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Full text of "The American museum, or Universal magazine : containing essays on agriculture, commerce, manufactures, politics, morals and manners: sketches of national characters, natural and civil history, and biography: law information, public papers, intelligence: moral tales, ancient and modern poetry"

3fibrarp, 




N THE CUSTODY Or TME 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. 




SHELF N° 

AOAMS 



THE 



AMERICAN M U S E U 1^.1 

O R 

REPOSITORY 

OF ANCIENT AND MODERN 

FUGITIVE P I E C E S, &c. 
PROSE AND POETICAL. 



'< Wit/i fcueetejl fears enruh'df 

*' From various gardens cull'd luith care.'' 



*' Collet a revircfiunt." 



VOLUME VI. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
INTED BY MATHEW CAREY. 
M.DCC.LXXXIX. 



T O 

HIS EXCELLENCY 

THE PRESIDENT, 

A K C 

THE HONOURABLE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

SENATE AND HOU$E OF REPRESENTATIVES 

OF THE UNITED STATES^ 

WITH SINCERE WISHES, 

rOR THE SMILES OF HEAVEN 

ON THEIR PATRIOTIC LABOURS 

TOPROMOTETI-I? 

VIRTUE, PEACE, LIBERTY, AND PROSPERITY 

OF THIS RISING EMPIRE; 

AND 

TO PERPETUATE THOSE BLESSINGS 

TO 

THE LATEST POSTERITY; 

THISVOLUME 
IS MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 

BY THEIR HUMBLE SERVANT, 



P.hiladelpliia, July z^, 1789. 



MATHEW CAREY. 



THE friendly and fuccefsful endeavours of feveral gentlemen, dur- 
ing the profecuiion of the laft volume of thl^ work, to procure it, in the 
impfior parts of Pennfylvania, and in Maryland and Virginia, asexten- 
fiv^a circulation, as it had already obtained in other parts of the union, 
demand the moil fincere acknowledgments from the printer, 

CoNsc lous of the imperfeftions of this publication, he folicits a 
continuation of that indulgence which he has hitherto experienced frora 
Iii.s candid readers. 

The infertion of original produftions having met with general appro- 
bation, he requcUs the further correfpondence of thofe gentlemen who 
have already favoured hiin with their writings. To other literary cha- 
ratlers, one obfervation is rcfpectfuUy oflered — that the general diflu- 
fion of the American Mufeiim. throughout the united ftates, feems to 
ponu it out to every man, blelFed by nature with talents to increafe the 
knowledge or happinels of his countrymen, as a proper vehicle to con- 
vey his fentimeiits from one extremity of the continent to the other. 

By the adv.ce of judicious friends, he propofes occafionally to of- 
fer premiums for the bell pieces on given fubjefts. As this plan, if 
properly encouraged by men of letters, can hardly fail to produce fa- 
Jutary effects, he hopes it will meet with the countenance of his fellow- 
citizens. 

In purfuance of this defign, the following premiums are now offered: 

I. For the bell effay on the liberty of the prefs, dating f4ie moft 
efFeclual means of guarding againfl its licentioufnefs, without impair- 
ing its freedom — A gold medal. 

II. For the bed effay on the proper policy to be purfued by America, 
with refpett to manufactures — and on the extent to which they may be 
earned, fo as to avoid, on ihe one hand, the poverty attendant on an inju- 
rious balance of trade — and, on the other, the vices — ihe iniferv — and 
the obftruttion of population, arifing from affembling multitudes of work- 
men together in large cities or towns. — A complete fet of the American 
Mufeum, neatly bound. 

HI. For the beft effay on the influence of luxury upon morals— 
aiid the moll proper mode, confident with republican freedom, to re- 
train the po:np and extravagance of ambitious or vain individuals — 
Paley's moral philofophy — and Locke's effay on the human under- 
flauJing, 

The public may depend upon the candour and impartiality of the gen- 
tlemen to whole judgment the merits of the refpective pieces are to be 
fubrpitted. 

Communications on the above fuhjcfls, to be forwarded to 
the primer, free of poll age, on or before the fird day of Ofiober next, 
without the writers' names annexed thereto ; but to be marked with fuch 
oilier fignature as they may ihink proper; and to be accompanied wiih a 
fettled paper, coniainin;; the writers' names and addreffes, and, on the out- 
fide, lignatures, ttirrefponding with thofe of the pciformances. 



SUBSCRIBER S' NAMES*. 

His Excellency GEORGE WASHINGTON, efq. prefident of the 
united dates of America. 

Senators of the unitedjlates. 

Honourable Richard Baffet, efq. fenator for the Hate of Delaware, 
Honourable Charles Carrol, efq. fenator for the ftate of Maryland, 
Honourable Jonathan Elmer, efq. fenator for the flate of New Jerf^^y, 
Honourable Oliver Elfworih, efj. fenator for the Hate of ConneCiicut, 
Honourable William Few, 6fq. fenator for the flate of Georgia, 
Honourable Robert Morris, efq. fenator for the flate of Pcnnfylvania. 

Members of the houfe of repr(fcntatiz)cs of the united Jlat<s. 
Honourable Egbert Benfon, efq. member for the flate of New York, 
Honourable Theodoric Bland, efq. member for the flate of Vir.jjioia, 
Honourable Elias Boudinot, el<i. member fur the flate of New Jei a. v. 
Honourable Lambert Cadwallader, eiq. member for ditto. 
Honourable Daniel Carrol, efq. member fur the flate of Maryland, 
Plonourable George Clymer, efq. member for ;he fla'.e of Pennfylvania, 
Honourable Thomas Fitzfimons, efq. member for ditto, 
Honourable Thomas Hartley, efq. member for ditto, two copies. 
Honourable James Madifon, efq. member for the itaie of Virginia, 
Honourable Thomas Sinnickion, efq. member for the flate of New Jerfey, 
Honourable William Smith, Efq, member for the Rate of South Carolina, 
Honourable Jeremiah Wadfworth, efq. member for the flate of Connecticut, 
Honourable Alexander White, efq. member for the flate of Virf;inia. 

A. Captain Hugh A\llen, Norr.,>lk, V. 

MMr. Thomas Alibone, PluUdelohia, 

R. Ja'. Abercromb^e, Philad. Rev. Patrick Allifon, D. D. r-alt. 

Mr. William Adcock, ditto, Mr. W. Alliion, Gnfencafile, P. 

Mr. Jabez Adgate, d tto, Captain W. Alflon, Charjellon. S.C. 

Guillim Aertfen,efq.Charlefton, S.C. Jaqiielin Amblcr,erq. Pv-.chinond, 

tzvo copies J. P. Airieliing, eiq. N. Bremen. Md. 

Dr. Andrew Aitken, Baltimore, R. G. Aniory, efj. Bollon, 

Mr. John Aiiken, Phihutclphia, Mr. D. Anderlbn, Wai^nngtor, N.C, 

Dr. William Adams, Dover, D. Mr. Jas. Andorfon, Marrinfljiifg, V. 

Andrew Albright, efq. Bethlcheii), P. Thes. Anderfon. efq. Albemarle, F, 

Roger Alden. eiq. New York, Thos. Anderfon, efq. Sullcx co. N.J. 

Ger. Alexander, efci. Berkley co. F. Rev. John Andrews, D. D. Ph'.lad. 

Mr. Mettor Alexander, Dumfries. V. Mr. John Angu';, PeterfDure, V. 

Dr. NathanielAlexander.Santee.S.C. Captain John Angus, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Jof. Alifon, Chamberlbiirg, P. Mr. Pecer Anfpach, New \ ork, 

MefT. AUafon & Hunter, Norfolk, V. John Anthony, efq. Bertie co. A'. C. 

* In this lift, r7. fignifies \"ermont; Ct. Conneflicut ; Ms. MafTachu- 
fetts ; A^. Y. New Yoik ; N. J. New Jerfey; P. Pennfylvania; D, 
Delaware; Md. Maryland; F,; Virginia; N.C. North Carolina ; 5. C, 
South Carolina; G. Georgia; and A'. Kentucke, 



Sv^Jcri^eri nsmt%. 



Mr» Michaef App, Lancafter, P, 
Mr. Nathaniel Appleton,, Bofton, 
Abrah.un Archer, efq. York, T. 
Rev. Sam. Armor, Cbcflertawn, Md. 
Kev. j. F. ArraRrong, Trenton, 
Mr. Tbos, Armltrong, Phibdelphia, 
Mr. Wm. Armltrong, WiBchefter,r, 
John Arthur, cfq. Nevf York, 
JaiKies Afh, efq. Phitadclpbia, 
Mr. James Afh, Wincbefler,. T, 
Mr. Warren Aftley, Suffolk, V, 
Mr.to-hn Aftnicad. Philacfeiphia, 
Mr. Peter Afton, d'itto, 
MeiT. Aitwood & IVonfon, N.York, 
Kr. P. S. Aud.beTf.PbiiadeJpbJa, 
Mr. Mofes Auftiri', Ricbtoond, 

Wm. Bac?iop,efq. Guilford, A', C. 
Mr. Jacob Bailey, Lancafter, P. 
Msjor Wrtiiam Baitey, York, V. 
Mr, Francis BaiHie, Marychciler, V, 
Mf. John Baiue, Phibdelphia,. 
Mr. Cbrifiopher Baker, ditto, 
HiHary Baker, efq. ditto, 
Mr, Richard Baker, Suffolk. V. 
K.cv,SiephenBloomerBalch,Ceorge- 

town, Patowmac, 
Jianiei Baldwin, ef(7>. Phibdelphia, 
S. Baldwin. A, M. Char!e{ioi.,5. C. 
Mr. Jofeph Ball, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Samuel BaUord, Bo|{on, 
Hev. Alex. Balmain, WinchEfter,^. 
Evert Bancker, efq. New York, 
Gerard Bancker, elq. ireafurerof the 

itate of New York, 
Mr. Alex. Banks, Manchefler, l\ 
Mr. John Bankfon, Baltimore, 
Col. J. Banning, E. Shore, Md. 
Mr. John Barber, Peterfburg, V. 
JMr. T. Barclay, G.town, Patowmac, 
John Bard, M. D. New York, 
Mr. Brieii Blake Barker, ditto, 
Mr. Wm. Barkfdale, Peterfburg, V. 
Dr. Barnes, Santa Cruz, 
Mr. John Barnes, New York, 
John Barnes, efq. Hagerftown, Md. 
Mr. Ifaac Barnes, IVenton, 
Mefl'. G. Barnewal! &CO. N.York, 
Jacob Bartjiiz. efq. York, P. 
Dr. P. Barraud, Williamfburg, V, 
Jofeph Barrel, efq. Bofton, 
Gjpt, Samuel Barrow, Kent to. Md, 
Mr. F.dward Bartholomew, Philad. 
Mr. Thomas Bartow, ditto, 
Rev. John Baffet, Albany, N. Y, 
^A\. K. Bate, Peterfburg, V. 
J^aur. Baftail, cfq. Caroline co. V, 
John W. Battfon, efq. I.ewes, D. 
i>.c,r.hen N. Bayard, efq. Ndw York, 



M. Bayly, efq. FreJencktnwir, Md, 
Mr.W.BaytyjGeorgetowByPaiowm. 
Caplain W, Bayly, Winsbeftsr, F, 
William Murdock Bcalf, efq. Fre- 

d'cjicktC'>wn, Md, 
Dr. Eb. Beardfley, Newhaven, Cl. 
CajH. Henry Beatty, Wincbefter, /''. 
Dr. John Beatty, Princetofl, 
Dr. Readmg Beatty, Bucks co, P. 
MefTrs, Tbos. Beatly & co. George- 

town, Patowmac, 
Daniel Bedmger, efq^. Norfolk, 
H, Bcdinj^er, efq. Shepherdftown,^, 
Jofepb Be«, efq. Charlellon, .S. C, 
Sjmueli Beech, efq, ditto, 
Ifaac Beers, efq. Newhaven, Ct. 
Rev, Francis Beefton, D. D. Pblb- 

c3elphi3, 
Mr. Bell, EHaabelbfown, N. J. 
Mr. David Bell, Buckingham, F^ 
Mr. John Bell, Peterfburg, F. 
Mr. Jofepb Bctl, Martlnlburg, F. 
Capt.Tbos. Bell, Cbarlotteville, N.C^ 
Witliam Bell, cfq, Philadelphia, 
Capt. Wilham Bell, ditto. 
Dr. Nicholas Belleville, Trenton, 
Dr. Wm. Smith Belt, Leefburg, F. 
Lucas JacobBenners, effj.Charlefton, 
Mr. Paul Bentaloiij Baltimore, 
Mr. Benjamir* Berry, Baltletov;rf, F, 
Mr. Wm. Berr)'hill, Greencaftle, P. 
Mr. Thomas Betaqh, Philadelphia, 
Nathaniel Betbune, efq. Boflon, 
Robert Beverly, efq. Blandfield, F. 
Captain T. Bibby, Newark, N. J. 
Charles Biddle, efq. fecretary to the 

fupreme executive council of Penn- 

fylvania, Phila<}elphia, 
Mr, Clement Biddle, ditto, 
Mark J. Biddle, efq. Reading, P. 
Mr. Gilbert Bigger, Baltimore, 
Mr, Billings, Elizabethtown, A'. J. 
Andrew Billmeyer, efq. York, P. 
Hon, William Bingham, cfq, Phi^ 

ladelpbia, 
Mr. Thomas Bird, Dumfries, F, 
James Black, efq, Newark, D. 
Mi. Wm. Black, Kempfville, F, 
John Blagge, efq. New York, 
Mr. Samuel Blagge, Bofton, 
Matthew Blair, cfq. Annapolis, 
Mr.Anthony L.Bleecker, N.York, 
Blockley & Merrion agricultural 

fociety, Pennfylvania, two copies. 
Jofepb Bloomficld, efq. attorney-ge- 
neral of the flate of New Jerfey, 

Burlington, 
Cornelius J. Bogart, efq. New York, 
Mr. Jofepb Boggs, Newcaftle, D. 
Phincas Bond, efq. his Briliftimajef- 



SvSfcTi^ri* JtJ«KE3« 



, ty''s ccnM for «fec flatesof New 
York, New Jerfey, P^Jinfylvania, 
Virginia, and MaJylaHd, 

Mordecai Booth, efq^ Trajjhiil, Serk- 
iey county, V., 

Mr- John Bordley., Kent c-ouTHy, Md. 

Eiifha BoudiKot, efq. Newark, N. J.. 

KoE, D. BourdeauK, efij. CiiarJeif- 

tOR, S.'C. 

Jvlr. Thomas &o\vde, Lancafljer, F. 
Han. James Bowdoin, ei^. late gover- 
nor of MaSachuieus, BoUonj 
Ralj?^ Bowie, €f<!j, York, JP^ 
Mj-.„ Thojaias Bowie, Geerge-tewa, 

Pato<wnRac, 
Dr^ B«yd, Bahinoore, 
J oil n Boyd, efq. Nortlmnnibcr'Ia'nd.j i*. 
Mr. Robert Beyd, Richmond, 
Mr. Hugh Boyle, Phiiladelphia, 
Mr. John Boyle, Winchefter, 9\ 
Major EliES Boys, Pkiladelfhia^ 
%ViJliatK Bradford, efq^ ^torney ge- 
neral of the ftate of Pe;mfyi'7Eni2, 
Wr^ M, Brailciord, Ch»2-leSon, S. C 
Mr^ James Brander, Manchelier^ i\ 
Hon^ David BrearJey, efq^ chief juf- 

tict of the ftate of New Jerfey, 
5vlr. Luke Breen, Charleiion, S.C 
?vichard Brent, efq^ X?uaifries,;Fl, 
Mt. Nicholas BrevGort, New York, 
Mr. Robert Bridget, Philadelphia, 
rAr. Abr. Brinckerhoff, New York^ 
Ivlu James BringhurA. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Daniel N. Brififniade, W.ilh- 

Mr. Thomas BrvttO'n, Phi'ladeJphia, 
Daniel BrcwJhcad, efq. X. 
Mt. James Bromley, PeierliurjT, V, 
iSeerpfe Brooke., ef(|. Fauquier, V. 
Mr. T« Brooke, Montgomery co.. fi, 
C'ol, Viv^ Brooking, Dinwiddieco. V^ 
Kir.. Phtlij:. Brsoks, Cheftertown, Svid. 
Jacob Broome, efe^. Wilmington., J}^ 
.R.CV.. Theodore Brouwers^ Philadel. 
■M^'Sfri. Brown end Shortall, ditto., 
Mr., Andrew Browni, ditto, 
Dj^nie! Brov/n., efq. Camden, "5. C 
Mr, Jair.es Brown, Bsltimor?, 
.IVin. John Brown, Ciiarr.beri'burgj P^ 
Jc>hr. Brown, efq. fvichmond 
Mr. John Brown, ChAptr.rik, Md. 
John lir'^wn, efq.. Pnnce Wm.co. V. 
Mr.. JoVcph Brown, Chi-iieflon, S.C 
Mt. Peter Brown, Philadf Iphiz, 
Dr.. W.lliara Brown, Alexardriz, 
Mr. William Rnjwn, Fhiladelphia, 
^■\Si. Bruce, eTq, BlaJcnn)uriT, 'Md, 
M r. 'I'irrjoth.y .Brundi5.;, Du;Trfri.2?, '/'', 
M.r. Pot or Brnr.st, Norfolk, 
jJukii.^diya.aL, jutu e!-j,. Bq'Aup.^ 



Mc. Alex. P. Bacli&nan, Baltimore, 

Mfv, Arrdrew Buchanan, <iitto 

Mr. James Buchanan, ditio, 

Mr, Wailtfjr Buchanan, IVew York.^ 

Jamej Buck, eiij. Londciz, 

Mr. WiUiana Buckie, Nc%v York, 

Mr. Daniel Buckley, Pequea, P^ 

hlv„ Bu<2den, Philadelphia, 

M'T. Calei) Bugiafs., ditt«., 

Edv/ard Burd, efq. ditto, 

Joiin Suirgeft, efq. Charleiloi-, 

Dt.« Michael Burke, Portfraoud), '-y.. 

Mr. SaBiuel Bbirke, Norfolk, 

Dr. Tbofnas Burke, CaEibri.dge^ /ii, 

Mr. William Burley., Bolk>n,^ 

James BurnGde. efc^. New Yorlc 

Colonel Aa^ron Bujr, ditto, 

John Burral, efq< ditto, 

Captain Nathaniel Burwellj Xing 

William CGunty.; /■C 
Dr. E. W. BhM, Batiletovvn, F. 
Mr. Henry BuQi, Wifiche9er, K 
Mr, Philip Bu(h, -ditto, 
James Byrne, efq. Peter&nrg, V^ 
Mu JeQiua B.yron., Pbilade^'phia, 

Mr. Chrlftopher Cthiil, Philade^Iiia, 
M.r. James Calbraith, ditto, 
Mr.. Andrew Caldwell, ditto, 
Mr. £. C. Caldwell, New-Yoil, 
Mr. James Caldwell, Albany, 
Mr. Co\m CEmpbeil, Dumfries, '/<« 
Mr. .Donald Campbell, Norfolk, 
Mr. F. Camph;?!!, jun. Shi^ipentfljurg, 
Dr. Guft. B. Camj/bell, Duinfncs.i:, 
James Campbell, efq. York, /'. 
Mr. James C£mpbelL, Philadelphia, 
Mr. James Campbell, Peteriburg, V.. 
Rev. df. John Campbell, York, P. 
John Campbell, ef?.. Bladen'^urg, J/^, 
Mr. Malcolm Campb^-ll, New York, 
Mr. Pat, Campbell. Ckamberiburg, 
Mr. R. Campbell, Philad. Ztopie<., 
Mr. Thon^.as Campbell, dmo. 
Col. Johu Cannoa, 'Eiornber of the 

fuprefiieexeicutive council of Pecn- 

'fylv^nia, Cumherbnd county. 
Dr. Capeiie, Wilmington, iQ. 
Mr, IMichael Care-/., G-reercalMe, '/', 
Jof. Carlton, efq. G..tcwn.Petowmac, 
Richard B. Carmichacl, efjj. Queen 

Anne's county, Md, 
Jalsn Carne'i, efq. TnefnberJi tire fc- 

nate of Vir^ginia, Portfmouih, 
Mr, Ab.. Ce!;pcnter. Lancalier co, P. 
.Mt. Edward Carrell, Philadelphia, 
Hon- Paul <^ai!ririgtoa5 sia. Charlotte 

-county., V, 
Mr. Carroll^ Efitlern Shore, 'Md. 
■Gii^, Carroll, -fe.fg., Diidd)ngton, Md. 



8 



Sulifcribers^ names. 



Riirht rev. John Carroll, D. D. bi - 

(imp of the Roman catholic church 

ui the united Hates, Baltimore, 
Dr. George Carter, Charleiton, S, C, 
John Carter, jun. efq. Richmond, 
R. Carter, efq. Weltmoreiand co. V. 
Dr. WiUiam Carter, fen. Richmond, 
William Cary, efq. York, V. 
Mr. Peter Caianave, George-town, 

Patowinac. 
Count CaHighoni, Milan, 
Mr. John Cathcart, Peterfburg, V. 
Richard Caton, efq. Baltimore, 
Patrick Cavan, efq. Leelbnrg, F. 
Pe.er Chaille, efq, Snovvhill, Md. 
Jvlr. Alex. Chambers, Trenton, N'.}. 
JSlr. G. Chambers, Chamberibg. P. 
Mr. Jofeph Chambers, ditto. 
Rev. J. Chapman, Elizabethtn. A\ J, 
Charleilon Library, 5. C. 
Edw. Charlton, elq, Williamfburg, F. 
Hon. John Chetwood, efq. jullice of 

the fiipreme court of New Jerfey, 

Elizabeth town, 
Mr. R. B. Chew, Frederickfbg. V. 
Francis ChilfAs, efq. member of the 

ailembly of iVew York, 
Abraham Chovet, M. D. Philadel. 
Mr. Charles Cill, Philadelphia, 
Meffrs. A. & PI. Clagett, Hagerf- 

town, Md. 
Rev. A. L. Claik, Huntingdon co. 
Mr. John Clark, Richmond, V. 
Major John Clark, York, P. 
Mr. George Clarke, Greencaitle, P. 
Jeff. Clarke, efq. Gloucellerco. N.J. 
Cerardus Clarkfon, M. D. Phiiad. 
Philip Clayton, efq. Richmond, 
J. Clerk, efq. Prince George 'sco.A/i. 
Andrew Clinefmith, efq. Hagerf- 

town, Md. 
Cliofophic I'ociety, Princeton, N. J. 
Mr. N. Clopper, Chamberfburg, P. 
Mellrs. A.Clow and co. Philadelphia, 
John Clowes, efq. Suliex county, D. 
Daniel Clymer, ef(i. member of the 

general ailembly of Pennfylvania, 
Col. William Coates, Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Cobbifon, CharleRon, S.C. 
Mr. Alex. Cobean, Frederic co. AW. 
Mr. James Cochran, New York, 
Dr. John Cochran, ditto, 
Capt. Nicol Cochran, Philadelphia, 
Mr. William Cochran, York co. P. 
William Cock, efq. New York, 
Mr. R. Cockerton, Cheftertown, Md. 
Mr. Robert Cocks, New York, 
Mr. Nicholas Coleman, Baltimore, 
Mr. John Colhoun, Chamberfbg. P. 
Columbia College fociety, New York, 



Rev. Nich. Collin, D. D. Philadel. 
Mr. Ifaac Collins, Trenton, A'. ^. 
Mr. N. Combes, Lamberton, A^. J. 
Mr. Ger. T. Conn, Hagerllown, Md, 
Mr. John Connelly, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Frd. Conrad, jun. Winchefter,r, 
Mr. John Conrad, ditto, 
William Conftable, efq. New York, 
Richard Conway, efq. Alexandria. 
Mr. Wm. Cook, Chamberfburg. P, 
Mr. Wm. Cook, Charlefton, .S. C. 
Dr. James Cooke, Delaware, 
Mr. flamilton Cooper, Wincheft. V, 
Matthew Cooper, efq. New York, 
Richard Cooper, efq. Kent county, /J. 
Mr. James Corran, Peterfburg, V. 
Mr. C. G. Corre, Charlefton, 5. C. 
Mr. Robert Correy, Philadelphia, 
Meff, Brothers Collar and co. N. Y, 
Dr. John Coulter, Baltimore, 
Wm. Covviin, efq, Lunenburg, V, 
Col. Roe Cowper, Hampton, V. 
Col. J. Cowperthwaite, Philadelphia, 
John Coxe, efq. Bloomil)iiry, N. J, 
John D. Coxe, efq. Philadelphia, 
Tench Coxe, efq. ditto, 
M'm. Coxe, fell. efq. Sunbiiry, P. 
Mr. Wm. Coxe, jun. Philadelphia, 
John Cozine, efq. New York, 
Mr. Nathl. Craghill, Martinfbg. V, 
Adam Craig, efq. Richmond, 
Dr. James Craik, jun. Alexandri.i, 
James Cramond, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Matthew Crane, New York, 
Edw. Crawford, efq. Chamberfbg, P., 
Dr. John Crocker, Charleilon, 5. C. 
William Croft, efq. ditto, 
Mr. Charles Crookfhank, Baltimore, 
Capt. George Crofs, Charlefton, 5. C.- 
John Cruger, efq. New York, 
Mr. Wm. Cumming, Philadelphia, 
Col, J. N. Cummings. Newark, N.J. 
John CunlifHe, efq. Richmond, 
Mr. J. Cunningham, Charleilon, S, C. 
Mr. Ignatius Cnrley, Dumfries, F. 
Mefl". A. and D. Currie, New York, 
Dr. William Currie, Philadelphia; 
Mr. Thomas Cuthbert, d tio, 
Leonard M. Cutting, efq. New York, 
Mr. John C. Cuyler, Albany, N. V. 
Mr. John Cuyler, jun. ditto. 

<s> 
Mr. Langhorn Dade, Dumfries, F. 
David Dagget, cfcj. Newhaven, Ci. 
Philip Dalbv,efq. Wincheflcr, F. 
A. J. Dallas, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. J. Dalrymple, Frederickfbg. F, 
Mr. James Dalzel, Richmond, 
Julius B. Dandridge, efq. ditto, 
Le Chevalier D'Anmours, his tnoit 



Subjcribers'' names^ 



chrillian majefty's conful, for the 
ftate ofiVIarylAiid, Baltimore, 
Mr. John Davau, Elizabethtn. h-, J. 
Meir. K. Daviwi & CO. HagerHn. Md. 
F. Davenport, efq. Woodbury, A^. 7" 
MoH. Davenport & Triplett,Falni. P'. 
Mr. James Davidfon, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Samuel Davidfon, George-toVk'n, 

Patovvinac. 
Mr. Cornelius Davis. New York, 
Mr. George Davis, Trenton, 
Mr. John Davis, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Wm. Davis, Chelier county, P, 
Wm. R. Davi^, efq. Charlefton, 5\ C. 
Mr. J. Dawes, jun. Bofton, 
Major Ben. Day, Frederickfbg. V. 
Gen. Dayton, Elizabethtown, A". J. 
Mr. J. Dayton, ditto, 
Dr. J. J, Dayton, ditto, 
Col. Wni. Deakins, George Town 

Patowmac, 
Peter Pean, efq. New Providence, 
James Deane, efq. Cumberland, V. 
John Deane, efq. Fluntmgton co. P. 
John Deas, efq. Charlelton, 5. C. 
Dr. Daniel De Benneville, Mooref- 

town, A". J, 
Mr. G. De Bernoux, Dumfries, V. 
Capf. Stephen Decatur, Philadelphia, 
Le Marquis De Chappedelam, Paris, 
Monf. La Ray De Chaumont, Philad. 
Hon. St. John De Crevectciir, his 
moft chriftian majelly's conful ge- 
neral to the ftate of New York, 
His excellency Don Diego De Gar- 
doqui, plenipotentiary Encargado 
desnegocias of his cathohc majclly, 
New York, 
Balthazar De Hacrt, efq. New York, 
Mr. John DelaHcld, ditto, 
Le Sieur De la Forell, his moll chrif- 
tian majefty's vice conful, for the 
ftate of New York, 
Sharp Delaiiy. efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Samuel Delaplitne, New York, 
Monf. De la Tombe, his m<ift chnf- 
tain majelly's conful for the Hate of 
MafTachufetts, BoHon, 
Don Salvador De los Monteros, Cuba, 
Le Sieur De Marbois, his moft chrif- 
tain majefty's vicc-confulfor Philad, 
His excellency Le Comte De Mouf- 
tier, his moil clinitian rhajefty's 
rninifter plenipotentiary to the uni- 
ted ftates of America, New York, 
George Deneale, efq. Alexandria, 
Mr. William Denning, New York, 
Mr. Michael Dennifon, England^ 
Mr. David Denny, P, 
VOJL. VI. 



Mr. H. W. Defauffure, Charlef- 
ton, 5. C. 

Mr. John Deverel, Bofton, 

Ebenr. Devotion, efq. Vv indham, Ct, 

Monf. J. P. KriHot De WarviUe, 
Paris, 

Robt. Dick, efq. Bladenftjurg, Md. 

Mr. Peter Dickey, bhippenlburg. P. 

Mr. Gilcrift Dickinfon, New York, 

H. Dickinfoii. efq. Caroline cu. Md. 

Hon. John Dickinfon, efq. Wilnvng- 
ton, D. 

Hon. Phil. Dickinfon. efq. Ti nton, 

Meft"r«. J. T. aiid W. Dickfon, 
Baltimore, 

John Dixon, efq. Winchefter. F. 

Mr. Thoma-. Dobbins, York, P. 

Mr. Robt. Donaldfon, Peteriburg,/" 

John Donnaldfon, efq. Philadelphia, 

Mr. Jos. Donnaldfon, ditto, 

Mr. John Donneil, Dumfries, T. 

Mr. John Donneil, Philadelphia. 

Mr. James Donuinfon, Baltimore. - 

Mr. Colin Douglas, Manchefter, F. 

Mr. Win. Douglas, Peterfburg /'. 

Mr. Sam. Douglafs, GreencalUe, i*. 

Mr. James Dowdall, Norfolk. 

Col.J.Gamul Dowdall, Winchef. T. 

Mr. Alex. DoyljGeorge Town, Pa- 
towmac. 

Dr. George Draper, New York, 

William Drayton, efq. L. L. D. 
CharleUon, Souih Carolina, 

Mefi\ Drinkall and Elkrigge, Rich- 
mond, 

Mr. Wm. Drinker, Philadelphia, 

Capt. Jacob Dritt, York, P. 

Col. Wm. Duer, New York, 

Mr. George Duffield, Philadelphia, 

Mr, John Duffield. ditto, 

Mijor Pairick Durfey, ditto, 

Mr. Jofeph Dugan, ditto, 

Mr. Daniel Duncan, Shippenfburgi*. 

Thomas Duncan, efq. Ca.lifle, P. 

Aaron Dunham, efq. Trenton, jV. J, 

Mr. Robert Dunkin, Ph ladelphia, 

Mr. J. Dunlap, George Town, Pa- 
towmac, 

Andre wDunfcomb, efq. commiflioner 
for adju fling the continental ac- 
counts, Richmond, 

Edwd. Diinfcomb, efq. New York, 

Monfieur Duplaine, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Peter Le Barbier Duplefiis, do, 

Mr. Francis Dupont, ditto, 

Mr. Francis Durand, New Y'ork, 

Mr. Thomas Durie, ditto, 

Mr. Michael Durney, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Etienne Dutilh, ditto. 



Shbfcribers' names. 



I^'Ir. Sam. DuvaU, rrederif7town, Md. 

iaainuel iJyer, efiq. Albemarle, F. 
<^> 

S. Earle. efq. Queen Anne's co. Md. 

i^r, JohnEcclclton. DorcheOer co. 

Mr. Win. Edgar, New York, 

John ¥.(\\e, clq. York, P. . 

John Edwards, efq. commirfinner of 
the treai\iiy, ChaiMon, S. C, 

Dr. 'I'honias Elder, Philadr-lphia, 

Rev. Andrew Eiliof, Fairfield. Ct. 

Benj. Elli(it, elq. tlnniinjjton co. P. 

Mr. Robert Ellio;, Hayerlrown, Md. 

Mr. Stephen Eiiiot, Yale coHegc, Cl. 

Mr. Thomas Elliot, haitmiore. 

Thos. O. Ellloit. efq. Charld}un,5. C. 

Mr.IlKtm.is Elliioii, New \'ork, 

Mr. Nat. Elinaker, I.ancaftc-r co. P. 

Dr. Ebenezer Elmer, Cohanl'e, A'. J. 

Mr. Peter Eltmg, New York, 

Mr. \Vm. Embieion, Kent co. Md. 

Mrs. Ann Emien, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Caleb Einlen, ditto, 

John Einlcy, efq. Pottiiown, N.J. 

Gapt. Silas Eiigies, Philadelphia, 

Geoi-ne Englis, efq. 5;. Fi?icrvts. 

Mr. Severin Enchfon, Wilming- 
ton. A'. C. 

Capt. John Eifkine, Talbotton, Md. 

Ed. Eubanks, efq. EaRern-lhore, Md. 

Mr. John pA'ans, Philadelphia, 
Col; James Ewell, Prince VV'm. co. F. 
Gapt. James Ewing, Somerfet co. Md. 

Gen. James Ewin^j, Wright's ferry, 

Sufquehannali, P. 
Mr. James Ewing, York county, P. 
Rev. John Ewing. D. D, provoU of 
the uiiiveriity t>f Pennfyivania. 
<s> 
J><hn J. Fiefch. efq. Morris CO. N. J. 
'Ihorras Panning, efq. Norwich, Ct. 
Mr. Junes Farquhar, New York, 
Mr. F^rnngton, Long iiiand, 
Abrah. Faw, efq. FredenctovMi, Md, 
Mr. Wm. Fenwick, Richmond, 
Mr. J^lm Ferris, Wilmington, D. 
Mitis FHher, elq. Philadelphia, 
Ihfim'a^ Fiilier, efq. York./', 
William Filher, eOj. Philadelphia, 
Mr. F,d. Fitzi^erald. Chainberlbg. P. 
Col. John Fitzgerald, AlT-xandria, 
(rKorge Fitzhugh, elq. Md. 
'Fho.nas Fiizhiigh, riq. Jiufcobel, P'. 
M^ir. Firming and Vv oodiop, Peterf- 

•burrr, V. 
Samloii Fleming, efq. New York, 
Flori?'W. Fleming, Ch'-HerHcid, F. 
Mr. Richard Folwell, Philadelphia. 
MeU,D. and J. Fonda. Albany, .V.r. 
rvii. Adam ]ronerdcii,'bauii5iui't. 



Mr. J. Fnrman, Cheflerfown, A/af. 
Mr. bcrahno Formicola, P,.iclinioiid, 
Mr. Geo. Forrell, Charlelton, S. C. 
Col. una bForreit, Georgetown 5 l-a:0. 
John Forfyih, elq. York, P. 
Capt. Thomas Fort, Wilmington, D, 
Samuel Foulke, eia. Bucks county . P, 
Dr. William Foulhee, Richmond, 
Mr. George Fox, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Samuel M. Fox, ditto, 
John Foxcroft, efq. agent for his Bri- 

laiinic majclly's packets, New 

Yorlr, 
Hi-' excellency Benjamin Franklin,, 

efq. late prefident of Penufylvama, 
M'jil^S.' Franklin & co. iNew York, 
Mr. '\^ alrcr Franklin, Philadelphia, 
AlexanderFrazerjefq.Chav!eJion,.S.C. 
Mr. James Freeland, Peterfburg, y. 
Peier Ireneau, ciq. iecreiary oi the 

llate'ot South CaroUna, 
Dr. Wm. Frilby, Kent county, Md. 
Mr. Benjamin Fuller, Philadelphia, 
Dr. James Fulton, Cecd county, Md, . 
Mr. W'm. Fuiion, junr. Bakunore, |- 
Moore Furman, efq. Trenton, N. J, 

Hon. Thomas Gadfden, efq. Charlei- 

ton. .S. C. 
Mr, Hugh Gaine, New York, 
Ekjah l^aither, efq. Hagerliown,AjV. 
Mr. Albert Gallatin, 1 ayetie co. P, 
Mr. P. W. Gallaudri, Philadelphia, 
Mr. R. Galloway, PYedericfburg, V. 
Capt. Jas. (jamblc, Chelnut Level, P 
?»L. Joleph (iamble, Vvincheller, /''. 
Mr. Robert Gamble, Siaur.ton, /''. 
Levi Gantt, efq. Hladenfburg, Md. 
Dr. Jas. Gardetie, Philadelphia, 
Mr. J. L. Gardiner, Princeton, _iV.y. 
Mr. Peter Garts, BakiDiore, 
Benjamin Gautt, eiq. St. Lujatia^ . 
Mr. Dav:d Gedde^, Annapolis, 
Charles Ghequiere, elq, Lauimore, 
Mr. Wm. Gibb, Accomack, T. 
Jimrs Gibbon<:, clq. W ilinington, D. 
iVir. Laurence Gibbons, York,^'. 
Mr. Henry Gibbs, Charlellori, 6". C 
Joci G'hbs, eiq, ^'ianshcld, A'. Jf. 
Samuel Gihbs, efi;. Bucks county, P, 
Mr. John Gibfor, Dumfries, V. 
W t)olman Glbfon, ciqairc, Eallcrn 

Shore, Md. 
Dr. Reuben Gilder, Baltimore, 
Flon. A. Gillon, Charle«on,..S'. C. 
Robert Gilmor, eiq. Baltimore, 
Rev. L. Girelius, Wilmington, D, 
Mr. A. GlafTel, Frcdcnckiburg, /'. 
Kir. A. (Jlalsforrl, Newcallleco. D. 
Mr. Jas, Guldlborou^^hjE. Shore, Md, 



SvSfcr-iers' names. 



11 



?4r. Winkles B. GoIdthwaJte, Phil. 
Mr. John Gooiiwin, Peterlburf^, /^. 
Mr. Edwaid (joold, New York, 
William Goodly, efq. York, (^. 
Mr. PeterGorrton,Mount-hoily,A^./. 
Mr. Samuel Gore, BoHon, 
Harry DoilVy Gough, efq, Baltimore, 
Mr. John Goulding, Baltimore, 
Theod. Goiirdin,efq.ChdrleUon,S. C. 
Ifaac Gouverneur, efq. New York, 
Mr. George Graeff, Lancafter, P, 
Mr. John Graeff, ditto, 
Mr. Sebaftian Graeff, ditto, 
Mr. John Graff, Philadelphia, 
John Graham, efq. Charlelloii, <S. C. 
Richard Graham, efq. Dumfries, ^. 
John (iiraininer, el(i. Feierfburg, ^. 
Mr. John Granbury, Norfolk, f^-. 
Mr. Francis Graves, Richmond, 
Mr. Richard Graves, Kent co. Md. 
Capt. David Gray, Martinfhurg, V, 
Mr. G. Gray, jiin. Gray's ferry,/*. 
Mr. James Gray, New ^ ork, 
Mr. John Gray, Baltimore,'' 
Mr. Robert Gray, Philadclphlaj 
Mr. William Gray, ditto, 
Phil p (rrayueil. efq. Baltimore, 
Col. Abraham Green, Peierlbiirg, V. 
Rev. Afhbel Green, Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Green, Peterfburg, F. 
Mr. Da\'id Greene, BoiUm, 
Mr. Jofeph Greene, ditto, 
Mr. Samuel Greene, Annapolis, 
James Greenleaf", efq. Amfierdam^ 
Mr. Mofes Greenleaf, Newbury Port, 
Mr. John Greer, Y'ork, P. 
David Grier, efq. ditto, 
Corbin Griffin, efq. York, V. 
Mr. Selwood Griffin, Philadelphia, 
Mr. R. E. Griffith, ditto. 
Mr. Anthony Griffiths, New York, 
Capt.MolesGueft.N.Brunfwic./,'. 7. 
Mr. J.G.Gu'.gnard.Charlellon,' S'.C. 
Mr. John Gunn, Richmond, 
Meir. Gurney & Smith, Phiiadelphia, 

Mr. James Racket, Baltimore, 
Mr. John Kacket, ditto, 
Mr. John N. Hagenau, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Ph lip Plagner, diito, 
Mr. Frederic Ilaiter, duto, 
Mr. John Hall, Flemingion, N. J. 
Dr. Ifaac Hall, Feierfturg, V. 
Thos. Hall, efq. Tharlellon, 5. C. 
Mr. Edw.Halfcy,Eallern Shore, Md. 
Mr, Jofeph Hallet, New York, 
Hon. Alex. Hamilton, efq. ditto, 
James Hamilton, efq. Carhfle, /*. 
Pail Hamilton, efq. Charldlon. 8. C. 
\Vai. Hamilton, efq. Bullihillj P. 



Abijah Hammord, efq. New Y'ork, 
Mr. John Hammond, Eaitimore, 
N. Hammond, efq. Cambridge, Aid, 
Mr. Wm. Plammond, Baltimore, 
Renj. A. Hamp, efq. Alexardria, 
Gen. Edward Hand, Lancaller, P. 
Mr. T. B. Elands, Chefienowii. Md, 
John C. Handy, efq. SnowhiU . Md. 
Captain Bernard Hanlon, Trenton, 
Hon. A. C. Elanfon, efq. Frederick- 
town, Md. 
Mr. Leonard Harbaugh, Baltimore, 
John Harper, clq. Alexandria, 
John Elarper, efq. Porifmouth, F. 
Mr. Frederic Harris, L-oiufa. F. 
Mr. R.G. Harris, Phi'addphia. 
Dr. Tucher Harris, Chariellon. 5. C, 
William Harris, efq. York, /'. 
Mr. Edmund Harrifon, Peterfburg. F. 
Richard Harrifon, efq. New "V'ork, 
MefTrs. Hart & Rotheltcr, Hagerf- 

town. Md. 
Robert Hart, efq. Spotfylvania, F". 
Silas Hartj efq. member of the le- 

gifiatiiie of North Carolina, 
Jacob Hartman, elq. Santa Cruz. 
Mr. Jon. Hafbrouck.TjUterco.A'.r. 
Meff. Ilafwell & Rulfel, Benning- 
ton, Vt. 
Mr. J. Hafklns, EaRern Shore, Md. 
Mr. Henry Haughn, Philadelphia, 
Hon, Benjamin Elawkins, efq, War- 
rington, A'. C. 
Mr. John Haworth, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Jacob Hay, Lancaller, P. 
Mr, James Hayes, New '^'oik, 
Mr. Robert Eiayes, Norfolk, 
Wm. Hayward,efq. Talbotton, Md. 
Ebenezer Hazard, efq. poftmaller 

general, New York, 
Nathaniel Hazard, efq. ditto, 
Mr. Ifaac ria/.Iehiirll, Philadelph'a, 
Robt.Hazlchurft.efq.CharleOon.S.C. 
Commodore Hazlewood, Philad. 
Mr. John Heap, Shippenf.urg, P. 
John Hcaih, efq. Lancaller co. P. 
Mr. Michl.Heathcote, Peterfbg. T. 
Charles Lleatly, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Heffernan, ditto, 
Mr. Frederic Heifz, ditto, _ 
Mr. \^'ni. Hemphill, Wilmington, D. 
Rev.W.Hendet, D.D.Lancafier, P. 
Mr. A. HendeiTon, Huntington CO./*. 
Pvich. Hcnderfon,efq. Bladenlb. Md, 
Cap. W . Henderfon, Grecncalile, P. 
Col. George Henry, Princeton, A''. J, 
Mr. Hugh Henry, Philadelphia, 
John Henry, efq. ditto, 
Mr. Thomas Hepburn, Baltimore, 
Will. am Heibert, efq. Alexandriaj 



Subfcrihers' names. 



Mr. Wm. Hereford, Dumfries, V. 
Mr. James Heron, Richmond, 
Mr. Pvobert Heterick, York, P. 
lion. Wm. Heth, efq. ShUlelah, V, 
Mr. Jofiah Hewes, Philadelphia, 
Mr. S. Hewes, jun. Bofton, 
William Heyer, efq. New York, 
Mr. Samuel Hig^infon, Baltimore, 
Henry Hill, efq. Bertie county, N. C. 
Hon. Henry Hill, efq. Philadelphia, 
Jofeph B. Hill, efq. Bertie co, N.C. 
Mr. William Hill, New York, 
Michael Hillegas, efq. continental 

treafurer, two copies, 
Jacob Hiltzheimer, efq. member of the 

general alTembly of Pennfylvania, 
Col.Okey HoaglandjBurlingt, A^. J. 
lion. John Slofs Hobart, efq. judge 
of the fupreme court, New York, 
Col, Samuel Hodgdon, Philadelphia, 
Mr. William Hoclgfon, Alexandria, 
Jacob HochllrafTer, efq. Albany coun- 

ty, N.y. 
Mr. J. Hoffman, Frederictown, Md. 
Martin Hoffman, efq. New York, 
Philip L. Hoffman, efq. ditto, 
Rev. Mofes Huge, Shepherdrtown, F. 
Dr. G. Hohnbaiim, Charleffon, S.C. 
Mr. Jan-.es Holli(lr.y, Winchelter, V. 
Mr. William Holiiday, ditto, 
Teffe Hollingfworih, elq. Baltimore, 
Levi Hollingfworih, efq. Philad. 
Levi Holiingi'worth, jun. efq. Elk- 
ton, ^l(i'. 
Sam. Hnllingfworth, efq. Baltimore, 
Thomas Holllngfworth, efq. ditto, 
Zebulon Hollingfworih, efq. ditto, 
Mr. Hugh Holmes, Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Holmes, Cape May, 
Mr. J. B. Holmes, Charledon, S.C. 
Col. Jofeph Holmes, Wincheffer, F. 
Mr. N. Plolmes, Morris river, A^. J. 
Mr. Charles Homalfel, Philadelphia, 
Meff. Hooe & Harrifon, Alexandria, 
James Hopkins, efq. Lancafter, P. 
Major David Hopkins, Elkridge, M. 
John Hopkins, efq. continental loan- 
officer, Richmond, 
Mr. Richard Hopkins, Philadelphia, 
lion. Francis Houkmfon, efq. judge 

of admiralty, Philadelphia, 
Aaron Howell, efq. Trenton, 
Jofeph Howell, e(q. pqymalter gene- 
ral to the united Uatei, New York, 
Capt. W.Howell, Charleflown, Md. 
Adam Hublv, efq. member of the 
general affembly of Pennfylvania, 
Lancafier, 
Mr. John Hubly, Philadelphia, 
Jaffph Ilubl;, , efq. Lancafter, 



Dr. James Huchinfon, Philadelphia, 
Melf. Hudlon & Goodwin, Hartford, 
Chnilopher Hughes, efq. Baltimore, 
James M. Plughes, efq. New York, 
Asiheton Humphreys, efq. Philad. 
Col. Rich. Plumpton, Chefter co. P, 
Abraham Hunt, eiq. Trenton, 
Mr. S. W. Hunt, BofJon, 
Mr. Thomas Hunt, New York, 
Meff. Hunter & Glafs, Peterfburg, 
Mr. David Hunter, Martinfburg, F. 
Mr. George Hunter, Alexandria, 
Mr. James Hunter, Philadelphia, 
Captain John Hunter, Hampton, F. 
Mr. Robert Hunter, New York, 
Col. Eben. Huntington, Norwich, Ct. 
Gen. Jedidiali Huntington, do, 
John Hurke, eiq. Wilmington, N. C. 
Rev. Jofeph Hutchins, Philadelphia. 
Hon.R.Hutfon, efq. CharlelU>n,5.C. 
John Hyatt, efq.NewcalUe county, ZJ. 
Mrs. Hyatt, Port Penn, D. 
Mr. John Hyndman, Baltimore. 
Richard Hyndfon, eiq. Kent co, Md. 

Jared Ingerfol, efq. Philadelphia. 
Col. Harry Innes, Danville, A'. 
Col. James Innes, attorney general of 
the flate of Virginia. Richmond. 
Gen, James Irvine, Ptiiladelphia. 

"^ . 
James Jacks, cfi. Lancafler, P. 
jilr. Samuel Jackfon, Philadelphia. 
Major William Jackfon, do. 
Mr. Jacob Jacobs. Charleilon, 5. C. 
Mr. Abel James, Philadelphia, 
Mr. James Jame^. Dumfries, F. 
Mr. Jofeph James. Philadelphia. 
David Jameloii, ei<|. York, F. 
Mr. Johnjanney, Leefburg,do. 
Mr. Thomas January, A'. 
Mr. B. Jarvis, Bodon. 
His excellency John Jay, efq. fecrc- 
tary to the' united Hates for foreign 
aflairs, New York. 
Mr. John Jeffers, Peterfburg, F. 
Plon. Tho. Jefferton.efq. late minifler 
plenipotentiary from the united flatcs 
to the court of V^eriailies. 
Patrick Jeffrey, efq. Boffon. 
Daniel of St, Thomas Jenifer, efq. 

Annapolis. 
Mr. J. Jenkins, Northumbcrlandco./*. 
Mr. Matthew Jenkins, New York. 
Melfrs. Jennings and Wooddrop, 

Charleilon, S. C. 
Mr. Thomas Jervey, do. 
Col. ii. Johnlbn, FrcderiBown, Md. 
Mr. Thomas Johnfon, do. 
Capt, Andrew Johnflon, York, P. 



Suhfcribtrs^ vames. 



Col. Francis Johnnon, Philadelphia, 
Mr. James JohnDon, New Yo;k, 
John JohiiOoTi, efq. do. 
John Johnflon,efii. Chamberfbiircr.P. 
Dr. Robert Johnfl on. Greencaltie, P. 
Rev. Daniel Jones, Carliflc, F. 
Hon. Jofeph Jones, Richmond, 
Mr. liiiac Jones, Philadelphia, 
Mr. T. Jones, Frederiftown, Md. 
Mr. Henry Joyce, Richmond. 
Mr. Alex. Juhan, Charleljon, 5. C. 

Mr. John Kean, WincheQer, V. 
Capt. Roger Kean, Philadelphia. 
Jolin Kearflcy.elq. Shepherdllown,/'. 
Mr. Adam Keelinjj, Norfolk, 
Rev. S.Keene, jnn.CheHertown, Md. 
Mr. Thomas Keene, Richmond, 
John Keefe, eU\. New York. 
Mr. Michael Keller, York, P. 
Geo, Kellv, efq. Norfolk, 
Mr. Nat. Kelfw, Manchefter, F. _ 
Mr. Andrew Kennedy, Philadelphia, 
David Kennedy, efq. do. 
T. Kennedy, efq. Cumberland co.P. 
Mr. James Kent, Poughkeepfie, N.V. 
Mr. John Kercheval, VVincheiler, V. 
Mr. Andrew Kerr, Charleflon, S. C. 
Meff. Ed. Kerr and co. Acconuc;, F, 
Mr. John Kerr, Richmond, 
Mr. William Kidd, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Alexander King, VVincheiler, F. 
Mr. John King, York county. P. 
Miles King, elq. Hampton, F. 
Mr. Samuel Kingfley, Philadelphia, 
Ephraim Kirby, efq. Litchfield, Ct. 
Rev. Sam. Kirkland, Oneida, A'. V. 
Andrew Kirkpatnck, efq. New 

Bninfwic, iV. /. 
Mr. J. Kirkpatnck, Chamberfbg. P. 
Dr. Benjamin KiflTam, New York, 
John W. Kittara, efq. Lancafler, P, 
Mr. George Kline, Carlifle, P, 
Capt. Francis Knox, Philadelphia, 
Hon. gen. Henry Knox, Secretary at 

war, to the united Hates, New York, 
Dr. Hugh Knox, Santa Cruz. 
Dr. Samuel Knox, York county, P, 
Mr. William Knox, Peterfburg, F. 
Col. Simon Kollock, Lewes, D. 
Mr. Samuel Krams, Salem, N. C. 
Mr. Jacob Krug. Lancaller, P. 
Mr. Chriftopher Kucher, Philad. 

<^ 
Brig. gen. Lacy, Burlington, co.N.'J. 
Edmond B. Lacy, efq. Richmond, 
fvlr. William Laight, New Y'ork, 
Col. John Laird, ^'ork county, P. 
Mr. John Laird, George to w;i, Pa- 

fuwmac. 



53 

General John Lamb, New Yor1<, 
Mr. James Lamberton, Carliile, P. 
Mr. benjamin Laming, Baltimore, 
John Lardner, efq. P, 
Mr. (jeorge L,atiiner, Philadelphia, 
Dr. Henry Latimer, Newport. D. 
Mr. John Laurence, Greencaftle. P, 
Jonathan Laurence, elq. New York, 
Mr. Thomas Latirence, ditto, 
Hon. Richard Law, efq. chief juHice 
of the iupreme court of Connecti- 
cut, New London, Ce. 
Mr. James Lawrafon, Alexandria, 
Mr. John Lawfon, Dumfries, F. 
Jonathan Lay, efq. Saybrook, Cf. 
Mr. John Lea, Wilmington, D. 
Mr. Thomas Lea, Philadelphia, 
Samtiel'Leake, efq. Trenton, 
Mark Leavenworth, efq. Newbaveri. 
Mr. Jofeph Leblanc, Philadelphia eo. 
Lewis Le Couteulx, efq. Briftol, P. 
Ludwell Lee, efq. Alexandria, 
Hon. Thomas Sun Lee, efq. George 

town, Patowmac. 
Mr. Wm. Lee, Hagerdown, Md. 
Mr. Maximilian Leech, Kingfellinj;; 

townlhip, P. 
Hon. D. Leertonwer, conful from 

the united Netherlands, Bofton, 
Mr. Derrick Leilerts, New York, , 
Mr. Johji Legge, Frederic fburg, F. 

Dr. John Leigh, Tarborough, N. C. 

Mr. Thomas Lciper, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Peter Le Maigre, ditto, 

Mr. Hueh Lennox, ditto, 

Mr. Chrift. L. Lente,' New York. 

LewisLellarjette,efq.Charle{ton,|S.r, 

Peregrine Lethrbury, efq. Chefter- 
towri. Aid. 

Aaron Levi, efq. Northumberland,./'. 

Mofes Levi, elq. Philadelphia. 

Mr. William Levis, Carlifle, P. 

Charles L. Lewis, efq. Albemarle, F. 

Lion. Francis Lewis, efq. New York, 

Mordecai Lewis, efq. Philadelphia, 

Morgan Lewis, efq. ditto, 

William Lewis, efq. ditto, 

John Lightwood, efq. Charleflon, S.C. 

Mr.G. Lindenberger,jun. Baltimore, 

Mr. Adam Lvndfay, Norfolk, F. 

Reuben Lindfav, efq. Albemarle,/'. 

Mr. James M. Lingan, George 
town, Patowmac. 

Rev. William Linn, New York, 

Linonian Library, Yale college, O, 

Mr. John Linton, Dumfries, F. 

Mr. William Lippencott, Phil. 

Col. Charles Little, Alexandria. 

John Littlejuhn, elq. Lecfbiirg, f, 

Brockholll Livingfiunjcfq, N. Yori:;j 



14 



Subfcribers* names. 



Edward Livingfton, efq. New York, 

Rev. J. H. Livingfloiu D.D. preli- 
dcni of Eralinus hall, Ao, 

Hon. Robert R. LivingHon, efq, 
chancellor ofiheftate of N. York, 

H;s excellency Wm. Livingfton, efq. 
governor of the ftate of N . Jerfey , 

Wm. Livingfton, efq. Elizabeihtowri, 

W. S. Livingfton, eiq. New York, 

Mr. J:^mes Lockwood, Philadelphia, 

James Logan, efq. ditto. 

Mr. Lombart. do. 

Capt. Jno. Long, Chefnut Level, P. 

Mr. Sefh Lothrop, Charleflon. 5, C. 

Rev. Peter Louw, New York. 

John Love, efq. Dumfries, V. 

Samuel Love, efq. Lr.iidon. V. 

Mr. Wm. Loveil, Fredericfbiirg, V. 

}. Loveti, efq. Fort Miller, N. York, 

B. Lowndes, efq, Bladeufburg, Md. 

Hon. Rawlins Lowndes, efq. Char- 
leflon, 5. C. 

Mr. William I-owry, Alexandria, 

Wm. Lowry,efq.PlLinterdon co. N.J. 

Mr. John Lucas, BoUon, 

Mr, William Lucas Philadelphia, 

Rev. George Luckey, Md. 

Cary Ludlow, efq. New York., 

Rev. Brandt Schuyler Lupion, Al- 
bany, A'. Y. 

H.L.Lu!ielow,erq.Wilmington,./V.C. 

Co\, Wilham Lyles Alexandria, 
Dr. James Lynah, Charleflon, S, C, 
Mr. George Lynan, Norfolk, 
Dominic Lynch, efq. New York, 
Mr. William Lyons, Philadelphia, 

<^ 
MelTrs. John and James M'Alefter, 

Wine-heller, V. 
Mr. John M'AUifter, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Henrv M'Cabe, Leelburg, F, 
Archibald M'Call, efq. Philad. 
Mr. James M'Call, Charlellon, S. C 
Mr. Jas. M'Clean, Cheilertown, AW. 
Blair M'Clenachan, efq. German- 
town, P. 
Capt. J. M'Clenachan, Alexandria, 
Mr .Thomas M'Clure, Kent co. Md. 
Mr. John M'Coll, Manchefter, (■'. 
Alex. M'Comb. efq. New York, 
Mr. Matthew M'Connell, Philad. 
Daniel M'Cormick, efq. New York, 
Dr. Sam. A. M'Coflcry, Carlifle, P. 
Sam. M"Cr3w, efq. Richmond, 
Mr. John M'Ctea, Philadelphia, 
Mr.Edw.M'Cr^d.e.Chiirlefton,S.C. 
Mr. S.M'Cullnch, Greencaflle,?. 
Mr. Robert M'Culloh, do. 
Mr. D. M'Curtin.Chcncrtown,,'W. 
Mr. Win M'Dan-el, Dumfries, A',, 



^r. Alexander M' Donald, Northnm- 

berl.uid county, P. 
Mr. Archibald M-Dougal, Richmond, 
Mr. John M' El wee, Philadelphia, 
Mr. M' Farran, Hagerftown, Md. 
Mr. John M'Garvey, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Alex. M'Gregor, ditto, 
Edw. M'Guire,efq. Winchefler, V. 
Jas. M'Hcnry, efq. L. L.D.B;iUim. 
Mr. James Machir, Mooi field, ^. 
Rev. Wm. M'Kee, Frederica, D. 
Mr. Alexander M'Kechen, P. 
Dr. John M'Ksnly, Wilmington^ D, 
Mr. James M'Kenna, Alexandria, 
Capti W. M'Kennau, Newcallle, D. 
John M'KefTbn, efq. New York, 
Mr. M. M'Kewan, Martinfbiirg, 
Mr. Charle"; M'Kiernan, Philad. 
Mr. John Mackie, Peterlburg, F. 
Thomas Mackie, efq. ditto, 
MefT. R. & A. M'Kimm, Baltimore, 
Mr. Thomas M'Kimm, ditto, 
W". M'Kimmv, efq. Charleflon, 5. r. 
Dr. Charles M'Knight, New York,. 
Mr. D. M' Knight, Shippenfbg. P. 
At. Madame, elq. W ilmington, A'.C. 
Mr. Wm. M'Laughlin, Bakim<M-e, 
Mr. Jas.M'Clenahan,Greencallle.P. 
Mr. Wm. M'Mahon,Wincheltcr, T. 
Mr. A\ndrew M'Minn, Bucks co. P. 
Dr.P.M'"Naughian,Cumbcrld.co./*, 
Mr. Robert M'Nell, Bollon, 
Mr. John Macon, Powhatan, F. 
John M'Pherfon, efq. Frederick- 
town, Md. 
Alex. M'Kobert, efq. Richmond, 
John M'Vicker.efq. New York, 
Rev. Wm. M'Whir, Alexandria, 
Col. Wm. M'Will.ams, Frederickf- 

burgh, r. 
Rev. James Madifon, D. D. prcfi- 

dent of William & Mary college, 

Williamfburg, r. 
Col. Robert Magaw, Carlllle, P. 
Rev. Samuel Magaw, D. D. vice- 

provoU of the univerfuy of Penn- 

fylvania, 
Mr. Alex. Magee. Shi]»penfbiirg. P. 
Charles Magill, efq. Wincheller, K 
John Magill, efq. dmo, 
Wm.B. Magruder, efq. Georgetown, 
Mr. Jer. Mahoiiy, Chamberfburg, /\ 
Mr. William Maiiland, Peterlburg, r. 
Peter Mallet, efq. Wilmington, N.C, 
Mr. Ifaac Maltby, Berlin, Ct. 
Mr. David Mandel, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Philip Mark, New York, 
Mr. John Markland,Charle(lon,5.C, 
Mr. Abraham Marklev, ditto, 
Charles Marihall,eiq. Fauquier, F, 



Subfcrihers' names. 



John Marfiial, efq. RichmoiKl, 
Mr.Chril.Marfiialljfen.Phiiadelphia, 
Hon. Alex. Martin, Halifax, A', C. 
Dr. Ennals Martin, Talbotton, Md. 
Francis Martin, efq, Antigua. 
George Martin, M. D. Richmond, 
John Martin, elq. Chamberfburg, F. 
Mr. John Martin, Baltimore, 
Mr.Jof. Martin, Northumberland, P. 
Capt. William Martin, Philadelphia, 
Dr. Wm. Martin, Chefter count), /^. 
Mr. William Martin, Fhiladelpha, 
Mr. G. Mafon, jun. Colcheller, F. 
Mr. J. Maton, junior, BoRon, 
Ji)hn r. Mafon, efq,Hagerilown,iW. 
Thompfon Malon, elq. Alexandria, 
Mr. Pv-ichard Mather, Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Mathias, Leclburg, F. 
Mr. Samuel Mathis, CharieUoHj^.C. 
Sampfon Matthew, efq. Richmond, 
Mr. James Matthews, Philadelphia, 
Dr. Wm. Matthews, Jiohemia, Md. 
Mr. Fontaine Maury, Frederick.!- 

burg, y. ' 
Thomas Mawhorter, efq. member of 
the gen. alfembly of Pennlylvania, 

Capt. Jis. Maxv.'cll, Martmfbuig, 
Wm. Maxwell, efq. New "^ oik. 

Mr. John G. Mayer, C'harlellon.S.C 

Stephen Mazyck. efq. Charlefton,^.C 

Gtorge Meade, elq. Philadelphia. 

Mr. John Melbeck, do. 

Capt. Jofeph Meredith, Hampton, T. 

Kon. S. Meredith, efq. Philad. co. 

Mr. T. Meredith, Cheller county, P. 

Mr. Sara. Merian, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Lot Mcrkel, New York, 

Ivlr. John Merryman, Baltimore, 

Dr.l'.Micheau, Elizabcthtown, N.J. 

Mr. Sam, Mickic, Woodbury, A^y. 

Dr. B. Middleion, Cabbinpoinr, F. 

J>hn Milllin. elq. Philadelphia. 

John F. Mifflin, efq. do. 

His excellency T. Mifiln, efq. pre- 
lident of the ftate of Pennfyivanla. 

Col. Samuel Miles, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Eleazar Miller, jun. A'. Y. 

Col. Henry Mitler, York, P. 

Mr. Henry Miller, Philadelphia. 

John Miller, efq. do. 

Jofeph Miller, efq. Lewes. D. 

Mr. Jofeph J. Miller, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Magnus Miller, do. 

Mr. Robert Miller, 'jun. Carlifle, P. 

Mr.'Tho. Miller, Frederickfburg,^. 

James Milligan, efq. Philadelphia, 

Mr. Ifaac Miinor, do. 

Mr. John Milton, Wincheftcr. F, 

ISfr. Garret Minor, Louifa, F. 

PvCv.dr.W dUcrlvIinio, Princeton. *V/, 



15 

George Mitchel, efq. Daglbury. D. 
Col. John Miichel, Charlclion, .S. C, 
Capt. Robert Mirchel, Richmond T.. 
Richard Moale, efq. Baltimore. 
Mr. John Molich, Charlcflon, S. C. 
Archibald Moncrietf, efq. Baltimore, 
Mr. J. Montaudevert, New York. 
Meffrs. Montgomerys and Henry, 

Richmond. 
MefTrs. J, and W. Montgomery, Phi- 
ladelphia. 
Major S. Montgomery, Carlifle, P. 
W. Montgomery, efq. Lancafter, P. 
Mr. Wm, Mooney, New York, 
Rev. Benjamin Moore, do. 
Cato Moore, efq. Shepherdflown, F. 
Dr. Chas. Moore, member of the ge- 
neral afiembly of Peniifylvama, 
James Moore, efq. LancaUcr, P. 
Capt. John Moore, Kent co. Md. 
Capt. John Moore, Wilmington, D, 
Mr. Robert Moore, Peieilburgh, /'. 
Mr. Wm. Moore, Huntington co, P. 
Mr. George Morewood, New York, 
Mr. S. Morford, Princeton, A^. J, 
Mr. Geo. Morifon, Peterfburgh, /'. 
^Ir. John Morifon, ditto, 
James R. Morris eiq. SnowhilljA/i/. 
Dr. John Morris, Philadelphia, 
Dr. John Morris, York, P. 
Mr. John Morris, ditto 
Dr. J.F. Morns,Middlebrook, N. J. 
Col. Lewis Morns, Charlellon, S- C. 
Mr. Thomas Morns, ditto, 
Mr. James Morriion, York co. P. 
Mr. Mercer Morriion, PeterlLurg, F. 
Vo\,y. Morrow, Shepherdilown. /'. 
Mr. Wm. Morrow, Chambeiibg. P. 
Alexander Morfon,efq. Palmoutn. F. 
Dr. Cha. Mortimer, Fredericfaarg F. 
Perez Morton, efq. Bolton, 
Mr. George Mofs, Charlelton, 5. C. 
Captain John Mofs, York, F. 
Alexander Moulirie efq. ditto, 
Hon. William Moultrie, elq. ditto. 
John Moylan, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Edward Moyfton, ditto, 
Rev. H. Muhlenberg, D. D. Lan- 
cafter, F. 
Mr. James Miiir, Philadelphia, 
Mr. T." Mumford, Yale College, Cl. 
Mr. John Murchie, Manchefter. F. 
G. Murdoch, efq. Frederi£iowB, Md, 
Mr. John Murray, Alexandria, 
Mr. John Murray, Elkton, Md. 
J^r. Samuel Murrey, Leelburg, F, 
^^r. James Mufchett, Dumfries, T. 
Mr. Geo. MufTer, Lancafter, P. 
JJr. Jofeph Mufti, Philadelphia, 
^r. Ckriftian M>ers, Baltimoie, 



i6 



Subjcriben* names. 



Mr. Jacob Myers, Baltimore, 
Mr. Sam. Myers. Peteribur^, V. 
<5s5> 

Capt. W. Xeely, Bucks county, P. 

Coi. Henry Neil, Lewes, D. 

!)r. John Neil. SnowhiU, AW. 

-Mr. Thomas Ncill, York, P. 

j. Neilfon, efi}. New Brunrwic, N.J. 

W.Neilfon.elq. Cecil crofs roadsjAW. 

Cy.t. Hush Nelibn, York. V. 

Thomas Nelfon. efq. ditto, 

Col. William Nelfon, ditto, 

Clayt.Newbold,efq. Burlington, A'jJ. 

Cyrus Newlin, Brandewine, D. 

Cot. Thomas Newton, Norfolk, 

William Nichols, efq. Philadelphia, 

Mr. Philip Nicklin, ditto, 

Mr. Jer. Nicols, Chellertown, Md, 

Robert Nicolfon, efq. York, T. 

Mr':. Caroline Henrietta Norton, 
Winchefter, V. 

Mr. Jofeph P. Norrls, Philadelphia, 

Mr. Jofeph North, ditto, 

Geo. F. Norton, cfq.Winchefler, F. 

J. H. Norton, efq. ditto, 

Jofeph Nourfe, efq. New York, 

Mr. Edmond Nugent, Philadelp'iia, 
<^ 

Michar^l Morgan O'Brien, efq. Phi- 
ladelphia, 

Robert Ogden, efq. SufTex co. N.J. 

S. Ogden, efq. Delaware works, P. 

Mr. Thomas O'Hara. New York, 

Mr. James O'Hear, CharleHon, S. C. 

Mr. David Olden, Princeton, N.J. 
•ohn Oldham, efq. Elkton, Md. 
vcv. AlbnOliott, Farmington, Ct. 

Bernard O Neill, efq. Georgetown, 
Patowmac, 

Tapf. (ieortfe Orde, Philadelphia, 

^^liadrach Ofborne, efq. New York, 

■:.i!uuel Ofgood, efq. ditto, 
\.-lam Otr, efq. Hagerftown, Md. 

.'.hn Owen. efq. Charleflon. S. C. 

Mr. Edward Owens, Norfolk, F. 

Mr. Thomas Owram,WincheUer, V. 

Mann Page, efq. Rofewell, Gloucef- 

ter county, V. 
Mr. Samuel Paine, Richmond, 
^^Ir. Charles Palefke, Philadelphia, 
iiaac Paris, efq. Canajohary, Mont- 
gomery county. New York, 
Rev. Samuel Parker, Bofton, 
T)r, Parnam, Charles county, Md. 
Mr. William Parret, Salem, A'. J. 
Mr. Robert Parrifli, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Eben Parfons, Bofton, 
]Mr. Lewis Pafcauli, Baltimore, 
William Patterfon, tffq. Baltimore, 



William Pafterfon, efq. Chrifllana,/). 
Mr. John Paiton, Huntington co. P, 
Mr. Jeremiah Paul, Philadelphia, 
Mr. 1 homas Paul, ditto, 
T. G. Peachy, efq. Peterfburg, F. 
Charles Wilion Peale, efq. Philad. 
Mr. Thomas Pearce, Norfolk, F. 
Mr. Vmcent Peiofi, Camden, N.J.' 
Mr. James Pemberton, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Michael Pender, Peterfburg,/'". 
Hon. Edmond Pendleton, efq. Ca- 
roline county, F, 
Col. P. Pendleton, Martinfburg, F. 
Hon. John Penn, efq. England. 
Mr. Benjamin Pennington, Philad. 
Mr. George Pcnnock. ditto, 
Dr. EHfha Perkins, Fairfield, Ct. 
Ifaac Perkins, efq. Kent county, Md. 
Mr, John Perry. Hampton, F. 
P-obt. Peter, efq. Georgetown, Patow. 
Mr. Thomas Peters, Baltimore, 
Mr. Derrick Peterfon, Philadelphia, 
Charles Pctiit, efq, ditto, 
Samuel O. Petlus, efq. Louifa, F. 
Mr. Henry Philips, Maiichejltr., E^i' 

land. 
Daniel Phoenix, efq. New York, 
Col. Tim. Picketing, Luzerne co. P. 
MelT. Pickett & Hopkins, Richmond, 
Rev. Henry Pile, Newport, Md. 
Ro\ , Jofeph Piimore, Philadelphia, 
Pi '.5 excellency Charles Pinckney, clq. 
gv)vernorofthe{late SouthCarolina, 
two copies, 
Charles Cotefworth Pinckney, efq. 

Chailellon, 5. C. 
ThomiN Pinckney, jun. efq. dilto, 
Mr. David Pinkerton, Philadelphia, 
John Pintard, efq. New Yoik, 
John Marfden Piniard, efq. Ameri- 
can conful, Madeira, 
James Piper, efq, Chellertown, Md, 
Richard Piatt, eiq. New York, 
Mr. William Plume, Norfolk, 
Dr. Thomas Pole, London, 
Benjamin Pollard, efq. Norfolk, 
Thomas Pollock, efq. New York, 
S. W. Pomeroy, efq. Hartford, C. 
Capt. Poole, Wilmington, D, 
Matthew Pope, eiq. York, F. 
William Popham, efq. New York, 
J. R. PolUeihwaite, efq. Carldle, P, 
Col. Samuel PolUeihwaite, duio. 
Col. J. Podly, Buckingham, Md. 
Mr, jofeph Potts, Philadelphia, 
Rich. Potts, efq. Fredcr cktown, Md. 
Mr. Stacy Potts, Harnfburg. P. 
Mr. James Poupard, Philadelphia, 
Dr. J imes Powel. Savannah, C. 
Col. Levcn Powell, Loudon, V, 



Svijcribers* names. 



Samuel Powell, efq. Philadelphia, 

Mr. Seymour Powell. York, V. 

Mr. William Powell, Bofton, 

Me(r.Pragcrs,Liebaertand co.Philad. 

Mr, Naihaniel Prentifs, do. 

Mr.T. PreniifsjElizabethiown, A^. J. 

Na.haii Prellon, e fq. ^W'oodbury, Ct. 

Mr, Smith Price, Bucks county, P. 

Mr. William Prichard, Philadelphia, 

Mr. John Pringle, do. 

Mr. Mark Pruiuic. Baltimore, 

R. Prlnglc, M.b.'Charlellon, S. C. 

Col. Thomas Plotter, Philadelphia, 

Mr. John Proudfit, Fredericfbiirg, F. 

Right rev, Samuel Provoolt, D. D. 
bilhop of the proteftant epifcopal 
church in the Hate of New York. 
<^ 

M,Pet. Quackenbofs, Hebron, A'^. Y. 

Mr. John Ragan, Hagerflown, Md. 
Mr. Claudius P, Raguet, Philad. 
Mr. Robert Raldon, ditto, 
John Ramage, efq. New York, 
Hon.D.Ramfey, efq.CharleHon,5.C. 
Mr. John Ramfey, New York, 
Mi. Reynold Ramfey, York co. P. 
"1 . M. Randolph, eiq. Goochland, F. 
W illiam Rawle, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Sampfon Rea, ditto, 
Jacob Read, efq. fpeaker of the houfe 
of reprefentatives of South Caro- 
lina, Charlcfton, 
,Mr. J, Reader, iui\. Chamberfbg, P. 
Philip Read, eiq, Kent county, MJ. 
Mr. Samuel Redick, Shippenfbg. P. 
Dr. Jofeph Redman, Philadelphia, 
Bowes Reed, efq, Burlington N. J. 
Samuel Reed, efq. Martinlburg F, 
Mr. Jacob Reed, New York, 
Rev, James Rees, Charlellon, 5. C. 
Mr. James Reid, Dumfries, F. 
Rev. Charles Reichel, Nazareth, P. 
Adam Rcigart, jun.efq. Lancaller,/". 
Anthony Reintzel, efq. Georgetown, 

Patowmac, 
Henry Remfen, efq. New York, 
William Reynolds, efq, York, F. 
Jonathan Rhea, efq. Freehold, A^. J, 
Mr. Jofeph Rice, Baltimore, 
Mr., Daniel Richards, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Archibald Richardfon, Suffolk V. 
Mr. Wm. Richardfon, Philadelphia, 
Mr. James Ricker, A'. Y. 
Mr. Randal Rickey, Trenton, N. J, 
James Riddle, efq. Chamberlturg, 
Mr. John Riddle, Hagerftnwn, ^ Md. 
Mr. Jofeph Riddle, Martinfburg, F. 
Mr. Jofliua Riddle, ditto. 
Dr. Abr. Ridgcly, ChcftertownjAW, 
Vet. VI. 



■"'Jacob Rieger, efq. Lancafter. P. 

Capt. W. Rippey, Shippenlburg, P. 

Mr, Robt. Ritchie, Fredeiicib'irg, F. 

David Rittenhoufe, efq. trcafarer of 
the Hate of Pennfylvania, Philad. 

Mr. Alex. Roane, Fredericihurt;. V, 

Mr. Wm. Robertfon, Albany, >.F. 

W. Robertfon, efq. G.iown ,Faiow. 

Mr. Wm. Robertfon, New York. 

Mr. Wm. Robefon, Charlellon. 5. C. 

Mr, Ezekiel Robins, New York, 

Mr. James B. Robins, Snowhili, m. 

Mr. A. Robinfon, Hunt:ngtcn co. P. 

Mr. Mau. Robinfon, Potdiown, A', j. 

Mr. Samuel Robinfon, Philadelphia. 

Gen. Roberdeau, Alexandria. 

Rev. dr, John Rodgers, New York, 

Mr. Walter Roe, Bahimore, 

Capt. John Rogers, Planipton, F. 

Mr. Jofeph Rowers, Philadclph'a, 

Col. Nicholas Rogers, Baltimore, 

Mr. William Rogers, New York, 

Melfrs, Rogerfon and Dabney, Alex- 
andria, 

Mr. James Roney. Philadelphia, 

J. F. Roorbach, efq. New York, 

Ifaac Roofevelt, efq.. do. 

Col. Jefle Root, Hartford, Ct. 

Mr. William Rofr. Richmond, 

Mr. Colin Rofs, !• rcd^riclbiirg. F. 

Capi.HoratioRofs,Shepherdfiown,r. 

Mr. Hugh Rofs, Fort Pitt, P. 

Mr. jas. Rofs, Dickmfon colfeg-, P. 

Thomas Rofs, efq. Cheiicr co. P. 

Mr. John Rowe, BoHon. 

Benjamin Rumfey, efq. Md. 

Dottor John Ruinfcy, George-town, 
Eaflern fhore, Md. 

Mr. Richard Rundle, Philadelphia, 

Benjamin Rufli, M. D. do. 

Hon. Jacob Rulh. efq. do. 

Mr, William Rufh, do, 

Meffrs. Rulfel and Smith, Berming' 
ham, England, 

Caleb Ruflel. efq, Morriflown, A', /. 

Mr. Naih. Rullel, Charlellon; S. C. 

Henry Rutgers, eiq. New York, 

John Rutherford, efq. do. 

Edw. Rutledge, eiq. Charlellon, S. C. 
<s> 

Mr. James Saidler, New York, 

Mr. Samuel Sal.fh;iry, Boflon, 

Mr. Jon. Salter, (r.town, Patowmac, 

Mr. T. Salter, Eli/abethiown, A'. /. 

Col. R. H. Saundcr-, Goochland, /'. 

Mr. Jacob Schaller. Lancaller, P. 

Mr. John Schaffer,' Philadelphia, 

George Schloffer, efq, ditto, 

Mr. S. Schneiders Northumberland 
county, P. 



i8 



Suhfcribcrs^ names* 



George Scott, efq. Freclerictown,A/^, 
Guflavus Scott, efq. Cambridge, Md. 
John Scott, eiq. -Cheftertown, Md. 
John Scott, cfq. Chamberfburg, P, 
John B. Scott, efq. Charlotte, V. 
Capt. Mat. Scott, Shippenfbur^T, P, 
Richard B. Scott, efq. Charlotte.^. 
Mr. Richard M. Scott, Alexandria, 
Mr. Robert Scott, Philadelphia, 
William Scoit, efq. York, P. 
Mr. Samuel Scotten, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Jacob Seaman, New York, 
Mr. Jacob Sebor, ditto, 
Wilfon C. Selden, M. D. Leefbg.r. 
Mr. Nathan Sellers, Philadelphia, 
Col. William Semple, ditto, 
Mr. John Service, ditto, 
Mr. Jacob Servofs, ditto, 
William Seton, efq. New York, 
Thomas Jennings Seth, efq. Queen 

Ann's county, Md. 
Thomas Seymour, efq. Hartford, Ct. 
Mr. Clement Sharp, Bollon, 
Jacob Sharpe, efq. Long Ifland, A^. Y. 
Mr. Ifaac Sharplefs, New \ ork, 
Mr. James Sharfwood, Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Shaw, New York, 
Mr. Frederic Sheets, Merrion, P. 
Col. Ifaac Shelby, Danville, K. 
W^. Sheppard. efq. member of the le- 
gillature of North Carolina, New- 
bern, 
Mr. Nathan Sheppard, Philadelphia. 
Mr. Peter Sherman, Wafliington, Ct, 
William Shermer, efq. Richmond, 
Mr. Robert Shcrrard,Winchcftcr, ^. 
Hon. Edward Shippen, efq. chief juf- 
tice of the court of common pleas, 
Philadelphia. 
Jof. Shippen, jun. efq. Lancafter, /*. 
Wm. Shippen, M. D. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Jofiah Shippey, New York, 
Abr. Shoemaker, eiq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. C. Shoemaker, Germantown, P, 
John Shoemaker, efq. Cheltenham,/*. 
Dr. John Shore, Peterfburg, 
Mr. Thomas Shore, ditto. 
Mr. James Short, York, P. 
Meffrs. Short and Richards, Fal- 
mouth, v. 
Mr. Benjamin Shreve, Alexandria, 
Thomas Sickels, efq. New York, 
Mr. Laurence Sickels, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Paul Siemen, Lewes, D. 
Charles Simms, efq. Alexandria, 
MefT. Wooddrop and Jos. Siinms, 

Philadelphia, 
John Smmons, efq. Charlefton, 5. C. 
'I'homas Simmons, efq. ditto, 
Johw Singer, efq. Trenton, 



Mr. Ifaac Siitler, Wlnchefler, V. 
Mr. Wm. Skinner, Martinfburg, V, 
Dr. A. Slaughter, Portfmouth, K 
Smith Slaughter, efq. Shepherdftn.r. 
Hon. John Smilie, efq. member of 
the fupreme executive council of 
Pennfylvania, 
Dr. Smith, Charleflon, S. C. 
Mr. Abiel Smith, Bollon, 
Mr. Alex. Smith, G.town,Patowm. 
Bartlee Smith, efq. Charleflon, S.C, 
Benjamin Smith, efq. ditto, 
Mr. Ez. Smith, Stoneybrook, N. J. 
Mr. Hugh Smith, New York, 
Maj. J. Smith, Queen Anne's co.Md, 
James Smith, efq. York, P. 
James Smith, efq. Charlellon, S. C. 
Jafper Smith, efq.Hunterdonco.A'.^, 
John Smith, efq. Winchefler, T. 
John Sm th, efq Mooreftown, N.J. 
Jonathan B. Smith, efq. Philadelphia, 
Hon. Ifaac Smith, efq. juflice of the 

fupreme court of New Jerfey, 
J. S. Smith, efq. Redhook, 
Melantlon Smith, efq. New York, 
Robert Smith, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Robert Smith, ditto, 
Robert Smith, efq. Baltimore, 
Roger Smith, efq. Charleflon, S. C, 
R. S. Smith, efq. Mooreftown, N. J. 
Col. Samuel Smith, Baltimore, 
Mr. S. J. Smith, Burlington, N.J. 
Thomas Smith, fen. efq. New York, 
Thomas Smith, jun. efq. ditto, 
Thomas Smith, efq. Carlifle, P. 
Thomas Smith, efq. continental loan- 
officer, Philadelphia, 
Thomas Duncan Smith, efq. Hunt- 
ington county, P. 
Thorowgood Smith, efq. Baltimore, 
Wilbam Smith, efq. New York, 
William Smith, efq. Baltimore, 
Mr. William Smith, Boflon, 
Mr. William Smith, Hampton, F. 
Wm. More Smith, efq. Montgomery 

county, P. 
Robert Smyly, efq. Eaflernfhore,A/(/. 
Mr. Geo. Snowden,jun. New York. 
Mr. Gilbert T. Snowden, Md. 
Mr. Jofeph Snowden, Philadelphia, 
Mr. W. Spalding, Shepherdllown, P", 
Mr. Baltzer Spangler, York, P. 
Mr. S. Spear, Baltimore, 
Tho. Sprigg, efq. Hagerflown, Md. 
Mr. W. Somervale, Charleflon, S. C. 
Mr. John Souder, Philadelphia, 
Col. Jas. Southall, Williamlburg, F. 
Mr. Edward Stabler, Leefburg, r, 
Mr. Wm. Stackpole, Boflon, 
Capt. John Stagg, NewYork, 



Subfcribcrs' names. 



»9 



Mr. John Stapler, Wilmington, D. 
Mr. John Starck, jun. Baltimore, 
Mr. F. W. Starman, Philadelphia, 
Abraham Steiner, efq. Hope, N. J. 
Mr. J. Sieiner, jun.Frederictown Md. 
Mr. G. W. Steinhauer, Philadelphia, 
Gen. Adam Stephen, Martinfburg, F. 
James Sterling, efq. Burlington, A". /. 
Dr. John Steuart, Bladenfburg, Md. 
Mr. Stevenfon, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Clotwonhy Stevenfon, Richmd. 
Dr. Geo. Stevenlon, Carlifle, P. 
Mr. Hay Stevenfon, New York, 
MeflTrs. Stewart and Nefoitt, Philad. 
Dr. Alex. Stewart, Chamberfburg, P. 
Mr. Alex. Stewart, New York, 
Mr. Arthur Stewart, Richmond, 
Mr. A. Stewart, Pougkeepfie, N. Y. 
Mr. D. Stewart, Huntingdon, co.P. 
Mr. Andrew Stockholm, New York, 
Benjamin Stoddert, efq. Georgetown, 

Patowmac. 
Mr. Leman Stone, Derby, Ct. 
Mr. W. S. Stone, Fredericfnurg, F, 
Dr. Storck, Williamfport, Md. 
Meffrs. Storm and Sickels, A^. Y. 
Thomas Stoughton, efq. ditto, 
Mr. Sam. Stout, Princeton, N. J. 
Mr. Jofeph Stretch, New York, 
Mr. Wm. Stribling, Battletown, F. 
Mr. John Strieker, Baltimore, 
Mr. Daniel Strobel, Charlefion, S.C. 
Dr. David Stuart, Alexandria, 
Henry Stuber, B. M. Philadelphia, 
Edward Styles, efq. ditto, 
Mr. William Summers, Alexandria, 
Mr. J. Suter, Georgetown, Patowm. 
Major J. Swan, Baltimore, 
John Swanwick, efq. Philadelphia, 
Col. Jofeph Swearingen, Shephcrdf- 

town, V. 
Mr. Doyle Sweeny, New York, 
Mr. Hugh Sweeny, Philadelphia, 
Meff. Sweetman and Rudolph, do. 
Jonathan Swift, efq. Alexandria, 
W. Sydeboiham, efq. Bladenfb. Md. 
Mr. Richard Sydnor, Baltimore, 
Dr. James Sykes, Dover, D. 
Capt. J. Sytes, Albany, A'. Y. 

Philip Tabb, efq. Gloucefler, F. 
Mr. Jofeph Tagcrt, Philadeiphia, 
Mr. Robert Taggart, ditto, 
Col. Jer. Talbot, Ciiamberfbg. P. 
Nathan Tart, efq. Charlefton^^S. C. 
Monkhoufe Tate, efq. London, 
Mr. Samuel Tate, Carlide. P. 
Creed Taylor, efq. Cumberland co. /'. 
Ji-iFe Taylor, efq. Alexandria, 
Col. J. Taylorj New Brunfwic, A',.7 



Capt. Richard Taylor, Hampton, F. 
William Taylor, efq. Falmouth, F. 
Col. Willoughby Tebbs. Dumfries,/^. 
Sir John Temple, hart, his Britainnic 

majedy'sconlul general, NewYork, 
Mr. Cornelius Ten Broeck, New- 

Brunfwic, N. J. 
Dirck Ten Broeck, efq. Albany, A'', Y. 
Mr. Bart. TerralTun, Philadelphia, 
Mr, Benjamin Thaw, Philadelphia, 
Meffrs. Thavcr, Barilett, and co. 

Charlellon, S. C. 
Mr. James 1 heus, do. 
Dr. Philip Thomas, Yrt6.sr\c\i\. Md. 
Richard Thomas, efq. Cneller co. P, 
Mr. Richard Thomas, George town, 

Patowmac. 
MefTrs. Thompfun and Taylor, near 

Leefburg, F. 
Hoii.Chas. Thomfon, efq. N.York, 
Mr. J. H. Thomfon, Charlefion, S.C. 
Col . J. Thomfon, Q. Ann's co, Md. 
Mr. jofeph Thornbuigh, Carldle, P. 
Rev. Sydenham Thorne. Milford, D. 
John Threlkeld, efq. George town, 

Patowmac. 
Mr. John Thurman, New York, 
Mr. Daniel Thuun, Philadelphia, 
Jofeph Tidball.efq. Lancafier co. P. 
Mr. Silvefter Tiffany, Albany, N. Y. 
W. Tilghman, efq. Cheflertown, Md, 
MajorR.Tilghman,Eafiern fhore,Afa'. 
Mr. T. R. Tilghman, Baltimore, 
Dr. James Tillary, New York, 
Mr. Charles Tillinghaft, do. 
Col. Nehemiah Tilton, Dover, D, 
Jer. Tmker, efq. New Providence, 
Meffrs. John Titlermary and fons, 

Philadelphia, 
Mr. C. Tod, near Frcdericfburg, F, 
Mr. Henry Toland, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Thomas Tom, New York, 
Mr. JefTe Townfend, Yale college, Ct, 
Mr. Solomon Townfend, NewYork, 
Mr. Jamci Trenchard, Philadelphia. 
Edw. Trefcott, efc], Charlefion, S.C. 
Mr. James Tnpletf, Dumfries F, 
('ol, Simon Triplett. Alexandria, 
Mr. Hore Browfe 'J'nfi, Philadel. 
I uther Trowbridge, efq. Albany, 
Hon. Charles If. Tucker, efq. N. V, 
Wm. Tudor, efq. Bofton, 
Dr. A. Tumball, Charlefion, S. C. 
Mr. Georgje Tunno, ditto. 
Sam. Turbett, efq. Lancafler, P. 
Major George Turner, Philadelphia, 
Mr. John Turner, jun. New York, 
Mr. T. Turner, (i. town, Patowmac, 
Dr. I. Tyler, Frederiffown, Md. 
Meffrs. Ty fon 8z Andcrfon, iiahiin. 



Suhfcribers' names. 



>vir. ](t\)n Underwood, Carlifle. P. 

Robert Unoerwood, cfq. New York 

Urui!;an locteiy, ditio, 

Mr. C"ha. Urqiihart, f rcdc-ricfbg. V, 

Ivir. ALr-ihani Ufher, IJaliunorCj 

Mr. 1 lidinas Ufher, ditro, 

Mr. Will.aiu Uliick, New York, 

Adrian Vslck, efq. conful from fhe 
united Netherlands, lialtiiiiore, two 
copies, 1 

Andrew Van Bibber, efq. Baltimore, 
Mr. Kaac Van Bibber, ditto, 
Rev. Hugh Vanre, Martinfburgr, V. 
Mr. J. VV. Vancleve. Princeton, N. J. 
Ml. Jo!in Vandegrift, Trenion, 
Cajii. liaac Vanhorne, Bucks co. P. 
D. Van Inccn. ern,Schene6tady,A^.y. 
MHV. M.&W. Vanlear, Hagerf- 

town, Md. 
W. Van Murray, efq. Cambridge, Md. 
?vlr, Jotin Van Reed, Philadelphia, 
Jchn J. X^'an Renffcllaer, efq. Green- 

bu!i,, a; Y. 
K. K. Van Renfitllaire, efq. Clave- 

rac, 
Stephen Van Renflellaire, efq. Al- 
bany, N. V. 
Mr. S. P. Van RenlTcUaire, N.V. 
Mr. Jimes Vanuxcni, Philadelphia, 
;vlr. VitierVan Zandt. Newark. iV.y. 
Richard Varick, efq. New York, 
Charles Vaughan, efq. Philadelphia, 
ham^iel Vaughan, jun. efq. ditto, 
D. C. Verplanck, efq. New York, 
Cuban Verplanck, eiq. fpeaker of the 

aflenibly of New York. 
MidFrs, Vos & Graves., Charlcllon, 

.9. C. 
Mr. Edward Vr.fs, R-chmond, 
Major H.Vowles, Falmouth, F. 

<^ 
McfT.Wadfworth & Turpin.Charlef- 

ton, .9. C. 
Peter Wagener, efq. Colchcfier, l'. 
Mr. Philip Wager, J'hiladelphia, 
Mr. A. Waldron, New York, 
Mr. D. Waldron, ditto, 
George Walker, efq. ditto, 
Mr, George Vv'alker, Georgetown, 

Fatowmac, 
Mr.Jas. Wallace, Wilmington. A'^.C. 
Mr. William Wallace. Carlifle, P. 
Mr. Thomas Walley, Bo!l<.n, 
Gerard Vv'alion, efq. New York, 
Rev. James Walton, St. Inigo, Md. 
Mr. William Walton, New Yoik, 
Mr. Pvichard Ward, ditto, 
Dr. Waring, Charldloi., S. C. 



Meffrs. M. & H. Waring, George- 
town, Patowmac, 
Felix Warlfv, efq. Charleflon, 5. C. 
Dr. John Warren, Bollon, 
Mr. John Warren, Frederica, D. 
Bulhrod Wafhington, efq. Alexand. 
Col. Warner Wafliiugton, Frederic 

county, F. 
Mr. Francis Vv'^aters, Dorfetco. F, 
Mr. Owen Waters, Philadelphia, 
Mr.. Richard Waters, Dorfet co..- F. 
Thomas Waties, efq. Charleflon, S.C. 
Francis W^atkins, efq. Prince Ed- 

v/ard county, F. 
Thomas V/atkins, efq. Augulla, G. 
John Watfon, efq. New York, . 
Mr. Jofeph Watfon, Winchefler, F. 
Hon. Frederic Watts, efq. member 
of the fijpreme executive council of 
Pcr.nfylvania, 
"Jacob Weaver, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. C. R. Webfler, Albany, N. V. 
Major gen. Weedon, Frederufbg. F, 
Mr. Cafparus Weiberg, Phi lad. 
Mr. Jofeph Weifiger, Peterfl;urg, F. 
Mr. Anthony Weiff, Philadelphia, 
Mr. Cyprian Wells. Baltimore, 
Mr. John Vv'ells, New Providence, 
Mr. Robert, Wells, Wincheller, F. 
Mr. Jacob Welfh, jun. Baltimore, 
Mr. James Wellli, Philadelphia, 
Roger WeU, efq. Alexandria, 
Mr. John VVeflcott, Phdadelphia, 
Mr. Jof.'ph Weflmore, Peierfbg, F. 
Profper "Vl'etmore, efq. New York, 
William Wetniore, efq. BoHon, 
Mr. John Wharton, Aciomack, F. 
Mr. Patrick White, Psterfburg, F. 
Capt. Peter White, Lewes, D. 
R. White, jun. efq. V/inchcller, F. 
Rifrht rev. William While, biihop of 
the proteflaiu epifcopal church in 
the common wealth of FennfyKanui, 
Col. W. XA'hiteley, Caroline co. M(5?. 
Mrs. Eliza Whiting, CotragCj Berk- 
ley county, F. 
Mr. Conway \V'hittle, Peterfhg. F. 
Mr. W. Wightman, Charielion, S.C. 
Mr. Henry WikofF, Philadelphia, 
William Wilcocks, efq. New York, 
Mark Wilcox, efq. nicnibcr of the 
general alTembly of Pennfylvania, 
Cheller county, 
John Wilkes, efq. New York, 
Brian Wilkiiifon, efq. Philadelphia, 
Col. Marinus Wiilet, NewYov!<, 
Mel!. Williams, Cary &co. Alexan. 
Dr. i'i.d.YV'illiams. Shtpherddown, F, 
Mr. Juhu WilUa::!£, Dumfries, F. 



SuhJ'crihcrs.'' names. 



2f 



Gen. Oiho II. Williams, Baltimore, 
Mr. Samuel Williams, Bofton, 
Mr. Thomas "William';, Richmond, 
Mr. William William>, Bollon, 
W.C. Williams, cfq. WoodUock, V. 
Hon. Richard Wilhng, elq. member 

ofihe fupreme executive council of 

i^cni'.fyivaiva, 
Thomas Willing, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. Scih VvMlis, ditto, 
Mr. Thomas Willock, Norfolk, V, 
Mr. Pate Wilis, York, V. 
Wilminjnon library, D. 
Mr, S. Wilmijrp. Cheliertown,Arc^. 
Mr. David WiUon, \\' inchcder, V, 
J::mes WilfMi, efq. Philadelphia, 
Mr. John \V ilfiim, diitn, 
Rev. Malt. Wiiron,D.D. I.cwrs, D. 
Dr. Sam. VVillon, Charleflon, S. C. 
JS.Wilfon, jiin.efq.Eadendhore, Md. 
Stephen Vv'iHbn, efq. Baltimore, 
Wm. Wilfon, efq. Northumberland 

county, P. 
Mr, Wm. Wilfon, Baltimore, 
r^ir. Olney Winfor. Alexandria, 
Mr. Jofeph Winter. New York, 
Mr. Peter Wife, Alexandria, 
Mr. Wm. Wifeham, Richmond, 
Mr. James Wiihy, Cheiter, P. 
OliverWolcot, jun.efq. Hartford. O. 
Mr. John Wood, Philadelphia, 
Capiain John Woods, ditm. 
Turner Wootton, efq, l^ahimnre, 
James Wormeley, efq. Berkley co. V. 
J.Tol!y\V^orihinston,erq. Baltimore, 
Mr. Joieph Wiinht, New York, 
Matthew \V'rij;!u,elq. Wincheder.r, 
Mr. Stephen Wrijrht. Norfolk, V. 
Tho5.Wr!sht, efq.Wilmitiston, iV.C 
John C'. Wynkoop, el(|. Kinderhook, 

New Y'ork. 

Mr. R. Yarboroiiah, Cumberland. V, 
Richatd Yates, elq. New York, 



Donnaldfon Y'eats, efq. Kent co, 

Capt. J. Yellot, Baltimore, 

Rev. dr. G. Young. Hagerftown, Af^/. 

Mr. Hugh Young,' Norfolk, V. 

Mofes Young, efq. Trinidad. 

Notley Young, e(q. Georgetown, Md, 

Samuel Young, elq. Philadelphia^ 

Mr. Samuel Young, ditto. 

Dr. S. Young, Plagerilown, Md. 

<s> 
Meffrs. Zacharie, Coopman, and co, 

Baltimore, 
Col. I. Zane, Marlborough works, 

near Winchefter, V. 
Mr, Adam Zantzinger, Philadelphia. 
P.jul Zantzinger, ef). Lancaller, P. 
Mr. John C. ZoUikottcr, Bahiinore. 

Names omitted in the preceding lijl. 
Mr. P. Campbell, jun. Franklin co./*. 
Mr. Derrick Lelierts, New York, 
Mr. John Bradford, Lexington, /T,. 
Mr. Rice, Baltimore, 
Pvlr. Soloiiion M'Nair, Ph ladclphia, 
Mr. W. H. Beaumont, Pitilburg. 
Uz Gaunt, efq. Springfield townlhip, 

Burlmgton county, 
M. le Chevalier de la Terriere, Bor» 

demon, 
Miles Philips, elq. 

ERRORS. 

Page 6, line i, for Jofeph Antho- 
ny, elq; Lunenhvrrr. read Jofeph A-a- 
thony, elq. Lynchburg. 

Page 11, line 46, for inr. James 
Hacket, Baltimore^ read, nir. James 
Hacket, Queen Ann's county. Md, 

Should any other errors orormlfions 
be difcovcred in the above lill, th°; 
printer rcqueils to be inforriied of 
them, that they may be corrected in a 
future one. 



THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM, 

For J U L Y, 1789. 



To the printer of the Amer. Mufeum^ 
SIR, 

THE lolution of the following que- 
ries involving much valuable 
information, you will oblige many of 
your readers by giving them a place 
in your Mufeum. From the fpirit of 
enquiry and obfervation, which has 
lately extended itfelf through the 
united ftates, I flatter myfelf, anfwers 
will be obtained to them, through the 
medium of the fame channel, in which 
the queries are made. 

Are there any fath which prove, that 
longevity and fruitfulnels teave been 
promoted, by emigration to America 
from European countries ? 



Are there any fafts which prove, 
that there is a diminution of the iize 
of the human body, in fuccellive ge- 
nerations in America ? 

What ages do horfes ufually attain 
in this country, under different kinds 
of treatment ? and what is the greateil 
age, any of them have been known to 
auain to ? 

Are there any inllances, in which 
wheat, rye, oats, or barley, have 
been found wild in any parts of Ame- 
rica? or, are there any inilances of 
apples, peaches, or pear trees, bemg 
found wild in the woods? What arc 
the eftefts of cultivation upon the com- 
mon crab apple ? 

Are there any inftances of the in- 
fluence of tranfplanting the whortle 
and blackberry into agarden, upon the 
i^uallty of ihofe fruits ? Has a wine 
of any kind ever been made from 
them, and if fo, what is its quality ? 

Is population among the Indians, 
out of the fphere of the European 
fettlements, on the increafe, or the 
contrary? or is it ftationary ? 

In a late number of the Mufeum, 
I faw a letter from Willam Penn, in 
London, requefting the loan of a fum 
of money from h;s friends in Penn- 
fylvania. Queie — Did ihey comply 
wuh that recmell ? 



I have feveral times heard and read 
of doubts being fuggefled, whether 
Carver made the extenfive tour he 
has defcribed ; or whether his book 
be not compiled from thofe of Char« 
levoix, Hennepin, &c. 1 wilh feme 
of your correipondents would fo far 
gratify my curiofity, which I fuppofe 
fimilar to that of many of your rea- 
ders, as to inform me whether or no 
this point has ever beea fatisfaftoniy 
afccrtained ? 



Adirefs of the governor and council 
of North Carolina^ to his exceileif 
cy general Wafhington. 

To his excellency George Wafhington^ 
efq.prefident of the united Jlates, 
J> I R, 

AMIDST the congratulations, 
which furround you from all quar- 
ters, we, the governor and council of 
the ifate of North Carolina, beg leave 
to offer ours, with equal fincerity and 
fervency, with any which can be pre- 
fented to you. Though this Hate be not 
yet a member of the union, under the 
new form of government, we look 
forward, with the pieafing hope of its 
fhortly becoming fuch ; and, in the 
mean time, confider ourfelves bound 
in a common intercfl and affettion, 
wilh the other ftates. waiting on I. v for 
the happy event of fuch alterations 
being propofed, as will remove the 
apprehen lions of many of the ^ood 
citizens of this Hate, for thofe liber- 
ties, for which they have fought and 
fuffered, in common with others ; 
This happy event, we doubt not, will 
be accelerated by your excellency's 
appointment to the firft office in the 
union ; fnice we are well affured, that 
the fame greatnefs of mind, which ia 
all fcenes has fo eminently charafter- 
ifed your excellency, will induce you 
to advife every meafure, calculated to 
compofe party divifions, and to abate 
any animofitv, that may be excited 
bv a mere difference in opinion; 
Your excellency will confider (how- 
ever others may forget) how extreme- 
ly difficult it is to unite all the people 
of a great country in one common 
J'enfiment, uv>on almoft any political 
liibjefl, much nioje upon a new form 



24 Anfwer of the prcf dent of the U. S. to if, t addrcfsfrcm N. Carolina, [July, 

alfo indicaiive of the good difpo- 
luions of the citizens of your fiate, 
towards their lilbr ftates, and of the 
probabihty of their Ipeedily acceding 
to the new general government. 

In jultiHcaiion of the opinion, 
which you are pleafed to exprels, of 
my readmefs, " to advifc every mea- 
lure, calculated to coinpofe party di- 
vilionSj and to abate any ammofuy 
that miy bee>;cited by mere diBcrence 
of opinion, " 1 take the liberty of re- 
ferring you to the lentimetits commu- 
nicated by nie to the two houfes of 
coiigrefs. On this occafion, I arn 
lilcewife happy in being able to add 
the lliongett iiffurances, that 1 en- 
ttriam a well grounded expectation, 
thill nothing will be waniuig, on the 
part or" tiie ddfcrent branches of the 
general government, to render the 
union "as perfect, and more late, than 
ever it has been." 

A difference of opinion, on poli- 
tical points, is not to be imputed to 
freemen, as a fault ; fincc it ts to be 
prelumed, that they are all attuated- 
by an equally laudable and facred re- 
gard for the liberties of their coun- 
try. If the mind is lo formed in dif- 
ferent perlons, as to conlider the fame 
object to be (omewhat ditterent in its 
nature and coniequence', as tt hap- 
pens to be placed in different points 
of view ; and if the oldell, the ableft, 
and the mofl virtuous Itatelmen have 
often differed in judgment, as to the 
bed forms of government — we ought, 
indeed, ra:her to rejoice, that fo much 
has been rffected, than to regret, that 
more could not, all at once, be ac- 
complifhed. 

Gratified by the favourable fenti- 
meni*, which are evinced in your ad- 
drefs to me, and impreffed with an 
idea, that the citizens of your ftate are 
finterely attached to the intereff, the 
prolp.'rity and the glory of America, I 
inofl earneflly implore the divine be- 
nediction and guidance, in the coun- 
cils, which are fhortly to be taken by 
their delegate;, on a fiibjed of the 
moft momentous confcqucnce, I mean 
the political relation, wh ch is to fub- 
fift hereafter between the ftate of 
North Carolina, and the ilates now 
in union under the new general go- 
vernment. 

G. Washington. 

Hlxu York, June ig, 1789/ 



of government, materially different 
fioui one they have been accuitomed 
to ; and will therettire rather be ddpof- 
to rejoice, that lo much lias been ef- 
fected, than regret, that more could 
not all at once accompliihed. "VVe 
lincerely believe, America is the only 
country m the world, where luch a 
deliberate change of government could 
lake place, under any circumlUnces 
whatever. 

We hope, your excellency w-ill 
pardon the liberty we take, in writing 
io particularly on this fubjeci : but 
this fiate, however it may differ in a- 
ny political opinions from the other 
Itaies, cordaliy joins with them, in ien- 
Imients of iheutmoll gratitude and ve- 
neration, for thofe diJtingudhed ta- 
lents, and thatilhillrious virtue, which 
ve i<iA apr;de in faying we believe, un- 
der God, have been theprincipal means 
of preferving the liberty, and procur- 
ing the independence of your country. 
We cannot help confidering you, fir, 
in lome meafure, as the father of it ; 
and hope to experience the good ef- 
fect of that confidence you lo juflly 
have acquired, in an abatement of the 
praty fpirit, which fo much endangers 
a union, on which the fafeiy and hap- 
oinefs of America can alone be found- 
ed. May iha't union, at a fhoit dil- 
tance of time, b-^ as perfect, and more 
fafe than ever ! and in the mean 
while, may the fiate of North Caro- 
lina be confidered, as it truly dcferves 
lo be, attached, with equal warmth 
with any fiate in the union, to the 
true intcrcil, prolperity, and glory of 
America, differing only, in fome par- 
ticulars, in opinion, as to the means 
of promoting them ! 

SAMUEL JOHNSTON. 
Bjr order and on behalf of the council^ 
JAIVIES IREDEL, prefdcnt. 
By order. 
William J. Dawson, 

Clerk council. 
May 10, 1789. 

ANSWER. 

Gentlemen, 

IT was fcarcely pofTible for any ad- 
dieCs to have given me greater 
pleafiire, than that which I have juft 
received from you : becaufe I confi- 
der it not only demonflrative of your 
approbation of my condutf in accept- 
ing the lirft effice in the union, but 



1789. 



Account of the climate of Pennfylvaniak 



«5 



Account of the climate of Pennfylva- 
nia, and its influence upon the hu- 
man body. From tncdical enqui- 
ries and obfrvations. — By Benja- 
min Rufk^ M. D. frofefjor of che- 
niflry in the uni-Oerfty of Penn- 
fylvania. — Printed and Jold by 
Prichard and Hall. 

THE Itaie of Pennfylvania lies 
between 39° 43' 25" and 42 ° 
north latitude, including, oFccurfe, 2 ° 
16' 35", equal to 157 miles, from its 
fouctiern to its northern boundary. 
The weftern extremity of rhe (lace is 
in the longitude of 5 ° 23' 40", and 
the eallern, in that of 27' tVom the 
meridian of Philadelphia, compre- 
hending, in a due vvell courfe, 311 
riiiles, exclufive of the territory lately 
purchafed by Pennfylvania from the 
united Hates, of which, as vet, no 
accurate furveys have been obtained. 
The llatc is bounded on the fouth by 
part of the (late of Delaware, by the 
whole ftate of Maryland, and by Vir- 
ginia to her weltern extremity. The 
kit named ftate, the territory lately 
ceded to Connefticut, and Lake 
Erie, (part of which is included in 
Pcnni^ylvaniaj form the wcrtern and 
north-vv'eflern boundaries of (he IJate. 
Part of the (late of New York, and 
the territory lately ceded to Pennfyl- 
vania, with a part of Lake Erie, coni- 
pofe the northern, and another part 
of New- York, wiih a large extent of 
New Jerfey (feparaled from F-ennfyl- 
vania by the river Delaware) roin- 
pofe the eallern boundaries of the 
liate. The lands, which form thefe 
boundaries (except a part of ihe Hates 
of Delaware, Maryland, and New 
Jerf?y) are in a Hate of nature. A 
large tract of the weltern, and north- 
eallern parts of Pennfylvania, is near- 
ly in the fame uncultivated lituation. 

*The Hate of Pennfylvania is interfer- 
ed and diverlified with numerous rivers 
and mountains. Todefcribe,oreven to 
eiuimerate them all, would far exceed 
the limits J have propofed to this ac- 
count of our climai'e. It will be fuf- 
ficient only to remark, that one of 
thefe rivers, viz. the tpufquchannah, 
begins at the northern boundary of the 
Hate, twelve miles from the river 
Delaware, and winding feveral hun- 
dred miles through a variegated coun- 
try, enters the Hate of Maryland on 
the fouthern line, fifiv-eight axles 
Vol. VI, 



weHward of Philadelphia ; that each 
of thefe rivers is lupplicd hy Pume« 
rous (treains of various fizes ; tbv.t 
tides flow in uarts of two of tliein, 
viz. in the Delaware and Schuylkill ; 
that the reil rife andLll alternately in 
wet and dry weather ; and that they Je- 
fcend w'th great rapidity, over promi- 
nent bedsof rocks in many places, until 
they empty themfelves into the bays 
of Delaware and Chefapeak on ths 
eaH. and into the Ohio on the weileru 
parts of the tlate. 

The mountains form a conHueralile 
part of the Hate of Pennfylva lia. 
Many of them appear to be refcrved, 
as perpeiual marks of the orig nal tin- 
pire of nature in this country. The 
Allegany, which croffes the Hate a- 
bout two hundred miles from Phila- 
delphia, in a north, inclining to an 
eaH courfe, is the moft conhdcrafcie 
and extend ve of thefe mounlans. It 
is called by the Indians, the backbore 
of the coniin^nt. Its heiijht, in dif- 
ferent places, is fuppofed to be about 
one thoulaiid three hundied feet from 
the adjacent plains*. 

The loil of Pennfylvania is diver- 
fified, by its vicinity to mountains and 
rivers. The vallies and botioins con- 
fift of a black mould, which extendi 
from a font to four feet in riepih, Bui, 
in general, a deep clay forms ihe fur- 
face of the earth. Im.nenfe beds of 
limeHone lie beneath this clay, in ma- 
ny parts of the Hate. This account 
of the (oil of Penn'.ylvania i«; confin- 
ed wholly to the lands on the eaH fids 
ofth- Alletrany mountain. The foil, 
on the weH hde of this irjontTtaiii, 
fliall he defcribed in anothc^r pi.ice. 

The city of Ph ladclphia lies in ihc 
latitude of 35 ° 57', in longitude 75 ° 
8' from Greanwich, and fifty- hve 
miles weft from the Atlantic Ocean. 

It IS fituaied about four miles due- 
north from the conOux of ihe rivers 
Delaware and Schuylkill. Ihe build- 
ings, which coniift chiefly of brick, 

NOTE. 

* The author is happy in being a- 
ble to inform the public, that a cor- 
reft view of thefe mountains and ri- 
vers, with their heights, d' dances, 
and courfes, will be publifhcd in a 
few months by mr, Read:ng Howell, 
of tlie city of PhiUdelph.a. iii a Lr^e 
map oi Petinf) Ivan a. 
D 



ti 



Account of the clinate of Pennjyivanh 



[J-al/, 



extcncl nearly three miles, north 
,aail fouth, along the Delaware, and 
aliove half a mile, due well, towards 
the Schuylkill, to which river the li- 
mits of liie city extend ; the whole 
including a diHance of two miles from 
the Delaware. The land near the 
rivers, between the city and the con- 
flux of the rivers, is, in general, low, 
inoif},and fubjeittobeovcifiowcd.'l he 
greatelt part of it is meadow ground. 
The land to the northward and welf- 
Vfardj in the vicinity of the city, is 
high, and, in general, well cultivated. 
Before the year 1778, the ground be- 
tween the prefent improvements of 
ihe city, and the raer Schuylkill, 
was covered with wood«. Thele, to- 
gether with large traMs of wood to 
inc iiorihward of the city, were cut 
dc»wn durm.t; 1 he winter that ihe Britilh 
armv had p ifTeJhon of Philadelphia. I 
fii:ili hereafter mention the inHuence, 
which ihe cutting down of thefe 
woods, and the lublequent cultivation 
of (he grounds in ihe neighbourhood 
of the city, have had upon the health 
of u< inhabitants. 

The mean height nf the ground, 
Hpon which the city- Hands, is about 
forty feet above the river Delaware. 
One of , the longed and moH pv)pulous 
directs in the city, rifcs only a few 
feet above the river. The air is much 
purer at the iiorih, than at the louih 
end of theciiy ; hcnte the lamps ex- 
hibit a fainter flame in us foiuhein 
than in its northern pans. 

1 he tide of the Delaware fcldom 
rlfcs more than lix feet. It flows 
four mlesan hour. The widih of the 
river, near the city, is about a mile. 

The ciiy, with the ad o 'tnig dif- 
Iritts of houthwark and the Nor- 
thern Liberties, contains between 
forty and Hfty ihonlaud inhahuants. 

From t'he arcouius, which have been 
handed down to us by our anceftovs, 
there is rcafon to heheve, that the 
clivnaie oi Pennfylvania has under- 
gone a material change. Thunder 
and tighining are Lis fref;aenr ; the 
cold of our winters, and (he heat of our 
fuminer^, are lefs uniform, than thev 
were forty or hfty yeais aso. Nor is 
this all : (he (prings are much colder, 
and rhe aunimns more temperate, than 
formerly, infomiich that caitle arc nut 
houfed lo foon, by one month, as 
tiiey vvrr*" iw former yi;ars. VvuUui 



the laft eight years, there have been 
exceptions to pan of thele oblerva- 
tions. Ihe winter of the year 1779 — 
80, was nniiormly and uncommonly 
cold. Ihe river Delaware was fro- 
zen near three months, during this 
winter; and public roads, for wag- 
gons and ileighs, connetted the ciiy 
of Philadelphia , in many places, 
with the Jcrley Ihore. The thicknefs 
of the ice in the river, near the ciiy, 
was from hxteen to nineteen inches ; 
and the depth of the froft in the ground 
was from four to five feet, according 
to the expofure of the ground and the 
quality of the foil. '1 his extraordi- 
nary depth of the frotl in the earth, 
compared wnh its depth in more nor- 
thern and colder countries, is occa- 
fioned by the long delay of fnow, 
which leaves the eanh without a co- 
vering, during the lall autumnal and 
the hfil winter months. Many planrs 
were deUroyed by the intenfenefs of 
the cold, during that winter. The 
ears of horned cattle, and the feet of 
hv)gs expoted to the air, were frofl- 
bmen ; Iqiurrels perilLed in their 
holes, and pircridges werei^ften found 
dead 111 the neighbourhood of farm- 
houle";. In January, the mercury 
flood for fcveval hours at 5 ° below o, 
m Farenheir's thermoineicr ; anddui- 
ing the whole of this month, (except 
on one dav) it never role, in the city 
of Philadi-lphia, to the freezing point. 
The Cjld, in t'le winter of the year 
1783 — 4, wasasuitenle, but not lo Hea- 
dy as it was in the wint( rthat has been 
delcnbed. It dilfered from it materi- 
ally in one particular, viz. there was a 
thaw in the month of January, which 
opened all our rivers for a few days. 

Ihe fummer, which liicceeded the 
winter of 1779—80, was uniformly 
warm. The mercury m the thermo- 
meter during ihis fummer, Hood on 
one day, the i5;h of AuguH, at 95 ° , 
and fluctuated between 93 ° and «o " 
for many weeks. The thermometer, 
in every reference, that has been, or 
ftiall he made to it, llocjd in the fliade 
in the open air. 

I know, it has been faid by many 
old pt uplr, that the winters in Penn- 
fylvania are lefs cold, and the fum- 
mers leL warm, than they were 
forty or hfty years ago. The want 
of ihernKJinetrical oblervations, be- 
fore and during ihofc years, readers it 



1789.] Letter reffeRing the fortrfcations inthe zacjlern country. 



t? 



difficult to deride this qwftion. 
Pcrtiap^i the difference of clothing 
and fenfation between yoiiih and old 
pge, in winter and (LimmcT, may have 
laid the foundation o-f ihis opinion. 
I fiifpeth the mean teniperature of the 
air in Peiinfylvania has not altered ; 
Vnit that the principal change in our 
climate confifls in the heat and cold 
b-'ing lef-i confined, than formerly, 
to their natural feafon^. I adopt the 
opinion of dr. Williamfon*, refpect- 
ing the diminution of the cold in the 
foutbern, being occafioned by thecui- 
tivation of the northern parts of Eu- 
rope ; hut no fiirh cultivation has 
taken place m the countries, which lie 
to the north- well of Pennfylvama ; 
nor do the partial and imperfert im- 
provements, which have been made in 
the northwcft-parts of the Hate, ap- 
pear to be fufficient to lefTen the cold, 
even in the city of Philadelphia^ I 
have been able to collefcl no facts, 
which difpofe me to believe, that the 
winters were colder before the year 
1740, than they have b"en fince. In 
ihe m Mnorah'Ie winter nf ly-jf) — 40, 
the Delaware wa^ croifcd on the ice 
in Uetghs, on the ,5th of March, old 
llyte, and did not open lill the 13th 
of the fame month. 1 he ground was 
covered, during this winter, with a 
deep fnow ; and the rays <if the fun 
were conftanMy obfcured hy a mili, 
which hung in the upper regions of 
the air. In the winter of 1779 — 80, 
the nver was navigable on the ^ih of 
March ; the depth of the fnow was 
moderate, and the gloommefs of the 
rold was fometimes fiifpended, for a 
few ddvs, by a cheerful fun. From 
thefe fafts, it is probable, the winter 
of 1739 — 40, was co*lder thau the 
Winter of 1779 — 80. 

Having premiled thefe general re- 
marks, I proceed to oblerve, that 
there are (eldom more than twenty or 
thirty davs. m fummer or winter, 
in Pennfvlvyn a. in which the mer- 
ciirv rifcs above 80 -^^ in the former, 
or fall below 30® in the latter fea- 
fon. Some old people have remark- 
ed, that the number of extremely cold 
ai^d warm days, in iuccelfive iummers 
and Winters, bears an exafet prupor- 



♦ American Philofophica^ Tranf- 
actioiis, voL i. 



tion to- each other. This was ftricl- 
ly true in the years 1787 and 1788. 

The warmeU part of theday in fum- 
mer IS at two o'clock, inordinary, and 
at three in the afternoon, in extreme- 
ly warm weather. From thefe hours, 
the heat gradually dimmilhes till ths 
enfuing morning. The cooled part 
of the four and-twenty hours is at the 
break of day. There are (eldom more 
than three or four nights in a fummer, 
in which the heat of the air is neaily 
tihe fame, as in the preceding dav. 
After the warmeft days, the evenings 
are generally agreeable, and often dc- 
lighifil. The higher the mercury- 
riles in theday time, ihc lower it falls 
the fiicceeding night. Th'' mercury 
froniSo ° generally falls to 68; while X 
delcends, when at 00 ° , only to 56 ® . 
This difprnportiou between the tem- 
perature of the day and nighi, in fimi- 
rcer, is always giedielt in the monih 
of Auguft. The dews, at this time, 
are heavy, in proportion to the cool- 
nefs of the evemng. They a<"e fome- 
times fo confiderable, as to wet the 
clothes; and there are inllances, in 
which marfe-meftdows.and even creeks 
which have been dry during the fum- 
mer, have 'been fuppiied with their 
ufiial waters, from no other foiirce 
rha-n the dews which have fallen in this 
month, c,r in the firft weeks of Stp- 
temher. 

There is another circumflance con- 
nefted with the one ju!l mentiotied, 
which contributes very much to miiigafc 
the heat of fummer ; and that is, it 
ft*ldom continues more than two or 
three days, without being fucceeded 
by (howers of rain, accompanied 
fometimes by thunder and lightning, 
and aftarwards by a Horth-weft wind, 
which produces a coolnels in the ar, 
that is highly invigorating and agree- 
ahle^ \^'fo be continue d.~\ 

••<►• <S; <»><S> ••<>•• 
Correfpondrnce between Noah Web- 
Jicr, cfq. avd the rev. Ezra Stilis, 

D. D. prefident of ¥aie college, 

v'/peQing the /'ortificatiom in the 

wjlern couvtry. 

I. \: TIER I . 

From Noah Wehjfer. efq. ta the rev-, 
Ezra StUes, D. D. 
Philadelphia., 061. 22, 1787. 
FevereJid Jir, 

YOU will recoiled that, when I 
came to Philadelphia, lall win- 



?.s 



Letter refpeEiing ihr fortijiealiens in the wejlern country. [July, 



ter, you wrote to dr. Franklin, re- 
qucRing his opinion of the tortihcati- 
ons, which have been difcovered in 
Kentucky and Mufkingiini, and par- 
ticularly defcnbed by general.Parlons 
and others, who have travelled into 
that country. The do51or could give 
no certain account of the time when 
tncy were raifed, or bv what nation ; 
hut mentioned the celebrated expedi- 
tion of Ferdinand de Soto, who pe- 
netrated into that couniry as early as 
ihe middle of the fixteeiuh century, 
in fearch of gold mines ; and thought 
it probable, the forts might have been 
erifted by this commander, to fecure 
bi'' troops from the favages. The 
doctor's mind is a rich treafurc of 
knowledge ; but although he retained 
the principal fafls refpecling the ex- 
pedition, yet he could not recoiled, 
in what colleftion of voyages he had 
found the account. I took pams to 
examine feveral colleSions in his li- 
brary, but without effcft. 

A few days ago, I was in a book- 
*£ore in this city, and accideiually 
laid my hands upon a {uiali ouarto vo- 
lume, entitled the hiltory of Florida, 
compiled by mr. Wiiiiam Rober;s. 
Il gave rnc much pk-afure and fir- 
pnie, on opening the book, to fee 
the name of Fcrdm?,ad de Soto. I 
immediately procured the book, in 
fiypectation of fatisfying myfelf, re- 
fpeiT:ing the original conlirutnon of 
th- fortifications wellof the Allegany, 
Tvhu h have caufeo io much fpeculat ion 
itPiong the curiou'-,. Th s work, con- 
tains a particuUr account of Ferdi- 
nand '.^ expedition into Florida, which 
I have read with fume attention. But 
I find it very difficult to determine, 
bv this account, and the maps that 
a ■company the work, how far he pe- 
uei rated into ihe'countrv. or in what 
particular places he wintered ; for ve- 
rv few of the name^ of rivers and In- 
dian towns, here mentioned, are ntcd 
i;i modi-rn times, in defcril/ing this 
p fvi of ilie couniry. I will, however, 
•ibridte the account, and fuhmii it to 
your fupcrior knowledge cf the geo- 
graphy of that quar:er of America, ro 
♦k'lermine, where the plai es njcntum- 
fd are htuaied. and how far I'V-rdi- 
natiil HinU havf? travelled from the 
g\.\\{ of {' iorida. 

Fer.dinand de S"to had ferv^^d nn- 
jier Francis Fizjuo, lii hi? conqueA 



of Peru. His good condufl recom- 
mended him to the emperor Charles 
V. who conferred on him the go- 
vernment of Cuba, with the rank of 
genera! i/f -Florida, and marquis of 
the lands m ir, which he fliould con- 
quer. He (a led from the Havanna, 
on the i2ih of May, 1539, with nine 
velTels, three hundred and fifty horfe 
and nine hundred foot. On the 25th he 
anchored in the bay of Spiritu Santo. 
The troops were landed, and Ferdi- 
nand began to march in quell of gold 
mines, the principal objecl of all the 
Sanifli expeditions to the new world. 
Fla diretted his courfe firft to the pro- 
vince of Paracoxi, a powerful Indiar\ 
chief, which is faid to be thirty 
leagues diftant ; but the courfe is not 
mentioned. He then went to Cale, 
which is faid to be weftward, but the 
diltance is not noticed. On his way, 
he palfed a rapid river, but its name is 
not mentioned. It is faid that, feven 
leagues beyond Cale, is Palache, a pro- 
vince abounding in maize. Ferdinand 
left Cale, on the 11th of Augull, foi' 
Palsrhe, which I take to be a river, 
that falK info the gulf of Mexic6, on 
the north eaft, afcout fifty mile? from 
the great river, now called Apalachi- 
Cola, and (as it is laid down on th^ 
map before me) about one hundred 
and eighty miles from the bay of Spi- 
ritu Santo, where Ferdinand firft 
landed. So far his march feeins well 
afcertained. On his way from Cale, 
he pafled through feveral Indian fet- 
tleinenls, viz. Hara, Potano, Utima- 
ma, Malapaz, Cholupnba, and then 
through a defart of two days journey, 
to Coliqucn. This muft have beeu 
in the large province of Palache, 
whuh takes its name from the nver. 
and from which the foiithern part of 
the Allegany mountains takes it« 
na'ne, Apalachian. 

Ferdinand Hayed at Cpliqucn fom« 
time, and colletted the troops which 
were left behind. On the io(\\ of 
September he marched, and in five 
days arrived at Napetaca. 1 he courfe 
is not mentioned ; but it is moft like- 
ly to be northward. From Napctac^ 
he marched to Uzachii, and thence, 
in two days, to Axille. Here he paff- 
e.l a nver, and arrived at Vitachuco, 
which is faid to he tn the province of 
Palache. This province is faid to be 
fciuie and well peopl-dj iioi!,fe.s aofi 



J 789.] Letter rrf piling the /ortificdttoni in the zoijurn covntry. 



«9 



villages appearing on every fide. By 
the [ime fpeiit in marching, one 
would fufpett, that Ferdinand muft 
hd\'c. by this time penetraied far into 
the cuuniry. Yet the account fays, 
he was but ten leagues from the fea : 
which, fuppofing it to be on the river 
Palachc, could not be more than two 
hundred or two hundred aad nfty 
miles from Spiritu Santo. Another 
circumftance corroborates this con- 
jeciure ; Ferdinand dilpatched a body 
of horfe to Spiruu Santa, with orders 
for the party left there, to join him at 
Palache. i. he horfcmen arrived in 
fix days, which, at forty miles a day, 
will make the diRance, two hundred 
and forty miles. 

The party, upon this order, left 
Spiniu Santo, and coading alonjJ, 
arrived at Palache bay on the 2.5ih of 
December. Ferdinand difpatched 
Ivlaldonado to reconnoitre the coun- 
Iry weilward : he went to Ochiiie, 
li.\ty leagues from Palache, and re- 
turned with a favourable account of 
tlie country. Ferdinand then difpatch- 
ed M»i»lonado with the fleet to the 
Havanna, for a fupply of wailike 
implements. On the information of 
an Indian, that the country Yupaha, 
to the eaRward, abounded in gold, 
Ferdinand left Palache on the 3d of 
March 1540, palled throuj^h Capachi- 
^ui, and arrived aj ioalli. On the 
»3d, he proceeded through Achefe 
and Altaraca to Ocuta, wheir the 
caffique, or chief, furniriied him with 
four hundred Indians for fervicc. He 
left Ocuta, on the i2ih of April, 
and proceeded to Cofaqui and to Pa- 
tofo. Not finding the gold mines 
which he expetted, Ferdinand was 
embarralli'd ; but being informed, 
that to the northweft lay a fertile, 
\veil peopled province, called Coca, 
he changed his route, and encounter- 
ing all difficulties, he proceeded to 
Aymay and Catafachiqui. Here he 
was told, that, at the diRance of 
twelve days iournev, lay the pro- 
vmce of Chiarha, which, by its d'i- 
tance and direttioa, w-ih the anal^i^y 
of names, I am inclined to believe, 
•was iome part of the tountry of the 
ChaHaws or Chikalaws, • Iliihcr 
Ferdinand determined to march, ihe 
d ftaiue from Ocuta to C'aiafathiqui 
IS faid to he one hundred and tJiiriy 
Dfiiies ; from the latter to Xi;alli, 



two hundred and fifty miles of moun- 
tainous country. This diRance, reck- 
oning from ihe river A palache north 
weR, will bring Ferdinand into the 
Chikafaw country, to the northward 
of the upper Creeks. The town of 
Chidca is laid to be fituaied at the 
forks of a river. Here the army re- 
pofed for fouie time ; and Ferdinand 
was told, that, to the northward of 
this, lay the country of Chifca which 
abounded in ore. He marched for 
Chlfca and a/nved ar AcoRa on the 
leih of July. He palled through Tali 
and Cofa, Tallimuchule and Itava; 
at the laR place he was detained by 
the overilpwu'g of a river; then pro- 
ceeded to UUibail:, Toafi, Tallife, 
Tafcaliica, Piacha, and Maville, 
where he had a fevere engagement 
with the natives. Here he heard that 
Maidonado had arrived at Ochufc 
with the fleet from the Havanna; 
but he determined not to return, till 
he led his army into fome neb 
country, where they might be reward- 
ed for their toil and danger. He then 
marched to Pafallaya, and thence pro- 
ceed to Chicaca, where he wintered. 
In April 1541, he lefc Chicaca, 
and palled feven days journey to 
Quizqiiiz, and then advanced to Rio 
Grande. This is undoubtedly the 
MiffiHippi, as It is defcribed to be one 
and a half mile wide, very deep and 
rapid. Boats were conftrutted, and the 
army crolTcd into Quixo. Ferdinand 
marched to Pacaha, through Cafqui ; 
and was obliged, on his way, to crofs 
an arin of the great river ; he arrived 
at Pacaha in June. He then proceed- 
ed loufhward, ro a great province 
called Quigate, then to Coligoa, Pa- 
lifemu, Taf?.licoya and Cayas, to 
the province of Tnlla, then to the 
province Autiamque, eighty lea<',ueS 
ioiithc-aftward, where he wintered. 

He Icf; A^utiarrqiie in March 154"!, 
and proceeded to Nilco, a fertile and 
populous countiy, on the banks of a 
great riyer. Tli s is the fame rivcT, 
that waters Cayas and Autiamque ; it 
ilows into a larger river, that waters 
Pacaha and Aquixo : their junciipa 
linear Guachaya. Ihe great nvec 
is called at this place, Tamalifeu ; at 
Nilco, I'apatu ; at Cofa, Mico. and 
at the fea, Ri. ~ 

Ferdinnnd dird'of a fever at Gua^- 
tiioy.!. aficv hav:D^ nominated Lewis 



^o 



CJ tompUxion and figure 



[July, 



Mafcofo to fucc-eed him. Soon after 
his death, Lewis attempted to travel 
by land fouth-weft to Mexico ; ha 
iiKirched one hundred and fifty leagues 
welt of the great nver, but meeting 
wuh infuperable obftacles, the army 
returned to Nilco, at fome diftance 
from which was the town Minoya, 
where the Spaniards determined to 
build themfelves fome veiTcIs, and 
fail out of the river, for Mexico. 
Seven veflT-Is were finilhed m June, 
and the rifmg of the water carried 
them off the ftocks into the river. 
The army eiribarkeil, July sd, 1543 ; 
arrived at the mouth of the river on 
the 16 h ; on the 18th proceeded to 
fea, and, after a paffags of fitty-two 
days, arrived in the river Panico, on 
the Mexican coalt, having endured 
every fatigue, and loft half their 
number of men. 

This account is very imperfect, 
and, in fome inflances, contradictory, 
as it Hands in the hiflory ; the courfe, 
and dirtance of places, are not always 
mentioned, and the dates of events 
are vifholly irreconcileable. 

Thefc circumftances, however, do 
not prove, that there never was fuch 
an expedition ; they only prove, that 
the original writers or tranfcribers 
have been negligent. 

The truth ot the expedition is un- 
^ueRionable ; and, on this fatt, I 
have only to make the following ra- 
marks. 

^S{. That Ferdinand, with an army 
of one thoufand or twelve hundred 
men, wintered two ficcefTive years 
in the country called Florida, or be- 
tween the gulf of Mexico and the 
lakes on the eall of MifTiffippi ; the 
fird wini'^r he palFed near the gulf, 
and the fecond at a great diftance to 
the northward*. 

ad. That the remains of the forti- 
fications, as they are defcribed, are 
fcartered in difFtrent parts of the 
country, and are {>f a fize or extent, 
for fecuring and accommodating that 
number of ni-en. 

3d. The grear river, mentioned in 
the relation, muft be the Miihlfippi, 

K o T F, . 

* " From the mouth of the MiffiT- 
/ipp', to the Ob'o, is about a thoufand 
Tn'l°- by vvater, and ijut five hiifdred 
by laiid." Ji:iycil<jii. 



which is def*p and rapid, and from 
one and a quarter, to a mile and a 
half wide. 

4th. Ferdinand muO have been fe- 
veral hundred miles from the fea ; 
for his troops ware fourteen days na- 
vigating the river, from the place 
where the veffels were conllructed, 
10 the mouth. 

5th. In the original, mention is 
feveral times made of falr-lpnngs, 
which abound not only in Rentutke, 
but in Mufk ngum, and on the well 
of the MiHilfippi. 

6th. It is laid th?t feveral very 
large trees are grown out of the 
brcaftworks ; this proves the antiquity 
of them ; and Ferdinand's expedition 
was two hundred and forty-feven 
years ago, — a length of time, in 
whichtrees will grow to any fize. 

