;ht, and 
then tli(» meteor sparks, tindin*;' competition hopeless, ceased to ^low, sinkin<j^ 
to rc^st where tin' «i:rass was (himj), and as I tnrned in foi- the ni<j:ht 
my spirit seemed to roam to the bright world of dreams, and nwmory 
n^c^Hed hai)py th()n<i:hts that still glow with the light (d' a joy that is past. 

We sprang from onr conch betimes the nc^xt moi'ning, glad to 
escape from the stifling atmosphere of the (*losely cnrtained cnpboards 
in wlii(*h we had passed the night, vainly wooing s1(m»j). Fantasti<* mists 
hung at first lightly ov(T the lowlands, and then, as if (b's(hnning all 
sonibhince of hurry, slowly and with great (h»lib(Tati<ai rolh»d th(»ir fleecy 

164 .U/liRfCiX .VEAfORlES. 

forms lip the hifiist of tlic i,'iiitly slopiiij; Iiills. rc'voaliiij; tlu- curlinf; 
simikc riiiiitiiiir up tliniiijrh w-<><h1 uikI c-uppicc fnnn somi- lmfj;ht i-otta;;!' (ir 
fariiifitfiul, iiliiHist liitlildi frmii .-^ijilit dnwii tlic hawtlioru-c-Iad laiiot-. 

'Wi.' -wore iiiit loiijr in ri-iichiut; Holly Springs, where a stay of 
twenty mimit<*s is made fur bn-akfast ; in less than twenty seconds 
twenty variuiis dish's, jiik'd like pyraiiiiiis, surround you, and ere you 

(■irilXli sI'iiAl! c.VXK. 
can ftlaU'-e at the loiiteiits of one lialf the loudiietor's eommand '"all 
aboard " must he obeyed. 

Besides cotton. Xew Orleans is the ;^eat market for sugar; its 
wharvi-s receive the entire sufntr and molasses eriij) of the States, 
amounting annually to 225,"00 tons. This imincnso pnwluet of sweets, 
the lar;;est of lx»uisiania's stajde crops, is one of the briskest tnides in 
this fircat coniiiicrcial centre ; next to cotton its importance far excceils 


any other article of mei-chandisc ; it M'a;- a matter of rej^rot that time 
limitations preventing our accepting invitations to visit sngar phintations ami 
mills, we were comiielled to be satisficnl with a passing glimpse. 

After k-aviug Holly Springs the sueeeetUug ccmntry is for a long 
distance i»rimeval forest, throngh which the railroad makes lines straight 
us an aiTow, The traek is hemmed in by dense foliage, cool with the fresh 

Alt JKUSi; A.Nn SllHD. 

moniing dew. There deeji solitude reigns ; the woven siiades of the 
pavilion'd houghs shnt out the eye of (hiy ; notliing breaks the decji 
silence save the rnsth- of the leaves tuned to the balmy breeze of 
Spiingtinie, the last evening sigh of the Hummer zephyr; or, in the 
Autumn, when the meiTy wind is the blithe Tiiusiriaii, playing a fantasia 
for the I'alteii leaves to (hince a whirligig. Here and there tires have 
sw»'i»t tlinnigh the wootU, and the blackened stuTups and the dead trees, 


with their broken hninelK^s outstretdnKl a^raiust the sky, are weird and 
ghost-like as w(» jrlich' jjast them. 

At h)nf»: intervals sawinills are ere<ted, and patches are beinj; cleared; 
piles of Inniber and accuninlations of timber await shipment, and hen», as 
we make short stops, limited si«::us of human life br(»ak in on the Anew; 
a f(*w nejri'o l)oys, unclad excej^t by a scanty shirt, may bi' spicnl sitting 
on s«»me adjacent fence, or baskin*: beni^ath th<' shadows of the alders, 
whilst a s(ditary woodp(*cker, startle<l by the advent of our train, shrieks 
at th(» to}) of his shrill voice, and a few scarr<l blackbirds fly about in 
unhapi)iness and c<»ufusion ; but thr solitude is rarely br<»ken by th(» s<»ng- 
bird's carol -there is little but thr whirr of the revolving s;iw to break 
the monotonous silence. For huu<lreds of luiles we bad not seen lake or 
river since we left the Mississipjn ; truly ''a dry land wlu^re no watiT is." 

As we advance further ou our iouruev tlu' countrv b(M-<»mes uiuch 
more cultivated. The woodmau's axe has [jushed far back tli<» forest 
boundary, and proved, as always, the pioneer of civilisation. Aast 
stretches of reclaimed wood and swamp have becmne [pasture land ; fiTtih' 
plains sjiread far and broad, covei'ed as far as the «'ye ean reach with 
heavy crops of the corn plant ; wheat and oats, uiaize and barh^y, ripple 
a chorus of «rratitu<le to the sun-warnu'd br<'e/e. that i^eutlv idavs on 
tluTe bowing heads. 

Homesteads, }>ainted in tlie briglitest vei-miliou, l»ecome num(Tous, 
and contrast strongly with the cloverlaud overspread with a rich mantle 
of pur}dish green ; brown pools, the colour of the hind, in which, as the 
sun turns to the tim<» of the loosing of oxen, cattle* drink, reflect dindv 
in bronzed mirrors the waving willow stirred into motion by a wanchTing 
air. Here and there a white turnpike stn^tches far away between two 
stripers of brown land, over which can be traced the l(»ngthening sha(b»w 
of the hornbeam tre(», whilst some bro(»k or streamlet, ling(Ting on its 
war as if loth to move along, embroiders with its sparkling silv<T thread 
the joyous landscape. 

Till* sun had gone do\ni to his nightly rest 'neath the western skies ; 
the rose curtains that enfohl his couch had tohl us of fresh bi^autv and 
hope for tin* morrow, and Ood's hand was already busy lighting the wateh- 
tir(»s for us, that last until dawn, as the fli-st stai-s shone* out above the 


ridge of the low-lying hills, wlien wo reached St. Louis, oui* next 
stopping place, after a long and tiring journey. 

The New Planter's Hotel, at 8t. Louis, where we made our short 
stay whilst in the (*ity, is the finest of all the hotels we visited in the 
States. Recently ereetcMl, it is ecjuipped in th(* most sumptuous and 
luxurious manner for the comfort and entertainment of guests. It is not 
only a large and magnificently fitted up li()t(4, the rooms, the furnishing, 
th(» cuisine, and the attendance an^ all of the highest excellence. 

The sidooii is very large, and the servici^ admirable. I remember 
a litth^ incident tliat occurred th(T(» shewing th(* marvellous power of 
nuMiiory i)ossess(Hl by sonu* of the darkies : — A large number of people 
were dining ; we had left our hats in tlu» comdor in charge of the 
nigger attendant. Wlu^n my hat was hand(»d to me I ([uestioned its 
identity, but I soon found out my mistake and apologised. I am told 
these men take a great pridi^ in their absolute correctness, and that in 
some of the large restaurants and hotels thousands of hats, coats, and 
umbrellas pass through tlu^ir possession daily, and mistakes are of (^xtremely 
ran^ occuiTence. 

In the States, from time* immemorial, the "• boiTowed umbrella " 
has been a mine* of wealth from out which th(» jestcT has dug treasui*e; 
its adventures have formed meiTy gilx^ and jest in prose and rhyme. 
Even now, hoary with ag(^ and bumping along after much travcd, the 
umbrella joke still threads its way through tlu* columns of the comic 
press. But Yanki^e iuvc^ntion, so prolific, is ringing tlu^ kn(»ll of this old 
tiuK* j^'^t; the umbrella ''made* to be borrowc^d,"' and for no other 
purpose, is now an establislunl fact ; it is madc^ of the* cheai)est nuiterials, 
for, like yemth, onc(» lost it nev(»r more is seen ; a dozen umlm^las will 
go a long way. To (»ach handle^ is attached a small cardboard tag upon 
wliich appropriate si^ntimiaits are inscrib(»d, such as — ''Take him for all 
in all," " 1 shall not look upcm his like again." The most invc^terate 
borrower has been known to '^ crimson " at such a frank announcemc^nt. 

Th(» i^stablishmcmt of th(» lending umbrella is int(»nd(»d to be, not 
so miu*h a convc^nienci* to visitors as a censor of their morals. I he^ird 
of om* hcmse wlu^v the tag had assumed not(*|rap(»r size, b(»aiing the 
words : — 

1 68 J MI:RI( \ \ X M KM OR IKS, 

'•rill ht'iv for ymi to tako or loavo, 
as yoii will ; 
That you will tak^* iiin I >M»li(»vi', 

* >»ut still 
If I iM.'iiiaiii when you aro g'oiK.', 
You'll take aiiothf^r further on!" 

Curiously i^nou^h this umbrella has ucv(»r been boiTOwed. *' 1 be- 
liev(\" said its owmT, '*it has a jj^ood etTect on those who read the tag." 

Knterinj^: the beautiful hall of the* hotel, from which corridors, 
lighted most artistically, stretch right and left, th(^ eye is instantly 
attracted by tlie gnuid staircase*, which Bosco has just reminded me was the 
finest we saw ; its massive beauty adds a truly palatial touch to the picture. 
Ascending to the first fioor we find ourselves in the Foyer, fitted with 
ehiborate and beautifully designed l)rack(*ts and cliandeliers for electric lights. 
The carpets are of the richest velvet, all the furuitun* is of the best style of 
the cabinetmaker's art. Tlu* Foyer is truly regal ; tc^mpting couches and 
chairs are scattered about ; recesses, nooks, and corners abound, in some of 
which we c<mld fancv the old, old storv had more tlian cmce been told. 
Others, draped with fantastic hangings, furnished \\\\\\ luxuricms divans, and 
lighted by such subducMl shading that i)oetic iuiagination easily pictured the 
Orient, whilst the ear was cmtranciMl by the sweet concord of harmonies 
that came floating on the sound waves from the small band of strings 
and the grand piano that play every eviMiing after dinner. 

The '' Xew Planters" is a typical modern AnuTican hotel. The 
lavatory fittings are of nickel silver of the uiost improved kind; the 
baths are jMa-celain lined and ai*e pt^rtect, altogether tin* plumbing is of 
the vc*rv b(*st that can be desired. The* linen in American hotels is 


almost universally spotlessly clean, abundant and of good ([uality. The 
elevators in this hotel I remember were of bronze and ex(*eedinglv 
ornamental, and as noiseless and perfect as unlimited money and modem 
ingenuity can make them ; they ascend from near the foot of thc^ grand 
staircase and their interior decoration is in the highest taste. 

I find on looking over my memoranda that 1 have retained 
cuttings of the reports of the nbiquitous interviewer, which appeared in the 
St, Louis Star, of May oth and (Jth, only suppressing those parts where 
the paint is laid on too thick. Th(* fiist is pn^liminarv, and en'oneous as 
as regards our stay, the s(»cond speaks for its(df ; Iktc th(*y are : — 

rX/MP()N7AX7\ 169 

T W(.) 1)1STIN( a ■ LSII EI ) ]UHT( )NS. 
** Two iiuo looking old j^outlomcn from Knj^laud, John Kendall and FrtHlonok 
Can'or, ar(> rogistored at tlu^ Plaiitoi's' not<4. Tho fonn«^r is fi-oiii Maiichc^tfr 
and tho latter from Nottiiiji:hani, and both an* nianufa(tiiroi*s. Tlipy arc <-oinhinin^ 
pleasure witli husiness. They will remain in »St. Louis several <lays.*' 

Thky Ark ix St. Loris, a\i» Chat IxTKRKSTixciLv ok VAiirors Tmxcis. 

'* John Kendall and Fre<leriek Carver, two iine-h»okinj^ old p»ntli»nh'n from 
Enji^land, rejifistere*! last ni«j:ht at tlu' Planters'. Mr. Kendall is from Manchester, 
and Mr. Carver fr<»m Xottin^^ham. IJoth arc manufacturers, one l)cin«.c president of 
th(^ larjj^ost estahlishment for the numufacture <»f lace j^cmhIs in Enji;'lan<l, and the 
other manager of an immense <lrv floods ccnicern at Manchester. 

** Mr. (yarv(U' has crossed the Atlantic several times, hut this is his lii*st 
visit to St. Louis. Mr. Kendall, the older (»f the tw<», saw America for tlie 
tii-st time only a few weeks a<»:o. From Xt^w York they wi>nt to l*hiladel])hia 
and then to Baltimore and Washinj^ton City. At the ca])ital, l*resident Cleveland 
gave th<Mn a ])rivate audience. 'He ri'ceived us very cordially,' said Mr. Carver 
la-st night, in sp<*aking of the visit. ' We had a very ]>l<'asant talk together for 
8(mie time, hut the l*r«»sident didn't menti(»ii Venezuela once. His private 
secretary had told us, however, before that the Pn»sident's Venezuela m(»8sage 
had been mi8undei*stood in England ; that In* had inten<led it in a friendly way. 
It*t the message we Englishmen obj(H*te<l to so much, as the way it was 
given out to the worhl and made ])ublic. If a message embodying the same 
seutim(»nt8 had b(M>n sent to the British (Government (juietly, it would have caus(»d 
veiy little unfavorabl(» comment. As it was, nobody got excited over our way. The 
time is jwist wIh'u a row can be started by such a thing Ijctwecu the two countries.' 

** Mr. ( ^irv(M' talketl in this s])irit for some time. \\o favouis the establish- 
ment of a eourt of jirbitration for the settlement of dis]>utes arising between 
Great Britain and the I'nited States. !!»• is a gr<'at admirer of Lord Salisburv 
and his foreign p(»licy. l*resident Krugei-, of the Transvaal, he looks u]M>n as a 
pious (dd humbug. Lgypt he thinks should be occujned by British Troops 
hec^ause of the Suez (-anal. The ManchestiM* Canal, lioth he and Mr. Kendall 
think, will eventually pay as a commei*cial invi^stment, though j)erha]>s not until 
the onginal investcu's an^ in thiMr graves. The traffic is increasing steadily." 

St. Louis is tlio city wliicli was n^eontlv dovastulcHl hv a tornado : 
at the time of our visit a powcTful lioat wavo was })assin<i^ over it. 
So intense was it that it compelled nie to remain in the hot(»l tin* whole 
of our short stay, and if 1 am unahle to sav anvthin<jr about the eitv, 
this must he my (excuse, and so, kind n^ader, we will take a hnij; aud 
silent jump to cmr next stopping place — Chicago. 

17(» .LUfJ/f/ClX .V/:.V()J?/A'S. 

'lIlCACiO. '-tlic riid'iiix Citv of tlic Wi'st." -'the (ianleii City," 

• a. 

and tlic '' Wiiidv Citv," as it is variously called, is situated 
on the south west slioiM* of I.ako Miclii^ran, to which, inclusive* of the 
parks at either extremity of the city, it has a frontage of over 20 

miles, and althoutrh hut sixtv vears old, it is the s(»cond citv of the 

• • • , 

T'nited States in point of populati<m, and the seventh in the siime resj>eet 
in the world. It is the centre of more than a third of the railway 
mileag<' of the UnitiMl States, and its inhahitants claim it to be the most 
rapidly prospering eity on the continent. 

In the tirst year of tho present century Chicago was a swamp ; 
in ISll a small military post, soon to Ik* abandoned, and to be the 
scene of a terrible Indian massacre; in 1821, again an insignificant 
militarv station; in I80I a villaire of twelve houses, without mail routes, 
post roads, or post othce ; in 1841, an incorporated city, with 5,752 
inhabitants, and an export trade amounting to so28,t)35 ; in 1851, rapidly 
assiuning conunercial importance; on the eve of possi^ssing railway com- 
nuinication with Now York ; its grain shijjments increastnl to 4,046,831 
bushels; its population numbering >>4,4^17 ; in 1801, its grain, pork, and 
lumber interests all enormously developed, its population almost ([uadnipled, 
and its shipments of breadstutt's increased ten-fold within a single decade ; 
in 1S71, ri<di and magniticent, bidding fair to outstrip the most 
famous <*onnuereial circles of either the old or new world; but suddenly, 
on that memorable October night, almost sw(»pt out of (existence by tire, 
only to rise triumphantly from its ashes in more than its former splendour, 
a monumc^it of indomitable spirit and (»nergy ; in 181>2, the greatest railroad 
ci^ntri*, live stock markc^t, and primary grain port in the world ; the scene 
of the ceas(d<»ss activiti(»s of ov<t a million and a <juai*ter of eager, 
restless toilei's, attracted bv its fame from far and near, and to-dav still 

CHICAliO (Pari I). 

iidviuu-inf;, witli 
metropniitaii city 
of the wi'iilth-pi- 

Tlw Fort 
Dearborn inns- 
sacri- (lecun'ed 
August 10, 1812, 
at 11 split near 
18th ShTL't ami 
liidiitiia Avenue, 
atiil is niitrked 
liy an apjiro- 
jn-iate nionunienl 
erected by Mr. 
G. M. rullniaii. 
A group of life- 
size statuary re- 
presents tin- nias- 
saere on tlie 
evacuation of idd 
Fort Dearlioni. 
The pedestal is of 
(Juiuey granite. 
Jlroiize tiddets in 
the four sides rep- 
resent the fight 
and massiiere, tlie 
waggon trains 
leaving the foi-t, 
and the seene at 
the moiiient of 
(.'aittaiii Wells' 
tomahawking 5[rs. (lelin, 
Bluek Partridge, Mrs. II.. 

The destnictive lir 



The gronji shews 


an Indian in tin 

anil aiiothi' 
in's reseller, 
of 1871 originated on Sunday 

Indian knifing the surgeon, 
■upies the Tiinst prominent p of 






8tli, uear the comer of Jcffcrsuu jiiid Do Koveii Streets, where Mrs. 
O'LejiiT's frattiuus eow is said to h;ne kicked over a kerosene lamp, 
siettiiig fire to the contents of thi- shed. At that time a stnmg gale was 
blowiuij, which soon fanned an insignificant blaze into a sea of fiame, 

and whirled the 
firebrands ou their 
en-ands of destruc- 
tion. AVithin 24 
hours over three 
square miles of 
C'hitrago had been 
sMcpt away; 
evervthing which 
helped to make 
Chicago the great 
commercial centre 
of the West lay 
in ashes. Nearly 
eighteen thousand 
buildings were de- 
stroyed, the entire 
loss being esti- 
mated at no less 
than i;KI,(H)0,0(m 
dollai-w, of which 
ouly 44,000,000 
dollars wascovered 
by insurance. The 
homes of 98,500 
persons were con- 
sumed. It is esti- 
mated that 200 

persons lost tlicir lives in the conflagration. But liefore the embers had 
die*! out work was bcf^un by the removal of tin; dt'bih, in pi-eparing 
the way for the magnificent buiklings which now hide from view all 


CHICAGO (Part // 173 

traces of the memorable fire of 1871. The calamity brouji^ht blessings in 
its train. The day of the wooden '' shanty " was doomed ; piles of 
magnificent architecture rapidly began to replace it, and made (/hicago 
celebrated throughout the land; truly, between a great city and none 
but a single night intervened. 

During our visit the following extracts from an "up-to-date 
calculation" regarding the population was ])ublished in one of the Chicago 
daily papers: — 

GOES LT TO 1,7()(),(H)(). 

City Directory Itetunis Show Chicago's llc^al Population. 

R. TT. DoiiiioUoy Ex])liiiiis How Tlis Eiimucrators Work. 


Chieap^o's population is approximately 1.7()0,000, and lias incn'ascd stoadilv 

since 1894 hv l)otw(»on 50,000 and 00,000 <*a(*li year. So conscM-vative an authority 

• •• « • 

as liubon H. Donnclh'v, niana^T of tlip (liicajj^o City DinHtory Company and 
compiler of tho auniml volume issu(»d l>y tliat comjjany, is tln^ autliority for 
tliift statomont. Mr. l)onnoll«*y is n*ji:ard<Ml ]>y tlie Imsincss community of Cliica^o 
as havinjj; tho most intimate knowlcdj^e of th(* city's po])ulation possessed l>y auv 
one man. 

The result, as ])ut hv Mr. Donnelley, is: — '*A n^asonjihle and material 
increase will he shown hv the direetorv this v(*ar of the ijopulation of the citv. 

• « • 1 J. • 

Our estimate of th<' ])opulation in 1895 was 1,095,000. If the whole direetorv 
fihows the same in<'rease that has alrea<lv been noted, and T have not the 
slightest reason to douT>t that it will, we shall show an increas(» of population 
of over 60,000." 

The following talde shows the directory estimates of ])opulation for tin* 
veal's given : — 

1896 1,760,000 

1895 1,695,000 

1894 1,635,000 

This is an extraordinary ri^snlt in so short a time, seein*.^ the 
population was authentically stated to Ix^ 4o,()()() forty-three years since ; 
now one million and three-cjuarters. 



The oliiiiatc of (1iica«j:() is hc^althful and invigorating, although the 
winters arc oohl and the t(*niiKTatur(- in suinincT is liahh* to great and 
sudd(ni elianges, (huihth^ss owing to its <'los(» {jroxiniity t<» so hirge a sheet 
of watiT as Lake Michigan. It is int(»resting h<»wevcT to not(\ amongst 
the many published statistics, that the <h'ath nite is am<mgst the h»west 
for anv citv of tlu* size of Chicago on the glob(». This is a renmrkable 
fact when tlie unsanitary site, tlu* rapid growth, and the erowde<l 
conditi<»u of s(»m(» of its districts, tenanted by fon^igners, are considered. 
Th(» Tuitcd States census of 1880 gives 1-") piT cent, more chihlron 
uiiiU'r live years of age than any otluT city of 20(1,000 population in 
Amcri(a. \\w area of the city is n<'arly 200 scpiare miles. It is 24 
miles long and 10 miles wide. The popular vote in 1S02 was: — 
Cleveland, 1:;<;,:)2">; IlarrisoiK 100,S01. 

Outside of I.ou<lou it is doubtful if anv citv in the* world can 
show as large and as varied a ])oj)ulatiou as the City of Chicago. I reprint 
an aualvsis (»f the p<>pulatiou taken some time since, but I don't suppose 
the I'clative j»roporti<)Us have greatly <-hauged. 

Nationalities comprising the* popidation of the City of Chicago:— 

Aiii.Ti<:ni •Jl»-2.46;) 

(irrniMii .*5SI,1K").S 

Irivh 1>1.>.');M 

Itolniiiiaii .")l.2nj) 

IN.livli .VJ.7o6 

SwimIInIi 46.877 

Nni-\vt'};i;iii 14. <)].') 

Mujrli^h 8.*5,7s.3 

Kr..ii(li 12.96;] 

S.Mtrli 11.027 

Wrlsli 2.966 

liu^i^^iaii 9.977 

Daiirs 9.891 

Italiim-^ 9.921 

Tlif» Negrnf^ are said to iiuinbtT 13,000. 




lininiiaiiiaii^ .... 

< *aiia<liaii'^ 


( il'tM'ks 



\\\i<\ Iiuliaii'i 

\\%»«*t Iiuliaii*< 

Samlwicli Islainl*Ms 















It will be noticed in tliis estimate that the Irish and German 
population is, relatividy, v(Ty larger This will probably aoeoiint for 
Chicago being so larg(» a market for pigs, and great export centre for 
bucon. 1 heard of an Irishman who regularly crammed his jngs one day, 
and starved them the m^xt. Asked why h(» did so he replied, " Oeh, 
sun^ and it's because mv eustomei's lik(» to have their bacon Ti'ith a 
streak of lean aqually, one* after t'other."' 

CHKWCO (Pan I). 

In Milwaukee, u city within 1011 iiiilcs nf Cliifiago, the proportion 
of fxemians in a population of a •piartor of a iiiilli<in is variously stated 
to be from two-tliinls to four-fifths of the whole, and 1 think in a 
more i-eeent statement fif tin' natioutilitios comprising tht; pni)nlatioii of 
Chicago, that the Irish, as well as the (Tenuans, exceed the Americans. 

The mnncipality of ('hica;;o is housed in a iniifiniticent twin 


building, the largest and most imposing of tlu' i)uhlie edifices of Chicagn, 
and one of the finest structures devoted to county and municipal purposes 
in the world. It occupies an entire squaiv. In style a free treatment 
of the French Renaissance, it is huilt of linu'sfonc, and adorned with 
massive columii.>* of the finest granite. The lenf;:th of each of the two 
faeces is 340 feet, the width of the entire Iniilding 2S0 feet, and its 
height from the ground line 124 feet. Tlie eastern half, fronting on 


Clark(* Street, is occupied by the various officials of Cook County, who 
are located iu spacious aud eh^j^ut apartments ; the rooms devoted to 
the administration of justice being nKnlels of courtroom convenience. 

The interiors of the two buildings differ somewhat in arrangement, 
the City Hall being finishc^d in white oak and much colouring, while the 
interior of the county building is plain but rich. The twin buildings* 
cost completed §4,400,00(1. The Public Library occupies the top floor of 
the City Buildings. 

Tlu» Fire Department, with headquarters in the basement of the 
City Hall, pj )ssess(*s 72 steam tire (Migims, 22 chemical engines, 28 hook 
and ladder trucks, t\vr> river tin* boats, (me stand pipe* and water tower, 
and 421 horses, with a staff of 070 mm. liy the tire alarm telegraph 
svstem, established at a cost of nearlv a million dollars, an alarm can 
be instantaneously flasluHl to tin* nearest statirm from any part of the 
city. With such alacrity are the alarms n^sponded to, that the loss 
occasioned by the actual tin^s is remarkably slight in comparison with 
the (»xj)erience of other citi(»s. 

On th(» 1st of Januarv next (Greater N<*w York will have a debt 
of si 70,000,(100 ; notwithstanding its magnitude Chicago has hopes of 
being able to beat tliat. 

In (.'hieago tliere are ronglily speaking 2,-")00 miles of streets within 
an area of 20,000 acres, and seventv-five miles of fine drives within 
the city limits. This vast city has many entranc(\<. A passenger may 
enter diicago in a luxuriously furnished sh^eping car, and, without 
leaving it, reaeli oni' of thi* i)rincij)al seaboard cities of the United 
Stat(\s. Tliere are alsf» railway lines heading into Canada on the north 
and Mexico on the south. It is estimated that fully 175,000 people arrive 
aud depart (nich day. 

Twenty-eight railroads, optn-ating forty systems, with nearly 40,000 
miles of road, conv(Tge and c(»ntre in Chicago, thus making it the 
gi-eatest railroad city in the world. Two hundred and sixty-two through, 
express, and mail trains arrive or leave each day. In the same period, 
000 local, surburban, or a<-commodation trains arrive or depart ; 274 
merchandise freight trains, and 1(U gmin, stock and lumber trains 
reaching Chicago or leaving it in every twenty-four hoiu-s ; thus making 

CHICAGO (Part Jj. 

a grand total of 1,360 as the average dailj' movement of all classes of 
trains, an aggregate reached by no other city in the nniverse. 

Chicago possesses one of the most complete systems of street 
railways in the world, being literally giidironed with their tracks. The 
three divisions of the city are operated by separate companies, with an 
aggregate of ;-i06 miles of track. The cars arp used by about fiOO,000 
persons ii day. The fare is uniformly o cents. 


It is gi'eatly to the credit of Chicago, the distinguishing characteristic 
of which has been said to be the pursuit of wealth with an energy and 
a singleness of purpose almost unexampled, to have made the splendid 
provision it lias for the education of the young. Xearly -HOO public, 
primary, grammar, and high schools ; fifteen colleges of law, medicine 
and theology ; half a dozen academies of art and science, and two 


universities are not the marks of a community wholly given up to the 
acquisition of wealth. 

The Xewben-y Library is a monument to the munificence of 
Walter Loomis XewbeiTv, who left a will providing that his fortune 
should be divided in equal portions between his surviving relatives and 
the i)rojected institution. The sum realised for the use of the library 
was, by judicious investmont, nearly ^8,000,000. 

Tlie history of art in Chicaf2:o deals with the business men rather 
than with the artists. In architecture, commerce gave the artist his 
opportunity, although it could not give him genius. Whatever has been 
accomplislicHl in building up art schools, exhibitions and collections, and 
in fostering an interest in art in the community at large, is due to the 
men of aifairs, who have thrown into this work the same energy that 
has built the citv and madc^ it famous. 

