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The American 

Mon thly Microscopical Journal 



5- A >^)2ri^/ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 



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THE AMERICAN 



MONTHLY 



Microscopical Journal 



CONTAINING 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO BIOLOGY. 



X)oIume \8, 



FOR 



1(897 



^ownbeb 1880, by H- E^ttcl^cock. p^b^sl^e^ since 1887, by 
(tljas. ID. Smilcy, rOasl^ington, J>. (£., U. S, 2I. 



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,^ 

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A NEW EDITION OF 

^l\L. iA£KTSON St SONS* 

Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, Objectives 
and Accessories. 

Id it will he found fully de9cri1)e<l all the latest improveiuenta and designs 
of the Watson Instruments, also many new kinds ofawessories inolndingthe 
following : 

A SERIES OF NEW PAKACHKOMATIC 

MICROSCOPIC OBJECTIVES. 

These lenses will he found to i)osHess lai-ge apertures, to he of nniform qual- 
ity, and to he as low in price as any Ohjectives in the market. They are 
constructed almost entirely of Jena (ilass. 

The following are 8electe<l from the Series 



POWER. N. A. 


PRICE. 


POWER. 


N. A. 


PRICE 


1-2 inch O.'M 


t{.2M 


2-3 in. 


0.28 


£1.5.0 


1-4 inch O.m 


1.5.0 


l-(> in. 


0.87 


1.10.0 


1-8 inch O.HH 


2.0.0 


1-9 in. 


0.90 


..5.0 


Homogeneous Immersion. 










1-8 inch 1-20 


4.15.0 


1-12 in. 


1.2,> 


5.0.0 



W. WATSON & SONS' 

New "PARACHROMATIC" Substage Condenser. 

This condenser has a total apertare of 1.0 N. A., has an extremely large 
Aplanatic Aperture, exceeding .90 N. A. Its power U 2-7 inch, and with 
the front lens removed, 4.10 inch. It is mounted with Iris Diaphragm and 
revolving carrier for stops lor dark ground and oblique illumination. The 
Iris Diaphragm is divided so us to indicate the N. A. at which the condenser 
is employed. The diameter of the back lens is 5-8 inch. 

PRICE CO.MPLETE 4:8.15. 

APLANTIC MAGNIFIERS. 

In addition to W. Watson «S: Sons' well-known regular series they are 
working Mr. E. M. Nelson's new form, maguitying 15 diameters, which givft* 
great working distance and large a|)erture. It is l)elieve<l to l)e unequalled 
by any similar lens for qualities. 

PRICE — in (iermau silver mount, pocket form 15. H. 
For dissecting, in wooden box 14.0. 

The above catalogue will be mailed post-iVee on application. 
MICROSCOPIC ORIECTS. 

Watson & Sons h(»ld a stock of 40,0(M) specimen.^ all of the highest rlass, 
forming undoubtedly the tinest collection in the world. Pull classitle<l list 
forward post-free on application to 

W. WATSON St SONS 

ESTABLISHED 1837) 
OPTICIANS TO H. M. (JOVERNMENT. 
313 High Holborn, Ix)ndon, W. C. ; and 7H Swanstou Street, Mellmurne, 

Australia. 
Awarded 38 (^old and other medals at International Exhibitions including 
5 Highest Awards at the World's Fair, Chicago, 1H93. 2 Gold Medals, Paris 
Universal Exhibition 1889 &c. &c. 
NOTE — The postage on letters to England is 5 cents, or postal cards 2 cents. 



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THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 

Contents for January, 1897. 

William Cline Borden, M. B., F. R. M. S. (With frontiapiece) 1 

A Simple Means of Comparing the Apertures of Objectives. Rawlings :J 

The Valne of Peroxide of Hydrogen in the Preparation of Entire Insects 

Uanaman 7 

Stndies in the Elements of the Anatomy of the Lower Vertebrates. 

Osborn 10 

Editorial. 

Peroxide of Hydrogen 25 

Microscope Wanted 2r> 

Barbados Earth t>5 

Richard H. Oakley !>.-> 

M icRa*<a)i»icAL Appakati's. 

Attachable Mechanical Stage for Microscopes with PI lin Stages "2(1 

MlCKOHCOPn-AL Manipi'lation. 

To Distinguish Guaiacol from Beech wood Creosote 27 

New Method of Purifying Water 27 

BA('TKRIOI.(KiY. 

The Microbic Character of Acute Catarrhal Otitis Media 2^^ 

M I ( ' R()S( "OP It ^ A L SOC I KTI KS. 

Sheffield Microscopical Society 28 

Liverpool Microscopical Society 29 

Qnekett Microscopical Club 29 

Quekett Microscopical Clnb :iO 

MumoscoPicAL Notes. 

Murder :U 

Distribution of Fungi by Snails and Toads 31 

Honey Bee Secretes Fromic A'.'id .'U 

KKCKNT Pl'RLICATIOXS. 

Mystic Masonry or the Symljols ot Freeuia.-onry t-nd the (ireater 

Mysteries of Antiquity ;J2 



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JUL S .e07 



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DR, W, C, BORDEN, U, S, A, 



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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 

Vol. XVIII. JANUARY, 1897. No. 1 



William Cline Borden, M. D., P. R. M. S. 

CAPTAIN, MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. ARMY. 

WITH FRONTISPIECE. 

Dr. Borden was bom in Watertown, N. Y., May 19, 
1858. His ancestry is American since 1636 when Rich- 
ard Borden, known in the family annals as ''The Emi- 
grant'' emigrated from Borden, Kent County, England, 
and settled at what is now Portsmouth, Rhode Island. 
From there his direct ancestors moved to New Jersey^ 
where the family name is perpetuated in the town of 
Bordentown, and thence to New York. 

His early education was in the public schools, later he 
entered the Hungerford Collegiate Institute at Adams, 
N. Y., and there pursued an elective, academic and 
scientific course. 

In 1879, he began the study of medicine and March 15, 
1883, he received the degree of M. D., graduating from 
the Medical Department of the Columbian University, 
Washington, D. C. A few months later he passed the 
examination required for admission to the Medical 
Department of the United KStates Army and December 3, 
1883, he was given a commission as Assistant Surgeon 
with the rank of First Lieutenant. His first service was 
in the Department of the Platte at Fort Bridger, Wyom- 
ing, then at Fort Douglas, Salt Lake City, Utah. In 1888 
he was transferred to the Department of Texas and pro- 
moted to the rank of Captain. He remained in Texas 
until 1891, serving at San Antonio, Fort Ringgold and 
Fort Davis, when he was ordered to Jackson Barracks, 
New Orleans, Louisiana. While on duty there he was sent 



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2 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

in 1892 for temporary duty with the community of Apache 
Indians held as prisoners at Mount Vernon Barracks, 
Alabama, and for his sanitary work with these Indians 
he was commended in the Annual Report of the Surgeon 
General of the Army for that year. Owing to the high 
death rate of these Indians from tuberculosis, he became 
interested in their vital statistics and published a paper 
in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal entitled 
*'The Vital Statistics of an Apache Indian Community" 
in which their statistics for five years were compiled, 
and which is of interest as probably being the only 
accurate vital statistics of an Indian community ever 
published. 

From New Orleans, Dr. Borden was transferred to 
Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island, and from there to 
his present station, Fort Hnelling, near St. Paul, Min- 
nesota. 

Dr. Borden first began work in Microscopy when at- 
tending his first course of medical lectures. At that 
time a three years graded course of study and practical 
work in histology and pathology were required but in 
few of the medical colleges of the United States of which 
the Columbian University was one, and as he became 
interested in microscopical work, the graded course gave 
him more time to follow his studies in that line than was 
available to the average medical student. After enter- 
ing the Medical Department of the Army he continued 
his microscopical work and soon began work in photo- 
micrography. 

He is the author of a number of monographs on sub- 
jects connected with general and military medicine, 
histology, microscopical technique, photomicrography, 
and photography, and he is a member of the Associations 
of Military Surgeons of the United States, and a Fellow 
of the Royal Microscopical Society of England. 



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1897.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 3 

A Simple Means of Comparing the Apertures of Objectives. 

By R. B. L. RAWLINGS, 
NASHVIi,I<E, TENN. 

While the subject of aperture is of interest to every 
worker who prizes his objectives and wishes to under- 
stand their exact capacity, the high price of the Abbe 
Apertometer leaves the great majority of microscopists 
without a means of determining aperture. 

From numerous tables which have been published com- 
paring the actual aperture of lenses with what is claimed 
for them, it is seen that in many instances the perform- 
ance of the objective cannot be what is claimed for it. 

A search amongst the catalogues at hand of several of 
the leading opticians of the world fails to show an aper- 
tometer of any description listed in any of them, with 
the single exception of the Abbe, listed by Zeiss. 

While the idea of the arrangement in the experiment 
below detailed is suggested from a study of the Abbe 
form of apertometer, it is essentially different in half the 
technique. 

For the benefit of those who are not familiar with the 
instrument and in the hope that I may make the proposed 
modification plainer, it may not be amiss to attempt a 
short explanation of its working, particularly as this is 
not done in the Zeiss catalogue. 

It consists essentially of (a) an auxiliary objective and 
(b) the plate glass semicircular and prismatic disc. 

The objective has a focal distance of about 3 inches, is 
mounted with a society screw and has screwed in the 
upper part of the mounting a cylinder with a small 
diaphram in its upper end. 

This objective is to be screwed into the lower end of 
the draw tube after the objective to be examined has been 
focussed on the disc, care being used not to disturb the 
focal arrangement of the objective in the nose piece. Its 
purpose is for the reading of the indices. The draw tub^ 



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4 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

thus equipped is the auxiliary microscope. 

The disc (b) is of plate glass and is placed on the stage 
of the microscope. It is semicircular, with the semicir- 
cular margin vertical and polished, as are all its surfaces; 
the back edge is ground at an angle of 45^, base of the 
prism upwards. 

The upper surface has two sets of graduations on it, 
the outer circle being for numerical and the inner for 
angular aperture. Corresponding to the centre of the 
circle is the small perforated silvered disc, mounted under 
a cover glass, and through which the image of the indices 
is observed. Over the right-angled margin of the semi- 
circle, slide two L shaped indices so made as to hang on 
the upper edge of the disc and lie against the vertical 
margin. The light horizontally striking the vertical edge 
of the plate glass disc projects the images of the indices 
on the margin in such a manner that they appear to lie 
horizontally along the diameter of the semicircle directly 
under or to the right and left of the objective according 
as they are moved. 

The indices are brought near the centre of the margin 
of the semicircle, and by sliding the draw tube up or 
down within the body tube (care being taken not to alter 
the focus of the objective to be measured which has been 
focussed on the centre of the silvered perforated disc 
previous to attachment of auxiliary objective to draw 
tube) a sharp image is obtained of the indices. They are 
then moved around one on each side, until their points are 
barely visible within the circle of light. The reading is 
then made direct from their inner edges in numerical or 
angular aperture as desired. 

For the experiment herein detailed, a substage conden- 
ser and iris diaphram are necessary accessories, although 
one may proceed in a crude and unsatisfactory way with- 
out the latter. 

The objectives whose apertures are to be compared, are 



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18»7.J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. S 

t^ be examined, beginning with the lowest angled ones 
and proceeding upwards. 

With the tube length corresponding to the correction 
of the objective if it is non-adjustable, focus the objec- 
tive to be examined on the upper surface of the conden^ 
ser. Pressing the body tube against the rack to prevent 
alteration of the focus, unscrew draw tube adapter and 
remove draw tube. Into the lower end of the draw tube 
screw a 3-inch objective. Replace draw tube in proper 
position. This forms the auxiliary, observation or draw 
tube microscope, and is for observing an image at its focal 
distance through the objective under observation as a 
medium admitting divergent rays of light, and not as an 
objective. 

Reduce the aperture in iris diaphram of substage to 
lowest size. Pressing body tul e against rack as before 
to prevent alteration of focus, focus the draw tube by 
sliding it in the main tube sharply on opening in iris 
diaphram. Then open diaphram until only a glimpse of 
its margin can be seen. The diameter of the opening 
thus obtained is in direct ratio to the angular aperture of 
the objective. Leaving the diaphragm as it is, repeat 
the experiment using the next higher objective at hand, 
remembering in every instance to remove the draw tube 
objective and focus the one to be examined on the top 
surface of condenser. In the second instance, after the 
draw tube microscope has been focussed on the diaphram, 
a margin will remain. Increase opening as before until 
only a line of the margin of diaphragm is visible. 

The experiment may be repeated on higher powers un- 
til the angle of aperture of the condenser system is 
reached or approximated. 

While any great alteration in the focal distance of ob- 
jective under observation will cause an appreciable error 
in the comparison, a considerable range is allowable with- 
out perceptible difference. Thus the experiment may be 
much simplified aud yet retain its accuracy by making 



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6 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jen. 

one insertion of the objective in the draw tube answer for 
the examination of all the objectives, without its having 
to be removed for each time. The auxiliary objective is 
put in position, the one to be examined is put in the nose 
piece and its focal distance approximated, which can 
usually be done pretty nearly by one familiar with the 
objective. 

While in these experiments no real figures can be got- 
ten at, it is easily within the power of the maker to 
supply them with high class instruments at a very 
moderate price. All the other tests of an objective are 
within easy reach of the worker, why should not this 
supreme test of its workmanship also be within his reach? 

The principle that the maker can take advantage of is 
this. The position of the knob which regulates the supply 
of light through the diaphragm is of course directly re- 
lative to the size of the opening. 

Fitted over the outer collar of the diaphragm may be 
attached a plate extending forward two inches, being 
rounded to an arc of 80^ — 90°, with a radius which would 
be about 3 inches. In place of the knob used to regulate 
the opening, an index pointer is screwed in place. The 
arc is so graduated as to indicate the aperture of the ob- 
jective when the iris diaphragm has been viewed and ar- 
ranged as above stated. 

While for the ordinary worker the problem of gradu- 
ating this arc might be very difficult, owing to the fact 
that very accurate measurements must be made of the 
diaphragm opening, the refraction of light through two 
kinds of glass with a spherical triangle of air interposing 
the radius of the part of the condenser used, to be deter- 
mined, etc., to the practical optician such calculations are 
easy enough. 

White's Objects.— The Central Board of Kducation, 
Fifth Avenue High School Building, Pittsburg, Pa., has 
just purchased 80 White Objects for use of the depart- 
ment of biology, Ed, Rynearson, teacher, 



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1897.J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 7 

The Value of Peroxide of Hydrogen w the Preparation, of 
Entire Insects. 

By CHARLES E. HANAMAN, 

TROY, N. Y. 

The use of peroxide of hydrogen in microscopical 
technic has, in so far as I am aware, been limited to the 
bleaching of sections which have been blackened by osmic 
acid or stained green by chromic acid hardening agents 
and for the rapid ripening (by oxidation) of haematoxy- 
lin staining fluids. 

The usual method of preparing entire insects has been 
to remove by the use of caustic soda or potash all of the 
soft parts, the resulting preparation consisting only of 
the exoskeleton. Such preparations are useful for the 
study of the sclerites, but it has often seemed to me de- 
sirable to make preparations which would show the rela- 
tion of the muscles and the viscera to tbe sclerites, while 
all the parts remained in situ. Such specimens would be 
especially useful for comparison with sections and dis- 
sections of other specimens of the same insect. 

The dark, and often times opaque, color of the chitin 
composing the exoskeleton has heretofore prevented the 
successful making of preparations of this kind from the 
majority of insects. 

Searching for some method by which the opaque chitin 
might be rendered transparent without injury to the 
contained soft parts, I happened to think of peroxide of 
hydrogen and I believe I have found in it the reagent I 
was seeking for. 

To illustrate its use, and perhaps at the same time to 
aid some beginner to make preparations suitable for the 
study of insect anatomy, I have detailed below the pre- 
paration of a common house-fly; it being the insect upon 
which the discovery of the usefulness, in this connection, 
of the peroxide was made. 

. Permit me to state here, that my microscopial studies 
are subject to frequent and sometimes to long continued 
interruptions from business causes, and that nearly all of 



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8 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

my work is done in the evening, so that the intervals be- 
tween the operations, described below, are often due to 
such interruptions rather than to their being necessarily 
required by the process. I do not think, however, that 
anything would be gained, in the present instance, by 
shortening any of the intervals given below. 

The fly was placed under a bell-glass, together with a 
piece of blotting paper which had been saturated with 
chloroform, and the moment the insect ceased to move, 
it was dropped into a small beaker of boiling water, the 
lamp by which the water was heated, being withdrawn 
the moment the insect entered the water; this was done 
for the purpose of killing and fixing the soft tissues, heat 
being the only successful reagent for this purpose, ex- 
cepting in cases where the chitinous integument can be 
slit up so as to allow the entrance of a liquid fixing 
agent, no fixing agent excepting heat being known which 
will penetrate through chitin with sufficient rapidity to 
fix the enclosed protoplasm before post-mortem changes 
have begun. The moment the fly, which was a female, 
entered the water the proboscis aud the ovipositor were 
fully protruded and extended, and remained so during 
the succeeding manipulations. 

The insect was left in the hot water for about five 
minutes and was thoroughly washed in it. It was then 
placed upon a small piece of glass (about one half of a 
mounting slip) and the legs, wings, etc., were arranged 
so as to afford the best display, another piece of glass of 
the same size and shape as the first was placed over it, 
but prevented from pressing upon the specimen, more 
than just enough to hold it in place, by bits of glass, of 
the proper thickness, being inserted between the ends of 
the two plates; the whole was then bound together by 
means of thread wound around them and dropped into a 
jar of 30 p. c. alcohol which was changed, with intervals 
of twenty-four hours between each change, to 40 p.c. — 
50 p.c. — 70 p.c. — 80 p.c. and 95 p.c. strength. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL J01?BKAL 

After a stay of several days in the alcohol the thread 
was taken off and the fly washed in fresh alcohol, from 
which it was transferred to a slender dish containing 18 
parts of 95 p.c. alcohol and 2 parts of peroxide of hydro- 
gen, from a freshly opened bottle of Marchand's solution. 

At the end of 24 hours, immersion in the solution the 
abdomen of the insect had i^hitened somewhat; after 
another 24 hours the thorax and the head had bleached 
perceptibly and the eyes were seen to be losing their red 
pigment. The specimen was now left for 48 hours 
longer, and at the end of this time, 96 hours from its 
first immersion in the peroxide solution, the whole insert 
was as white as chalk. 

The specimen was then rapidly washed in strong 
alcohol and placed for complete dehydration and stain- 
ing at the same time, in 95 p.c. alcohol to which had been 
added 1-20 p.c. of eosin, this staining agent being the one 
recommended by most authorities for staining through 
ebitin on account of its great power of penetration. 
After remaining for 24 hours in the alcohol-eosin bath it 
was rinsed in fresh alcohol and placed in xylol to clear. 
In an hour's time the whole structure had cleared per- 
fectly and the specimen was mounted in xylol-balsam in 
a xylonite cell, and presented a moat beautiful and in- 
teresting appearance under the microscope. 

The chitin had been rendered almost as transparent as 
glassy the eosin had given it a faint rosy tint. while the 
spine like hairs were more darkly stained; through the 
transparent but very evident exoskeleton were to be 
seen the muscles and their attachments and much of the 
viscera; the abdomen was seen to be filled with eggs, ar- 
ranged in two rows along each side of the median line 
of the dorsum, the embroyos within the eggs were clearly 
visible, the chitinous egg-shells having been rendered 
very transparent, permitting much of tjie detail of the 
protoplasmic structures within to be seen. 



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10 THE AJIEBICAN MONTHLY [Jao. 

Studies in the Elements of the Anatomy of the Lower 

Vertebrates. 

By henry LESLIE OSBORN, 

HAMLINR UNIVKIWITY, 8T. PAUL, MINN. 

PART n. 

THB TAILED AMPHIBIAN. 

Ambiystoma iigrinum^ The Salamander. 
CONTENTS. 
1. External Anatomy. 9. The Uro-Genital System. 

% The Head and Throat. 10. The Mnscnlar System. 

3 The Brain. II. Fine Struct are of Muscle. 

4. The Body-Cavity. 12. The Nervous System. 

5. The Heart. 13. The Axial Skeleton. 

6. System. 14. The Skeleton of the Limhs. 

7. The Alimentary System. 15. The Skull. 

8. The Lungs. 

frhis (liscri[itiod is dr^twu directly from Ambiystoma 
tigrinum, a species that is abundant in the outskirts of 
8aiat Paul, e.specially in the Autumn m'onths during 
damp Weather. It will apply to any of the urodeles welt 
enough for the purposes of a guide; aud can be used for 
'the frog, though witK eonsiderable modifications, especi- 
aily fot 'the skeleton of the body.] 

* 1.. texTKRtfAE ANATOMY. — The characteristic external 
'' fe'aiiires as fbund in the liigher vertebrates are readily 
" eeeii; Viz: a divisiohof the body into head^ neck^ trunk 
^ndi ^ost-abdomen\ the presence of an anterior and a pos- 
terior \\mh. Exarhine these and note in each three prin- 
cipal regions: upper y middle and lower which are similar 
'in all but not precisely the same. Of the front limb the 
lipper region is called the ^r^z^/w^w, the middle the ante- 
brachium^ and the lower the manus which is again divided 
into: thie carpui or wrist BLud the digits. The hind limb in 
a similar manner presents: the t/tigh, the crus and the pes^ 
Which 18 divided into the tarsus, and digits. How do these 
regions compare as to length? What differences do you 
find between the manus and the pes? How do the limbs 
compare with those of the frog? Do you recognize the 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 11 

same regioDs in the limbs of all the vertebratesP Note, 
that the shape of tlu body is that of a fish as to the post- 
aldomeo which is compressed and used in swimming 
when the animal is in the water, while anteriorly the 
head and to a less degree the trunk are flattened from 
above downward, in relation to terrestrial life. Study 
the disUibution of color noting the general naked skin 
black in color, with yellow spots; note that in some cases 
the patterns of the right and left sides seem to abruptly 
stop in the middle dorsal line. In the larger specimens 
there are no traces of median fins but in younger speci- 
mens even though they have attained considerable size 
and are living on land there are sometimes decided in- 
dications of the dorsal fin; and in occasional large speci- 
mens there are decided vestiges of gills. If it is possi- 
ble you should observe the locomotion of the animal: on. 
land by running on the legs with extreme bendings of 
the body in the same lines as in swimming: in the water 
commonly by walking but when excited by swimming, 
in which case the limbs are entirely unused. Compare 
the external form with that of other vertebrates, as 
you did in studying the fish. 

2. Thb Head is divisible into a er/j«/«w, which ; 
hardly appears externally; and \X\^ face^ which both in 
front and on the side and below composes the bulk of the 
head, Note the rounded front and broad flat hinder part 
of the head and the very large gape of the mouth which 
literally opens from ear to ear. Observe and locate the 
two nostrils anteriornares\ cut away the skin behind one 
and find the nose chamber; explore its boundaries, note 
its smooth mucous lining, olfactory mucous membrane; hnA. 
in the outer and hinder angle note the posterior nares; 
pass a bristle through this and note that it emerges in 
the mouth chamber. Examine the eyes, as to location, 
size and shape. Do you find lidst Cut away the surround- 



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12 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

ing tissue? and display the €ye-ball\ recognize the various 
partsaud corajmre ihem with those of the smelt. Cut 
away the skin and muscle ironi the dorsal hinder sur'ace 
of tlie heid. You will thus be able to find the bouy brain^ 
case in the middle and hinder part, and on eilherside be- 
hind a lateral bony extension lodging the car-capsule. 
Pro n tliia the baaas of the upp^r jaw run forward tj meet 
in the middle line in front. 

The lower jaw articulates with the upper near the 
ears. The ^-^rdoes not show externally in the salamander 
but it does in the frog in the form of a rounded piece the 
tympanum. Cut into the ear capsule and yon will find 
some of the parts of the ear, for a detailed description of 
which a more extended woik must be consulted. Open 
the mouth widely and examine its interior. Are there any 
teeth? If so where and of what form and number? 
Note the large and fleshy tongue^ what is its shape and 
mod^ of attachment? The narrow slit back of the tongue 
is the glottis it leads into the wind pipe. Note at the 
back of the mouth chamber the opening of the gullet; as 
in the fish there is no distinct throat: The hinder part of 
the mouth chamber is the equivalent of the throat; and 
in younger specimens its walls are perforated and allow 
water to pass out over gills which at that time are pre- 
sent and used for respiration as in the fish. (In some 
urodeles the gills and fins persist through life e. g., 
Necturus), 

3. Thb Brain. — Cut away the cranial bones dorsally, 
noting that they form a thin layer covering a capsule of 
cartilage which immediately encloses the brain. In re- 
moving the bones to display the brain be very careful 
not to injure the latter. The situation of the brain 
should be first noted in the hinder part of the head; its 
relation to the sense organs should be ascertained and 
the facts recorded. Study the difi*erent principal parts 



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i8»7j MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 13 

,of the brain comparing them with the fish as you progress. 
.TUe medulla oblongata is most jjosterior and is seen to be 
A continuation of the tissae of the spinal cord. On its 
•dorsal side there is a considerable open space. Crossing 
-which and in front of it is a narrow cerebellum. Directly 
in front of these is a rounded mass (apparently single 
but really paired) the optic lobes\ and in front of tliese 
again are two elongate masses the two cerebral hemispheres. 
They are attached behind through thecrnracerehri wiii<:h 
run under the optic lobes to the medulla; there is no 
transverse nervous connection between the two hemis- 
pheres (corpus callosum of the higher vertebrates). In 
recognizing these parts you will probably see some of 
the cranial nerves running from the brain chiefly from 
the medulla to various parts of the head. 

4. The Body Cavity. — Locate the wall of the body 
•cavity. It is limited posteriorly by the cloaca, behind 
the level of the hind legs. Note the regular cross fold- 
ings in the side wall of the body; they are indications of 
the limits of the sets of muscle libres in the wall, and are 
perhaps homologous with the myotomes in the fish. Cut 
the wall of the body cavity open and find the cavity 
within, draw the skin aside and note the pigmented 
peritoneum which lines the space. Follow the cut lorwatd 
and as you reach the level of the front limbs note and dis- 
sect out the two pieces of cartihige which overlap in the 
jnidventral line, they are the coracoid cartilages. Draw 
them aside and pin them out of the way. They will be 
jBtudied latter in connection with the front limb. 

Cut away the coracoid cartilages and continue to open 
jthe body cavity forward to the throat. Follow it back- 
ward toward the cloaca, in doing so you will come to a 
similar ventral arch helping to hold the hind leg in place; 
note that it is bony, dissect off the muscles and skin so 
as to disclose the pair of bones, and cut between them; 



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14 , THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

push them aside and pin down, so as to fully open the 
cavity. Note that there is no diaphragm subdividing the 
body' cavity into thorax and abdomen; note also the 
mesentery f its thin delicate texture, and its continuation 
out onto the body wall where it passes insensibly into the 
peritoneal lining. In dissecting the contents of the body 
cavity do not cut any of the organs away, till after you 
have located and examined the relations of them all; 
merely dissect them apart, and push them aside to see 
underlying ones. After all the points have been noted 
you can then cut out such as are necessary. 

5. The Heart is located in the neck very close be- 
hind the head; it is next the ventral body wall and in 
front of the level of the anterior limbs. In the construc- 
tion of its interior it is also intermediate between the 
dingle circulation ty[)e as in the smelt and the complete 
double circulation of the bird or mammal. Remove the 
pericardium\ this will enable you to see the different parts 
of the heart and some of its large communicating vessels. 
There is in front a pair of aortic arches which lead out 
from a distinct bulbus arteriosus. Posterior to the bulbua 
is the single ventricle^ it lies on the right side and some- 
what ventrally to the auricles. There are two auricles; 
the veins from the body at large empty into the right 
auricle; the blood from the lungs empties into the left 
auricle. If the specimen is in a suitable condition cut 
the chambers open and using a probe carefully trace their 
connections both with each other and with the large 
communicating blood vessels. Both auricles open into the 
single ventricle (but in such a manner as to send the best 
aerated blood to the headland the poorest to the posterior 
parts of the body). 

[6. The Vascular System, — can only be adequately 
dissected upon an injected specimen, but an outlinQ^ 
description is included here for convenience and a good 



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1897J MICEOSCOPICAL JOUKNAL. 15 

many of the vessels can be found. A single pair of 
aortic' arches pass dorsally from the bulb and meet, as 'iik 
the ILsh, to form the dorsal aorta which then rnns dOwii 
the body cavity in itH dorsal wall and beyond into' the 
post abdomen. Partial additional arches can be tracr<l 
(in the frog) which lead out from the bulbas to the head 
carotids and to the luhgs pulmonary arteries^ sub-clavion^ 
pass from the dorsal aorta into the arras; in the trunk 
region there are coeliacy mesenteric e^ud still more ponter- 
iorly r^«^/ arteries; at the level of the hind limbs there 
are iliac arteries going into them from the dorsal aortn; 
there is an artery running in the skin cutaneous^ it ariHe» 
from the subclavian and also from the iliac. Veins from 
the kidneys renal veins coml ine to form a vessel the post- 
caval vein (posterior vena cava) which rnns close below 
the back-bone directly forward and into the hinder side 
of the right auricle. It receives vessels from the livery 
hepatic vein^ but none from the stomach or intestines. 
The blood from the iliac system, and muscles and skin of 
the post-abdomen is collected into a vessel of importance 
in tha amphibia but of minor significance in the higher 
vertebrates, the anterior abdominal vein; it runs in the 
mid-ventral line closely related to the skin there, and 
enters the hinder side of the liver where its capillaries 
anastomose with those from the portal vein. The blood 
from the anterior parts of the body returns to the heart 
through jugular and sub-clavian veins^ which contribute to 
form the pre-caval vein^ entering the right j.uricl^^.: 
Thus all the systemic blood is returned to the right 
auricle. The blood from the lungs, is returned to the 
left auricle by pulmonary vetns.] 

7. The Alimentary Viscera. — The liver is the most 
noticeable organ of the system; it lies in the mid-ventral 
line directly behind the heart, and reaches back more 
than half way down the body cavity. On its posterior 



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16 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

border the £^al/ Madder can be seen. By drawing the 
liver a^ide, the ^^//r/ ean be aeen dorsally to the heart; 
the s/ofMoc/i is a fusiform enlargement in the course of the 
alimentary tube which passes insensibly into the smaU 
intestine. The latter is somewhat longer than the body 
cavity and hence is windiDg in its course; the mesentery 
can be seen clearly on its dorsal side and ported vessels kt% 
recognizable. At the upper end of the small intes- 
tine you can find the bile-duct running into it from the 
j;Hll-bladder; and in the mesentery near by there is a dif- 
fused mass of pancreatic tissue^ whose ducts open into 
the small intestine. The large intertine directly follows 
the small intestine, is not sub-divided into parts but has 
the form of a short rectum passing directly to the 
cloaca,. 

8. The Lungs are a pair of elongate, slender thin- 
walled sacks; blind posteriorly, they come together in 
front and above the heart where they open into a passage 
which leads to \\vq glottis already noted in the hinder part 
of the mouth chamber just behind the tongue. In the 
higher vertebrates this air tube (tracliaed) is lined with 
cartilage, but it does not appear to be so in the sala- 
mander. The passage can be demonstrated by passing 
a guarded bristle down through the glottis. The lungs 
should be cut open to show that the interior is a very 
simple sack with ohly a beginning of that elaborate sub- 
division into spaces found in the mammal. The walls 
are reddish, this indicates the presence of blood vessels 
in contrast with the colorless wall of the swim bladder 
of the smelt; but to prove that the wall is vascular mount 
a thin film of it and examine with the corapohnd micro- 
scope. Do you find any blood corpuscles there? 

[This and the reptilian lung are simple conditions of the 
lung of which the bird and mammal lung are very highly 
s >ectalized conditions. The circulation and resf>iratioQ 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. IT 

^f the adult Amphibian are decidedly diflferent from thai 
of the yoQug: iu the latter the blood is pumped through 
gill* and thence directly to the l>ody, a»in the fish so that 
the circulation in a "»inele circnlalion," with the loss of 
the gilU after the maturity has been reached the double 
4»rcuIatton, and respiration as here described, are estab- 
lished. In reptiles, birds and mammals the same is true 
of the circulation but in their cases the single circulation 
is confined to stages that precede free and independent 
life, i. e., are purely embryonic. (In some amphibia e.g. 
Ncciurus respiration is both pulmonary and branchial 
throughout life.] 

9. The Uro-Genital System. — Cut off and remove 
the various viscera already examined (after making 
drawings necessary to record the facts) taking care not 
to damage the remaining organs in the body cavity. The 
reproductive organs vary considerably with sex and sea- 
Ben. In the breeding season the ovaries are filled with 
black <g-^j which are greatly in the way in dissecting, 
and the oviduct i.s much enlarged by the formation of the 
large amounts of albuminous matter in which the eggS 
are <*laid.'* These latter will not of course be confused 
with the alimentary tube by a careful dissector. The 
paired kidneys are divided into two parts: a hinder por- 
tion of more compact texture meta-nephros, lying near to 
the cloaca and next the dorsal body wall; and in front of 
this a long mesonephric part which runs forward on either 
Bi<le and reaches the anterior level of the body cavity, 
felose to the dorsal l»ody wall. There \^^ urinary bladder) 
It irt thiri-walled,and located below the rectum between 
it and the body wall, in the most posterior part of the 
body cavity. Its size varies greatly in different speci- 
mens. Ducts (ureters) from the kidneys lead into it and 
there is a passage urethra leading from it to the cloaca. 

The ureters yvi^B down on the outer side of each meso- 



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18 THE AMEEICAN MONTHLY [Jbd. 

and meta-nephros; in some cases they are very conspicu'^ 
ous; they unite below the meta-nei>hros to form a single 
pHssage which leads into the bladder on each side. la 
the liigher vertebrates the kidney is a compact organ and 
the ducts coming from its various parts all unite to form 
the single ureter before they leave the boundary of the 
organ. 

The spermary in male specimens is a compact organ OD 
the level of the meso-neidiros; its ducts pass into the 
ducts from the meso-nephros and thus reach the exterior 
through the ureter*; in the female there is a duct ovi duct 
which lies besitle the ureter, and is separate from it^thia 
runs way forward to the neck where it opens by a broad 
funnel shaped orifice directly into the body cavity; near 
this opening of the ovi-duct lies a large gbindular organ 
the ovary^ the ova when they escape from the ovary find 
their way inio the oviduct at its open end and then collect 
there to produce the appearance described in the begin- 
ning of this -paragraph. They Anally escape through 
the cloaca into which the ovi-duct ultimately opens. 

10. The Muscular System. — The skin should be re- 
moved from the body and at least one of the limbs to de- 
termine the following points; the muscle libres will show 
much more distinctly after preservation in alcohol or 
after boiling. The system as a whole includes: the 
muscles connected with the viscera involuntary muscles i 
and the muscles attaching to the skelton and used in 
changing the form and position of the body, skeletal mu9^ 
cles. Of these latter we may distinguish those of the 
kead, and those of the (rest of the) 6ody. It is to the lat- 
ter that the present study is mainly confined. Two 
kinds are reconizable : those of the spine used in pro* 
ducing the bendings of the back-bone, spinal muscles; and 

^Besides the spermary there it generany in the males a oncan on eadk 
side resembling is bat composed mainly of fat called thecorpns adiposom. 



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1897] MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 19 

the /imb muscles. The spinal muscles are plainly homo* 
logons with those of the teleost; for they are similarly 
located. In the post- abdomen they make up the bulk of 
the flesh and are closely related to neural and haemal 
spines ; and in the trunk they are related to neural spines 
dorsally while veutrally they compose a large portion of 
the wall of the body cavity. They are also segmented, 
each myotome being made up of short fibres parallel in 
their arrangement and corresponding precisely with the 
number of the vertebrae. The limb muscles are rela- 
tively insignificant in the salamander whose limbs are 
small, though really much used, but they are homologous 
with the very important limb muscular system as it 
exists in its highly elaborate state in the mammals. The 
exact identification of the musclosof the limb will hardly 
be possible in this course, but a number of points can le 
made out. The muscles are seen to consist of a muscr- 
lar central portion the belly, and at the end a tendon 
which in some cases is quite long. 

The muscles have two points of attachment, one the 
origin nearer the back-bone; a distal one the insertion farr 
ther from the spine. The shortening of the muscle 
causes it to pull on its tendon and thus to move the 
bones on their joints. The muscles are placed on oppo- 
site S'ides of the limb so that some bend ox flex it, while 
others antagonize these and extend \t again. 

11. Fine Structure of Striated Muscle. — Cut out 
one of the small muscles of the limb, place it on a slide, 
surround it with glycerine, tease it carefully into ita 
component fibres, taking care not to twist them; after 
spreading the muscle out as well as possible, cover and 
examine with a low power. You can now recognize more 
clearly that the organ is made up of parallel short pieces, 
imbedded in a network of minute fibres of white fibrous 
connective tissue^ trace these latter toward the tendon e^n^ 



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20 THE AMEBICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

-note that they aloDe composie it, the muscle fibres dis- 
appearing at the end. Examine single fibres with % 
high power, and recognize, that they are composed of 
at ill smaller y^rr/Za^ which run lengthwise in the fibre; 
that there is a sheath enclosing the fibre, sarcolemma\ that 
the fibrillae are marked with lines crossing them at equal 
.distances, and that this gives to the fibre a cross-mark- 
ing, j/r/^it^//. Directly beneath the snrcolemma there are 
'elongate granular cell-nuclei^ these may not be easily rec- 
ognized in the glycerine preparation unstained. If so 
atain a second preparation before the application of gly- 
cerine with borax carmine, decolorize wiih acidulated 
alcohol and examine small fibres for nuclei, note their 
exact size and position with reference to the fibre. 

12. Thb Nervous System. — In dissecting the dorsal 
wall of the body cavity next the spinal column you have 
probably noted white threads running in the lines be- 
tween the myotomes outward from the spine, these are 
the spinal nerves, A pair can be seen at the interval be- 
tween each two vertebrae through the entire length of 
lhetrunk» and they are also present in the i»ost-al»domea 
In the same way, thout^h not there so easily trace«l; there is 
thus a metamerism in the nervous system. The spinal 
nerves are of approximately the same diameter through- 
out the series excelling at the levels of the front and 
bind limbs, where several of them are considerably 
larger than the rest, this is because they are com- 
posed of the additional fibers that go to the muscles and 
skin of the limbs. How many of these nerves to the 
limbs do you recognize ? In the head there is a seiiesof 
cranial nerves which relate the partsof the head with tliQ 
brain; as in the fish, the spinal canal lodges the spinal 
^n/ which can be seen by removing the neural arches. 
There is a sympathetic system but its dissection is very dif- 
ficult. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 21 

13. The Axial Skeleton. — After setting aside the 
linil>9, clean the back-bone in a specimen which has been 
boiled to soften the mu^icular tissue, removing all the 
flesih by picking it awuy or with a brush. Take care not 
to dislocate the bones and especially not to loosen the 
▼ery rudimentary ribs in the trunk region. 

Note the series of vertebra running from the head to 
the tip of the tail. They are less similar in different 
parts of the column than in the fish; being differentiated 
iuto regions to some extent though less markedly than in 
the birds and mammals. In the neck cervical region, an 
atlas articulating with the nkull and an axisn^yAj behind 
the atlas are present. Behind these come the vertebrsB 
of the trunks which correspond with the dorsal 2lu^ lumbar 
series of mammals; a single sacral vertebra follows and 
to it the pelvic girdle is attached ; this in turn is fol- 
lowed by tie caudal series. Count the number in each 
of the regions and compare with other individuals to de- 
terinioe the degree of constancy of the number. 

Any of the trunk vertebras can be examined as a rep- 
resentative case. It presents a centrum^ a neural archy 
bearing a spine and the zygapophyses\ a bi-furcated trans- 
verse process is carried by the centrum on each side; to 
which the rib when present is articulated. Tran verse pro- 
cesses are wanting in the atlas and axis\ and the neural 
apiue is unlike that of the rest of the series; the axis 
bears a prominence in front of its centrum, the odontoid 
process. The sacrum is like the others but has much en- 
larged tranverse processes. The caudal series is much 
compressed; there is a series oi chevron bones ^ the h»mal 
spines; and the accessory parts gradually fade out and dis- 
appear posteriorly till nothing but the centrum is left. 
Rids are present articulating with vertebrsB in the neck 
as well as in the dorsal and lumber regions, so that the 
differentiation as in the mammals is not found here; the 
ribs are rudimentary and do not run out onto the body 



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22 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

wa)I to any considerable distance. Compare this skeleton 
if possible with that of a dog, cat or any other mammal. 

14. The Skeleton of Limbs. — Remove the skin and 
muscular tissue so as to display the bones of the limb 
and note the position size and shapes of the bones as fol- 
lows. The front limb is not directly artiqalated to the 
body but at the shoulder joint to a plate of bones and car- 
tilage forming the shoulder girdle^ this consists of two 
portions: one is dorsal, the scapula\\i consists of a small 
elongate bone dorsal to which is a cartilaginous plate 
the suprascapular the other on the ventral side is a large 
plate of cartilage which meets and overlaps its mate of 
the opposite side, cor acoid cartilages. These each present 
a broader hinder caracoid proper and a smaller anterior 
pre-coracoid. In the hinder angle between the two cora- 
cbids a small sternal cartilage is found. These elements 
of i\\^ shoulder girdle m^Qi and form a cup-shaped.^/^/z(7/V/ 
cavity into which the bone of the upper arm is articu- 
lated. There is a single bone the humerus in the upper 
arm. In the middle-arm there are two bones, one the 
radius on the inside, the other the ulna on the outside of 
the arm. There are four digits in the hand which cor- 
respond with the outer four in the human, exaniiije them 
and locate and count the small bones phalanges olL^yv\\\{i\\ 
they are composed. Carefully dissect the wrist .region 
aiid find the small carpal bones ^ determine that there are 
two rows: one distal row at the bases of the digits ; and 
a /r^;rtwtf/ roa/, articulating with the end of the radius 
and ulna. As the bones of the carpus are similar in all 
the vertebrates their nomenclature is given here." Three 
are recognized in the proximal row, viz: ulnare^ intertned- 
turn and radiate \ four in the distal row viz : carpalia 2, 3, 
4 and 5 articulating with the digits 2, 3, 4, and 5 (the 
first being abortive). One more in the centre of the car- 
pus the r^»^ra/^ complete the list. 



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1897J MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 23 

Dissecting in the same way the hind limb, determine 
its varioas bones. There is a pe/vic gird/e attaching the 
limb to the body ; this is directly articulated with the 
Bpinai column, the point of attachment being on the sides 
of the sacrum. There is a cavity acetabulum into 
which the upper limb bone of the leg fastens, formed by 
three bones passing : one dorsally the i/tum: a second 
ventrally and in front, the pubis \ and a third ventrally 
and behind the ischium ; all three meet in the acetabulum. 
The two ventral bones meet in the mid- ventral line and 
compose an argh, the pubic arch, between which and the 
back-bone the rectum and the uro-genital organs pass to 
reach the cloaca. 

The jt/;m^r is the single bone of the upper limb MgA, In 
the crus there are two boae^, lidia B,i^i.fibula\ they are of 
the same size; the outer is the fibula; there B^v^five digits, 
locate and count their bones; examine the tarsus, it has 
the same composition as the carpus^i. e. a proximal row^ 
iibiale^ intermedium VLndi fibular e^4^iitvQ.\pi2iXidL distal tarsalia 
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

15. The Bones op the SKULL.-Theskullof thesalaman- 
deris somewhat small fot study of the bones and that of 
a large frog is much the sartie aud should be used in its 
stead if obtainable. The brain case is enclosed below 
by ceLTtWagey 8pAen-et/imbid, which in the higlier verte- 
brate*^ ossifies in two parts : the phenoid bone behind 
and the ethmoid bone in front. Dorsally, the brain is 
oovered by the frontal bones in front and thft parietal 
bones behind. Below the sphen-ethmoid cartilage is a 
dagger shaped para-sphenoid bone (not found where the 
sphenoid and ethmoid are ossified). At the hinder end 
of the brain-case the nervous tissue emerges through an 
opening i\\e foramen-magnum \ this is the occipital region 
of the skull but remains cartilaginous in amphibia except 
where it articulates with the spinal column, here bones 



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24 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

the exoccipiials are developed. Bones reach aut front 
the braiu-ease and support theditferent partn of the face, 
posteriorly are the auditory capsules Hurrounding the ears* 
when bones are developed in this cartilage ihey are- 
called otic bones and in the frog pro-otks are formed on 
the anterior side of the cartilage. A mass of cartilage 
quadrate cartilage reaches from the occi])ita] region side- 
ways as far as the angle of the jaw. A bone the pterygoid 
ossifies in connection with this. It reaches forward and 
helps to form the upper jaw. It also rests against the 
sphen -ethmoid cartilage. 

Another bone related to the hinder part of the skull is 
the quadratO'jugaly this forms the hinder outer angle of 
the head, and the glenoid cavity^ where the lower jaw 
articulates, is located in it. The arch running forward 
from the quadrate forming the hinder part of the upper 
jaw is called the zygomatic an h the space between it and 
the brain case is the orbito- temporal fossa^ and lodges the 
eye^ in front and the temporal muscles (used in closing the 
lower jaw) behind. Continuing on the line of the upper 
jaw, you will find next in front of the zygomatic arcb 
a slender portion of the maxillary bone. This bone presents 
two other portions; one on the roof of the skull and be- 
hind the nostril, the facial portion: and a second part 
which runs in and forms a part of the roof of the mouth 
chamber, in front, the palatine portion. The middle of 
the upper jaw is formed by the pre-maxillarieSy which 
also form the lower border of the nostril. The nasal 
bones^ run from the premaxillaries to the frontals in the 
middle line of the roof of the skull, and are located pos- 
terior to the nostrils. Small bones, ih^ pre-frontals com - 
plete the closure of the nostril. In the roof of the mouth 
there are in front two large flat bones, vomers and crossing^ 
the capito-temporal fossa. Between the vomer and the-, 
maxillary are the palatines.. The lower j^,w is^^Qojn posed 
of cartilage in early stages but in adults a number of dif- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 25 

ferent bones are formed in the membranes which invest 
this original Meckel's cartilage^ often however leaving 
some remnant of the cartilage even to the very end of 
life. Of these the dentary is the central one bearing 
teeth, the angulare the one bearing the articular face and 
meeting the quadrate. 



EDITOKUL. 



Peroxide of Hydrogen. — We are very glad to call atten- 
tion to the article of Mr. C. E. Hanaman on pages 7, 8 and 
9 describing his experiments and the use made of the 
peroxide. We trust that others will report upon the use 
of this antiseptic. In his letter transmitting the article 
Mr. Hanaman writes: ^'Altogether the specimen is one 
over which many hours of profitable study may be spent, 
and I trust that this article may induce others to experi- 
ment in the same direction, and if possible improve upon 
the process. I do not think the bleaching process can be 
very much improved but there is ample field for experi- 
ment in the direction of fixing fluids with penetrating 
power sufficient to pass quickly through chitin and of selec- 
tive staining agents with the same powers. 

Microscope Wanted. — One of our subscribers (W. C. 
P.), wishes to buy an instrument, — student's Van Heurch 
preferred. Send offers marked "No. 1290" to us for his 
consideration. 

Barbados Earth. — We have a small quantity left of the 
supply of Barbados earth so kindly given to us, for dis- 
tribution, by Mr. Bryce Scott of New Brunswick. Send 
stamped envelope. 

Richard H. Oakley, 2227 Wilson avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 
has slides of Sycamore, double stained which he wishes to 
exchange for slides of diatoms, ferns or mollusca odon- 
tophora. 



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26 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

KICBOSCOPICAL APPARATUS. 



Attachable Mechanical Stage for Microscopes With 
Plain Stages.— This Stage consists of a suitable base-plate 
provided with thumb-screws fitting- into the clip-holes and 
fastened from below. Upon the base-plate are two sliding* 






< 

X 



pieces mounted at rig-ht ang^les to one another and moved 
in rig-ht lines by two milled heads. The perpendicular 
movements are controlled by rack and pinion, and extend 
an inch and a quarter. The horiz(mtal movements extend 
full two inches and are controlled by a micrometer screw. 
These sliding- pieces pass along suitable scales whereby 



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1 897] MICROSCOPICAL' JOURNAL. 27 

any particular position may be recorded and found again 
easily. The object* is in a simple carrier close to the sur- 
face of the stag:e. The mechanical stag^e can be fitted to 
any stag^e vf the location of the clip-holes and center of the 
stag-e is known. It is sold by Zentmayer for $16.00. 

KICBOSCOPICAL MANIPULATION. 



To Distinguish Guaiacol from Beechwood Creosote. — 

Mr. Vreven utilizes the following method for distinguish- 
ing beechwood creosote from liquid guaiacol: He places a 
few drops of the substance under examination in a test 
tube and adds 2 or 3 drops of ether and I or 2 drops of con- 
centrated nitric acid or of concentrated hydrochloric acid 
and agitates the mixture. There is first of all a reddish 
brown coloration produced in the ethereal layer. After 
spontaneous evaporation of the ether there remain oily 
drops if the substance on examination is creosote, or if it 
is liquid guaiacol the residue is in the form of crystals. 
Sometimes crystals are not produced even if the substance 
examined is liquid guaiacol unless the residue is agitated, 
but upon agitation the crystals appear immediately. Under 
the same conditions carbolic acid also yields crystals, but 
their form does not at all resemble the form of crystals 
produced by guaiacol, the crystals of the latter consisting 
of needles aggregated in the form of stars which are very 
easily distinguished under the microscope. — American 
Druggist. 

New Method of Purifying Water. — The French Acad- 
emy of Sciences appears to indorse the new method of 
purifying water by calcium permanganate and manganese 
dioxide. According to this method, the calcium perman- 
ganate coming in contact with organic matter and micro- 
organisms, destroys them and decomposes itself into oxy- 
gen, manganese oxide and lime Then, to carry off the 
surplus of permanganate and complete the purification, 
the water is poured over managanese dioxide; oxygen in 
the nascent state is thus freed and it burns up any remain- 



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28 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

ing" g-erms. There remain in the apparatus, then, inferior 
oxidesof manganese, which hasten to re-oxidize themselves 
and furnish again a certain quantity of mang-anese dioxide; 
the water as thus finally purified contains a little lime in 
the form of bicarbonate and traces of oxyg^enated water. 
A very small quantity of calcium permang^anate is used in 
this process, and, if practicable on a larg^e scale, is of great 
importance. Water having 100,000 colonies of microbes 
can thus be purified, it is stated, and ice placed in water 
with calcium permanganate is also quickly sterilized. — 
American Druggist. 

BACTEBIOLOGT. 

The Microbic Character of Acute Catarrhal Otitis Media. 
— Lannois concludes from his observations that: 1. The 
normal middle ear in animals acts like an aseptic cavity 
and contains no micro-organisms. 2. The liquid of catarr- 
hal otitis media does or does not contain microbes, accord- 
ing to the period at which it is examined after the begin- 
ning. 3. The disappearance of the microbes is sometimes 
probably due to the bactericidal power of the mucous mem- 
brane and the mucus. 4. The bactericidal action explains 
why the secretion rarely becomes purulent, even after 
paracentesis and repeated catheterization. 



KICROSCOPICAL 80GIETIE8. 



Sheffield Microscopical Society. 
Friday, December 18th, Mr. G. T. W. Newsholme, 
Honorary Secretary, in the chair. -The President, Mr. A. 
H. Allen, lectured on *'The Philosophy of the Microscope." 
He explained that he had chosen that subject because some 
people were at sea as to the optical principles involved in 
the use of the microscope. He reminded the gathering 
that we do not see light in the ordinary sense, but perceive 
it when it falls on something capable of reflecting it, and so 
reaches the eye. Another principle to which he called at- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 29 

tention, is that an object always appears to be in that direc- 
tion in which the rays of lig^ht last reach the eye. It was, 
Mr. Allen said, a higfhly important principle, which was 
sometimes not so thoroug^hly borne in mind as it should be. 
Mr. Allen then described the laws of optics utilised in the 
construction of the microscope, illustrating his observa- 
tions by numerous demonstrations carried out by means 
of a beam of lig-ht. He also explained the magnifying- 
power of different object glasses and eye-pieces, and dealt 
in a chatty but interesting and instructive way with other 
details connected with the optical construction of the mi- 
croscope. 

Lrivcrpool Microscopial Society. 

'*The Microscopic Study of Cotton and other Fibres," 
was the subject which Mr. F. H. Tate, F.C.S., discussed 
before the members of the Society recently. The paper 
dealt principally with cotton, and described the structure, 
mode of growth and development of the fibres. The dif- 
ferent structures of the plant were exhibited by hintern 
illustrations and their several characteristics were ex- 
plained. Micro-photography was relied upon to reveal the 
difference between healthy and diseased fibres. The 
fibres of other materials, as wool, silk, flax, etc., were simi- 
larly described and exhibited. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. 
The 346th ordinary meeting of this club was held on 
Friday, Nov. 20th, at 20, Hanover-square, Mr. J. G. Wal- 
ler, president, in the chair. Mr. T. Rosseter, F.R.M.S., 
read a paper on a new Cysticercus and Teenia. The for- 
mer infests the entomostracan, Cypris fusca, and the ma- 
ture tapeworm develops in the common duck. Mr. Ros- 
seter gave a most interesting account of his experiments 
in feeding the birds with the entomostraca, his frequent 
failures, and final success. The paper was illustnited by 
drawings of the various stages and details of structure, as 
well as by diagrams on the board. In moving a vote of 
thanks, the president remarked that Mr. Rosseter ap- 
peared to be the sole investigator of these parasites, so far 



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30 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

as birds were concerned^ in this country; it was a wide 
field for those possessing- the opportunity of study, and no 
doubt a g-reat deal remained to be discovered. The vote 
was carried with applause. Mr. C. D. Soar exhibited a 
series of 41 beautiful drawing^s of Hydrachnidae collected 
at the club's excursions during^ the past season, and gave 
a commentary on the life-history of the water mites in 
g-eneral. Man}' of these mites are most g^eorg^eously 
colored and marked, and the series was much admired. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. 
The 347th ordinary meetings of this club was held on Fri- 
day, December 18, at 20, Hanover-square, Mr. J. G. Waller, 
F.S.A., President, in the chair. After the usual formal 
business, Messrs. Swift exhibited a double perforated 
stop for affixing- cracker g-elatine in experiments wnth 
color-ground illumination, to fit the diaphragm carrier of 
the Abbe or other similar condenser. Mr. W. Stokes 
read a paper *'On Multiple Images in Mirrors," illustrated 
by diagrams. For the removal of these images Mr. Stokes 
advocated that microscope mirrors should be ground about 
1° from parallelism when, on rotating the mirror in its cell, 
the images from the reflecting surfaces would superim- 
pose in a certain position, and so merge into one. A paper 
'*On a New Form of Sub-Stage Color Illuminator," by Mr. 
J. Rheinberg, was read for the author by Dr. Measures. 
It was shown that the color contrasts obtainable wnth this 
instrument were practically unlimited. A discussion fol- 
lowed. Mr. Nelson read a '*Note on Some New Lenses," 
pointing out the fallacy of the term ''aplanatic" as applied 
to the ordinary triplet magnifiers. Votes of thanks were 
given for these several communications, and the proceed- 
ings terminated. 

It is stated that Mr. C. R. Bishop has authorised the 
the trustees of the Bishop Museum to expend 750,000 dol- 
lars in building an aquarium and marine biological station 
at Honolulu for the study of marine life in the Pacific. 
Prof. W. T. Brigham is prepared to complete the plans. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 31 

MICROSCOPK AL NOTES. 



Murder. — At a small town near Pittsburg*, Alex. Killen 
was charg-ed with robbing- and murdering a woman who 
had owned a jewelry store. The culprit had broken a 
window and scraped the jewelry into a yellow satchel. In 
the haste s^)me glass was included. 

After Killen's arrest, such a satchel was found on his 
premises and some small pieces of glass found in it. At 
the trial, the District Attorney laid them on a sheet of 
paper and passed them to the jury. This was not satis- 
factory — a powerful microscope was brought in and each 
juror examined the bits of glass. A glass w^orker on the 
jury was satisfied that the bits were from window glass 
and not from a bottle which Killen said had been broken 
in the satchel. The other jurors accepted his suggestions 
and convicted Killen of Murder in the first degree — cir- 
cumstantial evidence adduced by the use of a microscope. 

Distribution of Fungi by Snails and Toads. — Voglino 
communicates a suggestive paper to the Nuovo Giornah Bot. 
Ital. (1895, 181), in which he demonstrates that certain 
fungi (Agariciniae) are distributed by snails and toads. 
An examinati(m of the stomachs of the snails and toads, 
presence of the spores of various species of fungi which 
were seen to have begun their germination, and culture 
experiments with the excrements of various snails pro- 
duced a large number of germinating spores of fungi. 
The same was observed on examining the stomachs of 
toads, in which the spores of Russula and Lactarius were 
specially abundant. 

Honey Bee Secretes Fromic Acid. — A fact which is in- 
teresting and perhaps new to many, is that the honey-bee 
after filling a cell with honey and covering it with the lid, 
adds to the honey a drop of formic acid. This is done by 
piercing the lid with the sting and depositing a drop of the 
poison from her sack. By numerous experiments it has 
been shown that formic acid added to honey or any sugar 



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32 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jan. 

solution prevents fermentation. Evidently the sting of 
the bee has a use besides that of defence. 

The Management of the Journal of Nervous and Mental 
Diseases announces the following arrangement of the staff 
for 1897: Dr. Chas. L. Dana, Dr. F. X. Dercum, Dr. Philip 
Coombs Knapp, Dr. Chas. K. Mills, Dr. Jas. J. Putnam, 
Dr. B. Sachs, Dr. M. Allen Starr, as editors. Dr. Philip 
Meirowitz, Dr. Wm. G. Spiller, as Associated Editors. Dr. 
Chas. Henry Brown, 25 West 45th St, New York, is Man- 
aging Editor. 

Dr. George M. Sternberg, Surgeon General of the 
United States Army, has received the honorary degree of 
LL. D. from Brown University. 

Dr. W. E. Castle has been appointed instructor in biology 
in Knox College, Galesbury, III. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 



Mystic Masonry, or the Symbols of Freemasonry and 
the Greater Mysteries of Antiquity. — By J. D. Buck, M. 
D., Cincinnati: Robert Clarke Co. 265 pp. xiv pl. 12mo 
$1.50. 

This little book is a compendium of occult knowledge. 
The world at large will not comprehend it. Most people 
will not wish to do so. It will fall only into the hands of 
those who are somewhat curious regarding that which 
underlies and is greater than all religions and all fraterni- 
ties. I am not a freemason but if tomorrow I had to part 
for life with two of the followingthree books: Shakespeare, 
The Bible, Buck's Mystic Masonry— I would keep the lat- 
ter and let go the other two in spite of the mystic meaning 
which I now know to be concealed in the two former books. 
My reason is that I can remember much that i& in the 
Bible, and not a little of Shakespeare but this book is new 
to me and contains th« keys to all knowledge. I risk this 
assertion although I know that the declaration itself will 
mystify nearly all who read it. — C. W. S. 



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MICROSCOPES DUTY FREE. 

Colleges and Educational Institutions in the U. S. are entitled to im- 
port microscopes and Scientific Instruments, duty free, and can there- 
fore have such goods shipped to them at London prices, by ordering 
direct from us. 

Dr. Henri Van Heurck's 
Microscope 

FOR HIGH POWER WORK AND 
PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY 

As made by W. Watson and Sons to the 
Specification of Dr. Henri Van Heurck 
of Antwerp and used by leading Photo- 
micrographersin theU. S., and through- 
out the world. 

Fitted with fine adjustment of utmost sendtiTeiiees 
and precision, Dot liuble to derangemout bv wear. 

Haj» rackwork Draw'tube to correct Otjectives for 
thicknesd of cover gla^d. 

Can be need with either Continental or English 
Objectives, the body length being variable ftom l^ 
to S()0 mlllimetors. 

Has the fine adjustment to sub-stage. 

The injstrument is specially dc'signed to afford the 
greatest possible cuuvenieuoe for maaipulatlon. 

Pbicxs: — As fipured, with om? eye- piece, (but with- 
out centering screws or divisions to bi^Ke) $92 50 
Also made with Continental form of foot 90 00 

Watson & Sons' Edinburgh Student's Microscope. 

This well known and popular Instrument 
can DOW be hnd mounted on either the Tri- 
pod or Continental horse-shoe form of foot. 
It is suitable for investij^ations with the high- 
est powers. The quality of workmanship is 
the finest possible. It is unexcelled for sta- 
bility and precision of working parts. Made 
in four forms as enumerated below. 

Full description of the above instruments, 
and illust fated catalogue of microscopes and 
apparatus ; also^ classified list of 40,000 ob-w 
jects forwarded post free on application. 

STAND v.. — Microscopo Stand, havip« coarse adjustment 
by slidiDff lH>dy in porlVct tiltiu»r tube. Fine adjust- 
ment of our improved foim, which works without 
theloast lateral motion, undcrKtajre fitting hung on a 
pivot so that it can be lifted nsido with apparatus in 
it when direct light from l)ie mirror i» required; 
double mirror, diaw-tubo divilod to centimetres, 
_ milled head of Fine Adjustment gruovod for Photo- 
graphy, fitted with one eye-piece only $21.25 

Tb« AboTe iDStmment fitted with two Eye-pieces, Abbe Model lUuunnpi' r, with bet of Stops 

highest quality 1 Id.. 25®, and 1-16 in. Objective", complete in ^lahouany rtu.e ^.50 

8TAMD F.— ^acUy similar to " E," but with best quality npiral rac k and pinion coarbe adjust- 
ment, fitted with one Eye-plec« only t^'^ 

Complete with Objectives, Ac., in cane, as above 549.50 

STAND '* G."— Exactly similar to " F," but hsTinir btv,t comiK-und hu■.>^u^l:^^ w ith rackwork to 

focn* and screws to centre, as figured in " H " rtand. With on* K,\ .-] l <o only $35 00 

Goinplete with Objectives, Ac., in case, as above $60.00 

STAlID ** H."— The most complete of the serie«». Similnr u> " U," lut having large, thin, and 

▼ety riflfid mechanical stage, as figured. With >»iio Fy« -piece <aA\ $47.50 

Complete with Objectives, case as above, and Abbe MorVl Illmnii.f.r. r. havi.jg Iris diaphragm 

and set of stops for dark ground and oblique illumination, complete $75.00 

fr. 'WATSON & SONS, 313 High HolbomW. 0.. London, England anl Ta Swan«ton St., Mel- 
- bourne, Aurtralia, E^tablbhed, 1837. 




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WANT, SALE AND EXCHANGE NOTiCES. 



FOR SALK. —First rl:i<;s hJotanical monnts, 25 cents. Send for list ; also 
will exchaiijre. I. PERCY BLACKMAN, Sandy Hook, Conn. 

FORSALE.— Tolles 1-10 objective, 1.42 N A , one of his latest and best. 
Also 1-1'2 I*owell & Lelaud apochromatic objective, 1.40 N. A, new. 

C. E. HLAKE & CO., Adams Express Bldg., Chicago, III. 
READ tlio uice stories in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. Yoa can save 
50 cents, (club rate) by subscribing for Lippincott through us. 

MICROSCOPICAL PUB. CO. 
hX)R SALE.—Nicely mounted slides of Rhinoceros horn, at 40 cents each. 

H. H. DAVISON, 41 Sumner St., Pautncket, R I. 
FOR SALE — Pritehard's Infusoria (latest etiition, colored plates) and 
Smith's British Diatomacene (2 vols., uncut). Phese works are very scarce 
and can ouly l>e got, as in this case, when a miorotomist finishes using them. 
Pi iie JtSGO. So Si^^ , Care C. W. SMILEY, 

FOR P^XCHANCK. — Tlie Museum of Hamline Univei-sity desires to ex- 
<bange Atlantic SlielU, ]»re.^evv<'(l sj)ecimf»ns of Marine Zoology of microscopic 
slip slides for zoological specimens especially Rodents in the flesh from 
Southwestern Tnited States. Corresj»oinien<e. solicited. 

HKXKV L. OSBORN. Haiiiline Univ., St. Paul, Minnesota. 
AKRX.XCED DLVTOMS;. I furnish t lie mcut artistitic arrangements of 
diatoms in slides at $5.00 each. Vour name can be made from different 
species. Roosters, hen and chickens, and l>ouquets of flowers in batterflj 
scales and diatoms from $5.00. Refer to the Editor of this Journal. 

M. H. DALTON, 16 Rue de I^venir, Asnieres, pres Paris, France. 

Miorosoopieal Specialties. 

KING'S CEMENTS ^^^"'"^"^*"^^""^iL^dVywin.u.tainit. 

KING'S GLYCERINE JELLY is unsurpassed. 
THE KING MICROTOME is the best for botanical work. 

Send for fall list of specialtiet. 

J. D. KING, Cottage City, Mass. 



INVERTEBRATE DISSECTIONS. 

Second Edition ; Revised and Greatly Enlarged. 

DESIGNED to suit the requirements of high school or college, or to guide 
any who may desire to pursue an elementary course of practical or theoretical 
invertebrate zoology. It contains working; directions for the study of fifty 
types, from all classes and orders of Invertebrates, attention being chiefly 
called to common and easily obtained forms ; notes on habits and modes of 
capture, and items to observe on living animals ; bibliognipliical reference to 
some of the most accessible literature of each group ; and a synoptical table 
of the entiie animal kingdom summarizing all the phyla, clasetes and orders, 
thus making the book a compend of Elementary Invertebrate ZoologA-. 

Hvo; heavy paper covers; 64 pages ; price 75 centji. Special rates for schoolii. 
Sent postpaid on receipt of price. Circulars and sample pages furnished on 
application to anthor. 

Hrnry L. Osborn, 

Hamline University, St, Paul, Minn, 



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General Index 



TO THE 



American Hontbly Icroscopical Journal 

. 1880-1895. 

(16 years.) 

We have for sale a limited number of copies of 
this general index, containing 69 pages and 6500 
references at 

$1.00 per copy. 



BACK NUMBERS. 

We can supply sets of the Journal for 1881-1896, 
at $2.cx) each; the last ten volumes for ten dollars. 



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CARL REICHERT 
MICROSCOPES. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR UNITED STATES. 

RICHARDS & CO., LTD., 

NEW YORK, OmOAQO, 

« 

41 Barclay Street. 108 Lake Street. 

Icroscopic Freparatioiis lUnstratii tlie Hiiinte Stmctnre 
of VegetaUe life. 

Being enclosed in a novel transparent envelope, these objects may 
be examined without removal before mounting. They are prepared 
with the utmost care by WAI.TER White, England, and are mostly 
stained in one or two colors of the most permanent character. 

A friend says : The sample section is exquisite. It is so good 
that I want more. As a well -cut and well-stained section it is 
equal to anything I Jbave seen in that line. 

PRIGEIS. 

Catalogue of 172 objects, - - - $0.02 

Single specimens, ----- .08 

20 specimens, assorted, - - - i.oo 

CHAS. W. SMILEY, Washingrton, D. C. 



SWEDENBORG 

is not only a theologian ; he is a scientist and' a scientific writer, 
whose keenly philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 
every scientific student. Send for catalogues or answers to questions, 
Address 

ADOLPH ROEDER, 

Vineland, N. J. 

FOR SALE.— A set of slides iUnstrating the Woody Plants of Illinois, 
95 Genera. H. F. MUXROE, 821 Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 



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THE FISK 

TRAGHRRS' AGRNGIRS, 
EVERETT O. FISK & CO.. Proprietors. 

President. 

Ktkrctt O. Fmk, - - 4 AsUbarton Plaoe, Boston, Mass. 

Managers. 

W. B. Hkrrick, 4 Ashborton Place, Boston, W. D. Keru. 70 Fifth Atouuc, Kew York, 

Mum. N. T 

Mrs. S. D. THtTRMOND, 1242 Twelfth St., P. V. HrYst;ooN,70Fifth Av.>ouo,Ncw York, 

Wanbinnton.P.C. NY. 

A. O. FisHKR, 4 A<«hburton Place, Boston, W.O. Pr^tt, 70 Fifth Av<iiuo, N« w Ytjik, 

MtH«*. N. Y. 

MAfiTiiA IIoAO, 4 Ashbarton Place, Boatrm, L, B. HAL'-KY,,V)r) W.tUftsh Aveune, Chicaeo, 

}iH^ III, 

IIbi.v-.nQ. £A0Ea,4 Aahburton Place, Bos- J. D. Enolc, Ceuttiry BuilJitt^, Minneapo- 

ton, AImm. olis, Minn. 

W. O McTacgart, 25 King 8t , Weat Mrs. F. Dowlino Englr, Ontury Bldj^., 

Toronto, Gannda.. liliDneapoIi^ Miun 

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N. Y. An^'*'l«e'», ChI. 

Rend to any of the aboTo apreuciea for 100-pekge Aeonry Mununl. <\,rreHp()inlouce with em- 
ployers is luTited. Begifltration forms sent to teacher^ un ai';>lirati m. 



ZEISS MICROSCOPES. 

The Carl Zeiss Optical Wor](s in Jena 

Are recognized in Europe as the leading manufacUirers of Stands and 
Objectives. T hey have issued a new C a talo .!L(u^ ^ io r kS-;"), Cfiitainuig a 
description of a number of new accessories and ap >:iranis which I am 
enabled to import at lowest rates. Ordcr.s for coll ic •:-> and institutious 
filled prompty, duty fne. New Catalogues iwiwuiucd on ai^pl. cation, 
against 20 cents in postage stamps 

F. J. EMMJEIUCH, Sr„ Aj^rent, 

74 Murray St., New York, N. Y. 



JOSEPH 2[ElfTMi^'^EH; 

OPTICIAN. 
209 South nth Street, Philadelphia. 



HISTOLOGICAL MICROSCOPES $65. 



STXTDENTS' MICROSCOPES, $38 to $46, Complete. 

MICROMETER RULINCxS, A SPECIALTY. 



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m Light? 19 to 21 lbs. K 

[} Strong ? Quaranteed. g 

For whom? 300 pound riders. 3 



s KEATING BICYCLES. » 



^ 



jj Frame sway? No. Why? See that curve. 

[n Speedy? Yes. 

I Why? Long chain. K 

lasaasssHSHsasasESHsasasHsasasEsssasEHSsasaHSH"] 

36=; days ahead of them all. 



Keating Wheel Co., Holyoke, Mass. 



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- ThQ ■ 



OR 

XHontf^Iy 3ournaI of (Ecology: 

WITH WHICH IS IXCORPORATKD 

**THE OEOLOOIST." 

EDITED BY 

HENRY WOODWARD, LL.D , F. R. S., PrksG. S.. F. Z. S.. F. R. M. S. 

OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM OF NATUKAL HISTORY *, 
ASSISTED BY 

ROBERT ETHERIDGK, F. R. S. L. & E-, F. G. S., F. C. S . &c. 

WILFRID H HUDLESTON, M. A., F. R. S., F. G. S , F. L. S., F. C. S- 

GEORGE J. HINDRE, Ph.D., V. P. G. S., &c. 

AND 

HORACE BOLINGBOKE WOODWARD, F. G. S. 



The NEW SERIES. Decade IV. Vol. H.No. 1-4. 
Jan.- April, 1896, NOW READY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

MESSRS. DULAU & CO., 

37 SOHOSaUABE, LONDON, W. 

It is earnestly requested that Sabscriptions may be sent to DuLAU and 
Co. in advance. Subscribers otl8s. for the year will receive the Magazine, 
l*08t-fre€, direct on the Ist of each Month. Single copies Ij. 6d. each. 



All Communications for this Magazine should be 
addressed to the Editor of the Geological Magazine, 

129 BEAUFORT STREET, CHELSEA, 

LONDON, S. W. 

Books and Specimens may in future be addressed tothe Editor, care of 

HESSBS. DULAU &; GO., 37Soho Square, London, W. 



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Special 
Announcement 



D" 



-IN- 



MICROSCOPY. 



URTNG the iMt few months 
I hare boen busy preparing 
many raiu and novel objects 
for Microecopical purpoeee, and 
hare arranged them as under in 
IlluHtrated Series. 

The flret of these U the Mi- 
croscopical Studies In Ma- 
rine Zoology. 

The gocuud Series (tIz.: that 
for 1895) cousintfl uf 14 splendid 
prepamtionn, all of the highest 
possible oxcellf iici* Hnd enaranteed 
permanent The U slides appeal 
ID quarterly liistallmeniM, and are 
uccouipanitKi by over 100 pa§^ 
of descriptive Ietteri>''«>^* 
dealtriic in plt«sant but exact man- 
ner Willi th« anatomy, litWhistoiy 
and habits ot llie rwpeciive sub- 
Jerts, while 1 2 fulI-pai^ plmtes 
oif photo-eng^ravlnsrs, drawn 



from life, make plain all detailH. 
Inclusive Subscription, S6.25, post-fre**. Full f.nwiKrtiw on application. 
The folluwiug are among the Slidea iiiclud«d iu this Serieti : 

6. Lovely Expanded Zoophyte S«rtularia 



60c 



7. 0).ioH8um-(slirimp MytU^ showing audi- 

tory orguu in tail 38c 

8. T)it) N)>(endid rare orcran-pipe Polyzoon, 

Lichenopnra 40c 

9. Entire larval Plaice^, eye just turning 

from blind side and 6 other equally 
flue slides. 60c 



1. Colony of the lovely RadioUriau Spfutro- 
' toum^ ehowin/j; parasitic rti|tf,R'. 40c 

2. The lovely ZiH>phyto Ote/ta, polyps fully 

expanded. 35c 

3. Stalked stage of the larva of Bo^ 

Feather St&r (antedoit) 40< 

4. An entire Sea- Butterfly {Pteropod). 40o 
6. Lovely expanded Zoophyte Stpicoryne. 40c | 

The prices tt^;ilil1^l each ure those at which the preparations are sold separately, show- 
ing what a cheap 1 jt 1 uffor Id series at SG.2o, p.iBt Hoe. A few sets i^f Si-rici 1 still available. 
f6.25» post free. Semple Slide, 6(k\, p.«dt free. 

Prof. J, R. Ainsworth Dnvis, Cuiveruity Odletrw, Aberyslwlib. writes: "Mlow me to 
congratulate you on the very useful work y<Mi ar© »luiug by the pul/Hi...u -u (jt luurual, with 
aocompanyiug slides, which are most admirable. 

Superb micru«copic*il prcptimiioiH of BrazlllHti Lianas — I have 
bt-en unfortunate in obtMiijiii>( a qr.antity i»f tl»i'>' nipeib sterna — the 
must lovely iu th« whole plant kin^^dom — ^tud have arrjiuv;ed them 
in two selsof 6 each, at ihe iifii o f>f Sl.:i5 |'«r set, or $2 25 for Ihn 
two. The most exqi:i-ii»'ly clmnuiutr slirles that omld )Ki»iib|y b** 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ imagined for exhibition ut popular k itheringa. As the quantity is 
"^^^■"■■'■■■■^^"'^^ very limit^^d. I am unable to sell single slides. 

MIcroBOopical Studies in Botany.— In answer U in.»n.v requests, 1 have ar- 
ranged 20 lUiigniticent prepdru.tii;na in a seiies ou similar lines to thut iu murine zoology de- 
scribed above. 

The first series is now begun ana comprises 20 highest-class slides (^urh as sell singly 
at 25c toSSc each), ilUisliuted by descriptive letterpress and 20 specially beautiful phu to micro- 
graphs of the sections. 

Subscriptions, $6.25 only, for all, a sum which would be cheap for the series of illus- 
trations lloue. 

Prof. J. W. Carr, UaiversTty ri.llnge, N'»ttlnflrham, writes: "Your Botanical 8Ild«s 
are the must beautiful I have ever tn v-n. Titu following are among the slides already i-^ued in 



aocompanyiug slides, which 

Botany. 



alx»ve lines : 

1. Tr. sec. flower-bud of Lily 25c 

2. " •' do of Dandelion 30c 

3. LontrU sec, do of • do 26c 

4. do fruit of Fig 30c 
I guarantee the perfection of all 



Tr. sec. nniit of Date (splendid) 35c 

*' •• flower of Etchach^Uzia 80c 

LongU. sec. double flower of Peony 25c 

Leaf-fall of Sycamore 25c 

my mounts and will be pleased to send 



selections on approval to. approved correspondents. 

A great range of Miscellaneous /Zoological and Botanical slides in stock 
at prices from f i 30 per dcizcn. 

Cost of Mailing;, isliile. 10 cents; 2 slides, 15 cents ; 3 slides, 20 cents and 
so on Lar^e parcels by express at very cheap rates. 

Speciality. Marine /.oology (especially in expanded Zoophytes and larval 
stages, and plant and flower anatomy. 

Terms. Remittance by P. O. O . draft on London, or U. S paper currency, the 
former preferred. If wished. Mr. C. W Smiley. Washington, D. ' will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr, Smilev has kindly promised to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. 8. Microscop- 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Biological Station, Jersey, England. 



Specialist in Microscoi^cal Mounting. 



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AMMONOL is one of the derivatives or Coal-tar, and differs from the numerous sim- 
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ical Apparatus.— Secretary Soi^H western Pharmacal Co.. Cor. Wash- 
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Sixth Edition of 

THE NIICROSCOPE 

AND M10R0BC0HI(">ALx MKTHOOe'. 
BY SIMON HENRY GAGE. 

ProfeMor of MIcrowjopjr. Histology and Embryology In Cornell University and the New 
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laca. K. Y., U. 8. A. 
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DIATOM SLIDES 

Of the I^acific Coast, 

Both recent and fossil, also fossil marine from New Zealand 
and other parts of the world, 40 cts. per slide, $4.00 per doz. 

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"MICROSCOPICAL PRAXIS." 
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We have received the appointment as American agents for 
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year> Sample copies 25 cents. 



MODERN MICROSCOPY. 

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PART II. — Microscopic Objects : How prepared and mounted. 

By Cross and Cole. 

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Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, Objectives 
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THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 

Contents for February, 1897. 

studies iu Diatom Biology. Cuuniiigham • 33 

How to Make aud Stock a Fresh-water Aqaarium. Beuuett. (Illus- 
trated) 41 

Surgical Sterilization and Sterilizers in Private Practice. Boecknianu 

(Illustrated) 4-^ 

The Preparation of Diphtheria Antitoxic Serum. Mulford ,55 

Editobiai.. 

The Cochineal Insect &2 

New Deposits of Infusorial Earth Found in Europe 63 

Microscopical Appa^atuh. 

The Microscope in Pharmacy (>;5 

Mk^koscopical Manipulation. 

Preservation of Microscopic Specimens (>4 

Infiltrating Dental and Osseous Tissues for Microscopical Work 65 

Biological Notkh 66 

BACTKRIOLtKiY. 

Bacteriosis of CarnatiooK 67 

Microbes that Make Glucose 68 

Medical Microscopy. 

Test for Typhoid Fever 70 

PER»ONAr>i 70 

Microscopical Noteh. 

Barbadoes :... T2 

Ink for Writing on Glass 72 



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JUL 8 OOT 



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HAND OF MUMMY, 3,000 YEARS OLD, TAKEN 

BY \V. WATSON & SONS, WITH THEIR 

RONTGEN RAY APPARATUS. 



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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



VOL. XVIII. FEBRUARY, 1897. No. 2 

Studies in Diatom Biology. 

By K. M. CUNNINGHAM, 
MOBILB, AI«A. 

During the month of November, 1895, I had an oppor- 
tunity of securing a very interesting gathering of living 
diatoms under the following conditions. On one of my 
excursions I incidentally noted that the surface of a ditch 
used for transporting saw logs through a marshy flat, was 
covered with a thick and uniform layer of greenish scum, 
and that it was accidentally banked up at the point, by a 
boat paddle arresting its passage along the ditch. The 
winds were driving further supplies of scum to the ob- 
struction across the ditch. A momentary inspection in- 
dicated that there was a very rich accumulation of dia- 
toms. I secured a pint or so of the material for treat- 
ment and study. The chief or most numerous form oc- 
curing in the gathering was Nitzschia scalaris, which 
species, as is well known, is among the largest of tlie 
prism-like forms commonly encountered all over the 
globe, and is associated with fresh or brackish waters. 
By availing myself of the aid of this special form in its 
living state, I was enabled to prosecute some studies tend- 
ing to «^ive additional importance to the hypothesis that 
this diatom belongs biologically to the protozoa rather 
than to the plants. I shall indicate by what Hue of reas- 
oning I venture to present this view to the attention of 
those who are interested in biological studies. 

As a primary fact, we may assert that when a portion 



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34 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

of the material is gathered in its densest state, it is intro- 
duced into a suitable bottle, and the diatom contents are 
allowed to distribute themselves in the water. It is soon 
evident that many of the motile forms in the bottle are 
attaching themselves to the inside surface of the bottle 
and continue their motions incessantly in any chance di- 
rection. If now whilt; having a bottle of this kindunder in- 
spection, as simple an apparatus as a common five cent 
lens, of a quarter inch focus will enable anyone to follow 
the motions of the large Nitzschia scalaris in its wander- 
ings while in contact with the glass surface. This fact 
alone would he prima facie evidence of its having some 
organ adapting it to auto-locomotion, and that in a par- 
ticularly striking manner. The same simple aid will 
also show that if one extremity of the prismatic body of 
the Nitzschia should become detached by shaking from 
contact with the side of the bottle, leaving but one end 
adherent, the end in contact still may have sufficient 
motive power therein to propel itself along the glass, 
and when a Nitzschia is thus moving around, it can be 
followed for hours, if the observer is so disposed. 

This is the simple character of an initial study that 
might have been made by Leewenhoeck in his day, with 
credit to himself for whatever his observing mind might 
have noted in relation thereto. If now, however, the 
conditions under which we view the Nitzschia be modi- 
fied, we may find a new series of phenomena that would 
have been totally overlooked in the experiment noted 
above. If during the study we transfer a dip of the dia- 
tom material covering 8t>Bie of the Nitzschias to a glass 
slip, and cover tlie same with a cover glass and view the 
living frustules with the aid of a 1-6 objective, then the 
peculiarities of locomotive and motile effects may be very 
readily observed. A close study will verify the fact that 
the Nitzschia has a distinct movement; not merely of 
progression or change of place in a rectilinear path, but 



i 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 35 

also that the entire epidermal coat may be actively en- 
gaged in gathering up any character of minute mineral 
or other debris along its path. Such particles as become 
attached, are independently moved from numerous cen- 
ters of vital action. This is as if the epidermal surface 
at any given point had a retractile and contractile power, 
independent of any other given point of vital action along 
the frustular surface. The motile functions consist of 
the power of transporting small mineral particles such 
as sand grains and vegetal debris for appreciable di^^- 
tances along its edges or surface, and of rejecting them 
and substituting new particles. The particles may be 
jerked up at any point and carried indifferently in a posi- 
tive or negative direction from the point of attachment, 
until these particles are replaced by new ones. It should 
strike any observer who may verify these phases of ac- 
tion that such phenomena point to a more complex cilia- 
like function than that which may be noted in the ciliary 
fringes of an oyster or clam. The latter cilia motion 
lashes and drives the particles in a general direction or 
current. The complicated system of moving particles 
can also be followed in itn interminable variations as long 
as it may suit the convenience of the observer to change 
the specimen of Nitzschia under observation, on account 
of its relatively conspicuous size. Nitzschia scalaris is a 
very satisfactery species in which to study the character 
of its vital movements. 

The internal frustular contents present an abundance 
of globular bodies of varying sizes which have a constant 
independent motion among themselves, that is, their juxta- 
position is seen to be constantly changing when very 
carefully noted. 

Nitzschia scalaris when viewed under a power of 500 
diameters is longer than any other of the North Ameri- 
can specimens of the bacillar forms, and therefore can be 



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36 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

observed with ease in verifying what is said herein in 
reference to its intricate motile powers. 

In farther stadies of Navicula nobilis and firma, with 
the view to verifying the results obtained by a former 
contributor on the subject of the movements of diatoms, 
I made nse of methyl-blue to differentiate the epidermal 
covering or mantle, by the following methods. From a 
rich gathering of living Navicula nobilis, firma and 
Surirella biserriata, and other forms, I transferred a 
drop to a slip, and observed them with a i inch objective. 
By this means I was enabled to note that as many as 
twenty forms of N. nobilis and firma could be found in 
parallel contact at one and the same time, gliding back 
and forth in contact with each other, somewhat after the 
manner that colonies of Bacillaria paradoxa move at times. 
While having this special gathering under study in order 
to note the character of the epidermal envelope, it be- 
came relatively easy to note the amount of separation be- 
tween two or more touching frustulesof the surrounding* 
transparent layers. Now, admitting that the external 
layer, if it exists at all, must have the character of an al- 
buminous substance, such as the white of an egg, the 
substance ought to coagulate under a boiling temperature, 
and take on an altered or fixed state the same as the 
white of an egg does when boiled sufficiently. By 
shortly drying such a slide of living diatoms over a stud- 
ents' lamp flame, and completing the mount with thin 
balsam, we find that the epidermal covering has been 
changed to a practically impervious envelope. The thin 
balsam failed tu penetrate mauy of the frustules during 
a period extending over months. The slide on examin- 
ation perodically showed the frustules to be filled with 
air, and the shrunken or contracted threads of endoplasm 
still showed a strong greenish tint in the air filled spaces. 
On the contrary, it is well know that, in acid-treated dia- 
toms of like character, there is almost an immediate ex- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 37 

palsioQ of air from the frustale, and a substitution of 
the balsam in the air spaces. If these phases of study 
are accurately construed^ we have a demonstration of 
the presence of enveloping substance on the exterior of 
the silicious frustules without resorting to staining tests 
for a like purpose. 

Continuing this investigation, I made an attempt to 
differentiate the protoplasmic mantle with the aid of 
dyes in order to verify an experimental study recorded 
several years ago by C. Onderdonk and published in this 
journal. While I failed to duplicate what was stated 
therein, I found a wide range of interesting phenomena 
throwing light on the structure of the living diatoms. 
By placing a drop of water with numerous large Navic- 
ulsB on a slip and covering it with a i inch cover glass, 
and then placing in contact with the edge of the cover- 
glass, a minute grain of crystalline methyl-blue, the dye 
was speedily diffused from the edge of the glass and 
passed slowly across the fluid field. Then it was a very 
easy matter to steadily observe for protracted intervals 
the action of the dye, as its influence reached the living 
frustules. For example, the stain was absorbed by the 
frustule both inside as well as outside, some time before 
it was perceptible in the thin layer of liquid; and more 
markedly absorbed by the internal protoplasmic granules 
when the dyeing action became more evident. The evi- 
dence of a strong irritation on the part of the frustule is 
readily observed as it quickly loses the power of direct 
axial motion and swerves irregularly and spasmodically 
at alternate ends^ unable to advance in its normal man- 
ner. It may even spin around iu its own length, the 
power of controlling its normal traveling motion being 
in a manner paralyzed. At least this would be the pro- 
bable interpretation, that any observer would identify 
with an irritating toxic substance acting on organisms 
having a determined or even conjectural nervous system 



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38 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

or a cellular structure to which poisons would be deadly 
in their elBTect. The process of encroachment of an aniline 
dye and its lethal results may be studied with equal in- 
terest in the smaller Navicul® as in the larger. There is 
the same activity of irritation and arresting of locomo- 
tive power, and finally the death of the bioplasmic 
power, whether inside or outside of the frustule. For 
those who could find interest in the death struggles of 
vertebrate animals, as seen in the case of iSpanish bull 
fights, or the asphyxiation of dogs during the canicula, 
might be found plenty of mental excitement in following 
the death throes of a diatom from start to finish, under 
the method of drowning in a weak aniline bath. 

After having had sufficient familiarity with the phases 
leading up to the extinction of the life process of a series 
of living diatoms in the field of the microscope, it would 
perhaps be repugnant to the student to admit that he has 
been witnessing vital phenomena characteristic alone in 
its nature of plant or vegetable life. These forms have 
heretofore been deemed too insignificant to warrant for 
them a place among the Protozoans; the fundamental or 
simplest class of animal life which modern science has so 
far been able to trace. 

By varying the dyeing tests with a substitution of com- 
mon violet writing ink, I found features not observed dur- 
ing a lengthy study with methyl blue. When the violet 
stain reached the Navicula, I noted that what appeared to 
be a sort of vermicular festoon was formed from the man- 
tle or surface of the frustule, and the vermicular shreds 
broke olBT and drifted away leaving some strands adher- 
ing to its sides and small villous tufts at each end of the 
frustule. This seemed to represent to me, what C. Onder- 
donk described as the mantle expanding or crinkling 
up like folds of cloth around the edges of the frustule. 
Apart from this, I found nothing that I could identify 
as that which he stated he had repeatedly verified in re- 



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189*7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 39 

gard to a differentiation of the mantle {ectoderm) envelop- 
ing the navicular forms by the use of methyl green. I 
had stained slides richly strewn with living diatoms up- 
on which I made my observations and, on drying, the 
frustules were examined superficially with condensed 
light, and otherwise, only to find that the frustules gave 
off the metallic sheen of the dye, with the sculptural 
markings showing clearly; but the frustules were sur- 
rounded where in con4.act with the slip by a crystalline 
fringe of the methyl blue. They then simulated what 
might be construed as a sort of ciliary projection. This 
makes any deduction with reference to the mantle from 
this mode of study an unknown quantity. The essential 
points of C. Onderdouk*8 paper in relation to the mantle 
of the diatom, and a conjecture touching the seat of the 
vital function controlling its motile power, were adopted 
by WoUe in his Biatomaceas of North America. Therein 
the marvelous phenomena of the diatom's power to handle 
and rush grains of sand^ as often as its necessities may 
require it to do so, is entirely overlooked. I allude to 
the portion of the work upon the "Motion of Diatoms." 
This function of the diatom to gather up and transport 
mineral particles energetically, is one that can be readily 
verified with the aid of a 1-6 objective. No one need 
miss it. The study involves no diificulties. 

W. A. Terry, an expert student of the living diatom, 
has frequently made allusions to the peculiarities of mo- 
tion observed by himself, and from sources of supply that 
I have never had an opportunity to inspect, he has re- 
cently put on record the statement that some of the very 
large living Amphiprora' observed by him might pass 
for vegetables. but never for plants. As it was not his 
object to seek for data to establish the Protozoan nature 
of the Diatom his observations were not sufficieutlycrit- 
ical to contribute to a formulary of expression adapted to 
animal biology. He had incidently noted that a vigorouti 



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40 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

diatom had tractive power sufScient to push or pall a 
mass of obstructing matter equal to its own bulk or even 
greater. In connection witli these remarks, it may be 
proper to relate that he has recently been cultivating or 
growing the living forms and kindly offered to mail to 
me a culture sample. But we feared that they would 
not arrive in good condition if sent. 

Acting on a suggestion derived from H. L. Smith's 
work in relation to the action of alkali on the protoplasm 
of the living frustules in an experimentnl way, I found 
that if a mounted slide of living diatoms was immersed 
in strong white soap solution and set aside for about 
twenty-four hours, all the frustules containing the living 
endoplasm were burst asunder into numerous small frag- 
ments, and the greenish contents were driven out and 
distributed in rills over the slide. This also showed that 
sutural lines are weak points in the frustural box. 

In an attempt to clean a considerable quantity of ma- 
terial, from which the studies of Nitzschia scalaris were 
made, by boiling in a pearline solution, the result showed 
that the recent species had become badly distorted by a 
partial solvent action, and a softening of the silex. This 
I had never previously noticed in acid treatment, but I 
had been aware of the necessity of using the alkalies cau- 
tiously in one stage of the cleaning process. 