If this arrount can g've any fat's- 
faftion to you or to other enquirers, 
it will gratify the wifh(="s of. 

Rev. fir, your moll obedient, 
and very humble fevant, 

NOAH WEBSTER. 

(Letter II. in our next.) 

An ejfay on the caufes of the variety 
of complexion and figure in the 
human f pedes.. Touihich are added, 
firitlurei on lord Kai?ns's dijcourje^ 
on the original divrrfity of man- 
kind. By the reverend Samurt 
Stan/iope Smith, D. D. vice-prefi- 
drnt, and profcffor ef moral phi- 
lofophy, in the college of New Jer^ 
fey ; and M. A. P. S. 

IN the hiftory and pliilofophy of 
human nature, one o! thfe firit ob- 
jetls that llrikes an obferver. is the 
variety of complexion, and of figure, 
among mankind. To alhgn the cauies 
of this phenomenon, has been fre- 
quently a fubject of curious (pecula- 
tion. Many philofophers have re- 
folved the difficulties, with which this 
enquiry is attended, by having re- 
courfe to the arbitrary hvp'^thelis, ihat 
men are ongmallv fpriin^ from dille- 
rent ftock-;, and are, therefore, divid- 
ed bv nauire into diiff-rent fpccies. 
But a' we are not at liberty to make 
this fuppontion, fo I hold it to be im- 
p'uloloph'cal to recur to hypothehs, 
when the whole clicCt tudy, on pro- 



1799.] 



in t/if human /pedes. 



31 



fer inveftigation, be accounted for, 
y the ordinary laws of naiure*. 
On this difcuirioii I am now about 
to enter ; and fliall probably unfold, 
in Its progreh, fome principles, the 
full ui)p(»riance ot wh:ch will not be 
obvious, at firft view, to ihofe who 
have not been accuftomtd to obferve 
the operations of naiure, with minute 
and careful auention — principles, how- 
ever, which, experience leads me 10 
believe, will acquire additional evi- 
dence from tune and obicrvation. 

Of the cauies of thefe varieties a- 
hiong mankind, I liiall iiai under 
the htad^ — 

I. Of climate. 

II. Of the flate of fociety. 

In treating this fubject, I Ihall not 
efpoufe any pecuhar iyilem of medi- 
cal principles, which, in the continu- 
al revolutions of opinion, might be in 
hazard of being hereafter dilcardcd. 
I Ihall, as much as pofTible, avoid 
ufing terms oi art ; or attempting to 
expLun thi manner of operation of the 
i'aifes, where diverfify of opinion a- 
mong phyiicians has left the iubjecl in 
doubt. 

And, in the beginning, permit me to 
make one general remark, which mult 
wiicn have occurred to every judicious 
enquirer into the pov/ers both of mo- 
ral and of phyfical caufes— that every 
permanent and charaderlfiic variety 
m human nature, is eftected by flow 
and ahnod imperceptible gradations. 
I J real and fudden cjiange"! are too vi- 
olent for the delicate confiitution of 
man, and always tend to dcilroy the 
fyftem. But changes, that become 
incorporated, and that form a char- 
ader of a climate or a nation, are pro- 
grelTively carried on through feveral 
generations, till the caufes, that pro- 
duce them, have attained their utmolt 

N o T £. 

* It is no fmall objeftion to this 
hypothefis, that thefe fpecies can ne- 
ver be ai'certained. We have no 
means of dillir>guiihing, how many 
v/ere originally formed, or where any 
of tiieui are now to be found. And they 
mull have been longfmcefo mixed by 
the migrations of mankind, that the 
proper; ies of each fpecies can never 
be deiermiiied. Belidss, this fuppo- 
fuion unavoidably conf)unds the whole 
philufopliy of human nature. 



operation. In this way, the m'nuteft 
caufes, afting conftantly, and long 
continued, will necefianly create great 
and confpicuous ditterences among 
mankind, 

I. Of the firft clafs of caufes I 
fiiall treat, under the head of climate. 

In tracing the globe from the pole 
to the equator, we obferve a gradation 
in the complexion, nearly in propor- 
tion to the latitude of the country. 
Immediately below the arctic circle, 
a high and fanguioe colour prevails. 
From this, you defcend to the mixture 
of rad in white; afterwards fuccced 
the brown, the olive, the tawny, and, 
at length, the black, as you proceed 
to the line. The fame diftance from 
the fun, however, does not, in every 
region, indicate the fame tempera- 
ture of climate. Some fecondary 
caufes mult be taken into confidera- 
tion, as correcting and limiting its in- 
fluence. The elevation of the land — 
its vicinity to the lea — .he nature of 
the foil — the ilate of cultivation — the 
courfeof winds — and many other cir- 
cumllances — enter into this view. Ele- 
vated and mountainous countries are 
cool, in proportion to their altitude a- 
bove the level of the fea — vicimty to 
the ocean produces oppofite effects, 
in northern and foiuhern latitudes ; 
for the ocean, being of a more equal 
temperature than the land, in one cafe, 
corretts the co'd, in the other, mo- 
derates the heat. Ranges of niauu- 
tauis, fuch as the Appenninesin Iialy, 
and Taurus, Caucdfus, and I mans in 
Ailia, by interrupting the courfe of 
cold winds, render the p.rotetffd 
countries below them warmer, and the 
countries above them colder, than is 
equivalent to the proportional ditie- 
rence of latitude. The frigid zcme 
in Alia is much wider, rtian it is in 
Europe; and that continent hardlv 
knows a temperate zone. From the 
northern cctan to Ca';cafus, fays 
Montefquieu, Afia msy be considered 
as a fiat mountain, I'hcnce, to the 
ocean that wafhes Perlia and India, 
ills a low and level country, wuhout 
feas, and pro ectL-d by this iinmenfe 
range of hills from the polar winds. 
The Afiatic is, therefore, warmer 
than the European continent, btlow 
the fortieth degree of latitude; and, 
above that latitude, it is much more 
cold. Clim^ie j' v rt-ic-.-tcs fonit dif- 



3* 



Of complexion and figure 



[>Jy. 



ference from tHe nature of the foil ; 
and fome from the degree of cultiva- 
tion, band IS fa-lceptible of greater 
heat than clay ; aad an uncultivated 
region, fhadcd wuli fore (Is, and cover- 
ed v;iih undraineJ marllies, is rmire 
frigid la northern, and more temperate 
in fouthern latitudes, than a country 
laid open to the direct and conftant 
adion of the fun. Hiftory informs 
us, that, when Germany and Scythia 
were buried in forelb, the Romans 
often traniported iheir armies acrofi 
the frozen Danube ; but, fince the ci- 
vilization of thofe barbarous regions, 
the Danube rarely freezes. Many o- 
iher circumRances might be eiuime- 
irated, which modify the influence or 
climate. Thefe will be fufficicnt to 
give a general idea of the fubjett : and 
by the intelligent reader t!acy may be 
cafily extended, and applied to the 
ftate of particular countries. ~ 

From the preceding obfervations 
we derive ih'<; conclufion, that there 
is a general ratio of heat and cold, 
which forms what vi;e call climate, 
awd a general refemblance of riatiotis, 
according to the latitude from the e- 
qiiator — fuhjett, however, to innu- 
metable varieties, from th'» innnlre 
combinations of the circuinflances I 
have fuggcfled. After having exhi- 
bited the general effe'il, I (hall take 
up the capital deviations from it, that 
are found in the world, and endea- 
vour t,> Qi'^w that they na'urally re- 
fiilt from certain concurrences of ihcle 
modifying caufes. 

0.ir expe'nence verifies the power 
of clirriate on the complexion, 'ihe 
heat of f inimer darkens the flim, the 
cold of winter chafes it, and excites a 
fangume colour. Thefe alternate ef- 
fetts, in the temperate zone, tend in 
fome degree to correfl each other. 
But when heat or cold predominates 
in any region, it impreflcs, in the fame 
proportion, a permanent and charac- 
teriiticai ct>mplexion. The degree, in 
wh'Ch it predominates, may be con- 
Cdercd as a conflant caufe, to the action 
ef which the human body is expofed. 
This caufe will atfecf the nerves, by 
tcntion or relaxation, by diL^iatioii or 
contraction — it wdl affect the fliiicis, 
by increafing or Icffi^ning the pcrlpi- 
ration, and hy altering the proportions 
of all the fccretions— it will peculiarly 
kiicct the ikin, by the immediate ope- 



ration cf iheatmofpherc — of the fun's 
rays-^-or of the principle of cold, up- 
on its delicate texture. Every len- 
fible difference in the degree of the 
caufe, will create a vifible change in 
the human body. To fuggell at prefent 
a fingle example — a cold and piercing 
air chai'"es the countenance and exalts 
the complexion — an air that is warm 
and milty, relaxes the conftitution, 
and gives, efprcially in valetudina- 
rians, fome tendency to a bilious hue. 
Thefe elFeds are tranfient, and inter- 
changeable, in countries where heat 
and cold alternately fucceed in nearly 
equal propor;ions. But when the 
climate couilantly repeats the one or 
the other of thefe cfFetts in any degree, 
then, in proportion, an habitual co- 
lour begins to be formed. Colour 
and figure may be ffyled habits of the 
body. Like other habits, they are 
created not by great and fuddeii im- 
prellions, but by continual ind almofl 
imperceptible touches. Of habits, 
both of mind and body, nations are 
fufceptible, as well as individuals. 
They are iranfmitted to their oS- 
fpring, and augmented by inheritance. 
Long in growing to maturity, nation- 
al features, like national manners, he- 
come fixed, only after a fucceflion of 
ages. I'hey become, however, fixed 
at lift. And if we can afcertain any 
elfetf, produced by a given ffate ef 
weather or of cl'.male, it requires on^ 
ly repetition during a fufficient length 
of time, to augment and impre{s it 
with a permanent charatler. The 
fanguine countenance will, for this 
reafon, be p"rpetual in the highefl la- 
titudes of the temperate zone ; and 
we fhall forever find the fwarthy, the 
olive, the tawny, and the black, as 
we defcend to the foiith. 

'i'iie uniformity of the effect in the 
fam? climate, and on men in a fimilar 
flate of fociety, proves the power and 
certainty of the caufe. If the advo- 
cates of different human fpecies fjp- 
pofe that the beneficent Deity created 
the inhaSiiants of the earth of diffe- 
rent colours, becaiife thefe colours 
are beff adapted to their refpetfive 
zones, It furely places his benevolence 
in a more advantageous light, to fay, 
he has given to human nature the pow- 
er of accommodating itlclf to every 
lont. This pliancy of nature is fa- 
vourable to the unions of the moll 



1789.] 



in the human fpecies^ 



S3 



diftant nations, and facilitates ;he ac- 
quifition and the extenfion of icience, 
which would oiherwife be confined to 
few objects, and to a very limited 
finge. It opens the way parfictilarly 
to the knowledge of the globe which 
we inhabit — a fubje^t fo important and 
interelting to man. It is verified by 
experience. Mankind are forever 
changing their habitations, by con- 
quell or by commerce. And we find 
them, in all climates, not only able to 
endure the change, but fo alfimilated 
by lime, that we cannot fay with cer- 
tainty, v.hofe anceflor was the native 
of the clime, and whofe the intruding 
foreigner. 

I will hpre prnpofe a few principles 
on the change of colour, that are not 
liable to difpute, and that may tend 
to Ihed foine light on this fubjett. 

In the beginning, it may be proper 
to obfervc, that the fkin, though ex- 
tieniely delicate, and eafily fulcepti- 
Meof imprellion from external cauies, 
IS, from us llrufture, among the lealt 
mutable pans of the body*. Change 
of complexion does for this reafon 
continue lon^, from whatever caufe it 
may have arifen. And if the cauCes 
of colour have deeply penetrated the 
texture of the flcin, it becomes per- 
petual. Figures, therefore, that are 
ilained with paints inferted by punc- 
tures made in us furface, can never 
be effaced f. An ardent fun is able 
entirely to penetrate iis texture. Even 
in our climate, the {km, when firll 

NOTES. 

* Anatomifls inform us, that, like 
the bones, it has few or no veifels, 
and therefore is not liable to thofe 
changes of augmentation or diminu- 
tion, and continual alteration of parts, 
to which ihe flefh, the blood, and the 
whole vafcular fyflem is fubjerl. 

+ It is well known, what a length 
of time is required to etiace the 
freckles, contracted in a fair fkm, by 
the expofiireof afingle day. Freckles 
are feeu of allftiades of colour. They 
are known to be created by the fun ; 
and become indelible by time. The 
fun has power equally to change every 
part of the fkin, when equally expof- 
ed to its aflion. And it is, not im- 
properly, obferved by fomc^ writers, 
that colour mav be juilly confidered 
as an univetfa! ffeckie. 

Vol. VI. 



expofed to the dire£l and conriniiej 
atlion of the folar ra\s, is inflamed 
into bliflers, and fcorched through its 
whole fubiiance. Such an operation 
not only changes iis colour, but in- 
creafes iis thicknefs. The ftlmulus 
of heat cxciiing a greater flux of hu- 
mours to the Ik in, tends to incradata 
its fubiiance. till it becomes denfe 
enough to reiift the attion of the ex- 
citing caufe :!:. On the fame principle, 
fnciion excites bliflers in the hand of 
the labourer, and thickens the fkin, 
till it becomes able to endure the con- 
tinued operation of his inflrumcnt-s. 
The face or the hand, expofed unco- 
vered during an entire fummer, con- 
tra8s a colour of the darkefl brown. 
In a torrid clmate, where the inha- 
bitants are naked, the colour will be 
as much deeper, as the ardor of the 
fun IS more coidlant and more intenfe. 
And if we compare tlie dark hue. that, 
among us, is lomeumes formed by 
continual expofure, wiih the colour 
cf the African, the difference is not 
greater, than is proporiioned to the 
augmented heat and conflancy of the 
climatelj. 

The principle of colour is not.how- 
ever,to be derived i'olely from the attion 
of the fun upon the fkin, Ilear,efv)e- 
cially, when united with putrid exha- 
lations, (hat copioufly impregnate the 
atmofphere in warm and uncultivated 
regions, relaxes the nervous fyflem. 
Ihe bile, in confequencc, is aug- 
mented, and Hied through the whole 
mafs of the body. This liquor tinges 
the complexion of a yellow colour, 
which affuines by time a darker hue. 
In many other indance^, we fee, ihat 
relaxation, whether it be caufed bv 
the vapours of llagnant waters, or by 
fedentary occupations, or by lofs of 
blood, or by indolence, fubjefts men 
to diforders of the bile, and difco- 
lours the Ikin. It has been proved, 

NOTES. 

X Anatomifls know, that all peo- 
ple of colour have their fkin thicker 
than people of a fair cornnlexion, !n 
proportion to ihe darkncfs of (he huf, 

!| If the force of fire be fuf'-^- 
cienf, at a given diiiance, to fcorrh 
the fuel, approach it as much nearer, 
as is proportional to the difrerence of 
heat between cur climate and that of 
Africa, »i:d it will butn ii black. 



OJ" complexion and Jigure in the human /pedes. 



34 

by phyncians, that, in fervid climates, 
the bile is always augraerned in pro- 
poitiori to the heat*. Bile expofed 
to the fun and air, is known to change 
its colour to black — black is therefore 
the tropical hue. Men, who remove 
from riorihern to fouthern regions, 
ure ulually attacked by dangerous dil- 
orders, that leave the blood impo- 
verifhed, and (bed a yellow appear- 
ance over the fkin. Thefe diforders 
are perhaps the etiorcs of nature, in 
breaking down and changing the con- 
fluution, m order to accominoddte it 
to the climate ; or to give it that de- 
gree of reliixaiion, and to mingl-" with 
It tti^i.t proportion of bile, which is 
neceifdry for its new fuuaiionf. On 
i|iis dark ground, the hue of the cli- 
iiiaie becomes, at lertjth, deeply and 
permanently impre(lc;d. 

On the lubjectof ihcphyfical caufes 
of colour, I fhall reduce my principles 
to a few fliort propofitions, derived 
chifily from experience and obferva- 
lioii, and placed in fiich connexion, 
as lu lUufiratc and fupport each other. 
They may be enlarged and multiplied 
by men ofleifiirc and talents, who are 
difpofed to piirfue the inquiry farther. 

1. It is a fact, that the fun darkens 
the {];in, although there be no uncom- 
mon redundancy of the bile. 

2. It is alfo a fact, that a redundan- 
cy of bile darketis th-? ikin, although 
there be no uncommon expolure to 
the funX. 

o. It IS a faft equally certain, that, 

NOTES. 

* See dr. M'Clurg on the bile. 

+ Phylicians diticr in their- opi- 
nions, concernmg the ftate of the 
bile in warm countries. Some fup- 
pofe that it is throw^n out to be a cor- 
rector of putridity. Others fuppole, 
thai, in all relaxed habits, the bile is 
itlelt in a putrid Hate, i decide not 
among the opinions of phylicians. 
Whichever be true, the theory I ad- 
vance will be equally juft. The bile 
wli be augmented ; it will tinge the 
Ikiu ; and there, whether in a louiid 
or putr d Hate, will receive the attion 
of the fun and aimofphere, and be, in 
proportion, changed towards black. 

t f<.edundancy of ble long conti- 
nued, as in the cafe of tlw? blark jaun- 
dice, '.r of extreme me '.incholv, creates 
a colour aliiioR perfottly black. 



[July, 



v\'!.-ere,both caufes co-operate, the cf- 
fefcl is much greater^ and the colour 
much deeperJI. 

4. It is difcovered by anatomifts, 
that the Ikin ct)nfiits of three lamellaj^ 
or folds — the external, which, in all na- 
tions, is an extremely fine and tranipa- 
rent integument — the interior, which 
is alfo white — and an intermediate, 
which IS a cellular membrane, filled 
with a mucous iubliance. 

5. Th's fub (lance, what ever it be, 
is altered in its appearance and colour, 
wiih every change of the conliiiution 
— as appears in blufiimg, in fevers, or 
in conkquence of exerc;fe. A lax 
nerve, that does not propel the blood 
with vigour, leaves it pale and fallow 
— U is ihll.iiuly afttcted with the 
Itnallefl furchage of bile, and liained 
of a yellow colour, 

6. The change of climite produces 
a proportionate alteration in the in« 
ternal ilate and ftructure of the body, 
and in the quantity of the fecreti- 
ons*. In fouthern climates particu- 
larly, the bile, a^ has been rer»arked, 
is always augmented. 

7. Bile, expofed to the fun and air, 
in a ftagnant, or nearly in a Uagnant 
flate, tends in its colour towards black. 

8. The fecretions, as they ap- 
proach the extremities, become more 
languid in their motion, till at length 
they come almoll to a fixed ftate in 
the Ikin. 

9. The aqueous parts efcaping eafi- 
ly by perfpiration through the pores 
of the fkin, thofe that are more denfe 
and incralFated remain in a'mucous or 
glutinous Hate, in that cellular mem- 
brane between the interior {kin and 
the fcarf, and receive there, during a 
long time, the imprcfhons of exter- 
nal and diicolouring caufes, 

NOTES. 

11 This we fee verified in thofe 
perf ms, who have been long fibiecl 
to bilious diforders, if they have been 
much cxpofcd to the fun. Their com- 
plexion becomes in that cafe extreme- 
ly dark. 

* This appears from the diforders, 
with which men are ufually attacked, 
on changing their climate ; and from 
the diifcrence of figure and afpett, 
which takes place in confequence of 
fuch removal^. This latter reflexion 
will hereafter be farther illudrated. 



■17%-3 Account of tke/aciety of Dunkards in Pinnjylvania. 



35 



10. The bile is peculiarly liable to 
become mucous and incra{ratecl+ ; 
and in this Oate, being unfit for per- 
fpiration, and attaching itfelf flrong- 
ly to that fpongy tiffue of nerves, it 
j-: there detained for a length of time, 
till it receives the repeated aclion of 
the fun and atmofphere. 

11. From all the preceding prin- 
ciples taken together, it appear*;, that 
the complexion, in any climate, will 
be changed towards black, in pro- 
portion to the degree of heat in the 
atmofphere, and to the quantity of 
bite in the fkin. 

12. The vapfuirs of ftagnant wa- 
ters, with which uncultivated rcg'ons 
abound — all great fatigues and liard- 
fhips — poverty and naihncfs — tend, as 
well as heat, to augment the bile. 
Hence, no lefs than from their nak- 
ednef's, favages will always be difco- 
lourfd, even in cold climates, tor, 
though cold, when afl'ifled by fuc- 
ciilent noiinlhment, and by the com- 
fortable lodcjing and clothing furnifh- 
ed in civilized focieiy, propels the 
blood with force to the extremities, 
and clears the complexion ; yet when 
bardfliips and bad living relax the 
fyllem, and when poor and (liivering 
favatres, under the ardic cold, do not 
poffefs thofe convenicncies, that, by 
opening the pores, and cherifhing 
the body, amll the mo;ion of the 
Jalood to the furface, the florid and 
fanguine principle is repelled ; and 
the complexion is left to be formed 
by the dark-coloured bile ; which, in 
that itate, becomes the more dark, be- 
caufe the obOruRion of the pores 
preferves it longer in a fixed (iare in 
the fkin. Hence, perhaps, the deep 
Lappoiiian complexion, which has 
been efteemed a phenomenon fo dif- 
ficult to be explained. 

13. Cold, where it is not extreme*, 
is followed by a. contrary efteS. It 
cOrretts the bile, it braces the confti- 

NOTES, 

+ In this flate it is always copiouf- 
ly found, in the flomach and intef- 
tines, at leaftin confequenceof a bili- 
ous habit of body. 

* Extreme cold i-^ followed by an 
cfFeft fimilar to that of extreme heat ; 
jt relaxes the conftitution by over- 
framing it, and augments the bile. 
This, together With the fatigues. 



tutiovi, it propels the blood to the fur- 
face of the body with vigour, and 
renders the complexion clear and 
florid+. 

Such are the obfervations, which I 
propgfe, concerning the proximate 
caufe of colour in the human fpecies. 
But 1 remark, with pleafure, that, 
whether this theory be well founded 
or not, the fact may be perfeBly af- 
certained, that climate has all that 
power to change the complexion, 
which I fujipofe, and which is necef- 
fapy to the prefent fubjetl. It appears 
from the whole ftateof the world — it 
appears from obvious and undeniable 
events within the memory of h'.ftory, 
and from events even withm our own 
view. 

..<v-«B.<S><S> ••♦- 

Account of the foctety of Dunkards 
in Pevnfylvania. Coinmunicated by 
a Britijh ofjicer to the editor of the 
Edinburgh. Magazine. 

S I R, Edin. April 7,^, 1786. 

THE whole road, from Lancafter 
to Ephrata, aftords a variety of 
beautiful profpefts ; the ground is rich 
and well cultivated, the wood (except- 
ing upon the road, where it ierves a<; 
a {belter from the piercing beams of 
the fun) thoroughly cleared, and the 
meadosvs abundantly watered by nu- 
merous refrefhing fpiings. About 
tv/elve miles from Lancafter, we left 
the great road, and flruck into the 
woods, through which we were led by 
"wildly devious paths" ro the delight- 
ful fpot where Ephrata Hands. The 
fituation of this place is molt jndici- 
oufly chofen ; it is equally fiieltered 
from the piercing cold winds of win- 
ter, and the beams of the fun in fum- 
mer ; an extenfive orchard fupphes 
the inhabitants with peaches, apples, 
cherries, &c. their beautiful gardens 
with every vegetable they can defire. 

KOTES. 

bardfliips and other evils of favaga 
life, renders the complexion darker 
beneath the arctic circle, than it is iti 
the midddle regions of the temperate 
zone, even in a favage flate of lo- 
ciety. 

+ Cold air is known to contain a 
confiderable quantity of nitre ; and 
this ingredient is known to be favour- 
able to a clear and ruddy ccmpiexion. 



36 



Account of the fecit ty of Dunkards 



[JuW, 



1 he rivulet which fefves as a boundary 
to their poffeHions upon one fide, is, 
though firtall, of infinite advantage to 
their, grounds; and, in its courfe, 
drives a paper-mill, from which they 
derive conhderable profits. 

We arrived about the hour of break- 
faft, and vs^ere moll hofpitably enter- 
t-iied by the prior, Peter Miller, a 
German. He is a judicious, fenfiblc, 
intelligfi-nt man : he had none of that 
ftiffnefs, which might naturally have 
bten expected from hi<; retired man- 
ner of life ; but fcemed ea{y, cheer- 
ful, and exceedingly deriroii<; to ren- 
der us every information in his pow- 
er. While breakfift was preparing, 
he propofed to give us fome account 
of their fociety ; which, as it was 
the ch'ef objetl of our journey, we 
very willingly acceded to. 

He told us, that their fociety was 
ellabliflied about fifty years ago, by a 
very worthy old man, by b:rih, a Ger- 
man, who had, from repeated and nu- 
merous misfortunes, formed a rooted 
difgufl to fociety, and had retired 
from the world for fome years. Se- 
veral others, both male and female, 
Irom fimilar m!sf)rtuncs, or other 
cnules, had likcwife retired ; and, 
trorn their habitations being contigu- 
ous, they had fonietimrsoppcrtnnitjes 
of feeing and conv^rfing with each 
other. As their diflike to focietv di- 
minilhcd, and their love of focial hcir- 
inony mcreafed, thcfe meetings be- 
came more and more frequent ; they 
began to feel the intonvenienceof to- 
tal folitude ; fimilarity of fcntiment 
and fituation attached them to ench 
other; and thcv ardently wiflied for 
the fiiggeflion of foine fcheme, which 
might tend to linLihem together IHll 
more clofely. The fagacious old 
German, whom they revered as a fa- 
ther, at length propofed the pref^nt 
fociety. He pointed out to them the 
manv and great advantages, which 
vi Diild be derived from fiu h a fcheme ; 
and, with very great pnius. wrote out a 
vodect laws for the regiilu ion of their 
iijtureconduft. His rules, thoiiijh rigid, 
ivere admirablv contrived, to preferve 
"I tier and regularity in fucli a numerous 
tuv-.tety : he held forth to them, how 
?;i!!bluicly nccefVrirv it was, to fubmit 
\viih implicit obedience lo the rules 
pre/lnbed : at length, by hiseloqiience, 
which fecms to iuve been very great. 



he formed a perfe£l union ; and, hav- 
ing obtained a grant of land, they be- 
gan their work with ardour and acti- 
vity. A fpirit of enthufiafm feeins 
to have infpired the whole ; unalhfted 
by any thing but their own labour, 
they in three weeks erefted the three 
buildings which yet remain, and which, 
from their prefent found Hate, prove 
them to have been built of fubllantlal 
materials. Their whole fociety, at 
this period, aniounted to about fift/ 
men and thirty women ; they lived in 
harmony, innocence, and peace, nor 
had any of them ever expreffed the 
fmalleil difgufl, at the fevere and ri- 
gid difciphne tliey had fworn to ob- 
lerve. 1 he molt remarkable vows, 
and upon v.'h:ch all the other depend- 
ed, were chaftityj poverty, and obe- 
dience, : a defire to encroach upon 
the firll of thefe, and an impatience 
of the lalt, proved the firll fource of 
contention, and occaltoned a tempo- 
rary revolution, which at one time 
threatened to exterminate them for 
ever. 

Among thofe who had lall joined 
them, were two brothers, men of ac- 
tive, daring fp!rits;bold and enter- 
priling, but headftri. rg and obllinate. 
Thefe men had experienced a multi- 
plicity of adventures ; they had been 
alternately rich and poor, happy and 
mi lerable; they had traverfed the whole 
continent of America ; had been engag- 
ed in innumerable purlults, and been 
expofed to a variety of dangers: from 
fome unlucky hits, however, or fuf- 
picious dealings, they found it necef- 
fary to abfcond. They conceived a 
rooted difgnft for a world, which would 
no longer be the dupe of their villainy ; 
they became hermits, and profeffed to 
be the warmed enthufialls in religion : 
they had refided for a confiderable 
time in the back parts of Nevv Eng- 
land ; in which retreat, they hf-ard of 
the dunkards, and feemingly from mo- 
tives of pure piety, were induced to 
join them. 

For fome time after their arrival, 
their behaviour was moft exemplary ; 
they were aftive and induftrioiis, and 
were confiantly the firll in their nu- 
merous religious exercifes ; they were 
tiniverfally cdeemed, and in very 
high cllimatlon with the original 
founder, who had now attained the 
title of fpiritual father. This good 



■1 



in Pennfylvania, 



37 



man feems really to have been a moft 
finilhed charatter : he faw the necef- 
fity there was for a prefident or ruler 
to this numerous body; but faw like- 
wile, that a llntt attendance upon 
this duty would too much inter- 
fere with the afts of devotion, in 
which he fo much delighted ; he there- 
fore fixed upon an old German, a 
ttian of profound fenfe and exem- 
plary piety, to perform this oifice — 
This man was invefted with unlimit- 
ed authority : his voice was a law, but 
he did not abufe his power ; his whole 
behaviour was truly noble. 

One of the brothers already men- 
tioned had attained to thir place of 
ireafurer to the fociety ; for notwith- 
ftanding their vow of poverty. ^ ihey 
had always a ftock of cafli by them, 
in caieofpanicnlar exigencies. Some 
fiiiliues here firft created fufpicions of 
this man : he was aware of his danger, 
and had been tampering with fome of 
the weaker brethren for fome time ; 
the prior interfered; an inveftigation 
took place, and they foon found that 
he had embezzled the cafli to a very 
tonfiderable amount ; they likewife 
difcovered, that he had been guilty of 
fome moll infamous debaucheries in 
the adjacent country, and thit he hid 
formed a party in the fociety, to de- 
pofe the prefent prior, and be defied 
in his room. An immediate contu- 
fion commenced ; parties were fonn- 
e^; and it feemcd as if a final end 
was to be put to this innocent and in- 
dullrious fociety. This fcoundrel 
had polluted the minds of muny of 
the brethren, with ideas ol indepen- 
dence, and with rebellious notions, 
perfecHy inconliilent with their ori- 
ginal conftitution ; he was an artful, 
cunning, deficning man : he difi^ay- 
ed, in the flrongell colours, the fer- 
vility they were held in. and argued 
the natural freedom of niankind in 
fupport of his opinion. He was 
liliened to with attention, and he did 
not fail to make ufe of his good for- 
tune ; that cnthufmlm, v/nich at firll 
inlpired them, arofe clnelly from no- 
veliy of fituation, or relpectful ado- 
ration of the good old German ; thele 
feelings, in many ol them, were 
blunted, in foine, totally fubfuled ; 
which })i(n'ed no imall ;ifli{lance to 
him in his endeavours. Things feem- 
cd approaching to a crilis ; bufincl's 



was at an end f even their religious 
duties were for a while fufpended, and, 
an immediate revolution wws expected. 
This little fociety was an epitome of 
the moll celebrated revolutions ; fears, 
jealoufies, fufpicions, invaded the 
heart of each member of the com- 
munity : the good brothers were in- 
timidated by the greatnefs of the dan- 
gei ; the bad were not yet prepared 
for a general revolt. 

Thingshad continued in tKisfituation 
for five days ; upon the fixth, in the 
morning, the old prior, Peter MiUer 
the preient prior, who was at that time 
printer, and ten more of the original 
lollituiors, went and boldly fcized the 
brothers. Relillance was vain; they 
carried them into the great hall ; the 
whole brotherhood was foon colleft- 
cd, and the fpiritual father made his 
appearance. The venerable figure of 
tins good man, his rigid devotion, his 
exemplary piety, his numerous vir- 
tues, ftruck at once upon their minds, 
and they liliened to him with atten- 
tion, whiKl he made a very long and 
pathetic harangue. He lamented the 
melancholy occafion of this meeting; 
recounted the caufes, which had firll 
brought them together ; gave them a 
clear view of their original inltitution, 
of the oath which ihcy had made to obey 
implicitly the rules prefcribed, thehap- 
pmels they had experienced, previous 
to the admidion of thefe wicked bro- 
thers, and thefatal confequences, which 
would inevitably anie from being left 
to themfelves, or the (liU more dread- 
ful alternative ofiubmitting to be go- 
verned by fuch a reprobate : he then 
finilhed, by propofing to baniih this 
vagabond from tne'r iociety ; to per- 
mit anv other dilcoiitented members 
to depart in peace ; and, finally, that 
the great power of the prior Ihouldbc 
fomewhat limited. 

This fpeech had the defired effect ; 
the luiligator of thjs rebellion was ba- 
nlfhed ; and Peter told me, he retired 
to Canada ; the other brother, with a 
few of the meml'erswho were difcon- 
teiited. left them, and all things re- 
mained upon the fame footing as be- 
fore. Thus was this dangerous rev(i~ 
lufioi', which feemed to threaten their 
dellrihHion, finally ended, and their 
former happmels re eftablifhed. Wh.it 
IS moll extraordinary, the women 
were entirely paifive in this affair, and 



38 



Account of the Jociety of Dunkards 



[July, 



received the acknowledgments of the 
fociety for ihc^ir behaviour. 

For foine time previou*- to this re- 
solution, the good old fpiruual fa- 
ther had retired to a hut about a mile 
from Ephrata, chiefly wtth a view of 
indulging himfclf more freely in his 
devotions. After this period, he he- 
came more and more attached to his 
folitude, and feldom made his appear- 
ance in p'lblic ; a fettled melaticholy 
feemed to opprels him, and he died, 
poor man, in the courfe of the year, 
eieven years from their inftitution. He 
Vr-a"-. buried at the door of his cabin ; 
a flat ffone is laid over his grave, but 
at bisowndelire there is no inicrip- 
tion. The hut yet remains ; and Pe- 
ter tells me, he often retires to it, and 
waters the good man's grave with his 
tears. Some few years after this, the 
pnordied, and Peter Miller was una- 
jjinioudy elected in his room. Ibey 
have lived in harmony and peace ever 
iince ; they never quarrel : indeed, 
peter favs, his office is merely nomi- 
nal, as he has never once had occa- 
fion to exert the authority veiled in 
him. 

They are now reduced to feven men 
and five women. Their original grant 
of lands conlidedof fcveial thoaland 
acres ; part was wrefted from thein by 
force, part was difpoted of to fettlers, 
■who chofe to live near them, and 
wtio entertain the fame religious o- 
pinions, and attend at the place of 
public worfliip on Sundays and holi- 
days, of which they have a great 
number. 

The number of thf fe people may 
amount to five hundred ; bui they 
have no manner of connexion with 
the dunkard* at Ephrata (i.hou.-^li they 
hear the fi-na lurne,} farther than a 
fiiu'lirily of reli^jious opinion. Ma- 
ny of c'l^iiJ, frmii chejice, wear the 
fame drets, and allow their benrds (o 
jjrow ; v.'hicii n^ay have jtu'en rife to 
liie m'.ftake of fcvcra! ^entjemen, who 
have written upon this (ubjecl. It is 
iikewifetobe obterved, thai the me- 
iionills of Pennlvlvaina alle^t tins 
sn.Kleof drel; ; and that manv wdow- 
crs III the hack iettlemeius atrmne no 
o'her mourning than a ionj,' beard ; all 
v/b'chmay ha^e deceived ciufoty ob- 
iervers, and given rife to tlse opinion 
of thefe people beinii io very nu- 
merous. 



The ground they at prefent pofTefs, 

and where their town is built, is not 
above fix acres. It is almoii filled 
with fruit trees ; the rivulei formerly 
mentioned, ferves as a boundary on 
one fide, and the reft is inclofed by 
a deep ditch and hornbeam hedge. 
The town confiUs of three wooden 
hoiifes of three ftory high each, and 
a few outer houfes : the cells of the 
breihrcn are exceedingly finall, and 
the windows and doors extremely ill- 
contrived for a hot climate; the 
doors in particular are narrow and 
very low. I enquired, but could nat 
dilcover, the caufe of this aukward 
and inconvenient mode of building. 
Each biothsr has a cell with a clofet 
adjoining; he isi'iipplicd with a table, 
a chair, and a bench for fieepuig on ; 
the bench is ct)vered with a woolen 
mat, and a billet of wood for a pil- 
low ; the fmalinefs and darknefs of 
the rooms are extremely difagreeable, 
and they were by no means clean : 
their drcfs likewife is moll unfavour- 
able to clcanhnefs ; and in faft, 
my friend Peter had a moll unfavory 
imell : his winter drefs was not laid 
ahde, though it was the middle of 
May, and very warm wea.'her; and 
his gown of while fianne! had attain- 
ed a yellow hue from the perfpiration, 
which really proved a moft unfeemly 
fight ; the length and blacknefs of 
his heard, with the greafinefs of his 
cowl or hood, for they wear no hats, 
added nrrt a little to the unconthnefs 
of his figure. They are mod tin fo- 
ciable ; they do not eat together, but 
eich in his own cell, which li'erally 
ferves him for kitchen, for parlour, 
and hall ; they arc continualiv engaged 
cither in aits of devotion, orhufinefs ; 
indeed, ihey feldom meet, excepting 
at worfhip, which ihey have twice a- 
day,and twice durinj; the night. Their 
churches, for they have two, were 
clean and neat, but perf Mly unadorn- 
ed, excepting by fome German texts 
of very cle'^ant penmanlhip by the fe- 
males. \ hcv li?ve no fet form of 
tervice, bin pr<w and preacli extem- 
pore ; and in this the females join 
ihem. 1 heir church is fiipplied with 
a luull but neat lleeple and clock ; 
this clock flrikes the. hours fiomone 
to twelve progrelTivcly, from the riling 
of I he lun, and begins again at fnn-fet, 
'ihey have a papcj inili, formerty 



iyig.] 



in Pennfylvania, 



3> 



mentionecl, a prinfing-houfe, and a 
library : they derive a confiderable 
protit from the mill ; but they print 
little, and have but a trifling library. 
1 expreiled iome furprile at this, and 
was informed by Peter, that, before 
the war, they had a very excellent 
one, ana were poffeffed of many va- 
luable books in Iheets for binding ; but 
that the rebels being at this period at a 
lols for paper to make cartridges, ge- 
neral Wamington fent an oliicer to 
feize all the paper and bov)ks he could 
find at Ephrata : his orders were im- 
plicitly obeyed*. In vain did poor 
Peter reprefent the inhumanity of this 
atlion ; in vain did he oiler to redeem 
them with a fnin of money : in vain 
did he remonllrate : infuit was added 
to inhumanity ; and books were taken, 
which, froin their fmallnels, were un- 
fit for the ul'e alhgned. A fimiUr ar- 

NOTE. 

* The writer of this account of the 
dunkards has fhamefuUy milrepreient- 
ed fads, and deviated from the truth in 
many particulars. The reverend Pe- 
ter Miller, the worthy prehdent of 
the dunkards, whofe charatter is Jo 
indecently and unjuflly afperfed by 
this illiberal writer, gives, in a letter to 
William Barton, efq. of this city, 
dated in April lall, the following 
account of the tranfaftions refer- 
red to, in oppofition to the royalid's 
alfertions. — '' It is faife," lays he, 
*' that we ever had any library — the 
books, taken from us, were of one iin- 
preilion, unbound." It is alfo falfe, 
that we ofFejed money to releafe ihofe 
books ; much lefs is it true, that we 
had a woolen nianufaclure, except for 
Dur own exigency ; and never was 
any woolen cloth demanded of us, 
except our blanket-., when the mili- 
tia went out firit, for which we were 
paid. The truth is, that an embargo 
was laid on all our printed paper — ^1- 
fo, that, for a time, we could not 
fell any book. At length, came one 
captain Hendcrfon, with tv^'o wag- 
gons, to fetch away all our printed 
paper: he pretended to have an or- 
der fram general Wafhington. As, at 
that time, the Englilh army was in 
our V cmity — we remonfliated, and 
fold the capta'n, thar, as this wo«id 
hurt oircharafter, we would not C'.jrs- 
leiu, unlefs he would take them by 



bitrary order was ifTued, to feize their 
woolen cloth, of which they general- 
ly have a large Itore ; but fortunately a 
French frigate arrived in the Dela- 
ware, before this fecond order could 
be put in execution. 

In the courle of our walk, we met 
with one or two of the brethren, one 
in particular an Engklhman, indeed 
the only one in ihe fociety ; he was 
employed in making ihmgjes, a bufi- 
neis that requires both Urength and 
dexterity; his head uncovered, and 
his veneialile countenance expoied 
to the piercing rays of a mid-day fun. 
He w.is eighty five years of age, yet 
was hale and Itouf ; he wa<; affable 
and cheerful ; he afked fcverai quef- 
tions about England and about the 

N o 1 t . 
force, for which we fhoul^ have a 
ceriihcate; to which he confenicd. 
Accordingly, he ordered fix men, with 
fixed bayonets, from the hofpital, 
which was at that time at Ephrata : 
and they loaded two waggons full. 
l"hc captain afterwards fettled wnli 
us, pay;iig us honelily, and we parted 
in peace ; itiough we never afked fiom 
him a ccriiHcate, but trulted to provi- 
dence. Whether the faid captain 
attert herein, by anexprefs or implied 
order of his excellency, 1 cannot fav : 
1 never faw any written one." " Yon 
are rij^ht," continues mr. Miller, 
" when yoi; fay, the account was writ- 
tcn by a Britilh officer. They (the 
Britiih officers) came here but once, 
wheii peace was concluded; but, be- 
ing itrong roydlids, they foi'nd little 
Idtisr.^Ccion with us. I may havetold 
them, that the paper was taken upon 
the general's order; for, all military 
orders were ifTued under that name, 
and we always obeyed fuch verbal or- 
ders, without feeing any written one, 
I he gentleman is very liberal, in grant- 
ing me new titles : I thank him for it ; 
and wifh that fuch greedy vultures. ai> 
he and his companions were, may ne- 
ver more conie to America." 

Mr. Miller's flaiement of thefe 
faffs may be relied on. The charac- 
ter of th's venerable man needs no 
defence, p.gainll the {lander, calf upon 
it by the man, who hid been kindly 
and hoipitaijly received under his 



ro 



^of 



Indian magTumimityt 



[J^iy, 



war ; and (hewed no fignsof age, ex- 
cept in being ratber deaf. 

vVe ihen proceeded to the houfe 
©ccupied by the nuns, to whom we 
were introduced by Feter, as Britiih 
oiiicers. The priorefs, who was, I 
think, near eighty, received us with 
the utinoll poluenefs, thanked us for 
the honour we did her in calling upon 
her, and conducted us chrotigh the 
houle ; it was uniformly clean, and 
the cells were in excellent order ; they 
did not, however, flick up to the 
ftritl rules of their order, but indulg- 
ed themlelves upon good feather beds, 
cf which chey had a great number. 
They fhcwed us lome volumes of moll 
elegant penmanihip and needlework. 
Tliey were employed in inlkucting 
ibme grls in fewmg, others in reading 
and writing ; they were the children 
©f the neighbouring dunkards, who 
are by them initiated into the myilery 
©f their religion : the boys are, in 
)ikc manner, educated by the men. 

Peier expreiTed great fears, that 
the.r fociety would become extinct; 
tv;a members only, one a female, 
the other a male, had joined ihcm in 
the coiirfe of forty years. He faid he 
had fomc hopes, that they might be 
jo;ned by fome of the Britilh oiiicers 
at the peace : we could not give him 
much encouragement in the op.nlon. 
He a:Lred us that he was perfi^ctly 
happy : at hrll, indeed, their fieq'ient 
and faiiguiiig religious duties, their 
abflincnce, and, in particular, iheir 
vows of challity, were hard to be ob- 
ferved ; but thefe ideas had long hnce 
luhfided. He employed his time, he 
ia:d, when unoccupied by buhnefs, 
in reading and expounding the Icrip- 
tures ; he dilcovered many things, 
which fome lime or another he meant 
topubliih; he was liill difcovering, 
with regard to hi? prefent religions opi- 
nions, which were thefeiitmientsoflhe 
whole. They retain both {acramenis,. 
but admit only adults (o baptdni ; ihey 
deny original iin, as to its ettccts up- 
on Adam's policrity : they deny, like- 
wife, tlie eicrnity of torments; and 
fuppofe, thu we only fuBer a certain 
time, in proportion to the nature and 
number of the fins we have committed 
in this life; thefe being purged away 
by a thorough repentance, the fouls 
are railed into heaven. All violence 
they elleeai unlawful ; even going to 



law, they look upon as contrary to the 
Ipirn of the gofpel. Feier paid taxes : 
U was his principle to fubmit to the 
ruling power; but he confcHed, ihat 
had he been to choofe, he would have 
given the preference to a Britifh go- 
vernment. He had been a clergyman 
of the Lutheran church ; he was an 
excellent fcholar, and well qualihed 
to teach Greek ; he underllood the 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, fpoke 
l" lench tolerably, and had a very com- 
petent knowledge of the Engliih : he 
feemed in all refpects afcnfiblc, well- 
ialormed, intelligent man. At part- 
ing, he prefented me with a p-am- 
pjilet, written originally in German by 
the ipiritual father, and tranflated by 
Peter: it is, a Differtation upon 
Man's Fall, and is, in truth, a cu- 
rious piece. We rode about fix miles 
further to a village called Reams 
I'own, where we dined. The coun- 
try was level and well cultivated ; as 
we returned, we called upon Peter, 
who, to our great furpnfe, prefented 
us wiih a glals of excellent Madeira r 
he told us, that, by the ftrict rules of 
their order, they were allowed only 
vegetables and water; but that, as old 
age advanced, he really found it ini- 
poifible to fubmit to fuch rigid d.fci- 
pliiic ; v^'e aduured his candour, znA 
joined him in dtinking a cheerful 
glafs. 

Upon our return to Lancafler, we 
could not help giving Peter and his 
brethren very great cicdit for their 
peaceable difpofitions, and prafmo; 
them for their prudence in avoiding 
law-pleas: we had formed plans ot 
tranfplanting iome of them to this part 
of the world, if podible, to ijuell tl^at 
fpirit of litigaiion and love of law, ii' 
prevalent among us; but we were, I 
confefs, not a iitilc furprifed, to Hnd, 
that Peter himlelf was one of the moll 
troublcfome, litigious fellows in the 
v,hole county, and that he never failed 
to make hi« appearance at the quarterly 
fedions in Lancaller, with fome fri- 
volous, lilly complaint : we were hear- 
tily alhamed cf our tooeafy credulitv, 
and detsrmined to afk no more quei- 
tions, ictt ihey might tend to further 
difcoveries. 

Indian magnanimity, 

AN Indian, who had not met 
with his ufual fuccefs in hunt- 



5780.] 



Protejiant religiov, politically confidered. 



ing, wandere3 down to a plantation 
among the back fettleme its in Vir- 
giniaj and feeing a planter at his 
door, afksd for a morfel of bread, 
for he was very hungry. 1 he plan- 
ter bid him begone, for he would 
give hun none. ' Will you give me 
then a cup of your beer ?' faid the 
Ind an. ' No, you (hall have none 
horc,' replied the planter. But I 
am very faint,' faid the favagc, ' will 
you give me only a draught of cold 
•water?' ' Get you gone, you Indian 
dog, you (liall have nothing here,' 
faid I he planter. It happened, fome 
months after, that the planter went 
on a {hooting party up into thewoodf, 
where, intent upon his game, he mil- 
fed his company, and loll his way ; 
and night coming on, he wandered 
through the forefl, till he efpied an 
Indian wigwam. He approached 
thf favage's habitation, and afkedhira 
to fliew him the way to a plantation 
on that fide the country. ' It is too 
Jate for you to go there this evening, 
fir,' faid the Indian : but if you will 
aeccpt of my homely fare, you are 
v/elcome.' He then offered him fome 
venifon, and fuch other refrefhment 
as his ftore afforded ; and having laid 
fome bear Ikins for his bed, hedefired 
that he would repofe hinjfelf for the 
night, and he would awake him early 
m the morning, and condufl him on 
.his way. Accordingly in the morn- 
ing they fet off, and the Indian led 
bim out of the forefl, and put him in the 
road he wastogo ; but jufl as they were 
taking leave, he ftepped before the 
planter, then turninground, and flar- 
ing full in his face, bid him fay, whe- 
ther he recollected his features. The 
p!an;cr was now ftruck with fhame 
and horror, when he beheld, in his 
kind protector, the Indian whom he 
had fo harfhly treated. He confefTed 
that he knew him, and was full of 
excufes for his brutal behaviour ; to 
which the Indian only replied : 
' When you fee poor Indians faint- 
ing for a cup of cold water, don't fay 
again, ' Get you gone, you Indian 
dog!' The Indian then wifhed him 
well on his journey, and left him. It 
is not difficult to fay, which of ihefe 
two had (he befl. claim to the name of 
chriftian. 



Vol. Vr. 



[From the Gazetteoftheunitedflates.] 

The importance of the protejiant rtli- 
gtun politically confidered. 

Teinpora mutantur, et r.cs rtiU' 
tamur in illis. 

THE religion, v/hich the citizens 
of America in general pi(<i'c-ls. 
isihat, for the fake of which, our 
virtuous fore- fathers lefigi-ied all ih.e 
honours, llie plrauires, the comforis, 
and almoll all the neceflTaries of iif;, 
which many of them enjoyed in abu'i- 
danceiti the old v^orld; and traverlcd 
the vail and perilous a;lantic, to 
tranfplant themfelves and faniil es to 
this, then rude, uncultivated wildcrncfj j 
fwarming with favage beaiis, and fiic 
more favage men. It is, thercfoie^ 
that religion, which laid the founda- 
tion of tin's new and great empire : it 
is the religion, of all others, the moll 
favourable to indufiry, commerce, the 
arts, fcience, freedom, and confc- 
quenily the temporal happinefs of 
mankind : it is the profeffcd religion 
of the greatell, wifcft, and bcO men 
this world has produced ; and it is the 
religion, of which we acknowledge 
God to be the author. Thefe will 
furcly he admitted as powerful claims 
to our particular reverence and re- 
fpett. To this religion, Britain is 
principally indebted, for that happy 
reformation and fubfcquent glonous 
revolution, which were the harbin- 
gers of her prefent dilhnguifhed great- 
nef';. To this religion and its worthy 
profelTors, it mufl be acknowledged, 
much is due, in bringing about the 
late glorious American revolution, 
InfpLred by this religion, our truly 
patriotic clergy boldly and zealoufiy 
flepped forth, and bravely flood our 
difiingmfhed centmels. to watch, and 
warn us againft approaching danger: 
they wifely faw, that our religioui 
and civil liberties were infeparably 
connected ; and therefore warmly ex- 
cited and animated the people, reio- 
liitely to oppofe and repel every hof- 
tile invader. Thefe are fome of the 
temporal blefTings, flowing from ouf 
religion ; and yet many of thofe pioiis 
chrifiianS, to whom, under God, we 
owe much of that fortitude, zeal, perfe- 
veraiice, and infpiration, which carried 
the American army through difficulties 
and dangers, apparently infui mount- 
able — may at this day be ranked amor^ 



Importance of tin protejlant religion^ 



42 

the moft needy and dependent men in 
the community : this is an evil greatly 
tobe deplored ; and urgently demands 
every polTible public and private ex- 
ertion, for the fakeofthoie, vv'hohave 
thus generoufly embraced a life of cer- 
tain indigence, for the caufe of religioxi 
and mankind — for the lake of their 
willows and offspring, who are ohcn 
left in the molt dillrelfed circurn- 
ftances, and for the honour and fccu- 
rity of thaF religion, to which we are 
largely indebted for this happy coun- 
try. The generality of mankind are 
more or lefs inlluenced and attracted by 
the powerandfplendour of riches ; and 
there are too many of all ranks, in 
every community, who annex an idea 
of contempt to the appearance of po- 
verty. This is too evident, to be con- 
troverted. • If, therefore, poverty is 
often treated with contempt, and al- 
ways with negieft, what may we not 
fear for that religion, of which, m 
this country, poverty is a diftinguiOi- 
ing badge ? The mafs of mankind are 
ever captivated by external appear- 
ances and (hew — barren minds receive 
no light from within ; and therefore 
cannot be fo eafiiy informed and con- 
vinced, of the iiurinfic worth of true 
religion, as they may be caught and 
infnared by the tinfel and trappings of 
any other ; it is therefore worthy of con- 
fideration,what may be the probable ef- 
fects oft he introduttion of other religi- 
ons ; and how far their ellcfts, if in any 
view dangerous, may be counterafted, 
conliflentiy with the jull and generous 
principles of toleration. 

The ignorant and illiterate, confli- 
tnte a large majority in all communi- 
ties — thele are awed, their excelTes 
controled, and rheir opinions bialfed, 
more from the exertions of religion, 
aod the vifihle relpecl paid to it by 
thofe, whom they deem their fupe- 
ri'>rs, tliai! from its immediate, fenfi- 
ble intliience on their own minds. It 
js ihercfore well worthy the attention 
of tlv^le, whoalFent to the import- 
ance of ihe prottllant religion, poli- 
tically conhdered, and who conceive, 
that It has had any (liare in producing 
the temporal bleHings we now enjov, 
to honour it with every polhble dil- 
tinguifhing mark of pre-eminence and 
refpect, not rrjiiignani to the true fpi- 
rit of lolera.'f.n ; andlibfraily to aid 
cur relifiious faihcrs. in the glorious 



[July, 



work of fiipporting tliis important 
bulwark of (jur conllitution ; and m 
the commemoration of thofe great 
events, conducive to the revolution 
and independence of America. May 
the virtue, zeal, and patriotifm of our 
clergy, be ever particularly remem- 
bered ; for it is a truth, as facred as 
the idea is ferious and alarming, that 
as our protellant clergy {hall hnk into 
contempt or neglctt, however unde- 
ferved, the learned will decline the 
profcllion ; and then — adieu to reli- 
gion, morality, and liberty ! While 
in conformity to the benevolent pre- 
cepts of true religion, as well as the 
liberal principles of our conllitution, 
Americans hold out religious liberty 
to all the various fetls, who may be 
dilpofed to become our fellow citi- 
zens, let us not be wanting in that at- 
tention and refpett, due to the religi- 
on we profefs ; left it fhould be fui- 
pctted, that our tolerant fpirit pro- 
ceeded more from a total indiflerence 
to all religion, than from that liberal- 
ity of fentiment and god-like charity, 
which true religion inculcates and 
inlpires, and which (it is hoped) will 
never be diflodged from the generous 
and benevolent breads of Americans. 

71% 9, 1789. E. C. 

[_To the editor of the Gazette of the 
unitedjlates.^ 
S t R, 

EVERY friend to the rights of 
confcience, equal liberty, and 
diUuiive happinefs, muft have felt 
pain, on feeing the attempt made by 
one of your correlpondenls, in the 
gazette of the united llates, No. J^, 
PvLiy the 5th, to revive, an odious 
fyilemof religious intolennce. The 
auihor may not have been fully fen- 
fible of the tendency of his publica- 
tion, becaufe he fpeaks of preferving 
univerfal toleration. Perhaps he is 
one of thofe, who think it confiflcnt 
wiih juftice, to exclude certain citi- 
zens from the honours and emolu- 
ments of fociety, merely on account 
of their religious opinions, provided 
they be not reftrained, by racks and 
forfeitures, from the exercife of that 
worfhip which their confciences ap- 
prove. If fuch be his views, in ya;n 
then have Americans aifociated into 
one great national union, under the 



J 789.] 



poliiically csr.Jldered, 



43 



exprefs condition of notbeing fliackled 
by religious teils ; and und;rr a firm 
perfuafion, that they were to retain, 
when aliociated, every natural right, 
not exprefsly lurrendered. 

Is it pretended, that they, v/ho are 
the objetis of an intended exclufion 
from certain offices of hoHOur and ad- 
vantage, have forfeited, by any acl 
of treafon again II the united Hates, 
the common rights of nature, or the 
Hipulated rights of the political foci- 
ety, of v.'hich they foim a part ? This 
the author has not prefumcd to aiTert. 
Their blood flowed as freely (in pro- 
portion to their numbers) to cement 
the fabric of independence, as ihal of 
any oftheirfellow-citizens. 1 hey con- 
curred, with perhaps greater unanimity, 
than any other body of men, in re- 
commending and promoting that go- 
vernment, from whofe influence A- 
merica anticipates all the blelTings of 
juftice, peace, plenty, good order, 
and civil and religious liberty. What 
charafter fliall we then give to a fyf- 
tem of policy, calculated for the ex- 
preCs purpofe of divelting of rights, 
legally acquired, thofe citizens, who 
are not only unoffending, but whofe 
condufl has been highly meritorious ? 

Thefe obfervatiuns refer to the ge- 
neral tendency of the publication, 
which I now proceed to confider 
more particularly. Is it true (as the 
author flates) that our forefathers a- 
bandoned their native home ; re- 
nounced its honours and comforts, and 
buried themfelves in the immenfe fo- 
refts of this new world, for the fake 
of that religion, which he recom- 
mends as preferable to any other? 
Was rot the religion, which the 
emigrants to the four fouthern flates 
brought with them to America, the 
pre-eminent and favoured religion of 
the country which they left ? Did the 
R-oman catholics, who firll came to 
Maryland, leave their native foil, for 
the fake of preferving the protellant 
church ? Was this the motive of the 
peaceable quakers, in the fettlement 
of Pennfylvania ? Did the firll In- 
habitants of the Jerfeys and New 
York, qmt Europe for fear of being 
compelled to renounce their protellant 
tenets ? Can it be even truly affirmed, 
that this motive operated on all, or a 
majority of thofe, who began to fettle 
and improve the four eaftcrn fiate« ? 



Or, even, if they realiy were influ- 
enced by a delire of preferving their 
religion, what will enfue from the 
fad, but that one denomination of 
proteftantK fought a retreat from the 
perfecution of another ? Will hiftory 
jiiflify [he affertion, that they left 
their native homes for the fake of the 
protellant religion, undcrftanding it 
in acomprehenhve fenfeasdilfinguifli- 
ed from every other ? 

This leading fact being fo much 
mis-ftated, no wonder that the author 
fliouldgo on, bewildering himfelfmore 
and more. He allerts that the re- 
ligion, wliicii he recommmends, laid 
the foundation of this great and new 
empire ; and therefore contends, that 
it is entitled to pre-eminence and dil- 
tinguiflied favour. Might 1 not fay, 
with equal truth, that the religion, 
which he recommends, exerted her 
powers to crufli this empire in its 
birth, and is Hill labouring to prevent 
its growth ? For, can we fo foon for- 
get, or now help feeing, that the bit- 
terell enemies of our national prof- 
perity profefs the fame religion, which 
prevails generally in the unitedftates ? 
What inference v.il! a philofophic 
mind draw from this view, but that re- 
ligion is out of the queftion — that it 
is ridiculous to fay, the protellant re- 
ligion IS the important bulwark of our 
conftitution — that the ellabliffiment 
of the American empire was not the 
work of this or that religion, but a- 
rofe from a generous exertion of all 
her citizens, to redrefs their wrongs, 
to aliert their rights, and lay its foun- 
dations on the ioundeft principles of 
juftice and equal liberty ? 

When he afcribed fo many valu- 
able eRefts to his cheriffied religion, as 
that ffie was the nurfe of arts and fci- 
ences, could he not refletl, that Ho- 
mer and Virgil, Demofthenes and Ci- 
cero, Tlmcydides and Livy, Phidias 
and Apelles, flouriffied long before 
this nurfe of arts and fciences had an 
exillence? Was he fo inconfiderate, 
as not to attend to the confequences, 
favourable to Polytheifm, which flow 
from his reafoning — or did he forget, 
that the emperor Julian, thai Usbiie and 
inveterate enemv of chi illianity, ap- 
plied this very fame argument to the 
defence of Heathenifli fuperflition ? 
The recoUeftion of thit circuiuilancc 
may induce him to fufpctl the weight 



Proteflant religion, politically conjidered. 



41 

cf his obfervation, and perhaps to 
doubt of the faci, whicU he airumed 
fur Us bafis. 

But he tells us that Britain " owes 
to her rehgion her prefent cjiilinguifli- 
ed greatnefs" — a gentle invitation to 
America to piirfue the fame pohtical 
maxims, in heapm^j exchifive favours 
on one and deprelfing all other re- 
ligion^ ! 

But does Britain indeed owe the 
perfeduin and extent of her manufac- 
tures, and the enormous wealth of ma- 
r.y individuals, to thecaufe alfigned by 
this writer? Can he io foon put it out 
of his mmd, that the paiient indullry, 
fo natural to Englilh artificers, and 
the long monopoly of our trade, and 
that of their dependencies, by increaf- 
jng the demand, and a competition a- 
mong her artizans, contributed prin- 
cipally to the perfetlion of the manu- 
faftures of Britain ; and that the plun- 
der of Indian provinces poured into 
her lap the immenfe fortunes, which 
mirder and rapacity accumulated in 
thofe fertile clunes i^ God forbid, that 
rel'gion (hould be initrumental in raif- 
ing Inch great nefs ! 

When the author proceeds to fay, 
that the clergy of liiai religion, which 
operated inch wonders m Br tain, 
'■ boldly and zeah^ufly flepped forth, 
and bravely ilood our dltinguiflied 
ceiiiiiiels, to bring about the late glo- 
rioiiv revolution "t— I am almriftdeter- 
m'ned !Q follow him no further : he is 
Iciduig 'lie oil too tender ground, on 
vhicb I choofe not to venture, 1 he 
clergy of that religion behaved, I be- 
lieve, a^ any otlier ( lergy would have 
don-:^ in fiimlar circumllances : but the 
voice of Amer ca will not contradift 
nie, when 1 afTert, ihat ihry difcover- 
ed no greater zeal for the revolution, 
than ihe muiidry of any other deno- 
mination whatever. 

When men comprehend not, or re- 
fufe to admit, the luininons principles, 
on which the rights of confcience and 
liberty of religion depend, they are in- 
dull nous to find out pretences for in- 
tolerance. If they cannot dlfcover 
ihem in the attions, they drain to cull 
them out of the tenets of the religion, 
•v.'hich they wifli to exchide from a 
free participation of equal rights. 
Thus this wriif r aitnbu'es to his reli- 
frion the merit of being the mod favour- 
j^bje to freedom ; and aairriis that not 



tJ^iy, 



only morality, but liberty likewifo 
mull expire, if his clergy (hould ever 
be contemned or negleded ; all which 
conveys a refined infinuation, that li- 
beriv cannot confilt with, or be cher-. 
ilhed by any other religious inftitu- 
tion ; wh ch therefore, he would give 
to underlland, it is not fafe to counte- 
nance in a free government. 

I am anxious to guard aga'infl the 
imprelhon, intended by fuch infinua- 
tions ; not merely for the fake of any 
one profeffion, but from an earneil 
regard to preferve inviolate for ever, 
in our new empire, the great princir 
pie of religious freedom. T.he cori- 
ilitutionsof fome of the Hates conti- 
nue Hill to entrench on the facred 
rights of confcience ; and men, who 
have bled, and opened their ptirfes as 
freely, in the caufe of liberty and in- 
dependence, as any other citizens, are 
moft unjulUy excluded from the ad- 
vantages, which they contributed to 
eftablilh. But if bigotry and narrow 
prejudices have hitherto prevented 
the cure of thefe evils, be it the duty 
of every lover of peace and juftice to 
extend them no further. Let the au- 
thor, who has opened this field for 
difcufJion, bev/are of flily imputing, to 
any fet of men, principles or confe- 
quencesj which they difavow. He 
perhaps may meet with retaliation. 
He may he told, and referred to lord 
Littl'-'on, as zealous a proteftant as 
any man of his days, for information, 
that the principles of non-refiOence 
fecmed the principles of that religion, 
which (we are now told) is molt fa- 
vourable to freedom ; and that Us op- 
ponents had gone too far in the other 
extreme*. 

He may be told farther, that a reve- 
rend prelaie of Ireland, the bifiiop of 
Cloyne, has lately attempted to prove 
that ihe proteftant epifcopal church is 
bell fitted to unite with ihe civil con- 
ftituiion of a mixf'd monarchy, while 
prefbvterianifra is only congenial with 
repiibhcanifm. Mufl America, then, 
yielding to thefe fanciful fyflems, 
confine her didinguirning favours to 
the followers of (.'alvin, and keep a 
jealous eye on all others ? Ought (he 
not rather to treat with contempt thefe 



* See dialogues of the dead, ^11 
dialoi'ue. 



17?9.] 



Exercife pr'ferable tomtdicine. 



idle, and (generally fpeaking) interefl- 
ed fpeculatiiiiis, refuted by reafon, 
hiftory, and daily experience ; and reft 
the prefervation of her liberties, and 
her (jovernment, on the attachment of 
mankind to ihcir political happinefs, 
to the fecurity of their perions and 
their property, which is independent 
of religious do6trines, and not re- 
Urained by any ? 

June \o, i-]2,g. Pacificus. 

Tke benejiti of exercife, in preference 
tomtdicine, in chronic diftafes, il- 
luflrated by an all'-»vry — cxtra&- 
ed from a publication 07i temper- 
ance and exercife, printed by John 
Dunlap in the year 1772, and af- 
cribcdto dr. Rufh. 

IN the iflaiid of Ceylon, in the In- 
dian ocean, a number of inva- 
lids were affeiTibled together, who 
were affliftcd with mod of the chronic 
difea'es, to which the human body 
is fnbjecl. In the midtl of them fat 
fcveral venerable figures, who amwf- 
cd them with encomiums upon fonie 
medicineSj which they alTured thein 
would afford infallible relief in all 
cafes. One boafled of an elixir — an- 
other of a powder, brought from A- 
merica — a third, of a medicine, in- 
vented and prepared in Germany — all 
of which, they faid. were certain an- 
tidotes to the gout — a fourih, cried 
up a nollrum for the vapours — a fifth, 
drops for the gravel — a fixth, a bal- 
fam, prepared from honey, as a fo- 
vereign remedy fur a ccniumpt:on — 
a ieventh, a pill for ciraneous erup- 
tions — while an eighth cried down 
the whole, and extolkd a mineral 
water, which lay a few miles from 
ihe place were they were adembltd. 
The credulous muhitude partook ea- 
gerlyof thefe medicines, but wiihoiu 
any relief of their refpeBive com- 
plaints. Several of thole v;ho made 
ufe of the antidotes 10 the gout, were 
hurried fuddenly out of the world. 
Some faid, their medicines were adul- 
terated — others, that the dofiors had 
niniaken their difordcrs — while molt 
of them agreed, that they were much 
worfe than ever. While they were 
all, with one accord, giving vent, in 
luis manner, to the tir.nipons of dif- 
apnoiniment and vexiition, a clap of 
thunder w^s heard over their htMiis, 



Upon looking up, a light vas feen 
in thefky. In the niidit of this ap- 
peared the figure of fomethuig more 
than human — £he was tail and come- 
ly — her (kin was fair as ihe driven 
fnow — a rofy hue tinged her cheek:; 
— her hair hung loofe upon her (houl- 
dets — her flowing robes dtfclofcd a 
fliape, which would have caft a (hadti 
upon the flatue of Venus of Mrdi- 
cis. In her right hand Cie held a 
bough of an evergreen — in her left 
hand (lie had a fcroll of parchmeri. 
She defcended {lowly, and Hood e- 
recl upon the earth — Ihe fixed her 
eyes, which fparkled with bfe, upon 
the deluded and afflitted company — 
there was a mixture of pity and in- 
dignation in her countenance — (lie 
ft retched forth her r'ght arm, and 
with a voice, which was Iweeter than 
melody itfelf, fhe addreffcd them ir* 
the following language; "Ye chil- 
dren of men, hllen for a while to the 
voiceof inftruttion. You feek health 
where it is not to be found. The 
boaded fpecifics you have been ufing, 
have no virtues. Even the perfon^ 
who gave them, labour under reany 
of the diforders they attempt to cure. 
My name is Hygiea. I prefide over 
the healih of mankind. Dilc^rrta'i 
your medicines, and feek relief f; cm 
temperance and exercife alone. E.ve- 
ry thing, you lee, isattivc around yoj. 
All the br;i'c animals in nature are ac- 
tive m their it, fiinchve piirfuits* Ini'ii- 
mate nature is active too — air — h;" — 
and watf;r are always in motion. Un- 
lels ihiS were the cafe, they would looij 
be unfit for thepurpofes, for which 
they were defigned, in t\\e ecor.oruy 
of nature. Shun iloth — this unh'ng- 
es all tiie fprings of life. Fly from 
your difeafes — they will not — they 
cannot purfue you." Here fhe end- 
ed — (lie dropped the parchment upon 
the earth— a cloud received her, and 
file immediately afcended, and difap- 
peared from their fi^ht — a filence eu- 
lued, more exprelTive of approba- 
tion, than the loude'l peals of ap- 
plaufe. One of ihcm approached, 
with reverence, to the foot where Ifie 
had flood — took up the fcroll, and read 
the contents of it to his conip^n'on". 
It contained direftions to each of 
them, W'hat they fiMvjld do ro re- 
flore their health. They all prepar- 
ed thcmfelves to obey the advice of 



46 



JVilliam Penn^s defcription 



[July, 



the heavenly vifion. The gouty man 
broke his vial of elixir, threw his 
powders into the fire, and walked four 
or five miles every day before break- 
fad. Theman, afflifted with the gra- 
vel, threw afide his drops, and began 
to work in his garden, or to play two 
or three hours every day at bowls. 
The hypochondriac and hyileric pa- 
tients difcharged their boxes of afa- 
foetida, and took a journey on horfe- 
back, to diftart and oppofitc ends of 
the ifland. The melancholic threw 
afide his gloomy fyliems of philofo- 
phy, and fent for a dancincr mafler. 
The Hudious man flint up his folios, 
and fought amnfement from thefports 
of children. The leper threw away 
bis mercurial pills, and fwam every 
day in a neighbouring river. The 
confumptive man threw his balfam out 
of his window, and took a voyage 
to a diflant country. After forae 
months, they all returned to the place 
they were v/ont to alFemble in. Joy 
appeared in each of their countenan- 
ces. One had renewed his youth — 
another had recovered the ufe of his 
limbs — a third, who had been half 
bent for many years, now walked 
upright — a fourth began to firg fome 
jovial fong, without being alked — 
a fifth could talk for hours together, 
without being interrupted with a cough 
— in a word, they all now enjoyed a 
complete recovery of their health. 
They joined in oiFenng facrifices to 
Hyglea. Temples were erefted to 
her memory ; and (he continues, to 
this day, to be worfhipped by all the 
inhabitants of that ifland. 

Letter cf William Penv, to //is 
Jritnds in Londcv, giving a de- 
Jcription of Penvjylvania. 

Philadelphia, the iSth of the Gtk 
month, called Augiijl, 1683. 

My hindfriends, 

THE kindnefs of yours by the fliip 
Thomas and Anne, doth much 
oblige me ; for by it I perceive the 
intereft you take in my healih and 
reputation, and the profperous be- 
j^innitig of this province, which you 
are fo kind as to think may much 
depend upon ihem. In return of 
which, I have fent you & long let- 
ter, and yet containing as brief an 



account of myfelf, and the affairs of 
this province, as 1 have been able 
to make. 

In the firfl; place, I take notice 
of the news you fent me, whereby 
I hiid, fome pcrfons have had fo lit- 
tle wit, and fo much malice, as to 
report my death ; and to mend the 
matter, dead a Jeiuit too, Oae might 
have reafonably hoped, that this dif- 
tancc, like death, would have been 
a protection againft fp'ite and envy ; 
and indeed, abfence being a kind of 
death, ought alike to fecure the name 
of the abfciit, as the dead ; becaufe 
they arc equally unable, as fuch, to 
defend thsmfclves: but they that in- 
tend mifchief, do not ufe to follow 
good rules 10 effeft it. However, 
to the great forrow and fliame of 
the inventors, T am ftiil alive, and 
no Jefuit, and, I thank God, very 
well. And without injiiftice to the 
authors of this, I may venture to 
infer, that they that wilfully and 
faflely report, would have been glad 
it had been fo. But 1 perceive, ma- 
ny frivolous and idle (lories have been 
invented, fince my departure from 
England, which, perhaps, at this time, 
are no more a!;ve, than I am dead. 

But if 1 have been unkindly ufed 
by fome I left behind me, I found 
love and refuett enough where 1 
came — an uuiverfal kind welcome, 
every fort in their way. For here are 
fome of feveral nations, as well 
as divers judgments : nor were the 
natives wanting in this ; for their kings, 
queens, and great men, both vifited 
and prefentcd me ; to whom I made 
faifable returns, &c. 

For the province, the general con- 
dition of it take as followeth, 

I. The country itfelf, in its foil, 
air, water, feafons, and produce, 
both natural amd artificial, is not to 
be defpifed. The land containeth di- 
vers forts of earth, as fand. yellow 
and black, poor and rich ; alfo gravel 
both loamy and diifly ; and in fome 
places, a fafl, fat earth, like to our 
bell vales in England, efpecially by 
inland brooks and rivers ; God m his 
wifdom having ordered it fo, that the 
advantages of the cojintry are divided, 
the back lands, being generally, three 
to one, richer than thofe that lie by 
navigable waters, \\^c have niuth 
of another foil, and that is a blatk 



1789.] 



hafel-moulJj upon a ftony or rocky 
bottom. 

II. The air is fweet and clear, the 
heavens ferene, like thefouth parts of 
France, rarely overcad ; and as the 
woods come, by numbers of people, 
to be more cleared, that ' itielf will 
refine. 

III. The waters are generally good ; 
for the rivers and brooks have mollly 
gravel and llony bottoms, and in 
number hardly credible^. We have 
alfo mineral waters, that operate in 
the fame manner with Bainet and 
Xorth-liall, not two nules from 
Philadelphia. 

IV. For the feafons of the year, 
having, by God's goodnefs, now 
lived over the coldeil L:nd hottcil, that 
the oldell liver in the pro? ince can 
remember, I can fay fomeiliing to an 
Enghfh underftanding. 

Firlt, of the fall, for then I came 
in : — I found it, from the ii4th of 
October, to the beginning of Decem- 
ber, as we have it ufually m England 
in September, or rather like an Fng- 
lifli mdd fpring. From December, to 
the beginning of the month called 
March, we had (harp, frofty w'eather, 
not foul, thick, black weather, as our 
north-eaft winds bring with them in 
England ; but a fky as clear as in 
fummer, and the air dry, cold, rier- 
cing, and hungry ; yet I remember 
not that I wore more cloaths, than in 
England. The reafon of this cold is 
given, from the great lakes, that are 
fed by the fountains of Canada. The 
winter before was as mild, fcarce any 
ice at all ; while this, for a few days, 
froze up our great river Delaware. 
Fiom that month, to the month cal- 
led June, we enjoyed a fwcet fpnng, 
no gufts, but gentle fliowers, and a 
fine fky. Yet this I obferve. that the 
winds here, as there, are more incon- 
llanr, fpring and fall, upon that turn 
of nature, than in fummer or winter. 
From thence to this prefent month, 
\vhich endeih the fummer (commonly 
fpeaking) we have had extraordinary 
hears, yet mitigated fometinies by 
cool breezes. The wind, that raleth 
the (uinmer feafon, is the fouth-wed ; 
but fpring, fall, and winter, it is rare 
to want the wholefoms north-wellern, 
fevpn days together ; and whatever 
mills, fog^, or vapours, foul the hea- 
vens by eailerlyor foutherly winds, in 



of Pennfylvania, t^-j 

two hours time are blown away : the 
one is fallowed by the other — a re- 
medy, that feems to have a peculiar 
providence in it to the inhabitants ; 
the multitude of trees, yet Handing, 
being liable to retain mills and va- 
pours, and yet not one quarter fo 
thick as I expefted. 

V. The natural produce of the 
country — of vegetables, is trees, fruits, 
plants, flowers. The trees of moll 
note, are the black walnut, cedar, 
cyprefs, chelnut, poplar, gumwood, 
hickery, fall'afras, alli, beech, and 
oak of divers forts, as red, white and 
black, Spanifh chefnut and fwamp. 
the moll durable of all : of all which, 
there is plenty for the uie of man. 

The fruits that I find in the woods, 
are the white and black mulberry, 
chelnut, walnut, plumbs, flrawber- 
ries, cranberries, hurtleberries, and 
grapes of divers forts. The great 
red grape, now ripe, called by igno- 
rance, •' the fox-grape," (becaule of 
the reiifli it hath with unikilful palates,) 
is in itfelf an extraordinary grape, 
and by art, doubtiefs, may be culti- 
vated to an excellent wine, if not fo 
fweet. yet little inferior to the fronti- 
n;ac ; as it is not much unlike in 
lafle, ruddinefs fet alide ; which m 
fuch things, as well as mankind, dif- 
fers the cafe much. There is a white 
kind of mufkadel, and a little black 
grape, like the clufler-grape of Eng- 
land, not yet fo ripe as the other ; 
but they tell me, when ripe, fweeter, 
and that they only want fkilful vinerons 
to make good ufe of them. 1 intend 
to venture on it with my Frenchman 
this feafon, who fliews fome know- 
ledge in thofe things. Here are alfo 
peaches, very good, and in great 
quantities ; not an Indian plantation 
without them : but whether naturally 
here at lirft , I know not ; however, 
one may have them by bufhels, for 
little. They make a pleafant drink, 
and, I think, not inferior to any 
peach yon have in England, except 
the true Newington. It isdiiputable 
with me, wheiher it be beil to fall to 
fining the fruits of the country, efpe- 
cially the grape, by the care and fkill 
of art. or fend for foreign Hems and 
fets, already good and approved. It 
feems moil rcafonable to believe, that 
not only a thing groweth heft, where 
it naturally grows, but 'v:l! hardly be. 



48 



h lamare medical focicty. 



[J"iy, 



equalled by another fpecies of the 
iame kind, that doth not naturally 
«;ro\v there, Jiui to lolve the doubt, 
i intend, if God give me hfe, to try 
both, and hope the confecjueiice Will 
be as gi.iud wine, as any Jiuropean 
countries, of the lame latitude, do 
yield. 

VI. The artificial produce of the 
country, is wheat*, barley, oats, rye, 
peafe, beans, fq lajhes, pLiuikuis, wa- 
ter-meioiis, muik melons, and all 
herbs and roots, that our gardens in 
i£ngland ufuaily bring foith. 

VII. Of living creatures, fidi, 
fowl, and the bealts, of the wouds, 
here are divers forts, iome for tood 
and profit, and fome for proht only : 
for food, as well as proht, the elk, as 
big as a fmall ox ; deer, bigger ihan 
ours ; beaver, racoon, rabbits, Iquir- 
rels : and fome eat young bear, and 
commend it. Of fowl of the' land, 
there is the turkey (forty and hfiy pounds 
■weight) which is very gieat ; phea- 
faiits, heath-birds, pigeons, and par- 
tridges in abundance. 'Of the water, 
the fvvan. goole, white and grey ; 
brands, ducks, teal; alfb'the fnipe 
and curlew, and that in great num- 
bers ; but the duck and teal excel ; 
Dor lo good have I ever eat in other 
countries. Of hfli, there is the ilur- 
geon, herring, r<Kk, ihad, cailhead, 
Ui^eplhead, eel, fmeit, perch, roach ; 
and in inland rivers, trout, fome fay 
iaimon above the falls. Of Ihell fiih, 
we have oyllers, crabs, cockles, 
cenchs, and muicles ; fome oyllers 
hx inches long ; and one fort of coc- 
kles, as big as the hewing oyllers ; 
ihey make a rich broth. The creatures 
lor profit only, by (kin or fur, and 
that are natural to thefe parts, are 
the wild cat, panther, otter, woU, fox, 
filher, m;nx, mufk rat : and of the 
•jvater, the whale for ol, of which 
%e have good llore ; and two com- 
panies of whalers, whofe boats are 

NOTE. 

* Edward Jones, fon-in-l.iw to 
Thomas Wynn, living on the Schuyl- 
k'l, had, with ordinary cultivation, 
from one grain of Englilh barley, fe- 
venty (lalks and cars of barley ; and 
it is common in this country, from 
one b'.lhel fown, to reap forty, ofien 
fifty, and fometimes fixty — and three 
pecks of wheat fov/ an acre here. 



built, will foon begin their work, 
which hath the aiipearance of a con- 
hderable improvement ; to fay no- 
thing of our reafonable hopes of 
good cod in the bay, 

VIII. Wehave no wantof horfes, 
and fome are very good, and fliapely 
enough ; two (hips have been freight- 
ed to Barbadoes with horfes and pipc- 
Haves, hnce my coming in. Here is 
alio plenty of cow-cattle, and fome 
fliecp ; the people plough moftly with 
oxen. 

IX. There are divers plants, that 
not only the Indians tell us, but wc 
have had occafion fo prove, by fwell- 
ings, burnings, cuts, &c. that they 
are of great virtue, fuddenly curing 
the patient : and for finell, I have 
obferved leveral, efpecially one, the 
wild myrtle ; the others, Ikoow nat 
what to call, but are mofi fragrant, 

X. The woods are adorned with 
lovely flowers, for colour, greatnefs, 
figure, and variety. I have feen the 
gardens of London, befl flored with 
that fort of beaiiiy ; but think they 
may be improved by our woods. I 
have fent a few to a perfon of quality 
this year, for a trial. 

Thus much of the country ; next 
of the natives, or Aborigines. 
(To be continued.) 



Mtdtcal focicty cfabliJJied in thtjatr 
of Delaware. 

1"^HE phyficians of the Delaware 
Hate had long regretted their un- ' 
connected fituation. Defpainrg ta 
obiain fome of the moli important ob- 
jecls of their profehion, while thus 
detached from one another — and con- 
vinced, that experience has uniform- 
ly attelted the advaniagesof literary 
affociation, they lately prclented a 
memorial to the honorable legiflaiure, 
on that fubject. After duly corfid- 
eriug the application, the general af- 
femblv, fv>r ihe liberal purp)fe of fof- 
tenng the interett of fcicnce, granied 
a charter of incorporation to a num- 
ber oF the faid phylicians, and their 
ficcelfors. for ever, under the name 
and flile of " the prehdent and fel- 
lon's of the medical focicty of the 
D'Hnware flate." 

TheobjeCf of this fo:iety is, to ani- 
mate and unue us refpetbve mem- 
bers, in the arduous work of cuitiva:- 



J789»l 



Delatuare medical fociety. 



49 



ing the fcience of medicine, and all its 
Auxiliary branches : wuh an efpecial 
view to us practical ule, the alleviat- 
ing of human niifery, the diminution 
of mortality, and the cure of difeafes. 
To accompli(h this intereiling pur- 
pofe, they will dirett their endea- 
vours — to inveltigate the endemical 
difeafes of our own c( . ury — to trace 
their effetls on its aboriginal inhabi- 
tants, and the fuccellive variations 
ihey have undergone, in the progrefs 
of fbciety from rudenefs to refinement 
— to remark the <;siieral operations of 
political, moral, and natural caufes, 
on the human body, and its d feafes — 
and, particularly, cbferve and record 
the eftefts of diHerent feafons, cli- 
mates, and fiiuations, and the changes 
produced in dilcafes, by the progrefs 
of fcience, commerce, agriculture, 
arts, population and manners — to ex- 
plore our animal, vegetable and min- 
eral kingdoms, and every accelfible 
department of nature, in fearch of the 
means of enriching and fimplifying 
our Materia Medica — to extend the 
fubftitution of our indigenous, for ex- 
otic remedies — to refcue fnm oblivi- 
on, and collect, fjr public view, the 
fugitive obfervations of intelligent 
phyhcians — to confer honorary re- 
wards on the efforts of genius and in- 
duftry — to fupeniitend the education 
cf medical itudents, and connefl, 
with the elements of medicine, an 
adequate knowledge of all the kindred 
and fubfervient Iciences — to enlarge 
our fources of knowledge, by iinporting 
and diffeminating the difcoveries and 
publications of foreign countries — to 
correfpond with learned focieties and 
individiialf — to appoint flaied times 
for literary intercourfe and communi- 
cations — to cuhivate harmony and li- 
berality among thepraftitioners of me- 
dicine — and, finally, to promote regu- 
larity and uniformity, in the prattice 
ofphyfic. 

A quorum of the fellows of the fo- 
ciety, in purfuance of the charter of 
incorporation, afi^embled ar Dover, on 
Tuefday, the laih of May lyJig, 
adopted the following conihtution : 

1. The officers of the fociety (hall 
conlili of a prefident, a vice prefident, 
four cenfors. a fecretary, and a treafur- 
cr, who fliali be annual lychofen by bal- 
lot, on the fecond 1 ueidav of May. 

2. The prefident, or, in hisabfence, 
the vice- prefident, fiiull prefide in all 

Vol.. Vi. 



the meetings, and fubfcribc all the 
public atis of the fo»-i-tY. The pi e(;dent, 
or in cafe of his death, or incajiiciiy, 
the vice prefident, with the concur- 
rence of two cenfors and four f .llows, 
fhall alfo have the power of CdUing a 
fpecial meeting of the fociriy, when- 
ever they may judge it iieccfTary. 

3. The bulinels of thecenfijrsfliall 
be, to infpett the records, and exam- 
ine the accounts and expenditures of 
the fociety, and to report ihi-reon* 
And all communicai ions, made to the 
fociety, after being read at one of 
their Hated meeting's, {ball be referred 
to the cenfors, and inch other fellows 
of the fociety, as fiiall be appointed 
for that purpofe, to examine and re- 
port thereon to the focietv. 

4. The fecretary fliall keep fair re- 
cords ofi he proceedings of ihc fi ctety ; 
and, under their dircttion, ihall cor- 
refpond with fiirh pcrfons and focie- 
ties, as may be judged neccirary, to 
promote the views and objeHs of the 
inliiiution. He fluU llkewife receive 
and preftrve all books and papers, be- 
longing to the fociety, and letters ad- 
dreffed to them. 

5. The trcafirer fiiall receive all 
donations, and alfo the contribiuions, 
arjHng from fuch laws and regulations, 
as the fociety niav. from time to time, 
make. He fiiall' likew.fe 1 eep all the 
monies and fecurities, belonging to 
the fociety : and fiiall pay all orders, 
figned by the prefident. or vice-prefi- 
dent, which orders fiiaU be his vouchers 
for his expenduiues. 

6. All qucfiions fliall be decided by 
a majority of votes. In thofe cafes, 
■where the focie-y is equally divided, 
ihe predding officer fiiall have a call- 
ing vote. 

7. Every fellow fliall fubfcribe the 
coiifiitution, and annually pay a dol- 
lar, to defray the contingent expenfc* 
of the fociety. 

1 he following gentlemen were 11- 
nanimoufly elected officers of the 
fociety. 

James Tilton, M. D. frrfidtnt, 
Jonas Prefton, M. li. vict-prcfidait. 
Nicholas VVav, M. D. "1 
Maihew Wilfon, D. D. '., .,r.. 
Dr. Jofliua C lay ton, -^ 

])r. Nathaniel Luff". J 
Edward Miller, M. B. fecretary. 
Dr. j.imes Sykes, treajurer, 

Fubliflied by orrlerof the fociety, 
Edward Miller^ f^'crei^rv. 



Medical li'fiory of the Cortex Ruber or red bark. 



50 

Medical kijlory of the Cortex Ruber ^ 
or Red Bark ; communicated to 
John Morgan, M. D. profeffor of 
the theory and praEiice of pliyfic at 
Philadelphia^ and F. R. S. Lon- 
don, &c. 

I HAVE lately received the fol- 
lowing commiinications upon the 
cortex ruber, which I h^ve found fo 
efficacious, in the cure of obftinate 
Tcm:tfent and bilious fevers, that I 
think It my duty to lay them before 
this fociety, in hopes of fo valuable' 
a medicine being thereby Lietter known, 
and introduced more generally into 
practice. 

ExtraSl of a letter from Thomas S. 
Diiche, deled London, Augujt o, 
1783. 

" I was lately at a leQiire, delivered 
at Guy 's hofpital, by dr. Saunders, 
upon the cure of intermittent fevers ; 
andobferving, the dotior fpoke very 
much in favour of a new fpecies of 
bark, which he had introduced into 
the pra^Uce of phyfic, I procured a 
fpccimen of it for you, thinking it 
iright be a.qrceahle to you, to hear of 
any new improvements in the healing 
an. It is called red bark. Accord- 
ing to his account, it }M)iTeires fo 
much virtue, and is of fiich certain 
elHcacy, that, compared with it, the 
common bark is an inert tnafs. tt 
contains a nouch larger portion of re- 
fin, has a much ftronger aromatx 
talle than the common bark, and 
,d"es not require half ihe quantity for 
a dofe. Ainongfi: other particulars, 
hemeiirioned the following proof of 
its fuperior virtue, namely, that, of this 
medicine, when adminiitcred in a 
-fmiple cold infufion, any given quan- 
tify is much flrongerand moreellettual 
to remove the fever, than a chemical 
extratt from the fame quantity of the 
.other. I now fend you a fpecimen, 
by which you will be able to make a 
trial, and form fome judgment of its 
virtues." , 

T. S. DUCHK. 

Soon after the receipt of (he fore- 
going letter, I received the following 
valuable comiTTMnications from dr. 
George Davtdfon of St. I.iicia, 
■which it affords me great pieafare to 
la) before this fociety. 



Un\% 



St. Lucia, Augufl 23, 1783, 
To dr. John Morgan, at Philadtlphi*. 
Sir, 

If the fubjeft, upon which I have 
the honour to write to you, fliould be 
found to merit attention, and prove 
in any refpecl uleful and advantage- 
ous to mankind, J fhall eahly ftand 
excufed m addrelliiig you, perfonally 
unacquainted as I am. 

I have, by this opportunity, fent a 
fmall fpccimen of the Cinchona of 
this ifund, rclemSlmg the Peruvi- 
an bark iti us l)otanical charaHer, 
and, froiTV thetrial made here, furpalF- 
Ing it in racdical virtues. It is 
now nearly four years, fince the Cari- 
bbean bark was difcovered upon the 
heights adjoining Morne Fortune, 
and introduced into praft ce by dr. 
Young, phyfician to his Briiannic 
majelty's troops. The frelhnefs of 
the bark, the little atieution bellow- 
ed in drying it, and the large dofes^ 
in which it was exhibited, produced 
nlarming fits of vomiting and purg- 
ing, and deterred us, at that time, 
from the further profecution of tha 
fubjeft, until the other day, that a 
treatife upon the red bark, by dr. 
Saunders of London, and a belief, 
which we entertained, that this was 
the fame bark which he defcribes, 
induced us again to make a trial of 
it. Having properly dried it, and 
given it in the cold infufion, with 
greater caution, and in lefs dofes, 
than at the hril eday, we are now 
happy in affaring the public, that, in 
molt inftancc',- it has not difappoini- 
ed us. Still, however, notwithlland- 
ing the utmoll care in drying if, in 
fo me cafes it ftill fecms ro retain its 
emetic and purgative qualities ; as the 
{lomach and firll p.ilfages, in com- 
plaints here, arc loaded with a quan- 
tity of putrid bile. Thcfe are not its 
lead valuahTe properties. It will, 
however, be neceifary, when thefi; 
effeHs are produced, to check them 
afierwards by opiates. 

With regard fo it? preparalions ; 
I have generally given it in the cold 
infufion, made either with lime or 
cinnamon water. An exiraft, made 
with fpirits and water, fas caiily on 
the flomach, and can be given in 
laiger quantities. 

In ibmc late cafes of tertians. 



,7?9-3 



Hints on the meaflcs. 



5* 



where I Inve been called to the pa- 
tient, diirmi^the fecond Hi — without 
watching for its going oif, 1 have be- 
gun with this baik, which etieflualiy 
cleanled the llomach and bowels, and 
yaved the way for i:s fature adinmii- 
tration. 

In pijtrid d>fentcr;cs, and in a re- 
tnarkablc fpecies cf dyfentery, con- 
joined with an intermittent fever, 
which 1 iiave met with here, the bark 
has done more, than all the remedies, 
that I have lecn emuloyed. The 
purgative effects, which it produced, 
enabled us to throw it in earlier ; th^ 
hardened fcybula, the fiipport of the 
difeafe, were removed, the (lomach 
and bowels braced up, and, by the in- 
ttrpofition of opiates, the fpafais were 
removed. 

f laving fent fcveral fpecimens of 
the bark, for a trial, to different parts 
uf the continent of America, and 
pariiculaily to my worthy triend, dr. 
Hall, of Peterfburgh, Virginia, I 
impatiently wait the refult of yqur tri- 
als, and will eileem myfeU particu- 
larly obliged by your communication. 
If you choofe, 1 Ihall fend you fome 
pf the young trees planted in tubs, with 
foD^e of I he feeds. 

Should It be found to anfwer niy 
expectation, the pleafure, refulting 
from the thoughts of having commu- 
nicated fomething ufeful, will be to 
r.ie ample enough recompeufe. \ 
have the honour to be. 

With the utmolt refpef^, 

Your moft obcdieiH humble fcrvt. 
George DAviDsoi;. 

P. S. Dr. Wright of Jamaica (in 
fifth vol. of medical commentaries.) 
deicribes a fpecies of cinchona, with 
only one flower on a footflalk ; the 
fame was likwife found at the Havan- 
na. It differs, in that particular, 
from the old bark, which refembles 
the St. Lucia bark, in having feveral 
flowers on each footflalk. 
Tke following is a de/criplion of ike 

cinchona caribaea fanBae luciae. 

The tree is commonly fojnd in ra- 
vines, near fprings, under the (hade 
of a larger tree. J t delights in places 
well fhaded, and defended from the 
north-eafl trade-wind : the foil is com- 
monly a itiff red earth, vyiih a clayey 
fub-ftratum ; quantities of fmall beau- 
tiful chryRals, cf a regular angular 
form, arc found intermixed. 



The tree isa'.K.ait the fiie of the cher- 
ry tree ; feldoni exceeding the thicknefs 
of the thigh, and twenty-five feet in 
height. 

'Ihe flowers beg;n to appear, at 
the commencerrent i.f the lamy fea- 
fon. 111 beautiful tufis, upon pannicles 
branched oiit in threes and fours, 
I have never feen that fpecies, de- 
fcribed by Jacquiii, and found at the 
Havanna. pedunculis unijloris. 

Before the corolla ;s fully expand- 
ed, and the flam na make their ap- 
pearance wuhout the tube of the co- 
rolla, the flower is white ; but it af- 
terwards turns to a beautiful mirpie. 
Ihea di"opping off, the gernien en- 
larges to the fiiie cf a hazle-nut, ob- 
long and round. It gradually dries, 
burlfs in two, and iVatters ihe feeds, 
which fall to the 'ground and again 
take root. 

The wood of the tree is light, 
fpoiigy, and fit for no ufeful purpofe. 
It has not the hitter tafleof the bark. 
The leaves are very bitter, and the 
flowers, feeds, &c. feem to poffefs 
the bitternefs and aifruigency m a 
more eminent degree. 

An ounce of the bark, in fine pow- 
der, infufed in a quart of cold water 
for twenty four hours, and the infii- 
lion afterwards Eliertd, appears hgh- 
cr coloured, than a decoction made 
with double the quantity^ of the old 
bark. The colour, wlvch it ffrikes 
with the tin£l. f.or. viartial. and J'aL 
viartis, is likewife of a deeper black. 
1 he fpirituous tincture is of a deep 
red colour, and ftnkcs a deep black, 
by the addition of the preparations 
of iron. 

The taflc of the Cinchona Cari- 
basa is raanifcfliy more affringent, 
than the tafte of the old bark ; an 
inference may therefore, d priori, 
be made, that its tonic powers are 
greater. 

The quantity of refin, which it 
yields, is much more confiderabie ; 
and an extrart, made both with fpirits 
and water, feems to poirefs the whole 
virtues of the bark. 

Hints on the meajles. 

TH E meafles are an eruptive fe- 
ver, attended with a geneial in- 
flammation. In fome conflitutions, 
the meafles give fymptoras uf iheir 



Hints on the meajles. 



[July, 



approach, many days before they dif- 
euver themlelves, by a frequent and 
dry tojgh, fuch as commonly attends 
a flight cold, without any other com- 
plaint ; though, for the mofl part, by 
ihiveijiig^:, attended with alternate 
heat, which is accompanied with 
fiieezing, fwellingof the eyelids, and 
a coiiltant (leepinefs ; a thin humour 
often diRils from the eyes and nofe ; 
thefe lall fymptonis are thecharatterif- 
tics, which diftinguifli this difeafe from 
moll other eruptive fevers. 1 he 
tongue is white and foul, but not ve- 
ry dry ; the heat and fever increafe 
every hour, with a fevere cough, ve- 
hement ficknefs, thirll, lofs of appe- 
tue, lometimes atiended with a vo- 
H^n:no;, and often with a fneezing, 
withgreenilhflools; but this laft fymp- 
tom iiappens moflly to infants, and 
that, dunng the time of deiuuion. 
J. he lymptums gentrallv grow more 
violent, until the, fourth day, when 
there appear, upon the face, fmall e- 
riiptions, like llca-bites, which fooii 
flow together in large fpots : on the 
bread, they are broad and red, fc-1- 
doM) rifing above the fiirface of the 
fkin ; but may be eafily felt, by 
prelfing gently with the finger : they- 
pradiiallv i xiend from the face to the 
breall, and downwards to the thighs 
ana Itgs ; bu! are not fo dilHnct pim- 
ples in the trunk and exirernities, as 
in the fare, but are equally as red. 
Thi fympfoms do not abate, in this 
dileafe, when the eruption appears, as 
they doin the fmall-pox. The vomiting 
fejdom continues after, but the cough 
and f ver are generally more violent ; 
thediffirultyoFbreaihing, theweaknefs 
and dcjhixion from the eyes, conflanl 
drowfinef, and lofs of appetite, conti- 
rueafterthe eruption. The eruptions 
generally difappear, about the fourth 
or fixth day from their firft appear- 
ance ; they begin to turn dry and 
fralv, upon the face firfl, and go gra- 
dually oft, as they came on, about 
the eighth or ninth day ; the whole 
b«)dy has fometimes the fame kind of 
appearance, as if fprinkled over wiih 
bran, Thofe who die in the meaflL-s, 
generally perifh on ihe nimh day, by 
a ftifforation. The dan.ceions fymp- 
tdms of this difeafe, arc a great and 
iiidden lofs of ftj^ength, coldnefs of 
the extremities, rclllcflnefs. continual 
cough, a loofenefs, greu-t difficulty in 



breathing or fwallowing, palenefs of 
the erupiions, and fometimes purple 
fpots, delirium, convulfions, and 
lometimes profufe fweats, efpecially 
in perlons advanced in years. As 
the meafles difappear and terminate, 
fooner than the Imall-pox, the vulgar 
generally think they are fl ruck in before 
that time, though they have really run 
through their natural courfe ; for 
which reafon they often have recourfe 
to warm cordials, which are highly 
improper, and ofien bring on direful 
fymptoms. Such as die in the mealies, 
generally die about,the ninth day ; and 
are certainly removed by a violent pe- 
ripnsumony, or inflammation of the 
lungs. 

The patient ought to be treated 
much the fame as in the fmall-pox, 
only not expofed to the cold air ; but 
need not be confined to bed. De- 
cocVons of barley-water, with li- 
quorice and marfhmallows, may be 
drank for ordinary drink ; arid infu- 
lions, made of linfeed and elder flow- 
ers, Iweetcned with honey, or fiigar- 
candy, may be nfed for a change ; if 
the patient is collive, a little manna 
may be g'ven, or tamarinds infnfed ill' 
boiling water. With rcfpeft to me- 
dicnes, nature ought to be particu- 
larly attended to, as indeed it ought 
to be in every other difeafe. If the 
fever be very high, with an inflamma- 
tion or rednefs in the eyes, with a la- 
borious difficult breathing, with a great 
thirll, and fulnefs of the pulfe, bleed- 
ing largely for adults, and the fame, 
or by leeches, for infants, is abfolute- 
ly ncceffary, with the warm bath, as 
deep a? can be done conveniently. It 
is often attended with remarkably good 
efferts, in all infLimmatory fever-, ef>- 
pecially of the eruptive kind, to con- 
tinue in the bath for fome minutes, at 
lead to bathe the feet and legs in 
warm water every night. If there be an 
inclination to vomit, it ought to be en- 
couraged by drinking chamomile tea, or 
by g'vmga gentle vomit of a few grains 
of ipecacuanha, or atcalpooiiFul or two 
ofanlimonial w'.neto infants, ora larger 
dole in proportion to the age. 1 he pi- 
(ient may hold his head over the Heam 
of hot water, and receive it into his 
lungs, from the mouth of a tea pot, or 
an inhaler; every infp'ration like this 
IS an excellent remedy m any cough, 
provided it be not attended with a fpit- 



1789-] 



Account of the fffcBs of elcElricity iti pam/yttc cafe;.. 



ting of blood. The patient may 
likewife frequently take a little fper- 
maceti and fugar-candy, pounded 
together, and diifolve it gradually in 
the mouth; or a table-lpoontul of the 
foUowing linttus for an adult, and a 
tea-fpoonful for an infant, every time 
the cough is troublefome : take of 
good trefh fweet oil and fyrup of 
marOimallows, of each equal parts, 
mixed together with a I'ltle of the 
juice of a boiled lemon, to acidulate 
It a little, provided it is more agree- 
able. All thefe things mav be done 
at any time of the difeafe, if the fymp- 
toms appear inflammatory, if the 
mealies fuddenly difappear, with a 
weak, flow pulfc, palenefs of the 
face, and univerfal lanj;uor, the pa- 
tient ought to te fupporied by cor- 
dials, fuch as wine, or Hrong wine- 
whey ; blirters rnuft be applied lO the 
back, brealt, or exiretnities, and warm 
cataplafms, with mullard and vinegar, 
to thefoles of the feet.; the fame treat- 
ment IS recommended in fuch circum- 
flances, as in the iuiail-pox. When 
they attack weak, relaxed habits, or 
hyfteric, low-fpinted women, Hux- 
ham's tinfture of the bark is in this 
cafe of the mod eminent fcrvice, as 
it anfwers both as a cordial and anti- 
feptic, efpecially where purple Ipot?, 
or other putrid fymptoms appear ; and 
it is proper to drink wine at;d water, 
acidulated with the fweet fpirit of vi- 
triol, or, where that cannot be got, 
the juice of lemons or oranges; but, 
indeed, fome preparation of the bark, 
either in fubfiance or decottion, is 
abfolutely necelfary. In cafe of great 
redleirnels, an aduk may take from 
twenty to hfty drops of liquid lauda- 
num, every night, at bed tune. From 
two to twelve drops of the fame may 
be given to a child, from the bnih to 
twelve or fourteen years old ; begin 
with a fmall dofe, and increafe occa- 
fionally, ; but if the fyrup of poppies 
is preferred, a tea-fpoonful or i wo may 
be occahonally admin. flered. The bow- 
els ought to be kept open with clyflers 
of gruel or milk, fugar, and a little 
oil. 1 have ouen given James's 
powders to adults, as prefcnbed in 
the printed directions, and, to infants 
the following ; take of James's pow- 
der, fix grams ; fal prunellj?. one 
fcruple ; white fugar, one draclim; 
rub them well together ; and give the 



58 

patient two, three, or four grains of 
tbis every five or fix hours: the dofe 
may be increafed or diminiOied, ac- 
cording to its effects ; if the fever runs 
high, thefe may be given aftet^ bleed- 
ing, in any Hate of the difeafe. Two 
or three dofes of phyfic are necelfary, 
when the difeafe is going off, as in 
the fmall-pox. If a violent purging 
comes on after the meaOes, 3 fmall 
dole of rhubarb may be given every 
fecond day in the morning, and the 
laudanum, as above, at bed-time; if 
the fever continues, with the purg- 
ing, bleeding will often relieve, when 
nothing elfe avails. If, ificr the 
mealies are gone oft, the fever conti- 
nues without the purging, bleeding is 
neceflary, and the powders above- 
mentioned, with the linrhis for the 
coligh. Patients r c^virn; from the 
meafles ought to be cautious of cxpof- 
ing themfelves too foon to tlie co'J 
air, and eat what is light, and eafy of 
digellion ; butterrailk, or milk-whey, 
and barley-water, is a proper drink. 
If a cough and difficulty of breathing, 
with a hefciic fever, ard other cnn- 
fumptive fymptoms, come on, fmall 
bleedings, frequently repealed (efpe- 
cially if the blood isfizv) — a vegetable 
diet, and rndk, as above recommend- 
ed, with change of air, and riding on 
horfeback, abftaining from all animal 
food, perpetual bliitcrs,or ilTues, will 
likewife be necclTary, 
1 am, &c. 

Wm. Turn BUI.!-. 
Wcll-clofe Square, May, 13, 1786. 



Account of the fffeBs of eltBricity in 
paralytic cafes. In a letter to dr. 
Pringle.from dr. Franklin. 

SOME years fince, when the newf- 
papers made mention of great 
cures fjcrformed in Italy or Ger- 
many, by means of e4eftncity, a num- 
ber of paralytics were brought tome 
from Peiinfylvania, and the neigh- 
bourmg provinces to be eleftnfitd; 
whicli 1 did for them at their requeft. 
iVIy method was, firft to place the pa- 
tient in A chair, on an electric flool, 
and dia.v a n amber of large iliong 
fparks, from all pans of ihsaHjfled 
limb or fide. Then I fully charged 
(wo lixg.siion glais jars, each of which 
had atioutihree iquare feet of fur face 
coated ^ aud L feni ilis united fiiock of 



Si 



The refcrmer. 



[Juir, 



thefe tlirough the affcflcd limb or limbs, 
repeating the flroke commonly three 
times each day. The firfl thing ohferv- 
ed was an immediate greater feufibie 
warmth mthe lame limbs, that had re- 
ceived the firoke,than in the oihers : and 
the next mornmg, the patients ulually 
related, that they had, in the night, 
felt a pricking fenfation in the flc Ih of 
the paralytic limbs ; and would fome- 
times (hew a number of fmall red fpots, 
vhich, they fuppofed, were occafion- 
ed by thela prickings. The limbs, 
too, were found more capable of vo- 
i'jntary motion, and feemcd to receive 
liiengih. A man, for inllance, who 
co-aid not, the firii day, lift the lame 
band from ctt his knee, would the 
rcxtd ly, raife it four or five inches, the 
third day higher, and, on the fifih dav 
wr.s able, but with a feeble languid 
motion, to t»kc o!f his hat. 

"i he fe appearances gave great fpi- 
rits t:^ the patients, and made them 
hope a pirfett cure ; but I do not re- 
in, mb r, that I ever faw any amend- 
ment after the fifth day: which the 
nil ents perceiving, and finding the 
fh cks pretty fcvere, they became dif- 
couraged, went home, and in a fliort 
time relapfed ; fothat, in palfies, I ne- 
ver knew any advaniaife from eleclri- 
C'ty, that was permanent. And how 
far the apparent temjiorary advantage 
might arife from the exerofe of the 
patient's journey, and coming daily to 
my houfe, or from the {pints, given 
by the hope of fuccefs, enabling them 
to exert more ftrength in moving their 
limbs, I will not pretend to fay. 

Perhaps fome permanent advantage 
might have been obtained, if the elec- 
tric fhocks had been accompanied 
V/ith proper medicine and regimen, 
under the directions of a fkilful phy- 
fician. It may be, too, that a few 
great Ilrokes, as given in my method, 
inay not be fo proper, as mmy fmall 
ones: fince, by the account, from 
Scotland, of a cafe, in which two 
hundred hhocks from a phial were given 
tidily, it feems, that a perfeft cure has 
been made. As to any uncommon 
Jlrength, fuppofed to be in the machine 
iifed in that cafe, I imagine it could 
hdve no fhare in t'.ie efteft produced ; 
fince the ilrength of the (hock, from 
charged )i\aU is in proportion to the 
r; lantity of furface of theglafs coated ; 
Jo that my fiiocks, from :hof(; large 



jars, mufl have been much greater, 
than any that could be received from 
a phial held in the hand. 

i am, with great rcfpccl. Cr, 
Your molt obedient fervant, 
B. Frank L IX, 
London, D'.ccmbcr 2t, 1757. 

The reformer. 

Number i . 

Virtue the happinejs of a pecjyle, 

MEN oflen couiplain of thofe e- 
vils, which are wholly of their 
own procuring, and which it is in 
their own power to remove, when- 
ever they pleale. There is nothing 
more evident from reafon, revelation, 
and common experience, than the ten- 
dency of virtue to the happinef';, and 
the tendency of vice to the mifery of 
mankind, both in private and fecial 
life ; but while this isgeneraily acknow- 
ledged in fpeculation, it is much d f- 
regarded in prattice. All expedients 
to relieve the burdens and dillrelfes of 
the day, without a general reform of 
manners, will be but palliatives— 
this will elFett a radical cure. 

Let rulers, influenced by the fear 
cf God, and by love to mankind, ufe. 
all their power and authority, to en-, 
courage nghteoulnefs, proteft inno- 
cence, redrcis wrongs, and b^nifh in- 
iquity — let laws be made, with a fin- 
gle defign to advance the general in- 
tereft, and be executed with diligence 
and fidelity — let people, in all ranks, 
confcientioully difeharge the duties o£" 
their refpeiitive flations — let julHce 
and integrity take place in all private 
intercourfe — let benevolence operate, 
in all exigencies, to excite mutual aid 
and fuccour, fo that no man ihall be 
miferable, while it is in his neigh- 
bour's power to relieve him — in all 
controverfies, between man and man, 
or in fociety, let condefccnfion imme- 
diately Hep in, to adjiift the differ- 
ence — let every man, in his private ca- 
pacity, maintain fobriety, purity, tem- 
perance, induUryand felf-govcrnment, 
and attend more to the culture of his, 
mind, the improvement of his virtue, 
and the regulation of the manners of 
his domeftics, than to the indulgence 
ofpleafure, or the accumulation of 
wealth — let this be the general fpint 
and conduct of mankind — and what 



lySpJ 



Cultivation rf the poppy-pldnt^ 



will be wanting to make ihem a-; hap- 
py, as the condition of mortals will 
permit, or as beings ia a Hate of pro- 
bation can realonably defire ? 

But if, on the contrary, pnde, felf- 
iflinefNjand the love of pleaiiire, reign 
a^nong all ranks; if injaltice, fraud, 
idlcnefs, luxury, oppreffion, and other 
vices, generally prevail, there is no 
need of Ipecial judgments, to make 
them miferable, and no need of a fpt- 
rit of prophecy, to forefee their de- 
ilru'lion. Every man, therefore, as 
he regards his own and the general 
hapi^nefs, is bound to priflife virtue 
himfelf, and to promote it among o- 
thers. Ibis obligation immediately 
relaUs from his prefent condition as a 
man. and from his relatron to iociety, 
abilratted from the confideration of 
thofc more grand and folemn motives, 
whivh religion propofcs. 

We have feen the time, when the 
people of this country, alar:Tied at the 
danger*;, which threatened them from 
an uliirping and invading power, could 
unite in arms for the common defence. 
They thought no expenfe too great to 
be incurred, no facrifice too dear to 
be made, that they might refciie thair 
tre.nblmg liberties, from the devour- 
ing jaws of oppreflion. Our focial 
happinefs is now in danger, from an- 
other quarter — from the prevalence 
*f vice and impiety, from ourincreaf- 
ing luxury, extravagance, fclHlbnefs 
and injillice: let us exert ourfelves, 
with the fame united ardour, to extir- 
pate this internal enemy, as we have 
done to repel a foreign enemy, and 
we may hope for equal fucceis ; and 
fuccsfs, in th s attempt, will give our 
liberties a firmer ellabldhment and a 
more permanent fecurity, than all the 
iaccelfes of war. 



Experiments on the cultivation of the 

(lOppy-plant, and the method of 

procuring opifim. By Shadrack 

■ liicketfon, of Duuhefs county, New 

York. 

OrrJM is thj prodiice of the 
papaveriomniferumof Lipnarus, 
which, as a genus, comprehends two 
Ipecies, VIZ. >. The doubt;, e, the 
iingle ; each of which includes feve- 
ral varieties as to the colour of the 
flowers, fome bein<j white, fome Ted, 
cihers purple and var-e^^ated. 



35 

From hiflory we !«arn, that in the 
feveral provinces of Alia, it is ib.i 
large white poppy only, that is cidti- 
vaied for the purpufe of coilerting 
opium ; but, from the trials that I 
have made, I am of opinion, that it 
is a maiticr of indifference, v/hich fp-- 
cies or Variety of the plant is cultivat- 
ed for medicmaiiife ; as they will af- 
fird, when tapped, a juice that is fimi- 
lar, as to quantity, colour, and every 
other refpeci, both when f.efli and 
when dried ; however, I have thought, 
that the large double fpecies produces 
the greateft number of head-, and con- 
fcquently the greateft quantity of juice 
from one feed ; but of this I have not 
yet had fufficient trials, to be certain. 

Among the poppies, cultivated 
with a view to make the prefent ex- 
perinnenf^, 1 had fome, that had each 
thirty heads, all of which fprang from 
one leed, and from one original ftjlk. 

The poppy feeds, in this country, 
(hoald be fown or planted, about 
the middle of May, in rich, moiii 
ground. 

1 he ground fiiould be formed into 
areas, of about four feet broad. The 
feeds Ihould be planted, at about ten 
or twelve inches diftance, in tranfverle 
rows, which fliould alio be about 
the fame dillance from each other. 

Shallow holes, of an inch in depth, 
fiiould be made in the rows, at the 
dillance mentioned ; the feeds put in, 
and covered over, even with the 
ground: after which, they are fuffered 
to remain, till the plants are grown 
about four inches high, when they 
may be frequently watered and ma- 
nured, efpecially, if the land is dry 
and notfertile : the bed manure is faid 
to be a compoll of dung, afhes, and a 
nitrous earth. 

In the Eall Indies, fhey are faid 
to water them again profufely, jufl be- 
fore the fl<nvers appear ; but, as I 
have had them grow very luxuriant 
and fucculent in good ground, with- 
out either manuring or v/atenng, I 
amdifpofed to think, thu the advan- 
tages, ar; ling fiom this laft particular, 
are not adequate to the trouble of do- 
ing If. 

It is fcarcely necefTary to remark, 
that th.e plants, from their firft coming 
up, flioiiid be kept clean from weeds, 
v;hich may be done, with very litile 
trouble, with a fiaail hoe, efpecially 



«6 



Method of producing opium. 



[July, 



if the feeds 3-c planted after the iran- 
ner I directed, that is, in rows. 

Having laid all that is riecefTdfy, on 
the cuhivation of the plant, I {}ih!1 
now proceed to defcnb^ the meth-d 
of obtaining its juice, which, when in- 
fpiffated to a pilular confidence, is 
called opium. 

The liates of the plants, wherein I 
have found them to yield the moft 
juice, arc jull before, in the time of, and 
immediately after flowering. 

The plants being arrived to one or 
other of the Hates above mentioned, 
ve then proceed to that part of the 
procefs, called tapping, which, we are 
told, is done in Ada, by making two 
or three longitudmal incifioiis in the 
half grown capfules, without pene- 
tratinc; their cavities I'his operaticm 
is ticiformed at funf'^t, and the plants 
are fufiered to remain till morning, 
when the juice is to be fcraped off, 
and worked in a proper vefiel, in a 
moderate hear, till it becomes of a 
pilular confiilence ; which method, 
with feveial tMhcrs, I have tried ; but 
none have ever fucceeded fo well with 
me, as, in a funny day, to cut off tJie 
ilalks. at about an inch diOance from 
their flawrrsor capfules, and as foon 
as the juice appears (which it does at 
firft equajlv well on the part of the 
lialk, cut off, with thecapfule or flov>'- 
er, as on the {{.ending part) to colkH it 
with afma'i fcoop or penknife, the laft 
of which I have found to anfwer the 
purpofe very well. After the juice 
ceafes to appear on. the top of the 
ilanding (lalk, it Ihould be cut off 
about an inch lower, when it will be 
found to yield almolt as freely as be- 
fore ; and this is repeated, as long as 
anv JMice appears. 

The juice, when coUefled, fhould 
be put into an evaporating pan placed 
in the fun's heat, and frequently Hir- 
red, till it becomes of a coniillcnce 
to be formed into pills, or made inio 
rolls, for keeping or tranfportauon. 

Ihequantuy of opium, that may 
be procured, depends very much upon 
the largeneis of our plants, and the 
care ufed ui collecting it. From one 
poppy plant. I have procured fcven 
grains of the infpiirated juice. 

If any would choofe to have the 
opium freed from its impuruies, it 
rM\' eafily be done, bv preliiiig the 
juice through a linen llrainer, before 



it is evaporated; but if pains betaken, 
according 10 the foregoing directions, 
I believe there will be little or no cc- 
cafion for it. 

Here the following qucftion pre* 
fents itfelf, viz. 

Does the opium, I have be^n de- 
fcribing, pofTefs the fame projieriies, 
as the Afiatic opium ? 

To determine which, I made th« 
following experimenis : 

Experifriettt I, _/«/)' 27, 17P7. 

At fix o'clock, A. 5^1. I took one 
grain of this opium ; at ieven, break- 
fafled on chocolate ; at a quarter af- 
ter feven, I was called upon to viiii a 
patient ; I immediately mounted my 
norfe, and rode two miles; and as I 
rode, I felt unulually cheerful; a tin- 
ged fulneis and rednefs of my hcacl 
and face, as if I had been drinking ; 
ardent fpuits alfo feemed to attend me. 

At nine o'clock, while at my pa- 
tient's houfe, I felt a flight ficknefs 
at niy flomach, accompanied with a 
moift fweat. At ten o'clock, the 
hcknefs and fweat continuing to in- 
creafe, I fet off for home, and on the 
way it jull occurred to me, that the 
opium**! had been taking, was the 
caufe of my illnefs ; and before I 
reached home, I vomited my break- 
fail, wh.chgave me a liiiie eafe. 

After I g>)thome, I was feized with 
a vertigo, flight tremors, llupor, attend- 
ed with a finall, contracted pulfe : I 
went 10 bed, ate no dinner, and about 
two o'clock P. M. I vomited a con- 
hderable quantitv of four, wateiy fluid, 
after which I felt fomewhat ealicr, 
and, in about an hour afterwards, I 
had feveral violent retchings, and 
raifod fome bile. Being now fa- 
tigued by the vomiting, &c. I took a 
large dofe of the anii-emctic mixture, 
which, after a fliort fleep, feemed to 
give me remarkable relief, and aficr 
which, all the fymptoms gradually 
vanlflicd. I perceived my urine to 
be high-coloured : I had no ftool, 
from the day before I took it, till the 
morning of the sgth ; and between 
eleven and twelve o'clock of this day, 
I had three or four liquid ftools, ac- 
companied with confiderable grip;ng. 

I ihink it proper to remark, that, 
during ihe above lymptoms, I had no 
uncommon fleepinefs. 

Experiment 2. Unfatisfied with 
the preceding experiraenl, and not 



« 789-1 



Settlement of Plymouth, in New England. 



SI 



knowing, whether thelVinpti msthat I 
lal>t'Ured undei, were lnlel\ ihe ef- 
feft of ihe opiinn — Aug iH 6, at fix 
o'clock, A. M. I took half a grain 
of the fame k'nct of i>pmin. ihe tf- 
feds that i perccived Iro.ii it, were, 
in (he f ireiioon a cheartulnels, anti 
in the afiernfon a loa'hing, and at 
times, a fmall degree of ficknefs. 

Lxperimtnt 3. Augud 20. at fe- 
ven o'clock in the morning, 1 took 
one gram of the above-mentioned 
opium : at eight o'cluck, I breakfallcd 
on tea ; after breakfaft, 1 feh an un- 
concernednef";, my face felt turgid ; 
I had Jomed ght ficknefs and inchra- 
tion to vomit, and abt)Ut ten o'clock 
I had feveral retchings, and puked, 
and half after ten I puked agiiin: in 
fhort I underwent very much the 
fame feries of iymptom<;, as in expe- 
riment ift. indeed fufficienily fo, to 
confirm me, that the complaints, I la- 
boured under, were folely the effects 
of the opium. 

Experiment 4. at half after feven 
o'clock in the morning, I took a 
full grain of the Afiatic opium ; and 
at half after eight, I breakfaded on 
milk. I fell no unufual erteits from 
it, till about twelve o'clock, when a 
flufhingaiid a tiirgidfulnefsof my face, 
came on. I dined at one o'clock, 
after which I was attacked with con- 
liderable pain m my bowels, loathing 
and ficknefs (but not fo much as to 
puke) whith continued to remain, till 
1 went to bed. I had no liool that 
day, as ufual ; no uncommon fleepi- 
nefs. 

Quaeritur. Is the vomiting, that 
occurred after taking the opium, to be 
imputed and afcribed to the peculiar 
effett of it on the ftomach ; or is it to 
be confidered as an effort of the vis 
medicatrix naturae ? 

From what lias been faid, I think 
we may induce the following infe- 
rences, &c. 

1. That the poppy plant is the 
fame here js in Ana, and that the 
difference depends only on the cli- 
mate, foil, and mode of cultivation. 

2. That every fpecies and variety 
of the plant, is equally capable of pro- 
ducing opium. 

3. That the collefling of it might 
not only become an ufeful, but alfo a 
lucrative bufinefs. 

4. And laftly, that the opium col- 
Vor. VI. 



lefted here, is as flrong, or flronger 
than the Afiatic opuim ; in connrma- 
tiouuf which, I Iliail beg leave to 
add th? foUov.'ing paffage of a letter 
I am favoured with, from my friend 
and former mafter, dr. Benjamin An- 
;hony, to whom I gave fomt of the 
opium of my own procuring, f^r trial, 
and who had been accuilomed to ufe 
opium. 0:1 account of ihe rhenmat Im. 
" Bc'iig in pain this morning, I tovik 
" a grain i f the opium ; the operation 
"appears to be the fame, a<; ihat of 
" theother opium, v.'hich I hc^vecom- 
'' monly ufed ; a gran is perhapsc qjal 
" to two of the comiinon." 

Whe;her the viriues of opium re- 
fide in a fixed or volatile pr nciple, 
is a matier that admits of a difpnte ; 
fome late cxpenmei.ts feem to fnvour 
the latter opinion, whuh b^ing admit- 
ted, one reafon (I think) whv the 
opium, collecred here, is flrong-^r than 
the Afiatic, is. ihar the latter lofes 
greatly of its ftrergth bv the Icig 
keeping and tranfportaxion, which it 
undergoes. 

Relation or io^irnaU of I hr. beginning 
and proceedings of the EngtifJ? plan- 
tation fetled at Plimotk in New 
England^ by certaine Englifh ad- 
venturers^ both merchants and o~ 
thers. JVitk their dijjicnltpajfagc^ 
their fafe arriuall. their ioyjuli 
building of andcomfortable plant- 
ing thcmjclucs in the nov> will de- 
fended tozone of New Plimoth. As 
alfo a relation of fovre feuerall 
difcoueries, face made by Jome of 
the fame Englifi planters there re- 
fdent, &c. 

London, printed, i62fi. 

WEDnefday the fixt of Septem- 
ber, the wind commmg eaft 
north eall, a fine fmall gale, we 
loofed from Plimoth, haumg beene 
kindly intertamed and courteoufly 
vied by diners friends there dwelling, 
and after many di.fficulties in boy- 
fteroiis {formes, at length, by God's 
pronidenre. vpon the ninth of No- 
uembcr following, by breake of the 
day we e'.pied laud, which we defmed 
to be Cape Cod, and fo afterward it 
proued. And the appearance of it 
much comforted vs. efpecially, iee- 
ing fo goodly a land, and woodded to 
the brinke of the fea, it caufed vs t© 
H 



Settlement of Plymouth, in New England. 



Ihh, 



reioycc togcilier, and praife God, 
that had giuen v,s once againe to fee 
land. And ihus wee made ourcourle 
Souih South Wed, purpoiing to goe 
to a nuer, ten leagues to the South 
of the Cape; but at night, the winde 
being contrary, we put round againe 
forthe Bay of Cape Cod: and vpon 
the 11. of Nouember, we came to 
an anchor in the Bay, which is a 
good harbour, and pleafaiit Bay, 
circled round, except m the entrance, 
which is about foure mdes ouer, 
from land to land, coir.paffed about, 
to the verv fea, wuhok.es, pines, iu- 
niper. faffsfrasand other fweet wood ; 
it IS a haibour, wherein looo. faile of 
(liips may fafely ride: there we re- 
Iieued our felues, with wood and 
water, and refreflied our people, 
while our ihallop was fitted, to cuali 
the Bay, to {earch for an habitation : 
there was thegrcaieil ilore of fowle, 
that euer we faw. 

And euery day we faw whales 
playing hard by vs, of which in that 
plare, if we had inllrumrmts, and 
means to take I hem, we might haue 
made a very rich returne, which, to 
our great gnefe, we wanted. Our 
mailer and his mate, and oihersex- 
p::rienced in fifhing, profeifed, we 
nxight haue made throe or foure thou- 
fand pounds wonh of oyle : they pre- 
ferred it before Greenland, whale- 
iiihmg. and piirpofe the next winter 
to filh for whale here ; for Cod we 
aflavcd, but found none; there is 
good itore no doubt in their feafon. 
Neither got we any fifli all the time 
•we lay there, but foine few little 
ones on the (hore. We hnind great 
mulsles, and very fit and full of fea 
pcarlc,- hut we could not eat them ; 
for they made vs all fic.ke that d'd 
eat, as well faylers as paflengers ; 
they caufed to catt and icoure, but. 
they were foone well againe. The 
bay is fo round and circling, thai, 
before we could come to anchor, we 
■wcni round all the points of the coni- 
p.;iTe. We could not come neere 
the fliore, by three tpiarters of an 
Engl (h mile, bccaufe of ihallow wa- 
ter, wjurb was a greai preiudice to vs ; 
for our pe<')pie, going on (liore, were 
forced to wade a bow-(h<H t or two 
III go tig a-land, win-, h caiiied many to 
^ei c(^l<i» ai'd coM(>hs ; fur it was many 
tJiiics licc/:iij„ tuiu wciliier. 



This day, before we came to har- 
bour, obferuing iome not well atiett- 
ed to vnitie and concord, but gaue 
fome appearance of fattion, it was 
ihought good there fnould be an al- 
fociaiion and agreement, that we 
ihould combine together in one body, 
and to fiibmit to fuch government 
and governours, as we fliould, by 
common con Cent, agree to make and 
chole, and fet our hands to this that 
f dlowes, worrl for word. 

IN the name of God, amen. We, 
whofe names are vnder-written, 
the loyall fubiecls of our dread, fo- 
veraigne lord, king lames, by the 
grace of God, of G.rea,t Bniaine, 
France, and Ireland king, defender 
of the faith, &c. 

Having vnder-taken, for the glory 
of God, and advancement of the 
chriftian faith, and honour of ouf 
king and countrey, a voyage, to plant 
the lirii colony in the northerne parts 
of Virginia, doe by thefe prefents fo- 
iemnly and mutually in the prefence 
of God, and one of anotlier, covc-i 
nant, and combine our leiues toge- 
ther into a civiU bodv politike, for 
pur better ordering and prefervatiou, 
and furtherance of the ends afore- 
faid ; and by vertue hereof, to enaff, 
coiiKuute, and frame fuch lult and- 
equail lawes, ordinances, acts, con- 
ilitiitions, ofhces. from time U) time, 
as (hall be thought moH meet and 
convenient, for the generail good of 
the colony : vnto which we promiie 
all due fubmilhon and obedience. 
In witnefTe whereof we haue here- 
vndcr fubfcribed our names, Cape 
Cod 1 1,. of November, m the yeare 
of the raigne of our foveraigne lord 
king lames, v)f England, France, and 
Ireland, i8. and of Scotland 54. c«- 
no dcmim 1620. 

'I'he (a me day, fo foone as we 
could, we le. a-fhore 15. or 16. men, 
well armed, with fome 10 fetch wood,, 
for we had none left; as alio to fee 
what the land was, and what inha- 
bitants they could meet with: they, 
found it to be a (mall neck of land : 
on ihis fide, were we lay, is the Bay, 
and the further fide, the fea; thci 
ground or earth, fand hil , much like 
the Downcs in Holland, but much 
better ; the cruR of ilie carrh a fpii's 
depth, excellent blacke earth ; all, 
wooucd w.iii okes. piiies, laiLilias, 



I7S9-1 



Settlement of Plymotith, in Nczu England. 



59 



iuniper, birch, holly, vines, fome alh, 
walnut ; the wood, for the mod part, 
open and without vnderwood, fit ei- 
ther to goe or ride in : at night our 
people returned, b\u found not any 
perfon, nor liabitation, and laded 
iheirboat wthiuniper, which fmelied 
very fwect and llrong, and of which 
we burnt, the uioil part of the time 
we lay there. 

Muiiday the lo,. of November, v;e 
vnlliipped our Ihallop, and drew her 
on land, to mend and repaire her, 
havinjj bin forced to cut her downe, 
in beJlowin|w her betwixt the decks ; 
and fhe was much open<^d wuh the 
people's lying in her, which kept vs 
kmg there ; for it was 16. or 17 dayes 
before the carpenter had iimfiied her ; 
©ur people we;it on ihore to refrefh 
tiienifeiues, and our women to waili, 
as they had great need ; hut whileli we 
lay thus Itill, hoping our fhallop would 
be ready in Hue or tixe dayes ar the 
fiirthelt, but our carpenter made fiow 
worke of it, fo that fome of our peo- 
ple impatient of delav, defired for 
our better furtherance, to iravaile by 
I-and into the countrey, (which wa-, 
not without appearance of danger^ 
not having the fliallop with them, 
nor meanes to carry provifion, but 
on their backes) to fee whether it 
might be fit for us to feaie in or 
no, and the rather, becaufe, as we 
fa\ led into the harbour, there leem- 
ed to be a river, opening it felfe into 
the rnaine land ; the willingncs of 
the perfons was liked, but the thing 
ilfelfe, in regard of the danger, was 
rather permittted than approved ; and 
fi) wuh cautions, directions, and in- 
ffrudions, fjxteene men were fet out 
with every man his mufket, fword, 
and cordet, vnder the condutf of cap- 
taine Miles Standiih, vnto whom was 
adioyned, for counfell and advife, 
William Bradford, Stephen Hop- 
kins, and Edward TiHey. 

Wedneklay the 1,5. of November, 
they were fet a-fhore, and when thev 
had ordered themlelues in the order 
of a bugle file, and marched ahout 
the fpace of a myle, by tlie iea, they 
efpyed fine or hxe people, wuh a 
dogge, coming t(.)war(is ihem, who 
were favages, who, when they faw 
them, ran into the wood, and whif- 
ied the dogge after thcin, c?;c. Firif, 
xbey iuppofed them to be a;aiier lones, 



the mafler and fome of his men, for 
they were a-fliore, and knew of their 
comming ; but, after they knew them 
to be Indians, they marched after 
them into the woods, leaft other of 
the Indians fliould lie in ambufli ; 
but when the Indians law our men 
following them, they ran away with 
might and mayne, and our men turn- 
ed out of the wood after them, for 
it was the way they intended to 
goe ; but they could not come neare 
them. They followed them thit night 
about ten m'les, by the trace of their 
footings, and faw how they had come 
the fame way they went, and at a 
turning, perceived how ihey run 
vp an hill, to fee whether they fol- 
lowed them. At length night came 
vpon them, and they were conffrain- 
ed to take vp their lodging, fo they 
fet forth three fcntinells ; and the reit, 
fbmc kindled a fire, and others fetch- 
ed wood, and there held cur randc- 
vous thai Right. 

In the morning, fo foone a'; we 
could fee the trace, we proceeded on 
our iourney, and had the tracke, vn- 
til-i we had compaiicd the head of a 
long creake, and there they tooke into 
an.other wood, and we after ihcm, 
iappohng to finde fome of tlieir 
dwell ngs; but we marched thorowr 
boughes and bufhes, and vnder hills 
and vallies, which tore our very ar- 
nunir in pceces, and yet could meeie 
with none of them, nor their houfes, 
norhiideany frefh M'ater, which we 
greatly dehred and Hood in need off ; 
for we brought neuhcr beere nor wa- 
ter with vs ; and our vittuals was 
oncly bllket and Holland chcefe, 
and a little bottle of aqua-vitae, fo as 
we were fore a-thuft. 

About ten a clocke, we can:;e into 
a dcepe valley, full of bruf]i, wood 
gaile, and long gralfe, through which 
we found little paths or tracts, and 
there we law a deeie, and found 
fprings of freih water, (sf which we 
were heartily glad, and fat vs downe, 
and druiike our hrll New England 
water, wuh as nuich delight as euer 
we drunke drinke in all our hues. 
When we hail refrelhed our fcLies, 
we directed our courie full Souih, 
tliat we might come to the iijore, 
which, wuhiu a fhort while after, 
we did, and there made afire, ihac 
they in the flup ungbi. k.e vVfieie '\\te 



6o 



Seftlrment of Plymouth^ in New England, 



J.»iy, 



were (as we had diif ilon) and fo 
marched on towards tins fuppoled ri- 
ver ; aiju as we went ni anotiier val- 
ley, we found a fine rleere pond of 
freiii water, being about a Uiufket 
Ihoi broad, and fvife as long ; there 
grew alfo many fmali vines, andfouic 
and deere haunted there ; there grew 
much lalafras : from thence we went 
on and found much plaine ground, 
abouf Hftie acres, fit for the plow, 
and iome figues, where the Indians 
had formerly planted iheir corne ; 
after ihis. fome thought it bell, for 
nearneire of the river, to goe downe 
and trava'.le on the Sea fands, by 
which mcdues fome of our men were 
tyred, and lagged behind ; fo we flay- 
ed and gn.bered them vp, and fir.ick 
into the land agame : where we found 
a little path to certaine heapes of 
fand, one whereof was covered wuh 
old matts, and had a woodden thing, 
like a morter, whelmed on the top of 
it, and an earlhern pot, layd in a 
little hole, at the end thereof; we, 
mufing what it might be, digged and 
found a bow, and, as we thought, 
arrowes, but they were rotten ; we 
fiippofed there were many other 
things, but, becaufe we deemed them 
graues, we put in the bow againe, 
and made it vp as it was, and left the 
refl vntonched; becaufe we thought, 
it would be odi'oiis vnto them, to ran- 
facke their fepulchers. 