The Art (iallorv, or Art Institute as it is variously called, is 
attended by scleral hundred pupils, and I believe is self-supporting. I 
saw two or three classes —on the mixed system — at work during my 
visit ; nothing could excec^l the interest, close attention, and deconim 
exhibited. The lower Hoor is used for the exhibition of sculpture, metal 
work, and kindred objects. Here may be seen plast(*r copies of many of 
the Grec^k and Roman classics. Some good modern bronze statuary, 
including Mozart as a youth tuning his fiddle, causing me once more to 
break the tenth commandment. On this floor also the lecture halls and 
library are found. 

The upper part of the building is used entirely for the exhibition 
of pictures and statuary, which are held frequently, and there is a very 
creditable nucleus of a permanent collection. My visit was both hurried 
and lonely, my friend Bosco being engaged in putting finishing touches 
to commercial plans for the enrichment of the Empire generally, and 
the company, of which he is so distinguished an ornament, in particular. 
I was at a great disadvantage in being deprived of the guidance of his 
artistic eye. The pictiu'es seem to be chiefly French, Dutch, and other 
Continental schools; but few British, which I regretted. I noticed in 
particular Meissonier's ^'Vedette," Munkacsy's "Wrestler's Challenge," 
Jacquet's ''Queen of the Camp," Bouquereau's "The Bathers," Dante 

CHICAGO (Part // 179 

Gabriel Eossetti's " Beata Beatrix," and Columbus at the Court of Queen 
Isabella," by Brozik, all of which bade me pause and consider. 

The building, which stands on the lake front facing Adams Street, 
is long and rather low in the elevation, but particulary suited for the 
purposes for which it is intended. The style of architecture is Grecian, 
severe and classic in feeling ; a broad and imposing flight of steps leads 
up to the principal entrance, which is guarded right and left by a 
couple of noble lions at bay, their look of firm determination and 
outstretched tails of bronze, suggested the thought that the occasional 
pastime of some of our cousins, in trying to twist the tail of the British 
Lion, might be more difficult, and, perchance, dangerous than in their 
playfulness they sometimes think. 

The business section of Chicago, crowded with buildings that are 
simply magnificent in proportion and design, presents an appearance of 
age and stability that makes the brevity of its history seem almost 
fabulous. There is a collection of mercantile buildings, probably 
unsurpassed in an o(pial area at any other place on the globe. The 
visitor is bewildered at tlio wonderful perspective of massive facades. 
These structures are planned and erected on a most generous scale. The 
principal type of architecture is the Romanesque or Round-arch Gothic, 
and the materials varv from brick, ten-a cotta, and iron to brown stone, 
marble, and granite. 

The Brothers of the Mystic Tie, '*who meet upon the level and 
part upon tlu^ sciuare," liave a magnificent home in the newly-erected 
Masonic Temple at the corner of Randolph and State Streets. The 
Masonic Temph* is probably the highest office building in the world. The 
main entrance is beautiful and imposing. A twelve foot corridor runs on 
every floor around the interior of the building. The Temple is twenty stories 
high. The first sixteen stories are used for office and store purposes. 
The seventeenth and eighteenth stories are used by the Masonic fraternity. 

Walking on State Street the eye is at once aiTested by this 
imposing pile, the neighbouring palaces of trade sinking into insignificance 
by comparison. The bay windows of the Stiite Street front break the 
otherwise severe simplicity of its walls into curves, at once pleasing and 


The entrance is a massive granite archway, forty feet high by 
thirty-eight feet wide. The doore, of heavy plate glas», arc framed in 
bronze, and lead into a rotunda, which absolutely seems to reach the skies. 
From the rich mosaic floor the eye journeys up and up, noting the polished 

Italian marble 
walls, the mas- 
sive girders of 
steel, and the 
graceful railings 
of bronze out- 
lining each floor. 
One, two, three, 
up and ou, till 
twenty-oue are 
counted and the 
mellow rddianc;e 
of th<' glass i-oof 
obstructs the 
view. Then yonr 
neck aches, and 
you replace ycmr 
hat and frtmt the 
olevatni-s stand- 
ing in a semi- 
ciiT-le at the rear, 
and flanked with 
marble pillars in 
a row. As you 
step in, you 
notice the flights 
of marble stairs 
climbing over 

your head dizzily, and as you go up, with the ease and buojmney of a 
bird, you wonder at the deliciously fresh air you are breathing, and 
notice that the system of ventilation is as unique as it is perfect. 


CHICAGO (Part I). 181 

Just a slight demand on the imagination, and the Orient dawns 
on you in all its fabled magnificence ; rare marbles, paintings, and 
tapestries peep from every nook. Mosaic floora, and floors lavishly strewn 
with costly rugs, lie beneath your feet. India, Persia, and Japan have 
yielded their choicest art treasures to deck these sumptuous apartments, 
the result being a dream of almost more than earthly beauty. Egj^t 
has lent her sombre inspiration, tuned to the lotus-eaters' reveries, while 
Ancient Greece keeps her company, with all its classic grace and purity. 

Here a hall opens out like the* transept of a cathedral, its ceilings 
arched and panelled with heraldic designs. A '' dim religious light " 
pervades the vast room, and perfume of '' censer swung " seems to float 
through the silence. 

Was that the minster belFs chiming, sweet and low, and do the 
knights, in clanking armour clad, bend low their plumed heads, battle- 
scarred and toil-wcmi from the long crusades y ( )ue d()(»s not need to 
close the eyes to summon them back from the long dead age of chivalry 
and romance. A raised dais, canopied with bi^autiful grille^ work, fronts 
a great organ, wlios(» pipes are pick(*d out in gold and red and blue. 

There is an assembly room, a club room, parhmrs, smoking and 
coat rooms, kitchens and corridors, armouries, store rooms, property rooms, 
all to be flnished and furnishiMl in tlu* most artistic and sumptuous 
manner. Then* are over 2S,0()(I teet of flooring S2)ace devoted to the 
exclusive us(^ of the Masons, forming the most magnificent suite of lodge 
rooms in the world. The seventeenth, eighteenth, and i)art of thi* nine- 
teenth and twentieth stories comprise the suite* ; and tlu* twenty-first story 
is a huge observatory, roofed with glass, from the windows of which can 
be seen the entire city and the tumbling waters of the lake, touching the 
misty sand dunes of Michigan away out against the verge of the horizon. 

The streets look like pathways among toy houses ; cable cars are 
but boxes on wheels ; horses look like diminutive ponies from this eerie 
height; and what an insignificant little creature humanity seems, ant-like, 
hurrying hither and thither in swarms on the sidewalk ; the water 
tower, away out by the '' nord site," looks like a pencil stood on end ; 
and the breezy spaces of Lincoln Park, with its grass and trees, look 
like bits of gi'een muslin spread out to bleach in the sunlight. When 


the sniake of the oity lifts sufficiently, the buildings to the westward 
seem to reacli liiiiitlessly. Streets are hut threads trailing out to where 
the sky oomes down to kiss the jirairie. uud surely all those trees are 
nothing but dwarfed shi-ubbery. Massed with palms and swept with the 
coolin<» breezes from the lake, uo more delightful spot could be found 
to while away the long listless li<mrs of a summer afternoon than the 
top floor of the Masonic Temple. 

Tlie capping wonder of the whole is 
this — but one short year lay between the 
cfjiTier and the cope stones. The building 
prugit'ssed by day and night, and on the 
annivei-saiy of tlie laying of the corner stone 
the last stone was put in place «ith all the 
>lomn and iml^ressi^■e rites of the order. 
The Masonic Tcnijilc stands an object of pride 
tj eveiT C'hicagoau. and a thing of wondering 
nhiiiration to the visitor within its gates. 

Bnt higli as towers this huge fabric, 
t is (Iwarffd by otliei's in building and in 
Lmteiiiplation ; sonic arc actually in coui«e 
I f erection consiih'rably higher, and we 
iw skctclics of ;t proposed "' Odd Fellows' 
Building '■ lialf as high again, or even more. 
' "\Iy recollection is that the plan shewed an 
ntoi'osEn elevation of nearer 4(1 than oO stories. Whether 

XEW Oim FKI.LOWS HALL. v -n .1 1 1 -i. ■ ■ -li 

It Will ever get beyond a plan it is impossible 
to say, still an autlicntic sketch of IJabel's Tower would l>e interesting 
for comparison. The height of tliese buildings is getting so gigantic that 
the view has to be taken in parts ; it takes two men to reach to the 
top ; when one has looked up half way, then the other takes up the look 
and completes the gaze, Americans are said to be (I don't believe it) 
pi-overbial liai-s, but it would require half a dozen of the biggest to 
exaggerate the size of these enormous buildings. It is interesting to 
know that these monster fabrics are almost all built in steel frames; 
will the frames ever con-ode and the buildings fall 'i 

CHICAGO (Pari Ij. 

The shopping district of Chicago, ipar excellence, is the quadrangle 
formed by Wabaah Avenue, "Washington Street, Dcarbom and Congress 
Streets, the "ladies' half mile" being essentially on State Street from 
Bandolph to Congress Streets. In this quadrangle are the finest of the stores 
and shops, and on the favoured pnmienade are wares displayed in windows 
which would vie in aiTay with those of any city on the face of the globe. 


The crossing of State and 5Iadi.soii Streets may be termed the 
vortex of retail trade. Here the crowd and clanging bells of cable ears 
bewilder the senses. 

Chicago is very large, very lively and go-ahead ; the roar and 
rattle of the sti-eets, the clang of the tramcar bells by day and night 
never ceases. Our hotel being in the centre of tlie city witli frontage 
to three principal streets, wake when we would during the night, the 


toll of the traiuoar bell iiiiiigl<-rl «itii tlic niiiible of tin* trdiiicar wheel, 
uiflde sleep difficult. t'hicagi.t has tlie reputation of ha\Tng the most 
fOiTupt Coi-puratiuii in the States, itt Iwist so we were told ; it eeitainlT 
is the dirtiest eity— this we saw ; if it were not for tlie powerful 
breezes that blow over Lake llieliigan 1 fear the murky griiny veil 
would be iinpeneti-able to the rays of tliu mid-day sun. These remarks 

of course apply to tliost- pi-rtioiis 


if the rity devoted to the funiaee and 
forgi-. the mill 
and maimfaetory. 
It is. Iiuwever, 
to th<' region 
lyiug out-side the 
veil iif smoke 
that Chieapo 
"Wis its title of 
"The garden 
<ity : " to the 
jiarks and tile 
hrautifiii and ar- 
tisti<- boulevards 
that join them. 
Of parks theiv 
are sev»'i-al ; we 
visited two, Lin- 
ciihi. >onie 2-jO 
a<'res in extent, 
and Jaekson, the 
site of the (Jreat 
Exposition of 
I S98, which cov- 
ei's nearly fiOO 
aeres, of whieli 
nioi*e anou. 

The approiicli 
to Lincoln Park 

CHICAGO (Pari I J. 185 

is unfoitunate, as it is through the dirtiest part of the city wc had seen, but 
when once the lake drive is reached, you forget it all amid the grassy 
mounds and verdant lawns, watered and tended, mown and trimmed like a 
rich velvet carpet. We were told that Lincoln is the most beautiful of all 
the parks ; this we can well believe. It is rich in monuments. A life-size 
statue of Abraham Lincoln stands in front of the Presidential Chair and bears 


the inscription:— "180'J, Abniliani Lincoln. IStiO. The jrilt ut Kli liates. 
With malice towanl mine, with charity for all, with tinmioss in the 
right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on. Let us have 
faith that light makes might, and in that faith lot us, to the end, dare to 
do our dutj- as we understand it.'' A statue of (ieneral Oi-ant, bestriding 
his war-horse, overlooks Lake Jliehigan, The uieiuorial fund for the 
erection of this monument was started bv Mr. Potter Palmer, with a 


dtmatioii tjf $0,(H){t within two hours of the death of Grant, and the 
completed nionuinciit was unveiled with imposing ceremonies in 1891, in the 
pr('scu((> of S,")0(l iiiilitarv and over loUjOOO other spectators. The statue is 
over IS feet high, and is the largest casting e^or attempted in the States. 
Amongst other uioiiuments Fretk'rick vou Sehiller is seen standing 
iTect. whilst Shakt'spcarc sits in fjilni rontoiiiplation. {By the way, my 

friend Sir William Hailc}'. who has made the subject a special study, 
tells me Shakesi>cai(; ne\or wrote the innnortal plays with which his 
name is imporisbably associated, but another man of the same name). 
Liunc, the Swedish botanist, watches the gi'owth of the trees and 
flowers lie loved so well, aud more than one statuarj- group records and 
recalls the presence in this very spot, little more than half-a-century ago, 
of tribes of wild aud savage Indians. 

CHICAGO (Part IJ. 187 

As we follow the boulevard, part of the system intended eventually 
to connect the parks by a chain of magnificent drives — bordered with 
trees and edged with cool, green lawns on either side — and to encircle 
the city, the broad expanse of Lake Michigan, the second in size of 
the five great fresh water lakes, and the only one lying wholly within 
the United States, stretches away as far as the eye can carry; a vast 
field, \iithout diA'iding lines, of liquid herbage, seemed to steal away 
until sky and water met in the boundary lino of the horizon, whilst 
mthin easy sight are seen the lighthouse and breakwaters, and the 
white sail of many craft. 

The day, I remember, was pleasantly warm and balmy, an 
occasional fleecy cloud sent a lace-like shadow flying across oui* path ; 
the breeze was merry and gay, it sang little love sonj»:s in the foliage 
of the trees, and made rippling laughter along the top of Michigan's 
gentle swell. The slanting rays of the post mc^ridian sun wito falling 
athwart the splendid residences that face the lake, revealing in all their 
gi'andeur some of the finest examples of domestic architecture in Chicago. 
Brick, sandstone, limestone, terra-cotta, granite, and marble have been 
lavishly employed to create forms of architectural beauty that do credit 
alike to the merchant prince who inhabits and the artist wlio designed 

By and bye we dip into the recesses of the park, and revel 
amid its enchanting loveliness. The s])ring had brought with it freshness 
and colour, all around hung garlands of blossoui hulen with the perfunu* 
of budding life; here, where but a few years since the aborigines killed 
the deer and lit the camp fire, the new settlers from evi^ry quarter of 
the globe wander in safety at their will beneath a canopy of leaves, 
and the ubiquitous bicycle, more ubiquitous here than ever, glides and 
races on roads level and smooth as a billiard table, or toils up steep 
ascents and whirls over undulating slopes. Lincoln Park is a garden of 
varied and beautiful landscapes, walks and drives wind about amongst 
the trees over gentle knolls down to the margin of some ornamental 
lake, over whose quiet waters canoes glide, and graceful swans are 
peacefully sailing. At every step comes some vista of exceeding beauty 
— ^now it is the sun's great eye seeking to penetrate a forest of trees 


ere he dip.s dottii to iiis iiightly rest, aud aiiuii you halt on a iiistic 
bridge and stimd speUboimd by the fasciuatiou of his glittering rays, as 
thoT arc miiToi-fd in the face of sonjr mirufflcd pool, clear as crystal, 
relip\L'd by a pii»fiisi(iii of water lilies, and enframed by verdant banks 
so low that the fresli foliage bends down to kiss the watery mirror 
that rctli'Cts its elianns. 

Koal houses aud ruiiiautic grottos are built in picturesque spots, 
and arbours uie found in ijuiet an<! peaceful gi-oves ; over these the 
]nu'}ile wisteria hangs, and the honeysuckle and jasmine climb ; the wood 
robin perched in the ii)se laden trellis is piping his ilay-day song. 
Parterres arc radiant with colour, the gay blooin of flowei-s unrivalled by 
the pencil of man. aud already the bnftertly is wooing the lily, and the 
busy bee has taken the rose for a bride. Limpid lills thread their way 

CHICAGO (Pari I). 

almost noiselessly under the shadow of groat flower laden trees, or meander— 

' inaideii-linir 

whilst an occasional nish of wate 
a dash of foam, 
and marks a min* 
iature cascade that 
tumbles in a 
/(litter of sihcr. 
Our dri\(' 
in and about T.iii- 
coln Park had 
been Innj; ami 
plcasiuit, all Hie 
move so owing to 
the iiitellijieiit 
attention of tmr 
driver. The bi- 
cycle hiin|»s were 
beginnin;* to let 
their lijihts shine 
before policeincn, 
and lovci's Mere 
seekiufj the (jiiiet 
jilaces in whieh to 
tell the old. old 
story, befor(> wo 
left the park. 
Across the lake, 
on the edge of the 
horizon, the last 
red arc of the sun 
was lingering and resting, en- 
then, before we reached our hotel, 
the stars had shone out quite suddenly 

<.f laco w.ivk 

falling ove 

few mossy rocks gives 


auk slnwlv in 

n till' water, 


the deep blue 

night nf the 




DIE was not oil our side during our visit to the States; we 
att(Miiptod much, saw much, but much too superficially, in fact 
thrice X\\v time spent from home Avould barely have sufficed. No 
visit to (liicafxo is worthy the name Avithout a pilgrimage — for they are 
miles awav from tlu^ centre of the citv — to the celebrated stock yards. 
This we accomplislicd, but at the very worst moment we could have 
selected, vi/. : — mid-dav on Saturdav, but it was then or never. We 
were armed witli an introduction to Mr. Swift, Junr., a partner in 
^lessrs. Swift cS: Co., a firm of v<tv \iiY<^i' dealers. Mr. Swift, in the 
most kindly manner, and 1 tear at some personal inconvenience, drove 
us round the <^rounds. 

Th(* Union Stock Yards, in Avhich this enormous business centres, 
cover more than 4(10 acres. \V<* saw but little, the time was inopportune, 
but 1 ,u:hnnied sonu' intcTesting information. In o,oOO pens, 1,800 
covered and 1,')00 open, provision is made for handling at one time 
25,000 h(»ad of cattl(\ 14,0(1(1 sheep, and L30,000 hogs. The yards 
contain twenty niiU\^ of streets, twenty mik^s of water troughs, fifty 
miles of feeding troughs, and sev(*nty-five miles of water and drainage 
pipes. There are also eighty-seven miles of railroad tracks, all the great 
roads having access to this vast market. The (^ntii'c cost was ^4,000,000, 
About 1,200 men are employed in the stock yards proper. In 1892, 
3,571,796 cattle, 7,714,430 hogs, 2,145,079 sheep, 197,576 calves, and 
86,998 horses were received at the yards in 309,901 cars, being of an 
aggregate value of $253,836,502. 

At the timi^ of our visit, being a half holiday, the yards were 
practically empty, but the daily receipt of hogs varies from 20,000 out 
of the season to 75,000 during its height, to which must be added 
large quantities of cattle and a somewhat smaller quantity of sheep. 


It was iu some sense a disappointment not to see .some of the 
famous slaughter and packing houses, such, for example, us Armour's, 
where 5,000 pigs and 3,000 cattle are killed daily and pi-epared for 
exportation. The method, the almost mcclianical method, by which hogs 
are transformed into bacon and ham, and beasts into beef and tongue, 
has been often doseribed, but as I did not iici-sonallv witness the 


^^*' 1 f - ^-^ 

■* ^ 1 









■ J 



transformation scene, I won't use another's description. Mr. Swift assured 
ua there is no waste, bye- products come from everything ; tlio blood, 
the life thereof, went for manure, horns and hoofs for glue, and the 
superfluous fat for butterinc and oleomargarine, or margarine, a mixture 
with butter. " One thing only," said Mr. Swift, " vrv ha^-o not yet 
been able to use, that is the ' squeal.' " But I saw whilst in Chicago, 
in one of the papers, the following paragraph : — " If Weyler, the Spanish 


general, should lose his situation in Cuba, he ought to find it easy to 
get employment in the Chicago stock yards as an expert butcher." 
Perhaps some day he may be in want of a berth, and then even the 
" squeal " may be utilized. 

A farmer at the stock yards told how he raised a litter of ten 
pigs which had been orphaned. He constmcted a trough Anth ten holes 
in it, one for each little pig. In these holes he inserted bottles with 
nipph^s attached. TIk* pigs caught the idea very (juickly, and they were 
among tlie finest ])orkcrs in tlie lot which lie brought to Chicago. 

The iiK^at ])acking industry is earried on in immediate proximit}' 
to the stock yards. To realize the extent of its operations, it is only 
nee(\ssarv to mention that a sinirle business, that controlled bv Messrs. 
Armour & ('<»., (K-eupies seventy acres of flooring, and employs about 
4,000 men. Some IS. 000 to 2-'), 000 men are daily employed in various 
packing hous(»s, varying according to the seas(Hi of the year. 

That crime abounds in Chicago, is, unhappily, only too tnie. 
I)urin<r onr stav a terrible murder was committed in the* centre of the 
bnsiness portion (jf the city. A gang of desperados entered a draper}' 
store shortly before th<' honr of closing, and at the point of a loaded 
revolv(M' demanded the contents of the cash-box from the clerk — a young 
lady of nncommon presence of nnnd and couragt* — who parried the 
demand until an alarm was given, when the robbers fled fnmi the store, 
followed by the proprietor, Mi*. Marshall. 1 print a few extracts from 
the ili]c(i(i(p T'um*.s of a dav or two later: — 

( 'apTain .1. K. .Stuart. l*»)st nffi(<» IiisptHtor, was oiif* of tho first to 
imi-siio thr« iiiPii wlio kin<^l Mai'sliall. H»' was nn th»' Madison Stropt car which 
halted (lin-(tly ojipositn the (foMoii Kul<* St(n<'. "• When the car stopped no shot 
liad })('«*ii tin^l : two men ran out from the store, and the proprietor was in hot 
pursuit. They whirled loiind and beo^an tiring. Thev fired several shots, and 
Maishall. who had nearly reached tlie curb, staggered and fell. I jumped from 
th«' car, and ran tlirough tlie middle of Madison Street towards Ann Street, to 
hea<l theui off. AVheu 1 was about twentv feet from the comer of Madison and 
Ann Streets th«' two men turned and tired at me. Their bullets whizzed over 
my head, and it was unquestionably one of these which hit the young woman 
on the car. The men ran through Ann Street to the first alley, and turned down 
that. I followed about forty feet into the alley, but having no revolver I turned 
i)ack. I met a indiceman and told him where the men had gone. He started 

CHICAGO (Part IT). 193 

cl«)wn th(» alloy at a vorv leisurely paco. Had ho hun'ied a littlo ho inij^ht 
oasily havo ovortaken thoiii. Tf I had had a ^\\\\ IM havi^ ^ot thom both." 

These abbreviated (extracts give some faiut idea of an atrocious 
crime committed in th(^ crowdi^l thoroughfares. As far as I knoAv the 
criminals have never been brought to justice ; all the time I remained 
in the States the police were ^'looking for" but had ''not found" the 
villains. From a leaderette I cull the following : — 


Tho wholo ritv is disturbod ]»v surh a dc^sixTatc cnirio as tho iiiunlor of 
tho Wost Madison Stroi»t shopkocjxM* and th«^ wonndinj*: of throo oth(»r poreons 
})y rob})oi*s. Tho audacity of the i»ads was uncxaniplod, for thoy choose* tho busy 
conior of a busy stroct, and an houi* when all th(» worhl is abroad for thoir 
advonturc and thoir hnsty shots w<m'p lioard by scoi-os of pooplo poworloss to 
intorcopt thorn. 

A villainy of this naturo always distiir})s th(» confidence of tho <-onimunitv. 
Tho futilo efforts of the police to apprehend the niurderoi*s only aggravato 
impatience and fear. 

An ineyitabh' and disturbing;: conseipicnce of the criuie is the arrost of 
scones of noted criminals, men who can liMve no lei^^itiuiate occu]»ations, who aro 
teathored to their criminal destiny bv tla«»i'ant '* records." Inyariably tli(»v aro 
found armed, ])rowlin}i- tlie side -itreets ])repa]'ed tn rob and slay at any 
(•(mveniont moment. There is redly mon* ground foi* dismay in this than in tho 
murder its<»lf. Tin' eurtjun which covei-s the motives of the street crowd is toni 
aside, an<l we discover it honey.onilMMl with jiallov>> ])i]*ds. 

Probably this is more or h'ss tin* case in all lar<::e cities. lUit it always 
sooms that ('hica<i'(» is nused with more of the^e tj^entiy than any other city. 
Tin* police say so, and charjife the offence to police magistrates and judja^es of 
tli(» u])p(M' courts who (leal mildly with the r(>«;:ue wln» has not }>een caug'ht in 
the act. Whether this ]»e so oi- not. the ari-est of not less than fiftoon 
" suspo(rts," all of theni life-hm^* criminals, most of them armed. n(>n(» of thoni 
professing surpi'ise at the suspicion of murder, is enough to excite a widespread 
sonso of f(^ar. 

Mr. Stead, in a much ([noted articdi^ entith^d ''If (lirist came to 
(1iicajj;o " (Avhich unfortunately 1 have not liad tin* a(lvanta<»;e (»f reading), 
1 understand, paints tin* city as (^xc^^ptionally bad and vicious, nothinp: 
equal to it has bcu^n s(Hm since* tln^ overthrow of tin* 'M^ities of the 
Plain." Mr. Sti^ad is well known, h<* lias gained a distinguished position 
in the world of hitters ; as a W(»rd paint(T <»f vic(» and innnorality in 
their most repulsive forms, he is without a rival. We Avere more 


fortuuate in our experience of (Tiieago. We saw in our brief stay 
absolutely nothing with which Mr. Stead could darken his canvas. It is 
true we did not keep late hours, and equally true that when we *' took 
our walks abroad ■ ' at night, wo kept to the highways and well-lighted 
thoroughfares of good report, and avoided excursions into byeways to 
collect details about *' venuiii and disease, tramps and rogues, ibimkenness 
and prostitution, blackmailing and bribeiy ; ' that was not our mission. 
We did not enter the jungle, or '" go down from Jerusalem to Jericho," 
and therefore did not fall amongst thievc^s. We were not inquisitive, 
we did not search for t^vil and consequ(»nt]y did not find it. I cannot 
think Chicago stands on a pedestal of abnormal wickedness. That Mr. 
Stead painted fi'om life many of the charactei*s found in his picture 
cannot be doubted ; the only question is, is he right in ascribing to 
Chicago a larger proportion of wickednc^ss, and guilt of a deeper dye 
than can be found in, and with e([ual fairness be charged against 
New York, London, Paris, Hamburg, Xa])lt^s, or other large cities of 
the world, and would inevitably l)e found there, if the siuiu* searching 
investigation were pursued. 

In his message to the Council, in ISIH. Mayor Washbume 
reviewed tlie matter as follows : — "' The suppression of public gambling 
in a gn^at mc^tropolis and cosmopolitan city like Chicago is a matter 
easier undertaken than accomplislied. Until the three great inherited and 
inborn passions of man — licentiousness, gambling, and intoxication— -have 
been eradicated, bv education or birth, n(» statute laws can entirelv 
suppress the social evil, gambling, and intem])eran(*e. IJ^hen our hypocrites 
cease to extol their own virtues in the synagogues, and cease to Jostet' 
vice in secret hy leasing to prostitutes, gamblers, anil latc-breakiny 
saloonkeepers for the sake of the increased revenues received thereby^ 
then, and then only, can ice hope to view the millenium ; until then tee 
can no more turn back the tide of mans passion by laws than could 
Canute turn back the advancing ocean by his comnmndy 

I should say Chicago and New York are the worst places in the 
States to estimate the true American character. They are the most 
cosmopolitan places I know, but the least American of any of the cities 
we saw. In Chicago not one fourth of the entire population is native 

CH/rAdO fP'irt flj. 