Those who undertake to solve for themselves the mys- 
terious cause of motion in the diatoms, will be confronted 
with a species of phenomena of the most puzzling inter- 
est. If the living diatoms have been retained in the 
same bottle of water for a period extending over three 
days or more, the study will be complicated by the growth 
in the water of several kinds of spirillum, which are apt 
to colonize around the edges of all diatoms. When this 
is the case, it may so happen that when a large Navicula 
is being closly studied in the field in expecting to detect 
some characteristic of motion, the mind will suddenly be 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 41 

attracted by lightning-like flashes of little specks with 
spiral and vibrating movements that dart from the ends 
and sides of the moving diatom. The illusion at first 
takes the form of an idea that the diatom is discharg- 
ing nettle-like threads, and as quickly retracting them. 
Should the mind get caught under this spell once, it will 
be a material duration of time before the observer, fascin- 
ated by this illusory appearance, can dissociate his mind 
from the idea that what is seen is not a part of the vital 
function of the ectoderm of the diatom, and properly re- 
fer this action to the parasitic colonies of Spirilla, which 
seem to be living in symbiosis with their host the Navi- 
cula. 

How to Make and Stock a Fresh-water Aquarium. 

By REGINALD A. R. BENNETT, M. A. (Oxon). 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE TANK ITSEI.F. 

When I saw the above announced as one of the sub- 
jects for the forth-coming competitions, I at once made 
up my mind to send in a series, and hope for the prize, 
for the *'B. M/* has been an old friend to me for many a 
long year, and I have all the back volumes from the very 
beginning arranged on my bookshelf. I cannot truly 
say that I took it in from the beginning, the first num- 
bers having been presented to me some years after- 
wards; but, no doubt, I should have taken it when it first 
came out had it not been for the fact that the first num- 
bers appeared during the same year that I myself burst 
upon this lower sphere, and at that time I was more in- 
terested in the maternal lacteal fiuid than even in the 
advance of science. However, later volumes have been 
of invaluable service to me, and this is by no means the 
first time that I have written in **Ours,*' though not be- 
fore in the form of an article. 

As I see that there has been some discussion as to the 



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42 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY fFeb 

capabilities of the winnerB of these prizes, I will here 
state that I am writing this series from a personal ex- 
perience with the matter, having myself practically kept 
fresh water (and I may add, also marine) aquaria for a 
good many years. The system and details of working 
laid down are^ therefore, the result of practical knowl- 
edge. 

I do not think it is necessary, in the pages of this 
journal, to enter very deeply into the science involved in 
the maintaining of an aquarium. Most of its readers are, 
doubtless, aware of the compensating action of the vari- 
ous animal and vegetable organisms, whereby the bal- 
ance of life is kept up, and the fishes, etc., supply car- 
bonic-acid gas which the plants, if in good health, util- 
ize in the formation of their tissues, transforming it into 
pure oxygen, which being dissolved by the water, is 
taken up by the fishes and other animal organisms to be 
utilized in the aeration of their blood. From a consid- 
eration of these facts, it naturally follows that in our 
aquarium we must have a supply of healthy plants to 
manufacture the oxygen required, if the fishes are to be 
kept for a loug time in a satisfactory state of prospericy. 
Given the suitable conditions, and it is perfectly possible 
to keep the aquarium for many years without changing 
the water, or moving animals or weeds. In practice I 
have done this myself, though if the aquarium keeper 
has a sufficiency of time on his hands, I think an occa- 
sional turning out and cleaning is more likely to produce 
a pleasing effect on the eye than leaving the tank to it- 
self for the longest possible time. A great deal, how- 
ever, depends upon the amount of water employed. 

In setting up the aquarium, the first thing must neces- 
sarily be the manufacture of the tank itself. And here 
we are confronted by the question of the most suitable 
dimensions. I do not think, in the case of a fresh water- 
tank, the depth is a matter of very great importance^ 



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18fc7.I MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 43 

as it certainly is ia the case of a salt-water one. The 
amount of water it is to hold must^ of coarse, settle its 
actual size ; bat, as a rale, it should be said that no tank 
should be deeper than it is wide, and its length should 
be about twice as long as its width. To descend to par- 
ticulars : to hold 12 gallons the tank may be about 27 in. 
by 16 in. by 14 in. deep. One to hold up to 20 gallons 
will be about 36 in. long by 22 in. broad by 18 in. deep. 

As to the actual structure of the tank, this, of course, 
depends very much upon the taste of the maker. Person- 
ally, I think the plainer the tank is (within limits) the 
better. It is the fishes and plants, etc., that are the ob- 
jects of attraction — not a gorgeously ornamented tank. 
For this reason I look upon all ornamental 'Hops," brass 
fringes, etc., round the edges, and carved images on the 
pillars, etc., as abominations. If the tank is to have a 
top it can be composed of two perfectly plain pieces of 
glass, each the width of the tank frame and rather less 
than half its length, thus leaving a little strip between 
them when they are placed in position, through which 
the air can get at the water. If the beetles, etc., show 
a disposition to get out the vacancy can afterwards be 
covered with a strip of perforated zinc. The glass is, of 
course, held in its place by fitting into a rabbet in the 
upper surface of the frame, in which it can lie. 

The following will, I hope, be sufllciently explicit 
directions as to the actual manufacture of the tank for 
those who have never constructed anything similar before. 
The first thing to do is to make the bottom. For this I 
have tried plain wood, wood painted and varnished, and 
wood covered with glass and cement, and am decidedly of 
opinion that wood in any form is to be avoided. The 
best thing to use is a tolerably thick slab of slate^ and 
taking my first dimensions of the tank as an example, I 
think for this the slab ought to measure about 29 in. by 
18 in. by 2 in. thick. This allows of a width of an inch 



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44 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[Feb. 



all round, which is advisable, though not esssential. In 
this slate, at a distance of about an inch from the edge 
all round, you have to make grooves with holes at the ends 
for the bottoms of the pillars, see Fig. 1. These boles 
should be about 1 in. in depth and the same in breadth ; 
the grooves should be aboiit i in. broad and at least 1 in. 
deep. You now have to construct the pillars, which are 
made of hard birch wood — or mahogany will do — and 
are shaped as Fig. 2. The sides are, in my opinion, best 
square, but you can make them round if you prefer it. 
If square, the sides may measure 2 in. in breadth ; if 
round, they ought to be at least 2i in. in diameter. The 




^mt(MO^HM , 






ends are, of course, to be cut to a circle about 1 in. in 
diameter, or, better, shaped to accurately fit the holes 
made in the slate bottom. The part thus shaped will, 
therefore, be about 1 in. long, while the middle (square) 
part will be about 14 in. long. Down the middle of the 
pillars, on two sides, at right angles, are to be cut grooves 
about \ in. broad and at least i in. in depth. Some may 
think my measurements unnecessarily large, but I have 
suffered so severely in bygone years from aquaria which 
leaked that I am quite resolved that if my measurements 



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1897.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 46 

are followed the English Mechanic tank shall^ at any 
rate, he water-tight. To secure this desirable end, we 
have to fasten the pillars in their places with cement, and 
on this cement a great deal depends. It has to be elastic 
to a certain degree, so as to allow for changes of temper- 
atnre and the consequent expansion and contraction of 
the glass and wood, it has to firmly resist the passage of 
the water, and it has to be one that will harden in a fairly 
short time, and that will not smell objectionable, as the 
living inhabitants of the tank are particularly susceptible 
to any foulness of the water caused by smells. The two 
best cements that I know of for the purpose^ and which 
fairly fulfil the conditions required of them, are the fol- 
lowing : — 

Mix together one pint each of litharge^ plaster of Paris, 
pure white sand, and two-thirds of a pint of freshly 
powered resin. These are thoroughly incorporated to- 
gether by turning them over and rubbing them into one 
another with the hands, and the mixture is then made 
into paste with boiled oil and a little driers. It should 
be of sufScient consistency to dry pretty quickly, but not 
so stift' but that it will get into the holes and corners 
easily. If properly made this will not take long to dry; 
but you must leave the tank for a week at least, or more, 
before you attempt to stock it; and when you do so you 
must be quite sure, firstly, that the cement is really hard, 
and, secondly, that the smell has entirely departed. The 
second cement is made by melting in an iron ladle over 
a gas flame or lamp tiiree-parts of pitch and one of gutta- 
percha. When they are throughly melted and incorpor- 
ated together, apply liquid, and leave to set. Tbis will 
not take so long as the other to dry, but it must be left 
till the smell has departed. It is impossible to lay too 
great stress on this matter. To use the tank too soon is 
not merely to court defeat, but to positively insure it. 
If the lead cement is used, it is advisable to cover it with 



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46 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

two or three coats of varnish, made by dissolving sealing- 
wax in methylated spirits of wine. When the pillars are 
fixed in their places, yon can proceed to insert the glass. 
This is what is commonly called *'32iQ." sheet glass, and 
is cat to exactly fit the grooves. The panes are firmly 
bedded in with the cement, and a light frame work is fit- 
ted on the top to hold all together. This framework is 
shown in Fig. 3. It is merely a frame about 1^ in. in 
width and one-half inch in thickness. The top of each 
pillar, above the square part, is cat to this length and in- 
serted in the holes at the corner, and small knobs are in- 
serted at the corners to give the tank an ornamental ap- 
pearance. If a glass top is wished for, the frame is cut 
with a rabbet about i in. wide all round on its upper 
surface to receive the edges of the glass. The final ap- 
pearance of the tank is shown in Fig. 4. 

If the tank has to stand in a very sunny situation, I 
think it is decidedly advisable to provide some means or 
other of keeping out the superfluous light, as it acts 
most injuriously on the creature in it; and causes such a 
growth of confervse on the sides that it is a continual nui- 
sance to keep them clean. For this purpose I have al- 
ways considere<i it best to have light shutters of thin 
wood constructed which will just go inside the frame 
formed by the bottom, top frame, and pillars, and outside 
the glass. This is done so easily that it requires no fur- 
ther description. I think this plan is desirable, because 
it allows of the complete closing of the sides of the tank 
in summer, when the weather is warm, and allows the 
shutters to be removed when it is desired to see any ob- 
ject close to the glass, or when the weather is cold during 
the winter. It is, therefore, much to be preferred to 
making the sides or ends permanently of slate. 

In this series there is not space to describe further de- 
velopments of the construction of the tank. It is also 
unuacessary, for any one, given the above details, can 



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1897.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 47 

easily coastract any other form which his fancy may de- 
vise, or in combination with window conservatories, etc., 
by the use of a little brains. If the simple form of tank 
is nsed yon will require a stand for it. This may have a 
top of its own, or the bottom of the tank may form the 
top. Anyhow, it is hardly necessary to say that it 
must, before all things, be firm and steady, as a collapse 
would be about as unpleasant a reverse of fortune as could 
befall the tyro aquarium keeper. It is preferable to use 
a table or stand with side bars between the legs about 
half way down. 

When you are perfectly satisfied that the tank is quite 
dry, the cement hard, and that no smell is issuing from 
it, you can proceed to stock it, the method of which wil] 
be cousidered in the next chapter. But before placing 
anything in it, it should be most thoroughly cleansed by 
washing, and then rinsed with fresh water. After this, 
it must undergo a further process of purification by fill- 
ing it with fresh water every few hours at first and letting 
it soak, then fresh water at intervals of a day, until the 
water is perfectly free from any smell, and especially 
from any prismatic scum on the surface, which is a sure 
indication of danger. — E^iglish Mechanic, 

We learn from the French newspapers that M. Etienne 
will shortly introduce in the Chamber of Deputies a bill 
introducing" the decimal subdivison of time. 

Mr. C. G. Pringle has just returned from another botan- 
ical journey in Mexico, where, during the past season, he 
has secured about 20,000 herbarium specimens in the val- 
ley of Mexico and in Cuernavaca. 

On account of his important work on Blood Test for cat- 
tle tuberculois, which has been published in many scienti- 
fic papers at home and abroad. Dr. Ephraim Cutter, LL. 
D., has been invited to go to Africa to study the cattle Rin- 
derpest, under the EJn^lish government. 



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48 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

Surgical Sterilization and Sterilizers in Private Practice. 

By EDWARD BOECKMANN, M. D., 
ST. PA.UI/, MINK. 

Last May I delivered an address in Buffalo, N. Y., he- 
' fore the Association of Military sargeons of the United 
States, on * 'Asepsis in Military Service." This address, 
printed in the transactions of that society, considers at 
length the principles of sterilization, and gives at the 
same time a number of practical points just as applicable 
in operations in private practice as in operations in mili 
tary service, for which reason I take the liberty to refer 
you to that for details. 

With regard to the mechanical and chemic phases of 
surgical sterilization I have not much to add to or take 
from what I said last y(par. Supported by further ex- 
perience, I can this year more strongly than last recom- 
mend the 1 to 2 per cent solutions of lysol at 120 degrees 
F. for combined mechanical and chemic disinfection of 
the operator's hands and the patient*s skin. 

Lysol possesses the undeniable advantage of being at 
the same time antiseptic and aseptic; it is a happy com- 
bination of a powerful disinfectant and soap (saponified 
cresol). It has the dissolving and penetrating properties 
of an alkaline substance. I know of no agent which at 
the present time is better adapted and more reliable in 
the disinfection of the skin than lysol, with the possible 
exception of alcohol, which certainly, with good reasons, 
receives the support of the world. Heretofore we have 
viewed alcohol in the light of a purely mechanical agent 
in the disinfection of the skin; this can no longer be suc- 
cessfully maintained. Alcohol is certainly a potent sol- 
vent of a great number of substances, sparingly, how- 
ever, of fats. Alcohol must be viewed as a strong anti- 
septic, possessing the same significance for the skin as 
for anatomic preparations, taking up its moisture, pene- 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 49 

trating and hardening them; a decided advantage over 
ether and turpentine, which certainly dissolve fat much 
more readily, but which are much less hydrophile. In 
order to obtain the greatest possible antiseptic effects of 
alcohol it is obvious that the skin must be dried, and 
strong, preferably absolute alcohol used, an^ the skin 
energetically rubbed for some little time. Since experi- 
ence has taugh me that the germicidal principle in lysol 
acts as a powerful antiseptic in the above mentioned 
strength, and as a prolonged friction with absolute alco- 
hol makes my skin uncomfortably hard and brittle, I re- 
serve the alcohol for the field of operation only. 

The last act in my sterilization of the skin consists in 
impregnating it with sterilized lanolin. By this pro- 
cedure it is my intention to restore to the integument its 
fatty protective, which has been removed to the greatest 
possible extent by the preceding chemico-mechanical dis- 
infection; at the same time I aim to cover up the remain- 
ing, inaccessible bacteria. Lanoliu, which is rich in 
bacteria, is sterilized simply by heating the anhydrous 
article over the fire in an enameled vessel to about 350 
degrees F., whereupon it is either run into collapsible 
tubes (sterilized in boiling water), or mixed with four to 
five parts of anhydrous ether, as soon as it has cooled 
below the boiling point of the latter, and then put into 
patent stoppered, sterilized glass bottles. Lanolin con- 
tains a great many impurities not soluble in ether, and 
which sink to the bottom as a voluminous, white sedi- 
ment; only the clear, yellow solution is used. 

Provided with lysol, absolute alcohol and ethereal solu- 
tion of sterilized lanolin, we are enabled to disinfect the 
skin, the most dreaded bearer of infection, as safely I 
imagine, as is possible at this time; and with as few and 
simple agents as can be demanded in operations in priv- 
ate practice. 

While I practically occupy the same standpoint with 



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50 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

regard to chemico-mechanical disinfectiou, I must take 
up the thread where I dropped it last year, as far as 
thermic disinfection is concerned. It is quite natural 
that surgeons who occupy them«elve8 with operations in 
private practice, not only are interested in portable 
sterilizers, 'but also prefer such as are constructed for 
combined boiling in water and its steam. Inventive gen- 
iuses have also from time to time, at short intervals, en- 
deavored to satisfy this popular demand, but they have 
all, as far as I know, up to the present committed the 
error of constructing their apparatus for under-steam, 
which streams through the sterilizing chamber from be- 
low upwards; that i.s, a stream, which neither expels the 
air, nor penetrates the articles to perfection, and which 
consequently results in deficient condensation, besides 
leaving the articles moist. All sterilizers for streaming 
steam must necessarily be constructed for over-steam; 
the reasons being fully given in my article previously 
referred to. Personally I am not particularly in favor 
of combination sterilizers even when scientifically con- 
structed, chiefly because boiling and steaming are differ- 
ent processes requiring an unequal time, steaming at 
least three times as long as boiling, not to speak of the 
time required to dry the dressings after sterilization. 
This entails the practical disadvantage, that instruments, 
for which boiling in our method of choice, suffer unneces- 
sarily in the prolonged boiling, but, as this can be 
avoided, as I will explain shortly, I have in deference to 
the apparent popular demand revived the idea of a com- 
bination apparatus, which I described in the Medical 
Record a couple of years ago, aud it is my improvement 
upon that apparatus which I take the liberty to den^on- 
strate upon this occasion. 

My combination portable sterilizer consists, as you see, 
of four parts: 1, the boiling plan; 2, the hood; 3, the in- 
strument tray, and 4, the steam chamber. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 51 

The boiling pan is made oval for the sake of the instru- 
ments; convenient dimensions being four to five inches 
high, eight inches wide and sixteen inches long. Around 
the upper border on its outside is constructed a groove 
half an inch deep. The center of the bottom is perfor- 
ated by a small opening, into which is fastened a tube, 
which extends to the level of the upper border of the pan; 



under the opening at the bottom is placed the iron plate, 
familiar from my other sterilizers. 

The hood, which fits closely within the outer lip of the 
groove of the boiling pan described above, and whose 
height is adjusted to that of the steam chamber, above 
which it extends half an inch, has a sloping roof, whose 
extreme top is perforated and fitted with a short tube or 
chimney. The hood is supplied with handles, and can 
be fastened to the boiling pan by moans of two hooks. 



The instrument tray is made to fit accurately within 
the boiling pan, the corners are cut off" to allow for the 
legs of the steam chamber, the bottom is of galvanized 
wire and the frame is provided with two handles. 

The steam chamber is of the same form and dimensions 
as the boiling pan; the chamber extends downward in h 



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52 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

sloping bottom, whose lowest, perforated point is on a 
level with the upper border of the pan; into this opening 
is fastened a tube, which fits accurately outside that 
described in the boiHng pan and which is of the same 
length; at the juncture of the steam chamber and its slop- 
ing bottom is placed a diaphragm of galvanized iron; be- 
tween this and the opening beneath is a small square tin 
plate; the chamber rests upon four legs, is provided with 




handles and a sloping cover, perforated at the top under- 
neath a handle. 

Directions for use, — The boiling pan is filled with a 
sufficient quantity of water, care being taken to fill the 
groove at the same time; the hood is adjusted, and the 
whole placed over any good fire. While the water is 
heating, the instruments are arranged on the tray, and 
the dressing, etc., (previously washed) in the steam cham- 
ber; needles, drainage tubes, ligating and suturing 



materials are put separately in a small metal box (sterile 
catgut is brought along in hermetically sealed envelopes). 
When the water boils, the hood is removed, the steam 
chamber put in, whereupon the hood is replaced with a 
cork in the upper tube. The steam will now ascend be- 
tween the hood and the steam chamber to the top; the 
cork at the top and the water in the groove and in the 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 63 

pan acting as locks, the steam is forced to work its way 
through the opening in the cover of the steam chamber 
into this^ through the articles contained, and out through 
the tube in the boiling pan. In the course of a quarter 
of an hour the sterilization is conipleted; the hood is re- 
moved, also the steam chamber; the instument tray is 
now put in, the steam chamber is replaced, the hood like- 
wise, but without its cork. For the preservation of the in- 
struments a little soda or soap has been added (lysol 
serves the same purpose.) In the course of five minutes 
the instruments are surgically sterile; during this time 
the steam will escape continuously through the open tube 



of the hood, both that delivered by the water and that 
contained in the steam chamber; simultaneously a draught 
of hot air will enter the chamber from below, and when 
this is removed, its contents are not only sterilized, but 
also dry. A combined sterilizer of the dimensions above 
mentioned can, without difSculty, be transported in a 
suitable wooden case, and as the preparation and sterili- 
zation of the necessaries is an easy matter, there is no 
possible excuse for resorting to mercantile antiseptic 
goods in operations in private practice. The surgeon 
who relies indiscriminately upon antiseptic wares, which 
he buys, is a dangerous man! 

Articles adapted to sterilization by steam can safely 



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64 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

be transported to the place of operation in various ways, 
Bloch's method in doable filtering paper being prefer- 
able; it is, however: always safer to sterilize on the spot, 
and, as only half an hour is required for the whole pro- 
cedure, it is also practicable. la urgent emergency cases 
a surgeon ought never to be taken by surprise, and as 
time is valuable in such cases, he should always have on 
hand a supply of sterilized articles. 

One more remark with regard to operations in private 
practice. I will most emphatically impress upon all sur- 
geons, with the possible exception of those few who are 
masters both in surgical technique and in asepsis, to con- 
sider every wound at the end of an operation of some 
duration slightly infected, and therefore to combine 
their asepsis with a judical antisepsis. Thus I am in the 
habit of repeatedly dipping my hands during the opera- 
tion in a weak, sterile solution of lysol (| per cent or 
even less). The small amount of antiseptic which in this 
way is carried into the wound, I have yet failed to find 
objectionable, and I use lysol because it is at hand, and 
because it is alkaline like the fluids of the tissues. And 
when the operation is completed, I apply next to the 
wound an antiseptic dressing, not exactly the customary 
iodoform gauze, because its preparation requires extra- 
ordinary facilities, but antiseptic, and at the same time 
aseptic, hydrophile ointments. Anhydrous lanolin ab- 
sorbs moisture greedily; it is first sterilized, mixed while 
cooling with 2 per cent lysol and run into tubes. A gen- 
erous quantity is expressed over the wound, and over 
this the ordinary dressing is applied. Changing this 
dressing is unattended by the disturbance of the wound 
or the. patient's comfort, as it does not stick like a dry 
dressing. 

In the foregoing it has been my aim to dwell upon the 
most essential points in surgical sterilization and sterili- 
zers in private practice, points which I could stamp with 
some degree of originality. — Journal Am. Med. Assoc. 



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18&7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. B5 

The Preparation of Diphtheria Antitoxic Serum. 

By H. K. MULFORD, Ph. G., 

PHII^DEI^PHIA, PA. 

The discovery of diphtheria antitoxin was made by 
Behring as result of his primary and original investiga- 
tion in connection with Kitasato upon tetanus antitoxin. 

The method of preparation first proposed was the in* 
jection into suitable animals of cultures of the diphtheria 
bacilli in which the bacilli had been killed by heat. 
When the animal could withstand such injection, mani- 
festing only a slight irritation or oedema at site of injec- 
tion, or showing but feeble temperature reaction, highly 
attenuated living cultures were introduced in increasing 
amounts^ a sufficient immunization or resistance being 
given by the primary injections to prevent fatal termi- 
nation. The injection of living cultures, however, is 
greatly to be discouraged, since such injection and those 
of attenuated cultures containing dead bacilli are accom- 
panied by great destruction of cellular tissue of the ani- 
mal which is to furnish the antitoxin, its physical strength 
being lessened by such destructive processes. 

The best method is as follows: As virulent a culture as 
possible of the bacillus diphtheric^ is obtained. It is 
grown upon Loeffler's solidified blood serum mixture and 
placed in an incubator at a temperature of 45 degrees C. 

After a period of 24 hours the cultures are developed. 
From this a single culture or colony of the bacilli is trans- 
ferred into small flasks of a 2 per cent peptone bouillon 
rendered decisively alkaline to litmus. These small flasks 
are placed in an incubator which is kept at a constant 
temperature of about 37 degrees C. for 24 to 48 hourS; 
and afterward the contents are transferred with peptone 
bouillon into rounded flat flasks with a long neck (so that 
sterilized cotton may be pushed well into the tubulature) 
of a capacity of 500 ccm. These large flasks are placed 



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66 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

in the incubator and kept at a constant temperature of 
37 degrees C. until the bacilli have become very numer- 
ous, and have secreted enormous amounts of active and 
powerful toxin in the bouillon. 

When this has taken place a microscopical examination 
is made to see that bacilli other than the Klebs-Loeffler 
are not present, and the diphtheria toxin thus contami- 
nated. If uncontaminated 1 per cent of trikresol is added 
to prevent contamination and to destroy the bacillus 
diphtherias. The bouillon, or, as we now term it, diphthe- 
ria toxin, is filtered through a modified Chamberland 
filter to separate from it the dead bodies of the diphthe- 
ria bacilli. No bacilli are therefore injected into the 
animals to be immunized, and they are not given diphthe- 
ria, but only the toxin secreted by the bacilli. 

DETERMINING THE TOXICITY OF THE TOXIN. 

The toxicity of the toxin is determined by its injection 
into guinea pigs. To be of the desired strength, 0.01 to 
0.1 ccm. nhould produce death of the control animal in 
from 24 to 36 hours. 

For the preparation of diphtheria antitoxin any ani- 
mal may be selected, but horses are preferred, inasmuch 
as they are more easily operated upon, and because they 
furnish excellent serum in liberal amounts. Our experi- 
ence as to the type of horses selected, particularly in the 
earlier observations, have been valuable, the majority 
being of unusually high quality, a number showing trace 
of fine breeding; such horses, however, are not suited for 
immunization. The finely bred horse being sensitive, 
frets at his inactivity (for no work is performed by the 
animal while being immunized, only a sufficient amount 
of exercise being given to maintain good health), neither 
does he take kindly to the injection of the toxin or the 
subsequent bleeding operations. The preference is given 
to large, compactly built animals, of dark color, 16 to 18 



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I897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 57 

bands high, from 1,400 to 1,600 pounds weight, of quiet 
disposition, and possessing good healtli. 

TESTING FOR GLANDERS AND TUBERCULOSIS. 

Before the injecting with toxin, the malleine test for 
glanders and the tuberculin test for tuberculosis is ap- 
plied, the results of such being clearly shown by the tem- 
perature. Animals responding to either of these tests 
must be discarded. 

The primary injection of the toxin is 1 ccm. At equal 
periods of from six to eight days, constantly increasing 
amounts of the toxin are administered until in about ten 
weeks to three months as great quantities as 300 ccm. of 
this powerful toxin may be borne with tolerance. 

When the injection of these larger amounts is accom- 
panied with but little elevation of temperature, and but 
a slight cedema is manifested at site of injection, a trial 
bleeding is made, 20 ccm. of blood being taken from the 
jugular. If the tests for antitoxic value, as described 
later under the testing of antitoxin, are favorable, the 
horse is bled, the blood being collected in sterile bottles, 
and placed in a refrigerating room for a s\iflScient time 
(about 24 hours) until the fibrin coagulates, allowing the 
serum which contains the antitoxin to remain clear. This 
serum is drawn off by pipettes and preserved by the ad- 
dition of 0.5 per cent trikresol. 

The most important step now awaits the operator, the 
determination of the exact strength possessed by the 
antitoxin as expressed in immunizing units. 

THE IMMUNIZING UNIT. 

Immunizing units represent the strength of antitoxic 
serum that is required to save a guinea pig from ten 
times the absolute minimum fatal dose of the diphtheria 
toxin, and the strength of the antitoxin is designated by 
the number of immunizing units per ccm. of the serum. 

For this purpose the minimum fatal dose of the toxin is 



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68 THB AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

accurately determined by injections of various amounts 
of toxin into a number of guinea pigs, the smallest 
amount of toxin that invariably causes the death of the 
control animal in a reasonable, time being regarded as the 
minimum fatal dose. It is usually calculated so much 
per 100 gm. body weight. 

Every lot of antitoxin is carefully tested, and if the con- 
trol animal shows evidences of csdema at site of injection, 
or diminution in body weight, the antitoxin is rejected. 

A page from the laboratory minutes shows this deter- 
mination of strength. Having found the minimum fatal 
dose here used to be 0.005 per gram weight of guinea pig, 
the control animals are given ten times this^ absolutely 
fatal dose of diphtheria toxin or poison, and if testing 
for 100 units per ccm., as appears from experiment on 
animal No. 1,080, 1-1000 ccm. antitoxin obtained from 
horse No. 109 H is given; if testing for 250 units per 
ccm., 1-2500 ccm. of antitoxin is given; if for 500 units, 
1-5000 ccm. of antitoxin would be administered. 

Tests for 500 units are shown on control animal 1,070 
and for 350 units on control animal 1,076. 

While this paper does not deal with the therapeutic 
value of diphtheria antitoxin, the absolute scientific value 
and correctness of these tests may be appreciated by 
these observations, and we prove the therapeutic appli- 
cation of the antitoxin by its neutralizing or protective 
value upon the control animals receiving ten times the 
amount of toxin that always kills. Unfortunately, we 
cannot thus arrive at the dose for therapeutic application 
since the human subject is much more susceptible to the 
poison, and we have no possible means of determining 
the amount of toxin secreted by the diphtheria bacilli in 
the patient suffering with diphtheria. 

Appreciating, however, that the only effect of diphthc- 
ria antitoxin is in neutralizing the toxins of diphtheria, 
we know how necessary it is to make application of this 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 69 

"healing serum" before the nerve centers become par- 
alyzed, the heart and kidneys become diseased and the 
entire system invaded by the absorption of the fatal toxin. 

THE PRESERVATION OF ANTITOXIN. 

Diphtheria antitoxin is a most delicate substance, and 
its preparation cap only be safely carried on in thoroughly 
equipped institutions where men of undoubted integrity 
of purpose and' ability are in supervision. 

While antitoxin is a delicate substance, yet, when a 
proper preservative in a suflScient amount is used, and it 
is hermetically sealed in sterile vials, it will preserve its 
strength and antitoxic value for at least six months; in- 
deed, repeated experiments prove it retains its activity 
for a much longer period. 

Chloroform, camphor, sodium salicylate, carbolic acid, 
and formaldehyde have been employed, but the prefer- 
ence is greatly in favor of trikresol and formaldehyde. 
Camphor seems to be particularly dangerous, since it 
possesses but a feeble preservative action, and its strong 
odor will prevent the detection of putrefactive processes 
should they be established; chloroform and sodium 
salicylate are unsuited on account of their active the- 
rapeutic effect. 

Trikresol in a strength of but 0.5 percent protects the 
serum absolutely; in fact, pathogenic bacteria do not 
develop with this percentage of trikresol; it is not a poi- 
son, as is carbolid acid, nor is it an irritant to the 
urethral tract. A disadvantage is that it produces a semi- 
fluorescent appearance in the serum, but the absence of 
cloudiness is shown by permitting the light to enter 
squarely through the vials containing the finished product. 

STRENGTH OF SERUM. 

Antitoxin is usually supplied in bottles containg vary- 
ing quantities of serum, but of a certain number of anti- 
toxic immunizing units. This is apt to lead to confusion, 



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60 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

and we would strongly recommeud that a fixed standard 
of a definite number of immunizing units be secured in 
each com. of serum. While this involves extra labor, it 
prevents confusion on the part of the physician, and the 
end is well worthy of the increased labor. If serum is 
produced of a strength of 126 units per ccm., it may be 
mixed with an equal amount of serum containing 76 units 
per ccm.; the result is that each ccm. will contain 100 
immunizing units^ and if 500 units are desired to be ad- 
ministered, 6 ccm. will be understood as the requisite 
amount to be injected, etc. 

HIGH POTENCY SERUM. 

It is a matter of gratifying interest to Americans that 
serums of the highest antitoxic values have been prepared 
in our country. Serums are now produced of which each 
ccm. contains as much as 800 units, and we confidently 
believe that as much as 1,000 antitoxic units to the ccm. 
will be produced in the near future. This overcomes the 
chief objection that has been urged against the serum 
even by its warmest advocates. More prompt absorp- 
tion will take place, insuring quicker results, besides the 
attendant dread caused by the large instruments neces- 
sary for the introduction of larger amounts of weaker 
serum will be avoided, a,^ much as 2,000 units beii\g ad- 
ministered in an ordinary two ccm. or 30 minim syringe. 

DRIED SERUMS. 

Dried serums are much less active than fluid or fresh 
ones. They are prepared by addition of aluminum or 
ammonium sulphate, with subsequent precipitation of the 
antitoxin by a 1 per cent soda solution or by inpissa- 
tion. They have given fairly good results, but cause 
greater irritation than do the fluid serums, and not being 
freely soluble, cause annoyance in administration and 
give greater opportunities for contamination in their pre- 
paration and dilution for administration. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 61 

HOW ANTITOXIN ACTS. 

We do not know what action takes place in the serum 
of the horse producing the antitoxin, nor do we know 
positively its action upon the organism of the control 
animal or the patient treated for diphtheria. The fact 
that the control animals always recover under the in- 
fluence of antitoxin, while they always die with but one 
tenth the amount of toxin, and the reduction in mortal- 
ity of patients ill with diphtheria under the influence of 
antitoxin, are, however, self-convincing. No reason can 
exist for its non-employment on this ground, since we do 
not know the nature of the changes from pepsin to pep- 
tones, albumen to albuminoids; the action of arsenic in 
ansmia, mercury in syphilis, and many of our therapeu- 
tic agents. They are used empirically because favorable 
results are secured. 

The accepted theory of the action of antitoxin is that 
it renders the living cells of the organism tolerant to the 
toxin liberated by the diphtheria bacilli and by increas- 
iag this tolerance they are able to overcome these toxins. 

That antitoxin exerts no chemical action on the toxin 
can be proved by mixing toxins and antitoxins, and main- 
taining the mixture at a temperature of 70 degrees C. 
for some time. At this temperature the antitoxin is de- 
stroyed, while the toxin remains but slightly disturbed 
in virulence. 

Bwing and Billings have made numerous experiments 
as to the action of antitoxic serum upon the blood, and 
agree that: **In cases of diphtheria treated with antitoxin 
the diminution in the number of the red corpuscles it 
much less marked than in those cases treated without it. 
The leucocytes are apparently unaftected in number by 
the antitoxin, the hsBmoglobin is also much less affected 
in the cases treated with antitoxin, thus confirming the 
statement as to the red corpuscles, while the leucocytes 
are stimulated in action, as evinced by taking more vivid 
color when staiued with indigo solution." — Am. Druggist, 



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62 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

EDITOBIAI. 



The Cochineal Insect. — The cochineal insect is a native 
of Mexico, where it was raised by the Mexican Indians 
long- before the country was discovered by the Spaniards. 
It is now cultivated in the West India Islands and in some 
of the Southern States but only in Mexico does it form an 
article of commerce. 

The insect is raised on the cochineal tree, or nopal, 
which is a species of cactus. It grows freely from cut- 
ting's, and these are fit to receive insects after eig-hteen 
months. Into a nest formed of a thread-like substance or 
of cottony matter, a few females are placed about the first 
of October. The nests are fastened to the side of the tree 
facing" the rising" sun, and eg"g"s are soon layed. As each 
female produces upwards of a thousand eg-g-s, a larg-e 
colony is formed. Six g"enerations are produced in a sin- 
gle year. 

On first leaving the egg the insects are quite lively and 
run about over the tree. They are so small as to require 
a magnifying glass to see them. They are flat, ovular, 
without wings and with short antennae or horns. The 
females have a small, short, almost conical beak, placed be- 
tween the first and second pair of feet, which contains a 
sucker. It is by means of thissucker that they draw forth 
the juices of leaves and tender stems. 

When the insect has reached the perfect state, it is filled 
with a multitude of minute eggs. These she lays, then 
dies, her body becoming a covering for the eggs until they 
are hatched. When this is done the insects work their 
way out and commence feeding. After a short time their 
skins harden and serve as a cocoon. From this they pass 
into a chrysalis state, and soon after appear as the perfect 
insect. 

The cochineal is collected about the first of December. 
The insects are removed from the trees with a knife or 
squirrel tail. They are then dried by heat or in the sun. 
Wh^n the cochineal arrives in the market it is in the form 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 63 

of a small grain, concave on one side and convex on the 
other, having- a little resemblance to the body of an insect. 
It colors purple naturally but when mixed with nitro- 
muriatic acid g-ives a beautiful scarlet. 

New deposits of Infusorial Earth found in Europe. 
— Some large deposits of kieselguhr (infusoral earth) have 
been discovered at Kissatib, near Achalzich, in the Cau- 
casus. It occurs in strata which altogether are about 40ft. 
in thickness. Some of the strata are of a snowy white, 
while others are beautifully striped in various ways by 
layers of oxide of iron, etc., thus resembling marble. 
Efforts are being made to find a process for hardening this 
material, for its variety of beautiful designs combined with 
extreme lightness would make it a precious stone for 
architectural purposes. White kieselguhr is used for a 
variety of purposes, as in the manufacture of dynamite, 
colours (ultramarine), matches, for isolating purposes, etc. 
The Kissatib, kieselguhr is remarkable for its purify (3 
percent of sand) and whiteness. 



nOBOSGOPICAL APPARATUS. 

The Microscope in Pharmacy. — The pharmacist of to- 
day finds considerable use for the microscope; the phar- 
macist of to-morrow will find it an indispensable accessory 
in bis business. Already a limited knowledge of the use 
of the instrument is required in the examination room, 
and as time passes the requirements in this direction are 
likely to be greatly extended. Accordingly, it seems de- 
sirable to point out that the microscopical examination of 
substances is simply an essential step in the complete vis- 
ual examination of those substances. Everyone realises 
that the nearer, within certain limits, anipbject is brought 
to the normal eye, the larger it appears and the more dis- 
tinctly its details are apparent. When brought within a 
distance of two or three inches, however, the image be- 
comes blurred and indistinct, whilst an object held close 
to the eye cannot be s^en atall, and simply obstructs light. 



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64 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

Now the use of a hand lens enables one to bring* an object 
under examination much closer to the eye than is normally 
possible, for the outer surface of the lens represents that 
of the eye for the time being-. As a result the object ap- 
pears much larger, and more structural detail is revealed 
than when the object is viewed by the unassisted eye. 
Similarly, the compound microscope still further lessens 
the distance between the object and the eye, the surface 
of which is now represented by the front of the objective, 
and to speak of the imag-e of an object as being enormously 
magnified under the microscope is simply another way of 
expressing the fact that the object has virtually been 
brought into such close proximity to the organ of sight as 
is normally impossible. Examination of an object by the 
aid of the microscope, therefore, must be regarded as a mere 
extension of the limits within which the normal human eye 
is capable of clearly distinguishing the detailsof objects. As 
spectacles help the partially blind to see, so the microscope 
enables those with perfect eyes to see more than is possi- ; 
ble without such aid, and the natural conclusion is that j 
pharmacists and others whose skill is partly dependent 
upon the accurate impressions they form of the appearance 
of objects, should be adepts in the use of an instrument 
that can so increase their natural powers. — Pharmaceuti- 
cal Journal. 

nCBOSGOPICAL MANIPULATION- 



Preservation of Microscopic Specimens. — Dr. Jores de- 
scribes a method, which he has tested for a year and a 
half of preserving organs and tissues so that they retain 
the color they had when fresh. He finds that five to ten 
parts of a fifty per cent solution of formalin alone causes 
the organs to assume a tint which varies considerably from 
the natural color. But instead of using water to dilute the 
common formalin solution, he uses one part common salt, 
two parts of Magnesium sulphate, two parts sodium sul- 
phate in one hundred parts of water. This preserves the 
color of the blood. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 65 

Further, material preserved in such a solution is better 
adapted for subsequent microscopic examination, since 
the protoplasm of the cell is less altered and the nucleus 
stained better and deeply. 

The method he adopts is as follows: — The material must 
not be too long washed in water, and should be left in the 
formalin for a period depending- on size and thickness. A 
kidney or spleen requires two days' immersion and the so- 
lution should be changed until it no longer gives a dirty 
brownish red color. Care must be taken to bring all por- 
tions of the object into contact with the solution, and the 
object must be given the color it is to retain permanently, 
since the formalin solution causes it to assume a consist- 
ency such that its shape cannot afterwards be modified. 
In the formalin solution the organs change color and be- 
come of a dirty bluish grey. On placing them in ninety- 
five per cent alcohol the normal color returns. Before 
permanently placing the organ in alcohol it must be washed 
in alcohol until the latter no longer becomes cloudy. The 
material must not be washed with water; it is left in alco- 
hol until the normal color returns; if left longer the alco- 
hol removes the color. For-a kidney or spleen, twenty-four 
hours will be sufficient. The permanent preserving fluid 
is equal parts glycerine and water; the material floats at 
first but sinks later ; the color is now at its best, after a 
little while the fluid becomes yellowish and wants renewal. 
Tissues so preserved have not undergone the slightest 
alteration in nine months. 

The method is not applicable to other color than blood. — 
Int. Med. Magazine. 

Infiltrating Dental and Osseous Tissues for Microscop- 
ical Work. — At a recent meeting of the Odontological So- 
ciety of Great Britain Mr. Charters White gave the details 
of the method he adopts to demonstrate the presence of 
spaces in hard sections of dental and osseous tissues. The 
section to be treated must be ground moderately thin, to 
about 1-32 in , and then immersed in absolute alcohol for 
five minutes, and subsequently in ether for a similar per- 
iod. It is next transferred to a thin solution of celloidin 



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f>6 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

(three grains of celloidin to half an ounce of equal parts of 
absolute alcohol and ether). This solution is colored red 
by the addition of fuchsine, the stain being added to the 
alcohol before the celloidin is dissolved. The specimen is 
allowed to remain in the solution for two or three days, 
after which it is removed and placed on paper to dry. 
The section is then g-round to the desired tenuity and 
mounted on balsam. The advantag'es of the process are 
(1) the cavernous and tubular structures in dentine and 
bone are filled with a colored medium, which prevents 
the balsam from running- into such spaces and so obliterat- 
ing them ; and (2) the section is rendered less brittle and 
can, therefore, be easily g-round down without much fear 
of fracture. — English Mechanic. 



BIOLOOIGAL NOTES. 



An international botanical garden is to be established at 
Palermo, under the direction of Prof. Borzi, of the Univer- 
sity. It is hoped that the favorable position of the garden 
may attract foreign students. 

It seems certain now that the late Dr. Alfred Nobel has 
made a munificent bequest to science. According to the 
terms of his will, so it is said, a fund is to be formed from 
all his realisable property, the yearly interest from which 
is to be divided into five equal portions, the first of which 
is to be allotted as a prize for the most important discov- 
ery in the domain of physics; the second for the principal 
chemical discovery or improvement; the third for the 
chief discovery in physiology or medicine; the fourth for 
the most distinguished literary contribution in the 
same field; and the fifth is to be allotted to whomsoever 
may have achieved the most or done the best to promote 
the cause of peace. All these prizes are open to the world. 
After deducting a few bequests to individuals, it is ex- 
pected that the fund thus devised to the cause of progress 
will amount to the sum of nearly two millions sterling. — 
English Mechanic. 



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1867] MICHOSCOPICAL JOtJltNAL. 67 

Mr. George J. Burch, of Oxford, England, has been ex- 
perimenting upon plants with Rontgen photogmphy. He 
finds that flower buds and seed vessels are especially fav- 
orable objects. He believes that if the photograph could 
be made upon a magnified scale the outline of every cell 
would be seen. The capsules of hyacinth and the flower 
buds of fuschia are reproduced in his account published 
in Gardeners' Chronicle HI. 

Numbers 11 and 12 of Lloyd's Photogravures of Ameri- 
can Fungi have recently been distributed. They repre- 
sent respectively Lepiota morgani Peck and Sparassis 
herbstii Peck, two interesting species. The first was 
photographed as it grew in the field, and makes an unus- 
ually attractive and characteristic picture. 



BACTESIOLOGT. 



Bacteriosis of Carnations. — Dr. J. C. Arthur and Prof. 
H. L. BoUey give an excellent account of one of the most 
serious difficulties the carnation grower has to encounter, 
namely, Bacteriosis which they ascribe to a new organism. 
Bacterium dianthi. The organism responsible for this 
disease is oval or elliptical in outline and does not occur in 
chains. It is motile and produces zoogloea. In gelatin it 
produces at first a smooth even growth along the track of 
the needle, having a pale cream color, later it assumes a 
marked appearance and the color is bright orange, being 
much deeper in acid cultures. It slowly liquefies gelatin. 
The zoogloea are formed as follows: **Certain individuals, 
without ceasing active multiplication, become non-motile, 
and at once begin to excrete a gelatinous envelope. This 
envelope offers considerable resistance to longitudinal ex- 
tension, and the new cells as they form slip past one 
another, accumulating in an elongated mass, which in- 
creases faster in thickness than in length." If the nutrient 
material is not renewed, the zoogloea disintegrate in ten to 
fifteen days by liquefaction of the gelatinous envelope; this 
permits the bacteria to fall to the bottom of the fluid. They 
multiply very rapidly, a well marked constriction occurred 



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68 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. 

within seven minutes and in twenty minutes more there 
were two full grown bacteria formed from each original 
cell, althoug-h still attached to each other. At this rate of 
multiplication 280,000,000,000 would be formed in twenty 
four hours. They would occupy fully one inch of cubic 
space. This organism is an aerobe and makes compara- 
tively rapid growth at 8-10 degrees C. . The rate of divi- 
sion increases up, to 34-36 degrees C, but above this point 
It is less rapid. Some growth was obtained at 45 degrees C. 
As to its parasitic nature, in its early stages the individual 
bacteria are imbedded in protoplasm, the chlorophyll 
grains become disorganized, the protoplasmic utricle is 
broken up and the contents of cell are disintegrated. This 
germ has the power of eroding the cell-wall and thus 
dissolves for itself a passage way, which may be brought 
about by an enzym and it is probable that the perforation in 
the cell-wall is quickly healed by growth and swelling of 
the same. They enter the host by means of stomata or 
accidental punctures. It readily attacks young and partly 
grown leaves. In addition to an account of the distribu- 
tion of the disease and the varieties affected they treat the 
economic aspect. The paper is accompanied by two ex- 
cellent colored plates and six other plates which show the 
character of the organisms. (Purdue University, Agrl. 
Exp. Sta. BuU., No. 59, Vol. Vn, March, 1896.) 

Microbes that Make Glucose. — Everyone knows the 
service-berry, that decorative shrub that retains its bright 
red berrieseven in the middle of winter. Now these berries 
were the subject of a sort of puzzle about half a century 
ago. In 1852 Pelouze, examining the juice of service ber- 
ries that had been left for a long time at the bottom of a 
dish, discovered a perfectly crystallised substance, very 
sugary, and having all the properties of glucose. He saw 
nothing here that was not perfectly natural. We find 
sugar everywhere, or almost everywhere; there was 
therefore nothing astonishing in the discovery, and the 
new sugar was christened sorbine or sorbose » But now 
began the puzzle. When, a little later, other scientists de- 



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18»7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 69 

sired to prepare some sorbose directly, they could not g^et 
any. Byschl and Delflfs could obtain it neither from the 
fresh nor the fermented juice. In short, the fantastic sor- 
bose, born by chance in a laboratory retort, refused abso- 
lutely to make its appearance again. We know now why 
this was; the mystery has been brought to light by a 
chemist at the Museum — M. Bertrand. By crushing ripe 
service-berries and then exposing them to the open air M. 
Bertrand obtained first alcohol by ordinary fermentation, 
and soon a whitish layer covered the surface of the liquid ; 
the alcohol disappeared in its turn, the layer grew mouldy, 
but in the remaining liquid it was proved that there was 
no trace of sorbose. He tried again and again, and one 
fine day on the layer of which we have spoken a fly alighted, 
a little red vinegar fly. Then all was changed. The mem- 
brane thickened, soon swarmed with larvae, and in the 
liquid below it great quantities of sorbose appeared. This 
is what had taken place : the membrane was made thick 
and heavy by the thousands of microbes that had been 
brought by the little red fly, microbes whose oxidising in- 
flence had rapidly transformed the juice of the service- 
berries into sorbose. The experiment, after that, could 
be repeated at will. Thus recognised at length, the indus- 
trious microbes, whose length is less than a thousandth of 
a milli-metre (.025 of an inch) require no urging to manu- 
facture in a few hours nearly a kilogram (21b.) of the new 
kind of glucose. — Cosmos. , 

The experiments made with nitrogen in this country do 
not seem to be conclusive (see p. 561, Aug. 7 last). An 
important paper on the subject has appeared in a German 
bacteriological journal, giving experiments showing the 
capability possessed by Bacillus radiciola of growing on for- 
eign culture media. It will be remembered that Dr. Nobbe 
isolated some twenty of these nitrogen-assimilating bac- 
teria from the root nodules of various leguminous plants, 
and has endowed them with the collective title of **Nitra- 
gin." In the present experiments bacteria from the luc- 
erne nodules were cultivated in pure media derived res- 



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^0 T?HE AMERICAN MOI^ItLY [B»eb. 

pectively from infusions of lucerne a4id from white mus- 
tard, their cultivation being* carried on throug-h several 
^nerations. On the lucerne g-elatine the bacteria flour- 
ished abundantly up to the last; on the mustard gelatine 
they gradually faded away. It was tried if these lucerne- 
nodule-bacteria could be induced to thrive on the mustard 
medium by gradual training-, and in the course of six 
months that was accomplished. — Ekig-lish Mechanic. 



VEDICAL KICBOSGOPT. 

Test for Typhoid Fever.— William Trelease, Recording 
Secretary of the Academy sent to Science the following" ac- ' 
count of the meeting January 4, 1897: Dr. Amand Ravold 
gave a microscopic demonstration of Widal's test for typh- 
oid fever, demonstrating- that after the disease has existed 
for four daysor more the blood of typhoid patients, probably 
because of some contained anti-toxine, possesses the power 
of inhibiting the motion of typhoid bacilli from a pure cul- 
ture introduced into it within a period of one hour or less, 
whereas in normal blood similar bacilli retain their power 
of locomotion for an indefinite length of time. It was 
stated that typhoid blood possesses this property even af- 
ter having been dried for a period of four weeks or more, 
so that a few drops obtained from a person suspected of 
having the disease may be sent to suitable places for ap- 
plying- the test, thus rendering comparatively easy the 
early diagnosis of a disease which in its early stages pre- 
sents many clinical difficulties. 



PERSONALS. 



We learn through the newspapers that on December 26, 
the remains of Prof. Louis Pasteur, the eminent bacteri- 
ologist, who died September 28, 1895, were removed from 
the Cathedral of Norte-Dame to the Institute, where they 
were received by a gathering of distinguished men, includ- 
ing Premier Meline, MM. Rambaud and Brisson and sev- 



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1897] l^rWROSGOPiCAL JOURNAfc: 71 

eral well known men from Great Britian. President Faure 
and Gen. Billot, the minister of war, were represented at 
the ceremony. Speeches were made at the crypt of the in^ 
stitute by M. Rambaud, M. Bodin, president of the muni- 
cipal council of Paris, Dr. Evans, Dr. Rice Duckworth an4 
others. 

Dr. John B. Hamilton has resig^ned from the Marine 
Hospital service. 

Dr. Geo. H. Rohe, Secretary of the Rush Monument 
Committee reports October 31, that since the last report 
in April he has received the small sum of $159.00 making- a 
total of $3,886.39. 

Dr. Hugo de Vries has been appointed director of the 
botanical gardens at Amsterdam in the place of Dr. Oude- 
mans. 

Dr. J. de Winter, assistant in the Zoological garden at 
Antwerp, has been made director of the Zoological gurden 
at Giseh, near Cairo. 

It is announced that Pfeiflfer has found an efficacious and 
reliable antitoxin for typhoid fever. 

Dr. W. M. L. Coplin, of Philadelphia, has been appointed 
bacteriologist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Health, 
and Dr. Richard Slee of Swiftwater, Dr. Nelson F. Davis, 
of Bucknell University, and Dr. Robert L. Pitfield, of 
Germantown, assistant bacteriologists. 

The widow of Baron Maurice Hirsch, of Vienna, has 
resolved to present two millions of francs (^80,000) to the 
Pasteur Institute, as a memorial of her husband. — English 
Mechanic. 



MICBOSCOPKAL NOTES. 



Mrs. J. E. Reeves, 201 McCallie Ave., Chattanooga, 
Tenn., has 35 or 40 dozens of **unnamed" slides to sell. 
They are the last work of her late husband, Dr. J. E. 
Reaves, She has also as manv or more of '*named'' slides. 



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72 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Feb. . 

A g-ood microscope for sale cheap. Pacific Medical 
Journal Office, 603 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Barbados. — The official papers of Barbados spell the 
word as above and not as we have heretofore given it in 
the articles of certain contributors — Barbadoes. 

A small crystal of Thymol will preserve urinary sedi- 
ments. 

There is now once more a University of Paris. The in- 
auguration has been celebrated in the new building of the 
Sorbonne. 

The twelfth International Congress of Medicine will take 
place from August 19th to 26th, 1897, at Moscow. 

It is reported that a lady has presented the French Acad" 
emy with 800,000 francs, the interest of which is to go to 
any one who will discover a cure for consumption. 

The annual budget in Paris for the Assistance Publique 
amounts to the large sum of $8,000,000; of this the medical 
and surgical personnel receives $200,000. 

A report comes from the Medico-Surgical Society of Ant- 
werp of the discovery of an antitoxin for pneumonia by 
Dr. Mennes, of Louvain. The microbe is stated to be ex- 
tremely small, of a shape approaching an oval. At pres- 
ent successful experiments have been confined to animals. 
— English Mechanic. 

Ink for Writing on Glass. — Shellac 20 parts, alcohol 150 
parts, borax 35 parts, water 250 parts. Water soluble 
dye, sufficient to color. Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol, 
the borax in the water and pour the shellac solution slowly 
into that of the borax. Then add the coloring matter, pre- 
viously dissolved in a little water. 

Dr. Sidney Yankauer of New York County, exhibited at 
the thirteenth annual meeting of the New York State Med- 
ical Association, 1896, a simple and inexpensive microtome 
which he devised. With the model shown he said he had 
cut sections in celloidin a thousandth of an inch thick,and in 
paraffin sections only one five-thousandth of an inch thick 



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I 



MICROSCOPES DUTY FREE. 

Colleges and Educational Institutions in the U. S. are entitled to im- 
port microscopes and Scientific Instruments, duty free, and can there- 
fore have such goods shipped to them at London prices, by ordering 
direct from us. 

Dr. Henri Van Heurck's 
Microscope 

FOR HIGH POWER WORK AND 
PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY 

As made by W. Watson and Sons to the 
Specification of Dr. Henri Van Heurck 
of Antwerp and used by leading Photo- 
micrographersin theU. S., and through- 
out the world. 

Fitted with fine uc^justnient of utmoet seDBltiyeneas 
and precisioD, not liable tu derangement by wear. 

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1880-1895. 

(16 years.) 

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lUontt^Iy journal of (Ecology: 

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AND 

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The NEW SERIES. Decade IV. Vol. H.No. 1-4. 
Jan.- April, 1895, NOW READY. 

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MICROSCOPY. 



^URIKO the iMt few moathe 
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The foUowiug are among the Glided iucluded iu this Series : 



1. Colony of the lovely Radiolarian Sphstro- I 

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Feather Star (aiUedon) 40c ' 

4. An entire Sea- Butterfly (Ptcropod), 40c 

5. Lovely expauded Zoophyte Synconjne. 40c ^ 



6. Lovely Expanded Zoophyte Sertvlana 60c 

7. 0|K><:iHumHthrimp Myait^ showing audi- 

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8. The fiHendid rare organ-pipe Polycoon, 

Lichetiftpora 40c 

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THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 

Contents for March, 1897. 

The Striped Mnscle Fibre : A few Points in its Comparative Hintology. 

Tayler. (With Fiontispieoe.) TJ 

TestA £or MicnMoope Objectives. Nelson 80 

Notes on (Comparative Histology of Blood and Muscle. Clay pole 84 

On Soundings fh>m the Pacific Ocean. Edwards 89 

Practical Methods of Demonstrating l*abercle Bacilli. Sherman 92 

Editobial. 

Le Natnraliste Canadian 95 

DiatomaceoQS Earth Free... ... 95 

Pritchaid's Infhsoria 96 

ThePastear Gardens 96 

Monumental 96 

P&ACTHAL Hints. Ward^ 

A Simple Expedient in Focussing 97 

Preservation of Library Mucilage 98 

For Moistening Envelopes 98 

MicBoscopicAL Manipulation. 

Stable Picro-Carmine Solution 99 

Stain for Tubercle Bacilli 99 

Revival of an Old Histological Method for Rapid Diaguunis 100 

Stains for Vegetable Tissues 100 

The Sterlization of Milk 100 

Plants Growing under Microscope 101 

Storax as a Mounting Medium 101 

Walter White's Botanical Specimens 101 

Bactkeioixxjy. 

Cheede Curd Inflation, its Relation to the Bacterial Flora of Fore- 
milk 102 

The Constancy of the Kinds of Bacteria in Normal Milk 102 

The Fly as a Germ Carrier 103 

Infections Character of the Feces of Tuberculous Cattle 103 

Rapid Isolation of Bacillus Coli Communis 104 

Excretions of Microorganisms 105 

Mkdical Microscopy. 

On the Actions of Antitoxin 105 

The Functions of Suprarenal Bodies 106 

Scarlet Fever by Mail 106 

Physicians can Testify as to Stains 107 

Biological Notes. 

Rhizopods as Scavengers 107 

Microscopical Notss. 

Meeting of American Publisher's Association 108 

New Publications. 

. Bacteria in Rocks 108 



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HISTOLOGY OF THE STRIPED MUSCLE. 



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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



Voi,. XVIII. MARCH. 1897. No. 3 



The Striped Muscle Fibre: A. few Points in its Compara- 
tive Histology. 

By LOUISE TAYLER, 
PATTBRSON, N. J. 

(With Frontispiece.) 

The striped muscle fibre has been the centre of interest 
for many years. This may be seen from all books touch- 
ing upon the subject found in any biological library. 
Perh9.p8 the most work has been done toward determin- 
ing the ultimate nature of the cross striping, and in other 
regards it has had less attention. In the few notes here 
offered, some points of a different nature are presented; 
points not so generally presented in those discussions. 

The muscle tissue of the following animals has been 
examined in regard to these points: 

, 1 The Elasmobranch, 2 Prog, 

3 Turtle, 4 Snake, 

6 Pigeon, 6 Rabbit, 7 Cat. 

Before taking up this discussion a general review of 
striped muscle may be of use. The mass of skeletal 
muscular substance is collected into distinct organs, mus- 
cles, the most of which are attached by means of fibrous 

DBSCRIPTION OF THR FRONTISPIIOE. 

1. Trftnsectloo of striped muacle ; fros, 

2. Transection ofitriped muscle; rabbit. 

A. Larger section of striped muscle fibre ; trog. 

4. Same as Fig. I, enlarged. 

I. Transection of striped muscle fibre ; turtle. 

6. Transection of striped muscle fibre ; pigeon. 

7. Same as in FIr. 2, enlarged. 

8. Transection of striped muscle; 13-daj chick embryo. 

9. Transection of striped muscle; 20-day chick embryo. 



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74 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

connective tissue to some firm part upon which they may 
act (Fig. 1, 2). The whole muscle is enclosed within a 
connective tissue sheath. Each muscle is divided into 
bundles called fasicles, which are also surrounded by 
sheaths of connective tissue.. The fasicles again are 
divided into individual fibres, which are separated by 
very similar connective tissue sheaths from each other. 

These fibres, the structural elements, are elonfs^ated 
transversely striated cells, or rather fibres, composed of 
two distinct parts, the sarcolemna and the sarcoas sub- 
stance. The sarcolemna is a thin transparent and elastic 
sheath. The sarcoue substance is a semi-fluid with the 
appearance of alternate dark and light bands and also 
of longitudinal striations. This substance is the essen- 
tial part of a muscle fibre. It is not yet certain whether 
the covering or sarcolemna fits over this sarcous sub- 
stance like a glove finger or whether it is connected 
structurally with it. 

Very complex theories have been proposed concerning 
the ultimate structure of the muscle fibre; the simplest 
and that most in harmony with the probable structure of 
other cells is as follows: The protoplasm of the fibre is 
composed of a network of threads. This network, in- 
stead of being arranged irregularly as in most cells, is 
arranged regularly in longitudinal and transverse threads 
(Fig. 3). These threads cross each other at right angles 
and at points of crossing, enlargements like beads are 
formed. The enlargements optically run together across 
the fibre, making the dark bands, the thin parts between 
appearing to form light bands. Owing to the fact that 
the longitudinal threads are stronger than the transverse 
threads, there is a tendency for the fibres to break up 
into longitudinal elements known as fibriles. 

In a transverse section each muscle fibre shows a divi- 
sion into a number of small polygonal areas, known as 
Cohnheim's areas. These are composed of bundles of 



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1897] MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 76 

fibrils and bear a similar relation to the tibres that the 
fasicles do to the muscle. 

Baeh fibre, moreover, contains nuclei. They are oval 
bodies, the long axis usually placed paralled with the 
iQngaxis of the fibre (Fig. 3). The position of nuclei varies 
greatly in the different animal forms and for this reason 
special stress is laid upon it in this discussion. The 
points to be emphasized are, the position and number of 
nuclei imbedded in the sarcous substance and the relative 
sizes of the different fibres. The animals have been 
chosen from widely varying classes to give a fair repre- 
sentation of all types. They are taken up in order, ac- 
cording to their classification in the animal kingdom. 

The fish representative is an elasmobranch, the dog- 
fish. Its striped muscle fibre is long and cylindrical as 
is usual. At its ends it tapers suddenly, the striated 
condition is lost and only the connective tissue covering 
stretches out into muscle attachment. The fibres vary in 
width but an average diameter of twenty fibres, as shown 
in section, is 74 microns. The nuclei are imbedded in the 
sarcous substance and only rarely is one found by the 
edge, making but eleven per cent of the whole number in 
this position. 

The frog is the amphibian representative (Fig. 4). 
The different fibres vary greatly in width, those nearer 
the outer edge of a muscle section appearing much 
smaller. This may be due to the fact that the fibres ter- 
minate on the outer edge in the sheath of muscle. The 
average diameter of twenty fibres as shown in section is 
66 microns. The only measurements found mentioned are 
those given by Gage (Reference Handbook of Medical 
Science, Vol. V. p ): the approximate width is 56 mi- 
crons for amphibians. 87 per cent of the nuclei are im- 
bedded in the sarcous substance. A transection of a 
fibre shows from one to six nuclei. The frog is quite a 



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76 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

differ eutiated amphibian and for that reason these points 
may differ in the more generalized forms. 

The turtle representing the reptiles, differs from the 
frog (Fig. 5). The muscle fibres appear in transection 
a little more angular and the diameter is smaller. An 
average of twenty measures 55 microns, in the turtle. 

77 per cent of the nuclei are imbedded in the sarcoussub. 
stance. This shows and advance in one line, over the frog. 

The pigeon is considered next (Fig. 6). This animal 
though not belonging to the highest class of mammals be- 
longs among warm blooded animals. Naturally differences 
are to be expected between this and the cold blooded forms. 
The first difference noted is that the fasicles are more 
distinct. The average diameter of twenty fibres is 24 
microns. The nuclei are found to a great extent at the 
edge and only 3 per cent are imbedded in the sarcous 
substance. 

Turning to the mammals, one finds still more differ- 
ences (Fig. 7). The fasicles in the rabbit are much 
more distinct than has yet been found and are surrounded 
by more connective tissue. In section, the individual 
fibres are far more angular, making the form more pris- 
matic than cylindical, — an average of 20 diameters 26 
microns, less than one-half the size of the frog. The 
rabbit's fibre has only i per cent of its nuclei imbedded 
in the sarcous substance. This leaves by far the greater 
number at the edge, projecting out, even push out the 
sarcolemna. The cat's muscle is very like that of the 
rabbit though there is more connective tissue between the 
fasicles and also between the fibres themselves. This 
m,ay be due to the greater activity and strength in the 
cat than is possessed by the domestic rabbit, necessitat- 
ting a large blood supply and firm binding of parts to- 
gether. An average of 20 fibres in diameter measures 
24 microns, and none of its nuclei are imbedded in the 
sarcous substance. 



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1897.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 77 

There is a wide difference between these last fibres ex- 
amined and the first; the results are expressed in the 
following summary: — 

Average Average per cent of nuclei im- 

Diameter. bedded in sarcous substances. 

Dog-fish, 74 mierons 89 per cent 

Frog, 66 microns 87 per cent 

Turtle, 55 microns 77 per cent 

Pigeon, 24 microns 3 per cent 

Rabbit, 25 microns i per cent 

Cat, 24 microns per cent 

This table shows a gradual change in the muscle fibre 
from the more general to the specialized animals; the 
size of the fibres not only gradually grows smaller and 
generally more angubvr but they are more surrounded by 
connective tissue. The nuclei gradually approach the 
edge and in the highest forms are even pushing out, mak- 
ing projections on the surface of the fibres. 

There is a large gap, however, between the cold 
blooded and warm blooded animals, giving two distinct 
groups, both in diameter of fibre and per cent of nuclei 
imbedded in the sarcous substance. 

Pacts from Embryological Forms. — There is a sug- 
gestion that perhaps some intermediate forms could, be 
found — unless variation is dependent on physiological 
conditions wholly — in developing muscle in embryos. 
By a study into some developing tissues of the chick em- 
bryos of 13, 16, 18 and 20 days, the series of changes ob- 
served is both interesting and suggestive. The series 
begins with irregular ill-defined cells (Pig. 8), which 
in the next stage (16 days) ghows clearly defined fibres 
with centrally placed nuclei. The next stage, in transec- 
tion shows in a cell, more than one nucleus generally 
centrally placed and the last stage examined (Fig. 9) 
shows most of the nuclei at the edge of the sarcous sub- 
stance as in the adult pigeon. The cells, however, are 
very much smaller than in the adult, the 20 examined 



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78 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

measuring only an average of 10 microns at the 20-day 
stage. This would be expected from the physiological 
conditions of inactivity. 

Facts fr(»m Adult Forms. — As the skeletal muscle is 
looked upon as the most highly developed, consequently 
an examination of striped muscle which is not voluntary 
may also throw some light upon the subject under con - 
sideration. Of these forms, the cardiac is most sugges- 
tive; the fibre in it is much shorter and contains only 
one centrally placed nucleus. This then is less special- 
ized than the striped muscle fibre of the frog for one 
centrally placed nucleus is a characteristic of the 
plain muscle fibre. The question arises, is there any 
striped muscle, otherwise placed, which may show some 
difference? The muscle in the esophagus offers a basis 
for comparison. Sections both longitudinal and trans- 
verse have been examined from the various parts of the 
tubes of some of the animals already noted. The esopha- 
gus of the frog has only plain muscle. The rabbit's 
esophagus has plain muscle fibre at the stomach end, but 
this gradually changes toward the other end where the 
striped muscle fibre is like the skeletal muscle in the 
position of its nuclei. The average per cent of nuclei 
imbedded in the sarcous substance is IJ per cent, but 
the variation from the middle of tube to the mouth end 
is from 4 per cent to per cent. Nothing like cardiac 
muscle, in the gradual change, could be observed, though 
some writers state that fibres become short toward the 
middle of the esophagus. The cat's esophagus has also 
plain muscle at the stomach end and gradually changes 
to striped muscle toward the other end. It has an 
average of 20 per cent of nuclei imbedded in the sarcous 
substance. This large number may be due to the fact 
that the sections, from which the observations were 
made, were of tissue quite far down this tube. Taking 
it, however, as correct on the whole, the position of the 



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1897J MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. !r» 

nuclei in the striped muscle fibres of the cat's esophagus 
may be considered less specialized than that of the rab- 
bit's esophagus. It may be regarded as an interesting 
fact that in the rabbit, the nuclei are quite centrally 
situated when not at the edge where as in the cat, those 
in the sarcou^ substance appear only just oflF the edge 
of the sarcolemna. 

The embryonic chick esophagus affords interesting 
gradations too. The earlier stages show distinct cells, 
each with a central nucleus. They appear in transection 
as very like plain muscle fibres. In an older embryo, the 
fibres are more angular^ the striated condition distinct 
and the nuclei both centrally and marginally situated 
as in the pigeon, with the greater per cent at the margin. 

Thus we find a series of adult structures in various 
animals showing certain marked differences. An em- 
bryological series may be made showing variation of a 
developing structure in one animal that corresponds in 
general to the series of adult forms. Also intermediate 
forms may be found in adult animals by considering some 
part (esophagus) not so strongly voluntary in action. 

The table given above, shows that the muscle fibres be- 
come more specialized, the higher we go in the animal 
kingdom. In position of nuclei, the large gap between 
the cold blooded and warm blooded animals is bridged 
over by the developing tissues of the chick embryo. It 
is known that striped muscle develops from cells similar 
to plain muscle fibres. The facts given above in regard to 
the striped muscle of the esophagus and chick embryonic 
tissues illustrate how specialized skeletal muscles devel- 
ope, from plain muscles and that ancestral forms may be 
found in the skeletal muscles of the less specialized 
animals. 

[The above work waa done at the Wesley College laboratory under the 
kindly direction or Miss E. J. Clay pole, to whom the writer gratefi^ly-iic- 
knowledges indebtedness.] . ^ . .^v. 



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80 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

Tests For Microscope Objectives.! 

By EDWARD M. NELSON, 

I«ONDON, tNGI^ND. 

Power, practically, has very little to do with the reso- 
lution of diatomic stri© with oblique light — eyepiecing 
easily remedies any defect on that score; quality of ob- 
jective has also (contrary to the usually received opinion) 
litle to do with it; a bad objective maybe a strong striae 
resolver. The only other factors left, then, are those of 
aperture, skillful manipulation, and keenness of percep- 
tion. Given the requisite aperture, skillful manipulation 
and keenness of perception (assuming that keenness of 
vision is present) will come with intelligent practice. 

We must in the first place, recognise that some of 
the diatoms above enumerated are bj no means constant 
in the fineness of their structure; consequently, the reso- 
lution of their stride by oblique illumination is no criterion 
of the aperture of an objective, neither is it of its quality. 

With a i axial cone, P. angulatufn, dry on cover, is a 
good t«st for the highest quality lenses from Jin. up- 
wards. Note, the slide should be what is called a "sprend 
slide." As a rule, it is betterto avoid '^selected diatoms," 
especially when mounted dry on cover. 

We should also remember that the test lies more in the 
quality of the image than in the strength of the resolu- 
tion. Therefore, the quality of an image yielded by a 
coarse diatom, well within the grip ot the objective. 



tin replj to tbe following qnestions : (I) for what particalar powers are 
the following diatoms generally recognised as suitable tests: Sarirella gemmae 
Pleurosignia attenuatam, Pleurosigma ancnlatum, Navicnla Ijrra, Grani- 
matophora marina, Stanroneis phoenicenteron, Triceratiam favos? (2) In 
which of the following media are the above diatoms resolved most easily with 
dry objectives of suitable power and aperture: Styrax, balsam, mono-brom 
naphthalin, mono-brom balsam, or mounted dry? (3) What is approximately 
tbe lowest magnifying power under whidi, with an objective capable of 
dividing Pleurosigma angulatum, the dots may be distinctly discerned by an 
eye of average power of vision? (4) Which variety of OoeciDodiscns most 
easily shows tbe secondary markings? 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOUKNAL. 81 

affords a better test than a faint striation just glimpsed 
with a lens barely possessing the necessary aperture to 
resolve it. 

N. lyra, — ^Two nights ago, I saw one valve in balsam 
beautifully dotted with a 1 in. on a dark ground. Another 
valve, however, was so fine, that it required a wide- 
angled h in. to do it. 

One of the best diatoms to work on with the higher 
powers is the large N. rhomboides, tonnd in "Sozodont" 
tooth-powder (discovered in this material by G. Main- 
laud, F E.M.S.); it is very constant in fineness, the trans. 
atrisB being 60,000 per inch. Zeiss apochromatic ^in. 
crosses it. 

The best test for low-power lenses, say, from 1} to ^ 
or 4-10 of '6 N.A. is a balsam-mounted diatom with dark 
g^round illumination by Abbe's achromatic condenser and 
central stop. The stop should be just of a sufficient size 
to give a perfectly dark ground, and no larger. This 
teat consists in the freedom from scattered light about 
the diatom. A coarse N, lyra does very well; the clear 
structureless parts of the diatom should be free from 
scattered light from the neighbouring parts that have 
structure. Of course, the lenses must be accurately ad- 
justed by the alteration of tube-length. For the higher 
powers a bright field should be used from a f axial cone, 
and the finer forms of Lyra^ or P. formosum, or the 
larger N, rhomboidea are suitable. These may be mounted 
in balsam, or better, styrax; or, better still, in quinidiue. 
Quinidine is the best medium, but for some reason or 
other it is very difficult to work with. I have one of the 
first slides prepared in this medium which is still excel- 
lent; but most of the others in my possession have gone 
bad. The fact that one of the early slides is perfect 
shows that mounts in this medium are possible. Why 
they cannot be multiplied is a mystery I am unable to 
fathom. 



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82 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

A spread slide of P. angulatum dry on cover is an ex- 
cellent test. The minimum power required to see it in 
dots with a } axial cone is about 220 diams. I have my- 
self glimpsed it with slightly less, but then the image 
was very diflBcult. An old cheap student's i N.A. "72 
showed it with a magnification of 250. Probably some 
of the modern cheap semi-apochromats would do it with 
less. The Zeiss apochroraatic i N. A. -65 dots it easily 
with a large axial cone. It has even been seen with this 
fine lens with the 8 compensating eyepiece. P. and L. 
t>ld achromatic 4-10 N.A. -64, power, 290, also does it. 
All modern students' i and i, semi-apochromatic or other- 
wise, should do it also. 

The golden rule for the resolving power of any o"bjec- 
tiV'e with a i axial cone of illumination is that they should 
show a fineness of structure equal to 70,000 multiplied by 
their N.A. Thus— 

Table I. 

FiDeuesBof Stractnre ' 

N.A. Reuolved. 

01 7,000 

0-2 14,000 

3 21,000 

4 28,000 

05 35,000 

0-6 42,000 

0-7 49,000 

0-8 56,000 

0-9 63,000 

10 70,000 

11 77,000 

1-2 84,000 

1-3 91,000 

1-4 98,000 

1-5 105,000 

Table II. agrees very well with Table I, It must be 
remembered that some of the lenses which apparently do 
not come up to the rule gave a very strong resolution of 
the numbers opposite lo them; they therefore would 
probably have resolved a trifle more, but there was not 
at hand a slightly finer-marked diatom to test them on. 



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18»7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 83 

The following table shows what has actually been 
achieved on diatoms in balsam with a i axial cone. A 
comparison of this table with the former will be instruc- 
tive: — 

Table II. 
Objective. N. A. Heaolved. 

Apochromaticlin '32 t>2,000 

Achromatic 4- 10 64 40,000 

Apochromatici -66 46,000 

Senii-apochroiuatic i '71 53,500 

Achromatic 1 79 53,000 

Semi apochromatic 1-7 86 60,000 

Achromatic 15 ^8 60,000 

Apochromatic \ 95 65,000 

Semi-apochromatic 1-12 126 90,000 

Apochromatic} 143 94,000 

I do not know which of the Coscinodisci has the coars- 
est secondaries. Asteromphalus is fairly coarse. Some 
of the Triceratia have very coarse secondaries — Thuniii 
may be one of them. 

With regard to mounting media, there has b^en too 
much made of high refractive index, and too little of 
cipectrum irrationality. Piperine has a high index, but 
it« irxationality spoils it. 

- The order of merit may be taken as follows: — 
1. Quittidine, by far the best; unstable. 

.. 2. Styrax, v-ery good and permanent. 
a. Balsam, perman^it. 
4. Monobromide, not good. 

- ProL Smith's, Br. Meale's and Father Thompson's 
media are uncertain, difficult, and very dangerous to work 
with. 

In concfusion, let me urge workers to procure a (xif- 
ftird's F line screen for use at the back of the condenser; 
they are quite inexpensive. They greatly improve the 
definition, and make cheap semi-apochromats almost 
equal to the most expensive apoehromats; they even im- 
prove apochromats, and they increase the resolving 
power. — English Mechanic. 



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84 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

Notes on Comparative Histology of Blood and Muscle. 

By EDITH J. CLAYPOLE, 

WELLBSLBY, MASS. 

There is great diflSculty in batiitig general bistologj 
on the various books and discussions of human histolbgjf. 
Even if any mammal other than man is made the oDJect 
of study there is difScuIty since many of the tissues of 
the cat and rabbit for instance, vary widely from the 
same tissues in man, while among the still lower forms 
still greater diiferences exist. Compound tissues vary 
largely and even many elementary ones are markedly 
distinct. 

The animals chosen for these few notes were the rab- 
bit, cat, pigeon, turtle, snake, frog, ambleptoma, crypto- 
branchus, hecturus; slightly amia, a ganoid fish and pro- 
topteus, a dipnoan fish; only two tissues were examined 
thoroughly, blood and striped muscle. Others are partly 
worked out, but not fully enough for discussion. 

Blood. — This tissue has been very largely worked on 
owing to its medico-legal importance, interest being cen- 
tred in the size and number of the red corpuscles. These 
cells of all animals fall into two natural groups, those 
with, and those without nuclei. All mammals possess non- 
nucleated corpuscles; vertebrates, birds, reptiles, amphib- 
ians and fishes possess nucleated corpuscles. 

From various sources I have collected or made measure- 
ments of as many forms in these classes as possible with 
the following results placed in tabular form. 

These figures are suggestive. Variation occurs from 
6 to 75 microns, a gradual decrease in size from general- 
ized to specialized forms, both in different members in 
the same class (salamanders, frogs, csBcilians) and in the 
different classes (amphibians, fishes, reptiles, birds, and 
mammals). At each end of the table are specialized forms, 
not equally so, but both far from primitive, modern 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 85 

fishes and birds and mammals. The amphibia lie be- 
tween a class acknowledged to contain widely varying 
forms, some highly specialized, others exceedingly gen- 
eralized. The variation in size of red corpuscle corre- 
sponds with this range in form. They are small in ciecil- 
ians, 18*2x15 very large in amphiuma, a salamander. 



OVAL CI 


XLS. 






L. 


B. 


Fissss 


L. 


B. 




microns 


microns 


nieod micioD0 


micTOos 


Amphinma 


75. 


45. 


Oarp 


15. 


9. 


Reptiles 






Omkoid 






Turtle 


10. 


6. 


Stnigeon 


13. 


10. 


Snake 


10.7 


12.9 


Amia 


11.6 


8.6 


Lizard 


/16. 


10. 


Elatma9 








il3. 


10. 


Ray 


2a5 




Alligator 


20. 


7. 


Shark 


22.6 




Birds 






DWMOOM 

Lepidosinm 


41. 


29. 


Fowl 
Pigeon 


12. 
12. 


7. 
7. 


Amphibiaks 






Mammals 






Sf»ly 


18.2 


15. 


Camel 


8. 


4. 


Frog 


23.2 


16.5 


• 






Toad 


24. 


16. 


CIRCULAR CELLS 




Megalobatiachns 47. 


33. 






microns 


Cryptobranchiw 


48.7 


29.2 


Man 




7.5 


Nectnrns 


58.4 


31.1 






6.5 


Pioteas 


58. 


35. 


Lampery 




12.6 


Sireo 


59. 


30. 


Cyclostomefi 




11.3 



There is another striking change in this series. The 
normal absence of the nucleus from the mammalian red 
corpuscles and the presence of it in all other red corpus- 
cles is well-known. A brief consideration of the func- 
tion of the red cell helps in explaining this fact. It is 
no longer a typical cell, it is very highly specialized for 
one purpose, to take up oxygen, the more oxygen it can 
carry the more efiBcient it is. Hsmoglobine is the essen- 
tial oxygen carrier in the corpuscle, by crowding out the 
nucleus more of this .substance can be present, hence the 
corpuscle becomes more efficient. A series can be made 
showing the gradual loss in different animal forms, large 
in amphibians, it is reduced to small size in birds and in 
mammals is gone entirely. Decrease in size follows the 
same law. Exchange is far more rapid between small 
masses ih^n between large ones, and small cell elements 



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86* 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[March 



result ill mammals, shown ia blood corpuscles as well as 
el-«ewhere. 

Muscle. — The subject of striped muscle hasbeeu much 
worked on, but some of the minor points are the ones of 
most significance in this present discussion. It is well 
known that in mammals the nuclei of the fibres lie just 
under the sarcolemma or limiting membrane of the fibre. 
In the frog they lie scattered through the sarcous sub- 
stance. The size and shape of fibre, number, shape and 
size of nuclei and also the structure of the sarcous sub- 
stance as apparent from longisections and transections 
are of significance. The following animals were used: 
lamprey, amia, frog, amblystoma, cryptobranchus, nectu- 
rus, snake, turtle, pigeon, and cat. The results are 
shown in the following table. 





Size 


No. of Nuclei 


Location of 


Uoarse or Fine 




Microns 




Nuclei 


in section 


lamprey 


10 


1-2 


Inside 


Medium 


Amia 


18.9 


1-2 


'* 


Fine 


Protopterus 


liiy 


1-2 


I':dge 


** 


Frog 


45 


2-5 


Inside 


n 


Amblystoma 


42.3 


2-3 


t( 


Coarse 


Cryptobranchus 


78.6 


2-3 


(t 


(( 


Necturus 


88.5 


2-3 


(t 


«* 


Turtle 


54 


2-1 


** 


i( 


Snake 


r97.8 

I 89.7 


3-5 
25-35 


It 


; Very Fine 
'[ Fine 


Bird 


20.7 


2-3 


Edge 


Coarse 


Mammal 


21.1 


1-2 


<i 


Fine 



Warm blooded and cold blooded animals are sharply 
cut away from each other with one exception the dipnoan 
Protopterus, in which, strange to say, the nuclei are at 
the edge as in birds and mammals. On the whole there 
is about the same number of nuclei, with one exception 
to be discussed later. The terms coarse and fine are used 
to describe the appearance of the fibres in transection. 
This difference in character is probably due to the vary- 
ing size of the constituent fibrils in different animals. 
If they are large, a coarse effect results; if small, a fine 
eflfect. The same fact explains the difference in length- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 87 

wise view, some show very markedly longitudinai stria- 
tions, the coarse ones. In the snake some peculiar con- 
ditions were found. Two kinds of fibre shown in tran- 
section, one typical coarse grained with 3-4 nuclei, 
another very dense with 25-35 nuclei in it. Examina- 
tion of longisection shows these to belong to one fibre, 
one structure passing abruptly into the other. The 
nuclei are small round bodies instead of oval, the only 
suggestion as present is that it may be some especial 
form of ending. 

The general conclusions reached are that in nuclei as 
in blood, generalized forms of animals have large ele- 
ments, specialized small, in spite of greater muscular 
power in latter. The difference in location of nuclei may 
be explained by the mechanical disadvantage of a num- 
ber of non-contractile masses among the contractile ma- 
terial. They interfere with the straight pull, hence in most 
differentiated, active animals (birds and mammals) the 
nuclei are ''pushed to the wall," making the contractile 
force all available for locomotion instead of being some- 
what dissipated by oblique pulls. 

This general law is deduced, — the more generalized the 
animal the larger the tissue elements, the more highly 
specialized the smaller are the elements. Exceptions oc- 
cur of course, but they only serve to prove the rule. Only 
two tissues have been discussed here, but an interesting 
field of work is opened by this treatment of these com- 
ponent parts of animals by the same method as have long 
been applied to the study of comparative anatomy. 

DISCUSSION. 
BBFOBE THE AMERICAN MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

Professor S. H. Gage — This subject that ha8 been gone over often has had 
a little new life pnt into it. Miss Claypoie has considered it from the phy . 
Biological instead of from the mechanical standpoint. There are at the pres- 
ent day two great schools of phjsiologisto, thoe$e that believe physiology is 
refined mechanics, and those that believe it is something more than ordinary 
mechanics. 



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88 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

This p9per has another beaatiful featore aboat it that shows to the older 
ones as well as to the yonnger that there is not any subject exhausted yet 
Every increase in knowledge makes an old subject a new one, and this sub- 
ject has been made alive and interesting. 

Mrs. R. P. Gage — It has been very pleasing to notice in this study that 
the evolotion of tissues is coming to be considered of equal intereist with the 
evolution of the grosser structures. ^ 

Profesiwr E. W. Claypole— We have the evolution of these tissues and 
of these animals to consider. Unfortunately, from a geological 8tMid|fc>lAt» 
we can not get tissues, except in a few cases, to replace what these aodoit 
creatures possessed in the way of tissues. If we trust the embryologist, 
there must have been some change going on in the course of the evolution of 
these animals on the earth, and it occurred to me that that is partly connec- 
ted with the change that took place when land-life first began. As long as 
the reptiles were confined to the sea the animals possessed the advantage of 
bieathing through their skins, but land-life deprived the animals of the 
power oif breathing through the skin, and that along with the Increased bur- 
den of breathing through the lungs. The change took place somewhere in 
reptile life ; that change was accompanied by the necessity for greatly in- 
creased oxidation of blood In the lungs. 

We then have to consider such a question as this : Why should the ^unel 
alone among the mammalia possess these oval blood corpuscles? That is a 
iquestion not yet answered by the paleontologistB. The lamprey may be 
regarded as a highly specialized parasitic creature, because it sucks the 
blood of other creatures. The lampreys can be carried back to the Devon- 
an era, and if they possessed blood discs almost spherical, then these must be 
prerequisites of very ancient vertebrates. If the lamprey goes back to the 
Devonian age, it counts among the very early ones. 

Dr. V. A. Moore — No tissue is more laiigely affected in the diseases of 
animals than the blood, although much is known. Still little is known 
about its variations, changes and susceptibility to not only the solids but 
those now ffoing under the name of toxin and antitoxin. This paper opens 
up the field of the variability of structure of the blood in the same individu- 
al regarding atmosphere and temperature, food, and so on. I do not^ know 
of an exhaustive treatise on the blood of a single healthy animal, and'it is 
on the healthy condition that pathologists base their status. It is import- 
ant we should study the condition of the blood in a single specimen. 



Disinfection of Mails from Plague Districts.— The Pen- 
sylvania State board sufi^gests to the Post-master General, 
in view of the fact that the plag-ue is a germ disease, the 
importance of taking the necessary steps to insure the 
disinfection of all mails coming from districts in which the 
disease may prevail. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 89 

On Soundings from the Pacific Ocean. 

By ARTHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D. 

NEWARK, N. J. 

In February, 1877, there were submitted to me by the 
California Academy of Science certain soundings brought 
home by Commander George E, Belknap of the U. S. 8. 
"Tuscarora" which were taken in the Pacific Ocean with an 
understanding that I should make a microscopical exam- 
ination of /them and submit a report thereon. Being 
called away to the Eastern coast by illness, I was unable 
to do so until lately. I then made a partial report be- 
cause I had already made certain discoveries that the 
soundings brought to light. A fuller report has waited 
the obtaining of further samples. The discoveries made 
and herein suggested, bear on the soundings from the At- 
lantic Ocean, as well as the Neocene rocks of California 
aud also of the Eastern coast of North America and else- 
where. The report made was only temporary, (First) 
because of the imperfect state the specimens were in, 
being dry and old; and (Secondly) because they are so 
incomplete, there being many in the list which I will 
detail further, and which at this time I do not have, and 
(Thirdly) because this branch of science is in a very un- 
satisfactory state. Hence a report at the present time 
most be to a certain extent unsatisfactory. But their ex- 
ajnination does not interfere with the discovery which I 
have now to report and which may seem important. 

The specimens werp one hundred and eighty-four in 
number and will be described in detail hereafter. 

Lately I came across a thin volume, which is called : 
"Synopsis of the cruise of the U. S. S. Tuscarora from the 
date of her commission to her arrival in San Francisco, 
Cal., Sept. 2, 1874. Compiled by Henry Cummings, 
San Francisco, 1874." This gave me a list of all the 
soundings made. They are from Cape Flattery to San 



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90 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

Francisco, from Cape Flattery to A tcha (Aleutian Islands), 
from San Francisco to San Diego, Cal., from San Diego, 
Cal., to Honolulu, H. I. to Port Lloyd, Bonin Islands, 
from Bonin Islands to Yokohama, Japan, and from Yok- 
ohama, Japan to the Island of Tanaga (Aleutian Group). 

One of the soundings of which unfortunately the label 
was destroyed, but which from other evidence seems to 
be from somewhere near the Sandwich Islands is of con- 
siderable interest, for it appears to be correlative, if it is 
not of the same date, with what was taken by H. M. S. 
''Challenger'' in the South Pacific. But the Tuscarora 
sounding is from the North Pacific. It also is the same 
as was secured by Sir J. D. Hooker in the Antarctic 
region and is described in the transactions of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Oxford 
meeting, 1847. 

The forms of Bacillariacese (Diatomaceae) were in the 
Tuscarora specimens as follows : 

Actinocjclas ehrenbergii, J. K. 
Actiuoptychns nndnlatos, C. G. £. 
Araehnoidiscns ehrenbergii, J. W. B. 
Asteromphaius 
Biddnlphia aurita, L. 
Cbaetooeras gHstridinoi, C. G. £. 

moDiCje, A. G. 
Cosi^iuodiscus excentricas, C. G. E. 

patera, C. 

radiatna, C. G. £. 

umbonatas, C. 
Cyclotella astraea, F. T. K. 
DeDticiila elegans, F. T. K. 

palea, N. 
Fragilaria pacidca, A. G. 
GramiLiatopbora tropica, F. T. K. 
Istbmia 

Podoeira hormoides, M. 
RbizoAolenia 
Synedrajeffrey«ii, G. D. 
Thalasicolia iraunfeldii, (G.) C. 

A specimen I have from H. M. S. Challenger sound- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 91 

ings, which is labelled as from 1950 Jathoms, coa tains 

in it: 

Aciinocyclus ehrenberRii, J. R. 

ActiQoptychos nndalatas, G. G. E. 

ATachiioidi8cii»«breDbergii, J. W. B. 

Biddolpbia aarita, L. 

Cboetoceros gastridinm, C. G. £. 
monicse, A. G. 

Oofldnodiwns patera, C. 

umboQiatiis, C. 

Denticala palcea, N. 

Fngilaria pacifica, 6. G. 

Grammatopbora tropica, F. T. K. 

Podosira honuoides, M. 

^jnedia jeffireyaii, G. D. 
The same forms are to be found in the Neocene of Cal- 
ifornia whenever it has been examined, from Crescent 
City in Del Norte county on the north to a spot about 
forty miles south of the southern limit in Southern Cali- 
fornia, that is to say into Mexico. They are the same 
in the infusorial earth of the Atlantic Coast of North 
America, and likewise in South America when it has 
been detected at Payta andMejillones in Peru. In North 
America it is known as Miocene territory and is seen at 
Atlantic City in New Jersey, at Richmond in Virginia, 
at various points in Maryland, as at Nottingham, and at 
Tampa Bay in Florida. It is likewise known at Oran in 
Africa, at Moron in Spain, at Mors in Denmark, at Cata- 
nisetta in Sicily, at Simbirsk in Russia, and at Senz Peter 
in Hungary. Besides, it is known at Netansi in Japan 
and Oamaru in New Zealand. 

And what does this bring us to ? We have to compare 
the forms of Bacillariria, Rhizopoda and Foramenif era of 
these different localities and we find them essentialy 
the same in all. We have also to compare the forms of 
Bacillaria, Rhizopoda and Foramenif era of the soundings 
in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and we find them the 
same. Can we not say that the strata are the same in 
composition chemically and the same in organic forms? 



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92 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

I think they are. And can we separate the Neo- 
cene from the recent soundings in any respect ? I do not 
think so. It has been more than hinted at the likeli- 
hood of the Neocene of California being but recent from 
comparing them by lithographic reasons, and I think 
they can also be likened from palsBontologic reasons 
likewise. We can not distinguish Neocene Bacilliaria, 
Rhizopoda or Poramenifera from recent which are living 
now. Although the strata in New Zealand have been 
placed in the Cretaceous, and at Simbirsk in the lower 
Eocene, we must expect to see them bearing like forms 
to the recent, and which live more on the bottom, of the 
ocean and are in every inlet along the coast. 