We went on further and found 
new ftubble, of which they had got- 
ten cornc this yeare, and many wall- 
nut trees full of nuts, and great (lore 
of llrawberries, and fome vines ; pall- 
ing thus a field or two, which were 
noi great, we came to another, which 
had alfo bin new gotten, and there 
we found where an houfe had becue, 
and foure or fine old plankes laycd lo- 
geihcr : alfo we found a great ketle, 
which had bcene fomefiip's ke'le and 
brought out of Europe ; there was 
alfo an heape of fand made like the 
former, but it was ne^^'ly done; we 
might lee, how they had padlcd it 
with their hands : which we digged 
vp, and in it we found a little old 
balket, tull of faire Ind an corne, and 
digged fun her and found a fine great 
new bafket, full of very faire corne 
of this veare, with fome 36. goodly 
eares of corne, fome yellow, and fome 
red, and others mixt with blew, 



which was a very' goodly fight ; the 
baPitet was round, and narr'>w at the 
lop: itheldabou: three it foure bufh- 
els, which was as much as two of 
vs could lif vp from the ground, and 
was very handf Mnely and cunningly 
made; but whiill wee were hufie a- 
bout ihtie 'bmgs, we fet our men 
fentineil iri a round rmg, all but two 
or three, which d.b,ged vp the corne. 
VV e were in fu< pence, what to doe 
with it and the ketle ; and at length, 
after m\\c\\ conlultation, we conclud- 
ed to take the ketle, and as much of 
the come as we could carry away 
with vs ; and when our hiallop came, 
if we could finde any of the people, 
and come to parley with them, we 
would giue ihem the ket'e agame, 
and fat she them for their cornc ; fo 
wee tooke ail the r^ares, and put a 
good dealecif the loofe corne in ihe 
ketle, for iwo men to bring away 
on a flaffe ; hefidcs, they that could 
put any into their pockets, filled the 
fame; iherell wee buried againe, for 
we were fo laden with armour, that 
we could carry no more. 

Not farre from this place, we found 
the remainder of an old fort, or pa- 
lizide, which, as we conceiued, had 
beene made by fome chnfiians; this 
was alfo hard by that place, which we 
thought had beene a river, vnto which 
wee went and found it lo to be, de- 
vidmg itfelfe into two armes, by an 
high banke, flanding right by the cut 
or mouth which came from the Sea : 
that, which was next vnto vs, was 
the lede ; the other arm was more 
than twife as big, and not vnlike to 
be an harbour for fli'ps ; but whether it 
be a frefli river, or onely an indraught 
of the Sea, we had no time to dif- 
cover ; for wee had commatld^ment 
to be out but two dayes. Here alfo 
we faw two canoas, the one on the 
one fide, the other on the other fide ; 
wee could not beleeue it was a canoa, 
till we came neare it, fo we returned, 
hailing the further difcovery hereof 
to our fiiallop, and came that night 
backe agame to the frelh water pond, 
and there we made our randevoiis 
that night, making a great fire, and 
a baricado to windwaid of vs, and 
k''pt good watch with three fentinells 
all night, ciiery one Handing when 
his turn came, while fine or fixe 
inches of match was burning. It 



17^9-1 



EJfay on Smuggling, 



6i 



proved a very raiiiie night. In the 
morning, we tooke our ketle atid 
funke it in the pond, and trimrncd 
our mufkets, for Rw of them would 
goc oft hecaufe (jf the wett ; and fo 
coalied the wood agaii e, to come 
home, m which we were (hrewdly 
puf-led and iolt our way ; as we 
wandred, we came to a tree, where 
a yong fpntt was bowed downe over 
a bow, and lome acornes ftrewed vn- 
derneaih ; Stephen Hopkins favd, it 
had beene to catch fu\ne detre ; fo as 
we were looki wg at it, Wilham Brad- 
ford, being .n the reare, when he 
came, h)oked alfo v|X)n it ; and as 
he went about, it gaue a fodaine jerk 
vp, and he was iinmtdiately caught 
by the leg ; it was a very prctie de- 
vife. made with a rope of their owne 
makinj;, and having a noofe a*^ ar- 
tificially made, as any roper in Eng- 
land can make, and as like ours a^ can 
be, which we brouglit away with vs. 
(To he continued.) 



[From the Gazette of the imited dates.] 
Essay o?z smuggling. 

" There is no kind of diJ]ioncfly, in- 
to which good people more cnjil\- 
and fi eqnently fall, than that of 
defrauding government of its re- 
venues by fnjuggiing, or, encou- 
raging Jmugglers by buying their 
goodi." 

WHEN a nation is beginning 
Its political exidence, it has 
the fame occafion to form good habitK, 
as an individual when he is entering 
into life. It is not only rcquifite, that 
fuitable laws {hould be enaBed, and 
enforced with penalties; but it will 
have an admirable effect, if the peo- 
ple will enter into afTociations, and 
take meafures among ihemfelves, for 
co-operating with the views of go- 
vernment. By manifeftmg their zeal, 
and patriotifm in this way, they may 
produce a moral controul over the 
actions of men, and lead thera into a 
difpofition toobferve legal inflitutions. 
The inefficacy of alfociations will be 
tirgcd as an argument againd fuch an 
experiment : hut one fliould not de- 
cide too haftily in this matter. If 
the execution of the lawsrefted wholly 
on that footing, their operation would 
be feeble indeed ; fo, on the other 
hand, where obedience is expeiied 



only from the rigour of penalties, the 
law will be evaded, and us objeR de- 
feaici. It IS of great importance, 
that government fliould engage difte- 
rent palhons of the human nund, in its 
fervicc. Pear of puiufliment is one 
very poweriul rellra.nt from difobe- 
difnce : but it w 11 not fuffice alone. 
Men who pretend, that an appeal to 
the fears of people 's the Ijeft, or the 
only method of making them virtu- 
ous citizens, muit either be ignorant 
of human nature, or take a plealure in 
degrading it. In a free government, 
and, more cfpecially. in us firO or- 
ganization, no individual will have 
realon to fear the laws, iinlefs the 
bulk of the people love and regard 
them. When a man can v olaie a 
law, without any compunction of con- 
fcience, or injury to his charatler, 
there is nothing more certain, than 
that he can elude piinifhment. If he 
faves his chara£tL-r, he preferves his 
friends, and does not counteract the 
wiihesof ihe community. There are 
fo many, who are tacitly his accom- 
plices, that it is diflicult to find un- 
bialfed tellimony, for fupporting a 
prolecution. 

It will be alleged, that men, who 
have principle enough to afTociate in 
favour of collecting the revenue, will 
be hoiiell enoiigh to oppofe Imugglmg, 
without any fuch affociation. There 
is fome fallacy, 1 think, in fuch a fug- 
geilion. Many people annex the 
idea of infamy to the difcoverer of a 
fraud, committed on the public reve- 
nue. This will prevent many per- 
fons, who are thcmfclves difpofed to 
pay the duties punctually, from com- 
plaining of oihers, whom they know 
to be diflionell in this refpecl. It is 
evident, that, if a number of worthy 
perlons entered into an agreement to 
difcountenance fmugglmg, ihe objec- 
tion of infamy, agamlt informing, 
would be removed. If no other rea- 
fpn could be alTigned, for afTociating 
againlf Imugglers, this would be a 
flrikingone, itiat fuch a meafure would 
check confederacies in favour of fmng- 
gling .The principal complaint againl'i 
voluiuary tonibinations, is. that their 
force and obfcrvance are of fhort du- 
ration. It is unqueflionably true, 
that they have a temporary effeft, in 
favour of the objeQ intended. In the 
prefent inflance, nqtbing more is re- 



62 



i-jifay on Jinuggling, 



[July, 



ojuireil. If the laws can have a fa- 
vour.iUh introfliithoii, they will de- 
rive {oine energy from that very cir- 
cnmdanco. The power of habit is 
uiiivertaliy feh and acknowledged. It 
has ev/en a llroiiger inihjence, in pro- 
ducing obethence to the laws, than a 
fear of piiniihment, where ihe penal' 
lies are leverc, and rigoroufly mflicl- 
ed. Both (hefe caufes, united, give 
a pecijhar efficacy to government. 
They wili, by their natural progrefs, 
create thai additional tie, that is im- 
poled by a fenfe of duty, and a re- 
gard (o character. 

Why have mankind, in general, dif- 
rovered a Uronger inclination, to de- 
fraud the public, than to wrong indivi- 
dual ? It IS probably owing, in fome 
degree, to their being able to do it, 
with lefs llingof confoence, and lefs 
injury to iheir reputation. But why 
do noi the charatter, and the con- 
Icience of a man, require him to be 
honefl: to the public, as well as to in- 
dvidiiats? It is, no doubt, becaufe 
people have not been accullomcd to 
feel io llrong an obligation, in the one 
fiile, as in the other. But why do we 
pracfically make this diilinhion, when 
there is, in fatt, no intrinfic diHerence ? 
'Ihe moll obvious reafon is, ihat men, 
ill the common intercourle of lite, 
find a greater inconvenience, in coun- 
tenancing difhonelly in private, than 
in public iranfactions, I'his circum- 
ilance induces a common cotilent, in 
favour of the prarlice of private juf- 
lice ; and fixes a liigma upon the vio- 
lators of it. It iecms, then, that 
common confent, or, to give it ano- 
ther name, public opinion, is one pow- 
erful lie, that holds men to their pri- 
vate duty. The fame caufe, did it 
etpially exifl in public ailairs, would 
operate no lefs powerfully. It mult 
have an exigence, before it can have 
an application or an ehecf. 

Has the public opinion, in times 
piil, been in favour of rendermg to 
government, what was due to it ? — In 
Tn;:nv inliaiicts, the reverie has been 
the cafe; and people have, wiihout 
»nv feelings of Ihanie or remorfe, e- 
va.led public obligations. If govern- 
ment has been generally defrauded, 
• he fart itfeif proves, that the common 
confritt of mankind was rot wiih- 
h' Id from ii : for, had the public mind 
W^n oppoicd 10 the fraud, it could 



not well have happened, or, at any 
rate, would have been detecled and 
punifhed. It requires a coufiderable 
degree of force, to counteratt the cur- 
rent of popular ieiuiment. Few vio- 
lators pf the rules of private honour 
and jullice, efcape reproach, if ihey 
do piinilhment. 

There is no natural propenfity in 
merchants, to defraud the public of 
its revenues, any more than there is, 
to deceive their cullomers, in the 
weight and meafure of goods. Ihe 
reafon. as was before fuggeded, why 
ihey are honelt in one cale, and not 
in the other, is, that their reputation, 
their interell, and their couicience, 
do not equally require it, in both cales. 
One ftcis a conhdence, that his bank- 
er, though he is not llnclly watched, 
will render an exa^t account of the 
calh committed to his care. Govern- 
ment would have the fame fecurity, 
that juOice would lake place in public 
affairs, if the habits and f<:elings of 
the people were equally favourable to 
public honelty. Ihe trader durlt not 
impofc on his cuftomers, if he wiflicd 
to do fo, becaufe he knows he will fuf- 
tain a greater inconvenience, in the 
lofs of cudom, than he gains beneht, 
by a particular deception. I once 
more repeat, that if it would equally 
hurt his character, (o cheat or injure 
the public, he would be equally re- 
flramed from doing it. 

As the influence of public opinion 
is known to be fo forcible; and as 
the honour and profperity of t^ur coun- 
try require, that the laws and regula- 
tions Ihoiild have a good beginning, it 
is worth while to bellow fome pa.ns, 
in pred'Cppring the people, to give 
their aid and countenance, in carry- 
ing into effect the meahires of govern- 
ment. Many perfons pretend, that 
fuch a determination already exilts. 
It feems not to be queflioned, even 
by any refractorv individual, that 
a revenue miifl be ra'fed, and that it 
mulf proceed from imports and excifes. 
1 he curr.'nt of opinion, it will be laid, 
is now fufhcien.ly in favour of fuch 
a fyflem. BiK let us not be deceived. 
Thofe who fct their hearts at reft, m 
this ftage of the buhnefs, are in a de- 
luhon. The publ c difcernment has 
fuggpfied the eligibility of an impoli ; 
but Hill the public temper is not fulh- 
cicnily roufed into indi^uatioH a^aiull 



1785-] 



KJfay on fmuggling. 



H 



fmiigglers, and other defrauders. — 
Men may be led, by reflexion, to 
judge of a meafure with propriety, 
betore they teel a difpofiiion to exert 
iheniielves, in favour of its execu- 
tion. In fome cales, a change of prin- 
ciples precedes a change of manners ; 
and men think of a iubjeft a great 
while, before they act upon it, at all.- 
The firll difficulty is iurmounted — 
we are in a right way of thinking; 
and it only remains, that we take an 
honell, fpinted way of aCting. Let us 
not only give the laws a kind re- 
ception, but fufier them, and even' 
aui them, to pn^ceed wMh vigour and 
fucceis. 

When the fyftem is ripened into a 
proper ll;ue of maturity, tlie tempta- 
tion to defraud the public trealur^', will 
become weaker and weaker. Our 
oppodtion to the collefcti»)n of import, 
under the liritifh government, was 
occahoned, in part, by circumllances 
r^fuiting from the cafe, and which no 
longer have an exillence. Men do 
notiranfgrefs, till they are often tempt- 
ed; and they will not be tempted to 
do wrong, when the balance of mo- 
tives is in favour of doing right. It 
fnould be a leading object of legifla- 
tive. care, to deftroy, or father coun- 
teract the temptation to fraud, by in- 
creahng the cauies. thai induce men to 
think an honelf conduct the mod eli- 
gible. Ill propoiiion as men have 
been habituaied to any vicious prac- 
tice, or, as they will derive advantage 
by indulging the vice, fhould the re- 
flraints be nuikiplied to prevent it. 
Before this can well be etTccted, it 
fhould be known, what reafons ori- 
ginally operated, in eftablilliing the 
habit ; and whether the fame caufes 
fliU continue. For it mart be ob- 
Icrved, that we do not alwavs relin- 
(pulh a practice, precifely when the 
circumftance, that led to it. Is remov- 
ed. Our having been acculiomed lo 
it, becomes, of itfclf, a reafon for its 
continuance. If we apply thefe rea- 
fonings to our prelent iiiuation, with 
reipectlo the collsction of the reve- 
nue, It will kad us to the follow- 
ing enquiry — what caufes formerly 
induced us to connive at frauds on 
the public revenue ? — Are thefe raiifes 
now in operation ? — we (ha'l find thr-y 
are not wiioily. taken away. The iin- 
poiiLioas wcje .unco;irt;tui.iunal. Tliat 



objection to the payment of the duties 
now ceafes. but there art: ellablu'l.- 
ed caufes, that render the collection 
of public monies, in all (liuatious. a 
little precarious and diihcult. I'iie 
oiigin of the evil is not lo be traced 
to any natural dehre in men, to cucat 
the government, merely for the iake 
of cheating it — it reiuits from tetnp;a- 
t.ons, that are iuggeiled, by (he piac- 
ticability and lafety of itie thing. Our 
dehre, to gain a()va!iiaj;es over the 
public trcaiury, is not couniera-ted 
by fo many cauies, as reflrain us Immii 
over-rcdchiug private perion^. Tha 
inclination of people, to promote their 
own Uiteitli, is the lame, in boih. 
cafes. From this view of the liibjecc, 
I hope, the remarks, that have been 
offered in lupport of HlJociatuuK, iii 
the prefent crifis of aifairs. will not 
be deemed uiiiiitereiimg, or foreigri 
to the point. I perluailc myfelf, alio, 
that a few obicrvations, coaveving to 
the. legillature, fome huus, r;fpetting 
their proceedings, will not have tui> 
great an appearance of pre{umntion» 

The penalties, aninexed to revenue 
laws, flioiild be o{ Inch a nature, as 
will fix a difgrace upon- the characters, 
on whom they are inliictcd. i here is 
an aptitude, in certain punifliments, 
to rellrain certain criines. Great ri- 
gor does not produce the cflert, that is 
propoled, 'ihis is apt to nutigate the 
abhorrence againlt tlie oiieiice, and 
foften It down into pity towards the of- 
fender. The hiunau nriid is io con- 
ilituted, tliat diflerent artettions couu- 
teratt each other. There is, in ma- 
ny minds, an habitual temper of re- 
venge, againfl government, for its fc- 
verity. lliis can only be controled, 
be exc'ting, in an higher degree, a 
deteftation againft crimes. Excefine 
hues, long imorifvinments, and feveie 
corporal punirtiments, imiiCaie a very 
depraved Hate of fbciety. The laws 
ih'iuld appeal to the feclmg". of men, 
in fuch a in?ancrj as to induce a fenfa 
of fiiame for the confequeiices of thff 
punilh' ut, no iefs than a lively fear of 
enduring ihe pains of it. Th'S end 
may partly be promoted by Ihgina- 
tizing offenders in the rtile of the 
Id'.vsjWiihepithet'-- thai impivodii'matil 
infamy. NIen invdiunianly aiLxiatc 
their ideas ; and wnrds, that have uTu- 
ally conveyed an opprobrious meaning, 
will conuijue to make liitiiUi naprei- 



64 



Theory of earthquakes. 



[July 



I do not entertain a doubt, 
th<ir t.^.reat utility may be derived, 
from couching ihe laws, at'imH linug- 
glinir, in a coniemptuoiis language. 

The defrauders of ihe ,)ublic ihould 
iikewife be debarred, from holding 
any office, or perfonnin- any fer- 
vice, that implied conscience or ref- 
w.t\. Such an excl ifiou would Hanip 
ideas of indignity on 'he p.iblic mind, 
againft thofe who evade ihc payment 
of duties. If ihey were prohibued 
from ferving on jury ; or if their <iaths 
were rendered nival d, it would have 
great effect in rellraining the prac- 
tice of imiigglmg. The receivers of 
fmugglcd goods ihould have a fliare, 
in the difgrace and punifliinent. In- 
deed the whole regulations, thatrelaie 
to the collection of the revenue, fliould 
carry the marks of legiflative diiap- 
probation of every fpecies of coUu- 
lion. The contempt of government, 
expreffed in a pointed manner, will be 
more efTicacious, than its refentmcnt. 

It would much contribute to excite 
general denfion againft public dilho- 
nefty, if the law Ihould diretl a re- 
giller to be publifiied annually, con- 
taining the names of all, who had 
been detefted in fmuggling, or that 
any way advifed or aided, in defraud- 
ing the revenue. The minds i)f mm 
are differently wrought upon ; and by 
diverfifvingthepunillimentjandfrovvns 
of government, the feelings of moil 
people will be interelled in obferving 
the laws. 

In my next number, the fubj^ft 
fhall be refumed, and placed in ano- 
ther point of view. 

[To be continued^} 

Theory of earthquakes. 
From a LcAure, d»:livered by John 
IVinthrop, efq. projejfor of mathe- 
matics and phiiofopky, at Cambridge 
in A'ew Enqland. 

PHILOSOPHY, like every 
thing elle, has had its fafhions ; 
and the reigning mode of late has been, 
to exjdain every thing by eletlricity. 
It is not long, fiiice we were amufed 
with pompous accounts of the won- 
derful efterts of ele6hicity, in the 
practice of phyfic. It was extol- 
led, as a perfefi; Catholicon ; and re- 
prefented, as affording the mod eafy, 
and. at the fame time, the moll ellec- 



tiial means of conveying into the bo- 
dy, the active particles of all medicines, 
emetic, ca.hariic, alterative, &c, and 
as curing, or at Itaft reliev ng, dmoll 
in^talllaneou!ly, the moll obltinate 
atid Ultra lable difoiders, whi h the 
human body is liable to ; gout, blind- 
nefs, deafnc-Is, dumbnels — ar.d what 
not ? Liu this afF.i'r is pr fty well over 
for tiie prefent. Now. it (eems. it is 
to be the cauf-of eaithquakes. Elec- 
tricity iiide -d is, at this day, certainly 
known to be a much more extenfive 
principle in nature, than wa fufpeft-' 
ed a few years ago ; and lo be inflra- 
mental in the production of effetis, 
where it was thought to have no 
concern. It mull not, however, bs 
concluded from hence, that it is the 
fole principle of natural etfefls, and' 
that it does every thing. It is true, the 
very ingenious dr. Franklin, of Phila-' 
delphia, has, with fingular fagacity, 
and, in my opinion, with happy fiic- 
cefs, accounted, in this way, for the 
phenomena of thunder and lightning ; 
and has made difcoveries upon this' 
lubjecl, which are not only extremely 
curious in fpeculation, but of high im- 
portance in pradice. But this is no 
argument, that eletfricity is alfo the 
caufe of earthquakes. 

"■ That the agents, which are able 
to produce eflctts, fo extraordinary as 
thofe of an earthquake ; which can 
heave up fuch enormous maffes of 
matter, and put into the moft vehe-. 
mem commotions vafl tracts of land 
and fea, of many hundred miles in ex- 
tent — that the agents, I fay, which 
can do all this, and more, mud be very 
powerful — will not admit of a doubt. 
Now we know of nothing in nature, 
more powerful than the particles of 
certain bodies, converted into vapoui* 
by the aflion of fire. Fire then, and 
proper materials for it to aft upon, 
are probably the principal agents in 
this affair. And what greatly If rength- 
ens the probability, is, that thofe coun- 
tries, which have burning mountains, 
are moll fubjeft to earthquakes ; and 
that thofe mountains rage with uncom- 
mon fury, about the time when the 
circumjacent countries are torn with 
convulfions — an argument this, that 
earthquakes and the eruptions of fuch 
mountains, are owing to one and the 
fame caufe. But we mufl be more 
pani<:ular. 



1/89.] 



Theory of earthquakest 



65 



I. The earth is not folid through- 
out, but contains within it large holes, 
pits and caverns ; as is agreed by all 
natural [iiRorians. There afe very 
probably alfo long, crooked^ unequal 
paifages, which run winding ihrough a 
great extent of earth, and form a com- 
munication between very diftant regi- 
ons. Some of thefe cavities contain 
nothing but air, or the fumes of fer- 
menting minerals : in others, there 
are currents of water. 

II. This globe is a very heteroge- 
neous body. Befides the two grand 
divihons of it into folid and fluid 
parts, each of thefe is again divilible 
into an inhnite number of thofe. 
Although our knowledge of the earth 
reaches but a little way below its fur- 
face, yet fo far as we have penetrat- 
ed, It appears to be a compages of a valt 
variety of folid fubflances, ranged in 
a manner, which to us feems to 
have not much of regularity in it. 
Here we rind earths, Itoues, falts, 
fulphurs, minerals, metals, &c. and a 
great number of inferior fpecies, un- 
der each of thefe general heads, blend- 
ed and intermingled with each other. 
Many of thefe are combuHible, or of 
a texture proper to be turned by fire 
into flame and vapour. And befides 
the pure elementary water, if there be 
any fuch, the aqueous parts of the 
globe receive peculiar tintture<;, from 
the beds and veins through which they 
run ; fo that perhaps there may be al- 
moU as many forts of waters, as there 
are of folid. fubftances. Thus fome 
waters are charged with fulphureous 
particle? ; fome, with particles of 
iron ; and others, with thofe of other 
minerals. And the fubterraneous ri- 
vers and flreams, thus impregnated 
with different particles, may, by their 
confluence, produce an almoft infinite 
variety of mixtures in the earth. 

III. Hcatj It is well known, is a 
grand agent in mod natural produc- 
tions; and the inner parts of the earth 
are fufficiently furniflied with it. 
Some parts indeed, as the volcanos, 
are aciually on fire and burn ; but 
there is moreover, a heat without 
flame, diffufed through the interior re- 
gions of the earih. This is evident 
from the inilance of hot fprings, and 
from the warmth, which is always 
found at great depths, as in the bot- 
toms of mines. 

Vol. VI. 



IV. There feems to be an inex- 
hauftible fource of this heat in the at- 
tractive powers, which fir Ifaac New- 
ton has fhewn to belong to the parti- 
cles of matter. For, heat confiding 
in a peculiar kind of iniefiine motion 
of the parts of bodies, whatever tends 
to produce this motion in bodies, will 
caufe them to grow hot. Now fuch 
a motion may be produced, by the 
particles of different bodies rulhing to- 
gether, in virtue of their atirafctive 
powers ; of which that great man has 
given a very copious collefbon of in- 
Itances. in the 31II queition, at theend 
of his optics, wtiither I mufi refer you. 
In fome of them, not only a very fud* 
den and violent heat, but an aftual 
flame, is produced, by the bare mix- 
ing of two cold bodies together ; and 
that, even without the prefence of the 
air, which we find abfolutely neceffa- 
ry to our culinary fires. There is fa 
llrong an attraction between iron and 
fulphur, that, even the grofs body of 
fulphur, powdered, and with an equal 
weight of iron filings and a little wa- 
ter, made into pafle, in a few hours 
grows too hot to be touched, and e- 
mits a flame. When iron is dilFolv- 
ing in a mixture of oil of vitriol and 
common water, there inflantly anfes 
a great heat and violent ebullition, 
with fumes copioufly exhaling; which 
are fo very inflammable, that being fet 
on fire, they go off at once like a gun 
with a great explolion. Having thus 
feen, what a perpetual fource of heat 
there is in thefe powerful, attive prin- 
ciples, continually operating within the 
bowels of the earth — let us next in- 
quire, what effeds may be expe£ied 
from a ? 

V. It it a known property of heat, 
to expand bodies, to rarify them, and 
enlarge their dimenfionsj and, when 
raifed to a higher degree, to fepa- 
rate their parts, and make ihem fly 
from each other. And when the 
heat is intenfe, and the particles of 
the heated body are prevented from 
flying away, till they become tho- 
roughly hot ; it will require very 
flrong veffels, to hinder their burfling 
forth with a violent explofion. Thus, 
a fingle drop of common water, in- 
clofed in a glafs bubble, and laid upon 
the fire, as foon as it becomes hot, 
will burft the bubble, with a report 
fcarcely inferior to that of a piliol 5 
1 



ss 



Theory of earthquakes. 



July, 



and water, in larger quantities, has 
been hcaicd to that degree, as to rend 
afunder very flrong veffels of iron, 
in which it has been endeavoured to 
be confined. What the confeq.ience 
then would be, of a great body of wa- 
ter's fuddcnly making us way into a 
llainmg cavern, whole fuluhureous or 
bituminous fires are not exilinguiflied 
but mraged, by water — and of its be- 
ng there, ahnoft mfiantaneouny, con- 
verted into vapour— yourown imagina- 
tion may eafily leprefent to you. 1 his, 
it is very likely, has fometimes been the 
cafe, with '■clpctl to thofe famous vol- 
canos, ^.tiia and V^efuvius, both 
which border on the fea. You fee 
here, what water may do ; but there 
are many other bodies, which cohere 
more ftrongly ; as fulphur and nitre, 
for example, whofe vapor is flill 
more powerful than that of water. 
This IS evident from the compofition 
of gunpowder, a very fmall quantity 
of which, when turned into vapor, eve- 
ry one knows, is able to remove any 
obHacle that oppofes its expanfion, 
and to burd the firmed rocks. The 
pade above mentioned, made of pow- 
dered fulphur and iron filing';, if put 
a few feet under ground, will by de- 
_-^rees caiife the earth over it to heave 
and craek, to let out the flame; thus 
making an artificial earthquake. And 
therefore, if a water, faturated- with 
fulphureous particles, (liould, in its 
palFage under ground, foak into a large 
bed of iron ore, or a ftroiig chalybeate 
■water into a bed of fulphur ; the mix- 
• ture would doubtlefs pt^-itormin great, 
what ihisexperiment does in miniature. 
A virriolic water mixing with iron, if 
in fufficient quantities, would be fol- 
lowed by the like efFefcl. 

You have now, I fuppofe, before 
you the general caufcs of earthquakes. 
If thofe inflammable vapours be pent 
up in clofe caverns, fo as to find no 
vent, tilt ihey are colletled in a large 
quantity ; fo foon as they take fire in 
any part, the fiamc iwill fpread itfclf, 
whc»rf vcr it meets with materials to 
conx ey it, wuh as great rapidity, per- 
haps, as It does in a tran of gun pow- 
r.er ; and the vapour^, produeed from 
her>re, wdl riifh along throiiyh the 
fuh'erraneou« .crot<;, as they arc aide to 
find or f Tce for them'elvc apaffage ; 
and bv h^avini^ up tht' carih, that lies 
over them, will make a kind of pio- 



grefTive fwell or undulation*, in which 
we fiippofe earthquakes commonly to 
confili ; and will at length burft the 
caverns with a great fliaking of the 
earth, as in Ipringing a mine ; and fo 
difcharge themfelves into the open 
air. 

The extraordinary commotions of 
the fea, obfervcd at Barbadoes and St. 
Martin's, within a few hours of the 
great[earthquakcs, one of which fliook 
Spain and Portugal, and the other, 
New England, with fome of the 
neighbouring parts of America ; will 

NOTE. 

" * Naluralifls have diftinguifned 
earthquakes into two kinds ; one, when 
the motion is horizontal, or from fide to 
fide ; the other, when it is perpendi- 
cular, or right up and down. This 
diftinftion may, for aught I know, be 
jull ; and yet, perhaps, eaithquakes 
more commonly confiR in a kind of 
undulatory motion, which may include 
both the others. For as a wave of 
water, when raifed to its greatell 
height, fubfides, and, in fubfiding, 
fpreads itfelf horizontally ; fo, in like 
manner, a wave of earth, if I may 
be allowed the expreirion, mud, in 
its deTcent, partake both of an hori- 
zontal and perpendicular motion at 
the fame time : and, for the fame rea- 
fon, it muU have had both thefe mo- 
tions in its afcent ; but thofe particles', 
which had been carried forv.'ard in one 
direction, in the afcent, will return 
in a contrary direction, in the defcent. 
Hence, the velocity, wherewith build- 
ings are agitated bv an earthquake, ap- 
pears diHerent at different heights, they 
being rocked with a kind of angular 
motion, like that of a cradle ; the up- 
per parts of them moving fwifter, or 
through greater fpaces, in the fame 
time, than the lower. This you may 
clearly conceive by turning your 
thoughts to the cafe of a veiled, float- 
ing at relJ upon llagnant water, and 
then fuddcnly agitated byagreat wave 
rolling under it. In the motion of 
afcent, the mall of the veffel would 
be thrown forward, in the fame direc- 
tion as ihc wave was moving ; and in 
the inoMou of defcent, backward, or 
in the contrary diretlion ; and in both 
thcfe cafes, the top of the mall would 
move through greater fpaces, than the 
bottom." 



17%.] 



EJfay on free trade and finances. 



6; 



naturally be afcribed by every body 
'to thofe earthquakes, or at lean to the 
fame caufes as ihofe earthquakes are. 
Now, for mv part, I can hardly per- 
fua.de inyCclf, that the bare agitation of 
tke earth at thofe tin>es would be great 
enough to put the fea into fuch vehe- 
ment commotions. To account fur 
thefe things fatisfaftoriiy, it fceins to 
me, that ^A/e mull have recourle to an 
eruption of the vapours, which cauled 
thofe earthquakes. At ihofe times, 
thele furious vapours, impatient of re- 
llramt, mull have continued to drive 
alon'j; ihrought heir fubterraneous paf- 
fatjes, rill they found fonie place, 
where the (op of the caverns, which 
conra-r.ed them, wa^ not of fudicicnt 
flrengih lo confine them ; and there 
they would hurll out of their dun- 
geons, and Iptir.g up into day. The 
eruptions, which cauled thofe uncom- 
mon motions of the fea, that furprifcd 
the inhnbitants of Barbadoes and St. 
Martin's, were very probably made 
in the Atlantic ocean, to the call- 
w^rd of thofe iflands, and near the 
fame latitudes. — And what muA have 
been the commotion, when the va- 
pours, which were able to fhake fuch 
great extents of land and fea, as we 
are fure were fliaken in th.fe earth- 
ouakes, made their way, wuh united 
force, through the vail body of water 
that lay over ihem ! No doubt the wa- 
ter foamed, and boiled, and raged with 
inconceivable fury, and WiS agitaied 
into over-grown uiounfainous waves. 
The hrft effeclof iheerupMon prubably 
was, that all the water, which lay di- 
retlly over the fpot, where the boiioin 
of the ocean g'lped, to let out the va- 
pours, was blown right up, almort 
like a compafl body, to a great heigtjt 
in the air. The bottom doubilefs clof- 
ed again as foon as the vapours were 
difcharged ; but there muft have been 
a pit or cavity left in the ocean, in 
the place deferred by the water : — Of 
what dimenfions, it is impolfible for 
us to fay ; though from what fl lowed, 
it mult have been very confiderable. 
The next ftep would be, that rhe 
neighbouring water would rulh in 
from all fides, to fill up the vacuity ; 
firll, from the nearer parts ; and then 
by degrees from the remoter ; and by 
that means, form a Ipacious concave all 
around, on the furface of the ocean ; 
t^e centre of which would be tbi? pit. 



The motion of the water, defcending 
to hil fuch a pit, was what, I fuppofe, 
might draw oil the water from the 
flioreof St. Manin's; which was the 
firft circum{tanv;e obfcr'-ed mere. The 
water, by thus defcending .o fill the 
pit, having fallen below its p'"per 
level, would next be raifed above it, 
crcding itfelf into a mountain, over 
the place where the pit was made: 
and then, by falhng and rifing alter- 
nately m this place, would communi- 
cate an undulatory motion all around 
it : and the waves, thus excited, would 
be more numerous, and of greater 
breadth, as the dimenfions of the pit 
firll. made were larger. Mean time, 
the water thrown up, at the beginning, 
in a body into the air, would, by its 
weight, [all down in cataracts, and 
add greatly to the confufion. A mo- 
tion like this, once begun, muft needs 
be propagated to very confidcrabledif- 
tances, before it could be entirely loU \\ 
and that, to a degree fnfiicient, I' 
ihould think, to caufe fuch great , 
waves, and to fuch a number, as were 
ohferved at the places before mention- 
ed. Whether thi3,or fomething like 
this, might not probably have been 
the procefs of thefe extraordinary 
fcenes in the ocean, I fubmit to the 
judgment of the reader. And if he 
fhall be of this opinion, he will doubt- 
lefs make a paul'e, and reflect on the 
great goodnefs of heaven, in caufing 
the vapours to break forth in the ocean 
— a place, where they could do the 
Icall hurt. The effetts which mud 
have followed, had thefe impetuous 
btc'ii direcied againft rhe foundaiions 
blaflsof a great and populous ci!y,his 
own imagination will paint to him, in 
livelier colours, than 1 can pretend 
to do." 



An ejfay on free, trade and finances^ 
particularly Jhewing, zvhat fa f plies 
of public revenue may be drawn 
fiorii merchandije. without injur- 
ing ottr trade, or burdening our 
people. 
By a citizen of Philadelphia. 

HAVING laiely pubiiflied a dif- 
fertarion, on that political uni- 
on and conftitution, which is necelTa- 
ry for ihe prcfervation and happinefs 
of the thirteen united flares of Norih.- 
Amenca, I now proceed t'- tonfider 



68- 



£Jfay on free trade and finances. 



[July, 



fome of the great departments of bu- 
finefs, which muft fall under the ma- 
nagement of the great council of the 
union, and their officers. 

The firft thing, which naturally of- 
fers iifelf to confideration, is the ex- 
penfe of government ; this is ifine 
qua non of the whole, and all its 
parts. No kind of adminifiration 
can be carried on, without expenfe ; 
and the fcale, or degree of plan and 
execution, muft ever be limned by it. 
Two grand confederations oHer them- 
felves here, (i.) The eflimate of the 
expenfes which government requires ; 
and (2.) fuch ways and mean-, of raif- 
ing fufficient money to defray them, 
as will be moft eafy, and leafl hurtful 
and oppreffive to the fubjet^, 

1 he firft is not my prefent principal 
objeft ; I fliall therefore only obferve 
upon it, that the wants of govern- 
ment, like the wants of nature, are 
few, and eafily fupplied ; 'tis luxury 
that incurs the mofl expenfe, and 
drinks up the largeff fountains of fup- 
ply ; and, what is mofl to be lamented, 
the fame luxury, which drinks up the 
greateft fupplies, does at the fame tune 
corrupt the body, enervate its flrength, 
and wafte thofe powers, which were 
defigned for ufe, ornament or delight. 
The ways and means of fupply are 
the objert of my principal attention 
at prefent. I will premife a few pro- 
pofnions, which appear to me to de- 
ferve great confideration here. 

I. When a fum of money is want- 
ed, one way of raifing it may be 
much eafier than another. This is e- 
qually true in ffates, as in individuals. 
A man mufi always depend, for fup- 
ply, on thofe articles, which he can 
bell fpare, or which he can diminifli 
with leafl inconvenience ; he fhould 
firfl fell fuch articles, as he has pur- 
pofely provided for marf;et : if thefe 
De not enough, then fuch articles of 
his eflaie as he can befl fpare, always 
facrlficirig luxuries firfl, and neceiTa- 
ries lafl of all. 

II. Any interefl or thing whatever, 
©n which the burden of tax is laid, is 
diminifhed either 111 quantity or neat 
value ; e. g. if money is taxed, part 
of the fum goes to pay the tnx ; if 
lands, part of the produce or price 
goes to pay it ; if goods, part of the 
price, which the goods will fell for, 
goes to pay if, &c. 



III. The confumption of any thing, 
on which the burden of tax is laid, 
will always be thereby lefFened ; be- 
caufe fuch tax will raile the price of 
the article taxed, and fewer people 
will be able or v;illing to pay fuch ad- 
vance of price, than would purchafe, 
if the price was not raifed ; and, con- 
fequently, 

IV. The burden of tax ought to 
lie heavieft on thofe articles, the ufe 
and confumption of which are leaft 
necellary to the community ; and light- 
efl on thofe articles, the ufe and con- 
fumption of which are moft necelTary 
to the community. I think this fo 
plain, that it cannot need any thing to 
be faid on it, either^y way of illuftra- 
tion or proof. 

V. The ftaples of any country are 
both the fource and meafure of its 
wealth, and therefore ought to be enr- 
couraged and increafed, as far as pof- 
fible. No country can enjoy or con- 
fume more, than they can raife, 
make, or purchafe. No country can 
purchafe more than they can pay for ; 
and no country can make payment be- 
yond the amount of the furplus of their 
ftaples, which remains, after their 
their own confumption is fubtratled. 
If they go beyond this, they muft rua 
in debt, i. e. eat the calf in the cow's 
belly, or confume, this year, the pro- 
ceeds of the next ; whch is a direft 
fiep to ruin, and muft (if continued) 
end in deftruftion. 

VI. The great ftaples of the united 
ftates, are our hufbandry, fiflieries, 
and manufatlures. Trade comes in, 
as the hand-maid of them all — the fer- 
vant that tends upon them — the nurfe, 
that takes a way their redundancies, and 
fupplies all their wants. Thefe we 
may confider as the great fources of 
our wealth ; and our trade, as the great 
conduit, through which it {lows. All 
thefe we ought, in found policy, to 
guard, encourage and increafe, as far 
as polfible, and to load them, as little 
as poflible, with burdens and embar- 
raffments. 

VII. Whenany country finds, that 
any articles are growing into ufe, and 
their coiiriimption incieafing fo far, as 
to become hurtful to the profpcrty of 
the people, t>r to corrupt their morals 
and economy, it is the intereft and 
good policy of fuch country, to check 
anddiminilh the ufe and confumptior) . 



1789.] 



Account of theftttlanent of New Madrid. 



H 



of fuch articles, down to fuch de- 
grees, as (liall confirt with the greatelt 
happinefs and purity of their people. 

VIII. This is done the moil effec- 
tually and unexceptionably, by taxing 
fuch articles, and thereby railing their 
price fo high, as fhiil be neceffary to 
reduce their confumption, as far as is 
needful for the general good. The 
force of th s obfen-ation has been felt 
by all nations; and fumptuary laws 
have been tried in all fhapes, to pre- 
vent or reduce fuch hurtful qonfump- 
tions : but none ca^i do it fo eitectually, 
as raifing the price of them. Ihis 
touches the feelings of eveiy purchaf- 
er, and connetts the ufe of fuch ar- 
ticles with the pain of the purchafer, 
who cannot afford them, fo clofely and 
fo conHantly, as cannot fail to operate 
by way of diminution or difule of 
fuch confumption. And as to inch 
rich or prodigal people, as can or will 
go to the price of fuch articles, they 
are the very perfon-;, whom I ihink the 
moft able and fuitable to pay taxes to 
the flate. I think it would not be dif- 
ficult to enumerate a great number of 
fuch articles of luxury, pride, or 
mere orname\it, wh.ch are growing in- 
to fuch exceffive ufe among us, as to 
become dangeious to the wealth, eco- 
nomy, morals, and health of our peo- 
ple, viz. difliUed fpirits of all forts, 
efpecially whifkey, and country rum ; 
all imported wines; hlks of all lorts, 
cambricks, lawns, laces, &c. &c. fu- 
perfine cloths and velvets ; jewels of 
all kinds, &c. to which might be add- 
ed, a large catalogue of articles, though 
not fo capitally dangerous as ihefe, yet 
fuch, as would admit a check in their 
'confumption, without any damage to 
the ilate, fuch as fugar, tea, coffee, 
cocoa, fine linens ; all cloths and ftuffs 
generally ufed by the richer clals ok' 
people, &c. all which may be judi- 
cioufly taxed at ten, twenty, fifty, or 
one hundred per cent, on their fird 
importation : and to thefe might be 
added, a fmall duty of perhaps five 
per cent, on all other imported goods 
whatever. 

Two things are here to be confidered 
and proved. 1. That this mode of tax- 
ation would be more beneficial to the 
community, than any other: and, 2d. 
That this mode is prafticable. 

If thefe two things are fairly and 
jclearly proved, I think there can be 



no room left for doubt, whether this 
kind of taxation ought to be imme- 
diately adopted and put in practice. 

I will offer my reafons in favour of 
thefe propofitions, as fullv, clearly, 
and truly as 1 can ; and hope they 
may be judged wor:hy of a candid at- 
tention, i will endeavour in the firft 
place, to point out the benefits arifing 
from this mode of taxation. 
\To be continued.^ 
••i>~<s>^e><s>"0- 

AcQount of the fettlement of Nez^' 
Madrid ; — in a letter to dr. John 
Morgan, Fhiladelpliia. 

Nezo Madrid, April 14, 1789, 
Sir, 

TH E inclemency of the feafon, 
and the precautions neceffary for 
the advantage and fecurity of our 
party and enterprise, rendered our 
voyage, down the Ohio, along though 
not a difagrceable one. We have 
now been in the Miffiffippi two 
months, moll of which time has been 
taken up in vifiting the lands, from 
cape St, Come, on the north, to this 
place on the fouth ; and weftward to 
the river St. Fianfois, the general 
courfe of which is parallel with the 
Milhdippi, and from twenty to thirty 
miles diUant. 

Colonel Morgan, with nineteen 
others, undertook to reconnoitre the 
lands, above»or north of the Ohio : 
this gave him the earlieil opportunity 
of producing h s credentials to Don 
Manuel Perez, governor of the Il- 
linois, who treated hnn, and thole 
that accompanied him, with the great- 
eft politenefs. Iheir arrival, after 
their bufinefs was known, created 
a general joy throughout the country, 
a'nong all ranks of its inhabitants : — 
even the neighbouring Indians have 
expreffed the greateft pleafure at our 
arrival and intention of fettlement. 
There is not a fingle nation or tribe 
of Indians, who claim, or pretend to 
claim a foot of the land, granted to 
colonel Morgan. This is a grand 
matter in favour of our fettlement. 

The governour very cheerfully fup- 
plied our party with every neceffa- 
ry, demanded by colonel Morgan, 
and particularly with horfes and 
guides, to reconnoitre all the lands 
to the weftern limits, and from north 
to fouth in the interior country. 



Account of thefettlcmcnt of New Madrid. 



[July, 



In an undertaking of this nature, it 
is not to be doubted, but different 
op:n;ons have prevailed amongft us, 
vnth relpett to ihemoR advantageous 
Situation to eftablifh the firft fettle- 
>ii:'nt of farmers and planters. A con- 
fiderable number of reputable French 
families, on the American fide of the 
Illinois, who propofe to join us, 
wflied to influence our judgments in 
favour of a very beautiful fituation 
and country, about twelve leagues a- 
bove ihe Ohio. A number of Ame- 
rica:! farmers, deputed from port Vin- 
cent, and fome others of our party, 
were delighted with the country op- 
pofite to the Ohio, one league back 
from the river, to which there is ac- 
ccfs by a rivulet, that empties itfclf 
into the MiffifTippi, about two and a 
half or three miles above the Ohio. 
Some declared for a fituation, to 
which there is a good landing, at the 
higheft floods, about nine miles below 
thi Ohio, and in a very fine country : 
but after maturely conhdering every 
circumftauce, and fully examining the 
country in this neighbourhood, we 
have united in the refolution, to eOa- 
blifh our new city, whence this letter 
is dated, about twelve leaguf:s below 
the Ohio, at a place formerly called 
L'Anfe la Graiffe, or the Greafy 
Bend, below the mouth of a river, 
marked in captani Hutchins's map, 
Chepoufca or Sound river. Here 
the banks of the MiffilTippi, for a 
confiderable length, are high, dry, 
and pleafant ; and the foil, wedward 
to the river St. Francois, is of the 
moft defirable quality for Indian corn, 
tobacco, flax, hemp, cotton, and in- 
digo ; though by fome it is deemed 
too rich for wheat — infomuch that we 
v6rily believe, there is not an acre of 
uncultivable or even indifferent land, 
within a thoufand fquare miles. 

The country rifes gradually from 
the Mini'fippi, into fine, dry, plea- 
fant and healthful grounds, fuperior 
(we believe) in beauty and quality, to 
every other part of America. 

The limits of our new city of Mad- 
rid, are to extend four miles fouth, 
down the river, and two miles well 
from it, fo as to crofs a beautiful, liv- 
ing, deep lake of the pureft fpnng 
water, one hundred yards wide, and 
fc\reral leagues in length, north and 
fouth, emptying itfelf by a conftant, 



rapid, narrow flream, through the 
centre of the city. The banks of this 
lake, which is called St. Anne's, are 
high, beautiful, and pleafant ; the 
water deep, clear and fweet : the bot- 
tom a clean iand, free from wood, 
fiirub':, or other vegetables, and well 
ftored with fifli. On each lide of this 
delightful lake, llreets are to be laid 
out, one hundred feet wide, and a road 
to be continued round it, of the fame 
breadth : and the trees are directed to 
be prcferved forever, for the health 
and pleafure of the cuizcns. 

A Itreet one hundred and twenty 
feet wide, on the banks of the Miflif- 
fippi, is laid out ; and the trees are di- 
rected to be preferved for the fame 
purpofe. 

Twelve acres, in a central part of 
the city, are to be refervcd in like 
manner, and to be ornamented, im- 
proved and regulated by the magiftra- 
cy of the city, for public walks ; and 
forty lots, of half an acre each, are 
appropriated tofuch public ufes as the 
citizens (hall recommend, or the chief 
mngiilrate dire£^ ; and one lot, of 
twelve acres, is to be referved for the 
king's ufe. One city lot, of half an 
acre, and one out lot of five acres, to 
be a free gift to each of the fix hun- 
dred firfl fettlcrs. 

Our furveyors are now engaged in 
laying out the city, and out lots, upon 
an extenfive and approved plan, and 
in fiirveying the country into farms of 
three hundred and twenty acres each, 
previous to individuals making an/ 
choice or feitlement. Thefe farms, 
and the conditions of fettlement, being 
alfoupona plan univerfally fatisfa6lo- 
ry, will prevent the endlefs law-fuits, 
which the different modes, eflabliffied 
in other countries, have entailed up- 
on the poflerity of the firfl fettiers. 

We have built cabins, and a maga- 
zine for providons ; and are proceed- 
ing to make gardens, and to plough 
and plant one hundred acres of the 
fineft prairie land in the world, with 
Indian corn, hemp, flax, cotton, to- 
bacco, and potatoes. 

The timber here differs, in fome 
inftances, from what you have in the 
middle Hales of America ; yet we 
have white oaks of an extraordinary 
great fize, tall and ftraight ; alfo black 
oaks, mulberry, afh, poplar, pcrci- 
mon'^j crab-apple in abundance, and 



17S9-1 



Agriculture preferable to the mechanic arts. 



n 



larger than ever we faw before, hick- 
ery, walnut, locuH, &c. and fallafras 
trees of two feet diain-Jter, and of an 
extraordinary length and Itraightnels, 
are common here. The underwood 
IS principally cane and Ipice. 

The kinds of timber, unknown to 
you, are cyprefs, paean, cotlee, cu- 
cumber, and fome others. The cyprefs 
grows on the low land, along the river, 
and is equal in quality to white cedar. 
Vv'e have a fine tratt of this in our 
neighbourhood, which colonel Mor- 
gan has directed to be furveyed, into 
lots of a fuitable fize, to accommo- 
date every farm. 

We are pleafed with the climate, 
and have reafon to believe, that we 
have at laft found a country, equal to 
our mod fanguine willies. 

Several principal French gentle- 
men, at Sie. Genevieve, have offered 
to condutl colonel Morgan, or any 
perfon he pleafes to' lend, to as fine 
iron and lead mines, as any in Ame- 
rica, each within a fmall day's jour- 
ney of the Mviliirippi, and within the 
bounds of his territory. It is intend- 
ed to preferve thefe, for fome perfon 
or perfons of fufficient capita! and 
knowledge, to undertake to work 
them, 

Salt fprings are faid to be difperfed 
through all the country : as we have 
this information from the bell autho- 
rity, we believe it ; but have not yet 
vifited any. 

The banks of the MifTifTippi, for 
many leagues in extent, commencing 
about twenty miles above the Ohio, 
are a continued chain of hme-llone ; 
but we have not as yet found any in 
this neighbourhood. 

We could mention many other par- 
ticulars, which would be pleahng to 
our friends; but this would require 
more time to write, than we can ipare 
from our other necelfary einploy- 
ments. We muft however add, that 
a thoufand farms are directed to be 
furveyed, which will foon be exerut- 
c-d, for the iminf.diaie choice and fer- 
tlement of all families, who fliall 
come here next fall ; and that the 
months of September, October, No- 
vember, December, and January, 
are the moll proper to arrive here, as 
th:r farmer can begin to plough in 
February, and continue that work 
until chriilmafs. 



After the furveys are completed, 
colonel Morgan and major M'Culiy 
will proceed to New York, via New 
Orleans and Cuba ; and colonel 
Shreve, captain Light, and captain 
Taylor, with all others, who con- 
clude to return immediately for their 
families, will afcend the Ohio in 
time, to leave Fort Put agaiq, for 
this place, in October. 

Captain Hcwimg undertakes the 
direction of a number of hngle men, 
to plant a hundred acres of Indian 
corn, fome tobacco, cotton, fla.v, and 
hemp — colonel Morgan has Itipplied 
him with horfes, ploughs, &c. he will 
be able to build a good houie and 
mill, agamft his father's and brother's 
arrival here, next fall. 

As not a hngle pcrlon of our whole 
party, confilting of feventy men, has 
been fick an hour, nor met with any 
accident; but, on the contrary, ail 
enjoy perfett health, and are in high 
fpirits on the difcovery of this happy 
clime, we think it needlefs to men- 
tion the name of any one in parti- 
cular. We are, fir, 

Your obedient, humble fervants. 
Signed 



Gaorge AVCully, 
John Dodge, 
Peter Liglit, 
David Rankin, 



John Ward, 
Ifracl Shreve, 
John Stewirt^ 
Jamts Rhea, 



Sainuel Sli'man, jun. 
To dr. Jjhn^Iorgan, i*hilad. 

Whether it be moji beneficial to the 
United fiates, to promote agricul- 
ture, or to encourage the mechanic 
arts and manufactures? — from a 
difcourje, pronounced by John Mor- 
gan, M, D. F. R. S. at a meeting 
of the ShandeaJi ftcieiy of Nev>~ 
hern. North Carolina, March 15, 

17S9. 
A GRICULTURE is the olceft 
jTjl. employment of man, even of 
our Hrlt pirents and pnmi'is'e ancef- 
tors. It has been ever held in the 
higheft clliraation, by wife men of 
eveiv nation, for the innocence that 
attends i(, and for the heahh and vi- 
gour of body it prodm es. It has had 
a great nu'nber of iovereign princes, 
amongfl it patroiis and cultivator<!j 
not only Tor the pleafures, but alO? 
for the profits, atrendant on its pur- 
fuits, as well in adminiilcring to all 



Agriculture preferable to the mechanic arts. 



Uoh, 



the moil eflential wants of individu- 
als, as in producing riches to a nati- 
on. Some countries, from their hi^^h 
Hate of agriculture, becoming grana- 
ries to neighbouring nations, have a- 
bounded proportionably in wealih, po- 
pulation, the arts of peace and the 
magazines of war, as hiltory Ihews 
to have been the cafe of yEgypt. 

In new countries, in particular, 
and confequentiy at firll but thinly in- 
habited, it becomes a primary object, 
to cultivate the earth, in preference 
to everv other manual labour and pur- 
fuit. Wherever good lands abound, 
whatever can be raifed from them, 
will be an article of wonh. And 
.whereas labour is dear from the fcar- 
city of hands, the produce nf the 
earth will yield greater emolininents to 
the hufbandman, than any other fpecies 
of labour. In this country efpecially, 
which IS fo exteniive, and the num- 
ber of fcttlers fo fmall in proportion 
to the land they pofTefs, agriculture 
will more abundantly fupply our 
wants, than the manufatturing any 
kind of goods can do, whereof the 
chief value depends on the labour of 
many. 

From the iargefl accounts we have, 
the nwmber of inhabitants, in the u- 
nited Hates of America, falls fliort of 
three millions ; but the Ian I, fit for 
tillage, paflurage and other pinpofes 
of rural life, is capable of furnifhing 
above, fifty millions of perfons, with- 
out being over-crouded. Abound- 
ing with materials from the produce 
of the eirth, the prefent generation 
can command a fupply of the articles 
they require, in greater plenty, and 
of better quality, than it would be 
poinble to manufaflure ourfelves. 
The neceilanes of life are compara- 
tively few. Thefe are eafily pro- 
cured from our lands. But the ar- 
ticles of manufarkires and commerce, 
which not only ferve to fupply our 
real wants, but contribute to our i- 
iwaginary wants and luxury, are in- 
numerable. In this our as yet infant 
(late, we are therefore loudly called 
upon by our wants, by our intereHs, by 
the firft law of nature, and good po- 
licy, to give our chief attention to 
agriculture ; firfl, for the more im- 
rriediate fupply of our necefhties, and 
fecondlv, tofurnifhus with the mod 
efFe£lual means of procuring, in the 



way of barter and commerce, all thofe 
things, which we cannot expect or 
hope to obtain by our own labour. 

Mechanic arts may be jullly con- 
fidercd, as the offspring of that plen- 
ty, which agriculture begets ; but 
they are generally flow in their pro- 
grefs at firft, and take a long time, 
before they reach to any degree of 
eminence. It is found policy then, 
and the true interell of this country, 
to encourage the natural difpofition 
of the Americans to cultivate the 
ground, and draw from it the raw, 
but ufeful materials, of which it is 
fo capable wiih little labour, and to 
fupply the tranf atlantic nations of 
Europe, that depend upon their num- 
bers, to manufatture for us whatever 
we ftand in need of; which, from 
their fkill and long experience, they 
can artord with greater eafe and 
chcapnels, than we can furnifli our- 
felves. 

To evince the truth of this afler- 
tion, let us refletJ, with what fuccefs 
thefe flates, when they were yet but 
colonies of Britain, purfued this plan 
of condutt, in adhering to their (ifli- 
eries, and in clearing and cultivating 
the ground : thus furnifhing the Wert 
Indies with lumber, iron, flour and 
other provihons ; ar d Great Britain 
herfelf, and, through her, the coun- 
tries fubjecl; to her dominion, and 
connected with her by treaties of 
friendlhip and commerce, with filh, 
naval (lores, tobacco, pot-afli, rice, 
indigo, filk, hemp, flax-feed, and 
other materials for their different ma- 
tt u fa times. 

It requires no great extent of ac- 
quaintance with the produds and ex- 
ports of the different united flates of 
America, to perceive, that our mofl 
certain and fubllantial riches flow 
from agriculture, hunting, fiftiing, 
exploring the earth, and furnifliing 
thofe raw materials for commerce, 
which, in return, bring in the wealth 
and conveniences of other nations. 

The plenty of codfifli on the coafts 
of New England, as well as falmon, 
herring, and a variety and abundance 
of other fpecies of fifh, which em- 
ploy a great number of their fea-far- 
ing people to catch, fait, barrel, and 
tranfport them to Portugal, Spain, 
Italy and the Levant, is to be con- 
fidered as a rich mine, from which 



h] 



/Agriculture prefcrahlt to the mechanic arts. 



73 



they derive great wealth, with com- 
paratively little labour. The bufinefs 
of {hip-building, the cheapnefs of 
which depends upon the quantity 
and convenience of timber with 
which the country abounds, and the 
intereft of the hufbandman to clear his 
ground — is another great fource of 
power and riches. By ihefe means, 
and the making of pot-ani, from the 
trees they burn to clear their lands, 
(which is a valuable article of export) 
together with their lumber and naval 
llores, they are enabled lo fiipply 
foreigners wiih thofe articles, from 
which they acquire ample and valuable 
returns. Hence, too, they are fur- 
riftied withaflive and heahhy leamen, 
for manning their vefTels, and for car- 
rying on their commerce with different 
and diflant parts of the world. 

The middle dates, viz. New York, 
New Jerfey, Pennfylvania. and Dela- 
ware, are, in general, fertile in their foil, 
and abound in all kinds of excellent 
grain. They alfo abound in mines of 
iron ore, from which pig and bar iron 
are made, and afford valuable articles 
of remittance to different countries, 
by furnilhing materials for their call- 
ing aad various mechanic arts. It is 
not my intention to enlarge upon trade, 
farther than fb point out the raw ma- 
terials, produced from agriculture and 
working of the earth, which may be 
employed to greater advantage by us, 
in our prefent (late, as articles of 
commerce, than as mere objects of 
manufa^Uires for ourfelves. 

I mult here obferve, that, where I 
have referred fome particular produfts 
of the earth, to fome flates only, it is 
to be underftood, that the fame, or 
feveral of thofe articles, may likewife 
be the pro.duflions of others, or culti- 
ti>vated in them with advantage ; al- 
though, for the fake of brevity, I have 
made no mention or repetition of 
them, as your fiiperior knowledge of 
the fubjeft will readily enable you to 
fupply my omiffions. 

Tobacco has been iiiHly ronfidered 
as the great flaple, awd (landing com- 
modity, of Maryland and Virginia, 
which Rates are to the fouthward of 
Pennfylvania and Delaware : and it 
may be alfo raifed in the three remain- 
irig flates to the fouthward of Virgi- 
nia, viz. the two Carolinas and Geor- 
gia. The tobacco, which was annu- 

VoL. VI. 



ally fiiipped to Great Britain, before 
the revolution, fell little fliort of one 
hundred thoufand hogiheads ; and the 
amount of the cufloms was above a 
million of pounds llcrling. The threa 
great flaples of the Carolinas and 
Georgia, confiding of rice, mdigo, 
and naval flores, were then computed 
at near half a million more. Befides 
which, Georgia has produced great 
quantities of raw filk, which, being 
exported to England, came into com- 
petuion with, and indeed obtained the 
pre-eminence over, the finell lilk of 
Picmonr, for which half a million 
per annum had been paid. Georga 
has been alfo engaged in making and 
exporiing pot aih, an article of great 
demand in bleaching, and in a variety 
of other trades and manufactures. 

From this narrative it appears, of 
what amazing confequence it has been 
to North America, to confine her 
chief views to the improvement of 
her fidieries and agriculture; and to 
di'pend upon the exportation of thoie 
raw materiah, which flie has derived 
from the waters, the furface and bow- 
els of the earth, to draw from the na- 
tions of Europe, and their dependen- 
cies, every article of commerce and 
manufacture, which (lie ttood in need 
of. and whjch flie could not obtain, 
by turning the labour of her inhabit- 
ants to mauufattures and the mecha- 
nic arts. The employment of hunt- 
ing, and a ^rade with the native In- 
dians employed in hunting, has a con- 
nexion with this fubjett. Hence, we 
procure furs, and peltries of all forts, 
which are exported, as raw materials 
for the manufactures of other countries, 
and prove a new fource of wealth. 

The riches not only of America, 
but of every other country, depend 
chiefly upon the produtt of their lands, 
and upon the quantity and value of 
the articles exported from it, abo<-e 
what are imported, which gives the 
balance of trade in favour of fuch 
country. Should we then attempt, by 
turning our thoughts unfeafonably, 
and beyond what we are capable of 
executing with eafe. to manufacture 
more than our neceffities require, and 
export lefs of our produce, we fhould 
foon find the balance of trade againft 
us, and ourfelves greatly impoverifhed. 
Such would be the natural confe- 
quence of checking agriculture, from 



On the manumijion ofjlaves. 



74 

which our wealth immediately flows, 
and making it give way to mechanic 
arts, which cannot be carried on here 
with the fame eaie and advantage, as 
in older and more populous countries. 

Let me repeat, that the principal ar- 
ticles of irts and commerce are the 
produfclions of agriculture, by means 
of which, after we have fupplied our 
own demands, we are enabled to bring 
to us the manufattures, and produc- 
tions of other countries, that we (land 
in need of. From a due attention to 
our agriculture, ourfifheriesand hunt- 
ing, and the commerce we efiablifh 
on ihem, the rt*0ans of living become 
cafy, early m^riages are promoted, 
and population is increafed — witnefs 
the coails and fithing towns of New 
England, and the rapid encreafe of 
the children of the indullrious huf- 
bandmen. This is the confequence 
of the greater eafe of rearing and 
maintaining large families. It alfo 
invites a greater number of foreigners 
to vifit and fettle in the country, who 
mix with us and become one people; 
the fame in their interefts, purfuits and 
manners. 1 

Whenever a coimtry is fully flock- 
ed with inhabitants, it is then in a fi- 
tuation to require and encourage ma- 
nufa6lures, beyond what is pratticable 
or prudent to attempt, in its early 
flate. But I mean not, in denying a 
preference to the mechanic arts in 
our prefent circumRances, to exclude 
from a proper (Jiare of attention to 
this objetl, all fuch hands as can be 
well fpared from agriculture and com- 
merce, ot fuch as may be neceffary 
for cloathing, for building (hips and 
houfes, and for working up thofe ma- 
terials, which can be manufaflurcd, 
with more eafe andjprofitto ourfelves, 
than they can be imported. I even 
think, as grapes are the natural pro- 
duce of our country, that planting 
vineyards, and making wines, at leafl 
for our own ufe and confumption, 
would be beneficial ; and that, while 
the foiithern flatcs give ihcir attention 
to the raifiiig of cotton, the more popu- 
lous flates to the not ih ward might 
employ many hands and proper ma- 
chines in carding, fpinnitig and weav- 
ing it, whiih would be a great faving 
to the inhabitants of America. 

I conclude, as a confequence of 
what 1 have advanced, that, whilft 



[July, 



older and more thickly inhabited 
countries are employed in manufac- 
tures, the Americans ought to lay 
themfelves out to raife all forts of 
commodities, to fit them for a market, 
and thus to furnifli other nations with 
the materials, of which they ftamd in 
need for carrying on their eflablifhed 
nianufatiures, and fo derive greater 
advantages from trading with them, 
than it is polTible by following the 
mechanic arts and manufafluring for 
ourfelves, till we are more capable, 
from oui numbers and wealth, of car- 
rying on fuch undertakings, 

Speeck of William Pinckney, efq. 
of Hartford county, Maryland, in 
the ajfembly of that _fiate, at their 
lajl fjjton, when the report of a 
committee of the houfe, favourable 
to a petition for the relief of the 
oppreffed flaves^ was under cert' 
f deration. 

Mr. Sr EAKER, 

BEFORE I proceed to deliver 
my fentiments, on the fubjeft 
matter of the report, under confi- 
deration, I mull entreat the members 
of ihishoufe to'hear me wuh patience, 
and not to condemn what I may hap- 
pen to advance, in fupport of the opi- 
nion I have formed, until they fhall 
have heard me out. I am confcious, 
fir, that upon this occafion, I have 
long-eRablifhed principles to combat, 
and deep- rooted prejudices to defeat ; 
that I have fears and apprehenfions to 
filence, which the afts of former le- 
giflatures have fanftioned, and that 
(what is equivalent to a hoft of diffi- 
culties) the popular impreffions are a- 
gainft me : but, if I am honoured with 
the fame indulgent attention, which 
the houfe has been pleafed to afford 
me on part fiibjefts of deliberation, I 
do not defpair of furmounting all thefe 
obllades, in the common raufe of juf- 
tice, humanity, and policy. There- 
port appears to me to have two objefts 
in view : to annihilate the exillmg re- 
Rraints on the voluntary emancipation 
of flave% and to relieve a particular off- 
fpring from the punilhment, heretofore 
inflicted on them for the mere tranf- 
greffion of their parents. To the 
whole report, feparately and collec- 
tively, my hearty affsnt, my cordial 
ainilance, fliall be given. It was the 



1789-] 



On the manumijjion ofjlaves. 



75 



policy of this country, fir, from an 
early period of colonization, down 10 
to the revolution, to encourage an im- 
portation of flaves, for purpofes. which 
(if conjefture may be indulged) had 
been far betteranfwered, without their 
afTiftance. That this inhuman policy 
was a difgrace to the colony, a 
dilhonour to the legiflature, and a 
fcandal to human nature, we need 
not at this enlightened period labour 
to prove. The generous mind, that 
has adequate ideas of the inherent 
rights of mankind, and knows the va- 
lue of them, mull feel its indignation 
rife againll the (liameful traffic, that 
introduces flavery into a country, 
which feems to have been defigned by 
providence, as an afylum for thofe 
whom the arm of power had perfe- 
cuted, and not as a nurfery for wretch- 
es, flripped of ei'ery privilege which 
heaven intended for its rational crea- 
tures, and reduced to a level with — 
nay become themfelves — the mere 
goods and chattels of their mailers. 

Sir, by the eternal principles of na- 
tural juftice, no mailer in the Haie 
has a right to hold his Have in bond- 
age for a fingle hour ; but the law of 
the land — which (however opprelfive 
and unjuU, however inconfillent with 
the great ground- work of the laie re- 
volution, and our prefent frame of 
government) we cannot, in prudence, 
or from a regard to individual rights, 
abolifh — has authorifed a flavery, as 
bad, or perhaps worfe than, the moft 
abfolute, unconditional fervitude, that 
ever England knew, in the early ages 
of its empire, under the tyrannical 
policy of the Danes, the feudal te- 
nures of the Saxons, or the pure vil- 
lanage of the Normans. But, mr. 
Speaker, becaufe a refpeft for the 
peace and fafety of the community, 
and the already injured rights of indi- 
viduals, forbids a compulfory libera- 
tion of thefe unfortunate creatures, 
fhall we unneceflarily refine upon 
this gloomy fyllem of bondage, and 
prevent the owner of a flave from ma- 
numitting him, at the only probable 
period, when ihe warm feelings of 
benevolence, and the gentle workings 
of commiferation difpoie him to the 
generous deed ? — Sir, the natural cha- 
raftcr of Maryland is fufficiently ful- 
lied, and difhonoured. by barely to- 
lerating flavery ; but when ii is found, 



that your laws give every poflible en- 
couragement to its continuance to the 
lateft generations, and are ingenious 
to prevent even its flow and gradual 
decline, how is the die of the impu- 
tation deepened ? — It may even be 
thought, that our laie glorious ftrug- 
gle for liberty, did not originate in 
principle, but took its rife from po- 
pular caprice, the rage of faction, or 
the intemperance of party. Let it be 
remembered, mr. Speaker, that, even 
in the days of feudal barbarity — when 
the minds of men were un-cxpanded 
by that liberality of fentiment, which 
fprings from civilization and rcfine- 
ment—fuch was ihe antipathy, in Eng- 
land, againll private bondage, that, fo 
far from being lludious to flop thepro- 
grefs of emancipation, the courts of 
law (aided by legiflative connivance) 
were inventive to liberate, by con- 
ftruttion. If, for example, a man 
brought an aftion againft his villain, 
it was prefumed, that he defigned to 
manumit him ; and, although perhaps 
this prefumption was, in ninety-nine 
inflances out of a hundred, contrary 
to the fart, yet, upon thi? ground 
alone, were bondmen adjudged to be 
free. 

Sir, — I fincerely wifli, it were in 
my power, to impart my feelings, 
upon this fubjeft, to thofe who hear 
me — they would then acknowledge, 
that, while the owner was protetted in 
the property of his flave, he might at 
the fame time be allowed to relinquifh 
that property to the unhappy fubjett, 
whenever he ftiould be fo inclined. 
They would then feel, that denying 
this privilege was repugnant to every 
principle of humanity — an everlaflinp 
iligma on our government — an ad of 
unequalled barbarity- — without a co- 
lour of policy, or a pretext of necef- 
fity, to juftify it. 

Sir, let gentlemen put it home to 
themfelves, that after providence has 
crowned our exertions, in the caufe 
of general freedom, with fuccefs, and 
led us on to independence through a 
myriad of dangers, and in defiance of 
obflacles crowding thick upon each 
other, we fliould not fo foon forget 
the principles upon which we fled to 
armsj and lofe all fenfe of that inter- 
pofition of heaven, by which alone 
we could have been faved from the 
graip of arbitrary power. We may 



76 



On the manumij^on of Jlaves. 



[Jul/, 



talk of liberty in our public councils ; 
and fancy, thac we feci a reverence 
for her didates — we may declaim, 
with all the vehemence of animated 
rhetoric, againfl opprelJion, and flat- 
ter ourfelves, (hat we deteft the ugly 
monfter — but fo long as we continue 
to (herifh the poifonous weed of par- 
«>al fljvery among us, the world will 
doubt our finceriry. In the name of 
heaven, wuh what face can we call our- 
felves the friends of equal freedom 
and the inherent rights of our fpccies, 
ivhen we wantonly pafs Jaws inimical 
to each-T^when we rejecl every oppor- 
tnuitv of deflroying, by filent, imper- 
ceptible degrees, the horrid fabric of 
individual bondage, reared by the 
mercenary hands of thofe, from whom 
the facred flame of liberty received 
no devotion ? 

Sir, it is pitiable to refleB, to what 
wild inconliilencies, to what oppofiie 
extremes we are hurried, by (he frail- 
ty of our nature. Long have I been 
convinced, that no generous fenti- 
mentof which the human heart is ca- 
pable, no elevated pafhon of ihe foul 
that digiiiHe<; mank nd, ran obtain an 
uniform and perfect dominion.— to 
day we may be aroufed as one man, 
by a wonderful and unaccountable 
fympaihv. agasnif the lavvlefs invader 
of the rights of his fellow- creatures : 
fo-morrow we may be guilty of the 
fame opprelhon, which we reprobated 
and rediled in another. Is it, mr, 
Speaker, becaufe the complexion of 
thcfe devoted viftims is not quire fo 
delicate as ours — is it, becaufe their 
untutored minds (humbled and debaf- 
cd by the hereditary yoke) appear lefs 
attive and capacious th;;n our own — 
or, is it, becaufe we have been fo ha- 
■bitu:iled to their fituation, as to become 
callous to the horrors of it — that we 
arc determined, whether politic or 
j'Otj to keep them, till time Ihall be 
no more, on, a level with the brutes ? 
Yor " nothing" fays Montefquieu, 
*' fo muchalliniilatcs a man to a brute, 
as living among freemen, himfelf a 
flave." 

Call not Maryland a land of liber- 
ty — do not pretend, that fhe has cho- 
fen this country as an afylum — that 
here fhe has eretfed her temple, and 
idnfecnued herfnrine — when herealfo 
lier unhallowed enemy holds his hel- 
*ifh pandasmonium, and our rulers of- 



fer facrifice at his polluted altars. The 
lilly and (he bramble may grow in fo- 
etal proximity — but liberty and flavery 
deliuht in leparation. 

Sir ! let us ligure to ourfelves, for 
a moment, one of thefe unhappy vic- 
tims, more informed than the reft, 
pleading, at the bar of this hcufe, the 
caufe of himfelf and his fellow- fuf- 
ferer:' — what would be the language 
of this orator of nature ? — Thus, my 
imagination tells me, he would ad- 
drels us. 

'■ We belong, by the policy of the 
country, lo our mailers; andiubmit to 
our rigorous deftiny — we do not afk 
you to diveft them of their property ; 
becaufe we are confcious you have not 
the power — we do not inireat you to 
compel an emancipation of us or our 
poffcrity, becaufe juflice to yourfellow- 
citizens forbids it — we only fupplicaie 
you, not toarrelf the gentle arm of hu- 
manity, when it maybe flretched forth 
in our behalf — not to wage hofliliiies 
againff that moral or religious convic- 
tion, which may at any time incline 
our mailers to give freedom to us, or 
our unoffending off<:prmg — not to in- 
ter pofe If gillativeobil ncles to ihecourfe 

of voluntary manunnllion. Thus 

fhall you neither violate the rights of 
your people, nor endanger the quiet of 
the community, while you vindicate 
your public councils from the imputa- 
tion of cruelly, andihe fiigmaofcaufe- 

lefs, unprovoked oppreilion. We 

iave never (would he argue) rebelled 
againfl our mailers — We have never 
thrown your government into a fer- 
ment, by ffruggles to regain the inde- 
pendence of our fa:hers — We have 
yielded our necks fubmilfive to the 
yoke, and, without a murmur, acquief- 
ced in the privationofour native rights. 
We conjure you then, in the name of 
the common parent of mankind — re- 
v,'ard us not, for this long and patient 
arquiefcence, by fhutting up the mam 
avenues to our liberation, — by with- 
holding from us the poor privilege of 
benefiting by the kind mdiilcence, the 
generous intentions of our fnperiors." 

What could we anfwer to argu- 
ments like thefe ? — Silent and percm- 
tory, we might rcjed the application 
—but no words could jullify the deed. 

In vain fhould we refort to apo- 
logies, grounded on the falbcicMis fug- 
geflions cf a cautious and timid poll- 



17%.] 



Negro's letter on Jlavoy, 



17 



Cy. I would as foon believe the in- 
coherent tale of a fchool boy, who 
fliuuld icU me. he had been frigiuened 
byagholl,as that the grant of this 
perm (Hon ought in any degree to a- 
larm u^. Are we apprchenfive, that 
thefe men will becoir^e more dange- 
rous, by becoming freemen ? Are we 
alarmed, left, by being admitted to 
the enjoyment of civil rights, they 
■will be infpired with a deadly enmity 
againft the rights o\ others? Stran^^e, 
unaccountable paradox ! How much 
more rational would it be, to argue, 
that the natural enemy of the privi- 
leges of a freeman, is he, who is rob- 
bed of them himfelf ! In him the foul 
daemon of jealoufy converts the fenfe 
bfh;s own debafement, into a ran- 
rourous hatred for the more aufpicious 
fare of others — while from him, whom 
you have raifedfrom the degrading ii- 
tuation of a (lave, — whom you have 
rellored to that rank, in the order of 
the univerfe, which the malignity of 
liis fortune prevented him from attain- 
ing before, — from fiich a man (unlefs 
his foul be ten thoufand limes blacker 
than his complexion) you may reafon- 
ably hope for all the happy ctfefts of 
the warmell gi-atitude and love. 

Sir, let us not limit our views to 
the fliort period of a life in being; let 
us extend them along the continuous 
line of endlefs generations yet to come 
— How will the millions, that now 
teem in the womb offutunty, and whom 
5 our prefent laws would doom to the 
curfe of perpetual bondage, feel the 
infpiration ol gratitude, to thofe, whofe 
lacred love of liberty Ihall have open- 
ed the door, to their admifhon v/itiiin 
the pale of freedom? Difhonorable 
to the fpecies is the idea, that they 
would ever prove injurious to our 
inierefts — releafed from the (hackles 
of flaveiy, by ihejiirtice of government 
and the bounty tf individuals — the 
want of fidelity and attachment, would 
be next to impolFible. 

Sir, when we talk of policy, it 
would be well for us to reflect, whe- 
ther pride is not at the bottom of it ; 
"whether we do not feel our vanuy and 
feif-confequerice wounded at the idea 
of a dulky African j-)articipafing equal- 
ly with ourfelves, in the rights of hu- 
man nature, and rifmg to a level v/ith 
' us, from the lowefl point of degrada- 
tion. 



Prejudices of this kind, fir, are of- 
ten fo powerful, as to periuade us, that 
whatever countervails them, is the ex- 
tremity of folly, and that the pecu- 
liar path of wifdom, is that which 
leads to their gratification — but it is for 
us, to be fuperior to the influence of 
fuch ungenerous motives ; it is for us, 
to refiett, that whatever the com- 
plexion, however ignoble the ancef- 
try, or uncultivated the mind, one 
univerfal father gave being to them 
and us ; and, with that being, con- 
ferred the unalienable rights o^the 
fpecies. But 1 have heard it argued, 
that if you permit a mafter to manu- 
mit his Haves by his laft will and tef- 
tament, as foon as they dilcover he 
has done fo, they will deOroyhim, to 
prevent a revocation — never was a 
weaker defence attempted, to juRify 
the feverity of perfecution — never did 
a bigoted inquililion condemn an he- 
retic to torture and to death, upon 
grounds lefs adequate to juilify the 
horrid fentence. 

Sir, is it not obvious, that the ar- 
gument applies equally againft all de- 
vifes whatfoevcr, for any perfon's be- 
nefit. For, if an advantageous be- 
queft is made, even to a white niau, 
has he not the fame temptation, to cut 
Ihort the life of his benefactor, to le- 
cure and accelerate the enjoyment of 
the benefit ? 

As the univerfality of this argu- 
ment renders it completely nugatory, 
fo is its cruelty palpable, by its being 
more applicable to other inftances, to 
w^hich it has never been applied at all, 
than to the cafe under conlideration. 

Letter on Jlavery. By a negro. 

I A M one of that unfortunate race 
of men, who are dillinguifliedfrom 
the refl of the human fpecies, by a 
black (kin and woolly hair — difadvan- 
tages of very little moment in them- 
felves, but which prove to us a fource 
of the greatefl mifery, becaufe th^rre 
are men, who will not be perfurided, 
that it is pofTible for a human foul to 
be lodged within a fable body. The 
Weft Indian planters could not, if 
they thought us men, fo wantonly 
fpill our blood ; nor could the natives 
of this land of liberty, deeming us of 
the fame fpecies with themfelves, 
fu'urait to be inftrumcntal m enflavin;^ 



78 



Negro's letter on Jlavery, 



[July, 



u*!, or think us proper fubjefts of a 
fordid commerce. Yet, ftrong as the 
prejiidites againll us are, it will not, I 
hope, on this fide of the Atlantic, be 
conlidered as a crime, for a poor afri- 
can not to confcfs himfelf a being of 
an inferior order to thofe, who hap- 
pen to be of a difierent colour from 
nimfef ; or be thought very prefump- 
tuous, in one who is but a negro, 
to offer to the happy fubjefts of this 
free government, fome reflexions up- 
on the wretched condition of his 
countrymen. They will not, I trult, 
think worfe of my brethren, for be- 
ing difcontented with fu hard a lot as 
that of flavery ; nor difown me for 
their fellow creature, merely becaufe 
1 deeply feel the unmerited fufieriiigs, 
vhich my countrymen endure. 

It IS iieuher ihe vanity of being an 
author, nor a fudden and capricious 
j'uli of humanity, v/hich has piompt- 
e'd the prelent defign. It has been 
long conceived, and long been the 
principal fubjett of my thoughts. E- 
ver hnce an indulgent mailer reward- 
ed my youthful fervices with freedom, 
and fupplied me at a very early age 
with the means of acquiring know- 
ledge, I have laboured to underlland 
the true pruiciples, on which the li- 
berties ot mankind are founded, and 
to pofFefs myfelf of the language of 
tills country, in order to plead the 
caufe of thofe who were once my 
fellow flaves, and if polfible to make 
my freedom, in fome degree, the in- 
Urument of theiv deliverance. 

The Hrit thing then, which feems 
necelfary, in order to remove thoie 
prejudices, which are fo unjuftly en- 
tertained againit us, is to prove that 
we are men — a truth which is difficult 
of proof, only becaufe it is difficult to 
imagine, by what arguments it can be 
combated. Can it be contended, that 
a difference of colour alone can con- 
{lituteadifference of fpecies? — if not, 
in what fingle circumdance are we 
dlfleient from the reft of mankind ? 
what variety is there in our organiza- 
tion ? what inferiority of art in the 
fafliioningof our bodies ? what imper- 
icffion in tiie faculties of our minds ? 
— Has not a negro eyes ? has not a 
negro hands, organs, dimeniions, 
fenfos, aftedions, pafTions ? — fed with 
the fame food ; hurt with the fame 
v/eapoas ] fubject to the fame difeaics ; 



healed by the fame means ; warmed 
and cooled by the fame fumnier and 
winter, as a white man is ? if you 
prick us, do we not bleed ? if you 
poifon us, do we not die ? are wc 
not expoied to all the fame wants ? 
do we not feel all the fame fentiments 
— are we not capable of all the fame 
exertions — and are we not entiiled 
to all the fame rights, as other men ? 

Yes — and it is faid we are men, it 
is true ; but that we are men, addirted 
to more and worfe vices, than thofe 
of any other complexion ; and fuch is 
the innate perverfenefs of our minds, 
that nature feems to have marked us 
out for flavery. — Such is the apology- 
perpetually made for our mailers, and 
the jtifliHcation offered for that uni- 
verfal profcription, under which we 
labour. 

But I fupplicate our enemies, to be, 
though for the firft time, juft in their 
proceedings towards us ; and to effab- 
lifli the fact, before they attempt to 
draw any conclufion from it. Nor 
let them imagine, that this can be 
done, by merely afTerting, that fuch 
is our univerfal character. It is the 
charafter, I grant, that our inhuman 
mafters have agreed to give us, and 
which they have too induflrioufly and 
too fuccefsfully propagated, in order 
to palliate their own guilt, by black- 
ening the helplefs vittims of it, and 
to difguife their own cruelty under 
the femblance of juftice. Let the na- 
tural depravity of our charafter be 
proved — not by appealing to declama- 
tory invetlives, and interefled repre- 
fentations, but by fhewing, that a 
greater proportion of crimes have 
been committed by the wronged flaves 
of the plantations, than by the luxu- 
rious inhabitants of Europe, who are 
happily ftrangers to thofe aggravated 
provocations, by which our paflions 
are every day irritated and incenfed. 
Shew us, that, of the multitude of 
negroes, who have, within a few years, 
tranfported themfelves to this coun- 
try*, and who are abandoned to them- 
felves ; who are corrupted by exam- 
ple, prompted by penury, and infli- 

NOTE. 

* This letter was originally pub- 
lifhed in England, where the number 
of negroes is confiderably encreafed, 
fnice the late war in America, 



1789.] 



Negro's letter onjlavery. 



gated, by the memory of their wrongs, 
to the commilfion of every crime — 
fhew us, 1 fay, (and the demonltrati- 
on, if it be poflible, cannot be difB- 
cult) that a greater proportion of 
thefe, than of white men, have fal- 
len under the animadverfion of juf- 
tice, and have been facrificed to your 
laws. Though avarice may (lander and 
infult our mifery, and though poets 
heighten the horror of their fables, 
by reprefenting us as monilers of vice 
• — the fa£l is, that, if treated like o- 
ther men, and admitted to a partici- 
pation of their rights, we (hould dif- 
fer from them in nothing, perhaps, 
but in our poffelling ftronger pafiions, 
nicer fenfibility, and more enthufiaf- 
tic virtue. 

Before fo harfh a decifion was pro- 
rounced upon our nature, we might 
have expected — if fad experience had 
not taught us, to expeB nothing but 
injuftice from our adverfaries — that 
fome pains would have been taken, to 
afcertain, what our nature is ; and that 
we Ihould have been confidered, as 
we are found in our native woods, and 
not as we now are — altered and per- 
verted by an inhuman political infti- 
tution. But, inftead of this, we are 
examined, not by philofophers, but 
by interefted traders ; not as nature 
formed us, but as man has depraved 
us — and from fuch an enquiry, pro- 
fecuted under fuch circumliances, the 
perverfenefscf our difpofiiions is faid 
to be eftablilhed. Cruel that you are ! 
you make us flaves ; you implant in 
our minds all the vices, which are, in 
fome degree, infeparable from that 
condition ; and you then impioufly 
impute to nature, and to God, the 
origin of thofe vices, to which you 
alone have given birth ; and punifh in 
us the crimes, of which you are your- 
felves the authors. 

The condition of (lavery is in no- 
thing more deplorable, than in its be- 
ing fo unfavourable to the praBice of 
every virtue. The fureft foundation 
of virtue, is the love of our fellow- 
creatures ; and that afFetHon takes its 
birth, in the focial relations of men to 
one another. But to a flave thefe are 
all denied. He never pays or receives 
the grateful duties of a fon — he never 
knows or experiences the fond folici- 
t\ide of a father — the tender names of 
hufband, of brother, and of friend, 



79 

are to him unknown. He has no coun- 
try to defend and bleed for — he caa 
reliere no fufferings — for he looks a- 
round in vain, to find a being more 
wretched than himfelf. He can in- 
dulge no generous fentiment — for, he 
fees himfelf every hour treated with 
contempt and ridicule, anddillinguiOi- 
ed from irrational brutes, by nothing, 
but the feverity of punifhment. 
Would it be furprifing, if a flave, la- 
bounng under all thefe dlfadvantages 
— opprelFed, infulted, fcorned, and 
trampled on — fhould come at lall to 
defpife himfelf — to believe the calum- 
nies ot his opprelfors — and to per- 
fuade himfelf, that it would be againft 
his nature, to cherilh any honourable 
fentiment, or to attempt any virtuo'is 
atlion ? Before you boalt of your fii- 
periority over us, place fome of your 
own colour (if you have the heart to 
do it) in the fame liiuation with us ; 
and fee, whether ihcy have fuch innate 
virtue, and fuch unconquerable vi- 
gour of mind, as to be capable of fur- 
mounting fuch multiplied difficulties, 
and of keeping their minds free from 
the infettion of every vice, even un- 
der the opprellive yoke of fuch a fer- 
vitude. 

But, not fatisfied with denying us 
that indulgence, to which the milVry 
of our condition gives us fo jull a 
claim, our enemies have laid down 
other and drifter rules of morality, ta 
judge our actions by, than thofe by 
which the condutl of all other men is 
tried. Habits, which in all human be- 
ings, except ourfelves, are thought in- 
nocent, are, in us, deemed criminal — 
and actions, which are even laudable 
in white men, become enormous 
crimes in negroes. In proportion to 
our weaknefs, the flriftnefsuf cenfure 
is incrcafed upon us; and as refources 
are with- held from us, our duties arc 
multiplied. The terror of punifhment 
is perpetually before our eyes : but 
we know not, how to avert it, what 
rules to aft by, or what guides to fol- 
low. We have written laws, indeed, 
compofed in a language we do not iia- 
derftand, and never promulgated : but 
what avail written laws, when the fu- 
preme law, with us, is the capricious 
will of our overfeers ? To obey the 
diftates of our own hearts, and to 
yield to the flrong prnpenfitics of na- 
ture, is often to incur fevere puniih- 



So 



The farmer and ku thirUenfons^ an allegory^ 



CJ"ly, 



ment ; and by emulating example"?, 
which we find applauded and revered 
a;nong Europeans, we rilk inllain- 
ing the wildelt wraih of our iuhunian 
tyrants. 

To judge of the truth of thefe alFer- 
tions, confuh even thofe milder and 
fubordlnate rules for our conduct, the 
various codes of your Welt India 
laws — fhofe laws, which allow ns to 
be men. whenever they condder us as 
viftims of their vengeance, but treat 
us only like a fpecies of living proper- 
ty, as often as we are to be the objetts 
of their protetlion — thofe laws, by 
which (it may be truly faid) that we 
are bound to fiitter, and be mifcrable, 
under pain of death. To refent an 
injury, received from a white man, 
though of the lowed rank, and to 
dare to ftrike him. though upon ihe 
flrongeft and groflell provocation, is 
an enormous crime. To aitempt an 
efcap2 from the cruelties exerciied 
over us, by flight, is puniflied with 
mutilation, and fometimes with death. 
To take arms againll mafters, whofe 
cruelty no fubmiilion can mitigate, no 
patience exhauH, and from whom no 
other means ofdcliverance are L'fi, is 
the moll atrocious of all crimes ; and 
is puntfhed by a gradual deaih, lengih- 
ened out by torments, fo exquiiite, 
that none, but thofe who have been 
long familiarized, with Weil Indian 
barbarity, can hear the bare recital of 
them without horror. And yet I 
learn from writers, whom the Euro- 
peans hold in the highcft elleem, that 
tieafonisa crime, which cannot be 
committed by a flave againft his maf- 
ter ; that a (lave ftands in no civil re- 
lation towards his mafler, and owes 
him no allegiance ; that mailer and 
Have are in a itate of war; and if the 
fl.ive take up arms for his deliverance, 
he aQs not only jullifiably, but in obe- 
dience to a natural duty, the duty of 
felf-prefervation. I read in amhors, 
whom I find venerated by our oppre f- 
fors, that to deliver one's felf and 
one's countrymen from tyranny, is an 
aft of the fublimeft heroifm. I hear 
Europeans exalted, as the martyrs of 
public liberty, the faviours of their 
country, and the deliverers of man- 
kind — I fee their memories honoured 
with ftatues, and their names immor- 
talized in poetry — and yet when a 
gcntroiis negro is animated by the 



fame paffion, which ennobl'ed them — 
when he feels the wrongs of his coun- 
trymen as deeply, and attempts to re- 
venge them as boldly — I fee him treat- 
ed by thofe fame Europeans, as the 
moR execrable of mankind, and led 
out, ainidll cuifes and infults, to un- 
dergo a painful, gradual, and ignomi- 
nious death* : and thus the fame Bri- 
ton, who applauds his own anceflors, 
for attemping to throw off the eafy 
yoke, impoled on them by the Ro- ' 
mans, punifhes us, as detefled parri- 
cides, for feeking to get free from the 
cruellell of all tyrannies,, and yielding 
to the irreliRible eloquence of an Af- 
rican Galgacus or Boadlcea. 

Are then the reafon and the mora- 
lity, for which Europeans fo highly 
value themfelves, of a nature fo vari- 
able and fluctuating, as to change with 
the complexion of thole, to whom they 
are applied ? — Do the rights of nature 
ccafe to be fuch, when a negro is to 
enjoy them ^ — Or does patriotifm, in 
the heart of an African, rankle into 
treafon ? 

A free negro. 

The farmer and his thirteen fans, 
an allegory, 

NOT long ago, a certain farmer 
fettled on a new piece of land, 
which he was in hopes, by his in- 
dulfry and the ainflance of his heal- 
thy boys, to be able to cultivate to 
advantage. Unfortunately he was of 
a morofe, tyrannical and felfiOi dlf- 
pofition ; and often irritated his boys, 
bv his auftcrity ; and as they grew 
older, he ufed them more like flaves, 
than children. They being hardy, 
refolute, and not eafily reconciled to 
rigorous government, and finding that 
their reputed father was not their na- 
tural parent, but only a llep-father ; 
and alfo that he had not fo good a 
title to the farm, as they would have 
when they came of age, determined 
with one conlent, that, if he perfifled 
in his tyrannical condutl, they would 
attempt to cjeH him, and fet up for 
themlelves. Accordingly, on a cer- 
tain day, when the choleric old gen- 

NOTE. 

* For a remarkable Inflance of this 
fpecies of barbarous cruelty — fee vol, 
I. of this work, page 210. 



17^9-'! 



The farmer and his thirteen Jons, an allegory. 



81 



tleman had begun to enforce his unrea- 
fonable commands with a cudgel, they 
manfully returned his blows. Af- 
ter an obftinat.e Itruggle, he was forc- 
ed to retreat ; and wuh a bioken pate, 
a;i<l fore fides, he betook hmifelf, mut- 
tering and refentful, to his paternal 
eitate, on the other fide of the wa- 
ter. The lads, being thirteen in 
number, and of a fanguine, vigorous 
and enterprifing turn, concluded they 
could eafily manage their joint inter- 
eft, fo as very foon to make their 
fortunes. They had lenfe enough 
to know, that, as their united efforts 
had ejefled their father-in-law, fo 
iheir united afFe8ioiis and efforts 
would be neceffary, for their future 
cllablifliment and profpenty. They 
had only a fmall fpot cultivated on 
their new farm, upon which they had 
a crop of wheat : of this they had fe- 
lefted, for feed, a choice flieaf a- 
piece, larger or fnaller, \x\ propor- 
tion to the age, ability and induftry 
of each brother; and as ihey had no 
{belter for- the prefervation of the.r 
grain, it was judged neceifary, that 
all their {heaves Ihould be compared 
together into one ffiock. But the 
difficulty was, how to compati. them, 
fo as liiat the whole flioulcl be fecure 
from injury and depredation. At 
length, with joint contrivance and 
induftry, they formed, with flraw and 
other materials, a kind of covering, 
which they placed over their fheaves, 
to keep ihem together, and to Icreen 
them from ftorms and from birds of 
prey. But it was foon found to be 
inadequate to the purpofe. So weak 
and loofe was it in its contexture, that 
it could neither ilielter the flieaves from 
the weather, nor keep them from fall- 
ing apart. Nay, it evidently funk 
down, fo that moft of the (lieaves 
fluck out above it ; and by unnatural 
prelfure againft one another, they be- 
gan to be intertangled, to lofe their 
fine (hape and proportion, and threat- 
ened the hurfting their bands, and 
becoming like a heap of threffied 
ftraw. The brothers were foon con- 
vinced, that fomething more effeftual 
muft be done, or all their paft labour, 
and fine profpefts of future crops, 
would be loft ; and their grain, ap- 
dearing like a ncglefled, broken fiiock, 
and free plunder for all, would be 
pdl^^ed, not only by feirds and beaili 
VoL.VL 



of prey, but by rapacious farmers a- 
round them. But, though the rale 
appeared urgent, it was difficult to 
find out, or to agree among ihem- 
lelves, what was beft to be d<>ne. 
There was a growini;; uneaiin«is and 
anxiety ; and, cfpecially as blackbirds 
and vermin had begun to make dif- 
order and waffe in many of the 
flieaves, — fome thought it was beft, 
that each one ffioiild take care of 
his own bundle fcparaiely — fome, 
through want of fpint and fraiernal 
affeflion and generofjty, feemed not 
to care, whether any thing Vl'a^ done 
formurual advantage — and fome were 
fo abject and bafe, as to wiLh to go 
back again to their (iep-faiher, and afk 
his pardon, with a promile to fubmit 
to all his orders and unpolitions for 
the future, if he would take their 
bundles into his cu!l(;dy. But the 
moft of theni having cheridied their 
original independent and generous 
fpinf, and being fully perfiu'dcd, (hat 
they had wit and ability enough a- 
niong themfelves, if they would but 
jointly exert it, to preferve their owa 
{heaves, without mesnly fumg to o- 
thers for ainilance, manfully deter- 
mined to lay their heads and their 
hands toreiher, and ihew whaf they 
could do. Accoidmiyly, ih: b/eihien 
all except one or two, eniered into 
clofe confultarion, to ffnke out fome 
plan, for the joint fecurity of iheir 
prerious grain, 7he yoiingefl boy, 
indeed, having been neglofted in his 
education, and arcuftomed to low 
company, w-as ignorant, obftinate, 
and knavilh ; and imgeneroiifly re- 
fufed to join with his brother", in 
any well judged, inreroft pg expedi- 
ent. But this difcouragcd not the 
reft.^ 

The moft aftive, and penetrating 
among them, at leiig;h deviled the 
fullowii'g fcheme, as the moft likely 
to anlwcr the intended purpofe, \\z. 
That a handful of the taileft, Jlrong- 
eft, and ftraiieflof the ftraws, ftionld 
be culled out of each bundle-^the big- 
nefsofthe handfuls to be determin- 
ed by the biguefs of their refpeftivc 
bundles — and that thele handfuls, fo 
felefted, ffiould, by proper interwo- 
ven threads and coiiftntling bands, 
be ingentoufly formed into a cap- 
{heaf, to unite and cover the whole. 
Every one faw that this, if faithfully 



Zi 



Tragical rffcSls of fanatkifm. 



Lj'»iy, 



exernfed, na< :; irrlicious expedient; 
that thirteen fheave, ",'ell bound, and 
fet clnfe and npright, under fuch .i 
cap-flieaf, would help to fupport each 
other; and would remain fafe and 
well fhaped. uninjured by (lorms, and 
undimiuiOicd by birds of prey ; and, 
moreover, would coinprife and con- 
vey the ideas of" unity, fecuriiy and 
comely proportion. And that no ap- 
prehenfions, jealoufies, or diflciifions 
might be entertained amongll the bro- 
thers. It was provided, that each one 
fliould have the culling of his own 
bundle, for the furniing and repairing 
the cap (heaf, aad in ght aid, with 
hi"* own ingenuity, in the conllruftlon 
of it. Bill, ihi)'>gh common fenfe 
could not but acknowledge the iuf- 
tlce and propr'ery (^'t thi'^ meafure ; 
and aro, that it wis much better to 
fpare a handful of grain, for the pre- 
fervation of the red, than to rifk the 
lofs of the whole, for war.t of fuch 
a Tneaf, yet fom*" were fearful, and 
others were obilinate. Some pre- 
tended they had as good run the ven- 
ture of lodng all at ooce, as to have 
all the bed of it picked away by lit- 
tle and little. Some feared, that the 
cap (heaf would be made fo heavy, 
astocrulh rhpir flieaves flat to the 
ground. Others pretended, that the 
cap-Iheaf, being coinpofed of the 
talleft and fironjefl of the draws, 
might be made fo ftift" and tight, as 
to comprefs and pinch the heads of 
their Ih^aves too clofe ; or at lead, 
might enclofe them fo etieclually, as 
to prevent their lufpetting and han- 
dling them, or taking them out, 
whenever they fliould think fit. In 
Ihort, notwiihdanding the union of 
intereft, honour and fafcty, that de- 
manded the united fentiments, exer- 
tions and aiTettions of thefe thirteen 
brethren, divers of them objcfted to 
the propofed meafure. So that thofc 
who had the mod extended views, 
and felt the warmed emotions of bro- 
therly kmdnefs, as well as of lelf- 
love, dreadfd ihe conftquences of 
difunion. The fubjcci had been fo 
long in debaie, and was lo mtereft- 
ing to this rifing fdmdy, that u en- 
gaged the atteii'ion of older farmers, 
though at a ddlancc. Thofe among 
them, who ha.! a fenfe of honour and 
hu'nanitv, we-e giievcd at thcdlfen- 
iions of the{e bicilireu ; and wiihed 



they might have wifdom to coalefce, 
and prefcive their p'scinu^ leed, up- 
on wh'.rh d! ilieir hopes of a fuccef- 
fion of mcreafing haiveds depended. 
Others, that were felfidi and un- 
friendly, endeavoured to create a 
mifunderdanding between thefe bro- 
thers, in hopes they would be oblig- 
ed to feparate one from another, and 
become tenants upon their farms, or 
fervants in their families And par- 
ticularly their old dep father lidenc-d, 
with malignant piral'ure, to every ac- 
count, that was bnught him, of iheir 
quarrels and dangers ; and hoped foon 
to fee the tmie, when he fliould get 
thefe rebellious Jacks into his hands 
again, when he would keep their 
nofes effettually to the giinddone, 
and make them repent of their auda- 
city in refiding his authority. In 
fine, the mod fanguine hopes, that 
the mod benevolent of thefe brothers, 
or of their friends, d-ared to entertain, 
were, that nine of them would pretty 
foon be induced to fecure their (heaves 
in the method propofed, and that the 
reft would fee caufe after a while, to 
follow their example; except the 
youngeft ; and he, they expeBed, 
would become a vagabond and a 
bighway-robbcr, and fuon be brought 
to an inglorious end ; and that if there 
remained any ftattered draws of his 
iheaf, worth picking up, they would 
be colleded, and lucked into fome 
of the other bundlej. 

Striking injlanre of the ficcking ff- 
feilioffanaticifm^ in the account of 
a tre'rical event, which happened 
in South Carolina, in 1724. 

THE family of Dutartres, confid- 
ing of four Ions and four daugh- 
ters, were defcendents of French re- 
fugees, who came into Carolm.T, after 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes. 
They lived in Orange quarter, and 
though in low circumdances. always 
maintained an honed character, and 
were efleemed, by their neighbours, 
perfons of blamelefs and irreproaiU- 
able lives. Hut, at the period a- 
bovemeniioned, a drolling Moravian 
preacher happening to come to iheif 
neighbourhood, iidinuared himfclf in- 
to the family, and partly by conycr- 
fatiun, and partly by the writings 
of Jacob BeWcD* which be pw: into 



i:'%.l 



Tragical effects ef fanatici/m. 



83 



their hands, filled their heads with 
vi/iid and fantallic idsas. Unhappi- 
ly for the poor family, thele ilrange 
notions gamed grovuid on thenij in- 
fomuch ihut, in one year, they be- 
gan to withdraw themlcives from the 
ordinances of public worlhip, and 
all converlation with the world a- 
rcund them, and tlrongly to ima- 
gine that they were the only famly 
upon earth, who had the knowledge 
of ihe trne God, and whom he vouch- 
fafed to iiiHrutt, either by the imme- 
dia:e impulfes of his fpirit, or by ligns 
and tokens from heaven. At Icngih, 
it came to open vthons and revela- 
tion.^ : God raifed up a proph?t a- 
mong them, " like unto Moja." to 
whom he taught them to hearken. 
This prophet was Peter Rombert, 
who had married the eldeft daughter 
of the family, when a widow. To 
this man (he Author and Governor of 
the world deigned to reveal, in the 
piaineli manner, that the wickednels 
of man was again fo great in the world, 
that he was detennincd a.f^ain, as in 
the days of Noah, to deflroy all men 
from oft the face of it, except one 
family, whom he would fave for riif- 
ing up a godly feed upon earih. This 
revelanon Peter Rombert was lyre 
of, and telt it as plain as the wind 
blow'pg on his body ; and the reft of 
the family, wiih equal confidence and 
prefumption, firmly believed it. 

A few days after this. God was 
pleafed to reveal himfelf a fecond 
time to the prophet, faying: '" put 
away the woman thou hah for thy 
wife ; and when I have deilroyed 
this wicked genrranon, [ 'vill raife 
up her firll hufbind from the dead, 
and they (hall be man arid w.fe as 
before ; and go thou and take to 
wife her youngeli fdkr, who is a 
V rgin : fo fliaU the chofen family he 
reftored entire, and the holy feed 
preferve(i pure and undefiled in u." 

At fiiH. the father, when he heard of 
this revelation, was daggered at fo ex- 
traordinary a commana from heaven : 
but the prophet allured him, thai God 
would give him afgn, which accord- 
ingly happened. Upon this, the old 
man took hisyonngeil daugluer by the 
hand, and immediaiely gave her to the 
wife prophet, who. withoutfurtherce- 
jremony, took the damiel, and drfiow- 
cred her. Thus, for fome time, ihey 



continued in acts of adultery and in- 
ce(}, until that period, which made 
the fatal difcovery, and introduced the 
bloody fcene of tjlmd fanaticfm and 
madneis. Thefe deluded wretches 
were fo far ptlFeiftd with the falie 
conceit ot iheir own righ/confncfs and 
hohnefs, and of the horrid wicked- 
nefs of all oihers, ihat they refufed 
obedicnre to the civil magi.Trate, and 
to all laws and ordinances of men. 
Upon pretence, that God had com- 
manded them to bear no arms, they 
not only refufed to comply With ihe 
niilitia law, bur alfo the law for re- 
pairing the highway'. After long 
forbearance, mr. Simmons, a wor- 
thy magillrate, and the officer of the 
mlitia in that quarter, found :t ne- 
celfary to ilfue hi? warrants, for levy- 
ing the penalty of the laws nj-ion ih?m. 
But by this time, Judith Dutartre, 
the wife whom the prophet had ob- 
tained by revelation, proving wiili 
child, another warrant was ilued, for 
bringing her before the jutiice, to be 
examined, and bound over to the ge- 
neral feiiions, in conftqucnGe of a 
law of the province, framed tor pre- 
venting bailardy. ihe condable hav- 
ing received hi> v.':;rrauis, and being 
ajiprehenGvc of meeting no good u- 
fage in the execu.ion of his office, 
prevailed on two or three of his neigh- 
bours to go along with him. 'ihe 
family obferved the condable coming ; 
and being apprized of his errand, 
confii'tcd their prophet, v/ho foon 
told them, that God commanded 
them to arm, and defend therofelves 
againil perfecntion. and their fubllance 
againlf the robberies of ungodly men ; 
alfaring them at the fame time, that 
no weapon formed "agamll them, 
ihould profper. Accordingly they 
obeyed their propnc:, and laying hold 
of their arms, ^red on the conftable 
and his followets, and drove them 
out of their plantation. 

Such behayionr was not to be tole- 
rated ; \/herefore captain Simmons ga- 
thered a party of the militia, and v^enc 
to protect the conffable, in the execu- 
tion of his office. When the deluded 
family faw the juH ce and h>s party 
approaching, they fhut themfelves up 
in their houfe, and firing from it liks 
furies, (hot captain Sinmions dead on 
the fpot, and wounded leveral of the 
party. The ciilitia returned the fire. 



Tragical effeHls ef fanaticifm. 



rjuiy, 



killed one M'oman within the houfe ; 
and afterwards forcibly entering it, 
took the reft pnfoners, fix in number, 
and brought them to Charlefton. 

At the court of general feffions, 
held in September, 1724, three of 
them were brought to trial, found 
guilty, and condemned — they pre- 
tended they had the fpirit of God, 
leading them to all truth; they knew 
u and felt It : but this fpirit, inftead 
of inQuencing them to obedience, pu- 
rity, and peace, commanded them 
(forfooth) to commit rebellion, inceft 
and murder. 

What isftil! more aflonifiiing, the 
principal perfons among them, I 
mean the prophet, the father of the 
family, and Michael Boneau, never 
•were convinced of their delulion, but 
perfifted in it, to their lateft breath. 
During their trial, they appeared al- 
together unconcerned and fecure, af- 
firming that God was on their fide, 
and therefore they feared not what 
man could do unto them. They free- 
ly told the incelluous ftory in open 
court, in all its circumllances and ag- 
gravations, with a good countenance ; 
and very readily confefTed the facts, 
refpetiing the rebellion and murder, 
v;ith which they flood charged ; but 
pleaded their authority from God, in 
vind:caiion of themfelves, and infift- 
ed, that they had done nolhing in ei 
ther cafe, but by his exprefs com- 
mand. 

As It is cuflomary with clergymen, 
to vilit perfons under fenteiice of 
death, both 10 convince them of their 
error and danger, and to prepare them 
for death, by bringing them to a peni- 
tent difpofition ; the rev. Alexander 
Garden, the eplfcopal minifter of 
Cbarlefton, by whom this account is 
handed down to us, attended thofe 
condemned perfons with great dili- 
gence and concern. What they had 
affirmed in the court of juitice, thev, 
in like manner, repeated and confeffed 
to him, in the pril'on. When heVcL'an 
to reafon with them, and explain the 
heinoi!" nature of their crimen, they 
rrrated him with difdain. Their con- 
flant phrafe was : "anfwcrhim not a 
word : wlio is he, that he fhould pre- 
fnme fo teach them, who had the fpi- 
r tof God, fpcaking inwardly to their 
io'il:, ?" — in all they jiad done, they 
fdid they had obeyed the voice of 



God, and were now about to fuffer 
martyrdom for his religion. But 
God had afTured them, that he would 
either work a deliverance for them, 
or raife them up from the dead on the 
third day. 

Thefe things the three men continu- 
ed confidently to believe ; and not- 
withilanding all the means ufed to con- 
vince them of their miftake, perfifted 
in the fame belief, until the moment 
they expired. At their execution, they 
told the fpe61ators, with feeming tri- 
umph, they Ihould foon fee them again, 
for they were certain, they fliould 
rife from the dead on the third day. 

With relpeft to the other three— 
the daughter Judith, being with child, 
was not tried ; and the two fons, Da- 
vid and John Dutartre, about eigh- 
teen and twenty one years of age, 
having been alfo tried and condemn- 
ed, continued fallen and referved, in 
hopes of feeing thofe that were exe- 
cuted, rife from the dead : but being 
difappointcd, they became, or at leaft 
feemed to become fenfible of their er- 
ror, and were both pardoned. Not 
long afterwards, however, one of 
ihemrelapfcd into the fame fnare, and 
murdered an innocent perfon, without 
either provocation or previous quarrel ; 
and for no other reafon, as he confef- 
fed, but that God had commanded 
him fo to do. Being a fecond time 
brought to trial, he was found guilty 
of murder, and condemned. Mr. 
Garden attended him again, under 
the ferond fentence, and with great 
appearance of fuccefs. No man could 
appear more deeply fenfible of his 
error and delulion, or die a more fin- 
cere penitent for his horrid crimes. 
With great attention, he liftened to 
mr. Garden, while he explained to 
him the terms of pardon and falvati- 
on, propofed in the gofpel ; and 
feemed to die, in the humble hopes 
of mercy, through the all- fiilhcient 
merits of a Redeemer. 

Thus ended that tragical fcene of 
fanaticidn, in which leven perfons 
loll their lives ; one being killed, two 
murdered, and four executed for the 
murders. — A fignal and melancholy 
inllance of the weaknefs and frailty 
of human nature, and to what giddy 
heights of extravagance and madnels 
an iiifianied imagination will tarry un- 
fortunate mortals ! 



Poetry. 

AN ODE, 

Mojl refpeBfyHy infcrihed to his excellency, general W^Jk- 
tncrton, on being chojen prcfident of the united Jiatti, 
1. 

WHERE fair Coiiimhia fpre^tls her wide domain 
O'er many a len^jihen'd hill and fylvan plain. 
In myflic vifu)n wrapt, far tf) the fouih, 
Array'd in all the bloom of rofy youth, 

A cherub form arofe. 
O'er the blue heav'ns her fnowy pinions fpread, 
Celertial tints illum'd her Itarry head. 
Bright as the radiant God of day, 
Soft as the fleecy cloud, or milky-way. 

Her filming vellment flows. 
Her hand fultains the trump of fame ; 
Its blalls aloud her will proclaim. — 

As hish in air flie hung, 
OVr where Moani Vernon's odours breathe. 
She dropt immortal glory's wreathe. 
Then, iiorihward foaruig, fun.i^ — 
The mufic of the fpheres rcfouuding to her tongue : 

II. 
" Heav'n-born freedom, fent to fave, 
'' By a£lions, glorious as brave, 
*' With every Godlike vinue fraught, 
*' Which either peace or war has taught, 

*' Behold \our hero come ] — 
" Call'd by his country's urgent voice, 
" O'er her high councils to preWe; 
'' By ev'ry breait's united choic e, 

•' Call'd, the florin-beat helm to guide, 
" He leaves his rural dome. 
*• On all h!s Heps fee fmiling concord wait, 
*' And harmony pervade each happy flate — 
'* See public confidence her arms expand, 
^'' While glad'ning gratulations echo o'er the land, 

III. 
*' With foul at unambitious refl, 
" Yet glowing for the public weal ; 
'• Still mufl Columbia's dear bequell 
'• O'er philofophic eafe prevail, 
" To hold with fleady hand, 
" A free, a jult, reftritting rein, 
'* wild, jarring difcord to rellrain ; 
'■ As government's revolving tar, 
"■ Throuf^h placid peace, or horrid war, 

'• Obeys his mild command. 
'• Thine be the blifs, great fon of Fame ! 
'" (As fill! hath been thy only aim) 
*' To bid ilritl jullice poife her equal fcale — 
"^ Reviving commerce fpread the fwelhng (aii, 
*' With golden profpefts fraught from ev'ry gale, 

IV. 
" Thofe laurel trophies, wen through feas of blood, 
'■ l^nequall'd in hifforic fame, 
'• Thofe prlcelefs labours for the public good, 
" Had well iinmortaliz'd thy name. 



S« Poetry. [July, 

^' And claim'cl a world's appfaiife. 
** Now all the honours of the Held, 
*' Ail fplendid conqueft e'er could yield, 
*' Comb'nc with univerful praife, 
*' On h;gh thy ma'chlefs worth to raife, 

" The ,'^uardian of our laws. 
" Not rcar'd hy tumult in a giddy hour, 
" The crefted idol of defpotic pow'r ; 
*' But facred Freedom's delega'.cd voice, 
*' Thy grateful country's uiicorrupied choice, 

V. 

*' No Alexander's mad career, 

*' No Cajfar's diftatorial reign, 

•* No daz'lmg pomp that fceptres wear, 

" Thy foul with third of pow'r could flain. 

" A greater honour's thine — 
"^ Approving millions place in you, 
" That pow'r, ihey would reflettive view— 
" Diffufing all that's good and great 
" Through each df-partment of the ftate, 

" Thy bright'ning virtues fhine, 
*' With more effulgence round thy head, 
*' With more ellential honours fpread, 
" Than fparkluig toys that gild the tyrant's brow ; 
**■ Worn but to court his cringing (laves to bow. 

VI. 

*' As yon bright fpheres, that circling run 
'' With lucid fplendor round the fun, 
" Diliufe their borrow'd blaze ; 
*' So may that fenatorial band, 
*' Affembled by a virtuous land, 

" (As on ihy worth they gaze) 
*' Reflett ihf light thy virtues yield, 
" The fword of juflice bid thee wield, 

" And anarchy erafe. 
*' The fed'ral union clofer bind ; 

" Finn public faith retlore ; 
" Drive diicord from the canker'd mind ; 
*' Each mutual bL-ffing pour. — 
*' Then, when the glorious courfe is run, 
" Which hcav'n afTign'd her Wafhington, 
*' His foul let cherub choirs convey 
*' To all the triumphs of eternal day." 

Bladenjburgh, April i6, 17%^. SAMUEL KNOX, 

An epitaph — intended for the monument of major general 
Greene. By WiLtiam Pierce^ efq. of Savannah, 

LIKE other things, this marble mull decay, 
The cypher'd charatlersfliall fadeaway. 
And nought but ruin mark this facred fpot, 
M'here Greene's interr'd, — perhaps the place forgot. 
But time, unmeafur'd, fhall preferve his name. 
Through diflant ages fliall roll on his fame, 
And, in the heart of ev'ry good man, raife 
A lafting monument of matchlefs praife. 



ijSg-] 



Poftry, 



«7 



Happinefs to bt found in our own. 
minds. 

THE midmnht moon ferencly 
Im les 
O'er nature's foft repofe : 
No louring cloud obfcures the fky 
No ruiUing tempeft blows. 

Now ev'ry pafTion finks to reft, 
The throbbing heart lies flill, 

And varying ftiiemes of life no more 
Diftrafcl the lab'ring will. 

In filence hudi'd, to reafon's voice 
Attends each mental pow'r. 

Come, dear Emilia, and enjoy 
Retlexion's fiv'rite howr. 

Come, while the peaceful fcene in- 
vites, 

Let's fearch this ample round ; 
Where fhall the lovely , fleeting form 

Of happinefs be found ? 

Does it amidll the frolic mirth 

Of gay alFemblies dwell ; 
Or hide beneath the folenm gloom, 

That fhades the hermit's cell ? 

How oft the laughing brow of joy 
A fick'ning heart conceals, 

And through the cloifler's deep recefs 
Invading forrow Heals ! 

In vain, thro' beauty, fortune, wit, 

The fugitive we trace ; 
It dwells not in the faitlilefs fmile. 

That brightens Clodio's face. 

Perhaps the joy, to thefedeny'd 
The heart in fnendlhip finds ! 

Ah dear dclufijn, gny conceit 
Of V Jionary minds ! 

Kowe'er our varying notions rove, 

Yet all agree in one, 
To place Us being in fome flate 

At diftaace from our own, 

O blind to each indulgent aim 
Of pow'r fupremcly wife, 

Who fancy happinefs m aiight 
The hand of heav'n denies ! 

Vain are alike the joys >. - fcek, 
And thole that we pc-fTels, 

Unlefs harmonious reufon tunes 
The pallions into peace. 

To temp'rate w:fi;es, piQ dcfires 

Is happinefs confih'd ; 
And, deaf lu folly's ciil. attends 

Ihc mufie of the muid. 



The wedding-rin^, 

LITTLE, but too pow'rfultiej 
Bane of female liberty ; 
Alternative of joy and pain. 
In thy flender round remam ; 
Now, we blefs the plealing yoke ; 
Now, we wifh the bond were broke. 
Virgins figh to wear the chain ; 
W^ives would fam be free again : 
We're ador'd, when thou'rt receiv'd : 
Ever after, we're enflav'd. 

-<>"<^<S>S>..<..< 

On liberty, 

CURST be the wretch, that's 
bought and fold, 
And barters liberty for gold ! 
For when elettions are not free. 
In vain we boall our liberty. 
And he who fells his fingle right, 
Would fell hi,-, country, if he might. 
When liberty is put to fale. 
For wine, for money, or for ale, 
I'he feliors iniift be abjeH flaves. 
The buyers viledefigning knaves. 
This maxun, in the ilatefnan's fchooj. 
Is always taught "divide and rule." — 
All parties are to him a joke ; 
While zealots foam, he tits the yoke : 
When men their reafon once refuaie. 
He in his turn begins to fume. 
Hence, learn, Columbians, to unite :; 
Leave off ihe old, exploded b:tc. 
Henceforth let feuds and dlfcordsceafe. 
And turn all party rage lo peace. 

.Hv-<^.SS><^ ••■<)••• 

A modcji requej}. 

HEAV'N indulge me thisrcqueft, 
What will make a mortal bleil. 
Give me firll an honed loul 
Subjed to no bafe controul^ 
To no fordid vice a flave. 
But to deeds of virtue brave. 
So much learning, as to rife 
'Bove a pedant vainly wife ; 
So much wildom, as to fee 
What I am and ought to be ; 
And difcern the good from ill, 
That my circle I may fill : 
So much ccurage, as to choofe 
What is right — the wrong refufe ; ' 
So much honour, to dildain 
1 hoiights and aihtions, that are mean ; 
Health, my powers to employ, 
And my portion well enjoy. 

Grant me next a Virtuous wife, 
S'Acet companion of my life, 
In my joys to take a lliare, 
Partnsr tec in ev'ry care; 



S5 



Poetry. 



LJuiy, 



Both from pnde and meannefs free ; 

ChetrFul to my friend and me ; 

Pure in manners, and difcreet ; 

In her drefs and perlon neat ; 

One, who, innocently gay. 

Can my vapours charm away ; 

Ever {tudious how to pleafe ; 

Not pervcrrely apt to teafe ; 

In her temper calm and meek ; 

Who can hear, as well as fpeak ; 

To my humour always kuid ; 

To my foibles feeming blind ; 

Y^et, with artfuL hints of love. 

Wife my follies to reprove, 

I.i my pains to give relief 

And to flatter oft m^' grief. 

Babes, that prattle round and fmile, 

Shall the heavy hours beguile. 

Blooming like the vernal flow'rs, 

Rip'ning into manly pov/'"rs ; 

liuo virtue rip'ning too, 

As to manly nge they they grow. 

Let mc afli ahandiome plat, 

Not too fmall, uor very great, 

Warer'd v;ith mcand'ring ilreams, 

Bleft with Phccbus' nfing beams. 

I et there be a (hady grove, 

Where th.-? mule and I may rove. 

Here devotion too fhall come ; 

For the muie will give her room. 

I would have a verdant me^d, 

Where a cow or two may feed. 

And a little nfing ground, 

Where my fiorks may fport around ; 

An i;iclofure for my trees: 

Here variety will pleafe ; 

And a garden let with flow'rs. 

To amuie my vacant hours, 

Fill'd with various kinds of fruit 

That my health or tafte may fuit ; 

A well cultivated field. 

Which a competence (hall yield. 

Not to fill a mifer's hoard. 

But to feed my little board, 

JEntertam a friend or fo, 

And fomething on the poor bertow. 

Give me. too, a pretty feat. 

Not fiiperb, but fimply neat. 

There to lead a harmlefs life, 

Free fiom envy and from flrtfe, 

*Till I clofe this mortal fcene. 

And a better life begin. — 

Grant me but ihefe, no other prize 

1. alkoc Willi beneath the fkic-s. 



A mc^mng ode. 

ARISE, and fee the glorious fun 
Moi'rr in the eaftern ikv ; 
See, with that majelly he comes ; 
W'hat: fplendor ilrikes the eye • 



Life, light. :h;(J heal he fpreads abroad 

In ever bounteous 11 reams: 
Tlr.5 day iliall joyful myriads own 

The iiiliin^nce of his beams. 
Howfrefl), how fncetihc morning air. 

What fragrance breathes around ! 
New lull re paints each op'nmg How 'r : 

New verdure clothes the ground. 
No ruftling ilormsof wind or rain, 

Dillurb the calm ferene ; 
But gentle nature far abroad 

Difplays her (oftefl fcene. 
Through chequer'd groves, and o'er 
the plain, 

Refrelhing breezes pafs, 
And play wuh ev'ry wanton leaf, 

And wave the {lender grafs. 
See yonder hlver-gliding llream 

In wild meanders rove, 
Whilll from its banks, the fongfters 
fweet 

Shr'll echo through the grove. 
They wiih thcr little warbling throats 

Salute the riling day ; 
And in untaught, but pieafing ftrains, 

rheir grateful homage pay. 
Oh, let us too, wuh fouls hucere, 

Adore that pow'r divine, 
W ho makes yon orb move thus com- 
plete. 

Who bade his rays fo fliine ; 
Who morning, noon, and ev'ningtoo 

liath wuh his favours blcH, 
And kindly gives the night's Hill 
Ihade, 

For weaned man to ref}. 



•<>••• <^<S5> 



True happinefs. 

I Envy not the proud their wealth, 
Jheir equipage and (late : 
Give me but innocence and health ; 

I aflv not to be great. 
I in a Iwtct retiretnent find 

A joy unknown to kings ; 
Forfceptres, to a viniious mind, 

Seem vain and empty things. 
Great Cincinnatus, at his plough, 

With bri.5ihter lull re fhone. 
Than gudty Cajfar e'er could Ihevv, 

1 ho" fcated on a throne. 
Tumultuous days, and relllefs nights. 

Ambition ever know< ; 
A ftrangcr to the calm delights 

Of iiudy and repole. 
Then free from envy, rare and RriFe, 

Keep me, yc pow'rs divine ; 
And plea-^^'d, when you demand iny 
life, 

May 1 that life reilgn. 



1789.] Foreign intelligence, 

FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE, 

LONDON. 

April 23. The diet of Poland 



83 



has ai length nearly finifhed its fitting, 
which has been the loiigeft and moft 
violent ever known in that kingdom. 
The refult of their deliberations on 
the ftate of the nation, are to the fol- 
lowing effeft ; 

Military eftablifliment — one hun- 
dred thou land men. 

Annual expenfe — computed at for- 
ty-eight millions, five hundred and 
thirty-one thoufand Folifii florins, or 
about four millions Herhng. 

Additional revenue to pay it — A 
tax often per cent, on the revenues of 
the clergy, and church lands, except- 
ing fuch as belong to hofpitals and 
convents. 

April 24. Pamphlets, chiefly in 
the form of dialogue, are dilTeminat- 
ing among the French peafantry, 
treating on the natural rights and li- 
berties of mankind. To this praftice 
no oppofition is made by the govern- 
ment. 

The French have, with their ufual 
gallantry, gone further than ourfelves 
in the plan of their reprefentation. 
They have given to ladies the right of 
voting, and offending reprefentatives 
to the general aflembly. 

April 25. The benevolent infti- 
tutions in this kingdom, for the relief 
of diflrefs, and the encouragement 
of virtue, are, it muft be allowed, ve- 
ry numerous, and fupported with a 
fpirit that does honour to the humanity 
of the inhabitants at large. In addi- 
tion to thofe, one has lately been in- 
ftituted in this metropolis, called the 
philanthropic fociety, for the efteftual 
relief of thofe who are juftly term- 
ed the out-cafts of fociety — that is, 
the children of the vagrant and pro- 
fligate poor, who, in their prefent 
condition, are deftined to fucceed to 
the hereditary vices of their parents, 
and to become, in the next race, beg- 
gars and thieves. 

The lateft reports announce the 
death of the emperor. 

The king of Sweden has obtained 
all his views of the diet, the equef- 
trian order having not only agreed to 
the att of union and fafety, but to all 
the other refolutions taken, by the fe- 
cret committee, and the other three 
Vol. VI, 



orders, whereby the crown debts, 
from Charles XII. to the prefenr, 
and all in future, are guaranteed and 
fccured, as payable by the nation. 

April '^0. The clcryy of the Ver- 
mandois, have fponianeui.lly and una- 
nimoufly renounced all their exemp- 
tions and pecuniary privile,!:;es. Ma- 
ny other religious coiifraLermties have 
followed fo laudable and generous an 
example. 

On Wednelday la ft tne gold me- 
dal was voted by the fociety for 
the encouragement of arts, 10 capt. 
Peckingham of the navy, for his va- 
luable invention of fleering a fliip, 
by an apparatus that can be fitted to 
the malt in a fecond, in the event of a 
rudder being carried away in a florm. 
Progrefs of Enghjh arts. The 
amphiiheaire, on which Humphreys 
and Mendoza are to box, is entirely 
finilhed ; — it forms an octagon, and 
will contain two thoufand perfons ; 
but there areonly fifteen hundred tick- 
ets worked ofl, at half a guinea each. 
Such were the fliows, that erll lu 

Rome, 
Prefag'd her rapid, final doom ; 
WhatRome now isjfliall Britain be; 
For fcenes like thele unnerve the 

free. 
The Venetians have met with a 
great lofs at the ifle of Corfu. The 
arfenal accidentally, it is fuppofed, 
took fire on the nth of March, which 
communicated to the powder magazine. 
A terrilde explofion then took place, 
by which a fl- et of galiies was almolt 
entirely dellroyed, together with all 
theflores, and the wall that furround- 
ed the arfenal. The number of lives 
loft was one hundred and fixiy. befidcs 
the prifoners ; and there have been a 
multitude wounded. 

May \i. One objection to I he new 
government in America, isthe expenfe 
of it. But a gentleman from thaj: 
country alTures us, that the annual 
expenfe of the prefidcnt and congreis 
will not amount to fo much, as is an- 
nually allowed here to the prince of 
"Wales. Surely that people muft be 
poor indeed — or their complaints are 
groundlefs. [The annual income of 
the prince of Wales is ninety thoufand 
pounds fterling — four hundred thou- 
fand dollars — and at the raics agreed 
to by congrefs, fuppofing that body 
to fit ail the year round, thefalanesof 

H 



American intelligence^ 



[July, 



the prefident, vice-prefident, fenate, 
reprefeniatives, fecretaries of depart- 
ments, and ths judiciary, would nota- 
mount to near two thirds of the fiim al- 
lowed to one lavifli youni; fellow — 
two hundred and fixty thoufaiid dollars 
being the extent of it, from an accu- 
rate calculation.] 

Houfc of commons. May 20. 
Slave trade. 

Alderman Newnham prefented a 
petition againd the abolition of the 
fldve trade, from the merchants and 
fh p owners of the city of London, 
deliring to be heard by coimfel. 

Lord Penrhyn prefented petitions 
againll the abolition, from the planters 
in the Britilh plantations ; the plan- 
ters' mortgagees, and annuitants from 
the town of Liverpool ; the merchants 
of Liverpool trading to Africa; the 
manufatlureis of, and dealers in, iron, 
copper and brafs, of the town of Li- 
verpool ; the fail-makers of Liver- 
pool ; the coopers of Liverpool ; the 
Ihipwrights ot Liverpool ; the gun- 
makers of Liverpool ; the block-ma- 
kers of Liverpool ; and from the ba- 
kers of Liverpool ; all defiring to be 
heard by counfel, againft the abolition 
of the African trade. 

Mr. Blackburn prefented a petition 
from the manufafturers of goods for 
the African trade, refideut in and 
about Mancherter, againll the aboli- 
tion. 

Mr. Gafcoyne prefented a petition 
agamfl the abolition of the trade, from 
the mayor, aldermen, and corporati- 
on of Liverpool. 

Mr. Alderman Watfon prefented 
a petition againft the abolition, from 
the merchants, mortgagees, and other 
creditorsof the fugar colonies ; and he 
took that opportunity of declaring his 
opinion to be, that a fpeedy abolition 
would be repugnant to humanity, to 
juftice. and to found reafon. 

Lord Maitland prefented a petiti- 
on from melfrs. Burton and Hutchin- 
fon, ai^ents for the ifland of Antigua, 
againft the abolition, 

Thefe petitions were all received, 
read, and ordered to lie on the table. 
Paris, April 16. 

A deputation, it is faid, is arrived 
from the French American colonies, 
to demand a difcuflion of their rights, 
bv the e'ats generaux. 1 his deputa- 
tion coiifills of thirty-two raqmbers^ 



who will be reduced to a more con- 
venient number. 

AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE^ 
New York, July 6. 

Saturday laft, being the fourth of 
July, when America entered on the 
fourteenth year of her independen- 
cy, the fame was obferved here 
with every demonftration of joy ; at 
fun-rife, a falute was fired from the 
fort ; at fix o'clock, the legionary 
troops of general Malcom's brigade, 
under the command of lieutenant co- 
lonel Chryftie, paraded ; then they 
marched to the fields, where, in the 
prefence of a large and refpettable 
concourfe of fpeciators, they went 
through a number of manoeuvres, in a 
manner that would refleft credit on 
difciplined troops. At twelve o'clock, 
a feu-dc-joie was fired by col. Bau- 
man's regiment of artillery and the 
legion : at the fame hour, the honour- 
able fociety of the Cincinnati march- 
ed in proceffion to St. Paul's church, 
where an eulogium, on the memory 
of the late general Greene, was deli- 
vered by the hon. col. Hamilton, in 
the prefence of both houfes of con- 
grefs, and a number of other person- 
ages of diftinftion ; after which, 
they returned in the fame form to the 
city-tavern, where they partook of 
an entertainment provided for the oc- 
cafion, drank a tvumber of patriotic 
toalls, (a difcharge of cannon to 
each), and fpent the day and evening 
in a manner that ever dillinguifties the 
fons of Columbia on this memorable 
anniverfary. 

With pleafure we announce, that 
the prefident is confiderably recover- 
ed from his late indifpofition, and has 
for thefe few days paft, been able to 
take an airing in his carriage ; but ftill 
•weareforry to fay, that his excellency 
was not fufficiently recovered, to par- 
take of the joys of that aufpicious day, 
Bojlon, July 23. 

The fociety of the Cincinnati of the 
ftate of Rhode Illand, at their annual 
meeting at Newport, on the 4th inft. 
exprcfted their difapprobation of the 
iniquitous tender-law of that ftate, by 
crafing the name of Jofeph Arnold, 
of Warwick, from the lift of their 
members, for difcharging a fpecie 
debt with their depreciated paper 
currency. 



x/Sg.] 



Am.trlcB.n Intcllitrence, 



[91 



A letter from Seneca, South Caro- 
lina, dated June 4, fays, " About 
three days ago, three men were kil- 
led and fcalped by the Creek;., at a 
place called the Mulberry, on the 
frontiers of Georgia ; it is alfo re- 
ported here, that a large number 
of Creeks are on their way for Tu- 
galu, in conlequence of which, guards 
are polled there, in order to protett 
the iiihabiiants. Yeflerday, 1 heard 
that four hundred were fecn on their 
inarch towards that place : God only 
knows what the event will be." 

A profpettus has been pubhfhed at 
Pans, ottering to report the proceed- 
ings of the three ellaies, in the lame 
manner, as the debates in the two 
houles of parliament are done in the 
Englilh prints. Speaking, in thele 
propofals, of the liberty oi the prels, 
the writer expreffes himielt in a man- 
ner the moR lingular. " It is on this 
palladium alone" fays he, " that 
France is to rely, for all her future 
greatnefs ; it was through the freedom 
of the prefs, that Ireland was im- 
pelled to make thofe fuccefsful efforts, 
by which {he relealed herielf from 
the fubjugation, in which flie was 
held by the Englilh parliament ; and 
it is to this alone" contmues this 
Frenchman, of the eighteenth century, 
*' that England herielf is indebted for 
the fmall remains of liberty, which 
exill at prefent in that kingdom ! ! I" 

July 22. The legiflature of the uni- 
ted ftates has, at length finally deter- 
mined on the falaries of the great of- 
ficers of ftate, viz. to the prehdent, 
twenty-five thoufand dollars, to the 
vice-prefident, five thoufand dollars, 
per annum — to each fenator and re- 
prefcntative, fix dollars, per diem — 
and to the chairman or fpeaker of the 
houfe of reprefentatives, twelve dol- 
lars, per diem. 

July 29. The prefident of the uni- 
ted ftates was fo well, as to receive vi- 
lits of compliment from many official 
charatlers and citizens yeflerday. 
Baliiviore, July 28. 