Imm ; iloor-platcs imd sijnis testify iibimdantly lliiit tlic owihts liiivc 
Wen tcaii8plantc<l fnim abmiul, aiul arc not iiHlifjciidiis to tin- soil. Is 
there iiny ^oiuler thtn if, minnifist the jctsiiin iimi tlotsiiiii of tlic wovlil, 
some, at any rate, of the scum of the earth has drifteil to what has 
been tlcscribed as 
" The white city 
of magnificent 

\Vc had 
experience of two 
of the C'liieago 
Clubs:— "The 
Chicago Athletic 
Association " and 
the " C!ahnnet." 
The "Athletic" 
wc visited \cry 
hiuTiedlyan liour 
or two before 
leaving the <ity; 
for aelid) of its 
cham(!tcr prob- 
ably no fin<'r 
exists in the 
world ; tlie front 
elevation, of 
which I give a 
photograph, is 
extremely pleas- 
ing ; internally 
the arrange- 
ments are most '■'"'^ athlkiic i 
expansive and comj)lete, and include a large swiii 
racquet coiirts, bowling alley, billiard ronnt in whi 
tables, an inunense gymnasium fitted with the m 



iming bath, 

v\i I counted sevi'nter 

ist nKxlcni and piTlci 


iil)i)liaue('s containing a lar<^e staj^c^ for tln^atrical i)erfonnances, and in 
addition a lino libraiT, reading, writing, and smoking rooms, more than 
fifty private rooms, and eA'(uy coneeivabk^ convenience. Then* are over 
3000 membei's. We conld Avell liave spent within its walls a mnch 
longer time if it had been at onr disposal. 

The ''Calnmet'' is a social club, located in a magnificent building 
on Michigan Avenue, and is the leading South side club. 

Bv the kindlv courtesv of another of the '" Princi* de Galles' •' many 

. • • •■ 

friends, the '^Cahnnet" was mad(* the starting place for a most delightful 
drive to and through tlit^ World's Fair giNnmd. The site selected for 
the Great Exposition of 180^5 Avas Jackson l^lrk and Midway Plaisiince. 
Jackson Park has a considiTabh* frontage on liake Michigan. The 
cooling brei^zes, that temper the Summer heat and fan the heated brow, 
blow from a gathering ground three to four hundred miles hmg and one 
hundn^d wide. It is a beautiful spot within easy distance of the centre 
of the business porticm of Chicago. The ground occupied by the 
Exhibition contains over G-"30 acres. 

Few traces are now left of this magnificent enterprise. ^ly memory 
is not verv clear, but I think there now onlv remains the mannuoth 
"Statue of the Pepublic," by T)ani(»l ('. French, which is 60 feet 
high, and stands on a pedestal 40 feet high, at the entrance to the 
basin from Lake Michigan. liesides this are two buildings, one given 
by tilt* German Goveriunent, rc^prc^senting tlic^ town hall or some other 
place in Xuremberg, and the other, th(^ Manufactures and Liberal Arts 
Building, which has the distinction of IxMUg th(^ largc^st building on 
the fac(* of the earth, covering an area (»f over 30 a(*res, and which 
is large enough to include the wholi* of tlu^ buildings and grounds 
of the Royal Jubilee Exhibition, held in Manchester in 1887, and yet 
leave a margin of a few acres for promenading puii)os(^s. This building 
was a constant attraction and source of delight to the general public, 
and has been secured to the citv at a cost of one millicm dollars, of 
which, I believe, ^Ir. ^larshall Field contributed one half. 

The glories of the World's Show have d(*parted from the shores 
of Lake Michigan, and in one sense tln^ undei-taking was a failure. The 
capital reciuired, ^20,000,000, was found by subscription among public- 

rillCACO (Pari II). 


spiritfMl AiuiTieans, ('liiciij^d iiloiif (■oiitrihiitinf^ ten niillion (lollai-s t(i the 
fund. Xot more tliiui I-") per cent, uf tljis capital has been returned to 
the siihscribofs, Upwiirds uf twenty iiiillious nf \isitors paid fur admission 
to the Fiiir ; the largest iiuiiiber on one day being 6011,01)0 1 

For yoitrs to come the story of its splendour and magnitude, ami 
the recital of its many iiiisfortiines will be told tii listening and intcirested 

MANn'AfTritKS AXD l.IBKKAr, AKTS llflLlllSG, 

(in-s. and Americans will have the proud satisfaction ()f knowinj^ that tUo 
"World's Fair was the largest exhibition ever held, and that it is unlikely 
that it will ever have a rival. 

There are sonic ^rood stnries told ()f visitors to the World's Fair; I 
must HMonl, at any rate, one. An old lady tjot Uist in Chicago, ami she 
couldn't remeiuber the address of the house wheri; she was staying, but 


she lijid it at lioinr — ''hoiiK*'' bi'iiijx ^in c»mpty Michigan farm house?. 
S<i sIr' iiiarclnMl to the railway station, bought an c^xeursion ticket, and 
wi'ut tn Micliigaii after Ikt lost hearings, returning in forty-eight hours 
with the address in her pocket, having travelltMl live hundred miles to 
get it. 

On nur nturn to the (aluinet ('lul)-h<»use, our friend, Mr. Adam, 
a deseoiidant in unbroken line from the ''first man Adam,'" had aiTanged 
an excellent dinm^r, amongst other things '' clam soup ; " I tastcil clams in 
various foi'nis, but in the form of souj) I thought them best. It wa.s 
Saturday e\ ening ; cigars, coffee, litiueurs, and rocking-chairs on tlie 
spacious verandah formed an agreeable pi'udant to an excellent nu*id. 
The air was soft and balmy. The evening zi^pliyr swept with gentlest 
touch the teiidoi- tendrils twining around tlu» diamond lattice. Xature was 
drawing the curtains of night all around; Venus hung like a pendant 
jewel in the sky ; an infinity of sapjdiire sky unfolded a dec»p vaulting, 
tinged by tlie mellowing rays of night's fair (iu(»en, and shaded by the 
earliest amber of the moon. 

As we bid adieu to our friend with gratitude in our hearts, in 
the (|uiet of that eve of the Sabbath, we felt incn^asing stillness as the 
midnight hour arrived, and ere we reached our hotel it se(»med as though 
the bed hangings of the Universe, depending from those Western skies, 
were unusually rich in texture and tone ; the depth of blue seemeil 
fuller and more intense, and the stars, coruscations of c(mutless tire Hies, 
that held on high the glorious blue velvet coverlet, sparkh^d and quivereil 
with a lustre rarer than all the rubies that lav hidden in Burmah's sc»cret 

The Auditorium and the Palmer lIous(» are tin* largest and most 
important liotels in C'hieago. We felt it our duty to inspect the buildings, 
and also U^ sam])le some of the li([Uors and food, and 1 don't recollect 
that tliev were unsatisfactorv. ConnecttHl with the Palmer House is an 
immense* barber's shop, the largest we Siiw ; larger and almost cHjiud in 
elegance of dec()rati(»ns and luxuriousness of appointments to the one 
described in New Orleans. Bosco, as my readers have seen, affects the 
''tonsure/' whether voluntarily, lik(» some Dominican father or by compulsion 
of nature*, is innnaterial ; at any mtc the '* coronal " receives the most 

CHICAGO (Pari II). 199 

constant and tendpr solioitudo, and mij^ht form a veritable " crown of 
glorj'" if the silver friuHi' wcvcs not darkened by mystic bair brushes. 
I know those hair brushes, having; fre(iuently used thoni, and have often 
noted their magic effect on tiiy o^VIl locks, silvered as they an^ by the 
frosts of time ; thi'y emerge i>atlen!ed with stnaks of many shades of 
bro\\ii, not fast colours. I often wonder how it is done. 

You oecasiomilh' hear some funny things in these American barber's 


shops of which tlie thought of my friend's " comnet " ivminds me. You 
can't help hearing the conversation of the customer on the adjoining 
chair and the "artist in hair" in attendance: — " ILiir dyed, boss?" 
" Yo9, it died nigh on twenty years since, except thi' little fring(> round 
the (;rown and that don't seem to grow miKrii less," and then another 
bald-headed customer you hear addressed : — " Ah, my dear sii-, you ought 


to try some of my iiivi«i:oratiiiji: hair restorer*, its — '' Customer — '' But I 
don't want any hair/' Barber (ovich^ntly amazed) — ^'Dcm't want any hair, 
why?" CustouKT — '' liecause Tm married/' 

Mv recent mention of Mr. Marshall Fiekl reminds me of our visit 
to the wholesale and retail dei)artm(aits of the great linn of Marshall Field 
and Co., onc^ of the very lar<i:est dry <j;o<)ds housc^s in tin* United States. 
The wholesale warehouse, a magnitieent structure, cov(»rs th(» entire scjuare 
bounded bv Fifth Avenue, Adams, (juincev, and Franklin Streets. It is 
built of <i:ranite and browu stone. 1'lie buildinjr is admirably airanged 
in thrive sections divich'd bv tire-proof walls. Tlu* entrance wav admits 
to th(* centre section, an imiiu'iise room nearly liUU f(»et square*, which 
is occupied by the countini;: liouse with its numerous divisions of work, 
and the private rooms of members of the ('om})any. In the side sections 
are found dej)artmeuts for the sale of goods, ])acking, cS:c. Within the 
precincts of this huge establishment work is found for some 2,800 
employees in about >!•"> de])artments. Each of the eight floors has an 
area of 1^ acres, a total of 12 acres of floor sj)ace. The amount of 
merchandise turned out is immense, iirobablv s40,()0(),000 annuallv. 

The retail department is located in a grouj) of buildings at the 
corner of State* Street and Wasliington Street. The following particulai*s 
wcTc sent to me bv tlie courtesv of one of tlie i)artners, mv visit bein<2: 
extremely hurried owing to other pre-arranged engagements. 

The buildings occupy liUO feet on State Street, oOO im Washington 
Street, and lOS on Wabasli Avenue. The main Imilding is six stories, 
exclusive of basement, and the annexe is nine stories, exclusive of the 
basement, the buildings being comiected by a bridge 20 feet wide The 
upholstery department salesroom oceuj)ies tin* (^ntiri* fourth floor of the 
main building, and two ccmnecting buildings as work rooms, one 40 feet 
by loO feet, and the other 60 fec^t by l-'iO feet. Tlu* caqiet and rug 
department occupies tin* entire third floor, with corresponding work rooms 
for same. The tea room occupies the entire* fourth floor of the annexe, 
150 feet long by 108 f(H*t wide; it is a dainty apartment, isolated from 
the rest of the establishment ; there is ampler sedating accomodatiem for 
700 people in perfect comfort. The service is cjuiet and the cuisine 
perfect. The seven floors in the* main structure and six in those 

CHICAGO (Part II). 201 

adjoining give a tofcil floor space of about six acres. Tli(» interior of 
the main building is pure white, and is lighted by a gri^at central open 
quadrangle^ or skylight. 

The engine room is a featun^ of this vast establishnunit of which 
the proprietors are justly proud. The aiTangc^nents are the flnest 1 
have ever seen, commodious, cleanly, w(41 v(»ntilated, with mairhinery and 
appliances of the most mod(4*n and perfect description. Coal is not used 
for heating, but natural gas, brought in j>ijK\"^ froui Indiana, 100 miles 
away. T(*n immense boih^rs supply abundant power. 

The main building and anni^xe contain 24 elevators, lil pass(»nger 
and 3 for goods, all on the swiftest and most improved plan. Show 
windows run round tlie entire frontage of Washington and IStatc* Stnu^s 
and Wabash Avenue, and tlnvse windows, as well as the rc^st of the 
buildings, an* brilliantly lighted by numberless incandescent lights, the 
electricity being produc(*d on the pn^misc^s by a splendid plant containing 
sonu» novel features. The numbei* of peo])le employed in the '' rc^tail " 
is ov(T 8,000, making with tlu* ** wliol(\sale " a grand total of o, ')()(), a 
largcT number than tin* ])opulation of many a town. 

Mr. Marshall Field, the honoured head of the* ('om])any, is w(41 
known throughout tin* States for his wealth, large heartedness, and 
munitic(»nce. In our ])leasant ehat he conversed about many subjects of 
political inten^st, both as n^gards the nnmieipality of (liieago, and the 
government of the Uniti'd States. Mr. McKinley, who had occupied, a 
few davs Ix^fore mv visit, the vei'v chair in which 1 sat, lie considered 
S(»curcj in the coming contest for President. Of course at that tim(* ]Mr, 
William Jennings IJryan had not fallen like a bolt from the blue, and 
carried awav, for a tim(\ tin* discriminating^ critics of '' the miy:litv <*itv 
by the unsalted sea/' The jewidled phrases -' you shall not i)r(\ss down 
upon the brow (xf labour this crown of thorns," '\vou shall not cru<'ify 
mankind on a cross of gold," which eliMtrified the CN)nv(»nti()n, had not 
been uttered, at least bv Mr. lirvan. Unkind (critics, and thev are not 
veiT tender in the AnuM-ican Tn^s, sav that In* is discoven^d to be a 
plagiarist of bohl charact(»r. Tlu* flaming pasvsag(» in the Chicago sj)eech, 
which, it is said, '* caiTicnl tlu^ ('onv<'ntion off its feet,'' was tak(»n 
from a speech of Congressman M'Call, on January 20th, 1894, (m the* 


Wilson Bill, Mr. ISrj-uu boiu}; near to him at the time: — "Ready as 
y(»u have I'ver been tu betray labour with a kiss, you now scourge it 
to the v(!iT quiek, and in'(!s.s a- erttwii of thoi-ns upon its brow. You 
shall not erueify mankind un a cross of gold." This is verj- imktnd. 

Mr. Field's 
opinions on muni- 
cijiid government, 
bi-metallism, pro- 
tection, and coni- 
niereial questions 
were freely ex- 
pressed, and wert^ 
viiluable, coming 
t'nmi such an au- 
thority, <pptnion!4, 
moreover, endoi-sed 
by almost all the 
business men we 
met. We greatly 
regretted being 
absent fi-oin our 
hotel when Mr. 
Field returned 
imr call at the 

It is not 

Huqirising to find 

the silver ([tieHtion 

has invaded the 

comics jtapers in 

tlie States. One of 

wii.MASi JicKiNi.KY. the ktest jokes is 

Conu' round next SuiKbiy, JoUiboy, my wife and I are 

silver wedding." " Silver wedding 'i Why, you 

n't been nianied more than twelve years." " 1 know that, but 

the followin, 
going to celebrate 

CHICACO fP,„l 11). 


KilvcT has <l('iirceiati'd. It's only worth twelve, wheu it Ui^ed to be 

The greatest, and, I think, Hie ouly, real disappoiiitineiit 1 
t'Xperieiieod dm-- 
iiig our A'isit wiis 
mir iuability to 
s«c iimre of Aiiieri- 
eaii home-life ; not 
that W4' wei-e with- 
out invitations to 
join family circles, 
hut hecaurie the 
gixmnd we co\'ered 
and our rapid 
movements made 
it impossible to 
accept them. In 
Chicaf^o and 
Boston we were 
8pc!eiaIIy unfortun- 
ate. In C'hi<iaf;o 
we were struck, 
us the visitor is 
struck in Not- 
tingham, with the 
n-niurkabh' num- 
ber of young girls, 
from say 10 to 
20 years of age, 
bright, well, but 
not over, dressed, william JK.\xiN(is imv.vx. 

intelligent, nmt, clieerfnl, and onlerly, a c-onsiderable ninnber witiring 
spwtacles. As a rule these girls have eyes bright and beaming ; teeth 
white and gleinning ; many have voices of sweetness, with some, of 
course, in a cosmop<ditaii city like Chicago — as in New Yoik^the voice 


is sharp and rasping, andtlu* stylo of dross startling, but thoso, I think, 
an* oxe(»ptions. 

It is said, 1 don't think it's truo, that ** Down with gtiUautry '' is 
tho orv of th(* Now Woman in Franco. Tlu»v havo doeidod that the 
''honiago" that man now i)ays to woman is a humiliation, and that they 
an* <lotorminod to havo no moro of it. All the* littlo attentions, which it 
is now our highest delight to pay to the fair ones, are but so many 
sij'ns of ijxnominous scTvitudo. Thov moan to break their bonds asunder 
and bo free; never more need we raise our hats, or help them through 
a erowd, or hand them out of a carriage, not oven oiler the darlings a 
seat in a tram car. Henceforth wc arc bidden to treat ladies as equal 
in everv ro>i)oct. (rive them an off-hand, familiar nod, and a ''how d've 
do" when wo moot them in tho street, lot tlic^m taki* their chanee in a 
crush, i)ass in front of tli<'m in a doorway, or at thc^ booking oliiee of 
a railway station, and lot them take their fair and full share* of paying 
for tlu'ir pi<'-nics and other amusements. Hut I cannot trace any 
suggestion for the regulation nf that delicate, yet almost universal and 
most agreeable operation (so I am told) nf kissing and caressing, now, as 
from the beginning indulgo<l in between the sextos. IJofori* th(» aboliticm 
of ''gallantry" can Imjje to make headway, quite a numb(T of little 
questions of this kind nuist cnme up for setth^ment. The abolition of 
slaverv was oasv in cumiiarison with the abolition of " <^allantrv.'' The 
task is absolutely hopeh'ss, at any rate, amongst Knglish speaking people. 

^Ir. llawcis, tlu* Anglican cleric. wIk^so Australian agent once 
advertised him as '* The mighty myriad-miiKhnl Lecturer,'' I suppos(» 
because his lectures are not only "manifold" and of ''magnified merit," 
but at tinu's "mixed and nnuMlod," savs : — "I)urin<r mv three visits to 
America T had singular opportunities of observing the ways of Americau 
girls, especially school and colh'g<^ girls. T have s(»en and addressed 
them in class, in chap(4, in their tlu^atros and nuisic rooms ; I have 
walk(»d and talked freely with all sorts and conditions of them, and I 
delib<Tatelv sav that the American \n\\ in her teens is much more 
interesting, more wc^ll-informod, and better able to take (*are of herself 
than th<» average Knglish girl. Sh(» is more rofincMl, and much more 
highly (educated, as a rnl(», than tlu^ man she* mames. Uer superior 

CHICAGO fP.i-l II). 

refinement is ivatUIy aoknowlod^^rd, and f\w is it jjdddeMs in tlic house. 
This throws some light upon tlie reason why I'lusH^huitni tike to mairy 
American girls. It is not only hccranse they are rich— which they often 

hetter inf{iniu'd, more amusing, quite as 
eonversiible and generally abler than most 

are — but because they ar 
affectionate, and much nior< 
young English girls. jVnd 
the reason why Americim 
girls like Englishmen is 
not because they have 
all got titles, but because; 
our gentlemen are, as 
a rule, more cultivated, 
better educated, and less 
speculative than tlie 
average Nt^w Yorker. I 
neither wish to butter 
my c o u n t I'y ni e n audi 
cheapen my country- 
women, mn- to flatter 
American girls and dis- 
parage American men. 
I speak very genera 1 1 y . 
and I qualify my state- 
ments with the observa- 
tion that whilst notliitig 
can be more fascinating 
than the perfectly well- 
bred and \vell-educate<l 
American gentleman- 
he has a gi-ace and open- 
ness seldom found even 

amongst the aristocracy liei'o, for he is wami and they are gen<rally 
thc other hand, can thei-e be anything more appalling tliaii the loud 
and snapping American woman, only comparable in offensiveness to th 
tional John Bull (m the ' (-outinong,' or 'Anv let loose on the 'Uullevv 


■old— on 
e tnidi- 


Of (loursc this is tho (ipinion of Mr. Hawcis. 
My cxporioiicc is t<i(i liiiiitHl to l)o of any 

I am told that in Ameiioa thciv are iimiiy 
channing women of thirty to forty years, who 
art' k'ss old maidish than many ^irlw of half that 
agi'- — old miiidishiK'ss is much more a question 
of disposition than age. Some i)eople who claiin 
to lie jndge.s are ehxpient in their admiration of 
women over thirty. They say that women after 
that age heeonie nion' iittnietive, be they married 
or nnmarried. They iin<lerstjind life and its 
re.sponsibilities better than when younger, and 
they an' truer and more sympathetic emnrades 
and companions, and I am not aware that in 
their ideals of clianuiug woaien they exclude 
widows ; indeed, I ri'member, a gentleman, who 
selected one for a wif(*, wrote: — 





Doubtless in tliis case the prospective bride suppliwl 
the poetic bridegroom Mith the divine afflatus. May 
the stars shine over the cypress tree of widow- 
hood, however gloomy be now the gnive that easts 
its shadow over the " Lillie." 

I had long flattered myself that I was far 

1.11,1 KS. " ■' 

beyond the loss of my judgment in such matters, 
but, alas ! find without warning that I am still susceptible. Are the 
words uttered in the fii-st garden, " It is not good that the man should 
be alone," finding an echo in my heart y 

I suppose there is to be found in the States, had one the 
opportunity of seeking, those sumo qualities which ever}*where make all 
good women lonely — tenderness, delicacy, endurance, faith, gentleness in 
suffering, consolation in son-ow ; these vu-tnes call forth the truest beauty, 

CHICAGO (Part JIj. 207 

the most ontUiring loveliness, and admit women, even hen', to sisterliood 
with the Angels, and if we add thereto tluit ehiefest chafTii of wnmau, 
a low and gentle voiee, " even as the swallow's AHn}is skim the still 
\vaters of the sleeping lake." 





FAIIi Sprin<!: Sa])]>ath niorniiiii: <i:lad(l(Mie(l the face of the 
earth when we said au reroir to Chicago — not ''adieu/' 
for somehow 1 am h)okin<i: forward to a second visit, which 
may never come. The rays of the sun, whicli was peeping over the 
Pastern liills, glist4iie<l a<h»\m the streams and transformed Michigan into 
a hike of burnislird silver. As we sped ahnig, leaving the city with 
its Ix^leliing factory ehimneys and canopy of smok<' far behind, the 
atmospli(»n^ became purity itself. The wid<' gn^'U valh^y.s already 
awakened to their leisun^lv untroubled dailv life, si)ok<' of davs that 
conii* without <*xcitement and sink into night with an undisturbed sigh. 

The line bv whieh mv ''conductor'' had arran2:ed to travel was 
the '"Lake Shore and Michiiran Southern" — a wise choice. It has the 

f ^ 

world's record for fast long distance running; (m October 24th, 181)5, it 
accomi)lished -"iln miles in 470 minutes, an average rate of speed, 
exclusive of stops, of over 65 miles an hour. The condition of the 
line is excellent, and it is probably the finest track on earth for 
making a long distance fast run. This line w<' found in every resptK?t 
the most couifortalde to travel upon. The ecpiipiuent of the train in 
which we travelled could not be excelled; it comja'ised Wagner vestibule 
sleeiKTs of the latest designs, buffet, library, smoking and dining cars. 

Our previous exp(Tience of the '' feeding ai)artuient " on the trains 
by which we had travelled was disappointing ; the food was never good, 
often bad. Ilen^ avi^ had an agreeable* change. The cai's are neat and 
tasty in all thc^ir appointiuents, and dining on the trains of the Lake 
Shore l{ailwav is accomplished in a v<'rv satisfactorv and comfortable wav- 
The mc^nu is carefidly scdected, the food well cooked, and the attendance 
excellent ; and as the *' road bed '' is dainuHl to be perfect, there is 
gi'eater frecnlom than usual from sharp jolts and oscillator)' movement ; in 
fact, the travelling all tin* way from Chicago to Xew York is most 


After skirting the margin of Michigan for a short distance the 
line strikes into a beautiful pastoral country ; fertile fields, fenced 
in, abound; grass land and com land, relieved by well wooded 
plantations, from out which the dark deep leafage of the laurel and 
pine peep, forming a strong background to the woodland pools, on 
which the glancing sunlight plays. Well made and broad roads wind 
amid the landscape, until lost along the shadoAV of some woodland 
glade. Murmuring brooks glint in the bright light, and trill the 
treble music of the rills; rippling rivulets run mid grassy banks, 
embossed by many a wild flower, in which the wild-hearted daisy is 
conspicuous, and sluggish rivers, that scarce make an effort to stir, lie 
blistering beneath the sun. 

Miniature Eiffel towers surmounted by dainty windmills, dotted 
about, tell of an effectual and at the same time picturesque method of 
raising water for inigation and other purposes. Placid pools Avith silvery 
faces holding the mirror to nature, reflect peaceful homesteads, where 
the clear morning note of chanticleer, the noon day hymn of the 
feathered songster, or tlie lowing of the slowly Avinding herd in the 
cool of the evening provides, perchance, the only music of the livelong 

Hurrying on, we not infrequently pass, within eyeshot of the 
railway track, some silent city, the last resting place of many a rude 
forefather of the neighbouring hamlet, who '^ after life's fitful fever sleeps 
well" undisturbed alike by the '* storm that Avrocks the wintry sky," or 
the ''summer evening's latest sigh that shufc; the rose." Over some of 
the village fathers mossy marbles rest, and names have been carved on 
granite tombs for many a year, but on others *'The glistening night 
dews weep, on nameless sorrows churchyard pillow," for there: — 

" Tho weary pilgrim slumbers. 
His resting place unknown; 
His hands were crossed, his lids were closed, 
The dust was o'er him strown ; 
The drifting soil, the mouldering leaf. 
Among the sod were blown; 
His moimd has melted into earth. 
His memory lives alone.*' 

As we near Toledo, the land becomes for some distance on each 


aide of the liuo very flat, but well under cuUivation ; to the east • it 
spreads far and bruad. until it meets a rampart of vegetation dense as 
the primeval forest — sti thiek is the elothiujr of those dark pine-clad 
hills. Leaving Toledo after a short stay the scenery again changes; 

Wneyai'ds and oreluu'ds 

enrich the laud. The 

bla-^som had fallen from 

tlie apple. Tlic peach and 

liear luiil thrown aside 

tlieir beauteous chjthiu;;, 

and the cherry had shed 

its lovely bloom, but the 

shapely leaf nf the vine. 

and the M'ell-knitted fruit 

on ten thnusand trees 

told of a rich liarvest to 

be gathered "neath the 

Autumn sky. 

Soon we skirt Lake 

Erie. It was towards the 

ch)s<' of an abnost cloud- 
less day ; a great <abn 

had settled over laud and 

lake ; a shining peace 

s]iread over all. I'isliiug 

ves,sels seemed to be 

lazily drifting to ov from 

the fishing grounds, as 

we saw " l'>ie " .shimmer 

under the influence of a 

gentle ripple on Mhich 

the westering sun .shot .trxuMX. 

Xow and then a rocky spm* made undulations 
trees in full leaf cast a shade on its margin. 


arrows of rose lit gold, 
in the water, and the 
Over all there spread 

sky of tenderest blue, and the almost motionless 

TO, AXI) /iV, rr.EVEI.AXD. 211 

waters of the lake niirrorod, witli faTiltl(\ss fidelity, tli<* boundless vault 
of heaven. Tt was, indeed, a perfect picture. 

On and on we sped, past Marbh^head, with its roeky lu^adland 
spur. Above the further shore the last saluting rays of tin* s(»ttinf»: snn 
were flinging a robe of glory over the c^ai'th, and mantling th(^ vast 
expanse of water beyond. A broad band of erinison fire, mingling with 
a belt of amber, ran across the horizon like a trail of molten gold. 
]iefore we left the* side* of Erie* tlu* shades of (evening had begun to 
gather, and cmr hist thought of that glorious inland sea is photographed 
on the plates of memory as on(^ vast untarnished silv(Tn slun^t. 

]iut twilight was at hand. The outline of the tre(\< became more 
solid and cast dcn^jx^r shadows. The heavens W(»ri* dipped in rose and 
barred in i)ui*ple, as though s(nne saint<'d artist had s])illed all his j)aint 
adown th(* western sky. TIk^ faint uiglit wind was sighing softly and 
sweetly ovct wid(* stretclies of meadow land, and <::raduallv the* darkness 
fell, until th(* sapphire* sky displayed a single gem, but before we reached 
Cleveland, our nc^xt stopping i)liu*(% multitu<les of goldc^n stars werc^ onc(^ 
more spangling the coverlet of tin* soutlu^rn ski(^s. 