Practical Methods of Demonstrating Tubercle Bacilli. 

By W. N. SHERMAN M. D., 

MERCBD, CAL. 

Read before the San Joaquin Valley Medical Society, 

When we consider the rapid progress of medical 
science, we must realize the vast field of literature with 
which the general practitioner should familiarize himself, 
in order to keep posted. With such conditions confront- 
ing us, we must economize our time and adopt methods, 
that ape shortest and quickest, in enabling us to reach 
conclusions and to obtain results. For this reason the 
tendency of the science of bacteriolgy is to teach methods 
by which we can^most quickly reach results, and thus 
make a quick and sure diagnosis of contagious and other 
diseases. In such diseases as cholera and diphtheria, a 
skillful bacteriologist may, within 24 hours, establish a 
positive diagnosis, by means of the microscope. In cases 
of tubercular disease of the lungs, a positive diagnosis 
may be established in fifteen minutes, when the most 
careful and skillful physical examination may have failed 
to reveal the slighest lesion. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 93 

The various methods of examining sputa for the tuber- 
cle bacillus would only seem to confuse the beginner, un- 
less he had ample time at his disposal. Numerous modi- 
fications of the orignal Koch-Erhlich method have been 
recommended and adopted, the constant aim being to 
simplify and shorten the technique without detracting 
from its reliability. Biedert has recently recommended 
the following method for demonstrating the bacilli when 
they are scant in number. A teaspoonful of sputum 
and two teaspoon fuls of water are boiled with 15 drops 
of solution of caustic soda, then four tea5*poonfuls of 
water are added and the whole again boiled until it 
forms a homogenous fluid. It is allowed to stand for two 
days (not longer) in a conical glass, when the bacilli and 
elastic fibers form the sediment, which is to be stained 
by the Ziehl-Neilson process. When one is not accus- 
tomed to examine for the bacillus tuberculosis, for the 
purpose of controlling the degree of staining, he should, 
at the same time, stain some sputum that is known to 
contain the bacillus, or else keep a few test slides on 
hand. 

Another method of preparing the sputum, is the 
method of Dahnen : the sputun, contained in a vessel, is 
heated (not boiled) in boiling water, thus precipitating 
the solid substance and the bacilli, which can be exam- 
ined at once. The digestive method is a substitute for 
the Biedert method, and is superior in many respects. 
The sputum is introduced into a test tube, and the diges- 
tive fluid added, which is 1 per cent of hydrochloric acid 
containing pepsin. The test tube is then placed in an in- 
cubator or water bath, at a temperature of 98.6° F. for 
an hour, when it is removed, shaken and allowed to sedi- 
*ment. Before spreading on the cover glass the fluid 
mast be rendered alkaline by adding a drop or more of 
caustic potash. The staining is done in the usual way. 

It is best for the beginner to choose a simple and easy 



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94 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

method of staining, and to stick to the one method, as 
by constant practice he becomes more skilled. It is 
always best to prepare a number of slides from each 
specimen, as some of them may fail to show the bacilli. 

The simplest and quickest method of staining is that 
of Gabbet, and it requires but two solution, which may be 
preserved for months. The cover glass, prepared and 
dried in the usual way, is placed for two minutes in a 
solution of 1 part of f uchsin in 100 parts of a 5 per cent 
solution of carbolic acid, and 10 parts of absolute alcohol. 
It is best to warm this solution. The cover glass is next 
removed from this solution, rinsed in water, and placed 
for one minute in a solution of 2 parts of methylin blue 
to 100 parts of a 25 per cent solution of sulphuric acid. 
It is again rinsed in water, then in alcohol; and dried 
and mounted in balsam. The preparations made by this 
method are very beautiful and permanent. 

The method which I employ is that of Pittion and 
Broux. With this, more time is required, and more skill 
in manipulation; but when skillfully used, the bacilli are 
larger and more distinct than by any other procedure. 
Three solutions are used, and all should be fresh except 
the first. Sol. a is 10 parts of fuchsin in 100 parts of ab- 
solute alcohol. Sol. 6,3 parts liq. ammon. in 100 parts 
distilled water. Sol. c, alcohol 50, water 30, nitric acid 
20, aniline green to saturation ; dissolve the color in 
alcohol, then add the water and next the acid. 

To use, take of a 1 part and of b 10 parts, heat until 
vapor appears, and float cover glass in usual way for 
about two minutes, then rinse in distilled water, and 
place in solution c until the red color disappears, then 
wash and mount. It takes some experience to know just 
how much to decolorize. 

The tubercle bacilli are distinctly recognized by their 
red staining. With a good specimen and careful stain- 
ing by this method the bacilli appear as large under a 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 95 

dry 1-5 objective as under a 1-10 immerBiou objective 
by staining processes. Their presence in the sputum is 
a sare indication of tuberculosis of the lungs or larynx. 
Quite a close approximation of the severity of the disease 
may be made by the number of bacilli, but more closely 
by the quantity of the vpores. Bacilli are often dis- 
covered when the physical signs are still indistinct or 
altogether wanting. Absence of the bacilli at a single 
examination is without value. 

These slides [specimens exhibited] are stained by the 
two methods last mentioned, and are from the sputum 
of a patient under treatment with Edison's aseptolin 
since February 22, 1896. The expectoration has contin- 
ually decreased in quantity, but there seems to be little 
elBTect, if any, upon the form and number of the bacilli. — 
Occidental Medical Times, 



EDITORIAL. 

Le Naturaliste Canadien. — The scientific publication of 
that name, founded by I'Abbe Provencher and edited at 
present by TAbbe V. A. Huard of Chicoutimi, Canada, 
enters with the January number upon its 24th year. We 
wish success to one of the oldest pioneers of learning in a 
country where natural science has comparatively few 
votaries. 

Diatomaceous Earth Free. — Mr. K. M. Cunningham, 
having in the month, June, 1896, discovered a new Fossil 
Marine Diatomaceous deposit near Suggsville, Clarke Co., 
Ala., which deposit has characters closely approaching the 
deposits of Richmond, Va., and Monterey, Pacific Coast, 
and further having in the month of December past, secured 
some fifty pounds of the material for distribution to any- 
one, makes a free oflFer to our subscribers who may en- 
close to us postage at the rate of one cent per ounce. The 
material contains twenty-five or more genera of Diatoms, 



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90 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

many species of Foramenifera, sponge spicules, Radiolar- 
lans, Coccothths of the chalk, stellate spicules crystals of 
selenite, and is a rich clay that can be studied with ease 
by experts or amateurs in microscopy. 

Pritchard's Infusoria. — We have for sale a copy of 
the latest edition of that beautiful work with colored plates. 
Price $30. Also Smith's British Diatomacea?, two volumes, 
uncut. Price $30. These works are very scarce and can 
only be got, as in this case, when a microscopist from 
Europe finishes using them. We trust that some scien- 
tific society or public library will be desirous to possess 
them, since they are very rare volumes. 

The Pasteur Gardens. — The muncipality of Mexico has 
given the name of Pasteur to the gardens situated in front 
of the National School of medicine in that city. 

Monumental. — A conflict more windy than sanguinary 
arose between Surgeon General Sternberg, of the United 
States Army, and Surgeon General A. L. Gihon, of the 
United States Marine Hospital Service, retired. General 
Sternberg made a motion at the American Public Health 
Association that the secretary be requested to accept con- 
tributions for a monument to Pasteur, and he suggested 
that each member contribute a dollar for the cause. This 
brought General Gihon to his feet with a jump. For years 
he had been trying to raise funds for a monument to Ben- 
jamin Rush, whom he considered to have been the great- 
est American physician, and he moved as an amendment 
to Dr. Sternberg's motion that each member that contri- 
buted $1 to the Pasteur monument should be called on for 
$10 for a monument to Benjamin Rush. The amendment 
was declared out of order, and Dr. Gihon submitted a mo- 
tion similar to that of Dr. Sternberg, with Rush's name in- 
stead of Pasteur's. All of the resolutions were referred 
to the Executive Committee. 



Professor Nocard of Alfort, near Paris, has received the 
award of the Lacaze prize, $2000 in value, for his researches 
in animal tuberculosis. 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 97 

PRACTICAL HINTS. 

By R. H. ward, M. D. 

TROY, N. Y. 

A Simple Expedient in Focusing. — I have just noticed 
that one intended suggestion, which is perhaps curious 
enough to be worth noticing separately, was inadvertently 
omitted in putting in order my article on **Focusing Up- 
ward'* in a former No. of Thk Microscope. In the method 
there recommended as the only safe one for fhe inexper- 
ienced, and the best one for all, of looking horizontally 
through, between the objective and the slide, until the 
lens is near the slide without touching it, there is often 
difficulty, in certain arrangements of the microscope and 
the light, requiring light to be thrown through by a hand 
mirror, or a bright background to be presented by holding 
up, in suitable position and light, a piece of white paper or 
card. In such cases it is often very easy to trace the de- 
scent of the lens by looking obliquely downward-and view- 
ing the reflection of its lower face from the surface of the 
slide. This method, which is familiarly and safely used 
by the expert, is however a critical one, and excessively 
dangerous to the rash and inexperienced, especially if not 
thoroughly familiar with optical principles and appear- 
ances. The working distance of the objective is not 
shown directly, as in the former case, but obliquely and it 
may easily be misjudged; and the end of the mounting of 
the objective is not always what or where it seems. There 
are of course, moreover, four reflections in dry mounts, 
from the top and bottom each of the cover-glass and the 
slide, though two of these are naturally obliterated by 
**medium" in other mounts, and the deeper reflections are 
not usually distinct enough to mislead, even if noticed at 
all. This method, however, should not be used by begin- 
ners, nor ever with objectives or slides that are not the 
property of the manipulator; as a slight misunderstand- 
ing would cause a fatal accident to slide or objective, if not 
to both. 



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98 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

Preservation of Library Mucilage. — Th« recent discus- 
sions, in Thk Microscope and elsewhere, of methods for 
preparing" permanent mucilages and pastes for the library 
or study table, seem to leave little need of addition, except to 
g"ive a caution that salicylic and carbolic acids, lately rec- 
ommended as preservatives by a very hig-h chemical au- 
thority, are w^holly unsatisfactory. Antiseptics of this 
class soon turn the whole stock to a red color which is said 
to be due to action upon the metal of the brushes com- 
monly used in the mucilag-e bottle. 

For those who prefer an oflf-hand method wholly free 
from the delay and trouble of making* up a special formula 
the camphor method is probably the best. You simply 
drop a lump of camphor, about as larg^e as a bean or half 
of a chestnut, more or less, into the bottle of mucilage, and 
then use and replenish the supply just as if the lump was 
not there. It does no harm there, but keeps the solution 
so saturated wMth camphor that it cannot mould or fer- 
ment. When the supply of mucilage becomes low, you 
drop in some gum Arabic powder, and pour in and stir in 
some cold filtered water, and it is ready to use in two or 
three minutes. When you happen to notice, after some 
months, that the piece of camphor is very small, you drop 
in another piece. And that is all. I have used this method 
a great many years, and have. never seen it fail. 

For Moistening Envelopes, postage stamps, and gum- 
med pasters generally, I have found, after trying also var- 
ious fancy arrangements that have been introduced, noth- 
ing so practicable for general library use (excluding per- 
haps some business uses where the employment is almost 
constant) as a second mucilage bottle and its brush, sup- 
plied with filtered water. A mere trace of gelatin or gum 
added to the water makes it more manageable, by giving a 
little body to it; though this is by no means necessary, 
and though it greatly hastens the deterioration of thestock 
by keeping. A lump of camphor floating on the liquid, as a 
preservative, will, in either case, keep it in a neat condi- 
tion much longer than without. It ought to be no longer 
necessary to say a word in favor of some such expedient in- 



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1897.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 99 

stead of the filthy fashion of licking pasters; to say noth- 
ing* of the certainty of irritation and discomfort, and the 
evident danger of serious disease, from the sawing of 
harsh edges of dry paper across the tender surface of the 
tongue. 

KICSOSGOPICAL HANIPULATION. 



Stable Picro-Carmine Solution. — A satisfactory picro- 
carmine, yielding a solution that has been proved to keep 
good for five years, may be made as follows: 

Pure carmine is dissolved in a mixture of ammonia water 
1 part by volume and water 4 parts, care being taken to 
keep the carmine in slight excess. After standing for 
two days filter the solution, and expose it until a precipi- 
tate begins to form, protecting it from dust meanwhile. 
Again filter, and add concentrated solution of picric acid 
(? to excess), then agitate and set aside for 24 hours, when 
a third filtration must be followed by the addition of 1 part 
of chloral hydrate to every 1,000 parts of solution. At the 
end of a week filter for the last time, and immediately bot- 
tle off in small, glass-stoppered vials. 

Stain for Tubercle Bacilli.— Hardin W. Bright, M. D., 
Professor of Histology, Pathology and Bacteriology in the 
Tennessee Medical College, sends us the following: Place 
three drams water in test tube, add five drops alboline. 
Shake thoroughly, then filter. Of above filtrate 100 parts 
Sat. aqueous sol. Fuchsin ten parts, 80 per cent alcohol 
ten parts. The above solution will keep better than if 
aniline oil be used. 

Stain ten minutes in above solution, decolorize, in 30 per 
cent Nitric acid, wash in alcohol, stain three minutes in 
aq. Sat. Sol. Methylene Blue, wash in water, dry and mount 
in Canada balsam. The above stain is an improvement 
over Ehrlich*s. I find it unnecessary to warm solution. 
I have a specimen stained by this method which I have 
kept for over one year and the bacilli are as distinct as 
when first stained. The envelope can be clearly differ- 
entiated from thestained protoplasmic contents of the cell. 



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100 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

Revival of an Old Histological Method for Rapid Diag- 
nosis,— Dr. A. A. Kanthack and Mr. T. S. Pigg foiind, of 
all rapid methods of hardening tissue, that of immersing 
small blocks in boiling- water for three or four minutes or 
in the caseof delicate tissue one minute, was the most rapid. 
The tissue could then be at once cut on the freezing mitro- 
tome, and the section stained well with logwood or other 
dyes; or it could be preserved in alcohol or MuUer's fluid, 
or treated by the paraffin method. For rapid diagnosis in 
the case of surgical operations, it was particularly valuable. 
— British Medical Journal. 

Stains for Vegetable Tissues. -Dr. E. Vinassa has in- 
vestigated the value of aniline colors for staining vegeta- 
ble tissues, and divides them into three groups only: saf- 
ranin, congo-red, benzopurpurins, etc.; those affecting 
lignilied tissues, coUenchyma vessels, and nuclear sheaths 
— vesuvin, Victoria green, chrysoidin, violet, methyl green, 
fuchsin, etc.; and stains that merely differentiate, such as 
Victoria blues B, RRRR, and BB, which color the thick- 
ened cells darker than the surounding tissue, and thus 
render them more conspicuous. To ensure sections being 
well stained, all protoplasm, etc., must be got rid of. This 
is effected with soda lye, washing with much water (acidi- 
fied with acetic acid if necessary), and then allowing to 
drain. Afterwards immerse in a j4 to 1 per cent lukewarm 
stain solution for two or three minutes, and again wash un- 
til the water runs clear. 

For double staining, first put sections in the stain affect- 
ing the lignified tissue, thickened cell-walls, etc., wash well 
and transfer to stain for parenchyma. This should be 
heated to 100 C. and rendered slightly alkaline. Colors 
which are fast on cotton were found to stain parenchyma, 
whilst those that dye wool or silk directly stain the thick- 
ened cell-wall, etc. Suitable mordants (tannin, acetate of 
lead, etc.) for fixing the colors must be found by experi- 
ment. 

The sterilization of Milk. — J. A. Forret has examined 
various methods for the sterilization of milk and finds that 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 101 

the best results are obtained by placing* the jar containing^ 
a pint of milk into a tin vessel filled with 3 pints of water 
in such a manner that the water and milk are at about the 
same level when the jar is supported about half an inch 
from the bottom. The water is then heated until it boils, 
after which the milk is allowed to remain in the water for 
15 minutes. The water should boil in not less than 25 
minutes and the milk must be stirred continuously to pre- 
vent the separation of the cream. 

Plants Growing Under Microscope. — Procure a little 
CoUomia seed. Take one of the seeds and with a razor cut 
off a very tiny slice, place it on a slide, cover with a cover- 
glass and place under the microscope. The instrument 
must be in a vertical position. When it is well focused 
and lig'hted, moisten it with a drop of water. The seed 
will absorb the moisture and throw out a very larg"e num- 
ber of spiral fibers, g'iving" the appearance of veritable 
germination. Beginners will find it easier if one applies 
the moisture while the other looks thoug^h the instrument. 

Storax as a Mounting Medium. — Permanent prepara- 
tions can be mounted in storax according to Dr. J. H. Piflf- 
ard if it is prepard as follows: The storax is liquified in 
a water bath, then filtered throug-h two or three thick- 
nesses of cheese cloth in a hot-water funnel and when cold 
mixed with an equal weig'ht of xylol. Shake well several 
times throug-h absorbent cotton or Swedish fitter-paper, 
and evaporateat ag-entleheatjto the consistency of treacle. 
Finally, to each two parts of the fluid, add three parts of 
napthaline monobromide, and heat g'ently until a clear 
amber-colored fluid is obtained. Probably, the refrac- 
tive index of the medium should be broug-ht to 1,625 by 
adding- more of the ingredient that may be found defi- 
cient, and the product will then be found suitable for 
work with the highest powers. 



Walter White's Botanical Sections.— We have just re- 
ceived from England a new supply of objects and we can 
furnish at present, almost every number on the list. 



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102 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Mareh 

BACTERIOLOGY. 



Cheese Curd Inflation — its Relation to the Bacterial 
Flora of Foremilk.— H. L. Bolley and C. M. Hall, use the 
word "foremilk" to mean the milk from the first part of 
a milking, not colostrum. Some studies were made on the 
formation of *'pin-holes" in curds which indicated it to he 
due to the action of bacteria. '^Experienced cheese 
makers have quite generally affirmed that its chief origin 
is dirty milk." The work upon which this paper is based 
reaffirms this belief." Preliminary cheese curd and fer- 
mentation tests were made at two different times with the 
milk of two cows, using the milkdrawn first, thestrippings, 
and the mixed milk of the whole milking. '*The evidence 
from these tests is that the gas-originating organisms 
were not located in the udders either in the fore or last 
milk and that the few *pin-holes' of the curds must have 
had an external origin." 

Studies were then made of the bacterial flora of the milk 
of 10 healthy cows, living under healthy stable conditions, 
from January 22 to April 25. In each, samples were taken 
of the first and last milk of the milking by means of a ster- 
ile silver milking tube inserted well up into the milk cis- 
tern. As a result, 16 distinct species of bacteria were iso- 
lated, some of which were common to both the first and 
last milk, and others to only one of these. All the micro- 
organisms found were bacteria, and none were found 
which produced gas. **The work is given as a prelimin- 
ary study, and may be said to indicate — (1) no bacterial 
flora common to the animals investigated, save one pecu- 
liar non-milk affecting species; (2) that a given form when 
once present may be quite constant in its occupancy of 
the udder of an individual animal. Finally, the absence 
of gas-producing organisms remains unexplained, but adds 
significance to the previously described curd tests." 

The Constancy of the Kinds of BacteriainNonnalMilk. 
— H. L. Bolley made, during the summer, cultures of the 
milk drawn from each teat of three cows. The samples of 



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1895.J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 103 

milk were obtained in the same way as in the preceding- 
studies, except- that in some cases the milking tube was 
inserted to different depths. About 60 cultures were 
made. In all, 37 different kinds of bacteria were found rep- 
resenting various physiological types. *'As in the previ- 
ous studies, there is no evidence that the same species are 
common to different animals, but the constancy of the 
occurence of certain types, if present at all, is very appar- 
ent. It is plain that the greater number of the germs are 
found only accidentally at a certain time in a given udder 
or teat, and perhaps come from the surrounding's of the 
animal. But there are certain single germs which if once 
found in a teat or udder reappear with a striking con- 
stancy." 

The Fly as a Germ Carrier. — In 1866, Hoffman demon- 
strated the presence of tubercle bacilli in the bodies of flies 
captured in a room occupied by a consumptive. The drop- 
ping's of the flies were full of bacilli, which were shown by 
experiment to be fully virulent. 

Six years later, M. A. Cop pen Jones, of Switzerland, 
proved by means of chromogenic bacteria that infection 
can be, and actually is, carried, not only in the bodies of 
flies, but also by their feet. In the experiment, cultures 
of the bacilli prodig-iosus were mixed with tuberculous spu- 
tum. Flies which had been in contact with this mixture 
were permitted to walk across the surface of sterlized po- 
tatoes. In forty-eight hours numerous colonies of the ba- 
cillus prodigiosus were visible. 

From these results we may reasonably conclude that 
flies are a con^>tant source of infection.— Modern Medicine. 

Infectious Character of the Feces of Tuberculous 
Cattle.- -Scientific research is constantly bringing to light 
new methods by which tubercle bacilli are communicated 
to human beings. The Bulletin Medical recently published 
a report of a series of experiments conducted for the pur- 
pose of determining whether these bacilli are to fte found 
alive in the excreta of cattle. A young bullock was fed a 



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104 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

meal consisting of bread and a portion of a tuberculous 
lung-. During the three days following, portions of fecal 
matter were collected and investigated, both by the injec- 
tion of animals and microscopical examination. Bacilli 
were constantly found in the feces, and out of fifteen rab- 
bits inoculated, twelve became tuberculous, showing that 
the fecal matters of tuberculous cattle are as infectious in 
character as the sputum of persons suflFering from this 
disease. 

Rapid Isolation of Bacillus Coli Communis. — Abba gi ves 
a new method for **rapid and certain isolation of bacillus 
coli communis from water.'' He prepares the following 
culture medium: Lactose, 20 g.; dry peptone, 100 g.; sod- 
ium chloride, 50 g., and water, 1 liter. This may be solidi- 
fied by the addition of gelatin. Into a liter of suspected 
water is placed 100 c. cm. of the previously sterilized cul- 
ture medium; to this is added 0.5 c.cm, of a one per cent 
alcoholic solution of phenol-phthalim, and afterward a cold 
saturated solution of sodium carbonate (usually 2 to 3 c, 
cm. suffice) until the water becomes of a permanently 
pink color. This water is placed in five or six Erlen- 
meyer's flasks, and incubated at 37 per cent C. At the 
same time an agar plate is poured, and is placed in the in- 
cubator alongwith the Erlenmeyer's flasks. If bacillus coli 
were present in the water, after twelve, sixteen, or twenty- 
four hours one or several or all of the flasks will then com- 
plete decolorization of the contents. The agar plate is 
inoculated from the surface of one of the colorless fluids; 
this is again incubated, and in from eight to twelve hours 
or less a number of colonies will be visible on the surface 
of the agar. These colonies are examined under the mic- 
roscope, and cultures made from the ones which most re- 
semble those of the bacillus coli. Under these conditions 
the bacillus coli rapidly gains the upper hand over most of 
the other micro-organisms present in the water. The 
colonies oy the agar plates are usually composed of bacil- 
lus coli alone, and the first examination leads to their de- 
tection, if present. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 105 

Excretion of Micro-organisms. — Biedl and R. Kraqs. 
have previously shown that micro-orgfanisms present in 
the blood are excreted by normal kidneys, the urine being- 
free from albumin or blood. These investigators now 
record their experiments on the excretion of micro-organ- 
isms by the glandular organs. By injecting of staphylo- 
coccus into the blood, they have investigated the function 
of the liver and submaxillary gland in this respect. They 
found negative results in two of the first four experiments 
where the gall-bladder was opened immediately after death, 
the precautions being used. In another series of experi- 
ments the bile was inoculated directly into nutrient media, 
a canula having been placed in the bile passages. In case 
of the submaxillary gland a canula was placed inthe duct, 
and the same method followed. In all these cases the staphy- 
lococcus was obtained from the bile, but the results were 
negative in all cases where the submaxillary secretion was 
investigated. The micro-organisms were shown to be 
continuously excreted in the bile during one and a half to 
two hours, while the experiment lasted. From these ex- 
periments these investigators conclude that as in the case 
of the kidneys the excretion of micro-organisms is a nor- 
mal function of the liver. 



VEDICAL MICBOSGOPT. 



On the Action of Antitoxin. — Dr. P. Ehrlich states 
that by the original conception of the destruction of poi- 
sons through the anti-bodies it was considered untenable 
that in physiologically neutral toxin-antitoxin mixtures 
both compounds still existed as such, but now two oppo- 
site opinions are prominent. 

According to one view, poison and antidote exist in the 
liquids of the tissues as a kind of copulative double com- 
pound, which is of course inactive in effect. In opposition 
to this chemical view it has been held by many, especially 
Roux and Buchner, that the action of the antitoxins is 
more indirect. They act on the cells, and theseto a certain 



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106 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

extent become immunized against the action of the poison. 
Having" in view the complications which arise in experi- 
ments on animals, and with a view to substituting as far 
as possible the reagent glass forthe animal organism, Ehr- 
lich has experimented with ricin, a vegetable tox-albumen, 
concerning which, he says, there is no doubt that in its 
principal features, immunity to it is similar to immunity 
to diptheria and tetanus. Ricin possesses the property of 
coagulating the blood. The blood of a rabbit treated with 
a series of mixtures of ricin in varying porportions, was 
injected into six mice. In those cases where the mixture 
gave a precipitate with blood the animals died; in one 
case, where the precipitate was very slight, the result was 
not fatal; in the three cases where the antitoxin was (ac- 
cording to the blood test) present insufficient or excessive 
quantity to neutralize the toxin, the animal was unharmed. 
These facts militate against the cellular theory of Roux 
and Buchner, and tend to confirm the chemical copulative 
theory of Ehrlich and Behring, at any rate so far as ricin 
(castor-oil ) is concerned.- B. C. Druggist. 

The Function of the Suprarenal Bodies. — Dubois has 
shown that the principal function of the suprarenal bodies 
is to destroy toxins present in the circulation, especially 
those resulting from muscular and nervous activity. The 
glands contain a peculiar ferment which is capable of mod- 
ifying organic poisons developed by the tissues or of bac- 
terial origin. A considerable quantity of poisonous liquids 
is found in the glands. 

Scarlet Fever by Mail.- (irasset, on investigating the 
source of infection in an instance in which a child was at- 
tacked by scarlet fever in a place where there had been no 
case of the disease for years, found that, six days before 
the child was taken sick, the parents had received a letter 
from its grand-parents stating that another child in the 
family had had the disease and was peeling. Two flakes of 
the convalescent's skin were enclosed in the letter. The 
parents had allowed the child to play with the letter. — An- 
nales d'Hygiene Publique. 



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I8»7j MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 107 

Physicians can Testify as to Stains. — After an examin- 
ation thereof, both under a microscope and by a chemical 
analysis, the supreme court of South Carolina holds, in the 
homicide case of State v. Martin, decided July 11, 18%, 
that physicians are clearly entitled as experts to g-ive their 
opinion as to the character of stains found on a piece of 
floor ^Jour. A, M. A.). That the latter was not taken from 
the house in which the defendant lived at the time of the 
alleg-ed homicide until a few days before the trial, after 
the defendant had moved from it, and while it was occu- 
pied by another person, it is further held did not render it 
inadmissible in evidence, thougfh the force of the evidence 
was perhaps weakened by these circumstances. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES. 



Rhizopods as Scavengers. — It is interesting- to see what 
a small animal can do as a scavenger. Mr. Thomas Craig, 
at a meeting of the Natural Science Association of Staten 
Island, exhibited a bottle, the inside of which had been 
covered with alga? and a small diatom to such an extent as 
to make it practically opaque. Upon examination he not- 
iced that a portion near the bottom was clear. A further 
examination showed that an army of rhizopods were march- 
ing in regular order, eating as they went. 

The name of the animal is Centropyxis aculeata, (me of 
the lobose rhizopods. The animal itself is only a drop of 
jelly, in which the highest powers of the microscope re- 
veal no orgfanization of any kind, yet it can travel by means 
of pseudopodia, whieh are merely parts of the body pro- 
truded from any part of it. By the same means it can 
sieze its food, convey it inside its body and then digest it, 
and when all the nutriment is exhausted cast the refuse 
out. This it does at any part of the mass as it has neither 
head nor tail. 

This particular animal builds a shell for itself, com- 
posed of a material like chitin, and grains of sand on the 
empty shell of diatoms. The chitin is produced by the 



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108 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [March 

animal and is used to cement grains of sand and other ma- 
terial into the proper form of house for this particular 
species, 

Kach species has its own form of habitation and it is 
rare to find them departing- from it. The animal is well 
illustrated in Leidy's Rhizopods. 

MICROSCOPICAL NOTES. 



Meeting of American Medical Publishers' Association. 
-The Fourth Annual Meeting- of the American Medical 
Publishers' Association will be held in Philadelphia, on 
Monday, May 3lst, 1897 (the day preceding- the meeting- of 
the American Medical Association ). Editors and publish- 
ers, as well as everyone interested in Medical Journalism, 
cordially invited to attend, and participate in the delibera- 
tions. Sevveral very excellent papers are already assured, 
but more are desired. In order to secure a place on the 
program, contributors, should send titles of their papers 
at once to the Secretary, Chas. Wood Fassett, St. Joseph, 
Mo. _J 

NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Bacteria in Rocks. — M. B. Renault has long- worked at 
the indications of bacteria found in geological strata, and 
now publishes the general result of his observations in a 
paper illustrated with a large number of drawings. As 
might be expected from their simple structure, bacteria 
appear to have been coeval with the first appearance of 
organic life on the earth, the coccoid form being appar- 
ently earlier than the bacillar. Indications of their pres- 
ence are found in bone, teeth, scales and coprolites, as well 
as abundantly in vegetable tissues, the spores and spor- 
anges of ferns appearing to have been especially subject 
to their attacks. The species are, as a rule, distinct from 
those at present in existence.-Ann. des Sciences Nat- 
urelles. 



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A NEW EDITION OF 

iA£. ifl£KTSON St SONS' 

Illustrated Catalogue of Mwroscopes, Objeotivea^ 
and Aecessaries. 

In it will be found fUUjr descrilM M the latest improvements and designs 
of the Watson Instruments, also many new kinds of accessories including the 
following-: 

A SERIES OF NEW PARACHJROMATIC 

WJCROSCOPIC OBJECTIVES. 

Th€4M9 Ivenses will be found to possess large apertures, to be of uniform qic^il- 
ity. and to )>« as low iu price as any Objectives in the market They are 
coustmcied almost entirely of Jena Glass. 

Th6 following i^pB selected from the Series 



POWER. N. A. 


i'KlCE. 


POWER. 


N. A. 


PKICK 


1-2 inch 0.34 


i:l.2.6 


^in. 


0.28 


£1.6.0 


1-4 inch 0.68 


1.5.0 


1-6 in. 


0.87 


,1.10.0 


l-8fndi 0.88 


2.0.0 


1-0 in. 


0.90 


.5.0 


Homogeneous Immeision. 










1-8 inch 1-20 


4.15.0 


1-12 in. 


1.25 


5.0.0 , 



W. WATSON & SONS' 

New " PARACSROHATIC:' Stibstagfe Cond€>iser^ 

This condenser has a total aperture of 1.0' N. A ^ baraiY extremely -laige ' 
Aplaoatic Aperture, exceeding ,90 N. A. Its, power is 2-7 ii\t'b, and. with^. 
the front lens^removedy 4.10 inch. It is mounted with lx\», I>1aphii^n^^i)<| 
revolving carrier for stops tor dark ground and obliqueiUum illation.. The 
[risDiaphmgm is di Tided so as to tndieate the N: A. at rhirh Ihcirondeiiier 
i s employed . The diameter of thet baok lens is 5-8^ inch « 

PRICE COMPLETE ^£3.15. 

APLANTIC MAGNrFTERS 

Inadditiou to W. Watson & Sons' well-known regular series they are 
working Mr. E. Mr ^elson^ newforrra, magnifying 15 diameters, -which gives 
great working distance aud large apertnre. ' It Is believed to be unequalled 
bj any similar. leBSvfor (^oadities. 

PRICE — iu German silver mount, pocket form 15.6. 
For diisettfiug. in wooden box 14.6. 

The above catalogue- will be mailed poat-^freeonapplicatioiit 
MICROSCOPIC OBJECaS. 

Watsoo & Sons bold a stock of ^,000 speeimeiti all of the bigfacat cla8flu> 
forming nudoabtedly the finest ool^eetion in the world. Full classified 4iati' 
forward post-free on application to 

iA£, W.73CTSON 5^ SONS 

(ESTABLISHED 1837) 

OPTICIANS TO H. M. GOVERNMENT. . 

313 High Holbom, London, W. C; and 78 Swanston Street, Melbourne, 

Austraim* 
Awarded 38 Gold and other medals at Intemational^Exhibitions including 
5 Highest Awards at the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893. 2 Gold Medals, Paris 
Universal Exhibition 1889 &c. &c, 
NOTE— The postage on letters to England is 5 cents, or postal cards 2 cento. 



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CARL REICHERT 
MICROSCOPES. 

SOLE A&EKTS FOR OKITED STATES. 

xWCHAJlDS >& CO.^ I«TD.., 

NEW YORK, CHICAGO, 

' 41 -Barc)ar< S&ttt. 108 Lake Street. 

Microscopic Freparatioiii! DlnstratiiKi tlie HioDte Stmctiirii 
of Vtetalle Life. 

Being enclosed in a novel transparent envelope, these objects may 
be examined without removal heifore mounting. .They are . prepared 
(}witlL'tbe>utmo6t£are. by. *Wax;C£K Whits, Bngtand^ and are^ mostly 
stained in one or two colors of the most permanent character. 

A friend says : The sample section is exquisite. It is so . good 
CAbat I>vicnt<!flS0re. iAs a iitellMSut and. welVstain^d section- it is 
equal to anything I have seen in that line. 

PRICES. 

Catalogue of 172 objects, - - I0.02 

Single specimens, - - - - - .08 

20 specimens, assorted, ... i.oo 

€HiAd. W.SBIICKT; Washingrton, T>. C. 



SWEDENBORG 

is not only a theologian ; he is a scientist and a scientific writer, 
whose keenly philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 
every scientific student. Send for catalog^ues or answers to questions, 
Address 

ADOLPH ROEDER, 

VinelaHd, N. J. 

FOR SA.LE.— A set of slides Ulustroting the Woody Plants of Dlioois, 
96 Qflima. H. F, IfUNROE, ^21 Jackson SouleyajDdU OhicagQ, m. 



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Special 
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D" 



-IN- 



MICROSCOPY. 



from lif», BMlM pUin all 4€to0«. 
IndnstreSiibMiipttoii, •6.S5,po8t-^« 

The foUowidi v mdooc the SUdet incloded la 



1. OoloayoftheloTalyBAdiokriMi^iAjBro- 

n. •howing pwMicle alga. 40p 

- - ophyte C- - 



t. TheloTely Zoopj 



iOhdia,poljVBtanj 



JjnUXQ the leet few montht 

I here been baty prepertng 

nutny rare and novel okdeeti 

for Microaoopical purpoeee, and 

baTe'mrraaged thein ae nnder W- 

The ftrtt «r tteee to ^m«Q« 
croacoplipAl Stadies In Ma- 
rine Zoology. 

The aeooDd Serlee (tIs.: that 
fbr 1896) ooDeista of 14 aplendid 
^reparatiooa, all of the bigheet 
poMf hie excellence tnd coaranteed 
.permanent. The^ 14 didei appear 
in qoarterly inetaltmenta, and are 
.accoBpanled by oTer 100 pnge* 
of dMoriittlTO letterpress, 
dealhif in pleasant bat exact man- 
ner with the anatomy, life^hieto y 
and babita of the reepeottri' huI> 
Jecte, while 1 2 ftill-page platen 
of photo-engraTUigs, drawn 

Full woepectna on application. 

e. LoTely SxDsnded Zoophyte Sartnfaria 50c 

7. OpMttm-ehrlmp Jfyac, allowing audi- 
tory organ in tail 38c 

8. The aplendiil rare organ-pipe PoIysooB, 
Lickenopora 40e 

9. Kntire larral Plaloe, eye juat turning 
fhMDbUsd aide and 6 other equally 
fine didea. 60c 

The prices agalnat each are thoae at which the preparations are aold aeparately, abow- 
ing what a cheap lot I offer in aeriea at 16.26, poat tr—. A few aeta of Setiea 1 atttl aTailable. 
16.26, post f^. flahtptoSUde; 600., poat f^. 

Prof. J. B. Alnaworth DaTis, UniTenity Oullege, Aberyatwith. writea: ** Allow me to 
congratulate you on the very uaefbl work you are doing by the publication of Journal, with 
aeoompanyingslidea, which are most AmnmASLi: 

Superb mioroocopical preparationa of BrasiUan I«lanas.— I hsTe 
been unfortonaU in obtaining a quanti^ of these auperb stems t hs 
moat toTsly in the whole plant kingdomn and have artaaged theta 
in two seta of 6 each, at the price eftl.3S per set, or $2.26 for the 
two. The moat exquiaitely charming alidea that'oould possibly be 
imagined for exhibinon at popular gatherings. As the quantity is 
— ^-~-~— ^— ^^-^— Tery limited. I am unable to sell single dides. 

MIorosoopieal Stndles in Botany.— In answer to many requests, I hsTe ar- 
ransed 20 magnifloent preparations in a sseies en simMmr lines to that In marine«anlogy de- 
scribed above. 

The flrat series is now begun and dompnses 20 nighest-class slides (such as aell singly 
at 26o to 36c each), iUuslrated by dessriptive tetteiprcas and 30 speetaUy beeutlfttt photo-mlcro- 
grapha of the sections. 

SubacriptionB, 16.25 only, for all, a sum which would be cheap for the series of iUus* 
trattonsalone* 

Prof. J.W.Oarr. UnlTerrity CoUeg^ Nottfngh«m> writes : "Tovnr Botanical BUdes 
are the most beautlftal I have ever seen. The following are among the slides already issusd ia 
above lines : 



expanded. 

3. Stalked stage of the larva of Bosy 

Veather Star (anisdon) 

4. An entire 8ea>BntteiSv fPisrvpod). 
6. Lovely expanded 2o6|diyte ^meoryn*. 



S6o 

400 
40c 
40e 



aeoompanyingslidea, which 

Botany. 



1. Tr. aec. flower-bud of Lily 26c 

2. ** " do of Dandelion 30o 

3. LongH sec do of do 26c 

4. do fhiit of Fig 30c 



5. Tr. sec. friiit of Date (splendid) 
6 ** ** tomw of S»eh$ohoUma 

7. LongU. sec. double flower of Peony 

8. Leaf-fell of Sycamore 



36c 

aoe 

26c 

25c 



I guarantee the perfection of all my mounts and will be pleased to aend 
selections on approval to approved correspondents. 



so on. Large parcel 
Speoialltar. ~ 



A great range of Miscellaneous SSodogipal and Botanical slides ia stodk 
at prices from 91.30 per dozen. 

Cost of M a ilin g, i slide, xo cents ; 3 slides, 15 cents; 3 slides, accents and 
^parcels by express at very cheap rates. 

tar. Marine iSoology (especially in expanded Zoophytes and larval 
stages, and plant and flower anatomy. 

T9VBkM, Remittance by P. O. O., draft on London, or U. S. paper currency, the 
former preferred. If wished, Mr. C. W. Smiley. Washington. D. ''. will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley has kindly promised to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. S. Microacop* 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Biological Station, Jersey, Bngland. 



Specialist in Microscopioal Mounting. 



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128 

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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



VOL. XVIII. APRIL. 1897. No. 4 

Notes on Some New, or Presumably New, Infusoria.— I. 

By J.-"C. smith, of 

NEW ORLEANS, I, A. 
IWITH FRONTISPIECE ! 

The classification followed in this paper is that adopted 
by Saville Kent in his '^Manual of the Infusoria." 
Family. — Actinomonadida^. S. K. 
Genus. — Actinomonas. S. K. 
Species. —Actinomonas primus (figs. 1, 2, and 3). 
Body inactive flagellate stage cylindrical, variable in 
form, usually obovate with the posterior continued as a 
caudal prolongation, sometimes ovate and at other times 
irregular in shape and nodulate; the largest and usual 
obovate form about twice as long as wide; flagellum sin- 
gle anterior, equalling one longest body length and 
vibratile through its whole extent; contractile vesich^ 
conspicuous and located in posterior body half; nucleus 
round and^ubcentral; endoplasm hyaline containing to a 
greater or lesser extent, a number of bead-like granules 
of a blueish tint, presumably food; locomotion equable, 
fairly rapid and by revolution on long axis. 

Size 1-1250 inch. Habitat — Infusion of aquatic plants. 
Body in Heliozoan stage variable in form, usually sub- 
globose and undergoing slight changes of contour; rays 
numerous, fine and projected from all parts of the 
periphery; equalling in length from one to two diameters 
of the zooid; flagellum quiescent and coiled close to the 
bod jr. 



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110 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

Thi8 remarkable form was found very abundant and 
was given prolonged study. In the active flagellate 
stage it moved about in an easy manner, revolving on its 
long axis; the flagellum being thrown into graceful 
curves from its origin to its distal end. After moving 
about for an hour, more or less, the coming change to the 
heliozoan stage was ushered in by a slower movement, 
an occassional halt, slight tremors and the appearance 
on the anterior body half of short, heavy and blunt ten- 
tacle-like processes, with a simultaneous contraction of 
the body. 

If the endoplasm was well filled with the granules men- 
tioned, the body would be modulated. The rays then 
extended until as long as one or two of its diameters; 
the tentacle-like processes covering the anterior half, 
going to form the anterior rays; the flagellum becomes 
inactive and is coiled close to the body. In this state it 
resembled very much a light colored Heterophry Leidy, 
changing its contour gradually and almost impercept- 
ably, but never to any great extent. 

The change from the heliozoan to the flagellate stage 
is heralded by the gradual withdrawal of the rays, the 
flagellum uncoiling and having a slight movement, a few 
slight quivers of the body and simultaneous elongation 
to the original shape of the flagellate; the flagellum be- 
comes very active at once and the infusorian darts oflF to 
live for an hour or so in this phase. Sometimes the 
original form is not restored entirely until it has moved 
about for a h.hort while, but in all cases observed the 
original shape was finally assumed. 

Each one of the phases of this dual life, as witnessed 
by the writer occu{)ied from fifteen minutes to one and a 
half hours. 

While in the heliozoan stage the manner of capturing 
and engulphing food is identically the same as when per- 
formed by the Actinophry sol. One form that ^as un- 



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1897 ! MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. Ill 

' er ohservHtion for four hours underwent five changes 
and durifi^ the heliozoan phase captured and en^ulfdied 
six large forms of Hexamila inflata (which were abund- 
ant), three forms of Cerconionas longicauda and two forms 
of lleteromita lens. From this and a number of similar 
observations the writer feels justified in concluding that 
this infuBorian is truly carnivorous. 

Larger infusoria and those of greater consistency 
when in contaet with the rays were visibly affected; they 
seemed to experience a shock, changed their routes and 
NJHckeued their pace. A number of large forms of the 
very active Treporaonas agilis were often found among 
the rays and were not affected in the slightest manner. 
Defecation was observed during both stages, btit the flag- 
ellate form was never seen to take food. 

During the heliozoan stage this form has no locomotive 
movement and is not anchored in any way; this last as- 
sertion is clearly demonstrated by its being at the merey 
of every current produced by a passing infusorian, worm 
or rotifer. 

Saville Kent, in his manual of the Infusoria, mentions 
an observation of his wherein he witnessed the develop- 
ment of an Actinophry from a flagellate zoospore. In 
his figure of the zoospore the contractile vesicle is placed 
iu the posterior half, and in his figure of the Actinophry 
the nucleus is central. The position of these two essen- 
tials corresponds with the form here described. It may 
he presumptuous, but the writer cannot help but incline 
to the belief that if the Actinophry had been given a pro- 
longed study it uiight have reverted to its original flag- 
ellate state and thus have rendered this record of a new 
form unnecessary. 

Family. — Heteromitid». S. K. 
Genus. — Heteromita. Dujardin. 
Species. — Heteromita ligulata (fig. 4) 
Body ovale, cylindrical; one and a half to two times 



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112 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[April 



as long as wide ; plastic and changeable in shage ; ven- 
trum slightly concave anteriorly ; flagella originating 
together at the anterior extremity, the anterior vibratile 
flagellurn nearly one half the body length ; this flageilum 
is heavy strap-like and of uniform thickness from its ori- 
gin to its distal end ; the trailing flageilum from two to 
two and a half times the body length ; contractile vesicle 



.^^^7^- ^^>-«^ 




1 . — ActinomoDiiH primus, x 90U. 

•_'. - \' f'tioiiM an iutermediatebt ' , 

A. — Nitinomonaw. HpHokokd |>1i i. . 

4.— Ueteromiui liguUU. x llOu. 

5. — PeUlomoDM pusilU. x 2250. 

0.— Atractonema ftuiformia. x 1750. 

7. — Diplomastix rcwtrum. x 1400. 

A.— Diplomastix agilis. x 120(J. 

9. — Diplomastix Iatei\>< ventral view. 
10.— Anitonema disomato. x 1'250. 
11. — Anisonenia. Traniverse sectioD. 



conspicuous and situated close to the anterior extremity; 
nucleus round and located in the posterior body half; 
endoplasm, hyaline and slightly granular; locomotion 
slow and equable while the anterior strap-like flageilum 
is constantly and rapidly wagged. Size from 1-5000 to 
1-3000 inch. 

Habitat — Ubiquitous. Transverse fission. 



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189.7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 113 

This infusorian has been found by the writer in all 
kinds of water, fresh and stale, in animal and vegetable 
macerations; sometimes in great abundance. The an- 
terior ilagellum is heavy and strap-like, and is dijffer- 
ent from any appendage found on any of the flagellata, 
80 far recorded. The movements of this flagellum are 
more like the wagging of the tail of a pleased dog than 
the ordinary vibatile movements. 

At times this flagellum is bent backwards on either the 
dorsum or ventrum and no matter how rapid the move- 
ments are it does not in the least seem to accelerate the 
even gliding movements of the body. While the writer 
has observed a perceptible increase of the granules of 
food in the endoplasm, he has never been able to detect 
the inception of such food, but he has a strong presump- 
tion that such inception takes place in the slight concav- 
ity existing just behind the origin of the flagella on the 
ventral surface. 

Family. — Paramonadid». S. K. 

Genus. — Petatomonas. Stien. 

Species. — Petalomonas pusilla (fig. 5). 
Body subovate, twice as long as wide ; flattened and 
without a furrow or ridge ; Anterior slightly narrower 
than the posterior ; both extremities rounded; sinistral 
border of greater convexity than dextral border; flagellum 
equalling a little more than one body length and directed 
forwards, in a straight line and stiff" manner, the distal 
end vibratile; contractile vesicle conspicuous and located 
well forwards in the anterior body half and near to the 
sinistral border; nucleus round and situated, medianly, 
in the posterior body half; Endoplasm, hyaline and 
slightly granular posteriorly ; locomotion same as all 
the species ; Size 1-3000 inch. Habitat — stale infusion of 
aquatic plants. 

This form is evidently the smallest of the genus so far 
recorded. Kent in his *' Manual of the Infusoria'' men- 



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114 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

tions a form — Petalomonas irregularis, observed by him- 
self, which although being a bit larger than this one, 
bears a close resembhmce. He failed to locate the con- 
tractile vesicle and the nucleus and in consequence leaves 
a doubt as to whether his Petaloraonas irregularis is the 
same as this form. This infusorian is dissimilar from 
any other of the species so far recorded, in being devoid 
of a ridge and of a furrow. When first observed, the 
writer was inclined to place it among the genus Para 
mouas, but on closer examination it was found to conform 
in every detail of habit with the genus in which it is 
placed. 

Family. — Paramonadidae. S. K. 

Genus. — Atractonema. Stien. 

Species. — Atractonema fusiformis (fig. 6). 
Body fusiform, cylindrical, more than twice as long as 
wide ; widest at the center and attenuate at both ex- 
tremities; the anterior transversly truncate; posterior 
obtusely pointed and at times produced in a nipple-like 
process ; pharynx distinct and extending backwards, 
meeting the contractile vesicle, which is conspicuous and 
centrally placed; ttagellum more than one body lengih; 
nucleus round and medianly placed in posterior body 
half; endoplasm hyaline and slightly granular; locomo- 
tion slow and even. Size 1-1400 inch. Habitat — Pon*l 
water with algae. 

The small size and the ratio of width to length are all 
that make this form ditFerent from Atractonema teres. 
Stien. 

Family. — Anisonemidse. S. K. 

Genus. — Diplomastix. S. K. 

Species. — Diplomastix rostrum (fig. 7). 

Body elliptical, cylindrical and variable in size ; from 

one and a half to three times as long as wide; anterior 

truncate obliquely to ventrum ; this truncation being 

slightly concave and producing the anterior into almost 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 116 

a point ; posterior evenly rpunded ; oval aperture incon- 
tspicuous but very capacious, situated in the truncation ; 
flag^ella originating together at the apex ; the anterior 
one equalling one-half the body length and the posterior 
one twice the body length, and much heavier ; contrac- 
tile vesicle large, very conspicuous and located well up 
in the anterior body half; nucleus round and in posterior 
body half'; endoplasm intrinsically clear and of a blueish 
tint, but generally filled with large food grains; locomo- 
tion exceedingly rapid and by revolution on long axis. 
Size from 1-2600 to 1-1100 inch. Habitat— Putrid vege- 
table macerations. Transverse fission. 

The movements of this infusorian are so rapid that a 
view of the flagella is made very diflicult; especially is 
this so in respect to the anterior shorter one. At times 
the posterior longer flagellum is twined about the body. 
The oval aperture would never be suspected to exist if 
the infusorian was found feeding on bacteria ; it is only 
when seen engulphing or attempting to engulph large 
particles of food that the position and capaciousness of 
the oval aperture can be demonstrated. The writer had 
under observation a specimen that made quite a number 
of attempts to swallow food more than thrice its own di- 
mensions. Where it is found with abundance of food 
the nucleus and contractile vesicle are obscured by the 
large globular food grains it contains. It is a veritable 
scavenger. A dead Pluronema has been seen surrounded 
by dozens of them intent on devouring the remains as 
rapidly as possible. 

Family. — AnisonemidsB. S. K. 

Genus. — Diplomastix. S. K. 

Species. — Diplomastix agili8(fig8. 8 and 9). 
Body sub-obovate, compressed ; less than twice as long as 
wide ; dextral border of greater convexity than sinistral ; 
anterior slightly truncate transversely ; dorsum convex 



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116 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

and veatrum plane ; the anterior half of the ventrum 
traversed by a slight concavity which includes about one- 
half the body width; ilagella originating together ue«r 
the center of anterior border ; the anterior flagelhiin 
equals one body length and is directed obliquely forward 
to the right side ; the anterior third of this tlagellum is 
vibratile and is flexed still further to the right side ; the 
posterior tlagellum equals nearly two body lengths; oval 
aperture capacious, situated at the base of the anterior 
flagellum and conspicuous only when the infusorian is 
engulphing or attempting to engulph large particles of 
food ; contractile vesicle large and very conspicuous, lo- 
cated in the anterior body half near the sinistral border; 
nucleus roundish and sub-central ; endoplasm blueish and 
extrinsicaily granular; locomotion smooth and rapid 
gliding. Size 1-1400 inch. Habitat — Pond water with 



This exceedingly active infusorian was found in a 
number of different collections of water taken from a 
pond in one of the parks in New Orleans. At no time 
was this form observed until the water had become 8tale. 
The oblique direction of the anterior flagellum is not un- 
like the same appendage of the genus Petalomonas. The 
ventral concavity is well seen in a latero-ventral view, 
which it often presents, as it has the habit of gliding 
through and about debris heaps, after the manner of an 
Aspidisca, but in a hurried and nervous sort of way. 
The position and capaciousness of the oval aperture can 
be verified only by observing the infusorian swallowing 
or attempting to swallow large particles of food. It often 
undertakes to swallow particles of food much larger than 
itself. After it has taken any large particle of food it 
immediately becomes much altered in shape — but after a 
few contortions becomes itself again ; it is at this time 
only that it demonstrates its flexibility. 



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18»7.J MIOBOSCOPICAL JOUElfAL. 417^ 

Family. — AnitjonemidaB. S. K. 

Genus. — Anisonema. Dujardin. 

Species. — ^Anisonema disomata (figs. 10 and 11). 
Body sab-elliptical, less than twice as long as wide ; 
anterior extremity slightly wider than the posterior^ and 
narrowly truncate centrally ; posterior rounded ; dorsum 
and ventrum flat and both traversed longitudinally , by a 
deep groove which occupies nearly one-third of the body 
width; these grooves seem to cut the body in equal 
halves ; flagella originating together near the frontal 
border and on a line with the slight anterior truncation ; 
the anterior one equals one body length while the pos- 
terior one is near two body lengths ; contractile vesicles, 
two, small and located in the anterior body third, one 
on each side of the grooves; nucleus roundish, in the pos- 
terior half near the sinistral border ; endoplasm granular 
and of a greenish tint ; locomotion exactly as with Anin- 
nema grande. Ehr. Size 4-1666 inch. Habitat — water 
from a flower pot. 

This form was taken in fairly large quantities from 
water of long standing in a flower pot exposed to the 
weather. The grooves give to the infusorian a very 
transparent Jine extending the full length of the body. 
It is when the anterior is depressed and there is a con- 
sequent elevation of the posterior border that these 
grooves can be well observed. The latel*al borders of 
this form are not rounded, but instead are cut otF at 
right angles to the dorsum and ventrum (fig. 11). 

The resemblance that this form bears to the Anisonema 
solenotus of Dr. Stokes is striking and apart from its 
smaller size would require careful scrutiny to distinguish. 
The writer has on numerous occasions taken the Aniso- 
nema solenotus of Dr. Stokes from pond water in the 
Audubon park in New Orleans and has thus been enabled 
to compare them. 

{To be continued.^ 



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118 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

Some Experiments on the Growth of Diatoms. 

By GBORGE C. WHIPPLE, 

NEWTON CSNT&B, MASS. 

In a paper published in 1894 the writer suggested an 
explanation for the peculiar 8ea8onal distribution of 
diatoms in lakes and ponds. It was shown that in deep 
ponds these minute plants are found abundantly during 
the spring and fall»but are almost entirely absent during 
the summer and winter; that these growths are closely 
connected with the phenomena of circulation and stagna- 
tion of the water, which phenomena are due to tem- 
perature changes; and that it is daring the periods of the 
year when the water is in complete circulation through- 
out the vertical that the diatom growths occur. The ex- 
planation offered for these facts had reference chiefly to 
the food supply. It was stated that diatoms require a 
suflBcient supply of nitrogen in the form of nitrates, and 
that they require a free circulation of air, and it was 
shown how during the ^'periods of circulation" in the 
spring and fall these conditions were fulfilled. In the 
light of more extended observations and experiments this 
food supply theory, taken alone, is seen to be inadequate, 
and while it is true that the question of food is one of 
fundamental importance, yet there are other factors 
which materially influence their growth. With a view 
to determining the nature and efiect of some of these in- 
fluences the writer has conducted recently several series 
of experiments, some of the results of which are here 
presented. 

It is not an easy matter to cultivate diatoms success- 
fully in the laboratory to obtain comparative results. 
They are organisms which have an extremely sensitive 
nature, and slight changes in their environment often 
make great differences in their growth. The tempera- 
ture, the amount of light, the shape and size of the jar 
in which they are grown, the action of the glass upon the 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 119 

water, etc., are all disturbing elements afifecting their 
growth. 

In order to determine the effect of light upon their 
growth it was found necessary to make experiments in 
the open reservoirs under conditions practically the same 
as those found in nature. 

The method employed was an extremely simple one. 
It consisted of suspending bottles filled with water from 
the same source at different depths in the pond, the bot- 
tles being tied to a rope which hung from an anchored 
buoy. After a certain time the bottles were drawn to 
the surface and the water examined, records being kept 
of the number of diatoms in each sample l)efore and after 
exposure. The bottles varied in capacity from 16ft to 
1,000 cc. In the first five experiments they were tightly 
stoppered, but in the later ones silk bolting cloth was 
tied over the mouths of the bottles, and inverted glass 
tumblers were placed above. The latter arrangement 
gavt* much heavier growths on account of providing bet- 
ter opportunity for the circulation of air and for the re- 
newal of food supply. 

Without describing the experiments of [Forel Forel, 
F. A. ''Le Leman, monographic Ifmnologique/' Laus- 
anne, 1896] and others upon the intensity of light at 
various depths, it may be said that the decrease in the 
intensity below the surface is due to two causes — ab- 
sorption by the water, and the pr»^sence of fine particles 
which act as a screen. The reduction of light in passing 
through water is suppos^'d to follow the law that as the 
depth increases arithmetically the intensity of the light 
decreases geometrically. For example, if the intensity 
of the light falling upon the surface of a pond is repre- 
sented by 1, and if ^ of the light is absorbed by the first 
foot of water, then the intensity of light at the depth of 
one foot will be I; the second foot of water will ab- 
sorb i of f, and the intensity at a depth of two 



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120 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

feet will therefore be 9-16, and so on. At this rate of 
decrease the intensity of light at a depth of ten feet will 
be only about 5 per cent of that at the.surface.t 

The following experiments selected from the series 
mUcybe cit.ed as a. typical example of the results obtained: 

Cochituate water located in the Chestnut Hill Reser- 
voir, April 29 to May 13, 1895. Temperature, 53''-62''. 
Color, a:68. 



Date. 


Depths 


= 


i 


1 


i 


08 






■ i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


April 29 


AH depths. 


94 


196 


3 


11 


16 


319 


May 13 


2 ft. 


4,040 


910 


20 


22,010 


550 


27,530 


May 13 


4ft.. 


570 


80 


10 


6.800 


120 


7,580 


May 13 


6 ft. 


380 


650 


26 


4,510 


284 


5,850 


May 13 


8 ft. • 


650 


840 


26 


1,304 


100 


2,920 


Jdayl3 


10 ft, 


154 


1,380 


10 


80 





1,624 


May 13 


25 ft. 


16 


132 





88 


28 


264 



On April 29, the bottles- were filled with watpr from 
the same source and suspended in the reservoir at the 
d^ths.iqdicated ip the table. On that date the water 
contained 319 diatoms per cc. After an .exposure of two 
y/e^kp the bottles were drawn to the surface and the 
W^ter examined^ with the result that the samples near 
the surface showed an abundant growth, while those 
which bad been kept at a greater depth showed but a 
slight increase. 

The temperature of all the samples was the same and 
the only facts that varied were the intensity and quality 
of the light. 

la order to better appreciate the relation between the 
intensity of the light and the diatom growth, we may 
conaider fig. 1. 

This diagram shows the relative diatom growths at 
various depths and the corresponding intensity of light 



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1897] 



MIOROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



121 



calculated from experiments upon the coeflBcient of ab- 
sorption of light by water. The pdif'Hilelism of the two 
curves is very striking. 

One of the objects of the experiments was'to determine 
the depth below which the diatoms are unable to develop. 
The results show what we should naturally expect, that 
it depends upon the character of the water. — its color, 
turbidity, etc. This is illustrated by fig. 2, whicii 







~''~ 


'0yMM^fm<.^. \ 


- 


r- 










/*.-. 


VJ/T- 


/ Of 

n 4 


i/jA-r 
















-:^ 
















-^ 


^ 


















/ 










i 




t, 








ij 


1 


: 




. 


— , 


1 




-<-' 






^ 1 




















- 














- 




• 









MU 


MMw ^erec. 


1 
















■ 




' 


' 


i 








J 






v^ 














■. 


^ 


^ 






-^ 










1 


/ 












i *> 


/ 




1 




1 


/ 




% 


^ 

> / 






/ 






I 


















1 




lit murrm o» «/r//4wr r 






























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i 



EXi'LANaTIOX or the DIAOBAMfi. 

Fixuic L. — LwWtt CucLituatu witter lucated iu Luke Oochituat«, Nov. 'iU, luUO. KaaiiiiuwU Deo. d, 
1896. Temperature ^ifiAAf^. Color 33. The iuteuaity of light at different depths wax 
otlcuiated oD the aMnmption thnt a Inyer Of water one foot in depth absorbs V^ p^r cent I 
the light falling npon it. 

Fi}:urt* 'i, — Ijake Cuchituate water located in tho Choetnut Hill Ke«eiviiir and in IiMkpCocliitu«>. 
The curves reprMA-nt the aTeraK*) "^ ^"^^ a^^ries, the ftnrt fruni Nov. 22 tu 2u, the secoi d 
from Nov, 29 to Dec. 9, 1896. Temperature 4i>° to 4G°. No I . C. H. Res. Color 0.3*7. 
No. ^. Lake CuchituMte. Color 0.3:{. The DiaUimn referred tu in both diagrams wt r» 
chiefly Asteriunell« and Jfclosira. 

shows the results of two series of experiments upon water 
of the same kind located in Lake Cocliitiiate and Chest- 
nut Hill Reservoir. The former had a color of 0,33, 
while the color of the 1 itter was 0.87. The difference be- 
tween the two series is very striking. In. the light 
colored water, the giowths were heavier and extended to 
greater depths than in the darker water. 

Curve No. 1 represents the growths in Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir, and curve No. 2 those in Lake Cochituate. 



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122 tHE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

The number of diatoms in the original sample is shown 
by the broken line. The point at which this broken line 
cnt8 the curveH may be called the limit of growth. In 
Lake Cochituate this point was at a depth of about 
twelve feet, in Chestnut Hill Reservoir, six fet-t. 

Diatoms are said to be positively heliotropic, that is, 
tliey tend to more towards the light. In soni^ species 
this power is quite strong; in others it is less noticeable. 
For the purpose of determining the heliotropiam of the 
diatoms commonly found in water supplies, siimples of 
water rich in diatoms were placed in brass tubes three 
inches in diameter and thirty-two inches long, liavingglass 
ends. One end was covered with a black cap, and the 
other end exposed to the light. Atter varying lengths 
of exposure, portions of the water were drawn from each 
end of the tubes and examined microscopically. As ;in 
example of the results obtained the following may be 
quoted. Cochituate water containing 922 diatoms per cc. 
was exposed in a tube for twelve hours. At tbe end of 
that time the water at the light end of the tube contained 
1,438 and that nt the dark end only 320. Some of the 
tubes were inclined, to see if the diatoms woiibl nuive 
upwards towards the light; some of them were placMl 
vertically; in others the diatoms were given lime to .seiile 
before the exposure was made. The experiments showed 
that most of the common genera ten<le<l to move towards 
the light^while settling, but that having once reached 
the bottom of the tube tliey remained where tiiey fell. 
They apparently did not possess the power of moving 
upwards towards the light — certainly not through any 
great depth of water. But while they could not rise of 
their own accord, slight currents of convection caused by 
varying the temperature of the water sufficed to keep 
them near the surface. 

The bearing which these facts have upon the seasonal 
di>tfil)nti.)T| of ilj.'lfon)^ is obvio'i«, nni we are pow bett**r 



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1897] MICE08C0PICAL JOURNAL. 123 

able to understand why it is that their growths occur 
daring those seasons of the year when the water is in 
circulation throughout the vertical. During those periods 
not only is food more abundant, but the vertical currents 
keep the diatoms near the surface, where there is light 
enough to stimulate their growth, and where there is an 
abundance of air. If this theory be true, it must follow 
that the weather has a marked influence upon their 
growth. We should expect that the greatest growths 
would occur on warm, fair days, when there is just enough 
wind to keep the diatoms near the surface. On quiet 
days we should expect that they would sink in the water, 
perhaps below the limit of their growth. During a long 
period of quiet weather they might sink even to such a 
depth that they would not again be able to reach the sur- 
face. 

This is juftt what took place in Lake Cochituate in the 
spring of 1895. In this lake there is almost invariably 
a heavy spring growth of diatoms, but in 1895 the 
growth was small. It began as usual, the diatoms being 
apparently in good condition. Early in May, however, 
there were a few days of uncommonly warm weather. 
The temperature of the air went above 90°, and the tem- 
perature of the surface water on one day was 76°. For 
almost a week the water was very calm. During this 
calm weather the diatoms settled rapidly, disappearing 
almost entirely from the surface. In the meantime the 
water became stratified, on account of the high tempera- 
ture of the surface layers, and when once more the wind 
began to blow, its influence was felt only ten or fifteen 
feet below the surface. The diatoms, having settled 
below that depth, were unable to rise, and consequently 
their growth ceased. 



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124 THB AMBRICAN MONTHLY [April 

On a Fossil Lake io New Jersey. 

By ARtHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D., 

NEWARK, N. J. 

[Read before the Waahington Hicroseopical Society.] 
I wish to record here the finding of a fossil lake in 
New Jersey; first, because it gives me an opportunity of 
clearing up the knowledge of infusorial earths and also 
because I found in it two strata of fossil bacillaria, com- 
monly called diatomace®, one below fresh-water and one 
above brackish water forms. Beside these are growing 
now and depositing their shells, fresh-water bacillaria. ' 
This was the first that I can find containing the fresh 
and brackish water layers of bacillaria, and should be re- 
corded for that reason alone. But I was, therefore, led 
to study closely the genesis of similar infusorial earths and 
I have come to the conclusion that they all, in this coun- 
try- as well as in Europe, are the same lithologically and 
the same in the forms of bacillaria seen in them. 

The earth is clay and so are all of them in North and 
South America and in Europe. When discovered, it was 
communicated to the San Francisco Microscopical Society 
on the 2lHt of January, 1891. I than called it an intra- 
glacial deposit, it being supposed that it lay between the 
two glacial moraines which I supposed were here in New 
Jersey. But then I studied the glacial moraine and I 
found there was but one in this part of the state. I also 
learned that glacialists were inclined to place but one iu 
the east, although they were doubtful if there were two 
in the west. I now call it Iceberg period clay, being 
formed when the ice of the glacial period was melting 
and broke into icebergs on the margin. This margin 
moved further north as the ice melted and at last disap- 
peared. When I found the earth, it was just developed, 
being turned up by the Lehigh Valley railroad forming 
a bank across a marsh whicU I learned bad been a Uke 
formerly. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 125 

Weequachick lake was known to the Indians but has 
disappeared now, being left as a marsh with clear places 
iu it where the water was clear but shallow. It is at 
Waverly, about four miles from Newark and close to 
Elizabeth. I found first that they were digging for the 
railroad just south of the Marsh and almost a yard down 
they turned up a dark, almost black soil: This I secured 
and examined. I was delighted to find that it consisted of 
nearly pure brackish water forms of bacillaria. Going to 
the place where they were digging to secure som«* more of 
the earth, I saw that the embankment which was formed 
of glacial moraine, in this case being in the majority of 
sand and gravel, had been laid across a marsh which 1 
also learned had been called Weequachick lake. But the 
soil at the bottom had not been firm enough to bear the 
weight of the embankment which had sunk, crowding up 
the bottom of the marsh. At one place, it rose in mina- 
ture hill, about six to eight feet high. In this place, 1 
collected it, and found it was peaty on top, and, for five 
feet down, it contained brackish forms of bacillaria, and 
helow that for at least two feet it was made up of fresh- 
water forms. Beneath all was the glacial moraine which 
at this place is over thirty feet thick. Where the fresh- 
water and the brackish water bacillaria joined, there was 
a mingling of forms, so that one could collect a fresh 
water infusorial earth having some salt water found in it. 
Thus, I got Navicula viridis and other forms along with 
Triceratiiim favus. 

Then I studied the infusorial earths which I had or 
<-ould procure and I got over a hundred and I found that 
they all contained essentially the same fresh-water forms 
And I collected any clay that occurred everywhere in 
New Jersey and I found it contained sparsely the same 
forms. And I came to the conclusion that they were all 
one in the Iceberg period clays of the world. This is 
the conclusion I have come to now. 



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126 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

The Microscopical and Cbemical Aids to Diagnosis. 

By Dr. KATHRINE R. COLLINS. 

On October 14th, 1896, before the Tristate Medical 
Society at Chattanooga, Dr. Kathrine R. Collins read a 
paper on "Microscopical and Chemical Aids to Diagnosis." 
The writer takes the position that by these two means 
valuable assistance to diagnosis may be obtained, but at 
present it is, too often, the case that these examinations 
are hurriedly and carelessly made thus bringing about 
very unsatisfactory results. The examination of one 
specimen of urine being frequently considered all that 
is necessary, not as the abnormal C(»nstituents of the 
urine may occur without any coexisting pathological con- 
dition, as the presence of sugar or albumen after a meal 
rich in these substances, the one examination is without 
value. Also in the microscopical work many conditions 
may be overlooked in the single examination or the pres- 
ence of the tubercle bacilli in the sputum of tuberculous 
patients. Attention is then called to some of the diffi- 
culties interfering with the tests for sugar in the urine; 
the value of estimating the amount of chlorides excreted 
in pneumonia ; the presence and value of the Drazo-re- 
action in typhoid fever, pulmonary tuberculosis, puer- 
peral conditions and concealed septic processes , the pro- 
gress of structural diseases of the kidney being marked 
by the amount of urea present, a diminution, showing 
non-elimination and consequent absorption. 

In the examinations of the sputum, the Lurshman-Ley- 
den spirals in bronchial affections, the Charcol-Leyden 
crystals in bronchial asthma, the elastic fibres and the 
tubercle bacillus. The presence of the Klebs-LoeflSer 
bacillus of diphtheria should be demonstrated in every 
case of that disease, as it will lead to a sharper line be- 
ing drawn between true diphtheria and these throat 
affections that siinulate the disease. The pneumococcus 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 127 

of Fraenkel while not yet proven the sole cause of pneu- 
monia is considered by many authorities to bear a casual 
relation to the disease. Going on to the blood examina- 
ations, here the condition, number and relation of the 
red and white blood corpuscles are the only means by 
whicli we can distinguish between chlorisis and ana3mia, 
and anemia and leukaemia. While Laveran's experi- 
ments in 1880, demonstrating the presence in the blood of 
the Plasmodia malaria*, have been corroborated by other 
investigators in his own country and by many in this, 
lie thus made malaria a definite disease. The Doctor 
proceeds to speak of the revolution of opinions in regard 
t<» the causative factor in typhoid fever. Babes and 
Brieger are quoted as expressing doubt as to the Eberth 
bacillus being the sole and Only cause. Babes fails' to 
find it in every case, while Brieger claims a mixed infec- 
tion. Vaughan, of this country, in 1890, made experi- 
ments and demonstrated the presence in drinking water 
obtained from the source of the water supply of a town 
suffering from a severe epidemic of typhoid fever, of a 
number of germs capable of producing in rats and guinea 
[ugs the characteristic symptoms of typhoid fever, and 
invariably fatal. Someof these germs found in the spleen 
after death, respond to the tests for the Eberth bacillus. 
Vaughan concludes from this that there are found incert- 
ain waters a number of germs capable of producing typh- 
oid fever, and that the P]berth bacillus is an involution 
form of any one of these. In conclusion the Doctor 
urges the proft^ssion in the report of all cases to add the 
results of microscopical and chemical analysis of the ex- 
cretions and secretions indicated. — Charlotte Medical 
Journal. 

Liquid Metal Polioh. — Take 8 ounces of rotten stone, 
2 ounces oxalic acid, 3 ounces cotton seed oil and add ben- 
zinc enough to make the mixture of the required consist- 
ency. 



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128 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

EDITORIAL. 



Cigarettes. — An analysis at the Department of Agricul- 
ture showed : Ash 13.00, water 13.00, ammonia .05, nico- 
tine 1.20, oils and fats 5.00, fiber 6.00, sugar starch 50.00, 
pretreate matter 12.50. No opium or arsenic was found 
after analyzing samples of all the common native brands. 
The opponents should confine their charges to the injuri- 
ous effect of the nicotine upon the nervous system and 
upon the heart. It disturbs the regular systole and dia- 
stole of the heart and changes the beat to a muffled flutter. 
After the cerebral exhilaration and exaltation produced 
by smoking, come with the lapse of hours irritating and 
debilitating or soporific effects, which give way under the 
exhilaration of another smoke but persist unpleasantly 
unless treatment is granted. A body subject to such 
alternations cannot stand during 25 years what it could 
have stood if freed from them. 

Good Water. — Koch said that water is good unless it 
contains over 100 microbes to the cubic centimeter. 
Franland says that there may be, many more in g-ood 
water. 

Typhoid Germs. — Dr. Frankland put typhoid germs into 
deep well water, into Thames water and into Lake Katrine 
water. The bacilli died more rapidily in Thames water 
than in the lake water while they persisted longest in the 
deep well water. The longevity of the germs was propor- 
tional to the freedom of the water from other inhabitants. 



MICROSCOPICAL APPAIIATUS. 

A New Microscope Lamp. — This excellent lamp, which 
combines portability wuth great efficiency, was designed 
and exhibited at the meeting of the Quekett Microscopical 
Club, on the 16th of last October, by Mr. W. Goodwin, a 
member of the club. 

The lamp which is nickel-plated, is 2i^in. in diameter 
6 '2 in. in height, and weighs about ?>oz. A glance at the 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



129 



figure shows that it has a metal chimney with two opening's : 
this makes it available for the illumination of two micro- 
scopes at the same time. The burner takes a ^^in. wick, 
which yields sufficient light for an armplification of 2,000 
diameters when a suitable condenser is used. 

The glasses are optically worked, one being tinted steel- 
blue, the other signal-green ; if, however, untinted light is 
desired, circles of thin cover glass may be used instead. 
These, if carefully selected, will stand the heat of the 
flame without cracking. 

The lamp is so small that it can easily be packed in the 
same case with the microscope, thus dispensing with an 





extra box. The price of the lamp is about 12s., and it is 
made by Mr. H. Hinton, 12 Vorley-road, Upper HoUoway, 
N. — English Mechanic, 

A Simple Means of Illuminating Objects with Low 
Powers of Artificial Light. — The following is a simple 
means of obtaining a pleasant equably lighted field with 
sufficient intensity and of such a tone as to permit of a 
prolonged examination of low power specimens without 
fatigue. 



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130 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Apiit 

Such an illumination was felt to be a desideratum in 
quite early microscopical days, and in all the older text- 
books will be found descriptions of apparatus to serve 
this end, rang-ing* from simple contrivances like waxed 
paper, g^round g^lass and plaster-of-Paris mirrors to lig^ht 
modifiers, reflector screens, white-cloud condensers, 
double parabolic specula, and many more elaborate de- 
vices. It is pretty obvious, therefore, that nothing* new or 
striking^ is likely to be invented for the purpose now, 
when the tendency is to diminish rather than multiply 
apparatus. 

The idea is to intensify the ligfht and then spread it over 
a largfe surface. For the intensification I use the lower, 
crossed lens of the Abbe condenser, (fig-. 2, b) but any 
suitable fairly large lens of about one inch focus will do as 
well, either a double convex or the field lens of an eye-piece. 
This is screwed into the lower end of a piece of tube 
fitting" the sub-stag"e, or under stage ring, which tube 
should be a little longer than the focal length of the lens 
employed. Just below the upper end of the tube is a split 
ring serving as a ledge, and (m this, in the focal plane of 
the -lens, rests a circle of thinnish glass lightly ground 
on one surface. The light from the flat of the lamp is 
condensed by the bulKs-eye (m the mirror, thrown up 
through the lens and focussed on the ground glass, ( fig. 2, a ) 
which is racked or pushed up until almost in contact with 
the slide. The image of the flame being broken up at 
every possible angle by the ground glass, with a little 
manipulation one can fill any sized field with a most 
pleasant soft light, which can be employed for a long time 
without detriment to vision. It was long ago discovered, 
that freshly-ground glass possessed a peculiar property of 
soft brilliancy which the commercial product did not, and 
I get circles of the required size from the glass-cutter and 
grind them myself with a little fine emery and water on 
another piece of glass until just sufficiently abraded lo 
stop any direct pencils. Besides the ordinary white glass 
it is a great advantage to get .some circles cut from dif- 
ferent tints of blue or smoked glass, and either grind these 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 131 

on one surface in the same way, or temporarily cement 
them to the unabraded surface of the ground glass, by a 
drop of cedar oil or glycerine; one thus obtains a series 
of tones suited to all sorts of oh]Qcis,— Journal of .Quekett 
Microscopical Club, — G, C, Karop, 

Formaldehyde Generator. — This apparatus shown in 
the illustration has been designed by C. Truax, Green and 
Co., for the safe, convenient and economic production of 
formaldehyde by the oxydation of methyl alcohol. 
G Methyl alcohol is made from wood and is much preferred 

to sulphur for disinfect- 
ing purposes. It will pen- 
etrate bedding, furniture 
and clothing, thoroughly 
^ disinfecting them without 

discoloration. 

This lamp is conven- 
ient, economical and sim- 
ple in construction, com- 
pactly made and requires 
no fine manipulation to 
secure the desired result, 
A room having 2,500 
cubic feet capacity may be 
thoroughly disinfected by 
this generator without any previous preparation by one 
filling of the reservoir. 

Formaldehyde in its gaseous form has the properties of 
ready diffusibility and great power of penetration. It may 
also be used in connection with a sterilizer constructed for 
the purpose of sterilizing surgical instruments and dress- 
ings. — Journal of Am. Med. Association. 

A Polarizing Microscope. Dr. F. C. Van Dyck of 
Rutger's College described in this Journal in May, 1895, 
a polarizing microscope which he was using for pro- 
jection. He has been improving it since that time, till 
now the results are highly satisfactory. The lantern is a 



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1 



I3d THE AMBRtCATf MONTHLY [April 

vertical one, the rays being- reflected horizontally by a right- 
angled prism at the top of the instrument. 

Referring to the illustration published in the Journal of 
May 18, 1895 (p. 154) the general scheme of arrangement 
is shown. The alum cell is above the second large lens as 
shown, and the sub-stage condenser is also removed with 
the 7-8 objective. The analyser swings out from the 
optical axis, as does also a selenite placed where the sub- 
stage condenser is shown. 

As for its performance, the field on the microscope stage 
is 1-4 inch; on the screen, 31 feet distant, it is shown just 
8 feet in diameter, and as light as the average field of a 
calcium light stereoptican. With polarized light the struc- 
ture of granite, pitchstone, Labradorite, and marble were 
distinctly shown, with the several minerals which were 
present in them. 

The blue and yellow field obtained by using the selenite 
with open and crossed nicols gave the effects of polariza- 
tion with much greater distinctness, and added greatly to 
the beauty of the slide. Some of the specimens so shown 
were chalcedony, salicine, asparagin, animal and vegetable 
sections. If a hair, or any dense tissue was present in the 
preparation, the exact location of such a part was very 
clearly shown by this combination of selenite and polari- 
zer. Thus the stellate hairs of deutzia, the hairs in the 
nose of a cat, the cartilaginous portions of a cat's tongue, 
the difference in composition between the nail and the 
rhizoid processes forming the *'quick;'' were all shown far 
more clearly by this means than by normal light. The 
medullary rays in trans-sections of woody stems were 
also polarized, and indicated a beginning of a new field for 
the application of this light, heretofore regarded as the 
monoply of the mineralogist and petrologist. 

Dr. A. H. Chester has heartily co-operated with Dr. Van 
Dyck in his work, and they have used their instrument 
before the Brooklyn and New York Academies of Science 
recently and received much encouragement and hearty 
congratulations from other students of physical science. — 
Frederick H, Blodgett. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 133 

MICROSCOPICAL MANIPULATION. 



Formaldehyde. — Among the newer preparations formal- 
clehydeappearstobemeetingmany of the claims made for it. 
It seems to have a wide field of usefulness in several direc- 
tions: 1. Asa food preservative; 2. As a deodorant 
either in vapor or solution ; 3. As a hardening- ag^ent in 
microscopical work; 4. As a preservative of human cada- 
vers; v^. A careful inspection has shown that disinfection 
by means of formaldehyde vapor is most thoroug-h and 
complete. 

Experiments prove conclusively that formaldehyde as 
a preservative for mucilage and paste is the ne plus ultra. 
Before however, this preparation can be used indiscrim- 
inately as a preservative for foods and liquors, its non tox- 
icity must be established beyond the shadow of a doubt. 
It would seem that this preparation covers a wider field as 
a preservative than either salicylic acid or borax, and the 
same care which has been used in testing the physiologi- 
cal effects of these, should be employed with formaldehyde. 

Not long ago, when for present lack of time, several 
specimens of pathological urine could not be examined 
immediately by a physician, he added two drops of the 40 
per cent solution of formaldehyde to each four ounce bot- 
tle of the specimens, which expedient answered admirably. 
Recent experiments in mounting tube-casts, using form- 
aldehyde as a preservative, have proved its efficacy after 
five weeks. Still these experiments have not continued 
long enough to guarantee the permanency of the result. — 
Western Druggist. 



MEDICAL MICROSCOPY. 



Yellow Fever. - There seems no reason to doubt that 
Giusseppe Sanarelli has discovered the bacillus of yellow 
fever, as announced some weeks ago. Whether he has 
discovered a means of curing it, remains to be proved; 
but the experiment and the result will shortly be pub- 



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134 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

lished. At Monte Video it is believed that Dr. Sanarelli 
has succeeded, and it is believed that he will win the re- 
ward of about ^30,000 offered by the Brazillian Govern- 
ment. It may be remembered that the enthusiastic Ital- 
ian biolog^ist cured himself of yellow fever caug^ht in the 
course of his investigations. — Scientific American. 

Diagnosis ofPregnancy with the Microscope. — Dr. Park, 
of Philadelphia, (Amer. Gyn. and Obstet. Jour.) reports 
that after a microscopic study of the triple phosphates in 
^ the urine of pregnant women, he is satisfied that they be- 
gan to change their form within twenty days after concep- 
tion. The feathery appearance first disappears from the 
tips of the crystals and progresses downward to the base. 

Sometimes it occurs only on one side, but generally on 
both. If the foetus dies they resume their normal appear- 
ance again. The advantage of this means of diagnosis is 
that it can be made without the patient's suspecting the 
object of the examination, and at a much earlier period 
than any reliable physicial sign can be obtained. 

Fish Diet and Leprosy, — Dr. Hensen, of Bergen, says: 
**I do not think that there is any choice given to the bac- 
teria of leprosy as to localization, just as there is none in 
the tubercle bacillus. They develop wherever chance has 
deposited them and wherever they find favoring conditions 
and no obstacles; for example, on the outside of the arm 
where there is little muscular movement. On the ex- 
posed portions of the body, oxygen retains and feeds them. 
The inoculation by insects can only be successful in these 
places; in others, circumstances are too much against 
them. An internal inoculation is also easily imaginable 
and even probable. Salt fish is eaten all over the world; 
raw fish is eaten only in some countries, like Japan. Fish, 
especially the carp, which is so general an alimentation in 
Japan, where it is eaten raw and even alive, feed on the 
larva? of mosquitoes, and may be suspected of commun- 
icating the spores of disease extracted by the insects from 
the exposed parts of diseased bodies. If not, however, 
spores, then the toxins of the bacilli. In reflecting, then, 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOUKNAL. 135 

upon these points, I should be disposed to conclude that 
external leprosy inoculation means tubercular leprosy, 
and internal inoculation anesthetic leprosy.'* 

Medico-legal Importance of the Excrements. — Prof. 
Moeller has an article in the tVnn, Mn, Rundchau of March 
14 calling" attention to the value of the testimony afforded 
in criminal proceedings by microscopic examination of the 
dejecta. He suggests that criminals arrested on suspic- 
ion should be interrogated as to what and where they had 
eaten recently, and the feces will confirm the truth of their 
assertions or the reverse, disprove an alibi, etc. He 
mentions two separate instances where the criminals 
were traced and brought to justice by casual discovery of 
fig- seeds in their excreta, and adds that the microscope 
should be used more frequently than at present in crim- 
inal proceedings. 

BACTKRIOLOGI. 



The Saliva a Microbe Killer. — It has long been known 
that secretions of the mucous membranes, especially saliva 
possess antiseptic properties under certain circumstances, 
which explains the reason why the germs which enter 
daily and hourly through the mouth do not reach a harm- 
ful development; but Edinger has now found the active 
material in potassium rhodanate, which is present in saliva.. 
Potassium rhodanate is a compound of sulphur, cyanogen, 
and potassium, and is in large quantities, narcotically 
poisonous to warm blooded animals; it is, like other rhod- 
anates fatal to bacilli. It is said that quinolin rhodanate, 
in a solution of three parts to the thousand, will kill the 
cholera bacillus in a minute, and in a solution of three times 
this strength, will kill the diphtheria bacillus in the same 
time. It was found by further researches that this rho- 
danate has the effect of carbolic acid and of corrosive sub- 
limate, and at the same time is harmless to man. 

Rhodanate is the same thing as sulpho-cyanatc, a much 
better word because it explains itself, and is not liable to 
be confounded with the derivatives of rhodium. — Popular 
Science News, 



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136 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

Natural and Acquired Immunity. — The natural immun- 
ity of certain animals to certain diseases; even when the 
actual virus is injected, has long- been known. Recently 
careful investigations have been carried out at the Pas- 
teur Institute at Lille. In the experiments use was made 
of the following* poisons; an animal virus, serpent's venom, 
and a vegetable poison (abrine) prepared by macerating- 
jequirity seeds in water. They found that the immunity 
of pig's and hedg^ehog-s to venom and of fowls and tortoises 
to abrine could not be due to the presence of antitoxins in 
the blood previously to inoculation, for the serum of the 
normal animals had no protective effect on susceptible 
animals, nor had it any neutralizing effect on the poison 
when mixed with it outside the body before inoculation, in 
both these respects differing from serum containing anti- 
toxins. They were also unable to discover any antitoxic 
substance in the brain, liver, spleen, or other organs of 
the normal animals. They hold therefore, that the anti- 
toxic serum is independent of immunity, since that may 
exist when no antitoxic properties are possessed by the 
serum. They attribute both kinds of immunity to special 
characters of the cells of the body. — Lancet. 

Bartonology Technique of Obtaining Serum and Dried 
Blood. — Drs. Hermann Biggs and William H. Park give 
tfie following methods for collecting blood to diagnose 
typhoid fever by the Widal method. Blood may be easily 
obtained by pricking the tip of the finger or the ear. Two 
or three large drops should be collected on a glass slide and 
allowed to dry. Paper is not as good a receiver for the 
blood as glass, for the blood soaks more or less into it, and 
later, when it is dissolved, some of the paper fibre is apt to 
be rubbed off with it. 

In preparing the specimen for examination the dried 
blood is brought into solution by mixing it with about five 
times the quantity of water. Then a drop of this decid- 
edly reddish mixture is placed on a cover-glass and to it is 
added a drop of fifteen-to-twenty-hour bouillon culture of 
the typhoid bacillus. The two drops, after being mixed, 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 137 

should have a faint reddish tinge. The cover-glass, with 
the mixture on the surface, is inverted over a hollow slide 
(the edges about the concavity having been smeared with 
oil or fluid vaseline so as to make a closed chamber), and 
the hanging drop then examined under the microscope 
(preferably by gas light), a high-power dry lens (about 1-6 
inch) being used. 

If the reaction takes place rapidly, thefirst glance through 
the microscope reveals the completed reaction, all the ba- 
cilli being in loose clumps and nearly or altogether motion- 
less. Between the clumps are clear spaces containing few 
or no isolated bacilli. 

If the reaction is a little less complete, a few bacilli mav 
be found moving slowly between the clumps, in an aimless 
way, while others attached to the clumps by one end are 
apparently trying to pull away, much as a fly caught on a 
fly-paper struggles for freedom. 

If the agglutinating substances are still less abundant, 
the reaction may be watched through the whole course of 
its development. Immediately after mixing the blood and 
culture together it will be noticed that many of the bacilli 
move more slowly than before the addition of the serum. 
Some of these soon cease all progressive movement and it 
will be seen that they are gathering together in small 
groupsoftwoor more, the individual bacilli being still somt- 
what separated from each other. Gradually they close up 
the spaces between them and clumps are formed. Accord- 
ing to the completness of the reaction, either all the bacilli 
may finally become clumped and immobilized or only a 
small portion of them, the rest remaining freely motile, 
and even those clumped may appear to be struggling for 
freedom. With blood containing a large amount of the 
agglutinating substances all gradations in the intensity of 
the reaction may be observed, from those shown in a 
marked and immediate reaction to those appearing in a late 
and indefinite one, by simply varying the proportion of 
blood added to the culture fluid. 

Pseudo Re-actions With Dried Blood. If to > con- 
centrated a solution of dried blood from a healthy j)ers()n 



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138 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [April 

is employed, there will be an immobilization of the bacilli, 
,but no true clumping-. This is sometimes mistaken for a 
re-action. Again, dissolved blood always shows a varying^ 
amount of detritus, partly in the form of fibrinous clumps, 
and prolong^ed microscopical examination of the mixture of 
disolved blood with a culture fluid shows that the bacilli 
often become entangled in these clumps, and in the course 
of one-half to one hour very few isolated motile bacteria 
are seen. The fibrinous clumps, especially if examined 
with a poor light, may be very easily mistaken for clumps 
of bacilli. This pseudo-re-action is regarded by many in- 
experienced observers as a true typhoid re-action, but it 
occurs as readily with non-typhoid as with typhoid blood. 
' -Prof, L, H. Pammel^ Ames, /oraa. 



1DCR08C0PIGAL SOCIETIES. 



New Jersey State Microscopical Society. 

Apn7 26,- The 28th Anniversary of this society was 
celebrated at New Brunswick, N. J., by the most success- 
ful soiree yet held. There were fifty-seven exhibits 
under microscopes and on tables, and a demonstration of 
rock sections by polarized light as a preliminary. -/''. /f, 
Blod^ett, Secretary, 

The American Microscopical Society. 

The next meetingof the American Microscopical Society 
will be held at Toledo on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, 
August 5, 6 and 7. The Toledo Microscopical Society 
have very cordially invited their brethren from other parts 
of the country to pay them a visit and have promised to 
do all in their power to render that visit entertaining and 
instructive. 

Those who attended the gathering at Pittsburg last year 
will recall the welcome tendered and the interest mani- 
fested by the members and their friends in the Iron City 
and we trust that all who can do so w^ill renew the exper- 
ince by coming to Toledo in 1897, 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 139 

The officers for the Toledo meeting are as follows: 
President, Prof. E. W. Claypole, B. A., D. Sc. (Lond.) F. 
G. S., Buchtel College, Akron, O.; Vice-President, C. C. 
Mellon Pittsburgh, Pa.; Secretary, William C. Krauss, 
M. D., Buffalo, N. Y.; Treasurer, Magnus Pflaum, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Executive Committee, A. A. Young, M. D., 
Newark, N. Y., Mrs. S. P. Gage, Ithaca, N. Y., W. P. 
Manton, M. D., Detroit, Mich. 

The purpose for which the Society exists are the follow- 
ing: 

1. — To give to all who are interested in the use of the 
Microscope an opportunity of seeing what others are doing 
and of showing to others what they are doing themselves. 
In this way time is saved by avoiding useless experiments 
and labor directed into profitable channels. Moreover 
workers* are often enabled to give one another mutual 
assitance by becoming acquainted with the fields in which 
their fellows are engaged. 

2. — To afford an opportunity for personal acquaintance 
and intercourse with other microscopists and thus lessen 
the sense of isolation which the great size of the country 
and the fewness of the workers inevitably produces. Ac- 
quaintances thus begun at the meetings often ripen into 
life-long friendships based on mutual esteem and appre- 
ciation. 

3. — To afford to a Microscopist working under difficul- 
ties in a country district or in a small educational institu- 
tion an opportunity of seeing the more costly and compli- 
cated pieces of apparatus only to be found in the hands of 
dealers, professors teaching in large or wealthy colleges 
or specialists in tlie great cities. 

4. — To advance the cause of microscopic study among 
the people living in the district where the meeting is held 
by showing the interest felt in the work outside of their 
own limits. For this reason the Society assembles at a 
different place every year. 