The legiflature of the Hate of 
New York have pafled a law for aj)- 
pointing feven commiffioners, with 
full power to declare their aflent, 
that a certain territory, (Vermont) 
within the jurifdiflion of that flate, 
fhould be formed or erefted into a 
new flate ; and Robert Yates, Rufus 



King, and Gulian Verplanck, efquires, 
are appoinced for that purpole ; to 
whom are added, Robert R. Liviag- 
(ion, Richard Varick, Sinxjn De 
Witt, and John Lanling, jun, 
efquires, who were cholen by the 
fenate. 

Georgetown^ July 22. 

A letter from a gentleman in Ken- 
tucke, dated June 22, fays, '" Th£ In- 
dians hiive lately paid a vifit to our 
new fetiiement on Green river, and 
muidered five perfons, who had on!/ 
arrived there a few weeks before. As 
this feitlemeiit lies at a confiderable 
diilance from the inhabited parts, it is 
feared, that the new fettlers will b-; 
much expofed to the fury of the fa- 
vages — who take every opportunity to 
diltrefs our country, where they find 
us weak, and oft our guard. 

'■ Sad experience has fully convinc- 
ed us, that treaties with thofe people 
have only lulled us into an imaginary 
Hate of fafety, for which hundreds 
have paid wiih their lives : in a word, 
as long as we remaui weak as we arc, 
without fupport and aid from the At- 
lantic ttates, Kentucke mull remain the 
theatre of murder and devaftations.** 
Pctei-Jburg, July 9. 

Virginia cloth — if excellent quali- 
ty, and very cheap — may be purchaf- 
ed, almoft every day, of the country 
people who come to town, for the 
purpofe of making fale of it. It is 
infinitely fuperior to any thing of the 
kind imported, and wears remarka- 
bly well. This cloth is made of cot- 
ton, woven with great tafte, and by 
the ingenuity of our fair, has been 
brought to fuch perfection, as to be 
preferred by many to the Europe- 
an manufacture*:. Several gentlemen 
have fiirnilhed thenifelves with full 
fuits of this cloih ; and, as many others 
are anxious to obtain it, we hope 
that every one, who profeffes himfelf 
to be a Virgnian, will be diilinguifli- 
ed by his cloth, as it will be promot- 
ing the manufaftures of our country, 
and givin* that encouragement to in- 
duftry, which it ought ever to meet 
with. 

DIED. 

In Philadelphia.— l^^Mr. Keene, 
efq.-^Mrs. Mary Profter. — Colonel: 
Benjamin G. Eyres. — Mr. Armitage, 

In Baltimore. — T, Rulfel, efq. 

At Alexaadi /.-?,— Mr. G.Richards. 



CONTENTS, 

1. Interefting queries, 8i 

a. Addrefs of the governor and council of North Carolina to the prefi- 

fident of the united ftates, ibid. 

J. Reply of the prefident, 22 

4. Addrefs of the principal and faculty of Waftiington college to the pre- 

fident of the united Hates, 33 

5. Reply of the prefident, a^ 

6. Account of the climate of Pennfylvania, and its influence upon the 

human body, 25 

•). Letter from Noah "Webller, efq. to the reverend Ezra Stiles, D. D. 

refpeftingthe fortifications in the weftern country, 27 

8. ElTay on the caufes of the variety of «omplexion and figure In the hu- 

man fpecies, go 

9. Account of the fociety of dunkards in Pennfylvania, 55. 

10. Indian magnanimity, 40 

11. The importance of the proteftant religion, politically confidered, 41 

12. Remarks on the preceding eflay, 42 

13. The benefits of exercife in preference to medicine, in chronic difeafes, 45 

14. Letter of William Penn to his friends in London, giving a defcrip- 

tion of Pennfylvania, 46 

15. Medical fociety eftabliflied in the ftate of Delaware, 48 
36. Medical hiftory of the cortex ruber, or red bark, 50 

17. Defcription of the cinchona Caribaa, 51 

18. Hints on the meafles, ibid. 

19. Effefls of eleftricity in paralytic cafes, 53 

20. The Reformer, No. I. 54 

21. Experiments on the cultivation of the poppy plant ; and the method 

of producing opium, 55 

22. Journal of the proceedings of the firft fettlers of Plymouth in New 

England, 57 

23. EITay on fmuggling, 6r 

24. Theory of earthquakes, 64 

25. ElFay on free trade and finance, 67 

26. Account of colonel Morgan's fettlement of New Madrid, 69 

27. Comparifon of the advantages of agriculture and the mechanic arts, 

with refpefl to the united Hates, 71 

29. Mr. Pinckney's fpeech on the manumiffion of flavcs, 74 

30. I>etter on flavery- — by a negro, 77 

31. The farmer and his thirteeen fons, an allegory, 80 

32. Tragical efFefls of fanaticifm, in South Carolina, 82 

Poetry, 

33. Ode to general Walhington, 85 

34. Epitaph on general Greene, 8'6 

35. Happinefs feated in the mind, 87 

36. The wedding-ring, ibid, 

37. On liberty, ibid. 

38. The modeil requeft, ibid, 

39. A morning ode, 88 

40. True happinefs, ibid, 

— -H»»..<v..<®i.^<gBs<s.<^<S>"<>""0" 

Essay on drunkennefs — Prefentments of the grand jury of Walhington 
county — Defcriptio novi generis plantae — &c. &c. are under confideraiion. 

An American's remarks on a paffage in the life of Capt. Cooke — remarks 
on the caufe and cure of the gout — &c. &c, {hall appear in our next, 
Sv N D p. Y other favours are received. 



THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM, 

For AUGUST, 1789. 



Cbfervations on the vtility of funding 
the public d^bts of the united 
Jiates. 

IT appears that a committee of 
ways and means has been lately 
appointed by congrefs, to whom is re- 
ferred the report of the committee on 
the fupplies. 

The refult of their inveftigations, 
it was expetted, would form an im- 
portant confideration, as aftetting the 
public interelts. But the general ex- 
petlation will be moft cruelly defeat- 
ed, as the committee, who were to 
report to congrefs the bulinefs that 
was neceflarily to be attended to, 
previous to a recefs, have abandoned 
all confideration of this ellential 
cbject. 

I mull therefore be indulged in 
conveying to my fellow-citizens, fome 
ferious remarks on the fubjeft, hopmg 
they may lUmulate fome patriot pen 
to treat the fubjetl in a more mafterly 
manner ; and that they may induce 
jhe prelident of the union, to recom- 
mend to the conlideration of the fede- 
ral councils, a point of legiflative at- 
tenti(jn, fo intimately connetied with 
public juttice and private rights, the 
dignuy and independence of govern- 
ment, both at home and abroad. 

It muft be confelfed. that the citi- 
zens of thefe Rates polFefs a conflitu- 
tion and form of government, far 
furpalhng the moft celebrated that hu- 
man wifdom ever before ellabliflied ; 
a country, flretching ihrongli a great 
variety of climates, furniQiing almofl 
every article that can gratify the 
wiflies of man ; abounding in in- 
habitants of an induftrious, intelligent, 
and enterprizing charatier ; a coun- 
try, too, already rich in refourccs, 
but having the means of multiplying 
them to a much ampler extent, and 
far beyond the demand,s that the uni- 
on will probably have occafion for. 

It becomes, therefore, an obvious 
queflion, why an effeftual provifion 
has not been made for fulfilling all 
the public engagements, as it appears 
from the molt accurate efiimation, 
that not above half of the requifae 

Vol. VI, 



fupplies to the federal treafury, will 
be drawn from the impoii f)flcm ? 

1"he government w.ll not certainly 
carry into efFert the piirpofe:. for 
which it was inititutedj it an adjourn- 
ment of congrefs fhoidd take place, 
without the moft unequivocal mea- 
lures being taken to reitore public 
credit, which can alone eliablilh pri- 
vate confidence. 

This can only be eflefled by fund- 
ing the public debts, by providing a 
fufiicicnt revenue to pay the interelt, 
and gradually to extinguifh the capi- 
tal. 

The reafons, that may be adduced 
in favour of this fyltem, as drawn from 
policy, detached from the nio/e 
weighty confideration of jiiil ice. muft, 
to every enlightened llatelman, appear 
very conclufive. 

They will perhaps be riiore impref- 
five, if arranged under different 
heads, where each reafon will have 
Its own fupport, and may be dilpaf- 
fionately contemplated ; and from 
the force of the individual argu- 
ments, a general refult may be formed. 

I Ihall commit them to paper, as 
they occur, without order or con- 
nexion, for they want no adventitious 
help, to enforce their conviction. 

ill. Becaufe the funding a debt is 
the creation of an artificial capital, 
which, circulating through the diile- 
rent orders of fociety, invigorates and 
enlivens induflry. It is acknowledged, 
that the produce of land and lai)our 
conftitutes the riches of every coun- 
try ; but then the produce of labour 
is augmented, in proportion to the 
capital employed in fetting it in mo- 
tion, and maintaining it. The debt 
of the union, when the interefl is fe- 
cured on fpecific appropriation?, will 
conftitute a capital, wb'ch will in- 
creafe the itock of the country, and 
confeqiiently the national revenue of 
the fociety, and will raife the value of 
real property ; or, as mr. Hume hap- 
pily exprelTes it, " our public fecuri- 
ties, become a kind of money, and 
pafs as readily at the current price, as 
gold and filver, 
N 



94 On thi utility of funding the public debts of the vnitedfdtes. [Auguft, 



" Our national debts furnifli our 
merchants with a fpecies of money 
ihiit i"; continually multiplyingon their 
hands, and produces fure gain, befides 
the jiiofitoi their commerce." 

They will conllitute as valuable a 
reprclentative of alienable property, 
as the precious metals, and will fave 
an immenfe expenfe to the country, 
by the fubiiituiion of a cheap, inllead 
of a very coUly medium of circu- 
latiorh. 

adly. Becaiife the unequal portion 
of the public debt, polfelfcd by, the ci- 
tizens of ihe refpettive ilates, points 
out the neccliity of immediate mea- 
liire s being taken to render the public 
fecurities an available property. A 
fiifpcnfion of juliice, due to fuch 
claims, would operate very partially, 
by exonerating one part of the union 
at the expenlt of the other. Such at- 
tachment to local tnterells might dif- 
turb the tranquility of the Hates, 
by creating ditcontents and dtffen- 
lions on the fide of the fuifering par- 
tics, who would have reafon to com- 
pl-Ain of fullairiing an undue propor- 
tion cf the public burdens. 

3d!y. Bccaufe public credit is a 
mine of wealth, which will lupply the 
exigencies of the country with money, 
attrarkd from abroad, on the terms of 
uiual interell, which, when employed 
in the various purfuits of commerce, 
agriculture, and manufactures, will 
yield a profit, far fupenor to the rate 
of inierell that is paid; the balance 
will be clear gain to the country, 
and will give it a contributive faculty 
in fupporting additional taxes : fo- 
reigners, who have once depofited 
their wealth in thefe dates, will be 
jnterelled in their welfare, will be 
attached to their interefts, and will 
more eafily be led to migrate here 
with their families, and thereby 
make a valuable acquifition to our 
pcpulation and refourres : for nothing 
is more true, than that " where 
your treafure is, there is your heart 
alio." 

4thly. Becaufe the critical fitua- 
lion of the united flates, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the valuable pofTcfFions 
of the grvat maritime powers of Eu- 
rope, will rxpofethem to ihenecellity 
of an aftive interference in ihe quar- 
rels of thole nations, if they are not 
in fu rcipe£table a Hate, as to fupport 



their neutrality, and to become for- 
midable to the power that attempts 
to provoke thsm to hoitilities. 

A very deranged ftate of her finan- 
ces (laid open at the alfemblee des 
notables) occaiioned all the calamities 
that France recently experienced, 
when (he v/as compelled to abandon 
her allies, the patriots, in Holland, and 
fuifer Great Britain to diftate the 
moft humil ating terms to her, and 
force her (ilenily to view a total revo- 
lution in the politics, and government 
of that country ; by which arrange- 
ment, France loll, in one day, all the 
advantages, which, by the terms of her 
treaty, ihe might expeft to derive 
from the naval force of the united 
provinces ; an objett which, for near 
a century, (he had been endeavouring 
to fecure. 

The war of 1739 ^'^* brought or* 
Great Britain by Spain, from an ex- 
petiation of taking advantage of the 
debilitated Hate of the Britilh funds, 
and gratifying her rcfeniments. It 
terminated in the peace of Aix la 
Chapel le, which increafed the na- 
tional debt of Great Britain, upwards 
of /^. 30. 030. 000 ilerling. 

The necelhty of {hutting up the 
CailTe d'AmortilTement, and with- 
holding the regular intereft due to 
the public creditors in 17,59, ruined 
the credit of France, deprived her 
of the power of anticipating her re- 
venues, to fupport the expenfe of the 
war, and thereby gave an opportuni- 
ty to Great Bruain to achieve fo glo- 
rious a campaign. 

In the preamble of the late edift of 
the king of France, for the negocia- 
tion of loans to difcharge the de- 
mands due on the royal trefifury, for 
interell, &c. he evinces a moll point- 
ed attention to this objeft : he thus 
exprelles himfelf ; " From every ope- 
ration of finance, which might tar- 
nilh the fidelity of our engagements, 
we feel ourlelvcs fevcrely interditled, 
not only becaufe wc Ihall always re- 
gard the obligations to their religious 
difcharge, as one of our moft facred 
duties, but becaufe, fince the proper- 
ty of individuals is involved with the 
property of the ftate, it is impodible 
that it ihould experience the flighted 
concuflion, without that concufTion 
caufing itfelf to be felt to the extre- 
mities of the kingdom." 



1789.] On the utility of funding the public debts of the united fiates, 9^ 



The united ftates cannot expeft 
to be exempted from the calamities 
that, other nations have experienced, 
Trom a lofs of public credit, and a 
feeble adminiflration of their affairs, 
Pojitical mifcondad, and a mifappli- 
cation of their means, will inevitably 
degrade them in the fcale of einp:re. 

5thly. Becaufe no argument, in 
favour of a ful'penfion of the ellablilh- 
ment of public credit, by funding the 
rational debt, can be drawn from the 
inability of the country ; as the united 
flatcs evidently po.Tefs refources far 
beyond the demands that can be made 
on them, to fatisfy every jufl and 
equitable claim. It has become a 
point of ferious fpeculation amongll 
the politicians of Europe, how far a 
country, with a government well ad- 
miniftered, will fupport taxes with- 
out the people feeling the weight as 
opprelhve, and what portion of the 
produce of their land, of the profits of 
their labour, and of their Hock, may 
be appropriated to public purpofes, 
without diminifliing their future con- 
tributive faculty. The exigencies of 
the Britifli government have occah- 
oncd a greater relative demand on 
the people, than in any other coun- 
try ; and let their cafe be taken for 
an example. The bell informed wri- 
ters eftimate the annual produce of 
the lauds of Great Britain to be 
worth /", 60,000,000 

The annual profits of 

manufatlures, 2o,oco,coo 

The annual profits of 

commerce, sso. 000,000 



/".ioo,ooo,oco 
which fum conllitutes the full amount 
of the revenue of Great Britain, 
drawn from every foiirce. 

The payment of the interefl of the 
public debt, and the amount of the 
peace ellablifhment, require a contri- 
DiKion of fixteen millions fterling. 
See Zimmerman's political furvey, 
page 226. Peace eilablifliment, includ- 
ing civil lift expenditure, /".6,676,ooo 
Intereftof debt, 95275,769 



.... , ^ , /-'^jpii-yeg 

wtiich IS nearly a fixth part of the an- 
nual revenue of the whole fociety. 

In order to form a comparative 
view between the revenue of the two 
countries, and the refpeftive demands 



on them for national purpofes, it will 
be necelfary to provide an eiliinaie of 
the amount of the produce of the 
united ftates, drawn from every fource 
of profit. This purfuit will rather 
lead into the field of conjecture, as 
the fcience of political arithmetic has 
been but little cultivated in tliis coun- 
try, and accurate data cannot be ob- 
tained. However, from the Hate of 
other countries, we may form feme 
opinion of the relources of our own. 

Great Britain polTtffesa revenue of 
/^. 100,000,000, with a population of 
8,000,000 inhabitants. This averages 
to each individual £ . 12 10 llerliiig 
per annum, including men, women, 
and children. 

The queftion now is, whether fuch a 
calculation would be juft, if applied 
to the united Hates. It appears, that 
themoft productive fource of profit in 
Great Britain, is agriculture, which 
attords more revenue than all the 
other objefts united. This purfuit 
cannot afford to the farming and 
planting interefts in America, an in- 
come far inferior to that of the culti- 
vators in Great Britain, confidering 
the variety of valuable productions the 
foil of America furnilhes, confifting 
of rice, indigo, tobacco, and all fpe- 
cies of grail), hemp, flax, &c. And, 
under this head, may be introduced 
the profit* of our woods, fupplying 
timber for exportation, naval llores, 
pot-afii. &c, 

Befides, we have a greater propor- 
tion of our inhabitants employed in 
this more profitable avocation, than 
there are in England, where the fur- 
plus of people, exceeding what the de- 
mand for the cultivation of the earth 
requires, are forced into purfuits con- 
netled with commerce or manufac- 
tures. Whereas, the great extent 
of rich and valuable foil that this 
country abounds with, will furnifh a 
fufficient number of farms for an 
amazing increafe of inhabitants. 

If, then, the revenue of Great 
Britain averages to each inhabitant 
£ .\'i JO fterling, per annum, what 
may be accounted the aggregate amount 
of that of the united ftates, (according 
to this calculation) multiplied by its 
population of 3,000,000 ? 

It would be /'.37,_5oo,ooo fterling. 
But fuppofe, to prevent the poffibili- 
ty of cavil or objection, it liiould be 



g6 On the utility of funding the public debts of the united Jiates. [Auguft, 



reduced to half this fum, (and furely 
the mhabiiaius of this country, one 
with another, confume annually, far 
beyond ihe value uf fix pounds, five 
Ihillings, iierlmg, which mull be drawn 
from ihe commodities produced in the 
country) then the whole revenue of 
the uniied Hates will be reduced to 
/. 18.750,003. Iierlmg. 

Now, the amount of the annual re- 
quihtioiis on the people, (deducing 
amaragcs, which may be confolidat- 
ed with the capital of the national 
dehi) for peace eflablifhment and in- 
terelt on foreign and domeRic loans, 
will be about 3,000.000 dollars, or 
/. 6.75.000 ilerling, which is a twen- 
ty ieventh part of the revenue of the 
Cfv.nitry, Whereas Great Britain con- 
riibutes between a fixth and feventh 
part. Indeed, the fum rcqiiifite to pay 
the interellof her national debt, is e- 
quai to the capital of that of the united 
Itates. Befides, Great Britain is ac- 
counted to have arrived at the zenith of 
her power ; as her population has ra- 
ther dimiuiihed, than increafcd, for 
a conTiderable period part. But the 
united Itates mufl multiply, in an afto- 
niihliig degree, their refources, arif- 
ing from natural and adventitious in- 
crcafe of population, fale of weftern 
iarid?;. Sic. Befides, the frugal man- 
ner of their inhabitants occafion very 
little expenfe, and the nature of re- 
publican government, averfe to pomp 
and ollentation, requires but a fmali 
fum to fupport the ciril lilt expendi- 
tures. 

A great proportion of their inhabi- 
tants are freeholders, and confequcnt- 
ly in the habit of acqu ring, preferv- 
ing, and increafing property. 

6thly, Becaufe the demands of the 
public creditors, who furnidied fup- 
plies and loans, or rendered fervices 
to the government, in the hour of its 
dillrefs, are fo refpcflahle, and appeal 
fo flron;;ly to the compallionate feel- 
ings of [he people, as well as to their 
fenfe of jufiice, that their caufe has 
become very popular throughout the 
union. For the per pie, in their col- 
lective capacity, love judice, inde- 
p:;n(ient of the national advantages to 
be df'rived from its fupport. It was 
therefore expecicd, that one of the 
firll- atls of governinenf, would be to 
relieve their neceliities, by an effec- 
tual and permanent prinifiou ; elpe- 



cially, when it was confidered, with 
what eafe this relief may be extended, 
and how little the people would be 
burdened by the arrangement. For 
what is received by one hand, will 
be paid by the other, with re f peel to 
all that is drawn from taxation, to 
anfwer thefe purpofes. The national 
flock of the community will not be 
at all impoverilhed, as the whole a- 
mount would foon returu into the 
common mafs of circulation. 

7thly. Becaufe it has been the in- 
variable policy of all wife nations, 
not only to pay the intereft of their 
public debts, but to diminifh, as far 
as their refources would admit, the 
capital ; by which means, the great 
burdens, ;hat a period of war may 
have laid on the people, have been 
gradually removed by applying the re- 
fources of peace. 

Great Britain, between the years 
1727 and 1739, which lad was the 
commencement of a Spandh war, re- 
duced her national debt /"., 5, 137, 612 
fterling. Between 1748, the treaty 
of Aix la Chapelle, and the year 
"^ISSi '^^ beginning of a French 
war, there was another rcduhion of 
/3s72i 5473 fterling. Between 1762, 
the treaty of Paris, and the year 1775, 
the beginning of the American war, 
there was a further redutlion of 
/". 10,739,793. And fince the laft 
year, there was an extinftion of two 
milions of the national debt, and rr.ea- 
fures have been adop'ed for a perma- 
nent continuance of this progreffive 
diminution. 

Other nations have been compelled 
to have recourfe to the fame plan of 
arrangement, not only gradually to 
eafe the burdens of their fubjetls, but 
to convince the world of their re- 
fources, the only fure prefervative a- 
gainll the attacks of foreign powers. 

Should congrefs fuffer the intereil 
on the public debt annually to accumu- 
late, it will occafion a progrelfive in- 
creafe of the capital, which will greatly 
embarraf? the finances of the union. 

8ihly. Becaufe a fyllem of taxa- 
tion, confined to the impoll, which is 
known to be inefficient to anfwer the 
purpofe of paying the interefl of the 
publ-ic debts, and provide for other 
necelfary expenditures, argues an un- 
willingnefs to do jiiflice to all parties, 
or a difinclination in the people to 



1789-1 ^'^ ^^'^ utility cf funding thi public debts of the united Jlates, 9.7 



fubmit to any other fpecies of reve- 
nue. The fonrier is oppofed to every 
principle of the federal con({iiution, 
and may be faral ro the tranquility as 
well as repiitaiioii cf the union. The 
latter has a tendency equally inaufpi- 
cious ; It announces to the world, in 
the plained language, our extreme 
impotence and conhned refources, or 
befpeaksthe American people as im- 
patient under the rcilraints of good 
government, and notdifpofed to con- 
iribuie.to its fupport ; which no evi- 
4lence of their conduct affords a foun- 
dation to prefume. 

On the contrary, to tread back the 
paths of injullice, to rellore public 
and private credit, to convince the 
nations of the world of the abundant 
power and refources polFeffod by the 
united Hates, feem to be the ruling ob- 
jefts of their political attentions and 
wifhes. 

As the impofl is a tax which dimi- 
nilhes in iis produce, by the increale 
of its rates (from the temptation and 
encouragement itallords toillicit trade) 
recourfe mull be had to other taxes ; 
or the executive, by the exertions of 
a high-handed authority, mull call 
forth the necefTary means to conlli- 
tute the defence of the country in times 
of imminent perd and diftref"!. Be- 
fules, it is impollible to equalize the 
contributions of the peoph, by the 
operation of any fingle fpecific tax. 
It IS compelling an arm to fupport the 
burden intended for the whole body. 
There never, furely, wa> a more fa- 
vourable opportunity to collect reve- 
nue from every different fource, than 
at the prefcnt moment, when the peo- 
ple are difnofed to view with a favour- 
able eye, all the operations of the new 
government. 

gthly. Becaiife it is the praflice of 
all wife governments, to fund their 
public fenintie?, as foon as they can 
obtain fuHicient revenues from taxa- 
tion : as, whiifl they continue floating 
in the market, with no legiflative 
providon to fupport them, they become 
depreciated, and thereby d I (courage any 
further loans to government. France 
has repeaiediv paid much inore than 
the value of what Ihe received in 
loans, at a period of the greateft de- 
clenfion of her credit. Even Great 
Britain, who has been fo invariably 
auachedtoiis fupport, has been forced 



to fubmit to very unfavourable terms, 
from a fufpicion (generally entertain- 
ed) that her refources were not fuf- 
ficient to fund the heavy debt (he wa» 
contracting during the American war. 
In the loan of 1782, Ihe borrowed 
i~. 7, 5^50,000, for which (lie gave 
/^. 13,500,000 of the three per cents, 
thus eUimating them at ,54 per cent. 
which was an abfolute lols of 46 per 
cent, as this fund, in the year 1755, 
was at par. 

It is problematical, whether the 
united ftates could, however preding 
the emergency, in the prefent derang- 
ed Hate of her finances, the general 
want of confidence, and the unufiial 
fcarcity of money, negociate a loan 
to any extent, fuch as national pur- 
pofes might demand. 

lothly. Becaufe the united flates muff 
be materially injured, from the public 
fecurities being alienated to foreigners, 
who Will naturally purchafe exienfive- 
ly, whilft they are at fo low a rate. 
The holders, from the fcarcity of 
money, are compelled to difpofe of 
them. Whereas, were they once 
funded, they would become an avail- 
able property, eafily negociable, and 
would form a fupplementary medmm 
of commerce, and aid the circula- 
tion. By fuch means, domefiic loans 
would be facilitated, whenever the 
government, prelled by fudden emer- 
gencies, was incapable of augmenting 
Us ordinary revenue, and mull depend 
on the anticipation of its refources. 

iithly. Becaufe the public credi- 
tors, throughout the union, in ratify- 
ing the federal conftitution, acquicf- 
ced in the alienation of the impoll 
(which, in fome of the Hates, was an 
appropriated fund, for the payment of 
the intereft due to them, on the pub- 
lic fecurities of the united ftates) un- 
der the fulleft perfuafion, that they 
fhould not fuffer by the abandonment 
of this productive fund ; but that full 
retribution would be made to them, 
under the operation of the federal fyf- 
tem. They were more (Irongly im- 
preffed with this idea, from the un- 
varying language of congrefs on this 
fiibjeft, which hitherto has left no 
room to doubt the good intentions of 
our federal councils. 

i2ihly. Becaufe the eftablifhment 
of public credit, by the operation of 
the funding fyftem, will, by fettiojj 



9S 



On marj/JaSturing jhgar, from the. map'lc tree* [AuguO, 



in motion a large capital, which is 
row lyini; dormant, effect a reduc- 
tion in the interelt of money, to the 
great benefit of the landed, cominer- 
<jial, and nianufattunng purfuits. 

The public advantages, that will 
be derived from this fource, will be 
confiderable, as the national expen- 
ditures will diminifli proportionally 
with the decline of intercll. 

Great Britain exhibits a ftriking 
inflancc of the benefit to be derived 
from fiich arrangements. Her ad- 
miniftration, at different periods, re- 
duced the intereii of the public debts, 
with the confent of the creditors ; 
from 6 to 5 per cent.m the year 1717 ; 
from 510 4 per cent, in (he year 172^? ; 
and from 4 to 3 per cent, from the 
year 1750 t<>i i 7,57 ; by which reduction 
an annual favmg of /, 1,266,9 71 
llerling;, was effected. 

i3th!y. Becaufe, fliould a fum in- 
f?ifhcient to pay the interelt of the 
vhole debt be levied, the domelHc 
creditors will fufpetl that a prefe- 
rence is intended to be given to the 
foreign lenders, which will occafiou 
great clamour and uneaHnefs. 

Such a conduct in government, will 
have the appearance of rendering juf- 
tice to the fubjec's of a foreign coun- 
try, which has the power of remedy- 
ing its wrongs, and of being perfidious 
to Its own citizens, who may be impo- 
tent and unprotected, and can only liie 
for juilice, in forma, pauperis. 1 his 
would be the reverfe of the conduct 
of other nations, vvhofe charity, like 
that of individuals, ufually begins at 
home. 

When the diflurbances happened 
between Great Britain and Holland, 
it was prcpofcd that the former fliould 
attempt to cripple theencmy, by with- 
holding the fupplies of annual interell 
for monies placed in her funds. Ihat 
country jif^ffefied a fpirit fuperior to 
fiich tricking practices. • But no in- 
■itance can be adduced in hillory, of a 
.country that gave a preference to fo- 
reigners, and devoted us own citizens 
to deHruftion. It would be a fpe- 
cics of political fuicidc. The remit- 
tances made to the Dutch, for the in- 
tereft on their loans, will never return 
ainongft us. Whereas, what is paid 
to the American creditors, will not in 
the lead dimijsilh the capital ltoi.k of 
the country. 



This is by no means a reflexion that 
is intended to authorize a fufpenfion 
of the Dutch claims ; but it may lead 
to theconfideration, how far it would 
be advileable to negociate with that 
people, for a prolongation of the time 
of payment, as this country has hither- 
to ^owed its gieat fuccels to the profit- 
able employment of foreign capitals, 
the advantages attending which, have 
far exceeded the intereft that is paid, 
and the furplus conllitutes a clear gaia 
to the cominunity. 

••■o- <^ <SB <^ -«••• 

Ohftmations on vmnufaB^iring fu' 
gar from the fap of the maple 
tree.* 

IT is now many years fince experi- 
ments were firlt made of manufactur- 
ing fugarand melades out of the mapl-e 
tree, which is found in abundance, in 
many parts of the united Hates ; and, 
writers of the firll reputation in Eu- 
rope, have mentioned the fame thing, 
as often pratlifed there. The quality 
of the maple juice, on the branches 
and head- waters of the Stifquehanna 
and Delaware, has, of late, been fre- 
quently tried, and found to be re- 
markably rich. But, though there is 
ample proof, that the farmer, with a 
little care and pains, may add much 
to the comfort and health of his fami- 
ly, by an abundant fupply of maple 
melaffes and fugar — and, that he 
may, moreover, obtain a good profit, 
by making them for fale ; yet, too lit- 
tle attention has, heretofore, been paid 
to it. There feems at this time, how- 
ever, to be a difpofition for culti- 
vating all the natural advantages of 
our country, and manufaduring, in 
fuch quantities, as circumftances may 
admit, every article in which we are 
able profitably to engage. 

It is probable, therefore, that the 
friends of home manufattures will 
think it advifable to apply fome of 
that thought and exertion, which they 
have lately manifcdcd, to giving the 
manufdfture of American melalTes 
and lugar a fair trial. 

The owners of lands of this kind 



* Various receipts for mavvfac- 
t.uring maple J u gar, maple melaffes.^ 
maple wine. &c. may be feen in the 
American Mufeum, vol. iv. page 349. 



17890 



11 manufaEluring fugar, fiom the mapk tree. 



(and the ftate is a confiderable owner 
of iuch lands) will afo find them- 
felvcs interefted in the fuccefs of an 
atltmpt to bring maple -fugar into ge- 
neral ufe. 

All, who are oppofed to the (lave 
trade, will find the means of family 
fupplies, of both fiigar and melaffes, 
without the labour of the unhappy 
people, who are the objefts of that 
trade. 

And, laflly, the inducements to 
foreigners, to migrate into our coun- 
try, will be increafed, by this new me- 
thod of adding to the comforts of life, 
and the early profits of a farm. 

As the lubjett, here offered for 
confideration, is very little known to 
fome among us, it may be ufeful to 
give fome particulars rcfpefling it, 
which may be relied upon as true. 

The fugar maple tree is found in 
great abundance, in the weftern parts 
of Ulfter and Albany counties, and 
throughout Montgomery county, in 
the ftate of New York — as alfo, in 
the adjoining counties, of Northamp- 
ton, Luzerne, and Northumberland, 
in Pennfylvania. Though it may be 
found in other places, thefe are men- 
tioned, becaufe they comprife a great 
fugar maple country, adjacent to mar- 
ket ; and becaufe the fatts, which are 
the foundation of thefe obfervations, 
have taken place in thofe counties. 

The juice of the maple tree, in that 
great trart of country, is every year 
made into melaffes and fugar, by more 
than fifteen hundred families, who gen- 
erally ufe their common kitchen pots, 
camp kettles, &c. — fo fimple is the 
procefs ; a few only working with fuit- 
able veffels, and with pot-afh ket- 
tles, which anfwer the fame purpofe 
very well. The fugar making occu- 
pies but three or four weeks in the 
year — that is, from about the J5ih or 
«oth of February, to the i5thor2oth 
of March — a feafon, when, it is well 
known, the farmer has little other 
employment. A man, with three or 
fourchildren either girls or boys, will 
very eaGly make 1500 pounds weight, 
in the above feafon of three or four 
weeks ; fo that it will require no ex- 
pcnfe of wages to hired people, 
where there arc children old enough 
to carry a pail of water or juice, or to 
teed a fire with light fuel. Thofe, 
however, who incline to apply to it. 



9<) 

as the means of increafing the income 
of their lands, may very eafily manu- 
f.itture hogiheads of it, with a few 
hired hand?, and few pounds value of 
fuituble ketiles, pails, and ladles. 

The mod experienced people, in 
the counties above-mentioned, have 
declared, that a tree, if carefully 
tapped, will, for many fucceeding 
years, yield fap or juice enough to 
make five pounds of fugar, in the fea- 
fon ; and it is a certain fa£l, that up- 
wards of thirty hogfiieads, a confi- 
derable part of which was equal to 
fine Mufcovado, were made laftlpring, 
in the family-way only, by the far- 
mers fettled, fince December, 1785, 
upon a body of lands, lefs than eight 
miles fquare, around Cooper's-town, 
on the Oilego Lake, at the head 
of the north-eaft branch of Sufque- 
hanna. 

It is the intention of thofe, who 
are now moving in this bufinefs, to 
endeavour to give eafe to the farmer, 
in making thefe valuable and wholc- 
fome articles, by providing a confi- 
derable number of neat, well-formed 
iron kettles, which will contain about 
fifteen gallons each ; and which will be 
fold reafonably — alfo to publifli a few, 
clear, and proper rules and direftions, 
for making both the fugar and melaf- 
fes, which will be carefully coliefled 
from thofe who have been accuflomed 
to boiling fugars on the above land*, 
and in the VS/eft Indies. 

They have confidered, likewlfe, the 
befl method of preferving the fugar, 
when made, which will be, to put it Into 
tight cafks that will keep it fafe, if floi ed 
in leaky houfes, or brought down the 
rivers upon rafts, without a covering, 
or in open boats. A careful and con- 
tinued attention is intended, hereafter, 
to be applied to this fubjett; and 
every ufei^ul hint and information, that 
can render the bufinefs of the farmer, 
in making fugar, more eafy or more 
profitable, publifiied for his confi- 
derawon. 

But as the various inducements, 
to encourage the manufafturing of fu- 
gar, are very fcrious and important, 
b.otli to the community and individuals, 
it is propofed, immediately, to open 
a fubfcription for buying it, with rea- 
dy money, for a term of years, of 
perfons who may bring il fvrfale 10 
I he city of Philadelphia. 



joo DireBiOnsJor manvfdBuring/ugar./fom ta( maple tree, [Auguft, 



DirtSltonsJor mdnufaEluring fugar, 
from the maple tree. 

IF the lap is drawn inio wooden vef- 
fels, care fliould be taken that they 
are made of fuch wood, as will not 
give the liquor a bad tafle. Some ma- 
ple fiigar has a difagreeable talte, oc- 
cafioned, as I have been informed, 
by the fap having been put into trays 
made of the white walnut. If the 
moulds are made of wood, they alfo 
Ihould be made of fome kind of tree 
ihat vvill give no tafte. The greateft 
part of the maple fugar I have ieen, 
has too fmatl a grain ; which is ow- 
ing to two caules ; one is, ihe makers 
of it do not ufe lime or lye, or any 
thing elfe, to make it granulate ; the 
other is, that they boil the fugar too 
niuch — The quantity of lime necef- 
fary to anfwer the purpofe, I can- 
not cxattly afcertain ; but I fup- 
pofe a heaped fpoonful of Hacked 
lime, would be fufficient for about 
fix gallons of fap. A judicious per- 
fon, after a few trials, would be able 
to Hx the due proportion. It may, 
however, be proper to mention, that 
if the quantity of lime is too fmall, 
the fugar will not be fufficiently 
grained ; if too much, it will give the 
fugar a reddifli call. I have before 
obferved, that the fngar (hould not 
be boiled fo much, as has been the 
common practice. That, from which 
runs about one-fixth of its weight in 
melalFes, in twenty four hours after 
it is put to drain, I thiwk, has been 
boiled properly ; perhap>, in three or 
four weeks afterwards, it will run 
the like quantity of melafTes, making 
the whole of the running about one- 
third the weight of the green fugar. 
It is probable, that thofe who have 
been accuftomed to high boiling, in 
order to get as much fugar as pollible 
in the firft procefs, will not approve 
of this method, but perhaps may be 
better reconciled to it, when they are 
informed, that if they boil this mc- 
lafles or fyrup with ftrong lime-wa- 
ter, one-third of the latter to two- 
thirds of the melalTe?:, there is reafon 
to expeft it will make good fugar, al- 
though not equal to the firil fort. 

I (hall now proceed to give fome 
directions for the making of maple- 
fugar. 

L«t all the fap that has been col- 



lefled in one day, be boiled the day 
following, Icll it (hould ferment, in 
which cafe the fugar would be lefs 
in quantity, and worfe in quality, la 
carry on the bufincfs with the greatelt 
advantage, there Ihould be three ket- 
tles of different dimenfions. Thefc! 
kettles ihould be fixed in a row, the 
fmalled at one end, the middle lized 
next, and (he largell at the other end. 
— \\ hen there is a quantity of fap 
collected, put as much in ihc largeft 
kettle as can be conveniently boiled 
in it ; then throw in as much lime or 
lye as may be deemed neccffary to make 
the liquorgranulate. Keep a moderate 
fire for fome time, and, as the fcum 
rifes. take it off with a {kiminer ; after 
the liquor is pretty clear, increafe the 
fire, and boil it bnfkly, 'till fo much 
is evaporated, as that which remain* 
may be boiled in the middle kettle;* 
into which che liquor mull be drained 
through a blanket ; under this kettle, 
keep a good fire, and take eft the 
fcum as It rifes. As foon the liquor 
is taken from the large, and put into 
the middle kettle, frefli fap mull be 
put into the former, and treated as 
before direfted, and fo on, till all the 
fap is boiled. 

When the liquor is fufficiently eva- 
porated in the middle kettle, to admit 
its being boiled in the (mallelf, it muft 
be put into the lad, where it muft be 
boiled, until it gets to a proper confif- 
tency to make fugar. When the li- 
quor is taken from the middle kettle 
into the fmallelt, the former mull be 
fupplied, a^ is before directed, from 
the laroell, and the largell wiin frelh 
fap. The liquor, in the imall kettle, 
muft be boiled brifkly, until it gets 
pretty thick, when the fire fliould be 
leffenedjto nrevent its burning. Wherr 
the liquor rifes in the kettle, a piece 
of butter or fat, the fize of a hazle- 
nut, may be thrown in ; if this quan- 
tity does not make it boil flat, more 
fhould be added, until it anfwcrs the 
purpofe, and this mull be reprated 
as often as the liquor rifes. When 
it is boiled enough, which may be 

N oi E . 

* Some liquor fhould be left in 

the large kettle, if an iron one, o- 

thrrwife there would be a danger of it» 

fplitting, upon putting in cold Lquor. 



iri 



.] 



Remarks on the bejl method of raijing yovng h<rgs. 



known by the manner * of its roping 
between the thumb and Hnger, it muft 
be put into a cooler or tub, when the 
fmall keule mull be lupplied with h- 
quor from the middle-hzed one, that, 
with more from the largefl, and the 
large one with frefh fap, as is before 
directed. When one-third of the 
fap, that has been collerted, is boiled 
and put into the cooler, it mult be 
ftirred brifkly about with a flirring 
flick (which may be made like a 
fmall paddle) until it grains, when it 
may be left, (if the bufinefs has been 
well done) until another third of the 
liqiioris boiled, and put intothe cooler : 
it mull be then moved about with the 
flirring llick, until it is well mixed toge- 
ther — when the remainder of the liquor 
is boiled and put into the cooler, it muft 
again be moved about with the flir- 
ring flick, until the whole is well mix- 
ed, when it mull be put into moulds ; 
earthen would be bell ; but wooden 
moulds may be made to anfwer the 
purpole, by nailing or pinning four 
boards together, fo fhaped, as to make 
the mould one inch diameter at the 
bottom, and ten or twelve inches at 
the top ; the length may be two feet, 
or two feet and an half — thefe moulds 
niufl. be clolely Hopped at the fmall 
ends, with old coarle linen, or fome 
fuch thing, and fet up with iomething 
to flay them ; the fugar mull then be 
taken from the cooler, and poured in- 
to the moulds — next morning, the Hop- 
pers muft be taken out, and the moulds 
be put on troughs, or fome velTel to 
to drain their melalTes. In the even- 
ing, the loaves mull be pierced at the 
fmall ends, to make them run their 
fyrup freely — this may be done by driv- 
ing a wooden pin, (ftiapedlikea marl- 
ing fpike) three or four inches up the 
loaf; after which they muft be left to 
drain their melaires, which will be 
done in a fhorter or longer time, ac- 
cording as the fugar has been boiled. 

No part of the bufinefs requires 
greater attention than granulating or 
graining the fugar in the cooli r, and 
afterwards frequently obfeiving the 



* Dip a flick into the liquor, ap- 
ply the thumb to it, and take part of 
what adheres to the ftick, then draw it 
two or three times between the thumb 
and finger. 

Vol. VI. 



ftate it is in — if too thick, it mav be 
remedied, by boiling the remaininsT li- 
quor lovv^er, than that which was boil- 
ed before — if too thin, by ftirnng the 
cooler again, and boiling the remain- 
der of the liquor higher, or more. 

A SUGAR BOILER. 

Philadelphia, Aiigujl 21, 17 89. 

^^ The making of fugar is quite 
common and eaty, with a fingle ket- 
tle of any fize. 

Remarks on the beJl mode of raijing 
young hogs : addrcjjcd to. and pub- 
lijhed by, the Philadelphia coun~ 
ty Jbctety, for the promotion of 
agriculture and domejiic manu- 
failures. 

Gentlemen, 

IT is with pleafure I communicate 
an experiment I lately made, to 
difcover the beft method of railing 
young hogs. Having frtquenily been 
informed that pigs would thrive beft, 
if turned into a good clover field, 
with the fow ; but having never ve- 
rified it by my own oblefvadon •, I 
was induced to make the fullcwin^f 
accurate experiment. 

A fow, two years old. of the Eng- 
lifli and Guinea breed, had feven 
pigs ; at a month old, in a ftate pro- 
per to make good roafters, 1 felected 
three of the bell, and put thenij with 
the fow, into a field of ten acres, 
very luxuriant, with red and whiie 
clover, with fome little timothy and 
blue grais ; in fhcrt, they could not 
be in better padure. They hadalfo the 
advantage of Ihade, a fine fpring of wa- 
ter to drmk or wallow in at pleafme, 
and the common wafh of the kitchen. 
Their weight, whc-n turned out, was 
eleven, twelve, and thirteen pounds. 
The remaining four were put into a 
flable by themfelves ; they had plenty 
of clean flraw, and as much fkiin^ned 
milk as they could drink ; the weight 
of three of them was nine, ten, and 
thirteen pounds. The refult of the 
experiment was, that, in three weeks 
time, from their being put up, thofe 
with the fow, with all the advanta- 
ges abovementioned, and the milk 
of the feven, weighed lixteen, feven- 
teen, and nineteen pounds ; (he three 
in the liable, twenty-five, twemy-two, 
and nineteen pounds j which, toge-- 



JC8 



Remarks on raiftng calves without nezo milk. 



(Auguff, 



ther, make fourteen pounds weight 
in favour of the latter, to which we 
Ihnuid alfo add the four pounds a- 
gainfl them, when firft put up, which, 
added, make eighteen pounds fupe- 
Tior to the former. 

Our farmt rs, in general, are too 
ne.i^ligent of their young ilock of eve- 
ry kind. It is ciiRomary for them 
to fiiffcr the mother and young to 
{hift for themfelves ; all animals grow 
in the inverfe ratio to their age, and 
iherefore the younger they are, the 
more ncccfTary to give them plenty 
of food, if you defire them lo ac- 
euire the full growth, of which their 
nature is capable. An animal, ilunt- 
cd when young, never thrives after- 
wards equally with thofe which have 
iiad juftice done them. I am fati^fi- 
ed, from a htile experience, ihat a 
flntter attention to the railing of our 
cattle'and ftock of all kind?, would 
give us a breed on our farms, eqiial 
to any in the world, and would, at 
the fam.e time, add grcaily to our 
»wn wealth and that of our country. 
1 am, gentlemen, 

your friend, 
George Logan. 
Stenton, June 25, 1789. 

"Remarks on raifingcalves without new 
imlk. Addrejfvdto the Philadelphia 
ceiinty agricultur aljocicty , 
Gentlemen, 

IL AT E LY obferved, in mr. 
Young's valuable annals of agri- 
culture, iome obfervations on rear- 
ing of cattle, by his grace the duke of 
Northumberland, His grace obferves, 
that he had entertained an idea, 
that (kimmed milk migh; be prepared, 
with proper ingredient*, effettually 
to anfwer the purpofe of raiftng 
calves, at one-third of the expenfe of 
feeding them with new milk. This 
is an object worthy the attention of 
your focietv, becaufe calves are fre- 
quently dellroyed, as foon as dropped, 
where the owner of the cow has occa- 
fion for the new milk ; or are fold to the 
butcher, at ^n early age, when their 
fkin and fl<jfh are of little value. His 
jrracc obfcrvc?. that the articles to be 
added to the tlunmed m'lk, are, trea- 
cle, and the common hnfeed cake, 
{".round very fine. Mr. Young, in 
his lemarks on ihc above informa- 



tion, fays, there are two objefts in 
rearing calves, each of which is of 
great importance* ; firH, to effect it 
without the alfiftance of any milk at 
all, and, fecond, to improve {kimmed 
milk, (o as to render it more nutriti- 
ous ; it being well known, that there 
IS a prodigious difierence in the growth 
and thriving of the animal, when fed 
with new or fkimmed milk. The 
ra.fing calves, without milk, was an 
object of the fociety of arts in Lon- 
don, and, they rewarded a mr. Budd 
for his method, which v;ar., feeding 
them on a gruel made wuh ground 
barley and oats. Mr. Young made 
a trial of this method without fuccefs ; 
as he has alfo done, in a variety of 
cafes, of raifing calves without any 
milk. The pollibility, bethinks, as yet 
remains in uncertainty. Mr. Young 
ihinks well of the plan recommended 
by the duke of Northumberland, 
which he had tried in two inftances, 
with fuccefs. 

Could we difcover a method not 
only to raifc calves, but to make 
good veal for the butcher, v.-uhout the 
life of new milk, it might induce our 
farmers to keen their calves to five or 
fix weeks, at which age the meat' 
would be much better, and the fkins 
much more valuable, particularly for 
boot-legs, than when killed young. 

In order to make fome difcovery 
on this fubject, I lately made the 
folldwing experiment — I had two 
calves nearly of the fame age and 
condition ; the one, from a fine young 
cow, was confined in a clean airy 
liable, and had the cow turned into 
him three times a day, from an ad- 
joining field of good clover. 

The other, at three days old, 
was taken from the cow, and confin- 
ed in a dark liable, well littered with 
clean flraw, every two days: for the 
firll week, he had as much new milk 
as he could drink, three times a-day, 
when it was changed to fkimmed 
milk, having two or three handfuls 
of fine Indian meal ffirred into it: 
after fufferm.i^ liim to drink plentiful- 
ly of this mixture, he was every 
morning and evening crammed with 
two bolufes of the fize of a hen's egg, 

NOTE. 

* S.ef American Mv.fenm^ vol, Ih 



jyZg.^ Addrefsofthtfenates-ndaJfemblyofthefiattofKctoYork. ic^j 



made wich Indian meal, linfeed oil, 
and an egg. One week before the 
calf was killed, the oil was omitted, 
as it is reported to give the flelh of 
animals, fed on linfeed cake, a difa- 
greeabie lalie. 

Tlie refult of the experiment was, 
that the veal, fed with the oil, was 
one pound and a quarter heavier than 
the other, and was rather fuj^erior to 
it in every other refpett, not havmg 
the leaft talie of the oil, of which I 
was apprehenfive. 

At the fame time, that the oil is 
very nourifliing. it tends to keep the 
body open, which is of great advan- 
tage in the fattening of any animals. 
I have experienced a very great ad- 
vantage in the ufe of a fmall quanti- 
ty of oil, in bringing ftall-fcd oxen 
rapidly to a condition fit for the knife. 
1 am, gentlemen, 
with great refpeft, 

your friend, 
Ge orge Logan. 

Stenton, Avgujl ^, '7%- 

Pubuflied by order of the foCy'ety, 
fVtUiam Lardner, fee. pro. tern. 

To the prejident of the united Jlates 

of America. 
The refpeElful addrefs of the fenate 

and aJJcmUy of the Jlate of New 

York. 

S I R, 

WHILE our country at Urge 
bears a chearful tefliinony to 
your dillinguillied virtues and fer- 
vices, we, the fenate and afTembly of 
the ftate of New York, avail ourfelves 
of the earlielt opportunity, fince your 
election to the prefidency of the united 
ftates, to prefent you our fincere and 
afletlionate congratulations, upon your 
appointment to that illudrious ftation. 

The citizens of this ilate, in the 
coiirfe of the late deflrutiive war, 
preffed by calamities and dangers, 
with grateful admiration beheld you 
difplaying the brighteft military ta- 
lents for their defence and fafety ; 
and, when thefe were no longer ne- 
cefiary, their prayers and acclama- 
tions attended you, retiring from the 
head of a vitiorious army, to the en- 
joyments of domeftic life. 

After fuch dillinguiflied proofs of 
fortitude and moderation, no motive, 
but the pureft patrioiifm, could have 



induced you to liften to rhe voice of 
your country, and to rea'Tume the ar- 
duous dunes of a public flation. 

We are confident, fir, of expreflin;; 
with fidelity, the fentiments of ihe free- 
men of this fiate, when we alTure you 
of the regard they have for your per- 
fon — of the confidence they repoie in 
your wifdom — and of the firm expec- 
tation they entertain, that youradmi* 
nillration will, by the bleffing of At- 
mighty God, be glorious to yourfelf, 
and happy for your country. 

Permit us to add, that we fnall do 
all in our power to make your leii- 
dence in this flate agreeable ; and at 
all times be ready to afford you our 
unued aid and fiipport. 

In behalf of the fenate, 

Pierre Van Cortlandt, Prcfident. 
In behalf of the alTi'mbly, 
Gulian Verplattck, fpeaker, 

Albany, July 15, 1789. 

president's answer. 
To the fenate and ajfembly of the 
jiate of New York, 
Gentlemen, 

TH E affectionate congratulations 
of fo refpedable a public body^ 
as the fenate and houfe of reprel'enta- 
tives of the (late of New York, on 
my eledion 10 the prefidency of the 
united flates, fill my brealt with the 
moil pleafing fenfations. 

In the fortitude and perfeverance 
of the citizens of this (late, even a- 
midlt the calamities and dangers, v;ith 
which they were furrounded in the 
Ifite war, I found a refource, which 
it always gave me pleafure to acknow- 
ledge, in the flrongell and moft grate- 
ful terms. I may alfo be permitted to 
add, that the fatisfattion I experienced 
in retiring to the enjoyments of domef- 
tic life, wa5 greatly enhanced, by a re- 
flexion, that their public virtue had been 
finally crowned with complete fuccels. 

I am now truly happy, that my 
motives, for reaffuming the arduous 
duties of a public flation, have met 
with your approbation. And, at the 
fame time, I intreat, you will be per- 
fuaded, that nothing could be better 
calculated to encourage me to hope 
for profperity in the execution of the 
duties of my office, than the aflur- 
ances you have given, of the favourable 
fentiments and expectations ot tke 
freemen of your Itate. 



1*4 AUdr^fs oftkepret, epifcopal church to the prefident of the U. S. [Aug, 



I requeft, gentlemen, that you will 
accept my bell thanks, for your polite 
intimation, that you will do ev.ery 
thmg in your power to make my refi- 
dence in your (late agreeable ; as well 
es for your patriotic promife of being 
always ready to afford your united aid 
and lupport. 

George Washington, 

M>-^B>^^^ •■<>..• 

Addrefi of the convention oj" the pro- 
tfjlnu. efpifcopal church, in the 
Jiates of New York, Nezp Jerfey, 
PenvfyLvania, Delaware^ Mary- 
ford., Virginia, and South Carolina, 
held at Philadelphia ; 

To the prefident of the united fates. 
Sir, , 

WE, the bifhops, clergy, and 
la;ty of the proteflant epifcopal 
church, in the Hates of New York, 
New Jerfey, Pennfylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, V irginia, and South- 
Carolina, in general convention af- 
if-mbled, beg leave, with the higheft 
veneration, and the mot! animating 
national conhderations, at the earlielt 
jnonicnt in our power, to exprefs otir 
- cord'al joy, on your election to the 
chief magiftracy of the united flates. 
When we contemplate the fhort, 
hui eventful hiflory of our nation — 
when we recolieti the feries of efTen- 
tial fervices performed by you, in 
the courfe of the revolution, the 
temperate, yet efficient exertion of the 
migluy powers with which the nature 
of the contert made it ueceffary to in- 
veit vou — and efpecially when we re- 
member the voluntary and inagnani- 
niQii<; relinquifhmcnt of thofe high au- 
thorities, at the moment of peace — 
we anticipate the happinefs of our 
country, under your future adminif- 
iration. 

But It was not alone from a fucceA- 
ful and virtuous ufe of thofe extraor- 
dinary powers, that you were called 
from your honourable retirement, to 
the firft dignities of our goverment. 
An alTeLtionate admiration of your 
private charafter — the impartiality, 
the perfevcring fortitude, and the en- 
ergy with which yoMf public duties 
have been invariably performed — and 
(he paternal folicitude, for the happi- 
nefs of the American people — toge- 
ther with the wifdoin and confuir.mate 



knowledge of our affairs, manifeftet} 
in your fall military communication, 
have directed to your name the uni- 
yerfal wifh, and have produced, for 
the Hrfl time in the hiUory of nianr 
kind, an example of unanimous con- 
fent, in the appointmeiit of the go- 
vernor of a free and erilightened na- 
tion. 

To thefe confiderations, infpirinj 
us with the mofl pleafing expettations, 
as private citizens, permit us to add, 
that, as the reprefentatives of a nu- 
merous and extended church, we moft 
thankfully rejoice in the election of a 
civil ruler, defervedly beloved, and 
eminently diftinguifhed among the 
friends of genuine religion ; who has 
happily united a tender regard for o- 
ther churches, with an inviolable at- 
tachment to his own. 

With unfeigned fatisfatlion, wg 
congratulate you on the eflablilhment 
of the new conftitution of govern- 
ment for the united ftates ; the mild, 
yet e'hcient operations of which, we 
coafidently truft, will remove every 
remaining apprehenfion of thofe, with 
whofe opinions it may not entirely 
coincide, and will confirm the hopes 
of its numerousfriends. Nor do thefe 
expeftaiions appear too fanguine,when 
the moderation, patriotifm, and wif- 
doin,of the honourable members of the 
federal legiflature are duly ccnfider- 
ed. From a body thus eminently qua- 
lified, harmonioufly co-operating with 
the executive authority in conlf itunon- 
al concert, we confidently hope for the 
reftoration of order and our ancient 
virtues — the extenfion of genuine reli- 
gion, and the confequent advancement 
of our refpeftabiliiy abroad, and of 
our fubllantial happinefs at home. 

We devoutly implore the Suprenie 
Ruler of the univerfe, to preferve 
you long in health and profperity — an 
animating example of all public and 
private virrues — the friend and guar- 
dian of a free, enlightened, and grate- 
ful people — and that you may finally 
receive the reward which will be giv- 
en to thofe, whofe lives have beer] 
fpent in promoting the happinefs of 
mankind, 

WILLIAM WHITE, 
Bifhop of the proteflant epifciipal 

church in the commonwealth of 

Pennfylvania, and prefident of th« 

convention. 



jySg-j 



The P rej^dcnt' s anfwer. 



105 



SAMUEL PROVOOST, D. D. 

Biftiop of the proteftaiU epifcopal 
chuich, in the llate of Nevv York, 
though prevented by indiipofition 
from attending the iate general con- 
vention, he concurs iincerely in this 
particular att, and fubfcnbes the 
prelent addrefs \viih the greateil fa- 
tisfaction. 

NEW YORK, 

Benjamin Moore, D. D. affiftarit 

mmiiler of Trinity Church, in the 

city of New York. 
Abraham Beach, D. D. afTiftant 

miniiler of Tritiity Church, in the 

city of New York. 
Mofes Rogers. 

NEW JEH.SEY. 

William Frazer, rector of St. Mi- 
chael's church, Trenton, and St. 
Andrew's church, Amwell. 

Uzel Ogden, rector of I'nnity church, 
in Newark. 

Jienry Waddell, reBor of the church- 
es of Shrewfbury and Middleton, 
New Jerley. 

George H. Spieren, reflor of Sr. 
Peter's church, Perth Amboy, New 
Jerfey. 

John Cox. 

Samuel Ogden, 

R. Strettell Jones. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Samuel Magaw, D, D. rector of vSt. 

Iciui's. and provofi of the uuivcrfi- 

tv of Pennfylvania. 
Robert Blackwell, D. D. fenioraf- 

fiftant mmifler of Chrilt church and 

St, Peter's, Philadelphia. 
Jofeph Pilmore, rettor of the united 

churches of Trinity, St. Thomas 

and All Saints, 
Jofeph G, T. Bend, afTiflant minif- 

ter of Chnft church and St. Pe- 
ter's, Philadelphja. 
Francis Hopknilon. 
Gerardus Clarl^lon. 
Tench Coxe, 
Samuel Powell. 

D E L A W A R E . 

Jofeph Coiiden, rertor of St. Ann's. 

Stephen Sykes, A. M. rettor of the 
united churches of St. Peter's and 
St. Matthew, in Sulfex county. 

James Sykes. 

M A R y L A N n . 

William Smith, D. D. now provoft 
of the college and aca(]emy of 
Philadelphia ; but appointed cleri- 
cal deputy for Maryland, as rector 



of Chefter parift, in Kent county. 
Thomas John Clagget, rcftor of St. 

Paul's, Prince George county, 
Cohn Fergufon, D. D. rector of 

St. Paul's. 
John Biffett, A. M. reflor of 

Shrewfbury panfli Kent, county. 
William Frifby. 
Richard B. Carmichacl. 

VI.HGINI A. 

Robert Andrews, 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Robert Smith, rertor of St. Philip's 

church, Charlellon. 
^\ . W. Burrows. 
William Bnfbane. 

Augujl 7, 1789, 

? R E S 1 n E N T ' S A N S %V' E R . 

To the bijhops, clergy, end laity of 
the protejlant cpijcopal church in 
the Jlatcs of New York, Nezu Jer- 
J'ly, Pennfylvania, Delaware, Ma- 
'ryland, Virginia, and South Caro- 
lina, in general convention ojfem- 
bled. 

GENTLE. MEN, 

I Sincerely thank you for your af- 
fectionate congratulations on my 
cledion to the chief magiftracy of the 
uniied dates. 

After havingreceived, from my fel- 
low-citizens in general, the moft libe- 
ral treatment— after having found 
themdifpofed to contemplaie, in the 
moR flattering point of view, the per- 
formance of my military fervices, and 
the manner of my retirement at the 
clofe of the war— I feel, that I have 
a right 10 confole myfelf, in my pre- 
fent arduous undertakings, with a 
hope that they will Hiil be inclined to 
put the moR favourable conRruSiou 
on the motives, which may influence 
me in my future public tranfaHions. 

The fatisfattion, arifing from the 
indulgent opinion, entertained by the 
American people, of my conduct, will, 
I triifl, be iome fecurity for prevent- 
ing me from doing any thing, which 
might juftly incur the forfeiture of 
that opinion — and the confideration, 
that human happinefs, and moral du- 
ty, are infeparably connefted, will al- 
ways continue to prompt me to pro- 
mote the progrefs of i\\z former, by 
inculcating the practice of the latter. 

On this occafion, it will ill become 
me to conceal the joy I have felt, in 
perceiving the fraternal atieflion whuK 
appears to increafe every day amon^ 



io6 On dejlroying the wevil.—Oi thef.>iances and debts of the U. S. [ Augufl, 



the friends of genuine religion. It 
aHorcls edifying profpefts, indeed, to 
fee chriftians of dirterent denomina- 
tions dwell together in more charity, 
and condui:t themCeUes, in refpect to 
each other, with a more chnll.an-l.ke 
fp rit, than ever they have done, in 
any former age, or m any other na- 
tion. 

I receive, with the greater fatisfac- 
tion, your congratulationson the eila- 
bliflimentof the new couRiiution of 
government : becaufe, I believe, its 
mild, yet efficient operations, will tend 
to remove every remaining apprehen- 
fion of thofe, with whofe opinions it 
may not entirely coincide, as well as 
to confirm the hopes of its numerous 
friends : and, becaufe t!ie moderation, 
pitriotifm, and wifdom of the prefent 
federal legiflature, feem topromife the 
relloration of order and our ancient 
virtues ; the extenhon of genuine re- 
ligion, and the confequent advance- 
ment of our refpettability abroad, and 
of our fubdantial happinefs at home. 

I requeR, mod reverend and re- 
fpefted gentlemen, that you will ac- 
cept my cordial thanks for your de- 
vout fupplications to the Supreme 
Rulerof the univerfein behalf of me. 
May you, and the people whom you 
reprefent, be the happy fubjetls of 
the divine beneditlions, both here and 
hereafter ! 

G. WASHINGTON. 

Method of dejlroying the flying zuevil, 
in Bavaria, in a letter from mr, 
Walpole, minijler from the court 
of Great Britain, at Munich, to 
the marquis of Carmarthen, fccre- 
tary of flat e. 

A PERSON put on a heap of 
corn, thyme and fweet marjo- 
rum, and changed eachof thefe plants 
every tweniyfour hours, m hopes of 
difcovering one which would anfwer 
his purpofe. Hemp was alfo tned ; 
he took a handful, and put it on a 
heap of corn, and found the next 
morning that the heap was full of we- 
vils. Thefe little black animals 
feem to have a fmell of a curious na- 
ture, fince they find the bad fcent of 
hemp agreeable, and it appears they 
like the foft rind of it. I'his hand- 
ful of hemp was picked out of the 
granary, and winnowed, and put again 



on the corn. The refuk was, that in 
five days ;^ftcrv.'ard>, there wort no 
wevils to be feen in the faid heap 
of corn. In the feafon, when there 
was no green hemp, they made ufe of 
mouldy old hemp, and with equal fuc- 
cef<:, except that it required a longer 
time to dellroy thcfe infeBs. 

The wevils appeared again, in the 
month of May, the following year, in 
lefs quantities, and at that period, 
there was only the tow or heards of 
hemp that was already prepared to 
fpm ; nevertheiefs, the fuccefs was the 
fame, and, in eight days time, all the 
wevils were removed. Perhaps li- 
nen might beufed, fteeped in the juice 
of hemp, where the hemp is not culti- 
vated, and the event might turn out 
equally fucccf-ful. However, it is 
neceffary to fiiake the hemp well, 
that is put on the corn, and to (Ur (he 
corn, if in great quantities, in order to 
bring the wevils to the furface. 
This experiment was made alfo in a 
rainy fummer, when it was neceffary 
to collccl. together the fiieaves, which 
were very wet, and carry them into 
the granary, which, of courfe, occa- 
fioned a fermentation in the barn, as 
v^ell as the granary, and from that 
caufe, produced many wevils. Hemp 
was made ufe of very early in the 
fpring, and the corn ftirred at the fame 
time, and as the exceffive heat arofe 
from it, the wevds difappeared. 

Thoughts on the finances and debts of 
the united fates. 

I HAVE had my attention feri- 
oufly engaged by the publication 
of the eftimate of the fupplies requi- 
fite for the united ilates in the year 

On inveftigating this eftimate, con- 
tained in the report of a committee of 
congrefs, it appears, that the annual de- 
mands on the union, forthe civil lift ex- 
penditures, the inftalments due on fo- 
reign leans, and the intereft on the fo- 
reign and donieftic debt, amount to 

dollars. 90 
3,207,056. 21 

Dedufl inflalments, 
and premium on the loan 490.962. 89 

2,716,133. 22 
which is the clear amount of the an- 
nual contributions forthe fupport or 



J729-J 



On thcfvarcfs and debts oftktunitedflates. 



lo: 



government : for tVie payment of the 
niftalmemsis a liquidation of fomuch 
of the capital of the fure.gn debt, 
which, by being extingmihfd, will 
require a proportionally leis fiim to 
be raifed in fublequent years, for in- 
tercft. . 

As for the various arrearages, which 
the report takes notice of, and which 
forro the balance of the fum total, 
tkey are not to be confideredas an an- 
nual demand, but w:il probably be 
confolidated with the capital of the 
debtj and the interelt thereon be alone 
required. 

So far from room fordefpondency, 
in the minds' of the good people of 
thcfe Ratesj by fuch a reprcfentation 
cf their affairs, it exhibits the moft 
flattering and favourable profpects. 
The annual requifitions will not a- 
mount to a dollar per head. efl'iTDating 
the population of the union at. three 
millioTts : a fmall demand, m exchange 
for fuch invaluable blelhngs, as peace, 
IPberty, and independence ; and which 
muil be lightly felt in a ctuintry that 
can afiord to pay three fhillings per day 
to a common labourer. 

It is not probably a founh of the 
contributions that we fliould have been 
compelled to furnifh towards our pro- 
portion of the national debt of Great 
Britain, if we had remained under the 
domination of that haughty and ex- 
afling nation. 

■ But let us enquire what is the re- 
lative fituation of other countries, with 
refpeft to the quantum of public con- 
tributions. 

Great Britain, under the opera- 
tion of a government, that, it muft be 
cwifefled, pays pointed attention to 
her agricultural, commercial and ma- 
nufafiuring purfuits, flounlhes, not- 
withRanding an accumulation of pub- 
lic debt, that demands an annusl fup- 
p'y of fixteeii millions fterling, to fa- 
tisfy its interefl,and fuppart her other 
expenCes. 

But the people are fo little opprefT- 
ed by thefe demands, that they arc en- 
afbled, with eafe, to raife by taxation, 
afufficient fum to conftitute a finking 
fund, which, in the courfe of the lall 
year, extinguiflied two millions of the 
Capital of the national debt. 

Calculating on eight millions of in- 
habitants, in Great Britain, there 
will be apportioned to each individual. 



as an annual contribution, forty fhil- 
lings, Jlerling, which is between eight 
and nine dollars per head. What a 
flattering confideration, forthe citizens 
of the unted ftates, arifes out of the 
comparative fituation cf the two coun- 
tries ! — But what renders the reflexion 
flill more pleafing, is, that (ireat Bri- 
tain may be deemed flationary, if not 
declining, in her population, and con- 
fcquent refources. But the united 
llaies prefent an unbounded field tor 
progreihve population ; and the m- 
creafe of inhabitants will eafe the bur- 
den of the debt, by additional num- 
bers participating in the fupport of its 
weight. 

Ihis augmentation does not only 
ariie from narural increafc, in a coun- 
try fituated like America, where the 
means of fubuftence are fo eafily to 
be procured, but llkewife from the 
rapid migration that will iiecclFarily 
take place, from the fuperior entou- 
rageiTient, that a governuient, fo well 
conilituted to favour civil and religi- 
ous liberty, and protect the rights of 
property, will offer. Such migra- 
tions are ufually accompanied with 
confiderable acquifitions of property, 
which add to the general fto'ck of the 
community. 

When the united fiates of Ameri- 
ca, have arranged their financial 
fyOem, and made ample provifion 
for iheir exiilmg claims, the progref- 
five increafe of the taxes, arifing 
from various caufes, joined to the 
falesof the wellern territory, will form 
a confiderable furplus, that may be ap- 
plied to the gradual and .i^eedy ex- 
tinflion of the capital of the public 
debt. 

The beneficial elFefls of the fund- 
ing fyflem*, when founded on profver 
principles, will be felt through all the 
clalfes of the community: as it will 
throw into circulation the capital of 
the domeffic debt — increafe thereby 
the general flock of the country — 
and facilitate the various purpofes of 
alienation. 

If a comparative view was formed 
of the public de&ts of France, Spain, 
or Holland, the united Hates would 
find, that it would induce a refult 

NOTE. 

* For an ej'ay *n this /nbjeB, ftt 
pagL- 93. 



loS 



Exports end mports of Wilmingtov. tSc, 



[Atiguft. 



much more favourable than even that 
with Great Britain. 

Ihis communication of congrefs 
can therefore give no caufc of exuha- 
tion to the enemies of the govern- 
ment. Foreign nations mu'l reipetl 
ihe refources of a country, abounding 
in fuch powerful means, and fo un- 
fettered by its prefent engagements. 

A F R 1 E N D TO THE UNION. 
••<)••• <S><S> '^s> ■•■<)— 
Exports and imports of the port cf 
Wilminirton^ Delaware, from the 
»/ of June, 17885 till the \Jl of 
June, 17S9. 

Exports. 
21,783 barrels, fuperfins flour. 

4.57 ~ ^, common, ditto. 

256 — •, middlmgs, ditto. 

346- . fliipfluft", ditto. 

IjS^S —, {hip-bread. 

41 kegs, white bifcuit. 
238 barrels, corn meal. 

205 , pork. 

o ' -, beef. 



10 haif-barrels, fnufF. 

459 5 potatoes, 

323 J apples. 

4 . indigo. 

11 ■ ■ , pot-alh. 

2 • , onions. 

11 hogfheads, hams. 
156 hams, loofe. 
J. 958 bufhels, Indian corn. 
17Ft hogflieads, llaxfeed. 
6oi tierces, rice. 
46,663 feet, pine boards & fcaniling. 

'5327 ~5 walnut, ditto. 

130,5,50 Haves. 
JO, 300 fliingles. 
3,789 pieces, v.'heel timber. 
1,000 windfor chairs. 
1 cart. 
50 cwt. bar iron. 

90 , callings. 

1,040 hogfhead hoops, 
je fvrkms, butter, 
8 fettees. 

Imports, 
516 puncheons of rum, 
516 hooflieads, fugar, 
86 barrels, ditto, 
60,934 bags, coffee, 
1 19 cafes, gm. 
SOI hogOieads, melafles. 
14 bales, cotton. 
6 barrels. limes. 
ig6 hogfheads, wine. 

5 trunks, hnen. 
iij'^o buflicls, fait. 



Exports from the port of Alexandria^ 
Virginia.^ from Ike 9.olh July, 1786, 
to the XJ^th July, 1789, viz, 
5,122 hogliieads, tobacco, 
32.088 barrels, flour. 

2,649 " J bread, 

37.891 bufhels, corn. 

1.742 , peas & beans, 

805 barrels, tar, 
68,5,000 ilimgles. 
128.620 haves. 

14,200 fcftj plank. 
102,268 bufliels, wheat. 
50 barrels, pork, 
47 tierces rtce. 

6 hogfhead^, fifh, 
79 barrcK, ditto. 
42 terces, fiaxfeed, 
50,000 wt. genlang. 

6 ho<;fheads, ditto. 
28 calks, ditto. 
63 tierces, ditto, 

..<>..<S, <@g><55> ••■<»- 
Calumny refuted. 

To the P R I N T E R of the A M E R 1 C A W 

M U S K U M . 

A L I F E of the celebrated capt, 
ir\. Cook was publifhed in London 
by dr. Kippis, in 1788. 1 have ne- 
ver fecn the work itfrlf, but only an 
exiracl from it, in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, for July, of that year. 
Perhaps the extratl may be erroneous ; 
and therefore I will not venture, on 
the credit of if, to charge an author 
of dr. Kippis's eftablifhed reputation, 
with doing great injuftice to the cha- 
rafter of Americans, and the honour 
of their government. But it mirfl not- 
pafs without notice, that while the doc- 
tor IS made to bellow jufl commenda- 
tion on the court of France, for iffu- 
ing orders to proteB capt. Cook from 
the hollile attacks of their cruifers, 
he is quoted at the fame time, as im- 
puting to the narrow fouled Ameri- 
cans, that they did every thing in their 
power to obllruft the fuccefs of his 
expedition. This is a very injurious 
mifreprefentation ; for it is notorious, 
that orders were direfted to all fliips 
of war and privateers belonging to 
the united Hates, not to give the leaft 
moleflation or interruption to capt. 
Cook.; or to do any injury to his pa- 
pers, journals, &c. I cannot nov«r 
refer to the orders themfelves, being 
very dillant from the place where 
fuch papers are depohtcd ; but the 



J 789.] J^eply to an enquiry into the utility of the Greek and Latin languages, icq 



faft is ptrfeftly within my memory. 
1 even remember to have heard, that 
ihe order from the court of France was 
ticcafioned by dr. Frankhn's menti- 
oning to the miniitry of that kingdom, 
how hurtful it would be to fcience, 
natural hiflory, and navigation, if the 
fiuit of captain Cook's lad voyage, 
fhould be dellroyed by the ignorance 
or brutahty of the comnDander of fome 
Ihip of war ; on which the govern- 
ment uf an enlightened nation imme- 
diately gave the order, fo jultly praif- 
cd by dr. Kippis. 

An American. 

Reply to an ejfay, entitled^ ^^ an enqui- 
ry into the utility of the Greek and 
Latin languages*." 

AProdutlion, of a very fingular 
nature, has made its appearance 
in the American Mufeum for June 
lall ; and as the profeffed objeft of its 
author, is to eradicate every trace of 
Grecian and Roman literature from 
our feminaries of education, it may 
not be im.proper to exanjine the 
grounds upon which he relts his bold 
attenint. 

He begins with a fupplicatory pre- 
face intreating his readers to afcribe 
all the deficiencies of his perform- 
ance, to his want of (kill to direct 
arguments, (affertions, he fliould have 
faid) which, he is confident, would, 
in other hands, be wonderfully effica- 
cious. That an apology was indif- 
penfibly necelTary, cannot but be evi- 
dent to all candid readers. The ge- 
nerous public will, no dsubt, grant 
the hril part of his petition, and ex- 
tend their clemency to a circumflance, 
which will plead Itill more in our au- 
thor's favour ; that is, they will af- 
cribe his defefls both to the weak- 
nefs of his weapons, and to his want 
of dexterity in ufmg them. 

Next to the preface, the propofi- 
tions of our author prefent themfelves 
to our conlideration. Of thefe, the 
three fird afford no matter for parti- 
cular obfervation ; nor, if granted, do 
.they feem to be of very great utility 
in promoting the end, for which they 
are intended. The fubfequent pofi- 

NOTE. 

* See American Mufewn^ vol, V. 
Vol. VI. 



tions, however, or the confequencts 
drawn from them, can by no means 
be allowed. 

But, before I make any remarks 
upon them, I beg leave, after the 
good example of our author, to lay 
down a few prcmiles. 

ift. Pan icularinftances cannot juf- 
tlfy general conclufions, 

2d, " Vy'hat proves too much, 
proves nothing at all." 

3d. When a writer require? ouraf- 
fent to certain poftulata, which are 
the very points he ought to prove, his 
condutt is an indication, either that he 
has no arguments to fupport hiscaufe, 
or that they will not bear the te(K 

4th. V\' hen an author contradicls, 
or is inconddent with himfelf, we 
may fairly infer, either that he is igno- 
rant of his fubjetl — or that he views 
It through a jaundiced medium — or 
that the fide of the quedion which he 
efpoufes, is miferably defended — eath 
of thefe cafes is fufhcient 10 fpoil the 
reputation of a difputawt ; but, fiiould 
they unfortunately unite, let every 
one form his own opinion. 

Our author'sfourth propofitlon nins 
thus, " the knowledge of things always 
precedes the knowledge of words. 
Children difcover the truth of this 
obfervation every day. They know 
all the objefis around them, long be- 
fore they are able to call them b)' their 
proper names, or even to articulate 
founds of any kind. It is fuppoled, 
that children acquire more ideas of 
things in the hrH three years of their 
lives, than they acquire in any thirty 
years afterwards." The gentleman 
\yho writes the effay, which I take the 
liberty to diffetf, is mightily grieved 
that our language is rendered unintel- 
ligible by the numerous Greek and 
Latin words, which have been adopt- 
ed into it. Whether it be owing to 
this, that his own pofition is fo much 
perplexed, I will not pretend to fay ; 
but he would confer a fignal obliga- 
tion upon his readers, would he be 
fo kind as to fupply them with a dic- 
tionary of idea;, which might enable 
them to remove the veil of cblVurity 
from his meaning, and to obtain as 
clear, or, what is dill more dehrable, 
a clearer view of it than he himfelf 
feems to have had. " The knowledge 
of things always precedes the know- 
ledge of words," I have ever un- 



110 Reply to an enquiiy into the ■utility of the Greek and Latin languages \Ax\i 



clcrnood. thai the knowledge of things 
is ihe fri'iit of levere Rudy ; but per- 
liaps the gcntleiniin has his eye upon 
the knowledge ot ndture, and iiihnu- 
aies. that this "' precedes the know- 
l.=dge of words." How this can help 
his arguiueni againll the utility of ihe 
Greek aad Lalm Ungiiages, is not fo 
Clear — .he only thing which it proves, 
i<!, that wc Oiould teach children the 
knowledge of thitigs, before we fip- 
pfy theni with the means of receiving 
iniirud.on ; or, in other words, be- 
fore they can undciiland a fyllable of 
whalwc fay to them. This, I ap- 
prehiiid, proves rather more than 
the gciuleman intended, and there- 
fore, according to his own rule, proves > 
nothing at ail, , ; 

i5iii we are told, that "children 
acq 1. re more ideas of things in ine 
hr'.i three years tsf theii-j 'lives, tlun 
they acquire in' aiiy thirty' years after-' 
vards." Without crUiciling the oh-' 
vlous mearliiig' of ihele 'words, viz. - 
thai people continue children all (heir- 
lives, or entering upon aiyietaphyfical 
ditcuiiion relpeCling the nature and 
oiigin of our ideas, I beg leave to aPic ■ 
our .1 ithor, Qonot ainioll all the ideas ot 
child len, before they arrive at their 
fouit!) year, belong to the clafs of fun- 
pie ideas? If this IS generally true, the 
author will be obliged to make it ap- 
pear, that the number of hnipleideas 
exceeds that inRnite variety of com-* 
pound ideas which are form-cd from ' 
the (i mole ones, by the reflex atts of 
the mind. 

1 he gentleman proceeds, " the ac- 
quiiition of words lefiens the abdiiy 
of the iniitd to afquire ideas." Was 
ever affertion lo 11 range ? But, fup- 
pofing it true, what inference can it 
auihorife P None which bears a pro- 
piiious afped to the gentleman's" 
I'cheme : the confequence that Hows 
niore naturally from it, than any he 
has drawn, is, that, by not acquiring 
words, the inind is rendered Htter lo 
acquire ideas — of couri'e, not only the 
Cire.'k and Latin, but every other 
language, uiuft be extremely preju- 
dical, and this conchdion levels a fi- 
ni(hiiig blow at a favourite part ot the 
author's proje^l for cftabhfhing a new 
fyllem of liberal education, liehdes, 
it like wife follows, that the mind of a 
man mull be barren uf fohd know- 
ledge, in proportion as he increafes 



in an acquaintance with languages ; 
and, that the m md of aman, both deaf 
and dumb, mull be furniflied with an 
inexhauHible Hore of valuable ideas^- 
whence it is plain, thai thin pofilion 
alfojiroves too much.^nd coniequent- 
ly proves nothing ai all. 

Again, '• the ddiculty of acquiring 
thofe dead languages, and the little 
pleafure which accompanies the know- 
ledge of them in early life, occafion 
the piincipat obflacles to teaching in 
'niaftcrs, and learning in fcholars." 
To teaching and Icariiing what? 
other branches of education P how 
can that he p;>riibie, when, by the 
author's own acknowledgment, nay, 
by his own argument,' numbers be- 
come proficieniA in thofe branches, 
who never learned a \vord of Latin 
or Greek ? or does he mean, that 
" the diOiculty inobtainino thofe dead 
languages, occafion the principal ob- 
flacles ro learning them?" If fo, I 
mufl aik his pardon, for obferving, 
that it is no news to tell us, " a 
difliculty is a difficulty," or, does 
he rncaii, that " the difficuly of ac- 
"q-jir:ng thofe lang!iaof's"'"i.!r- a fuffi- 
cient reafon for laying thL-iri afide P 
This will apply, wiih'cqual force, to 
all (ladies wha'ever : fo that he^-e, too, 
our champion's logic proves toamuch, 
and therefore proves nothirig at all ; 
^ but, in the next paragraph, reafon 
"opens upon us her moll irtmendous 
' batterv — How loud her cannons roar. 
Hark ! •' dr. Huiby. the famous Buf- 
by. is faid to have died of bad Latin." 
So there is a murder fairly proved on 
the Latin l,inguag?,'aiid Vhat upon pu- 
ny bad Latin ; how many hves mn!l 
it deilroy when in full vigoruri' there 
can fcarcely be a doubt, that every 
Undent who has died, fmce I,atin be- 
gan to be Uudicd, owes his death to 
this moniler. For a crime fo atro- 
cious, what puniihment, lefsihanen- 
tire dellriiMion, can be inllitfed ? But 
be not llartled, ye accomphccs in La- 
tin guilt ; a celebrated writer has late- 
ly Ihewn, that it is uiijud and impoli- 
tic to punifli murder with death*. 

Again, we are told, " how bitter 
the iliidy of the languages renders that 
innocent period of life, which feems 

NOTE. 

* ^''ide American Mtijcura^ for Ju- 
ly^ 17S8. 



17^9.] 



Cn the CJireJ'or tkc lit-e of a mad dcg. 



cxclufively intended for happniefs" — 
and then follows a pathetic tale of 
fchcx^l niifcry. Let us put the au- 
thor's reafon:ng :nto the form of a fyl, 
logiim, and fee what an appearancei 
vwill have. 

jBufhv died of had Latin. 

School-boys ^ramble, and grow 
fraclious, when they are obliged to 
learn it and the Greek. 

Ergo. To teach thefe languages, is 
ab!urd:iy in the extrcn;e. 

It requires mme than common fa- 
gaciiy, to fee what argument the dif- 
cotitent of a fnivelini; fchoolboy fnr- 
niflic's for aboliliijiig a branch of li- 
beral education— perhaps the gcntle- 
maii's nerves are very tender; but if 
every thing is to be omitted, which 
does not plcafe the fratiious humour of 
children, our fylleiTJ nf education will 
be curtailed wiih a vengeance. After 
all, I cannot help thinking a caufe 
in a moil lamentable plight, when its 
advocate is driven to fuch pitiful fliifts. 
The diilrefs, for want of argument, 
under which our author labours, is 
. fartherexemi>liFicd in the fcvcnth and 
eighth prnpofitions. In the laiier, we 
are informed, that " dr. Swift early 
difcovered a want of ta!lc for the dead 
language--, and ihdt it woud be unjult 
to m..-niioii this faB, without afcribing 
It to the voice of rcafon and ilature 
fpeaking in this great man. He had 
no relifli for the hiiflcs of literature. 
Triuh and knowled.^e were nlone coin- 
meufurate to the dignity and extent of 
his mind." Dr. Bufby, we are told 
a little above, diedof bad Latin. Dr. 
Swift's dillike to it proceeded from 
the voice of nature and reafon. Buf- 
by died at eighty-nine years of age, 
and by what our author fays, it is pret- 
ty evident, that even this was a great 
favour, and that his long life was a 
punifliment for torturing nature, in 
reading L,atin himfelf, and teaching 
others to read it. 

If diflike to the dead languages is 
the voice of reafon and nature, then 
it follows, that an attachm.eiit to them 
mud be the voice of folly, and fuch 
gentlemen, as admire claffical ele- 
gance, will, no doubt, entertain a 
becoming fenfeof this flattering com- 
pliment. Dr. Sv.ift " hnd no relifli 
for the hiiflis of literature." Thcfe 
were fuited to fuch fwine, as Milton, 
Addifon, &c. (To be continued.) 



Mod/- of preventing the dreadful coii- 
Jcqticnces f the bite of a viad dog. 
By dr. Hoygarthy ofChrJler, R*'g- 
land. Recomme tided for phblica-. 
livn by the koii. Arthur Lcc, rfq» 
and hy dr. Jchn Morgan. 

Ii IS iiniverfally allowed by phyli- 
cians, that t^ie fpittle of a mad 
animal, iiifuf-^d into a wound, :s ihe 
only caufe, hitherto known, that Cdn. 
communicate canine inadnefs to the 
htiman body. This poilon decs no 
immediate mifchief, but is flowly ab- 
forbed into the blocd, and fufli ient 
opportuiiiiy is given to remove it. be- 
fore any danger r;in arife. WMup- 
cver a pcrfou is bit, ihe plam and (.b- 
vicHis means of preveufng Jmnre in- 
jiuy are, firft, to wipe oft the fputle 
with a dry cluih, and then to wafli 
tiu' wound with cold water ; rot 
(Ightlv and {iipcriicially,biir aburdant- 
ly, and with the mcfl perfevtrutg at- 
tention ; in bad cafes, for leveial 
Iiotiis. And after a plentiful aUnfion of 
cold water, warm water may be cm- 
ployed with fafcty and advaniag" ; a 
continued dream of it, poured from the 
fpout of a tea-pot, or tca-kctile, held 
up at a con{idcra!)ie diflance, is pecu- 
liarly well adapted to the purpofc. If 
the canine poifon, infufed into a 
wound, were of a peculiar colour, as 
black, like ink, we lliould all be a- 
ware that plentv of water, and patient 
diligence, would wafh out the daik 
dye ; but this could not be expefled 
from a flight and fuperficial ablu- 
tion. After the firft careful wafliing, 
apply to the ]iite, fal viva, coloured 
with ink, indigo, &c, and, by the fe- 
cond wafliing, a vifible proof may be 
obtained, how foon and how perfectly 
it can be cleaned out of the wound. 
As a proof that flight waflung of the 
wound is not fuRicicnt to cleanfe it 
elfefiually from the poifon, we may 
mentitm, that, in fome cafes, after 
inoculation, for the fmall-pox, the 
poifonous matter has been aitemptcl 
to be wafhed out of the wound, by 
perfons who wiflied to prevent us ef- 
fects ; yet the inoculated fmall-pox 
appeared at its proper period. Thcfe 
unluccelsfiil aitempts were performed 
fecretly, haflily, and timidly, by a fe- 
male hand. Byt in a cafe, when the 
ablution was more i>crfeclly perform- 
ed, inoctilation was prevenied from 
taking efteftj though the patient was 



lis 



Cure for the hooping cough. 



[AuguR, 



fufceptible of infeflion. They teach 
us the importance of patient perfe- 
verance in wafhingaway the poifon ; 
but they need not abate our confi- 
dence,- that fuch perfeverance will 
certainly be fuccefsful. 

The ablution fliould be performed 
^v•ith great diligence, and without de- 
lay, and may be performed by the pa- 
tienf, or any aflKlant. However, as 
the apprehenfion of this dreadful dif- 
order always excites the greateft anxi- 
ety, a furgeon's advice and afiiHance 
ought to be obtained, as fooii as pof- 
lible, in all cafes, where the fkin is in- 
jured. He will execute thoie direc- 
tions moft dexteroufly and completely. 
In a bad wound, the po'fon may be 
conveyed deep into the fledi, by long 
teeth, or by lacerations. In luch cir- 
cumflances, he will open, cup, fy- 
ringe, and wafli every fuipicious place. 
And, whenever any uncertainty can 
remain, that may occafioo future foli- 
citude, he will previoufly fnave off the 
furlace, and cut away the jagged or 
other parts of the wound. By this 
method of purification, it cannot be 
doubted that every particle of poifon, 
and, Ciinfequently, that every caufe 
of danger, may be effe^ually re- 
moved. 



, Mr. Printer, 

A dinreffing hooping cough now 
prevailing, and increafing in feveral 
places, which proves fatal to many 
children, occafions your receiving the 
following extract from a Britifh publi- 
cation. As It is faid, the colt's foot 
grows in many places among us, it is 
prefum^d, thofe who certainly know, 
or can procure, the herb, will think 
the prefcnption well deferves a trial, 
from what is faid of its remarkably 
gcod efietls. It may be obferved, the 
herb is recommended to be ufed of 
the year's growth ; it may be therefore 
inferred, there can be Ids reliance on 
preparations from the colt's foot im- 
ported, as that may have l<ifl much 
of its virtue by age — If happily the 
good effects of the prefcription fliall 
be verified, by its ufe among us, from 
your publifhing it at this time, it muft 
afllord fatisfartion lo yonrfelf, and will 
anlwer the well meant motives of 

A Customer, 



For a hooping cough. 

TAKE of dried colt's- foot leaves 
a good handful, cut them fmall, 
and boil them in a point of (pring wa- 
ter, till half a puu is boiled away ; 
then take it oflf the fire, and, when 
it is almoft cold, flrain it through a 
cloth, fqueezing the herb as dry as 
you can, and then throw it away. 
DilTolve, in the liquor, an ounce of 
brown fugar- candy, finely powdered, 
and give the child (if it be about three 
or four years old, and fo in propor* 
tion) one fpoonful of it, cold or warm, 
as the feafon proves, three or four 
times a day, (or oftener, if the fits of 
coughing come frequently) till well, 
which will be in two or three days; 
but it will almoft immediately abate 
the fits of coughing. 

Virtues of this medicine. 

THIS herb feems to be a fpecific 
for the hooping cough, (lays thr^ gen- 
tleman who kindly communicated tt 
to the world, in one of the public 
papers) and indeed for all others, in 
old as well as young: it has wonder- 
fully eafed them, when nothing elfe 
would do it, and greatly helps in 
{hortnefs of breath : and in the allh- 
ma and phthyfic, continues he, I 
have not known any thing exceed it, 
Likewife in waftings or confumptions 
of the lungs, it has been found of ex- 
cellent ufe, by Its fmooth, foftening, 
healing qualities, even when there 
has been fpitting of blood, and raw- 
nefs and forenefs of the pafTages, with 
hoarfencfs, &c. in blunting the acri- 
monious humours, which, in fuch 
cafes, are almoft continually dripping 
upon them. It is to be queftioned, 
whether, for thofe purpofes, there is 
to be had, in the whole materia medi- 
ca, a medicine lo innocent, fo fafe, 
and yet lo pleafant and effectual ; oc 
that can aflord relief fo foon as this 
Will : for grown people make it 
fironger than for children — Get the 
herb of the fame year's growth and 
drying, that you ufe it in, and the 
larger and fuller grown the leaves, the 
belter. It is bell to be made as you 
want it, and not too much at a time, 
efpecially in warm weather. 

1 fhall only add, that upon the 
above remedy being made public, it 
was followed by feveral leiiers in the 
public papers, acknowledging ihe be- 
nefit received by if, (and heap.ng 



1789.] 



Proceedings of the [cgijiature of Virginia., 



^3? 



blefrin<;s upon the generous communi- 
cator of it) as well in cafes of grown 
perfons, as children — But, one of the 
perlons. who wrate that he was hxty 
ye.irs of age, fays, he doubled the 
quantity of colt"s-foot, taking four 
fpoon fills, as often as the lit came 
upon him. 

N. B. When fugar-candy cannot 
conveniently be had, perhaps honey, 
or good clean brown iugar may be 
ufed iiiftead of it; but it will be beft 
to make ufe of the fugar- candy, as 
mentioned in the prefcription, when 
it can be done. 



To the PRINTER of the Ame RICAN 

M U S E U Nr. 

Sir, 

YOUR Mufeum for March con- 
tain' an addreis from our gene- 
xal aJlcmbly to congrefs, and a circu- 
lar letter to the ftates, Hrcfpetting a- 
tnendincnts to the conilitiition, I 
fend you the enclofed paper' in order 
(hat the fenie of the minority, on that 
important quellion, may alfo appear, 
and be prelerved, 1 have now, even 
more reafon than I had then, to be- 
lieve that the minority in the houfe of 
delegates, exprefied ihe feinimenis of 
a majority of the people i)f \'irginia. 
I much wifh, and am lure it will be 
generally agreeable to the well-difpof- 
ed citizens;of this commonwealth, that 
the whole contents of the enclofed 
paper (except what you have alrea- 
dy printed.) may appear in a future 
number or numbers of the Muleum. 
1 am, fir, 

With unfeigned good wiflies 
for your ficcefs, 

Your moll obedient fervant, 
Dan IE L Brodh e ad, jun. 
Richmond, May 10, 1789. 

Afatewmt of facis^ fubmittcd to the 
candid and difpajjionate conf dera- 
tion of the independent freeholders 
cf Virginia, by a friend to truth 
and libtrty. 
In the koife of delegates, Thurfday, 
October 30, 17^8. 
H K R E A S, the convention 
of delegates of the people of 
ths commonwealth, did ratify a con- 
Ihtuuon or form of government forthe 
iin;tcd Hates, referred to them for their 
confideranon ; and did alto declare, 
that lundry auieuameats to the ex- 



ceptionable parts, of the fame ought to 
be adopted: aiui whereas, the lubject- 
rnatlcr of the amendments, agreed to 
by the faid convention, involves all the 
great, eiFential, and unalienable rights, 
liberties, and privileges of freemen ; 
many of which, if not cancelled, are 
rendered infecure under the faid con- 
llitution, until the fame Ihall be al- 
tered and amended : 

Relolved, that u is the opinion of 
this committee, that, for quieting the 
minds of tlie good citizens of this 
Commonwealth, and lecuniig th-eir 
dcarelt rights and liberties, and pre- 
venting ihofe diforders, which miiil. 
arife under a government not fouudci 
in the confidence of the people, ap- 
plication be made to the congrefs-of 
the uiiiied Hates, fo foon as (hry fliaii 
alfemble under the faid conllitution, 
to call a convention for propoling 
amendments to the fame, according 
to the mode therein direBed. 

Rcfolved, that it is the opinion of 
this committee, that a committee cnight 
to be appointed, to draw up and re- 
port to this houfe, a proper inOrument 
of writing, exprefimg the fenle of 
the general allembly, and pointmy 
out the reafons which induce them to 
urge their applicaiion thus eaily, for 
the calling the aforefaid convention 
of the Hates. 

Ref)lvcd, that it is the opinion of 
this committee, that the faid commit- 
tee ought to be inllrutlcd to prepare 
the draff of a letter in aniwer to one 
received"" from his excellency George 
Clinton, efq: prefident of the conven- 
tion of New York, and a circular 
letter on the aforefaid fubjefcl, 10 the 
other fiates in the union, expreOive 
of (he wi(h of the general allembly of 
this commonwealth, that they may 
join in an application to the new con- 
grefs, to appoint a convention of the 
Hates, fo ioon as the congrefs fliaii 
alfemble under the new conltiiutiOK. 

And the laid refolntions being (e- 
verally .igain read, a motion wjs 
made, and the quellion being put to 
amend the fame, by finking out from 
the word " whereas" in the firft line, 
to the end, and inferting in lieu there- 
of, the following words ; 

" Whereas, the delegates appoint- 

NOTE. 

* &ee Avierican Mvfetirn, vol. IV. 
page laS. 



fr4 



*rDce/;dr?)r;s of the l-'i'Jf.ature of Virrinia. 



[Augud, 



ed to reprcfcnt (be j::o(kJ pcopl? nf this 
tdininonweaiih in ifie late onveiitioii, 
KIJ in the month oFJunelali, <iid, 
by their aM* ol the 2,5th of the fame 
Hi'.mth, aflenf to, and ratify ih^ con- 
Jliivitioii lecoinmeiuled on the i7ih 
ciay of Srplember, 1787, by the ic- 
deral conveniion, for the government 
cf the united Ha'es, declafin;7 iheni- 
frlves fwiih a foltmn appeal 10 (he 
Searcher of hearts, for the pnriiy of 
their iniennon?) under the convicnon, 
that, whatever imperfeftions mij^iht 
cxid in the conftuutton, ought rather 
ic be examined in the mode prcfcnbed 
tfierem, than to bring the uinon into 
(danger by a delay, with'a hf>pc of ob- 
taining amcndmeiU';, previous to the 
raiification : and whereas, in puriu- 
ance of the faid declaraiion, the faid 
convention did, by their fiibfeqnent 
attt, of (he 27ih of June afore!a:d, 
sgree to fuch anicndments to the faid 
conflitunon (.f government for the 
united rtaies, as were by them deemed 
ricccRary to be reconiniended to ihe 
confideration of the congrefs, which 
fhill tirfl; aflemble under the faid con- 
ftitution, to be a£led upon according 
to the mode prefcribed in the nfih ar- 
ticle thereof; at the fame lime enjoin- 
ing it upon their reprefentaiivcs in 
congrefs, to exert all their influence, 
and ufe all reafonable and legal me- 
thods, to obtain a ratification of the 
foregoing alterations and provifions, 
m the manner provided by the fifth 
article of the faid conffitution ; and 
in all congrefhonal laws, to be paffed 
3n the mean time, to conform to the 
fpirit of thofe amendments, as far as 
the fa:d conflitution would admu. 

" Rcfolved, therefore, that it is 
the opnion of this committee, that 
an application ought to be n;ade, in 
the name and on the behalf of the 
tegiflamre of this commomvealih, to 
the congrefs of the united flaies, fo 
foon as they fnall aflemble under the 
faid conilituiion, to pafs an ath re- 
commending to the legiflatiUTs of the 
feveral ftates, the ratification of a 
bill of rights, and of certain articles 
of amemlments propofcd by the con- 
vention of this ffate, for the adoption 



of the united flatcs, and that, until 
the faid act fnail be ratified, in piir- 
fuance of the fifth article of the* faid 
conflt'.ition of government for the 
united ffates, congrefs do conform 
their ordinances, to the true fpirit of 
the faid bill of rights and articles cf 
amendment. 

Refolved, that it !s the opinion 
of this committee, that the executive 
ought to be initruf'ted to tranfmit a 
copy of the foregoing refoluiion, to 
the congrefs of the united flaies, fo 
foon as they flial! affeinble, and to the 
legifjatures and executive authorities 
of each flate in the union." 

It paffed in the negative. Ayes 39 
—Noes 85. 

Friday, Noviv.ber 14, 1788. 

" THE hoiife, according to the 
order of the day. refolved itfelf 
into a committee of the whole houfe, 
on an application to congrcis, to call 
a convention of the ffaies, to take 
into coi.rideration the defects of the 
conflitution, and report the neccffary 
amendments; alio on the draft of a 
letter to governor Clinton, and to the 
feveral ffates on the fame fubjetl ; and 
after foine time fpent therein, rnr. 
fpeaker refumed the chair, and mr. 
Bullitt reported, that the committee 
had, according to order, had the faid 
ap[>lication and draft of letters under 
their confideration, and amended the 
fame; and he read the faid applicati- 
on and draft of letters, as amended, in 
his place, and afterwards delivered 
them in at the clerk's table, where 
the fame were again read, and areas 
follow : 

" Refolved. That it is the opinion 
of this committee, (hat an application 
ought to he made: in the name and on 
behalf of the legiilature of this com- 
monwealth, to the congrefs of the u- 
nited ftates, in the wordr> f.)llowitig j." 

Draft of a letter to the fcveraljlatcs. 

'■ T H E freemen of this com- 
monwealth, in convention aflcm- 
bled, having, at the fame t'me that 
ihey ratified the federal conflitution 



* S, 



page 1 ,58. 
T idem, pa^ 



NOTES. 

American h'lfeui 



'.f 1 



jj» 



K O T K , 

X For the form of this appliralion 

vol. IV. and of a letter to qoternnr Clniton, 

fte American Mt>J:um, Vol, V, pa^e 



i-^S.g.] 



Proceedings of the legtjlatiire of Virginia, 



'rcfTccl a defire that many pans 
v^u.chthey conlidered as exception- 
able, Ihuuld be amended, the ge- 
neral allembly, as well from a fenfe 
• of their duty, as a conviction of its 

■ df/cBs, have thought proper to take 
"the earliell mfadires in their power, 

for the accompi 'hment of this impor- . 

' tant objert. X'iiey have accordingly 

~, agreed upon an application, to b.e 

' prcfented to the corngrcfs, fo foon as 

■■ It fliall be affcmbled, rcquelling that 

'honourable body, to call a convention 

of deputies trom the feveral Rates, to 

take the fan;: into their conlideration, 

and report fnch amendments, as they 

. fhall find bell calculated to anfwerthe 

purpofe. As we conceive that all the 

good people of the united flates, arc 

'equally intereded in obtaining' thofe 

■ amenaments, that have been propof- 
ed, wc truft that there will be "an har- 

" mony in their fcntiments and inea- 

' fares, upon this very interelling fub- 

jett. We herewith tranfmit to you a 

' copy of this application, and take the 

' libsrty to fubjoin our earnell wiQics " 

" ihat ic may have your concurrence." 

',, Asid the faid application and draft 

of Utters, being aj^ain fevcrally read 

at the clerk's labls, a motion was 

' made, and the quedion being put, t<} 

' amend the fame, by fubilituting in 

'' hfeo thereof, the following form of 

' at! application and drafts of letters, 

'to wit : 

The legiflature of Virginia, to the 
congrejs of the united Jiates, Jcnd 
greeting : 

'" THE convention of the repre- 
fentatives of the good people of this 
commonwealth, having, on the twen- 
ty-fifth day of June lad, ratified the 
corjU'.tution or form of government, 
propofed by the federal convention 
on thefeventeenth of September 1787 ; 
and having declared, in their arl of 
ratification, that any imperfeHions, 

■ which might exift in the fa;d coniltu- 
' tion, ought rather to be examined in 

the mode prefcnbed therein for ob- 
taming amendments, fhan by a delay. 
With a hope of i)bfa'ning previous a- 
mendments, fo bring the union into 
danger — and in order to relieve the 
apprehenlions of thofe who might be 
f'dicitous for ainrndments, having re- 
folved, that whatever ame'.idiTicnts 
might be deemed neceffary, ought to 
be recommended to the coiifidcration 



of the congrefs, which fliould fiifl af- 
femble under the faid conltitution, to 
be acted upon according to the uioda 
prefcnbed in the fifth article thereof. 
And, on the twenty-feventh day of 
the f.iine month of J me, agreed to 
certain ameHdments to the faid confti- 
tution, which were tranfmiited, toge- 
ther with the ratification of ihe fede- 
ral conftitiition, to the unircd Hates in 
congrefs aflemblcd ; v/hich amend- 
ments the faid convention did, in (he 
na'nc a id behalf of ihe people of thi* 
commonwealth, enjoin it upon their 
reprefeniatives in congrefs, to exert 
ail their iiifi:aence, and ufe all legal 
and rc.ifiiuble mcihott? to obtain a 
ratification of, in the manner provided 
by the fad coiiHinition. And in all 
congrei'ionat laws, to be isalfjd m the 
mean time, to conform to the Ipint cf 
the laid amendments, as far as the 
faid Ci>nihtution would admit. 

*•' Thi.^ legidiiure fully concurring 
in fentiment with the faid conven- 
tion, and (olicitous to promote ths 
falitary nic-afures by them recoiii- 
mended — Do, in coniidcration of ths 
unanimity with which the faid amend- 
ments were aereed to, and a jult ienie 
of their iifiliiy, eanieillv call upoQ 
the congrefs of tlic nnit.-d Hates, to 
take the faid ainf-ndments under their 
immediate coiilidera'ion, and alfo 
thole which may have been fubmitted 
by the conventions of other Hates, 
and to afl th-:reupoii in the manner 
prefcribed bv the fifth ariicle of the 
federal conilitunon ; either by pro- 
pofing the necellary alterations, t» the 
confideration of the Hate^; or by call- 
ing a convention, to deliberate on 
the uibjctf, as to them fiiall fcem inoft 
likely to promote the peace and gene- 
ral good of the union. We pray that 
Almighty God, m his goodneis and 
wifdom, will diretl your councils to 
fuch mea(iire=, as will eflabtiHi our 
laliing peare and welfare, and lecure 
to our lateH pn'lerity the blelTings of 
freedom : and that he will always 
have you in his holy keeping." 

Draft of a letter to governor Clinton, 
on the fame fubjeil, 

S t K, 

" E A R LY inour prefentfelTion, 
the circular letter from the honour- 
able the convention of the Hate of 
New York. tranriiTiitied by your ex- 



■MlS 



Pioccedings of the iegiJlatureofVirgiyiia, 



['Auguft, 



ceilency, was laid before us for our 
coiifideration. While we are fenfi- 
blcofthe obligations, winch we, in 
common with all America, owe to 
the patriotiliii and exertions of fo no- 
tlo ai)d generous a people — while we 
feel ill the refpect due to their virtue, 
and every inclination to comply with 
iheir willies, efpecially when pointed 
to an objett lo dear to us all, the pre- 
fervation of our common liberties — 
and while, at the fame nme, we 
ardently dcfiie fuch amcndmencs to 
our new fyllcm of government, as will 
gv;ard our nj^hts irum every polfible 
danger, and ([uict the pre lent apprchen- 
fions of many of ihe good citizens, as 
Welt of this commoiiwealih, as of our 
filler itates, we feel great pain in find- 
ing, that we cannot entirely accord 
with lo wife and augull a body, in the 
mod: of obtaining tliele alterations 
and additional prcvihons. V/e ac- 
knowledge, with them, the propriety 
of introducing the neceflary amend- 
fcients, as foon as polFible, into our 
fyilem, fo as to induce a general con- 
fidence under the operauons of a go- 
vernment, which, we flatter ourfelves, 
will relieve us from our prefent em- 
liarraifncnts, and again raife us to 
that refnecl and importance, which 
we once held among the nations of the 
world. It is, therefore, with the 
greaieft refpett and deference to the 
opinions ot a people we fo highly va- 
lue, and whom we love, wuh all the 
allection of biethren, who have bled 
in the lame common caufe of liber- 
ty and mankind, that we fubmit to 
their attention ihe propriety of an ap- 
plication to the hril congrefs, which 
ihall aifemble under the new plan, ex- 
preihve of a deiire, that they will im- 
mediately take into iheir conhderatiou, 
the amendments, which have been re- 
commended by the conventions of the 
f;veral (laies which have ratified the 
iame, and either make the necelfary 
provifions, confonant to the general 
ienfe of America, and fubmit them 
lo the legillatiires of the refpcttivc 
itates at their next feffion^, for ihcir 
adoption — or call a general conven- 
tion, to deliberate on that fubjeO — as 
to their wildom, viewing all circum- 
fianccs, may appear lo be moll proper. 
'' We confidi-r conventions iiSallem- 
hlies, which ought never to be refori- 
«d to J except in cafes where the ordi- 



nary adminiftration is inadequte to 
the objeci. Here the ordinary admi- 
nillraiion is fully adequate to the ob- 
jett. being veiled with powers exprell- 
ly comprehending the prefent cafe. 
The fenate being chofen by the legif- 
latures of the relpective Dates, and the 
other branch by ihe people ihemfeves, 
mull feel every obligatioujand every in- 
clination, to puriue fuch meatures, as 
will accord with the fentimenis of 
their conllituents, and ellabhlh that 
confidence in the gf)vernment, which 
alone can render it prolperous and 
happy. If, therefore, the federal k* 
gill lUire, as foon as they ihall aflem- 
ble, Ihall recommend to the Hates, the 
necellary amendmenis, the fears of 
our fellow-cuizens throu,.',i!out Ame- 
rica, concerning the public liberty, 
will be fooner allayed, and the pubhc 
confidence fooner rellored, than by 
the delays which mull necelTarily oc- 
cur in the luminoning and the alFem- 
bling of another convention, ihe refult 
of whofe deliberations mull finally 
undergo the fame difculfion in every 
Hate, as a recommendation from the 
congrefs. Viewing the lubjett as we 
do, and anxious to purfue the molt 
fafe and fpeedy way of obtaining a- 
mendments, we moll ardently hope, 
that our endeavours will be aidtd by 
fimilar.efioris on the part of New 
York, and the rell of our filler Hates, 
and that they will unite wiih us in 
making an immediate application to 
congrefs, fiinilar to the one we take 
the liberty of encloling for the conli- 
deration of the legdlature of Nev/ 
York. We cannot but flatter our- 
felves With the happiefl fuccefs from 
fo united an ellort ; and that congrels 
will take the moll fpeedy and effectual 
mealtires lo remove every unealy feii- 
fation from the hearts of our fellow- 
citizens, and to fence our unalienable 
rights from every poihbie encroach- 
ment, and this v>rithout the delay and 
danger of a convention. Approving, 
in the highell degree, the jealqui 
watchfulnels of our brethren of New 
Y^ork, and promifing to guard with 
equal care, our common liberties, we 
pray, that y\lmighiv' God may direct 
their councils, and ours, to the tail- 
ing good of our common country, 
and that he will always have them in 
his holy keeping." 

(To bt continuid.) 



17%.] 



HemarkabU cafe nf a gun-JJtvt wound. 



117 



Remarkable caff of a gun-fiot wound. 
Communicated in a letter from. 
Barnabas Binncy, hofpital phyf- 
cian. andjurgeon in the American 
cnny. in 1772, to the honorable 
Benjamin Lincoln., efq, F. A. A. 

ON April 9, 1782, David Beve- 
ridge, a feaman, belonging to 
the floop of war, general Monk, was 
brought intla the uiilitary holpital at 
this place, having been wounded the 
day before. He was a lad of about 
nincieen years of age, in a good liaie 
ofht'alth, at the time of the action 
between the faid fnip and the Hyder 
Ally. In that action he was in tlie 
ina;ii-lop of the Monk, v/lien he re- 
ceived a mijflcet ball in his belly, fiom 
one of the marines on the quarter- 
deck of the Hyder-Ally, when with- 
in fifteen yards of the Monk. The 
bill entered his belly about two inches 
above his left groin, and withni an 
inch of the in;erior edge of the left 
ilium, na'Ti^'g out two inches on the 
,rif.;ht of the ipine between the two in- 
ferior true nbs, juU touching the car- 
tilage of the inferior angle of the right 
fcapula. M-'hen he came into the 
holpital, he had bled much, was very 
^veak and eold, had a faultering voice, 
a cadaverous countenance, and a con- 
f.ant hickup, while his faeces paffcd 
freely out of the wound in his belly. 
In this deplorable condition, where 
Ticiiher art nor nature could proniife 
any permanent relief, the only dittate 
•f humanity wa:-^, to fooih the path 
of death, iielng alfo in great pain, 
I advii'ed him to take a glals of 
Kladeira wine, with twenty or ihiny 
drops of licjv.id. laudan. He took 
no kindof fiillenance all this time, ex- 
ccpiing wme whey, never having any 
kind of difcharge ab ano, from the 
moment he was wounded, but con- 
lidutly fqinrting with GO.nliderahle 
force what fceces he had, through the 
wound in his belly. On the four- 
teenth he had a common ciyller ad- 
miniltered, the greatelt part of whieh 
alfo came out at the wound, the re- 
mainder coming as it went, ab ano, 
viihout bringing any fceces. From 
the fourftenfh to the eighteenth, he 
took conHderable quantities of grue! 
and whey, with a little wine occafi- 
onally, having no inteftinal difrharge 
. Vvhatever, but whal was nude tbruuiih 
Vol. VI. 



the wound in his belly. On the 
eighteeiuh, a» his Hrenglh was much 
jncrcafed, and as his wounds were 
coididerably contraried, and locked 
well, I ordered another mjetiion 10 
be adnuniHcred gently, when, lor the 
firft time in eleven days, he had a na- 
tural flool. From this time he had 
no furiher dilcharge of feezes through 
his wound ; his excretions became as 
regular and as natural as ever they 
were ; lis wounds fuppurated and 
healed kindly ; ins fircngfh returned, 
and he was exchanged nearly as well 
as ever on the thiruelh. 

Ihat the ball had palTcd through 
the colon, is obvious, from the tii'f- 
charge of jierfecf fceces and of (he 
injection adminiftered, ah ano. 1 hat 
his life depended upon our not med- 
dling with the wound, and upon 
keepint; him quiet and eafv, is alfa 
plain ; as the lead removal of the ori- 
fice in ihe intelline from the orihce 
through the abdomen, which were in 
happily opptifed to each other, mult 
have been atiendfd wiih a fatal dif- 
charge of the fcjeces into the abdoiiieri. 
That the diaphragm and lungs were 
perforated, 15 plain, from the courfe 
of the ball, ai\d his profufe h;emop- 
toe. 1 hat lurgeons may be too olh- 
tious, a^ well as too tardy ; and that 
where (hey are not certain of the uti- 
lity of their operations, they had bet- 
ter leave even the moft delpciate dif- 
orders to the management of nature, 
ever provident, and generally ade- 
quate, are points remarkably enforced 
in this particular cafe. 

..<,... <^^5><SB> ••■i>" 

Addfefs prefented to the prtpdtnt 
of the uiiited fates, by the re~ 
verend William Smith. D. D. ihe 
Hon. John Henry, efq, of the /e~ 
nate, and the hen. Jofuu Stney^ 
efq. 0/ the houfe of rcprtfentativa ; 
being a committie of thz "uiftors 
and governors of Wafl!in;-'tan col- 
leiiF.^ in the fate of Ma yLand, ap~ 
point -d for that purpofc. 

To the PRESIDENT of the unitid 
fates. 
S I R, 
E, the corporation of vifitors 
and governors, and the princi- 
pal and ficulty of profelTors, qS 
Walhington coilege, in ihd ilate of 



Jl8 Addrefi of WaJItingtcn coUrge to the prefident of the unitcdJlaUs. [Aug, 



Maryland, aftuated by the fwuereft 
perfonal affcttion, as well as the 
pured public coiiliderations, beg leave 
to embrace the prefent occafion of our 
anniverfaiy meeting and commence- 
ment, to felicitate ourselves and our 
country, upon your unanimous ap- 
pomtment to the chief magidracy, in 
the general government of the united 
ftates. 

Revolving the vicifTitudes and e- 
ventfiil hiftury of the late war, every 
page of which bears ample and hon- 
ourable teiUmony to the fervices 
which you have rendered to your 
country, and the exertion of thofe vir- 
tues and talents which have exalted 
your name to the firll rank among the 
heroes and benefaBors of mankind ; 
we cannot but recal to mind the oc- 
cafion of our former addrefs to you, 
and your benevolent anrvvcr to the 
fame. 

The general aiTembly of Maryland, 
upon the eflablilhment of this femina- 
ry, having digniliod the fame with 
the aufpicious name of' Wafhington 
college, in honourable and perpetu- 
aliiiemory of the fervices of ihc iiluf- 
trious and virtuous commander in 
chief of the armies of the united 
Hates ;' we expreffed our confidence 
— * that, amidd all the public monu- 
ments, which your country fought to 
erecl to you, even while living, none 
would be more acceptable, than a fe- 
minary of univerfal learning, exprell- 
ly dedicated to your name, with a 
view to iniiruft and animate the 
youth of future generation^ to admire 
and to imitate thofe public virtues 
»nd patriotic labours which had creat- 
ed for yfHt-a monument in the heart 
of every good citizen ; — that we hoped 
you would permit your name to be 
placed at the h:'ad of the vifitors 
and governors of the college, trufting 
that the time was then not very re- 
mote, when, by the termination of 
war, the infant inflitiitiotj might be 
enabled to falute you in perfon, and, 
like a dutiful child, a-; one of its firfl 
works, prefent the olive wreath and 
other emblems of peace, to its father, 
'£uardian, and friend.' 

Highly encouraging to us was your 
anfwer : That, ' with pleafurc, you 
V ^uld confent to have your name en- 
roi'^d among the vifitors and gnver- 
B'.>rs jf the college, if it were not to 



the exclufion of fomc other, whofe 
proximity and (Mhcr circumftanccs 
might enable hiin to be a more ufeful 
member; and that, as the att of the 
general alFembly, which had given 
your name to the college, would re- 
main a monument of their efteem, it 
made an impreihon on your mind, 
which could only be exceeded by 
the llattering alRirance of the lading 
and extenfive ufefulnefs of the iemi- 
nary ; and when that period fhould 
arrive, when we could hail the blell 
return of peace, it would add to your 
pleafiire to fee the infant feat of learn- 
ing rinng into confidency and pro- 
ficiency in the fciences, under the 
nurturing hands of its founders.' 

The happy period is now arrived, 
when, through the blelfing of God, 
upon the return of peace, this feat of 
learning hath attained to fuch profici- 
ency \\\ the fciences," as to wait upo- 
you with the promifed* wreath of li- 
terary honour, which we truft you 
will not rejcft, although from an infii- 
tution of inferior Handing, yet not of 
inferior gratiuide and alfettion, lo the 
chief of thofe, which have already di^j- 

NOTE. 

* The wreath of literary honour, re- 
ferred to in the above addrefs, and in 
the anfwer to the fame, is the academi- 
cal degree of do£ior of laws ; and as 
we have been favoured with a copy of 
the preamble to the diploma, we are 
happy to lay it before «)ur readers, as 
(he firfi fpecimen we have feen of the 
prefent title and pad fervices of our 
illudrious and beloved prefident at- 
tempted in truly clalfical Latin. 

* Cum eum in finem. gradus acade- 
wici a majoribus nojiris prudnter 
inftituti fuerint, ut Viris, qvt de re- 
ligione^ republic a, ct Uteris optime 

fint iHfriti, publici fionores decernt" 
rentur; cumque nobis i-t omnibus prat' 
dare compertum fit^ Georgium Wajh- 
inglon Joedcralarum Anieritae civi- 
tatv.m pratfidem^ nan Jotum de rr- 
ligione. Uteris, republica, et toto 
cliavt humano genere bene fempur tt 
muUmn 7neruiJ['e \ fed bello ac.que nc 
pocr, communis omnium Jalutis appe- 
tentijfimitm^per graviffima rerum dif- 
crimina. ff' civem pratjlantijfimum^ 
libertatis ultorem felicijfimuvi, pa- 
triaeque patrem amantijimum, o/l<.n- 
dijfe J n«s igitUTf &c. 



17S9'] 



On the manv/aQure of glafs. 



119 



nified themfelves, by prefenting you 
with the like honours. 

Bearing an ardent and unfeigned 
part in the admiration and applaufc 
ofthofe virtuous and magnanimous 
fentimenls, which, in obedience to the 
voice of your country, have led you 
fjrih once more, from the enjoyment 
ofiiomedic happinefs, to a laborious 
and confpicuous participation of the 
cares of public life, at a moH iiitereil- 
liig crifis of our affairs ; we fervently 
pray, that the glory and felicity of 
our country — the true confummatioii 
of the patriot's labours — may be your 
crown in this world, and affure you 
an cverlafling crown in the world to 
come ! 

Signed by order, 
William Smith, d, d. 

Prefident of the corporation^ and 
principal 0/ the faculty, 
June 24, 1789. 

A N S AV E R . 

To the corporation of vifitors and go- 
vernors, and the principal and fa- 
culty of prefejjors, of IVaJhington 
college, in thejiate of Maryland, 
Gentlemen, 

YOUR very affectionate addrefs, 
and the honorary teffimony of 
your regard, which accompanied it, 
call forth my grateful acknowledg- 
ments. 

A recolleflion of part events, and 
the happy termination of our glo- 
riousftrugg-le, for the eftablifliment of 
the rights of man, cannot fail to in- 
fpire every feeling heart with venera- 
tion and gratuude towards the great 
Ruler of events, who has fo manifeffly 
inierpofed in our behalf. 

Among ths numerous bleffings, 
which are attendant upon peace, and 
a$ one, whofe confequences are of the 
moft important and extenfive kind, 
may be reckoned the profperity of 
colleges and feminaries of learning. 

As, in civilized focieties, the wel- 
fare of the ffate, and happinefs of the 
people, are advanced or retarded, in 
proportion as the morals and educa- 
tiot) of the youth are attended to ; I 
cannot forbear, on this occalion, to 
exprefs the faiisfaftion which I feel 
on feeing the increafe of our femina- 
ries of learning through this extenHve 
country, and the general wiffi which 



feems to prevail, for enablifliing and 
mainta niijg thefe valuable inftiiu- 
tion":. 

It affords me peculiar pleafure, fo 
know that the feat of learning, under 
your direflion, hath attained to fuch 
proficiency iu the fciences, firce the 
peace ; and I bncerely pray, that the 
great Author of the univerfe may 
fmile upon the inflitution, and maks 
it an extenfive bleffing to this country, 

George Washington, 
Neu York, July 11, 1789. 

Cn the mavufaElure of glafs. 

BOTTLES, black or green, are 
the moil fimple of all the glafs 
manwfaclure — the piotit of which de- 
pends upon the greaieft number of 
woikmen being employed, at the 
fmallelt expenfe of fuel. From eight 
to fixteen blowers can work all at 
once, at one fmelting furnace, of fix 
feet diameter, which will take fix 
cords of wood, every twenty-four 
hours. The beft conffrutied green 
glafs furnace in this country, is in 
New Jerfey, where the whole bufi- 
nefs of fmelting, [blowing, and cooling, 
is done with one fire, by the particu- 
lar conilruftion of the furnace. 

White glafs may alfo be made in 
the fame furnace : but it is much more 
curious in its compofition : for, to mak« 
it white, it muft partake of all the co- 
lours — for this reafon — in fmelting 
the pureft materials, they naturally 
have a greenifti and purpliffi tinge ; 
to diflodge which, a blackiffi follil 
fubllance is made ufe of — upon this 
principle, that one colour, in glafs- 
making, will deflroy another; fo that 
at laft, a beautiful glafs is produced, 
called white ; but, like the cryflalline 
humour of the eye, it partakes of all 
the colours, as may be feen in the 
beft Engliffi white glafs, which has a 
changeablenefs, like foap bubbles ; 
but in the beft London crown glafs, 
or mirrors, you will not j^erceive 
any of that fparkling, changeable 
power : becaufe it would diftort the 
objett feen through it or reflected, on 
account of the refratting power of 
fuch glafs ; therefore this glafs is made 
of pure falts and fand only, and has a 
native greyifl! colour, (as may be feen 
by the broken pieces) that, likewater, 
it may rcflefi the objects truly. 



if 



Kemonjfrance to thf general ajfcmhly of Virginia. [ Auguft, 



Crown glafsmay be made here, to 
greater profii, than any other glafs— 
on accountot the plenty and cheap- 
nets of materials — the quantity that 
Can be made — and the great confump- 
tion of tt. 

A glafs maker, 

Memorial and remonjlrnnce oftheciti- 
zens of the commonwcaltl) of Vir- 
ginia^ to the general affembly of 
that commonweallfi^ aguinjl a bill 
' • cflablifh tig a p roxjifion fo r teach- 
ers of t lie clrrijtian religion.'^ 
Tothehon. the ;^encral ajftrnbly of 
the commonwealth of Virginia^ 
E ihe {ubfcnbers, citi/.eos of 
the fa'd co;nmonweahh, hav- 
ing taken into ferious conhderation, 
a bill printed by order of the laft fef- 
iion of the i^eneral alfembiy, entitled 
*' a bill el^ablifiiiiig a provifion for 
teachers of the thci!t>an religion," 
and conceiving that the {ame, ic' final- 
ly armed with the ianrtion of a law, 
will be a dangerous abnie of power, 
are bound, as faithful niembeis of a 
free (late, to remonllrate againft it ; 
and to declare the reafons by which 
we are determined. — We remonltrate 
agaiiifi the faid bill, 

1. Becaiile, we hold it for a funda- 
mental and undeniable truth, " that 
religion, or the duty which we owe to 
our Creator, and the m:inner of dif- 
chnrging it, can be " directed only 
by reafon and conviftion, not by 
force or violence,"* The religion, 
then, of every man, muit be left to 
the convichon and corjfcience of eve- 
ry man; and it is the right of every 
man to exercife it, as thefe may dic- 
tate. This right is, in its nature, an 
unalienable right. It is unalienable ; 
becauie the opinions of men, depend- 
ing only on the evidence, contemplat- 
ed by their ovtrn mmds, cannot follow 
the dictates of ether men. It is un- 
alienable alfo, becaufe what Is here a 
right towards men, is a duty towards 
the Creator, it is the duty of every 
man, to render to the Crearor fuch ho- 
mage, and futh only, as he believes 
to be acceptable to him- — this duty is 
precedent, both in order of time, and 
in degree of obligation, to the claims 

NOTK. ■ 

* Declaration of riphts, art. 16. 



of civil fociety. Before any man can 
be conhdered as a member of civil 
fociety, he mult be confidered as a 
fubjed of the Governor of the uni- 
vcrle. And if a member of civil 
fociety, who enters into any fubor- 
dmate afTociation, muft always do it, 
■with a refervation of his duty to the 
general authority ; much more muft 
every man, who becomes a member of 
any particular civil fociety, do it with 
a faving of his allegiance to the Unt- 
verfal Sovereign. We maintain, there- 
fore, that, in matters of religion, 
no man's right is abridged by the 
inftitution of civil fociety ; and that 
religion is wholly exempt from its 
cognizance. True it is, that no other, 
rule exdh, by which any queftion, 
which may divide a fociety, can be 
ultimately determ'med, but the will of 
the majority ; but it is alfo true, that 
the majority may trefpafson ths rights 
of the minority. 

9. Becaufe, if rellgionbe exempt from 
the authori-ty of the focle.ty at large, 
ftill lefs can it be fubp-rho that of the 
legiflative body. The latter are but 
the creatures and vicegerent? of the 
former. Their jurifdiHion is both 
derivative and limited. It is limited 
with regard to the co-ordinate depart- 
ments ; more necefTiiriiy is it limited, 
with regard to the condituants. The 
prefervation of a free government, re- 
quires, not merelv that ihe m.etes an d 
bounds, which feparatc each depart- 
ment of power, be invariably main- 
tained : but more elpecially that nei- 
ther of them be fullered to overleap 
the great barrier, which defends the 
rights of the people. The rulers, who 
are guilty of fuch-in encroachment, ex- 
ceed the coinmi{Tion,from which they 
derive their authority — and are tyrants. 
The people, who fubmit to it, are go- 
verned by Iaw% made neither by them- 
fclves, nor by an authority derived 
from them — and are n.ives. 

3. Bccauir. it is proper to take alarm 
at the firft experiment on our liber- 
ties. W<2 h(jld this prudent jealou- 
fy to be the firll diitv of citizen-, and 
irvne of the nobleR charadenftics of , 
the late rpv(i|ution. Ihe freemen of 
America dd not wait, till iifurpcd pow- 
er had Urengthened itfrlfby exercife, 
and entangled the qup(lion in prece- 
dents. They fav/ al! thcconfequenres 
i'H the principle ; and they avoid- 



»7%-3 



Rcmonjiranct to the general ajfembly of Virginia, 



ed the confequences, by denyirg the 
principle. We revere this leffon too 
-much, foon to forget it. Who does 
not fee, that the fame authority, which 
can eUablifh chrnlianity, in excludon 
of all other religions, may e'labltfh, 
with the fame cafe, any particular fett 
ef chriltians, in exclufion of all other 
lefts ? That the fame authority, which 
can force a citizen to contribute three 
pence oiilv of his property, for the 
luppnrt of any one eliablifhment, may 
force him to conform to any other ef- 
tablifliment, in all cafes whatfoever ? 
4. Becaufe,the bill violates that equa- 
lity wrhich ought to be the bafis of eve- 
ry law ; and which is more indifpen- 
fable, in proportion a^ the validity, or 
expediency of any law, is more liable 
to be impeached. If " all men are, 
by nature, equally free and indepen- 
deni+" ail mew are to be confidcred, 
as entering into fociety on equal con- 
ditions, as relinquifliipg no more, and 
therefore retaining no lefs, one than an- 
other, of their rights Above all, 
are they to be confidcred, as retaining 
an " equal title to the free exercife of 
religion according to the dictates of 
confciencej."'. Whilfl we afTerr, 
for ourfelves, a freedom to embrace, 
to profefs, and to obferve the reli- 
gion, which we believe to be of di- 
vine origin — we cannot denyan equal 
freedom to thofe, whofe minds have 
not yet yielded to the evidence, which 
has convinced us. If this freedom be 
abufed, it Is an offence agalnll God, 
not againft man — to God, therefore, 
not to men, muft an account of it be 
rendered. As the bill violates equa- 
lity, by fubjetting fome to peculiar 
burdens ; fo it violates the fame prin- 
ciple, by granting to others peculiar 
exemptions. Are the qaakers and 
menonids, the onlyfecfs, who think a 
compulfive fupport of their religions, 
unnecelFary and unwarrantable ? Can 
their piety alone be inrruited with the 
care of pui-.iic worOiip ? Ought their 
religions to be endowed, above all 
uthers, with extraordinary privileges, 
by which profelytes mnv be enticed 
from ail others ? We think too favour- 
ably of the juflice and good fcnfe of 
thefe denominations, to believe, that 

N O T F S . 

+ Declaration of right*, arf. 1. 
I Art. 16. 



they either covet pre-eminencies over 
their fellow citizens, or that they will 
be feduced by them, from the common 
oppofiiion to the inealiire. 

5. Becaufe, the bill implies, either 
that the civil magiftrate is a compe- 
tent judge of religious truth ; or that 
he may employ religion, as an engine 
of civil policy. The firft is an arro- 
gant pretenfion, fallififd bv the con- 
tradictory opinions of rule': in all n.^-ea 
and throughout the whole world — 
The fecond, an unhallowed perver- 
lion of the means of falvation. 

6. Becaufe, the edablilhment, pro- 
pofed by the bill, is not requifite, for 
the fupport of the chriftian religion. 
To fay that it is, is a contradiciion to 
thechnRian religion itfelf — for every 
page of it difavows a dependence on 
the powers of this world. It is a 
contraditlion to fafl — for it is known, 
that this religion both exilled and 
floiiriihed, not only without the fup- 
port of human laws, but in fpite of 
every oppohtion from them ; and not 
only during the period of miraculous 
aid, but long after it hiid been left to 
its own evidence, and the ordinary 
care of providence. Nay it is a con- 
tradittion m terms — for a religion, not 
invented by human policy, mud have 
exifted. and been fupported, before it 
was eflablilhed by human policy. It 
is moreover to weaken, in thofe who 
profefs this religion, a pious confidence 
in its innate excellence, and the patron- 
age of Its author ; and to fofler, in 
thofe, who Hill rejefl it, a fufpicion, 
that Its friends are too confcious of its 
fallacies, to truft it to its own me,rits. 

7. Becaufe, experience witnelFeih, 
that ecclefiaRical eftablifliments, in- 
flead of maintaining the purity, and 
efficacy of religion, have had a con- 
trary operation. During almoft fif- 
teen centuries, has the legal eftablifh- 
ment of chriftianity been on trial. 
What have been its fruits ? More or 
lefs in all places, pride and indolence 
in the clergy — ignorance and fervility 
in the laity — in both, fuperdition, 
bigotry, andperfecution. Enquire, of 
the teachers of chrillianity, for the 
ages, in which it appeared m its great- 
eif luRre — thofe of every feft point 
to the ages prior to its incorporation 
with civil policy. Fropofe a relKora- 
tion of this primitive ftare, in wliich 
us teachers depended on the voluntary 



I»« 



Re VIC njl ranee to the general ajfcmbly of Virginia, 



[Auguft, 



rewards of their flocks — many of them 
pi edict its downfall. On which fide 
ought their telHmony to have the great- 
e!t weight, when for, or when againft 
lhe:t niiereft ? 

8* Becaufe, the eftablifhment -in 
intieftioii is not neceflary. for the fup- 
port of civil government. If it be lif- 
ted, as neceffary for the fupport of civil 
government, only as a means of lup- 
porting religion ; and it be not necef- 
frtry for (he latter pnrpofc-, it cannot 
be neceflary for the former. If re- 
1 <;ion be not within the cognizance of 
civil government, how can its legal 
cfiablifhment be faidtobe neceiTiiy to 
tivil <^overnment ? Vv'hat influence, 
jn fad, have ccclefiallical eftablilh- 
memshad on civil foeiety ? — In feme 
inflanccs, they have been feen to 
crert a fpiritual tyranny, on the ruins 
of the civil authority — m many in- 
ilaiK es, they have been feen uphold- 
in;^ the thrones of political tyranny — 
in no inllance have they been feen 
the guardians of the liberties i^f the 
people. Rulers who wiflied to fub- 
vert the public liberty, may have found 
an etlabiifl-icd clergy, convenient aux- 
iliaries. A jull governrnenf, inlli- 
iuted lo fecure and to perpetuate it, 
needs ihem not. Such a government 
will be bell fupported, by protcftin;^ 
cxery citizen in the enjoyment (,{ his 
rtligion, with the fame equrd hand, 
which protects his perfon, and his pro- 
perty ; by neither invading the equal 
rights of any fefl ; nor fuffering any 
feil to invade thofe of another. 

g, Becaufe, the propofed ellablifn- 
ment is a departure from that generous 
policy, which, offering an afylum to 
the perfecuted and oppreiTed of every 
jiation and religion, promifed a luffre 
to our country, and an acceflion to 
the number of its citizens. What a 
melancholy mark of fudden de<^enera- 
<.y, is the bill propofed ? Inlleadof 
holding forth an afylum to the perfe- 
cuted, itisitfelfa fignal of perfecu- 
tion. It degrades, from the equal 
rank of citizens, all thofe, whofe opi- 
nions in religion do not bend to thole 
of the Icgiflative authority. Diftant 
as it may be, in its prefent form, from 
the inciiiifition. it diflers from it only 
the degree. The one is the firft ftep, 
in other the lail, in the career of in- 
tolerance. The magnanimous fuf- 
ferer under this cruel fcourge in fo- 



reign regions, muft view the bill as 
a beacon on our coalf, warning him 
to feek fome other haven, where li- 
berty and philanthropy, in their due 
extent, may offer a more certain repofe 
from his troubles. 