W<^ made but a sliort, mucli too short, stay in (1(*v(*Iand ; about 
the city 1 can say very Iittl(\ We mide the most of our tinu* ; on 
oin* aiTival the eldest son of an old fiieud joined us at su])i)er, aft(M' which, 
at his suggestion, the niglit being tine iind balmy, we took an opcni car, 
or overhead trolley as they arc* calbnl, alonii" Kuclid Avenu(» as far as 
Lake VieAV CVmeterv. As we returned tlie streets IxMug idmost clear — 
the motor-man let the car go, and we sjxmI along at the I'ate of thirty 
miles an hour, but my youn<>: friend, who is conne(*t(Ml with (Oectrical 
engineering, assured nu* lu* had been in tlic^se cars wlu^n they had been 
running at forty miles an hour 1 1 

This ycmng felloAV, smart and handsome, and about the ag(» that 
I imderstand young uumi are particularly •" susc(*i)tibl(\" was cMithusiastic 
in his praises of American girls. *' Th(\v an* [)r(^tty to walk with, and 
Avitty to talk with — much mor(» companionabh^ (so he said, spc^aking, 1 
think, from (experience), with a willoAving grace, thc^ rc^sult of the 
much greater attention paid to athletics by fc^males as well as males in 
America. In the schools mor(» care is taken of the body than with us; 

A.Uf:/?/CAX .if£AfO/l/ES. 

they divide it into three parts, hones, nerves, and musclep, due exercise 
being given to all ; great attention is also paid to bathing. The girls 
are drilled like veterans ; the waists, instead of copying * wasps,' are left 
loose and free. A gymuasinm course seems to overcome any naturally 
awkward defects; the chest is arched, the throat rounded, and instead of 

stooping round shoulders 
you ha^c the erect bear- 
ing of a grenadier, and 
a good figure, which does 
much to make a woman 

1 am bound to 
say, although long past 
the age at which any 
judgment of mine would 
be of value, that I quite 
agree in his estimate of 
American girls. Fashion 
cint:!' exalted the senti- 
mental heroine to the 
liigliest pedestal, but now, 
thanks largely to our 
Transatlantic cousins and 
the ascendency of common 
sense, there is set up in 
the place of the languid, 
lily-like society belle, as 
the ideal of womanhood, 
the healthy, robust, strong- 
limbed girl, who, sur- 
I'OBTR.viT OK ri!Esim-xT (lARFiEi.r.. rounded by girls of her 

own class, learns to jump bars, swing clubs, and climb ladders; who 
frankly admits that she has arms and legs, and has made up her mind 
to use them. 

The next morning I returned alone by trolley to Lake View 


Ccmotcrj' — u distauce of some six or oight miles — on a pilgiiniage to tlie 
tomb of James Abram (iarfield, twentieth President of the United States. 
His progress from "Lug t'ubin to 'White Uonse" is written in the 
ehmnieles of his countrv. Iw June, 18H0, the National Eopiiblican 
Couveution, at 
Chicago, nominated 
him as the part)' 
candidate for Presi- 
dent, and he was 
tdcctcd to that high 
office, reociving 214 
votes to 135 votes 
east for General 
II a n e o c k , the 
Demuerutic candi- 
date ; and on ilareh 
4th, ISSl, he was 
dnly inangunited 
President of the 
United State's. Few 
men have ascended 
to the National 
t'hief Jfagistrute's 
Cliair attended h)- 
greater jmpuliU" ex- 
peetatiiins; but 
liiirdly had he r»r- 
ganisetl his admin- 
istration when on 
July 2nd, as he was 
leaving Washing- 
ton, he was shot in gahfield mej[orial, exteeior. 
one of the railway depots by the assassin (Juitean. 

In pursuance of the expressed wish of Gai-tield, I<ake View 
Cemetery was adopted as his last restiug platre. Funds from all i)arts 

.! .y/:/iJCA .\ MEMtikih.s. 

uf the 
lieiug ( 

couiitrv — cast. 
■sjiwiiilly irciu* 

;t. ji(nith. ami unrtli (the citizuiis of Clt'velaud 
iu tlit'ir coutributiuus) — pourttl in for the 
uf a national inonuniciit. Three prizes for tlie best dosigns were 
and uUiiiiately tlie desi-,'ii of Mr. Genrjje Keller was selected bv 

tffo eaiiueut and 
disinterested archi- 
tects. The memorial 
stands (in a high 
ridge of gnmud, 
about one hundred 
feet above l^ike 
Krie, and tlm-e 
miles therefrom, 
Fiiini the teiTace 
oil a elear day is a 
majiuifieent [lano- 
laina of the <ity 
of Cieveland. of 
wide spreading 
forest and tieUls, 
and the far stretch- 
ing waters of Erie. 
'i'lie fonn 
of the nienioiial is 
large and imiH>s- 
ing. i-isiug Inildly 
ISO feet from the 
loadway. It is in 
sliape a circular 
tower, fifty feet in 
diameter, elevated 
on broad high 
ten-aces. At the 
decorated externally with a 
■iintaining bas-reliefs which 

base of the tower projeets 
histniical frieze, divided ii 

square [xireh, 
five panels, 


represent the career of Garfield. The frieze ou three sides of the porch 
has for subjects the career of Garfield as a teacher, a soldier, a 
statesinau, and as President of the United States, the last one, on th(^ 
south side, representing his body as lying in state. The life of Garfield 
was full of variety, and these the sculptor has skilfully reproduced. 

The porch is entered through a wide and richly decorated portal, 
and within is a vestibule vaulted in stone, with a pavement of marble 
mosaic. Through this vestibule you approach the nunnorial temple 
or shrine, circular in form, and in the ccmtre, on a marbk^ paved 
dais, is a pedestal of Italian marble, on wliich stands a marble 
figure of (jarfield, of heroic size, representing Gai*field just risen 
from his chair in the (Amgn^ss of the Unitt^l States, and about 
to address the House of Representatives. Arranged in a circh^ 
around it is a series of eight massive, double granite columns, wliich 
support 11 dome, that forms a noble canojn' over \\\v statue. An 
ambulatory around iXw^v columns ])eruiits the sj)ectator to survey tlie statiu* 
and the entire iuterior from all points. The dome is entirely iulaid 
with Venetian mosaic, euibltMuatic of tlu' sorrow of the American people. 
A circular aisle outside the row of cohimus is also vaulted and highly 
decorated, Avhilst over the entrance* door ou the iusid(» are seated 
allegorical figures of ''War,'' fully anued, and ''react*,'' holding tlu» olive 
branch, typical of the labours of dlarfield iu the service of his country, 
both in camp and court, and uucU^rneath is this inscription : — 

'* Kivfted )>v a '»;ratoi'ul ( 'ouiitTV in nn'iuorv of .laiuos Ahrani < iartield, 
20tli PrHHideiit of tlir riiitod Statos of Aiiu'ri4a, scliolai-. soldier, stat«^'*iuan, 
patriot. Horn 19th Xovrnihcr, 1831 ; <li»'d S.'i)t(Mn)»rr lUrli, 1881." 

In the crypt is the mortuary chapel where lie the mortal reuiains 
of GaiHeld in a bronze caskt^t, resting undisturlxnl by tlu* side of the 
mother he loved so avcU, in the blessed ]iop(* of reunion and immortal 
life bevond the tomb. 

In one of the })ublic s([uari^s to which nu)st of tin* tram lines 
converge is a very fine monument to the soldiers who fell in battle, 
(.'leveland 50 vears sinct* had 2,000 inhabitants ; oO vicars since it had 
increased to 47,000, and to-day it numbers at the hnist 847,000 citiz(»ns, 
so (puckly and mightily has it groAvn. 


Electricity is playiug an important part in the working of American 
machinery, and is nndergoing a rapid development of application. The 
evidences of electrical activity are much greater in the States than in 
England ; eveiy to\ra is lighted up at night by electricity, and electric 
tram cars are being run evervwhere, the cable car that was in general 
use six or seven yeai-s ago having been almost entirely superseded. 
There is such an amount of familiarity with things electrical evident, 
that it is no surprise to discover electricity being largely utilised where- 
ever motive power is required. The Stre(»t Riilway t^ompany distribute 
electrical energy in small units. In i)lu)to-engi-aving work large 
establishments have found that electricity is an ideal power for their 
purposes. Other uses to which (4eetrie power has been applied are 
glass cutting, gem cutting, optical grinding, coffee^ machinery, printing, 
paint grinding, and so on. Thirty years ago, when telegraphy was 
practically the cmly recognised eliM-trical industry, Cleveland was the 
headquarters of the AVestern Union Telegra})li Company, the largest 
electrical (•oii)oration in tlu^ world. There, grew up shops for the 
manufacture of various tel(»graphi<' and (»l(Htrical instruments and appliances. 
When Mr. Charles F. lirush had d(»signe(l the dynamo machine and 
system of arc-lighting, which have math* his nanu^ a Inmsehold word, 
he entcTed into business relations with a concern in Cleveland for the 
manufacture and introduction of his inventions. From this beginning 
grew up the lirusli Eleetrie Company, at one* time the principal 
establishment in the woild c^igaged in the manufacture of electric lighting 
appliances. Cleveland has always been pt^culiarly a city of electric 
manufactures. Over 150,00(1 arc lamps are nightly burning in the streets 
and public places of American cities and towns, the product mainly of 
the Brush establishnu^nt. Nearly 80,000,000 arc-carbons were made by 
this company last year. In some of the principal American places of 
worship a plan of decorative electrical illumination has been adopted with 
good effect. In undertaking the illumination of an altar, a statue, or 
any special architectural feature, the artist contrives to bring out, by the 
aid of electrical lamps, the particular points which, for ecclesiastical or 
other reasons, it is desirable to emphasise. 

Bosco has friends everywhere, and not the least kind we found 


those in Cleveland. It was a sultiy afternoon when we reached the 
home of one of these gentlemen — a quaint residence not far from the lake 
side. We found shelter from the burning rays of an almost tropical 
sun on a verandah shaded by flowering creepers that made the aii* heavy 
with the odour of their perfume. During my visit to the States I had 
many opportunities, and embraced them, of becominji^ acquainted with a 
large variety of essentially American drinks. They are divided into 
'' short drinks," including, amongst many more : — '' Brandy (^)ckt<iil," 
^' Manhattan," '' Martini," '' Pick-me-up," ^' Kye Cocktail," and '' Leave 
it to Willy." I am not quite clear about the last ; 1 loft the choice so 
regularly to Bosco that I don't quite know what ho loft to Willy. Then 
there were the "long cWnks," at very short iutoi-vals, for Avlii(»li the hot 
weather was entirely responsible: — "Sherry Cobbler,'' ''Whiskey Sling," and 
others were tried in turn, but in thi^ end w(^ remained true to our first 
love, " Gin Fizz," and never did we onjoy it more than under tho i-oof of 
Mr. Hart; our heartiest thanks to you, good friend, for all your kindness. 

A well appointed carnage and pair stood waiting in Avliioli our friends 
took us for a long and most enjoyable drive, passing again along iMiclid, an 
avenue of fine residences. It was pointed out to us that tho "Bobs" 
of the citv dwelt on one side and tho "Nabobs" on tlu' other, and the 
somewhat striking difference in tho size of the houses and grounds was quite 
apparent. There are scor(»s of miles of tlios(* houios. ( li^voland claims 
that it possesses more homos than any other city in tho Uuitod Stat(»s. 

They are much tho same in character lioro as those in Plulad(4i)liia 
alreadv described. Tho same verandah on which swav to aud t'ro the 
indispensible rocking chair, protected by jasmine, uuifflod au<l roso-ladon 
lattices ; genial bowers, over which the branches of tho velvet foliage^ 
creep, and where sunny hours for ever smile. Tin* })uri)lo surf of 
rhododendrons in full flower fonns a pleasing contrast to the milk wliit(» 
thorns, powdered with Summer Snow, and the carol of the song bird 
filters through orchard trees where but yesterday the apple blossom 
scented the air. Lawns of unfading verdui-e have backgrounds of aspiring 
fir trees and shadow)' pines, and the lightest airiest breezes bear on the 
soft gale, the hum of the honey laden bee, the fnigrance of the open 
rose and the perfume of hidden violets. 



HE countrv bc'twocii C'lev(*lau(l and liulfalo, our next resting 
l)lac(\ is intrn*stin<x. Soon after leavinji: tin* city wc jxisstHl 
under the sliadc* (►!' ^rand old trees, and liuiTi(Hl, for a short time, in 
vi(^\v of lu'ie's transparent lake, '' where swiftly jrlide, like fluttering 
birds, a thousiuid little ships;" as the liii:ht wind made tiny wavelets in 
whi<-h tho irh'am of tho sunshine smiled and tnrni»d into erinkled gold. 
The splendour of the sky, the tinted trees, embellished with beautiful 
f(dia«re, from out wlii<'h, borne on the soft rip})le of some vagrant breeze, 
there eam<' a hint nt paradi>e, entran<M'd us. Farms and groves dotted hill 
and vah' ; tlu* ,Lr«»hl and rose of tlu' sunset lay like a benedietion on the 
smiliuLc scene. The cows canu' lowing up tlie lanes, ringing their nieUow 
toned bells. Woodland pools lay unruffled like patches of sky. The birds 
chanted their vesper hymn, and the brook sang as it tripped over its 
pebbly bed, and over all, lit with bright flashes, lay a film of gulden gaii/e. 

The scenei'v is verv diversified ; vou come almost suddenlv upon 
an amphitheatre of >pruce, whose tall heads rise up in terraced evenness, 
throu«^h whose intricacies narrow roadways lead to a picturesque homestead 
jH»rche<l in some sheltered niche on the hillside, from whence we eould 
(U'tect a thin whit(* smoke shaft, rising as a spectral sjaral pillar, si»eking 
to link the eaith with the sky. Orchards abound, and bright gaixleus 
in which blossomed many an in<'ense bearing tree. It seemed as though 
when autumn came it would be a land of golden fruit, of crimsou 
tintt^d ros(\<, where all day hnig you may hear the buzz of honey-sucking 
b(u»s, and watch tin* feathenMl songsters fly. 

Th(» long long <lay was nearly dont*, the evening shadows were 
b(»ginning to veil the mountain erests, a few fireflies by the track side 
struck their s^x^etral si)arks, and as we neared some country station the 
stillness was broken by tin* bark of th<» restless watch-dog. I remember 


before reaeliiuf^ BufFald m'c jiassed through u (Iciifiely wooded ediintn', 
whether forest or thickly tangled woodland I kuow not. In the diiuscst 
pEirt, where the moon shoue on the higher biiniohcM of the trees, they 
looked like givy crested plutntunis, with plumed helmets graecfully 
nodding a recognition to some waudeniig air. 

If I cimld reniembei' half the tali's I heard in Aiiicriea this book 
would not suffice to contain them all. I think it imiv iuivc been about 

this time that a follow traveller told us of a elorj,'yman wiio had a 
very hirgc and wide parish, the remote imit.< of whicli he could only 
visit at long intervals. lie was asked to ba])tize a child on a daj' 
fixed a mouth ahead, but being in the neighhonrhood in a foi-tniglit lie 
called, thinking to save a u'turn jouniey. He found it too soon ; child 
still unborn. Could this expected cliild be the littU- girl 1 bean! of 
who, on being (|uestioucd by her lather about the sennon, replied, '* I 
only ivmemlKT he wiid 'Paul planted anil had Ajiollinaris water ':''" 

americax memories. 

Buffaiu, at the source of tlic Niagara river, has a population of 
over >K)0,(IOO. It is famtpus as the western terminus of the Erie Canal, 
ami also as the chief eastern i>ort of lake mtvigatiou. It is situated 
22 miles from the Falls. It is the terminus of the givut trunk lines 
of roa<l. botli east iiu<l west, as \\A\ as beinj; the teniiinus of the jjreat 

roads that reach the vast 
lumber, coal, and oil 
fields of Peunsjivania, 
which make it the out- 
let of the most valuable 
and ja-oduetive coal. oil. 
itiul lumber supplies in 
the worlfl. 

Duriuft the ■^\a\ 
deeade Buffalo has 
;;rown and imi>n>\'ecl as 
ue\"er befor*- in its his- 
tory. It is the hirgest 
II lit] distributing ]>oint 
in the woi-hl. its receipts 
ill ISIKI being (i| million 
tons. It is the largest 
sliecp niiirket, the lar- 
gest fresli fish market, 
iuid the seeoiul lai^est 
wheat and rattle sales 
market in the world. 
Ituffalo has forty-five 
gi~din elevators, with a 
storage eapaeity for 
thirteen million, eight hundred thousiuid bushels of grain. 

Tlie eity covei-s au area of forty-two square miles. It has nineteen 
miles of ^\ater fi-out. A fine system of water works supplies the city 
with Avater fi-om the Niagara. Huffalo Ims more miles of street asphalt 
pavement than any other eity in the world. Its park system, embracing 


over five hundred acres in three principal parks, is connected by eighteen 
miles of double road, tree-lined boulevard. Buffalo is one of the 
greatest centres in the world for the manufacture of railway cars, flour 
mill machinery; agricultural implements, hardware, soap, starch, malt, and 
beer; for meat packing and lard and oil refining; is one of the largest 
centres in the world for lithographic printing, map and photo engraving, 
show and railroad printing — employing more than two thousand skilled 
workmen in these arts. 

Among Buffalo's fine public buildings are its granite City and 
Countv Hall and Buffalo Librarv. Buffalo has one of the most celebrated 
crematoriums in the country. It is a very cosmopolitan city, luiving, 
besides its predominant American and German elements, about fifty 
thousand l^oles, thirty thousand Italians, and smaller colonies of other 
naticmalities. liuffalo has given two i)residents to \\w United Staters — 
Millard Fillmore and Orovor (Ueveland. 

One of th(^ ko(Mi(^st observers of the gro^\i:ll of the Avest, Frank 
Wilkerson, Avrot(» re(*(^ntly (*oneerning the prospects of ]3uffalo, as follows: — 
" As I look forward to Buffalo's future, I am not at all certain that 
Chicago will be the largest city on the liakes. 1 strongly incline to 
believe that the Erie Canal will (^ventuallv draw to Buffalo th(^ 
commerce of a region which living men will see inhabited by 25,000,000 
l)eople, the larger portion of whom will be producers of primary i)roducts, 
and all of whom will be large consumers of coal and iron. If Buffalo 
secures this trade — and she can — then Buffalo and not diicago will be 
the second American citv.'' 

That this prediction is not too roseate* nor chimerical can be seen 
from a consideration of the plans for Buffalo's future*, in the stupendous 
and magnificent scheme of tapping the enormous water power of Niagara 
Falls, now wasted, by a timnel, and bringing it to Buffalo. Who can 
foretell the immense changes that this innovation will bring about ? 

Our object in going to Buffalo was to make it a base for seeding 
Niagara, which is distant some 20 miles by rail. We left as early as 
convenient in the morning; the day was bright, almost cloudless. Oiu* way 
lay through miles upon miles of orchards, the air perfumed with the 
fragrance of apple trees then in full blossom, an earnest of a rich autumnal 


h'\\iXiv^i\ A scainli^ss caq^et from natun^'s loom, soft as A'olvot, bright 
and \::xevn as tlio sho(*n of an c»morald, spread out on each side of the 
railway track. To the rij^ht rose g(»ntly sloping hills adorned with 
spring verdure. Herds of catth* wer(» seeking their daily food in the 
meadows, and horses, staitled by the rush of our tniin, tossed their 
heads, and with an impatient ncMgh and Hying mane seampered in circles 
HMind the tields. The land was (»nriehe<l at intervals bv the briorht 
shininir ^>f limi)id brooks, wliose <-rvstal watei's as thev thread their wav 
to the river embroider tlic earth, making melody soft and sweet with the 
music of their silver song as tlu-y laughingly purl thrcuigh the ree(K 

To tlu' h'ft runs the i)hiei(l Niagara RivcT, ealm, broad, majestic. 
Alouir th(* bordei's of this water-wav an* faseinatin<i: vistas of water and 
woods. Hrimhil to its banks it tinds its way through fertile meadows. 
The <lear smooth gliding wat<*r i-ejn-oduees with miiTor-like fidelity' the 
exi)an<le(l bouirhs and leafy arches of the forest trees that line its further 
bank. On the bank n<'ar us and we run a Ion*: wav bv the river 
side* — the stream drifts into shallows, round which IxMiding willows dip 
to see their imanre in the stream, and so the never ending flood slips 
along, through (|uiet sti'etches of velvet meads, h»aving behind the 
babbliui: brook still polishiujLT the pebbles and (hiucing in the bright 
sunbeams, but the laughinir i-iv<'i- flows (Hi, by <hiy and night, eool and 
<'lear and <bM'p, slowly loitering through the meadows as if to catch the 
Avarmtli and gladness of the sunshin(\ and then hastening cm it seems 
to r<'fi<'ct with sadness the glaiuing ([uiver of the sunbeams that play 
upon its face. At it nears the Falls the hurry (»ver increases, and — 

••'I'liHii. l»*a}»iii^ lik»' a tliiii^r jiossrssfnl. 

A «lHiii(m striH-k witli humIih^ss : 
« « * * * 

From rcM-k t<» r<M*k a i'oainiii»r ?*wirl. 
Of watpi*s s\v»M'jiiiijr <l(»\m ; 

From ]»ank to ])aiik a stM'thiiijj: wliirl. 

A rurliiifi: torrrnt lirown. 

# « « # ♦ 

Till i)risoiHHl ill a d«*pthl<*ss ]>o<)l. 

With many a ni>])linjr quivpr, 
Aj^^ain stToiic, 'n«*ath shadows cool. 

Flows on tin' j)Hafoful riv«T." 

The Niagara Kiver, <m(» of the shortest but one of the most 
famous rivei-s in the world, is a pait of the system by which the 


waters of the Groat Lakes are ean-ied to th(^ oeeau. Its entire leufj^th 
is only thirty-six miles — twenty- t\yo niihs from Lake Erie to the Falls, 
and fourteen miles from the Falls to Lake Ontario. 

The Niagara Iliyer is merely tmi* link in tlie chain Avliich ecmduets 
the waters of Lake Superior to the Atlantic. When it leayes Lake 
Ontario it is the Eiyer St. Lawrence, throngh the mouth of which more 
fresh water pours into the ocean than through the mouth, probably, of 
any one riyer in the world. 

The sources of Xia<::ara liiyer arc* Lakes Superior, Huron, ^lichigan, 
and Erie, which, along with sc^ycTal smaller lakes and one liundred 
riyers, large and small, drain a country of more than one hundred and 
fifty thousand square mil(*s, tlu* drainage of half a continent, whose 
remotest springs are two thousand miles from the ocean. 

The ayenig(^ depth of the riyer from T^ake Erie to the Falls is 
about twenty feet. In souk^ ])lac(»s it is oyer two miles wid(\ At the 
narrowest point, near tin* Whirlpool, the current is above forty miles 
per hour, and at tin* widest i)art about four miles jxt hour. Between 
the Falls and the Whirli)0ol th(» depth vari(\s froui scnenty-tive to two 
hundred feet. At the Whirlpool Rapids it is estimated at two hundred 
and fifty feet ; in the Whirlpool at four hundred. 

Yari<ms estimates have been given of the amount of water going 
over the Falls ; one estimate^ says that one lunidrcMl million tons i)ass 
through the* Whirlpool evcTy houi*. 

Th(^ chain of the (ireat Lakes, tin* int^xhaustiblo source of \\w 
power, is unaffectcHl by Hoods or droughts, the surface^ height of the* 
Niagara Eiver is practically the same at all times, and thc^ lake water 
which (constitutes the stream is of the purc^st (piality. 

The proposid to utilize the vast watcT power of Niagara, without 
injury to the Falls, or encroachment <m the State* Ueservation, has for 
some time past assunn^l a practical shape. 

The utilization of Niagara Tiiver })ow(t has Ixm^u sought since 
1825, but no considerable use was made of it until 1840, Avhen a 
hydraulic canal was constructed. In 1880 the late Thomas LyersluHl, 
engineer of New York State canals, proposcnl a scheme, practically <m 
the lines which have since bec^n adopted, /.^^, a subterranean tunnel, or 


tail-raee, extending from a point on the river above the Falls to a point 
near the surface below the Falls. The project stood still for a time, as 
is often the case with great enterprises, but on July 19, 1897, a 
syndicate of business men and speculators of Buffalo offered a prize of 
one hundred thousjuid dollars " to the inventors of the world, for the 
best appliance for utilizing the water power of Niagara River.'^ Nobody 
ever met the requiriMuents, and the prize was ncAcr awarded. 

In 1890 the great w<»rk was taken hold of in earnest, and a 
contract was signed between the Niagara Falls Power Company and the 
Cataract Constnietion Company. The f<»rmer Company has all the powers 
for taking water from the Niagara Kiver, passing the water through 
race-ways and tunnels, and furnishing the power derived to mills and 
factories. Niagara Falls is undoubtedly destined to be a great 
manufacturing as Avell as distributing point. 

No commercial entcii)rise is likely ever to mar the beauty of 
Niagara by tlu^sc great water projects, or lessen the enjoyment of the 
visitor there. 

The drain ui)ou tlu^ main river by the timnel is not worth 
consid(Tin«r. The di>'cr*reucc of water to the extent of manv hundred 
thousand liorso-power would not be noted. Fluctuations in the amount 
of water, caused by the wind setting the water of the lake back, or 
driving more water into tlu^ river, amounts to far more than any possible 
utilizatifni of tlie water for power can produce. 

Sir AVilliaui Thomson, familiar with the Falls of Niagara thi-ough 
freciuent visits, was probably the first person to suggest the distribution 
electrically of the water power at Niagara. 

(Tleiulower s vaunt(»d ability to evoki' '^ spirits from the vast}' 
deep '' woidd find few hesitant Hotspui-s in these nineteenth century days, 
when Niag*ara, she of the *' thimdering soimd/' is to be robbed of an 
inflnitesinud portion of her watei-s, and denuded of a fraction of her 
mightv mysterious force, and this without apparent diminution of volume. 
A by no means exaggerated estimate of the constant force of the water 
passing over Niagara would place it in the vicinity of 7,000,000 horse- 
power, i.e., at least double all existing power in use in the entire 
United States. 


As an indication of the progress made in " harnessing Niagara " 
for us(* at distant points, Mr. Chaiuicey M. Dept^Av, the great American 
orator, made* a snc(*essful attempt to girdU* the earth \\dth electricity 
genemted by the power of Niagara Falls on May 7, whilst we were in 
the States. His message Avas t(»legmph(»d fi'om Madison Square Garden 
over 24,000 miles of cable, and received again in the same room in 
in a few minutes, making an electric tour of the world ; and so the 
prediction of Puck in the "Midsumnun* Night^s ])ream," ''I'll put a girdle 
round abimt the earth in 40 minutes," has been literally fulfilled. 

An entertaining book — a good sizcnl one too — might be made out 
of the adventures and uiisadvc^ntures which have* happened at Niagara 
Falls. A belief (»xisted auumg th(^ Indians, it is said, that Niagani 
demands a yearly sacrifice^ of two human victims. (tireless people have 
fallen from the cliffs, insane pc^ople have jumped from the bridges, 
foolhardy people have been drawn oven* the Falls through ventiu'ing too 
near on the stream abov(\ No one has ev(»r passed over the* Falls and lived. 

The story of Sam Patch has long bi»(»n a Niagara classic. The 
pioneer of jumping (»xj)l()its was born in lihodc* Island about 1807. He 
was successively a sailoi*, a cotton sj)inn(n*, and an athlete. When about 
twenty years old he jumpcMl from a new bridge* at Paterscm, N.J., into 
the Passaic, a distan(*e of about eighty feet. II(^ r(^i)eated this jump 
several times from the bridge and the high cliffs, and became* locally 
famous. In the autumn of 1821) h(» came to Niagara. lie selected a 
spot on the footpath und(T (ioat Island. II(»re h(* [mt uj) a ladder, the 
bottom resting on the (*dg(^ of the river, tin* to}) inclining ovct it. It 
was stayed by ropes to the trees on thc^ bank. A small i)latforni was 
built at the top, ninety-se\'(»n feet above* the wateT, whie'h is abe)ut fifty 
feet deep at that plaere. Pate*h made* two jumi)s from this staging, and 
was witnessed by big e^rowels. From Niagara Sam went to EochesteT, and 
from the edge of the U})per frenevsee Falls jumpe*el — into the next world. 