The American Microscopical Society is national in ex- 
tent and welcomes to membership all who are suffi<'iently 
interested in actual microscopical work or in the results 



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140 THE AMERICAN 3I0NTHLY [April 

of that work to enlist in its ranks. No other stipulation 
is made. It is a band of workers interested in each other's 
pursuits and willing to give and take whatever aid their 
union can supply. They do not set themselves on a pin- 
nacle as experts and specialists but claim to be merely a 
small company working for the general good and well 
aware that the humblest observer may be able to add 
knowledge and experience that will be of value to all. The 
yearly subscription to the A. M. S. is two dollars with an 
entrance fee of three dollars. In return for that the mem- 
bers receive free a copy of the published papers of the 
Society. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. -Mr. W. Stokes gave a 
description of some easily-made monochromatic light filters 
for microscopical purposes. The subject was further dis- 
cussed by Mr. Nelson, Mr. Rheinberg, and others. Mr. 
T. Rosseter read a paper ^'Experimental Infection of the 
Domestic Duck with Cysticerci or Larval Tapeworms." 
Specimens and drawings were shown, by theauthor,of Dic- 
ranota?nia coronula md Cysticercus coronula, Drepanidot- 
aenia gracilis and Cysticercus gracilis, D. tenuirostris and 
Cysticercus tenuirostris, in which cases he had proved by 
direct experiment that the given Cysticerci were really 
the larval forms of the tapeworms specified, and the mat- 
ter was now no longer one of mere surmise from the iden- 
tity of the booklets, &c. The secretary said Mr. Rosseter 
appeared to be the sole investigator of the life history of 
this interesting group of bird parasites in this country. 

Mr. Nelson exhibited a new triplet magnifier he had 
computed with a working dii^tance of 8-10 in., a new ach- 
romatic and aplanatic bull's-eye, and read a paper on the 
secondary structure of the diatom, Kittonia elaborata. 

In consequence of April 16th being Good Friday, the 
next ordinary meeting will be held on Friday, May 21st. 



The College of Physicians and Surgeons, of Chicago, has 
recently become the Medical School of the University of 
Illinois. 



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Special . 
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IB' 



-IN- 



MICROSCOPY. 



UBIKO th« IMI few BonttM 
I bar* bMD bwj pr«pMiii( 
■lany xmr« uid norel oltf«eli 
for MieroioopicAl purpows, and 
b4T« wrasfed them m vndar in 
mastimtod Series. 

The flnt oT th«w is the Ml- 
oroseoploal Sladiet in Ma- 
line Zoology. 

The seooDd Seriei (tU.: that 
for 1800) conriata of 14 iplaiMUd 
praparmtioiM, all of the higheet 
poMlbla ezoelleDoe and g;naranlaod 
permanent. The 14 elides appear 
ia quarterly inftallmeoti, and are 
accompanied by over 100 pages 
of deacrlptlTe letterpreaa, 
dealing in pleasant bat exact man- 
ner with the anatomy, Ufe-hlstn y 
and habits of the respeotiT«> ^nli 
Jects, while 1 9 faU-pAge plated 
of fiAioto-engraTUiga, drawn 



from life* make plain all details. 
InclnsWe Sabaortptlon, SO.aS, poat-free. Full Brospectos on appUoatloa. 
The following are among the Slides included in ttils Series : 



1. OoloByoftheloTelyBadiolai1an£^A«ro- 

sown, showing naraaicic algie. 
a. The lorely Zoophyte Obelia, polype fhlly 



40c 
36c 



Lovely Kzpanded Zoophyte flsHaloKa 
7. Opossnm-ebrimp Jlyw, sllowing aodi- 



60c 



tory oigan in tail 38c 

The splendid rare organ-pipe Polyawm, 

lAeheitopora 40e 

Sntirelarral Plaice, eye Jnst taming 

from blind side and 6 oth«r equally 

fine slides. 60c 



Botany. 



expand' 

3. StalKed stage of the larra of Bosy 

Feather Star (mtUdon) 40c 

4. An entire Sea- Butterfly {Pteropod), 40c 
6. Lorely expanded Zoophyte fijynoorytM. 40e 

The priosa against each are thoae at which the^pfeparations are sold separately* show- 
ing what a cheap lot I ofEer in series at |6i26, post free. A few sets of Series 1 stiU aTailaMe, 
|t.26, post free. Sample Slide, 60c., post f^ee. 

Prof. J. B. Ainsworth Davis, Unirerstty OoUege, Aberystwith. writes: ** Allow me to 
oongratnlate you on the very nsefkil work you are doing by the publication of Journal, witti 
aooompanying slides, which are noar ADMimAJLx. 

Superb microscopical preparations of Braslllan Lianas.— I have 
been unfortunate in obtaining a quantity of these euperb stems— the 
most lorely in the whole plant kingdom— and have arranged then 
in two sets of 6 each, at the price of $1.86 per set, or 12.26 for the 
two. The most exquisitely charming slides that oould possibly be 
imagined for exhibinoo at popular gauierings. As the quantity is 
^^-^^^— ^^^— — Tery limited. I am unable to sell ringle sNdee. 

Ifloroseopleal Stodlea in Botany.— In answer to many requests, I have ar- 
ranged 90 magnifloent preparations in a series on similar lines to that in marine aook>gy de- 
sorwed above. 

The firat series is now begun and comprises 20 highest-class slides (such as sell singly 
at 26e to 36c each), illustrated by descriptive letterpress and 90 spedally beautiful photo-mloro- 
grH>bs of the sections. 

Subscriptions, 18.26 only, for all, a sum which would be cheap for the aeries of illus- 
trations alone. 

Prof. J. W. Oarr, Unlverrity College, Nottingham, writes : '*Tour Botanical SUdei 
are the most beautiAil t have ever seen. The following are among the slides already issned in 

Tr. sec. fridt of Date (spbadld) 35c 

*' ** flower of Adb«:AelMa 80c 

Long*l. sec. double flower of Peony t6c 

Leaf-fkll of Sycamore 25c 

I guarantee the perfeetion of all my mounts and will be pleated to send 

selections on approval to approved correspondents. 

A great range of Miscellaneous Zoological and Botanical elides in stock 
at prices from #1.30 per dozen. 

Cost of Mailing, z slide, 10 cents ; 2 slides, 15 cents ; 
90 on. Larffe parcels by express at very cheap rates. 

SpeoialltT. Marine Zoology (especially in expanded Zoophytes and larval 
stages, and plant and flower anatomy. 

Tomas. Remittance by P. O. O.. draft on London, 



above lines : 






1. Tr. sec. flower-bud of Lily 

2. " " do of Dandelion 

3. Lonicn sec do of do 

4. do fhiit of Fig 


26c 
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3 slides, ao cents and 



or U. S. paper currency, the 
former preferred. If wislied. Mr. 0. W. Smiley. Washington, D. ^.. will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley has kindly protniaed to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. 8. Microacop- 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Biological Station, Jersey, IngUnd. 



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as an expectorant, diuretic and corrective of hyperacidity. — London Lancet, 

She. ^Stimulant 

AMMONOL is one ofthe derivativei of Coal-tar, and differs from the numerous sim> 
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Is an event of much lmp% tance. AMMONOL possesses marked anti-neuraljic 
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ical Magazine ^ London. 

Ammonol may be obtained from all Leading Druggists. Send for "Atnmonol Ex- 
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THE MICROSCOPE 

AND MlGROSOOPIOALw MELTtiODS. 
BY SIMON HENRY GAGE. 

Professor of Microscopy. Histology and Embryology in Cornell Unlverai^ and the Kew 
York SUte veterinary College, ItEacA, N. Y. U. a A. 
The figures have been iucreeaed firom 103 to 166. In matter this edition hae grown from 16S to 287 
pages. This increase is dae to additions in the text of prerions editions and to some wholly new 
upon, methods of isolation and of sectioning by the collodion and by the paraffln methods, the pn 
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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 



Vol. XVIII. MAY. 1897. No. 5 



Notes on Some New, or Presumably New, Infusoria. 

By J. C. SMITH, 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

(Contiuued from Page 117 of last Month's Journal.) 

Family. — Anisonemidaj. S. K. 

Genus. — Entosiphon Htien. 

Species. — Entosiphon emarginata. (fig. 12.) 
Body subobovate; less than twice as long as wide; an- 
terior extremity slightly emarginate and flexed towards 
the ventrum; posterior extremity obtusely pointed; the 
right hand half of the anterior border slightly concave; 
dorsum convex and smooth; ventrum plane; oval aperture 
at apex of anterior emargination; pharyngeal tube exten- 
ding in a median line from the oval aperture through two 
thirds of the body length; flagella originating together 
and to the right of the oval aperture; the anterior one 
equal to one body length and the posterior one to two 
body lengths; contractile vesicle conspicuous and located 
in the anterior half just below the dextral concavity; nuc- 
leus round and subcentral; endoplasm bluish and granu- 
lar in posterior body half; locomotion as Entosiphon 
sulcatus. Duj. Size 1-1833 inch. Habitat — Pond water 
with algsB. Longitudinal fission. 

This minute specimen of the genus resembles very 
much in outline the Anisoneroa pusilla of Dr. Stokes, but 
the resemblance goes no further. The pharyngeal tube 
i% protusile and this is made very apparent when the 



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142 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

iofusorian is pressing up against debris, in the act of 
feeding. The movement of the body during natation is 
the same smooth even glide of the genus. This form has 
been found quite abundant at times and but once has re- 
production been observed — the process occupying about 
one hour. 

Family. — Enchelyidae. S. K. 

Genus. — Enchelys. Ehr. 

Species. — Enchelys audobonii. (fig. 13.) 

Body obovate, the anterior border produced in a snout- 
like manner, subcylindrical, soft and changeable in shape 
more than twice as long as wide; entirely and sparingly 
ciliate; oral aperture apical, cleft-like and continued med- 
icosely for about one-sixth of the body length, as a con- 
spicuous, non-plicate, wedge-shaped membraneous phar- 
ynx; oral cilia much longer, heavier and more numerous 
than the body cilia; a single hair-like seta extending from 
the posterior border as long as one-half the body length; 
contractile vesicle round, conspicuous and located in pos- 
terior third, nucleus round and subcentral; endoplasm 
granular and of a greenish tint, usually containing food 
balls. Reproduction by transverse fission; conjugatiou 
by the application of the oral apertures. Locomotion 
rapid and by revolution on Ipng axis. Size 1-600 to 1-460 
inch. Habitat—Pond water with decayed leaves from 
Audobon Park, New Orleans, La. 

This infusorian was found in great abundance a num- 
ber of times in pond water taken from Audobon Park. 
While the most persistent shape is obovate it is, like En- 
chelys farcimen Ehr., subject to many changes of form 
from an ovate to almost globular. The oral aperture 
forms the base of the wedge-shape pharynx and is per- 
sistently open. It is a greedy scavenger. The writer 
has a number of times observed a dozen or more surround- 
ing some dead form ravenously devouring it. The elas* 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 143 

ticity and capaciousneHS of the oral aperture and pharynx 
has been often demonstrated by the engulphiug of parti- 
cles of food twice the size of the infusorian. The caudal 
seta is difficult to see excepting when the infusorian is 
quiet. 

Family. — Prorodontidae. S. K. 

Genus. — Holophrya. Ehr. 

Species. — Holophrya pogonias. (fig. 14.) 

Body ovate, subcylindrical, exceedingly elastic and 
changeable in shape; twice as long as wide; posterior 
evenly rounded, anterior transversely truncate and in- 
cluding oval aperture; body entirely and finely ciliate; 
coarsely striated longitudinally; oral and body cilia not 
diverse; a supplementary fasicle of extra-oral cilia situa- 
ted jui»t below the oral aperture; these cilia much heavier 
(not setose) and about three times longer than the body 
cilia; projecting upwards and some distance above the 
oral aperture; contractile vesicle round, conspicuous and 
centrally located; nucleus botuliform and placed longitu- 
dinally alongside the contractile vesicle; endopiasm gran- 
ular, of a yellowish tint and usually containing large food 
balls; locomotion in a wabbling manner by revolution on 
long axis. Size 1-150 inch. Habitat—Brackish water from 
Lake Pontchar train. 

The writer has some doubts as to the position of this 
form and has placed it among the Prorodontidse provisi- 
onally. In its habits and general appearance it resembles 
the Holophrya, but the presence of the extra-oral cilia 
may prevent its being placed among this family. 

Family. — ColpidsB. Ehr. 

Geuus. — Coleps. Stien. 

Species. — Coleps striata, (fig. 15.) 

Body subovate, cylindrical, slightly elastic but persis- 
tent in shape; less than twice as long as wide; anterior 



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144 THB AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

transversely truncate and including oral aperture; pos- 
terior evenly rounded; heavily striate longitudinally; the 
spaces intervening finely and closely striate transversely 
oral cilia longer than body cilia, but not setose; contrac- 
tile vesicle large and postero-terminal; nucleus roundish 
and sub-central; oval aperture to one side and just above 
the contractile vesicle; endoplasni granular; locomotion 
even and by revolution on long axis. Size 1-500 inch. 
Habitat — Fountain water with aquatic plants. 

This form would, if it possessed the setose oral cilia, 
certainly be classed as a Plagiapogon- Ehrenberg. The 
very heavy longitudinal striation, which are almost band 
like in this new form, and the fine transverse striation of 
the intervening spaces are also characteristic of the genus 
Plagiapogon. In its habits it is the same scavenger that 
the Coleps hirtus is. 

Family. — Lembid®. S. K. 

Oenus. — Lembus. Colin. 

Species. — Lembus attenuata. (fig. 16.) 

Body elongate, subeylindrical; elastic but persistent in 
shape: about six times as long as widest part; widest at 
the center and tapering to both extremities; anterior 
transversely truncate; posterior ending in a sharp point, 
an undulating membrane and a furrow commencing just 
behind the anterior border and extending backward to 
the oral aperture, which is situated at the junction of 
the first and second body fourths; body sparingly clothed 
with cilia and these cilia as long as the widest central 
part of the body; oral cilia same size as body cilia but 
more numerous; undulating membrane capacious and 
extending as far out as distal ends of oral cilia; contrac- 
tile vesicle conspicuous and situated centrally near the 
ventrum; endoplasm bluish and semi-opaque, locomotion 
vermicular. 

Size 1-326 inch. Habitat-Stale pond water. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOUKJNAL. 145 

So far a8 the writer knows this is the first fresh-water 
member of the family recorded. 

Family. — DysteriidsB. S. K. 

Genus. — Trochilia, Dujardin. 

Species. — Trochilia fluviatilis. (fig. IT.) 
Body subelliptical; almost twice as long as wide; cara- 
pace single, dorsum broadly convex; anterior obliquely 
truacate to ventram, posterior rounded; ventrum plane 
and clothed with fine short cilia; a movable sty late ap- 
pendage originating in the posterior third of the ventrum 
and projecting to a short distance beyond the posterior 
border; projecting from, and within the anterior trun- 
cation, are numerous fine vibratile cilia; this truncation 
also includes the oral aperture and proceeding backward 
from this aperture is a tubular pharynx which continues 
directly upwards, through three fourths of the body 
length; this pharynx is protusile; contractile vesicles, 
three, two located in the anterior body half, above the 
pharynx and hear the dorsum and one in the posterior 
body half below the pharynx and near the ventrum; nuc- 
leus not observed, — obscure ; endoplsam, bluish and very 
often vacuolar, size 1-850 inch. Habitat, Pond water 
with aquatic plants, ponds connected with the Missis- 
sippi river. 

For one month the writer got a number of dips from a 
pond in Audobon Park, New Orleans, and in almost every 
one of the numerous examinations made of this water, 
were found an abundance of this form. They move 
about and through debris piles very much as an Aspi- 
disca. In no single instance, when they were examined 
closely and measured, was there the slighest diflference 
jn shape or size. While the truncated anterior was 
pressed against a heap the tubular pharynx could be 
seen distinctly to move forwards, as is observed in the 
case of Entosiphon sulcatus, Duj. Unfortunately the 



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146 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

nucleus could not be observed even after the most care- 
ful search and the application of the usual reagents. In . 
some samples examined all the forms under the^ cover 
glass were densely vacuolated. 

Family. — Onytrichid®. S. K. 

Genus.~Stichotricha. Perty. 

Species. — Stichotricha opisthotonoides. (fig. 18.) 

Body elongate; somewhat club shaped, the anterior 
two thirds attenuate, three limes as long as the widest 
part; highly elastic but persistent in shape; addicted to 
curving backwards; peristome channel-like and extend- 
ing from the apex to the posterior body third and there 
curved towards the left hand body border, the peristome 
cilia long and heavy diminishing in size as they approach 
the oral aperture; the left hand border of the peristome 
finely ciliated and bearing a conspicuous undulating 
membrane, marginal setae on the anterior half of the sin- 
istral border and on the posterior border; two oblique 
rows of small ventral setje extending from the sinistral 
to posterior setas; contractile vesicle conspicuous, located 
in the posterior third and in contact with the left hand 
border which it extends at each expansion; nucleus, two, 
ovate and situated one in each body half; locomotion 
eccentric. Size 1-450 inch. 

Habitat— Old infusion of aquatic plants in ditch water. 

The writer had under observation quite a large num- 
ber of this new form and they were all addicted to the 
habit of bending the anterior attenuate body half back- 
wards as if in great pain; it was this peculiar habit that 
suggested its specific name. While in this act the undu- 
lating membrane is thrown out from the body border to 
a considerable distance. The writer has never seen 
recorded that any of this genus possessed an undulating 
membrane «Mn(l believes this species stands alone in this 



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18971 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



14T 



respect. The Stlchotricha secanda — Party, andStichot- 
richa aculeata — Wrz, are often seen in the pond waters 
in New Orleans and bear only a superficial resem blance 
to this form. 

Family. — Oxytrichidae. S. K. 

Genus. — Oxytricha. Ehr. 

Species. — Oxytricha furcatus. (fig. 19.) 

Body elliptical, both extremities evenly rounded; very 






ufflWi 



12. — Entosiphon emarginata. x 1300. 
13.— Enchclys audobonii. x 500. 
14.— Holophrya pogonias. x 150. 
15 — Coleps striata, x 375. 
16. — Lembus attenuata. x 730. 
17.— Trochilia fluviatilis. x 740. 
18.— Stichotricha opisthotouoides a 
19.— Orytricha furcatas. x 225. 



^75. 



soft and flexible, less than two and a half times as long 
as wide; the left hand border slightly concave anteriorly 
lip crescentic and conspicuous; peristome extending to 
centre of body and strongly curved to oral aperture; the 
right hand border of peristome bearing an undulating 
membrane; frontal styles, eight and arranged as on Sty- 
tonychia mytilus, Ehr.; the three most anterior uncinate, 
and the remaining five furcated; ventral series arranged 
as on Stytonychia mytilus, Ehr., and all furcated; anal 



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148 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

styles, five, fimbriated at their distal ends and all, but 
the one nearest the left hand budy border; projecting be- 
yond the posterior marginal set© continuous, heavier 
and longer posteriorly; contractile vesicle located at the 
centre of the left hand body border; nucleus, two, elon- 
gate, one in each body half. Size. from 1-200 to 1-150 
inch. Habitat — Old infusion of rose fission petals. 
Transverse. 

This form was found exceedingly abundant in an old 
infusion of rose petals, feeding ravenously on the very 
abundant bacteria. Many of them seemed so gorged 
with food that they moved about very lazily, affording 
the writer a good opportunity for their observation. 
The fine inferior frontal siylesand all of the ventral ser- 
ies were invariably furcated to within almost their 
origin; bifurcated usually, a few specimens distinctly 
tri-furcated. In a few specimens the three superior of 
the frontal series were bifurcated and in some rare in- 
stances an odd one or two of the marginal series were 
bifurcated. The distal ends of all of the anal series, for 
about one fifth of their length, were distinctly and uni- 
formally fimbriated. 

Supplementary Note Upon Actinomonas Primus. 

An infusorian somewhat similar to this form is de- 
scribed by Dr. Gruberunderthe title ofDimor[>ha mulans.* 
In its flagellate condition, the 1). mutans resembles a 
Heteromita, having an anterior vibratile and a posterior 
trailing flagella. In its Heliozoan stale the pseudopodal 
rays equal from two to three diamaters of the zooid and 
decussate. 

Errata: Wherever the woid "Ventiiim" appears read "Ventral 
Surface." 

In femily Anisomidre, Species Diplomastix rostrum, read **roetrato8" for 
rostrum. 

lu family Aiiiaoraidoc, Spt»cie Entosiphon emarginata. reverse the figure, 
making the right hand liorderthe left hand. Contractile Vesicle followiDg 
the change; the figure .should l>e turned over. In the diagonosis of this 
Hpecies where the word right or dextral appears read '*left" or '■Sinistral.'' 

^Appendix to vul. II Kent's Manual of the Infusoria. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 149 

Preparation of Culture Media with Special Reference to 
Sterilization. 

By Raymond C. Reed, Ph, B. 

[Aasistaot in the Department of Comparative Pathology and Bacteriology, 

New York State Veterinary College, CorDell University, Ithaca, N. Y.] 

The amount of culture media used by the students in 
a bacteriological laboratory is so great that its prepara- 
tion after the method given in the text books occupies 
an undue proportion of the time allotted to this subject. 
If it is prepared by an assistant and furnished to the 
students it not only takes much of his time, but it de- 
prives the student of the opportunity of learning one of 
the most important processes necessary for successful 
work in bacteriology. Hence any change which will 
shorten the time required for its preparation will be of 
value. When it is prepared by the usual method rec- 
ommended in text books on Bacteriology at least three 
days are necessary to complete the process of steriliza- 
tion. The method of sterilizing by which the media is 
heated to a somewhat higher temperature than 100° C. 
by means of superheated steam is open to the objection 
that the nutritive properties are impaired to a greater or 
less extent for certain species of bacteria. 

In 1890 Moore* published a paper giving the method 
employed in the Bureau of Animal Industry for snak ing 
nutritiveagarand which seems to be the one recommended, 
with slight variations as to details, in the greater num- 
ber of bacteriologies. The two most important changes 
suggested were, (1) that when the agar was made from 
meat infusion instead of meat extract, it siiould be pre- 
pared from bouillon which could be made up in quanti- 
ties and kept stored in flasks as stock ready for use. This 
applies not only to the making of agar but also gelatin 

*The Preparation of Nutntive Agar. By V. A. Moore, M. D., Anieri- 
caD Microscopical Journal, May, IHIM). 



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150 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

or any other medium which requires a meat infusion for 
its nutritive base. (2) That the agar should be cut up in 
small pieces and dissolved in a liquid which contains no 
coagulable material before it is added to the bouillon. 
This is done by using the proportion of five grams of 
agar, finely chopped, to 100 c. c. of water and boiling in 
an agate iron dish over a direct flame with constant stir- 
ring. I have found, however, that it is more satisfactory 
to boil the agar in a closed w^ater bath. This takes not 
to exceed twenty minutes longer and as there is no dan- 
ger of the agar burning the stirring and constant atten- 
tion required when it is dissolved over a flame is unnec- 
essary. By this^ method the agar is completely dissolved 
and a medium of a known consistency can always be made. 

In 1892 Schultz,* of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, de- 
scribed a rapid method of making agar which requires 
but one hour for the whole process. For this he uses 
meat extract which gives a medium favorable for the 
growth of some organisms but not for others. He also 
gives a method by which the agar may be made from 
meat infusion taking but an hour and a half. 

The following method of preparing media has proved 
very satisfactory and in my hands more so than the one 
described by ScUultz although his process has many ad- 
vantages. 

The preparatio7i of peptofiized houiiioii. — To 1000 grams 
of finely chopped or ground meat (beef or veal) add 2000 
c. c. of distilled water. Put in an agate iron dish and 
heat in a water bath at a temi)erature of from 60° to 65° 
C for two hours or allow it to macerate in a cool place 
for 24 hours. Strain through a coarse cloth and bring 
the amount of liquid up to 2000 c. c. by adding water if 
necessary. To this infusion add | per cent peptone and 

*A Rapid Method of Making Agar-agar. By John L. Sc^hultz. John's 
Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, No. -24, July— Aug., 1HJ)2. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 151 

i per cent sodium chloride and if a neutral or alkaline 
medium is desired add enough of a 1 per cent solution 
of caustic soda to bring about the required reaction. Boil 
in a water bath for half an hour. Cool and filter through 
ordinary filter paper and distribute in sterilized flasks. 
The amount in each flask is to be determined by the work 
in the laboratory. I have found 500 c. c. a convenient 
quantity. 

Preparation of nutrie?it ^^^r. —Dissolve 5 grams of 
finely cut agar in about 100 c. c. of water. This may be 
done in either of two ways, by heating over a direct flame 
for about ten minutes with constant stirring to prevent 
burning or by heating in a closed water bath until the 
whole mass becomes gelatinous. The agar is then added 
to 500 c. c. of bouillon, thoroughly mixed with it and 
boiled in a water bath for twenty minutes. It is then 
cooled down to 45^ to 50° C. and the whites of two eggs 
added and thoroughly mixed with the agar. It is then 
returned to the water bath and boiled for from twenty 
to thirty minutes. The albumen will then be collected 
in a firm coagulum containing any insoluble particles 
that may have been in the agar, leaving a perfectly clear 
liquid. It is filtered while hot through ordinary filter 
paper, the filtration taking place rapidly without the aid 
of a hot filtering apparatus. The filtrate is then distrib- 
uted in tubes which have been previously plugged with 
absorbent cotton and sterilized. 

Preparation of nutrient gelatin — To 500 c. c. of bouil- 
lon add 50 grams of gelatin and heat in a water bath 
until the gelatin is dissolved. Cool to about 45"" C. and 
and the whites of two eggs, mix thoroughly. This is 
done most rapidly and efi'ectually by pouring the liquid 
several times from one dish to another. Then boil in 
a water bath for twenty minutes. Filter through ordin- 
ary filter paper and distribute in sterilized tubes. Care 



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152 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

must be taken not to boil gelatin too long or it will lose 
its property of solidifying when cold. 

Sterilization of Media. It will be seen that the pro- 
cess of preparing culture media up to the point of steril- 
ization is practically the same as that described in recent 
text books on bacteriology. The method is short and by 
having the nutritive medium prepared and kept in stock 
the preparation up to this point of either agar or gelatin 
is very simple. The essential time consuming part of 
the process is the sterilization. Although this has now 
been reduced from the boiling on six consecutive days to 
three, it is still an important element in lal)oratory work 
especially where students are present but two or three 
days, usually alternating, in each week. 

During the past two terms I have made a considerable 
number of experiments for the purpose of determining 
if it is necessary in order to secure complete sterilization 
to boil media, when distributed in small quantities in 
tubes, for three consecutive days. In these experiments 
I have found that one boiling for a slightly longer time, 
thirty minutes, seems to be all that is necessary to ster- 
ilize bouillon, nutrient agar and nutrient gelatin distrib- 
uted in either small or large tubes. After distributing 
the medium the tubes were put in a closed water bath 
and boiled vigorously for thirty minutes. At the expir- 
ation of that time they were taken out and placed in an 
incubator where they were allowed to remain for several 
days, when it was a simple matter to sort out and reject 
any tubes that may have been contaminated. As will 
be seen from the appended tables, giving the results of 
these experiments, contaminations have been very rare. 
In fact they have not been much il any more numerous 
than they were when the three regular boilings were em- 
ployed. Although several of the agar and gelatin tubes 
were not sterilized, they were contaminated with a spore 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



153 



bearing bacillus which has not infrequently appeared in 
media boiled tor ten minutes on three consecutive days. 



STERILIZATION OF BOUILLON WITH ONE BOILING. 



Date. 



Jmn. 9. 1897 
Jmn. H. 1897 
Jmn. 14, 1897 



40 
80 
14 

32 



Feb. 5. 1897 

Feb. II, 1897 I 35 

Mar. 5. 1897 I 46 

Apr. 6. 1897 I 45 



9 
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7C c... 
7 c. c. 
25 c. c... 

7 c. c. 
7C.C .. 
7C 



a 



30 min.. 
30 min.. 
30 min.. 






30 ram 7 

30 rain I 6 

, _ 30 min 7 

7 c. c ' 30 min ; 5 



II 



^1 
II 



Remarks 



Fermentation tabes with o»% 
per cent, glucose. 



STERILIZATION OF AGAR WITH ONE BOILING. 



Date. 



Jan. 22, 1897 



Jan. 27. 1897 
Feb. 5.1897 
Feb 13, 1897 
Mar. 16, 1897 
BCar. 37, 1897 
Apr. 6. 1897 



II 



50 



48 
81 
14 
25 
4i 
4o 



I 



7 c. c j 30 min., 



I 

i 

7 c. c , 30 min.. 

7 c. c 30 min.. 

7 c.c 30 min.. 

7C. c 30 min.. 

7 c c 30 min.. 

7 c. c i 30 min.. 



Is 



Q 2 






Remarks. 



Bach or the three tubes con- 
tained a spore beariuKbacil- 
lus belonging to the^. Mubt- 
His group. 
Same as above. 



STERILIZATION OF TUBES OF AGAR CONTAINING A LAR- 
GER QUANTITY FOR MAKING PLATE CULTURES. 



Date. 



Dec. 39. 1896 
Jan. 27. 1897 
Feb. 5, 1897 j 
Mar. 16, 1897 
Mar. 37, 1R97 | 



82 




30 
26 

»5 
35 
43 



Apr. 6. 1897 I 40 



12 c. c 30 min 

15 c. c 30 min. 

15 c c 40 min 

tS c. C 30 min 

18 c.c 30 min 

18 c c ' 30 min 



I • 



S2 



tii 'O 

2 S 

•o a 

^ o 



7 
6 
7 
7 



Remarks. 



o Led at room temp, for 10 days 



iSpore bearing baciUus be- 
longing to the B. subtUit 
group. 



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154 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[May 



STERILIZATION OF GELATIN WITH ONE BOILING. 



Dec. 29, 1H96 

Feb. 19, 1897 

Mar. x8. 1897 

Do -.. 



Mar. 13. 1*97 

Do 

Mar. as. 1897 





X 




d bt> 








II 


0( 
V 

n 3 


t 

1 


ja c 

li 

at 


11 


Remarks. 




a ** 
55 


•< 


s 


II 


d2 
^8 






30 


lac. c 


30 min 







LeA at room temp 


for 14 days 


30 


15c. c 


30 mm 


7 
7 

7 









18C.C .... 
7C. c 


30 miu — 
30 min — 




I 




aS* 


Contained a spore bearin£ 












bacillus belonnnff 


to the B. 












suUau group. 




10 


i8c c... 

7C. c 

7C c .... 


30 min 

30 min.... 
30 min — 


7 













36 




35 





If spore bearing bacilli are present in large numbers 
more difficulties might be experienced. But ordinarily 
if the medium is prepared with proper care and distrib- 
uted as soon as filtered, in sterile tubes and boiled at cm e 
very few contaminations are likely to occur. 

The time that must elaspe before the medium can be 
safely used is not so much shorter than when the custom- 
ary method is employed but the time actually spent in 
sterilizing is much shorter. In a crowded laboratory this 
is important. It probably is not necessary to leave the 
media iu the incubator from five to seven days as I have 
indicated in the above tables for in every case of con- 
tamination the growth took place within the first twenty 
four hours. 

I am not prepared to say that this method is the best 
or that it is safe for all kinds of work, but it has proved 
to be well adapted to the needs in a student laboratory 
and to save much valuable time for both the student and 
the teacher. 

Prof. Hankine, one of the leaders in sanitary work 
in India, contracted plague a few weeks ago, but fortu- 
nately the attack was not severe and he recovered. He 
was inoculated with Hatfkine't serum. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 155 

The Index of Refraction. 

By Dr. B. L. RAWLINS, 

DILLAS, TEXAS. 

A ready, fairly accurate and practical method of deter- 
mining the index of refraction of liquids, and transpar- 
ent solids with plane parallel sides, would be of interest 
possibly to the majority of workers. 

The works on optics and the elementary treatises on 
how to work with the microscope, Jipparently lose sight 
of the necessity for something practical, in giving us com- 
plicated formulas aud describing expensive instruments 
for determining this index. 

It is with this apology that the writer offers this arti- 
cle, feeling sure that the same thing must have occurred 
to many, although he has never seen this method pub- 
lished. 

As in passing from a rarer to a denser medium, a ray 
of light is deflected in a definite direction from its im- 
raergent course, likewise is the apparent distance through 
the denser medium less than the real distance. 

As the ratio of the sin. of the angle of incidence to 
the sin. of the angle of refraction is constant, likewise is 
the ratio of the apparent distance through the denser 
medium to its real distance invariable. 

From experiment it is found that as many times greater 
than the sin. of the angle of refraction is the sin. of the 
angle of incidence, so many times greater is the real dis- 
tance through the denser medium, than the apparent 
distance. 

For exam}>le the angle of refraction of water is 1.333: 
the apparent depth of a volume of water one and one- 
third feet in actual depth, is one foot. 

Assuming that the worker interested in this subject is 
^possessed of a microscoj)e with accurate adjustment and 
a g'raduated micro-millimeter fine adjustment screw, he 



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156 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

needs but a slide with a flat cell cemented on it, and a 
plate cover glass in order to do the work. Perhaps the 
most convenient thing is the slide that goes with the 
Z«*iss-Thoma blood counter. This has a circular cell 
cemented onto the slip, with a central cross lined disc, 
which forms an elevated platform in the centre of the 
cell, leaving a groove to catch any excecs of liquid, in 
order that it may not flow between the topof the cell and 
cover glass. 

In making the examination, the rules accompanying 
this instrument must be strictly regarded, in order to in- 
sure direct contact with the cover and top of cell. That 
is, when a minute drop has been placed on the platform 
and covered with the accompanying plate glass cover, 
the newtoniau rings must appear, otherwise a bit of duBt 
or something has prevented perfect contact between cell 
and cover. The depth of the cell in this instrument is 
convenient for calculations, as it is exactly 10 microns. 

Procedure. Dust carefully the cell and cover glass 
with a soft lens brush. After putting the slip on the 
stage of the microscope (under a 1-5 or D objective for 
convenience in accurate focussing) the cover is put in place 
with a pair of forceps, pressed down centrally with the ball 
of the linger. The finger print made is of the greatest 
use. If the Newtonian rings are apparent, allis well; if 
not, try again. Turning the zero mark on the m. m. flue 
adjustment screw to the pointer, focus to the top of cover 
glass with coarse adjustment. A little patience allows 
one to do this, and it is much more convenient. This 
done, focus with the fine adjustment, noting the distance 
on the m. m. scale, until the top of the cross lines of the 
counter are in perfect focus. This distance represents 
the depth of cell, plus cover glass equal m. Removing the 
cover and pressing between the fingers, focussing on top 
and on bottom gives apparent (which is all required,) 
thickness of cover equal n. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 157 

The diflFerence, m minus n equals a and equals depth of 
cell filled with air. 

In like manner a drop of the liquid whose iudex of re- 
fraction is to be determined, is plac*^d in the cell and the 
cover applied as before and pressed down with the finger. 
Let us suppose it is water, and that the equation for air 
substituted is 30 microns minus 20 microns equal 10 mi- 
crons, or the depth of the cell filled with air. A equals 
10 microns. 

Now, m minus n equals b and equals depth of cell filled 
with water. Substituted we have 27.5 microns minus 7.5 
microns. B equals 7.5 microns. A divided by b equals 
10 divided by 7.5 which equals 1.333 the index of refrac- 
tion of water. 

For obtaining the index of transparent solids with 
plain sides, as for instance of cover glasses or slips, the 
apparent depth is obtained as before, the real thickness 
measured with the cover glass guage or calipers. Their 
ratio is the index. 

It is not within the province of this article to suggest 
the important or varied applications attendant on the 
determination of this index, but the writer will feel 
highly repaid if it is of interest to any of the readers of 
the Journal. 

EDITORIAL. 

Prof. Edson S. Bastin.— The death of Prof. Edson S. 
Bastin means a severe loss to the body of American scien- 
tists. He was one of the most faithful workers in pharm- 
acy. For the last two years he has devoted himself so 
unceasing"ly to microscopical work outside of the hours 
devoted to instruction, that he has virtually allowed him- 
self no proper time for rest, and as a matter of fact, has 
almost worked himself to death. His work on the anatomy 
of plants of the pine family has been recogfnized as of great 
importance here and abroad. 



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168 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

Xnks. — Dr. Marpmann of Leipzig-, has recently published 
the results of the microscopical examination of 67 samples 
of ink used in schools. Most of these ink^ were made with 
g-all-nuts, and contained saprophytes, bacteria and micro- 
cocci. Nig-rosin ink, taken from a freshly opened bottle, 
was found to contain both saprophytes and bacteria. Red 
and blue inks also yielded numerous bacteria. In two 
instances Dr. Marpmann succeeded in cultivating from 
nig-rosin ink a bacillus which proved fatal to mice within 
four days. This ink had stood in an open bottle for three 
months, and the inference drawn from the inquiry is that 
ink used in schools should be kept covered when not in 
use. 

A Water Microbe. — One of the unaccountable phenom- 
ena of the Black Sea has been explained by the bacteriolo- 
g-ists. Since time out of memory it has been a well-known 
fact that there were no deep-sea fish in the body of water 
mentioned. Away back in 1850 the scientists made an in- 
vestig-ation and found that fish could not live at a greater 
depth than 200 fathoms in the water of the Black Sea on 
account of the presence of a superabundance of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. Time and ag*ain the waters were stocked 
with deep sea fish, but all died on account of the poisonous 
gas which was generated in such quantities in those por- 
tions of the water which should have been their natural 
habitat. It was known that the gas was at the bottom of 
all the trouble, but exactly where the gas came from was 
what so puzzled the investigators. The microbiologists 
finally took the matter in hand and a recent observer now 
announces that the gas is generated by the countless num- 
ber of microbes which make their home in the ooze at the 
bottom. This microbe decomposes mineral sulphates and 
has been named Bacillus hydrosulf uricus ponticus. 



One more indictment is added to the many against the 
house-fly. Yersin communicated plague to guinea-pigs by 
the inoculation of sterilized water in which flies found dead 
in the laboratory had been rubbed up. 



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18971 MICBOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 159 

MIGBOSCOPiCAL MANIPULATION. 



A New Culture Medium for the Diphtheria Bacillus. — 
Joos (Jour. Med. de Bruxelles, May 7, 1896) has had occa- 
sion to make alarge number of bacteriolog-ical examinations 
in cases of suspected diphtheria. He finds that the ordi- 
nary methods of cultivating Loffler's bacillus are not sat- 
isfactory; he also finds Deycke's method unsatisfactory, 
as it hinders the growth of the Loffler bacillus, and stunts 
the colonies. Joos lias modified Deycke's medium, and 
claims to have found a material on which no other bacillus 
except that of diphtheria will grow normally. He pre- 
pares "albuminate of soda'' by adding saturated caustic 
soda solution to serum of strong alkalinity, placing the 
mixture in a vapor bath for half an hour, and filteriag. 
To the filtrate is added pure hydrochloric acid till the re- 
action is neutral or very slightly alkaline. If too much 
caustic soda was not added at first, the substance is now 
ready for use; otherwise the excess of sodium chlorid re- 
quires to be dialyzed out. On evaporating to dryness, a 
powder is obtained which is readily soluble in water, and 
which is not coagulated by heat. The nutritive medium 
is prepared by adding to 1000 gr, of peptonized bouillon 20 
gr. each of agar and ^'albuminate of soda." The mixture 
is placed in the autoclave at a temperature of 115 degrees 
to 120 degrees C. for half an hour; then 15 c.cm. of caustic 
soda are added, and the whole put back in the autoclave 
for fifteen minutes, after which it is filtered in the vapor 
bath. After filtration, it is sterilized at 120 degrees C. in 
the autoclave for three quarters of an hour, when it is 
ready for the preparation of the plates. It is claimed by 
Joos that streptococci will not grow on this medium at all, 
and staphylococci but feebly, while Loffler's bacillus grows 
luxuriantly in from six to twelve hours. If the presence 
of streptococci is to be determined as well, the amount of 
"albuminate" is to be reduced to one and one-half per cent. 
At the end of fifteen to eighteen hours small colonies of 
streptococci may be seen among the large and well-devel- 
oped patches produced by the diphtheria bacillus. 



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160 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

Preservation of Urinary Deposits. — Heretofore the sub- 
ject of mounting' and preserving urinary deposits has re- 
ceived comparatively little attention, perhaps from the 
fact that no suitable method has been discovered. Speci- 
mens of urinary deposits, when properly mounted, are an 
excellent means of demonstrating- the various pathological 
elements found in urine. We are indebted to Gumprecht 
(Centralblatt f. Inn. Med.; British Medical Journal, Sep- 
tember, 1896) for the following method, which he finds to 
be superior to chloroform or glycerin: A deposit is first 
obtained by means of the centrifuge. This deposit is then 
placed in a concentrated solution of corrosive sublimate 
and centrifugalized again. It is then washed, and pre- 
served in a solution of formal. The hardening in subli- 
mate may be omitted if no red blood-cells are present. If 
there is much albumin present, the deposit may be washed 
with advantage in a normal saline solution. If the urine 
contains urates, the deposit should be washed with warm 
water or a concentrated boracic solution. The washing 
of a deposit by means of the centrifugal machine has long 
been in use in the laboratory. No washing is necessary 
if sublimate is not used. The strength of the formal solu- 
tion may vary from two to ten per cent. The author says 
that urinary deposits thus preseved can hardly be distin- 
guished from fresh deposits. Cover-glass preparations 
may be made, but it is well to wash off the formal. The 
cells maintain their shape, and the nuclei of the cells take 
the stain in the usual way. Casts, and especially red 
blood-cells, are well preserved. Fat is readily distin- 
guished. Micro-organisms are easily recognized even 
when unstained. — Modern Medicine. 



BACTEBIOLOGY. 



Virulent Diphtheria Bacillus of the Conjunctival Sac. — 
Spronck (Deutsche Med. Woch., 1896, No. 36) under- 
took to learn, by means of the specific protective property 
of Behring's serum, whether the diphtheria bacillus and 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 161 

those slig^htly virulent or non-virulent bacilli which re- 
semble it are the same species of bacterium. Out of seven 
cultures from the pharynx, there were five which pro- 
duced a local edema and general disturbance in the guinea- 
pig- when injected subcutaneously. Guinea-pigs which 
had been injected with a relatively large dose of anti-diph- 
theritic serum were not rendered immune to the effects of 
these cultures but the same dose of virulent diphtheria 
culture was without effect. 

He also experimented with three cultures of the bacillus, 
resembling the diphtheria bacillus, isolated from typical 
cases of xerosis conjunctivae. Subcutaneous injections, 
in guinea-pigs of m/edium size, of one to three cubic cen- 
timeters of a 24-hours bouillon culture, produced edematous 
swellings which disappeared after forty-eight hours, with 
loss of appetite, weakness, etc. Guinea-pigs which were 
rendered in a high degree immune to the diphtheria bacil- 
lus showed no increased resistance to the bacillus of 
xerosis. 

The author concludes that the anti-diphtheritic serum is 
useful in differentiating the diphtheria bacillus from the 
slightly virulent xerosis bacillus. He thinks the results 
with the anti-diptheritic serum leave no doubt that the 
xerosis bacillus does not belong to the true species of diph- 
theria bacilli but should be classed with one or more dis- 
tinct varieties of bacilli. 

He does not claim to settle the question as to- whether 
every bacillus which loses its effects in the presence of 
the protective property of the anti-diphtheritic serum is 
the true diphtheria bacillus, but leaves it to further re- 
search. 

Whether the diphtheria bacillus with slight virulence is 
a common inhabitant of the conjunctival sac, he thinks can 
be easily determined if all or most of the* cultures possess 
sufficient virulenceto allow of control investigations. He be- 
lieves, however, that most of such are organisms which 
belong in the class of xerosis bacilli. He does not- deny 
that the true diphtheria bacillus may be found in the con- 



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162 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

junctiva in specific diphtheria and other infections and in 
the normal conjunctiva on rare occasions. — Medicine. 

On the Xerosis Bacillus. — J. Eyre (Journal of Pathology 
and Bacteriology, July? 1896) gives a report of interesting 
studies upon the bacillus of xerosis conjunctivae. Twelve 
cases were examined, six being in males and six in females. 
Of the females, two were classmates and the remaining 
four were members of one family — an interval of about a 
week was noted between the onset of the attack in the 
mother and the three children. The cases were charac- 
terized clincally by a number of small, irregularly oval- 
shaped, pinkish, edematous bodies, situated in the lower 
conjunctival fornix, and not encroaching upon the ocular 
conjunctiva. Injection of the conjunctival vessels, lacry- 
mation, photophobia, inability to continue at work requir- 
ing close observation, distress at night and when using 
artificial light, were among the symptoms. 

In contrast to these cases he reports a case of true con- 
junctival diphtheria. The patient was a boy aged four 
years. Both eyes were affected, the lids being painful, 
red, and swollen, and separable with difficulty owing to 
the brawny infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue. The 
ocular conjunctiva was chemosed; the palpebral portion 
congested and thickened, presenting patches of a pale 
grayish-yellow membrane, which stripped off easily, leav- 
ing a raw bleeding surface. 

The differences between the xerosis bacillus and the 
diphtheria bacillus are given as follows: 

1. After inoculation of the secretion upon blood-serum, 
colonies of the xerosis bacillus do not appearw^thin thirty- 
six hours; those of the diphtheria bacillus appear in six- 
teen to eighteen hours. 

2. When grown in neutral bouillon or milk, the xerosis 
bacillus never gives rise to an acid reaction; the diphtheria 
bacillus invariably does. 

3. When grown upon potato, the xerosis bacillus rapidly 
degenerates and dies; the diphtheria bacillus grows with 
more vigor and to a greater size than on any other medium. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 163 

4. When grown upon 10 per cent gelatin, colonies of the 
xerosis bacillus are not visible to the naked eye within 
forty-eig-ht hours; the colonies of diphtheria bacilli can be 
recog-nized in twelve to twenty-four hours. 

5. The invariably innocuous nature of the bouillon cul- 
tures of the xerosis bacillus, when innoculated into the 
subcutaneous tissues of animals is susceptible to the bacil- 
lus of diphtheria. 

As to the exact nature of the xerosis bacillus — whether 
it be a non-virulent and slightly altered species of the 
bacillus diphtheriae, or a totally separate and distinct bacil- 
lus — it is impossible at present to decide. 

Leucocytes and the Bactericidal Action of the Blood. — 
Hahn (Arch. f. Hyg., vol. xxv, p. 105) has investigated the 
action of blood serum and also the pleural exudation of 
rabbits. The leucocytes in the latter are destroyed by 
freezing. He found that the exudate had a more powerful 
bactericidal action upon Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus 
and bacillus typhosis than the blood serum or the defribi- 
nated blood of the same animal; and since the leucocytes 
were destroyed, the action cannot depend upon phagocyto- 
sis in Metchnikoff 's sense of the term. The author made 
experiments with Lichenfeld's histin-blood, in which the 
leucocytes remained unaffected, in order to determine 
whether the bactericidal power depends upon the destruc- 
tion of leucocytes or upon substances secreted by the 
leucocytes while still alive. He came to the conclusion 
that the latter is the more probable explanation. 

Bubonic Plague Bacillus. — Dr. Alvah H. Doty gives a 
full account of the history and germ of the bubonic plague. 
Intheyear 542 Egypt wasconsideredthehomeoftheplague. 
Between 660 and 680 England was invaded. In 1334 it was 
brought from the East, where it was supposed to have had 
its origin. Sicily 1346, Norway 1351. The mortality was 
enormous. During the eighteenth century the plague 
existed only in Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. A slight 
outbreak occurred in Delmatia in 1840, and a severe one on 
the Volga, in the province of Astrakan in Russia, 1878-79. 



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164 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

Since then it has not appeared in Europe. In 1894 it oc- 
curred in Hong- Kong- and Canton; in the latter place 180,- 
000 people died. 

The credit of discovering* this organism is due to Yersin 
and Kitasato, who worked independently in their investi- 
gations. The organism is known ?l^ bacillus pestei bubonic(e. 
It is found in large numbers in the buboes characteristic 
of this disease, in the lymphatic glands and occasionally in 
the internal organs. It occurs in the blood only in acute 
ha^morrhagic types, shortly before death. 

The organism has been cultivated inartificial media and 
disease resembling it has been produced in lower animals. 
It is pathogenic to many animals and during epidemics 
rats, mice and flics die in large numbers, the disease being 
apparently transmitted through them. 

It is a short and thick bacillus, somewhat motile, with 
rounded ends, somewhat motile, and stains with aniline 
dyes, the ends coloring more deeply than the middle. It 
does not form spore. It grows well in blood serum, in the 
form of white moist, iridescent colonies. It grows slowly 
in gelatin but rapidly in glycerin agar, forming a grayish 
white surface growth. In bouillon it grows in a very charac- 
teristic way, resembling the growth produced by the ery- 
sipelas org-anism. The culture medium appears clear, 
with white granular deposits on the walls and in the bottom 
of the tube. 

It is pathogenic for rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits, 
which die usually within two or three days after inocula- 
tion. The bacillus soon loses its virulence when g-rown in 
artificial media. The virulence of the organism is increas- 
ed by successive inoculations in certain animal species. 

We are indebted to Yersin, Calmette and Borrell for the 
antiplague serum. Animals are immunizedag^inst the at- 
tacks of the organism by repeated intravenous or intraper- 
itoneal injections of dead cultures or by subcutaneous in- 
oculation. A horse was immunized in about six weeks. 
The serum aflForded protection to small animals after sub- 
cutaneous injection of virulent cultures, and even cured 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 165 

those that had previously been infected if administered 
within twelve hours after the inoculation. Yersin has re- 
cently reported the successful treatment of a man who was 
attacked by a severe type of the disease. The French 
Consul at Hong" Kong" performed the same operation upon 
two other pupils at the Catholic Mission with success. 

Baldness Microbe. — One of the physicians at a hospital 
in Paris has, it is stated, discovered a microbe of the skin 
which accounts for baldness. It appears that baldness 
attacks those whose skin exudes an excessive amount of 
fat or oil, and the parts affected are washed with ether and 
other solutions, myriads of small microbes may be seen 
similar in length (!) to the tuberculosis bacillus. This par- 
ticular skin microbe varies in size according to its age and 
position. For instance, on the scalp it is smaller than on 
the face or the body, but the structure remains always 
the same. The doctor has inoculated a sheep and a rab- 
bit with the skin microbe at the Pasteur Institute, and he 
will make known the results of his experience to the Society 
of Dermatology. It is stated that there are three or four 
therapeutic agents capable of destroying the fatty sub- 
stance of the skin complained of. 



ICEDIGAL MICROSCOPY. 

The Klebs-Loeffler Bacillus in Apparently Normal 
Throats and Noses. — W. H. Gross (University Medical 
Mag-azine, October, 1896) presents an interesting report 
of some observations made in the Children's Hospital of 
Boston. During six months ending June 1, 1896, culture 
examinations were made from ihe throats and noses of all 
cases entering the hospital; two cultures, twenty-four 
hours apart, being taken on admission, and subsequently 
repeated once weekly as long as the case remained in the 
house, unless the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus was found, in 
which case daily examinations were made until three suc- 
cessive negative cultures, twenty-four hours apart, were 
obtained. The work was undertaken with the object of 



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166 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

preventing^ outbreaks of epidemics of diphtheria, which 
in past winters had occurred in this hospital with most 
disastrous results. 

Out of 316 cases examined, 26 at one time or another 
showed the presence of the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus. Two 
of these had clinical diphtheria, so that out of 314 normal 
throats and noses, 7.9 per cent contained the bacillus of 
diphtheria. The averag"e persistence of the bacillus on 
the mucous membrane was fifteen days; the shortest 
period one day, the long-est 103 days. The nose was the 
principal habitat in 65 per cent and the throat in 35 per 
cent. The degree of virulence possessed by the bacilli in 
the various cases was not determined. 

Antitoxin in Diphtheria. — The American Pediatric 
Society are about to undertake a second collective investi- 
gation of antitoxin, and they now ask that records of cases 
of diphtheria involving the larynx, whether operated or 
not, occurring in the United States, be sent to the Secre- 
tary, W. P. Northrup, M.D., 57 East Seventy-ninth street, 
New York, N. Y. 

The following sums up the conclusions of the Society 
based on the first investigation: 

Dosage.— For a child over two years old the dose of anti- 
toxin should be, in all laryngeal cases with stenosis, and 
in all other severe cases, 1500 to 2000 units for the first 
injection, to be repeated in from eighteen to twenty-four 
hours if there is no improvement; a third dose after a 
similar interval, if necessary. For severe cases in child- 
ren under two years, and for mild cases over that age, the 
initial dose should be 1000 units, to be repeated as above 
if necessary; a second dose is not usually required. The 
dosage should always be estimated in antitoxin units, and 
not of the amount of serum. 

Quality of Antitoxin. — The most concentrated strength 
of an absolutely reliable preparation. 

Time of Administration. — Antitoxin should be admin- 
istered as early as possible on a clinical diagnosis, not 
waiting for a bacteriological culture. However late the 



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18«7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 167 

first observation is made, an injection should be given un- 
less the progress of the case is favorable and satisfactory. 

Bacteria in the Urine in Non-bacterial Febrile Disease. 
— Chvostek and Egger (Wiener Klin. Woch., 18%, No. 30) 
report the occurrence of bacteria in the urine in paroxysms 
of malaria and in fever produced by injections of tuber- 
culin. As the experiments were conducted in such a way 
as to exclude the usual causes of error in such observa- 
tions, the authors believe that fever serves in some way 
to favor the excretion of micro organisms, though no bac- 
terial disease in the usual sense exists. They suggest 
that this may be simply the exaggeration of a process 
which must occur at times in healthy persons. Bacteria 
gain entrance to the blood in various ways, perhaps most 
frequently by way of the lymphatics, and are finally ex- 
creted with the urine. These germs are probably more 
or less lowered in vitality, so that they cannot often be 
cultivated successfully; but in fevers such as the authors 
worked with, the excretion is more rapid. These and 
other observations show that the presence of non-specific 
bacteria, especially the Staphylococcus albus, in the urine 
cannot be looked upon as of great importance, and that 
other facts must be brought forward in order to prove 
their relation to the disease. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES. 



The Scandal on Oysters.— At the recent meeting of the 
British Medical Association, Professors Boyce and Herd- 
man took pains to show what persons familiar with the 
natural history of the oyster have known all along, that it 
is not a scavenger, as some people have ignorantly alleged 
but a cleanly and docile animal of slow movement and over- 
trustful of its pampering caretakers. Consequently it has 
been most foully treated. The professors cited and veri- 
fied facts that had been before stated — namely, that when 
oysters were laid down in pure water a natural process of 



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168 THB AMBRICAN MONTHLY [May 

cleansing" took place, and previous sewage contamination 
was thus entirely got rid of. This result forms the high- 
est possible argument in favor of the absolute purity of the 
surrounding's of oysters during* their cultivation or after 
being laid down in special beds for fattening purposes. 

With regard to the germs of typhoid fever in sea water 
or in the tissues of the oyster, it was shown that they are 
viable for fourteen days in sea water at 35 deg-rees centi- 
grade, while in cold sea water they may live for twenty-one 
days; and when large quantities of the microbes are added 
to the water, their presence may be demonstrated for a 
long"er period than when small quantities are employed. 
It thus seems that the bacilli do not actually breed or mul- 
tiply in the sea water at all. Infection from this source, 
therefore, is from germs that have entered the water, and 
not from their decendants and progeny. It was also dem- 
onstrated that the typhoid microbe does not increase either 
in the body or in the tissues of the oyster. Where oysters 
are infected with typhoid germs and placed in a stream of 
pure sea water, the bacilli disappear in from one to seven 
days. The oyster evidently utilizes its pure environment 
to get rid of its unwelcome and uninvited germ guests. 

Distinctions Between Human and Animal Blood.— 
On mixing the blood in question with a little bile, there are 
formed crystals not exceeding* 0.003 meter in size. Those 
of a man are right rectangular prisms; those of the horse, 
cubes; of the ox, rhombohedrons; of the sheep, rhombohe- 
dric tablets; of the dog, rectangular prisms; of the rabbit, 
tetrahedrons; of the squirrel, hexagonal tablets; of the 
mouse, octahedrons; of common poultry, cubes modified at 
their angles, etc. — Scientific American. 



IIICKOSCOPICAL NOTES. 



The Night Lunch Wagon. — Mr. John F. Hurley, pres- 
ident of the water board, of Salem, Mass., who has been 
indefatigable in promoting a good water supply, has now 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 169 

called attention to a matter which eflFects the public health 
in a different degree. Disclaiming- any intention of need- 
lessly interfering with any person's means of livelyhood, 
he has protested ag-ainst the licensing- of night lunch wag-- 
ons, on account of the liability of the spread of disease by 
this means. These wagons are a familiar sig-ht in the 
cities and larger towns. Either they are driving- about the 
streets or they occupy a stand, night after nig-ht. Mr. 
Hurley has interested himself to inquire into their oper- 
ation and finds when ready for customers the water supply 
of a wagon consists of about two gallons of water in a 
bucket. During the night several hundred cups of coflfee 
and mugs of milk are sold and emptied into mouths many 
of which are dirty and diseased, some foully so. The 
cleansing of the mug or cups consists of a rinsing in the 
bucket of water and a wipe with a towel that does duty for 
the entire night. We must agree with Mr. Hurley that 
probably no better method of spreading disease can be 
found than the practices he discribes, and the subject is 
one which should receive the attention of the board of 
health in the cities where such a menace to public health 
exists. — The Engineering Record. 

Infection by Pets. — Cats have been suspected of con- 
veying the infection of diphtheria, and scarlet fever has 
been traced to them. To this may be added (Chicago 
Medical Record) the unwelcome news that a health oflBcer 
has reported a case of smallpox brought about in the same 
way; that is, by a cat from an infected house carrying the 
disease to a neighboring house. 

Another case is reported in La Medecine Moderne, **of 
a seamstress who was in the habit of allowing her dog to 
lick her face. She was attacked one day with a severe in- 
flammation of the right eye. Oculists were consulted, but 
their treatment was unsuccessful; and owing to the fact 
that inflammation of the left eye was beginning, the right 
eye was cut out. In it wasfound a tapeworm, which the 
dog had probably picked up while licking some less pleas- 
ing object than his mistress's face. 



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170 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

*'The dang-er of the transmission of parasites by dog"s, 
who are well known to be indiscriminate in choosing ob- 
jects for the exercise of their tongues, to the hands and 
faces of their masters, would seem to be a great one. It 
is remarkable that accidents of the kind related happen as 
rarely as they do." 



nCROSCOPIGAL SOCIETIES. 



Royal Microscopical Society. — At the last meeting of 
the society, Mr. F. Enoch, F. L. S., F. E. S., showed under 
microscopes a unique collection of specimens of "a much 
neglected family," viz., the mymarada^. These insects, 
some of them much tinier than a grain of sand on the sea- 
shore, are egg-parasites, that is to say, they prey on the 
eggs laid by other insects — some of them in the live bodies 
and still other minute denizens of London trees. The re- 
searches conducted by Mr. Enoch have brought to light 
some eight hitherto unknown genera, and latest was dis- 
covered at Hollo way. Mr. Enoch prepares, mounts, 
sketches and photographs the specimens for which he 
hunts by night and by day in London and the suburbs, and 
the exhibition which he arranged was of much interest. 

New Jersey State Microscopical Society. 

Monday, April 26, i8gj, — At Kirkpatrick Chapel, Rutgers 
College Campus, New^ Brunswick, N. J., was held the 
twenty-eighth anniversary meeting of the New Jersey 
State Microscopical Society. An efficient committee, chair- 
maned by Dr. Chester had striven to make the meeting 
attractive to the public and had signally succeeded. 

Dr. Julius Nelson, President of the Society, made a brief 
speech of welcome and introduction. He called attention 
to the fact that the Society is not among the least educa- 
tional factors in this city. Meetings are held, month by 
month; popular subjects, easily understood, are treated 
of by specialists; and the public is always welcome, admis- 
sion being given gratis. The facilities offered are unique 
in this city. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 171 

"The microscope," said Dr. Nelson, '*has made greater 
revelations than the telescope. The views which you shall 
behold this evening-, projected from a polarizing apparatus 
perfected by Dr. Van Dyck, have not been shown to an 
audience of this kind before.'' 

Dr. Van Dyck then explained the polarizing projection 
lantern, g'iving- the theory of light vibrations and telling 
the effects of interference between waves of light. Polar- 
ization is acquired when all parts of a medium move alike 
and in the same direction. By means of a bundle of glass 
plates, arranged in a certain way, he had perfected the 
projecting" apparatus. 

While Dr. Van Dyck managed the lantern, assisted by 
Frederick H. Blodg-ett, secretary of the society. Dr. Ches- 
ter explained the views. They were magnified from the 
slides 160,000 times, being- projected from a one-quarter 
inch aperture to an area upon the screen of about eight 
feet. 

**Beautifur' is too feeble a word to describe the tints 
which the rock crystals and the org-anic particles assumed 
under polarized light. Again and again, as the more ex- 
quisite specimens were shown, the audience gave expres- 
sion to its delight in applause. When inorganic speci- 
mens — crystals formed by chemicals — were projected, 
much amusement was occasioned. By some arrangement 
of the apparatus, the crystal '^wheels went around,'' chang- 
ing their hues the while. 

Part II of the scientific entertainment was held in the 
lecture room in the rear of the chapel. Here were half a 
hundred microscopes, with specimens well mounted and 
displayed under both electric and oil light, arranged on 
tables. The visitors passed up one row of microscopes, 
peeping- into the tubes as they walked, and down the other 
row. These were the exhibitors and their exhibits: 

CoUeg-e Experiment Station; Photo-micrographic Camera 

Dr. J. B. Smith; Eggs of the Tape-worm, Head of the 
Tape-worm, Mouth of the House-fly, Mammalian Sperm, 
Wing Cover of a Beetle. 



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172 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [May 

Dr. B. D. Halsted; Starch in Cells of Bean Seed, Spores 
of a Parasitic Fungus, An Akebia Stem, Carnation Rust in 
a Leaf. 

Mr. F. B. Kilmer; Section of Spong-e, Bacillus pyocya- 
nus. 

Dr. P. T. Pockman; Stomata in Fern Leaf. 

Mr.*F. H. Blodgett; Protococcus, Zoospores of Drapar- 
naldia. Mandible of Lady-bug". 

Mr. F. H. Blodgett; Wild Flowers. 

Dr. W. W. Knox; Foramenifera. 

Dr. A. C. Hutton; Pappus of Marg-uerite. 

Prof. C. L. Speyers; Spicules of Gorg-onia. 

Prof. W. S. Myers; Humming- Bird Feathers. 

Dr. A. H. Chester; Arrang-ed Diatoms. 

Mr. J. M. Devoe; Tongue of Beetle, Foot of Spider. 

Dr. M. H. Hutton; Fossil Diatoms. 

Mr. F. C. Van Dyck Jr.; Pollen of Japan Lily. 

Dr. F. C. Van Dyck; Micro-photograph of Plants. 

Dr. D. C. English; Section of Human Appendix, Kidney 
of Mouse. 

Dr. H. R. Baldwin; Hair Bulb, Flea, Cheese Mite, 
Feather of Goose. 

Dr. F. M. Donahue; Section of Scalp. 

Mr. J. A. Manley; Iron Pyrites. 

Dr. Caroline H. Marsh; Section of Spinal Cord. 

Mr. L. H. Noe;'Platinocyanide of Yttrium. 

Dr. Julius Nelson; Frog's Kidney, Human Kidney, Hu- 
man Hair. 

Dr. Julius Nelson; Various Hairs, Various Fibres. 

Mr. W, W. Wilson; Root-cap. 

Mr. L. T. Ives; Butterfly Scales. 

Dr. A. L.Smith; Normal Artery. 

Dr. N. Williamson; PathologFcal Artery, X-ray Photo- 
graph of Ibis. 

Mr. W. S. Valiant; Casts of Triarthus beckii. 



Mr. Thomas Craig has found an apparently new rotifer. 
The peculiarity of it is in the fact that it is enclosed in a 
case made of grains of sand and small diatoms. 



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^f 



Special 
AQDOuDcemeQt 



- IN - 



MICROSCOPY. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



D' 



UBIKO th« iMk ft 
I hAT* bMn buiy prspariiif 
IIMII7 rare and noTel ot^teti 
for Mlcroaoopical pitrposaa, and 
bare arranged tham aa under in 
ninatimtod Series. 

The firrt of tbeee ia tlie 10- 
oroacoplcal Studies la M*- 
rlne Zoology. 

The aeoond Seriee (via.: that 
for 1806) oonaiatB of 14 nplendid 
tirepaimtlona, all of the hlgheat 
poaaiUe ezoellence and ffoaranteed 
permanent The 14 lUdtf appear 
in qoarterly inatallmenta, and are 
aooompanied b/ oTer 100 pagM 
of descriptlTe lettcrpresa, 
dealing in pleaaant bnt exaec man- 
ner with the anatomy, Ufe-hifto y 
and habtta of the reapecttre »>iil> 
Jecta, while 19 foU-piHie platea 
of photo-engraTmga. ctrawn 



from llfn, make plain all detaila. I 
iDCinilve Sabaeriptlon, S6.35, poat-fk^e. FuU praapectua on application. 
The following are among the SUdet included in this 8eri«a : 



1. OolonyoftheloTelyBadiolarianf^Aaro- 

, fhowing paraaitio alga. 40o 

■ -TpCyte C " 



X, The lovely ZoopI 



ezpanL 

3. Statted Btage of the larra 

Teather Star (oiOadon) 

4. An entire 8ea^ Butterfly 
6. LoTely expanded Zoopbyl 



»Ob«Ua,pi>lypafhUy 



of Boay 



(Pteropod). 
te fllmooryiM. 



S6c 

40c 
40e 
40e 



0. LoTely Kzpanded Zoophyte Bmimlnna 50e 

7. Opoaram-ahrfmp JQfaw, allowiag andi- 

tory organ in tail 38o 

8. The aplendid rate organ-pipe PoIyauoB, 

LiekenopofXi lOc 

9. Entire larral Plaioe, 9j4 Jnat turning 

from blind aide and 6 other eooally 
flue sUdee. «0c 



The prices ag^^nat each are thoie at which the preparatlona are aold aeparataly, ahow 
ing what a cheap lot iyo0»r.in aeriea at |6.26, poet free. .---........ 



accompanying aiiaea, wnicn 

Botany. 



▲ few acta of fleriea 1 atiU aTailabla. 
•t.26, poat free. 

Prof. J. E. Ainsworth Daria, Univenity College, Aberyatwith, writea : ** Allow me to 
congtatnlate you on the Tory uaefhl work yon are doing by the publication of Journal, with 
accompanying alidea, which are Mon AniaaABLB. 

— Superb microacopfcal preparationB of Braslllan I.lanaa.>-I have 
been unfortunate in obtaining a quantity of theae auperb atema— the 
most loTely in the whole plut kingdom— and have arranged them 
In two sets of each, at the price of $1.8f per aet, or 12.25 for the 
two. The moat exquisitely charming rtidea that could posaibly be 
imagined for exhibitfon at popular gauerings. Aa the quantity is 

Tory hmited. I am unable to aell single slides. 

Mlcrosooploal Stodiea In Botsuiy.— In answer to mant requests, I hare ar- 
ranged 20 magnificent preparationa in a series on similar lines to that in marine aoology de- . 
scribed aboTC. 

The first aeriea ia now begun and compnaea 20 highest-class slides (such aa aell aiagly 
at 26c to 85c each), illustrated by deacrlptive letterpress and 20 specially beautiful photo-micro- 
graphs of the sections: 

Subscriptions, 16.26 only, for all, a aum which would be cheap for the aeries of illoa- 
trations alone. 

Prof. J. W. Oarr, UniTersity College, Nottingham, writea: **Tour Botanical Slides 
are the most beautiful I haTe ever seen. The following are among the slides already iasued ia 
abOTO linea : 

1. Tr. aec. flower-bud of Lily 26c I 6. Tr. sec. fruit of Date (splendid) 36c 

2. ** *' do of Dandelion 30c 6. '* ** flower of Aefc«AoIlsM 80c 

3. Loni:*! sec. do of do 26c I 7. Long'L sec. double flower of Peony 25c 

4. do fruit of ng SOc I 8. Leaf-AOl of Sycamore 25c 
I sruarantee the perfeotton of all my mounts and will be please<* to send 

selections on approval lo approved correspondents. 

A great range of Miscellaneous Zoological and Botanical slides ia stock 
at prices from fi.30 per dozen. 

Cost of Mailing, z slide, zo cents; 2 slides, 15 cents; 3 slides, ao cents and 
80 00. I«arge parcels by express at very cheap rates. 

SpeolaUbr. Marine Zoology (especially in expanded Zoophsrtes and larval 
stages, and plant and flower anatomy. 

^erms. Remittance by P. O. O., draft on London, or U. 8. paper currency, the 
former preferred. If wished, Mr. 0. W. Smiley, Washington. D. ". will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley has Idndiy promised io 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. S. Microecop- 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Biological Station, Jerwy, Sngland. 



Specialist in Microscopical If ountfag. 



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THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 

Contents for June, 1897. 

Oo a New Fossil Marine Diatomaceoas Deposit in Alabama. Cnn- 

niogham 173 

Remarks upon the DiatomaoesB. Waller 181 

How the Bacterial Organisms are Studied. Lamb 184 

Algffi found at Roche Abbey, July 11, 1896. Coombe :. 188 

Some Facts About Podisus Placidus. Ki^land .j^\l.., 191 

Editorial. 0f 

Restriction of Vivisection 192 

Nomenclature „ 193 

Microscopical AppARATue. 

Distilling Water, (Illustrated.) 195 

Note on Color Illumination 196 

How to Test Objectives 197 

Microscopical Manipulation. 

To Stain the Ringworm Fungus 198 

Frozen Sections 198 

Bacteriology. 

Differentation of B. coli 199 

Biological Notes. 

Fertilization of Gymnoeperms 200 

The Wild Nettle m 

TheFootofthe House Fly 201 

Preservation of Flowers ^ 202 

Diatoms. 

Reproduction of Marine Diatoms 203 

New Publications. 

Text Book of Histology ..^. 203 

Browning's Paracelsus and Other Essays 204 

Microscopic Researches on Glycogen 204 



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THE MICROSCOPE IN SECTION. 

1. Compensation ocular x 12 ; it is a positive ocular. 

2. Draw-tube, by which the tube is lengthened or shortened. 

3. Main tube or body, to the lower end of which the objective or re- 

volvinjf nose-piece is attached. 

4. Society screw in the lower end of the draw-tube. 
5- Society screw in the lower end of the tube. 

6. Objective in position. 

7. Stage under which is the substage with the sub-stage condenser. 

8. Spring clip for holding the specimen. 

9. Screw for centering, and handle of the iris diaphragm in the achro- 

matic condenser. 

10. Iris diaphragm out-side the principal focus of the condenser for use 

in centering. 

11. Mirror with plane and concave faces. 

12. Horse-shoe base. 

13. Rack and pinnioii for the sub-stage condenser. 

14. Flexible pillar 

15. Part of pillar with spiral spring of fine adjustment. 

16. Screw of fine-adjustment. 

17. Milled head of coarse adjustment. 

[From Gage's "The Microscope and Microscopical Methods."] 



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THE AMERICAN ^-s^^^cSss^. 

y ^ C 3 MONTHLY TfEB 24 1942 

MICROSCOPICAL JOUR NA L . 



Vol. XVIII. JUNE, 1897. No. 6 



On a New Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit in Alabama. 

By K. M. CUNNINGHAM, 

MOBILE, ALA. 

In the issue of this Journal for August, 1896, there 
appeared a paper giving an account of the results secur- 
ed by myself from an examination of a rather wide area 
of strata of Tertiary age undertaken during the month 
of June 1896. It contained much of interest in relation 
to the various kinds of microscopic fossil organisms found 
in the various deposits encountered, and in the same ar- 
ticle I referred briefly to the locality around Suggsville. 
At the time of preparing that paper, I had inadvertent- 
ly overlooked a few specimens collected near Suggsville. 
In December last while arranging and labeling speci- 
mens of the minerals previously collected I found some 
small samples of clay. It occurred to me that I had not 
made a micro-analysis of the same, and with this in view 
I made a trial test. I found that the material indicated 
a very interesting deposit of fossil marine diatoms hith- 
erto unknown, and offering much of interest to diatomists 
and microgeologists in general. After ascertaining this 
fact it became necessary to secure a relatively large 
amount of the deposit for the purpose of introducing the 
same to the notice of all who might desire to study the 
contents and peculiarities of the new deposit. I there- 
fore found it necessary to communicate with Dr. C. I. 
Di^hlberg, of Suggsville, indicating the situation of the 



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174 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

deposit, requesting him to visit it and send me a quanti- 
ty of the deposit. Through his kindness I secured some 
fifty pounds of clay, and after the receipt of the fossil 
clay I was enabled to make a study of the deposit. 

After preparing and examining the equivalent of about 
fifty slides, I became sufficiently acquainted with the 
chief characters of the deposit, to enable me to make 
some comparative deductions with reference to the two 
principal sources of North American marine fossil dejio^- 
its. These are generally known and familiar to Ameri- 
can and foreign microscopists. Such deposits are 
known as occurring at Monterey, Cal. and at other sites 
on the Pacific Coast. The deposits on the Atlantic Coa^<t 
are found at Nottingham, Md, Richmond and Peter.<hur^ 
Va.,and at other points from New Jersey to South Caro- 
lina. 

As a result of the studies made from a relatively small 
quantity of the deposit, not amounting to more than a 
few ounces in the aggregate, I have been enabled to note 
and tabulate species represented by the following gen- 
era: Amphora, 5; Amphiprora, 4; Auliscus, 3; Aula- 
codiscus, 3 ; Actinocyclus, 3; Actinoptychus, 6; Aster- 
olampra, 2; Amphitetras, 2; Biddulphia, 6; Coscino- 
discus, 10; Craspedodiscus, 2; Cocconeis, 1; Cyclotella, 
2; Corinna, 2; Diatoma, 2; Dimeragramma, 1; Diplo- 
neis, 3 ; Bunotogramma, 1 ; Glyphodiscus, 2; Hyalodis- 
cus, 2; Hemiaulus, 2; Melosira, 5; Navicula, 10; 
Pleurosigma, 3 ; Pyscilla, 2 ; Pseudoauliscus, 1 ; Ruti- 
laria, 1; Raphoneis, 2; Synedra, 1; Triceratum, 6 ; 
Trinacria, 2; — approximating one hundred species in 
the aggregate. Associated with the diatoms are addi- 
tional fossil organic remains viz. some 20 species of For- 
aminifera, 6 or more of Radiolarians, various sponge and 
gorgonia spicules, minute spines of echinoderms ; stellate 
spicules, zanthidiau spheres, and coccoliths of the chalk 
resembling those of the recent sea bottom ; also crystals 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 176 

of selenite, aad matted crystalline plates. The contents 
of the deposit oflFer many points of study interest. 

With regard to the richness of the deposit, it becomes 
only a question of concentration and cleaning as the dia- 
toms are in illimitable numbers, a fragment as large as 
a lima-bean yielding three or more slides of the usual 
size. A few peculiarities to be noted by the student are 
of the following character. The Coscinodiscoidal forms 
range in size fron 1-50 inch to 1-500 inch. Of Melosira 
there are simple closed rings and spiral forms of two 
or more turns ; filaments of Melosira having as many as 
fifteen frustules united together. The Triceriitia are 
sometimes found in filaments of three or four frustules 
in a linear series ; spherical Coscinodiscii united in pairs 
in a partial fission or sporangial stage. In these the 
external hemispheres are fully completed in their reticu- 
lar surfaces, and the internal halves either perfectly or 
partially formed, but still enclosed by the sporangial 
isthmus or hoop. There are Amphitetras in prefission 
union or sporangial stage inclining the frustules to rest 
on the longer axis. The discoidal forms of all kinds 
have both valves united to the hoop thus enabling the 
sculptural details of either top or bottom surfaces to be 
examined with equal facility in focussing down from one 
surfac e to the other or vice-versa. 

By this means, it is seen that in all of the Aulacodiscii 
or Glyphodiscii having processes or bosses on both sur- 
faces that upon focussing on the upper surfaces, and then 
through to the lower surfaces the bosses or processes of 
the lower surfaces bisect the position of the upper bosses. 
This furnishes a proof that the valves are intact, a cir- 
cumstance seldom observed in other fossil deposits. 

The formation in which this deposit is found is known 
as gypsous in character. This is owing to the fossil 
Foraminifera and Diatoms having been mineralized or 
metamorphosed by two agencies. As a result this tends to 



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176 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jane 

make the cleaning and preparation of the diatoms for 
Htudy somewhat difficult, or at least a lengthy process. 
The diatoms are associated with a tenaceous clay matrix 
very diflBcult to eliminate by boiling or acid treatment. 
It may be easily removed by trituration on a soft rubber 
surface freeing the silicious organisms in abundance; and 
when they are so freed, it is noted that the surface and 
interior of the diatoms, especially the Biddulphia, and 
Actinocyclii, are densely packed with crystalline bundles. 
These crystals may be removed by digesting in a mix- 
ture of equal parts of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids. 
It will also be noted that the larger Coscinodiscii are 
encrusted with blackish spherules of ironpyrite. This 
can be removed by digesting in nitric acid. When the 
acid treatment is properly carried out, fair slides may be 
prepared ; but while the requirements noted here may 
seem formidable or tedious, there is a very simple and 
direct process that any one can use for all essential pur- 
poses of study. For this purpose it is merely necessary 
to take a piece of the crude diatomaceous clay as large 
as a lima-bean, wet it with water, place it in the palm 
of the left hand, and crush it down by the pressure of 
the fingers of the right hand. Then with the tip of the 
index finger of the right hand the clay is continuously 
triturated until no visible small particles or lumps are 
evident. In the trituration, utilize as much surface of 
the palm as the hand will permit. The triturated layer 
is then removed clean from the hand by a pocket knife 
blade and transferred to a small shallow saucer-like ves- 
sel. Water is added, and the paste is dabbled, which 
will free the diatoms. Allow them to settle to the bot- 
tom. The clay water is then poured off carefully, and 
additional water added a few times to remove the remain- 
ing flocculent matter. Then the diatoms may be readily 
concentrated by a gentle twirling on an incline and tilt- 
ing to one side. Then a pippette will remove the dia- 



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18»7.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 177 

toins leaving the larger and coarser portions to the rear. 
By this means enough diatoms may be secured for a trial 
study of five or more slides from a very small piece. 

This simple process is susceptible of great refinement 
when properly done. It is the most expeditions way in 
which to get acquainted with the characters of the depos- 
it ; whereas, if the process does not give satisfactory re- 
sults at the hands of anyone trying it, the customary 
process of boiling in alkaline, or acid solutions would have 
to be resorted to. More time is thus consumed and it 
will scarcely remove the amorphous clay particles which 
are apt to interfere with a good concentration. I deem 
the suggestions given herein as pertinent, as the deposit 
belongs to the category of deposits seldom available, and 
thus involves experimental tentative processes for its 
mastery. 

The deposit oflFers a problem to the chemist, viz : to 
find an acid or combination of acids which will promptly 
dissolve the compound mineral which has metamorphosed 
the internal chambers or casts left by the Foraminifera. 
These shell casts seem to be proof against four of the 
commoner reagent acids. This problem ofi'ers a fine ex^ 
perimental field in the line of micro-chemistry. 

If a simple water cleaned slide of the diatoms is placed 
under the microscope using a 1 inch or a J inch objective 
remarkable chemical phenomena may be observed. By 
depositing a drop of sulphuric acid on the slide, and then 
adding a drop of muriatic acid, every foraminiferal form 
will be violently attacked and torrents of gas bubbles 
will be thrown off* in streams until the internal casts 
within the foraminifera are exposed. Then the power 
of the acids is at an end. In the meantime the diatoms 
will have been materially brightened, revealing the 
sculptural markings more clearly, where not masked by 
pyrites. The action of the nitric acid in dissolving the 
iron mineral does not present any phenomenon of inter- 



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178 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

est as it is rather slow ia its action. It seems to be es- 
sentia] in improving the appearance of the preparations. 

Durittg the coarse of my studies of this new deposit I 
made sketches of all the forms found in the material in 
the hope of being able to identify the various species, 
but I found that it was a hopeless task to identify the 
majority of the species with certainty. I had available 
one MpUer Type Plate, one Getchsman Type Plate, cov- 
ering some five hundred species, Kain's Blue print copy 
of Adolf Schmidt's Atlas (80 plates only) and WoUe's 
Diatomaceffi of North America. All of these were only 
serviceable as giving the genera alone. The identifica- 
tion of the species with their aid was impracticable. 
The identification of a species involves the highest criti- 
cal skill, as indicated in the critical notes attached to 
Schmidt's figures. So I leave the determination of the 
species characterizing the Suggesville deposit to those 
who have a genius for such work. 

Immediately on determining that I had found an inter- 
esting and new deposit with unfamiliar North American 
species I at once forwarded to Mr. J. Tempere, of Paris, 
a specimen of the new earth. He replied that he had 
received the material, and that he would clean it, and 
send me a list of the species contained in the same. Six 
months have elapsed and nothing in reference to the 
deposit has been received from him. This may show that 
it takes time to determine with accuracy the species in 
an unfamiliar deposit. 

Incidentally there is an element of scientific romance 
connected with the Suggsville find which may be stated 
in this wise : Some ten or more years ago a letter came 
to me from the Alabama State Geologist, Dr. E. A. Smith, 
enclosing a letter of inquiry to him from an Atlantic 
Coast Geologist. It asked whether there was a known 
fossil Marine Diatomaceous deposit within the bounds of 
Alabama. The party writing was interested in the sub- 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 1T9 

ject from a geologic standp^oint. The letter was referred 
to me for a reply, as I was supposed to be the only per- 
son in Alabama that could give the information. 

At that date nothing was known of a fossil Marine 
deposit of any kind, not even a fresh water fossil deposit 
was known. We only had available the recent Marine 
Diatoms of the Gulf and the likewise recent fresh water 
sources. Since that date, the whole Diatom subject is 
practically exhausted for this locality, and duly put upon 
record for tho benefit of the whole world. 

The writer of the letter proved to be Lewis Woolman, 
of Overbrook, Pa., but latterly of Philadelphia, Pa., who 
in connection or in collaboration with the Geological Sur- 
vey of Pennsylvania, has been identified with the study 
of water-bearihg strata or horizons as determined through 
the study of Artesian well borings and other sources. He 
is also the originator of an hypothesis involving the as- 
sumption that, in the epoch in which the Miocene strata 
were laid down or deposited, there was deposited along 
the Atlantic Coastal area a series of Diatomaceous clays, 
one stratum of which in particular represented by a de- 
posit of at least 300 feet in thickness, and designated by 
him the "great 300 foot diatomaceous stratum." He had 
reason to believe it might be traced somewhere all along 
from New Jersey to the Florida peninsular, and sweep- 
ing around to and occupying a portion of the Gulf of Mex- 
ico Costal plain even into Alabama. 

It was with the object of collecting data to verify his 
assumption, that he sought the aid of many correspon- 
dents in securing material with which to establish the 
truth of his hypothesis. I rendered him every reasonable 
assistance by furnishing specimens. By this means, I put 
upon record at different periods, the important fresh wat- 
er deposit of Montgomery, Ala., the fossil marine Dia- 
tomaceous clay from the Tampa, Fla. phosphatic area, the 
pyritized and mineralized diaotms of the Mobile, Ala., 



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180 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

artesiau well area clays 650 below surface, also the Rad- 
iolarian aud Diatomaceous clays of the Buhrstone Eocene 
of Alabama and Mississippi, the Holothurian fossil re- 
mains of the Clarke Co., (Miss.) marls. 

All of these various deposits were but of inconsequen- 
tial interest to his purposes, as none furnished data of 
direct use to him. But finally a ray of hope dawned 
giving new zeal to his hope of finding the missing link 
in his data requirements, when the 15 feet or more stra- 
tum of a marine fossil diatomaceous clay was announced 
by me as found in the vicinity of Sug^sville, Clarke Co., 
Ala. Mr. L. Woolman since then has had the satisfaction 
of getting the material wherewith to study the corres- 
pondence of the Alabama deposit in its specific forms, 
with the material and specific forms characterizing the 
composition of the Miocene clays of the Atlantic Coast. 

The Geological Map of the State of Alabama locates 
Suggaville in the area of the Eocene designated as E. 1., 
equivalent to the St. Stephens; (Vicksburg; White 
Limestone, and Jackson ) or uppermost member of the 
Eocene, while the true Miocene should rest upon this 
group of strata. A comparative study of the Pacific 
Coast Diatomaceous species and fhat of the Atlantic 
Coast species of the Miocene age by me suggests that the 
Suggsville deposit is more nearly allied to those of the 
Pacific deposits than to those of the Atlantic Coast. 



Foraminifera of the Marine Clays of Maine. — By Frank 
S. Morton, Portland, Maine. 8 vo., 18pp., 1 plate. 

Thisis a paper extracted from the proceedingsof the Port- 
land Society of Natural History for 1897. After a brief 
description of the localities from which the material 
was derived, the writer g-ives the systematic classifica- 
tion of the forms, and bibliographical notes. Students of 
the Rhizopoda can perhaps obtain a copy by writing to the 
author at Portland. 



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18»7J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 181 

Remarks upon the Diatomaceae. 

By J. G. WALLER, 

LONDON. 

[From the President's Address before The Quekett Clab.] 

They are ubiquitous, and fouud everywhere in water, 
whether in the ocean, or river, or the merest trickling 
rill. It is an interesting fact, you can in many instances 
predict the character of what you will find, according to 
the conditions under which they exist, and they have 
more than any other organism been favored by constant 
research. Tne development of the microscope itself has 
gone on coincidently with our knowledge. Some diatoms 
have l(»ng been test objects wherewith to examine the 
highest powers. At the time when Ehrenberg wrote, 
probably most observers considered with him that they 
belonged to the animal kingdom ; and this view lingered 
on, finding its supporters even when Andrew Prichard, 
in 1861. published his admirable compilation on the 
"Infusoria." Although this is now quite given up, one 
must not condemn too readily views that were partly 
suggested by the movements of certain species. Truth 
is a growth, the result of observation, but it is slow in 
progress, as the history of opinion on the most important 
of subjects declares unto us. But, if we assume that the 
movement of the Naviculacea) was due to animal nature, 
the next step was to tell us how this was accomplished. 
So some observers distinctly saw a ciliated apparatus. 
This, however is the old story ; you can always see what 
you wish to see, that which your mind has determined ; 
and it is not agreeable to many, perhaps to most minds, 
to think that your eyes may deceive you. Yet this is a 
lesson that the raicroscopist must learn, and it is an 
important one. The study of the Diatomaceae continu- 
ally imposes this upon us. One species has exercised all 



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182 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

tUe faculties required in minute examination — the Pleu- 
rosigma angulatum — which has in itself a history singu- 
lar in the various waves of opinion and attempted dem- 
onstration. The markings of its silicious envelope at 
first presented striae, which further maguification deter- 
mined into a series of semi-circular bosses, or at other 
times, according to other views, so many depressions or 
apertures. The first was once attempted to be illustra- 
ted by a glass tumbler, the sides of which consisted of 
so many raised bulbs. It was thought that a similar 
material would be similarly affected by the action of light 
and thus would prove, or tend to prove, the true con- 
struction of the valve. In the theory of elevations, it is 
not so long ago that arrangements were made in side 
illuminations by a pencil of light, thus supposing to give 
a true and artistic light and shade. But, in both these 
nice experiments, it seemed to be forgotten that they 
were begun in a foregone conclusion ; and, as I have 
previously said, you naturally, in such a case, see what 
you wish to see. Certain accidents, fractures, and pecu- 
liarities inconsistent with the above-named views, assis- 
ted by careful illumination, seem now to have tolerably 
settled the question to be on the side of apertures, and 
my predecessor has worked successfully thereto. That 
this must be the general consent on such markings 
throughout the Diatomacea) must probably be entertain- 
ed, though it would be dangerous to afiirm that there 
was no variation from it in the multiform changes of 
nature. 

But the subject has been so admirably worked outand 
recorded by two papers in our Journal, one by Mr. C. 
Haughton Gill, April, 1890, in which is well described 
his mode of preparation of the objects wherewith to 
determine the structure. Another by Mr. Nelson, in 
May, 1891, goes into the same matter by the use of high 
powers, and these papers, showing a working on difl^er- 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 183 

ent lines, yet arriving at the same results, commend 
themselves as conclusive. Nor can we forget the emin- 
ent services on diatom structure rendered by our Secre- 
tary, Mr. Karop, associated with further ideas on their 
development. But the diatom will never cease to be of 
primary importance to the microscopist, as the abundance 
and variety of its forms even exhaust our imagination, 
and the volumes written upon it, though numerous, seem 
to be only forerunners of more to come. 

I have alluded to the movements which were once 
thought to be one of the reasons to indicate animal life, 
as seen in the Naviculaceaj ; but in these forms it is by 
no means so remarkable as in one less commonly met 
with, viz., the Bacillaria paradoxa, wherein a number of 
parallel rods slide out side by side on each other, in 
a manner so curious as to challenge all hypotheses to 
clearly explain them to us. 

But movement can in no way of itself be recognised as 
a distinction of animal nature, and many examples of the 
Algae, notably that of Volvox globator, go far beyond 
what is seen in any of the Diatomaceae, and sometimes 
there is a lingering of opinion here, as to which order 
the latter should belong. Hesitation of this kind has its 
value, as it directs attention to the subject, and, finally 
to a decision. Sponges are now relegated to the animal 
kingdom, but it is singular that doubts on this should 
have belonged to modern science; for Pliny, who wrote 
at the beginning of the Christian era, in his curious com- 
pilation, entitled **Natural History/' distinctly saw the 
true place they should occupy. 

One might quote eminent names near to our own time 
who have taken a diflferent view, and it is remarkable, 
that one of such large experience as the late Dr. Gray, of 
the British Museum, should have been once on this side 
and considered the spicules the analogues of the hairs of 
plants. This comes out in a passage of arms between 



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184 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

him and Dr. Bowerbank, who coald not avoid giving so 
home a truHt as to remind him of it. Even after it was 
generally allowed that they belonged to the animal king- 
dom, a reservation was made for sometime before the 
fresh-water sponges were placed in the same position. 
Observers conld not have seen, as I have, the blowfly 
hovering over and depositing its eggs, attracted doubt- 
less, by the offensive odor of decomposing flesh. 



How the Bacterial Organisms are Studied. 

By J. E. LAMB, M. D., 

WAHOO, NKBB. 

The technique of investigating these microscopic plants 
is manifold. Microscopy alone is inadequate. Identifi- 
cation requires other tests than those afforded by the 
microscope. 

These tests are : — 1. Staining agents. 2. Appear- 
ance of cultures. 3. Reaction to heat and oxygen. 4. 
Pathogeny. 

1. Staining agents, — Watery solution of the aniline 
dyes penetrates the protoplasm in the cell bodies of most 
bacteria, yet the tubercle bacillus long eluded observa- 
tion because it absorbs the solution only when the water 
is reinforced by some other agent like carbolic acid or 
alcohol. This microbe is stained with great difficulty, 
but once stained, it is very resistant to decolorizing 
agents. Upon these facts, all staining solutions and 
methods of staining are founded. Some operate slowly, 
others more rapidly. 