10. Becaufe, it will have a tendency 
to banilh our citizens. The allure- 
ments, prefented by other fit nations, arc 
every day thinning their number. To 
fuperadd a frefh mode to emigration, 
by revoking the liberty which they 
now enjoy, would be the fame fpe- 
cies of folly, which has dilhonoured 
and depopulated floiirifning kingdoms. 

11. Becaufe, it will dellioy that mo- 
deration and harmony, which the for- 
bearance of our laws, to intermeddle 
with religion, has produced among its. 
feveral fefts. Torrents of blood have 
been fpilled in the old world, by 
vain attempts of the fecular arm, to 
exiinguifh relisjious difcord, by pro- 
fcribmg all diflerences in religious o- 
pinion. Time has at length revealed 
the true remedy. Every relaxation 
of narrow and rigorous policy, where- 
ever it hasbcen tried, has been found 
to alTuage the difeafe. The Ameri- 
can theatre has exhibited proofs, that 
equal and complete liberty, if it does 
not wholly eradicate it, fufficicnily 
dellroys its malignant influence, on 
the health and profpcrity of theflate. 
If, with the lalutary efPefls of this 
fyflem under our own eyes, we 
begin to contract the bounds of re- 
ligious freedom, we know no name, 
that will too fevcrely reproach our 
folly. At leafl, let warnmg be tak- 
en, at the firfl fruits of the threatened 
innovation. Ihe very appearance of 
the bill has transformed *' that chrif- 
tian forbearance, love and charity." 
which of late mutually prevailed, in- 
to animofities and jealoufies, which 
may not foon be appeafed. M^hat 
raifchiefs may not be dreaded, fhould 
this enemy to the public quiet, be 
armed with the force of a law ? 

12. Becaufe, the policy of thebill is 
adverfe to the diflufion of the light 
of chriftianity. The firil wifh of 
thofe, who enjoy this precious gift, 
ought to be, that it may be imparted 
to the whole race of mankind. Com- 
pare the number of thofe, who have 
as yet received it, with the number 
flill remaining under the dominion of 
falfe religions — and how fmall is the 



1789-] 



Cf complexion end fgure in the human fpccici. 



former ? — Does the policy of the bill 
tend to lefJen the difproport'on ? — 
No ! — It at once difcourages thofe, 
who are llrangers to the light of re- 
velation, from com'.ng into the re- 
gion of it ; and countenances, by ex- 
ample, the nations, who conriniae in 
darknef'4, in fliutting out rhcfe who 
might convey it to them. Initead of 
levelling, as far as polfible. every ob- 
Hacle to the victorious progrcij of 
truth, the bill with an ignoble and 
unchnftian timidity, would circum- 
fcribe it, with a wjll of defence, i« 
gainft the encroachments of error. 

13. Becaufe, attempts to enforce, 
by legal fanHions, atts obnoxious to 
fo great a proportion of citizens, tend 
lo enervaie the laws in general, and 
to flacken the bands of focicty. If 
it be difficult to execute any law, 
v/hich is not generally deemed necef- 
fary or falutary — what mud be the 
cafe, where it is deemed invalid and 
dangerous ? — And what may be the 
elFedof fo finking an example of im- 
potency in the government, on its ge- 
neral authority ? 

14. Becaufe a meafure, of fuch fin- 
gular magnitude and dehcacy, ought 
not to he impofed, without the cleared 
evidence, that it is called for by a ma- 
jority of citizens ; and no fatisfadory 
method is yet propofed, by which the 
voice of the majority in this cafe may 
be determined, or its influence fecur- 
ed. " The people of the refpeftive 
counties are indeed requelied to figni- 
fy their opinion, refpec'fing the adop- 
tion of the bill, to the next fefTjonof 
alTembly." But the reprefentation 
niiill be made equal, before the voice 
either of the rcprefentatives, or of the 
counties, will be that of the people. 
Our hope is, that neither of the for- 
mer will, after due confideration, ef- 
poufe the dangerous principle of the 
bill. Should the event difappoint us, 
it Will dill leave us in full confidence, 
that a fair appeal to the latter will re- 
verfe the fenience againfl our liberties. 

_ 15. Becaufe, hnally, " The equal 
right of every citizen, to the freeexer- 
cifc of his re! gion, according to the 
ditb'es of confcience," is held by the 
fame tenure, with all our other rights. 
If we recur to its origin, it is equal- 
ly the gifi of nature — if we weifjh its 
impoitance, it cannot be lefs dear to 
us— if we confilt the " declaration 



of thofe rights, which pertain to {vx 
good people of Virginia, a*t the bafis 
and foundation of govenur.ent,"^ it 
is enumerated with equal foleninuy. 
or rather Ifudied emphahs. Eiihe*- 
then we mull fay, that the will of the 
legflature is the only mearut of thevr 
authority, and that, in the plenitudt: 
of this authority, they may fwtep a- 
v\'ay all our fundamental rights ; or 
that they are bound to leave this par- 
ticular right, untouched and facred — 
either we muft fay, that they may con- 
trol the freedom of the prels — mav a- 
Lolilh the trial by jury — may fwallovv 
up the executive and judiciary pow- 
ers of the Hate — nay, that they may 
defpoil us of our very right of fuf- 
fragc, and crett themfelves into an in- 
dependent and hereditary aifembly — 
or we inult fay, that they have no 
authority to enaff into a law, the bill 
under confideration. We the fub- 
fcribers fay, that the general ad'emhiy 
of this commonwealth have no fuch 
authority. And, that no effort may- 
be omitted on our part, againft fo dan- 
gerous an ufurpation, we oppoii; to 
it this remonftrance; earnellly pray- 
ing, as v/e are in duty bound, tiiat 
the fuprerae lawgiver of the universe, 
by illuminating thofe to whom it is 
addrelFed, may, on the one hand, 
turn their councils from every a^t, 
which would affront his holy prero- 
gative, or violate the truff coinmiifed 
to them — and, on the other, guide 
them into every meafure, which may 
be worthy of his bleiTing, may re- 
dound to their own praife, and may 
eflablilh more firmly the liberties, the 
profperity and the happinefs of the 
commonwealth*. 
Virginia^ 1785. 

NOTES, 

§ Preamble to the declaration of 

rights. 

* For an aff. pafTed in confe- 
quence of this addrefs, eflablifliing 
religious freedom in its futlefl extent 
See vol. II. of this work, page 501. 

An ejfay on the cavfes cf the variety 
of complexion and fgure in ihf 
human f pedes. To which are added 
friBures on lord Kaims's difcourfe, 
on the original dtverftv of man- 
kind. By the reverend Samuel 
Stanhope $mith, D, D. lice-pref' 



Of complexion and figure in the human fpeciti 



[Auguft, 



deht^ and proftjfor of moral phi- 
loJoph}\ in the college of Ntzv Jer- 
Jey ; and hL A. P. S.—P. 3.5. 
\? NClRCi^ii the earih in every 
Jlj zone, and, making thoie reafon- 
able allovv'ances which have been 
already fuggelled, and which will 
hereafter be luriher explained, you 
will fee every zone marked by its 
diftlncl and characterillical culuur. 
The black jjtevaiis, under the cqia- 
tur ; under the tropics, the dark cop- 
per ; and on this lide of the tropic of 
cancer, to the leventieih decree of 
north latitude, you fuccefiively dif- 
cern the olive, the brown, ihe fair 
and the fanguuie complexion. Of 
each of theie, there are feveral tints 
or iliades : and under the arttic cir- 
cle, yon return again to the dark hue. 
This general uniformity, in the ef- 
fect, indicates an influence in the cli- 
4iiate, that, under the fame circum- 
ftances, will always operate in the 
fame manner. The apparent devia- 
tions from the law of climate, that ex- 
ill in d.tlerent regions of the globe, 
will be found to conarm it, when I 
tome, in the progrefs ot this dif- 
courfe, to point out ihcir caufo'^^ 

The power of climate, I have faid, 
appears from obvious and undeniable 
events, within the memory of hillory. 
From the Baltic to the Mediterrane- 
an, you trace the diHerent lalitudes, 
by various fliades of colour. From 
the fame, or from nearly refembling 
nations, are derived the fair German, 
the dark Frenchman, the « fwarthy 
Spaniard and Sicilian. The fouth of 
Span is dillinguilhed from the north, 
by complexion. The fame obfervation 
Kiay be applied to moU of the other 
countries of Europe : and, if we 
would extend it beyond Europe to 
the great nations of the eaft . it is ap- 
plicable to Turkey, to Arabia, to Per- 
liaand to China. The people of Pekiii 
are fair ; at Canion, they are nearly 
black. The Perfians, near the Cafpian 
fea, ?re among the faireft people in the 
v.orld ; near the gulph of Ormus, they 
are of a dark olive. The inhabitants 
of the Stony and Defert Arabia are 
idvijy ; while thofe of Arabia the 

NOTE. 

♦Independently on theefFefls of the 
ftaie of fociety, which will be hereaf- 
ter illuftratcd, there are, in reality, va- 
rious climates under ibc fame parallels. 



happy are as black as the Ethiopians. 
In thefe ancient nations colour holds a 
regular progrelhon, with the latitude 
from. the equator. The examples of 
the Chinefc, and the ArabianSj are 
the more decifive on this fubje£t, be- 
caufe they are known to have couti- 
nucd, from the remoielt antiquity, un- 
imngled with other nations. The lat- 
ter, in particular, can be traced up to 
their origin from one family. But no 
example can carry with it greater 
forte, on this iubject ,than that of the 
Jews. Deicended from one flock, 
prohibited, by their mod facred infti- 
tutions, from intermarrying with other 
nations, and yet difperfed, according 
to the divine predittions, into every 
country on the globe, this one people 
is marked with the colours of all: — 
fair in Britain and Germany, brown 
in France and in Turkey, fwarthy in 
Portugal and m Spain, olive in Syria 
and in Chaldea, tawny or copper co- 
loured In Arabia and in Egypt+. 

Another example of the power of 
climate, more immediately fubjetl to 
our own view, may be (hewn in the 
inhabitants of thefe united fta'es. 
Sp'ung, within a few year?, frc^ra the 
Britilh, the Irifli and the German na- 
tions, who are the faireft people in 
Europe, they are now fpread over 
this continent, from the thirty firft to 
the forty fifth degree of northern lati- 
tude. And, notwithftanding the tem- 
perature of, the climate notvviih- 

flanding the fiiorfnefs of the period, 
fince their firft eilablifiiment in Ame- 
rica — notwiihftanding the continual 
mixture of Europeans, with thofe 
born in the country — notwithftand- 
ing previous ideas of beauty, that 
prompted them to guard againft the 
influence of the t4;inatc — and notwith- 
ftanding the ftate of high civilization, 
in which they took yiolleflion of their 
new habitations, they have already 
fuffeied a vifible change. A ceria.n 
countenance of palenefs, and of foft- 
nefs, ftrikes a traveller fiom Britain, 
the moment he arrives on ourftiore. A 
degree of fallowncfs is vihble to him, 
which, through familiarity, or the 
wane of a general ftandud of compa- 
rifon, hardly attracts <vir obiervaiion. 
This eSett is more (^bvious in the 
middle, and ftill more, in the fouthern, 

NOTE. 

+ BuSbu's nat. hift. vol. 3d, 



1789.] 



Of complexion and figure in the human f pedes. 



125 



|han in the northern ftates. It is 
more obfervable, in the low lands 
near the ocean, than as you approach 
the Apalachian mountains ; and more, 
iji the lower and labouring claffes of 
people, than in families of eafy for- 
tune, who pofiefs the means and the 
inclination to protefl their complexion. 
The inhabitants of New Jerfey, be- 
low the falls of the rivers, are fome- 
what darker in their colour, than the 
people of Pennfylvania, both becaufe 
the land is lower in its fituation, and 
Lecaufe it is covered with a greater 
tjiiantity of (lagnant water. A more 
iouthern latitude augments the colour, 
along the fliores of Maryland and 
Virginia. At length, the low lands 
of the Carolinas, and of Georgia, 
degenerate to a complexion, that is 
but a few Iliades lighter, than that of 
the Iroquois. I fpeak. of the poor 
labouring clalTes of the people, who 
are always firft and moQ deeply af- 
fetled by the influence of climate, 
and who eventually give the na- 
tional complexion to every country. 
The change of complexion, which 
has already pafled upon thefe peo- 
ple, is not eafily imagined by an in- 
habitant of Britain ; and furnifiies the 
cleareft evidence to an attentive ob- 
ferver of nature, that, if they were 
thrown, like the native Indians, into 
afavage ftate, they would be perfect- 
ly marked, in time, with the fame 
colour. Not only their complexion, 
but their whole conftitution, feems 
to be changed. So thin and meagre, 
is the habit of the poor, and of the 
overfeers of their flaves, that, fre- 
quently, their limbs appear to have a 
length difproportioned to the body ; 
and the fhape of the fkeleton is evi- 
dently difcernible through the (kin*. 

NOTE. 

* The dark colour of the natives 
of the M'eft India iflands, is well 
known to approach very near a dark 
copper. The defcendants of the Spa- 
niards, in South America, are already 
become copper-coloured : [fee phil. 
tranf.of roy. foe. Lond. N0.476.fe6t. 
4.] The Portuguefe of Mitomba, in 
Sierra Leoiia on the coaft of Africa, 
have, by intermarrying with the na- 
tives, and by adopung their manners, 
become, iri a few generations, per- 
feftly affimilated in afpeft, figure, and 

Vol. VI, ^ ^ 6 ' 



If thefe men had been found in a 
diftant region, v.-jiere no memory of 
their origin remained, the philofo- 
phers, who efpoufe the hypotheiis 
of different fpecies of nien, would 
have produced them in proof, as they 
have often done nations, ddtinguifii- 
ed by fmaller differences, than diftin- 
guifli thefe from their European an- 
celtorsf . Examples, taken from the 



complexion, [fee treatife on the trade 
of Great Britani to Africa, by an 
African merchant.] And lord Kaims, 
who cannot be fufpeftcd of partiality 
on this fubject, fays of another Portu- 
guefe fettlement on the coad of Con- 
go, that the defcendants of ihofe po- 
lifhed Europeans, have become, both 
in their perfons and iheir manners, 
more like beads than like men. [fee 
Iketches of man, prel. difc] Thefe 
examples tend to ftrengthen the infer- 
ence, drawn from the changes, that 
have happened in the Anglo-Ameri- 
cans. And thev fhew, how eafily 
climate would affimilate foreigners to 
natives in the courfe of lime, if they 
would adopt the fame manners, and 
equally expofe themfelves to its in- 
fluence. 

t The habit of America is, in ge- 
neral, more fiender than that of Bri- 
tain. But the extremely meagre af- . 
pect of the poorcft and lowed clafs 
of people, in feme of the fouthern 
flates, may arife from the following 
caufe, that the changes, produced by 
climate, are, in the Hrd inHance, gene- 
rally difeafes. Hereafter, when the 
conftitution fhall be perfectly accom- 
modated to the climate, it will by de- 
grees aflame a moreregularand agree- 
able figure. The Anglo-Americans, 
however, will never rel'^emble the na- 
tive Indians. Civilization will pre- 
vent lo great a degeneracy, either in 
the colour, or the features. Even if 
if they were thrown back again into 
the favage date, the refemhiance 
would not be complete ; becaufe, the 
one would receive the impreflions of 
the climate, on the ground of features 
formed in Europe — the others have 
received them, on the ground of fea- 
tures, formed in a very different re- 
gion of the globe. The eff^ecis >>f 
fuch various combinations can never 
he the fame, 
R 



•iaS 



OfcomplixicTi and [igUTc in the hvmanfpcci.es. 



[Augun-, 



ratives of the united ftate^, are the 
flroa<4er, becaufe ciiina'e has not had 
time to impiefs upon tlieru us full 
cliaracler : and the change has been re- 
tarded by the arts of fociety, and by 
the continual intermixture oF foreign 
rations. 

Thefe changes may, to pcrfons who 
think fup'rficially on the fnbjeH, 
fcera more flow in their progrels. than 
is confirient with the principles, hi- 
therto laid down, concerning the in- 
fluence cf climate, iiu', in the phi- 
losophy cf human nature, it is wouhy 
of obfervation, that ali national chan- 
g«s, whethtr moral or phyficaF, ad- 
vance by imperceptible gradations, and 
are not accomplilhed but in a feries of 
a^cs. Ten centuries were r<?q;jiiite, 
to polifli the manners of Europe. It 
is not improbable, that an equal Ipace 
of time may be n ■efFary, to form the 
cotintenance, and -.he Hgure of the 
body — ^to, receive all the inl'enfible and 
iniin.'ie' i.^prefTions of climate — to 
cciTiiv';-- thefe with the effecls, that 
rei . • from the flaie of fo'c'cty — to 
I.e. 1 both along wiih prrfonal pecu- 
liar ■■ties— and by the innumerable uni- 
ons of fam lies, to meltdown the whole 
into one uniform and ;Vational counte- 
nance*. It is even queOionable, 
whcther.iamidfl eternal migrations and 
coiKiiicfts, any nation in Europe has 
yet received the full effects of thefe 
cai!f;s.. China and Arabia are per- 
haps the only civilized countries in 
the world, in which they have attain- 
ed thsir utmod operation : becaufe 
they are the only countries, in which 
the people have been able, during a 
long fiicccfrion of ages, to preferve 
tiiemfelves unmixed with other na- 
tions. Each parallel of latitude is, 
among them, dillinrily marked by its 
peculiar coinplexi<m. In no other na- 
tions, is there fiich a regular and per- 
fctf gradation of colour, as is traced 
from the fair natives of Pekin, to 
Canton, whofe inh.tbitanis are of the 



* In favage life, men more fpccdily 
receive the charafferiftic features cf 
the climate, and of :h"f^ate of fociety ; 
becaufe the habits and ideas of foci- 
ety, among them, are few and fimple ; 
and to ihe action of the climate they 
areexpofed naked and dcfencelefs, to 
liiH-.T us full force at once. 



darkefl cop ler — or, from the olive of 
the Defen Arabia, to the deep black' 
of the province of Yemen. ' It is 
plain then, that the caufes of colour) 
and of (UJier varieties in the human 
fpt-cies, have not yet had theirfull ope- 
ration on the inhabitants of thcf* 
united flates. However, they have 
already had fuchan operation, as afr 
fords a ftrong proof, and an intersfting 
example, of the powerful influence of 
climate*. 

The preceding obfervatlons have 
been mrcndcd chiefly to explain the 
principle of colour. I proceed now 
to illullrate the influence of climate 
on other varieties of the human bodv. 

It would be impofuble, in the com- 
pafs of Jl difcoL'rfc like the prefent, to 
enter minutely into the defcription of 
every feature r.f the countenance, and 
of every limb of the body ; and to ex- 
plain all the changes in each, that may 
po!Lhlybe produced by the power of 
climate, combined wiih other acci- 
dental caufe-!. Our knowledge of the 
human coilllitution, or 6f the globei, 

NOTE. 

*■ The reader will pleafe to keep 
in mmdj that, in remarking on the 
changes. that h.ive paffed on the Anglo- 
Americans, I have in view the mafs 
of the people : and that I h.ive in 
view, hkewife. -natives of the fecond 
cr third geiieration, and not fuch as are 
fprung from p:irents, one or. both of 
■ wl-ioni have been born in Europe ; 
•though, even with regard to thefe, the 
remarks will be found to hold good 
in 3 great degree. I am aware, that 
p.irticular mllanccs may be adduced, 
which will feem to contradift each re- 
rriark. Rut fuch examples do n6t 
overthrow general conclufions, de- 
rived from the body of the popjlace. 
And thefe inHances, I am perfuaded, 
Will be very rare among thofe, who 
have had a elf ar American dofcent by 
boll parents, for two or three genera- 
tions. They will be more rare in the 
low and level coun'ry, where the cil- 
mate is more diflerenr, and the de- 
fcents more rersote from Europe, than 
inihe countries to the weO, where the 
land rifes into hilK. Here the climate 
is more fimilar to that in the middle of 
Europe, and the people are more 
mingled with emigrants from Ireland 
and Gsr manv. 



•1785.] 



Cfctmplexien end figure in the human fpecits. 



127 



or of the powers of nafurc, is. perhaps, 
jiotfiifKciently accuiate and extenfive, 
to enable us to offer a ^au^fartory lo- 
iuiioii of every difficulty, that an at- 
.teiuive or a capiioiis obierver might 
propofe. But if we are able, on juQ 
principles, to explain the capita! va- 
rieties, in figure and afpeft, that ex- 
iii among different nations, it ought 
to fatisfy arealonable enqiirer ; as no 
minuter ditferen.es can oe fufficient, 
toconifitute a dittintt fpecies. 

I fliall, therefore, confine my ob- 
fervations, atprefentj to thofe confpi- 
cuous varieties, that appear in the 
hair, the figure of the head, the fize of 
the limbs, and the principal features 
of the face. 

The hair generally follows the law 
of the complexion ; becauie, its roots, 
being planted in the (kin, derive its 
nourifliment and its colour from the 
fame fubltance, which there contri- 
butes to form the complexion. Every 
gradation of colour in ihe (kin, from 
^he bfown to the perfectly black, is ac- 
companied wi:h proportionate (liades 
in the hair. The pale red, or faiidy 
.complexion, on the other hand, is u- 
fually attended with rednefs f)f the 
hair. Between thefe two points, is 
found almoR every other colour of 
this excrefcence, arifing from the acci- 
dental mixture of the principles of 
black as.d red, in different proportions. 
White ha r, which is found only with 
the faireit fk;n, fcems to be the middle 
of the exiremes, and the ground in 
which they both are blended*. The 
extremes, if I may fpcak fo, are as 
peartp each other, as to any point in 
the circle, and are often found to run 
into one another. The Highlanders 
of Scotland are generally either black 
or red. A red beard is freqiieniiy 
■united with biack ha'r. And if, in a 
red or dark-coloured family, a child 
happens to deviate from the law of 
the houfe, it 15 commonly to the oppo- 
fite extreme. On this obierva'ion 
p'^rniit ine to remark, that thofe who 
deny the identity of human origin, 
becaufc one nation is red and another 



*That black hair is l\jmetirnes f ip- 
pofed to be united wuh the fair^j't 
fkai, anfes from the deception, which 
the contrail, betv/een the hair and 
fliin, puts upon the fifcht. 



black, might, on the fame principle, 
deny, to perfons of different complex- 
ion, the identity of family. But as 
the fact, in uhc latter inftancc, is cer- 
tain ; we may, in the former, reafona- 
bly conclude, that the llateof nerves or 
fluids, which contributes to produce 
one or other of thefe effcfts in a rini;le 
family, may be the general tendency 
of a particular cfimate. In this ex- 
ample, at leall, we fee, that ihe 
human conflitution is capable of be- 
ing molded, by phyfical caufes. inio 
many of the varieties ifiat diflinguifii 
mank'nd. It is coniiarv therefore 
to found philofophy, which never, 
without neceffity, afligns different 
caufes for fnnilar events, to have re- 
courfe, for explaining ihefe varieties, 
to the hypothelis of feveval original 
fpecies*. 

Climate poffefTes great and evident 
influence on the hair, not only of 
men, but of all other animals, The 
changes, which this excrefcence un- 
dergoes in them, is at [call equal to 
what it fuffcrs in man. If, in one 
cafe, thefe tranfmutations are acknow- 
ledged to be confident with identity 
of kind, they ought not, in the other, 
to be efteenied critenons of diUintt 
fpecies Nature has adapted the pli- 

NOTE. 

* If we fuppofe different fpecies to 
have been created, liow fliall we de- 
termine their number ? — Are any of 
them loft ? — or where lliall we, at 
prefent, find them clearly dillinguiflied 
from all others ? — or were the fpi'- 
cies of men made capable of being 
blended together, contrary to the na- 
ture of oiher animals, fo thai they 
ihoulu never be difcriminaf^d, thus 
rendering the end unnereflary, for 
which they arefuppoied to have been 
created i' — if we have reafon .from the 
varieties, that cxifl in the fame family, 
or in the lam.e nation, to conclude, 
that the Danes, the French, the 
Turks, and people even more remote, 
are of one ipecies, have v'e not the 
fame reafon to conclude, that the na- 
tions beyond them, and wh'-" do not 
diifor irom the lall, by more confpi- 
cuous diihntticiis, tlian the laff d-fTer 
from the hrfj, are alfo of the iar.ie 
Ipccies. liy purfi'iig this progref- 
fion, we (hall find but one fpecies, 
froai the e'^uator to the pole. 



:8 



Of complexion andjigure in the human fptcies. 



[Augut, 



ancy of her work, to the fituations, in 
which flie may require it to be placed. 
'I he beaver, reniuved to the warm la- 
titudes, exchanges its fur, and the 
Iheep its wool, fur a coarfe hair, that 
prelerves the animal in a more mode- 
rate temperature. The coarfe and black 
fhag of the bear is converted, in the 
arctic regions, into the finefl and 
whiteft hir. 1 he horfe, the deer, 
and almoli every animal prote61ed by 
hair, doubles his coat in the beginning 
of winter, and iheds it in the fpring, 
when it is no longer ufeful. The 
finenelsand dendty of the hair is aug- 
mented, ni proportion to the latitude 
of the country. The Canadian and 
Rulfian furs arc, therefore, better than 
the furs of climates farther fouth. 
The colour of the hair is likewife 
changed by chmate. The bear is 
white under the arfclic circle ; and in 
high northern latitudes, black foxes 
are molt frequently found. Similar 
ctledsof climate, on mankind, arealfo 
dilcernible. Almoil every nation is 
diflmguilhcd by fome peculiar quality 
of this excrefcence. The hair of the 
Danes is generally red ; of the Englifh, 
fair or brown ; and of the French, com- 
monly black. The highlanders of 
Scotland are divided between red and 
black. Rid hair is frequently found 
in [he cold and elevated regions of the 
Alps ; although black be the predomi- 
nant complexion, at the foot of thofe 
mountain^. The aborigines of Ame- 
rica, like all people of colour, have 
black hair ; and it is generally long 
and ftraif. The flraitnefs of the 
hair may a rife from the relaxation of 
the climate, or from the humidity of 
an uncultivated region. But, whate- 
ver be the caiife, the Anglo-Ameri- 
cans already feel its influence : and 
curled locks, fo frequent among their 
jjucellors, are rare in the united Hates'''. 

KOTE. 

* They 2'e mofl rare In the fou- 
jhorn ftate-<,atid in ihofe families, that 
are fariheli defcended from iheir Eu- 
rcipean or gin. Strait lank hair is 
almoil a general charafleriflic of the 
Americans of the fecond and third 
race. It is impollihle. however, to 
predirl, what cfletf the clearing of the 
country, and ihe pro<;refs of cultiva- 
tion, may hereafter produce on the 
half, z% well as other qualities, of the 



Black is the mod ufual colour of 
the human hair, becaufe thofe cli- 
mates, that are moff extenlive,and moll 
favourable to population, tend to the 
dark complexion. Climates, that are 
not naturally marked by a peculiar 
colour, may owe the accidental pre- 
dominancy of one, to the conftitutional 
qualities of an anceftral family — 
they may owe ihe prevalence of a 
variety of colours, to the early fettle- 
ment of different families, or to the 
migrations or conqu'ells of different 
nations. England is, perhaps for this 
reafon, the country, in which is feeTi 
the greatefl variety in the colour of 
the hair. 

But the form of this excrefcencfe, 
which principally merits obfervation, 
becaufe it feems to be fartheft 
removed from the ordinary laws of 
nature, is feen in that fparfe and 
curled fubflance, peculiar to a part of 
Africa, and to a few of the Afiatic 
iflands. 

This peculiarity has been urged, as 
adecifive charaBer of a diftind fpe- 
cies, with more affurance, than be- 
came philofophers but tolerably ac- 
quainted with the operations of nature. 
The fparfenefs of the African hair is 
analogous to the effeft, which a warm 
climate has been fliewn to have on 
other animals. Cold, by obflrufting 
the pcrfpiration, tends to throw out 
the pcripirable matter, accumulated at 
thefkin, in an additional coat of hair, 
A warm climate, by opening the 
pores, evaporates this matter, before 
it can be concreted into the fubftance 
of hair ; and the laxnefs, and aper- 
ture of the pores, renders the hair li- 
able to be eafily eradicated by innume- 
rable accidents. 

Its curl may refult in part, perhaps, 
from external heat, and in part from 
the nature of the fubflance or fecre- 
tion, by which it is nourifhed. That 
it depends in a degree on the quality 
of thefecretion, is rendered probable, 
from its appearance on the chin, and 
on other parts of the human body. 
Climate is as much diflinguifhed, by 
the nature and proportion of the fe- 

NOTE. 

Americans. They will necefTarily 
produce a great change in the climate, 
and confequently in the human conlh' 
tution. 



1789.1 



Of complexion and figure in the human /pedes. 



isg 



ctetions, as by the degree of heat. 
Whatever be the nutriment of ihe hair, 
itfecms to be combined, in the torrid 
zone of Africa, with fome fluid of a 
hiy;hly volatile or ardent qiiahty. That 
it is combined with a flrong volatile 
fait, the rank and offenfive fmell of 
many African nations, gives us reafon 
to fufpe6l. Saline fccretions tend to 
curl and to burn the hair. The eva- 
poration of any volatile fpirit would 
render itsfurface dry and difpofed to 
contraft, while the centre continuing 
dirtended by the vital motion, thefe 
oppofite dilatations and contractions 
vould neccffarily produce a curve, 
and make the hair grow involved. 
This conjefture receives fome confir- 
mation, by obferving that the negroes, 
born in the united ftatesof Arnerica, 
are gradually lofing the Hrong fmell 
of the African zone ; their hair is, at 
ihe fame time, growing lefs involved, 
and becoming denfer and longer*. 

External and viole^it heat, parching 
the extremities of the hair, tends 
' likewife to involve it. A hair, held 
near the fire, inftantly coils itfelf up. 
The herbs, in the extreme heats of 
fummer, roll up their leaves, during 
the day, and expand them again in the 
coolnefs of the evening. Africa is 
the hotteil country on the globe. The 
aticients, who frequented the Afiatic 
' zone, clleenied the African an unin- 
habitable zone of fire. The hair, as 
well as the whole human conititution, 
fullers, in this region, the eftects of an 
intenfe heat. 

The manners of the people add to 
the influence of the climate. Being 
favages, they have few arts to proteft 
them from its intenfity. The heat and 
ferenity of the flty preferving the life 
of children, without much care of the 

NOTE. 

* Many negroes of the third race, 
in America, have thick, clofe hair, 
extended (o four or five inches in 
length. In fome, who take great 
pains to comb and drefs it in oil, it is 
even longer, and they are able to ex- 
tend it into a fliort queue. This is 
particularly the cafe with fome do^ 
meftic fervants, who have more lei- 
fure and better means, than others, to 
cherifli their hair. Many negroes, 
however, cut their hair as fafl as it 
grows, preferring it &ort. 



parent, they feem to be the mofl negli- 
gent people of their offspring in the 
univerfe*. Able themfelves to en- 
dure the extremes of that ardent cli- 
mate, they inure their children from 
their mofl tender age. They fuffer 
them to lie in the aOies of their huts, 
or to roll in the duft and fand, beneath 
the direct rays of a burning fun. The 
mother, if flic is engaged, lavs down 
the infant on the firll fpot fte finds ; 
and is fcldom at the pains to feek the 
miferable fheltcr of a barren (hrub, 
which is all that the interior country 
affords. Thus the hair is crifped, 
while the complexion is blackened by 
exceffivc heaif . There is probably 
a concurrence of both the preceding 
caufcs, in the produflion of the effefl. 
The influence of heat, either external, 
or internal, or of both, in giving the 
form to the hair of the Africans, ap- 
pear'?, not only from its fparfenefs and 
its curl, but from its colour. It is 
not of a fnining, but an aduR black ; 
and Its extremities tend to brown, 
as if it had been foorched by the fire. 
Having treated fo .largely on the 
form of this excrefcence, :a that 
country where it deviates farthefl 
from the common law of the fpecies, 
I proceed to confiderafew of the re- 
maining varieties among mankind. 
(To be continued.) 

NOTES. 

* The manners of a people are 
formed, in a great meafure, by their 
neceffities. The dangers of the North 
American climate render the natives 
uncommonly attentive to the prefer- 
vation of their children. The Afri- 
can climate not laying its favage in- 
habitants under any neceffity to be 
careful, thev expofe their children to 
itsutmoil influence, without concern. 

+ I have myfclf been witnefs of 
this treatmentof children by the flaves 
in the fouthern Rates, where they are 
numerous enough, to retain many of 
their African cufloms. I fpeak of 
the field flaves, who, living in little 
villages on their plantations, at a dif- 
tance from their maflers' manfions. 
are flow in adopting the manners of 
their fuperiors. There I have fecn 
the mother of a child, within lefs than 
fix weeks after it was born, take it 
with her to the field, and lay it in the 
fand, benc4tli a hot fun, while flie 



13° 



Ejfay on fmuggling. 



tAugu^, 



Ejfny on fmuggling. — P. 64. the conifnon opinions, and feelings 

AS the bulk of mankind do not of mankind, fiirnidi a ,!^ood ftandard 
fee a 10 have a difpofuion, to of eaimatioa, fur the moral ment of 
^n'ethe.rreadvandeffcaual CO opcr- ?^-^»"'>"'- Bui we iwi.. nut millake, 
atio-1, in rcnderin^r the public revc- m our appl cation of this principle; 
iije producHve. and adequate to the nor mull we iuppofe, that the public 
chjea for which it is initituted— it op">'""^ feally is, invariably, and m 
Tvould lead one to conclude, that no il' »n'lJ"ccs, what it appears to be, 
public utility was derived from the \^}^ ^'J^ ""^ "/ j:overniTicru are com- 
revenue; and confequently, that rr,-n pl»'-;=»'ed ; and the condud of men, 
arc under no oblitrations of juUice, wi,h relpett to it, has a contradittory 
for the payment of it. Thofe, who appearance, iu the capacity of in- 
■ * dividuals, we icel an avernon to re- 

ftramt, and a leluMance in making 
facrifices. When we art, not mere- 
ly as individuals, but as members of 
a coinnmniiy, we feel a reipoiifibili- 
ty, in this collc.:t:ve characlcr, which 
accommodatts itfclf to the general 
welfare. I'he common reafon of the 
law-ftiakers, while employed in the 
att of legiflation, becomes the teft pf 
propriety, rather than the general 
temper oF ihofe, over whom the law 
is to operate. If however, the good 
cD'iCi of the law i^ fo obvious, that 
men, in their pri^vaie intercourfe with 
each other, unavoidably difcern it, 
they Aviii acknowledge and applaud 
the judicc of it. But the benehts of 
revenue laws are not immediately per- 



Hraw this inference, will go on to ob- 
Icrve, that the common fenfe, and 
a-jiprehcnfion of the great mafs of the 
^people, can never be oppofed to any 
m^afure, tint is jull and vifeful ; and 
that gencril confent is the moft in- 
fallible tc!}, by which to form our 
notions oF right and wrong. What- 
ever IS built on the foundation of juf- 
tice, muft coincide with the common 
interefts of men, and therefore will 
meet with tieneral approbation and 
fiipport. On the other hand, what- 
ever is generally difliked and oppof- 
ed. cannot have its origin in public 
Ti'.ility, and has no ju'fl claim upon the 
prcperiy or fervices of men, to pro- 
mote its operation and fuccefs. 

Thofe, who reafon in this manner 



have taken only a loofe, fuperncial ceived by every individual ; while th 



burden; are never concealed from the 
view of any one. 

Nothing has been more common, 
thin for aimoft every member of the 
community to complain of certain 
grievance':, and to elett rcprefenta- 



vie-w of the fubjed. In many cafes, 

X o T E . 

hoed her corn-row down and up. She 
would than liickle it a few minutes, 
and return to her work, leaving ihe 

child in the fame expofure, although tivcs, who participate of that fpirit of 

Ihe might have gained, within a few complaint, for the exprefs purpofe of 

yar.fs, a convenient liiade. Struck obtaining relief; and yet thefe fame 

ar hrii withihe apparent barbarity of reprcfentatives, upon a fair confider- 

this treatment, I have remondrated ation of the fiibjert, have dropped 

Willi thfin 0;i the fubjett; and was their clamor, and even laid further 

tiniforinly told, that dry land, and a impohtions upon their conftituents. 



hot fun, were never found to hurt 

them. This treatment tends to add 10 

the injury, that the climaie docs to the 

nair. A fimdar negligence ainong 

the poor, who fuifer their children fo 

lie in alhes, or on the naked groifnd, 

and who expofe th-'m, without ovcr- 

ing for their heads, to the fun aiid 

wind, wc find, greatly injures ihe hair. 

Vy'e rarely fee perfons, who have 

hfcn bred in extreme poverty, who 

have it not fhort, and thin, and fr.t- 

t(T/*d. Hut in Africa, the heat of iniiiilu 

tiii; (HidHodof the (un. mull have a is not 



This illud rates the idea, that peo- 
ple, in their private capacity, do not 
always perceive the utility, or allow 
ihejulticeof a meafure ; merely be- 
caule they have not been in a fitua- 
t.on, to comprehend the reafons, up- 
on which it IS founded. 

\'^ lien there is a general preva- 
lence of a practice, that will be called 
unjiill or VICIOUS, by ihole who view 
it upon the broad principles of juf- 
tice and virtue, it argues that the 
of fuch in;iilluc, or vice, 
obvious and iimnediatc : but 



in t..h norc p^iiverful cuidi. 



fi remote and ind rcct. 



to elcapc 



1733.]' 



.EJfay onfmuggling. 



13 1 



common obfervation. This is men- 
lioiiedj to prove, (hat public percep- 
tion IS nut necefTardy a teft of the 
rules of juftice. The partial honeRy 
i)f inankmd is well if [nclented, in a 
jaie nuiiibcr of the American Mu- 
i; um*. 1 will purfue fame of the 
ideas, that are fuggeiled in that pub- 
lication. 

: Itrs diverting, to obferve the dif- 
tihttions, that !ome people practical- 
ly mlake, with regard to their moral 
cfiimation of attions. Some men 
are fcrupuloully honefl in certain 
points, while, in oihers, where there 
js nojiill jjround of ditierence, they 
ihrow oil all rclliaints of truth and 
honefly. They are countenanced, in 
their narrow fyHrm of morality, by 
the common confcnt of the;r neigh- 
bours. 

In the cour''e of a journey, fome 
time fince, I palfed a few hours at 
th? flore of a country trader. While 
I Was there, fsveral of his caftomers 
came, with wa.,f^on- toads of grain. 
The traier di retted the baqs to be 
emptied into a granary, in a part of 
tlu^'liore, occupied for that purpofe. 
I obfervcd him enquire of each man, 
the quantity he brouijht : and he was fo 
xvell fat tilled wuhtlicir information, 
as to take the grain off their hands, 
without the trouble of mea Curing it. 
'This degree of confidence a little 
furprifed me, and led me to afic, 
whether it was iifual, in purchafing 
articles, to rely upon the word of 
the feller, with refpett to (he quanti- 
ty. The trader allured me, that he 
very fsldom meafured the grain, as 
it was brought to his {lore; that, in 
fome few inflances, he had done it, 
but that he had not found any at- 
tempt to deceive him. Many of his 
cui)omer«, he obferved to me, would 
highly relent his fcrupling their word 
in this matter ; and that it was ge- 
• nerally believed, no man, in that neigh- 
bourhood, would defraud another in 
the meafure of grain. Soon after 
this converfation ended, a man, whofe 
; appearance was better than that of the 
farmers, oifered to fell the trader a 



* The author, we fnppof:, alhiclci; 
to dr. Franklin's judicious obfervati- 
ons On fmugglin,!/. publifhed in the 
M-,ifcunifor April la'fh page ^.j,']. 



horfe. The latter had as great an in- 
clination to buy, as the other had ti> 
fc-ll ; but there feerned to be fome dif- 
ficulty, in fixing the value of thd 
horfe, and afceriainmg his age and 
qualities. The feller declared, upon 
his hon:iur, that what he alferted.was 
true; but the buyer doubted all his 
declarations. I took au opportumiy 
of Ipeaking to the trader, on the fub- 
jett, and told him. that I imagined. 
the perfon, who was about iGlliug the 
horfe, did not live 111 (he fame part of 
the country with the honeU grain- 
fellers. The trader albircd mc, that 
he lived in the midil of them ; that 
there was not a better man among 
them all ; nor one, whofe word he 
would fooiier take, in any matter that 
related to weight and ineafurc. " Bur, 
replied I, you do not feem to bcliev--; 
any thing he aderts, refpettiiig his 
horfe.''—" True," faid he, " it iscuf- 
tomary for people to take all the, ad- 
vantage they can, in the fale of an 
horfe, and to deceive the purchafer, 
as to his age and properties. 'I'he 
mod honcll men m the world do not 
fcruplc to impofe on one another, in 
this refpect." — from this anecdote, I 
would infer, that the common feel- 
ings, and praflice of men, are not 
always a fure criterion of the juftice or 
utility of actions. As there are few 
men who buy horfes, compared with 
thoie \vi)o buy grain, the general con- 
venience, and fafety cf the people, 
do not require them to make a com- 
mon caufe of tlie deception, in both * 
infiances alike. 

Another anecdote, not lefs appli- 
cable to the f ibjeft, may be introduc- 
ed.. I was once invited to pafs an 
evening, at the houle of a gentleman, 
where there was to be a party at card»^ 
Before the play commenced, my friend 
afTured me. that I could depend on 
the utmoPt fairnefs in the game, and, 
i!;at each perfon would punctually pay 
his lodes, on the fpot. I found it 
exattly, as was repreiented. In every 



inltance, wnere 1 won money, it was 
readily paid ; and I could obferve no 
attempt or difpofition to play unfair- 
ly. At the clofe of the evening, a 
jj'^rtlernan. vho had been more tto- 
fortunate th?ii ufaal, happened not to 
be in rjft to fq'iare the board. He 
cxpreffcd great folicitude to p;iy his 
arrears ; ai;d addre/fing himfclf toihe 



13* 



F-fay an fmuggliftg. 



[Auguff, 



company, reqtiened, fome one would 
be fo obliging as to lend him a few 
guineas, declaring, in die mciR (b- 
lemn manner, it IhouLd be reimburfed 
early the next morning. I d;d not heh- 
tate to advance thefum requeued, be- 
ing fully ptrfuaded, that a perfon, 
who was fo anxious to pay a demand 
iliat accidentally lay againit him by a 
run of ill luck, and fo unwilling, that 
his honour (hould fuller by a dehn- 
quency, would be no lets exatl. in dil- 
charginga debt, which he had volun- 
tarily coniraCted, through the confix 
deuce and poliienels of a flranger. 
The event, however, proved other- 
wife. If» the morning, as I was get- 
ting ready to puiTue my journey, I 
recolleticd the money I had lent; and 
dcfircd the landlord to inform me, 
where the borrower cou'd he found. 
The landlord, with a pertnefs he had 
not before difcovercd, replied, " mr. 

-< will not be out of his bed thefe 

two hours ; have you any bufineCs 
with him?""'" — Nothing iTSore, faid I, 
than to receive a little cafii of him. 
*' If you wait, till you get that," an- 
fwered the landlord, " 1 would advife 
you to become an inhabitant of this 
place, and fend for your family at 
once. It is a chance, if you ever get 

a farthing of the money, as mr. 

never pays any debts he can avoid." — 
"But, "continued I, '•you muftbe mif- 
taken in this man ; — he was very ho- 
nourable in paying his lolTes at cards. 
— " True," replied the landlord ; — 
*' for the rules of the club forbid any 
nan to go away in debt to the table. 
If he left any thing unpaid, he could 
no longer be a member of the club. 
Bcfides, he is often foriunate, and 
carries away money ; and when he 
lofes, he can borrov/ of fome perfon, 
who is not acquainted with his cha- 
racter. Thofe, who attend that gam- 
ing club, are honed with each other : 
but they pay no regard to juftice, or 
veracity, w;th anybody clfe, except 
when they are in the club-room.." — 
— I was not, however, difccuraged, 
by tills information, from an aitempt 
to get my money ; and after importun- 
ing the landlord for fome time, he 
jjermittcd a negro boy to lake a note 

for m.e, to mr. . The hoy 

lumfelf was fo well convinced, that 
his errand was in vain, that he could 
not refrain frorn wa^gijfb capers. He 



foon returned, anci informed me, iha^ 

mr. r- had told his lervants, that 

he v\',as not to be feen, till iwelve. 
o'clock. 

I do not mention thefe anecdotes, 
as lingular inllancesof the partial view; 
and prariiceof men, in accom.modating 
their ideas of right and wrong, to their 
particular fuuation and convenience. 
Wherever we lock, we find repeat- 
ed and melancholy cuuhrmations of 
the imperfeflion of prevailing prin- 
ciple, and ihp pervcrfenels of au- 
thorized habits. All clubj, or focie- 
ties, how unimportant or immoral fo- 
ever shey may be, have certain rules 
of honor and eq^uity among them- 
felves. Thefe are few or many, 11- 
luited or extenfive, in proportion 19 
the obiefls, which are to be accoin- 
pl.ihcd by the alTociation. It is 19 
be regretted, that men, who are great- 
ly aiiached to any particular Icct of 
party, are apt to forget the duties they 
owe the community at large, and con- 
fine their aBs of ufefulncfs, and their 
difplay of virtues, within narrow h- 
niits. " Robbers and pirates, (it lias 
often been remarked.) could not main- 
tain their pernicious confederacy, did 
they not cllablifli a new difiributive 
jurtice among ihenifelve;:, and rccal 
thofe laws of equity, which they have 
violated with the reft of mankind." 
I have .been thus diflufive, and 
thrown the fubjeH into fuch diHer- 
ent lights, that I might make it ful- 
ly evident, that there are various in- 
llanccs, in which, our fentiments of 
duty are not co-exienfive with tl^e 
objecls of it. There is no cale, that 
I have fpecificd, in which our ideas 
of obligatioM are more erroneous ar\d 
deficient, than thofe, which relate to 
a difcharge of the demands, that are 
laid upon us bv the revenue laws. 
Our inventive faculty is aiifully dif- 
played, in finding excufes to juftify 
afctions, that are committed, through 
the impulfe of interefl or palhon. 

If the principles of this difcuHiQn 
are juO, they will imprefs, on the 
minds of virtuous citizens, the impor- 
tance of fetting fuch examples, aijd 
diffiifing fuch maxims, as will con- 
vince the bulk of the people, that 
their duty and their honour are con- 
cerned, in a punttiial payment of the 
public taxes, in whatever form they 
arc impofed. They will likewifc co^i- 



ij^'l 



EJfoy on free trade and f.nance. 



n\ 



tribute to convince men at the helm II. This mode of taxation applies 

ofatiairs, that in order to obtain the for money, where 'tis to be had in 

concurrence of their conliituents, in greateft plenty, and can be pa d with 

fiipponing the execution of the laws, moft eafe and leall pain. If we apply 

the public adinuiillration (hould be to the farmer, irad^fman or labourer 

nvarked with no ac^, that is caprici- for cafh, they have very I'tle of it, 

ous, oppreOive, or unneceffary. In and 'tis hard for them to raife the ne- 

addition to caulcs of a permanent na- ceflary fum ; but 'tis matter of, com- 

ture, that induce men to doubt the mon courfe with the merchant, 

utility or the juftice of revenue laws, through whofe hands the great current 

there are often adventitious circum- of circulating cafli palTes : he will 

fiances, that alienate the affetlions of confider the tax, as part of the hrft 

people from the meafures of govern- cof{ of his goods, and fet his price 

ment. Of this defcription, are ex- and fell accordingly. It matters little 



travagant or ufelefs appropriations; 
injudicious or fupernumerary appomt- 
menis of oflicers ; ncgledful, dilhon- 
elt, or overhearing condutt in thofe, 
who are fcattered through the difter- 
ent branches of the executive depart- 
ment. 



to him, whether he pays half the coit 
of his goods abroad, and the other 
half at home ; or whether he pays it 
all abroad : his objeft is, to get the 
whole out of his fales, with as much 
proht to himfelf, as he can. 

III. This m.ode lays tlie burden of 
tax on that kind of cOnfumiKionj 
which is excelfive and hurtftil', anci 
leffens that confumption, and of 



An elfay on free trade and finance, ^ i i ' i • 

particularly Jliewing, what fupplies "^^''^^ T"""^' ^,1 "^'"Tu-'i u " r 'u 
of pubtic revenue may be draum ^'"^'^^'^^ '^^ '"^"^^'"^' ^"^ ^^^''^ "^^ 'h, 



from merchandfe, zvttkout injiir- 
in,s; our trade, or burdening our 
people— P. 6g. 

By a citizen of Philadelaphia. 



people. For 'tis plain, that no mor« 
mor.ey will be paid for the go;-ds 
taxed, than would have been paid for 
the fame kind of good«, had they not 
been taxed : the d'.licrence is, the 



I, nr* HIS mode of taxation may fane money paid for the taxed goods, 

X fafely be raifed to fuch a de- will ncit buy the fame q'lantity of 

gree, as to produce all the money, we them, as before the lax, bccaufe the 

need for the public fervice, or fuffici- tax will raiie the price of them ; and 

cntly near it. Perhaps a fmall tax, in when the confumption, or ufe of fuch 

the ordinary way, would be more be- goods, is excelhvcand hurtful, this 

neHcial to the Itates, than none; be- lelFening of it is a benefit, though the 

caufe this tax keeps the cuHomary a- fame money is paid for them as be- 



venues, from the wealth of individu- 
als, to the public trealury, always 
open ; thele may be ufed on emergen- 
cie-, and the habit and pratlice being 
fettled, would not be fubjecl to the 
dilHcultics, naturally anhng from no- 
velty, or innova, ions. But, to return 
to my argument — 'tis greatly in favour 
of this kind of tax, that U will bring 
money enough for the public fervice. 
'Tis matter of great animation, m the 
purfuit of any objecl, to know, that, 
when accomplilhed, it will be ade- 
quate to its purpofe^. People all 

want to fee the end of things, and to fame re.ilon. 'tis better for a reaper, 
know when they are to have done : to drink half a pint of rum in a day, 
this will naturally produce much than to reap for the fame wages, and 
flronger efforts, vigour and chearful- drink a quart of rum. This reafon- 
n-d's, than if the thmg, when accom- ing will hold in its proper degree, 
piilhed, would be but half adequate with re fpett to every kind of confum- 
to its purpofes. tion, which is cxcetlive aud hurtful* 

Vol. VI, • $ ' 



fore, for ihe fame realv)n that "tis bet- 
ter for a man who happens to be at a 
tavern with exceiuve drinkers, to pay 
his whole {hare of the reckoning, hut 
drink lefs than his fliare >f the liquors, 
and go home fober, than to pay 
the fame reckoning, drink his full 
fhare of the liquors, and go home 
drunk. ' Fis always better for a man, 
to buy poifon and not ufe it, than to 
buy the fame poifon and ule it. In' 
the one cafe, he lof's nothing but his 
money; in ihe orher cafe, he lofes 
his money and his health too. For the 



134 



^ay on fne trade and finance. 



[Auguft, 



IV. This mode of taxation faves 
the whole fuin of the tax to the 
fhtes, while, at the fame time, it 
mends the habits and health of the 
people : tor 'tis plain, that, if the 
i,onfumption of fuch iinported goods 
is lelTericd by the tax, a iefs quantify 
will heimportcdj and of courfe a lefs 
lum of money be Tent abroad to pay 
the firft cofl of thefe goods : and this 
excefs of money, whith is thus faved 
from going abroad (whence it would 
never return,) is paid, by the tax, 
into the public treafury, whence it 
iffues on the public fervice, and is 
directly thrown info circulation again 
through the Hates ; and of courfe be- 
comes a clear faving, or balance of 
increafe of the circulating medium, 
and confequently of rcaluol wealth 
in the country ; whilfl, at the fame 
time, the people are better ferved 
and accommodated, by the reduced 
confumption, than they could have 
been by (be exceihve one. 

V. It appears, from what has heen 
juft now ohferved, that this mode of 
taxation naturally increafes the circu- 
' filing cafli of the flaies: and every 
one knows what a fpring, what vi- 
gour this gives to every kind of bufi- 
nefs in the country, whether of huf- 
bandry, mechanic arts, or trade. 
1 here is no coiTiparifon between the 
advantages of carrying on any fort 
ofbuliaefs, in a country where calh 
circulates freely, and in a country 
•where cadi is fcarcc. In tlie one 
calc, every kind of bufinefs will iloii- 
ri^h, and induilry has every fort of 
encouragement and motive for exer- 
tion ; in the other, all bufinefs m.uft 
be fadly embarralfed, and of courfe 
make but a feeble and flow progrels. 
We can (rarcely forma conception, 
what a dittercnt face thefe two cir- 
cumOanccs will give a country in a 
flvjrt time. In the one cafe, build- 
ings nfe, huibandry improves, arts 
arid manufactures flounfh, the coun- 
try is alive, and every part of it a- 
boiinds with induflry, profits and de- 
light ; the other can produce liitle 
more than languor, dcoy, dullnefs 
and fruitlcfs anxieiy, difappointment 
and wretrhednel":. 

VI. The tax I propofe, will o- 
perate in a way of genera! equality, 
jiillice, and due )>roportion. A tax 
cm general confuniptipns, cannot fail 



to bring the burden in due proporti- 
on on individuals, becauie everyone 
will pay in proportion to his con- 
fumption ; and the prefumption is, 
that the man who fpends moll, is beft 
able to fpend. If this propofition 
admits of exceptions, they are gener- 
ally in favour of the ceconomill, the 
careful, penurious man, and againft 
the prodigal, who dilTipates his eftate 
— and will operate as a ftrong check 
upon him, if he is not pall all confi- 
derations of intereft. If this be the 
cafe with him, the fooner his eflate 
is run through, the better it is both for 
himfelf and the public : for, when 
this happens, he muft either die or 
work for his living, and of courfe 
do ioine good in the world, or at leaft 
ccafe doing hurt: he will then no 
longer be able to fet an example of 
idlenefs, extravagance, and diffoluie- 
nefs, and draw other gay fpirits into 
his pernicunis practices : and if his 
conliiiiition fliall happen to out-laft 
his eflate, he may, by temperance, 
enjoy iome good degree of health ; 
and his adverfiries may perhaps bring 
on ferious reflexions, fincere repent- 
ance, and amendment of life; and if 
his fortune is defperate in this world, 
he may at leaft find flpjiig inducements 
to prepare for the next ; fo that he is 
in no fenfe injured by the tax, but 
may by prudence derive great benefits 
from it. Befides, I am »if opinion, 
that government ought to leave every 
man mafter of his own eflate, and per- 
mit him to judge for himfelf. how faff, 
and in what mode, he will fpend it. 
He knows well, wliat tax he pays on 
every expenditure : every part of it 
is fiibjetlto his owu free choice: and 
if his career of diflipation cannot be 
reftrained, it is as well for hun, and 
much belter for the public, that he 
flioiild give part of his wealth to the 
p\)blic treafury, than wafle the wholtf 
of it in luxury and pleafurc — fo that I 
do not fee, that he has, in this cafe, 
the leaft ground of complaint of in- 
jury or oppredion — helides, I think, 
there is a kind of juftice, in framing 
the public inftitutions, in fuch a man- 
ner, that a man cannot fpend a dollar 
in luxury and dilfipation, which arc 
hurtful to the public, without being, 
at the fame time, obliged to pay ano- 
ther dollar into the public treafurv, 
t© nialie thereby fome compcnfation 



1789-] 



EJfayon frtt trade and finance. 



for the injury, which the public re- 
ceives from his kixury. 

And as to ihe niggardly, penurious 
man, who does not fpend his ilo- 
iiey in proportion to his wealth, and of 
courfe does not pay his fliare of tax ; 
'tis obfervable, that even his very 
penury eventually benefits the co'n- 
ntuniiy : for what he does not fpend, 
he faves ; and thereby- enriches him- 
felf, and of courfe adds to the wealth 
of the community : for the weaUh of 
the community is the agc»reeatc of 
the wealth of all the individuals who 
eompofe it. This ought therefore to 
be a favoured cafe ; as the communi- 
ty eventually gams more by a (Lilling 
faved, than it could, by a IhiUing con- 
fumed and loft, though the conlumcr 
fliould pay fix-pence into the public 
treafury. In fine, the tax, on this 
principle, is carved out of the cxpen- 
diiures ot the nation — not indeed all 
expei'ditures indircnmniately — but is 
fo calculated, as to fall heavieil on 
thofe expenditures, which are the 
molt general indexes of wealth, and 
are ufually made by the rich, who are 
the beft able to bear them : and the 
few exceptions, which may be fup- 
pofed to take place, will generally 
operate in favour of virtue and eco- 
nomy, and againft vice and dilfi- 
pation ; and where it falls heavieft, 
and becomes molt burdenlome, 'tis 
defigned, and does actually tend, to 
correct that very vicious talte and cor- 
rupt habit, which is the true caufe of 
the burden, and which 'tis aUvays in 
the power of the fufferer to eafe him- 
feJfof,^ whenever he pleafes. 

Point out any other mode of tax- 
ing, if you can, that finds its way io 
furely to the wealth of individuals, 
and apportions itfelf thereto fo equi- 
tably, that no fubject can be burdened 
beyond his due proportion, without 
having a full remedy always in his 
own power — yea, a fure, eafy and 
excellent remedy — becaufe a man m ly 
always avail hinifeJf of it, without the 
expenfe and trouble of a law-fjir, and 
without being fubjetled to any bevy's 
decifions, opinions or caprices, but 
his own, 

VII. This mode of taxing will 
make the quantity and rime of the tax 
to depend on the free choice of the 
man who pavs it. If a man has a 
mind to drink a bov.'l of punch, or a 



135 

bottle of wine, with his frcnd, or to 
buy a fiik gown for his daughter, he 
knows very well, how much tax is in- 
corporated wi:h the purchafe, and a- 
dopis and pays it with cheerfulnei"? 
and good humoiic — a humo'.ir. very 
different from the irritated fcnfibil t/ 
of a man, who fees an awful collector 
enter upon him with his warrant of 
plenary powers, to diftrain his goods, 
or arreil his pcrfon, for a tax wh'ch 
l>erhaps he abhors, either from reli- 
gious fcruples, or an opinion that he is 
rated beyond his due proporrion, O' , 
becaufe he is not at that time in 
condition to pay it. The good hu- 
mour of the fubieft is of great confc- 
quence in any government. W'hca 
people have their own way and choice 
in a matt.jr, they will bear great bur- 
dens wiih little cjuiplaint ; but when 
matters are forced on them contrary 
to their humour, they will make great 
complaints on fmall occafions ; and 
the public peace is often celiroyed, 
much more by the manner of doing, 
than by the thing done. 

VIII. This mode of taxing will 
give our treafury fome compenfaiion, 
for the monies, which our people pay 
towards the tax of other countries, 
which they travel through or refide in 
when abroad. An American cannot 
travel through any country in Europe 
and drink a bowl of punch or eat a 
dinner, witout contributing to the tax 
of the country: and if our taxes, like 
theirs, were laid on fuch luxurious 
confumptions, ai travellers ufLially in- 
indulge themfelves in, their people 
who travel through our country, or 
refide in it, would contribute .towards 
our taxes, in like manner, asour peo- 
ple, who travel through or re!:de in 
their countries, contribute to theirs : 
and as we expeti that the intercourfe, 
between us and all the countries of 
Europe, will be very great, 'lis high- 
ly reafonable that our treafury fhould 
receive the fame benefit frnn their 
travellers among us, that the.r trea- 
furies receive from our pet)ple, who 
travel or refide among them; and 2 
little attention to the fubject, will be 
fufiicicnt to convince any man, that 
this article is more ihau a irille. 

IX. This mode of taxing, which 
brings the burden of the tax princi- 
pally on articles of luxury, or at moil 
Oil anicbsof nut ^ke krii aeceiiuy, 



iS$ Letter refptclivg thefortificaiiins in the wtprn ceuntry. [Atjguftj 



gives estfement and relief to our huf- 
ba ifliy aticl inanuiafliires, which are 
in danger of rum, from the pretent 
wei.ohi of taxes that lies on them. If 
wc tax land, we lelfeti its value, and 
of coiirfe dimini(h iVit whole farming 
intereh. If we tax poles, we in ef- 
fecitax labour ; thus we difcourage it, 
aiid of cciiftquence calt a damp and 
«ieadenu)g languor on the very firft 
f|M-itigs, the original principle and 
foiirce of our national wealth, and 
wouiid the great (laples of the coun- 
try, in embryo. Now I thmk, that 
any mode qf taxing, which gives re- 
medy and relief, againit fo great, fo 
fatal an evil, would deferve conhder- 
ation, even though it had not thele ad- 
vantages in its favour, which I have 
before enumerated. I have heard a 
ilupid and cruel argument urged, that 
" taviny labour has this advantage, that 
it pr.irnoies .induftry, becauie it in- 
creaies necefluy." This argument 
proves, HI a very cogent manner, 
that 'tis bell loinake everybody poor, 
becaufe it will make him woik the 
harder. I fhould think, it would be 
rnore humane and liberal in a govern- 
in'-;nt to manae^e the, public adminif- 
tration fo, that induliry might have 
all poOible encouragement, awd be ra- 
ther auirnaied by an increafe of hap- 
pmefs and hope of reward, than goad- 
ed on by direnecelTiiy, and the dread- 
ful fpurs of pinching want. I freely 
give It as my clear and decided o- 
p:ni()n, that 'tis the intereft, duty, 
and befi policy, ofevery government, 
to give all pollible eafe, exoneration, 
and encouragemement to that induftry, 
thofe occupations and kinds of bufi- 
nefs, which contribute mofl to the 
riches, ilrength and happinefs of a 
nation — and to lay the burdens of go- 
vernment, as far as poflible, on thofe 
falh'.ons, habits and practices, which 
tend to weaken, impoverifh and cor- 
rupt the people — and, therefore, that 
any mode of taxini?, which tends to 
encourage the former of thefe, and 
difcourage the latter, is worthy of the 
Hioft {erioiis attention. 

(To be continued.) 
•••«>•• ^^<:^ ^B> ..<)... 
Correfpondcnce between Noah Wejler, 

efq. and the rev. Ezra Stiles, D. 

D. p' cftdent of Yale college, ref- 

j/e8ii>,q the. fortif.caliom in the 

.iuejlern country. 



LETTER II, 

From Nonh Webjler, efq. to the rev* 
Ezra Stiles D. D. 
Nfw York, Dec. 15, 1787. 
Reverend Jir, 

I DID myfelf the honour to ad- 
drefs you, on the ead of Oclober, 
giving you a fliort hiftorical acct)unt 
of the famous expedition of Ferdi- 
nand de Soto into Florida. I wrote, 
juftas I was leaving Phijadelphia, and 
before I had an opportunity to examine 
the account in Roberts's hdhtry, 
with that accuracy which the fubjcti 
deferves. I have lately read it with 
more attention, and compared the 
names of Indian tribes and rivers, 
with thofe on other maps of Florida, 
and aKo with mr. Hutchins's hiHory 
and deicriptionof Uiat country, which 
I had not read, when I firft wrote to 
you upon the fubjett. The refult of 
my enquiries is, a flrong perfuafion 
in my own mind, that the foriihca- 
tions, remaining in that weOern coun- 
trv, were ereHed by that commander. 
The fafls^ and reafons which have in- 
duced this belief, I have the honour 
to communicate, 

Ferdinand, on his firft landing at 
Spiritu Santo, marched to Palache, a 
country, which lies on a nvcr that ftill 
retains the name. Hence be dilpachfd 
Maldonado, with a bodv of infantry, 
toexplorethe country weftward ; who 
returned with this account, " that, 
fixty leagues weftward, was a harbour 
of good depth, and well IheUcred." 
This harbor was called Ochuie — in 
fome maps it is now called Anchufe ; 
andi t is the bay of Penfacola, which is 
about fixty leagues weft of Palache* 
This is the bay, where Maldonado 
afterwards arrived with the fleet, to 
carry Ferdinand and the troops to the 
Havanna. 

On this Information, Ferdinand de- 
termined to march weftward ; but a 
young Indian, who had been taken at 
Napetica, toid him, that " at Yupa- 
ha, far diftant on the eaftern coa'l, 
there was gold ;" and hedefcnbed the 
ore, and the manner of extracting and 
refining the metal, fo minutely, ibat 
Ferdinand was convinced, that he 
fpoke the truth.* He therefore or- 

NOTE. 

* It {hould have been previoiUly 



J7?9» Letter refpecling the fortifications in the wejttrn counXry. igy 

thcr he determined to march, in hopes 
of fir.rliiig gold mines. From Ocuta 
to Patofa, is {"aid to be a diliance of 
hfty aules, of rich, fertile, well wa- 
tered country. From Patofa to Ay- 
may, was twelve leagues, belides four 
days' march, the diftance not mea- 
tionrd. From tlus lo Catafachique> 
is faid to bea fmall diliance. From Pa- 
tofa, therefore, muft have been about 
one hundred or one hiuidrcd and twenty 
miles, in a north-weft direction. From 
the forks of the Altamaha, where the 
rf mams of i he fort ate feen, to the 
Ogechee, which I take to be the Ca- 
lafachique, m a north well courfe, is 
about the fame diliance, or one hiin- 
died miles. The account" favs, that, 
between Ocuta and Catafachrque, the 
diUance is one hundred and thirty 
miles ; then, from Patofa, to Catafa- 
chrque, was but e;ighty miles ; the 
fifty, between Ocuta and Patofa, be- 
ing deducted. 

There is another fuppofition, whicli 
is well-foynded. The h^ad of the ri- 
ver Apalachikola, or a branch of it, 
is called, on modern maps, Chataoo.- 
che — a name that bears fome analo<^y 
to Catafachupie. as it is pronounced 
in Spaniih. From the forks of the 
Aliamaha, wellward, to this river, in a 
Hra't direction, is not much more 
than one hundred and thirty miles, if 
the maps can he relied on. But whe- 
ther Catafjchiqiie was on the Oge- 
chee, or a b;anch of the Apalachi- 
koia^ is net material. This is certain, 
the diliance, from Caiafachique to 
Xualla, was two hundred and fifty 
miles. Then the 'army marched ten 
or twelve days to L hiahe, which I 
take to be Lexington in Kentucke : 
for Ferdinand himfeif fays, that, in a 
fettled country, he marched five or fix 
leagues a day ; but falter, throiii^h a 
defert. Sunpofe he marched fix 
leagues a day, and ten days — fixty 
leagues, or one himdred and ei.ohty 
miles, added to two hundred and fifty, 
make four hundred and ihlrfy miles, 
the diflance between C'aiafach'que and 
Chiaha. _ This diftance, either from 
Ogechee iii Georgia, or the Apala- 
chikola, will bring, him alinoR to the 
Ohio. I am inclined to believe Ca- 
tafachique to have been in Georgia ; 
becaufe the account Cays the counirv, 
between that and Xualla, for two 
hundred and fifty miJes, was mouii- 



dered his men to take provifion with 
them for " fixty leagues of dofert," 
and marched to Patofa. This muft 
have been in Georgia, and probably 
on the river Ahamaha. My opmion 
is founded on thele \if\-> — i . An eall- 
rorth eaft courfe, from Palache, 
would carr)' him to that river. 2. Six- 
ty leagues, from Palache, would carry 
him within lets than a hundred miles 
of the Atlantic, on the coall of 
Georgia. From Palache, to St. Au- 
gulline, IS 188 mies, nearly eaft. 
3. The Indian informed Ferdinand, 
that the country Yupaha was on the 
eailern coall. 4. Ferdinand was, it 
is exprefUy find, within two davs' 
march of the fea — about forty or fifty 
miles. As an unequivocal proof of 
this, the account relates, " that all the 
troops were of opinion, that this was 
the proper fituation for them to Icttle ; 
it being fo advantageous a port, f«)r 
all the Ihips from New- Spain, Peru, 
St. Martha, and the main, to carry on 
their iraHic in, as it lay in iheir road 
to Old Spain ; that the land was good, 
and commerce might be there ellab- 
lillieJ with great profit." This de- 
fcription anfwers to Georgia : for it is 
well known, that the Spaniih fh'ps, 
in ther voyages to Spain, pifs nor- 
therly, from the iflands and the main, 
through the guif of Florida, and near- 
ly to the latitude of Savanna. But 
Ferdinand was obliged to return, in 
rrder to meet Maldonado, with the 
fleet, at Ochufe. 5. H^, however, 
remained here lome time, and fent out 
parties to make difcoveries. 6. The 
"confequence of thefe fatts, is, that the 
fortifications now to be feen on the 
Aliamaha, were probably the work of 
Ferdinand de Soto. 

\v hile Ferdinand was in this quar- 
ter, he was told " that, at thediftance 
of twelve days' journey, north-weft, 
was the province of Chiaha," whi- 

NOTE. 

•noticed, that Ferdinand's interpreter 
was one Ortiz, a Spaniard, who had 
"been in Florid?., twelve year« ; viz. 
from the tim^ of Narvez's expediticn, 
who oenftiod with his followers, near 
l^enfacob, in 1527. The wife of 
Narvez had fent Ortiz in qucft of her 
hu^iand ; but being decoyed on (hore 
by the natives, he was made prifoner, 
and detained till Ferdinand's arrival. 



1^8 



Letter refpe£lin,!r thcforlrjtcations in tin wcjlcrn country. [Aiigufi, 



tainous; and the direflion muft have 
•been over the fouthern part of the 
Allegany. 

" Chiaha was fituated u^wn ths 
feinks of a river, which, dividing it- 
ielf into two branches, formed a little 
ifland.fomewhat more than a mile lon^, 
and two bow- (hots acrofs." I fhoiild be 
glad to know, of lome perfon, who has 
begn at Le;cmgi:on, whether there is 
an ifland of this defcription, oppofite 
^r near the old fortiHcatioiis ; and 
whether nee grows m that country, 
fo far northward. The troops repof- 
ed at Chiaha thirty days ; and 1 (uf- 
peti the fort to have been their work. 
- Here Ferdinand was informed, that 
" more to the north, was the country 
of Chifca, where copper was f)iirid, 
and another metal purer and livelier; 
but that ihe road was mountainous 
and rough." He therefore difpatched 
■two Spaniards, with an interpreter and 
guides, to explore the couniry. Thefe 
returned in three days, with fuch an 
ficcount of the road, as to difcourage 
Ferdinand from proceedm* ; and he 
refolved to return. This was in J^ily. 
Ferdinand now marched fouihward, 
through Cofa. This is on the we{}crn 
branch of the large river Mobille ; 
which is called, in fomemaps, Tambe- 
che. The eadern branch is called A- 
libama ; v.'hich 1 fufped to be but a 
variation of Ulliballi, a lettiement, 
thro' which Ferdinand padcd. Healfo 
came to Tallife, a large town, which 
■I take to be the modern Taliifec, the 
head quarters, or large town, of the 
lower Creeks. He then proceeded to 
Maville, which is undoubtedly the 
fame as Mabille: for, in the Spanifh 
language, the letters h and v are ufed 
indifferently ; and it is immaterial, 
whether we pronounce the word 
Maville, or Mabille. Here a quar- 
rel broke out between (he Spaniih 
and Indians, which ended with the 
fii'.iKhter of two thoufand five hun- 
dred of the latter. This was about 
the i8ihof Oftober. 1540. 

That Ferdinand w-is now near the 
Mobille, i< certain, Irom tins faft — 
that he wa*; but feven davs' i'mrney, 
or about one hundred and ihirty miles, 
from Ochiile, or Penfacola, where 
Maldonado was waitingwith the ileet. 
Of this he had intelligenrc ; but would 
not communicate it 10 his troops: for 
h,e was determined not to leave the 



country, till he had difcovered fome 
mine's, to reward his followers. He 
therefore Ifaid a month at Maville, to 
recruit his troops, and marched for 
Chicoca, on the i8(h of Novemberi 
The dillance, and dircttion of thij 
place, are not mentioned : but we may 
polhbly collect them from circumftan- 
tial evidence. Suppofing Ferdinand 
to be one hundred ajid thirty miles, 
or feven days' journey, from the Bay 
of Penfacola — which is nearly the 
truth — which way could he travel ? — 
had he gone eaft, he muft have met 
with the Ailantic, in lefs than half the 
time which he marched before he 
took winter quarters, which was on 
the 18th of December. Had he gone 
v^eft, he would have found the Mif- 
filfippi in a few days. His diretlion, 
then, muft have been nearly north. 
But this circumftance puts the matter 
beyond a doubt — the account faysy 
"the cold grew too fevere, for the army 
to proceed." This is never the cafe 
near the gulf of Florida, and cannot 
be the cafe much 10 the fouthward of 
Mufkingum, which is in the latitudeof 
Maryland, about thirty eight or thir- 
ty nine. But let us attend to the dif- 
tance. He marched from Maville, 
on the J 8th of November, and arriv- 
ed at Chiooca, on the iSih of De- 
cember. He crofTcd many rivers, but 
two large ones, at one of which he 
was detained four days, for a boat to 
be made. Jiift as he palled the lall, he 
came to Chicoca, where he wintered, 
I^et us allow hiin five days, for inter- 
ruptions, and fiippofe he marched, on 
an average, fix leagues a day, for 
twenty-five days : — this makes the 
diftanceone hundred and fifty leagues, 
or four hundred and fifty miles. Add 
this to one hundred and thirty — the 
diftance of Maville. from Pcnfacola- 
Bay — and Ferdinand muft have win- 
tered, at the diftance of five hundred 
and eighty miles from that hay. We 
cannot reconcile the length of his 
march, ami the feverily of the cold.* 
on any oiher principle. The Bay of 
Penfacola is nearly in the latitudeof 
New Orleans; but fomething north. 
From New Orleans, 10 the mouth of 
the Ohio, is, in a ft rait line, but four 
hundred and lixiy miles. From the 
Ohio, to the month of the Miffoori, 
is, by land, one hundred and forty 
miles ; that is, from New Orleans, 



1789.] Letter rtfpe5ling the fortifications in the wejlern eountry, 139 



to Miffoori, juO fix hundred. Miiik- 
ingum is nearly in ihe latitude of the 
mouth of Miffoori : coniequently, as 
the Bay of Penfacola is about half a 
decree northward of New Orleans, 
thedillance, from that Bay to Mufk- 
ingum, would be nearly five hundred 
and eighty miles, in a Hrait line north- 
ward. We murt, however, make iome 
allowance for four or nve degrees d f - 
ference of longitude. At any rate, 
the time of maichiiig cnrrefponds well 
enough with the length of the way, 
from Maville to Mulkingiim. The 
detcription of the country alfo anfwers 
to that of Mufkingum; for it is faid 
to be extremely rich and plealant. 

In March, a jealoufy was raifed, 
between the Spaniards and Indians, 
which came to a rupture. The Spani- 
ards defeated the lavages ; but the 
town was burnt, and in it fifty horles 
and four hundred pig".* The Spani- 
ards loft alio twelve men. In April, 
1541, Ferdinand marched towards 
Rio le Grande, the great river, or 
MilliHippi. He palled throug Ail- 
mamu, which may be the country a- 
bout the river Miami; then he had 
a wildernefs of feven davs' journey, 
about one hundred atid thirty or one 
hundred and forty miles, to pafs ihr.i, 
before he came to Quizquiz. Confi- 
dering the letter q as e'jinvalent to k, 
as it is in all languages, of wh'ch I have 
any knowledge, and that the Spaniards 
generally ufe q. the analogy of names 
leads me to fulpei:! this to be the mo- 
dern KalTtafliias, which is about fe- 
venty or eighty miles above the Ohio. 
Ferdinand then proceeded to crofs 
the great river — boats were condiruct- 
ed for the pupofe — and the whole ar- 
my crofTed, in the courfe of a day. 
The time, when he croifed. is not 
mentioned; but from circumfiances, 
it appears to have been in May. 

NOTE. 

* I would here obferve, that it was 
dfunomary for the Spaniards, to travel 
with herds of fwine, in their expedi- 
tion's. The fwine will live in a wil- 
dernefs without any trouble, and foon 
learn to follow like dogs. The fa- 
vages, at Chicoca, were once enter- 
tained with fwine 's flt'Ri, the firft they 
had tafted ; and, after that, were con- 
Hantiy ftealingthe pigs from the Spa- 
niards, 



Ferdinand then proceeded towards 
the province of Pacaha : but his way 
" lay over a lake, which formed a 
kind of gulf in the Rio Grande" — 
This defcription anfwers exactly to 
the Miffoori ; for it is faid, immedi- 
ately after, that its current was both 
deep and rapid i. The Milfoori is 
cold, deep, muddy and rapid, and, at 
the mouth, broader than the Millif- 
fippi. The defcription, in this ac- 
count, will not anfwer to any o;her 
auxiliary flream, on the well of the 
MilTi [fippi . The Indians framed for 
the Spaniards a kind of bridge, on 
which the army croHed. 

Ferdinand entered Pacaha on the 
nineteenth of June. He fent out a 
party to reconnoitre the country : but 
receiving an unfavourable account of 
it to the northward, he determined 10 
return, and march fouihwaid, to the 
great province, Quigate. Here he 
arrived, on the fourth of Auguii, hav- 
ing remained forty days at Pacaha. It 
is impofiible to find what courfe he 
had marched ; but, at Quigate, hs 
muft have been far weft of the Mif- 
fiflippi ; for he next moved to Caligoa, 
which was forty leagues north- eaft of 
Quigate, and at the foot of a mouu- 
trfin. From Caligoa, to Palifema,, 
was five days march, or about ona 
hundred miks. From iiie latter, to 
Pafal'.coya, and thence to Cayas, the 
Courfe and diftance are not noticed. 
But it IS faid afterwards, that Cayas 
is on the river that waflie-; Nilco and 
Autiamque, and that tins river joins 
the great river near Guachoya, where 
Ferdinand died. Mr. Ilutchins fays, 
that Ferdinand died near the mouth 
of Red River, which is one hundred 
and eighty feven miles above New 
Orleans. If lo, ths;n Cayas mult 
have been at leall one hundred and 
forty leagues, or four hundred and 
twenty miles, from the niouih of the 
Red River. For, from Cayas, to 
Tulla, was one day's march, or fix 
leagues; from Tulla to Autiamque, 
was 'eight leaiaies fouth-eail, or down 
the river : aud from Autiamque to 
Nilco. the diftance was about eight 
days' march or forty eight leagues — 
and Nilco was at a confiderable dif- 
atnce from the mouth of the ilted 

,\ o T F. . 

f See mr. JeiTejTon'i note?; 



f4« Letter refpe^ing the /ortiftcations iu the wcjlem country', [Augufl| 

River. Ferdinand therefore muft of July. 1543. They were therefore 

have traverle'd the mountains well of in Florida, tour years and two months^ 

the Milhdippi, at the diliance oft-.ree Thefirll winier ihey p^Hcd in or nean 

hundred, four hundred, and hvehun- the povince of Paiache — ihe fccond^' 

dred miles. The probability 1?, that, ui a cold clunatCj which I fuppofe to- 



after palling the Milliirippi, he crof- 
fed the Miifoori — bent his courfe 
northward and weitward — then chang- 
. ed his route fouihward, nearly to the 
head of Red River — then followed 
the courfe of that river, to AuLiam- 
que. v;here he wintered, the third 
year after his landing. In the fprintf^ 
he continued his coiirf-, by the nver, 
to Nilco, then to Guachova, at the 
-confluence of that and the Miiiiirippi, 
Iwhere he died of a fever, on the 21ft 
of May, 1542, three years from his 
firll landing. 

After his death, Mofcofo f immon- 
ed a council, to determine, which way 
to proceed— whether by land, weft- 
ward, to Mexico, or by water, to 
Cuba. They were ill-prepared to 
march fuch a dilfknce, being worn 
out with fatigue, and many of the 
troops unable to bear arms. But to 
the other plan, greater diiliculties op- 
pofed theaifcives — it was doubtful, 
whether a veflel could he conilrafted 
capable of fuilaining Inch a voyage ; 
and they had neither pilot, charts, 
tior compalTes. They iheref irc re- 
folved to travel, by land, to Mexico, 
and left Guachoya, on thi Hhh of 
June. The particulars of this lum- 
mrr's march are ir.uuterefling ; it 1$ 
fufficicnt to obferve, that they travel- 
led nearly five hundred mdes well of 
the MifTiiTippi, fom."time;aliTio(tllarv- 
ed ; at others, harrallcd bv fierce tribes 
of lavajies. The obllacles, tiiat op- 
pofed theexecution of their delign, in- 
creafed to that degree, that a coun- 
cil was called, in which it was re- 
folved to return, to build fume velTels 
at Nilco, and to hazard themfelves at 
fea. They arr'ved in autumn; but 
not finding a fufficiency of maize, for above Red River 
their lubiiilence, they moved two 
days' journey, northward. toMinoya, 
on the banks of_ihe MilIiHippi. Here 
they employed (he fourth winter of 
their expedition, in condruHing foine 
brigant:ne«, which were finilhcd in 
June. Inthpfe,lhe Spaniards failed 
to Mexico, where they arrived on the 
tenth of Septembrr. 

The Spaniards landed at Spintu 
Santo, on the p.-vh of May. 1539 ; 
andleftthc Milliiljppi, on the iSih 
3 



be Mulkingum — the third, at Autiam- 
que, on the Red River, (la Riviere 
Rouge) — and the fourih at Minoya^ 
two days' journey, or twelve league* 
north of the Red River, on the banks 
of the Miffillippi. If we confidery- 
in this exp-"dition, the number of meii 
employed, nine hundred foot and 
three hundred and fifty horfe — the dif- 
ficulties and dangers to which they, 
were expofed, froni fam ne, front ' 
larje rivers, from the wildernefs, fronv 
mountains and from hollsof fa-'ages — ■ 
and the amai'ing perfcvcrance, with; 
which ihe whole undertaking was 
conduced — we iliall be aftonilhed at 
the palfion for gold,, wiiich inflamed: 
the Spaniards at that period. But 
that palfion was as real then, as it is 
now furprifing. Previous to this, there 
had been thiee expedirions to Florida, 
undertaken with a fimilar view. The 
firll, under John Ponce de Leon, in 
1512 . The fecond, under^uke Vaf- 
qiicz, in i/iao; And the third, under 
Pauiphilo Narvez, in 1,526 and 1527. 
Narvczand all his followers p?rilhcd 
by the hands of the Indians or by 
Ihipwreck ; and the ill fuccefs of 
Ferdin md difcouragcd the Spaniards 
fr»»in any further aiiempt. 

I cannot conclude this relation, 
without one reiuavk — Mr. Ilutchin* 
fays, that '"' Ferdinand died near the 
mouth of Red River." Were il 
not for the aurhority of this gentle- 
man, whofe opinion, in this matter, I 
dare not controvert, I fliould have 
fuppofed, that Ferdinand died at the 
mouth of the Arkenfaw, which is 
larger than the Red River, runs the 
fame courfe, and falls into the Mif- 
fi'Tippi, about three hundred miles 
Mv reafons are 
thefe, — Mafcofa was fourteen days 
navigating the river from Minoya, 
(which was two days' iournev, above 
the place of Fcrd-nand's death) to the 
mouth of the Millillippi. Now, mr. 
Hiitchins himfelf fays, tiiai the river, 
in floods, runs about five or fix m les 
an hour. Mofcofo went down the 
river, in the time of a flood ; and the 
account fays exprefsly. " that ihey 
found the current very llrong. and tliey 
advanced at a ••rcat rate, by the help 



•89.] 



Settlement of Plymouth, in New England. 



I4t 



of their oars." But leaving out all 
ainftance of oars, fuppofe that the 
fleet Hopped at night, and that they 
failed but five miles an hour, and ten 
hours a day, for fourteen days, they 
muft have palled feven hundred miles. 
But, according to mr. Hutchins's 
own account, which is very accurate, 
the mouth of Red River is but two 
hundred and ninety-two miles, from 
the Balize, at the mouth of MidilTip- 
pi. If to this we add three hundred 
and eight miles, for the diitance, from 
Red River to Arkenfaw, we have a 
diftance of but fix hundred miles, for 
the fourteen days' voyage. But the 
velFels were built at Minoya, about 
forty miles above the mouth of the 
river; and, adding this, the dillance 
Hill falls fhort of the molt moderate 
calculation, fonfourieen days' palTage. 
But, mr. Hutchins, who has lived 
long in that country, may have rea- 
fons for his opinion, to which I am a 
flranger. I Ihould therefore fubfcribe 
to his opinion, and fuppofe, thatMaf- 
cufo might have futtercd, on his paf- 
fjge, various interruptions, which are 
not mentioned. The account I have 
of this expedition, dr. Franklin fup- 
poies to be an abridgment, not a tranf- 
lation, of the whole original hiflory : 
and it is very probable, that the ori- 
ginal might throw new light upon the 
iubje£f. 

In a future letter, fir, I fliall take 
the liberty of making a few remarks 
on the old fortifications, and fome ap- 
pearances relating to them, which 
may remove fome objeQions to the 
opinion, that they were crafted by 
the Spaniard";, 

I am, rev, fir, with perfeft refpeft, 
Your mofl obedient 

humble fervant, 
NOAH WEBSTER. 
(To be continued.) 



Relation or iourvall of the beginnin!^ 
and proceedings of the Englifi 
plantations felled at Plimoth in 
New England, by certaine Eng- 
lifi adutnturers, both merchants 
and others, IVitk their dijjidilt 
pO;lfcg^t their fafe urriuall, their 
joyful building of, and comfort- 
able planting tkemfelwts in the 
now well defended toivne of Nezo 
Plimoth. As alfo a relation of 
Vol. VI. 



fovre feuerall difcoiieries, finct 
made by feme of the fame Englifk 
planters there refident, &c. — P. 61 » 
London, printed, 1662, 

IN the end wee got out of the 
wood, and were fallen about a 
myle toohigh abcue the creake, where 
we faw three bucks ; but we had ra- 
ther haiie had one of them« Wee 
alfo did fpring three couple of par- 
tridges j and as we came along by the 
creake, we faw great ilocke? of wild 
gcefe and duckcs, but they were very 
fearefuU of vs. So v/e marched fome 
while in the woods, fome while ca 
the lands, and other while, in the wa- 
ter vp to the knees, till at length we 
came neare the fhip ; and then wc 
fhot ofF our peeces, and the long boat 
came to fetch vs ; mafter lones, and 
mailer Caruer, being on the fliore, 
with many of our people, came to 
meete vs. And thus wee came, both 
weary and well-come, home, and de- 
liuered in our corne into the ftore, to 
be kept for feed ; for we knew riot 
how to conrie by any, and therefore 
were very glad, purpofing, fo foone 
as we could meete with any of the in- 
habitants of that place, to make them 
large fatisfattion. 

This was our firll difcot'ery : whilft 
our Ihallop U'as in repairing, our peo- 
ple did make things as fitung as ihey 
could, and time would, in fccking out 
wood, and heluing of tooles, and 
fawing of tymber, to build a new 
fhallop ; but, the difcommodioufnes 
of the harbour did much hinder vs; 
for we could neither goe to, nor come 
from the fhore, but at high water, 
which was much to our hinderance 
and hurt ; for oftentinies they waded 
to the middle of the ihigh, and oft to 
the knees, to goe and come from land ; 
fome did it neccffaniy, and fome for 
their ovvne pleafure; but it brought 
to the mod, if not to all, coughes 
and colds, the weather hroinngfodainly 
cold and llormie, which afterward turn- 
ed to the fcurvev, whereof many dyed. 

When our {hallop was fit (indeed, 
before flie was fully fitted, for therewas 
tvvodayes worke after bellowed on her) 
there was appointed fome twentie-four 
ihen of ouruwne, and armed, then to 
goe and make a more full difcovery of 
the rivers beforcmeniioned. Mailer 
lones was dcfirous to goe with vs, and 
tooke fuchof hisfaylcrs as he thought 



142 



Stttlcnient of Plymouth, in New England. 



[AuguQ, 



vfeful for vs, fo as we were in all, about 
about thirtie-tourmen ; wee made mat- 
ter I ones our leader, for we thought 
it bell herein to graiiBe his kindncs 
and furwardnefs. When we were let 
forth, It proued rough weather and 
erode windes, fo as we were tou- 
lirairted, fome in the Ihallop, and 
othersm the long boaie, to row to 
the nccreft Ihore the winde would 
lurler them to goe viito, and then to 
%vade out aboue the knees ; the wind 
was fojUrong, as the fliallop could not 
keepe the water, but was forced to 
harbour there that night; but we 
matched fixe or feaven miles fur- 
ther, and appointed the fliallop to 
come to vs, as foone as they could. It 
blowed, and did fnow, all that day 
and night, and frofc wiihall ; fome of 
our people, that are dead, looke the 
oiigmall of their death here. 

1 he next day, about ii.a clocke, 
our Ihallop came to vs', and wee ih:p- 
■ ped ourlelues, and the wind being 
good, we fayled to the river we for- 
mcily difcovered, which we named, 
Cold Harbour ; to which, when wee 
came, we found it not navigable for 
ihipSj yet we thought it might be a 
good harbour for boats ; for it flowes 
there twelve foote at high water. We 
landed our men betweene the two 
creekes, and marched fome foure or 
hue myles by the greater of them, and 
the Ihallop followed vs ; at length 
night drew on, and our men were 
tired with marching vp and downe 
the Tteepe hills, and deepe vaU 
lies, which lay halfe a foote thicke 
with fnow : mailer lones, wearied 
with niiirching, was dehrous wefliould 
take vp our lodging, though fome of 
vs would haue matched further ; fo 
we made there our randeezvous, for 
that night, vnder a few pine trees ; 
and, as it fell out, wee got three fat 
geefe, and fix ducks to our fupper, 
which we eate with fouldiers llo- 
riiachs, for we had eaten little all that 
day, our rcfolution was, next morn- 
ing to go vp to the head of this ri- 
ver, for we fuppofed it would proue 
frelh water; but in the morning our 
rciolution hold not ; beraufe many 
liked not the hillin?fs of the foyle, 
and badneffe of the harbour ; fo we 
turned towards the other creeke, that 
wee might goe over, and look for 
the rell of the come, that wc left be- 



hind when we were here before; 
when we canu: to the Creeke, we faw 
the lanow lie on the dry ground, and 
a llocke of geefe in the river, at 
which one made a fliot, and killed a 
couple of them, and we launched th« 
caiiow, and fetcht them; and when 
we had done, flie carried vs' over by 
fcavcn or eight at once. 

This done, we marched to the place 
where we had the corne formerly, 
which place we called Corne-hill ; and 
digged, and found the rell, of Vi'hich 
we were very glad : we alfo digged in 
a place a little further olf, and found 
a botle of oyle ; wee went to another 
place, which we had feene before, 
and digged, and found more corne, 
viz. two or three baflcets full of In- 
dian wheat, and a bag of beanes, with 
a good many of faire wheat eares ; 
whilll fome of vs were digging vp 
this, fome others found another heaps 
of corne, which they digged vp alio, 
fo as we had in all about ten bulhels, 
which will ferue vs fufficiently for 
feed. And fure it was God's good 
providence that we found this corne ; 
for els wee know not how we fliould 
haue done, for we knew not how w« 
ftiould find or meete with any of the 
Indians, except it be to doe vs a mif- 
chiefe. Alfo, we had neuer, in all 
likelihood, feene a graine of it, if we 
had not midc ourfirll iourney ; for the 
ground was now covered with Inovv, 
and fo hard frofen, that we were faine 
with our curtlaxes and fliort fwords, 
to hue and came the ground a foot 
deepe. and then wreft it vp with lea- 
vers, for wc had f(jrgot to bring other 
tooles. Whilll we were in this im- 
ployment. foule weather being to- 
wards, mufler lones was earnelt to 
goe abroad ; but fundry of vs defircd 
to make further difco-ery, and to find 
out the Indians habitations ; fo we 
fenthome with him our weakeil peo- 
ple, and fome that were licke, and' 
all the corne, and eighteen of vs flay- 
ed ftill. and lodged there that night, 
and de'ired that the Ihallop might re- 
turne to vs next day, and bring us 
fome mattocks and Ipades with them. 
The next morning, wc followed 
certaine beaten paihes and trails of 
the Indians, into the woods, fuppof- 
ing they would haue led rs into fome 
towne, or houfes; aficr wee had 
gone a while, we li^ht vpon a very 



^7^9-1 



Settlement of Plyviouth^ in New England. 



143 



broad beaten path, well nigh two 
footc broad : theii we lighted all our 
matches, and prepared our feliies, con- 
cltidina; wee were neare their dwel- 
lings ; but in the end we found it to 
be onely a path made to draie deer 
in, when the Indians hunt, as wee 
fuppofed ; when we had marched fine 
or fix myles into the woods, and could 
find no Iignes of any people, we re- 
turned agame another way, and as 
we canne into the plaine ground, wee 
found a place like a graiie, but it was 
much bigger and iongtr, than any we 
had yet feene. ti was alfo covered 
wiih boords, fo as we mufed what it 
fhould be, and refolved to digge it vp, 
where we found, firil a matt, and vn- 
der that, a fay re bow, and there ano- 
ther matt, and s'ndcr that, a boord 
about three quarters long, finely carued 
and paynted, with three tyncs, or 
broches on the top, like a crowne ; 
alfo between the mails we found 
bodies, trayes, diflies, and fuch like 
trinkets ; ai length we came to a faire 
new mair, and vnder that, two bun- 
dles, the one bigger, the oiher lelle ; 
we opened the greater, and found in 
it a great quaniitie of hue and perfect 
red powder, and in it ihe bones and 
fknll of a man. The fkull had fine 
yellow liaire flill on it, and fome of 
the flefh vnconfumed ; there was 
bound vp with it, a knife, a pack 
needle, and two or three old iron 
things. It was bound vp in a faylers 
canvas cafacke, and a payre of cloth 
breeches ; the red powder was a kind 
of embaidment, and yeelded a Rrong, 
but no offenfiue fmell ; it was as fine 
as any flower. We opened the lefTe 
bundle likewife, and found of the 
•fame powder in it, and the bones and 
head of a little childe ; about the 
legg"!, and other parts of it, was 
■ bound Itrfngs, and bracelets of fine 
white beads; there was alio by it, a 
little bow, about three quarters long, 
and fome other odd knackes ; we 
brought fundry of the pretielt things 
away with vs, and covered the corps 
vp againe. After this, we digged in 
fundry like places, but found no more 
corne, nor any things els but gKiues : 
there was a vanetie of opinions a- 
mongft vs, about the embalmed per- 
fon ; fome thought it was an Indian 
lord and king: others fayd, the In- 
dians haue all blacke hayre, and ne- 



ver any was feene with browne or 
yellow hayre ; fome thought, it was a 
chrifhan of fome fpeciall note, which 
had dyed amongd them, and they 
thus buried him to honour him ; o- 
ihers thought, they had killed him, and 
did it in triumph over him. Whilefi 
we were thus ranging and fearchmg, 
two of the faylers, which were newly 
come on the fliore, by chance eipied 
two houfcs, wh'cli had beene lately 
dwelt in, but the people were gone. 
They having their pceccs, and hear- 
ing no body, entered the hoiifes, and 
tooke out fome things, and duiR not 
ffay, but came againe and told vs ; 
fo fome fcaven or eight of vs went 
with them, and found how we had 
gone within a flight-fliot of them be- 
fore. The hojfes were made with 
long youRg fapling trees, bended, and 
both ends Hucke into the ground ; 
they were made round, like vnto an 
arbour, and covered downe to the 
ground wiih tliicke and well wrought 
matts ; and the doore was not over a 
yard high, made of a matt, to open ; 
the chimney was a wide open hole in 
the top, for which they had a matt, to 
cover it clofe when they pleaftd ; one 
might If and and goe vpriglit in them ; 
in the midfl of them vs'ere foure little 
tninches knockt into the ground, and 
fmall llickes laid over, on which they 
hang their pots, and what they had to 
feeth ; round about the fire, they lay 
on matts, which are their beds. The 
houfes were double matted ; for, as 
they were matted withomgl^o they 
were within, with ncwej and fairer 
matts. In the houfes w? found wood- 
en boules, trayes and diilies, earthen 
pots, hand bafkets made of crab fliells, 
wrought together; alfo an Englifh 
paile or bucket; it wanted a bayle, 
but it had two iron eares : there was 
alio bdfkeis of fundry forts, bigger 
and fome lefTcr, finer and fome cour- 
fer; fome were curioufly wrought, 
with blacke and white, in pretie 
workes, and fundry other of their 
houfhoid fluffe : we found alfo two 
or three deeres heads, one whereof 
had bin newly killed, for it was ffill 
frefl: : there was alfo a company of 
deeres feete, ftuck vp in the houfes ; 
harts homes, and eagles clavves, and 
fundry fuch like things : there was alfo 
two or three baOcets full of parched 
acornesj pecces of fifli, and a petce 



144 



Settlement of Plymouth, in Nta> England. 



[AuguR, 



of a broyled hcring. We found alfo 
a Imie Hike gralie, and a little tobac- 
co feed, with tome other feeds, which 
■wee knew not ; without was fundry 
bundle-; of ilags, and fedge, buU-niih- 
es, and other Itutie to make malts; 
there was ihruH into an holloiv tree, 
two or three peeces of venifon ; but 
we thought It fitter for the dogs then 
for vs. Some of the beft things we 
tooke away with vs, and left the 
houles Handing (till as they were ; fo 
it growing towaids night, and the 
tyde almoft fpent, we haded with our 
things downe to the (hallop, and got 
abourd that night, intending to haue 
brought fome beanes, and other things, 
to haue left in the houfes, in figne 
of peace, and that we meant to truk 
vith them ; but u was not done, by 
mranes of our haRic comming away 
from Cape Cod ; but fo foone, as we 
can prieete conveniently with them, 
we will giue them full fatisfaOion. 
Thus much of our fecond difcovery. 

Having thus difcovered this place, 
it wascontroverfall amongft vs, what 
to doe, touching our aboad and fet- 
llug there ; fome thought it beft, for 
mnny reafons, to abide there ; 

As full, there was a convenient 
harbour for boates, though not for 
fhips. 

Secondly, good corne-groiuid, rea- 
die to our hands, as we faw by expe- 
rience in the goodly come it yeelded, 
which would ngaine agree with the 
ground, and be naturall feed for the 
fame. *^ 

Thirdly, Cape Cod was like to be a 
place of good hfliing ; for we faw 
daily great whales of the beft kind, 
for oyle and bone, come clofe aboord 
our fhip, and in fayre weather fv/im 
and play about vs ; there was once 
one, when the fun (hone warme, 
came and lay aboue warer, as if {he 
had heene dead, for a good while to- 
gether, within halfe a mufket fiiot of 
the fli'p, at which two were prepared 
to fliootc, to fee whether ihe would 
{lir or no ; he that gaue hre firft, his 
imufket flew in peecc<:, both ftocke and 
barrel 1 ; yd, thiinkes be to God, nei- 
ther he, nor any man els, was hurt 
%v!th it, though many were there a- 
bout ; but when the whale faw her 
time, fhc gaue a fnuffe and away. 

Foiitihly, the place was likely to 
be lieahbfuilj fecurc, and ^efcnfible. 



But the laft, and efpeciall reafon, 
was, that now the heart of winter, and 
vnfealonable weather, was come vpon 
vs. fo that we could not goe vpon 
coafting and difcovery, without dan- 
ger of lofing men and boat ; vpon 
which wou|d follow the overthrow 
of all, efpecially, confidering what 
variable windes and fodaine ftormes 
do there arife. Alfo cold and wett 
lodging had fo taynted our people, 
(for fcarce any of vs were free from 
vehement coughs) a-, if they fhould 
continue long in that ftate, it would 
indanger the hues of many, and breed 
difeafes and infetlion amongft vs. 
Againe, we had yet fome beere, butr 
ter, flelh, and other fuch viduals left, 
which would quickly be all gone ; and 
then we fliould haue nothing to com- 
fort vs, in the great labour and toyle 
we were like to vndergoe at the firft ; 
it was alfo conceived, whilft we had 
competent viftuals, that the fhip would 
flay with vs, but when that grew low, 
they would be gone, and let vs fhift 
as we could. 

Others againe, vrged greatly the go- 
ing to Anguum, or Angoum, a place 
twentie leagues off to the northwards, 
which they had heard to be an excel- 
lent harbour for fliips ; better ground 
and better fifliing. Secondly, for any 
thing we knew, there might be, hard 
by vs, a farre better feate, and it 
fhould be a great hindrance to leate 
where we fhould remoue againe. 
Thirdly, the water was but in ponds, 
and it was thought, there would be 
none in fummer, or very little. 
Fourthly, the water there muft be 
fetched vp a lleepe hill: but to omit 
many reafons and replies, vfed heere 
abouts; it was in the ende concluded, 
tr) make fome dilcovery within the 
bay, hut in no cafe fo far as Angoum : 
befides, Robert Corpin, our pilot, 
made relation of a great navigable ri- 
ver and good harbour, in the other 
head land of this bay, almoft right 
over againft Cape Cod, being a right 
line, not much above eight leagues 
diftant, in which hee had becne once ; 
and bccaiife that one of the wild 
men, with whom they had fome truck- 
ing, flole a harping iron from them, 
they called it I'hecuifli Harbour. And 
beyond that place they were enioyned 
not to goe ; whereup-m, a company 
v/as chofcn to goe out vpQn a third 



nh-] 



Settlement of Plymouth^ in New England, 



H5 



difcovery : whileft fome were itnploy. 
ed in this dilcovery, it pleafed God, 
that miRns White was brought to bed 
t)f a fonne, which was called Pere- 
grine. 

The fift day, we, through Gods 
mercy, efcaped a great danger by the 
finliAiues of a boy, one of Francis 
Pullingtons fonnes, who in his fathers 
aljfence, had got gun- powder, and had 
lit of a peice or two, and made 
Iquibs ; and there being a fowling 
peice charged in his fathers cabbin, 
flioj her oft in the cabbin, there being 
a litile barrel 1 of powder halfe full, 
fraitsred in and about the cabbin, the 
fire being wuhin four foote of the 
ocd'betweene the deckes, and many 
flints and iron things about the cabbin, 
and many people about the fire, and 
yet, by Gods mercy, no harme was 
doue, 

Wednefday, the fixt of December 
it was refolved our difcoverers fhou'.d 
fet forth ; for the day before was too 
iowle weather ; and fo they did, 
though it was well ore the day, ere all 
things could be readie. So ten of 
pur men were appointed, who were 
of themfelues willing to vndertake it, 
to wit, captaine Standifh, maifler 
carver, William Bradford, Edward 
M'lnfloe, lohn Tilley, Edward Til- 
ley, lohn PIouiand,and three of Lon- 
don, Richard Warren, Steeuen Hop- 
k ns and Ecjward Dotte, and two of 
our lea-men, lohn Alderton and Tho- 
mas Englifli : of the fivps company, 
there went two of the mailers mates, 
mailer Clarke and mailer Copin, the 
mailer gunner, and three faylers. The 
narration of which difcovery, fol- 
lowes penned by one of the company. 

Wednefdiy, the fi^ct of December, 
wee fet out, being very cold and hard 
weather; wee were a long while, af- 
ter wc laynchgd from thelhip, before 
we could get cleare of a fandiepoynt, 
which lay within led'c then a furlong 
of the lame. In which tin^e. two were 
very fickf?, and Edward Tilley had 
Ike to haue founded with cold : the 
gunner was slfo ficke vnto death, 
(but. hope of irukjngmadejitm !o,g_)e) 
and fo remained all that day. and the 
next night ; at length we got cleare of 
the fandy poynt, and got vp our fayles, 
and wuhin an houre or two we got 
vnJer the weather (bore, and then had 
fcjother water and better iasliug : 



but it was very cold, for the water 
frofe on ourclothes, and made them 
many times like coats of iron ; wee 
fayled fixe or feven leagues by the 
lliore, but faw neuher river nor 
creeke ; at length we metf with a 
tongue of land, being flat otf from the 
fliore, with a landy poynt ; we bore 
vp to game the poynt, and found there 
a fayre income or rode, of a bay, be- 
ing a league over at the narroweft, 
and loine two or three in length ; 
but wee made right over to the land 
before vs, and left the difcovery of 
this income till the next day ; as wee 
drew ncare to the (liore, wee efpicd 
fome tenor twelue Indians, very bufie 
about a Wacke thing; what it was, we 
could not tell, till afterwards they favir 
vs, and ran to and fro, as if they had 
beene carrying I'omething away ; wee 
landed, a league or two from them, 
and had much adoe to put a fliore 
any where, it lay fo full of flat fands ; 
when we came to fliore, we made vs 
a baricado, and got fire-wood, and 
fetout our fentinells, and betooke vs 
to our lodging, fach it was ; we faw 
the fmoke of the fire, which the fa- 
vages made that night, about foure or 
fiuemylesfrom us ; in the morning we 
devided our company, fome eight in 
the ihallop. and the reft on the fliore 
went to difcouer this place ; but we 
found it only to be a bay, without ei- 
ther river or creeke comming into it, 
yet we deemed to be as good an har- 
bour as Cape Cod, for rhey that 
{ounded it, found a fliip might ride in 
fine fathom water ; wee on the land 
found It to be a levill foyle, but none 
of the truitfuUefl ;wce faw two beckes 
offrefii water, which were the firft 
running ftreames that we faw in the 
country, but one migh* ftride over 
them ; we found alfo a great fifli, cal- 
Ied'agrampu5,de"d on the fandi : thxjy 
in the (hallop found two of them alfo 
in the bottome of the bay, dead in 
iikeiort ; ihey were caft vp at high 
v/atcr, and could not get off, for the 
froll and ice ; they were fome nue or 
fixe pares long, and about two inches 
thicke of fat, and fleflied like a fwine ; 
they would haue yeeMed a great deale 
of oyle, if th-ere had beene time and 
meanes, to haue taken it ; fo we find- 
in^f nothing fir our turne, both we a::d 
our fliallop reiurnfed. 

(' Fo be continued.) 



146 Central Jiatemenl of the foreign loans to the united Jlates. [Auguft, 

A general Jlatcment of the Foreign V.oi^^a.'i \ JJicwing, in ah/lra&, the 
capital funis borrowed; the arrearages of inter cjt, and parts of princi* 
pal, which became due ^ in 1786, 1787, a«^ 1 788, and remaining unpaid 
en the if. of January^ 1789 ; and the inter ef and parts of principal, b<' 
eoming due in the year 1789. 

Capital fums borrowed, viz. 

Livres. Dolls. 90, 

Of the French royal treafury, on intereft, 
at 5 per cent. 

In Holland, guaranteed by the 
French court. 



245000,000 
4 per cent. 10,000,000 



Royal Spanifh treafury, 

Lenders in Holland, iR loan, 
2nd ditto, 
3d ditto, 
4th ditto, 



Total, 



34,000,009- 
5 percent. 

Florins. 
5 per cent. 5,000,000 

4 per cent. 

5 per cent. 
5 percent. 



-6. £96, 295. 

'174,011. 




g. 000,00c 



-3,600,000. 



10,070.307. 



Arrearages of interef, and parts of principal, which, by the terms of the 

loans, became due in 1786, 1787, and 1788 ; and remained unpaid, on the 

ij of January, 1789. 

1786. 

Jan. 1. 2 years' int. on 6,000,000 liv. F. L. at 5 per cent 



Nov. 5. 1 ditto 10.000,000 do. 

Mar. 21. principal of the Spaniiji loan is, 

Arrearages of interell on ditto. 



F. L. 



4 per cent. 

5 per cent. 



Dolls. 
111,111. 

74,074. 
174,011. 

39,%5' 



90. 
10 



85 



Total, 



39.9 5 °9 2. 



1787. 
Jan. 1, 
Sept. 3. 

Nov. 5. 

Mar. 2 1 



1 year's inf. on 6,000,000 liv. F. L. at 5 per cent. 

4 years' int. on 18,000,000 liv. do. ditto, 

Firll paymt. of 18,000,000 capital, is - - 

1 year'.s int. on 10,000,000 liv. F. L. at 4 per cent. 

Y\r{i paymt. of 10,000,000 do. capital, is, 
, 1 year's int. on 174,011 liv. S. L. is, 

Total, 



Dolls. 901 

5.5, .5.5,5- 50 ' 
666,666. 60 

277,777. 70 
74,074. 
185,185. 17 
8,700. 60 

1,267,959. 77 



Jan. 1. 1 year's int. on, 
Sept. 3. 1 ditto. 

Second paymt. of 
Nov, 5. 1 year's int. on 

Second paymt. of 
Mar. 21. 1 year's int. on 



6,000,000 liv. F. L. at 5 percent, 
18.000,000 hv. do, ditto, 
18,000,000 do. capital, is, 
10,000,000 do. F. L. at 4 per cent. 
10,000.000 do. capital, is, 

174,011 do. S. L. at 5 per cent. 



Total, 



Intereft, 

Parts of principal, 



Total unpaid ift January, 1789. 

J,3.3.5;074- 75 
», 099-936. ^4— 



Dolls. 


90 


166.666, 


50 
60 


277,777. 


73 


74,074. 




185,185. 
8,700. 


17 
60, 


767,959. 


77 


Dolls. 


go 



-2-435. oil- 



1789.] 'rhe Vijitant, 1^7 

Intereft, becoming due, 'in the year, 1789. 
1789. 

Jan.i, 1 years' int. on 6,000,000 liv. F. L. at 5 per cent. 

Feb.i. 1 ditto 2,000,000 {io. D. L. 4 per cent. 

Mar. 21. 1 ditto 174,01 1 dels. S. L. 5 per cent, 

June 1. 1 ditto 7,000,000 fla. D. L. ditto, 

'Sept. 3. 1 ditto 18,000,000 !iv. F. L. ditto, 

Nov. 5. 1 ditto 10,000,000 do. F- L, 4 per cent. 

Annual Intereft, - w - _ 

Parts of principal, becoming due, in the year 1785 

17S9. . ... 

Sept. 3.Third paymt. of 18,000,000 liv. capital, is, 

Nov.^.Thlrd paymt.of 10,000,000 do, ditto, is, 

Total, - - - . 

February 1. By the terms of the loan of 2,000,000 florins, vide journals 
of congrefs for 1787, appendix, 246. 

The united ftaces may, if they choofe, pay off, and difcharge, in ready 
money, the premium anfiug this year, in like manner as was done in 178^, 
and 1787; whereby they will fave, as per page 259, the gratification of 
C per cent, as alfo the intereft upon 70,000 florins, at 4 per cent, until 1803. 

Dolls. 90. 
Premium of 70,000 florins, - - 28,000. 

Total— 1789, - - - - 9675959- 77 



Dolls. 


90 


bb:bbb- 


5« 


g2,000. 




8,700. 


60 


140,006. 




166,666. 


6,? 


74,074- 




476,996. 


80 


Dolls. 


90 


^17,777- 


70 


185,185. 


17 


462,962. 


«7 



Dolls 



90. 



From the foregoing ftatements, it appears, there was due, on 

the ill January, 1789, intereft, - . - i5335-°74 75 

To be provided for, to pay intereft, due in 1789, 476,996. 80 

Dutch premium of 1789, - - .- 28,000. 

Total intereft, - - - 1,840,071. 65 
Parts of principal, due, on the 1 ft of Ja- 
nuary, 1789, ... 1,099,936. 84 
Becoming due, in 1789, 462,962. 87 — • 1,562,899. 8t 

Total principal and intereft, due, January, 1790, 3,402,971. 56 

The farmers general of France have a claim on the united ftates, for eight 
hundred, forty fix thoufand, feven hundred andfeventy livres, fourteen fols, and 
five deniers ; upon a contraB, figned Benjamin Franklin, i7ih November, 
1781; being a balance, due on a loan of one million of livres, tournois, tho 
3d of June, 1777, to melTrs. Franklin & Deane, as agents of the united 
llates. 

Treafury of the united Jlates, regijler^s office^ Qd March, 1789. 

The Vijitant. — Continued from\ Ol-. Mr. Vifitant, 

V. page f)Z-j, "X7"OIJR laft paper confirms me 

Number xj. X in the opinion I always had of 

MY ingenious corrcfpondent who yon. that you are " vn fort galant 

figns himfelf T. S. B.* has homvu' — a very polite fort of a ^eu- 

favoured me with another letter, tlcman. 1 imagine, that you did not 

which 1 fliall prefent to the public, take my meaning, by what you lay, 

NOTE. jufl befure you introduce my lelfcr, 

*For this corrcfpondent ^, firft let- "• iliat 1 was out of humour with the 

ter, fee vol, v,p3«e 2S2, ladies." You miftake me cntirt-!). 



The Vifiidnt. 



[Augii'ft, 



Sir : I have as great a reverence and 
regard for ihe fair fex, as you, or any 
ether gentlemen, can have. 

Cummagnis virtutibus^ offers 

Grande Juperciliuvi — Juv. Sat. 6; 
1 own their virtues ; but I blame 

befide 
Their minds elate with haughtinefs 
and pride." 

ADDISON. 

" All I meant, was to give you a lit- . 
tie jog, to put you in mind of your du- 
ty ; and, as your flyle is very delicate, 
and your addrefs much admired by the 
lovely creatures in general, you might 
at (he fame time that you delight them, 
give a few lines of inrtrurtiOn. 1 
■would have you paint their virtues in 
the molt Unking light ; but I would 
alio have you reprelent their vices in 
the groffeft defoniiity — In llTort, my 
only meaning was, that you fliould 
permit them to behold themfelves in 
an impartial mirror, that they may a- 
void thofe follies, that make beauty 
difguflful and even good fenfe difa- 
greeable. 

lam, fir, your moft obedient, 
Plumble fervant, 

T. S. B." 

In confcquence of this gentleman's 
advice, I had refolved to matte fonie 
animadverfions on the love of domi- 
nion in the fair fex, and had begun to 
look around for materials of a paper 
on that fubjefl, when I received the 
following excellent letter, which whol- 
ly diverted me from executing my de- 
fign. The agreeable writer difcovers 
fo much good fcnle, and inch a deli- 
cate turn of thought, in what (he fays, 
that (he has inclined me rather to com- 
pofe a panegyric, than a fatire, on the 
fex. Befides, her obfervations upon 
the ungenerous condiifl of us men, are 
but too well founded ; and j'uflice o- 
bliges me to own, that an immoderate 
attachment to power in us, is one rea- 
fon why we complain fo much of it in 
the women ; and that we would fee 
fewer rebels, were there fewer tyrants, 
who provoke them fo rebellion. If 
it is true, that many a lady is content 
to take a fool for her hufband, in or- 
der to govern wiih abfolute fvvay ; it 
it is no lefs true, that many a fool is fo 
fond of the prerogative of hir; fex, that, 
inorder topreferveit, he looks out for 
a mate, flill more foolifli than hmi- 
felf. I willi an inviolable regard lor 
3 



truth did not lay me under the necef- 
hty of laying, that even men, who are 
CO nfpicuous for their merii, too frfi* 
qiienily betray a jealoufy of thofe ve- 
ry excellencies in the female fex, by 
which ihcnil.^lvcs are diftinguilhed. 
The ineanrtefs and unreafonablcneis of 
fuch adilpohtion are admirilbly paint* 
ed by my fair correlpondent, 

Mk. Visitant, 
" npii E candid and kind manner, 
A in which you treat both the 
errors and perfections of the female 
feX, mult make every woman, who, 
reads your paper with as good a heart, 
as you appear to have, when you write 
it, your admirer and friend. 

" I do allare you, fir, I am totally 
ignorant, whether the Vifitant is 
written by one, who appears in a black 
coat or a red ; or by one, whofe garb 
does not denote any particular profef- 
lion. Alas! lo excentric a fet of be- 
ings are writers, that the Vilitant maty 
be unfocial, indelicate, and unfriend- 
ly — the reverfe of every thing he fays 
— Fool he can never be : but I hope 
the kind advocate of our caufe is as 
agreeable in private life, as in public ; 
and in this he is truly amiable. 

" Your definition of politenefs, 
and the fources of alleclation, in No. 
IV. + 1 read with peculiar fatisfac- 
tion ; but give me leave, at prefent, 
to mention your paper, No. VI Lt 
where, among many good things ycni 
fay, you. endeavour to (hew, what are 
the fleps to attain elleem, and what 
to attain admiration. As far as I am 
a judge, the means are well calculat- 
ed to gam their refpeflive ends. But, 
lir, you mull correil; fome faults in 
your own fex, before you can bright- 
en the fliades of ours. The ways you 
have pomied out, will, as I have juft 
obferved, iecure us efteem ; but at 
elteem we (liall always Hop. 

When a worthy voi.mg woman, not 
without a fliare of fenfibility in her 
compofition, has attentively ciilnvated 
the virtues of the muid, and has im- 
proved herfelf in the feveral branches 
of education, with much refolutiou, 
and, on many occafions, with much 
felf-denial — when, thus accomplifhed, 
file enters upon life, and mixes in a pa- 

NOTES. 

•f See vol. iv. page 220. 
X See vol. iv. page 489, 



i78g.] 



The Vifilantt 



M9 



lite circle of both fexes — muft it not 
give her a fenhble mortification, to 
fee a girl of fprightly levity, whofe 
underftanding, if Ihe is pretty, is 
thought brilliant ; whofe tartnefs is 
ftyled elegant repartee ; and rifes only 
to what Pope calls *' the pert low 
dialogue, fcarce a degree above Swift's 
politeconverfarion" — mull it not mor- 
tify her to fee fuch a one fingled out, 
and draw the attention of men of me- 
rit, while (lie is paffed by without no- 
tice ? As for the moths of the feafon, 
that are always buzzing about, their 
negleft gives no uneafmefs. 

" The men are extremely confined 
in their notions of our fex. It is true, 
they do not all exprefs themfeK es in 
the coarfe, inelegant, trite faymg, 
*' give me a wife, that can make a 
liiirt, and a pudding:" but, indeed, 
mr. Vifitant, if you will be as can- 
did as you have hitherto been, you 
will own, that this fentiment runs 
through the major part of the lordly 
race." 

" One would think, that they were 
throwing fcarcafms on their owrl fex, 
^vhen they draw the following conclu- 
sions — that the more a woman's un- 
derftanding is improved, the more apt 
Ihe will be to defpife her hufband— 
that the ftrengthenitig of her reafon 
will weaken her affetlion — that the 
duties of tendernefs and actention, and 
all the focial tram, will be difregard- 
ed, in proportion as her knowledge is 
increafed — that, to teach her God and 
nature, will, in the end, dellroy all 
order, and domeUic comfort. Good 
heavens ! What fubverfions of truths 
are all thefe aflertions ! Docs not the 
enlargement of the underftanding point 
out the relative duties ? And is not 
fubordination to a hufband, one of 
•them ? Does not reafon as frequently 
roufe, as damp the affedions ? — Does 
not knowledge dilate and expand the 
finer feelings of the mind, and mak« 
it thrill in a tlioufand vibrations, un- 
known to the favage and untutored 
foul ? — Do not God and nature lead 
us lo a courfe of tender affeftions and 
pleafing duties, which can be praclif- 
ed only by one, whofe mind is touch- 
ed with ardent piety, and who can 
obferve, with refined dehght, the re- 
gular and beautiful order of the uni- 
verfe. 

*' However, in gratitude to the 

Voi. VI, 



generous few, that have condefceod- 
ed to treat us as reafonable beings, 
let us never forget, that an Addilon, 
a Richardfon, and a Fordyce, have 
not thought it beneath them, to point 
out, what is, and what is not, female 
excellence. 

" Hard, indeed, is that medium 
to be obferved, which you mention in 
your nuuh paper*; and it only falls 
to the lot of a happy few, to anfwer 
the poet's elegant pidure : 
" Favours to none, to all (he fmiles 

" extends : 
*' Oft flie rejects ; but never once 
" offends." 

" Howfoever pleafing timidity and 
implicit fubmiirion in us may be to 
your fex, yet what lord Halifax ob- 
ferved, is very true ; " that a woman, 
who has not too much fpirit on fomc 
occafions, will run the rilque of hav- 
ing too little on others." As maidsj 
as wives, and as widow?, we meet 
with a thoufand occafions in life, 
where fortitude and lefolution are ab- 
foluffly neceflarv. I would not wifll 
a lady to be a Camilla or a Thalef- 
tris : but fteadinefs, to a degree of 
perfeverance, is abGjluiely requifite in 
us. Before marriage, it is neceffary, 
in the important point ofdifnnilfing 
or acceptiug lovers: for you know, 
fir, that ii^all a fingle woman has to 
do. After marriage, it is neceffary 
in the education of children, and iu 
regulating the more fubordinate mem- 
bers of a family : for, as to a hufband, 
it is a virtue, which maft never peep 
our, where his lordly prerogative is 
concerned. And furely equally ef- 
fential is it, in the lonely widowed 
Hate, where we have to acl in fo ma- 
ny different capacities, — In which of 
thefe claffes the writer of this is, 
cannot be material: let it fuffice, 
that, in your public chara-'tcr of Vi- 
fitant, file is much your adm.irer. 

ASPASIA, 
.■<>-<S><S><^-"<v 
To the printer of the AmericaM 
MusEt;M, 
Sir, 
OBSERVING in feveral late 
publications, an attempt to revive the 
culture of filk in your ftate, I tranf- 

H o X B. 

* See vol, V. p. »22, of this woi^c, 
Y 



Hiretlions fcr the bnedivg and 



[Awguft, 



ir.it the cnclored i^amphlct, tliat if 
you ji:dge, it may conduce in any 
inealure towards fo laudable an un- 
tleriaking, it may be preferved in your 
lifeful repofitory. 

Robert StrettcU Jones. 
Burlington, May, 1783. 

GireSions for the breeding and ma- 
nagement cffilk-zcornu. ExlraBed 
frem the treatij'es of Abbe Boijier, 
de Sauvages, and PutUin: and 
publt/Ji'd, anno 1770, by order of 
the Philadelphia fociety foi pra- 
moting the culture ofjilk. 

SECTION I. 

Of the Jilk worms' eggs. 

AT firR, their colour is a pale 
yellow. W'iihin five or lix 
days, aficr they are laid, this colour 
changes by degrees to a darker : and 
then (hole eggs are faid to be of the 
ucll fort, which are of a grey afb-co- 
lour. inclining to a tarnifhed purple. 
il the flirt colour continues unchang- 
ed, it is a certain mark, that the eggs 
are unimpregnatcd and barren. 

a. The bert eggs may be (poiled — 
Ly a 111 fled heat — by a moiil air — by 
being pent up in tight vt Ifcls — or by 
teiug arnaffed together in any confi- 
derable quantities. The eggs, which 
are ipoiled by any of thcle means, 
lurn euher to a whitiQi or a brown 
colour ; and either they do not crack 
under the nail, and are fo light as to 
Iwim in water; or clfe, when they 
are cracked, their liquor is fluid and 
vatery, which ought to be flimy and 
thick. 

3. To prevent thefe cvjjs, keep 
your eggs, as they are firrt laid, upon 
iepftraie pieces of rag or paper, and in 
a dry, frcfh air. In this manner, 
they maybe fent to any dirtante, with 
a cover, in form of a letter ; only 
taking care, that, if feveral pieces are 
put into one packet, they be kept from 
rubbing together, by flips of rag or 
paper, laid between them. 

4, From the time that your eggs 
are laid, fill you fct thern to hatch, 
they fhonld be kept from the two ex- 
tremes of heat and cold. As loon, 
therefore, as th;'v are laid, put them 
awav, in tiie coolcfl place you can 
find, about the houfe, or in the cel- 
lar; only taking care, that they be 
MOt flifled by a damp, •r a cun&ncd 



air, nor cxpofed to be devoured by 
mice, or oiher vermin: if your cel- 
lar, therefore, be damp or clofe, you 
mufl choofe ionie other place. And, 11 
to fecure them from vermin, you 
may put them in a large bafket, co- 
vered at the tup witn a thin linen 
cloth, and futpended by a firing 
from the ceiling. When the cold 
weather fets in, and threatens froff, 
you may move them into a room 
where you keep a conilant fire, and 
hang them up, as before, but at a 
good dillance from the fire. The 
room fliould be large, and the ceil- 
ing pretty fiigh; for they do not re- 
quire a greater warmth, than about 
ten degrees above freezing. And, 
indeed, a very flrong froft would not 
kill the worm in the egg ; but the in- 
conveniences, an ling from the eggs 
having been l"o chilled, are, that fuch 
eggs caiinot eafily be made to hatch 
together, nor at the proper feafon ; 
uniefs you force them by fuch a de- 
gree of heat, as, by the fudden per- 
fpira.'ion it occahons in the egg, en- 
feebles or perhaps dellroys tlie worm. 
As the fpring approaches, if the wea- 
ther fhould turn unfeafonably warm, 
remove your eggs again to a cool 
place, 

Lallly, keep your eggs always 
clean, and free from every kind of 
fat or oily fubftanccs. 

SECTION II. 

Of hatching the fi Ik- worms' eggs. 

As I mull, throughout this effay, 
endeavour to adapt the direflions and 
obfervations of my author to our own 
climate, the reader will pleafe to con- 
fider v.'hat I fay, to be often no more 
than hints and conjectures, which can 
only be tncd by experience. And 
yet I hope, thofe hinrs may be of ufe, 
in diretiing us to the knowledge of 
fuch experiments, as are neceffary to 
be made, and in what manner to 
make them. 

1 he eggs, if properly preferved, 
accordmg lo the diretUons given in 
the firrt feciion, would, without more 
trouble, as the fpring advances, be 
hatched by the natural warmth of the 
feafon. But, in every country, where 
the breeding of iilk-worms is well 
iindeirtood, the people have been 
taught, by long experience, that, in 
this affair, nature requires the ailif- 



i7^9-] 



Mana^^evicnt of fUk- worms. 



tanceofart. Accordiiii^Iy, in Chi- 
na, Perfia, Italy, France, and Spain, 
they avail themfelves of artihcial 
means, in the hatching of theie ufe- 
fiil inlefts, and indeed in the breed- 
ing and management of them, throuj;h 
every (lage of their exilience. At 
firft, we may be apt to imagine, that 
here, as in molt other iniiances, art 
is nJt fo good a nurfe as nature ; and 
that, in their own country and cli- 
mate at leait, (ilk-worms would do 
befi, if left in the open air. But tlie 
fatl is far otherwife. There is no 
country, where they can be rendered 
profitable to man, but by the means 
of artificial management. If they 
were to be left abroad upon the tree*, 
they would become the prey of birds, 
Hies, and other infects. 
^ But, to return from this digreflion, 
tiie two principal things to be regard- 
ed, in the hatching of filk wonur, are 
the time when, and the manjier how. 
1. With refpeft to the time, if the 
feafons were uniform, an infalhbie 
rule might be given, that the worms 
ought to come out, with the firft ap- 
pearance of the mulberry leaf, which 
is to be their only food. If they 
come out fooner, they mufi (larve*. It 
has been thought, indeed, that lettuce, 
and perhaps fome other leaves rnight, 
in cafes of neceffity, be ufed as a fub- 
ftitute for the mulberry leaves+. But 
experience has decided againft this 
opinion. For though you mav, by 
fuch means, fave the lives of the 
worms, for a while, yet, unlefs they 
are fed with that food, which nature 
has dcllined for their ufe, and which, 
therefore, is alone proper to fuinilli 
the gum, from which thefilk is made, 
it viTere better to fpare yourfelf the 

NOTES. 

* If a fcarcity of food fliould be 
apprehended, it may be eafily ouarded 
agamft, by cutting fome fuckers or 
fnfall branches of the mulberry-tree, 
and felting them in bottles of water, 
in a warm room. By this menns, 
they may be made to vegetate as early 
in the leafon as you pleafe. and af- 
ford a fuffi(?tent fupply of food for 
your young worms, till the natural 
fprouting of your mulberry-trees. 

+ For letter's on this intcrefting 
fiibjea, fee the' American Mufcuni^ 
vol. V, pages i6'6, 272, gj^. 



fruitlefs pains, and to let the'ni die at 
once. If their hatching, on the other 
band, be delayed, till the leaves, upon 
which they are fed, have got ctnfider- 
ably forward in rheir growth, thcH 
the worms lofe the advantage of fei^d- 
ing at firft upon young and tender 
leaves, which are fittefl for their lu- 
fant flate, and contribute greatly to 
their future health and vigour. And, 
beddts, by the time they have got 
through their iaft moulting, they will 
be much injured, by a food that is 
grown too dry, and of too hard a 
texture, and ftill more by the rlofe 
air and ftiflmg heat of fummer. It is, 
therefore, of importance, to have the 
worms come out as early in the fpriug 
as may be, without expohng them to 
the danger of wanting food. But it 
frequently bappens, elpecially in thi« 
country, that a too forward fpring 
brings out young leaves, which are 
foon after fuddenly killed by anippuiJ 
froft ; and, in that cafe, it will be often 
fifteen, and fometimes twenty days, 
before a fecond crop of leaves is put 
out. 

There is an Indan proverb which 
fays, that '" the winter feldom rots in 
the fky :" the meaning of which is 
obvious, that fooner or later we mull 
expecl to feel our fliare of cold. 
And the converfe of this obfeivation 
is alfo true, that if, in the winter 
months, the cold has been pretty con- 
ftant and uniform, the winter then will 
feldom ufurp the, place of fpring. 
When the feafou, therefore, has been 
thus regular, there will be little or no 
danger in fetting your eggs to hatch, as 
foon as the mulberry buds begin 10 
fwcll. But if the fpring appear to be 
too forward, you run a rifti either 
way : if you hatch your eggs, and a 
froft fiiould happew to nip the tender 
leaves in the bud, you lofe your 
worms; and if you keep tack your 
eggs for fear of th: froft, and no fr(;ft 
ftjould happen, then your worms will 
come too late for their food, and will 
iiave to ftruggle with the fuUry fu'Fo- 
caiing heats of the advancing feafon. 
Now, if the buds, by putting out too 
early, fliould happen to be nipped by 
the froft, the fecond crop will come lo 
much later, that there will then be no 
reafon to fear the like accident agam 
for that feafoii, / Upon the whole, 
therefore, it wiil te -fafeft, to keeji 



tis 



BtreQionsfor the hreedtng and 



[Auguft, 



I 



fuch a quantity of egg?, that you may 
divide them into iwo parcels ; (and let 
the iealon be as it may) have one of 
the panels ready to hatch, with the 
firit appearance cf the leaf; then, if 
their food fhould be killed, you may 
have the fecond parcel ready, agaiiift 
the leaves put out anew. It may 
be, nil things coijiidered, a good eco- 
nomy, to fubmit to the lofs of halfthe 
eggs that you keep, or (which is the 
fame thing) to he at the expenfe of 
keeping double the qnatitity of eggs 
that will be waiited, rather than run 
the riiqne of lofing the labour and ex- 
pefiation of a whole fcafon, 

Thele hints may ferve to direft the 
attentive obfcrver, io ascertaining the 
proper time, for hatching the filk- 
vvorm'sepgs. It remains to fhow, 

2. The manner of bringing then; to 
hatch at the time required. It is 
neerilcis to fiy, that this cannot be 
done, with any degree of certainty, by 
truOmg them to the natural warmth of 
the Ipa^on, which would often bring 
out the worms too foon, and as often 
erhaps, keep them back too long, 
''or this reafon, therefore, (and, in- 
deed, for feveral others, with which 
I need not detain the reader) it is ne- 
celFary to follow the direftions given 
in fhe firil ieclion, keeping your eggs 
in a moderately cool air, till the 
time, indicated inihe foregoing article; 
and then to hatch them by means of 
fuch a heat, as it is, at all times, in your 
po'ver to regulate at pleafure. 

In Europe, it has been a very ge- 
neral praBice, to do this by means of 
the natur^il warmth of the human 
body. They put a quantity of eggs 
into a linen ra^g, tied up with a llring ; 
atid begin by putting this little bundle 
into fomc cleiin dry {lraw,at the foot 
of the bed at night, ard by wearing it 
pinned unleriheir ouiward garments 
m the day timr. Then by degrees 
they give. the eggs, a greater heat, by 
pnttintr the bundles hrll into bed at 
their f 'ct, and fo gradually bringing 
ihem to 1 e on their bread at night, 
and to be worn next to the ikm by 
day. But I Ihall not give a lyiinute 
detail of this method, becaufe it is 
lidble to many objeflions. The two 
grand requifnes in the management 
of filk worms, fiom firft to lall, are, 
to keep them, both while they are in 
the eg^s, ;ujd afterwards, in a dry air, 



and free from a clofe ftifled heat. In 
the method iuil now mentioned, there- 
fore, a coniiant attention, and a pain- 
ful vigilance, are abfolutely neceifary, 
to guard agamft the dangers arifing 
from the infenlible perfpiration of the 
bodv, and from the eggs being too 
clofely pent up in a fuffocating kind 
of warmth. Thofe who follow this 
mode., are obliged, every now and 
then, both by day and by night, to 
open the bundle of eggs, Iprcad them 
about for a while, and then tie ihetn 
up again, and return them into their 
place. When the worms are on the 
eve of coming out, they dare not truft 
themfelves to fleep, left their nap 
(hould be too long; for one hour's 
negleft might hazard the lofs of more 
than half their labour, and be pro- 
dudive of fuch a fickly brood, as 
would hardly be wortli the pains oF 
nurfing. 