Greater than Patch was Blondin. In June, 1851)^ Blondin ge)t his 
wire rope stretched across the chasm from White's old plenisure greumel. 
His first advertised walk was on Jmu^ 30, 18^")!). He* astonished the 
crowd by performing many gymnastie* teats, and Avhen in the ce^ntre of 
the rope lowered a corel to the e)lel ste*anier, Maid of the Mist^ from 


which he clrew up a botth* and took a drink. Xever before, or since, 
has any attraction drawn such crowds to Niagara as lilondin's ro|>e 
l)erfonnances at this time*. It was August 17, 1859, when he did the 
astonishing feat of earning Harry Cakouit across the rope on his back. 
On August 24 Blondin crossed the rope chained hand and f(M)t. On 
his return he cami'd a stovr to the middle of the river, made a fire, 
and turning French cook ma<h^ an onu»lette and sc*nt it down to the 
deck of tlie stt^amcr Mold of the ^Ffst to b(» (»aten. His greatest feat 
was thouirht to be in rarrviuii: the man across on his luick. Sin<-e 
Blcmdin's time s(»veral jx^opU' hav<' crossed the Niagara gorge on a tight 
rope, l)ut none have approaclied liim in daring exploits. 

Of late yc^ai's then* liav(» been many other perfonnances at Niagara 
of a sensational chanHtcr, from the throwing of a dummy man from the 
railway suspension l)rid<::e, whi<h for a time made many people* who saw 
it think a man had fallen into the v\\v\\ U) the wild hazard undertaken 
by Kobinson in 1801, or the tragic bravery of Captain Webb. 

Joel Robinson's trij) with the steamer Jfakl of the Jfist has been 
world-famous ever since \\r achieved it in ISOI. The Maid was built 
to i)ly as an excui-sion steamer at th(» foot of the Falls. The business 
did not ])ay, and it was decided to hazard a trip to Lewiston, seven 
miles, for the purpose of selling her. Tlu» fiuirful trip was accomplishiHl, 
and quickly, to(», though with nuieh injury to the boat. It is related 
of Robinson, who died a f<'w vears lat(n*, that he came home from the 


trip looking twenty velars older than when he set out. 

The W hii*liM»ol is not far Ix^hind the* Falls tlu^mselves in adventurous 
interest. In ISII a dare^-devil British soldier, who was logging near 
the Whirlpool, got afloat on a l<»g, and was earned about in the pnd 
for s(»veral houi-s, finally making land in safety. 

ThcTc is no record of any attempted boat passage through the 
Whirlpool before Robinson made it in 1801, nor was there any for 
several years following. Then an era of WhirliX)ol-fooling set in. 

In 1887 Charles A. P(Tcy made a suceessfid trip through the 
Whirlpool Rapids in a lifeboat of his own C(mstnietion. Several would-be 
imitatoi's of his feat, however, perished, and since 1888 no "lifeboat"' 
has been tested in the Whirlpool Rapids. 


Captain Matthew Webb, the great English swimmer, nndertook to 
swim down the Whirlpool Eapids, and throngh the Whirlpool, July 24, 
1883. How far he went alive is not knowii. His body was recovered 
four days after at Lewiston. 

August 22, 1 886, a Bostcm policeman named Kendall, (bmvo ! 
Kendall) wearing a life preserver, actually swam — or was borne by the 
current — thi'ough the Whirlpool Eapids and across the Whirlpool, where 
he managed to reach the shore, exhausted. 

Less daring souls have navigated the Whiilpool snugly hidden in 
great barrels built for the puii)ose, but these feats bear no comparison 
with those I have mentioned. 

Father Hennepin, a missionary amongst the Ir()([U()is, i)ublished in 
1678 ''A description of the fall of the Eiver Niagara, whic*h is to be 
seen betwixt the Lake Ontario and that of Erie," of which I quote 
a part: — 

''Betwixt the Lake Ontario and Erie there is a vast and prodigious 
(!adence of Water, whi(*h falls down after a surprizing and astonishing 
manner, insomuch that the Universe does not afford its Pandlel. 

" This wonderful Downfall is ccmipounded of two cross str(^ams of 
Water, and two Falls, with an isle sloping along tlu^ middle of it. The* 
Waters which fall from this horrible Precipice^ do foam and boyl after 
the most hideous manner imaginable, making an outnigeous Noise, more 
ten'ible than that of Thund(»r ; for avIk^u th(» Wind blows out of the 
South, their dismal roaring may be heard more than Fifteen liCagues off. 

'' From the great Fall, which is to tlu» West of the Eiver, the 
two brinks of it are so prodigious high, that it would mak(* one tremble 
to look steadily upon the* Water, rolling along with a rapidity not to 
be imagined. Were it not for this vast Catara(*t, which inteiTupts 
Navigation, they might sail with Barks, or greater Vessels, more than 
Four hundred and fifty Leagues, crossing the Lake of Hurons, and 
reaching even to the further end of the Lake Illinois, which two Lakes 
we may easily say are little Seas of fi^esh water." 

Hennepin was the priest and historian who accompanied the French 
explorer, Eobert Cavalier, commonly called La Salle. 

No visit to Niagara is complete that does not include a trip on 


the Maid of the Mist. She is the third Maid of the Mist which has 
l)Ii<'(l as a feiTv on the ^'i!l{plra behiw the Falls. The first was buiit 
ill 1 840, auil in 1 H04 was replaced by the second, on which, in the 
sprinj( of ISGl, Jnd Robinson made his perilous trip to Lewiston. The 
task of rowing a boat across the boiling Xiagara looks like a perilous 
one ; but the cxpeiienccd rivernien, by taking advantage of currents, and 
by knowing the signs of the river, do n^t find it very heavy navigation. 


The best genci-al view <if the Falls is (jeriainly fi'om the Canadian 
side. The most effective view of the Hoi-seshoe is from the Canadian 
edge of the Fall — the most effective, that is, for sublimity and grandeur. 

The Queen 'N'ictoria Xiagara Falls Park hoi-ders the river on the 
t'auadiim side, and extends along the western bank of the Xiagara from 


the head of the Eapids to Q\ieeusto\m, oinbraeiiig all the hind lying 
between the water's (nlge and th(» steep wooded blnffs, th(> wild pocket 
in the hill which holds the Whirlpool, Foster's Flats, skirting one of 
the wildest rapids in the river, CV^dar Island and Dnffi^rin Islands, and 
seven miles of the most picturi\^que but least known parts of the 
Niagara gorge. 

The first sight of Niagara was, to me, as to many others, 
disiippointing ; th(» fact is that th(» sjxK'tacle is so sublime and overwhelming 
that the mind, unable to grasp it, cannot adjust itself all at once to a 
scale so tremendous, and so th(» impression fails. If s(»en first from the 
Canadian side, I think the impression Avould be* \'ery diff(^ri»nt. Xiagani 
is not the (mly pla(;e wIkti^ high-pi tclu^l (expectations fail of full 
realization. I remember that in mv first visit to St. Peter's at Rome, 
the immense square in front, thc^ towering liiaght of the* Vatican, and 
the vast extent of the buildings tliat rise by its side* seemed to dwarf 
the facjade ; but when you (*nt(T the noble fane* all this is changed, and 
you realize at once the grandeur of th(^ t(Mnpl(\ So witli tlu^ Pyramids, 
for exactly the opposite* n^ason, tlu»y are so hmt^ly, so absolutely isolated, 
nothing near with Avliich to nu^asuri* tlu»ir bulk ; it is only wh(*u you 
have encompassed th(»ir bas(\ or climlxnl to the summit of C1i(M)ps, and 
then stood awhile in reverential cont(*mi)lation, that you an* struck with 
their immemsitv, and hushed into s()nu*thin<!: akin to aw(% as vou see^k 
back, back, until tlu* historic tajxT grows dim and W(*ll-nigh exhaust(»d 
in the search for th(*ir origin. 

It was not until we had reachiHl tin* middle of the upp(T Susp(»nsion 
Bridge* that I formed any true* conception of thi* exc(*eding grandeur of 
the Falls. Bosco had more than once visitenl tluMu ; his imi)ressi<ms, 
ideas, and conclusion had b(*(m alr(*ady fixcnl. I did not attempt to 
dislodge them. The American side, as I hav(> siiid, is least calculated 
to impress the visitor for the first timi* with the beautv and sublimitv 
of the prospect ; this is partly because of the distances and width of 
the panorama that lies spread before one*, but chiefly I think because 
the general formatiem necessitates tlnnr b(*ing seen from tin* centre, or 
below, or from the western side. 

The Suspension Bridge, just below the Anu*ri(jan Fall, by which 


we crossed, is siiid to be the longest suspeusion bridge in the worid, 
the distance from shore to shore being one thousand two hundred and 
sixty-eight feet. Fine vicAvs all round are obtained from this vantage 
ground, which is elevated almost two hundred feet above the river level. 

The height of the Falls aboAc* the level of the water in the 
river is: — AmcTican Fall, 167 feet; Iloi'seshoe Fall, 158 feet. The 
amount of watca* passing ovc^r the Falls of coui*se varies Avitli the height 
of the rivcT. The average has been estimated at 18 million cubic feet 
per miuut(», of wliicli fully two thirds pass ov(»r the Hoi'seshoe Fall. 
The widtli of tlu' Horseshoe^ is about 2,350 feet, and the American Fall 
about 8(10 feet. Tlie deep green colour of the water is due to the 
depth. In 1827 the Michigan, a vessel condemned as unseaworthy, was 
purchased and sent over the Falls. Slie drew 18 feet, and tilled Avith 
water as slu' went througli tlu^ Kapids. As she went over the brink 
without touching, tht* (lei)th of tlu' water was provcnl to be 20 feet. 
The Canadian Kapids run at tlu^ rate of 28 miles an hour. 

Tli(^ roar of tlie Falls can be* h(»ard a long way if the w4nd 
blows towards the* listiuicr. It has becni heard at Toronto, forty-four 
miles, and at Buffalo, twenty-two iniles away. The spray rises up in 
the heavens lik(» smoke, aiul can be seen for almost incredible distances, 
especially when the rays of tlu^ sun wvv uj)on it. Solar bows, " whose 
arch is refnu^tion, its kc^vstone the sun,'' fonned bv the refraction and 
reflection of th(^ sun's light on the spray, can be se(*n cm any bright 
day Avhen the visitor is between the sun and the spray. 

Some of my readers, who havt^ X\\v misfortune to be of my age, 
may remc^mber the lat(» Charles ^lathews in his inimitable portraiture of 
Sir Charles Coldstream in *' Used up ; " when suffering from an excess 
of '^ ennui,'*' it Avas suggested to him to climb Vesuvius. He replied he 
had already been there and looked into the* " ( ymtar," there was nothing 
in it. A trip to Niagara, the greatest falls in the world, was hinted 
at, as a likely means of affording relief. ^^ Ah, no," he said, " I have 
been there as well, but 1 fomid nothing in them, nothing in them." 
Well, I had the advantage of Sir Charles, I found a vast deal in 
them; the unvarying, pond(Tous, unspeakably solemn voice of that mighty 
flood found its way into my soul, and still holds it spellbound with an 


iiTesistible fasciuation that caiinot be Khaken off ; for me tho thunder of 
the deep diaiKisfin, the eternal bass of nature's sublimist orpui, will echo 
alouj5 life's mad until the last stream is reached. 

We finished our visit to the Falls of Xiagani at a spot where 
perhaps we ought 
to have started, 
viz. : — Prospect 
Park, on the 
American side. 
This park is veiy 
largely left in 
its natural state. 
The old timber 
is exceptionally 
fine ; it is a spot 
embowered by 
ancient trees, 
gnarled and 
h(»ary. ITicre are 
magnificent uaks 
with far spi-ead- 
ing branches, 
whose centuried 
truuks,with their 
lichen and moss 
covering, are en- 
WTa])ped as with 
a cloak. We 
spent our last 
hour at Niagara 
in Prospect Park. 
We sat for awhile, 

in the heat of mid-day, 'neath the cool shad}' coverts of Avhisitering 
trees, whose leaves ever and unon were lifted up to shake hands with 
the rover breeze us it cainc to woo and flee again. 



But our last view, and the ou(^ that most vi\ddly remains, was 
from the parapet. The rusli and roar of the magnificent cataract, 
falling within a few feet of Avhere avc* siit in mute contemplation, 
commanded rcAx^reuee and enforeiKl silence. It is an old saying that 
" familiarity breeds contempt ; '' this should not apply to Niagara, one of 
its great charms is that it does grow upon you, the sense of its 
incomparable grandeur must ever inerc^ase. It is but one step from the 
sublime to the ridiculous ; liosco, (»ven in that solemn hour, could not 
restrain his buoyant spirits. He told me of a Yankee, I almost think 
he said a friend, wlio, looking at thc^ i)iclur(^ then before us, exclaimed 
'' There's nothing in that I I the water is up there and it's got to come 
down. If it ran uj) the otluT way, it would be something to look at." 

This reminds me of tlu' storv, tliat lias dom* duty for many veal's, of 

< • ft • ' 

the man who, having been born and lived all his life near the Falls, 
seems to i)rove that familiarity does bnn^d contempt. Having read 
Southev's Avell known verses on Lodore : — 

ILtc it (MniH's sparkling;:, 

Au(l thcrr it li«"s darklinjz:. 

lloro smoking and frotliiii*^ 

Its tumult and wratli iu, 

It hastens alon^i:, coullictinj^ strnnj;: : 

•Ai -;• *i -A- •;•• -Ai 

Dividiuj; ami ^rlidiiijr an<l slidin^r 

Aud fj^l(»ainiii<r and stroaniiu^ aud st«'aniiu«^ and l^'aiiiiiig^ 

And curliiijr ami wliirliuj^: and purliuji: and twirling". 

J)Hlayinjr an<l straying and [>laying jind sprayinj^, 

Advancinjx and jn-ancinj; and jjrlancinjjr and dancin^r. 

K(M(»ilin<r. tunnuilin^, and toiling and boiling, 

And dasliing and Hashing and sjdasliing and clashing, 

And so nnviT ending, hut always (h'S((»nding, 

iSouuds and motions for cvtM* and ever arc lilcudiug, 

And iu this wav the water comes down at ]>odor(\ 


He naturally became anxious to see tlu* falls so graphically described, 
and compare them with his own Niagara. The* time came, the Atlantic 
stonns were left belimd and an entrance gained to the peaceful hills and 
dales of the Lake district, th(» home of poets and the land of sunshine 
and raindrops; wh(»re watcT falls in slender silvery lines or tumbli*s 
about occasionally in mimic cascades. The visitor sought diligently, but 
found not Lodore — I am not sui-prised at that. Weary and footsore by 
his fruitless wanderings in tin* hills, he sat down on a bank, and seeing 


an inhabitant approach — they are very scarce about there — lie addressed 
him, saying: — ''I have come over 4,000 mik»s to see your famous 
cataract ; tell me, my friend, Avhere are the great waters of Lodore ? " 
Judge of the pilgrim's astonishment when his newly found friend 
replied : — '' Why you be a sitting on Lodore ; they're all right are 
these Falls when the rain comes, but it is'nt very regular." 

I know these Falls well, I have spent many happy days in the 
comfortable hotel at their foot. My first expcn^ience was not unlike our 
American friend. The Falls Avere exceptionally thirsty ; the ascent of 
the rocky ladder, if not exactly easy, was at any rate free from 
moisture. On the flat surface of a huge bouldcT I espied a sheet of 
paper; disdaining peril I risked my lifc^ to gain it, and what think you 
was written thereon — " Kc^member me, Jones, from Prestcm." The paper 
was held in place by a penny, which, needless to say, 1 appropriated. 
Never was immortality so cheaply bought ; forty harvest moons have 
since then waxed and Availed, but Joints lives on and will c^ver remain 
in my memory as one of th(^ seek(n*s after Lod()r(> — 1 shall never 
forget Jones. 

It Avoiild not be ([uite fair to leave th(^ impressiim that i^odore is 
for (»ver thus. 1 have climbcnl that rocky gorge, with its mountain 
spurs rising up precipitous sheer above ; the topmost summits seemed to 
pierce the sky with their jagged crests. Huge dark fantastic* rocks lay 
deep beloAV, forming gloomy stony cauldrons in which the foaming water 
bubbled and boiled. All around, above and below, are scattered in 
bewildering confusion giant boulders, smooth fac^cnl with tin* r(\sistless 
polish of ages, or glistc^ning beneath the coverh^t of the unceasing 
crystal tid(\ (irranite bastions proj(»ct from the* sides, and at th(» sky 
line the ragged rocks stand out as some fair castle with its shining 
coronal of towers. High up almost out of sight com(\s doAni from the 
mountain top, a limpid stream, leaping from ledge to ledge* on its 
downward course, and tossed into clouds of spray that sparkh* lik(^ 
pellucid pearls or flashing diamonds 'lu^ath the* rays of tin* Autumn sun. 
Velvety carpets of moss clothe the projecting crags, which hold up on 
high — ^but with an unstable grip — the tall slight trec^lets that climb 
upward to drink the early dew and kiss tin* morning sunbeams. Ferns 


and polypodes nestle in the shade, and modest wild flowers are bom and 
bloom and die, always retiring, and often imseen, hid away from sight 
in the clefts that sear thc^ face of this lonely ij^ully. 

But I am wandering. Kind reader forgive me inflicting '^memories 
of Lodore," but they were written on the spot in company with Bosco's 
friend and mine, the '' Archangel Michael/' I am sorry they are not 
more worthy of my dear old fric^nd and companion on that early 
Autumn day. 

When AV(^ first came in siglit of Niagara on that loyely May 
moniing, the spray in the centre of tlie '' Horsc^shoe " was rising much 
higher than tin? Falls. The sun was struggling bravely and successfully 
to pierce th(* intervening mist, and was tracing a bright belt of pale pure 
emerald abovc^ the granite ridgc^ of the huge ro(*k buttress, that vainly 
strives to impede the progress of the headlong river over which its surging 
watc^rs leap and fall. 

Standing at th(» (extremity of tlu^ rami)art that protects Prospect 
Park from tlu^ encroachment of the huiTving waters, you see at once 
that the American Fall runs in an almost straight lin(*, and forms a 
strong contrast to tlu» graceful curve of the Canadian Fall. From 
Avhere we stood the visitor can almost gatlu^r liandfuls of crystal gems 
that rise and fall in liciuid plumage — glorious in the reflected rays of 
the heavenly monarch, who bv this time had driven his tiery chariot on 
high beyond the bounds of cloudland. 

Below you can easily trace the flow of the green water that 
tumbles over the Horseshoe and the brown torn^nt that topples over 
the Anu^-ican Fall — and as you gaz(» in silcMit admiration you think of 
the growth of this mighty pow(*r, of the flush of the streams onflowing; 
you listen, in fancy, to the tiny rills that make dulcet music, and 
watch the cattle drink in reedy streams that meander through 
meadows rich and green ; and you picture the furious reach in some 
river hemmed in by resistless barriers as it rushes headlong through 
narrow and picturesque canons, and anon tired with its restless fury 
it loiters tranquilly through the lowlands, singing in gentle cadence 
on its way to the saltless and tideless seas. Concentrated at this one 
point come all the stores of these vast lakes, hurled in one stupendous 


volume dowu Niagara's steeps, yet hidden by a bridal veil of starry 
spray, decked with the Hash of many a rainbow gem, and then onward 
hounds the froth of the white rapids, as in foaming breakers they rush 
headlong against huge rock barriers that impatiently, but foolishly defy 
their course. On, on, 
through treacherous 
whirlpools and fathom- 
less pools until the 
waters, worn out by 
tumult and eonliict, glide 
into the peaceful rest of 
some still backwater 
that underlies the 
shadowy bank — or, 
bidding them all good 
bye, the river flows 
down, down, 'neath the 
changefid sky to the 
deep and changeless 

Since finishing 
my " impressions " of 
Niagara, for the most 
part written on the 
spot, 1 have met with 
a poem whi<!h d('s<'ribt'» 
the Falls in language 
of far greater beauty 
than any at my com- 
mand. I um sure no 
apology is necessary for hai-ids, below tiik falls. 

reprinting here a few verses therefrom, of such lofty grandeur :- 

• *#••• 

" No fleet can Hhiji thy iirogroHO, ii<) iiniiics ttiil tlien stiiy, 
But onwunl — ouwanl — (mwanl — thy iiinrch ntill 1ii>I<1h it« way ; 
Th(t rising minta that veil thee tw thy heralds go bi-fore, 
And the tuuBio that proulaims tliee is the thuud'nng eataraut's roar. 


Thy (liadom's an Piuorald, of tin* clparest, jmrwit, hue, 
Si't rouud witli \vav<»s of suow-white foam aud 8j)ray of feather}- dew ; 
Whilo tresses of the ))rightest p^^arls float oVr thiue ample sheet, 
And the rainbow lays its gorgeous gems in tribute at thy feet. 

Tliy r«'ign is from the ancient days, thy st^-eptre fn>m on high; 
Thy birth was when the distant stars first lit the glowing sky ; 
Tho sun, th(* moon, and all tlie orbs that shine uj)ou thee now, 
liolield the wreatli <if glorA' which first bound thine infant bn)W. 

And from that liour to this, in wliidi I ga/<' uiMjn thy stream, 
From age to age, in wint«»r's frost, or summer's sidtrv* beam, 
\\\ <lay, )>y night, witluiut a }mus<», thy waves, with loud acclaim. 
In (•(»as(»l('ss sounds have still ])roclaimed the great EttM-nal's name." 

— Buckingham . 



was a glorious May afternoon when we left Buffalo — indeed, 
beyond a tropical do^\^lpour during our stay in New Orleans, which 
came and went within the hour, those glorious western skies 
scarce cast a shadow and never shed a tear on our path. The scciumt 
from Buffalo to Boston is the most diversified and beautiful we passed 
through. As we emerge from the City of Buffalo we pass by the side 
of suburban residences surroundcnl by trim, well kept, and deliciously 
scented gardens, in which old-fashioned flowers grow in i)rofusion, making 
a pamdise of enchantment for be(\s, buttei-flies, and birds. ITndc^r the 
influence of a gentle breeze the dark pines waved their topmost plumes, 
whilst the plants, fi'csh with the deli(*at(^ green of (nu*ly May, and the 
fragrant floAvei*s, seemed to bend as thougli in sign of worsliip to their 

We passed along by the side of well tilled farms, with comfortable 
farmhouses peering out from among the trees. Th(^ railway stretches 
away before us, often without curve or deflection as far as the eyc^ can 
reach, and the moticm of the* train is so easy, tliat it is hardly felt, 
as we fly along through swcM^t grass country, wln^re tlie roads wind ovct 
gentle slopes, thnmgh wooded j)astures, and by the side of ])urling 
streams that are dappk^l by tlu' shadows. 

From the distaff of the sun, beams, bright, brilliant, and Ixniutiful, 
were flowing down, a waq) of glory, on innumerable rills, feeders of the 
larger streams, weaving over the landscape a mesh of golden threads. As 
we proceed eastward we gain somewhat higher ground, passing through 
meadows in which but yesterdav the sunnv cowslips smiled a dream of 
gold, and the cows are now ringing their mellow-toned bells. At 
inten^als a brightly-painted cottage — some of these homesteads are painted 
a bright Vermillion —breaks in sight, suiTounded by a cpiaint gjirdcn 
bordered by spingo trees, with an outpost built as a rustic arbour, hid 
beneath the perfumed trail of the woodbine. 


Wo passed through woodhmds in which towered many a majestic 
forest giant, with licnid orcH't and anns outstretxihed, as if eager to 
bestow a l>en(Hlietion on the passing traveller. The whistle and rush of 
our passing train startled many a bird, as it was weaving to and fro 
amongst th(» walls of grecai and roofs of gi*een, through which we sped. 
Tin* branches wen* swinging gently and the leaves rippling lightly, 
stiiTed into life by the music of some wandering breeze. We were 
naming away from Eri(^ and Ontario, those Aast unsalted seas, but we 
passed many a pool and lak(4ct, on whost* calm face we could detect the 
image* of an occasional shy eloudU*t that (rame wandering by, sailing like 
a silent film twixt earth and skv. 

licfore W(* n^aehcnl Syracuse* nature* had sung her tv^'ilight song, 
that wonderful nu*lodv when (*verv sunset rav is a music bar, and everv 

• • • ' • 

note* is an cve*ning star. The* sun hael dropped demii in the west, 
droA\meel in a se*a e)f gold. As the daylight faeled the moss-rimmed pools 
became more* shadowy ; the tire*d cattle were gathered in the fold ; the 
ielle zephyr ee*aseel its whispe'ring ; the* winge'd wanelerers had found their 
moss-lineel ne*sts ; the* winel hael be'e^ome* more elre)wsv and the bre)ok more 
sleepy ; the* far free re*ache*s of the* sky hael le)st thenr bands of blue 
anel golel ; nature hael (>ne*e* more* spreniel her mantle in dusky folds 
ae*ross the* unfathoiiu'el silen(*e* of tlu* sky, eleM'oratenl em that night with 
the silver shell of the* iie*w moon and je*welleel M'ith the golden hue of 
the* je*ssamine* stars. 

Our stay at Syracuse was sufiiciently long for the enjoyment of 
a gooel supper anel tlu* inspe*e*ti()n of the ne*w and important railway 
staticm them in ce)urse of e*rection by e)ur se)nu*time travelling companion, 
Mr. Stewart. The railroad trae-k here runs through the centre of the 
te)^\^l, apparently (it was dark) ale)ng the^ centre of the main street and 
without the slighte*st protectiem. We* had hael a long tiring day, even 
pleasure is oft-times labour. On that night, I know, we welcomed the 
darkness; it brought balm to our eyes, weary as they were with the 
garish day. The veiling shadows hael brought in their palms the poppy 
seeels of slumber, whilst the patient stars kept sleepless watch over us 
on the far e)ff ramparts above. 

During the night we passed through the important town or city 


of Albany, and over the midnight hills enwrapped in robes of trailing 
darkness. I awoke* about four o'clock the next morning. I am not clear 
about the State we were then journeying through ; I think it must have 
been Massachusetts, at any rate I know the names of several staticms 
ended with the word "field," Pittsfleld, Westfic^d, Springfield, &c., 
although I don't rememb(T any with the happy omc^ned name of 
"Bloomfield," which I suggest is an omission. There was no part of 
our journey in the States I c^njoyed so nuich as this ; for four liours I 
drank in to the full the delights of this charming country, whilst Bosco 
on a shelf on the other side of the sleeping car Avas drinking in '' a 
little more sleep and a little more slumber," and pouring forth notes 
ponderous if not sonorous, which suffered in comparison with tlie matutinal 
trill of the early lark. 

When I raised the* blinds of the cupboard in which I restc^d, for 
me the short night had gone, the daylight was coming on apac(^; the 
night winds were lingering whilst they sighed their hist melancholy 
melody. The sky grew brighter and the last pah* stars be<*am(^ faintcT, 
save the morning star, that fair pledge of coming day, wliich waited to 
crown the smiling morn ; mists and vapours were* rising out of the 
valleys and rolling up the hillsidc^s. 

I lay there 'neath a pensive* spell — a waking dream that comers 
but seldom in a life. The frail cr(*sccnt boat of the moon had 
sailed down into the margin of the w(*st and the shoals of stars liad 
ceased their twinkling unrest. It was not long ere* the gray mists rose* 
fremi the A'alley anel lifted the*ir shremels from the* hillside*s, tlie* light 
fleecy clouds that had wrappe*d the mountains in a mantle of white. 
The sun with seemingly a lothful beginning of his elay's joume*y, gazing 
far out over the hill tops, pui*pled in sombre lines the fii'st faint flusli 
in the East. As the purple* bright(*ned it was in turn chased away by 
the warm fire of the topaz, until at length a she)wer of flashing arrows 
dipped in gold were shot from above the crag-cre)wned hills. The mom, 
young and fair, was donning a re)sy pallium jewelled with diamond dews. 

This penlion of e)ur jounu>y brought te) minel the most beautiful 
parts of Ne)rth Wales. The hills rise* up in ten'aees until the topmost 
peaks reach above the timber line. These hill side*s, we were te)ld, are 



clothed by th<' w(k«1 iincmonc, the swoot little blue berrv uf the 
Scottish IU^IiIiiikIs, the feni, the Aliiiue edelweiss, the bridal tlower <if 
the Swiss inoimtaincer, and the heather that iviniiids the sons and 
dtiuf^hters of bonnie Soothmd of their native land, and nmny another 
brilliant-hned flower adds heanty to the scene. 