In order to appreciate and differentiate the tubercle 
bacillus, the following solutions and methods of use, are 
more easy and simple to manipulate than any others with 
which the writer is acquainted. It is hoped they may 
prove as acceptable as those you are now using. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 186 

I. Puchsin pulv, 15 grains; Alcohol, 2 drams; Aquae 
distillat, 1 ounce. 

II. Aqu» distillat, 1 ounce ; Liquor ammonia, 3 
minims. 

III. Alcohol, li ounces; Aqu» distillat, 6 drams; 
Nitric acid, i dram. Aniline green, to saturation. 

To stain : 

1. Gently press a small part of the most solid portion 
of the suspected sputum between two cover glasses. 

2. During five minutes, place one cover glass in 
equal portions of solutions one and two, heated till va- 
por rises. 

3. Rinse in water, put a drop of solution three on it, 
rinse again. If the mount is not a distinct green, put 
on another drop of solution three, wash again, dry and 
examine. 

The use of the following will also afford gratifying 
results : 

Ziehl's Solution. — Fuchsin pulv, Ipart; Alcohol, 10 
parts; Acid carbolic, 5 per cent, sol., 100 parts. 

Gabbet's Solution. — Methylin blue, 2 parts; Acid sul- 
phuric, 25 per cent sol., 100 parts. 

1. Prepare mount as above, hold high over a flame 
until dry. 

2. Place cover-glass in ZiehPs solution five minutes. 

3. Place cover-glass in Gabbet^s solution one minute. 

4. Dry, examine with oil immersion. 

If a hurried diagnosis is unimportant, but permanent 
mounts desired : 

1. Place cover-glass, with dried sputum, in Ziehl's 
solution twelve hours. 

2. Hold in , nitric acid, 25 per cent solution, till 
brownish black. 

3. Hold in alcohol five seconds. 

4. Hold in water one second. 



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186 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jane 

5. Dip ouce in two, three, and four, if color is deeper 
than light pink. 

6. Cover mount with Gabbet's solution two rainnt«»8. 

7. Dry and examine as above. 

A one-eight or one-sixth objective, in other words*, the 
enlargement of 400 diameters, with or without eye-piece 
multiplications, produces a clear field sufficient for diag- 
nostic purposes. 

Alcohol mixed with fresh sputum in order to pre- 
serve it, coagulates the albumen which should l)e softened 
with a two per cent solution of caustic potash before 
spreading over a cover-glass. A saturated solution of 
borax preserves the sputum, liquifies the mucus and do»»8 
not coagulate the albumen. 

Most cocci take Gram's staining readily. The gouo- 
coccus, however, beino; an exception, will not take Grams 
method, this being one of its main diagnostic features. It 
takes all the ordinary aniline stains. 

Gram's Solution. — Iodine, 1 part; Potassi lodidi, 2 
parts ; Aqua? disiillat, 100 parts. 

The potash is not indispensable but added to facilitate 
solution. 

2. The color of colonies, — If the individual bacteria 
in any given species be grown on a suitable soil, such as' 
gelatine, bouillon or potato, there results a mass or col- 
ony of these minute plants whose size, shape and color 
afford essential means of differentiating the organisiOH, 
and the bacteriologist uses them for recoguizing his min- 
ute plants just as the chemist uses the behavior of a 
given substance to identify his still more minute mole- 
cules. The streptococcus grows into light gray colonies 
while the staphylococcus produces bright yellow. 

It is only when growing in masses that enough color 
is formed to be visible. Not infrequently are these 
colored masses so luminous that they can be photo- 
graphed by their own light when placed U ^ (Jark room. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 187 

Indeed, the color of our mischievous microbe played a 
conspicuous part in many of those natural phenomena 
which, by their lack of apparent cause, were in early 
times relegated to the domain of the supernatural. That 
wavering, cold, uncanny phosphorescent light, seen at 
night time in putrid plants or by the sea side, is our in- 
nocuoas microbe. The consecrated wafer placed in the 
bacteria-laden air of the church edifice over night was 
found besprinkled with crimson drops in the morning. 

The legends are long and tragic of the dire calamities, 
unmentionable crimes and swift retributions which the 
strange appearance of our chromogenic microbe was 
supposed to foreshadow. 

A recourse to the supernatural to elucidate all these 
natural phenomena, is no longer necessary, for to-day, 
we cultivate and study the tiny bacillus prodigiosus 
which made the drops of blood, the mingled green and 
blue phosphorescence. 

3. Heat and Oxygen. — Like the larger plants, differ- 
ent species of bacteria require different temperatures for 
their growth. Most all grow well at 60'' to HO'' F., but 
the tubercle bacillus ceases to grow below 92° F. 

As microbes assume very diverse forms in accordance 
with the nature of their environments, so also their 
habitat and mode of life divide them into very distinct 
classes. 

The aerobines can subsist only when they breath the 
natural oxygen they withdraw from the atmosphere. 

The anaerobines live within fluids and living organ- 
isms and derive the oxygen necessary for their respira- 
tion from the oxygenated substances in which they are 
found. To the latter class, belong all microbes which 
provoke pathological changes when introduced into the 
blood. 

4. Pathogenesis. — Living animal tissues afford unfa- 
vorable soil for bacterial growth. When introduced 



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188 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

into animals a large majority produce no appreciable 
effect. It is now known, however, that upwards of 
thirty species are capable of nourishing themselves in 
animal tissues. No species is pathogenic in all animals 
but each only in certain kinds. The anthrax bacillus 
grow» well in shoep but refuses to grow when planted in 
dogs and cats. Hence, the behavior of a given species 
when inoculated into different animals, is another means 
of differentiating the organisms. — St. Louis Medical 
Review. 



Algae found at Roche Abbey, July ii, 1896. 

By J. NEWTON CXX)MBE, 

CHAIRMAN OF THE SHEFFIELD SCHOOL BOARD. 

The result of my microscopical examination of the 
gatherings taken from the Sandbeck Lake, and from the 
'Wishing Well' and Lake at Eoche Abbey, on the occa- 
sion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' excursion there on the 
11th of July, 1896, has been eminently satisfactory aH 
regards the Diatomaceae, which were the objects of my 
special investigation. Taking the above-named waters 
in the order in which they were visited, the well-khown 
water weed (Myriophyllum) which grew very freely in 
Sandbeck Lake, and for a tube of which I am indebted to 
the courtesy of Mr. J. Stubbins, of Leeds, proved to be a 
favorite habitat for the following stipitate species of the 
Diatomaceae :-r Cocconema cymbiforme, Gomphonema 
curvatum, G. coiistrictum, Achnanlhes exilis, as well as 
of the needle-like Synedra radians, and the curious tube 
dwelling and somewhat uncommon Encyonema prostra- 
tum, the frustules of which last-named species move and 
pass one another up and down their hyaline mucous- 
made tubes in very curious jerky fashion. 

The parasitic members of the family were well repre- 
sented on the same weed by Cocconeis placentula, which 
appears like so many small lozengera §tuck ^11 over and 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 189 

along the decayed portions of the weed from which the 
chlorophyll had departed. I was fortunate enough to 
find in Mr. Stabbins* gathering two of the frustules of 
this species in the interesting state of 'conjugation,' 
although too much attached to the weed to admit of being 
separated and mounted without injury to the s)«e<'imeu. 

Coming to the water of the 'Wishing Weir at Roche 
Abbey, a dipping from which brought me by my wife 
some two years ago was found to contain an almost pure 
gathering of the by no means common filamentous Dia- 
tom Odontidium mesodon (W. Sm.), I was not a little 
pleased on this my first personal visit to find floating in 
the depths of the cool clear well water, a brown silk- 
worm-silk-like and perfectly pure mass of this interest- 
ing alga. After so successful a second find of this par- 
ticular diatom, which I may say I have never met with 
in so pure and healthy a condition in any other of the 
numerous waters which I have examined in various parts 
of South Yorkshire, the 'Wishing Well' at Roche Abbey 
ought certainly to be noted by Yorkshire naturalists as 
a place to be visited by the lovers of freshwater algae in 
their search for "gems." 

Proceeding to the Lake close to the Abbey ruins, it 
was but a few minutes before I detected upon the surface 
of this picturesque water a small piece (about an inch 
square) of that peculiar-looking yellowish-brown scum 
which to an experienced eye is a certain indication of a 
'good find' of Diatomaceae. Upon examination under the 
microscope the gathering, of which, needless to say, I 
very quickly secured a tube, proved to be in many 
respects similar to an extremely fertile one I made some 
three years ago from the lake at Thoresby. Its special 
feature was its richness in unusually large frustules, .00] '' 
in length, of Pleurosigma attenuatum, which, after care- 
ful cleaning and boiling in nitric acid, give a brilliant 
opal iridesceuce of great beauty und^r dark g^round illu- 



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190 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[June 



mination with a magaificatiou of two or three haudred 
diameters. 

I have been able to identify and to mount in Canada 
balsam, and also dry, the following 58 species of the 
Diatomaceae in this one gathering, of which over 40 may 
be seen on a single slide under a.f in. circular cover 
glass : — 



Pleorosigma attennatom 
** lacastre 

'* spencerii 

Nitzschia sigmoidea 
** parvala 
** amphioxys 
Trybhonella angustata 

** gracilis 

•Sorirella biseriata 
** ovalis 
* ' linearis 
Pinnolaria viridis 
** viridula 
" oblonga 
** gracilis 
^* acuta 
*'' radiosa 
Nayicnla cospidata 
'* firma 
* ^ amphisbtena 
** ^liptica 
** gibberula 

inflata 
** affinis 
** cryptocephala 
'* biDodis (?) 
** bleiscbii(?) 

** veneta (?) 
** prod acta 



Namula tamida 
Stanroneis anceps 
Cymatoplenra solea 

*^ eUiptica 

** apicalata 

Cymbella cospidata 
Ampbora ovalis 

** minatiasima 
Diatoma volgare 

^* elongatotti 
Odontidiam harrisonii 

** matabile 

'' panisiticom 

Denticola sinoata (?) 
Gompbonema carvatam 

*' ooDstrictam 

Qyclotella katzingiana 
Ck>cconei8 placentala 
Synedra alaa 
Ck>cconema lanceolatom 

* ' dsinla 

** cymbiforme 
EDcyonema prostmUmi 

** ceespitoeam 

AchDanthes exilis 
Eanotia mouodon 
Melosira varians 
Fragilaria capacina 
CoUetonema neglectam 



This time of year and want of rain were not favorable 
for Desmids, but I came across a few vigorous specimens 
of the following species : — Closterium striolatum (show- 
ing very clearly the phenomena of cyclosis and so-called 
'swarming of the granules' at its extremities), Pediastrum 
granulatum, Cosmarium botrytis, while among the less 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 191 

common of the filamentous algae, I was fortunate enough 
to find in the Roche Abbey Lakeland subsequently to be 
able to mount in its own water a well defined gathering 
of Oscillaria spiralis, the curious and unexplained move- 
ments of which (as of a headless screw turning continu- 
ally on its end) were extremely interesting to watch. 

Several other and more common species of Oscillaria 
and at least three species of Spirogyra and Zygnema 
were abundant in the Lake. — The Naturalist. 



Some Facts About Podisus Placidus, 

By a. H. KIRKLAND, 

AMUEBST, MASS. 

During the month of May, 1896, while making field 
observations in Maiden and Medford, Mass., upon the 
insects known to attack the gypsy moth, Porthetria dis- 
par, I found that many of the common predaceous bugs 
upon emerging from hiberation greedily availed them- 
selves of the food supply offered by the tent caterpillar 
and destroyed large numbers of this insect. They enter- 
ed the tents and prey upon the insects. 

When feeding, these Pentatomide insert the setae only, 
and not the sheath, into ihe body of the caterpillar. I 
have watched them very carefully under a hand lens 
and my observations fully agree with those of Mr. Mar- 
latt, as given in the Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington, D. C, Vol. II., p. 249. I have 
seen P. placidus extend its setae beyond the end 
of the beak to a distance equal to the length of the 
last rostral joint. When the setae are inserted in a 
strongly chitinized part, the struggles of the larva often 
pull them from the sheath. In such cases the beak is 
drawn through the fore tarsi in the same manner that an 
ant cleans its antenus, and thus the sets are forced back 
into the sheath. I have also removed the set® of P. cv- 



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192 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

aicus from the sheath by means of a fine needle applied 
along the labram and have seen them replaced in the 
same manner. The nymphs of this species were also 
found attacking the larv» of the currant sawfly. — Can. 
Entomologist. 



EDITORIAL. 



Restriction of Vivisection. — A bill is pending in the U. 
S. Senate to restrict vivisection. Numerous men who 
consider themselves accurate observers are opposing it 
and are representing that it '* prevents experiments upon 
living animals." They show themselves to be neither ac- 
curate observers nor accurate readers for it does nothing 
of the sort. The bill permits : — (1) All the experiments 
performed while the animal is insensible to pain, (2) All 
kinds of surgical operations for testing new methods of 
surgical procedure, (3) The testing of new drugs or medi- 
cines, (4) All kinds of inoculation experiments or bacterio- 
logical investigations into the causes of diseases. 

Out of 1239 replies from the leading physicians written 
on this subject, 968 have favored such restrictions as are 
made in this bill. 

Dr. L. E. Rauterberg, late of the microscopical divi- 
sion of the Army Medical Museum has written to a senator 
as follows : 

It was my lot for a number of years to be enguged in the 
microscopical division of the Arm) Medical Museum, 
where I saw practiced the most inhuman and barbarous 
mutilations of animals under the supervision, and with the 
sanction, of the United States officer in charge. A desired 
part or section of the animal would be removed, not under 
anaesthesia, and the poor beast would be then placed back 
in its cage or vessel until it suited the convenience of the 
operator to help himself to another portion so long as the 
animal would survive these tortures. I have thus seen ani- 
mals with eyes, sections of brain, and other parts removed 
and. kept in reserve for future experiment for a number 



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1897.J MICROSCOPICAL JOURN4L. 193 

of days, and for the verificatioa and repetition of results 
obtained and published years ago. 

These'unnecessary horrors, practiced openly with sanc- 
tion of United States medical officers, make me think that 
stringent laws are needed to restrict such proceedings. 
None should be permitted not calculated to give addition- 
al useful information, and then under perfect anaesthesia, 
and under the supervision of a board of competent men 
assigned to that duty. 

Aware of the possibility of such a condition in a scientific 
institution located in the District of Columbia and under 
the control of a government so supine, can any one, knowing 
of the existence of the above-named abuses, oppose a bill 
that aims to make such conduct amenable to law? 

Nomenclature. — It has always been a source of surprise 
to us that men will spend so much time over questions of 
nomenclature and even of classification. The real nature of 
plants and animals furnishes a great variety of topics for 
study, and we ought to be able to interest ourselves there- 
in to the exclusion of contests over nomenclature. No- 
menclature has usually been based on a few superficial 
characters and has therefore been liable to incessant change 
as the result of discovering new facts. All this is a false 
view of matters and is not scientific. 

A scientific nomenclature would be absolutely arbitrary. 
Let blue things be called viridis; let short things be called 
longus; let it be fully understood that pending the acqui- 
sition of full knowledge of a form our name is no clue to 
its characters. We must call it something but it matters 
not what we call it if we agree upon its name. An arbitra- 
ry name once affixed, let no one challenge it or seek to 
change it. As a sample of the foolishness which men of 
pseudo-science are forever indulging in, the following quo- 
tation will be of interest. It is from the Presidential Ad- 
dress delivered before the London Quekett Club recently 
and it is proper to apologize for filling our space even to 
this extent with such nonsense. Mr. Thomas and Mr. 
Carter are both too sensible men to waste time in frivolity. 



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194 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

Mr. Waller is wiser but might perhaps still better have 
omitted all allusion to the facts. In another place he shows 
good ideas of nomenclature by asking whether the names 
Leidyi, Millsii, Muleri, Baileyi, Capewelli, Ramsayi, Ever- 
etti, give anymore information than letters or numerals. 
We far prefer the numerals. 

The quotation is as follows: 

"When Professor Hitchcock, of the United States, was 
over here a few years ago I gave him a specimen of the 
Ditchleys spongilla for his collection, and others also dis- 
tributed by or through me found their way to America, and 
I sent a slide to Mr. Carter. After some time had elapsed 
I heard that Mr. B. W. Thomas, an earnest worker of 
Chicago, had found the same variety in the river Calumet, 
and seeing its identity with that of Ditchleys, and finding 
that, in my description, I had declined specially naming it, 
he proposed to call it Meyenia calumetica. Then Mr. 
Carter, who had received a specimen from Mr. Thomas, 
saw that it was identical with that he had received from me 
turned his attention to the subject, and in an elaborate arti- 
cle in **Ann. and Mag. of Natural History" gave it the 
name of Meyenia angustibirotulata, which title Mr. Ed- 
ward Potts, in his admirable ''Monograph on the Fresh- 
water Sponges of America," has accepted. Mr. Thomas 
then feels annoyed that he should thus be superseded, as 
Mr. Carter had, in the first instance, declared against its 
being a variety. 

For myself, who first discovered it 19 years ago, and 
might have claimed some voice in the matter, I could not 
be otherwise than amused at the little quarrel amongst 
my friends, I having decided against giving the variation 
any separate name, my views leading me in another direc- 
tion. 

One satisfaction I have, however, gained in the knowl- 
edge that the Spongilla of the riverCalumet is also found 
growing upon the stem of aqujitic plants, as it tends to 
establish, what one would naturally feel, that similar con- 
ditions produce similar results." 



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1897J 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



195 



MIUB08C0PIGAL APPARATUS. 



Distilling Water. — The most inexpensive method of 
distilling- water is always a practical question. I have 
an apparatus that I had made which cost but little, and 
can be made upon a comparatively large or small scale — 
viz., for a small oil or gas stove to one the size of a cook- 




stove, and can be made by any tinner or by any one who 
can cut tin and use a soldering iron. 

Seleet the stove the size you wish to use, and the dia- 
gram will explain the process. A is the compartment for 
ice or cold water, F the water to be distilled, D the stove. 
The receptacle containing the ice or cold water should be 



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196 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

made to fit the lower receptacle tightly the same as the 
cover of an ordinary tin pail, and it will be readily seen 
that the steam rising- from the water underneath coming in 
contact with the cooled surface above would condense 
and running down the cone-shaped condenser, drop into 
the small funnel. 

As you will see, this can be made to fit the smallest of oil 
stoves, or any size larger as desired. It can also be used 
to make all kinds of flavoring waters by dropping the arti- 
cle, inclosed in a cloth, into the water to be distilled, the 
strength being determined by the amount put in. — A. J, 
Harris in Pop. Science News. 

Note on Color Illumination. — Julius Rheinberg has 
designed a new form of substage differential color illumi- 
nator in order to simplify and facilitate the use of color 
discs and other stops in the substage of the microscope. 
It consists essentially of a box, or slide carrier fitted under 
the condenser, in which there are a number of metal slides 
which can be pulled out or pushed in quite independently 
of one another by means of little handles on both sides of 
the carrier. Each slide has two circular apertures, the one 
being fitted with a color disc or other stop, the other one 
being left free. The kind of stop is indicated on the han- 
dle. The openings in the slides are so arranged that when 
the apparatus is closed all the free openings coincide, so 
that illumination can be effected in the ordinary way. 
When any other illumination is required it is only necess- 
ary to pull out the particular stop, or combination of stops, 
each stop being in accurate position when pulled out as far 
as it will go. 

In the apparatus there are 19 stops, viz., a dark ground 
stop, four stops which cause the background to assume 
various colors, four which cause the object to assume vari- 
ous colors, stops causing the object to be illuminated in 
different colors from opposite sides in various colors (for 
showing striations), and one causing the object to be illum- 
inated in different colors at right angles to each other for 
showing striation etc., similarly situated. There are also 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 



Si 



stops for oblique ligrht, several annuli, and a ground glass 
stop, making- a compendium no doubt somewhat too great 
for the general worker, but which is very serviceable to 
the experimentalists. 

As far as color discs are concerned the stops are so 
arranged that all those which can be pulled out from the 
left side of the carrier cause the background to be colored 
whilst those which can be pulled out from the right side 
cause the object to be colored. 

The number of effects which can be obtained with such 
an apparatus is unlimited. Mr. Rousselet showed us some 
weeks ago an ingenious color illuminator, by which, accord- 
ing to a little mathematical calculation, 36 effects could be 
obtained. By applying a similar calculation to this arrange- 
ment it would give some few hundred millions of combina- 
tions. This number may be too much even for an enthu- 
siast, and one may prefer to pass over from the quantita- 
tive to the qualitative use of the arrangement. 

For simplicity in use it cannot be excelled, as it allows 
of every kind of illumination and stop, being automati- 
cally brought into action whilst the object is under exami- 
nation. The best result can, therefore, be obtained with 
far greater rapidity than ordinarily, and comparisons can 
be effected without having to bother about taking stops in 
and out, as in the ordinary way. The apparatus, although 
efficient, is needlessly clumsy and heavy. The principle 
can be easily adopted in a neater form, and made to fit any 
condenser. 

How to Test Objectives is the subject to which but 
few pharmacists and physicians pay much attention. In a 
lengthy article on the subject by Dr. A. C. Stokes, pub- 
lished in the Journal of the NeiO York i\furosi:opicai Society y 
the writer says : "A severe test, then, or one that should 
come within the ability of the objective, and so fulfil the 
conditions of the ideal object for the purpose, is, for a 
first-class four-tenth-inch, the black dots of Pleurosigma an- 
gulaium in balsam, and perhaps, and imperfectly, the secon- 
dary structure of Arachnoidiscus Ehrenbergii \ for a one-fifth 



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198 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Jane 

inch, the long^itudinal lines of Surirellagemmay and the secon- 
dary structure Isthmia nen^osa with the postage stamp frac- 
ture ; for a one-eig-hth inch or for hig-her powers up to the 
owe-twelfth the dotted secondaries of Craspedodislus ekgam 
in certain conditions. 



MICBOSCOPICAL MANIPULATION. 

To Stain the Ringworm Fungus. — Adamson recom- 
mends the following- method for permently staining trich- 
ophyton : — 1. Soak the hair in a 5 to 10 per cent solution of 
caustic potash on a slide for ten to thirty minutes. 2 Wash 
in 15 per cent alcohol in water. 3. Dry on slide, and in 
the case of scales fix by passing- through the flame. 4. 
Stain fifteen to sixty minutes in aniline g-entian violet made 
in the usual way, by adding a few drops of saturated alco- 
holic solution of g-entian violet to aniline water. 5. One to 
five minutes in Gram's iodine solution. 6. Decolorize in 
aniline oil two to three hours or longer. 7. Remove super- 
fluous aniline oil by blotting- paper. Mount in Canada 
balsam. — Phar. Jour. 

Frozen Sections. — Ethyl chloride might profitably be 
employed in preparing- frozen sections for histological pur- 
poses. The results thus far obtained have been exceed- 
ing-ly satisfactory, and, while the method is somewhat 
expensive, no accessory apparatus is required for the 
microtome. 

Hamilton's method of preparing- the tissues for freez- 
ing gives g^ood results. Another way of getting the tissue 
ready is that recently advised by J. Orth. One hundred 
parts of Muller's fluid are mixed when wanted with ten 
parts of formol. Small pieces of the tissue under examin- 
ation are fixed and hardened in this solution in the incuba- 
tor for three hours. At the end of this time they are 
removed and thoroughly washed, and alcohol is gradually 
added until they are placed in 95 per cent alcohol. This 
latter re-ag-ent must, of course, be removed before the tis- 
sue is frozen. If desired, after washing-, the specimen 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 199 

may be at once transferred to the solution of acacia and 
sug^r and frozen. Or, as suggested by H. Plenge the 
piece may be placed in a 4 per cent formal-dehyde solu- 
tion for a quarter-of-an-hour, and then frozen in the same 
solution. 

When the tissue has been prepared in some such man- 
ner, or even when perfectly fresh, it is placed with some 
formol and gum acacia fluid upon the specimen-holder of 
the microtome, and a small stream of chloride, methyl 
chloride or anestile (a mixture-of these two re-agents) is 
played from above directly upon the specimen. 

The tube containing the ethyl chloride is held about a 
foot from the specimen, and moved from place to place 
until the specimen is firmly attached to its base of support 
and the upper portion is coated with a few crystals of ice. 
These crystals are extremely small and delicate, and, 
therefore, do not injure the tissue so markedly as in some 
other of the freezing methods. The specimen is readily 
frozen in from 30 seconds to a minute. Sections are then cut 
and placed in water or fifty per cent alcohol, and mounted 
in the usual way. Excellent stained preparations may be 
prepared in fifteen minutes or less from the time that the 
tissue is removed from the body. 



BACTEBIOLOOT. 



Differentiation of the B. coli from the B. typhi abdo- 
minalis. — Eisner (Zeitsch. f. Hyg. XXI.) uses plates pre- 
pared with Holtz's potato gelatine, to which, after it has 
been made slightly acid, 1 per cent of iodide of potash has 
been added. Even on this unfavorable medium the B. coli 
grows freely and quickly, but no colonies of the B. typhi 
abdominalis are visible for 48 hours, and they appear as 
extremely fine small, shining patches, like drops of water. 
Controling his experiments by Pfeiffer's immune-serum 
process, Eisner always obtained positive results from 
typhoid stools. Piorkowski, at the Berlin Medical Society 
June 10, 1896, reported experiments in cultivating these 
bacilli on agar, bouillon, and gelatine mixed with urine. 



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200 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

which had been sug-g-ested to him by the presence of B. 
coli in the bladder. On these media the microbes grew 
luxuriantly, forming* greyish colonies; theB. typhi abd. 
less rapidly in fine transparent patches. In the discussion 
Eisner said there were plenty of differential signs ; the 
diflBculty was to cultivate Eberth's bacillus when it was 
only present in small numbers — for instance, in water, or 
mixed with other bacteria, for example, in stools. Ewald, 
Wolf, and Senator, all had found Eisner's method very 
useful for the diag-nosis of doubtful cases from the stools. — 
Brit. Med. Journal. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES. 



Fertilization of the Gymnosperms. — A very important 
discovery in the mode of impregnation in Gymnosperms 
made by two Japanese botanists, Professor S. Ikeno and 
Dr. S. Hirase, which was recently referred to in our pag-es, 
supplies a most interesting- link between this section of 
Phanerogams and the higher Cryptograms. Dr. Hirase 
has discovered that in Ginkg-o bilaba, Salisburia adianti- 
foHa, impregnation is effected by antherozoids formed 
within the pollen-tube. The two nuclei resulting- from 
the final division of the generative nucleus of the pollen- 
tube are converted, before entering- the oosphere, into 
motile antherozoids, resembling- those of the hig-her Cryp- 
togams, but differing- somewhat in form. ■ They are ellip- 
soidal 82 microns long- by 49 microns broad, and contain 
in the centre a nucleus entirely surrounded by cyptoplasm. 
The main body consists of a head composed of three spi- 
ral coils, and a slender tail; to the former are attached 
numerous cilia. As soon as the antherozoids have escaped 
throug-h the apex of the pollen tube, they enter the oosphere 
with a rapid twisting motion. Attraction spheres were 
observed accompanying- the final division of the pollen-tube 
nucleus. Professor Ikeno has made a similar observation 
respecting the mode of impregnation in another Gymno- 
sperm, Cycas revoluta. The antherozoids are here some* 
what larger than in Ginkgo; the main body is composed 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 201 

of four coils, to which are attached a larg-e number of cilia; 
but the swarming^ motion was not actually detached. The 
nucleus is surrounded by cyptoplasm. They are found 
in pairs in the extremity of the pollen-tube, and result 
from the bi-partition of the genative nucleus. Professor 
Ikeno states that the structure of the male and female 
organs in Ginkgo biloba and Cyeas revoluta at the time of 
impregnation differs from that observed in^ any other 
Gymnosperm in this respect; that while, in the latter, the 
pollen-tube penetrates deeply into the archegone, in the 
two species under discusion it never reaches the arche- 
gone itself, but remains, at the time of impregnation, at 
some considerable distance from it. It would therefore 
be impossible for the pollen-tube-nuclei to impregnate the 
oosphere without being previously transformed into motile 
antherozoids. Fertilization is then rendered possible by 
the copious excretion of a watery fluid by the archegone 
at the time of impregnation. Further details of this most 
interesting discovery are promised. 

The Wild Nettle is known to contain a remarkable 
number of useful qualities. The leaf is edible, and the 
liquid to be obtained from the stalk makes an excellent 
beverage. The fibre of the stalk may, under treatment, 
produce an excellent silk. For ages the plant has been 
used for this purpose in China, where it grows to a height 
of seven or eight feet. Only recently, however, has the 
machinery necessary to make the manufacture of this silk 
a profitable industry been produced. A machine called 
the decorticator has been invented, by means of which the 
fibre is stripped off in enormous quantities at a terific 
speed. Ramie is the eastern name of the plant. — The 
Counsellor. 

The Foot of the House Fly. — I have succeeded in 
mounting a specimen of the fly*s foot with the pulvilli and 
tennent hairs stained, and showing, adhering to the ends 
of the hairs, the viscid globules by means of which the 
insect is enabled to attach itself to smooth surfaces. I 
have a fly's foot so mounted and stained with fuchsin, 



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202 THE AMEEICAN MONTHLY [Jane 

which may be fairly well shown under a good dry lens. 
The details, however, are seen better with an oil immer- 
sion. Some of the hairs on this slide show the sickle fila- 
mentsdeeply stained and devoidof any adhering- substance; 
others have a small quantity of the gummy fluid held with- 
in the hollow of the sickle, while the majority of the hairs 
are tipped with large globules that could easily be mis- 
taken for permanent knobs or suckers. 

The specimen also distinctly shows that the shafts of 
the hairs fringing the pul villus do not spring separately 
from it, but each root or stem forks off near the base, 
forming two hairs. 

I had hoped that staining would have rendered visible 
the orifice from which the adhering substance exudes, as 
the opening should be large, considering the size of the 
attached globules, but no such orifice has been detected. 
Judging, however, from the way the viscid substance 
seems in most cases to be held within the hollow of the 
sickle, it appears possible that a slit may exist along the 
filament capable of expanding and allowing the substance 
to exude freely. 

The foot in question has been subjected to no cleaning 
process. Any attempt at such would inevitably clear 
away the globules adhering to the hairs, as is the case in 
ordinary preparations. — Eliot Merlin. 

Preservation of Flowers. — The following is a very old 
method of keeping flowers without loss of color: Dry some 
very fine, pure siliceous sand in the sun or oven; then 
take a wooden, tin-plate, or pasteboard box sufficiently 
large and deep, and place your flowers inside erect ; then 
fill the box with sand until the last is about an inch above 
the top of the flowers. The sand must be run in gently 
so as not to break the flowers. Cover the box with paper 
or perforated card board and place it in the sun-light, oven 
or stove ; continuous heat gives the best results. After 
two or three days the flowers will be very dry, but they 
will have lost none of their natural brilliancy. — Journal of 
Horticulture. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 203 

DIATOMS. 



Reproduction of Marine Diatoms. — Mr. G. Murray 
records some remarkable observations on the mode of 
propag-ation of certain pelag-ic diatoms collected off the 
coast of Scotland, chiefly belong-ing to the genera Buddul- 
phia, Coscinodiscus, and Chaetoceros. In Biddulpdia 
mobiliensis, "cysts" were observed within the parent 
cell, with only slightly silicified membrane, and destitute 
of the characteristic spines. These cysts appear to have 
the power of dividing- and multiplying before assuming 
the characteristic parent form. A similar phenomenon 
was observed in Coscinodiscus concinnus, but in this 
species the protoplasm divides before the production of 
the *'cysts,'' two of which were found within the same 
parent frustrule, differing from one another in form and 
in the width of the girdle-zone. It is not uncommon to 
find the young colonies of Coscinodiscus in "packets" of 
eight or sixteen ; this being apparently the result of fur- 
ther binary division within the frustules, which are found 
accompanying them in an empty state. The membranes 
of these young colonies are only very slightly silicified or 
not at all ; and they are, therefore, capable of increasing 
in size. A similar formation of "packets" of eight or six- 
teen young individuals within the parent frustule was 
observed in several species of Chaetoceros. — Proc. Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



A Text Book of Histology. By Arthur Clarkson, Pp. 
554, and 174 original colored illustrations. Bristol: J. 
Wright & Co. Price 21s. net. 

In it will be found a full account of the latest, well-authen- 
ticated discoveries in the microscopic anatomy of the 
human body, and a very complete description of the pre- 
liminary processes necessary for making either temporary 
or permanent microscopical preparations of the various 
tissues. The colored illustrations form a prominent fea- 



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204 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [June 

ture of the book, and although perhaps in a few cases 
somewhat diagramatic, it must be conceded that for the 
most part they show extremely well the principal features 
visible in successfully stained histological specimens. 

Browning's Paracelsus and other Essays. — By J. D. 
Buck. Robert Clarke Co., Cincinnati. 12mo., pp. 101, 1897. 

This little pocket volume containing four short essays 
is suitable to take along these summer Sundays when 
going into the woods or fields alone hoping to feel the 
touch of Nature. To read of Paracelsus, of Genius, of the 
Music of the Spheres, or of Idols and Ideals while lying on 
the grass amid the fragrance of flowers or the hum of 
insects will help to a glympse of what most men and 
women never see and do not know to exist — something 
non-material within, about and around the material form. 

I well remember my first experience of the "Music of 
the Spheres" in Switzerland in 1895. Only he who has 
heard it, however, will treat this essay as other than 
imaginative. He who wishes with sufficient earnestness 
to sense it can perhaps get assistance from this book. 

The azure-blue cover and the gilt top make Dr. Buck's 
book a neat little present. The price is probably not over 
fifty cents. 

Microscopic Researches on the Formative Property of 
Glycogen. Part I., Physiological. By Charles Creighton, 
M. D. Royal 8vo, pp. viii.- -152. (London: Adam and 
Charles Black. 1896.) Price 7-6 net. 

Glycogen is that substance in the animal body which 
corresponds very closely with the starch of plants and its 
appearance in the cells of different tissues during devel- 
opment. The book is illustrated by five well-executed 
colored plates. Chapter I is an Historical Introduction ; 
II treats of Methods and Material — viz.. Microscopic 
Method, method of using iodine, preservation of sections, 
color of the iodide of animal starch, and reaction with 
methyl violet. The remaining eleven chapters treat of 
glycogen as found in various parts of the ^i^nal bo<^y. 



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CARL REICHERT 
MICROSCOPES. 

K AaENTS FOB UNITED STATES. 

RICHARDS & CO., LTD., 

NEW YOEK, OHIOAGO, 

41 Barclay Street. 108 Lake Street. 



Ncroscopic Preparations Dlnstratii tlie linnte Stmctiini 
of VeptaUe Life. 

Being enclosed in a novel transparent envelope, these objects may 
be examined without removal before mounting. They are prepared 
with the utmost care by WAI.TER White, England, and are mostly 
stained in one or two colors of the most permanent character. 

A friend says : The sample section is exquisite. It is so good 
that I want more. As a well -cut and well-stained section it is 
equal to anything I have seen in that line. 

PRICEIS. 

Catalogue of 172 objects, - - - fo.02 

Single specimens, - - - . - .©g 

20 specimens, assorted, - - - i.oo 

CHAS. W. SMIIiET, Washingrton, I>. €. 



SWEDENBORG 

is not only a theologian ; he is a scientist and a scientific writer, 
whose keenly philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 
every scientific student. Send for catalog^ues or answers to questions, 
Address 

ADOLPH ROEDER, 

Vineland, N. J, 

• — — — ^ . 

FOR SALE.— A set of slides illnstrating the Woody Plante of IlHnois, 
95 Genera. H. F. MUNKOE, 821 Jackson Boulevaid, Chicago, III. 



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Special 
Announcement 



-IN- 



MICROSCOPY. 



9" 



from life, iDftke plain all details. 



^UBIKG the lail fev I 
I have been bu^ pcapaitog 
niaoy rare and iMvrel ol|f«e«i 
for Microtoopical purpoaet, and 
liaTe arranged them af ondar In 
lUvstimted Seiriea. 

Ttie flrit of thMe !■ the Ml- 
crosooplcal Btndlea In Ma- 
rine Zoology. 

The leooiKl Series (via.: that 
for 1895) oonaleti of 14 ^eodid 
preparatloiM, all of the highett 
ponible excellence and (piacaBteed 
permanent. The 14 sUdei appear 
in qnarterly InstaHments, aad axe 
accompanied br oTer 100 pagM 
of dosori|>ttTO letterpreas, 
dealing in pleaoant but exact man- 
ner with the anatomy, llfe-hietocy 
and habits of the reapectlTe eob- 
Jectt, while 19 foll-nago plntoa 
of photo-ongimviiigs* ormwa 



IndoaiTe Saba<sriptioD, •6.95, post-free. Fall prospectus on appUcatkMi. 
The following are among the Slides iucladed in this Series : 



sSsrlMlaria 60c 



1. Golony of the loTely Badlolarian Bphmro- 

•toum^ showing parasitic algtt. 40c 

2. The loTely Zoophyte Obelia^ polyps folly 

expanded. 36c 

3. Stalked stage of the larra of Bosy 

Feather Star (anUdon) 40c 

4. An entire Bea-BuUerfly (PCeropod). 40c 

5. LoTely expanded Zoophyte Syneorffne. 40e 

The prices against each are those at which the preparations are sold separately, show- 
ing what a cheap lut I offer in series at $6.25, post ftee. A few sets of Series I still availabU, 
|e.25, post free. Sample Slide, 50c., post free. 

Prof. J. B. AinMWurth Davis, Unirersity College, Aberystwith, writes: ** Allow me to 
congratulate you on the Tery useful work yoo are doing by the publication of Journal, with 
accompanying slides, which are Most admikablx. 



. LoTely Expanded Zoophyte i 
Opossum-shrimp Jfysii, sllowing andl* 

tory organ in tail S8e 

The splendid rare organ-pipe Polysoon, 

Lickenopora 40e 

Entire larral Plake, eye Just taming 

from blind side and 6 other equally 

fine slides. 60e 



Botany. 



Superb microeoopical preparations of Braxlllan Tiinnna. — ^I have 
been unfortunate in obtaining a ooantity of these superb sterna— the 
most loToIy in the whole pluit kingdom— and hare arranged them 



in two sets of6 each, at the' price of $1.36 per set, or fS.25 for the 
two. The most exquisitely charming slides that could possibly be 
imagined for exhibition at popular gatherings. As the 4uantt^ is 

— very limited. I am unable to sell single slides. 

MlcroBOoplcal Studlei In Botany.— In answer to many reqaests, I have ar- 
ranged 20 magnificent preparations in a series on similar lines to that in marine loology de> 
scribed above. 

The first series is now begun and comprises 20 highsst-class slides (such as sell singly 
at 25c to 3/k; each), illustrated by descriptive letterpress and 20 specially beautiful photo-micro- 
graphs of the sections. 

Subscriptions, $6.25 only, for all, a sum which would be cheap for the series of illns- 
trations alone. 

Pn.f. J. W. Oarr, University College, Nottingham, writes : "Your Botanical SUdes 
are the most beautiful I have ever seen. The following are among the slides already lasued ia 

35c 
9Qc 
Sfic 

260 

I guarantee the perfection of all my mounts and will be pleased to tend 
selections on approval lo approved correspondents. 

A great range of Miscellaneous Zoological and Botanical slides in stock 
at prices from $130 per dozen. 

Cost of Mailing, i slide, 10 cents ; 2 slides, 15 cents ; 3 slides, 20 cents and 
so on Laree parcels by express at very cheap rates. 

Speciality. Marine Zoology (especially in expanded Zoophytes and larval 
stages, and plant and flower anatomy. 

Terms. Remittance by P. O. O., draft on I<ondon, or U. 9. paper currency, the 
former preferred, if wished. Mr. C. W. Smiley, Washington. D. ". will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley has Idndiy promised to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. S. MicroAcop* 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELU 



above llni-s : 








I. Tr. sec. flower-bud of Lily 
.2. ♦♦ •• do of Dandelion 

3 Long*! sec. do of do 

4 do fruit of Fig 


25c 
30c 
25c 
30c 


6. 
6 
7. 
8. 


Tr. sec. fruit of Date (splendid) 
** -* flower or EaehtckoUxia 
LongU. sec. double flower of Peony 
Leaf-fftll of Sycamore 



Biological Station, Jersey, England, 



Specialist to Miorosoopioal M oantiac. 



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COLLECTING APPARATUS. 



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OCT ]o 



190! 



THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XVIII. AUGUST, 1897. No. 8 

Some Collecting Apparatus. 

Bv Dr. E. v. DADAY, 

Bl'DAPEST, HrX(;ARY. 
WITH FRONTISPIECK. 

If we take some water in a clean glass vesHel from the 
body of a lake and examine it attentively, holding it 
towards the light, we shall find in most eases that there 
are iu the water, although apparently quite clear, small 
bodies aud living beings of molecular minuteness swim- 
ming about, each in its own way. There was a time, not 
very remote, when students of the microscopic world 
contented themselves with examining each drop of the 
water drawn from a lake, with a ma<^nifying glass in 
order to find the small animals in it. By such a proceed- 
ing we are in most cases left to chance. It is intu'e luck 
if we find something in the water. The naturalist desir- 
ous of .getting thoroughly acquainted with the micro- 
scopic fauna of a lake cannot sto[» at this point, but ought 
to recur to such expedients as will assure him of the 
absolute perfectness and success of his researches. He 
must provide himself with suitable implements and they 
are numerous. He must at the sanu^ time provide him- 
self with tlie means of constMvation. For collecting 
specimens of water- fauna, we make use of a ni^t. Cou- 
sideriuj^ the extreme minuteness of those beings we have 



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238 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

to deal with, all these nets must consist of the finest silk- 
cloth, called miller-gauze, but they must be of different 
fineness, according to whether they are used for collec- 
ting on shore, in open space, at deeper levels or on the 
bottom of a lake. 

The best and handiest implement for collecting from 
the shore is the rod-net, which we may easily construct 



ourselves by taking a brass, or still better an iron, ring 
and sewing on a bag of the above mentioned gauze. 
Then look for a stick of fitting length, cut it at its end 
and fasten the ring by tying it with a string. But there 
are several other rod-nets, which are not only practical 
regarding their form, but also easily managed. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 239 

A rod net commonly used, is represented by fig. 1, A, 
and consists of two different parts, viz., the net (a) and 
the rod or handle (b). 

The net hangs from a brass or iron circle, provided 
with a small copper -tube, perforated on two opposite 
sides. 

The rod or handle consists of three copper barrels, 
which slide one into the other, each of which is 1 to li 
metres in length. The upper barrel has on its end a 
cover, from the centre of which a perforated clasp pro- 
jects, which fits exactly in the copper-tube of the net 
ring. Being able to lengthen and shorten this rod as 
one pleases, we are relieved from the need of carrying 
with us a pole or several shorter sticks. The clasp on 
the end of the thinner rod and the tenon of the ring 
enable us to fix the net easily, while a pin put through 
the two holes prevents its slipping from the rod. 

Collecting with this apparatus is very simple. We 
fasten the net to the rod by aid of the tenon and then 
we pull out the sticks and begin to draw water as if we 
were using a spoon. The water by this means is strained. 
The greater proportion of the animals, and, if our net is 
sufficiently fine, even the smallest organisms are retained. 

To bring home the gathered material. — For this pur- 
pose a collecting bowl or basin of china, fig. 1, C, or 
some other material, and having a larcje gullet, may be 
used. Having filled this bowl with water before begin- 
ning the operation the contents of the net are washed 
out at intervals. At the close of collecting, strain the 
whole contents of the bowl through the net and substitute 
the water in the bowl with alcohol or any other preser- 
vative liquid. 

The material thus prepared is finally poured into a 
glass tube (fig. 1, B) to be closed by a cork. On a small 
label note with a pencil the place of collecting, the so- 
called habitat : the time of collecting, the month, day, 



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240 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

and eventually the hour. Then ])ut the label to the 
material in the tube. It is necessary to lay stress on 
this in order to avoid confusing materials found in differ- 
ent places; we may easily expose ourselves to error if 
collecting from different localities or from different parts 
of a lake. 

Another kind of rod-net, not less commonly used is 
represented in fig. 2. It differs from the other chiefly 
by the funnel-like form of its net 
which is not closed but open, so that 
a wide and thick-sided cylindrical or 
other ghiss may be tied to it with a 
thick string (a). According to this, 
its rod must be much stronger than 
• that of the former, because the water 
contained in the glass vessel is of 
considerable weight and therefore we 
employ instead of the pretty elastic 
copper-barrels, thick bamboo sticks or 
pine-poles, to which the net may be 
fastened in the same way as formerly 
described (b). The use of this contri- 
vance is nearly identical with the tor- 
mer, the only difference consisting in 
that we are not obliged to fill f^e 
bowl with water. The glass untied 
. from the net, encloses already ^^^^ 
re(juir(»d quantity. But the frequent 
tying and untying of tiie glass renders the whole pro" 
ceeding a little dull and tiresome in comparison with the 
other without glas.s-bottoni. 

If we want to collect in thr opt^n lake, a boat or any 
other water-vehicle being at our disposal and intending 
only to examine the ujjper l.iytMs of the WMter, we niig^^^ 
use rod-nets; but if we have in view to collect fr^"™ 
deeper layers we are obliged to use so-called drag ^^^^' 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 241 

The simplest drag-net is a bag of silk-tissue fastened 
to a brass or iron ring. The brim is provided with three 
ringlets at an equal distance, in order to attach the line 
to it (fig. 3.) If we are on the open lake, our net may be 
lowered unto the required depth and at the same time 
towed by the advancing boat. During this operation the 
water filling the net is strained, while the organisms in 
it are retained by the fine tissue and may be secured in 
the way formerly described. With this contrivance we 
are enabled, provided our line is sufficiently long, to reach 
the bottom of the lake and may even bring up mud from 
the bottom. If we have no boat at our disposal and still 
want to collect from parts which are a little distant from 
the shore, then we put some stones, or other heavy 
object into the bottom of the net, throw the latter into 
the water and endeavour to get the desired material by 
slowly pulling the net to the shore. 

Another kind of drag-net is due to the Bohemian Bio- 
logical Institution. It reminds us in its general out-line 
of the former, but is still different in many respects. 
Like the former it possesses a brass or iron-ring with ring- 
lets for tying on the line, but its bottom is open. Here 
a glass-vessel is to be fastened as mentioned in descrip- 
tion of the rod-net. This net, judging from its shape, 
consists of two parts, viz., a larger cylindrical one and a 
smaller funnel-like one, separated by a hoop of reed, 
sewn in. In the middle of the cylindrical part is also 
a hoop of reed. (fig. 4.) These hoops lessen the specific 
weight of the apparatus. The Bohemian searchers em- 
ploy still another, funnel-like, open net provided with a 
reed-hoop, which is put in the space of the larger net 
and is apt to prevent material already in the large net 
from being washed away by the water flowing back. This 
precaution is superfluous, though, if in dragging the net 
necessary care is taken and the required time is given to 
strain the water. This implement is applicable only 



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242 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

when we can transport ourselves to the open space of the 
lake and on account of the reed-hoops it may only 
be used for working at the surface of the water. The 
material collected is subject to the same treatment, the 
bottom glass being applied, removed and emptied — as in 
the case of rod-net described in the second figure. Its 
use is therefore not so advantageous and multifarious, as 
that of the simple bag-like drag net. 

In its principles of construction the net used at the 
Biological Station of Plon, called the plancton net is the 
same, but there is not at its bottom any closed vessel. 
It is provided with a tap, so that its contents may be 
emptied into the bowl by turning the tap. 

For collecting organisms living at the bottom of lakes 
and bringing up mud, I devised a bottom-net of which 

1 give a design in fig. 5. The outer cylinder (a) is made 
of pretty narrow brass wire tissue. The bottom is either 
convex or flat. The brim is formed by a brass hoop of 

2 cm. breadth, provided with rings for fastening the line. 
Besides there are three movable clasps on it. 

The middle cylinder (b) is a bag of very narrow silk- 
cloth, sewn to a strong brass-hoop about 2 cm. in breadth. 
The bottom is of bag-like shape. There are three ten- 
dons standing out from the hoop, to prevent the net from 
sinking to the bottom or from sticking to the outer wire 
cylinder. 

The inner cylinder (c) is made of wide meshed brass 
wire cloth. The bottom is closed like a bag. The brim 
is covered by a flat brass circle 2.5 cm. broad, and its 
outer circumference is a little larger than the inner one 
of the outer cylinder. There are three little screws 
placed at an equal distance one from the other, provided 
with eyes ; when using the net, the clasps are hooked in 
the screws and the eyes then screwed down. The sepa- 
rating and uniting of the three nets is thus rendered 
possible. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 243 

Elach cylinder of this apparatus has another function. 
The outer wire cylinder is a protecting case, preventing 
any damage to the net and ought therefore to consist of 
pretty fine cloth so as to resist branches of trees, and 
things covering the bottom of lakes. The middle cylin- 
der of gauze is the real collecting net, which retains 
organisms or slime after staining the water. The inner 
cylinder is intended for keeping off larger objects which 
would be liable to injure the fine silk gauze. It affords 
only protection to the inside and consists therefore of 
pretty wide meshes, giving easy access to water and 
organisms. 

When working with it, we unite the different cylin- 
ders. After this the apparatus is lowered into the lake 
by the pulling line fastened to the rings. Then slowly 
advancing the boat, we tow it a certain time, until it 
naturally fills with organisms and slime. Having drawn 
out the apparatus, we separate the cylinders, by loosen- 
ing the screws and take out the gauze cylinder with the 
matter contained in it. The conservation is then carried 
oat in the same way as formerly described, but if there 
be too much mud in the net, its greater part is removed 
by dipping the net several times into the water. 

For investigating certain fauna I have devised another 
dredge, shown in fig. 6., consisting of two parts, the 
shutting cover and the net proper. 

The shutting apparatus (a) is formed by a brass frame 
standing somewhat obliquely, with a wide semicircular 
mouth. It is closed by a trap door also of brass, which 
may be raised or lowered. There is a small ring in the 
middle of this trap door near its horizontal edge, to 
which a line is tied. On both sides of this suspension 
ring there are two brass sticks with knobs on their ends; 
these are fastened to the frame but are movable, so that 
they are raised when the trap is opened and lowered 
when the trap is closed, sliding in the holes which are 



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244 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

provided for th^m in the trap door. The under horizoD- 
tal e<l^e of the f'rjiine is providtnl witli a scraping blade 
standing out and directed a little downward. This facil- 
itates the J)^»n(»tration of the luud tlirough the mouth of 
the frame into tlie net. ()i)j)Osite to this and inside the 
net tliere is aiiotlier brass plate called the weight plate 
on which wei;:;hts are placed to increase the specific 
weight of the a])paratus. These weights are required 
for maintaining the apparatus, when let down, in a verti- 



cal position and tlius tliey prevent the frame from lying 
down by its own wei<::ht. There is a strong ring on the 
semicircular part of the frame, to which the pulling-Hne 
for lifting and lowering the apparatus is fastened. 
Beside this there is a border of fine wire tissue round the 
frame to which the gauze is fixed. 

The net (b) is conical; and consists of fine gauze. It is 
fastened to the border of wire tissue surrounding the 
backside of the frame. 

The ai)paratus is carefully let down by the aid of the 
rope. At the same time the rope which is fastened to the 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 245 

trap-door is also let down. The trap remains closed until 
the bottom is reached. When the apparatus has reached 
the required depth, then we pull the rope of the trap-door 
and thus open it ; the tightness of the rope which before 
was loose will inform us of the success. Then we must 
give our boat a slow impulse and drag the net along as 
fig. 7 shows. The water with all its organisms and the 
mud tilled up by the scraper, will then fill the dredge. 
Before drawing out the net, we let loose the rope of the 
trap door, thus closing it; no other material can there- 
after penetrate into the net. The exact closing of the 
trap is furthered by the two brass-sticks. According to 
their length they allow the opening of the trap only to a 
certain height, viz., to about 20-25^ to the upper board 
of the frame not in a vertical position,. Thus the closing 
of the trap-door is not only due to its own weight, but 
also to the pressure of the water. After drawing up the 
net, the trap door is opened, the net turned inside out 
and the material washed into the bowl. According to 
the directions already given, it is then put into the con- 
serving liquid and finally into the cylindrical glass. 

The attention of naturalists is called to a great advan- 
tage which this net possesses over the drag and bottom- 
nets hitherto described. It enables him to undertake the 
exact determination of species living in different levels of 
water. With this implement, the opening of its trap- 
door being under control, we may collect our material at 
depths corresponding U) our desire and state exactly the 
presence and migration of such and such species. We 
may determine in which masses or swarms they occur, 
during the different parts of the day ; even the hour and 
the different depths in which they wander. 

We have also to equip ourselves with certain other 
necessary things. It is very convenient to use a hunter's 
pouch. In the place of the cartridges we put our glass 
tubes and in the pouch itself the bowl and smaller nets. 



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246 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aag. 

The material gathered from diflferent parts of the lake 
by means of any of this apparatus ought to be conserved 
each in a different way. If only the outward habitat of 
the diflferent animal species forms the object of our study, 
then it will usually be suflBcient to put the material in 
alcohol of 30-50°. This proceeding leads to a satisfac- 
tory result only when we have to deal with animals of 
greater resistance, such as rotatoria, Crustacea, nematoda 
and protozoa. On the contrary, animals with a soft 
body, as protozoa with a thin shell and tubellaria as well 
as those with a harder shell must, if we want to examine 
them anatomically, be treated with certain chemicals 
before placing them into alcohol. The treatment with 
sublimate gives in every respect good results. We pour 
a solution of sublimate over the material filtered out and 
into the water containing the material. By this means 
the animals are killed suddenly, but their texture is con- 
served to a certain degree. This being done, we filter 
the sublimate or water containing the sublimate and sub- 
stitute alcohol first of 30^ then of 50° and finally of 70°. 



Bacteriology of Influenza. 

By J. D. WHITLEY, M. D., 

PBTERSBUBG, ILL. 

A number of Bacteriologists have made careful 
researches during the extensive epidemic of 1890, 1891, 
and 1892. In 1892, a bacillus was discovered by Pfeiffer 
and by Canon of Berlin, which according ^o Sternberg, 
there is good reason to believe is the specific cause of the 
disease. 

Pfeiflfer infers that this bacillus is the specific cause of 

Influenza in man for the following reasons : First. They 

were found in all uncomplicated cases of Influenza 

examined, in the characteristic purulent bronchial secre- 

ion, often in absolutely pure cultures. They were fre- 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 247 

quently situated in the protoplasm of the pus corpuscles. 
In fatal case? they were found to have penetrated from 
the bronchial tubes into the peribronchial tissue and even 
to the surface of the pleura, where in two cases they 
were found in pure cultures, in the purulent exudation. 

Second. They were found only in cases of Influenza. 
Numerous control experiments proved their absence in 
ordinary bronchial catarrh, etc. 

Third. The presence of the bacilli corresponded with 
the course of the disease, and they disappeared with the 
cessation of the purulent bronchial secretion. 

Durinj^ the past winter I have made a careful examin- 
ation of the sputum in a number of cases of moderate 
severity and found a very constant form of bacteria 
which answers to the morphological description. 

That the specific excitmg cause of Influenza is organic 
in its true nature and also that the air constitutes the 
medium of its dissemination there can no longer be any 
doubt. There is also good reason to believe that an incu- 
bative stage covering a period of two or three days is 
necessary for the development of the disease. The micro- 
organisms are introduced into the upper air passages, 
and here finding a lodgment, develop upon the epithelial 
cells where they occur in pure cultures ; they are then 
drawn into the bronchia? by inhalation giving rise to the 
characteristic sputum, the cough and expectoration fol- 
lowing in many cases after the patient has recovered 
from the initial symi)tc«ms. In this type of the disease 
little else is shown by a microscoi)ical examination than 
the above mentioned bacilli. But in the graver type the 
picture is quiet difi*erent and the severity of the attack is 
evidently due to a mixed infection. Here we have evi- 
dence of a local disturbance by the great quantities of 
bronchial epithelia which are thrown off" the round cells, 
are very abundant, and also columnar cells, and often 
red blood corpuscles. White pus cells are very numerous, 



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248 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

together with the streptococcus pyogenes aureus in almost 
pure cultures. The pneumococci are found in large 
groups in almost every examination of this type ; and 
last, but not least, we find that formidable ally strepto- 
coccus pyogenes is very abundant. The significance of 
the last named microbe may be inferred if we are to believe 
that special virulence is added to other diseases by its 
presence, notably in diphtheria. 

The bacteria are best prepared by the ^*Ziehl-Neelsen'* 
method of staining a^ for tubercle bacilli, using the 
Loeffler methyl blue for back-ground but giving a more 
than usual exposure to the latter agent. 

The indications for treatment are antiseptics, elimin- 
ants, anodynes, and tonics, with rest in bed. I am con- 
vinced that the disease may be aborted in many cases if 
seen early, by the following prescription : 

Quinia sulph grs. xx. 

Pulvis doveri 'grs. xx. 

Pulvis capsici grs. iiss. 

Aconite Tine 5 minims. 

M. Ft. Pills No. X. Divide. Signa. Take three at once 
on retiring at .night (after taking a hot foot bathj ; take 
one every two hours the next day. 

In the more advanced cases the treatment should begin 
with a laxative, followed by salol in three to five grain 
doses every three hours, preferably in a powder form. 
This controls the fever, relieves the aching, and is a good 
intestinal antiseptic. In the troublesome head pain relief 
may be obtained by spraying the nostrils with camenthol 
10 per cent. Codeine acts well in suppressing inordi- 
nate coughs, and good results have followed inhalations 
of carbolic acid with a steam atomizer where the expec- 
toration was very profuse. The mouth should be rinsed 
frequently and the throat gargled with a warm solution 
of formaldehyde 1 cup diluted one half with warm water, 



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i897| 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



249 



or the alkaline antiseptic tablet of Dr. Carl Seiler, one 
dissolved in a teacup, half full of warm water. — Medical 
Fortnightly. 



On Rearing Dragonflies. 

By JAMF:S (J. NEEDIIAM, 



ITHACA, N. Y. 

Field work in Entomology is full of delightful oppor- 
tunities, and none is more inviting, none more sure to 
yield discoveries of scientific value, than work upon the 
life-histories of Dragonflies. 

The nymphs which are aquatic, 
have an interesting distribution in 
depth. Those of Agrionidae and 
of most Aeschinidae cling to the 
floating or submergetl vegetation. 
These at least every aquatic collec- 
tor has seen. Those of Libelhilidae 
sprawl upon the bottom amid fal- 
len trash. Those of (jomphinae 
burrow shallovvly along beneath the 
film of sediment that lies on the 
bottom, with tlu* end of tlie abdo- 
men turned up for respiration. 

It is very easy to collect tliem. A garden rake with 
which to draw ashore the stuff to whicli tiiey cling and a 
pail of water in which to carry them home is all the 
apparatus desirable in si)ring. Latter wIumi a new 
growtli of weeds is rooted fast to the bottom, the rake 
will have to l»e exchanged for a water-net. Withdrawn 
from the water, the nymphs rt*n<ler t heniselves t^'vident by 
their active t^fforts to get hack,an«l need only to.be picked 
up. The number of speci(»s one will find will geiierally 
depend on the variety of acjualic situations from which 
he collects. The places to yield the best collecting are 




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250 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

small perm.'inent pools, shallbw inlets in the shores of 
lakes, and the places where the trash falls in the eddies 
of streams. 

They are quite as easily reared. Common wooden kits 
and pails half filled with water, with screen or netting 
covers are entirely satisfactory. A number of nymphs, if 
near one size, may safely be kept together (exceptiag 
only a few notoriously cannibalistic Aeschinidas : e. g. 
Anax Junius), and if not grown may be fed upon such 
small insects as a net will gather in any pond. A good 
square meal once a week will keep them thriving. The 
water should be reasonably clean. Three things should 
be carefully observed. (1) There must be a surface up 
which they can climb to transform : if the sides of the 
kit are too smooth put in some sticks; (2) there must he 
room enough between the netting cover and the water 
for complete expansion of their wings: (3) they must 
remain out of doors where the sunshine will reach thera. 
This last point especially is essential to success. But 
there is still an easier way to do it, and one which, when 
a species is very common, will prove entirely satisfactory. 
The several nymphal stages (excepting the youngest, not 
likely to be collected) are very much alike. I am in the 
habit of preserving the younger nymphs and putting into 
my kits only those well grown, as shown by the length 
of the wing-cases, which should reach the middle of the 
abdomen. But if, when a species is becoming common, 
one v/ill go to the edge of the water it frequents, at the 
time of its emergence, one may find nymphs crawling 
from the water, others transforming, imagoes drying 
their wings, and others ready to fly, and may thus obtain 
in a few minutes the material necessary for determining 
nymph and imago. The time of emergence may he 
determined by noticing at what time pale young imagoes 
are seen taking their first flight, and then going out a 
little earlier. The unfortunate thing about it is that 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 251 

many of the larger species transform very early in the 
morning, and to take such advantage of them one must 
be on the ground Vetween daybreak and sunrise. 

Several imagoes should be kept alive until they have 
assumed their mature colors. It is most important 
that each imago and its cast skin should be kept together. 

Eggs, also, are easily obtained. Every collector has 
seen the female of some species, dipping the tip of her 
abdomed into the surface of the water, depositing eggs. 
If the ovipositing female be captured, held by the fore 
wings, leaving the hind wings free, and ''dipped" by hand 
to the surface of clean water in a vial or a tumbler, an 
abundance of eggs will usually be liberated. Eggs of 
those species which possess an ovipositor and which 
place them within the tissues of plants may be obtained 
by collecting the stems in which they have been inserted. 

Eggs and nymphs should be dropped in boiling water 
for a minute and then preserved in alcohol. Imagoes, if 
mounted, should have a wire or bristle inserted into the 
body its entire length to prevent otherwise certain 
breakage, or if placed unmounted in envelopes, these 
should be of soft paper, loosely packed, so that the eyes 
will not be crushed. 

Try to cover for each species the points of tlie follow- 
ing outline regarding the imago : 

(1) Name ; locality ; date ; occurrence ; etc. 

(2) Haunts ; places frequented ; places avoided ; 
the reasons, if discoverable. 

(3) Flight : its hours ; its duration; its directness ; 
average altitude; places of rest ; altitudes. 

(4) Food: its kind ; how obtained; where eaten. 

(5) Enemies : what they are ; and how do they 
destroy dragonflies ? 

(6) Oviposition : does the female oviposit alone or 
attended by the male. 



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252 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

(7) The eggs : where placed ; number iu a place ; 
incubation period. 

Regarding the nymphs, cov-er the points 1,2, 4, and 5 
of above, and Imagination: hours; places; distance 
from water ; etc. 

It is very difficult to determine all these points for a 
single species, but the effort will lead on into delightful 
intimacy with these beautiful insects. 

I will furnish (if desired) half a dozen named nympbs 
of typical genera to any one who will undertake to collect 
and rear others. I shall be very willing to determine 
nymphs or imagoes for any one, and to point out for 
description such as are new. But I especially desire 
that accurate field observations and notes be made on 
many of our species of which we now known only the 
names, and to such observers I will give all possible 
aid. — Can. Entoinolo^rist. 



The Myometrium. — Bertelsmann writes regarding the 
microscopic relations of the myometrium in pathological 
enlargements of the uterus, with particular reference to 
the muscle cells. He has made(Archiv fur Gynakologie, 
Band L ), a careful . microscopic study of twenty-two 
enlarged uteri Ulirec cases of mero-endometritis, four of 
carcinoma of the cervix, three multiple interstitial, and 
five submucous fibroid tumors). He comes to the follow- 
ing conclusions : Hypertrophy of the muscle-cells of the 
uterine wall is frequently associated with interstitial 
fibroids. Hypertrophy of the muscle-cells always occurs 
with submucous fibroids and in almost every instance 
where the uterine cavity contains an abnormal substance 
(pyometra and hematometra). Hyperplastic changes, 
also increase of the connective tissue and muscle-cells, 
were found particularly in metitis and in carcinoma 
and interstitial fibroids. Taesj results correspond with 
•'l those of Ritschl and Herczel, who experimented on the 

wall of the stomach and intestines by causing artificial 
stenosis and artificial irritation, 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



253 



Hosts oa which Infusoria are Parasitic or Commensal. 

Complied from W. Sevillo Kent's Manual of the Infusoria. 

By THOMAS CRAIG, F. R. M. S. 

NEW BRIGHTON, N.Y, 

All marked * are parasitic IN their hosts, those not so marked are ON 

the host. 

INFUSORIAN 

Pddophrya carchesi 
Sphssrophrya sol 
Sphserophrya stentoria 
Umnla epistjlidis 
Trichophrya epistjlidis 
Podophrya quodripartata 
Zoothamniam parasita 
Opercularia cyliudratos 
Prodophrya cyclopum 
Prodophrya infandibolifera 
Ryncheta cyclopum 
Yorticella globularia 
Epistylis digitalis 
Lagenopbrys vaginooola 
Pyxidium cotharnoides 
Zoothamniam affine 

** parasita 

Epistylis anastatica 
Cotharnia imbertis 

** sieboldii 

•* corva 

** gracilis 
Trichophiya digitata 
Spirochona gemmipera 
Spirochooa scheatenii 
Epistylis digitalis 

*^ crassicollis 
Anoplophrya branchiarus 
Dendrocometes paradoxus 
Lagenopbrys ampulla 



HOST 
Carchesium polypinnm 

'^Paramecium aurelia 

^Stentor roeselii 
Epistylus pUcatilis 



Cyclops quadrioornis 



Cyclops gigas 

Cyclops oorouata 

Cyclops 

Qyclope 

Canthocamptus minntus 

Entomostraca 



Gammarns pulex 



Gammarus marinus 

Asellns aquations 
Physa fontinalis 



Spifochon^ gemmiper?^ 
Epistylis steinil 
^pirochona scheutenii 
^tylochona ooronata 
LAgenophrys ampulla 
^yphidia physarun^ 



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254 



THE AMEEICAN MONTHLY 



[^^g. 



MoUoaca 



Palndina vivipera 

Limnoeos stagnalis 

fielanos 

Unio ciaasas 

Planorbus oomea 

Planorbis 

Paladina 

Paludina 

Helix hortensis 
♦Mussel 
♦Lambricos terrestes (earthwonu) 



Lumbrichos variegatos 



'^Lambrioas limosas 
* ** teonia 

A marine iivorm or annelid — 

PsyrmobranchoB protensos 
♦Marine worms 



Varions opercolaria 
Conchophthiros anodmitae 
Epistylis ooarctatae 
Podophrya elongata 
Epistjlis plicatilis 
Epistylis balanoram 
Conchophtbims 
Epistylis enchloram 
Scyphidia limacina 
Phychostomam 
Anoplophrya vermicalaria 
Conchophthirns 
Anoplophrya mytie 
Plagiotoma lumbrici 
Anoplophrya striata 
Hoplitophrya lombricos 

falcifeim 
Hoplitophrya secans 

*' secariformis 

Anoplophrya clavata 

** oochleariformis 



Lichnophora oohnii 
Anoplophrya prolifera 
Balantidiam medosaram 
Trichodina digitodiscos 
Urceolaria mitra 
Colvolata scholzie 
Palsatella oonvolata 
Hoplitophrya recurva 
Hoptophrya planiariam 
" ** nndnata 

Planarian-thysanozoon taberculata Lichnophora anerbachii 



Planarians 



♦Planariau limacina 
* " torva 



Triton cristata 

♦ '* toeniatas 
♦Bafo pantherinos 
♦Hyla europea 
♦Frogs & toads 



*Nai8 serpentina 
♦Nais littoralis 



Spirochona tintinabnlum 
Trichodina pedicalns 
Balantidinm elongatnm 
Haptophrya gigantea 
Opalina obtrigona 
Opalina ranarnm 
Opalina dimidiata 
Opalina intestinalis 
Balantidinm entozoon 
** elongatnm 

*' dnodeni 

Nictothems cordiformis 
Anoplophrya naidos 

** nodolata 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



256 



Nais 

Biyozoa 

Nebaliam bipes 

-^Clitellis arenarias 
^Bombinator ignens 
^Clepeine binocnlata 
*PachydrUu8 verraoosa 

Hydropbilos piceas 

Neritina flaviatilis 

SpoDge — fretihwater 

Cycloetoma 

Tnbifex rivalorum 

Eacbytroeos vermicalaris 
*Urnatella gracilis 
^Medasa 
*HaiDaD 
^MoasoD trees 
•Water beeUes 

Hydropoms picipes 

NoteDecta glaaca 

Coleoptera aquatic 



Insects 



aqaatic 



Dytiscus marginalos 

l^rva of culex pipiens 
Tipnla larva 

IMiiygiiiiklfc larva 

•I t( 

•Jules margiuatns 
•DictoglcHsus pictus 

SacciDea amphibia 

Fisb 

*• trout 

Porcellana platycbeles (a crab) 

Caprella 

Crustacea 

Aeellnn aequaticus 



** flaviatilis 
AstacuB flaviatilis (cray flsb) 



Scyphidia iDclinaDs 
Acineta pasilla 
Stylocbona nebalina 
Anoplopbrya filium 
Opalina candata 
Apoplophrya striata 
Anoplopbrya pachydrili 
Podopbrya ferrum eqoinain 
Tricbodina baltica 
Cychocbaeta spougilla 
Tricbodinopsis paradoza 
Epistylis tubificis 
Hoplitopbrya secans 
Anoplopbrya socialis 
fialantidiam medusorum 
Balantidium ooli 
Cyclidium arboreum 
Nictotberns gyseryanus 
Podopbrya wrzesniowski 
Acineta notenecta 
Podopbrya leicbtensteiuii 
Acineta linguifera 
Nictotberas ovalis 
Rhabdostyla brevipes 
Zootbamninm affine 
Epistylis invaginatus 
** nympbarum 
Pedophrya steinii 
Opercularia articulata 
Epistylis umbelicata 
Epistylis pyriformis 
Podopbrya phryganidaram 
Epistylis brancheopyla 
Nyctotberus velox 
Haptopbrya gigantea 
Concopbtberis 
Tricbodina soorpaena 
Iclhyophtbirus 
Ophryodendron poreellanum 
Hemiophrya crustaceorum 
Opbryodendron multicapitatnm 
2^thamniam aselli 
Opercularia stenostoma 
Yortioella crassicanlis 
Carcbesinm aselli 
Zootbaninium macrostylnm 
Cotbu^nifi sieboldii 



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266 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[Aug. 



Astacos floTiatilis 



Hydra 

Hydioids and polyzoa 

Hydrozoa 

SertalAiia 



Zoophytes 
Clytia volabilis 

Plomnlaria setAcea 



♦White ants 



*Sbeep and cattl^ 

♦Swine 
Soeuoiia variegata 

♦Pelobatns fuscos 

♦Phyllodoce 

♦Cockroach 



Cothomia astaci 
Dendroeoma astaci 
Podophrya astaci 
Keiona polypomm 
Trichodina pedicnlns 
Acineta livadiana 
Ophryodendrnm abietiam 
Podophiya lyngbii 
Epbelota tiold 
Ophryodendram abietinnm 
Hemiophrya microeoma 
Ophryodendrom sertalaria 
Acinetopsis rara 
Acineta crenata 
Ophryodendram belgicnm 
Hemiophrya posilla 
Ophryodendron abietinnm 
Pedioellatnm 
Trichonympha 
Pyrosonema 
Dynenympha 
Isotricha 

Ophryscolex pnrkinjei 
Balantidinm coli 
Ptychostomnm 
Hoplitophrya pnngens 
Opalina intestinalis 
Anoplophrya ovata 
Nyctotheris oval is 



A Camera Lucida for Use with both Eyes. 

By ARTHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D., 

NEWARK, N. J. 

When using the camera lucidas, which are on the mar- 
ket, of course preference is given to that known as Abbe's 
and invented by Wollaston. Abbe's is not altogether 
satisfactory and Nachet's is better. But I have an instru- 
ment which can be used with both eyes at the same time 
which seems to be a novelty. And this one besides use- 
ing both eyes was home-made so that its manufacture is 
extremely cheap. Besides, it has the novelty of being 
made by myself, and can readily be so made by anyone. 



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1897] MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 267 

A brass cap is made to fit loosely over the eye-piece of 
the microscope so that it can be moved around and the 
camera pointed to any point of the compass. This is 
important as will be shown further on. Upon this is 
placed a prism of 30°. This can be obtained at any ordi- 
nary opticians. The prism is of ordinary crown glass 
and is rather large as purchased but out of it two or four 
prisms can be cut. I find it can be cut with a red hot 
poker placed upon it along the line which it is desired to 
cut. The cut surfaces can then be ground down with an 
ordinary hone with emery and water. This takes some 
time but is not essential. The microscope is placed in a 
slanting position which is advantageous, for the camera 
lucida can be placed upon the instrument without having 
to turn it over until it points transversely. 

The object is viewed in the ordinary manner. Now 
when viewed through the camera lucida, the object seems 
to be moved towards the smallest side of the prism. 
That is to say the ray does not go through the instrument 
in a straight line but is bent toward the thin edge of the 
prism and in this way it seems to move the object out of 
the microscope to one side. When the left eye is used 
on the microscope the thick side of the prism is on the 
same side, i. e. the left. The object seems to be moved 
towards the right. It is there thrown down on a paper 
which is used to delineate it by means of a pencil. This 
pencil is seen by the right eye and in consequence of the 
two eyes being in use the object seen by left eye is trans- 
parent to the paper and seems to be where the pencil is. 
Of course such a camera lucida is not perfect. But it 
comes into play very often. And this was the shape I 
made it into. 

I propot^e to use a plano-convex lens with the convex 
side uppermost where the right eye is placed and this 
will make it more certain. For if the lens is twelve or 
fifteen inches focus it can be used to see the pencil point 



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258 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug. 

and also to fix the eye which has a liability to wander. I 
find in my case I can move one eye without the other, 
and this makes the image which is formed by the right eye 
move. Of course when the left eye is used to see the pen- 
cil point the prism can be reversed and sometimes it is 
useful to move it around from the east to the southeast. 
But these movements can be variable, as can be seen. I 
wish this camera could be tried, for it is easy to make and 
easy to use. 



Brackish along with Fresh-water Bacillariaceae. 

By ARTHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D., 

NEWARK, N. ^ 

I have to record again living brackish Bacillariacea 
along with fresh water ones. And it occurred only a 
few days ago. One Sunday, in the latter part of June 
with a bottle in hand, for I never go without one, I was 
watching the turn of the tide at Bellville, N. J., near the 
bridge. I saw the water which was coming from a cut 
off where the Myriophylum and Anacharis was plenty, 
and snails, Lymnea and Plunorbis in profusion had on 
the top a dust of BacillariaceaB and other things. I saw 
it go down the river, which is brackish here until it 
passed to Newark bay and so to the ocean. I wondered 
what became of those fresh-water forms when they came 
to the salt water. Did they all dissolve or did they 
transform into salt-water forms ? I got a bottle full of 
the water and brought it home and examined it and have 
it now growing in my window. There was a plenty of 
Nitzchia obtusa,var. brevissima, A. G., Cyclotella striata. 
Eunotia monodon, Gomphonema turrio, Navicula cuspi- 
data, Synedra ulna, and various other fresh-water forms 
but there was living Coscinodiscus excentricus and 
Surirella striatula. Both of these are put down as brack- 
ish forms, but I had them here in fresh-water along with 



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1897] MICEOSGOPICAL JOURNAL. 269 

a Closterium, a desmid, and more wonderfal still a 
Dictyodia fibula, with endochrome in it. This is removed 
from the Diatoms and placed among the Rhizopoda. 

Now what can become of these when they pass down 
to the sea ? They may be dissolved, for they are read- 
ily soluble in fresh water and presumably in salt-water 
although they may not be as soluble. Or they may 
change. The Surirella striatula and Coscinodiscus excen- 
tricus may live as salt water forms, for they have been 
seen so and the others die. The spot where I collected 
them was where the fresh -water flowed into the brackish, 
and Newark, which is only three miles further south, and 
where salt water is very brackish, and New York bay, 
which is nine miles further off is salt. So that we have 
a quick change from fresh to salt water and they can be 
watched. 



EDITOSUL. 



Small Attendance at the A. M. S. — We have just read 
in an exchange the query which the writer seems unable 
or unwilling to answer : "Why is it that the membership 
of the society and attendance at its meetings are so small?" 
The reasons are quite apparent but one hates to state 
them. The truth, if it must be told, is that a little group 
of officers and candidates for office run the meetings for 
certain very narrow, or for personal ends. There is never 
exhibited a broad spiritof philanthropy, never a sufficiently 
deliberate purpose to interest new recruits in microscopy, 
never sufficient means to enable then to learn the business, 
never reports from local societies, never steps to found 
additional local societies, never grants of money for phil- 
anthropic investigation with the instrument, never prac- 
tical application of microscopy to hygiene, to health, to 
happiness of the masses. 

A few specialists, a few college prof essors, a few doctors, 
get together to do what is of personal interest to themselves, 
to read accounts of what they have occupied themselves 



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260 tHiB AMB&ICAlJ MONTHLY [Aug. 

about in the past, discuss such topics as vivisection, and 
the supposed rig-ht of all scientists to practice it without 
restriction or inspection. How can others feel much inter- 
est in such doing's ? 

The conduct of the society as now run, seems to be 
tinctured with selfinterest, and the devotion of one's time 
and thoug-ht to self leads to the alienation of others. 

That bee-in-the-bonnet — to become F. R. M. S. and to be 
able to label one's name with those letters seems to over- 
shaddow the minds of the little g-roup who go to the meet- 
ings, so that they are blind to what would interest a larg^e 
number of people. This, if true, will sufficiently explain 
why so few join the company. 

The greatly decreased number of local societies and the 
loss of interest in their work throughout the country has 
never given the American Society any concern. Never 
has it lent any aid to small and strug-gling societies, never 
has it asked after their welfare, never has it invited them 
to send delegates to its meetings. It does not even present 
them with copies of its Transactions. It leaves them all 
to get on as they may, and that has been for many years 
past towards decay. 

Another thing the Society might have done and it never 
has done so. It might each year bring one of the world's 
great microscopists from Europe to deliver an address, 
and to advise regarding its work. The announcement in 
the periodicals, three months in advance, that Nelson or 
Dallinger, or Abbe will be present would mean that men 
will make efforts to attend who will not go to a mutual 
admiration circle. The money spent in publishing papers • 
that were never read and absolutely verbatim reports of 
business discussions would suffice to bring- one g-reatg*uest 
to the meeting annually. All such papers could be pub- 
lished without cost to the society aad the money now 
wasted be made useful. 

In the last volume, one hundred and twenty-eight pages 
were occupied with eleven papers which were not read at 
the meeting, their authors were not present and very likely 
the papers were not completely written till after the meet- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 261 

ingf. The thirteen papers which were read occupy one 
hundred and thirty-five pages. Why should people go 
hundreds of miles to the meeting to hear — 

13 papers which will occupy 135 pages and to miss — 

11 papers which will occupy 128 pages when every word 
uttered at the meeting will be sent out in type? 

Notice this feample of wasted space : 

"Secretary. — This completes the list, Mr. President." 

"President. — We are now under the head of ordinary 
business." 

"Secretary. — I wish to say that all members who have 
read papers and have not handed them in are requested 
to do so as soon as possible as I wish to have the Transac- 
tions out about the first of December, if possible, and 
surely before the holidays [Applause]." 

The Proceedings were out the following June with 
"March, 1897" printed on the cover. By waiting, one may 
read every word and need not go to the meeting to hear any- 
thing. 

There is probably not another society in the world that 
prints all this minutiae. It is a waste of money. The most 
successful societies now relegate all the business to secret 
meetings of an executive board. Who cares to go from 
New York to Toledo to hear the full society discuss the 
advisability of printing 400 copies of the constitution ? The 
excuse for this printing is that not one in twenty of the 
members are present and that they must be informed of 
what goes on. Many of them pay their dues and if they 
do not get what is in the book, they get nothing therefor. 
But this in turn becomes a cause of small meetings. 

Men do not like to confess their ambitions. If they did, 
we should probably hear from nearly all those who con- 
tribute to the Proceedings that they are candidates for 
the un-American English honor of F. R. M. S. The Eng- 
lish society judges candidates by their technical publica- 
tions and judges Americans by this volume in question. 
This fact is known by the members of this little group. 
Do not they act with this fact in view? And do they not 
largely forget and ignore matters of general interest or 



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262 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug 

utility in their desire to be successful candidates for F. R. 
M. S. If so, how can it be expected that the meetings will 
be larg-e ? 

Each year the president of the society receives the long 
coveted honor. The records will show, that having got- 
ten it, he usually graduates from all active connection with 
the Society. Annually relegate one of the most active 
members to obscurity and what should be the effect in the 
19 years the society has been in existence ? Do we need 
go further in order to answer why the attendance at the 
meetings is confined to a small group of people ? If a man 
can get his paper before the Royal Microscopical Society 
by delivering it to the secretary of the American Society 
in time to go into the Proceedings why should he be to the 
time and expense of a trip to Toledo? 

What then is necessary for the success of the Society? 

1. Change its whole spirit and methods. 

2. Elect only such men to the presidency as have 
largely advanced microscopical interest in America. 

3. Pay the expenses of a distinguished microscopist to 
visit each meeting. 

4. Transfer all business to secret sessions of a Board. 

5. Publish only the results of business discussions. 

6. Publish no paper that has not been read at a meeting. 

7. Publish in full only such papers as are of great 
value and require expensive illustrations. 

8. Publish brief abstracts of minor papers, leaving the 
periodicals to publish them in full. 

9. Leave to periodicals all that properly belongs to 
journalism. 

10. Permit and encourage the periodicals to publish all 
that they can of the papers read and of the president's 
address. 

11. Be at work all the year preparing something* that 
will interest a large number of people. 

12. Take great interest in the welfare of the local 
societies and invent means to help them to prosper. 

13. Receive their delegates as honorary members, enter- 
tain them and send them home full of enthusiasm. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 263 

14. Let alone and repudiate this un-American title F. R. 
M. S. and make F. A. M. S. an equal or superior honor, 
but let it be conferred only for philanthropic work done. 

15. Meet only at central points within easy access of 
many members. 

16. To double the membership, halve the cost of member- 
ship. 

17. Treat the periodicals so fairly and liberally that they 
will work for the society all the time. 

18. Banish narrowness, selfishness, cliques, cranks, 
unworthy ambitions and decide to become a power through 
the actual benefit conferred on the public. 

19. For extremely technical papers which almost no one 
can understand substitute largely papers that educated 
people can see some meaning in. 

20. Show continually the usefulness and application of 
the microscope to all branches of practical industry and 
the advancement of human happiness. 



MICBOSCOFIGAL MANIPULATION. 

Staining the Tubercle Bacillus in Sections. — This can 
easily be done by the methods recommended originally by 
Ehrlich and by Ziehl. Many slight modifications in tech- 
nical details have been introduced by a large numbers of 
workers, but the essential step by which the Bacillus tuber- 
culosis can be diflFerentiated from other bacilli consists in 
the use of mineral acids, such as nitric or sulphuric acid. 
When bacilli have been well stained with methyl-violet or 
with fuchsin, it is found that certain dilutions of sulphuric 
acid and nitric acid will rapidly remove the stain from all 
known pathogenic bacilli, with the exception of the bacilli 
of tuberculosis and of leprosy, which are discolored very 
much more slowly. The use of nitric acid is, however, 
objectionable when one has to deal with delicate tissues, 
and even sulphuric acid, diluted with six parts of water, 
will cause a certain amount of distortion. For this reason 
bacteriologists have long wished to find a method in which 
the use of strong acids was done away with. Dr. Borrel, 



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264 THB AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug 

after using" a method in some researches in tuberculous 
lesion, has strongly recommended the following : 

After the sections have been stained in the usual way by 
means of carbolised f uchsin, they are placed for a short 
time in a solution of hydrochlorate of aniline, and after this 
they are left in alcohol till quite decolorized, when it is 
found that though the fuchsin has been removed from 
all the tissues, the tubercle bacilli remain deeply stained. 

This method, therefore, resembles very closely the 
Gram's method, with the difference that, instead of 
Gram's iodine solution being used to fix the stain in the 
bacilli, in this case it is Kuhne's hydrochlorate of aniline 
which is used. 

Dr. Ratcliff, being engaged in delicate experiments on 
the spread of tuberculosis in the laboratory, was advised 
to try this method, which seemed to present many advant- 
ages over the older methods, when a few bacilli only are 
present in the organ. The details published not being 
quite sufficient to obtain very satisfactory results in every 
case, we worked out the details now given with the result 
that we can strongly recommend the following procedure: 

(1) Fix tissues by means of perchloride of mercury, 
acidulated or not, and then hardened in alcohol as usual. 

(2) Embed tissues in paraffin, using toluol as a solvent. 

(3) Fix section on slides by means of glycerine albu- 
men in the usual way. 

So far, there is nothing new in the method. 

(4) Stain with haematin solution for ten to twenty 
seconds to obtain a pure nuclear stain (not too deep) ; then 
wash thoroughly in water. 

(5) Stain now with Ziehl's carbonized fuchsin, kept at 
a temperature of about 47 degrees C. for twenty to thirty 
minutes. The slides are during that time kept in a 
moist chamber to prevent the stain drying on the speci- 
men. 

(6) Remove the stain and treat the section with 2 per 
cent watery solution of hydrochlorate or aniline for a few 
seconds. 

(7) Decolorize in 75 per cent alcohol till the section is 



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1897] MICEOSeOPICAL JOURNAL. 265 

apparently free from stain; this will take from fifteen to 
thirty minutes. 

(8) Double stain with a solution of orange (1 per cent 
of saturated watery solution of orange to 20 to 40 parts of 
SO per cent alcohol). 

(9) Dehydrate with absolute alcohol. 

(10) Clear very rapidly with xylol. 

(11) Mount in xylol and Canada balsam. 

A New Method of Staining Nervous Tissue.— Vasta- 
rina-Cersi (Rif. Med., Feb. 14, 1896.) describes a new and 
effectual method of staining the spinal cord, etc., for 
macroscopic purposes. The entire cerebro-spinal axis, 
with the meninges, is plunged into about 3 litres of an aque- 
ous solution of formaldehyde (16 per 1000). The tissue is 
left in the medium for two weeks, the meninges being 
removed on the second or third day. Sections from 3 to 5 
cm. thick are then cut and kept in distilled water, or, better 
in alcohol at 40 degrees, for twelve or twenty-four hours; 
then plunged into 75 degrees solution of AqNOs in the 
dark. The white substance soon becomes stained brown. 
A prolonged stay in the AqNOa sol. does no harm. The 
stain may be fixed for an indefinite time if the preparation 
s left for two or three days in the dark in distilled water 
and then in alcohol at 70 degrees. Tissue so prepared 
shows in the clearest manner the relations between the 
white and the grey substance. For example, in the medulla 
one could distinctly see with the naked eye the respiratory 
fascicules of Krause. The advantages claimed by the 
author for this method are its simplicity and rapidity of 
execution, the constancy of the results, and its great 
teaching value. — Brit. Med. Journ. 



BACTEBIOLOGT. 



Potato Agar.— Dr. H. M. Richards, of Barnard College, 
has proven the potato agar to be of great service. It is 
prepared as follows : Three or four medium-sized potatoes 
are washed, pared, cut into pieces and boiled in one liter 



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266 THE AMBBICAN MONTHLY [Aug 

washed and again boiled one-half hour; the liquid is then 
filtered through cotton, then through paper, and serves as 
the watery basis of the agar. One per cent of peptone, ^ 
per cent of salt and 1^ per cent of agar are added to one 
liter of potato water and the whole boiled over a flame for 
about three quarters of an hour. The medium is then 
titrated to determine its reaction, and brought to react 
0.15 acid phenolphthalein. If alkali (Na O H) or acid (H 
CI) is added, the boiling is continued one-half hour longer. 
The medium is filtered through absorbent cotton steril- 
ized for three consecutive 'days at twenty-four hour 
intervals, and then put into test tubes and sterilized. After 
the last sterilization the medium is allowed to harden on 
the slant. 



IffiDICAL M1CE0SG0PT. 

Diagnosis of Pregnancy. — Dr. Park of Philadelphia 
reports that pregnancy may be diagnosed as early as 
twenty days after its occurence by a study of the triple 
phosphates in the urine. The feathery appearance dis- 
appears from the tips of the crystals sometimes from one 
side only at first, followed by a like disappearance from 
the other side. If the fetus dies the normal appearance 
is renewed. This diagnosis of course affords the advan- 
tage that it can be made without suspicion on the part of 
the patient. — Am. Gyn. and Obst. Jour. 

Examination of Blood in Diphtheria. — ^A microscopic 
examination of the blood will enable us to make a more 
intelligent diagnosis in diphtheria. If the myelocytes 
— i. e., mono-nuclear white blood corpuscles, with neutro- 
phile granules (excluding both the mono-nuclear leuco- 
cytes poor in chromatin, considered by Frankel as charac- 
teristic of leukaemia, and also the large mono-nuclear 
eosinophile cells of Muller and Rieder) — are present in 
quantities of two per cent, or more in the blood of a diph- 
theria patient, the patient will die; but a smaller percentage 
does not of itself justify a favorable prognosis. The 
highest percentages found in diphtheria patients who re- 



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1897] MIOEOSCOPIOAL JOURNAL. 267 

cover were 1.5 per cent., 1.4 per cent., and 1.3 per cent., 
and these were present only at the heigcht of the illness, 
sinking- back very shortly to 0.7 per cent., 0.1 per cent., 
and per cent, respectively. 

The maximum of myelocytes found in the blood of those 
who died of diphtheria was 16.4 per cent. On the other 
hand, eig-ht cases died without any noticeable increase in 
the quantity of myelocytes. The author cannot yet state 
at what day of the illness a bad prog-nosis may be made, 
but in one case in which he was able to examine the blood 
on the fourth day he found 12.8 per cent, myelocytes. 
The first case died seven days later; the second, eig-hteen 
days after. 

Interesting observations are recorded with regard to 
the numbers of other white cells, eosinophil cells, etc; but 
apparently no very definite conclusions can be formed 
with regard to them. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES. 



Chalk.— A sheet of chalk more than 1,000 feet in thick- 
ness underlies all that portion of Eng-land which is situated 
to the southeast of a line crossing the island diagonally 
from the North Sea at Flam borough Head to the coast of 
the English Channel in Dorset. This massive sheet of 
chalk appears again in France and as far east as the Crimea 
and even in Central Asia beyond the sea of Aral. There 
can be little question that all these now isolated patches 
were once connected in a continuous sheet, which must, 
therefore, have occupied a superficial area about 3,000 
miles long, by nearly 1,000 broad. These enormous 
deposits are made up of the microscopic remains of min- 
ute sea animals. 

Hair on the Pulvill lof Flies.— With regard to the diffi- 
culty respecting the hairs on the pulvilli of flies, is it to be 
expected that the hairs should be hollow, and in the nat- 
ure of ducts for the viscid fluid secreted by the glands ? 
Do they — th^ Jiairs — not ^ct rather as a simple mecnhaic^l 



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268 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Aug 

method for enabling" the insect instantaneously to detach 
its foothold from the object upon which it has been rest- 
ing and supposing- the pulvillus to be hairless, and the 
secreting" surface to be broug-ht into close connection 
with the object, would there not be g-reat difficulty in the 
creature at once liberating- itself ? 

Action of Light on Fungi.— M. A, Lendner records 
(Ann. des Sci. Nat. Botan.)the result of a series of experi- 
ments on the effect of the access and withdrawal of lig-ht 
on a variety of f ung-i, chiefly mucorini and ascomycetes, 
grown on different media. All the mucorini examined 
developed sporang-es under the influence of light when 
grown on solid substrata ; in liquid media the results var- 
ied with the species. In the case of the conidial forms of 
the ascomycetes, conids were invariably formed under the 
influence of alternate day and night; under continuous 
light the results varied with the species. All the phenom- 
ena of heliotropic sensitiveness in fungi appear to have 
their source in the need for nutrition. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



The Canadian Entomologist is a bright and newsy dol- 
lar magazine from which we extract items occasionally. 
The contributors are nearly all United States people, a 
recent number containing eight articles all from the states 
and none from Canada. The April number had seven U. 
S. contributions to three Dominion. How can Canada with 
only a few entomologists maintain such a magazine ? We 
suspect because cheap living makes cheap cost of print- 
ing while money and articles come from us to support the 
same. 