Another, and a far preferable me- 
tliod, has therefore been attempted 
with fuccefs, which is to h^tch the 
eggs by the heat of a common fire. 
The manner of putting this method 
in praftice, may be varied, accordmg 
as fancy or convenience (hall direfct, 
and experience fliall approve. The 
abbe Boiflier, whofe book has been 
my chief inftru6tor, direOs a flove, 
or rather a fmall hot-houfe, to be 
built for this purpofe. It is about fix 
feet wide, and fifteen feet long, built 
of bricK, and covered with tile, and 
has a fireplace in each end, a door 
in one fide, and a fmall window, 
which is clofed by a Aiding (hutter, 
to be opened occajionally. In order 
to keep up, as nearly as may be, a 
fteady, equal heat, he puts every 
morning a quantity of tanner's bark, 
well dried in the fun, into each fire- 
place ; this bark he difpofes in an e- 
ven heap, from jamb to jamb, and 
kindles it at one end with a (hovel- 
fill of burning coals. It burns flow- 
ly and conftantly, and you may put 
on enough at one time, to ferve for 
twenty-four hours. If tanner's bark 
cannot be had, you may ufe cow- 
dung, turf, fea-coal, &c, inftead 
of it. 

The ftove being ready, the next 
thing to be done, is, to provide 3 
fmall table, or tablet, upon which yoa . 
may fpread your eggs. This may be , 
a thin piece of well-feafoned board, 



1 7^9-3 



managemtnt ofJUk-tuarms. 



155 



planed fmootli, with a ledge on the 
edges, about half an inch higher than 
the furface of the board, which is to 
be covered with a lining of clean 
brown paper ; or, inllead of a board, 
it might be made with Tpl^nters, or 
fniooth twigs, like the cover of a 
(quire bafltet. Strew this (moothly 
over, with a layer of clean cut llraw, 
upon which lay the brown p^per as 
before. The lizeof this tablet Ihould 
at leail be fuch, as that a layer of 
eggs, when fpread upon the paper, 
may r.otbe more dian a quarter of an 
inci: thick. Ar each corner of the 
tablet, faften a firing, and make the 
i{rin<is meet in a knot, at a conve- 
nient height, above the tablet. When 
your eggs are properly fpread, fuf- 
pend the tablet on a hook, at the end 
of a (tring which Hides above, by a 
loop, upon a fmooih ro.-i, that runs 
over head, lengthways of the Hove. 
By this means, you can move the tab- 
let from the middle, towards elihcr 
fire-place, as ociafion may require. 
Let the tablet hang at the didanceof 
three or four feet from the g'roun<l. 
To fecurcyour eggs fronithe dull, and 
other nuifances, make a fmall hole in 
the middle of a fqiare piece of thin 
linen cloth ; (lip it up a few inches a- 
bove the hook, upon the Aiding Hring, 
and let the edges of the cloth tall 
down, round the edges of the tablec ; 
by which means your eggs will be co- 
vered, without being Hilled; for the 



this point, tic a thread roi^nl the tube, 
for a mark ; then put the bulb itjto 
your mouth, or in your bofom, fo as 
to raife the mercury to the degree of 
blood-heat ; mark this point with ano- 
ther thread, lied round the tube. Call 
this laft point, 32 degrees. The mid- 
dle point, between this and the point 
of freezing, will be 16. Divide the 
fpace, between 16 and 32, into four 
equal parts : mark them, and they 
will be as many divifions as are neccf- 
fary. Thus, you will have marks for 
the following degrees, 16. eo. 24. 28. 
Inllead of a graduated fcale 



cloth hanging loofely 



round, will 
leave a free communication for the air 
to circulate, and for the imperceptible 
lleacn, that rifes by perfpiratioii from 
the eggs, to efcape. 

In order to proceed with certainty, 
it wUl be advifable, to furnilh your- 
felf with a thermometer, which may 
be fixed fall in the middle of the tab- 
let^ and the ejgs fpread round it. As 
it IS not neceiTary to be very nice in 
marking the degrees of heat, the ab- 
be advlfes the ufe of a thermometer, 
•which is very readily adjufled, and 
may be underllood with equal eafe by 
every one. And, for the fake of 
thofe who are not fond of hard words, 
he calls it a regulator. It is adjufled 
in the following manner. Take any 
low-priced thermometer, and cover 
the bulb with fnow, or broken ice, fo 
as to bring the mercury (or the liquor) 
down to the point of freexing : at 



ft 



and 32. 

with figures, rraxe a inarK, again 
each of the points thus afcertaincd, 
on the flip of board that your ther- 
mometer is fixed to. Let the marks 
be coarfe lin**' drawn acrofs, and iii 
ditfercnt toloiiry, as black, red, yel- 
low, green, and blue. And then 
you have only to direct, that in fuch 
and fuch circumfiances, the mercury, 
or (.vhich amounts to the fame thing) 
the heat, mull be kept at fuch or 
fui.h a mark, black or red, &.c. or 
beiwccn the two ; for, a greater pre- 
cifion is not necefTary ; nor will you 
need any graduation lower than 16, 
nor higher than 32 degrees above the 
point of freezing. 

With this apparatus once complet- 
ed, the reft is eafy. For the firfl two 
or three days, you have only to keep 
the heat at about fixteen or eighteen 
degrees; it will gradually rife to twen- 
ty-four and twenty-eight, as the walls 
get heated, without increafing the 
iire. And at this point, you rriay let 
it remain, till nearly tv(.'o thirds of 
vour eggs are hatched ; when it will 
be advifable to give the remainder a 
heat of about thirty-two degrees, at 
leaft for a few hours, in order to haft- 
en the hatching, and to bring out 
your whole brood as nearly together 
as may be.* 

NOTE. 

* This regulator may be difpenfed 
with, and, inftead thereof, a little 
velTcl of water placed near the eggs 
in the ftove, where it will receive an 
equal heat with the eggs. You may 
know at any time, whether the heat is 
properly regulated, by putting your 
finger into the water ; for if the water 
fhould feel rather a litile warmer than 
milk newly from the cow, you may 



»54 

Three or four times a day will be 
fuffic'.ent to turn your eggs, which is 
done by raking them up into heaps, 
and then immediately fpreading iheai 
again : and at night there will be no 
inconvenience in letting the fire go 
down a linle, as you will thus be lels. 
apprehenfive of accidents. 

Eggs, that have been well wintered, 
■will hatch by this procefs, in about 
nine or ten days. You i-nav know 
when they are near hatching, by their, 
turning of a paler cohjur, v^fhich ufu-. 
ally happens on the feverith or eighth 
^ay. 

(To It coniiniud.) 

The friend. No. V. WriiUn by. 
the reverend Timothy Dwight^ un- 
der the fionature of James Lit- 
tlejohn, eiq, continuidjrom vol. v, 
page 567- 
Sip, 
T,7"OUR publication of my firft 
X addrefs 10 you+, will render an 
ap')logv, for the renewal of my cor- 
refpondence, unnecefTary. The rea- 
fons, on which the fentiments then 
mentioned, were grounded, I Ihaii 
now lay before you. 

It is a trite, but important maxim, 
df common fenfe, that the mind is 
•wholly influenced by motives. When 
thefe motives are interefting, the mind 
is roufed and animated to attion, and, 
in the view of important rewards, • 
is quickened to illuHrious purpofes, 
and vigorous exertions. When fuch 
inotives recede from its apprehenhon. 
jt returns to its original indolence and 
infignifjcance. If luch motives are 
never prelented, it never emerges 
from that Hate ; but p.)fies through its 
earthly being, in a fnail-like torpidi- 
ty. This is the real reafonofthat 
nientai debility, obferved in the flaves. 
Neither property, liberty, nor import- 
Jipce, ever hold out to their minds a 
fijigle objeft, to tempt them to one 
animated eHort ; but their whole ho- 
rizon of profpeft, is overcad with an' 

NOTE. 

conclude it is of a proper heat ; but 
if the water fliould feel difagrceably 
■warm, the heat will be too great, and 
fiiould be IcHened accord mgly. 

t See vol. V. page 445. ' 



The /yie.'id.—Xo. F, 



[Auguft, 



nnvariegaled gloom of darknefs and 
defperation. 

The great motives, which animata 
men to Icience, ait, and elevated po-. 
litical exertions, are found in proper- 
ty, inOiience, and reputation. When 
the path to thefe attainments liesopen 
to the laudable attempts of every in- 
dividual, a general emulation is at 
once excited among all uidividuals, 
who are poffeded of capacity, elFcn-' 
tially to ferve mankind. The neceflary' 
eSecls of fuch an emulation, are ef-' 
forts fimilar to ihofe, which raifed 
Greece to fupreme diftinCtion, and 
thehifiory of which conditutesa prin- 
cipal part of modern erudition. 
Greece then produced no greater men, 
than India now produces; but in 
Greece, a comcidence of great and an- 
imating objefls, in the faireft profpefl 
of attainment, originated exertions be- 
yond belief; and in a few years, taught 
the mind of man an acquaintance 
with refources, and capacities, which, 
through a thoufand centuries of fervi- 
tude, wouldnever have appeared, even 
to the dreaming eye of conjecture. 

In this country exift the means of 
furnifhing the happieft union of mo- ^ 
tives to improvement, hitherto known. 
Among other circumilances, in which 
the ftate of America, in this refpeB, 
is fuperior to that of Greece, the en- 
tire fecurity of advantages gained, is 
of the firft importance. In this coun- 
try, as in Greece, all enjoyirients are 
opened, by our political conilitutions, 
to the honeft and vigorous cfiorts of 
every citizen ; and, from this circum- 
Hance, all great and dignified exer- 
tions may be expetled. But, by the 
preference given to Europeans, the 
inlluence of this combination of in- 
citements, upon our own countrymen, 
is dedroyed. The man, who fees a 
foreigner, of inferior, or equal abili- 
ties, preferred to himfelf, who is o- 
bliged to languifli in obfcurily and' 
want, after great labours to obtain the 
regard of his countrymen — while 
mere Europeanifm elevates milliitudes 
around him to property and characler 
— will Toon lofe this m'oft laudable am- 
bition, in difcouragement and ladi- 
tude. Make this the general Hate 
of our country, and its natives 
will foon be' din mguifhed from their 
ferva'nts, by nothing but their colour 
and featut'es, '' 



1789.] 



Tht friend.— No. K 



155 



How great a calamity would this 
be to America, and to mankind j In 
the era, mod friendly to improvement, 
lince time began — with all natural 
and political advantages to encourage 
and allure us — with an almoit entire 
freedom from habituation to the fyl- 
tems and prejudices of Europe — wuh 
minds unfettered by authority, and, 
in the prefent general fluttuation, rea- 
dy to lettle, where the weight of evi- 
dence may preponderate — we might, 
doubtlefs, make large additions tothi 
ftock of human attainmeats — lead the 
imagination through new paths ot 
beauty and grandeur, and highly en- 
noble every conllituent of dignity, 
amiablenefs, and glory, in the human 
charatler. With theie means of per- 
fonal and national importance, pro- 
perly ufed, Franklin would foon be 
but the tallelt in a groupe of philo- 
fophers, and Walhmgton but the 
bnghtell liar in a coniiellation of 
heroes. 

The efforts, we have already made, 
in art and fcience, under all the co- 
lonial difadvantages, are fuch, as 
ought to teach us very refpeftful ideas 
of American genius. The philofo- 
phy of dr. Franklin is the objeti of 
unrivalled admiration, through every 
country of Europe. The moral fcru- 
tinies of mr. Edwards have received 
the highsft applaufe in moH proteftant 
countries, even from the hxed op- 
pofersof his opinions. The quadrant, 
jnjurioully called Hadley's, was the 
invention of mr. Godfrey, of Phila- 
delphia ; Mercurial inoculation was 
the difcoveryof the late dr. Muufon ; 
the M'Fingal of mr. Trumbull, is 
ranked, by theEnglilh reviewers, wuh 
their own boalted Hudibras ; and the 
paintings of Copely and \\'ell,hnd, 
even in Europe, little competition. 
The memorials of rongrefs have been 
elaffed, in Europe alfo, with the tirll 
produ£Hons of that nature, hitherto 
publilhed ; and the moft enlightened 
nations of that region, by ornament- 
ing, with every panegyrical tt ilimony, 
our military and political charatlers, 
have rendered our own applaufes to- 
tally um^^ccilary to their glory. Of 
no othefir nation can fo honourable 
things be mentioned, at fo early a pe- 
liod of their exillence. 

At the fame time, we hive every 
reafon t© fuppofj, that, in molt na- 



tions of Europe, genius, or at leafl 
the exertions of it, are on the decline. 
Few hgnal eiiorts of the human mtnd 
have characterized the decadence of 
emp'.re. The rife of nations is ofieu 
dillingiuflied by great exhibitions of 
ability ; but the evening of the faireil 
dominions beneath the lun, has beeu 
principally marked by the feeble, 
melancholy emanations of departing 
glory. 

How inconGflent, how contradic- 
tory a charahlcr is pourtrayed in ihe 
conduct of Americans, reh fling all the 
power and policy of iintam, througti 
a formidable war, and, at the mo- 
ment of returning peace, lertileiy lo- 
hciting very ordinary members ot the 
lame community, to take the d rettion 
of their policy, fcience, and rel'gion ! 
How greatly is this abfurdity increal- 
ed, by its introduction at the hour of 
triumphant contell, and moft pr'->f- 
perous negotiation ! jrlow llrongly 
does fuch a triumph refemble that, 
which a modern Peruvian boalls of 
gaining over a wild bull, when the 
aniiurtl toffes him into the air, and 
leaves him plunged in the dirt ! 

Nor is inconiiHency the only de- 
bafement of character we attach to 
ourlelves, by the condutl, of which I 
complain. The very declaration, that 
we thinic lightly of ourfeU'es, wiU 
teach all nations to think ligbi ly of us, 
and rivet the humiliation beyond re- 
trieval. To rslpett ourlelves, is the 
firll advance towards the reipett of 
others. The Romans and Greeks 
felt thcmfelves fuperior to other na- 
tions ; and by that feeling, as real!/ 
as by any other circumllaBce. gained 
their fuperiority. 

This, mr. Litllejohn, may per- 
haps be efteemed the expreifion of a 
Willi, that we may ber\)nie infiaied 
Vv'ith that odious pride, which ancient- 
ly rendered the Romans, and, in mo- 
dern times, has rendered the Britons fo 
difagrecable to their fellow-men. This 
opinion can arile only from a milap- 
prehenhon of thefe remarks. I wiih 
the Americans not to be vain of what 
they have done, but to experience 
flrong convictions of what they can 
do. To be proud of OHir qualities, or 
attainments, is poor and debahng ; 
but to believe, that we can do any. 
thing, within the limits of the hu- 
man tapa'ity, is a valuable chaiac- 



tss 



Tkt frUnd.—No. V. 



[Augu!!, 



terifli'c, the natural fource- of great 
and fucceGful entcrprizes. So vaiu- 
ble a character. flic is this convittion, 
that it may be fairly qucHioiied, whe- 
ther, Without us influence, any mind 
ever rofc to greatnels, or any conduct 
ever commanded a high degree of ap- 
plaufe. 

Let me further obferve, that there 
IS a moff ridiculous impropriety, in 
communicating the prune bleihngs. for 
which our treaiure and our blood have 
fo long flowed in rivers, to the en- 
joyment of thofe, who neither toiled, 
nor ventured for the ineflimable pur- 
chafe. Still more improperly are they 
kvilhed on thole, whofe endeavours 
to deprive us of them, forced us to 
fuch a boundlefs expenfe, I wifli all 
honeft men to Ihare in the blejfings, we 
enjoy. 1 revere the fublime Evan- 
gelical doftrine of forgiving injuries, 
until feventy times feven ; but I do 
not unddrltand the propriety of judg- 
ing the labourer unworthy of his hire, 
or of promoting, with vait anxiety, 
one's own lofs, and rewarding an 
enemy for the exhibitions of his en- 
mity. Yet nothing lefs than this fol- 
ly is the language of our predilection 
for Britons. 

I have indeed, mr. Littlcjohn, with 
no fmall pieafure, viewed the Ame- 
rican revolution, as a new era of im- 
provement in all things natural and 
moral. When 1 fee all Europe fur- 
veying and admiring our military and 
politicalexertions — when I fee princes, 
and philofophers, learning from us 
new views of human rights, and blelf- 
ing nations with new enjoyments, co- 
pied from our enlightened confUtu- 
tions of government — when I fee good 
men, throughout Europe, as well as 
America, anticipating, from our cir- 
eumflancc:, brighter and happier days 
for the enflaved eallern nations — when 
I fee gloomy bigots, in the hght of 
our catholicifm, relaxing their afpett, 
and expanding their hearts with cha- 
ritable regards to the once-hated pro- 
felFors of adverfe fyftems of religion* 

NOTE. 

* The printer has taken the liberty 
to make a Jli^^ht alteration in this 
pajjage^ tomakt it more covjrntaneous, 
not only with the liberality oj' the pre- 
fcnt day, but even with the philan- 
thropy of the author, mho, he hopes, 
uiiUexcu/e his prefumption. 



— when I ffee ten thoufand fetters of 
authority and fyflem dilfolved, as by 
the fairy touch of enchantment, and 
the mind, elcaped from prifon, be- 
ginning to prunejts wings forelevated 
and danijg adventure — I cannot but 
pcrfuyde myfelf, (hat thefe mighty 
prcparaiKmsot Providence aredchgn- 
cd for advan(ageous changes in the af^ 
fairs of men. 1 cannot but think,» 
ans, policy, fcience, and virtue will 
begin to wear a brighter afpecl, and 
claim a more extcnhve influence. 
Judge, then, of the mortification, I 
mull experience, in feeing ariy event 
begin to overcaft this delightful prof- 
pett, and threaten the return of all 
thofe prejudices, which, through a 
long and difmal continuance, have 
darkened the horizon of the eallern 
continent. 

Thus, mr. Littlejohn, have I pre* 
fented you my. views of this important 
fubjeft. — Should thefe hints haveeven 
a little influence on my countrymen, 
to vary this part of their conduct ; or 
fliould they flimulate fome other pcr- 
fon to exhibit it more convincing- 
ly to the public, I fliall think I have 
not written in vain. 

1 am yours, &c. 

JOHN HOMELY. 

Ob/ervations on representatiom 

and COMPENSATION. 

IRecolteft but one good rcafon, for 
a numerous r.'piefentation of the 
people — that is, the greater certainty 
of having their iiiterefts and fenti* 
ments underflood in the reprefeniativc 
affembly. The objefcls of the national 
government are not local, but general 
concerns ; of courfe, a moderate num- 
ber is fufhcient. Refponfibility de- 
creafes, as the body increafes. In a 
fmall alfembly, a member has more to , 
do, and more to anfwer for. He i» 
more in public view, and feels his in- 
duftry, and his generous paffions, ex- 
cited by a flroiiger flimutus. In a 
numerous afTembly. he feels his per- 
fonal weight and influence diminiflied. 
The members will a6\ Ifefs as indivi- 
duals, and more by conablfiations and 
parties. If a man has not great ta- 
lents, finglv, he can do little. If he 
has, he gains an afcendency, and at- 
taches many to his views. Their af- 
fociationis cemented by the fympathy 



17^9-] 



Obfervations on reprejentstion and ccmpcvfation. 



157 



of acting together — by the fear of 
lofing a favourite point — by the anger 
on having it difputed— by the joy of 
gaining it, or the chagrin of a dilap- 
poiiiiment. By degrees, the two fides 
are divided, ftrongly marked, and ag;- 
lated by the fpirit of their body (/'^m 
de corps, as the French term \i,) In 
tad, all great alfemblies have been led 
allray by the fpirit of party. Per- 
haps, all parties are nearly equally 
vindictive, violent, and blind. The 
true check upon them, is the interpo- 
fuion of the public fentiment. A 
free prefs, and an enlightened people, 
•will form a coniroul over all parties; 
zv.A oblige them to feek the means of 
fuperiority and power, by the promo- 
tion of the public good. Party fpirit 
is an evil, but it is the inevitable con- 
fequence of a numerous alTembly. It 
is not, however, impolTible to draw 
good from evil. Thefe are the con- 
fcquences which refult from the prin- 
ciples ; but it is obvioufly preferable, 
to exclude the evil, if pollible. 
Though parties may promote the pub- 
lic good, they often do infinite mif- 
chief. They difturb the tranquility, 
impair the happinefs, and endanger 
the fafety of focieiy. 

Whether it is poffible, fo to con- 
flitute a fmall affembly, as wholly to 
banifh, or in a confiderable degree to 
reftrain this fpirit, is a problem of 
fome nicety. Its folutii^n is highly 
important to mankind, and efpecially 
10 the united ilates. A government, 
firong by the means of a rich treafury, 
by troops, and by the habits of a peo- 
ple broken to fubjeftion, may be dif- 
turbed, but will not be endangered, 
fey party difputes. But in America, 
government rells on public opinion, 
and we (hould carefully avoid thofe 
caules, which are powerful enough to 
fubvert its foundations. 
• In forming a legiflative affenibly, 
we fhould counteract, as much as pof- 
fible, the gregarious difoofltion of 
the members, which is the aliment of 
faction. It will be neceffary to ana- 
lyze the human character, and to lay 
open the motives which lead public 
men to combine together, and to atl 
in parties. It is true, that a public 
life calls forth the ftiongeft paffions of 
the heart. But it is alfo true, that 
thefe paflions are not continually in 
action. On great and rar" orcjfi.on'', 

Vol, VJ. 



they are roufed to acl with violence. 
But, ordinarily, they are held fuf- 
pended by motives of leis ftrengih, but 
ot a more uniform and permanent in- 
fluence. 1 heie nioiives are the fenfe 
of weaknefs, the love of eafe, and ihc 
love of power. 

Suppofe a member of common abi- 
lity in an airemblv of fifty. lie has 
a fiftieth part of the duty, as wtU as of 
the weight of the body. Increafe the 
affembly to two hundred members — 
Ins voice will loie three fourths of 
its influence — he will lofe more of 
his refponfibility — be further remov- 
ed from public view — and, as party 
influence will be more aCiivc, he will 
probably lole nine-tenths of his per- 
fonal weight, and his vote will be- 
come proportionably of lefs coni'e- 
quence to his conllituents, and to the 
public. Suppofe him a weak, but 
well-intentioned man, his fenfe of 
weaknefs and fenfe of duty will com- 
bine to fubjefi hiin to the influence of 
fome leading member. Knowing 
that his voice will not govern the vote 
of any other, and doubting how to 
give his own, he will relieve his fuf- 
peiife by following the guide in whom 
he places moft confidence. 

The love of eafe is a more pow- 
erful agent than is generally fuppof- 
ed. It is the greatelt impediment to 
eminence. Reft is the reward of la- 
bour, and the hope of this reward is 
probably one of the fprings of atition, 
even with thofe men who feem to 
abhor repofe. We compare atiion 
with refl. We calculate the value of 
the objett, propofed to be attained 
by our exertions, and the price of 
thofe exertions. A member, con- 
fcious of being able to efleft little, 
fingly, will not make the attempt. He 
will be obliged to add his llrength to 
a parly. There is fomeihing unac- 
countable in the fympaihy of many 
minds. Probably a large aflembly of 
the wifeft men, would not be wholly 
exempt from that diilruil of their owti 
underflandings, and ihat complacen- 
cy towards the errors and wiflies of 
one another, which has been found 
totally to banifh reafon, and even hu- 
manity, from mobs and riotous meet* 
ings. 

That the admiiiiflration of a go- 
vernment fhould correfpond with its 
pr!nciple<:. and be fecured from fac- 



Obfcrvations on reprefentatio'n end c em p en f alien, [Auguft, 



tion and cOmmorion, it feems to be 

important that the legiflative powers 
llioiik-i be lodged in as few hands, as 
niay be necefiary for procuring infor- 
inaiioii of ihe flate of the focicly, and 
that they [hould be carefully felefled 
frcra the heft informed and belt dif- 
pofed citizens. Men, who under- 
liand, and are able to manage bufi- 
nefs, and who, in a body of fifty, are 
individually important, will a£t more 
accordinj^ to the dictates of their own 
underRaiidings, and be lels influenced 
by party pailions, than an aflembly of 
two hundred. The great quedion of 
the conliitMtion had divided the com- 
munity. It was natural to expeft the 
Bew con.E;rcfs would be tinftured with 
the hue of the rival parties. It is not 
owing to any miracle, fufpending the 
human palfrons, that the national le- 
giflature has been fo remarkably dif- 
tinquiflied by the fpirit of candor and 
njoderation. Nothing like faction, or 
cabal and intrigue, has been charged 
upon that body — and the public are 
dilpofed to think favourably of their 
patriotifm and independency of fcnti- 
inent. Two events may be contem- 
plated, either of which would wholly 
chan^qc the charaBer and condutl of 
the allembly — increafing the number 
of the members would expofe the go- 
vernment to fafctlon — it would dmii- 
nifh the agency of the underllandmg, 
iand augrnent that of the paflions. Im- 
proper perfons would more eafiiy get 
eletted — Fo,r the number of fuuable 
perfons is not great in any country — 
of thefe, many will be indifpoled to 
the duty. Probably, this country is 
as little deficient in this refpeft as any 
whatever. If, however, more repre- 
feniatives are to be elefted, than a 
due proportion of thofe who are wil- 
ling and qualified to ferve, the proba- 
bility of inferior candidates being e- 
lettcd, will rife. Learned men have 
difpuled, whether fo large a territory 
could remain united under one go- 
vernment, even if the adminiflration 
fhould be entrufted to men of confum- 
mate wifdom and incorruptible virtue. 
The chance would be made confider- 
ably more unfavourable by the ap- 
pointment of men of a difterent cha- 
racter. 

To make the people happyt and the 
government permanent, two princi- 
pjes muit be regarded. That the 



members of the legiftature be few, 
and that provifion (hould be made, for 
A-awing forth the beft qualified citi- 
zers to ierve. 

In a republic, it is not necefTary. 
perhaps not fafe, that a citizen Ihoula 
be allowed, (and fureiy he Ihould not 
be ublig/-(l) to lay the public under 
obligations of gratitude to him, by 
ferving at a lots. Pay, for fervices, 
is as republican, as it is equitable. 
Adequate compenfation may be un- 
derllood very variously, in its appli- 
cation to particular cales. It muH al- 
ways mean fuch compenfation, as will 
fecure to the public, the performance 
of the fervices in qucilion. If the 
pay of the members of the leglflature 
is eilablilhed at an higher rate than is 
necedary to fecure the attendance of 
men bell qualified to ferve, it is im- 
proper. The interelt of the people 
requires the adoption of the principle 
infilled upon. Many will difpute the 
application of the dof.trine to the cafe, 
though none will deny the doflrine 
itfelf. Thedilpute, if any (hould arife, 
willbeof thelefsconfcquence,becaufe, 
as it is a quefiion of fa£t only, no in- 
ference, unfavourable to the intentions 
of thehoufe, could be drawn from the 
tenor of the bill which has pa(red the 
houleof reprefentatives. Thofe, who 
may happen to be violent on the fub- 
jecV, will be forry to find any reaions 
to vindicate, what has been done, be- 
caufe it will difappoint their palfions 
of an expecled gratification. But 
candid men will confider the princi- 
ples which have been difcuffed iii this 
fpeculation, and they will not over- 
look the rate of compenfation which 
has been allowed to members of the 
former congrefs, by the refpedive 
Hates — the average of which is faid 
to be equal to the fum propofed by the 
bill. They %vill alfonote, that that 
body being in fefTion the whole year, 
was better paid than the new con- 
grefs, which, probably, after the firft 
year, will not fit more than one-fourth 
of the time, and that the recclfes, and 
the diminilhed bufinefs of eighteen 
hundred members of the (late Icgifla- 
tures, will make a faving by the na- 
tional government. Perhaps, how- 
ever, it would have been advifable to 
have reduced the pay, as it is not an 
ol)je6t which thenumbejs willdeema 
balance for any diminution of the 



^^•*w 



J7%0 



'Difiovery of America, by the Icclandfrs, 



159 



approbation and confidence cf the nifiied by any other country in En- 
people, rope, for ihe fame period. The fol- 
Another circumflante is worthy of lowing account (lauds on the teftimo- 
being mentioned. The difficulty of ny of Torfarus, and Angrini Jor.a?, 
prelerving a government over a great two writers of undoubted credit, who 
trafl of country, is principally in pro- had faithfully copied the old hifto- 
portion to the inconvenience of af- rians of their country.* 
fembling the members from the ex- " There was," fay the ancient 
treme parts to the feat of government, chronicles," an Icelander, named 
Very low pay would render this in- Heriol, who, with his fon Biarn, 
convenience fpeedily intolerable, and made every year a trading voyage to 
produce a general delire for a diviiion different countries, and generally wm- 
of the union. The diHant members tered in Norway. Happening one 
fubmit to a kind of banifliment, and time to be feparated from each other, 
cannot regulate their private concerns, the fon (leered his coiirfe for Nor- 
This funiilhes no reafon for profu- v;ay, where he fuppofed he fiiould 
fion and extravagance— but it affords meet his father; but, on his arrival 
a caution againd extreme parfimo- there, he found he was gone to 
ny. There is a juU medium, which Greenland, a country but laiely dif- 
is to be preferred — it will extend the covered, and little known to the 



principle of union to the extremities, 
and brmg the outfide of the circle 
nearer to the centre. 1 he people will 
confider, therefore, whether the union 
is not more valuable than any other 
objetl, and whether they would dc- 
fire to have any fmall favings of mo- 
ney, which, in any future period, 
fliould endanger that blelTing. Thefe 
obfervations are fubmitted to the can- 
did public. If, upon an impartial ex- 
amination, they (hould be found to 



Norwegians. t Biarn determined, at 
all events, to follow his fither, and 
fet fail for Greenland ; although, fays 
Angrim, he had no body on board 
who could dirett him in the voyage,nor 
any particular inftrudions to guide 
him : fo great was the courage of the 
ancients ! He lieered by the obferva- 
tions of the flars, and by what he 
had heard of the fituation of the 
country he was in quefl of. 

During the lirR three days, he bore 



have lefs weight than the writer has towards the well, but the wind vary 
given them, the voice of the public ing to the north, and blowing Urong, 
will vmquellionably reach the walls of 
the legiflature. For, in this coun- 
try, the general fentirnent of the wife 



and worthy, is law. 

An account of the difcovery of J^in- 
land, or America, by the Icelanders, 
in the eleventh century, taken f rem 
Mallet's Northern Antiquities, vo- 
lume I. 

TH E authorities from 
which monf. Mallet, 
the fauhful hiilorian of Denmark, 
has compiled the following account, 
areof moft unqiiefhonahle credibility. 



Note. 



he was forced to run to the fouth- 
ward. The wind ceafing, in about 
twenty-four hours, they d; (covered 
land at a didance, which, as they ap- 
proached, they perceived to be flat 
and low, and covered with wood ; 
for which reafon he would not go on 
(hore, as being convinced it was not 
Greenland, which had been repre- 
fented to him as diOinguiihable, at a 
great didance, by its mountains, co- 
no x e s . 

* By the hiflories and other monu- 
ments of art remaining in D.-nmark, 
Sweden, Norway, and even Iceland, 



Iceland was peopled by a colony of it is almod certain, that fhoie coiin- 



Norwegians, under In.gulph, im the 
year 874. The Icelandic chronicles, 
or annals, are very exad in relating 
tiie maritime expeditions in the nor- 
thern feas, and preferving the names 
of the adventurers. Thele annals of 



tries were faf! her advanced in civili- 
zation about the ninth century, than 
England, 

f Greenland was fettled by Eric 
Rufus, a young Norwegian noble- 
man, in the year 0)82 ; and before the 



Iceland, the authenticity of which is eleventh century, churches were 
undeniable, are faul by critics to be founded, and a bifliopric erected, at 
a more complete hiilury, than is fur- Ciarde,' the capital of the ieitlement. 



i6o 



Difcovery of America by the Icelanders, 



[Auguft, 



vered with fnow. They then failed 
towards the norih-weft, and were a- 
vvare of a road which formed an 
ifldnd, but did not {top there. Afrer 
feme davs, they arrived in Greenland, 
■where Biarn met with his father. 

I he following fummer, viz. in 
the year 1002, Biarn made another 
voyage to Norway, where, to one 
of the principal lords of the country, 
named count Eric, he mentioned the 
difcovery he had made, of fome un- 
known iflands. 

The count blamed his want of 
curiofjty, and ftrongly prefTed him 
to proceed on with his difcovery. In 
confeqiience of this advice, Biarn, 
as foon as he had returned to his fa- 
ther at Greenland, began to think 
fenoufly of exploring thofe lauds with 
more attention. Lief, the fon of the 
fame Eric Rufus, who had difcover- 
ed Greenland, and who was {\\\\ 
chief of the colony he had fettled 
there — being defirous of rendering 
himfelf illuflrious like his father, 
formed the defign of going thither 
himfelf; and prevailed on his father 
Eric to accompany him — they fitted 
out a veffel with thirty-five hands; 
but when the old man was fetting out 
on horfeback to go to the fliip, his 
horfe happened to fall down under 
him ; an accident which he confider- 
ed as an admonition from heaven, to 
defift from the entcrprize ; and there- 
fore returning home, the lefs fnper- 
Ifitious Lief, fet fail without him. 

He foon defcried one of the coafts 
which Biarn had before feen, that 
lay nearelt to Cireenland. He calt 
anchor, and went on (hore, but found 
only a flat, rocky (hore, without any 
kind of verdure, he therefore imme- 
diately quitted It, after having firft 
given it the name of Helleland, or 
the flat country. + A fhort naviga- 
tion brought him to another place, 
•".vhich Biarn had alfo noted. In this 
land, which lav very low, they <aw 
roihing but a few Icattering thickets 
gnd white fand. This he called 

N o T F. . 

+ Pays p fat, favs the French ori- 
ginal. But Helleland flionld rather 
he rendered flony land; for hella, 
in the northern language, fignifies a 
jlqne, or rock. 



Mark-land, or the level country.^ 
Two days' profperous failing brought 
them to a third fhore, which was 
flTehered to the north by an ifland. 
They difeinbarked there in very fine 
weather, and found plants, which 
produced a grain as fweet as honey. 
Leaving this, they failed weflward, 
in fearch of fome harbour, and at 
length, entering the mouth of a river, 
were carried up by the tide, into 
a lake, whence the llream proceeded. 
As foon as they were landed, they 
pitched their tents on the Ihore, not 
yet daring to wander far from if. The 
river afforded them plenty of large 
falmon ; the air was foft and tempe- 
rate ; the foil appeared to be fruitful, 
and the palturage very good. The 
days in winter, were much longer 
than in Greenland, and they had lefs 
fnow than in Iceland. Entirely fa- 
tisfied With their new refidence, they 
eretted houfes, and fpent the winter 
there. 

But before the fetting in of this 
feafon, a German, named Tyrker, 
who was of their company, was one 
day miffing. Lief, apprehenfive for 
the fafety of a man who had been 
long in his father's family, and was 
an excellent handicraft, fent' his 
people all about to hunt for him. He 
was at length found, finging and 
leaping, and exprelfing ihe moil ex- 
travagant joy by his dilcourfe and 
geflures. The adoniOied Greenland- 
ers enquired the reafon of fuch 
ftrange behaviour, and it was not 
without difficulty, owing to the dif- 
ference of their languages, that Tyr- 
ker made them underlland he had 
difcovered wild grapes, near a place 
which he pointed out. Excited by 
this new?, they immediately went 
thither, and brought back feveral 
bunches to their commander, who 
was equally furprized. Lief ftill 
doubted whether they were grapes ; 
but the (ierman alTured him he was 
born in a country where vines grew, 
and that he knew them too well to be 
miflaken. Yielding to this proof, 



X Pays dii plaive, fays our author. 
But markland rather fignifies woody 
land, from mark, fylva, a wood, or 
rough thicket. 



1789.] 



Dijcovery of America by the Icelanders, 



161 



Lief named the country Vinland, or 
the land of wine. 

Lief returned to Greenland in the 
fpring ; but one of his brothers, nam- 
ed* Thorvald, thinking he had left 
the difcovery impefeft, obtained from 
Eric, this fameveird, and thirty men. 
7horvald, arriving at \'^inland, made 
ufe of the houfes built by Leif, and 
living on fifli, which was in great 
plenty, paffed the winter there. In 
the fprmg he took part of his people, 
and let out weftward to examme the 
country. They met every where 
with very pleafmg landfcapes, all the 
coafts covered with foreits, and the 
fhores covered with a black fand. 
They faw a multitude of little iflands 
divided from each other by fmall 
arms of the fea, but no marks of ei- 
thet^ wild bealis, or of men, except 
a heap of wood piled up in the form 
of a pyramid. Having fpent the fum- 
mer in this furvey, they returned in 
autumn to their winter quarters ; but 
the fummer following, 1 horvald be- 
ing dehrous of exploring the eaflern 
and northern coads, his veffel was a 
good deal {battered by a llorm, and 
the remainder of that feafon was tak- 
en up ill repairing her. He after- 
wards fet up the keel, which was un- 
fit for fervice, at the extremity of a 
neck of land, thence called Kiellar- 
liacas, or Cape Keel.* He then pro- 
ceeded to furvey the eailern coafts, 
where he gave names to feveral 
bays and capes which he then dif- 
covered . 

On his landing one day, a^traBed 
by the beauty of the (hore, he was 
aware of three little leathern canoes, 
in each of which were three perfonr, 
feemingly half alleep. Thcrvald and 
his companions inllantly ran in and 
feized them all, except one, who 
efcaped ; and by an imprudent fero- 
city, put them to death the fame day. 
Soon afterwards as they lay on the 
fame coall, they were fuddenly a- 
larmed by the arrival of a great num- 
ber of thefe little velFels, whirli co- 
vered the whole bay. Thorvald gave 
immediate orders to his party to de- 
fend themielves with planks and 
boards againfl their darts, which 

NOTE. 

* Or as we fliould fay in Englifh, 
•i'veclnefs. 



quite filled the air; and the favage^, 
having in vain vvailed all their ar- 
rows, after an hour's combat, betook 
themt'elves to a precipitate flight. The 
Norwegians called them in dcrifion 
Skraslmgues, that is, fmall and pu- 
ny men.+ The chronicles tell us, 
that this kind of men are neither en- 
dov/ed with llrength nor courage, and 
that there would be nothing to fear 
from a whole army of them. An- 
grim adds, that thefe Skraelingues 
are the fame people who inhabit the 
weOern parts of Greenland, and that 
the Norwegians, who are fettled on 
thofe coads, had called the favages 
they met with there, by the fame 
name. 

Thorvald was the only one who was 
mortally wounded, and who, dying 
foon after, paid the p-?iialty that was 
jiillly due for his inhuman condud. As 
he defired to be buried with a crofs 
at his feet, and another at his head, 
he feems to have imbibed fome idea 
of chrillianity, which at that time be- 
gan to dawn in Norvv'eeian Green- 
land, His body was interred at the 
point of the Cape, where he had in- 
tended to make a fettlement ; which 
cape was named from the croffe^, 
Kra>Ta-na2s, or Korfnees, (CrofTncfs, 
or Cape crofs-) The feafon being 
too far advanced for undertaking the 
voyage home, the reft of the crew 
fla-d the winter there, and did not 
reach Greenland till the following 
fpnng. We are farther told, that 
fhev loaded the veflel with vine-fets, 
ar,d all the raifins they/could pre- 
ferve. 

Eric had left a third fon, named 
Thorflein, who, as foon as he was 
informed of his brother Thorvald 's 
death, embarked that very year with 
his wife Gudride, and a felecl crew 
of twenty men. His principal de- 
fign was to bring his brother's body 
back to Greenland, that it might be 
buried i« a country more agreeable to 
his manes, and in a manner more ho;- 



+ They alfo called them fm^Elings, 
which ngnihes the fame thing ; /wzcf/, 
in Icelandic, being equivalent to 
final!, in Englifli. This defcription 
agrees well enough with the accounts 
we have of the Elquimaux on the 
Labrador coaft. 



1*64 



Objervations on the currents in the Atlantic ocean. 



[Augnft, 



norable to his family. But, during 
the whole fummer, the v/inds proved 
fo contiary and tempeduous, that af- 
ter fcveral fruitlefs attempts, he was 
driven back to apart of Greenland, 
far diliant from the colony of his 
countrymen. Here he was confined 
during the rigour of the winter, de- 
prived of all affiflance, and expofed 
to the feverity of fo rude a climate. 
Thefe misfortunes were increaled by 
a contagious ficknefs, which carried 
otf Thorflein and molt of his compa- 
ny. His widow took care of her 
hufband's body, and returning with 
it in the fpring, interred it in the bu- 
rial place of his family. 

Hitherto we have feem the Norwe- 
g'ans only makmg iHght efforts to 
cHabliHi theinfelves in Vinland. The 
year after, Thorflein 's death proved 
more favourable to the defign of fet- 
tling a colony. A rich Icelander, 
named Thorfin, whofe genealogy the 
chronicles have carefully preferved, 
arrived in Greenland, from Norway, 
with a great number of his follow- 
ers. He cultivated an acquaintance 
with Lief, who, fince his father Eric's 
death, was head of the colony ; and, 
with his confent, efpoufed Gudride, 
by whom he acquired a right to thofe 
claims her former hufband had on 
the fettlements at Vinland. Thither, 
he foon went to take poflefiTion, hav- 
ing with him Gudride and five other 
women, belides fixty failors, many 
cattle, provifion, and implements of 
hufbandry. Nothing was omitted 
that could forward an enterprize of 
this kind. Soon after his arrival on 
the coall, he caught a great whale, 
which proved very fcrviceable to the 
whole company. The pafturagc was 
found to be fo plentiful and rich, 
that a bull they had carried over with 
thrm, became, ma (hort time, remark- 
able for his fiercenels and llrengih. 

ihe remiimder of that fummer, and 
the winter following, were fpent in 
taking ■all nccelTary precautions for 
their prefervaiion, and in procuring 
all the conveniences of which they 
had any idea. The fucceeding fum- 
sricr, the Skrelingues, or natives of 
the country, came down in crouds, 
ard brought with them various mer- 
chandizes for traffic; confifiing of 
furs, fables, and fkins of white rats. 
It was cbferved, that the roaiiug of 



the bull terrified them to fuch a de- 
gree, that they burfl open the doors 
of 1 horfin's houfe, and crouded in 
with the utmoll precipitation. Thor- 
fin fuffered his people to traffic with 
them, but ftriclly forbade their fupply- 
ing them with arms, which were 
what they feemed moll defirous of 
obtaining. The Greenland women 
oflered them different kinds of eat- 
ables made with m;lk, of which they 
were fo fond, ihat ihey came down 
in crouds to beg them in exchange for 
their flvins. Some difputes that arofe, 
obliged the Skrelingues to retire, and 
Thorfin furrounded the manufatlory 
with a ilrong pallifade to prevent fur- 
pnze. ( To be continued.) 



Hydraulic and nautical objervations 
on the. currents in the Atlantic 
ocean, &c, &c. By Governor Pow- 
nal, F. R. S. and F. A. S. 

TH E ingenious writer of this 
piece, fubmits to the confidera- 
tion of navigators, fome obfervations 
on the currents in the Atlantic ocean, 
as applying to the ufe of navigation. 
The lludies which he purfued, and 
the line of fervice in which he was 
employed in tlie early part of his life, 
led and enabled him to make thefe 
obfervations. 

I'he fafts and obfervations which 
he flates anddefcribes, he throws out 
rather as matters of inveftiganon than 
as things proved, although fome have 
been determined by obfervation, and 
others are of common notoriety : but 
it appears to him better to ftate them 
as matters which require, as they de- 
ferve, farther and repeated obferva- 
tions, in a more regular, and more 
fcientificcourfe of experiment. 

The author reafons, that, in like 
manner as the combined operation 
of attraB'.on between the fun, moon, 
and earth, being uniform and per- 
manent, produces an uniform and 
permanent etfeft in the general tides 
of ibe ocean ; fo ihe winds, when they 
are uniform and permanent, produce, , 
by protrufion, currents in the ocean, in > 
like manner permanent and uniform. 
The currents, occafioned by the pro- 
trufion of the winds, continue at all 
times (lowing one way, either in the* 
direcHon of the wind, or in a diverg- 
ing lateral courfe, or ia a rellexcd re-' 



Obfervations on the currents in the Atlantic ocean. 



1783.] 

coiling current, as the waters piled up 
againlT any obltrutlion find the means 
of running off, and defcending from 
their forced elevation. 

The winds, between the tropics, 
having a general conrfe wertwards, 
protrude the waters of the Atlantic 
ocean in the fame direction, and caufe 
a current running always nearly in the 
fame direftion. This general current, 
in paihng through the chain of the 
Caribbee and Bahama iflands, and 
amongU the cayos of the fame, is di- 
verted and drawn from its general 
courfe In almolt alldireHions. Where 
it IS not interrupted or dillurbed, it 
keeps its general courfe, as along the 
Weft- Indian fea, through the gulf of 
Mexico, to its bottom ; and in the 
channel between Hil'paniola, Cuba, 
and the cayos and iflands of Bahama, 
to the gulf of Florida. The mam 
current, which runs direftly wed to 
the bottom of the gulf of Mexico, be- 
ing there oppofed by the continent, 
piles up its waters to a confiderable 
height. Thefe aggregated waters run 
off laterally, and dcfcend, as it were, 
down an inclined plane, along the 
coafts of Mexico, Louifiana, and Flo- 
rida, and, rounding the fable point, 
rufli out of the gulf of Florida. 
The current which runs north-well, 
through the old Bahama channel, 
meets, at its embouchure, the current 
coming north-eaft, round the point, 
from the gulf of Mexico : and thefe, 
in one combined ci;rrent, fet through 
the gulf of Florida, north-eafterly. 
From hence this current, in a bended 
and expanded flow, fcts north-eafterly 
along the coall of America, to about 
north latitude 41 degrees and a half. 

The governor then remarks, that this 
courfe of the waters, produced by the 
^onftant blowing of the trade-winds 
acrofs the Atlantic ocean, is analogous 
to currents produced by the periodical 
monfoons in the fouthern and Indian 
feas : he then returns, and takes up 
the current of the gulf-fiream, as it 
fets along the New England coafts, 
where we before left it ; and, from ex- 
perienced fafls, dates the following 
fourfe, and limits of it : namely, that 
the northern edge of the current lies in 
381 degrees of latitude, in the meridian 
of the ifland of Nantucket ; and, in the 
meridian of Georg'j's Bank, it is in la- 
titude 39 degrees, where its courfe is 



iCs 



E. N. E. In the meridian of the 
ide of Sable, its northern edge is m 
4 li degrees; and here its courfe is 
E. S. E. and S. E. by E. From 
hence he traces the courfe of the cur- 
rent acrofs the Atlantic again, iii a 
fouth-eafterly direthon, till it ap- 
proach the coad of Africa, where it 
is deflected along the coad, at fome 
fmall didance,in a foutherly direction, 
holding that courfe till it arriv:^ at, and 
fupply the place of thole waters, ear- 
ned, by the condant trade-winds, from 
the coad of Africa, acrofs the Atlan- 
tic, towards the wed, as afore Li'.:d ; 
and thus producmg a perpetual wiiiii- 
ling or circulating current, including 
within its clrcuu, a confiderable bread; rt 
of fpacc, forming a kmd of eddy, or 
perhaps returning or lee currents. And 
this Hate of the matter, he oblcrve?, 
compared by its caufes, and in its ef- 
fects, is the aclual fatt. 

This current, thus revolving, in an 
orbit, round the Atlantic ocean, in a 
continual circulation, it is conform- 
able to the laws of hydraulics, that 
there diould be, in the fpace included 
within the inner edges of this orbit, 
an eddy, into which all floating lub- 
dances, fuch as wood and weeds, 
which fall into the general current, 
fiiall be finally abforbed. Now the 
fart is, that weeds, called the Sara- 
gofa weeds, as alio the gulf weeds, 
have been obferved at certain latitudes 
and longitudes, within the area of the 
orbit of this general current, and near- 
ly on what may be fupppofcd the in- 
ner edge of it. 

Although there are not, in the 
northern parts of the Atlantic ocean, 
any fettled rnonfoons, or any trade- 
winds, as between the tropics, yet, 
this author obferves, to the northward 
of the fpace above defcribed, a gene- 
ral eadern current takes place, run- 
ning along the north boundary of this 
fpace, to the ead, foutherly, acrofs 
the Atlantic, towards the coafts of 
Europe, and fets continually throuiih 
the Straits into the Meduerranean 
fea ; jud as the current in the Indian 
fea fets, during the north-eaft mon^ 
foon, into the gulf of Perfia, and 
through the d raits of Babelmandel 
into the Red Sea. Various opera- 
tions and combinations of winds, and 
various circumftances of banks, and 
elevated grouBd, in this northern part 



1^4 Sir IV. Keith's felt erne refpcBinj the government of America. [Aoguff, 

of the Atlantic, may be afOgncd as 
caufcs of this eftett. Thcfe are not 
yet fufficiently explored, even fo much 
as to admit of a theoretic coniDiua- 
lion. The matter, however, is fatt, 
and of common notoriety, as is the 
fac^, that the pafTage from America 
ID Europe, is at lealt one-ihird Iliort- 
er, than the paffage from Europe to 
America. It is fo much fo, that it 
is a common expredion among the 
American navigators, that, '" thecourfe 
IS down hill all the way home," as 
thsy ufed to call England. 

Skilful navigators, who have ac- 
quired a knowledge of the extent to 
which the norihern edge of the Gulf 
Stream reaches on the New England 
coait, have learnt in their voyages to 
New England, New York, or Penn- 
fylvania, to pafs the banks of New- 
foundland in about 44 ° or 45 "^ N. 
latitude, to fail thence, in a courfe 
between the northern edge of the 
Gulf Stream, as above defcribed, and 
the Ihoals and banks of Sable Ifland, 
George's Bank, and Nantucket, by 
which they make better and quicker 
palTages from England to America. 

By an exmination of the cur- 
rents in the higher latitudes of the 
northern parts of the Atlantic, and 
of their courfe along the coalis of 
Greenland, and the Efquimaux Oicres, 
if they (hould prove luch as the rca- 
foning in this paper leads to, a much 
quicker palfage >et may be found. 

By a particular and Hill more ac- 
curate examination of the northern 
and fouthern edgeof the Gulf Stream, 
of the variation of thefe circumilances, 
as winds and feafons vary ; and expe- 
rimentally afcertaiiiing what, where, 
and of what nature, the lee- currents 
on the edges, both inner and outer, of 
the Gulf Stream, are, great facilities 
and alhftarr.e mud be derived to naviga- 
tion. The knowledgeof this would lead 
to the afcei taining the eddies, or other 
partial currents in the great fpace of 
ocean included within the great circu- 
lating current. The knowledge of 
'he wellern edge of the current, which 
(ets fouth, along the coails of Africa, 
and of all its variations, a^ alfoof the 
Ice-currents upon that edge, would be 
of elfential ule in navigating to (and 
perhaps from) the Weft Indies. A 
prailical knowledge of the variable 
currents, and how they vary under 
3 



the operation of various caufes, in the 
fpace aforenamed, as running acrofs 
the Atlantic, might be of great be- 
nefit in forwarding a quick palFage 
from America, perhaps in Ihortening 
the paffage to Europe in winter. Va- 
rious other ufes of this enquiry might 
be pointed out, but tohave marked, 
that this hypothetic theorem is not 
without its ule, is fufficient. 

•••<>■- '^e'^s>'^e> •••<>■•• 

Copy of fir William Keith' sfcfieme, re- 
J~pe6Ii?tg the government of America, 
prefented to the king of Great Bri- 
tain, November, 1728; and refer- 
red in council, to the lords commif- 
fioners of trade. 
To the king' s mofl excellent majefy. 
May it plealeyour majefty. 
SINCE the obfervations, con- 
tained in the following difcourfe, 
were occafionaliy made, in your ma- 
jelly's, and your royal father's fervice 
abroad, during the fpace of twelve 
years ; I moll humbly beg leave, to 
lay them at your royal feet, as a na- 
tural elFeft of the purell loyalty to 
your facred perfon ; and the only 
means, which is left in my power, to 
ferve the public, and to demonllrate 
that I am. 

May it pleafe your majeftyj 
your majeily's 

mort humble, mofl faithful, 
andmoft obedient fubjetl, 

WlLLIAiM Ke ITW. 

Afhort difcourfe, on the prefcntfiate 
■ of the colonies in America^ zuitk 
refpecl to Great Britain, 

HAPPY are the people, whofe 
lot is to be governed by a 
prince who does not wholly dejiend 
upon the reprefcntaiions of others, 
but makes it a chief part of his delight, 
to infpefl into the condition of his 
fubjeBs, according to their feveral 
ranks and degrees — who, from the 
clearnefs of his own mind, diftin- 
guilhes the true merit of his fervants, 
lea"'ing the liberties and properties 
of his people, to be equally guarded 
and jultly defended, by a pun£lual ex- 
ecution of the laws. 

The unbounded extent of know- 
ledge, to be daily acquired by the ju- 
dicious enquiries and application of 
fuch a prince, will ioon abohih the 
ufe of llattery, and the pernicious ef- 
f?Bs of all defigncd mifreprefenta- 



1789.] Sir fK KeitA*s/chme, refpeBing the govemmtnt of America, 165 



lion. The paths of virtue and ho- 
nour, with a rtritt adherence to truth, 
will be the only avenues of accefs, to 
the foveieign's elleem ; and the royal 
favours, in fuch a reign, will ever 
be agreeably difpenfed, in propor- 
tion to the ufeful coudu£l, and true 
merit of the party. 

So great an exatnple from the 
throne, will doubtlefs infpire every 
honeU breaft, with a better fliare of 
public fpirit ; men's thoughts will not 
then be fo intent on what they can 
get for themfelves, as on what they 
can do for their country. And as 
for fuch parts of the prince's pre- 
roj^ative and executive power, as ne- 
ceUarily mult be entrufted with minif- 
ters, they will ever be thought an ad- 
vantage and fecurity to a nation ; 
while the conduft of the miniftry 

ririncipally ftiines in the fupport of 
iberty, which cannot fail to gain the 
hearts and affections of a free people. 
On a provincial dependent government, 

WHEN, either by conqueft or in- 
creafe of people, foreign provinces 
are poffeired, and colonies planted 
abroad, it is convenient, and often ne- 
Geffai7, to fubftitute little dependent 
provincial governments, whofe peo- 
ple, by being infranchized, and made 
partakers of the liberties and privi- 
leges belongingto the original mother 
Itate, are juftly bound by its laws, 
and become fubfervient to its interefts, 
as the true end of their incorporation. 

Every afcl of a dependent provi ncial 
government, ought therefoie to ter- 
minate in the advantage of the mother 
ilate, unto whom it owes its being, 
and by whom it is protefted in all its 
valuable privileges. Hence it fol- 
lows, that all advantageous projefts, 
or commercial gains in any colony, 
which are truly prejudicial to, and in- 
confiftent with, the intereft of the 
mother Hate, muft be underftood, to 
be illegal ; and the praflice thereof 
unwarrantable, becaufe they contra- 
dift the end, for which the colony 
had a being, and are incompatible 
with the terms, on which the people 
claim both privileges, and protection. 

On a Britijk colony in America, 

WERE thefe things rightly under- 
ftood, amongft the inhabitants of the 
Britifh colonies in America, there 
would be Icfs occafion for fuch in- 
firuftions and ftrift prohibitions, as 

Vol. VI. 



are daily fent from England to regu- 
late their conduti in many points. 
The very nature of the thing would 
be fufficient to diretl their chiJice, 'n 
cultivating fuch parts of indtillry and 
commerce only, as would l)iiiig fome 
advantage to the interelt and trade of 
Great Britain : they would foon find, 
by experience, tliat this was ihe folid 
and true foundation, whereon to build 
a real intereft m theirmother country, 
and the certain means to acquire 
riches without envy. 

On the other hand, where the go- 
vernment of a provincial colony is 
well regulated, and all its bulinefs 
and commerce truly adapted to the 
proper end and delign of ihe firft fet- 
tlemeni — fuch a province, like a 
choice branch fpringmg from the 
main root, ought to be carefully noii- 
riflied, and its juft intereft well 
guarded. No little, partial projeft, 
or party gain, fhould be fullered to af- 
fcft it : but rather, it ought to be con- 
fidered and weighed in the general ba- 
lance of the whole ilate, as an ufeful 
and profitable nieiiiber ; for, fuch is 
the end of all colonies ; and, if this 
ufe cannot be made of them, it would 
be much better for the ftate, to be 
without them. 

Advantages, arifing to Britain from 
the trade oj' the colonies, 

IT has ever been the maxim of all 
polilhed nations, to regulate their go- 
vernment, to the bsft ad van age of 
their trading intereft ; whence it miy 
be helpful, to take a fliort view of the 
principal benefits, arifing to Great 
Britain, from the trade of the colo- 
nies. 

1. The colonies take off, and con- 
fume, above one-fixth part of the 
woolen manufaclures exported from 
Britain ; which are the chief ftaple of 
England, and the main fupport of all 
the landed intereft. 

2. They take off, and confume, 
more than double that value, in linen, 
and callicoes, which are partly the 
produclof Britain, and Ireland, parti/ 
the profitable returns made for that 
produil, when earned to foreign 
countries. 

3. The luxury of the colonies, 
which increafes daily, confumes great 
quantities of Englilh manufaflured 
filks, haberdaftiery, houfhold furni- 
ture, and trinkets of all forts ; as alf« 
Y 



i66 S:r IV. Ket't/i's/cAcme, refpeSling the gdvrMWeiit of Amtrka. [Auguft, 



a very confiderable value in Eaft In- 
dia goods. 

4. A s;reat revenue is raifed to the 
cfown of Brirain, by returns made in 
tlie produce of the plantations, efpe- 
cially tobacco, whch, at the fame time, 
helps England to bring nearer to a 
balance, her unprofitable trade with 
France. 

5. Thefe colonies promote the 
intsrefi and trade of Britain, by a vaft 
increafe of {liipping and fcamen, 
wh;ch enables them to carry great 
quaniiiy of fifh to Spain, Portugal, 
Leghorn, &c. furs, logwood, and 
rsce, to Holland, where ihey keep 
Great Britain confiderably in the ba- 
lance of trade with thofe countries. 

6. If reafonably encouraged, the 
Colonies are now in a condition, to 
furtr.fii Britain with as much cf the 
following commodities, a,; it can de- 
mand, VIZ. mafting for the navy, and 
all forfs of timber ; hemp, flax, pitch, 
tar, o;I, rofin, copper ore, with pig 
z.vA bar iron ; by means whereof the 
balance of trade to RufTia, and the 
Baltic, may be very much reduced in 
favour of Great Britain. 

7. The profits arifing to all 
thofe colonies by trade, are returned 
in bullion, or other ufef j! cfFetls. to 
Great Britain ; where the fuperflu- 
ous cafli, and oilier riches, acquired 
in America, miif} centre — v^hich is 
not one of the leafl fecurities that 
Brita n has, to keep ths colonies al- 
ways in due fubjetlion.* 

8. The colonies upon the main 
are the granary of America ; and 
a necelTary fupport to ihe fugar-plan- 
tations in the Weii-Indie^, which 
could not fubfift without them. 

By this fhort view of the trade in 
general, we may plainly underftand, 
that thefe colonies may be very bene- 
ficially employed, both for Great Bri- 



* If this maxim was true In 1728, 
ought not we of the ])refent genera- 
tion ferioufly to confider, what will be 
the probable confequences of our trad- 
ing with Britain, for articles of lux- 
ury and exiravygance — a commerce, 
which not only turns the balance of 
trade againll us, and drains us of our 
circulating cafli, but alfo keeps us 
conflantly and deeply indebted to 
licr? 



tain and themfelves, without inter- 
fering with any of the flaple manufac- 
tures of England. And, confidering- 
the bulk and end of the whole traf- 
fic, 'twere pity that any material 
branch of it fhould be depreffed, on 
account of private and particular in- 
terelis, which, in comparifon with 
thefe, cannot juftly be efleemed a 
national concern : for, if the trade 
of the colonies be to the advantage 
of Britain, there is nothing more 
certain, than that the difcouragement 
of any fubftantial branch, for the fake 
of any company, or private interett, 
would be a iofs to the nation. But, 
in order to fet this point yet in a 
clearer light, we will proceed to con- 
fider fome of the moll obvious regu- 
lations in the American trade, for 
rendering the colonies truly fervice- 
able to Great Britain. 
Regulations in the plantation trade. 

1. THAT all the product of the 
colonies, for which the manufatlures 
and trade of Britain have a conflant 
demand, be enumerated amongft the 
goods, which, by the law, muft be 
firft tranfported to Britain, before 
they can be carried to any other 
market. 

e. That every valuable merchan* 
di/e, found in the Englifh colonies, 
and rarely any where elfe — and for 
which there is a conflant demand in^ 
Europe, fhail alfo be enumerated, in 
order to afliU Great Britain in the 
balance of trade with other coun- 
tries. 

3. That all kinds of woolen ma- 
nnfaflures, for which the colonies 
have a demand, (hall continue to be 
brought from Britain only ; and linen, 
from Great Britain and Ireland. 

4. All other kinds of European com- 
modities, to be carr!c<l to the colonies, 
(fait excepted) entry thereof firll to 
be made in Britain, before they can 
be tranfported to any of the Engliib 
colonies. 

5. The cttlonies to be abfolulely 
reflrained, in their feveral govern- 
ments, from laying any manner of 
duties on Clipping or trade from En- 
rope ; or, upon European goods, 
tranfported from one colony to ano- 
ther. 

6. That the afts of parliament, re- 
lating to the trade and government of 
the colonies, be revifed, and coUcft- 



^jSg.^ Sir W. Knth\ fchemeyrcfprRing the government of America. 167 



eH into one diflinft body of laws, for 
(he life of the plantations, and of 
fuch as trade with them. 

Suppofing thefe things to be done, 
it will evideoiiy follow, that the more 
extenfive the trade of the colonies is, 
the greater will be the advantage ac- 
cruing to Great Britain therefrom; 
and, confequentiy. that the enlarge- 
ment of the colonies, and the in- 
creafe of their people, would liill be 
an addition to ihe mtional ilreiigih. 
All fmaller improvement.^, therefore, 
pretended to, and fer up, for jinvate 
ga'.n, by the leffer focieiies, in Great 
Britain, or elfewhere, although they 
might have a jud pt\;ience to bring 
fnme fort of p'.ibKc benefit ^nng with 
them, yet, if they Iball appear to be 
hurtful to the much greater, and 
more national concern of the trading, 
ufeful colonies, ought, in jullice to 
the public, to be neglected, in fa- 
vour of ihem — It being an unaltera- 
ble maxim, that a lefTer public good 
miift give place to a greater ; and 
that it is of more moment to mainiain 
a greater, than a leiler number of 
fubjefts, well employed, to the ad- 
vantage of any flate. 

On the legijlative power. 

FROM what has been laid of the 
nature of colonies, and the reflric- 
tions, that ought to be laid on their 
trade, it is plain, that none of the 
Englifli planiations in America can, 
with any reafon, or good fenfe, pre- 
tend to claim an abfolute legdlaiive 
power within themfelves : lb that — 
let theirfeveral confliiutions be found- 
ed on ancient charters, royal patents, 
cuHom by prefcription, or what other 
]egal authority you pleafe — yet ftill 
they cannot be polfeffed of any right- 
ful capacity to contradict, or evade 
the true intent and force of any aft 
of parliament, wherewnh the wil- 
dom of Great liritain may think fit 
to affeft them, from time to time. 
And, in d'.fcourfing on their legifla- 
tive powers ('.mproi>erly fo called in 
a dependent governmeni) we are to 
confider them, only as fo many cor- 
porations, at a diftance, inveiled with 
ability to make temporary by-la wn 
for themfelves, agreeable to their re- 
fpeftive fuuations and climates, but 
iio ways interfering with the legal 
prerogative of the crown, or ibe true 
legiCitive pov.er of the rooiher llate. 



If tbe governors and general aiTem- 
blies of the feveral colonies, would 
be pleafed to conlidcr theniielvcs m 
this light, one would think it M-as 
impoibble, they could be lo weak, as 
to fancy, that tliey reprefcnted the 
king, lords, and commons of Great 
Britain, within their little diilricts. 
And, indeed, the ufclefs, or rather 
hurtful and inconfillent conftitiition 
of a negative council in all the king's 
provincial governments, coninbuted, 
as it IS believed, to lead them miO 
this miflake : for, fo long as the king 
has rcferved to himfelf, in his pru'y 
council, the confiderainm of, a^d 
negative upon, all their laws, the 
meihod of aiipointing a few of the 
ririicfl and prv^udell men in a fmaii 
colony, as an upper houfe, wirh a 
negative on the proceedings of the 
king's lieutenant governor, and the 
people's reprefentatives, feems not 
only to cramp the natural I berty of 
the fubjeft there, but alfo the king's 
jiifl power, and prerogative : fqr, it 
often happens, that very reafonabie 
and good bilh, fometimes propoied 
for the benefit of the crown, bv tlie 
w fdom of a goi>d governor, and, at 
other times, oriered by the people's 
reprefentatives, in behalf of their 
conlluucnis, have been loft, and the 
enatling of fuch made impracticable, 
by the obllinacy of a majority in the 
council ; only, becaule fuch (hings 
did not ftpiare with their private, par- 
ticular intereft and gain, or with the 
views, which they form to them- 
felves, by afTummg an imaginary dig- 
nity and rank above all the reff of 
the king's fubjecls. And as to the 
fecunty, which, it is pretended, 
either the crown, or a proprietary 
may have by fuch a negative council, 
it is in fatl quite otherwile : for that 
caution would be much better fecur- 
ed, if this council was only a coun- 
cil of {fare, to advife with the go- 
vernor, and be condant witncfles of 
all public iranl'aftions : and it cannot 
be thought, ihat an ofliccr, who is 
not only under oaths and bonds, but 
anfwerable by lav>- for his mifdeeds, 
and removable at pleafure, would, in 
the face of witnefles fo appointed, 
contraditl: a rational advice, thereby 
fubjetlmg himlelf to grievous penal- 
ties, and icilFes ; neuher is it to be 
fuppofed, that thcfe men, if ihey had 



l68 Sir W, Keith's fcheme^ refpe&ing the government of America. [Aiiguft, 



only the privilege of advifing, would 
oppofe fuch good bills, or other rea- 
fonable propofitions, as they well 
knew ijiey had no legal power to re- 
jeft. But while they Hiid themfelves 
pofTefTed of a perempiory negative, 
without being in any lort accountable 
for their opinions, it is cafy to ima- 
gine, how iuch a power may be ufed 
on many occafions, to ferve their 
private interells, and views in trade; 
as well as to indulge the too natural 
propenlity, which mankind have, ef- 
pecially abroad, to rule over, and 
opprefs their poor neighbours. Be- 
fides, an artful, corrupt governor will 
find means, by prefernienl, &c. fo to 
influence a negative council, that 
knowing themfelves to be under no 
bonds, or any oiher valuable penalty, 
to anlwer ihe party aggrievetl by their 
opinions, they may, without rifque, 
proceed in fuch manner, as to fcreen 
the governor in many things, which, 
e;herwife, he would be peifonally, 
and fingly bound to account for in 
a legal and juil way. 

If ihen a council of flate, only to 
advife with the governor, fliall appear 
(m all emergencies and cafes that can 
be propofed) to be equally ufeful ; 
and not attended with the inconfill- 
encics, obflru6tions, and difadvan- 
tages of a negaiive council ; the one 
feems to be much preferable to the 
other, and more, agreeable to that 
liberty, and jufl equality, which is ef- 
tablilhed by the common law ainongft 
Knglilhmen, and confeqiieiuly lefs 
priidudive of ihofe greivaaces, and 
complaints, which have been fo fre- 
quent hiiherto from the plantations. 

At firft view, it will appear natu- 
ral enough for an Englifhinan, who 
has tailed the fweeinefs of that free- 
dom, which is enjoyed under the hap- 
py coniliiuiion of king. lords, and 
commons of Great Britain, to ima- 
gine, that a third p.irc Ih.oulJ be 
formed in the little governments of 
the plantaitons, ui the imitation of 
the houfe of lords; bur, if we rightly 
confiderit, that part cf the conllitu- 
iion is already moll properly and ful- 
ly fuppled by the lords of his majef- 
ty's privy coinuil : befide<^. let us fup- 
pofe, that inlfead of an honle of lords 
in Britain, alike nmnberof feleci com- 
moners were mveiled with a power 
;w fet apart , ai^d to pu: a I'egative 



upon the proceedings of the houfe of 
commons confilting of three times the 
number of perfons, of equal rank, 
and reprefenting all the commons of 
Great Britain in parliament, the in- 
confiftency and unreafonablenefs oF 
the thing does prefently obtrude it- 
felf upon our minds; and yet, fuch 
is the very cafe of that negative, which 
is now prafciifed by the councils in 
America. 

On the 'civil jurifdiBion. 

NEXT to the legrflative power, 
we fliall proceed to confider the civil 
jurifdithon in the plantations, which, 
by their own arts, is branched out in- 
to fo many diflerent forms, almoft in 
each colony, that it is fcarce prafti- 
cable to reduce them under fuch heads, 
in any one difcourfe, as to make it intel- 
ligible to thofe, who are altogether un- 
acquainted with American aifairs. 

It is generally acknowledged in the 
plantations, that the fubjeft is en- 
titled by birth-right unto the benefit 
of the common law of England; but 
then, as the common law has been al- 
tered from time to time, and rellrici- 
ed by (latutes, it is ftill a queflion in 
many of the American courts of ju- 
dicature, whether any of the Englifh 
flatutes, which do not particularly 
mention the plantations, can be of 
force there, until they be brought 
pv^r by fome att of alfembly In that 
colony where they are pleaded ; and 
this creates fuch confufion, that, ac- 
cording to the art, or influence of the 
lawyers and atiornies, before judges, 
who, by their education, are but in- 
differently qualified for that fervice, 
they fometimes allow the force of 
particular Hatutes, and at other times 
rcjett the whole, efpecially, if the 
bench is inclinable to be partial, which 
too frequently happens in thole new 
and unlettled countries : and, as 
men's liberties and properties, in 
any coniiiry, chiefly depend on an 
impartial and erpial admiiiiflration 
of jiillice ; this is one of the moll ma- 
terial grievances which the fubjefcts of 
America have jufl caufe to complain 
of : but while, for the want of fchools, 
and other proper inflrutlion in the 
principles of moral virtue, their peo- 
ple arc not fo well qualified, even to 
ferve upon juries, and much lefs to 
aff on a bench of judicature, it feems 
imprafticable to provide a remedy un- 



tySg.'] Sir tV, Keith^s fcheme, Tefpetiing the government of Amtrica, 169 



til a fijfficlent revenue be found out 
amongft them, to fupport the charges 
of fending judges from England, to 
take their circuits by turns, in the fe- 
vcral colonics on the main ; which, if 
it is thought worthy of confideration, 
will appear neither to be improper, nor 
impraciicable ; and, until that can be 
done, all other attempts to reftify 
their courts of law, will be fruillefs, 
and may be fufpended. 

Courts of chancery, which are 
known to be neceffary in many cafes, 
to correft the feverity of the common 
law, feem to fubfifl there on a molt pre- 
carious footing ; for it does not appear 
that there is a proper and legal autho- 
rity to hold fuch a court, in any of 
the colonies ; neverihelefs, by cuHom, 
every where fome kind of chancery 
is to be found, in one form or other ; 
fo that when a rich man defigns to 
conteft any thing in difpute with his 
poor neighbour, if he can contrive 
to bring it into chancery, he is fure 
the matter will rarely or never be 
brought to ilTiie, which, on many oc- 
cafions, proves an intolerable opprel- 
fion ; wherefore, it is hoped, that fo 
high a junfdittion, illuing imme- 
diately from the crown, will, in due 
time, be put on a more regular and 
certain enabliflimcnt. 

On the military Jlrevgth. 

A Militia, in an arbitrary and ty- 
rannical government, may polhbly 
be of fome fervice to the governing 
power ; but we learn from experi- 
ence, that in a free country, it is of 
little ufe; the people in the planta- 
tions are fo few, in proportion to the 
lands they polfefs, that fervants being 
fcarcc, and flaves excefhvely dear, 
the men are generally under a nc- 
cefTity there, to work hard them- 
felves, in order to provide the com- 
mon neceflaries of life for their fami- 
lies, fo that they cannot fpare a day's 
time, without great lofs to their in- 
terell ; wherefore, a militia there 
would become more burdenfome to 
the poor people, than it can be in any 
part of Europe ; but, befides, it may 
be queftioned, how far it would con- 
fift with good policy, to accuftom all 
the able men in the colonies to be 
well exercifed in arms ; it fecms at pre- 
fenttobe more advifable to keep up a 
fmall, regular (landing force in each 
provinccj which might be readily aug- 



mented for a time, if occafion did re- 
quire ; and thus, in cafe of war, or 
rebellion, the whole of the regular 
troops might be, without lofs of 
time, united, or diftributed at plea- 
fure ; and if, as has been faid before, 
a fuitable revenue abroad can be raif- 
ed for the defence and fupport of 
the plantations, it would be no diffi- 
cult matter, boih to form and exe- 
cute a proper fcheme of this nature. 
On taxes. 

L A N D is fo plenty, and to be 
had fo very cheap, in America, that 
there is no fuch thing as a tenant to be 
found in that country, for every man 
is a landlord in fee of what he pof- 
felTes, and only pays a fmall quit, or 
ground rent, to the lord of the foil; 
and this makes it impraQicable to hnd 
an alTembly of fuch freeholders in any 
of the colonies, who will confcnt to 
lay any tax upon lands, (nor indeed is 
it to be expetied, they {hould volui.- 
tarily a^ree to raife any revenue a-" 
mongfl themfelves) except what is ab- 
foiutely necelFary for erefting court- 
houfes, bridges, highways, and other 
needful expenles of their civil go- 
vernment, which IS commonly levied 
upon flock : an excifc on foreign li- 
quors retailed; or a fmall poll tax ; 
and the public there is generally in 
debt, becaufe they are extremely jea- 
lous of attempts upon their liberties; 
and appreheniive, that if at any time 
the public treafury was rich, it might 
prove too great a temptation for an 
artful governor, in conjunftion with 
their own reprefentatives, to divide 
the fpoil, and betray them. 

On their independency . 

IT mud be allowed, that a fiiareof 
perfonal interelt or lelf-love, influen- 
ces, vn fome degree, every man ; af- 
fection gives a natural impiilfe to all 
our aftions ; and though this is mod 
perceptible in trade, or commercial 
affairs, yet there is not any other 
tranfatlion in life, that palTes without 
it ; and as it is with men in this cafe, 
fo we find it has ever been with all 
Hates, or bodies politic, fo long as 
they are independent one upon ano- 
ther. The wifdom of the crown of 
Britain therefore, in keeping its co-< 
tomes in that fituation, is very much 
to be applauded ; while they continue 
fo, it is morally impoffible that any 
dangerous uni»n can be formed a- 



3 JO Sir W. Keith^sjckcme^ re/peBing the govermneni cf America. [Augufi, 



mcmgft them ; becaufe their Intereft in 
trmle, and all manner of bufinefs, be- 
iflg entirely feparated by their inde- 
pendency, every advantage that is loll, 
or neglctted, by one colony, is im- 
mediately picked up by another ; and 
the emularion that continually fubfifls 
fcetween them, in all manner of in- 
rercourfe, and traffic, is ever pro- 
duftivcof envies, jealoufics, and cares, 
how to gam upon each other's con- 
dutl, in /government, or trade, every 
..one endeavouring thereby to magnify 
their prctcnfions to the favour of the 
crown, by becoming more ufeful than 
their neighbours, to the intereft of 
Oieat Rritain. 

On ths mavagemevt of plantation 
nffairs in England, 

'BUT to render the colonies flill 
more confiderabb to Britain, and the 
management of their affairs much 
more eafy to the kmg, and his minif- 
trrs at home, it would be convenient 
JO a;;point particular officers m Kng- 
J >nd, ivnly for difpatch of bufinefs 
belonging to the plantations : for often, 
perfons that come from America, on 
purpofe either to complain, or to Sup- 
port their own juft rights, are at a lofs 
how, or where to apply. This uncer- 
tainty does not only fatigue the minif- 
ter?, but frequently terminates in the 
dellrutHon of the party ; by his being 
referred from office to office, until 
both his money and patience be 
quite worn out ; fiich things, in time, 
may cool people's affettions, and 
.give them too mean an opinion of the 
juBice of their mother country, 
"which ought carefully to be prevented ; 
for where there is a liberty, the in- 
jhabitants will certainly expeft right, 
and ftill have an eye towards obtain- 
ing it one way or other. 

It may be confidered, therefore, how 
■far if would be fervireable, to put all 
th.-; crow:'.'s civil oflicers in the plan- 
tations, of what kind foever, under 
the dire' tion of the board of trade, 
fnm whom they might receive their 
fevcral deputations, or appointments ; 
and unto whom they ought lo be ar- 
coiintabl'*, both for fheirreceipts, and 
management ; and, if a pariicuUr fe- 
fretary was appointed for the planta- 
tion affy^rs only, or if, the firft lord 
commilliouer of that board was per- 
mitted to have daily accefs to the 
king, in ordiJr to receive his inajef- 



ty's commands, in all bufinefTes relat- 
ing to the plantations, the fubjccl's, 
application would be reduced into fo 
narrow a compafs, and the board of 
trade would always be fo perfeflly 
acquainted with the king's pieafure, 
that great difpatch might be given, 
even to thofe diftant matters, with- 
out taking up too much of miniftry's 
time, and interfering with other pe- 
haps more important bufinefs ; the 
people of the cohmies would be pleaf- 
ed to find themfelves thus equally re- 
garded, without giving one any un- 
due preference to another; and all 
the rents, cufloms, revenues, and o- 
ther profits in any manner ariftng 
from the plantations, v/ou!d then cen- 
tre in one place where another pro- 
per member of the fame board might 
be appointed treafurerof that particu- 
lar revenue *, to anfwer all fuch or- 
ders as fiiould be iffued from time to 
time, for the plantations; fervice and, 
as the revenue from America, would" 
in ail probability be increafed dally, 
it may reafonably be expefted that the 
expenie of paying the board of trade, 
and other officers, wholly employed 
in plantation affairs, which is now 
borne by the civil lifl, would then, 
more properly, arife, and be difcharg- 
ed out of the American fund ; and, 
the overplus remaining would, in 
time, become a moll ufcfiil ftock for 
purchafing of the proprietary lands ; 
erefting forts ; and extending the pre- 
fent fettlements as far as the great 
lakes, or might be applied to fuch 
other ufes, as his majeRy (hould think 
proper for that fervice. 

OJ' a revenue in America. 

ALL that has been faid in refpefl 
of theimprovement of theplantations, 
will , it is fuppofed, fignify very little, 
unlefs a fufficient revenue can be 
raifed to fiipport the needful expenfe ; 
in order to which, u is humbly fubmit- 
ted, whether the dutiesof (lamps upon 
parchment, and p4per in England, 
may not, with good rcafon, beextend-' 
cd by afl of parliament, to all the 
American plantations. 

When we do but caft an eye upon 
ihe vad trarls of land, and immenfe 
riches which the Spanifii nation have, 
in littie more than one century, very 
oddly acquired in America, infomnch 
that the fimple privilege of tradmg 
with them, on very high terms loo, 



1789.] Hymns, Z7» 

is become a prize worth contending of his majcfty's privy cotmcil (ex- 

for, amonglt the greatefl powers in clufive of Weftminfter hall, or any 

Europe ; furcly we muft, on due re- other judicaLure) the brightnmg that 

flexion, acknovv/ledge, that the prefer- jev^el in the crown may not perhaps 

vation and enlargement of the En- be thought unworthy of the prefeni 

glifli fettlemcnts, in thofe parts, is of happy reign, to which, the improve- 

the laft confequence to the trade, inte- ment and future lecurity of fo large 

rell, and ftrength of Great Britain; a part of the Briiifli dominions, the 

and, moreover, confidering, how, that advancement of trade, and univer- 

ihe laft refort of juftice in the plania- fally fupportmg the glorious caufe of 

tions is folely lodged in the king's liberty, feem to be rcferved, by the 

facred perfon, with the advifement peculiar hand of Providence, 

To the PRINTER of the Ans.KicA'H Museum.. 

I F you think the following attempt to verfify the 
beautiful hymn, beginning 

" Awake, mannr, fro Jltpe ajierte.'" &c. 
worth a place in your Mufeum, it is at your fervice, 

Burlington county, Augujt \, '78g» 

ARISE, mv foul ! with rapture rife ? 
And, fiU'd with love and fear, adore 
The awful Sov 'reign of the fkie?, 

Whofe mercy lends me one.day more. 

And may this day, indulgent Pow'r! 

Not idly pafs, nor fruitlefs be ; 
But, may each fwiftly-flying hour-— 

Advance my foul more nigh to thee. 

But can it be, that Pow'r divine, 

Whofe throne is light's unbounded blaxe — 
While countlefs worlds, and angels join, 

To fwell the glorious fong of praife — 

M^iil deign to lend a fav'ring ear, 

When 1 , poor, abjetl mortal, pray ? 
Yes, boiindlefs goodnefs ! he will hear» 

Nor caft the meanell wretch away. 
Then let me ferve thee, all my days, 

And may my zeal with years increafe ; 
For, pleafant, Lord ! arc all thy ways, 

" And all thy paths, are paths of peace." 

A nyyiri-fung at tkepublic exhibiticn of thefcholars, btlongmg to the aca* 
demy inGreeriJield, May i, 1788. jS^ dr. D Wight. 
AIL! child of light, returning fpring, 
Fair image, foretaile fweet of heav'n ! 
In thee our hearts thy Maker fing, 

By whofe bleft bounty thou waft gtv'n. 

From thee, the wintry glooms retire, 

The fkies their purell beams difplay ; 
And winds, and fhow'rs, and funs confpire, 

To clothe the world with life and May. 

Hailknowledge, hail — the moral fpring. 
That wakes the verdure of the mind ! 
To man thy rays indulgent bring 
All flagrant flow'rs, and fruits refinM, 



H 



*7* Reflexions of a libertine. [Augwil, 

Thv progrefs with the morn began ; 

Before thee, ev'ry region fmii'd } 
The favage brighten 'd into man, 

And gardens blofrom'd in the wild. 

All hail, fair virtue, nobiellgood. 

The biifs and beauty of the fkies ! 
liy whom, to yonder blefl abode 

The humble, and the faithful rife. 

While here fair learning's fmiles begin, 

And fpring leads on the genial year, 
From realms of life and peace divine, 

Defcend, and bloom, and flourifh here. 

And O, thou fount of good fupreme, 

The Sun, that lights eternal fpring, 
At once of knowledge, fource and theme, 

Thee firft, and lall, our voices fing! 

Virtue, in ev'ry charm array 'd, 

For this dark world, thy fuff 'rings won ; 
Thofe charms, thy matchlefs life difpiay'd, 

When here th' incarnate fplendor fiione. 

As dews refrefli, as funs revive. 

When clear and cloudlefs (hines the day, 
Command our rifing race to live, 

And win them from the world away. 

With thee, the fource of ev'ry grace, 

Our fong (hall end, as it began. 
Our hope, our truf}, our joy, and praife, 

The Saviour, and the Friend of man. 

Rtjlexions of a libertine rrclaimed byficknefs. By the Rev, J, Lathrcp, of 
Springfield, in ConneBicut, 

WHEN fprightly health flow'd in my veins, 
And fparkled in my eye, 
I fear'd no forrow, felt no pains. 
Nor thought a change fo nigh. 

The world, which all my foul engrofs'd 

Shut out each ferious thought ; 
My heart, inguiltypleafures loft, 

Death and the grave forgot, 

I liften'd to the wanton fong, 

And lov'd the jeft profane ; 
No pious fubjeft mov'd my tongue, 

But all my talk was vain. 

I mingled with the noify croud, 

The jovial board around ; 
When loud they laugh 'd, I laugh 'd as loud, 

In mirth and pleafure drown'd. 
If cuftom urg'd me to the place 

Where heav'nly truths are heard, 
I damn'd devotion's dull grimace. 

And heav'nly truths I jcer'd. 



yf hymn to Rrjignativn, 37J 



The wife reprov'd me, but in vain ; 

I Iptirn'd their fner.dly care; 
To ev'ry luft gave loofer rein, 

And finn'd with bolder air. 

While madly I purfue my race, 

Difeafe my frame invades, 
The bloom's extmgudh'd iti my fac«, 

And all my beauty fades. 

My eye-balls fink, my cheeks grow pale, 

My piilfes fault'ring beat, 
My ftrcngth diffolves, my fpirits fail, 

I loath my needful meat. 

Death's gloomy mefTengcrs appear 

In all their ghaflly forms ; 
I to the darkfome grave draw near, 

A prey to dull and worms. 

The terrors of the lafl great day 

My guilty foul alarm ; 
I can't endure — but who can flay 

Juftice' uplifted arm ? 

Great God, 1 fall before thy throne, 

And all my cfimes coufcls ; 
My Kuilt immenfe, I can't atone, 

I'll fly to lov 'reign grace. 

But will that grace extend to me 

Which I could long deride ? 
Yes ; grace is moll divuiely free. 

And Jefus, too, has dy'd. 

Tho' valt my crimes, immenfe my guilt, 

In mercy, i-ord, furgive, 
Thro' that dear blood, v;hich Jefus fpilt, 

That fuchas I might live. 

Let grace thy vengeful thunder flay ; 

Defcend and cheer my loul, 
Purge the full llains of fin away, 

This wounded heart make whole. 

When thus I pray'd, my God forgave. 

And fent a cheering voice ; 
Difplay'd his grace and pow'r to fave, 

And turn'd my fighs to joys. ^ 

I love his holy, chafl'ning hand, 

KindeR, when moR fevcre. 
Which brought my confcicnce to a ftand, 

And ftopt my bold career. 

Let God fend (icknefs, pain, or death, 

No more will I repme ; 
I'll prjife hmi with my lareft breath, 

i'or heav'xi ufelf is nune. 

An HVMN to R ES I G^f AT 10 >f, 

V/rittcn by a clergyman of Fhiladclphia. 

Oil ! from that high and holy fphere, 
Where, throa'd m light, you dwell, 
Vol. VI. Z 



t;4 



'i ht bachelor s zvijk. 



[Aupifi, 



Sweet maid, in all thy charms defcend 
To gild my humble cell. 

Thy prefencc heightens ev'ry blifs, 

Draws out the lllng of woe, 
Allures to brighter worlds above. 

And makes an hca\ 'n below. 

The pilgrim, rovinj; all night long,, 
Ihrouj^h tracklefs wilds forlorn, 

Oft fighs cppr^fs'd, atid fighs, again, 
Ihe wi{};'d return of morn. 

So I, in forrow't; gloomy night, 

Condemn'd a while to ftray. 
Look up. with ardent eye, to heav'n, 

And afk the devious way. 

Inconflant as the idle wind, 

Ihat Iports wiih ev'ry flow'r, 
When earthly friends by turn^ drop off. 

Friends of our brighter hour ; 

Do thou, mild cherub, fill my brcaft 
With all ihai's good and wife. 

Snatch nie from earth's tumultuous fcenesj 
And lead me to the fkies. 

There kindred fpirits ne'er deceive, 

Soul mingles there with foul ; 
Sweet fympathy and truih are there. 

And love cements the whole. 

More welcome to this forrowing heart, 

O penfive queen, thy flrain, 
Than all the joys mad Riot gives 

To footlic h!s clam'rous train. 

You {hade the poor man's evening walk 
With wreaths of endlefs green, 

And when the lamp of life declines, 
You tend the lall dread fcene. 

Oh! then from heav'n, thy holy fphere. 
Where, thron'd in light, you dwell; 

Come, Refigiiaiion, fainted maid. 
And ^uild my humble cell. 



The bachelor's zijiJiK 

LET others praife a beauteous face. 
The features of the fair; 
1 look for fpirit in her eyes 
And meaning in her air. 

What though fhe feem quite fweet 
and mild, 

W^iih colour frelh as morn : 
An innocent and harrnlcls child 

As ever yet was born. 

This will not kindle my dt-fire, 
Or make me wifh to wed ; 

Lefl Ignorance flioiild quench the fire, 
Which wifdom would have fed. 



What though her fiiapebefaultlefbtoo; 

And carnage alamode, 
Her manner pleafing to the view 

Whene'er fhe walks abroad. 

Thf; charming puppet may pafs by, 

Or gently fall and nfe ; 
It will not hurt my peace : for I 

Have ears, as well as eyes. 

I want to know the inward (late 
And temper of her mind ; 

If file will pout, or rage, or fret, 
J3e gentle, or unkind. 

If her dilcourfe is calm and (laid 
And judgment rule her life ; 



17?9.] 



Foreign intelligenee. 



}1l 



Nonfenfe may charm us In a maid, 
But never in a wife. 

I love to lee a female friend, 
Who looks as if (he thought ; 

Who on her houlhold will attend 
And do whate'cr (he ought. 

A q'laker plainnefs in her drefs, 
Kitchen and fervants clean ; 



Provifion neither in excefs, 
Nor fcandaloufly mean. 

Oh could I fuch a female find ; 

Such treafure in a wife ; 
I'd pafs uiy days to peace refign'd, 

Nor fear the ills of life. 



>.<>~..4V..<^g><S><^&^&'^&^S>'S'—<>"-"<v-< 



FOREIQN INTELLIGENCE. 
Paris, June 21. 

AT the moment when France 
thought hi-rl-ilf happy in the elta- 
blilhmcni of the rights and liberties, 
every thing is again thrown into con- 
fufioii. 

On Friday, the national afTembly, 
(tliat is to fay, that part of the flates, 
lately called the commons) had finally 
voted the provilional grant of taxes, 
till ihe end of the fefhons ; the con- 
folidation of the national debt ; a 
loan for the immediate payment of the 
arrears, due from government ; and a 
confiderabie fum of money to be forth- 
with fent into the provinces for the re- 
lief of the poor — at the lame time the 
clergy had determined to join thethird 
cHate on the next day, Saturday. 

In the morning, at three o'cock, 
an oih.cer with fixfy men was polled at 
the door of the alFembly room, to pre- 
vent the entrance of the deputies, 
and, at nine o'clock, the heralds pro- 
claimed a (ufpenfion of the meeting, 
till iMonday, when h;s m.sjelly would 
go to the houfe, and receive them. 

The prefident and feveral members 
arriving at thiir uiiial hour, and find- 
ing the doors (hut againft them, re- 
mained fome time in tiie ftreet ; but 
at length adjourned to the tennis- 
court, and there held their afTcmbly, 
till late in the evening, when they fe- 
parately took the following oaih : 

" We folemenly fwear, never to 
feparate from the national affembly, 
but to unite ourfelves in every place, 
wherever circumOances may require, 
until the conltitution of the kingdom 
is ellabliihed on a fol'.d foundation." 

'■ Refolvcd, that this drtrnninaiion 
fliall be printed, dnd lent to the diiTer- 
cnt provinces." 

At the fame tune, monfieur De 
Gocies, on the part of the inhabitanls 
of St, Doming*.), put the colonies un- 



der the protection of the national a ITem- 
bly, and declared that henceforwards 
they would call themfelves Colonies 
Nationalcs. 

AU Paris is in the greateft confier- 
nation, and the court under the ut- 
moft embarraiTment ; the intention of 
the king, in going to the houfe, is 
kept a profound fecret ; and the people 
are the more alarmed, as they lee no 
reafon why any fecret fhotild be made, 
if his defign was favourable; on the 
other hand, the firmncfs of the alFem- 
bly, in their proceedings of yeflcrday, 
has evidently put the court party in 
the greateft dilemma; for this even- 
ing, at fix o'clock, no orders are as 
yet given for his majefly's equipage, 
nor any notice fent to the officers who 
fhould attend hiin. The general re- 
port is, that the king will not go to 
the houfe to-morrow, and that a coun- 
ter proclamation will be iflued on the 
breaking up of the council. 

Every day brings fre(h accounts of 
the diftrefs of the country for want of 
bread. In the neighbourhood of Sen- 
lis, SoilTons, Chantilly, &c. it is 
credibly affirmed, that the bakrrs will 
not be able to furnifli a fingle loaf at 
any price, after Wednefday. To 
Paris, Vcrfailles, Marli, &c. not a 
cart load of tlour is brought, without 
the protection of a guard. 

June 29. La feance royale, which 
we formerly announced, took place 
on Tuefday laft, at which time the 
king abolifhed all the arrets enteicd 
into bv the tiers etat. Each order of 
the allenibly went feparately to their 
refpettlvc chambers, the tiers efat re- 
maining in their own. After the 
king's departure, they voted in their 
own cajjiicity, a confirmation of the 
arret"^, which they had jult agreed to, 
notwiihftanding the king had com- 
manded thein to be abolKhed. They 
then feverally look an oath, not to 
coiilider themfelves as being diffolved. 



syS 



Foreign intelligence. 



[Augult, 



although the king fliould iffoe his or- 
ders tor thai purpofe ! 

immediately after this, monf. Nec- 
kar, the minitfer of finance, went to 
the king, and intreated pennilfion to 
rciign his feals of office. This was 
peremptorily refufed by the fovereign. 
0;i going out of the palace, he was 
embraced by ihe affembly of tiers etat, 
and conduttcd by them in triumph to 
his official apartments. 

Twelve months a^o, files of muf- 
queteers, with drawn bayonets, were 
placed m, and {urroiinded the courts 
«;f julHce and the houfes of parlia- 
ment in Paris. At this- moment, the 
ihu'd and inlenor ellate of the king- 
dom IS bidding defiance to arhiirary 
power and the decrees of their fove- 
)ti,t;n. This may be coniidt^red as a 
critical epoch in the hillory of na- 
li«>ns. and of France in particular ; 
•wiiiiri faiuine is hnfiening to the very 
gales of the capital. 

Liberty will have another f^'athcr 
in ner cap — the leraphic co-.uagion 
•was caught from Britain — u croikd 
the Atlantic ro North America — from 
wittnce the flame has been comijiuni- 
Cdted to France. 

London. May 2.9, 

I.xirnB of the Jpeech ofM. Neckar, 
Jpoktn at the opentvf^ of the Jiatts 
geveral, May 9, 17K9. 
" The time probably will come, 
jfentlemen, in which you will afToci- 
ate m your deliberation^ the deputies 
f)f the colonies, and will caft a look of 
rompalfion on that unhappy race of 
jnen, who have been hitherto coolly 
cnnlidered onlv as the objeTts of a 
barbarous traffic. Men, fimilar to 
oiirlelves in faculty of ilioiight, and 
efpecially fo, in the forrnwful one of 
fuffering. Men, neverthelcfs, whom, 
deaf to their lamentations, we croud, 
y/e heap in the holds of our vetfeis, 
in order to convey them to the 
bondage whch awaits them in our 
ifl^nds. 

" Whatnatfon can, with more pro- 
priety than F'rancr. endeavour to mi- 
tigate a fyfiem of fiavery, fuppofcd to 
be neceffary, bv fubHituting, for the 
evils infeparjible from the African 
trade (evils which dellroy the inhabi- 
tants of the new world, and of the 
old) that f )flpring care, which would 
tend to multiply in our colonies, a peo- 



ple intended to afTiIl: us In our culti- 
vaiion. 

" A diflingiiifhcd nation has alrea- 
dy given the fignai — a token of her 
dilcernment and compalfion. Hu- 
manity hath already found a defent^e, 
even in perfonal iuierell and polltlcs^l 
calculation; and before long, her glo- 
rious caufe Will find advocates at the 
tribunal of every nation. Ah, what 
tranfcendant fatisfattion, what apcu- 
inulation of honour, is in reierve for 
thoie lutings of our Hates general, now 
they are revived in the midll of an en- 
lightened age ! " 

ExtraSis from the inftrvBions offomt 
of the bailiwicks in France^ relat- 
ing to the abolition of the fave 
trade. 

'' NoblefTe of Beauvais, 
" That the Hates general lake into 
conhderation the fituation of the ne- 
groes in our colonies," 

" Clergy of Melun and Moret, 
" Seeing that, in the eye of 
religion, difference of colour caules 
none among her children, her rainif- 
ters cannot forbear perpetually to ex- 
claim againitthe fiavery of the negroes 
in the colonies." 

'" Tiers eiat of Chateau Tierry, 
" The third eflate, confidering 
th^t France hath been at all times an 
afylum for kings, and the protehor of 
opprelFc'd nations — that fiavery itfelf, 
on breathing the air of her happy cli- 
mate, becomes free — cannot omit ex- 
clanningagaiiift the public outrage upon 
humanity, and uptui the nation, occa- 
fioned by the commerce and fiavery 
of the negroes — not definng, howtvef 
to prevent the rneafures necefi.iry to 
be taken, to guard againif the detri- 
ment to the cultivation of the co- 
lonies." 

^'NohleiTe of Montcsand Mudon, 
*' We alio recommend an exami- 
nation into the means »)f dertroving 
the flave trade, and preparing for the 
deflrudion of the fiavery of the blacks ; 
and we muff be permitted lo w-ifh, 
that F"rance may have the honour of 
eflacing the lall veftiges of this depre- 
dation on human nature," 
" Clergy of the fame, 
" Difgiiffed humanity ought to 
liold out to the nation, reprefented 
in the flates general, an abufe, by 
v'hich every feeling mind is wounded. 
This abufe is the fhameful right that 



1789-] 



Foreign! intelligence. 



177 



man has aflumed of buying his fellow- 
man ; depriving him of h.s liberty, 
{"ubjeftinghim to rigorous and coniinii- 
al labour, and making hnn, to the end 
of his life, the vitlim of caprice and 
cnielty. The king (Iiould, therefore, 
be petitioned to encourage therelpec- 
table focieiy of friends to the blacks, 
and to authorife them to confider, 
and to propofe to government, the 
moft proper means of abolifhing the 
infamous commerceof the fldve trade." 
May 30. It has been Hated in 
the houte of commons, that there 
are at prefent mortgages on the Bri- 
tiih Weft India iflands, to the im- 
menfe amount of leventy millions 
llerling. Little more than a century 
ago, Guadaloupe and its dependencies, 
with all the property on them, were 
fold by the French court for about 
3000I. and the iflands of Marliinco, 
St. Lucia, Gt^nada and the Grena- 
dines, for 2500!. About the fame 
lime the knights of Malta purchafed 
the iflandsof St. Kitt's, St. Martin's, 
St. Bartholomew, Santa Cruz, and 
Tortola, for 500CI. and it is probable 
that, had the whole of the Weft In- 
dia iflands (Jamaica not cxceptedj'becn 
then fold, the purchafe money would 
not have equalled a fourth of the fum 
now fecured by a part of the pollel- 
fions of Great Britain in that quaner. 
June 7. His royal highnefs the dau- 
phin of France died between twelve 
and one o'clock the 4th inftant, in the 
eighth year of his age, to the great 
grief of their moft chnilian majeities 
and the royal family. 

The dauphin was in his eighth year ; 
for four of which he had been 
almoft conflanilv afflicted with dif- 
eafes. which baffled the art of the firft 
phyficians, and have now terminated 
in his dilfolution. His royal high- 
nefs's remains will be interred in the 
burying place of the kins'- of France, 
in the church of Notre Dame, in Pa- 
ris. All the public places of amufe- 
jnent are (hut up, and will remain fo 
till after his burial. The due de Nor- 
mandie, now the onlyfon of his moft 
chriftian majelly, is a fine child, about 
five years old, and bids fair to become, 
in due time, the kmg of France,^ 

June 29. One of the firft and moft 
neceffary articles of hidinefs.on winch 
jhe ftates general of France will en- 
ter, as foon as the afTemblies are re- 



duced to proper regulations, is. that 
ot the improvement of wafte lands ; 
by which they may, in future, in lome 
meafure, avoid the difafiers of fa- 
mine, with which they are now^threai- 
ensd. 

The troubles in Franca have in- 
creafed to an height hitherto unknown. 
The duke of Dorfet is, by this cir- 
cumftance, prevented from coming 
to England. 

^\'e are afTiired from refpeflable 
authority, that the great controverted 
queftion m France has received its 
final determination. The two fupe- 
rior orders have yielded to the com- 
mons, in confequence of a letter from 
the king. On Saturday !aft, the three 
orders met, and formed one iioiife ; 
none of the clergy diilenting, and of 
the nobles only forty-five ; lo that 
now every thing is peace and concord 
within doors. 

Trouhlrs in Brabant. 

The following are the articles pro- 
pofed by the emperor, to the commous 
of Brabant, and which having refuf- 
ed to accede to, they have been di- 
vefted of all power. 

Article I. A fixed fubfidy to be 
granted as in Flanders. 

Art. II. Fifteen towns in the pro- 
vince to fend members to the ftates, 
inflead of the three chief towns only- 
Art. III. The wifties of twoor- 
ders forming the majority, to carry 
the conf-^nt of the third. 

Art. I v. The council of Brabant 
to feal and publiih the edifls, regula- 
tions, &c. in the ufual form. 

Thefe being all refufed, the emp-- 
ror has revoked all the charters of li- 
berties granted to the people of Bra- 
bant. Ttieir archives and treafure 
chells have been fealed up by his <ifh- 
cers, and a committee is appoinicd 10 
manage the cafh accounts of the pro- 
vince. 

It is eafy to perceive how arbitrary 
this law is. 1 he nobletle and clergv 
dare rot refufe their confent to the 
emperor's will ; and, if the above arti- 
cles were agreed to, the commons 
would, in fafct, become nothing more 
than proclaimers of the laws agreed 
to by the other two orders. 

A treaty of fextuple alliance, be- 
tween the courts of France, Vienna, 
St. Peterfburgh, Spain, Copenhagen, 
and Naples, is confidently laid to bs 



.American intelligence. 



[Augu0, 



on the pnint oFbeinff concluded; the 
refpecl'.ve ambafTadors, who are ap- 
pomied to ncffociaie the treaty, hav- 
ing received their final mftrutlions on 
ihis fjrand aaair. 

Tfii'i mcaiijrc forebodes further 
war, which is ftrcnjftheiied in p.ppcar- 
a»icc, by the preparations making in 
every quarter of Europe. 

The Turks are itkiH firmly re- 
fulved to proceed, and have abfolute- 
ly refufed all propofitious for peace — • 
ibeir preparations are nnnienfe — all 
tlievr forces both by land and fea are 
in motion. 

The dates general of France now 
afTcmbled, confift of twelve hundred 
member<^, exclufive of ihofe from the 
Wed India illdnds ; which, flrange 
to tell ! have claimed the ri,t;ht of 
lending deputies to that budy, and 
their claim has been recognlz -d. 

AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE. 
B oft on, Augujl 8. 

It is a fact — mortify ing as it may 
be — that lord Dorcheller's lecreiary 
has adveriifed lands, wuhin the ter- 
ritory of the fovereign ftates of Ame- 
rica, and in the vicinity of the wcllern 
poits, to be given asvay, in tv;o hun- 
dred acre lots, to any loyalilts, &c. 
vvlxo ihall choofe to fettle on ihetn. 
Ncxi) York, Augnjl 20. 

Upwards of twenty perfbns fell un- 
liappy victims to the heat of the lalt 
v.'eok ; and it is faid, that as many of 
ttiem died by over labouring, as by 
drinking cold water. 

The general convention of the pro- 
teftant eplfcopal church, met at Phi- 
ladelphia, July 28>h, and adjourned 
Augull Bth', to meet again at the fame 
place, September 29. , 

We are informed that the greateft 
harmony pervades that refpertable bo- 
dy : and that among other buhnels, 
tliey have formally recognized Ar. 
Seabury's confecration, which act 
tney have communicated to him. It 
is expected he will meet the conven- 
tion m September. That the churches 
to the eailward have wrote to each of 
iiui bifhops, requeuing them jointly 
10 conlecrate the rev. dr. Bafs of 
Mallachufetts, bidiop, as foon as con- 
.■.•n:ent. And that, as the convention 
■ not broken up, the clergy from the 
»-.t!(4inas, &c. will remain at Ph;la- 
ticlpiua till the meeting in September. 



Lexington, f KenttickfJ June 13. 

On Wednefday the 3d inftant, two 
men and ihiee boys were fidiing on 
Floyd's Fork of Salt River, when a 
party of Indians fell in with them, 
killed the two men, and took the boy^ 
prifoners. 

About the 20th uh. the Indians 
fired on nine Frenchmen going up 10, 
the Wabafli river, killed four, and 
wounded three ; coming up to the 
dead, they dilcovered one of them to 
be a French trader, who was mar- 
ried to a daughter of John Brandt, 
the famous Indian chief; on which 
they alfided in pulling the arrows out 
of the wounded, and then went off. 

Pliifadclphia, Augujl i. 

A letter from a gentleman at Louif- 
ville. Falls of Ohio, to his friend in 
Pitifhurg. dated the lii. of June, fays, 
" The firft and mo{^> general topic 
of converfation at this place, is the 
hod lie difpofition of the Indians, 
v/hich, in feveral indances, has dif- 
covered itfelf in the vicinity of this 
place. A few day ago, a very re- 
fpefiabale woman was murdered by a 
party of Indians, and mangled in the 
mod barbarous manner ; and a negro 
girl and two white children taken 
prifoners. Judge Simms's feiilement 
is in the greaieft apprehenfion. and 
not without reafon. Six foldiers arc 
now at this garrifon, who were wound- 
ed on Thurfday at that fettlement, and 
one killed on the fpot. Since, it 
is reported, two furveyorsof that par- 
ty were killed, but it is not fo well af- 
certained as the former ; however, no 
one doubts it ; the fame report fays, 
that a party was detached a few days 
after to purfue fome Indians, who 
were difcovered in the fettlement, 
and took eight prifoners, who are 
lodged at this time at a block-houfe 
near th^ mouth of the Miami." 

Sept, t. A letter from an officer 
hclon<ring to the federal troops, dated, 
Rapids of Ohio, id July, fays, " Our 
affairs, in this quarter, at prefent bear 
a glot^my afpctl. I am juH returned 
from Pod \''incennes,on the Wabr.fh, 
with a detachment of fifty-five men, 
who were employed as an efcort to 
provifion for that garrifon ; and be- 
lieve me, fir, it is almod next to an 
a;:cid.-ni, that my whole party was 
r.oi cut oil ; the nver was lined with 



1789.] 



American inttlligtn-t. 



Indians. I routed two parties, and, 
finding where their Uiengih lay. evad- 
ed coinng to action, by croihng to 
the oiher lide of the river ; and, in 
fliort, I made fuch expedition, that 
they had not time to allemble in one 
body. They killed one man, and 
wounded another, who were feiu 
down exprefs, in a light canoe to me, 
dirtciing me to foriity on an ifland, 
until I could be reinforced. I com- 
pleted a paiFage to and from the pod, 
in iwen:y-une days. The dtfiance 
between the two places is called five 
hundred and twenty miles. This will 
prove to you how eafy it is to afcend 
the river Ohio. The Indians are 
daily commiitingdepredations m Ken- 
tuckt" ; and from the Miami, we learn, 
that the troops there would be unlafe 
to go two hundred yards from 1 heir 
poll, as lurking fellows are frequently 
leen in wait for them. I want much 
to know if our new councils are about 
to take meafures to get pofleffion of 
the weftern polls. This, and this 
alone will fecure peace with the In- 
dians. The prefcnce of the gover- 
nor IS much wanted, at the difterent 
fettlements on the Miihffippi ; and, 
indeed, if he does not come out foon, 
we may judge from appji^rances, thofe 
fettlements will generally break up." 
Another letter from the fame gen- 
tleman, fays, " Since the date of my 
laft, I learn, that on the ill of next 
month, major Hardin, with two hun- 
dred volunteers on horfeback, from 
the difliifl of Kentucke, are toalTem- 
ble at the Rapids, on their way to 
fome of the Indian towns on White 
River, in order to deftroy a banditti 
that live there, and are very trouble- 
foine to the fettlcment." 
Return ef patients admitted, cured, 
£3c. from the injlitution of the Phi- 
Ladeiphia difpcnfary, to the \^th 
pf December, 1788. 
irom April lu, to December 12, 
1786. 

Patients admitted, 
C'ured, 
Died, 
Relieved 

Difchtirged diforderly, 
Removed to 1 he hofpital 
and houfe of employ- 
ment, s 
Difcharged incurable 1 
'Riaia.ning under care, ^2. -7 JP 



562 

32 

33 

7 



719 



From December 12, 


1786 


ceoiber 1, 1787. 




Patients ad .uuied. 




Cured, 


ie<?7 


Difd, 


fc9 


Relieved, 


131 


Difcharged diforderly, 


-4 


Removed to the hoi- 




pital and houfe of 




employment, 


6 


P..emaining under care, 


120- 



to De- 



114'' 



From December 1, 
cember 1, 1788. 
Patients admitted, 
Cured, 
Died, 
Pvt-1 eved, 

Difcharged difordi^ily, 
Removed to the hoi- 

pital and houfe of 

employment. 
Remaining under care, 



-1647 



1787, to Dc- 



ICQ4 

81 
-7 



'3 



• t '•cS 



Befides which, leSo patients have 
been admitted from December 1, 178?*, 
to Auguft 1, 1788. loral numberof 
patieius, who have been attended un- 
der the care of the difpenfary, from 
its firll inftilution in April 1786. to 
the prcfent time, five thoufand two 
hundred and fony-two. 

Publiflied by order of the board 
of managers, 

IVtliiam V/!.ite, 
Ctorge DnJ/ifid, 
Thomas Cli^ord^ 
Samuel Powell, 

Aftgvjl ijl, 1789. 

DEATHS. 

In New York. Mailer George 
Wafliington Knox — Mr. liayiiian 
Levy — Major John Lucub — Robert 
G. Livingilon. 

In Philadelphia. Rowland Evans, 
efq. — Mrs.Ccli'd Magens— Mrs. Ma- 
ry AlHon. 

Virginia, At Winchefer. Mrs. 
Rachel Donaldf->n — At Frcderickf- 
burg. Mrs. \'i'arnington, mother of 
the prefident of the united llaies. 

New Jersey. Near Llizaleth 
Town, Mrs. Sulannah Livmgllon, 
confort of his excellency goveriK^r 
Livingfton. 

South Caro LI NA, KiCheiiay, 
Capt. Lauchlin MTntofh. 

Maryland. In Cecil co. Mrs, 
Rebecca Grace May — In Charles cs. 
Williaiii Ilarrifon. tfq. 



119 



CONTENTS. 

Finance, 

1. Obfervations on the utility of funding the debts of the united ftates, 53 

2. 'rhoiigtus on the tinaraces and debts of the uniied Hates, jo6 

3. A general llatement of the foreign loans to the united dates, 3^6 

Rural concerns. 

4. Obferv3t!ons on manufaftunng fujiarfrom the fap of the maple tree, 98 
^5, Diretlicns for diito, - . . . joq 
h. Remarks on the bell mode of raifing young hogs - - joi 

7. Remarks on railing calves without new unlk, - - ica 

8. Method of deQroying the tlyin^ wevil in Bavaria, jc6 
y. Directions for the breeding ,iua management of hlk-wormsj i^a 

Mijcellanccus politics, 

la. Memorial and remonQrance to the iegiilature of Virginia, 120 

11. Etfay on fmuggling, ... j^o 

iti. Eifay on free trade and finance, - - - J3_?j 

13. (-)ijiervations on reprelentation and compenfation, - - 1^56 

34. Proceedings of the Iegiilature of Virginia, - - iig 

Mafiuja6}urei. 
ij. Remarks on the manufaclure of glafs, -» - ■ 

Antiquities. 

16. Letter refpecfing (he fortifications in the weffern country, i.g5 

1 '. Relation of the iettlement of Plymouth, in New England, 141 

jB, Difcovery of America, by the Icelanders, - - - ijg 
ly. Sir William Keith's fcheme refpecting the government of America, 164 

Addrcjfes to, and anjioeis of^ the prefidtnt of the united Jlates. 

SQ. Addrefs of the fenate and alTcmbly of New York, 103 

21. Anfwcr to ditto, .... iLid. 

22. Addrefs of the convention of the proteftant epifcopal church in the 

ilaies of New York, New Jerfey, Peiinfylvania. Delaware, 

Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, - - 104 

2,^. Anfwer to ditio, - - - - - ibid, 

24. Addrefs of a committee of the vifitors and governors of WaGiing- 

ington college, - - - - 117 

25. Anfwer to ditto, . - - 119 

Mifcellanies. 

26. Refutation of a charge againil the Americans, made by dr. Kippis, 116 

27. ElFay on the cautes of the variety of complexion and figure in the 

human fpecies, - - - - IU3 

28. The Vifitant, No. XI. _ - - 147 

29. The friend, No. V. - _ - - 1^54 

30. Oblervations on the currents in the Atlantic ocean, 161 

31. Reply to an enquiry into the utility of the Greek and Latin lan- 

guages, - - - - - - - 101 

Tables. 

32. Exports and imports of the port of Wilmington, Delaware, from 

June J, 1788, till June 1, 1789, ... 10!? 

,^3. Exports from Alexantiria, from July 20, 1788, till July 14, 1789, ibid. 

Medicinal andfurgical. 
34. Mode of preventing the dreadful confequences of the bite of a mad 

dog, - - - - J 1 1 

33. Receipt for the cure of the hooping cough, - - 112 

36. Remarkable cure of a gun- (hot wound, - - * - J17 

Poetry. 

37. Hvmti, - - - - - 171 
vfS. Reflexions of a libertine reclaimed by ficknefs, - 172 

39. Hymn fung at a public examination of the fcholars belonging to the 

academy in Greenfield, - - - 17* 

40. Hymn to Refignaiion, - - - - " 173 

41. The bachelor's v.lfli, - r - " *74 



THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM, 

For SEPTEMBER, 1789. 



jfn fjfc^y on the caitfes of the variety 
of complexion and figure in the hu- 
man f pedes. To which are added 
JiriBures on lord Kaims's difcourfe^ 
on the original diverfity of man- 
kind. By the reverend Samuel Stan- 
hope Smith, D. D. vice-prefidcnt, 
and profejfor of moral philofopky, 
in the college of New Jerfey ; and 
M. A. P. S.—P. 129. 

THE whole of the Tartar race are 
of low ftature. Their heads 
have a magnitude dilproportioned to 
the reft of the body. Their fhoul- 
ders are raifed, and their necks are 
fliort. Their eyes are fmall, and ap- 
pear, by the jutting of the eyebrov/s 
over them, to be funk in the head. 
The nofe is Tnort, and rifes but hitle 
from the face. The cheek is elevat- 
ed, and fpread out on the fides. The 
whole of the features are remarkably 
coarfe and deformed. And all ihefe 
peculiarities are aggravated, as you 
proceed towards the pole, in the La- 
ponian, Borandian, and Samoiede ra- 
ces, which, as Buffon juilly remarks, 
are Tartars, reduced to the laft degree 
©f degeneracy. — A race of men, re- 
fembling the Laplanders, we find in 
a fimilar climate in America. The 
frozen countries round Hudfon's bay 
are, except Siberia, the coldeft in 
the world. And here the inhabitants 
are between four and five feet in 
height. Their heads are large — their 
eyes are little and weak — and their 
hands, feet, and limbs, uncommonly 
fmall. 

Thefe effetls naturally refult from 
extreme cold. Cold contrarts the 
nerves, at it does all foiid bodies. 
The inhabitants grow un(ier ths con- 
firitiion of continual froft, as under 
the forcible comprefficuvof fome pow- 
erful machine. Men will, therefore, 
be found in the higheft latitudes, for- 
ever fmall, and of low fiatiire*. The 

K o T E . 

* A moderate degree of cold is 
Beceffary to give force and tone to 
the nerves, and to raife the human 
body to Its largeft fize. But extreme 

Vol. VI. No. HI. 



excefiive rigours of thefe frozen re- 
gions, aHect chieHv the extremities. 
The blood, circulating to them with 
a more languid and feeble motion, 
has not fufficient vigour to refiR ihe 
impreflions of the cold. Thefe limbs, 
confequenlly, fufter a greater cf)ntrac- 
tion and diminution than the refl of 
the body. But the blood, flowing 
with warmth and force to the breafl 
and head, and perhaps with the more 
force, as its courfe to the extremities 
is obftrutled, diftends thefe parts to a 
difproportionate fize. There is a re- 
gular gradation, in .the eHetl of the 
climate, and in the figure of the peo- 
ple, from the Tartars to the tribes 
round Hudfon's bay. The Tartars 
are taller and thicker than the Lap- 
landers, or the Samoiedes, becaufe 
their climate is lefs fevere. The nor- 
thern Americans are th^ mol\ dimi- 
nutive of all ; their extremities are the 
fmallelt, and their breaft and head of 
the moll dilproportioned magnitude, 
becaufe, inhabiting a climate equally 
fevere with the Samoiedes, ihey are 
reduced to a more favage Hate of fo- 
cietyf . 

NOTES. 

cold overftrains and contraBs thetn. 
Therefore, thele norihern ir bes are 
not only fmall, but weak and timid. 

+ The neighbourhood of the Ruf- 
fians, of the Chmefe, and even of 
Tartars, who have adopted many im- 
provements from the civilized nations 
thai border upon them, gives the, Lap- 
landers and Siberians confiderahle ad- 
vantages over the northern Ameri- 
cans, who are in the mod abjett Hate 
of favage life, and totally deftitute 
of every art, either for convenience 
or protection. The principles, dated 
above, apply to all thefe nations, in 
proportion to the degree of cold, com- 
bined with the degree of favagenefs. 
The inhabitants ot the northern ci- 
vilized countries of Europe, are gene- 
rally of lower liaiure than thofe in the 
m ddle regions. But civilization, and 
a milder climate, prevent them from 
degenerating equally with the northern 
Afiatics and Americans, 
Aa 



i?2 



0/ complexion and fgure 



[Septembe 



Extreme cold likewife tends to form 
the next peculiarities of iheie races, 
their high fhoulders, and their (hort 
necks. Severe frod prompts men to 
raife their Ihoulders, as if to proted 
the neck, and to cherifh the warmth 
of the blood that Hows to the head; 
and the habits of an eternal winter 
will fix them in that pofition. The 
neck will appear ftiortened beyond its 
due proportion, not only becaiife it 
fufTcrs an equal contraction with the 
other parts of the body ; but becaufe 
the head and brea'l, being increafed 
to a dilproportioned hze, will en- 
croach upon its length ; and the na- 
tural elevation of the fnuulders will 
bury what remains, fo deep as to give 
the head an appearance of refting up- 
on tl/em for its fupport. That ihefe 
peculiarities are the eftect of climate*, 
the examples, produced by French 
niiihoiiaries in China, of mofi refpec- 
table charatters, leave us no room to 
doubt, who allure us, that they have 
feen, even in the forty-eighth degree 
of northern latitude, the poileriiy of 
Chiuele families who had become 
p,'rfecl Tartars in their figure and 
afpeci ; and that they were diftin- 
guiflied, in particular, by the fame 
fhortnefs of the neck, and by the 
fame elevation of the {lioulderst. 

That coarfe and deformed features 
are the necelTary production of the 
climate, cannot have efcapcd the at- 
tention of the moft incurious obferver. 
Let us attend to the effefts of extreme 
cold, it contracts the aperture of the 
eyei — it draws down the brows — it 

KOTF. s, 

* As climate is often known pecu- 
liarly to affect certain parts of the bo- 
dy, philolophy, if it were necellary, 
could find no more difficulty in ac- 
counting for the Ihort necks of the 
Tartars, and other northern tribes, 
as a difcafe of the climate, than fhe 
finds in giving the fame account for 
the thick necks fo frequently found in 
the regions of the Alp*;. Rut, the ob- 
fervations before made, will probably 
convince the attentive reader, that 
there is no need to refort to fuch a 
folution of the phenomenon, when it 
feems fo ealily to be explained by the 
known operation of natural caufes. 

+ See Rccueil 24 dcs leUrts idi- 
Jiantes, 



raifes the cheek, by the prclTure of 
the under jaw againft the upper; it 
diininilhes the face in length, and 
fpreads it out at the fides — and dillorts 
the fliape of every feature. 

Tins, which is only a tranfient im- 
preihon in our climate, loon effaced 
by the conveniencies of fociety, and 
by the changes of the feafons, becomes 
a heightened and permanent efieft in 
thofe extreme regions, arifing from 
the greater inienfity, and the conllant 
action of the caule. The naked and 
defencelefs condition of the people, 
augments its violence — and beginning 
its operation from infancy, when the 
features are molf tender and fufcepti- 
ble of imprelfion, and continuing it, 
without remiiTion, till they have at- 
tained their utmoft growth, they be- 
come fixed at length in the point of 
greatelt deformity, and form ^\^ cha- 
racter of the liudfon or Siberian 
countenance. 

The principal peculiarities, that 
may require a farther illu.'lration, are 
the fmailncfs of the nofe, and deprcf- 
fion of the middle of the face — the 
prouinience of the forehead — and the 
extreme weaknels of the eyes. 

The middle of the face is that part 
which is moff expofed to the cold, and 
confequently fullers mofi from its 
power of contratiion. It firft meets 
the wind, and it is fartheft removed 
from the ieat of warmth m the head. 
But a circumflance of equal, or, per- 
haps, of greater importance, on this 
fubjeft, is, that the inhabitants of 
frozen climates, naturally drawing 
their breath more through the nofe, 
than through the mouth;}:, thereby di- 
rert the greateft impulfe of the air on 
that feature, and the parts adjacent. 
Such a continual 11 ream of air aug- 
ments the cold, and, by increafing the 
contraction of the parts, reflrains the 
freedom of their growth|j. 



\ A frofly air, inhaled by the 
mouth, chills the body more than 
when it is received by the noHrils ; 
probably, becaufe a greater quantity 
enters at a time. Nature, therefore, 
prompts men to keep the mouth clof- 
ed. during the prevalence of intenfe 
froR. 

IJ On the fame principle, the mer- 
cury, in ill* thcnnometer, may b^ 



.] 



in the human f pedes. 



iSj 



Hence, likewife, will arife an eafy 
folution of the next peculiarity, the 
prominence of the forehead. The 
luperior warmih and force of life, in 
the brain, that fills the upper part of 
the head, wll naturaliy increafe its 
fizc, and make it overhang the con- 
tracted parts belov.'. 

Laltly, the eyes, in thcfe rigorous 
climates, are linj;ularly affefte-i. By 
the projeftion of the eyerbrows, they 
appear to be funk into the head ; the 
cold naturaliy diminiflies their aper- 
ture ; and the intenfuy of the froft, 
concurring with the glare of eternal 
fnows, fo overHrains thefe tender or- 
jans, that ihey are always weak, and 
the inhabitants are often liable to 
blindnefs, at an early age. 

In the tem{»eraie zone, on the o- 
tker hand, and in a point rather be- 
low than above the middle region of 
temperature, the agreeable v^armih 
of the air, difpofmg the nerves to 
the moft free and eafy expanfion, will 
open the features, and mcreafe the orb 
of the eye*. Kere, a large full 
eye, being the tendency of nature, 
will grow to heefteemed a perfeftion. 
And, in the flrain of Homer, /joarif 
*<i7v/a Hj» would convey, to a Greek, 
an idea of divine beaury, that ir. hard- 
ly intelligible to an inhabitant of the 
north of Europe, All the principles 
of the human conftitution, unfold- 

NOTES. 

contracted and funk into the bulb, by 
direfting upon it a conllant flream of 
ir, from a pair of bellows, if the 
fculb be frequently touched, during 
the operation, with any fluid, that, 
by a fpeedy evaporation, tends to in- 
creafe the cold. 

* It is perhzps worthy of remark, 
that, in the three coiuinents, the tem- 
perate climates, and eternal cold, 
oorder fo nearly upon one another, 
hat we pafs almoft inllantly from the 
former to the latter. And we find 
the Laplander, the Samoiede, the 
Mongou, and the tribes round Hud- 
Ton's bay, in the neighbourhood of 
he Swede, the RuiTian, the Chi- 
nefe, and the Canadian. Without 
ittention to this remark, hafty rea- 
oners will make the fudden change 
of features, in thefe nations, an ob- 
eftion againft tke preceding philo- 
sophy. 



ing themfelves freely In fuch a region, 
and nature attin/i without conflramt, 
will be there f;<n molt nearly in that 
perfechon, which was the original 
deiign and idea of the Crea'or+. 

11. Having endeavoured to afcer- 
tain the powerof tliaiate, in producing 
many varieties in the human Ipecie^, 
I proceed to tlluRrate the influence 
of the ffate <'f focietv. 

On t! is fubieft I obferve, 

1. In the firll place, that the efFeft 
of climate is augmented by a favage 
ffate, and corretted by a Ifate of ci- 
vilization. And, 

2. In the next place, that, by flie 
Rate of lociety, many varieties in the 
human perfcm are ent'.rely formed. 

In the firll place, the effefl; of cli- 
mate is augmented by a favage flate 
of fociety, and corrected by a ftate of 
civilization. 

A naked favage, feldom enjoying 
the protection of a miferable hut, 
and compelled to lodge on the bare 
ground, and under the open fky, im- 
bibes the influence of the fun and at- 
mofphere at every pore. He inhabits 
an uncultivated region, filled with 
flagnant waters, and covered with pu- 
trid vegetables, that fall down, and 
corrupt on the fpot where they have 
grown. He pitches his wigwam on 
the fide of a river, that he may enjoy 
the convenience of filhmg, as well as 
of hunting. The vapour of rivers, 
the exhalations of marfhes, and the 
noxious effluvia of decaying vegeiar 
bles, fill the whole atmofphere, in an 
unimproved country, and tend to give 
a dark and bilious hue to the com- 
plexionj. And the fun, atling ira- 

NOTES. 

+ It may perhaps gratify my coun- 
trymen, to reflect, that the united 
fiates occupy thofe latitudes, that 
have ever been mofl favourable to 
the beauty of the human form. When 
time fliall have accommodated the con- 
ftitution to us new ilaie, and cultiva- 
tion fliall have meliorated the climate, 
the beauties of Greece and CircalTia 
may be renewed in America ; as there 
are not a few already, who rival thofe 
of any other quarter of the globe. 

+ The forefts, in unctihivated coun- 
tries, ablorb a great part of thefe pu- 
trid vapours, oiherwife they would 
be contagious and mortal. But as na- 



i84 



Of complexion and Jigurt 



[September, 



inedialely on the ficin in this flate, 
will necefTmily imprefs a deep co- 
lour. 

This effeft is augmented by the 
prattice ot painting, to which favages 
are often obliged to have recourfe, in 
Older to protett themfelves from the 
inipreffion of the humid earth, on 
which they lie, or of a noxious at- 
molphere. to which they are expofed 
without covering. Painting, taken up 
at hrli ihrough neceliiiy, is afterwards 
employed as an ornament ; and a fa- 
vage is feldom feen without having 
his fkin covered with foine compofi- 
tion, that fpoils the finenels of its 
texture, and impairs the beauty and 
clearnefs of its natural colour. This 
is known to be the effett of the fineft 
paints and wafiies, that are u(ed for 
the fame purpofe, in polUhed fociety. 
Much more will it be the eftetl of 
thofe coarfe and filthy unguents which 
are employed by favages. And as we 
fee, that coloured marks, imprelTed 
by puntlures in the fkin, become in- 
delible, ,it is reafonable to believe, 
that [he particles of paints, infinuated 
into its texture by forcible and fre- 
quent rubbing, vyill tend, in like 
manner, to create a dark and perma- 
nent colour, 

NOTE. 

ture never makes her workperfefl, but 
leaves the completion of her fchenies 
to exercife the induftry and wifdom 
of man, the growing vegetablesdo not 
abforb the whole effluvia of the de- 
caying, and of the noxious marfhes 
that overfpn,ad ihe face of fuch a re- 
gion. Nothing but civilization and 
culture can perfeftly purify the atmo- 
fphere. Unculiivated, as well as warm 
countries, therefore, naturally tend to a 
bilious habit, and a dark complexion. 
It may feem an objeiilion againll this 
obfcrvation, that m America we of- 
ten hnd bilious diftuders augmented 
ill confequence of cutting down the 
timber, and extending the plantations. 
Thereafon of which, probably, is, that 
the indolence or neceOuies of a new 
country, freqiienily lead men to clear 
the ground, without draining the 
inarflies ; or fmall plantations are fur- 
rounded by unimproved forclls. Thus, 
the vegetables, that ablorbed the noxi- 
ous moiftiirc, being removed, it is left 
to fall in greater abundance on man. 



To this may be added, that the 
frequent fumigations, by which they 
are obliged to guard againft the an- 
noyance of innumerable infects, in 
undrainedand uncultivated countries 
—and the fmoke, with which their 
huts, unfkdfully built, and without 
chimneys, are eternally filled, contri- 
bute to augment the natural darknefs 
of the favage complexion. Smoke, 
we perceive, difcoluurs the fkin of 
thofe iaboureis and mechanics, who 
are habitually immtried in it — itflaini 
every objc£l, long expofed to its atli- 
on, by entering the pores, and ad- 
hering flrongly to the luiface. It in- 
finuates itfelf, in a fmr.lar manner, 
into the pores of the fkin, and there 
tends to change the complexion, ox\ 
the fame principles, that it is changed 
by inferted paints. 

And, laltly, the hardfhips of their 
condition, that weaken and exhaufl 
the principle of life — their fcanty and 
rneagre fare, which wants the fucru- 
lence and nourifhment that give frefli- 
nefs and vigour to the conltitution — 
the uncertainty of their provifion, 
which fometimes leaves them to lan- 
guifli wJth want, and fometimes ena- 
bles them to overlfrain themfelves by 
a furfeit — and their entire inattention 
to perfonal and domeff ic cleanlinefs- 
all have a prodigious effeft to darken 
the complexion, to relax and emaci- 
ate the conHitution, and to render 
the features coarfe and deformed. Of 
the influence of thefe caufes, we have 
an example, in perfons reduced to ex- 
treme poverty, who are ufually a8( 
much diflinguiflied by their thin ha* 
bit, their uncouth features, and their 
fwarihy and fquabd afpeft, as by th(t 
meaniiefs of their garb. Nakednefs^ 
cxpofure, negligence of appearance, 
want of cleanlinefs, bad lodging, and 
meagre diet, fo difcolour and injur* 
their form, as to enable us to frame 
fome iudgment of the degree, in which 
fuch caufes will contribute to aug- 
ment the influence of climate in fa- 
vage life. Independently on climate, 
thefe caufes will render it impofiiblcj 
that a favage fhould ever be fair. And, 
the co-operation of both, will ufttally 
render men, in that Hate of fociety, 
extremely dark in their compl?xlon^ 
And, generally, they will be moT« 
coarte and hard in their features, an4 
lefs robuft in their perfons, than ineri 



1789.] 



in the human fpecies. 



185 



who enjoy, with temperance, the ad- 
vantages 01 civihzed lociety*. 

As a favageftate contributes to aug- 
ment the influence cf chmaie ; or, at 
leaW, to exhibit its worft eHecls upon 
the human conllitntion ; a ftate of 
civilization, on the other hand, tends 
to corretl it, by furnifning innumera- 
ble means of guarding againft its pow- 
er. The conveniencies of clothing 

K o T E. 

* One of the greateft difficultiesj 
■with which a wriier on this iubject 
has to combat, is the ignorance and 
fuperficial obfervation ot the bt^lk of 
travellers, who travel without the 
true fpirit of remark* The firll ob- 
jetts that meet their view, in a new 
country, and among a new people, 
feize their fancy, and are recued wuh 
exaggeration ; and they feldom have 
judgment and impartiality fufhcient 
to examine and reafon with juilnefs 
and caution — and, from innumerable 
fa£ls, which necelfarily have many 
points of difference among themfelves, 
to draw general conclufions. Such 
conclufions, when moll judiy drawn, 
they think they have refuted, when 
they difcover a fnigle example that 
fecms not to coincide with ihem. In 
reafonings of this kind there are few 
perfons who fufficiently conhder, that, 
however accurately we may invefti- 
gate caufes and efK-fts, our limued 
knowledge will always leave particu- 
lar examples that will feem to be ex- 
ceptions from any general principle. 
To apply thefe remarks. A few ex- 
amples, perhaps, may occur, among 
favages, of regular and agreeable fea- 
tures, or of {lr<mg and mufcular bo- 
dies ; as in civilized fociety, we meet 
with fome rare infiances of aOonilh- 
ing beauty. If, by chance, a perlon 
of narrow obfervation, and incom- 
prehenfive mind, have feen two or 
three examples of this kind, he will 
be ready, on this flender foundation, 
to contradifl; the general remark I 
have made, concerning the coarfe and 
uncouth features of favages, and their 
want of thofe fine and mufcular pro- 
portions, if I may call them fo, in 
the human body, that indicate ilrength, 
combined with fwifmefs. Yet, it is 
certain, (hat {he general countenance 
cf favage life, is much more uncouth 



and of lodging — the plenty, and 
heahhful quality of food — a country 
drained, cultivated, and freed from 
noxious effluvia — improved ideas of 
beauty — the conilant fludy of ele- 
gance, and the infinite arts for at- 
taining it, even in perfonal figure and 
appearance, give cultivated an im- 
menfe advantage over favage fociety, 

NOTE. 

and coarfe, more unmeaning and 
wild, as will atierwards be fecn, whea 
I come to point out the caufes of if, 
than the cou.ntenance of polilhed fo- 
ciety : and the perion is more {len- 
der, and rather iuted for the chace, 
than robuH, and capable of force and 
labour. An American Indian, in 
particular, is commonly fwift ; he is 
rarely very flrong. And it has been 
remarked, in the many expeditions 
which the people of thefe liates have 
undertaken againil the favages, that, 
in dole quarters, the flrength of an 
Anglo-American is ulually fuperior 
to that of an Indian of the fame fize. 
The mufcles, likewife, on which 
the fine proportions of perfon fo much 
depend, are generally fmaller and 
more lax, than they are in improved 
fociety, that is not corrupted by luxu- 
ry, or debilitated by fedentary occu- 
pations. Their limbs, therefore, though 
llrait, are lefs beautifully turned. A 
deception often palfes on the fenfes, 
in judging of the beauty of favages — 
and defcription is often more exagge- 
rated than the fenfes are deceived. 
We do not expetf beauty in favage 
life. When, therefore, we happen 
to perceive it, the contraft, with the 
ufual condition of that Hate, impofes 
on the mind. And the exalted re- 
prefenlations of favage beauty, which 
we Ibmetimes read, are true only by 
comparifon with favages. There is 
a difference, in this refpetl, between 
man, and many of the inferior ani- 
mals, which were intended to run 
wild in the foreft. They are always 
the moft beautiful, when they enjoy 
their native liberty, and range. They 
decay and droop, when attempted to 
be donieRicated, or confined. But 
man, being defigned for fociety and 
civilization, attains, in thai ffate, th^ 
greateft perfetiion of his form, as 
well of his whole nature. 



iS6 



Reply to an enquiry into the 



[September, 



ia its aflcmpts to counteraft the influ- 
ence of climate, and to beautify the 
human fi.)rn). 

a. I cotrie now to obferve, what 
is of much more importance on this 
part of the fiibjetl, that ail the fea- 
tures of the human coiintenance are 
modified, and its entire cxpreiTion 
rad)cally formed, by the flaie of fo- 
e ety. 