-Tajiifjed heijjhts, eiitjjs, and bh-sik, bun-en hills, niotionk^SM and eternally 
ehanjieh'ss, «ivc> fur the flif,dit of a shadow <»i- the flame of a sunset; 


irrcf^nltir jieaks rnnninjf liack, tell plainly of violent cniiitions in the day 
of some jjreat ujiheaval far back in tlie dim misty ages of antiquity, and 
here and there, loftier than the rest, a stern and sleepless sentinel, stands 
some fi;i'ini mtamtain, keeping perpetual watch and wanl over the valley. 
From the railway, clinjjing as it were to the mountain side, we 
hiok down to the ri<^]it upon the valley and the beautiful river that now 
roars throuf!;h a uai-row defile, and anon spr("ads out so wide as to 



HE town was iiaincd in houour of tlu* men of old Boston in 
Lincolnshire, and was s(*leeted as tin* centre and metropolis of the 
Massjiclnisetts colony. l)nrin<r the year 1()30 as many as fifteen hundred 
persons eame from En<rland. In ten years not l(»ss than twenty thousjind 
had l)(»(*n hrr)u<rht over. At the yery l)(\i2:innin*r of the setth^ment, a 
f!:(»n(»ral murt, the first in America, \yas held in Boston; and in 1(»>>2 
it Ayas forimTly declared t(> be "the tittrst ])lace for public nuvtin}*:?^ of 
any place* in the Bay." In Boston was first rstablisln^d tin* jn'inciple of 
educatin<j: the ix'ojjle at ])nblic (M)st. 

Bostcm was, from the bei^innintr, a commercial town. Before it was 
a year old, shipbuilding had be^un, and trade was soon after started witli 
the sister colonies, first with Virpnia ; at the openin*:: of the lughteenth 
century it was probably the lartrest and \yealthiest town in America. 
John Josselyn, who was there in 1(174 or HJTo found the* town '* rich 
and yery i)0pulons," the sti-eets ^ many and lar*;<', ])ay<^d with pebble 
stone*, and the south siih* adorned \yith tr^nMlens and orchanK'" Twenty- 
fiy<* y(*ars later, Edward Ward, a Londoner, with an exubei-ant fancy, 
wrote in a diffc^rent y(*in. lie also found the* hous(*s ''in some parts 
joynd as in London : " " the l)uildin«j:s, like tln^ir women, being neat and 
handsonu\" and th<^ stn'cts ^^ like the hearts of th(»ir male inhabitants,'' 
payed with pebbles. 

A most discriminating obseryer was l)ani(d Xeal, whose lKK)k on 
Boston appeared in 171!>. ''The conyei-stition of this town/' he testified, 
'' is as polite as in most of th(» cities and towns in England ; many of their 
merchants haAdng tray(41ed into Europe ; and those that stay at home 
haying the adyantagc^ of a fi-ec* couyersation with trayellers ; so that a 
gentleman from London would almost think himself at home at Boston 
when he obseryed the* number of people, their houses, their furniture, 
thc»ir tables, their fb-(»ss and conyei-sation, which perhaps is as splendid and 

BOSTON. 248 

showy as that of the most considerable tradesman in London." He also 
noted the well-patronized booksellers' shops and the five printing-presses 
then in the town, generally full of work; and he declared that ''Humanity 
and the knowledge of lettei's flourished more here than in all the other 
Hlnglish plantations put together/' 

Boston seems to have been the centre^ of rebellion against British 
rale, which culminated in the Declaration of Independence at the end of 
the eighteenth century. The " Boston Tea Party/' famous in song and 
stoiy, took place on the 16th December, 1773. 

British commerce having been crippled by thc^ jx^rsistent refusal of 
the Cohmists to import taxed commodities, Parliament m 1770 removed the* 
tax impos(Hl in the Acts of 1707 on all articles except tea, retaining it 
on that " to keep up the right of taxing."" Then^upoii tlie Colonists 
resolved not to us(^ or receive taxed tea. Wlu^i, in 1773, the King 
having coucludcHl to '' try the (juestion with America/' it was leanied 
that several cargoes, shi])p(Ml by the East India ('oni])any, were (m th(» 
wav, it was (let(u*min(Ml tli(»v should not be allowed to land in Boston. 
The tea was consigned to '' Commissioners," leading merchants of the toMTi, 
and on the night of November 1st, summonses were left at the houses to 
these men demanding their app(^aranc(^ at thc^ Tiibert}' Tree publicly, to 
resign their commissions. Xou(» i*esponding, and each, when personally 
called upon, refusing to r(\sign, a legal town meeting was held and th(^ 
resignations were formally demanded. Again they wen^ refused. On the 
18th report was received that th(^ tea-ships were uearing the (*oast. Then 
a second meeting was held, and for the third time the rc^signations were 
requested. For the third time they were refused. Without a word of 
comment the* meeting at <mce dissolved. At this the Commissioners took 
alarm, and soon sought refuge in the Castle. On the 28th, the Dartmouth, 
the first of th(* tea-ships, appeared in tlu^ harbour. Immediately calls 
were posted and circulated for a mec^ting the following morning, " t^) 
make a united and successful resistance to this last, woi'st, and most 
destructive measure of administmtion." It resolved that no dutv should b(» 
paid on the tea, and that it should be returned to the place whence it 
came, " at all hazards ; " informing the Dartmouth's owner and captain 
that the landing of it would be " at their peril." The proposals of the 


Commissioners — in effect to store the tea until they could obtain advice 
from England — failed. The HartmoutJi 8 owner and captain were again 
summoned, and made to promise that the tea should be returned "in the 
same bottom in which it came." 

Soon the other two tea-ships arrived and were anchored alongside 
the Dartmouth. On December 14th another great meeting was held and 
adjourned to the IGth, the last of the twenty days' limit for the 
discharge of the cargo. At this day's meeting there were " nearly seven 
thousand gentlemen, merchants, yeomen and others, respectable for their 
rank and abilities, and venerable for their age and character;" the 
meeting being occupied by fervid speech-making. As dusk approached 
Rowe put the cpierv, ''Who knows how tea will mix with salt water?" 
which was greeted with applause ; instantly from the gallery rang the 
signal war-whoop ; it was re-echoed from the street below, and a band 
of men disguised as Indians suddcMily appoiuv^d. The meeting broke up 
in confusion ; and following the lead of the '' ^lohawks " a throng swept 
down to the wharf wlu^re the ships lay, guarded by the vohmteer patrol. 
The " Mohawks " boarded the ships, (\ich vessel having a detachment 
allotted to it under a recoo:uised leader, rcMuovod the hatches, the kevs 
of which were surrendered (m demand with<iut prt»t(»st, and within three 
hours the (*ontents of three hundred and fifty-two chests had been spilled 
into the bav, and the memorabb^ '' Boston Toa Tartv " was over. 

" Thf waves that brouerht a conturv's wrpfk 

Have* rolled o'or Whijr J^nd Torv ; 
The Mohawks on the Dartm'mth dock 

Still live in son^: and ston* : 
The waters in the rebel hav 

Have kept the tea-leaf savour. 
Our old North-enders iu their spray 

Still tasto a Hyson flavour." — Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

Within the heart of the city, to which at the opening of every 
business day '' the great arterial streams of humanity " are drawn, is a 
very congested district into which are crowded warehouses, shops, and 
oflBces of trade and commerce, the exchanges, many banks, public 
buildings, the courts, hotels, theatres, the newspaper oflBces and the 
railway stations, and it certainly was in the middle of the day densely 



Few parks anywhere in the midst of a crowded modern city ofEer 
a more pleasing combination than Boston Common, and there is no 
feature of the city that is more highly prized than thia rare do\vn-to'\ra 
open space, with its broad elm-shaded walks and its picturesque croaa-paths. 
Everything about it is of the homeliest character, the velvety 
f^censward and the ovor-ixrching foliage being the suffieicut omamenta of 


the place. It has but two monuments and a eoupio of fountuius, and the 
Frog Pond, where boys sail miniature ships. 

The Army and Xavy Mnnument, on the hill by the Frog Pond, 
ia reached by a short walk along a charming cross-path. Designed by 
the late Martin ilillmore it cost the city ^75,000. The platform of the 
monumeut thirty-eight feet square, rests on a mass of masonry sixteen 
feet deep. The four bronze statues, each eight feet high, on the i)rojectiug 


pedestals represent — Peace, a female figure bearing an olive-branch ; the 
Sailor, a picturesque mariner, carrying a drawn cutlass and looking 
seaward ; History, a female Hgure in Greek costume, holding a tablet, 
and looking upward ; and the Soldier, perhaps the best statute on the 
monument, a Fedeiiil infantry man standing at ease. The four large bronze 
reliefs between these pedestals represent, — that in front, '' The Departure 
for the AVar;'- the second bas-relief, "* The Sanitary Commission on duty in 
the held ; the third relief, '' The Keturn fnmi th(^ AVar,"' containing forty 
figures; the fourth bas-relief, ''The Departure of the Sailors from Ilcmie/' 
The main shaft of the monument, a Koman-l)(n'ic column of white granite, 
rises from the pedestal between the statues ; and the four allegorical 
figures at its base, in high relief and eight feet high, represent the 
Xorth, South, Kast and West. The statue of the '' (ienius of America,"* 
which crowns the shaft, a female figure eleven feet high, clad in classic 
costume, is the most prominent feature of the work. In one hand she 
holds the American Hag, in the other a <h*awn sword and wreatlis of 
laurel; and she faces the South. 

The monument bears the foll<)wing ins(ri])tion : — 

To TUK Mkn of Boston 
Who diki) rou thkik (/ountkv 


Which keit the Union whole. 

Destroyed slaver v, 

axo maintained the constitition, 

The (jratefll cttv 

Has BUILT THIS Monument 

That their exami'Le may speak 

To coming generations. 

The Public (nirden is about twentv-four acres in extent. The 

pond in the centre, in-egular in shape and artificial, contains four acres. 

The ponderous iron and stone bridge spanning it is called by the local 

Avits the "Bridge of Size," because of its imnecessar}^ solidity and 

strength. The Garden is laid out with rare skill and taste, with trees 

and shrubs and thousands of bedding plants. We saw it, a mass of 

brilliant bloom and rich verdure. 


Exceptionally tine is Thomas Ball's equestrian statue of Washington 
which stands near the Arlington Street gate, representing Washington at 
the time of middle life, the figure full nf force and vigour. The horse 
is strong in character, and the head and the arch of the nock are 
commended as 
especially well 
modelled. Another 
good piece of W(»rk 
is the marble, 
" Venus rising 
from the Sea," 
which adorns the 
fountain basin neai' 
statue, the t'ountain 
so arranged as to 
throw, when play- 
ing, a tiuc spray 
over the gi-,iceful 

The statue 
of KdwunlKverett, 
modelled by W.W. 
StoiT, in Rome, in 
18fi(i, was present- 
ed to the eit)' iii 
Xovemher, 18(i7. 
The figure is in 
the attitude of the 
omtor, the head 
thrown back and 
the right arm up- 
raised with the hand outspread, the endeavour of the seul]>tor having 
been to represent Everett as he uttered the words, "Washington, the 
guiding star." 



The Charles Sumner statue, in brou^e, representing the statesman 
in the act of speaking, with u roll of manuscript in the left hand, tht; 
right hand extended dow-nward in gesture, is by Thomas Ball, the sculptor 

of the Washington] 

The "Em- 
aucipution Group" 
j ust outside the 
I janlen commcm- 
in-atcs the eiiuinci- 
patiuii of the slaves 
liy r*vesidont Lin- 
coln. It is auother 
of Tlioiiiu.< Ball's 
works, designed iu 
ISOo. In 1873 a 
colossal copy was 
made for the 
" Frec<liiicn"s Me- 
morial " at Wash- 
ington. The face 
of the negro is a 
likeness of the last 
slave ii'iniinded to 
the South under 
the fugitive slave 
law, studied from 
photographs. The 
height of the entire 
work is nearly 
EMAxeiPATiox STATUE, PARK 8QCABE. twcntv-five feet. 

The Museum of Fiue Arts forms a quadrangle. The architecture 
is Italian Gothic and the material brick with rich exterior mouldings, 
and roimdels in red and buff terra-cotta work. The main front is adorned 
bv the projecting portico in the centre, enriched with polished marble 

columns. The great bas-relief on tlie right wing represents Art receiving 
the tributes of all nations ; and that on the left wing illustrates the 
union of Art and Industry. It is said to take rank as the third of the 
museums of the world in casts of classic sculpture, containing the best 
Japanese Art exhibit, and one of the most important collct'timis nf oiignivings. 


On the second floor are the picture galleries and the display of 
Japanese art. In the first gallery is a rich anny of [wintiiija;!* of the 
various schools. The wL-cond gallery is devoted to rcpn-'80iitati\"e works 
of the early American painters. The third gallery is th(; '* iJiiteh Uooiii '* 
showing examples of the Dutch, Flemish, aud German schools. The fourtli 
gallery is largely devoted to works of modem American painters, with a 
sprinkling of French pictures. In the hall is some interesting sculpture. 


The Public Libnirv building is a jp-and tniiftce iu its elegant 
Iir(>i>ortions aud tlic purity of it*: style, which is Italian Renaissance, 
([uadrangkr in sluipo, facing three streets and sun'ounding a court ; and it 
<-overs with its broad ]ilatfonii. exclusive of the court, an aei-e and a 
half of gnauid, 'ITie iiiaterial usi-d is gninite, with a slight jHuk tinge, and 
the roof is of brown Siiauisli tiles. The giiiit arched irindows above the 
string course produce tl[c effect of a luagiiiticeut arcade supporting the 


lieavy projecting coniicc. The vc;»til»ulc, of -Sfdid l»l<K'ks of jtink niarblc, 
luinnouixcs well «"ith tin- stone at the entniuce. The great feature of the 
entrance hall is its high vaulted ceiling of rich mosaic work of colouretl 
marble artistically blended. Into this the iianu's of men identified with 
lioston. who liiive been eiuineut in letters, art, science, law. and public 
work, are wrought. The list embraces Sumner, Phillips, and fTarrison ; 

BOSTOiX. -ibX 

Motley, Prescott, aud Bancroft ; Webster, Lungfellcw, and Hawtliome ; 
Adanis, Emeraon, and Franklin. The floor of this hall is in white and 
Breccia marblcB, furthei* enriched by bmss inlay. The design lu the inlay 
at the foot of the jitairway is a WTeath of laurel inclosing the names of 
geuei-ous benefactors or proniotei's of the Library :— Everett, Quineey, 
Bigelow, Winthi'op, lic. On both side.s, giiai-diug the stainvay, arc marble 
lions, memorial f^ifts nf the Second aud Twentieth Massuchusi'tts Refjiinents. 






The broad stall's are of Echaillon marble, and the side walls of Sienna. 
The great Bates Hall, on the second flooi", c.Ktending entirely across the 
Copley Square front, with lofty ban-el-vanlt ceiling, is a magnificent piece 
of ai'chitecture, one of the most beautiful featm-es of the entire work. 
In the design and decomtion of the interior of the building, " sculpture 
and painting join hands with architecture."' The decorative work includes 


elaborate mural paiutiuf^'s by Sargent, illustrating "The Dawn of 
Chiistianity," by Abbey, depicting "The Search for the Holy Grail," 
in which one hundred iife-sizu fi^njres are introduced, and statues of 
Ralph Waldo Emerson (by French), and others. 

The Boston I'ublir I.ibi-aiy is tin- largest library in the world for 

free circulation. 
The building has 
room for two 
million volumes, 
and thirty-three 
thousand sqimre 
feet of room for 
students a ti d 

Kiectricity has 
belli jircssed into 
tlic service of this 
great library. The 
haiidliug, deliverj-, 
iiiitl distribution of 
bimks is carried 
i>iit liy means of an 
iippanitus of the 
well-known store 
i-crvico system. An 
attendant has only 
to pick out the 
book wanted, place 
it in a little car 
on a siding, and 
switch the ear on 
to the main line, 
fi'om which it runs 

at the i-ate of -300 feet per minute to a special elevator, which 
automatically drops to the deli\-(ry room ; waits theit- until the empty 








k_ ' ■ iii^ \^ 

^-ejan, ; 


. wm 


ear comes back, and then delivei-s it to a return track leading to the 
siding from which it started. There are sis stories, each of whicli has 
a special carrier service and a special elevator. The track is of 8 inch 
guage, the ears are of wire and will carry up to 30 lbs. of books at 
each trip. 

Boston has grown in extent from less than oislit Inindred ar-res 


to more than thirty-seven square miles. Few cities in the States can 
boast such suburbs. For extent and beauty they are unrivalled. Within 
a radius of ten miles from the City Hall are tnenty-six municipalities, 
cities or towns, where eity and country are pleasantly commingled — 
picturesque hills, separated by winding rivers, making of themselves an 
ever varied landscape ; natural parks and ocean beaches. 


Cambridge, the largest of the suiTounding municipalities, is the 
site of the most famous university in the eountiy. A liberal bequest 
of eight hundred poimds from th(* estate of the Eev. John Harvard, an 
English clergyman who died at Charlesto\Mi in 1638, caused the General 
(/oiu't to name the college after its generous b(^nefactor, and changed 
the name of the town where it was established to Cambridge, John 
Hanard having been (educated at Cambridge in old England. There are 
about three thousand stiulents in all branches of the imiversitv, and three 
hundred professors and teachers of various grades. 

The college yard contains a little more than twentj'-two acres, 
and nc^arly the* whole availabli^ space' is occupied by the numerous 
buildings, some of which are tiu(* specimens of architecture, and admirably 
suited to th(^ use for which th<'y an^ (Unsigned. Among these are 
Hastings Hall, Thaver Hall, (iravs Hall, and Matthews Hall, the latter 
an ornate Gothic editice. Without speaking of the various society 
libraries, the universitv has tweutv-nine minor libraries connected with 
various departments, containing nenirly one hundri^d thousand volimies, 
while the College^ Library has over three hundred thousand bound 
volumes, and nearly the same numbei* of pamphlets. The latter is in 
(lore Hall, a r4othic building of Quincy irvauite and iron. 

Cambridge' is noted not only for IxMug the seat of the lii'st college 
in AnuTica, but for havini^; been the first j)lac(» in the coimtrj' where 
a printing press was set up. In IT;:;!) a press was brought over from 
KnMand. and was in operation many years. The* first thing printed was 
the Freeman's Oath, foHowed by an almana<*k for Xew England, and 

th(» Psalms. 

^lemorial Hall is architecturally tin* finest building connected with 
th(» university, and was erected by the alumni to commemorate the sons 
of Harvard who died in the Civil War. It was built at a cost of 
AoOi),tMMK It is of brick and sandstone, three hundred and ten feet 
long, and one hundred and fifteen feet wide. 

Tlie gateway through which the college yard is entered is the 
outcome of a finid left by Mr. Samuel Johnstone of the class of 1855. 
It is built of granite, assorted brick, sandstone, and iron. The panels 
are canned with the shields of the State, College, and City. 

The sUitiic 
represpiitj* ii Vduii;:: 

(if John Harvard, which stands on the " Delta," 

Puritan scholar with a delicate but resolute face. 

Ill the Xji\ y Yard at " Moulton's Point," where the British troops 

landed for tlic Hunker Hill fight, stands another moiuiment to the 

memory of tlio first benefactor of Harvard College. It is a simple granite 

shaft set up in 1 H28. On one side is this inscription in Latin :— 

That DIM' who nit'T'its »i> much from our hterarv men should no lon^r 
lip without II mouuuii'ut, liowi'vov humble, the grnduati'S cii' tho I'nivfi-sity of 
( 'limb ri dpi', Ts'i-w Eii^lniid, Iinvi- oi-i'i-tinl this siiiuf, noni'ly two lnm<lr"rl ycjtrs nftfr 
his d™th. in iiioiis mid ]ii>i-|M'inn! rfiuHnbniTi'-f of John TTiiiTiiii!. 


No, e^eu passing, mention of academic Cambridge, with its rich 
historical memories, intellectual glainonr, and encrusted associations of 
great men, would be complete without sfimc reference to HeniT Wadsworth 

■25f. AAfEJt/CAN Af£AfOJt/£S. 

Longfellow, a poet, American in his birth, certainly, but world-wide in 
his sympathies, and UDiversally beloved of the whole English-speaking 
race. For eighteen years he was Professor of Modem Languages and 
Literature at Harvard College, and his stately colonial home in Cambridge 
wais the headquarters of Washingtou during the siege of Boston. 

" Ripening into manhood at a period teeming with romantic incident, 
wheu the buffalo and the bi>;nn roamed uumnlested over the prairie fields. 


their extinction only threatened by the trapper's rifle, when the trail of 
the red Indian ^vith his tribal and pre-historic traditions was still visible 
in the vast tracts of undiscovered wilds, Longfellow seems strangely ont 
of harmony with the rush of American life to-day. 

" Yet with what grandly humanitarian strains his lyre is timed ! 

nOSTOX. 257 

Like poor Tom Hood, he will be best remembered in his shorter poems, 
those soul-inspired lines which breathe the whole tenoiir of a simple 
life. Surely no poet of the latter day has unburdened himself with 
such outpourings of pathetic sadness, and with such deep conviction of 
a divine protection. 

Toll 1110 not in mournful nuinhors, 

Lifo ifl hut an ompty droam, 
For tlio soul is (load that sluinhors, 

And things aro not what thoy sooni. 

Lifo is roal ! Lifo is eamost I 

And tho gi*avo is not its goal. 
* Dust thou art, to dust rotumost/ 

AVas not spokon of tho soul ! 
« « « « « 

Livos of groat luon all roinind us 

Wo can luako our livos suhlinio ; 
And doparting loavo behind us 

Footprints in tho sands of tiiiio. 

Footprints that perhaps another, 

Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother. 

Seeing, may take heart again. 

TiOt us then be up and doing. 

With a heart for any fate ; 
Still achieving, still pui*suing, 

Leani to labour and to wait. 

'' If we loavo with rohictanco his poems of imagination and fancy 
and turn to his congenial vein of sea and siiilor, there still pervades 
that psalm-like odour of sacred trust whicli marks his other verse, and 
must ever endear it to all who love simplicity of theme inspired with 
a high degree of solemnity. 

''It is this simplicity which attracts tho more serious thoughts of 
childhood. Whore* is tho man who in after voars does not look back 


with stmnge emotions upon his first awakenings to tho son'ows incidental 
to our daily toil ? Having once enchained us, this attribute hangs like 
the musk of roses to our early memories, and remains through lifo with 
a tender and enduring fragrance. 

'' Wheresoever the English language Avill be spoken, wheresoever 
there will exist an English child to be nurtured at its mother's knee, 
there will the siid, sad story of ' Tho Schooner Hesperus ' be recounted, 
lesscms wholesome and pathetic culled from the ' Village Blacksmith,' and 
tears draAni unconsciously by the recital of 'The Reaper and tho Flowers.' 


*' In his poem of the * Lighthouse,' Longfellow's muse would seem 
lite Ariel ' to i)ut a girdle round the earth,' as with a fine majestic 
power of word depiction the very elements themselves become enthralled, 
only to subside, as in so many of his poems, into a tender sympathy 
with all mankind. 


■' Proud, most justly and supremely i)roud, must be the nation that 
can mark Longfellow, with his gentle melancholy, for her own." • 

I love the poems of John fireenleaf "NMiittier ; his popularity and 
the merit of hi*; wiitings seem to be increasingly recognised both in the 
States and in England. ^NTiitticr was a descendant of a Quaker family 

*I am imlphted for thf noticp of Ixingfellow {commencing on page 256) to the 
facile and graceful pen of my friend and co-churchwarden Ur. Robert Falkner. 

who, fleeing from bigoted persecution in England, settled on the banks 
of the Merrimac early in the 17th eentnry. It is said that the iirst 
poetry that reached the eyes and heart of Whittier in his far ofE home, 
was that of Bums, whose resemblance in position seems to have struck him. 
There is something very interesting and very tonching in the 
stories of the struggles by which so many men of distingiiishcd intellect, 


living in the New World, have won their education by altenmte study 
and work. After remaining on the home farm at Haverhill for some 
years, Whittier represented his native town in the ilassiichusetts Legislature 
for a short time. At a time when abolitionists were exposed to great 
personal risks, he had the courage of his opinions, and by ])en and 
voice denounced the crime of buying and selling men. Whittier indeed 


(lid much to arouse the conscience of the Xorth, and his name will 
rank in the golden records of history Avith those of Wilberforce and 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. He Avas permitted to see the dream of his life 
fulfilled, when in 18G-) the Xorth gained a complete victory, and the 
last shackles fell from the American slave. His poetiy is marked by 
simplicity and vigour, morality and religion, beautiful scenes and noble 

TN^ho is there that at some time or other has not been charmcHl 
with the Avritings of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, tin* author of " The 
Autocrat of the lireakfast Table," who dicnl but a shoi-t time ago, full of 
years and literary honour? His was a dear kind gentle loveable nature, and 
his spirit still lingers in and pervades the precincts it influenced in life. 
Although essentially a Bostonian, Avith an almost provincial, if not (piite 
local personality, his shrewd wit, his genius and charity knew neither 
time nor place, his wide sympathies were universal. Mr. Morse, the 
wi'iter of his biography, says: — ''Thousands of clippings attest to the 
universal admiration for his kindliness ; the word ' genial " Avas used to 
describe him in everA' ol)ituarv notice.'' 

Dr. Holmes' life appears to have been exceptionally uneventful — 
in fact the very absence, says his l)iogra})lier, of anything in it to 
remark upon, became in itself remarkable. Tavo years of his youth were 
spent in Europe* studying medicine, and in his old age he Avent there 
again for a few months, otherwise he spent all his years in or near 
Boston, Avithin tethering distance of that Statehouse he declared to be 
''the hub of the solar svstem," Avliich doubtless accounts for the Bostonian 
belief that their city is the '' hub of the universe," and the LoAvell 
Institute the hub of Boston. All Holmes' intimate friends liAed AA'ithin 
a few miles of him, siivi^ when some* of them Avent abroad, as Motley 
and Lowell did. Unlike many American and English men of letters he 
was not connected Avitli political affairs. He never held office — in fact 
it may be said '' nothing ever happened to him." 

One Avho knew Holmes w(*ll says : — '' ^ly own memory brings 
him back to me most often, seated at his library table with a heap of 
unopened lettei-s before him. To look at these letters, to glance at the 
presentation copies of books shoAvc^red upon him, AA'as a favourite occupation. 

One si)riiig afternoon I found him there looking deeply puzzled by a 
letter -whieh ho held in his hand. ' Yon will excuse me,' he siiid, ' for 
u moment while I tiy to undei-stand this.' His look of bewildcmiont 
continued, and at last he bcgiin to read aloud : ' ity dear Lord Tennyson,' 
the letter lii'f^:an, ' knowiiifi; thiit in the natural eoursc of events yon 
eannot. live mauy years longer, I beg to ask if yon have considered 
the importance of jireserving to posterity your wonderful voice ? I 


would suggest that it iw a duty whic-h yoii owe to them ti) recite into 
a phonograph • 'I'lie Princess Maud ' and several other of yimr poems.' 
In this strain the lett<T continued for sevond pages. ' Wliiit in the 
«-orld have I t" <lo with this?' sighed Dr. Holmes, as he turned the 
sheets over and over, for Tennyson had then been d<'ad six months. 
'Evidently there has been some mistake,' I ventured. 'A letter once 


meant for Lord Teunyson has beeu put iu an envelope addressed to 
you.' I looked at the sheet which the poet held towards me. There 
was a line or two of writing across one end — an explanation of the 
mystery : ' This letter Avas not sent to Lord Tennyson, because he died 
just as I had finished it. What I have said about preserving his poems 
by phonograpli, applies equally to your matchless works.' The name of 
the writer lias escaped me, but he wrote from the Sandwich Islands. 
Perliaps lie has been sent there to recover his mental health." 