Recent Articles. — F. Chapman writes in the May Geo- 
logical Magazine on the Microscopic Contents of a sample 
of Bracklesham Clay from the Solent. 

Prof. R. Jones describes in the same number some new 
Entomostraca from Brazil. 



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ARRANGED DIATOMS. I furnish the mostartistitioarrangementBof 
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C.«.Y««\Vd. \»wr *A- Vd. <V.t 



SEEDS AND TESTA 




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"CT 12 190! 

THE AMERICAN 

^ ;:.. MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



Vol,. XVIII. SEPTEMBER, 1897. No. 9. 

On the Seeds and Testa of Some Crucifera. 

By L. H. PAMMEL, 

AMBS, IOWA. 

[CoDtribatioDS, No. 6, Botanical Department, Iowa Agricaltaral College.] 

WITH FRONTISl-IECE. 

Continued from page 210. 

Sisymbrium officinale, Scop. 

Pod a half inch long or more, awl-shaped, somewhat 
four sided, borne on short erect pedicels, twelve seeded, 
seeds light brown, oblong, or in some cases, triangular, 
one half to three fourths of a line long. Caulicle extend- 
ing lengthwise with a depression between it and the 
cotyledons. Cotyledons incumbent. 

Seed coats quite uniformly developed. Cuticle cover- 
ing the epidermal cells, the latter tabular, much com- 
pressed. On the addition of water the cell walls become 
mucilaginous with evident stratification. The second 
layer of cells brown and thin walled, much compressed. 
On addition of chloral hydrate they expand. Third 
layer much darker than the second, thick walled, fol- 
lowed by endosperm, cells elongated filled with protein 
grains, followed by elongated thick walled cells with a 
small cavity. These reach their highest development 
between cotyledons and caulicle. First row of cells of 
the embryo nearly isodiametric, filled with protein grains 
and oil. 



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270 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

S. ALTISSIMUM, L. 

Slender, slightly curved pods, two to four inches long, 
firm, cylindrical. Seeds light straw colored, one-half to 
three-fourths line or less long ; oblong or nearly triangu- 
lar. 

On the addition of water the cell-wall of outer seed 
coat becomes mucilaginous. Outer epidermal layer 
covered with cuticle, cells elongated, on the addition of 
water, walls become mucilaginous and show stratification. 
Cell-walls of second layer thick, light brown, followed by 
endosperm of two layers of cells, first elongated, thick- 
walled. 

Cells of embryo as in S. officinale. 

Lepidium virginicum, L. 

Pod orbicular or oval, a line and a half to one and three 
fourths lines long, larger than L. apetalum, with a small 
notch at the top, slightly margined above, often purple 
tinged at maturity. Seeds pendulous, light brown, 
minutely pitted, with a narrow winged margin, one line 
long. The icaulicle runs lengthwise, on each side a 
groove, marking the boundary between the caulicle and 
cotyledons, the latter accumbent. On the addition of 
water the outer-walls become mucilaginous. 

The seed coats consist of three well defined layers. 
The outer or epidermal cells are tabulated, somewhat 
compressed. The cuticle forms a continuous layer over 
these. On the addition of water the epidermal cells 
elongate and form a mucilaginous mass, showing strati- 
fied layers. These are not diflBcult to make out when the 
specimen is mounted in water. The cell cavity is very 
much reduced, that portion of the cell-wall in contact 
with the cell-cavity is diflFerentiated from the outer cell- 
wall substance. Long continued addition of water causes 
the cuticle to break and the exterior becomes very irreg- 
ular. 



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1897] MICJIOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 271 

The second layer is colored brown, the cell-walls are 
considerably thickened laterally and project upwardly in 
the shape of cones. A section made through the ends of 
these seeds shows that the second layer is considerably 
more developed and there are evidences here of an indis- 
tinct layer between the first and second. The layer fol- 
lowing this consists of thin walled parenchyma cells, in 
some cases considerably elongated but in others short. 

The third layer is followed by the endosperm which 
consists of a layer of rather thick-walled parenchyma 
cells. These carry granular protein grains. This is fol- 
lowed by one or more layers of elongated cells, in which 
the cell cavity is very much reduced. These cells reach 
their highest development between the folds of the cau- 
licle and cotyledon. 

The Embryo : — The first layer of cells of the embryo 
are smaller, quite uniform in size and filled with protein 
grains and oil. 

Lbpidium apetalum, Willd. 

Pod a line and a quarter to a line and a half long smaller 
than Large Pepper gras^, slightly notched at the apex, 
minutely pubescent. 

Seeds pendulous, light brown, very slightly roughened 
and very narrow wing margined. Smaller than in L. 
virginicum, three quarters to nearly a line long. Cauli- 
cle extends lengthwise, with a prominent ridge as in L. 
virginicum, with a sharp groove between caulicle and 
cotyledons, the latter incumbent and flattened, a charac- 
ter which easily separates the species from the Large 
Pepper Grass. 

The cuticle forms a continuous layer over the epider- 
mal cells, the latter are larger than in L. virginicum. On 
the addition of water the cell wall rapidly elongates, 
emitting a copious mucilage, the cell-cavity is very much 
reduced but longer than iu L, yirginicum. It is sur- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 273 

rounded by a denser, more or less diflFerentiated, part of 
the cell wall which is more yellow in color than the 
remainder of the cell-wall. The second layer is of a yel- 
low straw color and consists of very minute cells with 
small cell cavities. 

The cell walls of the third layer are strongly thickened 
brown and serve the same purpose as in the other species. 
The endosperm consists of thick walled parenchyma 
cells. In the first layer of cells the cell-walls are very 
much larger and packed with protein grains. The other 
layers of endosperm consist of small elongated thick 
walled cells with a small cell-cavity. These attain their 
greatest development between the caulicle and cotyledon. 
In the embryo, the cells of the first row are isodiametric 
filled with protein grains and oil. The outer cells are 
elongated, larger, and also densely packed with the 
same material. 

Capsblla bursa-pastoris, Mornch. 

Pods two to three lines long, two to two and a half 
lines wide above, some of the European specimens with 
larger pods, many seeded (8-22), seeds light brown, one 
half line long, nearly one fourth line in width, very minu- 
tely roughened. Caulicle elongated forming a ridge 
with slight depressions between it and the cotyledons. 
The latter incumbent. On the addition of water the 
outer seed coat becomes mucilaginous. 

Microscopic Structure. — The seed coats attain their 
maximum development in the region of the caulicle. 
Cuticle covers the epidermal cells, the latter tabular, 
compressed but on the addition of water they elongate, 
become mucilaginous and show stratification. 

The second and third layers are brown with thick cell- 
walls. Fourth layer consists of endosperm, one layer of 
isodiametric cells filled with protein grains, followed by 
thick walled cells reaching their greatest development 



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214: THB AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

between the cotyledon and caulicle. First row of cells 
of embryo nearly ittodiametric, filled with oil and protein 
grains. Others somewhat larger and contain the same 
substances. Cotyledons incumbent. Central part of 
of caulicle separated from the rest. Cells of caulicle 
very much larger than cells of cotyledons. 

Barbarba vulgaris, R. Br. 

Pods erect or slightly spreading, one half to three 
quarters of an inch long, somewhat quadrangular. Seeds 
blackish, a line or little more long, a single row in each 
cell, marginless. Cotyledons incumbent. 

First layer of outer seed coat not well developed, cells 
elongated in the direction of the seed. Cuticle covers 
the epidermal cells. On addition of water a slight 
mucilaginous modification takes place. Second layer 
with thick lateral walls and quite large cell-cavities, 
colored brown. Third layer of rather thick- walled paren- 
chyma cells also colored brown, followed by endosperm, 
an is usual in cruciferous seeds. 

(To be continued.) 



The Diagnosis of Malaria. 

By ARTHUR R. EDWARDS, M. D., 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

The diagnosis of malaria, like its pathogenesis, has a 
scientific life of scarcely two decades. The subject has 
been roughly handled since an acquaintance with its 
microscopic diagnostic methods has reached the general 
profession from the laboratories of scientific biologists 
and clinicians. Positive blood findings, i. e., the detec- 
tion of the Plasmodium of malaria, establishes the fact of 
malaria, since malaria is always caused by the parasite, 
and again the organism is always found in malaria and 
in malaria only. A few microscopic examinations will 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 275 

coDvince the greatest skeptic. It must not be forgotten 
that, in certain instances, two diseases may occur simul- 
taneously. We have seen malaria in conjunction with 
various ancient heart lesions, ulcerative endocarditis, 
pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic nephritis, although 
never with typhoid fever. The presence of malaria Plas- 
modium makes possible positive differentiation from other 
diseases ; e. g., the frequent error of overlooking or 
misinterpreting an incipient pulmonary tuberculosis 
attended with chills. Negative blood findings, in suspec- 
ted malaria, are not definitive from one examination. 
Not infrequently is more than one microscopic search 
necessary for the positive exclusion of malaria. While 
suggestive, then, a single negative finding is far from 
conclusive. The parasites may be indistinguishable in 
the first few days of the disease. In certain forms they 
swarm in internal organs, avoiding the peripheral circu- 
lation ; and lastly, in chronic and recurrent types they 
are found with great difficulty. 

Certain deformities in the red blood corpuscles are 
often mistaken for plasmodia, e. g. crenations, poilkilo- 
cytosis and vacuole formation. Not only can the more 
intimate structure of the red blood discs retract, simula- 
ting Plasmodia, but the exterior of the hemacyte is far 
more plastic than is eommonly acknowledged, even to 
the extent of protruding pronounced pseudopodia-like 
processes. These are but too frequently mistaken for 
parasites, being found in very many instances of appar- 
ently otherwise normal blood. Vacuole formations are 
characterized by their sharp contour and high luster. 

Melainferous leucocytes are readily distinguishable 
from the plasmodia by their large nuclei and by their 
amoeboid movement, always absent in adult parasites of 
equal size. Unstained spores may be confused with the 
blood plaques, which are, however, structureless and 
contain no pigment. An Austrian podiatrist lost a docent- 



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276 f HB AMfilRtCAlJ MONTHLY [Sept 

ship for reporting, as malaria, cases whose blood prepara- 
tions afterward proved to contain only blood plates and 
no Plasmodia. Coagalation products have been confused 
with flagella. Many of the small dots seen in malaria 
which resemble micrococci and were mistaken for such 
by the earlier Italian observers are similar to those 
found in most anemias and described by Ehrlich as 
degenerative changes. 

Technique. — Complex methods of staining and count- 
erstaining the parasite have been in vogue, but the sim- 
plest and most accurate is the direct examination of the 
freshly-drawn unstained blood, a method we have used 
with entire satisfaction for several years. In this pro- 
cedure injury to the corpuscles and staining o^ the blood 
plaques are obviated. 

The lobe of the ear is cleansed, picked, and a quite small 
drop is gently expressed. A clean cover glass is held in 
a pair of forceps to avoid the heat and moisture of the 
hand, and is carefully brought in contact with the top of 
the drop. The heat and moisture of the hand or rudely 
placing the cover against the drop favor imperfect spread- 
ing from precipitate drying of parts of the blood. Rub- 
bing the slide well facilitates equable spreading of the 
blood. Examination is best made with an oil one-twelfth 
inch immersion lens, although Laveran used lenses of 
lower magnification. Permanent preparations are pro- 
cured by allowing the covers to dry, to remain half hour 
in equal parts of absolute alcohol and ether and by paint- 
ing with filtered eosin and methylene blue. The use of 
stains is not usually advisable, since they obscure the 
otherwise more brilliant microscopical findings, they act 
as protoplasmic poisons, abolishing both the amoeboid 
movement of the parasite and the highly characteristic 
vibrations of its pigment, and finally, they stain the 
blood plates and coagulation produces, therehy confu- 
sing the findings, particularly for the unwary clinician. 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 2V7 

The Type. — Blood examination^ however, demonstrates 
not merely the fact of malaria but also its types, since 
the various clinical forms of the disease correspond to 300 
logically distinct, immutable species of parasite. Deter- 
mination of species embraces more than purely biologi- 
cal interest; it declares also the prognosis, as in the per- 
nicious forms, and designates the treatment, as arsenic 
in the tropical types. Councilman stated several years 
ago that in intermittent fever the parasite was seen 
within the red blood corpuscle, while in remittent fever 
or in malarial cachexia it was frequently seen without 
the same or in elongated forms and crescents. Crescents 
augur relapse. The presence of segmentation forms 
predict an imminent or incipient paroxysm. The alleged 
detection of the plasmodium is often doubted by us, 
since it is not uncommon to hear practitioners state that 
they have found Laveran's organisms, an error at least 
in species determination. 

In general terms, the number of parasites found in the 
blood corresponds to the severity of the attack, although 
some believe the large spore-producing bodies remain 
largely in internal bodies. 

Motility. — In the ordinary tertian parasite there is 
lively amoeboid movement in the young and middle-aged 
forms. In the quartan form there is slight movement 
in the young parasite. In the aestivo-autumnal type it is 
variable, often very active. 

Pigment. — In tertian malaria the pigment is pale and 
yellowish brown, is fine, and in the young forms is most 
active, or "swarming" ; it accumulates towards the peri- 
phery of the parasite, in the pseudopodia protrudes, but 
in the older forms it becomes central. The pigment is 
inversely proportional in amount to the amoeboid move- 
ment, i. e., the more pigment the less the amoeboid 
movement. 

In the quartan the pigment is coarse, being somewhat 



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278 THE AMBEICAN MONTHLY fSept 

larger than in the tertian, irregular, with bat little if 
any movement. In the aestivo-aatnmnal form the pig- 
ment is active, although some describe it as slight, at first 
fine, later coarse, even rodlike. 

Size. — The tertian is as large as the red blood disc, 
even larger; the quartan not larger than the red corpus- 
cle, while the tropical forms are much smaller, from 1-5 
to i the size of the hemacy te. 

Protoplasm op the Parasite. — In the tertian it is 
pale and indistinct; in the quartan, sharply outlined, and 
of a characteristically high index of refraction; in the 
autumnal type it is ringlike, very small, hyaline, and 
difScult to detect. 

Alteration in the Red Blood Cells. — In the ter- 
tian the red blood cells hypertrophy, and are rapidly 
and completely decolorized. In the quartan they are 
but little decolorized, may be darker than normal, and are 
not essentially altered in size, although the corpuscle 
may become slightly smaller than normal. In the more 
pernicious types they are shrunken, become either darker, 
of '^brasdy" color, or completely decolorized, **shadow- 
like." 

Spoeulation form. — In the tertian the spores are more 
or less irregularly grouped, individually small, round, 
whose nucleolus is seldom seen in unstained specimens, 
numbering 15 to 20 or somewhat less. The segmenting 
forms are about the size of a red disc, and are of irregu- 
lar form. The segmenting bodies are found in the peri- 
pheral blood rarely, or in small numbers only, except at 
the time of a paroxysm. In quartan malaria the spores 
exist in the margarite form, spores being individually 
long, with distinct nucleolus, 6-12 in number. The seg- 
menting forms are smaller than a red blood corpuscle, of 
a rosette form, are found in equal numbers in the peri- 
pheral and visceral circulations, and may be detected in 
the apyretic interval as well as in the paroxysms. In the 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 279 

aestivo-autumnal types the spores are irregularly formed 
or stellate, six to eight in number, possibly more, and 
segmentation occurs chiefly in internal organs. 

Crescents and Flaqblla. — The crescents are found 
only in the aestivo-autumnal forms, and represent a very 
resistant form of the organism. They may exist for 
months at a time withoutfever or other symptoms. They 
may be converted into round bodies, from which flagella- 
tion is frequently observed. We have not seen crescents 
apart from extreme anemia. Persisting as they do we 
can scarcely consider them solely as degenerate forms ; 
they impress us rather as resting stages. Flagella may 
be found in any type, though not frequently in quartan 
fevers. They may be seen when quinine has been pre- 
viously given, and have been considered by some as 
degenerate forms. They are but rarely seen in freshly 
shed blood, but we have seldom missed them when exam- 
ining a specimen for a long period, e. g. in clinic demon- 
strations. 

Individual Symptoms. — The diagnosis of individual or 
isolated cases is most intimately linked with the diagno- 
sis by blood examination. Certain malarial symptoms 
are not only immediate sequences of the malaria) infec- 
tion but are also most beautifully explained by the life 
cycle, life activity and metabolism of the organism. 

The melanemia corresponds with the structural disin- 
tegration of the hemoglobin of the red blood cells and its 
diffusion through the blood plasma. The anemia is 
secondary to reduction of the hemoglobin and diminution 
of the number of red blood corpuscles; in other words, to 
morphological hemodyscrasia. No leucocytosis is seen, 
save a transient apparent increase at the beginning of 
the paroxysm. The hemoglobin and red discs are des- 
troyed in equal degree. The anemia is rapidly produced; 
in fact, corpuscular deglobulization is more rapid than in 



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280 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

any other acute affection, and can be atilized to differen- 
tiate from pneumonia or typhoid fever. 

Each paroxysm being the ripening of a new generation 
of parasites, the fever corresponds to their sporulation 
and a saturation of* the blood with toxines liberated from 
the red blood cells. It is a chemical hemodyscrasia, or, 
as Manuaberg aptly puts it, a "protozoan sepsis," anala- 
gous to that discharge into the blood Rteam of infective 
material observed in septico-pyemia. 

We fully comprehend any clinical form of fever, when 
we realize that the fever is a toxic manifestation and 
that as often as the parasites segment, fever occurs. 
Hence two generations of tertian parasites cause quoti- 
dian fever, also caused by three generations of quartan 
parasites of unequal age. Quotidian continued fever 
accompanied by splenic tumor, the diazo-reaction, and 
even roseol© or slow pulse, may cause difficulty in diag- 
nosis from typhoid fever, especially as typhoid may be 
attended with chills and sweats. The blood examination 
speedily differentiates and Widal's serum test for typhoid 
is of grrat aid. The splentic tumor and bone pains are 
explained by the phagocytic process in their substance, 
the hemoglobinuria, diarrhea, retinae and other hemor- 
ahages by the toxemia, the cerebral symptoms, as coma, 
convulsions or bulbar symptoms, by aggregations of the 
parasite in the cerebral vessels with thrombosis. 



Casts of Bacillaria from the London Clay. 

By ARTHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D., 

NEWARK, N. J. 

The L )ndon clay is lower Eocene resting on the Cre- 
taceous II nd is below the Miocene Tertiary. The Eocene 
has not been examined in this and other countries for 
the diatoms in it but they are probably there. 

Mr. W. S. Schrubsole sent me some specimens from the 



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1897J MICaOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 281 

London clay. It is from beneath the Red Crag which is 
called the older Pliocene. There is no Miocene, which 
belongs between these, and we expect to find the diatoms 
very different. The forms that exist in the Pliocene are 
about the same that grow now. The Pliocene diatoms 
of England have not been studied. Some Pliocene are 
enumerated in a paper on the Diatomaceous deposit of 
the mud of Milford Haven and other localities, by Fitz- 
maurice Okeden, in Vol. Ill, 1855. The celebrated 
Glenshira sand which is described in the same volume is 
most likely correlative with the Champlain clay, the 
Raised Coast Period of our shores, judging from the dia- 
toms in it. 

The London clay consists of a brown or bluish grey 
clay, containing layers of concretions called septaria, — 
''flattened nodules of calcareous clay, iron stone or other 
matter, internally divided into numerous angular com- 
partments by articulating fissues which are usually filled 
with calcareous spar and show well against the darker 
matrix of the nodule." Now that we know something 
about the power of calcareous matter to replace siliceous 
in organisms, for which we are indebted to the researches 
of Sollas, Hinde, Zittel, Hill and Jukes-Browne, we can 
reason as to what septaria are or were. Most likely they 
were siliceous sponges. One author thinks tliat "the 
reticulating fissues or septa (hence septaria) seem to have 
arisen from shrinkage of the mass while in tlio act of 
consolidation, and to have been subsequently filled by 
infiltration. Such argilaceous, calcareous, and ferrugin- 
ous nodules are common in many clays and mails, as in 
the shale of the coal formations, in the Oxford chiy, in the 
London and Barton clays. They are often arranged in 
lines and bands; are always more or less flattened; gen- 
erally oontain some central organic nucleus round which 
the matter has aggregated, such as a leaf, scale, coprolite 
or the like ; and when split up in the direction of the 



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282 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

stratification, frequently exhibit very curiously marked 
sections. Hence the names; beetle stones, turtle stones, 
Ludi helmontii and the like. The fossil species of the 
Island of Sheppy indicate a much more tropical climate 
than the Eocene flora of Prance. The coast was sunk 
lower then and was warmer. The larger fossils are more 
tropical and the Bacillaria are more tropical. We find 
specimens of Arachnoidiscus there. It is comparatively 
a scarce form in that region. One specimen has been 
seen in England and one in Ireland. It is common in 
the Pacific states being brought to that coast by the Kura- 
Sigra or Janauss current from Japan where it is com- 
mon also. 

Cleaning the London clay carefully and viewing it by 
means of the microscope transparently, it is seen to con- 
tain sparsely certain discs that are black; and looking 
them over some will be seen semi-transparent and so 
fashioned as to show that they are diatoms. They were 
first Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, — little discs with 
hexagonal markings all over them. The London clay 
diatoms show the structure much more clearly than can 
usually be seen in transparent specimens. The cell mem- 
brane, which is colloid silica is removed and an internal 
cast of the cells shown. When they are viewed by front 
view they are seen to be curved outward on the interior 
and exterior, which is to say they are almost spherical. 
The specimen looks as if the disc consisted of a series of 
spherical balls set along side of one another. The mater- 
ial of which the black substance is composed is pyrite 
iron pyrites or sulphide of iron, formed by iron sulphate 
in the salt water in which the diatoms occurred acting on 
the organic matter of the diatoms, the protoplasm, which 
was decomposed, the oxygen being set free and the iron 
and sulphur thrown down as sulphide of iron. The dia- 
toms can be seen when viewed with reflected light to be 
glistening, almost gold-colored, particles. A ring look- 



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1897] MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 283 

ing like diatoms is seen which is most likely Melosira 
sulcata though the diatoms are in a stage that their spe- 
cific nature cannot be made out clearly. There is also 
the Coscinodiscus, a cast of a Triceratium but the species 
is in distinguishableas the cast is opaque, lignite or pyrite. 
There is also a silicious shell of Stephonopyxis turris. 
The Triceratium looks like a cast of T. undulatam and 
perhaps should be placed there. Sometimes the change 
has taken place in the sileceous shells themselves. In 
that case the casts look like diatoms. Instead of being 
transparent they are made up of dark substance, lignite 
or pyrite, and the cavity with the lorica is not marked 
at all. 

As Bacillaria are in the London clay and it is marine 
also we can carry the Bacillaria down to the lower Eocene 
in Geologic time. 



Notes on Formalin. 

By GEO. S. LIGGETT, M. D., 

OSWEGO, KANS. 

Every microscopist should have some formalin on hiH 
work-table, especially the physician who uses a micro- 
scope. It will preserve specimens indefinitely and will 
harden a specimen so that an expert can make sections 
without any other preparation. I believe it will prove 
to be the most excellent preservative we have ever hjid. 
There is much tolearn about it however. 

Over a year ago I had a case of acute Hematuria. The 
urine seemed all blood. I had an eight-ounce specimen. 
After examining it and in order to keep it from decay I 
added some formalin. Next day I was surprised to find 
it coagulated. It has remained in that condition ever 
siDce. The bottle is nearly filled with a soft and dirty 
greyish coagula. In the bottom there is about an inch 
of a very hard and d^rk coagula. Examination of it now 



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284 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

shows in the soft coagula, red blood cells that look nor- 
mal. I thrust a tube into the hard coagulaand obtained 
a piece from which sections could be cut. It is a mass 
of blood cells. A few of them are normal in size and 
shape. The most of them are contracted and round and 
cupped. I have stained and mounted specimens that have 
been kept so long. 

Not long ago when using some formalin that hadbeeu 
left in an open dish for several days, I noticed that there 
was a number of dead flies around. I wish some one 
who has had experience in using the vapor as a disinfec- 
tant by burning in these new lamps, would observe and 
report whether it will kill flies. To test the question 
further myself I put some formalin in a saucer-like dish, 
in which I had melted some paraffin and in which was 
quite a good deal of the paraffin remaining. I did not 
find many dead flies but I noticed another peculiarity of 
its action that may prove useful to some one who knows 
how to take advantage of it. I found the paraffin 
changed into a white friable powder. I heated some of it 
and found that it gave oflF fumes of formalin in great 
quantity. It will not melt like normal paraffin. 



Bacteriological Researhecs Regarding an Epidemic of Horses 
now Prevelent in Canada. 

By Db. BENOIT, and Dr. PARIFEAU. 

Some researches are being carried on in the laboratories 
of the hospital of Notre Dame regarding the nature of 
a contageous epidemic which is now prevaling among 
horses. The legs of the sick horses are covered with 
fistules which give birth, to an infectious suppuration. 

The grooms who have to dress the sores of the sick 
animals are nearly all attacked on the arm or on the 
hands with an ulcer of innoculation, followed by ganglions 
pains and hypertrophies in the small of the arms and in 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 285 

tbe arm-pits. At the same time they show all the signs 
of a light general infection, — headache, insomnia, fever, 
chilliness and loss of appetite. It is stated that the horses 
are cured in about twelve days and they have no discharge 
from the nose neither any signs of pulmonary aflfection. 
Yet this disease was credited for some time to farcin for 
the examination of diflFerent specimens of pus from dif- 
ferent horses, taken with precaution in sterilized pipettes 
have shown, under the microscope, the bacillus short, 
in little chains, in a clean space, characteristic of the 
glanders. But cultures upon gelatine and boulion give 
only "staphylocoques dores purs." It is a question 
then what this horse epidemic is. 



The Physician and his Microscope. 

By a. a. young, M. D., 

NKVVARK N. Y. 

One of the most expensive and one of the most useless 
pieces of office furniture that the ordinary physician pos- 
sesesib his microscope. It usually occupies a most com- 
manding and conspicuous place in the office and decora- 
led with *'fuss and feathers;" valueless as an educator, 
valuable for the macroscopicnl appearances of the micro- 
scope, fo.r it is capable of producing wonder and awe to 
the office visitor and shekels to the pocket of the physician. 

Nothing can be said against the microscope as an 
instrument, for its value resides in its intelligent use, 
and unless used intelligently it becomes worse than use- 
less, distorting facts and fancies alike, from which the 
observer can form no concept, can draw no conclusion 
save an erroneous one. The physician has to deal with 
the organic world, with those material forms in which 
resides that peculiar, unresolvable and unknowable agent 
we call life, and without which matter becomes «ompara- 
tively valueless. 



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286 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

The microscope in the department of medicine requires 
for its intelligent manipulation a familiarity with anatomy, 
pathology, bacteriology, and last, but not least, biology, 
which subject scarcely ever enters into a medical college 
curriculum. We, as physicians, must deal with material 
forms that are endowed with life, and of that relation 
which exists between the material form and life we must 
have some concept, though it be partial and inadequate, 
for on the relation of things material or immaterial is 
the development of human thought possible. The life 
force of the bacillus is doubtless as intricate as the life 
force of the human subject and may be similar if not 
identical with it ; for what is the body in which the ego 
resides more than an aggregation of araebw specialized, 
and each ameba possibly having an independent life and 
having reproductive properties of its own. It is with 
the minute mass of matter, not the molecule, that the 
microscopist has to deal ; he sees its manner and method 
of growth and not the forces which produce the molecular 
arrangement of the ultimate particles. 

It is not enough that the physician be able to observe 
and diflferentiate the various forms of the micrococcus, 
spirillum or bacillus : he must know as well the habitat, 
manner and method of growth of each variety. Without 
this knowledge the revelations of the microscope are no 
more intelligible than some Egyptian inscriptions. There 
is a philosophy of microscopy which is equally as valuable 
as the facts on which it is based, but a philosophy that 
can only be developed by accurate observation and classi- 
fication of microscopical data. This work, it is evident 
must be performed by the skilled microscopist and not 
by the novice, in which class the busy practitioner is 
usually found. In microscopical analysis no element 
relative to accuracy can with safety be omitted. It 
matters not though the microscopical accessoriei> be 
thoroughly cleansed and sterilized, for the results would 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 287 

be equally untrustworthy if the material to be examined 
be placed in a receptacle, found perhaps in some old 
garr<it and half cleansed. Conclusions reached under 
such conditions must be erroneous. Do you ask who 
ever allows such procedures ? Go to the home of the 
amateur or psteudo-microscopist, observe his methods and 
technique and you will have the answer. It is surpris- 
ing how much we see, how much we assume and how 
little we know. A young physician asks an older 
one for the use of his microscope to examine a specimen 
of urine, assuring its owner that he is familiar with the 
instrument, having had instruction in college; permis- 
sion granted, and slide prepared, and the observer 
exclaims, "The most beautifui specimen of a cast I have 
ever seen;" the owner of the instrument says, ''That 
looks like vegetable matter and not a cast,*' "No," said 
the other, "that is a urinary cast; I have seen many of 
them.*' A microscopical examination of the container 
and its contents revealed a corncob for a cork; what the 
cast was yoa may readily infer. 

A physician of several years' standing and the posses- 
sor of a good microscope at an autopsy of his announced 
thai the patient's death was due to a disease of the kid- 
neys, that she had been passing blood, pus, all forms of 
casts and other bad material with the urine. The autopsy, 
however, revealed ulceration with pus formation, degen- 
eration and rupture of the gall-bladder, produced by 
impacted gall-stones, while the kidneys were practically 
normal, showing no structural degeneration. From 
whence, then, came the blood, pus, casts and debris, 
whieli was alleged to have been seen ? These cases 
ciiuhl have been none other than of mistaken identity ; 
something was inferred that did not exist. 

The conclusion in therefore reached, justly or otherwise, 
that the eye and understanding must be educated inclo- 
peudently along certain lines before the manin il aiiou of 



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288 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

the microscope becomes satisfactory and trustworthy; 
objects must be seen and known relatively and in their 
entirety before being resolved into their component ele- 
ments: the macroscopical appearance of an object must 
precede its microscopical appearance. 

The physician must know in what menstruum and 
under what conditions the objects for which he is search- 
ing exists or are developed. Neither is it enough for 
him to know and recognise the various forms of bacilli ; 
he must be able to cL'issify them and know their manner 
and method of growth, what they produce by their 
growth and what influence they have upon humanity. 
This is the philosophy of microscopy as relates to medi- 
cal science. The microscope therefore becomes to the 
physician valuable in the degree that he is able to classify 
and arrange its revelations so that they may be read as 
from an open book. This faculty means a familiarity 
with the instrument born of time, — time which the 
"country doctor'* must give by piecemeal, if at all. 

I am no pessimist, although I see in a degree the pass- 
ing of the microscope so far as it relates to the individ- 
ual work of the ordinary medical practioner. As already 
intimated, this passing is induced and sustained by 
unskilled and untrained eyes, which see much and indi- 
vidualize little. 

The structure of microscopy, if it be enduring, must 
be built upon a comparatively errorless macroscopy. The 
rank and file still have to learn that the microscope only 
enables the investigator tv continue his eyesight so as to 
observe the primary structure of an organised mass that 
would otherwise remain unknown and unknowable. 

The first essential, then, for a physician microscopist 
is the proper use of his eyes, supplemented by a keen 
intellect; what he sees he must be able to describe 
accurately, thus differentiating the various forms and fig- 
ures that appear in the visual field. 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 289 

Neither is it enough for him to recognise an object in 
an isolated condition and know its form and constraction : 
he must know as well what relation it sustains to other 
objects about it. This calls for the wise exercise of the 
comparative faculty, the second essential for the physi- 
cian microscopist ; indeed, these two elements may be 
called his eyes. With these faculties undeveloped, 
untrained, he may as well'be a blind microscopist. What 
is true of normal vision is pre-eminently true of iiided 
vision, which aid the microscope is, but it produces 
changes also in the relative conditions of objects, and of 
such changes the mind must take cognisance ; it is an 
element too often overlooked. In short, the revelations 
of the microscope become the alphabet and the system- 
atic arrangement of these revelations in the human mind 
fo'rms its language, a language that requires study to 
comprehend ; a language also that needs much further 
development and amplification. Physicians, as a rule, 
can be novices only in microscopical science, following 
where others lead ; they stand at your feet, at the feet of 
the raicroscopists of the world, in the relation of pupil to 
teacher, asking for more light to illuminate the intrica- 
cies of human existence. 

Give to them this light ; save for them the microscope 
with all of its powers and possibilities which are vast ; 
prevent it by your efforts from relapsing into a state of 
"innocuous desuetude." 



Notes on Technique. 

By PIERRE A. FISH, D. Sc, 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y. 

In many of the modern articles, the methods by which 
certain pathological structures are demonstrated, if men- 
tioned at all, are frequently so meager in the description 
of important details as to be practically useless to many 



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290 f lifi AMERICAIJ MONTHLY [Sept 

workers, unless a certain amount of their time is devoted 
to experimentation. A person, who has obtained fairly 
PUQcessful results with his older methods, is loath to for- 
sake them, especially if his first few attempts with the 
new are failures. Bach investigator may have certain 
laboratory conveniences ; reagents of the best quality and 
dyes that have been well tested, all of which will enable 
him to obtain results much superior to his less fortunate 
colleague. It is diflBcult, therefore, to work successfully 
unless details are carefully attended to, and the reasons 
for the various steps understood. The methods following 
have been well tested, and have been attended with uni- 
formly good results, which in some cases, it is believed, 
would have ended in failure with the older methods. 

FIXATION. 

The fixation of pathological tissues, with strong alcohol 
for histological study, is very commonly employed for 
the double purpose of killing at once any microorganism 
that may be present and at the same time to preserve 
the structure of the part. With many tissues this 
caused a too rapid withdrawal of the contained water or 
lymph, so that the specimen becomes hard and gives 
unsatisfactory results when it comes to the cutting pro- 
cess. 

Some experiments with diflFerent reagents, upon known 
pathological material, were of service in formulating a 
mixture, which obviated the defects of strong alcohol 
when used alone. This mixture, while quickly killing 
the bacteria, also preserves most faithfully the histologi- 
cal structure. Various solutions of formalin, including 
the undiluted, were employed, and gave good results, 
particularly the presentation of the bacteria, after the 
usual staining methods. The tissues were more or less 
swollen by the weaker solutions, in marked contrast to 
the contraction caused by alcohol. Various combinations 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 291 

of formalin with alcohol were also tried, and that which 
seemed to be most completely satisfactory for quick pen- 
etration and convenience, bacteriologically and histo- < 
logically, was as follows : 

95 per cent alcohol 100 parts. 

Commercial formalm (40 per cent formic aldehyde). 10 psrtd. 

Pieces of tissue, i centimeter square, are well fixed in 
from twelve to twenty-four hours, after which it is well 
to leave for a few hours in 96 per cent alcohol before 
clarifying for the paraffin bath. Specimens, transferred 
directly from the fixing mixture, have been clarified in 
chloroform or cedar oil, but it requires a longer time. 

The addition of the formalin is advantageous, because 
in a way it brings about a state of equilibrium. The 
alcohol alone shrinks the tissue while on the other hand 
formalin swells it, so that in this respect the one reacts 
against the other. 

ADHESION TO THE SLIDE. 

After the infiltration and imbedding of the tissue in 
paraffin, the question of the treatment of the sections is 
one of some importance. If they are to be carried 
through a series of reagents in watch glasses, and not 
placed upon the slide until they are mounted, the sec- 
tions must necessarily be rather thick, in order to with 
stand the manipulation. Very much thinner sections, if 
adherent to the slide, and consequently supported by it, 
can be carried through the different steps of the process 
without injury, and show the structural elements to much 
better advantage. 

The albumen or collodion adhesive, usually employed 
for this purpose, however, possesses the disadvantage of 
taking the aniline colors used in bacteriology; sufficiently 
to disfigure the preparations. If a clean slide be coated 
with a thin film of glycerine and then rubbed very nearly 
dry with a cloth or the hand, and a drop or two of 35 per 



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^92 THE AMERIOAN MONTHLY [S^Pt 

cent alcohol be placed apou it, the section, if curled, will 
tend to flatten itself when placed on the alcohol. If the 
slide now be placed in a thermostat for a few hours, at a 
t^.mperature near the melting'point of paraflBn, the heat 
will cause any wrinkles or irregularities of the section to 
disappear; the alcohol slowly evaporates and when the 
slide is thoroughly dry the albumen molecules of th<* tis- 
sue adhere quite firmly to the slide, as noted by Gaule. 
After this the slide may be heated gently over a flame 
until the paraffin begins to melt. If any moisture remains 
the section will be quite likely to loosen during the latter 
stages. Thick sections tio not adhere so firmly as ih.u 
ones. The slides may then be immersed in a jar of tur- 
pentine or any solvent of paraflSn and carried through 
the various grades of alcohol to water. 

A shorter method, in which there is as firm adhesiou 
of the section to the slide, is to bring the slide incontvut 
with aniline oil for a few minutes after the treatment with 
the turpentine, absorbing the superfluous turpentine with 
filter paper. The aniline oil is also removed by means 
of filter paper. The section is then thoroughly washed in 
diHtilled water which removes the oil, and the tissue is 
then stained and washed in water. If aniline stains are 
used, a hurried rinsing is sufficient. Drain or absorbe the 
water and again apply the aniline oil. Besides clearing 
the section the oil tends to remove the aniline stain and 
care must be exercised in not letting this process go too 
far. Displace the aniline oil with xylol and mount in 
balsam. The color ought not to fade if the aniline oil 
has been thoroughly removed. 

With certain stains, or combinations of them, the ani- 
line oil may not succee^ in preserving the sharp defini- 
tion of the color. Under such conditions the section, 
after staining, may be treated directly with absolute 
alcohol to dehydrate and remove any superfluous stain. 
Some aniline dyes are not as soluble in absolute alcohol 



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189*7] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 293 

as in the weaker grades. Clear in xylol and mount in 
balsam. 

The use of aniline oil in the treatment of the sections 
will be recognised as as having been recommended by 
Weigert for bacterial purposes. It likewise gives most 
excellent results in ordinary histological work and is a 
saving of time and material. 

MOUNTING. 

Many valuable specimens are ruined for the want of 
sufficient precaution in the preparation of the balsam. In 
its commercial state it contains many volatile principles 
and traces of acids, which, in the course of time, act upon 
the specimen and diminishes or entirely removes the color. 
All this may be lessened, if the balsam be heated suffici- 
ently to drive off the volatile constituents, or more 
thoroughly obviated if a little potassium carbonate or 
mild alkali be added to neutralize the acid just before 
the balsam is heated. When the balsam becomes hard 
it can be broken into flakes and stored. When wanted 
for use dissolve in xylol to the desired consistency and 
filter through absorbent cotton. Specimens stained with 
the Biondi-Ehrlich mixture (which fades so easily) have 
at the end of a year shown no signs of losing their pris- 
tine clearness. Trans, A, M. 8. 



EDITORUL. 



Powders Identified by Pollen. — The Jour, of Pharma- 
cology contains an interesting paper, by Mr. Chas. Pfister, 
on the pollen of some officinal herbs, his inquiry having 
been undertaken with the view of determining whether 
the powdered drugs could be recognized by means of any 
pollen which they may contain. Mr. Poster's conclusion 
is that they can, and he submits figures and descriptions 
which corroborate his statement. Thus the pollen of 
horehound is squarish oblong, green and smooth ; that of 



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294 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

worm-wood smooth, elliptical, and yellowish, some grains 
resembling a three-leaved clover. Mr. Pfister's notes do 
not profess to be exhaustive, but they are sugfgfestive,and 
are worth following- up. He mounted the pollen in sweet- 
almond oil, without previous preparation, and finished 
with a ring" of gold size. 



MICROSCOPIGAL APPARATUS. 

The Micromotoscope. — Dr. Robert L. Watkins says that 
living microscopic objects may be presented on a screen 
with an instrument which he calls a micromotoscope. 
After overcoming several obstacles he found it possible to 
do this directly by the use of a special arc light, but the 
one great obstacle — heat — dried the specimens sopromptly 
that the living objects were killed and the method had to 
be abandoned. The appearance of the vitascope, however, 
suggested the possibility of applying some such method 
to the studies he was pursuing. This proved perfectly 
successful. By means of this instrument he discovered 
that the active motion of living microscopic objects could 
readily be photographed. By using from fifty to a hun- 
dred and fifty feet of the vitascopic film, and taking a series 
of impressions in sufficiently rapid succession, he has been 
able to secure pictures which when passed through a lan- 
tern at the same rate of speed will present on a screen all 
the motions of the objects photographed, and can be wit- 
nessed by an audience of any size. 

Dr. Watkins thinks that the value of this discovery can 
not be overestimated, not only for use in studying the vital 
processes of microscopic life, but also as a method of 
teaching students and the public. In his investigations, 
this method has been applied more especially to the study 
of blood-corpuscles, and he states that the active motion 
of the leucocyte can thus be readily reproduced. It may 
be seen to stretch out its fingerlike prolongations and then 
retract them. The nucleus may also be seen to vary its 
shape, to split up into two or more, and sometimes the cell 
itself to divide into many parts. 



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1897.] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 295 

The accurate reproduction of these various vital pro- 
cesses of cell life, he thinks, will be of g-reat assistance in 
revealing the exact condition of the blood, and help us to 
get one step nearer the ultimate processes of life. Dr. 
Watkins does not hesitate to say that various cells now 
known by different names will be found to be only transi- 
tion forms of the leucocyte. The amoeboid motion of the 
leucocyte continues sometimes for fully twenty-four hours 
after the blood is placed on the slide of the microscope. 

There is another field of usefulness in which the micro- 
motoscope may prove of service, and that is in the study 
of the life of microbes in stale urine and other fermenting* 
fluids, and in the study of the motile efforts of all micros- 
copic g'erms and bacilli. 

To secure an appearance of continuous motion, these 
pictures must be taken in rapid succession, allowing an 
exposure of from one fiftieth toone twenty-fifth of a second; 
and to complete a full cycle of motion, as in the expansion 
and contraction of a leucocyte, requires from. eight hun- 
dred to fifteen hundred successive pictures. The time 
between the first and the second photographs is two minu- 
tes; the others are fifteen minutes apart; allowing an 
exposure of from one to two seconds. The impression 
made by their rapid passage before the eye when placed 
in a vitascope gives the sensation of continuous motion. 



MICBOSCOPIGAL MANIPULATION. 



Separation of Diatoms, etc., from Sand. — For this 
purpose we use certain liquids of high specihc gravity, 
such as are used in minerological operations, and we 
commend the following : 

Brown's liquid: Methylene iodine, which has a specific 
gravity of 3.3. By adding iodoform to this, this figure is 
raised to 3.45, while iodine increases it to 3.65. 

Klein's liquid: Potassium-boro-wolframin, the specific 
gravity of which is 3.28. 

Rohrbach's liquid: Barium-mercury iodine, s. g., 3.58. 

Toulet's liquid: Sodium-mercury-iodide, s. g., 3.19. 



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296 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

Other liquids are: Silver iodide dissolved in concentrated 
solution of silver nitrate, which makes an oily, brown 
liquid of s. g-., 5.00. Thallium-silver nitrate, melting at 
75 C, s. gf., 4.1. Concerning- this last named chemical the 
Bayerische Industrie und Gewerbeblatt has the following 
information: 

The specific g-ravity and the melting- point of thallium- 
silver nitrite fall as the proportion of thallium nitrate is 
increased, thus, while the latter substance has a specific 
gravity of 5.00, and a melting point of 250, the addition of 
1 part of silver nitrate to 4 parts of the thallium salt 
decreases the melting point to 200 degrees C, and the s. g., 
to 4.9. Three parts of silver nitrate to 4 parts of thallium 
nitrate bring the s. g. down to 4.7 and the melting point to 
100 degrees C. 

All the above are soluble in, or miscible with water in 
every proportion. In using them the material is thrown 
on the liquid, and floats or sinks according to its specific 
gravity. — Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mikroskopie. 

Pastes and Cements for Photographs and Other Pur- 
poses. — From a recent publication on the recent progress 
and novelties in photographic technique, by Eder and 
Valenta, the Drogesten Zeitung takes the following for- 
mulae for pastes: — 

PASTES CONTAINING STARCH. 

Gum arable 4 parts. 

Starch 3 parts. 

Sugar I part. 

Water suflficient. 

Dissolve the gum arabic in sufficient water to take up 
the starch; rub up together, add the sugar, and heat the 
whole on a water-bath until the starch is completely con- 
verted. 

CoLLODiNE. — This is simply a paste made by treating 
starch with water rendered strongly alkaline, whereby the 
substance is rendered soluble. 

Triticine. — This is a paste made of dextrin and starch 
in equal parts, in water, the starch being made soluble by 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 297 

heat. A little glycerine is added to make the paste pliable 
and elastic when dry, and a little boric acid or thymol, or 
both, to prevent fermentation. 

DEXTRIN PASTIC — MUCILAGE. 

1. Dextrin 50 — 90 parts. 

AluiQ 4 parts. 

Sugar 75 parts. 

Water 120 parts. 

Carbolic ac d solution, 10 per cent 60 parts. 

Mix. 

2. Gum arabic* 4 parts. 

Water 8 parts. 

Glycerine i part. 

Neutral spirit 3 parts. 

Mix. 

3. Gum arabic 70 parts. 

Water 200 parts. 

Aluminum sulphate 2 parts. 

Dissolve the aluminum sulphate in a small portion of 
the water, and the gum arabic in the rest, and mix the 
solutions. This m.ikes a very strong and excellent mucil- 
age, the addition of the aluminum sulphate giving it great 
strength and adhesiveness. 

PASTES CONTAINING GELATIN OK GLUE. 

The following is recommended to the trade as a most 
"excellent paste for every possible purpose." 

Gelatin or best glue 2 parts. 

Water 6 parts. 

Pour the water over the glue and let stand over night, 
or until the glue is swollen and soft throughout, then put 
on a water-bath and heat gently until the glue is melted. 
Add from 1 to 2 parts of chloral hydrate and let digest 
under gentle heat for some time. The resultant fluid is a 
liquid glue of great tenacity and keeping properties. 
Another formula is as follows: 

Bestglue 40 parts. 

Water 100 parts. 

Treat the glue as before, by letting stand over night 
and melting in the water-bath. In the hot liquid stir 40 



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298 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

parts of starch, a little at a time, with constant stirring, 
until the starch is converted. Then add 5 to 10 parts of 
oil of turpentine, and stir in. This glue should be warmed 
up till lurkwarm before using-. Finally, a very powerful 
cement is made as follows: 

Cover 100 parts of gelatin with cold water, and let 
stand until the gelatin has absorbed as much of the water 
as it will take up. Pour off the residual water and get rid 
of the last traces of surplus by throwing the gelatin on 
coarse cloth. Melt in the water-bath as before and to the 
liquid add 150 parts of alcohol, 500 parts of water, 50 parts 
of glycerin and 20 parts of carbolic acid. 



BACTEBIOLOGT. 



Bacillus Coli communis. — It has been known for many 
years that certain micro-organisms found in animal dejecta 
decomposed alkaline nitrates with formation of oxygen, 
which is utilized by the bacteria, free nitrogen, and libera- 
tion of the base. One of these organisms is the Bacillus 
Coli communis, and Hugounec & Doyon have recently pre- 
sented a memoir on this subject at a meeting of the Paris 
Society of Biology. They find that by reversing a tube 
of a sterilized solution of potassium nitrate in peptone, 
sown with Bacillus Coli over a tube of mercury, that after 
some hours several cubic centimeters of nitrogen are lib- 
erated by the denitrifying action of the bacillus. The 
nitrate solution was found to be most strongly acted upon 
when containing about 1.5 per cent. On testing with 
Kberth's bacillus similar results were obtained. 

Smegma Bacillus. — Grethe (Fortschr. der Med., May, 
1S<H)) points out the need of some simple method of diflfer- 
erentiating the sme^^ma bacillus from the tubercle. The 
inui)ility to distinj^uish between these two germs has led 
to serious, results in a number of instances; in one case a 
supposed tubercular kidney was removed, but upon sub- 
sequent examination it was found that there was present 
only calculous pyelitis. In this case supposed tubercle 
bacilli were found in the urine. A number of other cases 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 299 

have been reported in which similar errors have occurred. 
Grethe has found that reliable results are obtained by 
staining- with a concentrated alcoholic methylene blue. 
This stains the smeg-ma bacillus well; and if the prepara- 
tion be first stained in the ordinary manner with carbol 
fuchsin, the tubercle bacillus, if present, is easily identi- 
fied by its red color contrasting^ with the blue of the rest 
of the preparation, including- the sraeg-ma bacillus. 



VEDIGAL HIGROSGOPT. 



The Recognition of Diabetis by Examination of the 
Blood. — Bremer shows, in the Journal der Pharmacie von 
Elsass -Loth ring-en, how it may be effected by the aid of the 
microscope, in demonstrating- the g-rape sugar reaction in 
that vital fluid. He says: 

Mix equaf volumes of saturated solutions of eosin and 
methylene blue and pour the mixture on a filter as soon as 
the precipitdte ceases to fall. Collect the precipitate 
after washings on the filter, dry it carefully, and pulverize 
it very finely. To this powder add 24 parts of eosin and 6 
parts of methylene blue, also in fine powder. This will 
make a redish-brown powder. 

The blood to be examined is spread in a very thin layer 
over a cover-j^lass, another cover beings smeared with a 
drop from some person known to be healthy, the latter 
serving- for purposes of comparison. 

After drying^, put the two cover-g-lasses simultaneously 
in a mixture of alcohol and ether in equal parts, put over 
the waterbath and let boil for four minutes. Remove and 
put in a solution made by dissolving- from 25 mg^m. to 3 
cg-m. of the mixed powder described above in 10 g^m. of 
33 per cent alcohol (alcohol 1 part, distilled water 2 parts), 
Th's solution, we should remark, should be freshly pre- 
pared on each occasion that it is required. 

Leave the cover in the stain for about four minutes, 
remove, rinse with water, and examine under the micro- 
scope. If diabetes be present in the person whose blood 
is under examination the latter will be colored a blue- 



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300 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Sept 

black, while normal blood, takes on a red-violet. In all 
cases where possible, for the sake of absolute certainty, 
the urine should be tested for gflucose by any of the well- 
known reactions. 

Yellow Fever Microbes. — Dr. Havelburg- announces 
that the mirobe which he considers the specific cause of 
yellow fever is found only in the stomach and intestines, 
but is cultivated by injecting it subcutaneously intog^uinea 
pigs. He finds that a previous injection of blood from a 
yellow fever convalescent renders an animal immune to an 
otherwise fatal dose of injection of the cultivated microbe. 
— O Brazil Medico. 



inCROSCOPICAL S0CIETIE8. 



Quekett Microscopical Club. 

The 352nd meeting of this club was held on June 18tb. 
It was voted to alter rule 1 of the club's bye-laws making 
the vacation three months instead of two, as heretofore. 
Meetings will be resumed in October. 

R. and J. Beck exhibited a portable binocular microscope 
with the stage and sub-stage entirely removable for con- 
venience in packing, Mr. Nelson did not see why this 
arrangement should be less practical and rigid than the 
more complicated and expensive revolving movement 
usually employed. Mr. Nelson described the performance 
of Leitz's new semi-apochromatic 1 — 10th oil immersion 
objective of 1*3 N. A,, which he thought was the finest 
lens yet produced at anything like the price — viz., $18.00. 
He also exhibited one of his new-formula reflecting loups, 
and a fine series of enlargements of his well-known photo- 
micrographs of diatom structure. Mr. A. Earland read a 
paper on collecting Foraminiferous material, including 
directions for cleaning and mounting. Mr. Rousselet 
read a paper on the male of Proales w^ernecki — a rotifer the 
females of which produce galls on Vaucheria, in which 
they reside and deposit their eggs. 



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A NEW EDITION OF 

^ISL. llsLTXTSOM St SONS* 

lUustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, Objectives 
and Accessories. 

lu it will he foand fullj described all the latest itnprovemeutB aod deslf(os 
of the Watsou loBtraments, also maoy new kinds of accessories incladingtbo 
following : 

A SERIES OF NEW PARACHROMATIC 

MICROSCOPIC OBJECTIVES, 

These Tjenses will be found to possess large apertures, to be of unifbrui qoml- 
ity. and to be as low in price as any Objectives in the niarket. They are 
constructed almost entirely of Jena Glass. 

The ibUowing are selected from the Serie^ 



PUWKU. 


N. A. 


PRICE. 


POWER. 


N. A. 


PRICE 


1-2 inch 


0.34 


Xl.2.6 


2-3 in. 


0.28 


Xl.5.0 


1-4 inch 


0.68 


1.5.0 


1-6 in. 


0.87 


1.10.0 


1-8 inch 


0.88 


2.0.0 


1-9 in. 


0.90 


.5.0 


Hoiuo^e neons 


Immersion. 










18 inch 


1-20 


4.15.0 


1-12 in. 


1.25 


5.0.0 



W. WATSON & SONS' 

New ** PARACHROMATIC" Substage Condenser. 

This oondeuser has a total aperture of 1.0 N. A., has an extremely larg« 
Aplattatic Aperture, exceeding .90 N. A. Its power is 2-7 inch, and with 
the front lens removed, 4.10 inch. It is mounted with Iris Diaphragm and 
rei'olviug carrier for stops for dark ground iind oblique illn mi nation. The 
IriH DiHphragiu is divided so as to indicate the K. A. at rhich the oondenser 
IS euiployed. The diameter of the back lens is 5-8 inch. 

PRICE COMPLETE X3.15. 

APLANTIC MAGNIFIERS. 

In addition to W. Watson & Sons' well-known regular series they are 
working Mr. E. M. Nelson's new form, magnifying 15 diameters, which gives 
great working distance and large aperture. It is believed to be oneqaslled 
by any similar lens for qualities. 

PRICED — in German silver mount, pocket form 15.6. 
For dissecting, in wooden box 14.6. 

Tbe above catalogue will be mailed post-free on appHcation. 
MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS. 

Wateon & Sons hold a stock of 40,000 specimens all of the highest cJass, 
foraiiog undoubtedly the finest collection in the world. Full classified list 
forward post-free on application to 

iA^, iA^KTSON St SONS 

(ESTABLISHED 1837) 
(»>nCIANS TO H. M. GOVERNMENT. 
313 High Hoi bom, London, W. C; and 78 Swanston Street, Melbonme, 

Australia. 
Awarded 38 Gold and other medals at Intemational'Exhibitions indoding 
5 Highest Awards al^ the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893. 2 Gold Medals, PArte 
Universal Exhibition 1889 Ac. Ac. 
NOTE — ^The postage on letters to England is 5 cents, or postal oaids 2 i 



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WANT, SALE AND EXCHANGE NOTiCES. 



FOR SALE. —First class Botanical mooDta, 25 oeoto. Send for list ; alio 
wiU exchauge. \, PERCY BLACKMAN, Sandy Hook, Omn. 

FOR SALE.— Tolled 1-10 objective, L 42 N A, one of his latest and belt 
Also 1-12 Powell & Jjclaud apochromatic objective, 1.40 N. A, naw. 

C. E. BLAKE & GO., Adams Express Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

READ the uice stories in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. Yon can save 
50 cents, (club rate) by subscribing for Lippincott throng ns. 

MICROSCOPICAL PUB. CO. 

FOR SALE. — Nicely mounted slides uf Rhinoceros horn, at 40 cents €acfa> 
H. H. DAVISON, 41 Sumner St., Pautncket, R, L 

FOR SALE —Pritfhard's Infusoria (latest edition, colored plates) and 
Smith's British Diatomawae (2 vols., uncut). Tliese works are very scsroe 
and can only be got.as in this case, when a microtomist finishes using them. 
Price $60. No Sig. , Care C. W . SMILEY. 

FOR EXCHANC;E.--The Museum of Ha mline University desirea to ex- 
change Atlantic Shells, preserved specimens of Marine Zoology of microscopic 
slip slides for zoological specimens especially Rodents in the flesh firom 
Southwestern United States. Correspcmdence solicited. 

HENRY L. OSBORN, Uamline Univ., 6t Paul, MionesoU. 

ARRANGED DIATOMS. I furnish the most artistitic arrang^meots of 
diatoms in slides at $5.00 each. Your name can be made from difiereot 
species. Roosters, hen and chickens, and booqaets of floweia in battoflj 
scales and diatoms from $5.00. Refer to the Editor of this JonmaL 

.Micrcscopical Specialties. 

KING'S CEMENTS ^•^""^"^"^"^^Ttbeywui^-ui.it 

KING'S GLYCERINE JELLY is unsurpassed. 
THE KING MICBOTOMB is the best for botaaical worL 

Send for ftiU lilt of gpedalUm, 

J« D. KING, Cottage City, Mass. 
INVEBTEBRATB DISSECTIONS. 

Second Ediium ; Revised and QreaU^ Enlarped. 

DESIGNED to snit the requirements of high school or ooHege, or to goide 
any who may desire to pnrsne an elementary course of practicil or theoretical 
invertebrate soology. It contains working directions for the study of fiffy 
types, from all classes and orders of Invertebrates, attention being chiefly 
called to common and easily obtained forms ; notes on habits and modes <7 
capture, and items to observe on living aoimals ; bibliographical refenooe to 
some of the most accessible literature of each group ; and a synoptical table 
of the entiie animal kingdom summarizing all the pnyla, classes and ordeni 
thus making the book a compend of Elementary Inveortebrate Zoology. 

8vo; heavy paper covers; 64 pages ; price 75 cent& Special rates for schools. 
Sent postpaid on receipt of price. Circulars and sample pages Ihinished oa 
application to author. 

Hrnry L. Osborn, 

Hamline University, Si. Pa$U, Minn. 



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W. WATSON & SONS' 

V 6RAHD MODEL YAH HEURGK MICROSCOPE 



FOR HIGH POWER WORK AND PHOTO MICROGRAPHY. 



an 
ng 

of 

ta- 

:k- 

en 
m- 



is 
of 



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CARL REICHERT 
MICROSCOPES. 

SOLE AfiEXTS FOB UVITED STATES. 

RICHARDS & CO., I,TD., 

NEW YOBK, OHIOAQO, 

41 BtrcliT met. 108 Lake Street. 



Ucimopic Freparatioiis Dlostratiiiii tbi lioiite StrDGtnre 
of TenetaUe Life. 

Being enclosed in a novel transparent envelope, these objects may 
be examined without removal before mounting. They are prepared 
with the utmost care by Wai^TER WhiTE, England, and are mostly 
stained in one or two colors of the most permanent character. 

A friend says : The sample section is exquisite. It is so good 
that I want more. As a well -cut and well-stained section it is 
equal to anything I have seen in that line. 

PRIGELS. 

Catalogue of 172 objects, - - - fo.o3 

Single specimens, - - - - - .08 

20 specimens, assorted, ' - . - i.oo 

CUAS. W. SMUiET, Washiiiirton, I>. €. 

SWEDEN BORG 

is not only a theologian ; tie is a scientist and a scientific writer, 
whose kecMiiy philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 

Addivss 

ADOLPH ROEDER, 

Vineland, N. J. 

FOR SALE.— A set of slides niostmting the Woody Plants ofDUnois, 
fr. Gcneru. H. P. MUNROE, 821 Jackson Boulevaid, Chicago, 111. 



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r 



Send for Art Catalogue. 

ssHSHsgsasasasasgsasasssasagHSHsasasasa s ^HSii 



Light? 19 to 21 lbs. 

Strong ? Guaranteed. 

For whom? 300 pound riders. 



KEATING BICYCLES. 



s 



Frame sway? No. Why? See that curve. 
In Speedy? Yes. - 

ffl Why? Long chain. 

l£HH5SH5H5HS55H5rHHE5B5B525E5E5BS€5H555a5H5H55H£l 

26K days ahead of them all. 



Keating Wheel Co., Holyoke, Mass. 



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THE FISK 

TRAGHRRS' AQRNGIRS. 
EVERETT O. FISK & CO.. Proprietors. 

President. 

Mwtmmn 0. Fi«, - - - 4 AlhlMurton PIsm, Botioii, Mas. 

Mftnagerg* 

W. B. HnuoK, 4 Adibiirtoa PIam, Boaton, W. D. Kau. 70 Hflfa Atmim, New Tark, 

Mtb. 8. D. TaimifoifD, 1242 TwaUUi 8t^ F.y.Hirraaoo>,70rifth ATanve^NawTork, 

WaahlBcton,D.O. K.T. 

A. a. FuHBB, 4 Aahbarton Plaoa, Boaton, W. 0. Pkatt, 70 Fifth ATairaa, Haw Toik. 

Ifaaa. N. T. 

Maisha BdAa, 4 Aahlmrton Plaoa, BoaloD, L. B. HAiaBT,S66 Wabaah ATanaa, Ghlcaco, 

Maaa. HU 

Hium O. Baobe, 4 Aahbarton Plaoa, Boa- J. D. Ekmjl OeDtarr BalMiiig, MlBsaapo- 

ton, Maaa. olla, MlDn. 

W. 0. MoTAoeABT, 26 King St, Waat Mu. B. Dowuna Bmolk, Oaatnry BIdg., 

H. B.OBOOKBB, 70 Fifth Avanna, Maw York, 0. oTBoTMroii, liOU Bo. Sprinff Bt^ Loa. 

M. T. Angalaa, Oal. 

SandtoaojoftbaaboTaagaiMdaa fi>f 100-paga Afendy ManaaL OorraapondaBoa witii &m^ 
ployara la lorltad. Bagiatratioa forma aant to taaohars on appllcatioB. 



ZEISS MICROSCOPES. 

The Carl Zeiss Optical WorJLS in Jena 

Are recognized in Europe as the leading manufacturers of Stands and 
Objectiyes. They have issued a newCataloguejorjgg^, containing a 
description ofirn^mBeroTne^^^ccSsone^mSRpparatus which I am 
enabled to import at lowest rates. Orders for colleges and institutions 
filled prompty, duty free. New Catalogues forwarded on application, 
against 20 cents in postage stamps. 

F. J. EMMBRICH, Sr., Asrent, 

74 Murray St., New York, N. Y. 



'9 
OPTICIAN. 

209 South nth Street, Philadelphia. 



HISTOLOGICAL MICROSCOPES $65. 



STUDENTS' MICROSCOPES, $38 to $46, Complete. 

MICROMETER RULINGS, A SPECIALTY. 



n^USTRATSD CATAL<>OUB ON APPLICATION. 



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Q#ologiQ€il MagaMne 

OR 

Zriontt^Iy journal of (5eoIogy: 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

''THE OEOLOGIST.' 

SDITKD BY 

HENRY WOODWARD, LL.D., P. R. S., PresG. S., P. Z. S., F. R. M. S. 

OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ; 
ASSISTED BY 

ROBERT ETHERIDGE, P. R. S. L. & E., F. G. S., F. C. S , &c. 

WILFRID H. HUDLESTON, M. A., F. R. S., F. G. S , F. L. S., F. C. S 

GEORGE J. HINDRE, Ph.D., V. P. G. S., &c 

AND 

HORACE BOUNGBOKE WOODWARD, F. G. S. 



The NEW SERIES. Decade IV. Vol. II.No. 1—4. 
Jan.- April, 1895, NOW BEADY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

MESSRS. DULAU & CO., 

37 SOHOSaUABE, LONDON, W. 

It is eaniesily reqaested that Sabscriptiona may be seot to DuLAu and 
Co. in adTance. Sabscribero oilSs, for the year will receive the Magazine, 
Post-free, direct on the Ist of each Month. Single copies Ij. 6d. each. 



All GommunicatioD&for this Magazine should be 
addressed to the Editor of the Geological Magazine, 

129 BEAUFORT STREET, CHELSEA, 

LONDON, S. W. 

Books and Specimens may In future be addressed to the Editor, care of 

MESSBS. DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, London, W, 



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Special 
Anaouncement 



^ I N - 



MICROSCOPY. 



D' 



^UBflfO tlM iMl few mmOm 
I have be«n boqr pi^B|MriB( 
■Mugr rar» «Bd novel olijeeti 
for MleixMOopicftl porpcnea, mud 
hftTo MT«»K«1 tbem m VMtor In 
IBiMrtvated SeiiM. 

Tbo fliBi of tkcM li the Mi- 
croscopical SUulios iB Bf*- 
rlne Zooloffy, 

The aecund Seriea (Tic: that 
for 1805) eoDsktt of 14 splendid 
preparatJoBs, *U of the highert 
poi^e excellence aod gnarftnteed 
psnnan«&t. The U flidee appeer 
in qoarterly ineteilmenta, and are 
aeeompaoied bj over lOO pa^ea 
of descrlpilTO lotterproM, 
dealing ia pleasant bat exact man- 
ner with the anatomy, life-history 
and habits of the respectiTe enb- 



nake plain all details. 

I SabAoriptloD, •e.M, post- 

le following are amonc the Slides 



from life, BBi 
InclwiiTO I 

The following are among 
1. Colony of the lorely Badiolarian Spkmro- 

goMm, showing parasitic alg». 
«. TheloTely Zoophyte ObeUa, polyps fhlly 



Jects, while 1 1 ftiU-paso plates 
of photo-ODgrraTMi^, drawn 



f^ee. Tnll prospectos on application. 
Included in this Series : 

6. LoTsIy Bxnanded Zoophyte Ssrtalaris 50c 

7. Opomnm-abrimp Jfy«M, showing audi- 
tory organ in tail SSc 

8. The splendid pare oignniiive IHytyBbOB, 
LichftHopnra 40c 

9. Entire larral Plaice, eye Jast tvming 
from blind sid^ and 6 other equally 
fine slides. 60c 



^zpan^ ^ ^ 

3. Stalked stage of the larra of Bosy 

Feather Star (amtedim) 40c 

4. An entire Sea-Bntterfly {PUrcpod), 40c 
6. Lorely expanded Zoophyte i^weoyy n s. 40c 

The prices against each are those at wblsh the preparmtions are sold separately, show- 
ing what a cheap lot I offer in series at f6.26, post ftee. A few sets of Series 1 still aTailahle. 
$8.25, post free. Sample SUde, 50c.. post free. 

Prof. J. B. Ainsworth Davis, UniTersity College, Aberystwith, writes: "Allow me to 
oongratnlate you on the Tery useful work yu« are doing by the pabliciOiun of Toumal, with 
aooompany lug slides, which are most admibaiilk. 

— Saperb microscopical preparations of Braxlllan I^lanas ~I have 

been unfortunate In obtaining a quantity of UwMe superb et f s t he 
most lOTely in the whole plant kingdom— aad have arraA««d tbem 
in two seU of 6 each, at the price of $1.35 per set, or $2 25 for the 
two. The most exsuidtoly charming slides that Cfmld pus^iblj be 
imagined for exhibition at popular gatherings. . As tbe quantity k 
mmmmt^m^m^^^^^^ Y^ry limited. I am unable to sell single slides. 

} Microscopical Stndlot In Botany.— In answer to many requests, I hare ar- 
ranged 20 magnificent preparations in a series on similar lines to that in marine soology de- 

Tha first series is now begun and comprises 20 higheet-clsss slides (such as sell singly 
at 25c to »ftc each), illustrated by descriptlTe letterpress and 90 specially beautiful photo-micro- 
icraphs of the sections. . ^ , „, 

Subscriptions, $8.25 only, tor all, a sum which would be cheap for the seri^ of illu»- 

tra ons ^^^ j ^ (j^„^ Unlverelty College, Nottingham, writes : "Your Botanical Slides 
are the roost benuttftU I have ever seen. The following are among the slides already issued in 
iibo^e lines ; 



aooompany lug slides, which 

Botany. 



1. Tr. sec. flower-bud of Lily 25c 

». '* •• do of Dandelion 30e 

3 LonK*l sec do of do 25o 

4. do fruit of Fig 30c 



6. Tr. sec f^t of Date (sptondid) S5c 
8 ** ** flower of £be*«dboIte<a 9(te 

7. Long*l. sec. double flower of Peony S5c 

8. Leaf-fall of Sycamore 25c 



I guarantee the i>erfe«Jion 
lectioi 



of all my mounts and will b«pl«i»e4 to send 
felecttous on approval to approved correspondents. , _ , . , „ ^ . ^ . 

A great range of Miscellaneous Zoological and Botanical slides in stock 
at prices from I1.30 per dosen. . ,., ^ j 

Coat of MallfaiR. 1 slide. 10 cents ; a Shdes, 15 cents; 3 slides, accents and 
so on Large parcels by express at very cheap rates. ^ ^ „ , _, . . , 

SpecialltV. Marine 55oology (especially in expanded Zoophytes and larval 
stages, and plant and flower anatomy. 

Torma. Remittance by P. O. O., draft on London, or U. S. paper currency » the 
former preferred. If wished, Mr. 0. W. Smiley. Washington. D. ' will hold the 
amonnt till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley has kindly promised to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to D. 8. Microscop- 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Blologtoa] Statton, Jersey, Ingland. 



Specialist in Mkrosooplcal M ooattng. 



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FOR SALE. -"Microscope, Bausch and Lomb*s Universal with ac 
cessories in first-class order. A bargain.' Also, miscellaneous slides. 
Fresh stock, first-class work. Satisfaction guaranteed. Have supplied 
stock to Bausch and Lomb Optical Co., to Wni. F. Stieren, Pittsburg, and 
others. No lists. Send |i.oo for sample half-dozen. 

REV. C. F. ElVIERY, 

BILOXI, MISS. 

Sixth Edition of 

THE MICROSCOPE 

AND MlOROSOOPIOALw METHODS. 
BY SIMON HENRY GAGE, 

F«rfe-or of Y^">^^^iS^^±^^\^§9jp>lfSM^»^^. V^f^- »«' 

The flgurM have been'iucreased* firom Ids to l6^. 'in matter this •ditiou has grown how 160 to 287 
paf Ml This increase is due to additiuns In the text of preTions editit^ns and to some wholly lu'w matter 
apon methods of IsohitioD and of sectioning hj thecoUoilion and hj the painffln methods, th<f> prepararion 
of drawings fur pnbllcatiun and l9<sti^tT«om dlai^nAn. FBLCDfl 60? Oi^ C'PAID Coxstock I'ublish- 
Txo Go., Ithaca, N. T. 




behaves as a stimulant as well as an 



thus di fife ring from other Cofil- 



tar products. It his been used' 'in sthf?- relief •ofrheummtifem and neuralgic 
pains and in the treatment of the sequ4alp?.of,aVcohp}ic ep8;^8^- AMMONOIy 
is also prepared in the form of salicylate, bromide, and. lithiat^. The pres- 
ence of Ammonia in a more or less free, stat^, gives it additional properties 
as an expectorant, diuretic and correcuv<!'ofhyperacidityl— Z,d«ri5^^ Lancet. 

Che. .Stimulant 

AMMONOLis one ofthc derivatives of Coal-tar. and differs from the numerous sim- 
ilar products in that it contains Ammonia in active form. As a result of this, AM MO- 
NO L possesses marked stimulating and expectorant properties. The well-known cardiac 
depression induced by other Antipyretics has frequently prohibited their use in otherwise 
snitable cases. The introduction of a similar druz, possessed of stimulating properties, 
Is an event of much Importance. AM MOINIOL possesses marked anti-neuralgic 
properties, and it is claimed to be especially useful in cases of dysmenorrhoea— 7^« Med- 
ical Magazine^ London. 

Ammonol may be obtained from all Leading Druggists. Send for "Ammonol Ex- 
cerpta," a 48-page pamphlet. 

THE AMMONOL CHEMICAL CC, 

NEW YORK, U. S. A. 



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THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 

Contents for Oct., 1897. 

Public Wfttor Riipply for Smftll Towns. Vteder , ^ 301 

The BniB of the Emhrjo Soli-Shelled Tortle. Gage^^ ^.. 307 

On' the Seeds and Teste of Some CraeiftnB. [lUostrsted.] PMnmel.... 312 

A Psrtisl Bibliogrsphj on Mnstord Seeds. ..,« 313 

A Gase ot Fonl Water in Reservoin. [lUoftimted.] Edwards 317 

The Microbe ol Yellow Fever. SAnarelli ^ „ 324 

Editorial. 

Benjamin F. Qnifby „ ^ 328 

Lilb in Diamonds „ ^. 328 

HiCBOfloopicAL Apparatus. 

Pboto^Micrographj , „ ^ 328 

Microscopical Manipulatioh. 

Staining Insect Wings ...... „ 329 

Bactsrioloot. 

Anthrax Bacteria in Hides from China 330 

Patbogenk Organisms and LiYing Plant Tissoes 330 

Appropriation of Free Atmospheric Nitrogen 331 

Mkdical Microscopy. 

Diarrhoea in Children and Milk ^ 332 

Tsetse Fiy Disease oi Nagana in Zololaiid 332 

Nsw Publications. 

Medical Botany 332 



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SEEDS AND TESTA. 

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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 

Vol. XVIII. OCTOBER, 1897. No. 10, 

Public Water Supply for Small Towns. 

By M. a. VEEDER, M. D.. 

LYONS, N. Y. 

Drinking water that is manifestly bad does not make 
everyone who uses it sick. Even when the mains and 
reservoirs of a public water-system have been infected 
by such a poison as that of typhoid it is only exception- 
*Blly and for limited periods that as many as one percent 
of those using the water contract the disease. An out- 
break of 2,000 cases in a population of 200,000 is ordinar- 
ily regarded as a severe epidemic, and yet this is at the 
rate of only one person in a hundred. It is this immu- 
nity on the part of the great mass of the people that per- 
mits infected systems of water-supply to continue in 
operation. If there were no resisting power on the part 
of the individual, all would die on the slightest expos- 
ure and the source of danger would be thoroughly iden- 
tified and avoided. As it is, however, for every one that 
contracts the disease there may be as many as a hundred 
who escape. Thus it becomes a question of probabilities, 
and there is a chance for much plausible theorising and 
controversy. Gradually, however, as the result of increas- 
ing observation and experience, crude ideas that have 
prevailed are being eliminated and the truth of the mat- 
ter established. 

Only a few years ago the most essential point in the 
niprovement of water-supply w^s thouf^ht to be the 



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302 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

determination of the chemical ingredients held in sus- 
pension or solution. Elaborate systems of analysis were 
devised for this purpose, and the quality of the water 
was judged almost entirely by its chemical reactions. 
Thus it becomes customary to consider the questions 
involved from a chemical point of view exclusively.^ The 
simple dilution of contained matters of a chemical nature 
if carried far enough, would make them harmless. Con- 
sequently large bodies of water were supposed to have a 
power of self-purification in direct proportion to their 
size. In like manner precipitation, sedimentation, aera- 
tion and other chemical and mechanical processes were 
supposed to have a purifying effect. The quantity of 
sewage entering a stream being known, it becomes possi- 
ble to tell with a good degree of certainty at what distance 
mingled with such a volume of water, it will become so 
diluted, diffused and changed as to be unrecognisible by 
any chemical test. The dose of poisonous matter, if of 
a chemical nature, ought to be divided and sub-divided 
to such an extent as to be entirely harmless in the quan- 
tity of water that any individual would consume. In 
practice, however, this is not found to be the fact, sewage 
infection being capable of producing epidemic disease 
for many miles along a stream entirely out of proportion 
to any possible chemical process of diffusion. 

The whole tendency of modern research has been to 
show that the question as to the spread of disease through 
the agency of water is biological rather than chemical. 
It is the presence of certain living organisms and of the 
conditions ou which their continued existence depends 
that leads to the spread of disease. A single seed may 
be the means of overspreading an entire continent with 
some form of luxuriant growth, and so a single disease 
germ may start an epidemic, not through any mechanical 
or chemical process of division or subdivision, but because 
having life it grows and multiplies. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 303 

The danger consists not in the quantity of such organ- 
isms but in their power of growth under given conditions. 
If capable of living in water, they may infect an entire 
stream instead of disappearing by processes of dilution 
within a few rods. Unlike chemical poisons, they have 
no fixed poisonous dose. The smallest possible inocula- 
tion may prove fatal through the power of self -propaga- 
tion which they possess. If, on the other hand, their 
growth be hindered by unfavorable temperature, moisture 
or food supply, they may become harmless no matter 
what their quantity. It is true that they have chemical 
effects, originating substances known as toxines, some of 
which are deadly poisons, but they themselves depend 
upon possession of life for the modes of activity which 
they exhibit. Throughout it is a question of vitality 
under particular surroundings. 

Typhoid fever, cholera and certain forms of dysentery 
are the chief diseases whose infection it is generally 
admitted can live in water. In addition, about ten years 
ago, the writer came to the conclusion that the term 
malaria, signifying bad air, is a misnomer, and that 
diseases of tliis class are very largely, if not exclusively, 
conveyed in water. Towns taking their public water- 
supply from ponds or streams having distinctly malarial 
surroundings liave become subject to such fevers although 
previously free from them. 

The manner of spreading of the diseases which have 
been named originates two classes of dangers. If water 
be taken from the vicinity of human habitations there is 
liability to contamination from excreta washed into the 
pond or stream used as a source of supply, or, in the case 
of wells, the strong action of powerful pumps may origi- 
nate a rapid flow underground extending many hundreds 
of feet and carrying impurities through coarse gravel or 
open crevices in the soil. That this is the fact aj)p»*Hrs 
from the manner in which ordinary wells at a coiusidera- 



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304 THE AMBEICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

ble distance from the pumping station run dry when the 
latter is in operation* Such contamination from human 
sources may originate typhoid and diarrheal disorders. 
If, on the other hand, the source of supply is remote 
from human habitation there may be malarial contamina- 
tion. Indeed the natural habitat of malaria is in new and 
undrained countries and virgin soil. In view of this dis- 
tribution of the disease it is surprising that well-drained 
cities, having perfect sewers, should yield a certain per- 
centage of malarial fevers until the source of their wat^jr- 
supply is noted, it being in such cases, as a rule, some 
pond or stream in whose vicinity these diseases are pre- 
valent. Shallow wells in alluvial soil also may yield 
malarial infection. It is said that since the substitution 
of deeper artesian borings for such wells there has been 
a notable decrease of malarial diseases in some parts of 
the Southern States of North America. 

In many localities it is difl8cult, if not impossible, to 
secure an adequate supply of water free from the forms 
of contamination to which reference has been made. This 
necessitates some system of purification. 

It has been discovered recently that there is an antag- 
onism between disease germs and what are known as 
nitrifying organisms, which produce nitrates and nitrites 
in the soil. Advantage has been taken of this to insti- 
tute an intermittent process of filtration. Water con- 
taining the bacteria that it is desired to destroy is allowed 
to run into a filter composed of sand, containing an 
abundance of nitrifying organisms, and instead of being 
drawn off immediately is allowed to stand for a suflScient 
length of time to permit the destruction of the disease 
germs by their natural foes. 

Such filtration as that just described is but the perfec- 
ting of natural processes. Alternation of rainfall and 
dry weather operates substantially on the same plan, 
tending to purify the ground water in the soil from infec- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 306 

tion and making wells possible. Thus in localities where 
artificial filter beds are impracticable it may be possible 
to resort to wells with similar results. Experimental 
borings are required in order to determine whether the 
quantity of water is adequate and whether the soil through 
which it percolates is adapted to secure its purification. 
This being done and the system established, the inter- 
mittent action of the pumps, running a part of each day 
like intermittent filtration, yields a much purer supply 
than could be had in any other way. A point to be 
guarded against is the influx of surface water, which is 
specially liable to contain malarial infection as well as 
other impurities. To this end, numerous small wells, 
consisting of iron pipes put down to the proper depth 
and having perforations over a space of six or eight feet 
from their lower extremities, coveted with fine wire 
gauze, may be employed. Another plan that may serve 
is to have a siugle large well, twenty feet or more in 
diameter. A convenient method of construction of such 
a well is by the use of a curb, built up in a hexagonal or 
octagonal form, of plank laid flatwise and spiked one upon 
the other in layers. If such a curb be made, slightly 
smaller towards the top, it can be carried down success- 
fully through almost any sort of soil and stoned up. 

It has been thought best to enter somewhat into such 
details as have been indicated, because they illustrate the 
principles involved in improvement of water supply, 
especial reference having been had throughout to locali- 
ties whose resources are limited. The adaptation of 
laboratory results to practical uses is the point specially 
sought to be accomplished in this brief summary. The 
sanitary engineer, the practising physician and the 
skilled microscopist are upon common ground in these 
studies. 

At the present stage of progress it must be admitted 
however, that serious imperfections are unavoidable in the 



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306 THE AMERICAN MOi^tHLY [Oct. 

hest systems of water supply available in many localities. 
This being the case, household methods of purification 
require to be taken into the account. That preferred by 
the writer is as follows : The water is boiled and allowed 
to stand in a covered stoue jar until all sediment has 
deposited. It is then transferred to ordinary air-tight 
glass fruit jars, a lot of which, having convenient modes 
of fastening, are kept for the purpose. When put in an 
ice chest or cool cellar such water comes out beautifully 
clear, sparkling and palatable. Such water has no 
unpleasant flavor unless kept too long, and even this 
might be avoided by sterilising the jars and filling them 
with the water while hot, which would require reheating 
after the sediment is removed. Practically there is no 
necessity for this extra trouble. Certainly all the waters 
treated by the writer in this way have proved to be 
excellent, and there can be no questi(»n as to their free- 
dom from the infection of any of the d'seases that have 
been named in the discussion. It may be noted also 
that substantially the same principle is employed when 
water is used for quenching thirst in the form of tea, 
cofi*ee, soups and the like. It is the boiling that makes 
such waters safe, the various ingredients added serving 
to please an acquired taste for the most part. Mankind 
is accustomed to take many precautions of this sort with 
out any clear ideas of the reasons. It is the province of 
advancing civilization to enable such precations to be 
taken intelligently, and consequently more perfectly, and 
this is the aim of the present discussion in regard to 
water-supply. — Proc. A. M. S. 



Exchange.— H. W. Parritt, 8 Whitehall Park, N. Lod- 
don, England, wishes to exchange microscopical slides, 
books and objects for crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, 
zoophytes, shells and other marine objects, fresh or dried. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 307 

The Brain of the Embryo Soft-Shelled Turtle, 

SUSANNA PHELPS GAGE, Ph. B., 

ITHACA, N. Y. 

In a paper read before the Microscopical Society last 
year, upon the ^^Comparative Morphology of the Brain 
of the Soft-shelled Turtle (Amyda mutica) and the Eng- 
lish Sparrow (Passer domesticus*)," certain questions 
were raised, which could only be answered by studying 
the development in the soft-shelled turtle, as : When and 
how do the characteristic features of the brain in this 
group of turtles arise ? When and how do those fea- 
tures arise which distinguish them from birds ? 

Professor Bigenmann, who was present, kindly sent 
me six embryos of Aspidinectes, a closely allied genus of 
the turtle, in diflferent stages of development. Serial 
sections were made of the heads and mesal views recon- 
structed. A brief summary of the result obtained is 
given below. Fuller statement, with illustration, is 
reserved until more material is studied. 

The body of the youngest specimen was 7 mm. long ; 
the form generalized ; the face short ; the diameter of 
the eye, one-half the length of the head. A narrow cara- 
pace was distinguishable in a specimen, with length of 
body 11 mm. In the oldest specimen the carapace was 
16x11 mm., and had the characteristic leathery appear- 
ance and markings of the adult. The snout had alsa the 
elongated form of the adult. The feet were webbed. The 
diameter of the eye, though twice as great as in the 
youngest specimen, was only one-third the length of the 
head. 

1. As seen from the meson, the most striking dif- 
ference between the early and late forms of the brain 
is* the general shape. Taking as reference points the 

* Tb A NS ACTIONS American MicroBCopical Society, Vol. XVII., 1896, pp. 
IHSi — ^238, '5 plates. 



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308 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

center of the geminum, the union of the myel with the 
oblongata and the tip of the olfactory lobe, in the 
youngest embryo, the figure formed is an isoceles tri- 
angle, in the succeeding stages changing to a flattened 
triangle by the elongation of the base. The cephalic limb 
of the triangle increases greatly, while the folding of the 
caudal part of the brain produces an actual shortening 
of the caudal limb of the triangle In the adult Amyda 
the flattening of the triangle has proceeded to an extreme. 
The change of form in the brain is apparently greater 
between the time when the external appearance of the 
adult is e8tablished,as in the oldest embryo, and the true 
adult condition, than between the oldest and youngest of 
the above described embryos. This is due to the fact 
that after the external adult appearance is complete the 
cerebrum and the cerebellum both acquire their largest 
comparative growth. 

2. At the constriction occurring in the brain-tube, 
between the postcommissure and the floor of the cranial 
flexure, the brain shows the least increase in size, aa shown 
by diflFerent measurements upon the meson of the embryo 
and adult brain. This stationary condition is probably 
due to the early maturing of the region. 

3. The union of the olfactory lobes across the meson 
was not found in these turtles until the beginning of the 
carapace was distinguishable, and did not present the 
comparative extent and close connection of the adult 
until the oldest embryo had the adult appearance. That 
is, as was found with the sparrow, the union across the 
meson is of late occurrence and secondary importance. 

4. Those parts of the cerebrum, apparently connected 
with olfaction, the hippocampal, progress with equal 
step with the olfactory lobe, and not until the oldest 
embryo is the fimbrial edge of the hippocamp and its 
union across the meson, the fornicommissure, well estab- 
lished. The late appearance of this commissure is con- 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 309 

sonant with great variation in diflferent types, but this 
study tends to corroborate the opinion now gaining 
ground, that this commissure in the lower vertebrates is 
not a callosum. 

5. That part of the cerebrum so prominent in the 
adult, the caudatum, or elevated portion of the striatum, 
is only found as a rather inconspicuous object in the old- 
est embryo, but the precommissure, in which fibers from 
the upper parts of the striatum cross, arises as the cara- 
pace begins to form. 

6. In the roof of the brain the postcommissure is a 
well-formed landmark in the earliest of the embryos, 
while the commissure, bounding the opening of the epi- 
physis, the supracommissure, shows as a mere trace in 
the youngest embryo and attains a disproportionate 
development in the oldest. A similar culmination in 
growth is seen in the oldest embryo in the associated epi- 
physis, habenae and the fiber tract extending from this 
region to the cerebrum, a fact apparently indicating 
that in ancestors of this group having comparatively sim- 
ple brains these parts were of more importance, for in 
the adult turtle they are overshadowed by the later 
developing parts, 

7. The membranous roof in all embryos is a simple 
unfolded membrane, clearly continuous with the para- 
plexuses of the cerebrum. The latter, in the early 
stages, are simple membranes, which show folds only 
when the carapace begins to develop, and become quite 
complex in the oldest embryo. The paraphysis, at the 
point of univm of the diaplexus with the paraplexuses, is 
a widely open tube in all the stages, and becomes early 
convoluted. 

8. The medicommissure, a feature which is found in 
mammals and reptiles, but not in birds, arises in this 
turtle only in the oldest embryo, in this being like mam- 
mals, in which it also appears late, and showing that 



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310 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

though characteristic, it is of secondary importance. 

9. In the infundibular region of the embryo are seen 
distinct folds and pits, which are nearly obliterated in 
the adult. A pair of protuberances, dorsad of the hypo- 
physis, occurs in the younger forms, and is represented 
in the adult by a single mesal notch. Dorsad of the 
hypophysis, occurs in the younger forms, and is repre- 
sented in the adult by a single mesal notch. Dorsad of these 
a mesal protuberance, lying between two commissures, 
is much more prominent in the younger specimens before 
the commissures are formed. The decision upon homol- 
ogies of these protrusions of the wall with either the 
albicans of the higher forms or the hypoaria of fishes 
must be reserved, there are details of difference in both. 

10. In the turtle, all parts connected with vision are 
well developed. In the youngest embryo the optic 
recess is clearly traceable to the eye along the optic 
nerve, as the remains of the originally open vesicle. 
This remnant becomes more convoluted, the endymal cells 
giving an almost glandular appearance, in the stages 
when the carapace begins to develop. In the oldest 
embryo this appearance is gone, but the numerous cells 
of the chiasma in the adult may represent this convolu- 
ted vesicular remnant. 

11. The optic geminum does not lose the form of a 
thin roofed single vesicle until in the oldest embryo a 
mesal depression occurs, forming the paired geminums, 
and at the same time an extensive union across the meson 
by means of the geminal commissure, and a division of 
the cells into two layers arise. The late formation of 
this solid roof of the geminums is interesting in connec- 
tion with the fact that in birds the roof is a membrane. 

12. In the latest embryo the cerebellum is only just 
beginning its growth as a great mesel feature, though 
considerably earlier it is apparent as a lateral organ. 
In the youngest embryo its appearance is like that of 



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1897] MICHOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 311 

the Amphibia^ having a small mesal portion. With its 
growth caudad it revolves, so to speak, about a fixed 
point, carrying the thin membranous wall before it, and 
thus forms the folded metaplexus of the adult. The old- 
est embryo shows this admirably. 

13. The floor of the oblongata undergoen wonderful 
changes, from a comparatively thin-walled condition in 
the youngest embryo, through one in which series of 
rounded thickenings occur, these in turn becoming uni- 
ted, as the carapace developes, to form the continuous 
thickened floor of the oldest embryo. 

From the above it is seen that partial answers to the 
questions mentioned are now possible. 

(a.) The general form of the brain of the soft-shelled 
turtle wherein it difiers markedly from the other descri- 
bed turtles is only acquired after the embryo has the 
external appearance of the adult, the great relative 
growth of the cerebrum and cerebellum taking place 
after that period. (Sec. 1, 2.) 

(b.) The union of the olfactory lobes across the meson 
and the large caudal growth of the cerebellum seem to be 
characteristic of this group of turtles, and it was found 
that both are of late development, (Sec. 3, 12.) 

(c.) The broad distinctions between tht bird and rep- 
tile brain are, that the latter possesses a medicommissure 
and a solid roof to the gerainums; in the soft-shelled tur- 
tle both of these features arise in the late embryo. 

That is, in the brain not only those features which 
distinguish the group of turtles, but which most eviden- 
tly distinguish birds from reptiles, arise in this turtle 
about the time the external form is characteristic of the 
genera. The brain, however, lags somewhat behind the 
body in assuming characteristic features. 

Other questions arose as to tiie appearance of the nidi 
and their relation to sulci, which cannot yet be answere 
conclusively. 



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312 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

Od the Seeds and Testa of Some Cruciferae. 

By I,. H. PAMMEL. 

A3iES, IOWA. 
WITH FRONTISl-IECE. 
Continued from page 274^ 

Camelina sativa, Crantz. 

Pod obovoid, four to six lines long, smooth, reticula- 
ted, margined from beak down along placental side with 
smaller ribs between them. Seeds light brown, one line 
long, minutely pitted, caulicle prominent, running 
lengthwise with a prominent groove between it and the 
cotyledons. Cotyledons incumbent.* 

Seed coats consisting of four layers. The outer epi- 
dermal cells not much longer than wide, on the addition 
of water become mucilaginous and well stratified. On the 
addition of chloral hydrate stratification more evident. 
The cell-walls diflferentiated into several different sub- 
stances. The second layer not always developed. Cells 
oi third layer with thick walls and brown pigment, fol- 
lowed by a narrow layer of thick walled brown cells. 
The first row of cells of endosperm, rather thick walled, 
filled with protein grains, the other layers of unequal 
development, cells elongated, thickwalled ; followed by 
cells of embryo; these contain protein grains and fat. 
EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES. 