Efery objeO, that imprefTes the 
fcni'es, and every emotion, that riles 
in the mind, aileCts the features of 
the face, the index of our feelings, 
and contributes to form the infinitely 
vnrious countenance of man. Pauci- 
ty of ideas creates a vacant and un- 
meaning afpeft. Agrceabia and cul- 
tivated fcenes compofc the features, 
and render them regular and gay. 
Wild, and deformeid, and folltary 
forcds, tend to imprefs on the counte- 
nance, an linage of their own rude- 
refs. Great varieties are created by 
diet and modes of living. The deli- 
cacies of refined life give a foft and 
elegant form to the features. Hard 
fare, and conftant expofure to the in- 
juries of the weather, render them 
coarfe and uncouth. The infinite at- 
tentions of polilTied fociety, give va- 
riety and exprefiion to the face. The 
want of interelting emotions, leaving 
its mulcles lax and unexerted, they 
are fuflfered to diftend themfelves to 
a larger and grofTer fize, and acquire 
a loft unvarying fwell, that is not dif- 
tinftly marked by any idea. A gene- 
ral flandard of beauty has its efted in 
fi>rming the human countenance and 
figure. Every palfion, and mode of 
thinking, has its peculiar exprefiion— 
And all the preceding charafters have 
again many variations, according to 
their degrees of ftrength, according 
to their combinations wiih other prin- 
ciples, and according to the peculia- 
rities of conllitution or of climate, 
that form the ground, on which the 
ditterent imprefhons are received. As 
the degrees of civilization — as the 
ideas, palhons, and objetts of fociety 
in different countrie<;, and under dif- 
ferent forms of government, are in- 
finitely various, they open a bound- 
lefs field for variety in the human 
countenance. It is impofhble to enu- 
merate them. They are not the fame 
in anv two ages of the world. It 
would be uniieccnary to eiiumeraLe 



them, as my objecl is not become a 
phyfiognomift, but to evince the pof- 
fibility of fo many differences exliling 
in one fpecies ; and to fuggeil a pro- 
per mode of reafoning, on new varie- 
ties as they may occur to our ob- 
fervation. 

For this purpofe, I (hall, in the 
firfl place, endeavour, by feveral 
fa.'^s and illuflrations to evince, that 
the Hate of fociety has a great efleft 
in varying the fig'^re and complexion 
of mankind. 

I fliall then fliew, in what manner, 
fome of the mod difttngmlliing fea- 
tures of the favage, and particularly 
of the American favage, with whom 
we are beft acquainted, naturally re- 
fult from the rude condition in which 
they exifl. (To be continued.) 

Reply to an ejfay, entitled, " An 
enquiry into the uiiliiy of the Greek 
and Latin language s."-^P. in. 

OUR author, in the next fection, 
prefeuts us with a more ferious 
charge agaiiiH the Greek and Latin 
clatlics. He roundly affirms, that 
they, at lealf fome of them, '" are un- 
favourable to morals and religion." 
That there are obfcene paffages in La- 
tin writers, will not be denied ; and 
it 15 to be regretted, that our author's 
reading appears to have been confined 
to feniimeius of this defcription. But 
he fhould remember, that particular 
inflances do not juHify general con- 
cliifions. In fatl, the improper parts 
of the claffics are fo very few, that 
nothing but abfolute poverty of argu- 
ment, can afford the leaft palliation 
for io fhamelefs a calumny. In what 
refpecl are the works of Xenophon, 
DemoHhenes, Homer, Longmus, C. 
Nepos, Caefar, Salliilf, Cicero, Vir- 
gil, Livy, Tacitus, Qiiintilian, &c. 
unfavourable to morality ? and as to 
religion, that man mull be but an ig- 
norant advocate of it, who does not 
know that many of its llrongeR exter- 
nal proofs, arc derived from the daf- 
fies themfelves. What a fhallow pre- 
tence IS it to fay, that from ihele pro- 
ceed " an early acquaintance with vice, 
and a diminifhed refped for the per- 
fections of the true God." Before 
fuch an infiniiHtion can help the gen- 
tleman out of his difficulties, it will be 
incumbent on him to prove, thai clai- 



J7S9'] 



utility of the Crrck and Latin languages. 



1S7 



fical fcholars are more vicious than 
others ia fimilar circumflancss. I'he 
clergy are in general acquainted v/ith 
the clafTics, and it would be neceflary 
for our hero to fummon all his courage, 
in pronouncing them abandoned pro- 
Jligates. Yet, this is the precile con- 
cluhon, which we mud diaw from his 
premifes. In what inliance did the 
Chriftian God luHer by acomparifon 
with the Pa^.ui divinities ; or, in what 
claflical fcholar has our author's pene- 
tration difcovered a propenfiiy to ido- 
latry? But we are told, that the daf- 
fies, which are free from the imputa- 
tion of infecting morality, " con. am 
little elfe but the hifiories of murders, 
perpetrated by kings, and related in 
fuch a manner as to excite pleafure 
and admiration." The gentleman's 
memory is defeftive — let him look 
over the authors mentioned above, 
and fee if there are not feveral, whofe 
works contain no more of the hiftories 
of murders of any kind, than his own 
eifay. Is he yet to be informed, that 
to the hiftoryof antiquiiv, chriltianity 
is indebted for fomc of her moU no- 
ble defences ? If fo, Newton's dif- 
lertation on the prophecies will fet 
bim right in that particular. 

But what hiftory will he find, that 
is not a continued proof of human de- 
pravity ? Certainly, modern as well 
as ancient relations have but one ob- 
jert, the recording of fafts for the ad- 
vanta;^e of future ages. I leave it to 
every impartial mind to determine, 
how conlilient that man is with hun- 
felf, who, in one breath, declaims 
agamil luftory, and recites a long 
llring of evils which proceed from 
the Itudy of it, and, in the next, re- 
commends it as a part of liberal edu- 
cation. Is it polhble, that a perfon 
can ferioufly condemn the clafhcs, as 
having an immoral tendency, and at 
the fame time pronounce a panegyric 
on the writings of dr. Swift? One 
would be tempted to think, that the 
author's real motive for decrying the 
clalTics, was not lo much a concern 
for the interelbof morality, as an im- 
placable fpitc at Grecian and Roman 
literature. So that viewing the mat- 
ter in any pofTible light, this part of 
his argument appears to be nothing 
more than the miferable fubterfuge of 
fcaffled fophiflry. Again, " the fludy 
©f the Latin and G&eek languages 



is improper in the prefcnt fiate of fo- 
ciety and government in the uimcd 
Hates. While Greek and Latin are 
the only avejiues to Icience, educaiKux 
Will always be confined to a few 
peo|)le." But why confined to a few ? 
Has our author fhewn a hngle reafon 
to julufy his alferiion ? Is the expenfe 
too great ? and will the wealthy alone 
enjoy the privilege of iniiruftion ? 
Look at our colleges ! Are not the 
moll ot thofe who attend ihera, per- 
fons in the middle fphcre of life ? Or 
do the rich prove the befl fcholars ? 
This experience denies. At the low- 
ell computation, there are upwards of 
five hundred fludenis in the colleges 
of Newhaven, Cambridge, New 
York, Princeton, Philadelphia, and 
Carlifle. This does iiot leem 10 fa- 
vour the idea, that knowledge is accef- 
fible lo few. 

Our author propofes to make feme 
fucceeding pohtions the fubjetts of 
future conlideration ; I (hall therefore 
pafs them over, and cfter a few cur- 
lory obfervations on his fancied refu- 
tation of t!ie argumenis advanced id 
fupport of the propriety of Undying 
Latin and Greek, lliefe obferva- 
tions lliall be very brief, as. a laboured 
confutation of dogmatic, unfupported 
affertions, would be an unneceffary 
wafle of time, and an unpardonaLle 
trefpafs upon psit.ence. 

Ihefirll argument, upon which the 
gentleman fiftens his talons, is, "that 
a knowledge of the Latin or Greek 
grammar has been faid to be neceffary 
for our becomingacquainted w.th Liv^- 
liih grammar." If, by this is meant, 
that the Englifli grammar fliould be 
regulated by the Latin or Greek, he 
is perfectly right in rejefting the opi- 
nion ; though he need not claim the 
merit of cxplodmg tins error : it ne- 
ver was advanced but by fome Utopi- 
an projectors, and the fober advocates 
of clalhcal learning, never thought 
their caufe fo dclperate as to require 
fuch puny a;d. However, he might 
have aiTigned fome better reafon for 
h;s own judgment, than that '' he has 
known many bachelors and mafters of 
arts who were iticorrecl Englifli fcho- 
lars :" unlefshe can Ihew that corrupt 
pronunciation, or falfe Englifh gram- 
mar, is the refult of clalfical educa- 
tion, it is needlefs to point out the 
incorreclnefsof maOerscf arts — " The; 



188 



Reply to an enquiry into the utility of the Greek, &c. [September, 



Greek," he proceeds " is fuppofed to 
be the moii perfect language both in 
its conlliuciion and harmony, that 
has ever been fpoken by mortals ; 
jiow this language was not learned 
through the medium of any other'' — 
the pre-eminence of the Greeks ''arole 
entirely fiom their being too wife to 
wafle the imp.onant years of education 
in learning to call fubllances by iwo or 
three ddicient names, inllead ot ilu- 
dying iheir qualities and ufes." Do 
not laugh, gentle reader, when you 
find this fame author, who now writes 
with great zeal againll the abfurd 
pratiice of "' learning to call tubllan- 
ces by two or three ddferent names," 
gravely advifmg the fludy of French 
and German. Will the nam.e of a 
thing in either of" thefe languages, in- 
fpire a better knowledge of its quali- 
ties and ufes, than the name of it in 
Latin or Greek ? but obferve the lo- 
gic of the hrit part of this paragraph ; 
It is to this effect : 

The Greek is fuppofed to be the 
mod perfect language that has ever 
been (poken by mortals. 

But there is widefcope for improve- 
ment in the Englifli tongue. 

Ergo, we ihould never open a 
Greek book. 

Similar to this is the gentleman's rea- 
foning, when he attempts to prove, that 
we fliould not iUidy the Greek and 
X,atin, to become acquainted with the 
tafte and eloquence of authors, who 
wrote in thele languages. 

We are told, that '' Shakefpcare 
owes his fame, as a fuhlimeand origi- 
nal poet, to his having never read a 
Latin or Greek author ; " and that 
*' to this pallion for ancient writings, 
we muft afcribe the great want of ori- 
ginality , that marks too many of the po- 
ems of modern times- V/hy the reading 
of Englilh, Fiench, or German books, 
ihould bemore favo'urableto original- 
ity, than the reading of thofe, which 
are written in Greek or Latin, it 
lies upon our author to explain ; per- 
haps he will do it in his future elTays. 
I'he gentleman aflerts, that " the 
ftudy of the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages has been one of the greatell 
obftructions that has ever been thrown 
in the way of the propagation of uk- 
ful knowledge." How fo ? Why, 
" by rendering our language unintel- 
ligible to the greatell part of the 



people." Admitting this to be true, 
will the evil be remedied by omitting 
the fludy of thefe languages ? or will 
all the uninteliigible words, which 
have been imported from thefe lan- 
guages into our own, be entirely done 
away with the languages themfelves? 
Would it greatly decorate an Enghflr- 
man'soran American's ftile, to fuitl 
a iwarm of French or German words 
into h'.s compofition ? Yet this mufl 
be the cafe, if thefe languages are ge- 
nerally iludied. 

The gentleman is deeply concerned, 
that, on this account, the poor have 
" not the gofpel preached to them;" 
but, if he w ill take the trouble to lt)ok 
into the world, he will find the far 
greatell proportion of pious people, 
belonging to that clafs. 

when the utility of Greek and La- 
tin is urged "' as necefTary to the learned 
profefIion:.oFlaw,phy lie, and divinity," 
the gentleman replies, '' the moU ufe- 
ful books in each of thefe profelhons, 
are tranllated into Englifli :" but he 
does not conhder that living lan- 
guagesare in aUlate of perpetual fluc- 
tuation — He-fays that " cuftom will 
always govern the ufe of words." 
Ihis IS a moll powerful argument for 
the fludy of Greek and Latin : be- 
caiile cuflom often warps words from 
their original meaning, and, at differ- 
ent periods, afbgns different fignihca* 
tions to (he fame word. If then the 
Latin and Greek are tranflated, and 
the originals thrown afide, the inten- 
lu^n of an author may, in fcveral 
important points, be whoiy lofl, unlefs 
the gentleman can give us fecunty, that 
the Englifh words, whirh are uled to 
exprefs an author's fenfe, will ever 
convey the precife ideas which were 
afhxed to them, at the time .when his 
book was tranflated- 

He goes on, '' IJee no ufe at pre- 
fent for a knowledge of the Latin and 
Greek languages, for a lawyer, a phy- 
flcian, or a divine, in the united ffates, 
except it be to preferve the remem- 
brance of a few technical terms, 
•which may be retained without it." 
In this inflance, u feems, our author's 
logic depends upon ttie acutenefs of 
his optics. What fine reafoning is it to 
fay, *' I fee no ufe for fuch a branch of 
fludy, and therefore it muff be fuper- 
fluous and pernicious. Charity her- 
ielf cannot fuppofe a perfon to be 



i-SyJ Kfpiy to an enquiry into the utifity of the Greek^ &c. 



189 



over-flocked with modefly, when he 
thnks liH bare opimon lufficient to 
overfet'the judgment of the learned, 
wiio liave flounihed through a i'eries 
of ages, and whole nac.nes will adorn 
tit? annals of Iteratiire — -Nor can our 
thoughts of his hiimiiity be more fa- 
vourable, wlien, with an imperious^ 
diCiaioiial a\r. he condemns, as guilly 
oFfoily and abfurduy, thofe venera- 
ble peifonages who prehde over the 
intereils of learning in the united 
lutes. It is a rule 111 good compoii- 
tion, to give ihe reader's mind lome 
fcope fur exertion, in diicovering im- 
pl'cd inf^vences, and the co^nnexion 
of an audior's thoughts. Had the 
g^Muleman remembered this direchon, 
he would probahly have fpared h'nT- 
felf th° trouble of making part of (his 
hill remark, and me the trouble of 
pointing out its inconfiRency, He fays, 
'■ 1 do not fcetheufe," &c. From the 
tenor of his whole erTay, it appears 
that he is ignorant of his fubjett in 
more vefpe^ts : than one, and this, I 
pieiiimc, IS anobfervation not out of 
the reach of common capacities. 

To corroborate his previous alTer- 
tions, he informs us, that " two of 
tbc mod eminent and (iiccefsful law- 
yers in the united Hates, are (Irarsgers 
to the L;rrin language." Without 
anv apprehenhons of injuring the 
ci;ife of Grecian or Roman litera- 
ture, I will help him to a ftill better 
ar'^iimenf, viz. that a ceriain gentie- 
ni in, of publiiliing propenfity, has 
learned bojh Latin and Greeky and 
is not a Vvhit the wifer. 

Relperting the difputes among cri- 
tics, about ""the meaning of words," 
&c. ni the New Teliaoient, we may 
:hence draw an argument for the pro- 
priety of lliidv ng the Greek. If we 
do not, It will he impo!hble.to form 
a fettled judgment concerning difput- 
ed pa.Iagcs ; and of coiitie we muft 
i'mphculy rely on the opin urn o (others, 
Or have no opinion at all — -a fituation 
to. which an independent rnind would 
tiot wi(h to be reduced. Here our 
author ftarts a mighty difficulty — " it 
follows, that a knowledge of the 
l-inguages and dialetls, in which the 
diHerent parts of it (the Ne'v Tella- 
meni) were originally compofed, is 
Equally necelTary." It is not eafy to 
tell wint he means by the diHereni 

VoL^VI. No. Ill, 



languages* of the New Teflament ; 
and as for thediaiefts, h'S coniequencc 
will be admitted, wiihoin icruple ; 
and 1 to what does it amount ? Kvi- 
dently to nothing m.ore than this, that 
divines ouglvt to be good claliic?! fcho- 
■lars. His conclulion, however, that 
this knowledge of the dialects, &c. iS 
indifpenf^bly neceffary to the conur:ori 
people, can no more be allowed, than 
that the common people are bound to 
Uudy medicine,- becaufe they are all 
interelted in its f.ircefs. 

After foiTie -farther remarks, our 
auihor directs our atiention to twodii- 
tingiulhed perf<inages in Anr-rira ; andf 
when he has rneiuioned lome of their 
fervices, for which the beneditlions 
of the prefent and future generations 
will be Ihowered upon them — he lelU 
us, that they " were flrangers to the 
formalities of a Latin and Greek edu- 
cation." 

Gratitude to thofe illuftrrous patri- 
ots, to whom, I fuppofe, he alhides,- 
and veneration for their exalted vir- 
tues, are written in indelible charac- 
ters upon the heart of every friend to 
mankind. Btit our author's inference 
againfi, the utihiy of the Greek and 
Latin, can be of no fervice, unlefs 
he will fhew, that their laurels are the 
fruit of their never having Ihidied 
thefe languages. Equally juft would 
•be the fuppofition, that the fludy of 
phylic is altogether ufelef-:, becaufe 
the Indians are capable of performing 
cures, which mav be far out of the 
reach of a regular ph^fician's flcilj. 
But this would be, 10 many, a very 
unpalatable dottrine. To obviate any 
prejudice which might arifc, our au- 
thor piopofes a plan for preferving 
the knowledge of Greek and Latin, 
'without making it a part of liberal 
-education. He wifhes to have cer- 
tain perfons appointed for the exprefs 
purpole of tranflaiing and explainlncr 
Greek and Latin books. Sec. With' 
what an elevated 'dea, does this prp- 
jjett prefent us ? How noble the 

1^ O T E . 

* Some, indeed, fuppofe, that the 
gofpel of Matthew was originally 
written in Hebrew ; but as this is a' 
conteHed point, it can never jullify 
an expreflion, fo general, as " all the 
languaees," &c, 
Bb 



19« 



On free trade andfciiance. 



[September, 



thoii,i?ht, that the literati of America, 
(to ufe a common phraleoloi^y) mnft 
pill their faith upon ihe fleeves of a 
few|liirecl pedagogues! However con- 
ijenial fucn a propofal may be to our 
author's mind, no perfon of dignified 
ientiment will fubfcribe the humili- 
•tiniJ terms. 

Whillt the gentleman is moiuvted 
upon his hobby-horfical Pacolet, he 
knows not where to Itop. After ba- 
iiifhing Greek and Latin, the next 
Hep of improvement, is to cafliier all 
the words which are of Greek or La- 
tin etymology — and when he has done 
this, our language will be wonderfully 
li;T!plihed, and our difctionaries re- 
tluced to the fize of common gram- 
mars — Is noi ihis excellent reafoning ? 
What ufe have we for fuch words as 
fcllivity, hilarity, &c. It is a fuf- 
ticicnt anfwer, to fay, the very fame 
that we have for any other words in 
the language. 

It is fomewhat odd, that our au- 
thor ha^ deigned to employ a word of 
Greek or Latin derivation; but 
1 am loo hally ; had he atied upon 
his own principles, the world would 
never have feen his produHion. There 
h no danger of traiirgrelhng the bounds 
of truth, in faying, that^ with all his 
ingenu ty, he would not be able to 
write half a page, which did not con- 
tain f ime word of Latin or Greek 
derivation, 

Li pointing out the advantages, that 
will naturally refult from the difufe of 
the Latin and Greek — our author has 
d'ne nothing more than alFcrt, which 
be caihi denionftraiion : and, in this 
manner, it is eafy to prove, that he 
was in a dream, or, in a delirium, 
when he wrote his treatife. 

To conclude — The piece, upon 
)yhich I have fo freely animadverted, 
appears to be theettuhon of momen- 
tary frenzy ; and the bell apology 
wh ch can be made for the author, 
if, that he has written without re- 
fh'xion, or facrificcd hi* judgtitent to 
tapncc. 

GLOTTOPHILUS. 

Ntw y'oik, July 18, I78y. 

Aji 'Jfoy on free trade and finance 
par titularty flowing , wlmt fuppltei 
of public revenue ntfl\ be dtauin 
J roin menkaiidi-Me^ witlmut injur- 



ing our trade, or burdening our 
people. — P. 136. 

Bur perhaps the advantage of thi» 
kind of taxation will appear in 
a more linking liijht. by conlidcring 
its practical and general cfietls, on a 
nation which adopts it : in which 
view of the matter, 1 think it will be 
very manifelt, 

L 1 hat any man of bufinefs, whe- 
ther he be merchant, farmer ortradcf- 
man,^may liveeader and better, i. e. be 
happier through the year, andricherat 
theend of ityin acountry where this tax 
is paid, than he could i.ve in the fame 
country, if the tax was noi paid •, for 
as the tax is laid on ufelefs confump- 
tions, it would, of courfe, diminiAi 
thoie confumptions. and, of courfe, 
fave the firlt colt of the part dimin,- 
ilhed, and all the additional e.xpenfe,^ 
which the ufe of that part would re- 
quire. If a man lives in a country, 
abounding in kixury, he muH go in 
fome degree into it, or appear fingular 
and mean ; and that pan, which he 
would be in a manner compelled to 
adopt would probably colt him more 
than his tax ; but 'tis here to be con- 
fidered, that the firll coft of an artiv 
cle of luxury, is not nearly all the coll 
of it. One article often makes ano- 
ther neced'ary, and that a thii-d. and 
fo on ahnoU ad infinitum. If you buy 
a hlk cloak, there mull alfo be trim- 
mings: and thar will not do, without 
a hat or bonnet : and thefe require a 
fuitable accommodation in every other 
part of the drels, in order to keep up 
any fort of decency and uniformity of 
appearance : and there alfo mult be 
fpent a great deal of time to put ihefe 
fine things on, and to wear them, to 
{hew them-, to receive and pay vifits 
in them, &c. And when this kind of 
luxury prevails in a country, beyond 
the degree which its wealth can bear, 
the confequence is pride, poverty, 
debt, duns, lav^fuits, &c. &c. The 
farmer finds the proceeds of the year 
vanilhed into trifles ; the merchant 
and tradefman may fell their goods in- 
deed, but can't get payment for them. 
Every family finds its cxpenfe greatly 
increafcd, and the time of the fami- 
ly much confumed in attending to 
that very expenfe. Many families 
foon become embarrafied, and put to 
very mortifying (Tufts, 10 keep up that 
appearance, which fitch a corruj^t tafte 



iT^g.] 



Cn free trade and Jiname* 



191 



almoR compels them to fupport. But 
were thefe families, with the lame in- 
rome, to live m a country of more 
economy, and lefs luxury, they would 
eafily pay the taxes on the luxuries 
they did ufe — keep on a good footing 
with their neighbours — appear with 
as much diftinCtion — live happy and 
unembarralTed through the year, and 
have money in their pockets at the 
end of it. In fuch a country, pay- 
ments would be punchjal, and induf- 
try fteady ; and, of couife, all bufi- 
nefs, both of merchandize, hufbandry^ 
and mechanic arts, mi.jjht be carried 
on with eaie and fuccels. Thefe are 
no high colourings, but an appeal to 
plain faHs, and to the fenfe of every 
prudent man on thefe fafts ; and 1 
here with confidence afk every wife 
man, if he would not choofe to live 
in a country, where articles of hurt- 
ful luxury and ufelefs confumption, 
were, by taxes or any other caiife, 
raifed fo high in their price, as to 
prevent the excelEve ufe of them, ra- 
ther than in a country, where fuch 
articles were of eafy acquirement, 
and tlie ufe of them fo exceffive a- 
mong the inhabitants, as to confume 
their wealth, dcHroy their induftry, 
and corrupt the morals and heahh of 
die people ? 

II. I think, it Is very plain, that ar- 
licles of hurtful and ufelefs confump- 
tion are making fuch rapid progrefs a- 
mong us, and growing into fuch ex- 
ceffive ufe, as to throw the economy, 
induftry, fimplicity, and even health 
of our people into danger, and of 
confequence, raifing the price of fuch 
articles fo high, as will be neceflary 
to produce a proper check to the ex- 
eeflive ufe of them, will require a 
tax fo great, as, when added to a 
fmall and very niodeiate impoft on 
articles of general and necelfary con- 
fumption, will bring money enough 
into the public treafury, for all the 
purpofes of the public fervice. We 
will fuppofe, then, that all this is 
done, and when this is done, we will 
flop a moment, and look round us, 
and view the advantages refulting 
from ibis mealure, over and above 
the capital one of checking and re- 
ftraining ili^t excelfive luxury, which 
threatens, if not an ablolute delliuc- 
tion, yet at Icall a tarniihment of eve- 
ry principle, out of which our prof- 



perify, wealth, and happinefs muft 
neceffarily and forever fluw. I fay, 
we'll flop a mmuie and view the ad- 
vantageous eliecis of this mealure. 
The firft grand effed, which prelcnts 
itfelf (o my view, is, that our army 
would be paid,* chat our brethren, 
our fellow citizens, who, by their 
valour, their patience, their perfever- 
an.ce in the held, have fecured fo us 
our extenfive country, and all its 
bleffings, would be enabled to return 
to their friends and connexions, not 
only crowned with the laurels of the 
field, but rewarded by the juflice and 
gratitude of their country, and bs 
therebv enabled to fupport their dig- 
nity of character, or at leaft be put on 
a footing wiih their fellow citizens 
(whom they have faved) in the pro- 
curement of the means of living. 

The next advantage of ihis mca- 
fure, which occurs to me, is, ihe 
eafement and exoneration of the la- 
bourers of the community, the huf- 
bandmanand iradefman, out of whofe 
labour all our wealth and lupplies are 
derived. By them we are fed, by 
them we are clothed : by the various 
modifications of their labour, our fla- 
ples are produced, our commerce re- 
ceives its principle, and our utmoft 
abundance is fupplied : we are there- 
fore bound, by every principle of juf- 
tice, gratitude, and good policy , to give 
them encouragement and uninterrupt- 
ed fecurity in their peaceful occupa- 
tions, and not, by an unnatural and 
ill-fated arrangement of our finances, 
compel theni to leave their labours, 
which are the grand object of their 
attention and our fupplies, to go ii) 
queft of money to fatisfy a collector of 
taxes. 

But juftice and gra'itiide operate 
onlv on minds, which thefe virtues 
can reach. There may be fome few 
among us, of no little weight, who 
are content, if they can obtain the fer- 
vices, to jet the fervant fhifi for him- 
felf, and who, when they are fiire of 
the benefit, remember no longer the 
benefactor : and a<, in this great ar- 
gument of univerfal concern, 1 wilk 

NOTE. 

* This was written in Mrifch, 1 783, 
about the tune, when the consinen- 
tal army was difniilfed, but not 
paid. 



»9« 



On free trade and finance. 



[September, 



il^find the way to every man's fenfe, 
and uildiefs myfe.lf, not only to thole 
V^ho have virtue, but even to thofe 
Vviho have none, 1 will ihercfore men- 
tion another advantage of this mea- 
fure, which I think, will (virtue or no 
virtue) reach the feelings of every 
man, who retains the lead ienfe of 
intereii, viz, that in this way all our 
public creditors would be paid and la- 
tisfied, e:thi'r by a total difcharge of 
their principal, or an undoubted well- 
funded feciinty of it, with a fure and 
punctual pavtnent of their interell, 
which wouid be the belt of the two ; 
becaule a total difcharge of the prin- 
cipal at once, if fufficient money could 
be i>btamed, would make fuch a fud- 
den, fo vaH an addition to our circu- 
lating ca(h, as would depreciate it, 
and reduce the value of the debt paid, 
much behnv its worth at the time of 
conrratl, and introduce a fjuttuation 
of our markets, and other fatal evils 
of a depreciated currency, which have 
been known by experience, and fe- 
verely enough felt, to make them 
dreaded ; it would therefore be much 
better for the creditor to receive a 
certain welt- funded fecurity of his 
debt, than full payment : for in that 
ca!e, if he needed the cadi for his 
debt, be might fell his fecurity, at 
little or no difcount, which is the 
condant prattice of the public cre- 
ditors in England, where every kind 
of public fccuriiy has its rate of ex- 
change, fettled every day, and may 
be negociated in a very Ihort time. 
Suppofingthis fhould be the cafe, flop 
and lee what an amazing effort this 
would have on every kind of bufinefs 
in the country. The public bank- 
ruptcies have been fo amazingly great, 
that vaft numbers of our people have 
been reduced by theit) to the condition 
of men, who have fold their efferts 
to broken merchants, that cannot pay 
them; their bufinefs i? Icflencd, or, 
perhaps, reduced to notb'ng, for want 
of their Hock, fo dciained from them. 
Suppoling, then, that their Hock was 
rcllored to iliem all, they v>;ould in- 
flanily all pifh into bufinefs. and the 
proceeds of their bufinefs would flow 
through ihc rountry. in every direc- 
tion of inflnilry, ana every fpecies of 
fupplv : in fine, the whole country 
would be alive ; aiul as it is obvious 
tc every one, that it v^ much better 



living in a country of brifk bufinefs, 
than one of llagnated bufinefs, every 
individual would reap benehis from 
this general animation of indulhy, be- 
yond account, more than enough to 
compenlate the tax which he has paid 
lo produce it. All thefe advantages, 
hitherto enumerated, woiild put the 
labour and induifry of our people of 
all occupations on fuch a footing of 
profit, and fecurity, as w©uld foon 
give a new face to the country, and 
open fuch extenfive profpctts of plen- 
ty, peace, and eilablifhment, throw 
into action io many lources of wealth, 
give fuch liability to public credit, and 
make the burdens of goveniineut fo 
eafy and almolt imperceptible to the 
people, as would make our country, 
not only a moil advantageous place to 
live in, but even make it abound with 
the- richeft enjoymenis and heartfelt 
delights. Thefe are objects of great 
magnitude and delirablenefs ; they 
animate and dilate the heart of every 
American. What can do the heart 
more good, than to fee our country % 
fcene of juftice, plenty, and happi- 
nefs ? are thofe rich bleffings within 
our reach ? can we believe ihcy are 
fo abfolutely within our power, that 
they require no more than very prac- 
ticable efforts to bring iis into the lull 
polTellion of them ? Thele blcllings 
are doubtlefs attainable, if we willgo 
to the price of them : and that you 
ir.ay judge whether they are worth the 
purchafe, whether they are too dear 
or not ; I will give you the price cur- 
rent of them all, the price, which, if 
honellly paid, will certainly purchafe 
them. 

In order to have them, then, we 
niufl pay about a dollar and half a 
gallon, for rum, brandy, and other dif- 
tillcd fpirits; a dollar a gallon, above 
the ordinary price, for wines ; adollar 
and a half for bohea tea, and about 
that fum, above the ordinary pnce, 
for hyfon tea ; a double price on filki 
of all forts, laces of all forts, and thin 
linens and cottons (»f all forts, fuch as 
muflins, lawns, aind cambrick*, and 
. al{i^ on jewelry of all forts, &c. ; 
about a dollar and third a yard, above 
the ordinary price, for fuperfinr cloths 
of all forts, &c. &c. a ti,>ird of a dol- 
lar a bulliel, on fait, (for .1 don't 
mean to lay (jnite all the tax on the 
rich, and wiiolly excufe> tHe poor,) 



'7%0 Character ncvi gtneris plantcs — Azakia: a Canadian Jlory. tgj 



about a dollar a hundred, for Tugar, 
one teiuh of a dollar a pound, on cot- 
fee, the lame on cocoa, above the or- 
dinary price, &c. &c. with an addi- 
tion of five per cent, on all ariicks of 
imporialion not enumerated, except 
cotton, dying woods, and other raw 
materials for our o\yn maniifariures ; 
for, whilU importations are dilcou- 
raged, our own raanuiattures will na- 
turally be Increaled, and ought to be 
encouraged, or at lead be difburdeiied. 
On this ilate of the matter, 1 beg 
leave to-obferve, that the war itfeU., 
for feveri years "pad, has laid a tax on 
us, nearly equal to the hi^helt of 
ihefe, and, on iome articles of necef- 
fary conlu'.nption, from two hundred 
to a thoufand per cent, higher, inch 
as fait, pepper, alfpice, alluin, pow- 
der, lead, &c. &c. and yet 1 never 
heard any body complani of being ruin- 
ed by the war, becaufe rum was twelve 
fliillings per gallon, tea twelve (hil- 
lings per pound, niantuas three dol- 
lars a yard, pepper ten Ihilhngs a 
{lound, or fupeiHne cloths eight dol- 
ars a yard, &c. Nor does it appear 
to me, that the country has paid a 
{hilling more for rum, lilks, luperfine 
cloths, &c. for the laft feven years, 
than was paid for the fame articles the 
feven preced ng year:*, i. e, she whole 
tax was paid by leflening the con- 
fumption of thcfe articles. Nor do 
I think, that the health, habits, or 
happinefs of the country, have fullered 
in the leall, on the whole, from iis 
being obliged to ufe lels of thefe arti- 
cles than was before ufual ; but be 
this as if may, 'tis very certain, that 
the country has fuffered but little from 
the mcreafed price of thefe articles, 
which 1 propofe to tax, except at 
fome particular times, when thofe 
prices were railed much higher than 
the point to which I propoie to raile 
them, i. e. at particular times, rum 
ha< been as high is three dollars a 
gallon, tea three dollars a pound, fu- 
gars, and cofiee, three (hillings and 
fix-pence a pound, mantuas four dol- 
lars a yard, &c : but 'tis oblervable, 
that the principal increafed prices, 
■which have really hurt and diilrefied 
the country, during the war, have 
been of oiher articles, which I pro- 
pofe to tax very lightly, or not at all ; 
inch as f.ilt, which has at time; been 
(k. dollars a buihel, and perhaps three 



or four dollars on an average, coarfe 
cloihs and coarfe linens, ofnabr«g3» 
cuilery, and crockery-wares. Sir.. 
which have often nfen to five or fijc 
prices, and Hood for years together at * 
three or four : and yet the burden o£ 
thefe cxcelTive prices, ofevennecef- 
fary articles of unavoidable confump- 
tion, has not been fo great, if you ex- 
cept the article of fait, as to be fo 
much as mcfitioned very often among 
the ruinous ettchs and diflreffes of the 
war. (To be cOHttnued.) 

diaraCler vovi generis plantce, qvam 
■nuper inter Jadus' cum indigenis 
ccrnponendum, tn Silva Americana 
dflexit Samuel Latham Milchill^ 
M. D. 
R E N S S A L .^. Pv 1 A. 

PERIANTHiUM follolis oflo 
conftans, quorum tria externa in- 
tera ; reliqua corollje proxima ; co- 
lorata, concava; rotundo-acuminata, 
perfiilentia. 

Corolla, Monopelala, ventricofa, 
bilabiata, ringens. Tubus brevifh- 
nius. Limbus dchifcens. Labiurn 
fuperiusbifidum ; inferius tripartiium, 
utrinque barbatum, in medio elcva- 
tum. 

Ne6lartum. In fupcriore tubi parte, 
fupra piftillum, fitum, circa originem 
piti)fiim, fubulatum. 

Stamina. Filainenta quatuor, in- 
curva, pilofa, corollas tubo inferta, 
approximata ; quorum duo fuperiora 
breviora. Antheras triquatras, gib- 
bofce, externc glabrae, intus tomento- 
fae, connatas, magn^e. 

Pijlillvm. Germen conicnm, fupe- 
rum. Stylus cylindraceus, filiformis, 
apice incurvatus. Stigma fimplex, 
obtufum. 

Pericarpium. Capfula crafTa, g\b- 
ba, teretiulcula, bilocularis, bivalvis, 

Semina. Plurima, parva. 

Koc genus ad Didynam. Angio- 
fperm.cl. Liunasi pertmet. 

Fort Schuyler, Sept. 1788. 

Azakia: a Canadian ^ory. 

li E ancient inhabitants of Ca- 
nada were, ftri^ly fpeaking, all 
favages. Nothing proves this better 
than the delliny of fome Frenchman, 
who firft arrived in this prtrt of the 
world. They were eaten by the^fio- 



»94 



jtzakia : a Canadian f.ory. 



[September, 



pie whom tViey pretended to humanize 
and poiilh. 

New attempts were more fucc^fs- 
ful. The favapes were driven into 
«he inner pans of the continent ; trea- 
ties of peace, always ill obferved, 
■were concluded with them ; hut the 
f'rench fouwd means to create in them 
wants, which made their yoke nccef- 
fary to them. Their brandy and to- 
bacco eafily effeiled what their arms 
Eni^ht have operated with greater ditfi- 
cuity. Confidence foon became mu- 
tual, and the foreds of Cana'la were 
frequented with as much freedom by 
the new inmates, as by the natives. 

Thefe forefls were often alfo re- 
forted to by the married and unmar- 
ried favage women, whom the meet- 
ing of a Frenchman put into no ter- 
rors. All thefe women, for the mod 
part, are handfome, and certainly 
their beauty owes nothing to the em- 
bellilhments of art : much lefs has it 
any iniTuence on their condutl. Their 
charatler is naturally mild, and flexi- 
ble, their humour gay; they laugh in 
the molt agreeable and winning man- 
ner. They have a ftrong propenfity 
to love ; a propenfity, which a maiden, 
in this country, may yield to, and al- 
ways indulges without fcruple, and 
vithout fearing the leafl; reproach. It 
is not fo with a married woman ; (lie 
mufl be entirely devoted to him (he 
has married ; and, what is not lefs 
worthy of notice, fhe puntlually ful- 
fils this duty. 

An heroine of this clafs, and who 
was born among the Hurons, one day 
happened to wander in a foreft that 
lay contiguous to the grounds they in- 
habited. She was furprifed by a French 
foldier, who did not trouble himfelf 
to enquire, whether fhe was a wife or 
a maiden. Befides, he found him- 
felf litttle difpofed to refpeft the right 
of a Huron hufband. The fhrieks of 
the young favage, in defending her- 
felf, brought to the fame place, the 
baron of St. Caftins, an officer in the 
troops of Canada. He had no diffi- 
culty to oblige the foldier to depart ; 
but the perfon, he had fo opportunely 
faved, had fo many engaging charm;, 
that the fojdier appeared excufable to 
him. Being hiinlielf tempted to fue 
for the reward of the good office he 
had jud rendered, he piradcd his 
paufe in a more gentle and inhnuaun^ 



manner, than the foldier, hut did not 
fucceed better. " The friend that is 
before my eyes, hinders my feeing 
thee," faidthe Huron woman to him. 
This IS the favage phrafe, for exprelf- 
ing that a woman has a huPoand, and 
that file cannot be wanting in fidelity 
to him. This phrafe is not a vain 
form ; it contains a peremptory re- 
fiifal ; it is common to ail the women 
oF thofe barbarous nations ; and its 
force, the neighbourhood of the Eu- 
ropeans, and their example, were ne- 
ver able to diminiffi. 

St. Cad ins, to whom the language 
and cuftoms of the Hurons were fa- 
miliar, faw immediately that he mull 
drop all pretenftons ; and this perfua- 
fion recalled all his generofity. Fie 
therefore made no other advances, 
than to accompany the beautiful favage^ 
whom chance alone had directed into 
the wood, and who was afraid of new 
rencontres. As they paffed on, he 
received all poffible marks of grati- 
tude, except that which he at firlt re- 
quefted. 

Some time after, St. Callins being 
infulted by a brother officer, killed 
him in a duel. This officer was ne- 
phew to the general governor of the 
C(dony, and the governor was as ab- 
fohite as vindiflive. St. Cadins had 
no other refource than to betake him- 
felf to flight. It was prefumed, that 
he had retired among the Engliffi of 
New-York j which, indeed, was ve- 
ry probable; but, peifuaded that hs 
ihould find an equally fafe afylum 
among the Flurons, he gave them the 
preference. 

The defire of again feeing Azakia, 
which was the name of the favage he , 
had refcued, contributed greatly to de- 
termine him in that choice. She knew 
immediately her deliverer. Nothing 
could equal her joy, at this unexpect- 
ed vifit, and die declared it as inge- 
nuoufly, as before, flie had refifted his 
attacks, The favage, whofe wife 
ffie was, and whofe name was Ouabi, 
gave St Cad ins the lame reception, 
who acquainted him of the motive of 
his flight, "May the Great Spirit 
be pvaifed, for having brought thee 
among us," replied theFIuron ! " This 
body." added he, laying his hand on 
his bofom, " will ferve thee as a ffiel- 
ter for defence ; and this head-break- 
ing iutchet will put to flight, or llnke 



K^9'l 



Azakia : a Canadian Jiory. 



ISS 



dead thy enemies. My hut fliaU be 
thine : thou fhali always fee the bright 
liar of the day appear and leave us, 
without any thing being wanting to 
thee, or any thing being able to hurt 
thee." 

St. Caflins declared to him, that he 
abfolately dtfired to live as they did, 
that is, to bear a part in their labours 
and their wars ; to abide by their cuf- 
toms ; in (hort, to become a Huron ; 
a refoliition, which redoubled Ouabi's 
joy. This favage held the ftrll rank 
among his i>eople — he was their grand 
chief — a dignity which his courage 
and fervices had merited for him. 
There were other chiefs under him, 
and he oHered one of the places to 
St. Caftins, who accepted of the 
rank only of a private warrior. 

The Hurons were ihen at war with 
the Iroquois, and wereitucnt on form- 
ing fome enterprife againft them. St. 
Caftins would fain make one in the 
expedition, and fought as a true Hu- 
ron : but was dangerouliy wounded. 
He was brought back with great diffi- 
culty to Onabi's houfe, on a kind of 
litter. At this fight, Azakia ap- 
peared overwhelmed with grief; but, 
inftead of vain lamentation, fl>e ex- 
erted all pofhble care and alhdaity to 
be of fervice to him. Though fhe had 
feveral {laves at command, (he de- 
pended only on herfelf, for what might 
contribute to ihe relief of her gueit. 
Her afiivity equalled her folicitude. 
One would have faid, that it was a 
lover watching over the precious life 
cf her beloved. Few could help 
drawing the inoft flattering conie- 
quences, on fuch an occafion ; and 
this was what St. Caftins did. His 
defires and his hopes revived with his 
■firengih. Oneonly point difconcerted 
his views, which was the fervices and 
attentions of Ouabi. Could he de- 
ceive him, without adding ingratitude 
in perfidy ? " Eut,"^faid St. CalUns, 
arguing the cafe with himfelf, " the 
good-natured Ouabi is but a favage, 
and hecannot be fo fcrupulous herein, 
as many of our good folks in Europe." 
This reafoii, which was no reafon in 
fat}, appeared very folid to the amo- 
rous Frenchman, He renewed his 
lender advance^, and was furprifed to 
meet with new rsifufals. " Stop ! Ce- 
lano," which was the favage name that 
wasgiveato St. Caftins j.^ftopj" faid 



Azakia to him ; the (hivers of the rod, 
whiicnl have broken wiih Ouabi, have 
not yet been reduced to aihes. A part 
reiT>ains ihll in his power, and anotrjef 
in mine. As long as they lalt, I am his, 
and cannot be thine," Thefe words, 
Ipoken in a peremptory manner, quite 
difconcened St. Caftins. He dared 
not infilt upon the matter farther, and 
fell into a melancholy reverie. Aza- 
kia was deeply alleged by it. " What 
can I do ?" faid (he to him : '* I 
cannot become thy companion, but 
by ceafing to be the companion of 
Ounbi ; and I cannot quit Ouabi, 
without cauung in him the fame for- 
row thou feeleft in thyfelf. Anlwer 
me, has be defcrved it?" — '"No!" 
cried out Celario, "no ! he delervesto 
be entirely preferred before me ; bat 
I muft abandon'his dwelling. It is 
only by ceafing to fee Azakia, that I 
can ceafe to be ungrateful to Ouabii" 
Thefe words ch'lled with paleuefs 
the young favage's face : her tears 
ftowed almoft at the fame inftant, and 
ihe did not endeavour to conceal them^ 
•* Ah! ungrateful Celario!" cried 
file, with fobs, and preh'ing his hands 
between her own ; " is it true, un- 
grateful Celario ! that thou haft a 
a mind to quit thofe, to whom thou 
art more dear than the light of the 
bright liar of the day? What have 
we done to thee, that thou IhouldlJ 
leave us ? Is any thing wanting to 
thee ? Doft thou not fee me continu- 
ally by thy fide, as the flave that 
wants but the beck ta obey? Why- 
wilt thou h:n'e Azakia die of grief? 
Thou canft not leave her, without 
taking with thee her foul : it is thine^ 
as her body is Ouabi's." The en- 
trance of Ouabi ftopped the anfwer of 
St, Caftins. Azakia ftill continued 
weeping, without retraining herfelf, 
without even hiding for a momenr. 
fhe caufe. " Friend," faid (he to the 
Huron, " thou ftill feelt Celario ; 
thou feeft him, and thou m-ayeft Ipeak 
to and hear him; but he will fooa 
difapp.^^r from before thine eyes : he 
is going to feek after other friends." 
" Other friends," cried the favage, 
nlmoft as much alarmed as Azakia 
herfelf: and what, dear Celario, what 
induces thee to tear thyfelf from our 
arms ? Haft thou received here any 
injury, ^tiy damage ? Anfwer me ' 
tb^'u knowcft tny authority in tb 



t^S 



Azakia : a Canadian Jlory, 



[September, 



parts. I f wear to thee, by the great 
Spirit, that thou {halt be fatisftcd, and 
revena;ecl." 

I'his queRion greatly embArraflTed 
St. Call ins. lie had no realonable 
fiibjefl; for complaint ; and the true 
motive of his refolution (night to be 
abfoliitely iiukiiown to Oaabi. There 
was a neceihty of pretending fome 
trivial and common reafons, which 
the good Otiab- lound very ndicidous. 
*' Let us IpcH!-^ of oiher thing," add- 
ed lie ; " lo-morrow I fet uui on an 
ex;)edaion agamil the Iroquois; and 
this evening I give to our warnorithe 
cuHoin-iry fealt. Partake of ihs a- 
mufe nent, dear Celano." " I am 
equally willing to partake of your 
dangers and labours," faid St. Caf- 
tins, interrupting him; "I fhall ac- 
company you in ihls new expedition." 
*■ I'hy ilrength would betray thv cou- 
rage/'' replied the Huron chief; " it 
js no greait mactcr to know how to 
fuce death ; thou (hoiildit be able to 
deal death among the enemy ; thou 
fhouldft be able to purfue the enemy, 
if they are put to flighi; and thou 
{houldft be able to fiy thyfelf, if ihey 
be an over march. Such were a' all 
times our v/arlike maxinT;. Ihmk 
now, therefore, only of getting thy- 
frelf cured, and taking care of this ha- 
bitation during my ahfence, which I 
confide to thee." It was in vain for 
St. Cillms to mike a reply. The 
warriors foon afTembie, and the feaft 
begins. It is (carce over, when the 
troops march oH, and St. Callins re- 
mains more rhan ever expofed to ihe 
charms of Azakia. 

It is certaii, that this young favage 
loved her gueft, and loved hint with 
a love purely ideal, without doubting 
th»t it was f'lch a love. She even 
took a rei'iiluiion, which others, who 
loved as Ihe did, certainly would have 
not have taken, which was to procure 
for St. Callins the opporumity of ob- 
taining frfnn another what hcrfe'l had 
obftinately refiiffd him. The charms 
of the rival {lie gave herlelf, were 
^vell calculated to attract his regards. 
Siie was hut eiglueen years old, was 
very handlome, and which was not 
Ids necelFary, was ftill a virgin. It 
Ins been before obferved, that a mai- 
den enjoys full liberty among the 
ad (North American Indians. Si. Cal- 
lufe in 'IS, encouiaged by Azakia, had di- 



vers conferences with Zifma, which 
was the name of this young Huron 
lady, and m a few days he could read 
in her eye- that (lie would be lefs fe- 
vere than hi fnend. '.i is not known 
whether he pruHied of the dilcovcry i 
at leall it did not make hun forget 
Azakia, whii, on her fide, liecmed 
to have no inclination to be forgottctii 
St. Cailns f-lr himlelf, notwimlland- 
ing all his inierioi llruggles, more atr- 
tracted towards lier. An accident^ 
which every where eUe niiglit ba.Te 
contributed to unite thern, had like to 
have feparated them forever,- 

They were nfonned, by {ome nm- 
awavs, who had made more fpeed than 
others, that Oiabi had fallen into ?^n 
ambulcade of th- Iroquois ; that he 
had Iclt lome of his party ; and that 
he himfelf was left on the field of 
battle. This news filled St. CaftiiM 
.with true forrow. His gcneroiity 
made him fet afide all views of in- 
terell. He forgot, that, in lofing a 
friend, he found himfelf rid .of a 
rival. Befidcs, the death of this ri- 
;val might alfo occafi«n that of Aza- 
kia. Her life, from that moment, 
-depended on the caprice of a dream.- 
Such. was the force of a fuperlhtious 
ctillom, facred from time immemorial 
among thefe people. If in the fpacc 
of foriv davs, a widow, who has lofl 
her hulband, fees and fpeaks to him 
twice fuccelffively in a dream, (he in- 
fers from thence, that he wants her in 
the region ot iouls, and nothing Cati 
difpenfe with her putting herftlf to 
death, 

Azakia had refotved to obey this 
cullom, if the double dream took 
place. She fincerejy regretted Oua- 
bi ; and though St Caiiins gave hqr 
caufe for other forrow<:, if (he was to 
die, the prevalency of the cullom had 
the afcendant over inclination. It is 
not eafy to exprcls the inquietudes, 
the terrors that tormented the lover 
of this beautiful and credulous Huroiij 
Every night he fancied her a prey to 
thofe nnilfervifirtns ; and, every morn- 
ing, he. accollcd her with fear and 
trembling. At letvi'ih, he found her 
preparing a mortal draught : it w;is 
the juice of a root of the citron tree; 
a poifon, which, in that country, ne- 
ver fails of fiiccefs. " Thou feelJ, 
dear Celario," fa-d Azakia to him, 
" tliou Ceeft the preparation for -the 



1789-1 



Azakia : a Canadian Jior^, 



long journey which Ouabi has order- 
ed uie to iiKike." " Oh heavens!" 
laid St. CalHns, interrupting her, 
"how can you believe in a foohfli 
dream, a frivolous and deceitful delu- 
fion ?" *' Itop, Celario," replied the 
Huron ; " thou deceived thyielf. 
Ouabi appeared to me lall night ; he 
took nie by the hand, and ordered me 
to follow him. The weight of my body 
oppofed this order. Ouabi withdrew 
with a mournful countenance. I call- 
ed him backj and the only anfwer he 
gave me, was to Oretch out his arms 
to me, and he afterwards difappeared. 
He will return without doubi, dear 
Celario ; I muft obey him, and, after 
bewailing thy hard lot, 1 will fwal- 
low this draught, which will lull my 
body into the deep of death ; and 
then I will go, and rejoin Ouabi, in 
the abode of fouls.'* 

This difcourfe quite difmayed St. 
Caftins. He fpoke againlt it every 
thing that reafon, grief, and love 
could fuggell to him molt convincing ; 
nothing fcemed to be fo to the young 
favage. She wept, but perfevered in 
herdefign. All that the difconfolate 
Celario could obtain from her, was a 
|)romife, that, though Ouabi fliould 
appear to her a fecond time in a dream, 
ilie would wait, before Ihe put herfelf 
to death, to be allured of his ; of 
•which St. Cadins was refolved to 
know the truth, a> foon as polhble. 

The favages neither exchange nor 
ranfum their prifoners ; contenting 
ihemfeives to refcue ihem out of the 
enemy's hands, whenever they can. 
Sometimes the coiufueror deilines his 
captives to (lavery ; and he oftener 
puis them to deaih. Such are parti- 
cularly the maxims of the Iroijuois. 
There was, therefore, reafon to pre- 
fumc, that Oifabi had died of his 
wounds, or was burnt by ihat barba- 
rous nation. Azakia believed it to be 
fo, more than any other: but St. 
Cad us would have her at Icall doubt 
oi if. On his fide, he re-aninrates 
the courage of the Hurons, and pro- 
pofes a new enterprife again(t the 
enemy. It is appnned of — they de- 
liberate upon ele''tmg a chief, and all 
voices unite ir; favour of St CdRins, 
who had already given proofs of his 
valour and condutt. He departs 
■With his troop, but not till after he 

Voi.YI.'No.IIL 



IC7 

had again Azakia's word, that, not- 
wiihftanding all the dreams fhe mirht 
yet have, fhe would defer, at leall nil 
his return, the doleful journey ILe 
had defigned. 

This expedition of the Huron w;'r- 
riors was attended with ail imaginal'.'e 
fuccefs. The Iroquois believed th.;mi 
to be too much 'weakened or dil- 
couraged, to think of underlakin^ 
any thing, and were themielves on 
their march to come and attack them ; 
but they were no way cautious how 
they proceeded. It was not fo wuh St. 
Callins's band of warriors. He had 
difpatched fome of his people to re- 
connoitre. They difcovered the ene- 
my without being feen by them, and 
returned to give advice thereof to' 
their chief. The ground was found 
very fit for lying in aml)ufcade ; and 
the Hurons availed themfelves fo well 
of it, that the Iroquois faw themfelves 
hemmed in, when they believed they 
had no rifque to fun. They were 
charged with a fury that left them no 
time to know where they were. iVIoll 
of them were killed on the fpor ; and 
the remainder maimed, or grievoufiy 
wounded. The Hurons march oil" 
direttly to the next village,- and fur- 
prife the Iroquois alFembled ihcre; 
They were going to enjoy the fpetla- 
cle of feeing a Huron burnt ; and al- 
ready the Huron was beginning to ling 
his death fong. This, no lavage, 
whom the enemy is ready to put 
£0 death, ever fails to do. Loud 
cries, and a Ihower of mufket balls, 
foon difperfed the multitude. Both 
the fugitives, and thofe that faced 
about to refill, were killed. All ihe 
favage ferocity was fully difplavcd. 
In vain St. Calhns endeavoured to 
flop the carnage. With d.lHculty he 
faved a fmall number of wtjuien and 
children. He was apprehenfive, par- 
ticularly, that in the midlt of this hor- 
rid tumult, Ouabi himielf was maf- 
lacrcd, luppohng he was fliU living,-, 
and was in that habitation. Full of 
this notion, he ran inceirmtly iioin 
one place to another. He perceived" 
on a fpot, where the balile iliU con- 
tinued, a prifoner tied to a Hake, and 
having all about hiin ihe apparatus of 
death ; that is, conibullibles for burn- 
ing him by a flow fire. The chief of 
the Hurons Hies to this wretched cap- 



19^ 



Hints for yoring married toomcn. 



[Seplember 



t've, breaks his bonds^<.nows hi'm— 
and embraces him witli tratifports of 
joy. — -It was Ouabi. 

This biave favage had preferred the 
lei's of his life to that of his liber- 
ty. He was fcarcely cured of his 
wounds, when life was otiered him, 
oriconditionof remaining a (lave ; but 
he had chofen death, determined to 
procure it, if refufed to him. The 
Iroquois were a pet)ple that would 
jpaie him chat trouble ; and, one mo- 
ment later, his companions could not 
have faved him. 

After having difper fed or made (laves 
of the remains of ihe Iroquois in that 
quarter. theHuron army marched home. 
St. CaRins wanted to give up the com- 
mand of it to Ouabi, which he re- 
fufed. On the way, he informed him 
of Azakia's purpofe todie, perfuaded 
that he was not alive, and that he had 
required her to follow him ; he ac- 
quainted him alio of the poifon flie 
had prepared on that account, and of 
the delay he had obtained from her 
-with great difficulty. He fpoke with 
a tenderncfs and emotion that deeply 
affefted the good Ouabi, who called 
to mind, fome things, he had not nmch 
intended to^ at the time they happen- 
ed : but he then let him know nothing 
of what he intended— They arrive: 
Azakia, who had another dream, 
fancied this return as the fignal of her 
fate. But, how great was her fur- 
prife, to fee, among the number of 
the living, the huftand (lie was going 
to meet in the abode of fnirits! 

At fiTil, Ihe remained motionlefs 
and mute ; but her joy foon exprelled 
itfelf by lively carelfes and long dif- 
courfes. Ouabi received the one, and 
interrupted ihc others. Afterwards, 
addrefhng hinvfelf to St, Callins: 
" Celario," faid he, " ihou halt 
faved my life, and, what is llill dear- 
er to me, thou haft twice preferved 
to me Azakia : (lie therefore bek)ngs 
more to thee ihan to mc. I belong to 
thee myfelf : fee whether flic be enough 
to acquit us both, I yield her to thee 
through gratitude, but would not have 
yielded her, to deliver myfelf from 
the fire kindled by the Iroquois." 

What this difcourfe made St. Caf- 
tins feel, is bard to be exprelf-'d ; not 
that it feemed fo ridiculous and llrange 
to him. as it might to many Europeans: 
he knew that divorces were very fra- 



quent among the favages. They fe« 
parate, as eaiily as they come toge- 
ther. But, perfuaded that Azakia 
could not be yielded up to h.m without 
a fupernatural eBort — he believed him- 
felf obliged to evince equ;il generoli- 
ty. He refufed what he delired mod, 
and retufed invain-^Ouabi's perfeve- 
rance in his relolution was not to be 
conquered. As to the faithful Aza- 
k'a, who had been feen to reiifl all St, 
Caiiins's attacks, and to refute furviv- 
ing the hufband, whom (he believed 
to be dead, it might perhaps be ex- 
petted that flie would long hold out 
againll the feparation lier hufband had 
propofed. To this (he ma^le not the 
lealt objeftion. She had hitherto 
complied only with her duty; and 
thought (lie was free to liften to her 
inclination, fince Ouabi required it 
of her. The pieces of the rod of 
union were brought forth, put toge- 
ther, and burnt. Ouabi and Azakia 
embraced each other, for the laft time, 
and, frorrr that moment, the young 
and beautiful Huron was reinflated 
in all the rights of a maiden. It is 
alfo faid, that, by the help of foine 
milfionaries, St. Caflins put her in i 
condition of becoming his wife, ac- 
cording to the rules prefcribed to chrif- 
tians. Ouabi, on his (ide, broke the 
rod with the young Zifna ; and thefe 
two marriages, fo different in the 
form, were equally happv. Each huf- 
band, well allured that there were no 
competitor^, forgot that there had 
been any predecelfors. 

Hints for youvg married women, 

IT has often been thought, that the 
firll year after marriage is the hap"- 
pieft of a woman's life. ^Ve mult 
iird fuppofc that the marries from mo- 
tives of affection, or, what the world 
calls love; and, even in this cafe, ihe 
rule admits of many exceptions, and 
(lie encounters many difhculties. She 
has her hufband 's temper to (ludy, his 
family to plea(e, houlhnld cares to 
attend, and, what is worfe than all, 
(he mull ceafo tocommand, and learn 
to obey. She mull learn to fubmit, 
without repining, where (be has been 
ufed to have even her locjks fhidied.' 
Would the tender lover treat his 
adored miftrefs like a rational being, 
railier than a goddcfs, a woithu'j 



■J 



Hints for young marriid women. 



'9S 



tafit would be rendered much eafier, 
and her life nmch happier. Would 
the ilaiterer pay his devoirs to her un- 
derftanding, raiher than her perfon, 
he would foon find his account m it. 
Would he conluh her on his aHairs, 
converfe with her freely upon all (ub- 
jefts, and make her his companion 
and friend, ir.llcad of flatterinj; her 
beauty, admiring her drefs, and ex- 
alting her beyond what human nature 
merits, for what can at bed be only 
called fjfliionable accomplifhmenis, 
he would find himfelf lefs difappoint- 
cd, and fhe would rattle the marriage 
chains with lefs impatience and dilfi- 
culty. Now, can a fenlibleman expett 
'that the poor vain trifler, to whom he 
pays fo much court, fliould make an 
intelligent, agreeable companion, an 
adjduous and careful wife, a fond and 
anxious mother ? 

When a man pays court only to a 
woman's vamiy, h« can expect no- 
thing but a faOaionable wife, who may 
fliine 25 a fine lady, but never in the 
Ibfter mtercourfe of domelhc endear- 
ments. How often is it owing to 
thefe lords of the creation, that the 
poor women become, in realuv, what 
their ridiculous partiality made them 
fuppofe themfelves ? A pretty method 
this is of improving the temper, in- 
forming the mind, engaging the affec- 
tions, and exciting our eileem, for 
thofe objecLs that we entruft with our 
future happinefs. 

I will now give my fair friends a 
few hints with regard to their condutl 
n the mod refpetlable of all charac- 
ters, a wife, a mother, and a friend. 
But firil let me afTert, and 1 do it with 
confidence, that nothing can be more 
falfe, than the idea that " a reformed 
rake makes the bell hu(band !" this is 
a common opinion, but it is not mine ; 
at lead, there arc too many chances 
againil it. 

A libertine, by the time he can 
bear to think of matrimony, has luile 
left to boad, but a flijttered conditu- 
tion, empty pocket, trad.'fmen's bills, 
bad hab ts, and a lafte for drefs, and 
vices of every denomination. The 
poor wife's fortune wii! lupply the 
rake with thefe faOilonable follies a 
little longer. When money, the lad 
rcfource, fails, he becomes peevdh, 
four, anddirconiente<! ; angry that (he 
tan indulije him no longer, and un- 



grateful and regardlefs of her pad fa- 
vours. Difeafe, with all her mifera- 
ble attendants, next deps in ! ill is 
he prepared, cither in body or mind, 
to c<'pe wiih pain, licknefs, poverty. 



and wretchednefs 



'Ih 



e poor wire 



has Ipent her all in fupporiing his ex- 
travagancies. She may now pine for 
want, with a hclplefs infant crying 
for bread ; diunned and deipifed by 
her friends, and negle£ted by her ac- 
quaintance. 

Ihis, my beloved fair, is too ofen 
the cafe with many of our lex. 1 he 
tadv of reforninig a rake, is much a- 
bove our capacity. 1 vvilh our in- 
clinations, in this indance, were as 
liiniied as our abilities : hut. alar ! we 
vainly imagine we Ihill be rewarded 
for »)urrelolution, in making fuch tri- 
al, by the fuccefs that wiii attend our 
undertaking. 

If a young woman marries an ami- 
able and virtuous voung man, die has 
nothing to fear 5 flic may even glory 
in giving up her own wiflies to his ? 
never marry a man whofe underdand- 
ing will not excite your edeern, and 
whofe virtues will not engage your 
adeftions. If a woman once thinks 
herfelf fiipcrior to her hufband, all 
authority ceafes, and (he cannot be 
brought to obey, where &e thinks fi;e 
is fo well entitled to coaimand. 

Sweet iiefs and genticnefs are all a 
woman's eloquence ; and fometim.es 
they are too powerful to be refilled, 
efpecuUy when accompanied with 
youth and beauty. 1 hey are then 
eniiceijients to virtue, preventatives 
from vice, and aHeftion's fecuriiy. 

Never let your brow be clouded 
with refentment ! never triumph in 
jevenge! who is it that yon afflift? 
tli£ man upon earth that iliould be 
deared to you ! unon whom all your 
future hopes of nappinefs muil de- 
pend. Poor the copcpicd, when our 
deared friend mud luder; and unge- 
nerous mud be the heart, that can re- 
joice in fuch avifilory ! 

Let your tears pcrfuade ; thefe 
fpeak the mod irreiilliblt- language, 
with which you can adail the heart of 
a man. But even thefe fweet foun- 
tains of feniibility mud not flow Wv; 
often, led they degenerate into weak ■ 
ncfs, and we iofc our hudiand's elU-en* 
and adcrtiori, by the very meihod-i 
ivhich were given us to enfure ihcm. 



ratal confequences of forced miptials. 



[September, 



Study every little attention in your 
j^njon, manner, and clrels, that you 
iind pleale. Never be negligent in 
your appearance, bcranfe you expetl 
no body but your hulband. He is the 
pf rfon whom you Ihould chiefly en- 
deavour to oblige. Always make 
horr.c agreeable to him : receive him 
M-ith cafe, good humour, and chear- 
fulnefs ; but be cautious how you en- 
quire too minutely into hi& engage- 
meiMs abroad. Betray neither lufpi- 
cion nor jealoufy. Appear always 
gay and happy in his prelence. Be 
particularly attentive to his favourite 
iriends, even if they intrude upon 
you. A welcome reception will, at 
?\\ times, counterbalance indifferent 
fare. Treat his relations with refpefl 
and affection : afk their advice in your 
houfliold affairs, and always follow it, 
when you can conliftently with pro- 
priety. 

Treat your huftand with the moft 
nnreferved confidence, in every thing 
that regards yourfelf ; but never be- 
tray your friends' letters or fecrets to 
him. This, he cannot, and, indeed, 
onj:^ht not to expeft. If you do not 
life him to it, n; will never defire it. 
Be careful never to intrude upon his 
'Indies or his pleafures : be always 
.clad to fee him, but do riot be laughed 
at, as a fond, foolifli wife. Confine 
vour endearments to your own fire- 
fide. Do not let the young envy 
yon, nor the old abufe you, for a 
wea!;nefs, which, upon reflexion, you 
mull condemn. 

Thcfe hints will, I hope, be of 
fomefervice to my fair country-wo- 
tnen. They will, perhaps, have more 
^eiuht, when they know that the au- 
thor ot them has been married about a 
vear, and has often, with luccefs, prac- 
tifedthofe rules herielf, which fiie now 
recommends to others. 

ARRIA. 



fnial confequences of forced nup' 

tials. 
The wretch vho is fentenc'd to die, 

May ejcape and leave jufice behind ; 
From his country, perhaps, he may fly. 

But ok! — Can kr fly from his mind ? 

I Am the moH mi'.erablcofmen; and, 
noiwiihilandmg it might be more 
p^u;dr!U to conceal the caufe of my 
aJHiction, I find an inclination to dif- 



cloCe it in this public manner, too 
llrongly to be refilled. I am a young 
fellow of five and twenty, neither de- 
formed in my pcrfon, nor, I hope, 
unhappy in my temper ; my fortune is 
eafy, my education liberal, and 1 
fuppofe I am as well calculated to pafs 
in a croud, as the generality of my 
acquaintance. 

About twelve months ago, I fell 
pallionately in love with a young la- 
dy, whofe beauty, and merit, entitled 
her to a rank much more exalted than 
what I could raife her to, though 
(lie was much my inferior in point of 
fortune. She was at that time courted 
by a young gentleman in the law ; and 
matters had aftually gone fo far, that 
a day was appointed for the folemniza- 
tion of the nuptials. All this I was 
very well informed of; yet impetu- 
oufly hurried by the violence of my 
paflion, I difclofed it to the father. 
He was a man of the world ; — my 
circumflances were much belter than 
his intended fon-in-law's ; and he 
-paid lefs attention to the happinefs, 
than he fliewed for the advancement, 
of his daughter. Why fhould I take 
up your time, reader ? Maria's match 
with her former lover was immediate- 
ly broken off, and the unhappy young 
lady, who never prelumed to difobey 
her father's commands, was torn from 
the man of her heart, and married to 
one flie could never love. 

I was in hopes that a little time, 
and a tender behaviour on my fide, 
as a man never loved more fondly 
than myfclf, would have utterly eraf- 
ed mr. Bridgegrove from the bofotn 
of my wife, and placed me in his 
ftead. But, had I not been be- 
fotted with my love, I might have 
ealily known, that a laudable impref- 
fion upon ihe mind of a fenfible wo- 
man, IS never to be eradicated : — no, 
it is impofTible. When a young raw 
girl, indeed, entertains fome'liing like 
a regard for a man. without knowing 
the reafon of her efleem, it is nothing 
but a llruggle of defire, or, more pro- 
perly fpeaking, the wheyinefs of in- 
clination, which, in alit;!ctime, Ihe 
laughs at herfelf, and. as fhe grows 
in underflandmg,eafily fkirnsoff. But, 
where a woman of f'enfe has placed 
her affetlions on a man of merit, the 
paflion is never to be crafed ; (he more 
iiie ponders on his worth, the morp 



?.] 



Malt cctjt/eiry, co7itemptib e 



«oi 



reafon {he has to love him; and flie 
can never ceafe to think of his per- 
fections, till fhe is wholly diveRcd of 
thought. 

Unhappily for me, this was the 
cafe. Mr. Bridgegrove poffefred the 
whole heart of Maria, and, in reality, 
deferved it : he is, perhaps, the molt 
amiable of men, and, poor fellow, 

■ loves her to diRraftion. I have been 
now married ten months, and have, 
I (latier niyielf, expreffed every att 
of tendernefs, proper for the lover or 
the hufbatid, but to no purpofe. My 
wife behaves with the utmoft. com- 
plaiiance, is uncommonly lolicitous 
to. pleafe, but this conduft is the ef- 

.fett of her good fenfe, and not the 
confequence of her love. The little 
endearing iiuercourfes between hul- 
band and wife, are fuHered, not en- 
joyed ; if 1 complain of her coldncfs, 
ftie affumes an air more gay, and af- 
f'efts to be pleafed, though 1 fee the 
ilarting tear, juft buriiing from her 
eye, and know the grief that rankles 
at her heart. Nav, the more I carcfs 
her, the more miferable Ihe is made ; 
and I fee her generoufly lamenting 
that fhe cannot pincc her heart upon 
the man that poneihs her hand, and 
is not utterly unworthy of her elleeni. 

! reader, he mull have no delicacy, 
no feeling, that can bear a circum- 
flance like this, unmoved. How am 

1 frequently torn to madnefs wiih re- 
flexion, even when I have her fal'len- 
ed to my bofom, to think her whole 
foul is at that very moment running 
on another man. In her fleep, fhe 
frequently throws one of her fine 
arms round my neck, and pronounces 
the name of Bridgegrove in a man- 
ner that dillra^ts me. Our little boy 
(for file IS lately brought to bed) in- 
llead of a bleffing, is another fource 
ot anxiety (o us both. 1 over-heard 
her ycfterday morning, weeping over 
the child, and crying, " my fweet 
hoy, poor Bridgegrove fhould have 
been your father." Can any fitiiation 
he fo afiliciing as mine ? — I have made 
the moit amiable of women forever 
wretched, and torn a worthy young fel- 
low, from the miflrefs of his heart, I 
have brought all my forrows on my- 
fclf, with the diflrefsfnl confideratiou 
of having no right to complain. I 
defcrve to be miferable. The man 
who would meanly hope to be happy 



in marriage, by facrificing tne incli- 
nation of the woman he loves, and 
ungeneroufly lofes every regard to her 
wilhes, while he endeavours to grati- 
fy his own, has no pretenfion to feli- 
city. Had 1 never obtained the pof- 
feliion of Maria, I ftiould not have 
been half fo wretched as I am now; 
time, and another objett, would, per- 
haps, have enabled me to bear her 
lols : but now, mailer of her perfon, 
to find another in pollefhon of her 
heart, and to know that there is one 
whom flie holds confiderably dearer 
than mylelf, are confiderations abfo- 
lutcly infupportable. I cannot dwell 
any longer on the fubjett; I fliall 
therefore conclude with an advice to 
my own fex, never to marry a woman 
whofe heart they know is engaged, 
nor to take a pitiful advantage of a 
father's authority, in oppolition to 
her inclination. If Ihe be a good 
woman, fhe can never forget her firll 
choice ; and if fiie be bad, will itievi- 
tubly bring fliame and fcandal on the 
fecond. 

Male coquetry^ contemptible. 

THOUGH every body mult al- 
low the charatter of a coquette 
to be truly delpicable even amont^ 
women, yet when we find it in the 
other lex, there is fomeihmg in it fo 
unmanly, that we feel, a deteflation 
equal to our contempt ; and look up- 
on the objecf to be as much an enemy 
as he is a difgrace to fociety. To 
prove my aflertion, however, give 
me leave to relate a circumftance, 
which lately happened in my own fa- 
mily ; and which, if properly attended 
to, may be of real ufe to many o 
your fair readers. 

I have been above five years married 
to a mod deferving woman, who, 
as fhe lludies every thing to promote 
my happineff, obliges me to (liew a 
grateful fenfibiluy for the ellablifh- 
mcnt of hers : and even warms mc 
with a continual W)ih of anticipating 
the moft diUant of her inclinations. 
About fix months ago, I took her 
younger iiflcr home, as 1 knew it 
would give her fatisfaBion ; intend- 
ing to fupply the lofsof a fa: her late- 
ly dereafed, and to omit no opportu- 
n'ry of advancing her fortune. 

My attention could not have been 



got 



Maie coquetry, eontemptibk. 



[■September, 



flacec^ on a more deferving objeft ; 
larri(H pofTefTes every beamy of per- 
fon, and every virtue of iniiid, that 
can render her either beloved, or re- 
fpetled ; and is, in one word, as ac- 
■ comphihed a young woman as any in 
the country, and her fortune is by no 
means iiiconliderable. 

Among the number of people who 
vifued at our houfe, the (on of a ve- 
ry eminent citizen frequently obliged 
us with his company; a circumflance 
ihat pleafed me not a little, as he was 
far from a difagreeable man ; his per- 
fon was remarkably genteel, and his 
face poirefled a more than ordinary 
degree of fenhbility ; he converfed 
with much eafc, was perfetlly ac- 
quainted with men and things ; and, 
Avhat rendered him a ttiU greater fa- 
vourite, he fung with great laile ; and 
played with a confiderable fiiare of 
judgment, on a variety of inilru- 
nients. 

This gentleman had not long com- 
menced an intimacy in my family, be- 
fore he fliewed a very vifiblc attach- 
ment for Harriot, hung upon every 
thing fhe faid, and approved of every 
thing fhe did ; but, at the fame time, 
feeincd rather more ambitious to de- 
fcrve her efleem, than to folicit it. 
This 1 naturally attributed to his nio- 
delly, and it Hill more confirmed me 
in the opinion which I entertained of 
hisaffettion ; had he treated her with 
the cuftomary round of common place 
gallantry, I Jhould never have believ- 
ed him ferious ; but when I faw him 
alTume a continual appearance of the 
moll fettled veneration and efleem; 
•when I faw him unremittingly flu- 
dious to catch the fmallefl opportunity 
of obliging, I was falisfied there was 
no afFeclaiion in the cafe, and con- 
vinced that every look was the fpon- 
taneous eHufion of his heart. 

The amiable Harriot, unacquaint- 
ed with art, fufpefled none ; and be- 
ing of a temper the mofl generous her- 
iielf, naturally entertained a favoura- 
ble Opinion of every body elfe ; mr. 
Selby, in particular, poflefTed the 
highefl place in her regard ; the win- 
ning foftnefs of his manners, the un- 
common delicacy of his fentiments, 
and his profound refpcft for her, to 
fay nothing of his perfon^l attraction';, 
all iiiiued to make an imprellion on 
lier bofom, and to infpire her with the 



tendercft emotions of what (lie thought 
a reciprocal love. She made her lif- 
ter her confidant upon this occahon, 
about a week ago, and Maria very 
properly told the matter immediately 
to me. Finding Harriot's repoib 
was ferioufly concerned, 1 determm- 
ed to give mr. Selby a fair opportu- 
nity of declaring himfelf the next 
evening, that there might be no poih- 
bility of a mi flake in the cafe, and that 
my poor girl might be certain fhe had 
a heart in exchange for her own. With 
this view I engaged him on a tctc a 
iete party, and while he was lament- 
ing, that my wife and fnler were not 
with us to participate in the amufc- 
ment, I faid gaily, " Egad, Tom, I 
have a (Irange notion, that Harriot 
has done your hufinefs ; you are eter- 
nally talking of her, when fhe's ab- 
fent, and as eternally ianguilhmg at 
her, when (lie's by : how is ail this? 
come, own, have 1 been right in my 
guefs ? and treat me with the confi- 
dence of a friend." 

Ihls queltion quite difconcerted 
him; he blufhed, Hammered, and, 
with a good deal of prefTing, at lalt 
drawled out, " that mifi Harriot, to 
be fare, was a moft deferving young 
lady ; and that, were he inclined to 
alter his condition, there was not a 
woman in the world he would be fo 
proud of having for a wife. But, 
tho' he was extremely fcnfible of her 
merit, he had never confidered her ia 
any light but that of a friend, and 
was, to the laft degree, concerned, if 
any little afTiduities, the natural re- 
fult of his efleem, had once been 
mifinterpreted, and placed to a dif- 
ferent account." 

Ihe whole affair was now out, the 
man's charafler was immediately be- 
fore me ; and tho' I could have fa- 
crificed him on the fpot, for the 
meannefs and barbarity of his con- 
duft, yet I bridled my refcntment, 
and would not indulge him with a 
triumph over Harriot, by letting him 
fee I confidered his late declaration as 
a matter of any confequence ; 1 there- 
fore afTumed a gaiety, which was 
quite a flrangcr to mv heart, and re- 
plied, "' I am excelhvely glad, Tom, 
to hear vou talk in th's manner : faith, 
I was afraid all had been over w,ith 
you ; and my friondfhip for you was 
the only reafon of my enquiry ; as I 



^7^9-^ CAafaSicr of a zocll bred man. — American Anecdote. 



{hrewdly fufpecl the young baggage 
has already made adifpof,il of her ia-- 
clinations." 

Afier pafFing a joylefs evening, we 
parted, quite fick of one another's 
company; and pretty confidently de- 
termined to have no intercourfe for 
the future. 

I went to Maria, and told her how 
things had turned out, and defired her 
to break them with all the delicacy 
fhe was milirels of, to her unfortu- 
nate fifter ; (he did fo ; but the fliock 
is likely to prove fatal. Harriot has 
ever fince kept her bed, and, for the 
three lall days, has been quite deliri- 
ous : {he raves continually on the vil- 
lain, who has murdered her peace of 
mind, and my ever-engaging Maria 
fits rivetted to the bed-!ide, as conti- 
nually drenched in tears. In fpite of 
all my endeavours to keep the matter 
private, the tattling of nurfes and fer- 
rants has made it but too public, and 
denied us even the happinefs of being 
fecretly miferable. The moment I 
heard it talked of, I called upon mr. 
Selby and demanded fatisfaf^ion : but 
could I expetl a man to be brave, 
who was capable of afting fuch a part 
as his, to a woman of honelly and 
virtue ? No, fir, he called his fer- 
vants about me in his ov/n houfe, and 
after my departure, went and fwore 
the peace before a magillrate. This 
is the only method which I have now 
left to punilh him, and the only one 
alio of exhorting parents and guar- 
dians to require an mflant explanation 
from any man, who feems remarkably 
afliduous about a yo*ing lady, and yet 
declines to make a pofitive declaration 
of his fentiments. 

-<>-<^<®><^ ••■(>■.• 

CharaClcr of a well- bred man. By a 
lady. 

SOME have fuppofed the fine gen- 
tleman and the well bred man to 
be fynonymous charaBers ; but I will 
make it appear that nothing can be 
more widely different ; the former 
kaves nature entirely, the latter im- 
proves upon her. He is neither a 
flave nor an enemy to pleafure ; but 
approves or rejefts, as hi<; reafon fliall 
direfl. He is above Hooping to Hat- 
ter a knave, though poireffed of a 
title ; nor ever over- looks merit, 
though he Iliould fir-id it in. a cottas^. 



sag. 

His behaviour is affable and refpe£t- 
ful, yet not cringing or formal ; and 
his manners ealy and unaffected. He 
milFes no opportunity wherein he can 
oblige his friends, yet does it in fo 
delicate a manner, that he feems ra- 
ther to have received than conferred a 
favour. He does not profefs a pallior* 
he never felt, to impofe upon the cre- 
dulity ot a lilly woman ; nor will he 
injnre another's reputation, to picale 
her vanity. He cannot love where 
he does notefleem, nor ever fuffers his 
paffion to overcome his reafon. In 
his friendfliip he is Heady and fincere, 
and lives lefs for himfelf than for his 
friend, 

•••<>••• <s><s><^ ••<>•« 

American Anecdote. 

DURING the war before laff, a 
company of Indian lavages de- 
feated an Englifli detachment. The 
conquered could not efcapefo fwiftly 
as the conquerors purfued. Thev 
were taken, and treated with luch 
barbarity, as is hardly to be equalled 
even in ihefe favage countries. 

A young Englifh officer being pur- 
fued by two lavages, who approached 
him with uplifted hatchets, and feeing 
that death was inevitable, determineti 
to fell his life dearly. At this inllant 
an old favage, armed with a bow, 
was preparing to pierce his heart with 
an arrow ; but fcarcely had he aifumed 
that pollure, when he fiiddenly let fait 
his bow, and threw himfelf between 
the young officer and his barbarian 
combatants, who inffantly retired 
with refpeth 

The old Indian took the Englifli- 
man by the hand, difpelled ail his 
fears by his carelfes, and conducted 
hiin to his cabin, where he always 
treated him with that tendernefs, 
which cannot be aff"e£led. He was 
lels his mailer than his companion ; 
taught him the Indian language, and 
made the rude ads of that country fa- 
miliar to him. They lived content- 
edly together, and one thing onlydif- 
turbed the young Engliffiman's tran- 
quility : the old man would fome- 
iimcs fix his eyes on him, and, while 
he furveyed him attentively, tears fell 
in torrents from his eyes. 

On the return of fpring, however, 
they recommenced hollilitics, and 
every one appeared in arms, Th'" 



*04 



Indian antedate. 



^September, 



eld man, who had yet firength fuffi- 
cient lo iupport ihe toil'? of war, let 
oif with the reil, accompanied by his 
prifoner. The Indian having march- 
ed above two hundred leagues throu^^h 
forefts, at lalt arrived on the borders 
of a plain, where they dilcovered the 
Enj>hfli camp. 

'ihe old favage, obferving the 
young man's countenance, Ihewcd 
him the Engtifh camp. '" There are 
thy brethren (laid he to him) waiting 
to hght us. Be attentive. I liave 
faved thy life. I have taught thee to 
make a canoe, a bow, and arrows ; 
to furprile an enemy in the foreil, to 
manage the liatchet, and to carry off 
a fcalp. What waft thou, when 
I firlt conducted thee into my cabin ? 
Thy hands were like thofeof a child ; 
they ferved neiilier to fupport nor de- 
fend thee : thy foul was buried in the 
obfcurity of night ; you knew no- 
thing; but from me you have learned 
every thing. Wilt thou be fo un- 
grateful, with a view to reconcile 
yourfelf to your brethren j as to lift up 
che hatchet again fl us ?" 

The young EnghOiman protefled, 
that he would rather a thoufand times 
lofe his own life, than (lied the blood 
of one of his Indian friends. 

The old favage covered his face 
with his hands, and bowed his head. 
After having been fomc time in that 
poHurCj he looked on the young Eng- 
IiOiman, and faid to him, in a tone 
mixed with tendernefs and grief, " haft 
thou a father ?" — He was living (laid 
the young man) when I (jMitted my 
country." Oh! how unfortunate is 
he !" cried the old man ; and after a 
moment's filence. he added, "' know- 
eft thou that I have been a father i' I 
am no more fiich ! I faw my fon fall 
in battle ; he fought by my hde ; my 
fon fell covered with wounds, and 
died like a man f but I revenged his 
death, yes, I revenged it." 

He pronounced thefe words in 
great agitation ; his whole body trem- 
bled, and fighs and groans, which 
vJith difhculty found iheir way, aU 
molt fiilfocaied him ; his eyes loft 
their ui'ual ferenity, and his frghs could 
not find a paflTage from his h':^art. Jiy 
dcj^rces, he became more lercne, and 
tinning towards the eaft, where the 
fun was rifing, he faid lo the young 
man ; *' fecft thou tha^t gilded heaven, 



which fpreads abroad its refplendent 
light ? Does it allord thee any plea- 
fure tobeholdit?" " Yes," faid the 
Englilhman, '' the fight adds new vi- 
gour to my heart." Ah, thou happy 
man ; but to me it affords no plea- 
fure!" replied the favage, fheddint 
a flood of tears. A moment after- 
wards, he fhewed the young man a 
fhrtib ill bloom ; " feelt thou that 
beautiful ffower ? (faid he) haft thou 
pleafiire in beholding it?" Yes, 1 
have," replied the young man. '" To 
me it no longer affords any," anfwer- 
ed the favage liailily,, and then con- 
cluded with thefe words: " Be gone,, 
haften to thy own country, that thy 
father may have pleaiiiie in beholding 
the ridng fun, and the flowers of the 
fpring." 

Indian antedate. 

COL. Jofeph Dudley, governor 
of New England, was building a 
houfe on his plantation, and as he was 
looking upon his workmen, he took 
notice of a lufty Indian, who, though 
the weather was feverely cold, was 
a naked, as well as an idle fpettator^ 
" Harkye, you Indian, (faid the go- 
vernor,) why don't you work, as thefe 
men do, and get cloaths to cover 
yo',1 ?" — " And why you no work, ga- 
vcrnor?" replied the Indian. " J 
work," returned the governor, clap- 
ping his fore finger upon his forehead, 
'• with my head, and therefore need 
not work wiih my hands." '' IVell," 
replied the Indian, '' and if I would 
work, what have you for me to do?" 
" go kill me a calf," faid the jjovcr- 
nor, ■' and I Vv-ill give you a fliilling." 
The fellow did fo ; the governor afk- 
ed vvhy he did not fkin and drefs it i^ 
'• Calf dead, governor," faid the In- 
dian, give me my fliilling \ give me 
another, and I will fkin and drefs 
him." This was complied with, and 
away went the Indian to a tavern 
with his iwofhillings. He foon drank 
one in rum, and then returned to the 
governor, " Your filling bad, the 
man no take it." '1 he governor be- 
lieved him, and gave him another; 
but returning in (he fame manner wiih 
(he fccond, the governor dilccrncd 
that he was a rogue; however, he 
exchanged that, too, referving his 
rclemmcnt for anoih-er opportunity. 



1 7^9.1 



Anecdote of dr. Franklin. — The bow. 



B05 



\vhich he thought he fliould find no 
ijreat difficulty in procuring. 

To acctimphlh this, the governor 
wrote a letter to the Ixeeper of bride- 
well, at Boilon, to take the bearer 
and give him a found whipping. This 
le ter he kept in his pocket, and in a 
few days, the Indian came again to 
liare at the workmen ; the governor 
look no notice of him for fome time, 
■ but at laft pulling the letter out of his 
pocket, fa;id, " if you will carry this 
to Bofton, I Will give you half a 
crown." The Indian clofed with his 
propofal, and fet out upon his jour- 
ney. Ke had not gone far, before 
Jie met another Indian, belonging to 
the governor, to whom he gave the 
letter, and told him that his mafler 
had fcnt i him to meet him, and 
to bid him return with that letter to 
Uofton, as loon as he poiTibly could. 
The poor Indian carried it with 
great diligence, and received a found 
whipping for his pains ; at the news 
«f which, the governor was not a lit- 
tle ailoni(hed on his return. The o- 
ther Indian come no more: but, at 
the dillance of fome months, at a 
meeting with fome of his nation, the 
governor faw this fellow there amongft 
ihe reft, and afked him, how he durft 
ferve him fuch a (rick ? the Indian 
looking him full in the face, and 
clapping his forefinger upon his fore- 
head, " head work ! governor," faid 
he, " head work !" 

Dr. Rarnaby relates the following 
anecdote of dr. Franklin. 

IN his travels through New Eng- 
land, he had obferved, that when 
he went into an inn, every individual 
of the family fud a queftion or two to 
prnpofe to him, relative to his hiifo- 
ry; and that, till each was fatisfied, 
and they had conferred and compared 
together their information, there was 
no pofTibdity of procuring any refrefh- 
mcnt. — Therefore the moment he 
went into any of tbefe places, he en- 
qi-ured for the mailer, the millrefs, the 
tons, the daughters, the men-fervanfc, 
and the maid-lervants ; and having 
affL-mbled them all together, he began 
I '"n this manner. " Good people, I atn 
BenJAmin Franklin of Philadelphia ; 
hv trade a printer ; and a bachelor; I 
nave fome relations at Bolion, to 
V«i.. VI, N««». IIL 



whom I arh going to make a vifit : 
my ftay will be fliort, and I fhall then 
return and follow my bufinefs, as a 
prudent man ought to do. This is all 
1 know of inyfelf,, and all I can pof- 
fibly inform you of; 1 beg, therefore, 
that you will have pity upon me and 
my horfe, and give us both fome re- 
freftiment." 

•••«>••• <^<^ <^ ••<>.. 
The bow. 

AN African prince, fubdiied irj 
battle, capitulated f(jr his bow 
and quiver ; — a bauble bought his life; 
A Britifh merchant feiit him to 
South Carolina, where he was fold a? 
a Have. A placid countenance, and 
fubmiihve manners, marked his rehg- 
nation; and preferved him, in all fitu- 
ations, the pofTeflion of his arms — » 
the only companions he had lef — the 
fole objefts of his affections. His 
ftatelmefs and ftrength recommended 
him to colonel Motte, a humane maf- 
ter, in whofe fervice he died, in fled- 
faff faith of a certain rcfurrettion in' 
his native ffate. 

The bow and ouiver were preferv- 
ed as relicks of a fauhfal Have, in (he 
colonel's family, who gratefully re- 
member the fcrvices, the fortitude,' 
and the fidelity of the trufty, the 
gentle lambo; 

In the campaign of 1781, the wi- 
dow of colonel Motte (who died a 
patriot) was baniflied from her houfe, 
on the river Congaree, then fortified 
by a Britifh garrifon ; the garrifon 
was belieoed by a final I detachment 



from the American army, whofe ap- 
proaches were foon with n bow-fhot. 
The widow,- who liVed in a cottage, 
in fight of the fort, was informed that 
the prefervation of her houfe was the 
only impediment to its immediate re-, 
duftion — and flie was informed of 
the expedient propofed. — Here, faid 
fhe, (preienting the African bow and 
quiver) are the materials— lamfco ne- 
ver ufedthefe arrows, and 1 fear they 
are poifoned ; ufe therti not, there- 
fore, eVen againlf your enemies— but 
take the bow, any arrow will waft a 
match. Spare not the houfe, fo you 
expel the foe. The blazing roof pro- 
duced fubmifijon — the Britons drop- 
ped their arms — the Americans enter- 
ed the houfe. and both joined to ex- 
tinguifh the flames. , 

The misfortunes of a priiice, and 
Dd 



2o6 Letter to the Phil, agricult.fociety, — Property of the elder-tree, [Sept, 



the heroifm of a lady, are not uncom- 
n;on — the novelty Is the bow — a Item 
vi genuine bamboo — which, deHined 
for the defence of liberty in Africa, 
fervcd the fame caiife in America — 
was prefcrved by an ofRcer, of the pa- 
triot army — prefented to mr. Pesle — 
and is now depofited in his Mufeum. 

Letter to the Philadelphia county fo- 
cietyjor the promotion of agricul- 
ture and domcjtic rnanufadures, 

GENTLEMEN, 

kURfarmersin Pennfylvaniahave 
_' hitherto been lOo much in the 
practice of depending on the annual 
decay of weed'., ariling in a conrfe of 

'years from their worn-out field';, for 
the principal fource of nouriihmeiit to 
thc:r, crop!^. It is time a diiierent 
■(ilan fliould be adopted, ifweexpetl 
to derive that advantage from our 
farm^, which they Avill afford, by a 
proper cultivation. This muft be ef- 
fetied by giving the ground, a full 
dreffing of twenty large cart-loads of 
good liable manure to the acre, every 
fcven or eight years ; and adapting a 
rotation of produi'tive crops during 
that period. In this fyllem, clover is 
abfoiutely necelfary, as forming the 
b.lfis of the whole, and without which, 
no valuable plan of agriculture can be 
purfued. Clover, well put in, and 
having a top dreffing of Plaifler of Pa- 
ris, fix bnfhels to the acre, w;ll af- 
foid, the firit year, three tons of good 
hay to the acre ; the fecond year, it may 
be cut once, and afterwards paltured to 
the middle of Ottober ; the third year, 
it will afford excellent pafture to your 
hog', fheep, and milch cows, during 

. the fummer. In the month of Sep- 
tember, it may he ploughed, and im->- 
mediately fowed with winter barley ; 
and afterwards with wheat, or other 
grain, as befl fuits the inclination, or 
the intereft of (he farmer. A planta- 
tion, properly divided into fields, for 
fuch a 'oiation of crops, would annu- 
ally afford a fufficiency of hay, paf- 
ture, and a variety of the mod ufcful 
and profitable crop^, without leaving 
a fingle acre of ground unprodutlive. 
Confidering clover as neceffary to 
the bcft plan of conducting a farm, it 
is the duty of every real friend to this 
neceffary fcience, to promote the cul- 
tiva-tiOB of It. A great obftacle to 



the propagation of this valuable plant, 
arifes from the extravagant price of 
the feed, owing to the difficulty of 
cleanfing it. Could this difficuUy 
be obviated, clover feed might be 
fold at one- half the price nbw de- 
manded for it. 

1 beg leave to communicate to the 
fociety fome information I lately re- 
ceived from mr. Henry Wynkoop, 
on this fubjeB. Mr. Wynkoop fays, 
that, in the Hate of New York, where 
they have been long in the cuUom of 
raifing clover feed for fale, after the 
hay is ihrefhed, the heads of the clo- 
ver are put into a hogfhead, to which 
is added a fufficient quantity of water 
to moiflen the whole, in order to in- 
duce a fermentation. The farmer 
fhould carefully auend to this critical 
operation, and fuffer the fermentation 
to proceed only as far as to aftetl the 
capfules, or chaff, without injuiing 
the feed. After this operation, the 
clover-heads are fpread on a barn 
floor to dry, when a flight threfliing 
will eafily extricate the feed. The 
Germans, in Lancaller county, pro- 
cure the feed of timothy, by firff fub- 
mitting it to a flight degree of fermen- 
tation. The hay, intended for feed, 
\ is bound in. fmall flieaves, and then 
put up into a flack, having the heads 
damv)ed with a little water, fufficicnt 
to produce a flight degree of fermenta- 
tion, without injuring the feed. 

The above plan appears to me rea- 
fonable. I ihall therefore make a tria^ 
of if, and Ihall communicate the re- 
fiilt of the experiment to the fociety* 
Other members doing the fame, a 
comparifon of our obfervations maj 
tend to throw fome light on the liib- 
jeft, and the publication of them, fup' 
ported by the opinion of the fociety 
may be attended wiih fome advantagt 
to our fellow citizens. 
I am, &c. 

George Locak. 

Stenton, September 5, 1789. 
M»"<S><S><S>-»" 
Valuable properties of the elder tree 

THE elder tree poffeffes the foi 
lowing valuable properties; t 
Saving turnips from the fly. 8 
Preferving wlicat from the yellows 
3. Preferving fruit trees from th' 
blight. 4. Preferving cabbage plant 
from caterpillars. The fa6t hasieei 



, 789.] To the manvfaaurcrs of pot-aji. ^Thoughts on the rot {nf;eep. 



afcertained by his Britifh majeHy's 
privy council, in their inquiries rela- 
tive to the Heflian fly. The dwarf 
elder has the moil jjotent effluvia j and 
it requires no other trouble, than to 
flrew the leaves over the ground, or to 
lirike fruit trees with the twigs." 

••■(>•■ -^ <s> <^ •■*>•' 

To the manufdElurf-s of pot and 

pearl-ajli, 

THE price of pot and pearl-afli, 
for feveral years pad, has been 
much reduced, and does not afford 
the manufachirers a due compenfation 
for their trouble, belides their being 
deprived of one half the profit, that 
mij-jbt be made on ihofe afhes that are 
exported, called the fecond and third 
qualities. It is attended with a ditad- 
vaniageous confequence to export any 
of them, or to lei the EugUUi import 
any except of the firft quality, as 
they have got into a method of refin- 
ing falts and bad pot-a(h in Englarid, 
of late, which has reduced the price 
of our firft kind of aflies at leafl five 
pounds llerlmg per ton, befides the 
duty they demand of us. It is well 
known to be thegreatefl branch of ma- 
nufacture in the five northern ftatet : 
and as the duty and freight are the fame 
on the fecond and third, as on the 
firft quality, and we have works pre- 
pared for the purpofe, and are ready 
to pay the calh for the fecond and 
third qualities, it behoves us in fea- 
fon, to prevent foreigners from re- 
ceiving three quarters of the profits 
of our mofl material cafli article. 
Newport, Augvjl i^, 1789. 

Thoughts on the rot in Jlieep. From 
the letters of the Bath agriculture 
society 

THE caufe of the rot in (heep, 
fays mr. Bofwell, in his late 
tifefuland ingenious publication, is un- 
known. — Mr. Arthur Young, in reca- 
pitulating all the information he could 
get, in his Eaflern Tour, obferves, that 
the " accounts are fo amazingly con- 
tradictory, that nothing can begaiher- 
ed from them ;" but conclude?, '' that 
every one knows that moiiiure is the 
caufe." 

In differing from an aathor of Mr. 
Young's acknowledged merit, fup- 
ported by theg-'iicral opinion of man- 
kind, 1 am led 10 examine my own 



fentiments with caution and diftruft ; 
but, unlefs it is only meant, that moif- 
ture is generally the remote caufe, it 
will be difficult to account for the rot 
being taken on fallows in afingleday, 
and in water meadows fometimes ni 
half an hoar, when in grounds of a 
different fort, although exceflively wet 
and llibby, fheep will remain for ma- 
ny weeks together, uninjured. 

Another opinion, which has many 
adherents, is, that the rot is owing to 
the quick growth of graft, or herbs, 
that grow in wet places. 

Without prenr.fing, that all -boun- 
teous Providence has given to every 
animal its peculiar tafte, by which it 
diftinguiihes the food proper for its 
prefervation and fupport, (if not vi- 
tiated by fortuitous circumftances) it 
fcerns very difficult to dilcover on 
philofophical principles, why the quick 
growth of gral's Ihould render it nox- 
jous ; — or why any herb fhould at one 
feafon produce fatal effetts, by the ad- 
miflion of pure water only into its com- 
ponent parts, v.hichj at other times, 
is perfeftly innocent, although brought 
to its utmoU ftrength and maturity, 
by the genuine influence of the fun. 
So far from agreeing with thofe who 
attribute the rot to quick-growmg 
grafs, which ttiey call flafhy, infipid, 
and deflitute of faks, to methe quick- 
nefs of growth is a proof of its 
being endued with the moft active 
principles of vegetation, and is one 
of the criterions of its fuperior excel- 
lence. Beiides, the confiant prafticc 
of mofl farv-ners. who, with the great- 
eft fecurity, feed their meadows in the 
■ fpring, when the grafs flioois quick, 
and is full of juices, militates direCtly 
againll th's opinion. 

Let us now confider, whether ano- 
ther caufe may not be affigned more 
reconcilcable with the various accounts 
we receive of this diforder. If our 
arguments, however fpecious, aic 
contradictory to known fa^ts, inftead 
of conduHiiig us in the plain paths of 
truth, they leave us in the mazes of 
error and uncertainly. 

Each fpecies of vegetables and ani- 
mals has its pec'iliar foil, fituation, 
and food, affigned to it. Taught by 
unerring Inftmd, '• the foarrow find- 
cih hera houfe, the fwallow a neft, 
and the dork in the heavens knowctb 
her appointed tlm^." The whole fea- 



gp8 



Thoughts on the rot injiietpt 



fScptcmber, 



fhered tribe, indeed, difplay a won- 
derful fagacity and vjriety in the 
choice and (Irufture of their habita- 
tions. Nor can it be doubted, that 
the minuielt reptile has Us fixed laws, 
appointed by Him, whofe " tender 
mercies are over all his works." 

The numerous inhabitants of the 
air, earth, and waters, are flrongly 
influenced by the feafons, and by the 
ftate of the atmolphere ; and the fame 
paiifes, perhaps, that rapidly call my- 
riads of one fpecies into being, may 
frequently prove the delhuflion of a- 
noiher. Is it then improbable, that 
fome infect finds us food, and lays its 
(Eggs, on the tender fucculent grafs, 
found on particular foils, (efpecially 
wet ones) which it mofl delights in ? 
— or, that this infett fliould, after a 
redundancy of moiOure, by an in- 
Itinftive inipulfe, quit its dark and 
dreary habiiaiion, and its fecundity be 
greatly increafed by fuch feafons, in 
conjunrtion with the prolific \varmth 
of the fun ? 

The fltfhfly lays her eggs upon her 
food, which alfo ferves to fupporther 
future uft^pnng ; and the common 
earthworm propagates ils fpecies above 
ground, when the weather is mild and 
moift, or the earth dewy. 

The eggs, depofited on the tender 
germ, are conveyed with the food into 
the llomach and inteftines of the ani- 
nials, whence they are received into 
the laftcal velfels, carried oH in the 
chyle, and pafs into the blood ; nor 
do ihey meet with any obiTruftion. un- 
til they arrive at the capillary veflels 
of the liver. — Here, as the blood fil- 
trates through the extreme branches, 
anfvvering to thofe of the Vena Porta 
in the human body, the fecerning 
veffels are too minute, to admit the 
impregnated ova, which, adhering io 
the membrane, produce thofe aniinal- 
cula that feed upon the liver, and 
dtflroy the fliecp. 1 hey much re- 
femble the flat fifii called plaice, are 
fonietimes as large as a filvcr two- 
pence, and are found both m the liver 
and in ihe pip'', (anfwering to that of 
the vena cav.i) which conveys the 
blood from the liver to the htarf. 

If ihe form of ihis ;inimal is unlike 
anv thing we meet wiih among the in- 
feft trib", we fliould coniidcr, that it 
j:pay be fo fmall n iisnati.nil flaic, as to 
efcape our obf(2rvaiicii.^ — Or, qaight 



not its form have changed with its 
fituation ? — " The caterpillar under- 
goes feveral changes before it pro- 
duces a butterfly." 

The various accounts, which every 
diligent enquirer mufl have met with, 
(as well as the indefatigable mr. Young) 
feem very confiftent with the theory 
of this diforder. 

If dry limed land, in Derbyfhire, 
will rot, in common vvith water-mea- 
dows, and flagnant marflies — if fome 
fpringy lands rot, when others are 
perfertly fafe — is it owing to the cir- 
cuijillance of water, or that of pro- 
ducing the proper food or neft of the 
infett ? Thofe who find their after- 
grafs rot till the autumnal watering, 
and fafe afterwards, might probably 
be of opinion, that the embryo laid 
there in the fummer, is then waflied 
away or dellroyed. 

With regard to thofe lands, that 
are accounted never fafe, if there is 
not fomething peculiar in the foil or 
fituation, which allures or forces the 
infecl to quit its abode at unufual fea- 
fons, it may be well vyorlh enquiring, 
whether froni the coarfenefs of their 
nature or for want of being fiifficiently 
fed, there is not fome grafs in thefe 
lands always left of a fufficient length 
to fecure the eggs of the infeft above 
the reach of the water. 

Such who aflert that flowing water 
alone is the caufe of the rot, can have 
but little acquaintance with ihe Somer- 
fcifliire clays, and are diametrically 
oppofitc to thofe who find their word 
land for rotting cured by watering. 
Yet, may not the water which pro- 
produces this effefl, be impregnated 
with particles defiriictiye to the infeft, 
or to the tender germ which ferves for 
its food or neft ? 

Tor kilving another difficulty, that 
" no ewe ever rots while flie has 3 
1-imb by her fide," the gentlemen of 
the faculty can beft infonp us, whe- 
ther it IS not probable that the impreg- 
naied ovum palTes into the milk, and 
never arrives at the liver. The fame 
learned genilemen may think the fol- 
lowing qneflion alfo not unworthy 
their confideration : 

Whv is the rot fatal to flieep, hares, 
and rabbits, (and fometimes 10 calves) 
when cattle of greater bulk, which 
probably tahe the fame food, eftape 
uninjured ? • 



*7^9'1 ^'^ ^'-^ ^o.nufaBure of fugar/Tom the American mapU-lrte, E05 



Is the digcRive matter, in the flo- 
ipach of theie. different from that of 
the other., and fuch as will turn the 
ova into a ftate of corruption ; or, 
rather, are not the fecretory duHs in 
ihe hver, large enough to let ihem 
,pais thruugh, and be carrieH off in the 
jifiia! current of the blood ? 

It feems to be an acknowledged 
fatt, that fait- marfhes never rot. Salt 
js pern cious yo moH infefis. They 
;icver infc/t gardens where fea-weedis 
Jaid. Common fait and water is a 
poweifiil cxi)ellent of worms, bred in 
the human body. 

I could wifli the intelligent farmer 
would confider thefe truths with ai- 
lerilion, and not neglett a remedy 
which IS cheap and always at hand. 

Liile, in his book of huibandry, 
informs iis of a farmer, who cured 
his whole flock of the rot, by giving 
each flieep a handful of Spanilh fait, 
for five or fix mornings fuccelfively. 
The hint was probably taken from the 
Spaniards, who frequently give their 
flieep fait to keep them healthy. 

On fome farms, perhaps, the iit- 
jnoft caution cannot always prevent 
the diforder. In wet ^nd warm fea- 
fons, the prudent farmer will remove 
his flieep from the lands liable to rot. 
Thofe who have it not in their power 
to do this, I would advife to give each 
{heep a fpoonful of common fait, 
with the fame quantity of flour, in a 
quarter of a pint of water, once or 
twice a week. When the rot is re- 
cently taken, the fame remedy, given 
four or five mornings fuccefi^ively, 
will, in all probability, effeft a cure. 
The addition of the flour and water 
Will, in the opinion of the writer of 
this, not only abate the pungency of 
the fait, but difpofe it to mix with 
the chyle in a more friendly and ef- 
ficacious manner. 

Were it in my power to communi- 
cate to the fociety the refult of aftual 
experiment, it would doubilefs be 
more fatisfa6lory. They will, how- 
ever, I am perfuaded, accept of thefe 
hints, at leaft as an earnefl of my de- 
fire to be ferviceable. Should they 
only tend to awaken the attention of 
theinduftrious hufljandman, or to ex- 
cite the curiofity of fome other en- 
quirer, who has more leifure and 
|!reater abilities, I fliall have the fa- 
Msfiifclion of thinking, that my fpecu- 



lations, however irrjperfeO, are not 
entirely ufelefs. 

BEiijAMiN Price. 

American naplejngar and melajfes. 

An ejlimate of tlic capacity ofthefu' 
gar maple lands of New York, or 
Pennfylvania. tcfupply the dema?t4 
of the united jiaus, for fugar and 
melajfes. 

The demand. 

BY authe-.tic documents, obtained 
from the culioin-houfe of Phi- 
ladelphia, it appears that the medium 
importation of brown fugar, for each 
year, from 1785,10 1789, is lbs. 

5,692,848 
— Loaf fugar, on a me- 
dium, 4>4^P 
— Melaffes 543, qoo gal- 
lons, which, atiolbs, per 
gallon, is ,5,4,':>9,ooolbs. 
half of which weight in 
fugar may be conlidered 
as equal to 54.'>,goo gal- 
lons of melalfes, 2.719.5CP 

Total importation in- 
to Philadelphia, per an- 
num, 8,4i6,Sc8 

Suppofiiig the whole imporiaiion 
of the union, to be five times that of 
Philadelphia, the demand for the uni- 
ted Hates, will then be 42,084,143 
pounds weight. 

The capacity of fiipply, 

Mr. William Cooper (of Cooper'? 
town, on the Otfego Lake) upon ex- 
perience and enquiry, gives informa- 
tion, that there are ufuallymade from 
a tree, five pounds of fugar, and thac 
there are fifty trees on an acre, at a 
medium. But fuppofe only four 
pounds to a tree, and twenty trees \r> 
an acre, then 105,2/0 acres will yield 
8,416,828 pounds weight. And fup- 
pofing, as above Rated, the whole de- 
mand of the union 42,084,140 lbs. or 
five times the importation into Phila- 
delphia, then ,526.000 acres will fup- 
ply the united ftates. It need not he 
obferved, that there are three times 
526,000 acies of futrar-maple lands ;n 
each of the flates of New York an'l 
Pennfylvania, which are particularly 
mentioned, from their being known 
to the ellimator. 

The fugar maple tree is found, how- 



«ie Method of making fiigar in the Wrjl India IJlands, — 0c. [Scpf, 



ever, in great abundance, in many 
oiher parts of the united itates. 

It will be frankly admitted, that the 
refult of the above cfHmate, has a 
wild and vifionary appearance ; but 
as it is made upon a moderate fiate- 
jnent of fath, very carefully afccr- 
tained, and as the whole calculation 
is freely expofed to examination, it 
^vi!l not be unfafe to place (onie con- 
fidence in it, until exaggeration of 
fatt or error fhall be pointed out. 

Afrievd of vianuJaElurci. 
••<>•■ <^<^^^ ■•<►•• 
Method of makiv.g fvgar in the Weji- 
India ijlands,jrcm the juice of the 
fugar cane^ when cared in hogs- 
heads, as in Antigua. 

AS loon as a fufficieiit quantity of 
juice is procured, it is put mfo 
the kettle, under which a good fire is 
made, and no fcum is taken off, un- 
til the liquor is nearly ready to boil ; 
which is difcovered by the fcum's 
cracking or parting. Then the fcum 
is taken off, and a perfon is kept con- 
fiantly (kimming it, as the fcum riles, 
until it becomes fugar. This is dif- 
covered by It's granulating, or the 
^ain appearing upon the fkimmer or 
ladle : it is then immediately taken 
out of the kettle, and put into a 
cooler, where it remains, until it is 
blood warm. Then it is put into calks, 
with fmall holes at the bottom, in 
crder that the melaffes may drain out. 
After remaining in the calks two or 
three weeks, it is fit for ufe, and is 
fent to market. 

A'^. B. A fmall quantity of unflack- 
ed lime is put into the kettle, when 
the juice is warm, or before ; fay a- 
bout three table-fpoonfuls to one hun- 
dred gallons. Large copper (kimmers 
and ladles with long wooden handles, 
are made iil'e of; a good fire is kept 
under the kettle, from the time of the 
juice being put in, until it becomes 
lugar. 

Receipt for the cure of the f curvy, 
leprofy, &c. 
To the Printer. 
Sir, 

IRcqneft permifTion to prefent the 
public with a receipt of a moll 
ialuabie and fovereign r'-medy, from 
r':c vegniable kingdom, which, by 
ample aiid exteufive experience, has 



hitherto been found to prove extreme- 
ly powerful and elhcacious in entirely 
eradicating, with perfed eafe and 
fafety, every fpecies of fcurvy, lepro- 
fy, and all diforders whatever, wliich 
derive their origin from any impuri- 
ties of the blood and juices, 'ihofe, 
afflitled wiih the fcrophula, vulgarly 
called the king's evil, though in gene- 
ral an hereditary difeafe, by duly per- 
levering m the regular ufe of it, will 
aduredly find fuch amazing benefit, 
as happily to convince them of its 
great value and utiluy. In the very 
word Oagcs of the true rheumatifm, 
jts eilefls are remarkably luccefsful ; 
and I know not any thing in the 
whole materia medica. that bids fairer 
to prove of innniie iervice alfo in the 
gout. The medicine, which I now 
lay before the public, is an agreeable 
vegetable fyrup, very eafily made, 
exceedingly pleafant to take, and at 
the fame time fo mild and fafe in us 
operation, as not in the lead to en- 
danger or dilhirb the economy of the 
human frame (which is fo often the 
cafe with many medicines, that the 
remedy fometimes proves worfe than 
the difeafe) attended likewife with the 
fatisfaftion of knowing, together with 
the liberty of freely examining and 
invedigating, upon the true principles 
of botany, every ingredient of which it 
is compofed. Even with the veronica 
alone (male fpeedwell) th» great 
Boerhaave, in his hillory of plants, 
declares, that he has cured above a 
hundred difeafes ; and many of the 
inhabitants of France can alfo tellify 
the very powerful and happy effefts of 
that fingle plant in removing a great 
variety of diforders. 

I have only to obferve, that the 
prefent feafon of the year is the moft 
proper time to enter upon a courfe of 
the above-mentioned fyrup. 

July 12 

Recipe. 

'i dKe of the leaves of male fpeed- 
well, four ounces; bark of elder, 
two ounces; winter's bark, three 
ounces ; angelica root, diced thin, 
half a pound ; comfrey root, fennel 
root, of each (lliced) four ounces. 

Boil thefe ingredients together in 
two gallons of foft water, over a (low 
fire, till one half is conbimed ; thrfn 
Urain ofi the decoftion into a cle^n 
earthen pan, ai;d let it Hand all night 



17«9-1 



Reficxions on the gout. 



2t: 



to fettle ; in the morning, carefully 
pour off the clear liquor, from the 
lediment, and diffolve thereuj three 
pounds of treble refined fugar, and 
two pounds of virgin honey, which 
arc to be gently fimmered into a thin 
fyrup. 

The dofe is a large tea cup full, 
night and morning, or rather in fome 
cafes, morning, noon, and night ; ad- 
ding to each dofe, at the time of taking 
it, a fmall tea-fpoonful of the late 
celebrated dr. Huxham's effence of 
antimony, which greatly heightens 
and improves the virtue of the me- 
dicine. 

Rtjlexions on the gout — By James S. 
Gilliam^ M.D. of Peterjlurg, Vir- 
ginia. 

TH E caufes of the flow and fluRu- 
ating progrefsof our knowledge 
of the gout, are fufficiently manifelt, 
Thepathology of difeafes, by which 
the aid of the phyfician has, in every 
age, been in a great meafure regulat- 

.ed, is only to be deduced from an am- 
ple collettion of fatls. Hence, dif- 
coveries in medicine, have feldom 

.been the offspring of fuperficial ob- 
fervation ; at leaft the labour and ge- 
nius of feveral fucceffive ages are re- 
quired to determine the extent of their 
utility and application. 

From the records of phyficians, 
we are not enabled to decide, at what 
period the gout originated, or became 
an objeft of inveftigation : but the 
fimple manner [of life, in pratticewuh 
the early inhabitantsofthe world, mull, 
for a confiderable time, have inter- 
rupted its occurrence. The mofl per- 
manent caufe<i, however, of its not 
being contemplated as a new appear- 
ance of difeaf*, feems to be the pro- 
pinquity of its fymptoms to the rheu- 
matifm. Mankind, bialfed by an idea, 
that, amidft the uncertainty of human 

■ reafoning, experience is the bell guide, 
have feldom allowed a fufficiently a\n- 

• pie range to th»ir reflexion and judg- 
ment, in difcriminating new genera 
©f difeafe. 

The knowledge of the gout was ex- 
tremely limited in ancient Greece and 
Rome : and for many centuries fub- 
fequent to the fall of the latter, the 
culture of medicine languilhed, with 
the general wreck of literature m Eu- 



rope. Traditional knowledge bein^ 
confidered as the ultimate extent or 
human inveftigation, no eftorts to- 
wards difcovery were to be expeft- 
ed. Nor was the revival of learo- 
ing immediately produtlive of bene- 
ficial elllects with regard to medicine. 
The philofophy of Ariilotle, fubtlety 
interwoven in the healing art, com inued 
ftill to corrupt the pra8ice of medicine. 
It was not, till near the clofeof thefe- 
ventecnth century, that a perfect. h:f- 
tory of the gout appeared. But the 
learned author feems to have neglect- 
ed an expofition of the caufe of that 
complaint — perhaps, from the difn- 
culty of diftinguifhing caufe from ef- 
fect, as the fyrnptoms of the gout are 
various, and many of them have a 
relation to other difeafes. The pre- 
eminence of fmall beer to wine, which 
he wilhes to ellablifh, I apprehend, 
will not be generally admitted. 

It is at prelent a prevalent opinion, 
that there are different llaies of'the 
gout, each requiring a diverfiiy of 
treatment : but, as all of them arife 
from the fame caufe, and frequently 
fncceed each other, in a fiiorc fpace 
of time, in tfie fame patient — the ha- 
bit of body, and feat affefted, modi- 
fying the effeft — we prefume, that ac- 
curacy of difcrimination is in this in- 
flance by no means attainable, or ne- 
ceffary. Nofologills, who have at- 
tempted it, vary exiremcly : and their 
labours do not obvioufl/ lead to prac- 
tical utility. 

Whether the gout be an hereditary 
difeafe or not, is a query, perhaps 
not reducible to a fatisfaclory refclu- 
tion. It has been obferved more ge- 
nerally to prevail in certain families 
than in others, nearly under the fame 
circumftances : and perhaps a peculi- 
arity or imbecillity of temperament is 
tranfmitted from parent to offspring, 
which the operation of future excit- 
ing caufes may, at an earlier period of 
life than ufual, awaken into the gout. 
This difeafe, however, fo frequently oc- 
curs, without our being able to trace it 
to any hereditary ptedifpofition, that 
the influence of this caufe is in molt 
cafes extremely equivocal. The flate 
of the fyllem, on which the gout de- 
pends, IS probably a general debility, 
efpecially affefting the extremities, oa 
account of the languor of the circu- 
lation in thofe parts. For, althoui;bi 



tli Rejolves refpccllng the education of poor femaic children. [Sept, 



ive do not believe that a gout ever 
arifesfroma vitiation ot the fluids, ot 
any dttect primarily exifting in them — 
it IS evident, that the ntorbid (late of 
the moving; powers of ihefylleni, may 
be conliderably iiicrcafed, by a defi- 
cjcncy of the circulation. Hence, 
the utility of covering the part alFed- 
td, with flannel^ is abundantly obvi- 
ous. Cay em le pepper and gum giiaiacurii 
in talfia, may alio as general Ihmuli, 
aHord temjiorary relief; but the inex- 
perienced should be cautious inreceiv- 
nig the opinions of the panegyriils of 
ihofe remedies, as they do not reflect, 
that ftimu'ants are various in theirope- 
ration. Wme, ardent fpirits, aether, 
opium, gum guaiacum, Cayenne pep- 
|)er, alkaline falls, and btillers, are 
temporary and dilfufive in their ef- 
fects ; and are chieily to be employed, 
where the lymptoms are very violent. 
No durable relief can be expefted 
from them. They are generally fud- 
den in their operation, and Ihoiild be 
conhdered as preparative to the em- 
playmcmof the bark, exercife, jellies, 
or rich toups without vegetables, 
'i'hefe are durable llimulants, and 
fliould, as far as our experience in- 
iorms, be ufed in all appearances of 
the gout. 

I fuppofe the gout of the Romach 
and bowels to depend on the fame 
caufe with the oiher forms of that com- 
plaint ; but, on account of the tender 
ihucture and particular connexion of 
jhefe organs, with the reft of the fyf- 
tcm, 1 would recommend the reme- 
dies to be more fully and diligently 
adininiftered, than in any other in- 
liances. In'aliettions of the Homach, 
I have known it inrpoffible to admi- 
nifter the bark, without the previous 
application of a blifter, which i have 
never known to fail, in producing the 
moft falutary cHcfts in fuch cafeS. 
When the bowels are afFetled,- it will 
Be heft to unite a little cinnamon with 
the bark. To prevent a return of the 
gout, I always recommend the ufe of 
ihe bark to be continued, during the 
intervals of relief. 

Sulphur has lately been recommend- 
ed as a remedy for the gout ; but its 
j,Kiod elieHs can only extend to the 
prelervation of a lax habit of body, 
where there is rcafon toapprehend in- 
jury from conllipation. In anv other 
"lew,- it will raiher debilitate the pa- 



tient, than abate the progrefs of the 
difcafe. 

Where patients coitiptain of con- 
fiderable thirll, the: ufe of the vitriolic 
acid I have found extremely bcnefi'- 
ciaf : ?nd, if a dillielfing icidity pre- 
vail, alkaline fatts ma'y be occafion- 
ally taken with advantage. 

From our view of the fuhjefl, it 
will readily be inferred, that breeding, 
purgatives, or emetics, cannot be em- 
ployed with fafery in the gout ; and 
that the efficacy of the Peruvian bark, 
blillers, e::ercife, and jellies, is fu'- 
periar to the Portland powder; a re- 
medy, I conce' ve^ to have been de- 
iervedly in high eftimation. I can* 
not imagine, with fome phyhcians, 
that ihe fubduBion of a difeafe from' 
the conllinition, can endanger its ex- 
ifience. If apoplexy or affhma have 
accompanied the removal of fhe gout, 
they have notdirettly originated from 
obefity induced by 



The 



that caufe. 

the return of appetite and digeflion,- 
in a lyftem long enfeebled by a vio- 
lent difeafe, may predifpofe to apd- 
plexy. And it would be prudent f 
regulate fuch predifpofition by exef* 
cife and diet. But as the a{)h-ma is 
generally allowed to be a difeafe not 
connected wiih any particular tem- 
perament of the whole body, but a' 
particular conftitution of the lungs, it 
furely cannot arile from the reihoval 
of the gout. 

Peter/burg, May 21, 1789. 

Refolvcs rcfpe&ing the education c/ 
poor JcmaU children. 

THE Maffachufetts charitable fo- 
cicty, having conhdered, at a 
late meeting of their members, the 
expediency of calling the public atten- 
tion to the want of female education 
among the poorer clafs of inhabitants 
in this metropolis ; and having them- 
felves founded a Ichool for the inff ruc- 
tion of the poor female children, di 
fuch of their own members as may be 
reduced to adverhty, have thought 
proper to publifh their intentions oif 
the fubjecf, hoping that the benevolent 
will encourage and enlarge the defign. 
The faid lociety would have been 
gratified, could they have extended' 
fchool fo as to 



the benefifi of their 
have comprehended 
children in general 



the poor female. 
; but they find- 



1789.] letter from general Qrecne to the Friends at New Garden. 



that this cannot be done confiftently 
•with their charter, unlels by fome al'- 
filtance out of the fociety. It" fuch 
a(ri(lance (hall be given, the above- 
tnentioiied iiutitution may be increaf- 
ed to one large and common eflablifh- 
ment ; where, not only the poor fe- 
male children of i'aid fociety, but aUo 
any others belonging to the town can 
be inllructed. 

Correfponding with this idea, the 
following articles, as adopted by the 
fociety, are publiflied by their order ; 
lit. That noihmg has a more cer- 
tain tendeiicv to promote the happi- 
.nefs and ufefulnefs of individuals, than 
an early arid well projected method of 
education, as they are thereby enabled 
to acquire an eafy apd reputable fub- 
fiftence, and, confequently rendered 
valuable members of the community 
to which they belong. 

ed. That, for want of the proper 
means of education and employment, 
the children of the reduced, and of the 
indigent m general, are frequently in 
a manner lolt to fociety ; or, what is 
•worfe, become a prey to vice, to mi- 
fery, and mfamy. 

3d. That, under a republican form 
of government, efpecially, the con- 
fequences of ignorance are in a great 
meafure fubverfive of the principle* 
on which tuch government is found- 
ed ; for It is a maxim, drawn from na- 
liire andexperience, that the only 
means of inducing the people to make a 
proper ufe of their liberty, is to en- 
lighten, inllruft, and employ them. 

4th. And, %vhereas the extenfive 
influence of females, on the manners 
and habits of fociety, as tiniverfally 
experienced and acknowledged, mult 
render their education a proper object 
of the moR ferious attention ; and yet 
very fmall advantages are enjoyed, 
efpecially by the indigent, for inftruc- 
tion in the branches of knowledge, 
peculiarly iifefnl to the fex : there- 
lore, an inrtitiition, for conferring up- 
on the female children of reduced 
members of tins fociety, the advanta- 
ges of a judicious fyllem of female 
education, may prevent the dittreffes 
which they might otljerwife be called 
upon to relieve, and operate as one 
of the mod effetlual exercifes of cha- 
nty and benevolence, within the pow- 
p-r of this fociety ; and that a imall 
ium, expended for this valuable pur- 
Voi,. VI. Xo. HI, 



2*3 

pofe, by producing etFefls important 
and permanent, would be more bent- 
ncial, than a much larger fum granted 
in the ufual way, as a tem.porary re- 
lief of prefent dillieO. 

5th. That, from thefe confidera- 
tions, and upon thefe principles, it is 
hereby rcfolved, that a fum be af- 
figned for employing a proper perfoii 
or perfons, to fiiperintend the inltruc- 
tion of fuch fem>ile children, or or- 
phans of reduced members of this fo- 
ciety, a' fhall choole to avail thefa- 
fe Ives of fu^h provifion, and for o- 
therwife fupnoning aa mititutlon to 
be founded for the above purpofe. 
- 6;h. That, until fuch inllitutign 
fliall be completed, the faid fum, with 
the interefl thereof, fhall be confider- 
ed as an accumulating fund, appropri- 
ated for this purpofe alone, and, if 
judged expedient hereafter, the foci- 
ety (hall augment the appropriation. 

7th. That, fo foon as a fufficient 
fund fliall be cOabliOred, proper mea- 
fures (hall be taken for procuring one or 
more perfons to fupcnntend a fchool 
in the town of Boitouj under fiicli 
regulations and direftions as fhall 
hereafter be appointed. 

8:h. That, ihouid any additional 
grant, bequellj or devifc% be hereafter 
made, by membcrSj or others, to 
the focietv ; for the exprefs purpofe 
of extending the advantage of fucli 
inflitution, to the female children of 
the poor at large, or in certain pro- 
portions, as the funds fiiall admit; 
fuch grants, &c. fhall be ufedand em- 
ployed for that purpofe alone, fo as 
to form a fchool for female education 
in general, according to rules and re- 
gulations hereafter to be made : and, 
for this purpofe, the fociety will 
cheerfully concur vi?ith any man, or 
body of men, for completing an inlli- 
tut on, of this kind, on the mofl broad 
and liberal balls. 

By order of the fociety^ 

Thomas Da\v es, pre/ident* 
Bojlon, December 23, 1786. 



Copy of a letter written by major-ge- 
neral Greene, after the adion at 
Gilford court- koufe, to the fociety 
of Friends at New Garden, zvitll 
the Jociety's anfwer. 



2 1^ Anjwer to general Greene's letter, [September, 

Friends and countrymen, iher have liLerty nor property, conlfl 

I Atidreis niylelf to your humanity, the enemy fucceed in iheir meafures. 

for the relief of the iutferuig How have thev deceived you in their 

■wounded at G'lford court- htJufe. As proclamations? and \\o\n have they 

a people, I am perfuaded, you dii- violated their faith with your friends 

claim any connexion with mealiires in South Carolina i* 
calculated to promote military opera- They arc now Ueemg before us, and 

tions ; bur, I know of no order of men mult foon be expelled from our bor- 
inore remarkable for the exercife of ders, if the people will contmue to aid 

humanity and kind benevolence ; and, the operations of the army. 



perhaps, no indance ever had a higher 
claim upon you, than the unfortunate 
wc'iiiKted, now in your neighbourhood. 
1 was born and educated, in the 
profcilions and principles of your fo- 
lieiy; and am perfectly acquainted 



Having giveji you this information, 
I have only to remark, that i (hall 
be exceedingly obliged to you, to con- 
tribute all in your power to relieve 
the unfortunate wounded at Gilford, 
and dr. Wallace is diretkd to point 



with your religious fentiments, and out the things moil wanted, and to 

general good conduct, as citizens. I receive and apply donations, and from 

am a!fo feuftbie, from the prejudices the liberality of your order, upon the 

of many belonging to other religious occafion, I fhall be able to judge of 

ibi ieties, and the mifcondufl of a few your feelings, as men, and principles, 

of your own, that you are generally as a fociety 



corifidered as enemies to the indepen- 
dence of America ; I entertain other 
fentiments, both of your principles 
and wifhe«. 

I vefjie'-l you as a people, and fiiall 
always be ready to protect you, from 
every violence and opprclfion, which 
the confulion of the times afford but 



Given at head-quarters, North Ca- 
rolina, March 26. 1781, and the 
fifth year of American indepen- 
dence. 

To major-general Nathaniel Greene. 
Friend Greene, 



too many inlhuices of. • WJ^ receued thine, being dated 

Don't be deceived; this is no reli- VV March 26, 1781: agiecable 

giuus difpute ; the contell is for poli- to thy requeft we Ihall do all that hes 

lual liberty; without which, cannot in our power; although this may in- 

be enjoyed the free exercife of your form, that from our preleiit fituatiOn, 

religion. The Bntifh are flattering we are ill able to alhll, as much as 

you with conqueit, and exciting your we would be glad to ; as the Ameri- 

apprehenhons refpecting religious li- cans have iaiii much upon us, and of 

berty. 'i'hey deceive "you in both ; late the Britiih have plundered and 

they can neither conquer this country, entirely broke up niany ainongfl s«. 



nor will you be molelted in the exer 
cife of your religious fentiments. It 
is irue, they, may fpread defolalion 
iiid diilrefs over many parts of the 



which renders it hard ; and there is at 
our meetmg-hdufe, in New Garden, 
upwards of one hundred now living, 
that have no means of provifion, ex- 



country; but, when the inhabitants ccpt what hofpitality the neighbour 



ex;rr ih<'ir force, the enemy muft 
flee before them. There is but one 
way to put a fpeedy ilfue to the exire- 
muies of war, which is for the people 
tor be united. It is the interefl of the 
enemy to create divifums among you, 
and, while they prevail, your diilrefs 
will continue. Look at the horrid 
murders which rage among the whigs 
and tories. Have the enemy any 
friends to filler or feel for ? 1 hey 
Ijrfve not ; neither do they care how 
great your calamities are, if it but con 



hood affords them, which we look 
upon as a hardfh.p upon u^, if not an 
impolition ; but, notwithlfanding all 
this, we are determined, by the affif- 
tance of Providence, while we have 
any amoiigfl us, that the diflreffed,, 
both at the court-houfe and here,, 
fhall have part with us ; as we havei 
as yet made no diflinttion as to partyi 
and their caufe, as we have now none 
to commit our caufe to, but God 
alone, but hold it the duty of truel 
chnflians at all times to alhll the dif- 



iributes to the gratification of their trelfcd. 

{;r;de and ambitioii. You would nei- Guilfurdco. A'. C. 2idmo. ■^oth. 1781. 



.■•1789.] 



Law cafe 



£>3 



Law cafe. In the court of errors and 
appeals of the (late of Delaware. 

Bcvjamin Robin/on and William Ro- 
Sirifon, appellants, agnivji the lej- 
fee of John Adams, refpondcnt. 

AN aftinn of trefpafs of ejeflrnent 
was brought by the refpondeiil 
againft the appellants in the coinmon 
jilear, of Siiilex, for a tratl of land 
fituated in that county. The action 
was removed into the fupreme court, 
by certiorari \ and, upon the trial, 
there the jury found a ipecial verditt. 