Dr. Ilohues was uniformly courteous to those who sought him, 
either in person or by letter. Occasionally, if the visitor was a stranger, 
when he grew a little weary, he would bring a tiny volume from the 
bookcase, and sitting at the library table would inscribe his own name 
and the visitor's on the fly leaf. Then })resenting it with a bow to 
the visitor, he would sav '' Xow I know that vou would rather have 
this than talk any longer with me,'' a delicate way of bringing the 
interview to an end, which few failed to understand. 

When at an advanced age, he was called upon by a canvasser who 
worried him to subscribe^ to a liugi* dictionary, he said: — ''I'm too old — 
eiojhtv vears — shan't live to see it finished." ''Xav, Doctor, vou won't 
have to live so very much longer to use our book, we've already got 
to G." '* And vou may «i:o to L if vou like." 

There is an idea prevalent iu the middle States and the south 
Atlantic country, that the women of Boston are not good looking. I 
feel precluded from offc^ring an opinion. They may not strike so high 
an average of beauty as the women of Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Louisiana, but their faces shew high intelligence. In travelling on board 
the Atlantic liner, or on, say, the banks of the Xile, your Boston girl, 
or matron for that matter, can ask more questions in a given time, than 
any cross-examining lawyer I have yet heard. I have known the 
inquisition rude and disagreeable, but it can be made pleasant and even 
flattering. I particularly remember one such occasion, whilst crossing 
the Bay of Xaples from Capri. My friend Bosco's vast storehouse of 
knowledge was completely ransacked for information of encyclopedic 
vastness, by a charming young lady, who might have been the bright 
particular star of the '' hub of the universe," at any rate I recollect 

BOSTON. 263 

that her gracious and charming manner seemed to indicate that Bosco's 
stores of information and learning, were being appropriated with eagerness 
and avidity, as she betrayed an insatiable desire for knowledge. The 
Boston ladies, I am told — I carefully guard myself from expressing any 
opinion — do not pay quite the same attention to personal adornment that 
I for one think desirable in our sisters ; let them look nice as well as 
be nice. The fashions of this world pass away all too quickly, except 
for the milliner and draper. What if the gown be ill fitting, and the 
colour of head-gear unbecoming, if culture of the intellect and grace of 
manner are there? My relations with ladies have ever been so fortunate 
that I would have nothing to diminish their attra(!tiveness ; one of 
woman's chief vocations in life is to cast gentleness and sweetness 
around, but why not have thcmi all in combination and due proportion ? 
Then shall we have, not indeed the '^ new woman,'' whom most of us 
detest, but old dear sweet woman, with added beauty to enlist our 
admiration, capture our lovc^, and remain abidingly charming. 

Surely a woman who is not in the least vain, must be a little 
commonplace ; is not tbis a feminine quality, which, if judiciously 
applied, enhances her influence in the world? A woman void of vanity 
is as a rose without scent, or a diamond without sparkle. 

It was a verv distinct misfortune that our stay in Boston was 
cut so short; it was however made extremely interesting by the kindness 
of Mr. Henry R. Dalton, one of our fellow passc^ngers on board the 
Campania,, who, returning from a visit to the land of the Pharaohs, 
made a very agreeable companion. Fulfilling my promise to call upon him 
Avhen I reached the ''hub of the solar system," he most kindlv made 
himself my guide, so that I saw in the shortest possible time, the 
gi'eatest possible of the sights of Boston. 

Mr. Dalton, with that courteous hospitality which we found throughout 
the States, invited us to his club, entertained us right royally, provided 
good food and equally good wine. I don't remember whether it was at 
this lunch that we had pancakes, but I know somewhere the question 
was asked, "Why is an umbrella like a pancake?" Because it is seldom 
seen after Lent. 

Another friend, who will be had in everlasting remembrance, 


wheuovcT inemorv roealLs Boston, is Mr. Shepherd, whose home stamps 
him at ouce as a loA'er of all that is beautiful, and whose stables, and 
the splendid animals they contain, proclaim him to be what is well-kno\^Ti, 
the owner of the finest horses in Boston. His appearance and bearing 
was that of an old English gentleman (can anything be better ?) his 
talk was of horses (and his wift»), and his voice seemed to rise and fall 
with the cadence of a neigh. I shall never forget oiu* drive that lovely 
May afternoon ; seated behind a pair of spanking steeds, our friend Mr. 
Shepherd handling the ribbons con amore^ with a zest and delight only 
born of an intensi' love for the noble creatures. Bosco, as the predominant 
partner, sat by his side on the front seat of a well-appointed Stanhope 
phaeton ; by my side was a vacant place. Driving along through 
magniticent avenues, broad and tree-bordered, we suddenly pulled up in 
one of the smartest ; entrusting the reins to Bosco, Mr. Shepherd descended 
and made a call at Xo. 400. His mission remained unfulfilled. 
He had noticed my loneliness on the back seat, and in his goodness of 
heart had determined to provide me with a companion ; the fair one 
Avas fn^m home, and tlie s(^at remained vacant save in my fancy. 

^lental pictures, even aided by notes are liable to confusion. It 
was a season wlii'U the full-grown leaves were early marking the deepening 
of the Spring. Dame Nature seemed to have put forward the hands on the 
dial. Tlie country into which Mr. Shepherd took us was one long scene 
of beauty. AVe looked up and down the valley and gazed into the folds 
of the hills ; wild fiowers in p;.a'fection and profusion ; over the sods, as 
if in sudden rapture, shone forth the field fiowers, making it a country 
of extreme loveliness. The year's primal burst of bloom was still spreading; 
the red and white blossom of the May had not fully developed its beauty. 
The spiked flowers were beginning to adorn the foliage of the chestnut 
trees as avc passed beneath their shadows. Broad imdulations of billowy 
verdure extended maiesticallv. The Ivric brook enthralled our ears with 
its silvern tones, with the verse that it purls in May, and from out the 
secret recesses of leafy plantations the birds sang a wonderful melody. 
The brooks sang and the feathered choristers of the woodlands, who never 
sing out of tune, carolled in joyous minstrelsy Nature's choicest welcome. 
AVe listened to the field lark proclaim in loud and ringing notes his 

no SI ox. 2(i5 

luippiiu^ss and joy, and watched the cattle as they wended their way to the 
margin of some shaUow pool, on whose pUicid bosom a soft etherial radiance 
played that bright May day, striking as it were sparks of gleaming fire. 

To Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Dalton onr thanks are indeed due, and 
as I think in the days to come of our pleasant, albeit extremity short, 
stay in the ''Hub of the Universe," I shall say, and not only of them, 
but of the many whose kindness and courtesy whilst in the States was 
unfailing^ in the words of the Friend '' Who sticrketh closer tlian a brother," 
'' I wa^ a stran":er and y(* took me in." 

The days were length(*ning and th(* same d(4iglitful weather going 
with us when we said an revoir to Atlu^nian lioston. The eyening was 
not too far advanced to (^nal)h^ us to hav(» a good vic^w of the 
charming country tlirougli which we travelled on tliis our last jounuT in 
the States. All our times scM^med sumnu^* times, our mornings bright, 
our ( veniiigs auspicious, and our nights cloudless. ]}ut 1 nuist hurry on; 
my paper is getting finished, my ink botth^ dry, and my reiKh^s' patience 
exhausted. 1 must rush past that })ictures([ue e(Mnetei'y, with its low 
wall, on the rising ground, Avlu^re village })atri()ts and soldier* boys ''after 
life's fitful f(»ver, sle(*}) W(41,'' where already the warmth of the sunshine 
hal brought Spring and renew(Hl \\U\ whilst the fresh gnn^i foliage, 
earnest of the R(\surrection to lvt(»rnal Life, moved softlv with \\vv touch 
of tlie evening wind. 

A steel blue line had stoh^n round the g(>l(UMi mai'g(^ of the liori/on, 
an 1 till' sunset Avas fiinging a fieiy shroud over tlu* dying day, the vast 
stretch of water to our left liad fiashed back tli(» last rays c^f the sun, 
the magical changes of light had vanished and darkm^ss had stolen ov(»r 
the hind, as we passed by tlu^ side of wood<Ml hills sloping gently to the 
sea-washed rocks, past the weather-beaten homes of the fisher folk ; quaint 
gray houses that seemed in the rising moonlight to grow like barnacles 
out oi the beetlnig cliffs. The night was still ; the young white moon 
shone coldly upon the landscape and the water looked like molten silv(»r 
under its pale reflection — and then the journey ended — we steamed into 
New York — amid a galaxy of brilliants studding the guardian semaphores, 
those huge razors that shave the midnight air ; the sheatlu^d blade of 
safety, marked by the silver trail of the diamond, and the steady gleam 


of caution and danger, flung over our path by the rays of the emerald 
and ruby, told of the half and fully opened blade. The beacon lights that 
jewelled our way spread out wider as we neared the terminus, and then 
as we di'ove to the " Brunswick," eager for a good night's rest, and 
thankful for journeying mercies during our 5,000 miles of travel, the little 
silver lamps dotted the midnight sky like starry flowers. 



E would most gladly have prolonged our stay in the States 
had circumstances permitted; our last forty-eight hours in 
New York were spent in comparative quiet, at least mine were, giving 
leisure to focus in a very imperfect manner a few impressions gleamed 
by the way. I am not a total abstainer, but still I was greatly 
impressed by the almost entire absence of drunkenness. The wines stored : 
in the cellars of the New Hotel Cecil, London, are said to have cost • I 
,£100,000 ; in my friend Bosco's collars are hid away thousands of 
bottles — St. Emillion, St. Estopho, St. Julien, and other canonised 
vintages from that ''communion of saints" for which my friend's table 
is renowned. At any dinner in England or the Continent the guest 
without his bottle is the exception ; in America the man with the 
goblet of ice water is the rule — and another thing in which these English 
speaking people differ is this: — Touch your bell in an American hotel 
and up comes a pitcher of iced-water for drinking — touch your bell in 
an English hotel and they bring you a jug of hot Avater for washing 

The free silver question had already begun to agitate the minds 
of opposing politicians whilst we were in the States. " Monometallism " 
and "Bimetallism" seems to me, in the words of Lord Dundreary, 
things "no fellow can imderstand;" they may think they do, but I 
doubt it. The various interests seem to be irreconcilable. The East and 
the West, the North and the South seem hopelessly divided as to what 
is best for their interests. Mr. Bryan is said to have given forcible 
expression to sentiments of dissatisfaction prevalent thi'oughout the West 
and South with the monetary and fiscal policy supported by the Eastern 
States, and to have advocated the making payment in silver the legal 
quittance for debts of every sort, notwithstanding any contracts or 


agreements to the contrary — plainly stated, to pay a sovereign's worth of 
debt A^th ten shillings Avorth of silver. These politicians are knowTi 
derisivelv in America as thc^ '' Fiftv cents dollar men," who will not 
Avait for any international agreement in order to write down the nation's 
liabilities by fifty per cent. 

Then there an* others who tell you that the only difference 
between the '' soft monev '' and '' sound monev " men, the onlv 
difference between the Bryan party and the McKinley party, so far as 
regards silver, is as to whether Anu^rica should oi)en her mints to silver 
now, or wait until some other couutries agree to unite Avith her for 
that purpose, and that the abiding answer to all the ill-fonned chatter 
alxait ''dishonest'' is a sim})le refen^nce to the market value of silver in 
IblM). lu that vear the bullion merchants of the world were convinced 
that the United States were about to rec^pen their mints to silver, and 
the expectation of the re-establishinent of a fixed ratio between the two 
metals sent up the price of silver to 4s. O^d. (August and September, 
1S!M)), that is, within -"i^d. (jf its (Jd value of os. per ounce. The 
market value of silver in August and SeptcMiiber, 181>0, became equal to 
1 7 J, as against 1 of gold. The market value of silver thereby differed 
by only 1~ from its old ratio at the United States mint of IG to 1 ; 
and an object lesson the other wav was the closin;j^ of the Indian mints 
to silver in lS9o, when the market value of silver declined 30 
per cent, in a fortnight ; and they further say that the only possible 
i^round for a char«::e of '' (lislnnu\^tv " Avould arise if Mr. Brvan and the 
Democratic party proj)osed to pay g(Jd contracts in silver. But in his 
spiH'cli at Chicago which preceded his nomination, Mr. Bryan said, " Let 
me remnid vim that thcTc is no intention of affecting those contracts 
Avhicli, according to the present laws, are made payable in gold." Mr. 
^IcKinley, on the other hand, says the question of bimetallism cannot 
be secured by independent action on our part, and cannot be obtained 
by opening oiu- mints for the ultimate coinage of the silver of the 
world at the ratio of 10 to I, when the commercial ratio is more than 
30 to 1. Gold has been driven out of circulation in those countries 
which haA'e tried free silver. 

Mr. Carlish*, Secretary of the Treasury, says : — '' In my opinion in 


the event of free coinage the whole volume of currency will sink at 
once to a silver basis, and cheques and drafts would be paid in silver 
dollars or its equivalent." 

Remembering the six eminent men on the one side and the six 
equally eminent on the other, who formed the Bi-metallic Royal 
Commission and equally disagreed, it would be presumption in me to 
offer any opinion even if I had one. In the States both parties seem 
to be bimetallists — the Republicans declaring for international, and the 
Democrats for national bimetallism. Opinions, of course, differ as to 
whether the United States could alone make a IG to 1 ratio effective, 
and then the question forces itself : — Is money a measure or creator of 
prices ? are not prices affected by money only in time of pani(.* and alarm ? 
is not the law of supply and demand the real source of changes in price ? 
are not low prices — so beneficial to the great mass — duo to excess of supply 
of many articles, caused by constant invention, cheap carriage, cheap pro- 
duction, and by the enormous increase of capital applied to production? 

I verv much doubt whether the honest v and oi^od sense of tlu^ 
American people will ever endorse a policy of repudiation and plundc^r, 
no matter how attractive that policy may bo made to a})pear to some of 
the ''baser sort." To use the words of ^Ir. Bayard, tli(^ noble 
representative of the United States in England: — The man or nation who 
plays the game of '' beggar my neighbour " in commerce will never be, 
and ought not to be, successful. 

It was a remarkable feature of the late Presid(^ntial cami)aign that 
the tariff question all but disappeared from it, although it was tlu^ 
Protectionist fame of Mr. McKinlev which was the ('liief reason for his 
nomination at St. Louis. The industries of the count rv have suffen^l 
greatly, and business men all over the States, Protectionists as well as 
others, desire a period of rest from political controversy. Renewed 
agitation about the tariff they are likely to discourage and denounce, as 
certain to be fatal to the restoration of confidence and prosperity. 
Moreover, there are signs of a growing suspicion, if not a beli(»f, even 
amongst prominent Protectionists, that the McKinley tariff was a mistak(\ 
and that a return to it is now impossible. It was never named whilst 
we were in the Staters. 


Mr. Bryan, as is well known, is a convinced Free Trader. 
Speaking on behalf of the abolition of the import duty on raw wool 
when the Wilson Bill was before the House of Representatives, he 
said : — " I am for free wool in order that the vast majority of the 
people, who do not raise sheep but who do need warm clothing to 
protect them from the blasts of winter, may have their clothing cheaper; 
and in order that our woollen manufacturers, unburdened by a tax upon 
foreign wool, and unburdened by an increased price of home-grown wool, 
may manufacture for a wider market. If we cheapen the price of 
woollen goods we shall not only be able to export woollens, but we 
shall increase the consumption of such goods among our own people, 
and every increase in consumption increases the demand for labour to 
produce, and an increase in the demand for labour will result in more 
constant employment and better wages.'' 

Then there are other men, and they appear to me the most 
sensible, honest, and patriotic, who will tell you that America has 
reached a period in its history when it is ready to do business with 
the world. Its business men fully realise that they cannot do this if they 
enclose their coimtry within the walls of extreme Protection. They want 
an outlet for their cereals, their live stock, &c., and from this time 
forward you ^\i^\ hardly find an American Congress that Avill entertain 
for a moment the policy of extreme Protection ; but more likely that 
policy will be one of moderate Protection coupled with Reciprocity. They 
want a share of the commerce of the world, and are prepared to 
give something for it ; they want reciprocal trade relations with all 

There appears a growing feeling that the condition of the middle 
classes in America is becoming harder as the years go by, by reason of 
the fall in value of commodities, disappearance of profits, lack of 
employment, and unprofitable and hoarded capital. I believe in the large 
cities — New York and Chicago especially — there is a very large amount 
of poverty. Some of the best thinkers and writers on the subject say 
that amongst these causes Protection comes first, and all the other evils 
follow in its train. Protective tariffs have cost the American workers, 
directly and indirectly, more than the great five years' Civil War. 


Under Protection the most gigantic systems of monopolies and public 
robbery and corruption, have been created and nourished. Eings, trusts, 
combinations to rob the producer and consumer, and millionaires are the 
children of Protection. The object of these combinations of capitalists is 
not to benefit the workers and producers one iota, but to enrich 
themselves at the expense of the whole community. 

There was a striking example of this vicious system of monopolies 
during our visit. A short extract from the New York Herald best 
explains it: — 


Ice "Barons" Said To Be in Combinations That Have Power 
Over the Coal and Oil Products of the Countrv. 


The Morses Control the Trade of the Southern Cities as Well as of This. 


The consumption of ice in this city in warm weather is 20,000 tons. 

At no time has a combination been effected which seemed to be so free 
from competition as the Consolidated Ice Company. It thoroughly understands its 
power and will not neglect to use it. 

It is controlled by men who have intimate relations with the Standard Oil 
Company and with the Anthracite Coal Trust. 

Statements were made yesterday which would indicate that the Consolidated 
Ice Company is organised along exactly the same lines and essentially for the 
same purposes as the Anthracite Coal Trust. The identity of the men in the 
two combinations would indicate that the two trusts are, so far as personnel is 
concerned, almost identical.. 

chicago is also in tlie grasp of an ice trust and prices go up. 

[by telegraph to the herald.] 

Chicago, HI., April 22, 1896. — Chicago has been in the grasp of the ice 
trust for a year, and although prices were advanced last summer another advance 
is said to be coming soon. The increase will be at least five cents per 100 
pounds, the figure at present being twenty-five cents. Before the trust prices 
went into effect last summer the prices ranged from fifteen to twenty cents. 
Consumers were compelled to buy coupon books, good for 1,000 pounds, in 
advance, before the companies would deliver them a single pound of ice. 

And when it is remembered that in the Summer time ice is an absolute 


and prime necessity in the States for poor as well as rich, it will be 
seen wliat an amount of suffering sneli combinations must entail. 

The Standard Oil Company is the greatest and most successful of 
all the American Trusts. There is not a petroleum lamp lighted in the 
twelve million households of the United States, but its fuel has paid toll 
to the '' Standard ; " not a tin canister of oil can be sold in a village 
stores but the i)rice has been fixed by the same omnipotent Corporation. 
A cou[)le of years ago they tried to bring off an agreement with their 
most serious rivals in tlu* w(n'krs petroleum supply, the Kussian producei^s 
of the Caspian district. The two W(^re t(» divide the world between 
them ; the liussians to have the East and the Americans the AVe>t. 
Great liritain, (fcrmanv, Austria, France, Italv, and the other nations of 
AVestern I^urope Avould be exclusively supplied by the Standard (Jil 
Trust — at its own price. 

This r('feren((^ to the Oil Trust rcMuinds me of an American 
witness will) managed to put a touch of humour into the proceedings of 
the Committee on Petroleum, over Avhich ^Ir. ^lundella presided. He was 
boasting that altli<nigh petroleum is in general use in the United States, 
there are very few lam}) accidents tluTe. '* lint,'' said the Chairman, ^* I 
think you hav(* managed to burn down Chicag(» once or twice with a 
petroleum lamp*:''' ''Oh," said the witncv-^s, '-if a cow will go into a 
barn full of hay and straAV and kick over a lighted lamp, it does not 
matter Avhether the oil Avill stand the test of even 2-30 degrees; the hay 
and straw Avill burn." lie considenul that l^igland was being supplied 
with the very best oil that money could produce. lie disclaimed all 
connection Avith any advertising '* bunkum." In a circular prepared for 
China, his company's oil Avas described as putting the sun, the moon, 
and the stars to shanu*, because it was so bright ; but, added the 
witness, amid the laughter (»f the Committee, ''I did not write that 

I was much struck in reading, a short time since, some remarks 
upon the present political and connnercial situation in the United States 
made last September by Governor Altgeld, of Illinois, at the dedication 
of a soldier's monmnent at Chattanoogii, from which the following are 
extracts : — '' Instead of an armed force that we can meet on the field, 


there is to-day an enemy that is invisible, but everywhere at work, 
destroying our institutions. That enemy is corruption. It seeks to direct 
official action, dictate legislation, control the construction of laws, control 
the press, shape public sentiment, it has emasculated American politics 
and places them on the low plane of jugglery. We are substituting 
office-seeking and office-holding in place of real achievement, and instead 
of great careers in public life we are facing a harvest of slippery, blear- 
eyed, and empty mediocrity. For more than a decade the tendency has 
been towards a colourless and negative dilettanteism, having the 
countenance of the Pharisee, with the greed of the wolf, and drawing 
all its inspiration from the altar of consecrated and corrupting wealth. 
A new Gospel has come among us, according to which it is mean to 
rob a hen roost or steal a hen, but plundering thousands of people /'/' 
makes gentlemen." I have compared these remarks witli an utterance J / 
made 100 years before— "What will be the old age of this government 
if it be thus so early decrepit?" Such was the question of Fanchet, the 
French Minister at Philadelphia, in a famous despatch to his Government 
intercepted by a British cruiser in 1794 — a thought which the poet 
Moore enlarges in his verses to Lord Forbes, from which the following 
is a short quotation : — 

** Ev'n uow, wliilo ypt upon (V)liniil)ia's risiu<j^ brow 
Th(» showy smile of younjij: prosmnptioii plays, 
Her bloom is poisoned and her heart de<'ays : 
Even now, in dawn of life, her sickly breath 
liums with the taint of empires near their death, 
And, like the nymphs <»f hei* own withering clime, 
She's ohl in youth, she's blasted in her prime. 
« « « « 4^ ^ 

The love of gold, that meanest rage, 
And latest folly of man's sinking age, 
Which, rarely venturing in the van of life 
While nobler passions wage their heated strife. 
Comes sulking last, with selfishness and fear, 
And dies collecting lumber in its rear. 
And conscience, truth, and honesty are made 
To rise and fall, like other waves of trade." 

These are the words of a prominent American citizen of to-day, 
and of a famous Frenchman of a century ago — they are not mine. I 
can neither endorse nor contradict, but I may express tlu* hope they are 


I have a correspondent in America who WTites : — " Xow if you 
happen to write up your recent visit to the States, deal gently with 
our shortcomings, because you know we are so very new." In 
this, my friend, is, I think, mistaken; it is not we English that 
make these unkind criticisms but '^furriners," who pass off as 
English. Here is a choice specimen taken from the Nachrichten^ a 
Swiss journal: — ''America is a country in comparison to which Europe is 
a small peninsula. The United States is an empire by whose side the 
Powers of Europe appear as petty States. America is the land of 
unmeasured capacity and dimensions, the land of dollai*s and electricity, 
the land where the plains are wider, the rivers greater, the waterfalls 
higher, the bridges longer, the express trains faster, the catastrophes more 
horrible than in all Europe ; the country where the buildings are taller, 
the rascals more numerous, the poor poorer, the millionaires richer, the 
thieves bolder, the murderers less bothered, and educated people more 
rare than anvwherc else. It is the land in which the teeth are more 
false, the corsets tighter, disease more dangerous, corruption more common, 
insanity more systematic, the summer liottiT, the winter more chilly, fire 
warmer, and ice colder, time mon^ costly, than in sleepy old Europe. 
The land where old meu are vounirer and youths older, the land of 
immeasural)le natural resources and of the most prodigious avarice. In 
short, America is the land of the greatest contrasts, the craziest 
.l)resumption, the most reckl(»ss hunt after the dollar; it is the land of 
everything colossal and luiapproachable — the last, of course, from an 
American point of view.'' 

This is Swiss, my dear friend, not English, and I think the 
journalist calls it "Booming Great America." 

Hitherto the United States has figured among the commercial 
nations of the world as a large vendor of raw materials and food stuffs, 
and a heavy purchaser of finished articles of manufacture. To-day there 
are many signs that a change is impending and has indeed already 
begun; that America is ready to enter the lists as a manufacturing 
nation, and to become the world's great workshop as well as its granary. 
American mowing and reaping machines are now the standard in many 
countries. American clocks and American tools are equally well known. 


l^Hning machinery is sent to South Africa, cotton ties to India, bar iron 
to C'hina, and iron pipes all over the world— underselling English goods 
even in England itself. Their great advantage as manufacturers seems to 
lie in their rapid improvement of machinery. Where the European 
workman is satisfied to follow the method that he has learned, the 
American is continually trying to '' go it one better." '' You may go 
into a factory one day," a New York merchant said, ''and you will see 
something being done by hand ; you go there next week and you will 
find that some workman in the factorv has invented a machine to do the 
work." In the manufacture of machinerv they seem ahvavs in the lead, 
and th(* foreigner who thinks to compete with them by buying their 
machines, finds that by the tinu^ he gets thcMii set up at home they are 
ba(*k numbers in the States. 

In a book of travel recently publislicMl by Madame lientzon, a 
French writer, sonu^ of the most interesting pages are devoted to those 
nunuTous girls' colleges with which the Tnited States are dotted. She 
says: — 'The young girl graduates are not only serious, but very 
attractive in their black gowns and with tlunr scjuare caps, which they 
wear within the college precincts, and which gives th(Mn a resemblance 
to Shakspeare's Portia. Their life appears to be d(iliglitful. They have 
freedom, the retirement desirable for enabling them to work without being 
harrasscul by care, a vacation of several months, which allows them tour 
and travel, professors abrcMst of eviMTthing that is going on, and every 
means of developing themselves — such is their happy lot. In the 
gymnasium, Portia, stripped of her doctor's go^ii, (Migages in tlie 
exercis(\s which prevent the body from being weighed down by the mind. 

" C^o-education," the junction of the schools allowed, nay, enforccnl 
at many schools and colleges in the States, is a source of pcn-petual 
curiosity to her. The married lady principal of a college when ccmsulted 
respecting the effects of the system, replied — " Well, you can't expec^t 
me to object to it ; it was at school that my husband and I fell in 
love with each other." 

Living together from tlu^ tenderest years at the kindergarten and 
primary school, prevents boys and girls from b(»ing as susceptible as they 
might otherwise be. Emulation produced between the sexes accustoms the 



girls, who very often are ahead of the boys, to be indifferent to dunces 
however good-looking they may be. The girls are generally the mort- 
advanced of the two sets. They smile a little maliciously at each 
blunder of the boys, who on their part do not seem at all sorry to find 
the girls at fault. 

Madame Bentzou sketches agreeably the woman of " light and 
learning" in Boston, and permits herself only to hint that perhaps culture 


is a little overdone in Boston, and that in the pursuit of the intellectual 
in education its usefulness is sometimes neglected. " In America, cookery 
and sewing are apt to be sacrificed to the love of Greek." Philanthropy 
as well as culture flourishes at Boston. 

Probably one of my most pleasant and interesting reflections, and 
one that gives me peculiar satisfaction to record, is that I believe the 


real feeling in the States, amongst the great but least noisy, the almost 
silent mass, the native born Americans, those descendants of generations 
of Englishmen, is love for England ; for them it is still the " old 
home" across the waters. We must remember when thinking and speaking 
of the American people that all who live in the States are not 
Americans. The threats of dissolution of ties that bind Englishmen and 
Americans together, emanate in the majority of cases from persons who 
speak English imperfectly. Americans, bonu-fide Americans, are not likely 
to raise* their hands to strike their own mother. 

Professor Peck, of Columbia University, New York, has recently 
stated the case very fairly. He says : — 

Tlio real foeliiiji^ of a nation, r's])H(ially of a nation like our own, is not 
to 1k^ {j^lcaued from tin* liighly coloured pronounconicnt.s of a sensational Press, 
nor, on the other liand, from tlie after-dinner cliat of a tactful and hospitable 
entei-tainer, who for the moment lets his pei-scmal liking for a distinguishcnl j^uest 
inspire him witli a purely cenatory cordiality towards the nation whicli that guest 
for th(^ moment typifies. Hence it is that wliatev(»r ha,s been publisluxl in 
England gives only an outsider's vi(nv, which is liostile or friendly accoixling to 
the writer's own limite(l and personal obstM'vations. 