I. Jaly text, page 209, (RepriDt, page 7). Brassica nigra: a, madlag- 
iDons ceU before the addition of water; b, after addition of water; 3, brown 
tbick-waUed ceUs; 4, parenchyma cells; 5, alearone layer; 5-6, endosperm; 
7, cells of embryo. B. sinapistram: c, mncilage cells expanded; 4, endos- 
perm in figure to tbe leHi, embryo in figure to the ri^Ht. 

II. September frontispiece (Reprint, page 12). Sisymbrinmaltissimam, 
S. officinale and Capsella bursa-pastoris: The upper row of cells consists of 
mucilage cells; the lower row contains embryos; about midway between 
may be seen the endosperm. 

III. September text (Reprint, page 13). Lepidiam virginicum. 1, mucil- 
age cells; 3» 4, endosperm; 5, cells of embryo; b, mucilage cells when 
moistened. 

IV. October frontispiece (Reprint, page 15). Brassica alba: Upper row, 
mucilage cells; third and fourth rows, endosperm. Camelina sativa: upper 

♦Harz. I. c p. 924. Fig. 71. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 313 

row, macilage cells; third row, thick-walled cells; fourth row, alearone cells; 
lower row, cells of embryo. Figares on right of plate, macilage cells when 
moistened. 
All the figares were drawn to the same scale. — X320. 



A Partial Bibliography on Mustard Seeds. 

The writer wishes to express his obligations to Prof. 
Wm. Trelease of the Missouri Botanical Garden, who 
allowed free access to the library of the garden for the 
purpose of completing this list. 

1. Abraham, Max; Bau und Btwickelungsgeschichte 
der Wandverdickungen in den Samenoberhautzellen ein- 
iger Cruciferen. Inaugural Dissertation. Separate from 
Pringsheim's Jahrbuecher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik, 
vol. xvi. pp. 45. 

2. Arbaumont, J. D., Nouvelles observations sur les 
cellules a mucilage des graines de Cruciferes. Ann. des 
sciences naturelles Ser. 7, 1893, Vol. II. Separate, pp. 
60. One plate (9). 

2a. Baillon. Histoire des plantes. Vol. Ill, p. 220. 

3. Behrens, The Microscope in Botany. English 
translation by A. B. Hervey, Boston, 1885, pp. 327-367. 

4. Berg. Anatomischer Atlas zur pharmaceutischen 
Waarenkuude, Berlin, 1865. 

5. Caspary, R., Genera Plantanim, Flor. Germ. xvii. 
Bonn, 1853. 

6. Caspary, R., Bot. Zeit, 1852, p. 663. 

7. Caspary, R., Bot. Zeit. 185i, p. 390. 

8. Dahmen, Max, Anatomische und Physiologische 
Untersuchung uber den Funiculus der Saraeu. luagu- 
ral Diss. Erlangen. Separate from Priugslieim's Wiss. 
Bot. Vol. xxiii, Heft 3, pp. 38. PI. xx, xxi, xxii. 

8a. DeCandoUe. Memoire sur la Famiile des Cruci- 
feres, p. 39. 

9. Detmer, W., Physiologische chemische Unter- 
euchung uber die Keiniung oelhaltiger Samen und die 



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314 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

Vegetation von Zea Mays. Dissertation. Jena. 1875. 

10. Flueckiger, F .A. Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie 
des Pflanzenreiches. Berlin, 1867. 

11. Flueckiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographia; A 
History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin met 
with in Great Britain and British India. Loudon, 
Macmillan & Co., 1879, pp, 565-69. 

12. Flueckiger and Tschirch. The Principles of Phar- 
macogonosy (English translation by Prof. Power), New 
York, Wra. Wood & Co. 1887, pp. 163 70. 

13. Frank, A. B., Ueberdie Anatomische Bedeutung 
und die Entstehun^ der vegetabilischen Schleirae. Pring- 
sheini's Jahrbuecher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik. 1866, 
Vol. V. p. 161. 

14. Garcke, A., Pharmakognosie des Pflanzen-und 
Theirreiches, von Dr. 0. Berg, 4 Aufl. von Dr. A. Garcke. 

15. Grew, N., Anatomie des plantes, 2nd. Ed. Paris, 
lr)79. 

16. Guignard, L., Recherches sur la localisation des 
principes aciifs des Cruciferes. Journal de Botaniques, 
1890, p. 385, p. 412, p. 435. 

17. Guignard, L., Recherches sur le developpeinent 
de la graine. 

18. Hager : Botanischer Unterricht in 160 Sectionen 
fur angehende Pharmaceuten und studirende Mediciner, 
3rd edition, Berlin, 1885. p. 450. Fig. 675. 

19. Hanausek, T. If. Die Nahrungs-und Genussmittel 
aus dem Ptlanzenreiche, Berlin, Kassel, 1884, pp. 485, 
100 wood cuts. Vol. V. of allegemeine Waarenkunde una 
RohstofFe. 

20. Ilarz, C. I). Lnndwirthschaftliche Samenknnde, 
2 vols., Paul Parey, 1885, vol. ii. p. 555. 

21. Ilenkel : Ilandbuch der Pharmakognosie ^^'^ 
Pflanzen- und Theirreiches. Tuebingen, 1867. 

22. Heraud : Nouvelle Dictionnaire des planter, 
Medicinales, Paris, 1875. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 316 

23. Hof meister, W. Ueber die zu Gallerte aufquellen- 
(len Zellen der Aussenflaeche von Samen und Perikarpien. 
Ber. d. Koen. Saechs Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. Sitzungsbe. 
20 Feb. 1853. pp. 18-37. 

24. Iloehnel: Ban der Samenschalen der Cultivirten 
Brassica-Arten. Wissenscbaftliche praktiscbe Unter- 
suchung aiif dem Gebiete des Pflanzenbaiies. Fr. Haber- 
landt. Vol. i, p. 171. 

26. Holfert, Johannes. Die Naehrschicht der Samens- 
chalen. Inaugural diss. pp. 36. Univ. of Erlangen, 
Separate from Flora, 1890, Heft 7. 

26. Kiaerskou : Om Frokallens Bejggning bos Nogle 
"Indiake Raps-Sorter'* Botanisk Tidsskrift Vol. xiv, 1885, 
p. 249. 

26a. Sur la Structure du testa de quelques de "Colza 
indien." Botanisk Tidssk. Vol. xiv, pp. 17-21. 

27. Klencke : lUustrirtes Lexikon der Verfaelscbun- 
gen der Nahrungsmittel und Getraenke, etc., 2nd. edition, 
pp. 750. 424 figs. Leipzig, 1879. See pp. 389-393, figs. 
222, etc. 

28. Kratzmann : Die Lehre von Samen der Pflanzen. 

29. Kuetzing, F. T. Grundzuege der philosophischen 
Botanik, 2 vols. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, Vol. ii. p, 237. 

30. Luerssen, Chr. : Handbuch der Sysiematischen 
Botanik. Vol.1. Phanerogamen, Leipzig, H. Haessel, pp. 
1229. See p. 642. 

31. Marek, G. : Das Saatgut und dessen Einfluss nuf 
Menge und Guete der Ernte. pp. 193, figs. 74. Vienna, 
1875, Carl Gerold's Sohn. 

32. Moeller, Josef. : Mikroskopie der Nahrungs- und 
Genussmittel aus dem Pflanzenreiche, Berlin, Julius 
Springer, 1866, p. 173, figs. 144, 145. 

33. Xobbe, Friedrich : Handbuch der Samenkunde, 
See p. 72, p. 631. Berlin, 1876. 

34. Oudemann : Pharinacopa*a Xeerlandica, Rotter- 
dam, 1864-56. 



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3/4 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

36. Popovici, Al. P.: Ueber Struktur und Eatwicke- 
lung Waudverdickungen, Bonn, A. Henry. 1893, pp.31, 
plates II. 

36. Royleand Headland: A Manual of Materia Med- 
ica and Therapeutics of the British Pharmacopoea, Lon- 
don, 1868. 

37. Sachs, Julius: Experimental Physiologie der 
Pflanzen, p. 368. 

38. Schenk: Botanische Notizen, Wuerzburger Natur- 
wissenschaftliche Zeitung, Vol. ii. 

39. Schimper: Anleitung zur MikroskopischenUnter- 
suchung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, Jena, 1886, 
G. Fischer, pp. 140 and 79 wood cuts. See pp. 79, 94, 
98, 110, figs. 52, 58, 74. 

40. Schroeder:Untersuchung der Samen der Brassica 
Arien nnd Varietaten. Landwirthschaftliche Versochs. 
Station, 1871, Vol. xiv, p. 179. 

41. Sempolowski: Uber den Bau der schale land- 
wirthschaftliche wichtiger Sameu. Landw, Jahrbuecher. 
Vol. iii, pp. 824-866. PI. vii. 

41a. Sempolowski: Beitraege zur Kenntniss desBaues 
der Samt^nschale, Inaugural Dissertation. Leipzig, 1874. 

42. Spatzier, Wilhelm: Ueber das Auftrelern und 
die physiologische Bedeutung des Myrosins in der 
Pflanze. Inaugural Dissertation. Univ. Erlangen. 
Separate, pp. 40, plates III. Pringsheim's Jahrbuecher 
fur Wissensch. Botauik. XXV, Heft 1. 

43. Strandmark: Bidrag till Kaennedomenom froska- 
lels byggnad. 

44. Tietschert, Carl.: Keimungsversuche rait Roggeu 
und Raps bei verschiedeu tiefer Unterbringung. Halle, 
1872. 

45. Tschirch, A.: Angewandte PflaDzenanatomie: ein 
HaDdbuch zum Studieren des anatomischen Baaes der in 
der Pharmacie den Geweben der landw. und den bans- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 317 

shalte benatzten pflanzlichen Rohetoff. Vol. I, pp. 648 
614, YieuDa und Leipzig. 

46. Tschirch A. and Oersterle. Anatomischer Atlas der 
Pharmakoguosie und Nahrungsmittelkande. Leipzig, 
Hermann Tauchnitz, F. 0. Weigel. 

47. Uloth : Ueber Pflanzenschieime und seine Ent- 
tehang in den Samenepidermis von Plantago maritima 

und Lepidium 8ativum,Flora 1876, pp. 193-409, PI. iv. 

48. Vogl : Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, p, 116, fig. 
97. 

49. Wiesner, J. : Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches, p. 721 
Leipzig, Engelmann 1873, pp. 846. 



A Cause of Foul Water in Reservoirs. 

By ARTHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D., 

KEWABK, N. J. 

To the presence of a bacillarian, a diatom in fact, is 
due a certain fouling of drinking water. Prof. Leeds, of 
the Stevens Institute of Technology has given to it the 
name of Asterionella flavor. In the report on the city 
water of Brooklyn, N. Y. it is detailed. The results 
arrived at are microscopically and technically of great 
value. 

By order of the board constituting the department of 
the city works, on September 4, 1896, the Engineer was 
requested *Ho make such examination of the Brooklyn 
'Water supply as he should deem necessary, in order to 
determine the cause of the complaints made in regard to 
its quality, and the remedy to be applied. 

Daily examinations showed that immediate action was 
nec^-'Ssary. The objectionable appearance, taste and 
odor during the raid-summer periods has been essentially 
due to the protista, a plant growth known as Asterionella. 



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318 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

It has nothing whatsoever to do with artificial causes 
like drainage, sewage or contamination. It is due to 
purely natural causes, the first being the microscopical 
chemical constituents of the water, and the second, and 
even more important, being the physical conditions in 
which the water is placed after entering the reservoirs. 
The important questions to consider are : 

I. What is the Asterionella, and what is peculiar 
about it ? 

II. What is there in the composition of the Brooklyn 
water, or the mode of handling and storing it, that has 
fitted it especially for the development of the Asterio- 
nella? 

III. How can growth of this organism be prevented ? 

I. Asterionella derives its name from its form, being 
a star-shaped organism usually 3- or 4-rayed. It is a 
diatom, a bacillarian, usually called an alga, although 
more properly called a protiston. The latter is distin- 
guished from most other algaB by being enclosed or hav- 
ing a skeleton or envelope capsule of silica, or soluble 
silica hydrate. This particular genus has the further 
peculiarity of secreting a substance in the nature of an 
oil which possesses a taste and odor so characteristic 
that, for lack of a better name, is is called Asterionella 
flavor. It is a combination of fishy, salty and oily tastes, 
its odor resembling that of certain varieties of geranium. 

Although some of the samples of the reservoir water 
contained as many as twenty million individuals to the 
gallon, yet it would require many hundred gallons of the 
water to get enough of the oily product which imparts 
taste and odor, to work upon in the laboratory to accu- 
rately determine its nature. In many of its properties 
it resembles trimethylamine. 

In the month of August, when the trouble was at its 
worst, the water had a white appearance and was filled 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 319 

with minute white threads. On standing, it threw down 
a iloculent deposit of a stringy, whitish or yellowish 
white matter. Under the microscope, this deposit was 
found to consist of innumerable Asterionella matted 
togetehr with other diatoms strung together in threads 
the other diatoms, being more especially Melosira, Tabel- 
laria and Synedra. These thread-like forms have not 
been noticed to produce the objectionable taste and odro 
secreted by the Asterionella, and, moreover, they were 
vastly less abundant. The water itself was colorless, the 
apparent color being due to the suspended organisms. 
The oily taste-producing substance is volatile and cannot 
be gottou rid of by distillation. It distills over with the 
steam, giving to the distilled water a faint whitish 
appearance or opalescence, and communicates to it the 
same characterislic taste and smell. 

Neither can it be got rid of by filtration through paper 
or cotton or a thin layer of sand. Sand will arrest nearly 
all the Asterionella and then on being washed with pure 
water, the water used in washing and containing the 
plant will be found to have taken up the taste and odor. 
To remove both the Asterionella and all thd taste and 
odor arising from it, it is necessary to filter through 
animal charcoal or thorough a properly constructed sand 
filter of sufficient depth. 

The most characteristic feature of the diatom is its 
envelope of silica. There are many other kinds of mic- 
roscopic organisms represented in the different portions 
of the Brooklyn water supply, such as green alg», the 
bluish green algSB and the fungi, Rhizopods, Rotifers, 
Crustaceans, etc., but none of these are characterized by 
the presence of silica, and do not in the same sense im- 
peratively demand it as a constituent of their food. 
Moreover, the number of non-silex-secreting organisms 
is insignificant when compared with the stupendous 
number of diatoms. Thus Prof. Leeds says, but he for- 



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320 THE AMBBICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

getH that the silica in the Ioric» of bacillaria^ or diatoms, 
is in a very soluble form and bacillaria are also present 
in all water, marine, brackish and fresh, the world over. 
Silica can also be dissolved when in the crystaline form, 
as clear, transparent rock crystal. It is very likely that in 
this manner silica comes into solution and not by the ac- 
tion of alkali, potash or soda, which are also common in 
all soils. But, he says, ''such being the case there must 
be a great abundance of dissolved silica in the Brooklyn 
water, and something in the nature of the water-shed 
which enables it to impart the silica. As a matter of 
fact, the ponds and streams contributing to the Brooklyn 
supply have sides and bottoms of sand, which is silica in 
an undissolved form." But silica is always soluble! 
''Moreover all the water has an alkaline reaction and is 
capable, therefore, of dissolving silica and holding it in 
a soluble form. The wells, indeed, are the chief source of 
the silex of the Brooklyn water. The complete analysis 
of the mineral constituents given later shows the wells to 
contain 1.5 parts per 100,000 of silica. But by dilution with 
the surface waters containing relatively less, the silica in 
the combined supply is only about half as much. But 
even then, it amounts to 9 per cent of the total mineral 
matter present. This large amount is more than ample 
for the nutriment of the enormous number of silicious 
algsB which thrive and multiply in the Brooklyn resevoirs 
and distributing mains. 

Where do these Bacillaria come from? A microscop- 
ical examination of the water from several Brooklyn shal- 
low wells, shows a few Bacillaria, the Asterionella, how- 
ever, being found but once. From one basin however 
they were plentiful, b^ing 6,400 per cubic centimetre. 
The sample taken from the centre, but at the bottom of 
the resevoir, at the same time, contained 11,616 and the 
efflux 9,552 Asterionella. 

Besides the silica, what else in the way of food do the 



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1897] MICE08C0PICAL JOURNAL. 321 

Bacillaria require? Multiplied observations in many 
localities have shown that such a stupendous growth as 
the reservoirs exhibited last summer is possible only 
when there is present an abundant supply pf food in the 
form of assimilable nitrogen. 

Why should this transformation of ammonia, nitrites 
and nitrates into nitrogen and the immense multiplica- 
tion of Asterionella take place in the reservoir, and not 
in some pond or stream where Asterionella are found, 
and where abundance of food is likewise present? To 
explain this it is necessary to have recourse to what is 
known of the habits of life of the Asterionella in cases 
where its enormous multiplication^ along with the ac- 
companying taste and odor have been observed. Its 
multiplication isvcssentially favored by abundant access 
of light; by a gentle, tremulous motion in the water, and 
by storage in shallow reservoirs. All of these conditions 
exist in an convenient degree in the Brooklyn reservoirs. 
Together with the kind and quantity of food they are 
ample to explain what occurred in an aggravated form 
last summer, what is observable now, although to a far 
lesser extent, and what will occur at different seasons in 
the future until the physical conditions that render the 
occurrence possible have been removed. 

So far as is known the only remedy which has proved 
effectual has been that of excluding the light, and con- 
verting the reservoir into a substantially subterranean 
basin. The proposal to aerate the water, which was ad- 
vocated last summer, was fortunately, not entertained. 
Prof. Leeds speaks with the more positiveness upon the 
subject inasmuch as he introduced the mechanical aera- 
tion of water supplies, and has seen its introduction 
followed by the happiest results in cases where condi- 
tions favorable to stagnation were dominant. But the 
reverse of such conditions exists in the present instance, 
and the aeration of the water in the Brooklyn reservoirs 



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322 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

with its accompanying large expense, would result only 
m intensifying the trouble. Neither will filtration of 
the waters before they enter the reservoirs answer. In 
fact he thinkfii^that the Asterionella is the chief cause of 
the trouble. I have taken the above facts from Prof. 
Leed's report and commend it to the attention of every 
one interested in pure drinking water. 

Prof. Leeds says that the Asterionella flavor is from a 
substance which in many of its properties resembles 
trimethylamine, and trimethylamine occurs somewhat 
widely distributed in nature. Thus, for instance, it is 
found in various plants, as the Chenopoderium vulvaria, 
Annica montana, Murcurialis annua, the bloom of the 
hawthorn, that of the wild cherry, and of the pear, a.s 
well as in ergot, and other fungi parasitic on cereals. It 
also occurs in various animal liquids, and especially in 
herring-brine. It is likewise found as a product of de- 
composition of various alkaloids, and amongst the pro- 
ducts of dry distilUation of nitrogenous, organic matter 
and of wood. It has a powerful and penetrating char- 
acteristic fish-like smell. I have found it as a character- 
istic twice of Asterionella in the season when ovulation 
takes place and it seems to be characteristic of the en- 
largement of the oil globules as they are called, or ova 
as I designate them. 

The reproduction of the Bacillaria seems to be this: 
As the individual is found, it contains, besides endo- 
chrome, or olive-colored matter, large oil globules which 
are transparent and look extremely like drops of oil. 
These are colorless and permanent so that when the 
Bacillarian individual is dried up the endochrome withers 
away but the oil globule stays and when the individual 
is acted upon by acid, the oil globule is not so readily 
acted upon. These I shall show are ova or female organs, 
as the individual opens there appear certain minute dots 
which are extremely active in motion. They increase in 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



323 



quantity and at one stage occupy a large part of the in- 
terior of the frustule, the endochrome withering away 
or being crowded to the sides. As the breeding season 
approaches the interior is often dotted by innumerable 
active little globules and two or sometimes more ova or 
oil globules. Then in some way the contact of the an- 
thozoa, as I have called these active little globules, and 
the ova takes place. How, I know not for they are ex- 




AsterioneUa flavor. 

tremely minute and the contact is only momentary. But 
sometime, I think that I shall see how the contact takes 
place. At this time, or evolution, the characteristic odor, 
the formation of trimethylamine smelling, takes place. 
This is the ovulation of Bacillaria. It takes place in all 
forms more or less, but is most rapid in forms which 
occur in such enormous quantities. This form I have 
found to be as rapid as any in coming and going. Per- 
haps it is more so than other Bacillarian. 



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324 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

The Microbe of Yellow Fever. 

BY GIUSEPPE SANARELLI, M. D. 

MONTBVIDBO, URUGUAY. 

The best way to demonstrate not only the presence, 
but also its special tendency to arrange itself in small 
groups, preferably in the blood capillaries, consists in 
placing in the incubator, at 37° C. for twelve hours, a 
fragment of the liver taken from a fresh cadaver in order 
to favor the multiplication of the specific microbe. The 
yellow-fever bacillus grows sufiBciently well in all the 
ordinary culture media. In common gelatin it forms 
rounded colonies, transparent and granular, which dur- 
ing the first three or four days present an aspect analog- 
ous to that of leucocytes. 

The granulation of the colony becomes more and more 
pronounced, appearing ordinarily as a nucleus, central or 
peripheral, completely opaque; in time the whole colony 
grows entirely opaque. It never liquefies gelatin. 

In beef bouillon the bacillus grows quickly, without 
forming either pellicles or deposits. 

On blood serum solidified it grows in a manner almost 
imperceptible. 

Cultures on agar-agar represent for the "bacillus icter- 
oides'* a means of diagnosis of the first order; but the 
demonstration by this means of diagnosis is eflBcacious 
only under certain determined conditions. 

When the colonies grow in the incubator, they present 
an appearance that does not differ from that of the maj- 
ority of the other species of microbes; they are rounded, 
of a slightly iridescent gray color, transparent, even in 
surface, and regular in outline. 

If, instead of causing the colonies to grow in the incu- 
bator at a temperature of 37° C, they are allowed to 
evolve at a temperature of from 20°--22° C, they appenr 
like drops of milk, opaque, projecting, and with pearly 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 326 

reflections; that is to say, they are completely distinct 
from those grown in the incubator. 

These diflFerent modes of evolution can be used for 
diagnosis by exposing cultures, first, for from twelve to 
sixteen hours to the temperature of the incubator, and 
afterward ior other twelve to sixteen hours to the temper- 
ature of the air. 

This done, the colonies show themselves to be con- 
structed with a flat central nucleus, transparent and 
azure, having a peripheral circle prominent and opaque. 
This peculiarity, which may be considered specific, may 
be made evident in less than twenty-four hdurs, serving 
thus to establish the bacteriological diagnosis of the 
"bacillus icteroides." 

Apart from this morphological characteristic, which 
suffices of itself to differentiate the microbe of yellow 
fever from all others previously known, the "bacillus 
icteroides" is endowed with some interesting biological 
qualities. 

It is a facultative anaerobe, and does not resist the 
Gram stain; it ferments insensibly lactose, more actively 
glucose and saccharose, but is unable to coagulate milk; 
it does not produce indol, and is very resistant to drying; 
it dies in water at 60*^ C. or after being exposed for seven 
hours to the solar rays, and lives for a long time in sea 
water. 

The microbe of yellow fever is pathogenic for the 
greater number of the domestic animals. Few microbes 
have a pathological dominion so extended and so varied. 
Birds are completely refractory, but all the mamniiferous 
auimals upon which I have experimented have shown 
themselves more or less susceptible. 

But of all the animals, that which lends itself best to 
showing the close analogy, anatomically and nosologi- 
cally, between experimental yellow fever and human yel- 
low fever, is the dog. 



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326 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct 

The virus shoald be injected iuto a vein. The morbid 
process that results manifests itself almost immediately, 
with a violence of symptoms and an assemblage of les- 
ions which recall the picture, clinical and anatomical, of 
human yellow fever. 

The lesions found after death are extremely interest- 
ing, as they are almost identical with those observed in 
the human cadaver. 

Attention is called before everything to the intense 
fatty degeneration of the liver. The hepatic cell, exam- 
ined in a fresh state with a little osmic acid, appears 
completely turned into fat, as it is in human victims of 
yellow fever; the yellow-fever toxin, as we shall see 
later is a true specific poison to the hepatic cell, as are 
phosphorus and arsenic. A complete fatty degeneration 
of the liver may be affected by injecting directly into it, 
through the abdominal parietes, a fresh culture of the 
specific bacillus. 

The kidney shows a severe fatty degeneration, accom- 
pained by lesions of acute parenchymatous nephritis, 
which may be considered the direct causes of the anuria 
and the ursemic Intoxication. 

The digestive apparatus shows lesions of hemorrhagic 
gastro-enteritis as intense as those caused by poisoning 
with cyanide of potassium. They are completely analog- 
ous to those in man, though more grave. 

A bacteriological fact of great interest in the yellow 
fever of the dog is that in the majority of cases the 
**bacillus icteroides" is found in the blood and the organs 
in variable quantity and in a state of absolute purity; at 
times, it is found associated, as in man, with the coli bac- 
illus and the streptococcus. 

As the tendency to secondary microbic infections has 
been proved even in the yellow fever intoxication of the 
dog, provoked with a pure culture, filtered, it must be 
concluded that the yellow fever poison, whether by itself 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 327 

or whether through the alterations it produces in the 
diflFerent viscera, and especially in the liver — which, as is 
well known, should be considered the organ of defense 
against microbes — favors in the dog secondary infections 
having their point of departure in the intestinal canal. 

This is an important point of resemblance between the 
yellow fever of the dog and that of man. 

From the results of the first part of the investigations 
relative solely to the comparative morphology, biology, 
and pathology of the "bacillus icteroides,'* we can deduce 
some fundamental conclusions concerning the etiology 
and the pathology of the yellow fever of man. 

Yellow fever is, then, an infectious disease, due to an 
organism well defined and susceptible of being cultivated 
in the common artificial nutritive media. 

The mi<;ro-organism, which I have designated pro- 
visionally with the name of "bacillus icteroides," can be 
isolated, not only from the cadaver, but also during the 
life of the yellow fever patient. 

Its isolation presents generally difficulties, sometimes 
invincible, due in part to the constant presence of secon- 
dary infections, and in part to tiie relative scarcity of the 
organism in the body. 

These secondary infections, due almost always to cer- 
tain species of microbes, as the coli bacillus, the strepto- 
coccus, the staphylococcus, the proteus, etc., may appear 
in the organism long before the death of the patient, 
which is of ten attributable to their action rather than to 
that of the "bacillus icteroides.'' — Med. Record. 



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328 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oci 

EDITORIAL. 

Benjamin F. Quinby, of Chicagro, died suddenly at Gos- 
hen, Ind., July 18, 1897, aged 62 years. He was born in 
Concord, N. H. and moved to Chicago in 1853, having pre- 
viously been in a wholesale grocery in Philadelphia. For 
twenty years past he has been in employ of Fuller, Fuller 
& Co. 

He was active in scientific matters and was one of the 
oldest members and at one time president of the Illinois 
State Microscopical society. He was also a member of the 
Academy of Science of Philadelphia, and that of Chicago, 
and of the Royal Microscopical society of London. He was 
well known as an entomologist and his microscopical prep- 
arations on insects were known in many other places than 
Chicago. 

Life in Diamonds. — Professor von Schoen, of the fac- 
ulty of Naples University, and Professor Edward Von 
Holstof the Chicago University, propose to obliterate the 
line of demarkation between the organic world and dia- 
monds. They have made photomicrographs, which views, 
says the Mineral Collector, sliow the crystal in its birth, 
the head showing forth from the mother crystal, and the 
course is followed as it pushes out and away. The crys- 
tal meets another one from a different mother. The two 
strike at each other, they fight, strive and clasp with each 
other. It is a case of the survival of the fittest. One 
must die. No two crystals from the same mother ever 
fight, however, no matter where they meet. 



nCROSGOPICAL APPARATUS. 

Photo-Micrography.— The following is perhaps the 
most simple method of doing what is required. Take a 
smoothly-planed board about 3ft. by 6in. by J^in., and 
straight down the center thereof cut a slotabout 2ft. long 
by >^in. wide, and lastly, affix on the under side, at each 
extreme end, a fillet about l}4in. wide by ^in. thick to 
strengthen the board and raise it slightly from the sur- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL, 329 

face on which it is to stand, level and firm. As the camera 
to be used only extends 9in., a box-like extension piece — 
adding, say, an extra 4in. — should be made and fitted to 
the front. The camera is secured to one end of the board 
by means of a usual tripod screw passed from beneath 
throug-h the long slot, and the microscope is so placed, 
turned horizontally on its stand, that the eyepiece points 
centrally through the usual lens mount into the camera, 
the junction between the two being made light-tight by a 
small velvet sleeve having elastic bands at each end. The 
ordinary focusing-screen is utterly useless for micro- 
graphic work, it being necessary to use a piece of thin 
patent plate glass, having lines ruled on one side with a 
diamonds Correct focus is obtained when these lines and 
the image are seen in focus together through a compound 
focusser. The condenser and lamp (if the last is used) 
are, of course, arranged at the other end of the board op- 
posite the microscope and camera. 



MICB08C0PIGAL MANIPULATION. 



Staining Insects' Wings. — Dr. Brodie has given much 
attention to the setting up and preservation of insects^ 
The following mode of staining the wings of insects which 
he has devised, will be both useful and interesting. Place 
the whole insect in a strong alcoholic solution of f uchsin, 
aud allow it to remain there for forty-eight hours. Then 
transfer the insect to water with a pair of fine forceps, and 
wash it until no more color comes away, changing the 
water if necessary. While the washed insect floats in clear 
water, slip a microscope slide, holding the insect on it with 
a fine needle, separate the wings from the body with a fine 
scalpel, and remove the body. Float the wings into posi- 
tion on a drop of clear water, remove excess of water with 
blotting-paper and allow to dry. Then place a drop of 
thick Canada-balsam near them and heat over a spirit-lamp. 
Tilt the slide to allow the liquefied balsam to flow over the 
wings, lower a cover-g-lass gently into position and allow 
to cooL On examination the veins will be found red, the 



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330 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

depth of colorings varying- with the lengfth of time of stain- 
ing*, the thickness of the veins, etc. — Science-Gossip. 



BACTEBIOLOOT. 



Anthrax Bacteria in Hides from China. — During the 
early part of August four deaths occurred among the 
employes of the Falls Creek tannery near' Dubois, Pa., 
and several cases of severe illness have been reported. 
Sometime ago the tannery company received an invoice 
of 100,000 hides imported from China. During* the pro- 
cess of tannings the liquors drained into the creek. Not 
long afterwards several head of cattle running" at large 
died. It was discovered that the cattle drank water from 
the creek. Shortly afterwards several employes were 
taken sick and in some cases death resulted^ 

Investigation revealed the fact that the hides were infec- 
ted with anthrax bacteria. Considerable alarm was 
caused at Falls Creek over the fatal effects and possible 
spread of the disease as it proves fatal in from five to 
eight days, and of the men affected only one has so far 
recovered. 

The matter has been kept as secret as possible, but it 
is understood that the matter has been reported to the 
State boardof health and an in vestig'ation will be instituted. 

Pathogenic Organisms and Living Plant Tissues. — Sev- 
eral years ago Dr. H. L. Russel published an interesting 
paper on "Bacteria in their Relation to Veg-etable Tissue" 
in which it was demonstrated that some of the forms 
adapted to a saprophytic mode of life may live for consider- 
able periods of time in living plants, but few of the facul- 
tative parasites were able to thus live. Bacillus pyocyaneus 
oval schweine senche bacillus did so for sometime. These 
micro-org-anisms were usually found intracellular. Dr. 
Karl Kornanter, who has recently investigated this ques- 
tion, makes no reference to this excellent paper. Kornan- 
ter worked with pathogenic and saprophytic species. In 
the case of anthrax bacillus and Streptococcus pyogenes 
the germs did not penetrate the tissues of corn or pea, in 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 331 

germination the young- plants having- passed throug-h cul- 
tures containing- these organisms. Nor were his results 
with other pathog-enic saporphytic org-anisms more favor- 
able where onions or hyacinth bulbs were used, or when 
cultures were inoculated into plants above ground. Var- 
ious minerals speedily destroyed the organisms. It is not 
probable therefore that pathogenic bacteria are ever taken 
up by the roots of plants. 

Appropriation of Free Atmospheric Nitrogen. — Nitro- 
gradsky is well-known on account of his extended and 
thorough studies of micro-organisms in connection with 
the subject of nitrification. He has now given us the result 
of his studies on the above topic. In isolating these organ- 
isms he used what is by him termed the "elective" method 
of isolation. In this special case a culture medium was 
employed that was free from all combined nitrogen. It 
was made up as follows: 

Distilled water, lOOOcc; 20-40 gr. dextrose; 1 gr. potas- 
sium phosphate; 0.5 gr. magnesium sulphate; 0.01-0.02 gr, 
potassium chlorate, sulphate of iron, sulphate of manganese. 
This culture medium was then inoculated with garden 
earth. Most of the cultures soon showed evidence of 
butyric acid fermentation. Gas bubbles appearing in the 
immediate vicinity small masses floating in the medium. 
These masses somewhat resembled Kephir grains. This 
fermentation continued till all of the sugar was used up. 
After this fermentation, mould developed on these white 
grain-like masses, followed by algae. It appears that this 
medium at first wholly unsuited for higher plants because 
of the absence of nitrogen was made sutiable when appro- 
priation of nitrogen by bacteria had taken place. The 
Kephir like masses consisted of a species of Clostridium 
to which he has given the name of C. pasteurianum, and 
two kinds of bacteria forming threads. The interesting 
details cannot be given here. Suffice it to say that this 
Clostridium is capable of obtaining nitrogen from the 
atmosphere, which is found in the medium in part as solu- 
ble inorganic nitrogen, but mostly as insoluble organic 



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332 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct. 

combined nitrogfen. (Archives des Sciences biolc^iques T 
III. St. Petersburg-, 1895, No. Bott. Centralbl. LXV, 277.) 



KEDICAL KICBOSCOPT. 



Diarrhoea in Children and Milk. — It is well-known that 
milk may g^ive rise to intestinal disorders traced back to 
the poisonous products produced by micro-organisms. 
Dr. K. Alt indicates in a paper in Deutsch. Med. Noch- 
euschr, 1896, No.5, that all troubles of this kind need not 
necessarily be referred back to micro-orgunisms, but in 
some cases the food consumed by cattle may be responsi- 
ble for some of this poisoning-. In the cases referred to 
clover was thoug-ht to have caused the trouble. All pre- 
cautions for sterilization seem not to have been taken into 
consideration. Dr. Alt's conclusions are not warranted. 

Tsetse Fly Disease or Nagana in Zululand. — Dr. Bruce 
claims to have traced the connection of this disease and 
larger domestic animals to one of the Flagellatis (Trypan- 
t)soma e vansi) which is carried over by Tsetse fly. It was 
shown that the fly was not poisonous, but that when the 
fly was allowed to take the blood of a diseased dog it could 
carry the disease to another animal, dog, horse, or bovine. 
( Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk. xix; Abth. I. 955.) 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Medical Botany. — Moquin-Tandon has published an 
elementary treatise of 543 pages on this topic which con- 
tains numerous figures of medical plants some excellent, 
others rather poorly executed. The part dealing with 
phaenogams is good but the part dealing with cryptogams 
is not up with the times, some rather remarkable state- 
ments being made. Just two pages are devoted to bacteria 
Leptothrix f uccales and Merismopidia (Sarcina ventriculi). 
His information concerning these is somewhat ancient. 
Reference is made to this part of the work because it is a 
sample of what one finds too frequently in so called scien- 
tific publications. 



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A NEW EDITION OF 

^nL. ^nLT^TSOM St SONS' 

Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, t3%^e0toi 
and Accessories. 

Id it will be fonnd fully deecribed all the latest impiOT«iieiits and dolot 
of the Watson InstromentB, also many new kinds of aooenories lnftii<in(|ftt 
followiDg : 

A SERIES OF NEW PARACHROMATIC 

MICROSCOPIC OBJECTIVE, 



These Lenses will be found to possess large apertores, to be^f I 
ity, and to be as low in price as any Objectiyes in the maskei. ,Tlii|JN#n 
ooDstrncted almost entirely of Jena Glass. 

The following are selected from the Series 



POWER. 


, N. A. 


PRICE. 


POWER. 


N. A. 


PBIffB* 


1-2 inch 


0.34 


£1.2.6 


2-3 in. 


0.28 


£%^jO 


1-4 inch 


0.68 


1.5.0 


1-6 in. 


0.87 


LU^jO 


1-8 inch 


0.88 


2.0.0 


1-9 in. 


0.90 


.M 


Homo^ueous 


Immersion. 










l-biodi 


1-20 


4.15.0 


1-12 in. 


1.35 


5.ao 



W. WATSON & SONS' 

New *' PARACHROMATIC Substage Cbodeoser. 

This condenser has a total aperture of 1.0 If. A., has an eztreiiMly 
Aplanatic Aperture, exceeding .90 N. A. Its power is 21-7 inch, aiid 
toe front leus removed, 4.10 inch. It is mooated wiih Ifis-Diffhig» and 
revolving carrier for stops for dark ground and oblique illuminalkMi. ^ Hm 
Iris Diaphragm is divided so as to indicate the N. A. at rhich. the ^I0tfitgmi 
in employed. The diameter of the back leas is 5^ inch. 

PRICE COMPLETE £3,15. 

APLANTIC MAGNIFWnS. 

In addition to W. Watson & Sons' well-known liQgnlar aeries ibey •■• 
working Mr. E. M. Nelson's new form, magnifying 15moMiteni which glrti 
great working distance and large aperture. It is believed to be i 
by any similar lens for qualities. 

PRICE — in German silver mount, pocket form 15.6. 
For dissecting, in wooden box 14.6. 

^rhe above catalogue will be mailed post-free on f 

MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS." 

Watson & Sons hold a stock of 40,000 specimena -all of the*^l 
forming undoubtedly the finest collection in the world. "Fidli 
forward post-free on application to 

W. ifl^HTSON St SONS 

(ESTABLISpfJD 1837) 
OPTICIANS TO H. M.; GOVERNMENT. 
SlllHigh Holbom, London, W. C; an^ 78 Swanston Stieet, MelbowM, 

Australia. 
Awarded 38 Gold and other medals at InteCTatJonaljExhibitiana 
& Uigbeat^ Awards at the Worid's Fair, Chicago, 1893. 2 Gold Hodali^ 
Universal Exhibition 1889 &c. Sec* 
NOTE— The postage on letters to England is 6 oents, or postal oardt 2 



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WA^T, SALE AND EXCHANGE NOTlCES. 

. , . FOR 3^L£.— Firat class Botanical moants, 25 cents. Send for list ; atoo 

* Uli exchange. I. PERCY BLA.CKMAN, Sandy Hook, Conn. 

FOR SALE.— ToUes 1>10 ol^ecUve, 1.42 N A, one of his latest and best. 
Also 1-12 Powell & Leland apochromatic objective, 1.40 N. A, new. 

C. £. BLAKE <& CO., Adams Express Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

* flEAD the nice stories in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. Too can save 
50 cents, (club rate) by snbscribing for Lippinoott through as. 

MICROSCOPICAL PUB. CO. 
JBOlSk SA|i^. —Nicely moanted slides xtf Rhinoceros horn, at 40 cents each. 
f^-^ -' • ' H. H. DAVISON, 41 Sumner St., Paatwkct. R L 

^ fX3R SALE.— Pritchard's Infosoria (latest edition, colored plates) and 
'*"ftniith*s British Diatoitiaceae (2 vols., uncut). These works are very scarce 
and can only be got,as iu this case, when a microtomist finishes osingthem. 
Price $60. No Sig., Care C. W. SMILEY. 

FOR EXCHANGE.— The Museum of Hamline Unive^pitydesirAtoex- 
change Atlantic ShelU, preserved specimens of Marine Zoology of microsoDpic 
slip *6Hdeb for Zoological specimens especially Rodents in the flesh from 
Southwestern United Statea Con-espondence solicited. 

HENRY L. OSBOKN» Hamline Univ., St Paul, Minnesote. 
AfiliANGED DIATOMS. I furoish the most artistitic amuigements of 
diatoms in slides at $5.00 each. Your name can be made from difiereot 
species. Roosters, hen and chickens, and bonquets of flowers in b«ittecfly 
scales and diatoms from |5.00. Refer to the Editor of this JocmHiL 



: ^Mierosoopioal Speoialties. 

'KING'S CEMENTS ^^^^''"^"^•"'^^'^^iheywm.-i.i.H. 

KING'S GLYCERINE JELLY is unsurpassed. 
THB KUm MIOEOTOMB is the beet for botanical wo A. 

Send for full lilt of fpedaltiefl. 

^- J. D. KING, Cottage City, Mass. 

INVERTEBRATE DISSECTIONS. 

Second Edition ; Keviaed aiuL GreaOif Enlarged. 

BESIGNEO to suit the requirements of high school or college, or to gaide 

any who may deaire to pursue an elementaiy course of practiod or theoretical 

«^''«4]i'v«rtehTftte zoology. It contains working directions for the study of fiflf 

mu ^^pe8f^£rom all ^classes and ordera of Invertebrates, attention being diiefly 

called to common and easily obtained forms ; notes on habits and modes (if 

captuw, and items to observe on living animals ; bibliographical reference to 

some ^ th6 tobst accessible literature of each gioup : and a synoptical taWe 

of t^e entire animal kingdom summarizing all the phyla, classes and ordef8» 

thus making the book a compend of Elementary Invertebrate Zoology. 

ftyo; heavy paper covers; 64 pages ; price 75 cents. Special rates for sdwols. 
^nt postpaid on i^oeipt of price. Circulars and sample pages flunialMdoo 



,»^' 



, anpliication to author. 

I?;!;;'. ; henry l. osborn, 

** ' ' Hamline University, St. Paul, Minn. 



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General Index 

\ 

TO THE \ 

■% 

American Monthly Microscopical JonAial 

1880-1895. 

(16 years.) 

We have for sale a limited number of copies,^^of 
this general index, containing 69 pages and 05p6 
references at ... 



$1.00 per copy. 






BACK NUMBERS 

We can supply sets of the Journal for 1881-1896, 
at f 2.00 each; the last ten volumes for ten dollstrs;. 



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GAEL REICHERT 
MICROSCOPES. 

SOLE AaENTS FOB UNITES STATES. 

RICHARDS & CO., LTD., 

NEW TORE, OmOAQO, 

41 BarcUy Street. 108 Lake Street. 



Icranqiic Freiiaratieiis Dlnstratiiiii tlie linnte Stmctnre 
ef Teptaile Life. 

Being enclosed in a novel transparent envelope, these objects may 
bt ezanttined without removal before mounting. They are prepared 
with the utmost care by Wai«ter WhiTB, England, and are mostly 
stained in one or two colors of the most permanent character. 

it friend says : The sample section is exquisite. It is so good 
that I want more. As a well -cut and well-stained section it is 
equal to anything I have seen in that line. 

PRICES. 

Catalogue of 172 objects, - I0.02 

Single specimens, - - - - .oS 

so specimens, assorted, i.oo 

CHAS. W. SMIIiEY, Washington, !>. C. 



SWEDENBORG 

is not only a theologian ; he is a scientist and a scientific writer, 
wiiose keenly philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 

Address 

ADOLPH ROEDER, 

Vinetend, N. J. 

ll6M^ttkl£^-^Asetof slides illastroting the Woody Plants ofDUoois, 
•5 GensTa. H. F. MtJNROE, 821 Jackson Boulevard, Chicago. III. 



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Send for Art Catalogue. 

ju Light? 19 to 21 lbs. ffl 

Strong ? Guaranteed. 

For whom? 300 pound riders. 



KEATING BICYCLES. 



LfJ Frame sway? No. Why? See that curve. 
Speedy? Yes. 
Why? Long chain. M 

HSHSHsasasaHHSEsasasiasHSBsasHHasHSHSHsasssEl 

^6c; days ahead of them all. 



Keating Wheel Co., Holyoke, Mass. 



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THE FISK 

TRAGHRRS' AGRNGIR8, 
EVERETT O. FISK & CO., Proprietors. 

President. 

SmtBR O. Vi«, 4 Adilmrton PIam, Boiton* MMk 

Managers. 

W. B. HnuoK, 4 AdibartDB PUoe, Bofton, W. D. Kbkr« 70 FIflh ▲▼•ma, M«w Tack, 

HAM. N. T 

Mra. 8. D. TrnTBHOiTD, 1S42 Twelftti 8t^ P. Y.HuTiBOOif.TOIIfth ▲▼«&iM,H*wTock, 

WMblB(ton,D.O. N. T. 

▲. O. FuBBB, 4 ABhbortoD Place, BoaCon, W. 0. Peatt, 70 Fifth ▲Tanoe, Haw Toit, 

Man. N. T. -. -, 

M ABTIA HoAa, 4 Aahtmrton Placa, Boiloii, L. B. HALnT,356 Wabaah ATaoaa, Ohlaagov 

MaM. Ill* 

Hbuh O. Basbk, 4 Aahbarton Place, Boa- J. D. Ewau, Oentory BoUding, Mlnanapo 

ton. Ma«. olU, Minn. 

W. O. MoTaoqakt, 26 King St. Weat Una. B. Dowuva Biioi.1, Oantoiy BUg., 

Toronto, Canada. M lnnean>li8, Minn. 

H. B. Obookbb,70 riflh Avenue, New York, 0. O/Bothton, liO>^ flo. Spring St., Loa. 

H. T. Angelea, Oal. 

Send to any of the abore agendea for 100>page Agency Manual. Oorreapondenoa with aai- 
ployen la inTited. Baglatration foma sent to teachen on appUcatioii. 

ZEISS MICROSCOPES. 

Tbe Carl Zeiss Optical Works in Jena 

Are recognized in Europe as the leading manufacturers of Stands and 
Objectives. They have issued a new Catalogue for 1895, containing a 
description of^numBeToRe^^cceSoHe^inTapp^ which I am 
enabled to import at lowest rates. Orders for colleges and institutions 
filled prompty, duty free. New Catalogues forwarded on application, 
against ao cents in postage stamps. 

F. J. EMMERICH, Sr.» Agent, 

74 Murray St., New York, N. Y. 



OPTICIAN. 
209 South Uth Street, Philadelphia. 



HISTOLOGICAL MICROSCOPES $65. 



STUDENTS' MICBOSCOPES, $38 to 146, Complete. 

MICROMETER RULINGS. A SPECIALTY. 



ILLU8TRATBD CATALOOUB OK APPLXCATIOIf. 



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OR 

inontfjiy 3ournaI of (Beology: 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

"THE GEOLOOIST." 

BDITEI> BY 

HENRY WOODWARD, LL.D., F. R. S., PresG. S., P. %, S., F. R. M. S. 

OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ; 

ASSISTED BY 

ROBERT ETHERIDGE. F. R. S. L. & E., F. G. S., F. C. S , &c. 

WILFRID H. HUDLESTON, M. A., F. R. S., F. G. S , F. L. S., F. C. S 

GEORGE J. HINDRE. Ph.D., V. P. G. S., &c. 

AND 

HORACE BOLINGBOKE WOODWARD, F. G. S. 



The NEW SERIES. Decade IV. Vol. II.No. 1—4. 
Jan.- April, 1895, NOW READY. 

PUBLISHED BT 

MESSRS. DULAU & CO., 

37 SOHOSaUARE, LONDON, W. 

\% 18 eaniestly reqaestod that Sabscriptioiis may be sent to DyLAU and 
Co. in advance. Snbecriben ofl8«. for the year will reodve the Magazine, 
Post-free, direct on the Ist of each Month. Single copies I5. M. each. 



All Communications for this Magazine shojjld be 
addressed to the Editor of the Geological Magazine, 

129 BEAUFORT STEEET, CHELSEA, 

LONDON, S. W. 

Books and Spedmena may In future be addressed to the Editor, care of 

MBSSBS. DULAU & GO., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 



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Special 
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B" 



-IN- 



MICROSCOPY. 



^UBUfO the Ian few sonftt 
I have been busy prepaiiBg 
mmnj rsre and novel ol^edi 
for Mfcroeooplcal purpuem, aod 
liHTe arrmng:rd them aa undar In 
llIUHtr»t«>d Series. 

The flnt orUiMe la the Ml- 
ciXMc«|rfeftl %^dimm «■ Ma- 
rine Zoology. 

The eeouDd Series (tIs.: that 
for 1895) consists of 14 mlendid 
preparationa, all of the bighesi 
puHitble exeelleace and Kuaranleed 
fMrmauent TKe 14 slides appear 
ID quarterly in»tallmenta, aod are 
accunipanied by over lOO pmgou 
of deacriptive letterproM, 
dealiufc in pleasant bnt exact man- 
ner wKh the anatomy, life-bistory 
snd haMts of the respective i 



jects, while12fall-p«|^ pl»«M 
of photo-ensr»Tlncs, aimwa 



from llfOt make plain all details. 
laciniive Sabsorlptloii, •Aw95» post-free. Full prosppctua on applkatioa. 
The following are among the Slides included in this Series : 



6. Lovely Expended Zoophyte Ser^mlmia Mc 

7. Oposanm-ehrfmp Jfy«u, showing ao^ 

tory organ in tail S8s 

8. The splendid rare organ-pipe Polyiooa. 

Uckeiftpora 40s 

•. Kntire larval Plaice, eye Josl turving 
fnim blfbtl side and 5 other eqoally 
Abe dldes. 60e 



L Oolony of the lovely Badlolarian Byhtaro- 

aomm, showing parasitic algae. 40c 

S. The lovely Zoophyte ObtUa^ polyps fitlly 

expanded. 36c 

5. Stalked stage of the larva of Bosy 

Feather Star (ftmUdon) 40c 

4. An entire Sea- Butterfly (PUropod). 40c 

6. Lovely expanded Zoophyte Sifncvrpn*' ^^ 

The prices againeit each are those at which the preparations are sold s^iantely. show- 
ing what a cheap lot I offer in neries at $6.26, post free. A few sets of 8*>Ties 1 still available, 
16.26, post free. Sample Slide, 60c., post fk^ee. 

Prof. J. R. Alnaw.Jrtli Davis, Uulvemlty Oollej<e, Abery«twlth. writes: "Allow me to 
congratulate you on the v(*ry useful work you are doing by* the publication of loumal, with 
accompanying slides, which are most admirablr. 

8np«rb microscopical preparations of Braz1U»n I^lanaa. — I have 
be«n unfortunate in ohtaininK a quantity of thmt* superb 8t«>iDS — tb« 
mt«t lovely in the wbi>le plant kingdom^^aod have arran>|ad them 
in two n*«ts of 6 each, at the priee of fl.9i per set, t*r t*^.Sft- for th» 
two. The roost exqniiitely chanuiug slides that oonld possibly b* 
imAKfned for exhlliftioo at popular gntherlnKS. As the quantify ii 

very limited. 1 am uuatde U* sell single slides. 

J Bf Icroaoopical Htndiea in Bolany.— In answer to many requests, I have ar- 
ranged 20 magnificent preparations in a series on similar lines to that in marine aoology de> 
scribed above. 

-Tha first saries in now begun and compnsra 30 bighttt-dass slides (such as sell siDgly 
at 26c to 35c each), illuntruted by deswriptive lettorpresB and 20 specially beautiful photo-mkro- 
graphs of the sections. 

8ubscriptloiii«, f6.25 only, fur all, a sum which would be dietfp for the series of iilat* 



accompanying slides, which 

Botany. 



trations alone. 

Prof. J. W. Onrr, Univenlty roll«»ge, 



are the most beautiful I haive ever seen, 
above linns : 

1. Tr. sec. flower-bud of Lily 

2. ** *' do of Dandelion 

3. Long*l sec do of do 

4. do fruit of Fig 
I f^uarantee the perfectton 



NotMngbam, writes: *'Toiir Bbtaaical Slices 



The foUowiag are among the slides alD«s4y issosd is 



25c 
30c 
25c 
30c 



:. fhiit of I>ate (splendid) 
flower of Btdm-hoUzia 



5. Tr. 

7. Long'l. sec double flower of Peony 

8. Leaf-fall of Sycamore 



36c 
90c 
a6c 

26e 



„ _ of all my mounts and will be pleased to »end 

selectioas on oppro\-iil Lo approved correspondents. 

A {Treat ran^e of Miscellaneous i&oological and Botanical slides ia stock 
at prices from |i..%o per dozen. 

€of9t of M*lllnfc> 1 slide, lo cents ; 2 sHdes, 15 cents; 3 ^d«S; )i> tents and 
so on. Larffe parcels by express at very cheap rates. 

Hpeciallty. Marine Zoology (especially in expanded 2%oQphytes and larval 
stag:e8. and plant and flower anatomy. 

Terms. Remittance by P. O. O., draft on London, or U. S. paper currency, the 
former preferred. If wished. Mr. 0. W. Smiley. Washington. D. '\ will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley has kindly promised to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. S. Microscop- 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Btofogical Station, Janey, IngUuid. 



BpaoialMiii llieft*»pic«l MovbCIm. 



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\-« 



THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 

Contents for Nov., 1897. 

On the EvolatioD of the Microscope. Nelson. (Illnstrated) 334 

Exam inatioa of Water. Whipple. (Illuatrated) 340 

Astrouomii'al Photography with Photomicrographic Apparatus. Mercer 347 

ProKreas in EflTect with the Roentgen X-Rays. (Illoatrated) 350 

Editorial. 

Bacteroloxical Laboratory 356 

Bovine Tubercnlosid 356 

Microscopical Apparatus. 

Micrometer Rulings. (Illnstrated) 356 

Microscopical Manipulation. 

Drinking Water 359 

Bacteriology. 

Baldness 360 

Leprosy 361 

Caseous Rhinitis 361 

Tuberculosis in Goats 361 

Microscopical Notes. 

Circulation of Blood 361 

Microscopical Societies. 

American Microscopical Society 362 

New Publications. 

Elementary Zoology and laboratory Guide 364 



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OCT 12 1901 
THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XVIII. NOVEMBER, 1897. No. 11. 



On the Evolution of the Microscope. 

By Edwaud M. NEI.80N, 

LONDON. 
WITH FRONTISHECE. 

One of the means of guidance for the future is a study 
of the errors of the past. The end will be best served 
by (a) a through investigation of a good type of instru- 
ment designed at sortie period subsequent to the intro- 
duction of achromatism, tracing tlie development of its 
various parts from the earliest times. (J?) A study of 
modern instruments, showing wherein and why they 
either follow or depart from the selected type. (0) The 
collation of other material bearing on the development 
of modern microscopes though not falling witliin the 
limits of a and h. 

The first ste[>, then, is the choice of a type. (1) It 
must be that towards which the modern microscope is 
tending. (2) It must be a permanent form. 

There is only one microscope in which both these 
necessary conditions are to be found, and that is Powell's 
No. 1, for it requires the slightest observation to per, 
ceive (1) that the best modern microscopes are more and 
more conforming to that type, and (2) that it has remain- 
ed in its present form for upwards of twenty years. 

Our first duty, then, is to describe all the causes accu- 
mulated since tho invention of the microscope, that have 



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334 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

inflaenced the design of Powell's No. 1. We say pro- 
bably, because it is possible that Powell's No. 1, or auy 
other form of microscope or apparatus, might have beou 
desigued by au inveutor wholly unacquainted with any 
preceding form, though in the absence of any evidence to 
the contrary such a hypothesis would be highly improb- 
able. 

Those parts of this paper which treat of old micro- 
scopes are not intended to be a history of the micro- 
scopes; many interesting old forms will not even be 
mentioned. For the most part attention will be drawn 
to only those instruments that have been rungs in the 
ladder of evolution. 

To begin, then, neither the name of the inventor nor 
the date of the first compound microscope has been 
with certainty determined. There is an extensive litera- 
ture on the subject, and the conclusion arrived at is that 
the first microscope was probably 'made by Jansen, a 
spectacle maker, of Middelburg, in Holland, about the 
year 1660. An old microscope, supposed to be a Jansen, 
was exhibited at the loan collection of scientific instru- 
ments at South Kensington in 1876 (catalogue No. 3,510), 
the date of it given in the catalogue being 1590. This 
instrument had neither stand, object-holder, nor stage; 
the only mechanical movement with which it was fur- 
nished was a draw tube for separating the two convex 
lenses which formed the optical part of the instrummt 

(Fig. 1). 

The next step is to be found in a drawing of a j^impK' 
microscope by Descartes in his "Dioptrique" in 1637. 
This shows a piano convex lens placed at the vertex of a 
concave mirror; in short it is an instrument now known as 
a Lieberkuhn. It is curious to note that while Descarit^N 
is very particular about the parabolic curves of his mir- 
rors and the hyperbolic curves of his lenses the figures 
show the lenses turned the wrong way, which woulcl 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 335 

cause the spherical aberration to be increased four-fold. 
Now as the diflFerence between the aberrations arising 
from the spherical and hyperbolic curves is for the pur- 
poses under consideration insignificant, the above is a re- 
markable instance of straining out a gnat and swallow- 
ing a camel (Fig. 2). 

The next important step is the application of a field 
lens to the eye-piece by Monconys and Hooke. Mon- 
conys' microscope was made in 1660, an account of it 
being published in 1665. Tbe application of a field lens 
was also claimed by Hooke, who in 1665 published an 
account of his microscope. Hooke's microscope is a 
very important one, for in it we find several new feat- 
ures, such as the inclination of the body, a screw focus- 
sing adjustment, a movable object-holder, and an entirely 
novel illuminating apparatus. In Fig. 3 we see a heavy 
circular foot, j?, with an upright post, 6, fixed excentri- 
cally to it. The limb which holds the body of the micro- 
scope is attached to the post by a sliding ring, o, and 
screw clamp. The limb is also jointed by a ball and 
socket. At the other end of the limb is a ring, cf, into 
which the body screws with a coarse thread. This forms 
the fine adjustment. The body, a, was fitted with four 
draw tubes. This form of mounting for the body of a 
microscope I call the '^telescope mount," for the micro- 
scope is pointed at the object precisely in the same man- 
ner as a telescope would be. There is an ingeniouH 
object-holder, r, consisting of a spike capable of rotation, 
held by a short pillar attached excentrically to a rotating 
disc. This disc is held in position by a link and butter-^ 
fly nut, q\ obviously, therefore, the object can be placed 
in any desired position by these combined movements. 

The lamp also was attached to a separate upright sup- 
port by a ring and screw nut, very much in the same 
way as it is fixed at the present time. There was an 
fengftver's globe, n^ filled with \yater for a primary con- 



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336 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[Nov 



densing bull's eye, and a plano-convex lens, turned in its 
proper position, t, as a secondary condensing lens was 
fitted to a double-jointed arm. The illuminating appar- 
atus was therefore suitable for opaque objects, and must 
be regarded as being very complete and eflScient in its 
day. 

Pig. 4 shows Divini's microscope (1667). The interest 
in this instrument is not in the mount, which is of the 
crudest form, but in the optical part, for in place of the 
biconvex eye lens two plano-convex lenses, with their 





e 




convex surfaces in contact, were used. This plan would 
halve the amount of the spherical aberration. 

Fig. 5 exhibits an improvement on the preceding form, 
by Ch6rubin d'Orleans (1671). The body was more rig- 
idly mounted by the enlargement of the tripod foot. A 
screw movement was fitted to the stage for focussiii^- 
In the optical part there is an erector. Cherubin 
d'Orleans was the first to apply an erector to his monoc- 
ular microscope, and he was also the first to construct a 
binocular microscope. The binocular instrument would, 
according to the drawing, have given a pseudostereo- 
scopic image. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 337 

In 1672 Sir Isaac Newton suggested a reflecting micro- 
scope of the form of a Herschelian telescope. It proba- 
bly was never made. 

Leeuwenboek's microscopes, constructed in 1673^ are 
remarkable more on account of the man who used them 
than for their design; which was crude in the extreme. 
It is indeed difScult to understand how the discoveries 
he made could have been carried out with such rude 
apparatus. 

In 1687 we find a microscope by Grindl very similar to 
Fig. 5. The optical part, however, consisted of three 
pairs of plano-convex lenses. 

In 1691 several new features appear. Fig. 6 shows a 
screw-barrel compound microscope by Bonanni. The 
slider placed between two plates pressed together by a 
spiral spring, was made to approach or recede from the 
objective by a screw. This simple arrangement, known 
as the **screw barrel," played an important part in the 
history of the microscope for upwards of 100 years. 

To Bonanni we are also indebted for a horizontal 
microscope in 1691 (Fig. 7). This instrument is note- 
worthy, first for the double support to the body. A 
glance at Hooke's (Fig. 3) will convince anyone how 
rickety the body must have been when only held by its 
focussing screw, so here we have a decided improvement. 
Secondly, we have a rack, i, and pinion, A, coarse adjust- 
ment, in addition to the usual screw fine adjustment, 7n, 
of that period. There is also an improvement in the 
stage, and the last, and perhaps the most important nov- 
elty, is the compound substage condenser, p, q. Hooke's 
illuminating apparatus was, as we have seen, more suit- 
able for opaque objects; this, on the other hand, is more 
adapted for the illumination of transparent objects. We 
now come to an excellent simple microscope by Hart- 
soeker, in 1694 (Fig. 8). It will be observed that the 
Bonanni screw-barrel focussing arrangement, c, d, is 



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338 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[Nov 



maintained. The novelty, however, consists in the sab- 
stage condensing lens, e, which can be focussed on the 
object by screwing, /, into the screw focussing tube. 
The important point in this arrangement is that the focus 
of the condenser is not di8turl)ed while the object is being 
focussed to or from the magnifying lens. To Hartsoeker 
we are also indebted for r compressor. 

Wilson's screw- barrel, of 1702, then known as the 
pocket microscope, was a popular form of simple micro- 
scope in the 18th century ; it was very similar to Hart- 



Men 




soeker's, the main difference being that the substage 
condensing lens had no separate focussing adjustment. 
Culpeper subsequently mounted these microscopes on a 
pillar rising from a flat folding tripod foot, a mirror and 
condensing lens being attached ; he also added a com- 
pound body to them. Later, in 1742, the Wilson screw 
barrel was mounted on a brass scroll fixed to a circular 
wooden foot, to which was attached a concave mirror. 
In this same year it is also stated that two diaphragms 
were supplied with the ordinary hand Wilson screw- 
barrel simple microscope, to fit in a cell close to the sub- 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



339 



stage condenser, to reduce its aperture when high powers 
were used. This is the earliest notice of diaphragms for 
regulating the illumination. 

In the year, 1702, we find a crude form of simple 
microscope hy Mussenbroek. The only point of interest 
it possesses is to be found in a sector of graduated dia- 
phragm holes. The purpose of these diaphragms was for 
diminishing the spherical aberration by cutting down the 
apertures of the observing lens and not for regulating the 






illummation. The next model, that of John Marshall, 
1704, takes us on several steps in the evolution of the 
microscope (Fig. 9). Here we first meet with the box-foot, 
a distinctive feature which lasted for nearly 130 years. 
The coarse adjustment is effected by a collar and jamb- 
screw sliding on a square bar, the fine adjustment by a 
direct acting screw, f. It is hardly correct to speak of 
the sliding arrangement as a coarse adjustment because 
the post, a, was marked with numbers corresponding 



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Ua THE AMBRICAK monthly [Nov 

with similar numbers marked on the objectives ; the body 
remained clamped at the given mark until the objective 
was changed, all tbe necessary focussing being performed 
by means of the direct acting screw. The great advance 
made in this model consists in the pivoting of the lower 
end of the bar, a, on a ball and socket joint, 6. As the 
stage, df is also fixed to this bar it is obvious that when 
the instrument is inclined the stage is also inclined with 
it. This feature is totally distinct from the *' telescope 
mount," and is one specially important in the evolution 
of the microscope. — Queket Club. 



ExamiaatioD of Water. 

By GEO. C. WHIPPLE, 

NEWTON CBNTRB, MASS. 

The microscopical examination of water is becoming 
every year a matter of greater interest, and the study of 
the minute aquatic plants and animals is more and more 
attracting the attention of scientists. These organisms 
are interesting for several reasons and, besides recogniz- 
ing their importance in the domain of pure science, we 
are beginning to appreciate the great part that they play 
in nature and their eflFect, direct and indirect, upon the 
human being. Their presence in surface waters is often 
the cause of much harm when the water is used for pur- 
poses of domestic supply; scores of instances may be 
mentioned where they have rendered the water entirely 
unfit for use. On the other hand, their presence in ponds 
and streams is of importance to the fish-culturist because 
they form the fundamental source of the food supply of 
fishes ; this is probably true both of salt and freshwater. 

Because of the connection between the number of micro- 
scopical organisms in a cubic centimeter of water and the 
price of fish in our markets, the study of the 'plankton,' 
i. e., the floating micro-organisms, is being emphasized 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOtlRNAL, 341 

on both sides of the Atlantic. Observers are beginning 
to trace the connection between the presence of micros- 
copical organisms and the abnndance of fish in our lakes 
and valuable comparisons have been made between the 
stomach and intestinal contents ef fishes and the organ- 
isms found in the water where the catches were made. 
This work is of very great importance and should be 
vigorously pursued by our fish commissions. To be of 
the greatest value it should extend well over the country 
and include lakes and ponds suflSciently diflFerent in char- 
acter to enable one to determine the laws governing the 
nature and distribution of the plankton in various climates 
and under various conditions. The study ought not to 
be carried on spasmodically, as, for instance, during the 
short vacation of some college professor who generously 
gives his time and talents to the cause, but should be 
undertaken seriously and continued throughout the whole 
year. Only in this way can we obtain the data necessary 
for a complete understanding of the subject. 

Since water-works managers are equally interested in 
the microscopical organisms found in surface waters, and 
up to the present time have been responsible for most of 
the work done upon the subject, it might be possible for 
fish commissions, boards of health, water-works super- 
intendents, and others interested, to work together 
according to a definite concerted plan, sending their 
results to some central commission or committee for com- 
parison and study. Such an extended biological study 
taken in connection with meteorological records and 
observations upon temperature, transparency, etc., of the 
water would be of very great value. And it would seem 
that we have'little excuse for neglecting to cultivate this 
fruitful field of research. Vast numbers of microscopical 
examinations are now being made. During the past eight 
years more than 40,000 have been made in Massachusetts 
alone, and the rapid growth of the new science of sanitary 



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342 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

biology is developing nambers of well-trained observers 
wide awake to the value of these problems and well able 
to undertake the work. What is needed is cooperation. 

Various methods have been employed from time to time 
for determining the character and amount of microscopic 
life in water. Those interested in the subject from the 
piscatorial standpoint have usually employed some sort 
of net for straining the organisms from the water and 
concentrating them for the microscope. One of the best 
devices of this kind is that devised by Professor Reigbard 
and used with good results for studying the plankton in 
Lake Michigan. It consists of a conical net of fine bolt- 
ing cloth, at the small end of which there is a 'bucket,' 
made by covering a metal framework with some of the 
same bolting cloth. The apparatus is hauled through 
the water, filtering a column of water whose cross section 
is the same as the circular mouth of the net and whose 
length is equal to the distance through which the net is 
hauled. The organisms are caught by the fine bolting 
cloth and are ultimately washed into the bucket. The 
collected material is then removed by an ingenious 
arrangement, measured and sent to the laboratory for 
microscopical examination. By this method one is ena- 
bled to get a good idea of the total amount of suspended 
matter in the water, but it can hardly be called an accu- 
rate method of obtaining the number of living organisms 
present, as the net sweeps in amorphous matter as well 
as organisms and some of the smaller forms undoubtedly 
escape through the bolting cloth. Moreover, the amount 
of water actually filtered cannot be told with a great 
degree of accuracy. Nevertheless, the method is one of 
value, particularly for securing the larger and rarer 
forms of rotifers, Crustacea, etc. 

Sanitarians who have studied the microscopical organ- 
isms in water supplies have usually employed very dif- 
ferent methods from the above, partly because they have 



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1897] MlCllOSt^OPlCAL JOtJRNAL. 343 

been interested more especially in the smaller forms, but 
chiefly because their operations have been confined to the 
small quantities of water sent to the laboratories for 
analysis. During the last decade the old methods of 
sediment examination have given way to the filtration 
methods. The Sedgwick-Rafter method, which is most 
used at the present time in laboratories of water analysis, 
is carried on as follows : 

A portion of the water to be examined is measured out 
in a graduate and filtered through a thin layer of quartz 
sand placed at the bottom of a glass funnel upon a per- 
foratedrubber stopper, the hole in which is capped with 
a disc of bolting cloth. When the water has filtered 
the organisms will be found upon the sand while the fil- 
tered water will be free from them. The rubber stop- 
per is then removed and the sand washed into a test tube, 
with a measured quantity of distilled water delivered 
from a pipette. Usually 2:0 or 500 c. c. of the sample 
are filtered and the sand washed with 5 c. c. The test 
tube is then thoroughly shaken and the water decanted 
into a second tube; the organisms being lighter than the 
sand, will pass off with the water, leaving the sand clean 
upon the walls of the first tube. In this way the organ- 
isms are concentrated 50 or 100 times. One c. c. of this 
concentrated fluid is then transferred to a counting cell, 
which just holds it and which has a superficial area of 
1,000 sq. mm. After putting a thin glass cover-slip over 
this cell it is transferred to the stage of the microscope 
for examination. The eye-piece of the microscope is fit- 
ted with a micrometer in the shape of a ruled square of 
such a size as to cover one square ram. on the stage, i. e. 
one thousandth of the entire ar^^a of the cell. The organ- 
isms observed within the limits of the ruled square are 
then counted and tlie cell moved until another portion 
comes into view, when another count is made. Thus 10 
or 20 squares are counted and the number of organisms 



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344 THE AMBEICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

present in the sample can then be calculated very easily. 

This process has many things to be said in its favor, 
and it is undoubtedly the best all-around method for the 
study of the plankton. The apparatus required is simple, 
inexpensive and not liable to get out of order. The pro- 
cess is neither long nor difScult, and if care and cleanli- 
ness are observed in the manipulation very accurate 
results may be obtained. Ordinarily the quantity of 
water operated upon is small, but there is no reason why 
large filters may not be used. The writer has frequently 
used a funnel having a neck one inch in diameter, filter- 
ing from 1,000 to 10,000 c. c. This, when used with an 
aspirator to hasten the filtration, has given excellent 
satisfaction. The chief objection to the Sedgwick-Rafter 
method is that delicate organisms are liable to be crushed 
upon the sand, and this danger is naturally somewhat 
greater when this aspirator is used. It is probably no 
greater, however, than in Beighard's net. 

Recently a new apparatus has been devised for the 
study of the microscopical organisms, known as the 
planktonikrit. This is a modification of the centrifugal 
machine and depends upon the fact that the specific grav- 
ity of the organisms is diflFerent from that of water. It 
has the advantage of avoiding, to a certain degree, the 
crushing of the delicate infusoria, but it is somewhat 
inaccurate in the case of some of the lighter organisms; 
furthermore, it operates upon very small quantities of 
water. 

In a complete study of the microscopical organisms, 
such as might be undertaken on our great lakes, for 
example, it would be advisable to use all three methods 
adopting the Sedgwick-Rafter method for general quan- 
titative work, but using the net and centrifugal appara- 
tus for determining the rare and delicate organisms. 

As there are many lovers of the microscope who are 
interested in studying aquatic life, and as there are many 



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1897] 



MICE08C0PICAL JOURNAL. 



345 



others connected with water-works to whom the study 
of algsB and infusoria would be of much value, the writer 
has tried to reduce the Sedg wick-Rafter method to its 
simplest possible elements in order that it may be more 
generally used. Furthermore, it is often necessary for 
the sanitary biologist to be provided with a portable out- 
fit for work in the field. There are many fragile organ - 



xst^. 



too 



wBznnnznnnOi 
\za2nnnBmnm 



I 




isms which will not bear transportation to the laboratory. 
Uroglena, for example, a very important and troublesome 
organism found in water supplies, goes to pieces com- 
pletely when kept for a short time in a stoppered bottle. 
It is, therefore, necessary to make the examination of 
water immediately after the collection of the sample. 
The chief modification of the method for field woik 



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846 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

consists iu the use of a cylindrical glass funnel (fig. 1) 
similar to the one designed by Mr. D. D. Jackson for the 
Massachusetts State Board of Health, but diflPerent from 
it in having a capacity of 250 instead of 500 c. c. and in 
having graduations marked upon the sides. This funnel 
may be conveniently carried and its graduation renders 
the use of a second measuring glass unnecessary. When 
in use it may be supported on a wire frame, which any 
ingenious person can make. In place of the test-tube it 
has been found convenient to use tube vials (fig. 2) having 
square ends. These require no racks and are not easily 
tipped over. The pipette for washing the sand might be 
dispensed with if one of the tube vials was graduated, 
but as much depends upon accuracy in concentrating 
the sample it is best to use a short pipette (fig. 7). The 
sand (fig. 3) used in the filter should be perfectly clean 
and of such size that its grains will pass through a 3ieve 
having 60 meshes to the inch, but not through one having 
100 meshes. Crushed quartz makes the best filtering 
material and should be used when obtainable. The discs 
of bolting cloth (fig. 6) may be easily cut out with a wad 
cutter. The filtered water may be used for concentrating 
the organisms, or it is possible to employ preservative 
fluids in case the microscopical examination must be 
deferred or it is desired to keep the specimens. , The cell 
(fig. 8) for holding the concentrated fluid may be made 
by cementing a brass rim to an ordinary glass slip. It 
should be 50 mm. long, 20 wide and 1 mm. deep, thus 
holding just 1 c. c. and having a superficial area of 1,000 
sq. ram. 

A very simple microscope will answer for this work. 
A large stand is too valuable and too heavy for the ron^h 
usage in ihe field, and a cheap, light stand with a ^inch 
or I inch objective and a Nu. 3 ocular will answer equally 
well. The ocular must be provided with a micrometer, 
^0 that the observer rpay count t|ie nnnilrr of oiganisma 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 347 

ID one cu. mm. of the cell. A disc of glass ruled as in 
fig. 9 is the best form of micrometer, but a piece of thin 
metal with a square cut out, as shown in tig. 10, may be 
substituted. In either ca^e the square must be of such 
a size that it covers one -sq. mm. on the stage with a 
given combination of objective and ocular, and a certain 
tube lengtli to be found by comparison with a stage 
micrometer. It is an advantage to have at hand higher 
powers for a more thorough study of the organisms met 
with, but for ordinary work the powers suggested are 
suflBcient. 

All this apparatus, together with bottles f.r collection 
and note book for records may be carried in i\ grip sack, 
and this will be found generally the most convenient way. 
It is possible, however, to make a neat box, with com- 
partments for holding the microscope, funnels, tube, 
vials, etc., and I respectfully submit this to manufacturers 
of microscopical supplies. — Science, 

Astronomical Photography with Photomicrographic 
Apparatus. 

A. CLIFFOKU MERCKR, M. D. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

On the twentieth of October, 1892, occurred a partial 
eclipse oF tlie sun, and my heliostat was placed on a shelf 
outside a ^outh window. Wiihin the room was a piu- 
trait lens of eight inches focus and a microscope in ihe 
small axial line. The substage condenser was remn\ rd 
a!id a camera conneft»'d with the eye end of the micro- 
scope tube. Such sunlight as fell on the mirror of 
the heliostat was reflected through the portrait lens 
The portrait lens projected an image of the clouded sun's 
disc, about one-twelfth of an inch in diameter, in thn 
]dane usually occupied by an object on the stage oT the 
microscope. This tiny image wj^s itself projeited ly 



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348 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

a microscope objective of an inch and a half focus to form 
a second image, two inches and three-eighths in diam- 
eter, on the ground-glass of the camera. The clouds 
made sharp focusing impossible. Only an imperfect 
focus was obtained. The clock of the heliostat kept the 
image steadily on the ground glass. 

During the eclipse sensitized plates were substituted 
for the ground-glass. Exposures were made when the 
clouds were thin enough to permit. Thus six negatives 
were secured. The first print shows the moon's black 
disc, advancing apparently from the north-east across 
the sun's disc, while the second shows the moon's disc, 
passing oflFto the west. 

This is the first record of an attempt to use photomic- 
rography astronomically. All of the necessary appa- 
ratus could be easily packed in a trunk. If an unaided 
telescope objective were used to project an image of the 
size obtained, a focus of twenty-one feet would be re- 
quired; and the lens would have a diameter of about six- 
teen inches. Such an objective properly mounted would 
result in an instrument nearly half as large as the great 
Lick telescope, with its photographic objective. By 
using a portrait lens having a focus of fifteen or sixteen 
inches, a size commonly used for **cabinets'' in photog- 
raphers' studios, instead of the portrait lens, the appa- 
ratus will produce a negative image equal in size to that 
produced by the unaided Lick lens; or, leaving the por- 
trait lens in place, the same result could be obtained by 
substituting for the microscope objective of one inch and 
a half focus, another of about double the power, — one of 
three-quarters of an inch focus. The Lick instrument 
has a tube about fifty feet long and forty-two inches in 
diameter, while this apparatus has two tubes less than 
one foot long and about one inch and six inches in 
diameter respectively. To the smaller tube is attached 
a camera with a bt?llows extendinj? from one to six 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 349 

feet. Stability and freedom from vibration are very 
easily obtained with the small and short apparatus 
The diflFerence in cost is enormous. In several re- 
spects the photomicrographic arrangement has advan- 
tages over the great Lick photographic instrument. 

If, however, we turn to the matters of light and 
separating power, the very great superiority of the 
Lick objective is seen. The results given in the fol- 
lowing tabular compacrison are only approximately 
accurate. The loss light suflFers by absorption as it 
passes through glass and by reflection at incident sur- 
faces, is not taken into account; — the Lick objective con- 
sisting of three thick lenses and the photomicro- 
graphic arrangement having more than twice as many, 
but comparatively very thin, lenses and the mirror's 
reflecting surface: 

Lick Larger Smaller 

ObjectiTe. Portrait Lens. Portrait Lens. 

Diameter of objective 33 in. 3.75 in. 2 in. 

Focas of objective 550 in. 15 in. 8 in. 

Focus divided by diameter 16.66 4 4 

Relative value of light in first 

image 1 16 16 

Size of first image 5.1 in .1395 in. .0744 in. 

Total equivalent focns, 550 in- 
ches, divided by diameter 16.66 147 275 

Relative value of light in final 

image 1 77 ^ 

Time of exposure, eclipse of sun 1 1 j 

(about) ^60() sec. go^ec. gsec. 

Separating power 1 g^ ^^}^ 

Other things being equal, separating power varies 
with the aperture or diameter of the objective. If the 
lick objective, having an aperture of thirty-three inches, 
could barely show a certain double star as two distinct 
stars, it would be impossible for any objective having an 
aperture of four or two inches to show such a double 
star as two distinct stars. A star apparently single when 
seen through any objective having an aperture of two 



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350 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

inches might be seen to consist of sixteen op seventeen 
stars in line, almost touching one another when seen 
through the Lick photographic objective. A star appar- 
ently single when seen through any objective, having an 
aperture of three inches and three-quarters might be 
seen to consist of eight or nine stars in line, almost touch- 
ing one another, when seen through the Lick photo- 
graphic objective. The power of resolving an apparent 
single star into two or more, or of showing the details of 
sun spots or other objects, is known as separating power. 
A superior correction of aberrations is now possible in 
lenses made of small discs of glass which are produced in 
great variety as to optical properties, a variety not yet 
realised, in large discs. — Tr. A. M. 8. 



Progress in Effects with the Roentgen X-Rays. 

To see through a person in a metaphorical sense has 
been the wish of most people at some time or another, 
but it has now become a literal fact hy means of the 
occult rays, popularly known as the X-rays (on account 
of their exact properties not being understood), discov- 
ered by Professor Roentgen of the University of Wurz- 
burg. It seems inexplicable that with the art of photo- 
graphy, so highly developed as it has been for many 
years, and with the experiments that have been taking 
place in laboratories all over the world in radiant matter 
in vacuum tubes, that we should have had to wait for the 
year 1896 for this discovery to have been made practi- 
cally available ; it only leads us to reflect that *' there are 
more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in 
our philosophy," and that there is yet room for fresh and 
startling inventions and discoveries. 

The first announcement of Prof. Roentgen's discovery 
that rays from a Crooke's or Lennard's tube of high 
vacuum had a power of penetrating numerous substances, 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 351 

sach as wood^ leather, fleshy etc., which hitherto had been 
classed as opaque, was received with incredulity, but the 
circumstantial description of the methods employed ena- 
bled persons possessing the requisite instruments to 
repeat the experiments and to confirm the report. Not 
the least important aspect of the discovery was, that it 
was likely to prove a valuable means of contributing to 
the relief of some of the ills to which flesh is heir, by 
exhibiting details of bony structure of the living subject, 
bone being opaque to these rays, while flesh is practi- 
cally transparent. 

Two special features are associated with these X-rays, 
(a) that the emulsion on an ordinary photographic dry 
plate is sensitive to them, and (b) that certain chemical 
salts become fluorescent, that is, appear aglow with 
light under their influence. 

Let us examine these features in detail. Prof. Roent- 
gen found that if«e photographic dry plate were enclosed 
in a wooden box, and a coin were placed on the outside 
of the box with the vacuum tube above, on the tube being 
excited by means of an electric current the X-rays pene- 
trated the wood, (which is practically transparent to 
them) but not the coin, with the result that the image 
of the coin appeared on the plate inside the box on its 
being developed. In like manner, if the hand were 
placed on the box, the bones being opaque to the rays 
were shadowed on the dry plate. 

The title of photography as ordinarily understood was 
not applicable to these eflFects, and the name of radio- 
graphy was, after considerable discussion, given to the 
process. It at once became apparent that a large field 
for investigation and experiment had been opened, and 
it was not long ere the London hospitals were employing 
the X-rays for the investigation of bone diseases and 
fractures, and for ascertaining the exact position of for- 
eign bodies, such as bullets, shots, needles, etc., in the 



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352 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

flesh with the view to their easy and speediest removal. 
We have already shown in this periodical the bones of 
the hand of an Egyptian Mummy, radiographed through 
the wrappings, flesh, etc., the structure being exhibited 
beautifully. Herewith is a radiograph of a fracture of 



the Olecranon process of the elbow, and a radiograph of 
the human hand will appear as frontispiece next issue. 

Great diflBculty was experienced in the early days in 
penetrating deep structure; and radiographing ribs, ver- 
tebra, etc., presented considerable diflBculties, but as th^ 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 363 

resalts of experiments, improvements were made in 
nearly all the apparatus that was necessary, and qnite 
recently Dr. Macintyre of Glasgow, Scotland, has suc- 
cessfully radiographed a calculus of the kidney en situ 
which was subsequently found to have been precisely 
delineated on the operating table. The same gentleman 
has also successfully radiographed the ribs and vertebraB 
of adult men, obtaining at the same time faint outlines 
of important organs, particularly the heart, in one case 
of which an enlargement was distinctly portrayed, but 
we are to have further developments yet. 

An interesting feature in connection with the Roent- 
gen rays is its usefulness in detecting imitation gems 
both diamonds and rubies being transparent to the Roent- 
gen rays, while imitations in glass or paste are opaque to 
them. Already a considerable use has been made of 
this aspect. The process is also exceedingly useful for 
examining the contents of postal packets, anything of a 
metallic nature being at once detected if contained in a 
wooden box. The only protection against such a revela- 
tion is of course to pack goods in a metal box through 
which the rays will not penetrate. It is rumoured that 
instruments are already in use in the General Post OfBce, 
London, for examing packets and the English War 
Department has invested in a considerable number of sets 
with a view to locating bullets on the battle field and so 
saving the painful and tedious operation of probing. 

The Fluorescent Screen : — It was remarked that 
under the influence of the X rays certain chemical salts 
have the power of becoming brilliantly illuminated and 
of rendering visible objects which are opaque to the rays 
that are interposed between the vacuum tube and the 
fluoresceut screen. For instance, if the hand be placed 
between the fluorescent screen and the vacuum tube the 
bones will be distinctly shadowed on the screen while the 
flesh will be almost transparent, if the body be interposed 



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354 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

the ribs and vertebrae will be distinctly visible. Several 
materialfl have been suggested for the manufacture of 
these screens but probably the most successful has been 
Platino-cyanide of Potassium. This salt, however, varies 
very considerably in its fluorescent properties and quan- 
tities from the same manufacturer purchased at separate 
times do not yield uniform results. The method of pre- 
paration is as follows : The Platino-cyanide is ground as 
finely, as possible with a pestle and mortar. It is then 
mixed with weak clear gum water and spread evenly upon 
a thin sheet of cardboard. One coat alone at a time 
should be given and allowed to dry; two or three coats 
are usually suflBcient. Owing to the expense of the 
material and the chances of failure in preparing, it has 
usually been found more economical to purchase ready 
made screens. Calcium tnngstate was the material sug- 
gested by Edison for these screens but it does not com- 
pare favorably with Platino-cyanide of Potassium. 

A new screen has recently been placed on the market 
by Watson & Sons, London, which surpasses in brilliance 
others that have been so far made. The material is a 
secret preparation but with a good focus tube it enables 
the bones (ribs, vertebrae, etc.) of an adult person to be 
seen clearly. 

Apparatus : — At the outset extravagant rumors were 
set afloat as to the cost of the necessary instruments, but 
the outfit has now been reduced to a battery, an induc- 
tion coil and a vacuum tube. 

Additional but not absolutely necessary apparatus, 
would be a holder for the tube, and a fluorescent screen. 
The battery may consist of either Bunsen's or Grove's 
bells or a 4 cell accumulator giving 8 volts and a current 
of about 8 amperes. 

The Coil : — A Buhmkorff Induction Coil giving a Sinch 
spark only is suflBcient for obtaining Radiographs of the 
arm, leg, etc. but if deeper structures are to be dealt with 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 355 

it is well to have a coil giving a greater length of spark, 
say 6 inches. The tube is much more brilliantly illumin- 
ated with such a coil, exposure is shortened and deep 
structures more easily penetrated. There is another rea- 
son also why so large a coil as a 6 inch should be taken. 
With use the vacuum of a tube becomes higher and is con- 
sequently more difficult to excite. Warming with a spirit 
lamp will reduce the vacuum but it is not nearly so satis- 
factory as being able to excite the tube direct from the 
coil. 

The Tube : — More failures in working have been due 
to defective tubes than to anything else, in fact a large 
majority of the tubes that have been sent out have been 
absolutely worthless. It is unwise to buy any tube with- 
out a guarantee of its suitability and perfection in work- 
ing and where such a guarantee is obtained the price is 
usually somewhat high. Still it is better to pay a fair 
price for a good article than to have several unsatisfac- 
tory tubes at a low price. 

As tubes are somewhat liable to damage it is well to be 
provided with two or three. No absolute statement can 
be made as to the length of life of a tube. The writer has 
one in use which has been constantly employed for the 
past three months and is as good as ever, while others 
have sometimes failed in some particular after a very 
short period of use. We have experimented with tubes 
by all makers and have spared no expense in having the 
latest patterns as they have been issued, but in our hands 
the focus tube as manufactured by W. Watson & Sons 
surpasses every other kind both for the fluorescent screen 
and for radiographic effects. 

There is no doubt that the whole process is in its 
infancy and time alone will show in which direction 
further successful progress in the methods will be made. 
Supplementary apparatus will also appear to augment its 
usefulness. 



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356 THE AMERICAN JtONTHLTf [Nov 

EDITOSIAL. 

Laboratory. — The best equipped and most complelc 
bacteriological laboratory on the Pacific coast is owned and 
conducted by Prof. S. M. Mouser, at 707 Bush street, San 
Francisco. Professor Mouser has devoted many years of 
his life to the study of this comparatively recent, but rap- 
idly growing" science. He has secured all the latest instru- 
ments and scientific appliances, and is constantly in 
receipt of all the important pathogenic bacilli cultures for 
experimental, teaching and therapeutic purposes. It is 
gratifying to note that the Professor's labors are appre- 
ciated, notwithstanding that many of our ancient confreres 
are still scoffing at the science. Besides being Professor 
of Bacteriology and Pathology in the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of San Francisco, Dr. Mouser daily conducts 
large private classes in bacteriology and pathology at his 
laboratory, as well as doing private analytical work for the 
profession on the coast. 

The Danger from Bovine Tuberculosis. — Dr. W. L. 
West of Ellsworth, Me., has reported to Dr. G. H. Bailey 
that two children of a man named Luther Bridges have 
recently died of tuberculosis, due to drinking milk from a 
cow which was found, when killed, to be the subject of 
extensive tubercular disease, localized in the udder. Five 
of Bridges' nine children are suffering from pulmonary 
tuberculosis and several are now, according to the report, 
fatally ill. 



nUSOSCOPICAL APPARATUS. 



Micrometer Rulings. — On May 21st, 1897, there was ex- 
hibited before the New York Microscopical Society a very 
simple piece of mechanism for producing fine rulings on 
glass. The inventions hitherto employed for this .pur- 
pose have -been elaborate and costly, while on this article 
from the labor of an ordinary machinist the cost was less 
than five dollars. To rule lines accurately up to fifty 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



357 



thousand to the inch and more by such an appliance seems 
almost incredible. 

The inventor, Rev. D. W. Smith, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
having- need of some work of this kind to assist him in 
certain experiments, with a few pieces of metal and glass 
evolved the machine referred to. He states that, beyond 
forty or fifty lines to the inch, the task of ruling lies more 



:^^ A 




DESCRIPTION OF FIGURE. 

A. — Micronometer screw operating upon the base of the movable wedge. 

B. — Movable wedge, adjnsted by set screws working in contHct with 
strips of plate glass. 

C. — Brass block, having only lateral movement caused by the thrust of the- 
wedge 

D. — Diamond carrier, easily adjusted to any position fend weight neces- 
sary for any degree of cutting, and moved laterally by the brass block and 
longitudinally by hand. 

E.— Graduated drum upon the micrometer screw. 

F, F. — Iron base supporting the entire apparatus. 

The following parts, for distinctness, are not represented in the figure 
A broad clamping nut supporting the micrometer screw; an index for the 
graduated drum ; and the retaining springs holding the movable portions in 
contact. 

in the proper selection of diamond points or crystals, nec- 
essary for lines of the required fineness, than in the accu- 
racy of the machine. 

The principle involved is that of a screw, operating* upon 
a wedg-e of brass, moviYig the latter longitudinally on the 
supported bed. The screw contains sixty threads to the 
inch, which number is by no means an arbitrary one. For 
the wedge is capable of adjustment by means of set screws 



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358 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

which serve to correct its movements to correspond 
with the inch or millimeter to be ruled. In this case one 
revolution of the screw moves the wedge so that its lateral 
displacement is equal to one one-thousandth of an inch. 
This lateral displacement of the moving wedge operates 
on a block of brass resting on three points projecting from 
its base. By the side of this block of brass is operated 
the diamond carrier. The points of contact for the entire 
system of screw, wedge, block of brass and diamond car- 
rier, operate upon pieces of plate glass — plate glass strips 
where contact points move on wedge and block, and plate 
glass bed resting on an iron base, which supports the 
longitudinal and lateral movements of the block of brass 
and the diamond carrier. This give a smooth and accu- 
rate motion to all the working parts, which could be other- 
wise obtained only by expensive and carefully polished 
steel surfaces. 

This is a general description of the first working model 
so far as is known, using the principle of the wedge as a 
means of adjustment and correction, and of imparting the 
motion of a decreasing gear from the screw which is nec- 
essary for such work. A considerable motion of the 
screw is thus given for minute divisions, thereby ensur- 
ing uniform and accurate rulings. 

The device for carrying the diamond, as first used, was 
a single carriage, moved back and forth by hand along 
the glass bed plate, and held in its place to the brass 
block by means of contact springs. Afterwards for con- 
venience, a triple link carriage was made, that is, three 
separate parts hung by three trunnion points of hardened 
steel accurately turned. Though much more scientific 
and easier of use the results, up to thirty or forty 
thousand lines, was hardly worth the trouble of its 
construction, save the chance of any disturbance of the 
diamond point by accidental handling of the diamond 
during ruling. 