The verdict llaies, " that Thomas 
Bagwell was fciz'.d in his demefne as 
of fee of a niuiety of a tiatt of land 
called I.ong-Neck, of which the land 
in qii°(lion is part, and by his will, 
dated the fifteenth day of April, 1690, 
devifcd the fame in manner follow- 
ing : " I Thomas Bagwell, &c. for 
my wordly ellate that the Lord hath 
endowed me with, do ffive and be- 
queath as followeth : liein, I make 
my dear wife the executrix — hem^ I 
give to my two fons, namely, Willi- 
am and Francis, all my land at the 
Ilorekiln, in Suilex county, &c. to 
be equally divided between them, and 
their heirs for ever — hem, this plan- 
tation where I now live, &c. 1 give 
to my fon John, to him, his heirs 
forever ; that is. from a w^ite oak by 
the creek (ide. &c. to the head line — 
Item, I give to my fon Thomas, the 
reit of my land here, to be equally 
divided, and he to have flnare in the 
orchard ; and likewifc my part of the 
cedar ifland, I give to Thomas and 
John, to be equally divided between 
them, to them and their heirs for 
ever ; only mv two daughters, name- 
ly, Ann Bagwell and Valiance Bag- 
.well, to have an equal {hare of the 
faid ifland, fo long as they keep them- 
felves unmarried, and no longer — 
hem, I give to my fon Thomas, two 
hundred acres of land adjoining Wil- 
liam Burton's branch, to him and his 
heirs forever — Item, I give to my Ion 
John one negro woman — hem, I give 
to my daughters Ann and Valiance, 
two hundred twenty and five acres of 
.land adjoining John Abbot, Thomas 
Mills, and Francis W^harton. to them 
and their heirs for ever. If any one 
of my aforefa'd children fliould die, 
before they come to lawful age, their 
lands to go to the furvivors ; that is, 



if Thomas fliould die before he comes 
to lawful age, I give his fhare of lard 
where William now lives, to my 
daughter Elizabeth Ijiilney, to her, 
and the lawful begotten heirs of her 
body, forever : provicl,;d 1 homas have 
heirs before he comes to. lawful age, 
then to him, and Ins hf rs forever ; 
and likewife, if William fhould d'e 
without h^irs, to go to Franc's ; ard 
if Ann fliould die without heirs, to go 
10 Valiance; and if John fliould die 
before he comes tv) lawful age, wiih- 
out heirs, then his fiiare of lard here, 
where 1 now live. I give to my daugh- 
ter (^omfort Lcatherberrv, to her, 
and her lawful begotten heirs of her 
body for ever, hem, I give to every 
one of my grand children a calf, tii> 
them at^d their heirs for ever ; to my 
daughters Ann and Valiance. a fea- 
ther bed a piece, to ihem, and their 
heirs for ever; to my four fons, Tho- 
mas, William, Francis, and John, a 
gun a piece, to them, and their heirs 
for ever : to my fon Thoma?, my 
piftols and holiitrs for ever. 8ic. And 
all the refl of mv perional eHate I give 
to my wife, and my fix af(^refaid chil- 
dren, to be equally divided among 
them, to them, an<1 their heirs for 
ever ; to wit, Thoina<^, Wiliiam, Fran- 
cis, Johnj Ann, and Valiance. I 
fet my boys at age at eighieen. and 
my girls at fixtecn ; and their eflate 
to be divided prefently after my de- 
ceafe, by my friends Wiliiam C;:rti?, 
William Burton, and WilliainPai kcr, 
which I leave overfeers ovtr my chil- 
dren, &c." 1 hat the teflaior di<''d 
feized as aforefaid — that his will' was 
duly proved the fixteenih cf Septem- 
ber, i6qo — that he left ifTue, all bis 
fons and daughiers beforcmentiontd — 
that after his death, William, his 
eldefl foil, entered into the premifc^, 
in the declaration of the plainiift men- 
tioned, and bemg thereof feizcd, died 
intellate, leaving ilbieWiHiam, his on- 
ly fon by one venter, and Agnes, his 
only daughier, by another venn r ; 
that the faid William and Agnc^, 
after their father's death, entered in- 
to the premiies, of which he d:ed 
feized, and made partition, as by ibe 
records of the orphan's court appcar- 
eth, and the lands in the declaration 
mentioned, were allotted 10 the fa'd 
William, the fon, who died intell.ir-. 
feized thereof, leaving iwod.Utgbi(i 



Law caje. 



[September, 



Patience and El'^alieth, and a widow, 
Ann — that the faid Ann, as tenant in 
dower, and ihe faid Patience, and 
p],lizabeth, as Mhiis of the fa d Willi- 
am, entered, and were feized, &c. — 
that the faid Patience and Elizabeth 
<lu'd without ilfuc — that theirmother, 
Ann, married Benjamin Burton, and 
died, leaving iffue by him, two daii.s^h- 
ters, Ann, and Comfort, who enter- 
ed, and were feized, &c. — that the 
faid Ann married Thomas Robinfon, 
and died, leaving iffiie, the appellants 
— that Comfort died without i(fue — 
that A,3;ne5, the daughter of William 
Bagwell, tKe fnR, married John A- 
dams, by whom (he had ifTue fcveral 
children, of whom John Adams, the 
leflTor of the plaintiff, is the eidcU fon 
and heir at law — that he entered and 
demifed, &;c. npon whom the defen- 
dants entered, &c. But. whether up- 
. on the whole matter, 8cc. the jurors 
idoubr, and pray the opinion of the 
court, &c. And if, &c. they find for 
the plaintiff, and affefs dan'.ages, to 
five {iiilij'^gs and fix-penCe for cofls, 
Viefides the collvs expended : but if, 
&r; they find for the defendanis. 

Upon this verdif}, the iupreme 
court in Apnl, 1787, gave judgment 
for the plaint il, from which judgment 
the def=-i:dan's appealed. An habere 
facias pojfcjjwnevi was awarded to if- 
- fue, for delivering poffedicm to the 
plaintiff, upon fecurity tendered, &c. 

It IS ftattd by the counfe! on both 
fides, that the only queflion in this 
caufe IS, wlicther William Bagwell, 
the fvm of Thomas Bagv.'cll. took un- 
der his fathci's will, an efiate in fee 
fimple, or an ellaie in fee tall. If he 
took an eflate in fee fimple, then by 
uur intedate afts, that ellate is vefted 
in the appellants. If he took an ef- 
tale in fee tail, the land in queflion 
defcended to the lefTor of the plaintiff, 
now refpondent, the heir in tail. 

It is time that this controverfy 

ffiould be finally decided, or large as 

the contefled property is, it may prove 

ruinous to all perfons concerned. We 

3ie informed that feveral luits have 

been brought for this eftale — verdifls 

given againfi one another— and coii- 

fr.Kli/"lory opinions of ve*y eminent 

nvyers in feveral parts of America, 

.; M ;ied. The prcfent aHion has 

' n:;;v.:ed above fifteen year?. 

It is contended by the counfel for 



the appellants, that William BagWel!, 
the devifee, look an eftate in fee fim- 
ple, lubjeti to an executory devife, to 
Francis Bagwell, contingent on Wil- 
liam's dying under age, and wilhoul 
iffue. 

Their argument opened with an 
obfervation, that " eiiates in fee fail- 
are no favourites of the law, and par-"^ 
ticularly ought not to he fo under re-' 
publican forms of government, fo that 
if there be any doubt in this cafe, the 
determination fhould incline rather' 
towards the appellants, than the re-- 
Ipondent." 

Eflates in fee tail are not liable to 
divifion by will, or upon intedacy, as' 
cftates in fee fimple are ; and thefe 
diflributions are very beneficial. * It 
IS much to be wiflied, that every citi- 
zen could poffefs a fieehold, though 
fome of them might happen to be 
fmall. Such a difpofition of proper- 
ty cheriffies domeRic happmefs, en- 
dears a country to its inhabitants, and 
promotes the general welfare. But, 
whatever influence fuch reflexions 
might have upon us, on other occa- 
fions, they can have little, if any, on 
the prefent, for reafons that will 
hereafter appear. 

" The intention of teflators," fay 
the counfel for the appellants, " ought 

NOTE. 

* It is greatly to be defired, that 
the perfons appointed by our courts, 
for viewing and dividing lands among 
the children of inteOates, would not 
lufier themfelves fo eafily to be pre- 
vailed upon to report, that the lands 
will not bear a divifion. Thus, very 
often an eflate is adjudged, as incapa- 
ble of divifion, to one of the chil- 
dren, that might well be divided into 
five or fix, if not more, farms, as 
iarge as many in the eaflern flates, up- 
on which the induflrlous and prudent 
owners iiv,e very happily. By the 
ufual way of proceeding among us, 
one of the children is involved in a 
heavy debt, that frequently proves 
ruinous to him ; or, if the debt of va- 
luation is paid to the other children, 
it is in a number of fuch trilling fiims, 
and at fuch diftances of time, one 
from another, that they are of very 
little ufe to thofe who receive iliem, 
This matter deferves very it rious con- 
fideratif^n. 



h] 



Laxi) cafe. 



to prevail in the conflruf^ion of wills 
—that thel'e are preliimed to be made 
in extreme weaknefs, and without 
good advice — that therefore great in- 
dulgence has been (hewn to impro- 
prieties of exprellion — and judges 
have frequently added, fubtrafcted, 
changed and tranlpofed words — that 
according to this rule, thefe words in 
the will — " andlikewife, if William 
fliould die without heirs, to go to 
Francis," fliould be read thus — 
" and likewife if William (hould die 
before he comes to laxvful age without 
heirs of his body, his eflate to go to 
Francis" — that this alteration is a- 
greeable to the meaning of the tefta- 
tor, becaufe, after having juit before 
mentioned his children, and William 
amongll them, lie fays — '' if any one 
of my fl/"orf/az'<a? children fhould die 
before they come to lazvful age, their 
lands to go to the furvivors" — and 
then immediately proceeds, binding 
this part and the following into one 
fentence, by thele ftrongly conneftmg 
explanatory words — " that is, if Tho- 
mas fhould die before he comes to 
I lawful age, I give his fliare of land 
where William now lives, to my 
slaughter Elizabeth Tilney, to her 
and the lawful begotten heirs of her 
body forever ; provided Thomas have 
heirs before he comes to lawful age, 
then to him and his heirs forever ; 
and likewife, if William Bagwell 
fliould d e without heirs, to go to 
Francis," &c. — that this conflruttion 
is conhflent wth the dcGgn of the 
teftator, exprclTed in the foregoing 

fiart cf his will, where he gives Wil- 
iara an eflate in fee fimple — that this 
€Hate, being given to the teiiator's 
immediate heir at law. ought not to 
.be diminilhed by the following words, 
unlefs they neceffiriiy refjuire it fo to 
be — that they do not thus require it to 
be diminiflied — that all the different 
parts of the will are reconcileable^- 
ihat there was a fee fimple given to 
William, with an executory devife 
over to Francis, upon the contingen- 
cy of William's dying before he came 
to lawful age, and without heirs of 
■his body — that the conf.ngenry never 
happened ; but William died feized 
of the fee fimple." 

Many auihorities have been read, 
and ably applied in fupport of thefe 
principles. 



By the coimfel for the refpondent 
it is urged, that the conllruthon con- 
tended for, on the other hde, is arbi- 
trary and inadmiflible — that there is 
plainly an eflate in fee tail given to 
William Bagwell, becaufe, it is im- 
poflible, as was conceded by thecoiin- 
fel for the appellants, that he could 
die " without heirs," as long as his 
brother Francis, to whom the limita- 
tion over is made, was living : and 
therefore, thatlimitation deinonflratcs, 
that by the words " without heirs," 
was meant '* without heirs of his bo- 
dy" — that there is no nccclhty for 
overthrowing the fee tail thus evi- 
dently limited — that the words " if 
any one of my aforclaid children 
fliould die before they come to lawful 
age," &c. were proper, ifonlyfome 
of them were under age — that there 
is reafon to believe, from the fatts 
flatcd, of William's being the cidcfl 
fon, and of his living by himlelf ; 
and more efpecially from the words 
made ufe of in the limitation over 
upon his death, in which there is no 
mention of his " dying before lawful 
age," that he was of age at the mak- 
ing of the will — that this conflruttion 
is confirmed by the limitations over 
upon the deaths of Thomas and John, 
which are exprefsly made to depend 
not only upon their '* dying with(Mit 
heirs," as with refpeft to William, 
but alfo upon their " dying before 
they come to lawful age" — that thefe 
words are omitted again in the limi- 
tation over upon the death of Ann, 
and in all probability for the fame 
reafon — that the tellator has. in this 
manner, repeatedly varied his lan- 
guage in conformity to his own views 
— that thele views, thus declared, 
ought not to be controuled by impli- 
cations, and difappointed by addi- 
tions, fubtraftions, changes, or trani- 
pohtions, fuppofed to be more agree- 
able to his mind — that this would be 
to make wills, not to interpret ihem. 
— that the conflruftion, in favour of 
the refpondent, is more eafy and na- 
tural than that in favour of the ap- 
pellants, and is much recommended, 
by not offering fuch violence to the 
exprelhons of the teftator." 

i he counfel for the refpondent 
have infifled on this conflruftion with 
a great force of argument, drawn froir, 
reafon and authorities. We have. 



ttl8 CovimuntcationSy&c. to the Philadelphia, philofophkalfociety. [Sept. 



therefore, thought fit to employ a 
conficierable time in our deliberations 
upon th's caufe. 

\Tq be continued. '\ 

An account of comviunications and 
donations^ made to the American 
philofopkicaljocicty^ at Philadel- 
phia.^ Jtnce the publication of their 
fccond volume of Iranfailions. 

June 16, A Letter from tnelTrs. 

1786. jCjL Chjiftopher j\in. and 
Charles Maiihall, With ipccimeiis 
of fal glauberii, and lal auiinoniac, 
made at their elaboratory in Pliiladel- 
{^hia. 

Thefp. falls are equal in quality, if 
nQt iiiperior, to any imporiea, and are 
fold ai a lower rate. 

Aug. 18. A Icrter from mr. Charles 
W. locale, v/ith a drawing and de- 
fcription of a fan-chair, invented, and 
made for him, by mr. Cram, an in- 
genious mechanic of ' Philadelphia. 
Prefented by dr. Benjamin Rulh. 

A letter, with a dravving and def- 
Cripnon of a tide-mill, on fomewhat 
of a new conHruttion, by mr. Robert 
Leflie, now of Philadelphia. Pre- 
lented by Francis Hopkinlon, elq. 

Nov. 3, A letter from a foc;ety, 
lately iniiituted at Cape Francois, un- 
der the name of Da cercle Philadel- 
phes ; with fundry publications by the 
lame fociety. Prelented by dr. Jien- 
jamin Rulh. 

A model and defcription of a ma- 
chine for clearing welts, &c. of per- 
nicious damps or fixed air ; by rar. 
Zbenezer Robinfon of Philadelphia ; 
v;ith a fatisfaftory account of us Ihc- 
cefs. Prefented by dr. S. Duffield. 

Nov. tj. A. letter from mr. John 
Jones, of Suffex county (Delaware) 
accompanying the model of a bridge, 
on an improved plan. Prefented by 
David Rittenhoufe, efq. 

Dec. 1. Part of an exceedingly 
large tooth, of fome unknown fpecies 
of animal. It was lately found at 
Tioga, on the banks of the Siifque- 
hannah, and is entirely difterent from 
the large teeth frequently found on 
the Ohio. Prefented by David Rit- 
lenlionfe, ef), 

D'c. 15. An anonymou'^ paper on 
the fiitijoct of Hove-roonis av.A grei-n- 
h>>i!lei : parriculai ly rctoniniendii^g 



the ufe of a bafon of water, on the 
heated ftovc, in order to mollify the 
air in the flove-room, and render it 
more falubrions. Prefented by Sa- 
mnel Vanghan, efq. 

Jan. ig, 1787, An elegant copy of 
the medical comrnentaries in ten vo- 
lumes, publilhed by dr. Andrew 
Duncan, of Edinburgh, and fent over 
by him, as a donation to the fociety. 
Prefented by the rev. dr. Ewing. , 

Feb. 16. A letter from David Rit- 
tenhoufe, efq. containing a numbef 
of new and curious obfervauons, on 
the generation ot clouds. Diretted to, 
and prefented by Francis Hopkin* 
fon, efq. 

A paper from mr. John Church, 
man, of Nottingham (Maryland) con+ 
taining a new thacry of the variation 
of the magnetic needle, founded on 
the hypotheds of two bodies (befidei 
the moon) revolving round the earthy 
in fmall circles parallel to the equator ; 
one near the niMth p'de, and the o^ 
ther near the fouth pole ; and that the 
needle, being wholly governed by the 
attraflion of thefe magnetic fatellites, 
will, in whatever part of the world, 
always reft in the plane of a circle, 
palling through them and the given 
place. 

April 6. A letter from mr. Da- 
neufville, giving an account of a 
glafs houfe, for the mantifatlory of 
white-glafs, erei-'led by him near Al- 
bany, with a fpecimen of the glafs, 
Prefented by mr. John Vaughan. 

May iS. An elegant copy of a 
treat ife, entitled, '* A defence of the 
conllimiions of the government of the 
united Hates." Written by his excel- 
lency John Adam', and by him pre- 
fented to the fociety, through the 
hands of the prefident, dr. Franklin. 

A letter from the rev, Thomas 
Barne«, and dr. Thomas Henry, fe- 
cretaries of the Manchcfter fociety, 
with two volumes of their tranf- 
aftion?, _ ' 

Two letters from mr. John Whit^- 
hur't, of London, with the fecond 
edition of his " enquiry into the ori- 
ginal Hate and formation of the 
earth." 

A volume of trafl"!, mathemafiral 
and phdofophiral, hy mr. Charles 
Fliiiton, of London. 

A letter from mr. Herfchel, of 
Bath, with a ca'alogue of one thou- 



lygf).] Donations^ Gc. madt to the Fhiladelphia philofophicalfodety. 2x9 



fand nebulae, or clufters of fixed liars 
— all preleiited by dr. Franklin. 

A letter from Francis Hopkinfon, 
efq. diretied to dr. Franklin, with a 
Hrawing and defcnption of a chrono- 
meter, or tune-piece, on a very lim- 
ple conihuthon. 

A paper, containing a drawing and 
defcnpuon of a naulilus, or ferry- 
boat, in which It is propoied, that 
one man (hall work a number ot oars 
or paddles, by the allillance of the 
lever ; by mr. Eneas Lamont, of Bal- 
timore. 

June 15. A letter from the rev. 
Temple Henry Croker, of the ifland 
of St. Chnllophtr ; containing a 
number of expciimenis and obferva- 
tions on maguetilm, particularly the 
•dipping needle, tending to prove, that 
the magnetic inlluence acts in a hori- 
zontal direction ; and therefore can- 
not be owing (accoiding to dr. Hal- 
ley's hypothclis) to a central load- 
ftone. Prefented by dr. Franklin. 

July 13. A letter from Henry 
Laureu>, efq. of South Carolina ; 
with a donation to the fociety of fifty 
pounds Iterlmg, towards the comple- 
tion of their hall. Prefented by Sa- 
muel Yaughan, clq, 

A donation of ten guineas, for the 
fame purpofe, from mr. William 
Vaughan, of London ; prefented b/ 
his brother, mr. John Vaughan. 

Sept. 18. A Iciierfrom mr. Patrick 
WiUon, profeffor of aftronooiy in the 
college of Glafgow, containnpg a ge- 
neral delcription of mr. Heiichel's 
forty feet telefcope, lately mounted, 
with an account of twofatellitcs, which 
he has thereby difcovered, revolving 
round the georg.um lidus. Cominu- 
nicated to, and prefented by dr. 
Franklin. 

A letter from L. S. of New Jer- 
fcy, giving an account of a chimney, 
built fome years ago, and plaillered 
on the infide with mortar, in which a 
quantity of lalt had been mixed. This 
chimney, he oblerves, though never 
fwept, was not in the leaft danger of 
taking fire ; as the moifiure attracted 
by the plailler, during the night, ef- 
pecially in a damp ftate of the atmo- 
ipcre, occafioned the foot to Icale 
off and fall down. Prefented by dr. 
Franklin. 

Sept. 21. A dilfertation, contain- 
ing a number of ingenious experi- 



ments and obfervations on evaporati- 
on in cold air ; by dr. Cafper Willar, 
of Philadelj)hia. Communicaied to, 
and prelenied by dr. Franklin. 

Defcnption of a fpring-block, de- 
figned to allift veflels in failing ; by a 
candidate for Magellan's prize medal. 
The motto-" Vires acquintcedcndo.'' 
A paper, " entitled, the dilcovery 
of the means of finding the longi- 
tude :" by another candidaie for the 
prize medal. 1 he motto — " Meafure 
a thing without an end." 

061. 5. A paper, in French, giving 
a particular account of a remarkable 
diilcmper, which raged among cattle 
in thelouthern parts of Montargis, du- 
ring the year J 784. By M.Gallillier. 

A paper from Timothy Matlack, 
efq. and dr. Wiftar, of Philadelphia ; 
giving an account and delcription of 
part of a thigh-bone, of fome un- 
known fpecifs of animal, of enor- 
mous fize ; lately found near Wood- 
biiry-creek, in Glouceller county. 
New Jerfey. By a companfon of 
meafurcs, it appears, that the animal, 
to which this bone belonged, muii 
have exceeded in lize the largell of 
thofe v.hofe bones have been found 
on the Ohio, of which vjc have any 
account, in the proportion of about 
ten to fcven ; and mull have been 
nearly double the ordinary hze of the 
elephant. 

A letter from mr. Robert Patter- 
fon, of Philadelphia; coniaming an 
explanation, on the principles of hy- 
droltatics, of that curious phenome- 
non firit obferved by dr. Franklin, 
viz. that when a glafs tumbler, about 
two thirds filled with equal parts of 
water and oil, is moved gently, back- 
wards and forwards ; or made to 
f'.ving at the end of a chord, like the 
pendulum of a clock, the furface of 
the water, in conraft with the oil 
floating upon it, will be thrown into 
a violent, wave-like .commotion ; 
while the upper furface of the oil will 
remain comparatively placid and even. 
The doflor, in relating this experi- 
ment, which he do^s not himfelf ex- 
plain, obferves, " thai having (hewn 
it to a number of ingenious perfoii':, 
thofe who are but flightly acquainted 
with the principles of hydroflatics, 
&c. are apt to fancy immediately, 
that they nnderfland it, and readily 
attempt to expkin it ; but that their 



Mmorial and petition of the public creditors to Congrrfs. [Sept, 



explanations have been different, and 
to him not very intelligible. That 
others, more deeply Ikilled in thole 
principles, feem to wonder at it, and 
pronuie to confider it." PrefeiUed 
by dr. Rulli (To be continued.) 
..<>-,^^<^^^ ...... 

To his excellency the prefident, and 
the honumable ihefeiiate and houfe 
of reprefeniatives of the united 
flates. 

The memorial and petition of the 
public creditors wlio are citizens 
of tfie commonwealtk of Pennjyl- 
vania, by their committee, duly 
authorijcd and injtruiied, 
Moll refpeflfully Ihew, 

THAT your memoriahfts, influ- 
enced by a faithful and uniform 
actachnient to the happinefs and glo- 
ry of their country, behold, with pe- 
culiar latisfachon, the eilablifhment 
of a government which is exprefsly 
conftituted to promote and perpetuate 
union, order, and juftice, the great 
fources of national profperity. And, 
when they conddcr the characiers that 
are appointed to organize and adminif- 
ter this iyllem, they embrace the moit 
flattering hope, that, in its execution, 
will be found an ample performance 
of the aulpicious promifes, which 
are contained in its principles. From 
this anticipjiion, indeed, your niemo- 
rialifts, whofc fervices and futtenngs 
in the public caufe, cannot require a 
particular attellation, have derived 
ihat confolation, which the inibecit- 
lity of the former union, and the po- 
litical viciffitudes of their own imme- 
diate {late, would not permit them to 
indulge. 

In the hour of extreme necefTity, 
when complicated want enfeebled, 
and impending ruin agitated, their 
country, your memorialifts avow an 
honourable pride, in the remembrance 
of the exertions by which they then 
ellentially contributed to her protec- 
tion and fafety. At the fame time 
that they partook of the toils and 
dangers of active life, and fullered in 
the rumous depreciation of the paper 
cjriency, at leal! in common with 
rlieirfellow-c;tizens ; the wealth which 
liad been tranfmittcd to them by their 
"antellors, or accumulated by their in- 
Miiilrv — the fund which prudence had 
^loai'led to adminiller Cf>mfort to old 



age — and the fupply which humanity 
had provided for the helpleis infant, 
or the loliiary widow, they advanced 
with a liberal and patriotic hand t» 
relieve the exigencies of the union. 
The public faith was pledged, by eve- 
ry loleinnity of alfurance — the honour 
of the Hates was bound, by every tic 
of gratitude, to compenfaie fo me- 
morable a lacnfice of private intereft 
and perfonal immunity. Yet your 
memorialifts, calling your attention to 
a melancholy retrolpetl, might remind 
you of the ineffettiial, though virtu« 
ous, efforts of the late congrefs to dif- 
charge the national engagements- 
might deicnbe the apparent difregard 
of the Hates, for their confederated 
lovercigiuy, though recently pur- 
chaied through a long and bloody con- 
llid; and, in the language of calami- 
ty and complaint, might deplore the 
difappointinent, the poverty, the 
wretchcdnefs, and the anguifh which 
affli8ed the hrll and firmeil patriots 
of (he union ; excluding them from a 
participation in the triumphs of inde- 
pendence, and embittering their love 
of liberty, with a painful fenfe of the 
injuries which they fuftained. Such 
reflexions, however, your memo- 
rialifls cheerf'illy dilmifs, in the con- 
templation of that compatl, which, 
providing for the dignity and honour 
of the union, has made the payment 
of the public debt a fundamental prin- 
ciple of the government, and, having 
impofed the obligation, has alfo cre- 
ated an adequate power todifcharge it. 
But your niemorialifls now humbly 
confefs, that they have waited, in 
anxious fufpenfe, for fome evidence 
of the difpofition of congrefs, upon 
this intereiling fubjefl. They admit 
the general importance of the arrange- 
ments which have occupied the atten- 
tion of the federal legiflatiire ; and 
they particularly rejoice in the foun- 
dations that have been laid, for the 
produtlion of an efficient revenue. 
Thele, however, are but preliminary 
Heps to the artainment of the princi- 
pal object (^f the new Iyllem ; and, 
fhould congrefs adjourn, without any 
more decilive atf, for the rrnoraiion 
of pjiblic credit, the mere inflitiition 
of offices, or the regulation of im- 
pofls. will hardly proteft the Ameri- 
can charattcr from the dcrifion of its 
enemies, or the reproa-ches of thofc,- 



1789.] Memorial and (ntition of the public creditor's to congr-cfs. 22i 



who have hiiherto thought that the 
want of power was us only imper- 
feHion. 

Your memoriitlills, with the ut- 
molt deference, beg leave to reprefent, 
tliat public credit is the vital Ipark of 
jiiodtrn policy ; for the hiftory of the 
world demonrtrates, that, whatever 
may be the extent of territory, the de- 
gree of population, or the fertility of 
loil, unlefs the faith of national en- 
gagemerrts IS placed upon a bafis invio- 
Jable and immutable, the advantages 
of nature will be loft in the uncer- 
tainty of their enjoyment ; and go- 
vernment will afford no encourage- 
ment to niduflry, or proteftion to 
virtue ; but, while it oppredes with 
its power, mud corrupt by its exam- 
ple. The domeftic experience of 
America renders it unnecelFary, in- 
deed, to explore the annals of ancient 
or cotemporary nationSj in order to 
colletl this falutary lelTon ; and there 
is only wantmg, an exercife of that 
wifdom, which it inculcates, to con- 
Vert her calamity into a blelhng, and 
make the remembrance of what has 
been loft, the inftrument of fecuring 
what may yet be acquired. The de- 
cay of public creditj engendering li- 
centioufnefs and anarchy, has once 
threatened the perveriion of all that 
was noble in her exertions, and the 
wafte of all that was valuable in her 
fuccefs. To avert a fimilar danger, 
the moll urtequnocal demonftration 
of an intention to reftore the faith 
and purity of her name, is naturally 
expeHed, from the guardians of the 
public intereft and honour. And 
your memorialifts now fervently pray 
them to confider, that procraftination, 
in a bufinefs of fo delicate a nature, 
may be as fatal, as a defect of power, 
or a want of difpofition to be juft. 

In the refources of the union, your 
memorialifts difcover an ample fund, 
and in the condufl: of their fellow- 
citizens, they perceive a fair and ho- 
nourable defire to difcharge the en- 
gagements which were incurred in 
the common caufe. The only tafk, 
therefore, that feems to be impofed 
upon the prefent government, is to 
adopt that mode, which (hall be bell: 
calculated to promote the public wel- 
fare, at the fame time that itdoes juf- 
tice to the individuals who are inter- 
pit(^d. Immediately 'o pay off the 

Vol. VI. No, III, 



public debt, principal and interefi, 
if not imprathcable, would be greatly 
inconvenient, and is certainly unnccef- 
fary ; for the example of thoie na- 
tions, who enjoy the higheft commer- 
cial reputation, has evinced, that at 
permanent appropriation for the punc- 
tual payment of the intereft, will en- 
able the public creditor to enjoy, by 
the facility of a transfer, all the ad- 
vantages of the principal, without in- 
juring the credit of the counti73 or 
iirainmg her refources. 

Your memorialifts, in addition to 
thefe obfervations, beg leave refpert- 
fully to I'uggeft, that it has been the 
deliberate opinion of fomeof the moft. 
enlightened ftatefmen, that a certain 
amount of funded debt (and finely the 
debt of the united ftates would not be 
deemed too great) is a national bene- 
fit. The creation of a new fpecies 
of money by this means, naturally in- 
creafes the circulation of calh, and 
extenfively promotes every kind of 
ufeful undertaking and enterprize, in 
agriculture, commerce, and mecha- 
nics. On this ground, alone, there- 
fore, the advantages of a funding fyl- 
tem would be fufficient to juitify us 
ellablifiiment ; but there are other ar- 
guments, arifing from the political li- 
tuation of America, which ought to' 
render it particularly an objctT: of 
favour and attention. It has been 
well maintained, that, after the revo- 
lution in England, a funding lyllerrt 
was there encouraged, as the belt 
means of attaching the great and pow- 
erful body of ftockholders 10 the go- 
vernment. The policy, which pre- 
vailed in that cafe, is inlinitciy 
more forcible, when applied tc the 
cafe of the united ftates — for, the cre- 
dit of the union being perfetlly efta- 
blifticd, every citizen, who v/as not 
originally, will be deurous of bee om- 
ing, a proprietor in the public fu nds,* 
Thofe individuals, who may huh erm 
have been inimical to the principles 
of the revolution, or avcrie 10 ithe 
adoption of the fubfifting conftitut on, 
vrill be irreliftibly invited to partake 
of the benefits, and confequcntly to' 
promote the profperity of the confe- 
deration — each ftate will find an in- 
tereft in the welfare and punclualitv'' 
of the reft — the federal goverrtment 
will be zealoufty fnp)jorted, as a ge- 
neral guarantee; and, in ftiortya del>t- 



»t1 



Addrefs to the prejide?it of the united Jlate-s. 



[September, 



originating in the patriotifm that at- 
chieved the independence, may thus 
be converted into a cement, iliat fhall 
ftrengthen and perpetuate the union 
of America. 

Your memoriallfls conceive, that it 
would be luperfliious to profeciite a de- 
tail of the immediate or collaiera! bene- 
fits, which a funding fyftem wotiic! pro- 
duce, whether by Hiniulating domeftic 
induftry, or attracting foreiJii capitals 
to the aid of the hufDandmen, mer- 
»:hants, and artifls of America. It is 
enough, in this refpett, to urge, that 
jullice, humanity, and policy, require 
the earlieft confideration of the claim, 
which is now refpetlfully iubinitied. 
Nor can it be incumbent on your me- 
morialifts to obviate the fug'^eflions 
of that pernicious policy, which aims 
at once to plunder thtm of their only 
hope, awd to undermine the founda- 
tions of an infant government, even 
before the flrutlure is complete. Let 
it not be recorded in the hiliory of 
the revolution, that, while the mo- 
narchy of Britain generoufly cherifh- 
ed and indemnified every friend to 
prerogative and ufurpation, a trium- 
phant republic fuffered the prompt and 
zealous fupporters of the flaiidard of 
hberty, to languifli in a fad and ne- 
ceflitous obfcurity, to lament over 
thofe vouchers of property and fer- 
vices, that tend at once, to remind 
them of the equality which they for- 
merly maintained among their fellow- 
citizens — to mark their prefent low- 
line^fs and penury — and to fligmatize 
the wanton ingratitudeof theirrountry. 

When, indeed, it is conhdered, 
that many of the members of your 
honourable body have alfo been afieft- 
ed by the deftruftive operations and 
expedients of the late war — and that 
all are in the aftual enjoyment of that 
fovereignty, which has been princi- 
pally purchafed by the perfonal exer- 
tions and voluntary aids of luch as are 
denominated public creditors--it would 
be unjull to the feeling, integrity, and 
gratitude of thofe, whom they now 
addrefs, were your memoriahfts for a 
moment to admit a fuppofition, that a 
folemn appeal, thus brought before 
you, in the name of fo numerous a 
clafs of meritorious citizens, could 
be neglefled or forgotten. 

By the glorious remembrance there- 
fore, of the paft-^by the rich profpeti 



of the future— by the obligationt, 
which the rcprcfentatives of the pub- 
lic owe lo the furvivmg orphans and 
widows of thoff, who have bravely 
fought the battles of the union, or 
nobly fupplicd its wants, in the times' 
of peril and diftrefs — and by the re- 
gard which is due to the peace and 
happinefs of poflenty — your petition- 
ers implore your immediate aid and, 
inlerpohiion, rejoicing that their hum- 
ble folicitaiion for jullice and huma- 
nity, neccffanly includes a prayer for 
the revival of public credit, and the 
advancement of the national honour. 
Mathcu) Clarkfori, Jofepli Ball, 
Charles Pttit, Samuel Milrs, 

Thomas L. Moore, Peter ^ihojf, 
Chr. Mar/hall, jun. John Chaloner, 
Rohert Smith, Thomas M^Kean, 

James Milligan, John Nixon, 
Jon. D. Sergeant, IValter Stewart, 
Richard Fuller ton, B. M'Clenachan, 
Philadelphia, Augvjl -il, i/Sg. 



To the PRESIDENT of the 
jinited Jlates. 

The addrejs of the minijlers and el' 
ders oj the German reformed con- 
gregations in the united Jlates, at 
their general meeting, held at Phi' 
ladclphia. on the i ^tk day of June ^ ■ 

WHILST the infinite good- 
nefs of almighty God, in his 
gracious Providence over the people 
of the united Hates of AiT>erica, calls, 
for our hnccrelf and moft cordial.gra- 
titiide to Plim that ruleth fupremely, 
and ordereth all things in heaven and 
on earth, iti unerring wifdom and 
righteoufnefs ; the happy, the peace- 
able eAablifhment of the new govern- 
ment, over which you fodefervcdlypre- 
fide, cannot fail, but infpire our fouls 
with new and the moft lively emo- 
tions of adoration, praife, and thankf- 
giving unto his holy name. 

As it is our moft firm purpofe t» 
fupport in our perfons, a government 
foifnded in juflice and equity, fo it 
fliall be our conflant duly to imprefs 
the minds of the people, entrufted to 
our care. with a due fenfe of the ne- 
cf-lfity of uniting reverence to furh a 
fiovernmi^nt, and obedience to il.' 
laws, with the duties and exercifes of 
religion. Thus we hope, by the 
bL'ifing of God, to be in fonie mea- 



^V 



t7^9.] 



Account of the penitentiary- koufe at Wymondkam» 



223 



fure inRnimental in alleviafing the 
burden of that weii^hty and iinportant 
charge, to which you have been call- 
ed by the unanimous voice of your 
fellow- citizens, and which your love 
to your country has conllrained you to 
take upon you. 

Deeply polIefTed of a fenfe of the 
goodnefs of God, in the appoint- 
ment of your perfon 10 the highell 
flation in the national government, 
we fliall continue, in our public wor- 
fliip, and all our devotions before the 
throne of f,race, to pray, that it may 
pleafe God to blefs you in your per- 
fon, your family, and your govern- 
ment, with all temporal and fph-uual 
blelFings, in Chrift Jefus. 

Signed by order of the meeting, 
W. HENDEL, p. t. pricfe^, 
F. DELLIKER, p. t. fcnba- 

A N S ^V E R . 

Gentlemen, 

I AM happy in conjcurring with 
you in the fentiments of gratitude 
and piety towards almighty God, 
which are expreflcd with luch fer»en- 
cy of devotion in your addrcfs : and 
in believing that I (hall always find in 
you, and the German reformed con- 
gregations in the united Oates, a con- 
datt coriefpondeiit to luch worihy 
and pious exprefTions. 

At the fame, time I retifrn you my 
thanks for the manifcftation of your 
firm purpofe, to fupport in your per- 
f«ns, a governmeni founded in jiillice 
and equuy ; and, for the promilc, that 
it will be your conflant lludy to im- 
prefs the mmds of the people, en- 
truftcd to your care, with a due fei\fe 
of the nece!hiy of uniting reverence 
to fuch a government, and obedience 
to its laws, with the duties ajid exer- 
eifes of religion. Be allured, gen- 
tlemen, it is, by fuch conduft, very 
much in the power of the virtuous 
members of the community, to alle- 
viate the burden of the important of- 
fice which I have accepted, and to 
give me occafion to rejoice in this 
world, for having followed therein 
the diflates of my confcience. 

Be pleafed alfo to accept my ac- 
knowledgments for the intereft you fo 
kindly take in the profpenty of my 
perfon, family, and adminiftration. 
May your devotions before the throne 



of grace be prevalent in calling down 
the blelhngs of heaven upon your- 
felves and your country. 

George Washington, 



Mr. Carey, 
THE following interefling letters 
from Sir Charles Beevor, deferve to 
be preferved as Handing moniunents 
oi: the connexion between humanity 
and public happinefs. They prove 
the following particulars, relative to 
the new fyftein of punifhments : 

1. I hat labour is one of the firft 
and beil means of reforming crimi- 
nals. 

2. That this labotiris moft effeflual, 
when it is alliited hy folitude. The 
f.>l!owing lines ot Shakefpeare, may 
be applied to every man, who is made 
theprUoner of his own reflections. 

*' ConJideration\\k& an angel came, 
" And whipt th' offending Adam 
'■ out of him." 

3. Ihele letters prove that the new 
fyliem of punifliments has a greater 
etfett in deterring from crimes, than 
the old mode of public punifhments. 

4. They prove, further, that the 
■ houfes, appropriated for the purpofe 

of reforming criminals, yield a profit 
to the (late. 

And, laRly, they demonnrate, that 
the reformation, produced in the cri- 
minals by means of labour and foli- 
tude, was fincere and durable, except 
in one indance. 

By giving thefe letters a place in 
your ufeful Mufeum, you will oblige 
many of your Readers. 

May 28, 1789. 

An account oj" the origin, progre/s, 
and regulations, with a de/cription 
of the nezi.dy-ejlablijlied Bridewell, 
or P cnitcntiary- Houfe ^iWymond- 
ham, in Norfolk. By Sir Thomas 
Beevor, iart. addrejfed to theje- 
cretary of the BathyirzV/)'. 

Sir, 

ONE avocation in which I have 
lately been engaged, I will re- 
late to you. Having read mr. How- 
ard's book, defcribing the ffate and 
condition of our prifons, it naturally 
led my thoughts to that fubjecL The 
idea, that as many prifoners died 
yearly in England by the jail- dijierrt' 



824 Account of the penitentiary- houfe at Wymondkam. [September, 

per, as by all the executions put to- 
gether; and the accounts of the diiro- 
luietiels and profligacy, which, by 
the intermixture of them, were learnt 
and pratbled in thofe places of con- 
finement, determined me to attempt, 
at lead, a reformation of thofe crying 
evils, in this toiinty. 

Happily my wiflies met the ideas of 
the othcrgentlemen atting in thccom- 
miiiion of the peace here ; and to 
their great honour, by their unani- 
mous concurrence and alfiftance, I 
have been able to get eretted a new 
Bridewell and Penuentiary-houfe at 
Wymondham, built upon fuch a plan, 
as enables the governor to keep the 
iexesand degrees of offenders entirely 
feparate from each oiher, and under 
inch regulations and difcipline, as 
promife, with God's blelfing, to work 
a thorough reformation m their man- 
ners, whereby they may, and many 
probably will,, again become iifeful 
members of fociety. The houfe is 
ronflrucfed agreeably to the direftions 
of the late aft of parliament, and fo 
contrived, that there are feparate cells 
for each prifoner, airy, neat, and 
healthy ; in which they fieep, and, 
when neceflary, work the whole day 
aione. This folitudcis found to affett 
the moft unfeeling and hardened a- 
mong th-^m, beyond fetters or ilnpcs ; 
and is that pare of their punifhrnent, 
from which reformation is chiefly ex- 
pcfled. Their cells are ail arched, fa 
that no fire can reach beyond the cell 
in which it begins. The rules and 
orders for the government of the 
houfe, were, at the dcfire of the 
jullices at their quarter fclfions, drawn 
up from, and according to, the di- 
rc6Hons of the faid atl, by myfelf, 
and have met with their approbation. 

Lord Loughborough, who came 
this circuit at our lad alhzes, exprellcd 
himfelf fo well pleafed with the plan 
and regulations, that he told me he 
would fend thiiher every convitf fen- 
tenced to confinement, and accord- 
ingly fent fix from the aflizes. As 
this attention to the lives and morals 
of thofe unhappy members of iociety 
flioiild be extended, I will, by the fird 
opportuniiy, if you defire it, fcr.d you 
a copy of the rules and orders of the 
houif, togeiher with the returns con- 
it:^r.tly made by the governor to each 
ffiiarier feffions, by which you will fee 



efFefted, what mr. Lloward defpaired 
of, VIZ. " that the prifoners' earnings 
in the houfe have uniformly exceed- 
ed the fum expended for their main- 
tenance." I wifh and hope this ex-, 
ample may excite a like attention in 
other counties. 

I am, &c. 

Thomas Bee vor. 
Hethel-Hall, Norfolk, 
Dec. 21, 1784. 

LETTER I I. 

Hetkel, Jan. 20, t/iS^, 
S I R, 

I Herewith tranfmit you a copy of 
the rules, orders, and regulations, 
to be obferved and enforced at the 
houfe of corredion at Wymondhain ; 
and which are alfo now extended to 
the other houfes of correftion in this 
county. If they appear fevere, let it be 
underftood, they are the fevcrities of 
the legiOature, not of the compiler. 
The fird leven rules are inferred ver- 
batim from the fchedule, to the aft of 
the 22d of his prefent majelly. The 
red are either included in the body of 
the fame aft, or required by the aft 
of the 19th, called, The Penitentiary 
Aft. hut I will make no apology 
for them ; nor can I, with any pro- 
priety, deem them too hardi, fince 
they have met with the entire appro- 
bation of the gentlemen of this coun- 
ty, as well as that of the judges of 
the allizc, who have perufed them. 

Prifons, furely, fiiould be places of 
real puniflimeni, and even carry ter- 
ror in their name. I am certain they 
ought not to afford either indulgencies 
or amuicmcnts, to the perfons con- 
figned to them, However, I mud 
obferve, that perfons commttcd for 
fmall oilcnces, or on light fufpicion, 
are under lefs redrainf. They are al- 
lowed to work in fome fort of fociery, 
two, three, or four together ; and if 
the houfe be full, they fometimes 
lodge two in a cell, and are never 
fettered. All the prifoners, when 
fick, are attended by a fiirgeon or 
apothecary, with as much alfiduity 
and tendernefs, as the greated huma- 
nity can recpjire. 

I have fent you, likewife, a table 
of the prifoners' fai'e or diet in the 
houfe ; by which you will fee thar, 
although not pampered, ibey arc 
wholfomcly fed. Experieoce judi- 



;89.] 



Account of the ptnitcntiary-hoiifc at Wymoniham. 



fics me in faying this ; for except fuch 
as were difealcd, when iKey entered 
the houfe, 1 have not known one 
prifoner who has been ficii in it for 
thefe twelve months pall. Included 
is alio the form of a return made by 
\\yz keeper of the houfe, to every 
quarter lelfions of the peace, whereby 
the Hate ot the pnlon is conllantly 
known to the jalhces, and alt abufes 
obviated, or fpeedily ren:iedied. 
I am, &c. 

Thomas B e e v o r . 

Rules, orders, and regulations, to he 
vlijcrved and enforced at the kovfcs 
oj correction, in the county o_f A'or- 
folk. 

I. That the fcveral perfons, com- 
mitted to the houfes of correction, to 
be kept to hard labour, fliall be em- 
ployed (unlcfs prevented by ill healih) 
every day (except Sundays, Chrifl- 
mas-day, and good-Friday) for fo ma- 
ny hours as the day-light in the differ- 
ent feafons of the year will admit, not 
exceeding twelve hours ; being allow- 
ed to reft half an hour at breakfafi, an 
hour at dinner, and half an hour at 
fupper; and that the intervals (hall 
be noticed by the ringing of a bell. 

II. That the governor of each 
houfe of corretlion fliall adapt the va- 
rious employment directed by thejuf- 
ticc";, at their quarter felhons, to each 
perfon, in fuch manner, as fiiall be 
beft fuiied to his or her (Irengih and 
ability, regard being had to age and 
fex. 

III. That the males and females 
fliall be employed, and fliall eat, and 
be lodged, in feparatc apartments, 
and fliail have no intercourfe or com- 
municatiJ^n with each oihcr. 

IV. That every perfon, fo com- 
mitted, fliall be fiiflained with bread, 
and any coarfe but wholfome food, 
and water : but perfons under the care 
of the phvlician, fcrgeon, or apothe- 
cary, fliaii have fuch food and liquors, 
as he Ihall diretl. 

V. That the governor, and fuch 
other perfons, (if any) employed by 
the juilices to aillft the governor, fliall 
be very watchful and attentive, in 
feeing that the perfons fo committed, 
are conflantly employed during the 
hours of work ; and if any perfon 
uiall be found remifs or negligent, in 
performing what is required to be 



225 

done by fuch perfon, to the beft of 
his or her power and ability, or fliall 
wilfully wailc, fpoil, or damage the 
goods committed to his or her care, 
the governor fliall punifli everv fuch 
perfDn, in the manner hereafter di- 
rected. 

VI. That if any perfon, fo com- 
mitted, fliall refufe to obey the orders 
given by the governor, or fliall bs 
guilty ot profane curfing or fwearinc, 
or of any indecent behaviour or ex- 
preflson, or of any aflault, quarrel, or 
abiihve words, to or with any other 
perfon, lie or fiie fliall be punilhed 
fir the fame, in the manner hereafter 
direftcd. 

VII. That the governor fliall have 
power to punifli the feveral otft^nders, 
tor the offences herein before defcrib- 
ed, by clofer confinement, and fliail 
enter in a book (to be kept by him for 
the infpeftion of the juflices, at the 
quarter fefhons, and the vifuingjuf- 
tice or jiiltices) the name of every 
perfon who (hall be fo puniflied, ex- 
prefling the offence, and the durati- 
on of the putrfliment inflicled. 

VIII. That the governor fliall 
prevent all communication between 
the perfons committed upon charges 
ot felony, or convicted of theft or 
larceny, and the other prifoners. 

IX. That the governor flial! em- 
ploy in fome work or labour (which is 
not fevere) all fuch prifoners as are 
kept and maintained by tlie county, 
though by the warrant of commit- 
ment, fuch prifoner was mn ordered 
to be kept to hard labour ; and he 
fliall keep a feparate account of the 
work done by prifoners of this de- 
icription, and fliall pay half of the net 
]iroHts to them, on their difcharge, 
and not before. 

X. That the governor, nor any 
one under him, ihail fell anv thing 
ufed in thehoule, nor have any benefit 
or advantage whatfoever, directly or 
indireftly, from the fale of any thing, 
under the penalty of ten pounds, and 
difmiffion from his empinyment ; nei- 
ther fliall he fiitfer any wine, ale, 
fpiritous, or other liquors, to be 
brought into the houfe, unlefs for a 
medical purpofe, by a written order 
trom the furgeon or apothecary, ufu- 
ally attending there. 

XI. T. hat clean flraw to lodge up- 
on, fhall be allowed to each prifoner 



««6 



Letter from an Indian chief to hii friend. (3c. 



[September, 



weekly or oftener If neceffary ; and 
thar the prifoners fliall be obliged to 
^wcev' out and clean their rooms eve- 
ry day, and the dirt and diiit be con- 
veyed out of the prifon daily. 

XII. That no perfon, without 
permiirion of a vifiting jultice, Ihall 
go into the lodging-rooms, or fee 
or converfe with any pnloner com- 
mitted upon a charge of felony, or 
convicted of a theft or larceny ; and 
all the prifoners fhall, every night in 
the year, be locked up, and all lights 
extinguiihed, at or before the hour of 
nine ; and fiiall, during red, be kept 
entirely feparate, if rooms fufficient 
can be found for that purpofe, and, 
during their labour, as much feparate 
as their ennployment will admit of. 

XIII. That the governor may put 
handcuffs or fetters upon any prifoner 
•who IS refraflory, or fiieA's a difpofi- 
tion to break out of prifon ; but he 
{hall give notice thereof to one of 
ihe vifiliiig jiillices, within forty-eight 
hours after the prifoner (hall be lo 
fettered, and (liall not continue fuch 
fettering longer than fix days, without 
an order in writing, from one of the 
vifiting juftices, 

XIV. That every prifoner be o- 
bliged to walh his face and hands 
once, at leatt, every day, before his 
bread be given to him. 

XV. That each prifoner be allow- 
ed a cl(»an ihirt once in a week. 

XVI. That the three prohibitory 
claufesof the 24th, George II. chap, 
^o, be painted on a board, and hung 
up in fom5 confpicuoiis part of the 
prifon, together with a printed copy 
of thefe rules, orders, and regula- 
tions. 

(To he continued.) 

•••«-<^<^ ^e> •■■<>•■• 

Letter from an Indian chief to his 
Jriftidin the Jlate of New York. 
Dear fir, 

YOUR letter came fafe to hand. 
To give you entire fatisfaflion, 
1 muft, I perceive, enter into the dif- 
^uifion of a fubjeft, on which 1 have 
often thought. My thoughts were my 
own, and being fo different from the 
ideas eniertaincd among your people, 
I Ihonld have certainly carried them 
with me to the grave, had I not re- 
crivrd yo'ir obbging favour. You 
•^ik nv\ then, whciher, in my opinion, 



civilization is favourable to human 
happmels ? Inanfwcr to the quelhon, 
it may be obferved, that there are de- 
grees of civilization from Carnbals to 
the mod police European nations ; the 
qiieltion is not, whether a degree of 
refinement is not conducive to hap- 
p nefs, but, whether you, or the na- 
tives of this land, have obtained the 
happy medium ? On this fubjett, we 
are at prefent, I prefume, of very 
different opinions ; you will, however, 
allow me m lome refpetls to have had 
the advantage of you in forming my 
judgment. I was, fir, born of Indian 
parents, and lived, while a child, a- 
mong thofe you are pleafed to call fa- 
vages ; I was afterwards fent to live 
among the white people, and educated 
at one of your Ichools ; fince which 
per.od, I have been honoured, much 
beyond ray delerts, by an acquaintance 
with a number of principal characters 
both in Europe and America. After 
all this experience, and after every 
exertion todiveli myfelf of prejudice, I 
am obliged to give my opinion infavoiir 
of my own people. 1 will now, as well 
as I am able, collect together and let 
before you, fome of the reafons that 
have influenced my fentiments on the 
fubjeft before us. 

In the governments you call civili- 
zed, the happinefsof the people is con- 
fiantly facriHced to the fplendor of 
empire ; hence your code of civil and 
criminal laws have had their origin ; 
and hence your dungeons and prilons, 
I will not enlan>e on an idea fo fin- 
gular in civilized life, and perhaps dil- 
agrecable to you ; and will only ob- 
ferve, that among us, wc have no law 
but that written on the heart of every 
rationalcreaiure by the immediate fin- 
ger of the oreat Spirit of the univerfe 
himfelf. We have no prifons — we 
have no pompous parade of courts ; 
and yet judges are as highly efteemed 
among us, as they are among you, 
and their decifions as highly revered ; 
property, to fay the leafl, is as well 
guarded, and crimes are as impartial- 
ly punifhed. We have among us no 
fplendid villains, above the controiil 
of that law, which influences our de- 
cifions; in a word, we Inve no rob- 
bery under the colour of law — daring 
wickednels here is never fuffered to 
triumph over hclplefs innocence — the 
eflaies of widows and Ofphans are ne- 



J 789.] 



ImpraElkability of a north tuejlernpajfaget &c. 



227 



yer devoured by enterprilui^ (harpers. 
! Our fathems, ;ind our warriors, eat 
their own bread, and nut the bread 
of wreichednefs. No perlon, among 
us, dehres any other rc.vard for per- 
forming a brave and worthy action, 
than the conlcioufnefs of ferving his 
nation. Our wife men are called fa- 
thers — they are truly deferving the 
charafter; they are always acceiTible 
— I will not fay to the meaneft of our 
people — for we have none mean, but 
fuch as render ihemfelves fo by their 
vices. 

Civilization creates a thoufand ima- 
ginary wants, that continually diflrefs 
the human mind. 1 remember to 
have read, wh;le at one of your 
fchools, the faying of a philofopher 
to this purport, " (he real wants of 
human nature are very few ;" on this 
maxim our people prachfe, without 
ever having learned to read. We do 
not hunger and thirfl after thofe fa- 
pcrfluitics of life, that are the ruin of 
thoufands of families among you. Our 
ornamenis, m general, are (impie, and 
eahly obiamed. Envy and covetouf- 
nefs, thofe worms that deftroy the 
fair flower of human happinefs, are 
unknown in this climate. 

The palaces and prifons among you, 
form a moll dreadful contraft. Go 
to the former places, and you Will 
fee, perhaps, a deformed piece of 
earth fwelled with pride, and affum- 
ing airs, that become none but the 
Spirit above. Go to one of your pri- 
fons — here defcription utterly fails ! — 
certainly the fight of an Indian tor- 
ture, is not half fo painful to a well 
informed mind. Kill them, if you 
pleafc — kill them, too, by torture ; 
but let the torture laft no longer than 
a day. Let it be, too, of fuch a na- 
ture, as has no tendency to unman the 
human mind. Give them an oppor- 
tunity, by their fortitude in death, of 
entitling themfelves to the fympathy 
of the human race, inftead of exciting 
in them the morufying reflexion of 
being enveloped in the gulph of eter- 
nal infamy. Thofe you call favages, 
relent — the mofl furious of our tor- 
mentors exhaufts his rage in a few 
hours, and difpatches the unhappy 
victim with a fudden ftroke. 

But for what are many of your 
prifoners confined ? For debt ! Afto- 
oifliing \ and will you ever again call 



the Indian nations cruel? — Liberty, 
to a rational creature, as much exceeds 
property, as the light of the fun does 
that of the moft twinkling liar: but 
you put them on a level, (■> the ever- 
lafting dkigrace of civilization. Let 
me a(k, is there any crime in being in 
debt ? While I lived among ihe white 
people, I knew many of the rnoft 
amiable charafters contrail debts, and 
I dare fay with the bell intentions. 
Both parties at the time of the con- 
trart, expefted to find their advan- 
tage. The debtor, I fuppofc, by a 
train of unavoidable misfortunes, fails. 
Here is no critne, nor even a fault ; 
and yet your lav;s put it in the power 
of that creditor, to throw the debtor 
into jail, and confine him there for 
life : a punifliment infinitely worfe 
than death to a brave man. And I 
ferioufly declare, that I had rather 
die by the mofl fevere tortures ever 
inflifted by any favage nation on the 
continent, than languifh in one of 
your prifons for a fingle year. Great 
Maker (>f the world ! and do you call 
yourfelves chriftians ? I have read 
your bible formerly, and fiiould have 
thought it divine, if the praflice of the 
moll zealous profelTorhad correfpond- 
ed with his profelfions. Does then 
the religion of him whom you cajl 
your Saviour, iniiiire ih;s conduct, 
and lead to this practice? Surely 110. 
It was a fentence that once ftruck my 
mind with fome f«)rce, that ' a brnifed 
reed he never broke.' Ceafe then, 
while thefe praflices coniuiue among 
you, to call yourfelves chnllians, left 
you pubiifli to the world your hypo- 
crify. Ceafe to call other nations fa- 
vage, while you are tenfold more the 
children of cruelty, than they." 

On the imprnBicahiiity of a pajfage 
into the Pacific ocean, round the 
north zofji part of America. 

BESIDES thofe voyages, which 
fatisfy us that we rauft not look 
for a palTage on this fide the latitude 
of 67 degrees north, we are indebted 
to the Hudfon's Bay company for a 
journey by land, which throws much 
additional light on this matter, by af- 
fording what may be called demonftra- 
tion, how much farther north, at 
leafl in fome parts of their voyage, 
Ihips mufi go, before they can pafs 



228 



ImpraBicaliility of a ncrlh xoejlcrn pajfage, &c. [September^ 



from one . fide of America to the 
other. 

Ihe nonhcrn InHiaiT;, who come 
down lo the fornp:in\ 's factories to 
trade, had brought ro the knowledge 
of our peojjl'', a river, which, on ac- 
count of much copper being found 
near it, had obtained the name of the 
Copper-mme River. The company 
directed nir, Hearne, a youn.q; .«entie- 
jnan in their fcrvice, to proceed over 
land, (Wider the convoy of tho{e In- 
dians, for that Dvcr, winch he had or- 
ders to furvey, ifpo(hl)le, quite down 
to il<< exit into the fca ; to make ob- 
fervaiions for fixing the latitudes and 
longitr.des ; and to hrini; home maps 
and drawiiiti^jboih of u. and the coun- 
tries through which he (uould pafs. 

Accordingly, mr. Uearne fet out 
from Prince of Wales's Fort, on 
Churchill River, in lat. 58. 47^,. N. 
' longitude, 94. 7. W. on the 7ih of 
December, 1770; and all his pro- 
ceedings arc regularly recorded in a 
well-wntien journal, the publication 
of which would be a very acceptable 
prefent to the world, if he could be 
prevailed on to give it ; as it draws a 
plain, artlefs pifture of the favage 
modes of life, the fcanty means of 
fubfiilenre, and indeed the fingular 
wretf hednrG, in every rctpefJ, of the 
various tiibe^, who, without fixed ha- 
bitations, pafs their miferable lives in 
roving over the dreary deferts and 
frozen lakes of the immenle traft of 
continent through which mr. Hearne 
palfed, and which he may be faid to 
have added to the geography of the 
globe*. 

N O T F, , 

* As a proof of the inconceivable 
wretchednefs and mifery to which the 
people are fubjett, we fliall give the 
two following extraBs from mr. 
Hearne's journal •' one of which is 
mferted in Cook's laft voyage. 

'' We arrived at the Copper mine 
River, on the )3thof July, and, as I 
found afterwards, about forty miles 
from its exit into the fea. On our 
arrival at the river, the Indians dif- 
patched three men before, as fpies, 
to fee if any Elquimaux Indians were 
about the river: and on the 1,5th of 
ihe fame month, as I was continuing 
my furvey towards the mouth of the 
river, I met the fpies, who informed 



In the month of June 1771, being 
then at a place, called by the natives, 
Congc-catha Toha- choga, he found his 
latitude, by two obiervations, to be 
68. 47. N. and his longitude by 
account, 24. 1. W, of Church. 11 
River. They left this place on the 
2d, and travelling flill to the wellward 
of north, on the 13th they reached 
Copper-mine River, and mr. Hearne 
WHS greatly furprifed to find it differ fo 
elleiitially from the defcriptions which 
had been given of it by the natives, 
at the Fort. For, inflead of being 
navigable by fliips, as they reported, 
it was fcarcely navigable, in that part, 
by an Indian canoe, having three falts 
in fight at one time, and being chok- 
ed up with falls and llony ndges, which 
reached aimoff quite acrofs it. 

Flere mr. Hearne began his fur- 
vey of the river, and continued it 
quite to its mouth, near which it was 
that the Indians committed the horri- 
ble maffacre recorded in the note. He 
found the river all the way, even to 
its exit into the fea, encumbered with 
flioals and falls, and emptying itfelf 
into it over a dry flat of the fliore, the 
tide being then out, which feemed, 
by the edges of the ice, to rife about 
twelve or fourteen feet. This rife, 
on account of the falls will carry it 
but a very fmall way into the river's 
mouth, fo that the water in it had not 
the lealf brackifh taile. Mr. Hearne 
is neverthelefs fure of the place, it em- 
ptied itfelf into, being the fea, or a 
branch of It, by the quantity of whale- 
bone and (eallkins, which the Eftiui- 
maux had at their tents, and alfo by 

NOTE. 

m^ tliere were five tents of EfquimaiiJi: 
on the welt fide of the river; and by 
their accounts of the diflance, I judg- 
ed they were about twelve miles oft. 
On receiving this news, no attention 
was paid to my furvey, but their whole 
thought was engaged on planning the 
befl method of flealing on them the 
errfuing night, and killing them while 
adeep. The better fo complete their 
delign, it was neceffary to crofs the 
river, and, by the account of the 
fpies, no place was fo proper for the 
purpofe, as where we were, it being 
fine and finooth, and at fome dillance 
from any cataratf. Accordingly, af- 
ter they had put their guns, targets- 



ifh^ 



ImpraMicahility of a ntrtk tvefiernpajfag!, &e. 



S39 



the number of fcals which he faw up- 
on the ice. The fea, at the river's 
mouth, was full of iflands and flioals, 
as far as he could fee by the affiliance 
of a packet telelcope ; and the ice 
was not yet (July 17th) broken up, 
but thawed away only for about three 
«|iiarters of a mite from the ftiore, and 
for a liitie way round the iflands and 
ftioals, which lay oti the river's 
mouth. But he had the moft exten- 
five view of the fea, when he was 

kf o T E. 

fpears, &c. in order, we were fer- 
ried over the river, the doing of which, 
4as we had only three canoes) took up 
a confiderable time. It muft be ob- 
ferved, that before we fet out on the 
iveft fide, all the men painted their tar- 
pets, feme with the image of the 
iun, others with the moon, others 
With diilerent kmdsof birds and beads 
of prey, and fome had the images of 
■fairies, and other imaginary beings 
on them, which, according to their 
filly imaginations, are the inhabitants 
of the diflerentelements, as the earth, 
fea, air, &c. By a ftritl enquiry in- 
to the reafon of this fuperllition, I 
found that each man had the image of 
that being on his target, which he re- 
lied moft on for fuccefs, in the in- 
tended battle with the Efquimaux ; 
and fome v;ere contented with a lingle 
reprefentation, whilft others, doubt- 
ful, 1 fuppofe, of the power of any 
fingle being, would have their targets 
tovered to the very margin, with hie- 
roglyphics, quite unintelligible. 

" This piece of fuperftition being 
completed, we began to advance to- 
wards the tents of the Efquimaux, al- 
ways walking in low grounds, and be- 
ing very careful how we eroded any 
hills, for fear of being feen by the 
inhabitants. The number of my 
gang being fo far fuperior to the 
five tents of Efquimaux, and the war- 
like maner in which they were equip- 
ped, m proportion to what might be 
expected of the poor Efquimaux, reh- 
dered a total maffacre inevitable, un- 
iefs kind Providence Ihould work a 
miracle for their prefervation. The 
land was fo htualed, that we walked 
wnder cover of the hills till we came 
within two hundred yards of their 
tents, where the Indians that were 
"^ith me lav fome time in ambuQi, 

V«t. Vl, N©. Ill, 



about eight miles up the river, fmm 
which ftation, the extreme parts of 
it bore N. W. by W. and N. E. 

By the tine m.r, Hearne hadfinifh- 
ed his furvey of the river, which was 
shout one o'clock in the morning 
of the eighteenth, there came on a 
very thick fog and drizzling, and as 
as he had found the river and fea in 
every refpsfl unlikely to be of any 
utility, he thought it unnecedary to 
wait for fair Weather, to determin* 

NOTE. 

watching the motions of the Efqui- 
maux ; for we were in full fight of 
their tents. The Indians advifed ma 
to flay there till the fight was over, 
With whichT could by no means com- 
ply, for I thought, when the Efqui- 
maux were furprifcd, they would fly 
every Way for rcfugej and, if they 
found me alone, not knowing me 
from an enemy, they would lay vio- 
lent hands on me, when there were 
none to aHifl. I therefore determin- 
ed to accompany them, affuriiig them 
at the fame time that I would have 
no hand in the murder, unlets I 
found it neceflary for my own fafety. 
Thev feemed highly pleafed at my pro- 
pofal, and diretUy fixed a fpear and 
bayonet for me, but I had no target. 
By the time this was all fettled, it was 
near one o'clock in the morning, 
when, finding all the Efquimaux 
afleep in their tents, they ran on thcra 
without being difcovered, until they 
cam- clofe to their very doors — they 
then began the cruel maflacre, whila 
I flood lienter in the rear, and, in a 
few feconds, a fcene truly fnocking 
prefented itfelf to my view. For as 
the poor unhappy viftims were fur- 
prized in the midfl of their fi'eep, they 
had neither power nor time to niaka 
any refiflance, but men, women, and 
children, riii out of their tents, quite 
naked. But, alas ! where could they 
fly for fiielier ? They, every foul, fell 
a facrifice to Indian barbarity f in all, 
near thirty. The fhneks and groans' 
of the poor expiring fouls were horri- 
ble, and this was much increafed by 
the fight of one poor girl (about 
eighteen years old) whom they killed 
fo near to me, that when the firft fpear 
was ftruck into her, fhe fell down and 
twifted about my feet and legs, and it 
was with much difficiihy I difenga^ai 
Q 3- 



«3» 



ImpraHicability of a north wtjltrn pafage^ (3c. [September, 



the latitude more exaftly by obferva- 
tlon : but by the extraordinary care he 
took in ubferving the courfes and dif- 
tanceSj as he walked from Conge- 
catha-wha-chaga, where he had two 
very good obfervations, he thinks 
the latitude may be depended on, with- 
in 2om. at the utmoft. It appears 
from the map, which mr. Hearne 
coiiftrucled, of this fingular journey, 
that the mouth of the Copper-mine 

NOTE. 

myfelf from her dying grafp. As 
the Indians purfued her, I folicited 
for her life, but fo far was it from be- 
ing granted, that I was not fully af- 
fured of m/ own being in entire fafe- 
ty for offering to fpeak in her behalf, 
when I begged her life, the two fel- 
lows that followed her, made no re- 
ply, till they had both their fpears 
through her, fixed into the ground : 
, they then both looked me ftcrnly in 
the face, arid began to upbraid me, by 
allying me if I wanted an Efquimaux 
wife ? at the fime time paying no re- 
gard to the flirieks of the poor girl, 
who was twining round the fpears like 
an eel. Indeed I was obliged at laft 
to defire that they would be more ex- 
peditious in difpatching her out of her 
mifery, left otherwife I fhould be 
obliged, out of pity, to afllll in per- 
forming that friendly office. 

The brutifh manner in which they 
ufed the bodies which they had deprived 
of life, is too (hocking, and would be 
too indecent to defcribe, and the ter- 
ror of mind I was in, from fuch a fi- 
tuation, is fo much eafier to be con- 
ceived than defcribed, that I fliall not 
attempt it. When they had com- 
pleted this mod inhuman murder, we 
obferved feven more tents on the op- 
pofite fide of the river— It muft here 
be obferved, that when the fpicswere 
on the look out, they could not fee 
the feven tents juft under them, on 
account of the bank hanging too much 
over ; and only faw the five tents that 
were on the other fide of the river, 
which iH that part is not above eighty 
yards acrofs. The inhabitants of tnefe 
other tents were foon in great tonfu- 
fion, but d d not offer to make their 
efcape. The Indians fired many (hot 
at them acrofs the r ver, but the poor 
Efquimaux were fo unacquainted with 
the nature of jjuns, that when the bul- 



River lies in latitude, 72 N. and Ion* 
gitude, 119 W. of Greenwich. 

Mr. Hearne's journey back from 
the Copper-mine River to Churchill, 
lafted till June 30, 1772, fo that he 
was abfent almoit a year and feven 
months. The unparallelled hardfhipj 
he fuffered, and the effential fervice 
he performed, have met with a fuit- 
able reward from his mafters. He hat 
been feveral years governor of Prince 

NOTE, 

lets ftruck the rocks they ran in great 
bodies to fee what was lent them, and 
feemed curious in examining the 
pieces of lead which they found flatted 
on the rocks, till at laft one man wa» 
(hot through the leg, after which they 
embarked in their canoes, with their 
wives and children, and paddled to a 
(hoal in the river. 

" When my Indians had made all 
their obfervations on the bodies, as 
beforementioned, and had plundered 
their tents of all their copper work, 
(which they and the Copper Indians 
ufed inftead of iron) they aftembled 
at the top of a high hill, ftanding in a 
circle, with their fpears crett in the 
air, and gave fliouts of viftory, call- 
ing Tima! Timal by way of derifion 
to the furviving Efquimaux who were 
ftanding on the (hoal. We then went 
up the river about half a mile, to the 
place where our canoes and baggage 
M'ere, with an intent to crofs over,, 
and plunder the other feven tents. It 
taking up a confiderable time to get 
all acrofs the river, as we had only 
three canoes, and being entirely under 
cover of the rock, the poor Efqui- 
maux, whom we left on the (hoal, 
thought we were gone about our own 
bufinefs, and had returned to their, 
own tents again ; and the land was 
fo fituatcd on the eaft fide, that the 
Indians went under cover of the hills, 
until thev were within one hundred 
yards of their tents, where they fawr 
the Elquimaux bufy in tying up their 
bundles. They rati on them again 
with great fury, but having their ca- 
noes ready, they all embarked, and 
reached the (hoals beforementioned, 
except one poor old man, who, being 
too attentive in tying up his things, 
had not time to reach his canoe, and 
fo fell a facrifice to Indian fury. Af- 
ter the Indians had plundered tbefC' 



1780'3 Impralltcal>ility of a north weftern paffage^ &e. jji 



of Wales Fort, where he was taken 
prifoner by the French, in 1782, and 
laft fummer returned to his ftation. 

The confequences refuhing from 
this cxtenfive difcovery, are obvious. 
We now fee that the continent of 
North America {i retches from Hud- 
fon's Bay io far to the north-weft, that 
rar. Hearne travelled near one thou- 
land three hundred miles before he ar- 
rived at the fca, and that the whole of 

NOTE. 

tents of what they thought worth their 
notice, they threw their tent-poles 
into the river, broke their Hone ket- 
tles, and did all they could to diftrefs 
the poor furvivors. We found an 
aged woman, at a fmall dillance, up 
the river, fnaring of falmon, whom 
they butchered in the fame manner, 
every man having a thruft at her with 
his fpear." 
The other extraft is as follows : 
" Thir day, January 11th, 1772, 
as the Indians were hunting, fome of 
them faW a ftrange fnow-fhoe track, 
which they followed, ind, at a con- 
fiderable diflancc, came to a little 
hut, where they found a young wo- 
man futing alone. They brought 
her to the tents : and, on examining 
her. they found fhe was one of the 
weftern dog ribbed Indians, and had 
been taken prifoner by the Aratha- 
pefcow Indians in the fummer of 1770, 
and when the Indians, who took her 
prifoner, were near this place in 1771, 
file eloped from them, with an intent 
to return to her own country. But it 
being fo far off, and when fhe was 
taken prifoner having come all the 
way in canoes, with the windingiof 
rivers and lakes, (he had forgot the 
way, and had been in this little hut 
ever fince the beginning of fall. By 
her account of the moons paft ftnce 
her elopement, it appears to have 
been the middle of laft July, when 
fhe left the Arathapefcow Indians, 
and file had not feen a human face 
fince. She had fuported herfelf by 
fnaring rabbits, partridges, and fquir- 
rels, and was now in good health, 
and I think, as fine a woman of a real 
Indian, as I have feen in any part of 
North America. She had nothing to 
make fnares of but the fmews of the 
rabbits legs and feet, which fiie twift- 
ed together for that purpofe, and of 



his track, to the northward of 61 deg. 
north latitude, lay near fix hundred 
miles due welt of the weftern coall of 
Hudfori's Bay, at the fame time that 
his Indian guides were well aware of 
a vaft traft of land flretching farther 
in the fame d.re£tion. How futile 
now appear the arguments of thofe, 
who, about forty years ago, ftickled 
fo much for a north- weft paffage thro* 
Hudfon's Bay ? 

NOTE. 

the rabbits flcins had made a neat and 
warm winter's clothing, The ftt^ck 
of materials fiie took with her, v>'hen 
fhe eloped, confiftcd of about five 
inches of an iron hoop for a knife ; a 
ftone fteel, and other hard flones for 
flints, together with other fire tackle, 
as tinder, &c. about an inch and a 
half of the (hank of the fiioeing of an 
arrow, of iron, of which fiie made 
an awl. She had not been long at 
the tents, before half a fcorc of men 
wreftled to fee who flioiild have her 
for a wife. She fays, that when the 
Arathapefcow Indians took her pri- 
foner, they ftole upon the tents in the 
night, when all the inhabitants were 
afieep, and murdered every foul ex- 
cept herfelf and three other young 
women. Her father, mother, and 
huft)and, were in the fame tent with 
her, and they were all killed. Her 
child, of about five months old, flie 
took with her, wrapt in a bundle of 
her own clothing, undifcovered, in 
the night. But when fiie arrived at 
the place where the Arathapefcows 
had left their wives, which was not 
far off", it being then day-break, thefe 
Indian women began immediately to 
examine her bundle, and having there 
found the child, took it from her, and 
killed it immediately. The relation 
of this fiiocking fcene only ferved the 
favages of my gang for laughter. Her 
country is fo far to the weftward, that 
file fays fiie never faw any iron or 
other metal till fiie was taken prifontr, 
thofe of her tribe, making their 
hatchets and chifTels of deer's hori>f;, 
and knives of ftone and bone ; their 
arrows are fiiod with a kind of fiate, 
bone, and deer's horns, and their in- 
ftruments to make their wood work, 
are nothing but beavers' teeth. They 
have frequently heard of the ufcfil 
materials that the nations, to the ea;i 



«J52 Letter refpeBing the yortifications in the weJierH «$untry, [Sept, 



Correfpondevce between Noah Webjler^ 
efq. and the rev, Ezra Sti/es, 
D. D. prcfidcnt of Yale college^ 
reft)iB,ing the fortifications in the 
zvejlern country. — P% 14J, 

LETTER 111, 

From Noah Webfer, efq. to the rev. 
Ezra Stiles, D. D. 
Reverend fir^ 

IN my letter of the i,5tii iilt. I gave 
a particular account of the travels 
of Ferfiinand de Soto into Florida, 
with the couric of his marches, and 
his winter quarters. From the fatis 
there ilaled, it appears probable that 
he threw up many of the breafl-works 
or forts, which are ftill to be traced in 
the Carolinas and Georgia, on the 
Ohio and MillilTippi. Nor have I a 
doubt that thofe old forts, difcovered 
by mr. Carver, may be afcribed to 
the fame expedition : as it is evident, 
Ferdinand was north of the MilFoori, 
and remained forty days at Pacaha, 
which was probably on the Miffillippi, 
or the river Sc. Pierre. Still it re- 
mains queftionable, whether all the 
forts difcovered in thele wcftern regi- 
ons can be rationally afcribed to Fer- 
dinand. To this opinion, the extent 
of the works at IMulkingum is a for- 
cible objection. I rely on captain 
Heart's defcription of thefe works, 
publiflied in the Columbian magazine 
for May 1787; for it is taken from 
aftnal meufuration. By this defcrip- 
tion, it appears that there are two 
foris nearly in the fame form, at a dif- 
tance from each other, but the area 
of one is much larger than than the 
other. The largefl is called, for dif- 
tint'lion's fake, tbetown, which is fur- 
rounded with a line of walls of earth 
from fix to ten feet high, and from 
twenty to forty feet thick ; and this 
line of walls is about a quarter of a 
mile fqnare. From an opening on the 
wed fuie, there is a covered way one 
hundred and twenty feet wide, and 

NOTE. 

•f them are fupplied with by the 
Enghfh, but, inliead of drawing 
nearer, to be in the way of trading for 
iron work, &c. are obliged to re- 
move farther back, to avoid the Ara- 
thapefcow Indians, as ihey isake fur- 
priting flaunhter among them every 
yea}", both winter and fuinuiei'o 



leading one hundred and twenty yards 

to the low grounds. This way it 
guarded on each hdc with wall>, raif- 
ed nearly to a plane with the walls of 
the town, and confequently thirty 
feet high at their termination in the 
low grounds. At the north well cor- 
ner of the town, there is an oblonf 
mount, feventy-four by forty-four 
yards fquare, and fix feet high. Near 
the fouth wall is another mount, fifty 
by forty yards, befides others of lcf« 
confideration in ether quarters of th« 
fort. The other fort is about half th« 
fize of the foregoing, with openings in 
the center of the oppolitc walls, and at 
the angles, fome of which are guard- 
ed by circular mounts, ten feet high. 

At a fmall diftance fron^ the latter 
fort, is a pyramid, or circular mount, 
a little oval, fifty feet high, three 
hundred and ninety in circumference, 
furrouuded with a ditch, five feet 
deep and fifteen feet wide ; a parapet 
outward, feven hundred and fiity-ninc 
feet in circumference, with an open- 
ing in the parapet, towards the fort. 
Between the town and fortificatio* 
are feveral large caves, mounts, 
graves, &c. 

Thefe are the outlines of mr. 
Heart'r defcription. Now the quef- 
tion arifes, could thefe extenfive 
works be raifed by Ferdinand's army, 
which confifted of little more than 
twelve hundred men ; and that in the 
ihort fpace of four months ? if Fer- 
dinand was at Mufkingum at all, it 
was the fecond winter after his land- 
ing ; and he was in quarters but little 
more than four months, viz, from the 
18, of December to the 55, of April; 
or could fuch fortifications be necef- 
fary to fecure his troops and horfes ? 
if not, we know of no motive which 
could induce him to bellow fo much 
labour on his camp, Thefe confider- 
ations make it very problematical, 
whether thefe works are to be afcrib- 
to the Spaniards. 

To alTift in refolving this queftion, 
it muft be mentioned, that Ferdinand 
had frequently feveral hundred Indi- 
ans in his fervice. The Callique of 
Ocuta furniOicd him with four hundred 
of his fubjeds. Great numbers were 
furnifhed by other Calliques, who 
were upon good terms with Ferdi- 
nand, as he marched though their dif- 
tricts ; and others, who felt fonie re- 



j^Jg.] Letter refpeSling the fortijlcationi in the wejlern country. 



«SI 



luftance in carrying the baggage for 
the Spaniards, were compelled to do 
it. Befides thefe attendants, Ferdi- 
nand, whenever he was oppofed by 
arms, defeated ihc Indians, and took 
« number of priloners, whom he re- 
tained as (laves. What number he 
had in his fervice at Chicaca, the 
fuppofcd Mufkingum, is not mention- 
ed ; but, on his arrival, it is exprefs- 
ly laid, he fent for the Cailique in a 
friendly manner, who came, and made 
him prefents of mantles and (kins. 
From thefe fafts and circumllances, it 
appears that Ferdinand was in a coun- 
try well peopled by Indians, which 
made it neceflary for him to fecurs his 
troops from a fudden attack m their 
quarters, and he doubtlefs availed 
himlelf of their friendlliip on his firil 
arrival, to procure their alFiftance in 
fortifying his camp. He might ha\'e 
five hundred or a thoufand Indians to 
employ with his own troops in con- 
ftruttmg thefe works. 

The divifion of his camp into two 
forts, may be eafily accounted for, by 
confulenng he had fevetal hundred 
horfes, and a vaft number of fwine, 
to fecure from the Indians, who foon 
had a tafte of Twine's flefh, and began 
to Ileal the pigs. One fort was proba- 
bly refervcd for thefe. Yet even 
thefe circumllances will hardly obvi- 
ate the objection. It is almofl incre- 
dible that fo fmall a number of men 
fhould erert fuch vail fortifications, or 
that lo much art and dehgn fiiould be 
neceflary in guarding a temporary 
camp. Tbat the natives of this coun- 
try did fometives throw up bread 
works of earth, is a facl, Mr. Smith, 
in his hiftory of New Jeifey, page 
136, obferves, " that different na- 
tions, were frequently at war with 
each other, of which hufbandmen 
fometimes find remaining marks in 
their fields. A little below the falls 
cf Delaware, on the Jerfey fide, and 
at Point-no-point in Pennlylvania, 
and feveral oiher places, were banks, 
that were formerly thrown up for in- 
trenchments againft incurfions of the 
neighbounngliidlans. who, in canoes, 
ufed lometimes to go in warlike bo- 
dies, from one province to another." 
Such reniiins are difcovered in every 
part of America; but in none of 
them do we find fuch traces of im- 
meflfe labour, and proficienicy la the 



art of fortification, as in the works 

of Mufkingum. Ferdinand frequent- 
ly found tribes of Indians, fortified 
againft his approaches ; but he de- 
fcribes their works as mere lines of 
palifadoes ; never once meniioning a 
wall of earth or Hone, or an intrench- 
ment. It is certain, however, that 
Ferdinand always, when it was prac- 
ticable, chole for his camp an Indian 
fettlement : for his troops depended 
for fubfillence on their (lores of maize 
and beans. He might find fuch a fet- 
tlement on the banks of the Mufltin- 
gum, furrounded with fome kmd of 
rude wall, which he might improve 
into a regular fortification. That he 
was in a populous country, is certain ; 
and why might not the nafves fortify 
on the Mulkingum, as well as on the 
Delaware ? 

But how (hall we account for the 
mounts, caves, graves, &c. and for 
the contents, which evince the exif- 
tence of the cultom of burning the 
dead, or their bones ? can thefe be 
afcnbed to the Spaniards ? I prefume, 
fir, you will be of opinion they can- 
not. Mr. Fleart fays thefe graves 
are finall mounts of earth, from fomc 
of which human bones have been tak- 
en ; in one were found bones in the 
natural pofition of a man, buried near- 
ly eaft and wed, and a quantity of 
ifingUfs on his breall ; in the other 
graves, the bones were irregular, lomc 
calcined by fire, others burnt only to 
a certain degree, fo as to render 
them more durable ; in others the 
iT)ouldered bones retain iheir fliapc, 
without any fubftance ; oihcrs are . 
partly rotten, and partly the remains 
of decayed bones ; in moft of the 
graves were found ftones, evidently 
burnt, pieces of charcoal, Indian ar- 
rows, and pieces of earthen ware, 
which appeared to be a compofitiopi 
of (hells and cement. 

That thefe mounts and graves are 
the works of the native Indian^, i"? 
very evident ; for fuch fm.ill mounts 
are fcattered over every part of North 
America. " It was culfomary wuh 
the Indians of the V/eft Jerley," fay<! 
mr. Smith, paije 137, " when they 
buried the dead, to put family uien- 
fils, bows and arrows, and fometinirs 
wampum into the grave, as tokens of 
their alleclion. When a perfon of 
aote died far from the ^jlute of hi# 



«.'?4 



Liquor that will penetrate into marble, [September, 



©wn refidrnce, they would carry his 
^>nes to be buried there. They wafh- 
cd and perfumed the dead, painted 
the face, and followed fingly ; left 
the dead in a fitting poilure ; and co- 
vered the grave pyramidically. They 
were very curious in preferving and 
repairing the graves of their dead, and 
penfively vifitcd them." 

It is faid by the Englifii, who are 
beft acquainted with the manners of 
the natives, that they had a cujtom of 
colletting, at certain ftated periods, 
all the bones of their deceafed friends, 
and burying them in fome common 
grave. Over thefe cemetaries, or ge- 
neral repofitories of the dead, were 
erefted thofe vaU heaps of earth, or 
mounts, fimilar to thofe which are 
called in England barrows, and which 
are difcovered in every part of the 
united Hates. 

The Indians feem to have had two 
methods of burying the dead ; one 
was, to depofit one body (or, at moft, 
but a fmall number of bodies) in 
a place, and cover it with flones, 
thrown together in a carelefs manner. 
The pile, thus formed, would natu- 
lally be nearly circular ; but thofe 
piles, that are difcovered, are fome- 
thing oval. About feven miles from 
Hartford, on the public road to Far- 
mington, there is one of thofe Car- 
nedds, or heaps of flones. I often 
palled by it, in the early part of my 
youth, but never meafured its circum- 
ference, or examined its contents. 
My prefent opinion is, that its cir- 
cumference is about twenty-five feet. 
The inhabitants, in the neighbour- 
hood, report, as a tradition received 
from the natives, that an Indian was 
buried there, and that it is the cuf- 
tcm, for every Indian that pafies by, 
to caft a Hone upon the heap. This 
euflom I have never feen praBifed ; 
but have no doubt of its exigence; 
as it Is confirmed by the general lef- 
timony of the firft Americah fetiiers*. 

New York, January 20, 1788. 
(To b& continued.) 

NOTE. 

* Theexiflence of a ciiftom of pay- 
ing relpeft to thefe Indian heaps, as 
they are called, is proved by a ludi- 
(Crous practice, that prevails among 
the AthjIj)- Amentaris in ih*^ vicmity, 
©f iiiakiiig (iranger^ pull off their hats, 



Method of preparing a liquor^ that 
will penetrate into marble \ Jo that 
a piBure, drawn on its Jurface^ 
will appear aljo in its inmoji parts, 

TA K E of aqua-fortis and aqua- 
regia, two ounces of each ; of 
fal-ammoniac one ounce ; of the beft 
fpirit of wine, two drachms ; as much 
gold as may be had for four (hilling* 
and fix-pence; of pure filver, two 
drachms. Thefe materials being pro- 
vided, let the filver, when calcined, 
be put into a vial; and having pour- 
ed upon it the two ounces of 
aqua-fortis, let it evaporate, and you 
will have a water yielding firft a blue, 
and afterwards a black colour : like- 
wife, put the gold, when calcined, 
into a vial, and having poured the 
aqua regia on it, fet it by to evapo- 
rate ; then pour the fpirit of wine up- 
on the fal-ammoniac, leaving it alfo 
to evaporate ; and you will have a 
gold-coloured water, which will afford 
divers colours. And after this man- 
ner you may extratt many tinftures of 
colours out ofoiher metals : this done^ 
you may, by means of thefe two wa- 
ters, paint what picture you pleafe 
upon white marble, of the fofter kind, 
renewing the figure every day for fome 
time, with fome frefh fuperadded li- 
quor ; and you will find that the pic- 
ture has penetrated the whole folidity 
of the ftone, fo that cutting it int» 
as many parts as you will, it will al- 
ways reprefent to you the fame figure 
on both fides. 

NOTE. 

as they pafs by this grave. A man 
paffing by with one who is a flranfer 
to the euflom, never fails to prattife a 
jeft upon him, by telling him that a 
fpider, a caterpillar, or fome other 
infeft, IS upon his hat ; the unfufpcft- 
ing traveller immediately lakes off bis 
har, to brufh away the offending in- 
fect, and finds, by a roar of laughter, 
that a trick is put upon him. I have 
often feen this trick played upon 
flrangers, and upon the neighbours 
who happen to be off their guard, to 
the great amufement of the country 
people. The jeft, however, is a 
proof that the aborigines paid a refpeft 
to thefe rude monuments, and, in ri- 
dicule of that refpett, probably, ori- 
ginated the vulgar praftice of the 
Englifb, which exifls to this day. 



1789] Remarks on the amendments proppfcd to the federal ccnftitution, 234} 



Mr. Bird, aftone-cutterat Oxford, 
prattifed this art before the year 1660 ; 
feveral pieces of marble fo itained by 
him, are to be feen in Oxford ; feve- 
ral others being (hown to K. Charles 
II. foon after the reftoration, they 
were broken in his prefence, avid 
found to correfpond through the 
whole fubftancc. 

Remarks on the amendments to the fe- 
deral ccnftitution, propofed by the 
conventions of Majfachiifetts, New 
Hampjkire, New York, Virginia, 
South and North Carolina, with 
the minorities of Pennfylvania and 
Maryland^ by the rev, Nicholas 
Collin, L. L. D. 

NUMBER IX, 

THE deep filence of the federal 
conditution on matters of reli- 
jion, is blamed by fome religious per- 
fons ; yet the two minorities of Penn- 
fylvania and Maryland, with the con- 
vention of New Hampfhire, are dif- 
fatisfied becaufe exprei's ftipulations 
are not made for liberty of confci- 
ence ; and requeft the following amend- 
ments. " The rights of confcience 
fliall be held inviolable, and neither 
the legidative, executive, nor judicial 
powers of the united ftates, (hall 
have authority to alter, abrogate, or 
infringe any part of the conftitutions 
of the feveral ftates, which provide 
for the prefervation of liberty in mat- 
ters of religion*." " That no per- 
fon, (^nfcieiuiouny fcrupulous of 
bearing arms in any cafe, {hall be 
compelled perfonally to ferve as a 
fbldier. That there be no national 
religion eflabliflied by law ; but that 
all perfons be equally entitled to pro- 
teftion in their religious libertyf." 
" Congrefs fliall make no laws touch- 
ing religion, or to infringe the rights 
•f confcience J." 

It would be very unjuft and perni- 
•ious to eftablilh any religious fyflem 
in the united ftates; but it is needlefs 
to guard againft fuch a vifionary evil. 
Congrefs cannot, by any conftruftion, 
•laim fuch a power; nor will they 

NOTES. 

* ifi. prop, of the min. of Pennf. 
+• t ith and 12th am, by the min. 
•f Mar. 
i J ith. am, by the conv. of N. H. 



have any inclination for it. But if, 
by a very wonderful chance, a majo- 
rity of congrefs werefo bigotted, their 
projeft would not have the leaft pro- 
bability of fuccefs, while the feveral 
great denominations are a check upon 
each other, and while found philofo- 
phy makes a rapid progrefs in the traia 
of civilization. Befides, the people 
of America will hardly fubmit to the 
payment of neceflary taxes ; is it then 
likely they would pay tithe to the 
clergy ? 

Partiality to any fcft, or ill treat- 
ment of any, is neither in the leaft 
warranted by the conftitution, nor 
compatible with the general fpirit of 
toleration ; an equal fecurity of civil 
and religious rights, is therefore given 
to all denominations, without any for- 
mal ftipulatioiis; which, indeed, might 
fuggelt an idea, that fuch an equality 
was doubtful. If the conftitution 
muft at all have any amendment on 
this fubjefl, it fhould be to guarantee 
to every flate in the union, perfett li- 
berty of confcience ; biecaufe it is 
much more probable that fuperftition, 
mingled with political faftion, might 
corrupt a Gngle ftate, than that bigo- 
try {hould infeft a majority of the 
ftates in congrefs. 

At the fame time, rights of confci- 
ence ftiould be properly underftood. 
Religion, as fuch, is a tranfaftioa 
between man and his Maker, and is 
above the cognizance of any human 
tribunal ; however unreafonable, or 
even profane it may appear, God 
alone is the judge. But when any 
perfon claims, from a religious prin- 
ciple, the right of injuring his fellow- 
citizens, or the community at large, 
he muft be reftrained, ai^l, in atro- 
cious cafes, puniflied. If he is a 
fool, or a madman, he muft not be a 
tyrant. It is impoflible that God 
could order him to be unjuft, becaufe 
he commands us all to be juft and 
good. Frantic devotees murdered 
Henry IV. of France, William I. 
prince of Orange, and other bene- 
faftors of mankind : fuperftition has 
deftroyed many hundred thoufands of 
mankind, and, in different periods, 
laid walle the four quarters of the 
globe. 

A wife government will, therefore,_ 
keep a watchful eye on any form of 
fuperftition. which is baneful to m»« 



♦gS 



On the Jlate of American manufaS.ures, &c. [Septembef^ 



rality, and fall of danger to fociety ; 
if not checked in time, it may foon 
fpread like a plague, dilirets indivi- 
duals, and even embarrafs the govern- 
ment. Falfe Religions had never been 
t^ltahliflied in the woild, if legiflators 
had leen their fatal tendency, and nipt 
them in the bud. Wc happily live 
in a civilized aera: but the human 
heart, is very wandering, and the fan- 
cy of mortals very whimlical, \\'heu- 
ever a religion, morally and political- 
ly bad, aitacks the united ttates, it 
fliouldj as a general evil, be redrain- 
ed by the federal government. Sup- 
pofe, that fome bold and artful pro- 
phet, fliould precend to have a com- 
milFion from heaven to eretl an earth- 
ly dominion, and infpire a multitude of 
his votaries with a blind intrepid en- 
ihuliafm ; luch a gentleman mull not, 
from his tender conlcience, cut our 
throats and plunder our property. 
Again, if great numbers, from a mif- 
taken devotion, (hould renounce ci- 
vil and political duties, and, merely 
by compuHion, contribute to the fup- 
port and prelervaiion of the fociety, 
half a million of fuch chriftians would 
be a very heavy clog on the arms of 
atlive citizens. The moral virtues 
are more necelFary for the peace of this 
country, than any other, becaufe the 
people arc extremely free ; confe- 
«iuently, rational religion is of the 
higheft importance, as in many re- 
fpetls the iecurity and perfeftion of 
virtue. The foundation of both 
(hould be laid in a good education. 
This ought to be a great objetl in the 
jrovernment of every flate, and with 
the federal goverrrment, in the terri- 
tory belonging to the united Rates, for 
which* it is to make all needful rules 
and regulaiions. Schools ought to be 
formed with the gradual fettlement of 
this country, and provided with fen- 
fible teachers, who liiall inftruft their 

fmpils in thofe capital principles of re- 
igion, which are generally received, 
fuch as the being andattributesof God, 
his rewards and judgments, a future 
flate, &c. 

There is not the leaft danger of the 
federal government compelling per- 
fons of a fcrupulous confcicnce to bear 
aims, as the united ftstcs would be 

NOTE. 

*^ std. par. 3d. feft. 4th. art,' 



poorly defended bv fuch; befides^ 
troops can, if neceffary, be hired for 
their money. 

The convention of South Carolina 
would amend the 3d. fech of the6ih; 
ariicle by inierting (he word " other" 
between the words " no" and " reli- 
gious." This fetiion, after requiring 
from all concerned, an oath or affir- 
mation to fupport the conftitution", 
adds, "but no religious ted (hall ever 
be required as a qualificat.on to ar^y 
office or public triilt under the united 
ifates. If this amendment points out 
a mere inaccuracy of flile, it is fo far 
proper — an oath or affirmation being 
a religious teit ; if it means to guard 
againfl: religious edablifhments, it if^ 
by what has been faid, fuperfluous. 

Letter re/peSiing the jl ate of Arneri' 
can manufaBures, &c.Jrom agen~ 
tlcnian in Philadelphia^ to his 
friend at Montego-Bay. 

Philadelphia, May 8, 1789. 
Dear Jir, 

Til E alteration that I found oir 
niv arrival here, after an ab- 
fence of two years, exceeds credibi- 
lity. I will endeavour to amufe you 
with fome account of ihe progrefsand 
prefent flate of manufattures in thir 
country. I am, no doubt, not ac- 
quainted with all ; but I (hall giveyoi* 
thofe that have made the greatcft 
noife. 

At the federal procefTion in Phila- 
delphia, there appeared 600 fhoema- 
kers, belonging to that city '''nd its 
environs. If you have not read the 
account of that procelTion, you mtift 
refer to Carey's Mufeiimt. By 
the cuRom-houfe books of Phila- 
delphia, they exported 7000I. worth 
of tanned leather, the manufafturc 
of the country, to Virginia. This 
laft vear, mr. Cabot, of Beverly, inr 
MalTachufetts, purchafed and export- 
ed to the fouihern fiates, 70,000 pair 
of women's flioes, from that place. 

The manufafturing fociety publilh- 
ed a premium for the bell American' 
printed book : feveral were prefented 
in competition for thfe premium, 
which was given to the publifher of a- 
German book ; and, in the courfe ot 

NOTE. 

+ See vol. 4, page 57. 



iy^D') 



On the Jlale of American manitfaBures, &Ci 



m 



inquiry, it was found, not only thatihe 
types, paper, and leather were all 
made in America, but alio the mate- 
rials for making the types, and ail 
the inHrurnenis ufed in the pnntmg 
bufinefs : this far exceeded every hope, 
even as to ihe manufadure of die ma- 
terials, which IS exnemply laborious 
and difficult. The fame focsety have 
found that upwards of 60 paper iisiils 
cxift in PenniyI vania, fo as almolt to 
preclude the importation of paper. 

At Albany, they have eftablifned a 
glals manufattory, and at Bofton is 
eftablifhed another*. The Albany 
glafs is as cheap as that from Europe. 

In New York, the caflor-nut, or 
palma-chniti, grows well ; and one 
or more mills are eUabliflied, for the 
making of caftor oil. 

In the courie of three years, the 
nail manufactory has been puflicd with 
fo much lp;rit and fuccefs, that im- 
portation of nails no longer anfwers. 

Coarfe linens are fo univerfally 
tnaile in various parts of New Eng- 
land, as to underfed thofe of the lame 
quality from Europe, which can no 
longer be fent to any of the places 
north of Philadelphia : of the fouth- 
Ward I ktiow nothing, but that they 
raife mwch cotton in Virginia and 
Maryland. 

Diick !s made in a number of far- 
mers' families, through Connetlicut 
particularly, and other parts of New- 
England. It is expetted that they 
will Ihorfly make fufficient for the 
confumption of the country. In 
Boflon, a company have built a houfe 
180 feet long, and two ftories high, 
for the m.anufifture of this article. 
More hands offer, than can be cm- 
ployed in this manufaflory, and this 
withont any injury to other objects, 
as I underRand it is carried on in the 
winter only. I hear that a man in 
Connecticut works his fpinning and 
Winding wheels by water, and is now 
buildmg a weaving-mill, to beturned 
by the fame. 

NOTE. 

* A third, not inferior to any on 
the continent. iseRablifned in Frede- 
ric county, Maryl.ind, and molt ex- 
tenfi'ely profecuted by john Frederic 
Amelung, ef<iuire, a very worthy and 
ingenious German. 

Vol. VI. No, III, 



The cotton manufactory is eftahl idl- 
ed at Philadelphia and Bcveriy, and 
will be at Lancafier, or York; in 
Pennfyivania. The Boilon aflembly 
have granted 500) . to the one at Be- 
verly, as a gratuity for the advance- 
ment it has made. It is earned on 
with Arkwrighi's machines. ■ 

At Kartford, they make excellent 
fecond cloths, particularly of the pep:- 
per and fait colour. The French mi- 
nifter, mr. jay, baron Steuben, rar. 
Wadfv.'orth, and a great number of 
the principal gentlemen are fetting the 
falhion of wearing them. Baron Sieii- 
ben has invented a button out of the 
conch- fhell, the fame that wampum is 
made ot, to wear with them. 

They breed the fi Ik- worm in Con- 
necticut. I'hefe work hlk in the 
fummer. and the egg is kept all win- 
ter. They have for manv years bred 
the filk-worm, and made (ilk inCon,- 
neCticut, and now in fuch quantify, 
that fome is exported to the neigh- 
bouring flates. A lady of mv ac- 
quainrance here has a gown and petti- 
coat now making of it ; and her hiif- 
band, who had left oH wearing liik 
llockings, from patriotic iiionves, is 
again adopting them. 

Ihe quantiiy oi beer and porter 
made here, has more tiian doubled 
within a year, and has turned many 
farmers to the' cuhivanon of barley. 
The brewers are, indeed, at prefeiit 
circumfcribed m their man-ifatture, 
by ihe want of barley, winch has oc- 
cafioned an importation from Great- 
Britain. 

Carding-machmes are madeas cheap 
and as well at Philadelphia, as in Eu- 
rope. 

The importation of fleel has been 
confiderably ieiicned at the port of 
Philadelphia, wuhin thcfe two years, 
by the making of it in the country ; 
it is faid the importation is leffencd 
one-founh. 

FiFty-thoufand barrels cf faked 
beef were made lad year m Connec- 
ticut and other parts of New Eng- 
land ; fome of which ihey have ex- 
ported to the Ea!t and W^efl Indies ; 
and they can underfeil the Indi la 
their own markers. 

One Rumiey has invented a fleam- 
engine that can be wi"-ked cheaper, 
and with greater effect than Watt and 
Bolton's ; he is gone to Enyiand to 
H h 



»3* 



The WorceJltT /peculator. 



{September, 



get a patent ; he has had one in many 
flares here alrcaJy. 

The Virginia, or Patowmac ca- 
nal, is nearly (iniflied ; boats already 
gd down ihe greater part of the na- 
vigation, and carry goods at one-fifih 
of the price that w?.p;gons do. 

The builders of the Bollon bridge 
are gone to Europe, and, have 
built one, if not more, on the fame 
plan, in Ireland ; the wood was all 
carried from Maflachufetts : the Bof- 
ton bridge llands, and gives at lead 
85, perhaps 40, per cent, iiitereft* 

My budget is now out, not for want 
of materials, but for want of know- 
ing them ; but 1 can add, ihat iho 
manufrtftory foclety at Philadelphia 
are of great ferf ice in calling forth 
talents, in making known the Hate of 
manufattures in the country, and en- 
couraging all. There is a Ipirit of 
emulation, of induflry, of improve- 
ment, and of patriotifm,raifed through- 
out the Hates, in thi$ and other branch- 
es, of the neceffities of a nation, that 
bids fair, not only to make them inde- 
pendentof other nations, but, in many 
points, even in manufactures, their 
rivals. In no period have they made 
a more rapid progrefs, than within 
this year or two ; and at no period, 
have they feeraed to be fo likely to 
make a rapid one as in the prefent. 
Every nerve and (inew feems to be at 
its utmofl ilretch, and this not by 
the interpofition of the legiflature ; 
but by the patriotic or interefted and 
enterprifing fpiritof individual"; ; per- 
haps, even by the want of an eifethve 
government, I might almoil have ad- 
ded : for it might have meddled, and, 
as in moil fimllar cafes, might have 
marred. 

ManufaQures are not the only line 
in which they have exerted themfelves 
with fuccefs. Agriculture and com- 
merce have gone on, perhaps with 
equal rapidity, if I was fuflficiently 
informed on thofe fubjetis. Some 
faBs I do know, however, that make 
it at leaft probable, Vermont has 
BOO. 000 inhabitants ; Kentu. ky^o.ooo ; 
1 2,000 pafTcd Fort- Pitt, for the Ohio, 
lall fummer. Col. Morgan is com- 
mencing a feitUment on the Spanifh 
territory, oppofue the mouth of the 
Ohio, wh < h, no doubt, will be 
in time, united to this part of Ame- 
rica. The lands near the lakes, are 



fettling very faft, particularly near 
Niagara. Konnebeck, and all the 
lands between that and N^ovaScotia, are 
alfo fcjiling extremely fall, and all 
this without anv faruis being deferted 
on the fea-coaft. The cultivation of 
hemp IS mirnducing all over Mafla- 
chulerts, and on the low lands near 
Philadelphia ; barley, m Rhode-Ifland 
and Jerlcy ; tobacco, in fuch quanti- 
ty in Kentucky, as to raife the jcaloufy 
of Virginia. Virginia can raife more 
wheat than any Hate m the union ; itt 
inhabitants fay, than any two, &c. 
&c. I n commerce, excepting the faft 
already inentioned, of the exporiation 
of beer, 1 can only give you one fatl : 
from Mafiachafetts alone, there have 
ft^riy-foiir fail of veflcls gone to the 
Eali Indies ; and of thefe, fome to 
Kamfcha;ka : but, to crown the 
whole of this highly flattering pifture 
to every lover of mankind, it appears, 
by the returns lately made tocongrefs, 
that notw:thftanding the ravages made 
in the war, in population, by the mi- 
litary operations on the continent, by 
the flill greater lolTes at fea, and by 
the ftill greater check population muft 
have received by the icparaiion of fo 
many fathers from their families, and 
by the difcouragement of matrimony; 
I fay, notwlthlianding all thefe cir- 
cumHanccs, the returns to congrefj 
prove, that the population is as great, 
now, as it was at the beginning of 
the war. 

I am, fir, &c. 
P. S. I muft not omit, that lead 
and copper mines are difcovered near 
Philadelphia, in the counties adjoin- 
ing, and thev are opening the lafl; 
that the Philadelphia Philofophical 
Society, are about to publifh another 
volume; and that dr. Franklin has 
given 500I. to the Library Company,. 
The Pennfylvania tell law is repealed, 
and the college put on the fame foot- 
ing as before the war. 

The Worcejler fpeculater, No. III. 

THERE is no inftance, in which 
the benevolence of the Deity i» 
more apparent in the natural world, 
than in his accommodating the tempe- 
rature and fertility of every climate 
to the or'ginal neceffities of its inha- 
bitants. That this peculiarly diftin- 
guifhes the climates of the America© 



J 789.] 



The IVorceJler /peculator. 



«39 



fiates, mufl be evident lo every one, 
who is acquainted with their htuation. 
By the fertility and fahibnous quality 
of the air and foil — by the no leis 
ufeful than beautiful variegation of 
hill and dale — it feems as if naiure 
defigned that this luxuriant fpot fhould 
terminate the mod unbounded wiflies 
of her civilized fons. 

Having foil and climate fuited to 
the various produftions of prolific na- 
ture, it muU be iinpuied to that rov- 
ing enterprifing fpirit, which charac- 
terizes man, that the inhabitants of 
this country (lioiild engage in exten- 
five coaunerce. Whenever a coun- 
try lias grown fo populous, or the foil 
fo barren, that agriculiiire cannot fa- 
tisfy her needy children, then, and 
then only fhould commerce be en- 
couraged. The reafuns are obvious — 
the profperity of a nation depends 
upon the internal peace and content- 
ment of its inhabitants. A free in- 
tercourfe with foreign nations begets 
diflipation, the greateft bane of a 
community ; it introduces a different 
train of thought among the com- 
monality. They foon look with con- 
tempt upon thofe employments, which, 
heretofore were the fources of fub- 
fillcnce and contentment. They now 
leave their patrimonial and houfhold 
gods, the fure protef tors of their hap- 
pinefs ; and, not for a moment, in 
difliparion and extravagance, depen- 
dent for the trappings of iheir new 
Iphere, they alienate ihcir patrimony, 
and become the ready tools of ambi- 
tion and faftion. 

Thefe obfervations very naturally 
arlfe, upon a view of the prefent fi- 
tuation of the American police , but 
more particularly of the Uate of ihis 
commonwealth*. That our embar- 
raffments are principally occafioned 
by the negleft of agriculture, and an 
application to an ill-judged commerce, 
is a truih, which may eafily be de- 
monftrated. For many years, while 
commerce was prt^hiblted, the Ame- 
ricans made great proficiency in agri- 
culnirc and manufactures. While 
jnduflry walked hand in hand with 
public virtue, our demands, though 
many, were readily anfwcrcd. Peace 
found our finances iov/, and our ma- 

N O T E, 

* Maffachufetts.. 



nufaflures imperfeS — a tade for high 
life and extravagance foon univer- 
fally prevailed. The populace fond- 
ly imagined, that independence would 
prove a Midas, and render unnecef- 
fary every future exeriion. The doc- 
trine, fo flattering to indolence, that 
commodities could be purchafed nuicli 
cheaper than they could be manufac- 
tured, was univerfally believed, "i'he 
farmer, who had confidered him- 
felf as the moft important charader 
in the commonwealth, now looked 
upon his farm as an unnecefTary in- 
cumbrance. He allowed his fons to 
take, as they imagined, a more expe- 
ditious and lels laborious nieihcd of 
acquiring relpetl and opulence. His 
daughters, who, heretofore, had orr 
namented themfclves with the modeft 
workof iheir own hands, now aban- 
don their half-fpun webs. The rich 
dairy is borne away to purchafe gew- 
gaws for their empty heads. The in- 
come of his ellate, wiih which he 
was wont to pay his honeft debts, be- 
comes now too fcanty to difcharge 
his proportion of ihe public tax, At 
length he is obliged to mortgage his 
eilate, and becomes a noify advocate 
for paper money, and a levelling att. 

A landed interell, divided through 
a whole community, while it difcards 
luxury, by encouraging induftry, pre- 
ferves that equality among the inhabi- 
tants, which is the only foundation 
of a lafting republic. Whatever, 
therefore, fends to lelTen an equality 
of landed polieifions, is repugnant to 
good policy in a free government. 
That unreftrifted commerce will have 
this effeti, is a truth too obvious to 
need demonflration. If fimilar caufes 
will produce fiiiiilareffefts, we may read 
our deftiny in the termination of the 
Spartan republic. For more than 500 
years, while commerce was reftritled, 
the Spartans fiouriflied, and were re- 
nowned for the exercife of every pub- 
lic and private virtue : but when this 
reftri6hon was taken off, in the days 
of Lyfandcr, luxury, with its conco- 
mitant train of vices, poured in, like 
a torrent, and wholly deluged and de- 
ftroyed that commonwealth. 

Should another Lycurgus arife to 
regulate our commerce, and encou- 
rage agriculture and mannfattures, 
we may yet be drawn back to fomc 
point of excellence — but fliould wc 



94° DireBicnsfor tkf improvement cf tke rifing generation. [Sept, 



jrocccii in our prcfent miflaken po- 
licy, our dertiiirtioii is as inevitable, 
as ihe decrees of Fieaven. 
September, 1787. 



DircBions for the improvement of 
the rifing generation. 

IF you are a deiceiidaiitof ihe mag- 
naict. — but the very fuppohtun 
proves you ignorant of tiie word mag- 
nates — if your father then is a great 
man, that is, has a coach, and three 
or four negro drivers, it will be ne- 
cefFaty for you to attend to the follow- 
ing d.rechons : 

As you are to inherit a large patri- 
mony ; or, to come down to your ca- 
pacity, as you are to have a plantation 
left you — to blame your parents for 
not fei'iding you to fcliool, to learn to 
riad and write, would be ilie height 
of cruelty. It proves you were not 
Gcrigned for the drudgery of bulinef? : 
bad writmg is a mark of genteel cdu- 
canon, I might have faid a charac- 
tcrillic, but perhaps you would have 
hurt your eyes in looking for it in a 
d:Cnonary. 

At your (irft fetting out in life, pur- 
chale a laige library — and as you are 
never to Ipeiid a niomeiu's time m it, 
no matter who the authors are, fo they 
be neatly bound, gih, and lettered. 

It was f, ruierly necefTary for a 
xowng gentleman to be acquainted 
wiih the combat of the duel ; but it 
■fccnis, the foft, feminme, and fiiper- 
fine m.anuers of our modern men of 
honour, were to mitiga.'e the rigour 
of ihat iron, and gotlj.-c cuflom-" Hrc- 
arrr-:, and edge-tools are incompatible 
wiili modern rehuemenf. 'Iheloul, 
funk into womaiiifh foftnefs, recoils 
ai the elevai'on of a piliol ; aiid (as 
Virgil favs) " Itartlrs back at diilruc- 
tion." But. notwithllanduig the du- 
el is totally abolilhed, the challenge 
has guiiud ground — lonie direftions 
en ihis head may be necclTary. 

As you are riever to fight, the more 
infolent the challenge, the better: 
\f\ it be couched in the Urong laconic 
diction — " thou vdlain ! meet me be- 
liind." &C..&C. &c. * Puley, ver- 
fus Johnfon, as recorded in the Ma- 
ryland Gazette, may be extrutted 

NOTE. 

* Two journejmeii barbers. 



verbatim. Let your challenge be legi- 
ble. Many, by foohlhly conne£ting 
the idea of lighting, with a challenge, 
have inoft egregioully failed in this ef- 
fentlal point — their phyfiognoniy has 
been ddlorted — a tremor has pervaded 
the fyflem — with a conatus to run oil" 
through the thumb and fingers, the 
nuit ons of the pen become zig-zag, 
and the champion, for awhile, yields 
to the defultory movements of a St, 
Anthony's dance. 

If this foolifh timidity fliould get 
the better of you for a momeni — ral- 
ly, call up all the auxiliaries of cho- 
ler. fpleen, and refentment ; your 
challenge will then be rank, '* it will 
fmell to heaven," 

Some barbarous Goth, unacquaint- 
ed with the modern improvements of 
fatisfying injured honour, at receiv- 
ing or giving a challenge, may, per- 
haps, infiit on going to the field of 
Mars — if fo, go out ; it cannot be 
fuppofcd your feconds will be barba- 
rian?, for, in general, their conduft 
and regulations have been favourable 
to humanity. This ceremony over, 
honour and reputation are no longer 
in the lurch ; the tumult of fear fub- 
fideSj every emotion is of the generous 
kind, you will embrace the antagoniil 
who has deflowered your filler, and 
drown rancor in the {lowing bumper. 

As a member of refined fociety, 
you will mingle in female company ; 
didathc — but you know nothing of 
Greek — dry rules fall very Ihort of 
life ; as Chellerfield fays, lludy the 
bell living models. There are many 
exemplarsof fine young fellows, whom 
you mull imitate. The ancients had 
a foolilh Hory, that Venus carried on 
an amour with Mars, the warrior, 
and was once detetkd with him in a 
dark grove; never credit fuch idle 
tales. Depend upon it, the nearer a 
man aflimilates himfelfto female man- 
ners, capacity, and foftnels, the more 
acceptable ; on no other principles can 
we account for the eileminacy, Icpi- 
dity, and languid laffitude of our mo- 
dern beaux. 

Let your drefs be firiLllv Anglic ; 
the circumflances, form of govern- 
ment, and profperity of your coun- 
try, require the llricteft imitation. It 
will prove, that every Ipark of pre- 
judice and fah"e patnotifm was buried 
wjldi the ciofiiig of your wounds. 



1789.] Reviewers' opinion of dr. Smith" s cjfdy on conpicxion, &c. 241 



Your converfation in the female 
circle is finiple, and coniifls of a few 
tender phrafes eaiily commuted to 
memory. The follow mg ingenious 
table is taken from the memorandum 
book of a celebrated beau of the pre- 
feiit age — commit it to memory. 
An object of approbation is 
fDeatific, 

I captivating, 
tranfporting, 
n ) divine, 

monftrous^ coelellial, 
angelic, 
feraphic, 
^cherubic. 
An objeft or difapprobatlonis 

n ^odious, 

moriitrous < 1 ' 

t.n,?iy» 

Mondroiis, being a good-natured 
kind of a diiryllabh, will help you 
out on every occalion ; and monllroiis 
pretty, and monltrous ugly, conform 
as llnttly to logic, as grammar. 

As you are a man of property, you 
mull reprefent it, and get in member 
of alFembly. To difcharge this office 
with dignuy, at particular times afib- 
ciate with lome lawyer or dotlor, no 
matter which, foyou get their /fc/;?7?V.v; 
and be careful to commit to memory 
the following energetic phrafes. Ener- 
get'C pliraies are lirong exprelhons, 
and without ideas, have a hapy ettetl 
on your audience. 

A fifpeiifion of kepftcorjjus ; vul- 
garly, habeas corpus. 

IVial by jury ; the palladium of 
rights. 

Paroxifms of expiring hberty. 

Fit not ic phrenzy. 

The urie<!uab!e vibrations of a mob. 

The inaimodic convulfions of ex- 
piring painotifm. 

We give up art of our rights, to 
have the other fecured. 

This one fentence omitted in any 
political piece would be an hiatus val- 
de dejlcndus. 

Amor patricE. 

Dulce ell pro patria mori. 

The new conititution is defective — 
but do not attempt 10 point out the de- 
fects. — Mingle, interlard, and inter- 
fperfe thefe at pri)per intervals, in 
your piece, and if they do not give 
you the name of patriot, there will 
be a bathos of unmtelligibility in it, 
that v.'ill confound the mod learned. 

Sin^uliiniy on any fubjcct is a mark 



of profound fenfe, and deep penetra- 
tion : I would then recomuieudoppo- 
fuion without referve ; if it does no- 
thing elfe, it will make you a dubious 
character, and confequently oftenfible. 
By the aid of your riches 1 have 
carried you to the houfe of alfenibjy ; 
let us return to domedic life. Diver- 
fions are rational, and a mark of eafy 
fortune. It would be well then to 
import an European bitch, there is 
mufic in the very yell of an imported 
puppy', our country- dv)gs only bark. 
You miift be a fportfman, there is an 
hilarity in the very word ; the idea t>f 
ifs being European will amply atone 
for the wane iif gime, and the impe- 
n^trablenefs of our forells. Attend 
flrihly to thcle diredions, and if you 
do not make a briihant figure in tiie 
prefent age, there is no truth in reality, 

Revteioers^ opi'uion of dr. Smith's 
efjay on' complexion and figure'' ; 
with reviarhs on the fame. 

To the 1' R I N T E P. of the AM E R i c A JJ 

K U 3 E U M . 

Sir, 
YOU wll oblige fome of your 
readers, by inferting tlie opinion of 
the critical reviewers, of London, on 
dr. Smith's elFay, on the caiifts cf 
the variety of complexion and figure 
among mauk.nil, and at the lame nine 
giving the + "o'lowing remark's a place 
in your Mufeum. A. B. 

Reviewers' opinion. 

AT d'lTerent times, we have ghn- 
ced at this fub|ect, and have 
felt great cmbarrairment, not only 
from us real difficulty, but from the 
danger of improper and undeiervcd 
imputations. Yet we fee not. that, 
with a liberal and candid mind, fbe 
danger can be confiderable. Th» 
Copernican fyftem has advanced in 
reputation, and is at lall eilabb.flied, 
notwithilanding the oppofition which 
the Mofaic hiftory alfords : and the 
btil divines allow, that the Scrip- 
tures were certainly not dcfigned to 
teach us a fyftem of philolophy. In 

NOTES. 

* See American Mufeum, p. 30, 
123, 181. 

+ The remarks are at the end of 
this piece. 



Rcvicwer%* opinion of dr. Smith's tjfay 



S4S. 

the pdpnlation of the world, this ar- 
guiuent has additional force. Mofes 
relites the hillory of one family, and 
K)f one race, evidently with a dcfign 
of eftablilhing the genealogy of the 
Jews, and, eventually, thatof Chnft. 
The language there ennployed, ' of 
the whole world,' is the fame with 
lh.1t ufed in other pari<! of Scripture, 
where a limited portion is only 
nieant; and the whole race of man- 
kind is that race which is to form the 
peculiarly favoured nation of God. 
If, indeed, this view of the queftion 
vva-i not perfetily clear, the allufions 
of different parts of Scripture might 
be adduced. There were giants, 
fays Mofes, on the earth in thofe 
days; and another rzce. is evidently 
alluded to, when he fpeaks of the 
fons of Gi>d going in to the daughters 
of men. If this then v;as the cafe 
previous to the deluge, and only hint- 
ed at incidentally, we may well fup- 
pofe that it may be the cafe in a fub- 
fequent period, though not particu- 
larly pointed out; and if wuh fome 
authors, we fuppofe the deluge par- 
tial, it will appear more decifive. It 
is enough for our purpofe, however, 
to obferve, that in examining this 
«lueftion, we mean not wilfully to 
oppofe the infpired writers ; but con- 
fidering it as a philofophical one, we 
Ihall give the arguments which arife 
from a careful view of the different 
facts. 

After this apology, we may venture 
to fay that dr. Smith's effay, in which 
he endeavours to fliow that the human 
race fpriing from one pair, is extremely 
vague and inaccurate ; that it is far from 
proving the principle which he wilhes 
to eftablifli. It is, in other refpetls, 
exceptionable; for, to an unrealbn- 
able diifufenefs, it adds no little con- 
fufion. A philofopher, in difcuf- 
fing this fubjeft, would have exa- 
mined the various figures and com- 
plexions of mankind. He would 
have dillingnilhed what was decidedly 
the effeMs of climate and habit ; for 
murh variety is owing to ihefe caufes, 
from what is more permanent, and 
conCeqiently ought to be the fubjeft 
of his inveliigation. Inflead of pur- 
r.;;ng this method, he takes at one 
view all the varieties, and v/hen he 
his proved fome of thefe to He the 
ehetts of heat or cold, or differe«t 



[Sept» 



cufloms, he thinks that he has, with 
equal certainty, demonftrated the reft 
to be of the fame kind. So loofe 
and inclulive is his reafoning, that 
he has never enquired what really 
coiiHiiutes a different fpecies : in bo- 
tany it is preferving the general and 
ellential characters in changes of fitu- 
aiion, and lofing, in time, the acci- 
dental differences, which climate and 
culture have produced. In animals, 
where the diflindion ought to have 
begnn, it has b'en negleBed. If the 
production of a fertile offspring be the 
criterion of the famenefs of the fpe- 
cies, men are undoubtedly the fame 
fpecies. But this diftindion is found 
to be fallacious, particularly in do- 
niedicated animals ; and, if carefully 
examined, we (hall fee that, in zoolo- 
gy, the fpecies are not, in reality, 
aicerfained with accuracy. We muft 
then, at laft, refer to the botanical 
diftinftion. 

Another caufe of inaccuracy, in 
our author, is a very ind("fiiiite ufe of 
terms. We have ' dark, fwarthy, and 
black,' ufed with little difcnmination^ 
There are three colours which didin- 
guifh three different races of men ; 
the fairfanguine European ; the ffiin- 
ing jetty Negro, and the duller cop- 
per-coloured American. To thefe 
all the varieties mufl be referred ; 
and if an author can prove that cli- 
mate will bring an unmixed race of 
Americans in Europe to a fair com- 
plexion, or in Africa to the jetty 
black, he will have, in one part, ob- 
tained his end. He muft otherwife 
fail. If, indeed, he proves fo much, 
more remains behind. The face of 
the African and American differ as 
much as their colour ; and both differ 
from the German of Tacitus, whom 
we chufe as our ftandard of the Euro- 
pean, becaufe of the fimilarity in the 
refpeflive flaies of civilization. He 
will not, even then, have finiffied 
his work. The Huns, the Tartars, 
and the Greeks, differ ftill more from 
each other, What climate gives the 
two former their peculiarity ? What 
manners produce fuch a ftriking dif- 
ference on the two latter ? The Tar- 
tars, whom we have put between, by 
defign, have inhabited climates as 
cold as thofe of the Huns, and a« 
warm as thofe of the Greeks ; yet 
they have always differed. As we 



,789.] 



en complexion and figure. 



have pointed out what doBor Smith 
Ihould have done, let us now fee 
what he has done. 

In the beginning he neglefls medical 
differences ; we fuppofe he nneans ana- 
tomical ones J for he is very diffiifeon 
the fubjeft of the bile, which is for- 
tunately of great fervice to him, be- 
caufe it is yellow, and becaufe it may 
become black. If, however, he had 
proceeded to anatomical difterences, 
he would have found the membrane 
immediately under the fkarf (kin, black 
in the negro ; he would have found it 
tawny when he was juft born, and 
daily grow blacker before the bile had 
any colour. He would have found 
it in the American, of a copper co- 
lour ; and, in the European, of a red- 
difh white. He would have found 
an original difference in the (hape of 
the Ikull and legs ; a difference in the 
treatment of difeafes, and the effefts 
of medicines. 

He alleges, with juftice, that the 
fkin is changed, though the bile be not 
afteOed ; and it is certainly true, that 
heat of climate blackens the hair, 
without atferting the conflitution in 
general. It blackens alfo the com- 
plexion ; agreed : but the fwarihy 
Spaniard is as diftant in colour from 
the Negro, though perhaps of Moorifli 
race, as the Highlander; for a dirty 
brown is extremely diftant from a jet- 
ty black. Our author's whole rea- 
foning proves no more. The curly 
'hair is a very important difference. 
If our author had examined it, he 
would have found it proceed from the 
tortuofity of the pores through which 
it proceeds. He has ftruggled with 
thisdifflculty as much as the hair feems 
to do for its growth. The Malays, 
in hot climates, have curly hair; and 
the blacks, in temperate ones, lofe 
the di{lin£lion. This is true, in fome 
meafure ; but the moft curly hair of 
the Malay is much (trailer than the 
longeit hair of the Negro. Our rea- 
ders will fmile when dr. Smith, after 
much labour, comes to tell us, that, 
in confequence of a continuation for 
fome ages in a temperate climate, the 
Negro has aftually had a queue from 
five to fix inches long. The Malay, 
in a hotter climate than this third race 
of Negroes m America, have, in no 
inflance. where it is allowed to grow, 
hair 10 fcort. 



243 

The effcfis of heat ar,d cold, on the 
forms of the bodies, is explamed with 
ftill lefs fuccefs. In the 48th degree 
of latitude, we are affiired, that the 
poftenty of Chinefe families have be- 
come perfeft Tartars. We know that, 
in the Well India iflands, the fourth 
race from a Negro woman is alnioH an 
European ; and from the fame caufe. 
Weak mult be the argument that 
wants fuch fupport. We cannot give 
a better fpecimen of our author's rca- 
fonmg than the following. 

" The principal peculiarities that 
may require a farther illuitration are 
the fmallnefs of the nofe, and depref- 
fion of the middle of the face ; the 
prominence of the forehead, and the 
extreme weaknefs of the eyes, 

" The middle of the face is thit 
part which is moft expofed to the 
cold, and confequently fufters moil 
from its power of contrattion. It 
firft meets the wind, and it is farthed 
removed from the feat of warmth in 
the head. But a circumRance cf 
equal, or, perhaps, of greater impor- 
tance on this lubjecl, is that the in- 
habitants of frozen climates naturallv 
drawing their breath more through 
the nofe than through the mouth, 
thereby direft tTie greatcll impulfe or 
(he air on that feature, and the parts 
adjacent. Such a continual Itreamof 
air augments the cold, and by increaf- 
ing the contraction of the parts, re- 
ft rains the freedom of their growth. 

" Hence, likewife, willanfe anesfy 
folutron of the next peculiarity, the 
prominence of the forehead. The 
Iiiperior warmth and force of life in 
the brain that fills the upper part of 
the head, will naturally increafe its 
fize, and make it overhang the con- 
tracted parts below." 

Yet, on this fubjefl, his foundation 
is fecure, for he is only explaining the 
differences of, confcffedly, the fame 
race in different climates. It is, how- 
ever, impolhble to accumulate mors 
falfe phyfiology, or more erroneous 
fatl';, in a fimilar fpace. If he looks 
at the Laplanders and the Efquimaux, 
the defcription will be fmind not to 
be juft. The theory then mull of 
courfe be erroneou-s. 

Another caufe of apparent change, 
and a very important owe, if we look 
at its influence, is expreffion, incoa- 
feijuence of the {late of fociety. 



«44 



RevitV)crs* opinion of dr. Smith's ejfoy 



[Sept, 



".Every oKjefl ihat impicires the 
fenfes, ar.d every emotion that rifes 
in t!ie inmd, aiierts the f(:HtLires of 
the fiice the index of our feelings, and 
contnbiiies to form the infinitely va- 
rious connteiiance of man. Faucity 
of ideas creates a vacant and unmean- 
ing aTpett. Agreeable and ciiltivaied 
"icenes compofe the feamres, and ren- 
der tlienr\ regular and gay. Wild, 
and deforiTied, and folitary forcfls 
tend to imprcfs on tlie countenance, 
an image of their own rudenefs. 
Great varieties are created by diet 
and modes of living, The delicacies 
of refined life give a foft and elegant 
form to the features. Hard fare, and 
condaiit e.xpolure to the injuries of 
the weather, render thein coarfe and 
uncouth. The infinite attentions of 
polfhed fociety give variety and ex- 
preirion to the face. The want of 
interefting emotions leaving its mufcles 
lax and unexerted, they are fulfered 
to diliend themfelves to a larger and 
gioirer (ize. and acquire a foft un- 
varying ftvell that is not diflinflly 
tnarked bv any idea. A general 
iiandard of beauty has its cltecl in 
forming ilie human countenance and 
figure. Every pafTion and iiit)de of 
thinking has its peculiar expreffion — 
And all the preceding chantfiers have 
again many varia'ions according to 
their degrees of Urength, according 
to their combinations with other prin- 
ciples, and according to the peculia- 
rities of cor({itut:on or of climate, 
that form the ground on which the 
diilerent imprelTions are received." 

This IS, in general, extremely jull ; 
but cxpicfrion neither flattens the 
nofe, raifes the forehead, or bends 
the legs ; much lefs does it give a va- 
rieiy to the more internal conforma- 
tions in which the Negro differs from 
the European. The native Ameri- 
can approaches nearer to us than the 
Negro ; yet let us attend to dr. Smith 
with ail the imprefiions of a pre- 
conceived hypoihefis on his mind. 
He IS dcfcribing an Indian youth at 
the cc^llege. 

"■' There is an obvious difference 
between him and his fcUow-fludenls 
in the f^igenels of the mouth, and 
fhicl'-.nefs rf the lips, in the elevation 
of the cheek, in the darknefs of ihe 
complexion, and the contour of the 
face. But thtie differences are fen- 



r^bly diminiiliing. They feem the 
fader to dimimfh in proportion as 
he lofcs that vacancy of eye, and that 
lugubrious wildnefs of countenance 
peculiar to the favagc Hate, and ac- 
qiiires the agreeable exprelhon of civil 
life. The exprelhon of the eye, and 
the foftening of the features lo civi- 
lized emotions and ideas, feems to 
have removed more than half the 
difference between him and us. His 
colour, though it is much lighter 
than the complexion of the native fa- 
vage, as is evident from the ilain of 
blufhing, that, on a near infpeftion, 
is initantly difcernible, flill forms the 
principal diflinclion. There is lefs 
difference between his features and 
thofe of his fellow-fludents, than we 
often fee between perfons in civiir/cd 
fociety. After a careful aueution to 
each particular feature, and compari-^ 
fon of it with the correfpondent fea- 
ture in us, I am now able to difcover 
but liile difference. And yet there 
is an obvious diticrence in the whole 
countenance." 

This llruggle between facts and the- 
ory is violent; but let us extract, in a 
few words, the truih. The features 
remam, the difference is in exprclFion. 
Let us inention another faft : where 
the likenefs does not depend on the 
colour and the form of the eye, the 
rcfcmblance between the features of 
children and their parents is moil ob- 
vious when afleep ; and, in fome in- 
fiances, it has appeared ffriking in the 
dead body, though not obfervable in 
life. There is undoubtedly a caiile of 
general rcfemblance, which may be 
attributed to our tendency to imita- 
tion. Frequent iniercourfe will give a 
general fimilarity : this fart our author 
has made the mofl of; but he allows 
that it neiiher changes th fliape of the 
nofe or lips of an African ; and we 
can allow, in turn, that it changes 
the expreifion fo much, that a nofe 
and lips, t^ll they are examined, will 
almoft feem changed. 

The efletls of civilization, and the 
melioration, if the word may be aU 
lowed, of (hefppcies, by introducing 
into the South, the fairer and more 
fanguine daughters of the Norfh, our 
author has well explained. He has 
ftiown too, wi;h fufficient accuracy, 
the cHeffs of hard living, fevere treat- 
ment, filth, and cxpofure to the wca- 



^7^9-^ 



»n complexion and^gur<> 



H^ 



ther. We can only fay, that thefe 
have produced little etfed on his ar- 
gument ; for the fame race, in better 
Situations, have recovered their for- 
mer dillmguifliing marks. 

Dr. Smith afterwards traces the 
.different objettions to his fyliem, and 
allows, that in the fame parallels of 
Jatitude the complexion is different. 
If we examine the globe, we fliall 
find a very confiderable diverfity in 
countries where the heat and the dri- 
jiefs are nearly the fame. Let us take 
jhe 20th degree of latitude, which is 
withn the tropic of Cancer, and 
j)aires dircftly through the kingdom of 
,the Negroes. It cuts Nubia, where 
the inhabitants are not black ; Arabia, 
,aimoil in its widelt part : but the Ara- 
bians are only fwarthy, and, when 
•tranfported to more temperate climes, 
are almoli fair. It divides the Decan, 
•where thofe belt defended from the 
iheat are only brown, and the poorer 
fort of a darkiili hue, very ditierent 
i(om black ; paffes through Siam and 
China ; the northern part of Owhy- 
hee : the kingdom of Mexico; and 
«he foiithwellern end of Cuba. In 
this vad extent, we meet often with 
as great heat, nearly as much drought, 
■but with a race ot beings as diihmilar 
as can be i'uppofed. In the more fou- 
thern regions, we meet with greater 
'heat and Icfs moilhire, but people dif- 
fering greatly from the Negroes, whofe 
yeciiliarily is attributed to thefe caufes 
alone, it is contended, that in Bor- 
reo we meet v;ith a race of Negroes. 
if this be true, we admit the whole 
fyllem. From all we have heard, from 
all we have feen or read, the native 
inhabitants are very different. Their 
•{kin is, indeed, a fiiining olive ; but 
their nofes are not flat, their fore- 
heads not raifed, and their lips often 
thin. The Aborigines muft not be 
confouiKled with the Malays on the 
.-coall, who are of a blacker hue, 
though far diflant from the Negro 
race. 

Dr. Smith concludes with fomere- 
.marks and ftriftiires on that part of 
rloid Kaims's ' Sketchesof the Hiflo- 
of Man,' where he contends that there 
is more than one race. The charge of 
inhdehty is pretty liberally fcattered. 
Lord Kaims's religious fentimentsare 
,iioi now at iffue, and we think too, 
that he has defended this argument 

VftL. VI. No. Ill, 



weakly. Our author, on the other 
hand, is not always candid or juU m 
his 11 natures. 

Dr. Smith may, in his turn, afk 
how many fpecies of men there are P 
We dare not anlwer this (jucUion ; 
for our knowledge is not yet lulhcient- 
ly extenfive. From the propofed ex 
pedition to explore the inland pav's of 
Africa, an expedition formerly (iiought 
of, and almoil on the point of being 
carried into execution, we mav expect 
much information on this fubje^t. At 
prefent, we can perceive only, vvith 
fome clearnefs, the European o-f Ta- 
citus, the Negro, the Hun, and 'he 
American, i he Chinefe, the Hin- 
doo, or the Malay, may have de- 
fcended from the Itock of Eiirope?.ns^ 
and may have produced the Ameri- 
cans : we (peak only oi v^hai is prei,- 
ty clearly defined ; though, if the lat- 
ter fuggellions be admitted, the Ult 
muft be excluded from the rank of f 
diftinct fpecies. M^e have not men- 
tioned the Alblnoes, who are evident- 
ly a degeneraied race : we have not 
made anv remarks on the fiippofcd 
change of colour in the Jews in Abv^"- 
,finia,bef dufe it is not yet afceriaincd. 

The Englilh editor has added notes 
to this elfay, which fhew hini to be 
poireffed of no inconfide'able know- 
ledge. He agrees, however, almotl 
entirely with dr. Smith, whole opi- 
nions he fometimes explains, anc ^ofr 
ten endeavours to confirm. 

We muli not leave this enquiry^ 
without remarking, that whatever con- 
clufion we form of the diH inft fpecies, 
it ought not to affett the work of hu- 
manity in fecnring a better treatment 
to the Negroes. If they are found to 
be of a different fpecies, they are ft ill 
men ; and if it appears that our own 
rank in the creation is the fuperior 
one, it fhould only fuggeft that mercy 
and compadion which we hope for from 
beings infinitely fuperior to ourfelves. 
At any rate, a work of benevolence 
and importance ought not, in the 
flightett degree, to