It is a pity that no adecjuate expression of American feeling toward 
Kngland has yet been written down by an American. It would be valuable as 
a c(»rrective to mucli of the loose talk that is hearil in tliis country on the 
piditical stump, and in the c(dumns of the ptditical newsp{ip(^r. 

What is the feeling that Americans ent(^rtain toward England ? I mean 
that great silent nuiss of our countrymen whose nationality is inlierited from 
many generations of Angh)-Saxon ancestors, and who liave learned their 
Americanism at tlieir father's fireside, and not from the scare-heads of a 
news])ai)er — men who have no political ambitions up their sleeves, and do not 
rush into print, but wlio stand for sobriety and sense, and whose matured 
opinion, in the hmg run, makes ami unmakes l*residents and States, and bends 
the Government's own policy to its silent will. How do these men feel toward 
England, the home of their race and the souire of the great stream of our 
natitmal traditions ? Charles Dickens, on his second visit to this country, fell into 
conversation with an American about this very subject; and finally, with that 
peculiar sort of tact which so many Englishmen possess, remarked: — **0h, as 
far as we are concerned, it's perfectly simple, you know. We all of us love 
Americans, but we hate America." To which the American is said to have 
replied, rather slowly: — **Well, with us it's just the other way; we all of 
us love England, but we hate Englishmen." The American loves England with 


a fervour and a passion of wliich no Knglishman has any conception. AVhen he 
visits it his whole luuirt leaps at the first sij^lit of its poppy-sprinkled meadows 
and the ivicnl walls of its sle(»py old towns. It is his home ; its historj' is his 
history; its glory is his glory too. 

But when lie finds his kindrcnl in the old home looking at him with a 
sort of tolerant ((mtc'mpt, and th<* ahsurd assumption of superiority that is theirs, 
then he begins to think of tilings that hapixmed in his own rwoUection. He 
recalls how in the darkest i)eri()d of our Civil War, the English statesmen who 
had once p(»se<l as the friends (»f the Uiiite<l States, greeted the news of its 
disasters with mingled cheers and sneei^s. 

There aro times, jMM-haj)s, when h<' would exult in shimldering a rifle for 
a march over tin' Canadian fnmtier, and wln»n he would see with joy the 
liumiliatiou of England at tlic liand of th«' Cnitcnl States; yet never when he 
would wisli to se«' it inilictcil ])y any other hands. It must he, so to speak, a 
jiurely family all'air tor tlie clearing up of scores that affect no other p<H)ph^ — 
an affair to he settled ]>y a fine piece of give-and-take fighting with n(» ill- 
feeling as an al'tenuatli. Whenever a foreign Power tries to put an affnmt 
iqKm England, as the insolent young cuh of a Geniian Kaiser lately tried to 
do, the American feels as tliough he, too, had rcneived a slap full in the face. 
And then, when tlie news is tiaslied across th(^ sea that his English kinsm(»n 
hav(» ris(»n to resent the insult, united and unflinching in the face of danger; 
wiu^n he liejirs tliat fleets are mohilized and that troops are nillying to their 
ct)loui*s, with tlie s])len(lid efficiency tliat is the jittrihute of England in the* hour 
of danger, tJH'ii his lieart goes out to theni in a tlirill of s>nupathy, and jaitting 
aside the rect>llection of his former grievances, he would nither like to take a 
shot on his own account at the enemy who, f«ir the time heing, he regards as 
the enemv of the entire race. 

This is a fair statoiiient of American sontimi^it toward Euglaud — 
a curious miuf^liug of pride in the ancestral home, with a very real 
dislike^ for much that Englishmen have done. 

6 - 




>N May 16th, just one all too short month from the time of 
our landing, we left New York on board the Cunard S.S. 
EtruHa, Being the commencement of the Eiu'opean season, 
we had a very large number of saloon passengers on board. I print 
verbatim from the Liverpool Mercury of May 2r)th the following : — 


Tli(i Etruria of the Ounard Lino arrived at the stage on Saturday nioniiug, 
and disembarked a large number of saloon and other passengei-s, including Earl 
Spencer, Countess S[)encer, L.idy Tup[)er, Sir Donald A. Smith, Lady Smith, 
Sir Mackenzie lk)well, Major Harris, Mr. John Kendall, and Hon. A. J. Lascells. 
The Etruria made a record trip (m the long route, of 6 days 58 minutes. 
She brought from New York 026 sacks of mails and §399,000 specie. 

How in the world my name alone should be printed amongst the 
'' including " and no other untitled commoner, I can't say. I suppose I 
ought to feel flattered. I suspect a little playfulness on the part of Bosco. 

Sailing down the grand harbour that morning was simply entrancing; 
as our vessel glided ovc^r the sunlit sea, the rippling light on the water 
brouglit visions of bright ey(»s smiling from the sparkling wavelets — and 
the vision was restful and peaceful. As the day advanced we felt the 
air grow warmer as it fanned our brow, and the wind and the sea sang 
a harmonious duet to the sun as it became wreathed in noontide glory. 
As we neared Sandy Ilook, we remembered that in these waters the 
superiority of American over English built yachts had been frequently 
tested, and decided in favour of Columbia and against Britannia. 

It appears — I did not know it was so long — that the Queen's Cup 
was won from the English, and brought across to the States nearly fifty 
years ago by the schooner-yacht, America. It has come to be looked 


upon as a national possession, in the defenee of which the Americans are 

as ready to do battle, as if the precious bit of silver were an integral 

l)ortiou of the tenitorv of the United States. 

Like some wonderful bird fn>in the regions of snow, Defender 

sailed from her cradle at Uristol. jiroud, gnicefid. confident. Designed and 

constnicted by the 
Herreshoifs, a firm 
of American yacht 
Vniilders famous for 
the re<'ords their 
boats ha\c always 
made, Defender 
came to her task 
the perfect embodi- 
ment of all that 
cxpcrieuee, thought, 
and luoncyean uuike 
a boat — as jierfeet a 
rdcin-; machine as 
ever left lier enidle. 
For a boat of her 
size, Defewk'r w- 
sists the water less 
than any craft 
afliKit. Th( 
of feet of eanviis 
stretch up uud out 
into the air like 
monster wings. The 
whole yachting 
world marvelled at 
the expanse of 

canvas the yacht is able to spread — between twelve and thirteen thousand 

square feet. 

Lord Dunraven made a final attempt to recover the Queen's Cup 

■nre " DEFENDER." 


with Valkyi-ie III., and to shew how mucli he had learned fi'om the 

defeat he suffered at the hands of l^igilant two years before. For 

light winds he has nndoubtedly the fastest boat ever built in England. 

Valkyi-ie III showed this clearly in the rim with the BHtannia and 

Ailsa, in which she came in ten minutes ahead of all competitors. She 

was designed and 

built for a purpose, 

viz. : — to be the 

fastest boat that 

could float off 

Sandy Ilook in 

the breezes of 

an Aiueriean Sep- 


With the hold- 
ing of the C-up 
has always gone 
the advantages of 
defending it on 
home waters. 
That advantage is 
a considerable one. 
All challengers 
have had to cross 
the sea, and an 
ocean trip may 
lessen the sailing 
speed of those 
beautifully perfect 
yachts. How the 
last race was lost 

and won, has now passed into history, and I hope all the bickerings 
it caused will lay for ever under the wave, and never more be seen 
on the surface. 

As the day wore on, the shore line became less distinct, and the 



friuge of embossed froth, woven twice in the day by the restless shuttle 
of the surge, faded from sight, and as we stood silently on the deck 
of the brave Cunarder, the snow-white sprinklings of the feathery foam 
f€41 as blossom shaken from the bloom of the Spring laden thorn. 
Further out we reached a wide shining place, where there was nothing 
more disturbing than the cry of the seabirds calling to each other, and 
an occasional slight sprinkling from some wreath of sjilt foam as it rose 
from the wind swept floor. The coast line of America, '' a land where 
bright hikes exj)and and conqiu'riiig rivers flow," was lost to sight, but 
the memory remains gn'cu, and the hope of another visit bright. 

I don't tliink 1 need trouble inv readers with manv details of 
the homeward voyag(\ It was dc'cidedly pleasiinter than the outward 
trip ; improved healtli, on the whole, extremi^ly favourable weather, and 
a large number of iKissi'ngers, many of whom were pleasant companions. 
IJosco was of course a shining light at the card table ; everything very 
proper, scientific whist, shilling points strictly, no poker, no gambling, 
with a few good stories interspersed. Bosco's stories an* g(4ierally good, 
and usually fresh ami fragrant ; he is not like those det(\^table stcuytellers 
(we had at least one on board) at whose well worn tales, which he has 
been tellinij: for '* vears and vears," evervbodv tries to lauijrh, whilst 
groaning inwardly. I heard of one good smoke room story — I am not 
a smoker. There was a passenger, a g<io(l looking fellow certainly, who 
gave it out that he was wealthy, but was a trifle too boastful to be 
gentlcMiianly, who, under the influence of an '* extra Scotch,'" enquired 
what they thought he was. . '* ^Vllat do you take me for?"' he asked. 
Whereupon the J. P., or some other passenger, n^plied *' I should think, 
from your style, a gnmd liashaw I "" Evidently jdeased at being thought 
some gi'eat one, he ask(»d '* Why do you think so ? ■' and got a reply, 
I fancy, a trifle unexpectc^d, '• Because you look as though you have been 
sitting cross-legged all your life."' He turned out to be a tailor. 

But Bosco's tales are alwavs breezv. I wish I could remember 
them, but like the breeze they fly away ; here, however, is one : — A 
little girl, being put to bed one night, asked her mother '' What are 
angels?" The mother endeavoured to explain that they were etherealized, 
spiritualized, unseen beings, with wings, and able to fly. The child 


could not grasp the explanation, and was further told that they were 
white, and bright, and shining. " liut, mother, father kissed Bella in the 
passage this morning, and called her his darling angel, but Bella is not 
white and bright, and has no wings, so she can't fly." ''No, my child, 
but I'll make her fly in the morning." 

A good humoured doctor, returning from a lengthy travel in the 
East, was very amusing, and delighted his little audiences with his 
stories. One day a solid Teuton who had listened and smoked in silence 
for a while broke in. " Yot new relichun is dis, toctor, zey have in 
ze East ? Zey calls it ' Dance-my-gracious,' or somet'ing like dot." 
" Oh," said the doctor, '^ you mean the doctrine of Transmigration." 
" Dot's it I " cried Schmidt, '' my vife have got it fery bad. Vot is 
it?" "It's like this," said the doctor, "they believe that souls pass 
through many stages before they can be made perfect, and occupy various 
bodies in the process. You die, we shall say, and your soul passes into 
a canary bird, and you live in a gilded cage, and are fed by the hand 
of beauty every day." " Ah, dot's goot ! dot's ze relichun for me." 
" You die again, and this time your soul passers into, let us say, a 
flower, to shed fragrance all around, and delight the eye of every 
beholder." " Dot's goot, too ; I like dot relichun." " But the flower 
dies, and now your soul passers, let us suppose, into a donkey ; and one 
day a friend conu's along, strokc^s ymw long ears, and says ' IIuUo, 
Schmidt I is that vou ? JIow little vou have* chan<jred all these years I ' " 

It was quite natural with a medico in the smoke room company, 
that liosco should tell his tale about the .doctor and the smoker. It is 
an antique. I have heard it often. It occuiTed within my friend's 
personal experience, some time about the middle of the third quarter of 
this century. It was at the time when I used to listen from among 
the "gods" to Arline warble her dream of "Marble halls," and Thaddeus 
sing " When other lips and other hearts," not because it was by any 
means the worst place in the theatre for sound, but the cheapest. 
Travelling from London at a time before smoking compartments were 
provided, a passenger, to the great annoyance of his fellow travellers, 
pei*sisted in smoking a pipe which was most oifensive. At length the 
gentleman opposite addressed him thus : — " I am a medical man, and I 


may tell you, sir, that 99 per cent, of all the throat diseases I have 
had to treat, come from people using dirty, filthy, pipes, like the one 
you are smoking." Eyeing steadily the practitioner who had kindly given 
his advice gratis, he replied, with calm deliberation, " And do you know, 
sir, that in my experience 9t) out of every 100 black eyes 1 have met 
with, are caused by people not minding thcnr own business." I need 
not (explain that in those days handsomely <iislii()ned seats and padded 
backs in railway caiTiages, were not absolutely required to support 
magisterial (li<rnity. 

Of course the tales told iu au Atlantic liner smoke-room would be 
very tame without the American novelette ; although we had not a 
second edition of rude Major O'Hooligan on board, yet we had some 
funny fellows. This is a Yankee contribution ; it hails from California : — 
Two men, one an Irishman, the other a German, were joint ownei's of 
a farm in that land of perpetual sunshine, and cultivated it hannoniously 
for some years. At last, however, a dispute about the rotation of crops 
arose ; and as thev could not come to terms, thev resolved to divide the 
land, and did so by making a fence* across the middle. Then a further 
difficulty arose. On one side of the fence the soil was superior to that 
on the other : which should take the better half ? They did not wish 
to tight, but to continue on fri(»ndly terms. Tin* Irishman had an idea. 
" In my ccmntry," he said, '' when then* is a question like this to be 
settled, the two parties stand one on either side of the fence, and they 
take a beefsteak and hold it in their tiH'tli and pull, and the one who 
pulls it away from the othc^r wins." Tln^ (xerman agreed. The steak 
was prociuvd. The two stood with the fence* between them, and fixed 
their teeth tirnily in the steak. '' Are — you — ready ? " muttered the 
Irishman thi-ough his teeth. ''Jal" gasped the German — and fell 

One of our most pleasant male companions was Mr. Reece, of 
Christchurch. He happened to know a dear old friend of mine in New 
Zealand. He told a funny story, and perfectly true, about my friend's 
son. It was soon after Dr. Jameson and his fellow-officers arrived in 
England. My friend's son George is about Dr. Jameson's age, and is 
representing the New Zealand Farmei-s Co-op. in London. He went into 


a city hatters to buy a new " thatch." He left his old one behind 
him. This hat bore its owner's name in legible characters on it's lining. 
"Jameson!" said the hatter, to his assistant, '"Jameson! Why, bless 
my soul, I believe that gentleman must have been the famous Dr. 
Jameson who came to London from the Cape yesterday." The assistant 
thought so too, so the discarded tile was reverently handled, and duly 
exhibited in the hatter's window, labelled : " Dr. Jameson's Hat, as worn 
by him on his famous Ride. Visitors are requested not to touch." 
" Oeorge" has been grinning over the " incident" ever since. 

We liad, of cdurso, the usual 
number, sometimes better and oftener 
worse, of vocal and instrumeutal 
performers. One young lady, Miws 
Screecher, was constantly enquiring 
"What are the wild wave.s saying':*" 
" It's no use her reiterating the (jues- 
tion in that insane fashi(m. She <iin 
never find out," said a snappy 
individual. "Why not?" I asked. 
" Because she can never reach the 
high CI." We had, however, a large 
amount of real talent on board ; 
about 70 or 80 of Sir Henry Irving's 
company were returning from their 
long and successful tour, and many 
members made themselves extreuiely 
agreeable. At the usual weekly «IR mnald smith. 

concert in aid of the funds of the Seamen's Homes, almost th<' whole 
of the excellent programme was contributctl by members of the Lyceum 
Company. Sir Donald Smith, of whom I give a photo, occupied the chair, 
but the offertory was not so good relatively, as when his worship the 
Magistrate presided. Sir Donald is well known on the other side as a 
great supporter of the McGill University, the Oxford of Canada. 

Not being a smoker, I kept as a rule to the deck promenade, or 
idled in the music room. When my shyness permitted I ventured into 

■ t 


an occasional chat with some fair one. Bosco says, bnt he is not always 
correct, that one morning I stood balanced on one leg only, talking to 
a Canadian Venus, who being '' lusty as an eagle," her beauty and 
and vastness were at variance. If I so stood, I was doing penance for 
some unremembered sin, so the punishment fitted not the crime. Which 
amongst all those graces was it that asked me who I thought the 
greatest admiral that ever lived, tlie one who commanded the united 
fleets of the world? Of course I smiled a sickly smile, and then grinned 
when told ''Xoahl'" Then these same ladies tell vou that in the States, 
I't'matrimonv is all a ''matter o' monev.'' I refuse to believe the statement, 
and when you get to a certain point, and endeavour to explain that, like 
Sir William Harcourt, your ancestors came over with the C^onqueror, 
the hope is promptly expressed that they had a pleasant crossing, you feel 

Passengers on shipboard ahvays afford subjects for study; you come 
into such frequent and close contact, and you can't help it. You have 
perchance a nobleman or a man who is'nt noble, laying back in his 
chair, silent and supercilious, lookiug, as some of his acute angles shew 
under the grey steamer nig, like some rocky red stone human promontory, 
against which social waves may break for ever ; and there is the Miss 
or Mrs. — you can't tell which — whose life has spanned many wheat 
harvests, yet affects the ways of a kitten ; to her i^vervthing is delightful, 
magnificent, or more generally, awful ; and then occasionally, but all too 
rarelv, vou meet with a ladv whose silken tresses are streaked with the 
silver strands of sorrow, or sprinkknl with the powder of time, fresh and 
pure from the puff box of Nature ; about whom there is a quiet and yet 
charming mischief — perhaps scarcely mischief — but something undefinable, 
a years-ago loveliness that has been softened, but in whom still lingers 
an abiding love of fun. 

Against some people, my fi-iend, for example, the sea has no grudge. 
In some — I write from experience — it produces a state of sore distress and 
misery, and reduces you physically to a hopeless state of dilapidation. 
If you are weary and want to escape from some bore or too attentive 
friend, you sleep with one eye open, and on the approach of the enemy 
of quietude you fall, quite naturally, into a state of plaiLsible slumber. 


and refuse to allow the scraping of chairs or the dropping of books to 
arouse you — this from personal experience. 

About the time we returned I saw a statement emanating from 
New York, calling attention to the serious diminution of national wealth 
caused by European travel. Three steamships which sailed from New 
York on the same day, earned 1,500 first-class passengers; each passenger 
it was estimated had allotted at least £200 to cover expenses, and all 
but a hundred of the number were bent on pleasure only. At the lowest 
estimate those l,oOO people will spend £800,000. Every week an equal 
number depart for Europe, so that before the season ends Americans will 
have taken over twenty millions to England and the Continent. At the 
same time America is receiving from Europe the poorest class of people, 
who are required to have only £<'> in their possession to enter the 
States. Thoughtful statesmen declare* tliis evil dangerous to the welfare 
of the country. In the season it certainly does represent very large figures. 

There was one touching little incident 1 ought to mention. I was 
seated in the office, having a chat with the poi)ular and genial purser, 
Mr. Graham, when the captain came in and handed him a hotter for 
perusal — and then said, '' Shew it to Mr. Kendall." It contained a 
request from a lady in the States that a box of fiowers she had sent by 
the Etruria might be sent on at once '' to our beloved Queen at 
Windsor," as the day following our arrival was the (Queen's birthday, and 
she specially wanted them delivering in time. How much nicer the 
'' language and poetry of fiowers " than bilious, after-dinner Venezuelan 

The service on Sundav morniu": was taken bv a minister from South 
Carolina ; I don't know to what sect he belonged, certainly not Episcopal. 
A Bible and Prayer 13ook were placed before him, and he commenced at 
" Dearly beloved brethren," and would have gone on reading the entire 
book of '^ Common Prayer " once through at least, had he not been stopped 
by the captain before endurance quite failed — and then that sermon — can 
I ever forget it ; no main-sail ever had such length and breadth. I 
once heard of a minister who said to one of his flock, '' I understand that 
you do not believe that a person is sufficiently punished on earth for his 
misdeeds," and was told in reply " Oh yes, I do now ; but I didn't until I heard 


you preach." Surely this Carolinian must have been that minister. 
There is a tradition on board, of a bishop who arranged for a sendee one 
Sunday morning, and called the head waiter to him and said, " Place so 
many I'myer Books and Psalters on each table." Half an hour afterwards, 
when all the people were as.sembled, he sailed up the saloon in all the 
glory of his rod hood and lawn slee\es. On the tables were neatly placed, 
in long rows and at regular intervals, a Prayer Book and a salt cellar ! 
This was alm<»st too much, oven for the graWty of the bishop. 

"Wo had but one rougli day on whioh the billows rose with 
their fangs of white. It was a breezy day, and our bounding ark, 
revelling in the happiness of its freedom, went dancing along the waves 
as if to please the curling foam, pouring out from its cutwater an 
offering to Neptune, who shakes his mantle under its libations, which 
flash and sparkle as they fall, like love spangles. The circling seagulls 
hovered round the vessel, piping low, and laughing cries of feigned 
distress — and then sailed away on the curl of a wave. 


AVe raced aloiiji;, runiiiug at toj) speed, teariuj»: in two the blue 
billows, whilst the radiant rays of the sun grec^ted our gaz(* and smiled 
upon our progress, and steeped tin* surging swell in shining sheen. We 
gazed with delight on the plaeid blue* waters, when wc* could not detect 
a sign of life in all the great (^\i)anse, save* a few wandering gulls 
swinging low. As our eyes skimmed over the wavers, towards that far oif 
line where the blue skv and still bluer waters meet, the sun was 


dropping, drowned in gold, bellow burning billows that seemed not far 
away, liye and bye the (^lectric globes that run round the ship break 
into sudden light, iind hundreds of reflections shimmer on the wat^r — 
and as the (»vening advaiuies, and the bright dresses of the ladies and the 
sound of music and gaiety make tlu» night merry, the heavens, all aglow 
with gems numerous as i)el)bU»s on a broad sea coast, gave the ocean a 
tiilvery light all lieu* own. 

On such a night you sometimes stand in solitude, looking over 
the taifniil, tracing the track of tl(HH*y toam turned aside by our picTcing 
j)low as Ave ridi* and run through trackless furrows, and listen to the 
mellow diapason of the (►cean ; or turn our gaze upward, and in 
imagination the pilot angel st(HM-s our sight along that goldc^n i)ath to 
Paradise, to a distant land, wonderful, far, unseen ; to that stranger 
land far away from the world's uproar, and you picture the jasper shore 
and see the harbour lights Hash on the shores of rest. 

At length the ^' Hull, Cow and C^ilf," the first land, is s(*eu and 
onc(^ more* we sight KriiTs ish^ (ilimpses of round towers flash upon 
us under the rays 'of the post-meridian sun, their hmg faded glories 
covered by tin* waves of time, and as tin* kwwxw waves boom upon the 
shingle, and wcnir their way into the granite rock, each roll sounds as 
a note* of welcome. Passing the '' Fastnet " we soon reach the lovely 
bay of Queenstown, tlu^ longed for j)ort of many a storm -tossc^d mariner; 
the shelt<^ring haven, wliosc^ circling flood and gentle billows for ever 
(caress its rock-bound shore*, and then How back into the deej) again, 
secure from the Atlantic's rude and angry din. 

Crossing the Channel w(» sighted St. David's Head, and soon after 
the evening's light flickcTcd and fled. The skies lost their hue, the 
dark verge was once more reached, and the bright night lamps that hung 



in \f^\w «rranilcur wt-re tljn»wiii<^ a ri<'h lustmiis bainl <»ver the lucid 
wav(*s, and flinf^njr a nia^ic manth- uf Iw^uty ovf*r the gentle undulations 
of tlu^ Irish ^'hannel- and thc*n <'anie th<' la>t niidniirht dirp* of tin* 
voyajc^' : — 

r)i«- fr<»iiti»-r tnwij ami * iTij«i»-l "f iii;rhi ! 
rij*- ivat«'r^lj«*<3 oi tiTij*'. fi^»iii ^^}n^•lJ th*- -ij-'-Jiiii- 
« »f \4-^ti'nla\. Mini Tn-]ijMni«u. tak** T]i"jr v.ay. 

'»]!•' T<» i)i" laii'3 '*\ «Jarkii'*^^ :t7i«l ■•! <lr*-iiiii'-. " 

rii«- -^Ii^hImw-- had ^tulni a\\av >\ li^i m *' m1m'V«m1 an «*ariv suninmns 

• • • 

t<i pn-pan- t«»r laiidiu::. Tin* li:^lit \va> irrowinL^ a]»a<«-. Th«* >tars bejxinninj*; 
to fade. an*i ah<a<ly inuniin'! \va> jiaintin;: tli«- '-ki«'> with r^si-ate dyi*s, 
and jrildinjx tli«- Kr«'a-t ^f tin- diiii]>linir rivn-. a> wr ran alim^ sid«* the 
landin;Lr >ta;r«' at lj\«r|MM«l, wImti-. at our d«*]»arruiv <»ur vcurrat^**! (*haplain 
breath***! mvi'I- u- lii-- partini: l♦lt•*->in;^^ a lMindi«ti<»n wliirli had re^ti^l 
jM^aeefnllv ii|m.ii u-- all throuirli -'iir jounj<^y : and «t«' lunir tin* t\vr» friends 
st^KKl to^f-tlH-r ill --ili'nt trratitud*-. ir««zini: ii]miii tin* iiiairnitirrnl blossom 
of a r«<I tliuni. tlin»uirh thi* m]»*ii \\ind«»w •»! tip* >a!iH' liillianl nMnn. in 
which, a iiw wa-V^ hi^fore. wcii- horn tin- tiiM thoiiir]|t> i»t tin- trip which 
ha> i«"-iilt*H| ill tlii-- \«»hnn«* of •• Aimriiaii .M«-iiiorit>s/' 

pos/acKJi^r. 291 

CHAPTER XX.-POSTSCRIIT (in Likc of Piiefack). 

C ^'"^ nothing lik(» iiiiitatiou — it is the truest and most 

sincere; form of tiattery. liadies, I am told bv those who 
have the privih^ge of knowing, always write postseri[)ts, therefore I 
write (me. 

There must be, there are, timiNS iu tln^ lives of the most prosaic 
of us, when we deeply regret tin* abscmer of that gift men call 
imagination ; wheu \\'k\ long to turn from tin; mere pursuit of money- 
getting — which too often ends in money-loving, — from tlu* realistic fetters 
of a hum-drum existence, to higher hovels and loftier lieights ; when the 
swing of life's pendulum carries us into an atmospluTe of calmer thought 
— call it romance, [)0(^try, sentiment, call it what you will ; to ex(*hangc» 
even for a brief time, oui* hurrying life for a more peaceful existenc(\ 

There is nothing niore likely to attain this obj(»ct than a pleasant 
ocean voyage, and to travel amid novel serenes, green with the fr<\shness 
of Spring-tinu». Many a tinu^ and oft, during thosi* pleasant days, did 
I board tlu^ train of half listless thoughts, and found myself gliding 
away along that load which crosst»s many rivers, but whose- final t(*rminus 
we never reach. 1 shook hands on that loui:; journey of 11,000 miles 
with ])eople whosi^ hands I had never shaken before, aiul whose hands I 
shall nciver grasp again, and if your travel has attained its purpose, you 
come back w^ith broader and nobler thoughts, and loftier aims in lif(i. 

] felt before writing, that tiie recollec^tions of this, to me, 
memorable trip, were being fast buried 'ntuith thi; sands of time, over 
which the tide of oblivion remorselessly rolls, and little would soon 
remain from out the grave of forgetful ness, but the fi?w ashes of numiory 
with which thcvsi^ pag(\s are sprinkled. They have bcjen written primarily 
for those true friends that poets sing about aiul philosophers tind so 
rare, those Avhose friendship winds up all the way — y(»s, to the very end. 


And aU1i(iii<;li tin- wi-aviuf!: be l»iit poor, the facts dull, tin- fmi 
stu[ii<l, tho fuucy wortlilcss. the patti-rii altofjothor indistinct, and the 
dt-sif^i iiiipcrlW-t ; yet the poor ttcaver ouce mor<' relies upon the fjcnerous 
forltcaram-c of fncnds. for whom alone this warp and woof fi-om the 
loom of iiiciiiorv are intended, assurini; them that however iinperfeet 
the woik. he has done his best. 

i. 4D, Hiidi I*HV(iD(«nt. Nottitiifbanir 





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