With a little more trouble the entire arrangement 
could be easily adjusted to become entirely automatic in 
its movements, whereas in the present model the move- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 359 

ment of the screw and that of the diamond carrier re- 
quires separate and distinct operations. With the screw 
thus connected a motion is given to the diamond covering* 
a space of about one-fifth of an inch in width. Thus 
a screw sixteen inches long would give movement enough 
to rule a spectrum band one inch square. 



HIGBOSGOPICAL MANIPULATION. 



Drinking Water. — Schumburg has thoroughly gone 
into all known methods of purifying drinking water, and 
finds that bromine is the only disinfectant which can be 
removed after serving its purpose, without spoiling the 
appearance and taste of the water. The quantity of brom- 
ine used is very small; 1 kilogramme is suflScient to ster- 
ilize 16,000 litres of water. The author uses the bromine 
in the following solution :— Water, 100; potassium bromide, 
20; bromine, 20. 0-2 C.c. of this solution is sufl&cient to 
sterilize in five minutes 1 litre of water from the river 
Spree. The calcium salts or ammonia of very impure 
river or surface water use up some of the bromine before 
it has had time to develop its disinfectant properties. In 
such cases enough must be added to cause a slight yellow 
coloration of the water, which should last at least half a 
minute. The 0-2 C.c. of bromine solution may be removed 
by adding an equal quantity of 9 per cent ammonia. — 
Pharm. Zeitg.y xlii., 174. 



BACTERIOLOGY. 



Baldness. — Dr. Sabouraud, in the Annales de Dermat- 
ologie, firmly believes that the disease is contagious, and 
that barbers' instruments are the most common carriers 
of the contagion; but as customers come and go from one 
barber to another, it is difficult to trace each case to its 
source. Starting with the theory of the microbic origin of 
the disease, Sabouraud has worked out a strong chain of 
evidence in its support. He tells us that the typical hair of 
Alopecia areata is found at the edge of an advancing patch 



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360 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

and is a stump of long- hair that has remained in the scalp. 
It is club shaped, or like an interrogation point. Its diam- 
eter becomes less as we go towards the root, and its color 
is lost. These hairs are always a sign of an advancing 
patch, and are not found in old patches. The medullary 
(or pit) canal of these hairs is normal above, altered in the 
middle, and it is completely wanting at the root. The 
root is not bulbous and hollowed for the papilla, but in the 
form of a turnip. . . . Utricules that are full and 
closed are found among the sound hairs. They are filled 
with joined strata of epidermic cells, and contain in their 
centers, like a larva in a cocoon, compact clusters of 
microbes, a pure culture of the smallest bacillus known. 

. . . As it grows old it may be one quarter millimeter 
(0.01 inch) wide and one-half to one millimeter long, and 
comma shaped, or bent. The young bacilli are a little 
swollen in the center, and their ends are blunt. . . . 
Each utricule contains millions of them. . . . This 
bacillus is regarded as the most probable cause of the 
disease. — Sd. Am. 

Leprosy. — Leprosy furnishes the best opportunity for 
studying a parasite of a bacterial nature. The relation of 
the cells can be plainly shown, since they do so little dam- 
age. Regarding the phagocyte theory: As Dr. Rosen- 
stirn says, inert substances can be taken up by the leuco- 
cytes. It has been said that the bacteria that we stain are 
dead; that they have a keratin-like envelope capable of 
dying. In several forms of leprosy they are hard to find, 
especially in erythematous cases. The discovery of bac- 
teria floating free in the blood is not new. It is remarkable 
that they can float through the kidneys and do no damage, 
but they seem to take up in certain tissues; for instance, 
the eye-brows, and not the scalp. 

It is the concensus of opinion that a leucocyte cannot 
pick up a bacterium unless it be dead ; it being a process 
of digestion. The action is such that if the bacterium 
remained there long alive, either one or the other must die; 
they are so antagonistic to one another. There is no rea- 
. son why the leucocyte cannot take up 30 or 40 bacilli. 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 361 

Caseous Rhinitis. — During* the last year or two Prof. 
Guarnaccia (Archivii Italiani di Laring-olog-ia, No. 4, 1896) 
has made bacteriological researches upon caseous rhinitis. 
These studies refer to a case observed by Massei in his 
clinic. Guarnaccia has demonstrated that the micro- 
org-anism found in rhinitis caseosa, which was so differ- 
ently understood by Perier, Sabrazes, etc., is streptothrix 
alba, or Foersterii, studied by Rossi-Doria, Cohn, and 
Gasperini. The author was able to cultivate it in agar 
gelatin, bouillon, blood-serum, potatoes, and milk. Inocu- 
lations in animals were not successful. It is perfectly 
correct, in his opinion, to assume that the considerable 
amount of caseous matter is formed by the g-rowth of the 
streptothrix, as is the case in mug-uet. — Universal Medi- 
cal Journal. 

Tuberculosis in Goats. — From the following it will be 
seen that the hitherto accepted theory that goats are 
immune to tuberculosis is not altogether correct. Bulling 
(Indian Medical Record) records a case of pulmonary 
tuberculosis in a goat. Both lungs were adherent, and 
large and small tuberculous foci were present. The 
author concludes that it would be well to examine into the 
possibility of the transmission of tuberculosis through the 
agency of goats, and to consume their milk only after boil- 
ing, or after the goat has been shown to be free from 
tuberculosis by the absence of reaction after the injection 
of tuberculin. 



MICRO ^COPKAL NOTJX 



Circulation of Blood. — Most books recommend the use 
of a frog's foot for this purpose and give directions for 
accomplishing the purpose. The object may easily be 
attained with a small tadpole, lizzard, and with many of 
the larger water larvae. The latter will show the circu- 
lation all through the body. With the lizzard and tadpole, 
it may best be seen in the thin membranes of their tails. 
All that is necessary is to place the animal in a glass slip 
with a shallow cell and cover it. 



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362 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETIES. 



American Microscopical Society. 

The iSq7 Meeting, — It was held at Toledo but owing- to 
the attraction of the A. A. A. S., and the British Associa- 
tion at Toronto and the lack of preparation for the meet- 
ing it proved almost an entire failure. The Toledo pap- 
ers paid almost no attention to the matter and sent no re- 
porters to the meeting. From two short notices in the To- 
ledo Blade, however, we are able to glean the following- : 

Thursday August ^^ — Meeting opened in the High School 
building with an address by the President, E. W. Clay- 
pole, upon *'Microscopic Light in Geological Darkness." 
Only a small number of persons were present they being 
mostly Toledo microscopists and their friends. An in- 
formal talk or "reception" followed the address. 

Friday Aug. 6, — The meeting for business commenced 
at 9:30 a. m., (with a dozen present), and after unimportant 
matters had been discussed. Prof. D. S. Kellicott of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, spoke on the "Capture and Study of Rotifers." 
Miss Edith J. Claypole, a daughter of the President read 
a technical paper on "Comparative Structure of the Dig-es- 
tive Tract." Francis L. Rice, of Steelton, Pa., had ex- 
pected to present a "microscopic examination of steel." 

Friday P, \f. — No meeting. 'Phe visitors were escorted 
about town by citizens to see "various points of pleasure 
and interest." 

Friday F7'emfrg. —Soiree. All the available microscopes 
in Toledo were brought to the Library Building and the 
miscellaneous public were shown the usual wonders of the 
invisible realm. "Every body who has any interest in 
these matters should avail themselves of the opportunity," 
was the invitation to the public. "The public except 
small children, is cordially invited." "There were nearly 
100 instruments of all sizes the lens of some of them being 
extremely powerful." 

Saturday Aug, j, — The sessions closed with the election 



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1897) MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 363 

of officers and the reading- of two papers. No new persons 
tieing- available for president it was thoug-ht wise to elect 
one of the early presidents again. 
The list for 1897-8 is as follows : 

President, D. S. Kellicott. 
Vice-President, Mrs. S. H. Gage. 

V. A. Moore. 
Secretary, Dr. W. C. Krauss. 
Treasurer, Magnus Pflaum. 
Committee, Dr. D. E. Haag, Edith Claypole, 
and John M. Berry. 
The Secretary and Treasurer are hold-overs. 
A paper was then read by Agnes M. Claypole on '*Forms 
of Cleavage in eggs of certain Arthropods." The other 
paper of like technical character was by John M. Berry of 
Peterboro, N. Y., on ^'Phagocytic Action of Leucocytes 
in Amphibians and Mammals. 

The society then adjourned to meet at such time and 
place as the committee may hereafter agree upon. It 
seems that no invitations were received by the society 
for next year and no exhibits, working sessions, excur- 
sions or banquets were connected with the meeting this 
year. The Blade says : ''While the attendance was not so 
large as had been anticipated the interest of those present 
was none the less apparent." It also announces that one 
enthusiast, J. C. Smith, had come all the way -from New 
Orleans, to attend and that there were two or three people 
from Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Certainly the thanks of Toledo are due to the Professor 
Claypole and his two daughters, without whose presence 
the meeting would have lost largely and whose papers con- 
stitute in bulk three quarters of all the mental pabulum 
furnished the visitors. The Blade properly acknowledges 
this by saying : "Perhaps the best known microscopists 
in this section are Prof. Claypole and his two daughters, 
who are always among the leaders in any event that tends 
to create microscopic interest." 

Our society is indebted to Dr. D. E. Haag for securing 
the school room for its use and for working up the exhibi- 



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364 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Nov 

tion of objects at the Soiree. It appears to have shown its 
thankfulness by electing him a member of the Executive 
Committee, while the other two members earned their 
places by reading- papers. 

If the Secretary will confine the Proceedings to the act- 
ual occurences at Toledo, we are of the opinion that his 
fond hope of having them out by Christmas ought to be 
realizable. But if he waits for absent members to write 
some papers with which to eek out a report, he will per- 
haps be delayed till next spring or summer. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



EJementary Zoology and Laboratory Guide. — By H. 
E. Chapin and L. J. Rettger., Chicago, 1897, 212 pp., 145 
figs. 8 vo. 

In the preface, our authors significantly remark : ** A 
teacher who expects to do no more than read the following 
pages is begged to close the book at once and turn his at- 
tention to more profitable things. "A teacher who would 
merely assign three pages in advance each day had better 
exchange the book for an almanac or a treatise on 
Chinese." 

This book then is not to be memorized and recited. You 
are to go into the laboratory and museum and study ob- 
jects of Natural History. Perchance this book will help 
you — that all depends on you. The book is all right : are 
you ? 

Chapters are devoted to Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, 
Echinodermata, Vermes, Molluscoidea, Mollusca, Arthro- 
poda, Vertebrata, and Laboratory methods. Embryol- 
ogy and minute structure are not much touched upon, the 
scope of the book being microscopic largely. We heartily 
commend it to the notice of all teachers. 

A few pages on the microscope contain the rudiments of 
knowledge needed by the beginner. Hardening and 
mounting media are described briefly, so is embedding, 
section cutting, etc, 



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A NEW EDITION OF 

IrtZ. iAiKTSON St SONS* 

Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, Objectives 
and Accessories. 

In it will he fonad folly described all the latest improvemente and desii^os 
of the Wateou (nstroments, also nmny new kinds ofaocesaories incladingthe 
following : 

A SERIES OF NEW PARACHROMATIC 

MICROSCOPIC OBJECTIVES, 

lliene Tienses will be fonnd to possess lai^e apertures, to be of ani£>rni qual- 
ity, and to l)e as low in price as any Objectives in the market Tbey rnn 
constructed almost entirely of Jena Glass. 

The following are selecjted from the Series 



rowEU. 


N. A. 


PRICE. 


POWER. 


N. A. 


PRICE 


1-2 inch 


0.34 


JCl.2.6 


2-3 in. 


0.28 


£1.6.0 


1-4 inch 


0.68 


1.5.0 


1-6 in. 


0.87 


1.10.0 


1-8 inch 


0.88 


2.0.0 


1-9 in. 


0.90 


.6.0 


Homo-reneons 


Immersion. 










1-8 inch 


1-20 


4.15.0 


1-12 in. 


1.25 


5.0.0 



W. WATSON & SONS' 

New ••PARACHROMATIC" Substage Condenser. 

This oondensor has a total aperture of 1.0 N. A., has an extremely \mrgfi 
Aplanatic Apertnre, exceeding .90 N. A. It« power is 2-7 inch, and with 
the front lens removed, 4.10 inch. It is mounted with Iris Diaphragm and 
revolving carrier for stops for dark ground and obliqne illuminatioD. The 
IrisDiaphnigin is divided so as to indicate the N. A. at rhich the condenser 
is employed. The diameter of the back lens is 5-8 inch. 

PRICE COMPLETE £3.15. 

APLANTIC MAGNIFIERS- 

In addition to W. Watson & Sons' well-known regular series they are 
working Mr. E. M. Nelson's new form, magnifying 15 diameters, which gives 
g^reat working distance and large aperture. It is believed to be oneqaalled 
by any similar lens for qualities. 

PRICE — in German silver mount, pocket form 15.6. 
For dissecting, in wooden box 14.6. 

The above catalogue will b« mailed post-free on applieatioii. 
MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS. 

Watson & Sons hold a stock of 40,000 specimens all of the highest class, 
forming undoubtedly the finest collection in the world. Foil classified list 
forward post-free on application to 

iA£. iA£KTSON St SONS 

(ESTABLISHED 1837) 
OPTICIANS TO H. M. GOVERNMENT. 
313 High Holborn, London, W. C; and 78 Swanston Street, Melbonrne, 

Australia. 
Awanled 38 Gold and other medals at International|£zhibition8 indnding 
5 Highest Awards at the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893. 2 Gold Medals, Pivto 
Universal Exhibition 1889 Sec. Ac 
NOTE— The postage on lett«n to England is 6 cents, or postal caids 2 mbIs 



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FOR HALE.— First class Botanical pioanta, 25 cents. Send for list ; 
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FOR SALE. — Nicely monnted slides t>f Rhinoceros horn, at 40 cents each. 
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FOR SALE— Pritchard's Infusoria (latest edition, colored plates) and 
Smith's British 'Diatomaceae (2 vols., uncut). These works are very scarce 
and can only be got, as in this case, when a niicrotomist finishes using them. 
Price $60. No Sig. , Care C. W. SMILEY. 

FOR EXCHAN(JE. — The Museum ot Hamline University desirea to ex- 
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slip slides for zoological specimens especially Rodents in the flesh from 
Southwestern United States. Correspondence solicited. 

HENRY L. OSBOIiN, Hamline Univ., 8t. Paul, Minnesota. 

ARRANGED DIATOMS. I furnish the most artistitic arrangements of 
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species. Roosters, hen and chickens, ' and bouquets of flowers in bntteifly 
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INVERTEBRATE DISSECTIONS. 

Second Edition ; Revised and QreaU^ EkUarged. 

DESIGNED to suit the requirements of bigh schocA or oollege, or to guide 
any who may desire to pursue an elementary oouxse of practioal or theoretical 
invertebrate aoology. It contains working directions lor the stndy of fifty 
types, from all classes and orders of Invertebrates, attention being chiefly 
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application to author. 

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Catalogue of 172 objects, - - - $0.02 

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whose keenly philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 

Address 

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FOR BALE.— .\ set of slides ilinstrntiug the Woody Plants ofUHnoia, 
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^UBINO the iMt few months 
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for Mieroseoplcftl purposM, »Bd 
bare arrnif^ ^•m m imdor la 
IU««tr«ied SeriAA. 

Th« fini of thcM liHhe Ml. 
crosoopical Studies la Ha- 
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The Mcoud SerlM (tIk.: that 
for 1806) oonaUts of 14 iplendU 
praparatJeiM, all of the bighcat 
poaMbto e^eellenceaod ([(uaraolaed 
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and habits o( the respective sub- 
jects, while 19 foll.p»^ plAf 
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included in this Serisa: 



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7. Opossom-ehrimp MptU^ sllowlng andl- 



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The followlnf are among the 
1. Ookmy 0f the loTely BadioUrian Bphmro- 

mmm^ showing parasitio algSB. 
1 The loTely Zoophyte ObsNo, polyps folly 

expanded* 

5. Stalled stage of the larra of Bosy 

Feather Star (mUedom) 
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6. LoTely expanded Zoophyte Ajyas o fy a s. 

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tory organ in tail 
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ist loTely in the whole plant kingdoia— sHid iia«e arranged them 



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J M leroaeoploal Stadlea tn Botany .—In Answer to many requests, I hare ar- 
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Sobecripttons, $6.25 only, for all, a sum which would be cheap for the series of illos- 
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Pntf. J. W. Oarr, tJnlTeralty College, Nottingham, writes : *'Yoor Botaolcal Slides 
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I. Tr. sec. flower-bud of LUy 26c 

•i. «• •• do of Dandelion 30c 

3. fjongl sec do of do 25c 

4. do fruit of Fig 30c 
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6 ** ** noyrw of EtckackottaiA 80e 

7. Long*!, sec. double flower of Peony 26c 

8. Leaf-fall of Sycamore 25c 



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tlpP^fatlTty. Marine Zoology (especially ib eocpanded 25oopHytes and larval 
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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL, 



Vol. XVIII. DECEMBER, 1897. No. 12, 

Parasitic Leaf-Fungi. 

By Rev. ALEX. 8. WILSON. 

About the time when the blackberries are ripe, after a 
short search one can generally find a bosh the leaves of 
which have a paler appearance than ordinary ; closer 
inspection shows the under surfaces of the leaves flecked 
here and there as if with specks of soot. With the aid 
of a pocket lens each speck is seen to consist of tufts of 
little club-shaped bodies, and if we scrape some off, mount 
them on a slide, and place it under the microscope, we see 
that they are cylindrical cells, each made up of from 
three to eight joints, and supported by a short stalk. 
Their form is so characteristic that, once seen, there is 
no diflBculty in recognizing it again. These are the telu- 
tospores of the bramble brand (Phragmidium violaceum), 
a parasitic fungus belonging to the order ^cidiomycetes 
(or Uredines), all of which inhabit living plants. 

The leaves of various species of mint are in autumn 
often dotted over in like manner with dark-colored spots, 
due in this case to the telutooporet* of Puccinia menthae, 
each composed of two joints of hemispherical form. By 
this two-celled character the Puccinia genus is distin- 
guished from Phragmidiura, which has telutospores 
usually consisting of more than three joints. On the 
meadow-sweet a brand, Triphragmidium ulmarisB, occurs, 
having three-celled telutospores ; those of the brands 



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366 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

which affect the bean, pea, clover, and lady's-mantle, spe- 
cies of Urorayces, are uni-cellular. Gymnosporangium 
(Rostelia) growing on junipers has them two-celled, 
closely packed, and embedded in gelatinous substance : 
they are prismatic, and form a compact layer in Melam- 
spora infesting the leaves of the willow and sunspurge ; 
and the species of Colesporium living on the colt's-foot 
and eye-bright have four-celled telutospores united to 
form a compact, waxy stratum, surrounded by a gelatin- 
ous mass. The characters presented by their telutospores 
thus form the basis of the classification usually followed 
in this group of fungi, the spores of which, indeed, con- 
stitute the principal feature. 

Telutospores are resting or winter spores ; only in a 
few cases are they capable of immediate germination. 
The name derived from tejos, **end," indicates that their 
production is regarded as completing the life cycle of the 
fungus. Unlike other spore«, which on germination give 
rise to a branching mass of thread-like cells known as 
a mycelium, which is really the vegetative body of the 
fungus, a telutospore only developes a short filament or 
promycelium, on which arises small reproductive cells, 
the sporidia; the latter are able at once to germinate and 
form mycelia. 

Minute yellow streaks may be observed during the 
latter half of the year on the leaves of all our common 
grasses, especially on the lower leaves, by anyone who 
will take the trouble to look for them. On examining 
these with the pocket lens they are found to be chinks in 
the epidermis of the leaf filled with orange-coloured dust. 
Under a microscope of low power, with direct light, a 
small piece of grass-blade so affected presents a charm- 
ing appearance. The dust is seen to be composed of 
orange red globules, having a waxy lustre or bloom, re- 
minding one of artificial fruits, and forming a splendid 
contrast to the bright green chlorophyll grains of the 



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18971 MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 367 

leaf. With careful focassing under a higher power, mi- 
nute projections studding the surface of the ypores be- 
come visible, giving them a bristly appearance. These 
«re the summer or uredospores of a parasitic fungus now 
designated Puccinia rubigo vera, one of the corn-rusts 
which occasionally inflict so much damage on cere«l 
crops. Pucci/iia graminis injures the wheat; allied spec- 
ies occasion the orange and scarlet patches of rust seen 
on the rose, barren strawberry, eye-bright, cow-wheat, 
sow-thistle, groundsel, thistle, harebell, nightshade, 
dog's mercury, and many other native plants. The name 
uredospore {uro, "I burn") has reference to the conspicu 
oils disfigurment and often burnt appearance of leaves 
attacked by these fungi. Unlike telutospores, the ure- 
dospore germinates at once if placed on a suitable host, 
and gives rise to a filament whioh penetrates the epider- 
mis and developes into a mycelium, extending through 
(he intercellular passages of the leaf. Uredospores com- 
monly appear somewhat earlier in the season than telut- 
ospores, though the two often grow together. 

On gooseberries our readers may sometimes have re- 
marked a bright yellow spot about the size of a sixpence. 
Similar spots occur on the leaves of gooseberry and cur- 
rant bushes. The lens shows that they consist of a num- 
ber of small round openings full of orange powder; these 
.•ire the cluster-cups and »cidiospores of Aicidium grossu- 
laria. An exceedingly common species, Al, compositarum, 
is found on the lower surface of the colt's foot leaf, a 
plant abundant on every railway embankment. Plants 
may possess more than one species of parasite; on the 
colt's-foot there also occurs a species of Colesporium, 
and nearly a score of different fungi are stated to take 
up their quarters on the leaves of the nettle. Bach spec- 
ies of ©cidium confines itself, as a rule, however, to 
plants of a particular family, or even selects its hosts 
from a single species; thus the SBcidia of the berberry, 



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388 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

hawthorn, honeysuckle, Scotch fir, mountain ash, ane- 
mone, buttercup, nettle, primrose, violet, willow-herb, 
bedstraw, dock, and many other plants are all diflFerent 
and belong to distinct species. Seen with the lens the 
cluster-cups present the appearance of a group of mina- 
ture volcanoes. At first the SBcidium fruit is a small 
spherical body formed beneath the epidermis of the leaf 
whereon it grows, which it ultimately ruptures; the aecid- 
ium itself, when ripe, bursts, and the yellow spores are 
discharged. The section of an »cidium shows a cup-like 
cavity with spores arranged in vertical rows like 
short strings of beads; they are developed by budding, and 
become detached in succession. Externally the aecidium 
is in most species invested by a membranous envelope, 
the peridium, usually cup-shaped, but occasionally, as in 
the cluster-cups of the pine, prolonged into a tube. The 
peridium may open irregularly or split up in a definite 
manner, giving its margin a toothed appearance. An 
aecidiospore can germinate when sown on a suitable 
host. The cluster-cups appear earlier in the season than 
the uredo- or telutospores, and are very often associated 
with smaller caps called spermogonia, which appear on 
the upper surface of the leaf (tig. 6, a spm.), from which 
issue minute spermatid, which have never been known to 
germinate, and are therefore generally regarded as male 
reproductive cells. 

All the three kinds of spores above described, it must 
now be explained, are produced in succession by some of 
the Urediues on the same mycelium. The Puccinias of 
the mint, primrose, violet, goat's-beard, and onion de- 
velop all three forms ; teluto- uredo- and aecidiospores 
occur on the same plant. Had we examined the bramble 
Phragmidium earlier in the season we should have found, 
not the many-celled telutospores, but unicellular uredo- 
or aecidiospores. The rose rust, Ph, subcorticum^ and 
that of the barren strawberry, Plu fragariae^ in like 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



369 



manner bear three kinds of spore on the same host. The 
rusts of the knot-grass, beet, geranium, and valerian, 
caused by species of Uromyces, also possess spores of 
three kinds. Others, like U, alchemillce and U. rumicisy 
have teluto and uredo but no aecidiospores. Only telut- 
ospores {»re known to be produced by the Puccinias para- 
sitic on the gout-weed, speedwell, mallow, harebell, and 




DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES. 
1. Telatospores: a, Phragmidiniu violaceum; b, Paccinia menthse; P. 
violarum ; d, P. gramiuis. 2. Germinating telutospores with promycelia 
and sporidia : a, Phraginidium ; b, Tripbragmidiam. 3. Uredosporee : a, 
grass blade with rust; b, spores of bramble rast; c, spores of barren straw- 
berry; d, e, spores of corn rust; f, of rose rust; g, of thistle rost. 4.^cidia: 
a» leaf of berberry with cluster cups; b, side view of a^cidia; c» leaf of san- 
spurge spotted with Melamspora; d, clustercups of bedstraw. 5. Spermo- 
gonia on upper surface of leaf. 

saxafrage. Uredospores are wanting in the Puccinias 
of the ragwort and earth-nut; telutospores are absent in 
the rusts of the figwort and fern, while neither the uredo 
nor telutospores are known which correspond with the 
aecidia of honeysuckle, meadow-rue, and gooseberry. 
The three kinds of spore are not formed simultaneously; 
further observations may therefore be expected to reduce 
the number of these exceptions. Before it was known 



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370 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

that a cluster-cup, a rust, and a brand might be merely 
succesbive stages of the same fungus, specific names had 
been assigned to each of the forms, with the result that 
some of these parasites have three names; and this in- 
convenience is still unavoidable in cases where the con- 
nection between the different stages hi4S not jet been 
demonstrated. 

But what invests thin group of fungi with peculiar in- 
terest is the fact that many of them spend their first or 
aecidium-bearing stage on a different species of host- 
plant from that which they inhabit at a later period of 
their life history, when they develop uredo- and teluto- 
spores. Thus there are several kinds which produce 
aecidia on the leaves of firs and pines, and then migrate 
to plants of the Heath order. To this changing of hosts 
the name Hetercecism {heter, "other" ; oikos, ''house") 
has been given. Analogous phenomena are observed 
among animal parasites. The same organism which oc- 
casions ''measles" in pork, causes the tapeworm in man 
while in the cat it is but a more advanced form of one 
that inhabits the intestines of the mouse; and the liver 
fluke of the sheep passes one part of the cycle of its de- 
velopment in the body of a pond snail. Farmers long 
suspected that the presence of berberry bushes in their 
hedges had something to do with the rust that destroyed 
their wheat. This idea was verified by the discovery 
that Ptucinia graminis is merely a later stage in the de- 
velopment of ^cidium berberidis which infests the ber- 
berry. As the aliernation of generations was first traced 
in this species, it is the example of hetercecism usually 
given in textbooks, but a similar connection has been 
made out in many other instances. The cluster-cups of 
the Scotch fir belong to the same Uredine which bears 
telato and uredospores on the groundsel; those of the 
colt's-foot correspond to telutospores on the meadow grass 
of Puccinia poarum : Alcidium urticce of the nettle devel- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 371 

opes aredospores on species of Carex; the aecidium fruits 
of Gymnosporangium caneellata occur only on the leaves of 
the mountain ash and other Pomaceae, the telutospores 
only upon those of species of juniper. The aecidium of 
the buckthorn is related in the same way to Puccinia cor- 
onatUy not uncommon on grasses. Again, the aecidia of 
the orchid, onion, dock; and dandelion appear in their 
uredo forms on various grasses and sedges, while the 
parasites of certain Composites seem to migrate to other 
plants of the same order. The corn rust, P. rubigo vera^ 
turns out to be the second stage of an aecidium that grows 
on the leaves of Anchusa and other plants of the borage 
family. 

From these examples it will be seen that in fungi of 
this description each generation of each species has its 
own form of fructification and its own peculiar host- 
plant. The brands of the mint and bramble are not het- 
eroecious, but produce all three sorts of spore on the same 
host, or even on the same mycelium; the Uredines of the 
honey-suckle, meadow-rue, and gooseberry, of which only 
the aecidium forms are known, are likewise restricted to 
one species of host. In this country Ai. grossularia only 
produces aecidiospores; telutospores are stated to have 
been observed on the gooseberry itself on the Continent, 
Should this be confirmed, it would appear that the fun- 
gus in question is confined during its whole existence to 
to the same plant, and does not, therefore, possess the 
heteroecismal character. 

In the life history of one of these migratory fungi we 
have then the following phases: — The earliest form in- 
habits the leaves of a plant such as the berberry, where 
it exhausts its eneriges and completes its career by the 
production and discharge of the aecidiospores ; the latter 
are incapable of germinating on the berberry, but on 
being transferred to wheat, at once germinate and form a 
mycelium which develops the uredo and telutospores. 



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372 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

The uredospores continue to propagate the aredo form of 
the fungus indefinitely upon the wheat, hut the teluto- 
sporet* or sporidia arising from them will only grow my- 
celia if sown on the leaves of the berberry. 

In not a few instances these relationships have been 
established by direct experiment. Dr. C. B. Plowrigbt 
succeeded in producing aecidia on the hawthorn and 
mountain ash by infecting their leaves with telutospores 
taken from the juniper, and on the nettle with teluto- 
spores from a species of Carex. Conversely, with aecid- 
iospores from the nettle he obtained the uredospores of 
Puccinia caricis on Carex, and spores from the colt's-foot 
cluster-cup placed on the meadow grass developed the 
uredo form of P. porarum. The aecidium of the berberry 
gave rise to P.graminis on grass, and berberry leaves in- 
fected with telutospores from the latter developed 
aecidia of the usual form. Check plants which in these 
experiments were not inoculated yielded negative results; 
the possibility of error was thus eliminated. It may 
therefore be taken as conclusively proved that many of 
these leaf fungi exist in alternate generations as para- 
sites on distinct plants, with forms so unlike that the suc- 
cessive phases in the life cycle of one and the same fun- 
gus were long regarded as different species and classi- 
fied in separate families. The brilliant orange and Mcar- 
let tints exhibited by so many Uredines are due to the 
presence in their cells of drops of highly-coloured oil. 
Tliey differ from the Peronospore»in their septate mycel- 
ium, and are less destructive, as the mycelium does not 
extend through the entire body of the host, but the dam- 
age is usually restricted to the small affected areas of the 
leaf. Sexual reproduction has not been observed in the 
Uredines; there are, however, grounds for the belief 
that a process of fertilization really takes place, but the 
consideration of this question must be reserved for an- 
other occasion. — Krimvledge. 



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1897] MICROSOOPIOAL JOURNAL 373 

The DeDDis Fluorometer. 

WITH PRONTISi-lECE. 

It is the function of this instrument to establish, with 
precision, the location of any foreign object within the 
human organism which is impermeable or comparatively 
impermeable to the X-rays. In other words it is the 
province of the fluorometer to enable observers to form 
an exact and certain diagnosis in oases of presence of 
coins, bullets, needles, calculi or any other substance 
which is compart vely more dense in its fluoroscopic 
shadow than the subject in which it is contained. It is 
also its function, by eliminating the distortion of posi- 
tion, and the distortion caused by the divergence of the 
rays, to provide the surgeon with absolute and reliable 
measurements in cases of dislocations, fractures or any 
abnormal conditions of the anatomy which are suscepti- 
ble of reproduction in the Roentgen shadow. To obtain 
a correct shadow with a view to locating an object after 
the parallelism of the rays is accomplished, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to have a base for measurement. 

To accomplish its results, it provides : A shadow of 
the body or limb, is thrown on the field of the fluoros- 
cope or, on the sensitive plate, at the same tim»^ giving 
data which will not only enable us to make measurements 
but to reproduce the exact position of the body or limb. 
It eliminates the distortion resulting from the radiation 
of the force or energy known as the X ray. The distor- 
tion caused by the position of the subject or by the radi- 
ation of the energy, having been eliminated, it provides 
an accurate cross-section of the body or limb, and supplies 
anabsolutely correct right-angle, at the intersection of the 
lines of which the foreign object will be found in the 
body or limb. 

The fluorometer consists in a set of carefully designed 
metallic angle pieces, which conform generally to the 
•hape of the body or limb, and which are susceptible of 



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374 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

being squared with a simple and conveniently adjustable 
table. When the proper position of the cross-section is 
obtained, the two arms of the fluorometer will present 
the characteristic single shadow on the field of the fluoro- 
8C.»pe. 

Attachable to the arms of the flaorometer are two pins 
or HJghts. By means of these sights, the foreign object 
having been brought in line with them and the proper 
adjustment having been made, a correct line is produced,^ 
with the sights and foreign object coincident. By means 
of a metallic grating, of inch mesh, which is placed ad- 
jacent to one side of the body and consequently one side 
of the fluorometer, exact measurments can be made with 
the eye from the base line, and from points on the cir- 
cumference of the body, to the foreign object. 

Then, without moving the body or the fluorometer, the 
Crookes tube is placed directly over the subject for the 
purpose of obtaining the vertical line. By means of an 
adjustable cross-piece, which is placed over the arms, 
exactly the same results in a vertical way are obtained 
by viewing the subject from beneath, the same condition 
of parallelism having been produced, another set of pins 
having been placed in position. 

While the first operation locates the foreign object on 
an exact cross-section, the second observation shows the 
exact position occupied by the foreign object in that 
cross section. All the elements of distortion having 
been eliminated, the foreign body will necessarily be at 
the intersection of the two lines of the right angle. The 
first cross-section obtained is shown by a line of India 
ink or iodine on the body. 

Very early in the history of the X-ray it was found 
that it was a very deceptive guide, and that^ wherever a 
a foreign substance which was less permeable than its 
surroundings might be, it was certainly not in the posi- 
tion indicated by the so-called radiographs or skia- 



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1897 1 MICEOSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 375 

graphs, and, as a consequence, tw(» views taken at right 
angles, would not disclose the location of ihe object. It 
was at once apparent that the visible effect of the Roent- 
gen ray, whether in its action on a sensitive plate or pa- 
per, or its visual effect on the fluorescent screen, is a 
shadow only. It must be remembered that we are deal- 
ing with a shadow, which is not only treacherous, but is 
lacking in the dimension of thickness. When the X ray 
once starts it goes straight to infinity. Thus it has hap- 
pened in many cases that, while apparently a bullet or 
needle, for instance, was located in a certain position 
with reference to the anatomy, as shown by a skiagraph, 
it would be found that it was not at the place indicated. 
It is not necessary to enlarge upon this branch of the 
distortion, for it is familiar not only to every experimen- 
ter on the lines of the Roentgen rays, but to every sur- 
geon who has made a skiagraph the basis of exploration. 
The only practical solution of the diflBculty is to estab- 
lish a definite cross section of the patient by means of 
angle pieces, which would be less permeable than any 
portion of the subject, and which could be made to re- 
tain their relative position to the subject, and with the 
parallelism of the rays through the process of producing 
the angles. Having established this cross-section, it 
was found that it was desirable that it should be formed 
in close proximity to the foreign object, which had been 
superficially located by means of the fluoroscope. An ap- 
pliance was perfected which conforms in a general Way 
to the shape of the body, the neck, the head, the foot or 
the limb, and which at the same time preserves the posi- 
tion of the body squarely in its relation with an adjust- 
able table. This adjustable table is extremely simple, 
and is so arranged that when the patient is placed in the 
position desired, the fluorometer will rest in a groove on 
the table, in one case, and an attachment of the table in 
the other. Then the desired position having thus been 



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376 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

obtained and secured, as ehown in the illustration, 
patient and fluorometer are quickly brought into such a 



position relatively to the source of energy that it shows 
only a thin, characteristic line on the field of the fluoros- 
cope. Now, if a line of India ink is drawn between the 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 377 

arms of the fluorometer on the subject, the exact cross- 
section of the patient, a« shown on the fluoroscope, will 
be made manifest. If, therefore, the cross-section is es- 
tablished very close to the foreign object, it will be seen 
at once that the first diflBculty has been surmounted; the 
object has been located in close juxtaposition to a thin 
cross-section of the body or limb. 

Attachable to the table is a metallic grating with 
meshes of exactly one inch. This grating, when in pot^i- 
tion, is also square with reference to the table upon 
which the patient is placed, and the normal position is 
close to the side of the patient, opposite to the source of 
energy. The fluoroscope is placed against this grating, 
and it will be seen at once that measuring from any point 
desirable, on the surface of the patient to the foreign ob- 
ject, is but the matter of a moment. Just here two mov- 
able pins on the arms of the fluorometer appliance come 
into use. These pins are placed equidistant from the 
base of the fluorometer (which is, of course, squared with 
the table). Then when the table, with its patient, is ad- 
justed, so that the pins or ^'sights" coincide with the for- 
eign object, it will be known that all three are in the 
parallelism of the rays, and that the characteristic dis- 
tortion, caused by the angle of the rays, has been elimin- 
ated. Measurements, taken with the eye by means of a 
metallic grating, will thus enable the surgeon to chart 
unerringly the position of the object with reference to 
the surface of the body which contains it. 

How far *'in" from the surface of the body it may be, 
however, is, at this point, a mystery. Now, without 
moving the patient or disturbing the position of the 
fluorometer, the second observation is taken. 

For convenience in using the fluoroscope, a section of 
the top of the table is removable, and a proper fluoro- 
metric appliance substituted, by means of which the sec- 
ond right line of the right angle is determined. This 



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378 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

aperture in the table is also provided with the metallic 
grating, and the fluorometer is provided with an attach- 



ment which closes the side of the instrument which was 
open during the first observation. Now, when the sur- 
geon takes a position below the table, he obtains a view 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 379 

which is exactly at right angles with the first. The pins 
are again brought into use, and the table, patient and 
flnorometer, together, brought into parallelism with tUv 
rays, the tube having now been placed over the patimt, 
as shown on the opposite page, instead of the side. The 
position of the foreign object again, with reference to 
the points on the cross-section of the subject and witli 
reference to certain points on the fluorometer, is at o:i( « 
charted by the aid of the meshes of the m.etallic gralii/ . 

Necessarily, the foreign object must be situated at lie 
point where the two lines coincide, the distortion cau-^e I 
by position, also the distortion caused by the angle of 
the ray having been eliminate. Where that point is, 
can, of course, be at once ascertained by measurment t»ii 
the surface of the body. 

In the case of a bullet in the brain cavity elements of 
uncertainty of location, having in view the desirability 
of a possible operation for its removal, become very gra\ »•. 
A very slight variation of the position occupied by the head 
will produce a distortion which would preclude success- 
full exploration. By means of the fluorometer the posit im 
of a foreign object in the brain cavity is ascertained wiih 
precision exactly as in the case of the body already given: 
it becomes merely a matter of cross-sections and surface 
measurements. 

In the case of a bullet in the shoulder there is the pos- 
sible diflBculty of distinguishing a foreign object by ex- 
amining the shadow thrown transversely to the body. 
With this system, however, the diflBculty vanishes. Bar- 
ing the shoulder, the appliance is fixed directly over the 
center of the foreign object, it having been disclosed by 
superficial view. The body is then brought into such a 
position that the appliance shows only the characteris- 
tic thin vertical line on the field of the fiuoroscope. A 
line of India ink is then drawn across the shoulders to 
indicate the cross-section obtained. Then removing the 



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380 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

appliance and moving the shoulder slightly^ perhaps an 
inch, the instrument is placed directly over the foreign 



substance and brought within the parallelism of the 
rays. Again the India ink brush is brought into requi- 
sition and another cross-section indicated, intersecting 
the other at some point on the surface. 



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1897J MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 381 

At this juncture, the metallic grating is brought into 
use. At the point where the two lines intersect is placed 
a bit of metal. Then with the grating the distance down 
to the point occupied by the foreign substance, which is 
necessarily directly under, the point of intersection is 
measured, the line being projected parallel with the base 
line of the fluorometer. 



The Sporular Development of the Amoeba Villosa. 

By J. C. SMITH, 

New Orleans. La. 

[Read before the A. M. Society, 1H97.] 

In April, 1897, the writer secured some decayed leaves 
from a pond in the Audubon park in New Orleans, and 
on scraping a portion from one of the leaves, placed it 
under a cover-glass, and then examining it with a \ inch 
objective, the field was seen to be filled with a number 
of Amoeba villosa, Leidy. Some of the specimens were 
active, some were apparently on the threshold of eiicyst- 
ment, while otiiers had already entered that stat«\ The 
field, fortunately, was entirely free from oth^M- forms of 
Amoeba as well as of the troublesome Param;ecium. 

For awhile the field was thoroughly examined, and the 
writer noticing sometiiing unusual about the Amoeba, con- 
centrated his attention on one of the forms thil had be- 
come quietj and evidently about to become encyst jmI. Thi- 
specimen measured 1-125 inch, displayed tlie ])ost«'rior w.-U 
covered with the villous processes which are lii^nostic of 
this species. The endo[)la8m contained ri u tin'^M-ol lin- 
ear bodies and some food-balls already rli.iii^c I in color. 
The contractile vesicle was large and ac(iv -^ nad instead 
of the usual nucleus, there were from ten to fifteen nu- 
clear looking bodies that moved fretdy i!i the endv»plasm 
in unison with a slight contraction and expansion of the 
body. These nuclear looking bodies were evenly dis- 



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382 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

parsed, of a bluish tint, globular, very granular and in 
size varied from 1-2750 to 1-1800 inch. The slight con- 
traction of the body became fainter, and in about one 
hour there was a rapid movement of the contents of this 
specimen, to the posterior extremity, and at the same 
time a rupture of the seemingly dense ectoplasm of this 
part. A number of the nuclear looking bodies, in com- 
pany with the linear bodies and food-balls were ejected 
from the body with considerable force, sending them a 
distance from the body equalling one-half of its long 
diameter. The Amoeba now seemed to collapse and the 
contractile vesicle disappeared. 

My attention was now confined to the nuclear-look- 
ing bodies that lay scattered about. In the course of a 
few minutes, the granules contained in these bodies be- 
came partially concentrated in one place in contact with 
the ectoplasm, and was of a deeper blue in color. This 
concentration of the granules left more than one-half of 
each body almost clear and transparent, and in this clear 
space there appeared simultaneously with the concentra- 
tion, a very minute but distinct pulsating vesicle. In a 
short while a slight movement of the body was detected 
and there appeared a flagellum equalling in length from 
four to five of the body's diameters and was directed 
stiffly forward. The body now became very active and 
in a few seconds darted off in a rapid chase about the 
field, in an aimless manner, reminding the writer of the 
zoospores of the Achlya prolifera. 

Casting a glance at the other free nuclear-looking bod- 
ies, it was seen that most of them were undergoing the 
same change, and they were kept under observation un- 
til they had all disappeared from the field, in the same 
manner. It was impossible to follow any one of these 
zoospores, as the field had become filled with them. 

The writer now confined his attention to one of the 
encysted Amoeba. The one selected measured 1-260 



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1897] MICEOSCOPIOAL JOURNAL. 383 

inch, possessed no trace of a contractile vesicle, no food- 
balls, a few of the linear bodies, some of the nuclear- 
looking bodies and nothing that conld be differentiated 
as the original nucleus. Tne nuclear-looking bodies were 
granular, as the ones cited above, and instead of being 
free in the endoplasm, were congregated in five spheri- 
cal masses, each mass being composed of from four to six 
units and was enclosed in a very distinct membrane, 
which was made even more distinct by adherent granules. 
In a short while and without any apparent move- 
ment of the body, three of these spherical masses were 
thrown out with some force; the fissure in the ectoplasm 
of the encysted amoeba was not closed; and the whole 
form collapsed, still containing two of the masses. In 
,about fifteen minutes after being ejected, the membran- 
eous coverings of the units were ruptured and the con- 
tained nuclear-looking bodies were freed. The average 
size and appearance of these bodies were the same as the 
ones seen discharged from the amoeba first recorded. In 
the course of a few minutes they were seen to go through 
identically the same phenomena as was observed to take 
place with the one first mentioned. The field was now 
filled with these zoospores, and being free from all other 
forms of life, offered a good opportunity for further study. 
In about three hours after beginning the observation, 
some of the zoospores had slackened their movements, 
would come to a halt for a short while, and then start 
off again; a number were less active than the rest and in 
a short while became quiescent. Selecting a (juiet speci 
men that measured 1-2000 inch and using a \ ohjective it 
, could be distinctly seen to elongate itselt aiid then re- 
sume its original size; would throw out a single minute 
lobate process now from one side and again from the 
other side. The dark blue mass of aggregated gran- 
ules first observed in the nuclear-looking bodies after 
they had been ejected from the amoeba, had become 



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384 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

much smaller and now represented the nucleas itself. 
The contractile vesicle was very distinct and the inter- 
vals between diastole and systole were short. This ex- 
trusion of lobate processes was witnessed for some time, 
and it was noticed that there was no change in the posi- 
tion of the young amoeba, but that after awhile it re- 
tained the elongate form and would throw out pseudo- 
podia from all parts of its body, that would at times, ex- 
ceed the length of the zooid. At these times it had the 
appearance of a minute Amoeba proteus, many of the 
forms now measured as much as 1-900 inch, without the 
pseudopodia. The hour being late, the slide was care- 
fully prepared and put away with a view to continuing 
the observation later. 

On again resuming the observation, nineteen hours af- 
terwards, the field was found strewn with a very large 
number of small and active Amoeba that differed from 
the larger forms of Amoeba villosa only in the absence 
of the villous processes. The endoplasm was slightly 
granular, the nuclei and contractile vesicles as distinct 
as in the large forms. They were freely moving about 
and extruded only the lobate processes. Measurements 
showed them to range from 1-800 to 1-560 inch. In two 
places on the slide were a number of forms, from ten to 
fifteen, closely huddled together, as if dropped in a mass 
at that place. In size and shape they were the same as 
the free moving ones; the nuclei, contractile vesicles and 
anterior clear spaces being exceedingly distinct. They 
had a slight movement on and alongside of each other, 
without seeming to increase the space occupied by them. 
They would remind one of a litter of kittens a day or 
two old. In speculating on this phenomenon, one could 
come to the conclusion that those nuclear-looking bodies 
that remained in the Amoeba after a part had been ejected, 
were developed within the confines of the body, and 
were freed only after the dissolution of the firm ecto- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 385 

plasm, and in this way the clusters of amoeba were pro- 
duced. The slide was now again laid aside, and on again 
resuming the observaiions eighteen hours after, very 
few forms were found, and they differed in no way from 
the forms seen the evening before. If food could have 
been supplied the observation could perhaps have been 
extended so as to witness the full development of these 
young forms. 

To make this history of the sporular development of 
the Amoeba villosa (and by inference all amoeba) com- 
plete, there is only one essential requisite, and that is to 
trace the origin of the nuclear-looking bodies to the nu- 
cleus. 



Multiple Images in Mirrors. 

By WM. BALFOITR STOKES. 
{Bead before the Quekett Club, December 18ih, 1896.) 

The origin of multiple images in plate-glass mirrors, 
and their behaviour, seems to have attracted but little 

1 

% 




notice among microscopists. They have been noted 
and a partial remedy has been prescribed, but their ori- 
gin seems to have been either too simple or too complex 
for explanation. 

When attention has been called to these images, 
simple, and I believe efficient, reasons have been given ; 
but their authors did not explain the behaviour of the 
images when the mirror is revolved. 

A figure will best show my own idea as to their origin. 
In Fig. 1, A is the glass surface, B the silver surface, 
the object, and E the eye. 



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386 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

Id the direction 1, 2, 3, appear the first three images. 
No. 1 is from the glass sarface, No. 2 is from the silver 
surface, and No. 3 is from the silver and air surfaces. 

Move a card along A towards 1, and No. 3 disappears 
first, No. 2 immediately after, and No. 1 when the card 
reaches that point. So much for their origin. 

It will be asked, perhaps, how the images can alter 
their position when the mirror is revolved in the plane 
of A. They cannot. The mirror A B has parallel sur- 
faces. Microscope mirrors and most plate-glass mirrors 
are not parallelised, but are, at the best, "optically" flat- 
tened, and may be regarded as wedges. 

It is then easily seen how images approximate and 
retire when the mirror is revolved. 

Let us give surfaces A and B an inclination of l®(Fig. 
2). Then viewing a small object at E (close to the eye) 
one image appears towards 1, i.e., at right angles to A, 
and another in the direction E 2 — li° from E 1, which, 
after being refracted to 1° in the glass, is reflected at 
riglit angles from surface B. 

There is anolher image nearer the letter A, but, as it 
follows the same laws apparently as the others, save that 
it is a real double reflection, we need not consider it. If 
this mirror is revolved in the plane of A, of course No. 1 
image will remain still. No. 2 and subsequent images 
will revolve with the mirror round No. 1. If we exager- 
ate this wedge shape of our mirror, we can see that at a 
peculiar angle these images can be made to superimpose. 
Let the signs be as before (Fig. 3) and the images whose 
rays pass respectively from to 1 and 2^ will be reflect- 
ed to E as one image. I should imagine the third image 
to arrive at E through 1, but I have not yet worked this 
out. Of course, placing the eye at O and the object at 
E would be equivalent to revolving the mirror. The im- 
ages vary slightly in size owing to their various distances. 

No. 2 is the brightest except at great obliquity. 



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1897J MICEOSOOPIOAL JOURNAL. 387 

EDITOmAL. 

Formaldehyde— The credit of the discovery of the 
powerful antiseptic properties of formaldehyde and its 
practical application is due to A. Frillat, who in 1888 first 
noticed its preserving* action on samples of wine, and in 
1891 made public his experiments, showing* it to possess 
antiseptic properties much superior to all non-toxic or- 
ganic antiseptics then known. 

Typhoid Fever. — Water drawn from an abandoned well 
has g^iven rise to several cases of typhoid fever near Rye 
Beach, N. Y. A party consisting- of half a dozen persons 
went into camp near that place and drank water from it. 
The whole party immediately became ill, and two of the 
members have since died. 

Fire-Blight. — Tliis is now supposed to be due to a bac- 
terium which enters the plant through the tender parts of 
the tissue, like the flower-buds or young leaf-buds as they 
unfold, and spreads down through the branches. When 
it appears on the main branches it is often called "body 
blig^ht," and its presence is marked by brown and lifeless 
patches which become sunken. Wherever the blight ap- 
pears the limbs should be cut off at once below the point 
where the infection has reached, and as a precaution 
against the spread of the disease the prunings should be 
burned. 



MItVOSCOPICAL APPARATUS. 



The Micromotoscope — Is a kinetoscope for photograph- 
ing" cell life in motion, as seen in the microscopic field. 
The pictures are taken by the gelatine film at from 5,000 
to 15,000 magnifications, at the rate of from 1,600 to 3,500 
per minute. The images being magnified thousands of 
times when projected upon a screen, the views of some of 
the families of microbes are very realistic. It has been 
learned that some of them act as if intelligent. The pho- 
tographs of the blood in circulation in the thinnest part of 
the ears and webs of the fingers, showing the cappillary 



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388 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

and arterial motion and the changres going- on in the white 
cells, are of great interest. They indicate something- of 
the natnre of life and disease. The stream of circulating 
human blood is so swift that the eye cannot keep pace with 
it, and the changes in the white blood cells are correspond- 
ingly rapid. Some of the pictures show a white cell on 
the fast moving stream, like a white cap on the sea, con- 
stantly changing its shape. It throws out or takes in its 
arms like an octopus, seizing the microbes in its path. In 
disease this movement of the arms takes place with much 
less energy than in health. These pictures cannot fail to 
be of great value in the study of diseases. The micromo- 
toscof>e will greatly aid in the investigation of phenomena 
of action of ameboid life in water. — Elect. Age, 

MICEOSCOPICAL MANIPULATION. 



Mounting Chara.— ^A. Flatters finds that the fruit of 
chara makes a good slide when mounted in glycerin jelly. 
After cleaning he places it in 92 per cent alcohol for sev- 
eral hours, then transfers into a mixture of equal parts of 
spirit and glycerin for several hours longer, after which 
he ]«ours olT nearly all of the mixture and adds pure gly- 
cerin at intervals till the glycerin becomes concentrated. 
Finally the object is mounte<l in glycerin jelly in a cavity 
slip just deep enough to take it without pressure. A sec- 
ond method is to mount in balsam, as follows: — After 
cleaning, graduate through 25 per cent, 50 per cent, to 92 
percent alcohol and allow to stand in the last strength for 
several hours. Take a tube and put in it oil of cloves. On 
the top of the oil pour a little absolute alcohol. Immerse 
the specimen gently in the alcohol and allow it to sink to 
the bottom of the tube. When clear mount in balsam and 
benzole. If transferred direct from the spirit into oil of 
cloves, objects will shrivel and be spoiled, hence the nec- 
essity of the graduating method. To see the antheridia 
properly, sections should be made. — Science Gossips iv., 88. 

Vegetable Sections. — The best results are obtained by 
first bleaching the tissues, and the best agent for this pur- 



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 389 

pose is Labarroque's solution (liquor sodae chlorinata) of 
the U. S. P. Put the sections in the liquor and leave un- 
til every trace of color is removed. The time will vary 
according- to the nature of the tissue, thickness ofsection, 
etc. When bleached, wash the sections by allowing^ a g-en- 
ll.i stream of water to flow over them until they no longer 
smell of the liquor, then put them in distilled water carry- 
ing- one minim of nitric acid, c. p., to the ounce. Let re- 
main for a few moments, then transfer to absolute alcohol 
where they should remain one hour, before passing to the 
staining- baths. Except for special demonstrations where 
carmine, picro carmine, xanthoxylin, etc., are required, 
the writer prefers the aniline colors. 



BACTERIOLOGY. 



A Sweet Corn Bacillus. — Mr. F. C. Stewart, is study- 
ing a new bacterial disease of sweet corn. The plants wilt 
and dry up, although the leaves do not roll as they do when 
they die from lack of moisture. In young plants death oc- 
curs in a few days, but the disease requires from two to 
four weeks to run its counse in older plants. Externally 
affected plants appear sound, but when split the iibro-vas- 
cular bundles are found gorged with a yellow substance. 
When a diseased stalk is cut crosswise there exudes from 
the ends in yellow viscid drops a substance composed of 
immense numbers of short bacilli. The disease raayattack 
the plants at any stage of growth, but is the most virulent 
about the time when the ears are forming. It does not 
spread from an initial centre, but is found scattered 
through the field. Diseased plants frequently occur in 
the same hill with healthy ones. It is found in all kinds of 
soil, and seems to prefer the early dwarf varieties of sweet 
corn. — Garden and Forest. 

Flavoring Micrococcus of Butter.- It was a remark- 
able discovery, when, in April, 18%, Simeon C. Keith was 
i-tudying the effects of various bacteria upon cream, and 
in the course of his experiments he isolated a micrococcus 
that was found to produce a decided butter flavor and aro- 



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390 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [D«c 

ma when grown in milk or cream. This proved to be a 
new species, for which he proposed the name Micrococcns 
butyri-aromafaciens. 

It has always been the custom to allow cream to sour or 
*'ripen" before churning it for butter, because after this 
process the butter comes better and more quickly, is of 
better texture and flavor, and keeps better than butter 
made from sweet cream. Lord Lister and Pasteur, many 
years ago, showed that the souring' of milk and cream is 
due to minute micro-organisms. It remained for Profes- 
sor Vilhelm Storch, of Copenhagen, however, to introduce 
the use of pure cultures of milk-souring bacteria in butter 
making. Storch isolated three species that impart especi- 
ally fine flavors to butter. 

A similar line of work was taken up by Professor Weig- 
mann, at Kiel, in Germany, and by Professor H. W. Conn* 
of Wesleyan University, in the United States. 

Of the bacteria that have been described as producing a 
beneficial effect in the ripening of cream. Micrococcus 
butyri-aromafaciens most nearly resembles Conn's Bacil- 
lus No. 41 in its effects upon milk, but it differs in its mor- 
phological and in many of its physiological characters. It 
is a micrococcus growing at 37 degrees and 20 degrees C. 
It liquefies gelatin slowly, and does not grow well on po- 
tato. Recent cultures on gelatin seem to show that the 
organism has lost to a considerable extent its power to 
liquefy gelatin during a year's cultivation. 

The culture of the micrococcus for use in creameries is 
propagated in bouillon in Fernbach flasks (broad flasks so 
constructed that a large surface of liquid is presented to 
the air). When ready for shipment, the culture is trans- 
ferred to sterilized bottles under aseptic conditions and 
hermetically sealed by means of sterilized corks and melted 
paraffin. Put up in this way, the culture may be kept for 
an indefinite time without danger of infection by any other 
organism, but in the sealed bottles the micrococcus loses 
its vitality so rapidly that after eight days it will no longer 
produce the best results. Experiments made on a com- 
mercial scale show that cream ripened with the aid of 



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1897] MICEOSCOPICAL JOTJENAL. 391 

fresh, pure cultures of this organism produces g^enerally 
better butter than the same cream ripened in the usual 
way. 

The general characters are these: A micrococcus oc- 
curring generally in pairs; 0*5 to 0*7 thousandth of a milli- 
meter in diameter, occasionally reaching 1; non-motile; no 
spores; grows rapidly at 37 degrees and 20 degrees C; 
aerobic; slow liquefier of g^elatin; non-chromogenic(white); 
stains well with carbol-fuchsin. — Popular Scienc News, 

The Bacillus Icteroides— Is a small rod with rounded 
ends, united by pairs in cultures, from two to four micro- 
millimeters in length, being three times as long as broad. 
It grows readily in all the ordinary culture media, and is 
easily stained by the usual solutions used for such pur- 
poses. "When the colonies are grown in the incubator 
they do not present marked differences from other species 
of microbes; they are rounded, of a slightly irridescent 
gray color, transparent, even in surface, and regular in 
outline. But if the colonies are allowed to evolve at a tem- 
perature of 30 degrees, to 22degreesC., theylooklikedrops 
of milk, opaque, projecting, and with pearly reflections.'* 
By exposing cultures for twelve hours in an incubator and 
then to the temperature of the air for the same length of 
time, they show themselves as constructed with a flat 
nucleus, transparent and azure, with a prominent peri- 
pheral circle that is opaque. This, the discoverer claims 
will distinguish the bacillus from all previously known va- 
rieties. **lt is a faculative anaerobe; ferments glucose 
and saccharose; very resistant to drying; dies in water at 
60 degrees, or after exposure to sunlight for seven hours, 
and lives for a long time in salt water." 

Microbe of Ambergris. — According to professor Beau- 
regard, the intestinal concretions of the cachalot are 
caused by a microbe very similar to the comma bacillus 
of cholera. Here is a new field for the enterprising phar- 
macist; he might inoculate a few sperm whales in confine- 
ment and patiently await the formation of the calculi. The 
difficulty is, as usual , first to catch the cachalot. 



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392 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Dec 

MEDICAL MICROSCOPY. 

Yellow Fever.— Walter Barker, U. S. Consul at Sagua 
la Grande, Cuba, reports to Surg-eon General Wyman, that 
two of the five warehouses used for storing- sugar before 
shipment to the United States are being- used as hospitals 
for yellow fever and other infectious diseases among- Span- 
ish soldiers. 

Typhoid Fever.— The serum test of typhoid fever has 
been applied to the detection of typhoid infection in water 
-by Dr. Waytt Johnson, of Montreal, bacteriolog-ist to the 
Provincial Board of Health, who has described his methods 
and promising- results before the Montreal Medico-Chirur- 
gfical Society. 



MICROSCOPK Al. NOTES. 



It is difficult to freeze a ^erm to death; but boiling- 
quickly destroys all micro-org^anisms. 

Make it your business to g-et rid of the soil where g-erms 
may g-row, and the g-erms will seek other pastures. 

Antiseptics are excellent remedies for some one else to 
rely upon. Better is hot water and plenty of g-ood soap 
and sa polio than a solution of bichloride of mercury or car- 
bolic acid. 

Professor Virchow, has been elected a foreig-n associ- 
ate of the Paris Academy of Sciences in the place of the 
late Dr. Tchebitchef. 

The Prussian g-overnment will assist the fresh-water 
hiolo«^Ical station at Plon after October, 1898. 

Pasteur. — September, 29, 1897, was the second aniver- 
sury of Pasteur's death, and it was fitting-ly remembered 
at the Institute. 

Sanitation. — A proprietor of a barber shop has very 
justly been fined £ 5 and costs for attending- to his busi- 
ness while still passing- through the peeling- stage of scar- 
let fever. 



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FOR SALE. -"Microscope, Bausch and Lomb*s Universal with ac 
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Fresh stock, first-class work. Satisfaction guaranteed. Have supplied 
stock to Bausch and Lomb Optical Co., to Wm. F. Stieren, Pittsburg, and 
others. No lists. Send Ji.oo for sample half-dozen. 

REV. C. K. EMERY. 

BILOXI, MISS. 

Sixth Edition of 

THE MICROSCOPE 

AND MIGROSGOF^IGAIa METHODS. 
BY SIMON HENRY GAGE, 

ProfeMor of Mleroscopj, Histology and EmbTjology In Cornell Unlveraity and the New 
York Bute veterinarj College. Itbaca, N. T . U. 8. A. 
The flgans have been increaaed from 103 to 165. In matter this edition has grown ttom 165 to 287 
pagea. This increase is dne to additions in the text of preTious editions and to some wholly new matter 
npon methods of Isolation and of sectioning by the collodion and by the paraffin methods, thf preMration 
of drawings for poblicatlon and lectors room diagram. PRIOB $1.60 POST PAID. Comstock Publish- 
mo Co.. Ithaca. N. T. 



AMH#NOL 



3n ta (Brtppe 

behaves as a stimulant as well as an M iTvH W %I • 'r^ViSr* 



•fnd flnalgeLsic 



thus differing from other Coal- 



tar products. It has been used in the relief of rheumatism and neuralgic 
pains and in the treatment of the sequelae of alcoholic excess. AMMONOL 
IS also prepared in Uie form of salicylate, bromide, and lithiate. The pres- 
ence of Ammonia, in a more or less free state, gives it additional properties 
as an expectorant, diuretic and corrective of hyperacidity.— Londoft Lancet. 

©he. .Stimiitant 

AMMONOL is one of the derivatives of Coal-tar, and differs from the numerous sim- 
ilAr products in that it contains Ammonia in active form. As a result of this, AMMO- 
N O L possesses marked stimulating and expectorant properties. The well-known cardiac 
depression induced by other Antipyretics has frequently prohibited their use in otherwise 
suitable cases. The introduction of a similar drug, possessed of stimulating properties, 
Is an event of much Importance. AMMONOL possesses marked anti-neuralgic 
propertles,and it is claimed to be especially useful in cases of dysmenorrhoea. — The Med- 
ical Magazine t London. 

Ammonol may be obtained from all Leading Druggists. Send for "Ammonol Ex- 
cerpta," a 48-page pamphlet. 

THE AMMONOL CHEMICAL CO., 

NEW YORK, U. 8. A. 



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THE MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 

DECEMBER. 

Parasitic Leaf-Faogi. Wilson. [Illustrated] 365 

The Denni« Fluorometer. [Illastrated] 373 

Sporular Development of Amoeba villoma 3*^1 

Multiple Images in Mirrors. Stokes. [Illustrated] ^ 3Ho 

Editorial. 

Formaldehyde 'AH7 

Typhoid Fever 387 

Fire-Blight 387 

Microscopical Apparatus. 

The Micrmotoecope 387 

Microscopical MANrpuLAxioN. 

Mounting Chara 38S 

Bacteriolo(»y. 

8weet-corn Bacillus 389 

Micrococcus of Butter 389 

Bacillus Icteroides 391 

Microbe of Ambergris 391 

Medical Microscopy. 

\ellowFever^ 39*2 

Typhoid Fever 392 

MicRascopicAL Notes. 

Pasteur, Virchow, Sanitation, etc 39*2 



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THE AMERICAN 

MONTHLY 

MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL 



INDEX. 



Abba, 104 

Acid, formic, 31 

Adamson, 198 

Algae, 188 

Ambergris, microbe of, 391 

Amblystoma tigrinnm, 10 

Amoeba villosa, 381 

Ampbibian, tailed, 10 

American Microscopical Society, 259 

Andrews, Tbomas, 236 

Antbrax, bacteria, 330 

Antitoxin, 55, 105, 166 

Apertures of objectives, 3 

Aqnarinm, fresb-water, 41 

Astronomical photography, 347 

Bacillarla, casts of, 280 

Bacillariacese, 258 

Bacilli, tnbercle, 92 

Bacillus coli communis, 104, 199,298 

icteroides, 391 

of diptheria, 228 

typhi, 199 
Bacterial diseases, 229 

organisms, 184 
Bacteria in normal milk, 102 

in urine, 167 
Bacteriology, 28, 67, 102, 135, 160, 
199, 229, 265, 298, 330, 359, 
389 

of influenza, 246 
Bacteriosis, 67 
Baldness, 165, 359 
Barbados, 25, 72 
Bartonology, 136 
Bastin, Edson S. 157 
Beech wood creosote, 27 
Bennett, R. A. 41 
Benoit, Dr. 284 
Bibliography, 313 
Bigney, A. J. 220 
Biological notes, 66, 107, 167, 200, 

230,267 
Biology of diatoms, 33 
Blood and muscle, 84 
Blood-corpuscles, 168, 230 
Boeckmann, Edward 48 
Bojc-mofw Uavep, 232 
BoUey, H. L. 102 
Borden, W. C. 1 



Botanical sections, 101 
Bovine tuberculosis, 356 
Boyce, Prof. 167 '^^JZ 

Bray, Thomas J. 230 
Bremer, 299 
Bright, Hardin W. 99 
Brodie, Br. 329 
Brown, Amos P/232, 235 
Bruce, Dr. 332 
Bubonic plague, 163 
Buck, J. D. 32, 204 I 
Burch, Geo. J. 67 _ 
Camera lucida, 256 ■ ' 
Carnations, bacteriosis of, 67 
Caseous rhinitis, 361 
Caste of bacillaria, 280 
Catarrhal otitis media, 28 
Cause of foul water, 317 
Cement, 296 
Chalcedony, 235 
Chalk, 267 
Cheese curd, 102 
Chemical oids, 126 
Cigarrettes, 128 
Circulation of blood, 361 
Clarkson, Arthur 203 
Clay, 224 

Claypole, Edith J. 84 
Claypole, E. W. 222 
Clothes moth, larvee of 231 
Collecting; apparatus, 237 
Collins, Katherine R. 126 
Color illumination, 196 
Comparative histology, 73 
Comparing apertures, 3 
Conjunctival sac, 160 
Corn bacillus, 389 
Creosote, beech wood, 27 
Craig, Thomas 107, 172, 253 
Creighton, Charles, 204 
Cruciferae, 205, 269, 312 
Crystals, 231, 234 
Culture media, 149, 159 
Cunningham, K. M. 33, 173 
Daday, Dr. E. v. 237 
Dennis fluorometer, 373 
Dental tissues, infiltrating, 65 
Diabetis, 299 r^ 
Diamonds, life In, 328 



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398 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 



[Dec 



Diarrhoea, 332 
Diatomoceaj, 187 
DiatomoceooA earth, 95 
Diatoms, 203, 233, 295 

hiology of, 33 

distribntion of, 233 

from RedoDdo Beach, 233 

growth of, 118 

marine, 203 
Diphtheria antitoxic serum, 55 

bacillus, 160 

blood in, 266 
Disinfection, 88 
Distilling water, 195 
Distribution of fungi, 31 
Doty, Alvah H. 163 
Dragonflies, 249 
Drinking water, 359 
Earth, barl3ados, 25 

infusorial, 63 
Editorial, 25, 62, 95, 128, 157, 192, 

227, 259, 293, 328, :i56, 387 
Edwards, Arthur M. 89, 124, 224, 

228, 256, 258, 274, 280, 317 
Ehrlich, P. 105 

Eisner. 199 

Embryo turtle, 307 

Envelope*, moistening, 98 

Exchange, 306 

Eyre, J. 162 

Febrile disease, 167 

Feces, character of, 103 

Fire-flight, 287 

Fish diet and leprosy, 134 

Fish, Pierre A. 289 

Flatters, A. 388 

Flavoring butter, 389 

Flowers, preservation of, 202 

Fly, a germ carrier, 103 

Focusing, 97 

Foot of housefly, 201 

Foraminifera, 180 

Formaldehyde, 131, 133, 387. 

Formalin, 283 

Formic acid, 31 

Forret, J. A. 100 

Fossil bacteria, 229 

lake in New Jersey, 124 
Frogs, blood-corpuicles, 230 
Fungi, 31 

Gage, Susanna P. 307 
Gardens, 96 
Glucose, OS 
Grosset 106 
<:'^the, 298 
(;,ns^ W. H. 165 
Giiiiiiir^l, *27 
Gymnusjicrms, 200 



Haemoglobin, 220 
Habn, 163 
Hall,C. M. 102 
Hanaman, Charles E. 7 
Hansen, Dr. 134 
Harris, A. J. 195 
Havelbarg, Dr. 300 
Herdman, Prof. 167 
Hirase, Dr. 8. 200 
Histological method, 100 
Hoffman, 103 
Honey bee, 31 
Horses, epidemic of, 284 
Hosts, infusorial, 253 
House-fly, 201 
House, John C. 227 
Hurley, John F. 168 
Hydrachnidse, 232 
Ikeno, Prof. S. 200 
Illumination, 227 
Immunity, 136 
Infection, 169 
Influenza, 246 
Infasoria, 63, 96, 109, 141 
Inks, 72, 158 
Insecta, 7, 62 
Jones, M. A. C. 103 
Jones, Prof. R. 268 
Joos, 159 
Jores, Dr. 64 
Keith, Simeon C. 369 
Kirkland. A. H. 191 
Klebs-Loeffler bacillus, 165 
Komanur, Karl, 330 
Laboratory, 356 
Lamb, J. E. 184 
lamprey, 213 
Lannois, 28 
Lendner, M. A. 268 
Leprosy, 360 
Leucocytes, 163 
Library Mucilage, 98 
Light on fungi, 268 
Liggett, Geo. S. 283 
Liquid polish, 127 
Malaria, 274 
Marine diatoms, 173, 203 

clays, 180 
Marpmann, Dr. 158 
Mechanical stage, 26 
Hedia, gummy, 228 
Medical microscopy, 70, 105, 133, 

165, 266, 299, 332, 392 
Medico-legal matters, 135 
Mer. er, A. Clifford, 347 
Meriin, Eliot, 201 
Microbes, 68, 324 
Micrometer rulings, 366 



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1897] 



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 



399 



MicromotMOope, 294, 387 
Microorganisms, 105 
Microscope, » polarizing, 131 
evolution of, 333 
lamp, 128 
objectives, 80 
slides, 225 

with plain stages, 26 
Microscopical aids to diagnosis, 126 
apparatus, 26, 63, 128, 195, 227, 

294, 328, 356, 387 
manipulation, 27, 64, 99, 133, 
159, 19d, 2t>8, 263, 295, 
329, 359, 388 
methods, 27, 217 
notes, 31, 71, 108, 168, 234, 

361, 392 
Societies; 
Sheffield, £ng., 28 
Liverpool, £ng., 29 
Quekett, Eng., 29, 30, 140, 300 
New Jersey state, 138, 170 
American, 138, 222, 259, 363 
Royal, 170 
American postal, 211 
Microscopic specimens, 64 
Milk, sterilization of, 100 
Molasses, 229 
Morton, Frank S. 180 
Mounting, 101, 388 
Mouser, 8. M. 356 
Mul/ord H. K. 55 
Multiple images, 385 
Murder, 31 
Mnrray, G. 203 
Muscle, histology of, 84 

fibre, 73 
Myometrium, 252 
Nagana, 332 
Need ham, James G. 249 
Nelson, Edward M. 80, 333 
Nervous tissue, 265 
Nettle, wild, 201 
Nitrogen, 331 
Nobel, Dr. Alfred, 66 
Nocard, Prof. 96 
Nomenclature, 193 
Notices of books: 
Mystic Masonry, 32 
Bacteria in rocks, 108 
Histology, text book of, 203 
Browning's Paracelus, 204 
Microscopic researches, 204 

" internal flaws, 236 

Canadian entomologist, 268 
Medical botany, 332 
Elementary zoology, 364 
Oakley, Richard H. 25 



Objectives, 3, 80, 197 
Objects, illuminating, 129 
Oblique light, 227 
Orth, J. 198 
Osborn, Henry L. 10 
Osseous tissues, 65 
Otitis media, 28 
Ovum of lamprey, 213 
Oysters, 167 
Pacific soundings, 89 
Pammel, L. H. 205, 312, 269 
Pai-asitic leaf fungi, 365 
Parifeau, Dr. 284 
Park, Dr. 134, 266 
Parritt, H. W. 306 
Pastes, 296 
Pasteur, 392 

Pathogenic organisms, 330 
Pectinatella, 232 
Peglion, Dr. V. 229 
Peroxide of hydrogen, 7, 25 
Personal, 70 
Pfister, Charies, 293 
Pharmacy, 63 
Photo-micrography, 328 
Physicians, 107, 285 
Picro-carmine, 99 
Plants, 101, 229, 330 
Podiscns placid us, 191 
Pollen, 293 
Postal clnb, 227 
Potato agar, 265 
Powdered drugs, 217 
Practicle hints, 97 
Pregnancy, 134, 266 
Pringle, C. G. 47 
Psendo re-action, 137 
Pulvilli of flies, 267 
Quinby, Benjamin F. 328 
Rawlins, B. L. 3, 155 
Redondo diatoms, 233 
Reed, Raymond C. 149 
Refraction, index of, 155 
Renault, M. B. 108, 229 
Kheinberg, Julius, 196 
Rhizopods, 107 
Richards, Dr. H. M. 265 
Ringworm, 198 
lioeutgen rays, 350 
Russel, H. L. 330 
Sabourand, Dr. 359 
Salamander, 10 
Saliva, 135 
Sanarelli. G. 133, 324 
Sand, 234, 295 
Sanitation, 392 
Scarlet fever, 106 
Schneider, Albert, 217 



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400 



THE AMBBIOAN MONTHLY 



[Dec 



Schambnii;, 359 

S«hoeD, Prof, ▼on, 328 

Scott, Brycc, 26 

SectioDs, frozen, 198 

Seeds and tesU, 205, 269, 312 

Sberman, W. N. 92 

Smegma bacillas, 298 

Smith, J. C. 109, 141, 381 

Snails, 31 

Specimens, 64 

Sporalar development, 387 

Spronck, 160 

Stage, 26 

SUining, 329 

Sterilization, 48 

Sternberg, George M. 32 

Stokes, Wm. Balfonr, 140, 385 

Storaz, 101 

Taylor, Louise, 73 

Techniqne, 289 

Tissnee, vegetable, 100 

Toads, 31 

Tsetse fiy, 332 

Tnbercle bacillns, 92, 99, 263 

Tnbercaloas cattle, 103 

TabercaloRis, 361 

Typhoid fever, 70, 128, 387, 392 

Urinary deposits, 160 



Van Dyek, F. C. 131 

Veeder, M. A. 301 

Vegetable sections, 100, 225, 388 

Vertebrates, 10 

Vinassa, Dr. E. 100 

Virchow, Prof. 392 

Vivisection, 192 

Vofflino, 31 

Vortse, C. M. 228, 230 

Vreven, 27 

Walker, J. G. 187 

Water, examination 27, 128,301, 340 

Watermites, 158, 232 

Ward, D. B. 229 

Ward, H. B. 232 

Ward, B. H. 97, 211, 213 

Watkins, Robert L. 294 

Whipple, George C. 118, 340 

White, Charters, 65 

WhiUey, J. D. 246 

Wilson, Alex. S. 365 

Wolcott, Robert H. 232 

Woolman, liewis, 233, 234 

Wright, John S. 225 

Xerosis, bacillns, 162 

Yellow fever, 133, 300, 392 

Young, A. A. 285 

Zentmayer, Joseph, 26 



Publication Announcement. 

The American Monthly Microscopical Journal will in 
1898 be continued as a 16-page, illustrated magazine and 
will be confined very carefully to the subject of micros- 
copy, omitting the "contributions to biology.'* No long 
articles can be accepted. Abstracts, news, and brief ar- 
ticles will be sought. Papers on the subject are scattered 
widely as is shown by our exchanges. A great number 
of short items and abstracts of articles will be possible. 
The price of subscription will be restored to one dollar. 

The publication of "The Microscope" will be discontin- 
ued and this magazine supplied to all who have been its 
subscribers. Those who have taken both periodicals will 
receive the Journal only unless they by postcard or oth- 
erwise request a discontinuance. This is simply to meet 
what in most ca(*es will be the desire and to save corres- 
pondence. We shall treat exchanges in the same way. 



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A NBW EDITION OF 

ifl£. iA^KTSON 5^ SONS* 

Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, Objectives 
and Accessories. 

In it will he foand fally described all the latest improvements and desinDB 
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following : 

A SERIES OF NEW PARACHROMATIC 

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The above catalogue will be mailed post-Aree on i^pUeation. 
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Australia. 
Awarded 38 Gold and other medals at Intemational|Exhibition8 inoludlnf 
5 Highest Awards at the World's Pair, Chicago, 1893. 2 Gold Medals, Pivto 
Universal Exhibition 1889 &c, Ac. 
NOTE — The postage on letten to England is 6 cents, or postal oarda 2 < 



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WANT, SALE AND EXCHANGE NOTiCES. 



FOR SALE. —First class Botanical moante, 25 centA. Send for list ; also 
wiU exchauge. I. PERCY BLACKMAN, Sandy Hook, Coon. 

FOR SALE.— ToUea 1-10 objective, 1.42 N A, one of his latest and beat. 
Also l-pl2 Powell A Leland apocbromatic objective, 1.40 N. A, new. 

C. E. BLAKE & CO., Adams Express Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

READ the nice stories in Lippinoott's Monthly Magaadne. Yoa can sare 
50 cents, (dob rate) by snbsciibing for Lippincott throng as. 

MICROSCOPICAL PUB. CO. 

FOR SALE. — Nice! V mounted slides wf Rhinoceros horn, at 40 cents each. 
' H. H. DAVISON, 41 Saraner St., Paotncket, R. L 

FOR SALE— Pritchard'a Infnsoria (latest edition, colored plates) and 
Smith's British Diatomaceae (2 vols., ancot). These works are very scarce 
and i-an only be got,as in this case, when a niicrotomist finishes using them. 
f*rice |;60. No Sig., Care C. W. SMILEY. 

FOR EXCHAN(tE.— The Mnseom of Hamline University desires to ex- 
change Atlantic JSiiellH, preserved specimens of Marine Zoology of microscopic 
slip slides for zoological specimens especially Rodents in the flesh iVom 
Southwestern United States. Correspondence solicited. 

HENRY L. OSBORN, Hamline Univ., 8t Paul, Minnesota. 

ARRANGED DIATOMS. I fhrnish the most artistitic arrangements of 
diatoms in slides at $5.00 each. Yonr name can be made fit>m dififereot 
species. Roosters, hen and chickens, and bonqnetsof floweisin batteiAy 
scales and diatoms from $5i00. Refer to the Editor of this JonmaL 



Speeialtiei 



KING'S CEMENTS ^^•''^"^^^•riheywiii^^tt, 

KING'S GLYCERINE JELLY is unsurpassed. 
THE KING MICROTOME is the best for botanical work. 

Stfid for nUl IM of ■p60lam«ii 

J. D. KING, Cottage City, Mass. 
INVERTEBRATE DISSECTIONS. 

Second Edition ; Reviaed and Greatly Etdarged, 
DESIGNED to suit the requirements of liigh echoed or oolleae, or to gnide 
any who may desire to poisue an elementary course of practical or theoretical 
invertebrate zoology. It contains working directions for the study of fiH^ 
types, from all classes and orders of Invertebrates, attention being chiefly 
called to common and easily obtained forms ; notes on habits and okodes of 
capture, and items to observe on living animals ; bibliographical reference to 
some of the most accessible literature of each group : and a synopticaJ table 
of the eniii« animal kingdom summarizing all the pnyla, dassss and orders, 
thus making the book a compend of Elementary Inyertebrate Zoology. 

Hvo; heavy paper covers; 64 pages ; price 75 cents. Special rates for schoola 
Sent postpaid on receipt of price. Circulars and sample pages fhinished on 
application to author. 

Hknry L. Osborn, 

Hamline University ^ St. Paul^ Mimm. 



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W. WATSON & SONS' 

m GRAND MODEL YAN HEURGK MICROSCOPE 



FOR HIQH POWER WORK AND PHOTO MICROGRAPHY. 



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of 
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CARL EEICHEET 
MICROSCOPES. 

SOLE mm FOR UHITED STATES. 

RICHARDS & CO.. LTD., 

NEWTOEK, OmOAGO, 

41 Bartiai^Streel. lOUiie Street. 

IBmsm FreparaUon!! Ms^H tie linnte Stnctini 
of TenetaUe Life. 

Being enclosed in a novel transparent envelope, these objects may 
be examined without removal before mounting. They are prepared 
with the utmost care by WAi^TER White, England, and are mostly 
stained in one or two colors of the most permanent character. 

A friend says : The sample section is exquisite. It is so good 
that I want more. As a well -cut and well-stained section it is 
equal to anything I have seen in that line. 

PRICKS. 

Catalogue of 172 objects, ... |o.02 

Single specimens, - - - - - .08 

20 specimens, assorted, ... i.oo 

CUA8. W. SMILEY, WMhinrton, I>. G. 

SWEDEN BORG 

is not only a theoloi^ian ; he is a scientist and a scientific writer, 
whose keenly philosophical analysis of phenomena is helpful to 

Address 

ADOLPH ROEDER, 

Vineland. N. J. 



FOR SALE.— A set 6f slides illnstrnting the Woody Phmtfl oflUiDOB, 
9.") Cnonem. H. P. MUNROE, 821 Jackson Bonlevaid, Chio^o, UL 



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Send for Art Catalogue. 

rsagasraBsasagggasasasHsasasg g Ma gn'in'fP'g'T aasi 
^ Light? 19 to 21 lbs. 

Strong ? Guaranteed. 
For whom? 3(X> pound riders. 



KEATING BICYCLES. 



^ Frame sway? No. Why? See that curve. 
In Speedy? Yes. 

JS Why? Long chain. 

l£SEHSH5H5H55SB5a5SSB5a5S5B525H5H5B5955Sra5ES< 

26^ days ahead of them aH. 



Keating Wheel Co., Holyoke, Mass. 



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THE FISK 

TRAGHRRS' AQRNGIR8, 
EVERETT O. FISK & CO-. Proprietors. 

President. 

Mwuun O. Fi«K, ... 4 Aahborton P1m», Botfeon, Mtm, 

lAanasrers. 

W. B. HasmiOK, 4 Aihtertoa PUoe, Boftob, W. D. Kbkk, 70 fifth Aranae, N«w Toik, 



Mn. 8. D. Tbvbmovo, 1212 Twelftti 8t^ P.y.BvrMOOir,70Fiftti ▲reniie.MewTork, 

MbioffloB^D.C. H.T. ^ 

A. 0. >!•■«, 4 Aflhborton Place, BoaCon, W. O. Pka^T* 70 Fifth ▲▼nuie. New Toik, 



O.Vni 

MAiniA HoAo, 4 AahbartoD Pkiee, Boaton, L. B. HALasr^SJ^ Wabaab ATanne, Chicago, 

Maaa. Ill, \ 

HiLtNO. Ba«bb, 4 AahbnrtDB Plaoa, Boa- J. D. Ekolb, Can^inL ^'^^i^' Minnaapo- 

ton. Maafc olla, Minn. ^»^ 

W. O. McrrAOOAEt, 86 King St, Waat Mbi. K. Dowuko Ehm»l O^tol ^^ 

Toronto, Chnada. Mlnnaapolla, Minn. A 

B. B. Obooku,70 fifth ATonna, New York, 0. 0. Bothton. laoU Bo. flpdiPS ^* ^^'>^ 

V.Y, Angalaa, Oal. X 

Sand to anj of the abora agenda* for 100-page Agency Manoal. Gorreapondenoa Wl^th 
ployera la InTltad. Beglatratlon forma aant to taaehers on application. \. 

ZEISS MICROSCOPES. 

The* Carl Zeiss Optical Works in Jeoa 



Are recognized in Europe as the leading manufacturers of Stands and 
Objectives. They have issued a new Catalogue for 1895, containing a 
description oflTaumberoTne^raccSsoHesano^r^ which I am 

enabled to import at lowest rates. Orders for colleges and institutions 
filled prompty, duty free. New Catalogues forwarded on application^ 
against 20 cents in postage stamps. 

F. J. EMMERICH, Sr., Agent, 

74 Murray St., New York, N. Y. 




OPTICIAN. 
209 South Uth Street, Philadelphia. 



HISTOLOGICAL MICROSCOPES $65. 



STXTDENTS' MICROSCOPES, $38 to $46, Complete. 

MICROMETER RULINGS, A SPECIALTY. 



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OR 

IHontlila Oournal of (geology: 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATEP 

'THE OEOLOOI3T.'' 

BDITKD BY 

HENRY WOODWARD, LL.D., F. R. a , PresG. S , F. Z. S., F. R. M. S. 

OP THE BRITISH MUSEITM OP NATURAI. HISTORY ; 

ASSISTED BY 

ROBERT ETHERIDGE, F. R. S. L. & E., F. G. S., F. C. S , &c. 

WILFRID H. HUDLESTON, M. A., F. R. S., F. G. S , F. L. S., F. C. S 

GEORGE J. HINDRE, Ph.D., V. P. G. vS., &c. 

AND 

HORACE BOLINGBOKE WOODWARD, F. G. S. 



The NEW SERIES. Decade IV. Vol. II.No. 1—4. 
Jan.- April, 1895, NOW READY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

MESSRS. DULAU & CO., 

37 SOHOSaUARE, LONDON, W. 

It is earnestly reqaested that Sabscriptions may be sent to Dulau and 
Co. in advance. SabscribeTS oflSs. for the year will receive the Magazine, 
Poet-free, direct on the 1st of each Month. Single copies I5. 6<2. each. 



All Oommmiicatioiis for this Magazine should be 
addressed to the Editor of the Geological Magazine, 

129 BEAUFORT STREET, CHELSEA, 

LONDON, S. W. 

Books and specimens may in future be addressed to the Editor, care of 

M£SSBS. DULAU d; 00., 37 Soho Sqnve, London, W. 



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Special 
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J 1 I hmw twen bui 



- IN - 



MICROSCOPY. 



frvm Ufa* BMk* 
lBClnslT«r 

TiM 

1. Oolony of th« IotaIj B*dlolarf»B 4»A«ro- 

•o««, ■bowing iwrMltic «!(». 40o 

1. The loToly Zoophyte OMte, polyiM ftiUy 



nako pUlD all detaiU. 

I SatMcriptloa, •6.S5, post-flk^e. Toll pnwpectiM 

!• fbUowiBg aro mmomg thoBUdaa ladodod in ^ Seri«* 



bu^prHMriM 
■dnorelolilMli 
for Mieroabopical purpoaes, and 
have arrangod Ibom aa a»iir in 
niMtraCMl 8erie«* 

Tha int or thoM la tbo Ml- 
er<Mo«ploal Siadlea to M*- 
rto« Zoology. 

Tha a«xmd SMiai (ria.: that 
for 1896) oonaiata of 14 ■plendid 
piraparationa, all of tha higfacat 
powtbia azoellanca and guarantead 
pannanaot. Tha 14 ■lldtf appaar 
la qnartarly inatallmanti, and art 
•ODoopaniad br orar lOO F^MTM 
of doseripilyo letlerproa*, 
daaliag in pltaaant bat azact man- 
nar with tha anatomy, llfe-hiatory 
and habits of tha rcapecttva anb- 
jacta, whila IS faU-pii«e ptotoa 
of photo-oDgraTtngs, ar»wm 



li Stalkad^laga o# tha larva of Btmj 

raatharBttf(«nlMion) 
4. An antira 8aa. Battarfly (Pliropod). 
6. LoTaly aspandad Zoophyta %«eor|rM. 



86e 

40c 
40c 

40e 



:tQa on i4>plicattoB. 

6. Lovaly Kxpandad Zoophyta Smittlaria 
T.* OpoaraoMbrii - '^ - • 



QOc 



irimp JfyM, allowing a«di- 
tory organ in tail S8c 

8. Tha fplaodid vara orgaa-pipo P^otywon, 

Liektmopttra 40c 

9. Xntira larral Plaloa, ay« Jnat turning 

finon blind aida and 6 othar aqnally 
llnatlidaa. 60c 



rfcal praparatlona of BrasUton Llanaa.— 1 hava 
I in obtaining a maatity of tha«a noperb •tamwi tha 
tt>a wbola plant kiagdoca'-aBd bava arran^td tbam 



Tha prieat agaimt aach ara thoaa at wbiah tha praparations are aoM saparataly, ahow- 
tag what a chaap lot I offer In aariaa at 19.86, pott ftaa. A faw aati of Sariaa 1 atUl availabla. 
|9.26« poat fraa. Sample Silda, AOo.. poet free. 

Prof. J. R. Ainaworth Davla, UniTeraity Oullega, Abaryatwith, writait ** Allow ma to 
oongratnlata yoo on tha Tary naaful work yua ara doing by tha pablicatiun of lournal, with 
•oeoiBpMiyiugilldaa, which ara Motr adhuublb. 

Saparb microeoo|rfcal praparatlona of BrasUtoii Llanaa.— 1 hava 
been nnfoftonato i 

; kyvaly in 
intwoaalaof6aaoh,attfae'pricaoffl.39 par aet, or $2 25 for tha 
two. Tha aaoat asquiaitaly cfaaraiiQg fllidaa that cunld ponibly ba 
imagined for exhibition at popular gattieringa. As tha qnantity is 

■ vary Umited. I am ondUa to aaU single slides. 

J MIorosooplcal Stndloa to Botany.— In answer to many raqncals, I hare ar- 
ranged 20 aagaMoant praparatlona in a sariaa oa aimihn' llnaa to that m nartaa aoology da> 
acrlbad abarak 

Tha flrat aeries is now began and comprises 20 highsst>clasB slides (such aa aall dngly 
at S6o to 35c each), lllastralad by deaoriptlTa lattarpreas and 90 spaelally baantinil photo-micro- 
grapha of the secttons. 

Bubscriptions, $9.26 only, for all, a sam which woold be cheap for tha sariea of illna- 
tnktfoMalotta. 

Pruf. J. W. Oarr, UniTaraity College, Nottingham, writaa : "Toar Botaaicat SUdsa 
... .,._ ^^^ * .. . 



aononipanyiug slldsa, which 

Botany. 



are tha moat beautiful I hate ever seen. 

nboTV II D(^ : 

1. Tr. sec. flower-bod of Uly 

i. •* ** do of Dandelion 

.1. Longl sec. do of do 

4. do fhilt oTTig 



the following ara among the sUdea already isaaed in 



I Ktiarantee the porfeoOtfti 
a^lfcctlong on approval to approved correapondents. 



26o I 6. Tr. aac. froit of Data (splaadU) 

aoo 9 ** ** flower of AdkMiotete 

25c I 7. LongM. sec. doable flower of Peony 

90c I 8. Leaf-fall of Sycamore 

all my mounta and will be plcaied to tend 



S6e 
80e 

26c 
26c 



A g^eat range of Miscellaoeoua Zoological and Botanical alidet la stock 



3 sUdea. ao cents and 
larval 



at mices from fi-ao per dozen 

Coat of MallliiK. i slide, lo cents ; a slides, is cents ; 
so on Large parcels by ex pre ss at very cheap rates. 

Sfiaolalitv. Marine S^oology (especfally to expanded Zoophytes and 
staged, and plant and flower anatomy. 

Tortna. Remittance by P. O. O.. draft on I«ondon. or U. 8. paper currency, the 
fbrmer preferred. If wished. Mr. 0. W. Smiley, Washington, D. '. will hold the 
amount till order is satisfactorily executed. Mr. Smiley- has kindly promised to 
vouch for the excellency of the slides and will give references to U. 8. Microacop- 
ists who have been well satisfied with my preparations. 

JAMES HORNELL, 



Blolpfical Sti^loa, JTfrssr, Mo^^oA 



Spadalist in MIeioaoopteal Moaaltoc. 



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